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A study of the Beirut dialect of Judeo-Spanish as spoken by one informant Taylor, Dorothy-Ann 1969

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A STUDY OF THE BEIRUT DIALECT OF JUDEO-SPANISH AS SPOKEN BY ONE INFORMANT  by  Dorothy-Ann T a y l o r B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965.  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the department of ROMANCE STUDIES  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1969  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  f r e e l y available for  the requirements f o r  Columbia,  r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of for  this  that  Study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s of  I agree  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  for f i n a n c i a l  is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n gain s h a l l  not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  Studies  iib:'trj: c t  This thesis  i s a study o f the B e i r u t d i a l e c t o f  Judeo-bpanish  as spoken by one i n f o r m a n t o f t h a t community nov/ l i v i n g i n Vancouver, B.C.  '-L'he  a n a l y s i s o f the d i a l e c t v/as based upon o r a l m a t e r i a l which  was t a p e - r e c o r d e d .  The s t u d y d e s c r i b e s  o l o g y , and syntax as they appeared about 33>000 w o r d s .  the p h o n o l o g y , l e x i c o n , morph-  i n the corpus w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f  P e r t i n e n t f e a t u r e s are compared t o b o t h  the  J u d e o - S p a n i s h norm and t o Old S p a n i s h , n o t i n g the c o n f o r m a t i o n s , differences, A  and i n d i c a t i n g the r e a s o n f o r  'he i n f o r m a n t ' s  the v o c a b u l a r y .  speech c o n t a i n e d  and  variances. many a r c h a i s m s e s p e c i a l l y i n  A r c h a i c f e a t u r e s o f the p h o n o l o g y , however, have become  obscured through the i n f l u e n c e o f s u p e r s t r a t a and cannot p r o v i d e any c o n c l u s i v e evidence w h i c h would c o r r o b o r a t e o f Old S p a n i s h .  c e r t a i n phonetic  distinctions  There i s a l s o some v a r i a n c e between the phonology o f  t h i s d i a l e c t and o t h e r  Sephardic  dialects.  A l s o e v i d e n t i n the d i a l e c t s t u d i e d h e r e  were:  impoverishment o f  v o c a b u l a r y , the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f n e o l o g i s m s and new f o r m a t i o n s , changes common to S e p h a r d i c p e c u l i a r to t h i s d i a l e c t While other  analogical  S p a n i s h and some o t h e r a n a l o g i c a l changes  only.  d i a l e c t s t u d i e s o f J u d e o - S p a n i s h show a dominant  number o f T u r k i s h l o a n s , t h i s d i a l e c t has a f a r g r e a t e r number o f G a l l i c i s m s of apparently recent i n t r o d u c t i o n .  Widespread s o c i a l and  c u l t u r a l changes i n the l i f e o f the Sephardim i n r e c e n t y e a r s r a d i c a l l y affected ternal  these d i a l e c t s .  have  The i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e o f e x -  i n f l u e n c e s i s o b s c u r i n g many p h o n o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l  p a t t e r n s h i t h e r t o used b y J u d e o - S p a n i s h and the e x i s t e n c e o f many a n o m a l i e s and much f r e e o f decay o f t h i s  dialect.  v a r i a t i o n i s e v i d e n c e o f the advanced  state  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ...to Dr. K a r l Kobbervig f o r h i s d i r e c t i o n and i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e ...to Dr. A.W. Wainman f o r tape recorded m a t e r i a l on a Bosnian d i a l e c t of Judeo-Spanish ...to Dr. Hanna Kassis who i d e n t i f i e d some A r a b i c and Hebrew sources ...and, of course, to the informant who, i n order t o insure h i s p r i v a c y , remains anonymous  TABLE o f CONTENTS  Introduction.  ......P. 1  Chapter I  Phonology  P. 5  Chapter I I  Lexicon  P. 26  Chapter I I I  Morphology, and S y n t a x  ...... P. 70  ConcL us i o n Selected  Bibliography  P. 91 ,  P.  93  Introduction  Introduction  Sephardic  or  Spanish  Jews  Sephard  o r Sepharad  peninsula. tongues, but  the  of  exiled  is a  i n North  few  of  these  exiles  i n the  Levant.  the  tongue  Africa,  Beirut  this  i n 1907,  Arabic  little  assimilated  Catalan or whose  is small. to  be  The  three  Judeo-Spanish. Jews,  there  by  d e s i g n a t i n g the Jews  sought soon  Holland,  joined  because  of  exiles,  Iberian  spedcing  Hispanic  and  and  refuge  the  1492.  in  Yugoslavia,  a l l these  community,  paper,  estimated, and  used  spoken  Inquisition  Austria,  Spanish,  by  dialect  Sepharadim,  Portugal also,  used  originally The  cally  or  people f i r s t  by  ject' of  the  m a j o r i t y s e t t l e d ^ i n Greece,  exiled  had  by  is a  Hebrew word  Sephardim  they,  became who  The  were  settled  A but  who  Judeo-Spanish  Italy,  Turle  y.  1  i n Portugal, the  earlier  i t s cultural  including  groups prestige,  those  Jews  i s the  sub-  Portuguese. Sephardic  dialect  number  Sephardim  thousand, In  existed  of  almost  addition  to  there  a l l of these  a small nucleus  whom  was spoke  linguistiof  forty  to  ~Jose Mair Bernardete i n Hispanismo de l o s s e f a r d i e s l e v a n t i n o s , M a d r i d , 1963, one o f t h e m o s t r e c e n t w o r k s , contends t h a t the d e f i n i t i v e h i s t o r y of the Sephardim i n e x i l e has y e t t o be w r i t t e n . O t h e r h i s t o r i c a l w o r k s w h i c h may be c o n s u l t e d , h o w e v e r , i n c l u d e : M.L. W a g n e r , " L o s j u d i o s de l e v a n t e , K r i t i s c h e r R u c k b l i c k b i s 1907", R e v u e de D i a l e c t o l o g i e Romane. I , 1909, P p . 470-506; A . P u l i d o , L o s israeli t a s e s p a n o l e s y e l i d i o m s c a s t e l l a n o , M a d r i d , 1904, and E s p a n o l e s s i n p a t r i a o l a r a z a s e f a r i , M a d r i d , 1905;^ M. M o l h o , U s o s y c o s t r u m b r e s de l o s s e f a r d i e s de S a l o n i c a , M a d r i d , 1950: J . A m a d o r de L o s R i o s . L o s j u d i o s de E s p a n a y P o r t u g a l . M a d r i d , I 9 6 0 ; W a g n e r , o p . c i t . . p p . 470-71, h a s a s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y of m a i n l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r s ; J . M. B e r n a r d e t e , o p . c i t . . p p . 1 9 9 - 2 0 1 , h a s a b i b l i o g r a p h y c o n t a i n i n g some o f t h e m o r e r e c e n t w o r k s o n t h e S e p h a r d i m .  to  forty-five  Turkey,  The of  or  Sephardic  the  Balkans.  informant  that sector o f  speaking  did  others, the  used.in  t h i s paper has a. background  the B e i r u t community which has This Sephardic  speaking  II.  typical  preserved  the  group was  joined  coming, as p r e v i o u s l y , from'Turkey or the Balkans,, as  informant's  family.  This emigration  p o p u l a t i o n movements of the Sephardim was War  from  recent a r r i v a l s  1  Judeo-Spanish language. by  farailies,  The  "Sephardic  as w e l l as  the r e s u l t of World  capital'' , S a l o n i c a , b e f o r e  the war  1  c o n s i s t e d of approximately  sixty  other  to s e v e n t y - f i v e thousand  had Spanish  2  Jews,  most of whom d i e d i n Nazi c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps.  the Sephardim, e s p e c i a l l y those  from Turkey-and Greece emigrated  to the U n i t e d States d u r i n g o r a f t e r the The  Sephardic  informant  i n Skoplje, Yugoslavia. although  one  or two  years,  Turkey where they f o r two  war.  used i n t h i s study was  His mother  had  grown up  she had been born i n S a l o n i c a .  to a n a t i v e of S a l o n i c a .  years  and  The  She  i n 1930,  moved to Smyrna  remained u n t i l 1935.  family l i v e d  was  born i n  1928  i n Skoplje married  i n Skoplje  family l i v e d b r i e f l y i n Salonica, (or Izmir) i n  Here the  an I t a l i a n C a t h o l i c s c h o o l .  the informant's  Many of  informant  attended  Prom 193b u n t i l 1941t-,  i n B e i r u t , where he  continued  to  a t t e n d an I t a l i a n C a t h o l i c s c h o o l u n t i l 194-1 a i d then began to s t u d y iM. L. Wagner, "Los i u d i o s de levante",- Revue de D i a l e c t o l o g i e Romane, I, 1909,p. U-79. o  Wagner, 'Los j u d i o s " , Revue de D i a l e c t o l o g i e Romane, I, 1909, p. I4.7S and A. r u l i d o , Espanoles s i n p a t r i a . Madrid, 1905, p. 2i>, 31, 111. . :  E n g l i s h a t an American "prep s c h o o l " i n B e i r u t . emigrated  t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 19hk, the, i n f o r m a n t went t o •  New York' U n i v e r s i t y . The  When the f a m i l y  informant's  He i s now a p r o f e s s o r o f mathematics. f a m i l y , w h i l e l i v i n g i n the Balkans,  only Judeo-Spanish.  spoke  The info rmant began t o l e a r n I t a l i a n and  F r e n c h when he s t a r t e d s c h o o l and speaks  b o t h languages f l u e n t l y .  He l e a r n e d some T u r k i s h , as w e l l as A r a b i c w h i l e the f a m i l y was i n Turkey and Lebanon.  I n B e i r u t , Judeo-Spanish was s t i l l  i n the home and t o t h e i r s m a l l c i r c l e o f S e p h a r d i c the i n f o r m a n t  spoken  f r i e n d s but.  r e c a l l s t h a t F r e n c h was spoken t o a l l acquaintances  who were n o t Sephardim.  The i n f o r m a n t ' s  constant  contact with  Judeo-Spanish was broken i n 191+5 when he l e f t New Y o r k .  His  E n g l i s h can be c l a s s i f i e d as an a c q u i r e d language, and i n a d d i t i o n t o a s l i g h t accent,  shows some f e a t u r e s o f New York E n g l i s h .  has had no c o n t a c t w i t h e i t h e r w r i t t e n o r spdken' S t a n d a r d I d i d n o t use S p a n i s h  i n conducting  He  Spanish.  i n t e r v i e w s wi t h the i n f o r m a n t  i n order not to i n f l u e n c e him. O r a l m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s study was g a t h e r e d tape-recorded t h r e e months.  interviews w i t h the informant  o v e r a p e r i o d of  The corpus c o n s i s t s o f m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d i n these  e i g h t hours o f tape, ducted  t w i c e weekly i n  about 33,000 words.  i n s e v e r a l forms:  The i n t e r v i e w s were con-  extended monologues on l i s t e d s u b j e c t s ,  q u e s t i o n and answer s e s s i o n s , and some d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g on s p e c i f i c words and p r o n u n i c a t i o n s . transcribed phonetically.  S e l e c t e d passages were then  I have t r i e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e phonology,  l e x i c o n , morphology, and s y n t a x o f the corpus as f a r as the m a t e r i a l would a l l o w and have t r i e d t o r e l a t e the f e a t u r e s o f the d i a l e c t s t u d i e d here t o the J u d e o - S p a n i s h norm and t o O l d Spanish,  noting  the c o n f o r m a t i o n s for  variances.  and  differences,  and  i n d i c a t i n g the  reason  Chapter I  Phonology  5.  Phonetic The  f o l l o w i n g phonetic  transcription: the  I have  Symbols  symbols have b e e n u s e d i n t h e  a d a p t e d the I.P.A. symbols to f a c i l i t a t e  typing. p  a voice  b  a voice  t  a voice  d  a voice  k  a voice  g  a ^voiced  f  a voiceless labio-dental  v  a voiced  labio-dental  fricative  d  a voiced  inter-dental  fricative  s  a voiceless dental  z  a voiced  s  a voiceless palatal-alveolar fricative  z  a voiced  h  a pharyngeal  ^C-  velar  stop  dental  fricative  (or p r e d o r s a l ;  fricative  fricative  palatal-alveolar fricative continuant  a voiceless uvular  fricative  g  a voiced  velar  r  a voiced  alveolar single  c  a v o i c e l e s s palatal-alveolar  dz  phonetic  fricative flap affricate  a v o i c e d palatal-alveolar a f f r i c a t e  m  a voiced  bilabial  nasal  n  a voiced  alveolar  nasal  fi  a voiced  palatal  n  a voiced v e l a r  1  a voiced  dental  nasal  nasal lateral  A  a. voiced palatal lateral  1  a voiced  y  a p a l a t a l semivowel  w.  a v e l a r semivowel ( l a b i a l i z e d )  i  a high front-close  e  a mid f r o n t h a l f - c l o s e  •§  ae  velar  lateral  vowel vowel  a mid f r o n t h a l f - o p e n vowel a mid c e n t r a l h a l f - o p e n vowel  a  a low c e n t r a l open vowel  r  a lowered h i g h f r o n t open vowel a mid c e n t r a l h a l f open vowel  a  a nasalized  9  a mid back h a l f open vowel  o  a mid back h a l f c l o s e  u  a h i g h back c l o s e  xr  a _1owered h i g h back open vowel  A  (as i n E n g l i s h  bxt)  (schwa)  low open vowel  vowel  vowel  a low-mid c e n t r a l c l o s e vowel  (as i n E n g l i s h book) (as i n E n g l i s h  up)  /A£/  <£  a mid_front half-open nasalized f i n ./ft/  Phonetic  (  A phonetic recording yo 'e ran  na ' s i en  >e r a 'u na su * pa 'ko pya  (as i n French  Transcription  t r a n s c r i p t i o n of a p o r t i o n o f the f i r s t  done by the  de  vowel.  informant: ^s 'ko pya  sa ' l o n i ka ' n i na  r ^ n te,s  tape  mwi i  no av ' l a moz  ^n  yu go ' s i a vya  'gre sya  ' c i ka  se  ma fwe  d i s 'py§s, an ' s i ke  §1  's§r bo  ni  §1  mi a  mis  pa - ' ry^n .te,.  'ma dre  'kwan do  yu go ' s i a vya  kon  yo, na 'syo "e,n  e.s-  'gre go  'so l o  en  §s pa  'hoi.  ' t g n go un qr  nas.  . §1 na  'syo en s a ' l o n i k s .  •ko p y a  i 'kwan do  a t g r " n i rugs qn  'ma no  ' te.fi go qr  'so l o no yo na  'maqs-  ' s i 'so l o en  t e ' n i a 'so l o 'u n g z dgz 'me  'gre s y a , e.n s a ' l o n i k a .  z e z mgz iqs  mis pa "rye^n  vi  ' v i an qn  se  fwe a ^s 'ko p y a 'pgr ke s u pa ' rye,n t e s 'e r a n de e,s »ko-  pya, qn  qn  mil  o  t u r ' k i a , qn  'o co  no ve 'se.n t o ' t r e y n  fra  sis  mo  'tyem po moz  la  'lya  na  i  'treyn  ta  i  'e r a  'u na  na  'ko l a  nos  'a rigs,  i  'ren to  'as t a  me  "kwa t r o " l y a na,  fwe  e,s ' t u ve  'an t g z  a 'ya  de  a  qn  ngs .  a 'ya  'e r a  la  i ta -  kgn t i n u  'e r a  'u n o z  'ko l a i t a -  te ' n i a  dqs  ' i .  'pa d r e s  'ko l a  u n i v g r s i 'dad,  *lya-  ' l e ba ngn  de  qs  es  ^n b e y ' r u t dgz 'a figz i  i ta  'as t a m i l  a "ya  bey ' r u t .  i ejn  'ko l a  bey ' r u t  'u na  'me.z-  'ka z a .  'bye,n  i  'si  'pa d r g s  al  qn  qs  na  ta  i z 'mir fwe a  ' r g n t i "u n o .  'a figs  y u n r " v a r sx t i A f 'pa r a  a  yo  na  ' d i no  qn l a  "fwe"fis  mwi de  'e r a n tarn  kwa  'syg te  dgs 'pwgz  'ko l a  i . §s . ' t u ve  es 'ko l a i t a  "kr{e  'kae na,  kwa  gn  Igs i t a ' l y a  n o z 'fwe moz  moz  'a n o z .  i ta'lya  'a ngs  ' s i n ko  te  la  de  p g r doz 'pwgs  'ma a r e  e,s ' t u ve  ' s i n ko.  ' l a moz §1  dqs  ' sgn to  'kwan t g s  i  'u na qs  na,  a 'mi g g z  a 'ya  do mi n i  ta  a 'ya syq  o  'gn de v i ' v i a moz  no ve  'lya  av  'fwe mos  fwe  qn  ke  i  am b i ' z i ql  'kae ngz i  'ka za  ngs .  i ta Mya  mi  dgz 'a ngs i dgs "pw^s i z "mir  t e ' n i a moz  es 'ko l a  »ty§m p o .  *ko p y a i 'gn de yo n a ' s i . v i .'.vi moz  s a ' l o n i k a 'u no  'kwan do  i  qn qs  v i ' v i an  mos  la  s a ' l o n i ka §n a ' k e l  a me r i 'u na qs  "prgp 'pwgz  skul  -  ".  "kwan do  8. me  ' v i ne  a  lpz  §s  ' t a dos  u  ' n i dos  me  'fwe  a  nu  'york  yu n i 'var s i t i . no 1  u no  'le  1  kx/an do  ba n o n  'fra a  s u ' f r i moz  sya  loz  i  a  kwa  ke  ke, ' . r i an  un  'po ko  laz  §1  ' ge, r a  pgr  kwa  ' n i dos.  no  i  i  'dun  kwe  ri  'ka nos,  nin i  qs  'gu na  e_n  re  i  'kwan t o s KT/n  de  mi  va 'por.  kwa  §r 'ma no mas  t v 'mo  Be' ' r u t e n  'ko mo  a 'me  qn  ' r § n .ti'kwa  -'tar de un  msz.  ' k a i ro.- noz  tre_z  de  ron mi 'e r a  d i z i 'ses  i  du ' r a n t e a me r i -  'a nos por  i  se  i y u go ' s l a -  ke 'do.  r i 'kae no  i  ql  k i ' d i moz  no  a 'me  a mea 'vi a  r i ka  a t o r 'nar moz.  p r i 'me, r o  'mad r e un  e_n  de  1  ' t o dos  de  no  e_s t a dos  'e r a moz  tro  bom-  ve'nir,  loz  'ma d r e  a me  un  s o l 'da do  a t o r ' n a r moz  v i 'nye.  de  r i ka. pa 'so  ' c i kos  a 'vi a  'par te d e l  'se vo  por  trol  o k u 'pa r o n l a  de  man  i  nu 'york  l a l 'ma n y a  pa s a ' p o r t e  §n  'me_ z e z  'e r a  1  a  la  'ne,g r o ,  a 'kel  ' v i no  ' t o dos  d i f i k u l ' ta  de s i ' d i moz  'pad  su  en  i  de s i 'da r o n  mwi  zqs  'me  en k o n ' t r o m i  'zo t r o z  kon  a. ' v i a  'e r a  s i t i ' zin  a t o r 'no  e.n  en  de s i ' d i moz  'kwan do  se  ke  no  'ren t i  'kwan do  a t a 'ka r o n  doz  un  kwa  .'si rya  i  i n 'gl§ zqz  'ge, r a  a t o r 'na v a ^ e,n  a 'ya mo  ma  'gre s y a .  ke 'do  se  'si  zaz  se 'ma n a z ,  se.3  a  e,s ' t a v a  '§2 i  'kwat r o  'pad r e  'ge_ r a , se  'kwan do vya  na  s a ' l y o de  l a • ' p r i ma kae  yo  mi  loz  pa  mas  fra'se  sik  ' t o do.  'r^nti  a t o r 'nar moz.  'a nos  de  t u ' v i moz  <§n  $1  'ka da 'no ce  di ' f ic i le  'mun do.  g§ r a  en  a t a 'ka r o n  ' l o nya'z;  t o 'mar  b a r da 'mye^n t o  u  ko  zez  ' re.n t i 'u no  de  ' ty'-§'..''ra no  ' t o do, so l a 'me,n t e  i n ' gle  en ' t r o l a  'ya.  •e r a  d§.l  i  yo  i  mi  'u n o z  ve ' n i moz  k o n ' v o i n o z ' ' f u i moz a 'ya  'u n a  se  'ma.na.  Phonemes The the  following  informant's  given  t w e n t y - s i x phonemes a p p e a r i n t h e  speech.  i n phonemic  Sample words i n w h i c h t h e y o c c u r  transcription.  /p/  /preto/  'black'  /b/  /bevir/  'to d r i n k '  /t/  /tomar/  'to  /d/  /domandar/  /k/  /kopo/  7g/ /f/  .  /fuir/  take' 'to  ask'  'glass'  /avagar/  '  'slow'  'to f l e e '  /v/  /vivir/  /h/  /haham/  /m/  /murir/  /n/  /nono/  'grandfather'  /iV  /mafia/  'manner'  / l /  /luvia/  /r/  /rompir/  /s/  /pasar/  'to p a s s '  /s/  /kisar/  'to  /dz/  corpus  'to  live'  'rabbi 'to d i e  '  1  'rain' 'to  /dzidio/  break'  complain  'Jew'  /c/  /cika/  'small'  /y/  /yamar/  / i /  /ansinar/  'to t e a c h '  /e/  /esperar/  'to hope'  'to  call'  of  are  10.  /a/  /karo/  /o/  /bos/  'car' 'voice'  /buz/ ' i c e '  •Vu/  Cosonantal  Thp-  stops,  Phonemes  A l l stops  are u n a s p i r a t e d .  voiceless  stops  olar positions p o s i t i o n with a voiced  occurs  at b i l a b i a l  a gap o c c u r i n g  / t /  /b/  a t the v e l a r  i n t h e p a t t e r n where  m i g h t be e x p e c t e d ,  /k/  /d/  T h e r e a r e no p e r c e p t i b l e p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s voiceless in  s e r i e s /p/, / t / , / k / as i s a l s o  standard  Spanish.  are a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s from s t a n d a r d  phonology  i n the p a r a l l e l  allophones  o f the v o i c e d  &] , [d] /b/  bilabial  the v o i c e d  minimal p a i r /bos/ fricative  b  series  stop  Spanish  o f the f r i c a t i v e  (Da 1, CdJ., C g l  from  I have c h e c k e d  'voice'  i n the corpus this  / b / i s a phoneme  l a b i o - d e n t a l continuant  does n o t o c c u r  . o r allophone,  occur  pattern  stops,  , [g] . )  The v o i c e d ing with  f o r the  the c a s e  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e gap i n t h e v o i c e d there  and  and d e n t a l - a l v e -  and a v o i c e l e s s s t o p  velar equivalent /p/  A s e r i e s of voiced  and / v o s /  contrast/v/ i n the  'you'.  The  once,  e i t h e r as a phoneme  o f my  informant's  carefully  i n the d i a l e c t s s t u d i e d  since  speech.  the f r i c a t i v e s  by Wagner,  does  and Crews, and  11.  /b/  (cont.) i t s e x i s t e n c e i n the Sephardic d i a l e c t s  i s a con-  t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t i n s t u d i e s of Judeo-Spanish.  There  are, then, no p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s of /b/ or /v/. However, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of /b/ and /v/ seems to be limited.  /b/ almost never occurs i n i n t e r v o c a l i c  p o s i t i o n i n t h i s corpus  (except ' l i  be r o ) . a word  of I t a l i a n o r i g i n , but i s r e g u l a r l y r e p l a c e d by /v/ i n this position,  f o r example, be  es k r i ' v i r 'to write' , ' i va 1  not occur a f f e r the n a s a l , that i s i n i t i a l l y , clusive,  'ver 'to drink', 'I was  going',  /v/  although i n other p o s i t i o n s ,  /b/ and /v/ are not mutually  as i n am b i ' zar 'to l e a r n ' ,  •to become i n e b r i a t e d ' , bom  ex-  em bo.ra ce ' ar  bar da • .t^y en to 'bombing'.  This l i m i t a t i o n on the occurence that the f r i c a t i v e /v/ may,  can-  of the stop /b/  i n t h i s d i a l e c t be  an e a r l i e r f r i c a t i v e te. b might e a s i l y be  suggests  replacing  identified  w i t h v on the b a s i s of f r i c a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e te i s not known to o t h e r languages There  spoken by t h i s  speaker.  i s , however, w r i t t e n evidence of te i n Old Judeo-  Spanish r a s h i t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s showing that Old Spanish had  the b i l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e before li+92.  The c o n t r o v e r s y among w r i t e r s on Judeo-Spanish garding the e x i s t e n c e i n Modern Sephardic  1  re-  Spanish  of te or v and b shows t h a t d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s have  1  '  L . S p i e g a l , 01d Judeo-Spanish W r i t t e n Evidence of Old Spanish Phonemes", Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Minnesota, 1952, p. 122. :l  Id..  /b/  (cont.) been chosen by various 'Sephardic dialect,  dialects..  In t h i s  the e x i s t e n c e of y_, the l a b i o - d e n t a l ' f r i c a -  t i v e , may  have been a f f e c t e d by the l a c k of the  te i n the s u p e r s t r a t a and modern s e f a r d i ,  sound  a d s t r a t a languages which the  e s p e c i a l l y i n s m a l l e r Judeo-Spanish  sceaking communities  i s obliged to l e a r n .  That  the 1  b i l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e te was although may  be  retained i n Salonica,  Modern Greek has  o n l y the l a b i o - d e n t a l  the r e s u l t of the g r e a t number of Judeo-Spanish  speakers l i v i n g , natively,  until  recently, i n Salonica.  the v a r i e t y and  well reflect  t i o n of te and v i n Old Spanish  which was  the  have a f r i c a t i v e  ,  vacilla-  community.  a l l o p h o n e C d l w h i c h can  only i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n ,  but i t s  find-  resolved i n -  . dependently o u t s i d e Spain i n each Sephardic /d/ may  Alter-  c o n f u s i o n of •• phonetic  ings i n v a r i o u s d i a l e c t s may  /d/  j£  occur  appearance.is  s p o r a d i c and ^ c c u r s  i n free v a r i a t i o n with U d J i n  t i c a l environment.  The  i n c i d e n c e of d  seems a p p r e c i a b l y h i g h e r thanCehl. tions C d l occurs. 'left',  ke  'dar  dra. ' l e f t ' , la  '4i  no  Spanish',  'ma  the s t o p : ka 1  'pye  dre (but a l s o 'ma  (only once, otherwise a ko  In a l l o t h e r p o s i -  i r a 'stone', dre)  1  married',  ' I i do 'sye-  'mother',  l a ' d i no)  'drar ' t o remember'.  'za do  intervocalically  Examples with f r i c a t i v e : sa  'to remain',  iden-  'Sephardic  Examples w i t h  'to do  (but  also  C. Crews, Recherches s u r l e judeo-espagnol dans l e s pays balcaniques, P a r i s , 1 9 3 5 .  13-  /d/  (cont.)  'to do)  'oil',  •protector', could , 1  The a f f r i cates:  'pa l i da  pe  !  k a do  u l v i 'dar  A p a i r of v o i c e d  'pale', pro  te  ' p i t y , s i n ' , pu  or  za  ' d i a. ' I  'to f o r g e t ' .  and v o i c e l e s s a f f r i c a t e s o c c u r a t  the d e n t a l - a l v e o l a r p o s i t i o n . • /dz/ /c/ /dz/  /dz/ has  a l l o p h o n e s dz,  i n i t i a l l y while  z.  The  affricate  occurs  the f r i c a t i v e occurs i n i n t e r v o c a l i c  p o s i t i o n , a$ l e a s t i n words of S p a n i s h o r i g i n or i n f u l l y assimilated loans.  Example, dze  'no  yos  'knees', 'dzen te 'people', d z u r 'nal 'newspaper', dzi  1  dyo  'Jew;  ' b e t t e r ' , ka  mu  1  z e r 'wife, woman', mi  ?le za ' s t r e e t ' , and va  '• zor  ' l i za  'suitcase'  conform to the p r e v a i l i n g tendency, /c/  / c / has  no p e r c e p t i b l e  variants.  The f r i c a tives :  V o i c e d and v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s o c c u r a t l a b i o - d e n t a l , a l v e o l a r , and v e l a r p o s i t i o n s , w i t h a v o i c e l e s s t i v e i n the p a l a t a l p o s i t i o n . mic  frica-  (z does not have phone-  status) /f/ /s/ /s/  /x/  /v/ / z /  ,/g/  Except f o r the l o s s of Old S p a n i s h phonemic / z / ,  the  f r i c a t i v e s r e p r e s e n t the most n e a r l y complete s e r i e s , /f/  / f / has  no a l l o p h o n e s .  w h i l e some Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s  m a i n t a i n the l a b i o - d e n t a l f (Old S p a n i s h h) use  and  the a s p i r a t e d h, t h i s d i a l e c t has g e n e r a l l y  others lost  111. /"f/  \Cont.  ;  i n i t i a l f.  I n i t i a l f i s , however, s p o r a d i c a l l y  r e t a i n e d i n a v e r y few words. says  ' i za ' d a u g h t e r , 1  'do',  but f u  1  Thus the  informant  ay ' l a r 'speak', a 'zer  i r ' f l e e ' and f e  1  r i r 'wound'.  It is  i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t 'fas t a , 'as t a , and even ' f i s t a 'until'  (possibly I t a l i a n f i n o plus asta)  The s p o r a d i c occurence  appear.  of f i n these i n s t a n c e s i s  perhaps a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the i n f o r m a n t ' s b r i e f s t a y i n Y u g o s l a v i a where f i s r e t a i n e d i n S e p h a r d i c Spanish. /v/  /v/ i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d p h o n e m i c a l l y from /b/ /b/ above).  /v/ does not occur, however,  • the n a s a l /m/ /b/«  (see after  which c o n d i t i o n s the homorganic stop  T h i s p a r a l l e l s the p a t t e r n o f the stop / d /  a f t e r /n/, and /k/ w h i c h c o n d i t i o n s a p r e c e d i n g a l l o p h o n e CnJ<? l e a r n ' , de man /s/  / sY  Hence am b i ' z a r (INVITIARS) 'to 'dar 'to ask',  'nun ka  'never',  i s not the Old C a s t i l i a n a p i c a l v a r i e t y ,  but  an a l v e o l a r d o r s a l i n the i n f o r m a n t ' s speech. d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s phoneme / s / i s p e r p l e x i n g .  The It  seems t o o c c u r i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h z i n some c i r cumstances but does n o t r e p r e s e n t a phonemic n e u t r a l i z a t i o n i n any d e f i n a b l e environment.  F o r example,  mo  'so t r o z o c c u r  1  zo t r o s , mo  .' zo t r o z . and a l s o mo  i n i d e n t i c a l environments noz  'fwe moz  'we went, nos  w i t h o u t a change i n meaning: 'fwemoz, and nos  'fwe  nos  a l l occur, so t h a t the c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r i s n e i t h e r the presence  of v o i c e not phonemic n e u t r a l i z a t i o n i n  15. /s/  vcont.)  word o r u t t e r a n c e f i n a l p o s i t i o n . i s a s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e of f i n a l  At most, there  z, over / s / , but i t  i s not a c o n s i s t e n t change, and i t i s not l i m i t e d to final position. because,  T h i s s i t u a t i o n . i s f u r t h e r complicated  at the same time there appear t o be r e s i d u a l  traces of Old Spanish phonemic•contrast  between / s /  and / z / i n examples where f r e e v a r i a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y does not occur i n the informant's speech as i n 'ko za 'thing ,  'ka za 'house', and pa 'sar 'to spend,  1  The  pass'.  informant c o r r e c t e d my p r o n o u n c i a t i o n of kasa to  'ka za „  The phonemic d i f f e r e n c e i n modern standard  Spanish has disappeared g i v i n g r i s e to an a l l o p h o n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of C s l and Czl.  presumably, the Old  C a s t i l i a n / s / - / z / phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n would have come with the Sephardim from Spain and, indeed,  this  informant's speech and p o s s i b l y h i s B e i r u t d i a l e c t i s the only one which does not conform Judeo-Spanish  tendency  to the g e n e r a l  to maintain.the phonemic d i s -  tinction. A former / s / when preceded by a yod (which has since disappeared) p a l a t a l i z e s as, f o r example, d i z i • 'ses ' s i x t e e n ^ s e i s ] a n d a l l second person p l u r a l forms of  the verb l i k e  av ' l a tes  de  'sa tes 'you l e f t f d e s a s t e i s ) 1  'you spoke' (-asteis]) and Velar  consonants  have a l s o p a l a t a l i z e d a p r e c e d i n g / s / which becomes /s/  i n c e r t a i n words:  pes  'ka do ' f i s h ' .  bus 'kar 'to look f o r ' , and  A c c o r d i n g to Lapesa,  t h i s change  16. /s/  (cont.;  also occurred century.  i n p e n i n s u l a r Spanish  i n the s i x t e e n t h  1  In a d d i t i o n , the phonology of t h i s d i a l e c t  will  t o l e r a t e an » impure'" s_, p o s s i b l y , i n t h i s .speaker's d i a l e c t because of French,  E n g l i s h , and  Italian  borrowings w h i c h e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h forms an e p e n t h e t i c  'e_', f o r example, Ss  'ko pya  'Skoplje',  es 'ko l a ' s c h o o l ' , but s.pe sya l i 'da des /h/  /h/ occurs most f r e q u e n t l y i n words of A: Hebrew o r i g i n ,  as i n ha  ' z i no  having  'specialities' '-ic and  ' s i c k ' , ha  'ham  'rabbi', •  . but i t a l s o o c c u r r e d once i n S p a n i s h a 'ho r a  'now'  a l o n g w i t h the more f r e q u e n t p r o n u n c i a t i o n a 'o r a 'now' ,  The v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e g, however, occurs  normal i n the compound a gor /g/  /g/  has  two  Cgl  occurs  n a s a l , as i n 'ten go  'last  year'.  a v o i c e d v e l a r stop C g l  allophones:  the norm C g l -  'a no  ' I have', otherwise C g l  gos  and  o n l y a f t e r i t s homorganic  i n a l l o t h e r p o s i t i o n s , f o r example, 'gre sya 'ga to ' c a t ' , a'mi  as  'friends'.  I n i t i a l CgJ  occurs 'Greece', is a  commonly known f e a t u r e o f the S a l o n i c a d i a l e c t a l s o . That the v e l a r f r i c a t i v e C g l  n a s  become the phonemic  norm i n t h i s d i a l e c t i s perhaps due fluence.  1  R.  2  The  f r i c a t i v e g occurs  Lapesa, H i s t o r i a , p.  to f o r e i g n i n -  i n Modern Greek -y  336.  One would e x p e c t a 'go r a . The appearance of /h/ here may be due t o i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of v o i c e d v e l a r fricative g w i t h v o i c e l e s s c o n t i n u a n t /h/. (?)  and  17-  /g/  Icont.j  may have been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h A r a b i c i n the B e i r u t a r e a . War  (ghain)  S a l o n i c a , which p r i o r t o w o r l d  I I was the l a r g e s t S e p h a r d i c  community, may w e l l  have been the p l a c e o f o r i g i n o f t h i s development, surrounded,  as i t i s , by Greek.  The i n f o r m a n t  lived  i n S a l o n i c a f o r two y e a r s and h i s mother had been born t h e r e .  Nasals.  V o i c e d n a s a l s o c c u r at b i l a b i a l ,  a l v e o l a r , and d e n t a l  points of a r t i c u l a t i o n . /m/  /m/ can o c c u r i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h /n/ i n c e r t a i n circumstances, /w/.  Thus:  l u c h &%, b e f o r e the b i l a b i a l  semivowel  'mwes t r a and a l s o 'nwes t r a our'  occur;  S  1  'mwe vo and 'nwe vo 'new; 'mwe ve and 'nwe ve 'nine'.  Perhaps on the analogy  o f 'mwes t r a 'our', m and n  v a r y f r e e l y i n moz/noz, m o z o t r o z / n o z o t r o z l a c k o f a b i l a b i a l element.  'we' despite  The i n f o r m a n t uses  forms c i t e d above i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y .  Otherwise,  these /m/  and / n / are d i s t i n g u i s h e d . This p h o n e t i c s i t u a t i o n o f f r e e v a r i a t i o n i n c e r t a i n words may perhaps l e n d c r e dence t o the / s / - / z / v a r i a t i o n w h i c h a l s o appears t o be a phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n i n a few words. /n/  /n/ has a l l o p h o n e s f j n ^ and Cri2 CrQoccurs o n l y b e f o r e v e l a r stops ' k  and g . F o r expample, 'nun ka 'never',  ' l i h gwa 'language', /a/  but otherwise C nj. occurs.  /n/ has no p e r c e p t i b l e v a r i a n t s .  18.  Liquids. /I/  / l / , a v o i c e d a l v e o l a r p a l a t a l has a v e l a r p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t , C 1 J. w h i c h o c c u r s word and s y l l a b l e f i n a l l y , f o r example £sp_anoi.  Otherwise, C l l  occurs.  development may be due t o e a r l i e r • P o r t u g u e s e Jews o r i t may be a r e c e n t E n g l i s h /r/  This speaking  incursion.  / r / i s a s i n g l e v o i c e d a l v e o l a r f l a p , f o r example, 'pe r o 'dog' and rom ' p i r 'break'.  There i s no  a l v e o l a r t r i l l / r r / o c c u r i n g as a phoneme o r p o s i t i o n a l variant i n this d i a l e c t . have r e t a i n e d and  Most Judeo-Spanish' d i a l e c t s  the phonemic c o n t r a s t  the m u l t i p l e  of s i n g l e / r /  / r r / . Marius S a l a c l a i m s t h a t , " i n  norma i u d e o s p a n i o l e i  d i n Bucure^ti  am g a s i t s i a l t e  s i m p l i f i c a r i ale sistemului fonologic alte regiuni.  inregistrate i n  E s t e v o r b a de d i s p a r i ^ i a f a r a urme a  d i s t i n c t i e i d i n t r e / r / s,i / r r / . " " ' '  I n a d d i t i o n to the  l o s s of / r r / i n the B e i r u t d i a l e c t as w e l l as i n the Judeo-Spanish of Bucharest, i t has a l s o been l o s t i n  2 the Smyrna d i a l e c t of New Y o r k .  The p r o b a b l e r e a s o n  f o r t h i s development i n the t h r e e d i a l e c t s mentioned i s the l a c k o f phomenic d i s t i n c t i o n between / r / and / r r / i n the  superstrata.  ''"M. S a l a , " O r g a n i z a r e a u n e i norme n o i s p a n i o l e I n indeospaniola", Studii gi cercetari lingvistice, k, A n u l X V I I , 1966, p. k.03• D. Levy, "La p r o n u n c i a c i o n d e l s e f a r d i e s m i r n i a n o de Nueva York", Nueva r e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a e s p a n o l a , 6, 1952, p. 277.  19.  consonants or semi-vowels /y/  /y/ has no p o s i t i o n a l  variants,  /y/ f o r //"/ i s  found i n the spoken language i n many Spanish speaking areas and the tendency to make t h i s change must have a l r e a d y been present i n the speech of the l a t e t e e n t h century.  fif-  Normal developments are ka 'yar  'to be q u i e t ' and ya 'mar 'to c a l l ' .  Exceptional i s  'le to ' t i c k e t ' .which i s an I t a l i a n l o a n . ' l u v i a ' r a i n ' and ca ' l i za ' s t r e e t ' / l /  r a t h e r than /y/ r e p l a c i n g C a s t i l i a n /J\/  common use among Sephardic d i a l e c t s . /w/  which have  /w/ has no p o s i t i o n a l  variants.  are i n  Consonantal  Phonemes  i. <J  \  d  \  vC  ^  d  o_  o  c  \—1  c  >  M-  1  o  -5 d  "5 c  • p  -u  0  a  £  J CO  —  -rj  >  ^>  >  _d  >  cn  <3  W  «i  S  c/i Q_ <3  -P  C it  r  «3  d  ~2.  -3  >^5-  21.  The  Vowel  Phonemes  / i /  a high close  /&/  a mid f r o n t h - I f - c l o s e unrounded  /a/  a low c e n t r a l  /of  a mid back h a l f - c l o s e rounded  /u/  a h i g h back  / i /  / i /  has  f r o n t unrounded  open u n r o u n d e d  close  rounded  allophones  'we  vowel  vowel vowel  vowel  C i 1 and a l o w e r e d  l a x v o w e l L~IJ w h i c h o c c u r s before  vowel  high  i n a pretonic  front syllable  C i l am b l ' z i ' I l e a r n e d ' , k i d i moz 1  stayed . 1  Otherwise C i j . occurs  as i n  'di s i  'I s a i d ' .  /e/  / e / has  allophones  Ce3  half-open l a x vowel. quently  occurs  and Ce.,3 The  i n closed  a low m i d  open v a r i e t y C§1  front fre-  s y l l a b l e s , under s t r e s s ,  and b e f o r e r . gr a  'ma  no  'brother'  'kgl 'that'  'fwQ  'he went'  But,  however,  closed  and open e c a n o c c u r  v a r i a t i o n w i t h e a c h o t h e r as w e l l (a)  de s i ' d i moz  'we  i n free  as w i t h C i l  decided'  de, s i ' d i moz di (b)  S L  ' d i moz  d i s 'pw§s  'after,  then'  de,s 'pwes (The  varient  drs'pyes  also  occured  once).  22*  /e/  (coat.)  (c)  an s i 'nar 'to teach' an se  (d)  'nar  d i ' z i r 'to say' de_ ' z i r de ' z i r  /a/  / a / a low c e n t r a l unrounded vowel has a f i n a l variant, e,r 'ma Sa  na-z  ' r i k>  a schwa,  occasionally  C>1  'sisters' 'little  Sarah'  A l s o there i s s p o r a d i c use of CaeQ but only i n E n g l i s h l o a n words and the word a 'me •American'.  r i 'kae  no  These two v a r i a n t s are probably the  r e s u l t of E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e .  Another  such v a r i a n t  a t t r i b u t a b l e to French occurs, / a / i n words r e l a t e d to French. ' f r a sya  'France',  fra  'French '  'sez  1  These three vowels are not, of course, r e g u l a r l y a p a r t of the phonology, but r e p r e s e n t incomplete phonological /o/  /of  has  assimilations.  three allophones which can occur i n a p a t t e r n  s i m i l a r to t h a t of the allophones of /e/. a lowered h i g h back l a x vowel appears o p e n C Q 3 occurs i n c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s , Closed f_o_] appears  Thusjjc/],  pretonically, and the more  i n open s y l l a b l e s . Cu"! can occur  i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n wi t h C o Q w i t h i n a word. kxj- 'mi da  'food', ku'mer, or ko  'mer  'to eat  23.  wl  vi  pv  'dar  ' d i a,  'Qn  de  na  'to po  'der,  'syo  'he /e/  tively  was or  'beautiful' used  pu- ' d e r  the  of  these  'to  be  vowels  i s not  able'  can,  are  i n modern known  the the  does  form form  er er  'mo  dialect.  dialect.  course,  Spanish  dialects,  zu Simclosure Closure  occur  e / i fluctuations  dialects.  change  zo  'mo  i n this  Of  respec-  i n many  tolerate  i n other  a  /u/  not  as  t o be  and  happens  i n this  toL~i3  position.^"  found  but  / i /  as  Thus  'green',  vowel  to  position  i s possible,  final  pretonic  close  dialects.  ' v e r de  of  can  final  i n Bosnia,  ilarly,  tions  or  born'  /o/  i n word  Judeo-Spanish  also  1  'where'  Neither  as  forget  These  characteristic  in are  fluctuaof  2 Leonese  at  least  significant of  o/u  tions th  i/e.  between  Old  position.  Spanish  fluctuated  Menendez-Pidal  o/u, i / e l a s t e d  It is  states  until  also  i n the  usage  that  fluctua-  the  sixteen-  into  century.  /u/ is  and  that  in final  has a  no  allophones.  positional  •'•But  variant  ' l i n gwa  (The  lowered  of  /of.)  'language'  may  and  derive  more  6/3.  lax  its [ x j  through  It. ^ A l o n s o Z.amora V i c e n t e , M a d r i d , 1963, p. 88. -^Menendez-Pidal,  19UU,  p. 67.  Dialectologia  Origenes  del  espanol,  espanola,  Madrid,  , 2a.  /u/  icont.)  tJ'ni  doz  ' U noz  'united'  'some'  Clusters The c l u s t e r s  -bd- or  have been p r e s e r v e d s iv  as  'da ' c i t y '  -vd-,  as  they were  i n Judeo-Spanish  generally,  i n Old Spanish:  1  ' d e v da ' d e b t ' duv  'dar  ' k o v do 'viv  'to  doubt'  'elbow'  da ' w i d o w '  The f r e q u e n c y  of t h i s  cluster  ' k a v sa  'cause'  - v d - seems t o  'Europe'  and  to  although  t h e y had / u / even i n O l d S p a n i s h . popular  Popular phonetic not  occur i n this  changes  dialect  Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s ism.  The " p u r i t y  tact with butable  the  Thus:  standard  as  although they  dialect  language  typical  informant  are  attested  Spanish d i a l e c t s  studied here  nor i s  it  renders  as  i s not  likely  The f o l l o w i n g  of J u d e o - S p a n i s h are  of a l l S e p h a r d i c ' s p e e c h the  pattern  also  o f / w e / and /bw7 b e c o m i n g / g w e /  and i n o t h e r  o f the  this  pa  Changes  t o any f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e .  commonly c i t e d typical  1 1  conform to  c a u s e Ev ' r o  study  'devil'  that  of t h i s  i n nearly as  it  all  a vulgar-  due  forms,  not  do  7  to is  conattri-  which  are  necessarily  d i a l e c t has  ' w e r ko b u t n o t  shown.  guerko. (Old  "^This l o s s o f f i n a l d i s e x c e p t i o n a l a n d i s p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by I t a l i a n c i t t a .  25.  C a s t i l i a n h u e r c o ) ; 'bvie no 'good' b u t n o t gweno; 'wga mo  'smell'  but not gwezmo. Another p h o n e t i c s u b s t i t u t i o n f r e q u e n t i n most o t h e r d i a l e c t s b u t absent i n the i n f o r m a n t ' s speech i s the a s p i r a t e /h/ r e p l a c i n g / f / o r / s / f o l l o w e d by a b i l a b i a l .  Thus o n l y fwe  appears i n t h i s d i a l e c t , n e v e r hue w h i c h i s u s u a l l y c i t e d as JudeoS p a n i s h and 'sue no ' s l e e p ' n o t shueno.  ^owel Phonemes  FRONT  CENTRAL  0  B>ACK  HJGH CLOSE  c  u  MID CLOSS  e  o  L o w OPEN  a  Chapter 2 L e x i c o n  26.  General The Spanish archaic  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o l d e r forms no l o n g e r i s characteristic  quality  mentioned ture  Remarks  of a l l Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s .  on p h o n e t i c s  of the Judeo-Spanish l e x i c o n .  hardim occurred before  This  to  isolation  themselves.  stage  of the language  literature  Sephardic  the  Dialogo  F o r a time  later  Jews h a d much d e c l i n e d , t h e r e b y  language  in fifteenth  distinction  i n meaning.  to f i x Some  and e a r l y  the l i t e r a c y  o f the  r e m o v i n g any s t a n d a r d  the f l u c t u a t i o n s  we f i n d  c u r r e n t usage f a v o u r e d  t h e o l d 'romances'  adhere. and v a r i a n t u s a g e s o f  s i x t e e n t h century Spain are  i n the J u d e o - S p a n i s h l e x i c o n .  de l a l e n g u a  groups  b u t i n s m a l l q u a n t i t y and o n l y  Several generations  one w o u l d e x p e c t ,  reflected  to leave minority  as i t was when t h e y were i n S p a i n .  t o w h i c h the s p o k e n l a n g u a g e m i g h t As  mainly  i n many c o l o n i e s w o u l d t e n d  was composed i n e x i l e ,  a short time.  i na l -  t h e p e n i n s u l a and i t s l i n g u i s t i c  d e v e l o p m e n t was c o m p l e t e . Jews k e p t  a  o f the  Jews l i v e d  communities  fea-  o f the Sep-  transitions  the Spanish  i n self-sufficient  The b r e a k w i t h  which the Sephardic  for  that the e x i l e  a T u r k i s h empire w h i c h was w i l l i n g  aid l i t e r a r y  the  i s not, o f course,  the g r e a t l i n g u i s t i c  G o l d e n Age, and t h a t s u b s e q u e n t l y ,  sounds  but i s also a s t r i k i n g  s u r p r i s i n g phenomenon when one r e c a l l s  within  This  a p p l i e s n o t o n l y t o the r e t e n t i o n of c e r t a i n  i n the chapter  most c o m p l e t e  current i n standard  F o r example,  i n Valdes'  t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n as t o w h e t h e r  asperar  or esperar  a n d w h e t h e r t h e r e was a  27.  Marcio.-... Hazeis alguna d i f e r e n c i a e n t r e a s p e r a r y esperar? V a l d e s . - Yo s i , d i z i e n d o asperad i n cosas c i e r t a s , y esperad en cosas i n c i e r t a s , como v o s o t r o s u s a i s de a s p e t t a r y s p e r a r ; y a s s i d i g o : espero que e s t e afio no a v r a g u e r r a . B i e n se que pocos o ninguno guardan e s t a d i f e r e n c i a , pero a mi me ha p a r e c i d o g u a r d a r l a por d a r mejor a entender l o ,que s c r i v o . l The d i s t i n c t i o n i s s t i l l Spanish.  observed  i n t h i s d i a l e c t of Judeo-  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f a c t o r s mentioned above, such  vaci-  l l a t i o n s i n p e n i n s u l a r - usage i n t h i s p e r i o d o f r a p i d i n n o v a t i o n p a r t i a l l y account  f o r the l a c k o f a f i x e d language s t a n d a r d i n  Judeo-Spanish. The p r o p o r t i o n o f o l d e r forms v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i a l e c t o f Judeo-Spanish.  The d i a l e c t s . o f t h e s m a l l e s t and  most i s o l a t e d communities have p r e s e r v e d t h e g r e a t e s t number o f archaisms,  a l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon w h i c h i s common i n o u t l y i n g 2  areas.  The M o n a s t i r d i a l e c t , a c c o r d i n g t o Max L u r i a ,  i s the  most a r c h a i c , w h i l e t h a t o f Morocco,as seen i n the study by P a u l Benichou, ^ does n o t d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from Modern S p a n i s h due  t o i t s c l o s e r contact w i t h the p e n i n s u l a . w h i l e the number o f words d e r i v e d from the common s t o c k  of O l d S p a n i s h i s p r o b a b l y g r e a t e r i n s t a n d a r d S p a n i s h i n Judeo-Spanish,^"  n e v e r t h e l e s s Judeo-Spanish  Juan Valdes, D i a l o g o de l a lengua. 196k, p. 36.  than  has c o n t i n u e d  ed. C I . Cast.,  Madrid,  "Max L u r i a , "The M o n a s t i r D i a l e c t " , Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Revue Hispanique. LXXIX, 1 9 3 0 , p. 3 2 3 f f • ' ^ P a u l Benichou, ''Observaciones sobre e l judeo-espanol de Marruecos", R e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a h i s p a n i c a , V I I , 191+5, p.  209-258.  4-Dr. A.. S. Yahuda, " C o n t r i b u c i o n e s a l e s t u d i o d e l judeoe s p a n o l " , R e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a espanola, , I I , 1 9 1 5 , p. 31+7.  26.  u s i n g some words c u r r e n t  i n the  g e n e r a l S p a n i s h o f the  c e n t u r y b u t w h i c h have s i n c e dropped o u t o f the The words i n t h i s as  is  c a t e g o r y have n o t  t o be e x p e c t e d i n a l i v i n g  an i n d e p e n d e n t lazdrar  s t u d i e d by C y n t h i a informant,  it  Crews^ has  tongue,  the  but,  F o r example,  is retained  i n the  become l a d r a r i n t h e  Old Spanish  Skoplje d i a l e c t speech of  the  and l a z r a r i n S p a i n .  variances  standard  i n each language  p e n i n s u l a h a v e as  t h e i r basis  of m e d i e v a l S p a n i s h d i a l e c t s w h i c h the  A l s o some Jews d i d n o t go d i r e c t l y t o  t o o k up r e s i d e n c e  community,  among S e p h a r d i c d i a l e c t s a n d b e t w e e n s e f a r d i  S p a n i s h o f the  eral varieties w i t h them.  language.  they have o c c a s i o n a l l y  In a d d i t i o n to separate developments further  standard  always remained unchanged  development o f t h e i r own.  ' t o work h a r d ' , w h i l e  fifteenth  for  a time i n P o r t u g a l before  the  the  Jews  Levant but  j o i n i n g the  other  Y a hemos h e c h o cons t a r que e n l o s ' p r i m e r o s t i e m p o s d e l e s t a b l e c i m i e n t o do l o s j u d i o s en O r i e n t e hubo e n t r e e l l o s u n r e g i o n a l i s m o p r o n u n c i a d o , que se m a n i f e s t o e n l a f u n d a c i o n de c a l e s o s i n a g o g a s nacionales. Se d i s t i n g u i e r o n e n t r e s i l o s j u d i o s de C s s t i l l a , de A n d a l u c i a , de A r a g o n , de C a t a l u n a , de P o r t u g a l , y h a s t a h o y d i a ( 1 9 3 0 ) m u c h a s ^ f a m i l i a s s e f a r d i e s r e c u e r d a n aun s u p r o c e d e h c i a . Mas t a r d e l a lengua tendio a u n i f i c a r s e por e l continuo t r a t o e n t r e s i de l o s s e f a r d i e s de d i s t i n t a p r o c e d e n c i a , y e s t a u n i f i c a c i o n se r e a l i z o s o b r e t p d o e n l a s g r a n d e s c i u d a d e s , donde a n t e s se h a b l a r i a n de s e g u r o d i s t i n t o s dialectos probably exaggerated  a little  i n c l a i m i n g t h a t many  C y n t h i a C r e w s , L ' B s p a g n o l Dans L e s B a l c a n s , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , p. 167. !  M . L . Wagner,  Caracteres  G-enerales.  p.  15.  sev-  brought  exiles.  Wagner has  and  P a r i s , 1930,  29.  s e f a r d i e s remember from wha^, area they come s i n c e some S p a n i s h Jews s u c h as the one mentioned unaware t h a t the language the  i n L u r i a ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n are even  they are speaking i s Spanish.  Indeed,  term dzidyo, dzudezmo. and even l a d i n o used to d e s c r i b e the  language  does not s t r e s s that the language i s r e l a t e d  Formerly,  the term l a d i n o was  the L a t i n language as d i s t i n g u i s h e d  from Hebrew but' the word i s now ness of i t s etymology.  The  to Spanish.  used without the speakers' aware-  informant used f o r the p r e s e n t study  does not know from what p r o v i n c e h i s ancestors came, but,as do the  m a j o r i t y of those who  speak l a d i n o , he r e a l i z e s  that h i s  language i s a form of Spanish. Among the Inherited Spanish words, some few are d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e as b e i n g from n o r t h e r n d i a l e c t s , ese and Leonese.  still  that i s , Aragon-  There are no obvious t r a c e s of A n d a l u s i a n d i s -  c e r n i b l e i n the Judeo-Spanish of the Levant f o r i t i s b e l i e v e d that the m a j o r i t y of Sephardic Jews of A n d a l u s i a n o r i g i n i n North A f r i c a . Two  1  large l i n g u i s t i c  d i v i s i o n s i n the Levant are g e n e r a l l y  d i s t i n g u i s h e d : that of the e a s t e r n Levant embracing Turkey,  Istanbul,  and the Near East, which is. C a s t i l i a n i n c h a r a c t e r ;  that of the western Levant, i n c l u d i n g Macedonia, Serbia,  settled  and,  Greece, Bosnia,  and p a r t of B u l g a r i a , which i s p r i n c i p a l l y Aragonese  and  2  Catalonian i n flavour. 1  T h i s w i l l e x p l a i n to some extent a number  A.S. Yahuda, " C o n t r i b u c i o n " . R e v i s t a de espahola, I I , 1915, p. 359.  2  filologia  M.L. Wagner, Caracteres, p. 22. Cf.Bernardete, Hispanismo de l o s s e f a r d i e s l e v a n t i n o s . p. 75.  30.  of e v i d e n t l y n o r t h e r n words i n the i n f o r m a n t ' s speech p o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t of h i s c o n t a c t w i t h d i a l e c t s from the Balkans w e s t e r n Judeo-Spanish,  and  but, more p r o b a b l y these words have been  a c c e p t e d by a l l S e p h a r d i c d i a l e c t s as a k i n d o f k o i n e , s i n c e some d i a l e c t a l f e a t u r e s of Aragonese and Leonese appear t o be h e l d i n common among a l l S e p h a r d i c d i a l e c t s even i n the area.  'Castilian'  Among the words which Wagner g i v e s as p e c u l i a r t o the  w e s t e r n region,"'" f o r example, the f o l l o w i n g are to be found i n the i n f o r m a n t ' s speech ( e a s t e r n and  'Castilian'  Judeo-Spanish):  'ar vo l e ' t r e e ' , a 'su k e r 'sugar', so 'lorn b r a 'shadow', and . 'Ion ze ' f a r ' . • The w e s t e r n a r e a was  i n f o r m a n t ' s p e r i o d of r e s i d e n c e i n the  v e r y s h o r t and i n any case i f these words were  not i n t e l l i g i b l e i n the e a s t e r n r e g i o n , t h a t i s Turkey and where the i n f o r m a n t l i v e d s u b s e q u e n t l y , .been s u b s t i t u t e d .  Otherwise,  o t h e r s would p r o b a b l y  have  i n r e l a t i o n to the p r o p o r t i o n of  n o r t h e r n f e a t u r e s i n o t h e r Judeo-Spanish speech i s remarkable  Beirut,  dialects,  the i n f o r m a n t ' s  f o r i t s f i d e l i t y t o Old C a s t i l i a n , n o t w i t h -  s t a n d i n g the i n f l u e n c e of l o c a l environments  which are l a r g e l y  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g n e w v a r i a t i o n s i n each S e p h a r d i c a r e a . Another prime f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the shape of the l e x i c o n i s the spoken and n o n - l i t e r a r y n a t u r e o f the d i a l e c t .  Nowadays  i t s usage i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the home and t o a l i m i t e d c i r c l e o f S e p h a r d i c a c q u a i n t a n c e s whereas o t h e r languages p l o y e d i n b u s i n e s s and the p r o f e s s i o n s .  have t o be  There was,  em-  however, a  f l o u r i s h i n g l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n u n t i l a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n the eighteenth century.  S c h o l a r s p r e f e r t o a p p l y the term l a d i n o  wagner, C a r a c t e r e s . i b i d . , p.  22.  31.  only to r e l i g i o u s w r i t i n g s and t r a n s l a t i o n s such as the P e r r a r a Bible.  The l i t e r a r y language  i s w r i t t e n i n .Hebrew t r a n s c r i p t i o n  c a l l e d r a s h i or, i n more r e c e n t times, l a d i n o i s w r i t t e n i n L a t i n c h a r a c t e r s such as i n La Vara, York u n t i l 19k5,  l i s h e d i n New papers. ladino,  a Sephardic review f o r m e r l y puband i n some modern I s r a e l i news-  The Sephardim themselves  do not d i s t i n g u i s h between  d e f i n e d by s c h o l a r s as the l i t e r a r y and w r i t t e n aspect  of the language  as mentioned above, and the v e r n a c u l a r or spoken  tongue c a l l e d zargon,  dzudezmo or d z i d y o .  A l l f o u r terms are  used by most of the Spanish Jews without d i s t i n c t i o n . tongue Is what concerns us h e r e .  c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e p a n c y between the two l e v e l s , The  who  There i s a  1  particularly  informant does not r e c o g n i z e l i t e r a r y words  which I put to him l i k e l e e r This speaker,  spoken  Most w r i t e r s on the s u b j e c t  base t h e i r observations on the w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e .  i n vocabulary.  The  'to read' l i s t e d by Mr.  Subak.^  has had an otherwise e x c e l l e n t education,  not read the r a s h i s c r i p t and,  indeed, t o l d me  that  'one  w r i t e i n l a d i n o , because i t i s not a w r i t t e n language.'  can-  cannot He  ^employs French f o r w r i t t e n communication w i t h h i s f a m i l y . A l i t e r a r y l i n k w i t h the p e n i n s u l a might have served as a s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r on the language, model or 'language  ideal'.  and might have p r o v i d e d a  In a d d i t i o n ,  i n f l u e n c e of l i t e r a r y l a d i n o was,  i t seems that even the  f o r the most p a r t d i m i n i s h e d  through the p r e s t i g e of the s c h o o l s of the A l l i a n c e  Israelite  U n i v e r s e l l e o f f e r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n French and the n a t i o n a l  1  eg.  J . Subak's works  2 j . Subak, Das  1905.,  p.321.  language  (cf. bibliography).  Verbum i n Judenspanischen,  Bausteine,  Halle,  32.  to e x c l u s i o n of Spanish.  These s c h o o l s s e t up by the French  Jews to help' t h e i r "backward b r o t h e r s " l a r g e l y r e p l a c e d the synagogue s c h o o l s . The nature of Judeo-Spanish  as a spoken language,  without  a l i t e r a r y norm then has had many p r e d i c t a b l e consequences and e f f e c t s upon the l e x i c o n ,  some of which are common to other  v a r i e t i e s of c o l l o q u i a l Spanish: ready acceptance  of neologisms,  impoverishment new formations  of vocabulary, independently  i n v e n t e d through analogy to the Old Spanish model, new meaning f o r o l d e r words and r a p i d acceptance the lacunae i n the:'.' language accepted, and l i k e l y if  of l o a n words needed to meet  due to new c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s .  the borrowed p o r t i o n of the v o c a b u l a r y seems ephemeral to give way to a spontaneous l o a n from another source,  the f i r s t  does f u l f i l l  l o a n word does not come r e a d i l y to mind. the primary f u n c t i o n of language  t i o n , but c o n t r i b u t e s to what p u r i s t s c a l l Spanish.  Once  This device  which i s communica-  the decadence of Judeo-  The spontaneous l o a n i s l i k e l y t o be understood by other  s e f a r d i e s who u s u a l l y have at t h e i r command three o r f o u r l a n guages.  ^  In short, there i s a f l u i d and f l e x i b l e standard, a l a c k of consciousness of~ ' c o r r e c t n e s s ' r e g a r d i n g not only vocabulary, but a l s o grammar and s t y l e . E a r l y loans, c h i e f l y T u r k i s h , are u s u a l l y , a s s i m i l a t e d to the Judeo-Spanish  but not always,  phonetic p a t t e r n , ( f o r example, )  "^Bernardete^ Hispanismo de l o s s e f a r d i e s l e v a n t i n o s , Madrid, 1963, p. li?3~ ''En l u g a r de ayudarlos a r e j u v e n e c e r su lengua...La A l i a n z a rehusaba. e n s e f i a r e l espanol. :l  fil  'dzan  cup ,  1  1  should  show a medial z.  from other language sources as i n , sa mg  da 'fer ' r a i l r o a d ' ,  elements may  acquired  loans  are u s u a l l y u n a s s i m i l a t e d p h o n e t i c a l l y , in- the speech of my  t a i n s the n a s a l vowel of French. lated  Recently  informant  Both a s s i m i l a t e d and  re-  unassimi-  e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y , no doubt, because the  sef-  a r d i must l e a r n to speak the languages of the s u p e r s t r a t a from which words are drawn. English,  and  The and  This informant,  Italian fluently,  f o r example, speaks  as w e l l as some A r a b i c and  p r o p o r t i o n of l o a n words i n the l e x i c o n i s very  French,  Turkish. high  gives a " h y b r i d " c h a r a c t e r to the language i n much the same  t h a t Rumanian and E n g l i s h appear mixed. o n l y s u b s t a n t i v e s , but however, l i s t s junctions.  1  a l s o verbs  T u r k i s h loans  Unfortunately,  of Judeo-Spanish he  Loan words i n c l u d e not  i n this dialect.  Abraham Danon,  of p r e p o s i t i o n s , adverbs, and he does not s t a t e from which  takes h i s examples, but i t is-most  However, the l i s t  con-  dialect  likely  t h a t of I s t a n b u l , which presumably would c o n t a i n a h i g h e r p o r t i o n of T u r k i s h l o a n s .  way  pro-  of words which he  gives i s not at a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the d i a l e c t under d i s c u s s i o n here,  f o r only one  informant: probably  of the many words which he  amma 'but' which has  i s known to the  a j o i n t T u r k i s h - Arabic  r e i n f o r c e d by Old Spanish mas,  wise, T u r k i s h loans  cites  i n this dialect  and  I t a l i a n ma.  origin Other-  are u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d to sub-  stantives. The dialect  number and k i n d of f o r e i g n loans i s , of course,  s u b j e c t to v a r i a t i o n .  A. Danon, "Le t u i c que,  XXIX, pp.  i n each Judeo-Spanish,  -  In Bosnia,  f o r example,  dans l e judeo-espagnol", Revue H i s p a n i -  1-12.  JS4--  the number of T u r k i s h l o a n s i s f a r l e s s t h a n t h a t of I s t a n b u l , a c c o r d i n g to X a l m i B a r u c h ,  1  but the T u r k i s h element s t i l l  dom-  2  m a t e s over o t h e r l o a n s o u r c e s .  a g a i n , the number of  loans  i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n urban c e n t r e s t h a n i n the r u r a l  areas  x,fhere the S p a n i s h  And  element i s more f a i t h f u l l y  preserved.-^  I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t T u r k i s h i s the foremost cont r i b u t o r of l o a n words to a l l S e p h a r d i c n a t u r a l consequence when one  dialects.  This i s a  r e c a l l s t h a t the s e f a r d i e s have  been s u b j e c t to the i n f l u e n c e of the T u r k i s h language i n v a r y i n g degrees of i n t e n s i t y f o r f i v e c e n t u r i e s . circumstances,  Indeed, under these  i t i s s u r p r i s i n g that Spanish  survived.  Other languages which c o n t r i b u t e to the h y b r i d c h a r a c t e r of Judeo-Spanish are A r a b i c , French,  Italian,  l y , E n g l i s h , due  to the l a r g e i m m i g r a t i o n s  E n g l i s h speaking  areas,  The  of S p a n i s h  c o l o n i e s remarked on the  a century a f t e r d i s p e r s i o n .  Early travellers  ' p u r i t y ' of the language  Gonzalo de L l e s c a i s always quoted  K a l m i Baruch, " E l judeo-espanol de B o s n i a " , f i l o l o g i a espanola, X V I I , p. 120.  2  Jews to  elements i n Judeo-Spanish has  n a t u r a l l y i n c r e a s e d as the c e n t u r i e s p a s s e d .  1  recent-  e s p e c i a l l y the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - I b e r i a n  to Sephardic  Hebrew, and  R e v i s t a de  *  Except f o r Rudolfo G i l i n "La l e n g u a e s p a n o l a .entre l o s j u d i o s " , La Sspana moderna, 1909, p. 3&, who d i s c e r n s t h r e e i n equal i n p r o p o r t i o n : Hebrew, T u r k i s h , and A r a b i c i n l i t e r a r y documents. ^Yahuda, " C o n t r i b u c i o n e s " , R e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a espanola,  I I , 1915,. p.  355.  35. i n this regard: L l e v a r o n n u e s t r a lengua y t o d a v i a l a guardan y usan d e l l a de buena gana,...y yo c o n o s c i en' Venencia j u d i o s de S a l o n i c a h a r t o s ^ q u e h a b l a v a n c a s t e l l a n o t a n b i e n o mejor que yo. However, by the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c e r t a i n l y ,  Judeo-Spanish  was n o t a b l y d i f f e r e n t frora the S p a n i s h o f the p e n i n s u l a . nardo A l d r e t e , a l a t e r t r a v e l l e r , :,  Ber-  says o f the S p a n i s h Jews,  Los que f u e r o n de Espana /s"ic7 h a b l a n aun t o d a v i a e l lenguage  que l l e u a r o n d e l l e ,  i se reconoce que es de a q u e l l a edad, d i f -  erente d e s t a . " ^ I n a d d i t i o n , i t seems t h a t even b e f o r e the exodus from S p a i n the S e p h a r d i c v o c a b u l a r y was liarities,  the r e s u l t of v a r y i n g s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l  R e l i g i o n was Corominas,  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a few  influences.  a p r i m a r y f a c t o r . . Prom the e a r l y date g i v e n by  i t i s apparent t h a t p r i o r t o the d i s p e r s i o n ,  S p a n i s h must have r e g u l a r l y employed the from D i o 'God' Dios.  pecu-  Judeoas opposed to  The r e a s o n seems t o be t h a t i n v e r y e a r l y S p a n i s h the  p l u r a l of Dio and i t s a l t e r n a t i v e Dios was became l o s d i o s e s .  l o s Dios which  later  The m o n o t h e i s t i c Jews, n e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n t i n u e d  t o use Dio perhaps because they f e l t Dios t o be p l u r a l .  Another  such word a r i s i n g from r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s and a l s o from the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Moors ai d Jews, i s a l 'ha 'the f i r s t a word of A r a b i c o r i g i n p r o b a b l y shared by Moors and Jews and  ' "''Gonzalo de L l e s c a , H i s t o r i a P o n t i f i c a l B a r c e l o n a , 1506, c i t e d by C. Crews, L'Espanol. Dans l e s B a l c a n s , p. 2k. d  day',  used  as  B . A l d r e t e , V a r i a s A n t i q i i e d a d e s de Espana, A f r i c a , y o t r a s p r o v i n c i a s , Anvers, 1614, as c i t e d by'C. Crews. l/'Espagnol Dans l e s B a l c a n s , p. 2k.  36. to  r e p l a c e the s t r i c t l y Mel  C h r i s t i a n domingo 'Sunday '.  1  'dar 'to read', as rendered by the informant, has  been documented by Corominas  as from the f i r s t h a l f of the  f i f t e e n t h century and appears i n Danza de l a Muerte w i t h the meaning  'ensefiar  I t may  f i r s t have been used by the Jews  e x c l u s i v e l y of r e a d i n g a r e l i g i o u s document s i n c e the most acceptable etymology  e s t a b l i s h e d by S p i t z e r and Blondheim i s  'meletare '. a l a t i n i z e d v e r s i o n of Greek ^u.j\lZ^  y  to meditate'  2 thence to read and m e d i t a t e .  Le  'er 'to read' i s not recog-  n i z e d by the informant, although i t i s used i n l i t e r a r y Ladino  .  3  texts .  A l s o appearing i n the corpus i s ha origin,  a c c o r d i n g to Corominas  about IkOO.  who  ' z i no  ' s i c k ' of A r a b i c  a t t e s t s Old Spanish hacino  The Old Spanish meaning was  'sad' while to Judeo-  Spanish speakers i t meant ' s i c k ' as i t d i d i n A r a b i c . S i m i l a r l y dez ma  z a l 'da do  Judeo-Spanish  r e t a i n s the o r i g i n a l sense of Hebrew mazal Spanish v e r s i o n desmazalado  which,  'unlucky, unhappy  'luck' whereas the  ^ Corominas  mentioned  as  having been used by Cervantes, had a l r e a d y belonged to C a s t i l i a n  1 alhad i s the form u s u a l l y given i n o t h e r Sephardic d i a l e c t s ^ L. S o i t z e r and D.S. Blondheim, f i l o i o K i s espanola, V l l l . 1921,  Romania, XLIX, Pp. 371-375.  ^ See a l s o p. 31 of t h i s  "meldar", i n R e v i s t a de Pp. 2 8 8 - 2 9 1 , and  Chapter.  ^ This form i s p e c u l i a r only to t h i s speaker's d i a l e c t , g e n e r a l l y , Judeo-Spanish r e t a i n s dezmazalado. Sg. Y. Malkiel, "A Latin-Hebrew b l e n d : H i s p a n i c 'desmazalado' Hispanic Review, 19U-7, ??• 272-301.  ",  37.  by that.time f o r more than two hundred years but was sense  'flojo,  abatido'.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the  although he does not know Hebrew, was word.  The  used i n the informant,  aware of the o r i g i n of t h i s  opposite i n h i s Judeo-Spanish  d i a l e c t i s ma  z a l 'da do  not mazaloso as c i t e d by Corominas i n the same e n t r y . While in  still  i n Spain, Old C a s t i l i a n harbar  a h u r r y ' came to be used by the Sephardim  'to do  something  i n the sense  of 'to  beat' as a r e s u l t of a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the B i b l i c a l name Harbonah which meant ' b e a t i n g ' . a har  The form appears  i n this dialect  as  1 'var 'to beat, wound'. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t s  ablished i n this  are word c a t e g o r i e s which have been e s t -  corpus. Loan Words  T u r k i s h l o a n words (Loan words are i n phonetic transcription.)  ( T u r k i s h sources are s p e l l e d a c c o r d i n g to modern o r t h o graphy )  Nouns a r a 'ba 'car'  (And Ar.) araba  ba  p a z a r l i k 'bargaining'  'zar 'market'  'vehicle'  'ber ber  'barber'  berber  b o ' r i ka  'dumpling  bo r e k ' t a r t c o n t a i n i n g meat and cheese'  buz'ice' c  a  i  tea'  1  buz ' i c e ' Qay  'tea'  Crews, "Some A r a b i c and Hebrew words i n o r i e n t a l JudeoSpanish." Vox Romanic a. Iii, 1 9 5 4 , 1 9 5 5 p. 3OI4.. Mrs. Crews c o r r e c t s Corominas' etymology.  33.  ci  ' n i 'dish, p l a t e ,  dzus fil  china'  ' t a n 'purse, w a l l e t ' 'dzan 'a c o f f e e c u p  1  cini  'china'  guzdan 'purse' f i l c a n or fincan  ha 'mal ' p o r t e r '  hamal ' s t r e e t p o r t e r '  ig ik  the a l t e r n a t i v e p r o n u n c i a t i o n w i t h 'k' may stem from T u r k i s h k i l i s e 'a C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h ' from P r . e g l i s e .  ' l i za o r ' l i za''church'  ka ' s a l 'butcher'  kasap . kasab i s the u s u a l Judeo-Sp. form. T h i s form w i t h '1' comes by way o f Greek fag A try;  kef 'tes 'meatballs'  (And A r . ) k e f t e s  kon 'du r i as 'shoes' and kon du're r o 'shoemaker'  kondura 'shoe'  mu s a ' f i r  'host, g u e s t '  It i s phonetically unlikely t o suppose t h a t the o r i g i n o f t h i s Judeo-Sp. word i s P r . c o r d o n n i e r , as Kraus supposes,' when the T u r k i s h stem- i s s t i l l i n t a c t i n the S e p h a r d i c word. 'sa pa t o i s r e c a l l e d by the i n f o r m a n t as an " o l d - f a s h i o n e d word" used by h i s grandmother t o mean 'shoe' a l s o . m i s a f i r ' t r a v e l l e r , guest'  ' p a l t o 'coat'  p a l t o ' o v e r c o a t ' (which i s p r o b a b l y from t h e F r e n c h paletot.)  pa ' r a o r pa. 'ras 'money'  p a r a 'money'. J . Sp. pa 'ras may be s i n g u l a r o r p l u r a l eg. mucas paras 'much money'.  pan'dza 'beet'  pancar 'beet'  p o r t o ' k a l 'orange'  portakal  ra ' k i  raki  1  'orange'  a k i n d o f brandy'  K a r l Kraus, "Judeo-Spanish i n I s r a e l " , H I s p a n i a , 3k, - 1951, p. 270. '  39.  1  s i n - g a no 'gypsy'  sar u  1  s i 'marketplace  cingane c f . I t . z i n g a r o . 1  car-si 'marketplace '  'da 'room'  oda  'room'  ' v i s nas 'a c h e r r y c o n f e c t i o n '  v i s n e 'a b l a c k c h e r r y ' ( w h i l e s e ' r i za i s used by the i n f o r m a n t t o mean ' c h e r r y ' . )  z e r ze v e t ' I i 'green v e g e t a b l e s '  zersevat  'vegetables'  Verbs siklearse  'to be bored'  s,ikayet ' c o m p l a i n t ' I n sjome J.-Sp. d i a l e c t s , s i k l e a r appears w i t h the meaning 'grieve . 1  Interjections ' h a i de 'come now, come'  hayde  Conjunctions amma 'but'  I n t h i s form, from (Tk.) and A r . amma. ma i s a n o t h e r J.-Sp. a l t e r n a t i v e , c f . Gk.jcoc, I t . ma, Sp. mas, F r . and P o r t . mais .  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the words above desc r i b e items p e c u l i a r t o the Near E a s t , words o f use i n b u s i n e s s  common foods,  and the market.  a p p a r e l , and  Only one v e r b a l r o o t  comes from T u r k i s h and o n l y one c o n j u n c t i o n .  There are no s t r u c -  t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s i n t h i s d i a l e c t o r i n Judeo-Spanish g e n e r a l l y which can be t r a c e d t o T u r k i s h .  The r e l a t i v e l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d  by T u r k i s h i s s u r p r i s i n g i n view o f the l o n g c o n t a c t between t h e two.  I t w i l l be shown, f u r t h e r m o r e ,  t h a t those l o a n words borrowed  by Judeo-Spanish are u s u a l l y t h e same words which o t h e r  "^Luria,  'Monastir',  Revue Hispanique,  Balkan  LXXIX, 1930, p.  kO.  languages have a l s o t a k e n from Turkish.. in  I have i n c l u d e d a g a i n  the l i s t o f B a l k a n l o a n s s e v e r a l of the T u r k i s h words shown  above which have been borrowed not o n l y by Judeo-Spanish but a l s o by o t h e r B a l k a n l a n g u a g e s .  The  list  of v a r i o u s o r i g i n s w h i c h are a l s o shared Balkan  i n c l u d e s o t h e r words among B a l k a n  languages.  loans  Judeo-Sp. cf.  Turk./Ar.  amma,  1.  ' am- ma  2.  bre  3•  c a i 'tea'  li.  ' h a i de  'come' ( i n t e r j e c t i o n )  from Turk, hayde, c f . Gk., Alb., B u l g . , Serb., and Rum. aide/haide, e t c .  5.  ha  'porter'  Prom Turk./Ar. hamal, hammal. £f. Gk. T ^ ^ f A l b , hamal, Serb, amsi. , B u l g . h a m a l i n . Rum. hamal.^  6.  ku 'ko na d e s c r i b e d by. the i n f o r m a n t as 'a snooty young lady'  'but  'hey'  'mal  Gk.JdA  originating with Gk.^?^ c f . Rum., B u l g . , Turk.  (interjection)  M. L u r i a , 2  ( o c c a s i o n a l l y ma)  o f Chinese o r i g i n 5a, the source f o r J-Sp. i s l i k e l y Turk, cay c f . Rum. c e a i . ^_ Gk• -T0&.u Russ. B u l g . Serb.  perhaps, o f Gk. o r i g i n ' l a d y ' cf_. B u l g . , and cucoana  MQKKU^ik  Rum.  " M o n a s t i r D i a l e c t ' , p.i>k.8. 1  f  A. C i o r a n e s c u , D i c c i o n a r i o S t i m o l o g i c o Rumano, U n i v . l a Luguna, B i b l i o t e c a F i l o l o g i c a , 19593 c i o r a n e s c u , D i c c i o n a r i o E t i m . Rumano ^Ibid.  de  kl.  7.  na 'here' used i n handing someone something.  of unknown o r i g i n , b u t . c f . a l l S l a v i c languages and Gk. and Rum. 1  3.  from Turk p o r t a k a l , c f .  p o r t o ' k a l 'orange  Gk. K£/2S£j^22^  Rum. p . o r t o c a l ,  and A l b . p o r t o k a l j e 9«  pin za l a is)' 1  'pea'  from Gk. TTc Luria cites the unadapted f o r m p i n g e l . i ± 'his Monastir dialect.n  3  10.  ri  'za ' h a n d k e r c h i e f  11.  z e r ze v e t ' l i 'green veget a b l e s ' z e r ze v e t ' l i  Turk, r i d a , b u t J-Sp. t h r o u g h Serb./Bulg. Turk, z e r z a v a t , c f . Gk. ^afSa/jcLvc. B u l g . / S e r b . and Rum.^ z a r z a v a t  J u d e o - S p a n i s h seems t o c a i q u e the B a l k a n form o f ' p l e a s e ' by u s i n g the v e r b a l phrase  ' I ask you' thus Judeo-Spanish t e rogo  c f . Rumanian te_ o r v a r o g , Greek from l i i t f e t m e k  TTapa.Ka\u>  , and T u r k i s h l i i t f en  'to p l e a s e ' .  S i n c e Judeo-Spanish i s a language p e c u l i a r t o the Jews, one would e x p e c t t o f i n d a r e f l e c t i o n o f the J e w i s h l i f e and customs, and e s p e c i a l l y the J e w i s h r e l i g i o n i n J u d e o - S p a n i s h .  In a very  t r a d i t i o n a l l y - m i n d e d f a m i l y w i t h a background o f the synagogue s c h o o l t h e r e are p r o b a b l y even more o f these words c u r r e n t In. the v o c a b u l a r y than o c c u r i n the corpus o f the. speech o f the i n f o r m a n t , who a t t e n d e d o n l y F r e n c h and I t a l i a n s c h o o l s .  I t seems t h a t the  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f J u d e o - S p a n i s h as a spoken tongue i s p a r t i a l l y due  1  C i o r a n e s c u , D i c c i o n a r i o E t i m . Rumano  2I b i d . ^Luria,  " M o n a s t i r D i a l e c t " , p. 5i+8. .  ^Crews, Le Judeo-Esp. dans l e s B a l c a n s , word i n d e x . ^ C i o r a n e s c u , D i c c i o n a r i o E t i m . Rumano  k2.  to  i t s use i n synagogue  r i t u a l and to i t s i d e n t i t y i n the minds  of  the Sephardim w i t h a l i t u r g i c a l  as w e l l as a c o l l o q u i a l  language.  Hebrew words might have e n t e r e d Judeo-Spanish through the p r a c t i c e of  t r a n s l a t i n g Hebrew r e l i g i o u s  texts i n t o S p a n i s h .  The  influence  of  Hebrew on the speaker's d i a l e c t extends only to l o a n words  whereas i n l a d i n o texts there i s a marked Hebrew i n f l u e n c e  on  s t y l e and syntax as seen i n Subak' s study." "  Hebrew  On the whole,  1  has a f f e c t e d Judeo-Spanish only s l i g h t l y a f f e c t upon Y i d d i s h  p  when compared  to.its-  probably because, as I have mentioned, 3  Spanish i s the l i t u r g i c a l language to the Sephardim, i s used i n t h i s c a p a c i t y by the  J  but Hebrew  Ashkenazim.  Hebrew l o a n s . Nouns. a ver ' a i r ' 1  be de  'hen  'cemetery'  i G r k . a l s o ) , while a i r e i n J.—Sp. and i n t h i s d i a l e c t has narrowed i n meaning to 'wind' only.  This form i s borrowed,from a euphemism i n Hebrew beth ha-hayyim 'house of the l i v i n g . bedehen i s unique to t h i s d i a l e c t w h i l e other v a r i a t i o n s i n c l u d e bedahei, bidahayimh Here i s another example of assimilated a i d non-assimilated elements e x i s t i n g c o n c u r r e n t l y 1  1  J.  Subak, "Zum Judensp.", Pp. 129-185.  2  C. Crews, "Some A r a b i c and Hebrew words i n O r i e n t a l  Spanish", Vox Romanic a. XV, 195k,  1955,  p. 30ii.  Judeo-  ^For a d i s c u s s i o n of the use of Judeo-Spanish i n the l i t urgy see A. Pulido, La raza s e f a r d i , Madrid, 1901 (?), p. ^"Crews, "Arabic and Hebrew words", p'.  30k.  98.  U-3--  1  ga 'ne dem  'heaven'  In J.-Sp-.. F i n a l Hebrew 'm' i s adapted to-the Spanish p a t t e r n of a f i n a l ' n' since 'ni' i s not t o l e r a t e d i n f i n a l position. However, i n ga 'ne dem 'heaven' f f . the opposite o c c u r s . 'm' i s a l s o t o l e r a t e d i n haham below. from Hebrew gan-eedhen 'Eden, paradise'. F i n a l 'm' here i s probably an i n s t a n c e of hypercorrection. 1  ha kal  'ham 1  'rabbi '  synagogue  Hebr. haham Hebr. kahal 'assembly'. K a l i s Used by t h e informant along w i t h sinagoga which appears to be a recent E n g l i s h l o a n s i n c e I have not seen i t a t t e s t e d i n o t h e r Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s .  maz l a 'ha 'luck, h a p p i n e s s ' ma z a l ' d a do 'lucky, happy' dez ma z a l 'da do 'unlucky, unhappy',  These forms are based on Hebr. mazal 'luck'. Ma z a l 'da do, unique to t h i s d i a l e c t , seems to have been reformed by analogy on dezmazalado and mazaloso^ which are the u s u a l J.-Sp. forms.  'pe sa 'passover'  from Hebr. pesah. Final a s p i r a t e 'h' while l o s t i n this dialect is usually retained i n others.  sa  the Hebrew word 'sabbath', while alha 'the f i r s t day' i s Sunday. Spanish 'sa ba do i s a l s o known.  'bat 'Saturday'  Verbs. a har 'var 'to beat'  •'-Crews,  a c c o r d i n g to Mrs. Crews, this verb i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Hebrew root h-r-bh 'ruined,  "Arabic and Hebrew words",  "See Corominas' entry desmazalado. 3  Cf.  P-37, note 1.  p. 305.  d e v a s t a t e d ' , cognate w i t h A r . kh-r-b , and t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was c a r r i e d o v e r t o J.-Sp. c a u s i n g i t t o d i f f e r from O l d Sp. a h a r b a r 'to do something . i n a h u r r y ' . She c o r r e c t s Corominas on t h i s p o i n t i n t h a t / h e t h i n k s the J.Sp. meani n g d i f f e r s because i t has o l d e r meaning. mei 'dar 'to r e a d ' ( o l d e r 'to l e a r n ' )  I n Judeo-Spanish mel 'dar has c o m p l e t e l y r e p l a c e d 1e 'er a l t h o u g h the l a t t e r v e r b , appeared i n l i t e r a r y L a d i n o . Mayor-Lubke b e l i e v e s m e l e t a r e was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o L a t i n by the Jews. Blondheim e s t a b l i s h e s a V u l g . L a t . form m e l e t a r e 'to m e d i t a t e ' i n i m i t a t i o n o f Gk. '.j.t.f"X?cXv/ which i n the S e p t u a g i n t c a i q u e s the Hebr. hagah 'to m e d i t a t e ' o r t o m e d i t a t e over a r e l i g i o u s t e x t ' . Hence comes .'read a r e l i g i o u s uext' and f i n a l l y s i m p l y 'to read', 3 I n Judeo-Uk. i t i s s t i l l used i n the sense 'study o f the l a w ' . Corominas mentions J . - F r . forms miauder, Prov. maud a, and s o u t h e r n I t . m e l e t a r e A Wagner f i n d s the same Hebrew c a i q u e i n Y i d d i s h l e i n e n which i s a synonym, .of Gr. l e r n e n and J.-Sp. meldar.^ !  •Cf. p. 31, note 1 . Meye>r-Lubke, E t y m o l o g i s c h e s Worterbuch.  \  3 Blondheim,. " E s s a i d'un v'ocsbulaire c o m p a r a t i f des p a r l e r s Romans des J u i f s au moyen age", Romania, XLIX, 1923, p. 3 h l , f f . Cf. Corominas  e n t r y meldar  ( O l d Sp. 'ensenar')  'Wagner, B e i t r a g e z u r K e n n t n i s des Judengpanischen von K o n s t a n t i n o p e l , -Wein, 191L, s e c t i o n 170.  h5.  The Spanish Jews while i n Spain maintained a f a i r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Moors and f i l l e d  the u s e f u l r o l e of i n t e r -  p r e t e r s between C h r i s t i a n s and Moors because of  Hebrew, Arabic, and S p a n i s h .  1  close  of t h e i r knowledge  This c o n t a c t i s • r e f l e c t e d i n  the nature of A r a b i c l o a n words found i n Judeo-Spanish. words i n the f o l l o w i n g l i s t  Four  seem to have been taken by the Jews  d i r e c t l y from the m o r i s c o s .  Judeo-Spanish  'sa r a r e t a i n s the  o l d e r A r a b i c sense of ' f o r e s t ' while the same word i n standard 2  Spanish meant 'bush, t h i c k e t ' for  '  'Sunday' was  Occasionally,  (Mod. Sp. j a r a ,  jaral).  shared by those of Moslem and Jewish  A l 'ha faiths.  3  the word r e t a i n e d by the Sephardim shows a c l o s e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p to A r a b i c than the same word as i t appears i n Spanish.  For example, k i 'ra i n Judeo-Spanish  c l o s e r to A r a b i c k i r a Judeo-Spanish ha  1  is phonetically  'rent' than Spanish a l q u i l e r ^ as i s a l s o  z i no from A r a b i c h a z i n but Old Spanish hacino  'sick'. Some A r a b i c words have reached Judeo-Spanish and these have been mentioned words i n the f o l l o w i n g l i s t  through T u r k i s h  e a r l i e r under T u r k i s h l o a n s .  Six  are d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the  immediate i n f l u e n c e of the A r a b i c superstratum of Lebanon i n the informant's B e i r u t speech.  These a r e :  ' i n sa l a Spanish  'ojala'  where one might l o g i c a l l y expect to f i n d Old Spanish osala,  "^Wagner, C a r a c t e r e s . p. 10. 2  See Corominas, .jara ^Crews, Judeo-espagnol, ^"See Corominas  alquiler  p. lb".  ra ' k i  L6.  'a l i q u o r ' ,  'mu  so  ' l i p ' which r e p l a c e s the  u s u a l Judeo-Spanish bezo ' l i p ' , and mu  sa  'ma  for  kef  'tes 'meatballs',  'raincoat'.  r a k i which i s commonly known i n Judeo-Spanish,  I have not  seen these words a t t e s t e d i n d i a l e c t s o t h e r than i n the There are a number of loans which may of  t h e i r apparent  l a c k of p h o n e t i c  Except  informant's.  be c o n s i d e r e d r e c e n t because  assimilation.  Arabic loans: Substantives.  Arabic  sources  al  al.had  'the f i r s t  */Y  a  'in  'ha  'Sunday' '  ' tir  'love'  sa l a Spanish  day'  found only i n the e x p r e s s i o n por e l ^ a t i r de Dio ' f o r the l o v e of God. I t i s phonetic i c a l l y probable that i t i s a d i r e c t l o a n from Ar. r a t h e r than Turk, h a t i r because of the r e t e n t i o n of % which i s otherwise absent i n the phonology of t h i s d i a l e c t . 'o.jala'  i d e n t i f i e d by the informant as a Lebanese word.  ki  'ra 'rent' (noun)  k i r a which i s a l s o the r o o t of Mod. standard Sp. a l q u i l a r .  mu  sa 'ma  mus ami, c f . Tk. mu.^amba ' oilskin'  'raincoat'  'mu  so'lip'  muso. Labio was stood.  kef  'tes  keftes  ra  'meatballs'  ' k i 'a l i q u o r '  'sa r a  'forest'  In.lbbO,  not under-  raki. sara. I t a l i a n bosco appears o c c a s i o n a l l y . The form 'ca das ' f o r e s t ' , which i s a l s o used, may be a v a r i a t i o n of 'sa r a .  the g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l - l e v e l of the s e f a r d i e s had  f a l l e n to such an extent t h a t the French Jews e s t a b l i s h e d the A l l i a n c e I s r a e l i t e U n i v e r s e l l e i n order to r a i s e the standard of  education.  This i n s t i t u t i o n c r e a t e d a s e r i e s o f French schools  which s u p p l a n t e d the synagogue s c h o o l s w i t h t h e i r outmoded c u l a and methods.  curri-  The r a b b i s gave the c l a s s e s i n r e l i g i o n , a  c o n c e s s i o n t o appease them, a p p a r e n t l y , f o r they had s t r o n g l y opposed the F r e n c h s c h o o l s i n i t i a l l y .  The language o f i n s t r u c -  t i o n was F r e n c h t o the e x c l u s i o n o f S p a n i s h .  1  A l t h o u g h the^  A l l i a n c e p r o v i d e d a much needed s t i m u l u s t o the o v e r a l l tion,  i t a l s o h a s t e n e d the d e c l i n e o f Judeo-Spanish by e s t a b l i s h -  i n g drench as the new language i d e a l . ment  educa-  C o n c e r n i n g the e s t a b l i s h -  o f these s c h o o l s , Renard s a ^ s , b u t w i t h o u t acknowledging the  omission of Spanish,  ; ,  I I ne f a l l u t pas a t t e n d r e longtemps  pour  que l a langue f r a n c a i s e d e v i n t c e l l e de 1 ' e l i t e e t pour que l e  "  2  giuJ.desmo' f u t r e l e g u e . a u r a n g de p a t o i s v u l g a i r e e t commun. Under these c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s . i n e v i t a b l e t h a t Judeo-Spanish s h o u l d add y e t another n o n - I b e r i a n element t o the l e x i c o n , F r e n c h .  The .  i n f l u e n c e , o f F r e n c h seems t o have been i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y .  The  number o f F r e n c h l e x i c a l elements observed i n the i n f o r m a n t ' s • speech i s f a r g r e a t e r than t h e number o f T u r k i s h l o a n s , and i s second o n l y t o the number o f I t a l i a n l o a n s found i n t h i s c o r p u s . While t h e corpus does n o t r e p r e s e n t the e n t i r e  Judeo-Spanish  v o c a b u l a r y o f the speaker, i t p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n s the more common elements o f the i n f o r m a n t ' s l e x i c o n and, as such, t h i s change i n dominating i n f l u e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t .  H i t h e r t o , T u r k i s h has been  the most prominant f a c t o r i n the borrowed p o r t i o n o f the Judeo-Spanish "^J. p R. du P-  M a i r , Hispanismo de l o s s e f a r d i e s l e v a n t i n o s , p. I b 5 . Renard, " L ' i n f l u e n c e . d u f r a n c a i s s u r l e judeo-espagnol Levant", Revue des langues v i v a n t e s , v o l . 27, I , 1961,  k9.  k8.  vocabulary,  at l e a s t i n the B a l k a n s .  At present, both I t a l i a n  1  French loans, c o n s i d e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , ments i n the .informant's speech first  p l a c e i n t h i s corpus,  influence, f o r this  outweigh  the T u r k i s h e l e -  and although I t a l i a n loans  they are not as important'as  influence  the French  I believe  that t h i s  shift in  i n f l u e n c e from T u r k i s h to French i s a change t h a t probably  ground  dialects,  In a d d i t i o n , formant,  widespread  has  f o r , u n l i k e the I t a l i a n back-  which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d p e c u l i a r to t h i s speaker,  s t r u c t i o n of French was  occupy  can be seen not only in''the l o a n words  and caiques but a l s o i n the syntax.  a f f e c t e d a l l Judeo-Spanish  and  the i n -  among the Sephardim.  the B e i r u t d i a l e c t ,  as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h i s i n -  i s a s m a l l and very r e c e n t d i a l e c t community of d i v e r s e 2  B a l k a n , o r i g i n s a c c o r d i n g to Wagner, it  and as such, one  to be f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a Balkan k o i n e .  some degree how Kraus notes  To i n d i c a t e to  e x t e n s i v e r e c e n t French i n f l u e n c e s have been,  Karl  that the p r e s e n t day w r i t t e n s t y l e of s e f a r d i newspapers  i n I s r a e l i s more French than S p a n i s h . this  could expect  S y n t a c t i c a l i n f l u e n c e upon  sample of B e i r u t d i a l e c t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the chapter on  morphology and  syntax.  The m a j o r i t y of French loans have been a s s i m i l a t e d to the JudeoSpanish phonetic and m o r p h o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n , f o r example orozo  'happy'  i s d e r i v e d from French heureux. but there are a l s o a few unadapted ones "'"Wagner, C a r a c t e r e s  T  p.  kO.  ^Wagner, "Los j u d i o s de Levante", Romane. V o l . I, 1909, p. k 7 9 . J  K. Kraus, p. 267.  "Judeo-Spanish  Revue de D i a l e c t o l o g i e  i n I s r a e l / H i s p a n i a . 3k,  19i?l,  1+9. which r e t a i n the French n a s a l s , as I have mentioned G e n e r a l l y French verbs of the f i r s t l a t e d to the Spanish f i r s t speakers  seems to be the o n l y " l i v i n g  1 1  in  conjugations but "because i t  c o n j u g a t i o n as i t is. i n . Modern  Moreover, verbs of o t h e r sources are u s u a l l y  i n t o the-ar c o n j u g a t i o n as w e l l , sik  c o n j u g a t i o n are a s s i m i -  conjugation, not because most s e f a r d i  are aware of Judeo-Spanish  Spanish.  l e 'ar se  'to be bored'.  na  taken  f o r example, T u r k i s h s i k i l m e k  There are two exceptions, found  t h i s corpus where French demenager gives  de me  earlier.  Judeo-Spanish,  'ger 'to move house', and French demander becomes Judeo-  Spanish de man  'der.  The i n t r u s i v e  ' i ' of con dw i ' z i r seems to  come from the. i n f l u e n c e of French c o n d u i r e . It  i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t  to s t a t e w i t h c e r t a i n t y whether  some words have been taken from French.or E n g l i s h i n those cases i n which the l o a n word has been adapted p h o n e t i c a l l y and morphologically  to the Judeo-Spanish  p o s s i b l e etymons are s i m i l a r . Monastir d i a l e c t ,  1  p a t t e r n and inhere, of course,  Words which are a l s o found i n the  which has had no c o n t a c t w i t h E n g l i s h ,  assumed to be of French o r i g i n .  two  can be  Those words which f i n d no c o r r o b  o r a t i o n i n the l a t t e r or i n other s t u d i e s are kon'ser to 'concert 'f i l mo  ' film , 1  ' s i ne ma  'movies',  and de s i ' dar  have i n c l u d e d as G a l l i c i s m s some words which might  ' to d e c i d e ' . a l s o be  con-  s i d e r e d A n g l i c i s m s and have i n d i c a t e d t h a t they are d o u b t f u l on grounds that the informant was  always  aware of u s i n g an E n g l i s h  l o a n and i d e n t i f i e d the E n g l i s h l o a n words which the f a m i l y had used i n New  Luria,  York.  "Monastir .Dialect", p. Sk-7 •  I  50.  A s i m i l a r problem a 'men  da ' f i n e ' , and b l u ' b l u e ' which may  I t a l i a n source. Luria,  occurs w i t h a vo 'ka t o  'lawyer',  be of F r e n c h o r  These words are l i s t e d as I t a l i a n i s m s  by  a l t h o u g h he does so w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i a t i n g h i s d e c i s i o n .  1  In t h i s p r e s e n t study they have been a r b i t r a r i l y p l a c e d under. I t a l i a n loans but are marked as d o u b t f u l . Gallicisms: Subs t a n t i v e s Judeo-Spanish  French  a 'dre so  adresse o r p o s s i b l y Anglicism.  'address'  a so t i 'yo  'sample  bu l e 'var es  1  'boulevards'  bu to ' g o a l '  kon  an  echantillon. b o u l e v a r d . The Judeo-Spanish word i s p r o b a b l y a d i r e c t l o a n . from F r e n c h . I t i s a recent French l o a n i n standard Spanish. but  'ser t o ' c o n c e r t '  e ' l e vo  sources  'student'  c o n c e r t o r p o s s i b l y an Anglicism. eleve. estudiantes, studentes, and alumnos are a l s o used by the i n f o r m a n t .  ' f i l mo  'film'  f i l m o r p o s s i b l y an A n g l i c i s m .  ga  'cake'  gateau. An i n i t i a l v e l a r would be normal i n s t e a d o f C g l  ' tc  'lam pa '1amp'  lampe. o r p o s s i b l y an A n g l i c i s m .  mus  mouchoir  pal  1  wa  'handkerchief  'to 'overcoat'  pa r a • p i u ' i  1  Luria,  'umbrella'  " M o n a s t i r D i a l e c t " , p.  p a l e t o t . . c f . a l s o Tk. l o a n s . parapluie  5h7.  5 1 .  ) 1  p r u na 'plum'  prune. Tk. loans-words are u s u a l l y used i n o t h e r JudeoSpanish dialects..  '. s'ysk l o  siecle  ' s i ne ma  'century' 'cinema'  cinema  so ko ' l a ' c h o c o l a t e '  chocolat  va  k s n sa ' v a c a t i o n '  vacances  'md d.3 ' f e r ' r a i l w a y '  chemin de f e r  sa  1  Verbs . a r e ' t a r 'to s t o p '  arreter  kon  t h r o u g h the i n f l u e n c e o f conduire. C f . S p a n i s h conduc i r  dwi z i r to d r i v e ' 1  1  de me na ' z e r 'to move house'  demenager  de man 'der 'to ask' ( S p a n i s h p e d i r and p r e g u n t a r )  demander  de s i 'dar 'decide'  d e c i d e r o r p o s s i b l y an A n g l i c i s m .  en do ma ' z a r 'to damage'  endommager  pro te ' z a r 'to p r o t e c t and pro te za 'dor ' p r o t e c t o r '  proteger  re gre ' t a r 'to be s o r r y , and r e g r e t o  regretter. dialect"  1  regret'  Cf. "Monastir  Adj e c t i v e s o 'ro zo, -a 'happy'  heureux  se r i 'o zo, -a ' s e r i o u s '  s e r i e u x , b u t Spanish, P o r t u guese, and I t a l i a n , , s e r i o . Also p o s s i b l y an A n g l i c i s m .  Caiques 'to dos dos 'both'  tous deux  l a mas par- te 'most, the majority'  l a p l u p a r t (du temps) as i n the expressions: Judeo-Spanish l a mas 'par te d e l t'l tyem po and l_a mas 'par te de la 'dzen t e .  1  .  52.  de 'to do '(not) a t a l l '  du t o u t  Other par  'sa s ' f o r t u n a t e l y  parchance  mer  ' s i 'thank-you  merci. The informant t e l l s me that "grasias' i s never used,, but he has o b v i o u s l y heard i t somevh e r e . 1  Kalmi "Baruch who notes i n the Judeo-Spanish  t h a t I t a l i a n i s an important  element  of Bosnia, b e l i e v e s that the seventeen  words found i n h i s d i a l e c t were i n t r o d u c e d l o n g ago because of business a s s o c i a t i o n s with Venice which l a s t e d u n t i l the beginning of the n i n e t e e n t h century,  t h a t these  I t a l i a n i s m s were i n general  use among a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s (as opposed to the French elements vh i c h are c o n f i n e d to the well-educated), q u e s t i o n of present-day  and t h a t there i s no  influence.^" Of those words l i s t e d by  Baruch, only three are p r e s e n t i n the informant's l a vo ' r a r 'to work', (lavorar,  spagu. dunki,  'spa p;o ' s t r i n g ' ,  vocabulary:  and ' dun :kwe  '-then'  i n Bosnia) so t h a t these words may be  considered the o l d e r I t a l i a n elements g e n e r a l l y c u r r e n t i n most Judeo-Spanish  dialects.  l i a n words i n t h i s corpus  Probably then,  the m a j o r i t y of the I t a -  are r e c e n t l o a n s .  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to  a s c e r t a i n i f u n a s s i m i l a t e d loans such as i n d i v i p e r so ns l i ' t a , and sen s i t i v i 'ta form  dwa l i  'ta,  the more r e c e n t core  of these loans while empiegado 'employee' i s o l d e r - (?) s i n c e , as we have seen,  un'adapted loans of a p p a r e n t l y l o n g s t a n d i n g may e x i s  i n other areas of the v o c a b u l a r y .  However, the m a j o r i t y of words  Kalmi Baruch, '*S1 judeo-espanol 1930, p. 120. !  de Bosnia",  RFk,  XVII,  5 "3 i n the informant's speech i n the f o l l o w i n g l i s t must be recent to Judeo-Spanish  fairly  by reason of t h e i r predominance, f o r  so l a r g e a number of I t a l i a n i s m s has not been found i n other dialects. I t a l i a n Loans JudeorSpanish  Italian  Substantives: a 'men  da  'fine'  ammenda c f . French amende. Old Spanish enmienda (MeyerLiibke). Mult a i s a l s o known.  'an dze l o 'angel'  angelo  'a r a bo 'Arabic language and n a t i o n a l i t y '  arabo  a vo  avvocato c f . French  bi  'ka to  'Xe  to  'bos ko  'do no du  (per) dza  'ticket'  'forest'  e 'zem  dozzina  'employee pyo  l i 'ta 'indiv-  i s t r a 'he ro. 'stranger', 'foreigner' 'ka me  r a 'room'  impiegato  ' ( f o r ) example esempio  'ke ta 'jacket'  i n d i v i dwa iduality  b i g l i e t t o . Only i n f o r e i g n loans does t h i s /\ occur.  dono  'dozen'  'ga do  avocat  I t a l i a n bosco: Judeo-Spanish does not show the u s u a l change of / s / to / s / before /k/. sara. and l a s cadas ' f o r e s t ' are more f r e q u e n t l y used.  'gift'  ' z i na  em pye  'lawyer'  (dz u n a s s i m i l a t e d )  giacchetta individualita* Italia n straniero I t a l i a n camera: Judeo-Spanish camareta a l s o from I t a l i a n came r e t t a 'small room' i s a synonym alongwith the most f r e q u e n t l y used uda. The 'a' of  5U-.  t h e f o r m e r may p e r h a p s be to c o n f u s i o n w i t h 'carna' kra  'va ta  'ko l a r ko  'ra  'necktie'  cravatta c f . French cravate. E a r l y commercial r e l a t i o n s w i t h V e n i c e u n t i l the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y may have b r o u g h t t h i s word i n t o J u d e o - S p a n i s h .  'neck' ze  ' n o no 'no na  c o l l o (?) perhaps a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by S p a n i s h c o l l a r .  'cheek,  impudence'  'grandfather' 'grandmother'  or  ' l o zio  pa  'ez  pa  'ke  due  I t a l i a n coraggio 'courage, bravery, ( f i g . ) effrontery' c f . French courage. nonno. - a c f . Gk.  'watch'  orologio p a e s e i>e u n d e r s t r e s s i n t h i s d i a l e c t w o u l d n o t be a n o r m a l development although s / z v a c i l late. C_f. S p . p a i s .  to  'package,  parcel'  pacchetto  pe ' k a do ' p i t y , s i n ' (que peKado ' w h a t a p i t y ' )  a caique on peccatoI  pen  'se  pensiero: J u d e o - S p a n i s h word has undergone metathesis.  per  so n a l i ' t a .  'pos  ta  'pran  ri o  'post  zo  ' p r o n to (estar) 1  pul  se  'thought'  so  'personality'  office'  p e r s o n a l i t a . cf. Judeo-Spanish: individualita, senitivita, a l l without a s s i m i l a t i o n to Spanish -dad n o u n t e r m i n a t i o n . pos t a  cf.  French  'banquet'  pranzo  'dinner'  'ready'  pronto,  cf.  'wrist  ' l a ta  sal  'si  ca  sar  'de  las  1  'salad'  p u l so insalata salsiccia  'sardines'  Cat.  sardella  but  cf.  also Tk.  salats.  55.  sen s i t i v i 'ta  'sensitivity  sensitivita  so 're zo 'smile '  sorriso  'spa go  'string'  spago  'tre no  'train'  treno  «va ' l i za ver  'gwe  'suitcase'  also  Portuguese  valigia  ha 'shame'  p o s s i b l y I t a l i a n vergogna i n f l u e n c i n g Spanish verguenza.  Adjectives; blu  'blue'  di  ' f i c i le  I t a l i a n b l u (?) c f . F r e n c h b l e u 'difficult'  'fa c i l e 'easy' 'f'/Q ro 'haughty, 'dzus  to  facile Another Judeo-Spanish synonym i s f a ' s i l proud'  'just'  li  be ro  f iero giusto  ka 'pa ce 'capable ' 1  difficile  capace  'free'  libero  Verbs: a ve  ' n i r 'to happen  dzu ' .^ar  gri  avveni re  1  'to joke, p l a y  1  ' t a r 'to s c o l d '  caiques I t a l i a n s g r i d a r e  l a vo ' r a r ' to v;ork' and l a 'vo ro ( s u b s t a n t i v e )  pro f i ' r a r 'to p r o f i t ' and 'pro f i to (substantive) ru v i 'nar 'to r u i n ,  Old Spanish jugar vd t h JudeoSpanish dz through i n f l u e n c e of I t a l i a n giocare.  spoil'  'scold '  lavorare I t appears that Old S p a n i s h t r a ba 'zar does e x i s t i n Judeo-Spanish, but has a c q u i r e d an ooscene meaning. profittare rovinare  and  profitto  56.  Other a l o 'mari ko 'at l e a s t '  a l manco. A l s o Judeo-Spanish synonym a l 'mi ni' mo calqued on Italian.  sen ' t i r 'to hear, l i s t e n ' (never 'sorry')  t h i s Judeo-Spanish narrowing of meaning may have been i n f l u e n c e d by I t a l i a n s e n t i r e .  Portuguese loans Portuguese l o a n words were probably absorbed by the JudeoSpanish d i a l e c t s at an e a r l y date s i n c e there has been presumably very l i t t l e  c o n t a c t w i t h Portuguese s i n c e the l a r g e Sephardic  s e t t l e m e n t of 11+92.  Most of the Portuguese a r r i v e d i n Turkey  and the east about the same time as the Spanish at the i n v i t a t i o n of the S u l t a n of Turkey, while the Spanish Jews who  sought  asylum  i n P o r t u g a l f o l l o w i n g the E x p u l s i o n E d i c t went, f o r the most p a r t , along w i t h the Portuguese Jews to Amsterdam when they were e x p e l l e d from P o r t u g a l i n 1 L 9 6 .  1  The Portuguese Jews formed a p a r t o f the  Sephardic c o l o n i e s i n the Levant, q u i c k l y g i v i n g up the Portuguese 2  language  i n f a v o u r of Spanish,  but l e a v i n g a l e g a c y of a few words.  Most of the ones l i s t e d below from tne informant's speech, can a l s o be observed i n o t h e r Sephardic d i a l e c t s . Judeo-Spanish  Portuguese  a • i n da 'yet' or ' s t i l l '  ainda  a l f i 'ne te 'pin'  alfinete  a ma  calqued on amanha. i s a synonym.  1  'fia na  'tomorrow'  H/agner, Gharacteres, p. 12. 2  lbid.  un 'o tro 'di a  57.  'bi  r a 'anser'  embirra  kon  ' t e n t e 'happy'  contents but Spanish contento.  'obstinacy,  tiff  'ko po ' g l a s s ' o r 'cup'  copo ' g l a s s ' . The Judeo- S p a n i s h meaning i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d to a s p e c i a l kind of g l a s s as S p a n i s h copq. Tk. f i l ' d z a n i s a c o f f e e cup. There may a l s o be some E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e when 'ko po means 'cup'.  '.kri za ' c r i s i s '  crise  dzur ' n a l 'newspaper'  Portuguese j o r n a l . C f . French j o u r n a l . This word poses a p r o blem s i n c e i t c o u l d a l s o be an Old S p a n i s h word j o r n a l , as c i t e d by Valdes x^ho s a i d i t had been borrowed from I t a l i a n . V a c i l l a t i o n between o and u i s common and i s n o t a d e c i s i v e factor.  'pre to 'black'  p r e t o . Judeo-Spanish ne grb ' e v i l ' . . The meaning o f ' e v i l ' a s s i g n e d t o t h i s word i s a caique on Tk. Kdtu 'black e v i l ' . ' I t i s also possible. that 'pre t o i s from O l d S p a n i s h p r i e t o s i n c e there i s some variant diphthongization i n Judeo-Spanish.  •Ion ze ' f a r '  longe  1  1  (also  Aragonese).  Anglicisms E n g l i s h l o a n s are the most r e c e n t o f a l l , and can, ' d o u b t l e s s l y , be a s s i g n e d to t h e time w h i c h the i n f o r m a n t spent i n New York city.  They may w e l l be c u r r e n t among-the v a r i o u s S e p h a r d i c  l e c t s o f New York c i t y now.  dia-  The i n f o r m a n t was t h e r e f o r f o u r y e a r s  These l o a n s may have been taken from S e p h a r d i c Jews o f l o n g e r r e s i d e n c e t h e r e s i n c e almost a l l have been a s s i m i l a t e d t o S p a n i s h patterns. ' L u r i a , "Monastir',' p. 5Ldi.  58.  Judeo-Spanish 1  fin polish  ka ro ' c a r '  li  car  bre ' r i . a l i b r a r y , 1  bookstore  library  si t i 'zin 'citizen' fur n i *tu ra  citizen  'furniture  1  furniture. Judeo-Spanish mo ' b i Xa and. 'mo b i l e were a l s o used. The i n f o r m a n t v o l u n t e e r e d the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i n New York they d i d use f u r n i ' t u r a which s u p p l a n t e d the o t h e r two.  gro se ' r i as ' g r o c e r i e s '  g r o c e r i e s , . a p p a r e n t l y common i n o t h e r American S p a n i s h d i a lects.  park  park  'park'  'par t i ' p a r t y '  party  re a 1 i ' z a r ' r e a l i z e '  realize  sto  'par 'to s t o p '  s t o p . Another word w h i c h the informant r e c a l l s l e a r n i n g i n New Y o r k .  suk  'ses 'success'  success  ' t r o ko ' t r u c k '  truck  Caique to  'mar 'to take  Itime)'  take t i m e . T h i s may have been o n l y a momentary t r a n s f e r e n c e s i n c e the i n f o r m a n t on two o t h e r o c c a s i o n s uses du ' r a r . Old  Spanish  The f o l l o w i n g O l d S p a n i s h words no l o n g e r c u r r e n t i n the v o c a b u l a r y o f Standard S p a n i s h have been found i n the i n f o r m a n t ' s speech.  Words have been v e r i f i e d  mologico u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d .  i n Corominas' D i c c i o n a r i o e t i -  59.  Judeo-Spanish  Old  a do  Old S p a n i s h a d o b a r ' a r r e g l a r , a d o r n a r ' . Corominas documents toward l l h O . Old French adober 'armar c a b a l l e r o '  'var 'to f i x , r e p a i r '  a d i 'lan tre ' i n front  of  a f e ' r a r 'to c a t c h '  'a ^ r o ' b i t t e r '  (also a  Spanish  Corominas c i t e s d e l a n t r e w h i c h occurs i n Old Leonese. The p r e f i x change i s p r o b a b l y due to S p a n i s h ad s i antq, 1 2 5 0 . Old S p a n i s h a f e r r a r , (a n a u t i - • c a l term.Spanish c o g e r , i s n o t known.)  'mar-  £9J  Corominas g i v e s a g r i o , perhaps at the b e g i n n i n g of the S i x t e e n t h Century. agro, 1 2 5 l , normal u n t i l the Seventeenth Century.  a har 'var 'to b e a t '  (see Hebrew l o a n s . ) a l r e a d y used i n Old p e n i n s u l a r JudeoS p a n i s h har-bar 'hacer a l g o de p r i s a ' Date 1500, as g i v e n by Corominas s h o u l d be e a r l i e r .  a 'hora  agora, 1 1 0 7 : ahora, Mod. a ( h ) o r a ;  al  'ku na  a 'lo ra  'now'  1335,  'family'  r e l a t e d to Spanish a l c u r n i a , 160k. Old S p a n i s h a l c u h i a at beginning of F i f t h t e e n t h C e n t u r y . A r . kunya 'name'.  'now'  C i d . 1. allora,  357-  alora cf. Italian  a ma ' t a r 'to e x t i n g u i s h , put out (a l i g h t , lamp, o r f i r e )  Corominas c i t e s Old S p a n i s h , Por guese matar o fogo, i n C a s t , i n the M i d d l e Ages i t was f r e quent .  am b i z a r 'to l e a r n ' am v± z a r se 'to be accustomed'  Old S p a n i s h v e z a r a c c o r d i n g to V a l d e s , p. 1 2 3 ''Dicese e n t r e gente. baxa ve zo, por cos turabre ' ... es b i e n verdad que c a s i siempre ve zo se toma en mala p a r t e , aunque do ve zo hazemos ve z a r por 'ensenar. cf. a v e z a r . Judeo-Spanish a s i h a r 'to t e a c h ' .  1  1  1  1  60.  an  ' s i , an  ' s i na  'so, t h u s '  Old S p a n i s h a n s i , ' a c c o r d i n g t o V a l d e s , p . 814.. M a r c i o : "Adonde vos e s c r i v i s e s t o n c e s , as s i , y desde, o t r o s e s c r i v e n e n t o n c e s , ans1, y.dende, mudando l a ' s ' en n ' . Valdes: ...en l o s v o c a b l o s que aveis. d i c h o s t a m e j o r l a ' s " "' que l a 'n' . . . C f . i s to nee s f f . !  a r o n ' g a r ' t o throw'  O l d A r a g . a r r o n g a r Corominas f i n d s the v a r i a n t a r r o n j a r , u s e d b y S a n c h e z de B a d a j o z , and Mateo Aleman.  a s e n ' t a r ' t o s i t down'  Corominas g i v e s S p a n i s h s e n t a r F o u r t e e n t h Century but r a r e unt i l S i x t e e n t h Century. The o n l y o l d form i s the t r a n s i t i v e a s e n t a r .  as pe ' rs.r ' t o w a i t ' ^ e s p e r a r ' t o hope')  Corominas n o t e s t h a t the v a r i a n t a s p e r a r was w i d e - s p r e a d i n D i d C a s t i l i a i i n t h e sense o f ' w a i t ' w h i l e V a l d e s c o m p l a i n s \p. 8 6 . ; t h a t -few p e o p l e m a i n t a i n t h i s d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a s p e r a r and esperar.  la  g e n d e r was f e m i n i n e i n O l d S p a n i s h c f . Modern S p a n i s h e l a z u c a r b u t a l s o a z u c a r morena.  {a/  a 'su k a r ' s u g a r '  t o r 'nar 'to r e t u r n '  a v a ga 'ro zo  ban  be  bu  'slow'  ' t s l 'apron'  .1 vy en da  ' t i ca  'drink'  'store'  • b i v da 'widow'  Old  Spanish tornar  v a g a r o s o 'desocupado, d e s c u i d a d o , perezoso', a n t i g u o . C f . Portuguese devagar 'slow' Old S p a n i s h a v a n t a l c u r r e n t u n t i l the Seventeenth Century. Old S p a n i s h bebienda S i x t e e n t h Century b u t i t s appearance i n J u d e o - S p a n i s h i n d i c a t e s an e a r l i e r date. Old S p a n i s h b o t i c a , 1251, i n t h e s e n s e o f 'shop', i s f r o m B i z a n t i n e G-k. a p o t h i k i . The - synonym bodega • a l s o . i s u s e d by the' i n f o r m a n t Old S p a n i s h l a b i o - d e n t a l c o n t i nuant v e v e n t u a l l y v o c a l i z e d t o u g i v i n g v i u d a Modern S p a n i s h .  61.  'dev da ' d e b t duv 1  1  'Old S p a n i s h devda  ' dar . 'to doubt'  Old S p a n i s h dubdar  e So ' b u s i n e s s '  em pre  'star  'to l e n d  en ca r i . ' n a r one  Old S p a n i s h hecha had the same sense. Modern S p a n i s h - n e g o c i o 1  'to miss some-  Corominas g i v e s Old S p a n i s h d e p r e s t a r , but Valdes mentions v u l g a r emprestar, (p. 101) "Tengo por g r o s s e r o e l e n p r e s t a r . " Corominas g i v e s e s c a r i n o from c a r i n o p r o b a b l y from d i a l e c t a l • c a r i n a r 'echar de menos', now o n l y A r a g . but b e f o r e g e n e r a l , from L a t i n c a r e r e .  en f a s •• '.ty a r ' to annoy, b o t h e r ' (someone)  Corominas under h a s t i o says, "...antes e n h a s t i a r e n f a s t i a r . f a s t i d i a r d u p l i c a d o c u l t o , ' IJ4.63, con e l m a t i z moderno de i m p o r t u nar, moles t a r es r a r i s i m o en e l s i g l o de o r o . " But i t does o c c u r i n t h i s sense i n Judeo-Spanish c f . the form e n f a s i a r from I s t a n b u l .  en g l u ' t i r  Corominas g i v e s Modern S p a n i s h e n g u l l i r f r o m * - i n g l u t t i r e . Old S p a n i s h e n g l u t i r . T h i s |orm appears i n I s t a n b u l as e n g r u t i r .  'to s w a l l o w '  ( l a ) f i n 'the end'  Corominas c i t e s f i n w i t h f e m i n i n e gender as f r e q u e n t i n the M i d d l e Ages.  fra  Corominas d e r i v e s f r a g u a r , T h i r t e e n t h Century from L a t i n f a b r i c a r i 'to shape'.  'gwar 'to b u i l d '  dz i 'no yo . •knee'  Old Arag. Hanssen g i v e s the form g e n o y l l o s #67.  ha ' z i no  Corominas g i v e s h a c i n o from A r . h a z i n about II4.OO w i t h the meaning ' sad, wretched' .  'sick'  -'•Wagner, B e i t r a g e ' z u r K e n n t n i s ...Konstantinopel, 2  Ibid.  #170.  62.  is  'ton ses  i s pan  'then  estonces i s common i n Old Spanish t e x t s .  1  ' t e r se 'to be  afraid'  ka ' l e r 'to be n e c e s s a r y  'kan so  'tired'  'kas k a  'rind'  'ka va  1  Old S p a n i s h  espander  o c c u r r i n g o n l y i n the i m p e r s o n a l form k a l e ' i t i s n e c e s s a r y . Old S p a n i s h c f . Arag. and Cat. a c c o r d i n g to Corominas Old d i a l e c t a l Spanish.  (of f r u i t )  'cave'  and  under S p a n i s h c a s c a r a , Corominas says "Tambie'n se oye y se d i c e d i a l e c t a l m e n t e cas ca ." JudeoS p a n i s h o c c a s i o n a l l y changes / s / to /§/ f r e q u e n t l y b e f o r e /k/. Corominas a t t e s t s cava w i t h t h i s meaning about 1275.  ka ve ' z a l ' p i l l o w , c u s h i o n '  Old S p a n i s h c a b e z a l  ke  s e m a n t i c a l l y equal t o JudeoS p a n i s h amor. Corominas g i v e s q u e r e n c i a " a n t i c , c a r i n o ...por •. amor."  'r-en sya  'love' 4  l a ko ' l o r ' c o l o u r '  The f e m i n i n e gender i s Old S p a n i s h usage.  'kov do  The v x^as s t i l l u s u a l i n Valdes ' time, p. 69 "cobdo, dubda...mejor es con l a b que s i n e l l a , y porque t o da; mi v i d a l o s he e s c r i t o y p r o hunciado con b."  'elbow  1  'kwe ro ' s k i n (of a p e r s o n o r animal;  Old Spanish-'the meaning ' p i e l hombre o de a n i m a l e s . 1250. a l s o Golden Age usage.  kul  Corominas g i v e s culpado as the o l d e r form of Modern c u l p a b l e , but the Academy d i c t i o n a r y c i t e s c u l p o s o as Old S p a n i s h i n - the sense "que ha cometido c u l p a " .  la  'oo zo  'guilty'  'drar •' to work h a r d '  l e ' s i va t r a n s l a t e d by the. i n f o r m a n t as '''laundry water"  1  de Cf.  Old S p a n i s h ( g r i t a r i s 'to bark" in this dialect.; Corominas f i n d s Modern S p a n i s h 1 e j i a from L a t i n aqua l i x i v a , O l d e r S p a n i s h lex'ia g e n e r a l l y used i n a l l ages except .Portuguese which  63.  uses l i x i v i a , Cat. l l e i x i u , and Old Arag. l e s i b a . p r o b a b l y the l a t t e r form has g i v e n Judeo-Spanish word. le  1  s u r a 'great d i s t a n c e '  'le.t^a 'letter', (i.e. communication)  written  Old S p a n i s h l e j u r a ( l e j a n i a ) (Academy D i c t i o n a r y ) 1  A c c o r d i n g to Corominas, t h i s was the Old Spanish sense. In V a l d e s ' time both were known a p p a r e n t l y but he p r e f e r s le t r a c a r t a , p. lk.9.  to  I o n *gu r a ' l e n g t h '  Old S p a n i s h l o n g u r a ( ' l o n g i t u d ' ) (Academy D i c t i o n a r y ) .  'lwen go ' l o n g  Valdes p r e f e r r e d the usage of luengo t o l a r g o a l t h o u g h luengo was even then becoming a n t i q u a t e d "aunque l o usan pocos." p. I I S .  1  ma ' l a do ' s i c k ' and ma l a ' t i a ' s i c k n e s s '  Valdes g i v e s m a l a t i a as an o l d Gk. l o a n i n S p a n i s h w i t h t h i s meaning ' m a l a t i a por enfermedad' p. _2]x. (Cf. a l s o I t a l i a n m a l a t o )  ma ne  Corominas under menear c i t e s Old S p a n i s h manear about IkOO, i n the sense 'manejar' 1220-50, d e r i v , de mano; a l t e r a d o b a j o e l i n f l u j o d e l c a t . y oc. menar 'conducir, mover' que de a h i paso a l c a s t . , y se h a l l a en l a Edad Media."  ' a r '-to move'  1  1  'ma na 'manner'  Corominas g i v e s mafia and. says i t became a manera i n the M i d d l e p. 96,- says b o t h are manera i s a l s o known mant.  man  Academy D i c t i o n a r y g i v e s as Old S p a n i s h i n the sense ' f a l t a r '  'kar 'to need, l a c k '  Cf.  as Old Cast, synonym of Ages. Valdes, the same. to the i n f o r -  C i d 1.3312  mer  'kar 'to buy  By V a l d e s ' time merkar was s t i l l the p r e f e r r e d usage. "Antes d i g o me r e a r que comprar." p. li-i-9.  man man  'se bo '.se ba  Old S p a n i s h manceba about 1330, pasando por muchacha.' There i s none of the p r e s e n t day connotat i o n of 'concubine i n Judeo-Spanish a l t h o u g h t h i s meaning i s g i v e n by  'young man' and 'young g i r l '  ;i  !  1  61+.  Corominas 1155, and was a l s o known by V a l d e s , p. 135, De mancebo hazemos tambien manceba, que q u i e r e d e c i r moca y .quiere d e z i r concubina.' :l  1  me  'ta 'half  'mez mo  'same,  A c c o r d i n g t o Corominas meetad, metad, were O l d C a s t , and Leon. \n i l e ' t h e A r a g . form was m i t a d . F i n a l d was p r o b a b l y l o s t i n S p a i n s i n c e i t i s n o t the tendency of t h i s d i a l e c t t o drop • d ( c f . I t . m e t a self  Old  man 'gra na 'pomegranate'  S p a n i s h me  (e) smo  T h i s seems t o be a v a r i a t i o n o f Old S p a n i s h m i n g l a n a . The r o f man 'gra na may be due to the i n f l u e n c e o f granada o r t o I t a l i a n mei agr ana • Minglana. was a r c h a i c by Valdes ' time ! "minglana p o r granadaya no se u s a . " p. i l ? . -  mi zu ' r a r 'to measure, t o tailor'  Old  S p a n i s h mesurar..  'ka za de mi 'su r a ' t a i l o r ' shop 1  na mu  ' r a r 'to f a l l i n l o v e '  Old S p a n i s h ( a c c o r d i n g t o the Academy D i c t i o n a r y . ) C f . P o r t u guese.  ;'nyer" vo 'nerve'  Corominas says thai; t h i s O l d S p a n i s h form i s s t i l l used i n Arag. speech. A r a g . may be the sourse of Judeo-Spanish wo r d • s i n c e n e r v i o i s documented as e a r l y as 1251.  'on de 'where'  Old  o 'ga no ' t h i s y e a r pla  Valdes a l s o used the form ogano. (p. 183.)  1  ' z e r 'to be p l e a s i n g ,  Spanish  like'  Old S p a n i s h p l a c e r w h i c h g u s t a r r e p l a c e s a f t e r 1^99.  'pres t o ' e a r l y '  Old S p a n i s h i n the s i g n i f i c a t i o n of ' e a r l y ' and known to V a l d e s , (p. 150) "Antes d i g o p r e s t o que aina.'''  'pun t o 'minute'  punto i n Judeo-Spanish r e p l a c e s minuto o r momento i n Spanish. I t  65.  may r e p r e s e n t an undocumented usage o f O l d S p a n i s h s i n c e i t seems t o be a d i r e c t d e v e l o p ment o f L a t i n punctum temporis a minute'. 1  . ''sye dro ' l e f t '  A development o f Old S p a n i s h s i n i e s t r o (?) o r perhaps by. analogy w i t h O l d S p a n i s h r i e d r o 'back'. (Cf. Me.yer-Lubke v/72o9. )  siv  Old S p a n i s h c i b d a d  'dad ' c i t y '  'skur to ' s h o r t '  Corominas c i t e s Old Leon, and Portuguese c u r t o . . / s / m a y become / s / i n t h i s d i a l e c t b e f o r e /k/. /k/ becomes / s k / perhaps by anal o g y to o t h e r forms a l r e a d y ci ted. Cf. Rum. s c u r t , Old I t a l i a n scortare e t c .  so 'lorn b r a 'shade'  O l d S p a n i s h and Old Leon.  t i . ''nye-< bras  Old Spanish t i n i e b r a s . This i s f e l t t o be a l e a r n e d word by the i n f o r m a n t who a l s o uses 1 as os kur a s . Wagner f i n d s t i n i e f l a s i n the Balkans and I s t a n b u l . 1  'dark'  1  'wez mo ' s m e l l ' and uz 'mar 'to s m e l l '  1  wer ko ' d e v i l  ven  ' d i da 'sale '  ' v i dro ' g l a s s '  Old' S p a n i s h usmar, osmar, .Lapesa i m p l i e s t h a t giiesmo i s the g e n e r a l Judeo-Spanish form. Baruch f i n d s B o s n i a n guz mer.3 O l d C a s t , huerco from orcus 'Pluto'. One o l d v a r i a n t o f v e n t a was vendida. Old Spanish y i d r o  wagner, Judensp.von K o n s t a n t i n o p e l , p.99. 2  Laposa,  H i s t o r i a de l a l e n g u a e s p a n o l a , p. 338.  3Baruch, "SI j u d e o - e s p a n o l de B o s n i a " , R. F. F. X V I I , 1930, P..137.  vi vi  z i 'tar 'to v i s i t z i ta 'a v i s i t '  and  1  T h i s w o r d was a p p a r e n t l y known i n Old S p a n i s h as^an a l t e r n a t i v e to v i s i t a r . V a l d e s , p . 77, " . . . y q u a l os c o n t e n t a . m a s , excriv'er vigitar o visitar... "  1  :  Other F a c t o r s Numerous o t h e r variant  Affecting  factors  the  s u c h as m e t a t h e s e s ,  d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n from the  standard  n a r r o w i n g and e x p a n s i o n , - new f o r m a t i o n s , impoverishment of c e r t a i n l e x i c a l vocabulary of  'drar  se  (verde);  pe  ' go d r o  'fat'  'at  a l o n g wi t h  are  'to  'drer  nightfall  frequently  where are  there  is  enjugar)  o f the  k o d ' re r o  ' pov are  quite  -rd-to  in  and the  - d r - v a r i e t y such  'so dro  ''lamb'  've.d r e  'deaf  toilet,  a tor  on s h o e s ' . as' w e l l  besides  su  a l a ta-'. ^ r a da 'pro  ve  'poor'  in prefix.  In  a marked p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the p r e f i x  'to  'gar  as b a n  'green'  re.  a si  clean';  'nar  as  (sordo);  (cordero);  due o n l y t o a change  examples:  Old Spanish a v a n t a l . dialects  evident  S p a n i s h o f t e n u s e s e n - o r no p r e f i x a t  some t y p i c a l  put  are  (perder);  lose'  'nar  a ro  Prefix  teach'; 'to  a lim pi  pray';  and a s e n  all.  'der  'to  sit  a loss  'apron'  of p r e f i x  These 'ar 'tar  se  down'. 1  sar  (Spanish  where S p a n i s h has  differences  this a-  a l e van  become J u d e o - S p a n i s h en k a l  suffers  'tal  'to  'gar  return';  S p a n i s h c a l z - a r adds a p r e f i x t o 'to  resources  'to  the v a r i a n t  up';  -semantic  ( b a s e d on -:»-tardada and t a r d e c e r ) ; and  1  Standard  get  changes,  a n a l o g i c a l changes,  (Spanish acordarse);  (gordo);  • t o make o n e ' s 'to  language,  remember'  Some d i f f e r e n c e s dialect,  prefix  Judeo-Spanish.  Methatheses a ko  Lexicon  occur i n other  delantal  and  Spanish  Judeo-Spanish.  Diphthongization i n this  dialect  is very unstable  and does  not  67.  appear to f o l l o w any p h o n e t i c r u l e , d i p h t h o n g ! z i n g  i n some words  j u s t as Standard S p a n i s h does, or, i n o t h e r cases, where S p a n i s h does n o t . d i p h t h o n g i z e . The  o p p o s i t e phenomenon a l s o o c c u r s , t h a t i s ,  a s i n g l e vowel appears where the s t a n d a r d language has a  diphthong.  T h i s l a c k of d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of the Leonese dialect,"'' and, p r e f e r s a s i n g l e vowel. Judeo-Spanish,  The  and i t i s a g e n e r a l " p e c u l i a r i t y " , may  communities.  Portuguese  i r r e g u l a r i t y of t h i s phenomenon i n  i n f l u e n c e of e i t h e r Leonese o r Portuguese Spehardic  of course,  Portuguese  speakers  be due  to the  i n the e a r l y  i n f l u e n c e i s s l i g h t indeed  >  but  the e x i s t e n c e of numerous o t h e r Leonese. f e a t u r e s has been mentioned elsewhere.  Words i n w h i c h t h i s v a r i a n t d i p h t o n g i z a t i o n can be  i l l u s t r a t e d are: •furniture  1  r i z i n ' r e c e n t '.• .• (Spanish r e c i e n j , 1  (Spanish muebles j,  a 'ze to ' o i l '  'mo  ble  (Spanish a c e i t e ) ,  'pre to ' b l a c k ' where one would expect p r i e t o ,  'gre so  'so t h a t ' (de s u e r t e que),  'Greek'  ( g r i e g o ) , de  'sor te ke  'pon te ' b r i d g e '  (puente), es  'ko l a ' s c h o o l ' ( e s c u e l a ) , d i z i 'ses ' s i x t e e n '  (dieciseis),  and d i s i 'o co  ' e i g h t e e n ' but d i z i . ''sye,. t o .  changing verbs are a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y .  The  Radical  informant  uses:  mi a 'ko dro  ' I remember', ' pen so 'I t h i n k ' , ' ke ro 'I want',  'ro go  ' I ask', pre  'fe ro ' I p r e f e r ' , and en  of which would have diphthongs 'I shut' and  'pye dro  'kon t r o 'I meet', a l l  i n the s t a n d a r d speech.  'I l o s e ' show the expected  'sye  ro  change.  Instances o f d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n Judeo-Spanish  where S p a n i s h  has a s i n g l e vowel are much fewer than the r e d u c t i o n s to a s i n g l e vowel,  and i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g :  d i ' pyen df>  Cf. f o r example, Hanssen's Gramatica,  p.  ' i t depends',  22.  68.  kon  ' tyen te 'happy' or the v a r i a n t kon• ten te (see Portuguese 1  loans),  and bas tan ta 'myen te ' s u f f i c i e n t l y ' when the normal  adverbial s u f f i x i n this d i a l e c t  i s -men t e .  The form w i t h  t -myen te might  a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d an archaism since i t was used  i n Old Spanish t o o . New formations can be noted i n the use of the f o l l o w i n g words:  o re ' z a l ' e a r r i n g ' based on o're za 'ear'; c i 'kes  'childhood  '; m*m  se 'ves 'youth'; no ve 'dad (or no ' t i syas)  'news'; se ' l a r se 'to be j e a l o u s ' ; ha z i 'myen to or ha z i 'nura  'sickness' based on ha ' z i no ' s i c k ;  pro te za'dor tar  s e r v i 'de ra 'servant';  1  ' p r o t e c t o r ' ; based on pro te 'zar; no 'ca da  ' da da-); kon ten ' tes 'happiness'; man  're ro 'shoemaker' based on kon 'du ryas chase'; ke  {  Some groups  respectively.  of words must serve two concepts i n Judeo-Spanish  where the standard language  i s able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e . Pa 'ryen tes  means both parents and r e l a t i v e s ;  'ka .ra' 'cheek and f a c e ' ; and  bra ' r i a (see a l s o E n g l i s h loans)  t e r serves as Spanish  fication  'shoes'; mer 'ka da 'pur-  The l a s t two l i s t e d may a l s o be  i n f l u e n c e d . by I t a l i a n and E n g l i s h  1  'bookstore and l i b r a r y ' . Me-  'poner and meter'.  of verbs formed  Also evident i s a s i m p l i -  on a d j e c t i v a l bases  ' l u vya ' H o v e r ' ; a ' zer' t r i s  i n Spanish, as a 'zer  te ' e n t r i s t e c e r ' ; a ' zer 'nye ve  'nevar'; and ke 'dar se ka 'ya do. ' c a l l a r s e * . thing,  'ks sa 'lack'; kon du-  s i da 'complaint'; bom b a r da 'myen to 'bombing'; and--  go v e r na 'myen to 'government'.  li  (cf•  The concepts  'some-  some time, someone , and'some' are rendered as 'u na 'ko za, 1  a_ l a z 've zez, and 'u na per 'so na; months',  but 'some things* and 'some  'u naz 'kwan tas 'ko zas and 'u naz 'kwan tas 'me zez.  69.  Tro t  1  ' par,  0  kar replaces  e-ncontar,  (hallar  is l o s t ) ;  tener miedo.  Spanish cambiar;  both  i n the  and i s  Other semantic i n es  i n g the kri  a  si i f t s  ka. ' p a r  'to  'tar have  ra  'tar  i n r-e  ' a y r e has  narrowed  word a  is  w h i l e pro ku ' r a r minute.  'ne  means.'black  gre  is  'tar.  ar  b y en  tive but  -iko, ka l e  serves  ' u na as w e l l  a northern ' z i ka  narrowed  as  completely,  sense',  and  are  en  and  'bargain'  while  1  '.pre  ( o i r Is  Judeo-Spanish  'alley',  and i s  not uses  was  toz.  i n words l i k e  'to  to  'army',  'Together'  a c c o m p l i s h e d b y t h e use  S p a n i s h form,  ' f i no  while a loan  feel'  'army'.  'dzun  narrow-  ' p u n t o means o n l y  evil  ' t o be s o r r y '  as  'meet'.  concept  'wind'  to hear,  to mean  under-  ( o f any k i n d ) ' ,  general  try';  to  p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d by E n g l i s h  informant  Some d i s t i n c t i o n s  'to  not  expanding or  t o mean o n l y  as  be'  e x c l u s i o n of  has become e x c l u s i v e l y  sense o f  'ma d a ,  'to  words a r e  more o f t e n ,  s i g n i f i c a t i o n 'bad,  'tir  i n the  was e m p l o y e d b y t h e rendered  the  and s e n  1  'tar  retained  g r o has  known"; w h i l e , re  tra  or  the  ' d o ma ' a b o t t l e  'elegant'.  1  to  standard  i n the  acostarse;  find'  i s used  the  or,  o f any age  "air ;  'to  se,  o c c u r r e d , c h a n g i n g the  'a c h i l d  'ver  se  'car  whose m e a n i n g has  finish',  S p a n i s h w o r d as  'tu  sense of  In a l l these cases  s t o o d e x c e p t i n g en k o n  as  pan  e  ri a  of the ka  'history'  diminu-  ' l i za but  is  'street' to  ' r i ka  's t o r y . 1  Analogical  changes,  too,  Judeo-Spanish vocabulary, pri of  'me r o ,  se  ' g u n do,  t h e s e changes are  • s i moz 'we b r o u g h t ' c u s s e d more f u l l y  play a part  as,  tre  f o r example, 'se  ro,  and v i ' n i  moz  morphology.  i n the  and kwa  t o be f o u n d i n t h e  under  i n creating variation  'tre  ordinal ro,  but  v e r b a l paradigms  'we c a m e ' .  in  numbers: the  majority  like  These forms  are  trudis-  Chapter 3 Morphology  and  Syntax  70.  I n t r o d u c t o r y Remark? Since the corpus  obtained from  has been purposely l i m i t e d ,  the informant f o r t h i s  the m a t e r i a l does not permit an  h a u s t i v e m o r p h o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Many persons,  study ex-  dialect.  and some tenses of the verb a p p e a r e d . i n f r e q u e n t l y ,  some i n f o r m a t i o n had to be c e r t a i n cases i t was  obtained by d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g and i n  impossible to e l i c i t .  By i t s nature,  the  texts obtained from the informant f o r t h i s study, w i t h an absence of n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n caused  the m a t e r i a l to be uneven.  speaking Spanish to the informant so as not to suggest c o n s t r u c t i o n s which he might not n a t u r a l l y use.  I avoided  any words or  I have t r e a t e d , on  the whole, only those forms and c o n s t r u c t i o n s which are d i f f e r e n t from those i n use The  in-Standard  Spanish.  g r e a t e s t v a r i a n c e from Standard  the verb forms used  i n t h i s Judeo-Spanish  ward s i m p l i f i c a t i o n ,  Spanish w i l l be seen i n dialect.  A tendency  to-  present i n the d i a l e c t as a whole, i s here  m a n i f e s t i n a r e d u c t i o n of the number of tenses, with a consequent d o u b l i n g of meanings f o r one junctive.  Analogy  form, and the decadence of the sub-  a l s o plays a dominant p a r t i n reducing the number  of v e r b a l morphemes.and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the new at l e a s t ,  one  form taken by,  tense.  There i s a heavy i n f l u e n c e upon s t r u c t u r e and syntax exerted by other languages,  and these are u s u a l l y G a l l i c i s m s .  The  dialect  u n d e r - c o n s i d e r a t i o n here seems to have a s s i m i l a t e d more G a l l i c i s m s i n t o i t s syntax than other Judeo-Spanish of course,  often preserved.  dialects.  Much independent  A r c h a i c forms are,  development cannot  separated from a n a l o g i c a l changes a l r e a d y mentioned.  be  71. I n d i c a t i v e Tenses The i n d i c a t i v e tenses i n use are the p r e s e n t , i m p e r f e c t , p r e terite,  f u t u r e , c o n d i t i o n a l , p r e s e n t p e r f e c t , p l u p e r f e c t , and t h r e e  progressi-.e t e n s e s :  p r e s e n t , i m p e r f e c t , and p r e t e r i t e . The P r e s e n t Tense  The p r e s e n t tenses have p o s s i b l y the f e w e s t changes. morphemes, p e r s o n and tense, o f the f i r s t  The  conjugation are:  -o,  -a, - i a moz, - as, -an. I n accordance w i t h t h i s p a t t e r n , we  -as,  f i n d i n t h i s d i a l e c t , do I g i v e ' , and es 'to ' I am', as they 1  appeared  i n O l d S p a n i s h as w e l l . • A r c h a i c so ' I am' and vo ' I go' have become, 1  i n t h i s d i a l e c t , se ' I am' and v_a ' I go'. The former are the more u s u a l forms encountered i n Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s but, se, i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s appearance the  i n the d i a l e c t s t u d i e d here, i s a t t e s t e d i n  Smyrna d i a l e c t as a v a r i a n t o f s_o w i t h a f i r s t p e r s o n p l u r a l  semos 'we a r e ' .  1  The O l d S p a n i s h c o n j u g a t i o n was:  seo, seyo, o r so sees, seyes, o r s i e d e s se, s i e d e , o r seye,  seemos, seyemos, o r sedemos seedes, seyedes, o r sodes seen o r s i e d e n ^  This paradigm i n my i n f o r m a n t ' s speech i s : se sos es, o r e  somoz sos son  The paradigm as i t now s t a n d s i s a c o m b i n a t i o n of o l d and new forms.  The second person p l u r a l i s p r o b a b l y a p a l a t a l i z a t i o n o f  sois.^  Throughout  a l l c o n j u g a t i o n s the second p e r s o n p l u r a l mor-  pheme i s -s and the s i n g u l a r , - s . By analogy, the s t r e s s on the 1  hirsch,  'A study", p. 67.  ^Gf. P i d a l , Gramatica, #116, and Hans'sen,. Grama t i c a , #230. -%ee a l s o Chapter I, phonology,, p. 15" .  72.  second  person p l u r a l f a l l s  on the penultimate  s y l l a b l e making a  uniform s t r e s s p a t t e r n throughout  the paradigm.  dialects  of the second person  Sample  accent the l a s t s y l l a b l e  plural.  av ' l a r 'to speak' av l o av l a s •av l a  av ' l a moz 'av l a s ' av l a n  1 1  Conjugation I I .  de 'ver 'to have to, ought, 'de vo de ves 'de ve  Conjugation I I I .  v i ' v i r 'to l i v e ' ' v i vo ' v i ves ' v i ve  lr  'to go' conjugates:  v i ' v i moz ' v i ves ' v i ven va, vas, va, vamos,' vas, van. Va 1  'I go' may be an a n a l o g i c a l f o r m a t i o n based person morphemes i n the f i r s t  imperfect and p r e t e r i t e to va i n the f i r s t Spanish d i a l e c t The  tenses:  ' i va, and fwe.  the i d e n t i -  s i n g u l a r of the  The change of vo  only of the Judeo-  as f a r as I know.  f o r of a 'ver 'to have' i s a 'there i s , there  and t h i s i s , of course,  a l s o the o l d e r Spanish form ha.  o t h e r forms of t h i s appear In the corpus: probably  on, perhaps,  and t h i r d persons  person i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  s t u d i e d here,  impersonal  should'  de 've moz 'de ves 'de ven  1  are',  Sephardic  paradigms;  Conjugation I .  cal  Other  on ., 'so moz  'o moz  'we are',  Two  based  'we are', an 'they are', and as 'you ( p l j  are ' .  ^Subak, "Judenspanisch", Z e i t s c h r i f t , XXX, p. 13& gives yimos, yides as f i r s t and second, person p l u r a l forms i n .Turkey.  7-3.  The The  Imperfect  Tenses  imperfect tenses a l s o show l i t t l e , v a r i a t i o n from  Standard  Castilian. Sample paradigms Conjugation I.  tor  'nar or a t o r 'nar tor tor tor  Conjugation I I . po  'der  pu pu pu Conjugation I I I .  t o r 'na va moz t o r 'na vas t o r 'na van  'to be a b l e '  'di a ' d i as 'di a  pu pu pu  ' d i a moz ' d i as ' d i an  d i ' z i r 'to say' di di di  Cre  'na va 'na vas 'na va  'to r e t u r n '  'zi a ' z i as 'zi a  ' i va' 'I thought'  d i ' z i a moz d i z i as d i ' z i an 1  occurs alongside ere  ' i an 'they  thought'  but the absence of other forms makes i t impossible to say that there i s an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n j u g a t i o n .  1  occurs along w i t h i t s synonym  ' i va moz.  may  Fu  mark the b e g i n n i n g of another  ' i a moz  d i a l e c t a l usage brought person was  ' v i a 'I was  were going'  also  These a l t e r n a t i v e forms  a n a l o g i c a l change such as the  which took place w i t h the p r e t e r i t e the P r e t e r i t e which f o l l o w s ) ,  'we  tense i n Judeo-Spanish  or i t may  from S p a i n .  Ve  one  \.see  simply be a v e s t i g e of a ' n i r 'to come' has a f i r s t  coming* as w e l l as ve  ' n i a 'I was  coming,  he  coming'.  "nMenendez-Pidal, Gramatica h i s t o r i c a . #117, discusses d i a l e c t a l podeba, teneba, dormiba, veniba, e t c . i n regions where -b- i s not l o s t i n the second and t h i r d conjugations of the imperfect.  7k.  Preterite  Tense  More d r a s t i c changes are e f f e c t e d by analogy tense i n the f i r s t persons,  i n the p r e t e r i t e  s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l of- the f i r s t  con-  jugation, making the morphemes conform to those of the second t h i r d conjugations.  This change i s t y p i c a l of  C e r t a i n i r r e g u l a r verbs  and  Judeo-Spanish.  i n t h i s d i a l e c t are u n a f f e c t e d by  this  change. Sample paradigms. Conjugation I.  am b i z a r 'to l e a r n ' 1  am b i ' z i am b i ' za tes am b i 'zo Similarly, es ka 'we  one f i n d s ya  ' p i 'I f i n i s h e d " ,  returned', and de  1  am b i ' z i moz am b i ' za tes am b i 'za ron 'mi  'I c a l l e d ' ,  noz k i ' d i moz s i moz  'we  "we  left'.  a s l i g h t l y i r r e g u l a r paradigm, h a v i n g av moz  'we  dialect.  spoke?. I t may  The  t u 'mi  'I took',  stayed', a t o r 'ni moz Av  ' l a r 'to speak' i s  ' l i 'I spoke' but av ' l a -  l a t t e r c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d an archaism  in this  have been r e t a i n e d because i t i s a f r e q u e n t l y used  verb. Conjugation I I .  kumer 'to eat' ku ku ku  Conjugation i l l . par par par  'mi 'mi tes 'myo  ku ku ku  partir  'to l e a v e '  'ti ' t i tes 'tyo  "mi moz 'mi tes 'mye ron  par ' t i moz par ' t i tes par 'tye ron  Some s t r o n g verbs have, however, r e t a i n e d the -e i n the person s i n g u l a r .  Thus: v e r 'to see'  first  75.  ' v i de v i tes ' v i do  v i ' d i moz ' v i tes 'vye ron  l  The d i a l e c t 'I  was'  'I  put'. Ir  a l s o maintains v i n e 'I came', tuve  'I had',  and  estuve  while Modern Spanish puse i s c o m p l e t e l y r e p l a c e d by meti  'to go' has  a preterite  'I.go, he goes' and i v a 'I was  fwe  ' I went, he went' (as a l s o va  going, he was  going ). 1  The  para-  digm i s then: fwe •fwi tes fwe i t is significant  1  'fwe moz *fwi tes fwe ron  that s i m i l a r  v a r i a n t s i n Old C a s t i l i a n  forms were known among other  and i n Old Leonese,  a d i a l e c t which,  as  we have a l r e a d y seen has had a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e upon the Judeo-Spanish Old  dialects.  Thus:  Castilian  Old Leonese  fuy, fue, f u fuste, f u i s t e fue, f o  fuy, fue, foy fusti, fosti, fuesti fue, fo, fu, f o e ^  But the choice i n Judeo-Spanish  of these a r c h a i c forms was  probably  the r e s u l t of the' analogy with the tenses of i r i n which the aid  first  t h i r d persons are the same jva, fue, i v a ) . The Smyrna d i a l e c t ,  similar  tendency  to mai-ce the f i r s t  -'-Cf. v i d e (vulgar),  2  as s t u d i e d by Ruth  Ranssen, Gramatica,  riirsch.,  person conform  shows a somewhat  to the t h i r d .  and v i d o (old) i n Hanssen,  Historica,  # 258 and Menendez -Pidal,  Gramatica.  She  ?6. l i s t s a paradigm 1 he saw'.  f o r ver  'to see' g i v i n g v i d o as 'I saw,  'Tru s i 'I-brought' and historic  'di s i ' I said' retain  and  their  vowels. The F u t u r e tense There i s no s y n t h e t i c form of the f u t u r e i n t h i s  a l t h o u g h o t h e r S e p h a r d i c d i a l e c t s have these forms. does not understand the s p l i t i n f i n i t i v e 2 Subak  as from Judeo-Spanish  I have seen on Judeo-Spanish  The  dialect informant  alegrarmosemos c i t e d  i n Turkey.  by  /  A l l of the s t u d i e s which  have a s y n t h e t i c type of f u t u r e which  i s a l s o employed by modern S p a n i s h i n a d d i t i o n to the p e r i p h r a s t i c ir a  f o l l o w e d by an i n f i n i t i v e .  The d i a l e c t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n  here has a p p a r a n t l y l o s t the s y n t h e t i c form e n t i r e l y , or, at l e a s t , I have been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n e l i c i t i n g one.  Many examples of the  f u t u r e o c c u r i n the corpus but they are a l l of the a n a l y t i c a l i n v o l v i n g the use of two d i f f e r e n t p e r i p h r a s e s . f o l l o w e d by an i n f i n i t i v e Sample paradigm: A l l conjugations.  l£...a. o r s i m p l y i r  has the h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y .  d i ' z i r 'to say'  va (a) d i ' z i r vas (a) d i ' z i r va (a) d i ' z i r Thus me  type  'va moz (a) d i ' z i r vas (a) d i ' z i r van (a) d i ' z i r  va ke 'dar ' I s h a l l s t a y ' , se l a z va a dar  them to them', e l va man'dar ' you w i l l send',  ' I s h a l l give  te van a kos ' t a r  'they w i l l c o s t you'. Synonymous w i t h t h i s f u t u r e i s an a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e formed by 1  Kirsch,  11  A study", p . " 67.  Subak," J u d e n s p a n i s c h " , p .  132.  using  a 'ver a or simply a 'ver and a f o l l o w i n g  type appears more r a r e l y i n the corpus, i n g examples: 'you  will  infinitive..  This  and occurred i n the f o l l o w -  voz 'o moz a_ v e r 'we s h a l l see you', eya a a r i  'var  a r r i v e ' , and voz as a r i 'var 'you ( p i . ) w i l l a r r i v e ' . Conditional  or C o n d i t i o n a l  Perfect  Analogous to .the f o r m a t i o n of the f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n a l or c o n d i t i o n a l p e r f e c t auxiliaries  i s the p e r i p h r a s t i c  tense which used the imperfect  of those verbs which form the f u t u r e plus  t i o n a and an i n f i n i t i v e :  the p r e p o s i -  Conjugation w i t h i r .  ' i va a ku 'mer ' i vas a ku 'mer ' i va a ku 'mer  ' i va moz a ku 'mer ' i vas a ku 'mer '1 van a ku 'mer  This paradigm i s used, to t r a n s l a t e both 'would eat', 'would have eaten' .  ••  Conjugation w i t h a 'ver.  'would be, would have been'  a ' v i a a es ' t a r a ' v i as a es ' t a r a ' v i a a es ' t a r The  use o f a s i n g l e v e r b a l  a ' v i a moz a es ' t a r a ' v i as a es ' t a r a ' v i an a es ' t a r form f o r two concepts, i n t h i s  case c o n d i t i o n a l / c o n d i t i o n a l p e r f e c t  i s a l s o found i n papiamentu,  a language which, l i k e Judeo-Spanish tends toward economy and simplification. Papiamentu. preterite  I ate  mi a come  Present p e r f e c t  I have eaten  mi a come  past p e r f e c t  I had eaten  .mi a come  Future p e r f e c t  I s h a l l have eaten  l o m i a come  Conditional  I should eat  l o mi a come  78.  Conditional perfect  I s h o u l d have eaten  l o mi a come.  Pluperfect. . The compound tense of the p l u p e r f e c t , u s i n g the  auxiliary  aver and the p a s t p a r t i c i p l e , ' a s i n Modern S p a n i s h , appears where one might have expected an Old S p a n i s h s y n t h e t i c p l u p e r f e c t . l a t t e r has been l o s t i n t h i s Sample paradigm.  The  dialect.  t r a 'yer 'to b r i n g  a ' v i a t r u ' s i do a ' v i as t r u ' s i do a ' v i a t r u ' s i do  1  a ' v i a moz t r u ' s i do a ' v i as t r u ' s i do a ' v i an t r u ' s i do  Present P e r f e c t The i n f o r m a n t c o n s i s t e n t l y s u b s t i t u t e s a s i m p l e p r e t e r i t e f o r the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t .  The o n l y forms o f the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t  which appear were a ' d i 56^' he has s a i d ' , and have gone'.  '.ty'e: ne  1  i do  'you  I t i s , however, known t h a t o t h e r d i a l e c t s of Judeo-  S p a n i s h can c o n j u g a t e the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t u s i n g e i t h e r aver o r t e n e r as a u x i l i a r y .  The l a t t e r may  be o f Portuguese  origin,  as  w e l l as the usage o f the s i m p l e p r e t e r i t e f o r the p r e s e n t p e r f e c t . Participles Past p a r t i c i p l e s are, i n g e n e r a l t r u e to the u s u a l S p a n i s h p a t t e r n w i t h -ado  t e r m i n a t i n g f i r s t c o n j u g a t i o n verbs am b i 'za do  ' l e a r n t ' , e du 'ka do  'educated'.  were t r u ' s i do 'brought', co ' s a i d ' , mel  ' v i s to and  'da do 'read', me  Other p a r t i c i p l e s which  'e co 'done', es  ' v i do 'seen', ' t i do  1  occurred  c r i to ' w r i t t e n ' , ' d i -  ' i do 'gone', v i ' n i do 'come',  'put' but a t o r ' n i do ' r e t u r n e d '  ^E. R. G o i l o , Papiamentu Textbook, Aruba N. S. 1962,  p. 6k..  79. (a t o r n a r ) . indicate terite  The c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h w h i c h that  will  the analogy  the l a s t  form  appears' may.  o f a t o r ' n i , a t o r ' n i moz  e v e n t u a l l y change o t h e r p a s t p a r t i c i p l e s  i n the p r e on t h i s  same  pattern. The  present p a r t i c i p l e s  conjugation, conforms  add the morphemes  'yen do t o t h e s e c o n d  to that  and t h i r d .  of standard Spanish,  - .'an do t o t h e f i r s t The u s a g e g e n e r a l l y  as i n J u d e o - S p a n i s h  pasimoz  1 la  n o c a d a kumyendo i b e v y e n d o  drinking',  the p r e p o s i t i o n respecting'.  It  the evening  v i d e ke a v i a muca d z e n t e • a s p e r a n d o  were many p e o p l e  bably  'we s p e n t  waiting'.  i s , however,  ' I saw t h a t  But, h o w e v e r , p a r t i c i p l e s may  e n : en a r i v a n d o  The l a t t e r u s a g e  reinforced  e a t i n g and  'on a r r i v i n g ' ,  caique  common S e p h a r d i c  usage.  also  follow  en r e s p e c t a n d o ' i n  i s frequent i n Old Spanish  as a s t r u c t u r a l  there  on F r e n c h  and i s p r o -  i n this  These p a r t i c i p l e s  dialect. a r e used-,  most f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r e s s i v e t e n s e s . A l l three  p r o g r e s s i v e s appeared  i n the. c o r p u s : p r e s e n t ,  i m p e r f e c t , and  preterite. Progressive  tenses  Present  p r o g r e s s i v e , es ' t a r av ' l a n do ' t o be s p e a k i n g ' es ' t o av ' l a n do es t a moz av ' l a n do es ' t a s av ' l a n do es ' t a s av ' l a n do es ' t a av ' l a n do ' es ' t a n av ' l a n do 2 I m p e r f e c t p r o g r e s s i v e , es ' t a r ' y i n do ' t o be g o i n g ' 1  es .'ta v a ' y i n do es ' t a v a s ' y i n do es ' t a v a ' y i n do  es t a v a moz 'yindo es ' t a vas ' y i n do es ' t a v a n ' y i n do 1  "''In p h r a s e s and s e n t e n c e s u s e d as examples i n t h e t e x t , a w r i t t e n s t r e s s w i l l be u s e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h s t r e s s r u l e s of s t a n d a r d S p a n i s h . "The i n f i n i t i v e i n t h i s d i a l e c t i s i_r w i t h p r e s e n t p a r t i c i l s y i n d o b u t Subak, " J u d e n s p a n i s c h " , p . 13d g i v e s J . - S p . y i r and yendo .  80.  Preterite  progressive.  es  ' t a r as pe  es 'tu ve as pe 'ran do es t u ' v i tes as pe 'ran do es 'tu vo as pe 'ran do The  use  of a f u l l  'ran do  'to be w a i t i n g '  es t u ' v i moz as pe es tu ' v i tes as pe es t u 'vye ron as pe  'ran do 'ran do 'ran do  s l a t e of p r o g r e s s i v e tenses i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n  view of the d i a l e c t ' s tendency towards s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and omy.  econ-  I t does, however, r e l a t e to an e v i d e n t preference f o r  a n a l y t i c a l forms.  Passive  Voice  The p a s s i v e i s normally se  ' d i ze  'one  rendered by a r e f l e x i v e verb  as  says' but the true p a s s i v e has been r e t a i n e d and  appears three times past p a r t i c i p l e - .  i n the corpus.  I t i s formed w i t h s e r and a  Agent i s expressed, by par  no ss son ambizados a a l e v a n t a r s e 'they are not used to g e t t i n g up  'by'. presto early'  1  fwe d e s t r u i d o par l o s konvensionaliamos... ' i t was destroyed by the c o n v e n t i o n a l i s m s . . . ' Obligation O b l i g a t i o n may and kale ke  be rendered  ' i t i s necessary,  by dever or dever de  'must, should',  must'.  vozotroz deves ayudar 'you must h e l p ' devia de l a v a r e l f i l d z a n  ' I-had to wash the  cup'  kale ke voz i r •you must go' Treatment of the The otherwise  s u b j u n c t i v e has  one  Subjunctive tense,  the present,  r e g u l a r l y r e p l a c e d by the i n d i c a t i v e  the use of the present  and i s  tenses.  Even  s u b j u n c t i v e i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . Imper-  sonal expressions, e x p r e s s i o n of emotion, an a c t i o n i n the  81.  secondary clause  still  pending,  and i n d e f i n i t e  antecedents  do not u s u a l l y c o n d i t i o n a f o l l o w i n g s u b j u n c t i v e . the usage i s f l u i d  and a. s u b j u n c t i v e ,  However,  but only i n the pr esent,  may occur. A.  Examples with the i n d i c a t i v e : Me i s panto ke l a k r i a t u r e se cayol 1 am a f r a i d that the c h i l d has f a l l e n . ' 1  Es pekado ke no l o vimos. ' I t i s too bad t h a t we have not seen him.' Kero topar una perona ke a v l a l a d i n o . 'I want to f i n d someone who speaks l a d i n o . ' No.konosco ningunos ke avian espafiol. 'I do not know anyone who speaks Spanish.' Esperava ke.tu i v a s a e s t a r a k i . 'I hoped that you would be h e r e . a.  1  A present s u b j u n c t i v e may o r may not be used i n the subordinate clause i n which the a c t i o n i s pending: !  Me va kedar a k i asta kwando t o r n a s . 'I s h a l l remain here u n t i l you come back.' Vamos antes ke vengan. 'Let us go before they come.'  C.  An a l t e r n a t i v e usage w i t h the f u t u r e i n d i c a t i v e i s a l s o possible? Voz omoz a v e r kwando voz as a r i v a r . . . . Ve w i l l see you when you a r r i v e . . . . 1  This l a s t may p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t French usage. Judeo-Spanish u s u a l l y has two s u b j u n c t i v e s : and  the past,  according  to Saporta, who e s t a b l i s h e s the f o l l o w -  i n g c o n d i t i o n : " I f the superordinate inate i s e i t h e r present,subjunctive  /  the present  verb i s past,  the subord-  o r past s u b j u n c t i v e  i n free /Variation;  82.  i f the- s u p e r o r d i n a t e v e r b i s n o t p a s t , the s u b o r d i n a t e verb i s present s u b j u n c t i v e . "  1  The d i a l e c t which he d e a l s w i t h i n c l u d e d  spoken m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d from S e a t t l e i n f o r m a n t s and w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l from Bosnia-, B i t o l j  (.from I z m i r ) ,  I M o n a s t i r ) , S a l o n i c a , and  C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , compiled from o t h e r w r i t e r s ' s t u d i e s .  The e a r l i e s t  date o f the change which o c c u r s i n t h i s i n f o r m a n t ' s speech c a n be t r a c e d p r o b a b l y t o B e i r u t , s i n c e the p a s t s u b j u n c t i v e i s used i n Izmir.where  the i n f o r m a n t l i v e d p r i o r t o moving t o B e i r u t .  moreover, a l o g i c a l s t e p fromi f r e e v a r i a t i o n o f two forms,  It is, past  and p r e s e n t , t o e l i m i n a t i o n o f one, the p a s t , i n the i n t e r e s t s of economy, and perhaps r e i n f o r c e d by s i m i l a r s u b j u n c t i v e usage i n French.  The i n f o r m a n t d i d m e n t i o n t h a t w h i l e t h e y l i v e d i n e e i r u t  they always used F r e n c h i n c o n v e r s i n g w i t h non-Sephardic friends.  C e r t a i n l y , there are o t h e r G a l l i c i s m s i n t h i s  speaking dialect,  t h a t w i l l , appear i n the f o l l o w i n g pages, which are n o t shared by o t h e r Judeo-Spanish  dialects.  These w i l l i n c l u d e the examples i n j  C. on page 8 l where a f u t u r e i n d i c a t i v e r e p l a c e s a p r e s e n t subj u n c t i v e which would be normal f o r the m a j o r i t y o f S e p h a r d i c  dia-  lects. I n d i r e c t Commands I n d i r e c t commands always  take an i n d i c a t i v e i n the s u o o r d i n a t e  c l a u s e f o l l o w i n g a main verb i n the p a s t i n accordance  w i t h the  d i a l e c t ' s u s u a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r s u b s t i t u t i n g an i n d i c a t i v e f o r a pas subjunctive.  A p r e s e n t s u b j u n c t i v e o r a p r e s e n t i n d i c a t i v e may be  S o l Saporta, " V e r b a l C a t e g o r i e s o f Judeo-Spanish", Review, 21, 1953, P- 20?.  Hispanic  83. •  used i n the s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e when i t f o l l o w s a main verb o f v o l i t i o n i n the p r e s e n t , b u t an i n f i n i t i v e may o c c u r i n f r e e variation with either. Examples; a)  main verb past w i t h p a s t i n d i c a t i v e ; K e n a n ke n o z o t r o z moz ibsmoz a k a z R kon eyoz. 'They wanted us to go home w i t h them'.  b)  main verb p r e s e n t w i t h p r e s e n t i n d i c a t i v e : Kere ke n o z o t r o z moz vamos• 'He wants us to go'.  c)  main verb p r e s e n t w i t h p r e s e n t s u b j u n c t i v e : Keres ke te merke una koza? 'Do you want me to buy you something ? Le va d i z i r ke venga kon n o z o t r o z . ' I s h a l l t e l l him to come w i t h u s ' . Ya te a v e r t i ke no l o deses. ' I warned you n o t to l e a v e it. 1  d)  with i n f i n i t i v e i n subordinate clause: Me domandan de a y u d a l d o s . 'They ask me. to h e l p  T y p i c a l usage o f the i n f i n i t i v e i n o t h e r Judeo-Spanish  them . 1  dialects  i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : Dame urn p e s i k o de pam p a r a poder komer yo. 'Give me a l i t t l e p i e c e o f b r e a d t o I can e a t ' . These i n f i n i t i v e s have been c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w i n g two p a t t e r n s : where the a c t o r of the s u b o r d i n a t e i s a m o d i f i e r o f the s u p e r o r d i n a t e v e r b o r where the a c t o r o f the s u b o r d i n a t e form i s i n a f r e e w i t h the i n f i n i t i v e .  1  Another example which appeared i n the corpus  was K a l e ke voz k r i a t u r a s i r a d o r m i r a o r a . ' you c h i l d r e n go to bed now.' domandan de ayudaldos dialects.  form  I t i s necessary t h a t  T h i s example and the i n f o r m a n t ' s Me  are p a r a l l e l to the examples c i t e d from  other  The l a t t e r e x p r e s s i o n may a l s o be a c a i q u e on e i t h e r  French or I t a l i a n .  •^Saporta, " C a t e g o r i e s " , p . 211.  C o n d i t i o n a l Sentences C o n d i t i o n a l sentences  are rendered  fairly  c o n s i s t e n t l y with  an imperfect i n d i c a t i v e i n the p r o t a s i s and a c o n d i t i o n a l i n the apodis i s . Examples; S i tu merkavas kondurias muevas te i v a n a k o s t a r mucas p a r a s . 'If you were to buy new shoes they would c o s t you a great d e a l of money'. S i eya no l o a v i a kazado se i v a a kazar kon mi ermano. 'If she had not m a r r i e d him she would have married my b r o t h e r ' . But: . S i t e n i a tiempo pudia v e n i r con t i . 'If I had time I could come w i t h you'. S i no te alevantavas  tanto presto, no  t e n i a s tanto sueno.  'If you had n o t - g o t t e n up so e a r l y you would not be so I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the imperfect i n d i c a t i v e fulfill  sleepy . 1  can  a l l the uses of i t s s u b j u n c t i v e e q u i v a l e n t even i n the  r e s u l t clause, p a r a l l e l i n g the Standard  Spanish usage of an  imperfect  s u b j u n c t i v e i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h a c o n d i t i o n a l i n t h i s k i n d of sentence. According  to* Iir. Saporta's  classification,  c o n d i t i o n a l sentences  i n Judeo-Spanish u s u a l l y employ an imperfect i n both  :  and  combination:  the "subordinate"  elements and  imperfect of i r plus i n f i n i t i v e p r e t e d as an imperfect."'"  o c c a s i o n a l l y the  found  i n the c o n c l u s i o n and  This combination  p o s s i b l e form of the c o n d i t i o n a l i n my  i s , however, the  informant's  other than i n the p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d above, has  'Categories", p. 212,  213.  interonly  speech and  s y n t h e t i c form, which i s used elsewhere i n Saporta's  Saporta,  'superordinate''  the  sentences  disappeared  i n the  85.  dialect istic  studied here.  of Judeo-Spanish.  junctive and  This  I n any case,  has d i s a p p e a r e d  from  i s regularly replaced Condition  contrary  syntactical  this  feature  i s , then,  the imperfect  dialect,  character-  or past  sub-  i^but u s u a l l y r e t a i n e d ;  by t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  indicative.  to f a c t : •  Se komporta komo s i e r a una k r i a t u r a . 'She behaves as i f she were a c h i l d . 1  A v l a s komo s i no me k r e i v a s . 'You speak as i f you-do n o t o e l i e v e This  c o n s t r u c t i o n would  Gallicism  since  seem  1  t o be a r e c e n t l y  i t i s p e c u l i a r only  Judeo-Spanish p a t t e r n  me.  to this  incorporated  dialect.  f o r condition contrary  to fact i s :  E s t e s ' e s t a dando a i r e s komo s i f u e r a mui r i k o . ' T h i s man i s g i v i n g h i m s e l f a i r s as i f he were v e r y One  may c o n c l u d e  s t u d i e d h e r e is.-in t h e tenses of  then, late  that  o f the s u b j u n c t i v e  there  dialect, about  the s h i f t  Turkish sent  which supports  been l o s t ,  indicating  i s a heavy G a l l i c  a l l past  and t h e i r r e g u l a r u s e  i t s decadence.  t h e remarks  i n the chapter  i n f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s from the only  day dominance o f F r e n c h ' w h i c h e x t e n d s o f the  i n the d i a l e c t  As has b e e n  i n f l u e n c e on t h e s y n t a x o f t h i s  i n f l u e n c e w h i c h was m a n i f e s t  structure  , rich'.  o f i t s disappearance,  having  the present' s u b j u n c t i v e  shown,  the subjunctive  stages  The u s u a l  on t h e l e x i c o n  formerly  dominating  i n vocabulary, i t s sphere  to a pre-  i n t o the  language. Commands  Command forms were' d i f f i c u l t  ^Saporta,  "Categories' , 1  to e l i c i t  p. 2 0 9 .  and o n l y  three  occurred  86.  in  the. corpus :  and  a formal  the p h r a s e ir  a familiar  'mi  te  1  re  'look'.  r o go  a l a posta por  singular  'mi  ra  Imperatives  ' p l e a s e ' and  an  ' l o o k ' , v i ' z i ta. ' v i s i t ' ;  were o f t e n  infinitive,  as  rendered  by  i n t e rojso  de  mi.  Nouns The and  morphology  adverbs  the v e r b s . ?yas  pattern like  does n o t  s y n t a x o f the nouns,  their  however,  plurals  is felt  t o be  Most words o f n o n - S p a n i s h f o r Spanish p l u r a l s  se. f a r a  'dim  pronouns,  show as many changes f r o m  Nouns f o r m  'foot',  'feet'.  and  as  adjectives,  Standard  i n Standard  Spanish  Spanish.  singular with a plural  ;pyes  o r i g i n have b e e n a d a p t e d  w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f v e r y few  which r e t a i n s  the Hebrew  as  to  es  the  words  plural.  Diminutives The  suffix  a favourite corpus: ' z i ko  - i k o seems t o be  Aragonese s u f f i x .  ga'ti 'little  ko  'kitten',  hand'-, Sa  the o n l y d i m i n u t i v e i n u s e .  It is  Diminutives which occur i n t h i s  1  ,' bye  ' r i ka  se  ' z i ko  'little  'little  Sarah',  i  foot', ' z i ka  ma  ne-  'little  daughter'.  Subject yo  pronouns  'I'  t u 'you (familiar singular) 1  Both  el,  eya,  the  t h i r d person  •^Lapesa,  'he, .she,  His t o r i a ,  you'  and  p.. 316 .  the  (m) n o z o t r o z o r (m) noz 'we' v o z o t r o z 'you' ( . f a m i l i a r p l u r a l or p o l i t e s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ) and voz 'you' eyos, eyas ' t h e y o r 'you' vpolite p l u r a l j  second  p e r s o n p l u r a l may  be  used  87.  as pronouns  of r e s p e c t .  The  i m p r e s s i o n i s that e l , eya, eyos,  and  eyas are the most formal forms of address, while voz, v o z o t r o z used to  one person i s l e s s formal and can a l s o be f a m i l i a r .  i l i a n used nos and vos the  mosotros  former are s t i l l used Leon.  Old Cast-  and voso'tros were emphatic)''" and  p  Judeo-Spanish preserves the  archaic, nos and vos as noted above.  E l , eya, eyos and eyas are 3  t y p i c a l l y Leonese  forms used i n the sense of C a s t i l i a n us t e d .  The informant f i r s t used voz and then tu to me o t h e r forms, e_l and eya as terms of extreme would use to someone of h i g h e r rank.^"  and s u p p l i e d the  p o l i t e n e s s that he  These pronouns  are always  used w i t h the " c o r r e c t " form of the verb, that i s voz, with the second person p l u r a l . the  verb (.excepting yo) may  no doubt, :  is  That the pronouns  n e a r l y always appear with  be the r e s u l t of French i n f l u e n c e ,  the use of voz f o r the formal, although i t i s Spanish,  a l s o r e i n f o r c e d by French vous.  E l and eya were l i k e l y the  o l d e r forms brought from Leon by s e f a r d i e s of that region, voz,  i n i t s formal sense, when added  and  through French i n f l u e n c e  a f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n i n the g r a d a t i o n of f o r m a l i t y much l i k e which e x i s t s between Rumanian tu, mata, and dumneavoastra Voz,  as,  employed  formally,  east d e s p i t e Lapesa's  caused that  'you'.  i s not unusual i n the Judeo-Spanish of the  i d e a t h a t voz i s c o n f i n e d to Morocco,  and. e l ,  c eya, to e a s t e r n Judeo-Spanish. I p i d a l . Gramatica, #93, ^Hanssen, 3  Ibid..  ^The .  t  Gramatica,  Voz may  have been introduced' as a  1.  #170.  #h90.  form usted or o l d e r vuestra me reed i s not understood.  Lapesa, His t o r i a ,  p.  337-  86.  Gallicism  t o the S e p h a r d i c S p a n i s h o f the e a s t which  the i n f l u e n c e  came u n d e r  o f the s c h o o l s o f the A l l i a n c e .  Object  pronouns:  me te lo la  moz/noz voz los las  I n d i r e c t object pronouns ; me te le  moz/noz voz les  Voz as the d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t object pronoun i s , of course, an archaism.  Le cannot be the d i r e c t o b j e c t .  These pronouns are  the etymologically«'correct"ones and there i s not the confusion of l o , l a , l e , as i n Standard Spanish. Prepositional kon mi kon t i kon e l , eya  pronouns:  kon mozotroz/nozotroz kon vozotroz kon eyos  Moz, and voz may also be used as p r e p o s i t i o n a l objects as i n para moz, para voz ' f o r us, f o r you'.  The forms conmigo and contigo  are unknown. Both para mi and para yo ' f o r me' are p o s s i b l e i n t h i s d i a l e c t and the l a t t e r seems to be Aragonese usage. Reflexive  pronouns:  me te se  1  P i d a l , Gramatica, #93, 1.  moz voz se  1  89. Possesive mi,mis tu,tus su  adjectives;  ' nwes t r o , 'mwes t r o -os ' vwes t r o -os sus  .It i s p o s s i b l e that there i s some E n g l i s h i n the f o l l o w i n g use of the t h i r d person pronouns: 'his house ', but sus kaza independent  ' t h e i r house'.  developement of Judeo-Spanish  i n Sephardic d i a l e c t s .  su kaza  I t may a l s o be an s i n c e i t i s common  The occurence o f the d e f i n i t e  with the oossesive a d j e c t i v e s  /  influence  1  ( l a mwestra k a z a )  f  articles  a vestige of  -  Old S p a n i s h , i s only s p o r a d i c i n t h i s d i a l e c t although i t i s a commonly-noted f e a t u r e o f Sephardic Spanish. Possesive el el el  1  'mi o -os t u yo -os 'su yo -os  pronouns:  e l 'mwes tro,('nwes e l 'vwes t r o -os e l 'su yo -os  Example: onde desates e l tuyo? Object pronouns,  t r o ) -os  'Where d i d you leave yours? '  as i n standard Spanish precede  forms o f the verb except f o r the a f f i r m a t i v e commands,  finite  and occa-  s i o n a l l y are e n c l i t i c a t the b e g i n n i n g o f a b r e a t h group. Examples:  But:  1  d  l a vide l o a v i a topado moz p l a z e mire l a dio l a  Menendez-Pidal,  ' I saw h e r ' ' he had found i t ' ' we l i k e ' ' look a t i t ' • he gave i t ' 2  Grama.tica, #9g.  H. Hamsden, Weak Pronoun P o s i t i o n i n the E a r l y Romance Languages, In Spanish to the l a t e f i f t e e n t h century there i s almost t o t a l p o s t p o s i t i o n a f t e r a t h i r d person s u b j e c t pronoun (el v i o l o s ) , b u t d i o l a i s the o n l y i n s t a n c e o f p o s t p o s i t i o n found i n t h i s study which d i f f e r s from that p r a c t i s e d by the mordern language.  1963,p. 166.  90.  I n d i r e c t o b j e c t pronouns precede the d i r e c t , Spanish.  as i n S t a n d a r d  A c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h i r d p e r s o n . i n d i r e c t and d i r e c t o b j e c t  pronouns changes the i n d i r e c t o b j e c t to s e .  There i s no p l u r a l  form -sen w h i c h i s o f t e n found i n S e p h a r d i c S p a n i s h . Examples: se l a z va a d a r se l o mostramps  ' I s h a l l g i v e them t o them' 'We show i t to him'  R e f l e x i v e pronouns a l s o precede the c o n j u g a t e d forms o f the v e r b as moz vamoz 'we are g o i n g ' , and me k i d i ''I s t a y e d ' . As i n Old S p a n i s h , a pronoun f o l l o w i n g the i n f i n i t i v e undergo m e t a t h e s i s .  may  T h i s form appeared o n l y once, and i n c o n j u n c t i o n  w i t h the s h i f t o f r t o 1:  ayudaldos 'to h e l p them'.  Conclusions  91.  It  i s apparent  homogeneous, t h a t change  has  earlier  that  the  indeed,  Israelite For this  most o b v i o u s  formant's words as  speech  Leonese  and  Spanish  "koine".  Wagner:  western  the  w h i c n would the is  one  In a d d i t i o n , to  dialects  speech  Spanish  will  changes  and  h e l p compile  is  Alliance influence.  will  nov;  Old  new  a., p a r t o f  stages  the n e c e s s a r y  Judeoby  and. L e o n e s e f e a t u r e s  i n nature. of vocabulary,  formations, and  the  d i s t i n c t i o n made  some  of these  some  analogical  characteristics  A comprehensive  n o t b e e n done,  disappearance  comparison  the i n -  remnants o f  i n other areas.  has  and  w i t h a few  dialect,  paper,  and  and  Castilian  Castilian  a s c e r t a i n which Judeo-Spanish  phonological  lexicon  c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p e r i p h e r a l  s i n c e the  the  dialects  showed i m p o v e r i s h m e n t  o n l y to t h i s  further  influence  same p r o p o r t i o n o f O l d  f o l l o w s the  are l a r g e l y  take .into  however,  o f the G a l l i c  show s t r o n g e r A r a g o n e s e  studied i n this  indicated  source  were i n the  the  This d i a l e c t  common t o c o l l o q u i a l  over  Gallicisms.  i n t r o d u c t i o n of neologisms  changes p e c u l i a r  dialect,  by  that  of  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d ,  O l d A r a g o n e s e words w h i c h a r e  informant's  i n this  other Sephardic  archaisms  areas  t o a dominance  schools established  that  is. not  c o n s i d e r a b l y , and  syntactical  the l i k e l y  showed a b o u t  e a s t e r n areas The  The  be  other Sephardic  at least  e x e r t e d any  are  show a g r e a t e r number o f  vary  of T u r k i s h .  to l o a n words.  i t may  Judeo-Spanish  A recent s h i f t  never  i n the L e v a n t  that  the d i a l e c t s  preponderance  reason,  The  study  been p o i n t e d out,  l a t t e r has  restricted  while  this  can o c c u r r a p i d l y .  Gallicisms the  from  dialects and  dialects  among d i a l e c t s  some  study  such  as  urgency  i s imminent.  i s required i n order  features substantiate certain of Old Spanish. evidence.  S t u d i e s of  dialects  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the .  92.  assembled m a t e r i a l must take  i n t o account the i n c r e a s i n g f o r e i g n  i n f l u e n c e s and the abundant anomalies that e x i s t w i t h i n one d i a l e c t . unassimilated  These f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e wholly  sounds, loans,  i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t every the phonological.and Judeo-Spanish.  concurrently, or p a r t i a l l y  and even forms and syntax.  d i a l e c t and these  External  are r a p i d l y d e s t r o y i n g '  s y n t a c t i c a l p a t t e r n s used u n t i l r e c e n t l y i n  The amount of f r e e v a r i a t i o n i n a l l aspects of  t h i s d i a l e c t i s evidence  of t h a t decay, a l r e a d y having  obscured  many d i s t i n c t i o n s . The  d i a l e c t has l o s t  of i t s "language ideal' Spanish  literature,  1  i t s sense of d i r e c t i o n and i d e n t i t y .  i s due to the absence of w r i t t e n Judeo-  the l a c k of formal education  tongue, the d e s t r u c t i o n of Sephardic  i n the mother  communities l i k e that of  S a l o n i c a i n the l a s t war s c a t t e r i n g the p o p u l a t i o n , of other languages used i n business, pursuits.  Loss  the p r e s t i g e  p r o f e s s i o n a l , and c u l t u r a l  In a d d i t i o n , modern communications and t r a v e l are  d i s s o l v i n g the ghetto communities where p r e s e r v a t i o n of the language i s p o s s i b l e because of t h e i r i s o l a t i o n .  What was preserved r e -  l a t i v e l y i n t a c t f o r f o u r hundred years under these changed more w i t h i n the t w e n t i e t h century centuries.•  -  c o n d i t i o n s has  than a l l f o u r  preceding  V'.' .  Selected  Bibliography  A d a t t o , E., and Umphrey, G. V/. " L i n g u i s t i c Archaisms of the S e a t t l e Sephardim," H i s p a n i a , XIX, 1 9 3 6 , Pp. 255-263. Agard, P. 3 . " P r e s e n t Day Judaeo-Spanish i n the U. S. H i s p a n i a , X X X I I I , 19.50, Pp. 2 0 3 - 2 1 0 . B e r n a r d e t e , J . M. Hispanismo de l o s s e f a r d i e s A g u i l a r , Madrid, 1 9 6 3 .  A.,"  levantinos,  B e n o l i e l , J . " D i a l e c t o judeo-espanol-marroqui. o h a k i t i a , " B o l e t i n de l a r e a l a c i d e m i a e s p a n o l a , X I I I , 1 9 2 6 , pp. 2 0 9 233;  XIV,  1927,  , and XXXII, 1 9 5 2 ,  Pp.  137-168, 196-231+,  Pp. 255-239.  357-373,  566-5oO,  Besso, H. "Causas de l a d e c a d e n c i a d e l j u d e o - e s p a n o l , " A c t a s d e l segundo congreso internacionadL de h i s p a n i s t a s , Nijmegen, 1 9 6 7 , Pp. 207-216": !  . " B i b l i o g r a f i a sobre e l j u d e o - e s o a n o l , " H i s p a n i q u e . LIV, 1 9 5 2 , Pp. 1+12-1+22*.  Bulletin  Blondheim, D. S. a s s a i ' d'un v o c a b u l a i r e c o m p a r a t i f des p a r l e r s romans des j u i f s au moyen age, " Romania, X L I , 1 9 2 3 , Pp.  31+3-388.  (note;  m e l d a r Pp.  371-375)  Benichou, P. "Observaciones sobre e l j u d e o - e s p a n o l de R e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a h i s p a n i c a , V I I , 191+5, Pp. Baruch,. K. " E l j u d e o - e s o a r i o l de B o s n i a , " R e v i s t a de espanola, XVII, 1930, Pp. 1 1 3 - 1 5 1 + . Crews,C.  Marruecos," 209-256.  filologia  " M i s c e l l a n e a h i s p a n o - j u d a i c a , " Vox Romanica, XVI, Pp.  221+-2L+5 and  XX,  1961,  Pp.  1957,  13-38.  . "Notes on Judaeo-Spanish," P r o c e e d i n g s of the Leeds P h i l o s o p h i c a l and L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y , V I I , 1 9 5 5 , Pp. 2 1 7 230, and V I I I , 1 9 5 6 , Pp. 1 - 1 8 . . "Quelques o b s e r v a t i o n s s u p p l e m e n t a i r e s s u r . l e p a r l e r judeo-espagnol de S a l o n i q u e , " B u l l e t i n H i s p a n i q u e , 1 9 3 9 , XLI,  No.  3,  Pp.  209-235.  . Recherches su r l e judeo-espagnol dans l e s pays b a l k a n i ques~~ Paris, 1935. :  .  " R e f l e c t i o n s on Judeo-Spanish by a S p a n i s h Jew,"  Romanica, 2 0 ,  1962,  Pp.  Vox  327-331+.'  . "Review, Espigueo j u d e o - e s p a n o l , RFE, XXXIV, 1 9 5 0 , Pp. 9 - 1 0 6 . Vox Romanica, X I I , 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 5 2 , Pp. 1 9 2 - 1 9 8 .  9h.  Crews, C. "Some Arabic and Hebrew words i n O r i e n t a l Judaeo-Soani s h , " Vox Romanica, XIV, 1955, Pp. 2 9 6 - 3 0 9 . Danon, A . " E s s a i s u r les vocables t u r c s dans l e judeo-espagnol," K e l e t i Szemle: Revue O r i e n t a l e , IV, Budapest, 1903, Pp. 215->29 and V, 190k, Pp. 111-126. > "Le turc dans l e judeo-espagnol, " P a r i s , 1913, XXIX, No. 75, Pp. 1 - 1 2 . Gil,  R.  Revue Hispanioue.  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"Quelques mots s u r l e d i a l e c t e espagnol p a r l e p a r l e s I s r a e l i t e s de S a l o n i q u e , " Romanische Forschungen, XXIII, 1907, Pp. 9 6 9 - 9 9 1 . Levy,  D. "La p r o n u n c i a c i o n d e l s e f a r d i esmirniano de Nueva York, " Nueva r e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a h i s n a n i c a , VI, 1952, Pp. 277-  2dl.  L u r i a , M. "A Study o f the M o n a s t i r D i a l e c t o f Judeo-Spanish Based on Oral M a t e r i a l C o l l e c t e d i n Monastir, Y u g o s l a v i a , " Revue Hispanioue. LXXIX,- 1930, Pp. 323-599. (Ph.D. D i s s e r t a tion) Menendez.^-Pidal, R. Manuel de gramatica h i s t o r i c a espanola, Madrid, 1 9 k h . Molho, M. Usos y costumbres de l o s s e f a r d i e s de S a l o n i c a , B i b l i o t e c a Hebraicoespanola, M a d r i d , 1 9 5 0 . Pulido, .A.  Espanoles s i n p a t r i a ol'a .raza s e f a r d i , Madrid, -1905- ' r  Los I s r a e l i t a s espanoles y e l idioma c a s t e l l a n o , Madrid, 1 9 0 ^ .  95.  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" O r g a n i z a r e a u n e i norme n o i s p a n i o l e i n i u d e o s p a n i o l a , " S t u d i i s.i c e r c e t a r i l i n g v i s t i c e , Ix, A n u l XVII, 1966, Pp.  l4.Ol-i4.O6.  S a p o r t a , S o l , and Kahane, H. R. "The V e r b a l C a t e g o r i e s of JudeoSpanish, " H i s p a n i c Review, XXI, 1953, Pp. 193-21k, 322336.  Simon, W., " C h a r a k t e r i s t i k des JudenSpanischen D i a l e k t s von S a l o n i k i , " Z e i t s c h r e i f t f u r Romanische P h i l o l o g i e , XL, 1920,  Pp.  655-669.  S p i e g a l , I . "Old Judeo-Spanish W r i t t e n E v i d e n c e of O l d S p a n i s h P r o n u n c i a t i o n , " M i n n e s o t a , 1952. (Ph. D . . D i s s e r t a t i o n ) S p i t z e r , L.  "Desmazalado," Nueva r e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a h i s p a n i c a ,  I, 19h7,  Pp.  78-79.  S p i t z e r , L. and Blondheim, D. "Judeo-espanol 'meldar'," de f i l o l o g i a e s p a n o l a , V I I I , 1921, Pp. 288-291.  Revista  Subak, J . 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