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A study of the Beirut dialect of Judeo-Spanish as spoken by one informant Taylor, Dorothy-Ann 1969

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A STUDY OF THE BEIRUT DIALECT OF JUDEO-SPANISH AS SPOKEN BY ONE INFORMANT by Dorothy-Ann Tay lo r B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia , 1965. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the department of ROMANCE STUDIES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969 In presenting th is thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i ib: ' trj : c t T h i s t h e s i s i s a study of the B e i r u t d i a l e c t of Judeo-bpanish as spoken by one informant of tha t community nov/ l i v i n g i n Vancouver, B . C . '-L'he a n a l y s i s of the d i a l e c t v/as based upon o r a l m a t e r i a l which was t ape - recorded . The study desc r ibes the phonology, l e x i c o n , morph-o l o g y , and syntax as they appeared i n the corpus which c o n s i s t e d o f about 33>000 words. P e r t i n e n t f ea tu re s are compared to both the Judeo-Spanish norm and to Old Spanish , n o t i n g the conformat ions , and d i f f e r e n c e s , and i n d i c a t i n g the reason f o r v a r i a n c e s . A'he i n fo rman t ' s speech conta ined many archaisms e s p e c i a l l y i n the v o c a b u l a r y . A r c h a i c f ea tu re s o f the phonology, however, have become obscured through the i n f l u e n c e o f supe r s t r a t a and cannot p rov ide any c o n c l u s i v e evidence which would cor robora te c e r t a i n phone t ic d i s t i n c t i o n s of Old Span i sh . There i s a l s o some va r i ance between the phonology o f t h i s d i a l e c t and other Sephardic d i a l e c t s . A l s o ev ident i n the d i a l e c t s tud ied here were: impoverishment of vocabu l a ry , the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f neologisms and new fo rma t ions , a n a l o g i c a l changes common to Sephardic Spanish and some other a n a l o g i c a l changes p e c u l i a r to t h i s d i a l e c t o n l y . Whi le o ther d i a l e c t s t ud i e s of Judeo-Spanish show a dominant number o f T u r k i s h l o a n s , t h i s d i a l e c t has a f a r g rea te r number o f G a l l i c i s m s of appa ren t ly r ecen t i n t r o d u c t i o n . Widespread s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l changes i n the l i f e o f the Sephardim i n recen t years have r a d i c a l l y a f fec ted these d i a l e c t s . The i n c r e a s i n g pressure of ex-t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s i s obscu r ing many p h o n o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c a l p a t t e r n s h i t h e r t o used by Judeo-Spanish and the ex i s t ence o f many anomalies and much f ree v a r i a t i o n i s evidence of the advanced s t a t e o f decay o f t h i s d i a l e c t . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...to Dr. Karl Kobbervig for his d i r e c t i o n and invaluable assistance ...to Dr. A.W. Wainman f o r tape recorded material on a Bosnian d i a l e c t of Judeo-Spanish ...to Dr. Hanna Kassis who i d e n t i f i e d some Arabic and Hebrew sources ...and, of course, to the informant who, i n order to insure his privacy, remains anonymous TABLE of CONTENTS Introduction. ......P. 1 Chapter I Phonology P. 5 Chapter I I Lexi c o n P. 26 Chapter I I I Morphology, and Syntax ...... P. 70 ConcL us i o n P. 91 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y , P. 93 I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t r o d u c t i o n S e p h a r d i c o r J u d e o - S p a n i s h i s a d i a l e c t s p o k e n by t h e S p a n i s h Jews who were e x i l e d by t h e I n q u i s i t i o n i n 1492. S e p h a r d o r S e p h a r a d i s a Hebrew word d e s i g n a t i n g the I b e r i a n p e n i n s u l a . The S e p h a r d i m o r S e p h a r a d i m , Jews s p e d c i n g H i s p a n i c t o n g u e s , s e t t l e d i n N o r t h A f r i c a , A u s t r i a , H o l l a n d , and I t a l y , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y s e t t l e d ^ i n G r e e c e , Y u g o s l a v i a , and T u r l e y . 1 A few of t h e s e people f i r s t s o u g h t r e f u g e i n P o r t u g a l , b u t t h e y , e x i l e d by P o r t u g a l a l s o , s o o n j o i n e d t h e e a r l i e r g r o u p s o f e x i l e s i n the L e v a n t . S p a n i s h , b e c a u s e o f i t s c u l t u r a l p r e s t i g e , became the tongue u s e d by a l l t h e s e e x i l e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e Jews who h a d o r i g i n a l l y u s e d C a t a l a n o r P o r t u g u e s e . The B e i r u t community, whose S e p h a r d i c d i a l e c t i s the s u b -j e c t ' o f t h i s p a p e r , i s s m a l l . The number o f S e p h a r d i m t h e r e was e s t i m a t e d , i n 1907, t o be t h r e e t h o u s a n d , a l m o s t a l l o f whom spoke A r a b i c and l i t t l e J u d e o - S p a n i s h . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e l i n g u i s t i -c a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d Jews, t h e r e e x i s t e d a s m a l l n u c l e u s o f f o r t y t o ~ J o s e M a i r B e r n a r d e t e i n H i s p a n i s m o de l o s s e f a r d i e s l e v a n -t i n o s , M a d r i d , 1963, one o f the most r e c e n t works, c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i v e h i s t o r y o f the S e p h a r d i m i n e x i l e has y e t t o be w r i t t e n . O t h e r h i s t o r i c a l works w h i c h may be c o n s u l t e d , however, i n c l u d e : M.L. Wagner, "Los j u d i o s de l e v a n t e , K r i t i s c h e r R u c k b l i c k b i s 1907", Revue de D i a l e c t -o l o g i e Romane. I, 1909, Pp. 470-506; A. P u l i d o , Los i s r a e l -i t a s e s p a n o l e s y e l i d i o m s c a s t e l l a n o , M a d r i d , 1904, and E s p a n o l e s s i n p a t r i a o l a r a z a s e f a r i , M a d r i d , 1905;^ M. Molho, Usos y c o s t r u m b r e s de l o s s e f a r d i e s de S a l o n i c a , M a d r i d , 1950: J . Amador de Los R i o s . Los j u d i o s de E s p a n a y  P o r t u g a l . M a d r i d , I960; Wagner, op. c i t . . pp. 470-71, has a s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y o f m a i n l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w r i t e r s ; J . M. B e r n a r d e t e , op. c i t . . p p. 199 -201, has a b i b l i o g r a p h y c o n t a i n i n g some o f the more r e c e n t works on the S e p h a r d i m . t o f o r t y - f i v e S e p h a r d i c s p e a k i n g f a r a i l i e s , recent a r r i v a l s f r o m T u r k e y , o r t h e B a l k a n s . 1 The i n f o r m a n t u s e d . i n this paper has a. background t y p i c a l o f that sector o f the Beirut community which has preserved the Judeo-Spanish language. This Sephardic speaking group was joined b y others, coming, as previously, from'Turkey or the Balkans,, as d i d t he i n f o r m a n t's family. This emigration as well as other population movements of the Sephardim was the re s u l t of World War I I . The "Sephardic capital'' 1, Salonica, before the war had consisted of approximately s i x t y to seventy-five thousand Spanish 2 Jews, most of whom died i n Nazi concentration camps. Many of the Sephardim, esp e c i a l l y those from Turkey-and Greece emigrated to the United States during or a f t e r the war. The Sephardic informant used i n this study was born i n 1928 i n Skoplje, Yugoslavia. His mother had grown up i n Skoplje although she had been born i n Salonica. She was married i n Skoplje to a native of Salonica. The family l i v e d b r i e f l y i n Salonica, one or two years, and i n 1930, moved to Smyrna (or Izmir) i n Turkey where they remained u n t i l 1935. Here the informant attended f o r two years an I t a l i a n Catholic school. Prom 193b u n t i l 1941t-, the informant's family l i v e d i n Beirut, where he continued to attend an I t a l i a n Catholic school u n t i l 194-1 aid then began to s t u d y iM. L. Wagner, "Los iudios de levante",- Revue de Dialecto- logie Romane, I, 1909,p. U-79. o Wagner, :'Los judios", Revue de Dialectologie Romane, I, 1909, p. I4.7S and A. rulido, Espanoles s i n patria. Madrid, 1905, p. 2i>, 31, 111. . E n g l i s h at an American "prep school" i n B e i r u t . When the f a m i l y emigrated to the United States i n 19hk, the, informant went to • New York' U n i v e r s i t y . He i s now a p r o f e s s o r of mathematics. The informant's f a m i l y , while l i v i n g i n the Balkans, spoke only Judeo-Spanish. The info rmant began to l e a r n I t a l i a n and French when he s t a r t e d school and speaks both languages f l u e n t l y . He learned some Turkish, as w e l l as Arabic while the f a m i l y was i n Turkey and Lebanon. In B e i r u t , Judeo-Spanish was s t i l l spoken i n the home and to t h e i r small c i r c l e of Sephardic f r i e n d s but. the informant r e c a l l s that French was spoken to a l l acquaintances who were not Sephardim. The informant's constant contact w i t h Judeo-Spanish was broken i n 191+5 when he l e f t New York. His E n g l i s h can be c l a s s i f i e d as an acquired language, and i n a d d i t i o n to a s l i g h t accent, shows some features of New York E n g l i s h . He has had no contact w i t h e i t h e r w r i t t e n or spdken' Standard Spanish. I d i d not use Spanish i n conducting i n t e r v i e w s wi th the informant i n order not to i n f l u e n c e him. Oral m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s study was gathered twice weekly i n tape-recorded i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the informant over a per i o d of three months. The corpus c o n s i s t s of m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d i n these e i g h t hours of tape, about 33,000 words. The interviews were con-ducted i n s e v e r a l forms: extended monologues on l i s t e d s ubjects, question and answer sessions, and some d i r e c t questioning on s p e c i f i c words and pr o n u n i c a t i o n s . S e l e c t e d passages were then t r a n s c r i b e d p h o n e t i c a l l y . I have t r i e d to describe the phonology, l e x i c o n , morphology, and syntax of the corpus as f a r as the m a t e r i a l would allow and have t r i e d to r e l a t e the features of the d i a l e c t s t u d i e d here to the Judeo-Spanish norm and to Old Spanish, n o t i n g the conformations and d i f f e r e n c e s , and i n d i c a t i n g the reason f o r v a r i a n c e s . Chapter I Phonology 5. Phonetic Symbols The f o l l o w i n g phonetic symbols have been used i n the phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n : I have adapted the I.P.A. symbols to f a c i l i t a t e the t y p i n g . p a v o i c e b a v o i c e t a v o i c e d a v o i c e k a v o i c e g a ^voiced v e l a r stop f a v o i c e l e s s l a b i o - d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e v a v o i c e d l a b i o - d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e d a v o i c e d i n t e r - d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e s a v o i c e l e s s d e n t a l (or p r e d o r s a l ; f r i c a t i v e z a v o i c e d d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e s a v o i c e l e s s p a l a t a l - a l v e o l a r f r i c a t i v e z a v o i c e d p a l a t a l - a l v e o l a r f r i c a t i v e h a pharyngeal c o n t i n u a n t ^C- a v o i c e l e s s u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e g a v o i c e d v e l a r f r i c a t i v e r a v o i c e d a l v e o l a r s i n g l e f l a p c a v o i c e l e s s palatal-alveolar a f f r i c a t e dz a v o i c e d palatal-alveolar a f f r i c a t e m a v o i c e d b i l a b i a l n a s a l n a v o i c e d a l v e o l a r n a s a l fi a v o i c e d p a l a t a l n a s a l n a v o i c e d v e l a r n a s a l 1 a v o i c e d d e n t a l l a t e r a l A a. voiced palatal lateral 1 a voiced velar l a t e r a l y a p a l a t a l semivowel w. a velar semivowel (labialized) i a high front-close vowel e a mid f r o n t half-close vowel •§ a mid front half-open vowel ae a mid central half-open vowel a a low central open vowel r a lowered high front open vowel (as i n English b x t ) a mid central h a l f open vowel (schwa) a a nasalized low open vowel 9 a mid back half open vowel o a mid back half close vowel u a high back close vowel xr a _1owered high back open vowel (as i n English book) A a low-mid central close vowel (as i n English up) / A £ / <£ a mid_front half-open nasalized vowel. (as i n French f i n ./ft/ ( Phonetic Transcription A phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n of a portion of the f i r s t tape recording done by the informant: yo na ' s i en ^s 'ko pya yu go 'sia vya mis pa - ' ry^n .te,. 'e ran de sa 'lo n i ka ^n 'gre sya ma mi 'ma dre 'kwan do >e ra 'u na 'ni na mwi ' c i ka se fwe a yu go 'sia vya kon su * pa r ^ n te,s i dis 'py§s, an ' s i ke yo, na 'syo "e,n e.s-'ko pya no av ' l a moz §1 's§r bo n i §1 'gre go 'so lo en §s pa ' h o i . ' tgn go un qr 'ma no 'so l o no ' te.fi go qr 'ma-nas. . §1 na 'syo en sa ' l o n i ks. yo na ' s i 'so l o en qs-•ko pya i 'kwan do te 'ni a 'so l o 'u ngz dgz 'me zez mgz a t g r " n i rugs qn 'gre sya, e.n sa ' l o n i ka. mis pa "rye^n iqs v i ' v i an qn sa 'lo n i ka §n a 'kel »ty§m po. mi 'ma are se fwe a ^s 'ko pya 'pgr ke su pa ' rye,n tes 'e ran de e,s »ko-pya, v i ' v i an qn qs *ko pya i 'gn de yo na ' s i . v i .'.vi moz qn sa ' l o n i ka 'u no o dgz 'a ngs i dgs "pw^s moz "fwe-mos qn t u r ' k i a , qn i z "mir i a 'ya e,s 'tu ve " f i s t a 'kwan do te ' n i a moz 'o co o syq te 'a noz. yo na ' s i m i l no ve 'se.n to ' t r e y n t a i ' s i n ko. gn i z 'mir fwe a l a es 'ko l a i ta Mya na, 'u na qs 'ko l a mwi de 'pa drgs f r a s i s 'kae ngz i am b i ' z i ql i t a ' l y a na a l 'me.z-mo 'tyem po ke av ' l a moz §1 l a ' d i no qn 'ka za. i moz 'fwe mos a 'mi ggz de Igs i t a ' l y a ngs . i ejn l a 'ka za 'gn de v i ' v i a moz 'e ran tarn 'bye,n i t a * l y a -ngs . fwe a 'ya pgr doz 'a ngs qn l a qs 'ko l a i ta -' l y a na i dqs 'pwgs noz 'fwe moz a bey 'rut 'le ba ngn qn 'treyn t a i ' s i n ko i . §s .'tu ve a 'ya 'as t a m i l no ve ' sgn to kwa 'ren to "kwa t r o i a "ya kgn t i n u ' i . 'e r a 'u na es 'ko l a i ta " l y a na, 'e r a de 'pa dres do mi n i "kr{e nos 'as ta kwa ' rgn t i "u no. 'e r a 'u noz 'kwan tgs 'a rigs, 'syg te 'a figs qn l a qs 'ko l a i t a -' l y a na i dgs 'pwgz me fwe a 'u na es 'ko l a a me r i -'kae na, yu nr "var sx t i Af bey ' r u t . te ' n i a 'u na qs -'ko l a 'pa ra 'an tgz de u n i vgr s i 'dad, "prgp s k u l ". e,s ' tu ve a 'ya ^n bey 'rut dgz 'a figz i dqs 'pwgz "kwan do 8. me ' v i ne a l p z §s 'ta dos u ' n i dos me 'fwe a nu 'york yu n i 'var s i t i . no su ' f r i moz d§.l 'to do, so l a 'me,n te en kwa 'ren t i 1 u no 1 kx/an do l o z i n ' gle zez a t a 'ka ron a . ' s i r y a i a ' l e ba non i a l a z ko ' l o nya'z; f r a ' s e zaz i 'kwan do l a ' f r a sya en 'tro l a g§ r a $1 s i k e,s ' ta va en kon 1 t r o l a 'ya. kwa ' re.n t i 'u no l o z i n 'gl§ zqz de s i 'da ron ke ke, '.ri an to 'mar §1 pa '§2 i a t a 'ka ron i a ' v i a un 'po ko de ' ge, r a pgr se.3 se 'ma naz, a. ' v i a un bom-bar da 'mye^ n to 'ka da 'no ce ma no 'e r a mwi 'ne,g ro, no •e r a d i ' f i c i l e de 'to do. doz 'me zqs o ku 'pa ron l a ' ty'-§'..''ra no t u ' v i moz mas 'ge, r a en a ' k e l 'par te d e l 'mun do. <§n kwa ' r ^ n t i 'kwat ro de s i ' d i moz de v e ' n i r , de a t o r 'nar moz. yo na ' s i un s i t i ' z i n de l o z e_s 1 t a dos u ' n i dos. mi 'pad re 'kwan do 'e r a man 'se vo de d i z i 'ses 'a nos sa 'lyo de 'gre sya. ' v i no nu 'york i du 'ran te l a • ' p r i ma 'ge_ ra, se a t o r 'no 'ko mo s o l 'da do a me r i -kae no i se ke 'do e.n l a l 'ma nya por tre_z 'a nos i 'kwan do se a t o r 'na v a ^ e,n a 'me r i ka. pa 'so por yu go ' s l a -vya i a 'ya qs ke en kon ' t r o mi 'ma dre i se ke 'do. 'dun kwe mo 'zo t r o z 'to dos ' c i kos 'e ra moz 'to dos a me-r i 'ka nos, e_n su pa sa 'por te a me r i 'kae no i no a ' v i a n i n 'gu na d i f i k u l ' ta qn a t o r 'nar moz e_n a 'me r i ka i de s i ' d i moz §n kwa ' r§n .ti'kwa tro de a t o r 'nar moz. mi 'pad re i mi §r 'ma no v i 'nye. ron ql p r i 'me, ro i 'u noz 'kwan tos 'me_ zez mas -'tar de mi 'mad re i yo ve ' n i moz KT/n va 'por. t v 'mo un msz. 'e r a un kon 'voi noz ' ' f u i moz de Be' 'rut en ' k a i ro.- noz k i ' d i moz a 'ya 'u na se 'ma.na. Phonemes The f o l l o w i n g twenty-six phonemes appear i n the corpus of the informant's speech. Sample words i n which they occur are g i v e n i n phonemic t r a n s c r i p t i o n . /p/ / p r e t o / 'black' /b/ / b e v i r / 'to d r i n k ' / t / /tomar/ 'to take' /d/ /domandar/ 'to ask' /k/ /kopo/ ' g l a s s ' 7 g / ' /avagar/ 'slow' / f / . / f u i r / 'to f l e e ' /v/ / v i v i r / 'to l i v e ' /h/ /haham/ ' r a b b i ' /m/ /murir/ 'to d i e 1 /n/ /nono/ 'grandfather' / i V /mafia/ 'manner' / l / / l u v i a / ' r a i n ' / r / /rompir/ 'to break' / s / / p a sar/ 'to pass' / s / / k i s a r / 'to complain /dz/ / d z i d i o / 'Jew' / c / / c i k a / 'small' /y/ /yamar/ 'to c a l l ' / i / / a n s i n a r / 'to teach' /e/ / e s p e r a r / 'to hope' 1 0 . /a/ /karo/ 'car' /o/ /bos/ 'voice' •Vu/ /buz/ ' i c e ' Cosonantal Phonemes Thp- s t o p s , A l l stops are u n a s p i r a t e d . A s e r i e s of v o i c e d and v o i c e l e s s stops occurs at b i l a b i a l and d e n t a l - a l v e -o l a r p o s i t i o n s and a v o i c e l e s s stop at the v e l a r p o s i t i o n w i t h a gap o c c u r i n g i n the p a t t e r n where a v o i c e d v e l a r e q u i v a l e n t might be expected, /p/ / t / /k/ /b/ /d/ There are no p e r c e p t i b l e p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s f o r the v o i c e l e s s s e r i e s /p/, / t / , /k/ as i s a l s o the case i n standard Spanish. In a d d i t i o n to the gap i n the v o i c e d stops, there are a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s from standard Spanish phonology i n the p a r a l l e l p a t t e r n of the f r i c a t i v e allophones of the v o i c e d s e r i e s (Da 1, CdJ., C g l from &] , [d] , [g] . ) /b/ The v o i c e d b i l a b i a l stop /b/ i s a phoneme c o n t r a s t -i n g with the v o i c e d l a b i o - d e n t a l continuant /v/ i n the minimal p a i r /bos/ 'voice' and /vos/ 'you'. The f r i c a t i v e b does not occur once, e i t h e r as a phoneme . or allophone, i n the corpus of my informant's speech. I have checked t h i s c a r e f u l l y s i n c e the f r i c a t i v e s does occur i n the d i a l e c t s s t u d i e d by Wagner, and Crews, and 11. /b/ (cont.) i t s existence i n the Sephardic dialects is a con-t r o v e r s i a l subject i n studies of Judeo-Spanish. There are, then, no p o s i t i o n a l variants of /b/ or /v/. However, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of /b/ and /v/ seems to be li m i t e d . /b/ almost never occurs i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p osition i n this corpus (except ' l i be ro). a word of I t a l i a n origin, but i s regularly replaced by /v/ i n this position, for example, be 'ver 'to drink', es k r i ' v i r 'to write' 1, ' i va 'I was going', /v/ can-not occur a f f e r the nasal, although i n other positions, that is i n i t i a l l y , /b/ and /v/ are not mutually ex-clusive, as i n am b i ' zar 'to learn', em bo.ra ce ' ar •to become inebriated', bom bar da • .t^y en to 'bombing'. This l i m i t a t i o n on the occurence of the stop /b/ suggests that the f r i c a t i v e /v/ may, i n this d i a l e c t be replacing an e a r l i e r f r i c a t i v e te. b might e a s i l y be i d e n t i f i e d with v on the basis of f r i c a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y since te is not known to other languages spoken by this speaker. There i s , however, written evidence of te i n Old Judeo-Spanish rashi t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s showing that Old Spanish had the b i l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e before li+92. 1 The controversy among writers on Judeo-Spanish re-garding the existence i n Modern Sephardic Spanish of te or v and b shows that d i f f e r e n t solutions have 1 L . Spiegal, : l01d Judeo-Spanish Written Evidence ' of Old Spanish Phonemes", Ph.D. dissertation, Minnesota, 1952, p. 122. Id.. /b/ (cont.) been chosen by various 'Sephardic dialects.. In this dialect, the existence of y_, the labio-dental' f r i c a -tive, may have been affected by the lack of the sound te in the superstrata and adstrata languages which the modern sefardi, e s p e c i a l l y i n smaller Judeo-Spanish sceaking communities is obliged to learn. That the 1 b i l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e te was retained i n Salonica, although Modern Greek has only the labio-dental j£ may be the r e s u l t of the great number of Judeo-Spanish speakers l i v i n g , u n t i l recently, i n Salonica. A l t e r -natively, the variety and confusion of • phonetic f i n d -ings i n various dialects may well r e f l e c t the v a c i l l a -t ion of te and v i n Old Spanish which was resolved i n -. dependently outside Spain i n each Sephardic community. /d/ /d/ may have a f r i c a t i v e allophoneCdlwhich can occur only i n i n t e r v o c a l i c position, but i t s appearance.is sporadic and ^ccurs i n free v a r i a t i o n with UdJin iden-, t i c a l environment. The incidence of d i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y seems appreciably higher thanCehl. In a l l other posi-tions C d l occurs. Examples with f r i c a t i v e : sa ' I i do ' l e f t ' , ke 'dar 'to remain', 'pye i r a 'stone', 'sye-dra. ' l e f t ' , 'ma dre (but also 'ma dre) 'mother', l a ' 4 i no (only once, otherwise l a 'di no) 'Sephardic Spanish', a ko 'drar 'to remember'. Examples wi t h the s t o p : ka 'za do 1 married', 'to do ( b u t also 1 C. Crews, Recherches sur le judeo-espagnol dans  les pays balcaniques, Paris, 1935. 13-/d/ (cont.) 'to do) ' o i l ' , 'pa l i da 'pale', pro te za or The a f f r i -c a t e s : /dz/ / c / The f r i c a -t i v e s : / f / •protector', pe !ka do ' p i t y , s i n ' , pu ' d i a. 'I c o u l d 1 , u l v i 'dar 'to f o r g e t ' . A p a i r of voiced and v o i c e l e s s a f f r i c a t e s occur at the d e n t a l - a l v e o l a r p o s i t i o n . • /dz/ / c / /dz/ has allophones dz, z. The a f f r i c a t e occurs i n i t i a l l y while the f r i c a t i v e occurs i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n , a$ l e a s t i n words of Spanish o r i g i n or i n f u l l y a s s i m i l a t e d l o a n s . Example, dze 'no yos 'knees', 'dzen te 'people', dzur 'nal 'newspaper', d z i 1 dyo 'Jew; mu 1 zer 'wife, woman', mi '• zor 'better', ka ?le za ' s t r e e t ' , and va ' l i za ' s u i t c a s e ' conform to the p r e v a i l i n g tendency, / c / has no p e r c e p t i b l e v a r i a n t s . Voiced and v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s occur at l a b i o - d e n t a l , a l v e o l a r , and v e l a r p o s i t i o n s , w i t h a v o i c e l e s s f r i c a -t i v e i n the p a l a t a l p o s i t i o n . (z does not have phone-mic s t a t u s ) / f / / s / / s / /x/ /v/ / z / ,/g/ Except f o r the l o s s of Old Spanish phonemic / z / , the f r i c a t i v e s represent the most n e a r l y complete s e r i e s , / f / has no allophones. while some Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s maintain the l a b i o - d e n t a l f (Old Spanish h) and others use the a s p i r a t e d h, t h i s d i a l e c t has g e n e r a l l y l o s t 111. /"f/ \ C o n t . ; i n i t i a l f . I n i t i a l f i s , however, s p o r a d i c a l l y r e t a i n e d i n a very few words. Thus the informant says ' i za 'daughter 1, ay ' l a r 'speak', a 'zer 'do', but f u 1 i r ' f l e e ' and fe 1 r i r 'wound'. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that 'fas ta, 'as t a , and even ' f i s ta ' u n t i l ' ( p o s s i b l y I t a l i a n f i n o plus asta) appear. The sporadic occurence of f i n these instances i s perhaps a t t r i b u t a b l e to the informant's b r i e f stay i n Yugoslavia where f i s r e t a i n e d i n Sephardic Spanish. /v/ /v/ i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d phonemically from /b/ (see /b/ above). /v/ does not occur, however, a f t e r • the nasal /m/ which c o n d i t i o n s the homorganic stop /b/« This p a r a l l e l s the p a t t e r n of the stop /d/ a f t e r /n/, and /k/ which c o n d i t i o n s a preceding allophone CnJ<? Hence am b i ' zar (INVITIARS) 'to l e a r n ' , de man 'dar 'to ask', 'nun ka 'never', / s / / sY i s not the Old C a s t i l i a n a p i c a l v a r i e t y , but an a l v e o l a r d o r s a l i n the informant's speech. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s phoneme / s / i s p e r p l e x i n g . I t seems to occur i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h z i n some c i r -cumstances but does not represent a phonemic n e u t r a l i -z a t i o n i n any d e f i n a b l e environment. For example, mo 1 zo tr o s , mo .' zo t r o z . and a l s o mo 'so t r o z occur i n i d e n t i c a l environments without a change i n meaning: noz 'fwe moz 'we went, nos 'fwemoz, and nos 'fwe nos a l l occur, so t h a t the c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r i s n e i t h e r the presence of voice not phonemic n e u t r a l i z a t i o n i n 15. /s/ vcont.) word or utterance f i n a l p o s i t i o n . At most, there is a strong preference of f i n a l z, over /s/, but i t is not a consistent change, and i t is not li m i t e d to f i n a l p o s i t i o n . This s i t u a t i o n . i s further complicated because, at the same time there appear to be residual traces of Old Spanish phonemic•contrast between / s / and /z/ i n examples where free v a r i a t i o n consistently does not occur i n the informant's speech as i n 'ko za 'thing 1, 'ka za 'house', and pa 'sar 'to spend, pass'. The informant corrected my pronounciation of kasa to 'ka za „ The phonemic difference i n modern standard Spanish has disappeared giving r i s e to an allophonic d i s t r i b u t i o n of C s l and Czl. presumably, the Old C a s t i l i a n /s/ - /z/ phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n would have come with the Sephardim from Spain and, indeed, this informant's speech and possibly his Beirut d i a l e c t i s the only one which does not conform to the general Judeo-Spanish tendency to maintain.the phonemic d i s -t i n c t i o n . A former /s/ when preceded by a yod (which has since disappeared) p a l a t a l i z e s as, for example, d i z i -• 'ses 's i x t e e n ^ s e i s ] a n d a l l second person p l u r a l forms of the verb l i k e av ' l a tes 'you spoke' (-asteis]) and de 'sa tes 'you l e f t 1 f d e s a s t e i s ) Velar consonants have also p a l a t a l i z e d a preceding /s/ which becomes /s/ i n certain words: bus 'kar 'to look for', and pes 'ka do ' f i s h ' . According to Lapesa, this change 16. / s / (cont.; a l s o occurred i n p e n i n s u l a r Spanish i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 1 In a d d i t i o n , the phonology of t h i s d i a l e c t w i l l t o l e r a t e an » impure'" s_, p o s s i b l y , i n t h i s .speaker's d i a l e c t because of French, E n g l i s h , and I t a l i a n borrowings which e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h forms having an epenthetic 'e_', f o r example, Ss 'ko pya 'Skoplje', es 'ko l a 'school', but s.pe sya l i 'da des ' s p e c i a l i t i e s ' /h/ /h/ occurs most f r e q u e n t l y i n words of A: '-ic and Hebrew o r i g i n , as i n ha ' z i no ' s i c k ' , ha 'ham 'rabbi', • . but i t a l s o occurred once i n Spanish a 'ho ra 'now' along w i t h the more frequent p r o n u n c i a t i o n a 'o ra 'now' , The v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e g, however, occurs as normal i n the compound a gor 'a no ' l a s t year'. / g / / g / has two allophones: a voiced v e l a r stop C g l and the norm C g l - C g l occurs only a f t e r i t s homorganic nasa l , as i n 'ten go 'I have', otherwise C g l occurs i n a l l other p o s i t i o n s , f o r example, 'gre sya 'Greece', 'ga to 'cat', a'mi gos ' f r i e n d s ' . I n i t i a l C g J i s a commonly known feature of the S a l o n i c a d i a l e c t a l s o . That the v e l a r f r i c a t i v e C g l n a s become the phonemic norm i n t h i s d i a l e c t i s perhaps due to f o r e i g n i n -f l u e n c e . The f r i c a t i v e g occurs i n Modern Greek -y and 1R. Lapesa, H i s t o r i a , p. 336. 2 One would expect a 'go r a . The appearance of /h/ here may be due to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of v o i c e d v e l a r f r i c a t i v e g w i t h v o i c e l e s s continuant /h/. (?) 17-/g/ Icont.j may have been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Arabic (ghain) i n the B e i r u t area. S a l o n i c a , which p r i o r to world War I I was the l a r g e s t Sephardic community, may w e l l have been the place of o r i g i n of t h i s development, surrounded, as i t i s , by Greek. The informant l i v e d i n S a l o n i c a f o r two years and h i s mother had been born there. Nasals. Voiced nasals occur at b i l a b i a l , a l v e o l a r , and de n t a l points of a r t i c u l a t i o n . /m/ /m/ can occur i n fre e v a r i a t i o n w i t h /n/ i n c e r t a i n circumstances, l Such &%, before the b i l a b i a l semivowel /w/. Thus: 'mwes t r a and also 'nwes t r a 1 our' occur; 'mwe vo and 'nwe vo 'new; 'mwe ve and 'nwe ve 'nine'. Perhaps on the analogy of 'mwes t r a 'our', m and n vary f r e e l y i n moz/noz, mozotroz/nozotroz 'we' despite l a c k of a b i l a b i a l element. The informant uses these forms c i t e d above interchangeably. Otherwise, /m/ and /n/ are d i s t i n g u i s h e d . This phonetic s i t u a t i o n of free v a r i a t i o n i n c e r t a i n words may perhaps lend c r e -dence to the / s / - / z / v a r i a t i o n which also appears to be a phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n i n a few words. /n/ /n/ has allophones f j n ^ and Cri2 CrQoccurs only before v e l a r stops ' k and g. For expample, 'nun ka 'never', ' l i h gwa 'language', but otherwise C nj. occurs. /a/ /n/ has no p e r c e p t i b l e v a r i a n t s . 18. L i q u i d s . / I / / l / , a voiced a l v e o l a r p a l a t a l has a v e l a r p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t , C 1 J. which occurs word and s y l l a b l e f i n a l l y , f o r example £sp_anoi. Otherwise, C l l occurs. This development may be due to earlier•Portuguese speaking Jews or i t may be a recent E n g l i s h i n c u r s i o n . / r / / r / i s a s i n g l e voiced a l v e o l a r f l a p , f o r example, 'pe ro 'dog' and rom ' p i r 'break'. There i s no a l v e o l a r t r i l l / r r / occuring as a phoneme or p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t i n t h i s d i a l e c t . Most Judeo-Spanish' d i a l e c t s have r e t a i n e d the phonemic c o n t r a s t of s i n g l e / r / and the m u l t i p l e / r r / . Marius Sala claims that, " i n norma i u d e o s p a n i o l e i d i n B u c u r e ^ t i am g a s i t s i a l t e s i m p l i f i c a r i ale s i s t e m u l u i f o n o l o g i c i n r e g i s t r a t e i n a l t e r e g i u n i . Este vorba de d i s p a r i ^ i a f a r a urme a d i s t i n c t i e i d i n t r e / r / s,i /r r / . " " ' ' In a d d i t i o n to the l o s s of / r r / i n the B e i r u t d i a l e c t as w e l l as i n the Judeo-Spanish of Bucharest, i t has a l s o been l o s t i n 2 the Smyrna d i a l e c t of New York. The probable reason f o r t h i s development i n the three d i a l e c t s mentioned i s the l a c k of phomenic d i s t i n c t i o n between / r / and / r r / i n the s u p e r s t r a t a . ' ' "M. Sala, "Organizarea unei norme n o i spaniole In indeospaniola", S t u d i i g i c e r c e t a r i l i n g v i s t i c e , k, Anul XVII, 1966, p. k.03• D. Levy, "La pronunciacion d e l s e f a r d i esmirniano de Nueva York", Nueva r e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a espanola, 6, 1952, p. 277. 19. consonants or  semi-vowels /y/ /y/ has no p o s i t i o n a l variants, /y/ fo r //"/ i s found i n the spoken language i n many Spanish speaking areas and the tendency to make this change must have already been present i n the speech of the late f i f -teenth century. Normal developments are ka 'yar 'to be quiet' and ya 'mar 'to c a l l ' . Exceptional i s 'le to 't i c k e t ' .which i s an I t a l i a n loan. 'lu v i a 'rain' and ca ' l i za 'street' which have / l / rather than /y/ replacing C a s t i l i a n /J\/ are i n common use among Sephardic d i a l e c t s . /w/ /w/ has no p o s i t i o n a l variants. Consonantal Phonemes i. <J d d o_ \ \ ^ vC o c \ — 1 c 1 o -5 d M - > "5 • p c 0 a -u J CO £ — - r j > >^ c/i Q _ <3 -P > > W C it <3 S r «3 d ~2. cn «i -3 _ d >^ 5-21. The Vowel Phonemes / i / a h i g h c l o s e f r o n t unrounded vowel /&/ a mid f r o n t h - I f - c l o s e unrounded vowel /a / a low c e n t r a l open unrounded vowel /of a mid back h a l f - c l o s e rounded vowel /u/ a h i g h back c l o s e rounded vowel / i / / i / has allophones Ci1 and a lowered h i g h f r o n t l a x vowel L~IJ which occurs i n a p r e t o n i c s y l l a b l e before C i l am b l ' z i 'I le a r n e d ' , k i 1 d i moz 'we s t a y e d 1 . Otherwise C i j . occurs as i n ' d i s i 'I s a i d ' . /e/ /e/ has allophones Ce3 and Ce.,3 a low mid f r o n t h a l f - o p e n l a x vowel. The open v a r i e t y C§1 f r e -quently occurs i n c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s , under s t r e s s , and b e f o r e r . gr 'ma no 'brother' a 'kgl 'that' 'fwQ 'he went' But, however, c l o s e d and open e can occur i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n w i t h each other as w e l l as with C i l (a) de s i ' d i moz 'we decided' de, s i ' d i moz d i S L ' d i moz (b) d i s 'pw§s ' a f t e r , then' de,s 'pwes (The v a r i e n t d r s ' p y e s a l s o occured once). 22* /e/ (coat.) (c) an s i 'nar 'to teach' an se 'nar (d) d i ' z i r 'to say' de_ ' z i r de ' z i r / a / /a/ a low central unrounded vowel has occasionally a f i n a l variant, a schwa, C>1 e,r 'ma na-z ' s i s t e r s ' Sa ' r i k> ' l i t t l e Sarah' Also there is sporadic use of CaeQ but only i n English loan words and the word a 'me r i 'kae no •American'. These two variants are probably the resu l t of English influence. Another such variant attributable to French occurs, /a/ i n words related to French. 'fra sya 'France', f r a 'sez 'French1' These three vowels are not, of course, regularly a part of the phonology, but represent incomplete phonological assimilations. /o/ /of has three allophones which can occur i n a pattern sim i l a r to that of the allophones of /e/. Thusjjc/], a lowered high back lax vowel appears pretonically, openCQ3 occurs i n closed sy l l a b l e s , and the more Closed f_o_] appears i n open s y l l a b l e s . Cu"! can occur i n free v a r i a t i o n wi t h C o Qwithin a word. kxj- 'mi da 'food', ku'mer, or ko 'mer 'to eat 23. w l v i 'dar 'to f o r g e t 1 p v ' d i a, po 'der, o r pu- 'der 'to be a b l e ' 'Qn de 'where' na 'syo 'he was b o r n ' N e i t h e r / e / o r / o / c a n c l o s e t o / i / and / u / r e s p e c -t i v e l y i n word f i n a l p o s i t i o n as happens i n many J u d e o - S p a n i s h d i a l e c t s . Thus t h e f o r m e r 'mo zo ' b e a u t i f u l ' i s p o s s i b l e , b u t t h e f o r m e r 'mo zu as u s e d i n B o s n i a , i s n o t i n t h i s d i a l e c t . Sim-i l a r l y , ' v e r de ' g r e e n ' , does n o t t o l e r a t e c l o s u r e o f the f i n a l v o w e l t o L ~ i 3 i n t h i s d i a l e c t . C l o s u r e o f t h e s e v o w e l s can, as i n o t h e r d i a l e c t s , o c c u r i n p r e t o n i c p o s i t i o n . ^ " Of c o u r s e , e / i f l u c t u a t i o n s a r e a l s o f o u n d i n modern S p a n i s h d i a l e c t s . These f l u c t u a -t i o n s a r e known t o be a change c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f 2 L e o n e s e a t l e a s t i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n . I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t O l d S p a n i s h f l u c t u a t e d i n the u s a g e o f o/u and i / e . M e n e n d e z - P i d a l s t a t e s t h a t f l u c t u a -t i o n s b e t w e e n o/u, i / e l a s t e d u n t i l i n t o t h e s i x t e e n -t h c e n t u r y . / u / has no a l l o p h o n e s . (The l o w e r e d and more l a x 6/3. i s a p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t o f /of.) •'•But ' l i n gwa ' l a n g u a g e ' may d e r i v e i t s [ x j t h r o u g h I t . ^ A l o n s o Z.amora V i c e n t e , D i a l e c t o l o g i a e s p a n o l a , M a d r i d , 1963, p. 88. -^Menendez-Pidal, O r i g e n e s d e l e s p a n o l , M a d r i d , 19UU, p. 67. , 2a. / u / i c o n t . ) t J ' n i doz ' u n i t e d ' ' U noz ' some ' C l u s t e r s The c l u s t e r s - b d - o r - v d - , as i n J u d e o - S p a n i s h g e n e r a l l y , have been p r e s e r v e d as t hey were i n O l d S p a n i s h : s i v 'da ' c i t y ' 1  ' d e v da ' d e b t ' duv ' d a r ' t o d o u b t ' ' k o v do ' e l b o w ' ' v i v da ' w i d o w ' The f r e q u e n c y o f t h i s c l u s t e r - v d - seems t o cause Ev ' r o pa ' E u r o p e ' and ' k a v sa ' c a u s e ' t o conform t o t h i s p a t t e r n a l s o a l t h o u g h t h e y had / u / even i n O l d S p a n i s h . p o p u l a r Changes P o p u l a r p h o n e t i c changes o f / w e / and /bw7 becoming /gwe/ 7 do n o t o c c u r i n t h i s d i a l e c t a l t h o u g h t h e y a re a t t e s t e d i n n e a r l y a l l J u d e o - S p a n i s h d i a l e c t s and i n o t h e r S p a n i s h d i a l e c t s as a v u l g a r -i s m . The " p u r i t y 1 1 o f the d i a l e c t s t u d i e d h e r e i s n o t due to c o n -t a c t w i t h the s t a n d a r d l anguage n o r i s i t l i k e l y t h a t i t i s a t t r i -b u t a b l e to any f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g fo rms , w h i c h a re commonly c i t e d as t y p i c a l o f J u d e o - S p a n i s h a re n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t y p i c a l o f a l l S e p h a r d i c ' s p e e c h as s t u d y o f t h i s d i a l e c t has shown. T h u s : the i n f o r m a n t r e n d e r s ' d e v i l ' 'we r ko b u t n o t guerko. (O ld "^This l o s s o f f i n a l d i s e x c e p t i o n a l and i s p r o b a b l y i n -f l u e n c e d by I t a l i a n c i t t a . 2 5 . C a s t i l i a n huerco); 'bvie no 'good' but not gweno; 'wga mo 'smell' but not gwezmo. Another phonetic s u b s t i t u t i o n frequent i n most other d i a -l e c t s but absent i n the informant's speech i s the a s p i r a t e /h/ r e p l a c i n g / f / or / s / fo l l o w e d by a b i l a b i a l . Thus only fwe appears i n t h i s d i a l e c t , never hue which i s u s u a l l y c i t e d as Judeo-Spanish and 'sue no 'sleep' not shueno. ^owel Phonemes FRONT CENTRAL B>ACK HJGH CLOSE 0 c u MID CLOSS e o L o w OPEN a Chapter 2 Lexicon 2 6 . General Remarks The p r e s e r v a t i o n of o l d e r forms no l o n g e r c u r r e n t i n standard Spanish i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s . This a r c h a i c q u a l i t y a p p l i e s not only to the r e t e n t i o n of c e r t a i n sounds mentioned i n the chapter on phonetics but i s a l s o a s t r i k i n g f e a -ture of the Judeo-Spanish l e x i c o n . This i s not, of course, a s u r p r i s i n g phenomenon when one r e c a l l s t h a t the e x i l e of the Sep-hardim occurred before the gre a t l i n g u i s t i c t r a n s i t i o n s of the Golden Age, and that subsequently, the Spanish Jews l i v e d i n a l -most complete i s o l a t i o n i n s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t communities mainly w i t h i n a T u r k i s h empire which was w i l l i n g to l e a v e m i n o r i t y groups to themselves. The break w i t h the p e n i n s u l a and i t s l i n g u i s t i c a i d l i t e r a r y development was complete. F o r a time the o l d 'romances' which the Sephardic Jews kept i n many c o l o n i e s would tend to f i x the stage of the language as i t was when they were i n Spain. Some l i t e r a t u r e was composed i n e x i l e , but i n s m a l l q u a n t i t y and only f o r a short time. S e v e r a l generations l a t e r the l i t e r a c y of the Sephardic Jews had much d e c l i n e d , thereby removing any standard to which the spoken language might adhere. As one would expect, the f l u c t u a t i o n s and v a r i a n t usages of the language i n f i f t e e n t h and e a r l y s i x t e e n t h century Spain are r e f l e c t e d i n the Judeo-Spanish l e x i c o n . F o r example, i n Valdes' D i a l o g o de l a lengua we f i n d the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n as to whether c u r r e n t usage favoured asperar o r esperar and whether there was a d i s t i n c t i o n i n meaning. 2 7 . Marcio.-... Hazeis alguna d i f e r e n c i a entre asperar y esperar? Valdes.- Yo s i , d i z i endo asperad i n cosas c i e r t a s , y esperad en cosas i n c i e r t a s , como vosotros usais de aspet t a r y sperar; y a s s i digo: espero que este afio no avra guerra. Bien se que pocos o ninguno guardan esta d i f e r e n c i a , pero a mi me ha parecido guardarla por dar mejor a entender l o ,que s c r i v o . l The d i s t i n c t i o n i s s t i l l observed i n t h i s d i a l e c t of Judeo-Spanish. In a d d i t i o n to the f a c t o r s mentioned above, such v a c i -l l a t i o n s i n peninsular- usage i n t h i s p e r i o d of r a p i d i n n o v a t i o n p a r t i a l l y account f o r the l a c k of a f i x e d language standard i n Judeo-Spanish. The p r o p o r t i o n of o l d e r forms v a r i e s according to the d i a l e c t of Judeo-Spanish. The d i a l e c t s . o f the sma l l e s t and most i s o l a t e d communities have preserved the greatest number of archaisms, a l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon which i s common i n o u t l y i n g 2 areas. The Monastir d i a l e c t , according to Max L u r i a , i s the most archaic, while that of Morocco,as seen i n the study by Paul Benichou, ^ does not d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y from Modern Spanish due to i t s c l o s e r contact w i t h the p e n i n s u l a . while the number of words d e r i v e d from the common stock of Old Spanish i s probably g r e a t e r i n standard Spanish than i n Judeo-Spanish,^" nevertheless Judeo-Spanish has continued Juan Valdes, Dialogo de l a lengua. ed. CI. Cast., Madrid, 196k, p. 36. "Max L u r i a , "The Monastir D i a l e c t " , Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Revue Hispanique. LXXIX, 1 9 3 0 , p. 3 2 3 f f • ' ^Paul Benichou, ''Observaciones sobre e l judeo-espanol de Marruecos", R e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a h i s p a n i c a , VII, 191+5, p. 2 0 9 - 2 5 8 . 4-Dr. A.. S. Yahuda, "Contribuciones a l estudio d e l judeo-espanol", R e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a espanola, , I I , 1 9 1 5 , p. 31+7. 26. u s i n g some words c u r r e n t i n the g e n e r a l S p a n i s h o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y b u t w h i c h have s i n c e d ropped o u t o f the s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e . The words i n t h i s c a t e g o r y have n o t a lways r e m a i n e d unchanged b u t , as i s to be e x p e c t e d i n a l i v i n g tongue , t hey have o c c a s i o n a l l y an i ndependen t deve lopment o f t h e i r own. F o r example , O l d S p a n i s h l a z d r a r ' t o work h a r d ' , w h i l e i t i s r e t a i n e d i n the Skop l j e d i a l e c t s t u d i e d by C y n t h i a Crews^ has become l a d r a r i n the s p e e c h o f the i n f o r m a n t , and l a z r a r i n S p a i n . I n a d d i t i o n t o s e p a r a t e deve lopmen t s i n each l anguage community, f u r t h e r v a r i a n c e s among S e p h a r d i c d i a l e c t s and between s e f a r d i and the s t a n d a r d S p a n i s h o f the p e n i n s u l a have as t h e i r b a s i s the s e v -e r a l v a r i e t i e s o f m e d i e v a l S p a n i s h d i a l e c t s w h i c h the Jews b r o u g h t w i t h them. A l s o some Jews d i d n o t go d i r e c t l y t o the L e v a n t b u t t o o k up r e s i d e n c e f o r a t ime i n P o r t u g a l b e f o r e j o i n i n g the o t h e r e x i l e s . Y a hemos hecho cons t a r que en l o s ' p r imeros t i empos d e l e s t a b l e c i m i e n t o do l o s j u d i o s en O r i e n t e hubo e n t r e e l l o s un r e g i o n a l i s m o p r o n u n c i a d o , que se m a n i f e s t o en l a f u n d a c i o n de c a l e s o s i n a g o g a s n a c i o n a l e s . Se d i s t i n g u i e r o n e n t r e s i l o s j u d i o s de C s s t i l l a , de A n d a l u c i a , de A r a g o n , de C a t a l u n a , de P o r t u g a l , y h a s t a hoy d i a ( 1 9 3 0 ) m u c h a s ^ f a m i l i a s s e f a r d i e s r e c u e r d a n aun s u p r o c e d e h c i a . Mas t a r d e l a l e n g u a t e n d i o a u n i f i c a r s e p o r e l c o n t i n u o t r a t o e n t r e s i de l o s s e f a r d i e s de d i s t i n t a p r o c e d e n c i a , y e s t a u n i f i c a c i o n se r e a l i z o sob re t p d o en l a s g randes c i u d a d e s , donde an tes se h a b l a r i a n de s egu ro d i s t i n t o s d i a l e c t o s Wagner has p r o b a b l y e x a g g e r a t e d a l i t t l e i n c l a i m i n g t h a t many C y n t h i a Crews, L ' B s p a g n o l Dans Les B a l c a n s , P a r i s , 1 9 3 0 , P h . D . D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 1 6 7 . ! M . L . Wagner, C a r a c t e r e s G-enera les . p . 15. 29. s e f a r d i e s remember from wha^, area they come since some Spanish Jews such as the one mentioned i n Luria's dissertation are even unaware that the language they are speaking i s Spanish. Indeed, the term dzidyo, dzudezmo. and even ladino used to describe the language does not stress that the language is related to Spanish. Formerly, the term ladino was the L a t i n language as distinguished from Hebrew but' the word is now used without the speakers' aware-ness of i t s etymology. The informant used f o r the present study does not know from what province his ancestors came, but,as do the majority of those who speak ladino , he realizes that his language i s a form of Spanish. Among the Inherited Spanish words, some few are s t i l l distinguishable as being from northern dialects, that i s , Aragon-ese and Leonese. There are no obvious traces of Andalusian d i s -cernible i n the Judeo-Spanish of the Levant f o r i t is believed that the majority of Sephardic Jews of Andalusian o r i g i n s e t t l e d i n North A f r i c a . 1 Two large l i n g u i s t i c d i v i sions i n the Levant are generally distinguished: that of the eastern Levant embracing Istanbul, Turkey, and the Near East, which is. C a s t i l i a n i n character; and, that of the western Levant, including Macedonia, Greece, Bosnia, Serbia, and part of Bulgaria, which i s p r i n c i p a l l y Aragonese and 2 Catalonian i n flavour. This w i l l explain to some extent a number 1A.S. Yahuda, "Contribucion". Revista de f i l o l o g i a  espahola, II, 1915, p. 359. 2 M.L. Wagner, Caracteres, p. 22. Cf.Bernardete, Hispanismo  de los sefardies levantinos. p. 75. 30. of e v i d e n t l y northern words i n the informant's speech p o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t of h i s contact w i t h d i a l e c t s from the Balkans and western Judeo-Spanish, but, more probably these words have been accepted by a l l Sephardic d i a l e c t s as a k i n d of koine, since some d i a l e c t a l features of Aragonese and Leonese appear to be h e l d i n common among a l l Sephardic d i a l e c t s even i n the ' C a s t i l i a n ' area. Among the words which Wagner gives as p e c u l i a r to the western region,"'" f o r example, the f o l l o w i n g are to be found i n the informant's speech (eastern and ' C a s t i l i a n ' Judeo-Spanish): 'ar vo l e 'tree', a 'su ker 'sugar', so 'lorn bra 'shadow', and . 'Ion ze ' f a r ' . • The informant's p e r i o d of residence i n the western area was very short and i n any case i f these words were not i n t e l l i g i b l e i n the eastern region, that i s Turkey and B e i r u t , where the informant l i v e d subsequently, others would probably have .been s u b s t i t u t e d . Otherwise, i n r e l a t i o n to the p r o p o r t i o n of northern features i n other Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s , the informant's speech i s remarkable f o r i t s f i d e l i t y to Old C a s t i l i a n , n o t w i t h -standing the i n f l u e n c e of l o c a l environments which are l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r creatingnew v a r i a t i o n s i n each Sephardic area. Another prime f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the shape of the l e x i c o n i s the spoken and n o n - l i t e r a r y nature of the d i a l e c t . Nowadays i t s usage i s r e s t r i c t e d to the home and to a l i m i t e d c i r c l e of Sephardic acquaintances whereas other languages have to be em-ployed i n business and the p r o f e s s i o n s . There was, however, a f l o u r i s h i n g l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n u n t i l a general d e c l i n e i n the eighteenth century. Scholars p r e f e r to apply the term l a d i n o wagner, Caracteres. i b i d . , p. 22. 31. only to re l i g i o u s writings and translations such as the Perrara Bible. The l i t e r a r y language is written i n .Hebrew tr a n s c r i p t i o n c a l l e d rashi or, i n more recent times, ladino i s written i n Latin characters such as i n La Vara, a Sephardic review formerly pub-l i s h e d i n New York u n t i l 19k5, and i n some modern I s r a e l i news-papers. The Sephardim themselves do not di s t i n g u i s h between ladino, defined by scholars as the l i t e r a r y and written aspect of the language as mentioned above, and the vernacular or spoken tongue c a l l e d zargon, dzudezmo or dzidyo. A l l four terms are used by most of the Spanish Jews without d i s t i n c t i o n . The spoken tongue Is what concerns us here. Most writers on the subject base t h e i r observations on the written language. 1 There i s a considerable discrepancy between the two lev e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n vocabulary. The informant does not recognize l i t e r a r y words which I put to him l i k e l e e r 'to read' l i s t e d by Mr. Subak.^ This speaker, who has had an otherwise excellent education, can-not read the rashi s c r i p t and, indeed, t o l d me that 'one cannot write i n ladino, because i t i s not a written language.' He ^employs French f o r written communication with his family. A l i t e r a r y l i n k with the peninsula might have served as a s t a b i l i z i n g factor on the language, and might have provided a model or 'language i d e a l ' . In addition, i t seems that even the influence of l i t e r a r y ladino was, f o r the most part diminished through the prestige of the schools of the A l l i a n c e I s r a e l i t e Universelle o f f e r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n French and the national language 1 e g . J. Subak's works (cf. bibliography). 2 j . Subak, Das Verbum i n Judenspanischen, Bausteine, Halle, 1905., p.321. 32. to exclusion of Spanish. These schools set up by the French Jews to help' th e i r "backward brothers" lar g e l y replaced the syna-gogue schools. The nature of Judeo-Spanish as a spoken language, without a l i t e r a r y norm then has had many predictable consequences and effects upon the lexicon, some of which are common to other v a r i e t i e s of c o l l o q u i a l Spanish: impoverishment of vocabulary, ready acceptance of neologisms, new formations independently invented through analogy to the Old Spanish model, new meaning f o r older words and rapid acceptance of loan words needed to meet the lacunae i n the:'.' language due to new c u l t u r a l contacts. Once accepted, the borrowed portion of the vocabulary seems ephemeral and l i k e l y to give way to a spontaneous loan from another source, i f the f i r s t loan word does not come re a d i l y to mind. This device does f u l f i l l the primary function of language which i s communica-tion, but contributes to what purists c a l l the decadence of Judeo-Spanish. The spontaneous loan i s l i k e l y to be understood by other sefardies who usually have at t h e i r command three or four l a n -guages. ^ In short, there i s a f l u i d and f l e x i b l e standard, a lack of consciousness of~ 'correctness' regarding not only vocabulary, but also grammar and s t y l e . Early loans, c h i e f l y Turkish, are usually, but not always, assimilated to the Judeo-Spanish phonetic pattern, (for example, ) "^Bernardete^ Hispanismo de los sefardies levantinos, Madrid, 1963, p. li?3~ ''En lugar de ayudarlos a rejuvenecer su lengua...La Alianza rehusaba. ensefiarel espanol. : l f i l 'dzan 1 cup 1, should show a medial z. Recently acquired loans from other language sources are usually unassimilated phonetically, as in, sa mg da 'fer 'railroad', in- the speech of my informant re-tains the nasal vowel of French. Both assimilated and unassimi-lated elements may exist concurrently, no doubt, because the sef-ardi must learn to speak the languages of the superstrata from which words are drawn. This informant, f o r example, speaks French, English, and I t a l i a n f l u e n t l y , as well as some Arabic and Turkish. The proportion of loan words i n the lexicon is very high and gives a "hybrid" character to the language i n much the same way that Rumanian and English appear mixed. Loan words include not only substantives, but also verbs i n this d i a l e c t . Abraham Danon, however, l i s t s Turkish loans of prepositions, adverbs, and con-junc t i o n s . 1 Unfortunately, he does not state from which d i a l e c t of Judeo-Spanish he takes his examples, but i t is-most l i k e l y that of Istanbul, which presumably would contain a higher pro-portion of Turkish loans. However, the l i s t of words which he gives i s not at a l l representative of the d i a l e c t under discussion here, f o r only one of the many words which he cites is known to the informant: amma 'but' which has a j o i n t Turkish - Arabic o r i g i n probably reinforced by Old Spanish mas, and I t a l i a n ma. Other-wise, Turkish loans i n this d i a l e c t are usually confined to sub-stantives. The number and kind of foreign loans i n each Judeo-Spanish, d i a l e c t i s , of course, subject to v a r i a t i o n . In Bosnia, f o r example, A. Danon, "Le tuic - dans l e judeo-espagnol", Revue Hispani-que, XXIX, pp. 1-12. JS4--the number of Turkish loans i s f a r l e s s than that of I s t a n b u l , according to Xalmi Baruch, 1 but the T u r k i s h element s t i l l dom-2 mates over other l o a n sources. And again, the number of loans i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n urban centres than i n the r u r a l areas x,fhere the Spanish element i s more f a i t h f u l l y preserved.-^ I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed that T u r k i s h i s the foremost con-t r i b u t o r of loan words to a l l Sephardic d i a l e c t s . This i s a n a t u r a l consequence when one r e c a l l s that the s e f a r d i e s have been subject to the i n f l u e n c e of the T u r k i s h language i n v a r y i n g degrees of i n t e n s i t y f o r f i v e c e n t u r i e s . Indeed, under these circumstances, i t i s s u r p r i s i n g that Spanish s u r v i v e d . Other languages which c o n t r i b u t e to the h y b r i d character of Judeo-Spanish are Arabic, French, I t a l i a n , Hebrew, and recent-l y , E n g l i s h , due to the l a r g e immigrations of Spanish Jews to E n g l i s h speaking areas, e s p e c i a l l y the United S t a t e s . The p r o p o r t i o n of non-Iberian elements i n Judeo-Spanish has n a t u r a l l y increased as the c e n t u r i e s passed. E a r l y t r a v e l l e r s to Sephardic colonies remarked on the ' p u r i t y ' of the language a century a f t e r d i s p e r s i o n . Gonzalo de L l e s c a i s always quoted 1 K a l m i Baruch, " E l judeo-espanol de Bosnia", R e v i s t a de  f i l o l o g i a espanola, XVII, p. 120. 2 * Except f o r Rudolfo G i l i n "La lengua espanola .entre l o s jud i o s " , La Sspana moderna, 1909, p. 3&, who discerns three i n equal i n p r o p o r t i o n : Hebrew, Turkish, and Arabic i n l i t -e rary documents. ^Yahuda, "Contribuciones", R e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a espanola, I I , 1915,. p. 355. 35. i n t h i s regard: Llevaron nuestra lengua y todavia l a guardan y usan d e l l a de buena gana,...y yo conosci en' Venencia judios de S a l o n i c a h a r t o s ^ q u e hablavan c a s t e l l a n o tan bien o mejor que yo. However, by the seventeenth century, c e r t a i n l y , Judeo-Spanish was notably d i f f e r e n t frora the Spanish of the p e n i n s u l a . Ber-nardo Aldrete, a l a t e r t r a v e l l e r , says of the Spanish Jews, : ,Los que fueron de Espana /s"ic7 hablan aun toda v i a e l lenguage que l l e u a r o n d e l l e , i se reconoce que es de a q u e l l a edad, d i f -erente desta."^ In a d d i t i o n , i t seems tha t even before the exodus from Spain the Sephardic vocabulary was d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a few pecu-l i a r i t i e s , the r e s u l t of v a r y i n g s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s . R e l i g i o n was a primary f a c t o r . . Prom the e a r l y date given by Corominas, i t i s apparent that p r i o r to the d i s p e r s i o n , Judeo-Spanish must have r e g u l a r l y employed the from Dio 'God' as opposed to Dios. The reason seems to be that i n very e a r l y Spanish the p l u r a l of Dio and i t s a l t e r n a t i v e Dios was l o s Dios which l a t e r became l o s dioses. The monotheistic Jews, nevertheless, continued to use Dio perhaps because they f e l t Dios to be p l u r a l . Another such word a r i s i n g from r e l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s and also from the cl o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Moors ai d Jews, i s a l 'ha 'the f i r s t day', a word of Arabic o r i g i n probably shared by Moors and Jews and used ' "''Gonzalo de L l e s c a , H i s t o r i a P o n t i f i c a l Barcelona, 1506, as c i t e d by C. Crews, L'Espanol. Dans l e s Balcans, p. 2k. d B . A l d r e t e , Varias Antiqiiedades de Espana, A f r i c a , y otras p r o v i n c i a s , Anvers, 1614, as c i t e d by'C. Crews. l/'Espagnol  Dans l e s Balcans, p. 2k. 36. to replace the s t r i c t l y C hristian domingo 'Sunday '. 1 Mel 'dar 'to read', as rendered by the informant, has been documented by Corominas as from the f i r s t h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h century and appears i n Danza de l a Muerte with the meaning 'ensefiar It may f i r s t have been used by the Jews exclusively of reading a r e l i g i o u s document since the most acceptable etymology established by Spitzer and Blondheim is 'meletare '. a l a t i n i z e d version of Greek ^u.j\lZ^y to meditate' 2 thence to read and meditate. Le 'er 'to read' is not recog-nized by the informant, although i t is used i n l i t e r a r y Ladino . 3 texts . Also appearing i n the corpus is ha ' z i no 'sick' of Arabic origin, according to Corominas who attests Old Spanish hacino about IkOO. The Old Spanish meaning was 'sad' while to Judeo-Spanish speakers i t meant 'sick' as i t did i n Arabic. Sim i l a r l y dez ma zal 'da do Judeo-Spanish 'unlucky, unhappy retains the o r i g i n a l sense of Hebrew mazal 'luck' whereas the Spanish version desmazalado which, ^ Corominas mentioned as having been used by Cervantes, had already belonged to C a s t i l i a n 1 alhad is the form usually given i n other Sephardic dialects ^ L. Soitzer and D.S. Blondheim, "meldar", i n Revista de  f i l o i o K i s espanola, V l l l . 1921, Pp. 288 - 2 9 1 , and Romania, XLIX, Pp. 371-375. ^ See also p. 31 of this Chapter. ^ This form is peculiar only to this speaker's dialect, generally, Judeo-Spanish retains dezmazalado. Sg. Y. Malkiel, "A Latin-Hebrew blend: Hispanic 'desmazalado' ", Hispanic Review, 19U-7, ??• 272-301. 37. by that.time for more than two hundred years but was used i n the sense ' f l o j o , abatido'. It is i n t e r e s t i n g that the informant, although he does not know Hebrew, was aware of the o r i g i n of this word. The opposite i n his Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t i s ma zal 'da do not mazaloso as cited by Corominas i n the same entry. While s t i l l i n Spain, Old C a s t i l i a n harbar 'to do something i n a hurry' came to be used by the Sephardim i n the sense of 'to beat' as a result of association with the B i b l i c a l name Harbonah which meant 'beating'. The form appears i n this d i a l e c t as 1 a har 'var 'to beat, wound'. The following l i s t s are word categories which have been est-ablished i n this corpus. Loan Words Turkish loan words (Loan words are i n phonetic transcription.) (Turkish sources are spelled according to modern ortho-graphy ) Nouns a ra 'ba 'car' (And Ar.) araba 'vehicle' ba 'zar 'market' pazarlik 'bargaining' 'ber ber 'barber' berber b o ' r i ka 'dumpling bo 1rek 'tart containing meat and cheese' buz'ice' buz 'ice' c a i tea' Qay 'tea' Crews, "Some Arabic and Hebrew words i n o r i e n t a l Judeo-Spanish." Vox Romanic a. Iii, 1 9 5 4 , 1 9 5 5 p. 3OI4.. Mrs. Crews corrects Corominas' etymology. 33. c i ' ni 'dish, p l a t e , china' dzus 'tan 'purse, w a l l e t ' f i l 'dzan 'a coffee cup 1 ha 'mal 'porter' i g ' l i za or i k ' l i za''church' ka ' s a l 'butcher' kef 'tes 'meatballs' kon 'du r i as 'shoes' and kon du're ro 'shoemaker' mu s a ' f i r 'host, guest' 'pal to 'coat' pa 'ra or pa. 'ras 'money' pan'dza 'beet' por to 'kal 'orange' r a ' k i c i n i 'china' guzdan 'purse' f i l c a n or f i n c a n hamal ' s t r e e t p o r t e r ' the a l t e r n a t i v e p r o n u n c i a t i o n w i t h 'k' may stem from T u r k i s h k i l i s e 'a C h r i s t i a n church' from P r . e g l i s e . kasap . kasab i s the usual Judeo-Sp. form. This form w i t h '1' comes by way of Greek fag A try; (And Ar.) keftes kondura 'shoe' I t i s p h o n e t i c a l l y u n l i k e l y to suppose that the o r i g i n of t h i s Judeo-Sp. word i s Pr. cordonnier, as Kraus supposes,' when the Tu r k i s h stem- i s s t i l l i n t a c t i n the Sephardic word. 'sa pa to i s r e c a l l e d by the informant as an "old-fashioned word" used by h i s grandmother to mean 'shoe' a l s o . m i s a f i r ' t r a v e l l e r , guest' p a l t o 'overcoat' (which i s probably from the French p a l e t o t . ) para 'money'. J . Sp. pa 'ras may be s i n g u l a r or p l u r a l eg. mucas paras 'much money'. pancar 'beet' p o r t a k a l 'orange' r a k i 1 a k i n d of brandy' K a r l Kraus, "Judeo-Spanish i n I s r a e l " , HIspania, 3k, - 1951, p. 270. ' 39. 1 sin-ga no 'gypsy' sar 1 s i 'marketplace 1  u 'da 'room' 'vis nas 'a cherry c o n f e c t i o n ' zer ze vet ' I i 'green vegetables' Verbs s i k l e a r s e 'to be bored' cingane c f . I t . zingaro. car-si 'marketplace ' oda 'room' visne 'a black cherry' (while s e ' r i za i s used by the informant to mean 'cherry'.) zersevat 'vegetables' s,ikayet 'complaint' In sjome J.-Sp. d i a l e c t s , s i k l e a r appears w i t h the meaning 'grieve 1 . I n t e r j e c t i o n s  'hai de 'come now, come' Conjunctions amma 'but' hayde In t h i s form, from (Tk.) and Ar. amma. ma i s another J.-Sp. a l t e r n a t i v e , c f . Gk.jcoc, I t . ma, Sp. mas, F r . and Port. mais . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the m a j o r i t y of the words above des-c r i b e items p e c u l i a r to the Near East, common foods, apparel, and words of use i n business and the market. Only one v e r b a l root comes from Turkish and only one con j u n c t i o n . There are no s t r u c -t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s i n t h i s d i a l e c t or i n Judeo-Spanish g e n e r a l l y which can be traced to Tur k i s h . The r e l a t i v e l a c k of i n f l u e n c e exerted by Turkish i s s u r p r i s i n g i n view of the long contact between the two. I t w i l l be shown, furthermore, that those l o a n words borrowed by Judeo-Spanish are u s u a l l y the same words which other Balkan "^Luria, 'Monastir', Revue Hispanique, LXXIX, 1930, p. kO. languages have also taken from Turkish.. I have included again i n the l i s t of Balkan loans s e v e r a l of the T u r k i s h words shown above which have been borrowed not only by Judeo-Spanish but a l s o by other Balkan languages. The l i s t i n c ludes other words of various o r i g i n s which are also shared among Balkan languages. Balkan loans Judeo-Sp. 1. ' am- ma 'but ( o c c a s i o n a l l y ma) 2. bre 'hey' ( i n t e r j e c t i o n ) 3• c a i 'tea' l i . 'hai de 'come' ( i n t e r j e c t i o n ) 5. ha 'mal 'porter' 6. ku 'ko na described by. the informant as 'a snooty young lad y ' c f . Turk./Ar. amma, Gk.JdA o r i g i n a t i n g w i t h G k .^?^ c f . Rum., Bulg., Turk. of Chinese o r i g i n 5a, the source f o r J-Sp. i s l i k e l y Turk, cay c f . Rum. c e a i . _^ Gk• -T0&.u Russ. Bulg. Serb. from Turk, hayde, c f . Gk., Alb., Bulg., Serb., and Rum. aide/haide, e t c . Prom Turk./Ar. hamal, hammal. £f. Gk. T ^ ^ f A l b , hamal, Serb, amsi. , Bulg. hamalin. Rum. hamal.^ perhaps, of Gk. o r i g i n MQKKU^ik 'lady' cf_. Bulg., and Rum. cucoana M. L u r i a , "Monastir D i a l e c t 1 ' , p.i>k.8. 2 f A. Cioranescu, D i c c i o n a r i o Stimologico Rumano, Univ. de l a Luguna, B i b l i o t e c a F i l o l o g i c a , 1959-3cioranescu, D i c c i o n a r i o Etim. Rumano ^ I b i d . kl. 7. na 'here' used i n handing someone something. 3. por to ' k a l 'orange 9« p i n 1 z a l a i s ) ' 'pea' 10. r i 'za 'handkerchief 11. zer ze vet ' l i 'green vege-t a b l e s ' zer ze vet ' l i of unknown o r i g i n , b u t . c f . a l l S l a v i c languages and Gk. and Rum.1 from Turk p o r t a k a l , c f . Gk. K£/2S£j^22^ Rum. p.ortocal, and A l b . p o r t o k a l j e from Gk. TTc L u r i a c i t e s the unadapted formpingel.i ±n'-h i s Monastir d i a l e c t . - 3 Turk, r i d a , but J-Sp. through Serb./Bulg. Turk, zerzavat, c f . Gk. ^afSa/jcLvc. Bulg./Serb. and Rum.^ zarzavat Judeo-Spanish seems to caique the Balkan form of 'please' by us i n g the v e r b a l phrase 'I ask you' thus Judeo-Spanish te rogo  c f . Rumanian te_ or va rog, Greek TTapa.Ka\u> , and Tur k i s h l i i t f en from li i t f e t m e k 'to please'. Since Judeo-Spanish i s a language p e c u l i a r to the Jews, one would expect to f i n d a r e f l e c t i o n of the Jewish l i f e and customs, and e s p e c i a l l y the Jewish r e l i g i o n i n Judeo-Spanish. In a very t r a d i t i o n a l l y - m i n d e d f a m i l y w i t h a background of the synagogue school there are probably even more of these words current In. the vocabulary than occur i n the corpus of the. speech of the informant, who attended only French and I t a l i a n schools. I t seems that the p r e s e r v a t i o n of Judeo-Spanish as a spoken tongue i s p a r t i a l l y due 1 2 Cioranescu, D i c c i o n a r i o Etim. Rumano I b i d . ^ L u r i a , "Monastir D i a l e c t " , p. 5i+8. . ^Crews, Le Judeo-Esp. dans l e s Balcans, word index. ^Cioranescu, D i c c i o n a r i o Etim. Rumano k2. to i t s use i n synagogue r i t u a l and to i t s i d e n t i t y i n the minds of the Sephardim with a l i t u r g i c a l as well as a c o l l o q u i a l language. Hebrew words might have entered Judeo-Spanish through the practice of t r a n s l a t i n g Hebrew r e l i g i o u s texts into Spanish. The influence of Hebrew on the speaker's d i a l e c t extends only to loan words whereas i n ladino texts there i s a marked Hebrew influence on style and syntax as seen i n Subak' s study."1" On the whole, Hebrew has affected Judeo-Spanish only s l i g h t l y when compared t o . i t s -p a f f e c t upon Yiddish probably because, as I have mentioned, 3 Spanish i s the l i t u r g i c a l language to the Sephardim, J but Hebrew is used i n this capacity by the Ashkenazim. Hebrew loans. Nouns. a 1ver ' a i r ' be de 'hen 'cemetery' i G r k . also), while aire i n J.—Sp. and i n this d i a l e c t has narrowed i n meaning to 'wind' only. This form i s borrowed,from a euphemism i n Hebrew beth  ha-hayyim 'house of the l i v i n g 1 . bedehen i s unique to this dia-l e c t while other variations include bedahei, bidahayimh Here i s another example of assimilated a i d non-assimilated elements e x i s t i n g concurrently 1 J . Subak, "Zum Judensp.", Pp. 129-185. 2 C. Crews, "Some Arabic and Hebrew words i n Oriental Judeo-Spanish", Vox Romanic a. XV, 195k, 1955, p. 30ii. ^For a discussion of the use of Judeo-Spanish i n the l i t -urgy see A. Pulido, La raza sefardi, Madrid, 1901 (?), p. 98. ^"Crews, "Arabic and Hebrew words", p'. 30k. U-3--1 In J.-Sp-.. F i n a l Hebrew 'm' is adapted to-the Spanish pattern of a f i n a l ' n' since 'ni' i s not tolerated i n f i n a l p o s i t i on. However, i n ga 'ne dem 'heaven' f f . the opposite occurs. 'm' is also tolerated i n haham below. ga 'ne dem 'heaven' from Hebrew gan-eedhen 'Eden, paradise'. 1 F i n a l 'm' here i s probably an instance of hyper-correction. ha 'ham 'rabbi ' Hebr. haham kal 1 synagogue maz l a 'ha 'luck, happiness' ma zal'da do 'lucky, happy' dez ma zal 'da do 'unlucky, unhappy', 'pe sa 'passover' Hebr. kahal 'assembly'. Kal i s Used by the informant along with sinagoga which appears to be a recent English loan since I have not seen i t attested i n other Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s . These forms are based on Hebr. mazal 'luck'. Ma zal 'da do, unique to this dialect, seems to have been reformed by ana-logy on dezmazalado and mazaloso^ which are the usual J.-Sp. forms. from Hebr. pesah. F i n a l aspirate 'h' while l o s t i n this d i a l e c t is usually re-tained i n others. sa 'bat 'Saturday' the Hebrew word 'sabbath', while alha 'the f i r s t day' i s Sunday. Spanish 'sa ba do is also known. Verbs. a har 'var 'to beat' according to Mrs. Crews, this verb i s associated with the Hebrew root h-r-bh 'ruined, •'-Crews, "Arabic and Hebrew words", p. 305. 3 "See Corominas' entry desmazalado. Cf. P-37, note 1. mei 'dar 'to read' (older 'to learn') devastated', cognate w i t h Ar. kh-r-b, and t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was c a r r i e d over to J.-Sp. causing i t to d i f f e r from Old Sp. aharbar 'to do something . i n a hurry'. She c o r r e c t s Corominas on t h i s p o i n t i n that/he thinks the J.Sp. mean-ing d i f f e r s because i t has o l d e r meaning. In Judeo-Spanish mel 'dar has completely replaced 1e 'er although the l a t t e r verb , appeared i n l i t e r a r y Ladino. Mayor-Lubke b e l i e v e s meletare was introduced i n t o L a t i n by the Jews. Blondheim e s t a b l i s h e s a Vulg. L a t . form meletare 'to meditate' i n i m i t a t i o n of Gk. '.j.t.f"X?cXv/ which i n the Sept-uagint caiques the Hebr. hagah 'to meditate' or ! t o meditate over a r e l i g i o u s t e x t ' . Hence comes .'read a r e l i g i o u s uext' and f i n a l l y simply 'to read', In Judeo-Uk. i t i s s t i l l used i n the sense 'study of the law'. Corominas mentions J.-Fr. forms miauder, Prov. maud a, and southern I t . meletare A Wagner f i n d s the same Hebrew caique i n Y i d d i s h l e i n e n which i s a synonym, .of Gr. le r n e n and J.-Sp. meldar.^ 3 •Cf. p. 31, note 1 . 3 Meye>r-Lubke, Etymologisches Worterbuch. \ Blondheim,. " E s s a i d'un v'ocsbulaire comparatif des p a r l e r s Romans des J u i f s au moyen age", Romania, XLIX, 1923, p. 3h l , f f . Cf. Corominas entry meldar (Old Sp. 'ensenar') 'Wagner, Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Judengpanischen von  Konstantinopel, -Wein, 191L, s e c t i o n 170. h5. The Spanish Jews while i n Spain maintained a f a i r l y close relationship with the Moors and f i l l e d the useful role of i n t e r -preters between Christians and Moors because of t h e i r knowledge of Hebrew, Arabic, and Spanish. 1 This contact i s • r e f l e c t e d i n the nature of Arabic loan words found i n Judeo-Spanish. Four words i n the following l i s t seem to have been taken by the Jews d i r e c t l y from the moriscos. Judeo-Spanish 'sa ra retains the older Arabic sense of 'forest' while the same word i n standard 2 Spanish meant 'bush, thicket' (Mod. Sp. jara, j a r a l ) . Al 'ha ' 3 f o r 'Sunday' was shared by those of Moslem and Jewish f a i t h s . Occasionally, the word retained by the Sephardim shows a closer relationship to Arabic than the same word as i t appears i n Spanish. For example, k i 'ra i n Judeo-Spanish i s phonetically closer to Arabic k i r a 'rent' than Spanish a l q u i l e r ^ as i s also Judeo-Spanish ha 1 z i no from Arabic hazin but Old Spanish hacino 'sick'. Some Arabic words have reached Judeo-Spanish through Turkish and these have been mentioned e a r l i e r under Turkish loans. Six words i n the following l i s t are d i r e c t l y attributable to the immediate influence of the Arabic superstratum of Lebanon i n the informant's Beirut speech. These are: 'in sa l a Spanish 'ojala' where one might l o g i c a l l y expect to f i n d Old Spanish osala, ra 'ki "^Wagner, Caracteres. p. 10. 2 See Corominas, .jara -^Crews, Judeo-espagnol, p. lb". "^See Corominas a l q u i l e r L 6 . 'a liquor', kef 'tes 'meatballs', 'mu so ' l i p ' which replaces the usual Judeo-Spanish bezo ' l i p ' , and mu sa 'ma 'raincoat'. Except for raki which is commonly known i n Judeo-Spanish, I have not seen these words attested i n d i a l e c t s other than i n the informant's. There are a number of loans which may be considered recent because of their apparent lack of phonetic assimilation. Arabic loans: Substantives. Arabic sources a l 'ha 'Sunday' ' al.had 'the f i r s t day' */Ya ' t i r 'love' found only i n the expression por e l ^ a t i r de Dio 'for the love of God. It is phonet-ic i c a l l y probable that i t is a d i r e c t loan from Ar. rather than Turk, h a t i r because of the retention of % which i s otherwise absent i n the pho-nology of this d i a l e c t . 'in sa l a Spanish 'o.jala' i d e n t i f i e d by the informant as a Lebanese word. k i r a which is also the root of Mod. standard Sp. a l q u i l a r . mus ami, cf. Tk. mu.^ amba ' o i l s k i n ' muso. Labio was not under-stood. keftes r a k i . sara. I t a l i a n bosco appears occasionally. The form 'ca das 'forest', which i s also used, may be a v a r i a t i o n of 'sa ra. In.lbbO, the general cultural- l e v e l of the sefardies had f a l l e n to such an extent that the French Jews established the k i 'ra 'rent' (noun) mu sa 'ma 'raincoat' 'mu s o ' l i p ' kef 'tes 'meatballs' ra 'ki 'a l i q u o r ' 'sa ra 'forest' Alliance I s r a e l i t e Universelle i n order to raise the standard of education. This i n s t i t u t i o n created a s e r i e s of French schools which supplanted the synagogue schools w i t h t h e i r outmoded c u r r i -c u l a and methods. The rabbis gave the classes i n r e l i g i o n , a concession to appease them, apparently, f o r they had s t r o n g l y opposed the French schools i n i t i a l l y . The language of i n s t r u c -t i o n was French to the e x c l u s i o n of Sp a n i s h . 1 Although the^ A l l i a n c e provided a much needed stimulus to the o v e r a l l educa-t i o n , i t also hastened the d e c l i n e of Judeo-Spanish by e s t a b l i s h -ing drench as the new language i d e a l . Concerning the e s t a b l i s h -m e n t of these schools, Renard sa^s, but without acknowledging the omission of Spanish, ; , I I ne f a l l u t pas attendre longtemps pour que l a langue f r a n c a i s e d evint c e l l e de 1 ' e l i t e et pour que l e " 2 giuJ.desmo' f u t relegue.au rang de pa t o i s v u l g a i r e et commun. Under these c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s . i n e v i t a b l e that Judeo-Spanish should add yet another non-Iberian element to the l e x i c o n , French. The . influence, of French seems to have been i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y . The number of French l e x i c a l elements observed i n the informant's • speech i s f a r greater than the number of Turk i s h loans, and i s second only to the number of I t a l i a n loans found i n t h i s corpus. While the corpus does not represent the e n t i r e Judeo-Spanish vocabulary of the speaker, i t probably contains the more common elements of the informant's l e x i c o n and, as such, t h i s change i n dominating i n f l u e n c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t . H i t h e r t o , Turkish has been the most prominant f a c t o r i n the borrowed p o r t i o n of the Judeo-Spanish "^J. Mair, Hispanismo de l o s s e f a r d i e s l e v a n t i n o s , p. Ib5. p R. Renard, "L'influence.du f r a n c a i s sur l e judeo-espagnol du Levant", Revue des langues vivantes, v o l . 27, I, 1961, P- k9. k8. vocabulary, at least i n the Balkans. 1 At present, both I t a l i a n and French loans, considered i n d i v i d u a l l y , outweigh the Turkish ele-ments i n the .informant's speech and although I t a l i a n loans occupy f i r s t place i n this corpus, they are not as important'as the French influence, for this influence can be seen not only in''the loan words and caiques but also i n the syntax. I believe that this s h i f t i n influence from Turkish to French i s a change that probably has affected a l l Judeo-Spanish di a l e c t s , for, unlike the I t a l i a n back-ground which could be considered peculiar to this speaker, the i n -struction of French was widespread among the Sephardim. In addition, the Beirut d i a l e c t , as represented by this i n -formant, is a small and very recent d i a l e c t community of diverse 2 Balkan,origins according to Wagner, and as such, one could expect i t to be f a i r l y representative of a Balkan koine. To indicate to some degree how extensive recent French influences have been, Karl Kraus notes that the present day written style of sefardi newspapers i n Israel is more French than Spanish. Syntactical influence upon this sample of Beirut d i a l e c t w i l l be discussed i n the chapter on morphology and syntax. The majority of French loans have been assimilated to the Judeo-Spanish phonetic and morphological pattern, f o r example orozo 'happy' i s derived from French heureux. but there are also a few unadapted ones "'"Wagner, Caracteres T p. kO. ^Wagner, "Los judios de Levante", Revue de Dialectologie  Romane. Vol. I, 1909, p. k79. JK. Kraus, "Judeo-Spanish i n Israel / Hispania. 3k, 19i?l, p. 267. 1+9. which retain the French nasals, as I have mentioned e a r l i e r . Generally French verbs of the f i r s t conjugation are assimi-lated to the Spanish f i r s t conjugation, not because most sefardi speakers are aware of Judeo-Spanish conjugations but "because i t seems to be the only " l i v i n g 1 1 conjugation as i t is. in. Modern Spanish. Moreover, verbs of other sources are usually taken into the-ar conjugation as well, f o r example, Turkish sikilmek  sik le 'ar se 'to be bored'. There are two exceptions, found i n this corpus where French demenager gives Judeo-Spanish, de me na 'ger 'to move house', and French demander becomes Judeo-Spanish de man 'der. The int r u s i v e ' i ' of con dw i ' z i r seems to come from the. influence of French conduire. It is sometimes d i f f i c u l t to state with certainty whether some words have been taken from French.or English i n those cases i n which the loan word has been adapted phonetically and morpho-l o g i c a l l y to the Judeo-Spanish pattern and inhere, of course, two possible etymons are s i m i l a r . Words which are also found i n the Monastir d i a l e c t , 1 which has had no contact with English, can be assumed to be of French o r i g i n . Those words which f i n d no corrob oration i n the l a t t e r or i n other studies are kon'ser to 'concert 'f i l mo ' f i l m 1 , ' s i ne ma 'movies', and de s i ' dar ' to decide'. I have included as Gallicisms some words which might also be con-sidered Anglicisms and have indicated that they are doubtful on grounds that the informant was always aware of using an English loan and i d e n t i f i e d the English loan words which the family had used i n New York. Luria, "Monastir .Dialect", p. Sk-7 • 50. A s i m i l a r problem occurs w i t h a vo 'ka to 'lawyer', a 'men da ' f i n e ' , and b l u 'blue' which may be of French or I t a l i a n source. These words are l i s t e d as I t a l i a n i s m s by L u r i a , 1 although he does so without s u b s t a n t i a t i n g h i s d e c i s i o n . In t h i s present study they have been a r b i t r a r i l y placed under. I t a l i a n loans but are marked as d o u b t f u l . G a l l i c i s m s : Subs t a n t i v e s  Judeo-Spanish a 'dre so 'address' a so t i 'yo 'sample bu l e 'var es 'boulevards' 1bu to 'goal' kon 'ser to 'concert' e 'le vo 'student' ' f i l mo ' f i l m ' ga ' t c 'cake' 'lam pa '1amp' mus 1wa 'handkerchief pal 'to 'overcoat' pa ra • p i u ' i 'umbrella' French sources adresse or p o s s i b l y an A n g l i c i s m . e c h a n t i l l o n . boulevard. The Judeo-Spanish word i s probably a d i r e c t loan . from French. I t i s a recent French l o a n i n standard Spanish. but concert or p o s s i b l y an A n g l i c i s m . eleve. estudiantes, studentes, and alumnos are also used by the informant. f i l m or p o s s i b l y an A n g l i c i s m . gateau. An i n i t i a l v e l a r would be normal i n s t e a d o f C g l lampe. or p o s s i b l y an A n g l i c i s m . mouchoir paletot.. c f . also Tk. loans. parap l u i e 1 L u r i a , "Monastir D i a l e c t " , p. 5h7. ) 5 1 . 1 p r u na 'plum' '. s'ysk l o 'century' ' s i ne ma 'cinema' so ko ' l a 'chocolate' va 1ksn sa 'vacation' sa 'md d.3 ' f e r 'railway' Verbs . a re ' t a r 'to stop' kon dwi 1 z i r 1 to d r i v e ' de me na 'zer 'to move house' de man 'der 'to ask' (Spanish ped i r and preguntar) de s i 'dar 'decide' en do ma 'zar 'to damage' pro te 'zar 'to p r o t e c t 1 and pro te za 'dor 'protector' re gre ' t a r 'to be sorry, r e g r e t ' and regreto Adj e c t i v e s o 'ro zo, -a 'happy' se r i 'o zo, -a 'serious' Caiques 'to dos dos 'both' l a mas 1 par- te 'most, the m a j o r i t y ' prune. Tk. loans-words are u s u a l l y used i n other Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s . . s i e c l e cinema chocolat vacances chemin de f e r a r r e t e r through the i n f l u e n c e of con- d u i r e . Cf. Spanish conduc i r demenager demander decider or p o s s i b l y an A n g l i c i s m . endommager proteger r e g r e t t e r . Cf. "Monastir d i a l e c t " heureux serieux, but Spanish, Portu-guese, and I t a l i a n , , s e r i o . A lso p o s s i b l y an Ang l i c i s m . tous deux . l a p l u p a r t (du temps) as i n the expressions: Judeo-Spanish l a mas 'par te d e l t'l tyem po and l_a mas 'par te de la 'dzen t e . 52. de 'to do '(not) at a l l ' du tout Other par 'sa s 'fortunately parchance mer ' s i 'thank-you merci. The informant t e l l s me that "grasias' 1 i s never used,, but he has obviously heard i t somevh ere. Kalmi "Baruch who notes that I t a l i a n is an important element i n the Judeo-Spanish of Bosnia, believes that the seventeen words found i n his d i a l e c t were introduced long ago because of business associations with Venice which lasted u n t i l the beginning of the nineteenth century, that these Italianisms were i n general use among a l l s o c i a l classes (as opposed to the French elements vh i c h are confined to the well-educated), and that there i s no question of present-day influence.^" Of those words l i s t e d by Baruch, only three are present i n the informant's vocabulary: l a vo ' r a r 'to work', 'spa p;o 'string', and ' dun :kwe '-then' (lavorar, spagu. dunki, i n Bosnia) so that these words may be considered the older I t a l i a n elements generally current i n most Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s . Probably then, the majority of the I t a -l i a n words i n this corpus are recent loans. It is d i f f i c u l t to ascertain i f unassimilated loans such as i n d i v i dwa l i 'ta,  per so ns l i 'ta, and sen s i t i v i 'ta form the more recent core of these loans while empiegado 'employee' is older- (?) since, as we have seen, un'adapted loans of apparently long standing may exis i n other areas of the vocabulary. However, the majority of words Kalmi Baruch, !'*S1 judeo-espanol de Bosnia", RFk, XVII, 1930, p. 120. 5 "3 i n the informant's speech i n the following l i s t must be f a i r l y recent to Judeo-Spanish by reason of t h e i r predominance, for so large a number of Italianisms has not been found i n other d i a l e c t s . I t a l i a n Loans JudeorSpanish  Substantives: a 'men da 'fine' 'an dze lo 'angel' 'a ra bo 'Arabic language and n a t i o n a l i t y ' a vo 'ka to 'lawyer' b i 'Xe to 'ticket' 'bos ko 'forest' 'do no ' g i f t ' du ' z i na 'dozen' em pye 'ga do 'employee I t a l i a n ammenda cf. French amende. Old Spanish enmienda (Meyer-Liibke). Mult a i s also known. angelo (dz unassimilated) arabo avvocato cf. French avocat b i g l i e t t o . Only i n foreign loans does this /\ occur. I t a l i a n bosco: Judeo-Spanish does not show the usual change of /s/ to /s/ before /k/. sara. and las cadas 'forest' are more frequently used. dono dozzina impiegato (per) e 'zem pyo '(for) example esempio dza 'ke ta 'jacket' i n d i v i dwa l i 'ta 'indiv-i d u a l i t y i s tra 'he ro. 'stranger', 'foreigner' 'ka me ra 'room' giacchetta  individualita* Italia n straniero I t a l i a n camera: Judeo-Spanish camareta also from I t a l i a n cam-eretta 'small room' i s a synonym alongwith the most frequently used uda. The 'a' of k r a ' v a t a ' n e c k t i e ' ' k o l a r ' n e c k ' ko ' r a ze ' c h e e k , impudence ' ' no no ' g r a n d f a t h e r ' ' no na ' g r a n d m o t h e r ' o r ' l o z i o ' w a t c h ' pa ' e z pa ' k e t o ' p a c k a g e , p a r c e l ' pe ' k a do ' p i t y , s i n ' (que peKado 'what a p i t y ' ) pen ' s e r i o ' t h o u g h t ' p e r so na l i ' t a . ' p e r s o n a l i t y ' ' pos t a ' p o s t o f f i c e ' ' p r a n zo ' b a n q u e t ' ' p r o n t o ' r e a d y ' ( e s t a r ) 1 p u l so ' w r i s t 1  se ' l a t a ' s a l a d ' s a l ' s i ca s a r 'de l a s ' s a r d i n e s ' 5U-. the fo rmer may perhaps be due to c o n f u s i o n w i t h 'carna ' c r a v a t t a c f . F r e n c h c r a v a t e . E a r l y c o m m e r c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h V e n i c e u n t i l the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y may have b r o u g h t t h i s word i n t o J u d e o - S p a n i s h . c o l l o (? ) pe rhaps a l s o i n -f l u e n c e d by S p a n i s h c o l l a r . I t a l i a n c o r a g g i o ' c o u r a g e , b r a v e r y , ( f i g . ) e f f r o n t e r y ' c f . F r e n c h c o u r a g e . nonno. - a c f . Gk . o r o l o g i o paese i>e u n d e r s t r e s s i n t h i s d i a l e c t w o u l d n o t be a n o r m a l deve lopmen t a l t h o u g h s / z v a c i l -l a t e . C_f. S p . p a i s . p a c c h e t t o a ca ique on pecca toI p e n s i e r o : J u d e o - S p a n i s h word has undergone m e t a t h e s i s . p e r s o n a l i t a . c f . J u d e o - S p a n i s h : i n d i v i d u a l i t a , s e n i t i v i t a , a l l w i t h o u t a s s i m i l a t i o n t o S p a n i s h --dad noun t e r m i n a t i o n . pos t a c f . F r e n c h p r a n z o ' d i n n e r ' p r o n t o , c f . C a t . p u l so i n s a l a t a bu t c f . a l s o T k . s a l a t s . s a l s i c c i a s a r d e l l a 55. sen s i t i v i 'ta ' s e n s i t i v i t y so 're zo 'smile ' 'spa go 'string' 'tre no ' t r a i n ' «va ' l i za 'suitcase' ver 'gwe ha 'shame' Adjectives; blu 'blue' di ' f i c i le ' d i f f i c u l t ' 'fa c i le 'easy' 'f'/Q ro 'haughty, proud' 'dzus to 'just' ka 'pa ce 'capable ' 1 l i be ro 'free' Verbs: a ve 'nir 'to happen 1  dzu ' .^ar 'to joke, play 1 g r i 'tar 'to scold' l a vo 'rar ' to v;ork' and l a 'vo ro (substantive) pro f i 'rar 'to p r o f i t ' and 'pro f i to (substantive) ru v i 'nar 'to ruin, s p o i l ' s e n s i t i v i t a sorriso also Portuguese spago treno v a l i g i a possibly I t a l i a n vergogna influencing Spanish verguenza. I t a l i a n blu (?) cf. French bleu  d i f f i c i l e f acile Another Judeo-Spanish synonym i s fa ' s i l f iero giusto capace l i b e r o avveni re Old Spanish jugar vd th Judeo-Spanish dz through influence of I t a l i a n giocare. caiques I t a l i a n sgridare 'scold ' lavorare It appears that Old Spanish tra ba 'zar does exist i n Judeo-Spanish, but has acquired an ooscene meaning. p r o f i t t a r e and p r o f i t t o rovinare 56. Other a lo 'mari ko 'at l e a s t ' a l manco. Also Judeo-Spanish synonym a l 'mi ni' mo calqued on I t a l i a n . sen ' t i r 'to hear, l i s t e n ' this Judeo-Spanish narrowing (never 'sorry') of meaning may have been i n -fluenced by I t a l i a n sentire. Portuguese loans Portuguese loan words were probably absorbed by the Judeo-Spanish dialects at an early date since there has been presumably very l i t t l e contact with Portuguese since the large Sephardic settlement of 11+92. Most of the Portuguese arrived i n Turkey and the east about the same time as the Spanish at the i n v i t a t i o n of the Sultan of Turkey, while the Spanish Jews who sought asylum i n Portugal following the Expulsion Edict went, f o r the most part, along with the Portuguese Jews to Amsterdam when they were expelled from Portugal i n 1L96. 1 The Portuguese Jews formed a part of the Sephardic colonies i n the Levant, quickly giving up the Portuguese 2 language in favour of Spanish, but leaving a legacy of a few words. Most of the ones l i s t e d below from tne informant's speech, can also be observed i n other Sephardic d i a l e c t s . Judeo-Spanish Portuguese a • 1 i n da 'yet' or ' s t i l l ' ainda al f i 'ne te 'pin' a l f i n e t e a ma 'fia na 'tomorrow' calqued on amanha. un 'o tro 'di a i s a synonym. H/agner, Gharacteres, p. 12. 2 l b i d . 57. ' b i ra 'anser' kon 'ten te 'happy' 'ko po 'glass' or 'cup' '.kri za ' c r i s i s ' dzur 'nal 'newspaper' 'pre to 'black' •Ion ze ' f a r ' embirra 'obstinacy, t i f f contents but Spanish contento. copo ' g l a s s ' . The Judeo- -Spanish meaning i s not r e -s t r i c t e d to a s p e c i a l k i n d of g l a s s as Spanish copq. Tk. f i l ' d z a n i s a coffee cup. There may al s o be some E n g l i s h i n -fluence when 'ko po means 'cup'. c r i s e Portuguese j o r n a l . 1 Cf. French j o u r n a l . This word poses a pro-blem since i t could a l s o be an Old Spanish word j o r n a l , as c i t e d by Valdes x^ ho s a i d i t had been borrowed from I t a l i a n . V a c i l l a t i o n between o and u i s common and i s not a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r . p r e t o. Judeo-Spanish 1ne grb ' e v i l ' . . The meaning of ' e v i l ' assigned to t h i s word i s a caique on Tk. Kdtu 'black e v i l ' . ' I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e . that 'pre to i s from Old Spanish p r i e t o since there i s some v a r i a n t d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n Judeo-Spanish. longe (also Aragonese). Anglicisms E n g l i s h loans are the most recent of a l l , and can, 'doubtless-l y , be assigned to the time which the informant spent i n New York c i t y . They may w e l l be current among-the various Sephardic d i a -l e c t s of New York c i t y now. The informant was there f o r f o u r years These loans may have been taken from Sephardic Jews of longer r e -sidence there since almost a l l have been a s s i m i l a t e d to Spanish p a t t e r n s . 'Luria, "Monastir',' p. 5Ldi. 58. Judeo-Spanish  1 ka ro 'car' l i bre ' r i . a 1 l i b r a r y , bookstore s i t i ' z i n ' c i t i z e n ' f u r n i *tu ra ' f u r n i t u r e 1 gro se ' r i as ' g r o c e r i e s ' park 'park' 'par t i 'party' re a 1 i 'zar ' r e a l i z e ' sto 'par 'to stop' suk 'ses 'success' 'tro ko 'truck' fin polish car l i b r a r y c i t i z e n f u r n i t u r e . Judeo-Spanish mo ' b i X a and. 'mo b i l e were also used. The informant volunteered the i n f o r m a t i o n that i n New York they d i d use f u r n i 'tu ra which supplanted the other two. gr o c e r i e s , . apparently common i n other American Spanish d i a -l e c t s . park p a r t y r e a l i z e stop. Another word which the informant r e c a l l s l e a r n i n g i n New York. success truck Caique to 'mar 'to take Itime)' take time. This may have been only a momentary transference since the informant on two other occasions uses du ' r a r . Old Spanish The f o l l o w i n g Old Spanish words no longer current i n the vocabulary of Standard Spanish have been found i n the informant's speech. Words have been v e r i f i e d i n Corominas' D i c c i o n a r i o e t i - mologico unless otherwise s t a t e d . 59. Judeo-Spanish a do 'var 'to f i x , r e p a i r ' a d i 'lan t r e ' i n f r o n t o f a fe 'rar 'to catch' 'a ^ro ' b i t t e r ' (also a 'mar-£ 9 J a har 'var 'to beat' a 'hora 'now' a l 'ku na 'family' a 'lo r a 'now' a ma ' t a r 'to e x t i n g u i s h , put out (a l i g h t , lamp, or f i r e ) am b i 1 z a r 'to l e a r n ' am v± 1 z a r se 'to be accustomed' Old Spanish Old Spanish adobar'arreglar, adornar'. Corominas documents toward l l h O . Old French adober 'armar c a b a l l e r o ' Corominas c i t e s d e l a n t r e which occurs i n Old Leonese. The p r e f i x change i s probably due to Spanish ad s i antq, 1 2 5 0 . Old Spanish a f e r r a r , (a n a u t i - • c a l term.Spanish coger,is not known.) Corominas gives agrio, perhaps at the beginning of the S i x -teenth Century. agro, 1 2 5 l , normal u n t i l the Seventeenth Century. (see Hebrew loans.) already used i n Old p e n i n s u l a r Judeo-Spanish har-bar 'hacer algo de p r i s a ' Date 1500, as given by Corominas should be e a r l i e r . agora, 1 1 0 7 : ahora, 1 3 3 5 , Mod. a(h)ora; r e l a t e d to Spanish a l c u r n i a , 160k. Old Spanish a l c u h i a at beginning of F i f t h t e e n t h Century. Ar. kunya 'name'. Cid . 1. 3 5 7 - a l o r a c f . I t a l i a n a l l o r a , Corominas c i t e s Old Spanish, Por guese matar o fogo, i n Cast, i n the Middle Ages i t was f r e -quent . Old Spanish vezar according to Valdes, p. 1 2 3 ''Dicese entre gente. baxa ve zo, por 1 cos turabre ' ... es b i e n verdad que c a s i siempre ve zo se toma en mala parte, aunque do ve zo hazemos ve zar por 'ensenar. 1 c f . avezar. Judeo-Spanish a s i h a r 'to teach'. 6 0 . an ' s i , an ' s i na 'so, thus' a ron 'gar 'to throw' a sen ' t a r 'to s i t down' as pe ' rs.r 'to wait' ^esperar 'to hope') l a a 'su kar 'sugar' {a/ t o r 'nar 'to r e t u r n ' a va ga 'ro zo 'slow' ban ' t s l 'apron' be .1 vy en da 'drink' bu ' t i ca ' s t o r e ' •biv da 'widow' Old Spanish ansi, ' a c c o r d i n g to Valdes, p. 814.. Marcio: "Adonde vos e s c r i v i s estonces, as s i , y desde, o t r o s e s c r i v e n entonces, a n s 1 , y.dende, mudando l a 's' en ! n ' . Val d e s : ...en l o s vocablos que aveis. dicho s t a mejor l a ' s " "' que l a 'n' . . . Cf. i s to nee s f f . Old Arag. arrongar Corominas f i n d s the v a r i a n t a r r o n j a r , used by Sanchez de Badajoz, and Mateo Aleman. Corominas gives Spanish s e n t a r F o u r t e e n t h Century but r a r e un-t i l S i x t e e n t h Century. The o n l y o l d form i s the transitive a s e n t a r . Corominas notes that the v a r i a n t a s perar was wide-spread i n Did C a s t i l i a i i n the sense of 'wait' while Valdes complains \p. 8 6 . ; th a t -few people m a i n t a i n t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between asperar and esp e r a r . gender was feminine i n Old Spanish c f . Modern Spanish e l azucar but a l s o azucar morena. Old Spanish t o r n a r vagaroso 'desocupado, descuidado, perezoso', antiguo. Cf. Portuguese devagar 'slow' Old Spanish a v a n t a l c u r r e n t u n t i l the Seventeenth Century. Old Spanish bebienda S i x t e e n t h Century but i t s appearance i n Judeo-Spanish i n d i c a t e s an e a r l i e r date. Old Spanish b o t i c a , 1251, i n the sense of 'shop', i s from B i z a n t i n e G-k. a p o t h i k i . The - synonym bodega • a l s o .is used by the' informant Old Spanish l a b i o - d e n t a l c o n t i -nuant v e v e n t u a l l y v o c a l i z e d to u g i v i n g v i u d a Modern Spanish. 61. 'dev da ' debt 1 duv ' dar . 'to doubt' 1 e So 'business' em pre 'star 'to l e n d 1 en ca r i . ' n a r 'to miss some-one en fas • '.ty ar ' to annoy, bother' (someone) 'Old Spanish devda Old Spanish dubdar Old Spanish hecha had the same sense. Modern Spanish-negocio Corominas gives Old Spanish deprestar, but Valdes mentions v u l g a r emprestar, (p. 101) "Tengo por grossero e l enprestar." Corominas gives escarino from carino probably from d i a l e c t a l • c a r i n a r 'echar de menos', now only Arag. but before general, from L a t i n c arere. Corominas under h a s t i o says, "...antes e n h a s t i a r e n f a s t i a r . f a s t i d i a r duplicado c u l t o , ' IJ4.63, con e l matiz moderno de importu-nar, moles t a r es r a r i s i m o en e l s i g l o de oro." But i t does occur i n t h i s sense i n Judeo-Spanish c f . the form e n f a s i a r from I s t a n b u l . en g l u ' t i r 'to swallow' Corominas gives Modern Spanish e n g u l l i r f r o m * - in g l u t t i r e. Old Spanish e n g l u t i r . This |orm appears i n I s t a n b u l as e n g r u t i r . ( l a ) f i n 'the end' Corominas c i t e s f i n w i t h feminine gender as frequent i n the Middle Ages. f r a 'gwar 'to b u i l d ' Corominas derives fraguar, T h i r -teenth Century from L a t i n f a b r i -c a r i 'to shape'. dz i 'no yo . •knee' Old Arag. Hanssen gives the form genoyllos #67. ha ' z i no ' s i c k ' Corominas gives hacino from Ar. h a z i n about II4.OO w i t h the meaning ' sad, wretched' . -'•Wagner, Beitrage' zur Kenntnis ...Konstantinopel, #170. 2 I b i d . 62. i s 'ton ses 'then 1 i s pan ' t e r se 'to be a f r a i d ' ka ' l e r 'to be necessary 1 'kan so ' t i r e d ' 'kas ka ' r i n d ' (of f r u i t ) 'ka va 'cave' ka ve ' z a l ' p i l l o w , cushion' ke 'r-en sya 'love' 4 l a ko ' l o r 'colour' 'kov do 'elbow 1 'kwe ro 'skin (of a person or animal; k u l 'oo zo ' g u i l t y ' l a 'drar •' to work hard' l e ' s i va t r a n s l a t e d by the. informant as '''laundry water" estonces i s common i n Old Spanish t e x t s . Old Spanish espander o c c u r r i n g only i n the impersonal form kale ' i t i s necessary. Old Spanish c f . Arag. and Cat. according to Corominas Old and d i a l e c t a l Spanish. under Spanish cascara, Corominas says "Tambie'n se oye y se dice dialectalmente cas ca ." Judeo-Spanish o c c a s i o n a l l y changes / s / to /§/ f r e q u e n t l y before /k/. Corominas a t t e s t s cava w i t h t h i s meaning about 1275. Old Spanish cabezal s e m a n t i c a l l y equal to Judeo-Spanish amor. Corominas gives querencia " a n t i c , c a r i n o ...por •. amor." The feminine gender i s Old Spanish usage. The v x^ as s t i l l usual i n Valdes ' time, p. 69 "cobdo, dubda...mejor es con l a b que s i n e l l a , y porque t o -da; mi v i d a l o s he e s c r i t o y pro-hunciado con b." Old Spanish-'the meaning ' p i e l de hombre o de animales. 1 1250. Cf. a l s o Golden Age usage. Corominas gives culpado as the o l d e r form of Modern culpable, but the Academy d i c t i o n a r y c i t e s culposo as Old Spanish in- the sense "que ha cometido culpa". Old Spanish ( g r i t a r i s 'to bark" i n t h i s d i a l e c t . ; Corominas f i n d s Modern Spanish 1 e j i a from L a t i n aqua l i x i v a , Older Spanish lex'ia g e n e r a l l y used i n a l l ages except .Portuguese which 63. uses l i x i v i a , Cat. l l e i x i u , and Old Arag. l e s i b a . probably the l a t t e r form has given Judeo-Spanish word. le 1su ra 'great d i s t a n c e ' ' l e . t ^ a ' l e t t e r ' , ( i . e . w r i t t e n communication) Ion *gu ra 'length' 'lwen go 'long 1 ma ' l a do ' s i c k ' and ma l a ' t i a 'sickness' Old Spanish l e j u r a (lejania 1) (Academy D i c t i o n a r y ) According to Corominas, t h i s was the Old Spanish sense. In Valdes' time both were known apparently but he p r e f e r s le t r a to c a r t a , p. lk.9. Old Spanish longura ('longitud') (Academy D i c t i o n a r y ) . Valdes p r e f e r r e d the usage of luengo to l a r g o although luengo was even then becoming antiquated-"aunque l o usan pocos." p. I I S . Valdes gives m a l a t i a as an o l d Gk. l o a n i n Spanish w i t h t h i s mean-ing 1' m a l a t i a por enfermedad'1 p. _2]x. (Cf. a l s o I t a l i a n malato) ma ne ' ar '-to move' Corominas under menear c i t e s Old Spanish manear about IkOO, i n the sense 'manejar' 1220-50, d e r i v , de mano; al t e r a d o bajo e l i n f l u j o d e l ca t . y oc. menar 'conducir, mover' que de a h i paso a l cast., y se h a l l a en l a Edad Media." 'ma na 'manner' Corominas gives mafia as Old Cast, and. says i t became a synonym of manera i n the Middle Ages. Valdes, p. 96,- says both are the same. manera i s also known to the i n f o r -mant. man 'kar 'to need, l a c k ' mer 'kar 'to buy man 'se bo 'young man' and man '.se ba 'young g i r l ' Academy D i c t i o n a r y gives as Old Spanish i n the sense ' f a l t a r ' Cf. Cid 1.3312 By Valdes' time merkar was s t i l l the p r e f e r r e d usage. "Antes digo me r e a r que comprar." p. li-i-9. Old Spanish manceba about 1330, ; ipasando por muchacha.'! There i s none of the present day connota-t i o n of 'concubine 1 i n Judeo-Spanish although t h i s meaning i s given by 61+. me 'ta 'half 'mez mo 'same, s e l f man 'gra na 'pomegranate' mi zu 'rar 'to measure, to t a i l o r ' Corominas 1155, and was a l s o known by Valdes, p. 135, :l De mancebo hazemos tambien manceba, que quiere d e c i r moca y .quiere d e z i r concubina.' 1 According to Corominas meetad, metad, were Old Cast, and Leon. \n i l e ' the Arag. form was mitad. F i n a l d was probably l o s t i n Spain since i t i s not the tendency of t h i s d i a l e c t to drop • d(cf.It.meta Old Spanish me (e) smo This seems to be a v a r i a t i o n of Old Spanish minglana. The r of man 'gra na may be due to the i n -fluence of granada or to I t a l i a n mei agr ana • Minglana. was archaic by Valdes ' time -! "minglana por granadaya no se usa." p. i l ? . Old Spanish mesurar.. 'ka za de mi 'su ra ' t a i l o r ' shop 1 na mu 'rar 'to f a l l i n l o v e ' ;'nyer" vo 'nerve' 'on de 'where' o 'ga no 't h i s year 1 p l a 'zer 'to be p l e a s i n g , l i k e ' 'pres to 'early ' 'pun to 'minute' Old Spanish (according to the Academy D i c t i o n a r y . ) Cf. Portu-guese. Corominas says thai; t h i s Old Spanish form i s s t i l l used i n Arag. speech. Arag. may be the sourse of Judeo-Spanish wo rd•since n e r v i o i s documented as e a r l y as 1251. Old Spanish Valdes a l s o used the form ogano. (p. 183.) Old Spanish p l a c e r which gustar replaces a f t e r 1^99. Old Spanish i n the s i g n i f i c a t i o n of ' e a r l y ' and known to Valdes, (p. 150) "Antes digo presto que aina.''' punto i n Judeo-Spanish replaces minuto or momento i n Spanish. I t 65. . ''sye dro ' l e f t ' may represent an undocumented usage of Old Spanish since i t seems to be a d i r e c t develop-ment of L a t i n punctum temporis  1 a minute'. A development of Old Spanish s i n i e s t r o (?) or perhaps by. analogy w i t h Old Spanish r i e d r o 'back'. (Cf. Me.yer-Lubke v/72o9. ) s i v 'dad ' c i t y ' 'skur to 'short' so 'lorn bra 'shade' t i . ''nye-< bras 'dark' 'wez mo 'smell' and uz 'mar 'to smell' 1 wer ko ' d e v i l Old Spanish cibdad Corominas c i t e s Old Leon, and Portuguese c u r t o . . / s / m a y become / s / i n t h i s d i a l e c t before /k/. /k/ becomes /sk/ perhaps by ana-logy to other forms already ci ted. Cf. Rum. scurt, Old I t a l i a n s c o r t a r e e t c . Old Spanish and Old Leon. Old Spanish t i n i e b r a s . This i s f e l t to be a learned word by the informant who also uses 1 as os 1 ku- r a s . Wagner f i n d s t i n i e f l a s i n the Balkans and Istanbul.1 Old' Spanish usmar, osmar, .Lapesa i m p l i e s that giiesmo i s the general Judeo-Spanish form. Baruch f i n d s Bosnian guz mer.3 Old Cast, huerco from orcus 'Pluto'. ven ' d i da 'sale ' ' v i dro 'glass' One o l d v a r i a n t of venta was vendida. Old Spanish y i d r o wagner, Judensp.von Konstantinopel, p.99. 2 Laposa, H i s t o r i a de l a lengua espanola, p. 338. 3Baruch, "SI judeo-espanol de Bosnia", R. F. F. XVII, 1930, P..137. v i z i ' t a r ' t o v i s i t 1 and T h i s word was a p p a r e n t l y known v i 1 z i t a ' a v i s i t ' i n O l d S p a n i s h as^an a l t e r n a t i v e to v i s i t a r . V a l d e s , p . 77, " . . . y q u a l os c o n t e n t a . m a s , e x c r i v ' e r v i g i t a r o v i s i t a r . . . : " O t h e r F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the L e x i c o n Numerous o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h as m e t a t h e s e s , p r e f i x changes , v a r i a n t d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n f rom the s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e , - semant ic n a r r o w i n g and expans ion , - new f o r m a t i o n s , a n a l o g i c a l changes , and i m p o v e r i s h m e n t o f c e r t a i n l e x i c a l r e s o u r c e s are e v i d e n t i n the v o c a b u l a r y o f J u d e o - S p a n i s h . Me tha these s are f r e q u e n t l y o f the - r d - t o - d r - v a r i e t y s u c h as a ko ' d r a r se ' t o remember' ( S p a n i s h a c o r d a r s e ) ; 've.d re ' g r e e n ' ( v e r d e ) ; pe ' d r e r ' t o l o s e ' ( p e r d e r ) ; ' s o d ro ' d e a f ( s o r d o ) ; ' go d ro ' f a t ' ( g o r d o ) ; k o d ' re ro ' ' l amb ' ( c o r d e r o ) ; a l a ta-'. ^ra da ' a t n i g h t f a l l 1 (based on -:»-tardada and t a r d e c e r ) ; and ' p r o ve ' p o o r ' a l o n g wi t h the v a r i a n t ' pov r e . Some d i f f e r e n c e s a re due o n l y t o a change i n p r e f i x . I n t h i s d i a l e c t , t he r e i s q u i t e a marked p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the p r e f i x a -where S t a n d a r d S p a n i s h o f t e n uses e n - o r no p r e f i x a t a l l . These are some t y p i c a l e x a m p l e s : a s i ' n a r ' t o t e a c h ' ; a l i m p i ' a r • to make o n e ' s t o i l e t , c l e a n ' ; a r o ' g a r ' t o p r a y ' ; a l e van ' t a r se ' t o ge t u p ' ; a t o r ' n a r ' t o r e t u r n ' ; and a sen ' d e r ' t o s i t d o w n ' . S p a n i s h c a l z - a r adds a p r e f i x to become J u d e o - S p a n i s h en k a l 1 s a r ' t o pu t on s h o e s ' . su ' g a r s u f f e r s a l o s s o f p r e f i x ( S p a n i s h e n j u g a r ) as' w e l l as ban ' t a l ' a p r o n ' where S p a n i s h has d e l a n t a l and O l d S p a n i s h a v a n t a l . P r e f i x d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r i n o t h e r S p a n i s h d i a l e c t s b e s i d e s J u d e o - S p a n i s h . D i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n t h i s d i a l e c t i s v e r y u n s t a b l e and does n o t 67. appear to f o l l o w any phonetic r u l e , diphthong!zing i n some words j u s t as Standard Spanish does, or, i n other cases, where Spanish does not.diphthongize. The opposite phenomenon a l s o occurs, that i s , a s i n g l e vowel appears where the standard language has a diphthong. This l a c k of d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y described as a charact-e r i s t i c feature of the Leonese dialect,"'' and, of course, Portuguese p r e f e r s a s i n g l e vowel. The i r r e g u l a r i t y of t h i s phenomenon i n Judeo-Spanish, and i t i s a general " p e c u l i a r i t y " , may be due to the i n f l u e n c e of e i t h e r Leonese or Portuguese speakers i n the e a r l y > Spehardic communities. Portuguese i n f l u e n c e i s s l i g h t indeed but the existence of numerous other Leonese. features has been mentioned elsewhere. Words i n which t h i s v a r i a n t d i p h t o n g i z a t i o n can be i l l u s t r a t e d are: r i 1 z i n ' recent '.• .• (Spanish r e c i e n j , 'mo ble • f u r n i t u r e 1 (Spanish muebles j, a 'ze to ' o i l ' (Spanish a c e i t e ) , 'pre to 'black' where one would expect p r i e t o , 'gre so 'Greek' (griego), de 'sor te ke 'so t h a t ' (de suerte que), 'pon te 'bridge' (puente), es 'ko l a 'school' (escuela), d i z i 'ses ' s i x t e e n ' ( d i e c i s e i s ) , and d i s i 'o co 'eighteen' but d i z i . ''sye,. t o . R a d i c a l changing verbs are also i n c l u d e d i n t h i s category. The informant uses: mi a 'ko dro 'I remember', ' pen so 'I think', ' ke ro 'I want', 'ro go 'I ask', pre 'fe ro 'I p r e f e r ' , and en 'kon t r o 'I meet', a l l of which would have diphthongs i n the standard speech. 'sye ro 'I shut' and 'pye dro 'I l o s e ' show the expected change. Instances of d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n Judeo-Spanish where Spanish has a s i n g l e vowel are much fewer than the reductions to a s i n g l e vowel, and include the f o l l o w i n g : d i ' pyen df> ' i t depends', Cf. f o r example, Hanssen's Gramatica, p. 22. 68. kon ' tyen te 'happy' or the variant kon• 1 ten te (see Portuguese loans), and bas tan ta 'myen te ' s u f f i c i e n t l y ' when the normal adverbial s u f f i x in this d i a l e c t is -men te. The form with t -myen te might also be considered an archaism since i t was used i n Old Spanish too. New formations can be noted i n the use of the following words: o re 'zal 'earring' based on o're za 'ear'; c i 'kes 'childhood '; m*m se 'ves 'youth'; no ve 'dad (or no ' t i syas) 'news'; se 'la r se 'to be jealous'; ha z i 'myen to or ha z i 'nu-ra 'sickness' based on ha ' z i no ' s i c k 1 ; ser v i 'de ra 'servant'; pro te za'dor 'protector'; based on pro te 'zar; no 'ca da (cf• tar ' da da-); kon ten ' tes 'happiness'; man 'ks sa 'lack'; kon du- 're ro 'shoemaker' based on kon 'du ryas 'shoes'; mer 'ka da 'pur-chase'; ke { s i da 'complaint'; bom bar da 'myen to 'bombing'; and--go ver na 'myen to 'government'. The l a s t two l i s t e d may also be influenced . by I t a l i a n and English respectively. Some groups of words must serve two concepts i n Judeo-Spanish where the standard language is able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e . Pa 'ryen tes means both parents and r e l a t i v e s ; 'ka .ra' 'cheek and face'; and l i bra ' r i a (see also English loans) 'bookstore and l i b r a r y ' . Me-1 t e r serves as Spanish 'poner and meter'. Also evident is a simp l i -f i c a t i o n of verbs formed on ad j e c t i v a l bases i n Spanish, as a 'zer 'lu vya 'Hover'; a ' zer' t r i s te 'entristecer'; a ' zer 'nye ve 'nevar'; and ke 'dar se ka 'ya do. 'c a l l a r s e * . The concepts 'some-thing, some time, someone1, and'some' are rendered as 'u na 'ko za, a_ laz 've zez, and 'u na per 'so na; but 'some things* and 'some months', 'u naz 'kwan tas 'ko zas and 'u naz 'kwan tas 'me zez. 69. Tro 1 k a r r e p l a c e s S p a n i s h c a m b i a r ; e ' c a r se , a c o s t a r s e ; t 0 ' pa r , e-ncontar, b o t h i n the sense o f ' t o f i n d ' o r ' t o b e ' ( h a l l a r i s l o s t ) ; and i s pan ' t a r se i s u sed to the e x c l u s i o n o f t e n e r m i e d o . I n a l l t hese cases the s t a n d a r d words a re n o t u n d e r -s t o o d e x c e p t i n g en kon ' t a r whose mean ing has na r rowed t o ' m e e t ' . O t h e r s e m a n t i c s i i f t s have o c c u r r e d , c h a n g i n g the c o n c e p t c o m p l e t e l y , as i n es ka. ' p a r ' t o f i n i s h ' , o r , more o f t e n , e x p a n d i n g o r n a r r o w -i n g the S p a n i s h word as i n r-e ' d o ma ' a b o t t l e (of any k i n d ) ' , k r i a ' t u r a ' a c h i l d o f any age i n the g e n e r a l s e n s e ' , and ' f i no ' e l e g a n t ' . ' ay re has n a r r o w e d to mean o n l y ' w i n d ' w h i l e a l o a n word a ' v e r i s " a i r 1 ; t r a ' t a r has become e x c l u s i v e l y ' b a r g a i n ' w h i l e p ro k u ' r a r i s r e t a i n e d as ' t o t r y ' ; and ' pun to means o n l y m i n u t e . 'ne g ro has the s i g n i f i c a t i o n ' b a d , e v i l 1 w h i l e '.pre t o m e a n s . ' b l a c k 1 and sen ' t i r s e r v e s as t o hea r , f e e l ' ( o i r I s n o t k n o w n " ; w h i l e , i n the sense o f ' t o be s o r r y ' J u d e o - S p a n i s h uses re gre ' t a r . a r 'ma da, p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d by E n g l i s h ' a r m y ' , was employed by the i n f o r m a n t to mean ' a r m y ' . ' T o g e t h e r ' was r e n d e r e d by en ' u na as w e l l as en ' d z u n t o z . Some d i s t i n c t i o n s are a c c o m p l i s h e d by the use o f the d i m i n u -t i v e - i k o , a n o r t h e r n S p a n i s h fo rm, i n words l i k e ka ' l i za ' s t r e e t ' b u t ka l e ' z i ka ' a l l e y ' , and i s ' t o r i a ' h i s t o r y ' bu t i s to ' r i ka 's t o r y 1 . A n a l o g i c a l changes , t o o , p l a y a p a r t i n c r e a t i n g v a r i a t i o n i n J u d e o - S p a n i s h v o c a b u l a r y , as , f o r example , i n the o r d i n a l numbers : p r i 'me r o , se ' gun do, t r e ' s e r o , and kwa ' t r e r o , b u t the m a j o r i t y o f t hese changes are t o be found i n the v e r b a l pa rad igms l i k e t r u - • s i moz 'we b r o u g h t ' and v i ' n i moz 'we c a m e ' . These forms are d i s -c u s s e d more f u l l y u n d e r m o r p h o l o g y . Chapter 3 Morphology and Syntax 70. Introductory Remark? Since the corpus obtained from the informant f o r t h i s study has been purposely limited, the material does not permit an ex-haustive morphological and syntactic presentation of the d i a l e c t . Many persons, and some tenses of the verb appeared.infrequently, some information had to be obtained by d i r e c t questioning and i n certa i n cases i t was impossible to e l i c i t . By i t s nature, the texts obtained from the informant f o r this study, with an absence of natural conversation caused the material to be uneven. I avoided speaking Spanish to the informant so as not to suggest any words or constructions which he might not nat u r a l l y use. I have treated, on the whole, only those forms and constructions which are d i f f e r e n t from those i n use in-Standard Spanish. The greatest variance from Standard Spanish w i l l be seen i n the verb forms used i n this Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t . A tendency to-ward s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , present i n the d i a l e c t as a whole, i s here manifest i n a reduction of the number of tenses, with a consequent doubling of meanings for one form, and the decadence of the sub-junctive. Analogy also plays a dominant part i n reducing the number of verbal morphemes.and i s responsible for the new form taken by, at least, one tense. There i s a heavy influence upon structure and syntax exerted by other languages, and these are usually Gallicisms. The d i a l e c t under-consideration here seems to have assimilated more Gallicisms into i t s syntax than other Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s . Archaic forms are, of course, often preserved. Much independent development cannot be separated from analogical changes already mentioned. 71. I n d i c a t i v e Tenses The i n d i c a t i v e tenses i n use are the present, imperfect, pre-t e r i t e , f u ture, c o n d i t i o n a l , present p e r f e c t , p l u p e r f e c t , and three progressi-.e tenses: present, imperfect, and p r e t e r i t e . The Present Tense The present tenses have p o s s i b l y the fewest changes. The morphemes, person and tense, of the f i r s t conjugation are: -o, -as, -a, - i a moz, - as, -an. In accordance w i t h t h i s pattern, we f i n d i n t h i s d i a l e c t , do 1 I g i v e ' , and es 'to 'I am', as they appeared i n Old Spanish as w e l l . • A rchaic so 'I am' and vo 'I go'1 have become, i n t h i s d i a l e c t , se 'I am' and v_a 'I go'. The former are the more usual forms encountered i n Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s but, se, i n addi -t i o n to i t s appearance i n the d i a l e c t s t u d i e d here, i s a t t e s t e d i n the Smyrna d i a l e c t as a v a r i a n t of s_o w i t h a f i r s t person p l u r a l semos 'we a r e ' . 1 The Old Spanish conjugation was: seo, seyo, or so seemos, seyemos, or sedemos sees, seyes, or siedes seedes, seyedes, or sodes se, siede, or seye, seen or sieden^ This paradigm i n my informant's speech i s : se somoz sos sos es, or e son The paradigm as i t now stands i s a combination of o l d and new forms. The second person p l u r a l i s probably a p a l a t a l i z a t i o n of s o i s . ^ Throughout a l l conjugations the second person p l u r a l mor-pheme i s -s and the s i n g u l a r , - s . By analogy, the stress on the 1 h i r s c h , 'A study", p. 67. ^Gf. P i d a l , Gramatica, #116, and Hans'sen,. Grama tica, #230. -%ee also Chapter I, phonology,, p. 15" . 72. second person p l u r a l f a l l s on the penultimate s y l l a b l e making a uniform stress pattern throughout the paradigm. Other Sephardic dialects accent the l a s t s y l l a b l e of the second person p l u r a l . Sample paradigms; Conjugation I. av ' l a r 'to speak' 1av l o av 'la moz 1av las 'av las •av l a ' av lan Conjugation I I . de 'ver 'to have to, ought, should' 'de vo de 've moz 1de ves 'de ves 'de ve 'de ven Conjugation I I I . v i ' v i r 'to l i v e ' ' v i vo v i 'vi moz 'vi ves ' v i ves 'vi ve ' v i ven l r 'to go' conjugates: va, vas, va, vamos,'1 vas, van. Va 'I go' may be an analogical formation based on, perhaps, the i d e n t i -cal person morphemes i n the f i r s t and t h i r d persons singular of the imperfect and preterite tenses: ' i va, and fwe. The change of vo to va i n the f i r s t person i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c only of the Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t studied here, as f a r as I know. The impersonal f o r of a 'ver 'to have' i s a 'there i s , there are', and this i s , of course, also the older Spanish form ha. Two other forms of this appear In the corpus: 'o moz 'we are', based probably on ., 'so moz 'we are', an 'they are', and as 'you (plj are ' . ^Subak, "Judenspanisch", Z e i t s c h r i f t , XXX, p. 13& gives yimos, yides as f i r s t and second, person p l u r a l forms i n .Turkey. 7-3. The Imperfect Tenses The imperfect tenses also show l i t t l e , v a r i a t i o n from Standard C a s t i l i a n . Sample paradigms tor 'nar or a tor 'nar 'to return' tor 'na va tor 'na va moz tor 'na vas tor 'na vas tor 'na va tor 'na van po 'der 'to be able' pu 'di a pu 'di a moz pu 'di as pu 'di as pu 'di a pu 'di an Conjugation I I I . di ' z i r 'to say' di ' z i a d i ' z i a moz d i ' z i as d i 1 z i as di ' z i a d i ' z i an Cre ' i va' 'I thought' occurs alongside ere ' i an 'they thought' but the absence of other forms makes i t impossible to say that there is an alternative conjugation. 1 Fu ' i a moz 'we were going' also occurs along with i t s synonym ' i va moz. These alternative forms may mark the beginning of another analogical change such as the one which took place with the p r e t e r i t e tense i n Judeo-Spanish \.see the Preterite which follows), or i t may simply be a vestige of a d i a l e c t a l usage brought from Spain. Ve 'nir 'to come' has a f i r s t person 'vi a 'I was coming* as well as ve 'ni a 'I was coming, he was coming'. "nMenendez-Pidal, Gramatica his t o r i c a . #117, discusses dia-l e c t a l podeba, teneba, dormiba, veniba, etc. i n regions where -b- is not l o s t i n the second and t h i r d conjugations of the imperfect. Conjugation I. Conjugation II. 7k. Preterite Tense More drastic changes are effected by analogy i n the preterite tense in the f i r s t persons, singular and p l u r a l of- the f i r s t con-jugation, making the morphemes conform to those of the second and t h i r d conjugations. This change i s t y p i c a l of Judeo-Spanish. Certain i r r e g u l a r verbs i n this d i a l e c t are unaffected by this change. Sample paradigms. Conjugation I. am b i 1 z a r 'to learn' am b i ' z i am b i ' z i moz am b i ' za tes am b i ' za tes am b i 'zo am b i 'za ron Similarly, one finds ya 'mi 'I called', tu 'mi 'I took', es ka 'pi 'I finished", noz k i 'di moz "we stayed', a tor 'ni moz 'we returned', and de 1 s i moz 'we l e f t ' . Av ' l a r 'to speak' i s a s l i g h t l y i r r e g u l a r paradigm, having av ' l i 'I spoke' but av ' l a -moz 'we spoke?. The l a t t e r could be considered an archaism i n t h i s d i a l e c t . It may have been retained because i t is a frequently used verb. Conjugation I I . kumer 'to eat' ku 'mi ku "mi moz ku 'mi tes ku 'mi tes ku 'myo ku 'mye ron Conjugation i l l . p a r t i r 'to leave' par ' t i par ' t i moz par ' t i tes par ' t i tes par 'tyo par 'tye ron Some strong verbs have, however, retained the -e i n the f i r s t person singular. Thus: ver 'to see' 7 5 . 'vi de v i 'di moz l v i tes 'vi tes 'vi do 'vye ron The d i a l e c t also maintains vine 'I came', tuve 'I had', and estuve ' I was' while Modern Spanish puse is completely replaced by meti ' I put'. Ir 'to go' has a p r e t e r i t e fwe ' I went, he went' (as also va 'I.go, he goes' and iva 'I was going, he was going 1). The para-digm i s then: fwe 'fwe moz •fwi tes *fwi tes fwe 1fwe ron i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that s i m i l a r forms were known among other variants i n Old C a s t i l i a n and i n Old Leonese, a d i a l e c t which, as we have already seen has had a considerable influence upon the Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s . Thus: Old C a s t i l i a n Old Leonese fuy, fue, fu fuy, fue, foy fuste, f u i s t e f u s t i , f o s t i , f u e s t i fue, fo fue, fo, fu, foe^ But the choice i n Judeo-Spanish of these archaic forms was probably the r e s u l t of the' analogy with the tenses of i r i n which the f i r s t aid t h i r d persons are the same jva, fue, iva) . The Smyrna dialect, as studied by Ruth riirsch., shows a somewhat si m i l a r tendency to mai-ce the f i r s t person conform to the t h i r d . She -'-Cf. vide (vulgar), and vido (old) i n Hanssen, Historica,  2Ranssen, Gramatica, # 258 and Menendez -Pidal, Gramatica. ? 6 . l i s t s a paradigm f o r ver 'to see' g i v i n g vido as 'I saw, and 1 he saw'. 'Tru s i 'I-brought' and ' d i s i ' I s a i d ' r e t a i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c vowels. The Future tense There i s no s y n t h e t i c form of the f u t u r e i n t h i s d i a l e c t although other Sephardic d i a l e c t s have these forms. The informant does not understand the s p l i t i n f i n i t i v e alegrarmosemos c i t e d b y / 2 Subak as from Judeo-Spanish i n Turkey. A l l of the studies which I have seen on Judeo-Spanish have a s y n t h e t i c type of future which i s a lso employed by modern Spanish i n a d d i t i o n to the p e r i p h r a s t i c i r a f ollowed by an i n f i n i t i v e . The d i a l e c t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n here has apparantly l o s t the s y n t h e t i c form e n t i r e l y , or, at l e a s t , I have been unsuccessful i n e l i c i t i n g one. Many examples of the f u t u r e occur i n the corpus but they are a l l of the a n a l y t i c a l type i n v o l v i n g the use of two d i f f e r e n t p e r i p h r a s e s . l£...a. or simply i r f o l l o w e d by an i n f i n i t i v e has the highest frequency. Sample paradigm: A l l conjugations. d i ' z i r 'to say' va (a) d i ' z i r 'va moz (a) d i ' z i r vas (a) d i ' z i r vas (a) d i ' z i r va (a) d i ' z i r van (a) d i ' z i r Thus me va ke 'dar ' I s h a l l stay', se l a z va a dar ' I s h a l l give them to them', e l va man'dar ' you w i l l send', te van a kos ' t a r 'they w i l l cost you'. Synonymous wi t h t h i s f u t u r e i s an a l t e r n a t i v e future formed by 1 K i r s c h , 1 1A study", p . " 67. Subak," Judenspanisch", p . 132. using a 'ver a or simply a 'ver and a following i n f i n i t i v e . . This type appears more rarely i n the corpus, and occurred i n the follow-ing examples: voz 'o moz a_ ver 'we s h a l l see you', eya a a r i 'var 'you w i l l arrive', and voz as a r i 'var 'you (pi.) w i l l a r r i v e ' . Conditional or Conditional Perfect Analogous to .the formation of the future is the periphrastic conditional or conditional perfect tense which used the imperfect a u x i l i a r i e s of those verbs which form the future plus the preposi-tion a and an i n f i n i t i v e : Conjugation with i r . ' i va a ku 'mer ' i va moz a ku 'mer ' i vas a ku 'mer ' i vas a ku 'mer ' i va a ku 'mer '1 van a ku 'mer This paradigm i s used, to translate both 'would eat', 'would have eaten' . •• Conjugation with a 'ver. 'would be, would have been' a 'vi a a es 'tar a 'vi a moz a es 'tar a 'vi as a es 'tar a 'vi as a es 'tar a ' v i a a es 'tar a 'vi an a es 'tar The use of a single verbal form for two concepts, i n this case conditional/conditional perfect i s also found i n papiamentu, a language which, l i k e Judeo-Spanish tends toward economy and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . Papiamentu. preterite I ate mi a come Present perfect I have eaten mi a come past perfect I had eaten .mi a come Future perfect I s h a l l have eaten l o m i a come Conditional I should eat lo mi a come 78. C o n d i t i o n a l p e r f e c t I should have eaten l o mi a come. P l u p e r f e c t . . The compound tense of the p l u p e r f e c t , u s i n g the a u x i l i a r y aver and the past p a r t i c i p l e , ' a s i n Modern Spanish, appears where one might have expected an Old Spanish s y n t h e t i c p l u p e r f e c t . The l a t t e r has been l o s t i n t h i s d i a l e c t . Sample paradigm. t r a 'yer 'to b r i n g 1 a ' v i a t r u ' s i do a ' v i a moz t r u ' s i do a ' v i as t r u ' s i do a ' v i as t r u ' s i do a ' v i a t r u ' s i do a ' v i an t r u ' s i do Present P e r f e c t The informant c o n s i s t e n t l y s u b s t i t u t e s a simple p r e t e r i t e f o r the present p e r f e c t . The only forms of the present p e r f e c t which appear were a ' d i 56^' he has s a i d ' , and '.ty'e: ne 1 i do 'you have gone'. I t i s , however, known that other d i a l e c t s of Judeo-Spanish can conjugate the present p e r f e c t u s i n g e i t h e r aver or tener as a u x i l i a r y . The l a t t e r may be of Portuguese o r i g i n , as w e l l as the usage of the simple p r e t e r i t e f o r the present p e r f e c t . P a r t i c i p l e s Past p a r t i c i p l e s are, i n general true to the usual Spanish p a t t e r n w i t h -ado t e r m i n a t i n g f i r s t conjugation verbs am b i 'za do ' l e a r n t ' , e du 'ka do 'educated'. Other p a r t i c i p l e s which occurred were t r u ' s i do 'brought', 'e co 'done', es 1 c r i to ' w r i t t e n ' , ' d i - co ' s a i d ' , 'vis to and ' v i do 'seen', 'i do 'gone', v i ' n i do 'come', mel 'da do 'read', me ' t i do 'put' but a t o r ' n i do 'returned' ^E. R. G o i l o , Papiamentu Textbook, Aruba N. S. 1962, p. 6k.. 79. (a t o r n a r ) . The c o n s i s t e n c y with which the l a s t form appears' may. i n d i c a t e that the analogy of a t o r ' n i , a t o r ' n i moz i n the pre-t e r i t e w i l l e v e n t u a l l y change other past p a r t i c i p l e s on t h i s same p a t t e r n . The present p a r t i c i p l e s add the morphemes - .'an do to the f i r s t c o njugation, 'yen do to the second and t h i r d . The usage g e n e r a l l y conforms to that of standard Spanish, as i n Judeo-Spanish pasimoz 1 l a nocada kumyendo i bevyendo 'we spent the evening e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g ' , vide ke a v i a muca dzente•asperando ' I saw t h a t there were many people w a i t i n g ' . But, h o w e v e r , p a r t i c i p l e s may a l s o f o l l o w the p r e p o s i t i o n en: en arivando 'on a r r i v i n g ' , en respectando ' i n r e s p e c t i n g ' . The l a t t e r usage i s f r e q u e n t i n Old Spanish and i s pro-bably r e i n f o r c e d as a s t r u c t u r a l caique on French i n t h i s d i a l e c t . I t i s , however, common Sephardic usage. These p a r t i c i p l e s are used-, most f r e q u e n t l y i n the f o r m a t i o n of the p r o g r e s s i v e tenses. A l l three p r o g r e s s i v e s appeared i n the. corpus: present, imperfect, and p r e t e r i t e . P r o g r e s s i v e tenses Present p r o g r e s s i v e , es ' t a r av 'lan do 'to be speaking' es 'to av 'l a n do es 1 t a moz av 'lan do es 'tas av 'lan do es 'tas av 'l a n do es 'ta av 'lan do ' es 'tan av 'lan do 2 Imperfect p r o g r e s s i v e , es ' t a r 'yi n do 'to be going' es .'ta va 'yi n do es 1 t a va moz 'yindo es 'ta vas 'yin do es 'ta vas ' y i n do es 'ta va 'yi n do es 'ta van ' y i n do "''In phrases and sentences used as examples i n the text, a w r i t t e n s t r e s s w i l l be used i n accordance with s t r e s s r u l e s of standard Spanish. "The i n f i n i t i v e i n t h i s d i a l e c t i s i_r w i t h present p a r t i c i l s -yindo but Subak, "Judenspanisch",p. 13d gives J.-Sp. y i r and yendo. 80. Preterite progressive. es 'tar as pe 'ran do 'to be waiting' es 'tu ve as pe 'ran do es tu 'vi moz as pe 'ran do es tu 'vi tes as pe 'ran do es tu 'vi tes as pe 'ran do es 'tu vo as pe 'ran do es tu 'vye ron as pe 'ran do The use of a f u l l slate of progressive tenses is i n t e r e s t i n g i n view of the d i a l e c t ' s tendency towards s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and econ-omy. It does, however, relate to an evident preference f o r a n a l y t i c a l forms. Passive Voice The passive i s normally rendered by a reflexive verb as se 'di ze 'one says' but the true passive has been retained and appears three times i n the corpus. I t i s formed with ser and a past participle-. Agent is expressed, by par 'by'. no ss son ambizados a alevantarse presto 1 'they are not used to getting up early' fwe destruido par los konvensionaliamos... ' i t was destroyed by the conventionalisms...' Obligation Obligation may be rendered by dever or dever de 'must, should', and kale ke ' i t i s necessary, must'. vozotroz deves ayudar 'you must help' devia de lavar e l f i l d z a n ' I-had to wash the cup' kale ke voz i r •you must go' Treatment of the Subjunctive The subjunctive has one tense, the present, and is otherwise regularly replaced by the ind i c a t i v e tenses. Even the use of the present subjunctive is severely l i m i t e d . Imper-sonal expressions, expression of emotion, an action i n the 81. secondary clause s t i l l pending, and i n d e f i n i t e antecedents do not usually condition a following subjunctive. However, the usage is f l u i d and a. subjunctive, but only i n the pr esent, may occur. A. Examples with the i n d i c a t i v e : Me is panto ke l a kriature se cayol 1 1 am afr a i d that the child has fallen.' Es pekado ke no lo vimos. 'It is too bad that we have not seen him.' Kero topar una perona ke avla ladino. 'I want to f i n d someone who speaks ladino.' No.konosco ningunos ke avian espafiol. 'I do not know anyone who speaks Spanish.' Esperava ke.tu ivas a estar a k i . 'I hoped that you would be here. 1 a. A present subjunctive may or may not be used i n the subordinate clause i n which the action i s pending: !Me va kedar aki asta kwando tornas. 'I s h a l l remain here u n t i l you come back.' Vamos antes ke vengan. 'Let us go before they come.' C. An alternative usage with the future i n d i c a t i v e is also possible? Voz omoz a ver kwando voz as a r i v a r . . . . Ve w i l l see you when you a r r i v e . . . . 1 This l a s t may possibly r e f l e c t French usage. Judeo-Spanish usually has two subjunctives: the present and the past, according to Saporta, who establishes the follow-ing condition: " If the superordinate verb i s past, the subord-inate i s either present,subjunctive or past subjunctive i n free /Variation; / 82. i f the- superordinate verb i s not past, the subordinate verb i s present s u b j u n c t i v e . " 1 The d i a l e c t which he deals w i t h included spoken m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d from S e a t t l e informants (.from I z m i r ) , and w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l from Bosnia-, B i t o l j IMonastir), Salonica, and Constantinople, compiled from other w r i t e r s ' s t u d i e s . The e a r l i e s t date of the change which occurs i n t h i s informant's speech can be traced probably to B e i r u t , since the past subjunctive i s used i n Izmir.where the informant l i v e d p r i o r to moving to B e i r u t . I t i s , moreover, a l o g i c a l step fromi f r e e v a r i a t i o n of two forms, past and present, to e l i m i n a t i o n of one, the past, i n the i n t e r e s t s of economy, and perhaps r e i n f o r c e d by s i m i l a r subjunctive usage i n French. The informant d i d mention that while they l i v e d i n e e i r u t they always used French i n conversing w i t h non-Sephardic speaking f r i e n d s . C e r t a i n l y , there are other G a l l i c i s m s i n t h i s d i a l e c t , that w i l l , appear i n the f o l l o w i n g pages, which are not shared by other Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s . These w i l l i n clude the examples i n j C. on page 8 l where a future i n d i c a t i v e replaces a present sub-j u n c t i v e which would be normal f o r the m a j o r i t y of Sephardic d i a -l e c t s . I n d i r e c t Commands I n d i r e c t commands always take an i n d i c a t i v e i n the suoordinate clause f o l l o w i n g a main verb i n the past i n accordance with the d i a l e c t ' s usual preference f o r s u b s t i t u t i n g an i n d i c a t i v e f o r a pas sub j u n c t i v e . A present subjunctive or a present i n d i c a t i v e may be Sol Saporta, "Verbal Categories of Judeo-Spanish", Hispanic  Review, 21, 1953, P- 20?. 83. • used i n the subordinate clause when i t f o l l o w s a main verb of v o l i t i o n i n the present, but an i n f i n i t i v e may occur i n free v a r i a t i o n w i t h e i t h e r . Examples; a) main verb past w i t h past i n d i c a t i v e ; K enan ke nozotroz moz ibsmoz a kazR kon eyoz. 'They wanted us to go home wit h them'. b) main verb present w i t h present i n d i c a t i v e : Kere ke nozotroz moz vamos• 'He wants us to go'. c) main verb present w i t h present s u b j u n c t i v e : Keres ke te merke una koza? 'Do you want me to buy you something 1? Le va d i z i r ke venga kon nozotroz.'I s h a l l t e l l him to come with us'. Ya te a v e r t i ke no l o deses. 'I warned you not to leave i t . d) w i t h i n f i n i t i v e i n subordinate clause: Me domandan de ayudaldos. 'They ask me. to help them 1. T y p i c a l usage of the i n f i n i t i v e i n other Judeo-Spanish d i a l e c t s i nclude the f o l l o w i n g : Dame urn pesiko de pam para poder komer yo. 'Give me a l i t t l e piece of bread to I can eat'. These i n f i n i t i v e s have been c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w i n g two p a t t e r n s : where the act o r of the subordinate i s a m o d i f i e r of the superordinate verb or where the a c t o r of the subordinate form i s i n a f r e e form w i t h the i n f i n i t i v e . 1 Another example which appeared i n the corpus was Kale ke voz k r i a t u r a s i r a dormir aora.' I t i s necessary t h a t you c h i l d r e n go to bed now.' This example and the informant's Me domandan de ayudaldos are p a r a l l e l to the examples c i t e d from other d i a l e c t s . The l a t t e r expression may a l s o be a caique on e i t h e r French or I t a l i a n . •^Saporta, "Categories", p. 211. Conditional Sentences Conditional sentences are rendered f a i r l y consistently with an imperfect indicative i n the protasis and a conditional i n the apodis i s . Examples; Si tu merkavas kondurias muevas te ivan a kostar mucas paras. 'If you were to buy new shoes they would cost you a great deal of money'. Si eya no lo avia kazado se iva a kazar kon mi ermano. 'If she had not married him she would have married my brother'. But: . S i tenia tiempo pudia venir con t i . 'If I had time I could come with you'. Si no te alevantavas tanto presto, no tenias tanto sueno. 'If you had not-gotten up so early you would not be so s l e e p y 1 . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the imperfect indicative can f u l f i l l a l l the uses of i t s subjunctive equivalent even i n the res u l t clause, p a r a l l e l i n g the Standard Spanish usage of an imperfect subjunctive i n free v a r i a t i o n with a conditional i n this kind of sentence. According to* Iir. Saporta's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , conditional sentences i n Judeo-Spanish usually employ an imperfect i n both :'superordinate'' and the "subordinate" elements and occasionally the combination: imperfect of i r plus i n f i n i t i v e found i n the conclusion and i n t e r -preted as an imperfect."'" This combination i s , however, the only possible form of the conditional i n my informant's speech and the synthetic form, which i s used elsewhere i n Saporta's sentences other than i n the pattern described above, has disappeared i n the Saporta, 'Categories", p. 212, 213. 85. d i a l e c t s t u d i e d here. This s y n t a c t i c a l f e a t u r e i s , then, c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of Judeo-Spanish. In any case, the imperfect or past sub-j u n c t i v e has disappeared from t h i s d i a l e c t , i^but u s u a l l y r e t a i n e d ; and i s r e g u l a r l y r e p l a c e d by the co r r e s p o n d i n g i n d i c a t i v e . C o n d i t i o n c o n t r a r y to f a c t : • Se komporta komo s i era una k r i a t u r a . 'She behaves as i f she were a c h i l d . 1 Avlas komo s i no me k r e i v a s . 'You speak as i f you-do not o e l i e v e me.1 This c o n s t r u c t i o n would seem to be a r e c e n t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d G a l l i c i s m s i n c e i t i s p e c u l i a r only to t h i s d i a l e c t . The u s u a l Judeo-Spanish p a t t e r n f o r c o n d i t i o n c o n t r a r y to f a c t i s : Este s'esta dando a i r e s komo s i f u e r a mui r i k o . , 'This man i s g i v i n g h i m s e l f a i r s as i f he were very r i c h ' . One may conclude then, t h a t the s u b j u n c t i v e i n the d i a l e c t s t u d i e d here is.-in the l a t e stages of i t s disappearance, a l l past tenses of the s u b j u n c t i v e h a v i n g been l o s t , and the i r r e g u l a r use of the present' s u b j u n c t i v e i n d i c a t i n g i t s decadence. As has been shown, there i s a heavy G a l l i c i n f l u e n c e on the syntax of t h i s d i a l e c t , which supports the remarks i n the chapter on the l e x i c o n about the s h i f t i n f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s from the f o r m e r l y dominating T u r k i s h i n f l u e n c e which was ma n i f e s t o n l y i n vocabulary, to a pre-sent day dominance of French' which extends i t s sphere i n t o the s t r u c t u r e of the language. Commands Command forms were' d i f f i c u l t to e l i c i t and onl y three o c c u r r e d ^Saporta, "Categories' 1, p. 2 0 9 . 86. i n the. corpus : a f a m i l i a r s i n g u l a r 'mi ra 'look', v i ' z i ta. ' v i s i t ' ; and a formal 'mi re 'look'. Imperatives were o f t e n rendered by the phrase te 1 r o go 'please' and an i n f i n i t i v e , as i n te rojso de  i r a l a posta por mi. Nouns The morphology and syntax of the nouns, pronouns, a d j e c t i v e s , and adverbs does not show as many changes from Standard Spanish as the v e r b s . Nouns form t h e i r p l u r a l s as i n Standard Spanish. ?yas 'foot', however, i s f e l t to be s i n g u l a r w i t h a p l u r a l ;pyes es ' f e e t ' . Most words of non-Spanish o r i g i n have been adapted to the p a t t e r n f o r Spanish p l u r a l s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of very few words l i k e se. f a ra 'dim which r e t a i n s the Hebrew p l u r a l . D i m i n u t i v e s The s u f f i x - i k o seems to be the o n l y d i m i n u t i v e i n use. I t i s a f a v o u r i t e Aragonese s u f f i x . 1 Diminutives which occur i n t h i s corpus: g a ' t i ko ' k i t t e n ' , ,' bye se ' z i ko ' l i t t l e f o o t ' , ma ne- ' z i ko ' l i t t l e hand'-, Sa ' r i ka ' l i t t l e Sarah', i ' z i ka ' l i t t l e daughter'. Subject pronouns yo ' I ' (m) nozotroz or (m) noz 'we' t u 'you 1 ( f a m i l i a r v o z o t r o z 'you' (.familiar s i n g u l a r ) p l u r a l or p o l i t e s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ) and voz 'you' e l , eya, 'he, .she, you' eyos, eyas ' t h e y or 'you' v p o l i t e p l u r a l j Both the t h i r d person and the second person p l u r a l may be used •^Lapesa, His t o r i a , p.. 316 . 87. as pronouns of respect. The impression i s that e l , eya, eyos, and eyas are the most formal forms of address, while voz, vozotroz used to one person is less formal and can also be f a m i l i a r . Old Cast-i l i a n used nos and vos mosotros and voso'tros were emphatic)''" and p the former are s t i l l used Leon. Judeo-Spanish preserves the archaic, nos and vos as noted above. E l , eya, eyos and eyas are 3 t y p i c a l l y Leonese forms used i n the sense of C a s t i l i a n us ted. The informant f i r s t used voz and then tu to me and supplied the other forms, e_l and eya as terms of extreme politeness that he would use to someone of higher rank.^" These pronouns are always used with the "correct" form of the verb, that is voz, with the second person p l u r a l . That the pronouns nearly always appear with the verb (.excepting yo) may be the r e s u l t of French influence, as, no: doubt, the use of voz f o r the formal, although i t i s Spanish, i s also reinforced by French vous. E l and eya were l i k e l y the older forms brought from Leon by sefardies of that region, and voz, i n i t s formal sense, when added through French influence caused a further d i s t i n c t i o n i n the gradation of formality much l i k e that which exists between Rumanian tu, mata, and dumneavoastra 'you'. Voz, employed formally, i s not unusual i n the Judeo-Spanish of the east despite Lapesa's idea that voz i s confined to Morocco, and. e l , c eya, to eastern Judeo-Spanish. Voz may have been introduced' as a Ipida l . Gramatica, #93, 1. ^Hanssen, Gramatica, #170. 3 I b i d . . t #h90. ^The form usted or older vuestra me reed is not understood. . Lapesa, His toria, p. 337-8 6 . G a l l i c i s m t o the S e p h a r d i c S p a n i s h of the e a s t which came under the i n f l u e n c e of the s c h o o l s of the A l l i a n c e . Object pronouns: me moz/noz te voz lo los l a las Indirect object pronouns ; me moz/noz te voz le les Voz as the dir e c t or i n d i r e c t object pronoun i s , of course, an archaism. Le cannot be the di r e c t object. These pronouns are the etymologically«'correct"ones and there i s not the confusion of l o , l a , l e , as i n Standard Spanish. Prepositional pronouns: kon mi kon mozotroz/nozotroz kon t i kon vozotroz kon e l , eya kon eyos Moz, and voz may also be used as prepositional objects as i n para moz, para voz 'for us, f o r you'. The forms conmigo and contigo are unknown. Both para mi and para yo 'for me' are possible i n this d i a l e c t and the l a t t e r seems to be Aragonese usage. 1 Reflexive pronouns: me moz te voz se se 1 P i d a l , Gramatica, #93, 1. 89. Possesive a d j e c t i v e s ; mi,mis ' nwes tro, 'mwes tro -os tu,tus ' vwes tro -os su sus .It i s possible that there is some English influence i n the following use of the th i r d person pronouns: su kaza 'his house ', but sus kaza 'their house'. It may also be an independent developement of Judeo-Spanish since i t i s common in Sephardic d i a l e c t s . The occurence of the de f i n i t e a r t i c l e s with the oossesive adjectives (la mwestra kaza) f a vestige of / 1 -Old Spanish,is only sporadic i n this d i a l e c t although i t is a commonly-noted feature of Sephardic Spanish. Possesive pronouns: el 'mi o -os e l 'mwes tro,('nwes tro) -os el 1 t u yo -os e l 'vwes tro -os el 'su yo -os e l 'su yo -os Example: onde desates e l tuyo? 'Where did you leave yours? ' Object pronouns, as i n standard Spanish precede f i n i t e forms of the verb except f o r the affirmative commands, and occa-s i o n a l l y are e n c l i t i c at the beginning of a breath group. Examples: l a vide ' I saw her' lo avia topado ' he had found i t ' moz plaze ' we l i k e ' But: mire l a ' look at i t ' dio l a • he gave i t ' 2 1 Menendez-Pidal, Grama.tica, #9g. d H. Hamsden, Weak Pronoun Position i n the Early Romance Languages, 1963,p. 166. In Spanish to the late f i f t e e n t h century there is almost t o t a l postposition af t e r a t h i r d person subject pronoun (el vio los), but dio l a is the only instance of postposition found in this study which d i f f e r s from that practised by the mor-dern language. 90. I n d i r e c t object pronouns precede the d i r e c t , as i n Standard Spanish. A combination of t h i r d p e r s o n . i n d i r e c t and d i r e c t object pronouns changes the i n d i r e c t object to se. There i s no p l u r a l form -sen which i s oft e n found i n Sephardic Spanish. Examples: se l a z va a dar 'I s h a l l give them to them' se l o mostramps 'We show i t to him' R e f l e x i v e pronouns a l s o precede the conjugated forms of the verb as moz vamoz 'we are going', and me k i d i ''I stayed'. As i n Old Spanish, a pronoun f o l l o w i n g the i n f i n i t i v e may undergo metathesis. This form appeared only once, and i n conjunction w i t h the s h i f t of r to 1: ayudaldos 'to help them'. Conclusions 91. I t i s apparent from t h i s study that Judeo-Spanish is. not homogeneous, that indeed, the d i a l e c t s vary c o n s i d e r a b l y , and t h a t change can occur r a p i d l y . A r e c e n t s h i f t to a dominance of G a l l i c i s m s has been p o i n t e d out, a t l e a s t i n t h i s d i a l e c t , over the e a r l i e r preponderance of T u r k i s h . I t should be noted, however, that the l a t t e r has never exerted any s y n t a c t i c a l i n f l u e n c e and i s r e s t r i c t e d to l o a n words. The schools e s t a b l i s h e d by the A l l i a n c e I s r a e l i t e i n the Levant are the l i k e l y source of the G a l l i c i n f l u e n c e . For t h i s reason, i t may be t h a t other Sephardic d i a l e c t s w i l l nov; show a g r e a t e r number of G a l l i c i s m s . The most obvious archaisms were i n the l e x i c o n and the i n -formant's speech showed about the same p r o p o r t i o n of Old C a s t i l i a n words as other Sephardic d i a l e c t s w i t h a few remnants of Old Leonese and Old Aragonese words which are a., p a r t of the Judeo-Spanish "koine". T h i s d i a l e c t f o l l o w s the d i s t i n c t i o n made by Wagner: western areas show s t r o n g e r Aragonese and. Leonese f e a t u r e s while e a s t e r n areas are l a r g e l y C a s t i l i a n i n nature. The informant's speech showed impoverishment of vocabulary, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of neologisms and new formations, some a n a l o g i c a l changes p e c u l i a r only to t h i s d i a l e c t , and some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common to c o l l o q u i a l Spanish i n other areas. A comprehensive study whicn would take .into c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p e r i p h e r a l d i a l e c t s such as the one s t u d i e d i n t h i s paper, has not been done, and some urgency i s i n d i c a t e d s i n c e the disappearance of these d i a l e c t s i s imminent. In a d d i t i o n , f u r t h e r comparison among d i a l e c t s i s r e q u i r e d i n order to a s c e r t a i n which Judeo-Spanish f e a t u r e s s u b s t a n t i a t e c e r t a i n p h o n o l o g i c a l changes and stages of Old Spanish. Studies of d i a l e c t s w i l l help compile the necessary evidence. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the . 92. assembled material must take into account the increasing foreign influences and the abundant anomalies that exist concurrently, within one d i a l e c t . These features include wholly or p a r t i a l l y unassimilated sounds, loans, and even forms and syntax. External influences af f e c t every d i a l e c t and these are rapidly destroying' the phonological.and s y n t a c t i c a l patterns used u n t i l recently i n Judeo-Spanish. The amount of free v a r i a t i o n i n a l l aspects of this d i a l e c t is evidence of that decay, already having obscured many d i s t i n c t i o n s . The d i a l e c t has l o s t i t s sense of d i r e c t i o n and i d e n t i t y . Loss of i t s "language ideal' 1 is due to the absence of written Judeo-Spanish l i t e r a t u r e , the lack of formal education i n the mother tongue, the destruction of Sephardic communities l i k e that of Salonica i n the l a s t war scattering the population, the prestige of other languages used i n business, professional, and c u l t u r a l pursuits. In addition, modern communications and travel are dissolv i n g the ghetto communities where preservation of the language is possible because of t h e i r i s o l a t i o n . What was preserved re-l a t i v e l y i n t a c t f o r four hundred years under these conditions has changed more within the twentieth century than a l l four preceding centuries.• -V'.' . Selected B i b l i o g r a p h y Adatto, E., and Umphrey, G. V/. " L i n g u i s t i c Archaisms of the S e a t t l e Sephardim," Hispania, XIX, 1 9 3 6 , Pp. 255-263. Agard, P. 3 . "Present Day Judaeo-Spanish i n the U. S. A.," Hispania, XXXIII, 19.50, Pp. 2 0 3 - 2 1 0 . Bernardete, J. M. Hispanismo de los s e f a r d i e s l e v a n t i n o s , A g u i l a r , Madrid, 1 9 6 3 . B e n o l i e l , J . " D i a l e c t o judeo-espanol-marroqui. o h a k i t i a , " B o l e t i n de l a r e a l acidemia espanola, X I I I , 1 9 2 6 , pp. 2 0 9 -2 3 3 ; XIV, 1 9 2 7 , Pp. 137-168, 196-231+, 3 5 7 - 3 7 3 , 5 6 6 - 5 o O , , and XXXII, 1 9 5 2 , Pp. 255-239. Besso, H. "Causas de l a decadencia d e l judeo-espanol," Actas  del segundo congreso internacionadL de h i s p a n i s t a s , Nijmegen, 1 9 6 7 , Pp. 207-216": ! . " B i b l i o g r a f i a sobre e l judeo-esoanol," B u l l e t i n Hispanique. LIV, 1 9 5 2 , Pp. 1+12-1+22*. Blondheim, D. S. assai' d'un vocabulaire comparatif des p a r l e r s romans des j u i f s au moyen age, " Romania, XLI, 1 9 2 3 , Pp. 31+3-388. (note; meldar Pp. 3 7 1 - 3 7 5 ) Benichou, P. "Observaciones sobre e l judeo-espanol de Marruecos," Revista de f i l o l o g i a h i s p a n i c a , VII, 191+5, Pp. 2 0 9 - 2 5 6 . Baruch,. K. " E l judeo-esoariol de Bosnia," R e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a  espanola, XVII, 1 9 3 0 , Pp. 113-151+. Crews,C. "Miscellanea hispano-judaica, " Vox Romanica, XVI, 1 9 5 7 , Pp. 221+-2L+5 and XX, 1961, Pp. 1 3 - 3 8 . . "Notes on Judaeo-Spanish," Proceedings of the Leeds P h i l o s o p h i c a l and L i t e r a r y Society, V I I , 1 9 5 5 , Pp. 217-2 3 0 , and V I I I , 1 9 5 6 , Pp. 1 - 1 8 . . "Quelques observations supplementaires s u r . l e p a r l e r judeo-espagnol de Salonique, " B u l l e t i n Hispanique, 1939, XLI, No. 3 , Pp. 2 0 9 - 2 3 5 . . Recherches su r l e judeo-espagnol dans : l e s pays b a l k a n i -ques~~ P a r i s , 1935. . " R e f l e c t i o n s on Judeo-Spanish by a Spanish Jew," Vox Romanica, 2 0 , 1 9 6 2 , Pp. 3 2 7 - 3 3 1 + . ' . "Review, Espigueo judeo-espanol, RFE, XXXIV, 1 9 5 0 , Pp. 9 - 1 0 6 . Vox Romanica, X I I , 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 5 2 , Pp. 1 9 2 - 1 9 8 . 9h. Crews, C. "Some Arabic and Hebrew words in Oriental Judaeo-Soan-ish, " Vox Romanica, XIV, 1955, Pp. 296-309. Danon, A. "Essai sur les vocables turcs dans le judeo-espagnol," K e l e t i Szemle: Revue Orientale, IV, Budapest, 1903, Pp. 215->29 and V, 190k, Pp. 111-126. > "Le turc dans l e judeo-espagnol, " Revue Hispanioue. Paris, 1913, XXIX, No. 75, Pp. 1 -12. G i l , R. "La lengua espariola entre los judios, ;I La Sspana moderna, July, 1902, Vol. 2H.6, Pp. 30-Li3. Hans sen, F. Gramatica h i s t o r i c a , Madrid, 195k-Harvey, L. P. "Words Common to Sefardi and the Moris cos, " B u l l e t i n of Hispanic Studies. 1953, XXXVII, Pp. 69-7h. Hauptman, 0..H. "Notes on the Lexicon of Old Judaeo-Spanish 'Bible Translations," Romance Philology, III, 19U9-1950, Pp. 157-159, and V, 1951 -1952, Pp. 163-165. Hirsch, R. "A Study of Some A s p e c t s of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect as Spoken by a New York Sephardic family," Michigan, 1951, , (Ph.D. Dissertation.) Kraus, K. "Judeo-Spanish i n Israel," Hispania, 3k, 1951, Pp. 261-270. Lapesa, R. H i s t o r i a de l a lengua espanola, Madrid, 1962. Lamouche, L. "Quelques mots sur l e dialecte espagnol parle par les I s r a e l i t e s de Salonique," Romanische Forschungen, XXIII, 1907, Pp. 969-991. Levy, D. "La pronunciacion del sefardi esmirniano de Nueva York, " Nueva r e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a hisnanica, VI, 1952, Pp. 277-2 d l . Luria, M. "A Study of the Monastir Dialect of Judeo-Spanish Based on Oral Material Collected i n Monastir, Yugoslavia," Revue Hispanioue. LXXIX,- 1930, Pp. 323-599. (Ph.D. Disserta-tion) Menendez.^-Pidal, R. Manuel de gramatica h i s t o r i c a espanola, Madrid, 19kh. Molho, M. Usos y costumbres de los sefardies de Salonica, B i b l i o t e c a Hebraicoespanola, Madrid,1 9 5 0 . Pulido, .A. Espanoles s i n p a t r i a ol'ar.raza sefardi, Madrid, -1905- ' Los I s r a e l i t a s espanoles y e l idioma castellano, Madrid, 190^. 95. Ramsden, H. Weak Pronoun P o s i t i o n i n the E a r l y Romance Languages, Manchester, 19b3. Chapter V, Pp. 151-1U9. Renard, R. " L 1 i n f l u e n c e du f r a n c a i s sur l e judeo-espagnol du Levant, '' Revue des langues vi v a n t e s, No. 1, 27, 1961. Revah, I. 8. "Notes en marge du l i v r e - d e Mrs. Crews," B u l l e t i n Hispanique, XL, . 1933, Pp. 73-95. Sala, M. "Elemente ba l c a n i c e i n iudeospaniola, " S t u d i i g i c e r c e t a r i l i n g v i s t i c e . 2, Anul XVII, 1966, Pp. <±19-22k. • /'Observaciones sobre refranes judeo-espafioles de Bucarest," Vox Romanica. XIX, I960, Pp. 207-211. • "Observations sur l a d i s p a r i t i o n des langues, " Revue de L i n g u i s t i q u e . VI, 1961, No. 2, Pp. 185-202. . "Organizarea unei norme n o i spaniole i n iudeospaniola, " S t u d i i s.i c e r c e t a r i l i n g v i s t i c e , Ix, Anul XVII, 1966, Pp. l4.Ol-i4.O6. Saporta, Sol, and Kahane, H. R. "The Verbal Categories of Judeo-Spanish, " Hispanic Review, XXI, 1953, Pp. 193-21k, 322-336. Simon, W., " C h a r a k t e r i s t i k des JudenSpanischen D i a l e k t s von S a l o n i k i , " Z e i t s c h r e i f t f u r Romanische P h i l o l o g i e , XL, 1920, Pp. 655-669. S p i e g a l , I . "Old Judeo-Spanish W r i t t e n Evidence of Old Spanish Pronunciation," Minnesota, 1952. (Ph. D..Dissertation) S p i t z e r , L. "Desmazalado," Nueva r e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a h i s p a n i c a , I, 19h7, Pp. 78-79. S p i t z e r , L. and Blondheim, D. "Judeo-espanol 'meldar'," R e v i s t a  de f i l o l o g i a espanola, V I I I , 1921, Pp. 288-291. Subak, J . "Das Verbum i n Judenspanischen," Bausteine zur Romanischen P h i l o l o g i e , Festgabe f u r Adolfo Mussafia. Hal l e , 1905, Pp. 321-331. • :. "Zum Judenspanischen, " Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r Romanische P h i l o l o g i e , XXX, 1906,•Pp. 123-165-Wagner, M. L. "Algunas observaciones generales sobre e l judeo-espafiol de Oriente, " R e v i s t a de f i l o l o g i a espanola, X, 1923, Pp. 225-2i4l4.. ' . Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Judenspanischen von Konstan-t i n o p e l , Akademie der Wissenschaften, Balkan Kommission, Widn, 191k. 96. Wagner, M.L., Caracteres generales del judeo-espafiol de  Oriente, Madrid, . 1 9 3 0 . , "Los dialectos judeo-espanoles de Karaferia, Kastoria y Brusa," Homenaje a Menendez Pidal. II, Pp. 193-203. , "Espigueo judeo-espafiol," Revista de f i l o l o g i a espanola, XXXIV, 1 9 5 0 , Pp. 9 - 1 0 6 . , "Judenspanisch-Arabisches, " Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Romaniache Philologie. XL, 1920, Pp. bU3-51+9. , "Los judios espafioles de Oriente y su lengua. Una resefia general, " Revue de Dialectologie Romane, I, 1909, Pp. 5 6 - 6 3 -,"Los judios d'e Levante. K r i t i s c h e r Ruckblick bis 1 9 0 7 , " Revue de Dialectologie Romane, I, 1 9 0 9 , Pp. ! i 7 0 - 5 0 6 . Weiner, L., "The Ferrara 3ible, " Modern Language Notes, X, 1895, Pp. 81-55, and XI, 1896, Pp. 2l+-Ly2, 6L-10i>. Yahuda, A.S., "Contribucion a l estudio del judeo-espafiol," Revista de f i l o l o g i a espanola. II, 1915, Pp. 339-370. Zamora-Vicente, A., Dialectologia espafiola, Madrid,. I960. D i c t i o n a r i e s : Cioranescu, A., Diccionario Etimologico Rumano, Universidad de l a Laguna"" 1959. Corominas, J., Diccionario C r i t i c o Etimologico de l a Lengua Castellana, Bern, 1951+. (1+ Vols . ). Divry's Modern Creek Dictionary, New York, 19oli . Fahrettin' and Thompson,. Turkish Dictionary, New York, 1951; (2 V o l s . ) . Meyer-Liibke, W., Romanisches etymologisches Worterbuch, Heidelberg, 1935. 

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