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Study of the effects of a specially designed listening program in contemporary art music upon the expressed… Bradley, Ian Leonard 1969

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STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF A SPECIALLY DESIGNED LISTENING PROGRAM IN CONTEMPORARY ART MUSIC UPON THE EXPRESSED MUSICAL PREFERENCES OF GRADE SEVEN STUDENTS by Ian Leonard Bradley B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962 M.Ed., Western Washington S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1966 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE Doctor o f Ed u c a t i o n i n the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n We | accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s , f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e ^l^C&£ Chairman: Professor Lloyd S l i n d ABSTRACT This study was an investigation of the hypothesis that a prescribed program u t i l i z i n g s i g n i f i c a n t representative con-temporary art music can be designed, developed, and taught to grade seven students that w i l l p o s i t i v e l y influence t h e i r expressed musical preferences towards t h i s music. Such an a n a l y t i c a l l i s t e n i n g program was developed u t i l i z i n g four types of contemporary art music--tonal, polytonal, atonal, and e l e c t r o n i c — a n d was taught to fourteen randomly selected grade seven music classes designated as Experimental treatment I (E 1) for a period of fourteen weeks. For comparison, a second Experimental treatment (E 2) was given to another random set of grade seven classes, whose treatment was limited to r e p e t i t i o n without formal i n s t r u c t i o n . Both treatments were compared against a control condition ( C ) — a music program that excluded exposure to contemporary art music—administered to a t h i r d random group of grade seven classes. A l l groups were pre-tested with a te s t of music know-ledge and with an instrument constructed to obtain evidence about students' expressed preferences for each of the four categories of music. The l a t t e r contained not only "study" selections l a t e r used repeatedly i n the E 1 and E 2 t r a i n i n g programs, but also selections that were not used as in s t r u c -t i o n a l material ("transfer" s e l e c t i o n s ) . The same instrument was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t - t e s t . The s t a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t w i t h s t u d e n t s e x c l u d e d f r o m m u s i c i n s t r u c t i o n o v e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d was i n d i c a t e d b y t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g f r o m .75 t o .93 f o r b o t h " s t u d y " a n d " t r a n s f e r " s e l e c t i o n s , a n d a v e r a g i n g .88. H i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n p r e f e r e n c e s c o r e s w e r e f o u n d f o r t h e E 1 ( a n a l y t i c a l l i s t e n i n g ) t r e a t m e n t , on b o t h " s t u d y " a n d " t r a n s f e r " s e l e c t i o n s , t h o u g h t h e " t r a n s f e r " g a i n s w e r e n u m e r i c a l l y s m a l l e r . S m a l l e r , b u t s t i l l h i g h l y s i g n i f i -c a n t g a i n s w e r e f o u n d f o r t h e E 2 ( r e p e a t e d l i s t e n i n g ) t r e a t -m e n t , e x c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f e l e c t r o n i c m u s i c ; t h e mean g a i n on t h e e l e c t r o n i c " t r a n s f e r " s e l e c t i o n s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . F o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , some g a i n s w e r e p o s i t i v e a n d some n e g a t i v e , a l l b e i n g s m a l l a n d none b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t . C o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l t r e a t m e n t s on p r e f e r e n c e g a i n - s c o r e s w e r e made b y a t w o - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n w h i c h s e x was t h e s e c o n d f a c t o r . A c o v a r i a n c e a d j u s t m e n t f o r p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r i o r m u s i c k n o w l e d g e a nd f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e - t e s t p r e f e r -e n c e s c o r e s was made. T h e r e was l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f any s e x e f f e c t , e i t h e r a l o n e o r i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t r e a t m e n t s . H o w e v e r , t h e t r e a t -m e nts c l e a r l y showed a h i e r a r c h y o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s , w i t h E 1 ( a n a l y t i c a l l i s t e n i n g ) b e i n g m o s t e f f e c t i v e , E 2 ( r e p e a t e d l i s t e n i n g ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y a n d o b v i o u s l y l e s s e f f e c t i v e , t h o u g h i v s t i l l superior to the control condition for which preference gains were e s s e n t i a l l y zero. Minor exceptions to t h i s clear general trend are noted i n Chapter VI. The c o r r e l a t i o n between music knowledge scores and the gains i n preference scores proved to be too low to be s i g n i -f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . Conclusions: (1) The results of the E 1 program i n -dicated that grade seven students can develop stronger pre-ferences for contemporary art music through a n a l y t i c a l l i s -tening procedures. Moreover, a p a r t i c u l a r sequence of cogni-t i v e learning experiences also resulted i n a f f e c t i v e transfer. (2) The E 2 results supported the view that r e p e t i t i v e l i s -tening i s an important factor i n the formation of p o s i t i v e preferences. (3) As the sex variable accounted for l i t t l e variance i n p r e f e r e n t i a l responses, i t i s u n l i k e l y that boys and g i r l s require either d i f f e r e n t materials or methods while engaged i n classroom l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . (4) As no corre-l a t i o n was discovered between music knowledge and musical preferences, i t appears that l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s may be con-ducted i n the classroom without adverse e f f e c t s despite the fact that t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge may be minimal. One major implication as a r e s u l t of the study was the suggestion and recommendation that music educators be prepared to re-appraise music courses i n t h e i r present format, for i t i s possible that the emphasis placed on theory, reading s k i l l s , V singing, and instrumental performance may not be completely j u s t i f i e d . An alternative program that would place l i s t e n i n g at the core of musical a c t i v i t i e s and from t h i s c e n t r a l i t y relate and integrate a l l other t h e o r e t i c a l and performance objectives was also recommended for further research. F i n a l l y , i t was recommended that the present work be expanded into longitudinal research to further i d e n t i f y factors that are important i n the development of p o s i t i v e musical preferences for contemporary a rt music. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 1 Introduct ion 1 The Problem 6 Statement of the problem 6 Research Hypotheses - 11 Importance of the Study 12 Limi ta t ions 17 Assumptions 18 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 18 Contemporary Ar t Music 18 Music L is ten ing S k i l l s 18 Musical Preference 19 Sequential Design 19 Organizat ion of the Remainder of the Study. . 19 II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. 21 Music Education and At t i tudes 21 The Role of L is ten ing i n Music Educat ion. . . 24 Psycholog ica l Aspects of Music Educat ion. . . 26 Cogn i t i ve -A f fec t i ve Relat ionships 29 The E f f e c t of Musical Tra in ing on Musical Preferences, Taste , and D isc r im ina t ion . . . 35 E f f e c t s of Repet i t ion on A f f e c t i v e Response . 39 Techniques Used Prev iously to Ascer ta in Musical Preferences . 43 III. DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT 54 Organizat ion of the Experimental Design . . . 54 v i i CHAPTER PAGE I I I . (Continued) The. sampling procedure 55 The Experimental design 56 Time Allotment 57 Testing Procedures 5 8 Procedures for the Selection of the music 58 Music Preference Inventory tape recording 62 Music Preference r a t i n g scale 62 R e l i a b i l i t y of the Music Preference Inventory 65 V a l i d i t y of the Music Preference Inventory 66 IV. THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LISTENING PROGRAM 69 Objectives of the Music Listening Course. . 69 Cognitive Objectives. 71 Aff e c t i v e Objectives. 73 Instructional Procedures. 75 V. THE ORGANIZATION OF THE LISTENING PROGRAM . . 81 Selection of the music 81 Selection of classroom teachers 81 Analysis of music 81 Preparation of tape recording 83 Seminar of teachers 84 Administration of the Music Preference Inventory Pre-test. . 84 Administration of the Music Knowledge Test 85 Teacher v i s i t a t i o n 85 Demonstration lessons . . . 86 Teacher substitution. . . 86 F i n a l seminar of teachers . . . . . . . . 86 Teacher interviews 87 Administration of the Music Preference Inventory Post-test 87 Preparation of data 88 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE VI. ANALYSIS OF DATA 89 Summary of S t a t i s t i c a l Data 89 Procedures Used i n the Analysis of the Pre-test Music Preference Scores. . . . . 90 Analysis of the Music Knowledge Test Scores 9 4 Analysis of „the. .Dif f erences Obtained Between the. Pre-test and Post-test Mean Preference Scores. 96 Comparison of Mean Gains Obtained for E 1, E 2, and C . . 104 Analysis of the Differences Obtained Between the Mean Gain Preference Scores of Boys and Those of G i r l s . . . . 110 Analysis of the Correlations Obtained . Between the Music Knowledge.Test Scores and the Music Preference Scores. . 112 . VII. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS,'IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 126 Summary 126 Conclusions 133 Implications 137 Recommendations . 140 BIBLIOGRAPHY 145 APPENDICES: A. Music Preference Inventory. 155 B. . Music Knowledge Test.,.. . .. . 157 C. M.P.I. Pre-Test Class Mean Study Scores . . . . 1 5 9 D. M.P.I. Pre-Test Class Mean T r a n s f e r S c o r e s . . . 161 E. M.P.I. Post-test Class Mean Study Scores. . . . 1 5 3 F. M.P.I. Post-Test Class Mean Transfer Scores . . 1 6 5 G. Music Selection Rating Scale 167 H. Sample Lesson A n a l y t i c a l Notes for Tonal Category 169 CHAPTER i x PAGE APPENDICES (Continued) I. Sample Lesson A n a l y t i c a l Notes for Polytonal Category 172 J . Sample Lesson A n a l y t i c a l Notes for Atonal Category 175 K. Sample Lesson A n a l y t i c a l Notes for E l e c t r o n i c Category 179 X LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Music Preference Inventory Pre-Test Scores . . . 92 I I . Music Preference Inventory Pre-Test Scores . . . 93 II I . Music Knowledge Test Scores. 95 IV. Music Preference Inventory Post-Test Scores. . . 96 V. Music Preference Inventory Post-Test Scores. . . 97 VI. Music Preference Mean Gain Scores. 9 8 VII. Music Preference Mean Gain Scores . 98 VIII. Music Preference Mean Gain Scores 99 IX. Significance of the Differences i n Mean Preference Scores Achieved by E 1 100 X. Significance of the Differences i n Mean Preference Scores Achieved by E 2 102 XI. Significance of the Differences i n Mean Preference Scores Achieved by Control 103 XII. " Summary of Regression Analysis of the Ef f e c t s of the Treatment Variable for Study and Transfer Selections. . . . 107 XIII. Summary of Regression Analysis of Differences Between E 1 and E 2 Preference Responses for Study and Transfer Selections 10 8 XIV. Summary of Regression Analysis of Differences Between E 2 and C Preference Responses - for Study and Transfer Selections 109. XV. Summary of Regression Analysis of the E f f e c t s of the Sex Variable for Study and Transfer Selections I l l XVI. Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Pre-Test Tonal Polytonal Atonal E l e c t r o n i c "Study" Selections and Music Knowledge 113 x i TABLE . PAGE XVII. Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Pre-Test Tonal Polytonal Atonal.Electronic "Transfer" Selections and Music Knowledge 115 XVIII. Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Pre-Test Tonal Polytonal Atonal E l e c t r o n i c "Study" Selections and Music Knowledge . . . 117 XIX. Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Pre-Test Tonal Polytonal Atonal E l e c t r o n i c "Transfer" Selections and Music Knowledge 118 XX. Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Pre-Test Tonal Polytonal Atonal E l e c t r o n i c "Study" Selections and Music Knowledge . 119 XXI. Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Pre-Test Tonal Polytonal Atonal E l e c t r o n i c "Transfer" Selections and Music Knowledge 120 XXII. Correlations Between Music Knowledge Scores and the Mean Gain Preference Scores, ( E l ) . . 122 XXIII. Correlations Between Music Knowledge Scores and the Mean Gain Preference ScoreE;(E 2) . . . 123 XXIV. Correlations Between Music Knowledge Scores and the Mean Gain Preference Scores CO'—.- . . .124 x i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The wr i ter wishes to acknowledge the invaluable assistance and guidance of h is advisor and chairman, Dr. L loyd S l i n d . Appreciat ion i s a lso expressed to the members of the research committee for t h e i r valuable comments and h e l p f u l suggest ions. To Dr. D. McKie i n p a r t i c u l a r , the wr i ter expresses h i s grat i tude for the many hours spent i n encouragement and assistance i n developing the experimental design and superv is ing the s t a t i s t i c a l ana lys is of the study. The wr i ter a lso expresses s incere appreciat ion to the superintendents, p r i n c i p a l s , teachers, and ch i ld ren of the Vancouver and North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t s , whose gracious co-operat ion i n th is pro ject made the study p o s s i b l e . Gra te fu l acknowledgment i s a lso extended to T. Goldberg, C. Hul tberg, J . K i r k , M. Schaef fer , R. Sunter, and Dr. R. Turner for the i r a id i n the s e l e c t i o n of a l l music used i n the study. L a s t l y , for her i n t e r e s t , pat ience , a id and encour-agement, the wr i ter expresses h is most s incere appreciat ion to h is w i fe . CHAPTER I THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY INTRODUCTION Current l i t e r a t u r e in the f i e l d of music education voices deep concern over the problems present ly confron-t ing Canadian and American teachers i n elementary and junior high schools . The quest for course mater ia ls su i tab ly updated and r e v i s e d , together with the search for improved teaching procedures i s a continuing and urgent one. Moreover, the controversy among music educators over the respect ive merits of e i ther performance or appreciat ion or iented programs strongly suggests the need for ser ious educat ional research and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Coincident with the con t rovers ia l viewpoints of music educators over p h i l o s o p h i c a l and pedagogical issues i s the ever-present problem a l l educators face—the staggering d i f f i c u l t y of maintaining an a l e r t and informed at t i tude toward contemporary educat ional developments. Ind iv idua l e f f o r t s to keep pace with modern issues are evidenced i n the m u l t i p l i c i t y of approaches to the teaching of music in par -t i c u l a r at the junior and senior l e v e l s of high schoo l . I t i s here that the teacher meets the extremely c r i t i c a l a t t i -tude of students towards musical content and methodology— e s p e c i a l l y i f the mater ia ls and methods i n use are r e l a t i v e l y 2 outmoded. Furthermore, the i n d i v i d u a l attempts of teachers to s a t i s f y the demands of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n by the in t roduct ion of a miscellaneous var ie ty of musical e x p e r i -ences have a lso contr ibuted to the confusion that so often attends the general music c lass program. Evidence of t h i s lack of d i r e c t i o n i s not hard to f i n d . For example, one may f i n d c lasses where the ent i re semester i s spent i n learn ing to play gui tars or u k e l e l e s , or other c lasses where the musical a c t i v i t y i s confined to a study of theory, and s t i l l other c lasses where the time i s spent i n l i s t e n i n g to a d i s -organized array of musical s e l e c t i o n s . The need for a r e - a p p r a i s a l and evaluat ion of music courses has been r e a l i z e d i n recent educat ional p u b l i c a t i o n s . Convened by the Music Educators Nat ional Conference (MENC) the Tanglewood Symposium i n 1967 reported on severa l c r i t i c a l i s s u e s . A recommendation from the committee on Impl icat ions for the Music Curriculum sta ted: T r a d i t i o n a l music l i t e r a t u r e dominates and over-balances the present music education r e p e r t o i r e . We recommend that teachers be encouraged to experiment with and u t i l i z e many types of music i n the i r i n s t r u c -t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . . . . The fulcrum of the reper to i re should be s h i f t e d to include more of the many v a r i e t i e s of contemporary popular and ser ious music as we l l as music of other cu l tu res .1 Kar l D. E r n s t , Chairman, "Implications for the Music Curr iculum," Music Educators Journal (November, 1967), p. 78. 3 A survey of research i n the f i e l d s of music education, educational psychology, and sociology, reveals a wide div-e r s i t y of educational endeavour. One p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t of educators concerns the discovery of factors influencing the development of musical preferences. However, very l i t t l e research has concentrated on t h i s facet of music education. E a r l i e r studies present a variety of approaches to the subject, but, because of variations i n research designs together with the use of population samples from widely d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l and economic regions, the r e s u l t s and conclusions often appear contradictory. Most studies reported to the present date have been concerned with either a survey or an evaluation of musical preferences for a variety of musical forms. Few studies, i f any, have explored s p e c i f i c a l l y the effectiveness of a s p e c i a l l y designed l i s t e n i n g procedure which has as i t s objective the development of musical preferences. Nor have the e f f e c t s of a program of contemporary art music on students' musical preferences been investigated. The r e a l i z a t i o n that our public school children r a r e l y experience serious contemporary music i n the classroom i s affirmed by several prominent music educators. M e r r i l l d i s -cusses the absence of contemporary music i n the classrooms of our North American schools: After a lengthy study of the music used i n elementary schools plus a survey of the music used i n the courses taught to our elementary education students, c e r t a i n 4 facts become evident. In the vast majority of cases, the most recent music i s the music of the impres-s i o n i s t s --approximately 45 years old. Certainly there i s nothing wrong with th i s music, except that the children of today have more of a sense of urgency of adult l i f e due i n part to the age i n which we l i v e , and also by increased exposure to t e l e v i s i o n and other communication media.2 A growing awareness of th i s deficiency i s suggested by several recent a r t i c l e s published by the music d i v i s i o n of the National Educators Association (NEA). In an address to the Music Educators National Conference, William Schuman, the noted American composer and educator, stated quite b l u n t l y : I t i s apparent that music teachers are not i n t e r -ested i n contemporary music, at l e a s t contemporary music which i s not of p r a c t i c a l use i n the classroom. Even i f a l l the scores and records of contemporary symphonic works were purchased for school l i b r a r i e s — a s i t u a t i o n we know of course not to be the c a s e -i t would s t i l l mean that only a miniscule percentage of the teaching profession i s interested i n what i s taking place i n today's world of music. . . . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to understand how classes i n music appre-. c i a t i o n can be given without the in c l u s i o n of the music of our own time. Yet, as we know from the dreary s t a t i s t i c s I have c i t e d , t h i s must be the case i n a l l but a few exceptional s i t u a t i o n s . 3 Nor i s recognition of the value and need for contem-porary music i n education primarily l i m i t e d to younger members Lindsey M e r r i l l , "Where do our children lose t h e i r ears?" Music Journal (March, 1966), p. 57. William Schuman, "The Responsibility of Music Educa-ti o n to Music," Music Educators Journal (June-July, 1956), p. 19. 5 of the music profession. Support for i t s acceptance and inclu s i o n i n the school program i s expressed by. such highly respected veteran music educators as Laurence W. Chides.ter: We must accept the challenge that contemporary music i s here to stay, that we learn to understand i t , and that we must begin soon to use i t i n the classroom.4 One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t recent developments i n music education i s the U.S. Of f i c e of Education's acceptance of the recommendations of the Seminar held at Yale University 1963. A recommendation p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant t o th i s study suggested that: . . . a music l i t e r a t u r e course for a l l secondary schools should be designed that would develop musi-c a l understanding through l i s t e n i n g , analysis,and discussion of a limited number of representative compositions.5 That t h i s i n t e r e s t i s a continuing one i s shown by the recent discussions of the Comprehensive Musicianship Seminar sponsored by MENC i n 1965. William Thompson reports, the con-cern of the delegates for a re-appraisal of l i s t e n i n g t r a i n i n g at a l l lev e l s i n the t o t a l f a b r i c of our public i n s t r u c t i o n i n music. The s i g n i f i c a n t problems discussed, and the poten-t i a l changes which might be entailed for the elementary and Laurence W. Chides".ter, "Contemporary Music and the Music Educator," Music Educators Journal (April-May, 1956), p. 119. 5 Kenneth A. Wendrich, "Music Literature i n High Schools," Music Educators Journal (March, 1967) , p. 36. 6 secondary age levels of i n s t r u c t i o n are expressed by Thompson: A very s p e c i f i c suggestion, then, about a worthy goal of the school music program, a goal that would be commensurate with our desire to make an e f f e c t i v e and useful vehicle for the student would be that a true opportunity for serious r e f l e c t i v e l i s t e n i n g be provided as a part of the music program both i n the ensemble and i n the classroom.6 The f a i l u r e of music educators to develop a well balan-ced program which includes l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s recognized by leaders i n the f i e l d . The f a i l u r e to bring contemporary music into the classroom i s also recognized as a serious de-fi c i e n c y i n c u r r i c u l a r planning. However, the extent to which students of elementary and junior high school age may or may not accept contemporary music l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s has r a r e l y , i f ever, been documented. A study of the e f f e c t s of such a program on the musical preferences of school students would provide valuable information and d i r e c t i o n for music education. THE PROBLEM Statement of the problem. The purpose of t h i s study was to design, implement, and evaluate an experimental series of sequentially structured lessons i n l i s t e n i n g to selected contemporary art music, and to discover the e f f e c t of a William Thompson, "New Math, New. Science, New Music," Music Educators Journal (March, 1967), p. 34. 7 fourteen week program on the musical preferences of the grade seven students who part i c i p a t e d . The problem can also be stated i n the form of a question: Can a l i s t e n i n g course limited to s i g n i f i c a n t representative a rt music of the twentieth century be designed, developed, and taught to grade seven students for a period of fourteen weeks, that w i l l e f f e c t a po s i t i v e change i n students' expressed preferences for t h i s music? An examination of the problem as stated, immediately raised further questions. Should the study investigate only the changes i n students' expressed preferences for a limi t e d number of compositions that would be studied or heard i n clas s , or should the area of enquiry be extended to include an i n -vestigation of the possible e f f e c t s on students' preferences for other musical compositions not necessarily f a m i l i a r , but nevertheless s i m i l a r i n sty l e and category? Current educa-t i o n a l theory pertinent to learning and transfer of learning indicated that research into both areas would be of value to the profession. A decision was made therefore, to investigate (a) the changes i n students' expressed preferences for a s e l -ection of compositions d i r e c t l y studied and used i n the c l a s s -room, and (b) the changes i n students' expressed preferences for a further selection of si m i l a r compositions i n which there was neither study nor exposure. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the study also investigated the changes i n musical preferences as a re s u l t of learning transfer. 8 In the i n i t i a l stages of the study severa l re la ted areas required i n v e s t i g a t i o n and considerat ion p r i o r to the commencement of the l i s t e n i n g program i n September 196 8. Each of the pre l iminary requirements i s descr ibed as fo l lows . 1. Se lec t ion of music. The s e l e c t i o n of twelve contemporary ar t compositions considered by a panel of judges to be musica l ly s i g n i f i c a n t and representat ive of four d i s t i n c t •categories-: - tonal , p o l y t o n a l , a tona l , and e l e c t r o n i c . 2 . Music Preference Inventory. The development of a Music Preference Inventory that could be used as an instrument to measure the expressed musical preferences of students for contemporary ar t music. 3 . Design o f l i s t e n i n g course The design and develop-ment of a s p e c i a l l y st ructured music l i s t e n i n g course u t i l i -z ing music chosen by the panel of judges, along with i n s t r u c -t i o n a l lesson plans for the classroom teachers and students who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. 4. Se lec t ion of classroom teachers. The recruitment of a s u f f i c i e n t number of classroom music teachers w i l l i n g to teach a t o t a l of t h i r t y c lasses of grade seven students par -t i c i p a t i n g in. the experimental study. 5. Assignment of c l a s s e s . The random assignment of ava i lab le c lasses to one of the three poss ib le groups, with each group designated r e s p e c t i v e l y , as Experimental I, Experimental I I , and C o n t r o l . 9 6 . Test of Mus ica l Knowledge. The construct ion of a tes t of musical knowledge that could be used as an instrument to measure each student 's musical knowledge. The design for t h i s experimental study provided for three groups of subjects which were designated: 1 . Experimental I (E 1 ) 2. Experimental I I(E 2) 3 . Contro l group (C) With three treatment condit ions generated by th is par -t i c u l a r design a number of re la ted problem areas became the sub jec t .o f enquiry. Each bas ic question i s stated more p r e c i s e l y below, and i s followed by a statement of the hypo-theses. 1 . W i l l a program of contemporary ar t music e s p e c i a l l y designed and taught to fourteen c lasses of grade seven s t u -dents assigned to the E 1 group r e s u l t i n any change i n t h e i r expressed musical preferences for contemporary ar t music? 2. W i l l a program l i m i t e d to repeated l i s t e n i n g experiences i n contemporary ar t music without formal i n s t r u c -t ion given to ten c lasses of grade seven students assigned to the E 2 group r e s u l t i n any change i n t h e i r expressed musical preferences for contemporary ar t music? 10 3. W i l l a program consisting of the usual grade seven music a c t i v i t i e s but excluding the study and exposure to contemporary art music given to six classes of grade seven students assigned to the C group r e s u l t i n any change i n students' expressed preferences for contemporary art music? 4. W i l l a comparison of the gains i n the p r e f e r e n t i a l responses for E 1 against both E 2 and C r e s u l t i n any d i f -ference that i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and i n favour of E 1, when other relevant variables on which the experimental and control groups might d i f f e r are controlled s t a t i s t i c a l l y ? 5. W i l l there be a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the changes i n expressed musical preferences of boys and those of g i r l s as a r e s u l t of t h e i r experiences i n the ex-perimental programs when other relevant variables are s t a t i s -t i c a l l y controlled? 6. Is there a relationship between students' musical knowledge and changes i n t h e i r musical preferences for each of the four s p e c i f i c categories of contemporary art music u t i l i z e d i n the l i s t e n i n g program ( i . e . , for the compositions categorized as tonal, polytonal, atonal, and elect r o n i c ) ? An attempt w i l l be made to obtain answers to a l l of these questions i n respect of both the s p e c i f i c musical s e l -ections used as teaching material, and other selections of the same type, not used as teaching material. 11 Research Hypotheses. Each of the hypotheses stated below applies to (a) the four categories of prescribed com-positions designated as "study" selections, and (b) the four categories of music designated as "transfer" selections. 1. A selected program u t i l i z i n g s i g n i f i c a n t contem-porary art music can be designed, structured, and taught to fourteen classes of grade seven students randomly assigned to the E 1 program that w i l l p o s i t i v e l y influence t h e i r ex-pressed musical preferences towards t h i s music. 2. A program lim i t e d to repeated l i s t e n i n g experiences i n contemporary art music without formal i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n no s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the expressed musical preferences of ten classes of grade seven students randomly assigned to the E 2 program. 3. A program of musical experiences that excludes exposure to contemporary art music for the six classes of grade seven students randomly assigned to the C group w i l l r e s u l t i n no s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the students' expressed preferences for t h i s music. 4. The gains of the E 1 group's preference scores w i l l d i f f e r from both the gains of the E 2 and C group's preference scores, when the i n i t i a l levels of the pre-test scores and the music knowledge scores are controlled s t a t i s -t i c a l l y . 1 2 5. The gains i n the p r e f e r e n t i a l responses of the boys w i l l d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the gains i n the p r e f e r -e n t i a l responses of the g i r l s over a l l groups and wi th in each group. 6. There i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the extent of prev iously acquired musical knowledge of grade seven students and the changes i n t h e i r expressed musical preferences for the four s p e c i f i c categories of contemporary ar t music. For the purposes of s t a t i s t i c a l analyses, the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l be used with a l l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s . importance of the study. A most ser ious problem con-f ront ing music educators today i s the adolescent res is tance to an educat ional program that promotes mainly an awareness and understanding of the const i tuent elements of music. This res is tance i s occasioned by a number, of cond i t ions , not the l eas t of these being the adolescent p r e d i l e c t i o n for 'pop 1 music. The tremendous impact of mass media upon students' musical s e n s i t i v i t y i s often so powerful that many experience d i f f i c u l t y i n accepting music of a d i f f e r e n t genre or prev-ious e r a , and are therefore poor ly disposed toward a program that ignores modern musical developments. This s i t u a t i o n i s often fur ther aggravated by the i n a b i l i t y of teachers to accept i n some degree the d i f f e r i n g 13 musical values of the students they teach. Furthermore, the p a r t i c u l a r ideology of the teacher often dictates whether or not classroom experiences should include a sampling of music that ranges from currently popular music to music of the more serious c l a s s i c s . Rarely i s there found an established curriculum that includes the study of music that could be described as contemporary art music. Certainly very few studies, i f any, have attempted to introduce the 'new sound' of contemporary art music i n the classroom e s p e c i a l l y under experimental conditions. The r e s u l t of such an experience on adolescent musical preferences i s unknown. One may conject and prognosticate, but the effectiveness of a l i s t e n i n g pro-gram designed to f o s t e r understanding of contemporary music and the resultant e f f e c t s on musical preferences can only be tested empirically. 7 Recent .studies, "by James Hanshumaker and Rudolph g Saltzer have indicated the need for research.^'.and experimen-tation i n l i s t e n i n g c u r r i c u l a . They recommended the develop-ment of planned l i s t e n i n g experiences which would emphasize James R. Hanshumaker, "Foundations for the Development of a High School Course i n Music Literature Based on the P r i n c i p l e s of General Education, with Implications for Teacher Education" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1961). o Rudolph Ben. Saltzer, "Musical Content: The Basis of High School Music Teaching" Parts I and II (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1964). 14 an awareness of what there i s to l i s t e n for i n music. Their studies, and the one here proposed, are concerned with the type of c u r r i c u l a r planning which the recently published "Yale Seminar Report" indicated as s i g n i f i c a n t and desirable. Guided l i s t e n i n g as a means to understanding and acquaintance with the monuments of music l i t e r a t u r e past and present,, deserves a larger place than i t occupies today i n the elementary and secondary schools. A continuous sequence of graded l i s t e n i n g experiences belongs i n a balanced elementary and junior high school curricular.9 Of the value of l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n a music program there i s considerable support. Curriculum guides, music texts,: department of education s y l l a b i , and informed opinion advocate the inc l u s i o n of l i s t e n i n g i n any school program. Comments from three sources may serve as representative ex-amples of thi s support. William Hartshorn, a prominent music educator, suggests that a most important reason for the i n -clusion of guided l i s t e n i n g i n the classroom i s that not only may one experience music which he i s unable to perform, but that l i s t e n i n g per se can be a continuous and extended ex-perience throughout l i f e . . He states: Claude V. P a l i s c a , Music In Our Schools - a Search f o r Improvement,; Report of the Yale Seminar on Music Education (Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1964). 15 Perhaps the greatest value of a general nature to be derived from l i s t e n i n g i s that through I t the i n d i v i d u a l may experience music beyond that which he i s able to perform. Unquestionably t h i s area of the music education program has the great-est carry-over into adult l i f e . 1 0 Dykema and Gehrkens, authors of one of the more widely used texts i n the f i e l d , take t h i s standpoint with regard to l i s t e n i n g : I t i s recognized that l i s t e n i n g to music i s one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t and rapidly expanding c u l -t u r a l pursuits i n present-day society. Listening embraces the complete musical a c t i v i t y of by far the largest number of people who come i n contact with music, and c a l l s for a much greater a c t i v i t y than i s usually attributed to i t . H Support for the Inclusion of contemporary art music i n a l i s t e n i n g program i s more li m i t e d , but the comments of Broudy represent an important trend i n current thought about the subject: The study of contemporary rserious music would help prevent musical stereotypes from hardening. Nothing impresses the student with the l i v i n g q u a l i t y of art so much as the experimental work being performed at i t s front l i n e s . I f nothing else, generous exposure to contemporary music w i l l retard the development of Phili s t i n i s m - - t h e vice of condemning what we do not e a s i l y understand.12 William C. Hartshorn, "The Role of Listening," Basic Concepts In Music Education (Chicago: The Fifty-Seventh Year-Book of the National Society for the Study of Education Part 2, 1958) . **Peter W. Dykema and Karl W. Gehrkens, The Teaching  and Administration of School Music (Boston: C C . Birchard and Company, 1941), p. 279. l 2 H a r r y S. Broudy, "Educational Theory and the Music Curriculum," Music Educators Journal (Nov-Dec.,196 4), p. 36. 16 Recent unpublished manuscripts have raised questions regarding the impact of past music programs on the musical preferences of students.. In previous studies conducted by Erneston/^ R u b i n , S t e w a r t , 1 ^ and Peterman,^ i n p a r t i c u l a r the authors claim that experiences of public school music exercised a n e g l i g i b l e e f f e c t on musical preferences. This i s a serious indictment of school music teaching i f the claim i s correct. However, i f the claim has not been v e r i f i e d by well constructed experimental designs, there i s c l e a r l y a need for such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The design of t h i s study provides procedures, that w i l l t e s t experimentally the e f f e c t s of a sequentially structured series of classroom l i s t e n i n g experiences, u t i l i z i n g the results, of research to date. The outcomes and conclusions should prove b e n e f i c i a l to music educators by giving d i r e c t i o n to an important but s t i l l r e l a -t i v e l y neglected area of music education. 13 Nicholas Erneston, "A Study to Determine the E f f e c t of Musical Experience and Mental A b i l i t y on the Formulation of Musical Taste" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, F l o r i d a State University, 1961). 14 Louis J . Rubin, "The E f f e c t s of Musical Experience on Discrimination and Musical Preferences" (Unpublished Doc-t o r a l Dissertation, University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1952)'.. 15 John W. Stewart, "Influence of Public School Music Education as Revealed by a Comparison of Forty Selected High School Music and Non-Music Students" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, F l o r i d a State University, 1961). 16 William John Peterman, "An Investigation of I n f l u -ences Contributing to the Post-School Musical A c t i v i t i e s of Adults i n the City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1954). 17 LIMITATIONS 1. The usual course of studies i s intended to l a s t the f u l l school year. This experimental program i n con-temporary art music was limited to fourteen weeks. 2. The schools chosen for the experimental and con-t r o l groups were located i n the greater Vancouver area, an urban centre of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3. This study was limited to students i n grade seven. 4. Classes of grade seven students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study had to be selected from classes made available through p r i n c i p a l s ' co-operation. 5. Teachers used i n the study ranged from classroom teachers to music s p e c i a l i s t s . The amount of teaching ex-perience also varied. 6. A l l l i s t e n i n g experiences were confined to music .recorded on tape "and "played through the speakers of a tape recorder. 7. To some extent differences i n teacher competence and/or enthusiasm may be held to have influenced r e s u l t s , though th i s e f f e c t i s l i k e l y to be minimal since teachers agreed to be assigned to E 1, E 2, and C as randomly deter-mined by the experimenter. 18 ASSUMPTIONS 1. An instrument can be devised that w i l l measure music preferences for contemporary art music. 2. Students w i l l answer questionnaires and mark inventories with some regard for the accuracy of t h e i r an-swers as honest reactions. (This was checked to some extent by a r e l i a b i l i t y study conducted on four grade eight classes, there being i n s u f f i c i e n t grade seven classes for t h i s pur-pose.) 3. Musical preferences change and can be changed. 4. The recordings used i n t h i s study adequately represent the types of contemporary music described i n the study. DEFINITION OF TERMS Contemporary A r t Music. For t h i s study, t h i s term means music written from the time of Stravinsky's early works (approximately 1910) to the present day, and includes compositions that are c l a s s i f i e d as tonal, polytonal, atonal, and e l e c t r o n i c . Music Listening S k i l l s . Listening s k i l l s are defined as the aural a b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity to perceive the basic musical elements and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n music. 19 Musical Preference. This term i s used to descr ibe or denote scores obtained on the music preference inventory e s -p e c i a l l y designed and constructed for t h i s study. Sequential Design. The s t ruc tur ing of the lesson ser ies which attempted to provide l i s t e n i n g experiences which fol low one another l o g i c a l l y and smoothly i s re fer red to as 'sequent ia l d e s i g n 1 . The s k i l l s emphasized i n each lesson were re la ted to those prev ious ly introduced and provided a foundation for increas ing complexity i n succeeding lessons . ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE STUDY Before construct ing and evaluat ing the l i s t e n i n g des ign , i t was considered important to lay the foundation by reviewing se lected l i t e r a t u r e i n severa l areas re la ted to the teaching of a l i s t e n i n g program. Chapter I deals with background information which was considered per t inent to the study. Chapter II i s d iv ided in to seven sub-sect ions and i s concerned with aspects of the l i t e r a t u r e that are per t inent to music l i s t e n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The chapter success ive ly reviews l i t e r a t u r e re la ted to the development of such con-cepts as a t t i tudes and apprec ia t ion , the ro le of l i s t e n i n g i n music educat ion, psycholog ica l aspects of music l i s t e n i n g , and the re la t ionsh ips that e x i s t between cogni t ion and a f f e c t . The remaining sect ions discuss the in f luence of musical 20 t r a i n i n g on musical t a s t e , musical preferences and d i s c r i m i n -a t i o n , and the e f fec ts of r e p e t i t i o n on a f f e c t i v e response. The f i n a l sect ion of the chapter discusses the techniques used to measure musical preferences with p a r t i c u l a r reference to f i v e re la ted studies prev ious ly conducted and per t inent to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Chapter Three i s concerned with the design of the experimental study. The d i s t i n c t i v e char-a c t e r i s t i c s of the l i s t e n i n g course together with a d iscuss ion of the object ives of the course are discussed i n Chapter IV. The procedures u t i l i z e d i n the organizat ion of the study are introduced i n Chapter V, and f i n a l l y the s i x t h and seventh chapters are concerned respec t ive ly with the ana lys is of data , and the summary, the conc lus ions , and the recommendations of the study. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE MUSIC EDUCATION AND ATTITUDES In a study of general music i n elementary and secondary schools , Robertson pointed out that the most important con-s idera t ion i n music education i s that of developing at t i tudes and apprec ia t ion . He says: I t i s not too fa r - reach ing to asser t that a l l music education aims at developing an appreciat ion for music—gaining for music a foothold i n the student 's l i f e and broadening th is foothold to the point that the student w i l l continue to seek musi-c a l experiences and f i n d valuable pleasure and aesthet ic s a t i s f a c t i o n i n so doing.17 Kingsley descr ibes appreciat ion by asser t ing that : What one enjoys i s determined i n a large measure by t r a i n i n g and experience. The a t t i tude of appre-c i a t i o n and enjoyment i s l i k e other a t t i t u d e s , developed through lea rn ing . The school can and should enr ich the l i v e s of i t s pup i ls by the c u l t i -vat ion of a t t i tudes that predispose them toward appreciat ive response.18 I t would seem, from th is point of view, that appreciat ion and enjoyment are almost synonymous; as a warning, however, against enjoyment as a bas ic purpose, rather than as an outcome, 17 James H. Robertson, "Pr inc ip les for General Music in Secondary Schools" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , The Univers i ty of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1958), p. 105. 18 H.L. K ings ley , The Nature and Condit ions of Learning (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1946), p. 426. 22 Hartshorn writes as fo l lows: The conception of enjoyment i n music has a l l too often been in terpreted with a narrowness: that has been a deterrent to substant ia l growth. TOo f r e -quently music i n the schools has amounted to l i t t l e more than "a good time had by a l l , " and i t i s we l l to remember that there are q u a l i t a t i v e l eve ls of enjoyment and there need be no c o n f l i c t between s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , d i l i g e n t e f f o r t , and i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement on the one hand and enjoyment on the other.19 A more s t r ingent stand regarding "enjoyment" i s taken by McMurray i n the course of a d iscuss ion of pragmatism i n music educat ion. He says: The question i s t h i s : Does good music-teaching necessar i l y terminate i n each p u p i l f i n d i n g wi th in himself a new and strong appreciat ion for music—a marked l i k i n g for i t , that i s , and a determination to hear i t and to perform i t as a steady part of subsequent l i v i n g ? Should a teacher aim at get t ing pup i ls to " l i ke" music very much, and should he judge h is r e l a t i v e success by how much add i t iona l l i k i n g he helps create? There i s , of course, a natura l tendency to think so; but i s th is a t t i tude of wanting other people to share one's own enthusiasms j u s t i f i e d ? The answer provided by pragmatism i s not a simple "yes" or "no," but i t i s , never the less , c l e a r - c u t and d e c i s i v e . To e x p l a i n , i t might be simplest to say: No. A music teacher should nei ther attempt nor expect to teach h is pup i ls a new and stronger l i k i n g for music. In th is cont r ibut ion to a p u p i l ' s general educat ion, at l e a s t , t h i s strengthening of p o s i t i v e appreciat ion i s no part of h is job. A teacher 's job i s only to show h is pup i ls what i s to be found i n music when obstacles to percept ion are removed and Wi l l iam C. Hartshorn, "The Role of L i s t e n i n g , " Basic Concepts i n Music Education (Chicago: The F i f ty -Seventh Year Book of the Nat ional Society for the Study of Educat ion, Part 2, 1958), p. 265. 23 when the learned capacity to attend and to hear has been developed. I f , when a p u p i l has t r u l y learned to hear more of what i s p o t e n t i a l l y there, he does not value highly the new content, then that evalua-ti o n i s his own r i g h t f u l concern and no one e l s e ' s . 2 ^ In what i s probably a consensus, the authors of Music i n General Education have outlined what they believe to be minimum s p e c i f i c goals i n music for the twelve or thirteen years of the general school experience. They say: I t i s believed that the generally educated person w i l l have certa i n minimum s k i l l s and understanding with respect to music. While he i s developing these he w i l l , at the same time, have developed attitudes about music; he w i l l have included music i n his system of values.21 Educational thought i n recent years has focused on the ways and means of teaching the most fundamental aspects of the major d i s c i p l i n e s . Music education has responded by engaging i n a serious and prolonged debate about the fundamental nature and value of music and the teaching of music. The present position of music education i n th i s debate might be summarized by Bennett Re inter, a member of the E d i t o r i a l Board of the Music Educators Journal, i n his assertion that: . . . t h e most fundamental value of music i s i t s a b i l i t y to give aesthetic insights through a p a r t i -cular kind of experience of music; aesthetic exper-20 Foster McMurray, "Pragmatism i n Music Education," Basic Concepts- -in Music Education (Chicago: The Firty-Seventh Year-Book of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I , 1958), p. 42. 21 K.D. Ernst and C L . Gary (eds.) , Music i n General Education (Washington, D.C: Music Educators National Confer-ence , 1965) , p.4. 24 ience . The primary funct ion of music education i s , therefore, , to develop the ab i l i t y , of every c h i l d to have aesthet ic experience i n m u s i c . 2 2 THE ROLE OF LISTENING IN MUSIC EDUCATION The Seminar i n Music Education held at Yale Un ivers i ty in June 1963, sought to improve elementary and secondary school music. Though the study of the school curr iculum seemed to be the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e , recommendations covered a var ie ty of musical a c t i v i t i e s i n school music teaching. The Seminar members agreed that there should be three main components of the music curriculum—composing, performing, and l i s t e n i n g . Of the three , they f e l t that l i s t e n i n g was perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t fo r the teacher, to guide, s i n c e , "there was no overt a c t i v i t y to engage the .attention of the student nor any phys ica l technique or audible r e s u l t for the 23 teacher, to observe and c o r r e c t . " In the chapter of the Yale Seminar Report e n t i t l e d "Listening—The Key to Understanding," the fo l lowing i s reported: Some music educators and musicians would play down the r o l e of l i s t e n i n g i n school music. They point to the success scored i n the past by d i f -ferent types of a c t i v i t y i n mus ic—play ing , s i n g i n g , 22 Bennett Reimer, "Performance and Aesthet ic S e n s i t i v i t y , " Music Educators: Journal (March, 1968), p. 28. 23 C V . P a l i s c a (ed.) , Music i n our Schools - A Search for Improvement, United States Department of Heal th , Educat ion, and Welfare (Washington: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1964), p. 20. 25 composing--as well as to the mistaken concepts and chicanery that are .characteristic of "music appreciation" programs. Defenders of a l i s t e n i n g program acknowledge that so far i t seems to have had l i t t l e success below the college l e v e l , but they attribute t h i s to a lack of proper, classroom guidance due i n turn to i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge and s k i l l on the part of the teachers.24 Relating suggestions for a l i s t e n i n g curriculum to the junior high school, the Yale Seminar Report continues: By the junior high school l e v e l , when the c h i l d i s ready to absorb ideas and concepts at a faster rate than he i s i n c l i n e d to learn complex s k i l l s , i t becomes more e f f i c i e n t to separate l i s t e n i n g from performing by a l l o t t i n g to i t , i f not separate, c l a s s -rooms and d i f f e r e n t teachers, at least long stretches of time.25 The Yale Seminar Report agrees with Madison and others who, e a r l i e r i n a curriculum guide for Indiana Schools wrote: Because of i t s i n t a n g i b i l i t y , and the d i f f i c u l t y of obtaining r e l i a b l e evidence of good and poor l i s t e n i n g , there i s a tendency either to neglect i t as a prime objective of i n s t r u c t i o n or to f a i l to develop any completely comprehensive educational plan to develop i t s many facets.26 24 Ibid., p. 16. 25 Ibid.,, p. 16 . T. H. Madison (Chairman), Music Education i n Indiana -A Curriculum : Guide, The Indiana Music Association Department of Public Instruction (State of Indiana, 1963), p. 29. 26 In an extensive ana lys is of the ro le of l i s t e n i n g , which included a d iscuss ion of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which l i s t e n i n g responses, can have, and a review of the ro les of l i s t e n i n g ( l i s ten ing as an end i n i t s e l f , fo r the purpose of fur ther ing other musical s k i l l s and assoc ia t ive l i s t e n i n g ) , the author of the curr iculum guide, Music Education i n Indiana concluded that : The musica l ly educated person can have, as a part of h i s musical equipment, the capac i ty to d i r e c t and choose from a number of d i f f e r e n t l i s - , tening s k i l l s any of which serves h i s purpose at the moment. Music educators might,: there fore , develop the concept of the v e r s a t i l e l i s t e n e r as a worthy object ive for t h e i r pro fess ion and see that they develop appropriate pedagogical t e c h -niques for the r e a l i z a t i o n of the object ive .27 PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS. OF MUSIC EDUCATION A review of l i t e r a t u r e i n the psychology of music pro -vides l i t t l e p o s i t i v e data on which to base the l i s t e n i n g design proposed i n t h i s study. Since the work of C a r l Seashore at the beginning of the century, attempts have been made to p lace music psychology on a s c i e n t i f i c foot ing with other areas of psychology. Nevertheless,: contr ibut ions to the f i e l d have been la rge ly subject ive i n nature, and lack ing evidence of empi r ica l data. I b i d . , p. 35. 27 The d i f f i c u l t y , of obtaining d e f i n i t i v e data from the reports of i n d i v i d u a l experimentation i n l i s t e n i n g may be 2 8 i l l u s t r a t e d by two examples. Lundin devotes f i v e pages i n h is Object ive Psychology of Music to the question of whether or not the major or minor modes e l i c i t d e f i n i t e a f f e c t i v e reac t ions . He c i t e s the studies of two invest iga tors and ind icates that they came to d i f f e r e n t conc lus ions . However, he states that the two studies were not contradictory since the s t i m u l i employed were not the same and i t could not be proved that they had measured the same th ing . Max Schoen i n h is Psychology of Music opens a d iscuss ion of the nature of musical enjoyment by cast ing doubt on the value of some of h is sources. He suggests that , "a number of studies are ava i lab le with more or less s i g n i f i c a n t and v a l i d 29 r e s u l t s . " While i t may be of i n t e r e s t to speculate on the r e l a t i v e merits of d i f f e r i n g s t u d i e s , i t i s impossible to prove that the r e s u l t s obtained by one or the other are d e f i n i t i v e . Three recent books imply that the e s s e n t i a l nature of the l i s t e n i n g experience may be outside the bounds of music psychology. The Robert Lundin, An Object ive Psychology o f Music (New York: The Ronald Press , 1967), pp. 142-146. 29 Max Schoen, The Psychology of Music (New York: The Ronald P r e s s , 1940), p. 108. 28 attitude of t h e i r authors suggests that, with the research tools previously av a i l a b l e , music psychology has been unable to provide enough objective data to support s c i e n t i f i c a l l y any theory of l i s t e n i n g . In his Introduction to the Psychology of Music, Gesa 30 Revesz states that the problems of aesthetics are outside the bounds of psychology and his b r i e f treatment of music l i s t e n i n g i s much more philosophical than psychological. 31 Leonard Meyer, i n Emotion and Meaning i n Music, says that the basic t h e o r e t i c a l formulations he advances were derived from a study of music rather than aesthetics or psychology. 32 And Donald Ferguson, i n Music as Metaphor, r e l i e s on what he c a l l s " r a t i o n a l " rather than " s c i e n t i f i c " argument. Though music psychology has not provided agreement on s p e c i f i c aspects of l i s t e n i n g which would be of value for this design, i t does r e f l e c t a consensus i n cert a i n areas which have implications for any l i s t e n i n g curriculum. The extent to which previous researchers have investigated the 30 Gesa Revesz, Introduction to the Psychology of Music (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954T, p.236. 31 Leonard Meyer, Emotion and Meaning i n Music (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956), p. x. 32 Donald N. Ferguson, Music as Metaphor: The Elements  of Expression (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1960), p. v i i i . 29 e f fec ts of musical t r a i n i n g and musical experience on a f f e c t i v e response w i l l be examined i n l a t e r sect ions of t h i s review of the l i t e r a t u r e . COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS Music teaching may be d i rec ted toward cogni t ive ob-j e c t i v e s , toward a f f e c t i v e object ives or toward both. When the teacher i s conscious of object ives he may a t t r ibu te value to e i ther or both. Sometimes there i s a f e e l i n g that when one of the two i s sought the other w i l l ' au tomat ica l ly ' develop. In other words, i f ch i ld ren are taught musical facts and s k i l l s , they w i l l , as a r e s u l t of the cogni t ive achieve-ments learn to l i k e music. Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia state that , "as a r e s u l t of the research and wr i t ings of Ty le r (1934, 1951), Furst (1958), and o thers , th is b e l i e f i n the 'automatic' development of the higher mental processes i s no 33 longer widely h e l d . " These same authors do, however, agree tha t , "there s t i l l p e r s i s t s an i m p l i c i t b e l i e f that i f cog-n i t i v e object ives are developed there w i l l be a corresponding development of appropriate a f f e c t i v e behaviours .""^ David R. Krathwohl, Benjamin S. Bloom, and Bertram B. Masia, Taxonomy of Educat ional Ob jec t ives , Handbook II (New York: David McKay Company, I n c . , 1965), p. 20. I b i d . 30 Not only i s there doubt as to the p o s s i b i l i t y of a positi v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two domains, the same writers of f e r the suggestion that an inverse r e l a t i o n may ex i s t between the two. The authors of thi s work hold the view that under some conditions the development of cognitive behaviours may actually destroy certain desired a f f e c t i v e behav-iours, and that, instead of a po s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between growth i n cognition and a f f e c t i v e behaviour i t i s con-ceivable that there may be an inverse r e l a t i o n between growth i n the two domains. . . . Clearly there i s need for conclusive experimentation and research on the relations between the two domains.35 In an exhaustive study by Jacob and his committee on the impact of college teaching on students' values, much of the exploratory research suggested that a f f e c t i v e behaviours develop when appropriate learning experiences are provided for students, much the same as cognitive behaviours develop from appropriate learning experiences. Although the discussion was confined to the s o c i a l sciences i n general, the influence of the curriculum on students' values was considered n e g l i -gible.. Jacob reported: This study has not discerned s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n student values which can be .attributed d i r e c t l y either to the character of the curriculum or to the basic courses i n s o c i a l science which students take as part of t h e i r general education.36 3.5-....., Ibid.' 3 6 P h i l l i p E. Jacob, Changing Values i n College (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1957), p. 5. 31 McDonald confirms th is view when he says: Apparently mere exposure to the content of a course does not guarantee that student a t t i tudes w i l l change on the top ics being s tud ied . When classroom procedures are developed s p e c i f i c a l l y to in f luence a t t i tude change, such changes are more l i k e l y to occur.37 L i t t l e research Into c o g n i t i v e - a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s has been conducted i n the f i e l d of music educat ion. However, i n two studies recent ly completed both authors recognized the poss ib le existence of c o g n i t i v e - a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In a study to determine the e f fec ts of e s p e c i a l l y designed l i s t e n i n g experiences on students' a t t i tudes towards music, Evans invest igated the re la t ionsh ips between under-standing musical s t ructure and students' a f f e c t i v e response. Although the author concluded that a program of music l i s -tening experiences can be implemented to change p o s i t i v e l y junior high school students a t t i tudes towards music, he discounted the p o s s i b i l i t y i n h is p a r t i c u l a r study of changes i n a f f e c t i v e behaviour as a r e s u l t of growth i n cogni t ive l ea rn ings . He s ta tes : The general music teacher cannot expect to observe favourable a f f e c t i v e responses to music by teaching for cogni t ive ob jec t ives on ly . A c lass for learn ing musical fac ts may achieve cogni t ive g o a l s , but there was l i t t l e evidence to suggest . that a " l i k i n g " of Freder ick J . McDonald, Educat ional Psychology (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publ ish ing Company, I n c . , 1965) , p. 368. 32 music eith e r for s p e c i f i c selections or music i n general, w i l l be a by-product of these e f f o r t s . . . . The changes that did occur were the r e s u l t of repeated l i s t e n i n g experiences to a limited number of musical selections.38 In the summation of his study, Evans makes the following statement: Evidence from two measures of c o g n i t i v e - a f f e c t i v e relationships indicated that there was neither a pos i t i v e nor a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between learning information about the elements of musical structure and a f f e c t i v e responses to music.39 A c r i t i c i s m that could be directed to the study by Evans should include the f a c t that while the design and teaching procedure allowed time for repeated l i s t e n i n g experiences, there was l i t t l e provision for t r a i n i n g and growth i n "under-standing the elements of musical structure." On the basis of t h i s study which involved only one teacher and two classes of students, one reaction i s to re-echo the plea of Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia that: Clearly there i s a need for conclusive experi-mentation and research on the relations between the two domains--the cognitive and the a f f e c t i v e . 40 38 Jesse G i l l e t t e Evans, "The Effects, of E s p e c i a l l y Designed Music Listening Experiences of Junior High School Students Attitudes Towards Music" (Unpulished Doctoral Dis-sertation, Indiana University, 1965) , p. 125. 39 Ibid., p. 122 . 40 Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia, Toe. c i t . 33 In a descriptive study i n which the author Robert Hare was concerned with an analysis of the psychological and aesthetic conditions of music appreciation, an opposing view to that of Evans was established. Hare found a number of factors which contributed to the modification of musical taste i n college students. He concluded: . . . that since the study revealed that the and appreciation were and the aptitude to development of musical taste related to musical knowledge di s t i n g u i s h musical q u a l i t i e s , then i t seems that a formal and systematic program for music appreci-ation might be set up.41 I t i s recognized that human behaviour can r a r e l y be compartmentalized i n terms of cognition and a f f e c t . A substan-t i a l amount of research l i t e r a t u r e has been written which dem-onstrates that cognition and a f f e c t can never be completely separated. The authors of the Taxonomy of Educational Objec-tives' i n summarizing the work of various researchers make the following observation: I t i s not so much what i s learned but how i t i s learned, which w i l l determine the a f f e c t i v e objec-tives that w i l l be attained at the same time as the cognitive objectives.42 41 Robert Yates Hare, "The Pedagogical P r i n c i p l e s of Music Appreciation" .(Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, State University of Iowa, 1959), p. 124. 42 Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia, pj_.: c i t . , p. 86. 34 This view i s substant iated s t i l l fu r ther with t h e i r fo l lowing comment: The wr i ters are persuaded that although there may be varying r e l a t i o n s between cogni t ive and a f f e c t i v e ob jec t i ves , the p a r t i c u l a r re la t ions i n any s i t u a t i o n are determined by the learn ing experiences, the students have had.43 From the l i t e r a t u r e surveyed there i s evidence that cur -rent educat ional and psycho log ica l ' theory supports the view that .there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between cogni t ive and a f f e c t i v e behaviours. In teaching prac t ice there are instances where teachers use cogni t ive behaviour not j u s t as a means to a f fec t i ve behaviour but as a kind of p r e r e q u i s i t e . Thus appreciat ion object ives are of ten approached cognit ivel 'y by having the student analyze a work of ar t so that he w i l l come to understand the way i n which cer ta in e f fec ts are produced. Such ana lys is on a cogni t ive l e v e l when mastered may be seen as learning necessary for " t ru ly" appreciat ing a work o f a r t . Bloom makes the observation that cogni t ive behaviour may be used to indoctr inate points of view and to b u i l d a t t i tudes and va lues . He reminds the reader that : . . • . indeed we do th is shamelessly i n the aesthet ic f i e l d s , where we want our students: to learn to recognize "good" poet ry , p a i n t i n g , a r c h i t e s t u r e , sculpture and music.44 ^ I b i d . , p. 86 . 44 I b i d . , p. 56. 35 THE EFFECT OF MUSICAL TRAINING ON MUSICAL PREFERENCES,. TASTE,. AND DISCRIMINATION Music psychologists agree that training, can have an e f f e c t on the type of l i s t e n i n g which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an in d i v i d u a l . While i n t e l l e c t u a l l y disposed l i s t e n e r s would appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y susceptible to t r a i n i n g , Meyer believes that t r a i n i n g can also encourage the development of aff e c t i v e l i s t e n i n g . He suggests, that: . . . those who have been taught to believe that musical experience i s primarily emotional and who are therefore disposed to respond a f f e c t i v e l y w i l l probably do so.45 46 Lundin too believes that responses to music are acquired, either by simple exposure to music or as a r e s u l t of deliberate t r a i n i n g . Mursell gives a q u a l i f i e d acceptance of the b e n e f i c i a l results: of t r a i n i n g by emphasizing that res-ponsiveness to. music may be i n h i b i t e d rather, than made more adequate i f that t r a i n i n g i s over-intellectualized.47 While there i s no disagreement with the proposition that t r a i n i n g can and does a f f e c t the type of l i s t e n i n g res-Leonard Meyer, Emotion :and Meaning i n Music (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956), p. 40. 46 Robert Lundin, An Objective Psychology of Music (New York: The Ronald Press, 1940) , p. 9. 47 James L. Mursell, The Psychology of Music (New York: W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1937), p. 35. 36 ponse, the degree to which such t r a i n i n g re in forces or counter-acts some p r i o r d i s p o s i t i o n has not been f u l l y documented. Psycholog ica l studies appear to agree that there i s p o t e n t i a l for change i n l i s t e n i n g behaviour as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g . The most extensive work i n t h i s area has been that of Paul Farnsworth. He be l ieves that the only r e a l bas is upon which musical taste ex is ts i s that of t r a i n i n g and i n d o c t r i n -at ion by a cul ture or s o c i e t y . Taste i s , he says , "cu l tu re -48 bound, not c u l t u r e - f r e e . " He fur ther s ta tes : The hypothesis that contemporary taste i s at l eas t i n a large measure cu l tura l ly - der ived can be demonstrated through the data of anthropology, h i s t o r y , and experimental psychology.49 Farnsworth strengthens th is view when he says: A f te r many years of study and research, , the author concludes that musical taste, i s a phen-omenon of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , rather than a conglomeration of chance responses to a set of absolutes. Like a l l other folkways, musical taste i s p e c u l i a r to a p a r t i c u l a r group of people and a p a r t i c u l a r per iod of h i s t o r y . No music, then, can be inherent ly good or bad, for goodness i s only an evaluat ion by a group of men t ra ined to accept a p a r t i c u l a r set of standards.50 Paul R. Farnsworth, The S o c i a l Psychology of Music (New York: The Dryden Press , 1958), p. 153. 49 * I b i d . , p. 119. 50 Paul R. Farnsworth,: Musical Taste: I ts Measurement  and C u l t u r a l •Nature (Standford, C a l i f o r n i a : Stanford Univer-v e r s i t y Press , 1950) , p. 3. 37 If musical taste i s , as Farnsworth and Lundin c la im, a c u l t u r a l l y der ived phenomena subject t o change through growth i n s k i l l , knowledge, and comprehension of musical elements, then th is phenomena has an important imp l ica t ion for i n s t r u c -t ion i n music l i s t e n i n g . I f the development of musical d i s -cr iminat ion i s a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g , i t fol lows that teachers of music appreciat ion should u t i l i z e music that they be l ieve to be of the highest q u a l i t y . They should not , however, suggest that any other music i s inherent ly good or b a d . , A key concept i n the formation of taste and preferences can be found a lso i n Broudy's phi losophy. His theory formu-la tes a bas ic p o s i t i o n fundamental t o th is study. Summarizing h is general education program i n music, he says: Growth i n taste and appreciat ion has been held to be c o r r e l a t i v e with growth i n musical s k i l l , know-ledge , and the a b i l i t y to comprehend and d iscr iminate . the musical q u a l i t i e s . I f th is i s s o , then the program ?can be formal ly designed, systemat ica l ly and de l ibe ra te ly i n s t i t u t e d and conducted, fo r both know-ledge and s k i l l can be taught systemat ica l ly .51 Several studies present conclusions i n agreement with the psycholog ica l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l wr i t ings of Farnsworth, 52 Lundin, and Broudy. Erneston, whose study i s d iscussed l a t e r Harry S. Broudy, "A R e a l i s t i c Philosophy of Music Educat ion ," Basic Concepts i n Music Education (Chicago: N . S . S . E . , Un ivers i ty of Chicago Press , 1958), p. 86. 52 Nicholas Erneston, "A Study to Determine the E f f e c t s of Musical Experience and Mental A b i l i t y on the Formulation of Musical Taste" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y , 1961), p. 140. 38 found that t r a i n i n g and experience were highly correlated with the formation of discriminating taste. He found s i g n i f i c a n t differences beyond the one per-cent l e v e l of confidence between the taste scores of students who had not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n any organized musical a c t i v i t y whatsoever, and those of students who had been active i n music, regardless of type of a c t i v i t y 53 . or length of time involved i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Getz in a study recently reported, concluded that experience and musical tr a i n i n g were factors i n high preference rating responses. 54 Kelly i n a s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r study compared the musical pre-ferences of a se l e c t group of musically experienced adoles-cents with those of a sample of the general population, i n order to determine to some extent the influence of musical tr a i n i n g upon the musical preferences of the subject group. His conclusions give strong support to the concept that pre-55 56 ference i s related to t r a i n i n g . Hornyak and Keston Russell P. Getz, "The E f f e c t s of Repetition on Listening Responses," Journal of Research i n Music Education, v o l . 14 (1966), p. 179. 54 David F. Ke l l y , "A Study of the Musical Preferences of a Select Group of Adolescents," Journal of Research In.. Music Education, v o l . 11 ( F a l l , 1961), p. 118. 55 Roy Robert Hornyak, "An Analysis of Student Attitudes towards Contemporary Music," Council for Research i n Music  Education B u l l e t i n , no. 8 ( F a l l , 1966), p. 13. ^Morton J . Keston and Isabelle M. Pinto, "Possible Factors Influencing Musical Preferences for Different Types of Music," Journal of Genetic Psychology, v o l . 87 (March, 1955) , pp. 101-13. 39 s i m i l a r l y found that musical t r a i n i n g i n the var ious elements of musical s t ructure together with s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s t y l i s t i c features of the music encouraged a more favourable preference response. F i n a l l y , a study by Rogers ind icates the importance of musical t r a i n i n g on the development of musical preferences. He s ta tes : I t would seem that while musical t r a i n i n g per se does not guarantee an increase in one's a b i l i t y to d iscern the best i n music, the greater f a m i l i a r i t y with music enjoyed by those who have had a consider -able amount of musical t r a i n i n g would tend to i n -f luence t h e i r f e e l i n g toward the p a r t i c u l a r type of music which they have become f a m i l i a r with through t h e i r musical t ra in ing .57 From the evidence of music p s y c h o l o g i s t s , an educat ional phi losopher , and severa l music educators., who invest igated the r e l a t i o n s h i p of musical t r a i n i n g and the development of musi-c a l preferences, i t may be accepted that musical tas te— musical preferences—are developed i n part as a r e s u l t of the nature and extent of the aud i to r ' s t r a i n i n g and musical ex-perience . EFFECTS OF REPETITION ON AFFECTIVE RESPONSE Several studies are reviewed here which were concerned with the e f f e c t of r e p e t i t i o n of musical se lec t ions on a f f e c -V.R. Rogers, "Chi ldrens ' Expressed Musical Pre feren-ces at Selected Grade Levels" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r -t a t i o n , Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y , 1956), p. 38. 40 t i ve response. Most studies i n t h i s area were conducted with adults or older ch i ld ren as subjects ; only two used jun ior high school students. Downey and Knapp played ten recordings weekly for f i v e weeks for t h i r t y - t h r e e co l lege students. The recordings were c l a s s i f i e d as N a t i o n a l , P o e t i c , Program Music, and Formal Construct ion . They concluded that : . . . f a m i l i a r i t y c e r t a i n l y increased the a f f e c -t i ve value of the more subt le musical compositions and might be counted as a fac tor i n t r a i n i n g i n musical apprec ia t ion .58 59 In a study by Krugman, recordings of c l a s s i c a l and swing music were played once a week for e ight weeks to seven sub jec ts . He found that s h i f t s i n the d i r e c t i o n of "greater pleasantness" preponderated over those i n the d i r e c t i o n of unpleasantness; th is was true both of c l a s s i c a l and swing music. He concluded that p o s i t i v e a f f e c t i v e s h i f t can be produced by sheer r e p e t i t i o n of musical experience, regardless of the c l a s s i c a l or n o n - c l a s s i c a l character of the music. Getz concluded i n h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n that aesthet ic response may be higher a f ter hearing a given s e l e c t i o n more eg J . E . Downey and G . E . Knapp, "The E f f e c t on a Musica l Programme of F a m i l i a r i t y and Sequence of S e l e c t i o n s , " The  E f fec ts : of Music (ed. Max Schoen; New York:>HarGOVxt, Brace & Co. , 1927), pp. 223-242. 59 H.E. Krugman, "Af fec t ive Response to Music as a Function of F a m i l i a r i t y , " Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, v o l . 38 (1943), pp. 388-392. 41 than once. At four weekly sessions for ty musical examples were played to 339 seventh grade ch i ld ren using ten examples at each s e s s i o n . The experiment was conducted over a four -teen week per iod . Subjects were asked to rate each musical s e l e c t i o n on a one to nine preference ra t ing s c a l e , and to volunteer reasons for t h e i r preferences, i f such reasons were apparent. Ana lys is of data revealed that f a m i l i a r i t y through r e p e t i t i o n was the reason given most often by the subjects as an explanation of the i r preferences. Getz found that the points of optimum response were reached during the s i x t h to eighth hear ings. A s i g n i f i c a n t r i s e i n mean preference score was achieved however, by the second and t h i r d week of r e -peated hear ings. Impl icat ions for the classroom, as a r e s u l t of the study s ta ted: . . . the teacher in the junior high school music c lass should a f ford students the opportunity of hearing some musical compositions at l eas t two or three times a f ter t h e i r in t roduct ion.60 F a m i l i a r i t y through r e p e t i t i o n has often been proposed as a s i g n i f i c a n t fac tor i n a f f e c t i v e response i n music. In a study conducted by Evans, e ight se lec t ions served as a basis for inves t iga t ing the e f f e c t of repeated l i s t e n i n g on seventh grade students' l i k i n g s of these s e l e c t i o n s . Each of the Russe l l P. Getz , "The Influence of F a m i l i a r i t y Through Repet i t ion i n Determining Optimum Response of Seventh Grade Chi ldren to Cer ta in Types of Serious Music" (Unpublished Doc-t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , the Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , 1963), p. 99. 42 eight se lec t ions was played e ight times at spaced i n t e r v a l s throughout the term. Evans concluded that r e p e t i t i o n was an e f f e c t i v e device i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n . He states From the data ava i lab le i t appeared that the e f f e c t of r e p e t i t i o n of se lected compositions on students' a f f e c t i v e responses to these compositions i s a p o s i t i v e one. . . . I t appears that a ce r ta in amount of repeated l i s t e n i n g to most ser ious musi-c a l se lec t ions i s necessary i n order for junior high school students to respond p o s i t i v e l y to those se lec t ions i n terms of l i k i n g or d i s l i k i n g .61 The view that r e p e t i t i o n i s a necessary fac tor i n f l u -encing a f f e c t i v e response i s a lso confirmed by Hare. His study which invest igated the pedagogical p r i n c i p l e s of music appre-c i a t i o n discovered that : . . . r e p e t i t i o n tends to r a i s e the pleasant response f o r ser ious music while i t tends to lower markedly for that of pop m u s i c .6 2 Some of the causes for t h i s react ion were l i s t e d as: . . . agreeable imagery, greater comprehension of the s e l e c t i o n , increased a t ten t ion , greater a t tent ion to melody, greater a t tent ion to rhythm, bet ter adjustment to the mood of the composit ion.63 Jesse G i l l e t t e Evans, "The E f f e c t of E s p e c i a l l y Designed Music L i s t e n i n g Experiences on Junior High School Students' At t i tudes Towards Music" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1965), p. 125. Robert Yates Hare, "The Pedagogical P r i n c i p l e s of Music Apprecia t ion" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , State Un ivers i ty of Iowa, 1959), p. 88. 6 3 I b i d , 43 Re i te ra t ion of th is p r i n c i p l e occurs i n Hare's conc lus ions: There should be adequate r e p e t i t i o n of a musical s e l e c t i o n i n order that the student may become f a m i l i a r with '.it.64 TECHNIQUES USED PREVIOUSLY TO ASCERTAIN MUSICAL PREFERENCES Over the past two decades severa l attempts have been made to measure the musical preferences of both ch i ld ren and adu l ts . Although a var ie ty of approaches to the subject have been used, most research recent ly conducted may be categor ized as descr ip t i ve surveys. The studies of Schuessler , Baumann, Rubin, and Rogers span a per iod of f i f t e e n years and are r e -presentat ive of research conducted i n t h i s f i e l d . Two studies re la ted to the measurement of musical tastes and preferences were conducted by Schuessler and Baumann. Schuessler 's . i n v e s t i g a t i o n on "Musical Taste and Socio-Economic Background" although completed i n 1947 i s worth cons idera t ion . Using the Chi-square technique he found some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -ferences i n the tastes of var ious economic l eve ls at the one percent and f i v e percent l eve ls of conf idence. However, h is study was concerned for the most part with adult l i k e s and not 6 4 I b i d . , p. 124. 44 with problems of music educat ion. His conclusions :state: Musical taste i s condit ioned by the operat ion of pe rs is ten t biases which, i n turn r e s t on s o c i o -economic, sex, and age di f ferences. . The fac t that musical preferences exh ib i t consensus and r e g u l a r i t y f i t s the view that musical taste i s s o c i a l l y con-t r o l l e d ; i t fol lows that genera l i za t ions about aesthet ic judgments i n genera l , and musical taste i n p a r t i c u l a r , must take in to account the c u l t u r a l back-ground of an i n d i v i d u a l or age group.65 Schuessler seems to have demonstrated that socio-economic factors do in f luence adult music preferences. I t may a lso be suspected that musical t r a i n i n g , f a m i l i a r i t y with music, and educat ion, which he showed have r e l a t i o n to musical pre ferences, are themselves concomitants of socio-economic s ta tus . A l a t e r study conducted i n 1958 by Baumann invest iga ted the musical preferences of teenagers i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i o -economic s t r a t a . Through the use of a Musical Preference Inventory which contained f i f t y excerpts from "best s e l l i n g , " popular , t r a d i t i o n a l , and c l a s s i c a l music the musical p r e f e r -ences of 2000 boys and g i r l s were sampled. In addi t ion to a survey of teenage preferences, Baumann sought to d iscover i f h is use of the Musical Preference Inventory was super ior to previous studies which used interview and quest ionnaire techniques, and to v e r i f y or cont rad ic t the r e s u l t of previous K-.F. Schuessler , "Musical Taste and Socio-Economic Background" .'(.Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , Bloomington, 1947), pp. 128-129. 45 studies of musical pre ferences / Baumann's study encompassed grades seven through fourteen i n and around the urban area of Phoenix, Ar i zona . Of the many factors which p o s s i b l y i n -f luence music preferences those o f musical t r a i n i n g , age, sex, l i s t e n i n g h a b i t s , and socio-economic status were con-s idered . Besides a Musical Preference Inventory, a S o c i a l Status Inventory, and a Questionnaire were a lso used as i n -struments to measure preferences. Ana lys is of data was accomplished through the use of the Chi-square technique. Results: of the study were a v i n d i c a t i o n of the e a r l i e r study by Schuessler i n that there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences i n the preferences of high and low socio-economic groups for some kinds of music. Although there i s a ce r ta in degree of ambivalence i n Baumann's . c o n c l u s i o n s , he does s ta te : I t has been demonstrated that socio-economic status has some r e l a t i o n s h i p to teenage p r e f e r -ences '..-66 A f ind ing of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s study was the teenage p r e -ference for pop music. Baumann s t a t e s : . . . pop music i s what teenagers l i k e , but that there was a consistent dec l ine i n p r e f e r -ences for pop music with '.each o lder age l e v e l . 6 ? V i c t o r H. Baumann, "Socio-Economic Status and the Music Preferences of Teen-Agers" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s -s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1958), p. 227. 6 7 I b i d . 46 A recommendation per t inent t o th is study s ta ted: Further inves t iga t ion might reveal that there are age l eve ls when i t would be more propi t ious to present the contemporary music of Bartok and Stravinsky rather than the c l a s s i c a l music of Haydn and Mozart.6 8 In conclusion, , the study ind ica ted that .it was apparent t h a t musical t r a i n i n g , age, and sex were factors which in f luenced scores derived from the Musical Preference Inventory. The techniques employed by Baumann to c o l l e c t and eva-luate h is data were admittedly more re f ined than those used i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s . The range and number of subjects used i n the study were a lso larger and more representat ive than most s t u d i e s . However, there seems to be a bas ic weakness i n any study which o f fe rs conclusions that are based on inventor ies and quest ionnaires that r e l y s o l e l y on survey techniques. Neither Schuessler nor Baumann tested t h e i r sub jec ts 1 r e s -ponses more than once, and therefore were not able to e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a b i l i t y , of t h e i r sub jec ts 1 answers. At b e s t , t h e i r results: could be somewhat suspect , s ince some people tend to give answers which they be l ieve are d e s i r a b l e , or e lse they do not share the d e f i n i t i o n of terms the i n v e s t i g a t o r has i n mind. Furthermore, there was no s p e c i f i c per iod of time allowed to invest igate the ef fects , of learning or exposure on students' musical preferences. To simply measure musical I b i d . , p. 226. 47 preferences and from the r e s u l t s conclude that pop music i s the music l i k e d best by teenagers may merely prove the e f fec ts of mass media on people 's preferences. Would the r e s u l t s be the same i f subjects were exposed s i m i l a r l y and cons is ten t ly to other forms of music, inc lud ing c l a s s i c a l and ser ious contemporary? An empi r i ca l l y tested s i t u a t i o n could revea l answers to such quest ions . The musical preferences of three hundred students equal ly d iv ided between grades seven, n ine , and twelve were sampled i n a study conducted by Rubin i n 1952. The author attempted to determine the e f fec ts of musical experience on musical d isc r im ina t ion and musical preferences. Again the data was obtained through the use of the quest ionnaire tech -nique and a musical preference inventory. Three types of music were included i n the t e s t ; ar t music, fo lk music, , and current ly popular music. The Musical Preference Inventory constructed by Rubin u t i l i z e d the pai red comparison technique. Analys is of data i n th is p a r t i c u l a r study revealed that : . . . musical experience, as def ined by the Quest ionnaire , had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the musical preferences of school students. The preferences of both musica l ly experienced and musica l ly i n -experienced students showed a predominant i n t e r -est i n music of t rans ient current vogue.69 Louis J . Rubin, "The E f f e c t s of Musical Experience on Musical D iscr iminat ions and Musical Preferences" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of C a l i f o r n i a , 1952), p.152. 48 Rubin fur ther concluded from h is data that musical experience had a l imi ted e f f e c t on d iscr iminatory a b i l i t y , but observed that : The l imi ted s i g n i f i c a n c e of musical experience with regard to d iscr iminatory a b i l i t y i s undoubtedly the r e s u l t of lack of emphasis i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t ra in ing.70 At f i r s t glance i t would seem that Rubin's conclusions are ambiguous. He f i r s t states that musical experience had l i t t l e e f f e c t on musical preferences, and then l a t e r he q u a l i -f i e s h is assert ions by s ta t ing that t h i s was due to a lack of emphasis i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r a i n i n g . I t would appear a f te r ca re fu l ana lys is of Rubin's study that musical experience per se had l i t t l e e f f e c t on musical preferences, but a d i f fe rence would r e s u l t i f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s musical experience included t r a i n i n g s p e c i a l l y designed to fos ter growth i n musical d i s -c r iminat ion . Unfortunate ly , there was no attempt i n t h i s survey of musical preferences to d iscover i f such f ind ings would be r e p l i c a t e d through a s p e c i f i c a l l y def ined per iod of musical t r a i n i n g designed to promote growth i n musical d i s -c r imina t ion . A present-day inves t iga tor a f te r a c a r e f u l reading of Rubin's study, has no a l te rna t ive but to conclude that the e f fec ts of musical experience on musical d i s c r i m i n -I b i d . , p. 154. 49 at ion and musical preferences can only be determined through experimental studies of such var iab les as t ime, musical ex-per ience , musical t r a i n i n g , and c u l t u r a l i n f luences . Re la t i ve ly speaking, only a few unpublished theses and d i s s e r t a t i o n s have dea l t with the development of musical tastes and preferences. Prominent among these studies which are s i m i l a r to the one under considerat ion are those of Nicholas Erneston and Jesse G. Evans. The Erneston study invest igated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the musical experiences and mental a b i l i t i e s of seven hundred and eighty co l lege freshmen and the i r acquired musical t a s t e s . To accomplish h is object ive a ser ies of f i v e tests were used to determine (1) the previous musical experience of each student, (2) t h e i r a t t i tudes towards music, (3) the musical d isc r im ina t ion of students, (4) the musical i n t e l l i g e n c e of each student, and (5) the mental a b i l i t y of each student. In order to determine whether or not any c o r r e l a t i o n existed between musical experience and t a s t e , the tes t popu-l a t i o n was d iv ided in to a number of experience groups deter -mined by kinds and amounts of experience. These groups represented experiences ranging from none at a l l , to those invo lv ing r e l a t i v e l y extensive experience i n severa l d i f f e r -ent types of musical a c t i v i t y . An ana lys is of var iance revealed that h igh ly s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences (beyond the .01 l e v e l of s ign i f i cance ) ex is ted between the taste scores of 50 students who had had very l i t t l e experience whatsoever, and those of students who had been act ive i n music regardless of the type of a c t i v i t y and amount. These f indings suggested that musical experience i s e s s e n t i a l to the formulat ion of musical taste as defined by Erneston. In order to determine the e f f e c t of mental a b i l i t y on taste d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , high and low mental a b i l i t y cases were i d e n t i f i e d i n each experience group. Taste scores of high mental a b i l i t y were then compared with those of low mental a b i l i t y . Highly s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o s were found i n every ins tance , always beyond the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Erneston i n h is conclusions s ta tes : Perhaps one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t of the f ind ings i n th is study i s that mental a b i l i t y does not appear to be a fac tor in taste develop-ment among inexperienced persons, but i s a h ighly s i g n i f i c a n t fac tor among experienced persons.71 And l a t e r he a f f i rms: Students with the highest mental a b i l i t y , who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the highest va r ie ty of ex-periences for the longest periods of time c o n s i s -tent ly earned scores representat ive of the highest l eve ls of acquired musical taste.72 Nicholas Erneston, "A Study to Determine the E f f e c t of Musical Experience and Mental A b i l i t y on the Formulation of Musical Taste" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , The F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y , 1961), p. 140. 7 2 I b l d . , p. 140. 51 Erneston a lso invest igated the fac tor of sex d i f f e r -ences i n musical preferences. F i f t y pa i rs of men and women were matched for the same mental a b i l i t y and musical e x p e r i -ence. The r e s u l t s of h is ana lys is lead to the conclusion that : . . . men and women of the same mental a b i l i t y and musical experiences do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y wherein*musical taste i s concerned.73 The study conducted by Erneston i s perhaps an example of one of the best recent ly completed. Three of the tes ts administered were tes ts that have been accepted as use fu l standardized t e s t s . The two remaining instruments were con-st ructed and tested i n p i l o t studies to ascer ta in t h e i r usefulness and r e l i a b i l i t y as tes t instruments. S t a t i s t i c a l techniques included the t - t e s t and analys is of var iance . Although the subjects were older than students i n jun ior high schoo l , the f ind ings have impl ica t ions and pert inence for the present study under, cons idera t ion . Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n could reveal i f the development of musical preferences for contemporary art music could be e f fected by such v a r i a b l e s as musical exper ience, musical t r a i n i n g , mental a b i l i t y , and sex d i f f e r e n c e s . 73 I b i d . , p. 132. 52 Jesse Evans conducted an experimental study among two c lasses of grade e ight students i n 1965. I t was the purpose of h is study to invest igate the hypothesis that jun ior high school students w i l l develop p o s i t i v e a t t i tudes towards v a r i -ous styles, of music through e s p e c i a l l y designed l i s t e n i n g ex-per iences . U t i l i z i n g an experimental group and equivalent cont ro l group des ign , the two c lasses were taught by Evans for the per iod of one semester. The s ty les of music used i n the study included instrumental and voca l music of a l l periods plus fo lk music of the Americas and j azz . The ' e s p e c i a l l y designed' l i s t e n i n g experiences consisted of a pattern of l i s -tening exper iences, l e c t u r e s , and classroom d i s c u s s i o n . The data gathering instrument used i n the study included a music preference inventory , a ra t ing sca le for musical i n t e r e s t , a tes t of learnings i n music, and a quest ionnaire on music. Three re la ted areas were a lso subjected to i n v e s t i g a -t i o n : (1) the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between understanding musical s t ructure and at t i tudes towards music; (2) the e f fec ts of repeated l i s t e n i n g to musical se lec t ions on students ' a t t i -tudes to music; and (3) the e f f e c t s of appealing to non-musical i n te res ts of seventh grade students on t h e i r a t t i tudes towards music. Data from p r e - t e s t i n g and p o s t - t e s t i n g of the experimental c lass and an equated cont ro l c lass made i t poss ib le fo r Evans to make the fo l lowing conc lus ions: 53 A program of music l i s t e n i n g experiences can be designed to p o s i t i v e l y change jun ior high school students, a t t i t u d e s towards music.74 And: Understanding the various elements: of s t ructure appears to have l i t t l e or nothing to do with junior high school students' a f f e c t i v e response to various s ty les of music.75 Both these conclusions ra ise questions for the reader. Evans found that h is students changed t h e i r a t t i tudes p o s i -t i v e l y toward the music they heard because of such fac tors as r e p e t i t i o n and non-musical e x t r i n s i c mot ivat ion. He found a lso that 'understanding the various elements of musical s t r u c t u r e 1 d id not in f luence t h e i r a f f e c t i v e response. A ca re fu l scru t iny of h is sequence of lessons reveals very l i t t l e emphasis being placed on such cogni t ive learnings that would lead to an understanding of musical s t ruc tu re . To a c r i t i c a l reader the question of whether cogni t ive learnings in f luence a t t i tudes toward music remains unanswered. A far wider and representat ive sampling of sub jec ts ' responses to s p e c i f i c musical t r a i n i n g may be necessary before such conclusions could be v e r i f i e d . Jesse G. Evans, "The E f f e c t of E s p e c i a l l y Designed Music L is ten ing Experiences on Junior High School Student 's At t i tudes Towards. Music" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1965), p. 121. 75 Ibid . , p. 122 . CHAPTER III DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT ORGANIZATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN In the i n i t i a l stages of the study, .it was necessary to devise and adopt a p a r t i c u l a r experimental design i n order to invest igate the problem and to tes t the severa l hypo-theses stated i n the f i r s t chapter. However, the development and subsequent organizat ion of an experiment appropriate for the implementation of the l i s t e n i n g program was preceded by a review of the various re la ted areas of p h i l o s o p h i c a l , psy-c h o l o g i c a l , and educat ional l i t e r a t u r e . The p a r t i c u l a r design u t i l i z e d i n the study was, there fore , based upon the demands of music as I t i s perce ived , and upon the c u r r i c u l a r thought and research revealed i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Deta i led evidence of the research f indings re la ted t o the d i s t i n c t i v e charac-t e r i s t i c s of the l i s t e n i n g program i s presented more appro-p r i a t e l y i n Chapter Four. Deta i ls of the various requirements necessary for both the implementation of the l i s t e n i n g program and the. t e s t i n g of each of the s ix hypotheses are l i s t e d as fo l lows . Method. The design of th is experimental study provided for three groups of grade seven students who were designated as: 1. Experimental group I 2. Experimental group II 3. Control group The sampling procedure. I n i t i a l l y i t had not been planned to include sex as a factor i n t h i s experiment. Con-sequently i t was not unreasonable to plan for d i f f e r e n t numbers of classes i n the three treatment groups, a l l o t t i n g the largest number to the E 1 program on which most r e l i a b l e evidence was required, and least to the C program. However, i n randomly assigning classes to treatment, i t was overlooked that t h i s should have been done within sex so as to ensure an approximately equal number of boys' and g i r l s ' classes i n each treatment group. When i t was r e a l i z e d that there was a preponderance of g i r l s ' classes i n E 1, and of boys' classes i n E 2, i t was decided that a two-factor analysis (even though approximate because of'the unequal numbers i n the c e l l s ) would have to be performed as i t was then too late to rearrange matters. However, t h i s enabled the investigator to look at any possible i n t e r a c t i o n between sex and treatment, as well as at o v e r a l l treatment and sex e f f e c t s . Experimental group I. Fourteen classes t o t a l l i n g 501 students were randomly assigned to the E 1 program. The d i s p o s i t i o n of the classes was as follows: 5 mixed classes of g i r l s and boys; 6 classes of g i r l s ; 3 classes of boys. Of the t o t a l number, 203 stu-dents were boys, and 298 students were g i r l s . 56 Experimental group I I . Ten classes t o t a l l i n g 317 students were assigned to the E 2 program. The d i s p o s i t i o n of the classes was as follows: 4 mixed classes of g i r l s and boys; 2 classes of g i r l s ; 4 classes of boys. Of the t o t a l number, 194 students were boys, and 123 students were g i r l s . Control group. Six classes t o t a l l i n g 190 students were assigned to the C group program. The d i s p o s i t i o n of the classes was as follows: 1 mixed class of boys and g i r l s ; 2 classes of g i r l s ; 3 classes of boys. Of the t o t a l number, 106 students were boys, and 84 students were g i r l s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t h i r t y classes and t h e i r res-pective teachers resulted i n the following: 2 teachers taught one class each; 9 teachers taught two classes each; 2 teachers taught three classes.each; 1 teacher taught four classes. The Experimental Design. Experimental group I. Classes i n the experiment designated as E 1 received s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g and experience i n l i s t e n i n g to each musical composition a n a l y t i c a l l y . Each lesson provided an opportunity to include the features of a s p e c i a l l y designed sequential approach to the art of l i s t e n i n g . The p a r t i c u l a r features and routines of each lesson are outlined i n the fourth chapter i n a discussion of the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the E 1 group's l i s t e n i n g program. Experimental group II. Classes i n the experiment designated as group II l i s -tened to the prescr ibed music without any s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g by the classroom teacher. The music was l i s t e n e d to i n c lass a minimum of three t imes. There was no formal ana lys is or i n s t r u c t i o n from the classroom teacher except to announce the t i t l e and composer of the composit ion. F a m i l i a r i t y with the music was gained only through r e p e t i t i o n . Teachers i n charge of the experimental group I I 's program were free to continue with t h e i r own music programs for a por t ion of each per iod when the l i s t e n i n g assignment was complete, with the exception that no formal i n s t r u c t i o n i n contemporary music was al lowed. Contro l group. Classes recorded the i r musical preferences i n i t i a l l y as a p r e - t e s t , and at the completion of the study as a post -t e s t , without any exposure to the l i s t e n i n g program. Teachers continued with t h e i r usual music programs i n each instance avoiding any exposure to ser ious contemporary music i n the classroom for the durat ion of the study. Time Al lotment . Commencing i n September 1968 the study continued for a t o t a l of fourteen weeks through to the end of the f a l l term. Two lessons of approximately twenty-f ive min-utes durat ion were given i n each of the fourteen weeks to both 58 experimental groups. Lessons were numbered from one through to twenty-eight and concluded with the administrat ion of the music preference inventory as a post-test> Test ing Procedures. The study involved the fo l lowing tes t ing procedures: 1. The administrat ion of the music preference inven-tory to a l l subjects i n each of the three groups as a pre -tes t to determine the degree of musical preference each subject recorded for each item i n the preference inventory. 2. The administrat ion of a tes t i n musical knowledge to determine the extent of musical knowledge each i n d i v i d u a l had prev ious ly gained. 3. The administrat ion of the music preference inventory to a l l subjects i n each of the three groups as a p o s t - t e s t to determine the degree of musical preference each subject r e -corded for each item i n the preference inventory. Procedures for the Se lec t ion of the music. A l l music u t i l i z e d i n the study was chosen by a panel of judges e s p e c i -a l l y appointed for the task. Before the i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n commenced each judge agreed to (a) a r b i t r a r i l y c l a s s i f y and group contemporary ar t music in to four s p e c i f i c ca tegor ies ; and (b) s e l e c t music wi th in each category that could be des-cr ibed as " s i g n i f i c a n t and representat ive" contemporary ar t music. The d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with naming any p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e or medium of music was recognized by the pane l . However, 59 each member agreed to give considerable thought and a t tent ion to the s e l e c t i o n . The procedures used for the s e l e c t i o n of music were as fo l lows: 1. Se lect ions were made from a universe of twentieth century ar t compositions that were c l a s s i f i e d as: 1. Tonal 2. Poly tonal 3. Atonal 4. E l e c t r o n i c 2. Each of the s i x judges appointed to choose the music submitted a l i s t of three representat ive compositions considered s i g n i f i c a n t as important works of musical a r t from each of the four categories l i s t e d (twelve p i e c e s ) . 3. A complete l i s t t o t a l l i n g seventy-two compositions ( including dupl icat ions) was then compiled preparatory to the judges' s e l e c t i o n . 4. A four -po in t ra t ing scale (0, 1/ 2, 3) was employed by the judges to el iminate from the l i s t the compositions that received a zero r a t i n g . 5. Compositions that received a measure of agreement by the judges were reta ined and considered for f i n a l s e l e c t i o n . 6. A f i n a l ra t ing of the judges reduced the remaining se lec t ions to a t o t a l of twelve composit ions, i . e . three se lec t ions for each of the four categories of contemporary 60 art music. A copy of the l i s t submitted fo r f i n a l / r a t i n g i s tabled i n Appendix G. The r e s u l t a n t l i s t of contemporary ar t compositions considered by the judges as representat ive and s i g n i f i c a n t works of ar t are as fo l lows: Tonal Polytonal Atonal E l e c t r i c Appalachian Spring Petroushka La Mer The Ri te of Spring The Concerto for Orchestra Music for Str ings and Percussion Var ia t ions for Orchestra V i o l i n Concerto Le Marteau sans Maitre E l e c t r o n i c Study #1 Poeme Electronique Gesang Der Junglinge Copland Stravinsky Debussy Stravinsky Bartok Bartok Schoenberg Berg Boulez Davidovsky Varese Stockhausen The use of a ra t ing scale for the s e l e c t i o n of represen-ta t ive music of the twentieth century precluded the i n c l u s i o n of compositions that were not considered s i g n i f i c a n t wi th in each of the four ca tegor ies . However, the task of reducing a somewhat lengthy l i s t of compositions to the necessary twelve, required ser ious considerat ion by each judge. Inevi tably there 61 remained compositions that were rated almost as h igh ly as those included i n the f i n a l s e l e c t i o n . I t was decided therefore,- to l i s t a second group of compositions that re la ted c l o s e l y to the o r i g i n a l twelve pieces l i s t e d above. This second group was re ta ined , and excerpts from each composition were Included along with the o r i g i n a l l i s t i n g s for the con-s t ruc t ion of the music preference inventory. The twelve compositions which could be considered as a supplementary l i s t of representat ive and s i g n i f i c a n t works of ar t are l i s t e d as fo l lows: Tonal F i r e b i r d Suite C l a s s i c a l Symphony Rhapsody Espagnole Polytonal F ive Pieces for Orchestra Miraculous Mandarin S t r ing Quartet #6 Atonal E l e c t r o n i c Var ia t ions for Orchestra Zietmasse (Wind Quintet) S t r ing Quartet #4 Deserts Visage Ensembles Stravinsky Prokof iev Ravel Schoenberg Bartok Bartok Webern Stockhaussen Schoenberg Varese Ber io Babbit t 62 Music Preference Inventory tape record ing . With the music s e l e c t i o n complete, i t was poss ib le to proceed with the recording of a music preference inventory. This was accom-p l i shed i n the fo l lowing manner. From each of the twenty-four compositions l i s t e d , an excerpt of f o r t y - f i v e seconds durat ion was selected and recorded on tape. To avoid the p o s s i b i l i t y of b i a s , each item was placed on the tape i n random order separated by f i v e or s ix seconds s i l e n c e . The completed tape recording required approximately twenty minutes to hear i n i t s e n t i r e t y . Music Preference r a t i n g s c a l e . Of the ava i lab le ra t ing methods i n use, the Graphic Rating Scale was se lected for t h i s study as the most su i tab le for recording preference responses. This method i s a combination of two ra t ing methods. The f i r s t method cons is ts of a s t ra igh t l i n e upon which a judgment i s placed i n d i c a t i n g a range from p o s i t i v e to negat ive , wh i ls t the second method consists, of a number of phrases descr ip t i ve of varying degrees of the t r a i t being measured. Among the standard scales and inventor ies i n current use,, there seems to be r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e agreement regarding the number, of sca le points or categories which are used to obtain responses to i tems. One obvious c r i t e r i o n for the choice of the number, of scale categories i s the a b i l i t y of sub-jec ts to d iscr iminate between the ca tegor ies . While a scale with few categories may not allow the subject to make f u l l 63 use of his capacity to discriminate, a scale with a large number of categories may be beyond the subjects 1 capacity to discriminate, thus increasing errors of measurement. In one 7 6 of the e a r l i e s t studies of t h i s problem, Symonds made a t h e o r e t i c a l analysis of the problem and concluded that the optimal number of categories to maximize scale r e l i a b i l i t y i s seven, and that the increase i n r e l i a b i l i t y when more cate-gories are used i s n e g l i g i b l e . However, more recent studies on the problem have not supported Symond's conclusions. The 77 work of Champney and Marshall questions the v a l i d i t y of Symond's. conclusions. They compared the c o r r e l a t i o n between two forms of a graphic rating scale and measured responses to each form by two methods. They concluded that the rating scale merits more re f i n e d treatment than i t i s usually given, and that f o r research purposes, under favourable conditions, the current, practice of l i m i t i n g ratings to f i v e or seven point scales may often give inexcusably inaccurate r e s u l t s / Guilford i s i n general agreement with t h i s point of view, and P.M. Symonds, "On the Loss of R e l i a b i l i t y i n Ratings due to Coarseness of the Scale," Journal of. Experimental Psychology, v o l . 7 (1924), pp. 456-461. 77 H. Champney and H. Marshall, "Optimal Refinement of the Rating Scale," Journal of Applied Psychology,: v o l . 23 (1939), pp. 323-331. 64 claims that : . . . the number seven recommended by Symonds i s usua l ly lower than opt imal , and i t may pay i n some s i tua t ions to use up to twenty-f ive sca le d i v i s i o n s . 7 8 I t i s apparent that a dec is ion on the number of cate -gories su i tab le for use i n the Music Preference Inventory must be an a rb i t ra ry one. However, before making a dec is ion on the number of categories to include on the preference inventory a p i l o t study served to e s t a b l i s h a s a t i s f a c t o r y rout ine for both marking and scor ing responses. An unbroken continuous l i n e eighteen centimeters i n length with f i v e bas ic categories, was used to record subjects ' responses. Subjects were ins t ruc ted that preference responses could be recorded d i r e c t l y under, each category from strongly negative through to strongly p o s i -t i v e . However, i f f i n e r d iscr imina t ion was p r a c t i c a l , a subject was encouraged to respond at any p o s i t i o n along the continuum. B a s i c a l l y , , the f i v e broad categories served as gu ide - l ines for preference responses. To determine a su i tab le method for scor ing the M.P. I , two methods were inves t iga ted . The f i r s t method consis ted of scor ing each response on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e . Scores: fo r each item ranged .therefore from one through f i v e . The second method consisted of superimposing a n ine-po int scale over the J . P . G u i l f o r d , Psychometric Methods (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, I n c . , 1954), p. 291. 65 eighteen centimeter l i n e . Each d i v i s i o n of two centimeters received a score of one, r e s u l t i n g i n a poss ib le score which could range from one through to n ine . The r e s u l t s of both scor ing methods were then analysed and a separate r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t for each method was obtained through the use of the product-moment formula. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t for the nine point sca le proved to be .94, whereas the f i v e point scale produced a lower c o e f f i c i e n t at .83. C l e a r l y , the nine point scale y ie lded a higher r e l i a b i l i t y supporting the view of Champney, M a r s h a l l , and G u i l f o r d , that i n some s i t u -at ions a scale with f i n e r d iscr imina t ion w i l l y i e l d a higher r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . Because i n t h i s instance a nine point scale y ie lded the most s a t i s f a c t o r y c o e f f i c i e n t , a nine point scale for recording and scor ing responses was used i n the f i n a l study. R e l i a b i l i t y of the Music Preference Inventory.' The degree of preference expressed by students for the var ious categories of contemporary ar t music i s measured by the music preference inventory. I t was considered advisable there fore , to determine the r e l i a b i l i t y of the inventory as a tes t i n -strument by tes t ing students' preferences through a p r e - t e s t p o s t - t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y study. At the commencement of t h i s aspect of the study i n September 1968, four c lasses of grade e ight students t o t a l l i n g 110 i n number were administered the inventory. Each c lass was 66 chosen i n th is instance because music was not o f fered as a subject on the c lass t imetable . No formal music lessons were received by these c lasses during the fourteen week per iod of the study. At the conclusion of the per iod the inventory was administered as a p o s t - t e s t . From the obtained data a ser ies of c o r r e l a t i o n c o -e f f i c i e n t s were computed for each o f the e ight "study" and "transfer" categories.. The ca lcu la t ions produced c o e f f i c i e n t s as fo l lows . Study Categor ies: Polytonal .86, Atonal .75, Tonal .92, E l e c t r o n i c .88. Transfer Categor ies: Poly tonal .93, Atonal .90, Tonal .91, E l e c t r o n i c .90. I t i s recognized that the .teat-re tes t method of ob-ta in ing a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t r e f l e c t s a c lose o r approxi -mate estimate of the s t a b i l i t y of the preference responses, and that the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t i s i n fac t p r i m a r i l y a s t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . V a l i d i t y of the: Music Preference Inventory. The music preference inventory e s p e c i a l l y constructed for th is study i s an instrument designed to measure a sub jec t ' s expressed pre -ferences for. contemporary ar t music. To e s t a b l i s h a degree Of content v a l i d i t y , s i x judges were employed i n the s e l e c t i o n of each of the twenty-four tes t i tems. Each item on the tes t was included on the basis of the pooled judgments of the expert 67 opinions of the judges. On the author i ty of the panel of judges that each i tem included i n the inventory i s a musi-c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and representat ive example of contemporary ar t music, i t i s accepted that the music preference inventory does i n fac t measure the r e l a t i v e preferences a subject may express fo r the prescr ibed examples of contemporary ar t music. S e l f - r e p o r t tests such as the music preference inventory have been severely c r i t i c i z e d because of t h e i r lack of empi r i -c a l l y determined v a l i d i t y . The c r i t i c i s m i s undoubtedly jus t ; however, the f a i l u r e to demonstrate that they are v a l i d measures of b e l i e f i s l a rge ly due t o the d i f f i c u l t y of f ind ing c r i t e r i a . We know l i t t l e about a person's preferences except what an i n d i v i d u a l t e l l s us he p r e f e r s . S e l f - r e p o r t devices are used, not because of t h e i r expedience, but because of the lack of other types of measurement. S e l f - r e p o r t tes ts such as a t t i tude or preference measure-ments have a l im i ted capacity, to show i n t e n s i t y of opinion or preference. A l s o , the complexity of the s t i m u l i i n each i tem contr ibutes a l i m i t a t i o n on the use and in te rpre ta t ion of a preference t e s t . In one instance the preference may be based upon the t i t l e , i n another i t may be based upon the instrumen-t a t i o n ; i n a t h i r d i t may be based on the p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y of the o r c h e s t r a t i o n ; and i n s t i l l another i t may be based on the momentary mood of the i n d i v i d u a l . Such v a r i a b i l i t y must be considered i n the in te rpre ta t ion of the r e s u l t s . 68 In sp i te of these l i m i t a t i o n s , when the scores are in terpreted i n an i n t e l l i g e n t manner, the music preference inventory i s a usefu l means of comparing the preferences of i nd iv id u a ls and groups, and of i n d i c a t i n g the general trend of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s musical preferences. CHAPTER IV THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LISTENING PROGRAM OBJECTIVES OF THE MUSIC LISTENING COURSE The l i s t e n i n g process i s a complex one, u t i l i z i n g mental and aural s k i l l s , i n t e l l e c t u a l knowledge, phys ica l react ion and emotional response. The abstract q u a l i t y of ar t music demands that the p u p i l be given a basis upon which to understand the music as i t proceeds—to know what i s happening at the present moment of the work—and to be able to comprehend the work as a whole when he has heard i t to i t s completion. In order to teach the p u p i l how to l i s t e n with understanding, the teacher must know what things i n the music are e s s e n t i a l for i t s com-prehension, so that these can be pointed out , exp la ined, heard, and put in to t h e i r proper context . Information on the development and assessment.of l i s -tening s k i l l s has been found i n ce r ta in experimental s t u d i e s . 79 In the study by Haack, the author demonstrated that i t was poss ib le and p r a c t i c a l to devise methods which are e f f e c t i v e i n br ing ing about s i g n i f i c a n t developments of abstract and complex music l i s t e n i n g concepts and s k i l l s at the secondary Paul A l f r e d Haack, "A Study of Two Approaches to the Teaching of Music L is ten ing S k i l l s wi th in the Context of the Music Apprec ia t ion Class for Secondary School Students" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of Wisconsin, 1966). 70 l e v e l of i n s t r u c t i o n . Haack's study demonstrated that the method was important, provid ing i t was an act ive method i n -vo lv ing a systematic and progressive evolut ion of l i s t e n i n g concepts and s k i l l s . Studies d i r e c t l y re la ted to developing growth i n l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s were a lso reported by Lundsteen 80 and Fawcett. Lundsteen concluded that wel l planned lesson procedures were e f f e c t i v e i n promoting growth in c r i t i c a l 81 l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t i e s . Fawcett concluded that l i s t e n i n g i s a s k i l l which can be improved by i n s t r u c t i o n . The l i s t e n i n g design of t h i s study was based on i n -s t ruc t ion and prac t ice i n perce iv ing ce r ta in musical elements. Throughout the sequence of l essons , object ive i n s t r u c t i o n was d i rec ted to fur ther the knowledge and understanding of these elements of music as a way to motivate c a r e f u l l i s t e n i n g h a b i t s . The lessons were designed to develop l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s in the percept ion of melody, rhythm, tone -co lour , and aspects of harmonic texture . To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s development, ce r ta in bas ic object ives were defined and stated as being necessary 8 0 Sara Wynn Lundsteen, "Teaching A b i l i t i e s i n C r i t i c a l L is ten ing i n the F i f t h and Sixth Grades" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1963). 81 Annabel E l i zabe th Fawcett, "The E f f e c t of T ra in ing i n L is ten ing upon the L is ten ing S k i l l s of Intermediate Grade Chi ldren" (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of P i t tsburgh , 1963). 71 for the formation of an i n t e l l i g e n t and responsive a t t i tude to music as a l i s t e n i n g a r t . These aims and object ives may be d iv ided in to two ca tegor ies , namely, cogni t ive l ea rn ings , and a f f e c t i v e be-haviours . I t i s emphasized that although the l i s t e n i n g design of th is study d id not require formal t es t ing of cogni t ive learn ings , the lessons were nevertheless st ructured and or iented toward the a c q u i s i t i o n of bas ic musical knowledge, l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , and the development of a f f e c t i v e behaviours. A. Cognit ive Object ives The three des i rab le object ives c l a s s i f i e d under, th is heading are stated as fo l lows: 1. Musical Knowledge 2. Musical Understanding 3. S k i l l s of Musical L i s t e n i n g Each of the three cogni t ive object ives are fur ther elaborated and de ta i l ed as fo l lows . 1. Musical Knowledge. Cer ta in bas ic knowledge i s a necessary r e q u i s i t e i n music t r a i n i n g . The fo l lowing statements d e t a i l the object ives considered important and d e s i r a b l e : To comprehend bas ic musical terminology, musical vocabulary, and musical symbols; To recognize and d i s t i n g u i s h between the t o n a l , p o l y t o n a l , a tona l , and e l e c t r o n i c categories of contemporary ar t music. 72 2. Musical Understanding. Musical understanding i n -volves the purposive use of in format ion, s k i l l s , and conscious i n t e l l e c t i o n i n such a musical endeavour as d iscr imina t ive l i s t e n i n g . One Ingredient i n musical understanding i s the ab i l i t y , to apply one 1 s knowledge o f , and s e n s i t i v i t y t o , musical meanings, musical s t r u c t u r e , and musical s t y l e s to a l l types of musical experience. The fo l lowing statements express des i rab le object ives i n t h i s area: To comprehend the rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic elements of musical composit ion; To understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between composer, performer, and l i s t e n e r . 3. S k i l l s of L i s t e n i n g . The E 1 l i s t e n i n g program was based on the premise that l i s t e n i n g requires the a b i l i t y , to d iscern the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s i n music and to d iscr iminate as to the musical elements, that are heard. The bas ic object ive was, there fore , to promote the a b i l i t y to l i s t e n s e l e c t i v e l y to each of the twelve compositions prescr ibed for the s tudy , and to recognize through aural experiences the varying proper-t i e s of each category of music, and of each composition wi th in i t s respect ive category. To a id students i n the development of such a perceptual s k i l l i s descr iminat ive l i s t e n i n g , ce r ta in object ives are stated as fo l lows: 73 Rhythm. To recognize as the music proceeds the contemporary composers' use of regular and i r r e g u l a r rhythms, syncopations and polyrhythms. Melody. To recognize as the music proceeds whether the melodic l i n e i s der ived from d ia ton ic major and minor s c a l e s , whole tone s c a l e s , modes, pentatonic or chro-matic s c a l e s . Harmony. To d i s t i n g u i s h from the sound of the music whether or not the harmonic texture i s der ived from t r i a d i c or n o n - t r i a d i c i n t e r v a l s , chord c l u s t e r s , or from the use of simultaneous hor i zon ta l (polyphonic) l i n e s of melody. Tone Colour . To develop the aural a b i l i t y to recognize the var ious colours (timbres) of o rches t ra l i n s t r u -ments; to re la te human voices to fami l ies of instruments i n order to aura l ly recognize that each family of instruments has a soprano, a l t o , tenor and bass . B. A f f e c t i v e Object ives I t may be r e c a l l e d that a survey, of re la ted l i t e r a t u r e stressed the. value o f a f f e c t i v e development as an important educat ional o b j e c t i v e . In p a r t i c u l a r , the development of such concepts as a t t i tudes and appreciat ions i n music education were recognized by leaders i n the f i e l d of music and educat ional psychology. However, because t h i s study d id not d e l i b e r a t e l y endeavour to measure such concepts as a f i n a l outcome, the 74 a f f e c t i v e object ives were l im i ted to that of behavioural change i n the form of p r e f e r e n t i a l development. The desi red object ive under t h i s heading i s stated more s p e c i f i c a l l y as fo l lows . 1. Musical Preferences. The development of musical preference impl ies the excerc ise of value judgment about musical composit ions. The degree of musical preference de-s i r e d cannot be a r b i t r a r i l y imposed. Judgments of value cannot be fo rced , yet education should not leave growth i n th is area to chance. Two des i rab le object ives c l a s s i f i e d under, t h i s heading inc lude: To demonstrate a w i l l ingness to form and rev ise value judgments about musical composit ions. To develop a responsiveness and s e n s i t i v i t y to se lected contemporary ar t music. Each of the four bas ic object ives discussed above has been c l a s s i f i e d as e i ther a cogni t ive or a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e . I t i s re i t e ra ted that although the design of the study allowed no p rov is ion for t es t ing cogni t ive l ea rn ings , the l i s t e n i n g course was designed and structured so as to develop such learnings throughout the progress of the music program. C o n f l i c t i n g evidence was presented e a r l i e r i n a review of the l i t e r a t u r e concerning cogni t ive and a f f e c t i v e r e l a -t ionships and t h e i r resu l tan t i n t e r a c t i o n s . However, ce r ta in studies supported the view that under des i rab le c o n d i t i o n s , cogni t ive learnings do i n fac t often in f luence a f f e c t i v e . behaviours. The extent to which behavioural change i n the form of p o s i t i v e or negative preference change r e s u l t s from cogni t ive and a f f e c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h i s study, i s of course,, the subject of th is enquiry. INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES The design and methodology of th is p a r t i c u l a r l i s t e n i n g program was formulated from a synthesis of r e s u l t s and f i n d -ings of previous research studies i n music educat ion. From these studies seven bas ic procedures, that proved to be peda-g o g i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n the classroom have been se lected and incorporated in to the teaching techniques of the Experimental I l i s t e n i n g program. These are out l ined below. 1. The use of musical a n a l y s i s . The bas ic approach . adopted for each l i s t e n i n g lesson can be described as an a n a l y t i c a l one. A n a l y t i c a l , that i s , i n the sense that each composition was studied for i t s var ious const i tuent elements. The .thematic mater ia ls s p e c i f i c a l l y se lected and extracted from the prescr ibed music were examples of the melodic , rhythmic, and harmonic elements that const i tu te each p a r t i c u l a r composit ion. Support for the use and success of l i s t e n i n g to music a n a l y t i c a l l y i s found i n the research studies of 76 _ 82 .„ , 83 . 84 „ . 85 „ , 8 6 , „ 87 Rasmussen, Haack, Porter, Getz, Hornyak,. and Hare. Musical analysis can be conducted at various lev e l s of complexity. For most students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study, the l i s t e n i n g program was an introductory musical experience. I t was necessary therefore, to structure the analysis of each composition at a l e v e l that was meaningful to grade seven students. The systematic procedures of each successive lesson i s discussed i n the following section. 82 Warren I r v i n Rasmussen, "An Experiment i n Developing Basic Listening S k i l l s Through Programmed Instruction" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1966). 83 Paul A l f r e d Haack, "A Study of Two Approaches to the Development of Music Listening S k i l l s within the Context of the Music Appreciation Class for Secondary School Students" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1966) . 84 Donald Frank Porter, "An Exploratory Study of the Development of Improved Teaching Procedures i n a Music Appre-c i a t i o n Course for General College Students" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1965). 8 5 Russel P. Getz, "The E f f e c t s of Repetition on Listening Responses," Journal of Research i n Music Education, v o l . 14 (1966), p. 179. 86 Robert Roy Hornyak, "A Factor Analysis of the Rela-tionships Between the Components of Music Present i n Selected Music Examples and the Preference Rating Responses of College Students to the Selected Music Examples" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Indiana, 1964). 8 7 Robert Yates Hare, "The Pedagogical P r i n c i p l e s of Music Appreciation" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, State of Iowa, 1959). 77 2. The use of sequent ia l ly st ructured lesson p lans . Each lesson was st ructured so that a cyc le of four se lected categories was taught i n each classroom i n the order of approxi -mate chronologica l development. The f i r s t s e l e c t i o n was therefore a tonal composit ion, and was fol lowed success ive ly by a p o l y t o n a l , an a tona l , and an e l e c t r o n i c work. Each week a new work wi th in the cycle was introduced. This p a r t i c u l a r order was preserved and repeated i n two further cyc les u n t i l the presentat ion of twelve compositions was brought to a con-c l u s i o n . Music was f i r s t l i s t e n e d to and studied for i t s melodic i n t e r e s t and content. Lesson plans demonstrated the contem-porary p rac t ices of der iv ing melodic mater ia l from modal s c a l e s , whole tonal s c a l e s , pentatonic s c a l e s , and ordered or s e r i a l der ived s c a l e s . Music was a lso studied for i t s rhythmic q u a l i t i e s . Comparisons between regular rhythms and i r r e g u l a r rhythms, syncopat ions, and polyrhythms were taught. S i m i l a r l y , the harmonic resources of contemporary music were explored. Lessons demonstrated the contemporary p rac t ices of b u i l d i n g harmonies based on fourths and f i f t h s , tone c l u s t e r s , p o l y -chordal tones, b i t o n a l harmonies, and independent polyphonic textures . F i n a l l y , the sources of new sounds and tone colours of the o rches t ra l instruments were integrated i n each succes-s ive l esson . Although th is approach to music has apparently received l i t t l e a t tent ion i n l i s t e n i n g l essons , the San Diego 78 88 P i l o t Project sponsored by MENC i n 1966 for contemporary music education reported a si m i l a r and very successful p i l o t study. 3. The use of musical notation. The effectiveness of the use of musical notation i n students' l i s t e n i n g achieve-89 ment has been demonstrated i n a study by Peterson. Further 90 91 support i s found i n the research of Mursell and Moses. Because the use of musical notation has been found e f f e c t i v e as a pedagogical t o o l , notated examples of primary themes and rhythms were a feature of each selection studied. The use of blackboard and s t e n c i l l e d notes enabled teachers and students to both see and hear the important thematic elements of each musical composition. 4. The use of classroom notes. The use of prepared notes for each student together with the analysis of each 88 Norman Dello Joio (ed.), Experiments i n Musical  C r e a t i v i t y (Washington, D.C.: Contemporary Music Project,. Music Educators National Conference, 1966), p. 60. 89 V i o l a Peterson, "A Study of Developmental Listening Factors i n Childrens A b i l i t y to Understand Melody" (Unpub-lishe d Doctoral Dissertation, University of Rochester, Eastman School of Music, 1965). James L. Mursell, Education f o r Musical Growth (New York: Ginn and Company, 19 48), p. 38. 91 Harry F. Moses, "The General Music Class," Music Education Journal (May-June, 1949), p. 36. 79 musical selection to be heard was a feature of t h i s music 92 program. In a study by Williams on the e f f e c t of program notes on the enjoyment of musical selections, the conclusions strongly supported the use of program notes. 5. The use of r e p e t i t i o n . Research studies have found that the device of r e p e t i t i o n i s a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n the development of musical preferences. The value i s con-93 94 95 firmed i n the research studies of Evans, Krugman, Getz, 96 97 Hornyak, and Mull. The factor of f a m i l i a r i t y i s discussed further i n the review of the l i t e r a t u r e . Because recent re-search indicates the importance of f a m i l i a r i t y , each composi-ti o n selected for t h i s study was list e n e d to at le a s t three 92 G. D. Williams, "The E f f e c t of Program Notes on the Enjoyment of Musical Selections," Journal of General Psychology, v o l . 29 (1943), pp. 261-279. 93 Jesse G i l l e t t e Evans, J r . , "The E f f e c t of E s p e c i a l l y Designed Music Listening Experiences on Junior High School Attitudes Towards Music" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 1965) . 94 H. E. Krugman, "Affective Response to Music as a Function of F a m i l i a r i t y , " Journal of Abnormal So c i a l Psychology, v o l . 38 (1943) , pp. 388-392. 95 Russel P. Getz, op_.: c i t . , p. 180. 96 Roy Robert Hornyak, "Analysis of Students' Attitudes Towards Contemporary American Music," CouriciI f o r Research i n Music Education B u l l e t i n ( F a l l , 1966), p. 3. 97 Helen K. Mull, "The E f f e c t of Repetition upon the Enjoyment of Modern Music," Journal of Psychology, v o l . 43, (1957), pp. 155-162. 80 t imes. That i s , a f ter the i n i t i a l hear ing , f a m i l i a r i t y was gained by two more successive hear ings. 6. The use of classroom d i s c u s s i o n . In the s p e c i a l l y st ructured sequence of l ea rn ings , student p a r t i c i p a t i o n was encouraged through comments and d i s c u s s i o n . Results of the 9 8 study by Keston on the e f f i c a c y of two methods o f . teach ing music appreciat ion support the view that student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a use fu l pedagogical t o o l . 7. The use of a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s . The use of pocket scores , record j acke ts , f i l m - s t r i p s , and blackboard i l l u s -t ra t ions have been found h e l p f u l as aids i n the presentat ion 9 9 of l i s t e n i n g lessons . In the studies by Hutton, and P e t e r s o n , i t was found that aud io -v isua l mater ia ls s i g n i f i -cant ly accelerated the learning process , and that the use of a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l d isc r im ina t ion i s an important fac tor i n l i s t e n i n g development. Morton J . Keston, "An Experimental Evaluat ion of the E f f i c a c y of Two Methods of Teaching Music A p p r e c i a t i o n , " Journal of Experimental Education,: v o l . 22 (1954)., pp. 215-226. 99 Doris Hutton, "A Comparative Study of Two Methods of Teaching Singing i n the Fourth Grade," Journa l of Research i n Mu s i c Educat ion, v o l . 1 ( F a l l , 1953), p. 126. V i o l a Peterson, op_.: c i t . , p. 124. CHAPTER V THE ORGANIZATION OF THE LISTENING PROGRAM In the i n i t i a l planning stages of t h i s experimental study i t was r e a l i z e d that a number of procedures must be developed and completed i n readiness for the commencement of the l i s t e n i n g program. Each step i n the organizat ion and implementation of the study i s described as fo l lows: 1. Se lec t ion of the music. The s e l e c t i o n by a panel of s ix judges of the compositions used i n the study has been described i n Chapter Three. 2. Se lec t ion of classroom teachers. Permission to conduct the exploratory study was secured through the admin-i s t r a t i v e personnel of the Vancouver and North Vancouver D i s t r i c t School Boards. Meetings were arranged with teachers who were recom-mented as persons who might be in teres ted and w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e in the experiment. Through personal interviews fourteen teachers were recru i ted to enable the study to com-mence i n September 1968 with a t o t a l of t h i r t y c lasses of grade seven students. 3. Ana lys is of music. One feature of the Experimental One l i s t e n i n g program described i n Chapter Four was the use of a n a l y t i c a l notes fo r each teacher and student. I t was neces-sary there fore , for the wr i ter to prepare teaching mater ia ls 82 su i tab le for use i n every lesson . The f i r s t step i n the pre -parat ion of the classroom notes was the ana lys is of each com-p o s i t i o n chosen for the study. To accomplish th is o b j e c t i v e , scores and records were obtained for each of the nine symphonic works. Care fu l ana lys is and repeated hearing of each composi-t ion were necessary i n t h i s important phase of the study. Each s e l e c t i o n was analyzed at f i r s t for i t s melodic i n t e r e s t , and th is was in turn augmented by examples of rhythmic pa t te rns , and the p a r t i c u l a r o rches t ra l tone colour employed i n the or -ches t ra t ion . To prevent the musical ana lys is from becoming too t e c h n i c a l , each lesson was st ructured without reference to the p a r t i c u l a r form of each work. For example, i f a work were wr i t ten i n concerto form, there was no attempt to analyse the formal s t ructure of the concerto. Ana lys is at th is l e v e l was considered too de ta i l ed for students i n grade seven. However, the form 'concer to ' was noted without de ta i l ed r e f e r -ence to the pecu l i a r s t ructure inherent i n the concerto form. For the three e l e c t r o n i c s e l e c t i o n s , no actual ana lys is was attempted. I t should be explained that because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced i n provid ing a s a t i s f a c t o r y ana lys is for each of the e l e c t r o n i c composit ions, i t was considered advisable to adopt an a l te rna t ive presenta t ion . In place of the usual ana lys is e x t r i n s i c information re levant to e l e c t r o n i c tape production was used as i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . Demon-s t ra t ions of simple recording techniques together with poss ib le 83 ways of tape manipulation were given i n an attempt to create i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r medium. When classroom notes were complete for each s e l e c t i o n , typed s t e n c i l s were prepared inc lud ing the notat ion of melodic and rhythmic examples, and s u f f i c i e n t copies were dupl icated for each of the f i v e hundred students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the E 1 program. 4. Preparat ion of tape record ing . Each teacher i n the team was provided with a set of tape recordings for use i n e i ther of the two experimental programs. To accomplish t h i s o b j e c t i v e , a master tape for each composition was prepared i n the fo l lowing way: (1) a l l themes discussed i n the ana lys is were extracted from the o r i g i n a l d i s c recording and recorded i n the order of the i r appearance i n the composit ion; (2) a demonstration lesson was recorded by the wr i te r using both the piano and the o r i g i n a l thematic examples to i l l u s t r a t e the classroom notes. This lesson was placed on tape for the benef i t of teachers , and as an example of the way one could proceed with the lesson i n the classroom. (3) The remaining sect ion of the tape was used for the recording of each par -t i c u l a r composit ion. The completed tapes contained therefore (a) a set of themes, (b) a demonstration l e s s o n , and (C) a f u l l recording of the composit ion. F i n a l l y , a set of fourteen dupl icates were obtained for each of the twelve master tapes i n readiness for d i s t r i b u t i o n to teachers. 84 5. Seminar of teachers. The f i r s t seminar meeting of the fourteen teachers was held September 4th, 1968 jus t p r i o r to the commencement of the experiment. At t h i s introductory meeting teachers were introduced to a l l members of the teach-ing team, and the general plan together with the procedures for the implementation of the study were d iscussed . Fol lowing a review statement of the problem and the re la ted areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , teachers were ins t ruc ted through a demonstration lesson on the use of the classroom notes and the tape recor -d ings. Through inqu i ry and general d i s c u s s i o n , the team received i n s t r u c t i o n i n the procedures and contro ls of the study. Teaching mater ia ls fo r the f i r s t three lessons were d i s t r i b u t e d , and a master, t imetable of a l l the th ir ty , c lasses was obtained. The i n i t i a l rout ines involved i n both the E .1 and the E 2 programs were explained with p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r -ence to the v i s i t s of the wr i ter to each classroom for the purpose of administer ing the music preference inventory as a p r e - t e s t . When a l l procedures, were c l e a r l y understood the meeting adjourned. 6. Administrat ion of the Music Preference Inventory Pre - tes t . . During the f i r s t week of the school term the wr i ter v i s i t e d each of the th ir ty , c lasses i n order to administer the preference inventory as a p r e - t e s t . Glasses were ins t ruc ted s i m i l a r l y on the necessity, of responding to each musical s e l e c -t ion with as much honesty and thoughtfulness as was p o s s i b l e . 85 The introductory remarks, fol lowed by an explanat ion of the method of responding to the inventory , together with the p lay ing of the twenty-four se lec t ions required one f u l l fo r ty minute per iod for completion. 7. Administrat ion of the Music Knowledge t e s t . A tes t of music knowledge was prepared by the wr i ter and given to each c lass p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study at the beginning of the second music per iod . The tes t included questions of musical no ta t ion , t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge, and knowledge of o r c h e s t r a l instruments and music h i s t o r y . Although qui te d e t a i l e d , the tes t required only f i f t e e n minutes to administer . 8. Teacher; v i s i t a t i o n . One des i rab le and necessary condi t ion i n each classroom was the exercise of ce r ta in con-t r o l s . As far as p o s s i b l e , each teacher was able through the use of s i m i l a r mater ia ls and teaching techniques to conform to a standard procedure i n the classroom. To accomplish t h i s o b j e c t i v e , the wr i te r v i s i t e d each c lass on an average o f once a month, and discussed with the teacher any problems that may have a r i s e n . At th is time a l s o , new suppl ies for the fo l lowing four lessons were d i s t r i b u t e d to the teachers . In an e f f o r t to prevent any one teacher int roducing mater ia ls or methods other than those u t i l i z e d i n the study, the four -teen teachers were regarded as a team and each member respec-ted h is or her own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the experiment. In t h i s way a rapport was maintained between the w r i t e r , the teachers , and the students. 86 9. Demonstration lessons . In the course of the study the w r i t e r v i s i t e d each c lass four t imes/ The f i r s t and l a s t v i s i t s were for the purpose of administer ing the inventory as a p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t . Between these two administrat ions the wr i te r gave two lessons to each c l a s s . The lessons were given f i r s t l y as a demonstration for the teacher , and secondly as a method of becoming more f a m i l i a r with students and t h e i r response to an a n a l y t i c a l l i s t e n i n g l esson . 10. Teacher s u b s t i t u t i o n . In a study invo lv ing four -teen teachers i t was inev i tab le that ce r ta in teachers would be occas iona l ly absent from schoo l . I t therefore became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the wr i ter to teach the appropriate lesson according to the schedule of lessons rather, than allow the lesson to lapse through either, the i n a b i l i t y or the u n w i l l i n g -ness of a subst i tu te teacher to continue with the usual l esson . 11. F i n a l seminar o f teachers. Throughout the durat ion of the study the wr i ter was able to d iscuss with each teacher i n i n d i v i d u a l sessions the progress of the lesson ser ies fo r both E 1 and E 2 c l a s s e s . However, i t was agreed by members of the teaching team that a fur ther seminar would be of value to: the .writer and a lso to each teacher . Furthermore, i t was r e a l i z e d that at such a meeting teachers could express f r e e l y not only the a t t i tudes and react ions of t h e i r s tudents , but a lso t h e i r own subject ive responses to the program. Accor -d i n g l y , a meeting was subsequently held and an opportunity for 87 general d iscuss ion of the program was g iven. Although h ighly subject ive at t imes, the de l ibera t ions of the group revealed a very favourable react ion to the ent i re project . . Because of the importance of such an evaluat ion by the team of .teachers who were d i r e c t l y involved with the l i s -tening program, the recommendations and suggestions that resu l ted from th is seminar w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l i n the f i n a l chapter. This evaluat ion does provide data , though of a h ighly subject ive k i n d . I t was considered adv is -able,: there fore , t o include them for whatever add i t iona l i l l u -mination they might prov ide . 12. Teacher Interviews. As a f i n a l evaluat ion of the severa l aspects of the l i s t e n i n g program i n the c lassroom, i t was agreed by members of the teaching team to d iscuss with the wr i te r the i n d i v i d u a l react ions and evaluat ion of th is e x p e r i -mental study. Meetings were therefore arranged to take p lace at the conclusion of the study. A summary of teachers 1 r e -act ions and recommendations are Included i n the f i n a l chapter . 13 . Admini s t r a t i oh of the Music Preference: Inventory P o s t - t e s t . During the fourteenth and l a s t week of the f a l l term the wr i te r made the fourth and f i n a l v i s i t to each of the t h i r t y . c l a s s e s i n the experimental program. At th is time the inventory was administered as a p o s t - t e s t . Classes rece ived, i n s t r u c t i o n regarding the completion of the inventory i n the same manner as a t the admin is t ra t ion of the p r e - t e s t . The 88 introductory remarks and the explanat ion, together, with the p lay ing of the inventory requ i red , as i n the p r e - t e s t , a for ty minute per iod for completion. 14. Preparat ion of data . At the completion of a l l tes t ing procedures, data from the music knowledge tes t and from the pre and p o s t - t e s t administrat ions of the inventory were recorded and subsequently analyzed using the f a c i l i t i e s of the Un ivers i ty of B .C . Computing Centre. De ta i l s of the various techniques employed i n the ana lys is of data are , together with the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s , d iscussed i n the following, chapter. CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS OF DATA SUMMARY OF STATISTICAL DATA The music preference inventory described i n Chapter Three was administered i n i t i a l l y as a pre-test and f i n a l l y as a post-test to each of the three groups i n the study. The purpose of the inventory was to determine the degree of prefer-ence each student expressed for the four d i s t i n c t categories of contemporary art music at the commencement of the l i s t e n i n g program, and to determine any changes i n students' expressed musical preferences which may have occurred i n each of the E 1, E 2, or C group programs. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the pre-ference inventory was designed to measure the changes i n students' expressed preferences for both the twelve "study" and the twelve "transfer" selections. A l l data obtained from the pre-test and post-test ad-ministrations of the music preference inventory were subjected to analysis. The procedures employed and the s t a t i s t i c a l tests u t i l i z e d i n the analysis of data are described and considered i n the order that seemed appropriate for the re-search questions asked i n the study. The presentation of each section w i l l therefore be as follows: (1) Procedures used i n the analysis of the pre-test music preference scores; (2) analysis of the music knowledge te s t scores; (3) analysis 90 of the mean gains obtained between the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t preference scores for each of the three treatment groups (E 1, E 2, and C ) ; (4) comparison of E 1, E 2, and C with r e s -pect to t h e i r mean gains i n preference scores; (5) comparison of the mean gain preference scores of the boys and those of the g i r l s ; (6) ana lys is of the cor re la t ions obtained between the music knowledge tes t scores and the gains i n music p r e f e r -ence scores . 1. Procedures Used i n the Ana lys is of the P re - tes t Music Preference Scores I t may be r e c a l l e d that the music preference inventory contains twenty-four excerpts c l a s s i f i e d as t o n a l , p o l y t o n a l , a tona l , and e l e c t r o n i c music. The twenty-four excerpts pre -sent two groups of s e l e c t i o n s : one group of twelve pieces chosen as teaching mater ia ls i n the classroom, the second group of twelve pieces se lected to obtain information re levant to a f f e c t i v e t r a n s f e r . Scores from the p r e - t e s t were therefore considered i n two d i s t i n c t groupings—for the twelve "study" pieces which were used i n the classroom, and for the twelve " t ransfer" pieces heard only on the p r e - t e s t (and l a t e r of course on the p o s t - t e s t ) . The reason for th is d i v i s i o n w i l l be apparent when i t i s remembered that one bas ic question to be considered i n the study was the discovery of poss ib le evidence of t rans fer 91 from the works e i ther heard or studied i n c l a s s , to other compositions s i m i l a r i n s t y l e and category but nevertheless un fami l i a r . The scores obtained for the three tonal compositions to be used i n the classroom were therefore summed, to obtain increased v a l i d i t y through increased r e l i a b i l i t y and repre-sentativeness . This procedure was repeated for the remaining three categories of se lec t ions r e s u l t i n g i n a t o t a l score on three se lec t ions for each student for each of the four cate -gor ies of contemporary music. This operat ion was then repeated for the second group of " t ransfer" composit ions. The resu l tant ca lcu la t ions provided the c lass means and standard deviat ions for a l l ca tegor ies . C l a r i f i c a t i o n of one fur ther d e t a i l i s necessary at t h i s p o i n t . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the o r i g i n a l t h i r t y c lasses of students were composed of ten c lasses of boys, ten c lasses of g i r l s , and ten mixed c l a s s e s . For s t a t i s t i c a l treatment, however, i t was found necessary to s p l i t each mixed c lass by sex in to two s ing le -sex groups. This sub-d i v i s i o n of the ten o r i g i n a l mixed c lasses resu l ted there-f o r e , i n twenty " c l a s s e s , " making a t o t a l of twenty c lasses of boys, and twenty c lasses of g i r l s . The creat ion of ten new c lasses resu l ted i n a t o t a l of nineteen (11 g i r l s and 8 boys) c lasses i n E 1,. fourteen (6 g i r l s and 8 boys) c lasses i n E 2, and seven (3 g i r l s and 4 boys) c lasses i n C. 92 For a l l subsequent analyses i t was decided to use mean scores for both classes and groups rather than i n d i v i d u a l scores, since i t was the class unit and not individuals that were randomly assigned to the various treatments. With the means and standard deviations obtained for a l l classes for each category of excerpts on the preference inventory, further information was extracted from the data. Every class was placed i n i t s respective experimental group, that i s i n either E 1, E 2, or C, and the procedures for obtaining the means and S.D.'s for each of the three groups were repeated. A new mean and S.D. was therefore obtained for both the study and the transfer selections for the E l , E 2, and C groups. Table I indicates, the treatment means and S.D.'s. The four categories of music represent groupings of the twelve study selections chosen for l a t e r use i n the classroom. TABLE I MUSIC PREFERENCE INVENTORY PRE-TEST SCORES Group Means and Standard Deviations for "Study" Selections Experimental I Experimental II Control Means S.D. Means S.D. Means : S.D. Tonal 16 .51 5.03 15 .80 5.63 16.11 5.29 Polytonal 16 .23 4.33 16 .57 4.93 16.67 4.32 Atonal 12 .10 4.33 12 .40 4.29 11.45 4.25 Elec t r o n i c 18 .04 6.37 19 .37 5.85 18.24 6.13 93 The.means for each category were very s i m i l a r among the three groups. In each group there was evidence of el e c t r o n i c music producing the highest mean and atonal music the lowest mean. I t w i l l also be noted that the v a r i a b i l i t y for e l e c t r o n i c music was the highest for each of the four categories. Table II gives the treatment means and S.D.'s for the "transfer" selections. TABLE II MUSIC PREFERENCE INVENTORY PRE-TEST SCORES Group Means and Standard Deviations for "Transfer" Selections Experimental I Experimental II Control Means S.D. Means S.D. Means S.D. Tonal •14.. 26 4.50 14.09 4.18 13.68 4.74 Polytonal 12.97 4.35 12.92 4.08 12.26 4.59 Atonal 11.06 4.88 11.55 4.86 9.91 4.49 Ele c t r o n i c 17.20 5.56 18.83 5.34 17.42 5.63 The means for each category were s i m i l a r among the three groups, and i n each group there was fur ther evidence of e l e c -t r o n i c music producing the highest mean, and atonal music the lowest mean. Aga in , the variance for e l e c t r o n i c music was the highest for each of the four categories of music as i n the 94 previous "study" se lec t ions shown i n Table I. The " t ransfer" p r e - t e s t means were somewhat lower than the "study" p r e - t e s t means i n a l l four ca tegor ies . One poss ib le explanat ion fo r these d i f fe rences i s that the "study" pieces were the judges' f i r s t cho ices , whereas the " t ransfer" pieces were regarded by the judges as second cho ices . The p r e - t e s t c lass means and standard deviat ions fo r a l l c lasses for both study and t ransfer categor ies are tabled i n Appendices C and D complete with the number of the c lass followed by the i n i t i a l l e t t e r "b" or "g" to ind ica te e i ther a boys' or g i r l s ' c l a s s . 2. Ana lys is of the Music Knowledge Test Scores A tes t of musical knowledge was administered to a l l students i n the E 1, E 2, and C groups at the commencement of the experimental program. I t was necessary to ascer ta in the leve ls of prev ious ly acquired musical knowledge to determine (a), the re la t ionsh ips that may e x i s t between musical knowledge and poss ib le changes i n musical preferences; and (b) the d i f -ferences i n i n i t i a l l eve ls of musical knowledge as a poss ib le source of b ias a f fec t ing musical preferences. The tes t instrument required a t o t a l of 55 responses with each correct response rece iv ing a score of one. Scores were obtained for a l l students, i n each of the t h i r t y c lasses and a mean score and standard dev ia t ion was subsequently 95 obtained. Table III shows the means and S.D. obtained for each of the music knowledge test scores for each class within each of the three treatment groups. I t w i l l be noticed that the v a r i a t i o n from the mean as expressed by the S.D. i s often quite large i n d i c a t i n g a wide range of i n i t i a l differences i n musical knowledge within each cl a s s . TABLE III MUSIC KNOWLEDGE TEST SCORES Means and S.D. for Classes Within E 1, E 2, and C Groups E 1 Means S.D. E 2 Means S.D. C Means S.D. 15.00 6.16 15.17 6.15 15.23 6.96 •17.-17 7.76 14.64 7.94 23.04 11.90 14.19 10.33 17.33 9.24 18.13 7.56 15.23 8.92 12.14 7.65 15.06 8.20 23.74 7.70 22.68 8.42 12.43 7.0 8 20.79 6.41 13.76 6.59 13.92 9.25 21.06 11.31 13.78 7.28 18.47 10.32 23.06 8.83 18.69 7.68 15.06 6.93 16.03 7.73 22.85 13.14 20.44 8.25 21.67 10.50 16.31 8.6 4 20.66 12.81 3. Analysis of the Differences Obtained Between the Pre-test and Post-test Mean Preference Scores Table TV presents: the post-test treatment means and standard deviations for each of the three experimental groups for the "study" selections. I t w i l l be noted that for the E 1 group (unlike the pre-test results) the mean for the ele c t r o n i c category was no longer the highest, and that for the E 2 group both the tonal and polytonal categories ranked closely to the el e c t r o n i c with s i m i l a r means. TABLE IV MUSIC PREFERENCE INVENTORY POST-TEST SCORES Group Means and Standard Deviations for "Study" Selections Experimental I Experimental II Control Means S.D. Means S.D. Means ; S.D Tonal 21. .80 4. .13 19. .20 5. ,02 16. .13 5, .27 Polytonal 21. .50 3. .38 19. .72 4. .43 16, .46 4, .17 Atonal 17. .37 4. .13 15, .48 4. .28 11. .57 4, .04 Elec t r o n i c 21. .04 5. .20 20. .84 5. .47 18, .18 6, .05 Table V shows the treatment means and standard devia-tions obtained for each of the three experimental groups for 97 the " t ransfer" ca tegor ies . For each group the e l e c t r o n i c music remained the most h igh ly rated category with means considerably higher than e i the r the t o n a l , po ly tona l or atonal s e l e c t i o n s . TABLE V MUSIC PREFERENCE INVENTORY POST-TEST SCORES Group Means and Standard Deviat ions for "Transfer" Se lect ions Experimental I Experimental II Contro l Means S.D. Means S.D. Means S.D... Tonal 17, .36 3. .76 15. .50 4. .22 13. .80 . 4. .28 Polytonal 16. .06 4. .07 14. .78 4. .26 12. .27 4. .25 Atonal 13'. .85 3. .29 13. .29 3, .17 9. .80 3. .87 E l e c t r o n i c 19. .75 5. .24 19. .38 5.. .28 17. .46 5. .56 The p o s t - t e s t c lass means and standard deviat ions for a l l c lasses for both study and t rans fe r categor ies are tabled i n Appendices E and F. Table VI presents the p r e - t e s t / p o s t - t e s t d i f fe rences i n the means (referred to i n subsequent tables as gains): obtained for the four categories of "study" and " t ransfer" se lec t ions for the E 1 group. 98 TABLE VI MUSIC PREFERENCE MEAN GAIN SCORES Experimental Group I Study Mean Transfer Mean Selections Gain Selections Gain Polytonal 5.151 Polytonal 3.331 Atonal 5.246 Atonal 2.818 Tonal 5.359 Tonal 3.034 Ele c t r o n i c 2.886 Ele c t r o n i c 2.36 8 Table VII shows the gains i n the means for the E 2 group i n each of the four categories of "study" and "transfer" s e l -ections . A comparison of the two tables w i l l reveal the d i f -ferences i n gains obtained from the two experimental groups. TABLE VII MUSIC PREFERENCE MEAN GAIN SCORES Experimental Group II Study Mean Transfer Mean .Selections Gain Selections Gain Polytonal 3.415 Polytonal 1.961 Atonal 3.201 Atonal 2.047 Tonal 3.164 . Tonal 1.382 Elec t r o n i c 1.439 El e c t r o n i c 0.569 99 Table VIII shows the d i f fe rences i n the means for the C group i n each of the four categories of "study" and " t rans-fer" se lec t ions a l s o . TABLE VIII MUSIC PREFERENCE MEAN GAIN SCORES Contro l Group Study Mean Transfer Mean Select ions Gain Se lect ions Gain Polytonal -0.161 Polytonal -0.101 Atonal 0.147 Atonal -0.942 Tonal -0.957 Tonal -0.228 E l e c t r o n i c 0.357 E l e c t r o n i c 0.288 I t w i l l be noted that the mean gains fo r both E 1 and E 2 groups shown i n Tables VI and VII were greater for the "study" ca tegor ies . However, the gains i n the "t ransfer" categories were a lso qui te s u b s t a n t i a l , while the d i f fe rences obtained i n the C group were very s m a l l , and more often nega-t i ve than p o s i t i v e . To determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f fe rences (gains) i n each category wi th in the three experimental groups, a ser ies of t - t e s t s was computed. The r e s u l t s of these c a l c u l a t i o n s 100 are shown i n the following three tables. Table IX shows the t-values obtained for the E 1 group, and reveals highly s i g -n i f i c a n t gains for a l l "study" and "transfer" categories. TABLE IX SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCES IN MEAN PREFERENCE SCORES ACHIEVED BY E 1 Category Mean t-value df Pr o b a b i l i t y S Polytonal 5.151 15.028 16 < .0001 S Atonal 5.246 14.910 16 < .0001 S Tonal 5.359 12.298 16 < .0001 S Ele c t r o n i c 2.886 7.468 16 < .0001 T Polytonal 3.331 8.217 16 < .0001 T Atonal 2.818 6.049 16 < .0001 T Tonal 3.034 8.584 16 < .0001 T Ele c t r o n i c 2.368 6.647 16 < .0001 Note: S denotes Study Selections; T denotes Transfer Selections. I t was hypothesized i n Chapter One that a selected pro-gram u t i l i z i n g s i g n i f i c a n t contemporary art music could be designed, structured, and taught to the classes of grade seven students randomly assigned to the E 1 l i s t e n i n g program that 101 would e f f e c t a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r expressed musical preferences towards (a) the "study" selections, and (b) the "transfer" selections. Since s i g n i f i c a n t gains were found for a l l types of music i n both the "study" and "transfer" groups, hypothesis one was sustained and i t was accepted that the E 1 treatment was e f f e c t i v e . Table X presented below shows the t-values obtained for the E 2 group. Three categories of "study" selections and two categories of "transfer" pieces showed highly s i g n i f i c a n t gains, while two categories were s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l . The one category i n which the gains did not prove to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l was the group of "transfer" e l e c t r o n i c selections. Here, though the obtained p r o b a b i l i t y i s small (.156), i t does not provide strong enough evidence to support a claim that a r e a l gain would have been found had the whole population been measured. The Isecond hypothesis formulated i n Chapter One stated that no s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n preference responses would occur as a r e s u l t of the E 2 l i s t e n i n g program. However, as the p r o b a b i l i t y (assuming zero gain i n the population) of obtain-ing t-values for each category went beyond the .05 l e v e l i n a l l categories except one, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected with the exception of the e l e c t r o n i c "transfer" category. 102 TABLE X SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCES IN MEAN PREFERENCE SCORES ACHIEVED BY E II Category Mean t -va lue df P r o b a b i l i t y s Polytonal 3.415 9.405 13 .0001 s Atonal 3.201 8.148 13 < .0001 s Tonal 3.614 6.243 13 .0001 s E l e c t r o n i c 1.439 2.599 13 .021 T Polytonal 1.961 7.600? 13 < .0001 T Atonal 2.047 3.705 13 .003 T Tonal 1.382 4.925 13 < .0001 T E l e c t r o n i c 0.569 1.495 13 .156 Note: S denotes Study S e l e c t i o n s ; T denotes Transfer S e l e c t i o n s . Table XI shows, that the C group's mean preference gains (losses) were too small to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . Indeed, the lowest obtained p r o b a b i l i t y was .197, and i t was for a l o s s . The data support the conclusion that the con t ro l group's preferences remained r e l a t i v e l y stable throughout the durat ion of the study with l i t t l e d i f fe rence between p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t mean performance. Consequently, fo r th is group 103 the t h i r d hypothesis (null) was found tenable, and i t was accepted that there was e s s e n t i a l l y no change i n the co n t r o l group's preferences for either, the study or the transfer selections of contemporary art music. TABLE XI SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCES IN MEAN PREFERENCE SCORES ACHIEVED BY CONTROL Category Mean t-values df P r o b a b i l i t y S Polytonal -0.161 -0.447 6 .197 S Atonal 0.147 0.766 6 .477 S Tonal -0.957 -0.639 6 .551 S Elec t r o n i c 0.357 0.254 6 .794 T Polytonal -0.101 -0.622 6 .561 T Atonal -0.942 -0.685 6 .524 T Tonal -0.228 -0.197 6 .829 T Ele c t r o n i c 0.288 0.964 6 .375 Note: S denotes Study Selections; T denotes transfer Selections 104 4. Comparison of Mean Gains Obtained for E l , E 2, and C In order to obtain a comparison of the gains in pre -ference scores among the treatment groups for a l l categories of contemporary music, a covariance ana lys is was performed to test the hypothesis that the d i f fe rences obtained between the three groups would be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , when adjustment was made for t h e i r d i f f e r i n g i n i t i a l l eve ls on both p r e - t e s t and music knowledge. B a s i c a l l y , the analys is of covariance i s a s t a t i s t i c a l method that may be used to "contro l" or "adjust for" the e f fec ts of one or more uncontrol led var iab les that may e x i s t i n the experiment, and for which measures have been obtained. In f a c t , only var iab les that cor re la te s u b s t a n t i a l l y with the response var iab le (gains) are l i k e l y to be worthwhile using as covar ia tes . Two such measures were present i n th is study. The i n i t i a l l e v e l of musical preferences for the excerpts on the preference inventory were considered as uncontro l led var iab les and consequently were t reated as. covar ia tes . A lso the l e v e l of prev iously acquired musical knowledge was considered as another uncontrol led var iab le that could in f luence the f i n a l p o s t - t e s t scores . In other words, par t of the d i f fe rences i n the gains in preference scores could be due to d i f fe rences i n the i n i t i a l l eve ls of the uncontrol led v a r i a b l e s , though, as 105 w i l l be seen, there i s l i t t l e evidence that music knowledge i s strongly enough r e l a t e d to gains to be r e a l l y worth using as a covar ia te . The analys is of covariance was used there-fore to remove the bias introduced by the small d i f fe rences e x i s t i n g i n these i n i t i a l l e v e l s . The computational procedure used was the mul t ip le l i n e a r regress ion approach instead of the standard ana lys is of covariance procedure. B a s i c a l l y , t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n involves a comparison between the squared mul t ip le c o r r e l a t i o n (RSQ) obtained with a regression equation inc lud ing a l l p red ic tors named (referred to as the " f u l l " model) , and the RSQ y ie lded by a regress ion equation that excludes, the pred ic tor (s ) whose e f f e c t i s being invest iga ted (referred to as the r e s t r i c t e d model). The ana lys is made i t poss ib le to determine what propor-t ion of the variance wi th in each category of music was accounted for by fac tor A (the treatment var iable) and fac tor B (the sex v a r i a b l e ) , as we l l as by poss ib le i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s ( in ter -act ion of fac tors A and B ) . Before continuing with a d i s -cussion of the r e s u l t s of the regression ana lys is for both A and B factors i t should be observed that there was no evidence from the ana lys is of a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , i n d i -cat ing that there was no evidence that the r e l a t i v e gains of boys and g i r l s , vary with the treatment. The d iscuss ion con-106 t inues there fore , with an ana lys is of the e f f e c t s of the three treatments: on musical preferences. In order to in te rpre t Table XII which summarizes the e f fec ts of the treatments, i t should be remembered that the reduct ion i n the squared mul t ip le c o r r e l a t i o n (RSQ) t e l l s how much (or what proportion) of the var iance i s accounted for by the p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t t e s t e d . Furthermore, the p r o b a b i l i t y l eve ls of obtaining F r a t i o s fo r each category are included i n the table to ind ica te the l eve ls of s i g n i f i c a n c e . These of course, are based on the assumption o f zero e f f e c t i n the popula t ion . I t w i l l be seen that the treatment e f f e c t was h ighly s i g n i f i c a n t for a l l categories of music. With almost complete c e r t a i n t y , there fore , i t may be claimed that the three treatments d i f f e r , that i s , i n the popula t ion , i n t h e i r e f f ec ts on preferences. Table XII summarizes the re levant parts of the regres -s ion ana lys is showing the e f fec ts of the treatment var iab le for a l l of the categories of music. For repor t ing purposes, the RSQ's for the f u l l and r e s t r i c t e d models are given with the i r respect ive degrees of freedom and the p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s a t ta ined . A summary of the ana lys is of d i f fe rences obtained be-tween E 1 and E 2 i s shown i n Table XII I . The table gives the F r a t i o s and the associated p r o b a b i l i t i e s fo r a l l the 'study 107 TABLE XII SUMMARY OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE TREATMENT. VARIABLE FOR STUDY AND TRANSFER SELECTIONS Pred ic tor RSQ . F u l l RSQ Rest r ic ted Degrees of Freedom N/D F. , Proba-. b i l i t y S Polytonal .83865 .14366 2/30 64. 60 <.00001 S Atonal .80964 .07341 2/30 58. 01 <. 00.0:0.1 S Tonal .72683 .13505 2/30 32. 49 <. 00.0.0.1 S E l e c t r o n i c .44327 .12829 2/30 8. 48 <.001 T Polytonal .70661 .16325 2/30 27. 77 <. 00.0.01 T Atonal .61328 .21812 2/30 15. 32 <. 00 0.0.3 T : Tonal .65510 .11604 2/30 23. 44 <. 00001 T E l e c t r o n i c .54954 .22738 2/30 10. 72 <. 00.03 Note:: S denotes Study s e l e c t i o n s ; T denotes Transfer S e l e c t i o n s . and t rans fe r ca tegor ies . For p o l y t o n a l , a tona l , and tonal music the obtained d i f fe rences between E 1 and E 2 are s i g n i f i -cant beyond the .001 l e v e l . For the e l e c t r o n i c music the obtained d i f fe rence i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . For the t ransfer categories a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence beyond the .001 l e v e l was found to e x i s t for p o l y t o n a l , t o n a l , and e l e c t r o n i c 108 music. However, the d i f fe rence obtained fo r the atonal music as shown by. the F r a t i o of 2.22 was too small to be s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The hypothesis that the E 1 group gained more than the E 2 group on the study se lec t ions was thus found tenable . For the t ransfer categories the hypothesis could not be sustained for atonal music, but was c l e a r l y tenable fo r the other three ca tegor ies . TABLE XIII SUMMARY OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN E 1 AND E 2 PREFERENCE RESPONSES FOR STUDY AND TRANSFER SELECTIONS RSQ RSQ D i f f e r - Degrees, of Proba-Pred ic tor F u l l Rest r ic ted ence . Freedom N/D i F b i l i t y S Polytonal .83865 .70963 .12902 1/3.0 23. 96 .00003 S Atonal .8096 4 .65287 .15677 1/30 24. 70 .00003 S Tonal .72683 .60644 .12039 1/30 13. 22 .00103 S E l e c t r o n i c .44327 .35255 .09072 1/30 4. 88 .03480 T Polytonal .70661 .57414 .13247 1/30 13. 54 .00091 T Atonal .61328 .58465 .02863 1/30 2. 22 .14656 T Tonal .65510 .41304 .24206 1/30 21. 05 .00007 T E l e c t r o n i c .5495 4 . .36523 .18431 1/3.0 12. 27 . 00146 Note: S denotes study s e l e c t i o n s ; T denotes t ransfer S e l e c t i o n s . 109 From the summary i n Table XIV the d i f fe rences obtained between E 2 and C can be seen together with the F r a t i o s and p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s . For a l l categories but one (the t ransfer e l e c t r o n i c category) the obtained d i f fe rences are s i g n i f i c a n t at or beyond the .05 l e v e l . This f ind ing ind ica tes that with the exception of e l e c t r o n i c music the E 2 treatment var iab le ( repet i t ive l i s ten ing) was more e f f e c t i v e than the cont ro l treatment i n changing expressed musical preferences, when background var iab les are "held constant ." TABLE XIV SUMMARY OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN E 2 AND C PREFERENCE RESPONSES FOR STUDY AND TRANSFER SELECTIONS Pred ic tor RSQ F u l l RSQ Rest r ic ted D i f f e r -ence Degrees of Freedom N/D Proba-' F b i l i t y S Polytonal .83865 .56143 .27722 1/30 57.61^.0005 S Atonal .61328 .53012 .08316 1/30 44.05^.0005 S Tonal .80964 .51010 .29954 1/30 19.33 <.0005 S E l e c t r o n i c .72683 .35278 .37405 1/30 41.09<.0005 T Polytonal .70661 .51806 .18855 1/30 19.28^.0005 T Atonal .61328 .37657 .23671 1/30 18.36<.0005 T Tonal .65510 .57332 .08178 1/30 7.11c.05 T E l e c t r o n i c .54954 .52948 .02006 1/30 1.33 £.25 Note: S denotes study s e l e c t i o n s ; T denotes t ransfer s e l e c t i o n s . 110 From the evidence presented i n Tables XIII and XIV, the gains of the E 1 group against the E 2 group, and the gains of the E 2 group against the C group ind ica te that the obtained d i f fe rences were s i g n i f i c a n t therefore the fourth hypothesis was found tenable and consequently sus-ta ined . 5. Ana lys is of the Di f ferences Obtained Between the Mean Gain Preference Scores of Boys and Those of G i r l s As part of the same o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s , a tes t was made of the f i f t h hypothesis that the mean gains i n the p r e f e r e n t i a l responses of the boys would d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the mean gains of the g i r l s . Table XV shows the F r a t i o s and the p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s obtained for each of the poss ib le music ca tegor ies . No s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences were found to e x i s t between boys and g i r l s i n any of the music categories except i n the atonal "study" se lec t ions (p=.04210) and poss ib ly i n the tonal "study" category (p=.05941). The l a t t e r i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l but the p r o b a b i l i t y of obtaining such a d i f -ference as i n fac t occurred, i f there i s no d i f fe rence i n the popula t ion , i s so small that a r e a l d i f fe rence may e x i s t . However, as the d i f fe rences between boys' and g i r l s ' p r e f e r -ence gains were not large enough to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -I l l cant for the remaining polytonal and el e c t r o n i c "study" cate-gories and for the four "transfer" categories, the n u l l hypothesis was accepted i n these instances; thus the hypo-thesis that there were r e a l differences e x i s t i n g between the gains i n the preference scores of boys and those of g i r l s was rejected, with the exceptions noted above. TABLE XV SUMMARY OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE SEX VARIABLE FOR STUDY AND TRANSFER SELECTIONS RSQ RSQ Degrees of Proba-Predictor F u l l Restricted Freedom N/D F b i l i t y S Polytonal .83865 .83789 1/30 0 .139 0.71112 S Atonal .80964 .78103 1/30 4 .5078 0.04210* S Tonal .72683 .69187 1/30 3 .8393 0.05941 S Ele c t r o n i c .44327 .44191 1/30 0 .0735 0.78819 T Polytonal .70661 .70658 1/30 0 .0028 0.95834 T Atonal .61328 .61078 1/30 0 .1938 0.66290 T Tonal .65510 .64756 1/30 0 .6557 0.42445 T El e c t r o n i c .54954 .51655 1/30 2 .1970 0.14871 * S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . Note: S denotes Study Selections; T denotes Transfer Selections. 112 6. Ana lys is of the Corre la t ions Obtained Between the Music Knowledge Test Scores and the Music Preference Scores I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the music knowledge t e s t scores were obtained to d iscover i f a r e l a t i o n s h i p ex is ts between musical knowledge and the poss ib le changes i n musi-c a l preferences students may express for contemporary ar t music. Music knowledge scores were a lso obtained to be used as a covar iate i n s t a t i s t i c a l ana lys is i f i n fac t the i n i t i a l l eve ls of musical knowledge proved to be a poss ib le source of b ias a f f e c t i n g musical preferences. However, as data from the p r e - t e s t administrat ion of the M.P. I , and the musical knowledge tes t were ava i lab le i n the i n i t i a l stages of the study, the data were treated s t a t i s t i c a l l y to obtain fur ther informat ion. A l l of the p r e - t e s t scores (grouped wi th in the i r respect ive categories) were treated as var iab les t o -gether with the music knowledge s c o r e s , and c o r r e l a t i o n c o -e f f i c i e n t s were obtained between pa i rs of v a r i a b l e s . Table XVI shows the cor re la t ions obtained between music knowledge and each of the four categories fo r the "study" pieces fo r the E 1 group. Examination of the table w i l l r e -vea l that at the p r e - t e s t stage almost a zero c o r r e l a t i o n ex is ted between three categories of contemporary ar t music and the extent of prev ious ly acquired musical knowledge. The TABLE XVI CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN PRE-TEST TONAL POLYTONAL ATONAL ELECTRONIC "STUDY" SELECTIONS AND MUSIC KNOWLEDGE Experimental Group I Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Category Mean S.D. Polytonal Atonal Tonal Elec t r o n i c Music Knowledge Polytonal 16.23 4.339 1.0000 Atonal 12.10 4.336 0.3498 1.0000 Tonal 16.51 5.030 0.4212 0.3871 1.0000 Ele c t r o n i c 18.04 6.379 0.2233 0.3136 -0.0648 1.0000 Music Knowl. 18.59 9.319 0.0785 0.0186 0.2024 -0.0197 1.000 H h-1 114 one exception to be noted i s the c o r r e l a t i o n obtained between musical knowledge and tonal music. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i -c ient (r) of .2024 was found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . That i s , the d i f fe rence between a zero c o r r e l a t i o n and the reported c o r r e l a t i o n was found to be s i g -n i f i c a n t . However, an r of .20 represents a r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p , even though s i g n i f i c a n t . Table XVI a lso prov ides , for the four categories of "study" s e l e c t i o n s , the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between a l l poss ib le pa i rs of v a r i a b l e s . For example, i t w i l l be not iced that the r between e l e c t r o n i c music and tonal music was -.064 —almost a zero re la t ionsh ip—whi le the r obtained between tonal and atonal music was .387—a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . With the highest c o e f f i c i e n t of .42 obtained between tonal and polytonal music, i t appears that a low but neverthe-less s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ex is ts between these two v a r i a b l e s . However, since no c o r r e l a t i o n was greater than .42 and since most were much lower, there appears l i t t l e consistency among personal preferences for the d i f f e r e n t categories of contem-porary ar t music. Table XVII presents the cor re la t ions obtained between the p r e - t e s t scores (within each category) and the music know-ledge scores for E 1. Again i t w i l l be noted that an almost zero c o r r e l a t i o n was found to e x i s t between the two var iab les under d i s c u s s i o n . As i n the previous t a b l e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between any pa i r of var iab les ranges from zero to low p o s i t i v e . TABLE XVII CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN PRE-TEST TONAL POLYTONAL ATONAL ELECTRONIC "TRANSFER" SELECTIONS AND MUSIC KNOWLEDGE Experimental Group I Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Category Mean . . S.D. Polytonal Atonal Tonal E l e c t r o n i c Music Knowl. Polytonal 12.97 4.357 1.0000 Atonal 11.06 4.887 0.4494 1.0000 Tonal 14.26 4.499 0.5163 0.1638 1.0000 Elec t r o n i c 17.20 5.566 0.2936 0.4449 0.0529 1.0000 Music Knowl. 18.59 9.319 0.0097 -0.0312 0.0558 0.0178 1.0000 116 Tables XVIII and XIX present the data arranged i n a s i m i l a r order for the E 2 group. Table XVIII re fe rs to the "study" se lec t ions on ly , while Table XIX re fers to the "transfer" s e l e c t i o n s . In both tables evidence supports the conclusion that there i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two var iab les music knowledge and the i n d i v i d u a l categories of contemporary ar t music. The exception i n both tables i s the low but p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n obtained between musical know-ledge and tonal music. In each case the r of .14 shown i n Table XVIII and the r of .12 shown i n Table XIX was found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . In t h i s respect the r e s u l t s from E 1 and E 2 were very s i m i l a r . Tables XX and XXI present the data obtained fo r C group for both study and t ransfer categories r e s p e c t i v e l y . No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was found for any pa i r of var iab les except between music knowledge and tonal music. The r of .20 i n Table XX and the r of .15 i n Table XXI are both s i g n i f i -cant at the .05 l e v e l , but probably represent no more than a s l i g h t , though r e a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p . ' Tables XVI through XXI show, for each of the three groups i n the experiment, l i t t l e i f any evidence of a r e l a -t ionship e x i s t i n g between prev iously acquired musical know -^ledge and degree of expressed musical preferences for contemporary a r t music. The exception i s for tonal music, where there may be a s l i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The tables a lso TABLE XVIII CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN PRE-TEST TONAL POLYTONAL ATONAL ELECTRONIC "STUDY" SELECTIONS AND MUSIC KNOWLEDGE Experimental Group 2 Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Category Mean S.D. Polytonal Atonal Tonal E l e c t r o n i c Music Knowl. Polytonal 16.57 4.930 1.0000 Atonal 12.40 4.293 0.3267 1.0000 Tonal 15.80 5.635 0.4952 0.3788 1.0000 Ele c t r o n i c 19.37 5.850 0.1738 0.3288 -0.0226 1. 0000 Music Knowl. 17.16 9.148 0.0060 0.0712 0.1442 -0. 0134 TABLE XIX CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN PRE-TEST TONAL POLYTONAL ATONAL ELECTRONIC "TRANSFER" SELECTIONS AND MUSIC KNOWLEDGE Experimental Group 2 Correlation Coefficients Category Mean S.D. Polytonal Atonal Tonal E l e c t r o n i c Music Knowl. Polytonal 12.92 4.085 1.0000 Atonal 11.55 4.859 0.3967 1.0000 Tonal 14.09 4.180 0.5607 0.2680 1.0000 Ele c t r o n i c 18. 83 5.336 0.3425 0.3075 0.1192 1. 0000 Music Knowl. 17.16 9.148 0.0605 0.0068 0.1237 -0. 0088 M CO TABLE XX CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN PRE-TEST TONAL POLYTONAL ATONAL ELECTRONIC "STUDY" SELECTIONS AND MUSIC KNOWLEDGE Control Group Category Mean S.D. Correlation Coefficients Polytonal Atonal Tonal E l e c t r o n i c Music Knowl, Polytonal 16.67 4.324 Atonal 11.45 4.251 Tonal 16.11 5.299 El e c t r o n i c 18.24 6.163 Music Knowl. 15.98 9.062 1.0000 0.2465 0.3922 0.0572 0.1080 1.0000 0.4155 0.1155 -0.0145 1.0000 -0.2098 0.2022 1.0000 -0.1653 1.0000 H VO TABLE XXI CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN PRE-TEST TONAL POLYTONAL ATONAL ELECTRONIC "TRANSFER" SELECTIONS AND MUSIC KNOWLEDGE Contro l Group Category Mean S.D, Cor re la t ion C o e f f i c i e n t s Polytonal Atonal Tonal E l e c t r o n i c Music Knowl, Polytonal Atonal Tonal E l e c t r o n i c Music Knowl. 12.26 4.591 9.911 4.499 13.68 4.742 17.42 5.632 15.98 9.062 1.0000 0.3866 0.5771 0.1951 0.0352 1.0000 0.3169 0.2562 -0.1148 1.0000 0.0157 0.1529 1.0000 -0.0981 1.0000 H O 121 revealed that the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between any p a i r of music var iab les ranged from almost zero to a high of .56, suggesting that the three categories could be regarded as rather d i s t i n c t . With the p o s t - t e s t gains obtained for a l l music cate -gories i t was poss ib le to invest igate the f i n a l hypothesis . This was accomplished by c o r r e l a t i n g the music knowledge scores of students wi th in each group with t h e i r respect ive mean gains i n each of the poss ib le music ca tegor ies . Table XXII shows the resu l tant cor re la t ions obtained for the E 1 group, while Tables XXIII and XXIV show the c o r r e l a t i o n co-e f f i c i e n t s for E 2 and C groups r e s p e c t i v e l y . The cor re la t ions i n these tables a l l proved to be too small to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . Consequently, the p red ic t i ve hypothesis was re jected i n favour of the n u l l hypothesis which asserts that i n t h i s study there was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the ex-tent of prev ious ly acquired musical knowledge of grade seven students and the changes (gains) i n t h e i r expressed musical preferences for the four s p e c i f i c categories of contemporary ar t music. 122 TABLE XXII CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MUSIC KNOWLEDGE SCORES AND THE MEAN GAIN PREFERENCE SCORES Experimental 1 Group Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Category. Mean S.D. Music Knowledge ... Music Knowledge 18.42 9.05 1.000 S Polytonal 5.29 4.13 -0.008 S Atonal 5.30 4.30 -0.028 S Tonal 5.32 4.54 -0.113 S Ele c t r o n i c 3 .16 5.50 -0.090 T Polytonal 3.20 4.52 -0.005 T Atonal 2.79 4.84 0.017 T Tonal 3.05 4.32 0.070 T El e c t r o n i c 2.6 8 5.24 -0.007 Note: S denotes Study Selections; T denotes Transfer Selections. 123 TABLE XXIII CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MUSIC KNOWLEDGE SCORES AND THE MEAN GAIN PREFERENCE SCORES Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s S.D. Music Knowledge Music Knowledge 17.20 9.28 1.000 S Polytonal 3.11 4.38 0.054 S Atonal 3.08 4.31 -0.090 S Tonal 3.30 5.02 -0.046 S Ele c t r o n i c 1.50 5.50 -0.008 T Polytonal 1.86 4.20 -0.007 T Atonal 1.71 4.86 0.055 T Tonal 1.39 ' 4.28 -0.138 T Ele c t r o n i c 0.54 5.00 -0.011 Experimental 2 Group Category . Mean Note: S denotes Study Selections; T denotes Transfer Selections. 124 TABLE XXIV CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MUSIC KNOWLEDGE SCORES AND THE MEAN GAIN PREFERENCE SCORES Control Group Category Mean S.D. Cor re la t ion C o e f f i c i e n t s Music Knowledge Music Knowledge 15.91 8.99 1.000 S Polytonal -0.15 • 1.32 0.025 S Atonal 0. 86 1.53 -0.126 S Tonal -0.16 1.50 0.001 S E l e c t r o n i c 0.35 1.55 0.048 T Polytonal -0.16 1.48 -0.029 T Atonal -0.011 1.35 -0.078 T Tonal 0.86 1.34 0.072 T E l e c t r o n i c 0.11 1.55 -0.045 Note: S denotes Study S e l e c t i o n s ; T denotes Transfer S e l e c t i o n s . One fur ther d e t a i l requires explanat ion. With the c o r -re la t ions between music knowledge and preferences almost zero, i t i s reasonable to question the use of knowledge scores as a covar ia te . Because of t echn ica l d i f f i c u l t i e s at the computer center at the time the analys is of covariance was performed, 125 there was l i t t l e a l te rna t ive but to analyze the data with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. var iab les undetermined. A dec is ion was made therefore, , to t reat the var iab le as a co -var ia te on the bas is that i t was more prudent to include than to exclude when the r e l a t i o n s h i p remained unknown. Subse-quent ana lys is determined however, that music knowledge was not s u f f i c i e n t l y re la ted to musical preferences to be r e a l l y worthwhile using as a covar ia te . CHAPTER VII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH SUMMARY The purpose of t h i s study was to des ign , implement and evaluate an experimental ser ies of sequent ia l ly s t r u c -tured lessons i n l i s t e n i n g to se lected contemporary ar t music, and to discover the e f f e c t of a fourteen week program on the expressed musical preferences of the grade seven students who p a r t i c i p a t e d . The study sought to determine the expressed musical preferences of students for a prescr ibed s e l e c t i o n of s i g -n i f i c a n t representat ive ar t music of the twentieth century, and to d iscover i f a s p e c i a l l y designed ser ies of lessons i n l i s t e n i n g to t h i s music would e f f e c t any change i n the s t u -dents 1 expressed preferences at the completion of a fourteen week exposure. The study a lso sought to d iscover i f exposure to contemporary ar t music through repeated hearings without i n s t r u c t i o n i n l i s t e n i n g techniques would e f f e c t any change i n the students ' expressed preferences at the conclusion of the fourteen week p e r i o d . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of students ' expressed preferences was a lso extended to include unfami l ia r se lec t ions c l a s s i f i e d s i m i l a r l y i n s t y l e and category to 127 determine the extent of poss ib le changes i n preferences as a r e s u l t of t r a n s f e r . The need for such a study was ind icated by recent research and the informed opinions of leaders i n music edu-c a t i o n . An increas ing awareness of the importance of i n s t r u c -t ion for e f f e c t i v e l i s t e n i n g , and the d e s i r a b i l i t y of i n t r o -ducing planned lessons u t i l i z i n g music that could be des-cr ibed as contemporary ar t music was a lso noted. One of the most recent examples of t h i s type of recommendation was the Yale Seminar Report. A d d i t i o n a l research which would inves -t igate the use of contemporary ar t music i n the classroom, p a r t i c u l a r l y fo r the non-performance or iented general music c lass programs was a lso strongly recommended. Before proceeding with the l i s t e n i n g design i t s e l f , i t was considered important to provide a foundation by rev -iewing l i t e r a t u r e i n severa l areas re la ted to the develop-ment of aesthet ic a t t i tudes to music, the ro le of l i s t e n i n g i n music, and the poss ib le existence of c o g n i t i v e - a f f e c t i v e re la t ionsh ips i n music educat ion. From the r e s u l t s and f indings of previous research studies i n music educat ion, a l i s t e n i n g program was formulated that included teaching techniques and procedures which had proved e f f e c t i v e and b e n e f i c i a l i n recent inves t iga t ions per t inent to the teaching of music and the development of musical preferences. 128 Before the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l i s t e n -ing program were implemented and evaluated, an experimental design was devised and planned i n order to tes t the var ious hypotheses formulated i n the f i r s t chapter. The resu l tan t design provided for two experimental groups together with a cont ro l group. A sample of t h i r t y c lasses was randomly assigned to one of the three poss ib le groups. The f i n a l d i s -p o s i t i o n of c lasses resu l ted i n a sample of fourteen c lasses assigned to the program designated E 1, ten c lasses to the program designated E 2, and s i x c lasses to the C program. A t o t a l of 973 students completed the p o s t - t e s t music p re fe r -ence inventory. Commencing i n ear ly September 1968, the t h i r t y c lasses designated as E 1, E 2, and C were administered a music pre -ference inventory as a p r e - t e s t . A lso measured at th is time were four c lasses p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the r e l i a b i l i t y study. This tes t ing procedure was followed by the administrat ion of a music knowledge tes t to ascer ta in prev ious ly acquired musical knowledge. From the p r e - t e s t data , cor re la t ions for each of the severa l var iab les were inves t iga ted . Re la t i ve ly small co r -re la t ions were obtained between any of the four categor ies of contemporary ar t music. This f ind ing strengthened the b e l i e f that each group of compositions chosen wi th in the four categories of contemporary ar t music was indeed d i f f e r e n t i a t e d 129 s u f f i c i e n t l y for th is type of ca tegor i za t ion . Further i n -ves t iga t ion of the p r e - t e s t data revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the extent of prev ious ly acquired musical knowledge and the degree of musical preference students ex-pressed for p o l y t o n a l , atonal and e l e c t r o n i c music. An exception occurred, however, i n the low but s i g n i f i c a n t cor -r e l a t i o n found to e x i s t between musical knowledge and students' preferences for tonal music. This c o r r e l a t i o n was found to e x i s t i n each of the three treatment groups. As a check on the degree of s t a b i l i t y of students' preferences for contemporary ar t music, a r e l i a b i l i t y study was conducted on four grade e ight c lasses not rece iv ing musical i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c h o o l . The p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t administrat ions of the M.P. I , were separated by the fourteen week per iod as with the experimental and cont ro l groups. The obtained r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .75 to .93 for a l l "study" and " t ransfer" ca tegor ies . Data obtained from the music preference inventory pre -tes t revealed information of considerable i n t e r e s t to music educators. Without except ion, the three groups tested i n September expressed the highest preferences for e l e c t r o n i c music, while the most negative preferences were expressed for atonal composit ions. This r e s u l t ex is ted for the twelve compositions i n both the "study" and "transfer" s e l e c t i o n s . 130 For the "study" selections, the tonal and polytonal composi-tions were s i m i l a r l y rated i n a l l classes with an absence of extremely p o s i t i v e or negative reactions. However, although the polytonal works were ranked s l i g h t l y more favourably than the tonal selections by a l l classes for the "study" pieces, the atonal compositions within the "transfer" group were not so favourably received. In most instances the tonal selec-tions could be ranked as second i n choice to the el e c t r o n i c compositions, with the auditors of each class responding more negatively to the polytonal and atonal music. At the completion of the series of lessons for both . E 1 and E 2 groups, the preference inventory was administered as a post-test to a l l three groups during the week of December 15 to 20, 1968. Scores obtained for each class were sub-jected to s t a t i s t i c a l analysis (t-tests) to t e s t the s i g n i f i -cance of the mean gains for each "study" and "transfer" category within each of the three treatment groups. The mean differences (gains) obtained by the E 1 group for both the "study" and "transfer" selections were found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .001 l e v e l of s i g -n i f i c a n c e . Accordingly, the f i r s t hypothesis stated on page eleven was sustained, with s u f f i c i e n t s t a t i s t i c a l evidence to support the conclusion that the preferences of the E 1 group were p o s i t i v e l y influenced toward (a) the twelve selec-131 t ions i n the l i s t e n i n g program, and (b) the twelve s i m i l a r compositions designated as " t ransfer" s e l e c t i o n s . The mean d i f fe rences obtained by the E 2 group for both the "study" and "transfer" se lec t ions were a lso found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 and .001 leve ls with the exception of the e l e c t r o n i c music wi th in the " t ransfer" category. Thus the n u l l hypothesis stated on page eleven was r e j e c t e d , and i t was accepted that the p o s i t i v e gains i n preference scores were the r e s u l t of fac tor A , the E 2 treatment v a r i a b l e . The mean d i f fe rences obtained by the cont ro l group were found to be as hypothesized. That i s , no s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the p r e f e r e n t i a l responses of the C group occurred as a r e s u l t of the C group program. Because the obtained d i f fe rences proved to be i n s u f f i c i e n t to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , the hypothesis was susta ined. I t was hypothesized that a comparison of the music preferences of both the E 1 and E 2 and C groups would r e s u l t i n a d i f fe rence that would prove to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t i n favour of the E 1 group. To tes t the fourth hypo-thesis the ana lys is of covariance was performed. F r a t i o s and p r o b a b i l i t y l eve ls r e s u l t i n g from the computations proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .001 l e v e l fo r p o l y t o n a l , 132 a tona l , and tonal "study" ca tegor ies . The e l e c t r o n i c music proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l . For the " t ransfer" ca tegor ies , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences beyond the .001 l e v e l were found for the p o l y t o n a l , t o n a l , and e l e c -t ron ic ca tegor ies . However, i t w i l l be noted that no s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence was obtained i n the atonal category. To conclude the t e s t i n g of the fourth hypothesis , the mean gains obtained between E 2 and C were a lso computed. For a l l categories but one (the e l e c t r o n i c category) , the gains were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at or beyond the .05 l e v e l . As the mean gains obtained between E 1 and E 2 and between E 2 and C were s i g n i f i c a n t (with the exception of the two t ransfer categories noted) , the fourth hypothesis was sus-ta ined , and i t was accepted tha t the gains of the E 1 group d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from both E 2 and C groups. The f i f t h hypothesis of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n concerned the p o s s i b l e d i f fe rences i n p r e f e r e n t i a l responses between boys and those of g i r l s as a r e s u l t of the sex v a r i a b l e . I t was hypothesized that the preference, gains of the boys would d i f f e r from the preference gains of the g i r l s over a l l groups and wi th in each experimental group. The obtained d i f f e r -ences between boys and g i r l s i n both the E 1 and E 2 t r e a t -ment groups proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l for the atonal "study" category on ly . For th is category the 133 hypothesis was susta ined. However, as the d i f fe rences i n a l l other categories of both "study" and "transfer" se lec t ions were found to be too small to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the hypothesis was re jected for each of the remaining r e s -pect ive ca tegor ies . The p o s s i b i l i t y of a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t i n g between "the extent of prev iously acquired musical knowledge of grade seven students and the changes i n t h e i r expressed preferences for contemporary ar t music as a r e s u l t of the i r exposure to e i ther the E 1 or E 2 programs was inves t iga ted . The tes t ing of the s ix th and f i n a l hypothesis resu l ted i n the r e j e c t i o n of the hypothesis for a l l "study" and " t ransfer" categories as the data obtained on both the music knowledge tes t and preference inventory produced near zero cor re la t ions i n every ins tance . CONCLUSIONS This study ind icated that i t i s poss ib le at the grade seven l e v e l to develop and teach a music l i s t e n i n g course cons is t ing e n t i r e l y of music described by a panel of q u a l i -f i e d p ro fess iona l musicians as "representat ive and s i g n i f i -cant contemporary ar t music," and that a fourteen week ex-posure to such a course resu l ted i n a p o s i t i v e change i n the expressed preferences of students for the se lec t ions of music prescr ibed for the study. 134 As was determined i n the previous chapter , the E 1 group program resu l ted i n s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n the expressed preferences for the "study" s e l e c t i o n s . Furthermore, data from the E 1 group ind ica ted that the p r e f e r e n t i a l responses of students for the " t ransfer" se lec t ions a lso resu l ted i n gains that were h igh ly s i g n i f i -cant. From these r e s u l t s i t i s apparent that the e s p e c i a l l y designed l i s t e n i n g program was e f f e c t i v e . Moreover, the i n c l u s i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r sequence of cogni t ive learn ing experiences which u t i l i z e d an a n a l y t i c a l approach to l i s t e n -ing appears to have resu l ted a lso i n an a f f e c t i v e t r a n s f e r , as ind icated by the s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n the group's p r e f e r -ences for the " t ransfer" composit ions. The study a lso showed that the E 2 group's program (the r e p e t i t i v e l i s t e n i n g var iable) resu l ted i n a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the group's expressed preferences for each of the categories of "study" se lec t ions as we l l as for the t o n a l , p o l y t o n a l , and atonal categories of the " t ransfer" s e l e c -t i o n s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence was found, however, i n the E 2 group's preferences for the e l e c t r o n i c se lec t ions wi th in the " t ransfer" category. That i s , there was no evidence i n the p o s t - t e s t data that would ind ica te a more favourable response to e l e c t r o n i c music occurred i n the E 2 group as a r e s u l t of t r a n s f e r . 135 The r e s u l t s of the E 2 program v e r i f i e s previous r e -search studies that ind ica ted the importance of f a m i l i a r i t y with music through r e p e t i t i o n . I t appears that not only i s the device of r e p e t i t i o n an important fac tor i n in f luenc ing a more favourable response to unfami l iar music, but that i t i s a very use fu l pedagogical rout ine i n any ser ious l i s t e n -ing, program. The fac t that no d i f fe rence occurred i n the E 2 group's preferences for the e l e c t r o n i c " t ransfer" s e l e c -t ions ind icates that the p a r t i c u l a r sounds i n t h i s medium were unfami l ia r to the students, and consequently were probably unrelated i n the student 's musical experience to a favourable p r e f e r e n t i a l response. The r e s u l t s of the C group a c t i v i t i e s (which excluded exposure i n any educat ional form to contemporary ar t music) ind icated no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the group's expressed preferences for e i ther the "study" or the " t ransfer" composi-t ions . This f ind ing supports the view that for the fourteen week per iod of the study, students' preferences for contem-porary ar t music remained r e l a t i v e l y stable and unchanged. It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the treatment var iab le i n both the E 1 and E 2 l i s t e n i n g programs resu l ted i n h igh ly s i g n i -f i c a n t gains i n students' p r e f e r e n t i a l responses. A question of considerable importance there fore , concerned a comparison of the gains e f fected between the two groups. The fourth hypothesis per t inent to t h i s question'was tested r e s u l t i n g 136 i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences i n favour of the E 1 group. This f ind ing ind icated that although the E 2 treatment var iab le ( repet i t ive l i s t e n i n g without ins t ruc t ion) was an e f f e c t i v e method i n causing p r e f e r e n t i a l g a in s , the more e f f e c t i v e pro-cedure was the E 1 treatment var iab le (ana ly t ica l l i s t e n i n g and repet i t ion) as a method of in f luenc ing students' p r e f e r -ences for contemporary ar t music. From the evidence presented i t would appear that i n a l i s t e n i n g program designed to in f luence students' a f f e c t i v e response, the music educator should be aware of the impor-tance and usefulness of an a n a l y t i c a l approach to l i s t e n i n g . Students i n grade seven are not too young or too immature to develop more p o s i t i v e preferences for ser ious contemporary music provided the ana lys is i s at a l e v e l which i s meaningful to them and r e s u l t s i n a greater awareness of the const i tuent elements i n the music. Invest igat ion of the f i f t h problem (the poss ib le e f fec ts of the sex var iable) revealed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences for only two of the e ight poss ib le categories of music. I t appears u n l i k e l y there fore , that i n a l i s t e n i n g program of contemporary ar t music, d i f fe rences i n musical preferences occur as a r e s u l t of the sex v a r i a b l e . However, because poss ib ly s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences d id occur i n the tonal and atonal ca tegor ies , i t would appear that fur ther research i n 137 th is p a r t i c u l a r area may provide more dec is ive information and d i r e c t i o n for music educators. With the r e j e c t i o n of the s ix th hypothesis for a l l of the poss ib le "study" and "transfer" categories i n both experimental groups, i t appears that the development of a more favourable preference for contemporary ar t music i s not necessar i l y dependent on prev ious ly acquired musical know-ledge of the usual k ind . The fac t that zero and very low cor re la t ions were obtained ind ica ted that the musical know-ledge tes t and the music preference inventory administered as tes t instruments d id not measure the same v a r i a b l e s . I t i s concluded there fore , that l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s may be con-ducted i n the classroom without adverse e f fec ts despite the fac t that t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of music may be at a minimum. IMPLICATIONS The r e s u l t s of the study revealed that .it was poss ib le to gain the i n t e r e s t and co-operat ion of classroom teachers i n th is experiment. Moreover, the p a r t i c i p a t i n g teachers (of whom severa l had minimal music t ra in ing) demonstrated that by using the prepared mater ia ls they could teach i n t e r e s t i n g and enjoyable lessons which resu l ted i n a greater acceptance of the prescr ibed music. 138 The acceptance of planned music l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s does, not necessar i l y imply a r e j e c t i o n of performance o r i -ented programs. There i s , however, an important question re la ted to where the p a r t i c u l a r emphasis should be p laced . In the past l i s t e n i n g lessons per se have often been r e l e -gated to a minor or casual ro le i n the classroom. Of major concern to the pro fess ion then, i s the problem of how long th is s i t u a t i o n should be allowed to cont inue. Evidence from th is study would suggest that music educators should be pre -pared to re -appra ise and evaluate school music courses i n t h e i r present format. I t i s poss ib le that the emphasis so often placed on unrelated lessons of music theory, note reading, s i n g i n g , and instrumental performance s k i l l s may not be completely j u s t i f i e d . It may a lso be poss ib le to s t r u c -ture a program that would place l i s t e n i n g at the core of musi-c a l a c t i v i t i e s , and from th is c e n t r a l i t y re la te and integrate a l l other t h e o r e t i c a l and performance o b j e c t i v e s . Information received from both the object ive and sub-jec t ive responses of teachers and students suggests that a program as was designed and taught could be r e p l i c a t e d , and that such a c t i v i t i e s could help i n meeting the d e f i c i e n c i e s often encountered i n a music program that neglects l i s t e n -i n g . However, the problems associated with obtaining su i tab le teaching mater ia ls necessary for classroom l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i -t i e s strongly suggests the need for p u b l i c a t i o n and d i s t r i -139 bution of guided lessons i n workbook or textbook format. With mater ia ls ava i lab le there i s every i n d i c a t i o n (from the .teachers who taught .the program) of a w i l l ingness to continue and incorporate, contemporary l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s in to the usual music program. The i m p l i c a t i o n s contained herein are qui te Important for the r e s u l t s of the study ind ica ted that the elementary l e v e l i s a poss ib le p lace to begin a comprehensive study of the nature of contemporary music. I f the music of contem-porary .composers i s to become an i n t e g r a l part of the North American musical cul ture , , the i n d i v i d u a l s who form that c u l -ture should be able to comprehend the nature and meaning of the music of the i r t ime. The elementary grades serve as a l o g i c a l point at which to begin the ser ious comprehensive study of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and features of such music. Such a study should not be l im i ted to those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which have become t r a d i t i o n a l . The a c t i v i t i e s of the avant-garde can be of value i n making the young c h i l d aware of the nature of h is musical c u l t u r e . Our musical cu l ture today i s not based s o l e l y on major and minor t o n a l i t i e s , but rather on a va r ie ty of tonal and atonal concepts. For example, i t i s just as important that the elementary school p u p i l become acquainted with tone rows ( s e r i a l techniques) p o i n t i l l i s m , dissonance,, and other new. techniques, of com-p o s i t i o n as i t i s that he become aware of the nature o f the more t r a d i t i o n a l tonal procedures. 140 What i s needed i s a more comprehensive methodology of music i n s t r u c t i o n at the elementary school l e v e l which would take in to account the s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n musical composition during the twentieth century, as wel l as those of the e a r l i e r periods of music h i s t o r y . The wr i ter does not c la im that th is study has proved conc lus ive ly that a broader understanding of the nature of contemporary ar t music w i l l br ing about complete acceptance of a composer's work. The acceptance of a composition i n -volves many factors which appear to be h ighly complex. However, the study has provided s i g n i f i c a n t evidence which supports the idea that a broader base of musical understanding i s valuable i n the development of p o s i t i v e preferences which can lead to the acceptance of new music which has musical mer i t . The study has a lso provided evidence which supports and v e r i f i e s the view of e a r l i e r research studies that repe-t i t i v e l i s t e n i n g i s a most important fac tor i n the development of p o s i t i v e preferences and should be considered as a use fu l pedagogical too l i n music educat ion. RECOMMENDATIONS As a r e s u l t of the w r i t e r ' s experiences with both the object ive r e s u l t s of s tudent 's p r e f e r e n t i a l responses, and teacher 's subject ive analyses of the teaching experiences i n 141 the classroom, a number of recommendations per t inent to the extension of the ideas and idea ls presented in the study are l i s t e d below: 1. The r e s u l t s of both the E 1 and E 2 programs r a i s e cer ta in questions regarding e l e c t r o n i c music. At the pre -tes t stage each treatment group rated e l e c t r o n i c music the most favourable , but for the same se lec t ions on the post -t e s t , the gains i n preference scores proved to be the lowest. With a p o s t - t e s t mean of twenty-one out of a poss ib le score of twenty-seven i t w i l l be r e a l i z e d that an increase i n scores was f e a s i b l e . A poss ib le explanation for E 1 may be that the e l e c t r o n i c category was the only category i n which a n a l y t i c a l procedures were not employed. However, even smaller gains were recorded by E 2 as a r e s u l t of r e p e t i t i v e l i s t e n i n g . Although the study d id provide evidence of a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n p r e f e r e n t i a l responses for e l e c t r o n i c music, fur ther research in the presentat ion of such music in the classroom i s recommended as a poss ib le means of c l a r i f y i n g the i s s u e . 2. Conclusive evidence from the study ind ica ted that near zero cor re la t ions ex is ted between music knowledge and preference gain scores . With l i t t l e i f any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two v a r i a b l e s , i t appears that music teachers may introduce l i s t e n i n g lessons of contemporary ar t music 142 with conf idence, and need not pre-suppose that t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge i s necessary for the acceptance of such music. However, i t i s not known from the study whether a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n would e x i s t for other types and s t y l e s of music. Further research i n t h i s area i s therefore recommended, to determine i f the f ind ings of the study apply to music other than contemporary ar t music. 3. A recommendation of severa l teachers who exposed the i r grade f i v e and s i x students to ce r ta in compositions i n the study strongly suggests that a course of studies should be extended down to at l eas t these .grades, and that empi r ica l data should be obtained to d iscover the ef fects , of such a program on students of th is age group. Cer ta in ly the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for extending such a study down to lower grades i s not d i f f i c u l t to f i n d i n the educat ional and psycholog ica l l i t e r a t u r e . Moreover, the natura l enthusiasm of younger ch i ld ren to the e x c i t i n g sounds of contemporary music pre -disposes them to a responsiveness and acceptance of such an educat ional experience. 4. The u t i l i z a t i o n of a mul t i -sensory approach to a contemporary music l i s t e n i n g program i s a lso recommended as a poss ib le and success fu l learning experience. A c t i v i t i e s i n the l i s t e n i n g per iod that would involve the student i n p l a y -i n g , s i n g i n g , and wr i t ing of ce r ta in themes heard i n the 143 music should be explored together with the resu l tan t e f f ec ts on the preferences of students for such a program. 5. The enthusiasm of the teachers who taught the mater ia ls of the study suggests wider usage of s i m i l a r mater-i a l s i n the classroom; that i s , with lessons not necessar i l y conducted under r i g i d experimental cond i t ions , but re la ted to the amount of time a teacher has a v a i l a b l e , and of course without the necessi ty fo r such conformity i n the manner and method of lesson presenta t ion . In an attempt to accomplish such an object ive , , two fur ther recommendations are l i s t e d as per t inent and necessary. 6. That an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program for music teachers be organized through the l o c a l school boards, and at l o c a l music educators 1 meetings that would provide i n s t r u c -t ion i n the methods and mater ia ls ava i lab le for the presen-ta t ion and use of contemporary ar t music i n both elementary and junior high s c h o o l s . 7. 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C . : Music Educators Nat ional Con-ference, 1966. 147 Krathwohl, David R., Bejamin S. Bloom and Bertram B. Masia. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Handbook I I , New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1965". Langer, Susanne K. Philosophy i n a New Key. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1957. : ' ' ' : : (ed.) . Reflections: on Art. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 195 8. Laycock, S.R. and B.C. Munro. Educational Psychology. Vancouver: The Copp Clark Publishing Company, 1966. Leonhard, Charles, and Robert W. House. Foundations and  P r i n c i p l e s of Music Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1959. Lundin, Robert. An Objective Psychology of Music. New York: The Ronald Press, 1967. McDonald,. Frederick J . Educational Psychology, Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1965. Meyer, Leonard B. Emotion and Meaning i n Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956. M i l l e r , William Hugh. Introduction to Music Appreciation. New York: Chilton Company, 1961. Mueller, J.H. The American Symphony Orchestra: A S o c i a l History of Musical Taste. Bloomington: Indiana Univer-s i t y Press, 1951. Mursell, James L. Education for Musical Growth. New York: Ginn and Company, 1948. Mursell, James L. and Mabel Glenn. The Psychology of School  Music Teaching. New York: S i l v e r Burdette"Company, 1938. Ratner, Leonard G. Music: The Listener's Art. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966. Remmers, H.H. and N.L. Gage. Educational Measurement and  Evaluation. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1954. Revesz, Geza. Introduc11on to the Psychology of Music. Trans. G.I.C. de Courcy. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954. 148 Rokeach, Milton. The Open and Closed Mind. New. York: B a s i l Books, 1960. Schoen, Max. The Psychology of Music. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1940. Seashore, Carl E. In Search of Beauty i n Music. New York: The Ronald Press, 1947. Shaw, Marvin E. and J.M. Wright. Scales for the Measurement  of Attitudes. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1967. U l r i c h , Homer. Music-: A Design for Listening. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1957. Watanabe, Ruth T. Introduction to Music Research.: Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1967. Winold, A l l e n . Elements of Musical Understanding. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. Young, Paul. Motivation and Emotion. New York: Wiley, 1961. B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT, LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Broudy, Harry S. "A R e a l i s t i c Philosophy of Music Education," Basic Concepts i n Music Education. The Fifty-seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Edu-cation, Part I. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958, pp. 215-235. Hartshorn, William C. "The Role of Listening," Basic Concepts i n Music Education. The Fifty-seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I I . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958, pp. 261-291. Joio, Norman Dello. Experiments, i n Musical 1 C r e a t i v i t y . Contemporary Music Project. Washington, D.C.: Music Educators National Conference, 1966. Leonhard, Charles. "Evaluation i n Music Education," Basic Concepts i n Music Education. The Fifty-seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part I I . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958, pp.310-338. 149 Madison, Thurber H. Music Education i_ Indiana - A Curriculum Guide. . The Indiana Music Educators Assoc ia t ion i n the Department of Pub l ic I n s t r u c t i o n , State of Indiana, 1963. McMurray, Fos te r . "Pragmatism i n Music Educat ion ," Basic Concepts i n Music Educat ion. The F i f t y -seven th Yearbook of the Nat ional Society for the Study of Educat ion, Part I. Chicago: Un ivers i ty of Chicago Press , 1958, pp.30-61. Muel le r , John H. "Music and Educat ion: A S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach," Basic Concepts i n Music Educat ion. The F i f t y -seventh Yearbook of the Nat ional Society for the Study of Educat ion, Part I. Chicago: Un ivers i ty of Chicago P r e s s , 1958, pp. 88-102. P a l i s c a , Claude V . ( e d . ) . Music i n Our Schools: A Search f o r Improvement. Report of the Yale Seminar on Music Educa-t i o n , U.S. Department of Heal th , Educat ion, and Welfare. Washington, D . C . : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1964. C. PERIODICALS Barker, Robert G . , T . Dembo, and K. Lewin. "Frust ra t ion and Regression: An Experiment with C h i l d r e n / " Un ivers i ty of  Iowa Studies' i n C h i l d Welfare, v o l . 18, no. 1, 1941. Broudy, Harry S. "Educational Theory and the Music C u r r i c u -lum," Music Educators Journal (Nov-Dec. 1964). Champney, H. and H. M a r s h a l l . "Optimal Refinement of the Rating S c a l e , " Journal of Appl ied Psychology, v o l . 23 1939. Chidester , L.W. "Contemporary Music and the Music Educator ," Music Educators Journa l (Apri l -May, 1965). E r n s t , K a r l D. " Implications for the. Music Curr icu lum," Music Educators Journa l (November, 1967). Fay, Paul J . and W. Middleton. "Relat ionships Between Musical Talent and Preferences for D i f fe rent Types of Music ," Journal of Educat ional Psychology (Nov. 19 41). Getz , R u s s e l l . "The E f f e c t s of Repet i t ion on L i s t e n i n g Responses," Journal of Research i n Music Educat ion, v o l . 14, 1966. 150 Hornyak, Roy Robert. "Analysis of Student 's At t i tudes Towards Contemporary American Mus ic , " Counci l fo r Research i n Music Educat ion, B u l l e t i n No. 8 ( F a l l , 1966). Hutton, D o r i s . "A Comparative Study of Two Methods of Teaching Singing i n the Fourth Grade," Journal of Re-search i n Music Educa t l on, v o l . 1 ( Fa l l 1953). K e l l y , David T. "A Study of the Musica l Preferences of a Select Group of Adolescents ," Journal of Research i n Music  Educat ion, v o l . 11 ( F a l l 1961). ' " " Keston, Morton J . "An Experimental Evaluat ion of the E f f i c a c y of Two Methods of Teaching Music A p p r e c i a t i o n , " Journal  of Experimenta1 Educat ion, v o l . 22, 1954. , and Isabel le M. P i n t o . "Possible Factors Inf luencing Musical Preferences for D i f fe rent Types of Music ," Journal of Genetic Psychology, v o l . 87 (March 1955). Krugman, H.E. "Af fect ive Response to Music as a Function of F a m i l i a r i t y , " Journal of Abnormal Psychology, v o l . 38, 1943. M e r r i l l , L indsey. "Where do our Chi ldren Lose t h e i r Ears?" Music Journal (March 1966). Moses, Harry F. "The General Music C l a s s , " Music Educators  J o u r n a l , . vo l . xxxv (May-June 1949). M u l l , Helen K. "The E f f e c t of Repet i t ion upon the Enjoyment of Modern Mus ic , " Journal of Psychology, v o l . 43, 1957. Razran, Gregory. "The Condi t iona l Evocat ion of At t i tudes (Cognitive Cond i t ion ing ) , " Journal of Experimental Psychology, v o l . 48, 1954. Reimer, Bennett. "Performance and Aesthet ic S e n s i t i v i t y , " Music Educators : Journal (March, 196 8) . Rosenberg, Mi l ton J . "Cognit ive Structure and A t t i t u d i n a l A f f e c t , " Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology, v o l . 53, 1956. Rubin-Rabson, G. "The Influence of Age, I n t e l l i g e n c e , and Tra in ing on Reactions to C l a s s i c and Modern Mus ic , " Journal of Genetic Psychology, v o l . 22, 19 40. 151 Schuman, William. "The Responsibility of Music Education to Music," Music Educators : Journal (June-July, 1956). Symonds, P.M. "On the Loss of R e l i a b i l i t y i n Ratings Due to Coarseness of the Scale," Journal of Experimental Psychology, v o l . 7, 1924. " :" Thompson, William. "New Math, New Science, New Music," Music Educators Journal (March 1967). Wendrich, Kenneth A. "Music Literature i n High Schools," Music Educators Journal (March 1967). Williams, G.D. "The E f f e c t of Program Notes on the Enjoyment of Musical Selections," Journal of General Psychology, v o l . 29, 19 43. D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Baumann,. Vic t o r H. "Socio-Economic Status and the Music Preferences of Teen-Agers," Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1958. Erneston, Nicholas. "A Study to Determine the E f f e c t of Musical Experience and Mental A b i l i t y on the Formation of Musical Taste." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, F l o r i d a State University, 1961. Evans, Jesse G i l l e t e , J r . "The E f f e c t of E s p e c i a l l y Designed Music Listening Experiences on Junior High School Students Attitudes Towards Music." Unpublished Doctoral Disser-t a t i o n , Indiana University, 1965. Fawcett, Annabel Elizabeth. "The E f f e c t of Training i n Listening Upon the Listening S k i l l s of Intermediate Grade Children." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1963. F u l l b r i g h t , E.G. "An Investigation of Relationships Between Cul t u r a l Background and Attitudes Toward C l a s s i c a l Orchestral Music." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 1964. Getz, Russell Paul. "The Influence of F a m i l i a r i t y Through Repetition i n Determining Optimum Response of Seventh Grade Children to Certain Types of Serious Music." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The Graduate School, Pennsylvania State University, 1963. 152 Haack, Paul A l f r e d . "A Study, of Two Approaches to the Development of Music Listening S k i l l s Within the Context of the Music Appreciation Class for Secondary School Students." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1966. Hanshumaker, James R. "Foundations for the Development of a High School Course i n Music Literature Based on the P r i n -c i p l e s of General Education with Implications for Teacher Education." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1961. Hare, Robert Yates. "The Pedagogical P r i n c i p l e s of Music Appreciation." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, State University of Iowa, 1959. Hornyak, Roy Robert. "A Factor Analysis of the Relationships Between the Components of Music Present i n Selected Music Examples and the Preference Rating Responses of College Students, to the Selected Music Examples. " Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Indiana, 1964. Lundsteen, Sara Wynn. "Teaching A b i l i t i e s i n C r i t i c a l L i s -tening i n the F i f t h and Sixth Grades." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1963. Peterman, William John. "An Investigation of Influences Con-t r i b u t i n g to the Post-School Musical A c t i v i t i e s of Adults i n the City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin." Unpublished Doc-t o r a l Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1954. Peterson, V i o l a . "A Study of Developmental Listening Factors i n Children's A b i l i t y to Understand Melody." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Eastman School of Music, 1965. Porter, Donald Frank. "An Exploratory Study of the Develop-ment of Improved Teaching Procedures i n a Music Appreci-ation Course for General College Students." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1965. Rasmussen, Warren I r v i n . "An Experiment i n Developing Basic Listening S k i l l s Through Programmed Instruction." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1966. Robertson, James H. "Principles for General Music Education i n Secondary Schools." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Graduate College, University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1958. 153 Rogers,: V .R. "Ch i ldren 's Expressed Musical Preferences at Selected Grade L e v e l s . " Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r -t a t i o n , Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y , 1956. Rubin, Louis J . "The E f f e c t s of Musical Experience on D i s -cr iminat ion and Musical Preferences." Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of C a l i f o r n i a , 1952. S a l t z e r , Rudolph Ben. "Musical Content: The Basis of High School Music Teaching." Part I and II. Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1964. Schuessler , Kar l F . "Musical Taste and S o c i a l Economic Background." Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , The Graduate School , Un ivers i ty of Indiana, Bloomington, 1947. Stewart, John W. "Influence of Pub l ic School Music Education as Revealed by a Comparison of Forty Selected High School Music and Non-Music Students." Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y , 1961. A P P E N D I C E S 155 APPENDIX A MUSIC PREFERENCE INVENTORY Name Date Class School EXPLANATION: For each s e l e c t i o n you hear place a check X on the l i n e to ind ica te how wel l you l i k e the music. You may place t h i s mark at any point along the l i n e . The far ther over to the r igh t i t i s , the greater i s the enjoyment i n d i c a t e d . For example, i f two pieces were marked as fo l lows , I d i s l i k e I d i s l i k e I am I l i k e I l i k e i t i t i t i n d i f f e r e n t i t very much very much to i t X X" the i n d i c a t i o n would be that both se lec t ions were l i k e d , but that the second sample was prefer red to the f i r s t sample. You may place an X while the music i s p lay ing or at the end of each s e l e c t i o n . I d i s l i k e I d i s l i k e I am I l i k e I l i k e i t i t i n d i f f e r e n t i t i t very much to i t very much 1 . . . • . 2 : \ . , . 3 " . . , •  4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ' . , . " . . . . 5' - • 6' • . " 7 : . ; . 8 . . . . 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 157 APPENDIX B MUSIC GRADE 7 Date Class Name 1. Draw i n the space provided a) a quarter note b) a half note School c) a whole note d) an eighth note 2. On the s t a f f place the following notes: (treble clef) f d a e b g sharp 3. On the s t a f f place the following notes: (bass c l e f ) middle c b f l a t 4. Place bar lines i n the correct positions i n thi s rhythmic pattern: I j j j r i r i n i n i r r i 5. Name the key signatures below: -rTj ~r7 1 ^  y V \J 1 6. Draw the following key signatures: F rv~vajor G nnajor 1) tro ajor A naajor 158 7. Name the four orchestral instruments that belong to the strong family: 8. Name the four orchestral instruments that belong to •the brass family: 9. What two woodwind instruments require two reeds? 10. Name two percussion instruments that can play a melody: 11. Place the following l i s t of composers i n the century i n which they l i v e d : 18th century 19th >. century 20th century Schubert, Chopin, Tchaikowsky, Bach, Mozart, Haydn, Bartok, Stravinsky. 12. On the s t a f f below draw the notes that complete a t r i a d for each example: APPENDIX C MUSIC PREFERENCE INVENTORY PRE-TEST SCORES (Class Means and Standard Deviat ions for "Study"Selections) Class Tonal S.D. Polytonal S.D. Atonal S.D. E l e c t r o n i c S.D. 1 b 13.36 4.80 14.53 5.07 10 .39 4.78 20.33 6.09 2 g 16.71 4.39 17.11 4.08 13.51 2.91 19.29 5.29 3 g 17.98 4.84 16 .34 3.38 13.88 4.59 15.17 5.99 4 b 16.46 5.43 17.39 • 4.85 13.21 3.65 20.86 4.43 5 b 15.88 2.59 16.94 2.66 13.06 4.05 16.65 6.50 5 g 17.43 4.69 16.29 3.36 14.57 4.33 21.57 3.92 6 b 14.00 6.38 13.53 6.32 9.33 3.06 18.07 7.02 6 g 16.21 6.76 13.57 4.20 11.00 5.38 15.50 6.12 7 b 12.53 4.09 15.24 3.85 9.06 3.61 19.22 5.08 7 g 15.65 3.53 14.94 3.66 14.06 3.13 20.53 5.96 8 b 17.13 4.74 18.75 3.97 14.06 5.17 21.50 6.29 8 g 12.55 5.13 15.45 6.96 10.27 4.12 21.73 4.88 9 g 18.74 4.26 14.67 4.19 11.33 3.98 13.15 6.15 10 b 14.34 5.19 16.05 3.75 11.24 4.05 17.68 6.87 - 11 . b -17.42 4.36 18.16 4.69 11.89 3.62 16.26 6.62 11 g 19.60 4.39 16.87 4.09 11.80 3.30 17.60 4.94 12 g 15.37 5.91 14.12 5.03 10.53 5.49 16.86 5.69 13 . b 15.90 4.19 18.13 3.61 11.77 3.08 18.97 5.09 14 g 20.58 3.23 17.73 3.35 13.65 3.21 14.35 5.82 15 b 15.93 5.35 20.80 3.97 12.67 3.8.3 23.87 2.23 15 g 17 . 1.8 : 4.77 .17.59 4.46 12.35 4.14 20.24 5.03 16 b 15.64 4.28 17.55 4.62 13.23 3.79 18.82 6 .07 16 g -15.15 7.86 15.08 5.94 13.46 4.27 18.38 4.99 l!7 b 10 .7-9 4.39 13.79 4.14 7.79 2.97 20.79 6.22 17 g 16.86 5.43 15.64 4.45 10.79 5.15 18.07 5.99 18 g 16.91 4.61 17.36 3.78 12.42 4.15 18.06 6.66 APPENDIX C (Continued) Class Tonal S.D. Polytonal S.D. Atonal S.D. E l e c t r o n i c S.D. 19 b 10.24 5.08 14.14 5.66 9.86 3.84 18.66 6.75 20 g 19.92 3.48 19.58 3.27 13.92 4.07 21.42 5.37 21 b 17.39 3.37 19.06 3.29 14.61 3.38 22.64 3.21 22 g 18.33 4.40 15.33 3.17 12.11 3.20 16.28 5.28 23 b 16.17 4.44 17.91 4.27 12.14 4.38 20.09 5.24 24 g 17.48 4.83 15.68 3.36 13.19 4.15 19.13 6.10 25 b 15.29 5.10 16.06 4.22 11.09 4.05 16.43 6.69 26 b 14.14 5.00 16.19 5.28 11.44 4.69 18.56 6.81 27 g 20.28 5.47 16.97 4.33 13.53 5.02 18.13 6.23 28 b 14.61 5.75 17.53 5.59 10.33 4.83 . 20.17 5.42 29 b 14.54 5.04 16.54 3.33 13.00 4.30 22.92 4.96 29 g 18.33 3.29 14.87 3.29 13.53 2.59 16.13 6.03 30 b 12.50 5.95 13.70 3.74 10.40 3.84 16.20 6.81 30 g 15.13 6.'15 14.63 4.93 10.56 3.79 14.56 5.62 APPENDIX D MUSIC PREFERENCE INVENTORY PRE-TEST SCORES (Class Means and Standard Deviations for "Transfer" Selections) Class Tonal S.D. Polytonal S.D. Atonal S.D. Electr o n i c S.D. 1 b 12.56 5.16 12.97 4.98 11.28 5.43 18.42 5.28 2 g " "14.20 3. 82 13.00 3. 81 13.14 3.47 18.51 4.13 ?3 g 16.54 3.67 . 14.07 4.01 10. 80 4.27 15.12 4.53 4 b 15.04 3.83 14.00 3.09 13.21 4.10 20.68 3.96 5 b 14.94 2.41 13.12 2.55 11.71 4.78 16.35 .; 5.66 5 g 14.07 2.64 13.07 3.69 12. 86 5.16 18.86 4.18 6 b 10. 87 4.12 9.87 2.42 8.60 4.40 17.33 7.28 6 g 13.50 3.84 10.64 4.60 9.79 5.18 14.64 5.26 7 b 12.24 5.59 11.35 3.10 10.18 4.50 16.41 4.98 7 g 14.18 3.78 12.24 3.49 13.00 . 4.37 19.12 5.00 8 b 13.50 3.08 13.88 5.28 11.81 5.97 20.00 5.48 8 g 13.18 5.46 12.09 3. 86 9.45 5.54 19.36 5.35 9 g 13.79 4.66 11.67 4.45 10.82 4.31 13.59 4.60 10 b 13.42 3.85 13.24 5.05 10.66 4.64 17.21 6.06 11 b 16 .42 4.03 14.21 3.52 10.74 5.82 17.32 6.66 11 g 13.93 3.90 8.93 3.88 8.60 3.40 18.87 5.12 12 g 14.81 5.99 12.53 4.24 9.07 4.72 15.51 5.82 13 b 14.84 4.38 14.06 4.08 11.03 4.13 18.65 3. 83 14 g 15.77 3.70 13.50 4.05 11.42 4.26 14.35 4.90 15 b 16.47 5.08 13.47 5.54 12.73 6.35 22.73 2.19 15 g 14.18 5.78 13.59 4.33 13.18 5.68 19.00 5.27 16 b 13.45 3.19 12.45 3.62 13.14 4.52 17.55 5.98 16 g 13.15 4.32 12.92 4.41 12.85 6.01 18.23 4.78 17 b 10.93 3.81 10.79 4.64 6.79 2.66 18.79 5.85 17 . g 15.64 4.63 12.71 4.32 8.79 6.03 16.64 5.68 APPENDIX D (Continued) Class Tonal S.D. Polytonal S.D. Atonal S.D. El e c t r o n i c S.D. 18 g 14.55 3.62 12.76 4.28 11.88 4.64 17.33 5.43 19 b 11.79 4.38 11.55 4.15 8.00 3.70 18.07 5.69 20 g 15.47 4.21 15.75 3.96 14.64 4.40 18.68 5.35 21 b 16.33 3.50 14.89 4.61 14.22 4.38 21.61 3. 83 22 g 13.36 4.36 12.03 3. 87 9.83 4.44 16.22 5.95 23 b 15.14 3.62 13.34 2.93 11.54 4.27 19.37 5.00 24 g 12.97 3.85 11.35 5.11 10.39 4.91 19.26 6.27 25 b 14.34 5.09 11.63 4.27 10.20 4.12 15.83 5.94 26 b 11. 89 4.27 12.33 4.19 8.25 3.55 17.97 5.20 27 g 15.41 4.40 13.66 4.21 11.47 4.42 18.50 5.07 28 b 11.83 5.35 11.78 5.06 9.08 4.30 18.03 5.03 29 b 16.00 2.91 16.00 3.98 13.00 4.64 21.15 4. 88 29 g 14.33 3.79 11.87 3.56 10.73 3.37 14.73 4.86 30 b 12.00 4.29 12.40 4.03 9.10 3.25 18.30 8.26 30 . g 14.63 4.98 11.00 4.13 8.75 5.11 15.94 5.44 Note: g denotes g i r l s classes; b denotes boys classes. APPENDIX E MUSIC PREFERENCE INVENTORY POST-TEST SCORES (Class Means and Standard Deviations for "Study" Select ions) Class Tonal S.D. Polytonal S.D. Atonal S.D. E l e c t r o n i c S.D. 1 b 19.74 4.62 20.17 4.36 16.60 4.57 21.26 5.02 2 g 22.44 2.97 22.06 2.85 17.88 3.87 21.26 4.12 3 g 22.62 3.41 21.78 2.72 18.38 4.11 18.95 5.24 4 b 20.00 3.82 20.86 3.20 17.42 3.99 23.38 2.70 5 b 19.12 3.39 21.71 3.58 16.65 3.24 20.06 5.72 5 g 20.93 3.52 19.79 5.12 17.36 3.83 22.07 4.79 6 b 15.33 6.09 16.07 4.86 11.67 5.02 13.53 6.76 6 g 19.29 6.16 18.50 6.54 15.43 5.83 16.36 4.76 7 b 22.41 2.48 22.65 2.45 17.06 2.79 22.94 2.44 7 g 24.06 2.58 22.06 2.19 20.12 3.00 22.35 3.26 8 b 22.00 3.31 22.13 3.79 16.13 4.30 23.31 6.26 8 g 20.36 3.50 18.00 5.78 15.55 3.62 22.64 3.44 9 g 23.59 3.87 20.64 3.56 16.35 4.81 18.38 7.24 10 b 20. 81 4.14 21.62 3.08 15.38 3.21 21.41 4.74 11 b 22.16 3.13 22.11 2.71 16.42 4.22 20.79 5.53 11 g 23.07 3.24 22.20 2.73 17.60 3.31 20.60 5.96 12 g 20.07 5.59 19.83 4.10 17.46 4.96 19.95 5.60 13 b 15.58 4.27 18.06 3.29 11.94 2.72 19.23 4.96 14 g 20.35 3.12 17.0 4 2.91 12.81 3.11 13.69 6.04 15 b 22.47 3.48 23.20 .2.24 17.73 3.90 23.67 3.54 15 g 22.00 3.37 • 23,35 2.21 16.76 2.80 23.18 3.97 16 b 20.64 3.91 21.50 3.24 15.86 3.41 21.91 4.86 16 g 20.69 5.44 20.31 4.52 15.23 3.88 21.00 4. 83 17 b 10.00 4.18 13.71 4.55 8.43 3.06 21.21 5.35 17 g 16.86 5.80 15.79 4.85 11.50 5.65 18.14 5.54 APPENDIX E (Continued) Class Tonal S.D. Polytonal S.D. Atonal S.D. E l e c t r o n i c S.D. 18 g 21.58 4.36 21.90 3.24 17.10 4.24 22.32 5.19 19 b 15.30 5.30 •17.56 5.75 14.11 4.06 22.37 4.96 20 g 23.42 3 .'05 22.30 2.42 17.64 3.59 21.94 3.60 21 b 17.26 4.41 19.29 3.18 15.50 3.78 22.24 3.98 22 g 23.37 - 3.56 22.17 3.04 19.86 3.36 20.43 5.26 23 b 18.13 4.54 19.97 4.04 15.35 3.55 20.74 5.88 24 g 17.48 4.46 15.65 3.29 13.39 4.15 19.32 5.97 25 b 15.60 5.20 16.09 4.17 11.20 3.65 16.66 6.43 26 b 20.39 4.40 21.08 3.52 17.42 4.73 22.11 4.54 27 g 21.81 3.51 19.68 4.24 14.87 3.90 21.61 4.58 28 b 14.97 5.58 17.09 5.31 10.37 4.58 19.91 5.32 29 b 17.31 3.73 18.08 3.84 15.46 4.70 23.69 3.57 29 g 18.93 3.65 18.07 4.82 13.73 4.65 16.80 5.49 30 b 14.40 6.20 18.30 3.80 12.80 5.22 18.30 6.39 30 g 18.50 5.07 18.63 4.54 15.13 4.74 15.94 6.21 APPENDIX F MUSIC PREFERENCE INVENTORY POST-TEST SCORES (Class Means and Standard Deviations for "Transfer" Select ions) Class Tonal S.D. Polytonal S.D. Atonal S.D. E l e c t r o n i c S.D. 1 b 15.86 4.00 15.63 4.21 13.06 5.38 18.74 5.69 2 g 16.91 3.25 15.21 4.37 12.88 4.24 19.29 4.73 3 g 17.84 3.46 16.14 3.62 13.51 4.52 18.22 5.07 4 b 16.42 3.50 17.50 3.85 15.35 4.85 22.27 3.87 5 b 16.18 3.89 15.47 3.90 15.35 3.60 19.53 5.81 5 g 16.93 2.92 15.43 4.51 13.71 3.77 20.93 4.49 6 b 13.40 4.63 11.53 2.85 10.27 4.83 16.93 6.43 6 g 14.71 5.27 14.43 4.24 13.14 7.33 16.79 4.19 7 . b 17.59 3.37 16.59 3.62 12.47 4.11 20.24 3.78 7 g 19.12 3.95 16.82 3.50 15.41 4.86 20.76 4.01 8 b 16.06 4.20 16.25 3.91 14.69 4.30 22.19 5.96 8 g 14.18 4.66 13.73 5.59 13.91 5.24 19.00 4.63 9 g 17.33 3.47 15.28 4.09 12.41 4.72 18.79 6.28 10 b 15.51 3.77 15.49 4.39 13.11 4.41 20.81 5.06 11 b 18.11 3.56 16.68 3.65 13.89 5.49 19.58 5.82 11 g 19.67 3.99 16.67 4.27 16.67 5.04 19.53 6.20 12 g 17.83 4.77 16.02 4.54 12.88 4.16 18.20 5.56 13 b 14.94 3.93 13.94 3.76 11.10 4.23 18.58 3.60 14 g 15.77 3.56 13.04 3.59 10.69 4.36 13.77 5.29 15 b 18.87 3.94 16.47 4.63 15.13 5.32 22.93 2.99 15 g 16.65 3.71 16.18 4.32 14.71 3.31 19.71 4.33 16 b 16.50 4.16 15.05 3.39 13.36 4.86 18.45 5.30 16 g 15.08 4.82 14.08 4.80 12.08 5.12 17.69 6.77 17 b 11.14 . 4.59 10.79 4.59 6.79 2.26 20.21 5.49 17 g 15.00 4.11 IT. 86 3.86 9.21 6.72 18.00 5.02 APPENDIX F (Continued) Class Tonal S.D. Polytonal S.D. Atonal S.D. Electr o n i c S.D. 18 g 15.61 4.39 14.77 4.18 12.84 4.68 19.26 5.23 19 b 12.74 4.54 12.56 3.81 11.85 4.19 20.74 4.94 20 g 18.09 3.42 17.03 2.90 15.36 4.24 19.91 3.79 21 ' b 15.94 3.61 15.59 3.64 13.34 4.11 20.71 4.16 22 g 17.60 3.44 18.06 3.31 16.23 5.29 20.63 6.14 23 b 15.03 4.73 15.19 5.52 15.19 3.94 21.58 4.86 24 g 13.23 3.50 11.48 4.49 10.42 4.42 19.06 6.37 25 b 14.17 4.76 11.74 3.78 9.86 4.04 15.66 5.73 26 b 16.31 4.24 15.22 4.82 11.39 3.50 21.19 4.61 27 g 16.16 4.58 15.16 2.98 11.90 4.05 16.84 4.87 28 b 11.91 5.32 12.23 5.06 8.97 4.00 18.29 5.06 29 b 16.69 2.56 16.85 3.00 11.85 4.00 23.15 4.04 29 g 15.87 3.62 14.33 4.13 12.60 3. 89 17.27 5.97 30 b 12.60 5.68 13.10 4.41 11.10 4.09 17.20 6.11 30 g 15.81 5.00 13.75 3.96 14.56 4.69 16.38 4.70 Note: g denotes g i r l s classes; b denotes boys classes. APPENDIX G MUSIC SELECTION RATING SCALE Tona l , t r a d i t i o n a l , e t c . Six Chansons C l a s s i c a l Symphony Appalachian Spring Carmina Burana Petroushka] Symphony #5 Symphony #2 Nocturne #2 Rhapsody Espagnole F i r e b i r d Suite Young Person's Guide Music for Theatre Divert issment Concerto fo r Two Pianos Facade Symphony of Psalms La Mer P o l y t o n a l , e t c . Concerto for Orchestra The 4th of Ju ly The Ri te of Spring Danse Suite Miraculous Mandarin S t r ing Quartet#6 P i e r r o t Lunaire F ive Pieces for Orchestra Music for S t r ings ,Percuss ion S e r i a l Music Var iat ionen fur K l a v i e r Clinque Frammenti d i Saffo V i o l i n Concerto S t r ing Quartet #3 S t r ing Quartet #4 Symphony (opus 21) The Flood Var ia t ions for Orchestra Var ia t ions for Orchestra La Marteau san Maitre Zeitmasse (Wind Quintet) Hindemith Prokof ie f f Copland Orf f Stravinsky Shos takovi tch S i b e l i u s Debussy Ravel Stravinsky B r i t t e n Copland Mi lhaud Poulenc Walton Stravinsky Debussy Bartok Ives Stravinsky Bartok Bartok Bartok Schoenberg Schoenberg Bartok Webern D a l l a p i c c o l a Berg Schoenberg Schoenberg Webern Stravinsky Schoenberg Webern Boulez Stockhaussen 168 APPENDIX G (Continued) E l e c t r o n i c Music O.I 2.3 E l e c t r o n i c Study #1 E l e c t r o n i c Study #2 Poeme Electronique Ensembles Deserts E l e c t r o n i c Study #1 Music for Sacred Service Lemon Drops (1965) Poesie pour pouvoir Dreams of Brass Visage Thema Homage to Joyce Philomel Gesang der Jungl ine Davidovsky Davidovsky Varese Babbit t Varese Stockhausen A r e l Kenneth Gabura Boulez Norma Beecroft Ber io Ber io Babbit t Stockhausen 169 APPENDIX H Appalachian Spr ing . Copland 1900-Appalachian Spring was composed i n 1943-44 as a b a l l e t . The act ion of the b a l l e t concerns "a pioneer ce lebra t ion i n spr ing around a newly-bui l t farmhouse i n the Pennsylvania h i l l s i n the ear ly part of the l a s t century. The b r ide - to -be and the young farmer-husband enact the emotions, j o y f u l and appre-hensive, t h e i r new domestic partnership i n v i t e s . An older neighbour suggests now and then the rocky confidence of exper-ience . The preacher and h i s fo l lowers remind the new house-holders of the strange and t e r r i b l e aspects of human f a t e . At the end the couple are l e f t quiet and strong i n t h e i r new house." In 19 45 Appalachian Spring received the P u l i t z e r Pr i ze for music as we l l as the award of the Music C r i t i c s C i r c l e of New York for the outstanding t h e a t r i c a l work of the season of 1944-45. The music was composed by Copland i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e . His melodies are wr i t ten i n the usual major and minor keys and are therefore very tunefu l and s ingab le . You w i l l not ice how the composer uses various instruments, for so lo passages. L i s t e n thoughtfu l ly and you w i l l detect the d i f f e r -ences i n tone colour p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the woodwind instruments, fo r there are severa l examples of solos for f l u t e , c l a r i n e t , and oboe. A n a l y s i s . The Suite i s i n e ight sect ions .which _are.,played without i n t e r r u p t i o n . However, because of the length of the work we w i l l omit the f i r s t three sect ions and commence at the four th dance. No.4. This i s f a s t f o l k - l i k e music that suggests square dances and country f i d d l e r s . A p l a y f u l snatch of melody i s f i r s t heard by the oboe and then the f l u t e b u i l t on th is rhythm: i t ; n PT~I i and then fol lows the main theme p layed,a t f i r s t by the 1st v i o l i n s , c l e a r l y i n the key of B major APPENDIX H (Continued) 170 Immediately fo l lowing th is theme a br ight rhythmic passage i s heard in the trumpets. Here i s the tune: IT I . i r y — - — 1 ' — _ — — . J 1 y 4 — J • ^— tr r * # * # 7 / \ ^=== h r -Another tune to l i s t e n for i s more de l ibera te and f o r c e f u l , — ^ = A /s 7 * 7 and s t i l l another dance fol lows (#5) immediately with the c l a r i n e t s p lay ing th is l i v e l y tune: ( * * * J> > * _» ^ t? This tune i s then heard i n the s t r ings and brass and then with f u l l o rches t ra , br inging the music to a grand cl imax. With almost no break in the music, sect ion s i x commences very slowly producing a peaceful serene mood, but a new tune with a l i v e l y tempo soon changes the atmosphere. Here i s the tune played by both the v i o l i n s and the f l u t e s . < » - a -r- T ' #_ •" " * * ' 1 \ * M i ' s A_ 7 1 ' 4 * r \ \ \ \ * s - l I 1 6 ' r \ . i—1 vT7 >—— i u-1 ^ 1 This theme i s repeated again i n the v i o l i n s , and s t i l l l a t e r with the c e l l o s , and basses, and then the woodwinds and f i n a l l y the f u l l o rchest ra . A f te r an abrupt ser ies of chords, the music resumes i t s e a r l i e r mood of peaceful t r a n q u i l i t y where the i n d i v i d u a l woodwinds can be heard with short motives. APPENDIX H (Continued) 171 Without any break i n the flow of the music, section seven commences with the old Shaker hymn tune melody which i s known today as the tune "Tis the g i f t to be simple." We f i r s t hear the theme played as a c l a r i n e t solo, and l a t e r the composer adds a series of f i v e variations on the theme. Here i s the theme. Try and follow each v a r i a t i o n of the melody and notice how Copland changes the orchestral instruments that play the tune, and how he changes the tempo of the tune, and at the l a s t v a r i a t i o n how the f u l l orchestra plays the theme i n unison and i n a d i f f e r e n t key. The f i n a l few pages of the music produce a peaceful mood marked " l i k e a prayer." This music which shows the beauty of the s t r i n g section with a l l i t s depth and strength as the nucleus of the symphony orchestra. The music closes quietly with sounds much ali k e the opening introduction of section one. Review. Appalachian Spring was composed i n the t r a d i t i o n a l tonal s t y l e . The melodies and harmonies are derived from the usual diatonic major and minor keys and are therefore quite singable. Much of the music i s si m i l a r i n st y l e to the gen-uine folk music of early America. 172 APPENDIX I Music f o r S t r i n g Instruments, P e r c u s s i o n and C e l e s t a 1936 Bartok T h i s composition i s c o n s i d e r e d one of the g r e a t master-p i e c e s of the 20th Century. In t h i s work Bartok's s t r a n g e , b i t t e r s t y l e seems r i c h e r i n e x p r e s s i o n and more profound. The work i s scored f o r two s t r i n g groups t o frame the percus-s i o n . He c a r e f u l l y s p e c i f i e d the arrangement of the p l a y e r s on the stage. The unusual combinations of instruments i n d i -cates the composer's i n t e n t i o n s t o e x p l o r e the sonorous p o s s i b i l i t i e s of such an ensemble. Double Bass 1 Double Bass 11 c e l l o 1 v i o l a 1 v i o l i n 11 v i o l i n 1 Timpani Side Drums C e l e s t a Piano Bass Drum Cymbals Xylophone Harp c e l l o 11 v i o l a 11 v i o l i n IV v i o l i n 111 The e n t i r e composition i s four movements i n l e n g t h . However, because we do not have s u f f i c i e n t time t o l i s t e n t o a l l f o u r movements, I have s e l e c t e d the second movement as the one which we s h a l l analyze and l i s t e n t o . I have chosen t h i s movement because of the very g r e a t speed of the music, and a l s o because of the unusual sounds t h a t Bartok i s able to c r e a t e . L e t us l i s t e n a t f i r s t t o s e v e r a l of the important themes t h a t have prominence i n the music. A n a l y s i s . Movement I I T h i s p i e c e has s t r o n g rhythmic p a t t e r n s and uses modal s c a l e s t h a t Bartok found i n Hungarian f o l k music. The opening theme i s b u i l t on a s u c c e s s i o n of t h i r d s . The v i o l i n s p l a y the f i r s t f o u r bars p i z z i c a t o (plucked). T Then f o l l o w the next f o u r bars p l a y e d w i t h a bow: It 2 _ 173 APPENDIX I (Continued) Notice the rhythm of th is opening theme. It i s regular and i s i n duple time (2 quarter notes to each bar) z [> * ' / 1 » 7 / • • * * * * * * 7 then You then hear the piano which i s , of course, a percussion instrument, e s p e c i a l l y the way Bartok t reats the p iano. He has been c a l l e d , "the master of percussive d issonance." I think you w i l l f i n d that he c e r t a i n l y hammers away with the percussion s e c t i o n . Theme II - Piano theme: P Immediately a f ter the piano entry you can hear the timpani with th is rhythm: /nv iml,rm imirmirm rrri Af ter a short speedy sect ion by a l l the s t r i n g s , the piano again makes i t s entry with th is theme: Theme III |£ t: tit- £ k+ accompanied by short p i z z i c a t o bursts on the s t r i n g s . Notice the pounding rhythms that fo l low and the amazingly unusual sound of a l l the s t r ings played p i z z i c a t o together with the piano and harp played p e r c u s s i v e l y . There i s probably not another piece i n a l l music l i t e r a t u r e that produces sound exact ly l i k e t h i s (Theme IV). Again the s t r ings can be heard using the bow i n the usual manner but played at t e r r i f i c speed, f i r s t through a sof t 174 APPENDIX I (Continued) passage and then getting louder u n t i l there i s a return to the opening theme, accompanied by the timpani. The rhythm of the timpani i s worth noticing: * ^  P $77 J %(7, %J7TJ] 5 The change of time signature i s very usual i n contemporary composition. When thi s theme was f i r s t heard i t was i n a regular rhythm. Now, at the repeat section, the tune looks l i k e t h i s : Theme V The music i s played with such speed that the f i r s t twenty pages of the score take l i t t l e time to the end. With a great emphasis on rhythm and tone colour, Bartok writes snatches of melody for the piano and harp and gives the drums and cymbals added parts before the f i r s t theme i s again heard, t h i s time for the l a s t time. The rhythm i s s l i g h t l y changed again to: n 7 r F i n a l l y with a burst of furious playing the music abruptly ends on an eighth note. Review. The accent i n the music i s on rhythm and orchestral colour. Although there are no woodwinds or brass, Bartok i s able through the use of a battery of percussion instruments and the use of p i z z i c a t o playing to create e n t i r e l y new sound e f f e c t s . The Music for String Instruments, Percussion and Celesta has four movements. We have heard only the second movement. If you get interested perhaps your teacher w i l l f i n d time to play the l a s t movement for you. I t i s r e a l l y worth l i s t e n i n g to. 175 APPENDIX J V i o l i n Concerto 1935 Berg Berg's f i n e s t orchestral work, and his l a s t composi-ti o n i n any form, i s his Concerto for V i o l i n and Orchestra. Its i n s p i r a t i o n was the death of a young g i r l , the daughter of Gustav Mahler's widow. Berg intended the concerto as a requiem "to an angel." In the f i r s t movement which we hear, he describes the character of the g i r l i n music that i s graceful and buoyant. The V i o l i n Concerto i s a most unusual twelve-tone composition. Its tone-row i s made up of interlocking triads (G minor, D major, A minor, E major) o u t l i n i n g a succession of f i f t h s , followed by a progression of four whole tones. Let us look at the twelve notes of the row i n i t s o r i g i n a l form. al r O V A / 4 _2_ rz i nve r ted row work. 1 l With these tone-rows, Berg composed the entire  Analysis. The introduction commences with a c l a r i n e t and v i o l i n playing an arpeggio - l i k e figure only using notes a f i f t h apart. I t i s played very s o f t l y at f i r s t , with the c l a r i n e t and solo v i o l i n alternating each bar. Introductory theme: C l a r ivn _ t ' \?\o\'\ 176 APPENDIX J (Continued) Have you noticed that when the v i o l i n plays, the f i r s t four notes are taken from the row i n the order 1, 3, 5, 7 and thi s i s followed i n the next bar of the v i o l i n part i n the order 2, 4, 6, 8. This i s pointed out to you to suggest that Berg did not treat the tone-row s t r i c t l y as did his teacher Schoenberg. However, when the solo v i o l i n concludes the introduction, the 12 notes of the theme are heard i n the exact order of the row. Here i s the solo v i o l i n theme (Theme A): The v i o l i n solo continues with the row i n i t s inverted form beginning on high G. Theme B: This device of answering a theme with i t s inversion (or rever-sion) i s one of the chief s t r u c t u r a l means i n s e r i a l music. Berg uses the device often. We next hear a new version of the row i n t r i p l e t s . I t i s f i r s t heard by the solo v i o l i n and then i s repeated on the c e l l o , the horn, and the trumpet. Here i s the theme which i s derived, from the retrograde inversion of the row. (Theme C) If you can remember the rhythm of th i s tone, i t w i l l help you to follow each succeeding instrument that i n turn uses i t . Furthermore, when much of the music i s repeated l a t e r i n the movement, i t w i l l be possible to recognize rhythms and melodies that Berg used i n the f i r s t few pages. This f i r s t movement i s r e a l l y i n two sections but without any break. The score c a l l s i t the a l l e g r e t t o section. To follow t h i s part you w i l l hear two c l a r i n e t s playing i n harmony thi s tune. (Theme D) 177 APPENDIX J (Continued) r.U r H < - » — - — if I t i s followed immediately by the solo v i o l i n with the same rhythmic pattern but d i f f e r e n t melodic material. _ I This middle section continues with waltz-like music with the melodies derived from the row i n either the o r i g i n a l , inverted, retrograde, or transposed versions. There remains one important theme that i s played on the horn. This tune i s known as the Landler tune. A Landler i s a r u s t i c type of Waltz. In t h i s case Berg i d e n t i f i e s the Landler tune as a genuine Carinthian folk tune. I t w i l l be heard at f i r s t by the French horn and l a t e r by the trumpet. I t i s written i n the key of 6 f l a t s which i s unusually tonal for a s e r i a l com-posi t i o n . The theme i s easy to follow. Theme E: o : u i 3——- — — — — — a — t — 1 -A— ~~9 T In s e r i a l music i t i s easy to discover how the composer used the basic material of the row. However, we must be careful not to spend too much time i n analysis. The main thing af t e r a l l , i s to l i s t e n a t t e n t i v e l y . With the knowledge we have gained about the construction of the music we are sure to enjoy and understand what the composer has attempted to do. Review. 1. The V i o l i n Concerto i s 12 tone s e r i a l music. 2. The f i r s t movement i s r e a l l y i n contrasting sections of slow-fast-slow design. 178 APPENDIX J (Continued) 3. The tone-row i s the source of a l l the melodic m a t e r i a l i n the work. 4. The rhythms are f r e e l y composed by the composer without any r e s t r i c t i o n . 5. Berg was not as s t r i c t i n h i s composition as was h i s teacher Schoenberg who you remember was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g twelve-tone music as d i s t i n c t from t o n a l music. 6. Music of the 12 tone s t y l e i s g e n e r a l l y known as a t o n a l music (having no p a r t i c u l a r key c e n t r e ) . 179 APPENDIX K Electr o n i c Music A d e f i n i t i o n of el e c t r o n i c music w i l l serve as a s t a r t i n g point. E l e c t r o n i c music i s music which uses e l e c t r o n i c a l l y generated sound or sound modified by el e c t r o n i c means, with or without voices or musical instruments. The sounds one hears i n el e c t r o n i c music are produced by an e l e c t r o n i c o s c i l l a t o r or generator which can be adjusted to any given frequency, p i t c h , or tone-colour. In addition to single tones i t i s also possible to produce 'fat sounds' caused by the use of several adjacent frequencies, and numer-ous other e f f e c t s ; also, of course, the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of the octave into twelve semi-tones no longer applies, and i n theory, any kind of subdivision i s possible. The simplest e l e c t r o n i c sound source available i s the sine-wave generator. A loudspeaker connected to such an i n s t r u -ment delivers an almost purely sinusoidal tone which i s devoid of any upper harmonies. I t i s a tone therefore which sounds strange and ethereal and unlike any musical instrument. Be-cause of-the l i t t l e tonal variety i n sound produced by the sine-wave generator, much tape music has often a depressing sameness of sound. However, there are two other e l e c t r o n i c sound sources which can provide new tones for the composer of tape music. There i s the multi-vibrator which produces a sound which contains a large number of harmonies', and there i s the Noise Generator which produces sound known as 'white noise.' This type of noise can also have a d e f i n i t e p i t c h and an unusual timbre. Without becoming too technical, some students may be interested i n knowing, how a composer of el e c t r o n i c music goes about his work of composing i n th i s medium. Since the e a r l i e s t attempts at el e c t r o n i c composition i n the 1950's, each piece of music has been a slow and laborious job. Generally, each sound you hear has been placed on the tape one at a time. With the use of the d i f f e r e n t sound generators, various i n d i -vidual sounds are f i r s t recorded on a single tape. When th i s i s complete, another tape i s made of new sounds, and the second series of taped sounds i s added as a 'layer' onto the o r i g i n a l tape. This process can be repeated adding new 'layers' of sound u n t i l the composer has finished his work. He may super-impose any number of 'layers.' By various treatments to the o r i g i n a l sounds a composer can a l t e r the sounds. He does th i s by (a) slowing the speed of the tape, (b) accelerating the speed of the tape, (c) rever-sing the tape, (d) cutting patterns out of the tape, (e) using feedback and reverberation (echoes) by use of one or more play-back heads, (f) multiple mixing of sounds from several tapes. Through varying the frequencies and the amplitude (volume) any number of new sounds can therefore be created. 180 APPENDIX K (Continued) There are advantages to e l e c t r o n i c music. The variety of e f f e c t s ; the use of any desired frequency instead of the lim i t a t i o n s of the twelve semi-tones i n each octave; the wide amplitude of sounds; the complete control of the music by the composer, without the need for performers. However, there are also disadvantages: once a composition i s completed and on tape, each performance i s always the same; there i s no chance of interpretation by performers, and therefore each playing of the tape can become boring, boring because i t i s always the same; i n general the basic sine-tones produced by the el e c t r o n i c generators have l i t t l e tonal variety as compared with the tone colours available i n the symphony orchestra. Despite the disadvantages, th i s new medium of composi-ti o n i s s t i l l i n i t s infancy. No doubt the application of science to the composition of music w i l l make large st r i d e s ahead i n the days to come. One point i s worth remembering when you l i s t e n to ele c t r o n i c music. El e c t r o n i c music does not pretend to copy our t r a d i t i o n a l sounds i n any type of music. We should l i s t e n to i t with a sense of exploration of the new sounds that have recently become available through the use of e l e c t r o n i c equipment. Ele c t r o n i c Study #1 Davidovsky The sounds for El e c t r o n i c Study #1 were i n i t i a l l y derived from three e l e c t r o n i c sources: (1) sinusoidal genera-, tors (2) square wave generators (3) white noise. Conversion of these sounds into materials for music was achieved by using f i l t e r s , a reverberation chamber, and through d i f f e r e n t recording processes. B a s i c a l l y , the music i s b u i l t upon f i v e sound mixtures which are inverted, trans-posed, and interpolated, and the sound mixtures are changed i n density and i n i n t e n s i t y from the o r i g i n a l . Poeme Electronique 1958 Varese This piece i s an example of "organized sound." Origin-a l l y the music was composed for the Brussels Exposition (sim-i l a r to Expo 67) . Again the composer derived the sound from such sources as the o s c i l l a t o r and generator. Also, the human voice and b e l l s have been manipulated into the "orchestration" of the piece. Through the use of f i l t e r s and other devices, the sound i s re-created, reshaped, and acquires new frequen-c i e s . In a word, i t i s Organized Sound. 181 APPENDIX K (Continued) Gesang der Jungline 1955 Stockhausen (Song of the Children) The German composer Karl Stockhausen used a l l the elec t r o n i c devices available including the use of voices for thi s piece of music. He set to e l e c t r o n i c music a passage out of the t h i r d book of Daniel which t e l l s the story of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego cast into a f i e r y furnace. The voices, of course, are i n German, but are so altered by e l e c t r i c a l acoustic means that they are no longer recognizable. The composer was deliberately concerned with the creation of alarming sound e f f e c t s . Only i n a few places i s the singing voice quite d i s t i n c t . Much variety exists i n the 'Song of the Children': there i s tremendous tension i n th i s work which combines a young boy's voice with a l l the vocabulary of e l e c t r o n i c sound. The human voice also undergoes changes with s t a r t l i n g e f f e c t s . At cer-t a i n points i n the composition the sung sounds become compre-hensible words; at others, they remain pure sound values. Whenever speech momentarily emerges from the sound-symbols i n the music, i t i s to praise God. (Daniel III) The score c a l l s for f i v e groups of loudspeakers to be set up surrounding the audience. For th i s recorded version the composer has made from the o r i g i n a l five-track version a new two-track stereophonic recording. 

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