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The relationship between connotative meaning and the reading achievement of boys and girls in the second… Johnson, Terry Dawson 1969

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONNOTATIVE MEANING AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE SECOND GRADE by Terry Dawson Johnson B . E d . , M.A. , Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n the department of Education We accept t h i s thes is as conforming to the . required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s . i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e l(? ABSTRACT From surveys of achievement i n reading, i t i s evident that many people in our soc ie ty do not learn to read ade-quate ly . It i s a lso evident that the majori ty of the ch i ld ren who have d i f f i c u l t y i n learn ing to read are boys who have emotional problems re la ted to t h e i r reading behaviour. Through a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , sex - ro le learn ing and the d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment of boys and g i r l s i n schools i t was suggested that the numerical predom-inance of male over female retarded readers i s re la ted to the d i f ference i n connotative meanings that boys and g i r l s attach to s i g n i f i c a n t f igures i n the i r home and school environments. I t was hypothesized that the connotative meanings that c e r -t a in concepts have for boys would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y re la ted to t h e i r reading a b i l i t y . It was fur ther hypothesized that no such r e l a t i o n s h i p would e x i s t for g i r l s . To tes t the hypothesis measures were made of reading a b i l i t y and connotative meanings cer ta in concepts have for boys and g i r l s i n the second grade. Meaning was measured by means of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . To assess the r e l a t i v e importance of the meanings of - the concepts measured as pre -d i c t o r var iab les of reading achievement, assessments of i n -t e l l i g e n c e and socio-economic status were a lso made. Contrary to the hypothesis the f indings ind ica ted that fo r ch i ld ren i n general the concepts measured seem to be more h igh ly re la ted to the reading achievement of g i r l s than of boys. The one concept that appears to be s i g n i f i -cant ly re la ted to the reading achievement of both boys and g i r l s i s the female c h i l d , Janet , a l i t e r a r y f igure i n the basal reading ser ies used i n the school d i s t r i c t se lected for the study. Ana lys is of the data from i n d i v i d u a l classrooms sug-gests fac tors a f f e c t i n g reading achievement may be p e c u l i a r to a p a r t i c u l a r classroom. Future research may attempt to analyse the complex i n t e r a c t i o n of teacher , students, and reading mater ia l and then t ry to i s o l a t e the factors most re levant to reading achievement. Mu l t ip le regression ana lys is ind ica ted that some of the concepts measured accounted for s i g n i f i c a n t l y more v a r i -ance i n reading a b i l i t y than other fac tors such as i n t e l l i -gence sub- test scores and socio-economic status which are widely assumed to be re la ted to reading a b i l i t y . I t was suggested that the f a i l u r e to f i n d any s i g n i f i -cant assoc ia t ion between connotative meaning and reading achievement for boys may have been due to the l e v e l of reading a b i l i t y measured by standardized reading t e s t s . I t was i v suggested that future research might look at the a s s o c i a t i o n between connotative meaning and independent and i n s t r u c -t i o n a l l e v e l s of reading a b i l i t y . i V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . 1 The Importance of the Problem. . . . . . . . . 1 The Problem 6 Statement of the problem . . . . . . . . . . 6 De f in i t ions of the Terms Used 8 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 8 Meaning 8 Concept 8 Dimensions i n meaning. 9 Semantic distance 9 L imi ta t ions 10 S ign i f i cance . 10 Genera l i ty of the f indings . 10 The tests used 11 The teacher var iab le . . . . * 11 II. STATEMENT OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH 12 Emotional D i f f i c u l t i e s Related to Reading D i s a b i l i t y . . . . 12 Discussion 14 The Process of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 15 Sex-Role Development i n Young Chi ldren . . . . 17 Contrasts i n the At t i tudes of Boys and G i r l s i n School . 18 Contrasts i n the Treatment of Boys and G i r l s i n School 20 Persona l i ty Patterns Found i n Retarded Readers . . . . . . 2 3 Summary . 2 7 v i CHAPTER PAGE III. HYPOTHESES 27 A Rationale Underlying the General Hypothesis 27 General Hypothesis 28 Sub-Hypotheses 29 Sub-hypothesis I 29 Sub-hypothesis II 30 N u l l hypothesis 31 Hypothesis Concerning Amel iorat ing E f f e c t s . . 32 Sub-hypothesis III 33 IV. THE COLLECTION OF THE DATA 34 Design 34 General design 34 Subjects . . . . . . . . 35 Sample s i ze 36 Tests and Measures 36 The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l 36 The use of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . . . . 38 The concepts 40 The use of boxes 44 The C a l i f o r n i a Short Form Test of Mental Maturi ty 46 The Gates-MacGinit ie Reading T e s t , Primary B, Form 1 . 48 B l i s h e n ' s Socio-Ecdnomic Index for Occupations i n Canada 49 Data C o l l e c t i o n 50 Screening 50 The order of presentat ion of concepts. . . . 51 The treatment of responses 54 v i i CHAPTER PAGE V. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 56 Introduction 56 Organizat ion of the chapter. . 56 Assumptions of the normality of the semantic distance score d i s t r i b u t i o n . . . 56 Assumptions regarding s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f fe rences between boys and g i r l s . . . . 57 Ana lys is of Variance Among Semantic Distance (D) Scores 59 Sub-hypothesis I 59 Ana lys is of L inear Corre la t ions Between Semantic Distance Scores and Reading Achievement 62 Sub-hypothesis II 62 N u l l hypothesis 64 Sub-hypothesis III . " 66 General hypothesis 67 Mul t ip le Regression Analys is 67 Ana lys is of L inear Corre la t ions for Ind iv idua l Classrooms. . 70 J u s t i f i c a t i o n 70 The f indings 70 Summary. 78 VI . IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 80 Introduct ion . . . . . . . 80 Discussion of the Findings 80 Di f ferences i n connotative meanings between boys and g i r l s 80 L inear cor re la t ions 81 Mul t ip le regression analys is . . . 82 Impl icat ions for Educat ional Pract ices . . . . 83 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE VI. (Continued) Implicat ions for Further Research 84 Findings for Ind iv idua l Classrooms 86 Summary 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY 91 APPENDIX A 98 ix LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. S p e c i f i c Pred ic t ions of the Relat ive Size of the Semantic Distance Between Cer ta in Concepts Held by Boys and G i r l s 30 II. S p e c i f i c Pred ic t ions of the Di rect ions of Corre la t ions Between the Semantic D i s -tance Generated by Cer ta in Pa i rs of Concepts Held by Boys and the Reading Achievement of Those Boys 31 III . S p e c i f i c Pred ic t ions of Zero Corre la t ions Between the Semantic Distance Between Cer ta in Concepts Held by G i r l s and the Reading Achievement of Those G i r l s 32 IV. Factor Loadings of Pa i rs of B ipo la r A ject ives Used i n This Study 38 V. Means and Standard Deviat ions of Frequency of Box Use 46 VI . Tests of S ign i f i cance of the Di f ference Between the Means of Reading T e s t s , In te l l igence Tests and Socio-economic Status of the Parents fo r Boys and G i r l s . . . 58 VI I . A Reproduction of Table I with the Addi t ion of Obtained F Values Derived from an Ana lys is of Variance of Mean Semantic Distance Scores 60 VII I . Means and Standard Deviat ions of Semantic Distance Scores for Pa i rs of Concepts Rated by Boys and G i r l s i n the Second Grade. . 61 IX. A Reproduction of Table II with the Addi t ion of L inear Corre la t ions Between Semantic Distance Scores and Reading Achievement of Boys 63 X. A Reproduction of Table III with the Addi t ion of L inear Corre la t ions Between Semantic Distance Scores and Reading Achievement of G i r l s 65 X TABLE PAGE XI. L inear Corre la t ions Between the Proport ion of Male Teachers to the Tota l Number of Teachers in the School and the Reading Achievement of Boys and G i r l s . 66 XII . Mu l t ip le Regression Ana lys is of Factors Related to Reading Achievement of Boys . . . . 68 XII I . Mu l t ip le Regression Ana lys is of Factors Related to Reading Achievements of G i r l s . . . 69 XIV. Linear Corre la t ions Between Cer ta in Semantic Distance Scores and the Reading Achievement of Boys and G i r l s i n Classroom V 72 XV. L inear Corre la t ions Between Cer ta in Semantic Distance Scores and the Reading Achievement of Boys and G i r l s i n Classroom W 73 XVI. L inear Corre la t ions Between Cer ta in Semantic Distance Scores and the Reading Achievement of Boys and G i r l s i n Classroom X 74 XVII. L inear Corre la t ions Between Cer ta in Semantic Distance Scores and the Reading Achievement of Boys and G i r l s i n Classroom Y 75 XVIII. L inear Corre la t ions Between Cer ta in Semantic Distance Scores and the Reading Achievement of Boys and G i r l s i n Classroom Z 76 XIX. Means and Standard Deviat ions of Reading Achievement Scores for Boys and G i r l s i n Five Ind iv idua l Classrooms 77 x i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. An example of the meaning of the boxes used i n a p e n c i l and paper adaptation of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . The box s i ze was introduced as an add i t iona l clue to the meaning of the box 43 2. A copy of a screening page used i n an adap-ta t ion of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l 52 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would l i k e to acknowledge the advice and assistance of h is committee members: Dr. H.M. C o v e l l , Dr. G.M. Chron is te r , Dr . V. Mackay, and Dr. E .N . E l l i s ; and to extend h is appreciat ion to a l l the help and guidance given so w i l l i n g l y by Dr. S. S. Lee. He would a lso l i k e t o express h is grat i tude for the co-operat ion of the school board o f f i c i a l s and school personnel in the school d i s t r i c t s employed i n th is study. DEDICATION This study i s dedicated to pat ient Rhona and to three l i t t l e kids who have too often and for too long asked, "Where 1 s Terry?" CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PROBLEM Despite technolog ica l advances in information d i s -semination, the a b i l i t y to read remains one of the most important means of acquir ing knowledge. The f a i l u r e of a soc ie ty to give each of i t s members a bas ic competency i n reading i s measured by the numbers of i n d i v i d u a l s who meet with ser ious reading d i f f i c u l t y . A s i g n i f i c a n t percentage of people in our soc ie ty do experience ser ious reading problems. Harr is reported that hundreds of thousands of World War II draftees were unable to meet a grade four standard of l i teracy." ' ' Betts summar-ized the f indings of severa l a u t h o r i t i e s . He sa id that from 8 to 15 per cent of school ch i ld ren meet with ser ious 2 reading d i f f i c u l t y . Gray claimed that there may be even more than 30 per cent of ch i ld ren i n school who experience 3 d i f f i c u l t y i n reading. More r e c e n t l y , A u s t i n , Bush and ^Albert J . H a r r i s , How to Increase Reading A b i l i t y (New York: David McKay Company, 1961), p. 3. 2 Emmett A. B e t t s , The Prevention and Correct ion of  Reading D i f f i c u l t i e s (New York: Row Peterson and Company, 1936), p. 2. 3 Wi l l iam S. Gray, "Teaching Reading," Encyclopedia  of Educat ional Research (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1950), p. 1001. 2 Huebner found that about 16 per cent of the ch i ld ren included 4 i n t h e i r survey were i n need of s p e c i a l help i n reading. While gross numbers ind ica te the s i ze of the problem a c loser inspect ion of the data on retarded readers reveals that the majority of them are boys. In the sample of r e t a r -5 ded readers se lected by Preston 72 per cent were boys. Bond and Tinker c i t e various author i t ies who claim that from 66 per cent to 9 4 per cent of ch i ld ren with reading d i f f i -c u l t i e s are boys.*' If the populat ion of retarded readers i s analysed from a mental heal th point of view i t becomes apparent that many of these ch i ld ren have emotional problems re la ted to the i r reading d i f f i c u l t i e s . While the percentages reported by various author i t i es var ies somewhat, i t i s apparent that reading d i f f i c u l t y and emotional disturbance are func t ion -a l l y r e l a t e d : 4 Mary C. A u s t i n , C l i f f o r d L. Bush, and Mi ldred H. Huebner, Reading Evaluat ion (New York: Ronald Press Company, 1961) , p. 205. 5 Mary I. Preston, "The Reaction of Parents to Reading F a i l u r e , " C h i l d Development, 10 (3) :173-79 , September, 1939. Guy L. Bond and Mi les A. T inker , Reading D i f f i c u l t i e s : Their Diagnosis and Correct ion (New York: Appleton-Century C r o f t s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 10. 3 Percentage of retarded readers  Author i ty showing signs of emotional disturbance Gates 7 75 g Robinson 42 Wi t ty 9 40 The r e l a t i o n s h i p of cause and e f f e c t i n reading d i s a b i l i t y and emotional disturbance i s an issue which remains unre-solved."*"^ However severa l au thor i t i es claim that most ch i ld ren come to school f ree from emotional problems and are , , 11, 12, 13 eager to learn to read. 7 Arthur I. Gates, "The Role of Persona l i ty Maladjust-ment i n Reading D i s a b i l i t y , " Journal of Genetic Psychology, 59:77-83, September, 1941. g Helen M. Robinson, "Manifestat ion of Emotional Maladjustment," C l i n i c a l Studies i n Reading: I_, The Sta f f of Reading C l i n i c s of the Un ivers i ty of Chicago, ed i tors (Supplementary Educat ional Monographs, No. 68. Chicago: Un ivers i ty of Chicago Press , 1949), pp. 114-22. Paul Wit ty , Reading i n Modern Education (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 19 49), p. 229. ^ H e l e n M. Robinson, Why Pupi ls F a i l i n Reading (Chicago: Un ivers i ty of Chicago P r e s s , 1946), p. 78. "'""'"Grace M. Ferna ld , Remedial Techniques i n Basic School  Subjects (New York: McGraw H i l l Book Company, 1943) , p. 8. 12 Fred J . Schone l l , The Psychology and Teaching of  Reading (London: O l i v e r and Boyd, 1961), p. 47. Guy L. Bond and Mi les A. T inker , Reading D i f f i c u l t i e s  Their Diagnosis and Correct ion (New York: Appleton-Century-C r o f t s , 1957), p. 107. S t u d i e s a l r e a d y c i t e d i n t h i s paper have e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t more boys than g i r l s encounter s e r i o u s r e a d i n g d i f f i -c u l t y . The same d i f f e r e n t i a l i n achievement may be seen i n c h i l d r e n who ach ieve n o r m a l l y . K o n s k i found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between boys and g i r l s i n any o f twelve r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s areas s t u d i e d . By the end o f the f i r s t grade f o u r measures o f r e a d i n g achievement showed t h a t the mean achievement o f g i r l s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n advance o f the 14 mean r e a d i n g achievement o f b o y s . S i m x l a r f i n d i n g s are 15 X 6 X 7 r e p o r t e d by C a r r o l l , W o z e n c r a f t , and Samuels . From a survey o f 13,000 N o r t h Amer ican c h i l d r e n r a n g i n g i n age from e i g h t to e l e v e n y e a r s , Gates c o n c l u d e d t h a t g i r l s are s i g -18 n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r to boys i n r e a d i n g achievement . By way o f c o n t r a s t , P r e s t o n found t h a t i n Germany, g i r l s f a i l more f r e q u e n t l y than b o y s . P r e s t o n f e l t t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s may be 14 V i r g i n i a J . K o n s k i , "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o D i f f e r -ences between Boys and G i r l s i n S e l e c t e d Reading Readiness Areas and i n Reading Achievement" (unpubl i shed P h . D . d i s s e r -t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i , 1951) . " ^ M a r j o r i e C a r r o l l , "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Readiness a t the F i r s t Grade L e v e l , " E lementary E n g l i s h Review, 35:370-75 , O c t o b e r , 1948. "^Marian W o z e n c r a f t , "A Comparison o f the Reading A b i l i t i e s o f Boys and G i r l s a t Two Grade L e v e l s , " J o u r n a l o f  the Reading S p e c i a l i s t , 6 :136-39, 1967. 17 F r a Samuels , "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Reading Ach ievement , J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 34:564-603, A p r i l , 1943. A r t h u r I . G a t e s , "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Reading A b i l i t y , E lementary S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 61:431-34, May, 1961. 5 due i n part to the values current i n the German cul ture which tends to regard reading and learning as the normal a c t i v i t y of the male rather than the female. He a lso f e l t that the numerical predominance of male over female teachers at the 19 elementary l e v e l was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . Atkinson re -ported that when ch i ld ren learn to read by means of a computer ass is ted program there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence between the reading achievement of boys and the reading achievement of 20 g i r l s . F i n a l l y , McNeil found that when a u t o - i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures are used to teach ch i ld ren to read, boys achieve 21 s i g n i f i c a n t l y bet ter than g i r l s . In summary, i t may be sa id that of the large number of ch i ld ren who encounter reading d i f f i c u l t y the majori ty are boys. Many of these ch i ld ren have emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s re la ted to the i r reading problems. A comparison of the per-formance of normally achieving ch i ld ren shows that boys and g i r l s are equal i n the i r readiness to learn to read. By the end of grade one the g i r l s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y ahead. When the Ralph G. Preston , "Reading Achievement of German and American C h i l d r e n , " School and Soc ie ty , 90:350-54, October, 1962. 20 Richard C. Atk inson, "The Computer i s a Tutor , " Psychology Today, 1(1.8) :36-9, January, 1968. John D. McNei l , "Programmed Inst ruct ion Versus Usual Classroom Procedures i n Teaching Boys to Read," American Educat ional Research J o u r n a l , 1:113-20, March, 1964. 6 male/female teacher r a t i o i s reversed the r a t i o of male to female reading f a i l u r e s i s a lso reversed. When the teacher var iab le i s removed or reduced, sex d i f fe rences i n reading achievement disappear or i n some cases r e s u l t i n super ior achievement of boys rather than g i r l s . Such f ind ings suggest that some fac tor or c o n s t e l l a t i o n of fac tors re la ted to the teacher adversely a f fec ts the reading achievement of boys across the whole spectrum of reading a b i l i t y . One of the aims of the present study i s to i n v e s t i -gate the next l o g i c a l step i n the argument. Are the a t t i -tudes of normally achieving boys such that they might be expected to produce a negative emotional react ion towards reading; and are such emotional problems, i f they e x i s t , a fac tor i n the i r lower mean reading achievement when i t i s compared with the mean reading achievement of g i r l s ? The review of the l i t e r a t u r e w i l l d iscuss studies which deal with emotional problems re la ted to reading d i s -a b i l i t y . It w i l l a lso summarize research concerning the formation of a t t i tudes i n young c h i l d r e n . II. THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem This study w i l l seek to answer the fo l lowing quest ions: 1. Is there any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence between boys and g i r l s i n the meanings they attach to the fo l lowing words and expressions: 22 John, ("hero," Copp Clarke Basal Reader) 23 Janet , ("heroine," Copp Clarke Basal Reader) My Teacher, My Mother, My Father , Superman, Me, How I Would Like to Be (Ideal S e l f ) . 2. Are the meanings that boys attach to the words and expressions l i s t e d i n (1) above s i g n i f i c a n t l y re la ted to t h e i r reading achievement? 3. Are the meanings that g i r l s attach to the words and expressions l i s t e d i n (1) above s i g n i f i c a n t l y re la ted to t h e i r reading achievement? 4. What combination of measures of the fo l lowing f a c -tors are most h ighly re la ted to reading achievement: semantic distance associated with the concepts l i s t e d i n (1) above, i n t e l l i g e n c e , socio-economic status of the parent,, chronolo-g i c a l age of the c h i l d , proport ion of male teachers i n the school? 5. Is there any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the reading achievement of a boy or a g i r l and the degree of iden-t i f i c a t i o n with any of the people or l i t e r a r y characters l i s t e d i n (1) above? 22 She i l a Egof f , Off to School (Vancouver:, Copp Clarke Publ ish ing Company, 1960), passim. 2 3 I b i d . 6. Is the presence of masculine elements i n the . elementary school re la ted to the reading achievement of boys? 7. Is the presence of masculine elements i n the elementary school re la ted to the reading achievement of g i r l s ? III. DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS USED I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Kagan has descr ibed i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as: . . . an acquired cogni t ive response that occurs wi th in the subject . Some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the model become incorporated in to the psycho-l o g i c a l organizat ion of the subject so that the subject may respond to events occuring to the model as though they had occurred to him.24 Meaning. The meaning of a word or expression i s opera t iona l ly def ined as a p r o f i l e on Osgood's, semantic 25 d i f f e r e n t i a l . Concept. A concept i s a cogni t ive ca tegor iz ing r e s -ponse that occurs wi th in the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s of course d i f f e r e n t from that which i s conceptual ized or any symbol that i s used to stand for the thing conceptual ized. For the purposes of exposi t ion the term "concept" w i l l re fe r to the verbal symbol for the concept but the cogni t ive response of the i n d i v i d u a l i s always necessar i l y impl ied . 24Jerome Kagan, "The Concept of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , " The  Psycholog ica l Review,. 65:296-305, 1958. 25 Charles E . Osgood, George J . Sucx and Percy H. Tannenbaum, The Measurement of Meaning (Urbana: Un ivers i ty of I l l i n o i s , 1957), passim. Dimensions i n meaning. Osgood et a l have put forward empir ica l support for the suggestion that meaning appears to vary predominantly along three orthogonal dimensions: evaluat ion (E) , potency (P.) and a c t i v i t y (A), i . e . , people tend to judge concepts as to whether they are good or bad (E), 2 6 weak or strong (P.) , or fas t or slow (A) . Semantic d is tance . Semantic distance re fers to the degree of d i f fe rence i n meaning for an i n d i v i d u a l between two concepts.. The meaning of semantic distance can best be explained with the a id of an example. A subject may rate two concepts i n the fo l lowing way: E P A Me 6 7 3 My Father 6 3 7 The semantic distance (D) i s obtained by summing the squares of the absolute d i f ferences and f ind ing the square root, , thus: E P A Me 6 7 3 My Father 6_ 3_ 1_ Absolute 0 4 4 d i f f e r -ences (d) 0 16 16 d 2 I b i d . , pp. 31-75. 10 2 = 3 2 d 2 = 5.66 D = 5.66 The semantic distance (D) between these two concepts i s 5.66 IV. LIMITATIONS S ign i f i cance Although some previous work has been done on the a t t i -27 tudes of young ch i ld ren toward reading, i t i s f e l t that the present study i s s u f f i c i e n t l y exploratory i n nature as to j u s t i f y the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e s ince the consequences of making a Type I e r ror are considered to be of l ess import than the premature conclusion that fur ther research i n t h i s area i s l i k e l y to be u n f r u i t f u l . General i ty of the Findings In the s t r i c t e s t sense the f indings cannot be genera l -ized beyond the sample invo lved . However s t r i c t adherence to such a p o l i c y would render research almost v a l u e l e s s . The sample involved i n t h i s study may be descr ibed as ch i ld ren i n the second grade who come from a predominantly Canadian, 27 Terry D. Johnson, "The At t i tudes of Good and Poor Male Readers" (unpublished Master 's t h e s i s , The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, .1968) . 11 m i d d l e - c l a s s , white, urban sub-cu l tu re . The f indings of th is study may be appl ied to other samples with a confidence that i s i n d i r e c t proport ion to the s i m i l a r i t y of that sample to the sample employed i n th is i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Thus an adminis-t ra tor in the munic ipa l i ty where th is study was conducted might be f a i r l y confident of f ind ing a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n ex-i s t i n g i n other grade two c lasses i n other schools under h is j u r i s d i c t i o n . Interested par t ies i n areas less l i k e the one employed i n th is study would have t o exerc ise greater, caution i n applying the f ind ings to. t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Inasmuch as the study deals with c u l t u r a l values the f ind ings presented here would be u n l i k e l y to apply to cul tures that have very d i f f e r -ent sets of. va lues . The Tests: Used The f ind ings presented i n t h i s paper are l im i ted to the nature of the t e s t s used. Thus "reading achievement" re fers to those s k i l l s required to perform those behaviours demanded by the reading tes t employed i n t h i s study. In l i k e manner i n t e l l i g e n c e , connotative meaning and socio-economic status are def ined by the manner i n which they are measured. The Teacher Var iab le I t should be recognized that teacher persona l i ty may be an important var iab le and that the number, of teachers i n -volved i n t h i s study i s very sma l l . A p p l i c a t i o n of the f i n d -ings presented i n t h i s paper, to a wider populat ion of teachers must await confirmation through r e p l i c a t i o n . CHAPTER II STATEMENT OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH I. EMOTIONAL DIFFICULTIES RELATED TO READING DISABILITY As Roswell and Natchez have pointed out the main con-cern of the investigator i s not merely to discover the absence or presence of emotional disturbance i n a c h i l d with a reading problem.''" To f i n d evidence of emotional d i f f i c u l t y i n an i n d i v i d u a l who has been subjected to chronic public f a i l u r e i s a highly predictable discovery. Roswell and Natchez continue: What has to be assessed i s the nature, degree and complexity of the emotional problem. . . the ways i n which the emotional maladjustment i s re-lated to the reading d i s a b i l i t y . . . how i t may have arisen and. . . how i t may a f f e c t future school performance.2 Gates has discussed the nature of emotional maladjust-3 ment encountered by retarded readers. He l i s t s f i v e cate-gories of behaviour which show evidence of emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s : Florence Roswell and Gladys Natchez, Reading  D i s a b i l i t y , Diagnosis and Treatment (New York: Basic Books, 1964) , p. 56. 2 I b i d . Arthur I. Gates, The Improvement of Reading. (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1947) , pp. 114-15. 13 1. Nervousness. The c h i l d exh ib i ts obvious signs of tension by general r es t i veness , i r r i t a b i l i t y or s i l l i n e s s . In some cases there i s l i t t l e overt expression of tens ion . 2. Withdrawal. Gates speaks of the c h i l d " leaving the f i e l d " which may re fe r to p lay ing t ruant , day-dreaming, or s u p e r f i c i a l and in termi t tent a t tent ion to the l esson . 3. Aggressiveness. Under th is heading Gates includes mischievousness, n o i s i n e s s , b u l l y i n g , and de l ibera te b a i t i n g of the teacher. 4. Defeatism. The c h i l d may become discouraged and develop fee l ings of i n f e r i o r i t y . 5. Chronic worry. The c h i l d may f e e l cont inua l ly threatened by the reading s i t u a t i o n i n genera l , or by p a r t i -cu lar f a i l u r e s , such as i n o r a l reading or on reading t e s t s . Gates cautions the teacher against assuming that such behaviours are permanent or c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s unless c a r e f u l diagnosis ind icates no other reason for the d isturbance. Gates fee ls that such behaviour should be r e -garded as symptomatic of underlying causes which may be very 4 d i f f i c u l t to detect . Prescot t has discussed the e f fec ts of d i f f e r e n t degrees of emotional d isturbance. He l i s t s three ca tegor ies : m i l d , s t rong, and d i s i n t e g r a t i v e . The e f f e c t cf mi ld emotion, 4 I b i d . 14 Prescot t c la ims, appears to be des i rab le since i t of ten acts as a motivat ing agent. Strong emotion may be pleasant or unpleasant.. Strong pleasant emotions may act as motivators i n learn ing but unpleasant emotions are very l i k e l y to i n t e r -fere with l ea rn ing . The most extreme category described by Prescot t i s d i s i n t e g r a t i v e emotion. When such emotions are experienced for too long they se r ious ly in te r fe re with the 5 c h i l d ' s normal func t ion ing . It i s the present w r i t e r ' s opinion that for ch i ld ren f a l l i n g in to t h i s l a s t category the reading problem i s not of primary concern although reading may be one avenue through which to attempt remediat ion. Discussion There remains a fourth category of emotional d i s t u r -bance not discussed by Prescot t . Fernald speaks of the f a i l i n g reader as being i n "a chronic state of emotional u p s e t . T h e present wr i ter fee ls that the degree of emotional disturbance does not have to be great to produce reading d i f f i c u l t y . I t merely has to be long standing. I t may be that for some reason a c h i l d has a mi ld negative a t t i -tude toward the i n i t i a l reading s i t u a t i o n which may be 5 Daniel A. P resco t t , Emotion and the : Educative Process (Washington: American Counci l on Educat ion, 1938), pp.18-36. ^Grace M. Ferna ld , Remedial Techniques i n Basic School  Subjects (New York: McGraw H i l l Book Company, 19 43), p. 7. 15 s u f f i c i e n t t o encourage ina t tent ion and to e l i c i t something less than the wholehearted co-operat ion that appears to be necessary i n learning to read. This i n i t i a l ina t ten t ion may lead to ear ly f a i l u r e which, i f communicated to the c h i l d and h is peers , r e s u l t s i n a loss of . status and re in forces the c h i l d ' s negative a t t i t u d e s . Further f a i l u r e i s thereby en-couraged. Thus a v ic ious c i r c l e i s created which eventual ly r e s u l t s i n reading re ta rda t ion . To give credence to such an argument i t i s necessary to provide some foundation for the supposi t ion of the existence of the c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l negative a t t i t u d e . Fur ther , i t i s necessary to show that such an a t t i tude i s more l i k e l y to occur i n boys than i n g i r l s i f i t i s to account for the greater prevalence of reading f a i l u r e i n boys. II. THE PROCESS OF IDENTIFICATION In An Out l ine of Psycho-Ana lys is , Freud descr ibed the process of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n which i s normally complete by the 7 age of f i v e or s ix years . Freud's conception of i d e n t i f i -cat ion invo lv ing the Oedipus complex and cas t ra t ion fears has come to be re fer red to as defensive i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and has g been described as appearing to defy s c i e n t i f i c v e r i f i c a t i o n . Sigmund Freud, An Out l ine of Psycho-Analysas, t rans . James Strachey (New York: Norton, 1949), pp. 90-91. g George Mandler, Paul Mussen, Nathan Kogan and Michael A. Wallach, New Di rect ions i n Psychology III (New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, I n c . , 1965), p. 91. 16 However, a more recent development i n the theory of i d e n t i f i -9 cat ion has been formulated by Mowrer. He sees i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a developmental process which i s based on love , a f f e c t i o n and respect for the model by the i d e n t i f i e r . Sears , Maccoby and Levin maintain that the c h i l d begins to perform some of the mother's acts fo r h imsel f . Thus he may "babble and t a l k , snuggle against h is own arms, or o f fe r himself a thumb to suck. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the father i s probably achieved through ro le p l a y i n g , i . e . those behaviours he w i l l be expected to d isp lay as an adu l t . Whiting be l ieves the boy i d e n t i f i e s with h is father not only because he i s threatening or nurtur -i n g , but a lso because he i s seen as an extremely powerful agent i n c o n t r o l l i n g the administrat ion of both rewards and punishments. Bandura and Walters see i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as being pro-duced by s e l e c t i v e reinforcement of imi ta t ive behaviour. 9 O.H. Mowrer, Learning Theory and Persona l i t y Dynamics (N.ew: York: Ronald, 1950) , p.. 580. "^R. R. Sears , Eleanor E . Maccoby and H. L e v i n , Patterns of C h i l d Rearing (New York: Harper and Row, 1957), p. 372. "'""''John M. Whit ing, "Resource Mediation and Learning by I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , " Persona l i ty Development i n C h i l d r e n , I. Iscoe and H.W. Stevenson, ed i tors (Aust in: Un ivers i ty of Texas Press , 1960), pp. 122-126. 17 Boys tend to act l i k e t h e i r fathers and g i r l s to act l i k e 12 t h e i r mothers because they are reinforced for doing so. If i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a viable process then children i n a given society should be aware of s o c i a l l y approved sex-typed behaviours (sex-roles); and they should normally ex-press, as Freud indicated, a sex-role preference by the age of s i x . I I I . SEX-ROLE DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG CHILDREN Brown defined sex-role behaviour as "behaviour- asso-ciated with one sex or the other that the i n d i v i d u a l would l i k e to adopt or that he perceives as the preferred or more 13 desirable." Fauls and Smith provided empirical evidence for the existence of sex-role preferences i n young children. They found that boys tend to prefer masculine a c t i v i t i e s more frequently than do g i r l s . They also found that both sexes perceived the parents as preferring sex-appropriate a c t i v i t i e s 14 more often than sex-inappropriate a c t i v i t i e s . Brown admin-is t e r e d the "IT": Scale for Children (ITSC) to boys and g i r l s of f i v e and six years. He found large and s i g n i f i c a n t 12 Albert Bandura and Richard H. Walters, S o c i a l Learn-ing and Personality Development (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964), p. 98. 13 Daniel G. Brown, "Sex-role Development i n a Changing Culture," Psychological B u l l e t i n , 55 (4):232-42, July, 1958. 14 Lydia B. Fauls and Walter D. Smith, "Sex-role Learn-ing of Five Year Olds," Journal of Genetic Psychology, 89:105-117,1956. 18 d i f fe rences between the sexes i n t h e i r choices on the IT Sca le . Brown concluded that d e f i n i t e and r e l a t i v e l y d icho--15 tomous sex - ro le patterns are d isplayed by young, c h i l d r e n . From h is f indings i n a l a t e r study, Brown concluded that the preference for one sex - ro le begins to emerge by about the 16 t h i r d year . The work of Hartup and Zook confirms Brown's f indings and suggests that sex - ro le preference grows stronger 17 with age. These studies suggest that ch i ld ren are aware of the existence of sex - ro les and have normally es tab l ished a sex - ro le preference by the time they come to schoo l . IV. CONTRASTS IN THE ATTITUDES OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN SCHOOL Brown claimed that from the kindergarten l e v e l through the fourth grade boys showed a much stronger preference for 18 a masculine ro le than g i r l s show for a feminine r o l e . F i t t , working with ch i ld ren from seven to eighteen years of age, Daniel G. Brown, "Sex-role Preference i n Young C h i l d r e n , " Psychological: Monographs, 70 (421) :1-19, 1956. "^Brown, 1958, l o c . c i t . 17 W i l l i a r d W. Hartup and E l s i e A. Zook, "Sex-role Preferences i n Three and Four Year Old C h i l d r e n , " Journal of Consult ing Psychology, 24:420-26, 1960. Danie l G. Brown, "Mascul in i ty -Feminin i ty Develop-ment i n C h i l d r e n , " Journal of Consult ing Psychology, 21: 197-202, June, 1957. 19 found that g i r l s show a more favourable a t t i tude than boys 19 toward school at a l l educat ional l e v e l s . Butterworth and Thompson, i n an inves t iga t ion concerning age and sex d i f f e r -ences re la ted to preference for comic books, found that boys chose books of mascu l in i ty , adventure and success while g i r l s se lected s t o r i e s of f emin in i ty , adolescence, romance and 20 humour. In a sample of grade s i x and seven c h i l d r e n , Tennenbaum found (a) g i r l s were more favourable to school than were boys, (b) teachers were l i k e d more by g i r l s than by boys, and (c) ch i ld ren whom the teacher se lected as problem ch i ld ren had much less favourable a t t i tudes toward school than 21 d id ch i ld ren as a whole. Bonney found that sex d i f fe rences i n s o c i a l success i n school were not large but were rather 22 cons is ten t ly i n favour of g i r l s . A study by Kagan invo lv ing 240 second grade ch i ld ren ind icated that boys tended to rate 19 A . B . F i t t , "An Experimental Study of C h i l d r e n ' s At t i tude to School i n Auckland, N . Z . , " B r i t i s h Journal of  Educat ional Psychology, 26:25-30, February, 1956. 20 Robert F. Butterworth and George C. Thompson, "Factors Related to Age-Grade Trends and Sex Di f ferences i n C h i l d r e n ' s Preferences for Comic Books," Journal of Genetic Psychology, 78:71-96, March, 1951. 21 S. Tennenbaum, "Att i tudes of Elementary School Chi ldren to School Teachers and Classmates," Journal of  Appl ied Psychology, 28 (2):134-41, A p r i l , 1944. 22 M.E. Bonney, "Sex Di f ferences m S o c i a l Success and Persona l i ty T r a i t s , " C h i l d Development, 15:63-79, March, 1944. 20 school re la ted objects such as "blackboard," "book," a page of ar i thmet ic or a school desk as feminine rather than mas-c u l i n e . However, he a lso found that the presence of a male p r i n c i p a l or l i b r a r i a n i n the school was assoc ia ted , among boys, with a tendency to regard school as having more mas-23 cu l ihe c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Mazurkiewxcz reported that i n the populat ion he studied boys general ly regarded reading as a feminine a c t i v i t y . He f e l t that t h i s a t t i tude exerted some 2 4 in f luence on the reading a b i l i t y of boys. Lamkin found a s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n between the mascul in i ty of 25 s ix th grade boys and t h e i r reading a b i l i t y . V. CONTRASTS IN THE TREATMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN SCHOOL In the classroom the values and behaviour of the teacher undoubtedly have fa r - reach ing e f fec ts on the forma-t ion of a t t i tudes i n young c h i l d r e n . Meyer and Thompson 23 Jerome Kagan, "The C h i l d ' s Sex-Role C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of School Ob jec ts , " C h i l d Development, 35:1051-1056, September, 1964. 2 4 A lber t J . Mazurkiewicz, " S o c i a l - C u l t u r a l Influences i n Reading," Journal of Developmenta1 Reading, 3:254-63, Summer, 1960. 25 Floyd D. Lamkin, "Mascul in i ty -Feminin i ty of Pre -adolescent Youth i n Relat ion to Behaviour A c c e p t a b i l i t y , Tested and Grade Achievement, Inventoried Interests and General In te l l igence" (Abstract ) , D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts (Ann Arbor: Xerox L imi ted , 196 8) , 28(7):2558-A. observed teacher-student in te rac t ions i n three grade s ix classrooms taught by women. They reported that boys r e -2 5 ceived s i g n i f i c a n t l y more disapproval than g i r l s . L i p p i t t and Gold concluded that teachers gave more encouragement to g i r l s and made more c r i t i c a l remarks to boys. When ch i ld ren were d iv ided as to high or low leadership q u a l i t i e s on the basis of peer judgements large sex d i f ferences were discovered in the low leadership group. Within t h i s low leadership group teachers were much more encouraging to g i r l s than they 27 were to boys. Sears and Feldman, from a revxew of studies concerning achievement on standardized tes ts and teachers 1 g r a d e s c o n c l u d e d that "from the l im i ted evidence we have i t seems that g i r l s are given higher grades than boys despite 2 8 the fac t that boys achieve at l eas t as we l l as g i r l s . . . " Waetjen and Grambs pointed out that schools reward verbal s k i l l s and language competency and thus re in force the greater f a c i l i t y 0 Gk Wil l iam J . Meyer and George G. Thompson, "Teachers 1 Interact ions with Boys as Contrasted with G i r l s , " Psycho-l o g i c a l Studies i n Human Development, Raymond G. Kuhlens and George G. Thompson, ed i tors (New York: Appleton-Century-C r o f t s , 1963), pp. 510-518. 27 R. L i p p i t t and M. Go ld , "Classroom S o c i a l Structure as a Mental Health Problem," Journal of S o c i a l Issues, 15:40-50, 1959. 2 8 Pauline S. Sears and David H. Feldman, "Teachers' Interact ions with Boys and G i r l s , " The Nat ional Elementary  P r i n c i p a l , 46(2):30-35, November, 1966. 2 2 i n language which g i r l s possess when they come to schoo l . Elsewhere they suggest that women use words d i f f e r e n t l y , s t ructure space d i f f e r e n t l y and perceive r e a l i t y d i f f e r e n t l y 3 0 from men. If such i s the case then the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for breakdown i n communication between primary teachers and t h e i r male pup i ls are numerous and fa r - reach ing in t h e i r conse-quences . Perhaps more important i n the formation of c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i tudes towards school i s not what adult observers see teachers doing, but what the ch i ld ren be l ieve the teacher does. McNeil gathered from ch i ld ren i n the f i r s t grade rat ings on the behaviour of the teacher towards boys and g i r l s i n reading groups. I t was f e l t by the ch i ld ren that boys had fewer opportuni t ies to respond than g i r l s and that the teacher was more c r i t i c a l of the performance of boys 3 1 than she was of the performance of g i r l s . In 1 9 3 2 C.W. S t . John observed that : . . . the fundamental cause of boys' i n f e r i o r i t y i n educat ional achievement i s a maladjustment between boys and t h e i r classroom s i t u a t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r l y Walter B. Waetjen and Jean D. Grambs, "Sex D i f f e r -ences:" A Case of Educat ional Evasion?" Teachers Col lege  Record, 6 5 : 2 6 1 - 7 1 , December, 1 9 6 3 . "^Jean B. Grambs and Walter B. Waetjen, "Being Equal ly D i f f e r e n t : A New Right for Boys and G i r l s , " Nat ional Elemen-tary P r i n c i p a l , - 4 6 ( 2 ) : 5 9 - 6 7 , November, 1 9 6 6 . 3 1 John D. McNei l , "Programmed Ins t ruct ion Versus Usual Classroom Procedures i n Teaching Boys to Read," American Educat ional Research J o u r n a l , 1 : 1 1 3 - 1 2 0 , March, 1 9 6 4 . 23 t h e i r teachers. I t i s be l ieved that t h i s malad-justment i s due la rge ly to the i n a b i l i t y of teachers to adapt themselves to in te res ts and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of persona l i ty and behaviour of boys which teachers weigh heavi ly i n marking. . .32 The preceding studies suggest that elementary schools are more conducive to learning i n g i r l s than i n boys; and that boys who experience d i f f i c u l t y i n learning to read may do so as a r e s u l t of having re jected the feminine values they f i n d i n the t y p i c a l primary classroom. Studies concerning the nature of retarded readers o f fe r evidence both i n support and cont rad ic t ion of such a conc lus ion . VI . PERSONALITY PATTERNS FOUND IN RETARDED READERS S p a c h e . u s i n g the Rosenzweig P ic ture F r u s t r a t i o n T e s t , found retarded readers between s ix and ten years of age to be more aggressive than average readers. The aggression of the retarded readers appeared most c l e a r l y i n p ic tures of c h i l d r e n . In s i tua t ions i n which there was f r u s t r a t i o n from adults i t seemed tha t ch i ld ren learned to avoid open c o n f l i c t by passive 33 behaviour. Natchez, working with grade f i v e and s ix C. W. S t . John, "The Maladjustment of Boys i n Cer ta in Elementary Grades," Educat ional Administ rat ion and  Superv is ion , 18 (9):659-72, December, 1932. 33 George D. Spache, "Personal i ty Patterns of Retarded Readers," Jourrial off Educat ional Research, 50:461-9, February, 1957. 24 children, found some poor readers who were aggressive but also 34 found others who were passive and withdrawn. Barsky d i s -covered that i n f e r i o r male readers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n a n t i - s o c i a l aggression than i n f e r i o r female readers and superior male readers. I n f e r i o r male readers were also found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n projected aggression than sup-e r i o r male r e a d e r s . ^ Some studies suggest that retarded readers exh i b i t b a s i c a l l y feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Borston and Fox found that boys with reading d i s a b i l i t y commonly had a background of a domineering mother and a father who appears to provide 3 6 an inadequate model for masculine i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Anastaiow found that boys with feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s did not read s i g n i f i c a n t l y less well than boys who were strongly masculine although the mean reading achievement for "feminine" 37 boys was lower than the mean for "masculine" boys. 34 Gladys Natchez, Personality Patterns and Oral Reading (New York: New York University Press, 1959) , p. 98. 35 Marilyn L. Barsky, "The Relationship of Some Aggres-sive Characteristics to Reading Achievement i n F i f t h and Sixth Grade Males and Females" (Abstract), Dissertation Abstracts (Ann Arbor: Xerox Limited, 1966), 27(5-A):1257-8. 3 6 J.C. Coleman, F.L. Borston and J . Fox, "Parental Attitudes as Related to Reading D i s a b i l i t y i n Children," Psychological Reports, 4:47-51, 1958. 37 N.J. Anastaiow, "Success i n School and Boys' Sex-Role Patterns," Child Development, 36(4):1053-66, December, 1965. Henderson, using a " s o c i a l d istance" task reported that r e -tarded readers between the ages of seven and fourteen are character ized by a high degree of dependency and place them-3 8 selves c loser to the mother than.the fa ther . K imba l l , working with adolescents, , found 1 under achievers to have a poor father r e l a t i o n s h i p , to be pass ive , to have a feminine o r i e n t a t i o n , and to be unable to express negative fee l ings 39 d i r e c t l y . VII . SUMMARY Studies concerned with the process of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the establishment of sex - ro le patterns i n young ch i ld ren ind ica te that ch i ld ren are capable of c lea r d iscr iminat ions invo lv ing sex-typed behaviour. I t i s a lso evident that most ch i ld ren have estab l ished a d e f i n i t e sex - ro le preference before they enter schoo l . In the elementary grades where the majority of teachers are women, g i r l s appear to receive some p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment over boys. G i r l s a lso appear to E. H. Henderson, " S e l f - S o c i a l Constructs of Achieving and Non-Achieving Readers," Reading Teacher, 19(2):114-18, November, 1965. 39 Barbara K imba l l , "Case Studies i n Educat ional F a i l -ure During Adolescence," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 23:406-15, 1953. 26 experience greater s o c i a l success i n school. These d i f f e r -ences i n s o c i a l success appear to be accentuated for boys and g i r l s of low s o c i a l status. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , g i r l s at each educational l e v e l indicate they have more favourable attitudes toward school than do boys. In the early grades boys appear to regard school as a feminine i n s t i t u t i o n . Studies concerned with the nature of retarded readers have produced contradictory findings. Some investigators have found retarded readers to exhibit predominantly masculine t r a i t s while others report that children with reading pro-blems are frequently femininely oriented. CHAPTER III HYPOTHESES I. A RATIONALE UNDERLYING THE GENERAL HYPOTHESIS From the research reviewed the fo l lowing ra t iona le has been formulated: Because the majori ty of primary c lasses are taught by women the t y p i c a l primary classroom provides an atmosphere of femin in i ty . Reward systems i n these classrooms are geared to feminine standards of behaviour which are character ized by o r d e r l i n e s s , extreme c l e a n l i n e s s , conformity and submission. Many cogni t ive problems set by the teacher may favour types of th ink ing that are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of females rather than males. Such an atmosphere, reward system and cogni t ive cl imate may be responsible for the production of a degree of negative emotion i n boys which, while i t may be s l i g h t i n absolute terms, may be of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to make i t d i f f i c u l t for boys to co-operate whole-heartedly i n classroom a c t i v i t i e s . Learning to read i s one of the major a c t i v i t i e s of the primary classroom. I t i s poss ib le that the negative react ion exper-ienced by many boys i n i t i a t e s a v ic ious s p i r a l of reading f a i l u r e and fur ther r e j e c t i o n of the reading s i t u a t i o n which eventual ly r e s u l t s i n the lower mean reading achievement of boys i n general and for the existence of the larger number of male retarded readers than female retarded readers . 28 I t i s a lso poss ib le that the presence of masculine elements i n the school w i l l ameliorate the adverse e f fec ts of the "feminine" atmosphere of the primary classroom on the a c q u i s i t i o n of reading s k i l l s by boys. II. GENERAL HYPOTHESIS From the preceding ra t iona le a general hypothesis has been formulated: There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the reading achievement of boys and the connotative meanings they attach to the fo l lowing words and expressions: John, ("hero" , Copp Clarke Basal Reader)"*" 2 Janet , ( "hero ine" , Copp Clarke Basal Reader) My Teacher, My Mother, My Father , Superman, Me, How I would l i k e to Be (Ideal S e l f ) . No such r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be found between the reading achievement of g i r l s and the connotative meanings they attach to the same expressions. In order to make. i t poss ib le to tes t the general ^"Sheila Egof f , Off to School (Vancouver: Copp Clarke Publ ishing Company, 1960), passim. 2 I b i d . hypothesis a ser ies of sub-hypotheses have been formulated. I t should be noted that only the general hypothesis i s being tested and not the ra t iona le underly ing the general hypo-t h e s i s . I t may be that a more adequate explanat ion w i l l be found for the r e l a t i o n s h i p between connotative meanings and reading achievement. This study seeks only to e s t a b l i s h whether such a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s . I I I . SUB-HYPOTHESES The general hypothesis i s broken down in to severa l sub-hypotheses which are tested by producing from them a ser ies of s p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s . Sub-hypothesis I_ There w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences among the mean semantic distances generated by the pa i rs of concepts appear-ing i n Table I for boys as contrasted with the same mean semantic distances for g i r l s . In order to tes t sub-hypothesis I s p e c i f i c p red ic t ions concerning the pa i rs of concepts that appear i n Table I have been made. Where the word " G i r l s " appears i n a c e l l i t i s predic ted that the semantic distance between the two concepts generating the c e l l w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller fo r g i r l s than for the same semantic distance for boys. Where the word "Boys" appears the semantic distance w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller for boys. 30 TABLE I SPECIFIC PREDICTIONS OF THE RELATIVE SIZE OF THE SEMANTIC DISTANCE BETWEEN CERTAIN CONCEPTS HELD BY BOYS AND GIRLS C o n c e p t s My My My John Janet Teacher Mother Father Superman Me G i r l s G i r l s G i r l s G i r l s Boys Boys Ideal Se l f G i r l s G i r l s G i r l s G i r l s Boys , Boys Sub-hypothesis II The semantic distance generated by boys' ra t ings of pa i rs of concepts that appear i n Table II w i l l be s i g n i f i -cant ly corre la ted with the reading a b i l i t y of those boys. In order to tes t sub-hypothesis II a matrix of p red ic t ions has been cast i n Table II . Where a plus (+) s ign appears i n a c e l l i t i s predicted that the semantic distance between the concepts that generate the c e l l w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y cor re la ted with the reading achievement of boys. Where a minus (-) s ign appears i n a c e l l i t i s predicted that the c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t and negat ive. To make a s t r ingent t es t on the general hypothesis i t must a lso be shown that the meanings that boys attach to the 31 TABLE II SPECIFIC PREDICTIONS OF THE DIRECTIONS OF CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE SEMANTIC DISTANCE GENERATED BY CERTAIN PAIRS OF CONCEPTS HELD BY BOYS AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF THOSE BOYS C o n c e p t s My My My John Janet Teacher: Mother Father Superman Me - - - - + + Ideal Se l f concepts under study are not shared with ch i ld ren i n genera l . Therefore a n u l l hypothesis concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween the meanings held by g i r l s and t h e i r reading a b i l i t y has been formulated. N u l l Hypothesis The semantic distance generated by g i r l s ' ra t ings of pa i rs of concepts that appear i n Table III w i l l not be s i g -n i f i c a n t l y corre la ted with the reading achievement of those g i r l s . To tes t the n u l l hypothesis a matrix of p red ic t ions has been cast i n Table III . TABLE III SPECIFIC PREDICTIONS OF ZERO CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE SEMANTIC DISTANCE BETWEEN CERTAIN CONCEPTS HELD BY GIRLS AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF THOSE GIRLS C o n c e p t s My My My John Janet Teacher Mother Father Superman Me Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Ideal „ j— Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Se l f Where the word "Zero" appears i n a c e l l i t i s predic ted that the semantic distance between the concepts that generate the c e l l w i l l have no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with the reading achievement of g i r l s . I I I . HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING AMELIORATING.EFFECTS Sub-hypotheses I and II t es t the general hypothesis . The amel iorat ing e f fec ts of masculine const i tuents i n the elementary s c h o o l , although somewhat p e r i p h e r a l , are re la ted to the cen t ra l problem. Therefore a minor sub-hypothesis con-cerning amel iorat ing e f fec ts has been formulated. If no evidence i s found to support t h i s sub-hypothesis , i t w i l l not be regarded as being p a r t i c u l a r l y damaging to the general hypothesis . On the other hand, i f evidence i s found to. support t h i s sub-hypothesis such information would be of value i n suggesting remedial measures. Sub-hypothesis XII I t i s hypothesized that the reading achievement of boys w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y re la ted to the proport ion of male teachers to the t o t a l number of teachers i n the schoo l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the reading achievement of g i r l s and the proport ion of male teachers i n the school w i l l not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero. CHAPTER IV THE COLLECTION OF THE DATA I. DESIGN General Design Five grade two classrooms were se lected at random from a school d i s t r i c t i n the lower mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. The ch i ld ren were given a vers ion of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l to measure the connotative meanings they attach to the f o l -lowing concepts: John, ("hero," Copp Clarke Basal Reader)''" 2 Janet , ("heroine," Copp Clarke Basal Reader) My Teacher, My Mother, My Father , Superman, Me, How I Would Like to Be (Ideal S e l f ) . From t h e i r responses to th is tes t semantic distance scores (D) were computed. In between sessions of administer ing the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l the ch i ld ren were given the Gates-MacGini t ie She i l a Egof f , Off to School (Vancouver: Copp Clarke P u b l i s h i n g , 1960), passim. 2 I b i d . Reading Tes t , Primary B, Form 1. Reading achievement scores for vocabulary, comprehension and t o t a l reading achievement were computed from the c h i l d r e n ' s responses to t h i s t e s t . I.Q. scores were obtained through the administrat ion of the C a l i f o r n i a Short Form Test of Mental Matur i ty , 1963 Rev is ion , 4 Leve1 1. The fo l lowing information was gathered for each sub-jec t : Socio-economic status of the father or family wage 5 earner; the proport ion of male teachers i n the schoo l ; the chronolog ica l age of each c h i l d . Subjects' The subjects were ch i ld ren i n the second grade who came from a predominantly Canadian, working, m i d d l e - c l a s s , white, urban sub-cu l tu re . Arthur I. Gates and Walter H. MacGini t ie , : Gates'.-' MacGini t ie Reading T e s t s , Primary B, Form 1 (New York: Teachers Col lege Press , 1965). 4 El i zabeth T. S u l l i v a n , W i l l i s W. C l a r k , and Ernest W. T i e g s , C a l i f o r n i a Short-Form Test of Mental 1 Matur i ty , 1963 S-Form, Level 2 (Monterey: C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1962). 5 Bernard R. B l i s h e n , "A Socio-Economic Index for Occupations i n Canada," Canadian Review of Sociology and  Anthropology, 4(1):41-53, February, 1967. Sample Size I t i s qui te common i n educat ional research to f i n d studies that use very large samples. The use of such large numbers i s defended on the grounds that only on the basis of such large numbers can usefu l genera l iza t ions be made. However, i t i s qui te poss ib le to employ such a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of subjects that the net r e s u l t i s detr imental to the study. In an attempt to decide what the optimum sample s i ze should be power tests were appl ied employing the la rgest standard dev ia t ion obtained i n previous research with the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l (S 2 = 10.66).^ Three was the smal lest d i f f e r -ence between mean semantic distance scores that was considered to be of p r a c t i c a l value ( | H 0 ~ H l | = 3) . A power tes t i n d i -cated that an N of 138 would give tes ts concerning means a power of .95. A t o t a l of 140 subjects was tested but loss through absence and incomplete tes t response reduced t h i s number to 121. An N of th is s i ze gives tests concerning means a power of .93. II. TESTS AND MEASURES The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Rat ionale . Lazowick has summarized the l o g i c underlying c Terry D. Johnson, "The At t i tudes of Good and Poor Male Readers" (unpublished Master 's t h e s i s , The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1968). 37 the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l as fo l lows: 1. The process of judgment or d e s c r i p t i o n can be conceived as the a l l o c a t i o n of a concept to an experimental continuum, def inable by a pa i r of po lar terms. 2. Many d i f f e r e n t experimental cont inua, or ways i n which meaning may vary , are e s s e n t i a l l y equivalent and hence may be represented by a s ing le dimension. 3. A l im i ted number of such continua can be used to def ine a semantic space wi th in which the mean-ing of any concept can be s p e c i f i e d . 8 The s c a l e s . Osgood et a l . have descr ibed semantic space as being composed of three major dimensions: eva lua t ion , 9 potency, and a c t i v i t y . Through a process of fac tor ana lys is they have i s o l a t e d those pa i rs of b i p o l a r adject ives which show the highest i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n i n a matrix of i n t e r c o r r e -l a t ions and are most "pure" i n regard to the three major dimensions of semantic space. From the l i s t of pa i rs ad-jec t ives used by Osgood et a l . those which appear i n Table IV were se lected on the basis of (1) the s i ze of t h e i r fac tor load ing , (2). the i r r e l a t i v e "pur i ty , " (3) t h e i r appropriateness to the present area of study, and (4) the p r o b a b i l i t y that 7 Charles E . Osgood, George J . S u c i , and Percy H. Tannenbaum, The- Measurement of Meaning (Urbana: Un ivers i ty of I l l i n o i s , 1957), passim. P L. M. Lazowick, "On the Nature of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , " Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology, 51:175-83, 1955, 9 I b i d . , pp. 31-75. 38 they f a l l i nto the l i s t e n i n g vocabularies of most .children i n the second grade.'. TABLE IV FACTOR LOADINGS OF PAIRS OF BIPOLAR ADJECTIVES USED IN THIS STUDY Factor Loading Evaluation Potency A c t i v i t y 1. Good Bad .88 .05 .09 2. Nice Awful .87 -.08 .19 3. Fa i r Unfair .83 .08 -.07 4. Large Small .06 .62 .34 5. Strong - Weak .19 .62 .20 6. Hard Soft -.48 .55 .16 7. Sharp Dull .23 .07 .52 8. Fast Slow .01 .00 .70 9. Hot Cold -.04 -.06 .46 The Use of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l The; use of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l With children. Osgood e t a l . have .suggested the use of a f i v e point scale with 39 children"^ but o f f e r no supporting evidence for t h i s suggestion. It i s possible that these authors were thinking of the work by Conklin who suggested that a f i v e point scale was as fine a 11 scale as untrained raters could handle. However, Symonds 12 concluded that seven steps i s the optimal number on a scale. Di Vesta, i n a normative study of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , successfully employed a seven point scale with children rang-13 ing from the second to the sixth grade. Maltz used the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l to measure the attitudes of subjects ranging from grade two to college l e v e l . He concluded that while concepts of young children are less consistent than those of subjects at higher educational l e v e l s , the d i f f e r e n t i a l i s a useful and v a l i d instrument for measuring 14 the concepts of young children. The use of the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n the measurement of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Lazowick used the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l •^Osgood, op_. c i t . , p. 85. 1 1E.S. Conklin, "The Scale of Values Method for Studies i n Genetic Psychology," University of Oregon Publication, 1923, no. 1, c i t e d by Joy P. G u i l f o r d , op_. c i t . , p. 290. 12 . . . P.M. Symonds, "On the Loss of R e l i a b i l i t y i n Ratings Due to Coarseness of the Scale," Personnel, 19 49, 26:94-118. 1 3 F r a n c i s J . Di Vesta, "A Normative Study of 220 Con-cepts Rated on the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l by Children i n Grade 2 through 7," Journal of Genetic Psychology, 109 (2):205-229, 1966. 14 Howard E. Maltz, "Ontogenic Change i n the Meaning of Concepts as Measured by. the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l , " Child Development, 34 (3):667-674, September, 1963. 40 with the parent. He concluded that the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l was a v a l i d means of inves t iga t ing the meaning systems i n -15 volved i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process . F i t z g e r a l d and Roberts used the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l to measure i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n young ch i ld ren together with a more usual method of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n measurement—a procedure whereby i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s in fe r red from the c h i l d ' s s e l e c t i o n of sex-appropriate and sex- inappropr iate games. They con-cluded that the i r r e s u l t s showed the two measures of i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n to be meaningfully related."*"^ The Concepts The concepts used i n the present study were as fo l lows: 1. Rocket. A l a b e l l e d p ic ture of a rocket was used to teach the ch i ld ren how to record t h e i r responses on the ra t ing s c a l e s . 2. Popeye and Brutus. The h igh ly stereotyped cartoon characters Popeye and Brutus were used to ensure that the subjects understood the ra t ing procedure and that they were responding i n a r a t i o n a l manner. Lazowick, l o c . c i t . "^Donald F i t z g e r a l d and Karlene Roberts, "Semantic P r o f i l e s and Psychosexual Interests as Indicators of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , " Personnel and Guidance J o u r n a l , 44 (9): 802-6, 1966. 41 3. John. John i s the "hero" of the f i r s t book that 17 most children i n B r i t i s h Columbia meet i n school. I t was assumed that the semantic distance between the child ' s s e l f concept and John would indicate the degree to which he iden-t i f i e s with th i s character. 4. Janet. Janet i s John's l i t e r a r y s i s t e r and the "heroine" of the f i r s t grade basal reading series used i n 18 B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was assumed that the semantic d i s -tance between t h i s item and the child ' s s e l f concept would indicate the degree to which the c h i l d i d e n t i f i e s with t h i s character.. 5. My_ Teacher. I t was assumed that the teacher i s a very important figure i n a child ' s school l i f e and that the semantic distance between the child ' s concept of his teacher and his own s e l f concept would indicate the degree to which he accepts or rejects, the teacher. 6. My Mother. I t was assumed that the semantic d i s -tances between My Mother and the subject's concept of Me and How X Would Like ito Be would reveal the degree to which the subject i d e n t i f i e s with his mother. 17 Sheila E g o f f O f f to: School (Vancouver: Copp Clarke Publishing Company, 1960), passim. 18T, . , Ibid. 42 7. My_- Father. It was assumed that the semantic d i s -tances between My_ Father and the sub jec t 's concept of Me and How I Would Like to Be would reveal the degree of the sub jec t ' s father i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 8. Superman. Superman was se lected as being a s tereo-19 typed super-masculine f i g u r e . It was assumed that boys general ly would i d e n t i f y more c l o s e l y with th is item than would g i r l s . It was a lso assumed that s t rongly masculine boys would i d e n t i f y with t h i s concept more c l o s e l y than would less mascul inely or iented boys. 9. Me. The connotative meanings held by two groups of subjects cannot be compared meaningfully on the bas is of the i r absolute ra t ings of the concepts invo lved . Group mean-ings are comparable when the concept i s re la ted to some r e f e r -ence p o i n t . The sub jec t 's concept of h imse l f , fo r the purpose of th is study, i s the point of re ference. 10. How I Would Like to Be. It was assumed that a sub jec t 's ra t ing of How I Would Like t o Be would reveal more c l o s e l y than h is concept of h imse l f , h is idea of an i d e a l model. Superman (Superman Nat ional Comics, No. 211. New York: Nat ional P e r i o d i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , November, 1968), passim. CONCEPT Fast Very-Very Fast • Very Fast • D • F a i r l y Neither F a i r l y Fast Fast Slow nor Slow • Very Slow Slow Very Very Slow Weak Very Very Weak • Very Weak • • • • F a i r l y Neither F a i r l y Very Weak Weak Strong Strong nor Strong Strong Very Very Strong Figure 1. An example of the meaning of the boxes used i n a pen c i l and paper adaptation of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . The box size was i n t r o -duced as an additional clue to the meaning of the box. 44 The: Use: of Boxes It was f e l t that young ch i ld ren would be able to f o l -low d i r e c t i o n more e a s i l y and respond more accurate ly i f boxes of varying s izes were used rather than the format sug-20 gested by Osgood et a l . There was some susp ic ion that varying the s i ze of the box might inf luence the responses made by the subjects . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t was f e l t that young ch i ld ren would f i n d i t eas ier to mark large boxes and thus tend to use these more r e a d i l y than the smaller boxes. To tes t th is p o s s i b i l i t y a p i l o t study was run with th i r ty - two second grade c h i l d r e n . Half the ch i ld ren responded to a sheet where the boxes were a l l as large as the la rgest box shown i n Figure 1. The other ha l f of the group responded to a sheet where the boxes var ied i n s i ze as shown i n Figure 1. Subjects were randomly assigned to var ied or non-varied groups. The head of the paper where a p ic ture of the concept normally appears was l e f t blank. Thus any v a r i a t i o n i n response pattern could be assumed to be due to the b o x - s i z e , p o s i t i o n , or chance. The ch i ld ren were not given any explanation beyond the fac t that they were t o play a "game" wherein they had to put a cross i n any one box i n each row. Osgood et a l . , op. c i t . , p. 83. 45 An analys is of var iance of the frequency of box use ind icated three th ings: (1) there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence i n the f r e -quency of use of a box i n any given p o s i t i o n regardless of whether boxes are var ied or non-varied i n s i ze (F , = 2 . 1 5 , obs F > 9 5 (1,15) = 4.54); (2.) there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference among the mean frequencies of box use when both var ied and non-var ied boxes are considered together ( F Q b s = 4.95, F g r . (6,90) = 2.21) ; (3) the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between box p o s i t i o n and condi t ion i s not s i g n i f i c a n t ( F 0 k s = 1.35, F g,-(6,90) = 2 . 2 1 ) . Inspection of the means ind icates that the cent ra l p o s i t i o n i s chosen more frequently under both var ied and non-var ied cond i t ions . Therefore i t may be concluded that c h i l -dren, when free to choose any box, tend to s e l e c t one i n a cent ra l p o s i t i o n regardless of i t s s i ze i n r e l a t i o n to the a l te rna t ive choices a v a i l a b l e . Since the use of boxes var ied i n s i ze was (1) f e l t to. be more convenient i n expla in ing t h e i r use , and (2) more h e l p f u l i n serving as an add i t iona l cue to the meaning of a box, i t was decided to adopt the format shown i n Figure 1. 46 TABLE V MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF FREQUENCY OF BOX-USE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T T . , X 1.37 1.19 1.37 2.00 0.94 1.11 1.19 Varxed s . d . 0.59 0.72 0.69 0.62 0.66 0.37 0.62 ^ 1.19 1.25 1.63 1.63 1.37 0.88 1.00 Non-Varied s . d . 0.53 0.66 0.78 0.78 0.69 0.48 0.35 The C a l i f o r n i a Short Form Test of Mental Maturi ty The C a l i f o r n i a Short Form Test of Mental Matur i ty (CTMM) 21 i s a condensation of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Mental Matur i ty . The: 1963 Short Form,: Level 1 which was used i n th is study con-s i s t s of seven s u b - t e s t s : 1. Opposi tes, 2. S i m i l a r i t i e s , 3. A n a l y s i s , 4. Numerical Va lues , 5. Number Problems, 6. Verbal Comprehension, and 7. Delayed R e c a l l . Sub-tests 1 through 4 make up the Non-Language Sec t ion . From the c h i l d ' s responses to t h i s sect ion of the tes t i t i s E l i zabe th T. S u l l i v a n , W i l l i s W. C l a r k , and Ernest W. T i e g s , Examiner' s Manual: C a l i f o r n i a Short Form Test of  Mental Maturi ty (Monterey: C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1963), p. 5. 47 possible to compute a Non-Language i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient. The sub-tests 5 through 7 make up the Language Section and give a Language i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient. The two scores may 22 be combined to give a global I.Q. score. Level 1 of the CTMM i s designed to be given to c h i l -23 dren from grades one through low grade three. The 1963 Short Form i s scaled at a l l levels to the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and, l i k e the Stanford-24 Binet, employs a deviation I.Q. rather than a r a t i o I.Q. The norming and scaling of the 1963 Short Form was carried out on the basis of the responses of 38,793 cases from schools representing seven geographic regions of the 25 United States. No Canadian norms are available but since the present i n t e r e s t l i e s i n the child' s achievement on t h i s t e s t only i n r e l a t i o n to the performance of other children i n the sample, then i t i s f e l t that further norming i s not required. The 1963 Short Form, Level 1 has been reported as corr e l a t i n g .85 with the Stanford-Binet. A r e l i a b i l i t y co-26 e f f i c i e n t of .94 has been c i t e d . When comparisons of 22 23 Ibid., pp. 6-7. Ibid., p. 8. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 32. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 8. C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, Technical Report on the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Mental Maturity Series 1963 Revision (Monterey: C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1965), p. 24. 48 scores on the CTMM (Short Form) were made with school marks i n academic subjects v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from .57 27 to .64 were reported. This test was administered and marked by the present i n v e s t i g a t o r . The Gates-MacGinit ie Reading T e s t , Primary B, Form 1_ The Primary B Form 1 of the Gate s-MacGi n i t i e Reading 2 8 Tests are intended for use i n the second grade. I t con-s i s t s of two par ts ; a vocabulary sec t ion and a comprehension s e c t i o n . The vocabulary sect ion measures the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to recognize or analyse words i n i s o l a t i o n . The comprehension tests sample the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to understand sentences and 29 paragraphs. The norming sample consisted of 40,000 students i n 30 t h i r t y - e i g h t communities m the United Sta tes . A s p l i t - h a l f C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau Pro fess iona l S t a f f , Guide to  In terpre ta t ion -of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Mental Matur i ty ,Ser ies  1963 Revision (Monterey: C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1964), p. 39. 2 8 Arthur I. Gates and Walter H. MacGin i t i e , Teacher 's  Manual Gates-MacGini t ie Reading T e s t s , Primary B, Forms: 1, 2_ (New York: Teachers Col lege P r e s s , 1965), p. 1. 29 Ib id . 30 Arthur I. Gates and Walter MacGini t ie , - Technica l  Manual for the Gates-MacGinit ie Reading Tests (New York: Teachers Col lege P r e s s , 1965), p. 3. 49 31 r e l i a b i l i t y , c o e f f i c i e n t of .93 has been reported. This t e s t was administered and marked by the present i n v e s t i g a t o r . B l i s h e n ' s Socio-Economic Index- for Occupations i n Canada Bl ishe'n's socio-economic index presents a l i s t of occu-pations ranked and indexed i n order of " s o c i a l standing" or p r e s t i g e . The basis of the index i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of education and income of the members of a given occupat ion. In construct ing the index i t was assumed that the f a m i l y ' s s o c i a l status i s dependent upon the occupation of the hus-32 band. In the cases where no father i s present , the occupa-t ion of the ch ie f wage earner was used. The rank order c o r r e l a t i o n between B l i s h e n ' s 1967 33 index and h is e a r l i e r occupat ional sca le was .96 which B l ishen takes as i n d i c a t i n g the s t a b i l i t y of occupat ional c lasses over time and a measure of r e l i a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s despite va r ia t ions in procedure."^ 31 I b i d . , p. 15. 32 Bernard R. B l i s h e n , "A Socio-Economic Index for Occupations i n Canada," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 4(1):41-53, February, 1967. 33 Bernard R. B l i s h e n , "The Construct ion and Use of an Occupational S c a l e , " Canadian Journal of Economic and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , 2 4 : 5 1 9 - 3 1 , November, 1958. 34 B l i s h e n , 1967, Toe. c i t . 50 Pineo and Porter have a lso constructed a sca le of 35 occupations i n Canada. Mu l t ip le cor re la t ions between the Pineo-Porter scores and the income and educat ional l e v e l scores in B l i s h e n ' s index was .919. B l ishen takes th is high c o r r e l a t i o n as provid ing evidence for the v a l i d i t y of h is occupat ional i n d e x . 3 ^ Information concerning the occupation of the parent or family wage-earner was obtained, where p o s s i b l e , from the school medical records . Where records were incomplete notes were sent home to the parent requesting t h i s informat ion. III. DATA COLLECTION Screening In order to e s t a b l i s h that the subjects were responding i n a r a t i o n a l manner the tes t booklet (see Appendix A) i n which the responses were made included a teaching page and two screening pages. The f i r s t page, showing a p ic ture of a rocket , was used to teach the subjects how to decide where to place t h e i r responses. One screening page showed a p ic ture of Popeye while the second showed a p ic ture of Brutus. These two figures, are well-known and h ighly stereotyped cartoon 35 Peter C. Pineo and John Por te r , "Occupational Prest ige in .Canada," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 4(1):24-40, February, 1967. 3 6 B l i s h e n , 1967, l o c . c i t . 51 c h a r a c t e r s . I t was assumed t h a t most c h i l d r e n were a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r w i t h these c h a r a c t e r s and t h a t those who were not would r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e the s t e r e o t y p e from a b r i e f group d i s c u s s i o n . I t was f u r t h e r assumed t h a t the c h i l d r e n t end to h o l d g e n e r a l l y the same a t t i t u d e towards these c h a r a c t e r s , e . g . Brutus i s l a r g e , s t r o n g and d u l l w h i l e Popeye i s good , s t r o n g and f a s t . A l l n i n e b i - p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s were presumed to be p r e d i c t a b l e . I t was a r b i t r a r i l y d e c i d e d t h a t any c h i l d who f a i l e d t o respond " c o r r e c t l y " to a t l e a s t twelve o f these e i g h t e e n p a i r s o f a d j e c t i v e s was answering i n a c a p r i c i o u s manner. Data from such s u b j e c t s were d i s c a r d e d . In f a c t o n l y two c h i l d r e n f a i l e d to pass the s c r e e n i n g t e s t . Reference to F i g u r e 2 may a i d i n the c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the p r o c e d u r e . The Order o f P r e s e n t a t i o n , o f Concepts S t o c k f o r d and B i s s e l l have spoken o f a " p r o x i m i t y e f f e c t " they noted i n the b e h a v i o u r o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n r a t i n g 37 t r a i t s on r a t i n g s c a l e s . They observed a s p u r i o u s l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between the r a t i n g o f t r a i t s t h a t were c l o s e i n space and t i m e . When the t r a i t s were r e a r r a n g e d new r a t i n g s were o b t a i n e d . G u i l f o r d has suggested t h a t t h i s e f f e c t may be reduced by two means: (1) to p l a c e u n l i k e concepts i n s p a t i a l p r o x i m i t y , (2) t o a l l o w as l o n g a t ime as p o s s i b l e L . S t o c k f o r d and H.W. B i s s e l l , " F a c t o r s I n v o l v e d i n E s t a b l i s h i n g a M e r i t - R a t i n g S c a l e , " P e r s o n n e l , 1949, 7:456-61. Leaf 52 omitted i n page numbering. to elapse between the ra t ing of d i f f e r e n t concepts. In an attempt to avoid such spurious cor re la t ions the concepts were arranged as far as poss ib le with "masculine" and "feminine" concepts a l t e r n a t i n g : Rocket Popeye F i r s t Brutus Test ing I.-Q. Test (sub-tests 1-4) Session Janet I.Q. Test (sub-tests 5-7) Superman My Teacher My Father Second Reading Test (Vocabulary) Test ing My Mother Session Reading Test (Comprehension) How I Would Like to Be Me There were two tes t ing sessions which were spaced one week apart . The in te rva ls between the measurement of meanings of Joy P. G u i l f o r d , Psychometric Methods (New York: McGraw-Hi l l , 1954), p. 285. 54 the concepts was occupied with the administrat ion of the i n -t e l l i g e n c e and reading t e s t s . Since the semantic distance scores for How I Would Like to Be and Me and the other con-cepts are of cen t ra l importance i t was v i t a l that these two se l f -concepts not be s p u r i o u s l y drawn toward any p a r t i c u l a r concept. For t h i s reason Me and How I Would Like to Be were rated as far away i n time as was poss ib le from the other concepts. The Treatment of Responses Each concept was rated on nine b i - p o l a r s c a l e s . Each scale has a range of seven p o i n t s . Each adject ive was d e s i g -nated p o s i t i v e or negat ive, e . g . Good, Large and Sharp are p o s i t i v e while Bad,. Small and D u l l are negat ive. The pa i rs of b i - p o l a r adject ives were arranged i n random order on the r e s -ponse sheet with each successive pa i r of adject ives a l t e r -nat ing i n p o l a r i t y . The f i r s t pa i r was arranged so as to have" Hard (posit ive) on the l e f t of the paper and Soft (negative) on the r i g h t s i d e . The second pa i r of adject ives was so arranged that the p o s i t i v e member f e l l on the r i g h t s ide and the negative member on the l e f t . This a l te rna t ing pattern was maintained for a l l pa i rs of a d j e c t i v e s . I t was thought that such an arrangement would help to prevent p o s i t i o n a l persever-a t i o n . The most negative category on the r a t i n g scale was a l l o t t e d a score of 1. The most p o s i t i v e category was given a score of 7. Mean rat ings were obtained for the three major 55 dimensions of meaning (EPA) from the three pa i rs of adject ives se lected to tap each dimension of meaning (see Table V I ) . The c h i l d ' s responses to a given concept generated a p r o f i l e of three scores . The most p o s i t i v e response poss ib le was 7,7,7 (EPA) while the most negative poss ib le response was 1,1,1. A concept that was neutra l i n meaning would be char-acter ized by a p r o f i l e of 4 ,4 ,4 . The required semantic d i s -tance scores (D) were computed by the procedure already described i n Chapter I, p. 9. 0 CHAPTER V ANALYSIS OF THE DATA I. INTRODUCTION Organizat ion of the Chapter The organizat ion of t h i s chapter w i l l p a r a l l e l as fa r as poss ib le the organizat ion of Chapter III which was con-cerned with the presentat ion of the hypotheses. The data , re levant observations and conclusions for each sub-hypothesis w i l l be presented. Conclusions concerning the general hypo-thes is w i l l be made through an o v e r a l l i n te rp re ta t ion of the resu l ts fo r each sub-hypothesis . In a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s of a mul t ip le regression analys is of a l l the factors measured w i l l be presented. An analys is of the r e s u l t s for i n d i v i d u a l classrooms w i l l fo l low. The chapter w i l l be concluded with a summary of the f i n d i n g s . Assumptions of the Normality of the Semantic  Distance Score D i s t r i b u t i o n Osgood et a l . have stated that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of D i s unknown."*" Inspection of the data ind icated that a l l the D score d i s t r i b u t i o n s were p o s i t i v e l y skewed and l e p t o k u r t i c . Charles E . Osgood, George J . S u c i , and Percy H. Tannenbaum,: The Measurement off Meaning (Urbana: . Un ivers i ty of I l l i n o i s , 1957), p. 101. 57 However, Box ind icates that the t and F tes ts are robust enough to withstand even marked deviat ions from normal i ty , 2 p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to Type 1 e r r o r s . I t was f e l t that s ince a l l the d i s t r i b u t i o n s deviated from normality i n the same manner the assumptions underlying parametric tests would not be se r ious ly v i o l a t e d . Assumptions Regarding S i m i l a r i t i e s and Di f ferences :  Between Boys and G i r l s Reading. This study i s based on the assumption that i n the populat ion there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference between the mean reading achievement of boys and the mean reading achievement of g i r l s . I t was fur ther assumed that th is d i f -ference would be r e f l e c t e d i n the sample of ch i ld ren se lected for study. A t - t e s t between each aspect of reading achieve-ment measured ind icated that the g i r l s i n the sample read s i g n i f i c a n t l y bet ter than the boys. The means for the reading achievement of boys and g i r l s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f fe rences between them are presented i n Table VI . Background variables:. I t was a lso assumed that boys and g i r l s would not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n i n t e l l i -gence tes t scores or socio-economic status of t h e i r parents . Tests of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f fe rence between the means G . E . P . Box, "Non-normality and Tests on Var iance ," Biometr ika, 40:318-335, 1953. 58 for boys and g i r l s on these two var iab les confirmed these assumptions. Means and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f fe rences between them are presented i n Table VI . TABLE VI TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS OF READING TESTS, INTELLIGENCE TESTS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE PARENTS FOR BOYS AND GIRLS Boys G i r l s Mean s • d . Mean s . d . t P Reading Vocabulary 51.81 9 .72 56.12 7. 97 2.68 <.01 Comprehension 50.45 8 .70 55.69 7. 83 4.64 <.01 Tota l 101.84 16 .88 112.02 14. 74 3.59 <.01 In te l l igence Test Language 101.66 10 .41 101.89 10. 92 .01 >.10 Non-language 105.08 10 .72 106.08 13. 05 .04 >.10 Tota l 103.57 9 .80 104.10 10. 85 .03 >.io Socio-economic Status 49.55 6 .99 50.43 8. 03 .62 >.10 II. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AMONG SEMANTIC DISTANCE (D) SCORES Sub-hypothesis I_ Sub-hypothesis I stated that there would be a s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence between the semantic distance scores for boys and g i r l s . S p e c i f i c pred ic t ions concerning the d i f ferences between pa i rs of concepts were made i n Table I. This table i s reproduced as Table VII with the addi t ion of F values for the obtained d i f f e r e n c e s . As can be seen from Table VII no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence was found between any of the mean D scores except the semantic distance between Ideal  Se l f and John. Inspection of the means ind icates that t h i s d i f ference was in the opposite d i r e c t i o n to that which was predicted by the hypothesis . Means and standard deviat ions of the obtained semantic distances are presented i n Table VI I I . It must be concluded that i n general the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l does not d iscr iminate between boys and g i r l s with regard to the concepts measured i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The only s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence obtained was contrary to sub-hypothesis I. I t would seem from the present evidence that boys and g i r l s do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the con-notat ive meanings they attach to the concepts measured i n the pattern predicted by the hypothesis . 60 TABLE VII A REPRODUCTION OF TABLE I WITH THE ADDITION OF OBTAINED F VALUES DERIVED FROM AN ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF MEAN SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES John Janet My Teaeher My Mother My Father Superman Me 2.54 1.14 0.31 1.68 0.21 0.12 I d e a l S e l f 7.00* 2.48 0.22 0.56 0.00 1.44 * S i g n i f i c a n t beyond the 0.5 l e v e l . 61 TABLE VIII MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES FOR PAIRS OF CONCEPTS RATED BY BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE SECOND GRADE Boys G i r l s C o n c e p t s Mean s . d . Mean s . d . Me-John 1.74 1. 25 2.14 1. 47 Me-Janet 2.17 1. 52 2.48 1. 62 Me-My Teacher 1.19 1. 30 2.04 1. 27 Me-My Mother 1.99 1. 41 2.30 1. 22 Me-My Father 2.21 1. 31 2.33 1. 44 Me-Superman 2.97 0 1. 39 2.87 1. 85 Ideal Se l f -John 2.26 1. 07 2.83 1. 30 Ideal Se l f - Jane t 2.67 1. 27 3.11 1. 84 Ideal Self-My Teacher 2.19 1. 46 2.15 1. 30 Ideal Self-My Mother 2.21 ' 1. 19 2.36 1. 13 Ideal Self-My Father 1.98 1. 50 1.98 1. 52 Ideal Self-Superman 2.41 1. 68 2.02 1. 77 62 I I I . ANALYSIS OF LINEAR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES AND READING ACHIEVEMENT S ub-hypothesis II Sub-hypothesis II stated that there would be s i g n i f i -cant degrees of association between the semantic distances generated by the responses of boys to the d i f f e r e n t i a l and t h e i r reading achievement. S p e c i f i c predictions concerning i n d i v i d u a l correlations were presented i n Table I I . This table i s reproduced as Table IX with the addition of the l i n e a r correlations obtained between the s p e c i f i e d D scores and vocabulary, comprehension and t o t a l reading scores. As can be seen from Table IX only the correlations between the D scores for Me-Janet and comprehension and t o t a l reading achievement scores are s i g n i f i c a n t . Contrary to sub-hypothesis II these correlations are p o s i t i v e . These two s i g n i f i c a n t re-sults indicate that smaller D scores generated by boys between Me and Janet have a s l i g h t but s i g n i f i c a n t tendency to be associated with lower reading scores. I t i s evident from the data presented that only the connotative meaning of Janet i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the comprehension and t o t a l reading scores i n boys. The d i r e c t i o n of the two results that were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t was i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n to that predicted by sub-hypothesis I I . 63 TABLE IX A REPRODUCTION OF TABLE II WITH THE ADDITION OF LINEAR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES AND READING ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS C O N C E P T S Reading My My My Achievement . John Janet Teacher Mother Father Superman Vocabulary .05. .19 .02 .01 -.04 -.16 Me Comprehens ion .04 .2 8* .13 .05 .20 .00 Total .06 .2.6* .09 .04 .11 -.08 Vocabulary .05 .14 -.08 .05 -.16 -.14 Ideal Self Comprehension .08 .16 -.16 -.16 -.13 -.19 Total .02 .16 -.17 -.11 -.16 -.19 * S i g n i f i c a n t at or beyond the .05 l e v e l . 64 N u l l Hypothesis The n u l l hypothesis stated that the correlations between semantic distance scores generated by g i r l s and t h e i r reading achievement would not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r -ent from zero. A series of s p e c i f i c predictions was presented i n Table III.. This table i s reproduced with the obtained cor-relations as Table X. As can be seen s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were obtained for the D scores associated with Janet, My  Teacher, My Mother and Superman. In a l l cases the s i g n i f i -cant correlations were negative i n d i c a t i n g that larger semantic distance scores generated by g i r l s concerning these concepts have a s l i g h t but s i g n i f i c a n t tendency to be asso-ciated with lower reading achievement scores. While many of the obtained correlations were not s i g -n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero more s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were found than could be accounted for by chance. I t must be concluded that, contrary to the p o s i t i o n taken i n t h i s i n -vestigation, some of the connotative meanings that g i r l s attach t o certain concepts are s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to t h e i r reading achievement. The f a c t that more s i g n i f i c a n t relationships were found between the connotative meanings held by g i r l s and t h e i r reading achievement than was found for boys i s p a r t i c u l a r l y damaging to the present general hypothesis. TABLE X A REPRODUCTION OF TABLE I I I WITH THE ADDITION OF LINEAR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES AND READING ACHIEVEMENT OF GIRLS Reading Achievement. John J a n e t My Teacher My Mother. My F a t h e r Superman V o c a b u l a r y - . 1 1 - . 2 5 .04 .01 - . 1 2 - . 3 2 * Me Comprehens ion- . 02 -.34*. .05 .01 - . 0 6 - . 2 5 T o t a l - . 0 8 - . 3 3 * .05 .00 - . 1 0 - . 3 0 * I d e a l S e l f V o c a b u l a r y - . 0 8 Comprehens ion- .13 - . 0 5 - . 2 2 - . 2 5 - . 3 2 * - . 1 3 - . 27* - . 2 2 - . 2 6 - . 3 9 * - . 3 9 * T o t a l - . 1 2 .--..16 - . 2 9 * - . 2 1 - . 2 6 - . 4 0 ' S i g n i f i c a n t a t or beyond the .05 l e v e l . 66 Sub-hypothe s i s III Sub-hypothesis III s tated that the reading achievement of boys would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y re la ted to the proport ion of male teachers i n the school while the same c o r r e l a t i o n for g i r l s would not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero. As can be seen from Table XI none of the obtained cor re la t ions was s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE XI LINEAR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE PROPORTION OF MALE TEACHERS TO THE TOTAL NUMBER OF TEACHERS IN THE SCHOOL AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS Reading Achievement Boys G i r l s Vocabulary - .20 .05 Comprehension - .09 .00 Tota l - .16 .04 * S i g n i f i c a n t at or beyond the .05 l e v e l . On the basis of the present l imi ted evidence, i t must be concluded that the proport ion of male teachers to t o t a l number of teachers i n the elementary school i s not s i g n i f i -cant ly re la ted to the reading achievement of boys or g i r l s . 67 General Hypothesis The l a c k of p o s i t i v e support from the data concerning the boys and the evidence c o n t r a r y to the n u l l h ypothesis concerning the g i r l s supply s u f f i c i e n t evidence f o r one to conclude t h a t the g e n e r a l hypothesis i s untenable. I t would seem from the p r e s e n t data t h a t c o n n o t a t i v e meanings are not i n g e n e r a l , r e l a t e d to the r e a d i n g achievement of boys but t h a t there i s some r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e a d i n g a c h i e v e -ment of g i r l s and the c o n n o t a t i v e meanings they a t t a c h t o s e v e r a l of the concepts measured. IV. MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS While t h e l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n s a l r e a d y presented t e s t the h ypothesis proposed i n t h i s paper, the combination of f a c t o r s t h a t i s most h i g h l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e a d i n g a c h i e v e -ment i s l i k e l y t o be o f value and i n t e r e s t t o educators. M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r those f a c t o r s found to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the v a r i o u s aspects of r e a d i n g a c h i e v e -ment f o r boys are presented i n Table X I I . The same i n f o r -mation f o r g i r l s i s presented i n Table X I I I . Although the a n a l y s i s of l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n s has rendered the p r e s e n t g e n e r a l hypothesis untenable i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the c o n n o t a t i v e meanings which some of the con-cepts employed i n t h i s study have f o r c h i l d r e n are f r e q u e n t l y TABLE XII MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF FACTORS RELATED TO READING ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS R RSQ Increase i n RSQ F S i g n i f i -cance Vocabulary-Total I.Q. .30 .09 .09 7.15 <.05 C.A. .37 .13 .04 3.91 <.05 Proportion of Male Teachers .40 .16 .03 2.33 <.05 Socio-economic Status .43 .19 .02 1.87 >.05 Comprehension Total I.Q. .47 .22 .22 20.57 <.05 C.A. .53 .28 .06 6.25 <.05 Me-Father (D) .58 .34 .05 5.64 <.05 Ideal Self-Mother (D) .62 .39 .05 5.42 . <.05 Me-Janet (D) .66 .43 .04 4.66 <.05 Socio-economic Status .66 .44 .01 1.29 >.05 Total Reading Achievement Total I.Q. .46 .22 .22 19.80 <.05 C.A. .54 .29 .08 8.08 <.05 Me-Janet (D) .58 .34 .04 4.06 <.05 Ideal Self-Mother (D) .60 .36 . .03 2.95 <.05 Socio-economic Status .62 .38 .02 1.98 >.05 69 TABLE XIII MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF FACTORS RELATED TO READING ACHIEVEMENTS OF GIRLS R RSQ Increase i n RSQ F S i g n i f i -cance Vocabulary Non-Language I.Q. .49 .24 .24 14.54 < .05 Me-Janet(D) .55 .30 .06 4.28 < .05 Ideal Self-Superman(D) .58 .34 .04 2.77 < .05 Me-John(D) .61 .37 .02 1.68 > .05 Comprehension Non-Language I.Q. .46 .21 .21 12.61 < .05 Me-Janet(D) .57 .33 .11 7.96 < .05 C .A . .61 .37 .04 3.10 < .05 Me-Mother(D) .64 .41 .03 2.59 < .05 Ideal Self-Superman(D) .67 .45 .04 3.37 < .05 Me-John(D) .70 .49 .03 2.89 < .05 Ideal Self -Janet(D) .72 .52 .03 2.52 < .05 Socio-Economic Status .72 .52 .00 0.27 > .05 Tota l Reading Achievement Non-Language I.Q. .52 .27 .27 16.74 < .05 Me-Janet(D) .61 .38 .11 8.00 < .05 Ideal Self-Superman(D) .64 .42 .04 2.89 < .05 Me-John(D) .67 .46 .05 3.62 < .05 Ideal Self -Janet(D) .70 .49 .03 2.61 < .05 Ideal Self-Mother(D) .71 .50 .01 0.75 > .05 70 more h igh ly associated with reading achievement than are other factors such as socio-economic status and language I.Q. which are widely regarded as being re la ted to reading achievement. In p a r t i c u l a r the D scores re la ted to Janet f igure importantly and cons is ten t ly i n almost every aspect of reading achievement measured for a l l ch i ld ren but p a r t i c u -l a r l y so for g i r l s . The connotative meanings of John and Superman a lso seem cons is ten t ly re la ted to the reading achieve-ment of g i r l s . V. ANALYSIS OF LINEAR CORRELATIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL CLASSROOMS Jus t i f i cat ion Although the hypotheses were statements concerning ch i ld ren i n general i t was thought that an ana lys is of the data for i n d i v i d u a l classrooms might provide information that could be used to ind ica te fur ther avenues of research. F ive classrooms were used i n th is study. For the pur-poses of exposi t ion they have been designated V, W, X, Y, and Z. L inear cor re la t ions for a l l classrooms are presented i n Tables XIV through XVIII. Means and standard deviat ions are presented i n Table XIX. The Findings The r e s u l t s from classroom V tend to fol low the trend noted i n the data for the t o t a l group. In th is classroom semantic distance scores and reading achievement scores seem to be more h ighly re la ted for g i r l s than for boys. By way of contrast the r e s u l t s from classroom W tend to support the general hypothesis that reading achievement scores and semantic distance scores are more h ighly a s s o c i -ated for boys than they are for g i r l s . The only s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n for the g i r l s was between Me-Janet and Reading Comprehension score . Ten of the cor re la t ions for the boys i n this, classroom are s i g n i f i c a n t but the pattern and the d i r e c t i o n of the cor re la t ions are not , i n every case, as pre -d ic ted by sub-hypothesis II. A s i m i l a r trend i n support of the general hypothesis may be noted i n classroom X. The only exception to th is gen-e r a l i z a t i o n i s the cor re la t ions re la ted to Ideal S e l f and Superman for the g i r l s . In t h i s classroom assoc ia t ion with Superman appears to be re la ted to higher reading scores i n g i r l s . In classroom. Y semantic distance scores appear to be almost completely unrelated to reading achievement fo r boys or g i r l s . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s i s the only classroom where the mean reading achievement of the boys exceeded that of the g i r l s (see Table XIX). The d i f f e r -ence between mean t o t a l reading scores was not s i g n i f i c a n t (t = 1.1, p >.10). 72 TABLE XIV LINEAR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CERTAIN SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN CLASSROOM V BOYS C O N C E P T S Reading Achievement John Janet My Teacher My Mother : My Father Superman Vocabulary - .19 .33 .16 .07 .07 .41 Me Comprehension - .43 .22 .32 .51 .00 .24 Tota l - .43 .10 .34 .41 .05 .48 Vocabulary .11 .39 .41 .38 .26 .21 Ideal S e l f Comprehension - .02 . - .01 - .25 - .41 .07 - .21 Tota l .07 .29 .14 .00 .15 .02 GIRLS Vocabulary - .56 - .23 .34 - .42 .29 - .66 Me Comprehension - .47 - .83* .50 - .61 - .15 - .60 Tota l - .57 - .63 .49 - .60 - .24 - .71 Vocabulary - .25 - .19 - .44 _ # g 7 * * - .15 - .56 Ideal., ,. S e ] _ f Comprehension - .89 *•*.-.. 30 - .69 - . 7 2 * - .27 - . 72 * Tota l - .68 - .29 - .66 - . 9 4** - .24 - . 74* S ign i f i cance l e v e l s : * .05, * * .01. TABLE XV LINEAR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CERTAIN SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN CLASSROOM W BOYS C O N C E P T S Reading My My My Achievement John Janet Teacher Mother Father Superman Vocabulary -.41 - .38 - . 7 2 * * - . 5 7 * . - . 64 * - . 6 1 * Me Comprehension - . 6 3 * - .25 - . 6 3 * - .50 - . 58 * - .35 Tota l - .48 - .32 - . 72* - .53 - . 6 6 * * - .52 Vocabulary - .34 - .06 - .35 - . 5 5 * - . 5 7 * - .29 g ^ ^ "'"Comprehension - .19 .15 - .16 - .41 - .38 - .31 Tota l - .23 .04 - .40 - .43 - .45 - .37 GIRLS Vocabulary .28 - .44 Me Comprehension .37 - . 62* Tota l .35 - .57 .13 .21 .53 .46 .25 .34 .56 .46 .21 .29 .57 .48 .41 - .47 - .22 .06 .37 - .45 - .18 - .02 .41 - .48 - .20 - .01 Vocabulary - .38 - .55 -.41 g^^Comprehension - .39 - .53 Tota l -.41 - .57 S ign i f i cance l e v e l s : * .05, * * .01. TABLE XVI LINEAR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CERTAIN SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN CLASSROOM X BOYS C O N C E P T S Reading My My My Achievement John Janet Teacher Mother Father Superman Vocabulary .20 .02 -.02 -.24 -.45* -.44* Me Comprehension .11 .63* .43* .23 .31 .11 Total -.03 .39 .29 -.05 .00 -.18 Vocabulary -.35 -.36 -.13 -.26 -.32 -.28 g^^Comprehension -.09 -.27 -.17 -.25 -.27 -.32 Total -.28 -.37 -.20 -.31 -.35 -.34 GIRLS Vocabulary -.18 -.06 -.15 -.28 -.23 -.49 Me Comprehension .04 -.04 -.16 -.21 -.29 -.48 Total -.16 -.10 -.20 -.37 -.30 -.53 Vocabulary -.41 -.27 -.31 -.32 -.18 -.59* Ideal Self C o m P r e h e n s i ° n -.36 -.27 -.41 -.52 -.35 -.60* Total -.43 -.24 -.33 -.43 -.24 -.60* Significance l e v e l s : * .05, ** .01. TABLE XVII LINEAR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CERTAIN SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN CLASSROOM Y BOYS C 0 N C E P T S Reading Achievement John Janet My Teacher My Mother My Father Superman Vocabulary .12 .21 -.13 .09 .12 -.17 Me Comprehension .07 .19 -.31 .08 .15 -.05 Total .09 .21 -.22 .08 .14 -.11 Vocabulary -.19 .01 -.12 -.02 -.14 .14 Ideal^ , Self Comprehension -.01 .00 -.37 -.20 -.12 .08 Total -.11 .00 -.23 -.11 -.13 .11 GIRLS Vocabulary -.56 .03 -.44 -.03 -.23 -.13 Me Comprehension -.13 -.08 -.14 -.01 -.31 -.28 Total -.38 -.04 -.33 -.02 . -.34 -.26 Vocabulary .13 -.27 -.08 .24 -.17 -.08 I d e a l s , g e^£ Comprehension -.46 -.62 -.24 -.65* -.53 -.46 Total -.25 -.57 -.12 -.32 -.46 -.36 Significance l e v e l s : * .05, ** .01. 76 TABLE X V I I I LINEAR CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CERTAIN SEMANTIC DISTANCE SCORES AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN CLASSROOM Z — -BOYS C O N C E P T S Reading My My My Achievement John J a n e t Teacher Mother F a t h e r Superman V o c a b u l a r y .44 .62* • .30 .42 .24 .06 Me Comprehension .39 .55* .33 .33 .21 .04 T o t a l .42 .59* .32 .37 .23 .00 V o c a b u l a r y .38 .56* .12 .07 .06 .24 I d e a l S e l f Comprehension .35 .55* .03 .03 .20 .16 T o t a l .37 .56* .04 .02 .14 .20 GIRLS V o c a b u l a r y .45 .41 .14 .04 .27 .34 Me Comprehension .18 .25 .06 .05 .24 .20 T o t a l .30 .33 .10 .05 .26 .27 V o c a b u l a r y .17 .37 .17 .23 .15 .54* I d e a l S e l f Comprehension .07 .29 .14 .10 .16 .37 T o t a l .03 .32 .16 .16 .16 .45 S i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s : * . 0 5 , * * - .01. 77 TABLE XIX MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF READING ACHIEVEMENT SCORES FOR BOYS AND GIRLS IN FIVE INDIVIDUAL CLASSROOMS Boys Mean s.d, G i r l s Mean s.d. CLASSROOM V Vocabulary 53.44 9.77 56.67 7.31 Comprehension 49.11 10.89 56.83 5.88 Total 102.55 14.28 113.50 11.62 CLASSROOM W Vocabulary Comprehension Total 42.33 45.83 87.33 9.09 7.87 16.05 52.60 51.00 103.60 7.14 5.66 12.13 CLASSROOM X Vocabulary 52.13 8.34 57.81 7.82 Comprehension 49.56 7.72 58.54 9.84 Total 100.78 14.07 117.27 15.52 CLASSROOM Y Vocabulary 55.56 7.02 53.12 4.09 Comprehension 52.62 7.84 50.50 3.12 Total. 108.18 14.37 103.62 5.88 CLASSROOM Z Vocabulary 54.23 11.02 59.00 9.97 Comprehension 54.54 9.12 59.54 7.40 Total 108.77 19.93 118.53 16.87 78 In classroom Z the limited number of s i g n i f i c a n t findings for the boys tends to contradict sub-hypothesis I I . In this classroom a small semantic distance score for Me-Janet generated by boys i s associated with lower reading achievement scores. V. SUMMARY An analysis of variance of the mean semantic distance scores generated by boys and g i r l s indicates that the seman-t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l does not discriminate between the sexes at the second grade l e v e l . Analysis of l i n e a r correlations between the three aspects of reading achievement measured and the connotative meanings of the concepts employed indicate that, contrary to the position taken at the outset of t h i s study, there i s a greater degree of association between the independent and dependent variables under consideration for g i r l s than there i s for boys. The concept children have of Janet seems to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the reading achievement of both boys and g i r l s . The concepts of My Teacher, My Mother and Superman appear to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to the reading achievement of g i r l s only. The proportion of male teachers i n the elementary school does not seem to be related to the reading achievement of boys or g i r l s . 79 From the lack of p o s i t i v e support and the amount of contrary evidence provided by tests of the sub-hypotheses, i t must be concluded that the general hypothesis i s untenable. Multiple regression analysis confirms the importance of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n r e l a t i o n to reading achievement i n both boys and g i r l s . The data also indicate that the concepts children have of the l i t e r a r y figures presented i n the basal reader are more highly associated with reading achievement than are such factors as socio-economic status and language I.Q. which are generally recognized as being i n f l u e n t i a l on reading a b i l i t y . This generalization i s more true of g i r l s than i t i s of boys. The importance of the relationship between chronologi-c a l age and reading achievement of boys tends to confirm the idea that the slower rate of development of boys i s related to t h e i r reading achievement. Analysis of l i n e a r correlations for i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s -rooms indicates that any given classroom does not necessarily follow the trend noted i n the t o t a l sample. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the classroom where the mean reading achievement of boys exceeded that of the g i r l s . In t h i s classroom almost no association was noted between semantic distance scores and reading achievement for boys and g i r l s . CHAPTER VI IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS I. INTRODUCTION The organizat ion of th is chapter w i l l maintain the pattern set by Chapters III and V. In addi t ion to the d i s -cussion re la ted to the sub-hypotheses o v e r a l l impl ica t ions w i l l be proposed. The chapter w i l l be concluded with a summary of the whole study. II. DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS Dif ferences i n Connotative Meanings Between Boys and G i r l s The f a i l u r e of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l to d i s c r i m i n -ate between the connotative meanings that boys and g i r l s attach to the concepts measured may stem from the p o s s i b i l i t y that being a c h i l d has a greater in f luence on one's pers -pect ive than being male or female. That i s to say, ch i ld ren at the second grade l e v e l simply do not d iscr iminate c l e a r l y between male and female i n the areas invest igated i n th is study. Many teachers , both male and female, have had the experience of being addressed by young preoccupied ch i ld ren as "Mummy." Such errors might ind ica te that the c h i l d tends to put a l l adults who hold pos i t ions of author i ty in to a category which, i n some respec ts , i s not c l e a r l y sub-d iv ided . 81 L inear Corre la t ions Boys. The only s i g n i f i c a n t cor re la t ions obtained for the boys was between the semantic distance score for Ideal  Se l f - Jane t and comprehension and t o t a l reading scores . These cor re la t ions were p o s i t i v e . These r e s u l t s ind ica te that boys who tend to i d e n t i f y with Janet a lso have a s l i g h t tendency to gain a lower reading score . That i s to say that mascu-l i n e l y or iented boys tend to score higher i n reading achieve-ment than femininely or iented boys. This trend i s the reverse of the one predicted by the hypothesis . G i r l s . The f indings for the g i r l s suggest that those who tend to i d e n t i f y with t h e i r teachers , t h e i r mothers, Janet and Superman a lso tend to gain higher scores on a s tan-dardized reading t e s t . The r e s u l t s concerning My Teacher, My Mother and Janet are not unreasonable. C loser i d e n t i f i -cat ion to these f igures ind icates an absence of c o n f l i c t i n ro le i d e n t i t y and might suggest a readiness to co-operate w i l l i n g l y with learning a c t i v i t i e s re la ted to these three f i g u r e s . However, i t i s hard to reconc i le the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Superman p a r t i c u l a r l y when the degrees of assoc ia t ion be-tween th is concept and the three aspects of reading achieve-ment were found to be greater than any of the other obtained r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t may be that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Superman i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a g i r l with an outgoing persona l i ty who engages w i l l i n g l y i n classroom a c t i v i t i e s and thereby a t ta ins greater s k i l l i n reading. 82 Male teachers. The lack of s i g n i f i c a n c e of the cor -r e l a t i o n between the proport ion of male teachers to the t o t a l number of teachers in the elementary school does not support the idea that increas ing the proport ion of male teachers i n the elementary school would have any s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on the reading achievement of boys. However, the number of schools employed was very small (f ive) and ana lys is of a much greater number of schools with a much larger range i n the proport ions of male teachers would have to be ca r r i ed out before any meaningful genera l i za t ion could be made. Mul t ip le Regression Analys is Boys. The data confirm the importance of general i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the reading achievement of boys. The impor-tance of chronologica l age ind icated i n the mul t ip le regres -s ion equation tends to confirm the suggestion that delaying the age of beginning reading i s l i k e l y to be b e n e f i c i a l to reading achievement i n boys. The presence of semantic d i s -tance scores for Me-Father, Me-Janet,and Ide a1.Se1f-Mother as s i g n i f i c a n t factors i n the mul t ip le regression equation i n d i -cates that while these measures are not h igh ly associated with reading achievement, they may be more use fu l p red ic tor var iab les than more widely accepted factors such as sub-tests on i n t e l l i g e n c e tes ts and socio-economic s ta tus . G i r l s . The importance of the Non-Language I.Q. con-firms the idea that i n t e l l i g e n c e i s an important fac tor i n 83 the reading achievement of g i r l s but the presence of the Non-Language I.Q. rather than the Language I.Q. i s unexpected. S imi la r f ind ings i n future research might be taken as an i n -d i c a t i o n of a need for fur ther v a l i d a t i o n on the Non-Language sect ion of the CTMM. 1 Comparison of the f indings for boys and g i r l s . The r e l a t i v e s izes of the obtained R's fo r boys and g i r l s i n d i -cate that th is area of research i s more re levant to the reading achievement of g i r l s than of boys. There i s a good deal more variance i n the reading achievement of boys which goes unaccounted for than i n the reading achievement of g i r l s . This discrepancy would suggest that the study has f a i l e d to tap the var iab les re levant to reading achievement i n boys but may have revealed sources of variance i n the reading achieve-ment of g i r l s . II I . IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL' PRACTICES The present f ind ings tend to support current p rac t ices i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia as far as the teaching of reading i s concerned. With regard to the characters i n the basal readers , boys genera l ly i d e n t i f y more c l o s e l y with John than g i r l s do, thus i n d i c a t i n g that boys do not regard him as a femininely or iented character as was suspected. I d e n t i f i c a -E l i zabe th T. S u l l i v a n , W i l l i s W. C l a r k , and Ernest W. T i e g s , C a l i f o r n i a Short-Form Test of Mental Matur i ty , 1963 S-Form, Leve1 2 (Monterey: C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1962). 84 t i o n with Janet i s associated with a s l i g h t tendency to lower reading scores thus in d i c a t i n g that femininely oriented boys tend to read less well than masculinely oriented boys. With regard to the sex of the teacher, the present findings o f f e r no support for the idea that the numerical predominance of female teachers i s detrimental to, or any way associated with the reading achievement of boys. IV. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH The fact that the present study appears to be of greater relevance to the reading achievement of g i r l s rather than boys may indicate that t h i s avenue of investigation w i l l not be too f r u i t f u l i n a d i r e c t approach to the problem of reading d i f f i c u l t i e s peculiar to boys. However, future re-search might involve the construction of further models of the relationships that e x i s t between the figures i n the se-mantic space of children and t h e i r reading achievement which take into account the present findings. The trend observed i n the present data points out the importance of the error of omission concerning the younger s i s t e r of Janet and John, Anne, who figures largely i n the f i r s t pre-primer used i n schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was f e l t that children i n general would be unanimous i n the concept they have of Anne ( i . e . , good, weak and f a i r l y active) and thus i t was thought unlikel y that there would be any s i g n i f i c a n t difference be-85 tween boys and g i r l s i n the degree of assoc ia t ion between the connotative meaning of Anne and t h e i r reading achievement. However, the importance of Janet might ind ica te the importance of female ch i ld ren as l i t e r a r y characters . Thus Anne too might be a s i g n i f i c a n t f igure re la ted to reading achievement. One of the reasons why t h i s study was unable to f i n d any evidence i n support of the hypothesis may be associated with the nature of the s k i l l s demanded by standardized read-ing t e s t s . I t has been noted that standardized reading tests frequent ly rate ch i ld ren one to four grades above the i r actual 2 achievement l e v e l . I t was noted i n t h i s paper that i n t e l -l igence corre la tes most h ighly with reading achievement. I t i s i n the nature of standardized reading tests to present a ..range of reading problems that exceeds the range of reading a b i l i t i e s of the group of subjects to be measured. I t i s i n e v i t a b l e , there fore , that each c h i l d w i l l reach the upper l i m i t s of h is reading a b i l i t y and w i l l have to resor t to s t ra teg ies that f a l l outside of h is reading s k i l l s . I t would seem l i k e l y that one of these s t ra teg ies i s making i n t e l l i g e n t guesses on the basis of l im i ted in format ion. Thus more i n t e l l i g e n t ch i ld ren tend to score more h ighly on standardized reading t e s t s . It may be that conno-ta t i ve meanings are more h ighly associated with reading Emmett A. B e t t s , Foundations of Reading. Ins t ruct ion (New York: American Book Company, 1954), p. 441. 86 achievement at the everyday classroom l e v e l , i . e . independent and i n s t r u c t i o n a l levels indicated by informal reading i n -ventories, rather than the l i m i t s of reading a b i l i t y measured by standardized reading t e s t s . Future research might look at the rel a t i o n s h i p between connotative meaning and levels of reading achievement measured by an informal reading inventory. V. .. FINDINGS FOR INDIVIDUAL CLASSROOMS It i s evident that the trends observed i n children i n general do not necessarily characterize the trend i n any one classroom. In classroom W the significance of the negative corre-lations of My Teacher, My Mother, My F a t h e r J o h n and Superman, for boys, suggest that i n t h i s classroom these concepts are clustered together and that closeness to t h i s cluster for boys i s associated with higher reading a b i l i t y . A s i m i l a r trend may be noted i n classroom X. The most notable exception i s the importance of Superman i n r e l a t i o n to the reading achieve-ment of g i r l s . In t h i s classroom closeness to Superman i s associated with higher reading achievement for g i r l s . In classroom Y there appears to be almost no association between connotative meaning and reading achievement for boys and g i r l s . When i t i s also noted that i n t h i s classroom alone the mean reading achievement of boys exceeded that of the g i r l s then the lack of association between the variables of 87 i n t e r e s t takes on considerable import. Such a r e s u l t , t o -gether with the data from the other classrooms, tends to support the idea that connotative meanings are associated with a discrepancy between reading achievement i n boys and g i r l s , and that the lack of such a discrepancy i s associated with a corresponding loss i n the importance of connotative meanings. Future research needs to make a much more in tens ive comparison between classrooms where connotative meanings do appear to be h ighly associated with reading a b i l i t y and those classrooms where no such re la t ionsh ips e x i s t . The data from classroom Z appear to cont rad ic t sub-hypothesis II. Contrary to what was hypothesized, i t would seem that boys who associate themselves with Janet tend to be lower i n reading a b i l i t y than those boys who do not see them-selves and Janet as s i m i l a r . In making general conclusions from the ana lys is of the data from i n d i v i d u a l classrooms, i t might be noted that the deviat ions wi th in any one classroom from the general trend ind ica te that the s i g n i f i c a n t var iab les in f luenc ing reading achievement are not l i k e l y to be found i n gross factors such as the sex of the teacher or the l i t e r a r y stereotypes pre -sented. I t seems poss ib le that more re levant var iab les are to be found i n the complex process of i n t e r a c t i o n between the teacher , the mater ia l presented, the mode of p resenta t ion , and the a b i l i t i e s of the students. Future research would probably 88 be more f r u i t f u l i f i t were to attempt to analyse the nature of these in te rac t ions and to tes t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r r e la t ionsh ips with achievement i n reading. VI . SUMMARY A review of the l i t e r a t u r e suggests that through a process of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , boys come to school more ready to associate themselves with mascul inely or iented a c t i v i t i e s than with femininely or iented a c t i v i t i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e sug-gests that the d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment of boys and g i r l s i n school may be b e n e f i c i a l to learning i n g i r l s but detr imental to learning i n boys. I t was thought poss ib le that the d i s -crepancy between the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n pattern of boys and the model ( i . e . , the teacher) provided i n the school s i t u a t i o n may produce a reluctance i n many boys to engage r e a d i l y i n classroom a c t i v i t i e s which, i n the primary grades, are l a rge ly d i rec ted toward the teaching of reading. This i n i t i a l r e l u c -tance may lead to ear ly f a i l u r e and fur ther r e j e c t i o n of the school environment. The cycle of r e j e c t i o n and fur ther f a i l -ure was f e l t to be responsible for the lower mean achievement of boys i n general and for the existence of the great numerical predominance of male over female retarded readers. I t was hypothesized that a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ex is ts between the reading achievement of boys and the conno-ta t i ve meanings they attach to the fo l lowing concepts: 89 Me, How I Would Like to Be, John, Janet, My Teacher, My Mother, My Father, Superman. I t was further hypothesized that no such relationships e x i s t for g i r l s . The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t and a reading t e s t , were administered to 121 children i n the second grade of f i v e elementary schools on the lower mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. Information concerning chronological age, socio-economic status and proportion of male teachers i n the school was gathered. An analysis of the data indicates that barely any s i g -n i f i c a n t relationships e x i s t between the concepts measured and the reading achievement of boys but several s i g n i f i c a n t relationships were discovered between the connotative mean-ings measured and the reading achievement of g i r l s . The l i t -erary character Janet seems to be related to reading achieve-ment i n both boys and g i r l s . 90 The greater amount of variance accounted for by. the var iab les measured ind icates that t h i s area of research may be more re levant to reading a b i l i t i e s of g i r l s rather than boys. The proport ion of male teachers i n the elementary school appears to be unrelated to reading achievement i n boys or g i r l s . . I t i s suggested that the lack of support of the present hypothesis may be due in part to the s k i l l s demanded by s tan-dardized reading t e s t s . The re la t ionsh ips hypothesized i n th is study may e x i s t at the independent or i n s t r u c t i o n a l l eve ls of c h i l d r e n ' s reading a b i l i t y rather than at the l i m i t s of reading a b i l i t y that standardized reading tests appear to measure. Ana lys is of i n d i v i d u a l classrooms ind icated that the factors a f fec t ing reading achievement may be p e c u l i a r to the classroom. Research should begin to look at the complex i n t e r -act ion of the student/ . teacher/material matrix rather than at gross var iab les such as teaching method or sex of the teacher . BIBLIOGRAPHY 91 A. BOOKS A u s t i n , Mary CV, C l i f f o r d L. Bush and Mi ldred H. Huebner. Reading Eva lua t ion . New York: Ronald Press Company, 1961. Bandura, A lber t and Richard H. Walters. S o c i a l Learning and Persona l i ty Development. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, I n c . , 1964. B e t t s , Emmett A. The Prevention and Correct ion of Reading  D i f f i c u l t i e s . New York: Row, Peterson and Company, 1936. Bond, Guy and Miles A. T inker . Reading D i f f i c u l t i e s , Their  Diagnosis and Cor rec t ion . New York: Appleton-Century-Crof ts I n c . , 1957. Egof f , S h e i l a . Off to School . Vancouver: Copp C la rke , 1960. Ferna ld , Grace M. Remedial Techniques i n Basic School Subjects. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 19 43. Freud, Sigmund. An Out l ine of Psycho-Analys is . Trans. James Strachey. New York: Norton, 1949. Gates, Arthur I. The Improvement of Reading. New York: Macmillan Company, 1947. Gates, Arthur L, and Walter H. MacGin i t ie . Teacher 's Manual  Gates-MacGini t i e Reading T e s t s , Primary B, Forms T,2_. New York: Teachers Col lege Press , 1965. . Technica l Manual for the Gates-MacGini t ie Reading T e s t s . New York: Teachers Col lege P r e s s , 1965. G u i l f o r d , Joy P. Psychometric Methods. New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1954. H a r r i s , A lber t J . How to Increase Reading A b i l i t y . New York: David McKay Company, 1961. Mandler, George and Paul Mussen, Nathan Kogan and Michael A. Wallach. New Di rect ions i n Psychology III. New York: Ho l t , Rinehart and Winston I n c . , 1965. Mowrer, O.H. Learning Theory and Personality Dynamics. New York: Ronald, 1950. Natchez, Gladys. Personality Patterns and Oral Reading. New York: New York University Press, 1959. Osgood, Charles E., George J . Suci and Percy H. Tannenbaum. The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s , 1957. Prescott, Daniel A. Emotion and the Educative Process. Washington: American Council on Education, 1938. Robinson, Helen M. Why Pupils F a i l i n Reading. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946. Roswell, Florence and Gladys Natchez. Reading D i s a b i l i t y , Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Basic Books Inc. 1964. Sears, R.R., Eleanor E. Maccoby and H. Levin. Patterns of  Child Rearing. New York: Harper and Row, 1957. Schonell, Fred J . The Psychology and Teaching of. Reading. London: Oliver and Boyd, 1961. Su l l i v a n , Elizabeth T., W i l l i s W. Clark and Ernest W. Tiegs. C a l i f o r n i a Short-Form of Mental Maturity., 1963 S-Form, Level 1. Monterey: C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1962. Su l l i v a n , Elizabeth T., W i l l i s W. Clark and Ernest W. Tiegs. Short Form Test of Mental Maturity. Monterey: C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1963. Witty, Paul. Reading i n Modern Education. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1949. B. PUBLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONS C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau. Technical Report on the C a l i f o r n i a  Test of Mental Maturity Series 1963 Revision. Monterey: C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1965. C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau Professional S t a f f . Guide to Inter-pretation of the California. Test of Mental Maturity  Series 1963 Revision. Monterey: C a l i f o r n i a Test Bureau, 1964. National P e r i o d i c a l Publications. Superman. Superman National Comics, No. 211. New York: National P e r i -o d i c a l Publications, 1968. C. PERIODICALS Anastaiow, N.J. "Success i n School and Boys' Sex-Role Patterns," C h i l d Development, 36(4):1053-66, 1965. Atkinson, Richard C. "The Computor i s a Tutor," Psychology  Today, l(18):36-39, 57-59, January, 1968. Blishen, Bernard R. "A Socio-Economic Index for Occupations i n Canada," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 4(l):41-53, February, 1967. "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Scale," Canadian Journal of Economic and P o l i t i c a l - Science, 24:519-531, November, 1958. Bonney, M.E. "Sex Differences i n S o c i a l Success and Person-a l i t y T r a i t s , " Child Development, 15:63-79, 1944. Box, G.E.P. "Non-normality and Tests on Variance," Biometrika, 40:318-335, 1953. Brown, Daniel G. "Masculinity-Femininity Development i n Children," Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21:197-202, 1957. ' ' ' - " S e x - R o l e Development i n a Changing Culture," Psychological B u l l e t i n , 55 (4) : 232-42, 1958. m. "Sex-Role Preference i n Young Children," Psychological Monographs,• 70 (421):1-19, 1956. Butterworth, Robert F. and George G. Thompson. "Factors Related to Age-Grade Trends and Sex Differences i n Children's Preference for Comic Books," Journal of  Genetic Psychology, 78:71-96, March, 1951. C a r r o l l , Marjprie. "Sex Differences i n Readiness at the F i r s t Grade Level," Elementary English Review, 35:370-75, October, 1948. 94 Coleman, J.C., Borston and J . Fox. "Parental Attitudes as Related to Reading D i s a b i l i t i e s i n Children," Psychological Reports, 4:47-51, 1st Quarter,'1958. Di Vesta, Francis J . "A Normative Study of 220 Concepts Rated on the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l by Children i n Grades 2 through 7," Journal of Genetic Psychology, 109 (2) :205-29, 1966. Fauls, Lydia B. and Walter D. Smith. "Sex-Role Learning of Five Year Olds," Journal of Genetic Psychology, 89: 105-117, 1956. F i t t , A.B. "An Experimental Study of Children's Attitude to School i n Auckland, N.Z.," B r i t i s h Journal of Educational  Psychology, 26:25-30, February, 1956. Gates, Arthur I. "The Role of Personality Maladjustment i n Reading D i s a b i l i t y , " Journal of Genetic Psychology, 59:77-83, September, 1941. • . "Sex Differences i n Reading A b i l i t y , " Elementary School Journal, 61:431-34, May, 1961. Grambs, Jean B. and Walter B. Waetjen. "Being Equally Different: A New Right for Boys and G i r l s , " National  Elementary P r i n c i p a l , 46:59-67, November, 1966. Hartup, W i l l i a r d W. and E l s i e A. Zook. "Sex-Role Preferences i n Three and Four Year Old Children," Journal of  Consulting Psychology, 24:420-26, 1960. Henderson, E.H. " S e l f - S o c i a l Constructs of Achieving and Non-Achieving Readers," Reading Teacher, 19 (2):1051-56, 1965. Kagan, Jerome. "The Child's Sex-Role C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of School Objects," Child Development, 35(3):1051-56, 1964. . "The Concept of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , " The Psychological Review, 65:296-305, 1958. Kimball, Barbara. "Case Studies i n Educational Fa i l u r e During Adolescence," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 23:406-15, A p r i l , 1953. 95 Lazowiek, L.M. "On the Nature of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , " Journal  of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology, 51:175-83, 1955. L i p p i t t , R. and M. Gold. "Classroom Social Structure as a Mental Health Problem," Journal of S o c i a l Issues, 15:40-50, 1st Quarter, 1959. McNeil, John D. "Programmed Instruction Versus Usual Classroom Procedures i n Teaching Boys to Read," American Educational Research Journal, 1:113-20, March, 1964. Maltz, Howard E. "Ontogenic Change i n the Meaning of Concepts as Measured by the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l , " C hild Development, 34 (3) :667-74, 1963. Mazurkiewicz, Albert J . "Social-Cultural Influences i n Reading," Journal of Developmental Reading, 3:254-63, Summer, 1960. Pineo, Peter C. and John Porter. "Occupational Prestige i n Canada," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 4(l):24-40, February, 1967. Preston, Mary C. "The Reaction of Parents to Reading F a i l u r e , " Child Development, 10 (3):173-79, September, 1939. Preston, Ralph C. "Reading Achievement of German and American Children," School and Society, 90:350-54, October, 196 2. St. John, C.W. "The Maladjustment of Boys i n Certain Elementary Grades," Educational Administration and  Supervision, 18 (9):659-72 , December, 1932. Samuels, Fra. "Sex Differences i n Reading Achievement," Journal of Educational Research, 34:564-603, A p r i l , 1943. Sears, Pauline and David H. Feldman. "Teachers' Interactions with Boys and G i r l s , " The National Elementary P r i n c i p a l , 46 (2): 30-5, November, 1966. Spache, George D. "Personality Patterns of Retarded Readers," Journal of Education Research, 50:461-69, Stockford, L. and H.W. B i s s e l l . "Factors Involved i n Establishing a Merit-Rating Scale," Personnel, 7:456-61, 1949. 96 Symonds, P.M. "On the Loss of R e l i a b i l i t y i n Ratings Due to Coarseness of the Scale," Personnel, 26:94-118, 1949. Tenenbaum, S. "Attitudes of Elementary School Children to School, Teachers and Classmates," Journal of Applied  Psychology,. 28 (2) : 134-41, A p r i l , 1944. Waetjen, Walter B. and Jean D. Grambs, "Sex Differences: A Case of Educational Evasion?" Teachers College Record, 65:261-71, December, 1963. Witty, Paul. "Reading Success and Emotional Adjustment," Elementary English, 27:281-96, May, 1950. Wozencraft, Marian. "A Comparison of the Reading A b i l i t i e s of Boys and G i r l s at Two Grade Levels," Journal of the  Reading S p e c i a l i s t , 6:136-39, 1967. D. ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS Meyer, William J . and George G. Thompson. "Teachers' Interactions with Boys as Contrasted with G i r l s , " Psychological Studies of Human Development, Raymond G. Kuhlens and George G. Thompson, editors. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1963. Pp. 510-18. Robinson, Helen M. "Manifestations of Emotional Maladjust-ments," C l i n i c a l Studies i n Reading 1_, The Staff of the C l i n i c s of the University of Chicago, ed i t o r s . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949. Pp. 114-122. Whiting, John W.M. "Resource Mediation and Learning by I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , " Personality Development i n Children, I. Iscoe and H.W. Stevenson, editors. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1960. E. ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES Gray, William S. "Teaching of Reading," Encyclopedia of Educational Research., 1001. New York: MacMillan Company, 1950. 97 F. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Barsky, Marilyn L. "The Relationship of Some Aggressive Characteristics to Reading Achievement i n F i f t h and Sixth Grade Males and Females," Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Rutgers State University, 1966. Johnson, Terry D. "The Attitudes of Good and Poor Male Readers." Unpublished Master's Thesis. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1968. Konski, V i r g i n i a J. "An Investigation into Differences Between Boys and G i r l s i n Selected Reading Readiness Areas and i n Reading Achievement." Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. The University of Missouri, 1951. Lamkin, Floyd D. "Masculinity-Femininity of Preadolescent Youth i n Relation to Behaviour A c c e p t a b i l i t y , Tested and Grade Achievement, Inventories Interests and General Intelligence." Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. The Univer-s i t y of V i r g i n i a , 1967. 98 A P P E N D I X A N a m e : S c h o o l : WHAT D O I T H I N K ? ^omp V o C : T o t : Rocket • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • hard awful s t r o n g unfair large c o l d s h a r p b a d fast Popeye • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • D • • • • • • • • • • • • hard awful s t r o n g i / n f a i r l a r g e c o l d sharp b a d f a s t I 1 My Mother • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • h a r d a w f u l s t r o n c u n f a i i l a r g e cold sharp b a d f a s t John n • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • h a r d awful s t r o n a unfaii l a r g e cold sharp b a d f a s t My Father • o • • • • • o • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • h a r d awful s t r o n g u n f a i r large c o l d sharp b a d f a s t My Teacher • a • • • • • a • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • h a r d a w f u l s t r o n g u n f a i r l a r g e c o l d s h a r p b a d f a s t How I would like to be n • • • • • • • • • • • • • • h a r d a w f u l s t r o n c s h a r p b a d f a s t 

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