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Implications of air space utilization in British Columbia. Johnston, Terrence William 1968

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IMPLICATIONS OP AIR SPACE UTILIZATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  TERRENCE WILLIAM JOHNSTON B.E.,  U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1961  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the S c h o o l of 'COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1968  In  presenting  advanced  Library  agree  this  degree  shall  that  purposes  make  the  be  tatives.  It  financial  gain  of  University  for  granted  is understood  shall  not  be  1968.  f u l f i l m e n t of  British  available  the  that  Head  for  of  my  the  of  this  without  or  written  Regional Planning  Columbia  study.  thesis  publication  my  I agree  and  Department  or  requirements  Columbia,  reference  copying  copying  allowed  Community and  A p r i l 26,  of  extensive  by  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  in p a r t i a l  i t freely  permission  may  Department  at  thesis  by  of  for  that  I  the  further  for  scholarly  his  represen-  this  thesis  permission.  an  for  iii  ABSTRACT Intensive development of the c i t y and e f f i c i e n t use of space are essential i f rapidly increasing populations are to be accommodated i n urban areas.  Land requirements f o r trans-  portation functions can be minimized by u t i l i z a t i o n of a i r space above transportation f a c i l i t i e s . The problems of rapid urbanization and scarcity of land are of particular concern i n the major metropolitan areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia has experienced the most rapid rate of growth of any Canadian province yet most of t h i s growth has been confined to a few hundred square miles of the province's vast area.  These factors suggest u t i l i z a t i o n of a i r  space above or below transportation f a c i l i t i e s has p a r t i c u l a r • relevance to land use and transportation planning i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The object of t h i s thesis i s to examine the l e g a l and l e g i s l a t i v e implications, the f i n a n c i a l aspects and planning considerations of a i r rights development i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In Chapter I I , the position of a i r space at common law i s analyzed.  Statutes regulating the ownership of land  and the powers of municipalities, governmental agencies and  iv railway companies have been examined.  Common law courts have  ruled that a i r and space are not susceptible of ownership except as i n c i d e n t a l to the use and enjoyment of the land surface or as space within a structure bearing upon the s o i l .  The  Land Registry Act and the Strata T i t l e s Act regulate land ownership in B r i t i s h Columbia.  The Strata T i t l e s Act passed i n 1 9 6 6  provides f o r the individual and multiple ownership of land within an administrative framework. A . c r i t i c a l prerequisite to strata development i s that land included i n the strata plan must be registered in indefeasible t i t l e as a single parcel in the name of the Strata corporation.  Public and private, agencies  responsible for administering highways and rights-of-way are • prohibited by l e g i s l a t i o n from alienating lands.that are required, therefore, a i r rights cannot be developed using the Strata T i t l e s Act.  I t i s shown that these agencies only have  authority to lease.interest i n a i r space.  Of a l l the agencies  examined, none are r e s t r i c t e d from developing a i r rights f o r t h e i r own purposes. The f i n a n c i a l aspects of a i r space u t i l i z a t i o n are examined in Chapter I I I .  Three methods of valuating a i r space  are examined and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of each i s evaluated.  Air  rights have no real estate value i f the cost of developing the a i r rights platform i s greater than the cost of comparable land in fee simple.  A i r space may be u t i l i z e d as a matter of public  policy i f long term costs and benefits show a i r space u t i l i z ation' to be economically feasible.  Programs of f i n a n c i a l ass-  istance for a i r rights development are f i n a l l y considered.  Mortgage financing from private lenders i s not readily available because of the l e g a l implications and the t r a d i t i o n a l b l i g h t i n g influence of freeways and railways on adjacent urban areas.  In  view of the b l i g h t i n g influence, of highways and railways, i t i s suggested that provisions of the e x i s t i n g National Housing •• Act be extended to include assistance f o r a i r rights projects in conjunction with urban renewal assistance. Chapter IV outlines the planning considerations that must be recognized i n a i r rights development.  The value of de-  termining potential a i r rights development areas and the methods of regulating' a i r rights development are examined.  Public owner-  ship of a i r rights i s the most effective method of control. Municipalities i n B r i t i s h Columbia do not own streets, lanes, or highways, therefore, t h e i r powers of control are limited only to land that they own.  Controls can be exercised over  private a i r rights development using the zoning powers of the municipal government.  Special "overlay zones" or comprehensive  development provisions of most zoning-bylaws can be adapted to control a i r rights projects. Chapter V contains the conclusions and recommendations of t h i s thesis. Individual and multiple ownership of land i s permissible through the regulations of the Land Registry Act and the Strata T i t l e s Act. Public and private agencies cont r o l l i n g transportation f a c i l i t i e s are prohibited by Statute from alienating lands required for. transportation purposes. I t i s recommended that legislation.be adopted granting powers to these agencies to participate i n strata developments providing  vi the transportation f a c i l i t y i s maintained within the development. Extension of the Strata T i t l e s Act to include the ownership of space would provide for easier conveyancing of a i r rights.' F e a s i b i l i t y studies of a i r rights development must be based on the long term'costs and benefits rather than on costs of comparative land for conventional development. Extension of urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n to include a i r rights developments - . would a s s i s t i n mitigating against the b l i g h t i n g influence of freeways and railways on adjacent urban areas.  A i r rights  development can be most e f f e c t i v e l y controlled by vesting owner-, ship of a l l a i r rights with the municipality or c i t y .  Failing  t h i s , boards consisting of representatives from agencies owning potential a i r rights sites should be established to insure that maximum potential of a i r rights above various transportation f a c i l i t i e s i s achieved.  When zoning controls are used to con-  t r o l a i r r i g h t s , special provisions should be made within zoning by-laws to accommodate a i r rights projects.  F i n a l l y , an order  of p r i o r i t y for use of p u b l i c l y controlled a i r r i g h t s i s suggested.  vii  TABLE'OP CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i i  LIST OF TABLES . . .• LIST OF APPENDICES . . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  . ix •  '  x  •  ' xi  Chapter • •.  1  II  III  1  INTRODUCTION The A i r Rights Concept . The History of A i r Space Usage Examples, of A i r Rights Development Implications -of -Airspace-Usage<> *...««s  3 4 8 14  LEGAL AND LEGISLATIVE IMPLICATIONS OF . AIR SPACE USAGE ' A i r Rights and the Law of Real Property.. A i r Rights and Statutory Law The Land Registry Act The Strata T i t l e s Act The Municipality and A i r Rights A i r Rights i n the City of Vancouver A i r Rights Development Above Highways ... A i r Rights Development Above Railways ... Implications to A i r Rights Development ..  19 19 22 23 25' 26 28— '30 31 32  FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF AIR RIGHTS DEVELOPMENT Valuation of A i r Rights Valuation Techniques Community Benefits of A i r Rights Development The Impact of Governmental Authority on A i r Rights  39 39 45 50 •  52  viii Chapter  Page Programs of Financial Assistance Summary and Conclusions  IV  54 55  PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS OF AIR RIGHTS DEVELOPMENT Problems of Air. Space U t i l i z a t i o n Regulating A i r Space Development Public Ownership and Resale or Lease .... Regulatory. Controls Air Space Regulation i n B r i t i s h Columbia. • Summary and Conclusions  58 58 60 61 62 64 67  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  70  V  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES  .. .•  '  .. 76 '  .82  ix  LIST  OP  TABLES  Table  1  Page  Air  Space  Appraisal,  Residual  Capitalization 48  Approach. 2  Air  Space  Appraisal,  Proportionate  Method  . . . .  49  X  LIST OP APPENDICES Appendix A. B.  Page Extracts from the B. C. Land Registry Act .Extracts from the B. C. Strata T i t l e s Act  82 '  90  C.  Extracts from the B. C. Municipal Act ....  D.  Extracts from the Yancouver Charter  102  E.  Extracts from the B. C. Highway Act  108  P.  Extracts from the B. C. Department of Highways Act  95  110  G.  Extracts from the B. C. Railway Act ...... I l l  H.  Extracts from City of Vancouver By-law No. 2346  114  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  It i svirtually who  impossible  t o acknowledge a l l those  o f f e r e d guidance,• a s s i s t a n c e and i n s p i r a t i o n  preparation.of those  t h i s t h e s i s . However, I w i l l  who h a v e h e l p e d  during the  endeavor t o thank  directly i n i t s preparation. Grateful  a p p r e c i a t i o n . i s e x t e n d e d t o D r . V. S e t t y P e n d a k u r a n d D r . R o b e r t W. C o l l i e r f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e a n d c o n s t r u c t i v e  criticisms  o f f e r e d . d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n . o f ' t h i s ' t h e s i s ; a n d t o t h e .' . ... Richard King Mellon I am a l s o i n d e b t e d offered advice Mr.  t o a number o f p e o p l e who .so g e n e r o u s l y  a n d i n f o r m a t i o n when i t was r e q u e s t e d ;  N o r v a l Norton, Canadian P a c i f i c Railway,  J. Gilmore, The  Foundation f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l assistance..  Grosvenor-Laing  Corporation  :T •  namely,  Vancouver, Mr.  L t d . , V a n c o u v e r , . M r . W.T.  Lane,  o f t h e Township o f Richmond, Richmond, Mr..J.A.C.  A n d r e w s , N.D. L e a a n d A s s o c i a t e s , V a n c o u v e r , a n d i n n u m e r a b l e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o f f i c i a l s Finally,  i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d  States.'  I w o u l d be r e m i s c e i f I d i d n o t p u b l i c l y •  a c k n o w l e d g e my g r a t e f u l n e s s t o my w i f e a n d f a m i l y who a f f o r d e d * me t h e p r i v i l e g e  of this educational  experience.  1  CHAPTER I • INTRODUCTION The process of urbanization has created an unequalled demand f o r urban space.  Urban agglomerations of a size never  previously attained have emerged. Also, a higher percentage of the world's t o t a l population i s l i v i n g i n urban centers than ever before.  In the United States i n I960 over 53$ of the popu-  l a t i o n was concentrated i n 213 urban centers that occupied less than 0.7$ of the nation's l a n d .  1  In 1966 i n B r i t i s h Columbia  over 50$ of the population occupied less than 0.25$ of the 2  province's land.  Although.the rate of urbanization has been  accelerating since 1850, the. rate of change from 1950 to I960 was twice that of preceding years.^ H i s t o r i c a l l y , the impact of an expanding urban population has been most evident i n the central area of the c i t y . During the mid-nineteenth century inadequate transportation limited the physical growth of the c i t y to a radius of approximately three miles.^ Absence of elevators limited v e r t i c a l expansion.  Therefore, i t was only possible f o r growth to occur by  covering every square inch of available space.  Residences,  factories, shops, and o f f i c e s a l l crowded closely together around the center.  There was l i t t l e space a l l o t t e d f o r park  or recreation a c t i v i t y i n the c i t y center.  This heritage of  c i t y growth s t i l l remains and i s evident i n present day structures,  street patterns,  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  Technological d u s t r i a l production and have permitted locations.  concepts.  improvements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and i n -  have allowed the area of the  c i t y to  increase  d i s p e r s a l of many a c t i v i t i e s to p e r i p h e r a l  Despite  the movement of many f u n c t i o n s away from  c e n t r a l c i t y the demand f o r space has not been reduced.  the  Gener-  a l l y , the .central a r e a i s m u t u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e from a l l p a r t s the m e t r o p o l i t a n  region.  F o r t h i s reason, i t now  f u n c t i o n s t h a t serve the m e t r o p o l i s  as a whole and  of  a t t r a c t s those those t h a t 5  require a considerable  amount of i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t .  In  other words, the r o l e of the c e n t r a l area of the modern c i t y changed from one  of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ' t o one  of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  The most conspicuous occupant of the c i t y c e n t e r i s the f i e d r e t a i l business; shops.  The  has  l a r g e department s t o r e s and  diversi-  specialty  importance of r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s , however,- i s s u r -  passed by the c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d complex of b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s t h a t occupy the o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the core:  the  corporations,  m i n i s t r a t i o n and establishments and  central  the f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , p u b l i c  the p r o f e s s i o n a l s who  serve  such as h o t e l s , r e s t a u r a n t s ,  p r i n t e r s are a l s o found i n the  them.  The  ad-  support  entertainment  centers,  core.  I n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t the t r e n d toward s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i l l continue and  t h a t the  s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s i n the  core w i l l a t t r a c t an i n c r e a s i n g number of persons. t h i s t r e n d i s found i n the r a p i d expansion of the t e r t i a r y s e c t o r s of the it  appears t h a t i t w i l l ,  economy.  central  Evidence of service  and  I f t h i s t r e n d continues,  s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given  and to  the e f f e c t i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y w i l l have on the c e n t r a l c i t y and how t h i s a c t i v i t y w i l l be accommodated.  Aside from the many  t e c h n i c a l , economic and s o c i a l problems a s s o c i a t e d with h i g h d e n s i t y development, b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given t o the space t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e .  Land s u p p l i e s are d i m i n i s h i n g i n those  areas where urban c o n c e n t r a t i o n  e x i s t s o r can e x i s t . 'Land i s  7 i r r e p l a c e a b l e ; i t cannot be imported from other p l a c e s .  The  s c a r c i t y of land i n the c e n t r a l c i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n the i n crease  i n land values  t h a t has occurred  d u r i n g recent y e a r s .  A  new system.providing f o r more e f f i c i e n t use of urban space must be The  developed. A i r Rights  Concept  Intensive  development of the c i t y and e f f i c i e n t use o f  8 urban space i s s t i l l almost an unchartered f r o n t i e r .  Attempts  are b e i n g made now t o develop concepts t h a t w i l l provide f o r efficient utilization :  has  o f space w i t h i n c i t i e s .  received considerable  One concept t h a t  a t t e n t i o n i n recent years but has not  yet been implemented t o any l a r g e degree i s the concept of a i r r i g h t s usage and the m u l t i p l e use o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r i g h t s o f way. use  A p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s concept o f development permits  efficient  o f space w i t h i n t h e crowded downtown area and the u t i l i z a t i o n  of the space above o r below the major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s t h a t l e a d t o the c i t y c e n t e r .  T h i s concept has been  eloquently  q  described •  i n the "Buchanan Report": "There' i s a new. and l a r g e l y unexplored f i e l d i t i n v o l v e s abandoning the i d e a t h a t urban areas must n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i s t of b u i l d i n g s s e t , a l o n g s t r e e t s w i t h one design f o r the b u i l d i n g s and one f o r the s t r e e t s . T h i s i s only a c o n v e n t i o n .  4  I f the b u i l d i n g s and access ways are thought of t o g e t h e r as c o n s t i t u t i n g the b a s i c m a t e r i a l s of c i t i e s , then they can be molded and combined i n a l l s o r t s of ways, many of which are more advantageous than the c o n v e n t i o n a l s t r e e t . " Added support i s g i v e n to the concept of the m u l t i p l e use of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r i g h t s of way  i n a r e p o r t prepared i n 1963  by Lawrence H a l p r i n f o r the San F r a n c i s c o Board of S u p e r v i s o r s . ^ 1  H a l p r i n recommended the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r freeway d e s i g n : 1.  Urban freeways should be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the c i t y not simply be c o r r i d o r s through i t .  and  They should pass  through b u i l d i n g s , have shops, r e s t a u r a n t s and p a r k i n g garages i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e i r 2.  structure.  Freeways should be b u i l t as p a r t of a t o t a l community development,  not u n i l a t e r a l l y .  They can take the l e a d  i n g e n e r a t i n g amenity i n a c i t y i n new  or r e b u i l t  areas  by h a v i n g parks and playgrounds pass under them and . s t r u c t u r e s b u i l t over them.  new  U l t i m a t e l y i t i s the de-  s i g n of the freeway which counts more than the s t r u c t u r e itself. The H i s t o r y of A i r Space Usage Although i n t e r e s t i n a i r r i g h t s has r e c e n t l y been aroused, the concept of. a i r space u t i l i z a t i o n i s not e n t i r e l y new.  One  of the e a r l i e s t remaining examples i s the Ponte Vecchio  Bridge over the Arno R i v e r i n F l o r e n c e , I t a l y . c o n s t r u c t i o n i n 1345  1 1  Since i t s r e -  and i n s p i t e of bomb damage d u r i n g World  War,II,  the shops over the span s t i l l remain a t o u r i s t  today.  ,  -  attraction  A i r space, u t i l i z a t i o n i n North America f i r s t began 12  with the use of the a i r space over railroads.  Because of the  railroads' early land holdings, many of t h e i r terminal f a c i l i t i e s often preceded the downtown development of c i t i e s .  Most of the  railroads have sizeable land holdings near the core .areas of cities.  Such areas are usually of high density and high land  value.  The profitable development of the a i r space over these  f a c i l i t i e s was f i r s t recognized by railroad o f f i c i a l s i n 1902. Considerable interest i n a i r rights development has been generated i n recent years i n conjunction with accelerated freeway building programs.  A i r rights u t i l i z a t i o n i s considered  to be an effective way of solving some of the problems caused by freeways i n urban areas.. • The t r a d i t i o n a l complaints about freeways within urban 1^  areas have centered on four basic issues: 1.  The'dislocation of families and businesses along the freeway right of way.  2.  The taking up of valuable land f o r a single purpose,. which while d i r e c t l y associated with economic growth does not of i t s e l f generate commercial a c t i v i t y .  3.  The removal of land from the tax r o l l s of the community.  4.  The aesthetic impact of the freeway on the neighbourhood. Associated with t h i s complaint i s the destructive or disruptive effect of freeways on neighbourhood pattern where neighbourhoods are separated, truncated or even destroyed.  Dislocation of Families and Business Freeway alignments i n urban areas are often determined by law acquisition costs f o r right-of-way.  This least cost  c r i t e r i a often dictates freeways to pass through areas of marginal economic activity' or run down r e s i d e n t i a l areas. One of the most serious problems facing freeway builders i s the matter of dislocating families and businesses with limited capability f o r adequate relocation.  Use of freeway a i r rights  not only provides f o r new accommodation f o r displaced persons and business, but can also contribute to solving the broader problem of overall inadequate shelter supply. An a i r rights development project f o r Washington, D. C. proposes accommodation 1 A  for 3 2 7 families. families.  The area affected previously housed  195  Judicious use of a i r space throughout a freeway  system within the confines of a community can contribute much to efforts to provide new housing f o r increasing urban populations. Single Use of Urban Land . While a freeway i s capable of providing vehicle access 'to the center of the c i t y , the physical characteristic, and i t s inherent t r a f f i c generating characteristics require that i n creasing areas of the c i t y be devoted to vehicle.movement or 15 •  storage.  Although t r a f f i c may be generated, commercial  a c t i v i t y may be squeezed from the center of the c i t y .  Inte-  gration of freeways with parking and commercial f a c i l i t i e s makes more space available f o r commercial a c t i v i t y that has greater • economic a c t i v i t y generating characteristics.  Rapid t r a n s i t or  7  mass surface transit should be integrated with freeway development to provide a complete transport system i n which the components are complementary rather than competitive. The Impact on C i t y Revenues City governments are constantly being called upon to increase the quality and scope of public services. At the same time they face r i s i n g public opposition to tax increases and erosion of the assessment base by increasing demand f o r land f o r 16 public uses..  A i r rights development allows f o r the continued  acquisition of space for public transportation f a c i l i t i e s without substantially reducing the amount of taxable land within the c i t y . Impact of Aesthetics The aesthetic importance of a i r rights i s f a i r l y obvious.  Instead of a s i x or eight lane s t r i p of concrete i n the  heart of the c i t y , a i r rights development would permit much of the freeways to be covered over by attractive housing and business structures, parks, greenery or play areas.  As well, freeways  then would no longer divide neighbourhoods or cut communities into sections.  Freeways would essentially be out of sight, be  inconspicuous and integrated with c i v i c design as a whole. Many c r i t i c a l arguments have been put forth i n opposition to a i r rights u t i l i z a t i o n including a i r p o l l u t i o n , noise and vibration.  Upon careful evaluation of these arguments,  i t has been found that c r i t i c s are not against the higher use of 17  land or the multiple use of space.  Instead, t h e i r argument i s  against the internal combustion engine, against freeways and  8 other n o n - a i r r i g h t s Examples  issues.  of A i r R i g h t s Development There are many examples  of a i r r i g h t s development  j e c t s throughout the world today.  G e n e r a l l y , there are two  trends t h a t predominate a i r r i g h t s  utilization:  pro-  1.  Use of a i r space above r a i l r o a d s and r a i l r o a d y a r d s .  2.  Use of a i r space above freeways and urban  streets.  United States The f i r s t a i r r i g h t s development began i n New  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  York C i t y i n 1902 w i t h the development  of the Park i ft  Avenue Complex over the New Today, t h i s development  York C e n t r a l M a r s h a l l i n g Y a r d s .  o c c u p i e s 19 a c r e s of l a n d i n Manhattan  and s t r e t c h e s f o r ten b l o c k s a l o n g Park Avenue. s p e c t a c u l a r b u i l d i n g i n New  The most  York C e n t r a l ' s a i r r i g h t s  development  i s the PANAM B u i l d i n g which r i s e s over the Grand C e n t r a l T e r m i n a l . The PANAM B u i l d i n g r i s e s 59 s t o r e y s and c o n t a i n s some 2,400,000 square f e e t o f f l o o r space.  Other a i r r i g h t s uses over New  C e n t r a l l a n d i n c l u d e a middle income h o u s i n g p r o j e c t : 19 V i l l a g e , on 10 a c r e s over the North Haven Yards. ^  Concourse  Another  new  l a n d mark on the Manhattan  Scene i n New  Telephone B u i l d i n g .  s p o r t s a r e a i s proposed i n a i r r i g h t s 20  A new  over the P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t i o n .  York i s the New  York  York  Penn S t a t i o n and t r a c k a g e w i l l  remain i n use underneath. The C i t y o f Chicago has l o n g witnessed e x t e n s i v e u t i l i z a t i o n ' o f a i r r i g h t s over r a i l r o a d t r a c k a g e .  The Merchan-  d i s e Mart, one of the l a r g e s t o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s i n the world, was  erected over Chicago and Northwestern Railroad Trackage i n 1929.  More recent developments include the twin towered Marina  City Apartments and the Outer East Drive Apartments.  Other  examples of a i r rights u t i l i z a t i o n in Chicago include the 40 storey Prudential Building, the Chicago Sun-Times Building, the old Chicago Daily News. Building and Chicago Union Station. 21  Several other developments are i n the stage of contemplation. In Philadelphia on a 23 acre s i t e the Penn Center Complex rises above the Pennsylvania Railroad.  The development  includes three 20 storey office buildings, one 18 storey o f f i c e building, a 1000 room hotel, a transportation.center combining an underground bus terminal and a four l e v e l 1000 car parking garage,, a luxury apartment building and one co-operative apart22 ment house.  ,A pleasant esplanade runs between the buildings  and provides an attractive setting f o r buildings and pedestrians in the downtown area. Underground, the buildings are connected by a concourse which leads to the bus terminal, to the Pennsylvania suburban r a i l r o a d station and to subway stations.  The  concourse also contains a variety of stores, an ice skating rink and sunken gardens. The u t i l i z a t i o n of a i r space on highways f i r s t occurred i n 1940 when parking areas were developed under the San Francisco approach to the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge..  J  Further developments of t h i s type i n the U. S. were limited u n t i l after the i n i t i a t i o n of the Federal Aid Highway Act_ of 1956.  Public use of the a i r space over and under highways f o r  parking purposes was permissible under t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . •  10 Examples  of p a r k i n g under I n t e r s t a t e Highways can be found i n  Orlando, F l o r i d a , under the Alaskan Way Washington, California. way  Viaduct i n S e a t t l e ,  and under the Santa Monica Freeway i n Santa Monica, Cobo H a l l C i v i c Center over the John Lodge E x p r e s s -  i n D e t r o i t i s an i m p r e s s i v e example of the u t i l i z a t i o n  of  a i r space above freeways f o r p a r k i n g purposes. In  the F e d e r a l Highway Act of 1961, U. S. Congress  saw the need to permit p r i v a t e as w e l l as p u b l i c development i n freeway a i r r i g h t s — L e g i s l a t i o n was  and not l i m i t e d to p a r k i n g a l o n e . ^  e f f e c t e d to p r o v i d e f o r . a n y use t h a t d i d not  impair the f u l l use and s a f e t y of the highway o r i n t e r f e r e w i t h the  f r e e and safe flow of t r a f f i c on the highway f a c i l i t y .  Since 1961 more than 150 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the use of i n t e r s t a t e highway a i r space have been approved. a p p l i c a t i o n s were f o r p a r k i n g  About t w o - t h i r d s of these  structures.  Other uses of highway a i r space are f e a s i b l e as exh i b i t e d by an i m p r e s s i v e a r r a y of p r o j e c t s t h a t have been taken s i n c e 1961.  under-  In Burmingham, Alabama, the U n i v e r s i t y o f  Alabama M e d i c a l Center i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n a i r space. R i v e r , Massachusetts a new  c i t y h a l l complex  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n freeway a i r r i g h t s .  In F a l l  i s proposed f o r  The complex w i l l c o n s i s t of  three b u i l d i n g s and the community o b j e c t i v e of the  development  i s to r e s t o r e downtown c o n t i n u i t y . Since the 1961 A c t , urban space under freeways has been e f f e c t i v e l y used f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l areas and playgrounds i n some a r e a s .  E x c e l l e n t examples  of t h i s type of development  can  be found at the southern end of the Bronx Whitstone B r i d g e i n  11 New York.  R e c r e a t i o n a l uses are proposed f o r an e l e v a t e d  s e c t i o n o f freev/ay t h a t passes through a s e c t i o n of New/ark, N..J. t h a t was t o r n by r a c i a l r i o t s i n the summer of 1967. ' P a r t of the U n i t e d Nations B u i l d i n g i s c o n s t r u c t e d 'over F r a n k l i n D. Roosevelt  Drive.  A l s o i n New York, a park and  p e d e s t r i a n promenade and a l o c a l s e r v i c e s t r e e t are c o n s t r u c t e d in  two t i e r s above the Brooklyn-Owens Expressway betv/een  Brooklyn  Bridge  and A t l a n t i c Avenue.  Another e x c e l l e n t  develop-  ment i n New York has taken p l a c e a t the east end approaches t o the George Washington B r i d g e . P u b l i c Roads -co-operated for  In 1958 the U. S. Bureau of  with the C i t y of New York i n a r r a n g i n g  a p p r o p r i a t i o n of a "three dimensional"  easement to- accommo-  date the highway; l e a v i n g t h e ' r e s t o f the a i r r i g h t s e s t a t e t o the c i t y .  A $13 m i l l i o n p r o j e c t was c o n s t r u c t e d by the P o r t of  New York A u t h o r i t y i n p a r t o f t h i s r e s i d u a l space. then s o l d the balance.of for  The c i t y  the a i r r i g h t s a t an a u c t i o n i n I960  $1,065»000 t o accommodate c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f o u r 32 s t o r e y  apartment b u i l d i n g s .  These b u i l d i n g s have s i n c e been  constructed 25  and provide 960 s u i t e s f o r low t o moderate income f a m i l i e s . In Chicago the Post O f f i c e stands above the Eisenhower Expressway. Some t o l l roads have found a i r r i g h t s usage t o be an e f f e c t i v e way t o j o i n t h e i r s e r v i c e area f a c i l i t i e s — v i d i n g r e s t a u r a n t s i n a i r space over the t o l l way. Restaurant  c o n s t r u c t e d over the I l l i n o i s Tollway  by p r o -  The o a s i s  j u s t a t the o u t -  s k i r t s of Chicago i s one example. Other notable  a i r r i g h t s development p r o j e c t s are i n  the a c t i v e p l a n n i n g stage  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  In P h i l a d e l p h i a ,  12 a landscaped cover over a section of the Delaware Expressway i s proposed.  The landscaped cover w i l l provide a l i n k over the  highway between the new Penns landing Waterfront Development which w i l l contain two v i s i t o r centers, a substantive new hotel, a 30 storey, world trade center, a yacht basin f o r h i s t o r i c and private vessels, a r i v e r related museum and a science museum. On the other side of the highway i s Independence National H i s t 27 oric Park and an Old H i s t o r i c Neighbourhood. In F l i n t , Michigan, a study has recently been completed for the F l i n t Housing Corporation to investigate the possible use 28 of a i r rights for a low rental housing development.  Another,  study of a similar nature has recently been completed i n Washington, D. C. . 2  9  The plan developed by Victor Gruen f o r renewal of the Central area of Cincinnati, Ohio incorporates the use of a i r space. loop road.  The 15 block core area i s ringed by a double one way In the center of the core one large block i s to be  used f o r a public transportation terminal, underground f a c i l i t i e s 1  of which are reachable by roads routed underground within the core area.  Surfaces of streets within the area remain free from  a l l t r a f f i c for the exclusive use of pedestrians. Japan There are several excellent examples of a i r space u t i l i zation and multiple-use of rights-of-way i n Japan.^  The concept  i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance to a country l i k e Japan where land area i s small and the population i s large.  Included i n the  examples i s an elevated section of highway near the Ginza i n the heart of Tokyo. Below the expressway are three stories of  13  shops and o f f i c e s .  The facade of the buildings i s designed as a  brick faced building right to the top of the elevated highway r a i l i n g ; t h i s tends to preserve the architectural i n t e g r i t y of the environment and few shoppers below are aware of the transportation corridor that passes above them.  Another example i s  found at Tokyo University where tennis courts are b u i l t above a section of urban expressway. Canada In Canada, the best examples of a i r rights developments can be found i n Montreal.  In Montreal, Place V i l l e Marie,  Place Bonaventure and the Queen Elizabeth Hotel have been b u i l t over railway- tracks.  The impressive feature of a i r rights develop-  ment, however, has been not only the development of these projects but also the fact that they are interconnected and linked with underground t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s by underground pedestrian c o r r i dors.  Also i n Montreal, Expo's Habitat i s an example of the  adaption of a i r rights development f o r purposes of providing housing. Other Canadian c i t i e s including Vancouver and Edmonton have a i r rights development projects above railroads i n the planning stage.  A consortium representing the Canadian P a c i f i c  Railway, commercial and f i n a n c i a l interests i s planning an 8,800,000 square feet business and r e s i d e n t i a l complex that w i l l cover 742,000 square feet of railway trackage on the Vancouver waterfront. In Edmonton, i t has recently been announced that the c i t y and the Canadian National Railway have entered into an  14  agreement whereby the railroad w i l l make 98 acres of land i n downtown Edmonton available f o r a i r rights developments. I n i t i a l reports indicate that accommodation f o r an integrated freeway and transit system w i l l be made within the a i r rights development.  Pedestrian circulation i n the core of the CBD i s to  be moved to an'underground system of sub-streets.  The'initial  phase of t h i s development i s scheduled f o r implementation during . 1968-1969.  •  Europe and the United Kingdom Examples of a i r space u t i l i z a t i o n i n Europe are limited.  In Stockholm a restaurant i s constructed above the  entrance to a tunnel.  In Poznom, Poland a valued old section of  the c i t y has been preserved by tunnelling an urban freeway below the area.  . In B r i t i s h new towns, such as Cumbernauld and Irwine,  the downtown core is. designed as a single m u l t i - l e v e l building or megastructure containing within i t highways, pedestrian streets, parking and a l l the public and private uses normally associated with a downtown. -Implications of A i r Space Usage i n B r i t i s h Columbia The' completed or contemplated a i r rights projects that have been examined i n the section indicate the wide range of projects i n which the a i r rights concept i s applicable.  These  examples also serve to i l l u s t r a t e that a i r rights development i s not a new concept, and that s u f f i c i e n t precedent has been set i n a i r rights development that a meaningful study of the associated problems can be made.  -  15  The  concept o f a i r r i g h t s development has p a r t i c u l a r  to the Province population province  of B r i t i s h Columbia.  At the present time, the  o f B. C. i s g r o w i n g a t a f a s t e r r a t e t h a n a n y o t h e r  i n Canada.  however, p r o v i d e settlement. in  The r u g g e d t o p o g r a p h y a n d v a r i e d  only  One a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t i s s c h e d u l e d t o be  mand f o r u r b a n l a n d porate other  g r o w t h and i n c r e a s e d  planning. with  " P r o j e c t 200", t h e f i r s t  h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t a number o f p r o b l e m s h a v e been developing  t h i s p r o j e c t . The f i r s t  by- t h e F e d e r a l  not  f o r r a i l w a y p u r p o s e s . The a u t h o r i t y o f t h e  defined.  e f f e c t i n the project area.  controls the surface  200"  government  company t o u s e a i r s p a c e a b o v e r a i l w a y r i g h t s - o f - . w a y i s  clearly  for  companies  r e s t r i c t e d by s t a t u t e from a l i e n a t i n g  A f u r t h e r problem i s created in  encountered  government. R a i l w a y s i n Canada r e c e i v e  s u b s i d i e s and a r e t h e r e f o r e required  Columbia  problem a r i s e s from  c o n t r o l s t h a t h a v e b e e n l e g i s l a t e d upon t h e r a i l w a y  railway  de-  a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s w i t h f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  m a j o r a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t t o be u n d e r t a k e n i n B r i t i s h  lands  constructed  s u g g e s t t h a t i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o i n c o r -  O f f i c i a l s associated  in  climate,  s m a l l a r e a s t h a t a r e a t t r a c t i v e f o r human  Vancouver i n 1968. Rapid population  land use  relevance  by t h e zoning  The e x i s t i n g z o n i n g  that i s  by-law  use o f l a n d b u t does n o t c o n t a i n  provisions  t h e m u l t i p l e use* o f l a n d . R e - z o n i n g o f t h e s i t e f o r " P r o j e c t will  be a p p l i e d f o r u n d e r t h e C o m p r e h e n s i v e D e v e l o p m e n t  section of the zoning  b y - l a w . These p r o v i s i o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y  v a g u e , h o w e v e r , a n d do n o t e s t a b l i s h s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s ^  •• [  16  relating to a i r space usage. Indecision on the type and location of future transportation f a c i l i t i e s i s also causing the developer considerable d i f f i c u l t y .  This results from the lack of an  integrated policy on land use and transportation planning. The object of t h i s thesis i s to examine these problems that have been encountered i n the development of "Project. 200" and other problems that may develop in u t i l i z i n g a i r space above other transportation corridors. Potential sites exist for a i r rights developments above highways, freeways, streets, lanes or t r a n s i t l i n e s . Implications of a i r rights developments over these f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be examined. The i m p l i c i t assumption i s made that the current status of architectural,engineering and. construction technology i s adequate to provide functional a i r rights developments. The methodology of study w i l l include an examination of the following factors: 1.  Documentation'of a i r rights development projects i n Canada, United States, Japan, Europe and the United Kingdom.  2.  Legal and l e g i s l a t i v e implications.  3.  Financial implications.  4.  Planning  considerations.  Recommendations w i l l then be made that w i l l : 1.  Encourage the u t i l i z a t i o n  of a i r rights above highways  and other transportation corridors. 2.  Insure that the f u l l potential of a i r rights development w i l l be achieved.-  16 Footnotes 1  Davis, Kingsley, "The Urbanization of the Human Population" C i t i e s , ed. S c i e n t i f i c American (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), p. 3 .  2  1966 Census of Canada DBS No. 92-606 Vol. 1 Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , 1966 Census of Canada Population, No. 92-606, Vol. 1 (1-6), June, 1967.  3'  Davis, Kingsley, op. c i t . , p. 4.  4  Blumenfeld, Hans, "The Modern Metropolis", C i t i e s , ed. S c i e n t i f i c American (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), p. 48,  5  Blumenfeld, Hans, i b i d . , p. 50.  6  Financial Post, Toronto, Dec. 3, 1967.  7'  Gruen, Victor, The Heart of Our C i t i e s , (New York: and Schuster, 196*7), p. 102.  8  Abrams, Charles, "The Uses of Land i n C i t i e s " C i t i e s , ed.S c i e n t i f i c American (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), . p. 122.  9  Great B r i t a i n , Report of the Steering Group and Working Group Appointed by the Ministry of Transport, Traffic i n Towns," (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1963).  10  Halprin, Lawrence, "The Fight to Tame the Urban Freeway Takes a Positive New Turn", Architectural Forum, October, 1963, p. 70.  11  U. S., Congress, Senate, Subcommittee on Business and Commerce of Committee on the D i s t r i c t of Columbia, Hearings, Use of Airspace -In the D i s t r i c t of Columbia, 90th Congress, 1st Session, 1967, p. 103.  12  Thompson, Loren L., "Air. Rights: Right of Way, June 1965, p. 7.  13  U. S. Congress, Senate, op. c i t . , p. 154.  14  Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton, The Joint Development of Housing and Freeways,. D i s t r i c t of Columbia Department of Highways and the Bureau of Public Roads, March, 1965.'  15  Jacobs Jane, The Death and Life of Great American C i t i e s (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), p. 344.  Simon  Today and Tomorrow",  17 M i t c h e l l , Gordon, Sick C i t i e s , Penguin Books Inc. 1965. This author quotes s t a t i s t i c s from the City of Los Angeles: (a) 2/3 of downtown Los Angeles i s given over to the automobile; (b) each interchange requires approximately 80 acres of land; (c) each mile of freeway consumes approximately 24 acres of land; (d) parking space provided i n L. A. between 1951 and 1961 deducted 810 m i l l i o n worth of assessment' from•the c i t y ' s revenue potential. 17  U. S., Congress, Senate, op. c i t . , p. 40.  18  Thompson, l o c . c i t . p. 6.  19  Thompson, l o c . c i t . p.. 6.  20  Thompson, l o c . c i t . p. 8.  21  Lesch, Lyndon H., CPM, " A i r Rights: Past, Present and Future," Journal of Property Management, V o l . 29, Number 1, F a l l 196TT  22  U. S. Congress, Senate, l o c . c i t . , p. 61.  23  U. S. Congress, Senate, l o c . c i t . , p. 108.  24  U.'S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Public Roads, Instructional Memorandum 21-3-62, Use of A i r Space on the Interstate System, May 4, 19~E2~.  25  White, John Robert, "George Washington Bridge Approach: A Case Study", The Appraisal Journal, V o l . XXXIV, No. 1, January 1966, p. 32 - 40.  26  U. S., Congress, Senate, l o c . c i t .  27  U. S., Congress, Senate, Loc. c i t .  28  Sedgewick, Sellers and Associates, Inc., A i r Rights Above Freeways, F l i n t Michigan, March, 1965.  29 . Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton, The Joint Development of Housing and Freeways f o r the D i s t r i c t of Columbia, Department of Highways and the Bureau of Public Roads, March, 1965. 30  V i c t o r Gruen, The Heart of Our C i t i e s , (New York: Schuster, 1967) p. 232.  31  Sadamu, Mino, "Multiple Use of Highway Rights-of Way", Proceedings of the T h i r t y - F i f t h Annual Meeting, Institute of T r a f f i c Engineers (1955).  Simon and  19  CHAPTER I I LEGAL AND  LEGISLATIVE IMPLICATIONS OF AIR  In order -that a i r r i g h t s may  SPACE USAGE  be developed i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, the concept/must have a sound l e g a l b a s i s and with e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n .  conform  T h i s Chapter examines the p o s i t i o n of  a i r r i g h t s at common law and  a l s o the  relevant  legislative  s t a t u t e s to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of a i r r i g h t s development. I f c o n f l i c t s arid d i s c r e p a n c i e s e x i s t between the common p r i n c i p l e s and  the s t a t u t e s or between the v a r i o u s s t a t u t e s , they  w i l l be noted and A i r R i g h t s and  law  r e v i s i o n s w i l l be  the Law  of R e a l  At common law,  suggested.  Property  the g e n e r a l r u l e r e s p e c t i n g the p r i v a t e  owners' r i g h t s i n land i s the maxim: ad coelum et ad i n f e r o s ; he who to the heavens and  cu.jus est solum e s t usque  owns the s o i l owns e v e r y t h i n g  down to h e l l . ^  T h i s h i s t o r i c concept of  up  the 2  freedom of land owners has been l i m i t e d i n a number of ways: (a)  By other r i g h t s over h i s l a n d - Rights-of-way, r i g h t s of tenants under l e a s e or the r i g h t s of mortgagees.'  (b)  By a d m i n i s t r a t i v e law*— Zoning Bylaws, P o l l u t i o n Bylaws.  (c)  By l i a b i l i t y i n t o r t , / L i a b i l i t y f o r damages caused to. t h i r d p a r t i e s by h i s a c t s or omissions i n r e s p e c t of t h i n g s brought or a r t i f i c i a l l y s t o r e d on h i s l a n d .  (d)  A i r space - The Canada A e r o n a u t i c s Act of 1920 p r o v i d e s t h a t a landowner has no a c t i o n with r e s p e c t to o c c a s i o n a l passage of a i r c r a f t above h i s l a n d ,  20 provided p r o p e r • f l y i n g r e g u l a t i o n s are observed. A i r p o r t zoning r e s t r i c t s what a landowner can and cannot b u i l d on h i s l a n d . A c t i o n s f o r nuisance and/or t r e s p a s s i n g may be f i l e d f o r the passage dangerous p r o j e c t i l e s over land at a h e i g h t of 75 f e e t or l e s s , or f o r permanent occupation of a i r s p a c e over the l a n d of another without h i s consent. (e)  M i n e r a l s - The Crown has the r i g h t to a l l g o l d , s i l v e r and petroleum found beneath or on the l a n d .  (f)  Treasure Trove - The Crown i s e n t i t l e d to a l l t r e a s u r e trove t h a t may be found on a l a n d owners property.  (g)  Wild Animals - Wild animals are not the s u b j e c t ownership.  (h.)  Wat^r - A l a n d owner has no p r o p e r t y i n water which, e i t h e r p e r c o l a t e s through h i 3 l a n d or flows through i t i n a d e f i n e d channel. At common law,  l a n d i n c l u d e s a l l t h i n g s permanently  a f f i x e d to i t - t r e e s , b u i l d i n g s , f e n c e s . t r a n s f e r r e d , the document may  Thus,when l a n d i s  d e s c r i b e the l a n d a c c o r d i n g  l o c a t i o n or dimensions; n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  i t i s presumed t h a t  t h i n g a f f i x e d to l a n d goes w i t h i t . No between l a n d and b u i l d i n g s at law;  to i t s every-  d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn  the two  are lumped  when a s c e r t a i n i n g ownership or t r a n s f e r r i n g the The  of  together  land.^  d e s c r i p t i o n of l a n d as o u t l i n e d above  creates  problems i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l e g a l a u t h o r i t y f o r the s a l e of a i r r i g h t s and  the development of a i r space.  I t has  not been necess-  ary f o r E n g l i s h Courts to g i v e l i t e r a l e f f e c t to the maxim, cujus est solum ejus est usque ad coelum, and no  court has  done  4 so. may  The  c o u r t s have e s t a b l i s h e d , t h a t land as a p h y s i c a l o b j e c t  have boundaries h o r i z o n t a l as w e l l as v e r t i c a l ,  as w e l l as r e c t i l i n e a r .  curvilinear  I t t h e r e f o r e f o l l o w s t h a t j u s t as  s t r a t a which makes up the l a n d may  the  be d i v i d e d among d i f f e r e n t  21 owners as i n the  case of t u n n e l s , mine s h a f t s or other under-  ground f a c i l i t i e s , air  above the  i t should  surface.  be p o s s i b l e to own  the  s t r a t a of  Although t h i s approach appears to  be  c o r r e c t i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w that i t a p p l i e s to a i r space s i m p l i c i t e r (by i t s e l f ) . ^ and  space as such.are not  In the view of F o u r n i e r J . , a i r  s u s c e p t i b l e of ownership but f a l l  the category of res omnium communis ( t h i n g s of a l l the " S t r a t a above the  surface  cannot be  severed i n t i t l e  into  community).  unless  a c t u a l l y forming p a r t of the b u i l d i n g s because no feoffment  could  be made of such s t r a t a or b u i l d i n g s .  no.  doubt about the g e n e r a l rupted  use  However, there  can be  r i g h t of the landowner to the  arid enjoyment of h i s p r o p e r t y  by, for j  uninter-  example, b u i l d -  ing  upwards from h i s land nor to h i s r i g h t to o b j e c t to anyone  who  purports  to occupy the column of a i r above h i s l a n d ;  r i g h t to the enjoyment of the d e n t a l r i g h t to use  surface  the a i r s p a c e  used i n connection to p o s s e s s i o n . s e l f and  c a r r i e s w i t h i t the  above the l a n d .  element of e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s present,  the inci-  So l o n g as  i t would seem t h a t a i r  the 3pace  w i t h a c t i v i t i e s on the ground i s s u s c e p t i b l e  B u i l d i n g s upon l a n d forming p a r t of the l a n d i t -  p a s s i n g with i t have no b e a r i n g  on a i r r i g h t s  7  simpliciter." not  The  d e c i s i o n s t h a t have been d e s c r i b e d  i n h i b i t persons from making t r a n s i e n t use  private property  above do  of a i r space above  i n circumstances h a v i n g no b e a r i n g  on an  occu-  b  1  p i e r s use 1.  and The  enjoyment of the subjacent s o i l . f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n may be summarized as  follows:  A i r and space by themselves are not s u s c e p t i b l e of ownership. Only a f t e r a b u i l d i n g i s c o n s t r u c t e d does the a i r s p a c e become subject to possession, by v i r t u e of becoming p a r t of the l a n d .  22 2.  The p o s s i b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l and separate ownership of d i f f e r e n t s t r a t a and space w i t h i n a b u i l d i n g has been recognized by the c o u r t s . The major problem with r e s p e c t to i n d i v i d u a l  separate ownership i s one  of d e s c r i p t i o n .  " I t may  and  be noted t h a t  present s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s and procedures under the  Torrens  Act i n terms of ground survey evidenced by p o s t i n g , t r a v e r s e s and a c o n f o r m i t y w i t h e x i s t i n g r e g i s t e r e d and d e p o s i t e d s u b d i v i s i o n s m a k e . l i t t l e or no p r o v i s i o n f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n s n e c e s s a r y to i d e n t i f y w i t h p r e c i s i o n those areas comprising rooms, f l a t s , o f f i c e s and apartments not r e s t i n g d i r e c t l y upon the s o i l  but  supported e n t i r e l y by the surrounding p a r t s of the b u i l d i n g or q structure.  I , J  T h e r e f o r e , the problem has been one of  adequately  d e s c r i b i n g the p o s i t i o n of u n i t s of space w i t h i n s t r a t a that l e g a l i n t e r e s t i n the u n i t s can be A i r R i g h t s and S t a t u t o r y  such  registered.  Law  The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n has d e s c r i b e d the p o s i t i o n a i r r i g h t s a t common law.  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l examine the S t a t u t e s  r e l a t e d to a i r r i g h t s with a view to i l l u s t r a t i n g and c o n f l i c t s i n the Firstly,  of  inadequacies  legislation.  i t must be e s t a b l i s h e d where the a u t h o r i t y -  r e s t s i n d e a l i n g with matters  concerning a i r r i g h t s .  The  British  North America Act granted a l l powers r e s p e c t i n g p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s to the p r o v i n c e s . ^ c o n t r o l of matters  The Canadian government m a i n t a i n s  r e l a t i n g t o r a i l r o a d s and a e r o n a u t i c s .  a t i o n of the Canada A e r o n a u t i c s Act and the Canada Railway  ExaminAct  has r e v e a l e d no s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t w i t h any of the powers granted to the P r o v i n c e s .  The A e r o n a u t i c s Act (R.S. 1952  c.3)  empowers  the f e d e r a l government to d e a l with a l l matters r e l a t i n g to use  of a i r c r a f t and  of a i r s p a c e .  1 1  i s not  The  concerned with permanent  Railway Act  (R. S. 1952,  the  occupation  c. 234)  grants 12  powers to the r a i l w a y companies p e r m i t t i n g them to Although the f e d e r a l government has a u t h o r i t y to purchase and  dispose  operate.  given the r a i l w a y  of p r o p e r t y  companies  i t mu3t be done so  w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of the l a n d r e g i s t r y system i n each province. In t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s of the Land R e g i s t r y (R.S.B.C. I960, c. 208) 1966, The  c. 55)  and  the S t r a t a T i t l e s Act  r e s p e c t i n g the use  a p p l i c a b i l i t y and  (R.S.B.C.  of a i r space w i l l be  r e l a t i o n s h i p of these two  Act  examined.  Statutes  to  other S t a t u t e s governing the ownership of l a n d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the C i t y of Vancouver, the B. C. Department of Highways and r a i l w a y companies w i l l then be examined. Statutes considered The  (R.S.B.C. I960, c.  Land R e g i s t r y Act p r o v i d e s  r e s p e c t i n g the ownership of land and followed land.  S e c t i o n s of those  to be r e l e v a n t are found i n Appendixes A to  Land R e g i s t r y Act The  the  208)  P.  1 3  statutory regulations  s t i p u l a t e s procedures to be  i n s u b d i v i d i n g , conveying and  registering interests in  Relevant s e c t i o n s of t h i s Act have been e x t r a c t e d and  are  found i n Appendix A. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to recognize of t h i s Act Generally, and  t h a t under the terms  "highway" i s d e f i n e d d i f f e r e n t l y than  "right-of-way".  ownership of a l l highways i s vested with the Crown  the fee simple  title  to highways i s w i t h h e l d .  however, i n c l u d e s land or any  .Right-of-way,  i n t e r e s t i n land that i s acquired  1  2  for  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes other than highways and  p r i v a t e l y or p u b l i c l y owned. charge a g a i n s t a fee simple right-of-way  E i t h e r a fee simple title  4  they may  title  be  or a  are r e q u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h a  interest.  Only the owner of the  surface i s e n t i t l e d to be  remain r e g i s t e r e d as the owner of the fee simple.  The  J  of any p a r t of land above or below i t s s u r f a c e who  or  owner 0  •  i s hot a l s o .  the owner of the s u r f a c e i s only e n t i t l e d to r e g i s t e r h i s e s t a t e or i n t e r e s t as a charge.  A "charge" i s d e f i n e d as "any  l e s s than f e e simple,  s h a l l i n c l u d e any  land and  any  and  encumbrance upon land and  r e g i s t e r e d as a charge ..."  any  equitable i n t e r e s t i n e s t a t e or i n t e r e s t  In the case where no grant of  s u r f a c e has been r e g i s t e r e d , the Crown s h a l l be entered of the  s u r f a c e and  the charge can be r e g i s t e r e d thereon.  s p e c i a l circumstances, C o u n c i l may  estate  the  as owner In  the powers of the Lieutenant-Governor i n  be invoked to "recommend a form or forms of deed  t r a n s f e r , mortgage agreement f o r s a l e , l e a s e , assignment or  any  other form r e q u i r e d f o r d e a l i n g with r e g i s t e r e d i n t e r e s t s i n land."  1 7  The  l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s Act w i t h r e s p e c t to a i r r i g h t s  development appear to be c o n s i s t e n t with common law t h a t a i r and air  space as such are not  decisions  s u s c e p t i b l e of ownership.  An  r i g h t s development p r o j e c t upon being b u i l t could become sub-  j e c t of a form of ownership l e s s than fee simple.  Interest in  the a i r space development c o u l d only be r e g i s t e r e d as a charge a g a i n s t the t i t l e .  I f ownership l e s s than fee simple  i s not  a  d e t e r r e n t to the development of any a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t , the major problem would be to secure  l i c e n c e to use  the a i r space.  The  25 i n t e r e s t o f the a i r space developer could be r e g i s t e r e d a f t e r the p r o j e c t was completed.  The broad powers o f the Lieutenant  Governor i n C o u n c i l could be c a l l e d upon t o grant licence  the s p e c i a l  required. In '(the case of a i r r i g h t s development above highways,  s u b j e c t t o other A c t s , the Crown could be entered  i n the R e g i s t e r  as owner o f the surface r i g h t s o f the land w i t h i n the development and  a charge could be r e g i s t e r e d thereon.  above rights-of-way fee simple t i t l e The  would be l i m i t e d t o those r i g h t s - o f - w a y  where  i s h e l d , s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f other  S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t (R.S.B.C. 1966, c. The  A i r r i g h t s development  Strata T i t l e s Act f u l f i l s  55)  Acts,  1 8  two f u n c t i o n s : ^ 1  1.  I t provides f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and common ownership of property and thereby overcomes the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the Land R e g i s t r y A c t .  2.  I t e s t a b l i s h e s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework t h a t enables the owners o f the u n i t s t o manage the common p r o p e r t y . The" l i m i t a t i o n s o f the Torrens System o f Land R e g i s t r y .  in  adequately d e s c r i b i n g p r o p e r t y  simple t i t l e  f o r purposes o f i s s u i n g a f e e  have p r e v i o u s l y been d i s c u s s e d .  Within  provisions  of the S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t (see Appendix B) i t i s p o s s i b l e owner of s t r a t a l o t s t o secure an i n d e f e a s i b l e t i t l e  for,the  t h a t may be  l e a s e d , mortgaged, t r a n s f e r r e d o r otherwise d e a l t with i n the same manner and form o f any l a n d , the t i t l e  t o which i s r e g i s t e r e d  20 under the Land R e g i s t r y A c t .  The Act r e q u i r e s t h a t t i t l e  t o the  land i n c l u d e d i n the s t r a t a plan be r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e r e g i s t e r o f i n d e f e a s i b l e f e e s ; and the land must be shown as a s i n g l e p a r c e l 21 on a s u b d i v i s i o n plan d e p o s i t e d pursuant t o the Land R e g i s t r y A c t .  26 The  procedures r e q u i r e d  Act f o r purposes of d e v e l o p i n g rights-of-way  with r e s p e c t  cluded  s t r a t a plan are  i n the  to invoke the S t r a t a T i t l e s  a i r r i g h t s above highways or  to s e c u r i n g t i t l e  s i m i l a r to those e s t a b l i s h e d under  the d i s c u s s i o n of the Land R e g i s t r y A c t . the S t r a t a T i t l e s Act may title The  to the  The. M u n i c i p a l  Act  subject to r i g h t s which may  The  indefeasible  (R.S.B.C. I960, c. 2 5 5 )  2 2  have been reserved  Only when a m u n i c i p a l i t y has  or p r e s c r i p t i v e  (See  Appendix C)  s e l l by a u c t i o n  be a d v i s a b l e  i n any  not r e q u i r e d f o r m u n i c i p a l  by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , but  purposes  does not apply to lands  In a d d i t i o n ,  Within  over  With the exception  lands h e l d f o r community r e c r e a t i o n a l or p l e a s u r e  or owned by the  property  possessed  easements or r i g h t s - o f - w a y  owned by the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  C o u n c i l i s permitted  and  T h i s a p p l i e s only to  owned by the Crown.  C o u n c i l i s empowered to grant  or otherwise,  the i n t e r e s t of the' m u n i c i p a l i t y  or d e d i c a t e d .  owned by the m u n i c i p a l i t y and  r e a l property  w i t h the ,  purchased or taken l a n d f o r  on such terms as may  which i s not reserved  The  r e g i s t e r e d i n the name of a m u n i c i p a l i t y .  C o u n c i l of the m u n i c i p a l i t y may  r e a l property  establishes  of every highway i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y ,  f r e e h o l d of every highway, however, i s vested  a highway i s the t i t l e  Acts,  development.  r i g h t s , i s vested w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  Crown.  to other  Rights  that the r i g h t of possession  s o i l and  Subject  then be used to provide  s t r a t a u n i t s w i t h i n the  M u n i c i p a l i t y and A i r  to the land i n -  to a b s o l u t e l y l e a s e any  any of  uses the  r e a l property  municipality. the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t , the powers of  held  27 C o u n c i l are r e s t r i c t e d  i n matters r e l a t i n g to the s a l e or  development of a i r r i g h t s .  Although the Act permits C o u n c i l  s e l l the i n t e r e s t of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n r e a l property quired f o r municipal over r e a l p r o p e r t y ,  purposes, grant  easements and  or l e a s e r e a l property  not  to  re-  rights-of-way  other than parks or  r e c r e a t i o n land owned by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the powers of  Council  i n d e a l i n g w i t h a i r r i g h t s are not  Further,  the ownership of the m a j o r i t y p a l i t y i s vested of the  s p e c i f i c a l l y stated.  of s t r e e t s and  w i t h the Crown, and  lanes i n the  munici-  as such i s beyond c o n t r o l  municipality. Presumably, C o u n c i l does not have the power to  agreements i n v o l v i n g r i g h t s i n land .other than those Therefore,  enter  listed.  the f o l l o w i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y  w i s h i n g t o develop a i r r i g h t s : (a)  A i r r i g h t s may  be  developed by the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r  p u b l i c purposes where no t r a n s f e r of r i g h t s or i n t e r e s t i n l a n d is  involved; (b)  'When the land i n the  s t r e e t i s owned by the  t h a t p o r t i o n of land owned'by the m u n i c i p a l i t y but  municipality,  contained  in  the a i r r i g h t s , development can be l e a s e d to the a i r r i g h t s d e v e l oper.  Surface  uses of the m u n i c i p a l i t y can be maintained by  covenant i n the (c) and  The  lease;  m u n i c i p a l i t y may  construct  l e a s e the p l a t f o r m to a i r r i g h t s The  a  Act only p r o v i d e s  the a i r r i g h t s p l a t f o r m  developers.  f o r the  s a l e of r e a l p r o p e r t y  not  r e q u i r e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s precluded  from s e l l i n g r e q u i r e d lands  such as m u n i c i p a l l y ov/ned  s t r e e t s to a " s t r a t a c o r p o r a t i o n " f o r purposes of a i r r i g h t s  28 development. On  s t r e e t s and  c i p a l i t y and  lanes t h a t are possessed by the muni-  owned by the Crown, a t h r e e - p a r t y  the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the Crown and  agreement between  the a i r r i g h t s developer may  be  used to e f f e c t a l e a s e of land f o r a i r r i g h t s development s i m i l a r to (b) above. Although C o u n c i l i s empowered to r e g u l a t e a l l uses of or i n v o l v i n g * a n y  highway, the Act r e q u i r e s t h a t none of  uses can be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h highv/ay uses given (R.S.B.C. I 9 6 0 ,  V e h i c l e Act  The  use  i n the Motor  352).  Motor V e h i c l e Act r e g u l a t e s the power of  m u n i c i p a l i t y to .provide t r i a n s who  c.  these,  the  f o r the c o n t r o l of v e h i c l e s and  pedes-  the highway, r a t h e r than r e g u l a t i n g the power of  the m u n i c i p a l i t y to d e a l with the highway per se.  This  Act,  t h e r e f o r e , does not p r o h i b i t the m u n i c i p a l i t y from u s i n g a highway for  other than highway purposes.  A i r Rights  i n the C i t y of Vancouver The  Province  of B r i t i s h  Columbia has  granted powers  to the C i t y of Vancouver through the Vancouver C h a r t e r I960,  c. 5 5 ) ,  (See  Appendix D).  Columbia where t i t l e  Unlike m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n  to a l l highways, s t r e e t s and  with the Crown, the r e a l p r o p e r t y  Act.  c i t y , unless  the  British  lanes i s v e s t e d  comprised i n every s t r e e t , park  or p u b l i c square i n the c i t y i s a b s o l u t e l y vested i n the  (R.S.B.C.  street i s classified  i n fee  simple  under the Highways  2 3  The  Charter  empowers the  city  to:  "...provide f o r r e g u l a t i n g encroachments f o r a s t i p u l a t e d l e n g t h of time upon under or over a s t r e e t upon such terms as to r e n t a l , indemnity or otherwise as may be p r e s c r i b e d , and where i t i s deemed necessary,  29 upon c o n d i t i o n t h a t the c i t y s h a l l have a r e g i s t e r e d charge upon the p a r c e l to which such access or encroachment i s appurtenant f o r the due performance of any term so prescribed.and f o r the payment of any sums of money due the c i t y f o r r e n t a l or otherwise, and p r o v i d i n g t h a t any such terms may be i n s e r t e d i n the r e a l p r o p e r t y tax r o l l as a charge imposed with r e s p e c t to such p a r c e l . Any p r o v i s i o n i n an agreement with the c i t y p u r p o r t i n g to create a charge a g a i n s t any p a r c e l a f o r e s a i d f o r the due performance of any terms p r e s c r i b e d as a f o r e s a i d , or f o r the payment of any sums of money a f o r e s a i d , may be r e g i s t e r e d as a charge a g a i n s t the i n t e r e s t i n such p a r c e l of the person making the agreement;" 24 F u r t h e r , to the powers o u t l i n e d above r e g u l a t i n g  en-  croachments upon c i t y owned land, the C i t y have passed Area law No.  2346:  i n g areas,  A By-law f o r p r o h i b i t i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g and  footings, foundations,  or to be c o n s t r u c t e d boulevards and H)  The  openings  i n , on, under or over sidewalks,  other p u b l i c p l a c e s i n the c i t y .  By-law e s t a b l i s h e s the procedures and  the m u l t i p l e use  of c i t y owned l a n d .  number of occasions access  c e l l a r s and  streets, Appendix  rates respecting  I t has been invoked on  a  r o o f overhangs.  Charter f u r t h e r provides  of any  constructed  to accommodate such s t r e e t encroachments  as f i r e - e s c a p e s , b a l c o n i e s and  to dispose  regulat--  i n the c i t y f o r purposes of p r o v i d i n g skywalks  to t h e a t r e s and  The  (See  By-  C o u n c i l with the power  r e a l or p e r s o n a l property  owned by the  city  by s a l e , conveyance, l e a s e or l i c e n c e when, i n the o p i n i o n C o u n c i l , such p r o p e r t y  i s not  • c i t y , under such terms and  r e q u i r e d f o r any  1  c o n d i t i o n s as may  T h i s power i s l i m i t e d to r e a l p r o p e r t y  purpose of  r i g h t s to space above p r o p e r t y .  the c i t y has  entered  the  2 be deemed e x p e d i e n t .  and t h e r e f o r e  cannot grant  of  On  one  Council occasion,  an agreement i n v o l v i n g a i r s p a c e where the  e n t i r e p o r t i o n of a lane has been l e a s e d and  the l e s s e e  has  30 covenanted to permit the c i t y continued  use of the lane and t o 26  provide  accommodation f o r c i t y owned s e r v i c e s .  To date,  this  i s the only i n s t a n c e where the C i t y have l e a s e d any p r o p e r t y to accommodate a i r r i g h t s development.  An a l t e r n a t e procedure  could  be f o r the C i t y to grant a l i c e n c e to c o n s t r u c t a s t r u c t u r e above c i t y p r o p e r t y and the i n t e r e s t of the owner c o u l d be r e g i s t e r e d on the t i t l e  a f t e r the s t r u c t u r e i s b u i l t .  With the powers t h a t the C i t y of Vancouver has over the p u b l i c lands w i t h i n the c i t y i t appears t h a t i t may be p o s s i ble  f o r the C i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a i r r i g h t s development through  the S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t .  The p o r t i o n s t r e e t or right-of-way  i n v o l v e d with the a i r r i g h t s development could be  to be  incorporated  v/ith the S t r a t a plan and the c i t y could be d e c l a r e d as owner of the s u r f a c e s t r a t a by the " s t r a t a c o r p o r a t i o n " . A i r R i g h t s Development Above  Highways  The Department o f Highways d e r i v e s i t s powers from the Highways Act (R.S.B.C. I960, c. 1 0 3 ) . provided  2 7  U n l e s s otherwise  f o r , the s o i l and f r e e h o l d of every p u b l i c highway i s  vested w i t h the Crown.  Under s p e c i a l circumstances,  however,  the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l may t r a n s f e r or d i r e c t the i s s u e of a l e a s e to any person of any p a r t of a highway in  the C r o w n  29  (See Appendix E ) .  vested  The Lieutenant-Governor i n  C o u n c i l i s f u r t h e r empowered to s e l l ,  l e a s e or dispose  tender or p u b l i c a u c t i o n , any r e a l p r o p e r t y no l o n g e r  o f by required  f o r the use of any p u b l i c w o r k s , ( S e e Appendix F ) . Although' the Department of Highways i s empowered to enter i n t o . c e r t a i n agreements concerning  highway  property,  31 a u t h o r i t y r e g a r d i n g a i r r i g h t s i s not c l e a r .  Presumably, the  Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l could grant a l i c e n c e f o r the purpose of e r e c t i n g a s t r u c t u r e above a highway, and could be r e g i s t e r e d a f t e r the s t r u c t u r e was highway p r o p e r t y  a lease  completed.  i s r e s t r i c t e d to r e a l p r o p e r t y  Sale  deemed not  of  re-  q u i r e d , t h e r e f o r e , s a l e of p o r t i o n s of a highway with a view to developing  an a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t u t i l i z i n g p r o v i s i o n s of the  S t r a t a T i t l e s ' Act would appear to be an i m p o s s i b i l i t y . A i r R i g h t s Development Above Railways. In Canada, r a i l w a y s operate under s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s of the B r i t i s h North America A c t . contained  w i t h i n the Province  of the B.N.A. Act p r o v i d e s over r a i l w a y s and  Except f o r r a i l w a y s  wholly  of B r i t i s h Columbia, Schedule I I I  t h a t the f e d e r a l government has  railway companies.  31  The  powers and  control  d u t i e s of  r a i l w a y companies are enumerated i n the R a i l w a y A c t (R. S.  1952,  :  c. 234).  The  powers of r a i l w a y companies i n d e a l i n g with  p r o p e r t y are contained  i n S e c t i o n 164  real  (l)(c):  "The Company may, f o r the purposes of the undertaking, s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s i n t h i s and the S p e c i a l Act contained, purchase, take and h o l d of any person, any lands or other p r o p e r t y necessary f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n , maintenance and o p e r a t i o n of the r a i l w a y and a l s o a l i e n a t e , s e l l or dispose of any lands or p r o p e r t y of the Company t h a t f o r any reason have become not nece s s a r y f o r the purposes of the r a i l w a y ( I t a l i c s mine);" T h i s subsection any  g i v e s a r a i l w a y company power to  of i t s l a n d which have become not necessary f o r the  of i t s r a i l w a y .  The  question  purposes  whether the l a n d has become "super-  f l u o u s " w i t h i n the meaning of the Railway Act i s a question mixed law and  fact.  The  sell  of  Courts have r u l e d t h a t the r u l e t h a t a  r a i l w a y company when a c t i n g i n good f a i t h , i s the  judge.of what  32 i s r e q u i r e d f o r the purposes of i t s r a i l w a y does not' apply to a proceeding  by a c r e d i t o r a g a i n s t the Company.  The  power of  the r a i l w a y to judge t h a t the a i r space above the right-of-way  is  not necessary f o r the purposes of the r a i l w a y i s t h e r e f o r e questionable. There i s no q u e s t i o n , however, as to the power of a r a i l w a y company to give leave and of r a i l w a y p r o p e r t y  l i c e n c e t o anyone to make use  f o r c e r t a i n purposes, e.g.  route a c r o s s the r a i l w a y right-of-way,  to t r a v e r s e  or to e r e c t and  a  maintain  a l i n e of t e l e g r a p h p o l e s and w i r e s a l o n g the right-of-way. E n g l i s h Courts have h e l d t h a t a r a i l w a y company has grant an easement over i t s right-of-way. cisions,  i n t e r e s t i n l a n d l e s s than fee simple a t i o n of a i r r i g h t s .  power to  In view of these  i t would appear t h a t a r a i l w a y may  de-  be able to grant  t h a t would permit  Then the problem r e v e r t s to the  of space" which i s not r e c o g n i z e d  The  by the c o u r t s .  Two  an  utiliz-  "ownership alternatives  e x i s t t o enable development of a i r r i g h t s above r a i l w a y r i g h t - o f way: 1.  .The r a i l w a y company develops the a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t and s e l l s or l e a s e s space w i t h i n the development a f t e r i t i s completed.  . 2.  The r a i l w a y company grants a l i c e n c e to the a i r r i g h t s developer and a f t e r the p r o j e c t i s b u i l t l e a s i n g arrangements are completed and the l e a s e i s r e g i s t e r e d as a charge'against the r a i l w a y ' s l a n d .  I m p l i c a t i o n s to A i r R i g h t s Development. There are many l e g a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s i z i n g a i r r i g h t s above highways and i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Within  involved i n u t i l -  transportation  rights-of-way  the p r o v i s i o n s of the Land R e g i s t r y  Act, the r u l i n g t h a t a i r and.space i s not  s u s c e p t i b l e of owner-  33 s h i p i s r i g i d l y adhered t o .  The owner of s u r f a c e land i s alone  e n t i t l e d t o be or remain r e g i s t e r e d as the owner of the f e e simple. An i n t e r e s t i n any development i n a i r space cannot be r e g i s t e r e d u n t i l a f t e r the p r o j e c t i s completed and then, i t must be an e s t a t e l e s s than f r e e h o l d . undertaken, precaution  Before a i r r i g h t s developments are  should  be taken to secure a p p r o v a l  o f the  Land R e g i s t r a r t o i n s u r e t h a t the i n t e r e s t o f the a i r space developer can'be r e g i s t e r e d a g a i n s t the t i t l e .  Subject  t o the  p r o v i s i o n s o f other A c t s , development o f a i r space w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s . o f the Land R e g i s t r y Act can be accomplished i n two ways: 1.  A l e a s e h o l d i n t e r e s t i n the f e e simple can be r e g i s t e r e d a g a i n s t the t i t l e by the a i r r i g h t s developer a f t e r the development i s complete.  2.  The a i r r i g h t s developer can purchase the f e e simple and grant easements through the development f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes. The  S t r a t a T i t l e s Act o f 1966 p r o v i d e s  d i v i d u a l and m u l t i p l e ownership o f l a n d .  However, i t i s not an  adequate v e h i c l e f o r a i r r i g h t s development. the land i n c l u d e d  f o r the i n -  The n e c e s s i t y  that  i n the s t r a t a plan must be r e g i s t e r e d as a  single parcel i n indefeasible t i t l e  r e s t r i c t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y of  the A c t t o those agencies who are only empowered t o l e a s e than s e l l i n t e r e s t s i n right-of-way  o r highways.  The  rather  other  problem w i t h the Act r e s u l t s from the concept t h a t space i s not s u s c e p t i b l e of ownership.  Indefeasible t i t l e  to u n i t s within a  s t r a t a development cannot be secured u n t i l a f t e r the s t r u c t u r e i s completed.  Therefore,  the most p r a c t i c a l approach i s f o r the  owner o f the f e e simple t o c r e a t e the s t r a t a development w i t h i n  34 the p r o v i s i o n s  of the Act and  s e l l u n i t s of space w i t h i n  development a f t e r i t s completion.  This  s o l u t i o n f o r p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s who volved i n projects  i s not  a very p r a c t i c a l  generally  do not become i n -  of t h i s type.  T h e ' S t a t u t o r y l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the on m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Highways and  the  railway  legislature  C i t y of Vancouver, the Department  companies were p r e v i o u s l y  of  examined.  Only  i n the Vancouver C h a r t e r i s s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n made f o r the  use  of space, under or over C i t y owned p r o p e r t y .  the  other agencies are only or g r a n t i n g not  l i m i t e d to d i s p o s i n g  The  of s u r p l u s r e a l p r o p e r t y  i n t e r e s t s l e s s than f r e e h o l d  s u r p l u s f o r highway or r a i l w a y  powers of  uses.  i n ' l a n d which i s  Again, the  "ownership  of space" r u l e p r o h i b i t s these agencies from s e l l i n g or a i r r i g h t s which are not are not  required.  r e a l p r o p e r t y , but  leasing  i n many i n s t a n c e s  Although these agencies presumably have  the  power t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a i r r i g h t s development as members of strata corporation, appear to be  no  t h i s power i s not  stated  specifically.  r e s t r i c t i o n s upon agencies who  1.  The  subdivision  Land R e g i s t r y  of land  that  not  purposes.  that:  imposes a r i g i d  i s oriented  s i n g u l a r ownership of l a n d . approach may  Act  There  wish to- develop  a i r r i g h t s above highways or r i g h t s - o f - w a y f o r t h e i r own I t i s concluded t h e r e f o r e  a  to the  c o n t r o l on  s i n g l e use  the  and.  In the view of Ruoff t h i s i n f l e x i b l e  be as n e c e s s a r y as  suspected:  " I f ( r e f e r r i n g t o the l o c a t i o n of f l y i n g f r e e h o l d s ) i n d e f i n i n g the p a r c e l s , our m e t i c u l o u s f r i e n d the s u r veyor, who i s noted f o r h i s i n t e g r i t y , can h e l p by g i v i n g us a p i c t u r e of the premises with dimensions and i s prepared to d e s c r i b e the p o s i t i o n of a f l a t i n terms of h e i g h t above s t r e e t l e v e l ( o r even sea l e v e l ) we should be g r a t e f u l . In England we r e g a r d a l l plans as good  35 servants but bad masters, so that f o r that reason as w e l l as on account of the permanence of our topography, we p r e f e r to i d e n t i f y a f l a t merely by a short v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n . T h i s 'ground f l o o r f l a t No. 1, 83 South H i l l Park, Hampstead' - no more - i s i n every way and f o r a l l time adequate t o d e s c r i b e my own'home." 34 Ruoff concludes t h a t i f members of the  community wish  to make t h e i r homes i n f r e e h o l d f l a t s or l e a s e h o l d f l a t s ,  the  35  Torrens system must be moulded to s u i t these needs. 2.  The  S t r a t a T i t l e s Act p a r t i a l l y f u l f i l s the need  mentioned above i n s a t i s f y i n g the l e g a l requirements of the i n d i v i d u a l and m u l t i p l e ownership of l a n d .  The  Act could be much  more e f f e c t i v e , however, i f i t i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n s f o r the ownership of a i r s p a c e .  The  Condominium Act of Ontario has  t h i s by i n s e r t i n g the d i s a r m i n g l y  simple f i a t .  "For the  poses of the Act the ownership of land i n c l u d e s the  done  pur-  ownership  of a i r s p a c e . '3.  The  s e c t i o n of the S t r a t a T i t l e s Act r e q u i r i n g t h a t  the land i n the  s t r a t a plan be r e g i s t e r e d i n i n d e f e a s i b l e t i t l e  p r o h i b i t s those agencies who  o n l y have power to l e a s e i n t e r e s t s  i n land i n c l u d e d i n r i g h t s - o f - w a y Act.  or highways from i n v o k i n g  I f these agencies are to u t i l i z e  the  the  concept of a i r r i g h t s  development, the p r o v i s i o n s of the Act must be extended to i n clude  i n t e r e s t s l e s s than f r e e h o l d or the a g e n c i e s must be  a u t h o r i t y to s e l l p o r t i o n s of highways and r i g h t s development and  surface s t r a t a .  4.  Statutes  of Highways and  for air  then p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c o r p o r a t i o n  owners of the The  rights-of-way  given  as  r e g u l a t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the. Department  the r a i l w a y companies do not provide  a u t h o r i t y i n matters r e l a t i n g to a i r r i g h t s and  sufficient  the m u l t i p l e  use  36 37  of l a n d . .  I f the concept  these agencies  of a i r r i g h t s i s to be encouraged  should be g i v e n s p e c i a l powers by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  l e g i s l a t o r s to enter agreements i n v o l v i n g a i r r i g h t s . present time these powers are at l e a s t vague i f not 5.  The  At the  non-existent.  C i t y of Vancouver i s the only agency i n B r i t i s h  Columbia t h a t has been given s p e c i f i c a u t h o r i t y to r e g u l a t e the use of a i r space above c i t y owned p r o p e r t y . C i t y are r e s t r i c t e d to c i t y owned s t r e e t s do not i n c l u d e s t r e e t s  These powers of the  or o t h e r p r o p e r t y  c l a s s i f i e d as a p r o v i n c i a l highway.  and If  major freeway c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the C i t y were to be undertaken by the p r o v i n c i a l Department of Highways the C i t y would not have control 6.  over a i r r i g h t s  development.  In a l l cases, i t appears t h a t the agency t h a t has  t r o l over highways or r i g h t s - o f - w a y can undertake a i r r i g h t s development f o r i t s own  purposes.  con-  37 Footnotes 1  Coke, Commentaries on L i t t l e t o n , Sec. 4 a (1670), quoted i n M i c h a e l M. Bernard, "Airspace i n Urban Development, Emergent Concepts", Urban Land I n s t i t u t e B u l l e t i n No. 46. Washington, D. C , 1964.  2  Megarry, R. E.; The Law of Real Property,(London: and Sons L t d . , 1955) p. 48-49.  3  Smyth J . E. and Soberman D. A., The Law and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Canada, (Toronto: P r e n t i c e H a l l of Canada L t d . , 1964), p. 371.  4.  Richardson, Jack E., " P r i v a t e Property R i g h t s i n the A i r Space a t Common Law", The Canadian Bar Review, February 1953.  5  D i C a s t r i V i c t o r (ed.), Thorn's Canadian Torrens System, Burroughs P r e s s L t d . , C a l g a r y , A l t a . , 1962 p. 115.  6  L a c r o i x v. The Queen (1954) Ex. C.R.  7  D i C a s t r i ed. op. c i t . ,  8  Richardson, Jack E., l o c . c i t .  9  D i C a s t r i ed., l o c . c i t . p.  p.  Stevens  69.  116.  116.  10  B r i t i s h North America Act (S. 92,  (13)  11  Canada, Revised S t a t u t e s (1952),  12  Canada, Revised S t a t u t e s (1952) c.  13  H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the Land R e g i s t r y A c t .  14  B r i t i s h Columbia, Revised S t a t u t e s (I960) c, 208,  15  i b i d . , S.  145.  16  i b i d . , S.  2.  17  i b i d . , S. 258,  18.  H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t .  19  R i s k , R.C.B., "Condominiums and Canada", U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Law J o u r n a l , V o l . XVIII, No. 1, 1968.  20  B r i t i s h Columbia Revised S t a t u t e s (1966),  21  i b i d . , S. 3 ( 2 ) .  22  H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the M u n i c i p a l A c t .  c. 3,  1867. S.  1.  234.  S.  2.  (l)(f).  c. 55,  S. 3 ( l ) . ,  38 23  British  24  i b i d . , S.  296.  25  i b i d . , S.  189.  26  P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. E l l i o t t , A s s i s t a n t CityS o l i c i t o r , C i t y of Vancouver, March 6, 1968.  27  H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as the Highways A c t .  28 . B r i t i s h  Columbia,  Columbia,  29  i b i d . , p.  30  British  31  Revised S t a t u t e s (i960) c. 55, S.  Revised S t a t u t e s (1960).c. 172 S.  289.  5.  17.  Columbia,  Revised S t a t u t e s (i960) c. 103,  . T h i r d Schedule, BNA  Act  S.  47.  1867.  32  Coyne H.E.B., The Railway Law of Canada, Canada Law Company, Toronto, 1947 p. 181.  33.  i b i d . , p.  34  Ruoff, An Englishman Looks at the Torrens System, London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952, p. 60-61.  35  i b i d . , p.  36  L e a l , A l l a n H., "The Condominium A c t " O n t a r i o Housing, V o l . 13, No. 3., February 1968.  37  P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. N o r v a l Norton, L e g a l Department, C.P.R., Vancouver, B. C. confirmed t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . ,  Book  182.  6.5.  39  CHAPTER I I I FINANCIAL ASPECTS- OF AIR RIGHTS DEVELOPMENT The f i n a n c i a l aspects of a i r rights development are considered under two general topics. appraisal.of  The f i r s t relates to the  specific a i r rights developments f o r the purpose of  sale, lease or assessment.  The second, relates the role of pub-  l i c authorities whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s , to insure that maximum benefits w i l l accrue to a community where a i r rights projects are undertaken.  This Chapter examines these two aspects of a i r  rights development.  '  Valuation of:Air Rights • The marketing of a i r rights requires determination of t h e i r value.  1  This involves both an appraisal for sale or lease  and an assessment for taxation purposes.  In the valuation of  a i r rights several factors not generally associated with the appraisal of ordinary types of property are considered.  Some of  these factors arise as a result of the complicated i n t e r r e l a t i o n ships that exist between the user of surface rights and the developer of a i r space.  Other problems arise i n the  valuating  of the elevated platform which the development of a i r rights requires.  .  4  0  Accessibility A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s a normal r e a l e s t a t e a p p r a i s a l problem t h a t must be given developments.  s p e c i a l consideration  in a i r rights  In order to u t i l i z e a i r space a p l a t f o r m i s  u s u a l l y c r e a t e d above .the freeway, r a i l w a y or other s u r f a c e T h i s means t h a t access from s t r e e t s , a l l e y s and jacent p r o p e r t y may  be l i m i t e d , and  sidewalks or  adequate means of a c c e s s .  cost of these items must be  The  items  additional  considered.  In a d d i t i o n , the e f f e c t of l i m i t e d access on the of the development must be r i g h t s p r o j e c t s may  considered.  Frequently  be l i m i t e d to a few  value  access to a i r  p o i n t s , whereas s u r f a c e  developments u s u a l l y have l o n g s t r e t c h e s of s t r e e t and frontage.  alley  Whether or not t h i s becomes a matter of s e r i o u s  s i d e r a t i o n depends upon the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w i l l be i n the p r o j e c t and face s t r e e t s .  a l s o the grade and  These are  c a r r i e d on sur-  access problems but  i n v a l u a t i n g a i r space.  f a c t o r of a c c e s s i b i l i t y may  p r e s s i n g e f f e c t on the value  con-  e l e v a t i o n of adjacent  simple cost and  they must be p r o p e r l y considered The  ad-  c o n s t r u c t i o n of s p e c i a l  f a c i l i t i e s such as ramps, embankments, e s c a l a t o r s or other i s necessary to provide  use.  not always have a  of a i r r i g h t s .  There may  be  de-  some  s p e c i a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y advantage to a i r r i g h t s l o c a t e d above t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e r m i n a l s ; t h a t i s , f o r d e l i v e r y of goods or f o r p e r s o n n e l convenience. Limited  Ownership Three major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of ownership disadvantage 2  r e s u l t to the a i r r i g h t s purchaser.  These disadvantages are  41 as f o l l o w s : 1. use  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l e x i b i l i t y  of the p r o p e r t y .  regarding future  A i r r i g h t s are normally purchased  c i p a t i o n of a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t .  The  in anti-  c o n d i t i o n s under which a  developer buys the a i r r i g h t s are l a r g e l y guided by the r e q u i r e ments and r e s t r i c t i o n s which the s p e c i f i c development c r e a t e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t these terms of purchase c o u l d be adapted to o t h e r development or redevelopment at some f u t u r e time. of  As a r e s u l t , the a p p r a i s e r must c o n s i d e r the economic  the a i r space equal to the economic l i f e  c r e a t e d i n i t . A prudent both the b u i l d i n g and ment.  life  of the development  a p p r a i s a l technique  i s to  " l a n d " over the economic l i f e  amortize of the  develop-  G e n e r a l l y , income from t h i s type of p r o j e c t i s c a p i t a l i z e d  over a p e r i o d of from 35-60 y e a r s . T h i s c o n t r a s t s to the techniques used i n the a p p r a i s a l of  conventional r e a l estate property.  With c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o -  p e r t y i t i s common to amortize the land i n p e r p e t u i t y and  the  improvements over a 35-60 year p e r i o d r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l and economic l i f e t i m e . l a n d u s i n g the two  The  d i f f e r e n c e between value  techniques can be expressed  of  mathematically.  I t i s the d i f f e r e n c e between the value of an a n n u i t y f o r a f i x e d period- of time a t a g i v e n r a t e of i n t e r e s t and an i n p e r p e t u i t y at the same r a t e of i n t e r e s t .  annuity  For example, the  d i f f e r e n c e between an a n n u i t y f o r 50 years at 5$ and an  annuity  i n p e r p e t u i t y a t 5$ i n t e r e s t i s equal t o f a c t o r 18.256 over f a c t o r 20.000 or 91.28$. c u l a t e d u s i n g the two  T h i s i s the. d i f f e r e n c e i n value as  techniques.  >.  cal-  42 2.  One  hazard  i n a i r r i g h t s i s t h a t e c o n o m i c a l l y incom-  p a t i b l e development may land.  occur on or above adjacent p i e c e s of  From the example of a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s given i n  I i t i s apparent  Chapter  t h a t the m a j o r i t y of a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s are  l o c a t e d over r a i l r o a d s and  freeways.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , these  facili-  t i e s are l o c a t e d or e x i s t i n t r a n s i t i o n a l areas of mixed l a n d use.  The  importance of t h i s f a c t o r depends upon the permanency  of the e x i s t i n g s u r f a c e uses and the p r o s p e c t s about the f u t u r e of adjacent l a n d uses. press the v a l u e approximately  The  general  e f f e c t of t h i s hazard w i l l  5$ i n most s i t u a t i o n s .  a b l y c o u l d be lower i n l o c a t i o n s adjacent to c e n t r a l  de-  I t conceivbusiness  d i s t r i c t s or h i g h e r f o r p r o j e c t s i n i n d u s t r i a l zones or low assessment, a r e a s . 3.  F i n a n c i n g problems a r i s e out of l a n d 2 above, and  of r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the l e g a l system.  There i s no  out  doubt  t h a t an a i r r i g h t s development i s more d i f f i c u l t to f i n a n c e than normal types of development.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , mortgage companies  have been u n w i l l i n g to i n v e s t i n p r o j e c t s l o c a t e d i n areas where adjacent l a n d uses are not compatible  with,the  development, or  where the t r e n d s i n f u t u r e land uses are u n c e r t a i n .  Historically  r a i l w a y s and freeways i n urban areas have had a b l i g h t i n g on a d j o i n i n g p r o p e r t y .  It i s difficult  c o n c i l e t h i s t r e n d w i t h i n v e s t i n g i n new above freeways or r a i l w a y s .  effect  f o r a mortgagor to r e p r o j e c t s i n a i r space  In a d d i t i o n , the l e g a l  restrictions  and c o m p l i c a t i o n s of p u r c h a s i n g and l e a s i n g a i r space make i t d i f f i c u l t to secure mortgage f i n a n c i n g f o r t h i s ' type of ment.  develop-  43 Additional  Cost The a n a l y s i s o f t h e  cost  of the  a p p r a i s a l problem unique to a i r r i g h t s of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , i n f l e x i b i l i t y ,  platform presents  development.  The  land.  To e s t i m a t e  the  cost  o f the  air rights  to a l l  platform  e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s must be d e t e r m i n e d . construction  costs  on e x i s t i n g a i r r i g h t s  projects  Additional cost  1.  the freeway,  of c o n s t r u c t i n g the surface  like. 3.  Additional costs  m a i n t a i n the made o f t h e  the  or r a i l w a y t r a f f i c to  surface cost  surface  facility  higher construction  inflexibility  utility  l i n e s and .  necessity for  continue to  platform.  If  allow-  operate during  it  i s impossible  around the  i s being constructed c o n s t r u c t i o n of the surface  the to  must  development.  concurrently with air rights  development  be  .  platform  resulting in  costs.  Additional costs of the b u i l d i n g ;  bers i n a non-rentable level.  caissons,  of detouring t r a f f i c  may d e l a y c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e  vation  above  u s e s d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n an e s t i m a t e  a i r rights platform,  4.  platform  use.  because of the  p e r i o d of c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  the  costs  '  i n g freeway  If  Platform  The  construction* c o s t s because of  as t o l o c a t i o n o f columns, g i r d e r s , the  engin-  include:  r a i l w a y or other  Additional  2.  parcels  range from a  low of $ 4 . 0 0 to a h i g h of $25.00 per square f o o t . w h i c h h a v e t o be c o n s i d e r e d  problems  hazard of surrounding land uses  and f i n a n c i n g a r e n o r m a l a p p r a i s a l p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d of  an  t h r o u g h what may be an u n n a t u r a l  that  is,  the  a r e a between  presence the  ele-  o f s t r u c t u r a l mem-  p l a t f o r m and the  ground  44  5.  The  sidewalks,  cost of c o n s t r u c t i n g a new  p l a n t i n g areas and  ground l e v e l  the l i k e at a new  providing  e l e v a t i o n around  the b u i l d i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y where there are setbacks or c o u r t s the new  ground l e v e l .  f a c i l i t i e s may 6.  The  be  at  T h i s i s i n a d d i t i o n to whatever access  needed.  a d d i t i o n of l e g a l , engineering,  a p p r a i s a l c o s t s i n a development c o n s i d e r a b l y  a r c h i t e c t u r a l and more  complicated  than on a normdl p i e c e of ground. . 7.  The  a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and  c a r r y i n g charges r e s u l t i n g  from the l o n g e r time r e q u i r e d to c o n s t r u c t the e l e v a t e d If  i t were nqt  f o r h a v i n g to c o n s t r u c t the p l a t f o r m ,  of the p r o j e c t c o u l d s t a r t 8.  construction  immediately.  Savings i n "the cost of demolishing s t r u c t u r e s t h a t  would o r d i n a r i l y have to be site.  platform.  c l e a r e d from a p o t e n t i a l b u i l d i n g  There i s an a d d i t i o n a l s a v i n g i n t h a t the developer i s  f r e e d from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g new placed t e n a n t s . i s saved and  locations for dis-  A l s o the time o r d i n a r i l y r e q u i r e d f o r  the p r o j e c t can be  completed and  begin  demolition  earning  revenue.that much sooner. 9.  Savings i n cost of excavation  r e q u i r e d i n most c o n v e n t i o n a l air  and  foundations that  are  p r o j e c t s but are not r e q u i r e d i n  r i g h t s developments.'  Inconvenience and  Nuisance  In a i r r i g h t s developments, c e r t a i n l o s s e s i n value  r e s u l t from the absence of subsurface space f o r  storage  property  parking,  and b u i l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , n o i s e , odors and v i b r a t i o n s c r e a t e d  by  45 the  surface  appraisal against the  value.  ing  project.  this  George cause  As well,  environment.  feet  was-covered  was  used  f o r open  system has not proved problem  exists  Valuation  Techniques Several  rights. w i l l  "Residual  be examined.  into  Approach"  account  can  be used  i n appraising  a l l  the factors  previously  The  feet  of  difference  t h e open a i r  and a serious  a i r  that  have  of  been em-  andthe  are sophisticated  methods  scale  examined  square  Approach"  Approach"  small  depressed b e -  130,000  techniques  a l l factors  The " P r o p o r t i o n a t e  l i v -  of the  i n the appraisal  The "Comparative  Capitalization  can take  three  of  development.^  can be used  thesis,  rates  Unfortunately,  this  mitigate  depressed b e -  platform.  satisfactory  within  approaches  In t h i s  3  to  the cost  are slightly  by a concrete  on t h e  caused to persons  rental  of the total  a i r venting.  pollution  increase  are usually  F o r example,  square  depressant  installed  and discomforts  90,000  area  rights.  revenues  Apartments  site  ployed  factors  Bridge  the  that  of these  Y/ashington only  venting  of a dual  Mechanisms and devices  of the inconvenience  i n  a i r  the effect  the objections  total  cause  uses have  affecting i s a  simple  a i r rights  are not of  the value  of a i r  technique projects  particular  that  where import-  ance.  The  Comparative This  tive  market  Approach method  value  r e l i e s  of land  i n  as a starting fee simple,  point  on t h e  unencumbered  compara-  by any a i r  5 rights to  agreement.  the a i r rights  From t h i s value  must  be subtracted  a s may be c r e a t e d  any  impairment  by any or a l l of the  46 f a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s Chapter.  A case study of  the a p p r a i s a l procedures used i n v a l u a t i n g the a i r r i g h t s p i e d by the George Washington B r i d g e apartments this  occu-  illustrates  procedure.^ A formula t h a t can be used f o r c a l c u l a t i n g the v a l u e  of  a i r rights i s :  also,  A  =  V  R  =  V  C  C  (C - D )  -  X  -  A, where.  A  =  A i r r i g h t s value  VQ  =  Land value by comparison vacant but improved  - I  .  i n fee s i m p l e ;  with a l l u t i l i t i e s at  the l o t l i n e . X  =  Loss of r e s i d u a l value from f u n c t i o n a l or economic obsolescence a r i s i n g from the c r e a t i o n of a i r r i g h t s .  C  =  Added c a p i t a l improvement c o s t s t o a i r r i g h t s purchaser or l e s s e e i n c o s t o f building.  D  =  Savings t o a i r r i g h t s purchaser o r l e s s e e i n excavation and foundation c o s t s , demoli t i o n , tenant r e l o c a t i o n and income l o s s e s d u r i n g r e l o c a t i o n and d e m o l i t i o n .  I  =  Added i n t e r e s t and c a r r y i n g charges as a r e s u l t of the c a p i t a l improvement c o s t s i n C.  R  =  •  R e s i d u a l value of the fee i n t e r e s t .  47 As i s evident property value  value  when the c o s t of development and  reduction  i n c u r r e d through a i r r i g h t s development exceeds the  of comparable property The  from t h i s formula, a i r r i g h t s have no  Residual  i n fee  C a p i t a l i z a t i o n Approach  where a s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r such as s t a t e f i n a n c e d  The  key  cannot be  of land u t i l i z a t i o n  determined  or  i s contemplated,  or p u b l i c l y s u b s i d i z e d developments the  r e s i d u a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n approach may  be  used.  judgment f a c t o r i s the s e l e c t i o n of the r e n t a l  r a t e s of the development.  Upon s e l e c t i o n of the r e n t a l r a t e s ,  c o s t s can be estimated and  s e r v i c e and  cost  simple.  Where comparable land values  operating  in  the net income before- debt  d e p r e c i a t i o n can be determined.  In p r o j e c t s such as  l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d housing where the r a t e of r e t u r n i s f i x e d the d i r e c t c a p i t a l i z a t i o n cost of the e n t i r e p r o j e c t can culated.  Deductions of the b u i l d i n g cost and  cost c o n s i d e r a t i o n s at value Table  then be  cal-  adjustment f o r the  i n a i r r i g h t s development are made to a r r i v e  o f the a i r r i g h t s .  The  procedure i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n  1.  Proportionate The  Approach C i t y of Vancouver have employed a r e l a t i v e l y  technique to evaluate S t r e e t and  simple  the a i r r i g h t s of the lane between Seymour  R i c h a r d s S t r e e t where a p a r k i n g  s t r u c t u r e has been  7  e r e c t e d by the Hudson's Bay by the S u p e r v i s o r 1. 2.  Company.  of P r o p e r t y  and  The  formula as  Insurance i s as  suggested  follows:  E s t a b l i s h the market v a l u e of the lane as i f f o r s a l e . Estimate the f u l l r e n t a l value of the l a n e . In the  48 TABLE I RESIDUAL CAPITALIZATION APPROACH AIR SPACE APPRAISAL GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE APARTMENTS NEW YORK CITY Gross revenue a t 100$ occupancy: 5040 rooms a t $348 p e r room a n n u a l l y 204 garage spaces a t $360 Allowances f o r v a c a n c i e s and c o l l e c t i o n l o s s e s E f f e c t i v e gross revenue Estimated  $ 55,360 $1,772,000  $340,000 $412,000 $ 35,000 . $787,060 •  $  Net income b e f o r e debt s e r v i c e :  $  Mortgage:  985,000  5$  90$ o f .0505 10$ of .0509  I n d i c a t e d c a p i t a l value Less b u i l d i n g c o s t (without abnormal c o s t )  . $19,700,000 - $17,825,000  R e s i d u a l value b e f o r e c r e a t i o n o f a i r r i g h t s Less:  787,000  Capitalization:  Over-all rate or return:  Equity:  73,440  $1,827,000  expenses:  Taxes Operation Replacements  Direct  $1,753,920  -  Abnormal c o s t s Savings I n t e r e s t and Carrying  $  1,875,000  $1,500,000 - $ 750,000 1 750,000  R e s i d u a l A i r R i g h t s Value  $  175,000  I  9 ^ 5 , 0 0 0  -  $  $  925,000  9  5  0  ,  0  0  0  49 study case r e n t a l value was estimated t o be 67° of market v a l u e . Add the amount equal t o the estimated taxes. 3.  P r o p o r t i o n the s a i d r e n t a l charge between the c i t y and o c c u p i e r i n accordance with the number of f l o o r s to be b u i l t ; the C i t y t o be considered as occupying the f i r s t f l o o r . In  the terms of the l e a s e , the Lessee has covenanted  with the C i t y t o maintain a c c e s s , provide i l l u m i n a t i o n and accommodate C i t y u t i l i t i e s t h a t are p a s s i n g through the l a n e . The l e s s o r has agreed t o remove the s t r u c t u r e from the lane on one year's n o t i c e from the C i t y . The procedure  f o l l o w e d i s shown i n Table 2. TABLE 2 .  PROPORTIONATE METHOD AIR SPACE APPRAISAL HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY PARKADE CITY OP VANCOUVER  Estimated Value of the lane  $32,000.00  Estimated annual r e n t a l r a t e &fo of market value Estimated Taxes  $1,920.00  $  363.90  C i t y share o f r e n t = 1/5 x 2283.40  $  458.90  Lessee's .-share of r e n t = 4/5 x 2283.40  $ 1,825.00  Annual r e n t a l  rate.  $ 2,283.90  Assume a 5 s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e .  •  5  0  In the process of n e g o t i a t i o n , the Lessee e v a l u a t e d the a i r space a t 31,000.00 r e n t a l per annum.  The S u p e r v i s o r of  P r o p e r t y and Insurance has commented on the method of e v a l u a t i o n as f o l l o w s : "The Lessee's v a l u a t i o n process i s remarkably c l o s e t o t h a t u t i l i z e d by o u r s e l v e s - - - except they have cons i d e r e d 'iit as a s t r a i g h t l e a s i n g of a i r r i g h t s over the l a n e s whereas the C i t y has taken the approach t h a t t h i s i s . a s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e and a l e s s e e should be charged i n accordance w i t h the proposed lane allowance.".° Summary The t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s examined f u l f i l a need i n v a l u ating different a i r rights The  "comparative  projects. approach" i s u s e f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g  the v a l u e of a i r r i g h t s when the nature of an a i r r i g h t s d e v e l opment i s not known and o n l y the value of comparable l a n d i s known. The  " r e s i d u a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n approach" can be used  where the income from an a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t i s f i x e d as i n the case of low income o r l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d h o u s i n g .  I f construction  and development c o s t s are known the value of a i r r i g h t s can then be  determined. The  " p r o p o r t i o n a t e approach" i s a simple technique  and can be used on s m a l l s c a l e p r o j e c t s such as p a r k i n g l o t developments or other s i m i l a r land uses where an e l a b o r a t e p l a t form i s not r e q u i r e d t o accommodate the development. Community B e n e f i t s of A i r R i g h t s Development The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n has o u t l i n e d procedures may  that  be used i n determining the value of a i r r i g h t s from the  51 p o i n t of view o f an a i r r i g h t s developer and the t a x a s s e s s o r . These techniques however are inadequate to a s s e s s the impact of a i r r i g h t s development on the t o t a l community. I t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a i r r i g h t s have no p r o p e r t y value  when the cost of development and r e d u c t i o n  i n value i n -  c u r r e d through a i r r i g h t s development exceeds the c o s t of comparable  property  i n f e e simple.  When the concept o f a i r r i g h t s  development i s viewed from a c i t y wide p o i n t o f view other important  f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d .  acquires supply  In a sense, an area  p o t e n t i a l f o r a i r r i g h t s development i n c r e a s e s the  of b u i l d a b l e l a n d .  Even i f the cost of developing  r i g h t s i s equal t o o r g r e a t e r than the cost o f comparable i n f e e simple, t h i s cost 1.  that  air land  there are a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s t h a t may outweigh  discrepancy: The cost of c o n s t r u c t i n g the a i r space p l a t f o r m r e -  q u i r e s t h a t a i r r i g h t s developments must be l a r g e expensive proj e c t s , that are a tremendous source of t a x revenue f o r the C i t y or m u n i c i p a l i t y . 2.  A i r space usage p r o v i d e s  f o r assembling l a r g e t r a c t s  of land w i t h i n urban areas t h a t can be used f o r developing  pro-  j e c t s such as major h o s p i t a l s , o r other p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s t h a t otherwise would be f o r c e d t o l o c a t e i n suburban areas where adequate space was a v a i l a b l e . 3.  Properly  designed a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s over highways  or other t r a n s p o r t a t i o n rights-of-way  t h a t take advantage o f  e x c e l l e n t a c c e s s can be used as an instrument o f change and improvement i n urban areas.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , transportation  corri-  dors have had,a b l i g h t i n g i n f l u e n c e on s u r r o u n d i n g p r o p e r t y  that  52  has  r e s u l t e d i n d e c l i n i n g c i t y revenues.  A i r r i g h t s development  can be used t o overcome t h i s problem and m a i n t a i n tax revenues. 4.  C i t i e s at the present  penditures  time are burdened with l a r g e ex-  i n the f i e l d s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , urban renewal,  u t i o n c o n t r o l and a'host o f other use  can be made of one p i e c e  community needs.  Where  polljoint  o f land f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and other  uses, a i r r i g h t s development can be used t o reduce h i g h l a n d a c quisition The  costs.  Impact of Governmental A u t h o r i t y on A i r R i g h t s . Some f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are a d i r e c t r e s u l t of  the t r i - l e v e l governmental s t r u c t u r e .  A i r r i g h t s development  by r a i l w a y companies o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and c i t i e s who h o l d f e e simple t i t l e proposed  doe3  to the land over which a i r r i g h t s development i s not create any problems.  Revenues from the s a l e  of a i r r i g h t s go d i r e c t l y t o the owner of the f e e simple and  the m u n i c i p a l i t y o r c i t y a r e e n t i t l e d t o c o l l e c t  title  property  taxes on the a i r r i g h t s development. In the case of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s where possession of s t r e e t s and highways r e s t s with the m u n i c i p a l i t y and t i t l e i s vested w i t h the Crown a p o i n t of p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t r e s u l t s .  Res-  p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n , maintenance and c o n t r o l o f the s t r e e t r e s t s w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t y , but t i t l e  i s v e s t e d w i t h the  q  Crown.  The M u n i c i p a l  Act l i m i t s the power t o dispose  property  t o the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . ^ 1  o f highway  The m u n i c i -  p a l i t y i s o n l y empowered t o exchange p o r t i o n s o f highway l a n d for  other l a n d .  1 1  I t appears, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y  i s not e n t i t l e d t o any revenues t h a t may be accrued from the  s a l e or l e a s i n g of a i r r i g h t s . c o l l e c t property  They are, however, e n t i t l e d t o  taxes on the a i r r i g h t s development.  Further  c o n f l i c t over revenues i s c r e a t e d from the  s a l e of a i r r i g h t s over highways i n B r i t i s h Columbia. -highways are\completely c o n s t r u c t e d , by the province  Arterial  c o n t r o l l e d and maintained  and revenues from the s a l e of a i r r i g h t s would 12  c l e a r l y be the property  of the Crown.  highways i s not as c l e a r .  The case f o r secondary  The cost of c o n s t r u c t i o n of secondary  highways i s shared by the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the province 60-40 b a s i s .  1 3  on a  C o n t r o l of c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of sec-  ondary highways i s vested w i t h the m u n i c i p a l which the highway r u n s . ^ 1  corporation  through  The p r o v i n c i a l government p r o v i d e s ... 15  grants  t o the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r maintenance purposes  , but  otherwise, a l l payments made by the m u n i c i p a l i t y must be funded under p r o v i s i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l vested  Act.  T i t l e t o the highway i s  w i t h the Crown, and t h e o r e t i c a l l y any revenues r e c e i v e d  from the s a l e of a i r r i g h t s should  be p a i d t o the p r o v i n c e . .  Because of t h e i r l a r g e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r o v i d i n g  secondary  highways, some p r o v i s i o n should be made f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o c o l l e c t revenue from the s a l e o f a i r r i g h t s . Financial assistance ment t o the P r o v i n c e s Act.  i s provided  by the F e d e r a l  govern-  under the terms o f the Trans-Canada Highway  The problem that c o u l d a r i s e i s one t h a t has r e c e i v e d some  a t t e n t i o n i n the U n i t e d  States  the I n t e r s t a t e Highway System.  i n v o l v i n g s a l e o f a i r r i g h t s above The U. S. Bureau of P u b l i c Roads  pays 90$ o f the t o t a l cost o f c o n s t r u c t i n g i n t e r s t a t e highways, whereas the Canadian Government pays 50$ o f a two lane  equivalent.  54 The U. S. Bureau o f P u b l i c Roads has maintained they are e n t i t l e d to c o l l e c t the revenue from the s a l e of a i r r i g h t s over the f r e e ways because only through t h e i r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e freeway made p o s s i b l e . funds are s u p p l i e d  was the  Under the I n t e r s t a t e program  as g r a n t s t o the s t a t e governments  poses of c o n s t r u c t i n g  the freeway system.  federal f o r pur-  In the view o f U. S.  Congress, a f t e r the grant has been made t o the s t a t e government, the f e d e r a l government has no d i r e c t c l a i m on any revenues may be produced by the freeway system. i s evident  t h a t the F e d e r a l  that  S i m i l a r l y i n Canada, i t  Government can not e x e r c i s e  on revenues produced from a i r r i g h t s development  a claim .  over the T r a n s -  Canada Highway system. Programs of F i n a n c i a l  Assistance  Programs of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e development  for a i r rights  i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e f l e c t the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the  common law.and l e g a l a t t i t u d e toward the ownership of space. P u b l i c l y sponsored f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e National  is- a v a i l a b l e through the  Housing A c t f o r Condominium developments undertaken i n  a i r rights using  the S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t .  are not s u s c e p t i b l e  Because a i r and space  o f ownership s p e c i f i c programs are not a v a i l -  able f o r purposes o f a c q u i r i n g a i r r i g h t s .  In the U n i t e d  States  where the a t t i t u d e toward a i r r i g h t s i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t , f i n a n c i a l assistance through p r o v i s i o n s  f o r a i r r i g h t s development  o f the 1964 Housing A c t . ^ 1  i s available Section  308  ( i ) ( i v ) o f t h i s A c t permits the use of f e d e r a l funds f o r t h e : " . . . a c q u i s i t i o n o f a i r r i g h t s i n an a r e a c o n s i s t i n g p r i n c i p a l l y of land i n highways, r a i l w a y s o r subway ^ t r a c k s , b r i d g e o r t u n n e l entrances, o r o t h e r s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s which have a b l i g h t i n g i n f l u e n c e on the  55 surrounding area and over which a i r r i g h t s s i t e s are to'he developed f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of such b l i g h t i n g i n f l u e n c e s and f o r the p r o v i s i o n of housing (and r e l a t e d f a c i l i t i e s and uses) designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r and l i m i t e d to*, f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s of moderate or low income." •Extension of urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada to provide t h i s degree of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e would encourage u t i l i z a t i o n of a i r space i n urban areas. The apprehensiveness  of c o n v e n t i o n a l mortgage l e n d e r s  about a i r r i g h t s development has p r e v i o u s l y been d i s c u s s e d . L e g i s l a t i o n t h a t more c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e s the p o s i t i o n of a i r r i g h t s at law and p r o v i d e s g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y to mortgagors of a i r r i g h t s developments i s a l s o r e q u i r e d . Summary and  Conclusions-.  In t h i s Chapter,  some of the f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s  of a i r r i g h t s development have been examined. p r o f e s s i o n has developed  The a p p r a i s a l  techniques f o r determining the value  of v a r i o u s types.of a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s f o r purposes of s a l e , l e a s e or assessment.  U s i n g a p p r a i s a l techniques, experience i n -  d i c a t e s t h a t a i r r i g h t s have no value i f the c o s t of the a i r r i g h t s p l a t f o r m and other development c o s t s exceed the v a l u e comparable land i n f e e simple. view, t h i s c o n c l u s i o n may  Prom the community p o i n t of  not be v a l i d .  Long term c o s t s and  b e n e f i t s of a i r r i g h t s development to the community must be mated and  of  d e c i s i o n s about the f e a s i b i l i t y of a i r r i g h t s  esti-  develop-  ment should not.be made on the a p p r a i s e d value of l a n d a l o n e . The t r i - l e v e l governmental s t r u c t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia c r e a t e s some c o n f u s i o n i n matters or g r a n t i n g of a i r r i g h t s .  r e l a t i n g to "the s a l e  In cases where t i t l e to the highway  56 or right-of-way r e s t s with the same agency t h a t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r maintenance and c o n t r o l no problem e x i s t s . case of m u n i c i p a l  However, In the  s t r e e t s and secondary highways where t i t l e i s  vested with the Crown and maintenance c o n t r o l and the major share of c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s are borne by the m u n i c i p a l i t y there i s cause f o r some c o n f u s i o n .  A i r r i g h t s development i n B r i t i s h  Columbia r e q u i r e s t h a t t h i s impasse be r e s o l v e d . government  The f e d e r a l  does not have powers to c l a i m revenues from a i r  r i g h t s development w i t h i n the powers of the Trans-Canada Highway Act.  .  ,»  F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e programs and p o l i c i e s r e q u i r e r e v i s i o n i f a i r r i g h t s developments are to be encouraged. renewal l e g i s l a t i o n  Urban  should be extended to i n c l u d e a s s i s t a n c e t o  a i r r i g h t s developments.  L e g i s l a t i o n should be passed to more  c l e a r l y d e f i n e the p o s i t i o n of mortgage l e n d e r s who for a i r rights projects.  loan money  57 Footnotes 1  Goldschmidt, Leopold A., " A i r R i g h t s " Information No. 186, ASPO, Chicago May, 1964. '  2  Nelson, Richard L., " A p p r a i s a l of A i r R i g h t s " The A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l , Volume XXIII, No. 4, October, 1955.  3  White, John Robert, "George Washington Bridge Approach: A Case Study" The A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l , Volume XXXIV, No. 1, January, 1966. pp, 32-40.  4  Interview with A l l a n M. Voorhees, P l a n n i n g Consultant, Washington, D. C , March 23, 1968.  5  H a l l , A r t h u r B. et a l , "Approaches to the V a l u a t i o n of A i r R i g h t s " , The A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l , J u l y , 1956, pp. 325347.  6  White, l o c . c i t .  7  P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w with Mr. C N. E l l i o t t , A s s i s t a n t C i t y S o l i c i t o r , C i t y of Vancouver, March 6, 1968.  8  F i n a l Report to the C i t y S o l i c i t o r f o r the C i t y of Vancouver from the S u p e r v i s o r of P r o p e r t y and Insurance, r e : Hudson's Bay Parkade, September, 1958.  9  B r i t i s h Columbia, Revised S t a t u t e s ( i 9 6 0 ) , c.255, S.506, '  Report  10  Ibid.,  S. 508'.  11  Ibid.,  S.  12  B r i t i s h Columbia, Revised S t a t u t e s (I960), c.172, S. 33,  13  Ibid.,  s.  33  14  Ibid.,  S.  34  15  Ibid.,  3.  42  14  Fenton, Harry S.,. "Legal Aspects of the U t i l i z a t i o n and Development of A i r Space Over and Under Freeways" Highway Research Record No. 78, Highway Research Board of the N a t i o n a l Academy of S c i e n c e s , 19.63.  15  U. S.,  507  '  509  Housing Act, P u b l i c Law  ' •  No.  88-560, S. 308,  1964.  34  58  CHAPTER IV PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS OP.AIR RIGHTS DEVELOPMENT Air  space u t i l i z a t i o n adds a new dimension to land use  planning.  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , l a n d use plans have been prepared on  the b a s i s - o f s i n g u l a r uses.  Land uses have been separated  one  from another and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network has been.planned as a separate given and  system.' I t has been unusual f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n to be  to'the p o s s i b i l i t y  expressways.  Problems of A i r Space 1.  of a i r r i g h t s improvements over t r a c k s  Increased Air  able space.  Utilization  1  density: space u t i l i z a t i o n  i n c r e a s e s the supply  Areas t h a t a c q u i r e p o t e n t i a l f o r a i r r i g h t s d e v e l -  opment a r e u s u a l l y w i t h i n o r adjacent est  of b u i l d -  to e x i s t i n g areas of. h i g h -  d e n s i t y and h i g h e s t l a n d cost w i t h i n the urban a r e a .  The  a d d i t i o n o f a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s . t o these areas i n c r e a s e s the e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g d e n s i t y and presses  g r e a t e r demands on e x i s t i n g  u t i l i t y and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s .  At the present  time,  exist-  i n g b u i l d i n g s r e l y oh open space created by s t r e e t s , expressways, t r a c k s and p a r k i n g l o t s .  I f a i r r i g h t s s t r u c t u r e s are b u i l t  these open spaces w i l l be destroyed  i n downtown d i s t r i c t s .  59 2.  D i f f e r e n t i a l Rates of Obsolescence: D i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e s of obsolescence between s u r f a c e  and a i r development i s another p o t e n t i a l source of c o n f l i c t , e s p e c i a l l y where the ground use has a s h o r t e r l i f e or  has e a r l y expansion needs.  Once a highway has been covered  by an a i r r i g h t s s t r u c t u r e i t i s d i f f i c u l t the r i g h t - o f - w a y .  expectancy  to r e l o c a t e o r expand  S i m i l a r l y , space occupied by r a i l r o a d t r a c k s  and yards cannot be e a s i l y a l t e r e d f o r modernization o r converted to 3.  other usage. Compatibility: Problems of c o m p a t i b i l i t y between contemplated im-  provements and e x i s t i n g s u r f a c e uses should be c a r e f u l l y gated.  Some uses such as commercial  investi-  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s over p a r k i n g  l o t s . o r o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s over subway s t a t i o n s may be complementary.  Other uses such as r e s i d e n c e s above r a i l w a y s or h o s p i t a l s  above freeways may i n t e r f e r e with each other u n l e s s they a r e e f f e c t i v e l y separated by a p l a t f o r m completely c o v e r i n g the ground use.  R a i l r o a d s and expressways f a l l  i n t o t h i s category  where d i r t , n o i s e and fumes would be o b j e c t i o n a b l e t o the a i r space u s e r s .  Conversely, ramps from commercial  or r e s i d e n t i a l  air  r i g h t s p r o j e c t s can d i s r u p t t r a f f i c flow'on the freeway  4.  Access and C i r c u l a t i o n :  below.  C o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n and a c t i v i t y above or below t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s r e q u i r e s that s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n be given t o the problems o f access t o a n d . c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n the a i r r i g h t s development. air  P r o v i s i o n must be made t o move people t o an  r i g h t s p r o j e c t without i n t e r r u p t i n g o r i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e  60 f r e e flow of t r a f f i c  on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t y .  R e g u l a t i n g A i r Space Development In urban areas where a i r space u t i l i z a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , i t i s important prepared. 1. and  t h a t a plan f o r a i r space usage be  The purpose of the plan should be t w o - f o l d : To determine p o t e n t i a l a i r r i g h t s development  areas  t o s p e c i f y areas where such development would be i n the  public interest. 2.  _  To suggest the k i n d of a i r r i g h t s improvements, p u b l i c  or p r i v a t e , t h a t would conform t o an o v e r a l l plan f o r the a r e a . Whatever r e g u l a t o r y measures are adopted f o r the con- • t r o l o f a i r r i g h t s i t must be remembered they w i l l apply o n l y to. p r i v a t e l y owned and c i t y owned and c o n t r o l l e d a r e a s .  In B r i t i s h  Columbia, r e g u l a t i o n s would apply t o r a i l w a y companies, the C i t y of Vancouver, o r the p i e c e s of l a n d owned by other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Undertakings o f the Crown which are not s u b j e c t t o the m u n i c i p a l or c i t y a u t h o r i t i e s could not be f o r c e d t o conform to the a i r rights regulations. owned p r o p e r t y  The s a l e or l e a s i n g o f a i r r i g h t s over  i s s u b j e c t t o any c o n d i t i o n s f o r development the  c i t y may wish t o e s t a b l i s h . assuming conformity 1.  city  The s o l u t i o n o f the problem o f  t o a g e n e r a l plan may c a l l f o r two approaches:  The C i t y i t s e l f can a c q u i r e the a i r r i g h t s and b u i l d  p o r t i o n s o f the development such as the p l a t f o r m .  The C i t y would  then s e l l o r l e a s e p a r c e l s f o r p r i v a t e development i n accordance with the p l a n .  Aside from the f i n a n c i a l question,' t h i s approach  i s s i m p l e s t and could be used f o r a i r space development over l a n d which t h e . C i t y a l r e a d y owns o r over l a n d where the c i t y  acquires 2. for  the a i r r i g h t s . The C i t y may adopt r e g u l a t i o n s under which  p r i v a t e owners t o b u i l d i s c o n d i t i o n e d  the p l a n . and  61  This i s d i f f i c u l t  construction  approval  on conformance w i t h  i f a l a r g e p a r c e l i s t o be developed  i n v o l v e s s e v e r a l developers working i n stages.  P u b l i c Ownership and Resale o r Lease P u b l i c ownership and r e s a l e o r l e a s e i s the most e f f e c t i v e way a i r r i g h t s may be c o n t r o l l e d .  A c q u i s i t i o n of the  whole land p a r c e l and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the p l a t f o r m of a program to c o n s t r u c t  a p u b l i c f a c i l i t y , the cost of which  c o u l d be f i n a n c e d by a debenture i s s u e .  F o r example, an o f f -  s t r e e t p a r k i n g garage, might be c o n s t r u c t e d to the payment of the bonds.  and revenues pledged  The revenues might come from the  l e a s e of space over the p a r k i n g self.  c o u l d be p a r t  l o t as w e l l as from the l o t i t -  I t may be p o s s i b l e f o r the c i t y to l e a s e p a r k i n g  t i e s before  facili-  c o n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h an o b l i g a t i o n on the l e s s e e to do  a l l the c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the s t r e e t s , w i t h the c i t y ing  i n the s t r e e t c o s t s .  s u c c e s s f u l l y employed. granted f o r a three  shar-  In Japan, a s i m i l a r procedure has been Space beneath a proposed freeway was  s t o r e y commercial development on the c o n d i -  t i o n t h a t the developers would bear the a d d i t i o n a l cost o f supp o r t i n g a freeway on the top of t h e i r The  stores.  3  concept o f j o i n t development of urban renewal and  transportation f a c i l i t i e s  provides  c o n t r o l through p u b l i c ownership.^"  another means of a i r r i g h t s U s i n g funds t h a t are a v a i l -  able from s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government c i t i e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can a c q u i r e  b l i g h t e d areas and i n c o r p o r a t e  freeway o r t r a n s i t  62 c o r r i d o r s with the redevelopment p l a n . Regulatory C o n t r o l s Two  r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s have been used with some  success to i n s u r e t h a t a i r r i g h t s development conforms w i t h an 5  o v e r a l l p l a n f o r the a r e a .  Both of these c o n t r o l s are  based  on a d o p t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e zoning r e g u l a t i o n s . 1.  Overlay Zone: One  concept t h a t may  be a p p l i e d i s the " o v e r l a y zone".  An o v e r l a y zone would impose upon an e x i s t i n g b a s i c use  district  c e r t a i n p e r m i s s i v e uses and r e g u l a t o r y standards a p p l i c a b l e to such uses, without lying district ing  changing  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the b a s i c under-  regulations.  In e f f e c t , i t r e p r e s e n t s  c e r t a i n areas f o r s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n a l uses.  o v e r l a y zone there would be no requirement boundaries zone. to  predetermin-  In mapping an  t h a t the o v e r l a y zone  should be c o i n c i d e n t w i t h boundaries  of the u n d e r l y i n g  The a d d i t i o n a l uses p e r m i t t e d and the standards a p p l i c a b l e  such c o n d i t i o n a l uses would be s p e l l e d , o u t i n the  zoning  ordinance. 2.  Planned.Unit Air  Development:  r i g h t s p r o j e c t s can be r e g u l a t e d by adoption of  planned u n i t development or comprehensive development, p r o v i s i o n s t h a t e x i s t i n most zoning o r d i n a n c e s .  Some c i t i e s ,  such as the  C i t y of Vancouver, r e q u i r e r e z o n i n g f o r every planned u n i t d e v e l opment.  T h i s procedure  i s in effect a special d i s t r i c t  appears  i n the zoning map  that  as a planned development d i s t r i c t .  The  p r o v i s i o n s of planned u n i t development zoning are intended to a l l o w c o n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y i n design, but ground coverage  and  63 f l o o r area requirements  should be a t l e a s t as r e s t r i c t i v e as  those a p p l i e d to other p r o p e r t i e s i n the same zone. New York and Chicago have i n c o r p o r a t e d e x t e n s i v e prov i s i o n w i t h i r i ^ t h e i r zoning ordinances f o r c o n t r o l of a i r r i g h t s development.  The Zoning R e s o l u t i o n of the C i t y of New York  s t a t e s t h a t the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission may permit developments or  enlargements i n r a i l r o a d o r t r a n s i t a i r space f o r any use per-  m i t t e d by the a p p l i c a b l e d i s t r i c t  r e g u l a t i o n s , p r o v i d e d t h a t the  6 f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s are made: (a)  That the l o t a r e a f o r such development or e n l a r g e ment i n c l u d e s o n l y t h a t p o r t i o n of the r i g h t - o f - w a y o r ' yard which i s to be completely covered over by a permanent f i r e p r o o f p l a t f o r m u n p e r f o r a t e d except f o r such s u i t a b l y p r o t e c t e d openings as may be r e q u i r e d f o r v e n t i l a t i o n , drainage o r o t h e r necessary .purposes.  (b)  That adequate access t o one or more s t r e e t s i s provided.  (c)  That, c o n s i d e r i n g the s i z e of the proposed development o r enlargement, the s t r e e t s p r o v i d i n g access to such use w i l l be adequate to handle i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c r e s u l t i n g therefrom.  (d)  That, from the standpoint of e f f e c t s upon the c h a r a c t e r o f surrounding areas, the f l o o r area o r number of rooms i s not unduly concentrated i n any p o r t i o n of such development or enlargement, i n c l u d i n g any p o r t i o n l o c a t e d beyond the boundaries o f such r a i l r o a d o r t r a n s i t a i r space. In  a d d i t i o n , the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission "may p r e -  s c r i b e a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d i t i o n s and safeguards t o minimize  adverse  e f f e c t s on.the c h a r a c t e r o f the surrounding a r e a , and may r e q u i r e t h a t the s t r u c t u r a l design o f such development o r enlargement make due allowance  f o r changes i n the l a y o u t of t r a c k s o r o t h e r  s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n such r i g h t - o f - w a y o r yard, which may be deemed necessary i n connection w i t h f u t u r e improvements o f the t r a n s -  64 p o r t a x i o n system." Thus, a i r r i g h t s developments over r a i l r o a d yards i n New York are permitted by e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  decisions  of the P l a n n i n g Commission, l e a v i n g the Commission a c e r t a i n range of d i s c r e t i o n .  Approval by the Board of Estimate, the  C i t y ' s governing board i s not r e q u i r e d . In Chicago, a l l a i r r i g h t s developments must be subm i t t e d and processed under the planned development p r o v i s i o n s 7  of the zoning ordinance.  A t r a c t of l a n d designated as a  planned development, may be p e r m i t t e d i n any  zoning.district  and i s given a s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t d e s i g n a t i o n on the o f f i c i a l zoning map.  A l l former d i s t r i c t boundaries are superseded and  eliminated. The zoning ordinance makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between a i r r i g h t s developments and other types of developments t h a t might q u a l i f y as a planned development. "The zoning ordinance p r o v i d e s that a Planned U n i t Development must q u a l i f y as a t r a c t of land'which i s developed as a u n i t under s i n g l e ownership or- c o n t r o l , or which i s under s i n g l e designated c o n t r o l by a common ownership at the time i t i s c e r t i f i e d as a "Planned Development". I t must i n c l u d e two or more p r i n c i p a l • b u i l d i n g s , except i n the case of h o s p i t a l planned d e v e l opments or a i r r i g h t s planned developments which may have only one p r i n c i p a l building.- A Planned Development s h a l l be at l e a s t two a c r e s i n a r e a . M a n u f a c t u r i n g planned developments s h a l l be at l e a s t ten a c r e s i n a r e a . A i r r i g h t s planned developments s h a l l not r e q u i r e any minimum a r e a . ( I t a l i c s mine)" b ~ 1  A i r Space R e g u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia The p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n d i c a t e the n e c e s s i t y f o r the c o n t r o l of a i r r i g h t s development. A c c o r d i n g l y , measures a v a i l a b l e f o r the c o n t r o l of a i r r i g h t s  65 development i n B r i t i s h Columbia have been  examined.  The C i t y of Vancouver •The Vancouver C h a r t e r has empowered the C i t y of Vancouver to make by-laws r e g u l a t i n g the use of land w i t h i n the city.^  In a d d i t i o n the. c i t y has e x p r o p r i a t i o n powers t h a t  may  be used f o r a c q u i r i n g land f o r development by the C i t y or f o r r e s a l e to p r i v a t e developers. ^* 1  As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n  Chapter I I , s p e c i a l powers have been granted to the C i t y to regulate  the use of space under, on o r above c i t y owned prop-  erties.  Three a l t e r n a t i v e s e x i s t f o r the c o n t r o l of a i r space  development i n the C i t y of Vancouver: 1.  In accordance with the power to r e g u l a t e the use of  'land above, under or on c i t y owned p r o p e r t y  an Area By-law has  been adopted that e s t a b l i s h e s procedures and r a t e s f o r t h i s same type of a i r space d e v e l o p m e n t . 2.  Within  11  the p r o v i s i o n s of the Zoning and  Development  By-law, no s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s are given f o r a i r space usage, but presumably the r e g u l a t i o n s f o r Comprehensive U n i t Development would apply. •  11.  12  These r e g u l a t i o n s are as f o l l o w s :  SPECIAL PROVISIONS: (4) Comprehensive U n i t Development A Comprehensive U n i t Development c o n t a i n i n g any number of b u i l d i n g s and uses and planned as an i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t may be approved as a c o n d i t i o n a l use by the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board s u b j e c t to such c o n d i t i o n s as they deem r e q u i s i t e ; p r o v i d e d t h a t the scheme conforms to the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l requirements; (a) That the scheme i s c o n s i s t e n t with the i n t e n t and the purposes of t h i s By-law and any o f f i c i a l Town P l a n ; (b) That the n e c e s s a r y l e g a l instruments are provided to ensure that a l l f e a t u r e s r e l a t e d to each i n d i v i d u a l development are  66 used, operated and maintained i n a c c o r d ance w i t h the scheme as approved. COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT DISTRICT SCHEDULE: 1. Uses Permitted With the approval of the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board development permits may he i s s u e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g uses. I f the development permit i s granted, i t s h a l l be subject to such c o n d i t i o n s and r e g u l a t i o n s as the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board may decide; (l) Comprehensive U n i t Development s u b i e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s of S e c t i o n 11 (4J of t h i s By-law. 3.  The  C i t y ' s powers of e x p r o p r i a t i o n may  q u i r e lands and  be used to  c o n t r o l over a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s can be  ac-  exercised  by the C i t y i n the terms of a r e s a l e c o n t r a c t or development be and  done by the  city itself.  financial, assistance  can  E x i s t i n g urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n  c o u l d be used f o r t h i s purpose.  The M u n i c i p a l i t i e s V/hereas the M u n i c i p a l adopt zoning  r e g u l a t i o n s and  Act empowers m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to  expropriate  property,  t h e i r powers  13 are not as broad as the C i t y of Vancouver.  Powers f o r the  con-  t r o l of encroachments on, under or above m u n i c i p a l  s t r e e t s have  not.been s p e c i a l l y granted to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The  t h i s may  be t h a t ownership of most s t r e e t s and highways i n a  m u n i c i p a l i t y i s vested  w i t h the Crown.  to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to r e g u l a t e powers of zoning powers of  reason f o r  and  The  controls available  a i r r i g h t s projects include  their  p u b l i c development u s i n g the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  expropriation.  Highways and The  Railroads powers f o r the  or above highways and  c o n t r o l of development on,  railways  i n B r i t i s h Columbia are  under contained  /  67  i n the p r o v i s i o n s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e A c t s . c o n t r o l s , however, i s to s p e c i f y distance ments to provide  The nature of the  and clearance  require-  f o r the f r e e flow of t r a f f i c on the f a c i l i t y ,  r a t h e r than to e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over the type of development t h a t may  occur.  In the case of r a i l w a y s the c o n t r o l over the  type of development would be e x e r c i s e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y o r c i t y i n which the p r o j e c t was quired f o r " P r o j e c t 2 0 0 "  situated.  In Vancouver, zoning r e -  w i l l be a p p l i e d f o r i n accordance w i t h  the requirements of the Comprehensive Development the Vancouver Zoning Bylaw.  s e c t i o n s of  A i r r i g h t s developments c o n t r o l l e d  by agencies of the Crown, however, are not r e q u i r e d to conform with the p r o v i s i o n s of m u n i c i p a l s t r o n g p o l i c y of cooperation  or zoning  ordinances.  Only a  e x i s t s to i n s u r e that Crown spons-  ored a i r r i g h t s developments w i l l conform with the l o n g range plans and o b j e c t i v e s of the community i n which they are l o c a t e d . Summary and Conclusions  v.  '  Problems of c o m p a t i b i l i t y , d i f f e r e n t i a l obsolescence, increased  d e n s i t y and access and c i r c u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e the need  f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g  of a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s .  The  controls  that e x i s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia to i n s u r e t h a t a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s conform to the l o n g range p l a n n i n g  o b j e c t i v e s of a community have  been i n v e s t i g a t e d . The C i t y of Vancouver possesses the most  extensive  powers f o r the r e g u l a t i o n of a i r r i g h t s development.  Municipali-  t i e s have l i m i t e d power i n c o n t r o l l i n g a i r r i g h t s development above s t r e e t s and l a n e s .  The powers of r a i l w a y companies t o  develop a i r space are l i m i t e d by the c o n t r o l s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y  68  i n which the p r o j e c t i s l o c a t e d .  Only the Department of Highways  and o t h e r Crown agencies a r e not r e s t r i c t e d by the r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s of m u n i c i p a l i t y and c i t y .  I f a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s are t o  be undertaken by Crown agencies, the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and c i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have no means'whereby t h i s development can be c o n t r o l l e d except through  a p o l i c y of active cooperation.  In  many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s where Crown h o l d i n g s are e x t e n s i v e p l a n n i n g problems h a v i n g a severe impact  on the community c o u l d r e s u l t  from a i r space usage and the community has no means by which to i n s u r e t h a t i t s best i n t e r e s t s are p r o t e c t e d .  69 Footnotes 1  Goldschmidt, Leopold A., " A i r R i g h t s " , Information Report No. 186, ASPO, Chicago, May 1964.  2  Goldschmidt, Leopold A.,  3  Sadomu, Mino, " M u l t i p l e Use of Highway Rights-of-Way" Proceedings of the T h i r t y - F i f t h Annual Meeting, I n s t i t u t e of T r a f f i c Engineers (1955).  4  U. S., Department of Commerce Freeways to Urban Development (Washington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ) , 1967. '.  5  Goldschmidt, Leopold A.,  6  C i t y of New York, Zoning R e s o l u t i o n of the C i t y of New York, 1961.  7  C i t y of Chicago, Chicago Zoning Ordinance,  8.  C i t y of Chicago, Rules, R e g u l a t i o n s and Procedures i n R e l a t i o n ' to Planned Development Amendments to the Chicago Zoning Ordinance, as Amended, 1963.  9  B r i t i s h Columbia, s.  ibid.  loc. c i t .  1963.  Revised Statutes', (i960) c. 55,  S . 565.  10  Ibid.,  564  . "'..  11  C i t y of Vancouver,  Area By-law  12  C i t y of Vancouver,  Zoning and Development By-law No.  13  B r i t i s h Columbia, R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s ( i 9 6 0 ) , S. 702. "  14  P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. J . Gilmour, P r o j e c t P l a n n e r f o r Grosvenor/Laing L t d . , p a r t n e r s i n the P r o j e c t 200 Development, Vancouver, B. C.  720.  c. 255,  S.  3575. 483,  70  CHAPTER V .CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  T h i s a n a l y s i s of a i r space u t i l i z a t i o n has r e v e a l e d numerous l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  inadequacies t h a t make  l a r g e s c a l e use of the a i r r i g h t s concept i n B r i t i s h d i f f i c u l t and i n some i n s t a n c e s  impossible.  Columbia  I t i s important  t h a t these inadequacies be s t u d i e d and that c e r t a i n l e g i s l a t i v e changes be made i f a i r space u t i l i z a t i o n p a r t of f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g The as  conclusions  i s to become an i n t e g r a l  and urban development.  and recommendations of t h i s t h e s i s are summarized  follows: 1.  A i r space u t i l i z a t i o n  i s not a new concept, but one  which has been used s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r many c e n t u r i e s . • The a i r r i g h t s concept has been used with g r e a t e s t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r s where land v a l u e s high.  The most notable  are b e i n g  success i n l a r g e met-  and b u i l d i n g d e n s i t i e s are  a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s have been b u i l t or  contemplated above r a i l w a y trackage l o c a t e d i n c e n t r a l  c i t i e s o r i n m u l t i - l e v e l , multi-purpose dov^ntown redevelopment . schemes.  Transportation  facilities  these massive.developments.  occupy the lower l e v e l s of  The t h i r d type of a i r r i g h t s d e v e l -  opment t h a t i s w i d e l y recognized  i s the use of space above o r  below freeways o r other t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r i g h t s - o f - w a y .  At the  •71 present  time, one major a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t i s about t o be under-  taken i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Rapid p o p u l a t i o n  growth and i n c r e a s e d  demand f o r urban land i n d i c a t e t h a t other a i r r i g h t s p r o j e c t s maybe  incorporated 2.  w i t h f u t u r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and land use p l a n n i n g .  The concept of land ownership and tenure as promulgated  by the Canadian Courts and the Land R e g i s t r y Act i s not conducive to a i r r i g h t s development. and be  Canadian Courts have r u l e d t h a t a i r  space are not s u s c e p t i b l e of ownership and, t h e r e f o r e , s o l d , conveyed or l e a s e d i n any manner.  space are enclosed  Only when.air and  by a p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e b e a r i n g  s u r f a c e are they s u s c e p t i b l e of ownership.  cannot  Within  on the l a n d the p r o v i s i o n s  of the Land R e g i s t r y Act only the surface  owner i s e n t i t l e d t o be  r e g i s t e r e d as the owner o f the f e e simple.  The i n t e r e s t i n land  h e l d by other  owners can o n l y be r e g i s t e r e d as a charge  the i n d e f e a s i b l e t i t l e .  against  In the view of Ruoff, changes must be  made i n the Land R e g i s t r y system i f i t becomes apparent t h a t the s i n g u l a r ownership of i n d e f e a s i b l e t i t l e  i s inadequate t o meet  the needs of society.. 3. ing  The' S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t f u l f i l s  a p a r t i a l need i n extend-  the p r o v i s i o n of the Land R e g i s t r y Act to allow f o r the i n -  d i v i d u a l and m u l t i p l e ownership of l a n d .  The a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f  the A c t t o s t r a t a development above highways and is  severely  rights-of-way  restricted.  (a)  Agencies r e s p o n s i b l e  of-way are only permitted  f o r highways and r i g h t s -  t o dispose  of r e a l p r o p e r t y not  r e q u i r e d f o r the purposes o f the agency.  A p p l i c a t i o n of  the S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t t o a i r r i g h t s development  requires  72 t h a t the land i n c l u d e d i n the s t r a t a plan be r e g i s t e r e d . i n i n d e f e a s i b l e t i t l e as a s i n g l e p a r c e l in. the name of the  "strata corporation".  the right-of-way  Thus, i f the agency t h a t owns  wishes to develop a i r r i g h t s u s i n g  Act, the land i n v o l v e d must be'sold ation.  At the present,  this  t o a s t r a t a corpor-  n o . s p e c i f i c a u t h o r i t y has been  granted, by the l e g i s l a t u r e t h a t w i l l permit the C i t y of Vancouver, the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the Department  of Highways,  or the r a i l w a y companies to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s type of •development.  Only the C i t y o f Vancouver may have  sufficient  power t o undertake a i r r i g h t s development, but t h i s i s not c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the Vancouver  Charter.  I t i s recommended that the l e g i s l a t u r e grant t o agencies r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r highways and rights-of-way  the  power t o a l i e n a t e lands r e q u i r e d f o r a i r r i g h t s development p r o v i d e d  t h a t adequate accommodation  i s made:, f o r the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t y w i t h i n the development. (b)  The S t r a t a T i t l e s Act i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the owner-  s h i p of l a n d .  T i t l e to u n i t s o f space w i t h i n a s t r a t a  development cannot be r e g i s t e r e d u n t i l a f t e r the development i s completed.  To provide  f o r the ownership of space and  thus a means whereby ownership o f space can be conveyed the Ontario  Condominium A c t d e f i n e s the ownership o f l a n d t o  a l s o mean the ownership of space.  Thus, t i t l e  can be i s s u e d  , f o r space w i t h i n a s t r a t a development p r i o r t o i t s b e i n g constructed.  I f s i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n were adopted i n B r i t i s h  Columbia l e g a l procedures could be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t would  73 permit  the owner of the highway or right-of-way  the space f o r a i r r i g h t s development.  The  to  sell  a i r rights  p l a t f o r m could be c o n s t r u c t e d by the agency concerned or by the developer 4. granted  depending upon the terms of the agreement.  In a l l i n s t a n c e s the agencies  examined have been  powers to l e a s e i n t e r e s t i n highways and  rights-of-way.  To accommodate a i r r i g h t s development u s i n g the l e a s i n g method, two  a l t e r n a t i v e s to development (a)  The  agency may  or r i g h t - o f - w a y  exist:  l e a s e a s e c t i o n of the highv/ay.  to the a i r r i g h t s developer.  w i l l c o n s t r u c t the a i r r i g h t s p l a t f o r m and  The  developer  covenant w i t h i n  the terms of the l e a s e to provide f o r the f r e e flow of traffic  on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  (b)  The  agency may  facility;  c o n s t r u c t an a i r r i g h t s p l a t f o r m  above the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t y p l a t f o r m to a i r r i g h t s 5.  . F e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s of a i r r i g h t s development revenues as w e l l as  of the cost of a i r r i g h t s p l a t f o r m . r i g h t s p l a t f o r m may i n fee simple,  should  estimates  Whereas the c o s t of the a i r  be g r e a t e r than the cost of comparable l a n d  differential.  The b l i g h t i n g i n f l u e n c e of freeways, r a i l l i n e s  t r a n s i t l i n e s on adjacent  urban areas has  l o n g been  Act to a s s i s t urban areas  and  recognized.  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , p r o v i s i o n s were made i n the 1964  ways and  the  the l o n g term b e n e f i t s of a i r r i g h t s development  exceed t h i s cost 6.  l e a s e space on  developers.  c o n s i d e r the l o n g term c o s t s and  may  and  Housing  i n a c q u i r i n g a i r r i g h t s above h i g h -  r a i l w a y s f o r purposes of developing  low and moderate  74 income housing. corporating in  Immediate c o n s i d e r a t i o n  similar legislation  should be  given to i n -  i n t o the N a t i o n a l  Housing Act  Canada. 7.  I f the maximum p o t e n t i a l of a i r r i g h t s development  i s to be achieved, plans f o r development must be prepared controls  established  to i n s u r e  that plans are  In Vancouver where the  owned l a n d , the  and  exercises  adhered t o .  c i t y owns a l l the  possesses s p e c i a l powers f o r r e g u l a t i n g  Only i n the  city  lanes,  limited.  C i t y of Vancouver h o l d s t i t l e  title  to a l l s t r e e t s and  vested w i t h the all  of  c o n t r o l l i n g power  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia are Whereas the  capable  case of p r o v i n c i a l h i g h -  ways or o t h e r Crown owned right-of-way i s the of the  city  lands through  zoning bylaw, a i r r i g h t s development should be  being r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d .  streets,  encroachments on  c o n t r o l over p r i v a t e  and  Crown.  secondary and  municipality  fortunate  to a l l s t r e e t s  lanes in m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  and is  Crown h o l d s t i t l e  a r t e r i a l highways i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  exercises  have s p e c i f i c a l l y  less  to The  c o n t r o l only over highway lands they  a c q u i r e d and  over p r i v a t e  lands through the.  zoning .bylaw. To palities and  insure  successful  a i r r i g h t s development i n munici  i t i s recommended t h a t t i t l e  perhaps secondary highways be  to. a l l s t r e e t s and  granted t o the  or- a i r r i g h t s development "boards" be  established  t i e s to s e l e c t p o t e n t i a l a i r r i g h t s s i t e s and t r o l s f o r development.  The  lanes  municipalities in  municipali  to e s t a b l i s h con-  "board" should c o n s i s t of p l a n n i n g  75 representatives  from the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the agencies o f the  Crown and the r a i l w a y companies. t h i s instance  i s p o s s i b l e , o n l y through p o l i c i e s of c o o p e r a t i v e  effort.  -  8. and  Coordinated development i n  In j u r i s d i c t i o n s where c o n t r o l over s t r e e t s , l a n e s  highways i s shared by the p r o v i n c i a l government and the  m u n i c i p a l i t y , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f revenues earned from the s a l e or l e a s i n g of a i r r i g h t s could be a problem. Province  T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the  i s e n t i t l e d t o c o l l e c t the revenue f o r the s a l e o f any  i n t e r e s t i n the f e e simple.  The c o s t s of c o n s t r u c t i o n , mainten-  ance and c o n t r o l on the highways and s t r e e t s i s a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  Some s p e c i a l method of d i s t r i b u t i n g  revenues from sale' of a i r r i g h t s should be 9.  considered.  I t has been stated, t h a t any agency d e s i r o u s  developing  of : •  a i r r i g h t s f o r i t s own purposes may do- so. P u b l i c  .  a u t h o r i t i e s e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over p r i v a t e a i r r i g h t s developments-., by l e g i s l a t i v e  or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  regulations.. P u b l i c l y owned /  developments, however, are not s u b j e c t to these same c o n t r o l s . Therefore, be  the p o s s i b l e uses of p u b l i c l y owned a i r space should ..  c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d . The f o l l o w i n g uses may be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  p u b l i c l y owned a i r space: . , •; • (a) M u n i c i p a l  uses, such as low income housing,  schools,  r e c r e a t i o n spaces, c i t y o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , p u b l i c  parking;  (b) P u b l i c housing; (c) F e d e r a l b u i l d i n g s ; (d) P r i v a t e l y developed low income housing; (e) H o s p i t a l s and s o c i a l w e l f a r e non-profit organizations;  f a c i l i t i e s operated by ; "  :  ( f ) B u s i n e s s purposes such as o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , commercial s t r u c t u r e s , and p r i v a t e l y owned and operated housing..  BIBLIOGRAPHY  76 A.  Books  C h i n i t z , Benjamin (ed.). C i t y and Suburb. i - r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1964.  E n g l e w o o d , N. J . :  Coyne, H.E.B. The R a i l w a y Law o f C a n a d a . B o o k Company, 1947.  Toronto:  Canada  D i C a s t r i , V i c t o r (ed.). Thorn's C a n a d i a n T o r r e n s S y s t e m . 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Journal,  Appraisal  " P a i n l e s s Urban Highway Routing", E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record, (November 24,.1966), 11-157 : ~~ "Planning a New Downtown", Downtown Idea Exchange, V o l . 15,' No. 2 (January 15, 1968).  (New  York),  " R e s e r v o i r W i l l Be Topped By $60 - M i l l i o n B u i l d i n g Complex", • E n g i n e e r i n g News Record, (February -2, 1967), 13. Richardson, Jack E. " P r i v a t e P r o p e r t y R i g h t s i n the A i r Space at Common Lav/," The Canadian Bar Review, (February, 1963). : R i s k R.C.B. "Condominium and Canada", U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Law J o u r n a l , X V I I I , No. 1 (l9o"87: ~ ~ " R o c k e f e l l e r Announces P l a n t o B u i l d on A i r R i g h t s , Moses H i t s P r o p o s a l to B u i l d Over Highway", A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, (December, 1961). Smith, Howard. "New Use of Space", C a l i f o r n i a Highways and P u b l i c Works, V o l . 45, Nos. 9 - 10 (September October, 1965). Sadanue, Mino. " M u l t i p l e Use of Highway Right-of-Way"7 Proceedi n g s of the 35th Annual Meeting of the I n s t i t u t e of T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r s , (1965). Thompson, Loren L. "Air Rights: Today and Tomorrow", Right-of-Way, (June, 1965). " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the C i t y " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, (October, 1963), 61-94. :  80  White, John Robert. "George Washington Bridge Approach:'. A Case Study", The A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l . XXXIV, No. 1 (January, 1 9 6 6 ) .  D.  Reports  B r i l l E n g i n e e r i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . Cross Brooklyn Expressway. Department of Highways, New York C i t y (January, 1 9 6 5 ) Buchanan,  Collin. T r a f f i c i n Towns. A Report o f the S t e e r i n g Group and Y/orking Group Appointed by the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t . London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1963.  Chicago.  Crosstown Expressway Study, A Report Prepared by the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A d v i s o r y Group. November 3 0 ,  Hill,  1965  A. M. A i r R i g h t s and T h e i r Use i n Los Angeles, P a r t I . A Report Prepared f o r the C i t y of Los Angeles by the • Bureau of Right-of-Y/ay and Land. Los' Angeles, March, 1 9 6 5 . •  Pardee, L y a l l A. A Study of A i r R i g h t s and T h e i r Use i n Los Angeles, P a r t I I . A R e p o r t Prepared f o r the C i t y of Los Angeles by the C i t y E n g i n e e r . Los Angele February, 1 9 6 6 . Sedgewick, S e l l e r s and A s s o c i a t e s , I n c . A Study f o r the P o s s i b l e U t i l i z a t i o n of A i r R i g h t s Above Pree"ways. F l i n t , Michigan, March, 1 9 6 5 . T i p p e t t s - Abbett - McCarthy - S t r a t t o n . The J o i n t Development of Housing and Freeways. A Report P r e p a r e d " f o r the Department of Highways and T r a f f i c ; D i s t r i c t o f Columbia, U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of P u b l i c Roads. Washington, February, 1 9 6 7 .  E.  Speeches and Unpublished Papers  Andrews, J.A.C. M u l t i - U s e Developments of Highways i n Urban Areas. A Paper P r e s e n t e d a t the. Annual Convention of the Canadian Good Roads A s s o c i a t i o n i n Vancouver, B. C , September 27, 1967. B a r n e t t , Joseph, F.A.S.C.E., U. S. Department o f Commerce, Bureau of P u b l i c Roads. Urban Freeway and C i t y  81  Center P l a n n i n g and Design. A speech given a t the Urban P l a n n i n g and Development and Highway D i v i s i o n s S e s s i o n of the A.S.C.E., T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g Conference. P h i l a d e l p h i a , October 18, 1966.. Collier,  Senator Randolph, S t a t e Senator, C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Senate, Chairman of the Committee on T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g f o r the F u t u r e . A Speech Presented t o the American S o c i e t y of C i v i l E n g i n e e r s . August, 1966.  Morton, H. J . U. S. Department of Roads. A i r Space U3e i n A paper presented a t the Law. Boulder, Colorado,  Commerce, Bureau o f P u b l i c the F e d e r a l A i d Program. F i f t h Workshop on Highway J u l y 14, 1966.  S t u a r t , Darwin G. M u l t i - P u r p o s e Freeway Land Development. A Paper P r e s e n t e d a t the 7 t h Annual Meeting of the • Highway Research Board, Washington, D. C , January, 1968. Turner, F. C. U. S. Department o f Commerce. Bureau o f P u b l i c Roads. A Concept f o r the J o i n t Development of ,' Freeways and Other Urban F a c i l i t i e s . A Speech Presented a t the F i f t y - S e c o n d Annual Meeting of the American A s s o c i a t i o n of S t a t e Highway O f f i c i a l s , W i c h i t a , Kansas, December.2, 1966.  F.  Newspaper A r t i c l e s  "Downtown M o n t r e a l Goes Underground f o r Walking" The F i n a n c i a l Post, February 10, 1968. " A i r R i g h t s Development Proposed Above CNR i n Edmonton", Calgary Albertan (January 25, 1968). "World Without Weather" The (Vancouver, B. C.) Sunday Sun (February 24, 19"6"8T^ ' . ' ~  G.  Correspondence  L e t t e r t o the Author from Mr. J . C. Cowan, B a r r i s t e r and S o l i c i t o r , 1070 Douglas S t r e e t , V i c t o r i a , B. C , dated March 6, 1968.  APPENDICES  82 APPENDIX "A" E x t r a c t s Prom the Land R e g i s t r y Act.  R.S.B.C. I960, C. 208  1 . T h i s A c t m a y be cited as the Land Registry Act.  R . S . 1943,  c.171, s . l . 2. ( 1 ) In this A c t , unless the context otherwise requires, " charge " means any estate less than the fee-simple, a n d s h a l l include any equitable interest i n l a n d , a n d any e n c u m b r a n c e u p o n l a n d , a n d any estate or interest registered as a charge u n d e r section' 1 4 5 ; . " e n c u m b r a n c e " includes any C r o w n debt, judgment, mortgage, l i e n , or other c l a i m to or u p o n l a n d created, effected, o r given for any purpose whatever, whether b y the act of the parties or b y or i n pursuance of any Statute or. l a w , a n d whether voluntary or involuntary; • . " h i g h w a y " includes a l l p u b l i c streets, roads, trails, lanes, t h o r o u g h fares, bridges, a n d any other p u b l i c w a y ; " i n s t r u m e n t " means any C r o w n grant o r other c o n v e y a n c e of C r o w n lands, o r any d o c u m e n t i n w r i t i n g r e l a t i n g to the transfer of l a n d o r otherwise d e a l i n g w i t h or affecting l a n d , or any estate or interest i n l a n d , or e v i d e n c i n g title thereto, and s h a l l i n c l u d e any p l a n o r survey of l a n d ; " j u d g m e n t " means any judgment, de.cree, o r order of any C o u r t w h e r e b y the possession of l a n d is given to o r any estate i n l a n d is vested i n o r charge o n l a n d is created i n f a v o u r o f a n y person, a n d i n that part of the A c t d e a l i n g w i t h the registrat i o n of judgments shall i n c l u d e a judgment for the p a y m e n t of m o n e y as defined b y the Execution Act for the p u r p o s e o f . e x e c u t i o n against l a n d s ; " m u n i c i p a l i t y " includes, i n accordance w i t h the context, either a n area i n c o r p o r a t e d as a city, t o w n , district, t o w n s h i p , o r village by o r u n d e r any A c t of the L e g i s l a t u r e , o r the c o r p o r a t i o n into w h i c h the residents o f the area h a v e been i n c o r p o r a t e d as a m u n i c i p a l i t y , a n d " m u n i c i p a l " has a c o r r e s p o n d i n g meaning; " o w n e r " a n d " registered o w n e r " m e a n any p e r s o n registered i n the b o o k s of any L a n d R e g i s t r y Office as o w n e r of l a n d o r of any charge o n l a n d , whether entitled thereto i n his o w n right or i n a representative c a p a c i t y o r otherwise; " p a r c e l " means any lot, b l o c k , o r other area i n w h i c h l a n d is h e l d or into w h i c h l a n d is s u b d i v i d e d ; " register " means the v o l u m e s k e p t i n the respective L a n d R e g i s t r y Offices i n w h i c h certificates of indefeasible title are entered and b o u n d , o r the register o f those titles as k e p t at the time to w h i c h the context applies; " Registrar " includes a D e p u t y Registrar o r Acting-Registrar;  " right-of-way " includes l a n d o r any interest i n l a n d a c q u i r e d for the purpose of (a) constructing, m a i n t a i n i n g , o r operating any r a i l w a y , street-railway, t r a m w a y , o r aerial t r a m w a y ; o r (b) erecting a n d m a m t a i n i n g a n y pole-line, w o o d o r t i m ber chute; o r ( c ) l a y i n g , p l a c i n g , a n d m a i n t a i n i n g drains, ditches, pipes, transmission-lines, o r wires for the conveyance, transmission, o r transportation of water, electric p o w e r , forest products, o i l , o r gas, o r b o t h o i l a n d gas, o r for the d i s p o s a l of sewage, o r any right-of-way o f a l i k e nature o r for a n y purpose necessary for the operation a n d maintenance o f the u n d e r t a k i n g ; " transmission " means any change o f ownership consequent u p o n death, o r u p o n any settlement, o r u p o n change of trustees, o r u p o n foreclosure o r sale under mortgage o r encumbrance, sale under order o f C o u r t o r for arrears o f taxes o r assessments, o r u p o n a vesting under a n order of C o u r t o r the p r o v i s i o n s o f a Statute; a n d s h a l l i n c l u d e s u r v i v o r s h i p under a j o i n t tenancy. SgsubdrJ?- " ( 2 ) W h e n e v e r i n this A c t words are used i m p o r t i n g the s u b d i v i d i n g sionofiard. s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d , those words s h a l l be deemed to refer to the d i v i s i o n o f l a n d into t w o o r m o r e parcels, whether b y p l a n o r b y metes a n d bounds description o r otherwise. R . S . 1 9 4 8 , c. 1 7 1 , s. 2 ; 1 9 5 1 , c. 4 2 , s. 2 ; 1959,-c. 4 4 , s. 2 ; 1 9 6 1 , c. 3 3 , s. 2 . ort  o  r  2 A . T h i s A c t , except P a r t V I thereof,  strata tiues.  applies,  mutatis  mutandis,  to a n y dealing with l a n d under the Strata Titles Act unless inconsistent _ therewith. 1 9 6 6 , c. 2 4 , s. 2 . creation ot  23  estates tail prohibited.  ( 1 ) N o estate i n fee-simple s h a l l be changed i n t o a n y l i m i t e d fes  '  v  o  r  .  -  '°  J  fee-tail, b u t the l a n d , whatever f o r m o f w o r d s is used i n a n y i n s t r u -  ment, s h a l l be a n d r e m a i n a n estate i n fee-simple i n the o w n e r for the time b e i n g . ( 2 ) A n y l i m i t a t i o n w h i c h before the first d a y o f J u n e , 1 9 2 1 , w o u l d  Efiectof  limitation ' ' purporting ]j t e d a n estate t a i l s h a l l transfer the fee-simple o r the greatest u "™ehtch* ^ ^ right-of-way o n , over' o r .u n d e r l a n drf o r the purposes tonde creat crregi stered defined u n dthe e r transferor, the definition y ". 1i 9n4section or estatetaii. estate that h a doi fn "hriisglhatn-do.f - w Ra. S 8 , c. 1 72 1 ,, granted s. 2 3 . aThar"" created b y the C r o w n i n right o f the P r o v i n c e , o r b y a n y p u b l i c officer v  ave  J  J  c r e a  8  1  " o r department o f the C r o w n u n d e r a n y Statute h a v i n g the force o f l a w , o r b y a n instrument executed b y the registered o w n e r o f the l a n d , o r by a n instrument h a v i n g the same effect as i f executed b y the registered o w n e r o f the l a n d , i n f a v o u r o f the C r o w n , a m u n i c i p a l i t y , a n i m p r o v e - , ment district, a r a i l w a y , a p u b l i c u t i l i t y c o m p a n y , a p u l p o r t i m b e r c o m p a n y , o r a c o m p a n y a u t h o r i z e d t o transport o i l o r gas, o r b o t h o i l a n d gas, u p o n registration o f the' instrument, constitutes  a charge o n  the l a n d i n favour o f the grantee, notwithstanding that the benefit o f the right-of-way  is n o t annexed to a n y l a n d o f the grantee, a n d confers  '. u p o n the grantee the right to use the l a n d charged i n accordance w i t h the terms o f the grant, a n d a l l the terms, conditions, a n d covenants expressed i n the grant are b i n d i n g u p o n a n d i n u r e to the benefit o f the grantee, its successors a n d assigns, a n d the grantor, his heirs, p e r s o n a l representatives, successors a n d assigns, except i n so far as a contrary intention appears.  Exclusion of liability on creator of such rightof-way when he ceases to be owner.  ( 2 ) N o person w h o executes a n instrument, whereby such a right-ofw a y as is referred to i n subsection ( 1 ) is created, is l i a b l e for any breach of any covenant c o n t a i n e d i n the instrument after he has ceased to be o w n e r of the l a n d .  Retroactive effect.  ( 3 ) T h i s section is retroactive i n its a p p l i c a t i o n a n d applies to a l l instruments of the nature described i n subsection ( 1 ) . registered before as w e l l as after the enactment of this section. R . S . 1 9 4 8 , c. 1 7 1 , s. 2 4 ; 1 9 5 1 , c. 4 2 , s. 3.  cVrdftfons and  ^" Th y be registered as annexed to any l a n d that is b e i n g or has been registered, a c o n d i t i o n o r covenant i n favour o f the C r o w n o r o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y that the l a n d , o r any specified p o r t i o n thereof, is not to be built o n , o r is to be or n o t to be used i n a p a r t i c u l a r m a n n e r . ( 2 ) W h e n any s u c h c o n d i t i o n o r covenant is registered, the R e g i s t r a r s h a l l enter a m e m o r a n d u m thereof u p o n the p r o p e r certificate o r cer-  0  covenants.  A  e r e  m  a  tificates of title. ( 3 ) T h e first o w n e r . o f the l a n d i n respect of w h i c h a c o n d i t i o n o r covenant is registered u n d e r subsection ( 2 ) as b e i n g annexed thereto,. Method of procuring signatures of owners.  104.  (1)  W h e r e the p l a n has been signed by a n o w n e r p r i m a facie  entitled to subdivide the lands, but the concurrence of other owners is r e q u i r e d , the p l a n to be signed shall be s u b m i t t e d for signature b y delivery to the person whose signature is r e q u i r e d , w h o m a y , w i t h i n thirty days after the p l a n is submitted for signature, b y notice i n w r i t i n g , require the person s u b m i t t i n g the p l a n to furnish profiles a n d sketch as referred to i n section 9 2 .  Power of ' Registrar to appoint hearing and order deposit of plan.  (2)  If at the e x p i r a t i o n of thirty days from the delivery of the p l a n ,  o r f r o m the f u r n i s h i n g of the profile o r sketch r e q u i r e d , the p l a n has n o t been signed a n d returned to the person w h o submitted it for signature, the R e g i s t r a r , at the request.of the person w h o submitted the p l a n for signature, shall issue an appointment for the h e a r i n g of a l l parties interested, and o n the r e t u r n of the a p p o i n t m e n t m a y , i f he considers the p l a n a p r o p e r one to be deposited, order it to be deposited.  Appeal from order.  (3)  A n y party dissatisfied w i t h such order m a y a p p e a l therefrom to  the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , b y notice served u p o n the R e g i s t r a r and the other parties interested w i t h i n ten days f r o m the m a k i n g of the order, a n d the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l m a y v a r y , alter, o r r e s c i n d the order as to h i m m a y appear just.  Effect of deposit pursuant to order.  (4)  U p o n the p l a n b e i n g deposited pursuant to the o r d e r for its  deposit, i t has the same force a n d effect i n a l l respects as i f it h a d been d u l y signed, w i t h o u t prejudice, h o w e v e r (except as to any h i g h w a y , p u b l i c p a r k , o r p u b l i c square s h o w n o n the p l a n ) , to any c o n d i t i o n , e x c e p t i o n , reservation, charge; l i e n , o r interest to w h i c h the registered title is subject.  New certificates of title for parcels shown on deposited . plan.  105.  (1)  R . S . 1 9 4 8 , c. 1 7 1 , s. 104. T h e R e g i s t r a r s h a l l e x a m i n e the  application and  the  instruments and p l a n p r o d u c e d i n support thereof, a n d i f satisfied that they are i n order a n d i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h a l l the requirements o f this A c t , shall assign to the p l a n a serial deposit n u m b e r a n d issue s u c h n e w certificates of title f o r the parcels s h o w n u p o n the p l a n as m a y be necessary.  Limit as to parcels. Cancellation of former certificate.  Transmission of blue-print to Assessor.  (2)  N o certificate of title s h a l l contain m o r e than fifty parcels.  ( 3 ) U p o n the issue of the new certificate of title, the former certificate shall be cancelled or endorsed, as the case m a y be, i n l i k e m a n n e r as p r o v i d e d i n section 159 i n the case of a transfer o f the w h o l e o r a p o r t i o n of lands i n c l u d e d i n a certificate of title. ( 4 ) U p o n the issue of the n e w certificate, the blue-print of the p l a n shall be transmitted to the M u n i c i p a l o r P r o v i n c i a l Assessor, as the case m a y b e . R . S . 1948, c. 1 7 1 , s. 104.  Reference and Explanatory Power of Registrar to accept metes and bounds description in  106.  (1)  Plans  T h e R e g i s t r a r , i n his discretion, m a y accept a full metes  a n d bounds description or abbreviated description, w i t h o r w i t h o u t a reference p l a n o r a n e x p l a n a t o r y p l a n , i n any of the f o l l o w i n g c a s e s : —  certain c a s e 3  without plan.  ( « ) W h e r e a s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n creating b l o c k s o f lots has been d u l y registered and the n e w p a r c e l is created b y d i v i d i n g the frontage of a l o t : W h e r e the new p a r c e l is created for the purpose of a d d i n g the same to a n already existing adjoining p a r c e l , i n w h i c h event the new p a r c e l s h a l l thereafter be deemed, for the purposes o f the p r o v i s i o n s of this A c t respecting s u b d i v i s i o n , as an integral p o r t i o n of the p a r c e l to w h i c h it is a d d e d :  (c)  W h e r e a n easement is b e i n g created over l a n d for the benefit of adjoining o r s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s :  id)  W h e r e a p a r c e l is b e i n g dedicated for h i g h w a y purposes, o r is being conveyed for p u b l i c purposes to the C r o w n or to the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n w h i c h the l a n d is situate, o r to any p u b l i c corporate b o d y exercising p u b l i c functions over the area i n w h i c h the l a n d is situate, o r where there is a statutory right to acquire a p a r c e l smaller than the registered p a r c e l :  (e)  W h e r e the R e g i s t r a r is satisfied that the n e w p a r c e l is created to p r o v i d e for a n isolated transaction, and that the creation thereof is not a step i n a progressive s u b d i v i s i o n , a n d that, o w i n g to the previous legal establishment  of s u c h sufficient  p u b l i c highways as are o r m a y be r e q u i r e d to be p r o v i d e d b y or under section 8 6 , the acceptance of the description o r the " '  deposit of the p l a n is not against the p u b l i c interest. (2)  T h e R e g i s t r a r , before exercising his discretion i n respect of the  matters covered b y clause (a),  (b),  o r (e) of subsection ( 1 ) , s h a l l be  furnished b y the applicant w i t h evidence to his satisfaction that a p p r o v a l of the s u b d i v i s i o n of the l a n d affected has been granted b y the a p p r o v i n g officer.  R . S . 1 9 4 8 , c. 1 7 1 , s. 1 0 6 ; 1 9 4 9 , c. 3 4 , s. 6; 1 9 5 4 , c. 18, s. 7.  Procedure . where approving officer refuses to . srant approval.  107.  (1)  T h e applicant shall tender an e x a m i n a t i o n fee  of two  dollars w i t h the i n i t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n , for a p p r o v a l of a s u b d i v i s i o n b e i n g effected u n d e r the p r o c e d u r e of section 1 0 6 . •  (2)  I n c o n s i d e r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n before h i m , the a p p r o v i n g officer  shall be guided b y the same p r i n c i p l e s and requirements as a p p l y to the e x a m i n a t i o n of subdivisions b e i n g m a d e b y s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n . (3)  I n case the a p p r o v i n g officer refuses to grant a p p r o v a l , or where  a p p r o v a l is n o t granted w i t h i n sixty days f r o m the date w h e n the a p p l i c a t i o n is tendered to h i m for a p p r o v a l , the o w n e r o f the l a n d is entitled to a p p e a l to a Judge of the S u p r e m e C o u r t i n C h a m b e r s , and appeals  s h a l l be  governed  b y the  procedure  contained  such  i n this A c t  for appeals f r o m the n o n - a p p r o v a l of s u b d i v i s i o n plans, a n d the Judge m a y m a k e s u c h order as the circumstances of the case require, a n d m a y declare the p r o p o s e d s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v e d , and such d e c l a r a t i o n  will  constitute a p p r o v a l b y the a p p r o v i n g officer w i t h i n the m e a n i n g o f this Act. Execution of plans by owner.  R . S . 1 9 4 3 , c. 1 7 1 , s. 1 0 7 ; 1954, c. 18, s. 8.  108.  E v e r y explanatory or reference p l a n s h a l l , unless the a p p l i c a -  tion of this section to the p l a n is dispensed w i t h b y the R e g i s t r a r , be signed b y the o w n e r of the l a n d dealt w i t h by the p l a n a n d witnessed i n l i k e m a n n e r as other instruments r e q u i r e d to be registered.  R . S . 1948,  c. 1 7 1 , s. 1 0 8 . Deposit number.  109.  T h e R e g i s t r a r shall assign a serial deposit n u m b e r to  reference  or e x p l a n a t o r y p l a n accepted by h i m .  each  R . S . 1 9 4 8 , c. 1 7 1 ,  s. 1 0 9 . General  1 1 0 . T h e R e g i s t r a r m a y , i n his d i s c r e t i o n , refuse to accept any p l a n , measurements of w h i c h do not c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the measurements  Registrar to order new survey where con"ict  e m c Q : s  r  s  h °  w  n  0  n  a i  }y p l  a n  c o v e r i n g the same l a n d i n w h o l e o r i n part o r h a v i n g  a c o m m o n b o u n d a r y , already deposited i n his office, a n d m a y o r d e r a n e w survey, or that a l l necessary steps be t a k e n to ascertain the true measurements. Power to correct errors pia n d  111.  . U p o n the filing of satisfactory evidence of the facts, a n d u p o n  S' i S v  P O s i t i : d  R . S . 1 9 4 8 , c. 1 7 1 , s. 1 1 0 .  n  0  1  notice to such parties a n d i n such f o r m as the R e g i s t r a r  directs, the R e g i s t r a r m a y correct any erroneous measurement u p o n , o r any error, defect, o r o m i s s i o n i n , any deposited p l a n .  R . S . 1 9 4 8 , c. 1 7 1 ,  s. 1 1 1 . 112.  Dedication of highways  (1) \  W h e r e , o n the s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d , any s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n  /  >  >  j  depo'uof *, or reference p l a n c o v e r i n g the l a n d s u b d i v i d e d is deposited i n a n y L a n d b  andrele-cnce R g i e  d  plans.  p]  s t r v  Office, and any p o r t i o n of the l a n d s u b d i v i d e d is s h o w n o n the  a n  (a)  as a h i g h w a y , p a r k , o r p u b l i c square, a n d is n o t thereon to be of a private nature;  ;.  • ••  designated  or  ( & ) as c o v e r e d b y water a n d as l y i n g i m m e d i a t e l y adjacent to a l a k e , r i v e r , stream, o r other b o d y of water not w i t h i n the l a n d s u b d i v i d e d , a n d designated Crown,  thereon  to be  returned  to  the  the deposit of the p l a n shall be deemed to be a d e d i c a t i o n by the o w n e r of the l a n d to the. p u b l i c of each p o r t i o n thereof s h o w n o n the p l a n as a h i g h w a y , p a r k , o r p u b l i c square, o r returned to the C r o w n , for the p u r pose a n d object i n d i c a t e d o n o r to be inferred f r o m the w o r d s or m a r k ings o n the p l a n . N o certificate of title s h a l l issue for any h i g h w a y , p a r k , o r p u b l i c square so dedicated. ( 2 ) T h e deposit of any p l a n to w h i c h this section applies s h a l l be deemed to .vest i n the C r o w n i n right of the P r o v i n c e the title to s u c h p o r t i o n of the l a n d s u b d i v i d e d as is shown thereon as a h i g h w a y , p a r k , or p u b l i c square; p r o v i d e d that the deposit of the p l a n s h a l l not be deemed to vest i n the C r o w n o r otherwise affect the right or title to the minerals, precious o r base, i n c l u d i n g c o a l , p e t r o l e u m , fireclay, a n d natural gas, u n d e r l y i n g any p o r t i o n of the l a n d s h o w n as a h i g h w a y , park, o r p u b l i c square, a n y t h i n g i n the Highway Act, the Municipal Act, o r any other A c t to the contrary n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g ; but, u p o n conveyance of a p a r c e l s h o w n u p o n the p l a n adjoining a highway, p a r k , o r p u b l i c square so dedicated, such minerals u n d e r l y i n g the p o r t i o n of the h i g h w a y , p a r k , o r p u b l i c square opposite the p a r c e l c o n v e y e d and. between that p a r c e l and the m i d d l e line of the h i g h w a y , p a r k , or p u b l i c square, unless expressly reserved, pass to a n d vest i n the o w n e r for the time being o f the p a r c e l c o n v e y e d . (3)  W h e r e , o n the s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d , any s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n o r ref-  erence p l a n c o v e r i n g the l a n d s u b d i v i d e d is deposited i n any L a n d R e g istry Office, a n d any p o r t i o n of the l a n d s u b d i v i d e d is designated o n the p l a n " R e t u r n e d to C r o w n , " the deposit of the p l a n s h a l l be deemed to be a grant i n fee-simple by the registered o w n e r i n favour of H e r M a j e s t y the Q u e e n i n right of the P r o v i n c e .  N o certificate o f title s h a l l issue for  any area designated as aforesaid. ( 4 ) W h e r e the s u b d i v i d e d area s h o w n u p o n a n d i n c l u d e d w i t h i n any s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n heretofore or hereafter deposited i n any L a n d R e g i s t r y Office adjoins l a n d covered by water, a n d such l a n d is i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the subdivider's certificate of title and abuts l a n d the title to w h i c h is vested i n H e r . M a j e s t y the Q u e e n i n right of the P r o v i n c e , such deposit s h a l l be deemed to be a grant i n fee-simple of such first-mentioned l a n d to H e r M a j e s t y the Q u e e n i n right of the P r o v i n c e , and the title of such registered owner to such first-mentioned l a n d covered b y water shall be deemed to be extinguished. N o certificate of title s h a l l issue for any l a n d granted as aforesaid. ( 5 ) A grant pursuant to subsection ( 3 ) o r ( 4 ) is deemed to i n c l u d e the mines a n d minerals, except where the title to these is registered i n the n a m e of an o w n e r not r e q u i r e d to sign a s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n . R . S . 1 9 4 8 , c. 1 7 1 , s. 1 1 2 ; 1 9 6 5 , c. 2 2 , s. 6. 1 1 3 . ( 1 ) T h e deposit of a s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n d u l y a p p r o v e d b y the a p p r o v i n g officer extinguishes a l l highways w i t h i n the l a n d c o v e r e d b y the p l a n t h a t ' a d j o i n e d o n b o t h sides l a n d the title to w h i c h is registered i n the name of the s u b d i v i d e r , a n d that were p r e v i o u s l y established whether b y notice i n the Gazette, b y the expenditure of p u b l i c m o n e y , b y d e d i c a t i o n , o r otherwise, other than highways s h o w n on the p l a n , and the deposit of the p l a n s h a l l be .deemed to vest the title to the highways  Delivery of duplicate certificate.  extinguished in the owner of the land covered by the plan without any instrument of transfer. Where the title to the land, covered by the plan is subject to a registered charge, the charge shall be deemed to be modified by including the land covered by the highways extinguished. (2) This section applies only to highways in unorganized territory that, by notice published in the Gazette, have been discontinued and dosed. 1949/c. 34, s. 7; 1950, c. 36, s. 6; 1961, c. 33, s. 14. 144. Delivery of the duplicate certificate of title may be made by mailing it to the person who made the application or the person named in the application for that purpose at his address set out in the application, or by personal delivery to that person, and the person to whom it is personally delivered shall sign a receipt therefor. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 143; 1950, c. 36, s. 9; 1961, c. 33, s. 19. •  Ownership of surface necessary to registration in fee-simple.  145. The owner of the surface, of land is alone entitled to be or remain registered as owner of the fee-simple. The owner of any part of land above or below its surface who is not also the owner of the surface is only entitled to register his estate or interest as a charge. If no Crown grant of the surface has been registered, the Registrar shall enter the Crown in the register as owner of the surface, and the charge shall be registered by endorsement thereon. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 144.  Ownership of first estate of inheritance necessary to registration in fee-simple.  14<3. Where two or more persons are owners of distinct estates or interests in the same land,' by way of remainder or otherwise, the first owner of an estate of inheritance shall be registered as the owner of the fee-simple; but in any certificate of title issued by the Registrar thereon the owner of such estate of inheritance shall not be made to appear to be possessed of a larger or different estate from that to which he is by law en tided; and the estates or interests of the other owners shall be registered by way of a charge according to' their priority. R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 145.  Registration at instance of several persons interested.  147. The Registrar may effect registration of the fee-simple as well at the instance of several persons, who together are entitled to the complement of the fee-simple, as also of any joint tenant or tenant in common. R.S. 1948, c. 17.1, s. 146...  Registration of joint tenants.  148. Where, upon the registration of the title to land under any instrument, two or more persons take as joint tenants, the Registrar shall enter in the register and on the duplicate certificate of title, following the names of such persons, the words "joint tenants." R.S. 1948, c. 171, s. 147.-  Recognition. of trust estates-.  ; 149. (!) Where any land or any estate or interest in land vests in • any executor, administrator, or trustee, the title of such executor, administrator, or trustee may be registered, but no particulars of any trust or purpose created or declared in respect of the same shall be made in the register or on the duplicate certificate of title, but a memorandum shall be made in the register and on the duplicate certificate of title and on any certificate of charge relating to the land by writing the words " in trust" or " upon conditions " or other apt words, and making a reference by number to the instrument creating or declaring the trust or purpose, which instrument shall be filed in the Land Registry Office when the application for registration is made; provided that if the instrument, other than a will,  258.  L?cut -Govcrnor in Council to make rules r  (1)  T h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r Ln C o u n c i l m a y from t i m e to  tjrpe **  '  ( )  and orders.  a  m  a k e such rules a n d orders, forms a n d directions as m a y be  necessary i n relation to any matter, to be brought before the C o u r t o r a Judge under this A c t , a n d discharge, alter, o r m o d i f y the same; (b)  establish a scale o f fees to be taken o n a l l petitions, m o t i o n s , _ applications, and other proceedings authorized b y this A c t to be taken and preferred;  (c)  m a k e such rules and orders, forms and directions for c a r r y i n g out the provisions of this A c t o r for regulating procedure hereunder, o r for establishing the practice under this A c t i n so far as any other A c t , P r o v i n c i a l o r D o m i n i o n , relates to o r affects, the title to l a n d , as m a y be necessary;  (d)  m o d i f y or alter the f o r m of a n d the m a n n e r i n w h i c h the r e g isters and certificates relating to titles are k e p t o r furnished, a n d m a y m a k e regulations a n d orders respecting the m a n n e r i n w h i c h applications under this A c t relating to l a n d are m a d e . a n d dealt w i t h , a n d m a y therein m o d i f y the p r o v i s i o n s of this A c t relating thereto;  (e)  v a r y or alter any of the forms i n the F i r s t Schedule, a n d m a y substitute other forms of a l i k e nature therefor;  (/)  r e c o m m e n d a f o r m o r forms of deed, transfer, mortgage, agreement for sale, lease, assignment, o r any other f o r m r e q u i r e d for dealing w i t h registered interests i n l a n d ;  ( g ) i n r e c o m m e n d i n g a f o r m for use i n a L a n d R e g i s t r y Office, define the m e a n i n g a n d legal effect of any w o r d o r phrase used therein, a n d r e c o m m e n d instructions for the use a n d c o m p l e t i o n o f the f o r m . reS?a -aons'' r  registri^oa  (2)  ai:o  m  10  creafed'by  a  ^  e  T h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l m a y also f r o m t i m e t o t i m e  regulations to p e r m i t or require the registration, a n d to g o v e r n the  p r o c e d u r e for the registration; i n L a n d R e g i s t r y Offices o f the title to  lessthanuio  dealings w i t h any estate o r interest i n l a n d less t h a n the fee-simple, i n c l u d i n g rights-of-way w h i c h m a y heretofore have been o r m a y here-  fco-simpic.  after be granted o r created b y the C r o w n i n right of the P r o v i n c e , o r b y the C r o w n i n right of C a n a d a , o r b y any p u b l i c officer o r department o f .;. the P r o v i n c e or C a n a d a under any Statute o r r e g u l a t i o n h a v i n g the force : . of law. ..  •• '  T h e regulations m a y classify the v a r i o u s estates o r interests i n  a n y m a n n e r that is deemed advisable a n d a p p l y separate p r o v i s i o n s to  • separate classes, a n d m a y m a k e registration c o m p u l s o r y o r permissive, a n d m a y extend a l l or any of the p r o v i s i o n s of the A c t to the registration, ... a n d m a y specify the office or offices i n w h i c h the registration is t o be '.  effected, a n d m a y p r o v i d e that registered judgments shall f o r m a charge on a l l s u c h estates o r interests of the judgment debtor registered u n d e r the regulations so made, a n d , i n the case of rights-of-way, m a y fix the v a l u e per m i l e of. the right-of-way for the purpose of p a y m e n t o f a d v a l o r e m fees o n the registration of the title to the right-of-way.  ^orders! '  21  '  N o t i c e o f every O r d e r i n C o u n c i l m a d e u n d e r this section shall be p u b l i s h e d i n one issue of the Gazette, a n d the O r d e r i n C o u n c i l shall  ' .' • ' b e c o m e effective o n the c o m p l e t i o n o f p u b l i c a t i o n unless a later date for its b e c o m i n g effective is fixed b y the O r d e r , i n w h i c h case it shall b e c o m e .'' '  '.  effective o n that date.  R . S . 1 9 4 8 , c. 1 7 1 , s. 2 5 7 ;  1 9 6 3 , c. 2 2 , s. 6; 1 9 6 5 , c. 2 2 , s. 14.  1 9 5 1 , c. 4 2 , s. 7 ;  90 APPENDIX "B". E x t r a c t s from the S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t .  R.S.B.C. I960, C. 46.  [Effective September 1, 1966.]  1. This Act may be cited as the Strata Titles Act.  1966, c. 46, s. 1.  2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, " building " means the building or buildings shown in the strata plan; " common property " means so much of the land for the time being comprised in a strata plan that is not comprised in any strata lot shown in the plan; •. " Court " means the Supreme Court of British Columbia; "owner" means the person registered in the books of any Land Registry Office as owner in fee-simple of a strata lot, whether entitled thereto in his own right or in a representative capacity •' •' • or otherwise; "Registrar" means a Registrar within the meaning of the Land Registry Act; " special resolution " means a resolution passed at a general meeting of the strata corporation of which at least fourteen days' notice specifying the purpose of the special resolution has been given ; ..... by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the total unit .... . • entitlement of the strata lots, and not less than three-fourths • of all members; "strata corporation" means the corporation created by section 6; "strata lot" means a lot shown as such in a strata plan; " strata plan " means a plan that (a) is described in the title or heading thereto as a strata plan; (b) shows the whole or any part of the land comprised therein.as being divided into two or more strata, whether or not any such stratum is divided into two or more strata lots; and  ;  (c) complies with the requirements of section 4, and includes a plan of resubdivision of any strata lot or strata lots in a strata plan; . " unanimous resolution " means a resolution unanimously passed at . a duly convened meeting of the strata corporation at which all V . persons entitled to exercise the powers of voting conferred by . ... .. ...or under this Act are present personally or by proxy at the time of the motion; - " unit entitlement" in respect of a strata lot means the unit entitle- •: ment of that strata lot, specified or apportioned in accordance . with clause. (/) of subsection (1) of section 4 or subsection (5) of section 16. .1966, c, 46, s. 2. ._ ;  .91  y subdivided into strata lots by the deposit of a strata plan, and the strata lots created thereby, or any one or more of them, may devolve or be transferred, leased, mortgaged, or otherwise dealt with in the same manner and form as any land the title to which is registered under the Land Registry Act.  of uSdtnu)  3  suauiou.  -  ( ) 1  L  a  n  d  m  a  b  e  (2) A strata plan shall not be accepted for deposit by the Registrar unless (a) the title to the land included in the strata plan is registered in the register of indefeasible fees; and (b) the land included in the strata plan is shown as a single parcel on a subdivision plan deposited pursuant to the Land Registry Act. . ,  .' •  . .... . ' ••. ' • ' " • '• :  (3) The Registrar shall examine the application and the instrument •• and strata plan produced in support thereof, and, if satisfied that they are in order and in compliance with all the applicable requirements of the Land Registry Act, shall assign to the strata plan a serial deposit number and issue such new certificates of title for the strata lots shown upon the strata plan as may be necessary. (4) Upon the issue of the new certificate of tide, the former certifi- cate shall be cancelled in like manner as provided in section 159 of the . " '. Land Registry Act in the case of a transfer of the whole or a portion of . lands included in a certificate of title. (5) A strata plan shall be deemed, upon registration, to be embodied in the register and, notwithstanding any other A c t , the owner shall hold • his strata lot and his share in the common property subject to any interests ' affecting the same for the time being notified on the registered strata plan and subject to any amendments to strata lots or common property shown on that plan. 1966, c. 46, s. 3.  strata plans. ." . -•};{;..•;•• • ,  4 . (1) A strata plan shall ' ... (a) delineate the plane boundaries of the land included in the strata plan and the location of the building in relation thereto; ;,},•,!.••: : . v . • ( i ) bear a statement containing such particulars as may be necessary to identify the title to the land included in the strata plan; .'. • ,( ) include a drawing illustrating the strata lots and distinguishing . . the strata lots by numbers or letters in consecutive order; (d) define the boundaries of each strata lot in the building by ref er, , ence to floors, walls, and ceilings; . '(e) show the approximate floor area of each strata lot; _\ , . (/). have endorsed upon it a schedule specifying in whole numbers ' ' ' " ' the unit entitlement of each lot and a number equal to the aggregate unit entitlement of all lots, which unit entitlement shall determine ." • '' " ( i ) . the voting rights of owners; ' ''. ' (ii) the quantum of the undivided share of each owner in the common property; and c  ,:  :  92  (iii) the proportion payable by each owner of contributions levied under section 14; (g) have endorsed upon it the address at which documents may be served on the strata corporation; and (h) contain such other data as may be prescribed by regulation. (2) Unless otherwise stipulated in the strata plan, the common bound.. ary of any strata lot with any other strata lot or with common property is • - the centre of the floor, wall, or ceiling, as the case may be. (3) Every strata plan tendered for deposit in a Land Registry Office (a) shall be accompanied by the certificate of a British Columbia . . land surveyor that the building shown on the strata plan is within the external boundaries of the land that is the subject of the strata plan, or that appropriate and necessary easements ' or other interests exist to provide for any part or parts of the building that is or are not within the boundaries; and (b) shall be accompanied by whatever number of copies thereof may be required by the Registrar for taxing authorities; and (c) shall comply with all regulations which may from time to time be made by the Surveyor-General for the purposes of this A c t ; and (d) shall be signed by the owner of the land included in the strata plan and witnessed in like manner as instruments required to . be registered under the Land Registry Act; and (e) shall comply with subsection ( 1 ) . (4) (a) Upon registration of an instrument or instruments evidencing a transfer of common property by a strata corporation, the Registrar •. shall cause the strata plan in which the property transferred was included to be amended by deleting that property therefrom. (b) Upon registration i n accordance with the Land Registry Act of an instrument or instruments evidencing transfer of lands to a strata corporation, the Registrar shall cause the appropriate strata plan to be amended accordingly. r  (5) The Registrar shall register a charge against the common property included in the strata plan by endorsing a memorandum thereof on . the strata plan. 1966, c. 46, s. 4.Common property.  5 . (1) The common property shall be he2d by the owners as tenants in common in shares proportional to the unit entitlement of their respective strata lots. (2) Save as i n this A c t provided, no share i n the common property shall be dealt with except with the strata lot of the owner, and any instrument dealing with a strata lot shall operate to deal with the share of the owner in the common property, without express reference thereto. (3) The Registrar shall show on every certificate of title for a strata lot included in a strata plan the owner's share in the common property created by that plan. 1966, c. 46, s. 5. " • "  . ;  ;  corporation.  ®( ) T h e o w n e r o r owners of the strata lots i n c l u d e d i n a strata p l a n a n d his o r their successors s h a l l , u p o n deposit of the strata p l a n i n a L a n d R e g i s t r y Office, constitute a n d be members o f a b o d y corporate under the n a m e " T h e O w n e r s , Strata P l a n N o . " (the n u m b e r to be specified shall be the registration n u m b e r o f the strata plan). a  (b)  I n this subsection, " o w n e r s " includes the persons entitled to  the l a n d i n c l u d e d i n the strata p l a n u n d e r subsection ( 3 ) o f section 18.  ( 2 ) T h e Companies Act a n d the Companies Clauses Act d o n o t a p p l y to a strata c o r p o r a t i o n . (3)  Subject to this A c t , the strata c o r p o r a t i o n is responsible for the  enforcement of the b y - l a w s , a n d the c o n t r o l , management, a n d a d m i n i s tration of the c o m m o n p r o p e r t y . ( 4 ) A strata c o r p o r a t i o n (a)  has perpetual succession;  (b)  shall have a c o m m o n seal;  (c)  m a y sue a n d be sued;  (d)  m a y , as representative o f the owners of the strata lots i n c l u d e d i n the strata p l a n , sue for a n d recover damages a n d costs, o r either, i n respect o f any damage o r injury to the c o m m o n p r o p e r t y caused b y any person, whether a n o w n e r o r not; a n d  (e)  m a y be sued i n respect of any matter connected w i t h the l a n d i n c l u d e d i n the strata p l a n for w h i c h the owners are j o i n t l y liable.  ( 5 ) A judgment against the strata c o r p o r a t i o n s h a l l for a l l purposes be deemed to be a judgment against the owners o f the strata lots i n c l u d e d i n the strata p l a n i n respective amounts p r o p o r t i o n a t e to their u n i t e n titlements as s h o w n o n the strata p l a n , a n d e x e c u t i o n m a y b e m a d e a c c o r d i n g l y . 1 9 6 6 , c. 4 6 , s. 6. o°So ttglgccs S  ^ - ( 1 ) W h e r e an owner's interest is subject to a registered mortgage, the mortgage m a y p r o v i d e that the p o w e r of v o t i n g conferred o n a n o w n e r b y o r u n d e r this A c t be exercised i n a l l cases o r i n specified cases b y the mortgagee. ( 2 ) Subsection ( 1 ) does not a p p l y to a l l o w a mortgagee to vote unless the mortgagee has given written notice o f his mortgage to the strata c o r p o r a t i o n . 1 9 6 6 , c. 4 6 , s. 7.  Dispositions of common property.  8. ( 1 ) T h e owners b y u n a n i m o u s o r special r e s o l u t i o n m a y d i r e c t the strata c o r p o r a t i o n to transfer o r charge c o m m o n property, o r any p a r i thereof. ( 2 ) W h e r e a r e s o l u t i o n is d u l y passed u n d e r subsection ( 1 ) a n d a l l persons other t h a n owners h a v i n g registered o r statutory interests o r estates i n the l a n d i n c l u d e d i n the strata p l a n w h i c h h a v e been notified to the strata c o r p o r a t i o n have, i n the case either o f a transfer o r a charge, consented i n w r i t i n g to the release o f those interests o r estates i n respect  of the land comprised in the proposed transfer or, in the case of a charge, have approved in writing of the execution of the proposed charge, the strata corporation shall execute the appropriate instrument, and the instrument is valid and effective without execution by any person having an' interest in the common property, and the receipt of the strata corporation for the purchase money, rent, premiums, or other moneys payable to the strata corporation under the terms of the transfer or charge shall be a sufficient discharge, and shall exonerate the persons taking under the transfer or the charge, as the case may be, from any responsibility for the application of the moneys expressed to have been so received. (3) Every, such instrument presented for registration under the LandRegistry Act shall be endorsed with or accompanied by a certificate under •the seal of the strata corporation that the resolution was duly passed, 'that the instrument conforms with the terms thereof, and that all necessary consents were given. (4) In favour of purchasers of the common property and in favour of the Registrar, the certificate mentioned in subsection (3) is conclusive evidence cf the facts stated therein. ( 5 ) The Registrar shall register each transfer by issuing to the transferee a certificate of title for the land transferred, and no notification of the transfer shall be made on any certificate of title or folium of the register. (6) Upon registration of a transfer of common property, the Registrar shall, before issuing a certificate of title, amend the registered strata, plan by deleting therefrom the common property comprised in the transfer. 1966, c. 46, s. 8.  .95 APPENDIX "C" E x t r a c t s from the M u n i c i p a l A c t . R.S.B.C. I960, C. 255  Valuation of interests other than fee-simple.  338.  (1)  W h e r e any interest i n l a n d o r improvements other  than  the ownership of the fee-simple c a n be assessed w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y under the p r o v i s i o n s of this o r any other A c t , the .assessed value of the interest s h a l l be the s u m w h i c h a w i l l i n g purchaser w o u l d be expected to p a y to a w i l l i n g v e n d o r for such interest w i t h o u t i n c l u d i n g the v a l u e of the g o o d w i l l of any business connected w i t h such interest. (2)  A n y structure, aqueduct, t u n n e l (except m i n e - w o r k i n g s ) , bridge,  d a m , reservoir, r o a d , storage-tank,  transformer,  o r substation  which  extends over, under, o r through l a n d m a y be separately assessed to the person  o w n i n g , leasing, m a i n t a i n i n g , operating,  o r using the  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g that the l a n d m a y be o w n e d b y some other  same, person.  1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 3 3 5 .  Uses of highways other than traffic.  Saving provision.  4<51. (.1) N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g any p u b l i c o r private A c t , but not inconsistent w i t h the Motor-vehicle Act, i n a d d i t i o n to the powers exercisable under section 4 6 0 , the C o u n c i l m a y b y b y - l a w regulate a l l other uses of or i n v o l v i n g any h i g h w a y o r p o r t i o n thereof or p u b l i c p l a c e , and, except under such terms a n d conditions as m a y be i m p o s e d b y the C o u n c i l , n o person s h a l l excavate i n , cause a nuisance u p o n , encumber, obstruct, injure, f o u l , or damage a n y p o r t i o n o f a h i g h w a y o r other p u b l i c place. (2)  A n y person b e i n g unreasonably  prevented  f r o m c a r r y i n g out  any w o r k , u n d e r t a k i n g , or c o n s t r u c t i o n l a w f u l l y permitted o n , over, or under any h i g h w a y o r other p u b l i c place m a y appeal to a Judge of the Supreme C o u r t o r of the C o u n t y C o u r t , w h o m a y i n his discretion o r d e r that the applicant be permitted to c a r r y out the w o r k , u n d e r t a k i n g , o r c o n s t r u c t i o n under such c o n d i t i o n s as m a y be p r e s c r i b e d i n the order. Obstructions  Organizations.  ( 3 ) W i t h o u t l i m i t i n g the foregoing, the C o u n c i l m a y authorize the r e m o v a l , . d e t e n t i o n , o r i m p o u n d i n g of any chattel o r o b s t r u c t i o n u n l a w fully o c c u p y i n g any p o r t i o n o f a highv/ay or p u b l i c place, a n d p r o v i d e for a scale of fees, costs, a n d expenses therefor, a n d p r o v i d e for the recovery of the fees, costs, a n d expenses either f r o m the o w n e r o f the chattel, o r b y the sale of the chattel at p u b l i c a u c t i o n , o r b y a c t i o n i n any C o u r t of competent j u r i s d i c t i o n . (4)  T h e C o u n c i l m a y grant to any o r g a n i z a t i o n the privilege of u s i n g  any highv/ay, o r h i g h w a y s , o r p o r t i o n o r portions thereof, o n c e r t a i n specified dates for the purpose of soliciting a i d a n d p r o h i b i t any p e r s o n f r o m so u s i n g unless such privilege has been granted. 1 9 5 8 , c. 3 2 , s. 2 1 4 ; 1 9 6 4 , c. 3 3 , s. 4 8 .  1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 5 9 ; -,  96  ofBttS"cross 0  highway.  4 6 2 . T h e C o u n c i l m a y b y b y - l a w allow the construction o f gates across any h i g h w a y at such points as m a y be deemed advisable w i t h i n  half a m i l e of a r a i l w a y crossing o r for the assistance of C u s t o m s a n d other officials i n the performance of their duties, a n d the m u n i c i p a l i t y is not subject-to any l i a b i l i t y b y reason of the fact that gates m a y h a v e been so constructed across a h i g h w a y o r that damages m a y have resulted to any person b y reason of the existence of such gates.  1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 6 0 .  of" "  4 6 3 . F o r the purposes o f this P a r t , the C o u n c i l m a y confer u p o n a n  regulations!  officer o r officers o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y such powers a n d authority as m a y  tion  cnta  be necessary f o r the enforcement o f any b y - l a w adopted under this P a r t . 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 6 1 ; 1 9 5 8 , c. 3 2 , s. 2 1 5 .  PART XII  - .  ACQUISITION AND DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY  Division (1).—Acquisition Municipality  4 6 4 . ( 1 ) T h e C o u n c i l m a y , subject to the restrictions i n this A c t  may acquire real property, contained,  J> J  K J  acqSre°and thanfomunicipal purposes.  other  of Real Property  acquire f o r m u n i c i p a l purposes b y purchase, gift, lease, o r otherwise any real, property a n d any rights, easements, rights-of-v/ay, o r privileges i n a n d to real property f r o m C a n a d a o r the P r o v i n c e , o r f r o m any person. ( 2 ) A n y agreement to acquire r e a l property entered into b y a t o w n , village, o r l o c a l district c o n t a i n i n g any restrictive covenant requires t h e a p p r o v a l of the Inspector o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 6 2 ; 1 9 5 8 , c. 3 2 , s. 2 1 6 ; 1 9 6 0 , c. 3 7 , s. 17. ^ © 5 . ( 1 ) T h e C o u n c i l m a y develop property o w n e d b y the m u n i c i P a ^ty residential, c o m m e r c i a l , o r i n d u s t r i a l area, o r a n y c o m b i n a t i o n of s u c h uses, a n d p r o v i d e s u c h w o r k s a n d services as are I  o  r  u  s  e  a  s  a  '  r  deemed necessary o r beneficial to the development. ( 2 ) F o r the purposes of subsection ( 1 ) , the C o u n c i l o f a c i t y o r d i s trict m u n i c i p a l i t y m a y , (a) by .resolution o r b y - l a w , acquire property other t h a n b y e x p r o priation; or, (b) b y b y - l a w a n d w i t h the a p p r o v a l of the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , acquire property b y e x p r o p r i a t i o n ;  Power to convey lands to School Board.  469.  T h e C o u n c i l of a city, t o w n , o r district m u n i c i p a l i t y m a y b y  b y - l a w , w i t h the a p p r o v a l of the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , convey to the B o a r d of S c h o o l Trustees h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n the m u n i c i pality, i n trust for s c h o o l purposes, any lands reserved o r acquired by the m u n i c i p a l i t y for school purposes.  Prohibits options on municipal property.  470.  1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 6 7 .  T h e C o u n c i l shall not grant, either directly o r indirectly, any  o p t i o n to purchase r e a l property o w n e d b y the m u n i c i p a l i t y , and no sale of m u n i c i p a l property is v a l i d w h i c h is based o n a n o p t i o n , whether c o n structive or i m p l i e d , contained i n any agreement o r lease entered into b y o r o n behalf of the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 6 8 ; 1 9 5 8 , c. 3 2 , s. 2 2 1 .  Power to dispose of real property.  4 7 1 . T h e C o u n c i l m a y , subject to the requirements of this D i v i s i o n , sell b y a u c t i o n o r otherwise, a n d o n such terms a n d conditions as m a y be deemed advisable, the interest of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n any r e a l property not required for m u n i c i p a l purposes and w h i c h is n o t reserved or dedicated. 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 6 9 ; 1958, c. 3 2 , s. 2 2 2 ; 1 9 5 9 , c. 5 6 , s. 4 0 ; 1 9 6 0 , c. 37, s. 1 9 ; 1 9 6 1 , c. 4 3 , s. 2 2 .  Disposal of proceeds of sale of real property.  4 7 2 . ( 1 ) Subject to subsection ( 2 ) , a l l moneys received f r o m the sale of real property shall be p l a c e d to the credit of a special f u n d under Part V I I .  Protection of creditors.  ( 2 ) W h e r e there remains any m u n i c i p a l debt purchase or i m p r o v e m e n t of any real property, there the w h o l e o f the proceeds of the sale of such r e a l p o r t i o n thereof as is r e q u i r e d to repay the debt as it w i t h interest. 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 7 0 .  Posting of list of parcels for sale or lease.  473.  (1)  incurred s h a l l be property matures,  for the set aside or such together  U n l e s s a p a r c e l o f l a n d is intended to be sold o r leased b y  p u b l i c auction or tender, it shall not be s o l d o r leased b y a m u n i c i p a l i t y unless a description thereof, a n d the lowest price o r rental w h i c h w i l l be accepted therefor i n the event that the p a r c e l is offered for sale o r lease, has been posted i n the locations specified i n subsection ( 4 ) of section 5 5 . .  Publication of notice.  Power to grant easements and rights-of-way.  ( 2 ) N o p a r c e l of l a n d u p o n w h i c h there is a b u i l d i n g o r structure of any k i n d shall be offered for sale b y a m u n i c i p a l i t y unless a notice of intention to sell the p a r c e l has been p u b l i s h e d i n a newspaper p u b l i s h e d or c i r c u l a t i n g - i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y at least one week before and not m o r e t h a n three m o n t h s before the sale of the p a r c e l . 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 7 1 ; 1 9 5 8 , c. 3 2 , s. 2 2 3 ; 1964, c. 3 3 , s. 5 0 . (1)  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g sections 471 a n d 4 7 3 , the C o u n c i l m a y ,  b y b y - l a w adopted b y . a n affirmative vote of at least two-thirds o f a l l the members thereof, grant easements o r rights-of-way over any real property o w n e d b y the m u n i c i p a l i t y . (2)  T h e C o u n c i l of a city o r district m u n i c i p a l i t y m a y , i f deemed  expedient,  exercise the  powers  u n d e r subsection  1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 7 2 ; 1 9 5 8 , c. 3 2 , s. 2 2 4 .  (1)  by  resolution.  98  4 7 5 . T a x - s a l e lands w h i c h have been sold by agreement for sale or  Repossessed tax sale lands safc^and's "" 3  ondcf-."itof Sndcr a"ree0 C ed  J  ^  kj to mortgage, if repossessed b y the m u n i c i p a l i t y for satisfaction of amounts due, shall again be deemed to be tax-sale lands. 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 7 3 .  s u  e c t  r  4 7 6 . ( 1 ) W h e r e lands become the property of the m u n i c i p a l i t y as - °f * non-payment of taxes a n d are sold by agreement mem. " . f i the C o l l e c t o r , u p o n default being made i n the payment to the m u n i c i p a l i t y of any instalment o r interest, shall send by registered m a i l to the purchaser at his address n a m e d i n the agreement for sale, or • cause to be personally served u p o n the purchaser, a notice to the effect that i f the amounts i n default are not p a i d w i t h i n ninety days f r o m the date of the service o r m a i l i n g of the registered notice, a l l the right, title, a n d interest of the purchaser i n a n d to the agreement for sale, the : .. amounts p a i d thereunder,, a n d the lands referred to therein w i l l cease . a n d determine, a n d that the amounts p a i d thereunder w i l l be forfeited to the m u n i c i p a l i t y . S  a  r e s u  o r  .  t  s a  t  a  x  s a  e  o  r  S )  ( 2 ) If the purchaser fails to p a y o r cause to be p a i d w i t h i n the said p e r i o d the amounts i n default, a l l his right, title, a n d interest i n a n d to the agreement for sale, the amounts p a i d thereunder, a n d the lands referred to therein cease a n d determine, a n d the said lands i m m e d i a t e l y b e c o m e revested i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , free f r o m a l l claims i n respect of the agreement for sale, a n d a l l amounts p a i d u n d e r the agreement are forfeited to the m u n i c i p a l i t y . . ( 3 ) N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the provisions o f the Laws Declaratory Act o r any r u l e of l a w o r equity to the contrary, n o p e r s o n has the right o r is at liberty to c o m m e n c e o r b r i n g any suit o r action against the m u n i c i p a l i t y for relief against forfeiture o r otherwise i n respect o f the cancellation of the agreement for sale o r the retainer of the moneys p a i d to the m u n i c i p a l i t y under the agreement for sale. ( 4 ) T h e R e g i s t r a r of Titles for the district i n w h i c h the l a n d is situate, u p o n the C o l l e c t o r filing w i t h h i m a statutory declaration of the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the default after the e x p i r a t i o n of the said ninety days, together w i t h evidence of notice o r service, shall cancel a l l charges o r encumbrances, o f whatever nature, appearing i n the records o f the L a n d R e g i s t r y Office against the said lands. ( 5 ) T h e R e g i s t r a r . o f Titles m a y require evidence o f sufficiency of service, a n d i f not satisfied the service shall be effected i n s u c h m a n n e r as a Judge of. the C o u n t y o r S u p r e m e C o u r t m a y direct, u p o n a n ex parte a p p l i c a t i o n o n behalf of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 7 4 .  . : • •  rminl?pai a  f  property. .  •  • Division  (3).—Leases  4 7 7 . ( 1 ) T h e C o u n c i l m a y b y b y - l a w absolutely lease any r e a l property h e l d o r o w n e d b y the m u n i c i p a l i t y , other t h a n l a n d a c q u i r e d o r h e l d under section 6 2 1 , for any t e r m or terms, i n c l u d i n g any o p t i o n for renewal not exceeding i n the aggregate ninety-nine years.  ( 2 ) E v e r y lease m a d e under this section shall c o n t a i n (a) a p r o v i s o for re-entry b y the lessor o n n o n - p a y m e n t of, rent o r non-observance o r non-performance o f covenants therein contained; (b) a p r o h i b i t i o n against subletting w i t h o u t the a p p r o v a l o f the Council, a n d m a y be m a d e subject to the Short Form of Leases Act. ( 3 ) E v e r y lease under this section the t e r m of w h i c h exceeds t e n years shall c o n t a i n provisions r e q u i r i n g that (a) the rental fee o r fees be renegotiated at the e x p i r a t i o n o f t e n years a n d every five years thereafter d u r i n g the t e r m o f the lease; a n d (b)  i f the parties to the lease at a n y t i m e f a i l to agree u n d e r clause (a), the matter shall b e referred to arbitration under  the Arbitration Act.  1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 7 5 ; 1 9 5 8 , c. 3 2 , s. 2 2 5 ;  1 9 6 1 , c. 4 3 , s. 2 3 ; 1 9 6 4 , c. 3 3 , s. 5 1 . 477A. Section 4 7 3 a n d subsections ( 2 ) a n d ( 3 ) o f section 4 7 7 d o not a p p l y i n the case o f the sale o r lease o f r e a l property to H e r M a j e s t y the Q u e e n i n right o f the P r o v i n c e o r o f C a n a d a , a r e g i o n a l district, a m u n i c i p a l i t y , o r a B o a r d o f S c h o o l Trustees. 1 9 6 6 , c. 3 1 , s. 1 3 ; 1 9 6 7 , c. 2 8 , s. 2 9 .  Exception.  Division (4).—Compensation for Property Expropriated or Injured SumdpaKty 4 7 8 . ( 1 ) T h e C o u n c i l shall m a k e to owners, occupiers, o r other p^ation'fOT P s o n s interested i n real property entered u p o n , taken, expropriated, oHn^rcd^d * ^ m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the exercise o f any o f its powers, o r wd'etermSie injuriously affected b y the exercise o f any o f its powers, due c o m p e n s a t i o n amount. f y damages ( i n c l u d i n g interest u p o n the c o m p e n s a t i o n at the rate of six p e r c e n t u m p e r a n n u m f r o m the time the r e a l property was entered u p o n , taken, o r used) necessarily resulting f r o m the exercise o f s u c h •i powers b e y o n d a n y advantage w h i c h the c l a i m a n t m a y derive f r o m the e r  o  r  u s e c  o r  a  b  v  n  contemplated w o r k ; a n d a c l a i m f o r ' compensation, i f n o t m u t u a l l y agreed u p o n , shall be d e c i d e d b y three arbitrators to be appointed as hereinafter mentioned, n a m e l y : T h e m u n i c i p a l i t y shall appoint o n e , the o w n e r o r tenant o r other p e r s o n m a k i n g the .claim, o r h i s agent, shall ' appoint another, a n d such two arbitrators shall appoint a t h i r d arbitrator w i t h i n t e n days after their appointment; but i n the event o f such t w o arbitrators n o t a p p o i n t i n g a t h i r d arbitrator w i t h i n the t i m e aforesaid, one o f the Judges o f the Supreme C o u r t shall, o n a p p l i c a t i o n o f either party b y s u m m o n s i n C h a m b e r s , o f w h i c h d u e notice shall b e given to the other party, appoint such t h i r d arbitrator. ( 2 ) I f any doubt arises as to procedure u n d e r this D i v i s i o n , the Arbitration Act applies. 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 4 7 6 . ofmatterto -rb'u'ator allowed. C  r C  0110  o  D  4 7 9 . T h e parties to the reference m a y agree to submit the matter to arbitrator,- whose a w a r d shall b e as b i n d i n g a n d c o n c l u s i v e as that f three arbitrators, o r w i t h consent o f the parties any Judge o f n  e  :  w  o  o  r  PART PUBLIC  XIII WORKS  Division (1).—Municipal  Buildings  Corporate property of municipality.  5 0 4 . ( 1 ) T h e C o u n c i l m a y b y b y - l a w acquire, b y purchase, lease, o r otherwise, a n d h o l d a n d use real o r personal property, w i t h i n o r w i t h o u t the m u n i c i p a l i t y , for a m u n i c i p a l h a l l , a n d for w o r k s h o p s , storage-sheds, yards, a n d other buildings, structures, o r premises r e q u i r e d for m u n i c i p a l purposes.  Corporate property improvement.  ( 2 ) T h e C o u n c i l m a y , o n any property a c q u i r e d o r h e l d for any o r a l l of the purposes mentioned i n subsection ( 1 ) , construct, m a i n t a i n , operate, a n d use buildings a n d improvements a n d p r o v i d e any necessary a c c o m m o d a t i o n , facilities, o r equipment therefor. ( 3 ) T h e C o u n c i l of a city o r district m u n i c i p a l i t y m a y expropriate real o r personal property w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y for any purpose mentioned in'subsection ( 1 ) or section.641. 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 5 0 2 ; 1 9 5 8 , c. 3 2 , s. 2 2 7 .  Expropriation rights.  Division Restriction.  (2).—Highways  5 0 5 . T h i s D i v i s i o n does not apply to a l o c a l district.  1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 ,  s. 5 0 3 . Possession of public roads vested in municipalities.  5 0 6 ; T h e right of possession of every h i g h w a y i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y is vested i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y , subject to any rights i n the soil w h i c h the persons w h o l a i d out such h i g h w a y m a y have reserved, a n d , subject as aforesaid, the right of possession of the m u n i c i p a l i t y is not adversely affected n o r derogated f r o m b y prescription i n favour of any other occupier. 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 5 0 4 .  l itle of certain highways vested in the Crown.  5 0 7 . E x c e p t where a m u n i c i p a l i t y has purchased o r taken l a n d for a h i g h w a y a n d the title thereof is registered i n the n a m e of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the soil a n d freehold of every h i g h w a y i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y are vested i n K e r M a j e s t y , her heirs a n d successors, and no title adverse to or i n derogation to the title of K e r M a j e s t y shall be a c q u i r e d by length of possession merely. 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , s. 5 0 5 .  Abandonment of highway vested in Crown.  5 0 8 . U n d e r special circumstances, the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l m a y a b a n d o n any p o r t i o n of any h i g h w a y vested i n the C r o w n and vest title i n any l a n d c o m p r i s e d i n that p o r t i o n i n any person, and such vesting shall have the same effect as a C r o w n grant. 1 9 5 7 , c. 4 2 , si 5 0 6 ; 1 9 5 3 , c. 3 2 , s. 2 2 S .  Disposal of portion of highway in exchange for other lands.  Public notice.  Council of district municipality may resume  byCrovra  r v e d  5 0 9 . (1) The Council may by by-law dispose of any portion of a highway in exchange for such lands as may be necessary for the purpose of improving, widening, straightening, relocating, or diverting the highway. (2) A l l deeds executed under this section have effect as a Crown grant free of all rights-of-way, and all lands taken in exchange for any • portion of a highway under this section are public highways, and the title thereto is vested in the Crown. (3) Before adopting a by-law under this section, the Council shall cause public notice of intention to be given by advertisement once each week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper published or circulating in the municipality. 1957, c. 42, s. 507; 1958, c. 32, s. 229. 5 1 0 . (1) In the event of the Crown not having resumed the entire acreage reserved in any Crown grant for making roads, canals, bridges, towing-paths, or other works of public utility or convenience, a district municipality may, by by-law approved by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, resume any part of such lands so granted which may be deemed necessary for making roads, canals, bridges, towing-paths, or other works of public utility or convenience, not exceeding one-twentieth part of the whole of the lands granted as aforesaid. • (2) N o resumption shall be made of any lands on which any buildings may have been erected, or which may be in use as gardens or otherwise for the more convenient occupation of any such buildings. 1957, c. 42. s. 508.  Expropriation of lands in substitution for road allowances.  5 1 1 . In any district municipality where there have been reserved to the Crown certain road allowances running directly along the boundarylines of each section, and where it is found to be inadvisable to make such roads, the Council may by by-law provide for the making of a new road, and in that behalf for the purpose of expropriating so much of the land of other persons as shall be necessary for making a road in place of the road allowance so reserved by the Crown, and in exchange therefor to grant to the owner of the land expropriated for that purpose so much of such road allowance as shall be replaced by the new road, and for the purposes of this section the road allowances reserved as aforesaid are vested in the municipality in which the same are situate. 1957, c. 42, s. 509.  Council of district may take material for public works.  5 1 2 . (1) The Council of a district municipality may enter upon any land and take therefrom timber, stone, gravel, sand, clay, or other material which may be required in the construction, maintenance, or repair of any roads, bridges, or other public works. (2) Compensation agreed on between the parties, or appraised and awarded under Division (4) of Part X I I , for timber, stone, gravel, sand, clay, or other material taken, or for any damage caused thereby to the owner or occupier- of real property, or to the persons suffering damage  Compensa tion for • material so taken.  APPENDIX "D"  Extracts from the Vancouver Charter, 1S4.  be  R.S.B.C.  I960,  C,  T h e C o u n c i l for its o w n i n f o r m a t i o n m a y s u b m i t for the o p i n i o n  of the e l e c t o r s . a n y question w i t h w h i c h the C o u n c i l has o r desires to  J^=i:l«i.  have p o w e r to d e a l ; p r o v i d e d that any question necessitating the b o r r o w i n g of m o n e y o n the part of the city shall be submitted to o w n e r electors o n l y .  T h e current a n n u a l list of electors shall be used.  1953,  c. 5 5 , s. 184. Council to provide for upkeep of city property.  185.  (1)  T h e C o u n c i l m a y f r o m time to time m a k e the necessary  expenditures for the maintenance, u p k e e p , repair, and i m p r o v e m e n t of any property of the city'. (2)  W h e r e persons are p e r m i t t e d to enter u p o n r e a l p r o p e r t y h e l d  by the city, w i t h i n o r w i t h o u t the city, the C o u n c i l m a y m a k e b y - l a w s , . either general i n their a p p l i c a t i o n o r special as a p p l i e d to any p a r t i c u l a r case, regulating the use of any passage-way, , thereof b y s u c h persons.  part  1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 , s. 1 8 5 .  1 8 6 . W h e r e it is satisfied that any p r o p o s e d D o m i n i o n o r P r o v i n c i a l  Power to legislation.  d r i v e w a y , or other  . legislation affecting the city s h o u l d be w a t c h e d , p r o m o t e d , o r opposed, the C o u n c i l m a y p r o v i d e for such v/atching, p r o m o t i o n , o r o p p o s i t i o n , a n d m a y defray the expenses i n c u r r e d i n r e l a t i o n thereto.  1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 ,  s. 1 8 6 . City may ba represented before Boards, etc.  187.  W h e r e it is satisfied that the'interests of the city are c o n c e r n e d  i n any p r o c e e d i n g , i n q u i r y , o r h e a r i n g b y any B o a r d o r C o m m i s s i o n a p p o i n t e d u n d e r any D o m i n i o n or. P r o v i n c i a l Statute, the C o u n c i l m a y p r o v i d e for the representation of the city thereat, a n d m a y defray expenses i n c u r r e d i n r e l a t i o n thereto.  Intermunicipal bridges.  188.  the  1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 , s. 1 8 7 .  T h e C o u n c i l m a y p r o v i d e for j o i n i n g w i t h another m u n i c i p a l i t y  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d maintenance of streets, bridges, tunnels, o r other .public w o r k s w h i c h are p a r t l y i n the city and p a r t l y i n s u c h other m u n i c i p a l i t y , o r w h i c h are used b y the city i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e a l p r o p e r t y i n another m u n i c i p a l i t y a c q u i r e d under any of the city's p o w e r s .  1953,  c. 5 5 , s. 188. Good rule and government.  • ' 1 S 9 . T h e C o u n c i l m a y p r o v i d e for the g o o d rule a n d government o f the city.  Council may acquire property.  190. • (a)  1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 , s. 1 8 9 .  '.  The Council may provide. for a c q u i r i n g s u c h r e a l p r o p e r t y ' ( w i t h i n o r w i t h o u t the c i t y ) a n d p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y as m a y be r e q u i r e d for the purposes of the city;  Disposal of real property.  (b)  for d i s p o s i n g o f any r e a l o r p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y of. the c i t y b y sale, conveyance, lease, o r licence w h e n , i n the o p i n i o n o f the C o u n c i l , s u c h p r o p e r t y . i s n o t r e q u i r e d for any purpose o f the city, u p o n s u c h terms a n d c o n d i t i o n s as m a y be deemed e x pedient, a n d to accept i n p a y m e n t either m o n e y o r other p r o p erty;- p r o v i d e d , h o w e v e r , that n o p a r c e l o f r e a l p r o p e r t y w h i c h  Assent of electors.  exceeds two h u n d r e d thousand dollars i n value as certified i n w r i t i n g b y the Assessment C o m m i s s i o n e r s h a l l be s o l d to any person other t h a n H e r M a j e s t y i n her right of C a n a d a o r the P r o v i n c e , o r a n y agency of the C r o w n , unless a b y - l a w has been passed to w h i c h the assent o f the electors has been o b tained.  1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 , s. 1 9 0 ; 1 9 5 5 , c. 114, s. 7;  1 9 5 8 , c. 7 2 ,  s. 1 3 ; 1 9 6 6 , c. 6 9 , s. 9. . Power to buy and sell commodities.  101.  T h e C o u n c i l s h a l l have p o w e r w i t h the vote o f not less t h a n  two-thirds of a l l its members a n d for the p e r i o d of a n actual emergency to p r o v i d e that the city m a y b u y a n d sell to the p u b l i c gasoline, c o a l , w o o d , o i l , and other fuel, a n d m i l k , fish, meat, a n d other foodstuffs, a n d m a y acquire a n d develop the necessary r e a l property f o r the  purpose.  1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 , s. 1 9 1 . City may enter into agreements pursuant to Statutes.  1 0 2 . T h e C o u n c i l s h a l l have p o w e r to m a k e the city a p a r t y (a)  to any agreement to w h i c h under the terms of any A c t o f the D o m i n i o n or the P r o v i n c e it is contemplated that m u n i c i p a l i ties m a y be parties a n d w h i c h the C o u n c i l deems w i l l be for the benefit of the c i t y ;  (b)  to a n y agreement w i t h H e r M a j e s t y i n her right o f C a n a d a o r the P r o v i n c e , o r any o f h e r d u l y a u t h o r i z e d agents, w i t h  •  •  respect to the construction, i m p r o v e m e n t , a n d maintenance of any private roads or w a y s , sewers, water-mains, poles, wires, pipes, conduits, o r other utilities, installations, o r  equipment  •. at any time situate o n , over, o r u n d e r the surface o f any r e a l p r o p e r t y i n the city i n w h i c h H e r M a j e s t y aforesaid has any interest, a n d for c o n t r i b u t i n g i n w h o l e o r i n part towards the cost thereof; p r o v i d e d that the entering i n t o any such agreement or the expenditure of any m o n e y b y the city hereunder shall not of itself constitute any r o a d or w a y aforesaid a p u b l i c street or h i g h w a y o r be deemed to be evidence of d e d i c a t i o n o r acceptance of the same as such. Power to undertake housing development.  193.  1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 , s. 1 9 2 .  T h e C o u n c i l m a y acquire real property and, b y r e m o v i n g o r  r e m o d e l l i n g the buildings thereon, o r b y constructing dwellings thereon, develop such r e a l property for the purpose of p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n for such persons a n d on such terms as the C o u n c i l s h a l l t h i n k fit, a n d m a y m a i n t a i n , i m p r o v e , manage, a n d operate such h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n , a n d m a y delegate to a b o a r d o r c o m m i s s i o n appointed b y the C o u n c i l a l l or any of the powers of the C o u n c i l under this section. 1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 , s. 1 9 3 .  Power to acquire  1 9 3 A . T h e C o u n c i l m a y acquire real p r o p e r t y f o r the purpose o f  ?orn mVrcfafor p r o v i d i n g sites, for c o m m e r c i a l o r i n d u s t r i a l development, a n d for that P  industrial  development.  puiTJOSe m a v -  •  (a) (b)  d e m o l i s h any b u i l d i n g situate thereon; s u b d i v i d e or resubdivide the said p r o p e r t y ;  Streets and parks vested in city.  289.  ( 1 ) U n l e s s otherwise expressly p r o v i d e d , the r e a l p r o p e r t y  c o m p r i s e d i n every street, p a r k , o r p u b l i c square i n the c i t y s h a l l be absolutely vested i n fee-simple i n the city subject o n l y to section 2 9 1 A of this A c t a n d to any right therein w h i c h the p e r s o n w h o l a i d out o r d e d i c a t e d s u c h street m a y have expressly reserved; p r o v i d e d that section 5 of the  Highway Act  shall n o t a p p l y t o any street, p a r k , o r p u b l i c  square aforesaid; p r o v i d e d further, however, that it s h a l l be l a w f u l for the city t o acquire f r o m any p e r s o n rights o r easements for street, p a r k , o r p u b l i c square purposes less than the fee-simple, whether o n , above, o r b e l o w the surface of any real p r o p e r t y o w n e d b y s u c h person.  ( 2 ) I n the application of section 1 1 2 of the Land Registry Act to any s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d i n the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r the said section 1 1 2 shall be construed as i f for the w o r d s " l a n d " a n d " h i g h w a y " wherever they o c c u r the words " r e a l property " a n d " street " respectively were substituted a n d for the w o r d s " C r o w n i n the right of the P r o v i n c e " i n the second l i n e a n d the words " the C r o w n " i n the fifth line i n subsection ( 2 ) thereof were substituted the w o r d s " the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r . " T h i s subsection shall have a retrospective as w e l l as a prospective effect. (3)  T h e R e g i s t r a r of the V a n c o u v e r L a n d R e g i s t r a t i o n D i s t r i c t may-  accept evidence of a transfer of any real p r o p e r t y i n the city f o r street, p a r k , o r p u b l i c square purposes i n the f o r m of a c o n v e y a n c e d u l y executed b y a l l persons r e q u i r e d b y l a w to execute a conveyance thereof o r b y a p l a n o n l y , i f so executed, i n l i e u of o r i n e x p l a n a t i o n of a conveyance to the c i t y of such real p r o p e r t y i f such p l a n is otherwise satisfactory to the R e g i s t r a r aforesaid.  T h e R e g i s t r a r m a y require that such p l a n shall  show the boundaries of any l a n d r e m a i n i n g i n the p a r c e l after transfer.  such  1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 , s. 2 8 9 ; 1 9 5 3 ( 2 n d Sess.), c. 4 7 , s. 5 ; 1 9 5 8 ,  c. 7 2 , s. 16. Protection of streets. .  2S€>. N o p e r s o n s h a l l excavate i n , cause a nuisance u p o n , e n c u m b e r , • obstruct, injure, f o u l , o r otherwise damage a street, except u n d e r s u c h terms a n d conditions as m a y be i m p o s e d b y the C o u n c i l .  1 9 5 3 , c. 5 5 ,  s. 2 9 0 . 291. Provision for establishing streets.  (a)  Stopping up.  (b)  T h e Council m a y provide f o r establishing, l a y i n g out, o p e n i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g , a n d i m p r o v i n g streets, a n d f o r d e t e n n i n i n g the w i d t h a n d boundaries o f streets; for s t o p p i n g u p a n y street, o r p a r t thereof, a n d , subject t o section 1 9 0 , f o r d i s p o s i n g of a n y street, o r part thereof, so stopped u p ;  Diverting.  ( c ) f o r w i d e n i n g , altering, o r d i v e r t i n g a street o r part thereof;  Prohibiting obstructions.  (d) .  f o r the p r o h i b i t i o n a n d r e m o v a l of a n y u n a u t h o r i z e d e n c r o a c h ment o r o b s t r u c t i o n under, u p o n , o r over a street, o r a n y part thereof;  Grades.  (e)  f o r establishing a grade o r l e v e l f o r any street, o r any part thereof;  .  105  Bench-marks.  (7)  for  establishing  and  maintaining  survey  monuments  and  bench-marks; (s)  for regulating  Access to and from streets.  ( i ) the means o f access to a n d f r o m the street o f any p a r c e l abutting thereon and p r o v i d i n g for the use of so m u c h of the street as m a y be designated for the purpose of such access; ( i i ) encroachments for a stipulated length of time u p o n , under, or over a street, u p o n such terms as to rental, indemnity, o r otherwise as m a y be prescribed, and, where it is deemed necessary, u p o n c o n d i t i o n that the city s h a l l have a registered charge u p o n the p a r c e l to w h i c h s u c h access o r encroachment is appurtenant for the due performance of any term so prescribed a n d for the  Encroachments on streets.  payment of any sums of m o n e y due the city for r e n t a l o r otherwise, and for p r o v i d i n g that any such sums m a y be inserted i n the real-property tax r o l l as a charge i m p o s e d w i t h respect to such p a r c e l . A n y p r o v i s i o n i n a n agreement w i t h the city p u r p o r t i n g to create a charge against any p a r c e l aforesaid, for the' due performance of any terms p r e s c r i b e d as aforesaid, or for the payment of any sums of m o n e y aforesaid, m a y be registered as a charge against the interest i n such p a r cel of the p e r s o n m a k i n g the agreement; Snow and ice removal from roofs.  (h)  for r e q u i r i n g the o w n e r a n d o c c u p i e r of any r e a l property to remove snow a n d ice f r o m the r o o f o r other p a r t of any structure thereon;  From sidewalks.  Cleanliness of streets.  (/)  for r e q u i r i n g the o w n e r of any r e a l property, i n s u c h areas as m a y be designated b y b y - l a w , to r e m o v e snow a n d ice f r o m the ' - sidewalk adjacent to such r e a l property and, i n case of his default, for r e m o v i n g s u c h snow a n d ice at the expense of the o w n e r a n d for r e c o v e r i n g the expense of s u c h r e m o v a l f r o m the person so defaulting;  (;')  for p r o h i b i t i n g persons f r o m depositing u p o n a street o r o n any other l a n d w i t h o u t the a p p r o v a l o f the o w n e r any r u b b i s h , sweepings, paper, h a n d - b i l l s , refuse, o r other d i s c a r d e d mater i a l s ' o r things;  Ornamental trees.  for regulating the p l a n t i n g a n d care of shade o r o r n a m e n t a l  (k)  trees u p o n a street, a n d for p r o h i b i t i n g the injury o r destruc-' tion of such trees; Their trimming.  (/)  for causing any tree u p o n a street t o be t r i m m e d o r r e m o v e d w h e n deemed necessary i n the p u b l i c interest;- .  Watercourses not to be obstructed. Maps may bs used.  (m)  for p r o h i b i t i n g any p e r s o n f r o m obstructing o r i m p e d i n g the ' flow o f any stream, creek, watercourse, d r a i n , or sewer;  («)  f o r the use o f m a p s o f r e a l p r o p e r t y , a p p r o v e d b y the C i t y E n g i n e e r , i n a b y - l a w i n place of, or i n a d d i t i o n to, a detailed  106  description of such real property. 1953, c. 55, s. 291; 1955, c. 114, s. 9; 1966, c. 69, s.~10.  pVopcuy°and C  2 9 1 A . (1) A resolution shall not be passed for stopping up, altering, diverting any street or part thereof if the effect of such resolution will be completely to deprive any owner of the means of ingress to or egress from any real property owned by him abutting such street unless in addition to making compensation to such owner, as provided in Part X X V I of this Act, another convenient means of access to his real property is provided, the sufficiency of which, for the purposes of this section . only, shall be in the sole discretion of the Council; provided that where the owner consents in writing to the stopping-up, altering, or diverting of any street aforesaid the provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any resolution providing for the same. For the purposes of this section, the word " owner " means an owner as defined by the Land  purchase  o r  Registry Act.  - '.  '  '•  .  ' '  ;  '' :  (2) Where a street which has been stopped up, altered, or diverted, whether opened, maintained, or improved by the city or not, was one originally acquired by the city by transfer without any payment therefor and the Council determines to dispose of such street, the price at which it is to be disposed of shall be fixed by the Council, and the owner of the real property which abuts on it shall have the right to purchase the same at that price. (3) Where there is more than one abutting owner, each shall have the right to purchase so much of the real property comprising such street or portion of street so stopped up as Council may decide, and the price fixed by Council aforesaid shall be apportioned between the parcels '' to be disposed of accordingly. (4) If an owner does not exercise his right to purchase within such period as may be fixed by the resolution or any subsequent resolution, the Council may dispose of the part which he has the right to purchase to any other person at the same or greater price. (5) Where the real property of an owner abutting a street stopped up by resolution also abuts any other street which the Council desires to widen, alter, or divert and requires for that purpose a portion of the real property aforesaid, the Council may, notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (2) and (3) hereof, exchange therefor so much of the real property comprising the street so stopped up for the real property so " required as aforesaid as may be mutually agreed upon with such owner. (6) Where an owner acquires a portion of a street pursuant to this section or otherwise, the Council shall direct as a condition of the disposal thereof that such owner consolidate the portion so acquired with the real property owned by him abutting the street or part thereof so stopped up. (7) Upon the deposit in the Land Registry Office of a copy of the resolution stopping up, altering, or diverting any street or part thereof,  107  certified as such by the City Clerk, accompanied by a plan showing thereon the street or part thereof so stopped up, altered, or diverted, together with a conveyance of the whole or any part thereof completed in accordance with the requirements of the Land Registry Act and an application Form A of the said A c t together with the fees as set out i n the Second Schedule thereof, the Registrar aforesaid shall, notwithstanding the provisions of section 112 of the Land Registry Act or section 289 (2) of this A c t or the provisions of any other A c t , and whether the city appears on the records of the L a n d Registry Office as the owner or not, on finding a good, safeholding marketable title i n fee-simple i n the applicant, register the real property described i n the said conveyance i n the name of the grantee therein and issue to him a certificate of indeT feasible title thereto. A n y conveyance executed under this section shall have effect as a Crown grant. 1958, c. 72, s. 17. (8) Where the city is the owner of any real property abutting the street or portion thereof stopped up, diverted, or altered by the Council pursuant to this A c t , the provisions of this section shall, mutatis mutandis, apply to the city as such owner or applicant, but i n any .such case it shall not be necessary for the city as the applicant to deposit in the L a n d Registry Office the conveyance referred to in subsection (7) hereof, and . the Registrar aforesaid shall forthwith register the real property in the name of the city. 1958, c. 72, s. 17; 1963, c. 60, s. 7. Appeal against decision oi Registrar.  • 2 9 1 B . In case any person is dissatisfied with any decision of the Registrar of the Vancouver Land Registration District under the provisions of this A c t , such person may, within twenty-one days of the receipt of notice of such decision, appeal to a Judge of the Supreme Court in a summary way by petition, and the provisions of section 234 of the Land Registry Act shall, mutatis mutandis, apply to such appeal. 1958, c. 72,-s. 18. 2 9 2 . (1) For the purpose of regulating the subdivision of land, the Council may make by-laws (a) regulating the area, shape, and dimensions of parcels of land ''; •' and the dimensions, locations, alignment, and gradient of streets i n . connection with the subdivision of land, and may make different regulations for different uses and for different zones of the city; ' (5) prescribing minimum standards with respect to the matters con• tained in clauses (a) and (d); (c) requiring that a proposed subdivision • '" • (i) be suited to the configuration of the land being subdivided; and• ' • (ii) be suited to the use for which it is, intended; and '."•.(iii) shall not make impracticable the future subdivi• • sion of the - land within the proposed subdivision or of any adjacent land; . •  i  108  APPENDIX "E" Extracts Prom The Highways Act, R.S.B.C. I960, C. 172 Part I . 5.  Unless otherwise provided f o r , the s o i l and freehold of every public highway i s vested i n Her Majesty, her heirs and successors.  17.  The Lieutenent-Governor  R. S„ 1948, c. 144, S. 5. i n Council may, under special  circumstances transfer or direct the issue of a lease to any person of any part of a highway vested i n the Crown; but no transfer s h a l l be made or direction given under t h i s section u n t i l the Minister has given t h i r t y days public notice of .the intention to make the transfer or issue the lease, by notice published i n one issue of a newspaper published i n the Province and c i r c u l a t i n g i n the l o c a l i t y i n which the highway or part thereof i s situated.' 36.  (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of any public or private Act, no person s h a l l : (a)  dig up, break up, or remove any part of the improved, graded, surfaced or travelled portions of any highway f o r the purpose of any work constructed or maintained or proposed to be constructed i n , upon or over the a r t e r i a l highway or f o r any purpose whatsoever; or  -  1 0 9  (b)  e x c a v a t e i n o r u n d e r any  (c)  p l a c e any arterial  (3)  having  from him  obtained  a permit  a s t h e M i n i s t e r may  subsection  (l) i s liable,  a f i n e not  exceeding  p a r t of the  maintained granted  two  after  in writing therefor,  s u b j e c t t o s u c h c o n d i t i o n s t o be consider  E v e r y p e r s o n v i o l a t i n g any  No  s e t out  i t the  proper.  of the p r o v i s i o n s of on  summary c o n v i c t i o n , t o  h u n d r e d and  e x p e n s e o f any  fifty  dollars.  work c o n s t r u c t e d  or  o r t h i n g done by a n y - p e r s o n u n d e r a  by t h e M i n i s t e r u n d e r s u b s e c t i o n  permit  (l) shall  b o r n e b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t , n o r i s t h e Crown l i a b l e l o s s o r damage c a u s e d t o p e r s o n o r p r o p e r t y , o r i n d i r e c t l y , by  any  work c o n s t r u c t e d  or  ( 1 )  T h e ' L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may f r o m any fences, a l s o the  other  d i s t a n c e f r o m any  h i g h w a y a t w h i c h t r e e s and  any  directly  f i x the  s t r u c t u r e s may  distance  which be  placed,  highway or p o r t i o n of s h r u b s may  for  •. -  highway or p o r t i o n of a highway at b u i l d i n g s and  be  maintained  o r t h i n g done u n d e r t h e permit„ 43.  any  highway, c o n s e n t o f t h e M i n i s t e r and  permit  or  s i g n , e r e c t i o n o r o b s t r u c t i o n upon  except w i t h the  and  (2)  a r t e r i a l highway;  be  planted.  a  and  110  APPENDIX F M  W  Extracts From The Department of Highways Act R.S.B.C. I960, C. 103 47 ( l ) Any real property when no longer required for the use of any public work may be sold, leased or disposed of by' tender or public auction, under the authority of the Lieutenent-Governor i n Council or under the l i k e authori t y , and either without the consideration may be leased or transferred to the municipality within which the property i s situate, but a gravel p i t s h a l l not be leased or transferred to a municipality except under the condition that the gravel w i l l be used mainly f o r municipal purposes, and any leases of property  heretofor  or hereafter entered into under the authority of the Lieutenent-Governor i n Council pursuant to t h i s Act , may be extended or renewed by Order i n Council f o r any period not exceeding 5 years. (2)  The proceeds of a l l sales, leases and dispositions of property under t h i s section s h a l l be accounted f o r as part of the special fund ( i f any) out of \?hich the property was purchased or i s maintained, or otherwise ' as part of the Consolidated Revenue Fund.  Ill  APPENDIX "G" Extracts Prom The Railway Act, R.S.B.C. 33.  I960, C .  329  Every company may, subject only to the obtaining of permission or approval from the Minister wherever prescribed by t h i s Act: (a)  purchase and otherwise acquire and deal i n , hold. s e l l , lease, mortgage, and hypothecate ;  real and personal property of a l l kinds and i n particular lands, buildings, hereditaments, timber lands or leases, timber claims, licences to cut timber, mines', mineral claims, placer claims and n i n e r a l and mining interests generally, surface rights and rights of way, water records and privileges, business concerns and undertakings, mortgages, charges, annuities, patents, licences, shares, stock debentures, securities, p o l i c i e s , book debts, claims and any interest i n r e a l or personal propertjr, and any claims against such property or against any person or companj*-; (b)  acquire by purchase leases, exchange or otherwise, lands, tenements, buildings and hereditaments of any tenure or description and any estate or interest therein and any rights over or connected with land; and s e l l or otherwise dispose of, exchange, lease, rent', mortgage or otherwise  112  encumber lands, tenements, buildings and hereditaments of any tenure or description and any estate, or interest therein and any rights over or connected with land$ (d)  s e l l , improve, manage, develop, lease, mortgage, dispose of, turn to account or otherwise deal with a l l or any part of the companies undertaking, railway, property and assets.  40.  (1) Whenever the company can purchase a larger quantity of land from any particular owner at a more reasonable price, on the average, or on terms more advantageous than those upon which i t could obtain the portion thereof which i t may take from him without .his consent, i t may purchase such larger quantity. (2) The Company may s e l l and dispose of any part of the lands so purchased which may be unnecessary f o r i t s undertaking.  45.  (1) Any contract, agreement, sale, conveyance or assurance made under the authority of any of the l a s t three preceding sections i s v a l i d and effectual i n law, to a l l intents and a l l purposes whatsoever; and any conveyance so authorized vests i n the company receiving the same the fee simple i n the lands therein described, freed and discharged from a l l trusts, r e s t r i c t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s whatsoever.  113 48.  ( l ) I f i n any  ca3e  not hereinbefore provided f o r any  person interested i n any lands so set out and as certained i s not authorized by law to s e l l or alienate the same, he may agree upon a fixed annual rent as an equivalent and not upon the p r i n c i p a l seern to be paid therefor. (2)  I f the amount of rent i s not fixed by agreement, i t s h a l l be fixed and a l l proceedings s h a l l be regulated i n the manner by t h i s Act prescribed f o r the taking of lands.  114 APPENDIX "H" E x t r a c t s from C i t y of .Vancouver Bylaw No. 2346  A'By-lav: f o r . p r o h i b i t i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g , and r e g u l a t i n g areas, f o o t i n g s , foundat i o n s , c e l l a r s and openings c o n s t r u c t e d , or t o be c o n s t r u c t e d , i n , on, under, o r over sidewalks, s t r e e t s , boulevards and other p u b l i c places w i t h i n the City." ( C o n s o l i d a t e d f o r convenience o n l y as at March 1 s t , 1962, i n c l u d i n g amending By-. law No. 397^) THE MAYOR AND COUNCIL o f the C i t y o f Vancouver, I n open meeting assembled, enact as f o l l o w s : - • 1.  Citation Definitions  T h i s by-law may be c i t e d as t h e "Area Ey-law".  • 2.'. I n t h i s by-law, u n l e s s the context requires:  Area  otherwise  "Area" s h a l l mean any area, c e l l a r , excav a t i o n , tank, trapdoor, f u e l chute, f o o t i n g , f o u n d a t i o n , b u i l d i n g encroachment, opening, or c r o s s i n g i n , on,, under o r over any sidewalk,, s t r e e t o r l a n e , o r other p u b l i c place;' (•By-law No. 2993)  Appurtenant t o  00  "Appurtenant t o s h a l l mean adjacent t o , a d j o i n i n g , o r enjoyed w i t h ;  Commercial Crossing  M  "Commercial c r o s s i n g " s h a l l mean any c r o s s i n g p r o v i d e d , o r t o be p r o v i d e d , to a f f o r d v e h i c u l a r access t o and from lands' a b u t t i n g thereon used f o r other than r e s i d e n t i a l purposes,'  Curb Sidewalk Crossing' Council  n  Repealed. (e)  By-law No. 3778,' J u l y ' l 4 t h , 1959.  " C o u n c i l " s h a l l mean the Mayor and C o u n c i l o f the C i t y - o f Vancouver;  115  Engineer  Major  (f)'  Street  Major Street Crossing Owner  '  .  - " E n g i n e e r " s h a l l mean the the C i t y of Vancouver; •  City  Engineer  -(g)  Repealed.  By-law  Ho.  3778,  July  14th,  (h)  Repealed.  By-law  No.  3773,  July  i4th,  (i)  "Owner"  (1) •  shall  mean  any  person  who  w h o h?i& o b t a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n c i l and s i g n e d an agreement after provided;  (j)  • '.  •  1959.  is  said lands of the Counas h e r e i n -  " P e r s o n " s h a l l , when n e c e s s a r y , mean and ' include natural persons of either sex, associations, corporations, bodies p o l i t i c , ' c o • partnerships, whether a c t i n g by t h e m s e l v e s ' or by a s e r v a n t , agent, o r employee, and the heirsj executors, administrators, and a s s i g n s or other legal representative of such person •to whom t h e c o n t e x t can apply according to law. The s i n g u l a r s h a l l , when n e c e s s a r y , be h e l d t o mean and i n c l u d e - t h e p l u r a l ; themasculine, the feminine; and the converse thereof;  (k)  Permission to be Obtained  1959.  t h e r e g i s t e r e d owner i n f e e - s i m p l e or for the time being e n t i t l e d under any duly r e g i s t e r e d instrument to possess i o n c f any l a n d s to which an a r e a i s appurtenant, or  (2) a l e s s e e o i v o o e a p i e r o f . t h e  Person  of • •  " R e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s " s h a l l mean t h e s i t e s f o r one o r two f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s boarding or rooming houses." (By-law 397^ M a r c h 1st, 1962)  . 3. (2.) No p e r s o n s h a l l e x c a v a t e f o use any .area, nor continue the use areas heretofore constructed, u n t i l have received permission i n w r i t i n g to do, which permission, except as f i c a l l y p r o v i d e d , may be r e v o k e d by time. ( B y - l a w N o . 2383, S e p t e m b e r  use of or for No.  r, construct, or or existence of any-. such person s h a l l f r o m the C o u n c i l so herein otherwise spec the Council at any 30, 1935)  116  (b) P e r m i s s i o n I s hereby granted f o r the use and e x i s t e n c e o f a l l areas which comprise only c r o s s i n g s now i n e x i s t e n c e which g i v e access t o and from any l a n d used e x c l u s i v e l y f o r ' r e s i d e n t i a l purposes, and the C i t y En-, g i n e e r i s hereby a u t h o r i z e d t o grant p e r m i s s i o n f o r a d d i t i o n a l l i k e c r o s s i n g s i f he i s s a t i s f i e d as t o t h e i r s a f e t y and a d v i s a b i l i t y ^ (By-law No. 3778, J u l y 14th, 1959 and By-law No. 397^, March 1st,'1962) Application for Permission  4. (a) Any owner or l e s s e e d e s i r i n g t o excavate f o r , c o n s t r u c t , use, or to m a i n t a i n any a r e a not i n c l u d e d i n S e c t i o n 3(b) above appurtenant t o any p r o p e r t y i n the C i t y , o r d e s i r i n g t o be allowed t o continue t h e e x i s t e n c e , maintenance, o r use o f any area not i n c l u d e d i n S e c t i o n 3(b) above appurtenant to h i s p r o p e r t y heret o f o r e e x i s t i n g , m a i n t a i n e d o r used without p e r m i s s i o n o b t a i n e d and an agreement executed as h e r e i n a f t e r r e q u i r e d , s h a l l submit'to the Engineer a w r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n t h e r e f o r accompanied w i t h such number o f c o p i e s o f a p l a n as t h e Engineer may r e q u i r e showing the d e t a i l t h e r e o f , t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n . o f the C i t y E n g i n e e r ; and upon the Engineer • .being s a t i s f i e d o f the s a f e t y and a d v i s a b i l i t y o f such area, he .may recommend t o the Board o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r the C o u n c i l t h a t .such o e r m i s s i o n be g r a n t e d . (3y-'law No. 3974, March 1 s t , 1962)" (b) I n case such a r e a comprises a tank f o r storage o f o i l , g a s o l i n e o r o t h e r substance, the storage o f which i s c o n t r o l l e d by a s t a t u t e o r by a by-law o f the C i t y , o r comprises any c o n n e c t i o n t o any such tank, the person so a p p l y i n g s h a l l submit a drawing t h e r e o f showing i n d e t a i l both p l a n and s e c t i o n o f tank and c o n n e c t i o n drawn t o s u i t a b l e s c a l e , and conforming'to the p r o v i s i o n s o f such s t a t u t e o r 03''-law. and a l s o t o such r e g u l a t i o n s as may from time t o time be p r e s c r i b e d under the' " F i r e Marshal Act", which drawing s h a l l bear the a p p r o v a l o f  Annual or o t h e r Charge  7.. ( a ) A n a n n u a l o r other- c h a r g e i s h e r e b y made and i m p o s e d f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e and u s e o f e v e r y s u c h area-, w h i c h . c h a r g e s h a l l be p a i d a n n u a l l y o r o t h e r w i s e i n a d v a n c e t o t h e C i t y by t h e o w n e r o f t h e l a n d s t o w h i c h sucha r e a i s a p p u r t e n a n t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the s c h e d u l e h e r e t o , and t h e p a y m e n t t h e r e o f may be e n f o r c e d e i t h e r by a c t i o n i n any C o u r t o f c o m p e t e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n o r i n l i k e m a n n e r as p r o v i d e d f o r t h e r e c o v e r y o f o v e r d u e t a x e s a g a i n s t the l a n d to which such a r e a i s a p p u r t e n a n t . ( B y - l a w N o . 3231, M a r c h 2 7 t h , IQ51)  117  .(b) Ir. case any a r e a i s c o n s t r u c t e d or continued, without p e r m i s s i o n as r e q u i r e d by t h i s by-law, the owner .of t h e - l a n d s to which such area i s appurtenant, and the s a i d lands s h a l l n e v e r t h e l e s s be and remain l i a b l e f o r a l l i n d e m n i t i e s , l i a b i l i t i e s and charges at the r e s p e c t i v e r a t e s f o r the p e r i o d d u r i n g which i t i s so continued; p r o v i d e d t h a t u n t i l the p e r m i s s i o n g i v e n under any e x i s t ing agreement between an owner and the C i t y r e l a t i n g t o the r e g u l a t i o n o f an a r e a i s revoked o r otherwise d e t e r mined, the annual sum payable under the s a i d agreement i n r e s p e c t o f such a r e a . s h a l l be the annual charge i n l i e u of the annual or o t h e r charge imposed by t h i s bylaw. (By-law'No. 3231,. March 27th, 1951) •(c) I n ease a bond i s f u r n i s h e d as s e c u r i t y as h e r e i n provided,' n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a n y t h i n g h e r e i n c o n t a i n e d a person who is- not a p a r t y t o the s a i d agreement or the s a i d bond, and the i n t e r e s t o f such person i n any l a n d to' which such a r e a i s appurtenant, s h a l l i n no way be deemed t o be l i a b l e f o r the i n d e m n i t i e s , charges, or o t h e r o b l i g a t i o n s f o r which t h e • s a i d bond i s g i v e n as s e c u r i t y . Revocation of permit by C o u n c i l ; • 8,11 spaces, e t c . , t o be' kept i n good repair  Indemnifyi n g the • Cityagainst damages  8. A l l areas which s h a l l be c o n s t r u c t e d under and i n accordance w i t h t h i s by-law, as w e l l as those h e r e t o f o r e e x i s t i n g , , i n r e s p e c t o f which an agreement is- o u t s t a n d i n g and i n e f f e c t i f an agreement i s r e q u i r e d under the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s by-law, may c o n t i n u e i n use u n t i l such p e r m i s s i o n i s revoked by the C o u n c i l ; .and u n t i l such p e r m i s s i o n i s revoked, the owners o f the l a n d s appurtenant to which the same e x i s t s h a l l keep a l l such areas i n good and s u f f i c i e n t r e p a i r s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the Engineer; and i n the event o f the dwner f a i l i n g o r n e g l e c t i n g , i n the o p i n i o n o f the Engineer, t o keep the s a i d a r e a or c o v e r i n g t h e r e o f i n a s a f e and s a t i s f a c t o r y state- o f r e p a i r , the Engineer may n o t i f y such owner t o immediately execute the n e c e s s a r y r e p a i r s . 12. The owner and every person so excavating, cons t r u c t i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g or p e r m i t t i n g the e x i s t e n c e of or u s i n g any such area under the p r o v i s i o n s hereof or otherwise, s h a l l a t a l l times be deemed to be l i a b l e f o r and s h a l l indemnify the C i t y a g a i n s t any and every c l a i m , l o s s , expenses, cr-damage,- and- any s u i t or- demands which may be occasioned by c r i n c i d e n t a l to the' c o n s t r u c t i o n , e x i s t e n c e , use o r maintenance t h e r e o f , and the amount o f any l e s s c r damage occasioned to' the C i t y thereby except as otherwise h e r e i n p r o v i d e d , s h a l l be a f i r s t l i e n or charge on a l l lands to which such a r e a i s appurtenant.  118  J o i n t and several liability  13• .' The l i a b i l i t y o f owners or e t h e r persons under the f o r e g o i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r Indemnity, or under any p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s by-law where there are more than one such owner or other person i n v o l v e d , s h a l l be deemed .to be, and s h a l l be, f o r a l l p u r p o s e s . j o i n t and s e v e r a l .  Violation of by-law  14. Every person who o f f e n d s a g a i n s t any of the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s by-lav;, or who s u f f e r s or permits any act or t h i n g to be done i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n or i n v i o l a t i o n of any o f the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s by-law, or who n e g l e c t s to do c r r e f r a i n s . f r o m d o i n g a n y t h i n g r e q u i r e d to be done by -any o f the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s by-law, or who does any act or t h i n g which v i o l a t e s any o f the p r o v i s i o n s c f t h i s by-lav;, s h a l l be' deemed to be g u i l t y o f an i n f r a c t i o n o f t h i s by-law, and s h a l l be l i a b l e t o the p e n a l t i e s hereby imposed. • (By-law No. 3773, J u l y 14th, 1959).  Penalty  15. (1) Every person who commits an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t t h i s by-lav; i s l i a b l e t o a f i n e and p e n a l t y not exceedin One Hundred ($100.00) D o l l a r s and c o s t s , or i n d e f a u l t •'•. c f payment t h e r e o f , or i n the a l t e r n a t i v e , to i m p r i s o n ment wii/h or without hard l a b o u r f o r any p e r i o d not exceeding two months. (2) Where' an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t t h i s by-law i s o f a c o n t i n u i n g n a t u r e , i t s h a l l be l a w f u l for- the c o n v i c t i n g m a g i s t r a t e , i n h i s d i s c r e t i o n , to Impose a f i n e a g a i n s t the o f f e n d e r , not exceeding f i f t y d o l l a r s f o r each day such o f f e n c e i s c o n t i n u e d by him. (By-law No. 3778, J u l y 14th,. 1959)  119 Annual and Other Charges (By-law N O . 5 2 3 1 , March 27/51) For any a r e a o t h e r than a c r o s s i n g o r footing: (a) Where, the s u p e r f i c i a l extent o f the space o c c u p i e d on.any s t r e e t , lane,, o r o t h e r p u b l i c p l a c e does not exceed f i v e square f e e t  - $1.00  (b) Where the s u p e r f i c i a l extent o f the space o c c u p i e d on any street,, lane, or.other public place exceeds f i v e square f e e t , but does not exceed one hundred square f e e t  $5.00'  (c) Where the s u p e r f i c i a l extent o f the space o c c u p i e d on any s t r e e t , lane, or other p u b l i c place exceeds one hundred square f e e t , f o r each square f o o t occupied  $ .05  (d) F o r the purpose of. computing the annual charges, two o r more such areas appurtenant t o the same l a n d s or premises s h a l l be t r e a t e d as one, and may be i n c l u d e d in. one agreement. (By-law No. 2383,- September 30, 1935) For an a r e a c o m p r i s i n g commercial, c r o s s i n g s : (a) Where a s i t e i s served w i t h sidewalk c r o s s i n g s not exceeding 36 f e e t i n width each, as measured at' the . curb, and not more than two side.--, walk c r o s s i n g s on any one s t r e e t "where the f r o n t a g e i s 250 f e e t o r l e s s , and not more than one a d d i t i o n a l c r o s s i n g f o r each a d d i - • t i o n a l 125 f e e t o f f r o n t a g e o r p o r t i o n t h e r e o f , the f l a t f e e i n l i e u o f a l l annual charges s h a l l be $10.00 (By-aaw No. 397^, March 1, 1962)  (b) Where a s i t e i s served w i t h s i d e - . walk c r o s s i n g s o f a g r e a t e r width than 36 f e e t as measured a t the curb, o r w i t h more than the number o f sidewalk c r o s s i n g s on any . one s t r e e t mentioned i n the p r e ceding sub-clause ( a ) , then f o r such excess widths and such f u r t h e r c r o s s i n g s an annual f e e of $2.00 p e r f o o t s h a l l be charged i n a d d i t i o n t o the f e e p r o v i d e d f o r i n sub-clause (a) • h e r e o f . . (By-law No. 3974, March , 1, 1962) • (c) Repealed. By-law No. 3974. (3) For an area c o m p r i s i n g any c r o s s i n g o t h e r than a commercial c r o s s i n g ,. N i l (By-law No. 2383) (4) F o r an area c o m p r i s i n g a. f o o t i n g o r footings: . x  (a) Where the s u p e r f i c i a l the space o c c u p i e d on lane, o r other p u b l i c not exceed t e n square  extent o f any s t r e e t , p l a c e does feet  (b) Where the s u p e r f i c i a l extent o f the space o c c u p i e d on any s t r e e t , l a n e o r o t h e r p u b l i c p l a c e exceeds t e n square f e e t , f o r each square foot occupied (c) F o r the purpose o f computing the annual charge, two o r more such areas appurtenant t o the same lands o r premises s h a l l be t r e a t e d as one, and may be i n c l u d e d i n one• ,' ' • .' agreement. (By-law No. 2383, September 30, 1935) (5)  F o r an area comprising a b u i l d i n g encroachment o t h e r than such as may r e s u l t from t h e d e d i c a t i o n o r t a k i n g o f any l a n d s f o r highv/ay purposes: (By-law No.'2998, J u l y . 2 1 , 1947) (a) Subject t o the minimum charge for' • • ' same as h e r e i n a f t e r provided, the annual charge s h a l l be twenty p e r . cent (20$). o r , i n case such encroachment 'was i n e x i s t e n c e p r i o r  $10.00  $ 1.00  121  to the f i r s t day o f J u l y , 1947, f i f t e e n per cent (15$) o f the v a l u e o f the area o f the s t r e e t occupied by or s i t u a t e beneath the encroachment; the s a i d value s h a l l be computed at f i v e - y e a r intervals., and s h a l l be based upon the assessed v a l u e o f the a d j o i n i n g land as i t may appear on the Assessment R o l l o f the C i t y at the time such comp u t a t i o n i s made. (By-law No. 3231, March 27, 1951) (b) Minimum Charge • (By-law No. 2998, J u l y 21,  $15.00 1947)  (c) Where a b u i l d i n g permit has been i s s u e d f o r any b u i l d i n g , o r a d d i t i o n t o any b u i l d i n g , any p o r t i o n of which b u i l d i n g or a d d i t i o n , a f t e r completion, i s a b u i l d i n g encroachment, the date o f such permit s h a l l , f o r the purposes o f t h i s by-lav;, be deemed t o be the date when such b u i l d i n g encroachment came i n t o e x i s t e n c e . (Bylaw No.- 2998, J u l y 21, 1947) (6)  .  For an a r e a c o m p r i s i n g a b u i l d i n g encroachment r e s u l t i n g from the d e d i c a t i o n o r .taking o f any l a n d s ,for h i g h way purposes, where the former owner . i s p e r m i t t e d t o continue.'-in occupat i o n thereof-: (a) Minimum charge (b) I n a d d i t i o n t o the -above minimum charge•such amount as may be f i x e d .by t h e • r e s o l u t i o n o f C o u n c i l p e r m i t t i n g o c c u p a t i o n t h e r e o f 'as aforesaid. (By-law No. 2998, July 21/1947) •  $ 1.00  

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