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The generation of certain time expressions in English Rodman, Lilita 1969

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THE GENERATION OF CERTAIN TIME EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH by LILITA RODMAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1969 In present ing th i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for s cho l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT In t h i s study a set of rules that generate c e r t a i n time expressions i n English i s constructed. The methodology used i s mainly that outlined by Noam Chomsky i n Aspects of  the Theory of Syntax (1965). The discussion i s confined to those time expressions that are single words, single phrases, or sequences of phrases i n surface structure. These have the basic deep structure Prep + Det + N (S') t where N has the syntactic feature [+ Time_. Surface structure single word time expressions are derived from t h i s deep structure by deleting Prep and rewriting the NP as a single l e x i c a l itemj surface structure sequences of phrases are derived by applying the r e l a t i v e clause transfor-mation to the embedded S. Chomsky's l i s t of syntactic features f o r nouns i s extended by adding some inherent features and some s e l e c t i o n a l features. The additions are needed to d i s t i n g u i s h nouns that can occur i n time expressions from those that cannot, to state the c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s between some prepositions and determiners and the time nouns, and to state c e r t a i n ordering r e s t r i c t i o n s on surface structure sequences of phrases. The time expressions considered are subcategorized into Locative Time and Duration Time on the basis of c o l l o c a t i o n with some subclasses of Verb. These subcategories are formally d i s t i n c t i n that t h e i r prepositions are mutually exclusive. Locative Time expressions are further sub-categorized into Dynamic Time expressions, those whose c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s with A u x i l i a r y expansions are l i n g u i s t i c a l l y determinable, and S t a t i c Time expressions, those whose c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s are not l i n g u i s t i c a l l y determinable. These two subcategories are, again, formally d i s t i n c t , f o r t h e i r determiners are mutually exclusive. TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION' CHAPTER II THE GENERATION OF STATIC TIME: EXPRESSIONS CHAPTER III THE GENERATION OF DYNAMIC TIME EXPRESSIONS CHAPTER IV THE GENERATION OF DURATION TIME. EXPRESSIONS CHAPTER V CONCLUSION; BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX SUMMARY OF TP RULES CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The aim of t h i s study i s to c o n s t r u c t a fragment of a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l g e n e r a t i v e grammar (TG) t h a t w i l l generate c e r t a i n E n g l i s h time e x p r e s s i o n s . There are three major reasons f o r t h i s c h o i c e . F i r s t , a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y time e x p r e s s i o n s , have so f a r r e c e i v e d very l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n from TG grammarians.* Consequently, the model proposed i n t h i s study should expand the present t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammars. Second, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r t e s t of the v a l i d i t y and power of some of the assumptions and methods of TG. T h i r d , and most important, t h i s study should provide some f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o the s t r u c t u r e and behavior of E n g l i s h time e x p r e s s i o n s . As i s i m p l i e d i n the statement of the aim, the scope of t h i s study i s l i m i t e d i n two ways. The aim i s to c o n s t r u c t not a complete grammar of E n g l i s h , but r a t h e r a grammar of "the time c o n s t i t u e n t of sentences. In other words, the model w i l l generate time expressions o n l y . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n has been imposed because there are a l r e a d y a number of f a i r l y complete g e n e r a l models f o r g e n e r a t i n g sentences and because the number of problems t h a t would be r a i s e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a complete grammar i s too great f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s l e n g t h . In other words, t h i s 2 study, r a t h e r than being a broad coverage, i s a r e l a t i v e l y i n t e n s i v e treatment of a f a i r l y narrow problem. Although the l a r g e r model i s always kept i n mind, a c t u a l r e f e r e n c e s are made to i t only when necessary. The second l i m i t a t i o n i s i n the types of time e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t are d i s c u s s e d . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n w i l l be d e f i n e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, and elsewhere as the need a r i s e s . Since the focus i s on the time c o n s t i t u e n t , t h i s c o n s t i t u e n t and i t s place i n the l a r g e r model must now be d e f i n e d . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h a t must be answered i s whether i t i s more r e v e a l i n g t o c o n s i d e r time e x p r e s s i o n s as a separate c l a s s or as a su b c l a s s of a l a r g e r c l a s s , Adverb. In h i s model i n "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach t o Syntax" (1958) Chomsky t r e a t s time expressions as one sub-c l a s s of Adverb, the other being place e x p r e s s i o n s : ^ a t 3_ o'clock, i n the morning, etc." (5) Adv > J y e s t e r d a y , every morning, e t c . (6) Advi >i AdVj i n the house, at the t h e a t r e , e t c . t h e r e , away. home, ... } Lees i n The Grammar of E n g l i s h M o m i n a l l z a t i o n s (1963) separates time and place expressions:-' (3) MV •> . ( be + Pr (Loc) (Tm) Vb However, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n he does group time and place w i t h manner and other a d v e r b i a l expressions. This suggests t h a t we must d i s t i n g u i s h between expansion r u l e s and sub-c a t e g o r i z a t i o n r u l e s and between s u b c a t e g o r l z a t i o n t h a t i s s p e c i f i e d i n the system of phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s and sub-c a t e g o r i z a t i o n t h a t i s not s p e c i f i e d i n t h i s way. A c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l i s m between l o c a t i v e (synonymous w i t h "place") and time expressions i s Implied i n Lees' r e w r i t e r u l e s f o r the categ o r i e s Loc and Tm:^ (17) Loc » / ( here, there. ... ^ i n ( s i de ( o f ) ) Nom p L o c + W o m > (19) Tm } yesterday, now. P_ m + NomT_ Although Katz and P o s t a l i n An Integrated Theory of L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n s (1964) do not present a system of r u l e s , they do make the point t h a t a d v e r b i a l s i n E n g l i s h 5 have a general form, P r e p o s i t i o n + Noun Phrase. Then, w i t h i n t h i s l a r g e r c l a s s of a d v e r b i a l they d i s t i n g u i s h time, p l a c e , manner, and other a d v e r b i a l subclasses. Klima i n "Negation i n E n g l i s h " (1964) a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s between time and place expressions:^ 2. Predicate £ Aux — MV (Place) (Time) 4 Other types of a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , such as frequency, are 7 Introduced i n h i s f i r s t r e w r i t e r u l e : 1 1. S > (wh) (rieg) (Adv (neg)) (Adv) Nominal — P r e d i c a t e In other words, h i s model does not group time and plac e w i t h other adverbs. Owen Thomas i n T r a n s f o r m a t l o n a l Grammar and the  Teacher of E n g l i s h (1965) d i s t i n g u i s h e s f i v e s u b c a t e g o r i e s of the category Adverb:® ( 1) sentence a d v e r b i a l s (2) preverbs (3) adverbs of l o c a t i o n and time (4) adverbs of manner (5) adverbs l i k e ' v e r y 1 , ' q u i t e ' , and 'extremely' which can precede a d j e c t i v e s and c e r t a i n k i n d s of adverbs. L o c a t i v e ( p l a c e ) adverbs are then d i s t i n g u i s h e d from time adverbs i n t h a t the PRO form u n d e r l y i n g time i s ( a t ) f a t l SOMETIME, and the PRO form u n d e r l y i n g l o c a t i v e i s (\ () I i n ) SOME PLACE.9 In Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965) Chomsky a l s o separates time from place i n h i s phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s . Hi s r u l e (52ii) i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same as Klima's r u l e ( 2 ) : 1 0 (52ii) P r e d i c a t e - P h r a s e » Aux^VP (P l a c e ) (Time) His approach i s a l s o l i k e Klima's i n t h a t he separates time and plac e from other a d v e r b l a l s such as d i r e c t i o n , d u r a t i o n , 5 frequency, and another k i n d of p l a c e . ^ U r i e l Weinreich i n " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Semantic Theory" ( 1966) i n t r o d u c e s the c l a s s "phrases of Circumstance" to d e a l w i t h what are t r a d i t i o n a l l y considered adverbs. These phrases of Circumstance: ••• are c r o s s - c l a s s i f i e d as to s y n t a c t i c f u n c t i o n and as t o i n t e r n a l c o n s t i t u e n c y . A c c o r d i n g t o f u n c t i o n , t h e r e are circumstances of P l a c e , of Time, of Manner, of Purpose, of Accompaniment, of D u r a t i o n , of Frequency, of Purpose, e t c . A c c o r d i n g to i n t e r n a l constituency.Y there are circumstances which c o n s i s t of adverbs, of p r e p o s i t i o n s and nouns, and of c o n j u n c t i o n s and s e n t e n c e s . ' 2 Thus, Weinreich c o n s i d e r s time to be a s u b c l a s s of a l a r g e r c l a s s , the c l a s s of phrases of Circumstance. In summary, time has been t r e a t e d as a separate c o n s t i t u e n t i n a number of TG models, even when the e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t are termed time e x p r e s s i o n s are members of a l a r g e r c l a s s . T h i s study, t h e r e f o r e , d e a l s w i t h a s u b c l a s s of a d v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . The other q u e s t i o n t h a t must now be decided i s where the time c o n s t i t u e n t should be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s . The main a l t e r n a t i v e s are t o have time dominated by S, by VP, or by P r e d i c a t e . In the T h i r d Texas Conference model Chomsky 13 p l a c e s the time c o n s t i t u e n t under the domination of S: 1. Sentence > NP + VP (Adv) Lees, however, p l a c e s time under the domination of MV, which i s i n t u r n dominated by V P : ^ ( 1 ) S -(2) VP • (3) MV -•y Nom + VP • — * (Prev) Aux + MV . . . J B E + P R ) I Vb J (Loc) (Tm) These two approaches are summarized i n Figures)i; v,and 2: Adv Nom Loc Tm Katz and P o s t a l , and Owen Thomas int r o d u c e the time c o n s t i t u e n t i n e s s e n t i a l l y the same place as does Lees. Klima, however, p l a c e s the time c o n s t i t u e n t under the domination of P r e d i c a t e . The approach of Chomsky i n Aspects of the Theory of Syntax i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same as Klima's. The Aspects approach i s summarized i n F i g u r e 3: 1 5 7 NP Time F i g u r e 3 Chomsky does, however, observe t h a t one type of plac e a d v e r b i a l " l i k e a Time-Adverbial, has no p a r t i c u l a r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Verb, but i n f a c t m o d i f i e s the e n t i r e Verb-Phrase, or perhaps the e n t i r e sentence. 1 , 1 ^  He f u r t h e r suggests t h a t the time a d v e r b i a l s may be "more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the A u x i l i a r y or w i t h Sentence A d v e r b i a l s which form a 'pre-sentence 1 u n i t i n the u n d e r l y i n g 1 7 s t r u c t u r e " than w i t h the P r e d i c a t e - P h r a s e . We must a l s o note t h a t i n the model of Aspects of the Theory of Syntax Chomsky d i s t i n g u i s h e s d u r a t i o n and frequency time e x p r e s s i o n s from other time e x p r e s s i o n s . The d u r a t i o n and frequency e x p r e s s i o n s p a r t i c i p a t e i n Verb s u b c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and are in t r o d u c e d as f o l l o w s : ^ /Copula P r e d i c a t e \ r (NP) (Prep-Phrase )(Prep-Phrase) (Manner)' / P r e d i c a t e (v) Prep-Phrase ---^ D i r e c t i o n , D u r a t i o n , P l a c e , Frequency, e t c . Weinreich p l a c e s both time and place under the domination of S. He does, however, suggest i n a f o o t n o t e 8 t h a t t h i s may not be c o r r e c t : In t h i s fragment of a grammar, a number of c o m p l i c a t i n g d e t a i l s are d i s r e g a r d e d , such as the q u e s t i o n of an immediate c o n s t i t u e n t of S to dominate VP and the circumstances of Time and Place j o i n t l y . . . . ' 9 Lyons i n I n t r o d u c t i o n to T h e o r e t i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s (1968) a l s o p l a c e s time exp r e s s i o n s under the domination of S : 2 0 (a)Z ^ HP + VP (Time Adverb) F i l l m o r e i n "Toward a Modern Theory of Case" (1969) suggests t h a t the f i r s t phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e should b e : 2 1 S ^ Mod — Aux — Prop Then he f u r t h e r suggests t h a t The c o n s t i t u e n t M o d a l i t y [Mod] c o n t a i n s I n t e r r o g a t i v e and negative elements, sentence a d v e r b i a l s , time a d v e r b i a l s , and v a r i o u s other a d v e r b i a l elements t h a t are understood as m o d a l i t i e s on the sentence as a whole r a t h e r than s u b c o n s t i t u e n t s of the c o n s t i t u e n t con-t a i n i n g the main v e r b . Thus, h i s approach i s a l s o c l o s e s t to the a l t e r n a t i v e shown i n F i g u r e 1. Since the P r o p o s i t i o n (Prop) c o n s t i t u e n t i s h i s main f o c u s , however, he does not d i s c u s s these suggestions about time e x p r e s s i o n s f u r t h e r . In t h i s study Chomsky's approach i n Aspects i s adopted f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the time c o n s t i t u e n t . The 9 p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t time i s dominated by S deserves f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , however. What i s obvious from t h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the three p o s s i b i l i t i e s i s t h a t there i s a l a c k of w e l l d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a f o r a t l e a s t some cuts i n c o n s t i t u e n t s t r u c t u r e . The m e r i t s of Chomsky's r u l e s ( i i i ) and (v) f o r i n t r o d u c i n g d u r a t i o n expressions w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t the time when r u l e s f o r g e n e r a t i n g these e x p r e s s i o n s are s t a t e d . One of the major problems i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar i s t h a t of s u b c a t e g o r i z i n g the major c a t e g o r i e s . In t h i s study t h i s amounts t o a problem of s u b c a t e g o r i z i n g Noun so that the d i s t i n c t i o n between place e x p r e s s i o n s and time e x p r e s s i o n s can be s t a t e d . We must, i n other words, be a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h the f o l l o w i n g two e x p r e s s i o n s : ( 1 ) i n the room (2) i n the morning For, John met B i l l i n the room i s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of sentence from John met B i l l i n the morning. In t h i s study the s u b c a t e g o r i z a t i o n methodology o u t l i n e d by Chomsky i n Aspects of the Theory of Syntax has been adopted. T h i s methodology can only be d i s c u s s e d , of course, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the conception of the s t r u c t u r e of the grammar as a whole. An overview of t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s g i v e n i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: 10 A grammar c o n t a i n s a s y n t a c t i c component, a semantic component, and a p h o n o l o g i c a l com-ponent. The l a t t e r two are p u r e l y i n t e r p r e t i v e ; they p l a y no part i n the r e c u r s i v e g e n e r a t i o n of sentence s t r u c t u r e s . The s y n t a c t i c com-ponent c o n s i s t s of a base and a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l component. The base, i n t u r n , c o n s i s t s of a c a t e g o r i a l subcomponent and a l e x i c o n . The base generates deep s t r u c t u r e s . A deep s t r u c t u r e e n t e r s the semantic component and r e c e i v e s a semantic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; i t i s mapped by the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e s i n t o a s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e , which i s then g i v e n a phonetic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the r u l e s of the p h o n o l o g i c a l component. Thus the grammar a s s i g n s semantic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o s i g n a l s , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n b e i n g mediated by the r e c u r s i v e r u l e s of the s y n t a c t i c component. 2^ C e n t r a l to our d i s c u s s i o n of s u b c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s Chomsky's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the l e x i c o n as a set of l e x i c a l e n t r i e s , each l e x i c a l e n try being "a p a i r (D,C), where D i s a phono-l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e m a t r i x ' s p e l l i n g ' a c e r t a i n l e x i c a l f o rmative and C i s a c o l l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i e d s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s (a complex symb o l ) . " 2 ^ I t i s the concept of complex symbol t h a t i s of fundamental importance to the s y n t a c t i c component. One of the t a s k s of t h i s study i s , then, to c h a r a c t e r i z e some asp e c t s of the complex symbols of those nouns t h a t can occur as the N i n a time e x p r e s s i o n . A complex symbol i s a set of s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s . The s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s a r e , e s s e n t i a l l y , d e s i g n a t o r s of the s e t s and subsets of the l e x i c o n to which the l e x i c a l e n t r y t h a t has these f e a t u r e s belongs. These concepts can be e l u c i d a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g scheme. Let us c a l l the l e x i c o n the set A of l e x i c a l e n t r i e s . Let us assume t h a t there are two d i s j o i n t (mutually e x c l u s i v e ) subsets of Aj c a l l them 1 * B and. C, and B i s the complement of C. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s summarized i n F i g u r e 4: A Fi g u r e 4 Acc o r d i n g t o Chomsky's approach, each l e x i c a l entry t h a t i s a member of B has the s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e £+ B_ and each l e x i c a l entry t h a t i s a member of C has the s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e f_+ C3. Furthermore, s i n c e B i s the complement of C, every element of B w i l l a l s o have the f e a t u r e L- C_ and every element of C w i l l have the f e a t u r e B1. N O W, l e t us c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n * F i g u r e 5 where D and E are subsets of B and the i n t e r s e c t i o n of D and E i s not empty. Element 1 would then have the complex 12 symbol [+ _3, element 2 the complex symbol _+ B, + D_t, element 3 the complex symbol !_+ B, + E_, and element 4 the complex symbol [+ B, + D, + E_. The problem of sub-c a t e g o r i z a t i o n amounts t o the problem of d e c i d i n g how to e s t a b l i s h the optimal system of subsets of the l e x i c o n . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n "optimal" on the system of sub-sets i s an important one. The system i s optimal i f i t provides s u f f i c i e n t d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the l e x i c o n f o r the r u l e s of the grammar to operate. Thus, the l i m i t s placed on the generative expectations of the grammar as a whole w i l l determine how f i n e the system of subsets w i l l have to be. Since the aim of t h i s study i s to generate some time expressions, the d i s c u s s i o n i s l i m i t e d to such f e a t u r e s as are necessary f o r the grammar to generate these expressions. One r u l e scheme that Chomsky proposes f o r sub-c a t e g o r i z i n g the category Noun i s the f o l l o w i n g (24) ( i ) N •$> _+ N, + Common"] ( i i ) Common] — > \ + Count] ( i i i ) _+ Count 1 > [ + Animate] ( i v ) [- Common. > [ + Animate] (v) £ + Animate*!—-> Human] ( v i ) Count 3 > [+ A b s t r a c t ] He l a t e r removes t + A b s t r a c t ] as a f e a t u r e : "In f a c t , s i n c e r i t y could s u r e l y not be entered i n t o the l e x i c o n , though s i n c e r e would. S i n c e r i t y i s formed by a t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n , and i s a ' d e f e c t i v e P r e d i c a t e ' i n j u s t the same way as r e f u s a l i s a d e f e c t i v e P r e d i c a t e i n ' t h e i r r e f u s a l s u r p r i s e d me. 1" 2^ With t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i n mind, we can p i c t u r e what i s s t a t e d i n r u l e s ( i ) - (v) as the f o l l o w i n g system of subsets of Noun: B H E D Key: ABOD: ABEP: FECD: GHEF: ABHG: GLJD: IHCJ : IKLJ : KHCL: + Noun + Common - Common + Count - Count - Animate + Animate + Human - Human Figur e 6 14 Thus, the f i v e s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s Noun, Common, Count, Animate, Human can combine i n t o seven d i s t i n c t complex symbols, or seven d i s t i n c t subsets of the set Noun. These seven complex symbols, together w i t h Chomsky's examples of l e x i c a l items t h a t have these complex symbols, are as f o l l o w s : 2 ^ 1. £+ Noun,+ Common, - Count] ~ e.g. d i r t 2. L + Noun, + Common, + Count, - Animate] -- e.g. book 3. [+ Noun, + Common, + Count, + Animate, + Human] — e.g. boy 4 . [" + Noun, + Common, + Count, + Animate, - Human] — e.g. dog 5 . [+ Noun, - Common, - Animate] -- e.g. Egypt 6. [+ Noun, - Common, + Animate, + Human] -- e.g. John 7. [+ Noun, - Common, + Animate, - Human] -- e.g. Fld o There a r e , o b v i o u s l y , other complex symbols t h a t nouns can have, and Chomsky does not cl a i m t h a t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n i s complete. For the g e n e r a t i o n of time expressions t h i s system of s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s must be extended, p a r t i c u l a r l y t o d i s -t i n g u i s h those nouns t h a t can occur i n time exp r e s s i o n s from those t h a t cannot. McKay, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of German time a d v e r b i a l s , suggests t h a t the f e a t u r e s L+ Place] and "L+ Time] should be added t o a l l o w f o r the d i s t i n c t i o n between place e x p r e s s i o n s and time e x p r e s s i o n s . That i s , Prep + NP i s a place e x p r e s s i o n i f the N of NP has the f e a t u r e [+ P l a c e ] , and a 15 time e x p r e s s i o n i f the N has the f e a t u r e [+ Time]. He then p o i n t s out t h a t "any designatum of a concrete noun has the p o t e n t i a l of being the l o c a t i o n of some a c t i o n ; but p o s s i b l y there are a b s t r a c t nouns t h a t cannot occur i n a d v e r b i a l s . " 2 ^ He then s t a t e s : " I f any concrete noun can occur i n a place a d v e r b i a l , then c l e a r l y we cannot expect the _+ Place] t o occur i n the entry f o r every concrete noun i n the l e x i c o n . " 5 ° There are two major d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h McKay's f o r m u l a t i o n . F i r s t , i f we accept Chomsky's r e v i s e d approach t o " a b s t r a c t " nouns, and there seems t o be no good reason why we should not, then McKay's L+ Concrete, f e a t u r e does not a p p l y . In other words, any l e x i c a l entry t h a t has the f e a t u r e \+ N] could occur i n a p l a c e e x p r e s s i o n and so the f e a t u r e [_+ P l a c e ^ would serve no f u n c t i o n . Second, McKay does not show th a t \_+ P l a c e ] and \_+ Time"] are mutually e x c l u s i v e . That i s , i t i s more meaningful to d i s t i n g u i s h [+ Time] and [_- Time] than i t i s t o d i s t i n g u i s h [+ Time] and \+ P l a c e ] , The same o b j e c t i o n s apply t o McKay's d i s t i n c t i o n between [+ Event] and [+ Concrete], which corresponds t o h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between [+ Time] and [+ P l a c e ] . Jacobs and Rosenbaum a l s o mention the f e a t u r e s 4 f 1+ Time] and 1+ P l a c e ] , although they do not d i s c u s s them i n d e t a i l . - ^ 1 The second o b j e c t i o n i n the pr e v i o u s paragraph a l s o a p p l i e s t o t h e i r approach. In E n g l i s h Grammar I I , Rosenbaum d i s t i n g u i s h e s between [+ Time] and [.+ Place] as f o l l o w s : ^ 2 16 (xv) anim"> ^ (+ t i m e ^ ( x v i ) <(- time"*) > ( + place"} Thus, he supports our e a r l i e r suggestion t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between L+ Time] and _- Time] i s more fundamental and more r e v e a l i n g than McKay's d i s t i n c t i o n between [+ Time] and P l a c e ] , When he g i v e s the complex symbols f o r v a r i o u s . l e x i c a l items, however, Rosenbaum l i s t s [+ Time, - P l a c e ] , which i s unnecessary because the assignment of P l a c e , t o nouns t h a t have the f e a t u r e [+ Time"] i s p r e d i c t a b l e from r u l e s (xv) and (xvi).33 In t h i s study we adopt Rosenbaum's r u l e s (xv) and ( x v i ) f o r e x p r e s s i n g the f e a t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p between nouns t h a t can occur as the N i n Prep + NP time ex p r e s s i o n s and nouns t h a t cannot occur as t h i s N, T h i s means t h a t we are modi f y i n g Chomsky's s u b c a t e g o r l f a t i o n scheme by adding Rosenbaum's (xv) and ( x v i ) i n place of Chomsky's ( v i ) which, as we sa?r e a r l i e r , i s removed because of h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of a b s t r a c t nouns. Thus, room, i n the example John met B i l l i n the room (p. 9 ) , w i l l have the complex symbol [+ N, + Common, + Count, - Animate, - Time, + Place 3 , and morning, i n the example John met B i l l i n the morning (p. 9 ) , w i l l have the complex symbol \+ N, + Common, + Count, - Animate, + Time], Rosenbaum's r u l e s may be c r i t i c i z e d f o r l i m i t i n g the f e a t u r e [+ P l a c e ] t o nouns having the f e a t u r e \_- Animate] and thereby e x c l u d i n g such place e x p r e s s i o n s as on John i n the f o l l o w i n g sentence: The Inse c t landed on John, 17 Since, however, place expressions are not the primary-concern in this study, we w i l l not try to modify the feature scheme to accommodate a l l place expressions. It w i l l be found that the set of nouns having the feature L+ Time] w i l l have to be subcategorized further to f a c i l i t a t e the operation of the rules that generate time expressions, but these w i l l be discussed when they are introduced. The syntactic features we have discussed so far Chomsky calls inherent features. The rules, like his rules (24) (i) - (vi), which introduce inherent features are called context-free subeategorlzation r u l e s . ^ Categories may also be subcategorized by context-sensitive subeategorlzation  rules, which introduce what Chomsky calls contextual features. Contextual features are "designated in the form [X Y], where X and Y are strings (perhaps null) of symbols.Furthermore, the X and Y can be either category symbols or syntactic features.^ These contextual features, then, define the sub-sets of a category that may appear in particular contexts, these contexts being either categories or syntactic features. Chomsky distinguishes between two kinds of rules that introduce contextual features: Rules ... which analyze a symbol in terms of i t s categorial context, I shall henceforth© c a l l s t r i c t subeategorlzation rules. Rules ... which analyze a symbol (generally, a complex symbol) in terms of syntactic features of the frames in which i t appears, I shall c a l l selectional rules. The latter express what are usually called 'selectional restrictions' 18 or ' r e s t r i c t i o n s of cooccurrence.' We s h a l l see l a t e r t h a t there are important s y n t a c t i c and semantic d i f f e r e n c e s between s t r i c t sub-c a t e g o r i z a t i o n r u l e s and s e l e c t i o n a l r u l e s w i t h r e s p e c t to both t h e i r form and f u n c t i o n , and t h a t consequently t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n may be an important one.37 Both the c o n t e x t - f r e e s u b e a t e g o r i z a t i o n r u l e s and the two types of c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e s u b e a t e g o r i z a t i o n r u l e s are ass i g n e d t o the l e x i c a l component of the base.3® Throughout t h i s study the f e a t u r e s t h a t are d i s c u s s e d are assumed to be s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s , r a t h e r than semantic f e a t u r e s . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d , of course, t h a t there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e u n c e r t a i n t y i n the l i t e r a t u r e as t o where ( i f anywhere) the l i n e between s y n t a c t i c and semantic f e a t u r e s i s t o be drawn. Thus, where i t appears t h a t a marker i s common to both grammar and semantics, what i s i n f a c t the ease i s t h a t there are two d i s t i n c t markers having the same or s i m i l a r names. ... Thus, grammatical and semantic markers have d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l import. Grammatical markers have the f u n c t i o n of marking the f o r m a l d i f f e r e n c e upon which the d i s t i n c t i o n between well-formed and i l l - f o r m e d s t r i n g s of morphemes r e s t s , whereas semantic markers have the f u n c t i o n of g i v i n g each well-formed s t r i n g the conceptual content t h a t permits them t o be represented i n terms of the message they communicate t o speakers i n normal s i t u a t i o n s . They are concerned w i t h d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of s e l e c t i o n and they express d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the s t r u c t u r e of a language. We can, t h e r e f o r e , j u s t i f i a b l y regard semantic markers as t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s d i s t i n c t from the markers employed i n grammatical d e s c r i p t i o n . 3 9 Chomsky, a f t e r p r e s e n t i n g some arguments f o r and a g a i n s t the 19 p o s s i b i l i t y of a s s i g n i n g s e l e c t i o n a l r u l e s to the semantic component, concludes: In g e n e r a l , one should not expect t o be a b l e to d e l i m i t a l a r g e and complex domain before i t has been thoroughly e x p l o r e d . A d e c i s i o n as to the boundary s e p a r a t i n g syntax.and semantics ( i f there i s one) i s not a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e o r e t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e study of s y n t a c t i c The f e a t u r e s w i t h which we are concerned i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n are s t a t e d because they are r e q u i r e d f o r the o p e r a t i o n of s y n t a c t i c r u l e s . Our c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of them i n t h i s sense as s y n t a c t i c i s supported by Chomsky's p r a c t i c e . Assuming t h a t the l e x i c o n i s a set of l e x i c a l e n t r i e s , or p a i r s (D,0) of p h o n o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e m a t r i c e s and complex symbols, how are these l e x i c a l e n t r i e s to be i n troduced i n t o the r u l e s which generate sentences? The branching r u l e s of the c a t e g o r i a l component generate pre-t e r m i n a l s t r i n g s , t h a t i s , s t r i n g s of grammatical f o r m a t i v e s and complex symbols.^ I f Q i s a complex symbol i n a pre-t e r m i n a l s t r i n g , i f C i s a complex symbol not d i s t i n c t from Q, i f Q c o n t a i n s the f e a t u r e (+ X Y] and i f Q appears i n the frame X Y, then we may r e p l a c e Q w i t h D of the p a i r ( D,C).^ 2 T h i s replacement o p e r a t i o n can be regarded as a s u b s t i t u t i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . ^ we have, then, the scheme i n F i g u r e 7: 20 Rules of C a t e g o r i a l Component of Base T BASE P r e t e r m i n a l S t r i n g s 1 S u b s t i t u t i o n Transformations of Base Lexicon Terminal S t r i n g s F i g u r e 7 In a d d i t i o n t o s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s t h a t are a p a r t of a l e x i c a l item when i t i s i n the l e x i c o n , there are a l s o s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s which the l e x i c a l item a c q u i r e s a f t e r i t enter s a p r e t e r m i n a l s t r i n g . For example, Chomsky suggests t h a t i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l component there are r u l e s such as the f o l l o w i n g : .44 A r t i c l e > c< Gender {5 Number V Case + N oc Gender /3 Number # Case where A r t i c l e ... N i s an NP. He suggests, f u r t h e r , t h a t 21 Other agreement r u l e s expand an a l r e a d y present m a t r i x of f e a t u r e s — f o r example, the r u l e a s s i g n i n g features, of a Noun to a modifying A d j e c t i v e . The l a t t e r , being a l e x i c a l item, w i l l have an independent f e a t u r e m a t r i x of i t s own, which i s expanded by the agreement r u l e . The A d j e c t i v e , i n t h i s case, i s i n t r o -duced i n t o the prenominal p o s i t i o n by a t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e , and i t s f e a t u r e s w i l l i n c l u d e i t s i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e s (those g i v e n i n i t s l e x i c a l e n t r y ) and those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the complex symbol t h a t i t r e p l a c e s by the l e x i c a l r u l e . 4 5 The Aspects of the Theory of Syntax approach to the l e x i c o n has s e v e r a l advantages. F i r s t , and l e a s t important t h e o r e t i c a l l y , are the advantages of s e p a r a t i n g the l e x i c o n from the c a t e g o r i a l component r e w r i t e r u l e s . By removing the n e c e s s i t y of l i s t i n g the l e x i c o n i n these r u l e s , t h e i r number and complexity are g r e a t l y reduced. Furthermore, the r e w r i t e r u l e s are now e s s e n t i a l l y independent of changes i n the membership of the l e x i c o n . Whereas i n the S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s and T h i r d Texas Conference models each l e x i c a l i n n o v a t i o n would have to be l i s t e d i n the phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s , now the i n n o v a t i o n s enter the l e x i c o n d i r e c t l y and the c a t e g o r i a l component remains unchanged u n l e s s there i s a l s o a concomitant change i n the system of c a t e g o r i e s and s u b c a t e g o r i e s , t h a t i s , u n l e s s the number or nature of the s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s changes. Since i t i s the l e x i c o n and not the s y n t a c t i c system of a language t h a t i s most sub j e c t to change, t h i s arrangement i s c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r to those proposed i n e a r l i e r models. A more important advantage of the s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s approach i s t h a t i t a l l o w s r u l e s to be s t a t e d w i t h r e f e r n c e t o only those s u b c a t e g o r i e s t h a t are r e l e v a n t to those r u l e s . As was i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , f o r example, both [+ Animate] and Animate] nouns can have the f e a t u r e [+ P l a c e ] , T h i s means t h a t r u l e s i n v o l v i n g only the f e a t u r e Place"] can be s t a t e d without r e f e r e n c e to [+ Animate].""^ The s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s approach, since i t i s a method of r e f i n i n g the s u b e a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the l e x i c o n , a l s o i n c r e a s e s the a b i l i t y of the r u l e s to generate grammatical sentences. There i s an a s s o c i a t e d advantage i n t h a t the f e a t u r e s approach a l l o w s a more f o r m a l or e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t i o n of degrees of grammaticalness. Chomsky notes, The d i s t i n c t i o n between s t r i c t s u b e a t e g o r i z a t i o n f e a t u r e s and s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s ... appears to c o r r e l a t e r a t h e r c l o s e l y w i t h an important d i s t i n c t i o n i n language use. Each such con-t e x t u a l f e a t u r e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n r u l e t h a t l i m i t s l e x i c a l e n t r i e s c o n t a i n i n g t h i s f e a t u r e to c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s . We can, i n each case, c o n s t r u c t a d e v i a n t sentence by b r e a k i n g the r u l e . 47 Another advantage of t h i s approach i s t h a t i t g i v e s a f o r m a l i n d i c a t i o n of a word as being a complex of sound, meaning, and s y n t a c t i c behaviour. T h i s approach a l s o g i v e s a f o r m a l i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a word and the r e s t of the grammar. The p h o n o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s enter the p h o n o l o g i c a l component and the l e x i c a l item i s g i v e n a p h o n o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the semantic f e a t u r e s e n t e r the semantic component and the l e x i c a l item i s g i v e n a semantic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and the 23 syntactic features enter the syntactic component and the l e x i c a l item becomes part of a sentence. The syntactic features methodology we have just described i s used i n t h i s study to subcategorize the lexicon, as needed f o r the rules of the grammar to generate time expressions, that i s , the expansions of the time constituent. Within the class of time expressions there are also a number of subclasses. These, of course, are subclasses of expressions, rather than subclasses of l e x i c a l items. Within the class of time expressions one major d i v i s i o n i s between expressions that answer the question "When?" and those that answer the question "For how long?" These are the two major subclasses to be discussed i n t h i s study. They correspond to Chomsky's d i v i s i o n between Time and Duration. In t h i s study the former class of time expressions i s l a b e l l e d Locative Time and the l a t t e r class i s l a b e l l e d Duration Time. These classes are d i s t i n c t s y n t a c t i c a l l y i n that there are some verbs, such as l a s t , which collocate only with Duration Time expressions. Within the subclass of Locative Time, two subclasses are established on the basis of t h e i r c o l l o c a t i o n with p a r t i -cular expansions of the A u x i l i a r y . Those Locative Time expressions whose co l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s with A u x i l i a r y are determinable only by reference to the s i t u a t i o n a l con-text, w i l l be c a l l e d S t a t i c Time expressions. For example, whether one says I saw B i l l i n 1970 or I w i l l see B i l l i n 24 1970* depends s o l e l y on the time at which the statement i s made. That i s , there i s no l i n g u i s t i c reason f o r making the choice. On the other hand, those Locative Time expressions whose c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h A u x i l i a r y are determinable without reference to the s i t u a t i o n a l context, w i l l be c a l l e d Dynamic Time expressions. For example, next week and l a s t  week are Dynamic Time expressions, f o r i t i s never appropriate to say I saw B i l l next week or I w i l l see B i l l l a s t year. These s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n time expressions can be summarized as f o l l o w s : Duration S t a t i c Dynamic Figure 8 These d i v i s i o n s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o r m a l l y by the choice of Prep and Det i n the Prep + NP of time expressions. Thus, to summarize, time expressions are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other expressions by t h e i r having the s t r u c t u r e Prep + NP and by the N w i t h i n t h i s NP having the feature _+ Time]. Sub** d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n time expressions are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the choice of Prep and Det i n the Prep + NP s t r u c t u r e . In the statement of the aim of t h i s study two l i m i t a t i o n s were i m p l i e d . The f i r s t , t hat i s the l i m i t a t i o n on the type of grammar that i s to be constructed, has already 25 been d e f i n e d . The second l i m i t a t i o n i s on the expr e s s i o n s t h a t the grammar w i l l generate. As has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d , the d i s c u s s i o n i s l i m i t e d t o L o c a t i v e and D u r a t i o n Time e x p r e s s i o n s . Of these e x p r e s s i o n s , only those which are f e l t t o e x h i b i t s u b s t a n t i a l g e n e r a l i t y have been i n c l u d e d . E x c e p t i o n s w i l l no doubt be found, but i t i s hoped t h a t the m a j o r i t y of cases are Included. Furthermore, time e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t are t r a d i t i o n a l l y termed a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e s of time have been excluded. T h i s i s , ©f course, a major omission, but i t i s f e l t t h a t to d e a l w i t h i t would r e q u i r e too great an e x t e n t i o n beyond the present l e n g t h of the study. T h i s study i s organized around the s u b c l a s s e s of time e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t have j u s t been o u t l i n e d . The gene-r a t i o n of S t a t i c Time ex p r e s s i o n s i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2; Chapter 3 d e a l s w i t h the g e n e r a t i o n of Dynamic Time e x p r e s s i o n s ; Chapter 4 d e a l s w i t h the g e n e r a t i o n of Dur a t i o n Time e x p r e s s i o n s . Within Chapters 2 - 4 the procedure used i s p r i m a r i l y I n d u c t i v e . F i r s t some time e x p r e s s i o n s are presented, and then a system of r u l e s t h a t generates these e x p r e s s i o n s i s suggested. These exp r e s s i o n s t h a t are con-s i d e r e d f i r s t are those t h a t are f e l t t o have the s i m p l e s t s t r u c t u r e . Then, other e x p r e s s i o n s which are more complex i n s t r u c t u r e are c o n s i d e r e d , and the i n i t i a l r u l e s are r e v i s e d and more r u l e s are added t o a l l o w the grammar to generate these new examples. F i n a l l y , the A u x i l i a r y expansion r u l e t h a t i s compatible w i t h the generated time e x p r e s s i o n s i s s t a t e d . The S t a t i c Time ex p r e s s i o n s are d i s c u s s e d f i r s t because they are a k i n d of paradigm of the other time e x p r e s s i o n s . The Dynamic and D u r a t i o n Time e x p r e s s i o n s , as w i l l be seen, combine w i t h S t a t i c Time ex p r e s s i o n s to form sequences of phrases i n surface s t r u c t u r e . The complete set of r u l e s needed to generate the time e x p r e s s i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study i s g i v e n In the Appendix. I t i s t h i s set of r u l e s t h a t forms the main c o n c l u s i o n of the study. 27 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I am not aware of any TG study that i n v e s t i g a t e s E n g l i s h adverbs f u l l y . The f o l l o w i n g Include b r i e f comments about adverbs: Noam Chomsky. "A Transformational Approach to Syntax," i n Third Texas Conference on Problems of L i n g u i s t i c  A n a l y s i s i n E n g l i s h : May 9-12. 1958. A u s t i n , Texas: The U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, 19^2. PP. 124-158. Robert B. Lees. The Grammar of E n g l i s h N o m i n a l i z a t i o n s . The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1 9 o 3 . J e r r o l d J . Katz and Paul M. P o s t a l . An Integrated Theory of L i n g u i s t i c D e s c r i p t i o n s . Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1964. Edward S. Klima. "Negation i n E n g l i s h , " i n The Structure  of Language: Readings i n the Philosophy of Language. eds. J e r r y A. Podor and J e r r o l d J . Katz. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1964. pp. 246-323. Owen Thomas. Transformational Grammar and the Teacher  of E n g l i s h . New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965. Noam Chomsky. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1965. U r i e l Weinreich. " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Semantic Theory," i n Current Trends i n L i n g u i s t i c s , ed. Thomas A. Sebeok, V o l . I I I . The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1966. pp. 395-477. Roderick A. Jacobs and Peter S. Rosenbaum. E n g l i s h Transformatlonal Grammar. Waltham, Mass.: B l a i s d e l l , Peter S. Rosenbaum. E n g l i s h Grammar I I . I.B.M. Research, A p r i l , 1 9 6 8 . John Lyons. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T h e o r e t i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 6 8 . F a i r l y extensive comments on adverbs are included i n the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s by F i l l m o r e : Charles J . F i l l m o r e . "The Case f o r Case," i n U n l v e r s a l s i n L i n g u i s t i c Theory. eds. Emmon Bach and Robert T. Harms. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1 9 6 8 . pp. 1 - 8 8 . 28 Charles J. Fillmore. "Toward a Modern Theory of Case," in Modern Studies in English: Readings in Trans-formational Grammar, eds. David A. Reibel and Sanford A. Schane. Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1969. pp. 361-375. Although Fillmore's approach to adverbs is interesting, he does not make more than passing reference to time expressions. There i s , however, a TG study of German time expressions: John C. McKay. "Some Generative Rules for German Time Adverbials," Language. XVIV (1968), 25-50. 2Noam Chomsky, "A Transformational Approach to Syntax," in Third Texas Conference on Problems of Linguistic Analysis in English: Ma£ _ H 2 > 1958"TAustin. Texas: The University of Texas, 1962), p. 1 3 E . ^Robert B. Lees, The Grammar of English Nominallzatlons (The Hague: Mouton & Coe, 1963), P. 6. ^Lees, p. 13. 5jerrold J . Katz and Paul M. Postal, An Integrated Theory  of Linguistic Descriptions (Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1964), p. 98. 6Edward S. Klima, "Negation in English," in The Structure  of Language: Readings in the Philosophy of Language. eds. Jerry A. Fodor and Jerrold J . Katz (Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964), p. 316. 7Klima, p. 316. O^wen Thomas, Transformatlonal Grammar and the Teacher of  English (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Vfinston, Inc., 1965), P. 162. 9Thomas, p. 165. 1°Noam Chomsky, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Cam-bridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1965), P. 102. 1*1 Chomsky, Aspects, p. 107. 12TJriel Welnreich, "Explorations in Semantic Theory," in Current Trends in Linguistics, ed. Thomas A. Sebeok, Vol. I l l (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1966), p. 437. ^Chomsky, Third Texas Conference, p. 1 3 8 . ^Lees, pp. 5-6. 29 1^See p. 106 i n Chomsky, Aspects. l 6Chomsky, Aspects, p. 101. ^Chomsky, Aspects, p. 102. 18Chomsky..Aspects, p. 107. 19w einreich, p. 437. 20john Lyons, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T h e o r e t i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), p. 224. Note t h a t Lyons' symbol i s equivalent to S. 2 1 Charles J . F i l l m o r e , "Toward a Modern Theory of Case," i n Modern Studies i n E n g l i s h : Readings i n Transformational Grammar, eds. David A. R e i b e l and Sanford A. Schaner (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1969), P. 365. 22pi i i m o r e , "Toward a Modern Theory of Case," p. 365. 23chomsky, Aspects, p. 141. 24-Chomsky, Aspects, p. 84. 25chomsky, Aspects, p. 85. 26chomsky, Aspects, p. 186. 27chomsky, Aspects, p. 83. 28 j 0hn C McKay, "Some Generative Rules f o r German Time A d v e r b i a l s , " Language. XVIV (1968), p. 28. 29McKay, p. 35. l°McKay, p. 35. 3 1 Roderick A. Jacobs and Peter S. Rosenbaum, E n g l i s h Transformational Grammar (Waltham, Mass.: B l a i s d e l l , l9o»j, p. 209. 3 2 p e t e r S. Rosenbaum, E n g l i s h Grammar II,(I.B.M. Research, A p r i l , 1968), p. 4. 3 3 S e e the feature s p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r time and when on p. 90, Rosenbaum, E n g l i s h Grammar I I . 34chomsky, Aspects, p. 120. 35chomsky, Aspects, p. 93. 36chomsky, Aspects, p. 95. 30 57Chomsky, Aspects, n. 95. 38Chomsky, Aspects, p. 121. f ? J e m f 0 l d J,#. K a t z a n d J e r r y A ' *odor/The Structure of a f u m a S u - } ? T h e o r y » ^ The Structure of Language: Readings in thePfello|02h£ of Language, eds. Jerry A. Podor and Jerrold J. Katz.(Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964), p. 518 ^Chomsky, Aspects, P. 159. 41Chomsky, Aspects, P. 84. ^2Chomsky, Aspects, P. 121 . ^^ohomsky, Aspects, P. 122. 44Chomsky, Aspects, P. 175. ^Chomsky, Aspects, P. 176. ^Chomsky, Aspects, PP . 79-80,; 47Chomsky, Aspects, P. 148. 31 CHAPTER I I THE GENERATION OP STATIC TIME EXPRESSIONS In the I n t r o d u c t i o n (see p. 23), S t a t i c Time expressions were defined as those Locative Time expressions whose c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h A u x i l i a r y are determin-able only w i t h reference to the s i t u a t i o n a l context. That i s , there i s no independently l i n g u i s t i c c r i t e r i o n by which these r e s t r i c t i o n s can be decided. In the surface s t r u c t u r e , S t a t i c Time expressions i n E n g l i s h are e i t h e r s i n g l e p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases or sequences of p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases. We w i l l examine f i r s t how the s i n g l e phrases can be generated and then how the sequences of phrases can be generated. Since a l l p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases i n TG are u s u a l l y represented as Prep + NP, and since not a l l p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases are S t a t i c Time expressions, we must i n d i c a t e ways i n which S t a t i c Time expressions d i f f e r from the other phrases. In other words, we must s p e c i f y f o r m a l l y which p r e p o s i t i o n s and which NP's can concatenate t o generate S t a t i c Time expressions. Let us examine the f o l l o w i n g s i n g l e phrase S t a t i c Time expressions: (1) at the s i x t h hour (2) on the t h i r d day (3) i n the f o u r t h week (4) i n the second month 32 (5) in the 1940th year These phrases have the following structure: Prep + the + ordinal + N If the syntactic feature [+ Time] is assigned to hour, day, week, month, and year, then we can describe the structure of (1) - (5) as: 1 Prep + the + ordinal + £+ N, + Time] If we c a l l the time constituent TP, the structure of (1) -(5) can now be described by the following P-marker:2 Figure 1 Since there are collocation restrictions between the prepositions and time nouns, we must subcategorize these nouns further. To do this we could assign the following contextual features to the nouns in question:3 33 week (*+ i n ~\ month *> i n __] year \+ i n *] Th i s procedure i s not, however, the most advantageous one. I t i m p l i e s , f i r s t of a l l , t h a t the p r e p o s i t i o n choice would have t o he made f i r s t and t h a t the noun choice could only he made w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the p r e p o s i t i o n choice.*"* A l s o , the above c o n t e x t u a l f e a t u r e s could not .apply when another p r e p o s i t i o n , f o r example before or a f t e r , occurs i n the phrase. Greater g e n e r a l i t y i s achieved i f we .subcategorize the nouns by other c r i t e r i a and then s t a t e the p r e p o s i t i o n choice i n terms of these new f e a t u r e s . T h i s approach f o l l o w s F i l l m o r e ' s s u g g e s t i o n : ... the L and T ( f o r time) p r e p o s i t i o n s are e i t h e r s e m a n t i c a l l y nonempty ( i n which case they are in t r o d u c e d as o p t i o n a l c h o i c e s from the l e x i c o n ) , or they are s e l e c t e d by the p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t e d noun on Monday. at noon, i n the a f t e r n o o n .5 Let us, then, a s s i g n the f o l l o w i n g s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s t o the nouns: hour [+ Hour] day [+ Day] week [+ Week] month [+ Month] yea r [+ Y e a r ] Again, as [+ Time*], these are .inherent f e a t u r e s . In a d d i t i o n 34 to allowing the preposition choice in expressions like (1) -( 5 ) to be stated, they are also needed in the model to enable us to state the contexts for the various Determiner rewrite possibilities and the rules for embedding in generating surface sequences of phrases. It must be noted that the labels for these features have been chosen for convenience only; each feature represents a distinct pattern of syntactic behavior. We are not in the position to make claims about whether or not they correspond to semantic features with the same or different labels.6 By syntactic redundancy rules, the predictable [- A] feature is assigned to a l l lexical items with the feature [+ Time] that do not have the feature [+ A], where A represents "Hour," "Day," "Week," "Month," "Year." We can now state the following rules for generating expressions (1) - ( 5 ) : ^ Rule A . l . i TP — P r e p + NP Rule A.J..2 NP > Det + N Rule A. 1.3. N {+ N, + Time] Rule A.1_.4 [+ Time] * fC+ Hour] C+ Day 3 L> Weekj V [+ Month}/ 1> Year"] J Rule A.l.£ Det —-*} the + o r d i n a l Rule A. 1_. 6 at / . . . L + Hour 3 Prep ^ ^ on / ... [ + Day "3 i n Since i n s t e a d of e x p r e s s i o n s (1) and (5) we u s u a l l y use e x p r e s s i o n s (6a), (6b), and (7), a d d i t i o n a l r u l e s are necessary. (6a) a t s i x (6b) a t s i x o ' c l o c k (7) i n 1940 To d e r i v e (6a) from ( 1 ) , and (7) from (5), we need the f o l l o w i n g r u l e : Rule A.2.1_ ( + Hour I -i SD: Prep + the + o r d i n a l +• |+ N,< f J L [ + Year . 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — — 1 — c a r d i n a l C o n d i t i o n : o r d i n a l and c a r d i n a l have the same "value".® S p e c i a l problems are presented by (6b), f o r o'clock i s not a simple l e x i c a l e n t r y , but r a t h e r an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r a phrase.^ I t i s thus probably d e r i v e d from (1) and an embedded S by way of Rule A . 2 . I . 1 0 36 We note a l s o t h a t we can use e x p r e s s i o n (8) i n s t e a d of e x p r e s s i o n (2)i (8) on the t h i r d T h i s suggests the f o l l o w i n g r u l e : Rule A.2.2 SD: Prep + the + o r d i n a l + [+ N, + Day] ^ ^ ^ 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 — > 1 Let us now c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g two S t a t i c Time e x p r e s s i o n s : ( 9 ) on Tuesday ( 1 0 ) i n June To generate these we can modify A.1.2 t o A .1.2': Rule A.1.2' NP > (Det) N T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n would support Chomsky's approach i n Aspects, but i t would a l s o a l l o w us t o generate ( 1 1 ) , which i s not a normal S t a t i c Time e x p r e s s i o n : ( 1 1 ) *on day I f , however, we a s s i g n the f e a t u r e [- CommonJ t o Tuesday and 37 June, then we can modify A.1 . 5 to A . 1 . 5 1 : Rule A . I . . 5 1 Det f the + o r d i n a l 0 / {_ - Common} Th i s f e a t u r e m o d i f i c a t i o n means t h a t we can have the f o l l o w i n g complex symbols f o r time nouns: [+ N, + Common, + Count, - Animate, + Time] and [+ N, - Common, - Animate, + Time]. The s t r u c t u r e of exp r e s s i o n s ( 9 ) and ( 1 0 ) can be d e s c r i b e d by the f o l l o w i n g t r e e diagram: Prep + N + Time - Common Fig u r e 2 The f o l l o w i n g p a i r of expressions p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of problem: (12) i n the morning ( 1 3 ) i n the s p r i n g We note t h a t n e i t h e r of these expressions u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s an o r d i n a l when i t appears alone or i n a time sequence. I f we a s s i g n the f e a t u r e [+ Pa r t of day] to morning, a f t e r n o o n . 38 evening. and night. and [+ Season] to spring, summer, autumn. f a l l , and winter, then we can modify A.1,5' as follows: Rule A .1 .5" Det ^ < ( the + ordinal 0 / \_- Common^  ' [+ Part of dayT [+ Season] the / Figure 3 w i l l then describe the structure of (12) and (13): Prep + N + Time rPart of day' I Season ) Figure 3 Rule A.1.4 must, of course, be modified to allow for the generation of [+ Part of day*] and [+ Season]. 1 2 (This modification i s given in the rules at the end of this chapter.) Rule A.1.6 is not affected. Finally, for these single phrase Static Time expressions, we must generate expressions (14), (lj5), and (16): 39 (14) at Christmas (15) at noon (16) at night If the features L- Common, + Festival] are assigned to Christmas, then Rules A.1 w i l l generate (14) provided that two minor modifications to Rules A.1.4 and A.1.6 are made: Festival] must "be added as a possible rewrite of [+ Time^ in Rule A.1.4 and the context ... C+ Festival] must be added as a rewrite of Prep to at in Rule A.1.6. Expression (15) provides more d i f f i c u l t problems, for i t can be used to answer the two questions "What time is i t ? " and "What part of the day i s i t ? " . We assign to noon both the feature [+ Hour] and the feature [+ Part of day]. Since noon takes a 0 determiner, we also assign to i t the feature [- Common], Expression (16) presents a different kind of problem, for i t can replace (17) when the latter expression stands alone in surface structure: (17) In; the night Since night i s idiosyncratic in that i t collocates with both in and at, i t i s more economical to indicate in the lexicon i t s collocation with at and to leave Rules A.I unchanged. Thus night w i l l also have the selectional feature [+ at ]. We are now in a position to consider rules that 40 w i l l generate s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e sequences of the phrases generated by Rules A , 1 . There are three major ways i n which these sequences could be generated. We could r e s t a t e Rule A.1.1 as f o l l o w s : Rule A . i . i ' TP Prep + NP (TP) The deep s t r u c t u r e of a su r f a c e s t r u c t u r e sequence of time phrases c o u l d then be represented by the f o l l o w i n g t r e e diagram: TP Prep NP F i g u r e 4 T h i s approach, however, presents more problems than i t s o l v e s . Although i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t there can be sequences of time phrases i n the s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e of a sentence, i t does not show the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these phrases and i t does not enable us t o order the phrases i n any s p e c i f i c manner. Furthermore, i t does not prevent the g e n e r a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g ungrammatical sequence: (18) »at s i x o'clock a t e i g h t o'clock a t noon In other words, there i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t TP's whose N's have the same complex symbols are mutually e x c l u s i v e . 1 - ^ so, c l e a r l y , u n l e s s a number of f u r t h e r r u l e s are added, Rule A.1.1' i s not the best approach t o the problem a t hand. An a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n i s to r e s t a t e A.1.1 so t h a t TP i s considered to be a sequence of phrases, some of which may be u n r e a l i z e d or d e l e t e d i n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e : Rule A.J_.1_" TP > TP 1 + T P 2 + TP-j + TP4 The deep s t r u c t u r e of a s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e sequence of time phrases could then be rep r e s e n t e d by the f o l l o w i n g t r e e diagram: TP 4 Figure 5 T h i s approach would, of course, i n d i c a t e the order of the phrases i n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e . I t would not, however, solve the problem of showing the deep s t r u c t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the phrases. Furthermore, i t i s not c l e a r t h a t the 42 r u l e s r e q u i r e d t o generate S t a t i c Time exp r e s s i o n s could then be r e l a t e d i n any r e v e a l i n g way to the r u l e s r e q u i r e d t o generate Dynamic and D u r a t i o n Time exp r e s s i o n s and some of the g e n e r a l r u l e s of the grammar. We w i l l then examine a t h i r d approach t o the ge n e r a t i o n of sequences of S t a t i c Time e x p r e s s i o n s . Consider the f o l l o w i n g two sequences: (19) a t s i x o'clock i n the morning (20) a t s i x 0'clock on the t h i r d day I f we r e s t a t e Rule A.1.2 as f o l l o w s , Rule A . i . 2 1 NP ^ Det + N (S* ) then Rule A.1.2' i s the u s u a l r u l e f o r expanding NP: "In E n g l i s h , a c o n s t i t u e n t sentence of some s o r t can be embedded a f t e r any noun i n a ma t r i x sentence." 1 2* S' w i l l then be expanded by Rules A.3 as f o l l o w s : Rule A.3_.i S — N P + Predicate-Phrase Rule A.3_.2 P r e d i c a t e - P h r a s e — ^ Aux + VP (Place P) (TP) Rule A.I.3. VP ^ copula Note t h a t Rules A.3.1 and A.3.2 are i d e n t i c a l t o Chomsky's Rules 57(1) and 5 7 ( i i ) , 1 5 but th a t Rule A.3.3 i s a 43 s i m p l i f i e d and m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of h i s Rule 5 7 ( i i i ) . 1 6 The g e n e r a t i o n of sequences of time phrases w i l l then be -a, accomplished by p a r t i c u l a r embedded S's t h a t have the s t r u c t u r e : WH + NP + Aux + cop + TP cop + P a r t of day] Thus we i n t r o d u c e the f e a t u r e s \+ and [+ cop + Day] t o s i g n i f y t h a t i n an S whose s t r u c t u r e i s WH + NP + Aux + cop + TP, the l e x i c a l item having these f e a t u r e s can be the N of the NP dominated by S i f the N of the NP dominated by TP has the f e a t u r e [+ Part of day] or [+ Day], r e s p e c t i v e l y . Then the s t r u c t u r e of e x p r e s s i o n (19) can be d e s c r i b e d by F i g u r e s 6 and 7, where 7 i s i n s e r t e d i n place of S' i n F i g u r e 6: Prep the o r d i n a l s i x t h + N + Time + Hour + copjVPart of day] + cop[+ DayJ F i g u r e 6 WH + N + Time + Hour + cop [+Part of dayJ + cop "l+Day] the [* + N + Time + P a r t of day F i g u r e 7 In order t o d e r i v e the sur f a c e s t r u c t u r e e x p r e s s i o n (19) from t h i s deep s t r u c t u r e , the u s u a l r e l a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which d e l e t e s NP2, Aux, and cop when NPj and KPg are 17 i d e n t i c a l w i l l be a p p l i e d . The d e r i v a t i o n of e x p r e s s i o n (20) w i l l be e s s e n t i a l l y the same as the d e r i v a t i o n of ex p r e s s i o n (19), except t h a t the N of TP 2 w i l l have the f e a t u r e [+ Day] and the determiner w i l l d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g l y . T h i s approach has been chosen because l t r e v e a l s the deep s t r u c t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the phrases i n a surf a c e s t r u c t u r e sequence of S t a t i c Time phrases, because i t does not have t o be m o d i f i e d i n any s u b s t a n t i a l way to account f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of Dynamic and D u r a t i o n Time sequences, and because i t supports the s o l u t i o n of other d e r i v a t i o n s , such as the r e l a t i v e c lause t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i n TG. Our assumption t h a t the embedded S i s of the form WH + NP + Aux + cop + TP, and our assignment of s e l e c t i o n a l s u g g e s t i o n about German place a d v e r b i a l s , which he l a t e r a p p l i e s a l s o to time a d v e r b i a l s : Thus i t appears t h a t a l l co-occurrence r e -s t r i c t i o n s between f r e e place a d v e r b i a l s may p o s s i b l y be reduced t o co-occurence r e -s t r i c t i o n s between su b j e c t and p r e d i c a t e i n sentences of the s o r t NP Pred s e l . Our TP corresponds i n these embedded s t r u c t u r e s t o McKay's Pred. Our s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s a l l o w us to solve McKay's problem of e x p l a i n i n g why h i s e x p r e s s i o n s (43) are a c c e p t -a b l e and (44) are u n a c c e p t a b l e : (43a) .1ede Wo che am Dienstag (43b) jedes J a h r im Mllrz (44a) ».1ede Wo che urn d r e i Uhr (44b) ».1edes Jahr am Dienstag The r e l a t i o n between Woche and Dienstag i s p a r a l l e l t o t h a t between J a h r and MfirzT N o t i c e t h a t the meaning of Dienstag, M l r z depends,on the concepts Woche. Jahr r e s p e c -t i v e l y . 1 9 We can simply say t h a t (44a) and (44b) are unacceptable because Uhr and Dienstag do not have the f e a t u r e s t h a t a l l o w Woche and Jahr t o appear i n the r e s p e c t i v e embedded S's. f e a t u r e s such supports McKay s 46 The conceptual r e l a t i o n s h i p s do not concern us here, although the c l a i m might be made th a t our s y n t a c t i c s o l u t i o n p a r a l l e l s the c o n c e p t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s approach t o Dynamic and D u r a t i o n e x p r e s s i o n s w i l l be shown when t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d . I t w i l l be seen then why the f i r s t two proposed s o l u t i o n s t o the sequence problem are i n f e r i o r . The s i m i l a r i t y between the s o l u t i o n s t o the time e x p r e s s i o n sequencing problem and the r e l a t i v e c l a u s e problem i s an added advantage, f o r l t supports both. The s i m i l a r i t y a l s o suggests t h a t an embedded TP m o d i f i e s the TP i n the m a t r i x sentence. Those nouns which have both the f e a t u r e s C+ Hour] and [+ P a r t of day], l i k e noon and midnight, provide s p e c i a l problems when they occur i n some sequences. U s u a l l y these l e x i c a l items do not appear w i t h C+ P a r t of day] phrases i n su r f a c e s t r u c t u r e : (21 ) (•' ?) a t noon i n the morning (22) (?) a t midnight i n the night One p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n of t h i s problem i s not to c o n s i d e r e x p r e s s i o n s (21) and (22) as d e v i a n t , but r a t h e r t o c o n s i d e r them as somewhat i r r e g u l a r a p p o s i t i v e s . The same approach would apply t o ex p r e s s i o n s (23) and (§4): (23) a t twelve o'clock noon 47 (24) at twelve o'clock midnight Let us now consider how the following expressions can be generated: (25) in the morning on the third day ( 2 6 ) in the morning on Sunday (27) in the morning of the third day ( 2 8 ) on Sunday morning ( 2 9 ) Sunday morning If we add the feature [+ cop C+ DayJ to the syntactic features of a l l lexical items that have the feature [+ Part of day], then ( 2 5 ) and (26) w i l l be generated analogously to ( 1 9 ) and ( 2 0 ) . Expression (27) can be derived from ( 2 5 ) by the following rule: Rule A.4 SL: « f i n ] f i n ^  - U HP, • \ \ k on J I on J + NP2 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 -—> 1 — 2 — of — 4 Condition: 1 — 2 and 3 — 4 are TP's. Expressions ( 2 8 ) and ( 2 9 ) are derived by applying Rule A.4 to ( 2 6 ) and then applying Rule A.5 to the resulting expression. 48 Rule A.5 SD: in + the + £+ Part of day3 + of + [+ Day, - Common! 1 2 3 4 SO: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 > (on) — 4 — 2 We note that by the rules that have been stated so far, the following Static Time sequences can also be generated: (30) at six o'clock in the morning on the third day (31) at six o'clock in the morning on Sunday (32) at six o'clock in the morning of the third day (33) at six o'clock in the morning of Sunday (34) at six o'clock on Sunday morning (35) at six o'clock Sunday morning We have so far considered the phrases that precede a phrase whose N has the feature £+ Day], The following expressions illustrate which phrases can follow a phrase whose N has the feature L+ Day]: (36) on the f i r s t day in the second week (37) on the f i r s t day in the third month (38) on the f i r s t day in June (39) on the f i r s t day in spring (40) on the f i r s t day in 1940 If we add the features [+ cop L+ Weekly, [+ cop [+ Month]], [+ cop [+ Season]], and |+ cop "> Year]] 49 to the feature specification of those lexical items that have the feature [+ Day], then (36) - (40) w i l l be generated in the same manner as the other sequences we have considered. Then, expressions (38 1) and (39') result i f Rule A.4 i s applied to ( 3 8 ) and ( 3 9 ) : (38') on the f i r s t day of June (39 1) on the f i r s t day of spring Expressions (41) and (42) are derived from (38') and (39* ) (41) on the f i r s t June day (42) on the f i r s t spring day by applying Rule A.5' (which i s analogous to Rule A . 5 ) : Rule f £+ Month, - Common]} SD: on + Det + \+ Day, + Common] + of +1 > 1^  [+ Season] j 1 2 3 4 5 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 ?> 1 — 2 — 5 — 3 If Rule A.2.2 is applied to (39 1), we get expression (43): (43) on the f i r s t of June From (43), expression (44) can be derived by applying Rule * A.6 to (43): (44) on June the f i r s t 50 Rule A.6 SD: on + Det + of + [+ Month, - Common] 1 2 3 4 SO: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 1 — 4 — 2 In expressions (36) - (44), the N's have the features [+ Day, + Common], We w i l l now consider ah expression in which the N has the features [+ Day, - Common], The rules we have already stated w i l l generate expression (45): (45) on Tuesday in the second week% When Rule A.4 is applied to (45), expression (45') w i l l result: (45' ) on Tuesday of the second week If Rule A,7 i s applied to (45 1), expression (46) results: (46) on the second Tuesday  Rule A .2 SD: Prep + [+ Day, - Common] + of + Det + \_+ Week! 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — > 1 — 4 — 2 If the features [+ cop L+ Month]], [+ cop [+ Season^, and [+ _____ cop "".+ Yearly are assigned to a l l lexical items that have the feature ["+ Week], then 51 expressions (47) - (50) can be derived in a manner analogous to the usual derivation of time sequences: (47) in the third week of the second month (48) in the second week of June (49) in the third week of summer (50) in the f i r s t week of 1940 Further, i f a l l lexical items that have the feature [+ Season] also have the feature [+ cop L+ Year]], then expression (51) w i l l be generated in the usual way: (51) in the summer of 1940 Let us now consider the generation of the following sequences: (52) in June of 1940 (53) in the third month of 1940 (54) in June in the summer (55) in the third month in the spring Expressions (52) and (53) w i l l be generated i f we assign the feature [+ • cop [+ Year]] to those lexical items that have the feature [+ Month], and expressions (54) and (55) w i l l be the lexical items that have the feature [+ Month], We note that a semantic problem i s raised by expression (55), particularly when Rule A.4 i s applied. Note also that parallel to expression (45), we can have expression (56): generated i f we assign the feature 52 (56) in June in the third year When Rule A.4 i s applied to (56), we get ( 5 6 ' ) : (56 1 ) in June of the third year Then, i f Rule A . 7 1 (which i s analogous to Rule A . 7 ) s i s applied to expression (56*)» Rule A . 2 1 SD: Prep + Month, - Common] + of + Det + \+ Year] 1 2, 3 4 5 SC: 1 - - 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 > 1 — 4 — 2 expression (57) results: (57) in the third June Expression (58) presents another type of problem: (58) on Sunday. the third The third can be derived from the third day, i f we modify Rule A.2.2 as follows: Rule A .2.2* SD: the + ordinal + C + Day] ^ y 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 > 1 This modification is also necessary in the model as a whole 53 to generate sentences such as (59)s (59) The t h i r d was sunny. A l s o , an a p p o s i t i o n r e l a t i o n holds between Sunday and the  t h i r d . The deep s t r u c t u r e of (58) i s represented i n F i g u r e s 8 and 9, where 9 i s i n s e r t e d where S 1 occurs i n 8: Prep on + K + Time + Day - Common Fig u r e 8 S Pred-Phrase WH N Aux VP + N + Time + Day Common Det N the o r d i n a l + N + Time + Day + Common t h i r d F i g u r e 9 54 Note that in an apposition relation the Predicate of the embedded S i s an NP rather than a TP. The rules required to derive (58) from this deep structure are needed elsewhere in the grammar, and so are not stated separately here. expressions can be subclassifled on the basis of the c r i t e r i a (linguistic or non-linguistic) which must be used to determine their collocation restrictions with the Auxiliary and on the basis of what the collocation restrictions are. The general rule for the expansion of Auxiliary when TP i s a Static Time expression of the type we have so far considered i s : Rule A.8 In other words, any one of the thirty-three possible expansions of Auxiliary specified in Rule A.8 can collocate with a Static Time expression of the kind we have so far discussed to form a grammatical English sentence. Further collocation restrictions are determined by the situational context of the sentence. Thus, the sentence I w i l l meet  B i l l in 1950 w i l l hot be appropriate i f i t is uttered in 1969. Since this restriction is not linguistic, i t w i l l not be discussed any further in this study. There are two major reasons why Rule A.8 i s important. First, i t shows that the general Aux expansion In the Introduction the claim was made that time Aux present (M) (be_ + ing) past (M) (have + en) (be. + ing) 55 r u l e t h a t i s g i v e n i n most TG models i s an o v e r - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n I t i s r e c o g n i z e d , of course, t h a t the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s a very-u s e f u l one f o r many purposes. Second, Rule A.8 i s an e x p l i c i t f o r m a l statement of the r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t h o l d between Aux and the TP's we have d i s c u s s e d . 2 1 T h i s dependency of Aux on TP ( o r v i c e v e r s a ) a l s o suggests t h a t i t may be more r e v e a l i n g t o t r e a t these two c o n s t i t u e n t s as s h a r i n g a dominating node other than P r e d i c a t e - P h r a s e : Predicate-Phrase T i m e ^ ^ ^ ^ P ^ ^ P L a ce Aux TP Figu r e 10 Since, however, the A u x i l i a r y i s not the focus of t h i s study, we w i l l continue t o use the c o n s t i t u e n t s t r u c t u r e o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r . S i n g l e phrase S t a t i c Time expr e s s i o n s can a l s o be generated i f the p r e p o s i t i o n s a t , on and i n are r e p l a c e d by bef o r e or a f t e r . T h i s suggests t h a t Rule A.1.6 should be extended t o i n c l u d e before and a f t e r as p o s s i b l e r e w r i t e s of Prep. Since, however, there are some r e s t r i c t i o n s on the occurrence of these l a t t e r p r e p o s i t i o n s i n sequences of phrases, i t i s more convenient t o r e p l a c e Rule A.1.6 by A.1.6a, A.1.6b, and A.1.6c: 56 Rule A.1,6a Prep \ I Prep 2 ] Rule A.1.6b (at / Prep, Rule A.I , 6 c Prep 2  on / I i s before after 'L+ Festival])^ '[(+ HourJ .. [ + DayJ y In addition to occurring wherever Prep, occurs in single phrase Static Time expressions, Prep 2 also occurs in expressions like the following: ( 6 0 ) (at) fifteen minutes after six o'clock (61) (at) half an hour after six o'clock ( 6 2 ) (at) two hours after six o'clock The structure of ( 6 0 ) and ( 6 2 ) can be described as: (Prep,) + cardinal + N + Prep 2 + NP To generate this structure the rules must, of course, be modified. Rule A.1.1 must be modified to A.1.1*: Rule A.1.1* TP ^ (NP) Prep + NP Then, Rule A.1.6a must be modified to A.1 . 6 a ' : 57 Rule A.1.6a1 !P r e p 2 / NP ^ P r e p 2 Prep t F i n a l l y , Rule A . I .5" must be expanded to A.1.5 1 1': Rule A.J_.__ i i t Det the / _ V. cardinal / ( the + o r d i n a l ^ / _____ [- Common] r[+ Part of day]) f _+ Season] J _____ N + P r e p 2 > Note t h a t the Determiner expansion r u l e (A.1.51'') must now f o l l o w r a t h e r than precede the P r e p o s i t i o n expansion r u l e (A.1.6). We w i l l not concern o u r s e l v e s w i t h the g e n e r a t i o n of the o p t i o n a l a t a t the beginning of ex p r e s s i o n s (60) -(62). Note a l s o t h a t e x p r e s s i o n (61) can be generated by the above r u l e s , p r ovided t h a t h a l f an has the f e a t u r e f+ c a r d i n a l ] . Since e x p r e s s i o n (63) i s not an ac c e p t a b l e S t a t i c Time e x p r e s s i o n , and since i t i s generated by the r u l e s , we w i l l have to make some f u r t h e r s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e assignments: (63) *two years before s i x o'c l o c k I f we a s s i g n the f e a t u r e s [+ [+ Minute] P r e p 2 "J and [+ [+ Hour] P r e p 2 "] to those l e x i c a l items t h a t have the 58 f e a t u r e [+ Hour] or [+ P a r t of day], then we can r e s t r i c t the c o l l o c a t i o n of NP's preceding Prepg to those environments t h a t are i n d i c a t e d i n the s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g NP's, provided any environments are i n d i c a t e d . I f no environments are i n d i c a t e d , then there i s no r e s t r i c t i o n on the preceding NP's. In sequences of S t a t i c Time phrases, P r e p 2 + NP can occur wherever Prep, + NP occurs, a l t h o u g h i t i s u s u a l l y only found as the i n i t i a l phrase. P r e p 2 can a l s o occur i n the f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n s : ( 6 4 ) a t f o u r o'clock on the day before Sunday ( 6 5 ) a t f o u r o'clock on the day two days before Sunday ( 6 6 ) a t f o u r o'clock the day before Sunday We f i n d t h a t e x p r e s s i o n ( 6 5 ) c o n s i s t s , i n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e , of three phrases: ( 1 ) a Prep, phrase, a t f o u r o ' c l o c k . ( 2 ) a Prepj phrase, on the day, and ( 3 ) a P r e p 2 phrase, two days  before Sunday. Although phrases (1 ) and ( 3 ) are generated by the r u l e s we have a l r e a d y formulated, phrase ( 2 ) i s new to our model. Since phrase ( 2 ) i s not a s i n g l e phrase time e x p r e s s i o n , the s t r u c t u r e of e x p r e s s i o n ( 6 5 ) w i l l have to be d i f f e r e n t from the sequence s t r u c t u r e s we have d i s c u s s e d so f a r . The major d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t the embedded S c o n t a i n i n g phrase ( 3 ) i s dominated by Det r a t h e r than by NP. Thus, the deep s t r u c t u r e of phrases ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) i s shown i n F i g u r e s 11 and 1 2 , where Fi g u r e 12 i s i n s e r t e d where S 1 occurs i n 1 1 : 59 + .N + Time + Day-cop NP P r e p 2 Det c a r d i n a l two NP N before Det + N + Time * Day 0 N + N + Time + Day - Common Figur e 12 Note t h a t s i n c e the Determiner i n Fig u r e 11 i s the + S', Rule A . 1 . 5 * 1 1 must be m o d i f i e d . (See the r u l e s a t the end of the chapter.) Now, i n order t o d e r i v e the surface s t r u c t u r e on the day two days before Sunday from the deep s t r u c t u r e shown i n F i g u r e s 11 and 1 2 , the f o l l o w i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s 60 needed: Rule A.2 SD: Prep + the + WH + N^  + cop + TP + N 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 » 1 — 2 — 6 — 5 Condition: Nj=N2 Phrase (2) i s , of course, embedded into phrase (1) in the usual way. Expression (64) has the same deep structure as (65), except that the cardinal in phrase (3) is one rather than two. Since one i s deleted in deriving (64) from i t s deep structure, Rule A.10 applies after A.9; Rule A.10 SD: Prep + the + Nj + one + N 2 + Prep 2 + NP s ^ s 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — » 1 — 3 Condition: N-|=N2 Expression (66) is obviously derived from (64) by deleting the cm in (64). To accomplish this deletion the following rule i s necessary: 61 Rule A . H SD: Prepj + the + N + P r e p 2 + NP V ^ s 1 2 SO: 1 — 2 > 2 Rule A.8 g i v e s the A u x i l i a r y expansions t h a t c o l l o c a t e w i t h S t a t i c Time exp r e s s i o n s i n which Prep i s e i t h e r Prep, ©r b e f o r e . When Prep i s a f t e r , the S t a t i c Time e x p r e s s i o n c o l l o c a t e s w i t h the A u x i l i a r y expansions s p e c i f i e d i n Rule A.12: Rule A.12 Aux — > 0 (M) (have + en) (be + ing) Another type of s i n g l e phrase S t a t i c Time e x p r e s s i o n can be generated i f Prep, i s r e p l a c e d by by_. To account f o r t h i s i n our model, we modify Rule A.1.6a" and add Rule A.1.6d; Rule A.1,6a M Prep -—">/ P r e p 2 / NP Prep, P r e p 2 I * r e p 3 \ Rule A.1,6d P r e p 3 > by U n l i k e Prep, and P r e p 2 , Prep-j can only occur i n the i n i t i a l phrase i n a s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e S t a t i c Time sequence. Thus, we have (67), but not (6 8 ) : (67) b_ s i x o'clock i n the morning of June the t h i r d (68) * a t s i x o'clock by the morning of June the t h i r d T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n on the occurrence of Prep^ can be accommo-dated by a s s i g n i n g t o b_ the s t r i c t s u b e a t e g o r l z a t i o n f e a t u r e \_- cop Np], c o l l o c a t e w i t h S t a t i c Time expr e s s i o n s i n which Prep i s exp r e s s i o n s are mainly Prep + NP c o n s t r u c t i o n s . They are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from non-time expressions by the N of the NP having the s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e "*+ Time]. There are th r e e types of p r e p o s i t i o n s t h a t can occur i n S t a t i c Time e x p r e s s i o n s : (1) a t , on, i n (the choice depending upon the f e a t u r e s of the N of the NP), (2) b e f o r e , a f t e r ( f r e e c h o i c e ) , (3) b_y_ ( f r e e choice w i t h r e s p e c t to N, but l i m i t e d to I n i t i a l phrases i n sequences). The Det of the NP can be Rule A.13 g i v e s the A u x i l i a r y expansions t h a t Prep-j: Rule A. 13 In summary, then, s i n g l e phrase S t a t i c Time one of the f o l l o w i n g : (1) the + o r d i n a l , (2) the + S', (3) 0* (4) the. (5) c a r d i n a l . The choice of a l t e r n a t i v e s (1) -(4) f o r Det depends upon the choice of N. Choice (5) i s l i m i t e d t o the f i r s t NP i n NP + Prep + NP c o n s t r u c t i o n s . In these, Prep must be before or a f t e r . Surface s t r u c t u r e sequences of time phrases are formed by the successive embedding of WH + NP + Aux + cop + TP co n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h i n the NP of a ma t r i x sentence TP. The A u x i l i a r y expansion r u l e Aux — C (M) (have  en) (be + ing) holds f o r those sentences i n which TP i s a S t a t i c Time expression i n which Prep i s a f t e r . I t a l s o holds f o r other S t a t i c Time expressions i f C i s Past. I f C i s Present, however, only those expansions given i n Rule A.8 are appropriate i f TP i s Prep, + NP or before + NP, and only those expansions given i n Rule A.13 are appropriate i f TP i s P r e p 5 + NP. SUMMARY OP RULES IN CHAPTER I I A . I . I (34, 56) TP > (NP) Prep + NP A.1.2 (34, 42) NP » Det + N (S') (34) N ^ [+ N, + Time] A.1_.4 (34, 38, 39) A._.6a (56, 61 ) (35, 39, 56) f a t / C+ F e s t i v a l ] ^ C+ Hour 3 J | fbefore' P r e p 2 $\ 1 a f t e r A .1.6d (61) Prep^ - — ^ by A.1..S (35, 37, 38, 57, 59) ( ( o r d i n a l the +< I S' Det .">/ i f the / ^ c a r d i n a l / [- Common] ' [+ P a r t of day]' [+ Season] N + P r e p 2 J } Transformations A. 2 . 1 (35) [ + Hour) SD: Prep + the + o r d i n a l + I + N , < \ J ( + Year J 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 > 1 — c a r d i n a l C o n d i t i o n : o r d i n a l and c a r d i n a l have the same "value A.2.2 (36, 52) SD: the + o r d i n a l + [+ N, + Day] A. 4 ( 4 7 ) in ^  SD: f i n ) on on 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 » 1 — 2 — of — 4 Condition: 1 — 2 and 3 — 4 are TP's. A.5. (48) SD: in + the + [+ Part of day] + of + [+ Day, - Common] SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 > (on) — 4 — 2 A.5_' ( 4 9 ) SD: on + Det + [+ Day, + Common] + of + £+ Month, - Common] [+ Season] 1 2 3 4 5 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 » 1 — 2 — 5 — 3 A.6 (50) SD: on + Det + of + ["+ Month, - Common] 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 > 1 — 4 — 2 A .2 ( 5 0 ) SD: Prep + £+ Day, - Common] + of + Det + £+ Week^ 1 2 3 ^ 5 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 » 1 — 4 — 2 A . l 1 (52) SD: Prep + [+ Month, - Common] + of + Det + £+ Y e a r ] t 2 3 4 5 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 > 1 — 4 — 2 A._ ( 6 0 ) SD: Prep + t_ne + WH + + cop + TP + N 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 ^ 1 --2 — 6 — C o n d i t i o n : Ni = N 2 A.jjO ( 6 0 ) SD: Prep + the + N 1 + one + N 2 + P r e p 2 + NP v. v ' > ^ 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 "> 1 — 3 C o n d i t i o n : Nj = N 2 A.1_1_ (61 ) SD: Prep 1 + the + N + P r e p 2 + NP ^ ^ - ^ 1 2 68 NOTES TO CHAPTER II 'The feature f> Time] is defined in the Introduction, p. 16. Our formulation satisfies the following condition suggested by McKay: "Somewhere in each adverbial there must occur a lexical element whose complex symbol contains a feature that specifies what sort of adverbial we have." ("Some Generative Rules for German Time Adverbials," p. 27) Since a l l nouns that have the feature £+ Time] also have the features [+ Count, - Animate], the feature specification of the [+ Time] nouns need not include t+ Count, - Animate]. o ^Thls representation is essentially the same as that contained in Jerrold J. Katz and Paul M. Postal, An  Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions (p. 129 and following) and in McKay s a r t i c l e . ^Note that these contexts are only loosely defined, for s t r i c t l y speaking at, on, and in should be defined by their complex symbols. Since the context is not simply Prep , the features we are here proposing for the nouns would be selectional rather than s t r i c t subeategorization. The distinction between these two types of contextual features,"selectional and strict subeategorization, i s made by Chomsky on p. 95 'ofA'spects. 4 i This would negate Chomsky's suggestion in Aspects that Noun is selectlonally dominant. (See Aspects, pp. 115--116) We are trying, wherever possible, to stay within the model suggested by Chomsky. ^Charles J. Fillmore, "The Case for Case," in Universals in Linguistic Theory, eds. Emmon Bach and Robert T. Harms TNew York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1968), p. 32. S^ome of the problems related to this distinction are mentioned in the Introduction, pp. 18-1-915^  ?This is by no means a complete set of rules for generating single phrase Static Time expressions; these are simply ones that are needed to generate expressions (1) - (5). A l l of these, except A.1.3, are later revised to accommodate the generation of other Static Time expressions. 8The problem of stating the "value" relationship between the cardinals and ordinals is a problem that w i l l have to be solved for the TG model as a whole, and does not concern us here. Rule A.2.1 states that the SC w i l l be made i f the cardinal and the ordinal are assigned the same "value." It may very well be the case that the ordinals are derived from the cardinals. Our rule would then have the condition thfi't the ordinal must have been derived from the cardinal and the rule would reverse the derivation process. 69 "OED, II, p. 510: "(The hour of the day is expressed by a cardinal numeral, followed by a phrase which was originally a » 2JL ^ ne clock* now only retained in formal phraseology; shortened subsequently to b. of clock, c. a clock ... d. o'clock, the current modern form; rarer obs. variants were e". at the clock, and clock simply.)" 1 o0ur proposed derivation of expression (6b) is extremely tentative, and raises the problem of how isolated expressions can best be handled in the TG model. First, of the clock is probably a genitive derived from the clock has X, by way of a genitive transformation. Underlying (6b), then, there is probably the following structure: TP WH hour cop Predicate of NP the clock A special transformation would then change of the clock to o'clock. The deletion of NP and cop would give ajt the sixth  hour o'clock. Next, Rule A.2.1. when applied to at the slxth"*hour. would give at six o clock. Chomsky, Aspects, p. 107. 1 2These features have the same status as Day], etc. l 3See McKay, p. 2 8 . ^Owen Thomas, Transformational Grammar and the Teacher of English (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965), p. 91. ^Chomsky, Aspects, p. 106. 70 10Chomsky, Aspects, p. 107. Rule 57(111) has been stated in this form here because copula is the only immediate-ly relevant VP for the present purposes. ^The transformation is not stated here because i t i s a general rule in the TG model. l8McKay, p. 31. 19McKay, p. 34. 2 0 I n Syntactic Structures (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1957), p. I l l , Chomsky states the following Auxiliary expansion rule: Aux -—> C (M) (have + en) (be + ing) There does not appear to be any TG model in which the restrictions on this rule when the Auxiliary appears with particular TP's have heen stated. 2 1 It is not yet clear whether i t is Aux or TP that is selectionally dominant. In other words, i t is not clear whether or not i t is more revealing to state the TP choice in the context of certain expansions of Aux or to state the Aux expansion choice in the context of particular types of TP's. Since for our purposes i t is simpler to use the second alterna-tive, that is the method that has been adopted in this study. 71 CHAPTER I I I THE GENERATION OP DYNAMIC TIME EXPRESSIONS In the I n t r o d u c t i o n , Dynamic Time e x p r e s s i o n s were d e f i n e d as those time expressions whose c o l l o c a t i o n r e -s t r i c t i o n s w i t h A u x i l i a r y are determinable without r e f e r e n c e to the s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . In sur f a c e s t r u c t u r e , Dynamic Time expr e s s i o n s i n E n g l i s h are e i t h e r s i n g l e words, s i n g l e phrases, or sequences of phrases. In sur f a c e s t r u c t u r e sequences, Dynamic Time expr e s s i o n s can combine w i t h S t a t i c Time e x p r e s s i o n s . When t h i s i s the case, the Dynamic phrase or phrases determine which A u x i l i a r y expansions can c o l l o c a t e w i t h the TP. As i n Chapter 2, we w i l l f i r s t examine how the s i n g l e phrase Dynamic Time expr e s s i o n s can be generated, and then how the sequences of phrases can?be%ge,nerated. Let us f i r s t c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g Dynamic Time e x p r e s s i o n s : ( 1 ) one day (2) one week (3) one month (4) one year E x p r e s s i o n s (1 ) - (4) w i l l be generated by the r u l e s we have a l r e a d y formulated i n Chapter 2, provided the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s are added: 1 72 Rule B . J . Det [+ Day, + Common J ^ [+ Week ] [+ Month, + Common] [+ Y e a r ] Rule B . 2 D e t 2 — > one Det, i s Det as we have considered i t so f a r , and i s expanded by Rule A.1 .5 ; that i s , Rule A.1 .5 f o l l o w s Rule B . 2 . Since the p r e p o s i t i o n i s u s u a l l y omitted i n these e x p r e s s i o n s , we add the f o l l o w i n g o p t i o n a l r u l e : Rule B.3_ SD: Prep, + Detg + N SC: 1 — 2 — 3 2 — 3 In time sequences, (1) - (4) behave i n the same way as the S t a t i c phrases. However, i t i s a t l e a s t s t y l i s t i c a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e t o have more than one of them together i n the surf a c e s t r u c t u r e sequence, and so the f o l l o w i n g o p t i o n a l r u l e i s needed:^ 2 3 Rule B.4 mmmmammmm mm* mm SD: Prep 1 + D e t 2 + N • Prep^ + D e t 2 + N v ^ ' v ^ ' 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 > 1 These r u l e s now a l l o w us to generate e x p r e s s i o n ( 5 ) , but exclude (6) and ( 7 ) : (5) one day i n June of one year (6) *one day one year (7) *one day In one month In 1940 Although expressions (8) - (12) appear t o be s i n g l e phrase e x p r e s s i o n s , they are d e r i v e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l l y from sequences (13) - ( 1 7 ) : (8) one noon (9) one morning (10) one June (11) one s p r i n g (12) one Christmas (13) §_t noon on one day (14) i n the morning on one day (15) i n June i n one year (16) i n the s p r i n g i n one year (17) a t Christmas 1m one year E x p r e s s i o n s (13) - (17) a r e , of course, generated i n the 74 u s u a l way by embedding an S a f t e r the N of the ma t r i x TP. To (13) - (17) Rule B.5 i s then a p p l i e d o p t i o n a l l y t o generate (8) - ( 1 2 ) : Rule B . 2 SO: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 > 4 — 2 Notice t h a t t h i s approach prevents the g e n e r a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g unacceptable e x p r e s s i o n s : (18) *one noon on Tuesday (19) *one morning on Tue sday (20) *one June i n 1940 (21) »one s p r i n g i n 1940 (22) *one Chrlstmass-ln 1940 Let us now c o n s i d e r the g e n e r a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n s : (23) one June day (24) one summer day (25) one Christmas day (26) one morning i n the summer (27) one summer morning (28) one Tuesday morning By the r u l e s we have a l r e a d y s t a t e d , we can generate ( 2 9 ) : SD: 2 3 4 5 75 (29) one day in June Now, in order to derive (23) from (29), we need Rule B.6: Rule B.6 ( * 1 SD: Det 2 + N + Prepi +{ > + N 1 the J 1 2 3 4 5 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 * 1 — 5 — 2 This rule w i l l also, of course, generate (24) and (25) from (30) and (31): (30) one day in the summer (31) one day at Christmas Expression (26) is derived from expression (32) by applying Rule B.5 to the f i r s t two phrases of (32): (32) in the morning of one day in the summer Expression (27) is derived from (26) by applying Rule B.6 to (26). Expression (28) can be derived from (33), (33) in the morning of one Tuesday i f Rule A.5 i s modified to B.7: Rule B..2 ([+ Day, - Common] SD: in + the + [> Part of day] + of + Det +) fj+ Festival, - Common]> 1 2 3 4 5 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 > 4 — 5 — 2 76 Another type of Dynamic Time expressions i s represented by the f o l l o w i n g examples: (34) on a Sunday (35) on a n i g h t i n June (36) on a day i n June These can be d e r i v e d from (37) - (39), (37) one Sunday (38) one night i n June (39) one day i n June by a p p l y i n g Rule B.8: Rule B.8 (fj+ Day, - Common] (Z+ Day] \ O P a r t of day] 1 2 SO: 1 — 2 > on a — 2 Rule B.8 a p p l i e s a f t e r B.5 and before B.6. To a l l o w B.6 to apply t o the r e s u l t of B.8, the SD of B.6 must be m o d i f i e d as f o l l o w s : Rule B.6' SD: ( P r e p j ) + one") ( 0 , + N + Prepj + the (  • + N 1 2 3 4 5 SO: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 ---> 1 — 5 — 2 77 We w i l l now c o n s i d e r the g e n e r a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n s : (40) ( a t ) one time (41) ( a t ) some time (42) some time i n the morning (43) some time on Sunday (44) some time i n June (45) some time i n the s p r i n g (46) some time i n 194Q S e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the r u l e s s t a t e d so f a r are needed. F i r s t , we r e s t a t e Rule B.2 as B.2 1: Rule B.2* as a context f o r the r e w r i t e of Det as D e t 2 i n Rule B . I . We note t h a t these Dynamic Time expressions t h a t c o n t a i n D e t 2 do not c o n t a i n P r e p 2 or Prep-j. To a l l o w f o r t h i s , we modify Rule B.2' as f o l l o w s : * Rule B.2 M 78 The Dynamic Time e x p r e s s i o n s i n which D e t 2 i s one or some c o l l o c a t e w i t h the expansions of the A u x i l i a r y s p e c i f i e d i n Rule B . 9 : 5 Rule B.2 ( f nave + en' present ( M M I be. + ing. . past (M) (have + en) (be + ing) So f a r we have considered those Dynamic Time exp r e s s i o n s i n which D e t 2 i s one or some. Dynamic Time exp r e s s i o n s are a l s o generated i f D e t 2 i s t h i s , t h a t , next, or l a s t . ^ T h i s means t h a t Rule B.2" must be f u r t h e r m o d i f i e d Rule B.2 1 11 ' ) I / Prep t [some I Det 2 y N t h a t next l a s t , / Prep N Rules B.3, B.4, and B.5 remain unchanged. Since t h i s day may be r e w r i t t e n as today, we need the f o l l o w i n g r u l e : ^ Rule B.10 t h i s day > today 79 Since i n v a r i o u s contexts such as d i s c o u r s e , Rule B.IO w i l l have t o be b l o c k e d , i t i s regarded here as being o p t i o n a l r a t h e r than o b l i g a t o r y . One advantage of t h i s approach i s t h a t l t e x p l a i n s why we have exp r e s s i o n s (47) and (48) i n s t e a d of (49) and (50): 8 (47) t h i s noon (48) t h i s morning (49) »today noon (50) »today morning To account f o r the f a c t t h a t today cannot be f o l l o w e d by another time phrase i n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e , Rule B.IO must be m o d i f i e d as f o l l o w s : Rule B.ljO 1 SD: t h i s + day. # 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > today Since at t h i s time can be r e w r i t t e n as now. Rule B.11 i s o needed Rule B.11 SD: (at)+thls»time # 1 2 3 4 80 The expansions of A u x i l i a r y w i t h which Prep, Dynamic Time e x p r e s s i o n s i n which D e t 2 i s t h i s c o l l o c a t e are summarized i n Rule A . 1 2 . P a r a l l e l t o Rule B . 1 0 , Rule B . 1 2 i s needed to r e -w r i t e a t t h a t time as t h e n : 1 0 Rule B . 1 2 SD: ( a t ) + t h a t + time # 1 2 3 4 SO: 1 — 2 « 3 — 4 > then The expansions of A u x i l i a r y w i t h which Prep, Dynamic Time exp r e s s i o n s i n which D e t 2 i s t h a t c o l l o c a t e are summarized i n Rule A.8 . Let us now c o n s i d e r the Dynamic Time exp r e s s i o n s i n which D e t 2 i s l a s t or next. Since i n some contexts l a s t day can be r e w r i t t e n as yesterday and next day as tomorrow, we need the f o l l o w i n g two r u l e s : Rule B.1J5 l a s t day - — y e s t e r d a y Rule B . 1 4 next day — > tomorrow Now, s i n c e Rules B . 1 0 ' , B . 1 3 , and B . 1 4 are very s i m i l a r , we can, f o r the sake of s i m p l i c i t y , combine them as the f o l l o w i n g : 81 Rule B.__ t h i s  l a s t  next + da_ # » today yesterday tomorrow S i m i l a r l y , we can r e s t a t e Rules B.11 and B.12 as f o l l o w s : Rule B. 16, (at ) + t h i s t hat + time # — now then When the [*+ Day] phrases i n which Det 2 i s next or l a s t are preceded i n surface s t r u c t u r e by [+ Part of day] 11 phrases, the f o l l o w i n g r u l e may apply a f t e r B.15: Rule B.12 SD: Prepj + the + [+ Part of day] + Prepj +| yest e r d a y > s tomorrow 1 2 3 4 5 SO: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 > 5 — 3 This r u l e a l l o w s us t o generate expressions l i k e (51) and (52): (51) yesterday afternoon (52) tomorrow morning When Det 2 i s next, the TP w i t h Prepj c o l l o c a t e s w i t h the A u x i l i a r y expansions given by Rule B.18. When i t i s l a s t , the expansions are given by Rule B . 1 9 . 12 82 Rule B.18 Aux ^ < fpresent (M) (be + ing) f (must (be + i n g ) ) /"can \ I mi past < < \ w i l l  s h a l l (have + en)(be + ing) > Rule B.1_9_ Aux — r (may V present) V [ must J > have + en (be + ing) past (M) / \ past (can) A time e x p r e s s i o n i n which there are both S t a t i c and Dynamic Time phrases w i l l c o l l o c a t e only w i t h those A u x i l i a r y expansions t h a t are compatible w i t h the Dynamic Time phrase. In a sequence of Dynamic Time phrases the embedded TP determines the A u x i l i a r y expansion c o l l o c a t i o n . Thus, the a p p r o p r i a t e A u x i l i a r y expansions f o r e x p r e s s i o n (53) are g i v e n by Rule B.18. (53) one day l a s t year We w i l l now c o n s i d e r the g e n e r a t i o n of Dynamic Time ex p r e s s i o n s c o n t a i n i n g Prepg. Note t h a t Rule B . 2 1 1 1 excludes one and some as D e t 2 i n P r e p 2 time e x p r e s s i o n s . E x p r e s s i o n s 83 (54) - (56), however, can be generated by the r u l e s s t a t e d i n Chapter 2 and e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter: (54) two hours before t h i s time (55) two y e a r s before t h i s day (56) two weeks before l a s t day In a d d i t i o n , (57) can be d e r i v e d from (56) by f i r s t a p p l y i n g (57) two weeks ago yesterday Rule B.20, and then a p p l y i n g Rule B.16J3 Rule B.20 SD: c a r d i n a l + tf + before + D e t 0 + H SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > 1 — 8_go — 3 E x p r e s s i o n s (58) and (59) can be d e r i v e d from (54) and (55) (58) two hours ago (59) two years ago by f i r s t a p p l y i n g Rule B.20, and then a p p l y i n g Rule B.21: Rule B.21 SD: c a r d i n a l + N + ago + t h i s + N 2 3 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > 1 — 2 84 When D e t 2 occurs i n a TP wit h b e f o r e , the A u x i l i a r y expansions t h a t are compatible w i t h t h i s are g i v e n i n Rule B.22: Rule B.22 ( Aux present f w i l l s h a l l have + en (be + Ing) be + i n g \ > past { can ((M) have 1 + en)(be + ing) ) Rule A.12 g i v e s the A u x i l i a r y expansions t h a t are compatible w i t h the before e x p r e s s i o n s when D e t 2 i s t h a t . When D e t 2 i s l a s t . Rule B.23 g i v e s the a p p r o p r i a t e A u x i l i a r y expansions: Aux — / Rule B.23. / f >j present J may \ have + en (be. + ing) must ) can V past ((M) have + en)(be + ing) When D e t 2 i s next. Rule B.24 g i v e s the a p p r o p r i a t e A u x i l i a r y expansions: Rule B.24 Aux — present^ past < 85 must ( f have + en^ \ be. + Ing * ) ) {can 2SZ. w i l l s h a l l (have + eja))(be + Ing) \ < V must ( f can  may  w i l l s h a l l ( have + en' | be + in£ (have + eja)(be + Ing) J ) When D e t 2 occurs i n a TP w i t h a f t e r , the A u x i l i a r y expansions t h a t are compatible w i t h t h i s are g i v e n i n Rule B.25: Rule B.2_ present f M (have + en) (be + i n g ) ! j Aux > have + en be + i n g \ ) ^ past M (have + en) (b_e + Ing) ) The compatible expansions when D e t 2 i s t h a t are g i v e n i n Rule A.12. Rule B.26 g i v e s the A u x i l i a r y expansions compatible w i t h next: 86 Rule B.26 can ( ( have t en 1 I + Ing J present/ Aux (\ w i l l )(nave + en)) (he + ing) s h a l l y \ must \ past M (have + en) (be + ing) J Rule B.27 g i v e s the A u x i l i a r y expansions compatible w i t h l a s t : Rule B.2J f present Aux /may ^ \ must have + en 0 (be + ing) y past { can ((M) have + en) (be, + i n g i n g ) " l Dynamic Time e x p r e s s i o n s i n which Prep i s Prep^ can be generated by the r u l e s t h a t have a l r e a d y been s t a t e d . When D e t 2 i s next, the A u x i l i a r y expansions w i t h which the TP w i t h P r e p 5 w i l l c o l l o c a t e are gi v e n i n Rule B.24. Rule A.13 g i v e s the compatible expansions when D e t 2 i s t h a t , and Rule B.28 g i v e s the expansions f o r Prep-j phrases when Detg 87 i s l a s t : Rule B.28 Aux ^ present can |max | ( must 1 have + en be + i n g (be + ing) past { oan ((M) have + en) (be + ing)l > When D e t 2 i s t h i s , the g e n e r a l r u l e f o r the compatible A u x i l i a r y expansions i s Rule B.24. 1* I f , however, the TP has the s t r u c t u r e Prep-j + Det + N + Prep, + t h i s + N t and the time of coding i s l a t e r than the time s p e c i f i e d by the TP, the a p p r o p r i a t e expansions are g i v e n by Rule B.28. As we have seen, then, i t i s p r i m a r i l y the Determiner t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s between S t a t i c and Dynamic Time phrases. The Determiner i n a Dynamic Time phrase can be t h i s , t h a t . next, l a s t , one, or some. but the l a s t two of these are r e s t r i c t e d t o phrases i n which Prep i s Prep,. Whereas i n S t a t i c Time phrases the choice of a p a r t i c u l a r Det, depends upon the s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s of the N, i n Dynamic Time phrases the choice of a p a r t i c u l a r D e t 2 i s not r e s t r i c t e d i n t h i s way. D e t 2 i s , however, r e s t r i c t e d i n deep s t r u c t u r e t o o c c u r r i n g p r i o r t o N's t h a t have the f e a t u r e s [+ G e n e r a l ] , [+ Day, + Common], [+ Week], (+ Month, + Common], or j+ Y e a r ] , Dynamic Time e x p r e s s i o n s which i n su r f a c e s t r u c t u r e have N's w i t h f e a t u r e s other than the above, are d e r i v e d by embedding 88 S's w i t h TP dominated N's having these f e a t u r e s i n t o S t a t i c TP's. The c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s between Dynamic Time ex p r e s s i o n s and expansions of the A u x i l i a r y depend upon the Determiner. When D e t 2 i s t h a t , the a p p r o p r i a t e A u x i l i a r y expansions f o r the Dynamic phrases are the same as those f o r S t a t i c phrases. The A u x i l i a r y expansions t h a t c o l l o c a t e w i t h TP's i n which D e t 2 i s next or l a s t are g i v e n by s p e c i a l r u l e s . When D e t 2 i s t h i s , the Prepj phrases c o l l o c a t e w i t h the same A u x i l i a r y expansions as do S t a t i c Time phrases. The P r e p 2 phrases, however, behave d i f f e r e n t l y . The A u x i l i a r y expansions which are u s u a l l y compatible w i t h before are gi v e n i n Rule B . 22 . When, however, the TP i s before t h i s  Thursday, the compatible expansions are g i v e n by Rule A . 8 i f the day of coding i s Wednesday, and by Rule B. 23 i f the day of coding i s F r i d a y . In other words, i f the TP i s before + Det + N + Prepj + t h i s + N, the Dynamic Time e x p r e s s i o n w i l l behave l i k e a S t a t i c Time e x p r e s s i o n i n t h a t i t s c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s cannot be determined without r e f e r e n c e t o the s i t u a t i o n a l c o ntext. S i m i l a r l y , the A u x i l i a r y expansions t h a t are u s u a l l y compatible w i t h a f t e r + t h i s + N expr e s s i o n s are g i v e n In Rule B . 25 , I f , however, the TP i s a f t e r t h i s  Thursday, and the time of coding i s Saturday, then the com-p a t i b l e expansions are given i n Rule B . 27 . The Prep-^ phrases i n which D e t 2 i s t h i s w i l l c o l l o c a t e w i t h the same A u x i l i a r y expansions as those i n which D e t 2 i s next. Again, i f the time of coding i s e a r l i e r than the time s p e c i f i e d by the TP, Prep^ + Det + N + Prepj + t h i s + N expressions w i l l have d i f f e r e n t c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s , i n t h i s case those of Prep, phrases i n which D e t 2 i s l a s t . SUMMARY OF RULES IN CHAPTER I I I B.i (72, 77) f Det f D e t ^ l D e t 2 ) / f[+ General ] \ [+ Day, + Common:] [+ Week] [+ Month, + Common] ^[+ Year] V Det 1 B.2 (72, 77, 78) ([ o n e  some t h l s A / Prep 1 N Detp *>< th a t ( >/ Prep next \^  V l a s t , N Transformations B.2 (72) SD: Prep 1 + D e t 2 + N 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > 2 — 3 Be4 (73) 1 5 SD: Prepi + D e t 2 + N + Prepj + D e t 2 + N 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 > 1 C o n d i t i o n : D e t 2 ± one or D e t 2 = some Bw2 (74) r M \ SD: Prep, + < the + N + Prep, + D e t 2 + N 1 2 3 4 5 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 > 4 — 2 B.8 (76) (C+ Day, - Common] f£ + Day] 1 [+ Part of day] 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 ^ on a — 2 S' B.6 (75, 76) some SD: (Prep,) + ^  one V+ N + Prep, + r 0 the 91 1 2 3 4 5 SC: 1 — 2 -- 3 — 4 — 5 > 1 — 5 — 2 B . I (75) SD: In + the + |~+ Part of day] + of + Det + . 1 2 3 4 (+ Day, -CommonJ {+ F e s t i v a l , -Common] LIS (78, 80, 81 ) this  last  next + d a y . # > today yesterday tomorrow B>16 (79, 80, 81 ) this (at) + that + time # -—> now  then B.1J (81 ) SD: Prep, + the + [+ Part of day] + Prep, + 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 » 5 — 3 yesterday tomorrow B.20 (83) SD: cardinal + H + before + Det 2 + N 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > 1 — ago — 3 B.21 (83) SD: cardinal + N + ago + this + N v 93 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I 'The r u l e s i n t r o d u c e d or m o d i f i e d i n t h i s chapter are numbered B . I , e t c . , to d i s t i n g u i s h them from those i n Chapters 2 and 4, where they are numbered A.1 and C.li , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 In other words, the r u l e s s t a t e d i n Chapter 2 a l s o apply to these e x p r e s s i o n s . Thus, the f e a t u r e s we i n t r o d u c e d there to show o r d e r i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s are a l s o needed here, and t h i s f u r t h e r supports our approach. ^ T h i s r u l e i s o p t i o n a l because some speakers accept e x p r e s s i o n s such as (6) and ( 7 ) . 4 A l t e r n a t i v e l y , we could have r e s t r i c t e d D e t 2 to the environment Prep* _____ N. T h i s , however, would have meant t h a t a Det-z would have had t o be i n t r o d u c e d to generate the other Dynamic Time ex p r e s s i o n s and t h i s i n t u r n would have complicated other r u l e s . A l s o , i t would have prevented us from g e n e r a l i z i n g that Dynamic phrases are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by having D e t 2 as the Determiner. ^Note t h a t B .9 d i f f e r s from A.8 i n that B .9 a l l o w s the expansion present (M) have + en and excludes present (M). ^ E x p r e s s i o n s i n which t h i s , t h a t , next, or l a s t occur w i t h P r e p 2 and Prep3 w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. ^ I t i s not a t a l l c l e a r t h a t t h i s r u l e , as i t i s s t a t e d here, i s l e g i t i m a t e . However, s i n c e there does not appear to be an a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , and s i n c e the r u l e does a l l o w us to generate a c c e p t a b l e time e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t we could not generate without i t , we w i l l use the r u l e , w i t h the r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t i t may need to be f o r m a l i z e d i n another way. o °It i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t f o r some speakers ( 4 9 ) may be a c c e p t a b l e . 9The same r e s t r i c t i o n s h o l d as f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of today. 1 0 T h i s r u l e i s governed by the same r e s t r i c t i o n s as Rule B.10. 1 1 One e x c e p t i o n to Rule B.17 and B.15 i s l a s t n i g h t . 12 Since present + must i s the same as past + must, we could have s i m p l i f i e d these r u l e s by a l l o w i n g only the former. In a l l the A u x i l i a r y expansion r u l e s we have c o n f i n e d o u r s e l v e s to the A u x i l i a r y i n the "main c l a u s e " and have not; c o n s i d e r e d c o n d i t i o n a l c l a u s e s . 94 1 3There Is no historical evidence for the relationship between before and ago implied by Rule B . 1 9 . Ago w i l l be treated as Prep2« 1^When N has the feature [+ General-], different expansions w i l l apply i f the subject NP is I. Rule B. 24 applies i f the subject NP is not I. "~ ^ i h e condition (which is not stated when B.4 is intro-duced on p. 73) i s placed on this rule to allow one day next  year, but to exclude one day one year. 95 CHAPTER IV THE GENERATION OP DURATION TIME EXPRESSIONS Dur a t i o n Time ex p r e s s i o n s were d e f i n e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n as those expressions t h a t answer the q u e s t i o n "For how l o n g ? " In t h i s chapter we c o n s i d e r how these e x p r e s s i o n s are generated, how sequences c o n t a i n i n g these e x p r e s s i o n s are generated, and how they c o l l o c a t e w i t h the A u x i l i a r y . One type of D u r a t i o n Time expressions i s represented by the f o l l o w i n g : ( 1 ) f o r f i f t e e n minutes (2) f o r two hours (3) f o r f i v e days (4) f o r three weeks (5) f o r f o u r months (6) f o r nine years These e x p r e s s i o n s have the f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r e : f o r + c a r d i n a l + j~+ N, + Time] To generate t h i s s t r u c t u r e we need to make s e v e r a l m o d i f i -c a t i o n s i n our r u l e s . I f we c a l l f o r Prep^, then we can modify Rule A. 1.6a t o C.1 and add Rule C.2: 96 Rule 0.1 / Prep 2 / NP Prep1 Prep — > < Prep 2 Prep 3 y > Rule 0.2 Prep4 ^ for In Rule A . 1 . 5 , the context for rewriting Det (i.e. Detj) as cardinal class includes, in addition to the cardinal numbers, items such as the following: a few, some, many, a number of. 1 Since this i s not a matter peculiar to time expressions, we do not state special rules for generating ( 7 ) - ( 1 0 ) : ( 7 ) for a few years (8) for some years (9) for many years ( 1 0 ) for a number of years Similarly, since cardinal can occur anywhere with a number of special modifiers, we do not need to state special rules for generating ( 1 1 ) - ( 1 7 ) : 2 ( 1 1 ) for almost nine years ( 1 2 ) for nearly nine years ( 1 3 ) for .just nine years cardinal must be extended to Include Prep4 N. The (14) f o r approximately nine years (15) f o r around nine years (16) f o r about nine years (17) f o r the next nine years A l s o , the grammar as a whole w i l l have t o account f o r the f o l l o w i n g and and or c o n s t r u c t i o n s : (18) f o r nine y e a r s and three months (19) f o r nine or t e n years E x p r e s s i o n s (1) - ( 19) a r e , of course, s i n g l e phrase D u r a t i o n Time e x p r e s s i o n s . We w i l l now c o n s i d e r how they c o l l o c a t e i n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e with L o c a t i v e ( S t a t i c and Dynamic) Time phrases, and how these s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e sequences can be generated. In s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e sequences of time phrases, Prep^ phrases must precede Prep, and P r e p 2 phrases. To a l l o w f o r t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n , we a s s i g n to f o r the s t r i c t s u b e a t e g o r i z a t i o n f e a t u r e [- cop m m m m_ m m NP]. Let us now c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g time e x p r e s s i o n s (20) f o r f i f t e e n minutes on Tuesday (21) f o r two hours on Tuesday (22) f o r f i v e days i n the second week (23) f o r f o u r months i n 1940 We propose t h a t the deep s t r u c t u r e of (23) i s d e s c r i b e d by F i g u r e s 1 and 2, where 2 i s i n s e r t e d where S 1 occurs i n 1: 98 c a r d i n a l f o u r + N + Time + Month _ + _____ cop L+YearJ Figu r e 1 Pred-Phrase + N + Time •+ Month + cop [+YearJ 1940th Fig u r e 2 E x p r e s s i o n s (20) - 022) w i l l , of course, have s i m i l a r deep s t r u c t u r e s . A minor m o d i f i c a t i o n i n f e a t u r e s i s r e q u i r e d t o accommodate e x p r e s s i o n (20), however. Since minute cannot occur a f t e r P r e p j , Prep2» or Prep-j, but can occur before Prep2 and a f t e r Prep/,., we a s s i g n t o i t the f e a t u r e s [+ Time, + Minute, + F r e p 2 , + Prep^ ... J. The deep s t r u c t u r e proposed i n F i g u r e s 1 and 2 i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i m p l i e d by Chomsky i n Aspects of the  Theory of Syntax. 3 For sentence (24), h i s r u l e s would give the deep s t r u c t u r e shown i n F i g u r e 3."^  (24) John worked f o r three hours on Saturday. John Pred-Phrase 7 Prep-Phrase on Saturday work Du r a t i o n 100 The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Figure 3 and F i g u r e s 1 and 2, f o r our purposes, i s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between D u r a t i o n and Time (our L o c a t i v e ) . In Chomsky's model there does not appear to be any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o n s t i t u e n t s D u r a t i o n and Time. Our approach, however, claims t h a t there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between them, and f u r t h e r t h a t there are c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s between the N i n the D u r a t i o n e x p r e s s i o n and the N i n the embedded L o c a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . Our approach a l s o r e l a t e s the s t r u c t u r e of Duration e x p r e s s i o n s to other time e x p r e s s i o n s , which Chomsky's approach does not do. Notice t h a t the s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s t h a t were developed i n Chapter 2 account f o r the c o l l o c a t i o n s between the N's i n the D u r a t i o n phrases and the N's i n the L o c a t i v e phrases i n e x p r e s s i o n s (20) - (23). However, these f e a t u r e s do a l l o w the f o l l o w i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n s to be generated: (25) »for two mornings on the t h i r d of June (26) * f o r f i v e w i n t e r s i n 1960 (27) ttfor t hree Tuesdays l a s t week (28) »for s i x Decembers i n 1965 To prevent the g e n e r a t i o n of (25) - (28), we need Rule 0.3: toi Rule C._ [+ Part of day] [+ Day, - Common] [+ Season] j> Month, - Common c-_« L - — « cop [+ Day]] cop [+ Week]} cop ["+ Year]] cop [+ Time]] /Prep4 + Det The rules stated so far also prevent the generation of (29) -(29) *for two years on Tuesday (30) »for one month at six o'clock The following expressions are examples of another class of Duration Time expressions: (31) §11 of the third day (32) for part of the morning (33) for most of June If we c a l l a l l of. part of. and most of Det^, then the structure of (32) - (33) can be described as follows: To generate this, several changes must be made in the rules. First we modify Rule B.1 to C.4: (30): 5 102 Rule C . 4 Det ( D e t 2 ) /[+ General] \ \ [+ Day, + Common] [+ Week] [+ Month, + Common] ^ [+ Y e a r ] > Deti \ Det^ + Det, / Prep^, N Next, we add a Det-j r e w r i t e r u l e : Rule 0.5. D e t 3 -— p a r t of most of Then, s i n c e f o r i s u s u a l l y d e l e t e d before a l l o f . and some-times before the other Det^'s, we add the f o l l o w i n g o p t i o n a l d e l e t i o n r u l e : Rule C.6 SD: Prep^ + Det^ + Det, + ~N 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 > 2 — 3 — 4 The f o l l o w i n g two expre s s i o n s i l l u s t r a t e a s p e c i a l problem: ( 3 4 ) a l l of the t h i r d hour 103 (35) §11 of I960 Expression? (35) can be d e r i v e d from (36) I f Rule A.2.1 f o r [+ Year] i s m o d i f i e d t o C . 7 . 6 (36) a l l of the 1950th year  Rule C.Z SD: the + o r d i n a l + [+ Year] 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > c a r d i n a l C o n d i t i o n : o r d i n a l and c a r d i n a l have the same "value." Rule A.2.1 can now be r e s t a t e d as C.8. Rule £.8 SD: Prep + the + o r d i n a l + [+ Hour] 1 2 3 k SC 1 1 — 2 ~ 3 — 4 > 1 — c a r d i n a l C o n d i t i o n : o r d i n a l and c a r d i n a l have the same "value." Rule C". 8 w i l l not apply to (Jk). I f Det^ i s r e p l a c e d by Det 2» we have the f o l l o w i n g D u r a t i o n Time e x p r e s s i o n s : (37) a l l of one morning (38) a l l of next week (39) a l l of l a s t year ic4 To generate ( 3 ? ) - ( 3 9 ) . and expressions l i k e them, the rules must be modified further. F i r s t , Rule C.4 must be changed to C. V i Rule C.4' 'Det^ Deto / Det >< C+ General] [ + Day, + Common] L+ Week] V L+ Month, + Common] { [+ Year] / Det< \Deto +< . / Prep u \ J l D e t 2 N Next', Rule C.6 must be changed to C .6 * Rule C . 6 ' SD: Prep/j, + Det^ + < ( D e t ^ Det, . + N 1 2 3 ^ SC: 1 — 2 — 3 ~ 4 2 -- 3 - 4 In addition to the time expressions we have considered so far , there i s another class of Duration expressions that i s represented by the following: ( 4 0 ) from Sunday to Monday (41) from t h i s year to next year (42) from before June to a f t e r December 105 The structure of (3^) - (36) can be described as:'' Prep + TP + Prep + TP Since these expressions are themselves TP's, we must revise our TP expansion rules. If we c a l l these from ... to ... constructions TP 2» then we can add the following r u l e : Rule C._ TP » < TP 2 C 9 w i l l now be the i n i t i a l rule i n our grammar of TP. Next, we add Rule C.10 to expand TP 2: Rule G>1_0 TP 2 > Prep + TP 1 + Prep + TP 1 Since TP^ i s the TP as we have considered i t p r i o r to Rule CT.9, we must modify Rule A. 1.1 to C. 11: Rule C. 11 TP 1 > (NP) Prep + NP Of course, a l l the previously stated rules i n which TP appears w i l l also have to be modified by changing TP to TP 1. The Prep rewrite rules must now be changed. F i r s t , to separate the Preps i n TP^ and TPg, we state the following r u l e : lo6 Rule €.12 f P r e p a / (NP) NP T P Prep > < 1 P r e p a corresponds t o Prep as we have c o n s i d e r e d i t so f a r , and so we must change Prep t o F r e p a i n a l l the r u l e s p r i o r to C ; 9 - F i n a l l y we must add a r u l e t o r e w r i t e Prep^: Rule G.r_ f to / NP Prep P r e p b >\ ^ from Our r u l e s w i l l now generate e x p r e s s i o n (42) and the f o l l o w i n g : (43) from- on Sunday to on Monday (44) from i n t h i s year to i n next year To prevent (43) and (44) from appearing i n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e , we need the f o l l o w i n g o b l i g a t o r y d e l e t i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : Rule 0.14 SD: from + P r e p 1 + NP + to + Prepj^ + NP 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 » 1 — 3 — 4 — 6 A l s o , our r u l e s w i l l generate the f o l l o w i n g unacceptable D u r a t i o n Time e x p r e s s i o n s : (45) *from f o r f o u r hours t o s i x o'clock (46) *from by. two o'clock to s i x o'clock 107 The generation of (45) and (46) can be blocked by assigning (40) - (42) i s represented by (47): (47) from Monday to Tuesday i n l a s t week This expression i s derived from (48), which i s generated by (48) from Monday i n l a s t week to Tuesday i n l a s t week £he rules we have stated. The deep structure of (48) i s represented i n Figures 4, 5, and 6, where 5 i s inserted i n 4 i n the p o s i t i o n of TP^ immediately aft e r from and 6 i s inserted i n the pos i t i o n of TP 1 immediately a f t e r to: the feature [- Prep ] to for and by. A class of Duration Time expressions s i m i l a r to TP TP Prep Prep b Prep b from t o Figure 4 108 Figure 5 109 l a s t week Figure 6 To allow (4?) to be derived from (48), we need the following optional r u l e : Rule C. SD: Prep D + Prep a + NP + 'TPi + Prep b + Prep a + NP + Ti?1 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 > 1 — 2 — 4 — 5 — 6 Condition: 3=6 110 Note that t h i s transformation w i l l be blocked i f Rule Br. 5 has been applied. There i s another class of Duration Time expressions that i s quite s i m i l a r to expressions ( 4 o ) - ( 4 2 ) : ( 4 9 ) from Sunday u n t i l Monday (50) from- t h i s year u n t i l next year (51) from before June u n t i l a f t e r December To generate these, we simply modify Rule 0.13* Rule expressions: (52) from then - u n t i l June (53) from now u n t i l June (54) u n t i l June (55) from June u n t i l then (56) from June u n t i l now (57) since June Although expressions (54) and (57) niay appear at f i r s t to be a d i f f e r e n t class of Duration Time expressions, we f i n d on closer examination that (54) can be derived from (52) or (53) Let us now consider the following Duration Time and that (57) can be derived from (55) or (56). To derive (54) from (52) or (53)» we need the following optional transformation: Rule C . l 6 SD: from + at +• t h i s ) I to + time +• that TP, u n t i l ) 5 1 2 3 4  6 SO 1 l -- 2 - - 3 - - 4 ~ 5 ~ 6 } u n t i l — 6 To derive (57) from (55) or (56) we need a s i m i l a r optional transformation: Rule C.12 SD: from + TP-L +« f t o ) f this 1 [ + at u n t i l that + time 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 > since — 2 We w i l l now examine how the Duration Time expressions we have discussed collocate with expansions of the A u x i l i a r y . Single phrase Duration Time expressions that have the structure Prep^ + Det^ + N collocate with the A u x i l i a r y expansions given i n Rule A .12 . The embedded TP governs the c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s of Duration Time sequences i n which the matrix TP i s as above. When, however, the single phrase Duration expression has the structure ( Det, Prep,, + Det,, +• '1 I Det 2 the same as for the corresponding Prep^ + < r + N, the c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s are + N ( D e t ^ Det 2 ) 112 L o c a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . The A u x i l i a r y expansions t h a t c o l l o c a t e with T P 2 D u r a t i o n Time expressions are governed p r i m a r i l y by the T P ^ s . I f both TP-L'S are S t a t i c Time ex p r e s s i o n s , the T P 2 c o l l o c a t i o n s w i t h A u x i l i a r y are the same as those of the TP-^s. I f the De t 2 ' s i n both TP-^'s are the same, the T P 2 c o l l o c a t e s with the same A u x i l i a r y expansions as the corresponding Dynamic ex p r e s s i o n . I f the D e t 2 i n the f i r s t TP^ i s l a s t , and the D e t 2 i n the second TP^ i s next, then T P 2 c o l l o c a t e s with the same expansions as the second TP^. TP 2's t h a t r e s u l t when C.l6 or C.17 i s a p p l i e d , however, have s p e c i a l c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h A u x i l i a r y expansions. The A u x i l i a r y expansions that: c o l l o c a t e w i t h u n t i l + D e t i + N are g i v e n i n Rule C . l 8 : Rule £.18 f w i l l ] have + en (< "P be + i n g s h a l l p r e s e n t / /'can *A Aux (\may V (have + en)) ( be + i n g ) ^ [ must J p a s t (M) (have + en) (bte + i n g ) < Rule C.19 g i v e s the expansions that c o l l o c a t e with u n t i l + t h i s + N: Rule C. 19. f Aux ^ / present) have + %rC ( ) be + ing ) (have + en) (be + ing) > past (M) (have + en) (be + ing) When TP 2 i s u n t i l + that + N, the appropriate expansions are given in* Rule C. 20: Rule C.20 I / f w i l l ' { s h a l l present/ (can *\ AUX ...J ({ may must > (be + ing) • (have + en)) \past (M) (have + en) (be + ing) Rules C.21 and C.22 give the A u x i l i a r y expansions that collocate with u n t i l + nfext + N and u n t i l + l a s t + N, respectively: Rule C.21 present< Aux > V f must fonn "\ may w i l l \ L (have + en)) s h a l l (be + i n g ) past < / must fcan  may . w i l l \ i, s h a l l (have + en) (be + i n g ) Rule £.22 ( can Aux >/ presen t \ may f have + en (be + ing) must can p a s t (M.) have + en When T P 2 i s s i n c e + Det!*] t h i s (be + i n g ) + N, the ap p r o p r i a t e A u x i l i a r y expansions are g i v e n i n C.23: Rule C. 23 pr e s e n t (M) have + en (be + i n g ) Aux > p a s t M: have + en (be + ing) be + 1 ( that When TP£ i s since + « C.24.8 l a s t 115 + N, the expansions are given i n Rule C. 24 Aux ^ present past (M) have + en (be + ing)1 ^ (can) ML have1 + en (be + ing) be + ing > In summary, then, there are f a i r l y substantial differences between Locative and Duration Time expressions. As was seen i n Chapters 2 and 3» Locative Time expressions have the basic deep structure Prep + NP. Two types of Duration Time expressions also have th i s structure, but t h e i r Prep i s d i f f e r e n t from those i n Locative phrases. Also, whereas i n Locative expressions Det i s Det^ or Det 2» in- Duration- expressions Det i s either cardinal (a p a r t i c u l a r Det^), or Det^ + Det^ or Det^ + Det 2« Det3 i s , thus, peculiar to Duration expressions. Another type of Duration expression, TP 2, i s a combination of a p a i r of Preps, each peculiar to Duration expressions, and a pair of Locative TP's, thus: Prep +• TP 1 + Prep + TP^. In spite of these differences, however, Duration Time expressions are more si m i l a r to Locative Time expressions than Chomsky's approach suggests. 9 Both kinds of time expressions are. dominated by the same node, TP, i n the phrase structure of sentences. Furthermore, Duration and 116 Locative expressions can combine (with e s s e n t i a l l y the same co l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s holding between the N's of the TP's and by means of e s s e n t i a l l y the same embedding transformations) to form Duration Time expressions that are surface structure sequences of phrases. Duration Time expressions that are TP^'s can collocate with a l l expansions of the A u x i l i a r y i f they are single phrases with the structure Prep^ + cardinal + N. If they are surface structure sequences i n which the matrix sentence TP has the above structure, the collocations are determined by the TP i n the embedded S. The co l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s of the corresponding Locative expressions determine the r e s t r i c t i o n s on the other type of TP^. Si m i l a r l y , the TPj's determine the collocations of TP 2*s. I f , however, Rule C. 16 or C.1? has been applied to the TP 2, the r e s t r i c t i o n s are given i n Rules C.18 to C.23. SUMMARY OF RULES IN CHAPTER IV C.10 (105) TP 2 » Prep + TP^ + Prep + TP e.11 (105) TPJL •> (NP) Prep + NP C.12 (106) C.£ (105) TP » < Prep * Prep a / [(NP) Prep b C'.l_ (106, 110) f f t o / NP Prep a Prep-g •>< { u n t i l C.l (96) / Prep 2 / NP "A Prep! Prep a > / P r e p 2 C.2 (96) Prep^ > f o r 118 e.4 (102, io4) f Det W f E e t l ) \Det ?! Det, / < f[+ General] [+ Day, + Common] [+ Week] [+ Month, + Common] [+ Year] > Det, Det 2 + .Det2-/ Prep^ N C'.i (102) Betj — Trans f orma11ons [+ Part of day ] [+ Day, - Common] [+ Season] [+ Month, - Common] .cop C + DayJ\ _cop £+ WeekH .cop [+ Year]] .cop [+ TimelJ /Prep^ + Det^ C.6 (102, 104) SD: Prep 4 + Det3 + fDet.,^ D e t 0 + N 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 "> 2 — 3 — 4 C.£ (103) SD: the + ordinal + [+ Year] 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > cardinal Condition: ordinal and cardinal have the same "value." C .8 (103) SD: Prep- + the + ordinal + [+ Hour ] £1 " 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 * 1 — cardinal Condition: ordinal and cardinal have the same "value." C . l 4 (106) SD: from + ?rep1 + NP + to + Prep^^ + NP 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 » 1 — 3 — 4 — 6 C . l i (109) SD: Prep b + Prep a + NP + TP X + Prep b + Prep a + NP + TP1 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 1 — 2 — 4 — 5 -Condition: 3 = 6': c.i6 ( i l l ) SD: from + at +• t h i s that > + time +( to u n t i l > + TP. 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 - - 5 — 6 — > u n t i l — 6 C .12 (111) SD: from + TP-^ + < 1 u n t i l f t h i s ] ' + at + 1 j that 7 + time 1 2 3 4 5 . 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 > since -- 2 121 NOTES TO CHAPTER IV •"-Note that there are at least two kinds of some, the Det:2 we considered i n Chapter 3 and the some we are con-sidering here. ^These modifiers are probably analogous to Det_. See the treatment of a l l of, part of, on pp. 101-1-04. ^See Introduction, p. 7, where Chomsky's rules are given. ^Figure 3 includes only the general structure given by the Aspects model. Details such as syntactic features have been omitted for s i m p l i c i t y . 5(29) might be interpreted as being derived from on  every Tuesday i n Det two years and (3°) as derived from at s i x o'clock every day i n Det month. If t h i s were the case, then (29) and (3°) would s t i l l be generated from a structure other than a Duration Time phrase and an embedded Locative phrase. °This r e v i s i o n of Rule A.2.1 p a r a l l e l s the r e v i s i o n of Rule A. 2.2 made on p. 52. ?It might be argued that the structure i s for + Prep + TP + Prep + TP. We f e e l , however, that since this approach raises e s s e n t i a l l y the same problems as the one we have chosen, and i n a d d i t i o n presents problems f o r which there are no solutions i n the grammar as a whole, our approach i s preferable. P The since + next + N construction does not occur. 9See pp. 99-100. 122 CHAPTER V • CONCLUSION In the Introduction, the construction of a fragment of a transformational generative grammar that would generate c e r t a i n English time expressions was given as the aim of t h i s study. This fragment, the main re s u l t of t h i s study, i s given i n the Appendix. Other results r e l a t e to TG theory. Here we review the major problems raised i n the Introduction and our solutions to them. We also indicate some basic problems i n the TG" model as a whole that remain unsolved and suggest some areas^ i n which the need for further scholarship i s indicated. One major problem that was raised i n the Intro-duction was whether the time constituent (TP) should be dominated i n phrase structure by S, by VP, or by Predicate. Following Chomsky's approach i n Aspects of the Theory of  Syntax, we chose to place TP under the domination of Predicate, but we noted that t h i s placement i s controversial. Lees, Katz and Postal, and Thomas place Time under the domination of MV, where MV i s dominated by VP.* The major difference between these two approaches i s that Chomsky's approach allows A u x i l i a r y and Time to share a dominating node, but the other does not. Our demonstration of the c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s that hold between A u x i l i a r y *< 123 expansions and time expressions suggests that our solution to the domination problem i s more v a l i d than the altern a t i v e . It may even be the case that the most s a t i s f a c t o r y procedure i s to place both A u x i l i a r y and TP under the domination of a common node, c a l l i t X, that i s i n turn dominated by Predicate-Phrase, thus: S NP Predicate-Phrase X VP Place Aux TP Figure 1 The t h i r d major alt e r n a t i v e , having Time dominated by S, i s favoured by Weinreich, Lyons, and Fillmore. In footnotes, however, Weinreich admits that Chomsky's approach may be more acceptable, and Chomsky admits that Time may be better considered as dominated by S. Fillmore's placement of Aux under the domination of S 2 suggests that i t may even be best to place our X node under S, thus: 124 S NP X Predicate-Phrase Figure 2 Another problem raised i n t h i s study was how the time constituent should be expanded. We assumed that surface structure single phrase time expressions are generated by expanding TP as Prep + NP. This procedure i s f a i r l y standard. Jacobs and Rosenbaum, and Fillmore, however, have proposed a l t e r n a t i v e solutions. The former suggest that prepositions "originate as features i n deep s t r u c t u r e s - — i n p a r t i c u l a r , as features of noun segments."3 At the present state of TG, however, t h i s appears to be a more complicated approach than ours, f o r i t implies that a l l the prepositions with which a noun can collocate must be l i s t e d i n that noun's complex symbol. Thus, Monday, for example, would have to have at least the features [± on, + before, + a f t e r , + by.], i n addition to the features which wer have assigned to i t . Furthermore, t h e i r solution does > not appear to allow any more insight into time expressions than does ours.^ Fillmore also claims that "prepositional phras-es" are i n fact NP's and that NP's are expanded as follows:^ 125 (15) NP — > P (Det) (S) N This may be found to be the best approach, but i t does not at present have any serious implications for our solution. sequences of phrases i n surface structure pose more serious problems than do those that are single phrases i n surface structure. Chomsky, i n the Third Texas Conference model, Lees, and Thomas introduce single word tim©; expressions d i r e c t l y as rewrites of Time. Lyons proposes the following rule f o r expanding Time:"'7 This rule, however, i s optional, and when i t i s bypassed, "Time Adverb w i l l appear i n the terminal s t r i n g and be replaced i n sentences by yesterday, e t c . " 8 Although th i s appears;at f i r s t to be a very neat solution, i t creates some serious problems. F i r s t , i t suggests that there i s a difference between Time Noun and Time Adverb. This seems to be an unnecessary complication, for yesterday, which would be a Time Adverb, and Tuesday, which would be a Time Q Noun, behave i n e s s e n t i a l l y the same way. Second, the transformations would be more complicated because both the single word and phrasal alternatives would have to be stated i n the s t r u c t u r a l descriptions. F i n a l l y , since prepositions i n English do bear some resemblance to case endings i n other Time expressions that are either single words or Time Adverb 126 languages, i t i s probably a mistake to overemphasize the surface structure absence of prepositions i n these single word time expressions. In t h i s study we chose to treat time expressions that are single words i n surface structure as transformation-a l l y derived from deep structure Prep + NP constructions.^ 0 It i s f e l t that t h i s choice both s i m p l i f i e s the grammar and accounts f o r the behavior of the expressions more r e v e a l i n g l y . 1 1 The other major expansion problem i s that presented by surface structure sequences of time phrases. We decided to r e j e c t the following two approaches: (1) TP > Prep + NP ( TP) (2) TP — > TP± + TP 2 + TP3 Although both of these would have generated surface structure sequences, neither of them shows deep structure relationships between the time phrases. Also, there i s no clear way i n which the ordering r e s t r i c t i o n s for these phrases could be shown. Thus, they are both unrevealing and cumbersome. In th i s study we chose to derive surface structure sequences of timra phrases from successive embeddings of sentences with the structure WH + NP + Aux + cop + TP into the NP of the matrix TP. To derive the surface structure from th i s deep structure, we applied the r e l a t i v e clause transformation, a trans-formation needed i n the T(? model as a whole. Our approach 127 has several advantages. F i r s t , because a transformation that i s needed elsewhere i n the grammar can be used for the derivation, t h i s i s a simpler approach. Second, e s s e n t i a l l y the same approach can be used to generate both Locative and Duration Time sequences. Third, i t reveals the deep structure relationships between the phrases. F i n a l l y , together with the syntactic features approach to subeate-gorization-, i t allows us to state the surface structure ordering r e s t r i c t i o n s as deep structure relationships. A further problem raised i n t h i s study was the question of subcategorizing the category Noun so that place expressions cou>ld",be distinguished from time expressions. The methodology adopted here was the syntactic features methodology outlined by Chomsky i n Aspects of the Theory of  Syntax. We: defined time phrases as those Prep + NP con-structions i n which the N of the NP has the syntactic feature [+ Time]. In doing t h i s , we had to extend Chomsky's l i s t of features f o r nouns, but this i s an advantage rather than a disadvantage, for i t allows us to generate time expressions,, which the Aspects model could not. Then, we subcategorized time nouns further by assigning to each at least one of the following features: C + Minute], Hour], L+ Day], £+ Week], [+ F e s t i v a l ] , [+ Month], [+ Season], [_+ Year], General]. This was an innovation, but i t was found that i t was necessary to allow us to state c l e a r l y some preposition and determiner choices and to distinguish 128 the s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of s e v e r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . Two important p o i n t s must be made c l e a r here. F i r s t , s i n c e these f e a t u r e s are needed f o r c e r t a i n s y n t a c t i c r u l e s to be s t a t e d , i t has been assumed that these are s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the l a b e l s of these f e a t u r e s suggest t h a t there i s probably a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the semantic meaning of the l e x i c a l items having these f e a t u r e s and the f e a t u r e s themselves. We are not, however, i n a p o s i t i o n a t the present time to draw any c o n c l u s i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between semantic and s y n t a c t i c f e a t u r e s . As Chomsky s a i d i n S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s : There i s no aspect of l i n g u i s t i c study more s u b j e c t to c o n f u s i o n and more i n need of c l e a r and c a r e f u l f o r m u l a t i o n than t h a t which deal s w i t h the p o i n t s of connections between syntax and semantics.12 Secondly, the o r d e r i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s on the time phrases were s t a t e d i n terms of these f e a t u r e s . That i s , s e l e c t i o n a l f e a t u r e s s t a t e d i n terms of the above inh e r e n t f e a t u r e s were used to d e s i g n a t e the embedding r e s t r i c t i o n s between the N of the matrix TP and the F of the c o n s t i t u e n t sentence TP. In a d d i t i o n , some f e a t u r e s were used to account f o r the i d i o -s y n c r a t i c b e h a v i o r of some time nouns. Since time expressions i n s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u b j e c t to i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , t h i s was found to be v e r y u s e f u l . At t h i s p o i n t we must s t r e s s a g a i n the importance of o p t i m a l i t y i n s u b e a t e g o r l z a t i o n and the a d a p t a b i l i t y of 129 the syntactic features approach to i t . We claimed i n the Introduction that a system of subsets of the lexicon i s optimal i f i t provides s u f f i c i e n t d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the lexicon fo r the rules of the grammar to operate. We have, i n t h i s study, introduced just those features that were needed f o r our rules. If we had been concerned with generating only single phrase time expressions, we would not have needed the s e l e c t i o n a l features and we would have also been able to omit some of the inherent features. Also, i f we had wanted to l i m i t ourselves to a very general grammar of time expressions, we may have.needed to introduce only the feature [,+ Time], Further, i f a f i n e r grammar than the one i n t h i s study had been the aim, an even more p a r t i c u l a r i z e d feature scheme would probably have been needed. Fasic to t h i s study i s the subeategorization of time expressions. In other words, we claim that every Prep + NP construction i n which the N of the NP has the feature [+ Time] i s a time expression, but these time expressions are of various kinds. The i n i t i a l d i v i s i o n we made was between Locative and Duration Time expressions. Verbs can be sub-categorized on the basis of whether or not they collocate with Duration expressions. Locative Time expressions, we found, have the structure Prep + Det + N (S*), where Prep i s Prep l t Prep 2 > or Prep3, and Det i s Bet^ or Detg. The sub-class Locative Tim® can be further subdivided into what we have c a l l e d S t a t i c Time and Dynamic Time, on the basis of 130 the c r i t e r i a needed to decide t h e i r c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s with A u x i l i a r y expansions. S t a t i c Time expressions are those Locative expressions whose co l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s with A u x i l i a r y expansions can only be determined with reference to the s i t u a t i o n a l context. Dynamic Time expressions, on the other hand, are those Locative expressions whose c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s with A u x i l i a r y expansions are l i n g u i s t i c a l l y determinable. S t a t i c Tim© expressions are d i s t i n c t from Dynamic Time expressions in that the Det i n the former i s Det^ and i n the l a t t e r i s Det 2. Furthermore, we f i n d that Det^ i s what might be c a l l e d a " d e f i n i t e " determiner. That i s , i t i s either the, &, cardinal, or the + ordinal or the + S*. The choice of a p a r t i c u l a r alternative.here i s determined by the features of the noun. Det 2, on the other hand, i s either i n d e f i n i t e or r e l a t i o n a l . Duration expressions are primarily distinguished from Locative expressions i n that Prep i s Prep^ and Det i s cardinal. There i s also a class of Duration expressions that has the structure Prep-fr, + TP^ + Prep^ + TP^ i n which Prept, i s from and to and TP^ i s a Locative expression. Duration expressions do not bear any p a r t i c u l a r relationship i n themselves to A u x i l i a r y expansions. What i s most s i g n i f i c a n t about our treatment of Duration expressions i s that they are very s i m i l a r to Locative expressions. They have the same basic Prep + NP structure as Locative expressions, and d i f f e r only i n Prep and Det. Also, 131 they are dominated "by the same node, Time, i n deep structure. As was discussed e a r l i e r , t h i s i s a f a i r l y important difference from Chomsky's approach. We found that i n surface structure a l l three types of time expressions can cooccur i n sequences, as i n : for three hours on June 6 next year Our solution- of the deep structure of t h i s type of expression supports our i n t u i t i o n s that t h i s expression i s i n fact a single u n i t . It i s probably the case, although we have not examined i t i n t h i s study, that other time expressions, such as frequency, behave i n a s i m i l a r way. Another problem on which we have touched i n t h i s study, and which requires further exploration i s the r e l a t i o n -ship between the A u x i l i a r y and the time expressions. We have pointed out that the rule Aux >• C (M) (have + en) (be + ing) i s an oversimplification. Then we have t r i e d to overcome t h i s by pointing out what the expansion rule must be i n some contexts. In stating these rules we have l i m i t e d ourselves to the A u x i l i a r y and TP i n matrix sentences. That i s , we have not considered what are t r a d i t i o n a l l y known as conditional clauses. Also, our long series of rules i s obviously too 13 cumbersome fo r a working grammar. J We have, furthermore, made no attempt to decide whether i t i s more economical or more accurate to state A u x i l i a r y choices i n terms of TP or 132 vice versa. The r e s t r i c t i o n s exist and they must be formulated properly. At the same time, we have not attempted to state the relationship between the A u x i l i a r y i n what are t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a l l e d adverbial clauses of time and the A u x i l i a r y of the main clause. If we examine the TP rules i n the Appendix, we can divide them into two groups. F i r s t , we have a number of rules that are analogous to what are commonly c a l l e d phrase-structure rules. These are somewhat e c l e c t i c i n the sense that although the Aspects model i s used f o r stating the syntactic* features of nouns, the Aspects model has not been used consistently. There are two reasons f o r t h i s . F i r s t , the Aspects model i s not complete enough to be applied d i r e c t l y . In other words, i t i s more an i l l u s t r a t i o n of how some problems can be dealt with than a working model. Second, since the focus of th i s study i s on time expressions, i t was f e l t unnecessary to attemp to achieve completeness. As a r e s u l t , only such matters as had to be treated have been considered. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the rules that rewrite various Det and Prep subcategories as l e x i c a l items. It i s not at a l l clear that our procedure i s legitimate. Obviously, too, these rules would be d i f f e r e n t i n the whole grammar. The rules we have stated are those that are necessary to generate those time expressions we have considered. 133 The other rules are what are commonly c a l l e d the transformations. Within these there are two major kinds. F i r s t , there are those which are necessary to change the deep structure to surface structure time expressions. These might be c a l l e d obligatory. Second, there are those which produce s t y l i s t i c v a r iations. Some of these second kind would apply l a t e i n the derivation and would be optional. We f i n d also that there are both those transformations that are needed elsewhere i n the grammar and those that apply only to time expressions. Again, as with syntactic features, an optimal system must be aimed at. That i s , i t i s ideal to state those transformations that w i l l generate the maximum number of expressions with the minimum number of rules. This investigation has reinforced, then, the need for solutions to several t h e o r e t i c a l and methodological problems i n TGv. In addition, there are a number of p a r t i c u l a r problems related to time expressions that require further study. F i r s t , and most obvious, i s the need to extend t h i s p a r t i c u l a r investigation to what are t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a l l e d adverbial clauses of time. Second, the col l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s between A u x i l i a r y expansions and the various types of time expressions must be worked out i n greater d e t a i l . Third, the investigation of time expressions must be extended to such subclasses as Frequency* • F i n a l l y , the relationship between time expressions and other adverbial expressions must be worked out. 134 NOTES TO CHAPTER V •"•Note t h a t VP as used i n these models does not correspond to Chomsky's VP i n Aspects. T h e i r MV i s , however, l i k e Chomsky's VP, and i n t h i s sense we can say t h a t i n t h e i r models Time i s dominated by VP. See pp. 6 -7 . p Charles J. F i l l m o r e , "Toward a Modern Theory of Case," in- Modern• S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h : Readings i n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  Grammar, eds. David A. R e i b e l and Sanford A. Schane (Engle-wood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1969), p. 365. ^Roderick A. Jacobs and Peter S. Rosenbaum-, E n g l i s h  Trans format i onal Grammar (Waltham, Mass.: B l a i s d e l l , 1968), p. 138. ^ A l s o , t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n between " p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrases" and those NP's i n which the p r e p o s i t i o n s are f e a t u r e s of nouns i s confused. ^ F i l l m o r e , "Toward a Modern Theory of Case," p. 367. Noam- Chomsky, "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach to Syntax," i n T h i r d Texas Conference on Problems of L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s i n E n g l i s h : May £ -12, 1968~TAu-stin, Texas: The U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, 1962), p. 138". Robert B". Lees*, The Grammar of E n g l i s h N o m i n a l l z a t i o n s (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1963), p. 13. Owen Thomas, T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar and the Teacher  of E n g l i s h (New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965), P. T$i. 7John Lyons, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T h e o r e t i c a l L i n g u i s t i c s (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), p. 224. 8 L y o n s , p. 224. ^Compare yesterday morning and yesterday's game wit h Tuesday morning and Tuesday's game. A l s o , i n the f o l l o w i n g sentences: (1) He went to s c h o o l yesterday. (2) He went to school Tuesday. (3) He went to s c h o o l on Tuesday. yesterday i n (1) and Tuesday i n (2) would be Time Adverbs and Tuesday i n (3) would be a Time Noun. Furthermore, when yesterday occurs with Prep2 or Prep^, i t , too, would have to be c l a s s e d as a Time Noun. l°As was p o i n t e d out i n Chapter 3> i t i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r how these t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s can best be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the model. 135 ""-^Witness the c o l l o c a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s with A u x i l i a r y expansions, f o r example. It i s also worth considering that the surface structure single word time expressions vary from language to language. Thus, for example, the day before yesterday i s aizvakar i n Latvian, Vorgestern i n German, and poz eve-era i n Russian; the  day a f t e r tomorrow i s parTt In Latvian, Ubermorgen i n German, and poslezavtra i n Russian. 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Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964. pp. 390-399. 148 D.1 (C.9) TP » APPENDIX SUMMARY OP TP RULES TP X **• TP, D.2 (C.10) T P 2 » Prep + TP1 + Prep + TP^ (C.ll) TP^ •» (NP) Prep + NP D.4 (A.1.2) NP -y Det + N (S*) D.£ (A.1.3) N' $ [+ N, + Time] D.6 (A.1.4) f [+ General ] "\ [+ Hour ] [+ Part of day] [+ Day] [+ Time] [+ Week] } [+ F e s t i v a l ] [+ Month] 1+ Season] \^  [+ Y e a r ] D.Z (C12) Prep » f P r e p a / [(NP) I p r e p b NP] D.8 (C .13) Prep- -— I u n t i l ) / NP Prep a I from D.2 (C. 1) Prep a >< (Prep 2 / NP Prep^ Prep 2 Prep^ VPrep^ D.10_ (A. 1.6b) Prepf »< D . l l (A.1.6c) Prep 9 ±\ at / on / i n before^ a f t e r [+ General]Y\ . . . I \ + Hour ] ["+. Festival], . . . O Day] D.12 (A .1 .6d) Prep 3 ^ by. D.l_ (C.2) Prepif, > f o r D.l__ (C.4) / fDetn Det, / Det •>( Det. Det^ + 'Det^ Det 2) ([+ General C+ Day, + Common] [+ Week] [+ Month, + Common] ^[+ Year] / Prepjj, NT D.l_ (A.1.5) Det., 5» < ( ordinal^ the + 16 / the / cardinal / L- Common ] '[+ Part of day]' [+ Season] N + Prep 2 Prep^ N D.l6 (B-.2) Deto one  some /this '\ that next / Prepi N > / Prep N 151 B . 1 Z ( C . 5 ) Transformations D.18 (C .15) SD: Prep b + Prep a + NP + T?1 + Prep b + Prep a + NP + TP1 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 * 1 — 2 — 4 — 5 — 6 Condition: 3 = 6 B.12 (c .16) ( t h i s SD: Prep b + at + < > + time + Prep b + TP-. that j •—v 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 » u n t i l — 3 D.20 ( G.l?) f t h i s ^ SD: Prep b + T?1 + Prep b + at + i '> + time that 1 2 ' 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > since — 2 152 D. 21 (C.l4) SD: Prep-]-, + Prep.^ + NP 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > 1 — 3 D.22 (Bi20) SD : c a r d i n a l + N + before; + D e t 2 + N 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 » 1 — 3 — 3 D.2_3_ (F. 21) SD: c a r d i n a l + N + ago + t h i s + N 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > 1 — 2 SD D.24 (C.6) : Prep 4 + Det^ D e t ^ D e t 0 N 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 3 4 4 > 2 -- 3 - 4 D.2_5 (B:;.4) SD: Prep± + D e t 2 + N + Prepj + D e t 2 + N v " -SC: 1 — 2 > 1 C o n d i t i o n : D e t 2 = one some 153 D.26 (B?,3) SD: + D e t 2 + N" 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 * 2 — 3 D.22 (BF.8) f [+ Day, - Common] L + Day] ") k E + Part of d a y ] J 2 SD: one' + -SC: 1 — 2 > on a D.2_8 (C.3> C+ P a r t of day] L"+ Day, - Common] [+ Season] [+ Month, - Common] — 2 > [-- cop C+ Dayj] [-- cop [+ WeekJ L-- cop £+ Year]] [-- cop [+ Time]] /Prep^ + Detj^ D.2£ (G . 7 , C .8 ) SD: the + o r d i n a l + ' '[+ Hour] [+ Y e a r ] # 3 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 ^ c a r d i n a l C o n d i t i o n : o r d i n a l and c a r d i n a l have the same "value." D./3J) (A. 2 .2) SD: the + ordinal + [+ Day, + Common] V v •> 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 » 1 + day # today  yesterday tomorrow D._l (B .15) t h i s  l a s t  next D.__2 (B . l 6 ) t h i s  that D. 12 (A.9) SD: Prep„ + the + WH + Ni + cop + TP + N, + time # > now then 5 6 > 1 — 2 1 2 3 4 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 Condition: N^ = N 2 D.J4 (A.10) SD: Prep a + the + NJ + onec+ N 2 + Prep 2 + NP v ^ ^ 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > 1 — 3 Condition: = N 2 D.___ (A.11) SD: Prep1 + the + IT + Prep 2 + NP 1 2 SC: 1 — 2 > 2 D.^6 (A.4) /* Prep^ > SD: Prep g Prep., + Det + [+ Time, - Hour] + ( on*} i n + NP 155 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 > 1 — of — 3 D.J2Z (A . 7 , A . 7 » ) [+ Month, - Common] [+ Year] + of + Det + 1+ Day, - Common] [+ Week] 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 — > 1 — 5 — 3' SD: Prep a + # + '[+ Month, - Common] D.__3 (A.5') rPrep1y SD: < Prep 2 I + Det + [+ Day, + Common] + of + Det +< . Prep^ ) [+ Season] 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 > 1 — 2 — 6 — 3 156 SD: D.^2 (B*7) fPr e p 2 ] Prep. r i j C+Day, + the + [+ Part of day] + of + Det + < -Common] C+Pestlval, -Common J 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: l — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 > 1 — 5 — 6 — 3 D.40 (p/;7) _ - ([+Day, -Common] SD: in- + the + L+ Part of day] + of + Det + < [+Fe s t i v a l , -Common] 1 2 3 4 5 6 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 > (on) — 5 — 6 — 3 D .4 l (A.6) P r e p ^ SD: ^Prep 2 +^ the + ordinal + of + [+ Month, - Common] P r e P 3 >-4 2 1 2 3 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 > 1 — 4 — 2 D.42 (B.17) Prep 1^ SD: < Prep 2 Prep . + the + [+ Part of day] + Prep 1 + j yesterday  tomorrow J 3' 4 D .4_ (BP. 5) SD: \ Prep ? \ + < Prep 3 , the + N" + Prep-L + Det 2 + N 1 2 3 4 5 SC: 1 ~ 2 ~ 3 — 4 — 5 > 1 — 4 — 2 D.44 (B .6) /" some\ SD: (Prep^- +< one I a ^ + N~ + Prep 1 +{ < 6 ^ the + N" 1 2 3 4 5 SC: 1 — 2 — 3 — 4 — 5 » 1 — 5 — 2 157 

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