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UBC Theses and Dissertations

French language resources and the secondary school library, with recommendations for British Columbia Herring, Walter A. 1969

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FRENCH LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LIBRARY, WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA by W a l t e r A . H e r r i n g B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia , 1962 A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f •> the Requirements f o r the Degree o f Master o f A r t s i n the Department o f E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s tandard The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia June , 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes.is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver. 8, Canada i i ABSTRACT Examinat ion o f e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a w e a l t h o f suggested m a t e r i a l s and procedures t o p r o v i d e independent s tudy f a c i l i t i e s f o r s tudents o f the s c i e n c e s , s o c i a l s t u d i e s and E n g l i s h . Very l i t t l e mention i s made o f l i b r a r y resources f o r s tudents o f French o r o t h e r f o r e i g n languages . T h i s t h e s i s proposes t o survey the present r e l a t i o n s h i p between secondary s c h o o l French t e a c h i n g and s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia , and t o make recommendations f o r the f u t -ure growth o f l i b r a r i e s o f f e r i n g independent French language s tudy f a c i l i t i e s . From q u e s t i o n n a i r e s completed by French t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e , summaries o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e h o l d i n g s were o b t a i n e d . T y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d , a l t h o u g h few c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n were f o u n d . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were ana lyzed i n t h r e e s c h o o l -s i z e g r o u p s : under 500 p u p i l s , between 500 and 1000, and over 1000. As expec ted , the l a r g e r s c h o o l s have an advantage i n o b t a i n i n g most types o f supplementary m a t e r i a l s and e q u i p -ment. W i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s present s i t u a t i o n c l e a r l y i n mind , some a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p e r s o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , between French teachers and l i b r a r i a n s . From recent l i t e r a t u r e and a v i s i t t o a l e a d i n g American h i g h s c h o o l , a modern, r e a l i s t i c r o l e f o r both language department and l i b r a r y resources i s proposed . The t h e s i s examines a u d i o v i s u a l l e a r n i n g i n some d e t a i l . i i i I t was found through the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t many l i b r a r i e s are prepared t o adopt the " m a t e r i a l s c e n t r e " concept which i m p l i e s a wide v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r o n i c and o t h e r n o n - p r i n t r e -s o u r c e s . Some c a u t i o n a r y statements are d i r e c t e d t o l i b r a r i a n s a f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the l i m i t e d a b i l i t y o f modern t e c h n o l o -g i e s t o serve s tudents o f French i n secondary s c h o o l l i b r a r y s e t t i n g s . Appendices e x p l o r e the u s e f u l n e s s o f the B e l l and Howel l Language M a s t e r , an a u d i o - i n s t r u c t i o n a l device which pujrpotts t o have a p p l i c a t i o n s t o a l l l e a r n i n g t a s k s . P u p i l s who used the Language Master e x t e n s i v e l y d u r i n g a two-week p e r i o d made p r o g r e s s s i m i l a r to t h a t o f a c o n t r o l group who remained under r e g u l a r c lassroom i n s t r u c t i o n . A f u r t h e r attempt t o use the machine f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e m e d i a l s tudy r e v e a l e d some apparent d e f i c i e n c i e s i n such an a p p l i c a t i o n . I t i s concluded t h a t i t i s o f min imal v a l u e f o r language t r a i n i n g , and recommenda-t i o n s are made f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , a l i s t o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d t o French courses i s o f f e r e d as an a i d t o t eachers and l i b r a r i a n s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 1 The L i b r a r y - C e n t r e d C u r r i c u l u m 1 The L i b r a r y and F o r e i g n Languages 2 A p p l i c a b l e F o r e i g n Language Research 4 I I A SURVEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL LIBRARY AND FRENCH DEPARTMENT RESOURCES 5 P a r t One - METHODS OF INVESTIGATION 5 The Need f o r a Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . 5 Design o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n . . . . . 7 Returns 7 R e f u s a l s 8 A d d i t i o n a l M a i l i n g s 8 P e r s o n a l V i s i t s 9 F i n a l Sample 9 Genera l O b s e r v a t i o n s 10 P a r t Two - ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: FOREIGN LANGUAGE LIBRARY RESOURCES . . . . 17 T i t l e s Relevant t o French Courses 17 Percentage o f C o l l e c t i o n 18 A c t i v e P u r c h a s i n g o f Relevant Books 18 V e r t i c a l F i l e 18 A u d i o v i s u a l Resources 18 A c t i v e P u r c h a s i n g o f A u d i o v i s u a l M a t e r i a l s 19 V P a r t Three - ANALYSIS GF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: SUPPLEMENTARY FOREIGN LANGUAGE RESOURCES CONTROLLED BY THE TEACHER. . 20 Languages Covered by the Report 20 Language L a b o r a t o r i e s .. . 20 F i l m s t r i p C o l l e c t i o n s . 21 F i l m s 22 D i s c Recordings 22 Textbooks 2 3 Supplementary Readers 2 3 Student P r a c t i c e D i s c s 2 4 Other Resources 2 4 Tape Recorders 24 Record P l a y e r s . . 2 5 F i l m s t r i p Viewers 2 5 F i l m s t r i p / S l i d e P r o j e c t o r s . . . . 2 6 Other A u d i o v i s u a l Devices 2 6 Student L i b r a r y Assignments 26 P a r t Four - SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 27 The Importance o f S i z e i n School Resources . . . . 2 7 A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f Books 2 7 Student Use o f M a t e r i a l s 28 Teacher A t t i t u d e s t o L i b r a r y Use 28 L i b r a r i a n A t t i t u d e s t o French Students and Teachers 28 v i I I I THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRENCH DEPARTMENT AND LIBRARY HOLDINGS 3 0 F r e n c h L i t e r a t u r e i n the L i b r a r y 3 1 The P l a c e o f Reading i n the Present French C u r r i c u l u m . 3 2 The P l a c e o f the Supplementary Reader i n the Classroom 3 3 Supplementary Reading M a t e r i a l s i n the L i b r a r y . . 3 4 A S p e c i f i c Role f o r the L i b r a r y 3 5 The Use o f French Department L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . 3 6 The S h a r i n g o f A u d i o v i s u a l M a t e r i a l s 3 7 A French Resource Centre i n O p e r a t i o n 3 8 IV LANGUAGE LEARNING THROUGH AUDIOVISUAL AIDS IN THE LIBRARY 40 The Language L a b o r a t o r y f o r Independent S tudy. . . 4 1 F i l m Resources f o r French 4 3 D i s c Recordings i n the L i b r a r y 4 5 Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s f o r F r e n c h . . . 4 6 A S y n t h e s i s o f the M e d i a : E l e c t r o n i c C a r r e l s . . . 4 7 V SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS 5 0 A P o l i c y o f D i v i d e d A u t h o r i t y 50 S p e c i a l P r o v i s i o n f o r Language Students i n the L i b r a r y . . . . . . . 5 0 A Shared R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 5 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY 5 3 APPENDIX A . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : F o r e i g n Language L i b r a r y Resources 5 6 v i i APPENDIX B . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : Supplementary F o r e i g n Language Resources C o n t r o l l e d by the Teacher . 58 APPENDIX C. A L i b r a r y Experiment w i t h an A u d i o v i s u a l I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e v i c e : The Language Master . . 62 APPENDIX D . An Attempt t o Employ the Language Master f o r I n d i v i d u a l Study 73 APPENDIX E . Language M a s t e r U n i t : P r e - t e s t 77 APPENDIX F . Language M a s t e r U n i t : F i n a l t e s t 79 APPENDIX G. Language M a s t e r U n i t : O r a l E v a l u a t i o n . . . . 82 APPENDIX H . E x e r c i s e s Used w i t h the Language M a s t e r . . . . 83 APPENDIX I . E x e r c i s e s Used f o r I n d i v i d u a l Study w i t h the Language Master • 88 APPENDIX J . A Suggested L i s t o f French Supplementary Reading M a t e r i a l s 91 APPENDIX K . Supplementary Reading i n E n g l i s h 97 v i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE BAGE I L i b r a r y Report - Enrolment Under 500. . . . . . . . 11 I I L i b r a r y Report - Enrolment from 500 t o 9^0 12 I I I L i b r a r y Report - Enrolment over 1000 13 IV French Department Report - Enrolment Under 500. . . 14 V French Department Report - Enrolment from 500 t o 9$0 15 V I French Department Report - Enrolment over 1000. . . 16 V I I P u p i l Test Scores 71 V I I I Summary o f Experiment 72 CHAPTER I A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The l i b r a r y - c e n t r e d c u r r i c u l u m . I n c r e a s i n g l y , educators are a t t e m p t i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n by p r o v i d i n g the p u p i l w i t h resources f o r i n d e p e n -dent s t u d y . I n some cases t h i s i n v o l v e s merely a r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f c lassroom m a t e r i a l s so t h a t the l e a r n e r proceeds a t h i s own r a t e , but i n many i n s t a n c e s a s u p p l y of research m a t e r i a l s i s o r g a n i z e d i n the s c h o o l l i b r a r y . I t i s expected t h a t the p u p i l w i l l spend p a r t o f h i s t ime r e a d i n g and c o m p i l i n g notes w i t h a minimum of s u p e r v i s i o n , w h i l e the teacher assumes an a d v i s o r y r o l e . Depending on the resources a v a i l a b l e , the l i b r a r y may a l s o permit such c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s as assembling i l l u s t r a t e d b o o k l e t s , making tape r e c o r d i n g s and f i l m s , and h o l d i n g group c o n s u l t a t i o n s to set up a program o f experiments i n sc ience l a b o r a t o r i e s . F o r many y e a r s , s c h o o l l i b r a r y l i t e r a t u r e has r e f l e c t e d the p r i m a r y concern f o r r e s e a r c h o f the s c i e n c e s and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . School l i b r a r i e s have l o n g been the r e p o s i t o r y o f E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , where most E n g l i s h c l a s s e s spend a p r e -s c r i b e d amount o f t ime i n e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g . More r e c e n t l y , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o the l i b r a r y 1 s p o t e n t i a l i n s e r v i n g v a r i o u s " n e g l e c t e d " sub jec t a r e a s : mathematics , commerce and home economics, f o r example. I n a recent book, The Modern School L i b r a r y , ^ " Saunders devotes s e v e r a l pages 1 Helen E . Saunders , The Modern School L i b r a r y , Metuchen, New J e r s e y , Scarecrow, 1968. 2 t o the k i n d s o f l i b r a r y p r o j e c t s s tudents o f such s u b j e c t s can u n d e r t a k e . The l i b r a r y and f o r e i g n languages . I n v i r t u a l l y every book about s c h o o l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s , the modern f o r e i g n languages are i g n o r e d e n t i r e l y or s i m p l y ment ion-ed i n p a s s i n g , w i t h o u t e l a b o r a t i o n . Saunders 1 Modern S c h o o l  L i b r a r y r e f e r s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g programmed t e x t - t a p e c o u r s e s , and advocates s e l l i n g paperback d i c t i o n a r i e s as a 2 s e r v i c e t o s t u d e n t s . There i s no sugges t ion t h a t the l i b r a r y can i n t e g r a t e i t s s e r v i c e s w i t h c lassroom i n s t r u c t i o n . J o u r n a l s , t o o , are remarkably s i l e n t on the sub jec t o f resources f o r f o r e i g n language s t u d y . One r a r e example i s an a r t i c l e e x p l a i n i n g the use made o f l i b r a r y resources i n a s e n i o r language course , a l t h o u g h i t i s not r e v e a l e d which language i s b e i n g t a u g h t . ^ The t e a c h e r organized the course f o r g i f t e d s tudents w i t h the aim o f p e r f e c t i n g accurate ex -p r e s s i o n and e x p l o r i n g c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s . O r a l r e p o r t s were made by the s tudents near the end o f the f i r s t t e r m , based on r e s e a r c h done i n the l i b r a r y . W r i t t e n r e p o r t s were prepared a f t e r the i n t e n s i v e and e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g done i n the second t e r m . A l l e x p r e s s i o n was i n the f o r e i g n language. S p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d o f languages and l i b r a r i e s 2 Saunders , p . 6 3 . 3 P a t r i c k G. E s p o s i t o , " F i f t h - Y e a r F o r e i g n Language S t u d y " , Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I ( A p r i l 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 9 3 - 4 . 3 i s even r a r e r . The o n l y r e l e v a n t t i t l e d i s c o v e r e d i n p r e p a r -i n g the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a t h e s i s d e a l i n g w i t h the c o - o p e r a t i o n which should e x i s t between the l i b r a r i a n and the Spanish teacher.^" The a u t h o r * s p o i n t o f v i e w i s t h a t o f a l i b r a r i a n w i t h a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n S p a n i s h . The concept o f the language l a b o r a t o r y as an e x t e n s i o n o f the l i b r a r y seems b a s i c t o the t h e s i s , i n v o l v i n g the d u p l i c a t i o n o f some p r i n t m a t e r i a l s f o r l a b o r a t o r y u s e . T h i s p r a c t i c e cannot be recom-mended i n the present t h e s i s , u n l e s s i t i s t o be p a r t o f a complete language resource centre w i t h q u a l i f i e d f u l l - t i m e s t a f f . Other recommendations by Smith i n c l u d e c o l l a b o r a t i o n between l i b r a r i a n and t e a c h e r i n s e l e c t i n g a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , the m a i n t a i n i n g o f a p i c t u r e f i l e , and l i b r a r y - o r i e n t e d l a n -guage c l u b a c t i v i t i e s . These a l l i m p l y the l i b r a r i a n ' s compe-tence i n the language and c u l t u r e b e i n g t a u g h t . One r e a l l y new s u g g e s t i o n i n the t h e s i s i s the use o f a Community Resource F i l e . Every community has non-book sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n such as s c h o o l s , r e s t a u r a n t s , markets , churches , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s , bus iness and i n d u s t r i a l compan-i e s , e t c . The s c h o o l l i b r a r y should have an i n v e n t o r y o f these p l a c e s so t h a t the teacher-may c o n s u l t i t when t r i p s are p l a n n e d . I f the l i b r a r i a n keeps t h i s f i l e i t w i l l prevent d u p l i c a t i o n o f l a b o r s i n c e many teachers may v i s i t the same p l a c e s . The f i l e should be kept u p - t o -date and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e . . . . T h i s l i s t should a l s o i n c l u d e the names o f people i n the community who have s p e c i a l hobbies o r c o l l e c t i o n s such as stamps, f l a g s and a n t i q u e s . I t c o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e the names o f people who have t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y and who may be c a l l e d upon t o speak a t c l u b m e e t i n g s . 5 k S. R. S m i t h , "The s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n and the t eacher o f Spanish. 1 ? Unpubl i shed M a s t e r 1 s t h e s i s ; Queen 1 s C o l l e g e , F l u s h i n g , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 2 . 5 S m i t h , p . 6 7 - 8 . Applicable foreign language research. Studies i n foreign language learning are restricted chief-l y to classroom teaching methods or the techniques of language presentation through such means as televised lessons, ear-training exercises, or the use of phonetic symbols. None of these studies illuminates the relationship between classroom and library, since most of the pupil a c t i v i t i e s pn which they are based could be conducted equally well i n library and non-library settings. Most of the material for this investigation, therefore, i s taken from articles and books dealing with French teaching from a classroom viewpoint or with audiovisual aids and independent study i n general. Several articles on these aspects of educa-tion are found i n such reliable periodicals as the Modern Language  Journal, Canadian Modern Language Review, School Library Journal» School Libraries, and Canadian Audiovisual Review (now Education-a l Media). For special information about British Columbia schools, a fresh survey had to be made, the results are reported i n the next chapter. 5 CHAPTER I I A SURVEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL LIBRARY AND FRENCH DEPARTMENT RESOURCES PART ONE METHODS OF INVESTIGATION The need f o r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Before any r e l e v a n t s u g g e s t i o n s , comments o r improvements can be made c o n c e r n i n g French language resources i n B r i t i s h Columbia secondary s c h o o l s , i t i s important t o l e a r n , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , what m a t e r i a l s are commonly a v a i l a b l e t o s tudents and how they are s t o r e d and c i r c u l a t e d . V i s i t s t o a l l s c h o o l s are d e s i r a b l e but c l e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e , so a m a i l e d request f o r s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n was chosen as the best way of o b t a i n i n g d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r had c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge o f French supplementary m a t e r i a l s through h i s work on the E x e c u t i v e Committee o f the B . G . A s s o c i a t i o n o f Teachers o f Modern Languages and through o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t a c t s , t o -ge ther w i t h the exper ience o f h a v i n g examined a number o f s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s both i n , and o u t s i d e o f , B r i t i s h Columbia . D e s i g n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were thought d e s i r a b l e i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e : 1. B r e v i t y - p r e f e r a b l y one page o f p r i n t ; 2. S i m p l i c i t y - u s i n g c h e c k l i s t s o r " y e s - n o " ques t ions whenever p o s s i b l e ; 6 3 . O b j e c t i v i t y - encouraging s p e c i f i c counts o f c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i t e m s ; 4* Space f o r g e n e r a l comments, because much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s ga ined from the f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n , I n the i n t e r e s t o f s a v i n g the t e a c h e r s ' t i m e , some ob-j e c t i v i t y had t o be s a c r i f i c e d . The use o f the word " a p p r o x i -m a t e l y " p e r m i t t e d i n t e l l i g e n t guess ing where c o u n t i n g was i m p r a c t i c a l . T h i s no doubt made the t a s k o f r e p l y i n g a l i t t l e l i g h t e r . Two forms were drawn u p , one t o be sent t o each secondary s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n (Appendix A) and t h r e e c o p i e s o f the second t o be passed on by the l i b r a r i a n t o the head o f the f o r e i g n l a n -guage department (Appendix B ) . T h i s , i t was b e l i e v e d , would ensure t h a t the l i b r a r i a n r e a l i z e d the scope o f the s tudy and might prevent h i s f e e l i n g t h a t the l i b r a r y a lone was under c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . Copies o f the f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e were submit ted t o the B . C . School L i b r a r i a n s 1 A s s o c i a t i o n E x e c u t i v e Committee, and they approved i n p r i n c i p l e the methods and aims o f the s t u d y . The B . C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f Teachers o f Modern Languages E x e c u t i v e Committee gave the same a p p r o v a l t o the second f o r m , and i t was p a r t l y on t h e i r b e h a l f t h a t q u e s t i o n s 1 and 3 o f Appendix B were d e s i g n e d . No o t h e r source e x i s t s i n B . C. f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the number o f modern f o r e i g n language t eachers employed, i n which s c h o o l s they o f f e r o t h e r courses than F r e n c h , o r to what extent t h e i r b a s i c need f o r a u d i o v i s u a l t e a c h i n g resources i s b e i n g met. 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n , I t was i n i t i a l l y thought d e s i r a b l e t o s o l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n from every B . C . s c h o o l l i b r a r y and French department r e g a r d -i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r s tudent u s e , and the f i r s t m a i l i n g went t o 261 s c h o o l s i n 83 d i s t r i c t s . Each o f the 54 super in tendents r e c e i v e d a package c o n t a i n i n g the f o l l o w i n g : 1. A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r o f e x p l a n a t i o n ; 2 . A sample o f each type o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; 3 . The envelopes f o r the s c h o o l s under h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n , e a c h . s e a l e d , stamped and addressed t o the l i b r a r i a n a t every s c h o o l . I t was hoped t h a t , b a r r i n g any o b j e c t i o n s t o the c o n t e n t s , the envelopes would be p l a c e d i n the m a i l s w i t h o u t d e l a y . No s p e c i a l support was requested from the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , and f o r the most p a r t they sent the envelopes on t h e i r way w i t h o u t comment. R e t u r n s . The e a r l y r e t u r n s were prompt, a r r i v i n g from the s c h o o l s w i t h i n a week. I n 3 months from the date o f m a i l i n g , a r e t u r n o f n e a r l y 50$ was complete . A n a l y s i s showed the e lementary-j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s t o have f a r fewer resources than any o t h e r group, and s e v e r a l o f these s c h o o l s d i s c l a i m e d any i n t e r e s t a t a l l i n the p r o j e c t . O f f e r i n g o n l y the f i r s t y e a r o f French i n Grade V I I I , they c o u l d see no p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t any meaningful s tudy m a t e r i a l s would be a c q u i r e d i n such s m a l l s c h o o l s . I t was t h e r e f o r e dec ided t o exc lude them from the s t u d y . The p o t e n t i a l number o f schools was then 221. R e f u s a l s . Some s c h o o l s were unable t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , and among the reasons g i v e n were t h e s e : 1 . F i r e had des t royed the l i b r a r y and i t s r e c o r d s ; 2 . The s c h o o l had been open l e s s than a year and had not f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i t s l i b r a r y ; 3 . The l i b r a r y served the p u b l i c as w e l l as the s c h o o l , and i t s h o l d i n g s were u n t y p i c a l o f s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s ; 4 . The l i b r a r i a n was unable t o g i v e any t ime to q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s , b e i n g more than f u l l y occupied w i t h b a s i c d u t i e s and u s u a l l y wi thout c l e r i c a l h e l p . F o r these reasons , p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i r s t t h r e e , i t was dec ided t h a t a t o t a l r e t u r n o f 1 3 0 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s each from l i b r a r i a n s and language t e a c h e r s would s a t i s f a c t o r i l y represent B . C . c o n d i t i o n s . Given d i s q u a l i f y i n g f a e t o r s 1 - 3 above, the t o t a l o f 1 3 0 i s c e r t a i n l y a t l e a s t 6 0 $ o f the e l i g i b l e s c h o o l s . A d d i t i o n a l m a i l i n g s . I n an attempt t o improve the percentage o f r e t u r n s , 75 second m a i l i n g s c o n t a i n i n g b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent d u r i n g A p r i l t o s c h o o l s which had not p r e v i o u s l y r e p l i e d . A f u r t h e r 22 m a i l i n g s o f o n l y one o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent t o s e l e c t e d s c h o o l s where o n l y the l i b r a r i a n o r the language t e a c h e r had r e p l i e d . The r e t u r n from these 97 a d d i t i o n a l m a i l i n g s was p o o r , i n d i c a t i n g perhaps e i t h e r a r e s i s t a n c e t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o r a l a c k o f s c h o o l t ime t o complete them. Only 27 r e p l i e s o f any k i n d were r e c e i v e d . 9 P e r s o n a l ' v i s i t s . To b r i n g the t o t a l number o f r e p o r t s up t o 130 o f each t y p e , v i s i t s were undertaken t o s c h o o l s i n f o u r Lower M a i n l a n d d i s t r i c t s . I n one, p e r m i s s i o n had t o be obta ined from the super in tendent before c a l l i n g a t s c h o o l s . On some few o c c a s i o n s , an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the p r i n c i p a l was needed before meeting the l i b r a r i a n o r French t e a c h e r . However, d e s p i t e the sometimes c i r c u i t o u s r o u t e , the v i s i t w i t h the teacher took o n l y a very few minutes and u s u a l l y proceeded v e r y p l e a s a n t l y . The r e c e p t i o n from l i b r a r i a n s was sometimes c o o l , u s u a l l y because i t was f e l t t h a t such a v i s i t i m p l i e d adverse c r i t i c i s m o f l i b r a r y h o l d i n g s . The i n t e r v i e w e r took t ime t o make the t i t l e count from the s h e l f l i s t , d i s c o v e r i n g i n the process many u s e f u l books , o f which some t i t l e s were added to the "suggested l i s t " appended to t h i s t h e s i s . I n a l l , 28 s c h o o l s were v i s i t e d over a two-week p e r i o d . F i n a l Sample. The g o a l o f 130 o f each type was reached, and i t was found t h a t i n 121 cases , r e p l i e s from both the l i b r a r i a n and the l a n -guage t e a c h e r were r e c e i v e d . Only 9 r e p l i e s from each group were not " p a i r e d " i n t h i s way. For e a s i e r h a n d l i n g , and f o l l o w i n g the reasoning t h a t l a r g e and s m a l l s c h o o l s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n budget and s t a f f , the r e t u r n s were grouped a r b i t r a r i l y i n t o those e n r o l l -i n g under 500 p u p i l s , between 500 and 980 ( the h ighes t f i g u r e ' represented which was c l e a r l y below 1000), and over 1000. I t 10 was not p o s s i b l e , g i v e n o n l y 130 s c h o o l s , t o determine any s p e c i f i c enrolment f i g u r e which alone marks a change i n p r a c t i c e s and m a t e r i a l s . Genera l o b s e r v a t i o n s . Even before a thorough a n a l y s i s , i t was p l a i n t h a t no p r o v i n c i a l p a t t e r n o f l i b r a r y p r a c t i c e s i n t r e a t i n g f o r e i g n language m a t e r i a l s would be d i s c o v e r e d . A p a r t from g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s suggested by the E d u c a t i o n Department, each d i s t r i c t makes i t s own budget and p u r c h a s i n g arrangements. Even w i t h i n a d i s t r i c t , some s c h o o l s are ab le t o set t h e i r own courses o f a c t i o n concern ing m a t e r i a l s and methods. I n D i s t r i c t 39 (Vancouver ) , f o r example, i t i s the p r a c t i c e t o a s s i g n tape r e c o r d e r s t o each s c h o o l w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g t h e i r u s e . Some French teachers are a b l e , n o n e t h e l e s s , t o o b t a i n permanent custody o f machines, w h i l e o t h e r s must borrow d a i l y from the c e n t r a l s torage area and cannot enjoy t h e i r permanent u s e . I n some s c h o o l s the l i b r a r i a n w i l l purchase m a t e r i a l s and g i v e them i n t o the care o f the French department, w h i l e i n o thers a separate fund s u p p l i e s departmental h o l d i n g s . The o b j e c t i o n a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s s t u d y . Without the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s the q u e s t i o n s , t e a c h e r s and l i b r a r i a n s may m i s i n t e r p r e t the v a r i o u s i tems o r supply i n a c c u r a t e guesses where a more r e l i a b l e count i s d e s i r e d . Under such a severe l i m i t a t i o n , data must be d e a l t w i t h c a u t i o u s l y . 11 TABLE I LIBRARY REPORT - ENROLMENT UNDER 500: 34 REPORTS Minimum Maximum Typical Range of book count 14 200+ Percentage of total 1/10$ 10$ 2% collection Number of t i t l e s i n French 0 75 10 Range of Number of count reports Percentage Actively purchasing relevant books - 2d 82 Vertical f i l e materials - 30 88 Some audiovisual materials - 18 53 Records 2- 32 13 38 Tapes 1-100 8 2 4 Filmstrips 2- 20 9 27 Actively purchasing - 13 38 audiovisual materials 1 2 TABLE I I LIBRARY REPORT - ENROLMENT FROM 500 TO 9 3 © : 6 4 REPORTS Minimum Maximum T y p i c a l Range o f book count 20 300+ Percentage o f t o t a l 1/10$ 5$ 1% c o l l e c t i o n Number o f t i t l e s i n French 0 250 20 Range o f Number o f count r e p o r t s Percentage A c t i v e l y p u r c h a s i n g r e l e v a n t books - 5 7 8 9 V e r t i c a l f i l e m a t e r i a l s - 5 3 8 3 Some a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s - 3 3 5 2 Records 2 - 5 0 . 2 1 3 3 Tapes 4 - 1 0 0 1 9 3 0 F i l m s t r i p s 2 - 2 5 1 9 3 0 A c t i v e l y p u r c h a s i n g - 2 1 3 3 a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s 13 TABLE I I I LIBRARY REPORT - ENROLMENT OVER 1000: 31 REPORTS Minimum Maximum T y p i c a l 17 600+ 1/10$ 5% 1-1/2% 0 119 40 Range o f Number o f count r e p o r t s Percentage A c t i v e l y p u r c h a s i n g r e l e v a n t books - 31 1O0 V e r t i c a l f i l e m a t e r i a l s - 26 84 Some a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s - 10 32 Records 3-43 7 23 Tapes 41-56 2 6 F i l m s t r i p s 2-15 5 16 A c t i v e l y p u r c h a s i n g a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s - 5 16 Range o f book count Percentage o f t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n Number o f t i t l e s i n French TABLE IV 14 FRENCH DEPARTMENT REPORT - ENROLMENT UNDER 5 0 0 : 3 4 REPORTS Item Range o f count Number o f r e p o r t s Percentage Language l a b o r e l e c t r o n i c c lassroom 6 -18 p o s i t i o n s 4 1 2 F i l m s t r i p s 1 - 3 2 1 2 3 5 Records : music o n l y 1 - 1 6 5 speech o n l y 2 - 3 9 8 music and speech - 1 4 T o t a l r e c o r d s r e p o r t e d 2 7 1 5 2 4 4 1 7 9 Textbooks : D i f f e r e n t t i t l e s Sets o f 1 0 o r more 1 - 8 1 - 4 1 3 1 1 3 9 3 2 Readers : D i f f e r e n t t i t l e s Se ts o f 1 0 o r more 1 - 4 © 1 - 1 0 18 1 3 5 3 3 9 S t u d e n t s ' home s tudy d i s c s e t s 2 - 2 0 5 1 5 Tape Recorder(s ) f o r Department use o n l y 2 0 5 9 Record P l a y e r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y 1 5 4 4 P r o j e c t o r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y 6 1 8 Students g i v e n l i b r a r y assignments 1 3 3 9 15 TABLE V FRENCH DEPARTMENT REPORT - ENROLMENT FROM 500 TO 980: 64 REPORTS Range of Number of Item count reports Percentage Language lab or 6-105 14 22 electronic classroom positions Filmstrips 1- 64 29 45 Records: music only 1- 20 10 16 speech only 1- 50 10 16 music and speech - 17 27 Total records reported 37 58 Textbooks: Different t i t l e s 1-50 23 36 Sets of 10 or more 1-9 19 30 Readers: Different t i t l e s 1-90 35 55 Sets of 10 or more 1-15 28 44 Students' home study disc sets 1-10 14 22 Tape recorder(s) for 49 73 Department use only Record player(s) for 31 48 Department use only Filmstrip viewer(s) for 5 8 Department use only Projector(s) for 12 19 Department use only Students given library 31 48 assignments 16 TABLE V I FRENCH DEPARTMENT REPORT - ENROLMENT OVER 1 0 0 0 : 3 1 REPORTS Item Range o f count Number o f r e p o r t s Percentage Language l a b o r e l e c t r o n i c c lassroom 18- 3 5 p o s i t i o n s 1 7 5 5 F i l m s t r i p s 2 - 1 2 4 2 4 7 7 Records : music o n l y 2 - 4 7 speech o n l y 1 - 7 6 music and speech T o t a l r e c o r d s r e p o r t e d 5 4 1 5 2 4 1 6 1 3 4 8 7 7 Textbooks : D i f f e r e n t t i t l e s Se ts o f 1 © o r more 1 - 2 4 1 - 4 1 7 1 6 5 5 5 2 Readers : D i f f e r e n t t i t l e s S e t s o f 1 0 o r more 2 - 6 0 2 - 4 9 2 5 2 4 8 1 7 7 Students* home s tudy d i s c s e t s 1 - 9 7 1 3 4 2 Tape r e c o r d e r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y 2 9 9 4 Record p l a y e r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y 2 3 7 4 F i l m s t r i p v i e w e r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y 3 1 0 P r o j e c t o r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y 1 7 5 5 Students g i v e n l i b r a r y assignments 1 7 5 5 1 7 PART TWO ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: FOREIGN LANGUAGE LIBRARY RESOURCES T i t l e s r e l e v a n t t o French c o u r s e s . A b a s i c problem i n t h i s p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t h a t f o r e i g n language c l a s s e s c o u l d make use o f much g e o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l which was ordered f o r the S o c i a l S t u d i e s department. L i b r a r i a n s f r e q u e n t l y commented t h a t much u s e f u l m a t e r i a l i s found i n g e n e r a l European h i s t o r i e s , f o r example, as w e l l as i n the s u b d i v i s i o n f o r French h i s t o r y . I t i s not c e r t a i n whether o r not a l l r e p o r t s i n c l u d e t h i s " f r i n g e " f i g u r e . One l i b r a r i a n s e r v i n g over 1 1 0 0 s tudents r e p o r t e d o n l y 1 7 p e r t i n e n t t i t l e s , i n c l u d i n g £ from the 9 0 0 * s i n the Dewey c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n . S u r e l y a c o l l e c t i o n o f 6 0 0 0 books c o u l d be made t o y i e l d more than t h i s . But the c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e s o f some are matched by the exuberance o f o t h e r l i b r a r i a n s . One es t imate o f " F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n a " ran t o 5 0 0 t i t l e s i n a c o l l e c t i o n o f about 7 0 0 0 . I t i s p l a i n t h a t the data must not be f o r c e d t o present c l e a r t r e n d s i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s . What does emerge from Q u e s t i o n 1 i s the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t , because o f l a r g e r budgets f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s and a l l o t h e r m a t e r i a l , l a r g e r s c h o o l s w i l l have gener -a l l y more t i t l e s i n s tock which French s tudents can u s e . IS Percentage o f c o l l e c t i o n . No average o f such p o t e n t i a l l y i n a c c u r a t e data would be m e a n i n g f u l . I t appears t h a t i n the grea t m a j o r i t y o f cases a f i g u r e o f between 1 and 2 per cent can be expected . I t should be n o t e d , however,- t h a t the " T y p i c a l " column i n Tab les I - I I I r e p r e s e n t s a s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n , not a r i g i d s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t . A c t i v e p u r c h a s i n g o f r e l e v a n t books . L a r g e r s c h o o l s have the advantage here f o r the same reason g i v e n i n Q u e s t i o n 1: g e n e r a l s o c i a l s t u d i e s purchases w i l l serve s e v e r a l s p e c i a l i z e d needs. To be r a t e d as " a c t i v e l y p u r c h a s i n g , " the r e p o r t had t o show " y e s " r e p l i e s i n both years named. Some l i b r a r i e s w i l l i n c r e a s e a c q u i s i t i o n o f French m a t e r i a l s as s t a f f changes and new c u r r i c u l u m demands a l t e r the c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n and awareness i n the s c h o o l . V e r t i c a l f i l e . School s i z e d i d not seem t o a f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y the wide a v a i l a b i l i t y o f pamphlet , map and p i c t u r e r e s o u r c e s . A u d i o v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s . Over h a l f o f the r e p o r t s from s c h o o l s e n r o l l i n g under 1000 show the l i b r a r i a n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some form o f a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . D e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n the l a r g e s t s c h o o l s i s p r o b -a b l y the reason why o n l y about a t h i r d o f the l a s t group o f r e p o r t s c l a i m s any such r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Sometimes the a u d i o -v i s u a l department uses space i n o r ad jacent t o the l i b r a r y , but 1 9 another c l e r k , t e c h n i c i a n o r t eacher a d m i n i s t e r s i t e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e l y from the l i b r a r y . Tapes and f i l m s t r i p s are most o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by s c h o o l s i z e . Large language departments seem more i n c l i n e d t o take over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r these i t e m s , a g a i n due t o the prevalence o f o f f i c e and storage space f o r the department head. I t should be r e c a l l e d t h a t n e a r l y h a l f o f the " o v e r 1 0 0 0 " group represent Vancouver s c h o o l s , where language department heads meet f o r m a l l y and i n f o r m a l l y so t h a t u n i f o r m p r a c t i c e s tend t o s p r e a d . Tape r e c o r d i n g s i n s m a l l l i b r a r i e s are commonly used i n " l i s t e n i n g p o s t " f a s h i o n , s i n c e few s c h o o l s i n the "under 500" range have language l a b o r a t o r i e s . I n the two l a r g e s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g l i b r a r y tape resources there i s no such l a b o r a t o r y , w h i l e the presence o f a l a b o r a t o r y makes i t the obvious p l a c e t o s t o r e a l l t a p e s — o b v i o u s , a t l e a s t , t o the language t e a c h e r . A c t i v e p u r c h a s i n g o f a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . Only 1 3 s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , o r 1 0 $ , c o u l d c l a i m t o be " r e -source c e n t e r s " i n the sense o f h a v i n g a p p r e c i a b l e c o l l e c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s media . S e v e r a l o t h e r s w i l l soon reach t h a t l e v e l , as suggested by l i b r a r i a n s ' comments r e f e r r i n g t o expansion i n the near f u t u r e . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t many s c h o o l s have a m b i t i o n s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , but " temporary budget problems" are h o l d i n g them back . 20 PART THREE ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: SUPPLEMENTARY FOREIGN LANGUAGE RESOURCES CONTROLLED BY THE TEACHER Languages covered by the report. This information i s c h i e f l y f o r the use of the B.C.A.T.M.L. Executive, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of reports gathered by personal v i s i t s i t was not taken into account f o r purposes of the study proper. Occasionally teachers combined a l l language materials into one report, despite the request to separate them by language. A b l u r r i n g of data r e s u l t s i n the materials counts, but i t i s deduced from other reports that where Spanish or German i s taught i n addition to French the amount of supplementary material on hand i s usually very meagre f o r these alternative languages. Language laboratories. In 5 eases, the designation "language lab" was applied to small i n s t a l l a t i o n s seating 6 , 8 or 12 students. At the other extreme, where 3 entire elassrooms are served by "loop" broadcast systems, up to 105 students can receive programs at the same time on any of three channels. Such a s i t u a t i o n i s le s s convenient f o r monitoring, but i t serves the other functions of an audio-active laboratory. Language labs or t h e i r equivalent are c l e a r l y the preroga-t i v e of the largest schools, and more w i l l be b u i l t as funds permit. Some language teachers have helped plan and construct 2 1 " l i s t e n i n g posts" i n the l i b r a r y where a f u l l - s c a l e l a b was not p o s s i b l e . T h i s arrangement permits independent study, but removes the student from the teacher's help and s u p e r v i s i o n . I t places an a d d i t i o n a l l o a d on the l i b r a r i a n , although some l i b r a r i a n s see i t as the f i r s t major step towards the concept o f a " r e sourc e e e n t r e . n I t should be noted t h a t the l a r g e percentage o f "over 1 0 0 0 " schools having language l a b o r a t o r i e s i s a f f e c t e d by the p o l i c y o f a s i n g l e d i s t r i c t , Vancouver, where each of the h i g h schools has been f i t t e d w i t h an 18-seat l a b o r a t o r y . Most other f u l l - s i z e l a b s seat 3 0 o r 3 5 , the former f i g u r e being d e s i r a b l e as a s u b t l e way o f i n f l u e n c i n g c l a s s s i z e . F i l m s t r i p c o l l e c t i o n s . Many o f the r e p o r t s l i s t " s i l e n t " f i l m s t r i p s , but where a "tape o r d i s c commentary" i s i n d i c a t e d , i t u s u a l l y proves t o be one o f the better-known s e r i e s of courses. V o i x et Images  de France - Premier Degre i s widely h e l d , and o f f e r s 3 2 f i l m -s t r i p s w i t h tapes comprising an e n t i r e course of i n s t r u c t i o n . Une Annexe en France i s found i n a few schools, p r o v i d i n g 1 5 f i l m s t r i p s w i t h tapes. A separate count of tapes i s not as convenient i n French departments as i n l i b r a r i e s , because taped m a t e r i a l s are the standard accompaniment t o a l l French courses now being used and should be found i n abundance i n every s c h o o l . Further-more, while a d i s c r e c o r d i n g i s i n one o f 3 standard s i z e s , a tape may i n c l u d e any amount of recorded m a t e r i a l ranging from 22 a few minutes on a t i n y , 3 - i n c h r e e l up t o 4 hours on a 4 - t r a c k , 7 - i n c h s torage r e e l . The o n l y e f f e c t i v e measure i s i n minutes o f p l a y i n g time.- and the burden o f c o un t i n g would have been i m p o s s i b l e . F i l m s . As a r u l e , 16 mm motion p i c t u r e f i l m s are too c o s t l y t o be kept i n any one s c h o o l . S e v e r a l examples o f r e g i o n a l resource c e n t r e s were r e p o r t e d , but not f o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I t i s f e l t t h a t immediate a v a i l a b i l i t y r e q u i r e s m a t e r i a l s t o be based i n the s c h o o l . One s m a l l e r secondary s c h o o l owns a 2 8 - l e s s o n s o u n d - f i l m s e r i e s , Je P a r l e F r a n c a i s by E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a F i l m s . D i s c r e c o r d i n g s . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , as i n the two f o l l o w i n g , t eachers were asked t o keep i n mind the u s e f u l n e s s o f m a t e r i a l s . There i s no assurance t h a t they d i d s o . However, i f the f i g u r e s may be b e l i e v e d , most s c h o o l s o f a l l s i z e s h o l d some d i s c r e c o r d i n g s . The s m a l l numbers o f each t y p e , music and speech, are p r o b a b l y the r e s u l t o f two common s i t u a t i o n s . F i r s t , s c h o o l s i n v e s t r e l u c t a n t l y i n non-book m a t e r i a l s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y when music r e c o r d s may have o n l y a b r i e f p e r i o d o f p o p u l a r i t y w i t h s t u d e n t s . Speech d i s c s are u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d as a l t e r n a t e s t o taped mater-i a l s f o r c o u r s e s , which accounts f o r t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g numbers i n l a r g e r s c h o o l s . Second, t eachers have l o n g been accustomed t o s u p p l y i n g music from t h e i r own r e c o r d c o l l e c t i o n s , i n response t o p u p i l demand and t h e i r own t a s t e s . A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s 23 t h a t most d i s c s can be tape r e c o r d e d , p e r m i t t i n g s c h o o l s t o copy u s e f u l s e l e c t i o n s w i t h o u t the expense o f p u r c h a s i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e i r own. Textbooks . The h i g h e s t percentage o f r e p o r t s i n t h i s area was from the " o v e r 1000" s c h o o l s , where t e x t s are accumulated through e x p e r i m e n t a l purchases from department budgets as w e l l as through p u b l i s h e r s ' sample o f f e r i n g s . The h i g h f i g u r e o f 9 s e t s i n Table V i s extreme, f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by one example o f 5 s e t s and s e v e r a l o f 4 o r 3 . Most s c h o o l s would admit t o 1 o r 2 s e t s . The change i n t e x t s i n Grades V I I I and X I i n 1968-9 confused the p i c t u r e s l i g h t l y . Some teachers u s i n g the new courses might regard Le F r a n g a i s V i v a n t and Cours Moyen as no l o n g e r c u r r e n t , even though they are s t i l l p r e s c r i b e d f o r o t h e r g r a d e s . Tak ing a c o n s e r v a t i v e v i e w , i t seems t h a t most s c h o o l s do not accumulate outdated t e x t s and have o n l y a modest supply o f a l t e r n a t e t i t l e s , probably more f o r t e a c h e r t h a n student u s e . On the o t h e r hand, the a r b i t r a r y choice o f 10 as the m i n i -mum f o r a " s e t " does not p r e c l u d e m u l t i p l e cop ies up t o 9 , a s i t u a t i o n not measured by t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Supplementary r e a d e r s . The same causes o f e r r o r are p o s s i b l e i n the case o f readers as were noted f o r textbook c o u n t s : i n c r e a s e s i n both t i t l e s and s e t s seem t o match i n c r e a s e d enrolment . D i s c r e t i o n -a r y department budgets are probably the c h i e f source o f f u n d s , 24 and of course a wider se l e c t i o n of t i t l e s i s required i n a com-prehensive secondary than i n a junior;:secondary school. I t i s assumed, but not at a l l cert a i n , that the rather large stocks suggested i n some schools are i n fact "currently u s e f u l . " The highest t o t a l reported, 9 0 t i t l e s i n Table V, includes novels and plays, assuming the proportions of a small l i b r a r y . No information was offered about the means used to c i r c u l a t e these books apart from the comment that the c o l l e c t i o n i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to "French-speaking students." Student practice discs. Some schools, having adopted the new programs, have encour-aged students to buy sets of discs f o r themselves. In a few cases, large numbers of sets have been loaned to students by the schools. Again the largest schools seem to have the advantage, although the difference between the schools i n Table IV and those i n Table V i s not very marked. Other resources. This section was used variously to add items, such as games of Bingo or c o l l e c t i o n s of s l i d e s about Paris , and to amplify previous references to tapes and books. No worthwhile suggestions were made which were not foreseen or covered by e a r l i e r questions. One exception was the school reporting the use of a B e l l and Howell Language Master, which l e d to some correspondence concern-ing Appendix C of t h i s investigation. Tape recorders. I t i s apparent that l a r g e r schools are able to provide one or 25 more machines f o r the language department ' s u s e , a l t h o u g h i n most cases t h e r e i s not the "one tape r e c o r d e r t o one French t e a c h e r " r a t i o d e s i r e d by the B . C . A . T . M . L . and o t h e r e d u c a t o r s . Whether o r not machines are a v a i l a b l e t o s tudents d u r i n g s c h o o l hours o r a t o t h e r t i m e s i s u s u a l l y a mat ter o f p e r s o n a l a r r a n g e -ments made by teachers w i t h t h e i r p u p i l s . I t i s reasonably c e r t a i n t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t i n B . C . e d u c a t i o n a l development the tape r e c o r d e r i s w i d e l y regarded by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as a d e s i r a b l e t e a c h i n g a i d , not a s tudent -used t o o l o f language l e a r n i n g . O v e r a l l , t h i s sample showed t h a t about 22$ o f the language c lassrooms have one tape r e c o r d e r i n each. The s c h o o l s which submit ted no r e t u r n s may make the a c t u a l p r o v i n c i a l average l o w e r . Record p l a y e r s . Lower i n p r i o r i t y f o r language t e a c h e r s , r e c o r d p l a y e r s are u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n each s c h o o l but not a s s i g n e d t o any d e p a r t -ment. Fewer t h a n 10$ o f the r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e d a r e c o r d p l a y e r i s s u p p l i e d f o r each language t e a c h e r , but a s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h f i g u r e i s i n d i c a t e d f o r department c o n t r o l o f one o r more machines - - an average o f about 55%« F i l m s t r i p v i e w e r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some teachers m i s i n t e r p r e t e d " v i e w e r s " and in tended t o mark " p r o j e c t o r s " on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Never -t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s much hope t o be drawn from the a c q u i s i t i o n o f even a few v i e w e r s , f o r they are e s s e n t i a l i f independent student use i s t o be made o f f i l m s t r i p s . A t o t a l o f 8 was r e p o r t e d , o r about 6% o f the sample. 26 F i l m s t r i p / S l i d e p r o j e c t o r s . The l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p r o j e c t o r s between Tables IV and V and Table V I i s undoubtedly due t o the widespread purchase o f V o i x e t Images f i l m s t r i p s . The p u b l i s h e r has made i t c l e a r t h a t the e f f e c t i v e use o f the eourse depends upon the frequency o f l e s s o n s , so t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have been persuaded t o purchase e x t r a p r o j e c t i o n equipment. Other a u d i o v i s u a l d e v i c e s . The overhead p r o j e c t o r was sometimes ment ioned, a l t h o u g h i t i s not d i r e c t l y u s e f u l f o r independent s t u d y . One language department i n d i c a t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a movie p r o j e c t o r . Student l i b r a r y ass ignments . As l i b r a r i e s grow l a r g e r t o serve more s t u d e n t s , and i n c r e a s e r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s (Tables I - I I I ) , more use i s made o f them by language t e a c h e r s . L a r g e r s c h o o l s a l s o have more s e n i o r c l a s s e s e a s i l y capable o f u n d e r t a k i n g independent ass ignments . Many t e a c h e r s mentioned " o r a l r e p o r t s t o the c l a s s " , and r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n E n g l i s h on French c u l t u r e , h i s t o r y and p e r s o n a l i t i e s . 27 PART FOUR SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The importance o f s i z e i n s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s . Because the p r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n Department p r o v i d e s each d i s t r i c t w i t h funds on the b a s i s o f enrolment , l a r g e s c h o o l s can o b t a i n more complete a u d i o v i s u a l s e r v i c e than can s m a l l s c h o o l s . But o f g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , g i v e n the many s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d t o have equipment a v a i l a b l e on an n i n - t h e - s c h o o l - b u t -n o t - a s s i g n e d n b a s i s , i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a r g e s c h o o l s b e i n g o r g a n i z e d d e p a r t m e n t a l l y t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . Every o b s t a c l e p l a c e d i n the way o f the t eacher d i sc o urag es him from o b t a i n i n g the use o f what equipment i s a v a i l a b l e , and machines c i r c u l a t e d among 3 o r 4 language t eachers are probab ly more e f f i c i e n t l y used than when p l a c e d so as t o s e r v e , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , an e n t i r e s t a f f . A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f books . I t must be assumed t h a t l i b r a r i a n s are ab le t o make whatever books they have e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o s tudents and teachers a l i k e . T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y so w i t h m a t e r i a l s c o n t r o l l e d by French t e a c h e r s . The t e a c h e r i n whose room they are l o c a t e d may guard them j e a l o u s l y , o r they may s imply be u n a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the hours the c lassroom i s i n normal u s e . Thus, a l though l a r g e numbers o f t e x t s and readers seem t o be on hand i n many s c h o o l s , they may not be e f f i c i e n t l y u s e d . Student use o f m a t e r i a l s . Where the t e a c h e r and l i b r a r i a n have c o l l a b o r a t e d on the b u i l d i n g o f a " l i s t e n i n g p o s t " , i t i s probab ly used o f t e n . Communications w i t h i n a s c h o o l are not always good, however, and no f o r m a l check has been made on whether l i b r a r y h o l d i n g s are w e l l - u s e d . S ince most s tudents need p o s i t i v e encouragement t o seek out r e s o u r c e s , they r e l y upon s p e c i f i c l i b r a r y - o r i e n t e d ass ignments , and t h i s sample shows b a r e l y h a l f o f the language departments a c t i v e l y promoting any such p r o j e c t s . Teacher a t t i t u d e s t o l i b r a r y u s e . I n v i s i t i n g Lower M a i n l a n d s c h o o l s , the r e s e a r c h e r found l i t t l e i n t e r e s t expressed by most t e a c h e r s i n what the l i b r a r y had t o o f f e r . Concern was v o i c e d t h a t departmental r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y tape r e c o r d e r s , were i n s u f f i c i e n t i n number, and l i b r a r y use was not a h i g h - p r i o r i t y problem. The " s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c lass room" remains a p o p u l a r concept among t e a c h e r s . L i b r a r i a n a t t i t u d e s t o French s tudents and t e a c h e r s . S e v e r a l l i b r a r i a n s were c a r e f u l t o mention t h a t sueh books as were a v a i l a b l e i n French were seldom r e a d . E x a m i n a t i o n o f c i r c u l a t i o n cards bore out t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . Ye t s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s r e t u r n e d w i t h appeals f o r h e l p i n f i n d i n g sources o f French m a t e r i a l s . Other l i b r a r i a n s commented t h a t they were seldom c a l l e d upon t o purchase books f o r the language t e a c h e r s , but were always ready t o do so upon r e q u e s t . There seems t o be a renewed i n t e r e s t among some l i b r a r i a n s i n o f f e r i n g a l l forms 2 9 o f l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , but t h e i r e h i e f needs a r e : 1. Sources o f s u i t a b l e p r i n t m a t e r i a l s ; 2 . I n f o r m a t i o n and h e l p from French teachers i n s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s ; 3» C l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o handle i n c r e a s e d p r o c e s s i n g and maintenance; 4 . Budgets which permit the purchase o f n o n - p r i n t r e s o u r c e s . A number o f l i b r a r i a n s f e e l t h e i r t ime i s w e l l spent meeting present demands, and are not concerned by the l a c k o f reques ts from such t r a d i t i o n a l l y " l o w u s e r s " as mathematics and f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r s . CHAPTER I I I 30 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRENCH DEPARTMENT AND LIBRARY HOLDINGS I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t both French teachers and l i b r a r i a n s are capable o f assuming a t t i t u d e s which prevent any-u s e f u l communication from t a k i n g p l a c e . Teachers u s u a l l y empha-s i z e c o n t r o l l e d readings and c lassroom r e s o u r c e s , w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r the " f r e e r e a d i n g " u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i b r a r y t i m e . They have been unable t o r e l a t e t h e i r g o a l s t o the concept o f independent s t u d y . They have p r o b a b l y not examined the p l a c e o f r e a d i n g i n the French c u r r i c u l u m , conf ronted as they are w i t h what seems t o be an " o r a l " c o u r s e . L i b r a r i a n s , i t has been shown, o f t e n l o o k on the f o r e i g n languages as a p e r i p h e r a l area o f s e r v i c e . They are t o l d by French teachers t h a t r e a d i n g p l a y s o n l y a s m a l l p a r t i n the c o u r s e . They have found from exper ience t h a t t h e r e seems t o be a shortage o f s u i t a b l e French m a t e r i a l i n p r i n t even i f they have the d e s i r e and means t o buy i t . They have asked t e a c h e r s t o recommend books f o r purchase , and the f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r has been unable o r u n w i l l i n g t o suggest any t i t l e s . Worst o f a l l , books purchased f o r language s tudents w i t h scarce l i b r a r y funds have l a i n i d l e on the s h e l v e s , w i t h o n l y one s i g -nature on the c i r c u l a t i o n c a r d — t h a t o f the French t e a c h e r , who read i t once q u i c k l y and perhaps mentioned i t t o h i s c l a s s . I t i s obvious t h a t any m a t e r i a l brought so c a s u a l l y t o a 31 p u p i l ' s a t t e n t i o n w i l l prompt ly be f o r g o t t e n . The l i b r a r i a n , a g e n e r a l l y knowledgeable p e r s o n , i s o f t e n not s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the language , the courses o r the p u p i l t o remedy the s i t u a t i o n and induce the p u p i l t o r e a d . What i s needed i n examining t h i s n o n - r e l a t i o n s h i p between French t e a c h e r and l i b -r a r i a n i s f i r s t o f a l l an a p p r a i s a l o f what French l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s i n the l i b r a r y , f o l l o w e d by a r e v i e w o f the p l a c e o f r e a d i n g i n the French c u r r i c u l u m . The g o a l i s a new statement o f a f u n c t i o n a l , r a t h e r t h a n the t r a d i t i o n a l l y i d e a l i s t i c , . r o l e o f the l i b r a r y i n s u p p o r t i n g the French r e a d i n g program. Freneh l i t e r a t u r e i n the l i b r a r y . The aim o f l i t e r a t u r e i s c h i e f l y enjoyment. P u p i l s w i l l not read books they do not en joy , and s c h o o l l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s f a i l t o a t t r a c t readers f o r some o r a l l o f the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1 . Appearance. The e x t e r i o r s o f some recent books p u b l i s h e d f o r l e a r n e r s are a t t r a c t i v e , but f a r too many volumes p l a c e d on l i b r a r y she lves i n the g u i s e o f " l i t e r a t u r e " show the same u n i m a g i n a t i v e c o l o r i n g and d e s i g n as do t e x t b o o k s . A n y t h i n g which l o o k s l i k e a textbook w i l l d i scourage most s tudents from r e a d i n g f o r enjoyment. 2. L e v e l o f i n t e r e s t . Most books s e l e c t e d f o r l e a r n e r s are n e c e s s a r i l y s l i m . They appear easy t o r e a d , a l t h o u g h the contents might be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y v e r y advanced, and p u p i l s are not a t t r a c t e d by what seems too j u v e n i l e . Cover des igns showing c h i l d r e n o b v i o u s l y much younger than the r e a d e r are c e r t a i n t o a c t a g a i n s t the b o o k ' s b e i n g r e a d . Some t i t l e s may seem too "mature" f o r the p u p i l s imply because they are l o n g , w h i l e o t h e r s may sound " c h i l d i s h " . I n both cases the i m p r e s s i o n may be q u i t e f a l s e . 3 . R e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c l a s s r o o m . French teachers are l i k e l y t o regard c lassroom t e x t s and p r e s c r i b e d supplementary readers as s u f f i c i e n t t o accompl i sh t h e i r g o a l s . I f some d i r e c t m o t i v a t i o n i s not s u p p l i e d by the t e a c h e r , p u p i l s w i l l not seek f u r t h e r m a t e r i a l s on which t o e x e r -c i s e t h e i r growing command o f the language . The t e a c h e r 32 must determine which p u p i l s are capable o f independent r e a d i n g and then mot iva te them on a s t r i c t l y i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e c e r t a i n t i t l e s , o r e l s e a p p l y some r e g u l a t i o n about " o u t s i d e r e a d i n g " which w i l l compel every p u p i l t o read from the l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 4 . L e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y . The same g u i d e l i n e s f o r r e a d a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h should a p p l y t o f o r e i g n language m a t e r i a l s . Too many new words on each page w i l l make the book e f f e c t u a l l y unreadab le , and the problem i s not s o l v e d by s u p p l y i n g l o n g e r w o r d - l i s t s a t the b e g i n n i n g o r end o f each c h a p t e r , nor by t r a n s l a t i n g whole phrases i n f o o t n o t e s which might occupy as much as t w o - t h i r d s o f the page. The p u p i l i s not a b l e t o enjoy the constant r e f e r r a l s t o o t h e r pages o r l i n e s which i n t e r r u p t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f each passage. I t has been the exper ience o f most l i b r a r i a n s t h a t p u p i l s w i l l not read French s t o r i e s f o r p l e a s u r e o r c o n s u l t d i c t i o n a r i e s out o f sheer i n t e r e s t i n the language. P r o v i s i o n a l l y , i t may be recommended t h a t a l l o f the m a t e r i a l s be sub jec ted t o i n t e n s i v e s c r u t i n y and the m a j o r i t y o f them removed from the l i b r a r y . F o r a f r e s h s t a r t , the whole q u e s t i o n o f the need t o read i n French must be r a i s e d . The p l a c e o f r e a d i n g i n the present French c u r r i c u l u m . Present French t e x t s , n o t a b l y P a r l e r e t L i r e , aim a t p r o -d u c i n g competence i n the f o u r s k i l l s : l i s t e n i n g , s p e a k i n g , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . They are c o n s t r u c t e d on l i n g u i s t i c p r i n -c i p l e s t o present a s e r i e s o f speech p a t t e r n s a c t u a l l y i n use by n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , and the v o c a b u l a r y i s as c u r r e n t as p o s s i b l e . P u p i l s are taught t o l i s t e n , i m i t a t e and f i n a l l y speak i n p r e -s c r i b e d p a t t e r n s , w i t h the g o a l o f l e a r n i n g how t o s e l e c t and v a r y the p a t t e r n s t o f i t a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s . I n s h o r t , the l e a r n e r progresses from s t r i c t l y s u p e r v i s e d and c o n t r o l l e d speech 33 upwards t o random and s e l f - s e l e c t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h i s i s what G r i t t n e r chooses to c a l l the "Amer ican Method" , and i t l e a d s t o r e a d i n g i n the most l o g i c a l way — the p u p i l l e a r n s t o read f i r s t what he has a l r e a d y mastered o r a l l y . Thus, the reasons f o r heavy emphasis upon l i s t e n i n g and speaking d r i l l i n the American Method go beyond the mere importance a t tached t o these s k i l l s as v a l i d l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . Of equa l importance i s the b e l i e f t h a t an a u d i o l i n g u a l command o f the language i s t h e . i n d i s p e n s a b l e u n d e r p i n n i n g o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . 0 As the range o f o r a l mastery i s extended by a s e r i e s o f t e x t s such as the one now b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d i n B . C , the complex-i t y o f r e a d i n g mat ter grows u n t i l the p u p i l i s ab le t o face con-temporary newspaper and magazine a r t i c l e s w i t h conf idence and t o enjoy s e l e c t i o n s from s tandard s t o r i e s and p l a y s w i t h r e l a t i v e ease . U n t i l such mastery i s a c h i e v e d , however, r e a d i n g i s a p a r t o f the c u r r i c u l u m and supplementary r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s belong i n the c l a s s r o o m . The p l a c e o f the supplementary reader i n the c l a s s r o o m . Mackey i d e n t i f i e s two s o r t s o f supplementary r e a d e r s . They p r o v i d e e x t e n s i v e p r a c t i c e , i n c o n t r a s t t o the r e l a t i v e l y i n t e n -s i v e study done w i t h b a s i c textbook m a t e r i a l s . Supplementary readers may be o f two t y p e s , (1) the p r o g r e s s i v e t y p e , and ( i i ) the p l a t e a u t y p e . The p r o -g r e s s i v e readers g r a d u a l l y b r i n g i n new v o c a b u l a r y ; the p l a t e a u readers do n o t , s i n c e they are w r i t t e n t h r o u g h -out a t a f i x e d l e v e l . ' 6 Frank M . G r i t t n e r , Teaching F o r e i g n Languages, New Y o r k , Harper and Row, 1969, p . 25b. 7 W i l l i a m F . Mackey, Language Teaching A n a l y s i s , London, Longmans Green, 1965, P» 281-2 . 34 G r i t t n e r does not d i s t i n g u i s h between these two f u n c t i o n s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f graded r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . A graded reader i s a book separate from the r e g u l a r t e x t w h i c h , i f used p r o p e r l y , w i l l be g i v e n t o the s tudent a t t h a t p o i n t i h h i s study o f t h e language when he i s a b l e t o read i t d i r e c t l y and p l e a s u r a b l y . F u r t h e r , t h e graded reader" s h o u l d be so s c a l e d i n d i f f i c u l t y t h a t the comple-t i o n o f the f i r s t s e l e c t i o n develops i n t h e s tudent the a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h the second s e l e c t i o n w h i c h , i n t u r n , prepares t h e ground f o r progress through the s l i g h t l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h r i d s e l e c t i o n , and so on u n t i l the end o f the book. I d e a l l y , the graded reader would be b u i l t upon the s p e c i f i c course content which preceded i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n . That i s , the reader would u t i l i z e l a r g e l y v o c a b u l a r y and grammatical s t r u c t u r e s which had been p r e v i o u s l y i n t r o d u c e d . The p o t e n t i a l number o f l e x i c a l i tems can be i n c r e a s e d by u t i l i z i n g cognates , d e r i v e d words and i n f r e q u e n t f o o t n o t e s o r m a r g i n a l g l o s s e s . Indeed, by the l a t t e r h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n - s i x t i e s , a number o f t e x t s o f t h i s type had been g produced t o be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f o u r - l e v e l programs. Both authors make i t c l e a r t h a t supplementary readers are produced t o complement the b a s i c course and are p a r t o f the c l a s s -room t e a c h e r ' s e s s e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . I n most books about language t e a c h i n g , no mention i s made o f the l i b r a r y ' s s u p p o r t i v e r o l e i n the r e a d i n g program. Supplementary r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n the l i b r a r y . I f the p u p i l i s t o be c l o s e l y guided i n h i s use o f graded r e a d e r s , t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the c lassroom t e a c h e r ' s d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f most supplementary books. The o n l y c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f what the s c h o o l l i b r a r y might p r o v i d e i s i n a new book by W i l g a M . R i v e r s , who i s best known f o r h e r e a r l i e r study o f The P s y c h o l o g i s t and the F o r e i g n Language Teacher.9 8 G r i t t n e r , p . 262-3. 9 W i l g a M . R i v e r ^ The P s y c h o l o g i s t and the F o r e i g n  Language Teacher , New Y o r k , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago, 1964. 35 She proposes f i v e stages o f r e a d i n g t r a i n i n g i n h i g h s c h o o l , and o n l y a t the f i f t h , i n the most s e n i o r grades , i s t h e r e a w e l l -d e f i n e d need f o r a w i d e r s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s . F o r i n t e n s i v e study i n c l a s s a t t h i s f i f t h l e v e l , the l i t e r a t u r e chosen should be t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y i n f l a v o r and i n t r o d u c e the a d o l e s c e n t t o the m a t e r i a l f a m i l i a r t o n a t i v e speakers o f h i s own age. T h i s emphasis on contemporary m a t e r i a l o f v a r i e d o r i g i n s a p p l i e s even more p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g . The l i b r a r y should be w e l l s tocked w i t h r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o r s t a n d a r d of d i f f i c u l t y but v a r i e d i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d now be a b l e t o recommend t o each student e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l which corresponds t o h i s i n d i v i d u a l r : t a s t e s and i n t e r e s t s . Some s tudents may p i c k up a n o v e l o r p l a y o f which they have h e a r d , o r which has r e c e n t l y been made i n t o a f i l m ; o t h e r s may be encouraged t o undertake a course o f r e a d i n g i n the f o r e i g n language r e l a t e d t o some r e s e a r c h t o p i c o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t t o them o r r e q u i r e d f o r another c o u r s e . A s tandard e n c y c l o p e d i a i n the f o r e i g n language, and some s e r i o u s magazines, kept on f i l e from y e a r t o y e a r , w i l l p r o v i d e much r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l o f t h i s t y p e . I n t h i s way, h a b i t s o f u s i n g the language f o r o n e ' s own purposes w i l l be f o s t e r e d , and c o n t i n u e , we may hope, as a source o f p l e a s u r e and p r o f i t a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s have l e f t the c l a s s r o o m . A student who l e a v e s s c h o o l w i t h o u t h a v i n g had t h e exper ience o f r e a d i n g on h i s own and e n j o y i n g f o r e i g n language m a t e r i a l o f h i s own c h o i c e i s not l i k e l y t o do s o , w i t h o u t prompting , i n l a t e r l i f e . 1 0 The s i x t h stage o f r e a d i n g s k i l l i s t o t a l l y f r e e r e a d i n g i n j o u r n a l s and elsewhere, w i t h o u t r e p o r t i n g t o a t e a c h e r o r keeping a r e c o r d o f i t . T h i s i s the same g o a l G r i t t n e r proposes , except t h a t the t r a n s i t i o n from t e a c h e r - c o n t r o l l e d t o l i b r a r y - b a s e d m a t e r i a l s i s not so w e l l d e f i n e d . A s p e c i f i c r o l e f o r the l i b r a r y . R i v e r s ' s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t the l i b r a r y p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l s a t 10 W i l g a M . R i v e r s , Teaching Foreign-Language S k i l l s , New Y o r k , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago , 1968, p . 23b. 36 a p o i n t i n the p u p i l ' s development when he i s ab le t o a p p r e c i a t e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s tudy and the p r i v i l e g e o f complete freedom t o choose h i s own m a t e r i a l . I f the l i b r a r y i s t o f o l l o w such a p l a n , these s teps are recommended: 1 . A l l m a t e r i a l c l a s s i f i e d as r e a d e r s , a t a l l l e v e l s , w i l l be t u r n e d over t o the French department; 2. A c o l l e c t i o n o f d i c t i o n a r i e s , i n c l u d i n g some e n t i r e l y i n F r e n c h , w i l l form the b a s i s o f a new c o l l e c t i o n ; 3 . A l l new purchases w i l l be checked f o r r e a d a b i l i t y by a competent French t e a c h e r f a m i l i a r w i t h the courses i n Grades X I and X I I . Wherever p o s s i b l e , m a t e r i a l not w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r l e a r n e r s w i l l be u s e d ; 4* A c o l l e c t i o n o f magazine and newspaper a r t i c l e s from French language p u b l i c a t i o n s w i l l be b u i l t u p . They should be mounted o r bound whenever p o s s i b l e , and even l a m i n a t e d w i t h p l a s t i c f i l m to make them easy t o h a n d l e . T o p i c s o f endur ing i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than c u r r e n t events should be s t r e s s e d , a l t h o u g h some contemporary a f f a i r s w i l l be worth r e a d i n g throughout one year a t l e a s t . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be c o n t i n u o u s l y r e v i s e d by the French t e a c h e r ; 5. A l l p u p i l s i n s e n i o r French courses w i l l be a d v i s e d t h a t they are expected t o read independent ly i n F r e n c h , and c r e d i t w i l l be g i v e n f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y . A r e c o r d o f r e a d i n g w i l l be kept by the t e a c h e r , and some s u i t -a b l e w r i t t e n or o r a l summary i n French may be expected . The use o f French department l i t e r a t u r e . I n keeping w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t i t i s the t e a c h e r ' s t a s k t o p r e s c r i b e c a r e f u l l y - c h o s e n graded r e a d e r s , i t must be the French depar tment ' s job t o s t o r e and m a i n t a i n i t s own books . T h i s i m p l i e s the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n : 1 . The French department o f f i c e i s a c c e s s i b l e a t a l l t imes t o a l l French t e a c h e r s . Adequate s torage space f o r both s e t s o f readers and i n d i v i d u a l t i t l e s i s p r o v i d e d , and a t a b l e o r counter s i m i l a r t o a l i b r a r y ' s work-room space f o r s o r t i n g and mending books. 37 2. C l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s a v a i l a b l e t o operate a c i r c u l a t i o n system i n which both t e a c h e r s and some p u p i l s can charge out books f o r v a r y i n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e . Respons ib le p u p i l s c o u l d operate t h i s s i m p l i -f i e d l i b r a r y . 3 . A separate budget i s p r o v i d e d t o a c q u i r e new books . Most m a t e r i a l s are i n e x p e n s i v e books , so t h a t a v i g o r o u s p o l i c y o f payment f o r l o s s o r m u t i l a t i o n i s p u r s u e d . 4 . The l i b r a r y i s open t o a l l s t u d e n t s , but p u p i l s i n Grades V I I I - X are asked f o r not more t h a n one assignment a y e a r , i n E n g l i s h , d e a l i n g w i t h F r e n c h -speaking p o p u l a t i o n s , h i s t o r y , geography o r b i o g r a p h y . I f the S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m l e n t i t s e l f t o such t o p i c s , no f u r t h e r assignment from the French t e a c h e r would be needed. The s h a r i n g o f a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . I t would be best t o s t o r e most m a t e r i a l s such as tapes o r f i l m s t r i p s i n the l i b r a r y i f they c o u l d be used p r o f i t a b l y by s t u d e n t s . D u p l i c a t i o n o f some i tems i s j u s t i f i e d i n l a r g e s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when an i t e m has a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n to a p o r t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m . I t i s not unreasonable , however, t o expect the t e a c h e r to withdraw a f i l m s t r i p from the l i b r a r y on an e x -tended l o a n b a s i s d u r i n g the p a r t o f the y e a r i t i s r e q u i r e d . Tape and d i s c i tems can be c o p i e d e a s i l y i f the French department i s adequate ly s u p p l i e d w i t h machines. F o r t h i s purpose , as w e l l as f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f a m a t e r i a l s centre t o handle books , some p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p i s j u s t i f i a b l e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the French teachers and the l i b -r a r i a n should be based , t h e r e f o r e , on the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s : 1 . A thorough unders tanding o f the p u p i l s ' needs and c a p a b i l i t i e s i n r e a d i n g ; 2. A c l e a r d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a t e r i a l s , based on the p u p i l s ' a b i l i t y t o read and do r e s e a r c h independ-e n t l y ; 38 3. A f requent exchange o f views through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , p r e f e r a b l y when the l i b r a r i a n o f f e r s h e l p i n o r g a n i z i n g department resources and the French t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t e s i n e v a l u a t i n g l i b r a r y a c q u i s i t i o n s . I n e f f e c t , the suggested d i v i s i o n o f resources i s a major s tep towards the s e t t i n g up o f s p e c i a l i z e d l e a r n i n g cent res which complement the c e n t r a l l i b r a r y . A French resource centre i n o p e r a t i o n . The i d e a o f a number o f s m a l l " l i b r a r i e s " i n a d d i t i o n t o a main c o l l e c t i o n i s not new. I t has been a major t o p i c f o r more than a decade i n the w r i t i n g s o f J . L l o y d Trump, and a f u l l ex -p l a n a t i o n o f h i s scheme appeared i n the B u l l e t i n o f the N a t i o n a l  A s s o c i a t i o n o f Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s f o r January , 1966.11 The resource centre f o r modern f o r e i g n languages a t Oak Park and R i v e r F o r e s t High S c h o o l , i n Oak P a r k , I l l i n o i s , o f f e r s p u p i l s a combinat ion o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t i s a v e r y s m a l l room, no l a r g e r than h a l f a c l a s s r o o m , h o l d i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f both p r i n t and n o n - p r i n t m a t e r i a l s . A l i b r a r i a n i s i n attendance about t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the day, w i t h some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the c e n -t r a l l i b r a r y . A l l m a t e r i a l s i n the centre are noted i n the cen-t r a l l i b r a r y ' s card f i l e , but are not d u p l i c a t e d ; p u p i l s are d i r e c t e d t o the a p p r o p r i a t e rooms f o r s p e c i a l i z e d m a t e r i a l s i n languages , mathematics and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . Adjacent t o the f o r -e i g n language resource centre i s the language l a b o r a t o r y , soon t o 11 J . L l o y d Trump, "Independent Study Centers — T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o the C e n t r a l School L i b r a r y , " NASSP B u l l e t i n . CCCVI ( January 1966), 45-51. 39 be open on an unscheduled b a s i s as new e l e c t r o n i c c lassrooms are i n s t a l l e d . On the o t h e r s i d e o f the centre i s a s t u d y - h a l l , s u p e r v i s e d by a n o n - t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t . P u p i l s are r e g u l a r l y scheduled i n t o the 60-seat s tudy areas but may t h e n use any o f the resource c e n t r e s o r the l i b r a r y i n s t e a d o f b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d t o w o r k i n g w i t h t h e i r t e x t b o o k s . O b v i o u s l y , the c o s t o f the Oak P a r k system i s much g r e a t e r than most B. C. d i s t r i c t s are prepared t o bear . But i t s apparent success and i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i n the l i g h t o f modern w r i t i n g s on language t e a c h i n g make i t worth s t u d y i n g as an example o f an emerging p a t t e r n i n e d u c a t i o n . CHAPTER IV 40 LANGUAGE LEARNING THROUGH AUDIOVISUAL AIDS IN THE LIBRARY The Oak Park p r o j e c t which produced s p e c i a l i z e d resource c e n t r e s has a l s o drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f new a u d i o v i s u a l a i d s to language l e a r n i n g which c o u l d operate w i t h i n a l i b r a r y framework. New p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n s t o r i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n have been c r e a t e d through e l e c t r o n i c s . T e l e v i s i o n alone has made s t i m u l a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l exper iences a v a i l a b l e w i t h i t s s t r i k i n g immediacy and the combinat ion o f s i g h t and sound. F i l m and tape t e c h n o l o g i e s are s t i l l e v o l v i n g , and teachers are b e i n g f o r c e d t o take note o f t h e i r importance i n p r e s e n t i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a u d i o v i s u a l developments f o r language t e a c h i n g ought t o be g r e a t . A l l too o f t e n , however, assumptions are made about the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f machines which bear no r e l a t i o n t o the r e a l i t i e s o f s c h o o l l i f e . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n , before p u r c h a s i n g a u d i o v i s u a l d e v i c e s , t o the use t h a t w i l l be made o f them i n l i b r a r y s u r r o u n d i n g s . I t i s proposed to examine b r i e f l y some o f the a i d s now a v a i l a b l e and r e l a t e t h e i r probable use t o the needs o f French p u p i l s i n l i b r a r y s e t t i n g s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t i tems t o be d i s c u s s e d are the language l a b o r a t o r y , 8 - m i l l i m e t e r f i l m c a r t -r i d g e s , d i s c r e c o r d i n g s , and programmed i n s t r u c t i o n through " t e a c h i n g machines" . u The language l a b o r a t o r y f o r independent s t u d y . I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t some B . G. secondary s c h o o l s , c h i e f l y the l a r g e r ones, have language l a b s . I n the pas t decade a wave o f enthusiasm f o r t h i s modern a i d t o l e a r n i n g has r e s u l t e d i n the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a resource centre l i b r a r y complex should i n c l u d e language l a b f a c i l i t i e s , though on a s m a l l s c a l e — say , 6 o r 10 booths connected t o t a p e - p l a y i n g equipment i n the work-room o r behind the l i b r a r i a n ' s charge desk . The case f o r such an a d d i t i o n appears s t r o n g : 1 . P u p i l s need a p l a c e t o repeat l e s s o n s heard i n the language c lassroom o r the main l a b ; 2 . Recorded m a t e r i a l s are thereby a v a i l a b l e t o s e v e r a l s tudents a t once, w i t h o u t d i s r u p t i o n t o o thers i n the l i b r a r y ; 3 . M a t e r i a l s are best handled by an a d u l t o r a t r a i n e d s t u d e n t , t o reduce the snapping o f tapes and s c r a t c h i n g o f d i s c s through c a r e l e s s u s e ; 4 . The l i b r a r y i s always s t a f f e d and the a d d i t i o n a l workload i s s m a l l ; 5 . I t can be used by o t h e r t h a n language p u p i l s f o r l i s t e n i n g purposes . There a r e , on the o t h e r hand, some c o n v i n c i n g reasons why the l i b r a r y should not attempt t o i n c l u d e a language l a b o r a t o r y : 1 . A l a b i s not an independent s tudy d e v i c e u n l e s s i t operates on the " l i b r a r y * * system where each p u p i l has complete c o n t r o l over what m a t e r i a l s he h e a r s . A " b r o a d c a s t " type l a b , which i s what most language t eachers u s e , i s merely an e l e c t r o n i c means o f produc ing l o c k - s t e p d r i l l u s i n g a t best 2 o r 3 d i f f e r e n t programs at a t i m e ; 2 . The g r e a t e s t s i n g l e problem o f language l a b s i s mechan-i c a l f a i l u r e , p u t t i n g a burden o f maintenance on the t eacher i n charge which i s o f t e n s u f f i c i e n t t o d iscourage the f u l l use o f r e g u l a r l a b s ; 3 . A l a b may permit the p u p i l the use o f some form of i n d i v -42 i d u a l tape r e c o r d e r f o r p l a y i n g back h i s p r a c t i c e t a p e . I t i s w i d e l y acknowledged t h a t though t h i s c o s t l y f u n c -t i o n may be o f some use t o some s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , young p u p i l s f i n d i t t e d i o u s and are q u i t e unable t o c r i t i c i z e t h e i r own speech f a u l t s ; 4 . The l i s t e n i n g f u n c t i o n i s the o n l y v a l i d need i n a l i b r a r y , and can be used by p u p i l s i n music and E n g l i s h courses as w e l l as f o r f o r e i g n languages. Thus a " l i s t e n i n g p o s t " recommends i t s e l f . However, the concept o f f u l l i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n s t i l l r e q u i r e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e p l a y , and the o n l y r e a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y way t o g i v e the p u p i l c o n t r o l o f h i s m a t e r i a l i s t o p r o v i d e a number o f tape r e c o r d e r s . I f d e s i r e d these c o u l d be f i t t e d f o r group l i s t e n i n g through a d d i t i o n a l headsets . Some a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o the loop broadcast system f o r l i b r a r y u s e . A c o i l o f w i r e mounted around the c e i l i n g o r i n p a r t s o f the room p e r m i t s p u p i l s t o r e c e i v e the program b e i n g p l a y e d w i t h o u t the inconvenience o f headsets plugged i n t o a 12 machine o r desk. Headsets may seem f a i r l y e x p e n s i v e , but the number o f p a r t s i n such a system i s f a r l e s s than i n a l a b , and maintenance i s t h e r e f o r e l e s s c o s t l y . P u p i l s can request programs and headsets a t the charge desk o r o t h e r c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n j u s t as they do o t h e r a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . A g r e a t d e a l o f u s e f u l language m a t e r i a l can be t r a n s f e r r e d t o c a s s e t t e tapes , and even young p u p i l s have no d i f f i c u l t y oper-a t i n g the l i g h t w e i g h t p o r t a b l e machines which p l a y them. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o s t o r e such c a s s e t t e s on s h e l v e s , l a b e l l e d and orga n-i z e d l i k e p r i n t m a t e r i a l s . The one d i s t u r b i n g f e a t u r e o f such a system i s the ease w i t h which both c a s s e t t e s and tape r e c o r d e r s can be removed from the l i b r a r y , never t o r e t u r n . C o n v e r s e l y , 12 Myron Sywak, " L o o p i n g the L i b r a r y , " School L i b r a r y  J o u r n a l . X V (February 15 , 1968), 55. 43 i t i s an advantage i n l i b r a r i e s h a v i n g the r u l e , " a l l m a t e r i a l s may be b o r r o w e d , " f o r c a s s e t t e equipment can be found l i g h t and s t r o n g enough t o permit t a k i n g home o v e r n i g h t . I n both the l o o p and c a s s e t t e systems, however, o n l y l i s t e n -i n g i s p o s s i b l e . A l t h o u g h a s m a l l amount o f such a c t i v i t y i s d e s i r a b l e , i t should be borne i n mind t h a t the o r a l p r a c t i c e e s s e n t i a l t o modern French courses i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the French t e a c h e r , who must be a b l e t o moni tor and i n s t r u c t h i s p u p i l s . The proper p l a c e -for t h i s i s the e l e c t r o n i c c lassroom o r language l a b o r a t o r y , not the l i b r a r y . F i l m resources f o r F r e n c h . A p a r t from d i s t r i c t h o l d i n g s , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Chapter I ) showed o n l y one s c h o o l l i b r a r y w i t h any 1 6 mm f i l m s . The c o s t o f a f i l m c o l l e c t i o n i s so h i g h t h a t d i s t r i c t - w i d e c i r c u l a t i o n i s the most p r a c t i c a l way f o r most schools t o use f i l m s . There has been a marked i n c r e a s e , however, i n the output o f 8 mm f i l m i n c a s s e t t e o r c a r t r i d g e f o r m , and some o f i t may o c c a s i o n a l l y be used f o r f o r e i g n language s t u d y . T h i s a r r a n g e -ment r e q u i r e s a s p e c i a l p r o j e c t o r i n t o which the e n t i r e p l a s t i c c a r t r i d g e i s s l i p p e d w i t h o u t t h r e a d i n g . I t runs c o n t i n u o u s l y and does not need r e w i n d i n g . The c a r t r i d g e , l i k e the tape c a s s e t t e , can be marked and s t o r e d b o o k - f a s h i o n , and i s v e r y r e a d i l y handled by even young p u p i l s . F i l m e d m a t e r i a l designed f o r f o r e i g n languages i s s c a r c e . A check o f the c a t a l o g s o f t h r e e o f the l a r g e s t f i l m producers ( B a i l y , E a l i n g and F a i r c h i l d ) r e v e a l s a v a s t a r r a y , o f sc ience 4 4 and s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l but v e r y l i t t l e r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o F r e n c h . An o c c a s i o n a l t i t l e such as La V i e P a r i s i e n n e a p p e a l s , but i t must be remembered how q u i c k l y s t y l e s change. P u p i l s are q u i c k t o spot an outdated f i l m and r e j e c t i t as a l e a r n i n g a i d . I f a s c h o o l l i b r a r y a c q u i r e s a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f f i l m s , a few can be r e l a t e d somehow t o t o p i c s suggested i n French c o u r s e s , j u s t as many h i s t o r y books can be used f o r French r e s e a r c h p r o -j e c t s . One h o p e f u l breakthrough i s the a d d i t i o n o f sound t r a c k s on these 8 mm f i l m s . Perhaps c a r t o o n f i g u r e s r a t h e r than photographs w i l l one day be used t o c rea te a u d i o v i s u a l " r e a d e r s " f o r p l e a s u r e -v i e w i n g i n the l i b r a r y . A f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s the r e c e n t l y developed F a i r e h i l d p r o j e c t o r which p e r m i t s a t eacher t o add h i s own sound t r a c k t o a f i l m , i n p l a c e o f the o r i g i n a l . I n t h i s way a French n a r r a t i o n c o u l d be d e v i s e d f o r almost any f i l m . The f i e l d o f f i l m p r o d u c t i o n i s s t i l l undergoing change. Standard 8 mm products are g i v i n g way t o "Super-8", a f i l m y i e l d i n g a l a r g e r and b r i g h t e r image but i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r e g u l a r 8 mm p r o j e c t o r s . A d v i c e from an exper ienced a u d i o v i s u a l c o o r d i n a t o r should be heeded. F o r the s c h o o l j u s t e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s media c o l l e c t i o n the problem i s n ' t too s e v e r e : s t a r t w i t h Super-8. About 80 percent o f the c a r t r i d g e s on the market now come i n both r e g u l a r and Super-8.13 Cohen's a d v i c e does not take the F a i r e h i l d "Mark IV Record-i n g V e r s i o n " i n t o account but even w i t h the bet ter -known 13 Abraham Cohen, " S c r e e n i n g s , " School L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , XIV (October 15, 196?), 3833-45 T e c h n i c o l o r machine i t would be p o s s i b l e t o prepare a French n a r r a t i o n on a c a s s e t t e tape and d i sconnec t the o r i g i n a l sound-t r a c k t o p r o v i d e an acceptab l e l i s t e n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . I n any case , f i l m s are so f a r r e l a t i v e l y u n e x p l o i t e d i n terms o f French and o t h e r f o r e i g n language u s e s . D i s c r e c o r d i n g s i n the l i b r a r y . L i t t l e can be added w i t h r e g a r d t o d i s c s t h a t has not a l r e a d y been suggested i n speaking o f tape r e c o r d i n g s . As a r u l e , p o p u l a r French songs should f i n d t h e i r way i n t o s e n i o r courses somehow, and i t i s u s u a l l y the t eacher who p r o v i d e s them. The s i m p l e s t course f o r a l i b r a r y t o f o l l o w i s to prepare taped c o p i e s f o r s tudent u s e , p r e f e r a b l y w i t h c o p i e s o f the words t o accompany each song. Care must be taken t o use good t r a n s c r i b -i n g equipment., and tape speeds o f 3-3/4 o r 7-1/2 inches per second must be u s e d , p r e f e r a b l y the l a t t e r . I f a c o l l e c t i o n o f d i s c s e x i s t s o r i s d e s i r e d f o r any r e a s o n , l i b r a r i a n s have found i t a d v i s a b l e t o prepare c i r c u l a t i o n t r a n s c r i p t i o n s on t a p e , and t o preserve the d i s c as a master copy i n the event o f an erasure or l o s t t a p e . D i s c s are sub jec t t o wear and s c r a t c h i n g . and should be f i l e d v e r t i c a l l y i n t h e i r p r o t e c t i v e j a c k e t s , i n a c o o l r a t h e r than a warm p l a c e . I t i s recommended t h a t these few p r i n c i p l e s be observed i n s e l e c t i n g a u d i o v i s u a l resources f o r an expanding l i b r a r y : 1 . The French t e a c h e r and l i b r a r i a n must share i n e v a l u a t -i n g new m a t e r i a l s , one checking c o n t e n t , the o t h e r c r i t i c i z i n g format and t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t y ; 46 2 . Sound q u a l i t y i s o f paramount importance i n a l l recorded m a t e r i a l ; 3 . Purchase o f u n t r i e d o r l i t t l e - k n o w n equipment should be d e f e r r e d u n t i l both the t e a c h e r and the l i b r a r i a n are convinced o f i t s v a l u e ; 4 . A l l f i l m s , s l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p s should be ordered on a preview b a s i s o n l y , and checked f o r t h e i r e f f e c t on p u p i l s . A random sampling o f p u p i l o p i n i o n o r p r e v i e w -i n g by a p u p i l committee c o u l d r e v e a l some unforeseen r e a c t i o n s t o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r F r e n c h . I n the l i b r a r y s e t t i n g , i t seems on f i r s t examinat ion t h a t a p u p i l c o u l d p r o f i t from time spent w i t h a " t e a c h i n g machine" or a programmed t e x t b o o k . I n e i t h e r case , the t h e o r y i s s i m p l e : by b r e a k i n g each concept o f any s u b j e c t i n t o the s m a l l e s t p o s s i b l e component p a r t s , c a l l e d " f r a m e s , " the p u p i l can be exposed to a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n o f s m a l l s teps l e a d i n g on to l a r g e r and more complex i d e a s o r p a t t e r n s . Grammar can be a n a l y z e d i n t h i s way, w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f success . Mathematics seems t o be the best s u b j e c t f o r such treatment because i t s " r u l e s " are more r e g u l a r than those o f language . I t i s u n l i k e l y , however, t h a t there i s much t o be ga ined by the p u p i l i n a t t e m p t i n g t o f o l l o w a programmed language course d i f f e r e n t from the course used i n the c l a s s r o o m . One l i b r a r i a n p o i n t e d out t h a t a p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d p u p i l s t u d i e d most o f h i s French course i n a seminar room equipped w i t h a tape r e c o r d e r and o t h e r a i d s , but t h a t i s a r a r e example o f u s i n g l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s f o r l a r g e u n i t s o f work. F u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s on programmed m a t e r i a l s are n e a t l y 47 summarized by B r i a n B u t t o n . Why are these courses not g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e ? The answer i s s i m p l y cost and t i m e . I n o r d e r t o produce a programme l a s t i n g one h o u r , some hundred t o three hundred hours may have t o be devoted t o i t s p r e p a r a t i o n . 1 * f Dutton s t a t e s on subsequent pages t h a t almost no r e s e a r c h has been done on the psychology o f second language l e a r n i n g and so most programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , whether presented by a complex v i e w i n g d e v i c e o r by the scrambled pages o f a book, perpetuates the o l d "word-game" approach t o grammar. There i s hope f o r some t e c h n o l o g i c a l breakthrough, perhaps u s i n g a computer, which w i l l one day r e l i e v e the c r i t i c a l s h o r t -age o f t e a c h e r s . Once p i e c e o f research i n t h i s f i e l d i n d i c a t e s t h a t : " . . . a G . A . I . (Computer A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n ) l a b o r a t o r y o f the s o r t d e s c r i b e d here i s d e f i n i t e l y f e a s i b l e ; i t has the p o t e n t i a l , when f u r t h e r deve loped, t o take on a s i g n i -f i c a n t burden of the more mechanica l p o r t i o n s o f e a r l y f o r e i g n language i n s t r u c t i o n . " 1 5 N e v e r t h e l e s s , the l i b r a r y i s not the i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r " e a r l y f o r e i g n language i n s t r u c t i o n " as s u c h . I t s f u n c t i o n i s t o o f f e r enrichment and r e s e a r c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The l i b r a r y c o u l d , however, serve the needs o f a t a l e n t e d s tudent who wishes t o s tudy an a d d i t i o n a l f o r e i g n language u s i n g programmed o r o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l - l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s . A s y n t h e s i s o f the media : e l e c t r o n i c c a r r e l s . A phase o f the phenomenal expansion o f l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s 14 B r i a n D u t t o n , ed., A Guide t o Modern Language Teaching  Methods, London,; G a s s e l l , 1965, p . 179. 15 E . N . Adams et a l . , " C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a Computer as a Technique o f Language I n s t r u c t i o n , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I I ( January 1968), 16. 48 a t Oak P a r k , a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o i n Chapter I I , page 3 8 , i s a remote access resource centre which w i l l e v e n t u a l l y combine f i l m , t e l e v i s i o n and a l l sound media i n t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l and enrichment programs f o r a l l sub jec t a r e a s . Based on a l e c t u r e by M r . Ted Johnson, d i r e c t o r o f the l i b r a r y p r o j e c t , t h i s u s e f u l note on the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f new t e r m i n o l o g y appeared i n School L i b r a r i e s : n A remote access system i s a group o f r e l a t e d d e v i c e s which s t o r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n an a r e a removed from the u s e r and which a u t o m a t i c a l l y and e l e c t r o n i c a l l y d e l i v e r these m a t e r i a l s t o the u s e r a t h i s command. . . . O n l y i f the u s e r i n d i v i d u a l l y c o n t r o l s the s e l e c t i o n o f h i s program and the program i s d e l i v e r e d t o him e l e c t r o n i c a l l y r a t h e r than i n i t s o r i g i n a l hard form i s the system a remote access f a c i l i t y a c c o r d i n g t o c u r r e n t v o c a b u l a r y ."1° The e l e c t r o n i c c a r r e l s a t Oak Park are i n " i s l a n d " f o r m a t i o n ; each l a r g e n e a r l y - c i r c u l a r module c o n t a i n s 5 c a r r e l s . Thus the e l e c t r o n i c equipment i s c l u s t e r e d around t h e c o r e , and each c a r r e l ends i n a p a n e l c o n t a i n i n g a v i d e o m o n i t o r , a t o u c h - b u t t o n s i g n a l system, and a headset w i t h microphone a t t a c h e d . From the c a t a l o g f o r t h a t week a p u p i l s e l e c t s a program out o f the more than 1 0 0 o f f e r e d ; he punches the n u m e r i c a l codes needed t o summon the p r o -gram, and w i t h i n 3 0 seconds a h igh-speed c o p i e r has t r a n s f e r r e d the contents o f the master tape onto a w o r k i n g tape f o r t h a t c a r r e l . Thus no p u p i l need w a i t l o n g t o use a program, o r be f o r c e d t o tune i n par t -way t h r o u g h . Soon the v i d e o phase w i l l be o p e r a t i n g , though i n the s p r i n g o f 1 9 6 9 o n l y audio f u n c t i o n s were i n s t a l l e d . L a t e r , p u p i l s w i l l be a b l e t o d i a l from home te lephones i n the evening and use the audio programs; a broadcast 1 6 S i s t e r Mary L . McCusker , " I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Automation f o r S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s — P a r t 2 , " School L i b r a r i e s , X V I I I ( F a l l 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 7 - 1 8 . 4 9 phase w i l l e v e n t u a l l y permit elementary schools i n the area t o share the h i g h school's resources. Some o f the taped French m a t e r i a l i s o f poor q u a l i t y acous-t i c a l l y — below an acceptable l e v e l i n the researcher's o p i n i o n . The cause may be f a u l t y t r a n s c r i p t i o n , o r copying from already well-worn d i s c s . I f t h i s f l a w can be c o r r e c t e d , and no doubt i t w i l l , the e l e c t r o n i c c a r r e l w i l l f u n c t i o n admirably as a source of a l l a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . I t can even accommodate a student-response sound t r a c k , and f u n c t i o n as a language l a b . The cost o f t h i s p i l o t p r o j e c t i s , o f course, extremely h i g h . But the t e c h n o l o g i c a l experience being gained w i l l engen-der other approaches t o the problem o f making the best use o f a u d i o v i s u a l a i d s i n the l i b r a r y . In B r i t i s h Columbia, however, no school has even begun t o approach t h a t stage o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . Of more immediate i n t e r e s t i s the advent o f a u x i l i a r y hardware which promises t o make the l i b r a r y a centre f o r language l e a r n i n g a t l e s s cost than a remote access complex. One such device i s examined i n Appendix C: the Language Master, which i s based on programming p r i n c i p l e s but u t i l i z e s language l a b methods o f d r i l l . 50 CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS A p o l i c y o f d i v i d e d a u t h o r i t y . I t i s common i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o f i n d s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n s o f French readers i n s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , but no p a r t i c u l a r use i s made o f them i n the t e a c h i n g program. For t h i s r e a s o n , the language t e a c h e r and the l i b r a r i a n must formula te a p o l i c y which w i l l p l a c e books and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s where t h e y . c a n be u s e d . S ince the language department c o u l d be equipped t o d e a l w i t h a s t o c k o f r e a d e r s , both i n s e t s and i n s i n g l e c o p i e s , the f o l l o w i n g key recommendations w i l l serve t o guide the r e d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s . 1. The c lassroom t e a c h e r should c o n t r o l a l l supplementary French r e a d e r s , and p r e s c r i b e t h e i r use a p p r o p r i a t e l y throughout the f i r s t t h r e e o r f o u r years o f F r e n c h . 2. The l i b r a r y ' s main r o l e i s the p r o v i s i o n o f a wide v a r i e t y o f modern r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r s e n i o r s t u d e n t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o a c o l l e c t i o n o f a u d i o v i s u a l resources s u i t a b l e f o r s tudent use a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s . 3 . A u d i o v i s u a l a i d s used o n l y as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s should be s t o r e d as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o language c lassrooms , not i n the l i b r a r y . S p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r language s tudents i n the l i b r a r y . I n t h e i r enthusiasm f o r the concept o f a l i b r a r y o f f e r i n g a l l forms o f l e a r n i n g a i d s , l i b r a r i a n s need t o be reminded t h a t the v a l u e o f complex e l e c t r o n i c equipment has not y e t been proved s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t t o j u s t i f y l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e s on b e h a l f o f language s t u d e n t s . The s a f e s t p o l i c y i s t o l i m i t l i b r a r y f a c i l i -5 1 t i e s t o what can be used e a s i l y by s tudents and mainta ined r e a d i l y . The f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t i e s are t h e r e f o r e recommended. 1 . L i s t e n i n g a p p a r a t u s , p r e f e r a b l y tape r e c o r d e r s , should be a v a i l a b l e i n the l i b r a r y . L i g h t w e i g h t c a s s e t t e u n i t s are d e s i r a b l e f o r home u s e . E x t r a headsets f o r group l i s t e n i n g should be on hand. 2 . F i l m , f i l m s t r i p and s l i d e v i e w i n g apparatus should be a v a i l a b l e i n q u a n t i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r the amount o f f i l m e d m a t e r i a l i n the c o l l e c t i o n . F i l m s t r i p v i e w e r s are as necessary as p r o j e c t o r s , f o r i n d i v i d u a l v i e w i n g . 3. Both i n d i v i d u a l c a r r e l s and group s tudy space are r e q u i r e d f o r a f l e x i b l e program o f p r o j e c t s . The l i b r a r y can serve a u s e f u l purpose by p r o v i d i n g t h i s s p e c i a l accommodation which i s not a v a i l a b l e i n c l a s s -room b l o c k s . I t would o f course be advantageous t o have s i m i l a r f l e x i b i l i t y i n language c lassrooms , a l t h o u g h a t present such arrangements are almost i m p o s s i b l e under B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l b u i l d i n g r u l e s . A shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Both the t e a c h e r and the l i b r a r i a n have the same g o a l : t o serve the needs o f the p u p i l s . Because each i s a s p e c i a l i s t , they s h o u l d c o n f e r i n mat ters o f a c q u i s i t i o n and c i r c u l a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s . The f o l l o w i n g recommendations w i l l prove d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w i f harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p s do not e x i s t among s t a f f members. They a r e , n o n e t h e l e s s , o f prime importance . 1 . Purchases f o r French department c o l l e c t i o n s should be made from a separate budget , but the l i b r a r y s t a f f can a s s i s t t eachers i n c o m p i l i n g t h e i r o r d e r s . O r d e r i n g may be done through normal l i b r a r y c h a n n e l s , but should not be r e s t r i c t e d t o o n l y once o r t w i c e a y e a r . 2 . The judgement o f the t e a c h e r i s needed main ly i n e v a l u a t i n g the language content o f a l l s chool -based French m a t e r i a l s , w h i l e the l i b r a r i a n 1 s o p i n i o n i s r e q u i r e d on the t e c h n i c a l aspec ts o f both p r i n t and n o n - p r i n t r e s o u r c e s . 3. The a p p r o v a l o f both t eacher and l i b r a r i a n should be g i v e n t o a l l purchases i n v o l v i n g French language, i n c l u d i n g mechanica l a i d s . P r e v i e w i n g should precede 52 purchase , e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . 4 . The c r i t e r i o n f o r keeping f o r e i g n language m a t e r i a l s i n the l i b r a r y should be t h e i r use by s t u d e n t s . Unused books, i n p a r t i c u l a r , c rea te a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n o f l i b r a r y h o l d i n g s and may discourage the f o r m a t i o n o f h e a l t h y s tudent a t t i t u d e s towards r e a d i n g i n a f o r e i g n language. 5. A major share o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the use o f l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s i n French must f a l l on the t e a c h e r . I t i s h i s f u n c t i o n t o i n s t r u c t p u p i l s i n r e a d i n g , eva luate t h e i r p r o g r e s s , and ensure t h a t r e a d i n g i s a respec ted g o a l i n the French program. Whi le not a l l p u p i l s w i l l achieve the u l t i m a t e stage o f f u l l y l i b e r a t e d r e a d i n g i n the f o r e i g n language, many w i l l be ab le t o do s o , g i v e n the necessary encouragement i n the c lassroom t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r comprehension s k i l l s . BIBLIOGRAPHY 53 A . BOOKS C o r n f i e l d , Ruth R. F o r e i g n Language I n s t r u c t i o n . New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1966. D u t t o n , B r i a n , e d . A Guide t o Modern Language Teaching Methods, London, C a s s e l l , 1965. G r i t t n e r , Frank M . Teaching F o r e i g n Languages. New Y o r k , Harper and Row, 1969. Mackey, W i l l i a m F r a n c i s . Language Teaching A n a l y s i s . London, Longmans,Green, 1965. Rivers, W i l g a M . The P s y c h o l o g i s t and the F o r e i g n Language  Teacher . New Y o r k , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1964. . Teaching Foreign-Language S k i l l s . New Y o r k , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago , 1968. Saunders , Helen E . The Modern School L i b r a r y . Metuchen, New J e r s e y , Scarecrow, 1968. S t a c k , Edward M . The Language L a b o r a t o r y and Modern Language  T e a c h i n g . New Y o r k , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y , 1966. B. PERIODICALS Adams, E . N . , H . W. M o r r i s o n , and J . M . Reddy. " C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a Computer as a Technique o f Language I n s t r u c t i o n , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I I ( January 1968), 3-16. B e r g e r , I . " C a s s e t t e as Notebook," Saturday Review, L I (March 16, 1968), 57-9. Brown, Robert M . "The L e a r n i n g C e n t e r , " AV Communication Review, X V I ( F a l l 1968), 294-300. " C i r c u l a t i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s i n U . S. Secondary S c h o o l s , " NEA Research B u l l e t i n . XLV (December 1967), 109. C l a r k , C. "Notes on the New T h i n g : w i t h D i s c o g r a p h y , " L i b r a r y  J o u r n a l , X C I I I ( A p r i l 15, 1968), 1733-6. Cohen, Abraham. " S c r e e n i n g s , " School L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , XIV (October 15 , 1967), 3833. 54 " D i a l - A - L e s s o n , " Time. X L I I ( January 10, 1969) , 12 . E s p o s i t o , P . G. " F i f t h - Y e a r F o r e i g n Language S t u d y , " Modern  Language J o u r n a l . L I ( A p r i l 1967) , 193-4. F o g a r t y , J . " R e v o l u t i o n I n Our S c h o o l s , " L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , X C I I ( January 15 , 1967), 3 0 2 - 3 . F o r s d a l e , L . " C a r t r i d g e L o o p : 8 mm Made E a s y , " L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , X C I I (May 15 , 1967) , 2002-4. Gaunt, Joseph . " D e v e l o p i n g Taped N a r r a t i o n s f o r S l i d e P r e s e n t a -t i o n s , " School L i b r a r i e s , X V I I (Winter 1968) , 4 5 - 9 . G e l l e r , E v e l y n . "The Media L i b r a r i a n and A u d i o v i s u a l , " School  L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , XIV ( A p r i l 15 , 1967) , 1683. "Happiness I s Your Own C a r r e l ; F i r s t W h o l l y E l e c t r o n i c L e a r n i n g C e n t e r , " Time, XC (February 18 , 1966) , 6 0 . Hemming, W i l l i a m A . " D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T r a i n i n g and S e l f E v a l u a t i o n i n the Teaching o f P r o n u n c i a t i o n , " IRAL, IV ( 1966) , 7-17. J a s s e y , W i l l i a m . "The Modern Language R e v o l u t i o n Needs a Coordinated Paperback Program," School Paperback J o u r n a l , I I (December 1965) , 2 0 - 2 . K i e s e r , W. E . ^On Tape Recorders and Language L a b o r a t o r i e s , " Canadian Modern Language Review, XX (June 1964) , 31-5 . McGusker, S i s t e r Mary L . " I m p l i c a t i o n s o f Automation f o r School L i b r a r i e s — P a r t 2 , " School L i b r a r i e s , X V I I I ( F a l l 1968) , 15-22. M u e l l e r , K l a u s A . and W i l l i a m Wiersma. "The E f f e c t s o f Language L a b o r a t o r y Type Upon F o r e i g n Language Achievement S c o r e s , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I (October 1967), 349-51 . M u e l l e r , Theodore H . "Programmed Language I n s t r u c t i o n — Help f o r the L i n g u i s t i c a l l y ' U n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , ' " Modern Language  J o u r n a l , L I I (February 1968) , 79-84. M u e l l e r , Theodore H . and Henry N i e d z i e l s k l . "The I n f l u e n c e o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T r a i n i n g on P r o n u n c i a t i o n , " Modern Language  J o u r n a l , L I I (November 1968) , 410 -16. O t t o , Wayne and Gwenyth B r i t t o n . "Sense Impress ion Responses t o V e r b a l and P i c t o r i a l S t i m u l i , " IRAL (January 1965) , 51-6. P i m s l e u r . P a u l . " A Memory S c h e d u l e , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I (February 1967) , 7 3 - 5 . 55 S c h w i l k , Gene L . " M i l l i o n - D o l l a r C a r r e l s , " School L i b r a r y  J o u r n a l . XIV ( January 15, 1967) , 306-10. Sywak, Myron. " L o o p i n g the L i b r a r y , " School L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , XV (February 15, 1968) , 55. Trump, J . L l o y d . "Independent Study Centers — T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o the C e n t r a l School L i b r a r y , " NASSP B u l l e t i n , CCCVI ( January 1966) , 45-51 . V a l e t t e , Rebecca M . "The Use o f the D i c t e e i n the French Language C l a s s r o o m , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , X L V I I I (November 1964), 431-4. C. UNPUBLISHED SOURCES B a i r d , H e l e n . "Young a d u l t l i b r a r i a n v i s i t s an advanced French c l a s s . " Tape r e c o r d i n g , D e t r o i t P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 1964. Bundy, Edward ¥ . " A n e x p e r i m e n t a l s tudy o f the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e l e v i s i o n a p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t echniques and c o n v e n t i o n a l c lassroom procedures i n promoting i n i t i a l comprehension o f b a s i c verb form concepts i n elementary S p a n i s h . " Unpubl i shed d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , I 9 6 0 . P u r s e r , Barbara A . " A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the usage o f the language l a b o r a t o r y i n t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s o t h e r than f o r e i g n languages i n l a r g e Texas s c h o o l sys tems . " Unpubl i shed M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Howard Payne C o l l e g e , Brownwood, Texas , 1966. S m i t h , Selma R. "The s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n and the t e a c h e r o f S p a n i s h . " Unpubl i shed M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Queen's C o l l e g e , F l u s h i n g , New Y o r k , 1962. Spaar , V i r g i n i a L . "Songs and music as an a i d i n the t e a c h i n g o f the French language and French c u l t u r e . " Unpubl i shed d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1961. T e z z a , Joseph S . "The e f f e c t s o f l i s t e n i n g t r a i n i n g on a u d i o -l i n g u a l l e a r n i n g . " Unpubl i shed d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1962. APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE: FOREIGN LANGUAGE LIBRARY RESOURCES School D i s t r i c t No. Enrolment The i n f o r m a t i o n requested below i s t o h e l p b u i l d up a p i c t u r e o f B . C . s c h o o l l i b r a r y resources i n the f i e l d o f f o r e i g n languages . Where the word French i s u s e d , o t h e r languages are a l s o i n t e n d e d . P a r a l l e l i n f o r m a t i o n can be entered on the reverse s i d e o f the sheet , u s i n g a p a r a l l e l numbering system. A l t h o u g h the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f u s i n g l i b r a r y - b a s e d language m a t e r i a l s are no doubt? s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d i n most s c h o o l s , i t i s hoped t h a t a p o o l i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n from B. C. t e a c h e r s and l i b r a r i a n s w i l l produce a u s e f u l c o l l e c t i o n o f i d e a s . V i s i t s may be p o s s i b l e t o s c h o o l s whose c o l l e c t i o n s are l a r g e i n t h i s area so the r e s e a r c h e r can examine the most v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l s now i n u s e . K i n d l y g i v e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e a l i n g w i t h t e a c h e r -c o n t r o l l e d resources t o the a p p r o p r i a t e department head o r s t a f f member. Your a s s i s t a n c e i s most s i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d . 1 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many t i t l e s does your l i b r a r y h o l d i n these areas? (a) H i s t o r y , geography o f F r a n c e , i n c l u d i n g t r a v e l (900 's ) (b) L i t e r a t u r e i n F r e n c h , i n c l u d i n g a d a p t a t i o n s f o r l e a r n e r s (c) L i t e r a t u r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h from French works (d) Formal language s tudy a i d s : d i c t i o n a r i e s , t e x t b o o k s , e t c . (e) Canadiana, emphasiz ing h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e o f French Canada T o t a l 2. A p p r o x i m a t e l y what percentage o f the t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n do these t i t l e s represent? %. 3 . Were any o f the above purchased i n 1967-68? Yes No 4. Are any such purchases planned f o r 1968-69? Yes No 5. Do you m a i n t a i n v e r t i c a l f i l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n some o r a l l o f these areas? Yes No 6. A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many i tems o f the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s does the l i b r a r y house? (a) Phonograph r e c o r d s i n F r e n c h : (b) Tape r e c o r d i n g s i n F r e n c h : (c) F i l m s t r i p s r e l a t i n g t o any o f the areas o f Q u e s t i o n 1: i ) S i l e n t , o r w i t h p r i n t e d s c r i p t o n l y : i i ) W i t h tape o r d i s c commentary: (d) Other a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s : 7. Were any o f the above purchased d u r i n g 1967-68? Yes No 8 . Are any such purchases planned f o r 1968-69? Yes No 9 . P l e a s e s p e c i f y any o t h e r l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s you h o l d , o r any i n f o r m a t i o n which would complete the p i c t u r e o f your l i b r a r y ' s r esources f o r f o r e i g n language s t u d e n t s . 58 APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE: SUPPLEMENTARY FOREIGN LANGUAGE RESOURCES CONTROLLED BY THE TEACHER School D i s t r i c t No . Enrolment I n t h i s survey o f B . C. s c h o o l l i b r a r y resources i n the f i e l d o f modern f o r e i g n languages , i t i s expected t h a t few s c h o o l s have i n v e s t e d h e a v i l y i n l i b r a r y - b a s e d m a t e r i a l s . More o f t e n , language t eachers accumulate t h e i r own departmental r e s o u r c e s . Both the r e s e a r c h e r and the Modern Languages P . S . A . w i s h t o b u i l d a p i c t u r e o f these r e s o u r c e s , emphasizing m a t e r i a l s p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o s tudents f o r independent s tudy and p r o j e c t work. Do not i n c l u d e l i b r a r y - b a s e d o r teacher-owned m a t e r i a l s . 1. Check the language covered by t h i s r e p o r t : French Spanish German Other ( s p e c i f y ) Number o f t eachers concerned t h i s y e a r : 2. I n d i c a t e which o f the f o l l o w i n g language resources are permanently a v a i l a b l e i n y o u r s c h o o l , a p a r t from l i b r a r y h o l d i n g s : (a) Language l a b o r a t o r y o r e l e c t r o n i c c l a s s r o o m : No. o f s tudent p o s i t i o n s : (b) F i l m s t r i p s : i ) number o f s i l e n t s t r i p s ________ i i ) number w i t h tape o r d i s c commentary (c) F i l m s (16 mm): i ) number o f s i l e n t f i l m s i i ) number o f sound f i l m s F o r the next t h r e e i t e m s , count o n l y c u r r e n t l y u s e f u l m a t e r i a l s . (d) D i s c r e c o r d i n g s , school -owned: i ) music i i ) speech (e) Textbooks not p r e s c r i b e d f o r present c o u r s e s : number o f d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s How many o f these t i t l e s are i n s e t s o f 10 o r more? ( f ) Supplementary readers not p r e s c r i b e d f o r present c o u r s e s : number o f d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s How many o f these t i t l e s are i n s e t s o f 10 o r more? (g) Student p r a c t i c e d i s c s f o r home s t u d y , t o accompany present c o u r s e s : i ) Grade l e v e l ( s ) i i ) Number o f s e t s (h) Other resources s u i t a b l e f o r s tudent u s e : (games, f i l m s l i d e s ) . Which o f the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f school-owned equipment are c o n t r o l l e d e x c l u s i v e l y by language teachers? Check where a p p l i c a b l e . (a) tape r e c o r d e r ( s ) (b) r e c o r d p l a y e r ( s ) (c) f i l m s t r i p v i e w e r ( s ) (d) f i l m s t r i p a n d / o r s l i d e p r o j e c t o r ( s ) (e) o t h e r a u d i o v i s u a l d e v i c e s : Have s tudents i n your present s c h o o l been g i v e n assignments which r e q u i r e the use o f s c h o o l l i b r a r y resources? Yes No P l e a s e e l a b o r a t e , g i v i n g d e t a i l s o f any p r o j e c t s you c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l and/or comments on your a t t i t u d e t o the l i b r a r y as a l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g a i d . 61 B e l l a n d H o w e l l L a n g u a g e M a s t e r 62 APPENDIX C A LIBRARY EXPERIMENT WITH AN AUDIOVISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICE: THE LANGUAGE MASTER Purpose and s e t t i n g o f the exper iment . The B e l l and H o w e l l Company has produced a machine which i t c l a i m s has a p p l i c a t i o n s t o every l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The Language M a s t e r , a compact and e a s i l y p o r t a b l e v e r s i o n o f a tape r e c o r d e r , employs cards o f v a r i o u s s i z e s which have l e n g t h s o f magnetic tape adhered p a r a l l e l t o t h e i r bottom edges. The p u p i l can hear what has been p r e - r e c o r d e d on the master t r a c k , r e c o r d some response o f h i s own on the s tudent t r a c k , and compare the two by subsequent p l a y i n g s . ( I l l u s t r a t i o n on page 61). A p a i r o f s w i t c h e s c o n t r o l whether i t i s master o r s tudent t r a c k , " l i s t e n 1 1 o r " r e c o r d " mode he employs. W i t h v i s u a l elements such as p i c t u r e s , symbols o r q u e s t i o n s w r i t t e n o r typed on the c a r d , the a u d i o v i s u a l f u n c t i o n i s complete . The machine i s des igned f o r a s i n g l e a c t i v e u s e r even though group l i s t e n i n g i s e a s i l y a r r a n g e d . W i t h earphones, a p u p i l can work q u i e t l y and v i r t u a l l y w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n . I t would seem an i d e a l machine f o r l i b r a r y u s e , and has fewer p a r t s t o go wrong than a c o n v e n t i o n a l tape r e c o r d e r . I n i t s a d v e r t i s i n g , the manufacturer c l a i m s the Language Master i s u s e f u l f o r f o r e i g n language l e a r n i n g and the f i r m has p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s o f cards p r e - r e c o r d e d f o r French l e s s o n s a t a v e r y elementary l e v e l . I n an a r t i c l e r e p r i n t e d from a t r a d e j o u r n a l , two C a l i f o r n i a f o r e i g n language s p e c i a l i s t s h e a r t i l y 6 3 endorse t h i s form o f "programming" language e x e r c i s e s . D r . Gustave M a t h i e u , then chairman o f the C a l i f o r n i a S ta te U n i v e r -s i t y f o r e i g n language department, i s quoted e x t e n s i v e l y and d e s c r i b e s the f o l l o w i n g use o f the c a r d s : "On the f r o n t s i d e o f a c a r d I have recorded the t e a c h i n g p a t t e r n and w r i t t e n the i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e word so i t reads ups ide down. On the reverse s i d e I have w r i t t e n the word so i t reads c o r r e c t l y and I have g i v e n the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n : i n the f u t u r e , drawings may be added t o these c a r d s . I n b r e a k i n g w i t h the o l d t r a d i t i o n o f " r e a d and w r i t e " , we l e s s e n the i n t e r f e r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g . By not a l l o w i n g the s tudent t o see the s p e l l i n g o f a word u n t i l he hears i t and says i t s e v e r a l t i m e s , he e l i m i n a t e s the f i x e d concept ion he had f o r pronouncing i t as i t l o o k s . " 1 ' I n the eyes o f C h a r l e s H . H e r b e r t , then c o o r d i n a t o r o f f o r e i g n languages i n San Bernardino County S c h o o l s , the c a r d -f l i p p i n g system had s p e c i a l appeal f o r e lementary s c h o o l c h i l -dren and would be i d e a l i n overcoming the c h i e f weakness o f FLES ( i n c o r r e c t l y e x p l a i n e d i n t h i s a r t i c l e as " F o r e i g n L a n g -uages - E l e m e n t a r y , Secondary" , but u s u a l l y taken t o mean " F o r e i g n Languages i n the Elementary S c h o o l " ) : s u i t a b l e elemen-t a r y s c h o o l t eachers are not a v a i l a b l e i n the needed numbers, so o r a l p r a c t i c e c o u l d be conducted w i t h p r e - r e c o r d e d Language M a s t e r c a r d s . The p u p i l s e l e c t s the u n i t needing p r a c t i c e , and c o n t r o l s the sequence and. f requency o f h i s r e p e t i t i o n s . A l l o f t h i s enthusiasm seems t o have been generated e a r l y i n the machine ' s e x i s t e n c e ; t h e r e were then o n l y a dozen Language Masters s c a t t e r e d around the county , and the S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1 7 " A Phrase Has Become a F a c t , " E d u c a t i o n a l Equipment  and M a t e r i a l s , W i n t e r 1 9 6 7 . R e p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d by B e l l and H o w e l l Company. 64 had one, a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r e p r i n t e d a r t i c l e . Very few o f these machines have been purchased i n B r i t i s h Columbia , but i t seems important t o determine whether such a device w i l l i n f a c t serve a u s e f u l purpose i n the development o f independent language study u s i n g l i b r a r y - b a s e d r e s o u r c e s . A t E r i c Hamber Secondary School i n Vancouver an experiment was conducted under the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : 1 . Use o f the Language Master was t o be attempted i n a group s e t t i n g , u s i n g one o f the new group-s tudy rooms on the upper f l a o r o f the l i b r a r y ; 2 . Time was t o be l i m i t e d to a p o r t i o n not exceeding h a l f o f r e g u l a r French p e r i o d s , to approximate the amount o f t ime a c lassroom teacher might be w i l l i n g t o a l l o t t o a mechanical a i d ; 3 . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t language t eachers are not w i l l i n g t o r e s t r u c t u r e courses d r a s t i c a l l y , so the content o f the p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l s was t o be based d i r e c t l y on a u n i t o f the t e x t ; 4 . The p r a c t i c e p e r i o d s should l a s t about two weeks, p e r -m i t t i n g f i v e o r s i x s e s s i o n s o f about t h i r t y minutes each, but r e q u i r i n g the p u p i l s t o complete a l l c l a s s assignments as i f present f u l l t ime i n c l a s s . The t eacher agreed t o t r y t o cover grammatica l d e t a i l w h i l e the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was p r e s e n t , and t o i n -s t r u c t the remainder o f the c l a s s i n her u s u a l way i n o r d e r t o i n c l u d e the same m a t e r i a l as the Language M a s t e r u n i t . An attempt was made t o conduct the Language M a s t e r p r a c t i c e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the normal s c h o o l c o n t e x t , as i t would operate i f made as much a p a r t o f the French program as the language l a b o r a t o r y . The major q u e s t i o n was whether o r not work w i t h the Language Master would serve the p u p i l s 1 needs as w e l l as f u l l - t i m e c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r b e t t e r . I f i t d i d , purchase o f the machine 65 c o u l d be recommended t o s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r use i n the l i b r a r y . Procedure and R e s u l t s . An e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f 17 p u p i l s from 3 French X c l a s s e s under the same t e a c h e r was matched by means o f a p r e - t e s t w i t h 17 o t h e r p u p i l s who formed a c o n t r o l group. Matching was done m a i n l y on the b a s i s o f t e s t s c o r e s , w i t h guidance from the t e a -cher who attempted t o e v a l u a t e g e n e r a l a p t i t u d e and pas t p e r f o r -mance. The p r e - t e s t (Appendix E) i n c l u d e d the same s o r t s o f i tems as were planned f o r the f i n a l t e s t : 1 . S i n g l e - w o r d d i c t a t i o n ; 2. C o m p l e t i o n , u s i n g words i n c o n t e x t ; 3« Use of the d i r e c t o b j e c t pronouns, which was the main grammatica l p o i n t o f the chosen l e s s o n . A few i tems from \ past l e s s o n s were i n c l u d e d t o b r i n g the t o t a l t o 40 p o i n t s . The r e s u l t s o f the matching gave the c o n t r o l group a s l i g h t advantage. The p u p i l score was 2 6 . 1 out o f 40, compared w i t h 24.9 f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group (Table V I I I ) . A f t e r a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n d e a l i n g w i t h the contents o f Lecon 23 o f Le F r a n c a i s V i v a n t , the subsequent 5 c l a s s p e r i o d s were used f o r Language M a s t e r p r a c t i c e . Each group o f 5 o r 6 p u p i l s r e p r e s e n t i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l group went t o the l i b r a r y f o r a h a l f - h o u r p e r i o d o f p r a c t i c e , c o n s i s t i n g o f e x e r c i s e s A , B , G, D below, w h i l e the t eacher cont inued w i t h a normal l e s s o n , emphasiz ing o r a l p r a c t i c e i n o r d e r t o p a r a l l e l the q u e s t i o n -answer format o f the d r i l l c a r d s . 66 The e x e r c i s e s were as f o l l o w s : A . S i n g l e - w o r d d i c t a t i o n . W i t h a l l p u p i l s l i s t e n i n g , one p u p i l ( s e l e c t e d by the group t o be l e a d e r ) p layed each card i n the s e r i e s o f 20 , 2 o r 3 t imes each. He and the p u p i l s i n d i v i d -u a l l y wrote the words i n a l i s t . Checking was done a f t e r a l l the cards had been p l a y e d through once more i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n . The c o r r e c t form was w r i t t e n on the back o f each c a r d , i n l a r g e l e t t e r s , and when the l e a d e r t u r n e d up each c a r d the p u p i l s c o r r e c t e d t h e i r work. Some cards which caused most d i f f i c u l t y were s e l e c t e d f o r r e - p l a y i n g , e i t h e r immediate ly a f t e r w a r d s o r next day. The words were s e l e c t e d from the new v o c a b u l a r y o f the tex tbook l e s s o n : B . D e f i n i t i o n s . P u p i l s heard 10 d e f i n i t i o n s , i n F r e n c h , o f words chosen from the l e s s o n . They wrote down the words they b e l i e v e d d e f i n e d , and checked t h e i r answers by c o n s u l t i n g the back o f each c a r d ; C . D i c t a t i o n o f whole sentences . I n s t r u c t i o n s a d v i s e d the group l e a d e r t o p l a y each card s e v e r a l t i m e s , w i t h a pause between each r e p e t i t i o n t o permi t p u p i l s t o attempt w r i t i n g p a r t o f the sentence . There were 10 c a r d s ; D . Quest ions w i t h m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e answers . Eaeh o f 10 cards c a r r i e d a recorded q u e s t i o n , and 3 answers were p r i n t e d on the f r o n t . P u p i l s gathered around a t a b l e were ab le t o read the a n s -wers arid w r i t e ( a ) , (b) o r (c) on t h e i r p a p e r s . C o r r e c t i o n was done w i t h a key s u p p l i e d w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s . Two f u r t h e r e x e r c i s e s were p r e p a r e d , designed f o r i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n group u s e . These were not t r i e d by any of the p a r t i -c i p a n t s : E . P r o n u n c i a t i o n . These 10 sentences each conta ined r e p e -t i t i o n s o f a key sound. For example, the p u p i l heard n / e / — L * S t r a n g e r a t rouve ' l e s e n t i e r sans d i f f i c u l t e . " I n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n t o p r a c t i c e and r e c o r d i m i t a t i o n s o f the sentences , and each sentence was p r i n t e d on the back o f the c a r d f o r check-i n g i n case o f d i f f i c u l t y . Ten d i f f e r e n t phonemes were presented i n t h i s way. F . M a t c h i n g . The 10 numbered cards each bore a recorded q u e s t i o n ; 12 answer c a r d s , l e t t e r e d (a) t o ( 1 ) , conta ined answers u s i n g d i r e c t o b j e c t pronouns. The p u p i l was i n s t r u c t e d t o match each q u e s t i o n w i t h a s u i t a b l e answer by a process o f t r i a l . T e n -t a t i v e matchings c o u l d be made w i t h the e a s i l y manipulated c a r d s . An answer key was s u p p l i e d t o check f i n a l work . P u p i l c o o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g the p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s was e x c e l l e n t . 67 A major d i f f i c u l t y was t h a t the p u p i l s were o f w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s , and no s i n g l e pace s u i t e d everyone. L e s s a b l e s tudents s u f f e r e d most, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r comments a f t e r w a r d s . The e n t i r e 3 c l a s s e s were g i v e n a f i n a l t e s t (Appendix F) which covered o n l y the m a t e r i a l o f the l e s s o n : 1. D i c t a t i o n o f a f u r t h e r 2G words, i n c l u d i n g the most common d i f f i c u l t i e s from the p r e - t e s t s e l e c t i o n ; 2. The use o f new verbs i n context t o complete sentences ; 3. The use o f d i r e c t o b j e c t pronouns i n c o n t e x t ; 4. The use o f v o c a b u l a r y i tems i n c o n t e x t . The r e s u l t i n g scores o f the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups compared q u i t e f a v o r a b l y . The c o n t r o l group was markedly ahead o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l group , h a v i n g made an average p u p i l g a i n o f 5.7 p o i n t s out o f 40, compared w i t h 4»2 i n the exper imenta l g r o u p . A separate a n a l y s i s o f s cores on the d i c t a t i o n p o r t i o n o f the t e s t s shows an average g a i n o f 2.5 p o i n t s out o f 20 by the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , and 2,4 p o i n t s by the c o n t r o l group. I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area the Language M a s t e r appears t o have h e l p e d , p r o b -a b l y because the d r i l l e x e r c i s e s emphasized d i c t a t i o n . An o r a l e v a l u a t i o n was made o f both groups a f t e r the f i n a l t e s t , w i t h a p o s s i b l e 30 p o i n t s (Appendix G) . I t c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g p a r t s : 1. R e p e t i t i o n o f sentences , one a t a t i m e , a f t e r h e a r i n g them read t w i c e by the examiner. The content o f each o f the 3 sentences was based on the textbook n a r r a t i v e and had been heard i n the p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s ; 2. A s h o r t s e l e c t i o n , composed o f phrases s e l e c t e d from the n a r r a t i v e , t o be read a l o u d a f t e r a s i l e n t preview r e a d i n g ; 68 3. A s e r i e s o f s h o r t quest ions , ranked a c c o r d i n g t o approximate l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y , r e q u i r i n g o n l y s h o r t phrases i n r e p l y to i n d i c a t e comprehension and r e c a l l o f the b a s i c n a r r a t i v e . The f i f t h and f i n a l q u e s t i o n i n p a r t 3 was in tended t o c a l l f o r t h a fundamental use o f a d i r e c t o b j e c t pronoun. Some c r e d i t was g i v e n f o r comprehension, the r e s t f o r c o r r e c t r e c a l l o f d e t a i l . On t h i s o r a l r a t i n g the c o n t r o l group scored one f u l l p o i n t p e r p u p i l h i g h e r than the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p : an average o f 22,5 compared w i t h 21.5 out o f 30 p o i n t s . O r a l s k i l l s were not adequate ly p r a c t i s e d w i t h the Language M a s t e r , and the r a t i n g r e f l e c t s c h i e f l y the s l i g h t b a s i c advantage found i n i t i a l l y i n the c o n t r o l g r o u p . D i s c u s s i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s . The f a c t t h a t a heterogeneous exper imenta l group was a b l e t o m a i n t a i n approx imate ly the same r a t e o f progress as a c o n t r o l group d e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts o f c l a s s t ime " l o s t " seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the Language M a s t e r i s moderately u s e f u l as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o some a u d i o l i n g u a l c lassroom t e a c h i n g . However, the amount o f e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o produce d r i l l cards i s c o n s i d e r -a b l e . S e v e r a l hours were needed t o dev ise e x e r c i s e s , r e c o r d the m a t e r i a l , l e t t e r the cards and prepare the i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t s . Storage problems c o u l d be s o l v e d q u i t e r e a d i l y g i v e n the e x c e l -l e n t s e t t i n g o f the Hamber l i b r a r y , but a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e c o l l e c t i o n o f c a r d s , w i t h every e x e r c i s e and chapter u n i t c a r e -f u l l y numbered and f i l e d , would have t o be b u i l t up i n support o f each textbook c h a p t e r . The p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e , cos t o f the cards 69 and a p p a r e n t l y l i m i t e d use o f any one u n i t would p r e j u d i c e most t e a c h e r s a g a i n s t u s i n g the machine t o i t s f u l l e s t e x t e n t . The change o f tex tbooks p r e s e n t l y i n progress i s a reminder t h a t Language Master d r i l l s e t s must be prepared f o r s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s and r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o the c u r r i c u l u m o f the day. Each c a r d must be marked i n some permanent way, e i t h e r by f e l t - t i p pen o r t y p e w r i t e r , and i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t cards can be r e - u s e d t o any a p p r e c i a b l e e x t e n t . Teachers would i n s t i n c -t i v e l y p l a n t o r e t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y u n i t s from y e a r t o y e a r . The machine, f i t t e d f o r group l i s t e n i n g w i t h a j a c k - b o x and good q u a l i t y earphones, c o s t s over $ 3 0 0 . F o r t h i s p r i c e , a v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y se t o f a t l e a s t 6 c a s s e t t e tape r e c o r d e r s can be purchased , do ing the same d i c t a t i o n jobs but w i t h the f o l l o w i n g advantages : 1. Each p u p i l can work i n d e p e n d e n t l y , a t h i s own r a t e ; 2. M a s t e r r e c o r d i n g s can be c o p i e d onto any number o f c a s s e t t e tapes by a t e c h n i c i a n , w h i l e on the Language M a s t e r each card must be prepared f o r each machine i f s e v e r a l machines are t o be used s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ; 3 . Fewer tapes than c a r d s e t s are needed, s i n c e one master tape r e c o r d i n g o f any e x e r c i s e can be kept on f i l e w h i l e s tudent p r a c t i c e tapes are erased p e r i o d -i c a l l y and r e - u s e d . The unique f e a t u r e s o f the Language Master are i t s use o f c a r d s , p r o v i d i n g a p l e a s u r a b l e motor a c t i v i t y and a sense o f s e l e c t i v e c o n t r o l f o r the l e a r n e r , and i t s a b i l i t y t o r e c o r d and p l a y back p u p i l o r a l responses , which c a s s e t t e tape r e c o r d -ers do not ye t d o . T e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s may be made as f o l l o w s : 1. The Language Master i s m i n i m a l l y u s e f u l f o r group u s e , 70 p r o v i d i n g d r i l l i n d i c t a t i o n s k i l l s on a l e v e l comparable t o c lassroom p r a c t i c e ; 2. I t i s s u i t a b l e f o r group use i n a l i b r a r y s e t t i n g , r e q u i r i n g o n l y l i m i t e d o r a l communication among the p u p i l s ; 3. I t s purchase i s not w h o l l y j u s t i f i a b l e , g i v e n the g r e a t e r degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y p o s s i b l e w i t h a se t o f c a s s e t t e tape r e c o r d e r s a t comparable c o s t . The f o l l o w i n g recommendations are made: 1 . F u r t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h the Language Master i s needed t o determine i t s u s e f u l n e s s and p r a c t i c a b i l i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l f o r e i g n language s t u d y ; 2. A l o n g - t e r m study o f i t s m o t i v a t i o n a l v a l u e i s e s s e n t i a l . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s experiment d i d not permi t the i n v e s t i g a t o r to v e r i f y t h a t p u p i l s would cont inue t o f i n d the machine a t t r a c t i v e a f t e r s e v e r a l weeks o r months o f r e g u l a r u s e ; 3» C o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n t o the purchase o f a d u a l - t r a c k tape r e c o r d e r equipped f o r master r e c o r d i n g and s tudent - response p layback f u n c t i o n s , i n pre ference t o the Language M a s t e r . TABLE V I I - P u p i l Test Seores E x p e r i m e n t a l Group C o n t r o l Group P r e - t e s t F i n a l Test QTax P r e - t e s t F i n a l Tes t Q r & 1 P u p i l T o t a l D i c t a t i o n T o t a l D i c t a t i o n E v a l . P u p i l T o t a l D i c t a t i o n T o t a l D i c t a t i o n E y a l . Faye 29 20 35 20 24 Anna 29 20 32 20 23 Z o l t a n 30 16 27 11 21 Z a v i e 10 5 20 12 16 John A . 26 19 19 18 20 John R. 25 15 27 18 23 R o l f 35 20 38 20 22 Dawn 19 15 23 20 20 Robin 27 13 31 20 27 Cathy 27 18 25 18 22 H a r o l d 22 13 33 20 17 L e s l i e 19 13 28 17 23 Debbie 20 14 21 19 17 C o l i n 36 20 39 20 28 K e i t h 22 18 34 20 23 Gary 26 16 33 20 15 D a v i d 22 14 29 ' 18 24 T o t a l s 424 269 494 311 365 Robert 29 18 38 20 23 L i l y 32 19 35 20 29 J e r r y 29 17 40 20 28 E r n i e 12 6 27 13 15 John M . 28 17 32 20 21 Ted 25 15 29 14 23 Angle 35 18 37 19 29 C l i f f 20 13 32 19 24 P e t e r 28 17 28 16 26 Ann 27 12 38 19 28 A r l e n e 22 13 36 19 21 Don 20 15 19 15 14 Danny 21 15 26 19 20 Jag 34 20 30 20 26 O r v i l 27 17 35 19 16 P h i l 27 18 28 19 18 Randy 27 18 30 17 21 443 268 . 540 308 382 72 TABLE V I I I Summary o f Experiment E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n t r o l Group Group P r e - t e s t P u p i l average ( p o s s . 40) D i c t a t i o n i t e m ( p o s s . 20) 2 4 . 9 * 15.8 26.1 15.8 F i n a l t e s t P u p i l average ( p o s s . 40) D i c t a t i o n i t e m ( p o s s . 20) 29.1 18.3 31.8 18.2 P o i n t g a i n s T o t a l score D i c t a t i o n i t e m 7© 42 97 40 Percentage improvement based on p r e - t e s t scores  T o t a l score D i c t a t i o n i t e m 16.5$ 13.5* 1 8 . 0 * 1 4 . 9 * O r a l e v a l u a t i o n Range o f scores ( p o s s . 30) P u p i l average (poss . 30) 15-28 21.5 14-29 2 2 . 5 • A l l f i g u r e s are a d j u s t e d t o the neares t s i n g l e dec imal p o i n t . 73 APPENDIX D AN ATTEMPT TO EMPLOY THE LANGUAGE MASTER FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDY Purpose and s e t t i n g . The r e s e a r c h e r was not s a t i s f i e d t h a t the Language Master had been p r o p e r l y used i n the group s tudy exper iment , and b e l i e v -ed the c h i e f v a l u e o f the machine i s i t s m o t i v a t i n g e f f e c t on the l e a r n e r . The r e s e a r c h e r undertook t o prepare e x e r c i s e s f o r a s m a l l group o f p u p i l s who needed p r a c t i c e t o master the use o f one grammatica l p a t t e r n : the d i r e c t o b j e c t pronoun. Of these p u p i l s , k were chosen from the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and 1 from the c o n t r o l group o f the p r e v i o u s exper iment , a l l w i t h low scores on the f i n a l t e s t i tems d e a l i n g w i t h the pronouns. A s i x t h p u p i l o f h i g h e r a b i l i t y was added, to compare h i s r e -a c t i o n to the machine p r a c t i c e . He had been i n the c o n t r o l group o f the exper iment . The c e n t r a l purpose o f t h i s a d d i t i o n a l p r o j e c t was t o c a r r y out i n a l i m i t e d way the f i r s t recommendation suggested by the group s tudy exper iment . I t was hoped t o show the u s e f u l n e s s o f Language M a s t e r p r a c t i c e i n r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . Procedure and r e s u l t s . The p u p i l s were c a r e f u l l y i n s t r u c t e d t o p r a c t i c e d a i l y u n t i l both e x e r c i s e s had been mastered. The f i r s t g o a l was t o l i s t e n to the d e s i r e d o r a l response u n t i l i t c o u l d be c o r r e c t l y v i s u a l i z e d . No w r i t i n g , o n l y r e c o g n i t i o n , was s t r e s s e d . The 74 second stage o f p r a c t i c e was t o r e c o r d the r e p l y t o eaeh ques-t i o n on the student p r a c t i c e band o f the c a r d , w o r k i n g t o p e r f e c t an o r a l response . Score sheets were p r o v i d e d on which the p u p i l was t o keep t r a c k o f h i s s u c c e s s i v e at tempts t o e l i m i n a t e e r r o r s . A d a i l y schedule was a r r a n g e d , l a s t i n g two weeks, t o permit each p u p i l a h a l f - h o u r p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n , c h i e f l y d u r i n g s c h o o l t i m e . P e r -m i s s i o n was granted by v a r i o u s t eachers f o r p u p i l s t o be f r e e d from p a r t s o f l e s s o n s o t h e r t h a n F r e n c h . " S t u d y passes" were i s s u e d to permit the p u p i l s t o go t o the l i b r a r y as a r ranged . The machine, score s h e e t s , p r a c t i c e cards and i n s t r u c t i o n sheet were kept ready i n the l i b r a r y , and the l i b r a r i a n was n o t i f i e d o f the p e r i o d s when p u p i l s were expected t o use the Language M a s t e r . The r e s u l t s o f the p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s are not f u l l y documen-t e d . I n the 2-week p e r i o d , o n l y 2 o f the p u p i l s attempted the t e s t , which c o n s i s t e d o f both w r i t t e n and o r a l i t e m s . The f i r s t p u p i l , the most capable o f the 6, succeeded a d m i r a b l y . The second was unable t o o b t a i n a p a s s i n g score even though the t e s t i tems were designed t o be p a r a l l e l t o the p r a c t i c e examples. The p u p i l s f a i t h f u l l y recorded t h e i r p r o g r e s s , working u n t i l they b e l i e v e d t h e y were making no e r r o r s i n e i t h e r set o f ques-t i o n s . Y e t , though they r e p o r t e d a f t e r w a r d s they had enjoyed the p r i v i l e g e o f i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e , t h e y were not mot ivated t o submit t o a t e s t . D i s c u s s i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the best measure o f the Language M a s t e r ' s 75 c o n t r i b u t i o n can be o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g the p u p i l s t o make s u b j e c t i v e comments. V a r i o u s o p i n i o n s were expressed , from which these were s e l e c t e d : " I t ' s a l r i g h t f o r p r a c t i c e , but i t c a n ' t r e a l l y t e a c h . " "The cards are e a s i e r t o handle than t a p e . " (From a g i r l ) . " I c o u l d n ' t work v e r y w e l l i n the a f t e r n o o n . The mornings were b e t t e r , and I f e l t l i k e keeping on f o r a l o n g e r t i m e . " " I t ' s good t o r e c o r d your v o i c e . When there are too many cards t o handle i t ' s hard t o keep from g e t t i n g them mixed u p . " " B e i n g alone i s b e t t e r than i n a group. You can c o n c e n t r a t e . " "The c l a s s i s more i n t e r e s t i n g . You need a l o t more v a r i e t y o f sentences ; you c o u l d memorize the answers t o these too e a s i l y . " "You need a t e a c h e r t o e x p l a i n t h i n g s . I knew I was doing i t wrong, but I c o u l d n ' t f i g u r e out w h y . " "The (language) l a b i s b e t t e r — the e x e r c i s e s are more l o g i c a l and l o n g e r . " " I t ' s n i c e t o get out o f c l a s s f o r a w h i l e . " I n the l i g h t o f these r e a c t i o n s , a few c o n c l u s i o n s might be r e a c h e d : 1 . There i s some m o t i v a t i o n a l v a l u e i n u s i n g the Language M a s t e r f o r p r i v a t e s tudy i n the l i b r a r y , even i f i t i s o n l y the r e l i e f i t o f f e r s from c lassroom r o u t i n e ; 2 . Some p u p i l s w i l l r e q u i r e compuls ion t o use the machine r e g u l a r l y ; 3. Great t eacher e f f o r t i s needed t o p r o v i d e an adequate q u a n t i t y and v a r i e t y o f d r i l l c a r d s ; 4 . The t e a c h e r should be a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n t o e x p l a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s ; 5« A c e r t a i n amount o f t r a i n i n g i s needed be fore p u p i l s undertake e x t e n s i v e use o f the Language M a s t e r , p a r t i c u -l a r l y t o o r i e n t them towards the g o a l s o f s e l f - t e s t i n g and e v e n t u a l mastery o f a g i v e n u n i t o f work ; 76 6. To e x p l o i t the p r i n c i p l e s o f the Language Master more f u l l y , a number o f machines would be r e q u i r e d so t h a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f r e v i e w and d r i l l could be undertaken s i m u l t a n e o u s l y by a number o f s tudents w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the s c h o o l day. The f o l l o w i n g recommendations are t h e r e f o r e d i r e c t e d t o p o t e n t i a l purchasers o f the Language M a s t e r : 1 . A b a t t e r y o f machines should be p l a c e d near enough t o the French c lassrooms f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o be s u p p l i e d by a t e a c h e r . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a French t e a c h e r who i s not scheduled t o conduct a c l a s s i n a g i v e n hour c o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o make h i m s e l f a v a i l a b l e i n the l i b r a r y d u r i n g t h a t t i m e ; 2 . Time should be a l l o t t e d t o teachers t o d e s i g n and prepare cards f o r each u n i t o f each t e x t i n which s tudent p r a c t i c e i s r e q u i r e d ; 3. More s tudy i s needed on the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the Language M a s t e r t o l a r g e r groups o f s t u d e n t s , and i t should not be assumed t h a t i n t e r e s t w i l l be s u s t a i n e d once such a d e v i c e i s made an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the language program; 4. Future experiments w i t h the Language Master should i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d examinat ion o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a tape r e c o r d e r , t o d i s c o v e r whether long-range use might not f a v o r the l a t t e r machine i n secondary s c h o o l s . APPENDIX E LANGUAGE MASTER UNIT: PRE-TEST D i e t e e : l e c o i f f e u r couper u t i l e soudain l e c l i e n t l a guerre £ tonner s a l e l a r e g i o n l a c a r t e l e paysan l e s cheveux l e pe^cheur l a poche c r o i r e ensemble l e b r o u i l l a r d sans mener absolument l e c a p i t a i n e l a Normandie l a i s s e r dangereux l e s e n t i e r l a p a t t e l e cbemin al lemand l e p igeon penser Completez l e s p h r a s e s , en employant c e r t a i n s des mots pre'ce'dents: 1 . Une personne q u i achete un s e r v i c e ou un p r o d u i t s ' a p p e l l e ( u n , une) . 2. H e l a s i Mon c a h i e r es t tombe dans l a r u e ; maintenant i l e s t t r e s . 3. Un garcon garde son argent dans ( s o n , sa) 4 . Un combat v i o l e n t entre deux n a t i o n s s ' a p p e l l e ( u n , une) • 5. Un o b j e t a une f o n c t i o n ou une importance s p e c i f i q u e . Remplacez l e mot s o u l i g n e par un pronom ( o b j e t d i r e c t ) dans l a phrase s u i v a n t e : EXEMPLE: Voyez-vous ma montre, Andre? O u i , j e v o i s s u r v o t r e l i t . 1 . Regardez-vous l e s a r b r e s par l a f ene t re? O u i , j e . regarde pendant l a lec^on. 2. Me donnez-vous ce beau s t y l o ? O u i , j e vous donne avec p l a i s i r . 3. E s t - c e que P i e r r e i n v i t e t o i e t t o n f r e r e chez l u i ? O u i , i l i n v i t e t r e s souvent ecouter des d i s q u e s chez l u i . 4 . V o t r e p r o f e s s e u r d o n n e - t - i l c e t t e d i c t e e a t o u t e l a c lasse? Non, i l ne donne pas aux e l e v e s absents ! 5 . Pourquoi me donnez-vous t o u j o u r s des cadeaux? C ' e s t parce que j e aime b i e n ! E c r i v e z au p l u r i e l : 1 . Le s o l d a t es t a r r i v e . Le v o i s - t u ? 2. Je ne t e v o i s pas tre*s b i e n . Completez : 1 . Donnez-moi l a c a r t e de F r a n c e ; j e v o i s sous v o t r e c h a i s e . 2 . Vous ne m'entendez pas quand j e a p p e l l e ? M a i s , vous ne f a i t e s pas a t t e n t i o n ! E c r i v e z l a phrase n e c e s s a i r e : 1 . D i t e s a J e a n - P a u l q u ' i l nous etonne. 2. Demandez a M a r c e l s ' i l vous comprend. 3. Demandez a L u c i l l e pourquoi e l l e ne vous c r o i t pas . 79 APPENDIX F LANGUAGE MASTER UNIT: FINAL TEST A . D i c t e ' e : l a Normandie l e c a p i t a i n e l e b r o u i l l a r d al lemand l a guerre l e message l e paysan penser mener absolument dangereux l e s e n t i e r c r o i r e soudain l a p a t t e l a i s s e r l e c y l i n d r e etonner l e s o l d a t l a poche B . Completez avec une forme eonvenable d»un des verbes s u i v a n t s : c r o i r e etonner l a i s s e r mener penser r a c o n t e r 1 . L f A l l e m a n d a p a r t i r l e paysan . 2. Cet te h i s t o i r e a l e c l i e n t . 3. Qu*avez-vous quand vous avez vu l e s o l d a t ? au v i l l a g e . 4 . Un p e t i t s e n t i e r m'a 5 . Le c a p i t a i n e a heureusement. l e v i e u x F r a n c a i s , C . Completez chaque phrase avec un pronom ( o b j e t d i r e c t ) : 1 . Tu as v i s i t e l a Chine? I m p o s s i b l e ! Je ne c r o i s past 2. Venez ecouter des d isques avec ma femme et m o i ! Vous t r o u v e z a. l a maison t o u j o u r s l e s o i r . 3. Q u e l l e h i s t o i r e ! Je t rouve f a n t a s t i q u e et un peu s t u p i d e . 4 . V o t r e message e s t a r r i v e , monsieur . Je a i donne au c a p i t a i n e . 5 . Ou S t e s - v o u s , M i c h e l ? J ' e n t e n d s v o t r e v o i x , mais je ne v o i s p a s ! 80 6. Donnez ees pigeons au pScheur. I I envoie a P a r i s avec des messages. 7. Le s o l d a t demande mon nom, et p u i s i l permet de c o n t i n u e r l e voyage. 8 . Que p e n s e s - t u , Mar ie? Tu es i n t e l l i g e n t e , e t nous ecoutons t o u j o u r s avec p l a i s i r . 9 . Avez-vous v u l e s e y l i n d r e s ? Ne g a r d e - t - i l pas dans l e t i r o i r ? 10 . Je v a i s vous e x p l i q u e r l a s i t u a t i o n . E s t - e e que vous entendez bien? D . Completez chaque p h r a s e ; employez un ou deux mots c h o i s i s de l a l e c o n 2 3 : 1 . Vos cheveux sont beaux, mon f i l s , mais t r o p l o n g s t A l l e z v i t e chez • . S i vos cheveux ne sont pas coupes, j e ne vous permets pas de r e n t r e r dans l a maisonl 2 . Pauvre p e t i t o i s e a u l I I e s t tombe soudain de l ' a r b r e e t es t b lessee(HURT) . I I ne peut (CAN) pas marcher! 3 . Get homme-la avec un gros p a n i e r de legumes et q u i p o r t e un v i e u x p a n t a l o n b l e u , q u i e s t - c e ? — I I h a b i t e une p e t i t e maison a l a campagne; c ' e s t q u i ne v i e n t pas beaucoup en v i l l e . 4 . Comment v o y a g e - t - o n dans l e s montagnes? I a - t - i l une bonne route? — Non, mais i l y a des q u i t r a v e r s e n t l a r e g i o n , e t on peut (CAN) marcher sans d i f f i c u l t e . M o n s i e u r , nous sommes en route pour H a m i l t o n , mais l a route p r i n c i p a l e es t ferme'e. Avez-vous q u i i n d i q u e une route a l t e r n a t i v e ? 82 APPENDIX G LANGUAGE MASTER UNIT: ORAL EVALUATION A . Repetition: 1 . C ' e s t une aventure / de l a guerre / en 1939. 2 . Le paysan / a demande / une c a r t e / de l a r e g i o n . 3 . I I a voyage / toute l a n u i t / a t r a v e r s champs. B . L e c t u r e : Le c l i e n t / un jeune A m e r i c a i n , / a entendu / l ' h i s t o i r e / du v i e u x c o i f f e u r . / L a Res i s tance / l ' a envoye" / en m i s s i o n / dangereuse / en Normandie. C . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : 1 . Qui raconte c e t t e h i s t o i r e ? 2 . Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' i l a porte* dans son p a n i e r ? 3 . Qui a montre' sa c a r t e au c o i f f e u r ? 4 . Pourquoi e s t - c e que l e c o i f f e u r ne v o i t pas t r e s bien? 5 . C e t t e h i s t o i r e vous a m u s e - t - e l l e ? 8 3 APPENDIX H EXERCISES USED WITH THE LANGUAGE MASTER A . l e paysan l e s cheveux l e pecheur l a poche soudain ensemble l e b r o u i l l a r d sans mener absolument l e c a p i t a i n e l a guerre l a i s s e r dangereux l e s e n t i e r l a p a t t e al lemand l e chemin l e c o i f f e u r penser B. 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 . 10 . D e f i n i t i o n un o i s e a u q u i por te des messages l e chef d ' u n groupe de s o l d a t s une grande p r o v i n c e dans l e nord-oues t de l a France un homme q u i t r a v a i l l e a l a campagne ou a une ferme un homme q u i coupe l e s cheveux de ses c l i e n t s l a p a r t i e d ' u n o i s e a u q u i s e r t a marcher un homme q u i prend du p o i s s o n une p a r t i e d ' u n p a n t a l o n ou d'une robe q u i c o n t i e n t de p e t i t s o b j e t s l ' a c t i o n de former une idee l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n symbolique d ' u n pays , q u i i n d i q u e l e s routes e t l e s v i l l e s Answer un pigeon un c a p i t a i n e l a Normandie un paysan un c o i f f e u r l a p a t t e un pecheur une poche penser une c a r t e 1 . Le c o i f f e u r raconte une aventure a son jeune c l i e n t . 2. I I e s t t r o p v i e u x pour a l l e r f a i r e l a g u e r r e . 3 . Les pigeons sont t r e s u t i l e s en temps de g u e r r e . 4 . I I a p r i s un p e t i t c y l i n d r e en meta l dans un t i r o i r . 5. I I e s t p a r t i avec ses deux pigeons t r o u v e r l e pecheur. 6. Le chemin es t t r ^ s o b s c u r , e t i l f a i t du b r o u i l l a r d . 7. I I v o i t soudain un s o l d a t a l l e m a n d . 8. I I demande au s o l d a t s ' i l e s t sur l e bon chemin. 9 . Le c a p i t a i n e l e l a i s s e p a r t i r sans d i f f i c u l t e . 1 0 . Heureusement, i l e s t revenu de sa m i s s i o n dangereuse. D. 1 . Q u i e s t - c e que vous c o n s u l t s z pour t r o u v e r l e bon chemin? a) un s e n t i e r b) une c a r t e c) une r e g i o n 2. Que l es t l e c o n t r a i r e du mot n a v e c n ? a) dans b) r i e n cJ sans 3. P o u r q u o i ne touchez-vous pas une b&te sauvage? a j E l l e es t dangereuse. b) E l l e e s t s a l e . c) E l l e es t u t i l e . 4 . Q u e l o b j e t i n t l r e s s a n t e s t - c e que l e c o i f f e u r a montre au c l i e n t ? a) un pigeon b) un cheveu cJ un c y l i n d r e 8 5 5 . Ou est-ce que l e c o i f f e u r a mis ses pigeons? Dans: a) sa poche b) son panier c) son t i r o i r 6* Qui a recu l e s pigeons dans l e panier? aj un Franxjais b) un Americain c) un Allemand 7. Combien de temps l e c o i f f e u r a - t - i l marche? a) par l e s sentiers b) a travers champs cj toute l a nuit 8. Qu'est-ce que l e c l i e n t a regarde dans l a glace du coiffeur? aj ses cheveux b) ses camarades c) ses pigeons 9. Ou est-ce qu'on attache l e cylindre avec l e message? a) a l a guerre b) a l a Resistance cJ a l a patte 10. Pourquoi l e c o i f f e u r n ' e s t - i l pas soldat comme l e s autres? a) I I est c o i f f e u r . b) I I est trop vieux. c) II est francais. £. / a / Le c l i e n t a entendu une aventure de l a Resistance francaise. / £ / L'Americain trouve un cylindre sur l e chemin. / 1 / II d i t que l e s pigeons sont u t i l e s en Normandie. /Wa/ Je c r o i s quelquefois l e s h i s t o i r e s du c o i f f e u r . 86 I IS I Nous admirons l e bon v i e u x q u i a repondu aux q u e s t i o n s . / e / L* e t r a n g e r a t rouve l e s e n t i e r sans d i f f i c u l t ^ , /ae:/ Le c o i f f e u r e t l e pteheur arrangent l e u r rendezvous a neuf h e u r e s . / / Cet te guerre a t r a v e r s l a mer es t e x t r a o r d i n a i r e . / u / Avez-vous t rouve t o u t e s l e s bonnes routes? / fi I Un c o i f f e u r t r o p v i e u x es t dangereux pour l e s cheveux. Quest ions 1. E t e s - v o u s a l l e au f r o n t en 1939? 2. Qu 'avez-vous f a i t pendant l a guerre? 3. Pourquoi l e s pigeons s o n t - i l s u t i l e s en temps de guerre? 4. Avez-vous mis l e s pigeons sous v o t r e chemise? 5 . E s t - c e que cet Al lemand vous a par le" en f r a n j a i s ? 6. Comment e s t - c e que 1*Allemand vous a a ide? 7 . E s t - c e q u ' i l vous a demande v o t r e nom? 8. E s t - c e q u ' i l a c r u que vous e t i e z paysan? 9. Ou avez-vous t rouve l e pfecheur, v o t r e contact? 10. Pour quoi e s t - c e que beaucoup de vos camarades ne sont pas revenus? Answers a) Non, j e l e s a i p o r t e s dans mon p a n i e r . b) Certa inement , parce que j e p o r t a l s des ve'tements de paysan. c) Non, i l ne l e t rouve pas b i e n . d) I I m'a montre sa c a r t e de l a r e g i o n . 87 e) O u i , j e l e s a i vus en route pour l e v i l l a g e . f ) Non, parce que je s u i s t r o p v i e u x . g) I l s a v a i e n t des m i s s i o n s p l u s dangereuses que l a mienne. h) Non, i l ne m'a r i e n demande. i ) I l s p o r t e n t des messages a t taches a l e u r s p a t t e s . j ) O u i , i l m'a repondu d ' u n t r ^ s bon a c c e n t . k) Je l ' a i rencontre dans l e s b o i s pres du v i l l a g e . 1) J ' a i t r a v a i l l e pour l a R e s i s t a n c e . aa APPENDIX I EXERCISES USED FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDY WITH THE LANGUAGE MASTER Set No. 1 Expand the s h o r t answer i n t o a complete sentence . S t i m u l u s Q u i e s t - c e que vous aime-? — V o u s . Qui r e g a r d e - t - i l ? — M o i . Q u i l e s achete? — V o u s . Q u i l e comprend b ien? — T o i . Qui i n v i t e - t - o n a d i n e r ? — V o u s . Ou l e s rencontrez -vous? — En v i l l e . E s t - c e q u ' i l s m'ecoutent? — Avec p l a i s i r . Q u i vous a envoye au bureau? — Mon p r o f e s s e u r . Response Je vous a ime. I I me r e g a r d e . Vous l e s a c h e t e z . Tu l e comprends b i e n . On vous i n v i t e a d i n e r . Je l e s rencontre en v i l l e . I l s vous ecoutent avec p l a i s i r . Mon p r o f e s s e u r m'a envoye au bureau . 89 Vous a - t - i l l a i s s e p a r t i r ? — Sans d i f f i c u l t e . Ou nous m £ n e - t - e l l e ? — A t r a v e r s champs. I I m'a l a i s s e p a r t i r sans d i f f i c u l t e ' . E l l e nous mene a t r a v e r s champs. Set No. 2 Reply i n the n e g a t i v e w i t h a complete sentence , u s i n g the suggested pronouns. S t i m u l u s Response E s t - c e que vous m'aimez? — N o n , . . . . Non, je ne vous aime p a s . E s t - c e q u ' i l vous regarde? — N o n , . . . . Non, i l ne me regarde p a s . E s t - c e que j ' a c h e t e l e s pigeons? — N o n , . . . . Non, vous ne l e s achetez p a s . Je comprends b i e n l ' h i s t o i r e , n ' e s t -ce pas? — Non, t u . . . . Non, t u ne l a comprends pas b i e n . E s t - c e qu 'on m ' i n v i t e a" d i n e r , a u s s i ? — N o n , . . . . t ' . . . . Non, on ne t ' i n v i t e pas a d i n e r . 90 Rencontrez-vous vos amis en v i l l e ? — N o n , . . . . Les e l e v e s m'ecoutent avec p l a i s i r , n * e s t - c e pas? — N o n , . . . . V o t r e p r o f e s s e u r vous a envoy! ' au bureau, n f e s t - c e pas? - - N o n , . . . . E s t - c e q u ' i l vous a l a i s s e p a r t i r sans d i f f i c u l t e ? — N o n , . . . . Nous m e n e - t - e l l e si t r a v e r s champs? — N o n , . . . n o u s . . . . Non, j e ne l e s r e c o n t r e pas en v i l l e . Non, i l s ne vous ecoutent pas avec p l a i s i r . Non, i l ne m'a pas envoye au bureau. Non, i l ne m'a pas l a i s s e p a r t i r sans d i f f i c u l t e . Non, e l l e ne nous mene pas si t r a v e r s champs. 91 APPENDIX J A SUGGESTED LIST OF FRENCH SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS The number o f French supplementary readers p u b l i s h e d i s v e r y g r e a t . T h i s l i s t i n c l u d e s o n l y t i t l e s t h a t have been examined by the r e s e a r c h e r i n s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and French d e p a r t -ment c o l l e c t i o n s , o r t h a t have been recommended by o t h e r t eachers and l i b r a r i a n s . B i b l i o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n and a n n o t a t i o n s are g i v e n as s u p p l i e d by correspondents and are t h e r e f o r e not a l l complete . The appearance o f a t i t l e i n t h i s l i s t does not ensure t h a t i t w i l l be s a t i s f a c t o r y i n any p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . I t i s a s u g g e s t i o n o n l y , and i s in tended c h i e f l y t o h e l p l i b r a r i a n s and t e a c h e r s who have l i t t l e exper ience i n l o c a t i n g such supplementary m a t e r i a l s . The books are c l a s s i f i e d approx imate ly a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y , as f o l l o w s : B - B e g i n n e r ; Grades IX and X ; c h i e f l y present tense and a v o c a b u l a r y range o f about 500 words ; u s u a l l y w i t h a g l o s s a r y i n c l u d i n g t r a n s l a t i o n s o f whole p h r a s e s . I - I n t e r m e d i a t e ; Grades X and X I ; common past tenses (passe compose', i m p e r f e c t ) and f u t u r e ; v o c a b u l a r y range o f around 1000 words , w i t h g l o s s a r y . A - Advanced; Grades X I and X I I ; complex tenses and i d i o m s ; v o c a b u l a r y o f over 1500 words . 92 A d a i r , H . and N . En route pour l e M i d i and Sous l e c i e l de  Provence . London, C h r i s t o p h e r s . ( D o l p h i n s e r i e s ) I . 31 p . i l l u s . vocab. B a r d , J e a n . Pour l i r e , pour r i r e . P a r i s , H a c h e t t e , 1964. (Textes en f r a n c a i s f a c i l e ) A . By the p u b l i s h e r s o f Top magazine. Q u i z z e s , t e s t s . Begue', L o u i s e and F r e d e r i c k F r a n c k . Au f i l de l ' e a u . H o l t R i n e h a r t , 1965. I . 150 p . i l l u s . vocab . A voyage from the n o r t h t o the south o f France on a c a n a l barge . Brown, M a r c i a . Une d r S l e de soupe. New Y o r k , S c r i b n e r s , i 9 6 0 . A . 42 p . i l l u s " A t r a n s l a t i o n o f Stone Soup, u s i n g past t e n s e s . I d i o m a t i c and i n t e r e s t i n g f o r good s t u d e n t s , d e s p i t e j u v e n i l e format , l a r g e t y p e . C a l v e r t , F . I . Contes . London, John M u r r a y . B . V o c a b . , e x e r c i s e s . Cambridge.Book Company. La France et l e s F r a n c a i s . B r o n x v i l l e , New Y o r k , Cambridge, 1962. I . - A . Paperbound. B r i e f a r t i c l e s . A v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h . Carre", A . L . Scenes de F r a n c e . T o r o n t o , Musson, I960 . B . 63 p . i l l u s . S i n g l e - p a g e v i g n e t t e s , 24 s e l e c t i o n s . C a r t l e d g e , H . A . P e l o t o n d e t e c t i v e . London, Edward A r n o l d , 1937. A . 94 p . i l l u s . P a r t l y - c o m i c adventures . F u l l v o c a b . , chapter q u e s t i o n s and p h r a s e - l i s t s . C e p p i , M a r c . F i r s t y e a r French r e a d e r . B e l l and Sons. B . V o c a b . , q u e s t i o n s i n E n g l i s h . D a n p i e r r e , J . J . L a maison d * a u t r e f o i s . T o r o n t o , H a r r a p , 1958. B . ' 63 p . i l l u s . Based on Le f r a n c a i s fondamental . Voeab. i l l u s t r a t i o n s based on Mon premier d i c t i o n n a i r e en images. de Beaumont, P i e r r e . Un enfant d 1 O c c i d e n t ( s e r i e s ) . P a r i s , D i d i e r , 1962. A . T i t l e s : I - Du temps de l a mere-dame: 85 p . I I - A l ' e c o u t e de l a mort ; 89 p . I l l - La f i n d ' u n monde; I 0 6 p . I l l u s . C o n t r o l l e d voeab. o f 1500 words . G l o s s a r y i n F r e n c h . Mature n a r r a t i v e . F o u r r e , P i e r r e . Me^deein sous l e g t r o p i q u e s . P a r i s , D i d i e r , 1956. A . 78 p . i l l u s . C o n t r o l l e d vocab . o f 1300 words . G l o s s a r y i n F r e n c h . R e a l i s t i c d e t a i l . 93 Fumerton, H. S. P e t i t s contes de l ' h i s t o i r e canadienne. T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 19t>3. XT • 72 p . i l l u s . Twenty s h o r t c h a p t e r s , from Cabot t o the p r e s e n t . V o e a b . , footnote t r a n s l a t i o n s . F i v e q u e s t i o n s a f t e r each c h a p t e r . Humphreys and S a n s o u i l l e t . R i o n s ensemble. U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o . I . V o c a b . , e x e r c i s e s . K a h l , V i r g i n n i a and E d i t h Vacheron. V o i c i H e n r i . New Y o r k , S c r i b n e r s , B. I l l u s . $2.75* By the same a u t h o r s : Encore Henri1 K e a t i n g , L . C. and M . I . Morand. (Biography s e r i e s ) . New Y o r k , American Book. T i t l e s : Audubon: 1958; 53 p . B. L a f a y e t t e : 1958; 57 p . I . V o l t a i r e ; 1962; 70 p . I . I l l u s . Footnote t r a n s l a t i o n s , e x e r c i s e s , vocab. L a m o r i s s e , A l b e r t . Le b a l l o n rouge. P a r i s , H a c h e t t e , 1956. A . 46 p . P h o t o - s t o r y compiled from the f i l m , The Red B a l l o n . I m a g i n a t i v e , b e a u t i f u l l y p r e s e n t e d . B i n d i n g needs r e i n f o r c i n g . L a f i t t e , L u c e t t e . Fetes de F r a n c e . London, Cambridge, 1962. B . 63 p . i l l u s . By the same a u t h o r : A n t o i n e Chasseur; Eau t r o u b l e ; L a ferme du Pere M a t h i e u ; Le c i r q u e Z a n z i b a r . L e d e s e r t , R. P . L . and D. M . Au v o l e u r and ftventure sous t e r r e . T o r o n t o , H a r r a p . I . - A . M a u r i a c , F r a n c o i s . Therese Desqueyroux, e d . Jean C o l l i g n o n . M a c m i l l a n , 1963" TI 136 p . vocab. Very mature n a r r a t i v e . M i l l e r , S. H . and C. J a c o b . M i c h e l et l a p i e u v r e . London, Edward A r n o l d , 1963. I . 32 p . i l l u s . Sequel t o M i c h e l et l e ' l o u p 1 . L i n e drawings t o e x p l a i n v o c a b u l a r y d i f f i c u l t i e s . M i l l i g a n , E . E . B e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g s i n F r e n c h . New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n . I . I n t e r e s t i n g s t o r i e s , q u e s t i o n s , f o o t n o t e s and vocab. Modern Method French Reading Scheme, ( s e r i e s ) . London, N e l s o n . B . - I . - A . Graded r e a d e r s , about 50 p . i l l u s . Q u e s t i o n s , vocab. Mountjoy , M . E . Agent s e c r e t . M a c m i l l a n , 1964. I . 76 p . i l l u s . vocab. 94 S a l u t danger! T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1967. I. - A . 75 p . Illus . (photos) Sequel t o Agent s e c r e t , u s i n g l a r g e l y p e r f e c t and i m p e r f e c t t e n s e s . Vocab. Musman, R i c h a r d . Les aventures du Gommissaire G r a s s e t . London, B e l l , 1962. I . 92 p . i l l u s . Q u e s t i o n s , vocab . M o d e l l e d on Simenon 1 s I n s p e c t o r M a i g r e t . P o t t s , E . Les Joyeux campeurs. London, Dent , I960. I . 53 P» i l l u s . An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o past t e n s e s . Q u e s t i o n s , vocab . P u r v i s , H . and J . E . W h i t e . Berthe aux grands p i e d s . London, O x f o r d , 1957. I . "~ 48 p . i l l u s . Footnote t r a n s l a t i o n s , e x e r c i s e s , vocab. Robinson , J . A . L ' a u t o c a c h l e . M a c m i l l a n , 1963. B . 39 p . i l l u s . vocab . Roche, S y l v a i n . M i s s i o n dangereuse. e d . B . Young. London, B l a c k i e and Son, n . d . A . 73 p . S a i n t - E x u p e r y , A n t o i n e de . Le p e t i t p r i n c e . New Y o r k , Harcour t B r a c e , 1943- A . 91 p . Fantasy c l a s s i c , i l l u s . by a u t h o r . • Le p e t i t p r i n c e , e d . S . A . Mayost (Canadian E d u c a t i o n a l e d i t i o n ) . D o n M i l l s , B e l l h a v e n House, 1966. I . - A . 90 p . i l l u s . Footnote t r a n s l a t i o n s , vocab . and ques t ions a t back . Simenon, Georges. Le c l i e n t l e p l u s o b s t i n e du monde. London, H a r r a p , 1964 (cl95D. T. 71 p . i l l u s . S t e i n h a u e r , D a v i d . L e c t u r e s c h o i s i e s pour l e s commencants. T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n . B . Thiman, I . C . H i s t o i r e s modernes. U n i v e r s i t y o f London, -1962. I . " 96 p . i l l u s . Nineteen s h o r t s e l e c t i o n s . W o r d - l i s t a t head o f each c h a p t e r . Q u e s t i o n s , vocab . a t back. T i t t e r t o n , J u l i a . Jeunesse . London, Edward A r n o l d . I . Q u e s t i o n s , vocab . Shor t i n f o r m a t i v e s e c t i o n s about f g t e s and the l y c e e . V e r n e , J u l e s . Le t o u r du yoade en 80 . jours . Abr idged and adapted . M a c m i l l a n , 1956. T~. 46 p . i l l u s . vocab. 95 . Le t o u r du monde en 80 j o u r s . P a r i s , H a c h e t t e , 19557" I . U  80 p . i l l u s . Less r i g o r o u s l y s i m p l i f i e d than the M a c m i l l a n e d i t i o n . I n c l u d e s photographs from f i l m v e r s i o n . Vocab. Assumes p u p i l has 700-word v o c a b u l a r y t o s t a r t . . Voyage au centre de l a t e r r e . A b r i d g e d and adapted . M a c m i l l a n , 1962. IT. 74 p . i l l u s . vocab. Whitmarsh, W. F . H . A f i r s t French r e a d e r . Longmans Green. I . Vocab. . L e c t u r e s pour l a j eunesse . Longmans Green . B . - I . Y a n d e l l , B e r n a r d . Douze contes f a c i l e s . C l a r k e I r w i n . B . D e t a i l e d w o r d - l i s t s , e x e r c i s e s , vocab. The f o l l o w i n g e n t r i e s draw a t t e n t i o n t o m a t e r i a l s not r e a d i l y c l a s s i f i e d as readers but d e s e r v i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r l i b r a r y purposes . Bauer , C a m i l l e . La France a c t u e l l e . B o s t o n , Houghton M i f f l i n , 1963. I . - A . 264 p . i l l u s . Textbook; r e a d i n g passages f o r a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Notes , q u e s t i o n s , e x e r c i s e s , vocab . Supplementary work f o r good s t u d e n t s . D a l e , M a r t i n . How t o read a French menu. New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n -C e n t u r y , 1966. AT 95 p . i l l u s . S i x i n t e r e s t i n g i n t r o d u c t o r y pages and f o u r sample menus from America and Europe . Remainder: d i c t i o n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l French menus. U s e f u l f o r some advanced p r o j e c t s or c o o k i n g - c l a s s r e f e r e n c e . G o s c i n n y . A s t e V i x ( s e r i e s ) . P a r i s , Dargaud S . A . A . Cartoon s t r i p i n book f o r m , a f a v o r i t e o f French a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n a l i k e . I d i o m a t i c , c u r r e n t F r e n c h . Herge ( p s e u d . ) . Les aventures de T i n t i n ( s e r i e s ) . Casterman, d i s t r i b . by Methuen. A . Comic s t r i p f o r m a t , a v a i l a b l e i n both French and E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s . Francophone s tudents enjoy these c o l l e c t i o n s , and any good s tudent would attempt t o read the h i g h l y i d i o m a t i c t e x t . B i n d i n g needs r e i n f o r c i n g . 96 Le f r a n c a i s u n i v e r s e l ( s e r i e s ) . P a r i s , H S t i e r , d i s t r i b . by Musson ( T o r o n t o ) . A . Short n o v e l s . Paper c o v e r s , f l i m s y b i n d i n g . Methuen's Twent ie th Century T e x t s . A . E d i t e d v e r s i o n s o f works by A n o u i l h , Camus, Gi raudoux , Romains, S a r t r e . Some f o o t n o t e s , no vocab . Mother Goose. Mother Goose i n F r e n c h , t r a n s l . by Hugh Latham. New Y o r k , C r o w e l l , 1964. I . - A . I l l u s . $ 3 . 8 5 . B r i l l i a n t r e n d e r i n g s o f best-known n u r s e r y rhymes, f u l l y French y e t r e t a i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sound p a t t e r n s o f the o r i g i n a l s . P a l f r e y , T . R. and S. F . W i l l , eds . P e t i t e a n t h o l o g i e — p o e s i e s  f r a n c a i s e s . New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y . TI 130 p . Footnote t r a n s l a t i o n s . A good b a s i c c o l l e c t i o n . 97 APPENDIX K SUPPLEMENTARY READING IN ENGLISH The books i n c l u d e d i n t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y were s e l e c t e d t o supplement the grade 8 and 9 courses o f s t u d i e s i n French w i t h a v i e w t o s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t s i n and i n s t i l l i n g some knowledge o f t h e l a n d and people o f France and French-Canada. The major-i t y o f these books appeared i n one o r more o f the f o l l o w i n g b i b l i o g r a p h i e s : B r i t i s h Columbia . D e p t . o f E d u c a t i o n . D i v i s i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m . B a s i c l i s t o f s c h o o l l i b r a r y books. V i c t o r i a , 1965. Canadian L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . B a s i c book l i s t f o r Canadian s c h o o l s : j u n i o r d i v i s i o n , grade 7, 8, 9. Ottawa, n . d . J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l i b r a r y c a t a l o g . E d . by Rachel Shor and E . A . F i d e l l . New Y o r k , W i l s o n , 1965. (Standard c a t a l o g s e r i e s ) . A rough guide t o s u i t a b l e r e a d i n g l e v e l i n terms o f grade i s s u p p l i e d f o r each book. I . France - D e s c r i p t i o n and t r a v e l ; S o c i a l l i f e and customs. B a r r y , Joseph . F r a n c e . New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n , 1965. (A n a t i o n s today b o o k ) . G r . 7-9. Overview of France w i t h emphasis on p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s . B i s h o p , C l a i r e H . French roundabout. New Y o r k , Dodd, I960. G r . 7-9. Two American j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s tudents take a t r i p t o France and l e a r n a good d e a l about the people and the c o u n t r y . B lass ingame, Wyat t . The French F o r e i g n L e g i o n . New Y o r k , Random, 1955. G r . 8-10. H i s t o r i c a l and c u r r e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the L e g i o n t h a t w i l l appeal c h i e f l y t o boys . 9* Bragdon, L i l l i a n J . The land and people of France. Philadelphia, Lippincott, I960. (Portraits of the Nations). Gr. 7-10. Brief treatment of the geography and history of France. Clement, Marguerite. In France. I l l u s . by William Pene DuBois. New York, Viking, 1956. Gr. 8-10. Helps reader understand France by sharing informally l i f e and legends of the French people, past and present. Creed, Virginia. Life in Europe: France. Grand Rapids, Mich., Fideler, 1961. (Reissued frequently). Gr. 7-9. Geographical portrait of France with emphasis on the way people l i v e . Easy reading. Douglas, Marjory Stoneham. The key to Paris. Chicago, Rand McNally, 1961. (Cities of the world). Gr. 7 -9 . A delightful, fresh mixture of fact and legend surrounding the city of Paris. Egan, E. W. France in pictures. New York, Sterling, 1966. (Visual geography series). Gr. 7 -9 . Very brief look at geography, people, economy, etc. Geis, Barlene. Let's travel in France. New York, Children's Press, 1964. Gr. 5+. Useful chiefly for the poor reader. Gidal, Sonia and Tim. My village i n France. New York, Pantheon, 1965. Gr. 4 - 7 . Easy reading level although content i s useful and accurate. Harris, Leon A. Young France; children of France at work and  at play. New York, Dodd, 1964.Gr. 7 -9 . Hurlimann, Martin. Paris; 100 pictures i n photogravure. London, Thames & Hudson, 1954. Gr. 8+. Chiefly a photographic study with brief introductory text and notes. Life (Periodical) France, By D. W. Brogan and the eds. of L i f e . New York, Time, Inc., 1963. (Life world library). Gr. 8+. Broad view of present-day France from a historical, p o l i t i c a l , geographical and cultural point of view. Profusely illustrated. Olcott, Virginia. Adventures in France; the storv of Jean and  Fanchon. New York, Grosset, 1953.(The world's children series). Gr. 6-8. Easy reading. Minimal story line — t e l l s about country painlessly but in a contrived fashion. 99 Sasek, M i r o s l a v . T h i s i s P a r i s , New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n , n . d . (French e d . a v a i l a b l e ) . G r . 3+. E x c e l l e n t w a t e r c o l o u r sketches o f the c i t y o f P a r i s which g i v e the f l a v o u r o f the c i t y . Simple t e x t but not too l a c k i n g i n s o p h i s t i c a t i o n f o r grades 8 and 9. Schoenbrun, D a v i d . As France goes . New Y o r k , H a r p e r , 1957. G r . 9-12. France now i n terms o f h i s t o r y and f u t u r e i n f l u e n c e . P o s s i b l y s l i g h t l y o u t - o f - d a t e now. I I . France - F o l k l o r e , l e g e n d s , f a i r y t a l e s . B a l d w i n , James. S t o r y o f Ro land . New Y o r k , S c r i b n e r , 1930. ( S c r i b n e r i l l u s t r a t e d c l a s s i c s ) . G r . 6<-9. The best v e r s i o n o f the f o l k saga o f Roland f o r young p e o p l e . La F o n t a i n e , Jean de . The best f a b l e s o f La F o n t a i n e . T r . by F r a n c i s Duke. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f V i r g i n i a , 1965. G r . 9+. An e x c e l l e n t but d i f f i c u l t e d i t i o n o f the La Fonta ine f a b l e s i n E n g l i s h . F o r the best reader o n l y . P e r r a u l t , C h a r l e s . F a i r y t a l e s o f P e r r a u l t . New Y o r k , Dover , n . d . G r . 9+. A more a d u l t e d i t i o n o f the P e r r a u l t s t o r i e s . P i c a r d , Barbara L . French l e g e n d s , t a l e s and f a i r y s t o r i e s . London, O x f o r d , 1955. G r . 7-9-P o s s i b l y the bes t c o m p i l a t i o n o f French m a t e r i a l t h a t has y e t been made. Westwood, J e n n i f e r . M e d i e v a l t a l e s . New Y o r k , Coward-McCann, 1967. G r . 7-9. Modernized French and B r i t i s h t a l e s , l e g e n d s , e t c . I I I . France - F i c t i o n . Baudouy, M i c h e l - A i m e ' . More than courage. T r . from the French by M a r i e P o n s o t . New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , 1961. G r . 7-9. B e r n a , P a u l . F l o o d w a r n i n g . New Y o r k , Pantheon, 1963^ G r . 7-9. B i s h o p , C l a i r e H . The b i g l o o p . New Y o r k , V i k i n g , 1955-G r . 7-9. A l t h o u g h the main i n t e r e s t here i s a b i c y c l e r a c e , the book a l s o c o n t a i n s much about French f a m i l y and s c h o o l l i f e . 1 0 G D a v i s , Rober t . The g i r l o f P i e r r e ' s . New Y o r k , H o l i d a y , 1948. G r . 7-9. Godden, Rumer. The greengage summer. New Y o r k , V i k i n g , 1958. G r . 9+. McKown, R o b i n . Janine• New Y o r k , Messner , I960. G r . 7-9. P i l g r i m , Anne. The f i r s t t ime I saw P a r i s . New Y o r k , A b e l a r d , 196X G r . 8+. A l o v e s t o r y which w i l l appeal t o g i r l s . Conta ins a u t h e n t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on F r a n c e . T u n i s , John R o b e r t s . S i l e n c e over Dunkerque. New Y o r k , Morrow, 1962. G r . 7-10. I V . Quebec - D e s c r i p t i o n and t r a v e l ; S o c i a l l i f e and customs. Barbeau, M a r i u s . I have seen Quebec. T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1957. G r . 9-127" C h i e f l y a p i c t o r i a l work w i t h some b r i e f t e x t d e p i c t i n g l i f e and c u l t u r e o f the French-Canadian p e o p l e . B o s w e l l , H a z e l . French Canada: p i c t u r e s and s t o r i e s o f o l d  Quebec. (Rev. E d . ) T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d , 196?. G r . 7-9. A l t h o u g h c h i e f l y h i s t o r i c a l , t h i s book g i v e s some i d e a o f modern Quebec c i t y as w e l l . B a i g n a u l t , R i c h a r d . Canada: the s t o r y o f Quebec. T o r o n t o , M c G r a w - H i l l , 196o"T (The s t o r y o f Canada s e r i e s , v . 4). G r . 8+. G e o g r a p h i c a l overview o f the p r o v i n c e w i t h some h i s t o r y and many p i c t u r e s . Harvey , J e a n - C h a r l e s . The many faces o f Quebec. New Y o r k , S t . M a r t i n ' s , 1964~ G r . 8-12. P i c t o r i a l essay o f e x c e l l e n c e emphasizing the l a n d and the p e o p l e . French Canada i n p i c t u r e s . New Y o r k , S t e r l i n g , 1961. ( V i s u a l geography s e r i e s ) . G r . 7-9. V e r y g e n e r a l l o o k a t the geography o f French-Canada. V i n c e n t , Rudolphe. Quebec: h i s t o r i c c i t v . T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1966. G r . 7-9. 101 V . Quebec - F o l k l o r e . A u b r y , Glaude. Les l i e s du r o i Maha Maha I I . Quebec, P e l i c a n , 19W. G r . 5 -8 . A f o l k t a l e which e x p l a i n s the o r i g i n o f the Thousand I s l a n d s i n Quebec. E n g l i s h e d . a v a i l a b l e . . Le l o u p de N o e l . M o n t r e a l , Centre de P s y c h o l o g i e e t de Pedagogie , 1962. ( C o l l e c t i o n Le canoe* d ' a r g e n t ) . G r . 5 -8 . A French-Canadian Chr is tmas s t o r y . E n g l i s h e d i t i o n a v a i l a b l e • Barbeau, M a r i u s . The golden p h o e n i x , and o t h e r French-Canadian  f a i r y t a l e s . R e t o l d by M i c h a e l Hornyansky. T o r o n t o , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. G r . 4 - 8 . An e x c e l l e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f French-Canadian l o r e . V I . Quebec - F i c t i o n . A n n i x t e r , Jane and P a u l . W i n d i g o . New Y o r k , H o l i d a y , 1963. G r . 7 - 9 . D a v e l u y , P a u l . Summer i n V i l l e - M a r i e . New Y o r k , H o l t , 1962. G r . 7 -9 . Roy, G a b r i e l l e . The road past A l t a m o n t . T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d , 1966. G r . 9-12. Thompson, Frances G. Danger i n the coves . T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1963. G r . 7 - 9 . 

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