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UBC Theses and Dissertations

French language resources and the secondary school library, with recommendations for British Columbia Herring, Walter A. 1969

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FRENCH LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LIBRARY, WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA  by Walter A. Herring B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t •> the Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f Master of A r t s i n the Department of Education  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as t o the r e q u i r e d  conforming  standard  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia June,  1969  1962  of  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  thesis  advanced degree at Library  I further for  this  shall  the  agree that  his  permission  of  this  written  representatives.  be  British  available  for  for extensive  g r a n t e d by  the  It i s understood  thes.is f o r f i n a n c i a l  gain  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r . 8, Canada  f u l f i l m e n t of  U n i v e r s i t y of  make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and c o p y i n g of  that  not  the  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ii ABSTRACT Examination of educational l i t e r a t u r e reveals a wealth o f suggested m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e d u r e s t o p r o v i d e independent study f a c i l i t i e s f o r students of the s c i e n c e s , s o c i a l and E n g l i s h .  V e r y l i t t l e mention i s made o f l i b r a r y  f o r students o f French or other f o r e i g n  studies resources  languages.  T h i s t h e s i s proposes t o s u r v e y t h e p r e s e n t  relationship  between secondary s c h o o l F r e n c h t e a c h i n g and s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t o make recommendations f o r t h e  fut-  ure growth o f l i b r a r i e s o f f e r i n g independent French language study f a c i l i t i e s . From q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  completed by F r e n c h t e a c h e r s and  s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e , summaries o f r e s p e c t i v e h o l d i n g s were o b t a i n e d .  T y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n s could  be d e s c r i b e d , a l t h o u g h few c o n s i s t e n t were f o u n d . s i z e groups: o v e r 1000.  their  patterns of organization  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a n a l y z e d i n t h r e e s c h o o l under 500 p u p i l s , between 500 and 1000,  and  As e x p e c t e d , t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l s have an advantage  i n o b t a i n i n g most t y p e s o f supplementary m a t e r i a l s and e q u i p ment. With B r i t i s h Columbia's present s i t u a t i o n c l e a r l y i n m i n d , some a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  personal  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , between F r e n c h t e a c h e r s and l i b r a r i a n s . From r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e and a v i s i t t o a l e a d i n g American h i g h s c h o o l , a modern, r e a l i s t i c r o l e f o r b o t h language and l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s The t h e s i s  department  i s proposed.  examines a u d i o v i s u a l l e a r n i n g i n some d e t a i l .  iii I t was found t h r o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t many l i b r a r i e s a r e p r e p a r e d t o adopt t h e " m a t e r i a l s c e n t r e "  concept w h i c h  i m p l i e s a wide v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r o n i c and o t h e r n o n - p r i n t r e sources.  Some c a u t i o n a r y s t a t e m e n t s a r e d i r e c t e d t o l i b r a r i a n s  a f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i m i t e d a b i l i t y o f modern t e c h n o l o g i e s t o s e r v e s t u d e n t s o f F r e n c h i n secondary s c h o o l l i b r a r y settings. A p p e n d i c e s e x p l o r e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e B e l l and H o w e l l Language M a s t e r , an a u d i o - i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e v i c e w h i c h pujrpotts t o have a p p l i c a t i o n s t o a l l l e a r n i n g t a s k s .  P u p i l s who used  t h e Language M a s t e r e x t e n s i v e l y d u r i n g a two-week p e r i o d made p r o g r e s s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a c o n t r o l group who remained under r e g u l a r classroom i n s t r u c t i o n .  A f u r t h e r attempt t o use t h e  machine f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e m e d i a l s t u d y r e v e a l e d some apparent d e f i c i e n c i e s i n such an a p p l i c a t i o n .  It  i s concluded t h a t  i t i s o f m i n i m a l v a l u e f o r language t r a i n i n g , and recommendat i o n s are made f o r f u r t h e r  research.  F i n a l l y , a l i s t of r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s r e l a t e d to French c o u r s e s i s o f f e r e d as an a i d t o t e a c h e r s and l i b r a r i a n s .  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  PAGE  A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The L i b r a r y - C e n t r e d  II  1  Curriculum  1  The L i b r a r y and F o r e i g n Languages  2  A p p l i c a b l e F o r e i g n Language Researc h  4  A SURVEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL LIBRARY AND FRENCH DEPARTMENT RESOURCES  5  P a r t One - METHODS OF INVESTIGATION  5  The Need f o r a Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  .  5  D e s i g n o f the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  5  Distribution.  7  . . . .  Returns  7  Refusals  8  Additional Mailings  8  Personal V i s i t s  9  F i n a l Sample  9  General Observations  10  P a r t Two - ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: FOREIGN LANGUAGE LIBRARY RESOURCES . . . .  17  T i t l e s R e l e v a n t t o French Courses  17  Percentage of C o l l e c t i o n  18  Active Purchasing  18  o f R e l e v a n t Books  Vertical File  18  A u d i o v i s u a l Resources  18  Active Purchasing  19  of Audiovisual M a t e r i a l s  V  P a r t Three - ANALYSIS GF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: SUPPLEMENTARY FOREIGN LANGUAGE RESOURCES CONTROLLED BY THE TEACHER. . Languages Covered by t h e Report  20 20  Language L a b o r a t o r i e s  .. .  20  Filmstrip Collections  .  21  Films  22  Disc Recordings  22  Textbooks  23  Supplementary Readers  23  Student P r a c t i c e D i s c s  24  O t h e r Resources  24  Tape R e c o r d e r s  24  Record P l a y e r s .  .  25  F i l m s t r i p Viewers  25  Filmstrip/Slide Projectors.  . . .  26  Other A u d i o v i s u a l Devices  26  Student L i b r a r y Assignments  26  P a r t Four - SUMMARY OF FINDINGS  27  The Importance o f S i z e i n S c h o o l R e s o u r c e s .  . . .  27  A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f Books  27  Student Use o f M a t e r i a l s  28  T e a c h e r A t t i t u d e s t o L i b r a r y Use  28  L i b r a r i a n A t t i t u d e s t o F r e n c h S t u d e n t s and Teachers  28  vi III  THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRENCH DEPARTMENT AND LIBRARY HOLDINGS  30  French L i t e r a t u r e i n the L i b r a r y  31  The P l a c e o f Reading i n the P r e s e n t F r e n c h Curriculum .  32  The P l a c e o f the Supplementary Reader i n the Classroom  33  Supplementary Reading M a t e r i a l s i n the L i b r a r y . .  34  A S p e c i f i c Role f o r the L i b r a r y  35  The Use o f French Department L i t e r a t u r e .  IV  . . . . .  The S h a r i n g o f A u d i o v i s u a l M a t e r i a l s  37  A F r e n c h Resource Centre i n O p e r a t i o n  38  LANGUAGE LEARNING THROUGH AUDIOVISUAL AIDS IN THE LIBRARY  40  The Language L a b o r a t o r y f o r Independent S t u d y .  V  36  . .  41  F i l m Resources f o r F r e n c h  43  D i s c Recordings i n the L i b r a r y  45  Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s f o r F r e n c h .  . .  46  A Synthesis of the Media:  . .  47  Electronic Carrels.  SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS  50  A P o l i c y of Divided Authority  50  S p e c i a l P r o v i s i o n f o r Language S t u d e n t s i n the Library.  .  . . . . .  A Shared R e s p o n s i b i l i t y BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A .  50 51 53  Questionnaire: Resources  F o r e i g n Language L i b r a r y 56  vii APPENDIX B .  Questionnaire:  Supplementary F o r e i g n  Language Resources C o n t r o l l e d by the T e a c h e r . APPENDIX C .  A L i b r a r y Experiment w i t h an A u d i o v i s u a l Instructional Device:  APPENDIX D .  58  The Language M a s t e r . .  62  An Attempt t o Employ the Language M a s t e r f o r I n d i v i d u a l Study  73  APPENDIX E .  Language M a s t e r U n i t :  Pre-test  77  APPENDIX F .  Language M a s t e r U n i t :  Final test  79  APPENDIX G .  Language M a s t e r U n i t :  Oral Evaluation . . . .  82  APPENDIX H .  E x e r c i s e s Used w i t h the Language M a s t e r . . . .  83  APPENDIX I .  E x e r c i s e s Used f o r I n d i v i d u a l Study w i t h the Language M a s t e r  APPENDIX J .  APPENDIX K .  •  88  A Suggested L i s t o f F r e n c h Supplementary Reading M a t e r i a l s  91  Supplementary Reading i n E n g l i s h  97  viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE I II III IV V  BAGE L i b r a r y Report - Enrolment Under  VII VIII  11  L i b r a r y Report - Enrolment from 5 0 0 t o 9^0  12  L i b r a r y Report - Enrolment o v e r 1 0 0 0  13  F r e n c h Department Report - Enrolment Under 5 0 0 . . .  14  F r e n c h Department Report - Enrolment f r o m 5 0 0 to  VI  500. . . . . . . .  9$0  15  F r e n c h Department Report - Enrolment o v e r 1 0 0 0 . . .  16  P u p i l Test Scores  71  Summary o f Experiment  72  CHAPTER  I  A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The l i b r a r y - c e n t r e d c u r r i c u l u m . I n c r e a s i n g l y , educators are attempting t o  individualize  i n s t r u c t i o n by p r o v i d i n g t h e p u p i l w i t h r e s o u r c e s dent s t u d y .  f o r indepen-  I n some cases t h i s i n v o l v e s merely a r e s t r u c t u r i n g  o f c l a s s r o o m m a t e r i a l s so t h a t the l e a r n e r proceeds a t h i s own rate,  but i n many i n s t a n c e s a s u p p l y o f r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s  o r g a n i z e d i n the s c h o o l l i b r a r y .  I t i s expected t h a t the  is pupil  w i l l spend p a r t o f h i s t i m e r e a d i n g and c o m p i l i n g n o t e s w i t h a minimum o f s u p e r v i s i o n , w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r assumes an a d v i s o r y role.  Depending on t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , t h e l i b r a r y may  a l s o p e r m i t such c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s as a s s e m b l i n g i l l u s t r a t e d b o o k l e t s , making tape r e c o r d i n g s and f i l m s , and h o l d i n g group c o n s u l t a t i o n s t o s e t up a program o f e x p e r i m e n t s i n  science  laboratories. F o r many y e a r s ,  s c h o o l l i b r a r y l i t e r a t u r e has  reflected  t h e p r i m a r y concern f o r r e s e a r c h o f the s c i e n c e s and s o c i a l studies.  S c h o o l l i b r a r i e s have l o n g been the r e p o s i t o r y o f  E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , where most E n g l i s h c l a s s e s spend a p r e s c r i b e d amount o f time i n e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g .  More r e c e n t l y ,  s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o t h e l i b r a r y s p o t e n t i a l 1  i n serving various "neglected"  subject areas:  commerce and home economics, f o r example.  mathematics,  In a recent  The Modern S c h o o l L i b r a r y , ^ " Saunders devotes s e v e r a l  book,  pages  1 H e l e n E . S a u n d e r s , The Modern S c h o o l L i b r a r y , Metuchen, New J e r s e y , S c a r e c r o w , 1968.  2  t o the k i n d s o f l i b r a r y p r o j e c t s  s t u d e n t s o f such s u b j e c t s  can u n d e r t a k e .  The l i b r a r y and f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s . I n v i r t u a l l y e v e r y book about s c h o o l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s ,  the  modern f o r e i g n languages a r e i g n o r e d e n t i r e l y o r s i m p l y m e n t i o n ed i n p a s s i n g , w i t h o u t e l a b o r a t i o n .  Saunders  1  Modern S c h o o l  L i b r a r y r e f e r s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g programmed t e x t - t a p e c o u r s e s , and a d v o c a t e s s e l l i n g paperback d i c t i o n a r i e s as a 2  service to students.  There i s no s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the l i b r a r y  can i n t e g r a t e i t s s e r v i c e s w i t h c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . J o u r n a l s , t o o , are r e m a r k a b l y s i l e n t on the s u b j e c t o f r e s o u r c e s f o r f o r e i g n language s t u d y .  One r a r e example i s an  a r t i c l e e x p l a i n i n g the use made o f l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s i n a s e n i o r language c o u r s e , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t r e v e a l e d w h i c h language i s b e i n g t a u g h t . ^  The t e a c h e r o r g a n i z e d the  course  f o r g i f t e d s t u d e n t s w i t h the aim o f p e r f e c t i n g a c c u r a t e p r e s s i o n and e x p l o r i n g c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s .  ex-  O r a l r e p o r t s were  made by the s t u d e n t s n e a r t h e end o f t h e f i r s t t e r m , based on r e s e a r c h done i n t h e l i b r a r y .  W r i t t e n r e p o r t s were p r e p a r e d  a f t e r t h e i n t e n s i v e and e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g done i n t h e term.  second  A l l e x p r e s s i o n was i n the f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e . S p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d o f languages and l i b r a r i e s 2  Saunders, p . 6 3 .  3 P a t r i c k G. E s p o s i t o , " F i f t h - Y e a r F o r e i g n Language S t u d y " , Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I ( A p r i l 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 9 3 - 4 .  3  i s even r a r e r .  The o n l y r e l e v a n t t i t l e d i s c o v e r e d i n p r e p a r -  i n g t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a t h e s i s d e a l i n g w i t h the c o - o p e r a t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d e x i s t between the l i b r a r i a n and the Spanish teacher.^"  The a u t h o r * s p o i n t o f v i e w i s t h a t o f a  l i b r a r i a n with a special interest i n Spanish.  The concept  of  t h e language l a b o r a t o r y as an e x t e n s i o n o f the l i b r a r y seems b a s i c t o the t h e s i s ,  i n v o l v i n g the d u p l i c a t i o n o f some p r i n t  materials f o r laboratory use.  T h i s p r a c t i c e cannot be recom-  mended i n the p r e s e n t t h e s i s , u n l e s s i t i s t o be p a r t o f a complete language r e s o u r c e c e n t r e w i t h q u a l i f i e d f u l l - t i m e staff.  O t h e r recommendations by S m i t h i n c l u d e c o l l a b o r a t i o n  between l i b r a r i a n and t e a c h e r i n s e l e c t i n g a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , the m a i n t a i n i n g of a p i c t u r e f i l e , guage c l u b a c t i v i t i e s .  and l i b r a r y - o r i e n t e d l a n -  These a l l i m p l y the l i b r a r i a n ' s compe-  t e n c e i n t h e language and c u l t u r e b e i n g t a u g h t .  One r e a l l y new  s u g g e s t i o n i n the t h e s i s i s t h e use o f a Community Resource File. E v e r y community has non-book s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n such as s c h o o l s , r e s t a u r a n t s , m a r k e t s , c h u r c h e s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s , b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r i a l companies, etc. The s c h o o l l i b r a r y s h o u l d have an i n v e n t o r y o f t h e s e p l a c e s so t h a t the teacher-may c o n s u l t i t when t r i p s a r e p l a n n e d . I f t h e l i b r a r i a n keeps t h i s f i l e i t w i l l p r e v e n t d u p l i c a t i o n o f l a b o r s i n c e many t e a c h e r s may v i s i t t h e same p l a c e s . The f i l e s h o u l d be kept u p - t o date and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e . . . . T h i s l i s t s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e the names o f p e o p l e i n t h e community who have s p e c i a l h o b b i e s o r c o l l e c t i o n s such as stamps, f l a g s and a n t i q u e s . I t c o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e the names o f p e o p l e who have t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y and who may be c a l l e d upon t o speak a t c l u b m e e t i n g s . 5 k S. R. S m i t h , "The s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n and the t e a c h e r o f Spanish. ? U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s t h e s i s ; Queen s C o l l e g e , F l u s h i n g , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 2 . 5 Smith, p. 67-8. 1  1  1  Applicable foreign language research. Studies i n foreign language learning are r e s t r i c t e d c h i e f l y to classroom teaching methods o r the techniques of language presentation through such means as t e l e v i s e d lessons, eart r a i n i n g exercises, or the use of phonetic  symbols.  None of  these studies illuminates the relationship between classroom and l i b r a r y , since most of the p u p i l a c t i v i t i e s pn which they are based could be conducted equally well i n l i b r a r y and nonl i b r a r y settings. Most of the material f o r t h i s investigation, therefore, i s taken from a r t i c l e s and books dealing with French teaching from a classroom viewpoint or with audiovisual aids and independent study i n general.  Several a r t i c l e s on these aspects of educa-  t i o n are found i n such r e l i a b l e p e r i o d i c a l s as the Modern Language Journal, Canadian Modern Language Review, School L i b r a r y Journal» School L i b r a r i e s , and Canadian Audiovisual Review (now Educationa l Media). For s p e c i a l information about B r i t i s h Columbia schools, a fresh survey had to be made, next  chapter.  the r e s u l t s are reported i n the  5  CHAPTER I I A SURVEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL LIBRARY AND FRENCH DEPARTMENT RESOURCES PART ONE METHODS OF INVESTIGATION The need f o r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . B e f o r e any r e l e v a n t s u g g e s t i o n s ,  comments o r improvements  can be made c o n c e r n i n g F r e n c h language r e s o u r c e s  in British  Columbia secondary s c h o o l s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o l e a r n , as as p o s s i b l e , what m a t e r i a l s a r e commonly a v a i l a b l e t o and how t h e y a r e s t o r e d and c i r c u l a t e d .  far  students  V i s i t s to a l l schools  are d e s i r a b l e but c l e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e , so a m a i l e d r e q u e s t  for  s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n was chosen as the b e s t way o f o b t a i n i n g data.  I n a d d i t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r had c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge  o f F r e n c h supplementary m a t e r i a l s t h r o u g h h i s work on t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f the B . G . A s s o c i a t i o n o f Teachers o f Modern Languages and t h r o u g h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t a c t s ,  to-  g e t h e r w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e o f h a v i n g examined a number o f s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s b o t h i n , and o u t s i d e o f , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Design of the  questionnaire.  The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  were thought d e s i r a b l e i n a  questionnaire: 1.  B r e v i t y - p r e f e r a b l y one page o f p r i n t ;  2.  S i m p l i c i t y - using checklists or "yes-no" whenever p o s s i b l e ;  questions  6 3.  O b j e c t i v i t y - e n c o u r a g i n g s p e c i f i c counts o f differentiated items;  4*  Space f o r g e n e r a l comments, because much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s g a i n e d from the f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f personal opinion,  In the i n t e r e s t  clearly  o f s a v i n g t h e t e a c h e r s ' t i m e , some o b -  j e c t i v i t y had t o be s a c r i f i c e d .  The use o f the word " a p p r o x i -  m a t e l y " p e r m i t t e d i n t e l l i g e n t g u e s s i n g where c o u n t i n g was impractical.  T h i s no doubt made t h e t a s k o f r e p l y i n g a l i t t l e  lighter. Two forms were drawn u p , one t o be sent t o each  secondary  s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n ( A p p e n d i x A) and t h r e e c o p i e s o f the second t o be passed on by t h e l i b r a r i a n t o t h e head o f the f o r e i g n l a n guage department ( A p p e n d i x B ) .  T h i s , i t was b e l i e v e d , would  ensure t h a t t h e l i b r a r i a n r e a l i z e d the scope o f the s t u d y and might p r e v e n t h i s f e e l i n g t h a t t h e l i b r a r y a l o n e was under critical  examination.  C o p i e s o f t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e were s u b m i t t e d t o B. C. School L i b r a r i a n s  1  the  A s s o c i a t i o n E x e c u t i v e Committee, and  t h e y approved i n p r i n c i p l e the methods and aims o f t h e The B . C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s o f Modern Languages  study. Executive  Committee gave the same a p p r o v a l t o the second f o r m , and i t was p a r t l y on t h e i r b e h a l f t h a t q u e s t i o n s 1 and 3 o f A p p e n d i x B were d e s i g n e d .  No o t h e r source e x i s t s  i n B . C. f o r i n f o r m a t i o n  on t h e number o f modern f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r s employed, i n w h i c h s c h o o l s t h e y o f f e r o t h e r c o u r s e s t h a n F r e n c h , o r t o what e x t e n t t h e i r b a s i c need f o r a u d i o v i s u a l t e a c h i n g r e s o u r c e s b e i n g met.  is  7 Distribution, I t was i n i t i a l l y thought d e s i r a b l e t o s o l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n from e v e r y B . C . s c h o o l l i b r a r y and F r e n c h department r e g a r d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r s t u d e n t u s e , and the f i r s t m a i l i n g went t o 261 s c h o o l s i n 83 d i s t r i c t s .  Each o f the 54 s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s  r e c e i v e d a package c o n t a i n i n g the  following:  1.  A covering l e t t e r of explanation;  2.  A sample o f each t y p e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e ;  3.  The e n v e l o p e s f o r t h e s c h o o l s under h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n , e a c h . s e a l e d , stamped and a d d r e s s e d t o t h e l i b r a r i a n at every s c h o o l .  I t was hoped t h a t , b a r r i n g any o b j e c t i o n s t o the c o n t e n t s , e n v e l o p e s would be p l a c e d i n the m a i l s w i t h o u t d e l a y .  the  No s p e c i a l  s u p p o r t was r e q u e s t e d from t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , and f o r t h e most p a r t t h e y s e n t the e n v e l o p e s on t h e i r way w i t h o u t comment. Returns. The e a r l y r e t u r n s were prompt, a r r i v i n g from the w i t h i n a week.  schools  I n 3 months f r o m the date o f m a i l i n g , a r e t u r n  o f n e a r l y 50$ was c o m p l e t e .  A n a l y s i s showed the  elementary-  j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l s t o have f a r f e w e r r e s o u r c e s t h a n any o t h e r g r o u p , and s e v e r a l o f t h e s e s c h o o l s d i s c l a i m e d any i n t e r e s t a t a l l i n the p r o j e c t .  O f f e r i n g o n l y the f i r s t year of French  i n Grade V I I I , t h e y c o u l d see no p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t any m e a n i n g f u l s t u d y m a t e r i a l s would be a c q u i r e d i n such s m a l l s c h o o l s . t h e r e f o r e d e c i d e d t o e x c l u d e them from the s t u d y . number o f s c h o o l s was t h e n 2 2 1 .  I t was  The p o t e n t i a l  Refusals. Some s c h o o l s were u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , and among the r e a s o n s g i v e n were t h e s e : 1.  F i r e had d e s t r o y e d t h e l i b r a r y and i t s  2.  The s c h o o l had been open l e s s t h a n a y e a r and had not f u l l y established i t s l i b r a r y ;  3.  The l i b r a r y s e r v e d t h e p u b l i c as w e l l as t h e s c h o o l , and i t s h o l d i n g s were u n t y p i c a l o f s c h o o l m a t e r i a l s ;  4.  The l i b r a r i a n was unable t o g i v e any time t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , b e i n g more t h a n f u l l y o c c u p i e d w i t h b a s i c d u t i e s and u s u a l l y w i t h o u t c l e r i c a l h e l p .  For these reasons,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i r s t t h r e e ,  records;  i t was d e c i d e d  t h a t a t o t a l r e t u r n o f 1 3 0 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s each from l i b r a r i a n s and language t e a c h e r s would s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e p r e s e n t conditions.  B. C.  G i v e n d i s q u a l i f y i n g f a e t o r s 1 - 3 above, the  o f 1 3 0 i s c e r t a i n l y at l e a s t 6 0 $ of the e l i g i b l e  total  schools.  Additional mailings. I n an attempt t o improve the p e r c e n t a g e o f r e t u r n s ,  75  second m a i l i n g s c o n t a i n i n g b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t d u r i n g A p r i l t o s c h o o l s w h i c h had n o t p r e v i o u s l y r e p l i e d .  A further  22 m a i l i n g s o f o n l y one o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent t o selected  s c h o o l s where o n l y t h e l i b r a r i a n o r the  t e a c h e r had r e p l i e d .  language  The r e t u r n from t h e s e 9 7 a d d i t i o n a l  m a i l i n g s was p o o r , i n d i c a t i n g perhaps e i t h e r a r e s i s t a n c e t o the questionnaires  o r a l a c k o f s c h o o l t i m e t o complete them.  O n l y 2 7 r e p l i e s o f any k i n d were r e c e i v e d .  9 Personal' v i s i t s . To b r i n g t h e t o t a l number o f r e p o r t s up t o 130 o f each t y p e , v i s i t s were u n d e r t a k e n t o s c h o o l s i n f o u r Lower M a i n l a n d districts.  I n one, p e r m i s s i o n had t o be o b t a i n e d from the  superintendent before c a l l i n g at s c h o o l s .  On some few o c c a s i o n s ,  an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l was needed b e f o r e meeting the l i b r a r i a n o r French teacher.  However, d e s p i t e the  sometimes  c i r c u i t o u s r o u t e , t h e v i s i t w i t h the t e a c h e r t o o k o n l y a v e r y few minutes and u s u a l l y proceeded v e r y p l e a s a n t l y . The r e c e p t i o n from l i b r a r i a n s was sometimes c o o l , u s u a l l y because i t was f e l t t h a t such a v i s i t i m p l i e d adverse c r i t i c i s m of l i b r a r y holdings.  The i n t e r v i e w e r t o o k time t o make the  t i t l e count from the s h e l f l i s t , d i s c o v e r i n g i n t h e  process  many u s e f u l b o o k s , o f w h i c h some t i t l e s were added t o the " s u g g e s t e d l i s t " appended t o t h i s  thesis.  I n a l l , 28 s c h o o l s were v i s i t e d o v e r a two-week p e r i o d . F i n a l Sample. The g o a l o f 130 o f each t y p e was r e a c h e d , and i t was found t h a t i n 121 c a s e s , r e p l i e s from b o t h t h e l i b r a r i a n and the guage t e a c h e r were r e c e i v e d .  lan-  Only 9 r e p l i e s from each group  were not " p a i r e d " i n t h i s way. F o r e a s i e r h a n d l i n g , and f o l l o w i n g t h e r e a s o n i n g t h a t l a r g e and s m a l l s c h o o l s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n budget and s t a f f , the r e t u r n s were grouped a r b i t r a r i l y i n t o those  enroll-  i n g under 500 p u p i l s , between 500 and 980 ( t h e h i g h e s t f i g u r e ' r e p r e s e n t e d w h i c h was c l e a r l y below 1 0 0 0 ) , and o v e r 1000.  It  10 was n o t p o s s i b l e , g i v e n o n l y 130 s c h o o l s , t o determine any s p e c i f i c enrolment f i g u r e w h i c h a l o n e marks a change i n p r a c t i c e s and m a t e r i a l s .  General observations. Even b e f o r e a t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s , i t was p l a i n t h a t no p r o v i n c i a l pattern of l i b r a r y practices i n treating foreign language m a t e r i a l s would be d i s c o v e r e d .  A p a r t from g e n e r a l  g u i d e l i n e s suggested by the E d u c a t i o n Department, each d i s t r i c t makes i t s own budget and p u r c h a s i n g arrangements.  Even w i t h i n  a d i s t r i c t , some s c h o o l s a r e a b l e t o s e t t h e i r own c o u r s e s a c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g m a t e r i a l s and methods.  of  I n D i s t r i c t 39  ( V a n c o u v e r ) , f o r example, i t i s t h e p r a c t i c e t o a s s i g n tape r e c o r d e r s t o each s c h o o l w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g t h e i r u s e . French teachers are a b l e , nonetheless,  Some  t o o b t a i n permanent  c u s t o d y o f m a c h i n e s , w h i l e o t h e r s must borrow d a i l y from t h e c e n t r a l s t o r a g e a r e a and cannot enjoy t h e i r permanent u s e .  In  some s c h o o l s t h e l i b r a r i a n w i l l purchase m a t e r i a l s and g i v e them i n t o t h e c a r e o f t h e F r e n c h department, w h i l e i n o t h e r s a separate fund s u p p l i e s departmental h o l d i n g s . The o b j e c t i o n a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study.  W i t h o u t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s the  questions,  t e a c h e r s and l i b r a r i a n s may m i s i n t e r p r e t the v a r i o u s i t e m s o r s u p p l y i n a c c u r a t e guesses where a more r e l i a b l e count i s d e s i r e d . Under such a severe l i m i t a t i o n , d a t a must be d e a l t w i t h cautiously.  11  TABLE I LIBRARY REPORT - ENROLMENT UNDER 500: 34 REPORTS  Minimum Range of book count Percentage of t o t a l collection Number of t i t l e s i n French  14 1/10$ 0  Maximum  Typical  200+ 10$ 75  Range of Number of count reports A c t i v e l y purchasing relevant books V e r t i c a l f i l e materials Some audiovisual materials  -  2% 10  Percentage  2d  82  30  88  18  53  Records  2- 32  13  38  Tapes  1-100  8  24  Filmstrips  2- 20  9  27  13  38  A c t i v e l y purchasing audiovisual materials  -  12  TABLE I I LIBRARY REPORT - ENROLMENT FROM 500 TO 9 3 © :  Minimum Range o f book count  20  Percentage of t o t a l collection  1/10$  Number o f t i t l e s i n F r e n c h  0  Range o f count A c t i v e l y purchasing r e l e v a n t books V e r t i c a l f i l e materials Some a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s  -  Maximum  6 4 REPORTS  Typical  300+ 5$ 250  Number o f reports  1% 20  Percentage  57  89  53  83  33  52  21  33  Records  2-  Tapes  4-100  19  30  Filmstrips  2-  19  30  21  33  A c t i v e l y purchasing audiovisual materials  -  50.  25  13  TABLE  III  LIBRARY REPORT - ENROLMENT OVER 1 0 0 0 :  Minimum Range o f book count Percentage of t o t a l collection  17 1/10$  Number o f t i t l e s i n F r e n c h  A c t i v e l y purchasing r e l e v a n t books V e r t i c a l f i l e materials Some a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s Records Tapes Filmstrips A c t i v e l y purchasing audiovisual materials  0  3 1 REPORTS  Maximum  Typical  600+ 5%  1-1/2%  119  40  Range o f count  Number o f reports  -  31  1O0  26  84  10  32  3-43  7  23  41-56  2  6  2-15  5  16  5  16  -  -  Percentage  14 TABLE IV FRENCH DEPARTMENT REPORT - ENROLMENT UNDER 5 0 0 : 3 4 REPORTS  Range o f count  Number o f reports  6-18  4  12  12  35  Records: music o n l y 1-16 speech o n l y 2-39 music and speech T o t a l records reported  5 8 14 27  15 24 41  Textbooks: Different t i t l e s S e t s o f 1 0 o r more  11-  13 11  39 32  Readers: Different t i t l e s S e t s o f 1 0 o r more  1-4© 1-10  Item Language l a b o r e l e c t r o n i c classroom Filmstrips  Percentage  positions 1-32  8 4  18  79  13  53 39  5  15  Tape R e c o r d e r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y  20  59  Record P l a y e r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y  15  44  Projector(s) f o r Department use o n l y  6  18  13  39  S t u d e n t s ' home s t u d y disc sets  Students given l i b r a r y assignments  2-20  15 TABLE V FRENCH DEPARTMENT REPORT - ENROLMENT FROM 500 TO 980: 64 REPORTS  Item  Range of count  Language l a b o r electronic classroom  Number of reports  Percentage  6-105 positions  14  22  1- 64  29  45  Records: music only 1- 20 speech only 1- 50 music and speech T o t a l records reported  10 10 17 37  16 16 27 58  Textbooks: Different t i t l e s Sets of 10 or more  1-50 1-9  23 19  36 30  Readers: Different t i t l e s Sets o f 10 or more  1-90 1-15  35 28  55 44  Students' home study disc sets  1-10  14  22  Tape recorder(s) f o r Department use only  49  73  Record player(s) f o r Department use only  31  48  5  8  Projector(s) f o r Department use only  12  19  Students given l i b r a r y assignments  31  48  Filmstrips  F i l m s t r i p viewer(s) f o r Department use only  16 TABLE V I FRENCH DEPARTMENT REPORT - ENROLMENT OVER 1 0 0 0 :  3 1 REPORTS  Range o f count  Number o f reports  Percentage  18- 3 5 positions  17  55  2-124  24  77  5 4 15  16  24  77  4  17 16  55 52  2-60 2-49  25 24  81 77  1-97  13  42  29  94  23  74  3  10  Projector(s) f o r Department use o n l y  17  55  Students given l i b r a r y assignments  17  55  Item Language l a b o r e l e c t r o n i c classroom Filmstrips  Records: music o n l y 2 -47 speech o n l y 1- 76 music and speech T o t a l records reported Textbooks: Different t i t l e s S e t s o f 1 © o r more Readers: Different t i t l e s S e t s o f 1 0 o r more Students* home s t u d y d i s c sets Tape r e c o r d e r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y Record p l a y e r ( s ) f o r Department use o n l y F i l m s t r i p viewer(s) f o r Department use o n l y  1-24 1-  13 48  17  PART TWO ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: FOREIGN LANGUAGE LIBRARY RESOURCES  T i t l e s r e l e v a n t t o French courses. A b a s i c problem i n t h i s p a r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s  that  f o r e i g n language c l a s s e s c o u l d make use o f much g e o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l w h i c h was o r d e r e d f o r the S o c i a l S t u d i e s department.  L i b r a r i a n s f r e q u e n t l y commented t h a t much u s e f u l  m a t e r i a l i s found i n g e n e r a l European h i s t o r i e s , f o r example, as w e l l as i n t h e s u b d i v i s i o n f o r F r e n c h h i s t o r y .  I t i s not  c e r t a i n whether o r not a l l r e p o r t s i n c l u d e t h i s " f r i n g e " f i g u r e . One l i b r a r i a n s e r v i n g o v e r 1 1 0 0 s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d o n l y 1 7 p e r t i n e n t t i t l e s , i n c l u d i n g £ from t h e sification.  Surely a c o l l e c t i o n of  y i e l d more t h a n t h i s .  900*s  6000  i n t h e Dewey c l a s -  books c o u l d be made t o  But t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e s o f some  a r e matched by the exuberance o f o t h e r l i b r a r i a n s .  One e s t i m a t e  o f " F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n a " r a n t o 5 0 0 t i t l e s i n a c o l l e c t i o n o f about 7000.  It  i s p l a i n t h a t the d a t a must not be f o r c e d t o  clear trends i n s p e c i f i c areas.  present  What does emerge from Q u e s t i o n 1  i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t , because o f l a r g e r budgets f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s and a l l o t h e r m a t e r i a l , l a r g e r s c h o o l s w i l l have g e n e r a l l y more t i t l e s i n s t o c k w h i c h F r e n c h s t u d e n t s can u s e .  IS Percentage of  collection.  No average o f such p o t e n t i a l l y i n a c c u r a t e meaningful.  d a t a would be  I t appears t h a t i n the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s a  f i g u r e o f between 1 and 2 p e r c e n t can be e x p e c t e d .  It  should  be n o t e d , however,- t h a t the " T y p i c a l " column i n T a b l e s I - I I I r e p r e s e n t s a s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n , not a r i g i d  statistical  result. Active purchasing of relevant  books.  L a r g e r s c h o o l s have the advantage h e r e f o r the same reason g i v e n i n Q u e s t i o n 1:  g e n e r a l s o c i a l s t u d i e s purchases w i l l  s e v e r a l s p e c i a l i z e d needs.  To be r a t e d as " a c t i v e l y  serve  purchasing,"  t h e r e p o r t had t o show " y e s " r e p l i e s i n both y e a r s named. l i b r a r i e s w i l l i n c r e a s e a c q u i s i t i o n o f French m a t e r i a l s  Some  as  s t a f f changes and new c u r r i c u l u m demands a l t e r the c l i m a t e o p i n i o n and awareness i n t h e Vertical  of  school.  file.  S c h o o l s i z e d i d not seem t o a f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y the wide a v a i l a b i l i t y o f pamphlet, map and p i c t u r e Audiovisual  resources.  resources.  Over h a l f o f t h e r e p o r t s from s c h o o l s e n r o l l i n g under 1000 show t h e l i b r a r i a n r e s p o n s i b l e material.  f o r some form o f a u d i o v i s u a l  D e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n the l a r g e s t  schools i s prob-  a b l y t h e r e a s o n why o n l y about a t h i r d o f the l a s t group o f r e p o r t s c l a i m s any such r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Sometimes t h e a u d i o -  v i s u a l department u s e s space i n o r a d j a c e n t t o the l i b r a r y , but  19  another c l e r k , t e c h n i c i a n or teacher administers i t s e p a r a t e l y from the  entirely  library.  Tapes and f i l m s t r i p s a r e most o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by s c h o o l size.  L a r g e language departments seem more i n c l i n e d t o t a k e  o v e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s e i t e m s , a g a i n due t o t h e  prevalence  o f o f f i c e and s t o r a g e space f o r the department h e a d .  I t should  be r e c a l l e d t h a t n e a r l y h a l f o f the " o v e r 1 0 0 0 " group r e p r e s e n t Vancouver s c h o o l s , where language department heads meet f o r m a l l y and i n f o r m a l l y so t h a t u n i f o r m p r a c t i c e s t e n d t o s p r e a d . Tape r e c o r d i n g s i n s m a l l l i b r a r i e s a r e commonly used i n " l i s t e n i n g p o s t " f a s h i o n , s i n c e few s c h o o l s i n t h e " u n d e r 500" range have language l a b o r a t o r i e s .  I n the two l a r g e  schools  r e p o r t i n g l i b r a r y tape r e s o u r c e s t h e r e i s no such l a b o r a t o r y , w h i l e the presence o f a l a b o r a t o r y makes i t the o b v i o u s p l a c e t o store a l l t a p e s — obvious, at l e a s t ,  t o t h e language  teacher.  Active purchasing of audiovisual materials. O n l y 1 3 s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , o r 1 0 $ , c o u l d c l a i m t o be " r e source c e n t e r s "  i n t h e sense o f h a v i n g a p p r e c i a b l e  o f v a r i o u s media.  collections  S e v e r a l o t h e r s w i l l soon r e a c h t h a t l e v e l ,  as  suggested by l i b r a r i a n s ' comments r e f e r r i n g t o e x p a n s i o n i n t h e near f u t u r e .  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t many s c h o o l s have a m b i t i o n s i n  t h i s d i r e c t i o n , but " t e m p o r a r y budget p r o b l e m s " are h o l d i n g them back.  20 PART THREE ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE:  SUPPLEMENTARY FOREIGN  LANGUAGE RESOURCES CONTROLLED BY THE TEACHER  Languages covered  by the r e p o r t .  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s c h i e f l y f o r the use o f the B.C.A.T.M.L. E x e c u t i v e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e case o f r e p o r t s  gathered  by p e r s o n a l v i s i t s i t was not taken i n t o account f o r purposes o f t h e study proper.  O c c a s i o n a l l y t e a c h e r s combined a l l  language m a t e r i a l s i n t o one r e p o r t , d e s p i t e t h e request t o separate  them by language.  the m a t e r i a l s counts, t h a t where Spanish  A b l u r r i n g o f data r e s u l t s i n  but i t i s deduced from o t h e r  o r German i s taught  reports  i n a d d i t i o n t o French  the amount o f supplementary m a t e r i a l on hand i s u s u a l l y very meagre f o r these a l t e r n a t i v e languages. Language l a b o r a t o r i e s . In 5 eases, t h e d e s i g n a t i o n "language l a b " was a p p l i e d to  s m a l l i n s t a l l a t i o n s s e a t i n g 6 , 8 o r 12 s t u d e n t s .  A t the  o t h e r extreme, where 3 e n t i r e elassrooms a r e served by " l o o p " broadcast  systems, up t o 105 students  can r e c e i v e programs a t  the same time on any o f t h r e e channels. l e s s convenient  f o r monitoring,  Such a s i t u a t i o n i s  but i t serves the o t h e r f u n c t i o n s  o f an a u d i o - a c t i v e l a b o r a t o r y . Language l a b s o r t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t a r e c l e a r l y t h e prerogat i v e o f the l a r g e s t s c h o o l s , and more w i l l be b u i l t  as funds  permit. Some language t e a c h e r s have helped p l a n and c o n s t r u c t  21  " l i s t e n i n g p o s t s " i n t h e l i b r a r y where a f u l l - s c a l e l a b was possible.  not  T h i s arrangement p e r m i t s independent s t u d y , but removes  t h e s t u d e n t from t h e t e a c h e r ' s h e l p and s u p e r v i s i o n .  I t places  an a d d i t i o n a l l o a d on t h e l i b r a r i a n , a l t h o u g h some l i b r a r i a n s see i t as the f i r s t major s t e p towards t h e concept o f a " r e sourc e e e n t r e .  n  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e l a r g e percentage  o f "over 1 0 0 0 "  s c h o o l s h a v i n g language l a b o r a t o r i e s i s a f f e c t e d by the p o l i c y o f a s i n g l e d i s t r i c t , Vancouver, where each o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l s has been f i t t e d w i t h an 18-seat l a b o r a t o r y . Most o t h e r f u l l - s i z e l a b s s e a t 3 0 o r 3 5 , t h e former b e i n g d e s i r a b l e as a s u b t l e way  figure  of influencing class size.  Filmstrip collections. Many o f t h e r e p o r t s l i s t " s i l e n t " f i l m s t r i p s , but where a " t a p e o r d i s c commentary" i s i n d i c a t e d , i t u s u a l l y proves t o be one o f t h e b e t t e r - k n o w n s e r i e s o f c o u r s e s .  V o i x e t Images  de France - P r e m i e r Degre i s w i d e l y h e l d , and o f f e r s 3 2 f i l m s t r i p s w i t h t a p e s c o m p r i s i n g an e n t i r e course o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Une  Annexe  en France i s found i n a few s c h o o l s , p r o v i d i n g  15  f i l m s t r i p s with tapes. A s e p a r a t e count o f t a p e s i s not as c o n v e n i e n t i n French departments as i n l i b r a r i e s , because t a p e d m a t e r i a l s a r e t h e s t a n d a r d accompaniment t o a l l F r e n c h c o u r s e s now b e i n g used and s h o u l d be found i n abundance i n e v e r y s c h o o l .  Further-  more, w h i l e a d i s c r e c o r d i n g i s i n one o f 3 s t a n d a r d s i z e s , a t a p e may  i n c l u d e any amount o f r e c o r d e d m a t e r i a l r a n g i n g from  22 a few m i n u t e s on a t i n y , 3 - i n c h r e e l up t o 4 h o u r s on a 7 - i n c h storage r e e l .  4-track,  The o n l y e f f e c t i v e measure i s i n m i n u t e s  o f p l a y i n g time.- and t h e burden o f c o u n t i n g would have been impossible. Films. As a r u l e , 16 mm m o t i o n p i c t u r e f i l m s are t o o c o s t l y t o be k e p t i n any one s c h o o l .  S e v e r a l examples o f r e g i o n a l  resource  c e n t r e s were r e p o r t e d , but not f o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I t i s f e l t t h a t immediate a v a i l a b i l i t y r e q u i r e s m a t e r i a l s be based i n t h e s c h o o l . 28-lesson  to  One s m a l l e r secondary s c h o o l owns a  sound-film series,  Je P a r l e F r a n c a i s by E n c y c l o p a e d i a  Britannica Films. Disc recordings. I n t h i s s e c t i o n , as i n t h e two f o l l o w i n g , t e a c h e r s were asked t o keep i n mind t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f m a t e r i a l s . assurance t h a t t h e y d i d s o .  There i s no  However, i f t h e f i g u r e s may be  b e l i e v e d , most s c h o o l s o f a l l s i z e s h o l d some d i s c r e c o r d i n g s . The s m a l l numbers o f each t y p e , music and s p e e c h , are p r o b a b l y t h e r e s u l t o f two common s i t u a t i o n s .  F i r s t , schools  invest  r e l u c t a n t l y i n non-book m a t e r i a l s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y when music r e c o r d s may have o n l y a b r i e f p e r i o d o f p o p u l a r i t y w i t h  students.  Speech d i s c s a r e u s u a l l y p r o v i d e d as a l t e r n a t e s t o t a p e d m a t e r i a l s f o r c o u r s e s , w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g numbers i n larger schools.  Second, t e a c h e r s have l o n g been accustomed  t o s u p p l y i n g music from t h e i r own r e c o r d c o l l e c t i o n s , i n response t o p u p i l demand and t h e i r own t a s t e s .  A third possibility is  23 t h a t most d i s c s can be tape r e c o r d e d , p e r m i t t i n g s c h o o l s t o copy u s e f u l s e l e c t i o n s w i t h o u t t h e expense o f p u r c h a s i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e i r own. Textbooks. The h i g h e s t percentage  o f r e p o r t s i n t h i s a r e a was from  t h e " o v e r 1000" s c h o o l s , where t e x t s are accumulated t h r o u g h e x p e r i m e n t a l p u r c h a s e s from department budgets as w e l l as t h r o u g h publishers'  sample o f f e r i n g s .  The h i g h f i g u r e o f 9 s e t s i n  T a b l e V i s extreme, f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by one example o f 5 s e t s and s e v e r a l o f 4 o r 3 .  Most s c h o o l s would admit t o 1 o r 2 s e t s .  The change i n t e x t s i n Grades V I I I and X I i n 1968-9 confused the p i c t u r e s l i g h t l y .  Some t e a c h e r s u s i n g t h e new  c o u r s e s might r e g a r d Le F r a n g a i s V i v a n t and Cours Moyen as no l o n g e r c u r r e n t , even though t h e y are s t i l l p r e s c r i b e d f o r other grades. T a k i n g a c o n s e r v a t i v e v i e w , i t seems t h a t most s c h o o l s do n o t accumulate o u t d a t e d t e x t s and have o n l y a modest s u p p l y o f a l t e r n a t e t i t l e s , p r o b a b l y more f o r t e a c h e r t h a n s t u d e n t u s e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e a r b i t r a r y c h o i c e o f 10 as t h e m i n i mum f o r a " s e t "  does n o t p r e c l u d e m u l t i p l e c o p i e s up t o 9 ,  a s i t u a t i o n n o t measured by t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Supplementary r e a d e r s . The same causes o f e r r o r are p o s s i b l e i n t h e case o f r e a d e r s as were n o t e d f o r t e x t b o o k c o u n t s :  increases i n both  t i t l e s and s e t s seem t o match i n c r e a s e d e n r o l m e n t .  Discretion-  a r y department budgets are p r o b a b l y t h e c h i e f source o f f u n d s ,  24  and o f course a wider s e l e c t i o n o f t i t l e s i s r e q u i r e d i n a comprehensive  secondary than i n a junior;:secondary s c h o o l .  I t i s assumed, but not a t a l l c e r t a i n , t h a t the r a t h e r l a r g e s t o c k s suggested The  i n some s c h o o l s a r e i n f a c t " c u r r e n t l y u s e f u l . "  h i g h e s t t o t a l r e p o r t e d , 9 0 t i t l e s i n Table V, i n c l u d e s  n o v e l s and p l a y s , assuming the p r o p o r t i o n s o f a s m a l l l i b r a r y . No i n f o r m a t i o n was o f f e r e d about the means used t o c i r c u l a t e these books apart from the comment t h a t the c o l l e c t i o n i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o "French-speaking  students."  Student p r a c t i c e d i s c s . Some s c h o o l s , having adopted t h e new programs, have encouraged students t o buy s e t s o f d i s c s f o r themselves.  I n a few cases,  l a r g e numbers o f s e t s have been loaned t o students by the s c h o o l s . Again the l a r g e s t s c h o o l s seem t o have the advantage,  although  the d i f f e r e n c e between the s c h o o l s i n Table IV and those i n T a b l e V i s not v e r y marked. Other r e s o u r c e s . T h i s s e c t i o n was used v a r i o u s l y t o add items, such as games o f Bingo o r c o l l e c t i o n s o f s l i d e s about P a r i s , and t o a m p l i f y p r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o tapes and books.  No worthwhile  suggestions  were made which were not f o r e s e e n o r covered by e a r l i e r  questions.  One e x c e p t i o n was the s c h o o l r e p o r t i n g t h e use o f a B e l l and Howell Language Master, which l e d t o some correspondence ing  Appendix  C of this  concern-  investigation.  Tape r e c o r d e r s . I t i s apparent t h a t l a r g e r s c h o o l s a r e a b l e t o p r o v i d e one o r  25 more machines f o r t h e language d e p a r t m e n t ' s u s e , a l t h o u g h i n most cases t h e r e i s n o t the "one t a p e r e c o r d e r t o one F r e n c h t e a c h e r " r a t i o d e s i r e d by the B . C . A . T . M . L . and o t h e r  educators.  Whether o r not machines are a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s d u r i n g s c h o o l hours or at other times i s u s u a l l y a matter of personal arrangements made by t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e i r p u p i l s .  It is  reasonably  c e r t a i n t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t i n B . C . e d u c a t i o n a l development the t a p e r e c o r d e r i s w i d e l y r e g a r d e d by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as a d e s i r a b l e t e a c h i n g a i d , n o t a s t u d e n t - u s e d t o o l o f language l e a r n i n g . O v e r a l l , t h i s sample showed t h a t about 22$ o f the language c l a s s r o o m s have one tape r e c o r d e r i n e a c h .  The s c h o o l s w h i c h  s u b m i t t e d no r e t u r n s may make t h e a c t u a l p r o v i n c i a l  average  lower. Record p l a y e r s . Lower i n p r i o r i t y f o r language t e a c h e r s , r e c o r d p l a y e r s a r e u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n each s c h o o l but not a s s i g n e d t o any d e p a r t ment.  Fewer t h a n 10$ o f t h e r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e d a r e c o r d p l a y e r  i s s u p p l i e d f o r each language t e a c h e r , but a s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h f i g u r e i s i n d i c a t e d f o r department c o n t r o l o f one o r more machines - - an average o f about 55%« Filmstrip viewers. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some t e a c h e r s m i s i n t e r p r e t e d " v i e w e r s " and i n t e n d e d t o mark " p r o j e c t o r s " theless,  on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Never-  t h e r e i s much hope t o be drawn from t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f  even a few v i e w e r s , f o r t h e y a r e e s s e n t i a l i f independent s t u d e n t use i s t o be made o f f i l m s t r i p s . about 6% o f the sample.  A t o t a l o f 8 was r e p o r t e d , o r  26  Filmstrip/Slide  projectors.  The l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p r o j e c t o r s  between  T a b l e s IV and V and T a b l e V I i s u n d o u b t e d l y due t o t h e w i d e s p r e a d purchase o f V o i x e t Images f i l m s t r i p s .  The p u b l i s h e r has made  i t c l e a r t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e use o f the eourse depends upon the f r e q u e n c y o f l e s s o n s , so t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have been persuaded t o purchase e x t r a p r o j e c t i o n equipment. Other a u d i o v i s u a l devices. The overhead p r o j e c t o r was sometimes m e n t i o n e d , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t d i r e c t l y u s e f u l f o r independent s t u d y .  One language  department i n d i c a t e d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a movie p r o j e c t o r . Student l i b r a r y a s s i g n m e n t s . As l i b r a r i e s grow l a r g e r t o s e r v e more s t u d e n t s , and i n c r e a s e relevant materials (Tables I - I I I ) , language t e a c h e r s .  more use i s made o f them by  L a r g e r s c h o o l s a l s o have more s e n i o r c l a s s e s  e a s i l y c a p a b l e o f u n d e r t a k i n g independent a s s i g n m e n t s .  Many  t e a c h e r s mentioned " o r a l r e p o r t s t o t h e c l a s s " , and r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n E n g l i s h on F r e n c h c u l t u r e , h i s t o r y and p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  27  PART FOUR SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The importance o f s i z e i n s c h o o l  resources.  Because t h e p r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n Department p r o v i d e s each d i s t r i c t w i t h f u n d s on the b a s i s o f e n r o l m e n t , l a r g e  schools  can o b t a i n more complete a u d i o v i s u a l s e r v i c e t h a n can s m a l l schools.  But o f g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , g i v e n the many s c h o o l s  r e p o r t e d t o have equipment a v a i l a b l e on an not-assigned  n  basis,  n  in-the-school-but-  i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a r g e schools being  o r g a n i z e d d e p a r t m e n t a l l y t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s .  Every  o b s t a c l e p l a c e d i n t h e way o f t h e t e a c h e r d i s c o u r a g e s him f r o m o b t a i n i n g t h e use o f what equipment i s a v a i l a b l e , and machines c i r c u l a t e d among 3 o r 4 language t e a c h e r s a r e p r o b a b l y more e f f i c i e n t l y used t h a n when p l a c e d so as t o s e r v e , an e n t i r e  theoretically,  staff.  A c c e s s i b i l i t y of books. I t must be assumed t h a t l i b r a r i a n s a r e a b l e t o make whatever books t h e y have e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s a l i k e . T h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y so w i t h m a t e r i a l s c o n t r o l l e d by F r e n c h teachers.  The t e a c h e r i n whose room t h e y are l o c a t e d may guard  them j e a l o u s l y , o r t h e y may s i m p l y be u n a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the h o u r s t h e c l a s s r o o m i s i n normal u s e .  Thus, although l a r g e  numbers o f t e x t s and r e a d e r s seem t o be on hand i n many s c h o o l s , t h e y may not be e f f i c i e n t l y u s e d .  Student use o f m a t e r i a l s . Where t h e t e a c h e r and l i b r a r i a n have c o l l a b o r a t e d on t h e b u i l d i n g o f a " l i s t e n i n g p o s t " , i t i s p r o b a b l y used o f t e n . Communications w i t h i n a s c h o o l are n o t always g o o d , however, and no f o r m a l check has been made on whether l i b r a r y h o l d i n g s are w e l l - u s e d .  S i n c e most s t u d e n t s need p o s i t i v e encouragement  t o seek out r e s o u r c e s , t h e y r e l y upon s p e c i f i c l i b r a r y - o r i e n t e d a s s i g n m e n t s , and t h i s sample shows b a r e l y h a l f o f t h e language departments a c t i v e l y p r o m o t i n g any such p r o j e c t s . Teacher a t t i t u d e s t o l i b r a r y u s e . I n v i s i t i n g Lower M a i n l a n d s c h o o l s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d little  i n t e r e s t e x p r e s s e d by most t e a c h e r s i n what t h e l i b r a r y  had t o o f f e r .  Concern was v o i c e d t h a t d e p a r t m e n t a l r e s o u r c e s ,  e s p e c i a l l y tape r e c o r d e r s , were i n s u f f i c i e n t i n number, and l i b r a r y use was not a h i g h - p r i o r i t y p r o b l e m .  The " s e l f - c o n t a i n e d  c l a s s r o o m " remains a p o p u l a r concept among t e a c h e r s . L i b r a r i a n a t t i t u d e s t o F r e n c h s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . S e v e r a l l i b r a r i a n s were c a r e f u l t o mention t h a t sueh books as were a v a i l a b l e i n F r e n c h were seldom r e a d . c i r c u l a t i o n c a r d s bore out t h i s c o n c l u s i o n .  Examination of Yet several question-  n a i r e s returned w i t h appeals f o r help i n f i n d i n g sources French m a t e r i a l s .  of  O t h e r l i b r a r i a n s commented t h a t t h e y were  seldom c a l l e d upon t o purchase books f o r the language but were a l w a y s ready t o do so upon r e q u e s t .  teachers,  There seems t o  be a renewed i n t e r e s t among some l i b r a r i a n s i n o f f e r i n g a l l forms  2 9  o f l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , b u t t h e i r e h i e f needs  are:  1.  Sources o f s u i t a b l e p r i n t m a t e r i a l s ;  2.  I n f o r m a t i o n and h e l p from F r e n c h t e a c h e r s i n s e l e c t i n g materials;  3»  C l e r i c a l assistance maintenance;  4.  Budgets w h i c h p e r m i t t h e purchase o f n o n - p r i n t  t o h a n d l e i n c r e a s e d p r o c e s s i n g and resources.  A number o f l i b r a r i a n s f e e l t h e i r time i s w e l l spent m e e t i n g p r e s e n t demands, and are not concerned by t h e l a c k o f  requests  from such t r a d i t i o n a l l y " l o w u s e r s " as mathematics and f o r e i g n language  teachers.  30 CHAPTER  III  THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRENCH DEPARTMENT AND LIBRARY HOLDINGS I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t b o t h F r e n c h t e a c h e r s and l i b r a r i a n s are c a p a b l e o f assuming a t t i t u d e s w h i c h p r e v e n t anyu s e f u l communication from t a k i n g p l a c e .  Teachers u s u a l l y empha-  s i z e c o n t r o l l e d r e a d i n g s and c l a s s r o o m r e s o u r c e s , w i t h l i t t l e regard f o r the " f r e e r e a d i n g " u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i b r a r y time.  They have been unable t o r e l a t e t h e i r g o a l s t o t h e  o f independent s t u d y .  concept  They have p r o b a b l y n o t examined t h e p l a c e  o f r e a d i n g i n t h e F r e n c h c u r r i c u l u m , c o n f r o n t e d as t h e y are w i t h what seems t o be an " o r a l "  course.  L i b r a r i a n s , i t has been shown, o f t e n l o o k on the f o r e i g n languages as a p e r i p h e r a l a r e a o f s e r v i c e .  They a r e t o l d by  French teachers t h a t reading p l a y s only a s m a l l p a r t i n the course.  They have found from e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e r e seems t o  be a s h o r t a g e o f s u i t a b l e F r e n c h m a t e r i a l i n p r i n t even i f t h e y have t h e d e s i r e and means t o buy i t .  They have asked  t e a c h e r s t o recommend books f o r p u r c h a s e , and the f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r has been u n a b l e o r u n w i l l i n g t o suggest any t i t l e s . Worst o f a l l , books p u r c h a s e d f o r language s t u d e n t s w i t h s c a r c e l i b r a r y f u n d s have l a i n i d l e on the s h e l v e s , w i t h o n l y one s i g n a t u r e on the c i r c u l a t i o n c a r d — t h a t o f t h e F r e n c h t e a c h e r , who r e a d i t once q u i c k l y and perhaps mentioned i t t o h i s  class.  I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t any m a t e r i a l brought so c a s u a l l y t o a  31 p u p i l ' s a t t e n t i o n w i l l p r o m p t l y be f o r g o t t e n .  The l i b r a r i a n ,  a g e n e r a l l y knowledgeable p e r s o n , i s o f t e n not  sufficiently  f a m i l i a r w i t h the l a n g u a g e , t h e c o u r s e s o r t h e p u p i l t o remedy t h e s i t u a t i o n and i n d u c e t h e p u p i l t o r e a d .  What i s needed i n  e x a m i n i n g t h i s n o n - r e l a t i o n s h i p between F r e n c h t e a c h e r and l i b r a r i a n i s f i r s t o f a l l an a p p r a i s a l o f what F r e n c h exists  literature  i n t h e l i b r a r y , f o l l o w e d by a r e v i e w o f t h e p l a c e  r e a d i n g i n the F r e n c h c u r r i c u l u m .  of  The g o a l i s a new statement  o f a f u n c t i o n a l , r a t h e r t h a n the t r a d i t i o n a l l y i d e a l i s t i c , . r o l e o f t h e l i b r a r y i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e F r e n c h r e a d i n g program. Freneh l i t e r a t u r e i n the l i b r a r y . The aim o f l i t e r a t u r e i s c h i e f l y enjoyment. not r e a d books t h e y do not e n j o y ,  Pupils w i l l  and s c h o o l l i b r a r y  collections  f a i l t o a t t r a c t r e a d e r s f o r some o r a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1.  A p p e a r a n c e . The e x t e r i o r s o f some r e c e n t books p u b l i s h e d f o r l e a r n e r s are a t t r a c t i v e , but f a r t o o many volumes p l a c e d on l i b r a r y s h e l v e s i n t h e g u i s e o f " l i t e r a t u r e " show t h e same u n i m a g i n a t i v e c o l o r i n g and d e s i g n as do textbooks. Anything which looks l i k e a textbook w i l l d i s c o u r a g e most s t u d e n t s from r e a d i n g f o r enjoyment.  2.  L e v e l of i n t e r e s t . Most books s e l e c t e d f o r l e a r n e r s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y s l i m . They appear easy t o r e a d , a l t h o u g h t h e c o n t e n t s might be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y v e r y advanced, and p u p i l s a r e not a t t r a c t e d by what seems t o o j u v e n i l e . Cover d e s i g n s showing c h i l d r e n o b v i o u s l y much younger than the reader are c e r t a i n t o act against the book's b e i n g r e a d . Some t i t l e s may seem too " m a t u r e " f o r the p u p i l s i m p l y because t h e y are l o n g , w h i l e o t h e r s may sound " c h i l d i s h " . I n b o t h c a s e s the i m p r e s s i o n may be quite f a l s e .  3.  R e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c l a s s r o o m . French teachers are l i k e l y t o r e g a r d c l a s s r o o m t e x t s and p r e s c r i b e d supplementary r e a d e r s as s u f f i c i e n t t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r g o a l s . If some d i r e c t m o t i v a t i o n i s not s u p p l i e d by the t e a c h e r , p u p i l s w i l l not seek f u r t h e r m a t e r i a l s on w h i c h t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r g r o w i n g command o f the l a n g u a g e . The t e a c h e r  32  must determine which p u p i l s are c a p a b l e o f independent r e a d i n g and t h e n m o t i v a t e them on a s t r i c t l y i n d i v i d u a l basis to investigate c e r t a i n t i t l e s , or else apply some r e g u l a t i o n about " o u t s i d e r e a d i n g " w h i c h w i l l compel e v e r y p u p i l t o r e a d from the l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . 4.  Level of d i f f i c u l t y . The same g u i d e l i n e s f o r r e a d a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h s h o u l d a p p l y t o f o r e i g n language m a t e r i a l s . Too many new words on each page w i l l make the book e f f e c t u a l l y u n r e a d a b l e , and the problem i s not s o l v e d by s u p p l y i n g l o n g e r w o r d - l i s t s a t the b e g i n n i n g o r end o f each c h a p t e r , n o r by t r a n s l a t i n g whole p h r a s e s i n f o o t n o t e s w h i c h might occupy as much as t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e page. The p u p i l i s not a b l e t o enjoy t h e c o n s t a n t r e f e r r a l s t o o t h e r pages o r l i n e s w h i c h i n t e r r u p t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f each p a s s a g e .  I t has been t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f most l i b r a r i a n s t h a t p u p i l s w i l l not r e a d F r e n c h s t o r i e s f o r p l e a s u r e o r c o n s u l t d i c t i o n a r i e s out o f s h e e r i n t e r e s t  i n the language.  P r o v i s i o n a l l y , i t may be  recommended t h a t a l l o f t h e m a t e r i a l s be s u b j e c t e d t o  intensive  s c r u t i n y and t h e m a j o r i t y o f them removed from the l i b r a r y . For a f r e s h s t a r t ,  t h e whole q u e s t i o n o f the need t o r e a d  i n F r e n c h must be r a i s e d . The p l a c e o f r e a d i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t F r e n c h c u r r i c u l u m . Present French t e x t s ,  n o t a b l y P a r l e r e t L i r e , aim a t p r o -  d u c i n g competence i n t h e f o u r s k i l l s : r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g .  l i s t e n i n g , speaking,  They a r e c o n s t r u c t e d on l i n g u i s t i c p r i n -  c i p l e s t o p r e s e n t a s e r i e s o f speech p a t t e r n s a c t u a l l y i n use by native speakers,  and t h e v o c a b u l a r y i s as c u r r e n t as p o s s i b l e .  P u p i l s are t a u g h t t o l i s t e n , i m i t a t e and f i n a l l y speak i n p r e s c r i b e d p a t t e r n s , w i t h t h e g o a l o f l e a r n i n g how t o s e l e c t and vary the patterns t o f i t a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . l e a r n e r progresses  In short,  the  from s t r i c t l y s u p e r v i s e d and c o n t r o l l e d speech  33  upwards t o random and s e l f - s e l e c t e d  conversation.  T h i s i s what  G r i t t n e r chooses t o c a l l t h e " A m e r i c a n M e t h o d " , and i t l e a d s r e a d i n g i n t h e most l o g i c a l way — t h e p u p i l l e a r n s t o r e a d  to first  what he has a l r e a d y mastered o r a l l y . T h u s , t h e r e a s o n s f o r heavy emphasis upon l i s t e n i n g and s p e a k i n g d r i l l i n the American Method go beyond t h e mere importance a t t a c h e d t o t h e s e s k i l l s as v a l i d l e a r n i n g objectives. Of e q u a l importance i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t an a u d i o l i n g u a l command o f t h e language i s t h e . i n d i s p e n s a b l e u n d e r p i n n i n g o f r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s . 0  As the range o f o r a l mastery i s extended by a s e r i e s t e x t s such as t h e one now b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d i n B . C , t h e  of complex-  i t y o f r e a d i n g m a t t e r grows u n t i l the p u p i l i s a b l e t o f a c e c o n temporary newspaper and magazine a r t i c l e s w i t h c o n f i d e n c e and t o enjoy s e l e c t i o n s ease.  from s t a n d a r d s t o r i e s and p l a y s w i t h  relative  U n t i l such mastery i s a c h i e v e d , however, r e a d i n g i s a  p a r t o f the c u r r i c u l u m and supplementary r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n the  belong  classroom.  The p l a c e o f t h e supplementary r e a d e r i n the  classroom.  Mackey i d e n t i f i e s two s o r t s o f supplementary r e a d e r s . provide extensive p r a c t i c e ,  i n contrast  s i v e study done w i t h b a s i c t e x t b o o k  They  to the r e l a t i v e l y i n t e n -  materials.  Supplementary r e a d e r s may be o f two t y p e s , (1) the p r o g r e s s i v e t y p e , and ( i i ) t h e p l a t e a u t y p e . The p r o g r e s s i v e r e a d e r s g r a d u a l l y b r i n g i n new v o c a b u l a r y ; t h e p l a t e a u r e a d e r s do n o t , s i n c e they a r e w r i t t e n t h r o u g h out a t a f i x e d l e v e l . '  6 Frank M . G r i t t n e r , T e a c h i n g F o r e i g n Languages, New Y o r k , H a r p e r and Row, 1969, p . 25b. 7 W i l l i a m F . Mackey, Language T e a c h i n g A n a l y s i s , London, Longmans G r e e n , 1965, P» 2 8 1 - 2 .  34  G r i t t n e r does not d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e s e two f u n c t i o n s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f graded r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . A graded r e a d e r i s a book s e p a r a t e from t h e r e g u l a r t e x t w h i c h , i f used p r o p e r l y , w i l l be g i v e n t o the s t u d e n t a t t h a t p o i n t i h h i s study o f t h e language when he i s a b l e t o r e a d i t d i r e c t l y and p l e a s u r a b l y . F u r t h e r , t h e graded reader" s h o u l d be so s c a l e d i n d i f f i c u l t y t h a t t h e complet i o n o f the f i r s t s e l e c t i o n d e v e l o p s i n t h e s t u d e n t t h e a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h t h e second s e l e c t i o n w h i c h , i n t u r n , p r e p a r e s t h e ground f o r p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h t h e s l i g h t l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h r i d s e l e c t i o n , and so on u n t i l the end o f t h e book. I d e a l l y , t h e graded r e a d e r would be b u i l t upon t h e s p e c i f i c course c o n t e n t w h i c h preceded i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n . That i s , t h e r e a d e r would u t i l i z e l a r g e l y v o c a b u l a r y and g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h had been p r e v i o u s l y i n t r o d u c e d . The p o t e n t i a l number o f l e x i c a l i t e m s can be i n c r e a s e d by u t i l i z i n g c o g n a t e s , d e r i v e d words and i n f r e q u e n t f o o t n o t e s or marginal glosses. I n d e e d , by t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n - s i x t i e s , a number o f t e x t s o f t h i s t y p e had been g produced t o be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f o u r - l e v e l programs. B o t h a u t h o r s make i t c l e a r t h a t supplementary r e a d e r s  are  produced t o complement t h e b a s i c c o u r s e and a r e p a r t o f the room t e a c h e r ' s e s s e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l .  class-  I n most books  about language t e a c h i n g , no m e n t i o n i s made o f t h e l i b r a r y ' s s u p p o r t i v e r o l e i n t h e r e a d i n g program. Supplementary r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n t h e l i b r a r y . I f t h e p u p i l i s t o be c l o s e l y g u i d e d i n h i s use o f graded r e a d e r s , t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r ' s d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f most supplementary b o o k s .  The o n l y  c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f what t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r y might p r o v i d e i s i n a new book by W i l g a M . R i v e r s , who i s b e s t known f o r h e r e a r l i e r s t u d y o f The P s y c h o l o g i s t and t h e F o r e i g n Language  8  Teacher.9  G r i t t n e r , p . 262-3.  9 W i l g a M . R i v e r ^ The P s y c h o l o g i s t and the F o r e i g n Language T e a c h e r , New Y o r k , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1964.  35 She proposes f i v e s t a g e s o f r e a d i n g t r a i n i n g i n h i g h s c h o o l , and only at the f i f t h ,  i n the most s e n i o r g r a d e s ,  i s there a w e l l -  d e f i n e d need f o r a w i d e r s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s .  For intensive  s t u d y i n c l a s s a t t h i s f i f t h l e v e l , the l i t e r a t u r e chosen s h o u l d be t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y i n f l a v o r and i n t r o d u c e t h e a d o l e s c e n t  to  t h e m a t e r i a l f a m i l i a r t o n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f h i s own age. T h i s emphasis on contemporary m a t e r i a l o f v a r i e d o r i g i n s a p p l i e s even more p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g . The l i b r a r y s h o u l d be w e l l s t o c k e d w i t h r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o r s t a n d a r d o f d i f f i c u l t y but varied i n subject matter. The t e a c h e r s h o u l d now be a b l e t o recommend t o each s t u d e n t e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o h i s i n d i v i d u a l : t a s t e s and i n t e r e s t s . Some s t u d e n t s may p i c k up a n o v e l o r p l a y o f w h i c h t h e y have h e a r d , o r w h i c h has r e c e n t l y been made i n t o a f i l m ; o t h e r s may be encouraged t o undertake a c o u r s e o f r e a d i n g i n t h e f o r e i g n language r e l a t e d t o some r e s e a r c h t o p i c o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t t o them o r r e q u i r e d f o r a n o t h e r c o u r s e . A s t a n d a r d e n c y c l o p e d i a i n the f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e , and some s e r i o u s magazines, kept on f i l e from y e a r t o y e a r , w i l l p r o v i d e much reference m a t e r i a l of t h i s type. I n t h i s way, h a b i t s o f u s i n g the language f o r o n e ' s own purposes w i l l be f o s t e r e d , and c o n t i n u e , we may hope, as a source o f p l e a s u r e and p r o f i t a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s have l e f t t h e c l a s s r o o m . A s t u d e n t who l e a v e s s c h o o l w i t h o u t h a v i n g had t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e a d i n g on h i s own and e n j o y i n g f o r e i g n language m a t e r i a l o f h i s own c h o i c e i s n o t l i k e l y t o do s o , w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g , i n l a t e r life. r  1 0  The s i x t h s t a g e o f r e a d i n g s k i l l i s t o t a l l y f r e e r e a d i n g i n j o u r n a l s and e l s e w h e r e , a record of i t .  without r e p o r t i n g to a teacher or keeping  T h i s i s t h e same g o a l G r i t t n e r p r o p o s e s ,  except  t h a t t h e t r a n s i t i o n from t e a c h e r - c o n t r o l l e d t o l i b r a r y - b a s e d m a t e r i a l s i s not so w e l l d e f i n e d . A s p e c i f i c r o l e f o r the l i b r a r y . Rivers'  suggestion i s that the l i b r a r y provide m a t e r i a l s at  10 W i l g a M . R i v e r s , T e a c h i n g Foreign-Language New Y o r k , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1968, p . 23b.  Skills,  36 a p o i n t i n t h e p u p i l ' s development when he i s a b l e t o  appreciate  t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t u d y and t h e p r i v i l e g e o f complete freedom t o choose h i s own m a t e r i a l . t o f o l l o w such a p l a n , t h e s e s t e p s are  I f the l i b r a r y i s  recommended:  1.  A l l m a t e r i a l c l a s s i f i e d as r e a d e r s , a t a l l l e v e l s , be t u r n e d o v e r t o the F r e n c h department;  2.  A c o l l e c t i o n o f d i c t i o n a r i e s , i n c l u d i n g some e n t i r e l y i n F r e n c h , w i l l f o r m t h e b a s i s o f a new c o l l e c t i o n ;  3.  A l l new p u r c h a s e s w i l l be checked f o r r e a d a b i l i t y by a competent F r e n c h t e a c h e r f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c o u r s e s i n Grades X I and X I I . Wherever p o s s i b l e , m a t e r i a l not w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r l e a r n e r s w i l l be u s e d ;  4*  A c o l l e c t i o n o f magazine and newspaper a r t i c l e s from F r e n c h language p u b l i c a t i o n s w i l l be b u i l t u p . They s h o u l d be mounted o r bound whenever p o s s i b l e , and even l a m i n a t e d w i t h p l a s t i c f i l m t o make them easy t o h a n d l e . Topics of enduring i n t e r e s t r a t h e r than current events s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d , a l t h o u g h some contemporary a f f a i r s w i l l be w o r t h r e a d i n g t h r o u g h o u t one y e a r a t l e a s t . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be c o n t i n u o u s l y r e v i s e d by t h e French teacher;  5.  A l l p u p i l s i n s e n i o r F r e n c h c o u r s e s w i l l be a d v i s e d t h a t t h e y a r e expected t o r e a d i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n F r e n c h , and c r e d i t w i l l be g i v e n f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y . A r e c o r d o f r e a d i n g w i l l be k e p t by the t e a c h e r , and some s u i t a b l e w r i t t e n o r o r a l summary i n F r e n c h may be e x p e c t e d .  The use o f F r e n c h department  will  literature.  I n k e e p i n g w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t i t i s the t e a c h e r ' s t a s k t o p r e s c r i b e c a r e f u l l y - c h o s e n graded r e a d e r s , department's  i t must be the French  j o b t o s t o r e and m a i n t a i n i t s own b o o k s .  This  i m p l i e s the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n : 1.  The F r e n c h department o f f i c e i s a c c e s s i b l e a t a l l t i m e s t o a l l F r e n c h t e a c h e r s . Adequate s t o r a g e space f o r b o t h s e t s o f r e a d e r s and i n d i v i d u a l t i t l e s i s p r o v i d e d , and a t a b l e o r c o u n t e r s i m i l a r t o a l i b r a r y ' s work-room space f o r s o r t i n g and mending b o o k s .  37 2.  C l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i s a v a i l a b l e t o operate a c i r c u l a t i o n system i n w h i c h b o t h t e a c h e r s and some p u p i l s can charge out books f o r v a r y i n g p e r i o d s o f time. Responsible p u p i l s could operate t h i s s i m p l i fied library.  3.  A s e p a r a t e budget i s p r o v i d e d t o a c q u i r e new b o o k s . Most m a t e r i a l s a r e i n e x p e n s i v e b o o k s , so t h a t a v i g o r o u s p o l i c y o f payment f o r l o s s o r m u t i l a t i o n i s pursued.  4.  The l i b r a r y i s open t o a l l s t u d e n t s , but p u p i l s i n Grades V I I I - X a r e asked f o r not more t h a n one assignment a y e a r , i n E n g l i s h , d e a l i n g w i t h F r e n c h s p e a k i n g p o p u l a t i o n s , h i s t o r y , geography o r b i o g r a p h y . I f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m l e n t i t s e l f t o such t o p i c s , no f u r t h e r assignment from t h e F r e n c h t e a c h e r would be needed.  The s h a r i n g o f a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . I t would be b e s t t o s t o r e most m a t e r i a l s such as t a p e s o r f i l m s t r i p s i n t h e l i b r a r y i f t h e y c o u l d be used p r o f i t a b l y by students.  D u p l i c a t i o n o f some i t e m s i s j u s t i f i e d i n l a r g e  schools,  p a r t i c u l a r l y when an i t e m has a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n t o a p o r t i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m .  I t i s not u n r e a s o n a b l e ,  however, t o expect  the t e a c h e r t o w i t h d r a w a f i l m s t r i p from the l i b r a r y on an e x tended l o a n b a s i s d u r i n g the p a r t o f t h e y e a r i t i s r e q u i r e d . Tape and d i s c i t e m s can be c o p i e d e a s i l y i f t h e French i s a d e q u a t e l y s u p p l i e d w i t h machines.  department  F o r t h i s p u r p o s e , as w e l l  as f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a m a t e r i a l s c e n t r e t o handle b o o k s , para-professional help i s  some  justifiable.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e F r e n c h t e a c h e r s and t h e r a r i a n s h o u l d be b a s e d , t h e r e f o r e ,  lib-  on the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s :  1.  A t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p u p i l s ' needs and capabilities i n reading;  2.  A c l e a r d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a t e r i a l s , based on the p u p i l s ' a b i l i t y t o r e a d and do r e s e a r c h i n d e p e n d ently ;  38  3.  A f r e q u e n t exchange o f v i e w s t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , p r e f e r a b l y when t h e l i b r a r i a n o f f e r s h e l p i n o r g a n i z i n g department r e s o u r c e s and t h e French t e a c h e r p a r t i c i p a t e s i n evaluating l i b r a r y acquisitions.  I n e f f e c t , t h e suggested d i v i s i o n o f r e s o u r c e s  i s a major  s t e p towards t h e s e t t i n g up o f s p e c i a l i z e d l e a r n i n g c e n t r e s w h i c h complement t h e c e n t r a l l i b r a r y . A French r e s o u r c e  centre i n operation.  The i d e a o f a number o f s m a l l " l i b r a r i e s " i n a d d i t i o n t o a main c o l l e c t i o n i s n o t new.  I t has been a major t o p i c f o r more  t h a n a decade i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f J . L l o y d Trump, and a f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s scheme appeared i n t h e B u l l e t i n o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Secondary S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s f o r J a n u a r y , The r e s o u r c e  1966.  11  c e n t r e f o r modern f o r e i g n languages a t Oak P a r k  and R i v e r F o r e s t H i g h S c h o o l , i n Oak P a r k , I l l i n o i s , o f f e r s p u p i l s a combination of o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  I t i s a v e r y s m a l l room, no  l a r g e r t h a n h a l f a c l a s s r o o m , h o l d i n g a wide v a r i e t y o f b o t h p r i n t and n o n - p r i n t m a t e r i a l s .  A l i b r a r i a n i s i n a t t e n d a n c e about  three-fourths  o f t h e d a y , w i t h some r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e c e n -  tral library.  A l l m a t e r i a l s i n the centre are noted i n the cen-  t r a l l i b r a r y ' s c a r d f i l e , but a r e n o t d u p l i c a t e d ; p u p i l s a r e d i r e c t e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e rooms f o r s p e c i a l i z e d m a t e r i a l s i n languages,  mathematics and s o c i a l s t u d i e s .  e i g n language r e s o u r c e  A d j a c e n t t o the f o r -  c e n t r e i s t h e language l a b o r a t o r y ,  soon t o  11 J . L l o y d Trump, "Independent Study C e n t e r s — T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o t h e C e n t r a l S c h o o l L i b r a r y , " NASSP B u l l e t i n . CCCVI (January 1966), 45-51.  39  be open on an u n s c h e d u l e d b a s i s as new e l e c t r o n i c are i n s t a l l e d .  classrooms  On the o t h e r s i d e o f t h e c e n t r e i s a s t u d y - h a l l ,  s u p e r v i s e d by a n o n - t e a c h i n g a s s i s t a n t . s c h e d u l e d i n t o t h e 60-seat  P u p i l s are  regularly  s t u d y a r e a s but may t h e n use any o f  t h e r e s o u r c e c e n t r e s o r the l i b r a r y i n s t e a d o f b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d to working w i t h t h e i r textbooks. O b v i o u s l y , the c o s t o f t h e Oak P a r k system i s much g r e a t e r t h a n most B . C. d i s t r i c t s a r e p r e p a r e d t o b e a r .  But i t s  apparent  s u c c e s s and i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i n the l i g h t o f modern w r i t i n g s on language t e a c h i n g make i t w o r t h s t u d y i n g as an example o f an emerging p a t t e r n i n e d u c a t i o n .  40 CHAPTER  IV  LANGUAGE LEARNING THROUGH AUDIOVISUAL AIDS IN THE LIBRARY  The Oak P a r k p r o j e c t w h i c h produced s p e c i a l i z e d  resource  c e n t r e s has a l s o drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f new a u d i o v i s u a l a i d s t o language l e a r n i n g w h i c h c o u l d operate  within  a l i b r a r y framework. New p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n s t o r i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n have been c r e a t e d t h r o u g h e l e c t r o n i c s .  T e l e v i s i o n alone  made s t i m u l a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s  available with  has its  s t r i k i n g immediacy and t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s i g h t and s o u n d . F i l m and t a p e t e c h n o l o g i e s a r e s t i l l e v o l v i n g , and t e a c h e r s are b e i n g f o r c e d t o t a k e note o f t h e i r importance i n p r e s e n t i n g subject  matter.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a u d i o v i s u a l developments f o r t e a c h i n g ought t o be g r e a t .  A l l t o o o f t e n , however,  language assumptions  are made about t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f machines w h i c h b e a r no r e l a t i o n t o the r e a l i t i e s o f s c h o o l l i f e .  It  i s essential  that  c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n , b e f o r e p u r c h a s i n g a u d i o v i s u a l d e v i c e s , t o the use t h a t w i l l be made o f them i n l i b r a r y s u r r o u n d i n g s . It  i s proposed t o examine b r i e f l y some o f the a i d s now  a v a i l a b l e and r e l a t e t h e i r p r o b a b l e use t o t h e needs o f F r e n c h pupils i n library settings.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m s t o be  d i s c u s s e d are t h e language l a b o r a t o r y , 8 - m i l l i m e t e r f i l m  cart-  r i d g e s , d i s c r e c o r d i n g s , and programmed i n s t r u c t i o n t h r o u g h "teaching  machines".  u  The language l a b o r a t o r y f o r independent s t u d y . I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t some B . G. secondary c h i e f l y t h e l a r g e r ones, have language l a b s .  schools,  I n the past  decade  a wave o f e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h i s modern a i d t o l e a r n i n g has r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a r e s o u r c e c e n t r e l i b r a r y complex s h o u l d i n c l u d e language l a b f a c i l i t i e s , though on a s m a l l s c a l e — s a y , 6 o r 10 booths connected t o t a p e - p l a y i n g equipment i n t h e w o r k room o r b e h i n d the l i b r a r i a n ' s charge d e s k . an a d d i t i o n appears  The case f o r such  strong:  1.  P u p i l s need a p l a c e t o r e p e a t l e s s o n s h e a r d i n the language c l a s s r o o m o r the main l a b ;  2.  Recorded m a t e r i a l s are t h e r e b y a v a i l a b l e t o s e v e r a l students at once, without d i s r u p t i o n t o others i n the l i b r a r y ;  3.  M a t e r i a l s a r e b e s t h a n d l e d by an a d u l t o r a t r a i n e d s t u d e n t , t o reduce t h e s n a p p i n g o f t a p e s and s c r a t c h i n g o f d i s c s through c a r e l e s s use;  4.  The l i b r a r y i s a l w a y s s t a f f e d and t h e a d d i t i o n a l w o r k l o a d i s small;  5.  I t can be used by o t h e r t h a n language p u p i l s f o r l i s t e n i n g purposes.  There a r e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , some c o n v i n c i n g reasons why t h e l i b r a r y s h o u l d not attempt t o i n c l u d e a language l a b o r a t o r y : 1.  A l a b i s n o t an independent s t u d y d e v i c e u n l e s s i t o p e r a t e s on the " l i b r a r y * * system where each p u p i l has complete c o n t r o l o v e r what m a t e r i a l s he h e a r s . A " b r o a d c a s t " t y p e l a b , w h i c h i s what most language t e a c h e r s u s e , i s m e r e l y an e l e c t r o n i c means o f p r o d u c i n g l o c k - s t e p d r i l l u s i n g a t b e s t 2 o r 3 d i f f e r e n t programs at a t i m e ;  2.  The g r e a t e s t s i n g l e problem o f language l a b s i s mechani c a l f a i l u r e , p u t t i n g a burden o f maintenance on t h e t e a c h e r i n charge w h i c h i s o f t e n s u f f i c i e n t t o d i s c o u r a g e t h e f u l l use o f r e g u l a r l a b s ;  3.  A l a b may p e r m i t t h e p u p i l the use o f some form o f  indiv-  42 i d u a l tape r e c o r d e r f o r p l a y i n g back h i s p r a c t i c e t a p e . I t i s w i d e l y acknowledged t h a t though t h i s c o s t l y f u n c t i o n may be o f some use t o some s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , young p u p i l s f i n d i t t e d i o u s and a r e q u i t e u n a b l e t o c r i t i c i z e t h e i r own speech f a u l t s ; 4.  The l i s t e n i n g f u n c t i o n i s t h e o n l y v a l i d need i n a l i b r a r y , and can be used by p u p i l s i n music and E n g l i s h c o u r s e s as w e l l as f o r f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s . Thus a " l i s t e n i n g p o s t " recommends i t s e l f . However, the concept o f f u l l i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n s t i l l r e q u i r e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e p l a y , and the o n l y r e a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y way t o g i v e the p u p i l c o n t r o l o f h i s m a t e r i a l i s t o p r o v i d e a number o f tape r e c o r d e r s . I f d e s i r e d these c o u l d be f i t t e d f o r group l i s t e n i n g t h r o u g h a d d i t i o n a l headsets.  Some a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o the l o o p b r o a d c a s t f o r l i b r a r y use.  system  A c o i l o f w i r e mounted around the c e i l i n g o r  i n p a r t s o f t h e room p e r m i t s p u p i l s t o r e c e i v e the program b e i n g p l a y e d w i t h o u t t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f h e a d s e t s plugged i n t o a 12  machine o r desk.  Headsets may seem f a i r l y e x p e n s i v e , b u t the  number o f p a r t s i n such a system i s f a r l e s s t h a n i n a l a b , and maintenance i s t h e r e f o r e l e s s c o s t l y .  P u p i l s can r e q u e s t  programs  and h e a d s e t s a t the charge desk o r o t h e r c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n j u s t as t h e y do o t h e r a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . A g r e a t d e a l o f u s e f u l language m a t e r i a l can be t r a n s f e r r e d to cassette tapes,  and even young p u p i l s have no d i f f i c u l t y o p e r -  a t i n g the l i g h t w e i g h t p o r t a b l e machines which p l a y them. p o s s i b l e t o s t o r e such c a s s e t t e s on s h e l v e s , ized l i k e print materials.  is  l a b e l l e d and o r g a n -  The one d i s t u r b i n g f e a t u r e o f such a  system i s t h e ease w i t h w h i c h b o t h c a s s e t t e s and tape can be removed from t h e l i b r a r y , n e v e r t o r e t u r n . 12  It  recorders  Conversely,  Myron Sywak, " L o o p i n g the L i b r a r y , " S c h o o l L i b r a r y  Journal.XV (February 15, 1968),  55.  43  i t i s an advantage i n l i b r a r i e s h a v i n g t h e r u l e , " a l l m a t e r i a l s may be b o r r o w e d , " f o r c a s s e t t e equipment can be found l i g h t and s t r o n g enough t o p e r m i t t a k i n g home o v e r n i g h t . I n b o t h t h e l o o p and c a s s e t t e systems, ing i s possible. desirable, essential  however, o n l y l i s t e n -  A l t h o u g h a s m a l l amount o f such a c t i v i t y  i t s h o u l d be borne i n mind t h a t the o r a l  practice  t o modern French c o u r s e s i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  F r e n c h t e a c h e r , who must be a b l e t o m o n i t o r and i n s t r u c t pupils.  is  The p r o p e r p l a c e -for t h i s i s the e l e c t r o n i c  the  his  classroom  o r language l a b o r a t o r y , not the l i b r a r y . F i l m resources  f o r French.  A p a r t from d i s t r i c t h o l d i n g s , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s showed o n l y one s c h o o l l i b r a r y w i t h any 1 6 mm f i l m s .  (Chapter  I)  The c o s t  of  a f i l m c o l l e c t i o n i s so h i g h t h a t d i s t r i c t - w i d e c i r c u l a t i o n i s t h e most p r a c t i c a l way f o r most s c h o o l s t o use f i l m s . There has been a marked i n c r e a s e ,  however, i n the o u t p u t o f  8 mm f i l m i n c a s s e t t e o r c a r t r i d g e f o r m , and some o f i t may o c c a s i o n a l l y be used f o r f o r e i g n language s t u d y .  This  ment r e q u i r e s a s p e c i a l p r o j e c t o r i n t o w h i c h the e n t i r e cartridge i s slipped without threading. and does not need r e w i n d i n g .  arrangeplastic  I t runs continuously  The c a r t r i d g e , l i k e the tape  c a s s e t t e , can be marked and s t o r e d b o o k - f a s h i o n , and i s v e r y r e a d i l y h a n d l e d by even young p u p i l s . F i l m e d m a t e r i a l d e s i g n e d f o r f o r e i g n languages i s A check o f t h e c a t a l o g s  o f t h r e e o f the l a r g e s t  scarce.  f i l m producers  ( B a i l y , E a l i n g and F a i r c h i l d ) r e v e a l s a v a s t a r r a y , o f s c i e n c e  44  and s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l but v e r y l i t t l e r e l a t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to French.  An o c c a s i o n a l t i t l e such as L a V i e P a r i s i e n n e  but i t must be remembered how q u i c k l y s t y l e s change.  appeals,  P u p i l s are  q u i c k t o spot an o u t d a t e d f i l m and r e j e c t i t as a l e a r n i n g a i d . I f a school l i b r a r y acquires a large c o l l e c t i o n of f i l m s , a few can be r e l a t e d somehow t o t o p i c s suggested i n F r e n c h  courses,  j u s t as many h i s t o r y books can be used f o r French r e s e a r c h p r o jects. One h o p e f u l b r e a k t h r o u g h i s t h e a d d i t i o n o f sound t r a c k s on t h e s e 8 mm f i l m s .  Perhaps c a r t o o n f i g u r e s r a t h e r t h a n photographs  w i l l one day be used t o c r e a t e a u d i o v i s u a l " r e a d e r s " v i e w i n g i n the l i b r a r y .  A f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s the  for pleasurerecently  d e v e l o p e d F a i r e h i l d p r o j e c t o r w h i c h p e r m i t s a t e a c h e r t o add h i s own sound t r a c k t o a f i l m , i n p l a c e o f t h e o r i g i n a l .  In  t h i s way a F r e n c h n a r r a t i o n c o u l d be d e v i s e d f o r almost any f i l m . The f i e l d o f f i l m p r o d u c t i o n i s s t i l l u n d e r g o i n g change. S t a n d a r d 8 mm p r o d u c t s are g i v i n g way t o "Super-8", a f i l m y i e l d i n g a l a r g e r and b r i g h t e r image but i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r e g u l a r 8 mm p r o j e c t o r s .  A d v i c e from an e x p e r i e n c e d a u d i o v i s u a l  c o o r d i n a t o r s h o u l d be heeded. F o r the s c h o o l j u s t e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s media c o l l e c t i o n the problem i s n ' t t o o s e v e r e : s t a r t w i t h Super-8. About 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a r t r i d g e s on the market now come i n b o t h r e g u l a r and Super-8.13 Cohen's a d v i c e does not t a k e the F a i r e h i l d " M a r k IV R e c o r d i n g V e r s i o n " i n t o account but even w i t h the b e t t e r - k n o w n  13  Abraham Cohen, " S c r e e n i n g s , "  XIV (October 15, 196?), 3833-  School L i b r a r y J o u r n a l ,  45 T e c h n i c o l o r machine i t would be p o s s i b l e t o p r e p a r e a F r e n c h n a r r a t i o n on a c a s s e t t e tape and d i s c o n n e c t t h e o r i g i n a l s o u n d t r a c k t o p r o v i d e an a c c e p t a b l e  listening  experience.  I n any c a s e , f i l m s a r e so f a r r e l a t i v e l y u n e x p l o i t e d i n terms o f F r e n c h and o t h e r f o r e i g n language  uses.  D i s c r e c o r d i n g s i n the l i b r a r y . L i t t l e can be added w i t h r e g a r d t o d i s c s t h a t has not a l r e a d y been suggested i n s p e a k i n g o f tape r e c o r d i n g s .  As a r u l e ,  p o p u l a r F r e n c h songs s h o u l d f i n d t h e i r way i n t o s e n i o r  courses  somehow, and i t i s u s u a l l y t h e t e a c h e r who p r o v i d e s them.  The  s i m p l e s t course f o r a l i b r a r y t o f o l l o w i s t o p r e p a r e t a p e d c o p i e s f o r s t u d e n t u s e , p r e f e r a b l y w i t h c o p i e s o f the words t o accompany each s o n g .  Care must be t a k e n t o use good t r a n s c r i b -  i n g equipment., and tape speeds o f 3 - 3 / 4 second must be u s e d , p r e f e r a b l y the  o r 7-1/2  inches per  latter.  I f a c o l l e c t i o n o f d i s c s e x i s t s o r i s d e s i r e d f o r any r e a s o n , l i b r a r i a n s have found i t a d v i s a b l e t o p r e p a r e c i r c u l a t i o n t r a n s c r i p t i o n s on t a p e , and t o p r e s e r v e t h e d i s c as a master copy i n t h e event o f an e r a s u r e o r l o s t t a p e .  D i s c s are subject to  wear and s c r a t c h i n g . and s h o u l d be f i l e d v e r t i c a l l y i n t h e i r p r o t e c t i v e j a c k e t s , i n a c o o l r a t h e r t h a n a warm p l a c e . I t i s recommended t h a t t h e s e few p r i n c i p l e s be observed i n s e l e c t i n g a u d i o v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s f o r an expanding l i b r a r y : 1.  The F r e n c h t e a c h e r and l i b r a r i a n must share i n e v a l u a t i n g new m a t e r i a l s , one c h e c k i n g c o n t e n t , the o t h e r c r i t i c i z i n g format and t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t y ;  46  2.  Sound q u a l i t y i s o f paramount importance i n a l l recorded m a t e r i a l ;  3.  Purchase o f u n t r i e d o r l i t t l e - k n o w n equipment s h o u l d be d e f e r r e d u n t i l both the t e a c h e r and t h e l i b r a r i a n are convinced of i t s v a l u e ;  4.  A l l f i l m s , s l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p s s h o u l d be o r d e r e d on a p r e v i e w b a s i s o n l y , and checked f o r t h e i r e f f e c t on p u p i l s . A random s a m p l i n g o f p u p i l o p i n i o n o r p r e v i e w i n g by a p u p i l committee c o u l d r e v e a l some u n f o r e s e e n reactions to v i s u a l materials.  Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r F r e n c h . I n the l i b r a r y s e t t i n g ,  i t seems on f i r s t e x a m i n a t i o n  that  a p u p i l c o u l d p r o f i t from time spent w i t h a " t e a c h i n g machine" o r a programmed t e x t b o o k .  I n e i t h e r case, the theory i s s i m p l e :  by b r e a k i n g each concept o f any s u b j e c t i n t o t h e s m a l l e s t  possible  component p a r t s , c a l l e d " f r a m e s , " t h e p u p i l can be exposed t o a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n o f s m a l l s t e p s l e a d i n g on t o l a r g e r and more complex i d e a s o r p a t t e r n s .  Grammar can be a n a l y z e d i n t h i s way,  w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f s u c c e s s . b e s t s u b j e c t f o r such t r e a t m e n t r e g u l a r than those of It  Mathematics seems t o be t h e because i t s " r u l e s " a r e more  language.  i s u n l i k e l y , however, t h a t t h e r e i s much t o be g a i n e d by  t h e p u p i l i n a t t e m p t i n g t o f o l l o w a programmed language d i f f e r e n t from the c o u r s e used i n t h e c l a s s r o o m .  course  One l i b r a r i a n  p o i n t e d out t h a t a p a r t i a l l y - s i g h t e d p u p i l s t u d i e d most o f h i s F r e n c h course i n a seminar room e q u i p p e d w i t h a tape  recorder  and o t h e r a i d s , but t h a t i s a r a r e example o f u s i n g l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s f o r l a r g e u n i t s of work. F u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s on programmed m a t e r i a l s are  neatly  47 summarized by B r i a n B u t t o n . Why a r e t h e s e c o u r s e s not g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e ? The answer i s s i m p l y c o s t and t i m e . I n o r d e r t o produce a programme l a s t i n g one h o u r , some hundred t o t h r e e hundred h o u r s may have t o be devoted t o i t s p r e p a r a t i o n . * 1  f  D u t t o n s t a t e s on subsequent pages t h a t almost no r e s e a r c h has been done on t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f second language l e a r n i n g and so most programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , whether p r e s e n t e d by a complex v i e w i n g d e v i c e o r by the scrambled pages o f a book,  perpetuates  t h e o l d "word-game" approach t o grammar. There i s hope f o r some t e c h n o l o g i c a l b r e a k t h r o u g h , perhaps u s i n g a computer, w h i c h w i l l one day r e l i e v e the c r i t i c a l s h o r t age o f t e a c h e r s .  Once p i e c e o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d  indicates  that: " . . . a G . A . I . (Computer A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n ) l a b o r a t o r y o f the s o r t d e s c r i b e d here i s d e f i n i t e l y f e a s i b l e ; i t has t h e p o t e n t i a l , when f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d , t o t a k e on a s i g n i f i c a n t burden o f the more m e c h a n i c a l p o r t i o n s o f e a r l y f o r e i g n language i n s t r u c t i o n . " 1 5 N e v e r t h e l e s s , the l i b r a r y i s not t h e i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r " e a r l y f o r e i g n language i n s t r u c t i o n " as s u c h . t o o f f e r enrichment and r e s e a r c h o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  Its function i s The l i b r a r y  c o u l d , however, s e r v e the needs o f a t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t who w i s h e s t o s t u d y an a d d i t i o n a l f o r e i g n language u s i n g programmed o r o t h e r individual-learning materials. A synthesis of the media:  electronic  carrels.  A phase o f the phenomenal e x p a n s i o n o f l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s 14 B r i a n D u t t o n , ed., A Guide t o Modern Language T e a c h i n g Methods, London,; G a s s e l l , 1965, p . 179. 15 E . N . Adams e t a l . , " C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a Computer as a Technique o f Language I n s t r u c t i o n , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I I  (January 1968), 16.  48 a t Oak P a r k , a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o i n C h a p t e r I I , remote a c c e s s r e s o u r c e  page 3 8 , i s a  c e n t r e w h i c h w i l l e v e n t u a l l y combine  film,  t e l e v i s i o n and a l l sound media i n t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l and enrichment programs f o r a l l s u b j e c t a r e a s . Johnson,  Based on a l e c t u r e by M r . Ted  d i r e c t o r o f the l i b r a r y p r o j e c t ,  t h i s u s e f u l note on  t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f new t e r m i n o l o g y appeared i n S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s : A remote a c c e s s system i s a group o f r e l a t e d d e v i c e s w h i c h s t o r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n an a r e a removed from t h e u s e r and w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y and e l e c t r o n i c a l l y d e l i v e r t h e s e m a t e r i a l s t o t h e u s e r a t h i s command. . . . O n l y i f the u s e r i n d i v i d u a l l y c o n t r o l s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f h i s program and t h e program i s d e l i v e r e d t o him e l e c t r o n i c a l l y r a t h e r t h a n i n i t s o r i g i n a l h a r d form i s the system a remote a c c e s s f a c i l i t y according to current vocabulary."1° n  The e l e c t r o n i c  c a r r e l s a t Oak P a r k a r e i n " i s l a n d " f o r m a t i o n ;  each l a r g e n e a r l y - c i r c u l a r module c o n t a i n s 5 c a r r e l s . electronic  Thus the  equipment i s c l u s t e r e d around t h e c o r e , and each  carrel  ends i n a p a n e l c o n t a i n i n g a v i d e o m o n i t o r , a t o u c h - b u t t o n s i g n a l s y s t e m , and a headset w i t h microphone a t t a c h e d .  From the  catalog  f o r t h a t week a p u p i l s e l e c t s a program out o f the more t h a n 1 0 0 o f f e r e d ; he punches the n u m e r i c a l codes needed t o summon t h e p r o gram, and w i t h i n 3 0 seconds a h i g h - s p e e d c o p i e r has  transferred  t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e m a s t e r tape onto a w o r k i n g tape f o r carrel.  that  Thus no p u p i l need w a i t l o n g t o use a program, o r be  f o r c e d t o tune i n p a r t - w a y t h r o u g h .  Soon the v i d e o phase  will  be o p e r a t i n g , though i n the s p r i n g o f 1 9 6 9 o n l y a u d i o f u n c t i o n s were i n s t a l l e d . telephones  L a t e r , p u p i l s w i l l be a b l e t o d i a l from home  i n the e v e n i n g and use t h e a u d i o programs; a  broadcast  16 S i s t e r Mary L . M c C u s k e r , " I m p l i c a t i o n s o f A u t o m a t i o n f o r School L i b r a r i e s — Part 2 , " School L i b r a r i e s , XVIII ( F a l l 1 9 6 8 ) , 17-18.  49  phase w i l l e v e n t u a l l y p e r m i t elementary s c h o o l s i n t h e a r e a t o share t h e h i g h s c h o o l ' s r e s o u r c e s . Some o f t h e t a p e d F r e n c h m a t e r i a l i s o f p o o r q u a l i t y tically —  acous-  below an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l i n t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s o p i n i o n .  The cause may be f a u l t y t r a n s c r i p t i o n , o r c o p y i n g from a l r e a d y well-worn d i s c s .  I f t h i s f l a w c a n be c o r r e c t e d , and no doubt i t  w i l l , t h e e l e c t r o n i c c a r r e l w i l l f u n c t i o n a d m i r a b l y as a s o u r c e o f a l l a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . I t c a n even accommodate a s t u d e n t response sound t r a c k , and f u n c t i o n a s a language l a b . The c o s t o f t h i s p i l o t p r o j e c t i s , o f c o u r s e , e x t r e m e l y high.  B u t t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e b e i n g g a i n e d w i l l engen-  d e r o t h e r approaches t o t h e problem o f making t h e b e s t u s e o f audiovisual aids i n the l i b r a r y . In B r i t i s h Columbia, however, no s c h o o l h a s even begun t o approach t h a t s t a g e o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n .  O f more immediate i n t e r e s t  i s t h e advent o f a u x i l i a r y hardware w h i c h promises t o make t h e l i b r a r y a c e n t r e f o r language l e a r n i n g a t l e s s c o s t t h a n a remote a c c e s s complex. C:  One such d e v i c e i s examined i n Appendix  t h e Language M a s t e r , w h i c h i s based on programming p r i n c i p l e s  but u t i l i z e s language l a b methods o f d r i l l .  50  CHAPTER  V  SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS A p o l i c y of divided authority. I t i s common i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o f i n d s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n s o f F r e n c h r e a d e r s i n s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s , but no p a r t i c u l a r use made o f them i n t h e t e a c h i n g program.  For t h i s reason,  is  the  language t e a c h e r and the l i b r a r i a n must f o r m u l a t e a p o l i c y w h i c h w i l l p l a c e books and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s where t h e y . c a n be used.  S i n c e t h e language department c o u l d be equipped t o d e a l  w i t h a s t o c k o f r e a d e r s , b o t h i n s e t s and i n s i n g l e c o p i e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g key recommendations w i l l s e r v e t o g u i d e t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of materials. 1.  The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h o u l d c o n t r o l a l l supplementary F r e n c h r e a d e r s , and p r e s c r i b e t h e i r use a p p r o p r i a t e l y t h r o u g h o u t the f i r s t t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s o f F r e n c h .  2.  The l i b r a r y ' s main r o l e i s the p r o v i s i o n o f a wide v a r i e t y o f modern r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r s e n i o r s t u d e n t s , i n a d d i t i o n to a c o l l e c t i o n of a u d i o v i s u a l resources s u i t a b l e f o r s t u d e n t use a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s .  3.  A u d i o v i s u a l a i d s used o n l y as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be s t o r e d as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o language c l a s s r o o m s , n o t i n the l i b r a r y .  S p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r language s t u d e n t s i n t h e  library.  I n t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e concept o f a l i b r a r y o f f e r i n g all  forms o f l e a r n i n g a i d s , l i b r a r i a n s need t o be reminded t h a t  t h e v a l u e o f complex e l e c t r o n i c equipment has n o t y e t been proved s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t t o j u s t i f y l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e s on b e h a l f language s t u d e n t s .  of  The s a f e s t p o l i c y i s t o l i m i t l i b r a r y f a c i l i -  51  t i e s t o what can be used e a s i l y by s t u d e n t s and m a i n t a i n e d readily. The f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t i e s are t h e r e f o r e  recommended.  1.  L i s t e n i n g a p p a r a t u s , p r e f e r a b l y tape r e c o r d e r s , s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e i n the l i b r a r y . L i g h t w e i g h t c a s s e t t e u n i t s a r e d e s i r a b l e f o r home u s e . E x t r a h e a d s e t s f o r group l i s t e n i n g s h o u l d be on h a n d .  2.  F i l m , f i l m s t r i p and s l i d e v i e w i n g a p p a r a t u s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e i n q u a n t i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r the amount o f f i l m e d m a t e r i a l i n the c o l l e c t i o n . F i l m s t r i p v i e w e r s a r e as n e c e s s a r y as p r o j e c t o r s , f o r i n d i v i d u a l v i e w i n g .  3.  B o t h i n d i v i d u a l c a r r e l s and group s t u d y space a r e r e q u i r e d f o r a f l e x i b l e program o f p r o j e c t s . The l i b r a r y can serve a u s e f u l purpose by p r o v i d i n g t h i s s p e c i a l accommodation w h i c h i s not a v a i l a b l e i n c l a s s room b l o c k s . I t would o f course be advantageous t o have s i m i l a r f l e x i b i l i t y i n language c l a s s r o o m s , a l t h o u g h a t p r e s e n t such arrangements a r e almost i m p o s s i b l e under B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l b u i l d i n g r u l e s .  A shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B o t h t h e t e a c h e r and the l i b r a r i a n have the same g o a l : t o s e r v e t h e needs o f the p u p i l s .  Because each i s a  specialist,  t h e y s h o u l d c o n f e r i n m a t t e r s o f a c q u i s i t i o n and c i r c u l a t i o n of learning materials.  The f o l l o w i n g recommendations w i l l prove  d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w i f harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p s do not among s t a f f members.  They a r e , n o n e t h e l e s s ,  exist  o f prime i m p o r t a n c e .  1.  P u r c h a s e s f o r F r e n c h department c o l l e c t i o n s s h o u l d be made from a s e p a r a t e b u d g e t , but t h e l i b r a r y s t a f f can a s s i s t teachers i n compiling t h e i r orders. Ordering may be done t h r o u g h normal l i b r a r y c h a n n e l s , but s h o u l d not be r e s t r i c t e d t o o n l y once o r t w i c e a y e a r .  2.  The judgement o f t h e t e a c h e r i s needed m a i n l y i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e language c o n t e n t o f a l l s c h o o l - b a s e d French m a t e r i a l s , w h i l e the l i b r a r i a n s o p i n i o n i s r e q u i r e d on t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f b o t h p r i n t and non-print resources. 1  3.  The a p p r o v a l o f b o t h t e a c h e r and l i b r a r i a n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o a l l purchases i n v o l v i n g F r e n c h l a n g u a g e , i n c l u d i n g m e c h a n i c a l a i d s . P r e v i e w i n g s h o u l d precede  52  p u r c h a s e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f a u d i o v i s u a l materials. 4.  The c r i t e r i o n f o r k e e p i n g f o r e i g n language m a t e r i a l s i n the l i b r a r y s h o u l d be t h e i r use by s t u d e n t s . Unused b o o k s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , c r e a t e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n o f l i b r a r y h o l d i n g s and may d i s c o u r a g e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f h e a l t h y s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s towards r e a d i n g i n a f o r e i g n language.  5.  A major share o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the use o f l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s i n F r e n c h must f a l l on the t e a c h e r . It i s his function to instruct pupils i n reading, e v a l u a t e t h e i r p r o g r e s s , and ensure t h a t r e a d i n g i s a r e s p e c t e d g o a l i n t h e French program. W h i l e not a l l p u p i l s w i l l achieve the u l t i m a t e stage of f u l l y l i b e r a t e d r e a d i n g i n t h e f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e , many w i l l be a b l e t o do s o , g i v e n t h e n e c e s s a r y encouragement i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r comprehension skills.  53 BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  BOOKS  C o r n f i e l d , Ruth R. F o r e i g n Language I n s t r u c t i o n . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1966.  New Y o r k ,  D u t t o n , B r i a n , e d . A Guide t o Modern Language T e a c h i n g Methods, London, C a s s e l l , 1965. G r i t t n e r , Frank M . T e a c h i n g F o r e i g n Languages. H a r p e r and Row, 1969.  New Y o r k ,  Mackey, W i l l i a m F r a n c i s . Language T e a c h i n g A n a l y s i s . Longmans,Green, 1965.  London,  Rivers, W i l g a M . The P s y c h o l o g i s t and t h e F o r e i g n Language T e a c h e r . New Y o r k , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1964. .  T e a c h i n g Foreign-Language S k i l l s . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1968. S a u n d e r s , H e l e n E . The Modern S c h o o l L i b r a r y . J e r s e y , S c a r e c r o w , 1968.  New Y o r k ,  Metuchen, New  S t a c k , Edward M . The Language L a b o r a t o r y and Modern Language T e a c h i n g . New Y o r k , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1966.  B.  PERIODICALS  Adams, E . N . , H . W. M o r r i s o n , and J . M . Reddy. "Conversation w i t h a Computer a s a Technique o f Language I n s t r u c t i o n , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I I ( J a n u a r y 1968), 3-16. Berger, I .  " C a s s e t t e as N o t e b o o k , "  16, 1968), 57-9.  S a t u r d a y Review, L I (March  Brown, Robert M . "The L e a r n i n g C e n t e r , " X V I ( F a l l 1968), 294-300.  AV Communication  Review,  " C i r c u l a t i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s i n U . S . Secondary S c h o o l s , " NEA R e s e arch B u l l e t i n . XLV (December 1967), 109. C l a r k , C . " N o t e s on t h e New T h i n g : w i t h D i s c o g r a p h y , " J o u r n a l , X C I I I ( A p r i l 15, 1968), 1733-6.  Library  Cohen, Abraham. " S c r e e n i n g s , " S c h o o l L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , XIV ( O c t o b e r 1 5 , 1967), 3833.  54 " D i a l - A - L e s s o n , " T i m e . X L I I (January 1 0 , 1 9 6 9 ) ,  12.  E s p o s i t o , P . G . " F i f t h - Y e a r F o r e i g n Language S t u d y , " Modern Language J o u r n a l . L I ( A p r i l 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 9 3 - 4 . Fogarty, J . " R e v o l u t i o n I n Our S c h o o l s , " XCII (January 15, 1967), 302-3.  Library Journal,  F o r s d a l e , L . " C a r t r i d g e L o o p : 8 mm Made E a s y , " L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , X C I I (May 1 5 , 1 9 6 7 ) , 2 0 0 2 - 4 . Gaunt, J o s e p h . " D e v e l o p i n g Taped N a r r a t i o n s f o r S l i d e P r e s e n t a t i o n s , " School L i b r a r i e s , XVII (Winter 1968), 45-9. G e l l e r , E v e l y n . "The M e d i a L i b r a r i a n and A u d i o v i s u a l , " L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , XIV ( A p r i l 1 5 , 1 9 6 7 ) , 1683.  School  " H a p p i n e s s I s Y o u r Own C a r r e l ; F i r s t W h o l l y E l e c t r o n i c L e a r n i n g C e n t e r , " Time, XC ( F e b r u a r y 1 8 , 1 9 6 6 ) , 6 0 . Hemming, W i l l i a m A . " D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T r a i n i n g and S e l f E v a l u a t i o n i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f P r o n u n c i a t i o n , " I R A L , IV ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 7-17. J a s s e y , W i l l i a m . "The Modern Language R e v o l u t i o n Needs a C o o r d i n a t e d Paperback P r o g r a m , " S c h o o l Paperback J o u r n a l , I I (December 1 9 6 5 ) , 2 0 - 2 . K i e s e r , W. E . ^On Tape R e c o r d e r s and Language L a b o r a t o r i e s , " Canadian Modern Language R e v i e w , XX (June 1 9 6 4 ) , 3 1 - 5 . McGusker, S i s t e r Mary L . " I m p l i c a t i o n s o f A u t o m a t i o n f o r S c h o o l L i b r a r i e s — P a r t 2 , " School L i b r a r i e s , X V I I I ( F a l l 1968), 15-22. M u e l l e r , K l a u s A . and W i l l i a m Wiersma. "The E f f e c t s o f Language L a b o r a t o r y Type Upon F o r e i g n Language Achievement S c o r e s , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I ( O c t o b e r 1 9 6 7 ) , 3 4 9 - 5 1 . M u e l l e r , Theodore H . "Programmed Language I n s t r u c t i o n — H e l p f o r the L i n g u i s t i c a l l y ' U n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , ' " Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I I (February 1968), 79-84. M u e l l e r , Theodore H . and Henry N i e d z i e l s k l . "The I n f l u e n c e o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T r a i n i n g on P r o n u n c i a t i o n , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , L I I (November 1 9 6 8 ) , 4 1 0 - 1 6 . O t t o , Wayne and Gwenyth B r i t t o n . "Sense I m p r e s s i o n Responses t o V e r b a l and P i c t o r i a l S t i m u l i , " IRAL ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 5 ) , 51-6. P i m s l e u r . P a u l . " A Memory S c h e d u l e , " Modern Language L I (February 1967), 73-5.  Journal,  55 S c h w i l k , Gene L . " M i l l i o n - D o l l a r C a r r e l s , " S c h o o l L i b r a r y J o u r n a l . XIV ( J a n u a r y 15, 1 9 6 7 ) , 3 0 6 - 1 0 . Sywak, M y r o n . " L o o p i n g t h e L i b r a r y , " S c h o o l L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , XV ( F e b r u a r y 15, 1 9 6 8 ) , 55. Trump, J . L l o y d . "Independent Study C e n t e r s — T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o the C e n t r a l S c h o o l L i b r a r y , " NASSP B u l l e t i n , CCCVI (January 1966), 45-51. V a l e t t e , Rebecca M . "The Use o f t h e D i c t e e i n the F r e n c h Language C l a s s r o o m , " Modern Language J o u r n a l , X L V I I I (November 1 9 6 4 ) , 431-4. C.  UNPUBLISHED SOURCES  B a i r d , H e l e n . "Young a d u l t l i b r a r i a n v i s i t s an advanced F r e n c h c l a s s . " Tape r e c o r d i n g , D e t r o i t P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 1964. Bundy, Edward ¥ . " A n experimental study of the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e l e v i s i o n a p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s and conventional classroom procedures i n promoting i n i t i a l comprehension o f b a s i c v e r b form concepts i n elementary Spanish." Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, I960. P u r s e r , B a r b a r a A . " A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the usage o f t h e language l a b o r a t o r y i n t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s o t h e r t h a n f o r e i g n languages i n l a r g e Texas s c h o o l s y s t e m s . " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Howard Payne C o l l e g e , Brownwood, T e x a s , 1966. S m i t h , Selma R. "The s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n and t h e t e a c h e r o f S p a n i s h . " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , Queen's C o l l e g e , F l u s h i n g , New Y o r k , 1962. S p a a r , V i r g i n i a L . "Songs and music as an a i d i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f the F r e n c h language and F r e n c h c u l t u r e . " U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1961. T e z z a , Joseph S . "The e f f e c t s o f l i s t e n i n g t r a i n i n g on a u d i o l i n g u a l l e a r n i n g . " Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1962.  APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE: School  FOREIGN LANGUAGE LIBRARY RESOURCES D i s t r i c t No.  Enrolment  The i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d below i s t o h e l p b u i l d up a p i c t u r e of B. C. school l i b r a r y resources i n the f i e l d f o r e i g n languages.  of  Where t h e word F r e n c h i s u s e d , o t h e r  languages are a l s o i n t e n d e d .  P a r a l l e l i n f o r m a t i o n can be  e n t e r e d on t h e r e v e r s e s i d e o f the s h e e t , u s i n g a p a r a l l e l numbering s y s t e m . Although the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of u s i n g l i b r a r y - b a s e d language m a t e r i a l s are no doubt? s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d i n most s c h o o l s , i t i s hoped t h a t a p o o l i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n from B.  C. t e a c h e r s and l i b r a r i a n s w i l l produce a u s e f u l c o l l e c t i o n  of ideas.  V i s i t s may be p o s s i b l e t o s c h o o l s whose c o l l e c t i o n s  are l a r g e i n t h i s a r e a so t h e r e s e a r c h e r can examine t h e most v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l s now i n u s e . K i n d l y give the questionnaires d e a l i n g w i t h  teacher-  c o n t r o l l e d r e s o u r c e s t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e department head o r s t a f f member.  Your assistance  i s most s i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d .  1 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many t i t l e s does y o u r l i b r a r y h o l d i n these areas? (a)  H i s t o r y , geography o f F r a n c e ,  including  t r a v e l (900's) (b) L i t e r a t u r e i n F r e n c h , i n c l u d i n g a d a p t a t i o n s for  learners  (c)  Literature translated  i n t o E n g l i s h from  F r e n c h works (d) Formal language s t u d y a i d s : textbooks, (e)  dictionaries,  etc.  C a n a d i a n a , e m p h a s i z i n g h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e o f F r e n c h Canada Total  2. A p p r o x i m a t e l y what p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n do these t i t l e s  represent?  %.  3 . Were any o f t h e above purchased i n 1967-68?  Yes  No  4 . A r e any such purchases p l a n n e d f o r 1968-69?  Yes  No  5. Do you m a i n t a i n v e r t i c a l f i l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n some o r a l l of these areas?  Yes  No  6 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many i t e m s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s does t h e l i b r a r y house? (a)  Phonograph r e c o r d s i n F r e n c h :  (b) Tape r e c o r d i n g s i n F r e n c h : (c)  F i l m s t r i p s r e l a t i n g t o any o f the a r e a s o f Q u e s t i o n i) Silent,  1:  or with printed s c r i p t only:  i i ) W i t h t a p e o r d i s c commentary: (d) O t h e r a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s :  7. Were any o f t h e above purchased d u r i n g 1967-68? Yes  No  8 . A r e any such purchases p l a n n e d f o r 1968-69?  No  Yes  9 . P l e a s e s p e c i f y any o t h e r l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s you h o l d , o r any i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h would complete the p i c t u r e o f y o u r l i b r a r y ' s r e s o u r c e s f o r f o r e i g n language  students.  58 APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE:  SUPPLEMENTARY FOREIGN LANGUAGE  RESOURCES CONTROLLED BY THE TEACHER School  D i s t r i c t No.  Enrolment  I n t h i s s u r v e y o f B . C. s c h o o l l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s i n the f i e l d o f modern f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s ,  i t i s expected t h a t  few  s c h o o l s have i n v e s t e d h e a v i l y i n l i b r a r y - b a s e d m a t e r i a l s . More o f t e n , language t e a c h e r s accumulate t h e i r own d e p a r t m e n t a l resources. B o t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r and the Modern Languages P . S . A . to b u i l d a p i c t u r e of these resources,  wish  emphasizing m a t e r i a l s  p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s f o r independent s t u d y and p r o j e c t work.  Do n o t i n c l u d e l i b r a r y - b a s e d o r teacher-owned  materials. 1. Check t h e language covered by t h i s French  Spanish  German  report: Other (specify)  Number o f t e a c h e r s concerned t h i s y e a r : 2 . I n d i c a t e w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g language r e s o u r c e s  are  permanently a v a i l a b l e i n y o u r s c h o o l , a p a r t from l i b r a r y holdings: (a) Language l a b o r a t o r y o r e l e c t r o n i c c l a s s r o o m : No. o f student p o s i t i o n s : (b) F i l m s t r i p s : i ) number o f s i l e n t s t r i p s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ i i ) number w i t h t a p e o r d i s c commentary (c)  F i l m s (16 mm): i ) number o f s i l e n t f i l m s  i i ) number o f sound f i l m s F o r the n e x t t h r e e i t e m s , count o n l y c u r r e n t l y u s e f u l materials. (d) D i s c r e c o r d i n g s , s c h o o l - o w n e d : i ) music ii)  speech  (e) Textbooks n o t p r e s c r i b e d f o r p r e s e n t  courses:  number o f d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s How many o f t h e s e t i t l e s a r e i n s e t s o f 10 o r more? (f)  Supplementary r e a d e r s not p r e s c r i b e d f o r courses:  present  number o f d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s  How many o f t h e s e t i t l e s are i n s e t s o f 10 o r more? (g) Student p r a c t i c e d i s c s f o r home s t u d y , t o accompany present  courses:  i ) Grade l e v e l ( s )  i i ) Number o f s e t s  (h) O t h e r r e s o u r c e s s u i t a b l e f o r s t u d e n t u s e : film  (games,  slides)  . Which o f the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f school-owned equipment are c o n t r o l l e d e x c l u s i v e l y by language t e a c h e r s ? Check where applicable. (a) t a p e r e c o r d e r ( s ) (b)  record player(s)  (c)  f i l m s t r i p viewer(s)  (d) f i l m s t r i p a n d / o r s l i d e p r o j e c t o r ( s ) (e)  other a u d i o v i s u a l devices:  Have s t u d e n t s i n y o u r p r e s e n t s c h o o l been g i v e n assignments w h i c h r e q u i r e the use o f s c h o o l l i b r a r y Yes  resources?  No  Please elaborate,  g i v i n g d e t a i l s o f any p r o j e c t s y o u  c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l a n d / o r comments on y o u r a t t i t u d e t h e l i b r a r y as a l a n g u a g e - l e a r n i n g a i d .  to  61  Bell  and  Howell  Language  Master  62 APPENDIX C A LIBRARY EXPERIMENT WITH AN AUDIOVISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL DEVICE: Purpose and s e t t i n g o f t h e  THE LANGUAGE MASTER experiment.  The B e l l and H o w e l l Company has produced a machine w h i c h i t c l a i m s has a p p l i c a t i o n s t o e v e r y l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n .  The  Language M a s t e r , a compact and e a s i l y p o r t a b l e v e r s i o n o f a t a p e r e c o r d e r , employs c a r d s o f v a r i o u s s i z e s w h i c h have l e n g t h s o f magnetic tape adhered p a r a l l e l t o t h e i r bottom edges.  The p u p i l can h e a r what has been p r e - r e c o r d e d on the  master t r a c k , r e c o r d some response o f h i s own on the t r a c k , and compare t h e two by subsequent p l a y i n g s .  student (Illustration  on page 61). A p a i r o f s w i t c h e s c o n t r o l whether i t i s master o r s t u d e n t track, "listen  1 1  o r " r e c o r d " mode he employs.  With v i s u a l  elements such as p i c t u r e s , symbols o r q u e s t i o n s w r i t t e n o r t y p e d on t h e c a r d , t h e a u d i o v i s u a l f u n c t i o n i s  complete.  The machine i s d e s i g n e d f o r a s i n g l e a c t i v e u s e r even though group l i s t e n i n g i s e a s i l y a r r a n g e d .  W i t h earphones,  a p u p i l can work q u i e t l y and v i r t u a l l y w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n . I t would seem an i d e a l machine f o r l i b r a r y u s e , and has fewer p a r t s t o go wrong t h a n a c o n v e n t i o n a l t a p e r e c o r d e r . I n i t s a d v e r t i s i n g , t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r c l a i m s t h e Language M a s t e r i s u s e f u l f o r f o r e i g n language l e a r n i n g and the f i r m has published a s e r i e s o f cards pre-recorded f o r French lessons a v e r y elementary l e v e l .  at  I n an a r t i c l e r e p r i n t e d from a t r a d e  j o u r n a l , two C a l i f o r n i a f o r e i g n language s p e c i a l i s t s h e a r t i l y  63  endorse t h i s form o f "programming" language e x e r c i s e s .  Dr.  Gustave M a t h i e u , t h e n chairman o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y f o r e i g n language department, i s quoted e x t e n s i v e l y and d e s c r i b e s t h e f o l l o w i n g use o f t h e "On the f r o n t s i d e o f a t e a c h i n g p a t t e r n and w r i t t e n so i t r e a d s u p s i d e down. On w r i t t e n the word so i t r e a d s the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n : i n added t o t h e s e c a r d s .  cards: c a r d I have r e c o r d e d t h e t h e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e word the r e v e r s e s i d e I have c o r r e c t l y and I have g i v e n t h e f u t u r e , d r a w i n g s may be  I n b r e a k i n g w i t h t h e o l d t r a d i t i o n o f " r e a d and w r i t e " , we l e s s e n t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g . By n o t a l l o w i n g t h e s t u d e n t t o see t h e s p e l l i n g o f a word u n t i l he h e a r s i t and says i t s e v e r a l t i m e s , he e l i m i n a t e s t h e f i x e d c o n c e p t i o n he had f o r p r o n o u n c i n g i t as i t l o o k s . " ' 1  I n t h e eyes o f C h a r l e s H . H e r b e r t , t h e n c o o r d i n a t o r o f f o r e i g n languages i n San B e r n a r d i n o County S c h o o l s , t h e c a r d f l i p p i n g system had s p e c i a l a p p e a l f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l  chil-  d r e n and would be i d e a l i n overcoming the c h i e f weakness  of  FLES ( i n c o r r e c t l y e x p l a i n e d i n t h i s a r t i c l e as " F o r e i g n L a n g uages - E l e m e n t a r y , S e c o n d a r y " , but u s u a l l y t a k e n t o mean " F o r e i g n Languages i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l " ) :  suitable  elemen-  t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a r e not a v a i l a b l e i n the needed numbers, so o r a l p r a c t i c e c o u l d be conducted w i t h p r e - r e c o r d e d Language Master cards.  The p u p i l s e l e c t s t h e u n i t n e e d i n g p r a c t i c e ,  c o n t r o l s the sequence a n d . f r e q u e n c y o f h i s  repetitions.  A l l o f t h i s enthusiasm seems t o have been generated i n the machine's e x i s t e n c e ;  and  early  t h e r e were t h e n o n l y a dozen Language  M a s t e r s s c a t t e r e d around t h e c o u n t y , and the S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 17 " A Phrase Has Become a F a c t , " E d u c a t i o n a l Equipment and M a t e r i a l s , W i n t e r 1 9 6 7 . R e p r i n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d by B e l l and H o w e l l Company.  64 had one, a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r e p r i n t e d  article.  V e r y few o f t h e s e machines have been purchased i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , but i t seems i m p o r t a n t t o determine whether such a d e v i c e w i l l i n f a c t serve a u s e f u l purpose i n the  development  o f independent language s t u d y u s i n g l i b r a r y - b a s e d  resources.  A t E r i c Hamber Secondary S c h o o l i n Vancouver an experiment was conducted under t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : 1.  Use o f the Language M a s t e r was t o be attempted i n a group s e t t i n g , u s i n g one o f the new g r o u p - s t u d y rooms on the upper f l a o r o f the l i b r a r y ;  2.  Time was t o be l i m i t e d t o a p o r t i o n not e x c e e d i n g h a l f o f r e g u l a r F r e n c h p e r i o d s , t o approximate the amount o f t i m e a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r might be w i l l i n g t o a l l o t t o a mechanical a i d ;  3.  I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t language t e a c h e r s are not w i l l i n g t o r e s t r u c t u r e c o u r s e s d r a s t i c a l l y , so the c o n t e n t o f the p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l s was t o be based d i r e c t l y on a u n i t o f the t e x t ;  4.  The p r a c t i c e p e r i o d s s h o u l d l a s t about two weeks, p e r m i t t i n g f i v e o r s i x s e s s i o n s o f about t h i r t y minutes e a c h , but r e q u i r i n g the p u p i l s t o complete a l l c l a s s assignments as i f p r e s e n t f u l l time i n c l a s s . The t e a c h e r agreed t o t r y t o c o v e r g r a m m a t i c a l d e t a i l w h i l e the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was p r e s e n t , and t o i n s t r u c t the remainder o f the c l a s s i n h e r u s u a l way i n o r d e r t o i n c l u d e the same m a t e r i a l as t h e Language Master u n i t .  An attempt was made t o conduct the Language M a s t e r e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the normal s c h o o l c o n t e x t ,  as i t would  i f made as much a p a r t o f t h e F r e n c h program as the  practice operate  language  laboratory. The major q u e s t i o n was whether o r not work w i t h t h e Language M a s t e r would s e r v e t h e p u p i l s p a r t i c i p a t i o n or better.  1  needs as w e l l as f u l l - t i m e c l a s s  I f i t d i d , purchase o f the  machine  65 c o u l d be recommended t o s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r use i n t h e library. P r o c e d u r e and R e s u l t s . An e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f 1 7 p u p i l s from 3 F r e n c h X c l a s s e s under t h e same t e a c h e r was matched by means o f a p r e - t e s t 17 o t h e r p u p i l s who formed a c o n t r o l g r o u p . m a i n l y on t h e b a s i s o f t e s t s c o r e s ,  M a t c h i n g was done  w i t h guidance f r o m t h e  c h e r who attempted t o e v a l u a t e g e n e r a l a p t i t u d e and p a s t mance.  The p r e - t e s t  with  perfor-  (Appendix E) i n c l u d e d t h e same s o r t s  i t e m s as were p l a n n e d f o r t h e f i n a l  tea-  of  test:  1.  Single-word d i c t a t i o n ;  2.  C o m p l e t i o n , u s i n g words i n  3«  Use o f t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t p r o n o u n s , w h i c h was t h e main g r a m m a t i c a l p o i n t o f t h e chosen l e s s o n .  context;  A few i t e m s from \ p a s t l e s s o n s were i n c l u d e d t o b r i n g t h e  total  t o 40 p o i n t s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e m a t c h i n g gave t h e c o n t r o l group a s l i g h t advantage.  The p u p i l s c o r e was 2 6 . 1 out o f 4 0 , compared w i t h  2 4 . 9 f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group (Table  VIII).  A f t e r a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t o r y l e s s o n d e a l i n g w i t h the o f L e c o n 23 o f Le F r a n c a i s V i v a n t , the subsequent were used f o r Language M a s t e r p r a c t i c e .  contents  5 class periods  Each group o f 5 o r 6  p u p i l s r e p r e s e n t i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l group went t o the l i b r a r y f o r a half-hour period of practice,  consisting of exercises  A, B,  G, D b e l o w , w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e d w i t h a normal l e s s o n , emphasizing o r a l p r a c t i c e i n order t o p a r a l l e l the answer f o r m a t o f the d r i l l  cards.  question-  66 The e x e r c i s e s were as f o l l o w s : A . S i n g l e - w o r d d i c t a t i o n . W i t h a l l p u p i l s l i s t e n i n g , one p u p i l ( s e l e c t e d by the group t o be l e a d e r ) p l a y e d each c a r d i n the s e r i e s of 20, 2 o r 3 times each. He and the p u p i l s i n d i v i d u a l l y w r o t e the words i n a l i s t . C h e c k i n g was done a f t e r a l l the c a r d s had been p l a y e d t h r o u g h once more i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n . The c o r r e c t f o r m was w r i t t e n on the back o f each c a r d , i n l a r g e l e t t e r s , and when the l e a d e r t u r n e d up each c a r d the p u p i l s c o r r e c t e d t h e i r w o r k . Some c a r d s w h i c h caused most d i f f i c u l t y were s e l e c t e d f o r r e - p l a y i n g , e i t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s o r n e x t d a y . The words were s e l e c t e d from t h e new v o c a b u l a r y o f the textbook l e s s o n : B . D e f i n i t i o n s . P u p i l s h e a r d 10 d e f i n i t i o n s , i n F r e n c h , o f words chosen f r o m the l e s s o n . They wrote down t h e words t h e y b e l i e v e d d e f i n e d , and checked t h e i r answers by c o n s u l t i n g t h e back o f each c a r d ; C . D i c t a t i o n o f whole s e n t e n c e s . I n s t r u c t i o n s a d v i s e d t h e group l e a d e r t o p l a y each c a r d s e v e r a l t i m e s , w i t h a pause between each r e p e t i t i o n t o p e r m i t p u p i l s t o attempt w r i t i n g p a r t o f t h e s e n t e n c e . There were 10 c a r d s ; D . Q u e s t i o n s w i t h m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e a n s w e r s . Eaeh o f 10 c a r d s c a r r i e d a r e c o r d e d q u e s t i o n , and 3 answers were p r i n t e d on t h e f r o n t . P u p i l s g a t h e r e d around a t a b l e were a b l e t o read t h e a n s wers arid w r i t e ( a ) , (b) o r (c) on t h e i r p a p e r s . C o r r e c t i o n was done w i t h a key s u p p l i e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . Two f u r t h e r e x e r c i s e s were p r e p a r e d , d e s i g n e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n group u s e .  These were n o t t r i e d by any o f the  parti-  cipants : E . P r o n u n c i a t i o n . These 10 s e n t e n c e s each c o n t a i n e d r e p e t i t i o n s o f a key s o u n d . F o r example, the p u p i l h e a r d / e / — L * S t r a n g e r a t r o u v e ' l e s e n t i e r sans d i f f i c u l t e . " I n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n t o p r a c t i c e and r e c o r d i m i t a t i o n s o f the s e n t e n c e s , and each sentence was p r i n t e d on the back o f the c a r d f o r c h e c k i n g i n case o f d i f f i c u l t y . Ten d i f f e r e n t phonemes were p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s way. n  F . M a t c h i n g . The 10 numbered c a r d s each bore a r e c o r d e d q u e s t i o n ; 12 answer c a r d s , l e t t e r e d (a) t o ( 1 ) , c o n t a i n e d answers u s i n g d i r e c t o b j e c t p r o n o u n s . The p u p i l was i n s t r u c t e d t o match each q u e s t i o n w i t h a s u i t a b l e answer by a p r o c e s s o f t r i a l . Tent a t i v e matchings c o u l d be made w i t h the e a s i l y m a n i p u l a t e d c a r d s . An answer key was s u p p l i e d t o check f i n a l w o r k . P u p i l c o o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s was e x c e l l e n t .  67 A major d i f f i c u l t y was t h a t the p u p i l s were o f w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s , and no s i n g l e pace s u i t e d e v e r y o n e .  Less able  students  s u f f e r e d most, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r comments a f t e r w a r d s . The e n t i r e 3 c l a s s e s were g i v e n a f i n a l t e s t (Appendix F) w h i c h covered o n l y t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e  lesson:  1.  D i c t a t i o n o f a f u r t h e r 2G w o r d s , i n c l u d i n g the most common d i f f i c u l t i e s from t h e p r e - t e s t s e l e c t i o n ;  2.  The use o f new v e r b s i n c o n t e x t t o complete s e n t e n c e s ;  3.  The use o f d i r e c t o b j e c t pronouns i n  4.  The use o f v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s i n  context;  context.  The r e s u l t i n g s c o r e s o f the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups compared q u i t e f a v o r a b l y .  The c o n t r o l group was markedly ahead  o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , h a v i n g made an average p u p i l g a i n o f 5.7 p o i n t s out o f 40, compared w i t h 4»2 i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . A s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s o f s c o r e s on the d i c t a t i o n p o r t i o n o f the t e s t s shows an average g a i n o f 2.5 p o i n t s out o f 20 by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , and 2,4 p o i n t s by the c o n t r o l g r o u p .  In t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r a r e a t h e Language M a s t e r appears t o have h e l p e d , p r o b a b l y because t h e d r i l l e x e r c i s e s  emphasized d i c t a t i o n .  An o r a l e v a l u a t i o n was made o f b o t h groups a f t e r the t e s t , w i t h a p o s s i b l e 30 p o i n t s (Appendix G).  final  It consisted  of  the f o l l o w i n g p a r t s : 1.  R e p e t i t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s , one a t a t i m e , a f t e r h e a r i n g them r e a d t w i c e by t h e examiner. The content o f each o f t h e 3 s e n t e n c e s was based on the t e x t b o o k n a r r a t i v e and had been heard i n t h e p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s ;  2.  A s h o r t s e l e c t i o n , composed o f p h r a s e s s e l e c t e d from t h e n a r r a t i v e , t o be read a l o u d a f t e r a s i l e n t p r e v i e w reading;  68  3.  A s e r i e s o f s h o r t q u e s t i o n s , ranked a c c o r d i n g t o approximate l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y , r e q u i r i n g o n l y s h o r t phrases i n r e p l y t o i n d i c a t e comprehension and r e c a l l o f the b a s i c n a r r a t i v e .  The f i f t h and f i n a l q u e s t i o n i n p a r t 3 was i n t e n d e d t o c a l l f o r t h a fundamental use o f a d i r e c t o b j e c t p r o n o u n . was g i v e n f o r comprehension, t h e r e s t f o r c o r r e c t  Some c r e d i t  recall  of  detail. On t h i s o r a l r a t i n g the c o n t r o l group s c o r e d one f u l l per p u p i l h i g h e r than the experimental group: 22,5 compared w i t h 21.5 out o f 30 p o i n t s .  an average  of  O r a l s k i l l s were not  a d e q u a t e l y p r a c t i s e d w i t h the Language M a s t e r , and the reflects  point  rating  c h i e f l y the s l i g h t b a s i c advantage found i n i t i a l l y i n  the c o n t r o l group. D i s c u s s i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s . The f a c t t h a t a heterogeneous  e x p e r i m e n t a l group was a b l e  t o m a i n t a i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same r a t e o f p r o g r e s s as a c o n t r o l group d e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts o f c l a s s t i m e " l o s t " seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Language M a s t e r i s m o d e r a t e l y u s e f u l as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o some a u d i o l i n g u a l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g . the amount o f e f f o r t able.  However,  r e q u i r e d t o produce d r i l l c a r d s i s  consider-  S e v e r a l h o u r s were needed t o d e v i s e e x e r c i s e s , r e c o r d the  m a t e r i a l , l e t t e r the c a r d s and p r e p a r e the i n s t r u c t i o n s h e e t s . S t o r a g e problems c o u l d be s o l v e d q u i t e r e a d i l y g i v e n t h e l e n t s e t t i n g o f the Hamber l i b r a r y , but a v e r y  excel-  considerable  c o l l e c t i o n o f c a r d s , w i t h e v e r y e x e r c i s e and c h a p t e r u n i t c a r e f u l l y numbered and f i l e d , would have t o be b u i l t up i n s u p p o r t o f each t e x t b o o k c h a p t e r .  The p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e , c o s t o f t h e  cards  69  and a p p a r e n t l y l i m i t e d use o f any one u n i t would p r e j u d i c e most t e a c h e r s a g a i n s t u s i n g t h e machine t o i t s f u l l e s t  extent.  The change o f t e x t b o o k s p r e s e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s i s a r e m i n d e r t h a t Language M a s t e r d r i l l s e t s must be p r e p a r e d f o r s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s and r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m o f the day.  Each c a r d must be marked i n some permanent way, e i t h e r  by f e l t - t i p pen o r t y p e w r i t e r , and i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t can be r e - u s e d t o any a p p r e c i a b l e e x t e n t .  cards  Teachers would i n s t i n c -  t i v e l y p l a n t o r e t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y u n i t s from y e a r t o y e a r . The machine, f i t t e d f o r group l i s t e n i n g w i t h a j a c k - b o x and good q u a l i t y earphones,  costs over $300.  For t h i s p r i c e , a very  s a t i s f a c t o r y s e t o f a t l e a s t 6 c a s s e t t e tape r e c o r d e r s can be p u r c h a s e d , d o i n g t h e same d i c t a t i o n j o b s but w i t h the  following  advantages: 1.  Each p u p i l can work i n d e p e n d e n t l y , a t h i s own r a t e ;  2.  M a s t e r r e c o r d i n g s can be c o p i e d onto any number o f c a s s e t t e t a p e s by a t e c h n i c i a n , w h i l e on t h e Language M a s t e r each c a r d must be p r e p a r e d f o r each machine i f s e v e r a l machines a r e t o be used s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ;  3.  Fewer t a p e s t h a n c a r d s e t s a r e needed, s i n c e one master tape r e c o r d i n g o f any e x e r c i s e can be kept on f i l e w h i l e student p r a c t i c e tapes are erased p e r i o d i c a l l y and r e - u s e d .  The u n i q u e f e a t u r e s o f t h e Language M a s t e r a r e i t s use  of  c a r d s , p r o v i d i n g a p l e a s u r a b l e motor a c t i v i t y and a sense o f selective  c o n t r o l f o r t h e l e a r n e r , and i t s a b i l i t y t o r e c o r d  and p l a y back p u p i l o r a l r e s p o n s e s , w h i c h c a s s e t t e tape r e c o r d e r s do not y e t d o . T e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s may be made as f o l l o w s : 1.  The Language M a s t e r i s m i n i m a l l y u s e f u l f o r group u s e ,  70  p r o v i d i n g d r i l l i n d i c t a t i o n s k i l l s on a l e v e l comparable t o c l a s s r o o m p r a c t i c e ; 2.  I t i s s u i t a b l e f o r group use i n a l i b r a r y s e t t i n g , r e q u i r i n g o n l y l i m i t e d o r a l communication among the pupils;  3.  I t s purchase i s not w h o l l y j u s t i f i a b l e , g i v e n t h e g r e a t e r degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y p o s s i b l e w i t h a s e t o f c a s s e t t e tape r e c o r d e r s a t comparable c o s t .  The f o l l o w i n g recommendations are made: 1.  F u r t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h t h e Language M a s t e r i s needed t o determine i t s u s e f u l n e s s and p r a c t i c a b i l i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l f o r e i g n language s t u d y ;  2.  A long-term study of i t s m o t i v a t i o n a l value i s e s s e n t i a l . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s experiment d i d n o t p e r m i t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o v e r i f y t h a t p u p i l s would c o n t i n u e t o f i n d t h e machine a t t r a c t i v e a f t e r s e v e r a l weeks o r months o f r e g u l a r u s e ;  3»  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e purchase o f a d u a l - t r a c k t a p e r e c o r d e r equipped f o r master r e c o r d i n g and s t u d e n t - r e s p o n s e p l a y b a c k f u n c t i o n s , i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Language M a s t e r .  TABLE V I I E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Pre-test F i n a l Test Pupil  Total Dictation  -  P u p i l Test Seores C o n t r o l Group Pre-test F i n a l Test  Q x Ta  Total Dictation Eval.  Pupil  Total Dictation  Q r & 1  Total Dictation Eyal.  Faye Anna  29  20  35  20  24  Robert  29  18  38  20  23  29  20  32  20  23  Lily  32  19  20  Zoltan  30  16  11  Jerry  5  12  Ernie  29 12  17 6  20  10  21 16  29 28  Zavie  27 20  35 40  John A .  26  19  19  18  20  John M .  28  17  27 32  13 20  15 21  John R.  25  25  14  23  Angle  29  15  23  20  20  Cliff  37 32  19  19  35 20  15 18  29  20  23 22  Ted  35  27 38  18  Rolf Dawn  15 20 13 18  31  20  28  25  18  27 22  Peter  Cathy  27 27  24 26  Ann  Harold  22  13  33  20  17  Leslie  19  13  28  17  Debbie  20  14  21  Colin Keith  36 22  20 18  Gary  26  David  Robin  Totals  28  27  17 12  19 16  38  19  28  Arlene  22  13  36  19  21  23  Don  20  15  19  15  19  17  Danny  21  26  39 34  20 20  28  34 27  30  19 20  23  Jag Orvil  15 20  14 20  33  20  15  Phil  27  35 28  19  16  17 18  26 16  19  18  22  14  29  ' 18  24  Randy  27  18  30  17  21  424  269  494  311  443  268  540  308  382  365  13  .  72 TABLE V I I I Summary o f E x p e r i m e n t  Experimental Group  Control Group  Pre-test P u p i l average ( p o s s . 40) D i c t a t i o n i t e m ( p o s s . 20)  24.9* 15.8  26.1 15.8  P u p i l average ( p o s s . 40)  29.1  D i c t a t i o n i t e m ( p o s s . 20)  18.3  31.8 18.2  7© 42  97 40  16.5$ 13.5*  18.0*  Final test  Point gains T o t a l score D i c t a t i o n item P e r c e n t a g e improvement based on p r e - t e s t scores T o t a l score D i c t a t i o n item  14.9*  Oral evaluation Range o f s c o r e s ( p o s s . 30) P u p i l average ( p o s s . 30)  15-28 21.5  14-29 22.5  • A l l f i g u r e s are a d j u s t e d t o the nearest s i n g l e decimal point.  73 APPENDIX D AN ATTEMPT TO EMPLOY THE LANGUAGE MASTER FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDY  Purpose and s e t t i n g . The r e s e a r c h e r was not s a t i s f i e d t h a t the Language M a s t e r had been p r o p e r l y used i n the group s t u d y e x p e r i m e n t , and b e l i e v ed the c h i e f v a l u e o f the machine i s i t s m o t i v a t i n g e f f e c t on t h e learner.  The r e s e a r c h e r undertook t o p r e p a r e e x e r c i s e s f o r a  s m a l l group o f p u p i l s who needed p r a c t i c e t o master t h e use one g r a m m a t i c a l p a t t e r n :  of  the d i r e c t object pronoun.  Of t h e s e p u p i l s , k were chosen from the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and 1 from t h e c o n t r o l group o f t h e p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t ,  all  w i t h l o w s c o r e s on t h e f i n a l t e s t i t e m s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o n o u n s . A s i x t h p u p i l o f h i g h e r a b i l i t y was added, t o compare h i s a c t i o n t o t h e machine p r a c t i c e . group o f the  re-  He had been i n the c o n t r o l  experiment.  The c e n t r a l purpose o f t h i s a d d i t i o n a l p r o j e c t was t o c a r r y out i n a l i m i t e d way t h e f i r s t recommendation suggested by the group s t u d y e x p e r i m e n t .  I t was hoped t o show the u s e f u l n e s s  of  Language M a s t e r p r a c t i c e i n r e m e d i a l i n s t r u c t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . P r o c e d u r e and r e s u l t s . The p u p i l s were c a r e f u l l y i n s t r u c t e d t o p r a c t i c e u n t i l b o t h e x e r c i s e s had been m a s t e r e d .  daily  The f i r s t g o a l was t o  l i s t e n t o t h e d e s i r e d o r a l response u n t i l i t c o u l d be c o r r e c t l y visualized.  No w r i t i n g , o n l y r e c o g n i t i o n , was s t r e s s e d .  The  74  second s t a g e o f p r a c t i c e was t o r e c o r d t h e r e p l y t o eaeh q u e s t i o n on t h e s t u d e n t p r a c t i c e band o f the c a r d , w o r k i n g t o  perfect  an o r a l r e s p o n s e . Score s h e e t s were p r o v i d e d on which the p u p i l was t o keep t r a c k o f h i s successive attempts t o e l i m i n a t e e r r o r s .  A daily  s c h e d u l e was a r r a n g e d , l a s t i n g two weeks, t o p e r m i t each p u p i l a h a l f - h o u r practice session, c h i e f l y during school time.  Per-  m i s s i o n was g r a n t e d by v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s f o r p u p i l s t o be f r e e d from p a r t s o f l e s s o n s o t h e r t h a n F r e n c h .  "Study passes"  were  i s s u e d t o p e r m i t the p u p i l s t o go t o the l i b r a r y as a r r a n g e d . The machine, s c o r e s h e e t s , p r a c t i c e c a r d s and i n s t r u c t i o n sheet were kept ready i n the l i b r a r y , and the l i b r a r i a n was n o t i f i e d o f t h e p e r i o d s when p u p i l s were expected t o use t h e Language M a s t e r . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s are not f u l l y documented.  I n t h e 2-week p e r i o d , o n l y 2 o f t h e p u p i l s attempted t h e  t e s t , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f b o t h w r i t t e n and o r a l i t e m s . p u p i l , the most capable o f the 6, succeeded a d m i r a b l y .  The f i r s t The  second was unable t o o b t a i n a p a s s i n g s c o r e even though the t e s t i t e m s were d e s i g n e d t o be p a r a l l e l t o t h e p r a c t i c e  examples.  The p u p i l s f a i t h f u l l y r e c o r d e d t h e i r p r o g r e s s , w o r k i n g u n t i l t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e y were making no e r r o r s i n e i t h e r s e t o f q u e s tions.  Y e t , though t h e y r e p o r t e d a f t e r w a r d s t h e y had enjoyed  t h e p r i v i l e g e o f i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e , t h e y were n o t m o t i v a t e d t o submit t o a t e s t . D i s c u s s i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the b e s t measure o f t h e Language M a s t e r ' s  75 c o n t r i b u t i o n can be o b t a i n e d by a s k i n g the p u p i l s t o make subjective  comments.  w h i c h t h e s e were "It's  V a r i o u s o p i n i o n s were e x p r e s s e d ,  from  selected:  alright for practice,  but i t c a n ' t r e a l l y  "The c a r d s are e a s i e r t o handle t h a n t a p e . "  teach."  (From a g i r l ) .  " I c o u l d n ' t work v e r y w e l l i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . The mornings were b e t t e r , and I f e l t l i k e k e e p i n g on f o r a l o n g e r time." " I t ' s good t o r e c o r d y o u r v o i c e . When t h e r e a r e t o o many c a r d s t o h a n d l e i t ' s h a r d t o keep from g e t t i n g them mixed up." "Being alone i s b e t t e r than i n a group.  You can  concentrate."  "The c l a s s i s more i n t e r e s t i n g . You need a l o t more v a r i e t y o f s e n t e n c e s ; you c o u l d memorize t h e answers t o t h e s e t o o easily." "You need a t e a c h e r t o e x p l a i n t h i n g s . I knew I was d o i n g i t w r o n g , but I c o u l d n ' t f i g u r e out w h y . " "The (language) l a b i s b e t t e r — t h e e x e r c i s e s a r e more l o g i c a l and l o n g e r . " "It's  n i c e t o get out o f c l a s s f o r a w h i l e . "  I n the l i g h t o f t h e s e r e a c t i o n s , reached:  a few c o n c l u s i o n s might be  1.  There i s some m o t i v a t i o n a l v a l u e i n u s i n g the Language M a s t e r f o r p r i v a t e s t u d y i n the l i b r a r y , even i f i t i s o n l y t h e r e l i e f i t o f f e r s from c l a s s r o o m r o u t i n e ;  2.  Some p u p i l s w i l l r e q u i r e c o m p u l s i o n t o use the regularly;  3.  Great t e a c h e r e f f o r t i s needed t o p r o v i d e an q u a n t i t y and v a r i e t y o f d r i l l c a r d s ;  4.  The t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n t o explain d i f f i c u l t i e s ;  5«  A c e r t a i n amount o f t r a i n i n g i s needed b e f o r e p u p i l s u n d e r t a k e e x t e n s i v e use o f t h e Language M a s t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o o r i e n t them towards the g o a l s o f s e l f - t e s t i n g and e v e n t u a l mastery o f a g i v e n u n i t o f w o r k ;  machine  adequate  76 6.  To e x p l o i t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f the Language M a s t e r more f u l l y , a number o f machines would be r e q u i r e d so t h a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f r e v i e w and d r i l l c o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y by a number o f s t u d e n t s w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the s c h o o l d a y .  The f o l l o w i n g recommendations a r e t h e r e f o r e d i r e c t e d t o p o t e n t i a l p u r c h a s e r s o f the Language M a s t e r : 1.  A b a t t e r y o f machines s h o u l d be p l a c e d n e a r enough t o t h e French c l a s s r o o m s f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o be s u p p l i e d by a t e a c h e r . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a F r e n c h t e a c h e r who i s n o t s c h e d u l e d t o conduct a c l a s s i n a g i v e n hour c o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o make h i m s e l f a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i b r a r y during that time;  2.  Time s h o u l d be a l l o t t e d t o t e a c h e r s t o d e s i g n and p r e p a r e c a r d s f o r each u n i t o f each t e x t i n w h i c h student p r a c t i c e i s r e q u i r e d ;  3.  More s t u d y i s needed on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the Language M a s t e r t o l a r g e r groups o f s t u d e n t s , and i t s h o u l d n o t be assumed t h a t i n t e r e s t w i l l be s u s t a i n e d once such a d e v i c e i s made an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the language program;  4.  F u t u r e e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h t h e Language M a s t e r s h o u l d include d e t a i l e d examination of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to a t a p e r e c o r d e r , t o d i s c o v e r whether l o n g - r a n g e use might n o t f a v o r t h e l a t t e r machine i n secondary s c h o o l s .  APPENDIX E LANGUAGE MASTER UNIT:  PRE-TEST  Dietee: le capitaine l a Normandie laisser dangereux le sentier l a patte l e cbemin allemand l e pigeon penser  l e paysan l e s cheveux l e pe^cheur l a poche croire ensemble le brouillard sans mener absolument  le coiffeur couper utile soudain le client l a guerre £tonner sale l a region l a carte  Completez l e s p h r a s e s , en employant c e r t a i n s des mots pre'ce'dents: 1 . Une personne q u i achete un s e r v i c e ou un p r o d u i t s ' a p p e l l e ( u n , une) 2. H e l a s i il  .  Mon c a h i e r e s t tombe dans l a r u e ;  est t r e s  maintenant  .  3. Un g a r c o n garde son a r g e n t dans ( s o n , sa) 4 . Un combat v i o l e n t e n t r e deux n a t i o n s ( u n , une)  s'appelle  •  5. Un o b j e t  a une f o n c t i o n ou une importance  specifique. Remplacez l e mot s o u l i g n e p a r un pronom ( o b j e t dans l a phrase s u i v a n t e : EXEMPLE:  V o y e z - v o u s ma montre, Andre? Oui,  je  vois sur votre l i t .  1 . Regardez-vous l e s a r b r e s p a r l a f e n e t r e ? O u i , je  .  regarde pendant l a lec^on.  direct)  2. Me donnez-vous ce beau s t y l o ? O u i , j e vous  donne avec  plaisir.  3. E s t - c e que P i e r r e i n v i t e t o i e t t o n f r e r e chez l u i ? Oui, i l  i n v i t e t r e s souvent e c o u t e r des  d i s q u e s chez l u i . 4. Votre professeur d o n n e - t - i l cette dictee a toute la  classe? Non, i l ne  donne pas aux e l e v e s  absents!  5. P o u r q u o i me donnez-vous t o u j o u r s des cadeaux? C ' e s t parce que j e  aime b i e n !  E c r i v e z au p l u r i e l : 1 . Le s o l d a t e s t a r r i v e .  Le v o i s - t u ?  2. Je ne t e v o i s pas tre*s b i e n . Completez: 1 . Donnez-moi l a c a r t e de F r a n c e ; j e votre  v o i s sous  chaise.  2 . Vous ne m'entendez pas quand j e  appelle? Mais,  vous ne f a i t e s pas a t t e n t i o n ! E c r i v e z l a phrase  necessaire:  1 . D i t e s a J e a n - P a u l q u ' i l nous e t o n n e . 2. Demandez a M a r c e l s ' i l vous comprend. 3. Demandez a L u c i l l e p o u r q u o i e l l e ne vous c r o i t p a s .  79 APPENDIX F LANGUAGE MASTER UNIT:  FINAL TEST  A. Dicte'e: l a Normandie le capitaine le brouillard allemand l a guerre  l e message l e paysan penser mener absolument  dangereux le sentier croire soudain l a patte  laisser le cylindre etonner l e soldat l a poche  B . Completez avec une forme eonvenable d»un des v e r b e s s u i v a n t s : croire  etonner  laisser  mener  1. L Allemand a  penser  raconter  p a r t i r l e paysan.  f  2. C e t t e h i s t o i r e a  le  3. Qu*avez-vous  client.  quand vous avez v u l e  soldat?  au v i l l a g e .  4 . Un p e t i t s e n t i e r m'a  le vieux Francais,  5 . Le c a p i t a i n e a heureusement.  C . Completez chaque phrase avec un pronom ( o b j e t d i r e c t ) : 1 . Tu as v i s i t e l a Chine?  Impossible!  Je ne  c r o i s past 2. Venez e c o u t e r des d i s q u e s avec ma femme e t m o i !  Vous  t r o u v e z a. l a maison t o u j o u r s l e s o i r . 3. Q u e l l e h i s t o i r e !  Je  trouve fantastique  et  un peu s t u p i d e . 4 . V o t r e message e s t a r r i v e , m o n s i e u r .  Je  ai  donne au c a p i t a i n e . 5 . Ou S t e s - v o u s , M i c h e l ? j e ne  J ' e n t e n d s v o t r e v o i x , mais  v o i s pas!  80 6 . Donnez ees p i g e o n s au p S c h e u r .  II  envoie  a P a r i s avec des messages. 7. Le s o l d a t demande mon nom, e t p u i s i l  permet  de c o n t i n u e r l e v o y a g e . 8 . Que p e n s e s - t u , M a r i e ?  Tu es i n t e l l i g e n t e , e t nous  ecoutons t o u j o u r s avec 9 . Avez-vous vu l e s e y l i n d r e s ?  plaisir.  Ne  g a r d e - t - i l pas  dans l e t i r o i r ? 1 0 . Je v a i s vous e x p l i q u e r l a s i t u a t i o n . vous  E s t - e e que  entendez b i e n ?  D . Completez chaque p h r a s e ; employez un ou deux mots c h o i s i s de l a l e c o n 2 3 : 1 . Vos cheveux sont beaux, mon f i l s , mais t r o p l o n g s t A l l e z v i t e chez  •  .  S i v o s cheveux  ne sont pas coupes, j e ne vous permets pas de r e n t r e r dans l a m a i s o n l 2 . Pauvre p e t i t o i s e a u l  I I e s t tombe s o u d a i n de l ' a r b r e  et  est blessee(HURT).  I I ne  peut (CAN) pas m a r c h e r ! 3 . Get homme-la avec un g r o s p a n i e r de legumes e t q u i p o r t e un v i e u x p a n t a l o n b l e u , q u i e s t - c e ? — I I h a b i t e une p e t i t e maison a l a campagne;  c'est  q u i ne v i e n t pas beaucoup en v i l l e . 4 . Comment v o y a g e - t - o n dans l e s montagnes?  I a - t - i l une  bonne r o u t e ? — N o n , mais i l y a des  qui  t r a v e r s e n t l a r e g i o n , e t on peut (CAN) marcher sans difficulte. M o n s i e u r , nous sommes en r o u t e pour H a m i l t o n , mais l a r o u t e p r i n c i p a l e e s t ferme'e. q u i i n d i q u e une r o u t e  Avez-vous  alternative?  82 APPENDIX G LANGUAGE MASTER UNIT: A.  ORAL EVALUATION  Repetition:  1 . C ' e s t une a v e n t u r e / de l a g u e r r e / en 1939. 2 . Le paysan / a demande / une c a r t e / de l a r e g i o n . 3 . I I a voyage / t o u t e l a n u i t / a t r a v e r s champs. B.  Lecture: Le c l i e n t / un jeune A m e r i c a i n , / a entendu / l ' h i s t o i r e / du v i e u x c o i f f e u r . /  La Resistance  / l ' a envoye"/  en m i s s i o n / dangereuse / en Normandie. C. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : 1. Qui raconte c e t t e h i s t o i r e ? 2 . Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' i l a porte* dans son p a n i e r ? 3 . Q u i a montre' sa c a r t e a u c o i f f e u r ? 4 . P o u r q u o i e s t - c e que l e c o i f f e u r ne v o i t pas t r e s 5 . C e t t e h i s t o i r e vous a m u s e - t - e l l e ?  bien?  83  APPENDIX H EXERCISES USED WITH THE LANGUAGE MASTER A. l e paysan l e s cheveux l e pecheur l a poche soudain B.  ensemble le brouillard sans mener absolument  l e capitaine l a guerre laisser dangereux le sentier  Definition  l a patte allemand l e chemin le coiffeur penser  Answer  1 . un o i s e a u q u i p o r t e des messages  un p i g e o n  2 . l e c h e f d ' u n groupe de s o l d a t s  un c a p i t a i n e  3 . une grande p r o v i n c e dans l e n o r d - o u e s t l a Normandie  de l a France 4 . un homme q u i t r a v a i l l e a l a campagne  un paysan  ou a une ferme 5. un homme q u i coupe l e s cheveux de ses  un c o i f f e u r  clients  6. l a p a r t i e d ' u n o i s e a u q u i s e r t a marcher  l a patte  7. un homme q u i prend du p o i s s o n  un pecheur  8. une p a r t i e d ' u n p a n t a l o n ou d'une robe q u i c o n t i e n t de p e t i t s  objets  9 . l ' a c t i o n de f o r m e r une i d e e  une poche penser  1 0 . l a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n symbolique d ' u n p a y s , qui indique l e s routes et l e s v i l l e s  une c a r t e  1 . Le c o i f f e u r r a c o n t e une a v e n t u r e a son jeune c l i e n t . 2. I I e s t t r o p v i e u x pour a l l e r f a i r e l a g u e r r e . 3 . L e s p i g e o n s sont t r e s u t i l e s en temps de g u e r r e . 4 . I I a p r i s un p e t i t c y l i n d r e en m e t a l dans un t i r o i r . 5 . I I e s t p a r t i avec ses deux p i g e o n s t r o u v e r l e  pecheur.  6. Le chemin e s t t r ^ s o b s c u r , e t i l f a i t du b r o u i l l a r d . 7 . I I v o i t s o u d a i n un s o l d a t a l l e m a n d . 8. I I demande au s o l d a t s ' i l e s t s u r l e bon chemin. 9 . Le c a p i t a i n e l e l a i s s e p a r t i r sans d i f f i c u l t e . 1 0 . Heureusement, i l e s t r e v e n u de s a m i s s i o n dangereuse. D. 1 . Q u i e s t - c e que vous c o n s u l t s z p o u r t r o u v e r l e bon chemin? a) un s e n t i e r b) une c a r t e c) une r e g i o n 2. Q u e l e s t l e c o n t r a i r e du mot  n  avec ? n  a) dans b) r i e n cJ sans 3. P o u r q u o i ne t o u c h e z - v o u s pas une b&te sauvage? a j E l l e e s t dangereuse. b) E l l e e s t s a l e . c) E l l e e s t u t i l e . 4 . Q u e l o b j e t i n t l r e s s a n t e s t - c e que l e c o i f f e u r a montre au c l i e n t ? a) u n p i g e o n b) un cheveu cJ un c y l i n d r e  85  5.  Ou e s t - c e que l e c o i f f e u r a mis ses pigeons? Dans: a) sa poche b) son p a n i e r c) son t i r o i r  6* Qui a r e c u l e s pigeons dans l e panier? aj un Franxjais b) un Americain c) un Allemand 7.  Combien de temps l e c o i f f e u r a - t - i l marche? a) p a r l e s s e n t i e r s b) a t r a v e r s champs cj t o u t e l a n u i t  8. Qu'est-ce que l e c l i e n t a regarde dans l a g l a c e du coiffeur? aj ses cheveux b) ses camarades c) ses pigeons 9. Ou e s t - c e qu'on attache l e c y l i n d r e avec l e message? a) a l a guerre b) a l a Resistance cJ a l a p a t t e 10. Pourquoi  l e c o i f f e u r n ' e s t - i l pas s o l d a t comme l e s autres? a) I I e s t c o i f f e u r . b) I I e s t t r o p v i e u x . c) I I e s t f r a n c a i s .  £. /a /  Le c l i e n t a entendu une aventure  de l a Resistance  francaise. /£/  L'Americain  /1 /  I I d i t que l e s pigeons  /Wa/  trouve un c y l i n d r e s u r l e chemin. sont u t i l e s en Normandie.  Je c r o i s q u e l q u e f o i s l e s h i s t o i r e s du c o i f f e u r .  86 Nous admirons l e bon v i e u x q u i a repondu aux  I IS I  questions. /e /  L * e t r a n g e r a t r o u v e l e s e n t i e r sans d i f f i c u l t ^ ,  /ae:/  Le c o i f f e u r e t l e p t e h e u r a r r a n g e n t l e u r rendezvous a neuf h e u r e s .  /  /  C e t t e g u e r r e a t r a v e r s l a mer e s t  extraordinaire.  /u /  A v e z - v o u s t r o u v e t o u t e s l e s bonnes  routes?  / fi I  Un c o i f f e u r t r o p v i e u x e s t dangereux pour l e s  cheveux.  Questions 1. E t e s - v o u s a l l e au f r o n t en 1939? 2. Q u ' a v e z - v o u s f a i t pendant l a  guerre?  3. P o u r q u o i l e s p i g e o n s s o n t - i l s u t i l e s en temps de guerre? 4. A v e z - v o u s mis l e s p i g e o n s sous v o t r e 5. E s t - c e  chemise?  que c e t A l l e m a n d vous a p a r l e " en  franjais?  6. Comment e s t - c e que 1*Allemand vous a a i d e ? 7. E s t - c e  q u ' i l vous a demande v o t r e nom?  8. E s t - c e  q u ' i l a c r u que vous e t i e z  paysan?  9. Ou a v e z - v o u s t r o u v e l e pfecheur, v o t r e c o n t a c t ? 10. P o u r q u o i e s t - c e que beaucoup de vos camarades ne sont pas  revenus?  Answers a) Non, j e l e s a i p o r t e s dans mon p a n i e r . b) C e r t a i n e m e n t , parce que j e p o r t a l s des ve'tements de p a y s a n . c) N o n , i l ne l e t r o u v e pas b i e n . d) I I m'a montre sa c a r t e de l a r e g i o n .  87 e) O u i , j e l e s a i vus en r o u t e pour l e v i l l a g e . f ) N o n , parce que j e s u i s t r o p v i e u x . g) I l s a v a i e n t des m i s s i o n s p l u s dangereuses que l a mienne. h) N o n , i l ne m'a r i e n demande. i ) I l s p o r t e n t des messages a t t a c h e s a l e u r s j)  pattes.  O u i , i l m'a repondu d ' u n t r ^ s bon a c c e n t .  k) Je l ' a i r e n c o n t r e dans l e s b o i s p r e s du v i l l a g e . 1) J ' a i t r a v a i l l e pour l a  Resistance.  aa APPENDIX I EXERCISES USED FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDY WITH THE LANGUAGE MASTER Set No. 1 Expand the s h o r t answer i n t o a complete s e n t e n c e . Stimulus  Response  Q u i e s t - c e que vous aime-? — Vous. Qui  Je vous a i m e .  regarde-t-il? — Moi.  I I me r e g a r d e .  Q u i l e s achete? — Vous.  Vous l e s  achetez.  Q u i l e comprend b i e n ? — Toi.  Tu l e comprends b i e n .  Qui i n v i t e - t - o n a d i n e r ? — Vous. Ou l e s  On vous i n v i t e a d i n e r .  rencontrez-vous? — En v i l l e .  Je l e s r e n c o n t r e en v i l l e .  E s t - c e q u ' i l s m'ecoutent? — Avec p l a i s i r .  I l s vous e c o u t e n t  avec  plaisir. Q u i vous a envoye au bureau? — Mon p r o f e s s e u r .  Mon p r o f e s s e u r m'a envoye au b u r e a u .  89 Vous a - t - i l l a i s s e p a r t i r ? — Sans  difficulte.  I I m'a l a i s s e p a r t i r sans difficulte'.  Ou nous m £ n e - t - e l l e ? E l l e nous mene a t r a v e r s  — A t r a v e r s champs.  champs.  Set N o . 2 R e p l y i n t h e n e g a t i v e w i t h a complete s e n t e n c e ,  using the  suggested p r o n o u n s . Stimulus  Response  E s t - c e que vous m'aimez? — Non,....  Non, j e ne vous aime p a s .  E s t - c e q u ' i l vous regarde? — Non,....  Non, i l ne me r e g a r d e p a s .  E s t - c e que j ' a c h e t e l e s p i g e o n s ? — Non,....  Non, vous ne l e s  achetez  pas. Je comprends b i e n l ' h i s t o i r e ,  n'est-  ce pas? — Non, t u . . . .  Non, t u ne l a comprends pas b i e n .  E s t - c e q u ' o n m ' i n v i t e a" d i n e r , a u s s i ? — Non,....t'....  Non, on ne t ' i n v i t e pas a diner.  90  R e n c o n t r e z - v o u s vos amis en v i l l e ? —  Non,....  Non, j e ne l e s  recontre  pas en v i l l e . Les e l e v e s m ' e c o u t e n t avec p l a i s i r , n * e s t - c e pas? —  Non,....  Non, i l s ne vous e c o u t e n t pas avec  plaisir.  V o t r e p r o f e s s e u r vous a envoy!' au b u r e a u , n e s t - c e pas? f  --  Non,....  Non, i l ne m'a pas envoye au b u r e a u .  E s t - c e q u ' i l vous a l a i s s e p a r t i r sans d i f f i c u l t e ? —  Non,....  Non, i l ne m'a pas l a i s s e p a r t i r sans  difficulte.  Nous m e n e - t - e l l e si t r a v e r s champs? —  Non,...nous....  Non, e l l e ne nous mene pas si t r a v e r s champs.  91  APPENDIX J A SUGGESTED LIST OF FRENCH SUPPLEMENTARY READING MATERIALS The number o f French supplementary r e a d e r s p u b l i s h e d i s very great.  T h i s l i s t i n c l u d e s o n l y t i t l e s t h a t have been  examined by the r e s e a r c h e r i n s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and French d e p a r t ment c o l l e c t i o n s , and l i b r a r i a n s .  o r t h a t have been recommended by o t h e r t e a c h e r s B i b l i o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n and a n n o t a t i o n s  g i v e n as s u p p l i e d by c o r r e s p o n d e n t s and a r e t h e r e f o r e  are  not a l l  complete. The appearance  o f a t i t l e i n t h i s l i s t does not ensure  i t w i l l be s a t i s f a c t o r y  i n any p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .  that  It i s a  s u g g e s t i o n o n l y , and i s i n t e n d e d c h i e f l y t o h e l p l i b r a r i a n s and t e a c h e r s who have l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e  i n l o c a t i n g such supplementary  materials. The books are c l a s s i f i e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y a c c o r d i n g t o  their  d i f f i c u l t y , as f o l l o w s : B - B e g i n n e r ; Grades I X and X ; c h i e f l y p r e s e n t t e n s e and a v o c a b u l a r y range o f about 500 w o r d s ; u s u a l l y w i t h a glossary including translations I - Intermediate;  o f whole  phrases.  Grades X and X I ; common p a s t  (passe compose', i m p e r f e c t )  and f u t u r e ;  range o f around 1000 w o r d s , w i t h  tenses  vocabulary  glossary.  A - Advanced; Grades X I and X I I ; complex t e n s e s and i d i o m s ; v o c a b u l a r y o f o v e r 1500 w o r d s .  92 A d a i r , H . and N . En r o u t e p o u r l e M i d i and Sous l e c i e l de Provence. London, C h r i s t o p h e r s . (Dolphin s e r i e s ) I. 31 p . i l l u s . vocab. B a r d , J e a n . P o u r l i r e , pour r i r e . P a r i s , H a c h e t t e , 1964. ( T e x t e s en f r a n c a i s f a c i l e ) A. By t h e p u b l i s h e r s o f Top magazine. Quizzes, t e s t s . Begue', L o u i s e and F r e d e r i c k F r a n c k . Au f i l de l ' e a u . Holt R i n e h a r t , 1965. I. 150 p . i l l u s . v o c a b . A voyage f r o m t h e n o r t h t o the s o u t h o f France on a c a n a l b a r g e . Brown, M a r c i a . Une d r S l e de soupe. New Y o r k , S c r i b n e r s , i 9 6 0 . 42 p . i l l u s " A t r a n s l a t i o n o f Stone Soup, u s i n g p a s t t e n s e s . I d i o m a t i c and i n t e r e s t i n g f o r good s t u d e n t s , despite j u v e n i l e format, large type. Calvert, F. I. Contes. Vocab., exercises.  L o n d o n , John M u r r a y .  A.  B.  Cambridge.Book Company. L a France e t l e s F r a n c a i s . B r o n x v i l l e , New Y o r k , Cambridge, 1962. I.-A. Paperbound. B r i e f a r t i c l e s . Available i n English. Carre", A . L . Scenes de F r a n c e . Toronto, Musson, I960. B. 63 p . illus. S i n g l e - p a g e v i g n e t t e s , 24 s e l e c t i o n s . Cartledge, H. A. Peloton detective. L o n d o n , Edward A r n o l d , 1937. A. 94 p . illus. Partly-comic adventures. F u l l vocab., c h a p t e r q u e s t i o n s and p h r a s e - l i s t s . C e p p i , Marc. F i r s t year French reader. Vocab., questions i n E n g l i s h .  B e l l and S o n s .  B.  Danpierre, J . J . L a maison d * a u t r e f o i s . Toronto, Harrap, 1958. B. ' 63 p . illus. Based on Le f r a n c a i s f o n d a m e n t a l . Voeab. i l l u s t r a t i o n s based on Mon p r e m i e r d i c t i o n n a i r e en images. de Beaumont, P i e r r e . Un e n f a n t d O c c i d e n t ( s e r i e s ) . Paris, D i d i e r , 1962. A. Titles: I - Du temps de l a mere-dame: 85 p . I I - A l ' e c o u t e de l a m o r t ; 89 p . I l l - L a f i n d ' u n monde; I 0 6 p . Illus. C o n t r o l l e d v o e a b . o f 1500 w o r d s . G l o s s a r y i n F r e n c h . Mature n a r r a t i v e . 1  F o u r r e , P i e r r e . Me^deein sous l e g t r o p i q u e s . P a r i s , D i d i e r , 1956. A. 78 p . i l l u s . C o n t r o l l e d v o c a b . o f 1300 w o r d s . G l o s s a r y i n French. R e a l i s t i c d e t a i l .  93 Fumerton, H . S. P e t i t s c o n t e s de l ' h i s t o i r e c a n a d i e n n e . T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 19t>3. XT • 72 p . illus. Twenty s h o r t c h a p t e r s , from Cabot t o t h e present. Voeab., footnote t r a n s l a t i o n s . Five questions a f t e r each c h a p t e r . Humphreys and S a n s o u i l l e t . Toronto. I. Vocab., exercises.  R i o n s ensemble.  University of  K a h l , V i r g i n n i a and E d i t h V a c h e r o n . V o i c i H e n r i . New Y o r k , Scribners, B. Illus. $2.75* By t h e same a u t h o r s : E n c o r e Henri1 K e a t i n g , L . C. and M . I . Morand. ( B i o g r a p h y s e r i e s ) . Y o r k , A m e r i c a n Book. T i t l e s : Audubon: 1958; 53 p . B. Lafayette: 1958; 57 p . I. Voltaire; 1962; 70 p . I. Illus. Footnote t r a n s l a t i o n s , e x e r c i s e s , vocab.  New  L a m o r i s s e , A l b e r t . Le b a l l o n r o u g e . P a r i s , H a c h e t t e , 1956. A. 4 6 p . P h o t o - s t o r y c o m p i l e d from t h e f i l m , The Red B a l l o n . Imaginative, b e a u t i f u l l y presented. B i n d i n g needs r e i n f o r c i n g . L a f i t t e , Lucette. F e t e s de F r a n c e . London, Cambridge, 1962. B. 63 p . illus. By the same a u t h o r : A n t o i n e C h a s s e u r ; Eau t r o u b l e ; L a ferme du P e r e M a t h i e u ; Le c i r q u e Z a n z i b a r . L e d e s e r t , R. P . L . and D. M . Toronto, Harrap. I.-A.  Au v o l e u r and ftventure sous t e r r e .  M a u r i a c , F r a n c o i s . Therese Desqueyroux, e d . Jean C o l l i g n o n . M a c m i l l a n , 1963" TI 136 p . v o c a b . V e r y mature n a r r a t i v e . M i l l e r , S. H . and C. J a c o b . M i c h e l e t l a p i e u v r e . Edward A r n o l d , 1963. I. 32 p . illus. Sequel t o M i c h e l et l e ' l o u p . to e x p l a i n vocabulary d i f f i c u l t i e s .  London, L i n e drawings  1  M i l l i g a n , E . E . B e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g s i n F r e n c h . New Y o r k , Macmillan. I. I n t e r e s t i n g s t o r i e s , q u e s t i o n s , f o o t n o t e s and v o c a b . Modern Method F r e n c h Reading Scheme, (series). London, Nelson. B.-I.-A. Graded r e a d e r s , about 50 p . illus. Questions, vocab. M o u n t j o y , M . E . Agent s e c r e t . 76 p . illus. vocab.  M a c m i l l a n , 1964.  I.  94 S a l u t d a n g e r ! T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1967. I . - A . 75 p . I l l u s . (photos) S e q u e l t o Agent s e c r e t , u s i n g l a r g e l y p e r f e c t and i m p e r f e c t t e n s e s . V o c a b . Musman, R i c h a r d . L e s a v e n t u r e s du Gommissaire G r a s s e t . London, B e l l , 1962. I. 92 p . i l l u s . Q u e s t i o n s , v o c a b . M o d e l l e d on Simenon s Inspector Maigret. 1  P o t t s , E . L e s Joyeux campeurs. London, D e n t , I960. I . 53 P» i l l u s . An i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p a s t t e n s e s . Questions, vocab. P u r v i s , H . and J . E . W h i t e . B e r t h e aux grands p i e d s . London, O x f o r d , 1957. I . "~ 48 p . i l l u s . Footnote t r a n s l a t i o n s , e x e r c i s e s , v o c a b . R o b i n s o n , J . A . L ' a u t o c a c h l e . M a c m i l l a n , 1963. B. 39 p . i l l u s . vocab. Roche, S y l v a i n . M i s s i o n dangereuse. e d . B . Y o u n g . B l a c k i e and S o n , n . d . A . 73 p .  London,  S a i n t - E x u p e r y , A n t o i n e d e . Le p e t i t p r i n c e . New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t B r a c e , 1943- A . 91 p . F a n t a s y c l a s s i c , i l l u s . by a u t h o r . • Le p e t i t p r i n c e , e d . S . A . Mayost (Canadian E d u c a t i o n a l e d i t i o n ) . D o n M i l l s , B e l l h a v e n House, 1966. I . - A . 90 p . i l l u s . Footnote t r a n s l a t i o n s , v o c a b . and q u e s t i o n s at back. Simenon, G e o r g e s . L e c l i e n t l e p l u s o b s t i n e du monde. H a r r a p , 1964 (cl95D. T. 71 p . illus. S t e i n h a u e r , D a v i d . L e c t u r e s c h o i s i e s pour l e s Toronto, Macmillan. B. Thiman, I . C .  -1962. I .  H i s t o i r e s modernes.  "  London,  commencants.  U n i v e r s i t y o f London,  96 p . i l l u s . Nineteen short s e l e c t i o n s . W o r d - l i s t at head o f each c h a p t e r . Q u e s t i o n s , v o c a b . a t b a c k .  T i t t e r t o n , J u l i a . J e u n e s s e . London, Edward A r n o l d . I. Q u e s t i o n s , v o c a b . S h o r t i n f o r m a t i v e s e c t i o n s about f g t e s and t h e l y c e e . Verne, J u l e s . Le t o u r du yoade en 80 . j o u r s . a d a p t e d . M a c m i l l a n , 1956. T~. 46 p . i l l u s . vocab.  A b r i d g e d and  95 .  19557" I .  Le t o u r du monde en 80 j o u r s . U  Paris,  Hachette,  80 p . i l l u s . L e s s r i g o r o u s l y s i m p l i f i e d t h a n the M a c m i l l a n e d i t i o n . I n c l u d e s photographs from f i l m v e r s i o n . V o c a b . Assumes p u p i l has 700-word v o c a b u l a r y t o s t a r t . . Voyage au c e n t r e de l a t e r r e . a d a p t e d . M a c m i l l a n , 1962. IT. 74 p . i l l u s . vocab. Whitmarsh, W. F . H . Vocab. Green.  B.-I.  .  A f i r s t French r e a d e r .  A b r i d g e d and  Longmans G r e e n .  L e c t u r e s pour l a j e u n e s s e .  I.  Longmans  Y a n d e l l , B e r n a r d . Douze c o n t e s f a c i l e s . Clarke Irwin. D e t a i l e d w o r d - l i s t s , e x e r c i s e s , vocab.  B.  The f o l l o w i n g e n t r i e s draw a t t e n t i o n t o m a t e r i a l s not r e a d i l y c l a s s i f i e d as r e a d e r s but d e s e r v i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r l i b r a r y purposes. B a u e r , C a m i l l e . L a France a c t u e l l e . B o s t o n , Houghton M i f f l i n , 1963. I . - A . 264 p . i l l u s . T e x t b o o k ; r e a d i n g passages f o r a c c u l t u r a t i o n . N o t e s , q u e s t i o n s , e x e r c i s e s , v o c a b . Supplementary work f o r good s t u d e n t s . D a l e , M a r t i n . How t o r e a d a F r e n c h menu. New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y , 1966. AT 95 p . i l l u s . S i x i n t e r e s t i n g i n t r o d u c t o r y pages and f o u r sample menus f r o m A m e r i c a and E u r o p e . Remainder: d i c t i o n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l F r e n c h menus. U s e f u l f o r some advanced p r o j e c t s o r c o o k i n g - c l a s s reference. G o s c i n n y . A s t e V i x ( s e r i e s ) . P a r i s , Dargaud S . A . A . C a r t o o n s t r i p i n book f o r m , a f a v o r i t e o f F r e n c h a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n a l i k e . I d i o m a t i c , c u r r e n t F r e n c h . Herge  (pseud.). L e s a v e n t u r e s de T i n t i n ( s e r i e s ) . Casterman, d i s t r i b . by Methuen. A . Comic s t r i p f o r m a t , a v a i l a b l e i n b o t h F r e n c h and E n g l i s h v e r s i o n s . Francophone s t u d e n t s enjoy t h e s e c o l l e c t i o n s , and any good s t u d e n t would attempt t o r e a d t h e h i g h l y i d i o m a t i c t e x t . B i n d i n g needs r e i n f o r c i n g .  96  Le f r a n c a i s u n i v e r s e l (series). Musson ( T o r o n t o ) . A. Short n o v e l s . Paper c o v e r s ,  P a r i s , H S t i e r , d i s t r i b . by flimsy binding.  M e t h u e n ' s T w e n t i e t h Century T e x t s . A . E d i t e d v e r s i o n s o f works by A n o u i l h , Camus, G i r a u d o u x , Romains, S a r t r e . Some f o o t n o t e s , no v o c a b . Mother Goose. Mother Goose i n F r e n c h , t r a n s l . by Hugh Latham. New Y o r k , C r o w e l l , 1964. I.-A. Illus. $ 3 . 8 5 . B r i l l i a n t r e n d e r i n g s o f best-known n u r s e r y rhymes, f u l l y F r e n c h y e t r e t a i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sound p a t t e r n s o f the o r i g i n a l s . P a l f r e y , T . R. and S. F . W i l l , e d s . Petite anthologie—poesies f r a n c a i s e s . New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y . TI 130 p . F o o t n o t e t r a n s l a t i o n s . A good b a s i c c o l l e c t i o n .  97 APPENDIX K SUPPLEMENTARY READING IN ENGLISH The books i n c l u d e d i n t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y were s e l e c t e d  to  supplement the grade 8 and 9 c o u r s e s o f s t u d i e s i n French w i t h a view to stimulating interests  i n and i n s t i l l i n g some knowledge  o f t h e l a n d and p e o p l e o f France and F r e n c h - C a n a d a .  The m a j o r -  i t y o f t h e s e books appeared i n one o r more o f the f o l l o w i n g bibliographies: B r i t i s h Columbia. Dept. of Education. D i v i s i o n of C u r r i c u l u m . Basic l i s t of school l i b r a r y books. V i c t o r i a , 1965. Canadian L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . B a s i c book l i s t f o r Canadian s c h o o l s : j u n i o r d i v i s i o n , grade 7, 8, 9. Ottawa, n . d . Junior high school l i b r a r y catalog. E d . by R a c h e l Shor and E . A . F i d e l l . New Y o r k , W i l s o n , 1965. (Standard catalog s e r i e s ) . A rough g u i d e t o s u i t a b l e r e a d i n g l e v e l i n terms o f grade i s s u p p l i e d f o r each book. I.  France - D e s c r i p t i o n and t r a v e l ; S o c i a l l i f e and customs.  B a r r y , Joseph. France. New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n , 1965. (A n a t i o n s today book). G r . 7-9. Overview o f France w i t h emphasis on p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l aspects. B i s h o p , C l a i r e H . F r e n c h roundabout. New Y o r k , Dodd, I960. G r . 7-9. Two American j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t a k e a t r i p t o France and l e a r n a good d e a l about t h e p e o p l e and the country. B l a s s i n g a m e , W y a t t . The F r e n c h F o r e i g n L e g i o n . New Y o r k , Random, 1955. G r . 8-10. H i s t o r i c a l and c u r r e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e L e g i o n t h a t w i l l appeal c h i e f l y t o boys.  9* Bragdon, L i l l i a n J . The land and people of France. Philadelphia, Lippincott, I960. (Portraits of the Nations). Gr. 7-10. B r i e f treatment of the geography and history of France. Clement, Marguerite. In France. I l l u s . by William Pene DuBois. New York, Viking, 1956. Gr. 8-10. Helps reader understand France by sharing informally l i f e and legends of the French people, past and present. Creed, V i r g i n i a . L i f e i n Europe: France. Grand Rapids, Mich., F i d e l e r , 1961. (Reissued frequently). Gr. 7-9. Geographical p o r t r a i t of France with emphasis on the way people l i v e . Easy reading. Douglas, Marjory Stoneham. The key to Paris. Chicago, Rand McNally, 1961. ( C i t i e s of the world). Gr. 7-9. A d e l i g h t f u l , fresh mixture of fact and legend surrounding the c i t y of P a r i s . Egan, E. W. France i n pictures. New York, S t e r l i n g , 1966. (Visual geography s e r i e s ) . Gr. 7 - 9 . Very b r i e f look at geography, people, economy, etc. Geis, Barlene. Let's t r a v e l i n France. New York, Children's Press, 1964. Gr. 5+. Useful c h i e f l y f o r the poor reader. Gidal, Sonia and Tim. My v i l l a g e i n France. New York, Pantheon, 1965. Gr. 4 - 7 . Easy reading l e v e l although content i s useful and accurate. Harris, Leon A. Young France; children of France at work and at play. New York, Dodd, 1 9 6 4 . G r . 7 - 9 . Hurlimann, Martin. P a r i s ; 100 pictures i n photogravure. London, Thames & Hudson, 1954. Gr. 8+. C h i e f l y a photographic study with b r i e f introductory text and notes. L i f e (Periodical) France, By D. W. Brogan and the eds. of L i f e . New York, Time, Inc., 1963. (Life world l i b r a r y ) . Gr. 8+. Broad view of present-day France from a h i s t o r i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , geographical and c u l t u r a l point of view. Profusely i l l u s t r a t e d . Olcott, V i r g i n i a . Adventures i n France; the storv of Jean and Fanchon. New York, Grosset, 1 9 5 3 . ( T h e world's children s e r i e s ) . Gr. 6-8. Easy reading. Minimal story l i n e — t e l l s about country painlessly but i n a contrived fashion.  99 Sasek, M i r o s l a v . This i s P a r i s , New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n , n . d . (French ed. a v a i l a b l e ) . G r . 3+. E x c e l l e n t w a t e r c o l o u r s k e t c h e s o f the c i t y o f P a r i s w h i c h g i v e the f l a v o u r o f the c i t y . Simple t e x t but not too l a c k i n g i n s o p h i s t i c a t i o n f o r grades 8 and 9. Schoenbrun, D a v i d . As France g o e s . New Y o r k , H a r p e r , 1957. G r . 9-12. France now i n terms o f h i s t o r y and f u t u r e i n f l u e n c e . P o s s i b l y s l i g h t l y o u t - o f - d a t e now. II.  France - F o l k l o r e , legends,  fairy  tales.  B a l d w i n , James. S t o r y o f R o l a n d . New Y o r k , S c r i b n e r , 1930. (Scribner i l l u s t r a t e d c l a s s i c s ) . G r . 6<-9. The b e s t v e r s i o n o f t h e f o l k saga o f Roland f o r young people. 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France - F i c t i o n .  Baudouy, M i c h e l - A i m e ' . by M a r i e P o n s o t . Berna, P a u l .  More t h a n courage. T r . from the F r e n c h New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , 1961. G r . 7-9.  Flood warning.  New Y o r k , P a n t h e o n ,  1963^  Gr.  7-9.  B i s h o p , C l a i r e H . The b i g l o o p . New Y o r k , V i k i n g , 1955G r . 7-9. A l t h o u g h the main i n t e r e s t here i s a b i c y c l e r a c e , the book a l s o c o n t a i n s much about F r e n c h f a m i l y and s c h o o l l i f e .  10G  D a v i s , Robert. The g i r l o f P i e r r e ' s . 1948. G r . 7-9.  New Y o r k , H o l i d a y ,  Godden, Rumer. The greengage summer. 1958. G r . 9+.  New Y o r k , V i k i n g ,  McKown, R o b i n .  Ja ni ne •  New Y o r k , M e s s n e r , I960.  Gr.  7-9.  P i l g r i m , Anne. The f i r s t t i m e I saw P a r i s . New Y o r k , A b e l a r d , 196X G r . 8+. A l o v e s t o r y which w i l l appeal t o g i r l s . Contains a u t h e n t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on F r a n c e . T u n i s , John R o b e r t s . S i l e n c e o v e r Dunkerque. Morrow, 1962. G r . 7-10. IV.  New Y o r k ,  Quebec - D e s c r i p t i o n and t r a v e l ; S o c i a l l i f e and customs.  Barbeau, M a r i u s .  1957.  I have seen Quebec.  G r . 9-127"  Toronto, Macmillan,  C h i e f l y a p i c t o r i a l work w i t h some b r i e f t e x t d e p i c t i n g l i f e and c u l t u r e o f the F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n p e o p l e .  Boswell, Hazel. F r e n c h Canada: p i c t u r e s and s t o r i e s o f o l d Quebec. (Rev. E d . ) T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d , 196?. G r . 7-9. A l t h o u g h c h i e f l y h i s t o r i c a l , t h i s book g i v e s some i d e a o f modern Quebec c i t y as w e l l . B a i g n a u l t , R i c h a r d . Canada: t h e s t o r y o f Quebec. Toronto, M c G r a w - H i l l , 196o"T (The s t o r y o f Canada s e r i e s , v . 4). G r . 8+. 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M o n t r e a l , Centre de P s y c h o l o g i e e t de P e d a g o g i e , 1962. ( C o l l e c t i o n Le canoe* d'argent). Gr. 5-8. A French-Canadian Christmas s t o r y . English edition available• B a r b e a u , M a r i u s . The g o l d e n p h o e n i x , and o t h e r F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n fairy tales. R e t o l d by M i c h a e l Hornyansky. T o r o n t o , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. Gr. 4-8. An e x c e l l e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n l o r e . VI.  Quebec - F i c t i o n .  A n n i x t e r , Jane and P a u l . Gr. 7-9. Daveluy, P a u l . Gr. 7-9. Roy, G a b r i e l l e . 1966. Gr.  Windigo.  New Y o r k , H o l i d a y , 1963.  Summer i n V i l l e - M a r i e .  New Y o r k , H o l t ,  The r o a d p a s t A l t a m o n t . 9-12.  Thompson, F r a n c e s G . 1963. G r . 7-9.  Danger i n the c o v e s .  1962.  Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d , Toronto, Macmillan,  

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