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Developmental changes in the use of facial expression as a basis of classification Grunau, Ruth 1969

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i DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE USE OF FACIAL EXPRESSION AS A BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION by RUTH GRUNAU B.A., University of Sydney, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n the Department of PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agr e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f PSYCHOLOGY The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada SEPT. 5 , 1969 ABSTRACT Ninety-six children aged k to 9 years performed a c l a s s i f i c a -tory task using simple l i n e drawings of human figures. I t was predicted that the youngest children would group the pictures according to o v e r a l l body shape, with an increasing tendency with age f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on f a c i a l expression. This prediction was based on previous studies which f i n d young children unable to analyze and " f i l t e r " information i n a stimulus array i n such a way as to u t i l i z e component parts. The resu l t s supported the prediction i n general, the major exception being 3> year old g i r l s , who c l a s s i f i e d the pictures mainly according to f a c i a l expression. F l e x i b i l i t y i n performance increased with age. Suggestions were made f o r further research on the basis of the findings. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION METHOD i . Subjects i i . Materials i i i . Procedure i v . Scoring a. Scoring of picture groupings b. Scoring of reasons RESULTS i . Grouping I a. Picture Grouping Scores b. Reasons c. Number of groups made by each S i i . Grouping I I i i i . Number of Separate Groupings Made by each S i n Whole Task i v . Picture I d e n t i f i c a t i o n DISCUSSION SUMMARY APPENDIX P i l o t Study BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF TABLES table page I ( i ) The Number of Responses Based on Facial Expression i n l i t Grouping I ( i i ) Summary of Analysis of Variance on Picture Grouping 1$ Scores f o r Grouping I I I Post Hoc Comparisons on Analysis of Variance of Picture 16 Grouping Scores for Grouping I I I I Number of G i r l s at Each Age Who Gave Reasons i n Each 21 Category 17 Number of Boys at Each Age Who Gave Reasons i n Each 22 Category V Number of Groups Made by Each Subject: Grouping I 20 VI Summary of Analysis of Variance of Number of Groups 27 Made by Each Subject: Grouping I VII Post Hoc Comparisons on Analysis of Variance of the 28 Number of Groups Made by Each Subject i n Grouping I V I I I The Number of Children Who Performed More Than One 3 0 Grouping at Each Age IX Number of Responses Based on Facial Expression i n 31 Grouping I I X Summary of Analysis of Variance of Number of Responses 33 Based on F a c i a l Expression: Grouping I I XI Number of Subjects Who Reversed Their Score From 3k Grouping I to Grouping I I XII Number of Separate Groupings Made by Each Subject i n 37 the Whole Task XIII Summary of Analysis of Variance of the Number of 38 Separate Groupings Made by Each Subject i n the Whole Task XI? Post Hoc Comparisons on Analysis of Variance of the I4.O Number of Groups Made by Each Subject i n the Whole Task V LIST OF FIGURES figures page 1 Test Materials: 16 Black Line Drawings of Human 8 Figures 2 Mean Score f o r Picture Grouping at Each Age 17 3 Mean Number of Groups Made by Subjects at Each Age 26 i n Grouping I I . INTRODUCTION There has been extensive research i n the area of cognitive development on the way children c l a s s i f y objects and pictures. Typi-c a l l y i n these studies, rather than varying a stimulus systematically along one or more dimensions, a stimulus array i s selected more or less haphazardly. For example, S i g e l (1961, 1963) presented children of 7 and 8 years of age with pictures of human figures such as a fireman, co;*boy, nurse, and so on. They were asked to c l a s s i f y the. pictures on the basis of s i m i l a r i t y . The l i t e r a t u r e on concept forma-ti o n has been comprehensively reviewed by Vinacte (1951) and Kendler (1961). A number of developmental studies of concept formation i n -volving sorting and categorizing behaviour have been summarized by Osier and F i v e l (1961) and Werner (1957). Rather than use a varied multi-attribute selection of pictures, as most investigators have done i n studying c l a s s i f i c a t i o n behaviour, i t seems preferable at t h i s stage to choose one or two . dimensions and vary them i n a controlled manner. An attempt has been made to do t h i s i n the present study. I t has been found that certain dimensions dominate the child's hierarchy of responses at d i f f e r e n t stages of development. The question of colour versus form as the dominant basis of c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n has been investigated over age. Katz, p r i o r to World War I 2 (reported i n Werner 191*8), worked with children aged 3 to 6 years and found that for the youngest children colour was a much more important factor than form. Brian and Goodenough (1929) found that children as young as twenty-one months tended to match various shaped and coloured blocks on the basis of form rathe* than colour. Their study indicated that after an i n i t i a l preference for form, colour becomes preferred at about the age of 3j colour preference then gradually decreases u n t i l age 6 when form again becomes domin-ant. For children 7 to 11 years colour i s not a meaningful basis of organization when the items are familiar and r e a l i s t i c (Sigel 1961*). One area which apparently has not been investigated at a l l i s the relat ive importance of the f a c i a l expression of pictures , in c lass i f i ca t ion , compared with other aspects such as sex or body shape of human figures. The purpose of the present study i s to examine the poss ib i l i ty that at some stage or stages i n development, the f a c i a l expression of pictures w i l l predominate overother aspects of the stimulus. 3 Previous work i n cognitive development has strong-l y indicated that c l a s s i f i c a t o r y behaviour i n young children i s "stimulus-bound", that i s , the young c h i l d has d i f f i c u l t y i n analyzing a stimulus into ftts component parts and then abstracting from these to form concepts. Piaget ( F l a v e l l 1963) and Vygotsky (1962) maintain that the basis f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n changes with age from concrete, perceptually dominant groupings to functional groupings, and f i n a l l y to abstract concepts. Werner ( 1 9 W ) suggests that young children are r e l a t i v e l y undifferentiated i n t h e i r perception. They have a global, rather than an a n a l y t i c a l , way of perceiving which e n t a i l s a tendency to experience items as merged with t h e i r backgrounds, and r e f l e c t s i n a b i l i t y to overcome the influence of an embedd-ing context. Witkin et a l (1962, p.7) found t h e i r studies " ... consistent with the results of a number of other investigations which have shown that f o r younger c h i l d -ren the o v e r a l l structure of a given configuration strongly dominates the manner i n which constituent parts are perceived. " Kagan, Moss and S i g e l (1963) have also seen development as a progression from global to a n a l y t i c a l modes of perception. Studies on transposition i n discrimination behaviour of children i s another area of investigation which supports the picture of the young c h i l d as stimulus-bound. Transposition i s the transfer of a learned d i f f e r e n t i a l response, f o r example a response to the larger of two s t i m u l i , to a new combination of s t i m u l i d i f f e r i n g i n the same property, i n t h i s case si z e . Thus ay' S learns to respond to the larger of two s t i m u l i , despite the fact that the te s t s t i m u l i are not the same physical size as the tr a i n i n g s t i m u l i . I t i s w e l l documented (for example Kuenne 19U6) that young children and animals transpose on test s t i m u l i near on the dimension to the t r a i n i n g p a i r , but show only chance response on transposition tests with distant s t i m u l i . In t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l framework one would be led to predict that young children w i l l group pictures of human figures on the basis of the overall pattern rather than on some compon-ent part of the figure. Older children, on the other hand, w i l l be more able to analyze the components of the figures and be able to group the pictures on the basis of some component with-out being influenced to such an extent by the embedding context. I t was predicted that the youngest children would group the pictures which had the same ov e r a l l body shape, and that there would be an increasing tendency with age to take into consider-ation various components of the figures, such as f a c i a l expression, when grouping the pictures. Thus i t was expected that with increased age there would be more v a r i a t i o n i n the types of groupings made, and also more groupings based on the f a c i a l expressions of the figures. ; I I . METHOD i . SUBJECTS : The Ss were 96 children, 8 g i r l s and 8 boys at each of ages U, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. A l l Ss were attending either Nursery School, Kindergarten, or Elementary School at the time of testing. i i . MATERIALS : 16 white cards ( U" x 8" ) with a very simple black l i n e drawing of a human figure on each card, were used f o r the task (see Fig. 1) . The figures consisted of h g i r l s , i i larger female figures, k boys, and. 1; larger male figures. There were k f a c i a l expressions: happy, angry, sad and neutral. Each of the f a c i a l expressions was represented f o r each size and sex of human figur e . i i i . PROCEDURE : The pictures were placed i n a heap on a table i n front of the c h i l d . With most Ss, p a r t i c u l a r l y the younger ones, a large low table was used. The Experimenter (E) said 7 F i g . 1. Test Materials: 16 Black Line Drawings of Human Figures "Here are some pictures, I want you to look at the pictures f o r as long as you l i k e . " A f t e r a few minutes during which the c h i l d had spread out the pictures and looked at them, E continued "Now I want you to put the pictures that belong together into groups, just put the ones together that belong together." This i s r e f e r r -ed to as Grouping I. E answered questions by rephrasing the instructions, and adding " I t ' s up to you, there's no ri g h t or wrong, j u s t what you think belong together." E recorded what pictures were grouped together, and then pointing to each group asked S, "Why do these ones go together ?" E recorded S's answers. Next the c h i l d i s asked i f there i s any other way to group the pictures. The S was allowed to regroup the pictures as many times as he could. After each of the groupings the S was asked "Why do these go together ?" At the end of the session E pointed to each of the four types of figures and asked "What i s t h i s ?" and then to each of the four f a c i a l expressions and asked "How does he/she look ?" A l l responses were recorded by E on a data sheet. 10 i v . SCORING: Each card had been previously assigned a code number and l e t t e r to i d e n t i f y the picture. The description of the faces as happy, sad, etc. was independently supported by the Ss, who l a b e l l e d them s i m i l a r l y . A - happy f a c i a l expression. B - neutral. C - sad. D - angry. 1 - g i r l figure ( l i t t l e g i r l ) . 2 - boy figure .('little boy). 3 - larger female figure (big girl/woman). U.—larger male figure (big boy/man). Thus each picture had a unique combination of l e t t e r and number written on i t s reverse side, f o r example: 1A - l i t t l e g i r l , happy f a c i a l expression. UD - man, angry f a c i a l expression. Previous to testing, E had memorized the symbol for each picture. Every grouping a c h i l d made was recorded on a data sheet i n t h i s . code, with the reason S gave for the grouping recorded underneath, a. Scoring of picture groupings: Each response based objectively on f a c i a l expression was given a score of 1 point, regardless of the reason the S gave for making the grouping. Each group was scored, then the scores i l l f o r a l l groups i n that Grouping were added together to give a t o t a l score f o r that Grouping. Example I : age 5>, female, Grouping I 1D2D3DUD ( A ) 1C2C3GUC (+U) lB2B3BiiB 1A.2A3AU mad sad not happy smiling Score 16 Example I I : age 3>, male, Grouping I UBliC (0) 3C3D (0) stomach ears 1B1C (G) 1D2D (+2) 3A3B (0) 2B2C (0) J 4 A I 1 D (0) 2A1A (+2) same same ears hai r feet eyes face clothes Score I4. Thus a high score (Example I) indicates many responses according to f a c i a l expression, and a low score (Example I I ) many responses according to body shape. b. Scoring of reasons: The predominant reasons each S gave over a l l the groups i n a Grouping were placed into one of the following categories: 12 Age Sex Affect Age x Sex Age x Affect Sex x Affect (children vs. adults5 big vs. l i t t l e ) ( f a c i a l expression) (clothing, h a i r , etc. s p e c i f i c to age-sex) (age plus f a c i a l expression) (sex plus f a c i a l expression) Age x Sex x Affect (age plus sex plus f a c i a l expression included) Inconsistent Wo Reason I . I I I . RESULTS i . GROUPING I : a. Picture Grouping Scores: A two-way analysis of variance was carried out on the scores obtained by Ss i n the f i r s t spontaneous grouping (Group-ing I) . The r e s u l t s , as can be seen i n Table I , show s i g n i f i c a n t effects over age (F=3.83, df=5,8l+, p<.Ol) and sex (F=8.95, df= 1,8U, p.<.01). Thus there were differences between children of di f f e r e n t ages, and between boys and g i r l s , i n the tendency to group the pictures by the f a c i a l expressions or by body shape characteristics such as sex, s i z e , clothing, etc. Post hoc comparisons (Winer 1962) were performed on t h i s data (see Table I I ) , indicating at which age l e v e l s the s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found. Figure 2 shows the graphs of performance of boys and g i r l s i n picture grouping f o r Grouping I. A l l the k year olds, both male and female, gave responses based on body shape c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s j there were no picture groupings according to f a c i a l expression. This was the most homogeneous group. The performance of the 5 year old g i r l s TABLE I ( i ) The Number of Responses Based on F a c i a l Expression i n Grouping I AGE G i r l s 1 0 5 0 0 16 16 2 0 16 16 6 0 16 3 0 16 0 16 16 16 k 0 0 0 8 16 16 5 0 13 2 0 16 0 6 0 16 0 0 6 16 7 0 16 2 11; 0 0 8 0 12 0 0 2 16 X = o.O 11.6 2.5 5.5 9.0 12.0 Boys 1 0 I* 0 0 0 0 2 0 10 0 8 8 0 3 0 H i 0 0 16 0 k 0 0 0 0 16 16 5 0 0 0 16 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 16 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 .$\ 0 16 0 0 0 X = 0.0 2.5 2.0 3.0 7.0 2.0 Overall X 0.0 7.1 2.3 U.3 8.0 7.0 Table I ( i i ) Summary of Analysis of Variance on Picture Grouping Scores f o r Grouping I Source SS df MS F P Sex 3U8.8U 1 3l|8.8U 8.95 .01 Age 71*6.30 5 1U9.26 3.83 < .01 Age x Sex 3U1.23 5 68.25 1.75 NS Interaction Error 3273.37 8U 38.97 Total U709.7U 95 Table I I Post Hoc Comparisons on Analysis of Variance of Picture Grouping Scores fo r Grouping I Age Sex h 5 6 7 8 9 G i r l s A B11 A B12 AB 1 3 A B i 5 A B l 6 Boys AB 2 1 AB22 AB 2 3 AB 2 U A B25 A B26 df (1,8U) C r i t i c a l Value P(l,6o)» U.oo S t a t i s t i c a l l y S i g n i f i c a n t Comparisons P .05 Comparison F AB12> A B i 3 5.97 A B 1 X , A B 1 2 10.52 A B X 1 , A B ^ 8.31 A B u , ABX6 Hi.78 A B 1 3 , AB]_cj U.3U A B 1 3 , ABx6 9.26 A B 2 1 , A B 2 ^ 5.03 A B 1 2 , A B 2 2 6.37 A B l 6 , A B 2 6 10.26 B o v j S -d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the U year olds, and from £ year old boys. The 5 year old g i r l s responded mainly on the basis of f a c i a l expression. The f i v e year old boys were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the k year olds. Six and seven year olds, both boys and g i r l s , were a s t a t i s t i c a l l y homogeneous group, and did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the four year olds. To summarize to t h i s point, there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the extent to which f a c i a l expression i s used as a basis f o r grouping pictures of human figures i n children from ages U to 7, except f o r 5 year old g i r l s . However, although there i s no difference between the age groups, there i s considerable difference within them, i n that U year olds a l l perform much the same, whereas there i s more v a r i a t i o n between children at any one age at the other ages. For example at age k no c h i l d gives any grouping response accord-ing to f a c i a l expression; at age 6 there are two children responding solely on the basis of faces, and s i m i l a r l y at age 7. There i s a trend among 7 year old g i r l s toward using 19 more f a c i a l l y based responses than at age 6, but i t does not reach the required l e v e l of significance, however nor flo they d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from 8 year olds who are using mainly f a c i a l expression. By age 8 there i s f a r more use of f a c i a l expression amongst both boys and g i r l s . There i s no difference i n performance between the sexes at t h i s age. The g i r l s show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f -erence i n the amount they use f a c i a l expression compared with ages k and 6. The boys show a s i g n i f i c a n t difference compared to age U. At age 9 a l l but two of the g i r l s are responding solely on the basis of f a c i a l expression. The boys who had been showigg an increase not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the g i r l s , except at . age 5, drop back down to a l e v e l of performance seen at ages 5 - 7 . The results given so f a r are based on scores derived from objective characteristics of the pictures S placed together i n each group i n Grouping I. Next the reasons each S gave f o r putting pictures together i n a group w i l l be examined. b. Reasons: As mentioned e a r l i e r , the predominant reasons an S gave f o r the Grouping were seen as f a l l i n g i n t o one of 10 possible categories. In practice the reasons given f e l l i n t o only 6 of the categories: A f f e c t , Sex, Age x Sex, Affect x Age x Sex, Inconsistent, No Reason. TablelH shows the number of g i r l s , and Table IVthe number of boys, at each age who gave reasons i n each category. 0( analyses were performed on the number of children at each age l e v e l responding i n each category. Separate analyses were performed on the data f o r g i r l d and boys. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the reasons given at different ages by the g i r l s = 1|1.86, p .0$). The differences among the boys did not reach significance ( = 28.53, P ^ . 0 5 ) . Most g i r l s at ages 5, 8 and 9 and most boys at age 8 gave reasons based on the f a c i a l expressions of the figures. The only Ss who gave no reasons at a l l as to why they placed the pictures t o -gether i n certain groups were 3 g i r l s and 1 boy at age U. A l l children at age k who d i d give reasons, except f o r one boy and one g i r l who were concerned only with the sex of the figures, 21 Table I I I Number of G i r l s at Each Age Who Gave Reasons i n Each Category-Age Category of Reasons k 5 6 7 8 9 Affect 0 5 l 3 5 6 Sex 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 Age x Sex 5 y 2 3 l 2 Affect x Age x Sex 0 0 1 1 2 0 Inconsistent 0 0 2 1 0 0 No Reason 3 0 0 0 0 0 Chi-square Test: ^ U5.87 df = 25 P < .05 22 Table W Number of Boys at Each Age Who Gave Reasons i n Each Category Category of Reasons Age Affect 0 Sex 1 Age x Sex 6 Affect x Age x Sex 0 Inconsistent 0 No Reason 1 1 0 5 0 2 0 2 0 3 1 2 0 3 1 2 1 1 0 5 0 2 1 0 0 3 0 5 0 0 0 Chi-square Test: " X 2 - . 28.53 df = 25 p K .05 NS \ responded i n terms of age and sex. Typical responses to the ques-t i o n "Why do these ones go together ?" at t h i s age were: Example I: g i r l , age U "pants" "dresses" "shorts" "dress, h a i r " Example I I : boy, age U "same kind man" "same kind of people, t i n y people" "same kind g i r l s " "same kind of lady" The widest range of reasons were given at ages 6 and 7 by both g i r l s and boys. Most boys at age 8, l i k e g i r l s of 8 and 9, gave reasons based on f a c i a l expression. At age 9, however, the boys' reasons f e l l into the Age x Sex category t y p i c a l of ages U and $i There i s a close correspondence between the results found by looking at scores obtained d i r e c t l y from the pictures which were grouped together, without regard to the reasons given by S f o r the grouping, and the resu l t s found by analysis of the S's reasons. In both cases there i s a gradual increase with age 2ip i n the amount of attention paid to the f a c i a l expression of the figures, except f o r two deviant groups, $ year old g i r l s and 9 year old boys. c. The number of'groups made by each subject: A two-way analysis of variance was performed on the number of groups i n t o which each S arranged the pictures i n Grouping I. Table J shows the number of groups made by each S, and i n Figure 3 can be seen the graphs of the mean number of groups made by Ss at each age. As indicated i n Table Vi, there were s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the number o£ groups made by Ss at d i f f e r e n t ages (F= 3.69, df= 5,8U, p ^ . 0 1 ) . There were no sex differences. Post hoc comparisons were performed on the data to see which age groups accounted f o r the s i g n i f i c a n t differences, (see TableVI). For the g i r l s , the differences i n the number of groups Ss made were s i g n i f i c a n t between ages k and 6, k and 7, k and 8, 5 and 7,and 7 and 9 (p <T.05). Boys showed a s i g n i f i c a n t change between ages h and 6 (p <^.05). As the analysis of variance did 2$' Table V Number of Groups Made by Each Subject : Grouping I Age ii 5 6 7 8 9 Subject 1 ii 6 8 8 ii ii 2 ii 8 3 8 8 3 3 ii ii 8 8 ii ii ii h ii 2 8 8 8 5 h ii 8 6 8 ii 6 ii ii 3 ii 8 8 7 3 3 8 8 ii 1* 8 ii 8 8 8 6 ii X 3.9 5.1 6.0 7.3 6.3 u. 1 ii 8 ii 8 8 8 2 ii 7 8 8 7 ii 3 k 5 8 ii 8 ii h 8 8 8 8 ii 3 5 7 ii 8 ii ii ii 6 ii 6 8 ii ii 8 7 ii ii ii 8 ii ii 8 ii 5 8 8 ii 8 X U.9 5.9 7.0 6.5 5.ii 5, fig. 3 M e a n Number of G r o u p s M a d e L>^  Subjec+s al" EacK Age tn (Jroup'rvj I Girls — Table VI Summary of Analysis of Variance of Number of Groups Made by Each Subject : Grouping I Source SS df MS F P Sex 1 . 7 6 1 1 . 7 6 .h9 NS Age 66.55 5 1 3 . 3 3 3 . 6 9 < . 0 1 Interaction Sex x Age Hi. 81 5 2 . 9 6 . 8 2 NS Error 3 0 3 . 1 2 8U 3 . 6 1 Total 386.2k 95 Table VII Post Hoc Comparisons on Analysis of Variance of the Number of Groups Made by Each Subject i n Grouping I Age Sex U 5 6 7 8 9 G i r l s AB-UL A B 1 2 A B 13 A B l 2 ; A B l 5 A B l 6 Bmys A B 2 1 AB 2 2 A B 2 3 A B 2 ^ A B 2 £ A B 2 6 (7{ = .05 df (1,8k) C r i t i c a l Value F(l , 6 0 ) = U.00 S t a t i s t i c a l l y S i g n i f i c a n t Comparisons P<^.05 Comparison F AB 1 : L, AB^rj 5.00 AB 1 1, A B ^ 12.62 AB]^, AB-^ 6.25 AB 1 2, A B ^ 5.00 A B 1 ^ A B16 6 ' 2 * AB 2 1, A B 2 3 5.00 29 not indicate any difference i n performance between boys and g i r l s , the r e s u l t s w i l l be discussed for the combined data. There are no differences i n performance between ages k and $, between ages 6 and 7, and between ages 8 and 9. The mean number of groups made by Ss at each age increases from k*h at age h to 6.9 at age 7, and then decreases to 5»1 at age 9 (as shown i n Figure 3). i i . GROUPING I I : TableVDI shows the number of children at each age who made more than one grouping of the pictures. There were some c h i l d -ren at every age who, when asked to group the pictures again after Grouping I , said the pictures could not be arranged any other way. Since there was only one k year old who made a second grouping, t h i s age was omitted from the analysis. The data f o r boys and g i r l s was combined since the number of Ss i n each c e l l would not j u s t i f y separate analysis of sex differences. A one-way analysis of variance performed on the scores f o r Grouping I I showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n performance between children of different ages, (F= 1.31, df=U,U3, P <C»05). Tabled' shows the scores obtained by Table V I I I The Number of C h i l d r e n Who Performed More Than One Grouping at Each Age* 0 Age Sex h 5 6 7 8 9 G i r l s 1 5 5 3 6 6 Boys 0 h 5 2 5 7 T o t a l 1 9 10 5 11 13 Out of a p o s s i b l e t o t a l of 8 s u b j e c t s t o each c e l l Table IX Number of Responses Based on F a c i a l Expression i n Grouping I I Age Subject 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 . 3.6 -2 16 - 0 0 0 3 0 0 - - 0 G i r l s h - - 16 16 16 5 10 - - - 16 6 16 0 16 12 0 7 16 - 16 16 8 0 0 - 16 -1 2 - 12 IL. 0 2 16 12 12 3 - - 16 h 0 12 15 5 0 8 - 0 16 6 0 - - 0 7 0 - - 8 0 8 16 - 16 16 32 Ss i n Grouping I I , and Table .X) the summary of analysis of variance of these scores. Few children showed reversals i n performance from Grouping I to Grouping I I , except at age 9 (see Table X I ) . That i s , feww children who had a high score i n Grouping I changed to a low score i n Grouping I I , or vice versa. The c r i t e r i o n f o r a reversal was an increase or decrease i n score from Grouping I to Grouping I I of more than 8 points. Two Ss out of a possible 9 who performed Grouping I I reversed at age 3 out of 10 at age 6; 2 out of 5 at age 7; k out of 11 at age 8; and at age 9, 8 out of 13 reversed themr scores. Amongst the Ss who did show reversals, i n a l l cases except two $ year old and three 9 year old g i r l s , the d i r e c t i o n of the reversal was from a low score i n Grouping I to a high score i n Grouping I I . That i s , out of a t o t a l of 19 Ss who showed a reversal of score from Grouping I to Grouping I I , lij. were Ss who had low scores i n Grouping I and changed to high scores i n Grouping I I . In other words they a l l paid l i t t l e or no attention to the f a c i a l expressions of the figures i n the pictures on t h e i r f i r s t spontan-Table X Summary of Analysis of Variance of Number of Responses Based on Fa c i a l Expression : Grouping I I Source SS df MS F P_ Between G'ps 278.56 k 69.6k 1.31 NS (Age) Error 2285.25 k3 53.15 Total 2563.81 U7 34 Table XI Number of Subjects Who Reversed Their Score From Grouping I to Grouping I I Age Sex 5 6 7 8 9 G i r l s 2 •1* 1* 2* Boys 0 2* 1* 2* 3* Total 2 3 2 8 each age 9 10 $ 11 13 who performed Grouping I I Reversal from low score i n Grouping I ( i . e . few responses based on f a c i a l expression) to high score i n Grouping I I . eous grouping, and then did arrange the pictures on t h i s basis on t h e i r second grouping. Of the U8 Ss aged S> to 9 who performed Grouping I I , 2.9 based their 1 second grouping on the same type of characteristics of the s t i m u l i as i n t h e i r f i r s t grouping, though the arrangement of the pictures was not exactly the same. For example one 6 year old g i r l grouped the pictures as follows: Grouping I: 2A2B2C2D " a l l boys with only l i t t l e b i t h a i r , quite small, no top" " t a l l , don't have any h a i r , don't have a nose either" 1A1B1C1D3A3B3C3D "curly h a i r , a l l g i r l s " Grouping I I : 3A3B3C3D " t a l l g i r l s " UltBUCiiD " t a l l boys" 2A2B2C2D 1A1B1C1D "small boys" "small g i r l s " 3.6 Despite the f a c t t h a t the p i c t u r e s were pla c e d i n a heap once again a f t e r Grouping.I, these 29 Ss regrouped the p i c t u r e s t o form Group-in g I I on the b a s i s of s i m i l a r , i f not the same, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the f i r s t time. There was an i n c r e a s e w i t h age i n the p r o p o r t i o n of Ss who changed t h e i r b a s i s of grouping, t h a t i s , of the 19 Ss who reversed, a greater p r o p o r t i o n of these was amongst the o l d e r c h i l d -ren. Since the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e performed on the scores f o r Grouping I I d i d not reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , no a n a l y s i s was c a r r i e d out on the Ss' reasons f o r Grouping I I . i i i . NUMBER OF SEPARATE GROUPINGS MADE BY EACH S IN WHOLE TASK: A two-way a n a l y s i s of variance was performed on the number of Groupings made by Ss at each age during the whole t a s k , (see Tables X I I and X I I I ) . Cases in;:#h.ieh a S arranged the p i c t u r e s i n the same groups as i n a previous Grouping, and simply turned the p i c t u r e s upside down or switched t h e i r p o s i t i o n without changeing the a c t u a l content of a group, were not counted as a d d i t i o n a l Groupings. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of Groupings made by Ss at d i f f e r e n t ages (F= 6.82, df= 5,8!*, p <^ .01). Sex was not a s i g n i -Table XII Number of Separate Groupings Made By Each Subject i n the Whole Task Subject Age 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 2 1 1 2 G i r l s k 2 1 1 3 3 2 $ 1 2 1 1 1 2 6 1 2 2 2 2 2 7 1 1 2 1 U -• 2 8 1 2 2 1 3 1 Boys 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 U k 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 Table X I I I Summary of Analysis of Variance of the Number of Separate Groupings Made by Each Subject i n the Whole Task Source SS df MS F P Sex 2.09 1 2.09 3.8 Age 18.76 5 3.75 6.82 < .<a Interaction Sex x Age -0.U7 5 - . 0 9 -.16 Error U6.25 8k .55 Total 66.63. 95 39 f i c a n t source of variance. Post hoc comparisons were done to deter-mine which ages were responsible for the s i g n i f i c a n t main effect of age, see Table XIV. The post hoc comparisons revealed s i g n i f i c a n t differences between g i r l s at ages 4 and 5, 4 and 8, 7 and 8: and boys at ages 4 and 8, 4 and 9, 5 and 8, 6 and 8, 7 and 8, and 8 and 9. The smallest number of Groupings made by any S was 1 (so as to be included i n the study). There were 47 Ss who performed only 1 Grouping of the pictures. The largest number of Groupings made by any S;.was 5, by an 8 year old boy. The 3 Ss who did 4 Groupings were also 8 year olds. The most informative and meaningful change over age, as f a r as th i s variable i s concerned, was that at age 4 only 1 S performed more than one Grouping, whereas by age 9, 13 out of a t o t a l of 16 Ss performed 2 Groupings. Thus there was increased f l e x i b i l i t y i n performance of the task with age. The older children were able to regroup the p i c -tures on the basis of different attributes, while the younger ones were not. Table XIV Post Hoc Comparisons on Analysis of Variance of the Number of Groups Made by Each Subject in the Whole Task Age Sex k 5 6 7 8 9 Girls A B 11 AB 1 2 AB i 3 AB^ AB^ A B 1 6 Boys A B 21 AB 2 2 AB 2 3 AB2U AB2£ AB26 a{ = .05 df (1,8U) Critical value F(l ,60) = U.00 Statistically Significant Comparisons p<C.05 Comparison F A B 11 » AB 1 2 4.09 A B 11 » A B i 5 9.21 A B H ; AB l 5 U.09 AB 2 1 > A B25 22.27 AB 2 1 AB 2 6 U.09 AB 2 2 > AB 2 5 9.21 AB 2 3 A B25 9.21 AB21| A B25 16.36 AB 2 5 > AB 2 6 5.57 l i l i v . PICTURE IDENTIFICATION : After a S had completed as many Groupings as he could, k preselected pictures were placed before him. He was asked f i r s t how each one looked ( i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f a c i a l expression) and then what each one was (age/sex i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) . A l l children at a l l ages, e except two k year old boys, were able to distinguish and l a b e l i n the some wayAk different f a c i a l expressions and k dif f e r e n t figures. Many children had d i f f i c u l t y finding a verbal l a b e l f o r the neutral f a c i a l expression, but they were able to indicate a difference was perceived. For example: Stimulus S's description 8 year old boy- 2A "happy" kD "mad" 1C "sad" 3B "just normal" k year old g i r l - 2A "laugh" kD "mean" 1C "sad" 3B " I don't know. I t ' s another sad." The k year olds had more d i f f i c u l t y providing k dif f e r e n t labels than did the other age groups. IV. DISCUSSION The prediction that the youngest children would group the pictures which had the same o v e r a l l body shape was supported. This finding i s i n accord with the results of studies cited e a r l i e r demon-strating that young children (preschool) tend to perceive i n a global, nonanalytical way, and have d i f f i c u l t y analyzing a stimulus into i t s component parts. The prediction that there would be an increasing tendency with age to take into consideration various components of the figures, such as f a c i a l expression, when grouping the pictures, was supported i n general. Two groups showed results which deviated from t h i s pre-di c t i o n , they were the $ year old g i r l s and 9 year old boys. I t appears i n the case of the 9 year old boys that other variables may have been operating. Discussion with the p r i n c i p a l of the school i n which the testing was carried out, about the study i n general, re-vealed that t h i s group was considered deviant i n background and behaviour by the school. This informati6n was uns o l i c i t e d on the part of the experimenter. The p r i n c i p a l mentioned the deviant nature of th i s group then asked E what she thought of these boys. Moreover, i n the p i l o t test f o r the present study there was no s t a t -i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n performance between the 9 year old boys and g i r l s . The difference i n performance between the £ year old boys and g i r l s i s d i f f i c u l t to account f o r on th e o r e t i c a l grounds. Some studies have found g i r l s to be more dependent on adults f o r approval,(for exam-ple from teachers ), (Maccoby 1°66). At age 5> they would be attending school (kindergarten) f o r the f i r s t time. One p o s s i b i l i t y ±i that t h i s dependence may indicate greater attention to f a c i a l expression and mood on the part of g i r l s as compared to boys, and may be revealed i n t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of pictures on t h i s basis. However, upon closer examination of the relevant studies, t h i s seems to be an u n l i k e l y explanation. There are c o n f l i c t i n g f i n d -ings i n the l i t e r a t u r e as to whether g i r l s a c tually are more dependent than boys. Those studies which f i n d g i r l s to be more dependent f i n d t h i s difference throughout preschool and grade school, not only at age $. J e r s i l d ( l 9 6 8 ) c i t e s evidence that n From an early age, g i r l s are r e l a t i v e l y more interested than boys i n persons, while boys are r e l a t i v e l y more interested i n things. Even as infants, g i r l s seem to f i x t h e i r attention more on persons than boys do. At the elementary school l e v e l and beyond, g i r l s more often than boys mention other people when describing t h e i r interests and recounting t h e i r past experiences. " ( J e r s i l d 1968, p. 189) This would not explain why the g i r l s reverted at ages 6 and 7 to perform-ing i n the same way as the bojrs. However at ages 6 and 7 awareness of sex differences and role i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are central i n development} whereas 5 year olds playing house w i l l assume the role of mother or father regardless of t h e i r own sex, t h i s w i l l not occur l a t e r (Murphy I960). I t may be that at age 5 g i r l s are more concerned with other per-sons, plus more dependent and Kware of the reactions of adults, than boys. Then at ages 6 and 7 the concern of both boys and g i r l s with role and sex i d e n t i f i c a t i o n may dir e c t the attention of the g i r l s away from f a c i a l expression to body shape, and t h e i r performance i s the same as boys as a r e s u l t . The prediction that with age there would be more v a r i a t i o n i n the types of groupings made by each c h i l d was supported. A l l the k year olds responded on the basis of body shape characteristics and at t h i s age onjy 1 subject performed more than one Grouping. By age 9, 13 out of 16 Ss arranged the pictures i n more than one way. By f a r the most reversals i n the basis f o r grouping the pictures, when Groupings I and I I were compared, occurred at age 9. Thus the 9 year olds show-ed the greatest f l e x i b i l i t y i n the basis of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the pictures. The younger children who did group the pictures i n more than one way tended to perform t h e i r second grouping on s i m i l a r char-a c t e r i s t i c s as the f i r s t Grouping. The 9 year olds on thd other hand were more able to pay attention to completely d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i and regroup on the basis of a completely di f f e r e n t set of components i n the stimulus array. This prediction was based on, and supports, the studies c i t e d e a r l i e r which suggest that with increased age the c h i l d i s better able to analyze a complex stimulus into i t s parts. The widest range of reasons f o r a p a r t i c u l a r Grouping was given at ages 6 and 7. In addition the 7 year olds placed the pictures into more separate groups (when performing a Grouping) than at any other age. Saltz and S i g e l (1967) found that younger Ss (age 6-7) tended to have overly narrow conceptsj they c a l l t h i s tendency "over-discrimination" . This could account f o r t h e i r d i v i d i n g the pictures into many small groups rather than broader ones, as d i d the k and 5 year olds, and 8 and 9 year olds. he The predictions made i n t h i s study were based on the t h e o r e t i -c a l approach that preschoolers are global i n t h e i r perception and non-a n a l y t i c a l . Rather than use t h i s framework as an explanation of the re s u l t s of t h i s study, i t seems one should ask why the preschooler has d i f f i c u l t y analyzing and c l a s s i f y i n g on the basis of the components of a complex stimulus, The h year olds responded to the most outstanding stimulus, that of the o v e r a l l body shape of the figures. In order to respond to the f a c i a l expressions of the pictures, the salient s t i m u l i ( the f a c i a l features ) would have to be separated and held from the f i e l d i n which they were embedded. I t has been suggested i n many studies that the increas-ed a b i l i t y of older Ss to " f i l t e r " i n t h i s way i s due to the use of mediators (Hagan and Sabo 1967). I t has also been suggested that young children (under 5 years of age) show a "mediational deficiency" (Reese 1962). In a further study i t would be possible to test whether poor verbal mediation i s responsible f o r the present findings with the h year olds. A l a b e l l i n g group at each age,in which each S would be instructed to describe the pictures before performing the Groupings, would be includ-ed. Since l a b e l l i n g has been found to f a c i l i t a t e mediation (Weir and Stevenson 1959), one would expect some children i n the k year old l a b e l -l i n g group to c l a s s i f y according to f a c i a l expression (component parts of the overall stimulus). S i m i l a r l y one would predict increased use of components of the pictures f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n at a l l ages i n the l a b e l l -ing groups, as w e l l as an increase over age i n general. V. SUMMARY Black l i n e drawings of simple figures which varied along three dimensions, size, sex and f a c i a l expression, were presented to 96 children from U to 9 years of age. The Ss were asked to sort the pictures into groups of figures which belong together. Every k year old responded on the basis of the body shape of the pictures, most of them placed the small boy figures into one group, small g i r l s i n another, large boys i n another and large g i r l s i n another. The 6 and 7 year olds also tended to concentrate on body shape characteristics but t h e i r responses were f a r more varied than the younger children. Although f a c i a l expressions were considered by very few i n t h i s age range, they did not tend to automatically place the pictures into four groups according to overall body shape as d i d the youngest children. Sometimes boys'and g i r l s ' figures of the same size were placed together, ignoring the sex of the figures, or figures of the same sex, ignoring the siz e . The f a c i a l expressions of pictures of people became of importance to the children at around age 8. At age 8 and after many children saw people with smiling faces as belonging together, sad faces together i n a separate group, and so on for each expression represented, regardless of the age or sex of the figure i n the picture. Thus with increased age the f a c i a l expressions of the pictures were taken more and more into consideration, except for £ year old g i r l s and 9 year old boys, who did not follow the general pattern of findings. The results were seen i n terms of increasing a b i l i t y with age to d i f f e r -entiate and respond to parts of the s t i m u l i . APPENDIX ; SUMMARY OF PILOT STUDY Subjects: 10 5 year olds attending kindergarten 8 7 year olds 8 9 year olds k undergraduate psychology students Materials: The same as i n the main study. Procedure: The procedure was the same as i n the f i n a l study except that after two Groupings each S was asked to put the pictures into as many groups as he could (Grouping I I I ) and then into as few groups as he could (Grouping I V ) . Groupings I I I and IV were omitted i n the f i n a l study since the Ss found t h i s procedure confusing, and no add-i t i o n a l information was obtained when they were included. The sessions i n the p i l o t study were recorded on tape, but t h i s was not found to have any additional value over a data sheet. Scoring: The scoring Method used was revised f o r the main study. The reasons S gave were not c l a s s i f i e d into Age, Sex, Age x Sex etc. and submitted to a Ghi-square testjfibgy were i n the main study. Results: At age 5 about hal f the Ss were responding, i n Grouping I , on the basis of f a c i a l expression and half predominantly on the basis of body shape. At age 7 seven Ss out of 8 performed almost s o l e l y according to body shape of the pictures. The 9 year olds and adults both used f a c i a l expression as the predominant c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (see P i l o t Study; Table I ) . A one-way analysis of variance was performed as the number of Ss was too small to permit separate analyses of g i r l s and boys. As can be seen i n the Summary ( P i l o t Study: Table I I ) , the differences were s i g n i f i c a n t (p <C.01). Table I The number of responses based on f a c i a l expression i n Grouping I Age Adults G i r l s 16 13 16 16 16 i i 10 8 16 0 8 8 0 0 0 0 Boys 16 0 16 16 5 0 16 16 h 0 16 2 0 16 Means 8.3 2.1 12.3 lU.O T a b l e I I Summary o f One-Way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e S o u r c e SS d f MS F SS B e t 559.00 3 186.33 5.U8 p < .01 E r u o r 88U.U7 26 3U.00 T o t a l 1UU3.U7 29 55 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Brian, C.R. and Goodenough, F.L. Relative potency of color and form perception at various ages. J. Exp. Psychol., 1929, 12, 197-213. 2. F l a v e l l , J.H. Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget, Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J.: 1963. 3. Hagen, J.W. and Sabo, R.A. A developmental study of selective attention. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 1967, 13(2), 159-172. 4. J e r s i l d , A.T. Child Psychology, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: 1968. 5. Kagan, J., Moss, H.A. and S i g e l , I.E. Psychological significance of styles of conceptualization, i n J.E. Wright and J. Kagan (Eds.) Basic cognitive processes i n children. Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Developm., 1963, 28, no 2. 6. Kendler, T.S. Concept Formation. Ann. Rev, of Psych. 1961, 12, 1417-472. 7. Kuenne, M.R. Experimental investigation of the r e l a t i o n of language to transposition behaviour i n young children. J. Exp. Psychol., 1946, 36, 471-490. 8. Maccoby, E.E. Sex differences i n i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning, i n E.E. Maccoby (Ed.), The Development of Sex Differences, Stanford: 1966. 9. Murphy, L. Personality i n Young Children, Basic Books Inc., N.Y.j I960 10. Osier, S.F. and F i v e l , M.W. Concept Attainment: I . The role of age and i n t e l l i g e n c e i n concept attainment by induction. J. Exp. Psychol. 1962, 62, 1-8. 11. Reese, H. Verbal mediation as a function of age l e v e l . Psychol. B u l l . 1962, 59, 502-509. 12. Saltz, E. and Sigel, I.E. Concept overdiscrimination i n children. J. of Exp. Psychol., 1967, 7 3(l), 1-8. 13. S i g e l , I.E. Cognitive Styles and Personality Elynamics, Interim Progress Report for N.I.M.H., M 2983, 1961. 56 l k . Sex and personality correlates of styles of categorization among young children, Amer. Psychologist, 1963, 18, 350. 15. The attainment of concepts, i n M.L. Hoffman and L.W. Hoffman Review of Child Development Research, Vol. I, N.Y., Russell Sage Foundation, 196k. 16. Vinacke, W.E. The investigation of concept formation Psych. B u l l . 1951, k8, 1-31. 17. Vygotsky, L.S. Thought and Language, Wiley, N.Y.: 1962. 18. Weir, M.W. and Stevenson, H.W. The effect of verbalization i n children's learning as a function of chronological age, Child  Develop., 1959, 30, Ik3-lk9. 19. Werner, H. Comparative Psychology of Mental Development, Inter-national U n i v e r s i t i e s Press: 1957. 20. Winer, B.J. S t a t i s t i c a l Principles i n Experimental Design, McGraw-Hill, Toronto: 1962. 21. Witkin, H.A., Dyk, R.B., Faterson, H.F., Goodenough, D.R. and Karp, S.A. Psychological D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , Wiley, N.Y.: 1962. 

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