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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of the changing function and contemporary impact of the Alaska-British Columbia boundary Halsey-Brandt, Gregory Charles 1969

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHANGING FUNCTION AND CONTEMPORARY IMPACT OF THE ALASKA-BRITISH COLUMBIA BOUNDARY BY GREGORY CHARLES HALSEY-BRANDT B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of GEOGRAPHY  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  advanced degree at  the  Library  I further for  the  his  of  this  written  agree that  University  of  permission  representatives. thes,is f o r  be  g r a n t e d by  gain  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t H h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  for  for extensive the  It i s understood  financial  (fo]m^fTa  shall  the  requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia,  available  permission.  Department  Date  f u l f i l m e n t of  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  not  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  Head o f my  that be  I agree  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  This Alaska-British the  s t u d y was  an h i s t o r i c a l  boundary and  the  The impact  analysis  resulting barrier  the  b o u n d a r y as  of  authority  over  It as  a result  economies opposing it  the  was  exploit  efficient than to  the  is  routeways.  the This  future to  rivers  the  As a r e s u l t  of  its  of  penetration  highway,  and  it  region  was  boundary  found that  expressed  effort to  has  the  the  found to  of  which the  division the  boundary.  established  fur  trade by  the  basis,  need arose  r o u t e s were u t i l i z e d the  boundary  albeit  to  a  impeded  lesser  for  Canadian  at  to the  extent  i n p o l i t i c a l concern.  offer  of  boundary.  been d i r e c t e d  facilitate  s o l u t i o n was  of  and w a t e r  these routeways,  problem,  i n the  penetration  as  the to  routeways  b o u n d a r y was  to  in  analysis  d e l i m i t a t i o n on t h i s  i n the  of  b e e n made  R u s s i a n and B r i t i s h  a barrier  stress  d'etre  which t r a v e r s e  the  the  stages:  problem which  create  historically of  raison  transportation a  of  development  which have  as  rail,  region  this  of  impact  a contemporary  expected  Canadian p u b l i c have  of  the  i n three  the  created  and s o c i a l  operation  overcome  location  was  considerable  this  on t h e  extention  traders.  Several  (2)  international  the  studied  determine  an a n a l y s i s  found that  economic  was  functions,  boundary  and thus  created  greater  (3)  the  of  establish  adaptations  a constraint  d i v i d e s and  situation  to  consequent  its  it  to  C o l u m b i a b o u n d a r y on s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  boundary r e g i o n .  (1)  undertaken  altering  However, the  transportation  little  possibility  of  success.  I t was  be r e v i e w e d and  t h e r e f o r e suggested t h a t the f u n c t i o n s of the boundary t h a t t h i s approach would l e a d to a r e d u c t i o n i n the  b a r r i e r e f f e c t of the boundary. The  f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t y of e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of the hydro  e l e c t r i c resources  of the Yukon, Taku and  S t i k i n e R i v e r s was  t o be hampered by the d i v i s i o n of p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . t h a t the l i m i t e d market base i n the r e g i o n and f o r hydro p r o j e c t s p r e c l u d e programmes. and  a l s o found  I t i s suggested  large c a p i t a l costs  s e p a r a t e American and  Canadian development  Precedent e s t a b l i s h e d a l o n g the s o u t h e r n boundary of Canada  the U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o v i d e s  a s u f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c frame-  work w i t h i n w h i c h t o e x p l o i t j o i n t l y the power a v a i l a b l e on the rivers.  required  northern  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  INTRODUCTION  2  CHAPTER I  HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHANGING BOUNDARY FUNCTION  8  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e on t h e H i s t o r i c a l Approach to Boundary S t u d i e s Method o f A n a l y s i s The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia Boundary The F r o n t i e r P e r i o d : 1741-1845 The P e r i o d o f U n d e f i n e d S o v e r e i g n t y : 1825-1903 The P e r i o d o f Boundary Entrenchment: 1903 - P r e s e n t Summary II  THE PRESENT IMPACT OF THE BOUNDARY - THE PROBLEM OF TRANSPORTATION  51  Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e The F i r s t A l t e r n a t i v e - A change i n t h e L o c a t i o n of t h e Boundary The Second A l t e r n a t i v e - A Change i n t h e F u n c t i o n s of t h e Boundary Summary III  FUTURE IMPACT OF THE BOUNDARY - THE PROBLEM OF INTERNATIONAL RIVERS Review o f L i t e r a t u r e on Boundary Waters H i s t o r i c a l Development o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r i n e Law The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y The Yukon, S t i k i n e , and Taku R i v e r s Summary  96  CHAPTER SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A .  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE  PAGE  1.  The  2.  T r a d i n g P o s t s and Communication A x i s D u r i n g the F r o n t i e r P e r i o d , 1741-1825  25  A r e a Claimed by R u s s i a under Ukase of 1821 and the F i n a l Boundary as Arranged a f t e r N e g o t i a t i o n s , 1825  29  4.  K l o n d i k e Access C o r r i d o r s , 1900  37  5.  R i v a l Claims and T r i b u n a l Award of 1903  42  6.  P o p u l a t i o n Growth R a t e s , 1921  46  7.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Routeways  65  8.  Proposed C o r r i d o r s  69  9.  S t . Mary and M i l k R i v e r B a s i n s  109  3.  P a c i f i c Northwest  1  - 1961  10.  S t . John R i v e r B a s i n  I l l  11.  Columbia R i v e r B a s i n  121  12.  Y u k o n - A t l i n - T a k u D i v e r s i o n Scheme  127  13.  Ramparts P r o j e c t  132  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o a l l those who have assisted i n the preparation of t h i s thesis.  S p e c i f i c a l l y to  Dr. J u l i a n V. M i n g h i , f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e from c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e problem t o t h e f i n a l stage o f w r i t i n g . of  For the advice given during the long stage  d r a f t i n g b o t h maps and t e x t I w i s h a l s o t o thank Dr. A.L.  Farley. The s u p p o r t , a d v i c e , and c o - o p e r a t i o n o f many o f f i c i a l s of  t h e Governments o f B r i t i s h Columbia, A l a s k a , and Canada added  g r e a t l y to the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study.  A l s o t o Mr. T. E l l i o t o f  the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber o f Mines who opened h i s e x c e l l e n t r e c o r d s f o r my p e r u s a l and t o Mr. R. M i n t e r o f t h e White Pass and Yukon R a i l w a y f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n , I extend my g r a t i t u d e .  P a r t i c u l a r a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended to F a t h e r G.F. McGuigan of  the Department o f Economics, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r  his  encouragement i n s t r i v i n g t o broaden my u n d e r s t a n d i n g g e n e r a l l y  and o f t h i s t h e s i s problem i n p a r t i c u l a r .  I have been f o r t u n a t e i n  h a v i n g t h e p e r s e v e r a n c e and s k i l l o f Mrs. B e v e r l y Smith i n t h e t y p i n g of  t h i s study.  F i n a l l y , i t remains  t o express a p e r s o n a l a p p r e c i a t i o n  to my w i f e , Susan, f o r h e r p a t i e n c e and support d u r i n g t h e l o n g preparation of this  In  thesis.  s p i t e o f t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f those above, t h e a u t h o r takes  f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l e r r o r s appearing i n the t h e s i s . A p r i l , 1969  Gregg C h a r l e s H a l s e y - B r a n d t T o r o n t o , Canada  2.  INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f u n c t i o n s  o f two s t a t e s a r e most  c l e a r l y e v i d e n t a t a "window" or boundary between t h e i r systems.  political  Because of i t s r o l e as a b a r r i e r o r f i l t e r , a boundary  enables the geographer t o i d e n t i f y and measure i n t e r a c t i n g phenomena o f the two p o l i t i c a l systems of w h i c h i t i s an Its influence  interface.  may be observed on the a c t i v i t y which e n c o u n t e r s i t  e i t h e r by d i m i n i s h i n g  that a c t i v i t y  or by c h a n g i n g i t s d i r e c t i o n .  ( i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y or s e l e c t i v e l y )  The A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary  r e f l e c t s the s o v e r e i g n t y o f two s t a t e s , and p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to study interactance  phenomena o f the two  excellent political  systems.  In t h i s a n a l y s i s  o f the c h a n g i n g f u n c t i o n  and contemporary  impact of the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary, the f o c u s i s toward an assessment o f the f u n c t i o n basis  and i n f l u e n c e  of t h e boundary on the  of o b s e r v e d e f f e c t upon s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s .  The t h r e e  a c t i v i t i e s o r problems d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e the h i s t o r i c a l development of the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary, i t s contemporary impact i n terms o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , power development.  and i t s f u t u r e  impact on hydro  As a r e s u l t of the l o c a t i o n o f the boundary, Canada i s w i t h o u t a c o a s t l i n e n o r t h o f 56° N o r t h l a t i t u d e .  The c o a s t n o r t h  o f t h i s p o i n t , and f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y - m i l e s t o the comprises  landward,  the s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a n l i t t o r a l or the A l a s k a n  as the r e g i o n i s commonly known.  Consequently,  "Panhandle"  from the Canadian  p o i n t of v i e w two problems a r e e v i d e n t ; f i r s t l y , Canadian c o a s t w i s e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and  the  Yukon T e r r i t o r y must c r o s s the A l a s k a n l i s i e r e and i n so d o i n g  use  American f a c i l i t i e s ; and s e c o n d l y , the lower reaches of a l l the westward f l o w i n g r i v e r s a r e i n A l a s k a , thus r e q u i r i n g  international  c o n s u l t a t i o n b e f o r e t h e i r hydro power p o t e n t i a l can be  utilized.  As a r e s u l t o f the f u n c t i o n of the boundary, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n media and hydro development p l a n s a r e c o n f r o n t e d by two  different  and o f t e n opposing l e g a l systems h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n over s e c t i o n s o f t h e i r u n i t a r y systems.  different  T h i s boundary f u n c t i o n c r e a t e s  a b a r r i e r to the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n media and of hydro power development.  METHOD OF INVESTIGATION  Throughout the t h e s i s the approach  utilized i s primarily  t h a t of h i s t o r i c a l geography w h e r e i n p a s t g e o g r a p h i c a l p a t t e r n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s are a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r to understand geographical m i l i e u .  f u l l y the p r e s e n t  T h i s method has been chosen f o r two  F i r s t , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s i s the b e s t way  reasons.  to handle the d a t a  a v a i l a b l e because of i t s volume and d i v e r s i t y .  S e c o n d l y , i n the  absence of any major work on the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary i n  p o l i t i c a l geography, a h i s t o r i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s i s r e q u i r e d to c o m p i l e and judge the r e s e a r c h d a t a i n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d  the  contemporary s p a t i a l impact of the boundary. The  f i r s t c h a p t e r t r a c e s the e v o l u t i o n of the A l a s k a -  B r i t i s h Columbia boundary through i t s v a r i o u s s t a g e s , i s o l a t i n g f a c t o r s i n the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s which e x p l a i n the l a t t e r - d a y l o c a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f the boundary.  In the second and  third  c h a p t e r s the p a r t i c u l a r problems o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and hydro power r e s p e c t i v e l y are analyzed.  In the case of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  two  a l t e r n a t e s o l u t i o n s t o the problem a r e suggested and each a n a l y z e d to determine  the most f e a s i b l e .  In the case of hydro power, the  most s i g n i f i c a n t precedents a v a i l a b l e from p a s t e x p e r i e n c e a l o n g the U n i t e d S t a t e s - M e x i c o boundary and the U n i t e d  States-Canada  boundary a r e a n a l y z e d w i t h a v i e w to p r o p o s i n g a s o l u t i o n to the problem o f hydro power development i n the f u t u r e .  S o l u t i o n s based  on h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d s a r e not a b s o l u t e , as the problems are dynamic and can n e i t h e r be a n a l y z e d nor t h e i r outcomes determined  in controlled  c o n d i t i o n s , but s o l u t i o n s t h a t appear a c c e p t a b l e i n l i g h t o f p r e s e n t knowledge a r e put f o r w a r d . reached  The  f i n a l c h a p t e r summarizes the c o n c l u s i o n s  i n t h i s s p e c i f i c boundary s t u d y and d i s c u s s e s the study w i t h i n  the framework of boundary s t u d i e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l law g e n e r a l l y .  In c a r r y i n g out the r e s e a r c h t h e r e i s a problem t h e r e i s a l a c k of e n q u i r y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f p o l i t i c a l  i n that geography  i n boundary s t u d i e s , a p a r t from what might be termed d e s c r i p t i v e geography.  D e s c r i p t i v e geography i s of course inadequate  today  and  m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s e s s h o u l d be based on r e a l i s t i c problems and p r e s e n t feasible solutions.  That i s , i n some way boundary s t u d i e s must b o t h  f a c i l i t a t e the j u s t s e t t l e m e n t o f boundary problems and c o n t r i b u t e t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law.  An a n a l y s i s o f the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary i n terms o f problems w h i c h c o n f r o n t businessmen and p o l i t i c a l  figures  concerned d i r e c t l y w i t h schemes o f development dependent i n some way on boundary r e g u l a t i o n s , i s o f v a l u e i n a p r a c t i c a l sense.  I t may  a l s o h e l p i n o r g a n i z i n g d a t a on the boundary problem i n such a manner as t o make f u t u r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n c o g n i z a n t o f e x i s t i n g precedent.  A l t h o u g h the s t u d y i s concerned w i t h two o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t problems stemming from t h e l o c a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary, water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and hydro power development, t h e r e a r e many o t h e r problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the boundary.  Less  i m p o r t a n t problems such as l a b o u r s u p p l y and i m m i g r a t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d as they r e l a t e t o water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Many  o t h e r f a c t o r s such as t h e impact o f t h e boundary on c a p i t a l investment and t h e r o l e o f t h e boundary i n c r e a t i n g a w a t e r - o r i e n t e d A l a s k a n economy and a l a n d - o r i e n t e d Canadian economy a r e b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r e d b u t do not form the major f o c u s o f the t h e s i s .  As t h e t o t a l impact o f t h e A l a s k a -  B r i t i s h Columbia boundary i s a n a l y z e d by p o l i t i c a l geographers i n the f u t u r e , many o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s may be answered.  6.  RELEVANT LITERATURE  Boundary s t u d i e s i n the p a s t have been concerned w i t h "the  n a t u r e of the boundary's l o c a t i o n and h i s t o r y " . ^  This  approach appears u n r e w a r d i n g b o t h t o the a u t h o r and o t h e r geographers as i t l a c k s the a b i l i t y  t o d e a l w i t h contemporary boundary problems,  w h i c h g e n e r a l l y extend beyond the mere s i t e o f a boundary.  Whittemore  Boggs and R i c h a r d H a r t s h o r n e were the f i r s t to s t u d y boundary  functions  as they have changed o v e r time and to f o c u s on the p o l i t i c a l l y a r e a as a s p a t i a l consequence o f p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s .  organized  S i n c e t h e s e men  wrote i n the 1930's the f u n c t i o n a l approach has been improved and e v e n t u a l l y adopted by most p o l i t i c a l geographers.  There a r e s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c a t i o n s on b o u n d a r i e s , c o r r i d o r s , b a r r i e r s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routeways and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r development  a v a i l a b l e upon w h i c h a geographer can base h i s r e s e a r c h .  These r e f e r e n c e s can g e n e r a l l y be c l a s s i f i e d i n two c a t e g o r i e s : 1.  t h o s e w i t h i n the f i e l d of p o l i t i c a l geography were found u s e f u l i n c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the t h e s i s problem w i t h i n the framework o f p o l i t i c a l  geography  and i n d e t e r m i n i n g how the problem r e l a t e s to s i m i l a r boundary s i t u a t i o n s i n o t h e r areas o f the world;  (that i s , f o r comparative study).  J.V. M i n g h i , "Boundary S t u d i e s i n P o l i t i c a l Geography", Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, L l l l , (September, 1963) p. 407.  2.  those sources o u t s i d e geography, such as government reports, legal publications, h i s t o r i c a l  evidence,  and i n d u s t r i a l b r i e f s were r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o the p r a c t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s o l u t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r boundary  problem.  To f a c i l i t a t e an e a s i e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e types o f r e f e r e n c e s used and t h e i r r o l e i n p o l i t i c a l geography g e n e r a l l y and i n t h e problems d i s c u s s e d i n t h e t h e s i s s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s r e v i e w e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f each c h a p t e r .  It is  f e l t t h a t t h i s method i s more m e a n i n g f u l t o the r e a d e r as i t b o t h enables a wide v a r i e t y o f sources t o be covered and r e v i e w s them within their context.  The contemporary  n a t u r e o f the t h e s i s problem c r e a t e s  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n terms o f d a t a and c o n c l u s i o n s . As a r e s u l t , much of t h e r e s e a r c h i s based on p e r s o n a l correspondence w i t h r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t i e s i n b u s i n e s s and government, and t h e i r p r o p o s a l s and c o n c l u s i o n s a r e weighed by the author b e f o r e they a r e d i s c u s s e d . I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o s t a t e d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s t o t h e problems a n a l y z e d , b u t a g a i n these a r e weighed by the author and a r e p r e s e n t e d as suggested s o l u t i o n s i n l i g h t o f a l l t h e r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n .  8.  CHAPTER 1 HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHANGING FUNCTION OF THE BOUNDARY  There a r e "two main l i n e s o f g e o g r a p h i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t o b o u n d a r i e s - the i n f l u e n c e o f g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r s on t h e l o c a t i o n of  the boundary, and the r e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e o f the boundary, once  e s t a b l i s h e d , on the development o f the l a n d s c a p e through w h i c h i t was drawn". *  T h i s Chapter w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e f i r s t  l i n e of  r e s e a r c h , the i n f l u e n c e s through h i s t o r y o f g e o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s on the  l o c a t i o n o f the boundary.  C h a p t e r s Two and Three w i l l d e a l w i t h  the  second l i n e o f r e s e a r c h , the r e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e s o f the boundary,  once e s t a b l i s h e d , on the development o f the l a n d s c a p e through w h i c h i t was drawn, by the s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s o f the o r i e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and hydro-power  development.  The f i r s t  s e c t i o n o f t h i s Chapter i s a b r i e f r e v i e w o f  l i t e r a t u r e on methods o f approach t o boundary studies..  The second  s e c t i o n takes the main p o i n t s summarized from the r e v i e w and r e l a t e s them t o t h e p r e s e n t case s t u d y , thus e n d e a v o u r i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e b o t h the  p o s i t i o n o f t h i s h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s i n the g e n e r a l methodology o f  boundary s t u d i e s and what i n t u r n i s hoped to be c o n t r i b u t e d by the author t o t h i s methodology.  The f i n a l  and major s e c t i o n i s a case  study o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary.  J.R.V. P r e s c o t t , The Geography o f F r o n t i e r s and B o u n d a r i e s ( C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1965), p. 58.  9. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON THE  HISTORICAL  APPROACH TO BOUNDARY STUDIES  The p r i m a r y concern o f t h i s r e v i e w i s to a s c e r t a i n the degree o f p o l i t i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n attempted by the authors.  T h i s w r i t e r i s concerned t h a t t h i s a s p e c t o f  geography  be of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e , r e - e m p h a s i z i n g the words of H a r t s h o r n e in  1933; W h i l e almost every geographer ... has concerned h i m s e l f a t some time i n the p a s t twenty y e a r s w i t h some p a r t i c u l a r boundary problem v e r y few have attempted any s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d y o f the problem as a whole. I t c o u l d e a s i l y be shown t h a t the p r a c t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f geographers to the s p e c i f i c problems have s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y from t h i s l a c k of academic p r e p a r a t i o n . For the most p a r t t h e i r work shows the earmarks of knowledge e x p e r t but u n o r g a n i z e d ; l a c k of t e c h n i q u e , no r e c o g n i z e d t e r m i n o l o g y , and no means of measurement.^ In the above, H a r t s h o r n e p o i n t s out one o f the major  weaknesses i n the g e o g r a p h i c d i s c i p l i n e g e n e r a l l y and i n p o l i t i c a l geography  specifically.  Too many o f the a r t i c l e s r e v i e w e d i n t h i s  s e c t i o n a r e s i m p l y a n a l y s e s of a unique problem w i t h no attempt made at c r e a t i n g out o f the r e s e a r c h broad p r i n c i p l e s or t h e o r i e s . i f t h i s b r a n c h of geography  However,  i s to use the term " s c i e n t i f i c method",  p o l i t i c a l geographers must adopt a new approach, the one s t a t e d above by H a r t s h o r n e . The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w o f boundary  studies i s c l a s s i f i e d  two types a c c o r d i n g to purpose, unique s t u d i e s w i t h l i m i t e d and case s t u d i e s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t methodology.  The a r t i c l e s  into  methodology selected  g e n e r a l l y adopt a h i s t o r i c a l approach i n o r d e r to c o r r e l a t e c l o s e l y  R i c h a r d H a r t s h o r n e , "Geographic and P o l i t i c a l Boundaries i n Upper S i l e s i a " , Annuals o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, X X X I I I (December, 1933), pp. 195-196.  w i t h the author's approach i n t h i s C h a p t e r .  Several conclusions  w i l l be p r e s e n t e d a t the end o f t h e r e v i e w i n an attempt to a s c e r t a i n c o n c e p t u a l t r e n d s i n boundary s t u d i e s , t o examine t e r m i n o l o g y , and t o determine what has been g l e a n e d from the r e v i e w a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e case s t u d y a t hand. A.  UNIQUE STUDIES WITH LIMITED METHODOLOGY  The f i r s t approach i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the unique s t u d y , or an a n a l y s i s i n w h i c h a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l d a t a about the impact o f the boundary i s accumulated and examined, w i t h some i n s i g h t o f the a u t h o r p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r the d i f f e r e n t s t r a n d s o f a n a l y s i s i n the summary.  These s t u d i e s a r e  g e n e r a l l y e x c e l l e n t i n q u a l i t y o f d a t a but l a c k a s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n i q u e or b r o a d l y a p p l i c a b l e methodology. Works by A l e x a n d e r , Hoffman, Mead, Pounds, R a n d a l l , Moodie, Melamid, J o n e s , H i l l , and House a l l d e a l w i t h boundary 3  problems i n t h i s manner.  As examples, f o u r s t u d i e s have been  selected. R a n d a l l ' s " P o l i t i c a l Geography o f t h e K l a g e n f u r t B a s i n " b e g i n s f i r s t w i t h a statement o f the problem and then examines the 4 p h y s i c a l geography, economy, and p o l i t i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f the r e g i o n .  3 L.M. A l e x a n d e r , "Recent Changes i n the Benelux-German Boundary", G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, X L I I I ( J a n u a r y , 1953) p. 69-76. G.W. Hoffman, "Boundary Problems i n Europe", A n n a l s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, XLIV (March, 1954), p. 102-106. W.R. Mead, " F i n n i s h 4 R.R. l l , I "The K a r e l iR a :n d a An n t e r n aP ot li io tn ia cl a lB o rGeography d e r l a n d " . o Gf e othe g r a Kp lh ai gc ea nl f uJ ro tu r nBaals ,i n "L.I G e o g r a p1952), h i c a l Review, X L V I I ( J u l y , 1957), pp. 406-419. (March pp. 40-57.  11.  He proposes a s o l u t i o n t o the Slovene problem i n the b a s i n as a c o n c l u s i o n but does not t r y and r e l a t e t h i s t o m i n o r i t y  problems  i n o t h e r boundary a r e a s . Moodie opens h i s paper on "The  Italo-Yugoslav  by s e t t i n g up the problem; t h a t i s , a f t e r World War  Boundary"  I I , statesmen  w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g l i n e a r b o u n d a r i e s , many o f w h i c h w i l l not be easy t o l o c a t e . " ' i s one such c a s e .  The I t a l o - Y u g o s l a v  boundary  A f t e r t h i s b r i e f j u s t i f i c a t i o n he b e g i n s w i t h  a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of the " J u l i a n f r o n t i e r r e g i o n " from the e a r l i e s t times t o World War  I I and then c o n s i d e r s the problem of  s e t t i n g up a l i n e a r boundary w i t h i n the zone. t h r o u g h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the p h y s i c a l morphology  T h i s i s done f i r s t and s e c o n d l y t h r o u g h  an a n a l y s i s of the human r e s p o n s e s the boundary evokes. c o n c l u d e s w i t h a p l e a t h a t boundary-makers  Moodie  a t the end o f the War  f o l l o w g e o g r a p h i c a l r a t h e r than p o l i t i c a l - c o n s i d e r a t i o n when drawing the boundary and thus r e a c h an a m i c a b l e s o l u t i o n . his  Moodie r e s t r i c t s  paper t o the s p e c i f i c s o f the J u l i a n r e g i o n and does not t r y  and r e l a t e t o boundary problems g e n e r a l l y , nor does he t r y to d e r i v e p r i n c i p l e s from i t .  A r a t h e r unique t o p i c i n the f i e l d o f boundary s t u d i e s i s "France and  'Les L i m i t e s N a t u r e l l e s ' from the Seventeenth t o the 6  T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r i e s " by Norman Pounds.  He p r e s e n t s a h i s t o r i c a l  A.E. Moodie, "The I t a l o - Y u g o s l a v Boundary," G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , CI ( F e b r u a r y , 1943), p. 49-65. 6  N.J.G. Pounds, "France and Les L i m i t e s N a t u r e l l e s from the 17th Century t o the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , " A n n a l s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, XLIV (March, 1954), pp. 51-62.  12.  a n a l y s i s o f t h e concept o f "Les L i m i t e s N a t u r e l l e s " t o demonstrate the r o l e t h a t t h i s concept p l a y e d i n French e x p a n s i o n Rhine.  However, a p a r t from t h e unique case s t u d y , Pounds' a n a l y s i s  does n o t add any new concepts boundary  toward t h e  t o the h i s t o r i c a l approach o r t o  terminology.  The most r e c e n t example o f those a r t i c l e s reviewed  i n this  7 a r e a i s "The P o l i t i c a l Geography o f t h e G u l f o f Aquaba". f i r s t g i v e s a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e g i o n and then a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the G u l f from B i b l i c a l  Melamid presents  times t o the p r e s e n t  E g y p t i a n - I s r a e l i - J o r d a n i a n - S a u d i A r a b i a n d i s p u t e over  sovereignty.  He d i s c u s s e s t h e s t r a t e g i c p l a n s o f each s t a t e f o r t h e i r  section of  the G u l f and t h e c o n f l i c t s w h i c h have a r i s e n because o f them.  As  t h e r e i s no statement o f the problem a t the o u t s e t , i t i s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n a methodology.  I n the c o n c l u s i o n s e v e r a l  i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s a r e made on the p o l i t i c a l geography o f the area but a g a i n he has n o t t r i e d t o d i s c u s s the problem w i t h a v i e w t o c o n t r i b u t i n g m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y t o boundary s t u d i e s . W i t h i n the same c a t e g o r y as these above examples b u t w i t h some attempt a t u t i l i z i n g o r d e v e l o p i n g g e n e r a l concepts a u t h o r s , H e l d , Hartshorne  and M i n g h i .  p r e c i s e c o n c e p t , does add s i g n i f i c a n t l y areas through h i s w o r k - r e s i d e n c e  are three  Held, although not u t i l i z i n g a t o s t u d i e s o f d i s p u t e d boundary  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the Saar and h i s 8  breakdown o f a n a l y s i s i n t o r a i s o n de c r e a t i o n and r a i s o n d ' e t r e .  A. Melamid, "The P o l i t i c a l Geography o f the G u l f o f Aquaba," Annals of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, X L V I I (September, 1957), p. 231. 8  C.C. H e l d , "The New S a a r l a n d , " G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, X L I (October, pp. 590-605.  1951),  13.  H a r t s h o r n e ' s "The  P o l i s h C o r r i d o r " a n a l y z e s the a r e a l  facts  9 and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e d i n the problem of the C o r r i d o r .  He  b e g i n s w i t h an a n a l y s i s of the g e o g r a p h i c , p o l i t i c a l , and e t h n o g r a p h i c backgrounds  o f the r e g i o n .  W i t h t h i s as a s e t t i n g he adopts a problem-  o r i e n t e d approach and d i s c u s s e s the p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l  problems  c r e a t e d by the l o c a t i o n of the c o r r i d o r i n r e l a t i o n to E a s t P r u s s i a , D a n z i g , Germany and P o l a n d .  H a r t s h o r n e c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e can be  no g e o g r a p h i c a l s o l u t i o n , t h a t i s , by exchange of t e r r i t o r y  and  s a t i s f a c t i o n can o n l y be a c h i e v e d through o t h e r methods, f o r example i n t a r i f f changes and the treatment of m i n o r i t i e s . No new concept as to the h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of a boundary problem emerges from h i s paper, but the p r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d approach appears b e t t e r equipped to p o i n t out d i f f i c u l t i e s and come up w i t h m e a n i n g f u l s o l u t i o n s to the method c o n s i d e r e d p r e v i o u s l y .  However,  t h i s paper does appear as a s t e p backward i n terms o f methodology from h i s 1933 paper on Upper  Silesia.^  M i n g h i , i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f the P a c i f i c Coast s e c t i o n of the C a n a d i a n - U n i t e d S t a t e s boundary, to determine the boundary's  uses a h i s t o r i c a l  approach  f u n c t i o n through time and thus to under11  s t a n d the p r e s e n t day r o l e of the boundary.  His discussion i s b u i l t  R. H a r t s h o r n e , "The P o l i s h C o r r i d o r , " J o u r n a l of Geography, XXXVI (May, 1937), pp. 161-176. 10 R. H a r t s h o r n e , "Geographic and P o l i t i c a l Boundaries i n Upper S i l e s i a . " ^  J.V. M i n g h i , "The E v o l u t i o n of a Border R e g i o n : The P a c i f i c Coast S e c t i o n of the Canada-U.S. Boundary," The S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l Magazine LXXXI ( A p r i l , 1964), pp. 37-52.  14.  on the t e r m i n o l o g y and o r g a n i z i n g c o n c e p t s o f H a r t s h o r n e , Jones and Boggs to w h i c h he adds the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f h i s own s t u d y .  In  t h i s l i m i t e d way he n o t o n l y c o n s i d e r s a unique case s t u d y but a l s o develops a g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e h i s t o r i c a l approach t o boundary studies. B.  CASE STUDIES WITH SIGNIFICANT METHODOLOGY  The second approach i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t of case s t u d i e s w h i c h a p a r t from t h e i r v a l u e per s e , i n c l u d e a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f c o n c e p t u a l development.  Papers by J o n e s , H a r t s h o r n e ,  Hoffman, and P r e s c o t t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as examples.  Stephen J o n e s '  "The C o r d i l l e r a l S e c t i o n o f the Canada12  U n i t e d S t a t e s B o r d e r l a n d " was one o f the f i r s t  i n this category.  The b e g i n n i n g s o f a s y s t e m a t i c f u n c t i o n a l approach a r e e v i d e n t i n his of  d i s c u s s i o n o f the s i t e and s i t u a t i o n o f the boundary, the e x t e n t i t s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h c i r c u l a t i o n , and the c u l t u r a l  and d i f f e r e n c e s on e i t h e r s i d e of the boundary.  similarities  A f t e r these systematic  t o p i c s he c o n s i d e r s some case s t u d i e s o f problems i n water s u p p l y , f o r e s t r y , the T r a i l S m e l t e r , and o t h e r s a r i s i n g from the l o c a t i o n of the  boundary.  I n h i s summary and a t p o i n t s throughout h i s paper  Jones d i s c u s s e s the r o l e o f the boundary as antecedent to s e t t l e m e n t and through t h i s concept he does succeed i n g e n e r a l i z i n g somewhat about antecedent b o u n d a r i e s and t h e i r p e c u l a r i t i e s i n b o r d e r r e g i o n s . S.B. J o n e s , "The C o r d i l l e r a n S e c t i o n o f the Canada-United S t a t e s B o r d e r l a n d , " G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , LXXXIX (May, 1937), pp. 439-450.  Jones t h e r e f o r e has a c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d p r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d approach t o the boundary.  The h i s t o r y o f boundary e v o l u t i o n i s  g i v e n but o n l y as i t i s r e l e v a n t i n c e r t a i n t o p i c a l a n a l y s e s , such as c i r c u l a t i o n .  T h i s approach lends i t s e l f w e l l to o t h e r boundary  s t u d i e s as i t a v o i d s a s i m p l e r e g i o n a l i n v e n t o r y .  Hartshorne's  " F u n c t i o n a l Approach to P o l i t i c a l Geography" c l e a r l y had  precedent  i n t h i s example.  Hartshorne  begins h i s "Survey o f the Boundary Problems  of Europe" w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s concepts  on d i s p u t e d  border  14 areas.  He then uses these concepts  to c o n s t r u c t a m a t r i x w h e r e i n  he c o n s i d e r s each boundary d i s p u t e under the headings " d i s p u t e d a r e a " , " c o u n t r y now speaking  i n " , " c l a i m e d by",  " p o p u l a t i o n " , and  language o f the c l a i m a n t - s t a t e " .  "population  F i n a l l y he g i v e s a r a t i n g  from A t o E i n terms of n a t i o n a l i t y , t r a n s p o r t and t r a d e , and h i s t o r y f o r the d i s p u t e d areas a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c l a i m a n t Hartshorne's  i n r e l a t i o n to g e o g r a p h i c a l state.  method i s r u d i m e n t a r y  i n terms of i t s  q u a n t i t a t i v e f a c e t s but as an approach to g e n e r a l boundary a n a l y s i s , the method appears s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i g h t of what l i t t l e new  methodological  r e s e a r c h has appeared s i n c e the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the a r t i c l e i n  1938.  R. H a r t s h o r n e , "The F u n c t i o n a l Approach i n P o l i t i c a l Geography," Annals o f the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, XL (June, 1950) pp. 95-130. R. H a r t s h o r n e , "A Survey o f the Boundary Problems of Europe," i n Geographic Aspects o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , C.C. Colby ( e d . ) , (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1938), pp. 163-213.  The same method i s used by Hoffman t o a n a l y z e European 15 boundary problems Hartshorne's  i n 1954.  However, he adds no new concepts t o  approach.  Perhaps  the b e s t example i n t h i s second c a t e g o r y i s  H a r t s h o r n e ' s "Geographic and P o l i t i c a l Boundaries i n Upper S i l e s i a . " ' ' " ^ The purpose o f H a r t s h o r n e ' s paper i s " t o suggest a method and some 17 t e r m i n o l o g y t h a t might be a p p l i c a b l e f o r any b o r d e r s t u d y . " Upper S i l e s i a s e r v e d as a s p e c i f i c case s t u d y , which he t r e a t e d from a l a b o r a t o r y p o i n t o f v i e w .  H i s approach was  s y s t e m a t i c , based on a n a l y s i s o f d i f f e r e n t  essentially  types o f b o u n d a r i e s ;  defense b o u n d a r i e s , b o u n d a r i e s marked i n n a t u r e , b o u n d a r i e s  based  on a r e a s s i m i l a r i n landscape f e a t u r e s , human b o u n d a r i e s , and b o u n d a r i e s o f areas a s s o c i a t e d by t r a d e .  Under these headings he  c o n s i d e r s such t o p i c s as language, r a i l w a y s , mines, and t r a d e r o u t e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s approach  i s a m e a n i n g f u l advance as a method o f r e s e a r c h ,  h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s weak and f a i l s t o summarize the. main p o i n t s , both of h i s case study and h i s method. The  l a s t example i s P r e s c o t t ' s "Geography o f F r o n t i e r s and 18  Boundaries."  Throughout t h e book P r e s c o t t s u b s t a n t i a t e s h i s  c o n c e p t u a l arguments on f r o n t i e r s and b o u n d a r i e s w i t h case s t u d i e s , m o s t l y from h i s A f r i c a n r e s e a r c h . ^  I n t h i s way he not o n l y s t u d i e s a  Hoffman, op. c i t .  16 H a r t s h o r n e , "Geographic and P o l i t i c a l Boundaries i n Upper S i l e s i a , " op. c i t . 1 7  I b i d , p. 196.  18 P r e s c o t t , op. c i t .  17.  boundary problem per s e , but s i g n i f i c a n t l y advances geographic methodology to boundary s t u d i e s . S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h i s r e v i e w . 1.  C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y the second c a t e g o r y (case s t u d i e s combined w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t methodology) does not appear e i t h e r to be w i d e l y u t i l i z e d nor i n f r e q u e n c y i n p o l i t i c a l geography;  increasing  rather  this  approach appears to be r e s t r i c t e d to s p e c i f i c authors.  T h i s h i s t o r i c a l approach  a l t h o u g h geographers  2.  i s w i d e l y used,  tend to i n c l u d e s u p e r f l o u s d e t a i l .  Case s t u d i e s a r e w o r t h w h i l e i n t h e i r own r i g h t but i f the d i s c i p l i n e i s p r e p a r e d t o advance " s c i e n t i f i c a l l y " p o l i t i c a l geographers must b u i l d and improve upon the t e c h n i q u e s o f p r e v i o u s w r i t e r s .  Techniques  of  a n a l y s i s of boundary f u n c t i o n s to date a r e r u d i m e n t a r y and t h e r e f o r e except i n a few i n s t a n c e s p o l i t i c a l geographers  are not sought a f t e r by p o l i t i c i a n s ,  p l a n n e r s , and s u c h , who w i s h to be a d v i s e d on boundary d i s p u t e s .  3.  A s i g n i f i c a n t amount of boundary t e r m i n o l o g y has been developed but c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s  4.  over proper  usage.  The method o f Jones, M i n g h i , and H a r t s h o r n e b e s t  offer  themselves as models upon which t h i s t h e s i s can be b u i l t .  METHOD OF ANALYSIS  As seen i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n most approaches to boundary s t u d i e s a r e based on h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s .  T h i s method  i s n e c e s s a r y i f one must u n d e r s t a n d the e v o l u t i o n of the boundary i n o r d e r to a n a l y z e the impact o f a boundary on the contemporary geographical p a t t e r n of a border region. developed s u f f i c i e n t l y i n p o l i t i c a l  The approach has been  geography t o f r e e i t s e l f  from  s u p e r f l u o u s h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l and i n t h i s way develop i n t o a h i s t o r i c a l approach w i t h the f o c u s of r e s e a r c h on the c h a n g i n g f u n c t i o n o f the b o u n d a r y . l i n e or zone.  T h i s case s t u d y w i l l t h e r e f o r e be m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d on the h i s t o r i c a l approach and s p e c i f i c a l l y on the work of J o n e s , M i n g h i , and H a r t s h o r n e .  I n a d d i t i o n , the concept o f the  f r o n t i e r as c o n s i d e r e d by such geographers as P r e s c o t t and K r i s t o f w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d .  As t h e f r o n t i e r concept was found to be  seldom mentioned i n any o f the a r t i c l e s r e v i e w e d , and as i t i s an i m p o r t a n t element i n the case s t u d y , t h e r o l e o f f r o n t i e r s and relationship  t o b o u n d a r i e s w i l l now be examined.  a f r o n t i e r and a boundary w i l l  their  The concepts o f  f i r s t be d e f i n e d and then a p p l i e d  to the case s t u d y to examine t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s .  FRONTIERS  K r i s t o f p r e s e n t s what he c o n s i d e r s t o be t h r e e major 19 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a f r o n t i e r .  19  L.D. K r i s t o f , "The N a t u r e of F r o n t i e r s and B o u n d a r i e s , " Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, XLIX (September, 1959), pp. 269-274.  1.  A frontier  is  rather  beginning of  is a  the  directed source  2.  danger  is  pulsations  of  fully  is  penetration  and  The f r o n t i e r the  state:  ecumene  nor  the  made  to  draw a  and e g r e s s ,  out  one's  frontier  transition whatever)  c a n be  f r o m one to  to  behind  both  the  Being a  one way o f which are  for  zone  life  to  neither  mutual  the  it  inter-  o n l y the  frontier  have types  i n general (climatic,  and bound  to  sovereign  In o t h e r  own c i t i z e n s  environment  be c o n t r o l l e d  effective  not  summarized  another.  of  subordinated  of  l i n e of  No s u b d i v i s i o n o f  The  attention  The h i n t e r l a n d  factor.  forces  a whole.  ingress but  main  s a t i s f i e d with either,  t h e y must be  as  end but  sway.  lands have  state  force  opportunity  a n d o v e r r i d i n g demands of  Its  the  life.  from the  an e x c e l l e n t  not  prize.  directing  intergrating  to  is  state.  and a c o v e t e d  an  assimilated  It  o u t l y i n g areas which are  and r e p r e s e n t i n g  provides  3.  the  frontier  transition  another,  the  seldom the  The f r o n t i e r of  oriented.  towards  of  (ecumene)  outer  the  control  is  d'etre  an e f f o r t over  enemy h a s to  imperative  raison  words,  be k e p t  to  to  is  both be  kept  in.  o f f e r e d by K r i s t o f .  terms  as  a  cultural,  zone  of  political,  or  Boundaries  The  f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a boundary are a l s o 20  summarized from K r i s t o f . 1.  The b o r d e r l a n d s , the o l d m a r c h l a n d s , are  defined  more and more e x a c t l y u n t i l t h e r e i s i n p r i n c i p l e , an e x a c t 2.  borderline.  The etymology o f the word "boundary"  immediately  p o i n t s to the p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n of the boundary: boundary i n d i c a t e s c e r t a i n w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  the  limits  (the bounds) o f a g i v e n p o l i t i c a l u n i t , and a l l t h a t w h i c h i s w i t h i n the boundary i s bound t o g e t h e r (by the l e g a l system o f the s t a t e ) .  3.  In o r d e r to have some s t a b i l i t y i n the  political  s t r u c t u r e , both on the n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l , a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between the spheres f o r e i g n and domestic  politics  i s necessary.  of The  boundary h e l p s t o m a i n t a i n t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n as a separating  f a c t o r impeding  i n t e g r a t i o n across  the  borderline. 4.  The boundary i s i n n e r - o r i e n t e d .  I t i s c r e a t e d and  m a i n t a i n e d by the w i l l of the c e n t r a l government.  Ibid,  pp.  270-274  From t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , a boundary can be l i n e between s t a t e s f u n c t i o n i n g as a b a r r i e r ingress  and  summarized as a  to r e s t r i c t both  egress.  The  Kristof's as W e i g e r t , and  Need For Refinement In Concepts  definitions  Percy, but  have been a c c e p t e d by  such geographers  P r e s c o t t accepts them o n l y w i t h  reservations.  Weigert, Percy and K r i s t o f suggest that the term f r o n t i e r r e f e r s to a t r a n s i t i o n zone, which s t r e t c h e s inwards from the boundary and merges i m p e r c e p t i b l y w i t h the s t a t e c o r e . They j u s t i f y t h i s . . . o n the grounds t h a t p r e c i s e boundaries have r e p l a c e d vague f r o n t i e r s throughout most of the w o r l d . However, such a change would rob h i s t o r i c a l - p o l i t i c a l s t u d i e s of c l a r i t y , and i t i s to be hoped t h a t a term such as b o r d e r l a n d w i l l be used by these a u t h o r s , l e a v i n g , ^ f r o n t i e r to r e f e r to z o n a l d i v i s i o n s between s t a t e s . Prescott's  c r i t i c i s m i s v a l i d , but  p r e c i s e enough to a i d i n c l a r i f y i n g the two  types of f r o n t i e r ;  separating frontiers  settled  and  settlement  between s t a t e s .  the second type,  This  term " f r o n t i e r " .  frontiers,  u n s e t t l e d areas;  unfortunately  and  i s not He  suggests  frontiers within a state p o l i t i c a l frontiers,  study w i l l be concerned o n l y w i t h  the p o l i t i c a l f r o n t i e r .  However, t h i s does not  s o l v e the dilemma of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between a p o l i t i c a l f r o n t i e r as a f e a t u r e p r i o r  to a boundary i n time and  as a zone of c o n t a c t  on e i t h e r s i d e of an e s t a b l i s h e d boundary.  would appear, a l t h o u g h P r e s c o t t above q u o t a t i o n ,  (thereby  indicating  a zone d i v i s i o n p r e d a t i n g  P r e s c o t t , op.  does not  state i t clearly  cit.  p.  34  It  i n the  t h a t he' wants the boundary zone of c o n t a c t  c a l l e d a borderland and  a p o l i t i c a l frontier  to  be  the presence of a boundary)  a boundary, to be c a l l e d a  frontier.  I t i s t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of P r e s c o t t which w i l l be used i n t h i s study. An a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t u a l problem remains T h i s problem  t o be  settled.  i s a refinement i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of boundaries; that  i s , the p o l i t i c a l g r a d a t i o n s from the f r o n t i e r s t a g e to the boundary s t a g e a r e not s p e c i f i c  enough.  F r o n t i e r s a r e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r u d i m e n t a r y s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s ; and/or o f laws. The presence of b o u n d a r i e s i s a s i g n t h a t the p o l i t i c a l community has reached a r e l a t i v e degree of m a t u r i t y and o r d e r l i n e s s , the stage of law a b i d a n c e . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between f r o n t i e r s Kristof  and b o u n d a r i e s  l e a v e s a wide v o i d between the two s t a g e s .  by  This v o i d i s  a p e r i o d w h e r e i n a c l a i m to a boundary has been put f o r w a r d by a s t a t e , but w h e r e i n the f r o n t i e r has not y e t been  settled  e x t e n s i v e l y , and the boundary c l a i m i s n e i t h e r demarcated nor r e c o g n i z e d by a l l the s t a t e s i n v o l v e d . definitions  Kristof's  earlier  of a f r o n t i e r and boundary o v e r l a p and do not  stated clarify  the p r o g r e s s i o n from a f r o n t i e r s t a g e to a boundary s t a g e , and a new  thus  category i s required.  From 1825  to 1903 the B r i t i s h Columbia-Alaska  boundary  was v a g u e l y d e l i m i t e d but was not demarcated and the s o v e r e i g n t y of s t a t e s on b o t h s i d e s o v e r l a p p e d . many a t t r i b u t e s of K r i s t o f ' s it  The b o r d e r r e g i o n s t i l l  " f r o n t i e r " and "boundary".  retained Therefore,  i s suggested t h a t the term "zone of u n d e f i n e d s o v e r e i g n t y " be  a p p l i e d to t h i s stage of f r o n t i e r and boundary e v o l u t i o n .  K r i s t o f , op. c i t . , p.  143.  Expanding  and  examining the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s new concept w i l l be a  major aim o f t h e r e m a i n i n g p o r t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . THE EVOLUTION OF THE ALASKA-BRITISH COLUMBIA BOUNDARY This case study o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary w i l l have two f u n c t i o n s .  F i r s t , i t w i l l u t i l i z e both the h i s t o r i c a l  concept summarized from t h e geographers r e v i e w e d i n the f i r s t  section  of t h i s c h a p t e r and i n a d d i t i o n the f r o n t i e r concepts d i s c u s s e d  above.  S e c o n d l y , i t w i l l examine t h e h i s t o r i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s which a f f e c t e d the l o c a t i o n o f the boundary and i n t u r n the h i s t o r i c a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e boundary w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e contemporary pattern.  The a n a l y s i s of the boundary i s d i v i d e d i n t o  h i s t o r i c a l periods  geographical  three  as d e f i n e d by the s t a t e o f boundary e v o l u t i o n ;  the f r o n t i e r p e r i o d , t h e p e r i o d o f u n d e f i n e d s o v e r e i g n t y ,  and the  p e r i o d o f boundary entrenchment.  THE FRONTIER PERIOD 1741 The  - 1825  p o l i t i c a l f r o n t i e r i n n o r t h w e s t America was a r e s u l t  of t h e e x p a n s i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s by R u s s i a n and B r i t i s h f u r t r a d e r s . Early explorations  l a i d general  claims  t o areas i n what might be  termed "spheres o f r e c o g n i t i o n " , b u t i t was the f u r t r a d e which established legal sovereignty  The  f i r s t explorers  t o the r e g i o n .  t o r e a c h t h e northwest c o a s t o f America  were two R u s s i a n s , Ryoderov and Gvosdyov, i n 1732. c r e d i t f o r the discovery  of Alaska  i s given  However, p o p u l a r  t o B e r i n g and C h i r i k o v ,  24.  who s e p a r a t e l y e x p l o r e d the c o a s t o f A l a s k a i n 1741 and c l a i m e d the region f o r Russia.  D u r i n g t h e next s i x t y y e a r s R u s s i a n f u r t r a d e r s  p e n e t r a t e d t h e A l e u t i a n s and the s o u t h e r n c o a s t o f A l a s k a , e s t a b l i s h i n g t r a d i n g posts a t s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s , (Figure 1 ) . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of R u s s i a n expansion  i n t h i s p e r i o d , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e Hudson's Bay  Company, was t h e p r i v a t e n a t u r e o f t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y (due t o the l a c k of c o m p e t i t i t o n ) i n the f u r t r a d i n g r e g i o n . of p o l i t i c a l  An i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e l a c k  concern over t h e a r e a and the b e l i e f t h a t the f u r i n t e r e s t s  could adequately  a d m i n i s t e r t h e r e g i o n was the postponement o f an  i n t e n d e d p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h American lands the R u s s i a n Empire p r i m a r i l y because the R u s s i a n s had met no o t h e r European e x p l o r e r s t h e r e .  T h e r e f o r e , t e r r i t o r y remained a p r i v a t e f u r  preserve of Russian t r a d e r s .  S p a i n responded t o t h i s encroachment i n t o what she c o n s i d e r e d her t e r r i t o r i a l waters by d i s p a t c h i n g an e x p e d i t i o n n o r t h under Bodega y Quadra i n 1744.  The e x p e d i t i o n reached L a t i t u d e 57° 2' near S i t k a  and f o r m a l l y took p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e c o a s t as f a r n o r t h as t h e R u s s i a n t e r r i t o r y f o r Spain.  James Cook s a i l e d t o the northwest  c o a s t 1778 " t o take  p o s s e s s i o n i n t h e name o f Great B r i t i a n , o f c o n v e n i e n t  situations i n  such c o u n t r i e s as he might d i s c o v e r , t h a t have n o t a l r e a d y been 23 d i s c o v e r e d o r v i s i t e d by any o t h e r European power".  23 H.H. B a n c r o f t , H i s t o r y o f the Northwest Coast, V o l . 1, (New York: The B a n c r o f t Company, 1890), p. 168.  into  L  Thus, the o r i g i n of c l a i m s to the r e g i o n was a r e s u l t of c o a s t a l e x p l o r a t i o n o f the t h r e e European powers.  By the Nootka  c o n v e n t i o n of 1790, S p a i n r e l i n q u i s h e d her c l a i m t o c o n t r o l n o r t h of  C a l i f o r n i a and r e t i r e d as a c o m p e t i t o r .  British  control  extended from the Columbia R i v e r t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y Baranof I s l a n d and R u s s i a n s o v e r e i g n t y extended from t h i s i s l a n d n o r t h . of  Allocation  t e r r i t o r y had begun, but as y e t no d e l i m i t a t i o n of the boundary  took p l a c e .  The b a s i s f o r the 1825 attempt a t d e l i m i t a t i o n o f a boundary was a c o n f r o n t a t i o n of R u s s i a n and B r i t i s h f u r companies. the  I n 1799  R u s s i a n - A m e r i c a n Company, m o d e l l e d a f t e r the Hudson's Bay Company,  was e s t a b l i s h e d by o f f i c i a l  decree o f Czar P a u l .  The R u s s i a n - A m e r i c a n  Company " r e c e i v e d f o r a p e r i o d o f twenty y e a r s the r i g h t t o e x p l o i t the o n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s on the American c o a s t from 55  n o r t h and to t a k e  p o s s e s s i o n of t e r r i t o r i e s d i s c o v e r e d so f a r as t h e y had not been o c c u p i e d 25 a l r e a d y by o t h e r p e o p l e s " .  Thus, the a r e a was  f o r the f i r s t  time  o r g a n i z e d i n t o a e c o n o m i c - p o l i t i c a l r e g i o n and p a r t i t i o n e d by what c o u l d be termed a f r o n t i e r - z o n e , based on the l i m i t s of R u s s i a n e x p l o r a t i o n and c o s t a l f u r t r a d e . The  c h i e f R u s s i a n a d v e r s a r i e s i n the r e g i o n were the  Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies, who were b o t h expanding  westwards  towards the f r o n t i e r of R u s s i a n America f o r the same r e a s o n the  24  25  A l l o c a t i o n i s used i n the sense o u t l i n e d by Jones: t h a t i s , the i n i t i a l p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n of t e r r i t o r y . S.B. J o n e s , Boundary Making, a Handbook f o r Statesman (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1945). Y. Semyonov, S i b e r i a . , T r a n s , by J.R. F o s t e r , ( B a l t i m o r e : P r e s s , 1954), p. 208.  Helicon  27.  R u s s i a n s moved eastwards;  The  the f u r t r a d e .  f i r s t o v e r l a n d e x p e d i t i o n was made by A l e x a n d e r  f o r t h e Northwest Company i n 1793, when he reached B e n t i n c k Arm v i a t h e P a r s n i p and F r a s e r R i v e r s .  Mackenzie  the P a c i f i c a t  Nothing  f u r t h e r was  done u n t i l 1804 when Simon F r a s e r was sent out by the Northwest Company t o o r g a n i z e t h e f u r t r a d e west o f t h e Rochy Mountains the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t r a d i n g p o s t s a t s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s . by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o s t s  later at Fort V i c t o r i a .  R u s s i a n t r a d e r s on t h e c o a s t .  As shown  ( F i g u r e 2) t h e E n g l i s h t r a d e r s were  r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e i n t e r i o r , except and  through  f o r t h e i r o u t l e t a t F o r t George  L i t t l e c o n t a c t was thus made w i t h t h e I n 1821 t h e Northwest Company had no p o s t s o  west o f the C o n t i n e n t a l D i v i d e n o r t h o f 54  26 30'.  I n t h i s year the  Northwest Company amalgamated w i t h t h e Hudson's Bay Company and a l l p o s t s came under Hudson's Bay Company c o n t r o l . The B r i t i s h a x i s o f f u r a c t i v i t y i n New C a l e d o n i a was n o r t h and s o u t h r a t h e r than toward t h e ocean.  Three c o n d i t i o n s were p r i n c i p a l l y  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n f i n i n g t h e Company t o t h e i n t e r i o r .  The r i v e r v a l l e y s  of t h e a r e a u s u a l l y l e d the t r a d e r s n o r t h and s o u t h , and t h e u n f r i e n d l y d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o a s t a l I n d i a n s p r o v i d e d no inducement f o r communication to t h e w e s t , and r e a d i l y e x p l o i t a b l e f u r r e s o u r c e s on t h e c o a s t were becoming s c a r e .  The R u s s i a n a x i s o f f u r a c t i v i t y was a l o n g t h e c o a s t  of t h e G u l f o f A l a s k a , depending upon ocean t r a n s p o r t from t h e American p o s t s t o Kamchatka.  J.S. G a l b r a i t h , The Hudson's Bay Company, 1821-69, V o l . 1. ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957), p. 119.  C o n f l i c t between the two t r a d i n g f r o n t i e r s began i n 1821. The R u s s i a n government became a p p r e h e n s i v e  about E n g l i s h e x p a n s i o n  and s u b s e q u e n t l y i s s u e d a ukase i n which the Czar decreed  that a l l  i s l a n d s and waters n o r t h of 51° n o r t h l a t i t u d e o f the American c o a s t were R u s s i a n p r o p e r t y and t h a t a l l f o r e i g n e r s were not to  approach  w i t h i n one hundred I t a l i a n m i l e s o f the R u s s i a n c o a s t , ( f i g u r e 3 ) . I n r e p l y , the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1822  instructed their  chief-  f a c t o r t o extend the t r a d i n g a r e a of the Company as f a r west and n o r t h from the F r a s e r R i v e r as might be p r a c t i c a b l e and p r o f i t a b l e i n o r d e r 27 " t o keep the R u s s i a n s a t a d i s t a n c e " . The d i s p u t e w h i c h a r o s e between the R u s s i a n and governments over the R u s s i a n c l a i m was  British  concerned w i t h the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  o f s o v e r e i g n t y over the w i l d e r n e s s between the two Companies' areas o f i n f l u e n c e , a vacuum i n t o w h i c h each hoped to expand. T a l k s f o r s e t t l e m e n t o f j u r i s d i c t i o n were h e l d p e r i o d i c a l l y from 1822  to 1825 which a l l o w e d time f o r g r a d u a l w i t h d r a w a l of b o t h  governments from t h e i r extreme p r e t e n s i o n s , u n t i l a somewhat reduced 28 v e r s i o n of the R u s s i a n p r o p o s a l was  acceptable.  The  Russian  government d e s i r e d a b a r r i e r t h a t would p r o t e c t i t s f u r t r a d e a g a i n s t t h a t of the e n c r o a c h i n g Hudson's Bay C ompany, and the B r i t i s h government was  a n x i o u s not to have i t s i n t e r i o r t e r r i t o r y shut i n by a c o a s t a l  27 As quoted  i n G a l b r a i t h , I b i d . , p.  123.  28 D e t a i l e d n e g o t i a t i o n s can be found i n many s o u r c e s : J.S. G a l b r a i t h , The Hudson's Bay Company, 1821-69, V o l . 1. ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957) pp. 113-134. G. Davidson, The A l a s k a n Boundary (San F r a n c i s c o : A l a s k a Packers A s s o c i a t i o n , 1903)., C C . Tans i l l , Canadian-American R e l a t i o n s , 1875-1911 ( T o r o n t o : The Ryerson P r e s s , 1943), pp. 121-128.  s t r i p c o n t r o l l e d by another power.  29  By a t r e a t y s i g n e d on February 28, 1825, the boundary between R u s s i a n and B r i t i s h America began a t the most s o u t h e r n o p o i n t of P r i n c e of Wales I s l a n d , 54  40' n o r t h l a t i t u d e , o  f o l l o w e d t h e P o r t l a n d Canal to i t s head a t 56  north latitude.  From t h a t p o i n t the l i n e f o l l o w e d the c r e s t of the p a r a l l e l t o the c o a s t , except t h a t i t was than t e n marine leagues from the c o a s t . st l i n e i n t e r s e c t e d the 141 degree to the A r c t i c Ocean.  and  mountains  to be no where more At the p o i n t where the  m e r i d i a n , i t was  p r o l o n g e d on t h a t  B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s were a c c o r d e d , as  Americans had been by the T r e a t y o f 1824, the p r i v i l e g e o f t r a d e w i t h S i t k a f o r t e n y e a r s and were p e r m i t t e d to t r a d e i n R u s s i a n c o a s t a l waters s o u t h of Mount S a i n t E l i a s f o r the same p e r i o d . The r i g h t to t r a v e l to and from the i n t e r i o r through the R u s s i a n 30 c o a s t a l s t r i p was guaranteed f o r e v e r to B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s . American resentment over the s o u t h e r n e x p a n s i o n of the R u s s i a n f r o n t i e r l e d to n e g o t i a t i o n s . Under the terms of the R u s s i a n American T r e a t y o f A p r i l 17, 1824, the R u s s i a n government abandoned i t s r i g h t to e x c l u d e American c i t i z e n s from a p p r o a c h i n g c l o s e r than 100 I t a l i a n m i l e s from the boundary of R u s s i a n p o s s e s s i o n a t 54 40' l a t i t u d e . T h i s agreement d i d not a l t e r the R u s s o - B r i t i s h n e g o t i a t i o n s as the B r i t i s h acceptance o f the R u s s i a n p o s i t i o n was i n d i c a t e d b e f o r e the B r i t i s h government had news of the Russo-American agreement. G a l b r a i t h , op. c i t . , p.  134.  The boundary n e g o t i a t o r s r e l i e d on C a p t a i n George  Vancouver's  c h a r t o f t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1789, w h i c h showed a range 31 o f mountains r u n n i n g a l o n g t h e c o a s t n o t f a r from t h e s e a .  Even i n  1867, when R u s s i a t r a n s f e r r e d A l a s k a t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e o f f i c i a l American c h a r t s were s t i l l based on Vancouver's map and showed t h i s range o f mountains.  Subsequent commentators  have shown  t h a t such a boundary cannot be l o c a t e d ; however t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n e x i s t e d u n t i l t h e t u r n o f the c e n t u r y and was the essence o f t h e A l a s k a 32 boundary d i s p u t e i n 1903. Thus i t can be c l e a r l y seen t h a t t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e R u s s i a n and B r i t i s h f r o n t i e r s i n New C a l e d o n i a up t o 1825 was p r i m a r i l y based on e x p l o r a t i o n s and economic a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e R u s s i a n America and Hudson's Bay Companies.  An empty f r o n t i e r - z o n e was planned by t h e t r a d i n g  i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than any p o s s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n o f an e v e n t u a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary between any two p o l i t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d a r e a s . I n n e g o t i a t i o n s over the boundary, t h e R u s s i a n government was guided by the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e R u s s i a n America Company and t h e B r i t i s h government  by those o f the Hudson's Bay Company, as the boundary the  n e g o t i a t o r s were s e e k i n g t o d e f i n e was l a r g e l y t h a t between the areas o f  Vancouver's c h a r t "showing p a r t o f t h e c o a s t o f n o r t h w e s t A m e r i c a , " Map Number 4, U n i t e d S t a t e s A t l a s , A l a s k a Boundary T r i b u n a l , Maps and C h a r t s Accompanying t h e Case and Countercase o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , (Washington, 1904). 32 As P r e s c o t t p o i n t s o u t , ( P r e s c o t t , op. c i t . , p. 6 2 ) , p o l i t i c a l geographers s t u d y i n g contemporary boundary problems s h o u l d be knowledgeable o f o r i g i n a l documents and thus aware o f how such problems c o u l d a r i s e and p e r p e t u a t e themselves. The i l l u s i o n o f t h e c o a s t a l mountains as a boundary i s a n a l y z e d by: D a v i d s o n , op. c i t . and A.R. H i n k s , "Notes on t h e Techniques o f Boundary D e l i m i t a t i o n , " G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , L V I I I (December, 1921), pp. 417-43.  o p e r a t i o n s o f these Companies.  J u s t as t h e Russian-America  was v e s t e d w i t h governmental a u t h o r i t y over the areas  Company-  i t occupied,  so t h e Hudson's Bay Company had de f a c t o governmental c o n t r o l over the areas  i t e x p l o i t e d , i n t h a t i t was the o n l y o r g a n i z e d  British  i n s t i t u t i o n i n the a r e a .  D e l i m i t a t i o n o f the "boundary" was based on vague n o t i o n s of the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the area.  The B r i t i s h Columbia-  A l a s k a s e c t i o n was a " n a t u r a l " boundary ( t h a t i s , a row o f mountain peaks) and t h e A l a s k a - Y u k o n s e c t i o n was an " a r t i f i c a l " boundary, (that i s , geometrical).  As a r e s u l t o f t h e l a c k o f a c c u r a t e  i n f o r m a t i o n on the t e r r a i n and g r i d b e a r i n g s , the boundary was a seed f o r f u t u r e d i s p u t e when more r e f i n e d d e l i m i t a t i o n and/or demarcation  was attempted.  T h i s i n d e c i s i v e n e s s was t o come t o a  head i n the l a t e 1890's when the K l o n d i k e g o l d r u s h o c c u r r e d ; however u n t i l then the areas o f R u s s i a n and B r i t i s h c o n t r o l were by a zone o f u n d e f i n e d  separated  sovereignty.  THE PERIOD OF UNDEFINED SOVEREIGNTY 1825 The  - 1903  f r o n t i e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e v i d e n t i n the f i r s t p e r i o d ;  o u t e r o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n s , i n t e g r a t i n g f u n c t i o n s , and l a c k o f p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l were s t i l l v e r y important a f t e r 1825. A boundary had been d e l i m i t e d b u t as i t was n o t e q u a l t o t h e p r e s s u r e s upon i t nor a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a l l o c a t o r o f t e r r i t o r i a l i t d i d n o t become entrenched  i n t h e landscape.  exerted  sovereignty,  The border  i n this  p e r i o d was t h e r e f o r e i n a stage o f t r a n s i t i o n from f r o n t i e r t o bounda: and had c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o t h .  33.  The e x t e n t o f u n d e f i n e d s o v e r e i g n t y i n the r e g i o n and misuse of  t h e term "boundary" i n t h i s p e r i o d can b e s t be demonstrated  t h r e e examples; l e a s i n g o f t h e A l a s k a n l i s i e r e  through  t o t h e Hudson's Bay  Company, t h e P e t e r M a r t i n i n c i d e n t , and the c o n f l i c t over t h e C h i l k o o t and White Pass  corridors.  Under A r t i c l e V I o f the 1825 Agreement, t h e Hudson's Bay Company had t h e r i g h t t o f r e e l y n a v i g a t e c o a s t a l r i v e r s .  Taking  advantage o f t h i s r i g h t , t h e Hudson's Bay Company sent the s h i p "Dryad" t o e s t a b l i s h a t r a d i n g p o s t t e n leagues from the sea up the Stikine River.  When t h e Company attempted  t o c a r r y t h i s out i n 1833,  the R u s s i a n governor a t S i t k a , Baron W r a n g e l l , became alarmed a t the B r i t i s h encroachment and sent a f o r c e t o t h e S t i k i n e which the B r i t i s h .  repelled  The i n c i d e n t was r e s o l v e d through b i l a t e r a l n e g o t i a t i o n s  by t h e B r i t i s h and R u s s i a n governments and the R u s s i a n s e v e n t u a l l y admitted t h e i r mistake. The Hudson's Bay Company used t h e i r r e s u l t i n g c l a i m s a g a i n s t the R u s s i a n American  Company as a l e v e r t o secure broader p e r o g a t i v e s  i n Russian t e r r i t o r y .  The Company agreed t o s u p p l y t h e R u s s i a n s w i t h  t r a d e goods and food they n o r m a l l y bought from Americans  and i n r e t u r n  the B r i t i s h a c q u i r e d a l e a s e f o r a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s on a l l o f t h e lisiere  from Cross Bay down t o 54° 40'.  a c q u i r e d commercial  The Hudson's Bay Company thus  and q u a s i - p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l over a s u b s t a n t i a l  s e c t i o n o f t h e northwest c o a s t , s u b j e c t o n l y t o the f o r m a l s o v e r e i g n t y of R u s s i a .  T h i s encroachment by the B r i t i s h i n t o R u s s i a n  territory  i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s of the two companies.  The  R u s s i a n s had sought a f r o n t i e r o f s e p a r a t i o n to s a f e g u a r d  their  fur resources.  However, the Hudson's Bay Company, through  the B r i t i s h 33  government, wanted a f r o n t i e r of c o n t a c t to f a c i l i t a t e The p o l i c y o f s e p a r a t i o n was  trade.  l o g i c a l from the R u s s i a n p o i n t o f v i e w as  they were i n the weakest p o s i t i o n i n terms o f numbers of s e t t l e r s , v i a b i l i t y o f t h e i r f u r t r a d i n g company, and c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h home government.  their  The Hudson's Bay Company had a l l these advantages  and thus sought to i n f i l t r a t e R u s s i a n t e r r i t o r y to g a i n a t l e a s t economic c o n t r o l , i f p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l c o u l d not be s e c u r e d .  The  f a c t t h a t the r e g i o n c o u l d be t u r n e d over to a f o r e i g n company emphasizes the inadequacy of the 1825 boundary as a b a r r i e r , and t r u e f r o n t i e r n a t u r e of the zone o f c o n t a c t .  the  I f the Hudson's Bay  Company had been a b l e to b r i n g i n s e t t l e r s to the l i s i e r e ,  similar  t o the i n f l u x o f American s e t t l e r s i n t o the Oregon t e r r i t o r y i t s j o i n t occupancy by the B r i t i s h and Americans, the B r i t i s h  during may  have been a b l e to put forward a s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l c l a i m to the a r e a . However, the l e a s e remained i n e f f e c t u n t i l A l a s k a was Americans i n 1867,  s o l d to the  a t w h i c h date R u s s i a n s o v e r e i g n t y was  replaced  by t h a t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The  second example o f u n d e f i n e d  i n c i d e n t o f one  s o v e r e i g n t y i s the  P e t e r M a r t i n , a n a t u r a l i z e d American c i t i z e n ,  who  These two f r o n t i e r concepts are d i s c u s s e d i n G. E a s t , "The Nature of P o l i t i c a l Geography," P o l i t i c a , No. 2 (March, 1937), pp. 259-286.  was t r i e d b e f o r e the Court o f A s s i z e s a t L a k e t o n , i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1876 f o r a s s a u l t upon an o f f i c e r . and sentenced  to f i f t e e n months imprisonment.  He was found  guilty  However, w h i l e  encamped a "few m i l e s " from t h e mouth o f the S t i k i n e R i v e r on r o u t e to j a i l  i n V i c t o r i a , he a t t a c k e d one o f the c o n s t a b l e s and  endeavoured t o escape.  He was soon r e c a p t u r e d and taken t o j a i l i n  Victoria.  News o f M a r t i n ' s imprisonment e v e n t u a l l y found i t s way t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government whereupon the Americans began n e g o t i a t i o n s to secure h i s r e l e a s e , c o n t e n d i n g  that Martin "should  not have been t r i e d f o r t h e o f f e n s e w i t h w h i c h he i s charged, ( a s s a u l t i n g the o f f i c e r , n o t the o r i g i n a l  offense at Laketon), i t  h a v i n g been committed ... w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t h a t b e i n g the case he s h o u l d be s e t a t l i b e r t y . "  I t became e v i d e n t t h a t the e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f the A l a s k a n boundary would have t o be a s c e r t a i n e d and i n 1877 a Canadian, Joseph H u n t e r , went to the S t i k i n e R i v e r .  He found t h a t the c r e s t o f the  mountains p a r a l l e l l i n g t h e c o a s t was 24.7 m i l e s from the r i v e r mouth, 19.1 m i l e s i n a d i r e c t l i n e , and t h e r e f o r e t h e c o n s t a b l e s had r e c a p t u r e d Hunter i n American t e r r i t o r y . released.  I n r e a l i t y i t was p r a c t i c a l l y  Subsequently  M a r t i n was  i m p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t an  e x i s t i n g range o f mountains t h a t r a n p a r a l l e l t o the c o a s t and  S e c r e t a r y F i s h t o S i r Edward Thornton, November quoted i n Tans i l l , op. c i t . , p. 135.  2, 1876.  As  Hunter's boundary was  o b v i o u s l y a compromise l i n e .  T h i s example o f u n d e f i n e d  s o v e r e i g n t y i n a t r a n s i t i o n zone  re-emphasizes the f r o n t i e r n a t u r e of the "boundary".  P o l i t i c a l control  i n the r e g i o n had become more r e f i n e d from the p e r i o d when the whole l i s i e r e c o u l d be l e a s e d by a n o n - n a t i o n a l , but the s i t u a t i o n was  still  one of t r a n s i t i o n and not what c o u l d be termed "the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of two s o v e r e i g n s t a t e s whose i n t e r f a c e was boundary".  d e f i n e d by an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  Because o f the u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g the boundary between  A l a s k a and B r i t i s h Columbia, the B r i t i s h , Canadian, and American Governments c o n t i n u e d  a t v a r i o u s times  to press f o r the appointment  o f a commission t o survey and determine the exact l i n e , but f o r s e v e r a l reasons, carried  such as c o s t and p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n , t h i s was  never  out.  The c o n f l i c t over d e m a r c a t i o n of a boundary i n the C h i l k o o t and White Pass c o r r i d o r s i s the f i n a l example of t h i s stage of boundary evolution.  I n accordance w i t h P r e s c o t t ' s h y p o t h e s i s , the  discovery  of g o l d i n the a r e a caused a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s , and boundary 36 n e g o t i a t i o n s were f o r c e d to b e g i n .  A p a r t from the r e a p p r e h e n s i o n o f the American i n f o r e i g n t e r r i t o r y , i t was argued t h a t the u n a u t h o r i z e d conveyance of a p r i s o n e r through the t e r r i t o r y of a f o r e i g n power i s an i n f r a c t i o n on the r i g h t s o f such a power. Even though the T r e a t y o f 1825 had g i v e n B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s the r i g h t to n a v i g a t e the r i v e r s f o r any purpose whatsoever t h i s u n l i m i t e d r i g h t had i n a d v e r t e n t l y been l o s t through the T r e a t y of Washington of 1871, w h e r e i n f r e e n a v i g a t i o n was conceded f o r the purposes o f commerce o n l y . H.G. C l a s s e n , T h r u s t and C o u n t e r t h r u s t (Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Longmans Canada L i m i t e d , 1965), p. 306. P r e s c o t t , op. c i t . ,  p.  56.  38.  I n t h e l a t e 1890's g o l d was d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e K l o n d i k e a r e a i n t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  I n o r d e r t o r e a c h the g o l d f i e l d s miners  had t o f o l l o w c e r t a i n t r a i l s , almost a l l o f w h i c h passed through American t e r r i t o r y  (Figure 4 ) .  On t h e C h i l k o o t I n l e t w h i c h  formed  a p a r t o f t h e headwaters o f the Lynn C a n a l , t h e r e were two i m p o r t a n t t r a i l s ; The Dyea T r a i l over t h e C h i l k o o t P a s s , and t h e Skagway T r a i l over t h e White Pass.  There were over t h i r t y thousand persons i n t h e K l o n d i k e m i n i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty-two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n g o l d from 1897 t o 1900.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s sudden economic boom, c o n f l i c t s over  e n t r y r i g h t s , t r a n s i t , and the l o c a t i o n o f customs p o s t s soon a r o s e . At f i r s t , American customs agents r e f u s e d Canadian v e s s e l s p e r m i s s i o n to d i s c h a r g e goods and passengers a t Dyea o r Skagway but by l a t e 1897 arrangements were made between Ottawa and Washington goods t h r o u g h t h e l i s i e r e i n bond.  t o a l l o w Canadian  By making these^arrangements the  Canadian government had i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d American  jurisdiction  over t h e head o f Lynn C a n a l .  A p a r t from t h e above p r e c e d e n t over t r a n s - s h i p p i n g  arrangements,  the American s e t t l e m e n t a t Dyea had been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s and thus t h e i r r i g h t t o t h e head o f t h e Lynn C a n a l , a l t h o u g h d i s p u t e d by Canada, was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d .  However, i f t h e Canadians were  w i l l i n g t o g i v e up Dyea and Skagway they were n o t about t o g i v e up C h i l k o o t and White P a s s .  Both these P a s s e s , and a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t  of t e r r i t o r y i n l a n d i n c l u d i n g Lake B e n n e t t , were c l a i m e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  To f o r e s t a l l American e x p a n s i o n , C l i f f o r d S i f t o n , t h e Canadian M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r , l e d a detachment o f one hundred and f i f t y Northwest Mounted P o l i c e t o t h e Yukon and s t a t i o n e d them from the summits o f the passes a l o n g t h e t r a i l s t o Dawson C i t y . The  f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e s how s e r i o u s the s i t u a t i o n was  over the i l l - d e f i n e d boundary and the s t e p s American and Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s were t a k i n g t o e n f o r c e t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y .  Sifton to  Northwest Mounted P o l i c e Commissioner Walsh on A p r i l 1, 1898:  The d i f f i c u l t y was t h a t t h e o f f i c e r s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government a s s e r t e d t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n down t o and i n c l u d i n g the lower h a l f o f Lake B e n n e t t , and a m i l i t a r y f o r c e o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s Army was a l r e a d y d e t a i l e d t o go t o Skagway. T h i s f o r c e was g a t h e r e d a t P o r t l a n d , and i n another t e n days would have taken p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e t e r r i t o r y down t o Lake B e n n e t t , and i t would have taken twenty y e a r s o f n e g o t i a t i o n s t o get them o u t , i n f a c t I doubt i f we would ever have got them o u t . To prevent the l o s s o f t h i s t e r r i t o r y I sent s e c r e t o r d e r s t o Major P e r r y t o send up S t e e l e and f o r t y more men, and p l a n t out p o s t s i n the Passes j u s t under t h e Summit, and had them t h e r e w i t h a s u p p l y o f p r o v i s i o n s b e f o r e the o t h e r p a r t y know what we were d o i n g . I t i s a case o f p o s s e s s i o n b e i n g t e n p o i n t s o f t h e law, and we i n t e n d to h o l d p o s s e s s i o n . The U n i t e d S t a t e s a u t h o r i t i e s have now been communicated w i t h through d i p l o m a t i c c h a n n e l s , and we i n t e n d t o h o l d the t e r r i t o r y i f we p o s s i b l y can. '' 3  To f o r e s t a l l t h e growing  danger o f s e r i o u s f r i c t i o n a l o n g t h e  A l a s k a n f r o n t i e r , t h e B r i t i s h and American governments agreed  to e s t a b l i s h  a p r o v i s i o n a l boundary f o l l o w i n g t h e summit d i v i d i n g t h e watersheds s u r r o u n d i n g t h e head o f Lynn C a n a l .  A c c o r d i n g l y , boundary monuments  were p l a c e d a t t h e summit o f the White and C h i l k o o t Passes.  From J.W. Dafoe, C l i f f o r d S i f t o n i n R e l a t i o n t o H i s Times 1931), as quoted i n C l a s s e n , op. c i t . , p. 323.  I t was  (Toronto:  u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h i s boundary was m e r e l y a temporary one, and the modus v i v e n d i was not t o be c o n s t r u e d "as a f f e c t i n g i n any manner r i g h t s under e x i s t i n g t r e a t i e s f o r t h e u l t i m a t e ... 38 e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e boundary l i n e i n q u e s t i o n . " These t h r e e examples o f t h e u n d e f i n e d n a t u r e o f the Alaska-British  Columbia i n t e r f a c e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e boundary. and boundary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  i l l u s t r a t e the f r o n t i e r The e v i d e n c e o f b o t h f r o n t i e r  (as d e f i n e d by K r i s t o f f , pp. 18-20),  are b o t h e v i d e n t i n the p e r i o d 1825-1903, and t h e r e f o r e , t h e s t a g e outlined  above, t h a t i s , " t h e p e r i o d o f u n d e f i n e d s o v e r e i g n t y " i s  n e c e s s a r y i n the h i s t o r y o f the e v o l u t i o n o f t h e boundary. Throughout t h e p e r i o d from 1825 t o 1903 s e v e r a l attempts a t n e g o t i a t i o n s t o a r r i v e a t a more p r e c i s e boundary d e l i m i n a t i o n were made by v a r i o u s government a g e n c i e s , b u t u n t i l t h e d i s c o v e r y of g o l d and t h e r e s u l t i n g economic importance o f the r e g i o n no f i n a l arrangements were made.  F i n a l l y , i n 1903, a Boundary T r i b u n a l  composed o f s i x " j u r i s t s o f r e p u t e " , ( t h r e e each from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada), agreed t o the a c c u r a t e d e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e Alaska-British  Columbia boundary.  Arguments over t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y 39  of the boundary award can be found i n many s o u r c e s .  Suffice to  38 T a n s i l l , op. c i t . , p. 167. 3 9  T a n s i l l , op. c i t . , pp. 169-265; C l a s s e n , op. c i t . , pp. 284-353; D a v i d s o n , op. c i t . ; Hon. D. M i l l s , The Canadian View o f t h e A l a s k a n Boundary D i s p u t e (Ottawa: Government P r i n t i n g Bureau, 1899) I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary Commission, J o i n t Report on the Survey and Demarcation o f t h e Boundary between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s from Tongass Passage t o Mount S a i n t E l i a s (Ottawa: Department o f Mines and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , 1952.); G.C. H a l s e y - B r a n d t , "Forget the Panhandle," The F i n a n c i a l P o s t , (November 5, 1966), p.6.  41.  say t h a t as t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n o f t h e boundary was t o b l o c k the Hudson's Bay Company from a c c e s s t o s a l t water and t h e r e b y from the R u s s i a n f u r t r a d e , t h e Canadian c l a i m i n 1903 t h a t t h e l i n e s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e summits o f t h e mountains n e a r e s t the c o a s t s and c u t a c r o s s a l l i n l e t s and f j o r d s , was n o t j u s t i f i a b l e . T r i b u n a l award o f a compromise  Hence, t h e  l i n e between t h e two c l a i m s ( F i g u r e 5)  was as e q u i t a b l e as c o u l d be e x p e c t e d , and appears t o have c a r r i e d out as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e s i g n a t o r i e s t o t h e T r e a t y o f 1825.  THE PERIOD OF BOUNDARY ENTRENCHMENT 1903 - PRESENT • A b r i e f a n a l y s i s of the h i s t o r y of the border r e g i o n s i n c e 1903 w i l l s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e entrenchment o f t h e boundary and t o l a y t h e groundwork f o r an a n a l y s i s o f contemporary problems a r i s i n g from t h e boundary, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s .  As t h e f i n a l  changes  i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e boundary were made i n 1903, t h i s l a s t  section  w i l l d e a l o n l y w i t h boundary f u n c t i o n s .  Both because o f t h e l a c k o f economic development i n t h e boundary r e g i o n s i n c e 1905 and t h e obvious s u p e r i o r i t y o f A l a s k a n routeways f o r a c c e s s t o Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e Yukon, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e entrenchment o f t h e boundary i n t h e landscape s i n c e 1903 t h r o u g h a n a l y s e s o f c o n f l i c t a r i s i n g from t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e boundary as i n f a c t t h e r e were few c o n f l i c t s .  However,  i f t h e problem i s v i e w e d c o n v e r s e l y , t h e l a c k o f f r i c t i o n over boundary  s o v e r e i g n t y s i n c e 1903 demonstrates the acceptance  o f t h e boundary  and t h e a d a p t i o n o f boundary f u n c t i o n s t o f a c i l i t a t e  the unique  s p a t i a l arrangement o f an American l i s i e r e and a Canadian h i n t e r l a n d . The p r o d u c t i o n o f g o l d (which was the c r i s i s  factor that  f i n a l l y brought t h e boundary d i s p u t e t o a c l i m a x ) d e c l i n e d a f t e r 1905  and t h e b o r d e r r e g i o n s e t t l e d i n t o a p e r i o d o f r e l a t i v e  economic s t a g n a t i o n .  The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s (Table 1) h e l p t o  i l l u s t r a t e the r i s e and d e c l i n e o f t h e major economic f a c t o r i n the r e g i o n . Table 1 40 Yukon Gold 1  Production  000 o f d o l l a r s  Year  Value  1885 1890 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925  100 175 250 9,809 8,222 3,594 4,649 1,660 625  Gold m i n i n g d e c l i n e d n o t o n l y i n t h e v a l u e o f p r o d u c t i o n as e v i d e n t above b u t a l s o i n terms o f l a b o u r f o r c e requirements  as i n d i v i d u a l  panning became uneconomical and m e c h a n i z a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d .  No  o t h e r r e s o u r c e i n t h e r e g i o n emerged t o m a i n t a i n t h e 1900-1905 l e v e l of economic p r o s p e r i t y . H.A. I n n i s , S e t t l e m e n t and the M i n i n g F r o n t i e r , V o l . I X : Canadian F r o n t i e r s o f S e t t l e m e n t ( T o r o n t o : The M a c M i l l i a n Company, 1936), p. 219.  44.  The F i r s t World War f u r t h e r d r a i n e d the r e g i o n o f much of i t s marginal  l a b o u r f o r c e as many men l e f t f o r the s e r v i c e .  A f t e r t h e War lumbering began t o make s m a l l i n r o a d s i n t o t h e economy but the d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1930's brought a c t i v i t y t o a s t a n d s t i l l . Recovery was slow and i n g e n e r a l t h e p e r i o d was one i n w h i c h the raw m a t e r i a l based economy s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t o f w o r l d market difficulties.  Thus, t h e l a c k o f i n t e r a c t i o n a c r o s s the boundary  c r e a t e d a s t a b l e s i t u a t i o n o f an "entrenched"  boundary.  One example o f t h e l a c k o f f r i c t i o n over t h e boundary stems from i t s p e c u l i a r l o c a t i o n .  The American l i s i e r e , because o f i t s  l a c k o f l a n d communications and h i n t e r l a n d o f f e r i n g a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s t u r n e d l a r g e l y t o a f o r e s t r y and f i s h i n g economy based on water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . ' The l a n d - l o c k e d areas o f the Yukon t e r r i t o r y and n o r t h w e s t e r n  B r i t i s h Columbia c o n c e n t r a t e d on h i g h v a l u e  m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n because o f the poor and c o s t l y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s available.  Thus, two d i s t i n c t economics e v o l v e d , a  w a t e r - o r i e n t e d A l a s k a n economy and a l a n d - o r i e n t e d Canadian economy, c a u s i n g a t t h i s p e r i o d i n h i s t o r y , n e g l i g i b l e boundary f r i c t i o n .  World War I I marked a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n p o p u l a t i o n growth and economic e x p a n s i o n .  The r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y i n t h e  boundary r e g i o n c r e a t e d some s t r e s s because o f t h e l o c a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of t h e boundary.  Economic expansion  from t h e c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  and t o a s m a l l e r e x t e n t from s o u t h e r n Canada, i n the form o f c a p i t a l investment  l e d t o t h e r a p i d development o f f o r e s t r y and m i n e r a l  45.  resources  i n the r e g i o n .  Both through  i t s superior  p o t e n t i a l , p r i m a r i l y because of e a s i e r access and  investment  l a c k of r e s t r i c t i o n  to the American c a p i t a l market, and the m i l i t a r y b u i l d up r e q u i r e d as a r e s u l t of the war w i t h Japan and the l a t e r c o l d war w i t h the S o v i e t U n i o n , the A l a s k a n l i s i e r e developed  earlier;  (primarily after  1941);  n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y expanding s l i g h t l y (approximately  1950  later  onwards).  A g l a n c e a t the p o p u l a t i o n growth s t a t i s t i c s  ( F i g u r e 6)  shows the s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n of the A l a s k a n and Yukon sectors.  I n 1940  the A l a s k a n economy was  d r a m a t i c a l l y s h i f t e d to  defense a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n .  I n 1939  f o r example,  t h e r e were 524 m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l i n A l a s k a whereas i n 1941 monthly average was  9,000, and  i n 1958  the  t h e r e were s t i l l 47,000 m i l i t a r y  41 personnel  i n Alaska. The Yukon d i d not e x p e r i e n c e  the same war boom but  the  T e r r i t o r y and a l s o B r i t i s h Columbia to much l e s s e r e x t e n t , d i d b e n e f i t from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the A l a s k a Highway as the  first  road l i n k i n t o the a r e a .  The  p r e c a r i o u s m i l i t a r y and n a v a l s i t u a t i o n i n the  P a c i f i c i n 1941  induced  North  the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government to b u i l d  the  A l a s k a Highway from Dawson Creek, B r i t i s h Columbia t o F a i r b a n k s , Alaska.  T h i s d e c i s i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Canada to  r i g h t s - o f - w a y through  Canadian t e r r i t o r y .  an agreement on March 17 and  18, 1942.  Access was  granted  secure through  Under the agreement the U n i t e d  G.W. Rodgers, A l a s k a i n T r a n s i t i o n ( B a l t i m o r e : P r e s s , 1960).  The John Hopkins  loopoo  FIGURE N O . 6  60,000  40,000  POPULATION G R O W T H RATES 1921 -1961  20,000  BRITISH CENSUS  COIUMBIA DIVISIONS;  10,000 9o - A T L I N 9b-  T E L E G R A P H CREEK, CASSIAR  9c-  STEWART  5,000  2,000  ipoo  500  SOURCES; 1961 C E N S U S O F CANADA  DOMINION  BUREAU OF HAWAII 200  STATISTICS  A N D ALASKA:  A MARKET  SURVEY  BUREAU O F ECONOMICS AND  STATISTICS-  VICTORIA, COLUMBIA. 100 1921  BRITISH  47.  S t a t e s was  to b u i l d the highway and t o m a i n t a i n i t f o r the d u r a t i o n  o f the war  and  war,  f o r s i x months t h e r e a f t e r .  At the c o n c l u s i o n of the  the Canadian p a r t o f the highway would pass to Canadian c o n t r o l ,  w i t h the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t c i t i z e n s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d not  be  42 d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t i n i t s subsequent use.  Because o f the  of the l o c a t i o n of the highway, c l o s e U n i t e d States-Canada has been m a i n t a i n e d  nature  co-operation  t o d e a l w i t h a l l problems r e l a t e d to the  continued  maintenance and o p e r a t i o n of a through highway system from the  United  S t a t e s to A l a s k a v i a Canada. O r i g i n a l l y , Canada was  not as concerned as the U n i t e d  over the importance o f the highway, but the concept o f a new f r o n t i e r has  States  resource  awakened Canada to i t s v a l u e .  Northwest Canada and i n t e r i o r A l a s k a c o n s t i t u t e areas r i c h i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h have h e r e t o f o r e been u n a c c e s s i b l e except to the h a r d i e s t p r o s p e c t o r and t r a p p e r . T h e i r f i e l d s of o p e r a t i o n have been l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to areas w i t h i n easy t r a v e l d i s t a n c e of W h i t e h o r s e , Dawson Creek, F o r t S t . John or F a i r b a n k s by f a i r l y p r i m i t i v e forms o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g boat. Now, w i t h a completed highway t r a v e r s i n g t h i s r i c h and h i t h e r t o u n e x p l o r e d a r e a , one of the l a s t of our p i o n e e r areas on the N o r t h American C o n t i n e n t i s made a c c e s s i b l e to those w i t h s t u r d y c o n s t i t u t i o n s and visions Although  the q u o t a t i o n somewhat o v e r s t a t e s the c a s e , the dream w h i c h  i t e n v i s i o n s was  l a r g e l y accepted  by Americans and Canadians.  s u c c e s s f u l campaign s l o g a n of the C o n s e r v a t i o n  A  P a r t y i n Canada, i n the  l a t e 1950's "the v i s i o n of the n o r t h " , e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s  feeling.  Report from the Committee nn Roads, The A l a s k a Highway (Washington: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1946), p. 11. I b i d , p.  63.  48.  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the A l a s k a Highway i l l u s t r a t e s  the  entrenchment of the boundary, as c a r e f u l n e g o t i a t i o n s were r e q u i r e d to s e t t l e highway maintenance and the c h o i c e of a routeway. U n i t e d S t a t e s was  the dominant p a r t n e r and assumed b o t h the b u l k  o f c o n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g the war thereafter.  The  T h i s p o l i c y was  and  the g r e a t e r c o n c e r n f o r i t s upkeep  r e a l i s t i c c o n s i d e r i n g the m i l i t a r y  r a i s o n de c r e a t i o n of the highway.  S i n c e the war  the U n i t e d  States  has paved t h e i r p o r t i o n of the highway i n A l a s k a but the Yukon and B r i t i s h Columbia s e c t i o n s remain g r a v e l , a contemporary example of the impact of d i v i d e d s o v e r e i g n t y upon what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a • • u n i t a r y network, of* communications.  Alaskan statehood  i n 1959  4  4  a l t e r e d the d i r e c t i o n of the  p o l i t i c a l and economic f o r c e s i n A l a s k a . been i n t e r n a t i o n a l , but u n t i l 1959  The boundary had  always  Canada n e g o t i a t e d w i t h American  f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s over common problems w i t h A l a s k a .  Now  Canadians c o u l d n e g o t i a t e d i r e c t l y w i t h the A l a s k a n S t a t e Government on many i s s u e s , thus g i v i n g b o t h a g r e a t e r r e g i o n a l emphasis to problems and a t the same time c r e a t i n g an i n c r e a s i n g number of j o i n t economic development schemes as A l a s k a n s , , • , • i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r own  became more d i r e c t l y  . 4 5 expansion.  I n 1964 Premier Bennett of B r i t i s h Columbia o f f e r e d to pave the Canadian p o r t i o n of the A l a s k a Highway i f the Yukon T e r r i t o r y would amalgamate w i t h the P r o v i n c e . A l t h o u g h the o f f e r was d e c l i n e d , i t i s obvious t h a t one s o v e r e i g n t y over the e n t i r e Canadian S e c t i o n would l e a d to u p g r a d i n g of the s e r v i c e as a u n i t a r y system. 45 T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n r e c e n t t a l k s between A l a s k a S t a t e S e c r e t a r y K e i t h M i l l e r and B r i t i s h Columbia Trade and I n d u s t r y M i n i s t e r R a l p h L o f f m a r k over a t a r i f f - f r e e t r a d e agreement c o v e r i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . The P r o v i n c e . ( S a t u r d a y , March 23, 1968), p. 19.  49.  T h i s a n a l y s i s o f the p e r i o d s i n c e 1903 has b r i e f l y i l l u s t r a t e d the economic growth o f the a r e a and the entrenchment o f the boundary. A l t h o u g h o n l y a few f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e g i o n were d i s c u s s e d , they a r e s u f f i c i e n t to p o i n t out the growing m a t u r i t y o f the boundary l a n d s c a p e . The boundary i s no l o n g e r a p o l i t i c a l barrier.  f r o n t i e r but a demarcated  E c o n o m i c a l l y , t h e r e g i o n i s one o f i n c r e a s i n g development,  and c o n s e q u e n t l y as t h i s emerging p a t t e r n becomes more complex, t h e boundary assumes p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more b a r r i e r  Two  functions.  i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to the boundary a r e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and hydro power; the f i r s t a contemporary problem and the second a p o s s i b l e f u t u r e problem.  I t i s these two phenomena  w h i c h w i l l e x e r t the g r e a t e s t p r e s s u r e on the boundary and w i l l i n all  l i k e l i h o o d l e a d t o a r e a p p r a i s a l o f the f u n c t i o n s o f the boundary.  T h e r e f o r e t h e s e two problems w i l l be a n a l y s e d i n the two s u c c e e d i n g chapters.  SUMMARY S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h i s a n a l y s i s o f boundary s t u d i e s g e n e r a l l y and the h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f the A l a s k a n B r i t i s h Columbia boundary i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The m a j o r i t y o f boundary s t u d i e s a r e approached by geographers as case s t u d i e s .  political  However, v e r y few t r y to r e l a t e these  case s t u d i e s to a l a r g e r body o f t h e o r y and i n some way to t h e e x p a n s i o n o f methodology t h r o u g h t h e i r work.  contribute  50.  There i s a p e r i o d between the f r o n t i e r and boundary s t a g e s o f e v o l u t i o n o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary which has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o t h f e a t u r e s and thus r e q u i r e s a s e p a r a t e classification.  The term which has been adopted t o d e f i n e t h i s  s t a g e i s "zone o f u n d e f i n e d s o v e r e i g n t y . "  C o n t r a r y t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n Canada d u r i n g and f o r some p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g , t h e n e g o t i a t i o n , t h e boundary s e t t l e m e n t o f 1903 was a c c u r a t e i n terms o f the purpose o f t h e o r i g i n a l n e g o t i a t i o n s i n 1825.  The Hudson's Bay Company was t o be denied access t o the R u s s i a n  c o a s t a l f u r t r a d e and i n s p i t e o f some attempts to r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n t h i s s e p a r a t i o n has l a r g e l y p e r s i s t e d through many economic a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e p r e s e n t day.  The boundary has become i n c r e a s i n g l y entrenched i n the landscape over t h e l a s t h a l f c e n t u r y , c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h a g e n e r a l economic e x p a n s i o n .  To f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n c r e a s i n g s t r e s s on the  l o c a t i o n o f t h e boundary, some a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t f u n c t i o n s of t h e boundary may be r e q u i r e d .  CHAPTER I I THE PRESENT IMPACT OF THE BOUNDARY THE PROBLEM OF TRANSPORTATION T h i s and the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r draws upon t h e h i s t o r i c a l geographic background p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r t o a n a l y z e the contemporary boundary s i t u a t i o n .  T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the  impact o f t h e boundary on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  The problems c o n f r o n t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c r o s s the A l a s k a B r i t i s h Columbia boundary today have become f o c a l o n l y i n the l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h the growth o f p o p u l a t i o n and economic development i n A l a s k a and t h e Yukon.  However, as p r e v i o u s l y  d i s c u s s e d , problems d i d develop i n 1837, 1876, and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n 1899 when Canadian s u p p l i e s were r e q u i r e d t o be p l a c e d i n bond a t Dyea and Skagway b e f o r e they were t r a n s p o r t e d over t h e C h i l k o o t and White Passes  to the K l o n d i k e .  The t e c h n i q u e o f bonding  goods f o r  t r a n s p o r t through t h e A l a s k a n l i s i e r e has been used s i n c e 1899 b u t i t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g r e g a r d e d by many Canadians as an inadequate s o l u t i o n t o today's more complex problems.  Pressure i s being a p p l i e d  on t h e governments o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s t o a l t e r e i t h e r the l o c a t i o n o r f u n c t i o n o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary t o meet the contempor situation.  An a n a l y s i s o f both a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h suggested  solutions  i s the o b j e c t o f t h i s c h a p t e r .  The problem o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the impact o f t h e boundary w i l l be approached f i r s t l y w i t h a b r i e f r e v i e w o f g e o g r a p h i c a l and  n o n - g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t , s e c o n d l y by an of u n s u c c e s s f u l  analysis  a t t e m p t s to change the l o c a t i o n of the boundary,  t h i r d l y by a d i s c u s s i o n of p r e s e n t attempts to change the boundary's f u n c t i o n s , and  l a s t l y by some s u g g e s t i o n s as to the s o l u t i o n of  the problem. The  attempts to s o l v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems to date have  been p r i m a r i l y based on the assumption of a change i n l o c a t i o n of the boundary.  The h y p o t h e s i s s e t f o r w a r d i n t h i s c h a p t e r  and  upon w h i c h s o l u t i o n s w i l l be based, i s t h a t a change i n l o c a t i o n i s improbable and  t h a t a change i n boundary f u n c t i o n s  i s the e a s i e s t  and  e s s e n t i a l l y the o n l y p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n .  REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE  Unlike historical-geographic research c h a p t e r , when a geographer turns to s t u d y i n g his research  as i n the  previous  a contemporary problem  sources become i n c r e a s i n g l y v a r i e d .  Not  o n l y must he  r e f e r to works i n p o l i t i c a l geography on r e l a t e d t o p i c s but  in solving  the p a r t i c u l a r t h e s i s problem, s p e c i f i c data sources must be  utilized.  U n l i k e the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , w h i c h r e v i e w e d the l i t e r a t u r e i n terms of approach, and  the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w h i c h u t i l i z e s  research  d i s c i p l i n e s as a framework, the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t h a t r e l a t e d to methods of a c c e s s to l a n d l o c k e d subjects  states.  d e a l t w i t h on the problem of a c c e s s through the  cannot be d i s c u s s e d , f r e e p o r t s and  but  All  Panhandle  the most important t o p i c s of c o r r i d o r s ,  goods-in-bond, and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routeways are  reviewed.  Corridors H i s t o r i c a l l y , the concepts of freedom of t r a n s i t or a c c e s s to the sea f o r l a n d l o c k e d s t a t e s , o r i g i n a t e d a t l e a s t two  centuries  ago when the f o r m a t i o n of modern n a t i o n a l s t a t e s i n Europe began. Trade and commerce became a p a r t o f government p o l i c y and thus r e s t r i c t i o n s a g a i n s t easy access to i n t e r n a t i o n a l markets became a n a t i o n a l concern.'''  I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the r i g h t o f  access to the sea came w i t h W i l s o n ' s "14 P o i n t s " i n 1918 when he proposed  i n A r t i c l e T h i r t e e n ; "An Independent  P o l i s h State should  be e r e c t e d . . . w h i c h s h o u l d be a s s u r e d a f r e e and s e c u r e access to 2 the s e a . . . "  From t h i s p o i n t on, the concept of c o r r i d o r s became  an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f many s t u d i e s i n p o l i t i c a l  geography.  The f i r s t major work on c o r r i d o r s was H a r t s h o r n e ' s  "The 3  P o l i s h C o r r i d o r " , b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r (p. 13). H a r t s h o r n e d e c i d e s a g a i n s t the i d e a of a c o r r i d o r and i t s a b i l i t y to s o l v e an a c c e s s problem f o r as a c o r r i d o r p r o v i d e s a s o l u t i o n f o r the l a n d l o c k e d c o u n t r y , i t o n l y f a c i l i t a t e s g r e a t e r antagonisms c o u n t r y through which i t i s c u t .  i n the  He c o n c l u d e s t h a t changes i n t e r r i t o r y  a r e not f e a s i b l e and t h a t f u n c t i o n a l changes i n any  intervening  For a complete h i s t o r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f c o r r i d o r s and freedom of t r a n s i t , see N.J.G. Pounds, P o l i t i c a l Geography (New York: McGrawH i l l Book Co., 1963), pp. 239-247. A l s o N.J.G. Pounds, "A F r e e and Secure Access t o the Sea," Annals o f the A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers, XLIX (September, 1959), pp. 256-268. As quoted i n I b i d , p.  240.  R. H a r t s h o r n e , "The P o l i s h C o r r i d o r , " J o u r n a l of Geography, XXXVI (May, 1937), p. 161.  boundary i s the o n l y s o l u t i o n , ( f o r example, r i g h t s of t r a n s i t and minority rights). In the case o f the T a c n a - A r i c a d i s p u t e between  Chile,  B o l i v i a , and Peru a s o l u t i o n was r e a c h e d s i m i l a r to t h a t proposed i n Europe by H a r t s h o r n e .  C h i l e , r e a l i z i n g the d i s a d v a n t a g e s t h a t b e i n g  l a n d l o c k e d e n t a i l e d f o r B o l i v i a , i n terms of t r a d e and the l o n g - t e r m resentment t h a t would be c r e a t e d amongst B o l i v i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s , p r o v i d e d i n the t r e a t y c o n c l u d i n g h o s t i l i t i e s t h a t C h i l e would b u i l d a r a i l w a y from A r i c a t o La Paz and p r o v i d e B o l i v i a w i t h a l l the advantages of h a v i n g s e a p o r t s by g r a n t i n g B o l i v i a customs houses i n 4 b o t h A r i c a and A n t o f o g a s t a .  T h i s arrangement has caused resentment  i n B o l i v i a but as C h i l e has remained the most p o w e r f u l n a t i o n of the 5 two, the t r a n s i t arrangement remains i n f o r c e .  As y e t , no  political  geographer appears to have s t u d i e d the problem o f a c c e s s to the sea f o r B o l i v i a and thus i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw p a r a l l e l s between  the 6  B o l i v i a n case and t h a t o f a c c e s s through the A l a s k a panhandle. F.N. D e l R i o , " C h i l e ' s C o n f l i c t w i t h B o l i v i a and P e r u , " C u r r e n t H i s t o r y Magazine of the New York Times,XV (December, 1921), pp. 449-453 W.E. Aughinbaugh, " B o l i v i a ' s Claims i n the T a c n a - A r i c a Case," C u r r e n t H i s t o r y Magazine o f the New York Times, XVI (June, 1922), p. 408. There a r e s e v e r a l h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s to the B o l i v i a n c a s e , most b i a s e d . Del R i o , op. c i t . ; Aughinbaugh, op. c i t . ; C. C a s t r o - R u i z , " B o l i v i a and C h i l e - P e r u C o n t r o v e r s y , " C u r r e n t H i s t o r y Magazine of the New York Times, XV (March, 1922), pp. 915-917; V.A. Belaunde, Peru's A t t i t u d e on the T a c n a - A r i c a I s s u e , " C u r r e n t H i s t o r y Magazine of the New York Times, XVI ( A p r i l , 1922), pp. 17-21; H.G. D o y l e , " S e t t l e m e n t o f the T a c n a - A r i c a D i s p u t e " , C u r r e n t H i s t o r y , XXX ( J u l y , 1929), pp. 692-694.  55.  S i m i l a r t o the s i t u a t i o n i n the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columb i a i s t h a t of l a n d l o c k e d Laos. to  the Sea f o r Land-Locked  T.F.  Barton, i n "Outlets  Laos" a n a l y z e s the routeways  through V i e t  T h a i l a n d , and Cambodia which Laos uses f o r commercial exchange.  Nam,  He  7  p o i n t s out t h a t h i s t o r i c a l l y the Mekong R i v e r has been an i m p o r t a n t highway f o r a l i m i t e d movement of goods.  Today t h i s r i v e r i s used o n l y  l o c a l l y and the major a r t e r y of t r a d e i s the r a i l w a y from Bangkok to Vientiane.  However, s i m i l a r to the s i t u a t i o n of the Yukon, Laos i s  dependent on t r a n s i t arrangements  w i t h her n e i g h b o u r s . F o r t u n a t e l y ,  the A l a s k a n S t a t e Government i s not as l i k e l y to i n t e r f e r e as those of  Cambodia and V i e t Nam  territory.  i n p e r m i t t i n g t r a d e to pass through  their  Because of the f l u c t u a t i n g p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n s o u t h e a s t  A s i a , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how  t r a n s i t agreement c o u l d be n e g o t i a t e d  and e x p e c t e d to be r e a l i z e d f o r any l e n g t h o f time.  A g e n e r a l survey o f l a n d l o c k e d s t a t e s i s undertaken by E a s t i n h i s "The Geography of L a n d l o c k e d S t a t e s " and one of the t o p i c s he 8 c o n s i d e r s i s the s p e c i a l problem of a c c e s s to the sea.  I t i s found  t h a t a l l l a n d l o c k e d s t a t e s . h a v e been g i v e n s p e c i a l r i g h t s o f t r a n s i t , f r e e p o r t s , and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s to enable them to overcome t h e i r handicap by t h e i r m a r i t i m e n e i g h b o u r s .  However, a t v a r i o u s times  throughout h i s t o r y r i g h t s o f t r a n s i t have been impinged upon by  one  or more m a r i t i m e neighbours of many l a n d l o c k e d s t a t e s , l e a v i n g f e e l i n g s 7 T.F. B a r t o n , " O u t l e t s to the Sea f o r Land-Locked Geography, LIX (May, 1960), p. 206-220.  Laos," J o u r n a l of  Q  W.G. E a s t , "The Geography of L a n d l o c k e d S t a t e s , " T r a n s a c t i o n s & P a p e r s , I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Geographers, No. 28 (1960), pp. 1-22.  of d i s t r u s t and  the c o n t i n u e d need f o r s p e c i a l g u a r a n t e e s , t r e a t i e s ,  and g e n e r a l p r e c a u t i o n s . r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t access  I n h i s a r t i c l e however, a p a r t from problems do e x i s t and  l i s t i n g some examples  of c o r r i d o r s , East does not propose any s o l u t i o n s . R e l a t e d to the s u b j e c t of access t h a t of access  for landlocked states i s  to e x c l a v e s , as s i m i l a r problems e x i s t i n b o t h  The most important  contemporary e x c l a v e problem s t u d i e d by  cases.  political  9 geographers i s t h a t of West B e r l i n . under v e r y r e s t r i c t e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s  T h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s  access  but t h i s degree o f r e s t r i c t i o n i n  t u r n f a c i l i t a t e s the i s o l a t i o n o f c o r r i d o r problems f o r c a r e f u l study. A t r i p a r t i t e agreement i n 1945  between B r i t a i n , A m e r i c a , and  the  S o v i e t Union s e t up d e f i n i t i v e r o a d , r a i l , a i r , and c a n a l c o r r i d o r s to  West B e r l i n .  I n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l of the c o r r i d o r s  have been o b s t r u c t e d by the S o v i e t Union i n the p a s t , these have not proved i n s u r m o u n t a b l e and West B e r l i n c o n t i n u e s as a v i a b l e e x c l a v e .  problems  to f u n c t i o n  Thus, i n accordance w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n s of E a s t ,  a l t h o u g h c o r r i d o r t r a n s i t r i g h t s a r e o f t e n impinged upon they appear as the o n l y s o l u t i o n t o an e x c l a v e or l a n d l o c k e d problem. Free P o r t s And  Goods-In-Bond  An economic d e v i c e f o r e l i m i n a t i n g customs r e s t r i c t i o n s i n t r a n s - s h i p p i n g goods from s h i p to r a i l , the f r e e p o r t or zone.  t r u c k or to another s h i p i s  A good example i s t h a t p o r t of Hamburg, where  goods can be brought i n from a l l over the w o r l d , s t o r e d , r e p a c k e d ,  The most comprehensive work done on the problem o f West B e r l i n i s t h a t of G.W.S. R o b i n s o n , "West B e r l i n : The Geography o f an E x c l a v e , " G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, X L I I I (October, 1953), pp. 540-557.  manufactured and r e - e x p o r t e d w i t h o u t  customs f o r m a l i t i e s .  s t a t e s o f t e n have a f r e e p o r t or zone w i t h i n a p o r t i n a  Landlocked neighbouring  m a r i t i m e s t a t e where goods d e s t i n e d f o r the i n l a n d s t a t e can imported,  p l a c e d i n bond, and  be  transported i n l a n d without paying  the  customs d u t i e s of the m a r i t i m e s t a t e .  The  s u b j e c t i s o f t e n touched upon i n p o l i t i c a l and  economic  geography t e x t s , but l i t t l e work has been done on f r e e p o r t s per  se.  The most thorough work on the s u b j e c t appears to be R i c h a r d Thoman's 10 Free P o r t s and F o r e i g n - T r a d e Zones p u b l i s h e d i n 1956. f r e e p o r t s i n Germany, N o r t h e r n examples, he a n a l y s e s Thoman concludes  Using  Europe and the U n i t e d S t a t e s  existing  as  t h e i r form, f u n c t i o n , and economic importance.  t h a t u n l e s s the r i g h t p o r t f u n c t i o n s a r e e v i d e n t , a  f r e e p o r t i s not e c o n o m i c a l l y  f e a s i b l e and bonded warehouses a r e  s u f f i c i e n t to h a n d l e the r e - e x p o r t  trade.  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the economic d e s i r a b i l i t y of f r e e p o r t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was Commission i n 1922.''''''  u n d e r t a k e n by the U n i t e d S t a t e s  "After exhaustive  Tariff  study of f o r e i g n i n s t i t u t i o n s  and c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f American c o n d i t i o n s and  mercantile  o p i n i o n , the T a r i f f Commission (recommended) the p o l i c y of p e r m i t t i n g 12 the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of f r e e zones i n American p o r t s . "  The f i n d i n g s  were o n l y recommendations and no zones were s e t up u n t i l 1936, a f r e e zone was  e s t a b l i s h e d on S t a t e n I s l a n d .  when  The r e p o r t i s a good  10 11  R.S. Thoman, Free P o r t s and F o r e i g n - T r a d e Zones, (Cambridge M a r y l a n d : C o r n e l l M a r i t i m e P r e s s , 1956). U n i t e d S t a t e s T a r i f f Commission, F r e e Zones i n P o r t s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . L e t t e r from the U n i t e d S t a t e s T a r i f f Commission i n Compliance w i t h the Request o f the Senate Committee on Commerce. (Washington: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1922).  12  I b i d , p.  19.  source o f contemporary o p i n i o n on the l o f t y e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a f r e e p o r t f o r g e n e r a t i n g commerce.  However, as the r e c o r d has proven i n  s i x U n i t e d S t a t e s zones a p a r t from New  Y o r k , a f r e e p o r t "cannot  c r e a t e commerce, i t can o n l y f a c i l i t a t e the o p e r a t i o n o f the f o r c e s 13 t h a t do c r e a t e i t " . The u s e f u l n e s s o f a f r e e p o r t was  examined i n Canada i n 14  1960 when Hubert Kemp a n a l y z e d  the case of H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a .  L i k e Thoman, Kemp came t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t u n l e s s the volume o f r e - e x p o r t merchandise i n H a l i f a x w a r r a n t e d the zone, i t would not be e c o n o m i c a l l y  p r o f i t a b l e and  t h a t the Canadian system o f bonding  and e x p o r t drawbacks i s s u f f i c i e n t . The above r e f e r e n c e s , t h e r e f o r e , deny the economic f e a s i b i l i t y of f r e e p o r t s or zones except i n cases where t h e r e i s a h i g h volume of r e - e x p o r t merchandise.  The  f r e e zone i s o n l y " f r e e "  i n terms of customs d u t i e s and such procedures as l a b o u r s u p p l y c i v i l and c r i m i n a l law, remain e n t i r e l y w i t h the h o s t  and  country.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Routeways The  f i n a l s u b j e c t f o r r e v i e w has been g i v e n the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e w a y s , but i n f a c t , i t c o v e r s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; s h i p p i n g and  1 3  I b i d , p.  two main  title aspects  highways.  18.  14 H.R. Kemp, A Free P o r t f o r Nova S c o t i a . The Case Examined. (Memorandum p r e p a r e d f o r the Department o f Trade and I n d u s t r y , H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , November, 1960).  59.  One o f t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o a n a l y z e the r o l e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 15 to A l a s k a was W i l l i a m S i d d a l l s " S e a t t l e : R e g i o n a l C a p i t a l of A l a s k a . " S i d d a l l examines the l a r g e s t c i t i e s i n A l a s k a ; K e t c h i k a n , Juneau, Anchorage, and F a i r b a n k s  to determine t h e i r degree of c e n t r a l i t y i n  terms of p o p u l a t i o n , communications, and s e r v i c e s .  He f i n d s t h a t each  c i t y i s a c e n t r a l p l a c e f o r a l i m i t e d h i n t e r l a n d but t h a t the c e n t r a l p l a c e f o r the t e r r i t o r y as a whole, d e f i n e d i n terms of t h e amount o f general s e r v i c e s , i s S e a t t l e .  A somewhat s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s to examine  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y would be v e r y  useful.  S i d d a l l ' s suggestions  as to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e 16  examined f u r t h e r by Hardwick i n 1962.  He a n a l y s e s each method of  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o A l a s k a and c o n c l u d e s t h a t the marine c o r r i d o r w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be the key r o u t e to A l a s k a as cheaper marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods a r e d e v i s e d  ( f o r example, c o n t a i n e r i z a t i o n ) .  J . L o t z , i n 1964,  d i s c u s s e d the f u n c t i o n of the new A l a s k a S t a t e F e r r y system as a marine highway and c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h i t i s a passenger system r a t h e r than a commercial routeway, i t can o n l y improve the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of c o a s t a l Alaska.  T h i s would appear to c o n f i r m Hardwick's e a r l i e r h y p o t h e s i s .  W.R. S i d d a l l , " S e a t t l e : R e g i o n a l C a p i t a l of A l a s k a , " Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, X L V I I (September, 1957), pp. 277-284. 16 W.G. Hardwick, "Changing C o r r i d o r s t o A l a s k a , " Geography, L X I ( F e b r u a r y , 1962), pp. 49-57. ^  The J o u r n a l o f  J.R. L o t z , "A New Way t o A l a s k a , " Canadian G e o g r a p h i c a l L X V I I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1964), pp. 52-55.  Journal,  60.  The problems d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e papers a r e n o t o n l y i m p o r t a n t t o A l a s k a , but a l s o t o n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and the  Yukon T e r r i t o r y as a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t r a f f i c moving t o and  from the Yukon and n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia moves through t h e 18 A l a s k a n Panhandle.  As y e t , no r e s e a r c h has been attempted on  c o a s t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o t h e Yukon and n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h per  s e , however, w i t h d a t a becoming  be u n d e r t a k e n .  Columbia  i n c r e a s i n g l y a v a i l a b l e , work c o u l d  I t i s suggested t h a t s t u d y may prove Vancouver,  British  Columbia t o be t h e r e g i o n a l c a p i t a l o f t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y , analagous to  S i d d a l l ' s Alaskan findings f o r Seattle. The second a s p e c t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s t h a t o f road a c c e s s .  U n l i k e marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n w h i c h o n l y t h e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t , w i t h some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e , highway  transportation  i s concerned w i t h t h e i n i t i a l c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e routeway and t h e c o n t i n u e d maintenance.  T h i s depends i n t u r n on t e r r a i n ,  d i s t a n c e , l o c a t i o n , and p o l i t i c a l  jurisdiction.  Thus, b e f o r e any  highways a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n remote a r e a s of n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h  Columbia  " F r e i g h t movements i n and out o f Northwest N o r t h A m e r i c a , t o t a l l i n g somewhat more than two m i l l i o n t o n s , a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y w a t e r b o r n e , w i t h o n l y minor tonnages by a i r and by l o n g - h a u l t r u c k s . Passenger movements, c o n v e r s e l y , a r e m a i n l y by a i r , w i t h a f a i r l y l a r g e p o r t i o n o f highway, and r e l a t i v e l y few movements by w a t e r . Both f r e i g h t and passenger movements have been u n d e r g o i n g change over the p a s t decade, w i t h f r e i g h t b e i n g c a r r i e d more and more by b u l k cargo barges and van-barges a t the expense o f l a r g e d r y - c a r g o , and w i t h passengers moving more and more by highway a t the expense o f a i r c a r r i e r s , p e r c e n t a g e w i s e . " A l a s k a I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a i l and Highway Commission, T r a n s p o r t Requirements f o r the Growth o f Northwest N o r t h America (Washington, U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1961) V o l s . 1, 2, and 3. p. 1-14. Volumes 2 and 3 a r e a R e s e a r c h Report by t h e B a t t e l l e Memorial I n s t i t u t e on an I n t e g r a t e d T r a n s p o r t System t o Encourage Economic Development o f Northwest N o r t h A m e r i c a .  and  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s i s made o f many c o s t In p l a n n i n g roads through  factors.  t h e Panhandle o r i n t h e N o r t h  g e n e r a l l y , the governments i n v o l v e d a r e f a c e d w i t h an u n r e s o l v e d dilemma.  I s i t t h e access road w h i c h c r e a t e s the i n c e n t i v e f o r new  s e t t l e m e n t and i n d u s t r y o r i s i t the growth o f s e t t l e m e n t and i n d u s t r y w h i c h c r e a t e s the need f o r an access r o a d ? n o r t h appear to be a c o m b i n a t i o n  Most highways i n t h e  o f b o t h causes.  The concept o f new  road c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the Northwest i s d i s c u s s e d by J . R i e n s t r a , who 19 reaches some tenuous c o n c l u s i o n s about the A l a s k a Highway. The r o l e o f t h e S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r road as a s t i m u l a n t t o r e s o u r c e development i n t h e Northwest i s d i s c u s s e d by J . Jenness i n 20 " F e d e r a l Roads Programs i n Northwestern  Canada".  The road  will  not o n l y p r o v i d e access t o known m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s b u t w i l l a l s o " p r o v i d e access  t o t i d e w a t e r f o r much o f the a r e a east o f t h e A l a s k a 21  Panhandle, i n c l u d i n g d i r e c t access  t o a Canadian h a r b o u r . "  Jenness  e s t i m a t e s t h a t the c o s t o f moving goods i n and out o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be c u t by o n e - t h i r d . J . R i e n s t r a , "Water T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the N o r t h , " B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources C o n f e r e n c e , No. 12 ( P u b l i s h e d by t h e BCNRC, 1959), p. 126. R i e n s t r a concludes t h a t the A l a s k a highway has n o t s t i m u l a t e d the development o f any major communities between Dawson Creek and F a i r b a n k s . Because o f t h e i r n a t u r e as m i n i n g communities the towns c l o s e t o t h e highway a r e n o t "major" by F a i r b a n k s s t a n d a r d s , b u t they have n e v e r t h e l e s s been c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e access p r o v i d e d by the highway. J.L. Jenness, " F e d e r a l Roads Programs i n Northwestern Canada," B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference , No. 12, ( P u b l i s h e d by t h e BCNRC, 1959), p. 111. Ibid,  p. I l l  F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t f o u r r e s e a r c h groups have a n a l y z e d s p e c i f i c problems i n A l a s k a and Yukon t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods. Wolf Management S e r v i c e s have p r e p a r e d an e x c e l l e n t " T e c h n i c a l Study o f Investment O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n S o u t h e a s t e r n Alaska':' w h i c h i n c l u d e s an 22 e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e economic  impact o f the Marine Highway System.  G.F. Parsons has p r e p a r e d a "Yukon T r a v e l Survey" f o r t h e Yukon R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t w h i c h d i s c u s s e s the o r i g i n s , d e s t i n a t i o n s and en 23 r o u t e h a b i t s o f t o u r i s t s u s i n g t h e A l a s k a highway.  The S t a n f o r d  R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e p r e p a r e d an "Improvement Program f o r t h e A l a s k a Highway," w h i c h a n a l y z e s t h e e f f e c t s t h a t highway  improvement would 24  have on t h e e n t i r e r e g i o n a f f e c t e d by t h e A l a s k a highway.  Under  the a u s p i c e s o f the A l a s k a I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a i l and Highway  Commission,  the B a t t e l l e Memorial I n s t i t u t e c a r r i e d out a s t u d y i n w h i c h an i n v e n t o r y o f t h e r e s o u r c e s o f A l a s k a and n o r t h w e s t e r n Canada was c o m p i l e d , f o l l o w e d by an a n a l y s i s o f p r e s e n t and planned t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s t o compare t h e two w i t h an aim t o i m p r o v i n g economic 22 Wolf Management S e r v i c e s , Investment O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n S o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a . P r e p a r e d f o r U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f Commerce, Area Redevelopment A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (Washington, U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1965). 23 G.F. P a r s o n s , A l a s k a T r a v e l Survey (Ottawa, Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , 1963). S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , Improvement Program f o r the A l a s k a Highway, (Ottawa, Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , 1966).  63.  resource  development.  25  The o v e r a l l view of the report without undue  stress on p o l i t i c a l boundaries offers an i n t e l l i g e n t method of economic planning  i n a region where transportation links between Alaska and  the  Yukon and between these two areas and southern Canada and the United States are very interdependent.  Several conclusions can be drawn from this review. 1.  Rights of t r a n s i t rather than corridors appear to be the most widespread and successful method of access to the sea for landlocked  2.  areas.  Free ports and zones are only successful where port functions are suitable.  In other areas bonding and  export drawbacks are s u f f i c i e n t to handle the reexport trade. 3.  Very l i t t l e research has been done on the geography of coastal transportation and,  therefore, a c o l l e c t i o n  of more s p e c i f i c references must be used to determine 26 transport methods, costs, and  legal r e s t r i c t i o n s .  Alaska International R a i l and Highway Commission, op. c i t . From the research undertaken i t appears that coastal shipping is regulated far more s t r i n g e n t l y than highway transportation by the federal government.  THE FIRST ALTERNATIVE - A CHANGE IN THE LOCATION OF THE BOUNDARY B e f o r e a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g attempted changes i n the l o c a t i o n of t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary t o s u i t p r e s e n t t r a n s i t r e q u i r e m e n t s i s begun, a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f o u t s t a n d i n g problems f o r Canadians u t i l i z i n g  routeways  27 through the A l a s k a panhandle w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d .  (See F i g u r e  7 f o r the l o c a t i o n of p r e s e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routeways.) 1.  American i m m i g r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s c o m p l i c a t e the movement o f p e r s o n n e l and customs r o u t i n e s slow the  movement of m i n i n g equipment from t i d e w a t e r  i n t o the i n t e r i o r . 2.  U n i t e d S t a t e s l a b o u r u n i o n s , e i t h e r on the White Pass and Yukon R a i l w a y ' s American s e c t i o n , or h a n d l i n g Canadian ore a t panhandle p o r t s , make Canadian o p e r a t o r s dependent upon the whims of f o r e i g n l a b o u r unions.  An example o f t e n c i t e d i s the s t r i k e o f  crews on the White Pass and Yukon R a i l w a y a t Skagway i n September  1956, b l o c k i n g a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n over the  r a i l r o a d f o r about a month, i n c l u d i n g the h a u l i n g of ore  from mines i n the Yukon.  The l i s t o f t r a n s i t problems was c o l l e c t e d from a number of s o u r c e s . The "Panhandle F i l e " o f the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of M i n e s , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia; R.S. F r a n c i s , "Why Canada Wants R i g h t s A c r o s s t h e A l a s k a Panhandle," Canadian B u s i n e s s , XXIX (August, 1956), pp. 90-94; J.R. B r u c e , The Economic E f f e c t s o f the P o l i t i c a l Geography o f the A l a s k a Panhandle, G r a d u a t i n g essay f o r Commerce 490, The U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1964.  3.  The U n i t e d S t a t e s Merchant Marine A c t compels  cargo  moved between two American p o r t s t o be h a u l e d i n American bottoms, f r u s t r a t i n g the movement o f o r e by Canadian s h i p s from panhandle p o r t s t o s a y , t h e s m e l t e r at 4.  Tacoma, Washington.  United States immigration  laws p e r m i t o n l y Canadian  c i t i z e n s t o e n t e r A l a s k a en r o u t e t o B r i t i s h Columbia or the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , w h i l e a g r e a t p o r t i o n of t h i s n o r t h e r n l a b o u r f o r c e i s composed o f immigrant, nonCanadian w o r k e r s ,  so t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f m i n i n g  crews must be t r a n s p o r t e d by more c i r c i u t o u s and c o s t l y r o u t e s , ( f o r example, by a i r o r road up the A l a s k a Highway). 5.  The expense of c a r r y i n g on b u s i n e s s  i n A l a s k a i s much  h i g h e r than i n B r i t i s h Columbia or t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y . D u r i n g the 1950's t h e American government poured money i n t o A l a s k a f o r c o n t r a c t s on a c o s t - p l u s b a s i s , r e s u l t i n g in Alaskan p r i c e s soaring to unnaturally high Hence t h e c o s t o f d o i n g b u s i n e s s  levels.  i n A l a s k a f o r many  p r i v a t e Canadian f i r m s i s p r o h i b i t i v e .  (Costs a r e  p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h f o r American l a b o u r and food.) Three o f the f i v e b a r r i e r s l i s t e d r e s u l t from U n i t e d S t a t e s domestic l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s and the second and f i f t h p o i n t a r e i n h e r e n t p a r t s of the American socio-economic more important  system.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e w i l l become  l a t e r when t h e v a r i o u s attempts  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem a r e c o n s i d e r e d . problems have aroused  a t s o l v i n g the  S u f f i c e t o say t h a t  c o n s i d e r a b l e concern  these  i n Canadian t r a n s p o r t and  67.  mining i n d u s t r i e s .  P r e s s u r e to s o l v e the problems has been o u t s t a n d i n g  from two groups i n Canada most concerned  w i t h t r a n s p o r t and m i n i n g ;  the  B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines and i n d i v i d u a l s i n Canadian p o l i t i c s who  r e p r e s e n t areas a f f e c t e d by the r e s t r i c t i o n s  and t h e r e f o r e w i s h to remove them.  In A l a s k a the s u b j e c t i s t o p i c a l  i n s e v e r a l c i t i e s l o c a t e d i n the Panhandle as any change i n t r a n s p o r t routeways through the l i s i e r e w i l l have r e p e r c u s s i o n s on t h e i r economies. The r o l e and problems of i n t e r e s t e d groups w i l l become c l e a r e r as n e g o t i a t i o n s over boundary changes a r e d i s c u s s e d .  Evidence  of an e f f o r t to b r i n g about a change i n the  l o c a t i o n o f the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary i s a r e s o l u t i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines of November  1953,  r e l a t i n g to " m i n i n g and o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l development i n the n o r t h e r n h a l f o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and the Panhandle o f Alaska."  The r e s o l u t i o n s t a t e d i n p a r t ;  Whereas, i f the m i n e r a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y are to be e f f i c i e n t l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y developed f o r the Canadian p e o p l e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l deep sea p o r t s i n Canadian t e r r i t o r y be e s t a b l i s h e d so t h a t equipment and s u p p l i e s can be taken i n t o the v a r i o u s m i n i n g areas and ores and c o n c e n t r a t e s s h i p p e d out w i t h a minimum d e l a y ; and Whereas, a t the p r e s e n t time Canada does not possess any. deep sea p o r t n o r t h o f S t e w a r t , B r i t i s h Columbia, making i t n e c e s s a r y f o r mine o p e r a t o r s and o t h e r persons to t r a v e l through the "Panhandle" o f A l a s k a to g a i n access from the Coast i n t o the n o r t h e r n h a l f of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ; and Be i t r e s o l v e d , t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber o f Mines go on r e c o r d as f a v o u r i n g a meeting a t an e a r l y date between a p p r o p r i a t e o f f i c i a l s r e p r e s e n t i n g the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , and the T e r r i t o r y of A l a s k a , to d i s c u s s the p r o p o s a l t h a t the T e r r i t o r y of A l a s k a a l l o w B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon access to the ocean by way o f a number of narrow s t r i p s of  l a n d or c o r r i d o r s , c u t t i n g through the "Panhandle" o f A l a s k a , so t h a t Canada can develop i t s own deep-sea p o r t s and i n d u s t r i e s i n these n o r t h e r n a r e a s , w h i c h , i n no way, s h o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h the r i g h t s o f people i n A l a s k a or w i t h e x i s t i n g towns, p o r t s and o t h e r important settlements a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n that Territory. I t i s f e l t t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f these Canadian p o r t s and subsequent development of hydroe l e c t r i c , m i n e r a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , w i l l b r i n g p r o s p e r i t y to a l l c i t i z e n s of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s l i v i n g i n those n o r t h e r n areas.28  As t h i s r e s o l u t i o n was  the f i r s t p r o p o s a l of a change i n  the l o c a t i o n o f the boundary, i t s i n d e f i n i t e s u g g e s t i o n as to the methods of s o l v i n g the problem i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e .  From the  wording  of the r e s o l u t i o n i t appears as i f a change i n s o v e r e i g n t y i s proposed f o r the c o r r i d o r s , a l t h o u g h they were to be l o c a t e d i n such p l a c e s t h a t they would not i n f r i n g e on s e t t l e d areas o f the panhandle. corridors.)  (See f i g u r e number 8 f o r the l o c a t i o n of proposed I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t the term c o r r i d o r was  adopted  at the time as i t imples a change o f s o v e r e i g n t y , which the U n i t e d S t a t e s was  not w i l l i n g to a c c e p t , and a l s o r e c a l l s the t r o u b l e  a r i s i n g out o f the P o l i s h C o r r i d o r , s t i l l both Canadians and Americans.  f r e s h i n the memories o f  Copies of the r e s o l u t i o n were sent to  s e v e r a l heads of government i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s and other i n t e r e s t e d  to  parties.  R e s o l u t i o n passed a t a meeting o f the E x e c u t i v e Committee o f the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines, Monday, November 30, 1953. "Panhandle F i l e " of the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of M i n e s , Vancouver, B.C.  70.  The American r e s p o n s e can b e s t be e x e m p l i f i e d i n the words of S e n a t o r B u t l e r of Nebraska i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate 29 i n J a n u a r y , 1954.  I t i s quoted a t l e n g t h i n o r d e r to convey not  o n l y i t s c o n t e n t , but the tone o f the r e p l y , which i s a good  example  of the American p o s i t i o n i n a l l s u c c e e d i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s . B e f o r e I c l o s e , t h e r e i s one problem t r o u b l i n g many Canadians on w h i c h I b e l i e v e we c o u l d p r o p e r l y be of h e l p t o Canada. That i s the q u e s t i o n of Canadian a c c e s s t o the P a c i f i c Ocean a c r o s s the A l a s k a n Panhandle. I t happens t h a t the A l a s k a Panhandle extends down the c o a s t , c u t t i n g o f f Canada's a c c e s s t o the sea as f a r down as 54° n o r t h l a t i t u d e . That i s an u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n w h i c h might w i l l g i v e r i s e t o c o n f l i c t and b i t t e r n e s s between any two n a t i o n s n o t on f r i e n d l y terms w i t h each o t h e r . E v e r y member o f the Senate i s f a m i l i a r w i t h the problems t h a t have a r i s e n i n European h i s t o r y when a n a t i o n has found i t s a c c e s s t o the sea c o n t r o l l e d by a n o t h e r , u n f r i e n d l y n a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , no American would be d i s p o s e d t o t a k e advantage o f Canada m e r e l y because o f our s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n p r e v e n t i n g her a c c e s s to the ocean. I t i s a s i t u a t i o n where I f e e l we have a p o s i t i v e o b l i g a t i o n t o be s y m p a t h e t i c and generous to Canada's need. I am n o t s u r e j u s t what k i n d of arrangement Canadians might d e s i r e . I t o c c u r s to me, f o r example, t h a t we might g r a n t Canada one or more f r e e p o r t s a t p o i n t s a l o n g the A l a s k a c o a s t . I can see no o b j e c t i o n t o such an arrangement. I do not b e l i e v e we would c o n s i d e r permanently a l i e n a t i n g any American t e r r i t o r y t o Canadian s o v e r e i g n t y . -* u  I t i s c l e a r t h a t a l t h o u g h the American government was r e s p o n s i v e t o the aims of the r e s o l u t i o n they were n o t p r e p a r e d t o c o n s i d e r any a l i e n a t i o n o f t e r r i t o r y i n the form o f c o r r i d o r s .  Canadians d i d n o t  accept t h i s premise and t h i s f a c t c o n t i n u e d to hamper t h e i r n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r the n e x t decade.  Statement by'the Hon. Hugh B u t l e r of Nebraska i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate, F r i d a y , J a n u a r y 29, 1954. Page 6 i n E x h i b i t 3 o f a l e t t e r from the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines t o Mr. W a l t e r Gordon, Chairman o f the R o y a l Commission on Canada's Economic P r o s p e c t s . F e b r u a r y 13, 1956. Emphasis i s t h a t of the a u t h o r .  The r e p l y from the Canadian Government brought the m a t t e r to an a b r u p t c l o s e , as i t r e f u s e d to r e c o g n i z e a problem e x i s t e d . " I t has not been shown or even s e r i o u s l y argued t h a t Canadian c o r r i d o r s a c r o s s the A l a s k a Panhandle would be of any advantage, 31 e i t h e r to Canada or t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . "  F u r t h e r , from a speech  by the Hon. Jean Lesage, then M i n i s t e r of N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s  and  32 N a t i o n a l Resources. The (Canadian) government has not r e c e i v e d any r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s from the governments of B r i t i s h Columbia or the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and i t does not see any adequate r e a s o n to i n i t i a t e any such d i s c u s s i o n s i t s e l f . So f a r as the Yukon i s c o n c e r n e d , f o r w h i c h the f e d e r a l government has complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e r e a r e not at t h i s time nor do t h e r e appear t o be i n p r o s p e c t any problems o f development t h a t r e q u i r e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f "corridors". A p o i n t t h a t s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind i s t h a t the " c o r r i d o r " p r o p o s a l amounts to a s u g g e s t i o n e i t h e r t h a t Canada a c q u i r e t i t l e t o some U n i t e d S t a t e s t e r r i t o r y or e l s e get e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s on U n i t e d S t a t e s territory. N e i t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s one t h a t i s l i k e l y to be viewed w i t h any favour i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Mr. Lesage was c o r r e c t i n h i s l a s t s t a t e m e n t , but he f a i l e d t o c o n s i d e r t h a t a c o r r i d o r was not the o n l y s o l u t i o n and t h a t t h e r e were avenues open f o r n e g o t i a t i o n which d i d not i n v o l v e a change in t e r r i t o r i a l sovereignty.  On the s u r f a c e , attempts t o change  American laws a f f e c t i n g Canadian t r a n s p o r t a t i o n through the panhandle,  Canadian P r e s s , " P r o p o s a l s f o r A l a s k a Get C h i l l y R e c e p t i o n , " The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , (February 3, 1954), p. 27. E x h i b i t 5 o f a l e t t e r from the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines t o Mr. W a l t e r Gordon, Chairman of the R o y a l Commission on Canada's Economic P r o s p e c t s . F e b r u a r y 13, 1956. E x h i b i t 5 from the Canadian Government "Hansard", pages 1855 to 1857, F e b r u a r y 8, 1954.  (the f u n c t i o n s o f the b o u n d a r y ) , appear e x t r e m e l y offers a practical alternative.  d i f f i c u l t but i t  C o r r i d o r s appeared as an easy  s o l u t i o n and c o n t i n u e d to dominate Canadian t h i n k i n g , but they were s i m p l y not a c c e p t a b l e t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y of an a l t e r n a t i v e to the c o r r i d o r i d e a was  s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r from Senator  H. B u t l e r as the Chairman of the  U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate Committee on I n t e r i o r and  Insular Affairs  to  33 the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines. I would l i k e t o say t h a t t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of the U n i t e d S t a t e s c e d i n g any t e r r i t o r y i n t o the s o v e r e i g n t y o f Canada. I would hope the arrangement a r r i v e d a t would i n c l u d e the i d e a of r e t a i n i n g American s o v e r e i g n t y over a l l p r e s e n t American s o i l , but g i v i n g Canada every freedom, r i g h t , and p r i v i l e g e they c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y r e q u i r e . J  However, the Canadian Government had s t a t e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n and f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n was The  no  g i v e n to the problem.  q u e s t i o n of accessways a g a i n r o s e i n 1956 when Mr.  J.A.  Simmons, the Canadian Member of P a r l i a m e n t f o r the Yukon T e r r i t o r y r a i s e d the problem i n the House of Commons. "accessways...of 99 y e a r s  He proposed;  l e a s e or easement arrangement e n a b l i n g  Canadians to t r a v e l over p o r t i o n s of the panhandle to f r e e l y  reach  35 and f r e e l y use t i d e w a t e r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . "  Simmons warned a g a i n s t  p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n over the problem as the i n c r e a s i n g economic development i n the n o r t h w e s t would o n l y l e a d t o a more d i f f i c u l t s o l u t i o n when the problem of access became a c u t e . 33 Ibid, exhibit  4.  Emphasis i s t h a t o f the  author.  35 J.A. Simmons, House of Commons Debates ( V o l . 98, No. 22 P a r l i a m e n t . Thursday, A p r i l 12, 1956), p. 2853.  61, 3rd S e s s i o n ,  73.  Mr. E.L. B a r t l e t t , the A l a s k a n d e l e g a t e  to the U n i t e d  S t a t e s Congress took advantage of the i n t e r e s t c r e a t e d by the p r o p o s a l of Simmons and came to Canada t o d i s c u s s the problem w i t h Prime M i n i s t e r St. Laurent, E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r Lester Pearson, and Simmons.  He proposed t h a t Canada r e c e i v e a c o r r i d o r t h r o u g h  the A l a s k a panhandle i n r e t u r n f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the hydro e l e c t r i c power generated by d i v e r t i n g the headwaters o f t h e Yukon R i v e r  ( i n Canada) t h r o u g h the c o a s t a l mountains down i n t o t h e  T a i y a V a l l e y near Skagway. In r e p l y , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r L e s t e r Pearson announced  .36 The F e d e r a l Government does not t h i n k t h e r e i s any j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the b a r t e r i n g of Canadian water power f o r c o r r i d o r s t o the sea through the A l a s k a panhandle. Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s a l r e a d y have agreed t o d i p l o m a t i c d i s c u s s i o n s of the whole boundary w a t e r s q u e s t i o n and i t s h o u l d be k e p t s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t from the q u e s t i o n of Canadian c o r r i d o r s through the panhandle.  He went on t o say t h a t the problem of a c c e s s through the panhandle was not as s e r i o u s as had been made o u t .  The s i t u a t i o n was  similar  t o t h a t o f 1953, except f o r the added c o m p l i c a t i o n o f hydro power. The development o f power and c o r r i d o r schemes a l o n g the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d and the problem of hydro power w i l l be examined  i n more d e t a i l i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , Thursday, June 21, 1956, p. 3.  74.  However, because o f i t s importance a t t h i s stage o f the Canada-United S t a t e s c o r r i d o r n e g o t i a t i o n s , the r o l e o f hydro power w i l l be briefly  considered.  At the time when Canada-United S t a t e s t a l k s over c o r r i d o r s were i n p r o g r e s s , these two s t a t e s were a l s o n e g o t i a t i n g development  joint  o f the Columbia R i v e r hydro r e s o u r c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  and a l l boundary waters i n g e n e r a l .  The p o l i c y o f the Canadian  government was n o t to a l l o w the export o f any hydro power, which had resulted  i n 1955 i n the blockage of the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a dam on the  Arrow Lakes  i n B r i t i s h Columbia by K a i s e r aluminum t o s u p p l y power t o  t h e i r plant  i n Washington  development  o f the Y u k o n - A t l i n - T a k u d i v e r s i o n scheme near  S t a t e , and was c u r r e n t l y h o l d i n g up the Juneau.  The American c o r r i d o r p r o p o s a l was an attempt to e x p e d i t e a change i n Canadian power p o l i c y and was r e j e c t e d . it  With the advantage o f h i n d s i g h t  i s easy to see t h a t the i d e a o f a c o r r i d o r was o n l y hampered w i t h  i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h power development. a corridor  The concept o f an exchange o f  f o r power was u n a c c e p t a b l e to Canada.  B e f o r e the next stage o f n e g o t i a t i o n s over access i s examined, the American p o s i t i o n i n 1956 on c o r r i d o r s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d to a s c e r t a i n if  there has been any change from t h e i r  p o s i t i o n was s t a t e d by E.L. B a r t l e t t American S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e .  1953 p o s i t i o n .  The American  i n a l e t t e r to John F o s t e r  37  J.M. M i n i f i e , "Washington Report - C o r r i d o r f o r Power Swap," Toronto Telegram (June 4, 1956).  Dulles,  . . . w h i l e the l a n d would n o t be permanently a l i e n a t e d , i t would be c o n s i d e r e d as Canadian t e r r i t o r y f o r a l l purposes i n c l u d i n g domestic l a w , t a r i f f , customs, i m m i g r a t i o n , and so on. I t s i n h a b i t a n t s would be Canadian c i t i z e n s and i t s p r o d u c t s would be t r e a t e d as imports from Canada when brought t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  As t h i s was as f a r as t h e p r o p o s a l went i n t h e government, d i f f i c u l t t o judge i t s outcome, however,  i t is  i t i s reasonable to conclude  t h a t t h i s p r o p o s a l would have been r e j e c t e d by t h e American  government  as i t i n f a c t i n v o l v e s a l i e n a t i o n o f American t e r r i t o r y , c o n c e i v a b l y through the l e a s i n g o f a c o r r i d o r t o Canada.  The e x t e n t t o w h i c h  Canada would c o n t r o l the l e a s e d t e r r i t o r y and t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s type of  p r e c e d e n t , would no doubt l e a d t o i t s r e j e c t i o n .  Of c o u r s e ,  from t h e Canadian p o i n t o f v i e w , t h i s p r o p o s a l i s p r e c i s e l y what was hoped f o r .  The problem l a p s e d u n t i l 1959 when the T e r r i t o r y o f A l a s k a g a i n e d s t a t e h o o d s t a t u s and began t o h a n d l e i t s own a f f a i r s .  In  January 1959, t h e A l a s k a n d e l e g a t i o n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress announced  t h a t they were p r e p a r e d t o o f f e r B r i t i s h Columbia a c o r r i d o r  through t h e A l a s k a panhandle i n r e t u r n f o r j o i n t development o f 38  Yukon R i v e r power. The c o r r i d o r and s e a p o r t t o remain under Canadian c o n t r o l so l o n g as Canada p e r m i t s d i v e r s i o n o f Yukon water t o t h e T a i y a V a l l e y and v i c e v e r s a . The c o r r i d o r and s e a p o r t t o be c o n s i d e r e d as Canadian t e r r i t o r y f o r a l l purposes i n c l u d i n g domestic l a w , t a r i f f , customs,  " B r i t i s h Columbia C o r r i d o r - F o r - P o w e r ; New U n i t e d S t a t e s " I n t e r e s t i n D e a l , " F i n a n c i a l Post ( J a n u a r y 24, 1959), p. 11. The A l a s k a n d e l e g a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f Senators E.L. B a r t l e t t and E. G r u e n i n g .  immigration, etc. P r o d u c t s o f the c o r r i d o r t o be t r e a t e d a s i m p o r t s f r o m C a n a d a i f a n d when b r o u g h t o u t s i d e the c o r r i d o r to the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The c o r r i d o r and p o r t would l e g a l l y r e m a i n under U n i t e d S t a t e s o w n e r s h i p w i t h Canada t a k i n g c o n t r o l under some k i n d o f l e a s e a r r a n g e m e n t . This of  proposal  their  stand  production going  was t u r n e d  on the e x p o r t  (reflected  on a t  down b y t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t  this  time)  of hydro  power  i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s and because  or water  over  both  because  f o r hydro  power-  the Columbia R i v e r  the government  d i d not f e e l  a  39 corridor  and port  In brief Its  1964 t h e A t l i n  to promote  aims  w o u l d b e o f much a d v a n t a g e  were  the development  similar  to  access  along  from e i t h e r  of  a free  the Canadian or American  to change  corridors  o f Trade  point  Columbia and Yukon envisioned  i s a speech  Northern Development,  a  and the c o n s t r u c t i o n to the  of  proposals  governments.  t o be e x a m i n e d  the l o c a t i o n  a  B r i t i s h Columbia.  The b r i e f port,  prepared  T h e r e h a s b e e n no o f f i c i a l r e a c t i o n  The f i n a l attempts  Canada.  of northwestern  i n 1953.  t h e Taku R i v e r ,  highways.  Board  those o f the B r i t i s h  Chamber o f M i n e s r e s o l u t i o n s corridor  District  to  i n this  of the boundary  discussion through  the  of facility  made b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a n d  Arthur Laing,  t o t h e Second Yukon N o r t h e r n  40 Resource studies  Conference.  H i s department  on t h e p r o b l e m t o  "No Panhandle 1959),  p.  l a y t h e groundwork  to Canada:  out p r e l i m i n a r y  for a possible  Alaska Reply," Financial  Post  solution.  (June  13,  7.  Second Yukon N o r t h e r n Resource March  has c a r r i e d  23-25,  1966.  (Whitehorse  Conference, Chamber  of  Proceedings. Commerce).  Whitehorse  We l e a r n e d t h a t the problem o f access t o t h e sea i s indeed complex. We c o n s i d e r e d such m a t t e r s as the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f the panhandle r e g i o n , r e s o u r c e endowment and p o t e n t i a l , s e t t l e m e n t and l a n d use, forms w h i c h a d d i t i o n a l access might take and t h e many p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l problems a r i s i n g ^ out o f the e x i s t e n c e o f the Canada-Alaska boundary. This i s t h e f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n s i n c e 1956 t h a t t h e Canadian government i s a c t i n g on t h e problem.  I t i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Mr. L a i n g does  not a c c e p t c o r r i d o r s as t h e answer t o the problem and t h a t s e v e r a l "forms which ... access might t a k e " a r e b e i n g  considered.  He goes on i n h i s address t o c o n s i d e r a proposed SkagwayC a r c r o s s r o a d and t h e r o l e o f t h e p r e s e n t Haines r o a d . 8).  Concerning  (See F i g u r e  t h e l a t t e r r o a d , L a i n g made some o b s e r v a t i o n s on  4 2  i t s use. I know t h a t some people have had m i s g i v i n g s about k e e p i n g the road open d u r i n g t h e p a s t t h r e e w i n t e r s on the grounds t h a t much o f t h e t r a f f i c moving on i t i s A l a s k a n t r a f f i c . I am sure t h a t no one, i n c l u d i n g the people o f A l a s k a , has any i l l u s i o n s about who i s t h e p r i m a r y b e n e f i c i a r y o f k e e p i n g t h e road open on a s t r a i g h t head-count b a s i s . I b e l i e v e that during recent w i n t e r s , about t h r e e U n i t e d S t a t e s v e h i c l e s have moved on the road f o r every Canadian v e h i c l e . ... Many o f us a r e wont t o t h i n k i n terms o f more r o u t e s t o the sea through the panhandle. We f o r g e t , howe v e r , t h a t the Haines Road i s , i n f a c t , v i t a l t o the A l a s k a n s i n terms o f i n t e r - A l a s k a n t r a f f i c .  I b i d , p. 220. Emphasis i s t h a t o f the a u t h o r . An i n d i c a t i o n o f a p o s s i b l e new t r e n d i n t h i n k i n g on s o l v i n g t h e problem; t h a t i s , a change i n f u n c t i o n as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o a c o r r i d o r . I b i d , pp. 220-221.  I t h i n k there i s at l e a s t some case f o r b e l i e v i n g that the people of A l a s k a , and a l s o the U n i t e d States Government may be more i n t e r e s t e d i n what we may some day have to say about access for, our purposes i f we can p o i n t to an access route which has been m a i n t a i n e d l a r g e l y f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t through Canadian s o i l . He  d i d not  some new  expand f u r t h e r on the  t h i n k i n g on  power exchange has for bargaining  l a s t concept but  the problem.  been dropped.  C l e a r l y any I t would now  t h i s does i n d i c a t e  i d e a of a hydro appear t h a t a p o i n t  i s open to Canadians as the Haines road i s c e r t a i n l y  an A l a s k a n routeway through Canadian t e r r i t o r y and their benefit. ask  Thus, as  the M i n i s t e r suggests, i f Canada was  t h a t a road be c o n s t r u c t e d  c o u l d be w e l l r e c e i v e d .  i s maintained for  from Skagway to C a r c r o s s ,  the  Of c o u r s e , improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  are o n l y a p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n to the problem of r e s t r i c t e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n through the panhandle and  to idea routes  Canadian  changes i n the f u n c t i o n of  the boundary are a l s o n e c e s s a r y .  To sum  up  the q u e s t i o n  to s o l v e the problem of a c c e s s , p r e s e n t e d to i l l u s t r a t e the 1.  I t has Federal access.  over the f e a s i b i l i t y of c o r r i d o r s the  following conclusions  are  i m p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of such a s o l u t i o n .  been shown i n past n e g o t i a t i o n s Government i s not  t h a t the  Canadian  c o n v i n c e d Canada needs improved  Present arrangements of bonding, s h i p p i n g  immigration r e g u l a t i o n s , labour acceptable.  Emphasis i s that of the  author.  and  and  c o s t s are deemed  79.  2.  I f any type of c o r r i d o r or accessway i s d e s i r e d , the exchange of Canadian hydro power f o r American i s not  3.  concessions  acceptable.  A Canadian c o r r i d o r would e v e n u t a l l y arouse resentment i n the American c i t i e s l o c a t e d i n the A l a s k a panhandle. S e v e r a l of the s m a l l e r communities ( H a i n e s , Wrangel, and e s p e c i a l l y Skagway) depend to a l a r g e e x t e n t on and  s u p p l y i n g Canadian goods and  i n d u s t r y i n the  handling interior.  A c o r r i d o r would d e p r i v e these communities of many economic f u n c t i o n s , and as a r e s u l t t h e i r l o b b y i n g p r e s s u r e on  the  American government c o u l d w e l l cause many problems i n maintaining a c o r r i d o r . 4.  As s e v e r a l American government l e a d e r s have i n d i c a t e d , i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c to expect the U n i t e d S t a t e s to cede t e r r i t o r y for a corridor.  any  I t i s f u r t h e r suggested t h a t  not o n l y i s an o u t r i g h t c e s s i o n of l a n d not a c c e p t a b l e  but  a l e a s e on a s e c t i o n o f American t e r r i t o r y w i l l a l s o be viewed by the U n i t e d S t a t e s government as a c e s s i o n o f l a n d and thus  Before  unacceptable.  the s u b j e c t of a change i n the l o c a t i o n of the boundary  i s put a s i d e t h e r e i s one  f u r t h e r a s p e c t of the t o p i c w h i c h s h o u l d  d i s c u s s e d , t h a t i s , the concept of the f r e e p o r t .  I t i s suggested  t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s concept i n t o the c o r r i d o r problem i s more a r e s u l t of a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the meaning of the term  than any r e a l i s t i c d e s i r e to use t h i s type o f s o l u t i o n .  be  The  i d e a of a f r e e p o r t was  put f o r w a r d i n 1958 by the  W r a n g e l l Chamber of Commerce when they suggested to the A l a s k a I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a i l and Highway Commission t h a t Canada be granted a " f r e e a c c e s s " r o a d a l o n g t h e S t i k i n e R i v e r and a " f r e e p o r t " o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one m i l e square to be e s t a b l i s h e d a t the end of  this  44 road.  L a t e r the o f f e r was  r e p e a t e d by Senator Gruening  i n an  exchange p r o p o s a l he put f o r w a r d i n 1959. The term " f r e e p o r t " has been b a n t e r e d about a number of times i n the p a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s but t h e r e has been l i t t l e e x a m i n a t i o n of what i s e n t a i l e d i n t h i s d e v i c e .  critical  Mr. L. W i l l i a m s ,  S e c r e t a r y o f the P e t e r s b u r g Chamber of Commerce, sums up h i s 46 views: I have h e a r d vague r e f e r e n c e s to i d e a s of c r e a t i n g a " f r e e p o r t " . When I q u e s t i o n persons as to what they mean I get answers which a r e vague and c o n f u s i n g . My i d e a o f a f r e e p o r t i s one w h i c h i s under the c i v i l and c r i m i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n of a c e r t a i n c o u n t r y owning the s o i l but i n t o which goods can be brought f o r manufacture, e x p o r t o r s a l e w i t h o u t the payment o f duty. I f a c o r r i d o r from the Canadian b o r d e r to deep w a t e r , p l u s a t o w n s i t e , were to be d e c l a r e d a f r e e c i t y i t would not i n any way a f f e c t the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of goods or persons from one p o i n t i n Canada t o a n o t h e r .  R e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e W r a n g e l l Chamber of Commerce, December 16, 1958. The "Panhandle F i l e " of the B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber o f Mines, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. "No  Panhandle t o Canada:  Alaska Reply,"  op. c i t . , p.  7.  I n c l u d e d i n a l e t t e r from Mr. L. W i l l i a m s , S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of The S o u t h e a s t e r n C o n f e r e n c e , (an A s s o c i a t i o n t o Develop T r a n s p o r t a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s i n S o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a ) , t o Mr. T. E l l i o t t , Manager o f The B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber o f Mines, June 12, 1959.  I f a c i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e S t i k i n e R i v e r as a f r e e p o r t i t w o u l d h a v e to be u n d e r t h e c i v i l a n d c r i m i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f one c o u n t r y o r a n o t h e r and i f under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the Canadian r e s i d e n t s would have to be a d m i t t e d u n d e r the ( U n i t e d S t a t e s ) i m m i g r a t i o n laws. To make s u c h a f r e e c i t y u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f Canada t h e r e w o u l d have t o be a c e s s i o n o f t h e l a n d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I f goods were s h i p p e d t h r o u g h s u c h a p l a c e one w o u l d n o t h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t t h e r e - e x p o r t and the c o s t o f s u c h a bond w o u l d be s a v e d b u t , o t h e r w i s e , I c a n s e e a b s o l u t e l y no d i f f e r e n c e . In other of  words,  a  free  a b o n d on g o o d s  change  a n d c o r r i d o r w o u l d remove  being transported  implemented.  shipping  port  Immigration,  regulations  would  The p o s i t i o n o f  still  the  but  the  t h e r e w o u l d b e no  l a b o u r and l a b o u r c o s t s , be under U n i t e d  A m e r i c a n government  States  necessity other and  jurisdiction.  on f r e e  port  is  47 as  follows: A f r e e p o r t or f r e e zone i s a p l a c e , l i m i t e d i n e x t e n t , that d i f f e r s from adjacent t e r r i t o r y i n b e i n g exempt f r o m t h e c u s t o m s l a w s a s a f f e c t i n g g o o d s destined for re-export; i t means s i m p l y t h a t , a s r e g a r d s customs d u t i e s , t h e r e i s f r e e d o m , u n l e s s and u n t i l i m p o r t e d goods e n t e r the d o m e s t i c m a r k e t . It i s s u b j e c t e q u a l l y w i t h a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s to a l l t h e laws r e l a t i n g t o p u b l i c h e a l t h , v e s s e l i n s p e c t i o n , postal s e r v i c e , labour c o n d i t i o n s , i m m i g r a t i o n , and i n d e e d e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t the c u s t o m s .  Thus, pursuing United well  the  States  loose  United  it  free is  would appear port  concept  desirous  of  i n any e x c h a n g e .  States  Tariff  that  Canada c o u l d g a i n  further,  and i f  as  is  little  expected,  some r i g h t s  in return,  Bonding has  worked s u c c e s s f u l l y  Commission,  op.  cit. ,  p.  from the  Canada c o u l d  1.  for  s i x t y - e i g h t y e a r s as r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f boundary f u n c t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e , a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s one problem of many i s c o n c e i v a b l y  not w o r t h t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s and c o n c e s s i o n s  required f o r a free corridor. THE SECOND ALTERNATIVE - A CHANGE IN THE FUNCTIONS OF THE BOUNDARY On f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n a c o r r i d o r would appear t o s o l v e the a c c e s s problem v e r y s i m p l y and e f f e c t i v e l y compared t o a change in function.  However, as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d a change i n l o c a t i o n  is impossible  t o a c h i e v e , hence a change i n f u n c t i o n may w e l l prove  t o be t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n . a v a r i e t y of f i e l d s  I t w i l l require extensive negotiation i n  ( s h i p p i n g , l a b o u r , and i m m i g r a t i o n ) but h o p e f u l l y  agreement i s p o s s i b l e .  I t i s c l e a r t h r o u g h a b r i e f p e r u s a l o f the problems w h i c h have a r i s e n i n the p a s t t h a t c o a s t w i s e  s h i p p i n g i s the most i m p o r t a n t  f a c t o r i n terms o f c o s t and i n c o n v e n i e n c e s u f f e r e d because o f the b a r r i e r e f f e c t o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary.  Therefore,  s h i p p i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s w i l l be examined i n d e t a i l and labour and immigration  w i l l be c o n f i n e d  t o a b r i e f summation a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n .  Coastwise s h i p p i n g i s a p a r t i c u l a r i l y d i f f i c u l t b o t h because A l a s k a  problem,  i s non-contiguous w i t h the r e s t o f the U n i t e d  S t a t e s and, t h u s , must use many i n t e r v e n i n g Canadian f a c i l i t i e s f o r communication, and because the geographic p o s i t i o n o f t h e panhandle creates  the n e c e s s i t y f o r Canadians t o use American p o r t s when  e x p o r t i n g and i m p o r t i n g t o and from the Yukon T e r r i t o r y and n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Both Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s have  l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h f o r b i d s the use of n o n - n a t i o n a l v e s s e l s when t r a n s p o r t i n g goods from one Canadian d e s t i n a t i o n t o another o r from one American d e s t i n a t i o n t o a n o t h e r .  I n American law, the Merchant 4  Marine A c t o f 1920  ( p o p u l a r l y known as the Jones Law) i s as f o l l o w s :  No merchandise s h a l l be t r a n s p o r t e d by w a t e r , or by l a n d and water ... between p o i n t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ... e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or v i a a f o r e i g n p o r t , or f o r any p a r t o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i n any o t h e r v e s s e l than a v e s s e l b u i l t i n and documented under the laws of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and owned by persons who a r e c i t i z e n s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Thus, Canadians cannot e x p o r t goods from the Yukon T e r r i t o r y through Skagway t o a U n i t e d S t a t e s p o r t i n a Canadian s h i p , but a r e r e q u i r e d by U n i t e d S t a t e s law t o use an American s h i p .  F o r example, the  " S t r a i t s Towing Company, (a Canadian f i r m ) , i n the e a r l y 1950's had a c o n t r a c t to h a u l copper o r e from n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia t o the o n l y s m e l t e r on the P a c i f i c c o a s t a t Tacoma, Washington. was mined  T h i s ore  i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia b e h i n d ( t o the e a s t o f ) the  Panhandle and loaded i n t o l a r g e o r e b a r g e s , to be towed by S t r a i t s t o the s m e l t e r .  However, s i n c e t h i s i n v o l v e d a shipment from one  American p o r t t o a n o t h e r , i t would be i l l e g a l under the terms of the Jones A c t .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the shipments were brought to Vancouver,  B r i t i s h Columbia, where the ore was b e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g to Tacoma.  t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t barges  The time l o s s and i n c r e a s e d h a n d l i n g  charges r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d c o s t s which were p a r t i a l l y passed onto 49 the Canadian m i n i n g f i r m i n h i g h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c h a r g e s " .  U n i t e d S t a t e s Code A n n o t a t e d . 46; 883. p. Bruce, op. c i t . ,  p. 24.  108  Americans too a r e r e s t r i c t e d by t h e Merchant Marine Act.  For example, e a r l y i n 1967 some American goods en r o u t e  from Idaho t o A l a s k a made p a r t o f the j o u r n e y v i a t h e B r i t i s h Columbia f e r r y system and were c o n s e q u e n t l y s e i z e d by American customs o f f i c i a l s i n Juneau as a f o r e i g n v e s s e l was used i n p a r t of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from one American d e s t i n a t i o n t o a n o t h e r . The Canadian S h i p p i n g A c t p l a c e s the same r e s t r i c t i o n s on Canadians u s i n g American s h i p s . No goods s h a l l be t r a n s p o r t e d by water o r by l a n d and w a t e r , from one p l a c e i n Canada t o a n o t h e r p l a c e i n Canada, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r by way o f a f o r e i g n p o r t o r f o r any p a r t o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n any s h i p o t h e r than a B r i t i s h S h i p . In e f f e c t ,  t h i s law r e s t r i c t s Canadians from u s i n g the A l a s k a S t a t e  F e r r y system when en r o u t e from s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia t o t h e Yukon.  This r e s t r i c t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y ignored but o c c a s i o n a l l y ,  when commerce i s i n v o l v e d , r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e imposed. There have been many cases o f b o t h Canadian and American s h i p p e r s hampered by the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e i r s h i p p i n g laws.  Suffice  to say the above examples a r e t y p i c a l o f t h e problems f a c i n g c o a s t w i s e  Canadian S h i p p i n g A c t . 671.  Chapter 29, P a r t X I I I , S e c t i o n 669 and  Votes and P r o c e e d i n g s , Yukon T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l , Second 1966. V o l . 2. pp. 481-483.  Session,  transportation.  The r e s t r i c t i v e a f f e c t of the laws a r e f e l t more  k e e n l y i n the c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s - B r i t i s h  Columbia-Alaska  t r a d e than i n most o t h e r c o a s t w i s e s h i p p i n g i n N o r t h America because of the s i t u a t i o n of the A l a s k a Panhandle and the s p e c i a l problems a r i s i n g out of A l a s k a ' s d i s c o n t i g u i t y w i t h the r e s t of the U n i t e d States.  I n a d d i t i o n , because o f the r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t economic  development of A l a s k a , the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , and n o r t h e r n  British  Columbia compared to the Great Lakes a r e a , the E a s t , G u l f , and south-western  c o a s t s of N o r t h America,  former r e g i o n a r e p r e s s i n g now,  the problems a r i s i n g i n the  whereas s i m i l a r problems i n the  l a t t e r r e g i o n s were s e t t l e d y e a r s  ago.  The most p r o m i s i n g f a c t o r i n the s e a r c h f o r a s o l u t i o n t o the s h i p p i n g problem through a change i n boundary f u n c t i o n i s the precedent  e s t a b l i s h e d by s i m i l a r s o l u t i o n s i n o t h e r a r e a s .  f o l l o w i n g examples may 1.  The  c l a r i f y this point.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , precedent was  established in Articles  XXIX to XXXI of the T r e a t y o f Washington,  1871.  These a r t i c l e s s t a t e i n essence t h a t goods i n t o Canada or e x p o r t e d from Canada may  imported  use customs  houses i n d e s i g n a t e d p o r t s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s  and  be conveyed i n t r a n s i t w i t h o u t the payment of d u t i e s through t e r r i t o r y of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . p r i v i l e g e was  The same  extended to American commerce  u t i l i z i n g Canadian p o r t s and t r a n s i t r o u t e s .  These  For f u r t h e r examples of problems see; O f f i c i a l Opinions o f the A t t o r n e y s G e n e r a l o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Merchant Marine Act T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f F i s h between p o i n t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s v i a a F o r e i g n P o r t , 1920. ed. G. Kearney, (Washington: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1922), pp. 350-353. D.F. Oman, " M a r i t i m e F i g h t Rocks P a c i f i c C o a s t , " P a c i f i c Work Boat, LV (March, 1963), p. 6. U n i t e d S t a t e s Code Annotated s e c t i o n 883, Merchant Marine A c t , 1920. Notes of D e c i s i o n s , pp. 112-113.  c o n c e s s i o n s were t e r m i n a t e d by the U n i t e d  States  53 government as o f J u l y , 2.  1885.  U n t i l such time as passenger s e r v i c e s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d by v e s s e l s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s between the p o r t o f R o c h e s t e r , New New  York and the p o r t of A l e x a n d r i a  Bay,  Y o r k , the Commissioner o f Customs i s a u t h o r i z e d  i n h i s d i s c r e t i o n t o i s s u e a n n u a l l y p e r m i t s to Canadian passenger v e s s e l s to t r a n s p o r t passengers between these p o r t s ; such Canadian v e s s e l s h o l d i n g such p e r m i t s to be s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s of s e c t i o n 289 54  not  (The  Merchant M a r i n e A c t ) . 3.  That u n t i l June 30, 1957,  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r o v i s i o n s  of law of the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e s t r i c t i n g to v e s s e l s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f m e r c h a n d i s e , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , from any p o r t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s to another v e s s e l s may  p o r t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canadian  t r a n s p o r t c o a l to Ogdensburg, New  York,  from o t h e r p o i n t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , on the Great 55 or t h e i r c o n n e c t i n g or t r i b u t a r y 4.  Notwithstanding  waters.  the p r o v i s i o n s of the law o f the  U n i t e d S t a t e s ... may  Lakes,  (Merchant Marine A c t ) , passengers  be t r a n s p o r t e d on Canadian v e s s e l s between Hyder,  A l a s k a , and o t h e r p o i n t s i n s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a or the c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or v i a T r e a t i e s and Agreements A f f e c t i n g Canada i n Force Between H i s M a j e s t y and the U n i t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a , 1814-1925. (Ottawa: Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1927), pp. 46-47. U n i t e d S t a t e s Code A n n o t a t e d. pp. 34-35. I b i d , A c t . August 7, 1956,  46:289a of Merchant Marine A c t ,  c l 0 2 8 , 7 0 S t a t . 1090.  p.  109.  1920.  a f o r e i g n p o r t , or f o r any p a r t o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . S i m i l a r laws a u t h o r i z i n g t h i s e x c e p t i o n were passed each year from 1947 t o 1961. 5.  A g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s of the e x t e n t o f e x c e p t i o n s t o the law i s found i n a statement f i l e d w i t h the Committee of  Commerce o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate.  The r e c o r d  of  C o n g r e s s i o n a l a c t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d shows t h a t  c o a s t w i s e p r i v i l e g e s have been extended t o a l a r g e number of f o r e i g n f l a g v e s s e l s i n something over twenty p u b l i c and p r i v a t e laws s i n c e World War I I . I t has been c l a i m e d t h a t these e x c e p t i o n s a p p l y t o s m a l l e r v e s s e l s or u n u s u a l problems or s i t u a t i o n s . The f a c t i s t h a t the e x c e p t i o n s have c o v e r e d a wide v a r i e t y of v e s s e l s , l a r g e and s m a l l , i n c l u d i n g t u g s , b a r g e s , f i s h i n g b o a t s , f e r r i e s , passenger s h i p s and lumber, g r a i n and ore c a r r i e r s .  They have o p e r a t e d on  a l l c o a s t s and on the Great L a k e s , and i t would seem i r r e l e v a n t t o attempt t o c l a s s i f y them, as each r e p r e s e n t e d u s u a l c o n d i t i o n s and s p e c i f i c  problems  w h i c h were r e c o g n i z e d and met by e f f e c t i v e C o n g r e s s i o n a l action.  Each case has i n v o l v e d a s p e c i a l type o f 57  v e s s e l t o meet a s p e c i f i c  need.  U n i t e d S t a t e s Code A n n o t a t e d , 46:883 of Merchant Marine A c t , 1920. p. 109. E x c e r p t s from a statement f i l e d w i t h the Committee of Commerce, U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate r e . S.534, F e b r u a r y 20, 1963, found i n Bruce, op. c i t . , pp. 19-20.  88.  I t i s suggested t h a t the examples c i t e d above, and s p e c i f i c a l l y the l a s t s t a t e m e n t , are s u f f i c i e n t precedent to w a r r a n t s e r i o u s n e g o t i a t i o n s designed to remove r e s t r i c t i o n s c e r t a i n coastwise exceptions  shipping.  on  Changes must be r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n  as a g e n e r a l change i n the Canadian and American laws  would have s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s prove u n a c c e p t a b l e .  The  i n o t h e r s h i p p i n g r e g i o n s and  l o b b y i n g power of some Canadian and  shippers w i l l play a large r o l e i n negotiations.  thus  American  However, i n s p i t e  of the above q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , the l o n g term economic b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d by s e l e c t e d changes i n the law must be the p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n n e g o t i a t i o n s and a compromise s o l u t i o n .  It i s important  to p o i n t out t h a t approaches have been  made i n the past by i n d i v i d u a l s t o the American and for  Canadian governments  a change i n the Merchant Marine A c t , but most have been u n s u c c e s s f u l .  (The Canadian S h i p p i n g A c t has  f a r l e s s e f f e c t on c o a s t w i s e  shipping  because the problem i s more o f t e n t h a t of Canadian goods g o i n g through Alaskan  p o r t s to markets i n the c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d  and b e i n g r e q u i r e d by law to be shipped reverse).  States  i n American bottoms, than the  I t i s suggested t h a t i f e i t h e r government would take  i n i t i a t i v e , the problem would be s o l v e d w i t h d i s p a t c h .  The  the  following  example w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t .  I n 1961  a B r i t i s h Columbia tugboat company r e q u e s t e d  the B r i t i s h Columbia A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s  Department and  the  through  Federal  Department of Trade " t h a t e f f o r t s be made to s e c u r e the m o d i f i c a t i o n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s ' Jones Act to p e r m i t the h a n d l i n g of domestic  Canadian goods by Canadian f l a g v e s s e l s when s h i p p e d through any A l a s k a n p o r t and when such goods a r e d e s t i n e d f o r o t h e r American CO  ports."  The Hyder case (example number 4, above) was c i t e d as  precedent.  " A l t h o u g h the p r o p o s a l was acknowledged by b o t h t h e  p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments, t h a t appeared t o be t h e e x t e n t 59 of t h e i r a c t i o n . " governments  Lack o f l o b b y i n g power o f t h e company w i t h the  i n v o l v e d and t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s west  c o a s t m a r i t i m e i n d u s t r y have been g i v e n as reasons f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f the p r o p o s a l . government  T h i s case demonstrates the n e c e s s i t y o f s e c u r i n g  c o - o p e r a t i o n i n any attempted r e v i s i o n o f the laws and  as the M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development  stated  (see p. 76) i n 1966, a r e v i e w o f t h e problem by t h e government i s now i n p r o g r e s s . The above example by no means seeks t o e l i m i n a t e the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l Canadian companies cannot make p r i v a t e arrangements w i t h the American government  f o r e x c l u s i o n from t h e  Merchant Marine A c t i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s , as has i n f a c t been done, but i t i s suggested t h a t i f a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the Merchant Marine A c t i s d e s i r e d by west c o a s t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n companies, Canadian government  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s necessary.  Some r e l i e f has r e c e n t l y been  f o r t h c o m i n g f o r Canadian t r a n s p o r t companies when the Canadian government  gave a p p r o v a l f o r t h e A l a s k a S t a t e F e r r y System t o c a r r y  Canadian commercial t r a f f i c between P r i n c e R u p e r t , B r i t i s h Columbia and H a i n e s , A l a s k a , under a one y e a r exemption from t h e Canadian Shipping A c t .  I b i d , pp. 33-34. 59  I b i d , p. 35.  At p r e s e n t , t h e Government o f A l a s k a i s a t t e m p t i n g t o overcome the r e s t r i c t i o n s easier connections H.W.  o f t h e Merchant Marine A c t t o f a c i l i t a t e  to the c o n t i n e n t a l United S t a t e s .  Pollock of Alaska introduced a b i l l  i n February  Representative  i n t o the American Congress  1967, "To permit the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f merchandise between  the c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s and A l a s k a t o be c a r r i e d aboard v e s s e l s of the B r i t i s h Columbia F e r r y System f o r p a r t o f such t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . " I t would amend the Merchant Marine A c t by adding a p r o v i s o t h a t t h e s e c t i o n s h a l l n o t a p p l y when the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n aboard t h e B r i t i s h Columbia F e r r y System i s a p a r t o f through  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n between p o i n t s  i n the c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s and A l a s k a .  A t p r e s e n t American  s h i p p e r s a r e f o r c e d by the Merchant Marine A c t t o use more United States shipping.  expensive  The b i l l has r e c e n t l y been approved by t h e  Senate Commerce Committee and i t s recommendation i s c o n s i d e r e d a guarantee t h a t the amendment w i l l pass through  Congress.  almost Of c o u r s e ,  t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l n o t a i d Canadian s h i p p e r s d i r e c t l y b u t i t i s evidence  o f Canadian c o - o p e r a t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  f o r Americans between A l a s k a and the c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s and a l s o t h a t the Merchant Marine A c t can be amended t o f a c i l i t a t e  special  circumstances.  Two l e s s c r i t i c a l problems t h a t the r e s t r i c t i o n s  on c o a s t w i s e  s h i p p i n g a r e t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r Canadian m i n i n g companies or o t h e r  B i l l No. H.R. 4512. I n t r o d u c e d by R e p r e s e n t a t i v e H.W. P o l l o c k o f A l a s k a on February 1, 1967 t o amend the Jones A c t , s e c t i o n 27 o f the Merchant Marine A c t o f 1920 (46 U.S.C. 8 8 3 ) . Correspondence by t h e author w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f Commerce, M a r i t i m e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . J u l y 17, 1967. 61 The P r o v i n c e , ( S a t u r d a y , August 12, 1967), p. 5. The U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate passed t h e b i l l on F r i d a y , August 18, 1967 and now i s t o go b e f o r e the House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The Vancouver Sun, ( S a t u r d a y , August 19, 1967), p. 8.  i n d u s t r i a l concerns t o use American l a b o u r i n t r a n s p o r t i n g goods through the Panhandle, and the American i m m i g r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s which a f f e c t the passage of Canadian immigrants t h r o u g h the panhandle t o r e a c h t h e i r p l a c e s of work.  The problem w i t h u s i n g American l a b o u r  a r i s e s when a Canadian company o p e r a t i n g i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia or the Yukon i s e x p o r t i n g through the Panhandle and the l a b o u r s u p p l y r e f u s e s t o h a n d l e the goods ( f o r example, a s t r i k e ) . Because the human and m a t e r i a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e i n U n i t e d S t a t e s t e r r i t o r y the Canadian company has no l e g a l power through which t o r e c t i f y the problem.  C o n c e i v a b l y , the s i t u a t i o n c o u l d a r i s e w h e r e i n  i f Canadian m i n i n g c o m p e t i t i o n i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h  Columbia  became too burdensome on American p r o d u c e r s , the American companies c o u l d cause the c l o s u r e of the Canadian p r o d u c e r s by a r r a n g i n g w i t h the  American dock workers i n the Panhandle to go out on s t r i k e .  This  type o f problem n a t u r a l l y causes Canadian m i n i n g concerns t o be a p p r e h e n s i v e i n i n v e s t i n g i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon.  A problem e x i s t s f o r immigrant workers because they must have immigrant s t a t u s , a v i s a , and p r o o f of t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o o n l y pass t h r o u g h American t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d of t i m e , b e f o r e the American i m m i g r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s w i l l a l l o w them passage through U n i t e d S t a t e s t e r r i t o r y .  The s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e s p a r t i c u l a r  d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r Canadians s e e k i n g a c c e s s through American t e r r i t o r y to the S t i k i n e and Taku R i v e r V a l l e y s , and f o r c e s them t o use the more c i r q u i t o u s and c o s t l y A l a s k a n Highway.  A l t h o u g h b o t h these s u b j e c t s , l a b o u r and i m m i g r a t i o n , a r e broached as Canadian problems, i t must be remembered t h a t b o t h s i t u a t i o n s are  f a c e d by American companies and i n d i v i d u a l s i n moving goods and  persons from A l a s k a t o the c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s or the r e v e r s e , as A l a s k a i s a non-contiguous p a r t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and  Canadian  t e r r i t o r y must be c r o s s e d i n t r a n s i t . The  s o l u t i o n to both problems i s i n the c o m p l e t i o n o f  S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Highway.  In many c a s e s , n o t a b l y i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t e d  i n the w e s t e r n Yukon, the l o c a t i o n of the highway w i l l a t l e a s t an a l t e r n a t i v e s h o u l d the problem of a l a b o u r s t r i k e or difficulty  arise.  For most of n o r t h w e s t e r n  provide  immigration  B r i t i s h Columbia, the  S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Highway, w i t h perhaps f e e d e r roads to A t l i n and Creek and expansion  the  Telegraph  of the government dock a t S t e w a r t , B r i t i s h Columbia,  does p r o v i d e the most e f f i c i e n t means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the r e g i o n . The clammer i n the p o p u l a r p r e s s f o r "accessways" through the Panhandle has d i m i n i s h e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s , and  i t i s suggested  t h a t the near  62 c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s highway a f f o r d s an e x p l a n a t i o n .  A more r e c e n t statement by the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n R a i l w a y t h a t a r a i l l i n e w i l l be b u i l t from F o r t S t . James to t i d e w a t e r a t Stewart w i l l perhaps l e a d t o the f u r t h e r growth of Stewart as a n o r t h e r n deepsea p o r t to have raw m a t e r i a l s ( m i n e r a l s and wood p r o d u c t s ) as a c o m p e t i t o r to P r i n c e R u p e r t . I t i s d o u b t f u l a l a r g e b a c k - h a u l of goods v i a Stewart but o r i g i n a t i n g a l o n g the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r Highway w i l l r e s u l t . . Canadian P r e s s , "B.C. I n c r e a s e s C a p i t a l i z a t i o n f o r P.G.E. Growth, The Globe and M a i l (Toronto: November 6, 1968), p. 134. Although the new highway may p l a y a c o n s i d e r a b l e r o l e i n the economic development of n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t i t w i l l have any s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f goods i n and out o f the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , except i f f o r some r e a s o n the Skagway r o u t e through the American l i s i e r e i s c l o s e d . I n terms of the economic parameters d e t e r m i n i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routeways to the Yukon, the highway l i e s too f a r w e s t , t r a n s v e r s e s d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n , and r e q u i r e s a l o n g h a u l by road b e f o r e cheaper water t r a n s p o r t can be u t i l i z e d . The d e c i s i o n by the White Pass and Yukon C o r p o r a t i o n to c o n s t r u c t a b u l k l o a d i n g and s t o r a g e t e r m i n a l at Skagway to s t o r e and t r a n s f e r ore from r a i l c a r s to deep-sea v e s s e l s e x e m p l i f i e s the economic s u p e r i o r i t y of the Skagway routeway f o r the Yukon. (The White Pass and Yukon C o r p o r a t i o n , J o i n t Press R e l e a s e (Vancouver: December 4, 1967), p. 2.) This however, does not p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a d i s r u p t i o n i n the economic system through the i n t e r j e c t i o n of a p o l i t i c a l or economic v a r i a b l e w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the r e s u l t i n g n e c e s s i t y of the Stewart c o r r i d o r as an a l l Canadian a l t e r n a t i v e .  1  SUMMARY  I t can be c o n c l u d e d from t h i s b r i e f a n a l y s i s  o f the p r e s e n t  impact o f the boundary and i t s r o l e as a b a r r i e r t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n serious  o b s t a c l e s t o maximum e f f i c i e n c y i n c o a s t w i s e  that  transportation  e x i s t b u t i t i s a l s o obvious t h a t these o b s t a c l e s can be overcome through negotiation.  The  r e a l i z a t i o n o f a c o r r i d o r , o r any type o f change i n  boundary l o c a t i o n i s h i g h l y  improbable o f success and thus changes i n  access l e g i s l a t i o n o f f e r the b e s t s o l u t i o n . s t a t e would p r e f e r  to control a corridor rather  r i g h t s , o r t h e freedom t o use a r i v e r . be e q u a l l y  " I t i s i n e v i t a b l e that a than t o have t r a n s i t  While t h e o r e t i c a l l y a l l should  p r o t e c t e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, i n f a c t any attempt t o c l o s e  a c o r r i d o r would be a v i o l a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l  sovereignty, while  interference  w i t h t h e r i g h t o f passage might be more e a s i l y condoned or excused." ^  3  However, i t i s the f a c t t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n o f a c o r r i d o r e n t a i l s a change in national  s o v e r e i g n t y w h i c h does n o t make t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e  feasible,  as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i l l never r e l i n q u i s h any t e r r i t o r y .  Research has o r i s now b e i n g undertaken by the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l and  Development, t h e Canadian M a r i t i m e Commission,  the B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f Trade and I n d u s t r y and t h i s would  suggest t h a t a n e g o t i a t e d s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f c o a s t w i s e s h i p p i n g and  access w i l l n o t be l o n g i n coming. The  are  marine routeways o f c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia and A l a s k a  i n f a c t extended highways and t h e r e f o r e not what the Merchant Marine  Pounds, op. c i t . , p. 239. T h i s f a c t has r e c e n t l y come t o l i g h t i n the A r a b - I s r a e l i d i s p u t e over the S t r a i t s o f T i r a n .  94.  Act and Canada S h i p p i n g Act and d i r e c t e d a t .  T h i s i s emphasized by  the f a c t t h a t both main c o a s t a l s h i p p i n g l i n e s are c a r f e r r i e s a r e d e s i g n a t e d "marine highways".  and  As documented, the Merchant Marine  Act has been amended s e v e r a l times to f a c i l i t a t e unique cases and i s every r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e i t can be a l t e r e d a g a i n .  there  The key t o s u c c e s s f u l  n e g o t i a t i o n from the Canadian v i e w p o i n t i s to l e t the American government approach the Canadian government w i t h a r e q u e s t f o r s h i p p i n g c o n c e s s i o n s , then through compromise the maximum advantages can be gained w i t h a minimum number o f c o n c e s s i o n s . American access to non-contiguous  The  f a c t t h a t Canada has  facilitated  A l a s k a (the B r i t i s h Columbia F e r r y  System, P r i n c e Rupert f a c i l i t i e s f o r the A l a s k a S t a t e F e r r y System, and maintenance of the Haines C u t - o f f Road) p r o v i d e a b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n f o r s h i p p i n g and access c o n c e s s i o n s  from the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  The  s u s p e n s i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia f e r r y s e r v i c e from K e l s e y Bay t o P r i n c e Rupert from August 1967  to March 1968  and the r e s u l t i n g n e c e s s i t y f o r  A l a s k a n Governor H i c k e l to put a f e r r y n o r m a l l y on the P r i n c e Rupert Skagway r u n onto a r u n from S e a t t l e to K e t c h i k a n f o r these months, d i d not improve r e l a t i o n s between the two governments. r o u t e proves  In f a c t , i f t h i s  to be e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e i t c o u l d become a permanent  l i n e of access and thus s e r i o u s l y weaken the Canadian p o s i t i o n f o r negotiation.  The r e c e n t appointment of Governor H i c k e l t o the  as S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r may  Cabinet  p r o v i d e the power and c o n c e r n needed  to b e g i n n e g o t i a t i o n s .  I f a n e g o t i a t e d s o l u t i o n t o the problem does not succeed the s t a t u s quo  i s m a i n t a i n e d , Canadians have the a l t e r n a t i v e of  and  u t i l i z i n g the S t e w a r t - C a s s i a r r o a d .  The new r o a d , a p a r t o f the  f e d e r a l government's "Roads t o Resources" programme, w i l l  also  r e l i e v e t h e e x i g e n c y i n the problem o f access o f t h e Yukon T e r r i t o r y to t i d e w a t e r .  CHAPTER I I I FUTURE IMPACT OF THE BOUNDARY THE PROBLEM OF INTERNATIONAL RIVERS  I t i s t h e purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o a n a l y z e t h e p o l i t i c a l geographic  problems i n v o l v e d i n t h e f u t u r e development o f the S t i k i n e ,  Taku, and Yukon R i v e r s , as a p a r t from t h e p r e s e n t problems i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e q u e s t i o n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n over hydro power produced on these i n t e r n a t i o n a l The  r i v e r s appears as an e q u a l l y s e r i o u s problem.''"  l o c a t i o n o f t h e S t i k i n e , Taku and Yukon R i v e r s i n  r e l a t i o n to the A l a s k - B r i t i s h  Columbia boundary c r e a t e s s e v e r a l  u n i l a t e r a l and b i l a t e r a l problems.  The q u e s t i o n i s f i r s t  approached  through a b r i e f r e v i e w o f p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e on boundary w a t e r s . The second s e c t i o n i s a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f some s i m i l a r U n i t e d States-Canada  boundary waters problems i n o r d e r t o d e r i v e some  political-geographical r i v e r s i n question.  g u i d e l i n e s or p r i n c i p l e s  t o a p p l y t o the t h r e e  The t h i r d s e c t i o n i s a study o f the Columbia R i v e r  T r e a t y as t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y was the most important and p o t e n t i a l l y analogous i n r e c e n t h i s t o r y . precedents  From t h i s T r e a t y f u r t h e r p r i n c i p l e s and  are e x t r a c t e d to apply i n the northwest.  F i n a l l y , development  schemes and t h e i r r e s u l t i n g problems on the t h r e e r i v e r s a r e a n a l y s e d , w i t h a c o n c l u s i o n s u g g e s t i n g the l e g a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l framework o f t h e i r development i n l i g h t o f what has been l e a r n e d i n t h e f i r s t sections.  For a g l o s s a r y o f terms used i n t h i s c h a p t e r , see Appendix A.  three  An attempt to u n d e r s t a n d the essence of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r i n e law p r e s e n t s many d i f f i c u l t i e s , as t h e r e i s no  supreme  l e g i s l a t i v e body.  The  and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r B a s i n attempts to  define  U n i t e d N a t i o n s Seminar on the Development  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r i n e law as  follows:  The c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law are t r e a t i e s , a d j u d i c a t i o n s , o p i n i o n s of j u r i s t s and p u b l i c i s t s , and the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of law i n c i v i l i z e d c o u n t r i e s . I f a p r i n c i p l e has appeared i n a number of m u l t i - l a t e r a l t r e a t i e s , so t h a t one can say i t i s r e g a r d e d as an o b l i g a t o r y p r a c t i c e by the m a j o r i t y of s t a t e s i n the w o r l d community, i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h i s " p r i n c i p l e has become p a r t of customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. A p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t y makes law o n l y f o r the p a r t i e s to i t and o n l y about the s u b j e c t m a t t e r of the t r e a t y . However, the p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i e d i n i m p o r t a n t t r e a t i e s , such as those d e a l i n g w i t h the Columbia, Danube, R h i n e , Indus, N i l e , R i o Grande, and S t . Lawrence r i v e r s may p r o v i d e guidance i n making arrangements f o r the development of o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r b a s i n s and a l l of t h e s e p r e c e d e n t s c o l l e c t i v e l y may h e l p to l a y the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the development of the law of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s . 2  These statements by the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the seminar summarized the s t r u c t u r e and  purpose of t h i s e n q u i r y i n t o the s t a t u s of the S t i k i n e ,  Taku, and Yukon R i v e r s . T h i s c h a p t e r i s i n a sense the c o n s t r u c t i o n  of a p r e d i c t i v e  model; t h a t i s , what the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t expects to happen, g i v e n as much d a t a as he can c o l l e c t about i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r development to  J.D. Chapman ( e d . ) , The I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r B a s i n , P r o c e e d i n g s of a Seminar on the Development and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l River Basin. (Vancouver, Canada: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c a t i o n s C e n t r e , 1963), pp. 19-20.  date.  The f i r s t t h r e e s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n g e o g r a p h i c a l and l e g a l  data  upon w h i c h a p o l i t i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c framework c a n be b u i l t t o attempt t o p r o j e c t t h e f u t u r e development o f t h e t h r e e r i v e r s .  The c o n c l u s i o n  combines b o t h t h e l e g a l framework o f e x i s t i n g t r e a t i e s w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n s o f the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary t o a s c e r t a i n t h e r o l e o f t h e boundary as a b a r r i e r t o r i v e r development.  REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON BOUNDARY WATERS  Boundary w a t e r s have l o n g been a c o n c e r n o f many d i s c i p l i n e s , of w h i c h p o l i t i c a l geography has been o n l y a minor c o n t r i b u t o r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s s h o r t r e v i e w i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s as d e t e r m i n e d by c o n t r i b u t i n g d i s c i p l i n e s ; geography, e n g i n e e r i n g , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. Geography  Many g e o g r a p h i c a l papers on i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s were used i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , however o n l y f o u r have been chosen as examples, p r i m a r i l y because o f t h e i r wide range o f t o p i c s and o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  Karan's 1961 paper " D i v i d i n g the Water: Geography" to  illustrate  A Problem i n P o l i t i c a l  chooses two examples, t h e C o l o r a d o and Indus r i v e r b a s i n s , problems o f water d i v i s i o n .  The American s e t t l e m e n t i s  r e l a t e d t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r i n e law b u t t h e I n d i a n case i s s i m p l y  P. K a r a n , " D i v i d i n g the Water: A Problem i n P o l i t i c a l Geography," The P r o f e s s i o n a l Geographer, X I I I ( J a n u a r y , 1961), p.6.  d e s c r i b e d i n i t s own c o n t e x t .  Karan c o n c l u d e s w i t h an a p p e a l f o r  more p o l i t i c a l geographers " t o seek out new examples from d i f f e r e n t and w i d e l y - s e p a r a t e d a r e a s t o i l l u s t r a t e d i f f i c u l t p o l i t i c a l circumstances".  geographical  H i s paper " s u g g e s t s a method o f e x a m i n a t i o n from the  geographer's s t r o n g p o s i t i o n as a g e n e r a l i s t r a t h e r than a s p e c i a l i s t , " and t h a t " i n some a r e a s , and under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , such r i v e r water s t u d i e s might be the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r r e s e a r c h i n r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l geography." ^  S i n c e 1961 few p o l i t i c a l  geographers  have h e a r d h i s c a l l .  An e a r l i e r s t u d y , but one o f a type w h i c h perhaps K a r a n had i n mind t e n y e a r s l a t e r i s K h a l a f ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the Lower C o l o r a d o R i v e r Basin."* the  He f i r s t d e s c r i b e s the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g o f  r e g i o n and then a n a l y s e s s e v e r a l problems, such as the S a l t R i v e r  P r o j e c t , the problem o f water r e s o u r c e development a comparison o f the C o l o r a d o s i t u a t i o n t o I r a q .  i n the r e g i o n , and  As a geographer,  K h a l a f s t u d i e s a wide range o f t o p i c s i n d e t a i l and l i k e Karan l a y s the  groundwork  for regional p o l i t i c a l  geography.  Perhaps the b e s t work on the geography o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s 6  has been done by S e w e l l .  4  U n l i k e many geographers, he not o n l y d e s c r i b e s  I b i d , pp. 9-10 J.M. K h a l a f , "The Water Resources o f the Lower Colorado R i v e r B a s i n , " Chicago U n i v e r s i t y R e s e a r c h Paper No. 22. ( C h i c a g o , 1951). W.R.D. S e w e l l , "The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y : Some Lessons and I m p l i c a t i o n s , " Canadian Geographer, (No. 3, 1966), p. 145-156. W.R.D. S e w e l l , "Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y and P r o t o c o l Agreement," N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , ( O c t o b e r , 1964), pp. 309-331.  100.  the problems i n v o l v e d i n r i v e r c o n t r o v e r s i e s but attempts  both  to  p o i n t out m i s t a k e s made by the p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n drawing up  the  t r e a t i e s and to suggest s o l u t i o n s which he a n t i c i p a t e s a r i s i n g i n the f u t u r e over i n t e r n a t i o n a l  rivers.  t h a t i n the opening remarks of h i s "The Some Lessons and I m p l i c a t i o n s , " t h i s chapter. was  "Although  It is interesting  to note  Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y :  S e w e l l s t a t e s a major premise of  the arrangement (the Columbia R i v e r  i n t e n d e d to d e a l o n l y w i t h the Columbia R i v e r , i t seems  t h a t i t w i l l be regarded international  rivers  Treaty) certain  as a precedent i n the development o f o t h e r  i n North America.  Moreover, some o f i t s  p r i n c i p l e s may  be a p p l i e d i n the development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  elsewhere."  Many of the " p r i n c i p l e s " w h i c h emerge from the  ^  Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n the  The  final  rivers  chapter.  g e o g r a p h i c a l example chosen i s W h i t e s " C o n t r i b u t i o n s 1  8  o f G e o g r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s to R i v e r B a s i n Development".  Using  the  Lower Mekong R i v e r B a s i n P r o j e c t as an i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  White  and d i s c u s s e s s i x c h i e f a s p e c t s o f d e c i s i o n making:  the range o f  c h o i c e , resource estimates, technology  o f water management, economic  e f f i c i e n c y , s p a t i a l l i n k a g e s , and s o c i a l g u i d e s . aspects  isolates  Each of  i s d i s c u s s e d w i t h c r i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s to work by  these other  geographers on r i v e r b a s i n p r o j e c t s i n d i f f e r e n t areas o f the w o r l d .  S e w e l l , op. c i t . ,  1966,  p.  145.  G.F. White " C o n t r i b u t i o n s of G e o g r a p h i c a l A n a l y s i s to R i v e r B a s i n Development," G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , CXXXIX (December, 1963), pp. 412-436.  101.  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t geographers approach boundary w a t e r s from the s t a n d p o i n t of g e n e r a l i s t s and w i t h i n t h i s o v e r v i e w d i s c u s s p a r t i c u l a r f a c e t s of the t o p i c i n w h i c h they a r e i n t e r e s t e d . b a s i n development  River  schemes a r e u s u a l l y r e s e a r c h e d by a number of  s p e c i a l i s t s m e e t i n g p e r i o d i c a l l y t o d i s c u s s t h e i r common problems. C o n s e q u e n t l y , geographers can b e s t be of s e r v i c e by r e m a i n i n g g e n e r a l i s t s and e n d e a v o u r i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e s e e s s e n t i a l l y r e g i o n a l problems.  Engineering U n l i k e the g e o g r a p h e r s , the e n g i n e e r s ' i n t e r e s t i n boundary w a t e r s i s concerned w i t h the t e c h n i q u e s o f water management i n such o b v i o u s f i e l d s as i r r i g a t i o n n e t w o r k s , dams, c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e l a t e d f i e l d s .  feasibility,  P e r i o d i c a l l y e n g i n e e r s e n t e r the f i e l d s of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s or economics  t o promote l a r g e e n g i n e e r i n g schemes and  i n t h i s way d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the r e s e a r c h of geographers. One example of an e n g i n e e r becoming broader framework  d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the  of r i v e r b a s i n p l a n n i n g i s Wardle's work on the 9  Yukon and Taku r i v e r s . d i f f e r e n t development  9  H i s r e s e a r c h i n t o the r e l a t i v e f e a s i b i l i t y o f schemes on the Taku and Yukon, a l o n g w i t h  J.M. Wardle, "A Major Power P l a n f o r Yukon R i v e r Waters i n the Canadian N o r t h w e s t , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f the I n s t i t u t i o n o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , ( J u l y , 1957), pp. 441-464. Idem., "A Major Power P l a n f o r Yukon R i v e r Waters i n the Canadian N o r t h w e s t , " The E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , (November, 1957), pp. 1638-1646. A l t h o u g h the t i t l e i s the same as the p r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e most of the content i s d i f f e r e n t .  102.  t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e Columbia, has produced v a l i d arguments a g a i n s t some p l a n s .  engineering  I t i s o n l y through such c a r e f u l  r e s e a r c h by t h e t e c h n i c a l branches o f s c i e n c e t h a t geographers, e c o n o m i s t s , lawyers and o t h e r s can s o u n d l y a s s e s s t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a development  plan.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law  A c a t e g o r y i n w h i c h most o f t h e work on i n t e r n a t i o n a l b a s i n s appears t o have been done i s t h a t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law.  river As  a s c e r t a i n e d from t h e number o f r e f e r e n c e s t o work i n law found i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , geographers a r e on t h e whole unaware o f t h e l a r g e c o n t r i b u t i o n made toward a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s by t h e l e g a l d i s c i p l i n e .  Political  geography  i n p a r t i c u l a r must be made aware o f t h e r e s e a r c h done i n r i v e r i n e law as the two f i e l d s a r e v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d .  Two examples have  been chosen from i n t e r n a t i o n a l law t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r v a l u e t o geography. Bourne's "The Columbia R i v e r C o n t r o v e r s y " i s a r e v i e w o f 10 the Columbia R i v e r n e g o t i a t i o n s and t h e i r l e g a l problems up t o 1959. Bourne's d i s c u s s i o n o f r i p a r i a n r i g h t s , t e r r i t o r i a l s o v e r e i g n t y , and p a r t i t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e as f a m i l i a r t o t h e p o l i t i c a l geographer as t o t h e l a w y e r .  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note that  Bourne  a n a l y s e s s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s o n l y as t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o l e g a l problems, C.B. Bourne, "The Columbia R i v e r C o n t r o v e r s y , " Canadian Bar Review, (September, 1959), pp. 444-472.  whereas a p o l i t i c a l geographer would v i e w t h e same t o p i c i n terms of i t s s p a t i a l p a t t e r n as i n f l u e n c e d by l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s .  S i m i l a r t o Bourne's a n a l y s i s  o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r 11  i s Mackenzie s d i s c u s s i o n o f i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l r i v e r s .  To date  j u r i s d i c t i o n over i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l r i v e r s has n o t been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n Canada between p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and s u b s e q u e n t l y Mackenzie seeks t o c l e a r l y i s o l a t e t h e two areas o f jurisdiction. Research such as t h a t o f Bourne, Mackenzie, and o t h e r l a w y e r s , i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p o l i t i c a l geographer  because  t o p i c s such as t r e a t i e s and a l t e r a t i o n i n s o v e r e i g n t y a r e common to b o t h d i s c i p l i n e s . common p r a c t i c e to t h e p o l i t i c a l  This type of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s  t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l lawyer and thus o f a s s i s t a n c e geographer.  I t c a n , t h e r e f o r e , be summarized t h a t p o l i t i c a l geographers have done l i t t l e  from t h e b r i e f r e v i e w i n the f i e l d o f  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r i n e problems and t h a t a s s i s t a n c e from e n g i n e e r i n g , economics, law and r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s i s most u s e f u l . the  Because o f  s p a t i a l n a t u r e o f t h e s u b j e c t t h i s a r e a l v i e w does n o t c l e a r l y  d i s t i n g u i s h t h e approach o f geographers from o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , however, the r o l e o f t h e g e n e r a l i s t  or research co-ordinator i s  e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d t o geography.  K.C. M a c k e n z i e , " I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l R i v e r s i n Canada: A C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C h a l l e n g e , " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review, (September, 1961), pp. 499-512.  104.  HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RIVERINE LAW In N o r t h America b e f o r e s e p a r a t e and c o n s i s t e n t trends apparent.  the t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y ,  two  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r i n e law were  On the one hand, the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l  r i v e r disputes maintained a p o s i t i o n of u n q u a l i f i e d t e r r i t o r i a l sovereignty  and j u s t i f i e d t h i s p o s i t i o n as i n accordance w i t h  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. As t h e most p o w e r f u l n a t i o n i n t h e w e s t e r n hemisphere, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s found t h a t i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f j u r i s p r u d e n c e was looked upon as " i n t e r n a t i o n a l law". I t c o u l d d i v e r t and u t i l i z e t h e f u l l volume o f any w a t e r s f l o w i n g through i t s t e r r i t o r y , r e g a r d l e s s o f i n j u r y caused downstream.  On the o t h e r hand the U n i t e d  S t a t e s and Canada came t o agree on the p r i n c i p l e o f j o i n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l commissions t o i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t on i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r i n e problems, and  l a t e r extended the powers o f these commissions t o i n c l u d e  judicial  12 and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . The h i s t o r y o f water r e g u l a t i o n between Canada and t h e United  S t a t e s , can be d i v i d e d r o u g h l y  of t h e 19th c e n t u r y  i n t o two p a r t s :  u n t i l t h e end  the emphasis was on n a v i g a t i o n ; s i n c e t h a t time  on i r r i g a t i o n and hydro power.  A s h o r t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f pre-1900  t r e a t i e s w i l l l e a d i n t o a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f water r e g u l a t i o n s since that  time.  J . A u s t i n , " C a n a d i a n - U n i t e d S t a t e s p r a c t i c e and t h e o r y r e s p e c t i n g the i n t e r n a t i o n a l law o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s : a s t u d y o f the h i s t o r y and i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Harmon d o c t r i n e . " Canadian Bar Review, V o l . XXXVII (September, 1959), pp. 393-443.  105.  S i n c e 1783 t h e r e has been a s e r i e s o f t r e a t i e s between Great B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and l a t e r Canada and the U n i t e d States.  The J a y T r e a t y o f 1794 a l l o w e d B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s and U n i t e d  S t a t e s c i t i z e n s " t o pass and r e p a s s by l a n d or i n l a n d n a v i g a t i o n i n t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e t e r r i t o r y o f each c o u n t r y and t o c a r r y on t r a d e 13 and commerce f r e e l y u p o n . . . . r i v e r s . " 1814  The T r e a t y o f Ghent o f  s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was t o be no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t Americans  u s i n g t h e S t . Lawrence r o u t e t o t r a d e w i t h Great B r i t a i n .  The  Webster-Ashburton T r e a t y o f 1842 p r o v i d e d t h a t " . . . a l l the water communications from Lake S u p e r i o r t o t h e Pigeon R i v e r , s h o u l d be f r e e and open t o t h e use o f t h e c i t i z e n s o f both c o u n t r i e s . "  ^  The Oregon T r e a t y o f 1846 gave B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s t r a d i n g w i t h the Hudson's Bay Company t h e r i g h t t o n a v i g a t e t h e Columbia R i v e r t o the Ocean.  There was a p r o v i s o i n t h i s T r e a t y t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t  n o t h i n g was t o be c o n s t r u e d as i n t e n d i n g , t o prevent  the U n i t e d  S t a t e s from making r e g u l a t i o n s r e s p e c t i n g t h e n a v i g a t i o n o f t h e s a i d r i v e r o r r i v e r s n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the T r e a t y .  However, American  r e g u l a t i o n s were n o t r e q u i r e d as by 1871 t h e Hudson's Bay Company had s o l d i t s p o s s e s s i o n s south o f the f o r t y - n i n t h p a r a l l e l and thus the B r i t i s h no l o n g e r had any r e a s o n t o n a v i g a t e t h e Columbia. In 1854 a T r e a t y a l l o w e d t h e Americans f r e e r i g h t s o f n a v i g a t i o n on t h e S t . Lawrence, thus p r o v i d i n g access t o t h e Great Lakes by two r o u t e w a y s , the aforementioned  and the E r i e Canal which  L.M. B l o o m f i e l d and G.F. F i t z g e r a l d , Boundary Waters Problems of Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (Toronto Canada: The C a s w e l l Company L i m i t e d , 1958), p. 3. Ibid,  p. 4.  is  e n t i r e l y American.  In r e t u r n , B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s had  to  f r e e l y n a v i g a t e Lake M i c h i g a n .  the r i g h t  T h i s T r e a t y i s of p a r t i c u l a r  i n t e r e s t s i n c e , on a r e c i p r o c a l b a s i s , i t a l l o w e d c i t i z e n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s to n a v i g a t e the Canadian p a r t of the S t . Lawrence and B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s t o n a v i g a t e the American waters Each p a r t y was the o t h e r . in  g i v e n the r i g h t to abrogate  of Lake M i c h i g a n .  the p r i v i l e g e g r a n t e d to  I t would thus appear t h a t the n a v i g a t i o n p r i v i l e g e s  each case was  not a case of " r i g h t " but o f " c o n c e s s i o n . "  The T r e a t y was  t e r m i n a t e d on March 17, 1866  ^  as an outcome  of i l l - f e e l i n g s between Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s over i n c i d e n t s a r i s i n g out of the American C i v i l War.  To overcome these  f e e l i n g s o f i l l - w i l l the two s t a t e s i n q u e s t i o n s i g n e d the T r e a t y of Washington i n 1871, the two c o u n t r i e s . concerned to  t o s e t t l e a l l causes o f d i f f e r e n c e s between  Although  t h r e e a r t i c l e s i n the T r e a t y a r e d i r e c t l y  w i t h boundary w a t e r s , A r t i c l e XXVI i s o f s p e c i a l  interest  the problem a t hand. The n a v i g a t i o n of the R i v e r s Yukon, P o r c u p i n e , and S t i k i n e , a s c e n d i n g and descending from, to and i n t o the s e a , s h a l l f o r e v e r remain f r e e and open f o r the purposes o f commerce to the s u b j e c t s of Her B r i t t a n i c M a j e s t y and t o the c i t i z e n s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , s u b j e c t t o any laws and r e g u l a t i o n s o f e i t h e r c o u n t r y w i t h i n i t s own t e r r i t o r y , not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h such p r i v i l e g e of f r e e n a v i g a t i o n . ^  15 16  I b i d , p.  6.  T r e a t i e s and Agreements A f f e c t i n g Canada i n Force Between H i s M a j e s t y and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1814-1925 (Ottawa: Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , K i n g s P r i n t e r , 1927), p. 45. T h i s r i g h t o f n a v i g a t i o n had a l r e a d y been g r a n t e d to Great B r i t a i n i n the A n g l o - R u s s i a n T r e a t y o f 1825, w h i c h was s t i l l b i n d i n g on the U n i t e d S t a t e s through i t s purchase of A l a s k a i n 1867.  107.  As i s e v i d e n t from the examples used thus f a r , i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d most t r e a t i e s were concerned w i t h n a v i g a t i o n , as r i v e r s were used f o r l i t t l e e l s e .  I n most i n s t a n c e s , p e r m i s s i o n t o n a v i g a t e  a r i v e r w i t h i n another s t a t e was g r a n t e d , not as a " r i g h t " but as a " c o n c e s s i o n " i n exchange  f o r some r e c i p r o c a l c o n c e s s i o n .  u n t i l a f t e r the t u r n of the c e n t u r y t h a t c o m p l i c a t i o n s  I t was  not  involving  i r r i g a t i o n and hydro power a r o s e .  In 1906, the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada formed an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Waterways Commission  t o o v e r s e e problems a r i s i n g from boundary w a t e r s .  The Commission made s e v e r a l recommendations, Boundary Waters T r e a t y o f 1909. summarized  as f o l l o w s :  one of w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n the  Some of the more i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e s a r e  A r t i c l e I I I , IV, V I I I , IX and X, s e t up the  I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission  and A r t i c l e I guaranteed freedom of  n a v i g a t i o n on a l l boundary w a t e r s .  A r t i c l e I I was the most troublesome  p r o v i s i o n as i t was e s s e n t i a l l y a d e c l a r a t i o n of the Harmon d o c t r i n e , i n s e r t e d a t American  insistence.  A r t i c l e I I . Each of the H i g h C o n t r a c t i n g P a r t i e s r e s e r v e s t o i t s e l f . . . t h e e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l over the use and d i v e r s i o n , whether temporary o r permanent, of a l l waters on i t s own s i d e of the l i n e which i n t h e i r n a t u r a l c h a n n e l s would f l o w a c r o s s the boundary, or i n t o boundary w a t e r s ; but i t i s agreed t h a t any i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h or d i v e r s i o n from t h e i r n a t u r a l c h a n n e l of such waters on e i t h e r s i d e of the boundary, r e s u l t i n g i n any i n j u r y on the o t h e r s i d e of the boundary, s h a l l g i v e r i s e to the same r i g h t s and e n t i t l e the i n j u r e d p a r t i e s t o the same l e g a l remedies as i f such i n j u r y took p l a c e i n the c o u n t r y where such d i v e r s i o n or i n t e r f e r e n c e o c c u r s . ^  Canada Departments o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y and P r o t o c a l (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964), p. 8. The Harmon D o c t r i n e i s a term a p p l i e d to a d e c i s i o n r e a c h e d i n 1895 by the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Judson Harmon, i n a d j u d i c a t i n g a d i s p u t e between Mexico and the U n i t e d S t a t e s over d i v i s i o n of a l a r g e amount of water of the R i o Grande i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s to the d e t r i m e n t o f Mexican u s e r s . " I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t what i s r e a l l y contended f o r i s a s e r v i t u d e w h i c h makes the lower c o u n t r y dominant and s u b j e c t s the upper  108.  I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o the Harmon d o c t r i n e , 18 the d e c i s i o n i n t h e case o f Kansas v s . C o l o r a d o . Colorado to court a f t e r Colorado,  Kansas took  as t h e upstream s t a t e , p l a n n e d , t o  d i v e r t w a t e r s of the Arkansas R i v e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n and l e a v e Kansas in a d e f i c i t position.  C o l o r a d o contended t h a t as a s o v e r e i g n and  independent s t a t e she was j u s t i f i e d i n consuming a l l t h e water w i t h i n her b o u n d a r i e s .  I n o t h e r words, she o c c u p i e d  towards the S t a t e o f  Kansas i n terms o f r i p a r i a n r i g h t s the same p o s i t i o n t h a t n a t i o n s occupy toward each o t h e r , and i n the case o f water r e s o u r c e s h e r p o s i t i o n was supported  by the Harmon d o c t r i n e .  However, t h e  c o u r t r e j e c t e d t h e d o c t r i n e o u t r i g h t and Colorado was f o r c e d t o share t h e f l o w o f t h e r i v e r w i t h Kansas i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e amount of works c o n s t r u c t e d by each.  Thus t h e d o c t r i n e of " e q u i t a b l e  a p p o r t i o n m e n t " was i n t r o d u c e d i n domestic U n i t e d S t a t e s water law. A s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p forward was made i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and comity  through the s e t t l e m e n t o f a d i s p u t e over the M i l k and S t . 19  Mary R i v e r s i n 1909.  As can be seen i n F i g u r e Number 9, the M i l k  R i v e r r i s e s i n Montana, f l o w s through Canada f o r some one hundred m i l e s , and then t u r n s south t o j o i n t h e M i s s o u r i system. 17 con't  18 19  The S t .  c o u n t r y t o the burden o f a r r e s t i n g i t s development and denying to i t s i n h a b i t a n t s the use o f a p r o v i s i o n w h i c h n a t u r e has s u p p l i e d e n t i r e l y w i t h i n i t s own t e r r i t o r y . The fundamental p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law i s the a b s o l u t e s o v e r e i g n t y o f every n a t i o n , as a g a i n s t a l l o t h e r s , w i t h i n i t s own t e r r i t o r y . " (As quoted i n A u s t i n , op. c i t . , pp. 407-408). From 1895 t o the p r e s e n t the U n i t e d S t a t e s has adhered t o t h e Harmon d o c t r i n e as a p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r i n e law. Kansas v s . Colorado (1907), A u s t i n , op. c i t . ,  206 U n i t e d S t a t e s 46.  pp. 412-414.  Mary a l s o r i s e s  i n Montana and c r o s s e s the boundary, b u t c o n t i n u e s  n o r t h t o t h e South Saskatchewan R i v e r .  The U n i t e d S t a t e s  planned  a d i v e r s i o n o f t h e S t . Mary R i v e r i n t o t h e M i l k R i v e r i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e e x t r a water f o r t h e a r i d areas o f e a s t e r n Montana.  T h i s was  p r o t e s t e d by Canada, w h i c h has a l r e a d y a p p r o p r i a t e d much o f the waters of the S t . Mary.  I n t h e meantime, p l a n s underway i n Canada f o r a 20  d i v e r s i o n o f t h e M i l k R i v e r r a i s e d p r o t e s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . N e g o t i a t i o n s were h e l d and the f i n a l agreement was i n c o r p o r a t e d as A r t i c l e V I i n t h e Boundary Waters T r e a t y o f 1909, r e a d i n g i n p a r t : ...The S t . Mary and M i l k R i v e r s and t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s . . . a r e t o be t r e a t e d as one stream f o r the purposes o f i r r i g a t i o n and power, and the waters t h e r e o f s h a l l be a p p o r t i o n e d e q u a l l y between the two countries... ''" 2  Three i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e s  emerged from t h i s s e t t l e m e n t -  the r i v e r s were t r e a t e d as a u n i t a r y system and thus common requirements  o f the r i v e r b a s i n were t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t ,  the p r i n c i p l e  of p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n , and f i n a l l y t h a t o f e q u i t a b l e apportionment were r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e d i v i s i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l The  river  waters.  l a s t example i n t h i s h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s i s p r o v i d e d  by the S t . John R i v e r i n New B r u n s w i c k .  (The i n t e r n a t i o n a l  character  of the S t . John i s e v i d e n t from F i g u r e Number 1 0 ) . Developments on t h i s r i v e r have taken p l a c e over a l o n g p e r i o d d u r i n g which q u e s t i o n s of t h e water apportionment have been i n c o n t e n t i o n w i t h o n l y p r o g r e s s h a v i n g been made towards t h e i r  20 21  I b i d , p. 413. Loc. c i t ,  settlement.  limited  Problems began i n 1925 when t h e New Brunswick E l e c t r i c Power Commission a p p l i e d f o r t h e r i g h t t o b u i l d a dam a t Grand F a l l s t h a t would back t h e water up twenty-nine m i l e s of Maine.  The Americans put f o r w a r d a c l a i m f o r "downstream  b e n e f i t s " ; i n t h i s instance, one-half p o s s i b l e by s t o r a g e f i r s t occasion confronted  i n t o the State  t h e i n c r e a s e d power made  o f water i n American t e r r i t o r y .  T h i s was t h e  on w h i c h t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission was  w i t h a c l a i m f o r downstream b e n e f i t s .  As events  turned  o u t , they were n o t r e q u i r e d t o d e c i d e t h e i s s u e as t h e a p p l i c a n t made a p r i v a t e agreement t o compensate t h e S t a t e o f Maine.  Questions i n connection John R i v e r a r o s e a g a i n the U n i t e d  w i t h t h e development o f t h e S t .  i n 1950 when t h e Governments o f Canada and  S t a t e s r e q u e s t e d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission t o  make recommendations as t o what i n i t s judgment were t h e b e s t uses of t h i s R i v e r . considered  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e subsequent r e p o r t  t h e b a s i n as a whole, w i t h o u t p a r t i c u l a r r e g a r d  p a i d t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary.  being  ( T h i s u n i f i e d approach t o t h e  S t . John R i v e r b a s i n by t h e Commission, s i m i l a r t o t h a t  discussed  above on t h e S t . Mary and M i l k R i v e r s , was t o have v e r y  important  implications i n regard  t o t h e Columbia R i v e r B a s i n . )  To p r o t e c t t h e governments i n v o l v e d , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission, a n x i o u s t o a v o i d e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of precedent, stated  . . . t h e r e s h o u l d be an u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e two governments t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to cases o f t h i s type i n t h e S t . John R i v e r B a s i n s h o u l d not n e c e s s a r i l y be r e g a r d e d as p r e c e d e n t s i n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n and d i s p o s i t i o n o f o t h e r h e a d w a t e r - b e n e f i t s  s i t u a t i o n s i n t h a t b a s i n or i n o t h e r r i v e r b a s i n s b e i n g p a r t l y i n Canada and p a r t l y i n the U n i t e d States. 2 2  However, as p r e v i o u s l y noted  i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n and as we  see a s i g n i f i c a n t agreement cannot a v o i d e s t a b l i s h i n g  will  unofficial  precedent. At t h i s t i m e , t h e r e appears t o be no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the r e p o r t s by the Commission on the S t . John R i v e r B a s i n w i l l implemented a t an e a r l y d a t e .  be  However the concept of a u n i t a r y  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r b a s i n , w h i c h i t embraces, was  important  to the  n e g o t i a t i o n s of the Columbia, and w i l l l i k e l y have e f f e c t s on  the  development p l a n s f o r the Yukon, Taku, and S t i k i n e R i v e r s .  From t h i s b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f boundary water problems what p r i n c i p l e s or t r e n d s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d thus f a r ? 1.  The e a r l i e s t agreements were based on the i d e a of " c o n c e s s i o n s " to the n e i g h b o u r i n g of " r i g h t s " e x i s t e d .  s t a t e and no  T h i s i d e a was i n t e r p r e t e d  p r i m a r i l y by the U n i t e d S t a t e s through doctrine.  idea  the Harmon  I t became m o d i f i e d through time and  downstream s t a t e c o u l d be assured of a  the  "reasonable"  flow. 2.  No p r e c e d e n t was  p e r m i t t e d and each s i t u a t i o n was  be approached as unique.  Although  t h i s was  the  to official  p o s i t i o n o f governments, n e g o t i a t o r s had no c h o i c e to  l o o k to p r e v i o u s t r e a t i e s f o r  but  guidance.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission, Docket No. 63 - I n t e r i m Report to the Governments o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada on the Water Resources of the S t . John R i v e r B a s i n , Quebec, Maine, and New Brunswick (January 27, 1954), p. 56.  3.  The  Boundary Waters T r e a t y was  c r e a t e d to  problems w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . and  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  j u r i s d i c t i o n of i t s a r t i c l e s c o u l d v a r y .  important 4.  systematize  t e s t came w i t h  the Columbia R i v e r d i s p u t e ) .  Agreement over the S t . Mary and M i l k R i v e r s the p r i n c i p l e s of p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n and  5.  The  introduced  equitable  apportionment i n t o the body of j u r i s p r u d e n c e international  (The  on  rivers.  d i s c u s s i o n s over the S t . John R i v e r i n t r o d u c e d  concepts of a u n i t a r y r i v e r b a s i n and  the  of downstream  benefits. 6.  The  p r i n c i p l e s s t a t e d i n numbers 4 and  at t h i s stage and  5 were t e n t a t i v e  c e r t a i n l y not accepted  as i n t e r n a t i o n a l  law.  With these g u i d e l i n e s and River  i s s u e w i l l now  be e x p l o r e d  principles  to gather  i n mind, the  Columbia  f u r t h e r precedent  a f f e c t i n g the S t i k i n e , Taku, and Yukon R i v e r s .  THE  The l e g a l , and  COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY  Columbia R i v e r d i s p u t e was  political  issue.  an economic,  geographical,  A l l four elements were i n v o l v e d i n the  d e l i b e r a t i o n s and  f i n a l settlement  of the problem.  Only the  geographical,  and  certain political  repercussions  i n f u t u r e r i v e r development, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  legal,  factors with p o t e n t i a l here.  115.  At the o u t s e t , Canada and  the U n i t e d S t a t e s were  confronted  w i t h the problem of f i n d i n g a common b a s i s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s .  Although  a c e r t a i n amount of customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law had been e s t a b l i s h e d by the l a t e 1950's, as d i s c u s s e d  i n the p r e c e e d i n g  s e c t i o n , no  particular  d o c t r i n e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law c o u l d s o l v e t h i s unique problem. to be s o l v e d a c r o s s  I t had  the b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e w i t h the l e g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p c r e a t e d  by the p a r t i e s as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s .  Jacob A u s t i n , i n h i s " C a n a d i a n - U n i t e d S t a t e s P r a c t i c e and Theory R e s p e c t i n g  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law  of I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r s "  o f f e r e d as a b a s i s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s h i s c o n c l u s i o n  that  . . . i n a c t u a l f a c t the r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s of the two n a t i o n s do not r e s t on the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, w h i c h are i r r e l e v a n t to the m a t t e r , but on the d e f i n i t i v e Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 which was agreed to buy b o t h s t a t e s i n o r d e r to s e t out the p r i n c i p l e s which would b i n d them i n the r e g u l a t i o n of d i s p u t e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l water r e s o u r c e s .  A u s t i n ' s statement t h a t the Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e d s o l e l y by the Boundary Waters T r e a t y of 1909 f o r t h i s t r e a t y was  is incorrect,  not concerned w i t h e i t h e r e q u i t a b l e apportionment  or downstream b e n e f i t s , two of the most important Columbia R i v e r n e g o t i a t i o n s .  The  i s s u e s i n the  Boundary Waters T r e a t y  influenced  the Columbia n e g o t i a t i o n s o n l y i n r e s p e c t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l law up 1909.  P r i n c i p l e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e 1909  t r e a t i e s a f f e c t i n g boundary waters a l o n g the 49th p a r a l l e l , R i o Grande and  be  i n other a r e a s of the w o r l d ,  Columbia R i v e r s e t t l e m e n t .  I t i s one  in the  l i k e w i s e a f f e c t e d the  purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r  to  to  116.  demonstrate, 1) t h a t precedent was e s t a b l i s h e d by these a f o r e m e n t i o n e d agreements, 2) w h i c h precedent a f f e c t e d t h e Columbia R i v e r n e g o t i a t i o n s , and the t r e a t y r e s u l t i n g t h e r e f r o m , established a pattern that w i l l  and 3) which t r e a t y i n i t s t u r n  i n f l u e n c e the f u t u r e development o f  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s , s p e c i f i c a l l y the S t i k i n e , Taku, and Yukon. Based on the premise t h a t precedent i s r e l e v a n t , the Columbia d i s p u t e w i l l be examined i n f o u r phases: (1) a b r i e f h i s t o r y of events l e a d i n g up t o t h e f i n a l n e g o t i a t i o n s ; (2) a summary o f t h e o p p o s i n g arguments;  (3) t h e a c t u a l n e g o t i a t i o n s ; and (4) p r i n c i p l e s  and t r e n d s emerging from the s e t t l e m e n t  Discussions  of the dispute.  over j o i n t development o f the Columbia R i v e r  were f i r s t begun i n March 1944, when the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada submitted  a "Columbia R i v e r R e f e r e n c e " t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t  Commission.  T h i s R e f e r e n c e c a l l e d f o r s t u d i e s o f t h e e n t i r e Columbia  R i v e r b a s i n t o "...determine whether a g r e a t e r use than i s now b e i n g made o f t h e w a t e r s o f the Columbia R i v e r system would be p o s s i b l e and advantageous".  T h i s R e f e r e n c e l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Columbia R i v e r E n g i n e e r i n g of water r e s o u r c e s  Board t o u n d e r t a k e i n v e s t i g a t i o n  o f the Columbia R i v e r B a s i n .  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Columbia R i v e r E n g i n e e r i n g  o f the  I n March 1959, the  Board submitted  i t s report of  the Canada-United S t a t e s n e g o t i a t i o n s , w h i c h a f t e r some adjustment was a c c e p t e d as the b a s i s f o r t h e Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y o f J a n u a r y , 1961.  The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y and P r o t o c o l , op. c i t . p. 21.  W i t h t h i s T r e a t y o f 1961 as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s began f o u r y e a r s o f n e g o t i a t i o n s t o s e t t l e the w o r k i n g d e t a i l s of t h e s c h e m e . ^ A major i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e a o f c o n t e n t i o n i n t h e Columbia R i v e r n e g o t i a t i o n s between t h e P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Governments was over t h e d i s p o s a l o f downstream b e n e f i t s . Premier o f B r i t i s h Columbia, m a i n t a i n e d  Mr. B e n n e t t , t h e  t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia  be f r e e t o s e l l t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s the P r o v i n c e ' s  should  share o f t h e  downstream b e n e f i t s o f t h e Columbia R i v e r development whereas the F e d e r a l Government m a i n t a i n e d  t h a t downstream b e n e f i t s were the  cheapest s o u r c e o f power a v a i l a b l e t o B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be r e t u r n e d t o t h e P r o v i n c e .  A ban on t h e export o f e l e c t r i c  power was m a i n t a i n e d  by the Canadian F e d e r a l Government u n t i l 1962,  when, under p r e s s u r e  from t h e Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the  F e d e r a l Government r e v e r s e d  i t s p o l i c y o f non-export of e l e c t r i c power  26 from Canada.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f the P r o v i n c e ' s  r i g h t to s e l l  e l e c t r i c power was o f prime importance i n n e g o t i a t i n g t h e Columbia T r e a t y , and has s e t a p r e c e d e n t s h o u l d a s i m i l a r power e x p o r t  problem  a r i s e on the Taku or Yukon R i v e r s o r o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s . P r i o r t o the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Columbia T r e a t y o f 1961, one event had o c c u r r e d which was t o e f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b o t h t h e Columbia R i v e r n e g o t i a t i o n s and Canadian water p o l i c y g e n e r a l l y . I n 1955 the K a i s e r Aluminum Company had proposed t o the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h e b u i l d i n g o f a s t o r a g e dam t o r e g u l a t e t h e f l o w from t h e Arrow Lakes f o r the purpose o f i n c r e a s i n g power i n the American hydro system downstream, which i n c r e a s e i n power was t o be at t h e d i s p o s a l o f K a i s e r a f t e r compensating t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. S e w e l l , "The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y and P r o t o c o l Agreement," op. c i t . , p. 319. But t h i s d i s p o s a l o f downstream b e n e f i t s was p r e v e n t e d by t h e Canadian F e d e r a l Government's passage of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r Improvements A c t which r e q u i r e d f e d e r a l a p p r o v a l o f works c o n s t r u c t e d on i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s . 26  The p o l i t i c a l s e t t l e m e n t page 120 below.  o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s e x p l a i n e d b r i e f l y on  The  second phase o f t h e Columbia R i v e r d i s p u t e e n t a i l s a  summary o f the o p p o s i n g arguments o f Canada and the U n i t e d over s e t t l e m e n t  States  of r i p a r i a n r i g h t s .  F i r s t , the American case on t h e Columbia R i v e r : 1.  The d o c t r i n e o f r i p a r i a n r i g h t s s h o u l d a p p l y , and thus the U n i t e d S t a t e s as the downstream s t a t e would r e c e i v e u n d i m i n i s h e d the n a t u r a l f l o w o f t h e r i v e r .  2.  The d o c t r i n e o f p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r b e n e f i c i a l use whereby a p p r o p r i a t i o n f i r s t i n time i s f i r s t i n r i g h t s h o u l d a p p l y , i t b e i n g argued t h a t the U n i t e d S t a t e s has been f i r s t i n the use o f t h e w a t e r .  3.  The d o c t r i n e o f e q u i t a b l e apportionment which r e q u i r e s t h a t the b e n e f i t s o f r i v e r water w i t h i n an a r e a or system be shared e q u i t a b l y between s t a t e s e x e r c i s i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n over the system or a r e a , s h o u l d a p p l y .  4.  The U n i t e d S t a t e s h a s , i n i t s t r e a t i e s p r o v i d e d f o r the e q u i t a b l e apportionment o f w a t e r s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s ; f o r example, i n t h e T r e a t y w i t h Mexico i n 1944 of U t i l i z a t i o n o f the Waters of t h e C o l o r a d o , T i j u a n a , and Lower R i o Grande R i v e r s , the d o c t r i n e o f u n l i m i t e d r i g h t s has i n no sense a p p l i e d . The e q u i t a b l e c l a i m s of b o t h n a t i o n s were r e s p e c t e d .  5.  M u n i c i p a l c o u r t s have a p p l i e d t h e d o c t r i n e o f e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t , and have r e j e c t e d , i n i n t e r s t a t e c a s e s , the Harmon d o c t r i n e .  6.  The Harmon d o c t r i n e was e x p r e s s l y r e p u d i a t e d by Mr. C l a y t o n , c o u n s e l f o r the American S e c t i o n o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary Commission, b e f o r e the Senate F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s Committee i n 1945.  7.  The Harmon d o c t r i n e i s n o t a p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and A r t i c l e I I o f t h e Boundary Waters T r e a t y o f 1909 must be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f c u r r e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r law. Thus the American argument r e j e c t e d t h e Harmon D o c t r i n e  and h e l d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o be e n t i t l e d t o p r i o r and e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t .  appropriation  119.  S e c o n d l y , the Canadian case on the Columbia R i v e r : 1.  American downstream r i p a r i a n s s h o u l d have no c l a i m i n c o u r t a g a i n s t Canadian i n j u r i e s to t h e i r downstream p r o p e r t i e s under the B r i t i s h Columbia Water A c t , as o n l y the h o l d e r of a l i c e n c e i s s u e d by B r i t i s h Columbia has the r i g h t to the use and the f l o w of water i n any stream i n the P r o v i n c e .  2.  P r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n f a i l s because under A r t i c l e I I of the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d Boundary Waters T r e a t y i t i s the law of the upstream s t a t e t h a t i s a p p l i c a b l e .  3.  Whether the U n i t e d S t a t e s a c c e p t s or r e j e c t s the Harmon D o c t r i n e , i s not r e l e v a n t . I t i s not t h i s d o c t r i n e , but the Boundary Waters T r e a t y of w h i c h t h i s d o c t r i n e i s p a r t and w h i c h has been adhered to f o r over f i f t y y e a r s t h a t determines the r u l e s a p p l i c a b l e .  4.  Canada i s e n t i t l e d to a f a i r a l l o c a t i o n of "downstream b e n e f i t s " r e s u l t i n g from any i n c r e a s e d use of the Columbia waters by the U n i t e d S t a t e s through s t o r a g e of w a t e r s i n Canada.  I n summary, Canada upholds the v a l i d i t y of A r t i c l e I I and her r i g h t to downstream b e n e f i t s . The  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of these opposing v i e w p o i n t s  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law of r i v e r s and f o u r y e a r s of n e g o t i a t i o n s . s i g n e d on January 17, 1961,  the Boundary Waters T r e a t y  The  o n l y the need f o r  flood control.  w i t h the arguments o u t l i n e d above, w h i c h had c o n c l u d e the P r o t o c o l to the  The  I t was  and  necessitated been  co-operative  not  concerned  to be r e s o l v e d  to  Treaty.  negotiations centered  on downstream b e n e f i t s .  s i d e s r e a l i z e d t h a t they must share the water r e s o u r c e s storage  the  Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y w h i c h had  recognized  development of hydro power and  of  i n Canada and hydro power p r o d u c t i o n  Both  through  i n the U n i t e d  States,  t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the Harmon D o c t r i n e and/or r i p a r i a n r i g h t s  to u n d i m i n i s h e d f l o w would o n l y a c c e n t u a t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e .  120.  P r i m a r i l y by t h r e a t e n i n g d i v e r s i o n o f t h e Columbia i n t o the F r a s e r R i v e r , t h e Canadian n e g o t i a t o r s persuaded the Americans t o agree t o a f i f t y - f i f t y d i v i s i o n o f a l l power produced downstream over and above t h a t w h i c h was produced b e f o r e s t o r a g e  f a c i l i t i e s were i n s t a l l e d , and  t o pay p a r t o f t h e c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s t o r a g e dams i n Canada.  T h i s agreement was between the F e d e r a l governments o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s , b u t as the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing the t r e a t y and d i s p o s i n g o f t h e b e n e f i t s , i t s support was  n e c e s s a r y f o r the c o n c l u s i o n o f the t r e a t y .  forthcoming reversed  T h i s s u p p o r t was not  u n t i l , as s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the F e d e r a l Government  i t s w a t e r p o l i c y t o p e r m i t t h e e x p o r t a t i o n o f s u r p l u s power,  thus making i t p o s s i b l e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia t o s e l l i t s s u r p l u s power 28 t o the B o n n e v i l l e Power A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i n 1964 t h e problems mentioned above and s e v e r a l other  l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t ones were s e t t l e d , and t h e P r o t o c o l was r a t i f i e d  by b o t h the American and Canadian governments.  The dams t o be  c o n s t r u c t e d can be seen on F i g u r e Number 11. The considered,  l a s t a s p e c t o f t h e Columbia R i v e r d i s p u t e t o be  and the most important  i n terms o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Taku,  S t i k i n e , and Yukon R i v e r s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r i n e law g e n e r a l l y , i s  R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s can be found i n s e v e r a l s o u r c e s . A u s t i n , op. c i t . , pp. 436-437; S e w e l l , "The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y and P r o t o c o l Agreement," op. c i t . , p. 315; and Bourne, op. c i t . , p. 499. S e w e l l , "The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y and P r o t o c o l Agreement," op. c i t . , pp. 320-322.  the body of p r i n c i p l e s and  trends a p p l i c a b l e to i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r  development emerging from the n e g o t i a t i o n s .  These can be d i v i d e d  i n t o t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s . 1.  I t has become c l e a r t h a t where water e x i s t s i n excess of the needs of the source area i t i s a m a r k e t a b l e commodity, one  t h a t can be s o l d at a p r i c e e s t a b l i s h e d  by market demands, j u s t as a r e wheat or  automobiles.  ( I n t h i s case the Canadian Government not o n l y s o l d water to the U n i t e d S t a t e s but r e n d e r e d a s e r v i c e by  controlling  the f l o w of the Columbia R i v e r water a c r o s s the boundary 29 i n accordance w i t h an agreed p l a n of o p e r a t i o n ) . 2.  Although recognized  as a commodity, water can a l s o ,  because of i t s n a t u r e , and  f l o w from one  s t a t e to another  t h e r e f o r e assume a concept of s h a r i n g , w h i c h i s  c o n t r a d i c t o r y to the p r i n c i p l e of the Harmon d o c t r i n e . Once t h i s premise i s a c c e p t e d the economic use of commodity must be n e g o t i a t e d .  the  Such n e g o t i a t i o n s must take  i n t o account p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n , e q u i t a b l e a p p r o p r i a t i o n , e q u i t a b l e apportionment and downstream b e n e f i t s .  I n the  case of the Columbia R i v e r p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n had considered  to be  because of the e x i s t e n c e of s e v e r a l American  dams on the r i v e r ' s lower reaches and  their  continued  dependence upon a t l e a s t the e x i s t i n g f l o w , and  therefore  the u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y  use.  was  one of r e a s o n a b l e  Canada Departments of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y , P r o t o c o l and R e l a t e d Documents (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964), p. 180.  T h i s concept l e d to t h a t of e q u i t a b l e a p p o r t i o n m e n t , or a d i v i s i o n of the f u t u r e needs, n e g o t i a t e d i n s t a n c e on a f i f t y - f i f t y b a s i s . argued from the v i e w p o i n t  The U n i t e d  States  of p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n  because of i t s e x i s t i n g dams and standpoint  in this  Canada argued from the  of her f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s .  The  p r i n c i p l e of  downstream b e n e f i t s (as the v a l u e of the r i v e r f l o w i s i n c r e a s e d by f l o o d c o n t r o l and hydro power  production,  the s e l l i n g p r i c e of the commodity a l s o i n c r e a s e d ) back to the S t . John R i v e r development of 1925, earlier i n this discussion. was  Columbia was  negotiations  dependent upon market c o n d i t i o n s .  s e t t l e d by a f i f t y - f i f t y  i n c r e a s e d power p r o d u c t i o n control.  considered  D e t e r m i n i n g downstream b e n e f i t s  a c r u c i a l i s s u e i n the Columbia R i v e r  as the p r i c e was  dates  The  d i v i s i o n of  and a f i x e d sum  for flood  These t h r e e concepts are not r u l e s i n the sense  o f r i v e r i n e law but  they have been a c c e p t e d as  guidelines  to Canada-United S t a t e s r i v e r b a s i n development. The law.  t h i r d c a t e g o r y concerns the broad f i e l d of i n t e r n a t i o n a l The  the T r e a t y  extended and c a r e f u l l y n e g o t i a t e d  agreements i n  p r o v i d e a step forward i n the f o r m a t i o n  body of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law on r i v e r d i s p u t e s . not e s t a b l i s h e d as what might be d e f i n e d as i n t e r n a t i o n a l law,  of a  They are absolute  (as i t i s improbable t h a t any  such  l e g i s l a t i o n e x i s t s ) , but they augment customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law - customary, i n the sense t h a t these p r i n c i p l e s are g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d by most s t a t e s as a b a s i s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n on i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s .  124.  A l t h o u g h the T r e a t y s t i p u l a t e s t h a t i t does n o t e s t a b l i s h precedent and i s r e s t r i c t e d to the Columbia B a s i n and t h e p a r t i c u l a r 30 dams mentioned t h e r e i n ,  i t i s obvious t h a t i f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o i n t Commission was r e q u i r e d t o a d j u d i c a t e a s i m i l a r d i s p u t e on ah international river  ( f o r example, the Yukon R i v e r ) , i t would have  no c h o i c e but t o l o o k t o the Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y f o r guidance i n its  decisions. The Canadian Departments o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , and o f  N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l Resources s t a t e i n an a p p r a i s a l of the Treaty: The T r e a t y makes a u s e f u l and d i s t i n c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the d e v e l o p i n g programme o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r b a s i n management and c o n c e p t s . Here the i n t e r n a t i o n a l law of the Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y t r i e s t o reassemble under the u m b r e l l a of r e c i p r o c i t y and r e a s o n what i n n a t u r e may have been d i v i d e d by boundaries. ''" 3  That government  departments s h o u l d be vague i n such  e x p r e s s i o n s o f p o l i c y i s o n l y r e a s o n a b l e because p o l i t i c a l  controversy  must be a v o i d e d ; however, i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s o f political  geography to a n a l y z e and a s s e s s t h e s e arguments and p r i n c i p l e s  i n terms o f the e m p i r i c a l  situation.  W i t h i n the g u i d e l i n e s and p r i n c i p l e s g a t h e r e d from the h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s and t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of the Columbia i s s u e , an e v a l u a t i o n w i l l now be made o f hydro development schemes on the S t i k i n e , Taku, and Yukon R i v e r s , which i n t u r n w i l l l e a d t o s u g g e s t i o n s as t o the  n a t u r e of p o l i t i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c a l problems i n v o l v e d i n the f u t u r e  development of t h e s e r i v e r s due to the l o c a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary.  3 0  I b i d  »  P-  1 1 4  -  The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y and P r o t o c o l , p. 110. I  125.  THE YUKON, STIKINE, AND TAKU RIVERS  By the terms o f a t r e a t y w i t h R u s s i a i n 1825  32  and a  33 l a t e r one w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1871,  B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s were  guaranteed f r e e n a v i g a t i o n o f a l l r i v e r s f o r purposes o f commerce f l o w i n g from Canada through A l a s k a t o the s e a .  L i t t l e use was made  o f t h i s r i g h t u n t i l the K l o n d i k e g o l d r u s h o f the 1890's when the S t i k i n e , Taku and Yukon R i v e r s were used f r e e l y by a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s . S i n c e the d e p l e t i o n o f the g o l d f i e l d s i n the e a r l y 1900's t h e r e has been l i t t l e use o f the c o a s t a l r i v e r s and the Yukon. However, by the mid-1940's p l a n s began to e v o l v e f o r hydro power development a t s e v e r a l s i t e s .  The f i r s t step was taken by the Aluminum  Company o f America when i t put a p l a n b e f o r e Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s to develop two m i l l i o n horsepower by d i v e r t i n g Yukon waters through Bennett Lake t o t i d e w a t e r i n T a i y a I n l e t , i n A l a s k a , by means o f n i n e t e e n m i l e s o f t u n n e l s through the c o a s t a l mountains.  The U n i t e d  S t a t e s opposed t h i s development by a p r i v a t e company and suggested a j o i n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the p l a n by Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , each c o u n t r y b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r developments i n i t s own t e r r i t o r i e s . "  3  ^  32  33 34  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary Commission, J o i n t Report on the Survey and Demarcation o f the Boundary between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s from Tongass Passage to Mount S a i n t E l a a s , Department o f Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys (Ottawa, K i n g s P r i n t e r , 1952), p. 195. T r e a t i e s and Agreements A f f e c t i n g Canada i n F o r c e Between H i s M a j e s t y and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1814-1925, p. 45. " W i l l Our Power Dreams f o r the M i g h t y Yukon Turn i n t o N i g h t m a r e s ? , " The F i n a n c i a l P o s t , December 28, 1963, p. 18.  126.  These proposed s u r v e y s were undertaken by b o t h c o u n t r i e s i n 1950. I t was  then t h a t the Canadian government d e c i d e d t h a t i t was  not  i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t to p e r m i t the d i v e r s i o n of Canadian water to another c o u n t r y f o r power i f i t c o u l d be developed and used i n Canada and t h e r e f o r e no f u r t h e r work was done towards a j o i n t project.  The n e x t s t e p was  t a k e n by Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s , who  in  1952 suggested t h a t Ventures L i m i t e d i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of economic  power development  w h o l l y i n Canada w i t h Yukon w a t e r s .  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the Y u k o n - A t l i n - T a k u (YAT) p l a n , which  was  e s s e n t i a l l y a d i v e r s i o n of the f l o w o f the upper Yukon R i v e r , w i t h a d j a c e n t r i v e r s and s t r e a m s , to the v a l l e y s s o u t h of A t l i n where the power s i t e was Columbia boundary  Lake,  to be l o c a t e d j u s t i n s i d e the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and then i n t o the ocean v i a  the Taku R i v e r , (See F i g u r e No.  12).  The v a r i o u s powerhouses would  have the c a p a c i t y to produce a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4.9 m i l l i o n  horsepower  to s u p p l y an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e on the Taku R i v e r a t T u l s e q u a h , which pending adequate d r e d g i n g of the c h a n n e l i n A l a s k a n waters i s the o n l y economic  s i t e f o r i n d u s t r y w i t h i n Canadian j u r i s d i c t i o n a t t i d e w a t e r .  T h i s was  s p e c i f i e d i n a c o n d i t i o n l a i d down by the Canadian Government  t h a t any such p r o j e c t would have to be planned so t h a t g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t s , and i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s u s i n g the power, would be i n Canada.  On August 2, 1954, the B r i t i s h Columbia Government approved an a p p l i c a t i o n by Northwest Power I n d u s t r i e s L i m i t e d , a s u b s i d i a r y of Ventures L i m i t e d , f o r a c o n d i t i o n a l l i c e n c e to develop the sources of water power.  As a guarantee t h a t i t would proceed w i t h o u t d e l a y i n  128.  the  development  of the s u c c e s s i v e phases of the p r o j e c t , Northwest 35  Power I n d u s t r y L i m i t e d , p o s t e d a bond o f $2,500,000.  A similar  a p p l i c a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the Yukon p o r t i o n o f the waters i n the p r o j e c t was  f i l e d w i t h the F e d e r a l Government, and was  approved  by the Honourable Jean Lesage, then M i n i s t e r o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s . S e v e r a l l a r g e American i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s appeared  interested  i n the p r o j e c t and f i n a n c i n g was d i s c u s s e d , but i n each i n s t a n c e the company i n v o l v e d withdrew i t s o f f e r because o f s u s p e c t e d p r e s s u r e 36 from American a u t h o r i t i e s .  A r e a s o n a b l e c o n c l u s i o n to be drawn from  t h i s a c t i o n i s t h a t American a u t h o r i t i e s d i d not want Canada t o go ahead and develop her own water r e s o u r c e s . of  At t h i s time the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  the Columbia R i v e r development were becoming apparent and perhaps the  American government  was r e l u c t a n t to encourage the development o f a 37 r i v a l s o u r c e o f hydro power. The a c t u a l case o f the abandonment of "$269,950,000 Power and I n d u s t r i a l Development i n Yukon A r e a , " Roads and E n g i n e e r i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n , (September, 1954), p. 92. " W i l l our Power Dreams f o r the M i g h t y Yukon Turn i n t o N i g h t m a r e s ? , " op. c i t . , pp. 17-18. In terms o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and r i v e r b a s i n development, the scheme c r e a t e d a dilemma. Canada has the r i g h t under the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary Waters T r e a t y o f 1909 t o d i v e r t i n t e r n a t i o n a l waters w i t h i n i t s b o u n d a r i e s f o r b e n e f i c i a l use, but i f the Yukon R i v e r w a t e r s were d i v e r t e d t o the s o u t h i n the i n t e r e s t o f h y d r o , the R i v e r would no l o n g e r be n a v i g a b l e . T h i s i s c o n t r a r y t o the Washington T r e a t y of 1871, which as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i n t h i s paper, i n s u r e s t h a t n a v i g a t i o n s h a l l r e m a i n open t o c i t i z e n s of b o t h c o u n t r i e s , ( T r e a t i e s and Agreements A f f e c t i n g Canada i n F o r c e Between H i s M a j e s t y and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1814-1925, p. 4 5 . ) . I n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t commercial t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ended on the Yukon R i v e r i n 1955, the T r e a t y of 1871 i s s t i l l i n e f f e c t . However, i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n on the Columbia R i v e r the U n i t e d S t a t e s had b u i l t s i x l a r g e dams d e s p i t e the Oregon T r e a t y o f  the Taku scheme i s d i f f i c u l t to determine.  The  r e a s o n put f o r w a r d  by  the F e d e r a l Government and one p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y i s t h a t the p r o j e c t was  not e c o n o m i c a l l y  sources  f e a s i b l e ( a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d be i m p l i e d from the  of these reasons t h a t i t was  not e c o n o m i c a l l y  f e a s i b l e because  38 of p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e  i n withholding investments).  The  provincial  1846 w h i c h i n s u r e d B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s f r e e n a v i g a t i o n of t h i s river. In o n l y one case was Canada o f f i c i a l l y c o n s u l t e d i n advance. ("A Major P l a n f o r Yukon R i v e r Waters i n the Canadian N o r t h w e s t , " The E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , (November, 1957), pp. 1645-1646.) Thus the p r i o r i t y of hydro power over n a v i g a t i o n had not y e t been c h a l l e n g e d and n e i t h e r p a r t y knew what the l e g a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s were, i n r e g a r d to the use of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s . T h i s p o i n t i s made by two s o u r c e s : The Honourable Jean-Luc P e p i n , F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f Energy, M i n e s , and R e s o u r c e s , i n p e r s o n a l correspondence w i t h the author on F e b r u a r y 17, 1967; "So f a r as I know, a l l a c t i v i t y w i t h r e s p e c t to the former (YAT p r o j e c t ) ceased some y e a r s ago f o l l o w i n g f a i l u r e o f the promoting company to i n t e r e s t a l a r g e s c a l e power u s e r or to f i n d a market f o r any s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f the p r o j e c t ' s p o t e n t i a l power o u t p u t . The company had hoped to f i n d a market f o r the energy through the p r o d u c t i o n of aluminum. However, w i t h a l a r g e p a r t o f the w o r l d market f o r aluminum l o c a t e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s behind the p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f b a r r i e r , the company was unable to j u s t i f y economic development i n Canadian t e r r i t o r y on the Taku." Mr. A.F. Paget, Deputy M i n i s t e r of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands, F o r e s t s , and Water R e s o u r c e s , i n p e r s o n a l correspondence w i t h the author on January 31, 1967; " I t would be my o p i n i o n t h a t the F r o b i s h e r Company abandoned t h e i r p l a n s f o r the development o f the YukonTaku because o f the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o s t o f power from t h i s s o u r c e , combined w i t h the d i f f i c u l t y of p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r a m e t a l l u r g i c a l i n d u s t r y t h a t c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y use the power. I n a d d i t i o n , the Company never r e s o l v e d the problem w i t h r e s p e c t to b o r d e r c r o s s i n g s and f r e i g h t t e r m i n a l s which would undoubtedly have had to be c o n s t r u c t e d on U n i t e d S t a t e s s o i l . I have no knowledge t h a t any h i g h p o l i t i c s were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s d e c i s i o n of the F r o b i s h e r Company, which I b e l i e v e was w h o l l y based on economics."  Government seems to a t t r i b u t e the abandonment o f the scheme to 39 political  complications. In a r e c e n t r e p o r t done f o r the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  and N o r t h e r n i t was  Development and  the Government o f the Yukon T e r r i t o r y  recommended t h a t the Yukon-Taiya and Yukon-Taku p r o j e c t s be  reconsidered with preference  g i v e n to the Yukon-Taku p r o j e c t , as  power under t h i s arrangement would be generated e n t i r e l y w i t h i n 40 Canada.  I t i s then suggested t h a t an agreement c o u l d be worked  out w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s w h e r e i n a guarantee o f a s u b s t a n t i a l b l o c k o f Yukon-Taku power a t r e a s o n a b l e  c o s t c o u l d be exchanged f o r  a guarantee o f f r e e r passage to the P a c i f i c .  Such an arrangement  was  d e s c r i b e d as "an e x c e l l e n t f i r s t step towards c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n r e g i o n a l development" or as the p o l i t i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c approach of t h i s t h e s i s i d e n t i f i e s the q u e s t i o n , the economic advantages gained by a u n i t a r y approach to watershed u t i l i z a t i o n o f t e n outweighs the narrow advantages gained when the p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n o f such a r e s o u r c e i s c o n s i d e r e d as the dominent c r i t e r i a i n development. 39 Summarized Williston, Resources, 1950's was which were ^  from p e r s o n a l correspondence of the author w i t h Mr. R. the P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r of Lands, F o r e s t s , and Water on F e b r u a r y 16, 1967. "The F r o b i s h e r scheme of the u l t i m a t e l y abandoned f o r a number o f r e a s o n s , among the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s of t h a t day."  D.W. C a r r and A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , The Yukon Economy I t s P o t e n t i a l f o r Growth and C o n t e n u i t y , The Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development and The Government of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y (Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968), p. 62 and 163.  The second scheme of n o r t h e r n development o f f e r e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n h e r e i s the Rampart p r o p o s a l .  In the l a t e 1950's  the U n i t e d S t a t e s government a u t h o r i z e d the Corps of E n g i n e e r s  to  c a r r y out f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s a t Rampart, on the Yukon R i v e r , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the proposed b u i l d i n g of a dam w i t h the c a p a c i t y 41 to produce f i v e m i l l i o n k i l o w a t t s of power a n n u a l l y . F i g u r e Number 13).  (See  Such a dam would i n t e r f e r e w i t h Canada's l e g a l  r i g h t to n a v i g a t e the Yukon R i v e r , a f a c t w h i c h was  p o i n t e d out by  the  Deputy L e g a l A d v i s o r of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of S t a t e ; " U n i t e d S t a t e s a c t i o n on the dam,  i f i t would c l o s e n a v i g a t i o n on the Yukon  would be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h A r t i c l e XXVI of the 1871 The  Corps o f Engineers  T r e a t y o f Washington".  attempted to r e c o g n i z e t h i s t r e a t y p r o v i s i o n by  p l a n n i n g f o r trans-shipment  f a c i l i t i e s a t the dam  s i t e but i t i s  q u e s t i o n a b l e whether Canada would accept these arrangements w i t h o u t f u r t h e r compensation.  T h i s q u e s t i o n remains unanswered, however,  as the Corps recommended a g a i n s t the p r o j e c t .  I t was  f e l t that  f e a s i b i l i t y o f the p r o j e c t depended upon e i t h e r the a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t new  e l e c t r o p r o c e s s i n d u s t r y to use the power a t t i d e w a t e r or to e x p o r t  i t to the main g r i d system i n the S t a t e of Washington.  Both  a l t e r n a t i v e s proved too c o s t l y . I n f o r m a t i o n gained through p e r s o n a l correspondence by the author w i t h C o l o n e l C.A. C a r r o l l , Deputy D i v i s i o n E n g i n e e r , Corps of E n g i n e e r s U n i t e d S t a t e s Army, on A p r i l 11, 1967. 42  U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r , A l a s k a N a t u r a l Resources and the Rampart P r o j e c t , (Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , June, 1967), p. 6. As the Rampart P r o j e c t w i l l not a f f e c t the l e v e l of the Yukon R i v e r i n Canada, the Boundary Waters T r e a t y of 1909 would not be a p p l i c a b l e . ( I b i d , p. 7 ) .  133.  The r e p o r t d i d recommend t h a t the Yukon-Taiya p r o j e c t "appears t o be t h e most f a v o u r a b l e A l a s k a h y d r o e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o power i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s based upon use o f imported m a t e r i a l s " and t h e r e f o r e t h i s arrangement be n e g o t i a t e d w i t h Canada. T h i s p r o j e c t now appears t o be t h e primary c o n c e r n and " i n l a t e June, 1968, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were made by t h e A l a s k a Power A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to a U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s i o n a l Committee f o r an e a r l y exchange o f notes w i t h Canada f o r a j o i n t U n i t e d States-Canada study o f the Yukon43 T a i y a (power) p r o j e c t and r e l a t e d  resources."  B e f o r e t h e above h y d r o e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t s a r e a p p r a i s e d i n terms o f t h e r e g i o n s p o l i t i c a l g e o g r a p h i c c o n s t r a i n t s t h e r e i s t h e a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r o f precedence t o be acknowledged as i t i s a necessary  p r e r e q u i s i t e i n any d i s c u s s i o n o f p o s s i b l e f u t u r e development  of t h e S t i k i n e , Taku, and Yukon R i v e r s .  When Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s seek t o s e t t l e a d i s p u t e t h e two governments c o n s i d e r t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n terms o f e x i s t i n g t r e a t i e s , w h i c h form the framework o r b a s i s upon w h i c h n e g o t i a t i o n s w i l l proceed.  I n n e g o t i a t i o n s , each c o u n t r y  forward r e l e v a n t arguments i n support o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  puts These  arguments a r e based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t r e a t i e s , s e t t l e m e n t s o f s i m i l a r d i s p u t e s between t h e two c o u n t r i e s and between o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , and u s u a l l y , p l e a s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m i t y .  Thus any analogous  s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f geography ( t h a t i s , t h e s p a t i a l arrangement of p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l phenomena),  law, economics, o r p o l i t i c s  which have a r i s e n i n t h e p a s t a r e put forward as arguments f o r one side or the other.  C a r r , op. c i t . , p. 163.  134.  The w r i t e r has found t h a t most agreements  between s t a t e s  c o n t a i n c l a u s e s which negate t h e agreement i n terms o f p r e c e d e n t . The most s i g n i f i c a n t example p e r t i n e n t t o t h e r i v e r s i n q u e s t i o n i s A r t i c l e X X I I o f t h e P r o t o c o l t o t h e Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y . I t states: Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America a r e i n agreement t h a t the T r e a t y does n o t e s t a b l i s h any g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e or precedent a p p l i c a b l e t o w a t e r s o t h e r than those o f the Columbia R i v e r B a s i n and does not d e t r a c t from the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the Boundary Waters T r e a t y , 1909, t o o t h e r w a t e r s . ^ T h i s p o i n t has i n v i t e d comment from Canadian f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s : In the event t h a t t h e r e would be an i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the T r e a t y e s t a b l i s h e d a p r i n c i p l e or precedent r e s t r i c t i n g Canada's freedom t o develop o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s ( f o r example, t h e Yukon) i n the manner most advantageous t o Canada t h i s Item ( X I I above) s t a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t the Columbia arrangement does n o t e s t a b l i s h any such p r i n c i p l e or precedent and moreover, does not a f f e c t the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Boundary Waters 4 5 T r e a t y o f 1909, t o o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s i n Canada.  The p o i n t which the t r e a t y - m a k i n g b o d i e s a r e t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h by i n s e r t i o n o f no-precedent c l a u s e s , stems from one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "precedent".  To t h e p e o p l e drawing up a t r e a t y  " p r e c e d e n t " means a " r u l e " or "law" w h i c h must be f o l l o w e d i n l a t e r n e g o t i a t i o n s t o which the e a r l i e r t r e a t y has some a p p l i c a b i l i t y . However, i n p r a c t i c a l n e g o t i a t i o n s " p r e c e d e n t " i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an "example" o f what has gone b e f o r e and what i s l i k e l y to a f f e c t  The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y P r o t o c o l and R e l a t e d Documents, p. 114. Jean-Luc P e p i n , M i n i s t e r o f Mines, Energy and R e s o u r c e s , i n p e r s o n a l correspondence w i t h the author on F e b r u a r y 17, 1967; and as s t a t e d s i m i l a r i l y i n t h e Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y P r o t o c o l and R e l a t e d Documents, p. 132.  decisions  i n the f u t u r e .  I t i s the f i r s t meaning which governments  are p r o t e c t i n g themselves a g a i n s t , not of  the second.  Any  analysis  f u t u r e development on i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s must r e c o g n i z e  d e f i n i t i o n the importance of precedence i n the sense of an  by  "example".  B e a r i n g the above i n mind, a p o l i t i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c a l framework f o r the development of the Taku, S t i k i n e , and Yukon R i v e r s w i l l now suggested, of  based on the preceeding  be  s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter and  comprised  four general conclusions. 1.  Although set  the Harmon D o c t r i n e i s s t i l l  c o u l d be  invoked by Canada to the  a precedent  of the Columbia R i v e r d i s p u t e e s t a b l i s h e s f o r the r e j e c t i o n of t h i s d o c t r i n e i n  favour of the p r i n c i p l e of r e a s o n a b l e Although  the concept  acknowledged by  of downstream b e n e f i t s  j o i n t Canadian-United  this  this  If after  on i t s p o r t i o n of the r i v e r and  thereby  regarding the  by the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada should  i n c r e a s e the American output, and  Canada  interesting possibilities arise  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a dam  first,  Should  separately with  the q u e s t i o n of downstream b e n e f i t s .  dam  i t cannot  i s undertaken as a  States venture.  the U n i t e d S t a t e s proceed  c o n s t r u c t a dam  was  f o r the p o s s i b l e Rampart-Yukon or  Yukon-Taiya development u n l e s s  development two  apportionment.  the Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y  be h e l d as precedent  and  detriment  any U n i t e d S t a t e s development on the Yukon, the  settlement  2.  as  f o r t h i n A r t i c l e I I of the Boundary Waters  T r e a t y and of  in effect  thereby  or should Canada e r e c t a  r e g u l a t e the flow of the Yukon  136.  or T a i y a R i v e r s i n such a way t h a t l a t e r American dams produce more hydro e l e c t r i c power than they o t h e r w i s e c o u l d have, i s Canada then e n t i t l e d to downstream 3.  benefits?  Owing to the Canadian Government's  relaxation i n  1963 of t h e i r r e s t r i c t i o n s on the e x p o r t of hydro power, a r e s u l t of the Columbia R i v e r n e g o t i a t i o n s , i t i s now f e a s i b l e f o r the Yukon-Taku  and/or the Yukon-Taiya  r i v e r b a s i n s to be developed on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l programme.  T h i s would b e n e f i t b o t h Canada and the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , as Canada has the p o t e n t i a l power r e s o u r c e and A l a s k a the growing power r e q u i r e m e n t s . The advantages of c o - o r d i n a t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l hydro-power obvious.  development i s  " C o - o r d i n a t i o n i n c l u d e s the s e l e c t i o n of t h e  'best' p r o j e c t s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n , and c o n s t r u c t i o n of 45 them i n the 'best' sequence."  W i t h the c o m p l e t i o n  of t h e Columbia and Peace R i v e r Hydro Power p r o j e c t s , the Taku-Yukon-Taiya s o u r c e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t as the n e x t major s o u r c e s of hydro power i n the P a c i f i c Northwest. 4.  The l o c a t i o n of the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary r e s t r i c t s Canadian i n d u s t r i a l development on the S t i k i n e and Taku as t h e r e i s o n l y one s i t e l a r g e enough (Tulsequah) f o r i n d u s t r y to l o c a t e i n the r i v e r v a l l e y s e a s t o f the boundary.  The same problem i s n o t found w i t h the Yukon  M.E. M a r t s , "An American V i e w p o i n t , " B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference No. 12, 1959, p u b l i s h e d by B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources C o n f e r e n c e , p. 83.  137.  R i v e r b o t h because of the l e n g t h o f the Yukon R i v e r and the more s u i t a b l e p h y s i c a l t e r r a i n .  However, a l l  t h r e e r i v e r s a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the b a r r i e r f u n c t i o n s o f the boundary, the most important  o f w h i c h i s the U n i t e d  S t a t e s Merchant Marine A c t , which as d i s c u s s e d i n the previous chapter, e f f e c t i v e l y r e s t r i c t s trade  between  Canadian i n d u s t r i e s i n the Yukon and n o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Therefore, unless a  change i s made i n the f u n c t i o n of the boundary t o  facilitate  e a s i e r t r a d i n g a c c e s s , i t would appear t h a t the b e s t  use  of Canada's hydro power would be t o supply i n d u s t r i e s i n the American l i s i e r e ,  s p e c i f i c a l l y pulp and paper p l a n t s  and p o s s i b l y a s m e l t e r a t t i d e w a t e r .  At the p r e s e n t  time i t seems p r o b a b l e  t h a t the U n i t e d  States  w i l l be the f i r s t t o e r e c t a major dam on the Yukon R i v e r o r as a j o i n t p r o j e c t w i t h Canada on the Yukon-Taiya system.  W i t h the growing A l a s k a n  and Japanese markets f o r low c o s t power f o r use i n e l e c t r o p r o c e s s i n d u s t r y and w i t h the p r e s e n t recommendations Canadian Governments by the Corps of E n g i n e e r s  t o b o t h the American and and Carr  Associates  r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r an e a r l y s t a r t on the Yukon-Taku-Taiya  system, i t  appears l i k e l y  t h a t developments w i l l be s e t t l e d s h o r t l y .  Thus the  above problem of downstream b e n e f i t s and precedence g e n e r a l l y c o u l d very w e l l a r i s e .  138.  SUMMARY  S e t t l e m e n t of U n i t e d States-Canada r i v e r i n e problems over the  p a s t two hundred y e a r s have c r e a t e d a s m a l l body of customary  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law of w h i c h the most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s a r e as f o l l o w s : 1.  A r e j e c t i o n of t e r r i t o r i a l s o v e r e i g n t y i n boundary water problems  (Harmon D o c t r i n e ) .  2.  The b e g i n n i n g s o f a u n i t a r y r i v e r b a s i n c o n c e p t .  3.  The acceptance o f the concept of downstream b e n e f i t s .  4.  The a c c e p t a n c e of e q u i t a b l e ( r e a s o n a b l e ) apportionment as a b a s i s f o r p r e l i m i n a r y n e g o t i a t i o n s .  5.  The c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of p r i o r appropriation. As d i s c u s s e d , the l o c a t i o n o f the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h  boundary c r e a t e s problems i n the development and Yukon R i v e r s . p o l i t i c a l geography  Columbia  o f the S t i k i n e ,  Taku,  The above g u i d e l i n e s , however, can be used w i t h i n t o overcome the e f f e c t of the boundary as a  d e t e r r a n t to the maximum use of the r i v e r s .  R i v e r b a s i n s such as the  C o l o r a d o , S t . John, Columbia, and Indus have been developed because of t h e i r acceptance by the s t a t e s i n v o l v e d as u n i t a r y systems and  boundary  problems have been m i n i m i z e d .  The U n i t e d S t a t e s Government has e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n s e c u r i n g power from hydro s i t e s i n the Yukon and n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Government of the Yukon and B r i t i s h Columbia have i n t u r n e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r hydro r e s o u r c e s f o r  i n t e r n a l consumption and e x p o r t .  T h e r e f o r e , i t would appear t h a t  i f s i m i l a r arrangements can be made i n t h i s boundary r e g i o n t o those made a l o n g t h e s o u t h e r n Canada-United S t a t e s boundary, a m u t u a l l y advantageous s e t t l e m e n t c o u l d be r e a c h e d .  C o n f l i c t s of  i n t e r e s t w i l l c e r t a i n l y a r i s e over f u t u r e r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e S t i k i n e , Taku and Yukon R i v e r s , b u t t h e use o f t h e above p o l i t i c a l - g e o g r a p h i c approach can l e a d t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b a s i c g e o g r a p h i c components i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r development and c o n f l i c t , and thus f a c i l i t a t e a more thorough v i e w o f t h e problem involved.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  U n l i k e most boundary s t u d i e s , those o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s e n t a i l few i f any c o n f l i c t s over e t h n i c groups, language problems, t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n , c l a i m s t o t e r r i t o r y , and o t h e r t o p i c s commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h boundary r e s e a r c h i n p o l i t i c a l geography.  The antecedent  n a t u r e o f the Canada-United S t a t e s boundary f o r e s t a l l e d many o f the u s u a l s o c i a l problems.  However, the unique l o c a t i o n o f the s e c t i o n  of t h e boundary s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s c u t t i n g n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y o f f from a c c e s s t o the s e a , has caused many economic problems.  The s i t u a t i o n o f non-access i s n o t  e c o n o m i c a l l y c r i t i c a l , but i n v o l v e s a s o p h i s t i c a t e d problem o f m a x i m i z i n g p r o f i t s i n c o m p e t i t i o n between two v e r y s i m i l a r and a g g r e s s i v e economies.  Further, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to s t a t e d e f i n i t e  c o n c l u s i o n s t o t h e problems o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and hydro power u t i l i z a t i o n because o f t h e i r contemporary and dynamic n a t u r e ; however suggested s o l u t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e i n terms o f t h e r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n .  One o f the b a s i c causes o f boundary problems i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary i s g e n e r a l l y f i x e d and t h a t except through r e l o c a t i o n d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g m i l i t a r y  conflict  b o u n d a r i e s l o c a t e d decades o r c e n t u r i e s ago remain the same today. In s p i t e o f t h e permanent s i t e o f the boundary, i t s s i t u a t i o n i s c o n s t a n t l y f l u c t u a t i n g through socio-economic changes i n t h e r e g i o n o f the boundary.  Because o f t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f n a t i o n a l s t a t e s t o  a l t e r b o u n d a r i e s , the problem o f on- the one hand a c h a n g i n g s o c i o economic m i l i e u , and on t h e o t h e r a s t a t i c boundary can be s o l v e d o n l y  through changes i n the f u n c t i o n s of the boundary.  That i s , the  degree of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the boundary as a b a r r i e r to economic and s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s must be a l t e r e d , e i t h e r by i n c r e a s i n g or decreasing i t s b a r r i e r functions.  The above i s e s s e n t i a l l y the problem posed i n t h i s  thesis.  The A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary e v o l v e d over the y e a r s 1903, and was  f i x e d permanently through a r b i t r a t i o n i n 1903  1741i n terms  o f the economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n of t h a t p e r i o d . P r e s e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routeways and hydro power development were unforeseen  a t the time and t h e r e f o r e the boundary f u n c t i o n s must be  a d j u s t e d to meet today's  requirements.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the l o c a t i o n of boundaries have not been aware o f the many f u n c t i o n s and  long-term r e p e r c u s s i o n s of p o l i t i c a l  boundaries.  In the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y boundaries were p r i m a r i l y i d e n t i f i e d as the f u r t h e s t e x t e n s i o n of the n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y of a s t a t e and were regarded c h i e f l y as b a r r i e r s to o u t s i d e p e n e t r a t i o n .  T h i s i s the  p h i l o s o p h y which dominated the 1903 boundary s e t t l e m e n t . of the boundary was  The  a r e s u l t of the e x t e n s i o n of the B r i t i s h  location and  R u s s i a n f u r t r a d e s i n the e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . 1903  the r a p i d l y changing  economic and s o c i a l p a t t e r n s of the  were not taken i n t o account  i n d e l i n e a t i n g the boundary.  In northwest  Since that  time c o n d i t i o n s have c o n t i n u e d to change and the boundary w h i c h  was  adequate i n a f u r - t r a d i n g economy and s t r a i n e d under a m i n i n g economy, i s inadequate  to f a c i l i t a t e  the contemporary economic p a t t e r n .  142.  Any a t t e n t i o n p a i d by government function  t o t h e l o c a t i o n and  o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary came o n l y i n time  of c r i s e s and t h e r e was no e f f e c t i v e attempt to d e f i n e the l o c a t i o n of t h e boundary i n terms o f i t s impact on the a r e a l p a t t e r n s which i t intersected.  I n 1903 t h e boundary was d e l i n e a t e d  and thus any  contemplated changes i n i t s l o c a t i o n became almost i m p o s s i b l e .  Since d e l i n e a t i o n in transportation)  took p l a c e boundary problems  (specifically  c o u l d b e s t be s o l v e d by a change o f f u n c t i o n ,  however  by p u r s u i n g many avenues o f u n r e l a t e d a d j u s t m e n t s and p i e c e m e a l solutions  the s i t u a t i o n has n o t n o t i c e a b l y  improved.  The Boundary  Waters T r e a t y o f 1909 f a c i l i t a t e d t h e development o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s by c l e a r l y s t a t i n g the terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e two s t a t e s and thus the r o l e o f t h e boundary.  However, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  had no such sweeping guide t o f o l l o w and boundary f u n c t i o n s changed o n l y t o meet s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h l i t t l e  media have  co-ordination  of p o l i c i e s o f t h e two s t a t e s .  To t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t changes i n t h e contemporary r o l e of the boundary a r e n e c e s s a r y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l o c a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s that  problems caused by the  o f the boundary were d i s c u s s e d .  I t was found  the l o c a t i o n o f t h e A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary caused many  a c c e s s problems f o r n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon Territory.  S e v e r a l attempts a t c r e a t i n g  Panhandle were documented  corridors  through the A l a s k a  and t h e i r f a i l u r e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e  u n - d e s i r e a b l e economic e f f e c t c o r r i d o r s would have on Panhandle communities,  143.  the r e l u c t a n c e of the U n i t e d S t a t e s unwillingness  to cede any t e r r i t o r y , and the  o f the Canadian Government to concede to the U n i t e d  S t a t e s any hydro power r i g h t s on Canadian r i v e r s .  I t i s suggested t h a t the s o l u t i o n to the access problem i s dependent upon changes i n boundary f u n c t i o n s . that of coastwise  The example chosen i s  s h i p p i n g and i t i s found t h a t i f s e l e c t e d  changes  are made i n the Merchant Marine A c t and the Canadian S h i p p i n g A c t , the b a r r i e r e f f e c t of the boundary on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n would d i s s i p a t e . A change i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routeways and r e g u l a t i o n s would a l s o the problem of l a b o u r s u p p l y  and i m m i g r a t i o n  solve  restrictions.  As documented, t h e r e a r e examples o f l e g i s l a t i o n exempting c e r t a i n companies  from s h i p p i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s .  c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the U n i t e d  The b i l l p r e s e n t l y  S t a t e s House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  under  (cited i n  Chapter I I , p. 90) f o r a change i n the Merchant Marine A c t to a l l o w Americans t o use a Canadian f e r r y system i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of what i s possible.  Continuing  c r e a t e government  lobbying pressure  a c t i o n toward a broad r e v i e w of e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n  on access through the A l a s k a government  by the b u s i n e s s community can  Panhandle and a c l e a r statement of  p o l i c y on suggested s o l u t i o n s o f f e r e d by the b u s i n e s s and  academic communities.  Having o u t l i n e d the f u n c t i o n of the boundary i n terms o f a contemporary problem, t h a t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , the f u t u r e problem o f the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r s , S t i k i n e , Taku, and Yukon was then d i s c u s s e d  i n an attempt to i s o l a t e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the u t i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l of hydro power developments on r i v e r s  144.  d i v i d e d by the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary.  The  analysis  i n v o l v e s f a c e t s of b o t h p o l i t i c a l geography and i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, w h i c h have been seen to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , and g e n e r a l l y broadens the  terms of r e f e r e n c e of the t h e s i s .  From t h i s d i s c u s s i o n s e v e r a l  conclusions are evident.  F i r s t , the mere p o t e n t i a l of these r i v e r s does n o t mean t h a t "they can or w i l l be developed e c o n o m i c a l l y . " ^  F a c t o r s such  as power o u t p u t , d i s t a n c e from m a r k e t s , c a p i t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s must be c o n s i d e r e d .  " I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o g e n e r a l i z e  and say because the Yukon has a l a r g e amount of undeveloped water power, t h i s w i l l be the i n e v i t a b l e s o u r c e of s u p p l y f o r most o f the development of y o u r economy.  I t may  or may n o t .  H o p e f u l l y because of the c o l l a t e r a l  b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d by hydro p l a n t s , and t h e i r l o n g term economy, the answer w i l l be i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . " ^  Second, g i v e n t h a t hydro power development on the r i v e r s , e s p e c i a l l y the Yukon, does prove e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to  expect t h a t the precedent e s t a b l i s h e d by e a r l i e r U n i t e d States-Canada  n e g o t i a t i o n s over j o i n t hydro power development w i l l be the p a t t e r n upon which a s e t t l e m e n t w i l l be based.  Any p r o j e c t on the Taku R i v e r  w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be l o c a t e d i n Canada because of the n a t u r e of the  H.L. K e e n l e y s i d e , "Economic E f f e c t s o f Large S c a l e Power Development" Yukon's Resources ( P r o c e e d i n g s of the Second Yukon N o r t h e r n Resources Conference, March 23, 24, and 25, 1966, W h i t e h o r s e Chamber of Commerce), p. 45. 2 Ibid.  145.  r i v e r b u t the power c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n e i t h e r s t a t e .  At present  the most r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e i s f o r a dam t o be c o n s t r u c t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia on the Taku o r T a i y a R i v e r s and t h e power s o l d i n Alaska.  T h i s p l a n would e n t a i l e i t h e r t h a t Canada pay the f u l l  cost  of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the dam and s e l l the power i n A l a s k a o r t h a t the dam be c o n s t r u c t e d on a c o s t - s h a r i n g b a s i s and the r e s u l t i n g power d i v i d e d along s i m i l a r l i n e s . j o i n t development p l a n .  E i t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e would i n v o l v e a  The o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e open t o Canadians i s  to develop t h e i r own power sources  and l i n k them t o a p r o v i n c e wide  g r i d f o r use i n s o u t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia m a r k e t s .  The Yukon R i v e r p r e s e n t s  the same a l t e r n a t i v e as t h e Taku-  T a i y a except t h a t here the U n i t e d S t a t e s has t h e o p t i o n t o c o n s t r u c t dams on i t s own. to  T h i s p l a n a f f e c t s Canada i n two ways.  I t i s contrary  t h e f r e e n a v i g a t i o n c l a u s e i n t h e T r e a t y o f Washington o f 1871  i n s u r i n g Canada access  up the Yukon R i v e r f o r purposes o f commerce;  however, t h i s c l a u s e has been d i s r e g a r d e d on the Columbia R i v e r and t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e i t w i l l be r e s p e c t e d f u l l y River.  on t h e Yukon  I f an American dam i s b u i l t what r o l e w i l l Canadian dams on  the upper reaches o f the Yukon R i v e r p l a y i n terms o f downstream b e n e f i t s ? Some type o f r e s t i t u t i o n w i l l be n e c e s s a r y ,  p o s s i b l y a cash o r power  s e t t l e m e n t , s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n t h e case o f Canadian dams on t h e Columbia River.  F i n a l l y , i t i s obvious from the above and from t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s discussed w i t h i n chapter  t h r e e t h a t the b e s t approach t o r i v e r i n e  development whether i t be hydro power, i r r i g a t i o n , p o l l u t i o n o r whatever  146.  i s t o develop the r i v e r b a s i n as a u n i t a r y system. p r o j e c t s lead to i n e f f i c i e n c i e s u t i l i z a t i o n o f the r e s o u r c e .  G e n e r a l l y , piecemeal  i n the optimum socio-economic  R i v e r b a s i n s a s t r i d e the U n i t e d S t a t e s -  Canada boundary n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e j o i n t development because of the c r e a t i o n of an I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission t h r o u g h A r t i c l e s V I I and V I I I of the Boundary Waters T r e a t y of 1909 i n w h i c h the commission must g i v e i t s a s s e n t t o any p r o j e c t on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r .  T h i s t h e s i s has d e a l t w i t h o n l y t h r e e s p e c i f i c  problems  i n v o l v e d w i t h the A l a s k a - B r i t i s h Columbia boundary, i t s h i s t o r i c a l development, i t s contemporary impact i n terms o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and i t s f u t u r e impact on hydro power development.  Therefore, i t i s  obvious t h a t many areas of r e s e a r c h a r e y e t t o be e x p l o r e d b e f o r e the  t o t a l spectrum o f boundary f u n c t i o n s i s e v a l u a t e d .  It is  a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l suggest the b e g i n n i n g s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - A l a s k a boundary.  The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y P r o t o c o l and R e l a t e d Documents, op. c i t . , pp. 10-14.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books  Bancroft,  H.H.  H i s t o r y of the Northwest Coast. The B a n c r o f t Company.  V o l . 1. 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Wardle,  "A Major Power P l a n f o r Yukon R i v e r Waters i n the Canadian N o r t h w e s t " , The E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l . November, 1957. p. 1638.  Marts,  Mead,  J.M.  M.E.  W.R.  "An American V i e w p o i n t " , B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference. No. 12, 1959. P u b l i s h e d by 12. B.C.N.R.C. " F i n n i s h K a r e l i a : An I n t e r n a t i o n a l B o r d e r l a n d " , G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l . V o l . L I . March, 1952. p. 40.  Melamid, A.  "The P o l i t i c a l Geography of the G u l f of Aquaba", Annals o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n of American Geographers. V o l . X L V I I . September, 1957. p. 231.  M i n g h i , J.V.  "The E v o l u t i o n of a B o r d e r R e g i o n : The P a c i f i c Coast S e c t i o n o f the Canada - U.S. Boundary", The S c o t t i s h G e o g r a p h i c a l Magazine. V o l . LXXXI. J a n u a r y , 1961. p. 37.  M i n g h i , J.V.  "Boundary S t u d i e s i n P o l i t i c a l Geography", A n n a l s of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers. V o l . L I I I . No. 3., September. 1963.  M i n g h i , J.V.  " P o i n t R o b e r t s Washington - The Problem of an American E n c l a v e " , Yearbook of the A s s o c i a t i o n of P a c i f i c Coast Geographers. V o l . 24. 1962. p. 29.  Moodie,  "The I t a l o - Y u g o s l a v Boundary", J o u r n a l of V o l . C I . F e b r u a r y , 1943. p. 49.  A.E.  Geography.  Oman, D.F.  " M a r i t i m e F i g h t Rocks P a c i f i c C o a s t " , P a c i f i c Work Boat. V o l . LV. March, 1963. p. 6.  Pounds,  "A F r e e and Secure Access t o the Sea", Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of A m e r i c a n Geographers. V o l . XLIX. No. 3, 1959. p. 256.  N.G.  Pounds, N.G.  "France and Les L i m i t e s N a t u r e l l e s from t h e 17th Century t o t h e 20th C e n t u r y " , Annals o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers. V o l . XLIV. March, 1954. p. 51.  R a n d a l l , R.R.  "The P o l i t i c a l Geography o f t h e K l a g e n f u r t B a s i n " , G e o g r a p h i c a l Review. V o l . X L V I I . J u l y , 1957. p. 406.  Rienstra, J .  "Water T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the. N o r t h " , B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference. No. 12. P u b l i s h e d by t h e B.C.N.R.C, 1959. p. 126.  Robinson, G.W.S.  "West B e r l i n " The Geography o f an E n c l a v e " , G e o g r a p h i c a l Review. V o l . X L I I I . O c t o b e r , 1953. p. 540.  S e w e l l , W.R.D.  "The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y : Some Lessons and I m p l i c a t i o n s " , The Canadian Geographer. V o l . X. No. 3. 1966. p. 145.  S e w e l l , W.R.D.  "Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y and P r o t o c a l Agreement", N a t u r a l Resources. O c t o b e r , 1964. p. 309.  S i d d a l l , W.R.  " S e a t t l e " R e g i o n a l C a p i t a l o f A l a s k a " , Annals of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers. V o l . X L V I I . September, 1957. p. 277.  White, G.F.  "Contributions of Geographical Analysis to River B a s i n Development", G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l . V o l . CXXXIX. December, 1963. p. 142.  Newspapers and Magazines  " B r i t i s h Columbia C o r r i d o r - f o r - Power; New U n i t e d S t a t e s I n t e r e s t i n D e a l " , F i n a n c i a l P o s t . January 24, 1959. p. 11. H a l s e y - B r a n d t , C C . " F o r g e t t h e Panhandle", The F i n a n c i a l P o s t . November 5, 1966. p. 6. M i n i f i e , J.M.  "Washington Report - C o r r i d o r f o r Power Swap". Toronto Telegram. June 4, 1956.  "No Panhandle t o Canada:  A l a s k a R e p l y " , F i n a n c i a l P o s t . June 13, 1959. p. 7.  "$296,950,000 Power and I n d u s t r i a l Development i n t h e Yukon A r e a " , Roads and E n g i n e e r i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n . September, 1954. p. 92. " W i l l Our Power Dreams f o r the M i g h t y Yukon Turn I n t o N i g h t m a r e s ? " The F i n a n c i a l P o s t . December 28, 1963. p. 18.  Government  Publications  A l a s k a I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a i l and Highway Commission, T r a n s p o r t Requirements f o r the Growth o f Northwest N o r t h A m e r i c a . Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1961. V o l s . 1, 2, and 3. (Volumes 2 and 3 a r e a R e s e a r c h Report by the B a t t e l l s Memorial I n s t i t u t e on an I n t e g r a t e d T r a n s p o r t System t o Encourage Economic Development o f Northwest N o r t h America.) Canada, Simmons, J.A.  House o f Commons Debates. V o l . 98, No. 61. 3rd S e s s i o n , 22 P a r l i a m e n t , Thursday, A p r i l 12, 1956. p. 2853.  Canadian S h i p p i n g A c t .  Chapter 29, P a r t X I I I , S e c t i o n s 669 and 671.  Canada, Departments o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y and P r o t o c o l . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964. Canada, Departments o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s . The Columbia R i v e r T r e a t y , P r o t o c o l and R e l a t e d Documents. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary Commission, J o i n t Report on the Survey and Demarcation o f the Boundary Between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s From Tongass Passage t o Mount Saint E l i a s . Ottawa; Department o f Mines and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , 1952. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission, Docket No. 63 - I n t e r i m Report t o the Governments o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada on the Water Resources o f the S t . John R i v e r B a s i n , Quebec, Maine, and New B r u n s w i c k . January 27, 1954. O f f i c i a l O p i n i o n s o f the A t t o r n e y s G e n e r a l o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Merchant Marine A c t - T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f F i s h Between P o i n t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s v i a a F o r e i g n P o r t , 1920. ed. G. Kearney, Washington: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1922. p. 350. T r e a t i e s and Agreements A f f e c t i n g Canada i n F o r c e Between H i s M a j e s t y and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , 1814-1925. Ottawa; Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . 1927.  United States.  Report from the Committee on Roads, The A l a s k a Highway. 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Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1965.  Unpublished M a t e r i a l  B r u c e , J.R.  The Economic E f f e c t s o f the P o l i t i c a l Geography o f the A l a s k a Panhandle. G r a d u a t i n g Essay - Commerce 490, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. 1964.  K i r k w o o d , T.J.  A proposed P l a n o f Development f o r Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia. A t l i n D i s t r i c t Board o f Trade. 1964.  M i n g h i , J.V.  Some A s p e c t s o f the Impact o f an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary on S p a t i a l P a t t e r n s : An A n a l y s i s o f the P a c i f i c Coast Lowland Region o f the Canada U n i t e d S t a t e s Boundary. U n p u b l i s h e d PhD. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington. 1962.  Other Sources B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber o f M i n e s , "Panhandle Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Carroll,  C o l o n e l C.A.  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F e b r u a r y 16, 1967.  APPENDIX  Glossary  of terms f o r Chapter  Harmon D o c t r i n e and  A  '3  - Water r i g h t s are based on  territorial  t h e r e f o r e an upstream s t a t e may  sovereignty  do as i t p l e a s e s  the headwaters of any  rivers within i t s territory.  i t s name from the man  who  first  General Harmon of the U n i t e d  with Derives  proposed i t , A t t o r n e y -  States.  E q u i t a b l e Apportionment - R i v e r waters are d i v i d e d e q u a l l y between the upper and  lower r i p a r i a n s .  Accepted as  b a s i s from which n e g o t i a t i o n s w i l l  Prior Appropriation  the  theoretical  d e r i v e the a c t u a l  division.  - I f the downstream s t a t e has works on a r i v e r ,  then the needs of these works w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  in a  f u t u r e d i v i s i o n of the r i v e r waters.  Downstream B e n e f i t s - I f the upstream s t a t e e r e c t s works to b e n e f i t the downstream s t a t e then the upstream s t a t e i s e n t i t l e d to p r o p o r t i o n a l r e t u r n from the i n c r e a s e d b e n e f i t s to downstream s t a t e .  the  

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