UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The short story in Canada : development from 1935 to 1955 with attached bibliography MacLure, Evelyn Joyce 1969

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1969_A8 M336.pdf [ 10.14MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104212.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104212-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104212-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104212-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104212-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104212-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104212-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104212-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104212.ris

Full Text

THE SHORT STORY IN CANADA: DEVELOPMENT FROM 1935 TO 1955 WITH ATTACHED BIBLIOGRAPHY by EVELYN JOYCE MacLURE B.A., Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y , i960 B.Ed., Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s i n the Department o f E n g l i s h We ac c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f i r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes,is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Department o f ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s concerns the development of the s h o r t s t o r y i n Canada from 1935 to 1955« The p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic background has been b r i e f l y surveyed and r e l a t e d t o the developments i n the s t o r y i n c h a r a c t e r , s u b j e c t s , theme, and form. Each of the ch a p t e r s d e a l s with one of the f o u r p e r i o d s i n t o which t h i s development may be d i v i d e d . I n each c h a p t e r c o l l e c t i o n s , a n t h o l o g i e s , and s t o r i e s from p e r i o d i c a l s have been d i s c u s s e d . Chapter I , 1935 - 19^0, s t u d i e s the t r a n s i t i o n which was t a k i n g p l a c e i n the d e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d as the s t o r y s h i f t e d from man i n c o n f l i c t w i t h n a t u r e t o man l n s o c i e t y . C hapter I I , 19^6 - 1950» r e v e a l s t h a t , l n the war y e a r s , the s t o r y was o f t e n concerned with s o c i a l p r o t e s t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was some o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s t y p e . L i t t l e magazines became an important i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s p e r i o d . Chapter I I I , 19*f6 - 1950,shows t h a t l n the post-war p e r i o d , the w r i t e r s o f t e n b u i l t t h e i r s t o r i e s around a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r p s y c h o a n a l y t i c i n s i g h t i n t o c h a r a c t e r s . Chapter IV, 1950 - 1955, saw a l u l l i n s t o r y w r i t i n g ; however, i n those which were w r i t t e n , a g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y i n c h a r a c t e r and a c e n t e r i n g on i d e a s was p r e s e n t . What I s e v i d e n t i n each - i i -p e r i o d i s a growing m a t u r i t y , which i s r e f l e c t e d i n the types of c h a r a c t e r s presented, the s u b j e o t s and themes which they r e v e a l , and the form through which they are p r e s e n t e d . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the g e n e r a l development of the s t o r y , each chapter has noted a l s o the a v a i l a b i l i t y of p l a c e s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n w i t h i n Canada, g e n e r a l Canadian q u a l i t i e s , and r e g i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s . I t has been found t h a t , although the s t o r y development was c o n s e r v a t i v e , the authors d i d u s u a l l y d e a l w i t h contemporary Canadian s i t u a t i o n s and problems. The study concludes with a b i b l i o g r a p h y . T h i s was compiled because of a l a c k of I n f o r m a t i o n on the s h o r t s t o r y i n Canada. No separate l i s t i n g of the c o l l e c t i o n s and a n t h o l o g i e s p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d e x i s t s . The o n l y l i s t i n g s of s t o r i e s i n the p e r i o d i c a l s are those to be found i n the Canadian P e r i o d i c a l Index, which are arranged by a u t h o r and t i t l e . F o r convenience i n the study of development, t h i s l i s t has been compiled c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . S e c t i o n s I and I I l i s t r e s p e c t i v e l y the c o l l e c t i o n s and a n t h o l o g i e s p u b l i s h e d by Canadian w r i t e r s from 1 9 3 5 to 1 9 5 5 . S e c t i o n I I I i s a l i s t of the s t o r i e s p u b l i s h e d i n c e r t a i n Canadian p e r i o d i c a l s . Only those authors who p u b l i s h e d 5 o r more s t o r i e s i n the p e r i o d i c a l s examined are i n c l u d e d . S e c t i o n IV i s a l i s t of Canadian P e r i o d i c a l s p u b l i s h i n g s h o r t s t o r i e s d u r i n g these y e a r s . S e c t i o n V I s a l i s t of r e f e r e n c e s used i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y i s u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the r e l a t i v e - i l l -importance of the p e r i o d i c a l s which have c o n t a i n e d s t o r i e s , i n comparing the number of s t o r i e s i n each p e r i o d , and i n t r a c i n g the a c t i v i t y of the a u t h o r s . TABLE OF CONTENTS 1935-19^0 : T r a n s i t i o n 19^1-19^5: Man i n S o c i e t y 1946-1950: The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Story 1951-1955: The Story o f Ideas S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y of the Canadian Short S t o r y , 1935-1955 I n t r o d u c t i o n I C o l l e c t i o n s I I A n t h o l o g i e s I I I S t o r i e s i n P e r i o d i c a l s IV L i s t o f Canadian P e r i o d i c a l s P u b l i s h i n g Short S t o r i e s from 1935 to 1955 V References Used A. Short S t o r y : General C r i t i c i s m B. Canadian History:. General References C. Canadian L i t e r a t u r e : B i b l i o g r a p h i e s and L i t e r a r y H i s t o r i e s D. Canadian L i t e r a t u r e : C r i t i c i s m Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A s p e c i a l thank you to P r o f e s s o r D. G. Stephens f o r the encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e he has g i v e n me i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER 1 1935 - 192+0 : T r a n s i t i o n The y e a r s from 1935 t f> 1955 saw the emergence of Canada as a mature n a t i o n e c o n o m i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y . The d e p r e s s i o n , the years of war, the post-war r e c o v e r y p e r i o d , and t h e f o l l o w i n g years of p r o s p e r i t y brought changes i n the way of l i f e and made Canadians more aware o f the importance of t h e i r c o u n t r y . E c o n o m i c a l l y , Canada completed the change to a predominantly urban and i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n . P o l i t i c a l l y , she became more independent o f Great B r i t a i n , a middle-power i n world a f f a i r s , and a l s o more j e a l o u s o f her p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . While these changes were o c c u r r i n g , c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes were t a k i n g p l a c e i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f Canada. In the s h o r t s t o r y , f o u r r a t h e r marked p e r i o d s of development may be observed: from 1935 to 19^0, d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n , was a p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n when t r a d i t i o n vras s t r o n g , but the s t o r y was s l o w l y s h i f t i n g i t s concerns to man i n s o c i e t y ; from 19^1-19^5» d u r i n g the war y e a r s , the s t o r y was most o f t e n concerned wi t h man's r e l a t i o n to s o c i e t y ; from 19^6 to 1950f d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f post-war r e c o v e r y , the s t o r y became - 2 -more p s y c h o l o g i c a l ; from 1951 to 1955* though the s t o r y was somewhat out o f f a s h i o n , i n those which were w r i t t e n , a more mature concern w i t h i d e a s was e v i d e n t . These changes may be p a r t i c u l a r l y e a s i l y t r a c e d i n the types of c h a r a c t e r s who appear i n the s t o r i e s , i n the s u b j e c t s and themes which emerge through them,and i n the form.and language through which they are r e v e a l e d . The i n c r e a s i n g m a t u r i t y of the n a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the i n c r e a s i n g m a t u r i t y of these c h a r a c t e r s or of the author's treatment of them. In the f i r s t o f these p e r i o d s , from 1935 to 19^0, though d e p r e s s i o n was g e n e r a l i n Canada, the e f f e c t v a r i e d from r e g i o n to r e g i o n . In the Maritimes, where the p r o s p e r i t y o f the 20's had not been so e v i d e n t , the r e s u l t s o f the d e p r e s s i o n were not so severe. Since the area was mainly a g r i c u l t u r a l , s m a l l farmers c o u l d continue to produce a l i v i n g . In the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n s of Canada and on the West Coast, however, the l a r g e c i t i e s were h a r d - h i t , w i t h r e l i e f and unemployment common. In the p r a i r i e s drought added to the problems, making i t extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r farmers to earn a l i v i n g . These economic problems were accompanied by p o l i t i c a l changes. I n the west t h e r e was a t u r n i n g from the o l d p a r t i e s to the s o c i a l i s m o f the G.C.F. and S o c i a l C r e d i t . In o t h e r a r e a s , too, a l t h o u g h these p a r t i e s were not so a c t i v e , an i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l i s m was common. Strong s e c t i o n a l f e e l i n g s -3-were a l s o p r e s e n t as the west and east l o o k e d e n v i o u s l y a t C e n t r a l Canada where power seemed to be c e n t e r e d . The predominantly urban p a t t e r n i n the c e n t r a l p r o v i n c e s a l s o marked a s t r o n g r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e between these p r o v i n c e s and the Maritimes and the P r a i r i e s . Toward the end of the p e r i o d , however, more u n i t y emerged as a l l Canadians j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n the war e f f o r t . The n a t u r e o f t h i s d e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d i s r e f l e c t e d i n the s h o r t s t o r y of the day. No l o n g e r c o u l d most w r i t e r s produce i d y l l i c , h a p p i l y - e n d i n g s t o r i e s o f romantic r u r a l a dventure. Evidence t h a t l i f e was not t h i s way was too s t r o n g . I t i s to be noted, however, t h a t t h i s change was r e g i o n a l . The M a r i t i m e s , w i t h t h e i r o l d e r t r a d i t i o n s and w i t h the e f f e c t s o f the d e p r e s s i o n being l e s s severe, r e f l e c t the change l e s s c l e a r l y . The h i g h l y - u r b a n i z e d c e n t r a l a r e a s o f Canada where the d e p r e s s i o n was severe were much a f f e c t e d by change. The P r a i r i e s , though predominantly r u r a l , f e l t the d e p r e s s i o n so s e v e r e l y t h a t a d i f f e r e n t type o f w r i t i n g was produced. Before a n a l y s i n g the developments i n c h a r a c t e r , s u b j e c t and theme o c c u r r i n g i n the s t o r y d u r i n g these y e a r s , the reasons f o r the f a c t t h a t few w r i t e r s o f consequence produced a body o f work d u r i n g the p e r i o d should be noted. There was, o f course, the economic s i t u a t i o n . The g e n e r a l economic h a r d s h i p was a l s o experienced by w r i t e r s who had d i f f i c u l t y making a l i v i n g without p u b l i s h i n g i n the commercial f i c t i o n p a t t e r n . I n a d d i t i o n , the u s u a l l a c k of o u t l e t s f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l w r i t i n g i n Canada was p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Canadian Forum, wi t h s o c i a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n , d i d p u b l i s h one s h o r t s t o r y per i s s u e . The Canadian Magazine continued to p u b l i s h s e v e r a l per i s s u e up to i t s suspension i n 1939. Queen's Q u a r t e r l y was the o n l y academic q u a r t e r l y c o n s i s t e n t l y p u b l i s h i n g s h o r t s t o r i e s . Apart from these, t h e r e was New F r o n t i e r , which, f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d i n 193& and 1937, p u b l i s h e d s t o r i e s o f a s o c i a l i s t n a t u r e , many by young w r i t e r s . The o n l y o t h e r r e c o u r s e i n Canada was to the more commercial p e r i o d i c a l s such as M a c l e a n 1 s , C h a t e l a i n e , and The Canadian Home J o u r n a l . Though these magazines o c c a s i o n a l l y r e c e i v e d s t o r i e s from the b e t t e r w r i t e r s , g e n e r a l l y they f o l l o w e d the s t o c k p a t t e r n s o f commercial w r i t i n g , p r o d u c i n g l o v e and adventure s t o r i e s "ebhtaining c o i n c i d e n c e , s e n t i m e n t a l i s m , and c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d happy endings. Most ex p e r i m e n t a l w r i t e r s , then, were f o r c e d to f i n d o u t l e t s f o r the work o u t s i d e Canada, alt h o u g h o f t e n the U.S. Magazines l n which they p u b l i s h e d were c i r c u l a t e d l n t h i s c o u n t r y as w e l l . Even i f t h i s meant t h a t Canadian a u t h o r s would s t i l l f i n d an audience In Canada f o r t h e i r work, i t a l s o meant t h a t the authors were l i k e l y to have to conform to the standards o f the American magazines i n which they p u b l i s h e d . G i v e n t h i s s i t u a t i o n o n l y t h r e e w r i t e r s whose works have s i n c e been c o n s i s t e n t l y found l n -5-a n t h o l o g i e s p u b l i s h e d many s h o r t s t o r i e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d . The works o f Thomas H. R a d d a l l , Morley C a l l a g h a n , and S i n c l a i r Ross i l l u s t r a t e the v a r y i n g r e g i o n a l t r e n d s and the t r a n s i t i o n a l nature of the p e r i o d . R a d d a l l p u b l i s h e d one volume o f s t o r i e s a t t h i s time, The P i e d P i p e r of Dipper Creek  and Other T a l e s (1939). H i s works may be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f e a r l i e r t r e n d s i n Canadian s h o r t f i c t i o n , r omantic adventures u s u a l l y w i t h neat p l o t s and happy endings. I t i s w e l l to remember t h a t most of these s t o r i e s were p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d i n Blackwood's Magazine, and t h a t , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e I s an emphasis on the q u a i n t , on what would f o s t e r a romantic image o f t h i s l a n d i n the minds o f r e a d e r s In the mother c o u n t r y . Thus these "Bluenose" s t o r i e s o f t e n i g n o r e the r e a l f o r the r o m a n t i c . The s u b j e c t s o f these s t o r i e s are u s u a l l y p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g a s t r u g g l e and i s s u i n g i n a dramatic c l i m a x . Of the twelve s t o r i e s i n the volume, f o u r d e a l w i t h I n d i a n s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the white man, two w i t h sea adventure, one w i t h the H a l i f a x e x p l o s i o n , one w i t h the n o r t h , one w i t h the S c o t t i s h t r a d i t i o n , one w i t h the c o u n t r y -c i t y o p p o s i t i o n , and two w i t h l o v e . Because they o f t e n d e a l merely w i t h a c t i o n , they a r e , as R a d d a l l has l a b e l l e d them, t a l e s , not i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the modern s h o r t s t o r y which c o n c e n t r a t e s on u n i t y o r a s i n g l e Impression. Consequently themes may be d i f f i c u l t to d i s c o v e r . In so f a r as themes do e x i s t h e re, they have such concerns as m a t u r i t y r e s u l t i n g from a -6-s i g n i f l e a n t i n c i d e n t as i n "A Winter's T a l e " , the s t o r y of the H a l i f a x e x p l o s i o n , the ways o f a d j u s t i n g t o o l d age a s "Champion L i a r " , and the importance o f t r a d i t i o n i n the "The P i e d P i p e r o f Dipper Creek." One or two make a d e l i b e r a t e attempt to d e s c r i b e the Canadian c h a r a c t e r . I n "North", f o r example, a d o c t o r t e l l i n g o f h i s expe r i e n c e s on t h i s l a s t f r o n t i e r sees the c r y of a new born baby l n t h a t b a r r e n l a n d as symbolic o f Canadian endurance. Though R a d d a l l ' s work was c e r t a i n t o come i n t o d i s f a v o u r as the s h o r t s t o r y became more s u b t l e , r e a l i s t i c , and p e n e t r a t i n g (he has been om i t t e d from the l a t e s t Canadian ant h o l o g y , t h a t o f R i m a n e l l i and Ru b e r t o ) ! - - i t i s not q u i t e as o l d - f a s h i o n e d as might a t f i r s t appear. C l e a r l y t h e r e a r e g r e a t weaknesses: he d e a l s s e n t i m e n t a l l y w i t h most s i t u a t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y I n d i a n s ; the methods o f n a r r a t i o n a r e few, a r e m i n i s c i n g n a r r a t o r b e i n g p r e v a l e n t ; the s t y l e i s d e s c r i p t i v e , seldom a n a l y t i c or s u g g e s t i v e ; the s t o r i e s r a r e l y have much to do w i t h the c u r r e n t problems; c h a r a c t e r s a r e o f t e n q u a i n t and u n b e l i e v a b l e , not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a n a l y s e d . Yet, the s t o r i e s a r e not without m e r i t . R a d d a l l can s p i n a t a l e ; the atmosphere i s always c a r e f u l l y evoked, u s u a l l y i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i c a l 1 . Glose R i m a n e l l i and Roberto Rubertb , Modern Canadian  S t o r i e s (Toronto : The Ryerson Press,. 1 9 b o ) p.x. d e t a i l s . In "Winter's T a l e " , f o r example, the d e t a i l s of the havoc s u r r o u n d i n g the H a l i f a x e x p l o s i o n a r e c a r e f u l l y p r e s e n t e d : They went down the s t e p s t o g e t h e r , and beheld and s t r a n g e and t r a g i c p r o c e s s i o n approaching from the d i r e c t i o n of the c i t y . Men, women, and c h i l d r e n i n a l l s o r t s o f a t t i r e , p o u r i n g a l o n g the s i d e w a l k s , choking the s t r e e t i t s e l f ... two or t h r e e were bandaged and bloody, and a l l were daubed wi t h soot and p l a s t e r . T h e i r eyes g l i s t e n e d w i t h an odd q u a l i t y o f f e a r and excitement Nor a r e these s t o r i e s a l t o g e t h e r n a i v e . Though "The P l e d P i p e r o f Dipper Creek" d e a l s w i t h the G a e l i c t r a d i t i o n , i t does so w i t h i r o n y and a sense o f humour, f o r c l e a r l y Roddie John, who wants to g r e e t the Premier o f England w i t h the bagpipes and a G a e l i c speech, i s a f i g u r e o f fun, and the f a c t t h a t the Premier does not know a word o f G a e l i c i s not to be seen as a t r a g e d y . A g a i n i n "Before- the Snow F l i e s " a boy's romantic dream o f going to sea i s proved not to be as adventurous as expected. Rather than going to the Spanish Main, he and h i s p a r t n e r r e t u r n home a f t e r e x p l o r i n g t h e i r own s e a c o a s t . Even "The C o u r t s h i p o f Jupe M'Quayle" has not the c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d happy ending, as Jupe r e a l i z e s t h a t C a s s i e was not meant to be m a r r i e d , but w i l d and f r e e . S i m i l a r l y i n "Lady Lands L e v i a t h a n " , the o t h e r l o v e s t o r y i n the volume, some p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i s added when the l a d y takes the p l a c e o f the man, though i t must be admitted t h a t her dreams a r e o f a l i t t l e white c o t t a g e and c h i l d r e n . R a d d a l l * s work does r e f l e c t i n some ways the Bluenose c o u n t r y o f Nova S c o t i a . H i s sense of the d i a l o g u e and h a b i t s o f the people i s good. However, t h e r e i s o f t e n too much -8-emphasls on the unusual to form any s o r t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i c t u r e , o r , i n o t h e r words, f o r a proper r e g i o n a l i s m . I n t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d R a d d a l l * s work must be c o n s i d e r e d the p e r s i s t e n c e of the o l d e r t r a d i t i o n . Because the d e p r e s s i o n was l e s s severe i n t h i s a r e a , and because o l d e r ways were more common here, h i s work r e f l e c t s l i t t l e i n form, s u b j e c t , theme or c h a r a c t e r s o f the changes t h a t were t a k i n g p l a c e In the c o u n t r y . I n sharp c o n t r a s t t o R a d d a l l Is Morley Ca11aghan, whose r e p u t a t i o n as a s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r has never been s e r i o u s l y doubted, a l t h o u g h the n o v e l s o f t e n draw more comment. The n a t u r e o f h i s work, as w e l l as h i s r e p u t a t i o n , a l s o p r e s e n t s a d e f i n i t e c o n t r a s t w i t h t h a t of R a d d a l l . From the b e g i n n i n g h i s s t o r i e s d e a l t mainly with the urban, the contemporary, and the lower c l a s s e s . H i s s u b j e c t s are narrower than R a d d a l l ' s , i n one sense, yet a c h i e v e u n i v e r s a l i t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h human emotions. In t h i s p e r i o d he p u b l i s h e d h i s second c o l l e c t i o n o f s t o r i e s , Now That A p r i l ' s Here ( 1 9 3 6 ) , a n d s e v e r a l s t o r i e s i n p e r i o d i c a l s . In the s t o r i e s i n t h i s e a r l y volume C a l l a g h a n ' s s i t u a t i o n s are uncomplicated, u s u a l l y i n v o l v i n g the f a m i l y and c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t i n g the emotions o f tho ss i n v o l v e d . I n f a c t , most of h i s themes a t t h i s time r e v o l v e around the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n people's r e l a t i o n s and communications, d i f f i c u l t i e s u s u a l l y aggravated by p o v e r t y . Y e t , a l t h o u g h they d e a l with the lower c l a s s e s , they escape the t r a p i n t o which many of the s h o r t s t o r i e s of t h i s p e r i o d f e l l , t h a t o f b e i n g more s o c i a l t r a c t s than a r t i s t i c e f f o r t s . - 9 -Also. though they d e a l w i t h the lower c l a s s e s , they a re r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by a l l — d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r which C a l l a g h a n u s u a l l y g i v e s no easy s o l u t i o n . One s t o r y from Now That A p r i l ' s Here, a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n i n 1935» i l l u s t r a t e s the c h a r a c t e r s , s u b j e c t s , themes, and form common to many i n the c o l l e c t i o n . "The Blue Kimono" d e a l s w i t h a cou p l e who have moved to a bigger c i t y i n search o f p r o s p e r i t y and have been dogged by i l l - l u c k s i n c e t h e i r a r r i v a l . The husband f e e l s t h a t some i n e x o r a b l e f o r c e i s working a g a i n s t them. The i n c i d e n t chosen f o r the s t o r y , the i l l n e s s o f t h e i r s m a l l c h i l d , causes him to f e e l the hop e l e s s n e s s o f t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and to see i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n h i s w i f e ' s faded blue kimono: The kimono now was ragged and gone; i t was gone, he thought, l i k e so many b r i g h t dreams and a s p i r a t i o n s they had once had i n the beginning, l i k e so many f i n e r e s o l u t i o n s he had sworn to accomplish, l i k e so many plans they had made and- hopes they had c h e r i s h e d . I t i s a d e p r e s s i o n s t o r y o f d e f e a t e d ambitions and a c r i p p l i n g f o r c e . Yet i t i s not o f t o t a l d e f e a t , f o r as the s t o r y ends the w i f e i s t h i n k i n g o f mending the blue kimono, and the husband i s w r i g g l i n g a paper mustache f i e r c e l y a t the c h i l d who i s r e c o v e r i n g . P a t h e t i c as i t i s , the ending seems to i n d i c a t e the human s p i r i t c o n t i n u i n g t o s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t o u t s i d e f o r c e s . Many o f the s t o r i e s are s i m i l a r l y c e n t e r e d on d e p r e s s i o n concerns, w i t h communication of husband and w i f e c u t o f f . -10-"Day by Day" a l s o d e a l s w i t h a husband and w i f e who seem to grow f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r a p a r t ; because he i s not s u c c e s s f u l , he f e e l s she i s not c o n t e n t e d . I r o n i c a l l y , a l l she wants i s a r e t u r n to the b r i e f happiness they had a f t e r they were m a r r i e d . T h i s s t o r y , however, does not end i n hope, but merely fades away with "... she t r i e d to ask h e r s e l f what i t was t h a t was s l o w l y d r i v i n g them a p a r t day by day." "The Red Hat" and "The Duel" a r e based on s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s i n which a l a c k o f money p l a y s an important r o l e and l e a d s to d i f f i c u l t y i n communication. The r e l a t i o n between parents and c h i l d r e n i s the s u b j e c t o f " A l l The Years of Her L i f e " , where the mother's s a c r i f i c e s f o r the son a r e brought t o h i s a t t e n t i o n when he sees her s i t t i n g a t the t a b l e weeping; i n "Father and Son", where the f a t h e r d e s p e r a t e l y needs c o n t a c t w i t h h i s i l l e g i t i m a t e son i f he I s to f i n d any peace i n l i f e ; i n " E l l e n " , i n which the f a t h e r f e e l s s t r o n g l y f o r h i s daughter who has been made pregnant and d e s e r t e d ; i n "The Snob" i n which a young boy g u i l t i l y t u r n s away from h i s f a t h e r to a v o i d I n t r o d u c i n g him to h i s g i r l f r i e n d ; i n "Separation", where the f a t h e r and son grow a p a r t a f t e r the mother l e a v e s ; and i n " I t Must Be D i f f e r e n t " , as a young g i r l , ashamed o f her p a r e n t s ' crudeness and o f t h e i r s u s p i c i o n s , vows t h a t " i t must be d i f f e r e n t " f o r her and h e r b o y f r i e n d . Though a l l o f these i n v o l v e f a m i l y concerns, they are not monotonously a l i k e . The main t r a i t s of the c h a r a c t e r and the p o i n t s of view d i f f e r i n every s t o r y . - 1 1 -Though C a l l a g h a n d e n i e d t h a t he intended to w r i t e r e l i g i o u s p s t o r i e s , s e v e r a l o f the s t o r i e s a re o v e r t l y about c h a r a c t e r s i n the r e l i g i o u s p r o f e s s i o n s , and o t h e r s have d i s t i n c t l y s p i r i t u a l c o n c e r n s . " S i s t e r B e r n a d e t t e " i s the s t o r y o f a nun whose f r u s t r a t e d mother-love f i n d s an o b j e c t i n the i l l e g i t i m a t e son o f a g i r l who i s i n the h o s p i t a l i n which she works. Here C a l l a g h a n examines the c o n f l i c t between s p i r i t u a l and emotional v a l u e s , through the c o n f l i c t of the s i s t e r . Nor i s the problem f u l l y r e s o l v e d . S i m i l a r l y , i n "A S i c k C a l l " F a t h e r Macdowell i s l e d to q u e s t i o n h i s e t h i c s . When he has t o r e s o r t to t r i c k e r y to get the a t h e i s t husband out o f the bed-room t o hear the d y i n g w i f e ' s c o n f e s s i o n , he l e a v e s w i t h l e s s c o n f i d e n c e than p r e v i o u s l y In the s u p e r i o r i t y o f s p i r i t u a l l o v e over the v e r y r e a l l o v e o f the husband and w i f e . While C a l l a g h a n does not deny s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , nor even q u e s t i o n the honest p r a c t i c e o f a r e l i g i o u s p r o f e s s i o n , he does present a complex view of t h e i r p o s i t i o n . I n "Two Fishermen" he examines the n a t u r e o f s p i r i t u a l l o v e o u t s i d e the r e l i g i o u s p r o f e s s i o n s . I n t h i s s t o r y a young r e p o r t e r who has become f r i e n d s w i t h a hangman i n p r i v a t e , f i n d i n g him a c c e p t a b l e as a person, r e j e c t s him i n p u b l i c . The hangman becomes a C h r i s t symbol as he i s denie d and as the f i s h which he had p r e s e n t e d t o the r e p o r t e r a re thrown a t him by a member of the crowd as he l e a v e s . These s t o r i e s r e v e a l a g a i n C a l l a g h a n * s b e l i e f i n the worth o f the i n d i v i d u a l . . 2 . Robert Weaver, "A T a l k w i t h Morley C a l l a g h a n " , Tamarack Review ? ( S p r i n g , 1958) , 25 . What emerges i n a l l of C a l l a g h a n ' s work i s h i s s k i l f u l h a n d l i n g o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . Though c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the u s u a l l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f time to which the a c t u a l i n c i d e n t i s l i m i t e d , he g i v e s Just enough background i n f o r m a t i o n to make the a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s o f the c h a r a c t e r s v a l i d . The g i v e n s i t u a t i o n i s u s u a l l y the c l i m a x of a problem t h a t has been s l o w l y f o r m i n g f o r a l o n g time. For example, i n "Day by Day", the f e e l i n g o f incompetence i n the husband i s something t h a t has b u i l t up when he experienced more and more d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g work. Indeed, most of the s t o r i e s are p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n on c h a r a c t e r , and most o f these c h a r a c t e r s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , though not pure t y p e s . Some, however, prese n t unusual p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems. "Now That A p r i l ' s Here", based on an a c t u a l i n c i d e n t , shows two homosexual boys who have dreamed o f A p r i l i n P a r i s , f i n d the r e a l i t y d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , and a r e f i n a l l y s e p a r a t e d by a woman. "The S h i n i n g Red Apple", t o o , shows the t e n s i o n s o f a man who tempts a young boy to s t e a l an a p p l e , .and the reader d i s c o v e r t h a t the man's problem stems from his being c h i l d l e s s h i m s e l f . I n form, as i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and themes, C a l l a g h a n tended to be advanced beyond the methods o f h i s contemporaries i n Canada. Many comparisons wi t h a u t h o r s o u t s i d e Canada have been made, e s p e c i a l l y i n view of h i s a s s o c i a t i o n with the group i n P a r i s i n 1929, y e t he h i m s e l f f e l t the s t o r i e s f o l l o w e d no f a s h i o n , though h i s a s s o c i a t i o n s were more w i t h Americans and Europeans than w i t h o t h e r Canadians. -13-The only other Canadian w r i t e r of the time w i t h whom he f e l t any a f f i n i t y was Raymond K n i s t e r N o doubt part of the reason Callaghan f e l t out o f tune w i t h other C a n a d i a n w r i t e r s i s t hat these s t o r i e s are economical, w i t h l i t t l e purposeless d e s c r i p t i o n e i t h e r of s c e n e s o r persons. They concentrate on a moment, c a t c h i n g a mood o n an emotion, conveying i t through d i a l o g u e or a c t i o n . Whereas, i n the novels, the simple s i t u a t i o n s may l a c k the weight to c a r r y the themes th a t he deals w i t h , here there i s p e r f e c t c o - o r d i n a t i o n . C o n f l i c t u s u a l l y i s s u e s i n a climax, and the endings are q u i e t , o f t e n enigmatic, sometimes ending i n hope, sometimes wi t h l i t t l e change. U n l i k e many of h i s contemporaries, Callaghan presented t r u t h i n simple s i t u a t i o n s , without recourse to unusual i n c i d e n t . Despite the f a c t that at the time when these s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n Callaghan was not so much i n t e r e s t e d i n Canada as he was l a t e r to become,^ there are d i s t i n c t l y Canadian q u a l i t i e s about them. This Canadianisrn does not r e s i d e so much i n the s e t t i n g , though most, i n accordance with the trend of that time, are r e g i o n a l , being set i n Toronto or nearby small towns. Indeed, there seems to be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between those set i n Toronto and other l a r g e c i t i e s such as Nev; York. However, although they are not narrowly p a r o c h i a l , one can detect Canadian i n f l u e n c e s . The work i s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by the depression of the 3^'s. People are poor, unemployed, and 3 . Weaver, "A Talk w i t h Callaghan", pp. 6 - 7 , l 6 . 4 . Weaver, "A Talk w i t h Callaghan," p. 2 0 . -14-d e s p e r a t e . . Yet they are f i l l e d w i t h n e i t h e r b i t t e r n e s s nor hopelessness,. Nor i s t h e r e so much an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l causes or themes, as of i n d i v i d u a l s who are a f f e c t e d . The t y p i c a l Canadian r e s e r v e i s obvious i n these c h a r a c t e r s as w e l l . I n a d d i t i o n , the language i n g e n e r a l i s t y p i c a l o f Canadian w r i t e r s who have, perhaps as a r e s u l t o f a s u s p i c i o n o f bookishness and elegance i n a c o u n t r y o n l y r e c e n t l y emerging from the f r o n t i e r , o f t e n reduced t h e i r s t y l e to extreme s i m p l i c i t y . I t i s , o f c o u r s e , a l s o to be expected l n the s u b j e c t s w i t h which C a l l a g h a n i s d e a l i n g . More Impor t a n t l y , though C a l l a g h a n * s s t o r i e s d e a l more s u b t l y than those o f many o trier a u t h o r s w i t h the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t o u t s i d e f o r c e s , t h i s i s s t i l l b a s i c a l l y t h e i r domain. The emphasis has merely been s h i f t e d from the r e a l m o f nature to economics — a type o f concern to be found a g a i n f r e q u e n t l y i n the war y e a r s . F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h C a l l a g h a n a c c e p t s an urban way o f l i f e , h i s concern i s w i t h the f a m i l y as a u n i t ; he does not r e a l l y q u e s t i o n the e x i s t i n g v a l u e s . S t i l l a nother s e t o f c h a r a c t e r s and concerns was the s u b j e c t o f S i n c l a i r Ross. Dur i n g t h i s p e r i o d he p u b l i s h e d seven s t o r i e s i n Queen's Q u a r t e r l y , over h a l f h i s v e r y s m a l l o u t p u t . These r e v e a l two s e t s o f concerns. Four o f them, "A F i e l d o f Wheat" (Qg 42, S p r i n g , 1935, 3 D , "September-Snow" (QQ 42, Winter, 1935 -6 , 451), "The Lamp a t Noon" (QQ 45, S p r i n g , 1938, 3 0 ) , and "The P a i n t e d Door" (Q£ 4 6 , Summer, 1939, 1^5) , d e a l w i t h a d u l t s and t h e i r s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t the d i f f i c u l i t i e s o f the p r a i r i e environment.. The o t h e r s , " C i r c u s i n Town" - 1 5 -(S& ^ 3 , Winter, 1936-7 , 368) , "A Day wit h Pegasus" (QQ Summer, 1938, 1^1), and "Cornet a t Ni g h t " (QQ 46, Winter, 1939-^0, ^31) , have c h i l d r e n ' s p o i n t s o f view, hut are a l s o i n p r a i r i e s e t t i n g s . Although r u r a l i n s e t t i n g , these s t o r i e s bear no i d e a l i z -a t i o n o f t h a t a r e a . The g r e a t h a r d s h i p s caused by d e p r e s s i o n and droughts i n the 30's a r e c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n c h a r a c t e r s , s u b j e c t s , and themes. I n the s t o r i e s d e a l i n g w i t h a d u l t b e h a v i o u r , a grim, i n t e n s e atmosphere i s the most important element. In "September Snow" when the husband r e t u r n s to h i s w i f e a f t e r l e a v i n g to go out to get the c a t t l e , he f i n d s t h a t she has d i e d i n c h i l d b i r t h . On s i m i l a r themes a r e "The Lamp a t Noon" and "The P a i n t e d Door". I n "The Lamp a t Noon" E l l e n and Pa u l r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s to the l a n d . E l l e n , f e a r i n g what the l a n d i s d o i n g to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p and r e s e n t i n g xvhat i t w i l l mean to the c h i l d , wants to go back t o town. P a u l , however, remains l o y a l to the l a n d even w h i l e i t i s d e f e a t i n g him. R e t u r n i n g to the house a f t e r a q u a r r e l , he l e a r n s t h a t she has gone. He f i n d s her b u r i e d i n the sand, the baby dead. I r o n i c a l l y , o n l y now t h a t she i s c r a z e d has she any hope. "The P a i n t e d Door" c o n c e n t r a t e s on a w i f e ' s l o n e l i n e s s caused by her husband's con s t a n t work on h i s p r a i r i e farm. When t h i s l o n e l i n e s s reaches a peak on an a f t e r n o o n when he i s away, whe spends time p a i n t i n g a door to keep from t h i n k i n g . In d e s p e r a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n , she seeks to r e l i e v e h er • f r u s t r a t i o n by s l e e p i n g w i t h a neighbour. Her g u i l t i s i n t e n s i f i e d and turned t o h o r r o r when she l e a r n s , by means of -16-t h e p a i n t on her dead husband*s s l e e v e , t h a t he had observed her one a c t o f u n f a i t h f u l n e s s and had gone out i n t o the storm a g a i n . The o n l y one of these s t o r i e s o f a d u l t s which o v e r t l y ends i n hope i s "A F i e l d o f Wheat" where the w i f e r e a l i z e s t h a t she must be doubly s t r o n g because the h a i l s t o r m , which d e s t r o y e d t h e i r wheat and much equipment, has broken h e r husband*s s p i r i t . Yet, i n a l l o f the s t o r i e s i s the f e e l i n g t h a t man must endure, t h a t the s e a s o n a l c y c l e w i l l c o n t i n u e , b r i n g i n g another s p r i n g and another hope. Ross* s t o r i e s of c h i l d h o o d are s e t a g a i n s t the same background, but here the focus i s d i f f e r e n t . The emphasis i s on e x p a n s i v e s s and the growth o f the i m a g i n a t i o n , q u a l i t i e s which can be r e a d i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the v a s t y e t bleak p r a i r i e s e t t i n g . I n " C i r c u s i n Town" a l i t t l e g i r l compensates f o r a r a t h e r r e s t r i c t i v e r e a l i t y by i m a g i n i n g her own much b e t t e r c i r c u s . I n "A Day w i t h Pegasus", a young boy e x p e r i e n c e s the Joy o f a new horse, and i n "Cornet a t Night" a boy r e a l i z e s the b e a u t i e s which endure d e s p i t e the u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f a day-to-day e x i s t e n c e . Ross* c h a r a c t e r s , then, are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the en-vironment i n which the s t o r i e s are s e t . Here the r e g i o n a l i s m i s i n t e g r a l — c h a r a c t e r s show the e f f e c t s o f t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The a d u l t s are o f t e n beaten or a t l e a s t plagued by the d i f f i c u l t i e s which surround them; t h e i r concerns are s m a l l ones, u s u a l l y economic, but they f e e l , e s p e c i a l l y the iioznen, a l o n g i n g f o r something more s a t i s f y i n g . The c h i l d r e n , t o o , -17-have not y e t f e l t the f u l l e f f e c t s o f these problems, but y e a r n f o r some d i s t r a c t i o n f o r t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s . The themes which emerge are a l s o c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h i s environment. These are e l e m e n t a l t a l e s o f the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t nature and death, and o f beauty not to be found i n the e x t e r n a l u g l i n e s s o f r e a l i t y . B a s i c a l l y they are f r o n t i e r s t o r i e s , though Ross p i c t u r e s l i t t l e glamour i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Nor i s i t merely the i n t e n s i t y of c h a r a c t e r and theme t h a t makes h i s work an achievement i n Canadian s h o r t s t o r y w r i t i n g . The danger o f s t e r e o t y p i n g ??hlch i s i n h e r e n t i n the s i m i l a r i t y o f h i s s i t u a t i o n s i s In p a r t avoided through the m a s t e r f u l s t y l e . Each s t o r y i s r e a l and v a r i e d . He i s s k i l l f u l i n d e s c r i b i n g the harshness o f the landscape, always, however, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the human r e a c t i o n to I t , as i n t h i s s e c t i o n from "The P a i n t e d Door": The sun was r i s e n above the f r o s t m i s t s , so keen and hard a g l i t t e r on the snow t h a t i n s t e a d o f warmth i t s r a y s seemed shedding c o l d . One of the two-year-old c o l t s t h a t had c a n t e r e d away when John t u r n e d the horses out f o r water stood covered w i t h rime a t the s t a b l e door a g a i n , head down -and body hunched, each b r e a t h a l i t t l e plume of steam a g a i n s t the f r o s t y a i r . She s h i v e r e d , but d i d not t u r n . I n the c l e a r b r i g h t l i g h t the l o n g white m i l e s o f p r a i r i e landscape seemed a r e g i o n a l i e n t o l i f e . He a l s o may enhance the language by symbolism d e l i c a t e l y used. I n "The Lamp a t Noon" the lamp, which i s o f t e n l i t a t noon because o f the dust storms, becomes i n f u s e d w i t h the meaning o f the p i t i f u l s t r u g g l e which these p r a i r i e people a r e making a g a i n s t t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . S i m i l a r l y i n "Cornet - l b -a t N i g h t " , the b e a u t i f u l p l a y i n g o f the c o r n e t by the working boy becomes a h a u n t i n g symbol o f a l l beauty t h a t i s not p r a c -t i c a l , but i s n e c e s s a r y f o r man's s p i r i t , though f l e e t i n g : A h a r v e s t , however l e a n , i s c e r t a i n every year: but a c o r n e t a t n i g h t i s golden o n l y once. Though Ross' work c o u l d not e a s i l y be i m i t a t e d , i t shows i n the Canadian s h o r t s t o r y i n t e n s i t y , the c h o o s i n g of a p r e s e n t and s i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n t , a proper and i n t e g r a l r e g i o n a l i s m , and an a r t i s t i c use o f language. In a d d i t i o n , 7 h i s c h a r a c t e r s , w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , are a l s o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The c o n t r a s t w i t h R a d d a l l ' s o f t e n wandering, l i g h t s t o r i e s w i t h happy endings and o f t e n u n b e l i e v a b l e c h a r a c t e r s i s s i g n i f i c a n t o f the d i f f e r e n c e between these two r e g i o n s . Apart from the works o f these -three main w r i t e r s , l i t t l e e l s e o f consequence was b e i n g p u b l i s h e d i n the s h o r t s t o r y i n Canada a t t h i s time. Two a n t h o l o g i e s o f the p e r i o d , those o f the Canadian Magazine, do, however, r e v e a l something o f the changing nature o f the s h o r t s t o r y t hen. The e a r l i e r S t o r i e s i n Many Moods ( 1 9 3 5 ) c o n t a i n s o n l y e i g h t s t o r i e s , most o f them p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1 9 3 5 . Even here t h e r e i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the changes b e g i n n i n g to take p l a c e as the e d i t o r s a d v e r t i s e the s t o r i e s as not l e a n i n g toward " s t i r r i n g adventure or exaggerated p l o t " , but i n s t e a d to "cadences and moods". ^ I n the 1 9 3 ? volume, c o n t a i n i n g s t o r i e s p u b l i s h e d i n The Canadian Magazine d u r i n g 1 9 3 6 , most are s t i l l p l o t -5 , J . L. Rutledge, ed., S t o r i e s l n Many Moods, (Toronto: Hugh C. MacLean, 1935)» p . 6 . -19-o r i e n t e d , w i t h v e r y l i t t l e s u b t l e t y . There a r e two animal s t o r i e s , " S i l v e r Swallow" by Hubert Evans and "Fury on I c e " by L a t r o b e C a r r o l l , the f i r s t on the freedom o f w i l d t h i n g s and the second on the animal's d e s i r e to p r o t e c t i t s e l f and the dangers an i m a l s f a c e . There a r e f i v e adventure t y p e s : W i l l H. B i r d ' s "The Movies Come to G u l l P o i n t " , Fred B. Watt's " T r u s t i n g Thomas", N. de B e r t r a n d L u g r i n ' s "Timber Wolves", C h a r l e s G. Booth's " T h i s Man Knew", and Van H a r r i s o n ' s "Skoal to the V i k i n g " . These a r e g e n e r a l l y i n the o l d e r t r a d i t i o n o f the s h o r t s t o r y w i t h emphasis on p h y s i c a l a c t i o n and suspense. The most well-known i s t h a t by W i l l R. B i r d , which d e a l s w i t h men f a c i n g a storm and death to see t h e i r f i r s t movie — and then amusingly condeming the movie-makers f o r the dangers i n v o l v e d i n f i l m i n g . Others i n t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a r e D. K. F i n d l a y ' s "Heroine o f an Anecdote" and A l b e r t a C. Tr i m b l e ' s " W h i s t l i n g G i r l " , I n v o l v i n g l o v e t r i a n g l e s , and M. E. Palmer's "I S h a l l Return" which r e q u i r e s an I n c r e d i b l e d i s t o r t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r t o r e a c h a h a p p i l y - e v e r - a f t e r s i t u a t i o n . The many t r a d i t i o n a l s t o r i e s i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n a r e accompanied by a few which are memorable e i t h e r f o r c h a r a c t e r or mood. Laura Goodman S a l v e r s o n ' s "Queer Heart", though by no means economical, i s a c l e v e r c h a r a c t e r study o f a woman who l o v e s o n l y when g i v i n g . R.S. Kennedy's "Mr. B r i g g s , Gangster" amusingly p r e s e n t s the a n t i - h e r o , a man who d i s c o v e r s a bag o f money thrown away by e s c a p i n g r o b b e r s , h e s i t a t e s to take i t , and f i n a l l y i s robbed of h i s f i n d by a m i n i s t e r who c o l l e c t s a s u b s t a n t i a l reward. Though the ending i s an over--20-p l a y i n g o f the s t o r y (the man w i l l a t t e n d a forum on "How To Make Money Work f o r You!'), the t e n s i o n and humour of the s i t u a t i o n are w e l l - p r e s e n t e d . Two o f the o t h e r s t o r i e s show s k i l l i n methods o f n a r r a t i o n . Fred Sloman's "Breath of God" i s an i n t e n s e study of a r a i l r o a d watchman's attempts to b r i n g a poor, l o n e l y g i r l some i n k l i n g of the meaning o f l i f e . The c o l l o q u i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , through an i g n o r a n t d w e l l e r i n one o f the shacks nearby, adds another dimension to the s t o r y . L e s l i e Gordon Barnard's "The Dark Angel Passes" i s n a r r a t e d w i t h some s k i l l by an o b s e r v e r i n the next h o t e l room whose s t o r y i t a l s o becomes. However, whereas the s t o r y seems to r e q u i r e an unhappy ending, the w i f e ( f o r no apparent m e d i c a l reasons) r e c o v e r s and i s r e u n i t e d h a p p i l y w i t h the husband. These s t o r i e s , then, have u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r s who a r e f a c e d w i t h s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t the environment, a g a i n s t o t h e r s , o r i n the f a c e o f death. They are r a r e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , u s u a l l y j u s t p r e s e n t e d e x t e r n a l l y ; Theodore Goodridge Ro b e r t s ' EMrs. f f o l i a t ' s Husband" does, n e v e r t h e l e s s , concern a man whose c h i l d h o o d l e a d s him to marry a domineering w i f e . A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f adventure s t o r i e s , too l i t t l e s u g g e s t i v e n e s s i n language and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n form mar the c o l l e c t i o n . One o t h e r anthology shows a c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t i n t r a d i t i o n a l methods and s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d . May Lamberton Becker's Golden T a l e s o f Canada i n c l u d e s those s t o r i e s which are u s u a l l y o f Canadian c h a r a c t e r s or s e t t i n g s . While the c o l l e c t i o n does i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t l n Canada, i t does not i n c l u d e the contemporary a u t h o r s . - 2 1 -C o l l e c t i o n s of s t o r i e s by one author, t o o , were r a r e at t h i s time. Leacock i s among those who p u b l i s h e d c o l l e c t i o n s ; y e t , he can h a r d l y be c a l l e d a d e c i s i v e i n f l u e n c e i n t h e . p e r i o d . The m a j o r i t y of h i s work had been done p r e v i o u s l y . At any r a t e , those works sometimes c a t e g o r i z e d as Leacock*s s t o r i e s f a l l more r e a d i l y i n t o the c l a s s of sketches or p e r s o n a l essays, h a v i n g n e i t h e r the u n i t y o r c o n f l i c t l e a d i n g to a climax t h a t would p l a c e them as s h o r t s t o r i e s . Theodore Goodridge Roberts, E r n e s t Thompson Seton, Grey Owl, and Mazo de l a Roche p u b l i s h e d c o l l e c t i o n s of animal s t o r i e s . The number of these animal s t o r i e s produced i n Canada i s s i g n i f i c a n t , b e t r a y i n g an innocence i n the concern w i t h w i l d l i f e as w e l l as a d e s i r e t o escape more complex problems. Those of Roberts, Seton, and Grey Owl are based on c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e , and S e t o n 9 s p a r t i c u l a r l y are moral i n i n t e n t , showing the c o n n e c t i o n w i t h human t r a i t s . Mazo de l a Roche's c o l l e c t i o n , The Sacred B u l l o c k and 6ther S t o r i e s ( 1 9 3 9)>contains animal s t o r i e s which r e f l e c t some of the u n r e s t of the time. " J u s t i c e f o r an A r i s t o c r a t " , f o r example, i s a c o n s e r v a t i v e comment on communism as the a r i s t o c r a t i c horse Moonstar, not h a v i n g any p r a c t i c a l use, must d i e . Most of the s t o r i e s , however, are s t u d i e s i n the l o y a l t y of animals o r the bond between animal and humans. Some i n t e r e s t i n psychology, i n language p a t t e r n s , and v a r i a t i o n s from the happy ending make her s t o r i e s more complex than might be expected i n the t y p e . The o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n s maybe d e a l t with b r i e f l y . Hyman E d e l s t e i n ' s C r y i n g Laughing i s a book of very s h o r t s t o r i e s , - 2 2 -u s u a l l y moral, d e a l i n g mainly w i t h Jews. J . E. Le R o s s l g n o l ' s The Habltant-Msrchant, a s e r i e s of humourous s t o r i e s , d e a l s w i t h the o t h e r segment o f the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n , The French. One o f the few attempts to d e a l w i t h these people i n the s h o r t s t o r y , i t does not i n v o l v e many o f the s e r i o u s problems, and l o o k s a t the French s e n t i m e n t a l l y . M. Charbonneau,the h a b i t a n t -marohant,- i s a t y p e . One o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n from t h i s p e r i o d r e f l e c t s an e a r l i e r Canadian a t t i t u d e . W i l l i a m Campbell's A r c t i c P a t r o l s p o r t r a y s a n a i v e innocence. These s t o r i e s o f R. C. M. P. adventure may be perhaps b e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s h o r t passage from " M a i n t i e n Le D r o i t " , the s t o r y o f a young man who I s j u s t r e c e i v i n g h i s commission: "Oh, my h e a r t l e a p e d J I t u r n e d hot and then c o l d — I wanted to y e l l o r w h i s t l e o r a n y t h i n g " . The s e n t i m e n t a l and m o r a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n shown i n these s t o r i e s i s o f an e a r l i e r day. The hard years of the d e p r e s s i o n were a l r e a d y r e n d e r i n g o b s o l e t e such a simple view of l i f e . The p e r i o d i c a l s p u b l i s h e d a few authors o t h e r than C a l l a g h a n , R a d d a l l , and Ross showing promise a t t h i s time. An O n t a r i o a u t h o r , Matt Armstrong, was concerned w i t h the lower c l a s s e s and the contemporary Canadian s i t u a t i o n . "The Rooster Which Walked i n a C i r c l e " (C Forum 1 7 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 7 , 2 3 ) , d e a l i n g w i t h the emergence of a boy from the l a u g h t e r o f a d o l e s c e n c e to the s e r i o u s n e s s o f manhood , i s s e t i n a t o o -obvious p a t t e r n , w i t h t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s or groups who are b l i n d and w a l k i n g i n c i r c l e s j u s t as the r o o s t e r does. - 2 3 -"The Gross" (C Forum 17 , Aug, 1937, 1 0 ) , however, the s t o r y of a mother who r e c e i v e s the c r o s s from her son's grave i n France, has more suggestiveness and a r t i s t r y i n language and conveys a theme o f the s i m i l a r i t y o f a l l p l a c e s . In "The H a i l " (C Forum 1? , Jan, 1938, 352) the d e p r e s s i o n theme of monotony emerges as a man i s d r i v e n to commit s u i c i d e a t Niagra F a l l s . When he does not succeed, he merely r e f l e c t s "Tomorrow i s Monday a g a i n . " The o n l y r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t use of language i s i n W i l l i a m M c C o n n e l l ' s ' K a l e i d o s c o p e " (G Forum 20, Dec, 19^0, 279) . A ' to p r o l i f i c w r i t e r , who was i n l a t e r p e r i o d s ^ p u b l i s h i n s e v e r a l Canadian magazines, McConnell appears i n t h i s s t o r y to be u s i n g J o y c e i a n techniques r a t h e r c r u d e l y , combining I n d i a n c h a r a c t e r s and a theme o f p u t t i n g o f f u n t i l tomorrow. The f o l l o w i n g passage i l l u s t r a t e s the technique: Day succeeding n i g h t soon with t i d e d r o p p i n g f a s t and s w i f t p u l l out to bay now, so m u s c l e - i t c h and sweat-glow, h a l f - w h i s k e y and a s h o v e - o f f , f o r t i d e has n e a r l y l e f t dinghy, not opaque now i n h a l f -l i g h t . A g a i n whiskey suc c e e d i n g sweat-tang. A l o n g p u l l and then to po i s e f o r r a t s , r i n g - t a i l e d r a t s , and a p a r r o t without a name.-T h i s passage does show an i n c r e a s i n g concern f o r a r t i s t r y i n the s h o r t s t o r y with, an emphasis on the i m p r e s s i o n . In New F r o n t i e r , a l l the s t o r i e s were o r i e n t e d toward s o c i a l i s m . S e v e r a l are l i t t l e more than s o c i a l t r a c t s , but a few d e a l p r o v o c a t i v e l y w i t h the themes o f the d e p r e s s i o n . Mary Quayle I n n i s ' " S t a v e r " (New F r o n t 1 , A p r i l , 193&, 18)^, a s t o r y o f the changes wrought i n a woman's l i f e by c o n t a c t w i t h S t a v e r who i s unemployed and haunts her home f o r work,has more complex c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n than i s us u a l i n t h i s t y p e . -24-I t shows as w e l l a q u e s t i o n i n g o f v a l u e s . S i m i l a r l y Dorothy L i v e s a y 0 s "Case S u p e r v i s o r " (New F r o n t 1 , J u l y , 1 9 3 6 , 6) presents i n d e p r e s s i o n background the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a s o c i a l worker who becomes so i n v o l v e d i n r u l e s t h a t she f o r g e t s the r e a l purpose of her work. By c o n t r a s t i n g her a t t i t u d e w i t h t h a t of a young e n t h u s i a s t i c worker and an o l d e r vfoman who cares n o t h i n g f o r form, the author pres e n t s the theme. T h i s p e r i o d , then, was one o f t r a n s i t i o n . New d i r e c t i o n s were b e i n g t r a c e d by some w r i t e r s , w h i l e many cont i n u e d to w r i t e t r a d i t i o n a l work. The types o f c h a r a c t e r s who appeared i n the s t o r i e s r e f l e c t these a t t i t u d e s . S t o r i e s by R a d d a l l i n the Mar i t i m e s were g e n e r a l l y t r a d i t i o n a l w i t h c h a r a c t e r s who were unusual and whose concerns were o f t e n f a r from d e p r e s s i o n ones. -C a l l a g h a n and a few other authors i n c e n t r a l and western Canada were concerned w i t h the common and o f t e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r , conveying the d e p r e s s i o n through the monotony o f h i s e x i s t e n c e . Ross on the p r a i r i e s showed the problems o f the d e p r e s s i o n i n man's s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t n a t u r e to make a l i v i n g . G e n e r a l l y , the tendencey was toward r e a l i s m ; o f cou r s e , e s c a p i s t s t o r i e s were s t i l l p resented by the commercial magazines. There were a l s o some changes o c c u r r i n g i n the form of the s t o r y . C a l l a g h a n p a r t i c u l a r l y r e f l e c t s the attempt to produce a more a r t i s t i c s t o r y without the u s u a l dependence on suspense, s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , adventure, or n e a t l y - packaged endings.. H i s s t o r i e s a r e a l s o o b j e c t i v e . Yet there was l i t t l e o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n l n e i t h e r language o r p a t t e r n . The l a c k o f non-commercial p e r i o d i c a l s was no doubt p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e -25-f o r t h i s . I n thought as w e l l as method Canadian w r i t e r s were s t i l l q u i t e c o n s e r v a t i v e . The c h a r a c t e r s p r e s e n t e d a re u s u a l l y n a i v e ; nor are they used i n making p h i l o s o p h i c a l comments. With few e x c e p t i o n s , the s t o r i e s i n v o l v e the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t n a t u r e , death or economic d i f f i c u l t y . Even C a l l a g h a n , who i n many ways was advanced beyond o t h e r s o f the time> prese n t s c h a r a c t e r s o f t e n b a r e l y l i t e r a t e , whose c h i e f concerns are the, problems of making a l i v i n g . Moreover, t h e r e was l i t t l e s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n i n g o f e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s of l i f e . R a d d a l l , C a l l a g h a n , and Ross a l l a c c e p t without much q u e s t i o n i n g the b a s i c f a m i l y p a t t e r n as the o n l y means to s t a b i l i t y . Women were to support t h e i r husbands; c h i l d r e n would g i v e meaning to e x i s t e n c e . Sex r a r e l y i s presented o u t s i d e m a r r i a g e . One s t o r y d e a l i n g with and ap p r o v i n g o f a woman l e a v i n g her husband f o r a l o v e r , "The W a i t i n g Room" by K a t h e r i n e B l i g h (New F r o n t 1, Dec, 1936, 2^)j i s , u n f o r -t u n a t e l y , a s o c i a l t r a c t . Canadian c o n s e r v a t i v i s m was f o r the most p a r t s t i l l obvious i n the sh o r t s t o r y . While t h i s p e r i o d saw more o f r e a l i t y and the contemporary e n t e r i n g the s h o r t s t o r y , and a s l i g h t l y l e s s e x p l i c i t form, few a u thors were yet a f f e c t e d . Though many s t o r i e s were being produced, few were i n l i t e r a r y p e r i o d i c a l s , and there were few means o f communication f o r a u t h o r s . More o u t l e t s f o r ex p e r i m e n t a l w r i t i n g and s t r o n g e r f o r c e s to Jar i t s complacency were needed. CHAPTER 2 1941 - 1945 s Man i n S o c i e t y A f t e r the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the d e p r e s s i o n , Canada was plunged i n t o another type of a n x i e t y — s i x years o f war. Because o f her major r o l e i n the s u p p l y i n g and t r a i n i n g o f t r o o p s and i n p r o v i d i n g war m a t e r i a l s , Canada developed a growing sense o f importance and a f e e l i n g t h a t the n a t i o n c o u l d have a v o i c e i n w o r l d a f f a i r s . . . The t i e s , t oo, between Canada and the Commonwealth were strengthened on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s , though Canada had a s s e r t e d her independence of f o r m a l t i e s i n d e c l a r i n g war s e p a r a t e l y . At the same time, because o f t h e i r mutual concern i n the war, the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada came i n t o g r e a t e r p r o x i m i t y . T h i s development meant however, t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t e r danger o f a s s i m i l a t i o n , and a need f o r Canada to preserve her separate i d e n t i t y . Economic changes a l s o show Canada's development, as she became the f o u r t h i n d u s t r i a l power i n the world-1-. T h i s meant a f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f the urban p a t t e r n . P o l i t i c a l l y , though t h e r e was danger of d i v i s i o n on the c o n s c r i p t i o n i s s u e , Mackenzie K i n g handled the s i t u a t i o n 1. J . M. S. C a r e l e s s , Canada: A S t o r y o f Challenge (Toronto: Macmillan, 1963), p..383. -2?-w i t h some diplomacy and managed to b r i n g the country through the war more u n i t e d than i t had been. French and E n g l i s h and even the d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s o f E n g l i s h Canada shared a common cause... I t c o u l d be seen, however, t h a t , a l t h o u g h the French had accepted the n e c e s s i t y f o r f i g h t i n g much more r e a d i l y i n t h i s war than i n World War I, t h e i r s t r o n g s t a n d a g a i n s t the c o n s c r i p t i o n i s s u e showed them u n w i l l i n g to g i v e i n to the E n g l i s h . D e s p i t e t h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , the L i b e r a l government was a g a i n e l e c t e d a f t e r the war.. These a r e merely the s u r f a c e changes. No h i s t o r y book can r e c o r d w i t h c e r t a i n t y the changes i n t h i n k i n g and the p a t t e r n s o f l i v i n g which r e s u l t from such a c o n f l i c t . The l i t e r a t u r e o f the time may, however, be expected to r e f l e c t i n i t s development the more s u b t l e changes t a k i n g p l a c e . A g a i n , as i n the d e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d , the nature o f the c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the s h o r t s t o r y r e f l e c t s the changes i n the n a t i o n . Of course, j u s t as some people i n the n a t i o n were l e s s o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by the events s u r r o u n d i n g them, so c e r t a i n authors produced works t h a t were l e s s war - o r i e n t e d . These authors adopted an e s c a p i s t a t t i t u d e . Yet, even where a d e f i n i t e change was not o bvious, the dramatic nature o f these years produced a g e n t l e s h a ding. I n a d d i t i o n , as the c h a r a c t e r s and concerns of the s t o r y were changing, so were the language and methods by which they were r e v e a l e d . T h i s becomes obvious i n the l i t t l e magazines which f i r s t made t h e i r appearance d u r i n g the p e r i o d . As a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of war a d e c l i n e i n a form t h a t had o f t e n p r e v i o u s l y been c o n s i d e r e d Just a means o f entertainment might be expected. To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , t h e r e was such a d e c l i n e . Morley C a l l a g h a n , under the p r e s s u r e s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f war, p r a c t i c a l l y ceased to w r i t e f i c t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t i n g 2 i n s t e a d on w r i t i n g a r t i c l e s and g i v i n g speaking engagements'... E t h e l W i l s o n , who had p u b l i s h e d a few s t o r i e s b e f o r e the war, 1 admits t h a t she then stopped w r i t i n g to a t t e n d to o t h e r matters-.^ Most o f the major e x i s t i n g p e r i o d i c a l s a l s o showed a d e c l i n e i n the number o f s t o r i e s p u b l i s h e d . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e -a b l e i n Canadian Forum and even more so In Maclean's. War measures f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f paper were p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e , and t h i s f a c t o r was coupled w i t h the concept o f the s t o r y as l i g h t and f r i v o l o u s r e a d i n g . S i n c e the s t o r y had o f t e n d e a l t w i t h the p a s t , w i t h l o v e and adventure s i t u a t i o n s , magazines c o n c e n t r a t e d i n s t e a d on a r t i c l e s and news. At the same time, few important c o l l e c t i o n s o f s t o r i e s appeared d u r i n g these y e a r s . Of those t h a t d i d , s e v e r a l , though t e c h n i c a l l y s h o r t f i c t i o n , bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to the mature s h o r t s t o r y , b e i n g e i t h e r h i s t o r i c a l t a l e s or s t o r i e s c l o s e r t o f o l k l o r e . , W i l l i a m Coates B o r r e t t , i n h i s f o u r c o l l e c t i o n s o f t a l e s which were p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n as r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s , i s a c t u a l l y merely g i v i n g form to h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l . These books e x p l o i t the r i c h background o f t h e Maritimes and i t s heroes, but, a l t h o u g h l a b e l l e d as 2, Weaver, "A T a l k w i t h Morley Callaghan", p. 2 0 . 3. E t h e l W i l s o n , "A Cat Among the F a l c o n s : R e f l e c t i o n s on the W r i t e r ' s C r a f t " , Canadian L i t e r a t u r e No. 2 (Autumn, 1 9 5 9 ) . 1 7 . - 2 9 -f l o t i o n by Watters, they a r e f o r the most p a r t t r u e : A number o f o t h e r books o f t a l e s , mainly h i s t o r i c a l , were p u b l i s h e d : Dorothy M o r r i s o n ' s T a l e s the Eskimos T e l l , Hugh Weatherby's T a l e s the Totems T e l l , and Roland Sherwood's PlotoW Parade. These ooncern the more o b v i o u s l y Canadian p a r t s o f our c u l t u r e , i t s p r i m i t i v e and r u r a l p e o p l e s . The frequency o f the p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s type o f work d u r i n g the war years might be -seenas* a rea-lt either o f a d e s i r e t o escape from p r e s e n t problems i n t o the past o r o f an i n t e r e s t i n the v a l u e s f o r which Canadians were f i g h t i n g i n the war. Of a more contemporary nature i s Mary Quayle I n n i s ' Stand on a Rainbow (19^3). T h i s i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f s t o r i e s about one yea r i n the l i f e o f a f a m i l y i n a Canadian c i t y , . . S m a l l i n c i d e n t s , most o f them i n v o l v i n g the common problems o f a household, a r e t o l d w i t h a candidness t h a t adds i n t e r e s t . The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n r e f l e c t s a f a i r l y uncomplicated view o f l i f e , w i t h the f a m i l y viewed as a l l Important, the mother reg a r d e d as the s t a b i l i z i n g f o r c e , expected t o get the c h i l d r e n o f f t o s c h o o l and husband o f f to work, and to comfort them i n d e s p a i r . Yet she i s not without her y e a r n i n g s . I n "End o f Summer", as the day i s b e f o r e her, a f t e r husband and c h i l d r e n have gone, she t h i n k s : Perhaps she c o u l d f i n d time t o p r a c t i c e the Chopin p r e l u d e which f o r f i v e years she had hoped to f i n d time to p r a c t i c e . The c h i l d r e n laughed 4 R. E. Wa t t e r s . A Check - L i s t o f Canadian L i t e r a t u r e and Background M a t e r i a l s (1628 - 1950) (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1959), - 3 0 -r a u c o u s l y , even A r t h u r s m i l e d , a t her p e r e n n i a l attempts to p r a c t i c e her music, to do some s o l i d r e a d i n g . She would show them y e t . But, o f course, she never does. The a t t i t u d e shown here i s r e a l l y a pre-war one. A l -though Mary Quayle I n n i s has done work t h a t d e a l s w i t h s e r i o u s contemporary problems (See " S t a v e r " i n Chapter One), these s t o r i e s are I d y l l i c and seem very f a r removed from the years i n which they were w r i t t e n . The tone i s g e n e r a l l y happy, the themes not complex — Joy i n r e t u r n i n g from v a c a t i o n , s i b l i n g r i v a l r y , w i t h the happiness o f motherhood p e r v a d i n g a l l . These s t o r i e s , w i t h t h e i r v i v i d d e t a i l and r e a l i s m , • r s i n c e r e emotions, and u n i v e r s a l s i t u a t i o n s , are e x c e l l e n t i n t h e i r t y p e . And, i f they are not enough concerned w i t h matters i n depth to endure, they a t l e a s t r e f l e c t the t u r n i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d to the p r e s e n t Canadian scene. Two o t h e r Important c o l l e c t i o n s appeared i n 19^5» One, Thomas H. R a d d a l l 9 s Tambour and o t h e r S t o r i e s , s t i l l has l i t t l e acknowledgement o f the contemporary s i t u a t i o n , a g a i n c o n s i s t i n g of r e g i o n a l i d y l l s . As R a d d a l l s t a t e s i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , they were w r i t t e n " i n v a r i o u s moods i n v a r i o u s years, some from p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , some from hearsay, some whimsies, born o f the moment." Most a r e t a l e s o f the sea. There a r e , however, some d i f f e r e n c e s from the e a r l i e r volume i n c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n . While R a d d a l l s t i l l seeks the unusual person o r i n c i d e n t , t h e r e i s more p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b t l e t y . There i s l e s s s e n t i m e n t a l i z i n g of the I n d i a n s , though they do appear - 3 1 -i n s e v e r a l s t o r i e s . I t i s l i k e l y , t h a t , because i n these war years Indians had tended to l e a v e the r e s e r v a t i o n and show t h e i r s k i l l i n h o l d i n g down i n d u s t r i a l jobs, R a d d a l l was unable to go on p i c t u r i n g them as he •••had e a r l i e r . In " T r i a n g l i n S t e e l " , f o r example, th r e e I n d i a n c o n s t r u c t i o n workers a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c l e a r l y . The s t o r y i s o f a r i v a l r y between two o f the workers over the young b e a u t i f u l w i f e o f the o l d e r . T h e i r p r i m i t i v e j u s t i c e a l l o w s the husband to k i l l h i s r i v a l i n a seeming a c c i d e n t on the j o b . More s u b t l e I s the f a c t t h a t the t h i r d worker p r o f i t s from the death by g e t t i n g h i s p a r t n e r ' s j o b . Yet, alth o u g h t h e r e i s l e s s s e n t i m e n t a l i z i n g , the I n d i a n i s s t i l l p r e sented as d i f f e r e n t from the white. As the n a r r a t o r puts i t : " I t e l l you an In d i a n ' s a separate c r e a t i o n . Appeal to h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and you can make a very good white man o f him, simply a matter o f e d u c a t i o n . But s c r a t c h h i s emotions and y o u ' l l f i n d the savage he was, i s now, and evermore s h a l l be." R a d d a l l has c e r t a i n l y not been much i n f l u e n c e d by the s o c i a l i s t i d e a t h a t environment and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n d e t e r -mine a c t i o n s . The ending o f the s t o r y p o i n t s to R a d d a l l * s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h i s a r t i s t r y , as the man to whom the s t o r y i s b e i n g t o l d . asks f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . The n a r r a t o r ' s r e p l y t h a t he should not be so o b j e c t i v e shows the s t o r y as a work o f a r t complete i n i t s e l f . H i s themes a r e s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y simple — the f o l l y o f j u d g i n g people s o l e l y by one f e a t u r e i n "Mclvor's S a l v a t i o n where a young man f a l l s i n l o v e with a telephone o p e r a t o r ' s v o i c e and she turns out to be o l d ; the mystery o f l i f e l n -32-"The Amulet", where an o l d I n d i a n woman f i n d s her way back to a mound which c o u l d p l a c e her age a t more than 300 years; and p r i m i t i v e j u s t i c e i n " T r i a n g l e i n S t e e l " . Yet, t h e r e a re fewer s t o r i e s which o f f e r simple s o l u t i o n s . In "The Man from Gap d*Amour", f o r example, a young r e c r u i t a t a w i r e l e s s s t a t i o n , a f t e r p r o v i n g h i s s k i l l a t a hockey game, and r e c e i v i n g the a t t e n t i o n s o f a l l the g i r l s on the post, a c c e p t s a p o s i t i o n a t a remote s t a t i o n , where he can r e c o n s i d e r h i s v a l u e s . The war was c l e a r l y making man more aware of h i s r e l a t i o n s to o t h e r s . Another change i n R a d d a l l * s work, l i k e l y a l s o a r e s u l t o f the war, i s the i n c r e a s e d s e r i o u s n e s s o f tone. Only one o f the. s t o r i e s , "A P e t t i c o a t f o r L i n d a " , c o n c e r n i n g a g i r l who Is taught not to dominate her husband, l a c k s t h i s s e r i o u s n e s s . The o t h e r s , a l t h o u g h not always d e a l i n g w i t h s i t u a t i o n s o f gr e a t consequence, do i n v o l v e t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s i n s e r i o u s problems. I n "On Quero", f o r example, a young man, determined to b e t t e r h i m s e l f and win a g i r l , s h i p s on a l w h a l e r , o n l y t o undergo d i f f i c u l t y a t sea. A f t e r t h i s he can o n l y t h i n k o f more important m a t t e r s . A g a i n the war's i n f l u e n c e i n a s p i r i t q u e s t i o n i n g i s obv i o u s . Yet though R a d d a l l ' s s t o r i e s here a r e more s e r i o u s and have more p l a u s i b l e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e i r b a s i c method has not changed. The e x p l o r a t i o n o f the a r t i s t i n "By Any Other Name" might almost f i t R a d d a l l : At tifenty-two he h a l t e d d e f i n i t e l y a t the s h o r t s t o r y , a b s o r b i n g w i t h z e a l the v e r b a l gymnastics o f 0'Henry, the neat p l o t gems of Maupassant, the foggy c y n i c i s m o f the Russians; but when he came f i n a l l y down to i n k and -33-pen, K i p l i n g was h i s God and the r e s t nowhere. He saw h i m s e l f roaming the world i n quest of the unusual i n c i d e n t which he would wrap i n f l a m i n g l o c a l c o l o u r and b u t t o n w i t h c r i s p phrases and b r i n g f o r t h w i t h the b l a n d a i r of a magician p l u c k i n g v i v i d l i t t l e paper fans from a borrowed h a t . He was s t i l l w r i t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s t o r i e s f i l l e d w i t h the l o c a l c o l o u r o f the M a r i t i m e s , not r e a l l y acknowledging the times i n which he l i v e d . Another Important work i n the p e r i o d i s L e s l i e Gordon Barnard's second c o l l e c t i o n , So Near Is Grandeur ( 1 9 4 5 ) . The t i t l e , as Barnard i n d i c a t e s i n the forward, i s an a d a p t a t i o n of Emerson's "So n i g h i s grandeur to our d u s t " , an a p p r o p r i a t e u n i f y i n g l i n k f o r a book of s t o r i e s produced d u r i n g the war y e a r s . I t i n d i c a t e s both the p o s s i b i l i t y o f man the hero b e i n g e a s i l y d e s t r o y e d and o f the l i t t l e man r i s i n g t o grandeur. Barnard d i d not see t h i s as a war book, but he writes^, again, i n the forward: ... i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t s t o r i e s w r i t t e n i n the past decade or so should f a i l to r e f l e c t something o f those urgent years Back o f i t s beginnings were those a p a t h i e s and f o l l i e s a t which none of us can a f f o r d to throw s-tones; beyond i t s ending l i e s e i t h e r s p i r i t u a l g r e a t n e s s — o r d e s t r u c t i o n . T h i s book i s concerned more w i t h men than w i t h machines, wi t h i n d i v i d u a l s than events. I t i s s t a t i n g the obvious to p o i n t out t h a t the atomic age w i l l be no wiser or g r e a t e r than the I n d i v i d u a l s who by thought, word or d e e d — - o r the absence of them — h e l p to shape and d i r e c t i t . Barnard's b e l i e f i n the a b i l i t y of man to d i r e c t h i s own a f f a i r s i s obvious h e r e . The s t o r i e s , then, d e a l w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s - war, l o v e , o l d age, - 3 4 -c h i l d h o o d . Although one o f them, "The Far H i l l s ' ' begins " I t i s a strange s t o r y I have to te l l ' , ' something not to be expected i n the modern s t o r y which does not c o n c e n t r a t e on the f a n t a s t i c p l o t f o r e f f e c t , most are o f more o r d i n a r y people, o f "the l i t t l e man" and h i s attempts to d e a l w i t h l i f e . Most o f the s t o r i e s i n v o l v e s p i r i t u a l problems, and they are o f t e n r a t h e r o b v i o u s l y d i d a c t i c . They may have such themes as "God works i n mysterious ways" i n "Stoop Down and Drink",when a Padre by throwing away a bomb uncovers f r e s h water f o r parched s u r v i v o r s on an i s l a n d ; "Temptation overcome i s rewarded" i n "Temptation" where Olga, who overcomes the temp t a t i o n to i n f o r m to the Nazis i s rewarded by the s u r v i v a l o f her b o y f r i e n d ; and the importance o f honour i n "There I s A l s o Honour" as N i c k r e f u s e s to keep a job a t a f a c t o r y when he d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s employer i s s t o c k p i l i n g . Yet, d e s p i t e t h e i r r a t h e r obvious themes, Barnard's s t o r i e s do have some enduring q u a l i t i e s . T h e i r s i t u a t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y important and o f u n i v e r s a l i n t e r e s t . C h a r a c t e r s are f a c e d w i t h problems f o r which t h e r e i s no easy s o l u t i o n or which i n v o l v e w e l l known emotions. The s t o r i e s are c a r e f u l l y u n i f i e d around one dominant i n t e r e s t . "The Dancing Bear", f o r i n s t a n c e , shows a man dreaming of a happy i n c i d e n t i n h i s childhood.when a d a n c i n g bear performed a t h i s s i s t e r ' s b i r t h d a y p a r t y . As he i s aroused from h i s r e v e r i e , i n a d e s i r e to d e f e a t the p a s s i n g o f time, he r e s o l v e s to buy - 3 5 -a toy bear f o r h i s s i s t e r . A summarization o f the p l o t cannot show the p s y c h o l o g i c a l touches here, the r e l a t i o n o f the boy to h i s s i s t e r and the s k i l l f u l c e n t e r i n g o f the thought around the image of the da n c i n g bear. S i m i l a r l y i n "The Peach T r e e " the f r u s t r a t e d l o n g i n g s o f an o l d e r woman f o r dreams which have never been f u l f i l l e d are c e n t e r e d i n the memory of a peach t r e e which used to stand o u t s i d e her window. Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , besides u n i t y and impressionism» r e l a t e h i s s t o r i e s to t h i s p e r i o d . They d e a l w i t h c h a r a c t e r s who a r e u s u a l l y not complex,though somewhat r e f l e c t i v e and concerned w i t h the s p i r i t u a l . T h e i r s t o r i e s a re t o l d i n a language w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e a r t i s t r y . The war s t o r i e s a re not o f t e n s t o r i e s o f heroes, but o f the h o r r o r o f war. For example, i n "Marching as to war", P i e r r e who had i n the F i r s t World War marched f o r France, now marches aga i n down the s t r e e t . T h i s , t i m e , however, h i s march i s to the f i r i n g squad. There a r e , i n accordance w i t h a growing tendency i n the p e r i o d , some of s o c i a l p r o t e s t , a g a i n beset by pure t y p e s . "The L i t t l e Man", f o r example, has the t y p i c a l M a r x i s t , F a s c i s t and e v a n g e l i s t . They are d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s way: There's F a l l a h a n , and - to use your own phrase -h i s z e a l f o r God t h a t i s not a c c o r d i n g to knowledge. There i s Gorvsky, and h i s super-Marxian madness. There's Ghurt, who'd t u r n us i n t o d i c t a t o r - r i d d e n r o b o t s i f he c o u l d . No f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s i s g i v e n , but e v e n t u a l l y they come t o see the c o r r e c t n e s s of the p o s i t i o n of the L i t t l e Man who f o l l o w s no system but a l o v e of humanity. Barnard's b e l i e f i n the i n d i v i d u a l i s a g a i n i l l u s t r a t e d . - 36 -These s t o r i e s s t i l l see man as b a s i c a l l y h e r o i c , a b l e to c o n t r o l h i s own d e s t i n y . Yet they t u r n away from the r u r a l i d y l l and the h i s t o r i c a l romance. An important anthology a p p e a r i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d was Ralph Gustafson's Canadian Accent (1944). C o n t a i n i n g prose and a r t i c l e s t o g e t h e r w i t h a few poems, i t c a r r i e d s t o r i e s from some of the b e t t e r Canadian w r i t e r s , i n c l u d i n g those who were w r i t i n g i n the new l i t t l e magazines. L i k e o t h e r c r i t i c s and w r i t e r s a t t h i s time, Gustafson b e t r a y s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n a concern w i t h Canadian i d e n t i t y and i n t e g r i t y . In a d d i t i o n , a s e l e c t i o n by Leon E d e l , "The Question of Canadian I d e n t i t y " , 4 examines t h i s problem, s t r e s s i n g the youth of the country and urging w r i t e r s to c o n c e n t r a t e on what i s p e c u l i a r to Canada, be i t o n l y the l a c k o f i d e n t i t y . A s e l e c t i o n by L i o n e l Gelber, "Canada Comes o f Agey5 u r g e s the r o l e t h a t Canada must p l a y i n peacetime, one not i n f e r i o r to her important r o l e i n the war. From these s e l e c t i o n s i t can be seen t h a t w r i t e r s were b e i n g encouraged to c o n c e n t r a t e on the p r e s e n t Canadian s i t u a t i o n , t o examine what was p e c u l i a r to Canada, and to develop a growing consciousness o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o u n t r y and the p e o p l e . In t h i s p e r i o d and those f o l l o w i n g , such concerns became an important f e a t u r e o f the Canadian s t o r y . 4. Leon E d e l , "The Q u e s t i o n o f Canadian I d e n t i t y , " i n Canadian Recent, Ralph Gustafson, ed. (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1944), pp. 6 t t - ? l . 5. Lionel Gelber, "Canada Comes of Age", l n Canadian A c c e n t , pp. 2 > 3 0 . - 3 7 -In the l i t t l e magazines from which many o f the s t o r i e s i n t h i s anthology came were o c c u r r i n g some of the more d e f i n i t e changes i n the Canadian s h o r t s t o r y . These magazines, among the f i r s t important ones to be p u b l i s h e d I n Canada, p r o v i d e d an o u t l e t f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l w r i t i n g a t a time when the commercial magazines were a c c e p t i n g few s t o r i e s . They p r o v i d e d a l s o a means of communication f o r w r i t e r s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y . Whereas i n the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d w r i t e r s had remained i s o l a t e d , they now had the added s t i m u l u s o f a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h one another, of a c e r t a i n amount o f c r i t i c i s m , and o f a p l a c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r Canadian w r i t e r s . Preview, begun as a " p r i v a t e l e t t e r " by f i v e M ontreal -w r i t e r s , and l a t e r expanded to l i t t l e magazine s t a t u s , p u b l i s h e d works by N e u f v i l l e Shaw, P a t r i c k Anderson, P.K. Page, Bruce Ruddick, and, l a t e r , Mavis G a l l a n t . T h i s was a d e c i d e d l y c o s m o p o l i t a n and s o c i a l p r o t e s t magazine, s e e i n g l i t e r a t u r e as n e c e s s a r i l y p r o p a g a n d i s t . In the opening statement, t h e i r a t t i t u d e i s c l e a r l y shown: ... the poets amongst us l o o k forward, perhaps o p t i m i s t i c a l l y , to a p o s s i b l e f u s i o n between the l y r i c and d i d a c t i c elements i n modern v e r s e , a combination of v i v i d a r r e s t i n g imagery and the a b i l i t y to " s i n g " w i t h s o c i a l content and c r i t i c i s m . (Prey 1, March, 1942, 1) The aim f o r the s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r was o b v i o u s l y to be s i m i l a r — an improvement i n form and an i n t e n t i o n to d e a l w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t I s s u e s , e s p e c i a l l y t o see man i n h i s s o c i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . To these a u t h o r s , the war was not an - 3 8 -o c c a s i o n f o r l e s s w r i t i n g , but r a t h e r a s t i m u l u s to d e a l w i t h contemporary s u b j e c t s and encourage the b e t t e r i n g o f c o n d i t i o n s . A l l a n t i - f a s c i s t s , we f e e l t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of a war between democratic c u l t u r e and the p a r a l y s i n g . f o r c e s of d i c t a t o r s h i p o n l y i n t e n s i f i e s the w r i t e r ' s o b l i g a t i o n to work. Now, more than ever, c r e a t i v e and experimental w r i t i n g must be kept a l i v e and t h e r e must be no r e t r e a t from the i n t e l l e c t u a l f r o n t i e r .... (Prev 1. March, 1942, 1 ) . Most o f the s t o r i e s , i n Preview, consequently, are o f s o c i a l p r o t e s t . A lthough the a r t i s t i c l e v e l i n c r e a s e d as the y e a r s went on, the a t t i t u d e d i d not changes and a d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n between t h i s magazine and F i r s t Statement, a r i v a l l i t t l e magazine, developed. In a s p e c i a l war i s s u e , P a t r i c k Anderson commented thus on the p o s i t i o n of the w r i t e r : Is he, l i k e the F i r s t Statement Group, g o i n g to content h i m s e l f w i t h study c i r c l e s to ponder the p l a t i t u d e s o f Lampman and Carman? Or i s he going to plunge b o l d l y i n t o the p r o g r e s s i v e movement, l e a r n i n g from a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i t the i n s p i r a t i o n of s o l i d a r i t y , w h i l e he c o n t r i b u t e s to i t the v a l u e s o f h i s c u l t u r e , Imaginative u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s e n s i t i v i t y ? (Prev 11, Feb, 1943, n.p.). Even i f these w r i t e r s were a l i t t l e smug about the r o l e they c o u l d p l a y i n human a f f a i r s , they d i d b r i n g s e r i o u s n e s s and a f r e s h o u t l o o k to the s t o r y . No l o n g e r was any s u b j e c t f o r b i d d e n . The harshness o f war and the freedom of these e x p e r i m e n t a l magazines encouraged authors to i n t r o d u c e i n t h e i r s t o r i e s many of the u g l i e r p o r t i o n s of l i f e . In P.K. Page's s t o r y "The Neighbour" occurs t h i s passage: -39-"Leave o f f s o i l i n g our w a l l s , l e a v e o f f " . Mrs. C o l l e y stood up and s t r u c k out a t the f o o t i i i t h her f o r k . Her d r e s s was s h o r t a t the back. When she moved she showed her l e g s s p l a y i n g out above the knees and extending i n t o l o n g p u r p l i s h - b l u e bloomers. She s t r u c k a t the bare wet f o o t and the l e g l a s h e d about l i k e a snake. (Prev 3, June, 19^2, n.p.) Although these passages may be sometimes more shocking than r e v e a l i n g , they are common i n the s t o r i e s o f the time. The fr a n k n e s s may a l s o be seen i n Bruce Ruddick's "VI," another of the e a r l i e r s t o r i e s i n Preview (Prev 3, May, 19^ 2, n.p.) Though the i d e a of d e a l i n g w i t h p r o s t i t u t e s was not e n t i r e l y new— C a l l a g h a n had done so i n the t h i r t i e s — h e r e t h e r e i s more emphasis on the s o c i a l f a c t o r s c a u s i n g t h e i r c o n d i t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the s t o r y i s too o b v i o u s l y p r o p a g a n d i s t s w i t h no c h a r a c t e r who engages our sympathy o r i s c l e a r l y p r e s e n t e d . One c h a r a c t e r i s merely d e s c r i b e d t h i s way: " G o r d i e , a law student had s a i d , i n h i s f a s c i s t way, t h a t the b e s t t h i n g to do vjrith people l i k e V i was to k i l l them o f f o r to s t e r i l i z e them". As w e l l , he has to r e s o r t to a statement* " T h e y f t h e i r problems] a l l stemmed from some fl a w i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e " , to convey the d i f f i c u l t y o f g i r l s such as V i . Other s t o r i e s , t o o , i l l u s t r a t e the change i n c h a r a c t e r s , s u b j e c t s , and form t h a t was o c c u r r i n g i n the p e r i o d . Most of the s t o r i e s , as may be expected, d e a l e i t h e r d i r e c t l y w i t h the war.or with the s o c i a l and economic problems found i n a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . The e a r l i e r concern with man a g a i n s t n ature has s h i f t e d to man i n s o c i e t y . P a t r i c k -40-Anderson's "The Americans" (Prev 15, Aug, 1943, n.p.), which i s somewhat i n the nature of a documentary, d e s c r i b e s Americans who v i s i t a French-Canadian r e s o r t . B e s i d e s showing the concern w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e between Americans and Canadians, i t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s one of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s k i n d of w r i t i n g - the p o r t r a y a l of pure types r a t h e r than r e a l p eople. These Americans have a l l the t y p i c a l f l a w s — they are " f a s c i s t s , a n t i - n e g r o , a n t i - j e w , i s o l a t i o n i s t , but oh so f i r m l y l o y a l t o human n a t u r e J " C h a r a c t e r s then, are l i k e l y to be more t y p i c a l , not so o f t e n the unusual i n d i v i d u a l s - of e a r l i e r s t o r i e s , though th e s e , too, e x i s t . I n a d d i t i o n , the maturing of the n a t i o n can be seen i n the number of times c h a r a c t e r s have much more u n i v e r s a l concerns, more depth of thought than i n p r e v i o u s s t o r i e s . Even when the c h a r a c t e r s themselves are not endowed wi t h much i n t e l l i g e n c e , a n a r r a t o r o f t e n makes t h o u g h t f u l comment on them. P. K. Page's "The Green B i r d " (Prev 1, Sept, 1942, ?.) has such c h a r a c t e r s : an o f f i c i o u s woman who i s "covetous of the books — of the form of the books, s p r e a d i n g them about h e r , never once opening t h e i r c o v e r s " ; another l a d y who l i v e s w i t h her, has had her l e g s cut o f f , and can be s c o r n f u l and amused at human f o i b l e s ; the n a r r a t o r who "cannot escape the f a s c i n a t i o n of doors, the weight of unknown people who d r i v e ^he^ i n t o (herself} and p i n ^herj with t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s ; " and a r a t h e r p u z z l i n g E r n e s t who merely smiles..: These c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l both an i n t e r e s t i n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . and a growing concern w i t h a b s t r a c t i d e a s on the p a r t of a u t h o r s . - 41-"Burn" (EESSI 18, Feb, 1944, np) by Bruce Ruddick shows another s o c i a l concern. The n a r r a t o r and c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s an i n t e r n , capable of i n t e l l e c t u a l comment on a s i t u a t i o n i n -v o l v i n g a young c h i l d itfith major burns. A f t e r the d o c t o r s t r y without success to save a c h i l d , the i n t e r n ' s f e e l i n g of f r u s t r a t i o n i s I n t e n s i f i e d as he passes through the c h i l d r e n ' s ward and sees o t h e r s who are r e c o v e r i n g . B e s i d e s showing the i n c r e a s i n g m a t u r i t y of the c h a r a c t e r s , t h i s s t o r y a l s o r e v e a l s a wartime a t t i t u d e of q u e s t i o n i n g of purpose. As the s t o r y became more concerned w i t h r e a l i t y i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , i t i s to be expected t h a t the a t t i t u d e toward French Canadian c h a r a c t e r s would mature. P. K. Page's " M i r a c l e s " (Prev 20 , May, 1944, n.p.) shows a c o n t r a s t with the e a r l i e r work by J . E. l e R o s s i g n o l , The Habltant-Marchant. I n a French Canadian v i l l a g e , a t the house of a f r i e n d , E n g l i s h v i s i t o r s observe the v e g e t a t i o n seeming to creep mearer and n e a r e r . S y m b o l i z i n g i n e r t i a of any k i n d , t h i s v e g e t a t i o n i s l i k e the consumption of which the f a m i l y i s d y i n g , w h i l e p a t i e n t l y w a i t i n g f o r the cure t o perform a m i r a c l e . T r a d i t i o n i s c l e a r l y b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d . The i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e l l e c t u a l and q u e s t i o n i n g n a t u r e of the s t o r y may a l s o be seen i n Mavis G a l l a n t ' s r e l a t e d s e l e c t i o n s "Good Morning and Goodbye" (Prev 22 , Dec, 1944, 1) and .•'.Three B r i c k W a l l s " . The c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s P a u l who i n "Good Morning and Goodbye" i s t a k i n g l e a v e of a f a m i l y with which he hhd come t o l i v e as an immigrant and i s going to the c i t y . F a r from i d e a l i z i n g country l i f e , she p r e s e n t s the c i t y as d e s i r a b l e . -42-&gain, t h e r e I s the concern with h i s r e l a t i o n t o s o c i e t y . P a u l wants freedom from a r t i c u l a t i o n , freedom which w i l l a l l o w him t o keep to h i m s e l f . As he spends h i s f i r s t day i n the c i t y i n "Three B r i c k W a l l s " (Prev 2 3 , Deo, 1944, n.p.), he i s both f r i g h t e n e d and p l e a s e d by the anonymity he d i s c o v e r s . Less e x p e r i m e n t a l i n form than some of the o t h e r s t o r i e s , Mavis G a l l a n t 0 s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , by d e a l i n g s i n c e r e l y and s u b t l y w i t h u n i v e r s a l human emotions, are c l e a r l y of s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y . T h i s work i n Preview shows a change In the s h o r t s t o r y . The most important c o n t r i b u t i o n s are the s o c i a l content and s e r i o u s problems i n v o l v e d , as w e l l as a tendency, sometimes overdone, t o a c h i e v e t h e i r e f f e c t by s u g g e s t i o n , r a t h e r than by e x p l a n a t i o n . F i r s t Statement was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t purpose. I n i t s s t o r i e s as w e l l as i t s poems, i t r e f l e c t s the disagreement between these groups of a u t h o r s . D e f i n i t e l y opposed t o l i t e r a t u r e as a means. F i r s t Statement authors c o n c e n t r a t e d on the a r t i s t i c end, w i t h new t e c h n i q u e s . One of the b e s t comments on the a t t i t u d e of authors i n F i r s t Statement i s shown i n an a r t i c l e by John S u t h e r l a n d , "On a S t o r y P u b l i s h e d i n Preview Magazine" (F S t a t 1:1, undated, 4-6) i n which, b e s i d e s condemning the p r o p a g a n d i s t i c n a t u r e of Bruce Ruddlck's s t o r y "VI," he i n t i m a t e s h i s b e l i e f I n words as s u g g e s t i v e ? The man uses words i n the way one uses f i s t s t o c l i p poeple on the Jaw. He i s a s o c i a l i s t a c h i n g f o r a r e v o l u t i o n , and he has found the p e r f e c t a r t , , , He says " T h i s i s a d i r t y b u s i n e s s ; t h i s l a s t paragraph d i r t i e s both myself and you; these words are grimy, o l d g l o v e s I w i l l throw away a f t e r u s i n g them..." Ever y word c o n t a i n s what amounts to a godhead. A p r a c t i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s type language may be seen i n R. G. Simpson's "Time and Mr. Aaronsen" (F S t a t 1:1, undated,!) which i s p r i n t e d without c a p i t a l s o r p u n c t u a t i o n and c o n t a i n s p u r e l y e v o c a t i v e passages such as t h i s * aa mr. aaronsen watched the white s a i l s were besmoked and gaunt p i p e s r o s e t o b e l c h f o r t h the b l a c k n e s s o f the r o t t e d t r e e and b l i n d the l o n g hours o f s t a r s but b o i l i n g wakes s c y t h e - s l a s h e d the narrowed sea w i t h the bearded sandglassman a t the helm Though sometimes l e a d i n g t o the u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , t h i s new co n s c i o u s n e s s o f the power o f words and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f rhythmic prose n e v e r t h e l e s s went f a r t o c o r r e c t the p l o d d i n g n a t u r e o f much e a r l i e r work. Not a l l the s t o r i e s I n F i r s t Statement were t h i s t y p e . Some, l i k e t h i s , a r e merely i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , J u s t a s k e t c h of a f l u i d moment. I n t h e s e language p e r se seems t o be the main conern. Simpson's "Time and Mr. Aaronsen" i s o f the I n f l u e n c e o f the r e l a t i o n between p a s t o r p r e s e n t , the e f f e c t o f the Norwegian c o a s t on which he l i v e s on Mr. Aaronsen, and of a p p r e c i a t i n g l i f e . I n John S u t h e r l a n d ' s "The Bee" (F S t a t I I I , undated, p. 6) the emphasis i s a l s o on the evoca-t i v e power o f words as the bee's e f f o r t s t o keep from "non-r e s i s t a n c e " a re s i m i l a r t o man's. "Summer had o f f e r e d him a draught of n o n - r e s i s t a n c e . I t had o f f e r e d him the meadow's mattress o f p i l e d straw t o l i e on." The p o e t i c i n f l u e n c e i s c l e a r . I n R. G. Simpson's " J i v e - J o i n t " CF S t a t 2 ? 4 , Feb, 1944,15) t o o , the most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e i s the language, but the e f f e c t i s d i f f e r e n t . T h i s i s a c o l l o q u i a l stream - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a guy t r y i n g t o p i c k u p a g i r l a t a j i v e j o i n t . The h arshness, c l i p p e d language, c l a s s i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , r e p e a t e d -44-images are a l l somewhat I n the method of Joyce: Oh Just t o s i t b l e a k i n the b l a r e . Enough t o watch the dust swim and no more. Head now c o l d , and the eye h a r s h i n the swimming smoke. R e e l out now. The mutchiko I s done: I have basked near S p a i n . Now t r y a nautch In the c o o l n i g h t or n o t h i n g . N o t h i n g . E u r i d i c e I s l o s t — the b i s t r o b l t c h . I f too i m i t a t i v e t o be of much f o r c e i n the s h o r t s t o r y development, i t does show a tendency t o experiment and an acceptance of contemporary s u b j e c t s . Another type o f s t o r y found i n F i r s t Statement <, as w e l l as i n P r e v l e w 9 was t h a t d e a l i n g w i t h the war and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . P. K. Page's "Fear: (F S t a t 1:6, undated, 4-6) shows a young s e c r e t a r y whose f e a r s of the war h e a d l i n e s are mixed up w i t h a q u e s t i o n i n g of her morals and of God. The g u i l t from the war becomes h e r s : And a l l these y e a r s you've been d o i n g n o t h i n g and you've l e t t h i s happen and the whole t h i n g i s your f a u l t and now I t ' s too l a t e and t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g you can do f o r they've come. A c e r t a i n h o p l e s s n e s s and a tendency t o madness shows the e f f e c t of these y e a r s on the s e c r e t a r y . P a t r i c k Waddington's "Our Way of L i f e " (F S t a t 2, Sept, i 1943, 9-11) concerns i t s e l f more w i t h the i s s u e s o f the war, by j u x t a p o s i n g two i n c i d e n t s . I n the f i r s t , two men i n a beer p a r l o u r d i s c u s s i n g the purpose of the war mention the i d e a t h a t i t i s t o keep the f o r e i g n e r l n h i s p l a c e . I n the second, a d r a m a t i z a t i o n of the i d e a i s p r e s e n t e d as a f o r e i g n e r who owns a r e s t a u r a n t p r a i s e s t h i s country f o r i t s freedom, t h e n i s h a r a s s e d by the m i l i t a r y p o l i c e , f o r no r e a l - 4 5 -reason. When one policeman says "And when I think that i t ' s f o r lousy foreigners l i k e you that we're f i g h t i n g t h i s war f o r — t h e owner r e t i r e s from the room. One of the most e f f e c t i v e of the stories concerned d i r e c t l y with the war i s Miriam Waddington's "Celebration" ( F J S t a t 1 1 , undated, 4-6). Here, a group having a party to celebrate a husband's receiving his commission i s interrupted by the a r r i v a l of a messenger reporting that.the husband i s dead. Suddenly, a l l the l i t t l e i ntrigues and t r i v i a l i t i e s which have been going on are ended, and the party fades away. This shock into seriousness i s true of the story i t s e l f during the war. Rarely was i t concerned with t r i f l i n g matters. A t h i r d group i n F i r s t Statement shows a development i n the use of character i n the short story. As might be expected i n a magazine devoted to l i t e r a t u r e as an end i n i t s e l f , several s t o r i e s have authors as characters. Robert G. Simpson's "Selection from ' C r u c i f i x i o n ' " (F Stat 1:2. undated, 6) deals with author i s o l a t i o n . John Sutherland's "Why George Smokes a Pipe" (F Stat 2, Dec, 1944 - January 1 9 4 5 , 2) shows the influence of childhood on an author and h i s l a t e r f i t s of i n s p i r a t i o n as he duriously smokes a pipe. Of these s t o r i e s , the most s t r i k i n g i s I r v i n g Layton's "The P h i l i s t i n e " (F Stat 2:6, A p r i l , 1 9 4 4 , 5^13) as the narrator reveals a story t o l d to him of her Lev Purkin, who was a frustrated a r t i s t , mocked by his f r i e n d s , and f i n a l l y l o s t to them, but l a t e r revealed to be b r i l l i a n t . Layton's s t o r i e s , indeed, seem to be the most promising l n F i r s t Statement. His f i r s t story, "A Parasite", (F Stat 1:14, undated,3),of an unemployed man who f e e l s himself a parasite -46-and becomes very s e n s i t i v e t o any remarks, drew harsh c r i t i c i s m from P a t r i c k Waddington (F S t a t 1, A p r i l , 1943, 5). Waddington c r i t i c i z e d the s t o r y f o r meanness o f thought, f a l s i t y , and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i n the f i r s t person. Layton's r a t h e r humourous r e p l y (F S t a t 1, A p r i l , 1943, 7) admits t o t e c h n i c a l f l a w s I n the s t o r y , but p o i n t s out the e r r o r s i n Waddington°s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t o r y as s e l f - r e v e l a t i o n . He i n t e n d e d the man merely as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . H i s o t h e r s t o r i e s show s e n s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and s i m i l a r middle c l a s s concerns. •Piety" (F S t a t 3, June - J u l y , 1945, 23) shows a young boy who, a f t e r l e a v i n g home t o f i n d a job, beoomes d i s a l l u s i o n e d w i t h h i s boss who, w h i l e always p r a y i n g i n the synagogue, i s s t e a l i n g e l e c t r i c i t y from i t . At the same time the boy's mother, i n a nother d i s p l a y of f a l s e p i e t y , Just b e f o r e going t o the synagogue beats him c r u e l l y f o r not b e i n g w i l l i n g t o accompany her. The boy has l e a r n e d not to accept the v a l u e s o f hex s o c i e t y . "The E n g l i s h Lesson" (F S t a t 2 , A p r i l -May, 1945, 3) d e a l s a l s o w i t h a Jewish f a m i l y , an o l d l a d y who comes t o a young p r o f e s s o r to take l e s s o n s i n E n g l i s h . The l a d y who i s l o n e l y , the young man who i s g u i l t i l y c o n t i n u i n g the l e s s o n though he knows the r e i s no hope, and the husband who r e s e n t s h i s w i f e ' s attempts to b e t t e r h e r s e l f are a l l shown c l e a r l y . C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n f l e s h and b l o o d i s one of the s t r o n g e s t f a c t o r s i n h i s s t o r i e s . Though the s t o r i e s are o f t e n wordy and too dependent on e x p o s i t i o n , they do r e f l e c t contemporary concerns, the Jewish q u e s t i o n , -47-and s i g n i f i c a n t f e e l i n g s . As w e l l , Layton was the exponent o f r e a l i t y as opposed to any k i n d of facade, of p l a i n s t a t e -ment and not m e t a p h y s i c a l involutions, and of the o r d i n a r y 6 man as opposed to the I n t e l l e c t u a l . One f i n a l s t o r y t h a t appeared i n F i r s t Statement, Anne M a r r i o t ' s "The Garden'J (F S t a t 2, Aug, 1943, 9) shows the p o e t i c i n f l u e n c e on the s t o r y : Jean walked suddenly f a s t e r , her shoes trodden, s l i p p e r y , s l i t h e r i n g sideways o f f the r a z o r - b a c k edges i n the t r a c k . The b r i g h t n e s s of the day, as d a z z l i n g as dry white bones, was f o r a moment as dark as a dust-storm. The e x c e l l e n c e of d e s c r i p t i o n such as t h i s which appears i n the s t o r y i s not e q u a l l e d by the theme, however, which i s once more the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the p r a i r i e environment. The melodramatic "The l a n d i s dead" and the resurgence of hope a t the end a f t e r the r a i n s t o r m i s a p a t t e r n t h a t c o u l d be overworked. Once a g a i n , then, i n t h i s magazine, are found themes of l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r s are o f t e n of the lower c l a s s but w i t h an I n c r e a s i n g emphasis on the c h a r a c t e r who i s a mature, i n t e l l e c t u a l s e n s i t i v e o b s e r v e r . Here, as w e l l as i n Preview, t h e r e i s a concern w i t h man i n h i s human environment, on h i s r e l a t i o n w i t h and r e s o n s i b i l i t y t o o t h e r s . I n form, the s t o r i e s are more e x p e r i m e n t a l , but the b e t t e r s t o r i e s r e v e a l * not so much a d i s t i n c t change as more s u b t l e t y , 6 . I r v i n g Layton, The Swinging F l e s h (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1961 )f pp. x - xv. - 4 8 -fewer s t o c k s i t u a t i o n s , and a new f r a n k n e s s i n language. D i r e c t i o n , a t h i r d l i t t l e Magazine p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , may be compared w i t h Preview and F i r s t Statement because the e d i t o r s were p r i m a r i l y p o e t s . They were, more-over, d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the war when the magazine was c o n c e i v e d . L i k e Preview and F i r s t Statement, D i r e c t i o n was meant t o c h a l l e n g e the o l d t r a d i t i o n i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , and c l a i m e d "to c a l l a spade a spade." The t i t l e , based on a q u o t a t i o n from Henry M i l l e r which s t a t e s t h a t e v e r y t h i n g has a d i r e c t i o n and must move forward, i n d i c a t e s a wartime concern w i t h the purpose of l i f e . I n the few s t o r i e s p u b l i s h e d , two g e n e r a l concerns are predominant! the change i n l i f e f o r the r e t u r n i n g s o l d i e r , and p r e j u d i c e . I n " I n t e r v a l " ( D i r e c t i o n 8, Nov, 1945, 8) Raymond So u s t e r t e l l s of a s o l d i e r home on l e a v e f o r a month i n T o r o n t o . The r e s t l e s n e s s he f e l t was no doubt p a r t of the Canadian a t t i t u d e a t t h a t times A l l he knew was t h a t somewhere he would f i n d the answer to e v e r y t i n g he was s e e k i n g ; the ques-t i o n s of h i s a r t ; l o v e i n the way he had always wanted i t to be and had never r e a l l y known i t , t h e r e were one o r two b r i e f moments t h a t was a l l ; how he c o u l d best l i v e l n harmony with h i m s e l f : t h e r e were o t h e r t h i n g s but these were the most important.. The s p i r i t of c o n f i d e n c e t h a t may be seen has a l s o been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Canadian., The theme of p r e j u d i c e i s a l s o to be expected a t a time when men were becoming more aware of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to one a n o t h e r . "Summer on a Farm" ( D i r e c t i o n 8 , J u l y , 1945, 1) i s of a Jewish man who works on a farm f o r the summer, under an - 4 9 -assumed name at the s u g g e s t i o n of h i s employer; i n the f a l l he i s e x p l o i t e d by h i s employer and unable to c o l l e c t h i s pay. In c o n t r a s t with the developments i n these l i t t l e maga-z i n e s i s the r a t h e r d i s a p p o i n t i n g output i n o t h e r p e r i o d i c a l s e Of the few s t o r i e s p u b l i s h e d i n Canadian Forum, most were on war themes, u s u a l l y q u i t e e x p l i c i t , Mary Weekes' "No Christmas i n the Neighbourhood", ( C Forum 2 1 , Dec, 1 9 4 1 , 2 8 0 ) , d e a l i n g w i t h h a t r e d In a community, can be e a s i l y r e l a t e d t o the world -wide h a t r e d which caused the war s i t u a t i o n . Her " T o u r i s t P u l s e " (C Forum 2 2 , May, 1 9 4 2 , 4 8 ) , c o n c e r n i n g a woman who t r a v e l s f i r s t c l a s s t o get the f e e l i n g of the war becomes a p a t r i o t i c p l e a f o r a Canada a f t e r the war made s a f e f o r and by these young s o l d i e r s . Another Canadian concern, t h a t of u n i t y , i s found i n "The J o l l y Song" ( C Forum 2 4 , June, 1 9 4 4 , 1 6 ) . A f u r t h e r war theme, t h a t of p r e j u d i c e can be seen i n "The Shadow F a l l s " (C Forum 2 1 , Jan, 1 9 4 1 , 2 8 0 ) by F l o r i s C l a r k McLaren, Here a German immigrant who t r i e s t o teach h i s c h i l d r e n t o be proud of t h e i r new c o u n t r y i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d by b e i n g f i r e d from h i s p o s i t i o n through p r e j u d i c e . Even i f these s t o r i e s i n Canadian Forum are r a r e l y e x p e r i m e n t a l i n form,they d i d concern p r e s e n t and s i g n i f i c a n t m a t t e r s . Queen's Q u a r t e r l y a l s o c o n t i n u e d to p u b l i s h q u a l i t y s t o r i e s but w i t h l i t t l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n I n form. There was more v a r i e t y of a t t i t u d e here than I n the l i t t l e magazines, though most r e t a i n pre-war v a l u e s . The s t o r i e s of S i n c l a i r Ross and F r e d e r i c k P h i l i p Grove c o n t i n u e to examine the a f f e c t s o f - 5 0 -p r a l r l e environment on c h a r a c t e r s . S t o r i e s by C. H. J . S n i d e r and E. A. MoCourt d e a l d e l i b e r a t e l y with the war, showing ma i n l y h e r o i c a c t i o n s o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the la n d s which were under invasion,, W i l l i a m McConnell, however, i n "Episode i n Greece" 50, Winter, 1943, 347) shows the f u t i l i t y and monotony of war as a group of s o l d i e r s g a i n one o b j e c t i v e o n l y t o be f a c e d w i t h another, A l a n S u l l i v a n , who u s u a l l y wrote of adventures i n the n o r t h , d e a l s w i t h the war, but not wit h the h e r o . I n "The A f f a i r o f the Name" (£g 51» Autumn, 1944, 265) a man, b e l i e v e d t o be a dead war hero, erases h i s name from a monument because he had a c t u a l l y been a coward and s u r v i v e d The tendency f o r S u l l i v a n t o w r i t e o f heroes i s s t r o n g enough however, t o have the s o l d i e r ' s name r e i n s t a t e d when he saves the townspeople I n a d i s a s t e r . One n o t a b l e development In Maclean's magazine was the p u b l i c a t i o n of f i c t i o n by W.O. M i t c h e l l . H i s s t o r i e s o f Jake and the k i d , r u r a l l y s e t and o b v i o u s l y moral I n i n t e n t , have a d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e and an a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r a i r i e l i f e . I n "Elbow Room" (ML 55 , Sept 15 , 1942, 18), a German escapee comes t o work on a p r a i r i e farm where he i s p r o t e c t e d by Jake and the k i d . Even here, the moral problems accompanying the war are o b v i o u s . T h i s war p e r i o d produced s e v e r a l e x c i t i n g and sometimes c o n t r a s t i n g developments i n the s h o r t s t o r y . I n g e n e r a l , the growing m a t u r i t y of the n a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the type of c h a r a c t e r s w i t h which the w r i t e r s d e a l t and the way i n which they c o n s i d e r e d them. They were o f t e n s t o r i e s of the common people, not as heroes of adventure, but as I n d i v i d u a l s worthy of d i g n i t y . There was a growing tendency t o prese n t c h a r a c t e r s -51-of g r e a t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y — w r i t e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l people, so t h a t the s t o r y became more weighted w i t h ideas» The s i t u a t i o n s i n which these people were i n v o l v e d were o f t e n concerned with the war. When not, they were simply every day s i t u a t i o n s , o f t e n I n v o l v i n g man's r e l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s * The s e t t i n g s were not so l i k e l y t o be Canadian, as w r i t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of Preview, were concerned w i t h denying an e a r l i e r brand of n a t i o n a l I sm<. I n form, the s t o r y had l o s t much of the emphasis on p l o t suspense. There was a tendency t o produce s t o r i e s which d i d not e x p l a i n e v e r y t i n g , but worked through s u g g e s t i o n . Too, the i n f l u e n c e o f the many poets who were w r i t i n g s t o r i e s a t the time i s to be seen i n the i n c r e a s i n g use of rhythmic language w i t h p o e t i c d e v i c e s . More f r a n k n e s s i n language was a l s o t o be seen. I n general, the war, w h i l e i n some ways l i m i t i n g the number of s t o r i e s t h a t were p u b l i s h e d , a t the same time p r o v i d e d Canadian authors w i t h s e r i o u s s u b j e c t s on which t o b a s e ' t h e i r s t o r i e s . They became much more c o n s c i o u s of the s t o r y as something o t h e r than a p l e a s a n t way o f p a s s i n g a few minutes f o r the r e a d e r . I n a d d i t i o n , the war had made Canadians much more c o n s c i o u s o f o t h e r p a r t s of the world; t h i s cosmopolitanism was r e f l e c t e d i n the s t o r y . I t remained t o be seen whether the r e t u r n of peace and p r o s p e r t y would a g a i n narrow the aut h o r ' s concerns. CHAPTER 3 19^6 - 1950 : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Story A f t e r the changes of the war y e a r s , Canada ent e r e d a p e r i o d o f slow readjustment, when she had t o search out a p l a c e i n a world dominated by two great powers, the U n i t e d S t a t e s and R u s s i a . E x t e r n a l a f f a i r s were important d u r i n g these y e a r s as Canada e s t a b l i s h e d her p o s i t i o n as a middle power i n the U n i t e d Nations and a fou n d i n g p a r t n e r i n NATO In 1949. Her p r o x i m i t y t o Rus s i a caused her to be concerned w i t h North American defense, w h i l e her p r o x i m i t y t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s l e d t o the n e c e s s i t y of p r e s e r v i n g her own i d e n t i t y i n world a f f a i r s . I n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s were not p a r t i c u l a r l y e v e n t f u l d u r i n g these y e a r s . The p r e s s u r e f o r a s o c i a l i s t government t e m p o r a r i l y grew l e s s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p r o s p e r i t y , but s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s were s t i l l s t r o n g i n the West. T h e i r programs n a t i o n a l l y were p a r t l y adopted by the L i b e r a l government, which p r o v i d e d programs such as f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e s . T h i s L i b e r a l government remained i n power through the p e r i o d , even a f t e r the r e t i r e m e n t o f MacKenzie K i n g i n 1948. The e l e c t i o n of L o u i s S t . Laurent as h i s s u c c e s s o r seemed t o i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f the French - 5 3 -Canadian.segment of the population. A further strengthening of the nation came i n 1949 with the addition of Newfoundland as a province. Meanwhile increased immigration, not only from B r i t a i n , but also from other parts of Europe, gave many parts of Canada a more cosmopolitan flavour. The increasing prosperity, the Importance of Canada i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , the growing r a c i a l mixture, and the inadequacy of old values a f t e r war i n an urban society l e d to a period of questioning f o r Canadians, an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the search for i d e n t i t y that had begun during the war years. In an attempt to describe the country Bruce Hutchison wrote: No one knows my country, neither the stranger nor i t s own sons. My country i s hidden i n the dark and teeming brain of youth upon the eve of i t s manhood. My country has not found i t s e l f nor learned i t s true place. It i s a l l v i s i o n s and doubts and hopes and dreams. It i s strength and weakness, despair and joy, and the wild confusions and r e s t l e s s s t r i v i n g s of a boy who has passed his boyhood but i s not yet a man. A problem f o r America they c a l l us. As well c a l l a young thoroughbred a problem because he i s not yet trained and f u l l y grown. A backward nation they c a l l us beside our great n e i g h b o r — t h i s though our eleven m i l l i o n s have produced more, earned more, b u i l t more than any other eleven m i l l i o n s i n the world. A colony they have thought us though we have r e b e l l e d and fought and bled f o r the right to our own government and f i n a l l y produced the B r i t i s h Commonwealth of equal nations. A timid race they have c a l l e d us because we have been slow to change, because we have not mastered a l l the achievements nor a l l the vices of our neighbors. They have not known Canada. Who but us can f e e l our fears and hopes and passions? How can a l i e n s or even blood brothers know our inner doubts, our secret strengths and weaknesses -54-\ a n d l o v e s a n d l u s t s a n d s h a m e s ? " H u t c h i s o n ' s w o r d s c a u t i o n t h e r e a d e r n o t t o e x p e c t e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , o r c u l t u r a l l y t h e s a m e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n C a n a d a a s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r t h e o l d e r c o u n t r i e s o f E u r o p e . T h e y s h o w t h e a w a r e n e s s , t o o , o f t h e n e e d f o r C a n a d a t o s t a n d a p a r t , t o e x p r e s s i t s o w n h e r i t a g e . T h i s w a s n o t s o m u c h a n a r r o w n a t i o n a l i s m a s a n e e d t o b e p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e g r o w i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e U. S. m e d i a . I n d e e d , a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n w a s s e t u p i n 1 9 4 9 t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e m e a n s o f p r o m o t i n g a t r u l y C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . B y 1 9 5 0 , t h e n , C a n a d a w a s a p p r o a c h i n g m a t u r i t y , c a u t i o u s l y a n d c o n s e r v a t i v e l y a s w a s h e r w a y . T h e c o u n t r y , m a i n l y u r b a n , s t i l l h a d t h e n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r a n d m any p r e d o m i n a n t l y r u r a l a r e a s t o k e e p a l i v e o l d e r t r a d i t i o n s a n d s t i m u l a t e g r o w t h . T h e s h o r t s t o r y o f t h e p e r i o d r e f l e c t s a n a t t e m p t t o b e m o r e c o s m o p o l i t a n , a l s o s h o w i n g t h e q u e s t f o r i d e n t i t y a n a a s e t o f v a l u e s . I t b e c o m e s , t o o , i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l . S i n c e t h e r e w a s n o l o n g e r s o m u c h t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e a c t u a l l a n d s c a p e , a n d s i n c e s o c i a l c o n c e r n s h a d b e e n e x p l o i t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s p e r i o d , a u t h o r s s e e m e d m o r e w i l l i n g t o t u r n t o c o n t e m p l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y o f l i f e ' s p u r p o s e o r t h e e f f e c t o r e v e n t s o n c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t . I t w a s a p e r i o d o f r e s p i t e b e f o r e a n e v e r -d a r k e n i n g w o r l d s i t u a t i o n w o u l d a g a i n f o r c e g l o o m a n d m o r e 1 . B r u c e H u t c h i s o n , T h e U n k n o x v n C o u n t r y , r e v . e d . ( T o r o n t o : L o n g m a n s , G r e e n a n d C o m p a n y , l94fc>), p . 3. - 5 5 -u n i v e r s a l concerns upon the x\ rriter. A lthough p u b l i c a t i o n was e a s i e r d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e r e were few except s p e c i a l i z e d s h o r t s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n s . Some volumes o f Leacock's work appeared, as w e l l as animal s t o r i e s by E r n e s t Thompson Seton ana C h a r l e s G. D. R o b e r t s . There were two c o l l e c t i o n s o f R. C. M. P. adventures, those o f Harwood S t e e l e and W i l l i a m E r o c k i e . The l a t t e r ' s T a l e s  of the Mounted (1949) i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o p i c a l f o r i t d e a l s w i t h the l a s t f r o n t i e r , the North, but i t s t i l l c o n t a i n s the s t a n d a r d p l o t s i t u a t i o n s , w i t h l a v i s h suspense and c o i n c i d e n c e . One o f the f o u r c o l l e c t i o n s by r e c o g n i z e d authors which appeared was t h a t of W i l l R. B i r d , who had p r e v i o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e d s t o r i e s to v a r i o u s p e r i o d i c a l s . These he c o l l e c t e d i n S u n r i s e f o r P e t e r and Other S t o r i e s (1946). They v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n q u a l i t y and t y p e . There i s the r a t h e r romantic "Out of the P a s t , " the s t o r y of John H i l d r e t h who escapes from army s t o c k s , b u i l d s up a farm, and e v e n t u a l l l y m a r r i e s a young g i r l whose f a m i l y comes to l i v e w i t h him. Q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i s "Ma's Enlargement" i n which the husband Rufus becomes a f r a i d , when he sees Ma's p i c t u r e which has won a photography c o m p e t i t i o n , t h a t she w i l l r e a l i z e her own s t r e n g t h and h i s w o r t h l e s s n e s s . T h i s s t o r y i s more modern i n i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a b r i e f p e r i o d of time, i t s examination of o r d i n a r y people, and i t s enigmatic ending. Although not h i s t o r i c a l romances l i k e many of h i s n o v e l s , these s t o r i e s a r e , i n d e e d , "out of the p a s t . " -56-P l a c e d s i d e by s i d e w i t h the s t o r i e s then b e i n g p u b l i s h e d i n the l i t t l e magazines, they p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t i n c h a r a c t e r s , s u b j e c t , themes and form. Most of B i r d ' s s t o r i e s a r e p l o t - c e n t e r e d , s t o r i e s o f adventure, d e a l i n g w i t h l o n g p e r i o d s of time, e v o l v i n g to a dramatic c l i m a x and c l e a r - c u t r e s o l u t i o n w i t h very o f t e n happy endings or r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s . They a r e Maritime i n q u a l i t y — t r a d i t i o n a l , m o r a l i s t i c , and concerned w i t h e x t e r n a l m a t t e r s . They have l i t t l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n language and are u s u a l l y t o l d from a t h i r d person p o i n t of view. The r u r a l areas of the M a r i t i m e s and Newfoundland, with much l o c a l c o l o u r , p r o v i d e the s e t t i n g s . The c h a r a c t e r s a r e , consequently, simple c o u n t r y f o l k , s t r o n g , s i l e n t , brave, and concerned w i t h outward t h i n g s . The c h a r a c t e r s i n "The Movies Come to G u l l P o i n t " (see Chapter 1, p.19) are good examples. The change o f v a l u e s which has s i n c e taken p l a c e may be seen i n "Beyond the Wire." Here, a l t h o u g h B i r d seems a t f i r s t to be a t t e m p t i n g to shox* the worth o f i n d i v i d u a l s on both s i d e s i n the war, by t e l l i n g of the German Otto K e t t n e r and h i s capture by Canadian s o l d i e r s , the Canadians a r e made so i n c r e d i b l y good, and K e t t n e r so n a i v e and impressed by h i s treatment, t h a t t h i s theme i s d i s s i p a t e d . A g a i n i n "Release f o r L i z ' b e t h , " an extremely s e n t i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n develops as the young g i r l r e b e l s a g a i n s t her p a r e n t s and supposedly f i n d s r e l e a s e and freedom i n marriage. -57-Yet she seems to be e n t e r i n g the same k i n d o f bondage as her mother. The h a p p i l y - e v e r - a f t e r p a t t e r n does not work w e l l h e r e . The work o f B i r d shows l e s s c l e v e r n e s s with atmosphere and p l a u s i b i l i t y than t h a t of R a d d a l l , who p u b l i s h e d h i s t h i r d c o l l e c t i o n , The Wedding G i f t and Other S t o r i e s (19^7), i n t h i s p e r i o d . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s h i s t o r i c a l romance, d e a l i n g w i t h the s e t t l e m e n t of O l d p o r t , Nova S c o t i a , i n the l a e i g h t e e n t h and e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . Although R a d d a l l uses h i s customary methods of m a i n t a i n i n g p l a u s i b i l i t y , and though he knows and d e s c r i b e s h i s c h a r a c t e r s w e l l , the themes seem so o l d - f a s h i o n e d and i r r e l e v a n t , the tone so r o m a n t i c , t h a t t h i s c o l l e c t i o n does not compare w e l l w i t h his. o t h e r s . One or two examples w i l l show the q u a l i t y . Of the adventure type i s "Pax B r i t a n n i c a , " i n which the n a r r a t o r , a n a t i v e o f O l d p o r t , t e l l s the s t o r y of S i l a s B r a d f o r d , who a f t e r the Seven Years War went back to Cape Cod to b r i n g s e t t l e r s to the southern coast of Nova S c o t i a . A f t e r a hard w i n t e r , the s e t t l e r s go out to f i s h , l e a v i n g S i l a s on guard. To prevent the Indians from a t t a c k i n g he f i n d s i t n e c e s s a r y to b l u f f them, but i n so d o i n g gains a new r e s p e c t f o r peace and f o r the I n d i a n s . The main p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r y i s the suspense which grows as B r a d f o r d t a l k s to the I n d i a n s . At the f a r end of the s c a l e from t h i s d r a m atic i n c i d e n t i s "The Wedding G i f t " i n which K e z i a • - 5 8 -Barnes, on her journey through twenty m i l e s of snow to marry Mr. Hathaway, f a l l s i n l o v e with the p a s t o r who i s accompanying h e r . She then f l i n g s away her f a m i l y ' s wedding g i f t , which symbolizes t r a d i t i o n and the c o n t r o l o t h e r s have over h e r . These s t o r i e s show the romantic e s c a p i s t tones of the work. Both B i r d and R a d d a l l are q u i t e f a r from the contemporary s i t u a t i o n i n these c o l l e c t i o n s . A f t e r the grimness of war, c e r t a i n r e a d e r s would f i n d t h i s type of work a c c e p t a b l e . A t h i r d volume, c o n t a i n i n g o n l y f o u r s t o r i e s not p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d i n c o l l e c t i o n s , was D. C. S c o t t ' s The  C i r c l e of A f f e c t i o n (1947). Undoubtedly w r i t t e n b e f o r e 1 9 4 5 , these s t o r i e s a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , an i n d i c a t i o n of the s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y o f S c o t t ' s work. D e a l i n g mainly w i t h f a m i l i e s , and the need f o r a f f e c t i o n , they vary i n tone. They are sometimes r a t h e r humorous as "The C i r c l e o f A f f e c t i o n , " sometimes s e r i o u s as " C l u t e Boulay," which t e l l s o f the s t r u g g l e between a man's two f a m i l i e s , one by h i s w i f e , a second by another woman. S c o t t i s c l e a r l y concerned wi t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . In "The C i r c l e o f A f f e c t i o n , " the daughter i s completely i n v o l v e d w i t h the f a t h e r , and a f t e r h i s death, r e p l a c e s him w i t h another man. S c o t t a l s o t r i e s to i n t e r p r e t the French Canadian; i t i s a r u r a l and s e n t i m e n t a l p i c t u r e we get of him, c e n t e r i n g around t r a d i t i o n and the f a m i l y . T h i s may be seen i n "Tete-Jaune" where the l a t t e r p a r t o f a man's l i f e c e n t e r s around t r y i n g to get h i s i l l e g i t i m a t e son to c a l l him f a t h e r . -59-Though the p l o t s are o f t e n melodramatic and romantic, S c o t t , from h i s e a r l i e s t s t o r i e s , t r i e d to g a i n a r t i s t i c e f f e c t s w i t h mood and language, as i n t h i s example from "The F l a s h l i g h t " : T i l l o f a sudden the b a t t e r y f a i l e d and the s a i n t was e x t i n g u i s h e d . But the room was not yet i n darkness, f o r the moon s t i l l shone, low i n the west; nor i n s i l e n c e , f o r there was s t i l l the l a p p i n g o f water at the r o o t s o f the w i l l o w s . O f t e n the i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r i e s i s i n t h e i r a r t i s t i c e f f e c t s r a t h e r than i n the p l o t . The o n l y c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g s t o r i e s i n a more modern manner was I r v i n g Layton's Now Is the P l a c e (1946). Here he i n c l u d e d two s t o r i e s which had been p u b l i s h e d p r e v i o u s l y i n N o r t h e r n Review, "A Death i n the F a m i l y " and " V a c a t i o n i n La V o i s e l l e . " I n " V a c a t i o n i n La V o i s e l l e , " the w r i t e r Hugo P f e f f e r comes to v i s i t a French-Canadian f a m i l y v a c a t i o n i n g i n the c o u n t r y . U n c e r t a i n of h i s p o s i t i o n , unable to f i t i n t o t h e i r ways and s m a l l t a l k , he i s f i n a l l y t e r r i f i e d by an i n c i d e n t i n which the daughter Pamela t r i e s t o i m p r i s o n a b u t t e r f l y she has named a f t e r him. R e l u c t a n t l y he l e a v e s , and h i s puzzlement over h i s l i f e i s s i g n i f i e d by the two s i g n s he f i n d s p o i n t i n g to Quebec, one w i t h the d i s t a n c e 20 m i l e s , one e i g h t e e n . " E v e r y t h i n g i s c r a z y , " he r e f l e c t s . T h i s s t o r y i n v o l v e s contemporary problems and i d e a s , and man's s e a r c h f o r a p a t t e r n i n l i f e . "A Death i n the F a m i l y " uses the Jewish background, as a boy comes to the r e a l i z a t i o n of the meaning of death. T h i s s t o r y shows Layton ' s d e s i r e not to a v o i d any p o r t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e - 6 0 -even the u g l y . He w r i t e s of the d y i n g f a t h e r : He looked about him dumbly and moved h i s l i p s and s t a r t e d to speak. Then he coughed a g a i n , a hard exasperated cough, and brought up some ye l l o w pulp covered w i t h s l i m e . He l e t h i s head hang down h e l p l e s s l y . The t e a r s r a n down h i s nose and h o r r i b l y gaunt cheeks and i n t o the h a i r s o f h i s beard. The s t o r y a l s o r e f l e c t s Layton's d i s l i k e o f P h i l i s t i n i s m as seen i n the son-in-law tVhose o n l y concerns are working and making money. These s t o r i e s have an i n d i v i d u a l i t y and depth of concern t h a t make them an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the Canadian s h o r t s t o r y . More s i g n i f i c a n t than the c o l l e c t i o n s d u r i n g the p e r i o d was the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the f i r s t comprehensive anthology of s h o r t s t o r i e s s i n c e Raymond K n i s t e r ' s 1928' volume. Desmond Pacey's A Book of Canadian S t o r i e s proved so popular t h a t a second e d i t i o n was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 5 0 . That such an anthology was r e q u i r e d speaks w e l l f o r the Canadian l i t e r a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Pacey's i n t r o d u c t i o n i s one of the few c r i t i c a l h i s t o r i e s o f the Canadian s h o r t s t o r y which e x i s t e d a t t h a t time. I n i t he d e t a i l s the most important work, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t to the s o c i a l background and the number of p e r i o d i c a l s then a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . 2 I f he i s wrong, as R i m a n e l l i and Ruberto suggest, to i n c l u d e I n d i a n t a l e s and s e v e r a l of the e a r l i e r d e r i v a t i v e works, i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s i n f o r m a t i v e to compare the o n l y s t o r i e s w r i t t e n i n t h i s e a r l i e r period, w i t h the l a t e r t r a d i t i o n . As he notes i n 2. R i m a n e l l i and Ruberto, Modern Canadian S t o r i e s , p. i x . - 6 1 -the i n t r o d u c t i o n , - ^ t h i s wide range o f the s t o r i e s shows the i n f l u e n c e of the s o c i a l background and a t r e n d from romance to r e a l i s m . K i s second e d i t i o n i n 1950 can, however, be f a u l t e d f o r not i n c l u d i n g more s t o r i e s from the war years to r e p l a c e the e a r l i e r ones. Whatever t h e i r f a u l t s , h i s a n t h o l o g i e s d i d show a concern w i t h Canadian work and must have proved encouraging to s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r s o f the time. A s c h o o l t e x t e d i t i o n of the same volume i n 1952 proved f u r t h e r t h a t Canadians were t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n the work b e i n g done i n t h e i r own c o u n t r y . A t h i r d anthology of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance i n a study of t h i s p e r i o d , not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1952, was Robert Weaver and Helen James* Canadian Short S t o r i e s . T h i s was a c o l l e c t i o n o f works f o r m e r l y r e a d over the CBC on "Canadian Short S t o r i e s " and o t h e r programs. S i n c e most of these s t o r i e s were b r o a d c a s t between 19^6 and 1951> they w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I t may be noted here t h a t the r a d i o program though g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t i n g q u a l i t y s t o r i e s , n e v e r t h e -l e s s c a t e r e d to a g e n e r a l audience, emphasizing common s i t u a t i o n s and s e n t i m e n t s . I t was f u r t h e r hampered by the f a c t t h a t more s u b t l e touches c o u l d be missed by a l i s t e n e r i n the o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c development i n the anthology o f the p e r i o d was the concern with Canadian i n t e g r i t y and i d e n t i t y t o be seen i n John D. Robins' A P o c k e t f u l of Canada. I t i n c l u d e d p o e t r y , prose, and a r t i c l e s , w i t h the d e s i r e of 3. Desmond Pacey, A Book of Canadian S t o r i e s (Toronto, Ryerson, 19^7), pp. x i - x x x v i i . -62-showing t h a t Canada had produced w r i t i n g of m e r i t . A glance a t the t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s shows t h a t the better-known shor t s t o r y w r i t e r s such as R a d d a l l , C a l l a g h a n , Ross, and I n n l s a r e i n c l u d e d , i f not the more rec e n t and experimental ones. I t i s a comment, t o o , on the poverty of s h o r t s t o r y w r i t i n g t h a t to make up the l a c k i n c e r t a i n a r e a s , p o r t i o n s from n o v e l s a r e used. Apart from these a n t h o l o g i e s , o n l y the u s u a l groups of legends and yarns were p u b l i s h e d . The p e r i o d i c a l o u t l e t s f o r experimental w r i t i n g c o n t i n u e d i n t h i s p e r i o d o f r e t u r n i n g p r o s p e r i t y . The i n c r e a s i n g d e s i r e f o r t h i n g s Canadian a l s o made i t r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r l i t t l e magazines to make a b e g i n n i n g . F i r s t Statement and Ereview combined as Northern Review i n l a t e 1945 under the e d i t o r s h i p o f John S u t h e r l a n d . The emphasis was on po e t r y , but s h o r t s t o r i e s by Canadian authors appeared i n almost every i s s u e and p r i z e s were o f t e n awarded f o r them. Up to i t s c e s s a t i o n e a r l y i n 1$56, Northern Review was one o f the most i n f l u e n t i a l of Canadian l i t t l e magazines. The e d i t o r s t r i e d , a c c o r d i n g t o the statement i n the f i r s t i s s u e (N Rev 1, Dec-Jan, 1945-6, 2 ) , "to p r o v i d e a p l a c e where the young w r i t e r who has something t r u e and unpleasant to say can say i t without f u s s o r f r i l l . " There was, t o o , as i n Preview, to be a s t r e s s on cosmopolitan c u l t u r e . Another r a t h e r ambitious l i t t l e magazine, Reading, with L i s t e r S i n c l a i r as one o f i t s e d i t o r s , began i n 1946, p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l s h o r t s t o r i e s , but f a i l e d a f t e r t h r e e numbers. I t was f o l l o w e d i n 194? by Here and Now which produced f o u r i s s u e s b e f o r e suspension i n 1949. Canadian L i f e a l s o began a s h o r t p e r i o d o f p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1949. Apart from these avenues o f p u b l i c a t i o n i n Canada, the w r i t e r c o u l d s t i l l submit to Canadian Forum, which, o f t e n a f t e r the war, a g a i n began to p u b l i s h more and l o n g e r s t o r i e s . Saturday Ni g h t , too, which f o r a time p u b l i s h e d mainly s t o r i e s by Mary Quayle I n n l s , was a c c e p t i n g other a u t h o r s . Queen's  Q u a r t e r l y , however, p u b l i s h e d fewer s t o r i e s i n t h i s p e r i o d . The w r i t e r had s t i l l o f t e n to t u r n e i t h e r to the U n i t e d S t a t e s or to commercial p e r i o d i c a l s i n Canada. S i n c e t h e r e are not such d i v e r s e magazines i n t h i s p e r i o d as Preview and F i r s t Statement and s i n c e the l e a d i n g s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r s c o n t r i b u t e d to s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t magazines, i t i s more convenient here to d i s c u s s o v e r a l l trends i n c h a r a c t e r s , s u b j e c t s , themes and form. The r e a l i s m which had been s t i m u l a t e d by the d e p r e s s i o n and the war c o n t i n u e d i n the post-war p e r i o d . There a r e a few p e r i o d i c a l s t o r i e s d e a l i n g w i t h romantic far-away p l a c e s (the c o l l e c t i o n s o f B i r d and R a d d a l l a l s o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s ) , w i t h s t o c k p l o t s , or with black-and-white heroes and v i l l a i n s , f o r t h i s t r a d i t i o n never completely v a n i s h e s . These a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the popular magazines. In "Slaphappy A n g e l " (Maclean's 59, Oct 15, 1946, 20) Edwin Rutt e x p l o i t s a t y p i c a l romantic s i t u a t i o n . H i l d e g a r d e , the "slaphappy a n g e l " f a l l s i n l o v e with A l e c f o r whom she i s t r y i n g to arrange a l o v e a f f a i r with someone e l s e , - 6 4 -and the f e e l i n g i s r e c i p r o c a t e d . Such l i n e s as "Her eyes were two s t r a y e d s t a r s " are t y p i c a l o f the language i n these e f f o r t s . For the most p a r t , more c r i t i c a l r eaders were u n w i l l i n g to accept s t o r i e s t h a t d i d not d e a l w i t h r e a l people i n r e a l p l a c e s , or at l e a s t w i t h emotions v a r y i n g from the stock s e n t i m e n t a l ones. There was n a t u r a l l y a d e c l i n e i n war s i t u a t i o n s as s u b j e c t matter, though the a f t e r m a t h of war s t i l l appears i n s e v e r a l . E v a - L i s wuorio, i n " U n t i l the Day Break" (Macleans • 60. Aug 1, 1947, 10) d e a l s with a group of people l e a v i n g Quebec f o r t h e i r v a r i o u s homelands i n Europe a f t e r the vrar. D e s p i t e a l a c k of s p o n t a n i e t y and a too mechanical h a n d l i n g of the s i t u a t i o n , she does c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e the v a r y i n g a t t i t u d e s of these people, as w e l l as the c o n t r a s t between the new world o f a f f l u e n c e and o p p o r t u n i t y and the o l d world of d i f f i c u l t y but more s o l i d v a l u e s to which they are r e t u r n i n g . On a l i g h t e r plane are the s e l e c t i o n s from E a r l e B i r n e y ' s Turvey, a war n o v e l , which appeared i n p e r i o d i c a l s a t t h i s time. Not r e a l l y p r o p e r l y c l a s s e d as s h o r t s t o r i e s , they do show a l i g h t s a t i r e r a t h e r I n f r e q u e n t Canadian w r i t i n g . In "The Strange Smile o f Thomas Turvey" (Here and Now 2, June, 1949, 3$), B i r n e y r i d i c u l e s the r e g i m e n t a t i o n ana beauracracy of the army, i t s m e d i c a l s t a f f and p s y c h o l o g i s t s . Yet another s i d e of war e x p e r i e n c e i s shown i n J.N. H a r r i s * "The Two Joes" (Reading 1, May, 1946, 40), mainly c h a r a c t e r sketches of two POW's who are not e n t e r p r i s i n g enough to convert d i s c o m f o r t -65-to comfort, and might be c l a s s e d as "the undeserving poor". Some o f the b i t t e r n e s s has passed from these war s t o r i e s . S i m i l a r l y , w i t h the r e t u r n i n g p r o s p e r i t y a f t e r the war, t h e r e was l e s s s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m to be found. There were s t i l l , o f c o u r s e , such s u b j e c t s as p r e j u d i c e which p r o v i d e d s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n s f o r s t o r i e s . E t h e l W i l s o n , i n "Dovm a t E n g l i s h Bay" (Here and Now 1, March, 194b, 7 ) , one o f the episodes from her n o v e l The Innocent T r a v e l l e r , shows Aunt Topaz i n an unusual b u r s t of eloquence d e f e n d i n g Joe F o r t e s and Mrs. H a m i l t o n C o f f i n a g a i n s t the s u s p i c i o u s g o s s i p i n g minds of the Minerva C l u b . I n W i l l i a m Brown's "Saturday Morning" (Canadian Forum 2 7 . May, 19^7, 38) Sammy G o l d s t e i n , who has j u s t managed to get h i s playmates' agreement to j o i n him i n h i s f a t h e r ' s workshop f o r the a f t e r n o o n , has h i s hopes dashed when they hear a neighborhood boor s h o u t i n g "Goddamn Jew" a t a salesman. Another, "Major A l b e r t , Surgeon" (Canadian Forum. 27, Oct, 19^7, 159) w i t h a s i t u a t i o n a l i t t l e too c o n t r i v e d , i n v o l v e s a young German i n a Canadian Army H o s p i t a l g e t t i n g a t t e n t i o n from a d o c t o r who • proves to be a Jew. Yet these s t o r i e s of the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n are not n e a r l y so f r e q u e n t as l n the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d . The poor, the lower c l a s s e s , and the v i c t i m s of s o c i e t y have been r e p l a c e d i n the s t o r y by other types o f c h a r a c t e r s . Even the.French-Canadian i s e x p l o i t e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than e a r l i e r . As Desmond Pacey p o i n t s out i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n 4 the w r i t e r s 4. Pacey, A Book o f Canadian S t o r i e s , p. x x x v i . - 6 6 -d i d not want to appear p a r o c h i a l . W h i l e i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e s e r v i n g a Canadian i d e n t i t y , they sought to a c h i e v e t h i s e f f e c t by means oth e r than l o c a l c o l o u r problems narrowly Canadian. In so d o i n g , they missed one of the few dramatic s i t u a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r w r i t e r s i n Canada. In t h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y mature Canada which had no l o n g e r such s e r i o u s p r a c t i c a l problems, s t o r i e s very o f t e n c e n t e r e d around c h i l d r e n . Of the twenty-four s t o r i e s i n Weaver and James' anthology, t h i r t e e n d e a l mainly w i t h c h i l d r e n or young peo p l e . A s u b s t a n t i a l number i n Northern Review, Canadian Forum, and Here and Now a l s o have c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s , n a r r a t o r s , or both. Pacey^ saw i t as an u n w i l l i n g n e s s to f a c e c r u c i a l problems by r e t r e a t i n g to the uncomplicated world of c h i l d h o o d . Samuel Roddan, too, saw an u n w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of w r i t e r s to become i n v o l v e d i n the vrorld. In an a r t i c l e on post-war f i c t i o n he w r i t e s : I s t i l l f e e l , however, t h a t the i s o l a t i o n of many o f our w r i t e r s from the t r a f f i c and f r i c t i o n o f the world i s as p e r i l o u s as i t was b e f o r e the war; t h a t a c o r k l i n e d study s t i l l l e a d s , not to g r e a t a r t , but to p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s e l f - c o n f e s s i o n . ("Letter to a Young W r i t e r Now Dead", Canadian Forum 2b\ March, 1 9 ^ 9 , 2 7 9 ) 6 In another a r t i c l e - he a l s o f a u l t e d the Canadian p u b l i c f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s s i t u a t i o n by b e i n g u n w i l l i n g to accept works of i n t e g r i t y and i m a g i n a t i o n . 5 . Pacey, A Book of Canadian S t o r i e s , 1 9 ^ 7 , p. x x x v i . 6 . Samuel Roddan, " W r i t i n g i n Canada," Canadian Forum 2 6 , (Sept, 1 9 ^ 6 ) , 1 3 7 . -6 7-N e v e r t h e l e s s , the emphasis on the c h i l d may be a n a t u r a l h e a l t h y r e s u l t o f a post-war atmosphere. The t u r n i n g to the young and the b u i l d i n g o f a b e t t e r world i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a r e t r e a t . I t i s probably, t o o , the r e s u l t o f an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n psychology and p s y c h o a n a l y s i s ; the e f f e c t of important events o c c u r r i n g i n c h i l d h o o d was to be observed i n l a t e r l i f e . A l s o e a s i l y observed i n c h i l d r e n are p r e j u d i c e and changing s e t s o f v a l u e s . Thus, though the p o r t r a y a l o f the c h i l d c o u l d , and o f t e n d i d i n commercial f i c t i o n , l e a d to an e x p l o i t a t i o n o f s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , i t was not n e c e s s a r i l y an escape from r e a l i t y . These d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s of the c h i l d i n the s h o r t s t o r y may be i l l u s t r a t e d from the p e r i o d i c a l s and from Weaver and James 8 anthology. One s t o r y which c o n t a i n s e x p l o r a t i o n o f s e n t i m e n t a l i t y and m o r a l i z a t i o n i s E.G. P e r r a u l t 9 s " S i l v e r King"(Weaver and James, p. 1 6 5 ) , d e a l i n g w i t h a young boy who t r i e s to p r o t e c t a b e a u t i f u l salmon from the I n d i a n s by d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r f i s h i n g equipment. I t shows the n e c e s s i t y o f n a t u r e ' s t a k i n g i t s c o u r s e . B e r y l Grey's "That Boy o f Ed's" (Macleans's 6 0 , Jan, 1 , 1 9 4 7 , 1 6 ) s t a r t s to d e a l r e a l i s t i c a l l y w i t h a troublesome adopted boy but becomes r a t h e r s e n t i m e n t a l as the boy l e a r n s to do the proper t h i n g , c o n f e s s e s h i s s i n s , and puts h i m s e l f r i g h t w i t h the f a m i l y . Most o f the s t o r i e s d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n are more s u b t l e than t h e s e . S e v e r a l i n v o l v e the growth from innocence. -68-S i n c l a i r Ross* "The Outlaw" (Queen's Quarterly 57, Summer, 1950, 198) describes a boy's experience i n t r y i n g to ride an outlaw horse. Afte r r i d i n g the horse which h i s parents have forbidden to him, he r e a l i z e s that they had expected him to be brave enough to do so. A l v i n Goldman's "Almost Like Dead" (Weaver and James, p. 216) i s of a boy who learns that the s i n he commits against his f r i e n d Morris' God i s not punished, and, rather than going to the synagogue, he returns to l i s t e n to h i s radio. William S. Annett's "The R e l i c " (Weaver and James, p. 7 6 ) , shows a boy's f i r s t experience of e v i l as he learns h i s employer i s s e l l i n g worthless Indian r e l i c s , but he also recognizes a greater e v i l i n the Texan who reports him to the p o l i c e . Closely r e l a t e d to these themes are those i n which an older set of values i s questioned. In "The Lies My Father Told Me" (Weaver and James, p. 41), Ted A l l e n shows a boy torn between the values of his grandfather, whom he loves, and the more modern ways of his parents. Even more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s period are s t o r i e s r e l a t i n g childhood experience to l a t e r l i f e or exploring serious psychological problems. James Reaney i n "The Young Necrophiles" (Canadian Forum 28, Sept., 1948, 136) presents young c h i l d r e n who have a toy cemetery where animate and inanimate objects are treated much the same. Young Jimmy, who buries Mrs. Exton's pup a l i v e , i s l a t e r to become an undertaker. Ralph Gustafson's "The Pigeon" (Northern Review 3, Oct-Nov, 1949, 4) shows a cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p - 6 9 -between a c h i l d ' s f e a r and her f a t h e r ' s anger. The l o n e l y l i t t l e g i r l , l e f t a t home one n i g h t by h e r s e l f , d i s c o v e r s a p igeon i n the a t t i c , which she determined to keep. A f t e r a nightmare i n which she dreams her f a t h e r k i l l s i t , she a c c i d e n t a l l y causes the pigeon to d i e and i s f i l l e d w i t h h a t r e d f o r her f a t h e r . Gustafson presents t h i s b r i e f s i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n t d r a m a t i c a l l y from the p o i n t of view of the c h i l d . One s t o r y which shows the s u i t a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n as s u b j e c t s i n p o r t r a y i n g elemental f e a r s i s Bernard A. Ide's "The S p i d e r " (Northern Review 2 , Oct-Nov, 19^7, 2 5 ) . A t i m i d boy, w i t h an abnormal f e a r of s p i d e r s , i s t o l d by a f a t h e r i n s e n s i t i v e to these f e a r s to gather wood. In d o i n g so, the boy has h i s arm trapped i n the woodpile, and, a l l o t h e r means f a i l i n g , chops i t o f f as the s p i d e r advances. I t i s t y p i c a l o f the modern s t o r y t h a t no comment i s made at the end, t h a t the l a s t sentence merely d e s c r i b e s the boy's f e e l i n g as he grabs the h a t c h e t . S t o r i e s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n are a l s o used f r e q u e n t l y i n t h i s p e r i o d to show p r e j u d i c e , w h i c h i s l e s s p o l i t e l y masked a t t h a t age. E r n e s t o Cuevas' "Lock the Doors, Lock the Windows" (Weaver and James, p. 191) i s an example, though i t d e a l s as much with the f a t h e r , who :sees h i s son's s t e a l i n g money as the f i n a l f a c t o r i n the i l l - l u c k t h a t has dogged him, as i t does with the son who a l s o f e e l s h i s d i f f e r e n c e from o t h e r s . C h r i s t i n e Van der Mark's " C a t c h - C o l t " (Here and Now 1 May,19^8,26) shows promise i n i t s r e a l i s t i c , i f a t times sentimenta -70-p o r t r a y a l of a h a l f - b r e e d boy whose u n c l e wants him to g o t o s c h o o l , where he i s a t f i r s t t a u nted, even by the n a t i v e boys, but l a t e r wins acceptance. What i s obvious i n many of these s t o r i e s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n i s t h a t t h e i r a u t hors a r e d e a l i n g , not w i t h i s o l a t e d , but with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i n c i d e n t s . The w r i t e r i s a c c e p t i n g a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h s e r i o u s m a t e r i a l . The i n c i d e n t s mark the separate stages i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e , showing the i n f l u e n c e of dramatic i n c i d e n t s on l a t e r l i f e , or the importance of p a r e n t s ' treatment of c h i l d r e n . They r e f l e c t the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n psychology and p s y c h o a n a l y s i s . E v i d e n t , t o o , i n these s t o r i e s i s o f t e n a r e f r e s h i n g sense o f humour a f t e r the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the war y e a r s . Even the s a c r e d i s o f t e n t r e a t e d l i g h t l y . D.O. S p e t t i g u e ' s " A s t e r s f o r Teddy" (Weaver and James, p. 8b), from i t s p o i n t o f view o f the h i r e d boy watching the crude p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r h i s employers' son's f u n e r a l , i s g r i m l y comic. Indeed, i t i s not merely i n the s t o r i e s of c h i l d r e n t h a t a c e r t a i n amount o f humour emerges In the s h o r t s t o r y a g a i n . James Beaney, though h i s humour i s mocking and o f t e n grim, i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t h i s v e i n . I n "The B u l l y " (Weaver and James, p. 204), the s t o r y of a shy young boy who s u f f e r s s e r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s because of a b u l l y i n g o l d e r s i s t e r , he presents t h i s b a s i c a l l y s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n i n a mocking way. "The Dress" (Canadian L i f e 1, S p r i n g , 1950, 9) i s the l i g h t e s t of t h e s e , the s t o r y of a dressmaker whose - 7 1 -c r e a t i o n i s worn backwards by Mrs. F l e t c h e r - G r o u s e to the b a l l , n e c e s s i t a t i n g two l a r g e p i n s and a h a n d k e r c h i e f f o r decency. I t comments both on the c r e a t i v e p r i d e of the a r t i s t and on f a l s e modesty. Apart from Reaney, B i r n e y , and E t h e l W i l s o n , the work of the p e r i o d i s s t i l l q u i t e s e r i o u s . S t o r i e s o t h e r than those of c h i l d r e n o f t e n d e a l w i t h s i t u a t i o n s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l . The w r i t e r o r a r t i s t i s s t i l l a f a v o u r i t e c h a r a c t e r . W i l l i a m McConnell's "The Totem" (Weaver and James, p. 137) i n v q l v e s the e f f e c t of r e l i g i o n on a r t , as a woman who comes to p a i n t totems i n a s m a l l I n d i a n community has her p a i n t i n g r i p p e d a p a r t a f t e r the m i s s i o n man d e s c r i b e s these totems as e v i l i d o l s . The w r i t e r i n A l a n P h i l i p s ' "The Presence i n the Grove" (Weaver and James, p. 27) e x p l o r e s the d i f f e r e n c e between i l l u s i o n and r e a l i t y a f t e r he has h i s f i n g e r cut o f f . A f t e r t h i s l o s s , he r e a l i z e s the mystery of l i f e and w i l l never a g a i n be a f r a i d o f death. Frank Venables' "The Green, Green A r t i s t " (Reading 1 , Feb, 1946, 58) dramatizes the problem of a r t i s t i c i n t e g r i t y as one a r t i s t i s j e a l o u s of another's f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s . P a t r i c k Anderson's "The Nest of Luck" (Northern Review 1 , Dec-Jan, 1946-7, 25) by a stream-of-c o n s c i o u s n e s s method, seeks to show the a r t i s t a f t e r the war, a r t i s t as e x i l e d y e t d e s i r i n g involvement, and i s one o f the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t o r i e s of the p e r i o d . -72-Desmond Pacey's "No Young Man" (Canadian Forum 2b, May, 1948, 38) i s an i n t r o s p e c t i v e s t o r y of a young p r o f e s s o r who l n the midst of exam pressure f i n d s h i m s e l f i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h the hero i n a s e c o n d - c l a s s movie on death. Then he remembers a q u o t a t i o n from K a z l i t t "No young man b e l i e v e s he s h a l l ever d i e " . Such a s t o r y shows the change from e a r l i e r themes. The s t r u g g l e of man a g a i n s t nature i n the pre-war p e r i o d where man was o f t e n a hero who by endurance might or might not win out, and the o f t e n s o c i a l i s t s t o r i e s of the war p e r i o d i n v o l v i n g d e s t i t u t e c h a r a c t e r s who need a s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n to win has been r e p l a c e d by a more s u b j e c t i v e c o n c e r n . Now the c h a r a c t e r s are o f t e n c h i l d r e n , and the l a n d s cape i s f r e q u e n t l y of the mind. No doubt t h e r e i s some t r u t h i n the a c c u s a t i o n t h a t these concerns a r e an escape. Ralph Gustafson i n "Verandah T a l k " r e m i n i s c i n g over p l e a s a n t c h i l d h o o d memories, w r i t e s : For my p a r t I t h i n k mlneLhis memories} as p l e a s a n t as a man can have - as p l e a s a n t almost as r e a d i n g something without p o l i t i c s i n i t . (Reading 1, May, 1946, 40). T h i s d e s i r e to escape from the problems which were so obvious d u r i n g the war and from the complexity of urban s o c i e t y i s most c l e a r l y shown i n P a t r i c k Waddington's "The S t r e e t That Got M i s l a i d " (weaver and James, p. 185). Here Marc G i r o n d i n , happy wit h h i s job but d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e , r e t i r e s to a Montreal s t r e e t t h a t has been l o s t from the r e c o r d s , a s t r e e t where no taxes are p a i d , where there i s no t r a f f i c , j u s t a s m a l l community of compatible p e o p l e . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e are some s t o r i e s d e a l i n g w i t h - 7 3 -c u r r e n t s o c i a l problems. Joyce M a r s h a l l ' s "The Old Woman" (Weaver and James, p. 4b) i s a f r i g h t e n i n g p i c t u r e of a war b r i d e who f i n d s her husband becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y devoted to h i s power p l a n t , u n t i l he f i n a l l y goes out o f h i s mind. H.W. H o l y ' s "The Yellow M i l l " (Northern Review 1 , Feb-March, 1 9 4 7 , 14) a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e s both p r e j u d i c e and the l a b o u r s i t u a t i o n as Chinese workers are brought i n t o a town i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Yet most s t o r i e s now d e a l w i t h the problems of the mind, w i t h the e f f e c t s of e x p e r i e n c e , w i t h more u n i v e r s a l and a b s t r a c t Ideas, w i t h c h a r a c t e r and the way i t i s formed. There i s a s p e c i a l emphasis on sex and more frankness about i t . Ralph Gustafson's "The T h i c k e t " (Here and Now 1 , Jan, 1 9 5 9 , 4b) i s one. The s t o r y of a b r o t h e r and s i s t e r who l i v e t o g e t h e r but are of d i f f e r e n t temperaments, i t shows s y m b o l i c a l l y through the t h i c k e t , the woman's f r u s t r a t e d p a s s i o n . Mavis G a l l a n t ' s "Flower o f S p r i n g " (Northern Review 3 , J u n e - J u l y , 1950» 31) shows another f a c e t as a young woman whose husband i s a p a r a l y z e d w a r ' v i c t i m l i v e s w i t h another man, y e t cannot f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n her s i t u a t i o n . D u r i n g these y e a r s , changes were s l o w l y t a k i n g p l a c e i n the form of the s t o r y as w e l l as i n i t s other f a c e t s . There was l e s s e x p l i c i t n e s s , more use of symbols to convey s u b t l e shadings, more s u g g e s t i v e n e s s , a l l o w i n g the r e a d e r to make the same i m a g i n a t i v e l e a p s as the w r i t e r . In "Afternoon Morn" (Here and Now 1 , May, 19^8, 3 8 ) , f o r example, James Reaney p l a c e s s i d e by s i d e v a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s from c h i l d h o o d without - 7 4 -e x p l a i n e d c o n n e c t i o n s . Too, the r e i s o f t e n a t u r n i n g a s i d e from the steady p l o t development to a mere ske t c h of a mood. P.K. Page i n "Weekend-West Coast" (Northern Review 1 , Oct-Mov, 1 9 4 6 , 28), d e s c r i b e s her impressions on a v i s i t to Vancouver I s l a n d where the deadness and c o n s e r v a t i v i s m f o r c e her to l e a v e . A few a l s o experiment w i t h a stream-of-c o n s c i o u s n e s s method. Mary Weekes 5 i n " T r a i l Ride" (Canadian  Forum 28, A p r i l , 1 9 4 8 , 12) presents the r a p i d p a t t e r o f the t r a i n p o r t e r i n t h i s manner, and E.A. McCourt i n "The Locked Door" (Morthern Review 3 , Aug-Sept, 1 9 5 0 , 2 ) uses i t e f f e c t i v e l y as a woman r e v e a l s her past to a p s y c h i a t r i s t . The language, too, was changing. Though s i m p l i c i t y s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d most of the s t o r i e s , some w r i t e r s sought to g a i n new e f f e c t s by a v a r y i n g use of words. I t i s n a t u r a l t h a t , i n a p e r i o d where s t o r i e s were o f t e n w r i t t e n by authors predominantly p o e t s , symbols, rhythmic language, i r o n y , and ambiguity would be t r a n s f e r r e d . Dorothy L i v e s a y * s "The Glass House" (Northern Review 3 , J u n e - J u l y , 1950> D d e s c r i b e s a garden: On the p e t a l s o f pink r o s e s below, t i n y p i n p r i c k s o f dew r e s t e d . And a l l down the s l o p e s of the garden, and lower s t i l l , among the o r c h a r d s , dew gleamed and s p a r k l e d l i k e t i n y m i r r o r s . Every l e a f h e l d a r e f l e c t i o n . 'Experimentation w i t h language d i d not o r i g i n a t e i n t h i s p e r i o d — w r i t e r s i n the pr e v i o u s p e r i o d had o f t e n sought such e f f e c t s . Yet t h e r e i s more o f t e n t h i s d e l i c a c y o f d e s c r i p t i o n , l e s s o f the harshness e v i d e n t i n the war y e a r s . -75-Th i s p e r i o d , then, was one o f a c t i v i t y i n the s h o r t s t o r y . The commerical magazines were p u b l i s h i n g s t o r i e s more f r e q u e n t l y and l i t t l e magazines were q u i t e p l e n t i f u l . S e v e r a l w r i t e r s p u b l i s h e d a number of s t o r i e s . P.K. Page was p u b l i s h i n g s t o r i e s of the common man i n h i s r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s ; E.A. McCourt p u b l i s h e d s t o r i e s with some e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n form; James Reaney r e l i e d h e a v i l y upon i r o n y and the unusual f o r h i s e f f e c t s . G e n e r a l l y these w r i t e r s c o n c e n t r a t e d l e s s on the p r a c t i c a l problems of l i v i n g than on emotions, and p a r t i c u l a r l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . The young co u n t r y s e e k i n g m a t u r i t y was f r e e to e x p l o r e such problems. Chapter 4 1951-1955 : The Story of Ideas The mid-century and the nextf decade saw Canada c o n t i n u i n g i n economic p r o s p e r i t y . Her world t r a d e was e x t e n s i v e , f o r some o f her s t r o n g e s t c o m p e t i t o r s , such as Japan and Germany, were no l o n g e r so a c t i v e . At home, t o o , i n d u s t r i e s expanded, as people i n v e s t e d t h e i r xfar s a v i n g s . A most important new f e a t u r e of the 50' s was the development o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n s e v e r a l areas o f Canada. Thus the change from the dominance of f a r m i n g products i n exports was almost complete: While i n the years 1926 to 1929 farm products had formed more than h a l f o f Canadian e x p o r t s , by the p e r i o d 1951 to 1954 f o r e s t and m i n e r a l products had come to h o l d f i r s t and second p l a c e r e s p e c t i v e l y ; Yet her farm p r o d u c t s had a l s o found expanded markets, and the west gained more p r o s p e r i t y both through wheat s a l e s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Another f a c t o r i n the i n c r e a s i n g wealth was a r i s e i n p o p u l a t i o n through immigration and a post-war b i r t h r a t e i n c r e a s e . Communications w i t h i n Canada a l s o p r o f i t e d from the boom p e r i o d , w i t h the Pipe L i n e , n a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n t r a n s m i s s i o n i n 1952, the S t . Lawrence Seaway, and the b e g i n n i n g of the Trans-Canada highway. Improved communications, of course, meant even l e s s s t r o n g r e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n s . - 1. J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , Canada : A S t o r y of Challenge (Toronto : Macmillan, 1963), p. 40?. "~ -77-P o l i t i c s r emained s t e a d y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d , w i t h L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t and h i s e x p e r i e n c e d m i n i s t e r s s t i l l i n power a f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1953. T h i s government c o n t i n u e d a program o f s o c i a l r e f o r m , i n c l u d i n g t h e O l d Age S e c u r i t y A c t o f 1951. The r i v a l s o f t h e p a r t y were few, though the C.C.F. were i n power i n Saskatchewan. C o n s e r v a t i v i s m was e v i d e n t i n t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t government i n power i n A l b e r t a and i n B r i t i s h C olumbia's S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y w h i c h t o o k o f f i c e under W.A.C. B e n n e t t i n 1952. There was c l e a r l y n o t much d e s i r e f o r l e f t - w i n g p o l i t i c s i n t h e s e y e a r s . N e i t h e r d i d Quebec under D u p l e s s i s p r o v i d e much t r o u b l e f o r t h e f e d e r a l government. A f u r t h e r s i g n o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y was t o be seen i n t h e appointment o f t h e f i r s t C a n a d i a n - b o r n Governor G e n e r a l , V i n c e n t Massey, i n 1952. The Massey R e p o r t from t h e commission w h i c h he had headed i n 1951» e x p r e s s e d Canada's need t o r e m a i n s e p a r a t e c u l t u r a l l y from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Though a l l seemed s a t i s f a c t o r y , t h e r e was, however, some u n r e s t w h i c h was t o l e a d t o t h e government's d e f e a t i n 1956. E x t e r n a l p o l i t i c s f o l l o w e d much t h e same p a t t e r n as i n t h e post-war y e a r s . There were, however, some s e r i o u s c o n c e r n s such as t h e K o r e a n war, t o wh i c h Canada s e n t t r o o p s , t h e I n d o - C h i n a a r m i s t i c e commission o f w h i c h Canada was a member, and t h e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o v e r t h e S t . Lawrence Seaway P r o j e c t , on x^hich agreement was f i n a l l y r e a c h e d i n 1954. There was a l s o c o - o p e r a t i o n between Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' on t h e D.E.W. L i n e whose bases were -78-e s t a b l i s h e d f r om A l a s k a a c r o s s the Canadian A r c t i c by an agreement o f 1955. Although- t h e s e bases r e p r e s e n t e d permanent U.S. m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n Canada, and p o i n t e d a g a i n t o t h e danger o f A m e r i c a n c o n t r o l , t h e y were n e c e s s a r y as Canada c o u l d n o t p r o v i d e them h e r s e l f . I n t h i s boom p e r i o d , w i t h economic and p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y , C a n a d i a n growth t o m a t u r i t y c o n t i n u e d . I n c r e a s i n g i m m i g r a t i o n meant a more c o s m o p o l i t a n f l a v o u r , though t h i s d i d n o t p r e c l u d e C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m . The c o u n t r y , t o o , w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a s t r u g g l e t o make a l i v i n g e l i m i n a t e d f o r many, t u r n e d i n c r e a s i n g l y t o c u l t u r e . The advent o f t e l e v i s i o n b r o u g h t a r e a d y s o u r c e o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t . S i n c e l i f e was p r o s p e r o u s , more emphasis c o u l d be p l a c e d on a b s t r a c t * l e s s p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s . The boom and i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n l e d p e o p l e t o q u e s t i o n t h e s t i l l - s t r o n g c h u r c h o r t o f i n d l e s s n e c e s s i t y f o r i t . These t r e n d s may be found i n some o f t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e p e r i o d . p u b l i c a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i o n s of s h o r t s t o r i e s d i d n o t show any u n u s u a l f e a t u r e s . Two books o f s h o r t n a r r a t i v e s k e t c h e s appeared: H a r r y Symons'The Bored M e e t i n g (1951) and Samuel Raymond Hodgins* The P a r s l e y s and t h e Sage (1952). Symons d e a l s w i t h contemporary phenomena i n t h i s book, from w h i c h some o f t h e s e l e c t i o n s have more o f t h e p e r s o n a l essay than the s h o r t s t o r y . "Have You Seen My O p e r a t i o n ? " , f o r example, b e g i n s w i t h a g e n e r a l preamble on d o c t o r s , b e f o r e g i v i n g a s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t . Most o f t h e s e l e c t i o n s have a humorous t o n e , - 7 9 -ci.epend.ing mainly on a p e c u l i a r use of language. They d e a l w i t h such d i v e r s e t o p i c s as board meetings, buses, Sundays, baths, t e e t h , and e l e v a t o r s . Hodgins' The P a r s l e y s and the Sage, i n a s i m i l a r l i g h t tone, c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of short sketches about the P a r s l e y s and t h e i r t a l k a t i v e roomer The Sage, who, once s t a r t e d on a s u b j e c t , l i s t e n s to no c o r r e c t i o n s . There seem to have been fewer w r i t e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n animal and h i s t o r i c a l t a l e s , probably because of incr e a s e d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , but one volume w i t h h i s t o r i c a l f l a v o u r was p u b l i s h e d by Thomas H. R a d d a l l . A Muster of Arms ( 1 9 5 4 ) , h i s l a s t c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s to date, are h i s acknowledgment of the wars i n which Canada has been i n v o l v e d . As he s t a t e s i n the preface: War i s a f i e r c e business and the f l a s h and bang of of i t are apt to f i l l one's mind to the e x c l u s i o n of a l l e l s e . During two wars, c h i e f l y the second, I was c u r i o u s enough to look away from the blaze at i n t e r v a l s and see what s o r t of shadows i t c a s t , and where .... Some were p l a i n , some t r a g i c , some merely funny or grotesque, but a l l seemed worth r e c o r d i n g f o r t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h a t twice - experienced phenomenon of my time, the s p e c t a c l e of men and women under the s t r a i n of war and the e f f e c t of i t upon t h e i r l i v e s .... I o f f e r them as yarns f o r the passing hour, a l i t t l e peepshow staged on the n e t h e r s i d e of Mars h i s armor, i n the heat of s t r u g g l e , i n the c o l d of the morning a f t e r , and from the viewpoint of the coast on which I l i v e . Even i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , the d i f f e r e n c e between R a d d a l l 1 s a t t i t u d e to war and that of many others who wrote about i t i s obvious, a d i f f e r e n c e p a r t l y accounted f o r by the f a c t t h a t they are w r i t t e n a f t e r the war i t s e l f , but mainly by R a d d a l l 5 s p e r s o n a l i t y . For, although i t i s c l e a r that -80-there i s an ax-rareness of the horror of the x-jar, there i s l i t t l e b i t t e r n e s s . He i s interested not so much i n the ideas and basic causes as i n glancing at characters, some of them heroes, who were produced or affected by i t . Too, he takes a decidedly Maritime viewpoint, not so much a un i v e r s a l one. He i s d e l i b e r a t e l y writing entertainment "f o r the passing hour," In his usual manner, he has chosen to use h i s t o r i c a l material and transform i t into f i c t i o n . Neither have the methods of narration changed. There i s , however, v a r i e t y i n character, theme, tone, and att i t u d e here, i f there i s never any questioning of the xforth of i t a l l . The subjects, as stated, are a l l s i t u a t i o n s r e l a t e d to the war. Most are s t o r i e s of courage and heroism, of the s p i r i t that w i l l win a war, with characters who are unusual and brave. In " S i l k for Lennie" young McKelland buys stockings for h i s g i r l at home and ships o f f f o r Scotland. On the journey, when the boat i s torpedoed, he performs acts of heroism i n getting people to safety, under the i n s p i r a t i o n of Lenny and her beauty "which makes the xrorld go round." S i m i l a r l y i n "A Muster of Arms " i n a more casual tone, t h i s heroic s p i r i t i s again revealed as a woman ar r i v e s at the R.C.M.P. s t a t i o n to present her firearms for the muster which has been ordered. With each she gives an account of the heroism or s k i l l of i t s owner. After she has gone, the l o c a l minister points out that t h i s Is the imagination and s p i r i t -81-that w i l l win the war. "The Whale K i l l e r " also turns out to be a t y p i c a l story of courage. When I l s a K r i s t o f e r s on Invites a young Norwegian whaler to her home, her father i s disappointed to f i n d that the boy i s going whale hunting rather than to war. Yet when I l s a follows him to the boat, she finds that the hunting i s not of whales, but of Germans, Other s t o r i e s ,however, do show the effect that the war had on the mode of thinking and l i v i n g . These storie s have no such happy endings. "The Golden Age" deals with a middle-aged husband and wife who meet during the war, when he i s on leave, to t r y to recapture t h e i r l o s t youth. At f i r s t t h i s seems to be working, but a f t e r the wife hears some crewmen t a l k i n g of her husband's strange behaviour at sea, she strengthens him by pointing out that he should r e t a i n his s t a b i l i t y f or the sake of t h e i r son. I r o n i c a l l y , she has just learned that the son has been k i l l e d i n the war. Though courage i s i l l u s t r a t e d , t h i s time i t i s the courage of the wife, and the i r o n i c ending pro h i b i t s optimism. A questioning of heroism, or the a b i l i t y "to take i t , " appears i n "Morale," as the narrator i l l u s t r a t e s his b e l i e f that censorship, for purposes of morale, during war, i s prevalent. He t e l l s of the "seventh man", the one man out of seven who go to war who i s not able to stand the s t r a i n . His story i s a bloody one of a young s o l d i e r who went crazy and beat up an old lady. This type of story, he points out, never makes the papers i n wartime. The others who know of the s o l d i e r ' s g u i l t but f a i l to t e l l because of fear, have the same effe c t as the with-olding of information from the public by the censors. The n a r r a t o r d i s a p p r o v e s o f such a c t i o n s f o r the sake of morale. Two o t h e r s i l l u s t r a t e a more t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e toward what would once have been c o n s i d e r e d m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e . "The M i s t r e s s o f CKU" i s the s t o r y o f Lena P i t c h , n a r r a t e d by one o f the men who had been s t a t i o n e d a t the l o n e l y o u t p o s t near her home. A f t e r she l o s t her innocence to one of the men, she kept a l o v e r out of each of the groups s t a t i o n e d t h e r e . Years l a t e r , when the n a r r a t o r goes to see her, he f i n d s her an o l d and sh a p e l e s s woman, s t i l l p r e s e r v i n g the memory o f Mark O'Hare, f a t h e r o f her c h i l d . No adverse comment, but r a t h e r sympathy, i s to be seen i n h i s a t t i t u d e . A l s o the s t o r y o f a p r o s t i t u t e , w i t h a s i m i l a r theme o f humanity* "The Badge o f G u i l t " i s the s t o r y o f Georgie B e l l e i s l e who, w h i l e v a c a t i o n i n g a t a P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d r e s o r t , becomes i n v o l v e d w i t h a young airman. D e s p i t e her u n d e r s t a n d i n g and l o v e f o r him, he l e a v e s her when he f i n d s she has been a Montreal p r o s t i t u t e . The h y p o c r i t i c a l and unkind a t t i t u d e of the ot h e r s and the p u r i t y o f Georgie are symbolized by the white boots which she f l i n g s a t the f e e t o f the o t h e r guests when she l e a v e s the h o t e l . By showing c h a r a c t e r s such as these, R a d d a l l emphasizes the common bond o f humanity i n a l l . Another s t o r y , " R e s u r r e c t i o n , " conveys i n the a t t i t u d e o f the n a r r a t o r the d i f f e r e n c e between the Ea s t and C e n t r a l p o r t i o n s o f Canada. During the war years he d i s l i k e d the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n s i n t e n s e l y , but on a second v i s i t a few years l a t e r , he has come to enjoy the l i g h t and i r o n i c a t t i t u d e to l i f e i n - « 3 -M o n t r e a l . As a B l u e n o s e r , he had been a g a i n s t money (perhaps because o f j e a l o u s y , he suggests) and extremely r i g h t e o u s . Sam C u t c l i f f e , however, t o l d him a s t o r y which showed the s t r e n g t h o f chance (as opposed to P r o v i d e n c e ) , a s t o r y which a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d men's concern with money. Even a f t e r an e x p e r i e n c e which n e a r l y k i l l e d them, when he and h i s companions were r e s c u e d a t sea, they went back to get t h e i r money. The s p i r i t u a l f e e l i n g of b e i n g c l o s e t o the essence o f l i f e r eceded when they knew they were going back into, the w o r l d . The n a r r a t o r has come to a c c e p t t h i s l e s s s e r i o u s a t t i t u d e t o l i f e . T h i s l a s t s t o r y shows one of the changes i n Raddall»s work. There i s a g r e a t e r concern w i t h more u n i v e r s a l i s s u e s . There i s a l s o a l e s s d e f i n i t e ending. Other s t o r i e s show l e s s concern w i t h the hardworking, s t r o n g l y moral c h a r a c t e r . These c h a r a c t e r s a r e chosen from the r e l a t i v e l y contemporary and not the d i s t a n t p a s t . Yet R a d d a l l 1 s work s t i l l belongs mainly to the o l d e r t r a d i t i o n . A second c o l l e c t i o n i n t h i s p e r i o d was A Boy i n the House  and Other S t o r i e s ( 1952) by Ma20 de l a Roche. J u s t as her n o v e l s a r e i n the romantic t r a d i t i o n and show l i t t l e o f the contemporary Canadian s i t u a t i o n s and problems, so these a r e remote, b e i n g mainly s e t i n England. Yet, though sometimes r o m a n t i c , they do c a t c h , i n an a r r e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , common human f o i b l e s and v i r t u e s . Her c h a r a c t e r s , as may be expected -84-i n t h i s type of w r i t i n g , are h i g h l y I n d i v i d u a l i z e d . There i s an almost even d i v i s i o n between p l e a s a n t and unpleasant s i t u a t i o n s . Of the more p l e a s a n t type i s "Auntlmay", the s t o r y of a middle-aged woman who has always been busy l o o k i n g a f t e r o t h e r people and then f i n d s h e r s e l f with no one to depend on h e r . Even a f t e r she a s s e r t s her independence by l e a v i n g her s i s t e r ' s house, g e t t i n g a job, and then a husband, she has need f o r someone t o depend on her* Her l i f e becomes happy f i n a l l y when she c a r e s f o r her n i e c e and h e r c h i l d . A s t o r y of o b s e s s i o n I s " 9Twa K i n g s 0 " , about George McQueen who goes to the J u b i l e e of Queen V i c t o r i a and i s so proud of h i s medal t h a t he c h i d e s h i s mother f o r g e t t i n g b l o o d on I t l n a motorbike a c c i d e n t on the way home. The s t o r y thus becomes a r a t h e r m i l d a t t a c k on p a t r i o t i s m . " P a t i e n t Miss P e e l " shows a woman w i t h a d i s l o c a t e d h i p d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t her maid has n e g l e c t e d the house and p u t t i n g her through two weeks of g r u e l l i n g work to f i x i t up. A f t e r t h i s p l e a s a n t revenge, Miss P e e l f a l l s a g a i n j u s t as the work i s d o n e — but t h i s time the g i r l has l e a r n e d t o keep the p l a c e l n o r d e r . "The Widow Cruse" i s the most s e n t i m e n t a l of the s t o r i e s as a r i c h man, n o t i n g a F o r Rent s i g n which never d i s a p p e a r s from the window o f a poor woman's house, r e n t s the room. At f i r s t he p l a n s t o spend o n l y an hour a day l n I t , but e v e n t u a l l y he moves i n , m a r r i e s Mrs. Cruse, andt grows f a t with the r e s t of the l o d g e r s . Yet Miss De l a Roche a l s o d e a l s w i t h more grim s i t u a t i o n s . - 8 5 -" T h e C e l e b r a t i o n " s h o w s t h e m a c h i n a t i o n s i n a p o o r f a m i l y a f t e r o n e s o n w i n s t h e I r i s h S w e e p s t a k e s , w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n s o s e r i o u s t h a t t h e f a t h e r d i s o w n s t h e s o n , " T h e S u b m i s s i v e W i f e " , a n attempt t o d e a l w i t h i d e a s , i s r a t h e r m e l o d r a m a t i c . I t i s t h e s t o r y o f C a p t a i n a n d M r s . B e l l , a n d o f t h e w r i t e r H a r t l e y D r e w e who t a k e s M r s , B e l l a w a y f r o m t h e b o r e d o m o f h e r h u s b a n d . J u s t a s s h e d i s c o v e r s t h a t s h e c a n n o t l i v e w i t h t h e s e l f - a b s o r b e d H a r t l e y a n d h i s s i s t e r E d w i n a , a t e l e g r a m c o m e s s a y i n g t h a t C a p t a i n B e l l h a s d i e d . A l s o m o r e t h o u g h t f u l i s "A W o r d f o r C o f f e y " , w h i c h e x p l o r e s t h e d i s t u r b i n g e f f e c t s o f a f u n d a m e n t a l r e l i g i o n . C o f f e y , b e c a u s e h e h a s l e d a r i o t o u s l i f e , b e c o m e s t e r r i f i e d a s a c h i l d t e l l s h i m o f h e l l a n d d a m n a t i o n . W hen h e h a s p e r s u a d e d t h e b o y t o p l e a d f o r h i m i n h e a v e n , h e t r i e s t o d r o w n t h e m b o t h . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e b o y , who h a s b e e n a b l e t o d o n o t h i n g f o r t h e m a n ' s s p i r i t u a l s t a t e , s u r v i v e s t o b e a m i n i s t e r . T w o s t o r i e s o f r o m a n c e i n t h i s v o l u m e a r e " T h e B r o k e n F a n " a n d " Q u a r t e t , " T h e f o r m e r i s o f a m i d d l e - a g e d woman J e a l o u s o f h e r y o u n g c o m p a n i o n who p a y s a t t e n t i o n s t o a n o t h e r g i r l . I t i s a s t o r y o f p a s s i o n , s h o r t e r , m o r e i n t e n s e t h a n s e v e r a l o f t h e o t h e r s , S i m i l a r y i n t e n s e a n d c o v e r i n g a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e i s " Q u a r t e t " w h i c h t e l l s o f a m a n g o i n g f r o m M a s s a c h u s e t t s t o I t a l y t o s e e a f o r m e r s w e e t h e a r t #iow m a r r i e d . W h e n h e r e a c h e s t h e r e a n d d i s c o v e r s t h a t s h e i s v e r y u n h a p p y a n d c h a n g e d , h e e s c a p e s g l a d l y . T h e r o m a n t i c d r e a m i s s m a s h e d . T h o u g h t h e s e s t o r i e s h a v e s e t t i n g s m a i n l y r e m o t e f r o m C a n a d a , a n d t h o u g h t h e y d o s o m e t i m e s r e l y o n c o i n c i d e n c e - 8 6 -( f o r example, Miss P e e l e ' s f r i e n d s must be away so t h a t i t takes her some time to d i s c o v e r the maid's n e g l e c t o f the house), they g e n e r a l l y do not d e a l w i t h stock s i t u a t i o n s . . I t i s t r u e , however, t h a t they are of an o l d e r method, the c h a r a c t e r -c e n t e r e d s t o r y w i t h emphasis on the unusual I n d i v i d u a l and s i t u a t i o n . , They have some a r t i s t r y of s t y l e , but are u s u a l l y q u i t e explicit« Her s k i l l i s i n the d e p i c t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s and emotions, not w i t h i d e a s , Hugh Gamer's The Ye l l o w Sweater and Other S t o r i e s (1952) i s i n a manner and tone q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from these c o l l e c t i o n s . The s t o r i e s here were w r i t t e n over a l o n g p e r i o d of time, a l t h o u g h o n l y t h r e e a re from the pre-war y e a r s . One was w r i t t e n i n 1951 9 and the r e s t between 1946 and 1950« Garner p o i n t s out t h a t the purpose of h i s s t o r i e s i s t o e n t e r t a i n and t h a t they a r e Canadian, a l l but two of them b e i n g s e t i n Canada, and even those two w i t h Canadian c h a r a c t e r s ( P r e f a c e , p. 5»)« He i s much concerned, t o o, t o defend h i m s e l f a g a i n s t the "commercial f i c t i o n " l a b e l which he f e e l s I s not v a l i d . He s t a t e s t h a t these s t o r i e s were p u b l i s h e d i n both l i t e r a r y and commercial magazines, most of them Canadian. Nor d i d he change any of them f o r the commercial market, except t o d e l e t e p r o f a n i t y . Too, he notes t h a t commercial f o r m u l a s t o r i e s s h o u l d end h a p p i l y , and few o f h i s do ( P r e f a c e , p. 6 . ) . However, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t some of h i s s t o r i e s d i d appear i n commercial magazines, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t most of the b e t t e r w r i t e r s d i d not p u b l i s h t h e r e , and t h a t c o n c e s s i o n s were made. R a r e l y have commercial s t o r i e s much - 8 7 -depth, p r o v o c a t i v e comment, o r a r t i s t r y l n language. Even Garner admits t h a t they u s u a l l y end h a p p i l y whether such an ending i s s u i t a b l e o r n o t . Garner I s one of the few w r i t e r s a t t h i s time who i s c o n s i s t e n t l y urban| the m a j o r i t y of h i s s t o r i e s are s e t i n Canadian c i t i e s , the o t h e r s on the Gaspe coasto With few e x c e p t i o n s , they accept t h i s urban s i t u a t i o n , and one of the s t o r i e s which e x p l o r e s the c i t y - country c o n t r a s t , "One M i l e o f I c e , " does not p a i n t a f a v o u r a b l e p i c t u r e o f the country., By showing two b r o t h e r s , Pete from the c i t y and Ralph from the c o u n t r y , under s t r e s s i n a f r i g h t e n i n g New Brunswick snowstorm, he c o n t r a s t s r e a c t i o n s i n such s i t u a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h i t must be admitted t h a t Pete does not a c t h e r o i c a l l y , l e t t i n g h i s b r o t h e r d i e t o save h i s own l i f e . Many of the s t o r i e s are concerned w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e between e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r . I n " I n t e r l u d e I n B l a c k and White," a young negro, who comes to a c l i n i c t o be t r e a t e d f o r V D, shy and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , I s t r e a t e d by a p r e t t y nurse and a f a t I n t e r n e , a l l i n white. From the p o i n t of view o f the p u z z l e d negro, G a m e r shows the young nurse becoming u g l i e r and more d i s t a s t e f u l . I n "A Couple o f Q u i e t Young Guys," too, the man r u n n i n g a c a f e d i s c o v e r s t h a t the group of n o i s y hoods who f r e q u e n t h i s p l a c e are l e s s obnoxious than two q u i e t young men, one of whom t r i e s t o get f r e s h w i t h a customer, while the o t h e r robs him. Where t h e r e i s a c l a s h between h i g h e r and lower c l a s s e s , o f t e n the p l a i n e r p e r s o n proves p r e f e r a b l e . I n "A V i s i t w ith Robert," the seaman Thomas who i s f o r c e d t o l e a v e h i s son w i t h h i s mother-in-law t o "bring up i s o b v i o u s l y a more s i n c e r e p e r s o n than she. T h i s b e l i e f i n humble v i r t u e s i s , perhaps, a p a r t i c u l a r l y Canadian a t t i t u d e , where s u s p i c i o n of elegance has always been common, e s p e c i a l l y i n r u r a l a r e a s . I t i s a l s o , of c o u r s e , a s e n t i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s u i t e d t o commercial f i c t i o n . Many of the s t o r i e s are p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , o f the type o f t e n w r i t t e n between 1946-1950. "The Y e l l o w Sweater," a f t e r p i c t u r i n g a businessman p l e a s e d w i t h h i m s e l f , but growing o l d , has him t r y t o seduce a young g i r l who i s h o r r i f i e d and r e f u s e s . When he t o s s e s her luggage out of the c a r a f t e r h e r, the y e l l o w sweater which f a l l s from i t reminds him of h i s daughter, and he comes t o s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . "A T r i p f o r Mrs. T a y l o r " a l s o d e a l s w i t h o l d age, but t h i s time shows the a b i l i t y o f such an o l d e r person t o a p p r e c i a t e and imagine. Mrs. T a y l o r ' s t r i p , which i s o n l y t o the o u t s k i r t s of the o l t y ^ i s f o r h e r as much adventure as a journey o f many m i l e s . "The O l d Man's Lau g h t e r " a g a i n conveys the sadness o f age as an o l d man, kept by h i s c h i l d r e n o n l y f o r the sake o f h i s money, t u r n s the t a b l e s by not l e a v i n g i t t o them and d r i v e s them mad. Garner can a l s o , through c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , convey a s i g n i f i c a n t i d e a . I n "One, Two, Three L i t t l e I n d i a n s , " he shows the e f f e c t of c i v i l i z a t i o n on the I n d i a n through the p l i g h t of B i g Tom, whose w i f e i s caught up i n a d e s i r e f o r white man's comf o r t s , d i s r e g a r d i n g her husband, home, and -89-c h i l d t o work f o r and go out w i t h white men. Tom's e f f o r t s t o save h i s d y i n g c h i l d are f r u s t r a t e d by a l a c k of concern on the p a r t of the w h i t e s . When the o h l l d d i e s , he i s d e f e a t e d , though h i s w i f e j o i n s him t o mourn. These s t o r i e s g e n e r a l l y , then, d e a l w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and s i g n i f i c a n t emotions or events. One of the o n l y examples of the h e r o i c s t r u g g l e i n the o l d e r sense i s "Red Racer" which d e a l s w i t h a man who f e e l s e l a t e d i n d e f e a t i n g the f o r c e s of n a t u r e i n a f o r e s t f i r e . The o t h e r s range over the themes of appearance v s . r e a l i t y , the problem of growing o l d , and i s o l a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y s t r e s s i n g the more homely v i r t u e s . No l o n g e r i s man a s s u r e d o f winning h i s s t r u g g l e ; as Garner p o i n t s out i n the p r e f a c e , over h a l f the s t o r i e s i n v o l v e the d e f e a t o f the p r o t a g o n i s t . Garner's s t o r i e s bear c o n s i d e r a b l e resemblance to those of C a l l a g h a n i n form. Both w r i t e r s c o n c e n t r a t e on c h a r a c t e r and theme. The c h a r a c t e r i s u s u a l l y shown i n a s i g n i f i c a n t s i t u a t i o n which r e v e a l s how he w i l l a c t . Few are m o r a l i z i n g o r o v e r e x p l a i n e d . Garner, e x p e c i a l l y , r e l i e s on c o n t r a s t s f o r the p r e s e n t e n t a t i o n . The f l a t tone, t o o , i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f both w r i t e r s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n , from "The Y e l l o w Sweater," bears some resemblance to the o f t e n q u i e t endings of C a l l a g h a n ' s s t o r i e s s He t r i e d t o r e c a p t u r e h i s f e e l i n g s of the morning, but when he l o o k e d a t h i m s e l f i n the m i r r o r a l l he saw was the s t a r i n g f a c e o f a f a t f r i g h t e n e d o l d man. The s t o r i e s are not p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p e r i m e n t a l , though they do - 9 0 -concentr&te on a s i n g l e e f f e c t . There i s , however, a more c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o be Canadian i n Garner. Too, G a m e r s s s t o r i e s have l e s s depth than Ca 11aghanfe and l e s s optimism. No comprehensive a n t h o l o g i e s of s h o r t s t o r i e s appeared a t t h i s time. K l i n c k and Watters' Canadian L i t e r a t u r e (1955) » w h i l e c o n c e n t r a t i n g on p o e t r y , d i d , however, c o n t a i n a few s t o r i e s . Though Important as a Canadian l i t e r a t u r e t e x t book s u i t a b l e f o r use i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , i t r e v e a l s l i t t l e o f the development of the s h o r t s t o r y . S e v e r a l s e l e c t i o n s from H a l i b u r t o n and Roberts are i n c l u d e d , but from the post-war p e r i o d p r a c t i c a l l y no w r i t e r s are r e p r e s e n t e d . Three s p e c i a l i z e d a n t h o l o g i e s a l s o were p u b l i s h e d . The go l d e n j u b i l e s o f Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a i n 1955 produced volumes c o n t a i n i n g , among o t h e r m a t e r i a l , some of the b e s t s h o r t s t o r i e s by w r i t e r s I n these p r o v i n c e s . Saskatchewan  Harvest c o n t a i n s s t o r i e s by 5 a u t h o r s , a l l well-known as s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r s ? P. P. Grove, I l l i n g w o r t h K e r r , E . A. McCourt, S i n c l a i r Ross, and W. 0 M i t c h e l l . The A l b e r t a  G olden J u b i l e e Anthology was not so s e l e c t i v e i n i t s c h o i c e , but d i d i n c l u d e W. G. Hardy, R. Ross Annett, and LHenry K r e l s e l . N a t h a n i e l Benson's Canadian S t o r i e s of A c t i o n and Humour (1955) c o n t a i n s both contemporary and e a r l i e r s t o r i e s emphasizing the Canadian s e t t i n g . - Here, t oo, can be seen the s h i f t from r u r a l t o urban, from the e a r l i e r s t o r i e s o f I n d i a n s and the f r o n t i e r t o l a t e r s t o r i e s o f war w i t h more c r e d i b l e c h a r a c t e r s . F o r a p i c t u r e of what changes were a c t u a l l y o c c u r i n g i n the s h o r t s t o r y , the p e r i o d i c a l s must be c o n s u l t e d . Though -91-the country was prosperous, t h e r e was no i n c r e a s e i n the number of p e r i o d i c a l s c o n t a i n i n g s t o r i e s . Northern Review c o n t i n u e d throughout the p e r i o d ; i t s s u s p e n s i o n i n 1956 can be c o n s i d e r e d a convenient ending to the p e r i o d . Canadian L j f e ceased p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1952» F o r a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d pm Magazine was p u b l i s h e d l n Vancouver, though an emphasis on a l l the a r t s a l l o w e d o n l y one s h o r t s t o r y per i s s u e . Canadian Forum c o n t i n u e d t o p u b l i s h s h o r t s t o r i e s ; here, however, fewer were t o be found, s e v e r a l Issues o f t e n g o i n g by w i t h none I n c l u d e d . Saturday  N i g h t d i s c o n t i n u e d s t o r i e s I n 1950. Even the p o p u l a r p e r i o d i -c a l s were I n c l u d i n g l e s s f i c t i o n . The advent of t e l e v i s i o n , which s u p p l i e d a ready means of entertainment c o u l d account i n p a r t f o r t h i s - d e c r e a s e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the commercial magazines. The preponderance of U. S. magazines which p r o v i d e d Canadians w i t h what sh o u l d have been s u p p l i e d i n her own was Z noted l n the R o y a l Commission Report of 1951» Too, the f a c t t h a t many of the s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r s I n the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d were p r i m a r i l y poets who now c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h a t form can a l s o be a f a c t o r . The g r e a t e r number of p o e t r y o u t l e t s i n the p e r i o d shows the i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of the form. W r i t e r s who had found ready subje®ts i n the war f o r shoat s t o r i e s o f s o c i a l protest may have found t h i s medium l e s s s u i t a b l e f o r the complex im p r e s s i o n s they wanted to convey. Morley 3 C a l l a g h a n suggested t h a t t h i s was merely a p a s s i n g phase, 2. Report of the Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n  the A r t s , L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s 1949 - 1951 (Ottawa; K i n g 9 s P r i n t e r , 1951«), P« 14. 3 . Weaver, "A T a l k w i t h C a l l a g h a n " , p. 17. - 92 -t h a t the s h o r t s t o r y was out of f a s h i o n and would a g a i n become popular* As a r e s u l t of t h i s d e c l i n e i n i n t e r e s t , few s t o r i e s appeared i n N o r t h e r n Review d u r i n g these y e a r s * The most f r e q u e n t c o n t r i b u t o r was E t h e l W i l s o n , who p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l e x c e r p t s from her n o v e l s . Most of these s t o r i e s are of every day e x i s t e n c e i n and around Vancouver, They r e v e a l both the t r e n d toward a b s t r a c t i d e a s i n the s h o r t s t o r y and a p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . I n those which appear from the n o v e l s and n o v e l l a s , o f course, some of the e f f e c t i s l o s t as the s i g n i f i c a n c e of an a c t may not be c l e a r when the r e a d e r i s not f a m i l i a r w i t h a l l the c h a r a c t e r s . I n "Burnaby N u r s e r i e s " , f o r example , an e x c e r p t from Tuesday and Wednesday (N Rev 4, June - J u l y , 1951s 12), though the c h a r a c t e r s o f Mort and Mr. M o t t l e are c l e a r l y c o n s t r a s t e d , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of V i c t o r i a May i s r a t h e r c o n f u s i n g o u t s i d e the f u l l s t o r y . Y e t , even here, the i n d i v i d u a l f l a v o u r o f h e r work i s o b vious i n the c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of background and r e l a t i n g i t t o the a c t i o n , i n the uncomplicated, yet v a r i e d prose, and i n her p r e s e n t a t i o n of the unusual y e t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . I n "Miss T r i t t " (N Rev 5, Oct - Nov, 1951« a nother s e l e c t i o n from Tuesday and Wednesday, more res e m b l i n g a s h o r t s t o r y i n i t s u n i f i e d e f f e c t , she p o r t r a y s p a r t i c u l a r l y the i n t e n s e l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n which may c o n f r o n t a p e r s o n who has l o s t the o n l y m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e I n l i f e , i n t h i s case a mother. By p l a c i n g V i c t o r i a May i n c o n t r a s t w i t h -9,3-Wolfenden, who i s a l s o alone, but a t l e a s t has had some exp e r i e n c e i n h i s l i f e , she i n t e n s i f i e s t h i s f e e l i n g . Her l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e c h a r a c t e r s convey i n e x a g g e r a t i o n the common as p e c t s of humanity. Another aspect of the t r e n d away from a f l a t r e a l i s m may be seen i n h e r prose s t y l e . She d e s c r i b e s V i c k y ' s thoughts on r e a d i n g o f a f i n e house i n t h i s ways Two master bedrooms; what can t h a t s i g n i f y ! no wonder t h i s house i s Important. She p r o j e c t s h e r s e l f o r some b r a v e r p e r s o n — Into the s k i n of a g i r l — o r widow — s e e k i n g companionship o r matrimony, and v i c a r i o u s l y meets, m a r r i e s , and d i s c a r d s t h r e e o r f o u r men i n t u r n i n the course of the e vening, but without d e s i r e o r envy. She takes — and l e a v e s - - s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s . She l o s e s h e r s e l f i n the f u n n i e s . She goes t o bed. Her r o u t i n e i s s u c c e s s f u l , and p revents her from too o f t e n b e i n g aware of the d e s e r t of l o n e l i n e s s i n which she d w e l l s , underneath her s m a l l s h e l t e r of r o u t i n e . Here may be seen the s h o r t , broken sentences and sometimes s t a r t l i n g p h r a s e o l o g y . I t i s o f t e n as i f a d e f i n i t e statement cannot be made, as i f i t must be q u a l i f i e d by p a r e n t h e t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s . Though these parentheses are sometimes annoying, they o f t e n serve t o show the i r o n y of a s i t u a t i o n , t o p o i n t out a d i f f e r e n t view, or to keep the r e a d e r aware t h a t language i s important and not d e f i n i t e . Thus, though her v o c a b u l a r y and s t y l e are not a t a l l p r e t e n t i o u s , they have an i n d i v i d u a l i t y and a r t i s t r y t h a t can elsewhere be c o n s i d e r e d one of the most s e r i o u s l a c k s i n the Canadian s h o r t s t o r y . "The F u n e r a l Home" (N Rev 4, A p r i l - May, 1951, 2 ) shovjs f u r t h e r her use of simple i n c i d e n t t o p o r t r a y c h a r a c t e r s .-94-and a l s o i d e a s and themes. I n t h i s , Mort goes t o v i s i t h i s f r i e n d Pork, who works i n a f u n e r a l home, and i s s t r u c k t h e r e by the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f death. Nothing i s e x p l a i n e d , merely p r e s e n t e d , and when Mort i s walking home w i t h the f u n e r a l f l o w e r s Pork has g i v e n him, he c o n s i d e r s c a r e f u l l y what has been t h e i r use. Not p l o t - o r i e n t e d , i t i s a s k e t c h of emotions and mood. Her a b i l i t y t o p o r t r a y i n d i v i d u a l emotions through symbol i s seen i n "The B i r d s " (N Rev 79 Oct - Nov, 1954, 24). Here the n a r r a t o r f h a v i n g j u s t broken o f f w i t h her b o y f r i e n d , v i s i t s h er s i s t e r Cora, who, though u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d , now wants t o sympathize. Yet the n a r r a t o r , w h i l e she s i t s t h e r e musing, sees a b i r d dash i t s e l f a g a i n s t the window. The b i r d , u s u a l l y so f r e e , has j u s t d e s t r o y e d i t s e l f , and she empathizes. I n t e n s e s i t u a t i o n s such as the s e , c e n t e r i n g i n human emotions and i n t r o s p e c t i o n , are the core of her s t o r i e s . I m a g i n a t i o n might be s a i d to be the q u a l i t y which d i s t i n g u i s h e s her s t o r i e s from those of many Canadian w r i t e r s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t of the d e c l i n e i n the s h o r t s t o r y t h a t few new w r i t e r s p u b l i s h e d i n No r t h e r n Review d u r i n g these y e a r s , except i n the i s s u e devoted t o u n i v e r s i t y authors (N Rev 5, Feb - Mar, 1953). Of those a p a r t from E t h e l W i l s o n who p u b l i s h e d here, most were s t i l l p r i m a r i l y p o e t s . Dorothy Livesay»s "The L a s t Climb" (N Rev 4, Aug - Sept, 1951) i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of a s i g n i f i c a n t event - - a young g i r l v i s i t i n g France from Canada and the boy she met th e r e are p a r t i n g . Themes of r e a l i t y , time, and n e c e s s i t y are interwoven - 9 5 -i n the symbolic journey and I n t e r c o u r s e . Ralph Gustafson's "The Paper S p i k e " (N Rev 5, J u n e - J u l y , 1952, 3*0 Is a l s o more p o e t i c I n form and language. Here,as a couple s i t s i n the r e s t a u r a n t , the husband muses on the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r l o v e , as seen In h i s p a s s i o n and her l a c k of response, the problems of shame and p u r i t a n i s m . T h i s i s t o l d by s u g g e s t i o n , w i t h fragmented thoughts. I n "King over the Water" (N Rev 6, J u n e - J u l y , 1953, 2 ^ E . A. McCourt s t r i k e s a d i f f e r e n t note, another change from the s t r i c t and monotonous r e a l i s m which o f t e n governed s t o r i e s i n the e a r l i e r move away from romanticism. Here, through the c a r e e r o f the t e a c h e r Strangeways new to the u n i v e r s i t y , McCourt by a p l o t t e d f a n t a s y shows the reverence f o r the past and r i t u a l which s t i f l e s l i f e . Another which pursues a morbid and f a n t a s t i c l i n e i s Anne M a r r i o t ' s "Mrs. Absalom" (N Rev 6, Aug-Sept, 1953, 28) which r e l a t e s n a t u r e and death i n the s t o r y of a woman who moves t o an I s l a n d on the B. C. c o a s t and becomes obsessed w i t h v e g e t a t i o n , n e g l e c t i n g the piano she has brought with h e r . Heavy w i t h symbol and na t u r e imagery, i t p r e s e n t s a f r i g h t e n i n g p i c t u r e of her decay. These s t o r i e s a l l show the i n c r e a s i n g l y complex and s u g g e s t i v e n a t u r e of the work, r e l y i n g more on symbol than p r e v i o u s l y . There i s a l s o a move from a s t r i c t r e a l i s m , though the s t o r i e s are contemporary i n concerns and s e t t i n g s . They have, t o o , become i n c r e a s i n g l y I n t e l l e o t u a l and i n t r o s p e c t i v e , p r o b i n g c h a r a c t e r s ' minds. - 9 6 -The o t h e r tvjo l i t e r a r y magazines c a r r y i n g s t o r i e s , pm Magazine and Canadian L i f e , both of which e x i s t e d o n l y a s h o r t t i m e , a l s o show the complexity of the s t o r y i n t h i s p e r i o d , though they b e t r a y a l a c k of d i r e c t i o n . There seems, too, to be a l a c k of Canadian w r i t e r s , with s t o r i e s by Americans f r e q u e n t l y a p p e a r i n g . I n Canadian L i f e o n l y one w i t h any i n t e r e s t appeared, Q. B. Pyper's "A Short S t o r y " (C L i f e 2 , S p r i n g , 19519 19)» which pokes f u n a t s h o r t s t o r y conventions and o f f e r s s e v e r a l s h o r t c h a p t e r s "by way o f Innovation"., pm Magazine c o n t a i n e d , i n a d d i t i o n to Yvonne A g a z a r i a n ' s " F i n a l A b s o l u t i o n " (pm Mag 1 , Nov, 1951» 3*0, the s t o r y of a young man who breaks from r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n , W i l l i a m McConnell's "The C a t a l y s t " which has an author as s u b j e c t and works by j u x t a p o s i n g s e v e r a l i n c i d e n t s to show the a u t h o r ' s i s o l a t i o n and problems. T h i s s t o r y ' s c l e v e r f l i p p a n t d i a l o g u e i s r a r e I n Canada. Too, t h e r e are more s c h o l a r l y r e f e r e n c e s than are g e n e r a l l y found, (pm M a g 1, D e c - J a n , 1 9 5 1 - 2 , 3 5 Because of the few s t o r i e s p u b l i s h e d i n these magazines, i t I s n e c e s s a r y to t u r n to the l e s s l i t e r a r y ones f o r some o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s of t r e n d s . Even i n Canadian Forum, a change from the more p s y c h o l o g y - o r i e n t e d to t h o u g h t - o r i e n t e d s t o r i e s may be seen. D o r i s French's "The S p i d e r " (C Forum 3 1 , A p r i l , 1951* 4 ) d e s c r i b e s the d i f f e r e n c e between appearance and r e a l i t y , the growing c o l d n e s s of s o c i e t y w i t h automation. Mrs, Cusky, a shopper i n a l a r g e c l o t h i n g s t o r e , becomes n o t h i n g more than a dummy i n the window, John V. H i c k ' s "The Chord t h a t Was L o s t , " about an o r g a n i s t whose snobbish - 9 7 -a t t i t u d e t o the organ s e l e c t i o n named i n the t i t l e of the s t o r y i s r i d i c u l e d , p i c t u r e s a l l a r t as s a c r e d , having i t s own r e a l i s m and meaning. Robert F o n t a i n e , i n " S p r i n g Comes L a t e " (C Forum 32, June, 1952, 64), examines a young boy coming to c o n s c i o u s n e s s of s e l f and a r e a l i z a t i o n of the l i f e c y c l e . When the boy's g r a n d f a t h e r v i s i t s and t e l l s of h i s youth, the boy cannot understand how he c o u l d ever have been d i f f e r e n t but,when the g r a n d f a t h e r d i e s , he becomes aware of the p a s s i n g of t h i n g s . Now he can l o o k forward to s p r i n g w i t h hope, as he knows the w i n t e r w i l l pass. Some of the s t o r i e s , however, d e a l w i t h s o c i a l concerns and have l e s s a b s t r a c t themes. In John G l a s s c o ' s "Mr. Noad" (C Forum 32 , March, 1953* 77), a boy as n a r r a t o r t e l l s of a v i s i t t o Mr. Noad's o l d home, a l a r g e e s t a t e from the p a s t . N e i t h e r the boy n o r Mr. Noad wishes to have h i s dreams d i s i l l u s i o n e d , but o b v i o u s l y they have to f a c e the f a c t t h a t l i f e such as e x i s t e d on the e s t a t e i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e . V e r a Johnson, i n "The Way I s Hard and Weary" (C Forum 33, A p r i l , 1953* 14) combines s o c i a l ooncerns and more a b s t r a c t themes. Gertrude B i n n i n g , a d e f e a t e d s o c i a l i s t c a n d i d a t e who a t t e n d s h e r n i e c e May's c o n v e r s i o n to C a t h o l i c i s m , i s l e d t o q u e s t i o n her own p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s views. Her i n a b i l i t y t o come t o a f i r m d e c i s i o n i s f u t h e r I n t e n s i f i e d by the thought o f a p o s s i b l e new war. A l l o f these show i n c r e a s i n g complexity i n the s t o r y . I n t h i s p e r i o d , Morley C a l l a g h a n was a g a i n w r i t i n g s t o r i e s . I n the l a t e 40»s he began to c o n t r i b u t e to the p e r i o d i c a l s , - 9 8 -e s p e c i a l l y American ones, and c o n t i n u e d to about 1953 when he l e f t the s h o r t s t o r y t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the n o v e l . Those which were w r i t t e n between these y e a r s appeared i n Canada i n h i s c o l l e c t i o n of 1959, Morley C a l l a g h a n ' s S t o r i e s . The few new s t o r i e s which appeared t h e r e show t h a t , a l t h o u g h b a s i c a l l y h i s method had not changed, t h e r e was a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on c h a r a c t e r s who were not so near to the lower c l a s s . "Watching and W a i t i n g , " f o r example, d e a l s w i t h a lawyer; i t i s a l s o , however, as many o f h i s e a r l i e r s t o r i e s were, a s t o r y of p a s s i o n . That he was a l s o s t i l l I n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o u s concerns may be seen i n "A Very Merry Christ m a s " which t e l l s of a l i t t l e boy's t h e f t of a baby from a creche i n the c h u r c h . Here the c o n t r a s t i n a t t i t u d e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t . F a t h e r Gorman s u s p e c t s a t h e i s t s and communists and c a l l s the p o l i c e ; the boy's mother, when she d i s c o v e r s the t h e f t , i s angry and t h r e a t e n i n g . I t i s the c a r e t a k e r of the church whose u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the boy's d e s i r e t o take God f o r a s l e i g h r i d e whioh p o i n t s t o t r u e g o d l i n e s s . C a l l a g h a n ' s s t o r i e s s t i l l show a concern w i t h the r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s , s t i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on a s i g n i f i c a n t event, but have t u r n e d s l i g h t l y more toward themes of r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f a c t t h a t C a l l a g h a n stopped w r i t i n g s t o r i e s i n 1953 p o i n t s a g a i n t o the d i s f a v o u r I n t o which the s h o r t s t o r y 4. Brandon Conron, "Morley C a l l a g h a n as a Short S t o r y W r i t e r , " J o u r n a l of Commonwealth L i t e r a t u r e 3 ( J u l y , 1967), 72. - 9 9 -had f a l l e n a t t h i s time. There were few new w r i t e r s , and p u b l i c a t i o n In both l i t e r a r y and commercial p e r i o d i c a l s was down© There were, however, I n d i c a t i o n s o f some changes and t r e n d s , A l e s s r e a l i s t i c manner of p r e s e n t a t i o n seemed t o be i n d i c a t e d , both i n c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s * An i n c r e a s i n g concern w i t h a b s t r a c t i d e a s may have been p a r t l y a r e s u l t of the l a c k o f c o n c r e t e problems I n a prosperous c o u n t r y , p a r t l y a r e s u l t of the growing m a t u r i t y . T h i s survey o f the development of the s t o r y i n Canada may be concluded by some g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , That the s t o r y d i d change I n many r e s p e c t s has a l r e a d y been shown. There a r e , however c e r t a i n problems and concerns which remained c o n s t a n t . One o f the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by w r i t e r s d u r i n g these y e a r s was the l a c k o f an audience f o r w o r t h w h i l e s h o r t s t o r y w r i t i n g . T h i s l e d t o a s c a r c i t y o f l i t e r a r y magazines. The w r i t e r s ' avenues f o r p u b l i c a t i o n were e i t h e r the commercial magazines, the b a s i c a l l y news c e n t e r e d p u b l i c a t i o n s such as Saturday N i ^ h t and Canadian Forum, o r o u t s i d e Canada i n magazines such as Saturday E v e n i n g  Post and The New Y o r k e r f o r which t h e r e were no e q u i v a l e n t s _ l n Canada, When l i t t l e magazines d i d b e g i n t o appear d u r i n g the war y e a r s , they f r e q u e n t l y l a s t e d o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time, and o f t e n d i d not p l a c e much emphasis on the s t o r y . Only F i r s t Statement, Preview, and Northern Review c o u l d be seen t o have had much i n f l u e n c e . T h i s l a c k of -100-o u t l e t s l e f t w r i t e r s without much o p p o r t u n i t y f o r mutual s t i m u l a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m , without the assurance t h a t they c o u l d have s e r i o u s s t o r i e s accepted,, Another l a c k i n the a r e a of s h o r t w r i t i n g was the i n f r e q u e n c y of c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l of the form* At the b e g i n n i n g of the p e r i o d , Raymond Davis noted t h i s l a c k s There seems t o be no one to p o i n t out t h a t the average s t o r y i n Canada i s a r t i s t i c a l l y w o r t h l e s s , a simple r e - h a s h i n g of hackneyed and worn-out themes.5 He f e l t t h a t the d e r i v a t i v e nature o f the s h o r t s t o r y i n Canada c o u l d have been changed by p r oper c r i t i c i s m . I n the r e s t o f the p e r i o d , v e r y l i t t l e i n c r e a s e d i n the amount of c r i t i c i s m i s to be n o ted. Only C a l l a g h a n ' s s t o r i e s 6 r e c e i v e d any amount of a t t e n t i o n . I n 1950 S c o t t Young a g a i n d e p l o r e d the l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n to t h i s form, n o t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y the f a c t t h a t no n a t i o n a l awards were o f f e r e d here as f o r the n o v e l and p o e t r y . The o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by the s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r were to be expected because of the n ature o f Canada's h i s t o r y and s o c i e t y . There was a l a c k of a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n i n a r e a l a t i v e l y young c o u n t r y . What h i s t o r y was a v a i l a b l e o f t e n l a c k e d excitement. R e l a t e d t o t h i s was the l a c k o f s e r i o u s problems d e a l t w i t h i n the s h o r t s t o r y . Canada has not been a l a n d of g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y . Once the f r o n t i e r problems were 5 . Raymond D a v i s , "A P l e a f o r a Canadian Short S t o r y , " Canadian Bookman 17 (Sept., 1935) 105. 6 . S c o t t Young, "The Short S t o r y , " Canadian Author and Bookman 2 6 , (Autumn, 1950) , 10-13 . -101-overcome, the expansiveness, the f e r t i l i t y o f the s o i l , a n d n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s made l i v i n g r e l a t i v e l y easy. I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t those f e a t u r e s d i s t i n c t i v e t o Canada d i d not o f t e n p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r s t o r i e s . The French Canadian and I n d i a n s i t u a t i o n s were r a r e l y handled o t h e r than s e n t i m e n t a l l y . Another as p e c t r e l a t e d t o the p e c u l i a r nature o f Canada was the o o n s e r v a t l v i s m which was e v i d e n t . P u r i t a n i s m has had a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e , emphasizing the n e c e s s i t y of work and r e t a r d i n g development I n more i n t e l l e c t u a l a r e a s . T h i s kept the s t o r y i n many ways t i e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , u n w i l l i n g t o e x p l o r e p r o v o c a t i v e i d e a s . Too, t h e r e has been an emphasis on the e x t e r n a l i n a coun t r y j u s t f o r m i n g . R a r e l y a r e s t o r i e s h i g h l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r I n a depth of s p i r i t u a l agony. The form o f the s t o r y has been s i m i l a r l y r a t h e r slow t o de v e l o p . W r i t e r s o f t e n had to c a t e r t o an audience t h a t expected a c l e a r - c u t p l o t development, e x p l i c i t d e t a i l s , and happy endings. The language, i n o r d e r t o r e f l e c t the o f t e n r a t h e r i n a r t i c u l a t e Canadian c h a r a c t e r , was o f t e n f l a t and monotonous. There were, however, p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r showing r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s l n language which may be seen i n the work of R a d d a l l , Ross, and C a l l a g h a n , f o r example. D e s p i t e these d i f f i c u l t i e s , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Canadian s t o r y d i d develop d u r i n g these y e a r s . Most w r i t e r s , used s e t t i n g s which were Canadian, and r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s -10 2-appeared i n the w i t i n g s o f s e v e r a l a u t h o r s . The s t o r y f o l l o w e d the development of the country and r e f l e c t e d i t . I t c o u l d not be expected t o do more. During these years i t s concerns s h i f t e d from the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t n a t u r e , t o a p o r t r a y a l of man's s o c i a l problems, t o a concern w i t h the subconscious and f i n a l l y to more depth of i d e a . At the same time the s t o r y had s h i f t e d i n form from a p l o t - c e n t e r e d s t o r y o f e x t e r n a l a c t i o n and suspense w i t h neat c l o s e d endings to a more a r t i s t i c form w i t h more s u g g e s t i o n , symbol and u n i t y . At the end of the p e r i o d the s t o r y s t i l l l a c k e d enough p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o make i t a growing form and s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e r n s t o g i v e i t depth. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE CANADIAN SHORT' STORY, 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 5 5 I chose to append t h i s bibliography to my discussion of the Canadian short story for several reasons. F i r s t , no separate bibliography of c o l l e c t i o n s of the Canadian short story e x i s t s . The most comprehensive bibliography of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , R. E. Watters' A Checklist of Canadian_Li.te.ratare and Background Materials .1628-1950 > groups these c o l l e c t i o n s with the novels. Secondly, many short s t o r i e s , some by well-known authors, pass almost unnoticed i n periodicals unless they have been l a t e r chosen for c o l l e c t e d works. Thirdly, usually only the works of noted authors reach the c o l l e c t i o n or anthology stage. For a broader view of what has happened to the short story during t h i s period, we need to look at not only those i n c o l l e c t i o n s , but also those which appeared only i n pe r i o d i c a l s . Fourthly, I f e l t i t would be valuable, to discover the contribution of various p e r i o d i c a l s to the development, the r e l a t i v e productivity of these years, or, i n general, the history of the short story during the period. - 1 0 4 -In making t h e s e l i s t s , I have considered as Canadian those short stor i e s written by authors born i n Canada o r by authors resident i n Canada at the time o f w r i t i n g . This information h a s been found i n Matters' bibliography, i n p e r i o d i c a l writeups o n the authors, and i n other bibliographies o f Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . I have not included short s t o r i e s with Canadian settings written by non-Canadian authors. Juvenile f i c t i o n has also been excluded from the l i s t s , as i t reveals l i t t l e about the development of the short story proper, centering as i t usually does around st o r i e s of romance o r adventure written i n a very simple s t y l e . I have excluded p e r i o d i c a l s e r i a l publications covering more than t w o issues. In addition, although many Canadian short stories have been read over the CBC, I have been able to include only those which have since been published. In making the p e r i o d i c a l indexes, I have not included p e r i o d i c a l s published outside Canada. Certain l i t t l e magazines, es p e c i a l l y those which existed b r i e f l y and had a small regional c i r c u l a t i o n , were not available to me for indexing. These, however, cannot be considered' highly i n f l u e n t i a l i n the development of the short story. A l i s t of those periodicals indexed i s found i n Section I I I . Furthermore, i n the p e r i o d i c a l l i s t i n g s , I have for reasons of space found i t necessary to exclude authors for whom I did not f i n d f i v e or more storie s l i s t e d . - 1 0 5 -These l i s t s have been s e t up i n f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . S e c t i o n I c o n t a i n s , i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , w i t h y e a r l y d i v i s i o n s , t h o s e works p u b l i s h e d under s e p a r a t e c o v e r by one a u t h o r , whether s i n g l e s t o r i e s o r c o l l e c t i o n s . S e p a r a t e l y p u b l i s h e d s t o r i e s o v e r 30 pages l o n g have been e x c l u d e d . O t h e r w i s e t h i s l i s t i s as complete as p o s s i b l e , but i s not d e s c r i p t i v e , i n c l u d i n g o n l y a u t h o r , t i t l e , p u b l i s h e r , p l a c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n , and p a g i n a t i o n . O n l y one p l a c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n i s g i v e n , e i t h e r the f i r s t l i s t e d , o r t h e Canadian p u b l i s h e r i f two e d i t i o n s appeared s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . W i t h i n each y e a r t h e l i s t i n g i s a l p h a b e t i c a l by a u t h o r . S e c t i o n I I , arranged, i n a manner s i m i l a r t o S e c t i o n I , i s o f a n t h o l o g i e s , o r books c o n t a i n i n g works by more t h a n one a u t h o r . I have i n c l u d e d here o n l y t h o s e a n t h o l o g i e s h a v i n g p r i m a r i l y C a n a d i a n a u t h o r s . Where p o s s i b l e , I have i n c l u d e d a l i s t o f the s h o r t s t o r i e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s e a n t h o l o g i e s . S e c t i o n I I I , s h o r t s t o r i e s from - p e r i o d i c a l s , i s a l s o a r r a n g e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . W i t h i n each y e a r t h e arrangement i s a l p h a b e t i c a l by a u t h o r . A l t h o u g h t h i s arrangement p r e c l u d e s l o c a t i n g a s t o r y by i t s t i t l e , I f e l t i t t o be b e s t f o r t h e st u d y o f s h o r t s t o r y development. F o r each, t h e f i r s t known p l a c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n i s g i v e n . A b b r e v i a t i o n s o f p e r i o d i c a l s a r e found a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c t i o n . -106-S e c t i o n IV i s a l i s t of Canadian p e r i o d i c a l s p u b l i s h e d from 1935 to 1955 which c o n t a i n e d 'short s t o r i e s . S e c t i o n V i s a l i s t o f r e f e r e n c e s used i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s , i n c l u d i n g b i b l i o g r a p h i e s . I . Collections This l i s t contains c o l l e c t i o n s of works by one author (including those works having both prose and poetry). The arrangement i s chronological. Separately published s t o r i e s of more than 30 pages have not been included. 123£ ARMSTRONG, JANET M. Rhymes and Rambles. Guelph: Guelph Pub., 1935. 3-1 pp. BELANEY, GEORGE STANSPELD (Wa-Sha-Quon-Asin, Grey Owl, pseuds). The Adventures of Sajo and Her Beaver  People. London: Lovat Dickson & Thompson, 1935-187 pp. BJARNASON, BOGI. Sans the Grand Passion. Treherne, Man* The Times, 1935. 122 pp. FOLLIS, NELLES R. A Miscellany of Tales and Essays. Rev. ed. Toronto! Clarke Irwin, 1935. 174 pp. RHYMAS, MRS. MARGARET. An Album of Rememberings. Burlington, Ont.: Author, 1935. 32 pp. . L i t t l e Stars on Christmas Skies. Burlington, Ont.: Author, 1935. 20 pp. SETON, ERNEST THOMPSON. Johnny Bear. Lobo,.and Other  S t o r i e s . New York: Scribner, 1935. 162 pp. 1226 BATTEN, HARRY MORTIMER. Tameless and Swift: A Book of Animal Stories. London: Chambers, 1936. 1?6 pp. -108-BELANEY, GEORGE STAN8FELD (Wa-Sha-Quort-Asin, Grey Owl, pseuds). Tales of an Empty Cabin. Toronto: Macrn 111 an,"' 1936. 335 PP« BREMNER, BENJAMIN. Tales of Abegweit. Chariottetown: Irwin P r i n t i n g Co., 1936"! 14~6~pp. CALLAGHAN, MORLEY. Now That A p r i l ' s Here and Other  S t o r i e s . Toronto! MacmilIan, 1936! 316 pp. CAMPBELL, WILLIAM. A r c t i c Patrols: Stories of the Royal  Canadian Mounted P o l i c e . Milwaukee: Bruce Pub. Co., 1936. 335 PP. CLAY, CHARLES. A Truly Remarkable Experience. N. P., 1936. 4 pp. F00TNER, HULBERT. Madame Storey. New York: Doran, 1936. 341 pp. c f . The Kidnapping of Madame Storey  and Other St o r i e s . London: C o l l i n s , .1936. 284 pp. McCLUNG, NELLIE LETITIA (Mooney). Leaves from Lantern  Lane. Toronto: A l l e n , 1936. 199 pp. MACDONALD, WILLIAM LIVINGSTONE. Glimpses of L i f e . Poems and prose of Inspi r a t i o n and Education. Toronto: Ontario Pub.'Co., 1936. 139 pp. ROBERTS, SIR CHARLES G. D. Further Animal Stories. London: Dent, 1 9 3 6 . 128 pp. SIGBJORNSON, RANVEIG K. G. Pebbles on the Beach. Treherne, Man.: The Times, 1936. 1? pp. mi ALLEN, EGBERT CHESLEY. Our Northern Year: Stories and  Songs of the Canadian Season. Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 3 7 . 120 pp. HALL, EMMA A. (Yvonne St. C l a i r e , pseud). The A 5s He  Rode. Toronto: Author, 1 9 3 7 . 10 pp. McCLUNG, NELLIE LETITIA. More Leaves from Lantern Lane. Toronto: A l l e n , 1 9 3 7 . 201 pp. McKISHNIE, ARCHIE P. Dwellers of the Marsh Realm. Chicago: M. A. Donahue and Co. ^.Toronto: McLean Merchandise Sales , 1 9 3 7 Q . 79 pp. MURRAY, WILLIAM WALDIE. Five Nines and Whizz Bangs. By the Orderly Sergeant (psued). Ottawa: Legionary Lib r a r y , 1 9 3 7 . 244 pp. -109-SETON, ERNEST THOMPSON. Great H i s t o r i c Animals: Mainly About Wolves. London: Methuen, .1937. 320 pp. WEEKES, MRS. MARY. The Wheatland. Regina: Western Pri n t e r s Ass'n, 1 9 3 7 . 29 pp. 1938 ' BELANEY, GEORGE STANSFELD (Wa-Sha-Quon-Asin, Grey Owl, pseuds). A Book of Grey Owl; Pages from the W.ratings of Wa-Sha-Quon-Asin. Toronto: Macmillan, 1 9 3 8 . 324 pp. CLAY, CHARLES. Swampy Cree Legends. Being Twenty Folk Tales from the Annals of a P r i m i t i v e , Mysterious, Fast Disappearing Canadian Race. As Told to Charles Clay by Kuskapatehees, the Smo,key One. Toronto: Macmillan, 1 9 3 8 . 95 pp. ' CORY, HARPER. Animal Heroes. Toronto: Copp Clarke, 1 9 3 8 . 158 pp. ELLIS, SIDNEY CLARKE. Northland T r a i l s . Toronto: Garden City Press. 1 9 3 8 . 189 pp. STONE, PHIL. "Gold i n the Brass": A C o l l e c t i o n . Toronto: Author, 1 9 3 8 . 35 pp. 1 9 3 9 BARKER, IDA EMMA ( F i t c h ) . Pressed Down and Running Over. Toronto: Author, 1939" 26 pp. DE LA ROCHE, MAZO. The Sacred Bullock and Other Stories  of Animals. Toronto: Macmillan, 1 9 3 9 . 223 pp. EDELSTEIN, HYMAN. Crying Laughing. Montreal: Century Pub. Co., 1 9 3 9 . 126 pp. LE R0SSIGN0L, J . E. The Habitant-Marchant. Toronto: Macmillan, 1 9 3 9 . 258 pp. RADDALL, THOMAS H. The Pied Piper of Dipper Creek and  Other Tales. Edinburgh and London: Blackwood, WW- 3T3~pp. 1940 LEACOCK, STEPHEN. Laugh Parade. A New C o l l e c t i o n of the  Wit and Humour of"Stephen Leacock. New York: Dodd Mead, 1 9 4 0 . : - 1 1 0 -SETON, ERNEST THOMPSON. Ernest Thompson Seton's T r a i l and Campfire St o r i e s. Ed. by J u l i a M. Sea ton. New York: Appleton-Century, 1940. 155 pp. 1941 WHITTON. CHARLOTTE. God's Good Tide. Toronto: Ryerson, 1941. 26 pp. 1942 BORRETT, WILLIAM COATES. More Tales Told Under the Old  Town Clock. Halifax: Imperial Fub. Co., 1942. 233 P P . BORRETT, WILLIAM COATES. Tales Told Under the Old Town  Clock. Halifax: Imperial Pub. Co., 1942. 196 pp. INNIS, MARY QUAYLE. Stand on a Rainbow. Toronto: C o l l i n s , 1943. 290 pp. LEACOCK, STEPHEN BUTLER. Happy Stories Just to Laugh At. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1943. 240 pp. McEWEN, JESSIE EVELYN. The F a i r i e s of the Glen. By Agnes Fisher (pseudT! New York: Nelson, 1943. 40 pp. RADDALL, THOMAS H. The Pied Piper of Dipper Creek and  Other Tales. Toronto: McClelland, 1943. 332 pp. [published England, 1939_J. SMITH, OSWALD J . The Adventures of Andy Mclnnis. Grand Rapids, Mich.! Zondervan, 1943. 6? pp! . Oswald Smith's Short Stori e s . Grand Rapids, Mi ch.! Zondervan, 1943. I63 pp. 1944 BORRETT, WILLIAM COATES. East Coast Port, and Other Tales  Told Under the Old Town Clock. Halifax: Imperial Pub. Co., 1944/ 237 pp. COATES, CAROL. Shanling: or the Tale of the C e l e s t i a l  Tea-Pot, A Christmas Fantasy. O a k v i l l e , Ont.: Barber, 1944. 13 p p . -111-KORRISON, DOROTHY. Tales the Eskimos T e l l . Selected and Retold. Regina School Aids and Textbooks Pub. Co., 1 9 4 4 0 60 pp. WEATHEREY, HUGH WALLACE. Tales the Totems T e l l . Toronto: Macmillan, 1944. .96 pp. BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON. So Near Is Grandeur. Toronto: Macmillan, 1945. 20? pp. BORRETT, WILLIAM COATES. Down East. Another Cargo of  Tales Told Under the Old Town Clock. Halifax: Imperial Pub". Co., I 9 4 5 . 232 pp. GARD, ROBERT E. Johnny Chinook: T a l l Tales and True  From the Canadian West. London: Longmans] 1945. 360 pp. ~ RADDALL, THOMAS H. Tambour and Other S t o r i e s . Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1945. 388 pp. SHERWOOD, ROLAND HAROLD. Pictou Parade. S a c k v i l l e , N. B . s Tribune Press, 1945. 114 pp. 1946 BIRD, WILL R. Sunrise for Peter and Other Stories. Toronto: Ryerson, 1946. 224 pp. KERR, ILLINGWORTH H. Gay Dogs and Dark Horses. Toronto: Dent, 1946. 372 pp. LEACOCK, STEPHEN. The L e a c o o k Roundabout: A Treasury  of the Best Works of Stephen Leacock. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1946. 422 pp. LIDDLE, BEATRICE BOLES. Three Interesting Stories. G l o r i f i e d Wilderness.... Path of Earthly Stars.... Seaward Deluge.... Calgary: Albertan Job Press, 1946. 54 pp. SNIDER, JOHN H. (Knight, Taylor C., pseud). Sorlbbllngs  of a Scribe. Dryden, Ont.: Observer, 19415. 74 pp. WALLACE, PAUL ANTHONY WILSON. The White Roots of Peace (Indian Legends). Philadelphia: U. of Penn. Press, 1946, 57 PP. -112-BARRINGTON, GWENYTH. Women Without Money: Being Certain Data and Otherwise, Which Is Mostly on the Subject of Woman's Private L i f e with the Doll a r . Toronto: Longman's Green, 1947. 15& pp. HOOKE, HILDA M. Thunder i n the Mountains: Legends of  Canada. Toronto: Oxford, 1947. 223 pp. MacMECHAN ,• ARCHIBALD. Tales of the Sea. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, l^vf- 230 pp. RADDALL, THOMAS H. The Wedding; G i f t and Other Stor i e s. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 19^vf", 326" pp. ROBERTS, CHARLES G. D. Thirteen. Bears. Chosen and edited by Ethel Hume Bennett. Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 4 7 . 254 pp. SCOTT, DUNCAN CAMPBELL. The C i r c l e of A f f e c t i o n and Other Pieces i n Prose and Verse. Toronto: McClelland, 237 pp. STEELE, HARWOOD. To Effect and Arrest: Adventures of the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e . Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 4 7 . 311 pp. TAYLOR, DAPHNE. Pompous Parrot, and Other West Indian  Tales. Toronto: Macmillan, 1947. 114 pp. WALLACE, REV. ARCHER. One Hundred Stories for Boys. Nashville: Aborngdon-Cokesbury, 1 9 4 7 . 171 pp. 1948 BORRETT, WILLIAM COATES. H i s t o r i c Halifax: Tales Told  Under the Old Town Clock. Toronto: Ryerson, 1948. 243 pp. HARPER, ALFRED E. Composite Cargo. A Unique C o l l e c t i o n of Poems and Prose Pieces. Ottawa: Tower Books, 1948. 43 pp. LAYTON, IRVING. Now Is the Place. Montreal: F i r s t Statement Press, 1948. 55 pp. RICHARD, THOMAS ARTHUR. Autumn Leaves. Vancouver: Wrigley, 1948. 194 pp. -113-SHERWOOD, ROLAND HAROLD. Story Parade. S a c k v i l l e , N. B.: Tribune Press, 1948. 245 pp. 1949 BROCKIE. WILLIAM. Tales of the Mounted. Toronto: Ryerson, .1949. 182 pp. CATLEY, HARRY. Gate and Gaiters. A Book of Naval Humours  and Anecdotes. By Chief Petty O f f i c e r Harry Catley, Gunners Mate. Toronto: Author, 1 9 4 9 . 357 PP. ROBERTS, C. G. D. Forest Folk. Chosen and Edited by Ethel Hume Bennett. Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 4 9 . 237 PP. SETON, ERNEST THOMPSON. The Best of Ernest Thompson Seton. Selected by W. Kaye Robinson. London: Hodden, 19^9~7~ 408 pp. WOODLEY, REV. EDWARD CARRUTHERS. Untold Tales of Old  Quebec. Toronto: Dent, 1 9 4 9 ! 216 pp. 1951 PENDLE, WALTER HENRY. Poems, Short Tales, Phantasies. Vancouver, 1 9 5 1 . SYMONS, HARRY. The Bored Meeting. Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 5 1 . 121 pp. WELLS, KENNETH MCNEILL. Up Medonte Way. Toronto: Dent, 1 9 5 1 . I2£2 DE LA ROCHE, MAZO. A Boy i n the House and Other S t o r i e s. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, 1 9 5 2 . 244 pp. GARNER, HUGH. The Yellow Sweater and Other Stories. Toronto: C o l l i n s , 1 9 5 2 . 238 pp. HODGINS, SAMUEL RAYMOND NORRIS. The Parsleys and the  Sage. Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 5 2 . 153 pp. McCRIMMON, HARRIET M. This Is My Country and Other Stories. Toronto: T. Eaton Co., 1 9 5 2 . 23 pp. - 1 1 4 -O'MEARA, WALTER ANDREW. Tales of the Two Borders. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1 9 5 2 . 197 PP' mi BACCHUS, NOEL. You've Got to Show Me—, and Other  S t o r i e s . Toronto: McClelland, 1 9 5 3 . 11? pp. HAYCOX, ERNEST. By Rope and Lead. Montreal: Pocket Books of Canada, .1953. l6 '5 pp. WAKEHAM, PIUS JOSEPH. Twenty Newfoundland Stories. St. John's: Long Bros., 1 9 5 3 . 322 pp. 1 9 5 4 RADDALL, THOMAS H. A Muster of Arms and Other S t o r i e s . Toronto: McClelland, 1954. 236 pp. YOUNG, REV. EGERTON RYERSON. When the Blackfeet Went  South and Other Stories. London: Butterworth Press, 1 9 5 4 . 95 PP- C F i r s t published London: Boy's Own Paper, 1 9 3 6 , 128 pp.). mi WREN, PERCIVAL CHRISTOPHER. Stories of the Foreign  Legion, Montreal: Permabooks, 1 9 5 5 . 247 pp. UNDATED BLA CK, MA RTHA LOUISE (Munge r ) . A Klondike Christmas Tale. Whitehorse, Y. T.: P r i v . P r i n t , N. D. 11 pp. HALL, EMM M. The Ass He Rode , The Ocean's Oratories. The Scented Garden. Songs of a Young Country. By Yvonne St. C l a i r e , pseud. N. P. N. D. 4 vols i n one. . Claudie. A Story of the Early Church. By Yvonne St. C l a i r e , pseud. N. P. N. D. 11 pp. . The P i l l o w . A Story Suggested by New Testament Incidents. By Yvonne St. C l a i r e , pseud. Toronto: I n d u s t r i a l and Educational Pub. Co., N. D. 32 pp. RYAN, NORMAN J . "Red" Ryan's Rhymes and Episodes. Hamilton, Ont., N. P. N. D. 92 pp. I I . A n t h o l o g i e s T h i s l i s t c o n t a i n s a l l c o l l e c t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the s t o r i e s o f more than one author. The arrangement i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l , where p o s s i b l e , the s t o r i e s c o n t a i n e d i n an anthology are l i s t e d below i t . mi CANADIAN MAGAZINE, Toronto. S t o r i e s i n Many Moods. Toronto: Hugh C. MacLean, 1935. 126 pp. Morley C a l l a g h a n , "The Novice"; D. K. P i n d l a y , "To B i d You welcome"; L. P a u l , "Son of Yonder-bound"; A l b e r t a C. T r i m b l e , "Mrs, Balcom's Hat"; B e r y l Gray, "From Such a Marriage"; R o d e r i c k S t u a r t Kennedy, "Zero Hour"; F r e d e r i c k B. Watt, "The Gun F i g h t e r " ; Frances B e a t r i c e T a y l o r , " I n s t e a d of the Thorn.". REGINA COLLEGE WRITER'S CLUB. Tuesday Ni g h t , 1 9 3 5 . Regina: Western P r i n t e r s , 1 9 3 5 . 32 pp. 1 2 2 6 BROOKER, BERTRAM, ed. Yearbook o f the A r t s i n Canada. Toronto: Macmillan, 1 9 3 6 . 256 pp. Contains Morley C a l l a g h a n , " S i c k C a l l " ; Mazo de l a Roche, "Twa Kings"; L u e l l a Bruce C r e i g h t o n , "Miss K i d d " ; Leo Kennedy, " P o r t i o n o f Your B r e a t h " ; E l e a n o r McNaught, "September Sonata"; Mary Quayle I n n i s , " H o l i d a y " ; John R. F i s h e r , "Sheik"; J . S. McDougall, "A R e s p e c t a b l e House." CANADIAN MAGAZINE, Toronto. S e l e c t e d Short S t o r i e s . Toronto: Hugh C. MacLearu 246 pp! -116-Laura Goodman Salverson, "Queer Heart"; L e s l i e McFarlane, "A Matter of P r i n c i p l e " ; "Will H. B i r d , "The Movies Come to Gull Point"; Roderick Stuart Kennedy, "Mr. Briggs, Gangster"; D. K. Pindlay, "Heroine of an Anecdote"; Frances Beatrice Taylor, "Miss Richardson Goes Wrong"; L e s l i e Gordon Barnard, "The Dark Angel passes"; Alberta C . Trimble, "Whistling G i r l " ; Beryl Gray,' "The Challenge"; Hubert Evans, " S i l v e r Swallow"; Van Harrison, "Skoal to the Viking"; Anne Elizabeth Wilson, "Robin's Egg Blues"; Charles G. Booth, "This Man Knew"; N. de Bertrand Lugrin, "Timber Wolves"; Theodore Goodridge Roberts, "Mrs. f f o l i a t ' s Husband"; Fred Sloman, "Breath of God"; M. E. Palmer, "I S h a l l Return"; Thomas B. Watt, "Trusting Thomas"; Victor Lauriston, "Chinook T r a i l " ; Latrobe C a r r o l l , "Fury on Ice." TORONTO WRITERS' CLUB. F i c t i o n . A Publication of the Writers' Club, Toronto. Fort E r i e , Ont. Review Co ., 1936. 48 pp. mi BECKER, MRS. MAY (Lamberton). Golden Tales of Canada. Selected with an introduction by May Lamberton Becker. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1 9 3 8 . 274 pp. Stephen Leacock, "The Marine Excursion of the Knights of Pythias"; Louis Hemon, "One Thousand Aves"; Thomas Morris Longstreth, "Maria Chapdelaine of Peribonka"; T. C. Haliburton, "Soft Sawder and Human Natur'"; John Richardson, "The Black Warrior"; Edward William Thompson, "Old Man Savarin"; Jessie Georgina Sime, "A Book About Canada"; Norman Duncan, "Christmas Eve at Topmast T i c k l e " ; M e r r i l l Denison, "The Weather Breeder"; Marjorie P i c k t h a l l , "Luck"; Gilbert Parker, "The Tragio Comedy of Annette"; N e l l i e McClung, "The F i r s t Winter"; Muriel Denison, "Almighty Voice"; Ralph Conor, "The Raising"; Grey Owl, "The Beavers"; John Beames, "A Real Live Lord." 1940 CURRAN, JAMES WATSON, Comp. Wolves Don't B i t e . Sault Ste-Marie: Sault Daily Star, 1 9 4 0 . 225 pp. 1941 BANKS, YARKER, LLOYD McCAUGHEY, AND LESLIE HAMILTON. Modern Shorts. Hamilton, Ont.: Beaver Publications, 1941 . 188 pp. - 1 1 7 -BEJANSON, W. R. Stories of Acadia (Birch Bark Series, Part IV). Rockingham, N. S.: The Author, 1941. 5? PP. 1944 GUSTAFSOK, RALPH, eel. Canadian Accent. C o l l e c t i o n of Stories and Poems by Contemporary Writers from Canada. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Eng.; New York, Penquin Books, 1944. 144 pp. Contains Morley Callaghan, "Two Fishermen"; Raymond Knister, "Mist Green Oats"; W. W. E. Ross, " D i s t i l l a t e s " ; Earle Birney, "Joe Ha r r i s , 1913-1942"; S y b i l Hutchinson, "Second Sight"; Patrick Anderson, "Dramatic Monologue"; William McConnell, "Montage"; Patrick Waddington, "Our Way of L i f e " ; Hugh MacLennan, "The Halifax Explosion"; S i n c l a i r Ross, "One's a Heifer"; Katherine Marcuse, "Soldier"; P. K. Page, "The Green B i r d . " 1946 BUGBEE, WILLIS NEWTON. Echoes from the North, A Co l l e c t i o n of Legends, Yarns, and Sagas. Syracuse, N. Y.: W i l l i s N. Bugbee Co., 1946. ROBINS, JOHN D. A Pocketful of Canada. Toronto: C o l l i n s , 1946. 434 pp. Contains Hugh MacLennan, "The Halifax Explosion"; .Mary Quayle Innis, " F i r s t Frogs"; Thomas H. Raddall, "A Nova Scotia Seaman-Lumberman"; Stephen Leacock, "My Fi n a n c i a l Career"; Thomas H. Raddall, "Roddie John Practices the Pipes"; Charles Clay, "How the World Was Made Again"; Morley Callaghan, "The Rejected One." 131*1 PACEY, DESMOND. A Book of Canadian Stori e s. Toronto: Ryerson, 1947J, 195 pp. Indian Tales: " T h e Bear and the Hunter's Step-son", "The T r i c k s t e r and the Old Witch", "The Coming of the White Man," "The White Man and the Indian"; Joseph Howe, " T h e Locksmith, of Philadelphia"; T. C. I-laliburton, "Sam S l i c k the Clockmaker"; Susanna Hoodie, "Old Woodruff and His Three Wives"; Edward William Thompson, "The P r i v i l e g e of the Limit s " ; S i r Charles G. D. Roberts, "The Young Ravens that C a l l Upon Him"; S i r Gilbert Parker, - 1 1 8 -"The Flood"; Duncan Campbell Scott, "Paul F a r l o t t e " ; Alan S u l l i v a n , "The Salving of Pyack"; Stephen Leacock,- "The Speculations of Jefferson Thorpe"; Norman Duncan, "The F r u i t s of T o i l " ; Frederick P h i l i p Grove, "Snow"; Theodore Goodridge Roberts, "The White Wolf"; Marjorie P i c k t h a l l , "The Worker i n Sandalwood"; Ma20 De La Roche, "Come Fly with Me"; L e s l i e Gordon Barnard, "The Dancing Bear"; W i l l R. B i r d , "The Movies Come to Gull Point"; W. G. Hardy, "The Czech Dog"; Raymond Knister, "The Strawstack"; Mary Quayle Innis, "The B e l l s " ; Thomas H. Raddall, "The Amulet"; Morley Callaghan, "Father and Son"; Leo Kennedy, "A P r i e s t i n the Family"; S i n c l a i r Ross, "The Lamp at Noon"; P a t r i c i a K. Page, "The Resignation"; William MoConnell, "The A l i e n . " 1948 DAVIDSON, L. J . AND BLAKE FORRESTER, eds. Rocky Mountain  Tales. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 19 ;+7. 316 pp. 1950 JOSEPH, ALEXANDER CALLOW. The Rovin' Pigeon with Verse  Yarns, Humour, Short Stories, etc. from D. V. A.  Hospital Patients Across Canada. By A l Pat (pseud). Toronto, 1 9 5 0 . PACEY, DESMOND, ed. A Book of Canadian Stori e s. Second ed. Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 5 0 . 310 pp. Indian Tales: 'The Bear and The Hunter's Step-Son," •The T r i c k s t e r and the Old Witch," "The Coming of the White Man,"The White Man and the Indian?' Joseph Howe, "The Locksmith of Philadelphia"; Thomas Chandler Halburton, "Sam S l i c k the Clockmaker"; Susanna Moodie, "Old Woodruff and His Three Wives"; Edward William Thompson, "The P r i v i l e g e of the Limi t s " ; S i r Charles G. D. Roberts, "The Young Ravens that C a l l Upon Him"; S i r Gilbert Parker, "The Flood"; Duncan Campbell Scott, "Paul F a r l o t t e " ; Alan S u l l i v a n , "The Salving of Pyack"; Stephen Leacock, "The Speculations of Jefferson Thorpe"; Norman Duncan, "The Fru i t s of T o i l " ; Frederic]?: P h i l i p Grove, "Snow"; Theodore Goodridge Roberts, "The White Wolf"; Marjorie P i c k t h a l l , "The Worker i n Sandalwood"; Mazo De La Roche, "Come Fly With Me"; L e s l i e Gordon Barnard, "The Dancing Bear"; W i l l H . B i r d , "The Movies Come to Gull Point"; - 1 1 9 -W. G. Hardy, "The Czech Dog"; Raymond K n i s t e r , "The Strawstack"; Mary Quayle Xrmis, "The B e l l s " ; Thomas H, R a d d a l l , "The Amulet"; Morley Callaghan, "Father and Son 1 5; Leo Kennedy, "A P r i e s t i n the Family"; S i n c l a i r Ross, "The Lamp at Noon1'; P a t r i c i a K. Page, "The R e s i g n a t i o n " ; W i l l i a m McConnell, "The A l i e n " ; E t h e l Wilson, "Hurry Hurry'."; W. 0 . M i t c h e l l , " S a i n t Sammy." 1951 ROBINS 5 JOHN D. and MARGARET V. RAY. A Book of Canadian  Humour. Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 5 1 • 3 0 5 pp. N e l l i e MoClung, "Banking In London"; M e r r i l l Denison, "A R e s e r v a t i o n " 5 Stephen Leacock, "My Remarkable U n c l e " ; T. C. l i a l i b u r t o n , "Father Wins a Horse Race"; E a r l e B i r n e y , " P r i v a t e Turvey Becomes A c t i n g Senior O f f i c e r " ; John D. Robins, "Gwen A r r i v e s at the Cottage"; Peter Donovan (P. 0 . ' D),. "Mike"; Kenneth C. Cra g<*, "Rover' s Mi s take wa s i n Going to Church": Vi. 0 . M i t c h e l l , "Two Kinds of Sinner"; Edward W. Thompson, "Old Man S a v a r i n " ; Madge Macbeth and A. B. Conway, "What's i n a Name?"; Joseph S c h u l l , "The Common Man"; Kenneth C. Cragg, "Their Progress was a Saddening S i g h t " ; Thomas H. R a d d a l l , "Miss L e t t y Canvasses f o r the Monument"; Robert Fontaine, "Geralde and the Green, Green Grass"; Peter McArthur, "A S i c k Cow"; Mary Quayle I n n i s , "The L i v e d - I n Look"; C. B. Pyper "Perpendicular Baths"; Sara Jeannette Duncan, "Orthodocia Goes Through Customs at Montreal"; Mary Lowrey Ross, "The Trousseau Tea"; James de M i l l e , "Dick R e l a t e s a Family Legend"; Robert Gard, "Remarkable Experience of Johnny Chinook"; Fred Stimson, "Outboasts the Englishmen"; Ed M a n d e v i l l e , "Paul Bunyan*s B i g G r i d d l e " ; Mary Lowrey Ross, "The T y p i c a l Moron"; C. B. Pyper, "Your Appendix"; Harry Symons, "The R e l u c t a n t S p e c i a l i s t " ; T. B. Robertson, "A Cake of Soap"; Robertson Davies, "Remember Creatore"; Hector Charlesworth, "Why Culloden Was L o s t . " ! 2 i 2 JAMES, HELEN and ROBERT WEAVER. Canadian Short S t o r i e s . Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1952"! 248 pp. -120-Hugh Ga r n e r , "One M i l e o f I c e " ; Edward A. McCourt, "The White Mustang"; A l a n P h i l l i p s , "The P r e s e n c e i n the Grove"; Ted A l l a n , " L i e s My F a t h e r T o l d Me"; J o y c e M a r s h a l l , "The O l d Woman"; F l o r i s McLaren, "A Date w i t h Dora"; Gwen Rlngwood, "The L i t t l e Ghost"; W i l l i a m S. A n n e t t , "The R e l i c " ; Douglas S p e t t i g u e , " A s t e r s f o r T e d d i e " ; Roger L e r n e l i n , "The S t a t i o n s o f the C r o s s " ; Rigmore Adamson, "The M u s i c L e s s o n " ; Hugh Garner, "One, Two, Three L i t t l e I n d i a n s " ; C o l l e e n Thibaudeau, "The C i t y Underground"; W i l l i a m M c C o n n e l l , "Totem"; J e a n Kowarth, "The N o v i t i a t e " ; E t h e l W i l s o n , "Mrs. G o l i g h t l y and t h e F i r s t C o n v e n t i o n " ; E. G. P e r r a u l t , "The S i l v e r K i n g " ; Yves T h e r r i a u . l t , " J e a r m e t t e " ; P a t r i c k Waddington, "The S t r e e t t h a t Got M i s l a i d " ; E r n e s t o Cuevas, "Lock t h e Doors, L o c k the Windows"; James Reaney, "The B u l l y " ; A l v i n Goldman, "Almost L i k e Dead"; R o b e r t B l a c k b u r n , "The C l a y D i s h " ; S i n c l a i r R o s s , "The Outlaw." mi HARDY, W. G., ed. The A l b e r t a G o lden J u b i l e e A n t h o l o g y . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t , 1 9 5 5 . W pp. C o n t a i n s R. Ross A n n e t t , " E s p e c i a l l y Babe"; Kay Brook, "The G i f t " ; B a r b a r a V i l l y Cormack, "Nine O ' c l o c k L i f t " ; H a r o l d F. C r u i c k s h a n k , "The Golden I d o l " ; J o h n P a t r i c k G i l l e s e , " K i r b y ' s Gander"; VJ. G. Hardy, "The Czech Dog"; M a r g a r e t Coleman J o h n s o n , " P r o f i l e A t Four"; Henry K r e i s e l , "The B r o k e n G l o v e " ; B l a k e MacKenzie, "Krue and t h e Mammoth"; W. 0. M i t c h e l l , "The Day J a k e Made Her R a i n " ; S h e i l a MacKay R u s s e l l , " A b k i e Was A Mudder." KING, CARLYLE, ed. Saskatchewan H a r v e s t . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1 9 5 5 . 224~pp. C o n t a i n s F r e d e r i c k P h i l i p Grove, "Snow"; I l l i n g w o r t h K e r r , " Duck-Hunting w i t h U n c l e Cy"; Edward A. McCourt, " S p o r t s Day a t Twin B u t t e s " ; S i n c l a i r R oss, " C o r n e t a t N i g h t " ; W. 0. M i t c h e l l , " S a i n t Sammy." KLINCK, CARL F. and REGINALD E. WATTERS. Ca n a d i a n A n t h o l o g y . T o r o n t o : W. J . Gage L i m i t e d , 1955. C o n t a i n s T. C. H a l i b u r t o n , "The Clockmaker," "The •Road t o a Woman's H e a r t , " "The Clockmaker's O p i n i o n o f H a l i f a x , " "A Cure f o r Smuggling," "The P r i n c e -de J a i n v i l l e ' s H o rse," "An E n g l i s h Market f o r C o l o n i a l T a l e n t s , " " V a l e d i c t o r y A d d r e s s " ; S i r - 1 2 1 -C h a r l u c ^. D. H o b a r t s , " V b - i'oui: v-.- -JS t h a t C;J 11 Unon . . i i . i , t : " I n t h e Deo: o f th« un..::1'; Duncan C a ^ n b a l l S c o t t , "The r c V l . o r , ! : " i i : - - . . . i t c h i n - : of J . r i c ; ' - ; S i r G i l b e r t .arl«r, " L i t t l e i.c!:ichc"; S a r a J e a n n u t t e Duncan C o a t ^ s , f r o " s o c i a l D " , r t u r e ! : • Stephen Lcacoc'., "My r i i T J U i c i a l C a r e e r , " " T i r j i m t r o a c t iv; j i z l s t c r - c c o f i . r . Ju'- v i n e , " "The x i l v a l Churches o f S t . Asavh a\ul S t . Osa pn"; F r e c u i i c > H i i l i p Grove, ".» S t o r i . i n J u l y , " "The Sower"; w 0 2o do l a Roche, fror.; Tha v h i t n o;i'-f o f J a i n a ; E t h e l "Wilson, fro::. Tuesuay ana v. o;cno &.(•&.>•, " n i s s T r i t t " ; M o r l e y Ca H a i n a n , ".an j i s c a p a u s , " "Two F i s h e r m e n , •• "The S h i n i n g l i e d A p p l e " ; Iiu^h rlacLennar. fro i : : Each Man's Son; S i n c l a i r R o s s , ''One's a H e i f e r 1 1 ; M a l c o l m Lowrey, " s t r a n g e C omfort A f f o r d e d by the P r o f e s s i o n " ; P. K. Page, "The Woman". BEMSON, NATHANIEL A., ed. C a n a d i a n S t o r i e s o f A c t i o n ana  Humour. T o r o n t o : Thomas K e l s o n or- Sons, 1955. C o n t a i n s W. B l e a s d e l l Cameron, " I n t h e C r u c i b l e " ; J o h n D. P l i s g i n b o t t h a j a i , "when t h e West Was Younr" ; Duncan C a n p b e l l S c o t t , " C h a r c o a l " ; Much MacLennan-, " H a l i f a x E x p l o s i o n " ; J . K. H a r r i s , " i . a i l " ; S i r C h a r l e s G. D. R o b e r t s , "The Bear Woke Ur,11; Gregory C l a r k , "The cool:," "The G e n t l e s t i i r t . r 111-I I I . Stories i n .periodicals This chronological l i s t i n g includes only those authors who published at least f i v e s t o r i e s i n the Canadian periodicals examined. Each item includes author, t i t l e , journal, volume, date, and the number of the f i r s t page on which the story appeared. The following i s a l i s t of the periodicals indexed and the abbreviations used: C Book Canadian Bookman C Forum Canadian Forum CHJ Canadian Home Journal""" C L i f e Canadian L i f e C 14a g Ca na d i a n Ma ga z ine Chat Chatelaine Dal H Dalhousie Review Di r e c t i o n Direction Echoes Echoes F Stat F i r s t Statement Here and Wow Here and Now ML • Maclean's New Front New Frontier N Rev Northern Review pm Mag pm Magazine Prev Preview Q Q Queen's Quarterly Reading Reading Sat N Saturday Night S and G Scarlet and Gold U.B.C. T'bird U.B.C. Thunderbird h i s s i n g A p r i l , 1946 to January, 194b. - 1 2 3 -1225 AKNlATari, FiiUL " F o r e s t Feud" ML 46 ( o c t 1, 1935) 20 " O l d B a t t l e Tank" 4b (Aug 15, 1935) 12 ATLiiS, fcaKGi "Death t y the R i v e r " i l . 4b (narch 15, 1935) 20 " T h i s Yellow Dust" £j_ 48 (Dec 1, 1935) 7 "To S l e e p , Perchance l o ..." KL 48 (Lay 15, 1935) 12 "Woman o f S a t u r n " r.L 48 (Sept~15, 1935) 7 BARNAriD, LESLIE GORDON " H e a d l i n e s f o r Peter" ChJ 31 (Jan, 1935) 18 "i-.ere Chance" KL4CV.UP- 1 , 1935) 25 " S e l d o n Square" ChJ 32 (Oct, 1935) 18 "Supper at h r . i m a g e r ' s " Chat 8 ( A p r i l , 1935) 20 "Water from the Jordan" ChJ 32 ( J u l y , 1935) 18 BEN ETT KELANIE E. " C r i s i s f o r E v e r l l " KL 46 (Oct 15, 1935) 23 "The Curse o f Goat's ^ood" Chat 8 (March, 1935) 22 "Mrs. D a c i e r " Chat 5 (Oct, 1935) 5 "Pomp and Circumstance" C Mag 84 (Aug, 1935) 16 BENTKAK, JOSEPHINE " L i t t l e M iss Armenia" Chat 8 (Nov, 1935) 21 "The Kan From Waterloo" ML 48 (Sept 15, 1935) 12 "Too Much Charm" 48 T A p r i l 1, 1935) 16 BIRD, WILL R. "The Blue F e a t h e r " CHJ 32 (Sept, 1935) 18 " S o u v e n i r " Chat 5 T T e b , 1935) 22 "The Substance o f Content" C Kag 83 (Jan, 1935) 12 BOOTH, CHARLES G. " B r i e f H o l i d a y " C Kag 84 (Nov, 1935) 3 " D i s c o v e r y F l i g h t " C hag 84 (Oct, 1935) 8 CALLAGHAN, MORLEY "The F i d d l e r on Twenty-Third S t r e e t " ML 49 (Dec 15, 1935) 16 "~ CUNNINGHAM, LOUIS ARTHUR " M i s t 0' the Koors" CHJ 31 (March, 1935) 3 "Uncle Croesus" KI_ 4b~TNov 1, 1935) 24 DeLaHOCHS, MAZO "The Submissive Wife" CHJ 32 (Aug, 1935) 5 EVANS, ALLEN ROY "Coming a t Ten" hi 45 (Oct 15, 1935) 12 " L u l u Comes Home" 48 ( A p r i l 15, 1935) 16 "The overhead" MI. «*b (Sept 15, 1935) 22 "The Withered AppU:" Chat 8 ( J u l y , 1935) 20 - 1 2 4 -EVAKS, HUBERT '••Boys of the Old Brigade" ML 48 (Feb 1 5 , 1935) 12 FINDLAY, D. K. "By F a i t h Out of Hope" ML 48 (May 1 , 1935) 16 "Heroine of an Anecdote" C Maft 83 ( A p r i l , 1935) 3 "Match Play w i t h Uncle Edward" G Mag 84 (Sept, 1935) "Warmth i n the Wilderness" G Mag 83 (Jan, 1935) 3 'vJTlil X , iJ- • v • "The C l a i r v o y a n t " Chat 8 (Aug, 1935) 14 "Escape Me Never" Chat 8 (May, 1935) 22 "The Iron Duke" Chat 8 (Feb, 1935) 23 "The Loves of a D i c t a t o r " Chat 8 (June, 1935) 2"0 "Sanders of the R i v e r " Chat 8 ( J u l y , 1935) 14 "The S c a r l e t Pimpernel" Chat 8 (March, 1935) 8 "The T h i r t y - N i n e Steps" Chat 8 (Oct, 1935) 19 " T r a n s a t l a n t i c Tunnel" Chat 8 (Dec, 1935) 14 GRAY, BERYL "The D i s t u r b i n g I n f l u e n c e " C Mag 83 (March, 1935) 3 "The Homecoming" C Mag 84 (Dec, 1935) 14 "House of Forgotten Laughter" Chat 8 (Feb, 1935) 20 "Land of Tomorrow" C Mag 84 ( J u l y , 1935) 3 HARDY, W. G. " F e s t i v a l i n Florence" C_HJ 31 ( A p r i l , 1935) 12 HARRIS, FRANK MANN "Not So Yellow K i d " ML 48 (Feb 1 , 1935) 10 "Old Judge H a l l o w e l l " ML 48 (A U K 1, 1935) 12 "What I t Takes I s Strategy" ML 48 (Jan 1, 1935) 12 HARRISON, VAN "Once the Golden Helen" C Mag 84 (Nov, 1935) 6 "Skoal to the V i k i n g " C Mag 84 (Aug, 1935) 8 HUTCHISON, BRUCE "Farther From the East" Chat 8 (.May, 1935) 18 "King of Sob" ML 48 (Nov 1, 1935) 7 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "Brotherhood" C .Forum 15 (Feb, 1935) 188 "Thunder on the S t a i r s " CHJ 32 (May, 1935) 22 JASPSRSON, FRED K. "Haul'." C Mag 83 (June, 1935) 8 KENNEDY, R.S. "Mr. B r i g g s , Gangster" C Mag 84 ( J u l y , 1935) 10 LaMOUNTAIN, MARION "Breath of Pines" C Mag 84 ( J u l y , 1935) 6 -125-LAURISTON, VICTOR "Chinook T r a i l " C Mafr 84 . (Nov, 1935) 10 "9:18 E x a c t l y " C hap; 83 (May, 1935) 10 LUGRIN, N. de BERTHAND "The Case of A l l a n P a i r l e y " C Mag 83 (Jan, 1935) 16 "Vengeance of the Sea" C Mag 84~(Dec, 1935) 10 and C Mag 85 (Jan, 1936) 10 McBOUGALL, JOSEPH EASTON "The Table Behind" Sat N' 50 (Oct 12, 1 9 3 5 ) 2 McFARLANE, LESLIE "The Future of Gerard" ML 48 (Oct 1 , 1935) 10 "Tiger Jack's Daughter" ML 48 (March 1 , 1935) 1 2 . MCKINLEY, MABEL BURNS "Feast of the Ki t c h e n God" CHJ 31 (Jan, 1935) 14 "The F e s t i v a l of Lanterns" CHJ 32 (May, 1935) 18 "Precious P e a r l " CHJ 32 (June, 1935) 16 PUGSLEY , E. E. "Lan d s l i d e to Romance" C Mag 84 (Sept, 1935) 14 RADCLIFPE, GARNETT "A C h r i s t i a n Awakes" ML 48 (Oct 1 , 1935) 7 "The Strange Case of John Ferguson" ML 48 (Jan 1 , 1935) 15 "Sweet Peas" ML 48 (Sept 1 , 1935) 20 ROBERTS, THEODORE GOODRIDGE "Wolf i n the P a r i s h " CHJ 31 (February, 1935) 10 ROSS, MARY LOWREY "Nothing To Worry About" Sat N (Dec ?, 1935) 18 ROSS, SINCLAIR "A F i e l d of Wheat" QQ 42 (Sp r i n g , 1935) 31 "September Snow" QQ 42 (Winter, 1 9 3 5 - 6 ) 451 SANGSTER, HELEN M0RSW0HTHY "Mr. Foster Takes a Chance" ML 48 (Sept 1 5 , 1935) 25 "Mr. P i e r c e ' s Shopping" Sat N 51 (Dec 7, 1935) 17 SCHI3GALL, OSCAR " P e t r i f i e d P e r s o n a l i t y " ML 48 ( J u l y 1 , 1935) 12 SCHULL, JOSEPH "One Hour A f t e r Midnight" C Forum 15 (Jan, 1935) 145 SCOTT, E. MARGERIE "Dear Past" C Mag 84 (Dec, 1935) 8 SCOTT, JANET ERSKINE "A L i t t l e C h i l d S h a l l Lead Them" CHJ 32 (Dec, 1935) - 1 2 6 -SPENCER, SHEILA "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's West" C Mag 84 (Oct, 1935) 4 TAYLOR, FRANCES BEATRICE " A l l Through the Night" C Mag 84 (Dec, 1935) 12 "Miss Richardson' Goes Wrong" C Mag 83 (Jan, 1935) 9 THOMAS, MARTHA £iii:iv'ING "Arrows i n Your Heart" Chat 8 ( A p r i l , 1935) 18 " B l i n d Man's B u f f " Chat 8 (Jan, 1935) 3 "Oats f o r 01e ander" Chat 8 (Aug, 1935) 5 TRIMBLE, ALBERTA C * "Three»s Comp any" C Ma g 84 (Nov, 1935) 12 WATT, FREDERICK E. "The Homing T igeon" CHJ 32 (Aug, 1935) 10 " T r u s t i n g Tho S S " C Mag 84 ( J u l y , 1935) 12 1936 ARMSTRONG, MATT M U R R Y "Back from t h e Land" C Forum 15 (Aug, 1936) 1? "Sideroad- C Forum 16 (Sept, 1936) 23 ATLEE, BENGE "Clue U n e x p e c t e d " ML 49 (Feb 1 5 , 1936) 12 "Death at 7 : 3 0 " ML 49 ( J u l y 1 , 1936) 12 "Roadhouse B l u e s " ML 49 (June 1 5 , 1936) 7 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "Beyond Paradise" CpHJ 32 ( A p r i l , 1936) 10 "By-Pass to Paradise" CHJ 33 (-Aug, 1936) 16 "Cotton Cargo" C_HJ 32~TJan, 1936) 7 " D e c l a r a t i o n o f War" CHJ 33 (Nov, 193-6) 12 "Northern T r a i l " C Mag 86 (Sept, 1936) 12 "Scandal R u n s on Wheels" Chat 8 (Oct, 1936) 9 "She Bows t o B r a i n s " C_HJ 33 (June, 1936) 5 "Two Minutes S i l e n c e " ML 49 (Nov 1 , 1936) 15 "The Wooing of Kathie O'Toole" ML 49 (Nov 1 5 , 1936) 33 BENETT, MELANIE E. "The Green Jacket" C Mag 86 (Sept, 1936) 14 " I t ' s a Wicked World" C Mag 85 ( A p r i l , 1936) 8 BIRD, WILL R. "Anniversary" C Mag 85 (June, 1936) 12 " G i r l Crazy" CHJ 33 (May, 1936) 18 "Movies Come t o G u l l P o i n t " C Mag 85 (March, 1936) 16 "The New R i f l e " C Mag 86 (Aug, i ' 936) 6 - 1 2 7 -BOOTH, CHARLES G. " C a n d l e s t i c k of C e l l i n i " C Mag 85 (June, 1936) 10 "The Great Dalyrymple" C Mag 86" ( J u l y , 1936) 14 CUNNINGHAM, LOUIS ARTHUR "The Kings of Y v e t o t " CHJ 33 ( J u l y , 1936) 16 DeLaROCHE, MAZO "The Pony That Would Not Be Ridden" CHJ 33 (Aug, 1936) 8 "Twa Kings" GHJ 32 (Jan, 1936) 18 EVANS, ALLEN ROY "Dream Out of Dust" Chat 9 (Feb, 1936) 10 EVANS, HUBERT " L u r k i n g Hordes" ML 49 (Feb" 1 5 , 1936) 25 " S i l v e r Swallow" C Mag 85 (May, 1936) 10 EVERSON, RONALD GILMOUR "Behind the C u r t a i n " C Mag 86 (Nov, 1936) 6 "Lonesome R i v e r " C Mag 85 ( A p r i l , 1936) 10 "The Other Road" C_HJ 33 (Sept, 1936) 10 "Tuesday Evening Lady" C Mag 86 (Dec, 1936) 10 "Wedding on Wednesday" C Mag 8 6 ( 0 c t , 1936) 10 "Winnipeg S t r a i n " C Mag 85 (March, 1936) 17 "The Woman of the P i n e s " CHJ 33 (June, 1936) 16 FINDLAY, D.K. " P e a r l s May Be Paste" C Mag 86 (Nov, 1936) 10 GERY, R. V. "Dead Men's Shoes" C Mag 86 ( J u l y , 1936) 4 "The Fan" C Mag 85 (March, 1936) 8 GRAY, BERYL " K a r o l a " C_KJ (March, 1936) 10 "Return to L i f e " Chat 9 ( J u l y , 1936) 8 "The S e t t l i n g of L o r n a " Chat 9 (Jan, 1936) 12 "Sweet F o o l " Chat 9 (Feb, 1936) 10 " T w e n t y - F i r s t B i r t h d a y " C Mag 86 (Oct, 1936) 14 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "A Red Rose" C_KJ 32 ( A p r i l , 1936) 24 " S t a v e r " New Front 1 ( A p r i l , 1936) 18 JASPERSON, FRED K.' "There's Always Another S p r i n g " C Mag 85 ( A p r i l , 1936) 14 -128-LaMCUMTAIN, MARION "Mother Knows Best" G Mag 86 (Nov, 1936) 3 "She Had Eve r y t h i n g " G Mag 85 (June,. 1936) 3 "There Shone a Star" C Mag 86 (Dec, 1936) 16 LIVESAY, DOROTHY "Case Supervisor" New Front 1 ( J u l y , 1936) 6 LUGRIN, N. cle BEETRAND "This Dark" Chat 9 (Jan, 1936) 10 McDOU GALL, JOSEPH EASTON "Apple P i e " Sat N 51 (Oct 1?, 1936) 1 "The Confidence Man" Sat N 51 ( J u l y 18, 1936) 2 • "The Den" Sat N 51 (Jan 4", 1936) 3 "The Heirloom" Sat N 51 (Feb 2 9 , 1936) 1 "A Respectable House" Sat N 51 (June 6 , 1936) 3 McFARLANE, LESLIE "Dunkel from Dunkelburg" ML 49 (Feb 1 5 , 1936) 22 "The Lunacy of Lu c i e n " ML 49 (Nov 1 , 1936) 12 "A Matter of P r i n c i p l e " C Mag 86 (Oct, 1936) 3 McILROY, KIMBALL "A L e t t e r From Mrs. Henderson" New Front 1 (March, 1936) 16 "Something to T e l l You" C Forum 16 (Nov, 1936) 22 MCKINLEY, MABEL BURNS "At the Temple of the Crouching T i g e r " CHJ 32 ( A p r i l , 1936) 14 "Grey Wolf" CHJ 32 (Feb, 1936) 16 RADCLIFFE, GARNETT "The Red Boar" ML 49 (Oct 1 5 , 1936) 7 ROSS, SINCLAIR " C i r c u s i n Town" QQ 43 (Winter, 1936-7) 368 ROSS, MARY LOWREY "T h i r d B i r t h d a y " Sat N 51 ( J u l y 2 5 , 1936) 1. SANGSTER, HELEN NORSWORTHY "Mr. P i e r c e Rebels" Sat N 52 (Dec 1 9 , 1936) 1 S CMS GALL , OSCAR "Opening Night"- ML 49 (May 1, 1936) 7 "They C a l l I t Guna-Guna" ML 49 (Dec 1 , 1936) ? SCOTT, E. MARGERIE "The P r o d i g a l S t r a i n " C Mag 85 (May, 1936) 8 -129-SCOTT, JANET ERSKINE "Home Sweet Home" CHJ 32 ( A p r i l , 193^) 20 "I Hated Hy Mother-in-Law" CHJ 32 (March, 1936 ) . 28 "I Have an I n f e r i o r i t y Complex" CHJ 33 (Aug, 1936) 2 "I Suppose I Was a Cad" CHJ 32 TFeb, 1936) 24 "I Was a Depression Bride" CHJ 32 (Jan, 1936) 20 "I was a Stranger" CHJ. 33 TDec, 1936) 14 "My Father Was a Drunkard" CTJ 33 (Sept, 1936) 23 "My Husband Is a Miser" CHJ 33 (July, 1936) 20 "My Temper Ruined My L i f e " CHJ 33 (May, 1936") 26 "Sapphira--My Wife" CHJ_ 33 (Nov, 1936) 28 "To Love and To Cherish" CHJ 33 (June, I 9 3 6 ) 26 "You Knew I Was Married" CHJ 33 (Oct, 1936) 26 SPENCER, SHEILA " I f You C a l l I t Luck" CHJ 33 ( N o v , - 1 9 3 6 ) 8 "Three Days of Grace" CHJ 33 (May, 1936) 12 SUTTON, GERTRUDE MacAULAY "From a Far Port" CEJ_ 32 (Jan, 1936) 22 "Shy Nudist" CHJ '32 (Feb, 1936) 10 "The Transit of Venus" CHJ 33 (Dec, 1936) 18 THOMAS, MARTHA BANNING "Her Brother's Keeper" Chat 9 (Nov, 1936) 12 WATT, FREDERICK B. " A l l Things New" CHJ 33 (Sept, 1936) 16 " C a l l to Freedom" CHJ 33 (May, 1936) 7 "Moccasin" C Mag 86 (Aug, 1 9 3 6 ) 3 (with Ernestine Watt) "Takeoff" CHJ 32 (Feb, 1936) 8 WOOD, KERRY "The Land Grows Love" CHJ 32 (Jan, 1936) 10 1937 ANNIXTER, PAUL "The Heathen" CHJ 33 ( A p r i l , 193? ) 10 ARMSTRONG, MATT MURRY "The Cross" C Forum 1? (Aug, 1937) .169 "Rooster Which Walked i n a C i r c l e " C.. Forum 17 ( A p r i l , 1937) 23 ATLEE, BENGE "Fangs" M_L 50 (Jan 1 5 , 1937) 16 "Steel Point" ML 50 ( A p r i l 1 5 , 193? ) 10 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "The Fugitive" CHJ 33 (Jan, 1937) 5 "The L i t t l e Man" CJHJ 34 (Oct, 1937) 14 "Outpost of Empire" C_HJ 34 (May, 1937) 24 -130-"Put Back the Clock" Chat 10 (Oct, 1937) 10 "Sound of Trumpets" Chat 10 (Nov, 1937) 14 "They Aren't Always Weeds" C Map; 87 (Jan, 1937) 14 "Two Men and a G i r l " CKJ 34~~(june ! 1937) 20 BENETT, MELANIE E. "Haven i n the Wilderness" C Mag 87 (March, 1937) 3 "Old Stars Never Die" Chat 10 "(July, 1937) 8 BIRD, WILL R. "The Rash Young Private" C Mag 88 (Nov, 1937) 10 BOOTH, CHARLES G. "Mystery of the Maya Symbol" C Ma/? 8? ( A p r i l , 1937) 10 BROWN, AUDREY ALEXANDRA "Carnations for Youth" Sat N 52 (May 22, 1937) 3 CALLAGHAN, MORLEY "This Man, My Father" ML 50 (March 1 5 , 1937) 15 CUNNINGHAM, LOUIS ARTHUR " L i t t l e G i r l Lost" Chat 10 (March, 193?) 8 "Victory" ML 50 (March 1 5 , 1937) 16 EVSRS0N, RONALD GILM0UR "A Dollar's Worth of Tickets" C Mag 87 (Feb, 193?) 12 FINDLAY, D. K. "Joy Is Thy Name" C Mag 88 (Sept, 193?) 10 GERY, R. V. " V i c t o r i a the Great" Chat 10 (Dec, 1937) 26 GRAY, BERYL "Enemies Dine" C Mag 88 (Dec, 193?) 3 "The Sheep Herders" C Mag 88 (Oct, 1937) 10 "Steve of Cragg Section" ML 50 (May 1, 1937) 14 HARRISON, VAN "Owner's Interest" C Mag 88 (Aug, 1937) 10 HUTCHISON, BRUCE "The Road Never Dies" ML 50 (Aug 1 5 , 1937) 10 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "Builders of the Nation" Sat N 52 (Feb 1 3 , 1937) 1 " I t Was Him" Sat N 52 ( A p r i l 10, 1937) 1 "Somebody from Home" Sat N 52 (May 1, 1937) 9 JASPERSON, FRED K. "The Evidence Was Destroyed" CHJ 33 (March, 193?) 16 LaMOU NTAIN, MARION " S t i l l Was the Night" C Mag 87 (June, 193?) 12 - 1 3 1 -LUGRIN, N. cle BERTRAND "Night of Snow" C I-lag 87 (Feb, 193?) 14 "Ways That Are Dark" C Mag 88 (Dec, 193?) 10 McDOUGALL, JOSEPH EASTON "Black Michael" CHJ 33 (Feb, 1937) 10 "The Old Doctor" CHJ 34 (Nov, 1937) 26 McFARLANE, LESLIE "Christmas Tree T r a i l " ML 50 (Dec 1 5 , 193?) 7 "The L i t t l e Men" ML 50 (Oct 15 , 193?) 12 "Romance on Ice" ML 50 (Feb 1 5 , 1937) 16 0STEMSO, MARTHA "The L i t t l e Blue Hat" ML . 50 (June 1 5 , 193?) 5 PUGSLEY, E. E. "Blood Mountain Speaks" C Mag 8? (Feb, 1937) 10 HADCLIFFE, GARNETT "The Snowman of Katayadu" ML 50 (Sept 1 5 , 1937) 16 "The War on the Flag" ML 50 (Oct 1, 1937) 20 ROBERTS, THEODORE GOODRIDGE "The White Wolf" QQ 44 (Autumn, 193?) 285 ROSMANITH, OLGA A. "From Whence Cometh My Help" CHJ 34 (July, 193?) 16 "Missionary's Wife" Chat 10 "(March, 1937) 5 ROSS, MARY LOWREY "Family A f f a i r " Chat 10 (Jan, 1937) 10 SCHISGALL, OSCAR "Man of Action" ML 50 (Nov 1 5 , 1937) 12 "The Man i n the White Suit" ML 50 (Aug 1 , 1937) 5 SCOTT, E. MARGERIE "The Happy Ending" C Mag 88 (Aug, 1937) 6 SCOTT, JANET ERSKINE "Beginning Again" CHJ 33 (Jan, 1937) 18 "I S a c r i f i c e d Love to Duty" CHJ 33 (Feb, 1937) 16 " I Was a Doormat" CHJ 34 (Nov, 1937) 24 "I Was an Ugly Duckling" CHJ 33 (March, 1937) 24 "Mail Order Bride" CHJ 3I5~TJune, 1937) 20 "My Mother Lives With Me" CHJ 34 (July, 1937) 10 "Secret Marriage" CHJ 34 T A u g , 1937) 16 "You Can Never Go Back" CHJ 33 ( A p r i l , 1937) 29 SPENCER, SHEILA "Love Means So Many Things" C Mag 87 (June, 1937) 9 "A New Role for J u l i e " CHJ 34 (Sept, 1937) 20 -132-STRANGE, KATHLEEN "Pullman People" Sat N 52 (Aug 7, 1937) 16 TAYLOR, FRANCES BEATRICE "Let Nothing you Dismay" C Mag 88 (Dec, 1937) 12 THOMAS, MARTHA BANNING "Up Ship Yard Way" ML 50 (Sept 1, 193?) 14 TRIMBLE, ALBERTA C. "Festiva Maxima" C Mag 88 (Nov, 1937) 6 WATT, FREDERICK B. "Hell-Ship" CHJ 34 (Oct, 193?) 10 WEEKES, MARY "Gone Is the Old T r a i l " Sat N 52 (Jan 2 , 193?) 1 "A Statue She Seemed" Sat N 52 (June 5 , 1937) 2 1936 ANNIXTER, PAUL "Chundra" ML 5-1 ( A p r i l 1, 1938) 16 "Kennedy's Moose" ML 51 (Nov 1 5 , 1938) 16 "Old Hari Badmarsh" ML '51 (Aug 1 5 , . 1938) 10 ARMSTRONG, MATT MURRY "Me and His Country" C Mag 89 (June, 1938) 4 "The R a i l " C Forum 17 (Jan, 1938) 352 ATLEE, BENGE "Eight Horses" ML 51 (Nov 1 5 , 1938) 7 "The General Died In" ML 51 (Nov, 1938) 16 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "Church Parade" QQ 4-5 (Summer, 1938) 195 "The Dancing Bear" QQ 45 (Winter, 1 9 3 8 - 9 ) 519 "Ghost from Eden" CHJ 34 (July, 1938) 5 "The Indecision of Louis Philippe". C Mag 90 (Aug, 1938) 6 "Street of Revolution" C Mag 89 (Jan, 1938) 12 BARNARD, MARGARET E. "Johnny on the Spot" C Mag 89 ( A p r i l , 1938) 16 BENETT, MELANIE E. "Day After Christmas" Chat 11 (Dec, 1938) 10 "A Day i n the L i f e of Edward Oglethorpe" C Mag 89 (May, 1938) 4 "A S i l k Dress for S a l l y " C Mag 90 (Nov, 1938) 14 -133-BIRD, WILL R. "The Dory Builder" G Mag 90 (Dec, 1933) 14 "Finders Keepers" C Mag 90 ( J u l y , 1938) 12 "Home Pastures" C Mag 89 ( A p r i l , 1938) 6 "Old Enchantment" G Mag 89 (Feb, 1938) 10 "Red Brush" G Mag 89 (Jan, 1938) 4 "Valedictory by Nate Moon" .C Mag 89 (March, 1938) 10 "A Woman Can't Wait Too Long" Chat I I (Sept, 1938) 16 DeLaROCHE, MAZO "Mrs. Meade Savors L i f e " CHJ 35 (Kay, 1938) 7 EVANS, ALLEN ROY . ' "The Twinkler" ML 51 ( A p r i l 15, 1938) 16 EVANS, HUBERT "The Soft Dictator" C Mag 89 (March, 1938) 17 "White Water Bat t l e " C Mag 90 (Sept, 1938) 36 EVERS0N, RONALD GILM0UR "The Clue That Came Back" C Mag 89 (June, 1938) 13 "They Both Loved Hetty" CHJ 34" ( A p r i l , 1938) 16 FINDLAY, D. K. " B r i e f Career of M. Stott, Detective" C Mag 90 (Oct, 1938) 24 GRAY, BERYL "The E x i l e " ML 51 (March 15, 1938) 16 "Fool Kid" ML 5-1 (October 15, 1938) 16 "The Path of Understanding" Chat 11 (Aug, 1938) 12 GREENE, MARION "Largely Anna-Maloney" ML 51 (Sept 15, 1938) 16 "Of Such a Radiance" ML 51 (Sept.15, 1938) 10 HARRISON, VAN "Her Father's House" C Mag 90 (July, 1938) 5 " I Had A P i l o t " C Mag 90 (Aug, 1938) 14 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "Case of Poor C y r i l " Sat N 53 ( A p r i l 23 , 1938) 1 "The Gallery of Writers" C Book 20 (Aug-Sept, 1938) 5 "The Genius" C Book 20 (April-May, 1938) 7 "Lambie i n the park" Sat N 53 (Aug 20, 1938) 1 LaMOUNTAIN, MARION "Tomorrow Is Forever" C Mag 89 (Jan, 1938) 6 LAURISTON, VICTOR "Night of Glory" C Mag 90 (Oct, 1938) 18 McDOUGALL, JOSEPH EASTON "Finger Marks" Sat N 53 (Jan 8, 1938) 3 -134-OSTENSO, MARTHA "The Years Are Shadows" Ghat 11 (May, 1 9 3 b ) 5 PHILIPS, KALMAN "You R o l l Your Own" ML 51 (March 15, 1 9 3 8 ) 1 2 PUGSLEY, E. E. "High V o l t a g e " G Mag 89 ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 8 ) 4 RADCLIFPE, GARNETT "The Ship That Came Back" ML 51 (Oct 1, 1 9 3 8 ) 1 2 " S p r i n g s of Courage" ML 51 ( A p r i l 1, 1 9 3 « ) 1 4 ROBERTS, THEODORE GOODRIDGE "To S p i t e Her Face" C Mag 8 9 (May, 1 9 3 8 ) 1 0 " T u r t l e s f o r Luck" C Book 2 0 (Dec-Jan, 1 9 3 8 - 9 ) 5 ROSMANITH, OLGA "Wings on Her F e e t " CHJ 3 4 (March, 1 9 3 8 ) 7 ROSS, MARY LOWREY " C i t y V i s i t o r s " Sat N 5 3 (Sept 3 , 1 9 3 8 ) 1 ROSS, SINCLAIR "A Day With Pegasus" QQ 4 5 (Summer, 1 9 3 8 ) 1 4 1 "The Lamp a t Noon" QQ 4 5 ( S p r i n g , 1 9 3 8 ) 30 SANGSTER, HELEN NORSWORTHY "There Ought To Be A Law" Sat N 5 3 (Sept 1 0 , 1 9 3 8 ) 1 6 SHOOBRIDGE, HUGH "The S a g a c i t y of Samuel" Sat N 5 3 (Oct 15, 1 9 3 8 ) 1 SPENCER, SHEILA " G r e a t e r Than Love" CHJ 3 5 (Sept, 1 9 3 8 ) 5 " I f I Ever L o s t You" CHJ 3 5 (Nov, 1 9 3 8 ) 5 " L o s t Laughter" C Mag 90 (Sept, 1 9 3 8 ) 2 4 "More Than Once to Every Woman" CHJ 3 5 (June, 1 9 3 8 ) 7 STRANGE, KATHLEEN "November 11, N i n e t e e n - E i g h t e e n " Sat N (Nov 5, 1 9 3 8 ) 6 TAYLOR, FRANCES BEATRICE "Easy Money" C Mag 8 9 ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 8 ) 1 0 THOMAS, MARTHA BANNING "From Boy i n t o Man" CHJ 3 4 (Jan, 1 9 3 8 ) 1 0 -135-" P a t t e r n f o r L i v i n g " Ghat 11 (March, 1938) 5 " W h i s t l i n g Down the Wind" CHJ 34 ( A p r i l , 1938) 10 and CHJ 34 (May, 193») l E " WATT, FREDERICK B. "The Sea I s a Woman" C Mag 90 (Nov, 1938) 12 WEEKES, MARY "Of a Smoothness" C Forum l b (Dec, 1938) 2 76 mi ANNIXTER, PAUL "My Guy" ML 52 (Oct 15, 1 9 3 9 ) 20 ATLEE, BENGE " F a t a l F l i g h t " ML 52 (Dec 1 5 , 1 9 3 9 ) 5 "Voice i n the Night" ML 52 ( A p r i l 1 , 1 9 3 9 ) 14 "Was There a Body?" ML 52 (Nov 15, 1 9 3 9 ) 10 "Where Was Conway Praed?". ML 52 (March 15, 1939) 1 ? BARNARD, MARGARET E. "The Contents of a Cedar Box" Sat N 54 (June 1 0 , 1 9 3 9 ) 22 BENETT, MELANIE "The B r i d g e at High Leap" Chat 12 (May, 1 9 3 9 ) 12 BIRD, WILL R. "Sit-Down S t r i k e " C Mag 91 (Feb, 1 9 3 9 ) 10 BREYFOGLE, WILLIAM ARTHUR "Carson Breaks H i s Word" ML 52 (Dec 1 , 1 9 3 9 ) 1 6 "A New Job f o r Tim" ML 52 (Jan 1 , 1 9 3 9 ) 8 BROWN, ALICE CAMERON "Approaches to Romance" Sat N 54 (Oct 1 4 , 1 9 3 9 ) 24 "The Woodman and H i s Axe"(Saskatchewan S t y l e ) Sat N 55 (Nov 4 , 1 9 3 9 ) 24 BROWN, AUDREY ALEXANDRA "A M i n i a t u r e Mystery" Sat N 54 (Sept 2 , 1 9 3 9 ) 20 - 1 3 6 -CUNNINGHAM, LOUIS ARTHUR "The Hermit of Dark Harbor" ML 52 (Mar 15, 1939) 19 EVERSON, RONALD GILMOUR "Cave by the. Hemlocks" CHJ 36 (June, 1939) 14 FINDLAY, D. K. "The Roped Slalom" ML 52 (Jan 1, 1939) 3 GRAY, BERYL " L i f e Sentence" Chat 12 (Aug, 1939) 14 GREENE, MARION "Golden Spires" Chat 12 (May, 1939) 8 "S a l l y and the Blond Bomber" ML 52 (Aug 15, 1939) 10 HARRISON, VAN "Code of the Sea" C Mag 91 (Jan, 1939) 14 HUTCHISON, BRUCE "Cariboo Coach" ML 52 (March 1, 1939) 5 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE . "Coming Back" Sat N 5^ (Aug 12, 1939) 20 "Lady with Ash Tray" Sat N 54 (July 29, 1939) 20 "Lava with Penny" Sat N ^54 (May 6, 1939) 24 " V i s i t to Potsdam" Sat N 54 (Sept 9 , 1939) 24 "The Wave" Sat H 55 (Dec 23 , 1939) 20 LEISNER, DOROTHY (ROBERTS.) "The Dress with the Blue Flowers" Chat 12 (March, 1939) 11 "The Outsider" Chat 12 (July, 1939) 12 LEWIS, DOROTHY PURCELL "The Hat" Chat 12 (Jan, 1939) 6 MACBETH, MADGE "Out with an Ostrich" Sat N 54 (March 4 , 1939) 16 McFARLANE, LESLIE "The Great Cook Claude" ML 52 (Sept 1, 1939) 18 McLAREN, FLORIS C. "And Her Hat Was Blue" Sat N 54 (June 10, 1939) 28 MILLAR, KENNETH "From an Advertising Man's Diary" Sat N 55 (Nov 4 , 1939) 24 " L i t t l e Theatre" Sat N 54 (Oct 21, 1939) 28 "The Yellow Dusters" Sat N 55 (Nov 11, 1939) 24 "A Young Man of Resource" Sat N 54 (Sept 23, 1939) 24 - 1 3 7 -PHILLIPS, KALMAN "Business Before B l u e b e r r i e s " ML 52 (Sept 15, 1939) 10 "What No Soap" ML 52 (March 1, 1939) 10 RADDALL, THOMAS II . "The Road to Fortune" ML 52 (Dec 15, 1939) 10 ROBERTS, THEODORE GOODRIDGE " P e r f e c t Lady" Chat 12 (Feb, 1939) 8 ROSS, MARY LOWREY "Come Again No More" Sat N 54 (Oct 28, 1939) 24 "Human Equation" Sat N 5% (May 13, 1939) 24 " R e s t r i c t e d C l i e n t e l e " Sat N 54 (June 17, 1939)- 32 ROSS, SINCLAIR "Cornet at Night" QQ 46 (Winter, 1939-40) 431 "The P a i n t e d Door" QQ 46 (Summer, 1939) 145 RUTT, EDWIN " S a i l , Baby, S a i l " ML 52 (March 15, 1939) 14 SHOOBRIDGE, HUGH "King and M i n i s t e r " Sat N 54 (Feb 25, 1939) 2 SPENCER, SHEILA "Doctor's Daughter" C_HJ " 35 (March, .1939) 5 WATT, FREDERICK 3 . " M i r a c l e of the F i e l d s " CHJ 36 (Dec, 1939) 14 WEEKES, MARY "In Glory Gone" Dal R 19 ( J u l y , 1939) 179 1940 ANNIXTER, PAUL "Feud on High P l a t e a u " ML 53 (March 15 , 1940) 18 ARMSTRONG, MATT " S o l d i e r " CHJ 37 ( J u l y , 1940) 12 ATLEE, BENGE "Dust on My Shoulder" ML 53 (Sept 15, 1940) 5 "Red Drops F a l l i n g " ML 53 ( A p r i l 15, 1940) 16 "2 Eggs f o r B r e a k f a s t " MX 53 (Sept 1, 1940) 10 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "Case of the Mad Major" CHJ 36 ( A p r i l , 1940) 14 " G i r l at the Snack Bar" CHJ 37 (June, 1940) 14 "House Next Door" CHJ 37~T0ct, 1940) 8 - 1 3 8 -"Lady Guesses Wrong" CHJ 36 (Feb, 1940) 12 "Wings f o r Miss S p r o t t " CHJ 37 (Nov, 1940) 5 "Wyndham Gives Absent Treatment" CHJ 36 (March, 1940) 12 BIRD, WILL R. "Stubborn L i k e H is Pa" CHJ 36 ( A p r i l , 1940) 8 BREYPOGLE, WILLIAM ARTHUR "The Day's Catch" ML 53 (Aug 1 5 , 1940) 12 "The P e d l a r " ML 53 (Jan 1 , 1940) 18 BROWN, ANDREY ALEXANDRA "C l a r a Passes Through" Sat N 55 (Sept 7 , 1940) -20 "The L i t t l e Blue Glass Heart" Sat N 55 (Jan 6, 1940) 19 "The S i l v e r Tree" Sat N 55 (June 2 2 , 1940) 24 DeLaROCHE, MAZO "Pamela" CHJ 3? (Dec, 1940) 8 GRAY, BERYL "Prelude to a Wedding" Chat 13 (May, 1940) 12 "Snacks and Smacks" Chat 13 (Aug, 1940) 12 GREENE, MARION "Anastasia's Horse" ML 53 ( A p r i l 1 , 1940) 12 HUTCHISON, BRUCE "By the L o v e l y Dove" ML 53 (March 1, 1940) 7 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "Back Home to a New World" Sat N 55 (Sept 14, 1940) 39 "The Chinaberry Tree" Sat N 55 (Aug 24, 1940) 20 "Club Meeting" Sat N 55 ( J u l y 1 3 , 1940) 20 "News from Abroad" Sat N 55 (Jan 1 3 , 1940) 20 "A Pen Dipped i n Moonlight" Sat N 55 (March 2 , 1940) 24 "Romance" Sat N 55 (May 1 8 , 1940) 36 "The Vine" Sat N 55 (June 1 5 , 1940) 28 "Whither, 0 Ship" Sat N 56 (Nov 3 0 , 1940) 33 MACBETH, MADGE "Over the Border f o r Her" Dal R 20 (Oct, 1940) 277 McCONNELL, WILLIAM C. "Kaleidoscope" C Forum 20 (Dec, 1940) 279 McFARLANE, LESLIE "But Mr. Referee, You Lug ..." ML 53 (Dec 1 , 1940) 16 "Grandpaw Foglesky's Leg" ML 53 (Sept 18, 194o) 12 "The Voice of Oomph" ML 53 (June 1 5 , 1940) 5 -139-McLAREN, FLOHIS CLARK " I t Isn't the Gold" S and G 22 (1940) 24 MAYSE, ARTHUR "Bush Job" ML 53 (Feb 15, 1940) 5 "Day i n Heaven" ML 53 (Feb 1, 1940) 14 MIDDLETON s J . E. "The House That Harve B u i l t " Sat N 56 (Nov 16, 1940) 39 MILLAR, KENNETH "The Dance" Sat N 55 (Feb 24, 1940) 32 "A Hard-Boiled Soft Boiled Egg" Sat N 55 (July -20, 1940) 24 "The Man I Meet" Sat N 55 (June 22, 1940) 24 "Mr. Hoyberry's Career" Sat N 55 ( A p r i l 27, 194-0) 28 "Time Unheeded" Sat N 55 (Jan 13, 1940) 20 "Trajan" Sat N 55 ( A p r i l 14, 1940) 28 PHILLIPS, KALMAN "Echoes Lack Character" ML 53 (Nov 1, 1940) 12 RADCLIFFE, GA RNETT "The Return of Nur Din" ML 53 (July 15, 1940) 10 RADDALL, THOMAS H. "Lupita" ML 53 (June 1, 1940) 5 "Mr. Embury's Hat" ML 53 (July .1, 1940) 14 "North from Vinland" ML 53 (Aug 1, 1940) 10 " T i t for Tat" ML 53 "(April 1, 1940) 16 "Triangle i n Steel" ML 53 (Nov 1, 1940) 7 ROSS, MARY LOWREY " L i f e Isn't Like the Movies" Chat 13 (March, 1940) 14 "Shades of the Prison House" Sat N 55 (Jan 6, 1940) 20 "Store Santa Claus" Sat N 56 (Dec 21, 1940) 29 "Summer, 1940" Sat N 55 (Aug 3-1, 1940) 28 RUTT, EDWIN "Crowd Fever" ML 53 (Oct 15, 1940) 14 "Water Lulu" Chat 13 (Sept, 1940) 8 SANGSTER, HELEN MORSWORTHY "The Devil Came to Ashcombe" ML 53 (Dec 15, 1940) 5 SHOO BRIDGE, HUGH "Short, Short Story" Sat N 55 (Sept, 1940) 3 SPENCER, SHEILA "Sun Returning" CHJ 36 (Jan, 1940) 8 a n d  CHJ 36 (Feb, r97TO) 15 -140-SUTTON, GERTRUDE MACAULAY "Revolving Door" CHJ THO MA S , MA RTIiA ' BA U NIN G "Second Growth" Chat "The Stars Hang High" 36 (Feb, 1940) 8 13 ( J u l y , 19^0) 8 ML 53 (March 1 5 , 1940) 8 1941 ARMSTRONG, MATT MURRY " A c h i l l e s and W i l l i e " ML 54 (Jan 1 5 , 1941) 15 ATLEE, BENGE "The Great E n r i c o " ML, 54 (Feb 1, 1941) 10 AYLEN, ELISE (Mrs. D. C. Scott) "The Star Leads On" Sat N 56 (Jan 2 5 , 1941) 33 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON • "The Far H i l l s " QQ 48 (Winter, 1941-2) 364 "House of Graham" CHJ 37 ( A p r i l , 1941) 6 and CHJ 38 (May, 19.417 12 BIRD, WILL R. "The L a s t T r i c k " ML 54 (March 1, 194l) 16 BREYFOGLE, WILLIAM ARTHUR "Report f o r the Board" ML 54 (June 1, 1941) 7 BROWN, ALICE CAMERON "The Anatomy Lesson" Sat N 56 (May 10, 1941) 29 BUCKLER, ERNEST "Another Christmas" Sat N 57 (Dec 20, 1941) 25 CUNNINGHAM, LOUIS ARTHUR "Sunshine of St. E u l a l i e " CHJ 3 8 (May, 1941) 5 GREENE, MARION "Another Face Ar.ound the House" ML 54 (Oct 1 5 , 1941) 14 "Concerto f o r C l a r i n e t " ML 54 (Nov 1 5 , 194l) 8 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "Don't You Hear Me?" Sat N 57 (Nov 8 , 1941) 29 " F o l k p l a y " Sat N 56 (Jan 18, 1941) 29 "Night of the R e c i t a l " Sat N 56 (June 28, 194l) "The V a l e n t i n e " Sat N 56 (Feb 1 5 , 1941) 29 LAURISTON, VICTOR "Odd Happening" Sat N 56 (Feb I , 1941) 25 -141-McFARLANE, LESLIE "Hungry Skater" ML 54 (Jan 15 , 1941) 10 "Kelsey Skates Again" ML 54 (Feb I, 1941) 5 and ML 54 (Feb 1 5 , 1 9 4 l j 16 ' "Merry Christmas, McKane" ML 54 (Dec 1 5 , 1941) 14 McLAHEN, FLORIS C. "Busman's Holiday" Dal R 21 (July, 1941) 211 "The Shadow F a l l s " C Forum 20 (Jan, 194-1) 320 MALM, DOROTHEA "Love of My L i f e " ML 54 (Jan 1 , 1941) 12 OSTENSO, MARTHA "No Time for .sentiment" Chat 14 (July, 1941) 10 PACEY, DESMOND "The Hired Man" 48 (Autumn, 1 9 4 l ) 268 PHILLIPS, KALMAN "A T a c t i c a l Error" ML 54 (June 1 , 1941) 14 • RADDALL, THOMAS H. "Once Upon a Time"' Chat 14 (Dec, 194-1) 9 "Swan Dance" ML 5 4 ~ l A p r i l 1 5 , . 1941) 14 ROSS, MARY LOWREY "In the Midst of L i f e " Sat N 56 (Feb 1, 1941) 25 "Santa Laughs at a Bicuspid" Sat N 57 (Dec 2 0 , 1941) 6 "Stocking's End" Sat N 57 (Oct 4 , 1941) 29 "Two-Fifths of a Degree Above Normal" Sat N 56 (June ?, 1941) 29 ROSS, SINCLAIR "Not by Rain Alone" QQ 47 (Spring, 1 9 4 1 ) 7 SANGSTER, HELEN 'NORSWORTHY "D'Ye Ken John Peel" ML 54 (July 1 , 1941) 18 SHOOBRIDGS, HUGH "My Countries, 'This of Youse" Sat N 56 (July 2 6 , 1941) 25 SOUSTER, RAYMOND "Night i n Muskoka" CF 21 (July, 1941) 121 STRANGE, KATHLEEN "The F i r s t German" Sat N 56 (Aug 2 , 1941) 25 (with Harry Strange') "Lord Anslough's S h i r t " Sat N 56 (July 2 6 , 1941) 25 -142-SUTTON, GRACE MacAULAY "Terror by Night" CHJ 38 ( J u l y , 1941) 8 THIMBLE, ALBERTA C. "Sign Here Miss" C_HJ 38 (Dec, 1941) 12 "Windflowers f o r Courage" CHJ 38 (Oct, 1941) 14 WATT, FREDERICK B. "Retreat from Paradise" CHJ 37 (Feb, 1941) 5 WEEKES j MABY "No Christmas i n the Neighborhood" C Forum 21 (Dec, 1941) 280 "Summer Cottage i n Saskatchewan" Sat N 56 (May. 17, 194.1) 41 1942 ANDERSON, PATRICK "Dramatic Monologue" Prev 1 (June, 1942) n.p. "The P l o t t e r " F S t a t . 1:4 (Supp, undated) 4 "Remembering the V i l l a g e " Prev 1 (March, 1942) n.p. ARMSTRONG, MATT MURRY "Kiss' f o r Bay of Pl e n t y " . CHJ 39 (May, 1942) 5 " S a l l y Is Our S o l d i e r " C_HJ 39 (Aug, 1942) 5 ATLEE, H. BENGE "Last Armada" C_HJ 38 (Feb, 1942) 5 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON " G i r l s Are L i k e That" CHJ 39 (Oct, 1942) 8 "Scandal i n Seldon Square" CHJ 39 (Nov, 1942) 14 "This Might Be Murder" CHJ 39 (Aug, 1942) 8 "Waterfront G i r l " CHJ 39 (Sept, 1942) 10 BIRD, WILL R. "Homesteader Needs a Wife" CHJ 39 (Sept, 1942) 14 CUNNINGHAM, LOUIS ARTHUR "Upon the Midnight Cl e a r " CHJ 39 (Dec, 1942) 5 ERNST, PAUL " C a l l f o r the Old Doctor" ML 55 (May 1 , 1942) 12 FINDLAY, D. K. "Bugles, Blow f o r These" ML 55 ( A p r i l 1 , 1942) 8 "The S h i n i n g L i n k s " ML 55 (June 1 5 , 1942) 8 GREEN, Ii . GORDON " L e t t e r of A p p l i c a t i o n " M_L 55 (Feb 1 5 , 1942) 9 -143-INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "But Peaceful" Sat N 58 (Dec 26, 1942) 22 "Day To Keep Always" Sat N 58 (Dec 12, 1942) 48 "End. of the Summer" Sat N 5? (Aue; 29, 1942) 21 "Every Vote Counts" Sat N 57 (May 2, 1942) 25 "Harvest Home" "Sat N' 58 (Nov 21, 1942) 33 "Morning's at Nine" Sat N 57 .(Jan 3-1, 1942) 25 "Quiet Haven of War" Sat N 57 (Aug 8, 1942) 21 "Tape Measure" Sat N 57 (June 27, 1942) 31 LAURISTON VICTOR "Sleeping Tiger" ML 55 (Sept 15, 1942) 23 LAYTON, IRVING "A Parasite" F Stat 1:14 (undated) 3-9 LEISNER, DOROTHY (ROBERTS) "The Long Love" Chat 14 (Sept, 1941) 12 LEWIS, DOROTHY PURCELL "She Married Three Men" Chat 14 (Sept, 1941) 5 McCONNELL, WILLIAM "Horn of Roland" Sat N 58 (Dec 26, 1942) 21 "Spring I d y l l " Sat N 57 (May 2, 1942) 13 MACBETH, MADGE " L i t t l e Land of Paraguay" Dal R 22 (Oct, 1942) 311 McDOUGALL, JOSEPH EASTON "Nancy and Santa Claus" Sat N 58 (Dec 5, 1942) 37 McFARLANE, LESLIE "The Cat Called Claudius" ML 55 (July 1, 1942) 14 "Doodads on the Doohickey" ML 55 (Jan 18, 1942) 12 "Good Goalies Are Scarce" ML 55 (Feb 1, 1942) 12 MALM, DOROTHEA "Nancy Had a Man" Chat 15 (Dec, 1942) 10 MITCHELL, W. 0. "But As Yesterday" QQ 49 (Summer, 1942) 132 "Elbow Room" ML • 55~Tsept 15, 1942) 18 "A Voice for Christmas" ML 55 (Dec 15, 1942) 5 "Wimmen Is Wimmen" ML 55 (Dec 1, 1942) 8 "You Gotta Teeter" ML 55 U u g 15, 1942) 8 OSTENSO, MARTHA "The Stars Over Home" Chat 15 (Oct, 1942) 5 -144-PAGE, P. K. " F e a r " F S t a t 1 :6 ( u n d a t e d ) 4 "The G r e e n B i r d " P r e v 1:7 ( S e p t , 1942) 7 "The L o r d ' s P l a n " P r e v 1:6 ( A u g , 1942) n.p. "The N e i g h b o r " P r e v 1 :4 ( J u n e 1 , 1942) n.p. "Room a n d B o a r d " F S t a t 1 :3 ( u n d a t e d ) 4 P R I L L 1 B o , KALl'iAJx , , . . ^ n " G r e e t i n g s , S c a r a b " KL 55 ( O c t 1 , 1942) 10 "Honier D a t e s a Goon" C h a t 15 ( A u g , 1942) 8 PUGSLEY, E. E. " R e p a i r T r a c k J o b " KL 55 ( M a r c h 1 , 1942) 8 RACKOWE, ALEC " I n n o c u l a t i o n " ML 55 ( F e b 1 , 1942) 7 "Summer F i r e s K e e p W i n t e r Warm" C h a t 15 ( D e c , 1942) 14 RADDALL, THOMAS H. "The P o w e r s o f D a r k n e s s " .ML 55 ( J a n 1 5 , 1942) 18 ROSMANITH, OLGA " A i r m a n ' s W i f e " C h a t 15 (May, 1942) 8 " J e r e m y a n d t h e S t a r " C h a t 15 ( D e c , 1942) 5 ROSS, MARY LOWREY " B i t t e r Tea f o r M i s s A" S a t N 58 ( S e p t 1 2 , 1942) 9 " H e a v e n L i e s A b o u t U s " S a t N 58 ( S e p t 1 9 , 19^2) 33 SIMPSON, ROBERT G. " D o m i n i o n " F S t a t 1 : 6 ( U n d a t e d ) 3 " N o c t u r n e " F S t a t 1 :5 ( U n d a t e d ) 5 " S e l e c t i o n f r o m C r u c i f i x i o n " F S t a t 1 :2 ( U n d a t e d ) 6 "Time a n d M r . A a r o n s e n " F S t a t 1:1 ( U n d a t e d ) 1 THOMAS, MARTHA BANNING "Swan F e a t h e r s " C h a t 15 ( A p r i l , 1942) 5 WEEKES, MARY "The T o u r i s t P u l s e " C Forum 22 (May, 1942) 48 WILSON, ETHEL "On N i m p i s h L a k e " C Forum 22 ( J u l y , 1942) 119 -145-1943 ANDERSON, PATRICK "The Americans" Prev 15 (Aug, 1943) 7 "Danny ... Nova S c o t i a " Prev 16 (Oct, 1943) 1 "A Note from My J o u r n a l " Prev 17 (Dec, 1943) 7 AYLEN, ELISE (Mrs. D. C. Scott) " P i e t a " Dal R 23 ( A p r i l , 1943) 95 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "Man who Wrote to Chamberlain" CHJ 40 (May, 1943) 8 "Murder i n the Wind" CEJ_ 40 (Oct, 1943) 14 "There I s No Fear i n Love" CHJ 39 (Jan, 1943) 10 a n d CHJ 39 ('Feb, 1943) 12 BENTHAM, JOSEPHINE "Possession" Chat 16 (May, 1943) 5 BREYFOGLE, WILLIAM ARTHUR "Judas Ship" ML 56 (Feb 1 , 1943) 16 BROWN, AUDREY ALEXANDRA "Purple Cat" Sat N 59 (Dec 1, 1943) 44 BUCKLER, ERNEST "On the T h i r d Day ..." Sat N 58 ( A p r i l 24, 1943) 33 COATES, ELEANOR "Next of K i n " Chat 16 (Aug, 19^3) 5 CUNNINGHAM, LOUIS ARTHUR "Crossing the Bar" CHJ 40 (May, 1943) 12 "Unto Us a C h i l d I s Born" CHJ 40 (Dec, 1943) 12 "Young May Moon" CEJ_ 40 (Aug, 1943) 12 ERNST, PAUL " I f You Knew How I F e e l " ML 56 (Jan 1 , 1943) 8 "A Time f o r Honesty" Chat 16 (Oct, 1943) 8 FINDLAY, D. K. " F l i g h t to Destiny" M_L 56- (Nov .1, 1943) 8 GREEN, H. GORDON "A Question of F a i t h " ML 56 (Aug 1 5 , 1943) 16 -146-INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "Beauty's M i r r o r " Sat N 58 (Sept 4, 1943) 29 " M i n i s t e r ' s Gat" Sat N 59 (Sept 25, 1943) 32 " O r i g i n a l Sweater G i r l " Sat N 59 (Dec 11, 194-3) 35 " S i x or Seven Mice" Sat N 58 (Aug ?, 1943) 25 "Stamp on a White House" Sat N 58 (May 15, 1943) 37 "Yam -- and Blanche" Sat N 59 (Dec 18, 1943) 24 "Youngest of the Family" Sat M 58 (Jan 23, 1943) 29 LAURISTON, VICTOR " I t ' s Hard To Be S e l f i s h " CHJ 4-0 (Oct, 1943) 5 LEISNER, DOROTHY (ROBERTS) "The Mountain" Chat 16 ( J u l y , 1943) 10 LEWIS, CLARK "Johnny Comes Marching Home" ML 56 (March 1, 1943) 10 McCONWELL, WILLIAM "The Boys" F Stat 2:2 (Sept, 1943) 4 "Episode i n Greece" QQ 50 (Winter, 1943-4) 347v "Room f o r a Guest" Sat N 59 (Oct 23, 1943) 4 l "The Runaway" F St a t 2:3 (Oct, 1943) 12 McCOURT, E. A. "Tom O'the Ski e s " QQ 50 ( S p r i n g , 1943) 64 MALM, DOROTHEA "The A c i d Test" Chat 16 (June, 194-3) 14 "Only Fools F a l l i n Love" ML 56 (Aug 15, 1943) 8 MITCHELL, W. 0. " G e t t i n ' Born" ML 56 (May 1, 1943) 10 PAGE, P. K. " L e i s u r e C l a s s " Prev 12 (March, 1943) 6 "The Rat Hunt" Prev 15 (Aug, 1943) 1 "The R e s i g n a t i o n " Prev 10 (Jan, 1943) 3 "Under Cover of Night" Prev .1? (Dec, 1943) 5 PHILLIPS, KALMAN "Eagles Don't Tame" ML 56 (Oct 15, 1943) 16 RADDALL, THOMAS H. "Muster of Arms" ML 56 (Oct 15 , 1943) 8 "Tambour" ML 56" TTan 1, .1943) 17 ROSS, MARY LOWREY "Take Woman f o r Instance" Chat 16 (Oct, 1943) 14 SCHISGALL, OSCAR "Maker of Heroes" ML 56 (Dec 1, 1943) 16 -147-SHOOBRIDGE, HUGH " B e t r a y a l " ML 56 (Feb 15, 19^3) 16 STRANGE, KATHLEEN "Hara K l r l — Modern S t y l e " Sat N 59 (Nov 1 3 , 1943) **0 STURDY, JOHN RHODES "A Q u e s t i o n of Time" ML 56 ( J u l y 1 5 , 19^3) 10 TRIMBLE, ALBERTA C. "Two Moons i n the Sky" CHJ 40 (June, 1943) 12 WATT, FREDERICK B. " I m p e r i s h a b l e s " CHJ 40 ( J u l y , 19^3) I1*-WEEKES, MARY " C o l o r e d Yarns f o r Poor Miss P." Sat N 59 (Jan 9, 1943) 1944 ANDERSON, PATRICK "Autumn" Prev 19 (March, 1944) 2 AYLEN, ELISE (Mrs. D.C. S c o t t ) "The Westward Eden"Dal R 24 ( J u l y , 19 ^ M 193 ERECHT, EDITH R. " I Want Your P i c t u r e " Chat 17 (Nov, 1944) 10 BROWN, ALICE CAMERON "Man i n a Caleche: or the Best Way To See Quebec on a Sunny Day" Sat N 60 (Nov 18 , 1944) 27 BUCKLER, ERNEST ••Finest T r e e " Sat N 59 (Jan 1, 1944) 17 COATES, ELEANOR "Be Brave My Heart" CHJ 40 (March, 1944) 10 "ADay To Remember" Ghat 17 (March 1944) 14 CUNNINGHAM, L.A. " B u l l d o g Breed" CHJ 4 l ( J u l y , 1944) 14 "Joy to the World" CHJ 41 (Dec, 1944) 8 "That (fee D e b b i l Sea" CHJ 41 (Oct, 1944) 12 DeLaROCHE, MAZO " S p r i n g Song" CHJ 4o ( A p r i l , 1944) 5 FORREST, A.C. "And I t Makes a Man Wonder Why Things Happen T h i s Way" Sat N 59 (Jan 22 , 1944) 25 "Real Reason Why Johnny Up and L e f t H i s F a t h e r ' s Farm" Sat N 60 (Nov 11 , I944) 40 "Retirement Postponed; or the T r a g i - Comedy o f 1944 Farming" Sat N 59 ( A p r i l 1 5 , 1944) 40 GOLDBERG., WILLIAM "Jewish T a i l o r Shop" D i r e c t i o n 6 (Dec, 1944} 10 -148-" L e t ° s G e t M a r r i e d " D i r e c t i o n 5 ( O c t , 1944) 4 " S t o r m s O v e r G r a n d B a y " D i r e c t i o n 4 ( u n d a t e d ) 7 " U s e l e s s " D i r e c t i o n 3 ( u n d a t e d ) 1 GREEN2, M A R I O N " C o m i n g Home — T o Me" C h a t 1 ? ( S e p t , 1944) 5 G R A Y , B E R Y L " A w a k e n i n g a t S i l v e r R i v e r " C H J 4 1 ( O c t , 1944) 8 I N N I S , MARY Q U A Y L E "How F o o l i s h t o R a c e W h e n T h e r e A r e G i r l s Who W a n t t o W i n " S a t N 6 0 ( S e p t 30, 1944) 25 " L i v e d - I n L o o k ; o r Q u a i n t G o u r d s a n d P o t t e r y F i g u r e s ! " S a t N 60 ( D e c 2 1 , 1944) 3 6 " R e p e n t a n c e : a n U n i m p r o v i n g T a l e o f C a n a d i a n C h i l d h o o d " S a t N 54 ( A u g 2 6 , 1944) 2 8 L A U R E N C E , E L S I E F R Y " G o i n g Home" C h a t 17 ( D e c , 1944) 1 1 " S t r a n g e r s i n t h e H o u s e " C h a t 1 ? ( J a n , 1944) 1 1 L A Y T O N , I R V I N G " T h e P h i l i s t i n e " F S t a t 2 ( A p r i l , 1944) 5 L E W I S , C L A R K " V e r s e a n d R e v e r s e " ML 57 ( F e b 1 5 , 1944) 8 M A C B E T H , MADGE "One M o r e W a r r i o r " C H J 4 l ( J u n e , 1944) 1 2 M c C O N N E L L , W I L L I A M " F i e l d T a c t i c s " P r e v 2 1 ( S e p t , 1944) 1 1 " H a p p y W a r r i o r : T h e F r e n c h K i d Was T o o M u c h L i k e L i t t l e J o e " S a t N 59 ( J u l y b , 1944) 25 " M c R a e ' s M u s i c " F S t a t 2:4 ( F e b , 1944) 1 2 " S c a l d i n g W a t e r " F S t a t 2:8 ( A u g , 1944) 9 M I T C H E L L , W. 0 . " F r a n k i n c e n t s a n ' M e e r " ML 57 ( D e c 15, 1Q44) 1 4 " O l d M a c L a c h l i n H a d a F a r m " ML 57 ( S e p t 1 , 1944) " W h a t ' s A h e a d f o r B i l l y " C F o r u m 2 4 ( J u l y , 1944) 8 5 "Woman T r o u b l e " ML 57 ( J u l y 1 , 1944) 2 0 P A G E , P. K. " M i r a c l e s " P r e v 2 0 ( M a y , 1944) 9 R A C K 0 W E , A L E C " — A n d a H a n k o f H a i r " ML 57 ( M a r c h 1 , 1944) b " P e r f e c t l y N o r m a l " ML 57 T J u l y 1 , 1944) 8 "A S h i p ' s L a d y Too" C h a t 1 7 ( A p r i l , 1944) 1 0 R A D D A L L , THOMAS H. " B y A n y O t h e r Name" ML 57 ( A p r i l 1 , 1944) 1 6 " T h e D e s e r t e r " ML 57"Toct 15, 1944) 1 6 " H a r p i n t h e W i l l o w s " ML 57 ( S e p t 15, 1944) 1 6 " P a s s O ' K i l l i e c r a n k i e " ML 57 ( J a n 15, 19^4) 1 6 -149-ROSMANITH, OLGA . "Flowers f o r Christmas" Chat 1? (Dec, 1944) 14 ROSS, MARY LOWREY "The F u t u r e Is Nobody's B u s i n e s s " Chat 17 (Nov, 1944) " I n h e r i t i n g Meek" s a t N 59 (Jan 1, 1944) 19 RUTT, EDWIN "Ananias J u n i o r " ML 57 (Kay 1, 1944) 8 SIMPSON, ROBERT G. " J i v e - J o i n t " F S t a t 2:4 (Feb, 1944) 15 SOUSTER, RAYMOND " H i t t i n g the Deck" D i r e c t i o n 5 (Oct, 1944) 9 "The P a r t y " F S t a t 2 (Feb, 1944) 4 "Poem i n Prose: Meet You a t the Arcade" D i r e c t i o n 4 (undated) 3 "The Room, the Radio, T h e i r Love" D i r e c t i o n 5 Oct, 1944) 6 THOMAS, MARTHA BANNING ' " P l o t f o r S a f e t y " CHJ 41 (Sept, 1944) 14 TRIMBLE, ALBERTA C. " L i f e Is f o r the L i v i n g " CHJ 41 (Nov, 1944) 5 "Limpets Are Out" CHJ 40~7Feb, 1944) 5 "Run, R a b b i t , Run!" CHJ 4 l (June, 1944) 10 WEEKES, MARY "The J o l l y Song" C Forum 24 (June, 1944) 64 m i ANDERSON, PATRICK " P o r t r a i t o f a Marine" Prev 23 (undated) 7 BARNARD, LESLIE G. "Case of the Fat Fisherman" CHJ 42 (June, 1945) 14 BROWN, ANDREY ALEXANDRA " I t Almost Seemed C e r t a i n . . . I t Was To Be a Day For A n n e l i s e " Sat N 60 ( A p r i l 28, 1945) 40 BUCKLER, ERNEST "Yes, Joseph, There Was A Woman; She S a i d Her Name Was Mary" Sat N 6 l (Dec 8, 1945) 48 COATES, ELEANOR " I f Christmas Comes" ML 58 (Dec 15, 1945) 20 "Make I t Come True" Chat 18 (Aug, 19^5) 14 "Sawdust i n T h e i r Eyes" ML 5b (Sept 1, 19^5) 16 CUNNINGHAM, LOUIS ARTHUR "And You S h a l l Receive" CHJ 42 (Dec, 1945) 14 "Corner o f Eden" CHJ 42~TSept, 1945) 16 "Unto the H i l l s " CHJ 4 l (March, 19^5) 16 ERNST, PAUL "Death of a Wolf" Chat l b ( A p r i l , 1945) 16 "Everybody Does" ML 58 (Jan 15, 1945) 8 "No Time t o Waste" Chat 18 (May, 1945) 6 "S t r e n g t h f o r Tomorrow" Chat 18 ( J u l y , 1945) 6 FINDLAY, D. K. "Swords f o r Slander" ML 58 (Feb 15, 1945) 16 - 1 5 0 -FORREST, A. C. " B u i l d i n g a Stack I s Man's Work and Not f o r an O l d , Old Man" Sat N 6 0 (Feb 10, 1 9 4 5 ) 32 "Men As Ships P a s s i n g i n the Night Speak to One Another, Then S i l e n c e " Sat N 60 (May 5, 1 9 4 5 ) 4 1 " U n t i l Judge R u t h e r f o r d Do Us P a r t : A T a l e o f Saskatchewan" Sat N 60 (Jan 13, 1 9 4 5 ) 2b GOLDBERG, WILLIAM "Summer on the Farm" D i r e c t i o n S ( J u l y , 1 9 4 5 ) 1 GREENE, MARION " L i k e a Flower i n Ker H a i r " CJJ 4 2 (Oct, 1945) 5 HARRIS, J . N. "Dr. P o t t e r Found a Poet Without Honour i n H i s Own V i c a r a g e " Sat N 6 1 (Dec 29, 1 9 4 5 ) 17 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "Donna, You're the O l d e s t , Donna Come Here Donna, S i n g Donna" Sat N 6 1 (Sept 29, 1945) 32 " H o l l y w i t h B e r r i e s f o r E r i e : We Wept When We Remembered Z i o n " Sat N 6 1 (Dec 1, 1 9 4 5 ) 40 " L i t t l e Good Music w i t h Some I n c i d e n t a l O f f - S t a g e N o i s e s " Sat N 6 1 (Sept l b , 1 9 4 5 ) 36 "Old M i l l s and Clay Dishes Are Old M i l l s and C l a y D i s h e s " Sat N 60 (June 9, 1 9 4 5 ) 32 "One o f the Dutch Family: Three Cakes o f Yeast i n a Bag" Sat N 6 0 ( A p r i l 20, 1 9 4 5 ) 32 LAURENCE, ELSIE FRY " B a t t l e to the Strong" Chat l b (June, 19^ 5) 6 "The L i g h t e d T r e e " Chat l b (Dec, 1 9 4 5 ) 6 LAYTON, IRVING "The E n g l i s h Lesson" F S t a t 2:12 (April-May, 1 9 4 5 ) 3 " P i e t y " F S t a t 3:1 ( J u n e - J u l y , 19^ 5) 23 LEWIS, CLARK "Spark P l u g " ML 5» (Feb 1, 19^5) 8 " T h i s Time f o r Keeps" ML 5? (Oct 1, 19^ 5) b McCONNELL, WILLIAM "He Who Was A l i e n T r a c e s a Road" N Rev 1 (Dec-Jan, 19^ 5-6) 3 " M a s t i c k , Harry" F S t a t 2:11 (Feb-March, 1945) 4 McCOURT, E. A. "The A n c i e n t S t r a i n " QQ 52 (Winter, 1945-6) 429 MCLAREN, FLORIS C. "Thunderstorm" C Forum 2 8 ( J u l y , 19^ 5) 8 8 "Winter Scene: The Face o f the Foe I s Not A l t o g e t h e r U n f a m i l i a r " Sat N 6l (Dec 8, 1945) 45 -151-MALM, DOROTHEA "Lo t s o f Love" Chat 1 8 (Aug, 19^5) 8 " R e s i s t No More" Chat 1 8 (Feb, 1 9 4 5 ) 10 "Take I t Easy" ML~3B~(March 15, 19&5) 8 MAYSE, ARTHUR "The Case o f the A i l i n g A n g l e r " ML 58 ( J u l y 1, 1945) 8 "Gambling Man" ML 58 (May 15, 1943) 16 "Man-Hunter's Moon" ML 58 (Sept 15, 1945) 3 6 "Murder Lode" ML 58 T ^ p r i l 1, 1945) 5 " R i v e r Demon" ML 58 (May 1 , 1945) 8 " R u s s i a n Lady" ML 58 (Aug 1, 1945) 16 "The Sea O t t e r s " ML 58 (March 15, 1945) 1 6 MITCHELL, W. 0. "The L i o n Hunter" ML 58 (Aug 15, 1945) 1 6 "Somethln's Gotta Go" ML 58 ( J u l y 1, 1945) 20 OSTENSO, MARTHA "Calendar" CHJ 4 l ( A p r i l , 1945) 12 PAGE, P. K. "Them Ducks" Prev 23 (undated) 1 PHILLIPS, KALMAN "She Would L i k e To Be K i s s e d " Chat 1 8 (Dec, 1945) 10 "A T a s t e f o r Lemonade" Chat 1 8 (Nov, 1945) 7 RACKOWE, ALEC "I'm the G i r l " ML 58 (Dec 1, 1945) 8 RADDALL, THOMAS H. "The Love Moon" ML 58 (May 1, 1945) l 6 "The Selge" ML 5"B~~(March 1, 1945) 16 ROSS, MARY LOWREY "Case o f the A l c o h o l i c Cat and the Incompatible Tenant" Sat N 60 ( A p r i l 21, 1945) 10 "For the Average Small Household Two or Three Cats Are P l e n t y " Sat N 6 1 (Sept 22, 1945) 10 " I t ; Seems You Can't Go A g a i n s t Nature o r Even Human Nature" Sat N 60 (June 1 6 , 1945) 10 "Miss A. Meets the'Atomic World and Puts I t i n I t s P l a c e " Sat N 60 (Sept 1, 1945) 10 "Only the Wise Are P e s s i m i s t s , and Only P e s s i m i s t s Wise" Sat N 60 ( A p r i l 7, 1945) 10 "Satan F i n d s Some M i s c h i e f S t i l l f o r I d l e Hands To Do" Sat N 60 ( J u l y 21, 1945) 1 4 "Strange S t o r y o f Otto Kraut, o r How Blood Came on The Moon" Sat N 60 (Jan 20, 1945) 10 " T r a v e l S t i l l Has Disadvantages, Some of Them Unlooked F o r " Sat N 60 ( J u l y 7, 1945) 1 4 SIMPSON, ROBERT G. "Shore Leave" F S t a t 3 : 1 ( J u n e - J u l y , 1945) 8 - 1 5 2 -SOUSTER, RAYMOND "The Creek" D i r e c t i o n 8 ( J u l y , 1945) ^ " I n t e r v a l " D i r e c t i o n 8 (Nov, 1945) 8 STURDY, JOHN RHODES "The Grey Funnel L i n e " ML 58 (Jan 1 , 19^5) 16 " H i s Majesty From Sioux C i t y " ML 58 (Sept 1 5 , 19^5) 19 WILSON, ETHEL "The C i g a r and the Poor Young G i r l " Echoes 180 (Autumn, 19^5) 11 "We Have To S i t Opposite" Chat 1 8 (May, 1945) 15 1 9 4 6 ALLEN, RALPH "Hut Scene" ML 5 9 (Nov 1 , 1 9 4 6 ) 1 0 "The Landing" ML 5 9 (Nov 1 5 , 1 9 ^ 6 ) 1 3 "The S c a r f " ML 5 9 ( J u l y 1 , 1 9 4 6 ) 2 0 "Witch o f Endor" ML 5 9 (Sept 1 5 , 1 9 4 6 ) 1 0 ALLEN, ROBERT THOMAS "No Lemons on My L o t " ML 5 9 (Aug 1 5 , 1 9 ^ 6 ) 1 6 " W i l f r e d and the Two-Ton Romeo" ML 5 9 (Jan 1 , 1 9 ^ 6 ) 1 0 ANDERSON, PATRICK "The Nest o f Luck" N Rev 1 (Dec-Jan, 1 9 4 6 - 7 ) 25 ANNIXTER, PAUL "Hunting Coat" ML 5 9 (May 1 , 1 9 4 6 ) 23 "The R i v e r L o r d " ML 5 9 (March 1 5 , 1 9 4 6 ) 1 4 AYLEN, ELISE (Mrs. D. C. S c o t t ) "The S t r a n g e r from Arcady" QQ 53 ( S p r i n g , 1 9 ^ 6 ) 1 5 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON .1 "Man a t the Door" CHJ 4 2 (Jan, 1 9 4 6 ) 5 "Robert I s Mine" Echoes 185 (Christmas, 1 9 4 6 ) 6 BARNARD, MARGARET E., "Some Other Woman's Daughter" ML 5 9 (Sept 1 , 1 9 4 6 ) l 6 BROWN, ALICE CAMERON " I n v i t a t i o n to Freedom Abetted by the F l o w e r i n g Beethoven" Sat N 6 l (May l b , 1 9 4 6 ) 3 4 BROWN, H. " G i r l w i t h the B i g Red Hat" Sat N 62 (Sept 7 , 1 9 4 6 ) 25 " G r e a t e s t K i n g " Sat N 62 (Nov 3 0 , 1 9 4 6 ) 4 8 " I n v i s i b l e W a l l " Sat N 6 1 (Aug 1 0 , 1 9 4 6 ) 2b " Y o u ' l l C e r t a i n l y Get the Axe" Sat N 6 2 (Oct 1 2 , 1 9 4 6 ) 4 b BUCKLER, ERNEST "You Could Go Anywhere Now" Sat N 6 2 (Nov 2 , 1 9 4 6 ) 2 b ERNST, PAUL "Buy Me Some Peanuts" ML 5 9 ( A p r i l 1 , 1 9 4 6 ) 2 0 "The D i f f i c u l t Gross" Chat 1 8 (May, 1 9 4 6 ) 6 "For S a l e — P r i n c e s s " Chat 1 8 (Feb, 1 9 4 6 ) 8 "Time and Mr. Egan" Ghat 18 (Nov, 1 9 4 6 ) 1 4 FONTAINE, ROBERT " F a l l o f the Sparrow" ML 59 (Nov 1 , 1 9 4 6 ) 16 "The L a n t e r n That Was Magic" ML 5 9 (Aug 15 , 1 9 4 6 ) 1 9 FORREST, A. C. "Case o f C i v i l M a r r i a g e " Sat N 62 (Nov 2 , 1 9 4 6 ) 29 " S t r i k e — 1 9 4 6 P a t t e r n " Sat N 62 (Sept 2 8 , 1 9 4 6 ) 4 l GRAY, BERYL "The C a p t i v e Heart" Chat 1 8 (Feb, 1 9 4 6 ) 6 " T h i s f o r Remembrance" Chat 1 8 ( J u l y , 1 9 4 6 ) 1 4 GREEN, H. GORDON "Excuse My Dust" ML 59 ( A p r i l 1 5 , 1 9 4 6 ) 2 1 " S t a r on the Balsam" ML 59 (Dec 1 5 , 1 9 4 6 ) 1 2 GUSTAFSON, RALPH "Verandah T a l k " Reading 1 (May, 1 9 4 6 ) 5 4 HARRIS, J . N . "Two J o e s " Reading 1 (May, 1 9 4 6 ) 4 0 HOWARTH, JEAN " I ' l l Walt f o r You A l l My L i f e " ML 59 (Feb 15 , 1 9 4 6 ) 2 0 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "Grass by the Side o f D i f f e r e n t Roads Looks Very Much A l i k e " Sat N 6.1 (Feb 9, 1 9 4 6 ) 33 "Our Motion I s Low" Sat N 6 2 (Oct 1 2 , 1 9 4 6 ) 4 9 "Sport Has H i s D ay" Sat N 6 1 (Aug 2 4 , 1 9 4 6 ) 25 "White S k i r t s P a s s i n g " Sat N 6 1 (June 2 2 , 1 9 4 6 ) 32 LAURENCE, ELSIE FRY "The Y e l l o w Dress" Chat 18 (Aug, 1 9 4 6 ) 5 LAYTON, IRVING "A Death i n the Fam i l y " N Rev 1 (Dec-Jan, 1 9 4 6 - 7 ) 2 " V a c a t i o n i n La V o i s e l l e " N Rev 1 (Feb-Mar, 1 9 4 6 ) 2 McCONNELL, WILLIAM "Break O f f " UBC T ' b i r d 1 (Dec, 1 9 4 6 ) 6 "Garden I s a Lovesome Thing — But Some People Can't Take I t " Sat N 6 1 (June 1 , 1 9 4 6 ) 32 McILROY, KIMBALL " C o n v e r s a t i o n P i e c e : Winkleman o f C l e v e l a n d T r a v e l s Abroad" Sat N 62 (Nov 2 , 1 9 4 6 ) 1 8 "Hockey Reorganized" Sat N 6 2 (Nov 1 6 , 1 9 4 6 ) 15 -154-MCLAHEN, FLOHIS C. "Af t e r n o o n a t Sand P o i n t " Sat N 62 (Nov 1 6 , 1946) 36 "Willow's Tender L e a f " Sat N 61 (May 2 4 , 1946) 4 l MALM, DOROTHEA "Come and P l a y " Chat 18 (Jan, 1946) 12 MAYSE, ARTHUR "Don't C a l l Me S u s i e " ML 59 (Oct 15 , 1946) 10 MIDDLETON, J . E. "Very G a l l a n t Lady" Sat N 61 ( J u l y 27, 1946) 29 MITCHELL, W. 0. "Two Kinds o f S i n n e r " ML 59 (June 1 , 19^6 ) 10 PACEY, DESMOND "Aunt P o l l y " QQ 53 (Summer, 1946) 209 PAGE, P. K. "George" Reading 1 (Feb, 1946) 5 "Week-End West Coast" N Rev 1 (Feb-March, 1946) 2b PHILLIPS, KALMAN "Gentlemen Are Born" ML 59 ( J u l y 1 , 1946) 10 "Too Much Glamour" ML 59 (May 15 , 19^6) 10 ROBERTS, THEODORE GOODRIDGE "Escape i n S p r i n g " ML 59 (June 15 , 1946) 20 "The Night Before Waterloo" ML 59 (Feb 1 5 , 1946) 20 3 -RUTT, EDWIN "Slaphappy A n g e l " ML 59 (Oct 15 , 1946) 20 "Tough Egg" ML 59 TF*eb 1 , 1946) l b STRANGE, KATHLEEN "The Rubber Apron" Echoes 184 (Autumn, 1946) 14 THOMAS, MARTHA BANNING "The C a p t a i n ' s S k i p p e r " ML 59 (Aug 1 , 1946) 10 WEBSTER, KAY "A D i f f e r n t Cup o f Tea" ML 59 (Dec 1 , 1946) 16 " I t Takes A l l Kinds""ML 59 (Feb 1 , 1946) 7 "Red Dress" ML 59 (Oct 1 , 1946) 20 WUORIO, EVA-LIS " M l c a l l and the L i t t l e Pavlov" ML 59 (Nov 1 5 , 1946) 13 YOUNG, SCOTT "The Broncos" ML 59 (Oct 1 , 1946) 10 "Haunted Heart" ML 59 ( A p r i l 1 , 1946) 10 -155-1 9 4 7 ALLEN, BALPH "The I n v i n c i b l e Dope" ML 60 ( A p r i l 15, 1 9 4 7 ) 1 0 ALLEN, ROBERT THOMAS "Boy Wonder" ML 60 (Feb 1 5 , 1 9 4 7 ) 2 0 "The G i r l w i t h the Future F e a t u r e s " Chat 2 0 (Oct, 1 9 4 7 ) 30 BARNARD., LESLIE GORDON "The Question" Q^ 6 4 (Autumn, 1 9 4 7 ) 330 BARNARD, MARGARET E. "There's Always George" Chat 2 0 (Nov, 1 9 4 ? ) 1 7 "Water Rat" Chat 20 (June, 1 9 4 7 ) 1 8 BREYFOGLE, WILLIAM ARTHUR " P o r t r a i t o f a Dog" QQ 6 4 (Winter 1 9 4 7 - 8 ) 4 6 l BROWN, H. "Man Who Had So Much" Sat N 62 (Jan 4, 1 9 4 7 ) 17 BUCKLER, ERNEST "You Wouldn't B e l i e v e Me" Sat N 6 3 (Dec 6, 1 9 4 7 ) 4 8 CALLAGHAN, MORLEY "The Mexican B r a c e l e t e " ML 60 ( A p r i l 1 5 , 1 9 4 7 ) 2 4 CLARE, JOHN " G a b r i e l Blow Your Horn" ML 60 (Jan 15, 1 9 4 7 ) 2 0 "Home Is the Hunter" ML 60 (May 1 , 1 9 4 7 ) 2 0 COATES, ELEANOR U W i l d Gesture" ML 60 (Sept 1 , 1 9 4 7 ) 1 0 E R N S T * PAUL " C y n t h i a , I nc." ML 60 ( J u l y 1 5 , 1 9 4 7 ) 2 0 " L o s t Avenue" ML~60 (NOV 1 , 1 9 4 7 ) 1 0 EVANS, HUBERT "L e t My People Go" ML 60 (Oct 15, 1 9 4 7 ) 1 8 FONTAINE, ROBERT "The Faraway Music Company" ML 60 (June 1 5 , 1 9 4 7 ) 2 4 "Geralde and the Green Green Grass" ML 60 (Feb 1 5 , 1 9 4 ? ) 2 2 FORREST, A. C. "Domestic T r i a n g l e " Sat N 62 (March 2 2 , 1 9 4 7 ) 36 "Our Ships W i l l F o l l o w A f t e r " Sat N 6 2 (Jan 1 1 , 194?) 20 GRAY, BERYL "The S e c r e t P l a c e s " Chat 20 ( A p r i l , 194?):,. 12 "That Boy o f Ed's" ML~6o (Jan 1, 194?) 16 GREEN, H . GORDON "Did T h i s Happen to You" ML 60 ( A p r i l 1 , 1 9 4 7 ) 2 0 "One More Dream" ML 60 (Feb 1 , 1 9 4 7 ) 20 HARDY, W. G. "Two Came Back" ML 6 0 (Sept 1 , 1 9 4 ? ) 1 6 HOOGSTRATEN, VINIA "My Fam i l y and the S u c k l i n g P i g That Came to Our Dinner T a b l e " Sat N 62 (Feb 15 , 1 9 4 7 ) 33 " p a s s i o n Every Saturday; o r Our A f f a i r w i t h Mr. John G i l b e r t " Sat N 62 ( Aug 30, 1 9 4 7 ) 1 7 HOWARTH, JEAN " P o r t r a i t o f Anna" ML 60 (Feb 1 5 , 1 9 4 7 ) 1 0 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE " • F i n e * by D e f i n i t i o n " Sat N 62 (Feb 1 , 1 9 4 7 ) 2 1 " H a i r Ribbon" Sat N 62 (March 1 , 1947) 25 "One o f the Crowd" Sat N 63 (Oct 25, 19 ^ 7 ) 37 JASPERSON, FRED K. "A G i f t f o r B i g Ni g " ML 60 (Dec 1 5 , 1 9 4 7 ) 2 0 KING, VIOLET "A L a n t e r n f o r Nancy" ML 60 (Aug 15 , 19 ^ 7 ) 1 0 "Mama Had I t A l l Planned" ML 60 ( A p r i l 1 , 1947) 1 0 "The P a i n t e d Clock" ML 60 TJuly 1 , 1 9 4 7 ) 1 0 LEWIS, CLARK " P l a y I t Square" ML 60 (Jan 1 , 1 9 4 7 ) 1 0 McCONNELL, WILLIAM "The E n g l i s h P r o f e s s o r " UBCT'bird 2 (March, 1 9 4 ? ) 2 McILROY, KIMBALL " F a l l o f the A l p s : The Fa b l e w i t h a Moral f o r Everybody" Sat N 6 2 (May 2 4 , 1 9 4 ? ) 1 8 "For P l e a s u r e But Not f o r Meney; or What I s an Amateur Today?" Sat N 6 2 (March 1 , 1 9 4 7 ) 1 8 "Manuscript Found i n an Old Catcher's M i t t " Sat N 6 2 ( May 1 0 , 1 9 4 ? ) 1 6 "Mr. Lou P f a l t z and the W r e s t l i n g Championship o f the World" Sat N 62 (Aug 16 , 194?) 1 0 MCLAREN, F L 0 R I S C... "Some Monday Morning" Sat N 6 2 ( A p r i l 1 2 , 1 9 4 7 ) 29 "Uncle Hardy, B a c h e l o r " Sat N 63 (Nov 2 2 , 1 9 4 7 ) 29 "We»ll Know B e t t e r Next Time" Sat N 62 ( J u l y 1 9 , 1 9 4 7 ) 25 MAYSE, ARTHUR "The L o r d and Gideon" Chat 2 0 (Feb, 1947) 6 - 1 5 7 -MIDDLETON, J . E. " G a l l a n t Lady's New Man" Sat N 63 (Sept 13, 1947) 40 "Of D o l l y and C h a r l i e " Sat :N 62 (Feb 15, 1947) 36 "Retirement B l u e s " Sat N 62 ( J u l y 5 , 1947) 21 "Unwelcome R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " Sat N 63 (Nov 1, 1947) 33 PAGE, P. K. "The Woman" Here and Npw 1 (Dec, 1947) 36 PHILLIPS, KALMAN "The B l a c k Sedan" Chat 20 (May, 19^7) 6 "The Coat" Chat 20~TNov, 1947) 18 "Maybe Not f o r L i n d a " Chat 20 (Oct, 1947) 22 "Murder Is Seldom B o r i n g " Chat 20 (Aug, 1947) 30 "Sympatico"ML 60 (June 1, 1947) 23 RACK0WE, ALEC " I t T a k e s Two" ML 60 (Oct 1 5 , 19^7) 10 REANEY, JAMES "Mr. Whur: A Metamorphosis" Here and How 1 (Dec, 1947') 14 SCHISGALL, OSCAR "Answer i n the Negative" ML 60 (May 1, 1947) 10 SCHULL, JOSEPH "Common Man" Sat N 63 (Sept 2 7 , 1947) 33 SCOTT, E. MARGERIE "Two Women" ML 60 (Nov 15 , 194?) 23 STRANGE, KATHLEEN "Fur Coat" Sat N 63 (Oct 18, 1947) 25 "The Stamp C o l l e c t i o n " Echoes 186 (Spring, 1947) 6 STURDY, JOHN RHODES "The Old Man and the Radar" ML 60 (Dec 1, 194?) 20 WEBSTER, KAY "Hope f o r the L i v i n g " ML 60 U>ug 1, 1947) 16 WEEKES, MARY " B u f f a l o S k u l l " Sat N 62 (March 2 9 , 1947) 29 WOOD, KERRY "The S i l v e r Bugles" _Echoes_ 188 (Autumn, 19^7) 14 WU0RI0, EVA-LIS "Aunt K r i s t i n a and the Monk V l a d i m i r " Chat 20 (May, 1947) 8 "Christmas a t Ch a l e t S k o l " Echoes I 8 9 (Christmas, 194?) 10 " U n t i l the Day Break" ML 60 (Aug 1, 1947) 10 ZACKS, ROBERT "Guardian o f the Clo c k " ML 60 (June 1 5 , 1947) 20 "The Ship" ML 60 (Nov 1, 1947) 19 -158-194b ANNIXTER, PAUL "The C a g e d , ; ML 61 ( J u n e 1, 1948) 21 BARNARD, MARGARET E. "The F l i g h t o f B i r d s " CHJ 45 ( J u n e , 1948) 10 "When Do We S t a r t L i v i n g ? " C h a t 21 ( A u g , 1948) 23 BROWN, H. " T h i s B o y G o t a B r e a k " S a t N 63 ( A u g 2 8 , 1 9 4 8 ) 25 BUCKLER, ERNEST " P e n n y i n t h e D u s t " ML 6 l (Dec 15, 1948) 18 CALLAGHAN, MORLEY " A l l R i g h t , F l a t f o o t " ML 6 l ( A u g 15 , 1948) 18 " W i t h a n A i r o f D i g n i t y " ML 6.1 ( J a n 15, 1948) 10 EVANS, HUBERT " Y o u n g C e d a r s M u s t Have R o o t s " ML 6 l ( M a r c h 1, 1943) 20 FONTAINE, ROBERT " I n t h e L o n g Run" ML 6 l ( J a n 15 , 1948) 20 " I t C o u l d n ' t o f B e e n E a b e R u t h " ML 6 l ( S e p t 15 , 1948) 16 — " M i s f o r t u n e o f Desmonde" CHJ 45 ( A p r i l , 1948) 22 "Romance I s a Dream" CHJ "~43 ( J u l y , 1948) 16 FORREST, A. C. "She M i g h t N e v e r Be Happy" S a t N 63 ( S e p t 4, 1948) 21 HARDY, W. G. " G e o f f r e y a n d t h e L a d y Gemma" ML 6 l (Nov 1, 1948) 10 " L o v e ' s a D i f f e r e n t K i n d o f Game" ML 6 l ( A p r i l 1, 1948) 10 H A R R I S , J . N. " G o l d M i n e i n t h e H o u s e " ML 6 l ( M a r c h 1, 1 9 4 8 ) 16 "Walk B e f o r e B r e a k f a s t " S a t N 63 (May 15, 1948) 18 H00GSTRATEN, V I N I A "Cowboys A r e n ' t P r e t t y " S a t N 63 ( F e b 7, 1 9 4 8 ) 23 HOWARTH, JEAN "The N o v i t i a t e " U B C T ' b l r d 4 ( W i n t e r , 1948-9) 4 " V a l e n t i n e f o r J a c k i e " ML 61 ( F e b 1, 1948) 12 JASPERSON, FRED K. "The S k i p p e r F e l l i n L o v e " ML 6 l ( O c t 1,1948) 10 LAURENCE, E L S I E FRY " T h a t L i v e d - I n L o o k " CHJ 45 ( D e c , 1 9 4 8 ) 12 -159 LIVESAY, DOROTHY •'Proof o f the P u d d l n ' — a North Vancouver S t o r y " Sat N 63 (March 2? , 1 9 4 8 ) 29 "See the World C l e a r l y " Sat N 6 4 (Nov 1 3 , 1 9 4 8 ) 36 McCONNELL, WILLIAM "Bushed" UBCT'blrd 3 (March, 1 9 4 8 ) 25 "The Poets and N o v e l i s t s I'm T a l k i n g About" UBCT'blrd 3 (Jan, 1 9 4 8 ) 2 "They D i d n ' t Want to L i s t e n " Sat N 63 (June 1 2 , 1 9 4 8 ) 3 3 MCCOURT, E. A. "High S i e r r a s " ML 6 l (Sept 1 , 1 9 4 8 ) 2 2 McILROY, KIMBALL "Blue Ribbon" CHJ 4 5 ( A p r i l , 1 9 4 8 ) 6 6 "Don't Go Near the Water" Chat 2 1 ( J u l y , 1 9 4 8 ) 3 4 "Judgement Day" Sat N 6 4 (Dec 1 8 , 1 9 4 8 ) 15 "Wonderful Bat" Sat N 63 (May 8, 1 9 4 8 ) 1 2 MCKINLEY, MABEL BURNS "Youth" CHJ 4 5 ( A p r i l , 1 9 4 8 ) 1 4 McCLAREN, FLORIS CLARK "Something To Do on Sunday" Sat N 63 (May 2 2 , 1 9 4 8 ) 33 MALM, DOROTHEA "Home's Where You Keep Your Heart" ML 1 9 4 8 ) 1 0 "You Marry a Man's Whole F a m i l y " Chat 1 9 4 8 ) 2 2 MAYSE, ARTHUR "Danny and the Tragoped" ML 6 1 (Feb 1 , 1 9 4 8 ) 2 4 "Don't C a l l Me M i s t e r " ML 6 l (Aug 1 5 , 1 9 4 8 ) 1 8 "Some Day Y o u ' l l Thank Me" ML 6 1 (May 1 , 1 9 4 8 ) 2 2 MITCHELL, W. 0 . " A i r Nest and La B e l l e Dame" ML 6 1 (Nov 1 , 1 9 4 8 ) 2 0 " A i r Nest and the C h i l d H a r o l d " ML 6 l (Aug 1 , 1 9 4 8 ) 2 0 "The Day Jake Made Her R a i n " ML "T>1 (March 1 , 1 9 4 8 ) 1 0 "Shoparoon f o r Maggie" ML 6 l " T M a y 1 5 , 1 9 4 8 ) 2 2 PACEY, DESMOND "No Young Man" C Forum 2 8 (May, 1 9 4 8 ) 38 PETERSON, PHYLLIS LEE "The Human F a c t o r " ML 6 l (Aug 1 , 1 9 4 8 ) 1 2 "Rhyme Nor Reason" ML 6 1 (Dec 1 , 1 9 4 8 ) 2 0 PHILIPS, KALMAN "The D e v i l ' s Court" Chat 2 1 (May, 1 9 4 8 ) 30 61 (May 15 , 21 (Sept, RACK0WE, ALEC "A D i f f e r e n t Woman" ML 6 l (March 15 , 1 9 4 8 ) 1 0 - i 6 o -REANEY, JAMES "Afternoon Morn" Here and Now 1 (May, 1948) 38 "The Young N e c r o p h i l e s " C Forum 28 (Sept, 194b) 136 ROSS, MARY LOWREY " K i s s o f Death" Sat N 63 (Feb 21, 1948) 10 SCKULL, JOSEPH "No Time L i k e the Future" Sat N 63 (May 8, 1948) 36 "Running Wolf Goes A-Woolng" Sat N 63 ( J u l y 31, 19^8) 21 STRANGE, KATHLEEN "The M i r a o l e o f the Mahogany" Echoes 193 (Christmas, 1948) 5 WEBSTER, KAY "Deadwood" ML 6 l ( J u l y 15, 194b) b WEES, FRANCES SHELLEY " A u c t i o n S a l e " Chat 21 (March, 1948) 30 WEEKES, MARY " C a p t i v e to C o l o r : or the Wooing of I n d i a Jacob" Sat N 63 (May 8, 1948) 4 l " T r a i l Ride" C Forum 28 ( A p r i l , 1948) 12 WILLIAMSON, ROSSA "Dear Ginny" CHJ 45 (May, 1948) 16 WILSON, ETHEL "Down a t E n g l i s h Bay" Here and Now 1 (May, 1948) 7 WOOD, KERRY " P r a i r i e Jack" QQ 55 (Autumn, 1948) 334 WUORIO, EVA-LIS "Christmas I s Together" ML 6 l (Dec 15, 1948) 10 ZACKS, ROBERT "The Pigeon and the E a g l e " ML 6l (Feb 15, 1948) 19 1949 AYLEN, ELISE (Mrs. D . C. S c o t t ) "The MacKenzie P l a i d " Q£_ 56 ( S p r i n g , 1949) 31 BENTHAM, JOSEPHINE "The L i a r " Chat 22 (May, 1949) 24 "Mr. Pompton's Baby" Chat 22 (Feb, 1949) 4 -161-CLARE, JOHN "Love From a Menace" Ghat 22 ( A p r i l , 1949) 30 DeLaROCHE, MAZO "What Price Loyalty?" CHJ 46 (Dec, 1949) 14 ERNST, PAUL "Blow the Horn for Christmas" ML 62 (Dec 15 , 19^9) 10 GARNER, HUGH "Some Are So Lucky" CHJ 46 (July, 1949) 8 GUSTAFSON, RALPH "The Pigeon" N R e v 3 (Oct-Nov, 1949) 4 "The Thicket" Here and Now 1 (Jan, 1949) 4b HARRIS, J . N. "Forbes Radford—Gentleman" ML 62 (Feb 1, 1949) 20 HOWARTH, JEAN "Red Is For the L i v i n g " ML 62 (May 1, 1949) 10 "Small Miracle for Cora" ML 62 (Dec 15, 1949) 20 INNIS, MARY QUAYLE "Night at Miss Koenig's" Sat N 64 (Aug 2, 1949) 21 LEISNER, DOROTHY (ROBERTS) "Spring Song" CHJ 45 ( A p r i l , 1949) 22 McDOUGALL, JOSEPH EASTON "That Dog That Could Climb Trees" ML 62 (June 15 , 1949) 10 McILROY, KIMBALL "Challenger" Sat N 64 (May 24, 1949) 13 "Forgotten Man" Sat N (March 1, 1949) 12 "Homecoming" Sat~¥ 54 (June 7, 1949) 19 "Rose of the Gardens" Sat N 64 (Sept 13, 1949) 21 MCLAREN, FLORIS C. "You Gave Away My Sled" Sat N : 64 (Sept 6, 1949) 21 MALM, DOROTHEA "Soft Answer" Chat 22 (Nov, 1949) 2b" MAYSE, ARTHUR "The Dogwood Tree" CHJ 45 (March, 1949) 18 PETERSON, PHYLLIS LEE "The Banshee and W i l l i e 0'Hara" CHJ 46 (Oct, 1949) 12 "Pamela Pays the Piper" CHJ 45 TFeb, 19^9) 16 PHILLIPS, KALMAN "Last Chance for Love" Chat 22 (May, 1949) 28 -162-ROSS, SINCLAIR "Jug and B o t t l e " QQ 56 (Winter, 1949-50) 500 RUTT, EDWIN " S a i l o r ' s Son" ML 62 ( J u l y 15 , 19^9) l b SCOTT, E. MARGERIE "A Mat t e r o f Love o r Murder" CHJ 45 (Feb, 1949) 10 "The P r o d i g a l H e a rt" CHJ 46 TMarch, 1950) 22 SPENCER, SHEILA "The Hundred D o l l a r Dog" CHJ 45 (March, 1949) 10 WEES, FRANCES SHELLEY " P o i n t o f View" Chat 22 ( J u l y , 19^9) 16 "Quarantine" CHJ WE ( J u l y , 1949) 5 and CHJ 46 (Aug, 1949) 12 WILLIAMSON, R0SSA "Escape t o the F o r e s t " CHJ 46 (May, 1949) 10 WILSON, ETHEL "The Innumerable Laughter" CHJ 46 ( J u l y , 1949) 14 WOOD, KERRY "A S o l d i e r Comes Home" Echoes 195 (Summer, 1949) 5 "The S p i r i t o f the West" Echoes 196 (Autumn, I949) 10 WUORIO, EVA-LIS "The B r i d e from H o l l a n d " Chat 22 (Jan, 1949) b "Jeanne d'Arc and the S i r e n Sea" ML, 62 (Nov 1, 1949) 20 YOUNG, SCOTT "The .Choice" ML 62 (June 1 , 1949) 10 ZACKS, ROBERT "A Man o f P r i n c i p l e " ML 62 (March 1 , 1949) 20 "Stop That M a r r i a g e " ML 62 (Dec 1 , 1949) 10 ! 2 i o BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "I've Got To T e l l You D a r l i n g " CHJ 46 (Feb, 1950) 12 (with Margaret E. Barnard) "Windward Summer" C_HJ 47 (Sept, 1950) 22 BARNARD, MARGARET "I've Got To T e l l You D a r l i n g " CHJ 46 (Feb, 1950) 12 (with L e s l i e Gordon Barnard) BUCKLER, ERNEST "The Clumsy One" ML 63 (Aug 1 , 1950) b CLARE, JOHN "The Strange Death of Sam F l e t c h e r " ML 63 (Sept 1 , 1950) 20 . - 1 6 3 -CUNN INGHAM, LOUIS ARTHUR "The T e r r i b l e S e c r e t o f M. Laroche" ML 63 (Nov 1 , 1950) l b ERNST, PAUL "Anything For a P a l " CHJ 47 (June, 1950) 9 "Unwanted Guest" ML 63 (Sept 1 , 1950) 1 0 GARNER, HUGH "Coming Out P a r t y " Chat 23 (Sept, 1950) 16 GREEN, H. GORDON "Church Going Down" Chat 23 (May, 1950) 21 HARRIS, J . N. " M a i l " ML 63 (Dec 1 5 , 1950) 11 KING, VIOLET "The B e l l s o f Heaven" Chat 23 (Dec, 1950) 12 LAURENCE, ELSIE FRY "The Poor M o r l a r i t y s " CHJ 4 6 ( A p r i l , 1950) 20 LIVESAY, DOROTHY "The G l a s s House" N Rev 3 ( J u n e - J u l y , 1950) 1 McCONNELL, WILLIAM "Raise No Memorial" N Rev 4 (Dec-Jan, 1950-51) 23 MCCOURT, EDWARD A. "The Locked Door" N Rev 3 (Aug-Sept, 1950) 2 MALM, DOROTHEA "Aren't You My Husband?" CHJ 47 (Oct, 1950) 9 and CHJ 47 (Nov, 1950) 22 PACEY, DESMOND "The Good Hope" Qg 57 (Autumn, 1950) 325 "The P i c n i c " N Rev 4 (Oct-Nov, 1950) 36 PETERSON, PHYLLIS LEE "The House of F o l e y " CHJ 46 ( A p r i l , 1950) 9 and CHJ 47 (May, 1950) 22 "The Undertaker o f S t e . Angele" ML 63 (May 1 5 , 1950) 18 REANEY, JAMES "The Dress" C L i f e 1 ( S p r i n g , 1950) 9 ROSS, SINCLAIR "The Outlaw" £Q 57 (Summer, 1950) 198 WEES, FRANCES SHELLEY "Rude Awakening" Chat 23 ( A p r i l , 1950) 15 - 1 6 4 -YOUNG, SCOTT "Mabel's Rainbow" C_HJ 4 ? ( J u l y , 1950) 10 "The T u r n i n g P o i n t " CHJ 4 7 (Dec, 1950) 2 2 ZACKS, ROBERT " F i r e That Redhead" MX 63 ( J u l y 15 , 1950) 8 "The G i r l w i t h the Gingham Heart" ML 63 (June 1 , 1950) 6 1251 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "Successor to L a u r a " C_HJ 4 8 (May, 1951) 16" BUCKLER, ERNEST "The R e b e l l i o n o f Young David" ML 64 (Nov 15 , 1951) ERNST, PAUL "He'd Have Baked a Cake" Chat 2 4 (Feb, 1951) 1 8 GARNER, HUGH " F a t h e r ' s Day" CHJ 4 7 (Jan, 1 9 5 1 ) 5 "A T r i p f o r Mrs. T a y l o r " Chat 2 4 (Oct, 1951) 21 "The Yellow Sweater" Chat 24" (March, 1951) 1 6 GREEN, H. GORDON "A Poem f o r the B l i n d " Chat 2 4 (Nov, 1 9 5 D 22 "To My Daughter i n Love" C_HJ 4 b (Aug, 1951) 9 HARDY, W.•G. "But a S t r a n g e r Here" CHJ 4 7 (Feb, 1951) 22 "The P h i l i s t i n e " ML 63~TNov,15, 1950) 12 JOHNSON, VERA D. "Black S i x on Red Seven" ML 6 4 (Jan 15 , 1 9 5 D 8 KING, VIOLET "Moment of D e c i s i o n " Chat 2 4 (June, 1 9 5 D 1 8 "Timothy's Christmas Rose" Chat 2 4 (Dec, 195^) 1 4 LEISNER, DOROTHY (ROBERTS) "Hunger" N Rev 4 (April-May, 1 9 5 D 21 LIVESAY, DOROTHY "The L a s t Climb" N Rev 4 (Aug-Sept, 1951) 2 MACBETH, MADGE " B l e s s e d Are the Peacemakers" Echoes 202 ( S p r i n g , 1 9 5 D 6 "Los M a r i a c h i s " Dal R 31 (Summer, 1 9 5 D 113 McCONNELL, WILLIAM "The C a t a l y s t " nmMag 1 (Dec-Jan, 195-1-2) 35 -165-MAYSE, ARTHUR "The Hex-Han o f Croaker's Hole" ML 64 (March 15, 195D 12 RACKOVJE, ALEC "The Reporter and the Redhead" Chat 24 (Jan, 1 9 5 U 18 ROSS, SINCLAIR "Saturday N i g h t " QQ 58 (Autumn, 1951) 38? SCHULL, JOSEPH "The J i n k e r " ML 64 ( A p r i l 15 , 1951) 20 SCOTT, E. MARGERIE "To K i l l a Ghost" CHJ 48 (Oct, 1951) 10 SMITH, RONALD R. " F o o t l i g h t s Around My Heart" ML 64 (Oct 15 , 1951) 26 STURDY, JOHN RHODES " A n n i v e r s a r y " ML 64 ( A p r i l 1, 1951) 18 WILSON, ETHEL "The Burnaby N u r s e r i e s " N Rev 4 ( J u n e - J u l y , 1951) 2 "The F u n e r a l Home" N Rev 4"~TApril-May, 1951) 12 "Miss T r i t t " N Rev 5 (Oct-Nov, 1 9 5 D 11 WOOD, KERRY "Donito and H i s Quest" Echoes 203 (Summer, 1951) 5 YOUNG, SCOTT "The Boy Who Threw a Snowball a t Santa" Chat 24 (Dec, 195D 10 ZACKS, ROBERT "The Shepherd and the D i c t a t o r " ML 64 (Dec 15 , 1 9 5 D l b ALLEN, ROBERT THOMAS "Evening Without C l a r k Gable" CHJ 49 (Nov, 1952) 10 BUCKLER, ERNEST "A P r e s e n t f o r Miss Merrlam" Chat 25 (Dec, 1952) b CALLAGHAN, MORLEY "Keep Away from Laura" ML 65 (Nov 1 , 1952) 12 ' FONTAINE, ROBERT " S p r i n g Came L a t e " C Forum 32 (June, 1952) 64•, - 1 6 6 -GAHNER, RUGK "The C o m p r o m i s e " CHJ 49 ( S e p t , 1952) 14 "1*1 1 N e v e r L e t Y o u Go" C h a t 25 ( A u g , 1952) 18 " L u c y " CHJ 48 ( A p r i l , 19327 10 GUSTAFSON, RAL?R " C l a s s i c a l P o r t r a i t " D a l R 32 (Summer, 1952) 131 "The P a p e r S p i k e " N Rev 5 ( J u n e - J u l y , 1952) 34 H00GSTRATEN, V I N I A "Afternoon of L o v e " C h a t 25 ( S e p t , 1952) ? "The L o s t Cowhand" C h a t 25 ( M a r c h , 1952) 19 " T h o s e who W a i t " CHJ 4"9 ( D e c , 195^) 24 K I N G , V I O L E T " F i f t e e n B o r r o w e d D o l l a r s " C h a t 25 ( D e c , 1952) 12 L E I S N E R , DOROTHY (R03ERTS) "A P a t r i o t i c B a l l e t " N R e v 5 ( J u n e - J u l y , 1952) 8 L I V E S A Y , DOROTHY "The F i r s t C r o c u s " C Foram 31 ( M a r c h , 1952) 2?6 MALM, DOROTHEA " B e a u t i f u l R e d - H a i r e d W i f e " C h a t 25 ( O c t , 1952) 8 MIT C H E L L , W. 0. "The P r i n c e s s a n d t h e W i l d Ones" ML 65 ( M a r c h 15, 1952) 12 PETERSON, P H Y L L I S L E E " " G o s s i p from t h e G r a s s r o o t s " CHJ 48 ( J a n , 1952),2 "In.. Memory, o f a Boy Named J o h n n y " C h a t 25 ( A p r i l , 1952) 24 REANEY, JAKES "Dear M e t r o n o m e " C Forum J>2 ( S e p t , 1952) 134 ROSS, S I N C L A I R "The Runaway" QQ 59 ( A u t u m n , 1952) 323 SCHULL, JOSEPH " F o r T h r e e N i g h t s O n l y " ML 65 (May 1 , 1952) 18 SMITH, RONALD R. " M a r y , M a r y Q u i t e Contrary" ML 65 ( A u g 1, 1952) 8 " P h i l i p p a T a k e s t h e C o u n t " ML 65 ( F e b 15, 1952) 14 WEEKES, MARY " B l e e d i n g t h e Army" C Forum 32 ( J a n , 1953) 2 2 ? WILLIAMSON, RQSSA "The T r o u b l e W i t h Y o u G i r l s " C h a t 25 ( M a r c h , 1952) 14 -16? -WOOD, KERRY "Docherty's Gone" QQ 59 (Winter, 1952-3) 464 "The Unmelodious J a i l B i r d " Echoes 206 ( S p r i n g , 1952) 5 YOUNG, SCOTT "Honest Woman" CHJ 49 (Aug, 1952) 9 m i BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "So Wide the Sea." CHJ 49 ( A p r i l , 1953) 20 (with Margaret E. Barnard) "You're Very Young Mrs. B a r r y " Chat 26 (March, 1953) 18 (with Margaret E. Barnard) BARNARD, MARGARET E. "So Wide the Sea" CHJ 49 ( A p r i l , 1953) 20 (with L e s l i e Gordon Barnard) "You're Very Young Mrs. B a r r y " Chat 26 (March, 1953) 18 ( w i t h L e s l i e Gordon Barnard) BUCKLER, ERNEST " L a s t D e l i v e r y B e f o r e Christmas" Chat 26 (Dec, 1953) 11 CALLAGHAN, MORLEY "The Way I t Ended" CHJ 50 (Sept, 1953) 12 FONTAINE, ROBERT "The C h a i r Flower" Chat 26 (Oct, 1953) 24 GUSTAFSON, RALPH "I n P ^ i n t o f F a c t " QQ 60 (Autumn, 1953) 344 HARRIS, J . N. "The B o l s h e v i k and the Wicked Witch" ML 66 ( A p r i l 1 , 1953) 18 JOHNSON, VERA D. "Death i n the Toy Parade" ML 66 (Dec 1 , 1953) 28 "The Long N i g h t " ML 66 ( A p r i l 15 , 1953) 14 "A Man's Got To L i e Once i n a While" ML 66 (Feb 1 , 1953) 24 "The S i l e n t S t a r o f S t r a t f o r d " ML 66 (Aug 15 , 1953) 12 "The Way I s Hard and Weary" C Forum 33 ( A p r i l , 1953) 20 LEISNER, DOROTHY (ROBERTS) "The Wanted" N Rev 6 (Jun e - J u l y , 1953) 10 -168-LIVESAY, DOROTHY "Matt" G Forum 32 (Jan, 1953) 227 McCOURT, EDWARD A. "The K i n g Over the Water" N Rev 6 ( J u n e - J u l y , 1953) 25 McNAMEE, JAMES "Give the B r i d e a K i s s , George" ML 66 (Sept 15 , 1953) 16 "Two Ways To Hook a Sucker" ML 66 (Aug 15, 1953) IB MITCHELL, W. 0. "Crocus a t the C o r o n a t i o n " ML 66 (June 1, 1953)- 1« SMITH, RONALD R. "Hare" ML 66 (Dec 1, 1953) 32 WILSON, ETHEL "The Escape" N Rev 6 ( J u n e - J u l y , 1953) 2 "Swamp A n g e l " Qg 60 (Winter, 1953-4) 526 YOUNG, SCOTT "The Delegate from Saskatoon" Chat 26 (June, 1953) 20 ZACKS, ROBERT "Take Care of Uncle Harry" ML 66 (May 1, 1953) 20 19Jit BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "The T h r e a t e n i n g Storm" Chat 2? (Oct, 1954) 22 BUCKLER, ERNEST "Goodbye P r i n c e " CHJ 51 (Dec, 1954) 16 CALLAGHAN, MORLEY "Something f o r Nothing" CHJ 51 (May, 1954) 18 HOOGSTRATEN, VINIA "The Long View" CHJ 50 (Jan, 1954) 14 KING, VIOLET "The L i e " CHJ 50 (Jan, 1954) 24 LEISNER, DOROTHY (ROBERTS) "The Measure of Mr. Samson" Chat 2? (March, 1954) 16 McNAMEE, JAMES "Are People Monkeys?" ML 6? (March 1, 1954) 22 "The R i c h e s t Woman i n Town" ML 67 (Oct 1, 1954) 16 PACEY, DESMOND "The M i r r o r " Dal R 34 (Summer, 1954) 155 -169-FETERSON, PHYLLIS LEE "The L a s t Door" Chat 27 ( A p r i l , 195*0 12 "Mr. Cohen's Leprechaun" Chat 27 (Jan, 1954) 16 SMITH, RONALD R. "The Memory of a Se n t i m e n t a l Morning" ML 6? (Feb 15, 1954) 22 WILSON, ETHEL "The B i r d s " N Rev 7 (Oct-Nov, 195*0 24 YOUNG, SCOTT " C i t y G i r l ' s Name" CjLJ 51 (Aug, 1954) 16 1255 BARNARD, LESLIE GORDON "H o l i d a y Eve" CHJ 52 (May, 1955) 10 BENTHAM, JOSEPHINE "A T h i e f i n the House" Chat 28 (Sept, 1955) 18 CALLAGHAN, MORLEY "We J u s t Had To Be Alone" ML 68 (March 5, 1955) 18 GARNER, HUGH "The Manly Heart" C_HJ 52 (June, 1955) 32 HARRIS, J . N. "Porky P r o c t o r ' s D ownfall" ML 68 (March 19, 1955) 24 JOHNSON, VERA D. " V i g i l on the Rock" ML 68 (Dec 10, 1955) 38 LaMOUNTAIN, MARION "Which Way My He a r t ? " Chat 2b (Oct, 1955) 22 McNAMEE, JAMES "How To Handle Women" ML 6b (Oct 1, 1955) 16 "The Shameless Wooing of C l a r e n c e P a t e r s o n " ML 6b ( A p r i l 2, 1955) 26 ~~ MITCHELL, W. 0. "The Golden J u b i l e e C i t i z e n " ML 68 (June 25, 1955) 32 PACEY, DESMOND "That Day i n the Bush" C Forum 34 (Jan, 1955) 226 - 1 7 0 -PETERSON, PHYLLIS LEE "The Runaway" Chat 2 8 (Feb, 1 9 5 5 ) 14 ROSS, MARY LOVJERY "Free Speech" CHJ 5 2 (Sept, 1 9 5 5 ) 26 SCOTT, E. MARGERIE "George and the L o n e l y H e a r t s " Echoes (Christmas, 1 9 5 5 ) 5 SMITH, RONALD R. " A l l f o r the Love of Marie" ML 68 (Nov 2 6 , 1 9 5 5 ) 1 6 "A Card from the Comtesse" ML 68 (Jan 1 5 , 1 9 5 5 ) - 1 2 TRIMBLE, ALBERTA C. "Be Y o u r s e l f " CHJ 5 1 ( A p r i l , 1 9 5 5 ) 3 2 WEES, FRANCES SHELLEY "We're Having a Wonderful Christmas" Chat 28 (Dec, 1 9 5 5 ) 1 1 • WILLIAMSON, R0S3A "The Moment" CHJ 5 1 ( A p r i l , 1 9 5 5 ) 14 WUORIO, EVA-LIS " C a l l O f f Your Cats" Chat 28 (Feb, 1 9 5 5 ) 1 2 IV Canadian P e r i o d i c a l s C o n t a i n i n g Short S t o r i e s i n E n g l i s h : 1935-1955. A c a d i a Athenaeum  Act a V i c t o r i a n a  A t l a n t i c Advocate  A t l a n t i c Guardian  Author's S i g n Post Beaver Canadian Author and Bookman  Canadian Banker  Canadian Bookman  Canadian B u s i n e s s  Canadian Forum  Canadian Home J o u r n a l  Canadian J e w i s h Review  Canadian L i f e  Canadian Magazine Canadian Messenger of the Sacred Heart Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways Magazine Canadian Nature Cape B r e t o n M i r r o r Catara_q.ui Review Cha l l e n g e -172-C h a t e l a i n e  Country Guide Country Guide and Nor'West Farmer C r e a t i v e Campus C r i t i c C r u c i b l e D a l h o u s i e Review  D i r e c t i o n Echoes Fam i l y H e r a l d and Weekly S t a r  Farmer's Advocate  F i r s t Statement  F o r e s t r y and Outdoors H e a l t h Here and Mow Impressions  I n t e r l u d e K a t e r i Maclean 1 s McMaster Q u a r t e r l y (McMaster Muse) Man Maritime B a p t i s t -173-N a t i o n a l Eome Monthly- New Advance Newfoundland Q u a r t e r l y  New F r o n t i e r  New Magazine New Outlook ( U n i t e d Church) Northern Review Nor'West Farmer pm Magazine P r e s b y t e r i a n Record Preview Queen's Q u a r t e r l y Raven (U. B. C.) Reading Saturday Night S c a r l e t and Gold S p o t l i g h t s ; Toronto F o r t n i g h t l y Toronto S t a r Weekly  T r i n i t y U n i v e r s i t y Review  Tuesday Night U. B. C. Th u n d e r b i r d Undergraduate U n i t e d Church Observer -174-Va ga bond  V a l l e y Echo  Vox W a t e r l o o Review  We s t e r n B a p t i s t  W e s t e r n F r e e Lance  W e s t e r n R e c o r d e r  Winnipeg; F r e e P r e s s v. References Used A. Short S t o r y : General C r i t i c i s m Bates, H. B. The Modern Short S t o r y : A C r i t i c a l Survey. Boston: The w r i t e r , Inc., 1941. Canby, Henry S e i d e l . The Short Story i n E n g l i s h . New York: Henry H o l t and Company, 1909. Hardy, John Edward. The Modern T a l e n t : An Anthology of S t o r i e s . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t ,and Winston, 1964. Kenner, Hugh. S t u d i e s i n Change: A Book of the Short S t o r y . Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1965. 0'Conor, Frank. The L o n e l y V o i c e : A Study of the Short S t o r y . C l e v e l a n d : The World P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1965. O ' F a o l i n , Sean. The Short S t o r y . New York: The Devin-A d a i r Company, 1964. S c o t t , V i r g i l , ed. S t u d i e s i n the Short S t o r y . Rev. ed. New York: Holt,. R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1964. Trask, Georgianne and C h a r l e s Burkhart, eds. S t o r y t e l l e r s  and T h e i r A r t : An Anthology. Garden C i t y , N. Y.: Doubleday & Co., I n c . , Anchor Books, I 9 6 3 . B. Canadian H i s t o r y : General References. C a r e l e s s , J . M. S. Canada: A S t o r y of C h a l l e n g e , Rev. ed. Toronto: Macmillan o f Canada, 1963. H u t c h i s o n , Bruce. The Unknown Country. Rev. ed. Toronto: Longmans, Green and Company, 1946. Lower, A r t h u r R. M. Canadians i n the Making. Toronto: Longmans, Green, and Company, 1958. P o r t e r , John. The V e r t i c a l Mosaic. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1965. - 1 7 6 -G. Canadian L i t e r a t u r e : B i b l i o g r a p h i e s and L i t e r a r y -H i s t o r i e s . B e l l , I n g l i s Freeman and Susan VI. P o r t . Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 1959-1963. Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 6 . Canadiana. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , 1950 -Canadian Catalogue of Books. Toronto: Toronto P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , 1921-1949. 2 V o l s . Canadian P e r i o d i c a l Index. Ottawa: The Canadian L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 4 7 ( r e p r i n t 1 9 6 6 ) . 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 5 9 . ( r e p r i n t 1962) . F o l e y , Martha, ed. The Best American Short S t o r i e s — a n d  the Yearbook of the American Short S t o r y . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n £1942 - 1 9 5 5 3 . Goggio, E m i l i o and o t h e r s . A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f Canadian C u l t u r a l P e r i o d i c a l s . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1955. K l i n c k , C a r l F. L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f Canada. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1965. M e i s t e r , M a r i l y n . The L i t t l e Magazine o f B r i t i s h Columbia: A N a r r a t i v e B i b l i o g r a p h y . March, 1 9 6 7 . ( ^ u n p u b l i s h e d J 0 * B r i e n , Edward J . The Best Short S t o r i e s — a n d the  Yearbook-of the American Short S t o r y . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n £1935 -19413 . P e e l , Bruce Braden. B i b l i o g r a p h y o f the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s  to 1953. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1956. Supplement, 1 9 6 3 . Rhodenizer, Vernon B l a i r . Canadian L i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h . M o n t r e a l : Q u a l i t y P r e s s , 1965. Home, David, Comp. Jews i n Canadian L i t e r a t u r e : A B i b l i o g r a p h y . Rev. ed. M o n t r e a l : Canadian Jewish Congress and Jewish P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 1964. Short S t o r y Index. New York: W i l s o n , 1 9 5 3 . S t o r y , Norah. The Oxford Companion to Canadian H i s t o r y and  L i t e r a t u r e . Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I 9 6 7 . S y l v e s t r e , Guy, Brandon Conron, and C a r l F. K l i n c k , eds. Canadian W r i t e r s . Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 6 4 . -177-Tanghe, Raymond. B i b l i o g r a p h y of Canadian B i b l i o g r a p h i e s . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , i 9 6 0 . Supplements 1 9 6 2 , 1 9 6 5 . Thomas, C l a r a . Canadian N o v e l i s t s (1920-1945). Toronto: Longmans, Green & Company, 1946. Watters, R e g i n a l d E y r e . A C h e c k - L i s t of Canadian L i t e r a t u r e and Background M a t e r i a l s ( X 6 2 6 - 1 9 5 0 ) . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . .and I n g l i s Freeman B e l l . On Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 1806-1960. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1966. Wren, S h e i l a . Short S t o r y Index Compiled from the  Canadian P e r i o d i c a l Index 1938-1947. Ottawa: Canadian L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967. D. Canadian L i t e r a t u r e : C r i t i c i s m . Anderson, P a t r i c k . "Ourselves'! Preview 11 (Feb, 1943), n.p. A v i s o n , Margaret. " C a l l a g h a n R e v i s i t e d . " Canadian Forum 39 (March, i 9 6 0 ) , 276 -7 . B i s s e l l , Claude T. "A Common A n c e s t r y : L i t e r a t u r e i n Canada and A u s t r a l i a . " U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Q u a r t e r l y 25 (January, 1956) , 1 3 1 - T W . Brown, E. K. "The Ne g l e c t of Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . " Echoes 1 7 6 (Autumn, 1 9 4 4 ) , 12 , 4 8 . . "The Problem of a Canadian L i t e r a t u r e " i n Masks o f F i c t i o n . A. J . M. Smith, ed. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1 9 6 I . C a l l a g h a n , Morley. Morley C a l l a g h a n ' s S t o r i e s . Toronto: Macmillan, 1 9 5 9 . . "The P l i g h t o f Canadian F i c t i o n . " U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Q u a r t e r l y 7 (January, 1938) , I52-.161. Conron, Brandon. Morley C a l l a g h a n . New York: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1966. . "Morley C a l l a g h a n as a Short S t o r y W r i t e r . " J o u r n a l o f Commonwealth L i t e r a t u r e 3 ( J u l y , I967) 5 8 - 7 5 . -178-D a v i s , H. J . " M o r l e y C a l l a g h a n . " C a n a d i a n Forum 15 (Dec, 1 9 3 5 ) , 3 9 8 - 9 . D a v i s , Raymond. "A P l e a f o r a C a n a d i a n S h o r t S t o r y " C. Bookman 17 ( S e p t , 1 9 3 5 ) , 1 0 5 . DeLaRoche, Mazo, Stephen L e a c o c k , and M o r l e y C a l l a g h a n . "The P a s t Q u a r t e r C e n t u r y " Maclean*s 49 (March 1 5 , 1 9 3 6 ) , 3 6 . E g g l e s t o n , W i l f r i d . The F r o n t i e r i n Can a d i a n L e t t e r s . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n , 1 9 5 7 . F r y e , N o r t h r o p . " E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e 1929-1954" C a n a d i a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n 13 (Dec, 1 9 5 ° ) , 1 0 7 - 1 1 2 . Grove, F r e d e r i c k P . "The P l i g h t o f C a n a d i a n F i c t i o n ? A R e p l y . " U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Q u a r t e r l y 7 ( J u l y , 1938), 4 5 1-46?. G u s t a f s o n , R a l p h . " W r i t i n g and Canada." N o r t h e r n  Review 3 (Feb-March, 1 9 5 0 ) , 1 7 - 2 2 . H a r d e r , H e l g a I r e n e . E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n P o e t r y 1935-1955: A Thematic S t u d y . M. A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 5 . I n n i s , H a r o l d A. "The S t r a t e g y o f C u l t u r e w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e — a F o o t n o t e t o t h e Massey R e p o r t . " T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1952. K n i s t e r , Raymond, ed. C a n a d i a n S h o r t S t o r i e s . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 2 8 . Koch, E r i c . " C a l l a g h a n : Lend-Lease from t h e Bohemians." S a t u r d a y N i g h t 60 ( O c t . 2 1 , 1944), 16 - 1 ? . L a y t o n , I r v i n g . The S w i n g i n g F l e s h . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1961. ^ I n t r o d u c t i o n " } L u c e , P. W. "The E d i t o r ' s A d v i c e " { o n P r a r i e f l o t i o ^ J . S a t u r d a y N i g h t 54 (June 24, 1 9 3 9 ) , 2 . McCourt, Edward A. The Can a d i a n West i n F i c t i o n . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n , 1 9 4 9 ! Macdonald, Dwight. "Landscape t h r o u g h a Pee p h o l e : An A m e r i c a n Glance a t Some Canadian Magazines." C a n a d i a n L i t e r a t u r e 1 (Summer, 1 9 5 9 ) , 9 3 - 9 7 . - 1 7 9 -WaoKenzie, Ruth I . " L i f e i n a New Land, Notes on the Immigrant Theme i n Canadian F i c t i o n . " Canadian  L i t e r a t u r e 7 (Winter, 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 4 - 3 3 . . " P r o l e t a r i a n L i t e r a t u r e i n Canada." D a l h o u s i e Review 19 ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 ) , 4 9 - 6 4 . MacPherson, Hugo. "The Two Worlds of Morley C a l l a g h a n " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y 64 (Autumn, 1 9 5 7 ) , 3 5 0 - 3 6 5 . Magee, W i l l i a m H. " L o c a l Colour i n Canadian F i c t i o n . " U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y 28 (Jan, 1 9 5 9 ) , 1 7 6 - 1 8 9 . Pacey, Desmond. A Book o f Canadian S t o r i e s . Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 5 7 , 1 9 5 0 , 1 9 5 2 , I 9 6 0 ! . C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g i n Canada. Rev. ed. Toronto: Ryerson, I 9 6 I . . "The Innocent Eye: The A r t of E t h e l W i lson." Queen's Q u a r t e r l y 61 ( S p r i n g , 1 9 5 4 ) , 4 2 - 5 2 . P h e l p s , A r t h u r L. "Canadian L i t e r a t u r e and Canadian S o c i e t y . " Northern Review 3 ( A p r i l - M a y , 1 9 5 0 ) , 2 3 - 3 5 . P r e s t o n , B e r n a r d . "Toronto's C a l l a g h a n " Saturday Night 51 (Jan. 18, 1 9 3 6 ) , 1 2 . Report of the Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Development  i n the A r t s . L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 5 1 . Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1951• R i m a n e l l i , Giose and Ruberto Roberto. Modern Canadian  S t o r i e s . Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 6 6 . D m t h o l o g y J . Roddan, Samuel. " L e t t e r to a Young W r i t e r Now Dead." Canadian Forum 28 (March, 1 9 4 9 ) , 2 7 9 - 2 8 0 . . " W r i t i n g i n Canada." Canadian Forum 26 (Sept, 1 9 4 6 ) , 1 3 7 . Ross, S i n c l a i r . The Lamp at Noon and Other S t o r i e s . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1 9 6 8 . New Canadian L i b r a r y , No. 6 2 . ^ I n t r o d u c t i o n by Margaret Laurencej). Sandwell, B. K . "Canadian W r i t i n g , ' 5 2 . " Saturday Night 68 (Nov. 2 9 , 1 9 5 2 ) , 1 , 2 1 . The Work of Mazo de l a Roche." Saturday Night 68 (Nov. 8 , 1 9 5 2 ) , 7 . -180-Selby, Joan. "New S t o r i e s " (Review o f Klanak I s l a n d s ) . Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 2 (Autumn, 1959), 81. Shoolman, Regina. "Is There a Canadian L i t e r a t u r e ? " S t o r y 10 (March, 1937), 2-7, 119-121. Spencer, Ralph E. "Fate S i s t e r s (Canada) Incorporated'^ Canadian Bookman 17 ( J u l y , 1935), 83-84. S t e i n h a e u r , H. "Morley C a l l a g h a n . " Canadian Forum 12 (February, 1932), 177-178. S u t h e r l a n d , John. "On a S t o r y P u b l i s h e d i n Preview Magazine." F i r s t Statement 1:1 (undated), 4-6. Thomas, C l a r a . " H a p p i l y Ever A f t e r . Canadian Women i n F i c t i o n and F a c t . " Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 34 (Autumn, 19*7), ^3-53. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y . " L e t t e r s i n Canada." [1935-1955J Watt, F. W. "Morley C a l l a g h a n as T h i n k e r " i n Masks o f  F i c t i o n . A. J . M. Smith, ed. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1961. Watters, R e g i n a l d E y r e . " O r i g i n a l R e l a t i o n s : A Geno-g r a p h i c Approach to the L i t e r a t u r e of Canada and A u s t r a l i a . " Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 7 (Winter, I96I), 6-1?. Weaver, Robert, ed. Canadian Short S t o r i e s . Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I 9 6 0 . , ed. Canadian Short S t o r i e s (Second S e r i e s ) . Toronto: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. . "The Economics of Our L i t e r a t u r e . " Queen's Q u a r t e r l y 60 (Winter, 1953-4), 476-485. . "A S o c i o l o g i c a l Approach to Canadian F i c t i o n . " Here and Now .if (June, 1949), 12-15. . " S t o r i e s by C a l l a g h a n . " Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 2 (Autumn, 1959), 67-?0. . "A T a l k w i t h Morley C a l l a g h a n . " Tamarack Review 7 ( S p r i n g , 1958), 3-29. Whalley, George. W r i t i n g i n Canada. Toronto: Macmillan, 1956. -181-Wilson, Edmund. "Morley Callaghan of Toronto." New  Yorker 36 (November 26, I 9 6 0 ) , 224 - 2 3 7 . . 0 Canada. New York: Farar, Straus and Giroux, 1965. Wilson, E t h e l . "A Cat Among the Falcons: Reflections on the Writer's C r a f t . " Canadian L i t e r a t u r e 2 (Autumn, 1959) , 10-19. Woodcock, George. Review of Robert Weaver and Helen James' Canadian Short S t o r i e s . Northern Review 5 (Feb-March, 1953). 44 - 4 7 . Young, Scott. "The Short Story." Canadian Author and  Bookman 26 (Autumn, 1 9 5 0 ) , 10-13. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104212/manifest

Comment

Related Items