UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Common misperceptions of the events relating to the rise of the protest movements on the prairies Sanguinetti, Sonja Patricia 1969

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COMMON MISPERCEPTIONS OF THE EVENTS RELATING TO THE RISE OF THE PROTEST MOVEMENTS ON THE PRAIRIES by SONJA PATRICIA SANGUINETTI B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964  A.THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Political  We accept t h i s  Science  t h e s i s as conforming  t o the  r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969.  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It is understood that copying or publication  of this thes,is for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Political  Science  The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  A p r i l 30th,  1969.  ABSTRACT This paper presents a model based on a s y n t h e s i s of the four major themes i n the standard l i t e r a t u r e on the r i s e of the p r o t e s t movements on the p r a i r i e s .  The themes are a homogeneous  p o p u l a t i o n , a q u a s i - c o l o n i a l economy, a n o n - p a r t i s a n system and the d e p r e s s i o n . for  They are g i v e n as  political  explanations  the coming to power of the P r o g r e s s i v e , S o c i a l C r e d i t ,  CCF.  and  p a r t i e s by the authors o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e such as Morton,  Sharp, L i p s e t , and Macpherson. An examination  o f the data r e l a t i n g to v o t e r  and p o p u l a t i o n composition The  shows t h i s model to be  behaviour over-simplified.  i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f i t are f u r t h e r h i g h l i g h t e d by the h i s t o r i c a l  data which i n d i c a t e the d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f development of the western p r o v i n c e s .  The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n which arose i n  Canada a f t e r the 1917  e l e c t i o n seems to g i v e a much b e t t e r  i n d i c a t i o n of how  the p r o t e s t p a r t i e s were a b l e to achieve  on the p r a i r i e s .  In other words, both the t o t a l Canadian context  and the i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r i e s must be i f one d e s i r e s to understand prairies.  I  considered  the p r o t e s t movement on  the  success  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents  i i i  L i s t o f Tables  iv  Acknowledgments  vi  A.  B.  C.  D.  The model o f the standard the p r o t e s t movements  l i t e r a t u r e on 1  H i s t o r i c a l events o f the p e r i o d covered by the model  12  D i s c u s s i o n s o f the d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the model and the data  41  Bibliography  49  iv LIST OP TABLES TABLE I II III  IV V  VI VII  PAGE Percentage o f the P o p u l a t i o n i n R u r a l Areas... Per C a p i t a Income on the P r a i r i e s  IX X XI  Origin  12  F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s i n the T e r r i t o r i e s . . .  13  Federal E l e c t i o n Results i n B r i t i s h Columbia  14  P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s i n Saskatchewan...  16  Percentage o f the Popular Vote i n P r o v i n c i a l  XIII XIV XV  XVI XVII XVIII  i n Saskatchewan  17  P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n Results i n Alberta Percentage o f Popular Vote i n P r o v i n c i a l Elections i n Alberta Percentage o f Popular Vote i n F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n s i n Saskatchewan..... Percentage o f Popular Vote i n F e d e r a l Elections  XII  10  Gains i n P o p u l a t i o n A c c o r d i n g to R a c i a l  Elections VIII  6  i n Alberta  18  20 21 22  F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s : 1908 and 1911  23  1917 E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s  26  F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s i n 1921  28  R e s u l t s o f the 1921 E l e c t i o n ,  Progressive  Support  30  R e s u l t s i n Three F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n s  34  Percentage o f Votes i n the 1926 and 1930 Elections Percentage o f Votes i n the 193 5 E l e c t i o n  34 35  V .  .LIST OF TABLES (cont'd) TABLE XIX XX  XXI  XXII  PAGE Canadian Export P r i c e s , 1929-33  35  Y i e l d and P r i c e o f Wheat i n Saskatchewan f o r Two E i v e Year Periods  39  Percent Votes f o r O l d - l i n e and T h i r d i n the West  44  Parties  Comparison o f Votes and Seats o f C o n s e r v a t i v e s and T h i r d P a r t i e s o f the Prairies  45  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I wish t o acknowledge the v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e o f Dr. H.A.C. C a i r n s i n s u p e r v i s i n g t h i s t h e s i s . read the manuscript and gave important  K. R a l s t o n  criticisms.  M.H. S a n g u i n e t t i gave i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and support.  There are  few C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l  a g r e e w i t h Dawson when he  s c i e n t i s t s who w o u l d d i s -  says:  The p a r t y s y s t e m , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e p a r t y s y s t e m under c a b i n e t government, w i l l f i n d the b e s t c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s o p e r a t i o n w h e r e t h e r e a r e o n l y two p a r t i e s , o r a t l e a s t , two p a r t i e s s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o p r o v i d e a s a r u l e a c l e a r m a j o r i t y i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . 1 The a c c e p t a n c e  o f the  t w o - p a r t y .system as  E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g d e m o c r a c i e s has pathological suffer  from  s t a t e o f the Canadian p a r t y system: "one-party  It  i s w i t h the  cause i t  is  e i t h e r we  problem: the  The c o n c e r n o f  third parties  a n d one w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t  i n t h a t s t a t e o f l i m b o w h i c h makes i t  this  i n Canada. to t r e a t  i n the p a s t f o r the p o l i t i c a l  t h a t he i s at  all.  It  s c i e n t i s t not to f e e l  t r e a d i n g on the h i s t o r i a n ' s i s e v e n more d i f f i c u l t  academic c o n t e x t because the  background,  for  too  vaguely  t e r r i t o r y i n touching  it  to d e a l w i t h i n the Canadian  S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y has been  w i t h by a group o f eminent s c h o l a r s  be-  too recent  t h e h i s t o r i a n t o f e e l he c a n d e a l w i t h i t o b j e c t i v e l y a n d far  almost  d o m i n a n c e " o r we h a v e a s a d l y v i g o r o u s  latter  i s an i m p o r t a n t a r e a  the  l e d to a concern w i t h the  t h i r d p a r t y d i s t u r b i n g the body p o l i t i c . paper  t h e norm f o r  i n most o f i t s  ideology, s o c i a l psychology, etc.  dealt  aspects:  The C C F . h a s  been  • D a w s o n , R . M . , The G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a , T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1959, p . 492.  2 e x a m i n e d b y one o f t h e be n e c e s s a r y  d e a n s o f A m e r i c a n s o c i o l o g y ; how c a n  to cover the m a t e r i a l  it  again?  9  Even L i p s e t scientists, biases. parties of  w o u l d be p r e p a r e d  no m a t t e r how e m i n e n t ,  A s one r e a d s t h e on the p r a i r i e s ,  the c a p t i v e s  literature  i t becomes  evident  explanations  p r o v i n c e s d u r i n g the  are  standard  the w r i t e r s were v e r y i m p o r t a n t ,  i n a r r i v i n g at  to admit t h a t a l l  o f the  social  of  on the  t h a t the  their  third sympathies  p r o b a b l y more so t h a n events i n the  usual,  prairie  1 9 2 0 ' s and 3 0 ' s .  . . . t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e W e s t , when a d d e d t o i t s sharp s e c t i o n a l i s m , g i v e s i t an i n c i s i v e and cogent c h a r a c t e r o f i t s own. T h i s i t i s w h i c h makes i t t h e t h i r d o f the " d e c i s i v e a r e a s " o f Canadian h i s t o r i c a l , s t u d y . I t h a s no a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o w o r k i n g o u t i t s own i d e n t i t y i n t e r m s o f i t s own h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . It must r e a l i z e i t s l a t e n t n a t i o n a l i s m ; a n a t i o n a l i s m n e i t h e r r a c i a l l i k e the F r e n c h nor dominant . . . l i k e t h a t o f O n t a r i o , but e n v i r o n m e n t a l and, because o f the d i v e r s i t y of i t s people, composite. I t may, o f c o u r s e , f a i l . . . , and by the j o i n t p r o c e s s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n and l o s s o f i t s l e a d e r s t o the E a s t and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , be r e d u c e d to a subject people, w i t h o u t character or s p i r i t . ^ W.L. Morton,  the  author  of these sentiments  known s c h o l a r o f w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y . 'metropolitan'  thesis  because i t emphasizes 2.  He has  o f Canadian i n t e r p r e t i v e the  is a  well-  accepted  the  history primarily  importance o f the e a s t e r n Canadian  "My r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e t o p i c a t t h e t i m e w e r e a t l e a s t a s much p o l i t i c a l a s s c h o l a r l y . " L i p s e t , S . N . A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , New Y o r k , A n c h o r B o o k s , 1 9 6 8 , p . X I . 3 . M o r t o n , W . L . ' C l i o i n C a n a d a : The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n H i s t o r y ' , i n Berger, ed. Approaches to Canadian H i s t o r y , T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1967, p . 48.  3 c e n t r e s and s t r e s s e s H i s work, s t r e s s e s Policy  1  the  for western  agrarian  the  'hinterland'  aspect o f the  inappropriateness  development and the  s e t t l e m e n t s on t h e p r a i r i e s  o f the  eastern Canadians political  ideas  therefore,  on  As a w e s t e r n e r to the  more s e n s i t i v e  t o impose e i t h e r  the  from the v a l u e s o f a  M o r t o n i s p r o b a b l y more s y m p a t h e t i c  western c u l t u r e and,  'National  a l i e n a t i o n of  s o c i e t y dominated by i n d u s t r i a l concerns. self,  prairies.  their  him-  idea of a  to the  unique  efforts  economic or  of  their  it.  H i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y g i v e s some r e a s o n  for  this  emphasis.  The t h r e e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s w e r e a c q u i r e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n ment f o r of  the  e x p l i c i t l y m e r c a n t i l i s t purpose  raw m a t e r i a l s  industries  and a market  of central Canada.  for  the  infant  of providing manufacturing  For twenty y e a r s ,  4  was t h w a r t e d b y a n e c o n o m i c d e p r e s s i o n .  sources  this  As a r e s u l t cf  purpose this,  i m m i g r a t i o n from b o t h Europe and the U n i t e d S t a t e s d w i n d l e d to insignificance. 1890's,  the  When c o n d i t i o n s i m p r o v e d d r a m a t i c a l l y i n  'National Policy'  of protective  tariffs  and r a i l w a y  m o n o p o l i e s was s o m e t h i n g o f a s a c r e d cow i n C a n a d i a n Although d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n only a l i m i t e d success  l e d the  in getting  farmers freight  the  to organize,  politics. they  r a t e s r e d u c e d and  4 . M o r t o n , W . L . The P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y i n C a n a d a , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1950, p . 3-4.  Toronto,  had the  4 grain trade  regulated.  The d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n e l e m e n t s o f p o l i c y w h i c h w e r e c h a n g e a b l e under w e s t e r n p r e s s u r e and t h o s e w h i c h were n o t goes b a c k t o t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i c y i n so f a r a s i t c o n c e r n e d t h e W e s t . T h e s e e l e m e n t s w e r e , f i r s t , t o e n c o u r a g e t h e maximum development o f the w e s t e r n t e r r i t o r i e s and second, to assure i n t e g r a t i o n o f the development i n t o the n a t i o n a l economy. Western a d v i c e , which appeared to concern western d e v e l o p m e n t . . . was o f t e n q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e t o e a s t e r n policy-makers. Western a d v i c e which r e l a t e d to the q u e s t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n h o w e v e r , was s e l d o m f o u n d a c c e p t a b l e a s i t was m o s t l i k e l y t o b e o p p o s e d t o i n t e g r a t i o n on eastern terms.^ An e x a m p l e o f t h e  latter  by p r a i r i e o r g a n i z a t i o n s  c a s e was t h e c o n s i s t e n t  t o have the  tariff  barriers  p a r t i c u l a r l y on s u c h i t e m s a s f a r m m a c h i n e r y a n d A l t h o u g h the p r o t e c t i v e p o s i t i o n by which, farmers it.  felt  was t h e  a c c o r d i n g to the  themselves  victimized,  fundamental  standard  kept."  fertilizer. federal im-  literature,  economic s t a t u s the C a n a d i a n w e s t has  must b e s e e n a g a i n s t  the to  alter  "how c o n t i n u o u s l y  A c c o r d i n g to Morton the r i s e o f the farmer p a r t i e s  lowered,  t h e y were never a b l e  M a c p h e r s o n sees t h i s as i n d i c a t i v e o f  c l o s e to a c o l o n i a l  other  tariff  attempt  been  P r o g r e s s i v e and  t h i s background of  exploitation. 5 . F o w k e , V . C . The N a t i o n a l P o l i c y a n d t h e Wheat Economy, T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1957, p. 93. 6. M a c p h e r s o n , C . B . D e m o c r a c y i n A l b e r t a : S o c i a l C r e d i t a n d P a r t y System, T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1962, p. 10.  the  5 Behind the s e c t i o n a l p r o t e s t l a y not o n l y resentment o f the N a t i o n a l P o l i c y and i t s agents the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . B e h i n d i t l a y a l s o the resentment o f the i n e q u a l i t y o f the p r o v i n c e s o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l West i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n . They had been c r e a t e d w i t h l i m i t a t i o n s imposed f o r the purposes of the Dominion. They e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n , n o t as f u l l p a r t n e r s , as s i s t e r p r o v i n c e s , b u t as s u b o r d i n a t e c o m m u n i t i e s s u b j e c t to the l a n d , f i s c a l , and r a i l w a y p o l i c i e s o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n p r o v i n c e s . . . The P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y was a f u l l - b l o w n e x p r e s s i o n o f the West's resentment o f i t s colonial status. 7 I m p l i c i t i n the  sense o f g r i e v a n c e  an a l m o s t p h y s i o c r a t i c b e l i e f i n the of  the  yeoman f a r m e r  leaders  monetary  effect  f a r m movements t h a t the  farmer  v a l u e i n s o c i e t y and t h a t the  were s i m p l y l i v i n g o f f the p r o d u c t populace  essential  on the  few t o d i s p u t e  value to  as opposed t o the u r b a n d w e l l e r . ^  o f the v a r i o u s  speeches to the  at being subordinate  o n many o c c a s i o n s  of his  labour.  made real  Since  the  there  were  view.  T a b l e I shows t h e m a k e - u p o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g p e r i o d f r o m 1900 t o  The  and merchants  p r a i r i e s was a l m o s t e n t i r e l y r u r a l , this  society  p r o v i d e d the o n l y financiers  1940.  7. M o r t o n , P r o g r e s s i v e s , 8. I b i d , p . 2 9 2 .  p.  293-4.  was  the  6 TABLE I Percentage of  the P o p u l a t i o n i n  Rural Areas  1901  1911  1921  1931  1941  Manitoba  72.4  56.5  58.8  54.9  55.9  Saskatchewan  84.3  73.3  71.1  68.4  67.0  Alberta  74.6  63.3  62.1  61.9  61.4  As a c o m p a r i s o n , i n 1 9 4 1 , f a r m e r s made up 32 p e r c e n t o f all  gainfully  employed people i n A l b e r t a  (36% i n 1 9 2 1 , 32% i n  1931) w h e r e a s t h e y f o r m e d o n l y 11 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n Ontario  (13% i n 1 9 3 1 ) .  Farmers and t h e i r u n p a i d w o r k i n g sons on  t h e f a r m i n 1941 made up 41 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e g a i n f u l l y in Alberta in  employed  (43% i n 1 9 2 1 , 42% i n 1 9 3 1 ) , c o m p a r e d w i t h 15 p e r c e n t  Ontario. The o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n o f A l b e r t a , a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e more i n d u s t r i a l p r o v i n c e s , a r e (1) t h a t i n d e p e n d e n t c o m m o d i t y p r o d u c e r s ( f a r m e r s a n d f a r m e r s ' sons w o r k i n g the f a m i l y farm . . . .) have been from 1921 u n t i l 1941 a b o u t 48% o f t h e w h o l e g a i n f u l l y o c c u p i e d p o p u l a t i o n w h i l e i n O n t a r i o t h e y h a v e b e e n f r o m 2 0 t o 25 p e r c e n t , a n d i n C a n a d a a b o u t 3 0 p e r c e n t ; (2) i n A l b e r t a t h e i n d u s t r i a l a n d wage e a r n e r s ( t h a t i s , o t h e r t h a n on f a r m s ) h a v e b e e n 41 p e r c e n t o f t h e w h o l e , i n O n t a r i o a b o u t 70 p e r c e n t , i n C a n a d a a b o u t 60 p e r c e n t . 9 The s i t u a t i o n i n S a s k a t c h e w a n was s i m i l a r ,  Lipset."*"^  according  to  I n 1936, 62. 7 p e r c e n t o f the r e s i d e n t s were employed  , 9 . Macpherson, op. c i t . , p. 15-16. 10. L i p s e t , S . M . , A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , 1968.  New Y o r k ,  Anchor  Books,  7 i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i n 1941, the agricultural  f i g u r e was 5 8 . 3 p e r c e n t .  i n d u s t r y p r o v i d e d 85 p e r c e n t  net p r o d u c t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e .  The  o f the v a l u e o f a l l  Unlike Manitoba,  where W i n n i p e g  d o m i n a t e d t h e commerce o f t h e p r o v i n c e , S a s k a t c h e w a n h a d no urban  large  area. The l a c k o f p o w e r f u l u r b a n c e n t r e s means t h a t t h e b a s i c a l l y r u r a l c h a r a c t e r o f the p r o v i n c e dominates i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . The p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , t h e n e w s p a p e r s , and the u n i v e r s i t y must a l l be o r i e n t e d t o w a r d the farmer. T h i s h a s made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s and urban newspapers to e l i m i n a t e the group consciousness o f the f a r m e r . i i This  'group c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  on w h i c h a u t h o r as t h e r e a s o n s the  1  you choose, i n the  p l u s the c o l o n i a l  standard  t w o - p a r t y s y s t e m on t h e  or c l a s s i n t e r e s t ,  literature  depending  economy, a r e  given  f o r the d e v i a t i o n from  prairies.  The a b s e n c e o f a n y s e r i o u s o p p o s i t i o n o f c l a s s i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e meant t h a t a l t e r n a t e p a r t i e s w e r e n o t needed e i t h e r t o express or to moderate a p e r e n n i a l c o n f l i c t of interests. T h e r e was a p p a r e n t l y , t h e r e f o r e , no p o s i t i v e b a s i s f o r an a l t e r n a t e p a r t y s y s t e m . The q u a s i - c o l o n i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s made i t a p r i m a r y r e q u i r e ment o f t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e a b l e t o s t a n d up t o t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t . . . . A p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y system i n w h i c h each o f the a l t e r n a t e p a r t i e s was a s u b o r d i n a t e s e c t i o n o f a f e d e r a l p a r t y h a d n o t h i n g t o commend i t a s a weapon a g a i n s t t h e c e n t r a l government; from t h i s f a c t , a s t r o n g a n t i p a t h y t o the p a r t y system appeared i n the west soon a f t e r the f e d e r a l p a r t i e s h a d managed t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . 1 2  11. I b i d , p. 50. 12. Macpherson, op. c i t . , p .  21.  8 F o r many, t h e a n t i p a t h y strengthened  by a b e l i e f  towards  t h a t i t was a l s o a c o r r u p t  Because b o t h o f the major p a r t i e s type o f brokerage p o l i t i c s , groups and s e c t i o n s each o t h e r ,  t h e p a r t y s y s t e m was system.  i n Canada were p r a c t i c i n g a  i n which the  interests  of  various  o f the p o p u l a t i o n were b a l a n c e d o f f  the p r a i r i e farmer  felt  against  t h a t men o f p r i n c i p l e h a d no  p l a c e i n them.  This,  for  o f the N o n p a r t i s a n League i n Saskatchewan and  the  success  a c c o r d i n g t o S h a r p , was p a r t o f t h e  reason  Alberta. By 1917 many who condemned t h e p a r t y s y s t e m w e r e s e e k i n g p o l i t i c a l expression i n a " n a t u r a l " or "nonpartisan" movement. The l e a g u e was q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t i t was s u c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n . N o n p a r t i s a n s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e i r program was " t h e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n i n t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n o f a n i d e a l o f c i t i z e n s h i p w h i c h has l o n g been i n the p r o c e s s o f f o r m a t i o n " a n d d e s e r v e d t h e s u p p o r t o f a l l who b e l i e v e d t h a t p a r t y i s m was d o o m e d . ^ The d e f e a t  o f the L i b e r a l s  i n A l b e r t a and t h e i r  replacement  b y a U n i t e d Farmers government  i s s e e n b y many a u t h o r s  evidence of a lack of p a r t i s a n  t r a d i t i o n on the  absence  p a r t i s a n has r e f e r e n c e  of p o l i t i c a l  electorate.  parties  13.  literature  to the presence  or  who h a d a b l o c o f s u p p o r t among  T h e r e h a s b e e n no a t t e m p t made t o gauge  w i t h which the proponents  further  prairies.  I t must be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h r o u g h o u t b o t h the and t h i s paper,  as  of these p a r t i e s  entered  the v i g o u r  into  Sharp, P . F . A g r a r i a n R e v o l t i n Western Canada, U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1948, p . 80.  the  any  Minneapolis,  9  e l e c t o r a l campaign.  The o n l y e v i d e n c e o f  lack of i t which i s offered  is  the  "partisanship"  or  d i v i s i o n o f the p o p u l a r  vote.  T h i s measure has been l a r g e l y i g n o r e d by the a u t h o r s o f  the  standard  the  parties led  literature obtained.  i n favour  o f the  seat support which  The o b v i o u s o n e - s i d e d n a t u r e o f t h e s e  I r v i n g t o b e l i e v e t h a t the e l e c t i o n o f the  1935 was a n a t u r a l  event  results  Social Credit in  given Alberta's p o l i t i c a l  history.  The i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t s e n s e t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t movement was a l s o t h e h e i r o f t h e p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f the U . F . A . P r i o r t o 1935 the p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y o f A l b e r t a f a l l s i n t o t h r e e phases: f i r s t , the p e r i o d o f t e r r i t o r i a l government i n w h i c h a n o n - p a r t i s a n system p r e v a i l e d ; second, the p e r i o d o f L i b e r a l r u l e f r o m 1905 t o 1 9 2 1 , i n w h i c h t h e two p a r t y system f u n c t i o n e d f u l l y o n l y a f t e r 1910; t h i r d , the p e r i o d o f the U . F . A . r e v o l t a g a i n s t the p a r t y system which began i n 1921. The o p e r a t i o n o f d e m o c r a c y i n A l b e r t a i n t e r m s o f the t w o - p a r t y system had t h e r e f o r e been tenuous and uncertain. The t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s h a d b e e n under c r i t i c i s m even b e f o r e the p r o v i n c e e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n ; a n d a f t e r 1905 t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u o u s t r a d i t i o n of g r e a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n a l p a r t y system. The p e r s i s t e n t u n r e s t was i n s p i r e d b y t h e g r o w i n g b e l i e f t h a t e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , dominated by E a s t e r n f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s o r t h e money power w e r e o b l i v i o u s t o the c l a s s i n t e r e s t s o f farmers. Because o f the  dependence  o f t h e p r a i r i e economy on a  s i n g l e c r o p , w h e a t a n d t h e p r i c e w h i c h t h a t c r o p f e t c h e d on world market, literature. stressed  14.  the  economic s i t u a t i o n i s emphasized i n a l l  T h e ' d e p r e s s i o n o f the  as b e i n g o f utmost  1930's,  importance  in particular,  i n understanding  I r v i n g , " J . . , The S o c i a l C r e d i t i n A l b e r t a , of Toronto P r e s s , 1959, p . 230.  the  the is  .the  rise  Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y  10 of both the S o c i a l C r e d i t and C.C.F. p a r t i e s . y e a r s , a combination of drought, which produced  During those d i s a s t r o u s crop  f a i l u r e s , and f a l l i n g p r i c e s , which meant t h a t even good crops paid l i t t l e ,  r e s u l t e d i n h a r d s h i p such as few had ever  experienced.  Table I I shows the d e c l i n e i n per c a p i t a income  which i s a good i n d i c a t i o n of j u s t how  s e v e r e l y the p r a i r i e s  were a f f e c t e d . TABLE I I Per Capita..Income  on the P r a i r i e s  1928-29 $  1933 $  %  decrease  Saskatchewan  478  135  72  Alberta  548  212  61  Manitoba  466  240  49  Only by keeping i n mind the background of the " t e r r i b l e t h i r t i e s " can one understand the r a p i d growth o f the C.C.F. i n Saskatchewan and the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e of p r o t e s t movements i n the West. Saskatchewan, a community t h a t had enjoyed year a f t e r year o f p r o s p e r i t y , was s t r u c k w i t h out warning by a m i s f o r t u n e t h a t l a s t e d f o r nine years and wiped out the source o f income of w e l l to do and poor a l i k e 15 •  •  *  •  The major f a c t o r i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l appeal o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f S o c i a l C r e d i t was u n q u e s t i o n a b l y the promise i t h e l d out f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the primary needs of food, c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r . In a depressed and d e b t - r i d d e n p r o v i n c e where thousands o f people were unemployed and l i v i n g on r e l i e f , and where farmers were f o r c e d to s e l l t h e i r produce a t such i n c r e d i b l y low l e v e l s t h a t they were o f t e n on the verge o f s t a r v a t i o n , the p r o s p e c t of a b a s i c d i v i d e n d and a j u s t p r i c e had an almost i r r e s i s t i b l e a t t r a c t i o n . 1 ^ 15. L i p s e t , op. c i t . , p. 16. I r v i n g , op. c i t . , p.  118. 336.  11  The  f o r e g o i n g s y n t h e s i s has given an i n d i c a t i o n o f the  g e n e r a l tone and the major themes o f the standard on the p r o t e s t movements.  literature  C e r t a i n o f these themes a r i s e i n the  e x p l a n a t i o n s o f every author  and i t i s n o t u n f a i r to g e n e r a l i z e  to a model based on the four major ideas which seem to dominate all  the w r i t i n g on the p e r i o d .  A schematic  diagram w i l l  help  to show how the four themes i n t e r l o c k .  COLONIAL ECONOMY AGRARIAN + DEPRESSION = PROTEST PARTIES HOMOGENEOUS POPULATION  Whether the author  i s l o o k i n g a t the r i s e o f the P r o g r e s s i v e  p a r t y , i n which case the d e p r e s s i o n was a s h o r t term, post war event,  o r the coming t o power o f S o c i a l C r e d i t , i n which the  world-wide f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s was a f a c t o r , t h i s model has a p p l i c a t i o n s t o a l l the standard l i t e r a t u r e on the p e r i o d . important  The  q u e s t i o n t h a t remains i s : does i t have a p p l i c a t i o n t o  the p o l i t i c a l events which the authors under d i s c u s s i o n p u r p o r t to explain, o r does i t merely r e f l e c t the b i a s e s o f those and  authors  t h e i r attempt t o see r e a l i t y i n terms o f a p a r t i c u l a r  theory?  An examination  o f the complex s e t o f p o l i t i c a l and  s o c i a l f a c t o r s which l e d to the r i s e o f p r o t e s t p a r t i e s on the p r a i r i e s s e t i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l context may h e l p to answer that  12 question. B.  As has been i n d i c a t e d ,  purchase by the the r e s u l t  the  first  f e d e r a l government  of a financial  slump.  twenty years a f t e r  the p r a i r i e s The r e t u r n  to  its  l a y dormant prosperity  c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e c o m i n g t o power o f t h e L a u r i e r L i b e r a l ministration.  The p o p u l a t i o n grew r a p i d l y .  as  I n the  ten  ad-  year  p e r i o d f r o m 1901 t o 1911 t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n S a s k a t c h e w a n grew from 91,279 t o 4 9 2 , 4 3 2 . of  This increase  E u r o p e a n i m m i g r a n t s as T a b l e I I I TABLE  included a large  number  indicates.  III  Gains i n P o p u l a t i o n A c c o r d i n g to R a c i a l 1901  . 17 Origin 1911  Manitoba E n g l i s h Speaking European  164,239 70,103  266,415 130,399  40,094 32,413  251,010 187,472  34,903 23,471  192,698 121,861  Saskatchewan E n g l i s h Speaking European Alberta E n g l i s h Speaking European  Naturally, into  this  s e c o n d group o f p e o p l e had t o be a s s i m i l a t e d  the Canadian p o l i t i c a l  and s o c i a l m i l i e u .  17. M o r t o n , A . S . , H i s t o r y o f P r a i r i e S e t t l e m e n t , M a c m i l l a n , 1938, p . 127.  Naturally, also, Toronto  13 g i v e n the patronage r i d d e n n a t u r e o f the c i v i l  service,  Liberal  i m m i g r a t i o n o f f i c e r s g u i d e d these European immigrants i n t o Liberal party.  These  L i b e r a l s a n edge a t  "Tammany H a l l "  e l e c t i o n time, but  a good-sized electorate: tained their  old party  electoral results  tactics  did give  the  the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y  p r o b a b l y C a n a d i a n i m m i g r a n t s who  loyalties.  the  Table IV i n d i c a t e s  had  re-  the  d u r i n g the T e r r i t o r i a l p e r i o d . TABLE I V 1o  F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s i n the Liberals Year Seats Votes 1896  3  46.0%  1  43.9%  1900  4  55.1%  0  44.9%  1904  7  58.2%  3  41.9%  These e l e c t i o n s were fought the It  Territories Conservatives Seats Votes  territories, is interesting  issues  o f the  the r a i l w a y monopoly and r e s p o n s i b l e to note  p a r t i s a n response  A l t h o u g h B . C . had a l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  traditions, partisanship  until  status of government.  ( T a b l e V) b y way o f c o m p a r i s o n ,  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d a much l e s s issues.  on t h e  t h e r a i l w a y was c o m p l e t e d ,  seemed t o c h a r a c t e r i z e  the  to  that  similar  British  a marked l a c k o f  returns.  18. A l l e l e c t i o n s r e s u l t s f r o m S c a r r o w , H . , C a n a d a V o t e s , New O r l e a n s , H a u s e r , 1962, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d .  14 TABLE VFederal Election Results i n B r i t i s h Liberals Seats Votes  Year  Columbia  Conservatives Seats Votes  1878  0  0  6  88.8%  1882  0  10.6%  6  82.8%  1887  0  13.1%  6  86.9%  1891  0  28.4%  6  71.6%  The T e r r i t o r i a l g o v e r n m e n t was a d i f f e r e n t t h e members c a m p a i g n e d a n d w e r e e l e c t e d u n d e r banners,  the a c t u a l a f f a i r s  a non-partisan federal  fashion.  government  T h i s was f a i r l y  c o n t r o l l e d the  finances  another the  o f the  discussions  since  It  in the  Territories policy.  i s an h i s t o r i c a l in  particular,  l e g i s l a t i v e chamber h a s b e e n t o a c t  f a s h i o n when a t t e m p t i n g authority.  party  assembly i n matters of  t h a t i n the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s ,  partisan  different  reasonable  The o n l y r e a l i s s u e was t h a t o f a u t o n o m y .  the r e a c t i o n o f the  Although  o f the assembly were conducted  l e a v i n g l i t t l e d i s c r e t i o n t o the  fact  matter.  i n a non-  to g a i n self-government  from  The c o a l i t i o n o f Brown a n d M a c d o n a l d d u r i n g  on C o n f e d e r a t i o n i s a c a s e i n p o i n t a s  a l l i a n c e o f the  Democrats and R e p u b l i c a n s i n the  campaigning for  statehood.  is  the  Dakotas w h i l e  19  19.  I t was t h e n ,  not a unique  situation  see L a m a r , H . R . , D a k o t a T e r r i t o r y , 1 8 6 1 - 1 8 8 9 : A S t u d y i n F r o n t i e r P o l i t i c s , New H a v e n , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 .  15 to f i n d Frederick H a u l t a i n , a nominal. Conservative, serving p r e m i e r o f an assembly to w h i c h the twelve L i b e r a l s ,  eleven Conservatives,  were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d i n t h e i r  and f o u r  a l l e g i a n c e to the  The o n l y r e a l o p p o s i t i o n i n t h e of  1902 e l e c t i o n s h a d  as  returned  i n d e p e n d e n t s who Federal  parties.  House came f r o m a two-man  group  C o n s e r v a t i v e s l e d b y R . B . B e n n e t t o f C a l g a r y who w e r e  opposed to the n o n - p a r t i s a n Association, party  system.  agreed i n 1903,  l i n e s as a r e s u l t  p l a c e i n 1905, a f t e r  to f i g h t  of Bennett's  the  The T e r r i t o r i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n on campaign.  two new p r o v i n c e s h a d b e e n  A l t h o u g h H a u l t a i n had l e d a n o n - p a r t i s a n party  'Provincial  i n S a s k a t c h e w a n t h r o u g h two e l e c t i o n s ,  the L i b e r a l s under W a l t e r  took  created. Rights'  he was d e f e a t e d  by  Scott.  T h i s was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a t w e n t y - f o u r i n o f f i c e f o r the  The e l e c t i o n  Saskatchewan L i b e r a l s .  l o n g e v i t y c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d  year  This  to three f a c t o r s .  long period  electoral First,  L i b e r a l p a r t y had a r e m a r k a b l y e f f e c t i v e machine f o r  the  ensuring  21 voter the  support.  civil  By u t i l i z i n g  service,  p a r t y was a b l e  the patronage p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f  and i n p a r t i c u l a r  to m a i n t a i n  "a m a j o r i t y o f t h e v o t e r s  m a j o r i t y o f the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s " . 20. 21.  22.  the highways department,  2 2  the  in a  S e c o n d l y , the L i b e r a l s were  Canadian P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , 1903. R e i d , E . M . , 'The Saskatchewan L i b e r a l M a c h i n e B e f o r e 1929' i n Ward & S p a f f o r d e d s . P o l i t i c s i n S a s k a t c h e w a n , Don M i l l s , Longmans, 1968. I b i d , p . 100.  16 a l w a y s w i l l i n g t o k e e p a b r e a s t o f t h e demands o f t h e farmers.  organized  V a r i o u s men who w e r e p r o m i n e n t i n t h e r a n k s o f  G r a i n G r o w e r s A s s o c i a t i o n became c a b i n e t members M o t h e r w e l l and the p r e m i e r , they i d e n t i f y w i t h the  farmers,  legislature specifically was moved t o  Charles Dunning.  the  including  So s t r o n g l y d i d  t h a t when a member r o s e  as a Farmers r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ,  in  the  Dunning  reply:  When d i d I c e a s e t o b e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e F a r m e r s movement i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e ? When d i d f o r t y o t h e r men s i t t i n g a r o u n d h e r e c e a s e t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the F a r m e r s ' movement i n t h i s l e g i s l a t u r e ? The F a r m e r s ' movement s i n c e t h e e a r l i e s t d a y s o f t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n l e g i s l a t u r e has been r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s e s e a t s . . . . I f I h a d n o t b e e n a l e a d e r i n t h e F a r m e r s ' movement . . I do n o t b e l i e v e i t i s l i k e l y I w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n v i t e d t o become a member o f t h i s g o v e r n m e n t . 2 3 Certainly, this  t h e r e was a g o o d number o f f a r m e r s who  s t a t e m e n t as a l o o k a t  Table VI w i l l  1  accepted  show.  TABLE V I Provincial Election Results i n 1905  1908  1912  1917  1921  1925  1929  16  27  46  51  45  50  28  9  14  8  7  2  3  24  6  6  5  Liberals Conservatives Progressives  23.  quoted i n Eager, E . , 'The C o n s e r v a t i s m o f the Saskatchewan E l e c t o r a t e , i n Ward & S p a f f o r d o p . c i t . , p . 8. Ward & S p a f f o r d , o p . c i t . , p . 3 0 4 . 1  24.  Saskatchewan  17 T h e r e w e r e a l s o a g o o d l y number o f r e s i d e n t s prepared  to accept  a Liberal  g i v e s the popular vote,  government  who w e r e  not  as T a b l e V I I , w h i c h  indicates. TABLE V I I  Percentage  o f the  Popular Vote i n P r o v i n c i a l i n Saskatchewan 1921  1925  1929  1934  1938  1944  Conservatives  37.4  19.0  36.5  26. 7  12.1  10. 7  Liberals  52.2  53.4  46. 7  48.0  45.5  35.4  7.5  23.0  6.9 24.0  18.8  53.1  Progressives C.C.F. Social  15. 8  Credit  Others  25. 8  A t h i r d important s u c c e s s was t h e i r the  Elections  factor  ability  3.5  9.1  7.8  i n the L i b e r a l ' s b a l l o t box  to a t t r a c t  support  from a l l segments o f  population. Evidence o f t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n the v a r i e t y o f ages, o c c u p a t i o n s , r e l i g i o n s a n d e t h n i c g r o u p s t o be f o u n d among L i b e r a l Members o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e s i n c e 1 9 0 5 . The C . C . F . appears to have d e v e l o p e d t h i s c a p a c i t y w h i l e i n power, a n d t o d a y i t s m e m b e r s h i p i s more h e t e r o g e n e o u s t h a n e v e r before. The r e s u l t i s t h a t S a s k a t c h e w a n h a s two i n t e g r a t i v e p a r t i e s , where p r e v i o u s l y i t o n l y had one. No b e t t e r p r o o f e x i s t s t h a t Saskatchewan possesses a p o l i t i c a l system d i s t i n c t f r o m h e r n e i g h b o u r A l b e r t a t h a n t h i s two p a r t y s y s t e m .  25.  S m i t h , D a v i d E . , 'The Membership o f the Saskatchewan L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y : 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 6 6 ' , i n Ward & S p a f f o r d , p .  204.  18 Why between  s h o u l d i t be p o s s i b l e  t o draw s u c h a c l e a r  A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan?  h i s t o r y were a l m o s t  identical.  T h e i r economies  I f anything,  A l b e r t a seemed i n 1905 t o h a v e s t r o n g e r counterparts  i n Saskatchewan.  ments w i t h r e g a r d bill  trust" VIII  support  and  early  Liberals in than  The p o l i c i e s o f t h e  to the o r g a n i z e d farmers  to implement d i r e c t  the  comparison  their  two g o v e r n -  were s i m i l a r .  l e g i s l a t i o n , a drive against  the  and a v i g o r o u s r a i l r o a d p o l i c y a l l combined, as  shows,  to insure  electoral  A 'beef  Table  support.  TABLE V I I I Provincial Election Results  . i u i•n A l b e r 4. t a 26  1905  1909  1913  1917  22  37  38  34  Conservatives  2  3  18  19  Others  1  1  Liberals  5  The v i g o r o u s r a i l r o a d p o l i c y was p u r s u e d a t  times  without  27 regard  for  the  niceties  of p o l i t i c a l  activity.  In  P r e m i e r R u t h e r f o r d was f o r c e d t o r e s i g n a s a r e s u l t over the  contracts  The c r i s i s s p l i t 26.  for  the  1910, of a  scandal  the A l b e r t a and G r e a t Waterways R a i l r o a d .  party  into  two f a c t i o n s  w h i c h were  barely  C a n a d i a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y G u i d e , c h e c k e d a g a i n s t The C a n a d i a n Annual Review f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e y e a r s . 2 7. see Thomas, L . G . The L i b e r a l P a r t y i n A l b e r t a , T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1959.  19 r e c o n c i l e d by the appointment An i n d i c a t i o n o f the  was t h a t In  federal  1913 p r o v i n c i a l  The r e m a r k a b l e  as  premier.  t e n s i o n r e m a i n i n g was t h e a c t i o n o f F r a n k  Oliver i n forbidding his a s s i s t i n g i n the  of A . L . Sifton  riding association  from  election.  thing during this period of Liberal  the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y  dissension  d i d n o t make b e t t e r u s e o f  the p e r i o d of g r e a t e s t d i s u n i t y ,  d u r i n g the r a i l w a y s c a n d a l ,  t h e y c o u l d have combined w i t h d i s s i d e n t L i b e r a l s t o f o r c e e l e c t i o n w h i c h m i g h t have r e s u l t e d Bennett chose not affected  to undertake  contender  for  discussed later,  farmer  arm.  T h i s must  C o n s e r v a t i v e s as a  offered  themselves  strife-torn  as a l t e r n a t i v e s  Liberal administration.  t o the U n i t e d Farmers as  they at  no t i m e h e l d a n o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f t h e than  group o f to  the  The  i t was t o  A l t h o u g h the U . F . A .  rather  r e m a i n e d i n power f o r f o u r t e e n  the  seat support,  must be  result anyone years,  popular considered  m o s t i m p o r t a n t when d i s c u s s i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l  28.  be  movement g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p e d a  else.  This,  have  serious  In 1921, a v i g o r o u s and e n t h u s i a s t i c  was a s much a s u r p r i s e  support.  However,  f o r a number o f r e a s o n s w h i c h w i l l  the Farmers'  candidates  scandal-ridden,  defeat.  an  office.  During this period,  political  in a Liberal  such a s t r a t e g y . 2 8  the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the  it.  system.  Thomas, L i b e r a l P a r t y i n A l b e r t a a n d W a t k i n s , R . B . B e n n e t t , d i f f e r i n t h e r e a s o n s f o r B e n n e t t ' s a c t i o n : Thomas a t t r i b u t i n g i t to a d e s i r e f o r g r e a t e r g l o r y and Watkins to i n d e c i s i o n about h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r .  20 (see Table IX) . TABLE IX Percentage o f Popular Vote i n P r o v i n c i a l i n Alberta^S 1921  1926  1930  1935  Conservatives  11.6  22.9  13.5  6.5  Liberals  33. 8  26.2  24.6  23.1  U.F.A.  28. 8  40. 5  39.4  11.0  Social Credit Others  Elections  1940  1944  1.9 CCF.  54.2 14.4  11.1  24.9  42.9  51.9  45.1  23.2  I t i s r e a d i l y apparent that although t h e i r e a r l y h i s t o r y was i d e n t i c a l . , A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan developed i n t o provinces.  T h e i r p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r i e s soon d i v e r g e d .  distinctive In the one,  a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d , p o l i t i c a l l y a s t u t e p a r t y maintained power  through  a p e r i o d o f c o n s i d e r a b l e upheval. In the o t h e r , p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h e s and s c a n d a l were prominent  almost from the b e g i n n i n g  and plagued not o n l y the L i b e r a l s b u t the U n i t e d Farmers as w e l l , near the end o f t h e i r term o f o f f i c e .  On the p r o v i n c i a l  level,  then, i t i s not too easy t o make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the 'western p o l i t i c a l  experience'.  The emphasis so f a r has been on p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s as i t  29. A l b e r t a ' s e l e c t o r a l system w i t h multi-member r i d i n g s means t h a t these f i g u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the 1921 e l e c t i o n , cannot be regarded as a completely a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f v o t e r support b u t o n l y o f votes c a s t .  is  i n the  standard  generalizations dubious.  literature.  about  I t h a s b e e n shown  the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s i n t h i s  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f data  e v e n more s u g g e s t i v e  that  i n the  federal  sphere are  sphere w i l l  very-  be  as r e g a r d s t h e u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f v i e w i n g  the  "west" as a m o n o l i t h . A full  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the  federal p o l i t i c a l  scene i s  also  r e l e v a n t b e c a u s e the g r i e v a n c e s w h i c h were most i m p o r t a n t  to  farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s were those o n l y the  could  deal with:  tariffs,  export p r i c e s ,  As was d e m o n s t r a t e d seats a party gains w h i c h i t has politics  as  federal  freight  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  government  rates,  among t h e p o p u l a c e . T a b l e s X and X I w i l l  etc.  sphere,  i s not a true r e p r e s e n t a t i o n T h i s i s as  the  t h e number o f  o f the  true i n  support  federal  show.  TABLE X Percentage  of Popular Vote i n Federal E l e c t i o n s i n Saskatchewan  1908  1911  1917  1921  1925  1926  1930  1935  1940  Liberals  56.6  59.4  25.9  20.7  41.9  56.8  46.5  40.8  43.0  Conservatives  36.8  39.0  74.1  16.7  25.4  27.5  37.6  18.8  14.1  61.0  31.8  15.6  12.4  C.C.F.  21.3  28.6  Social Credit  17.3  3.3  Progressives  22 TABLE XI Percentage o f Popular Vote i n F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n s in Alberta 1908  1911  1917  1921  1925  1926  1930  1935  1940  Conservatives  44.4  42.5  61.0  20.3  31.8  31.5  25.0  19.9  13.0  Liberals  50.2  53.3  35.5  15.8  25.9  24.5  30.0  21.2  37.9  56.8  31.5  38.7  30.4  48.2  34.5  13.0  13.0  Progressives Social Credit Other  5.3 The  4.1  3.5  10.7  5.7  q u e s t i o n remains: why d i d the t h i r d p a r t i e s g a i n as  much support  as they d i d on the p r a i r i e s ?  What were the  p o l i t i c a l f a c t s which caused some westerners t o r e j e c t the o l d - l i n e parties? As has been mentioned, the farmers'  movement w h i l e busy  t r y i n g t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l governments i n matters o f s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , had come to r e a l i z e t h a t i n economic a f f a i r s the f e d e r a l government was t h e i r o n l y source o f remedial  legislation.  In 1910, when both f e d e r a l p a r t y  toured the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , for  leaders  they were bombarded by requests  lower t a r i f f s on a g r i c u l t u r a l implements by the v a r i o u s groups  of o r g a n i z e d  farmers.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s a g i t a t i o n as w e l l the  o v e r t u r e s by the T a f t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the L a u r i e r government  23 negotiated  the R e c i p r o c i t y T r e a t y w i t h the U n i t e d  I t was t h o u g h t b y m o s t o b s e r v e r s Liberal return  to o f f i c e i n the  d i d not count on the  strength  that t h i s would ensure a e l e c t i o n o f 1911.  o f the  so much a b o u t  'continentalism  were not a b l e  to get  that free  their  The f o e s and  prophets  Given that e a r l i e r  too,  of Reciprocity talked  'annexation'  platform across.  t h a t the L i b e r a l s  T h e r e i s no  from p r e v i o u s y e a r s  doubt there  swing to the L i b e r a l s i n support  e l e c t i o n s h a d shown a s o l i d b l o c o f  the r e s u l t s  the  a t what t h e y ,  t r a d e was a p o p u l a r i s s u e o n t h e p r a i r i e s b u t  was b y no means a m a j o r  support,  1  The  l o y a l t y issue which  Conservatives r a i s e d almost i n desperation t h o u g h t was a s u r e v o t e g e t t e r .  States.  o f the  1911 e l e c t i o n do n o t v a r y  of  Liberal substantially  as T a b l e X I I s h o w s . TABLE X I I  Federal Election Results: 1908  1908 a n d  Conservatives  it.  1911 Liberals  Manitoba  51.5%  45.5%  Saskatchewan  36.8%  56.6%  Alberta  44.4%  50,2%  Manitoba  51.9%  44.8%  Saskatchewan  39.0%  59.4%  Alberta  42.5%  53.3%  1911  24 on  Only eleven c o n s t i t u e n c i e s 31 significantly  ( i e . over 5%)  gave what c o u l d be  considered  g r e a t e r support to t h e i r  Liberal  incumbents or r e t u r n e d L i b e r a l s where C o n s e r v a t i v e s had been sitting.  P r i n c e A l b e r t and Brandon both r e t u r n e d C o n s e r v a t i v e s  where L i b e r a l s had been incumbent.  Although  support i n c r e a s e d i n the urban areas, ridings  (over 88%)  Conservative  such d e f i n i t e l y  rural  as Marquette and L i s g a r r e t u r n e d C o n s e r v a t i v e s  with substantial m a j o r i t i e s . of p r a i r i e v o t e r s who  There were a c o n s i d e r a b l e number  regarded  l o c a l i s s u e s , p e r s o n a l i t i e s , or  the C o n s e r v a t i v e p l a t f o r m as more important d e c i s i o n to vote than the supposedly  i n making t h e i r  all-important issue of free  trade. Although  the 1911  e l e c t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as b e i n g  the b e g i n n i n g o f v o t e r disenchantment w i t h the o l d - l i n e the 1917 political  e l e c t i o n had a much more profound system.  determined  I as an independent n a t i o n .  e f f o r t i n both men enormous.  e f f e c t on the p r a i r i e  As p a r t o f the t r e n d toward growing Canadian  autonomy, the government was War  parties,  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n World  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the  war  and m a t e r i a l which t h i s r o l e e n t a i l e d were  The v o l u n t a r y e n l i s t m e n t s were f a r below the number  30. Report o f the C h i e f E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r , S e s s i o n a l Papers: v o l . 43 no. 8 and v o l . 46 no. 11., Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1909, 1911. 31. Readers f a m i l i a r w i t h todays r e s u l t s should remember t h a t a l most a l l the c o n t e s t s were two-way f i g h t s . 32. Winnipeg i n 1908 gave 50.1% to the C o n s e r v a t i v e s and i n 1911 gave 55.2%; i n C a l g a r y i n 1908 the C o n s e r v a t i v e got 49.7%, w h i l e i n 1911, the f i g u r e was 58.1%; i n Edmonton, the incumbent, O l i v e r had 64.4% i n 1908 but o n l y 56.7% i n 1911.  needed to m a i n t a i n the Canadian f o r c e s up face of numerous c a s u a l t i e s . would be necessary. t h a t c o u l d be  to s t r e n g t h  I t became evident  Borden was  in  that  the  conscription  aware o f the emotional r e a c t i o n  expected i f c o n s c r i p t i o n were enforced  and  was  r e l u c t a n t to t a c k l e the i s s u e on a p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l b a s i s . b e l i e f t h a t a n a t i o n a l government was the country d u r i n g  necessary to  the war-time c r i s i s was  i n e n t L i b e r a l s as John W.  Dafoe and  His  administer  shared by  such prom-  Clifford Sifton.  A  majority  o f western L i b e r a l s were convinced o f the value of the Union movement when the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n t r o d u c e d act.  the war-time  T h i s removed a l a r g e number o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s  the e l e c t o r a l l i s t s as  'enemy a l i e n s ' .  gains h i g h l y probable but vulnerable  a l s o made the L i b e r a l p a r t y much l e s s  i f i t d i d decide to support c o n s c r i p t i o n .  introduced  cabinet  d i v i d e d between L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s was  i n mid-September and by October 12,  The a  new  announced.  Union government went to the people f o r a mandate on  December 17, The tones.  1917.  campaign on the p r a i r i e s had many d i s c o r d a n t The  t h e i r p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , because i t was  much more e f f i c i e n t , was seats  used.  The  the so  government f o r c e s swept the  i n Saskatchewan where the L i b e r a l p a r t y ' s Calder,  under-  L i b e r a l s d i d not nominate as many candidates as  C o n s e r v a t i v e s but  J.A.  from  I t made C o n s e r v a t i v e  a c t was  The  franchise  chief  organizer,  d e l i v e r e d the whole machine to the U n i o n i s t  cause.  The  campaign was  p a r t y was  o f l e s s success  i n A l b e r t a where the  s p l i t between the f o r c e s o f A.L.  the U n i o n i s t c a b i n e t and  S i f t o n who  was  those of Gross and O l i v e r who  u n i t e d to t r y and h o l d the West f o r L a u r i e r . the r e s u l t s of the  Liberal now  in  were  Table X I I I shows  election. TABLE XIII  1917 E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s Government Seats % Votes  Opposition Seats % Votes  Manitoba  14  79.7  1  20.3  Saskatchewan  16  74.1  0  25.9  Alberta  11  61.0  1  35.5  The  1921  e l e c t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d  i n l i g h t of  c o n d i t i o n s which the war-time e l e c t i o n had produced. probably  never been a p o l i t i c a l and  were the p a r t y which had  through the war  and  There had  economic s i t u a t i o n which  b e t t e r s u i t e d to the r i s e o f a t h i r d p a r t y . Conservatives  the  First,  governed the  was  the country  i n t o the d e p r e s s i o n which f o l l o w e d .  Long  absences and i n d i f f e r e n t h e a l t h removed Borden from any p o s i t i o n of e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the party.„ Although p o l i c y s u f f e r e d , many were a f r a i d t h a t h i s r e s i g n a t i o n would f a t a l l y l o o s e n the that bound the c o a l i t i o n c a b i n e t .  T h i s tenuous r e l a t i o n s h i p was  a l r e a d y d i s i n t e g r a t i n g . C r e r a r had t a r i f f q u e s t i o n and had  gathered  h i m s e l f , and F i e l d i n g was  ties  l e f t the government on  the  a s m a l l o p p o s i t i o n group around  s i t t i n g on the cross-benches, u n w i l l i n g  as y e t to r e j o i n the L i b e r a l s .  When Borden f i n a l l y r e s i g n e d  and  27 M e i g h e n assumed  the  leadership,  i t i o n which had l i t t l e support D u r i n g t h e weeks o f t h e  he t o o k o v e r a c r u m b l i n g c o a l among t h e  p a r t y r a n k and  e l e c t i o n campaign,  file.  he was c o n t i n u a l l y  a c c o s t e d b y C o n s e r v a t i v e s who w e r e s u r e t h a t L i b e r a l  Unionists  33 had r e c e i v e d the m a j o r i t y o f the patronage p o s t s . p a r t y was i n b a d  The w h o l e  shape.  They knew t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y had c o l l a p s e d w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Union Government, w h i c h , q u i t e r i g h t , they blamed f o r t h a t collapse. The o r g a n i z a t i o n , a f t e r a l l , h a d b e e n g e a r e d t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t L i b e r a l s w e r e m o r t a l e n e m i e s who m u s t b e b e a t e n a n d i t was n o t a d a p t a b l e t o t h e s t r a n g e s i t u a t i o n when some L i b e r a l s , f o r o n c e , w e r e on t h e r i g h t side.34 The L i b e r a l p a r t y w a s ,  i f anything,  i n worse shape.  c o n s c r i p t i o n c r i s i s had s p l i t the p a r t y on a l l l e v e l s . the  new l e a d e r ,  either  he h a d s t i l l  only four years  Although  had l i t t l e r e a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  f a c t i o n s i n c e he h a d b e e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  most o f the war, enemies  Mackenzie King,  The  through  t o u n i t e men who h a d b e e n  bitter  previous.  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t t h e 1917 r u p t u r e was n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p a r t y s t r e n g t h as r e v e a l e d i n p a r l i a m e n t and i n the p o p u l a r v o t e . The c o n t i n u i n g L i b e r a l s l o s t an i n f l u e n t i a l s e c t i o n o f t h e i r n e w s p a p e r s u p p o r t a n d t h e i r p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n most E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p r o v i n c e s was s p l i t a t b o t h t h e l o c a l a n d t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s . Several L i b e r a l - U n i o n i s t e d i t o r s , s u c h as J . W . D a f o e , h a d shown l i t t l e r e s t r a i n t i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e to L a u r i e r L i b e r a l s i n 1917, and  33. Graham, R . , A r t h u r M e i g h e n , T o r o n t o , v o l . I I , p . 117. 34. I b i d , p . 29.  Clarke Irwin,  1963,  28 both s i d e s might w e l l f e e l some embarrassment a t the thought o f once a g a i n becoming f r i e n d s and p a r t n e r s i n a common e n t e r p r i s e . . . . C i v i l wars a r e as d e s t r u c t i v e f o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s as f o r n a t i o n s , and i n 1917 the L i b e r a l s had gone through a b i t t e r c i v i l war, the c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t s o f which would take many years to o v e r c o m e . ^ With the l o y a l t i e s o f the rank and f i l e workers o f both p a r t i e s s t r a i n e d , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the v o t e r s  also  found themselves i n a quandary. When some o f the f a m i l i a r  faces  from the other p a r t i e s appeared as candidates f o r the new farmers' movement, the e l e c t o r s c o u l d h a r d l y be f a u l t e d f o r s u p p o r t i n g them.  The d e c i s i o n o f the farmers' groups to move  i n t o the p o l i t i c a l  f i e l d was c e r t a i n l y not unwise as Table XIV  shows. T7ABLE  XIV  F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n R e s u l t s i n 1921 Conservatives Liberals Progressives* 0/  Seats  Votes  0/  Seats  Votes  Seats  Votes  Man.  0  24.4  1  10.9  12  43. 7  Sask.  0  16. 7  1  20. 7  15  61.0  Alta.  0  20.3  0  15.8  11  56. 8  There were s e v e r a l f a c t o r s a s i d e  Labour %  20.9  7.0  from the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s t a t e o f the o l d - l i n e p a r t i e s which made p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n by the  3 5. Dawson, R. MacGregor, W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie King - 1874-23, Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1958, p. 275.  29 farmers  a t t h i s time s u c c e s s f u l .  p h y s i o c r a t i c f e e l i n g s o f farmers  The a l r e a d y mentioned had been i n t e n s i f i e d a f t e r the  war as more and more men l e f t the farm and went to work i n the c i t y .  Many blamed the t a r i f f  depopulation  s t r u c t u r e f o r the r i s i n g  c l a i m i n g i t encouraged i n d u s t r y and enabled  rural  i t to  o f f e r the s h o r t e r work week and h i g h e r wages which were so a t t r a c t i v e to farm youth.  As the post war d e p r e s s i o n deepened  and the p r i c e o f wheat f e l l  from $ 2.32 i n 1919 to $.76 i n 1921  the c o n v i c t i o n grew t h a t u n l e s s the farmers  themselves were i n  government no a c t i o n f a v o u r a b l e to t h e i r i n t e r e s t s c o u l d be expected.  T h i s c y n i c a l a t t i t u d e toward the o l d - l i n e p a r t i e s was  exacerbated  by the memory o f the d e c i s i o n to c o n s c r i p t farm  labour although  the U n i o n i s t s had promised the farmers  they  would be exempt. The  f i r s t major chance to t e s t t h e i r s t r e n g t h came i n the  O n t a r i o p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f 1919.  The U n i t e d Farmers o f  O n t a r i o c o n t e s t e d 56 seats and were e l e c t e d i n 43 g i v i n g them, w h i l e not a m a j o r i t y , the l a r g e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the l e g i s lature. E.C.  With the support o f the twelve labour  Drury became the new  members,  premier.  A g r a r i a n d i s c o n t e n t seemed t o be sweeping the country and although  the c e n t r e s remained i n O n t a r i o and the p r a i r i e  p r o v i n c e s , the Maritimes  and B r i t i s h Columbia were a l s o open to  the appeal o f the P r o g r e s s i v e p l a t f o r m .  The f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f  30 1921 r e s u l t e d i n 65 P r o g r e s s i v e s b e i n g r e t u r n e d , the second l a r g e s t group i n the House.  thus  forming  (Table XV)  TABLE XV R e s u l t s o f the 1921 E l e c t i o n P r o g r e s s i v e Support P.E.I.  N.S.  N.B.  QUE.  Seats  0  0  1  0  % of Votes  12.3  12.3  10.4  3.7  ONT.  MAN.  SASK.  ALTA.  B.C.  24  12  15  11  2  27.7  43.7  61.0  56.8  9.0  However, the P r o g r e s s i v e s e l e c t e d not t o take the p o s i t i o n as o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n which t h e i r numbers e n t i t l e d them t o . They chose i n s t e a d , t o s i t as a t h i r d p a r t y occupying o f power.  the balance  T h i s d e c i s i o n was the r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .  F i r s t was the d i s l i k e o f many farmer candidates  f o r the  t r a d i t i o n a l p a r t y w i t h caucus d i s c i p l i n e which d i d not allow f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n s t i t u e n c y o p i n i o n .  Since some o f the  P r o g r e s s i v e s were s u b j e c t to r e c a l l t h i s was an consideration.  important  The second f a c t o r was the u n d e r l y i n g  among many members f o r the L i b e r a l p a r t y .  support  Many o f them  shared  the f e e l i n g s which Dafoe a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r l e a d e r , Thomas C r e r a r , b e f o r e the L i b e r a l l e a d e r s h i p  convention.  I i n f e r from C r e r a r ' s statement t h a t h i s hopes a r e t h a t F i e l d i n g w i l l be chosen and t h a t a p l a t f o r m w i l l be d r a f t e d so r a d i c a l t h a t i t w i l l d r i v e out o f the p a r t y a l l those e a s t e r n l i b e r a l s whom he regards as r e a c t i o n a r i e s and a t the"same time p i c k up b o d i l y the farmers' movement i n western Canada and i n Ontario.^6 36. Cook, R., The D a f o e - S i f t o n Correspondence 1919-27, A l t o n a , F r i e s e n , 1966, p. 5.  31 Although these f a c t o r s were not mutually did  e x c l u s i v e , they  i n d i c a t e a b a s i c cleavage w i t h i n the p a r t y which was  plague the P r o g r e s s i v e s throughout t h e i r p a r l i a m e n t a r y The  to life.  ' c r y p t o - L i b e r a l s ' were u n w i l l i n g to defeat the L i b e r a l  p a r t y and enable the C o n s e r v a t i v e s , whom they regarded r e a l enemy, to g a i n power.  split,  i t was  Since King and difficult  the  The more r a d i c a l a g r a r i a n s from  b o t h A l b e r t a and O n t a r i o maintained both p a r t i e s .  as  a s k e p t i c a l a t t i t u d e toward  the L i b e r a l s were aware of  i f not i m p o s s i b l e to do any  b a r g a i n i n g i n order to achieve any  or a l l of the  the  effective  Progressive  policy. F i s c a l matters were the major concern of the two wings of the P r o g r e s s i v e s and were to be the major c o n t e n t i o u s between them.  The  "Manitoba* P r o g r e s s i v e s or  hurry', n a t u r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  'liberals in a  the L i b e r a l p a r t y to have sounder  views on t a r i f f s  than the p r o t e c t i o n i s t Conservatives  bound to support  them i n r e t u r n f o r any  more r a d i c a l  'Albertan' wing regarded  found i t s e l f .  and were  small concessions.  The  t h i s as a b e t r a y a l of  the b a s i c reforms on which the p a r t y had vote on the 1922  issue  stood f o r e l e c t i o n .  The  budget r e v e a l e d the dilemma i n which the p a r t y  Although the t a r i f f p r o v i s i o n s were f a r from  adequate, and the caucus had  decided  to vote a g a i n s t the measure,  two members b o l t e d to vote w i t h the government.  32 In a m i n o r i t y government s i t u a t i o n such as the 1921  election  had produced, i t was  to have  e s s e n t i a l f o r the P r o g r e s s i v e s  t i g h t d i s c i p l i n e i f they wished to r e a l l y maintain o f power.  The  a  l a t e n t L i b e r a l l o y a l t i e s of some members and  rugged independence o f others made t h i s i m p o s s i b l e . s i t u a t i o n continued six  balance  to. d e t e r i o r a t e u n t i l ,  i n 1924,  The a group o f  members d i s s o c i a t e d themselves from the P r o g r e s s i v e  They s t a t e d i n an open l e t t e r to Robert Forke, who parliamentary  was  l e a d e r , t h a t "the present p a r l i a m e n t a r y  o f the P r o g r e s s i v e group tends to perpetuate  the  the type  caucus. then  organization of  p a r t y i s m a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d , which we were e l e c t e d to oppose, to hamper us i n the advocacy of those p r i n c i p l e s to which  and  we  adhere". While i n t e r n a l d i s s e n s i o n was  d i s s o l v i n g Progressive  u n i t y , a second f a c t o r hastened the process. 1921  From the time the  e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s were known, Mackenzie King had been  attempting  to get the P r o g r e s s i v e s back i n the L i b e r a l f o l d where  he f e l t they belonged.  Although h i s o f f i c i a l manouvers f a i l e d ,  the e f f e c t s of the p a r l i a m e n t a r y A f t e r the 1922  give-and-take were more t e l l i n g .  s i t t i n g , Dafoe c o u l d w r i t e to h i s p u b l i s h e r :  37. Morton, P r o g r e s s i v e s , p.  196.  33 I t appears t h a t d u r i n g the l a s t s e s s i o n , there was an uncommon amount o f f r a t e r n i z i n g between the P r o g r e s s i v e members and those members o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y who found themselves more or l e s s i n sympathy w i t h the views h e l d by the P r o g r e s s i v e s . These L i b e r a l s , I am t o l d , are more numerous than had been expected:. . . .^® The  f i r s t members to r e t u r n to the L i b e r a l f o l d were  O n t a r i o members who  d i d so d u r i n g 1922.  two  They were f o l l o w e d  during  the years by a number o f Manitobans i n c l u d i n g J.F. Johnson  who  had  the  served as the P r o g r e s s i v e whip.  P r o g r e s s i v e s ' support  The  c u t to 24 members.  more d e l i c a t e p o s i t i o n .  The  192 5 e l e c t i o n saw  These were i n an even  constitutional crisis  exacerbated  the r i f t s w i t h i n the P r o g r e s s i v e group and gave King the most e f f e c t i v e i s s u e w i t h which to dcaw the remaining back to the  crypto-Liberals  fold.  Nineteen-twenty-six was thus the c r u c i a l year i n the debates over N a t i o n a l i s m and P r o g r e s s i v i s m . In t h a t year, Dafoe and S i f t o n , l i k e most Westerners, were s k i l l f u l l y f o r c e d by Mackenzie King to choose between P r o g r e s s i v i s m and n a t i o n a l i s m . They u n h e s i t a t i n g l y chose the l a t t e r . As so o f t e n , n a t i o n a l i s m proved the A c h i l l e s h e e l of reform.^9 The  twenty P r o g r e s s i v e s who  but a rump of the p a r t y .  The  were r e t u r n e d i n 1926  farmers'  p r o t e s t seemed to have  d i e d a n a t u r a l death as the r e s u l t o f improving  conditions  the d i f f i c u l t y o f b e i n g a t h i r d p a r t y i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y The  1930  were  and  system.  e l e c t i o n brought what c o u l d almost be c a l l e d a r e t u r n  38. Cook, op. c i t . , p. 39. I b i d , p. x x i i .  118.  34  to normalcy.  (see Table XVI) TABLE XVI Results i n Three Federal Elections Cons  Sask.  -  Altai  1  Man.  1926 Lib Other  1930 Cons Lib Other  1935 Cons Lib  Other  11  6  11  4  2  1  14  2  18  3  8  11  2  1  16  4  3  11  4  3  9  1  1  15  Figures of the percentage of support each party received are even more i n d i c a t i v e of the decline of support f o r the t h i r d parties by 1926. TABLE XVII Percentage of Votes i n the 1926 and 1930 ' Elections Lib.  1926 Cons.  Others  Lib.  1930 Cons.  Manitoba  37.9  42.2  19.9  37.2  47.7  15.2  Saskatchewan  56.8  27.5  15.6  46.5  37.6  15.9  Alberta  24.5  31.5  38.7  30.0  33.9  36.1  Others  Five years l a t e r , however, as Table XVIII shows, t h i r d p a r t i e s were again r e c e i v i n g a large proportion of the votes cast on the p r a i r i e s .  35 TABLE XVIII Percentage  of Votes i n the 1935 E l e c t i o n Conservatives  Liberals  Others  Manitoba .  26.9  40.5  32.6  Saskatchewan  18.8  40.8  40.4  Alberta  16.9  21.2  61.9  The  p r i n c i p a l reason f o r t h i s r e t u r n o f t h i r d p a r t y  s t r e n g t h was the d e p r e s s i o n .  T h i s was o f p a r t i c u l a r  importance  on the p r a i r i e s because o f the s e v e r i t y of c o n d i t i o n s .  These  were the r e s u l t o f two f a c t o r s : the drop i n the p r i c e o f the crops and the drought  c o n d i t i o n s which meant t h a t even when  the p r i c e was f a i r l y high, the y i e l d was so low t h a t the farmers * income d i d not r i s e a p p r e c i a b l y . were almost  Since the p r a i r i e  provinces  t o t a l l y dependent on export income, Table XIX shows  g r a p h i c a l l y the p l i g h t o f the i n h a b i t a n t s . TABLE XIX Canadian Export P r i c e s , 1929-33 (1929 p r i c e s = 1 0 0 ) 4 0  1929 1930 1931 1932 1933  Wheat 100 70 44 41 45  Cattle 100 87 59 46 37  40. Report o f the Royal Commission of D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r , 1954, Book I p. 169.  36 As a p r o v i n c e , Saskatchewan was  probably the h a r d e s t  h i t area i n Canada d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n .  Because i t was  t o t a l l y dependent on wheat, the crop f a i l u r e s and low  almost  prices  were p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s a s t r o u s . In the other p r o v i n c e s i t was mainly a matter of p r o v i d i n g food, f u e l , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r f o r unemployed wage-earners. In the case of the Saskatchewan wheat farmer the f a i l u r e o f a crop i n v o l v e d not merely the l o s s o f the means of l i v e l i h o o d but a l s o working c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d i n t h a t crop. T h i s working c a p i t a l had to be made a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e t h e r e was another chance f o r the farmer becoming self-supporting. The p r o v i s i o n year a f t e r year of seed, fodder and s u p p l i e s to thousands of l a r g e - s c a l e farmers e n t a i l e d a high f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n . ^ As a r e s u l t , r e l i e f expenditures amounted to 60 percent (compared w i t h 21 p e r c e n t f o r the r e s t of the country) o f the t o t a l r e c e i p t s of the p r o v i n c e and i t s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s combined. A l b e r t a ' s r e l i e f expenditures were approximately t h a t of the average the o u t l a y was  for a l l provinces.  equal to  On a per c a p i t a b a s i s  the lowest i n Canada w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the  Maritimes and Quebec.  A l b e r t a ' s problem was  of a d i f f e r e n t  nature. Owing t o the more r e c e n t development o f A l b e r t a f i x e d debt charges were r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r than i n any other province. In a d d i t i o n , farmers had not had a chance t o become as w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Under these circumstances, the d r a s t i c f a l l i n p r i c e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l products produced a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r s t r a i n on the farming i n d u s t r y and on governments. A l b e r t a ' s d e p r e s s i o n problem was more  41. op. c i t . ,  p. 170...  one of debt and destitution. ^ 4  The i n one  h i g h overhead c o s t s  f i r s t w o r l d war  crisis  and  i n legitimacy  the 1917  e l e c t i o n had  The  As  resulted The  f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s which  c r i p p l i n g poverty f o r many farmers  s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b i n g i n a s o c i e t y which had individual effort.  o f widespread  f o r the o l d - l i n e p a r t i e s .  d e p r e s s i o n r e s u l t e d i n another. r e s u l t e d i n sudden and  than one  always  was  stressed  a r e s u l t , the seeds o f d i s t r u s t of the  p a r t i e s which ha'd been sown i n the  '20's  old  bloomed again.  A r e j e c t i o n of e x i s t i n g a u t h o r i t y as w h o l l y l e g i t i m a t e w i l l r e s u l t i n i n d i v i d u a l s banding together to change the r u l e s of the system so t h a t they can g a i n a share i n the c o n t r o l o f the s t a t e apparatus.43 Although the r i s e o f the C C F .  and  S o c i a l C r e d i t would  seem t o o f f e r a p e r f e c t o p p o r t u n i t y to apply the model, the s i m i l a r i t i e s are o n l y on  the s u r f a c e .  must remember the d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l i n A l b e r t a was  standard Again,  one  s i t u a t i o n s : the U.F.A.  i n the midst o f ; a scandal;  and  the d i f f e r e n t  economic s i t u a t i o n s which were o u t l i n e d above. Albertans,  whether farmers or small-town merchants,  whether dependent on wheat or c a t t l e , were l o o k i n g  for r e l i e f  from  the o p p r e s s i v e burden of debt which they wer.e c a r r y i n g .  42. 43,-  I b i d , p. 171^ LaPalombara, J . and Weiner, M., ' O r i g i n and Development of P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s ' , i n LaPalombara & Weiner, eds., P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and P o l i t i c a l Development, P r i n c e t o n , Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966, p. 18.  38 Habituated by t h i r t y years o f propaganda by farmers' to t h i n k of the f i n a n c i e r  as the v i l l a i n ,  papers  a number of people  i n A l b e r t a were q u i t e w i l l i n g to aceept Aberhart's a n a l y s i s o f the economic s i t u a t i o n which claimed t h a t the banks were c u r t a i l i n g c r e d i t and c r e a t i n g p o v e r t y i n the midst o f p l e n t y . Even t o those who  had scorned the farmers' p a r t y , t h i s was  a p p e a l i n g d o c t r i n e as i t gave an easy e x p l a n a t i o n of why of t h e i r crops was  an  the v a l u e  so low as to make i t w o r t h l e s s to s h i p to  market although the mortgage payments on t h e i r farm  continued  to f a l l due a t the same e x o r b i t a n t r a t e s of i n t e r e s t .  As  Hadley  C a n t r i l suggests, a person i s s u s c e p t i b l e to suggestion when he has no adequate mental c o n t e x t f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n s t i m u l u s or event.44 b a s i c d i v i d e n d and  However, a s i d e from o f f e r i n g  'pumping more c r e d i t  into  the  the s y s t e m ,  Aberhart d i d not propose any major changes i n e i t h e r political  of a  1  s o c i a l or  institutions.  The c l e v e r l e a d e r w i l l sense the causes o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , w i l l r e a l i z e which o l d l o y a l t i e s remain unshaken and which are b e i n g s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d . He w i l l spread among the confused and eager s o u l s a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n t h a t , from t h e i r p o i n t s o f view combines the b e s t of the o l d and the b e s t o f the new . . . . ^ Once i n o f f i c e , even the economic reforms were f o r g o t t e n and the S o c i a l C r e d i t government became a very c o n s e r v a t i v e 44. C a n t r i l , Hadley, The Psychology Wiley and Sons, 1963, p. 64. 45. I b i d , p. 66.  of S o c i a l Movements, New  York,  administration. In  Saskatchewan, v o t e r s were longer i n responding to the  r e s u l t s o f the d e p r e s s i o n , l a r g e l y because o f the desperate s i t u a t i o n they were i n . Poverty generates, i t can be suggested, a h i g h degree o f worry about one's f u t u r e , which d e t r a c t s from any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f long term s o l u t i o n s t o one's p r o b l e m s . ^ For many y e a r s , the farmers were a b l e to c o n c e n t r a t e o n l y on s u r v i v a l as y e t another  drought  s e t i n and destroyed not o n l y  the crop f o r export b u t a l s o any s u b s i s t e n c e farming which might have been t a k i n g p l a c e .  A comparison o f crop y i e l d s f o r two  f i v e years p e r i o d s i n Table XX shows j u s t how d i f f i c u l t the s i t u a t i o n was. TABLE XX Y i e l d and P r i c e o f Wheat i n Saskatchewan f o r Two F i v e Year P e r i o d s ^ 4  1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 The  Yield Bu.  Price  20.3 21.3 10.2 18.8 16.2 19. 5  .85 .65 1.21 1.25 1.08 .97  Yield Bu  $  1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937  13.6 8.7 8.6 10.8 7. 5 2.7  Price $  .35 .47 .61 .60 .92 1.05  farmer had no chance d u r i n g the f i v e year p e r i o d from  1932 to 193 7 to recover from the l o s s e s o f the p r e v i o u s year or 46. P i n a r d , Maurice, 'Poverty and P o l i t i c a l Movements', i n Canadian S o c i e t y , eds. B l i s h e n e t . a l . , Toronto, Macmillan, 1968, 3 r d ed., p. 471. 47. L i p s e t , op. c i t . , p. 46.  40 to make new investments i n worn out machinery and implements. He was, d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , p a r t l y or w h o l l y dependent on government h e l p f o r s u r v i v a l .  A s " a r e s u l t , i t might be h y p o t h e s i z e d  t h a t the Saskatchewan r e s i d e n t became more c o n d i t i o n e d  to p r o -  grams o f governmental c o n t r o l and a s s i s t a n c e than elsewhere on the p r a i r i e s .  He was, t h e r e f o r e , more r e c e p t i v e to the  programme o f the C.C.F. than the average independent producer might have been.  The e l e c t o r a l success o f the C.C.F., however,  was much l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r  than that o f the S o c i a l C r e d i t .  . . . the poor, although they may come to form an important element i n new p o l i t i c a l movements and even may come t o be d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n them, are not t h e i r f i r s t r e c r u i t s . I f understandably, p o l i t i c a l movements a r e o f t e n not s u c c e s s f u l among the r i c h because they a r e economically s a t i s f i e d , i t seems, on the other hand, t h a t a t f i r s t they a r e not s u c c e s s f u l e i t h e r among the poor, because, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , they a r e too d i s s a t i s f i e d . 48 I n i t i a l l y r e b u f f e d by the v o t e r s i n the 1934 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , some members o f the p a r t y decided  that union w i t h a l l  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s was the o n l y way t o b e a t the L i b e r a l p a r t y . T h i s t a c t i c was no more s u c c e s s f u l and a f t e r the 1940 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , when Saskatchewan r e t u r n e d i t was dropped i n favour  f i v e C.C.F.,  o f s t r a i g h t C.C.F. a c t i o n .  p e r i o d o f c o a l i t i o n had r a t h e r s o f t e n e d 48.  I b i d , p. 462~.  candidates, However, the  the edges o f the  41 s o c i a l i s t p l a t f o r m and by 1944 when they came i n t o o f f i c e , i t was on more o f a programme o f p r o v i n c i a l s e c t i o n a l i s m . Lipset  As  suggests:  The a g r a r i a n reform tendencies i n the Saskatchewan farmers' movement had overwhelmed the o r i g i n a l hopes o f the s m a l l s o c i a l i s t promotion group. The farm l e a d e r s wanted immediate economic a c t i o n and p o l i t i c a l power and d i d not care whether or not the g o a l was s o c i a l i s m . 4 9  L i k e the S o c i a l C r e d i t government i n A l b e r t a , the Saskatchewan C C F .  e r s remained w e l l w i t h i n the Canadian p o l i t i c a l  norm. C.  The paper so f a r has presented  themes o f v a r i o u s authors  a model based on the main  i n the standard  l i t e r a t u r e on the  p r a i r i e p r o t e s t p a r t i e s as w e l l as a d i s c u s s i o n o f the h i s t o r i c a l events which t h i s model p u r p o r t s  to e x p l a i n .  I t must have be-  come c l e a r , however, t h a t the model i s d e f i c i e n t i n a number of  aspects. Of  the four main segments o f the model, three, a q u a s i -  c o l o n i a l economy, a homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n , and a t r a d i t i o n a r e emphasized as b e i n g u n i q u e l y western These experiences  non-partisan experiences.  would seem to p r e c l u d e a growth o f a g r a r i a n  p r o t e s t i n O n t a r i o , the c e n t r e o f i m p e r i a l i s m and p a r t i s a n tradition. 49. L i p s e t , op. c i t . , p. 142.  42 Although the break-down of the o l d - l i n e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t the time, c o u l d be used as a v a l i d e x p l a n a t i o n of the growth of the O n t a r i o Farmers p a r t y , i t i s inadequate to e x p l a i n  the  growth of the group government, n o n - p a r t i s a n s e c t i o n of t h i s p a r t y i f the aforementioned experiences are the necessary or even s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r such an occurrence. the e l e c t i o n o f 1919 was  fought under the l e a d e r s h i p o f that  d o c t r i n a i r e agrarian, J . J . Morrison. p r e m i e r s h i p i n favour of E.C.  Although he d e c l i n e d the  Drury, a man  who  broader based p a r t y , Morrison's i n f l u e n c e was f e d e r a l members who  Certainly,  favoured a apparent among the  were a c t i v e xn formxng the Gxnger Group.  The success o f the farmers' p a r t y was  of shorter duration i n  O n t a r i o , but t h e r e i s no denying the f a c t t h a t , o f the e x p r e s s l y farmer governments e l e c t e d i n Canada, one was the  "West".  two not i n  51  It i s also d i f f i c u l t ,  u s i n g the model, to e x p l a i n the  d i f f e r e n c e i n experience between Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a .  In  Saskatchewan, whose p o p u l a t i o n has been more homogeneous i f a n y t h i n g than A l b e r t a ' s , an a c t i v e two-party system  encompassing  the two o l d - l i n e p a r t i e s was  After  i n f o r c e u n t i l 1934.  that,  50. Preston E l l i o t t , W.C. Good, and Agnes Macphail. as mentioned i n McNaught, K., A Prophet i n P o l i t i c s , Toronto, U n i v e r s i t y Toronto P r e s s , 1967, p. 212. 51. Although Saskatchewan and Manitoba both had governments which were e x p r e s s l y devoted to the farmers' i n t e r e s t s , they were not l a b e l l e d as farmer p a r t i e s .  i  43 i t continued w i t h the C C F . Liberals.  p r o v i d i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e to the  To c l a i m , as L i p s e t does, 52 t h a t the  a b i l i t y .to s a t i s f y farmer demands was  due  'opportunist' l e a d e r s h i p i s to deny the  Liberal  to a b e t r a y a l by  'agrarian class-conscious-  ness ' and grass r o o t s p o l i t i c a l acumen of the farmer which i s so much a p a r t o f the model. the A l b e r t a n prototype  the other hand, to c l a i m t h a t  i s the product  u n i q u e l y western experience the other two  On  o f the aforementioned  i s to deny the  p r a i r i e provinces.  In other words, although  p o p u l a t i o n i n the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s was although  world  largely  a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f t h i s was  cannot be regarded  "western-ness' of  rural,  the  and  wheat farmers, i t  as a t o t a l i t y w i t h a r e a d i l y  identifiable  view. One  i s made p a r t i c u l a r l y aware of t h i s f a c t when c o n s i d e r -  i n g the v o t i n g p a t t e r n s on the p r a i r i e s .  Much i s made of  a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the p a r t y system i n western Canada.  An  the emphasis  i s p l a c e d on the overwhelming s e a t s t r e n g t h which one or another party received. in  Since the r i s e o f these p a r t i e s i s d i s c u s s e d  terms of the popular  support which they engendered, i t seems  not u n f a i r t o c o n s i d e r the s t r e n g t h of the o l d - l i n e p a r t i e s i n  52.  L i p s e t , op. c i t . , p.  78-9.  44 the same terms.  I f one c o n s i d e r s the number of people  c a s t votes f o r a p a r t y r a t h e r than i t s e l e c t o r a l  who  successes,  the p i c t u r e changes to r e v e a l a much l e s s one-sided  situation.  TABLE XXI Percent Votes f o r O l d - l i n e and T h i r d P a r t i e s i n the West old 3rd old 3rd old 3rd old 3rd parties parties parties parties 1925 1926 1930 1935 Man.  61.6  38.4  80.1  19.9  84.9  15.2  67.4  34.6  Sask.  67.3  32.8  84.3  15.6  84.1  15.9  59.6  40.4  Alta.  57.7  42.2  56.0  44.0  63.9  36.1  38.1  61.9  A major f a c t o r i n the apparent  demise o f the o l d - l i n e  p a r t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the C o n s e r v a t i v e s , was system.  Although  the  i t has been g e n e r a l l y thought  electoral that proportional  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n would have been more b e n e f i c i a l to the p a r t i e s than the  third  ' f i r s t p a s t the p o s t ' system, on the p r a i r i e s  the C o n s e r v a t i v e s would have been the b e n e f a c t o r s .  The Con-  s e r v a t i v e s s u f f e r e d from b e i n g a p a r t y w i t h a broad base o f support as opposed to the t i g h t l y k n i t e l e c t o r a t e o f the P r o g r e s s i v e s and o t h e r s .  Table XXII shows t h i s q u i t e c l e a r l y .  45 TABLE XXII Comparison of Votes and Seats of C o n s e r v a t i v e s and T h i r d P a r t i e s on the P r a i r i e s  Seats  1921 %  Man. Cons. Third  12  Sask. Cons. Third  15  Alta. Cons. Third  11  In 1926  Votes  1925 Seats %  Votes  1926 Seats %  Votes  24.4  7  41.3  0  42.2  43. 7  7  27.1  3  15.6  16. 7  0  25.4  0  27.5  61.0  6  31.8  11  20.3  3  18. 8  56.8  9  31.5  38. 7  31.5 11  38. 7  f o r example, 60,740 votes e l e c t e d 11 P r o g r e s s i v e s  i n A l b e r t a w h i l e 49,514 votes e l e c t e d o n l y 1 c o n s e r v a t i v e . In Manitoba, i n the same year, 22,092 votes "elected 4 P r o g r e s s i v e s w h i l e 83,100 votes f a i l e d to e l e c t even a s i n g l e C o n s e r v a t i v e . These f i g u r e s g i v e f u r t h e r evidence to c h a l l e n g e the myth o f the n o n - p a r t i s a n t r a d i t i o n which was so important  supposed t o have been  i n the p r a i r i e p o l i t i c a l system.  T h i s myth seems  to have a r i s e n l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of the a c t i v i t i e s of the T e r r i t o r i a l government under F r e d e r i c k H a u l t a i n .  The f a c t t h a t  t h i s governing body chose t o operate on a n o n - p a r t i s a n b a s i s has a l r e a d y been j u s t i f i e d e a r l i e r i n the paper on the b a s i s o f  46 h i s t o r i c a l precedent and the amount o f decision-making which i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n allowed.  I t has  shown t h a t even d u r i n g the T e r r i t o r i a l p e r i o d , p r a i r i e v o t e r s maintained loyalties.  T h i s was  power  a l s o been  (Table I V ) ,  a d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n on  party  t r u e even though some i s s u e s c r u c i a l to  T e r r i t o r i a l development were under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Also,  the  T e r r i t o r i e s voted l a t e r than the r e s t of the country which should have allowed  f o r a 'band wagon' e f f e c t .  An even more  d e c i s i v e a c t on the p a r t of the Saskatchewan v o t e r s i n demons t r a t i n g t h a t they wanted no p a r t of n o n - p a r t i s a n was  government  the defeat of H a u l t a i n ' s P r o v i n c i a l Rights P a r t y i n both  the 1905  and  1908  elections.  No matter how  efficient  the  Saskatchewan L i b e r a l machine i n l a t e r y e a r s , i t c o u l d h a r d l y have subverted  a whole p r o v i n c e f u l l of n o n - p a r t i s a n  a v a i l a b l e between the g r a n t i n g o f autonomy and  v o t e r s i n the time the  electionj  So f a r , i t has been shown t h a t the n o n - p a r t i s a n the i d e a o f a unique western p o l i t i c a l experience  and  tradition, the demise  of the o l d - l i n e p a r t i e s have been e i t h e r m y t h i c a l or exaggerated. I t remains to emphasize those  f a c t o r s which d i d h e l p the  p a r t i e s on the p r a i r i e s g a i n t h e i r F i r s t was  third  success.  the c r e a t i o n of the Union government which d i s -  r u p t e d the o l d - l i n e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and confused l o y a l t i e s among the v o t e r s .  The  party  farmer p a r t i e s were a b l e to  47 achieve more success who  on the p r a i r i e s because the  ran on t h e i r p l a t f o r m were o f t e n the same men  candidates who  had been  53 a c t i v e i n the o l d - l i n e p a r t i e s . seemed to be foundering, a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t was p r a i r i e voter.  When the o l d o r g a n i z a t i o n s  the farmers were able to o f f e r a v i a b l e  f a m i l i a r i n personnel  a t l e a s t , to the  As the o l d p a r t i e s r e g a i n e d  t h e i r vigour,  the  m a j o r i t y of the l e a d e r s of the P r o g r e s s i v e s went back to t h e i r p a r t y of o r i g i n .  Had  the d e p r e s s i o n  might have been a more complete  not i n t e r v e n e d ,  the  process  success.  Every s o c i e t y has a s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n system. The dominant motive o f s o c i a l behavior i s assumed (whether r i g h t l y or wrongly) to be the i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y toward the h i g h e r ends o f the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n h i e r a r c h y . Members o f the p u b l i c j o i n i n p o l i t i c a l groups i n order to expand m o b i l i t y o p p o r t u n i t i i n i t i e s and, i n t h i s respect,make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s to government or to i n f l u e n c e or c o n t r o l government i n some manner.^4 However, the p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s of the 1920's had b a r e l y been h e a l e d when the d e p r e s s i o n i n t o new  f o r c e d both l e a d e r s and  voters  d i r e c t i o n s as the o l d channels o f m o b i l i z a t i o n were  c l o s e d by poverty.  That there was  so l i t t l e  system t e s t i f i e d to i t s i n h e r e n t s t r e n g t h and  d i s r u p t i o n of to the  the  normality  o f the r e a c t i o n s o f the p r a i r i e v o t e r s . 53. eg. Thomas C r e r a r , M i c h a e l C l a r k e , J.F. Johnstone, e t c . 54. Apter, David E., "A Comparative Method f o r the Study of P o l i t i c s " , American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 64, 1958, p. 221.  48 The "western experience then, was not as unique as we have been l e d to b e l i e v e . political  The major f a c t o r s which a f f e c t e d the  system, the d e p r e s s i o n , the d i s r u p t i o n o f the p a r t y  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n 1917, and the d i s t o r t i o n s o f the e l e c t o r a l system were a l l country-wide phenomena.  The r e a c t i o n s to these  phenomena were c o n d i t i o n e d by the p o l i t i c a l of  history  each o f the three p r o v i n c e s and cannot i n any meaningful way  be g e n e r a l i z e d . the  and s o c i a l  Although, a t times economic  f a c t o r s have caused  three p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s to a c t i n c o n c e r t , t h i s must not be  extended i n t o assumptions o f j o i n t p o l i t i c a l and  social  experience. The p r o t e s t movement on the p r a i r i e s cannot be understood s o l e l y as a r e g i o n a l p r o t e s t . the of  I t must be s t u d i e d i n terms o f  t o t a l Canadian p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t and the r e a c t i o n to t h i s the i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  49 BIBLIOGRAPHY Berger, C. ed. Approaches t o Canadian H i s t o r y . U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s . 1967.  Toronto  B l i s h e n , e t a l . eds. Canadian S o c i e t y . Toronto. Macmillan. 3rd e d i t i o n . 1968. Bruce, Andrew. Non-Partisan League. New Cantril,  York. Macmillan.  1921.  Hadley. The Psychology of S o c i a l Movements. New Wiley and Sons. 1963.  York.  Chief E l e c t o r a l O f f i c e r . "Reports". S e s s i o n a l Papers, v o l . 43 no. 8 and v o l . 46 no. 11. Ottawa. Queen's P r i n t e r . 1909, 1911. Cook, Ramsay. The Dafoe - S i f t o n Correspondence 1919-27. v o l . I I , Manitoba Record S o c i e t y P u b l i c a t i o n s . A l t o n a . F r i e s e n . 1966. Cook, Ramsay. The P o l i t i c s o f John W. Dafoe and the Free Press. Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s . 1063. Dafoe,  John W. C l i f f o r d S i f t o n i n R e l a t i o n to His Times. Toronto. Macmillan. 1931.  Dawson, R. MacGregor. The Government o f Canada. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . 1959.  Toronto.  (  Dawson, R. MacGregor. W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie King - 1874 Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s . 1958. Fowke, Vernon. Canadian A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y . U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1947.  -23.  Toronto.  Fowke, Vernon. The N a t i o n a l P o l i c y and the Wheat Economy. Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . 1957. Graham, Roger.  A r t h u r Meighen. Toronto.  C l a r k e Irwin.  1963.  H e s s e l t i n e , W i l l i a m B. T h i r d P a r t y Movements i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . New York. A n v i l . H i c k s , John. The P o p u l i s t R e v o l t . U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska 1961.  Press,  50 I r v i n g , John A. The S o c i a l C r e d i t Movement i n A l b e r t a . U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s . 1959.  Toronto.  Lamar, H.R. Dakota T e r r i t o r y , 1861-1889: A study i n F r o n t i e r P o l i t i c s . New Haven. Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1956. La Palombara, J . and M. Weiner, eds. P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and P o l i t i c a l Development. P r i n c e t o n . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press. 1966. L e i s e r s o n , Avery.  P a r t i e s and P o l i t i c s .  New  York. Knopf.  L i n g a r d , C. T e r r i t o r i a l Government i n Canada. of Toronto Press. 1946. L i p s e t , Seymour. 1968.  A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m . New  1958.  Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y  York.  Anchor Books.  L i p s e t , Seymour and S t e i n Rokkan. P a r t y Systems and Voter Alignments. New York. Free P r e s s . 1967. Mackintosh, W.A. Economic Problems of the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s . Toronto. Macmillan. 1935. McNaught, Kenneth. A Prophet i n P o l i t i c s . of Toronto Press. 1967.  Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y  Macpherson, C.B. Democracy i n A l b e r t a : S o c i a l C r e d i t and the P a r t y System. Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . 1962. Moorhouse, Hopkins.  Deep Furrows.  Toronto.  Morton, A.S. H i s t o r y o f P r a i r i e Settlement. 1938. Morton, W.L. The Canadian I d e n t i t y . Toronto P r e s s . 1961.  Mcleod. Toronto.  1918. Macmillan.  Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y o f  Morton, W.L. The P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y i n Canada. of Toronto Press. 1950.  Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y  Neatby, H. B l a i r . W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie King 1924-1932. Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s . 1963.  51 Patton, Harold. G r a i n Growers Cooperation i n Western Canada. Cambridge. Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press. 1928. Report o f the Royal Commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s . Ottawa. Queen's P r i n t e r . 1954. Scarrow, H.  Canada Votes. New  Orleans. Hauser.  Sharp, P a u l . A g r a r i a n R e v o l t i n Western Canada. U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota Press. 1948. Stewart, Margaret and D o r i s French. Ask Longmans Green. 1959.  1962. Minneapolis.  No Quarter.  Toronto.  Thomas, L.G. The L i b e r a l P a r t y i n A l b e r t a . Toronto. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press. 1959. Ward, N. and Duff S p a f f o r d . Longmans. 1968. Watkins, E r n e s t . R.B.  P o l i t i c s i n Saskatchewan.  Bennett.  Toronto.  Kingswood.  Don  Mills.  1963.  Wood, L o u i s Aubrey. A H i s t o r y o f Farmer's Movements i n Canada. Toronto. Ryerson. 1924.  52 ARTICLES Apter, David E. "A Comparative Method f o r the Study o f American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y, v o l . 64. 1958. Dean, Edgar Packard. "How Canada Has Voted". Review, v o l . 30. 1949. Mac  Politics",  Canadian H i s t o r i c a l  Q u a r r i e , Heath. "Robert Borden and the E l e c t i o n o f 1911". Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science. v o l . 25. 1959.  

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