UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An exploratory study in conceptualizing children's investigatory activities of natural phenomena by utilizing… Lindberg, Wayne Charles 1969

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AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN CONCEPTUALIZING CHILDREN'S INVESTIGATORY A C T I V I T I E S OF NATURAL PHENOMENA BY U T I L I Z I N G THOMAS S. KUHN'S VIEW OF SCIENCE AS A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  by WAYNE CHARLES LINDBERG B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y  of British  C o l u m b i a , 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  t h e Department of Education  We a c c e p t required  THE  this  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t 1969  In presenting  this  thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the require-  m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t u d y . for  extensive  copying of t h i s  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t  permission  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes  be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s  gain  s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Department o f  EDUCATION  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date  AUGUST 1 5 , 1969  Columbia  thesis for  written  permission.  WAYNE C.  may  representatives.  I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s financial  avail-  LINDBERG  ABSTRACT The  s t u d y , by  e x p l o i t i n g Thomas S.  Rutin"s. v i e w  of  s c i e n t i f i c development, attempted to e s t a b l i s h a t h e o r e t i c a l basis  for teaching  and  learning science  i n the  classroom.  At the present p r e l i m i n a r y  stage of the e x p l o r a t o r y  t h e w r i t e r c o n c e n t r a t e d on  Kuhn's h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n  i n which paradigms form research s c i e n t i f i c revolutions views of the  field.  of  t r a d i t i o n s separated  r e s u l t i n g i n new  The  study,  and  science  by  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  w r i t e r f e l t that the  a c q u i s i t i o n of  v i e w s o f n a t u r a l phenomena by  c h i l d r e n m i g h t f o l l o w some s o r t  of e v o l u t i o n a r y ,  pattern  Kuhnian-like  tigatory activities.  T h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d be  t r a n s i t i o n a l periods i n g i n new To  and  b a s e d on provide  inves-  separated  natural  r e c o g n i t i o n of such a p a t t e r n  of  phenomena.  intellectual  c h i l d r e n , the w r i t e r formulated a teacher r o l e  ideas  d r a w n f r o m Kuhn.  The  present study attempted  a p p a r e n t e x a m p l e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f t h o u g h t  speculative By  by  of e f f o r t or paradigm-like s h i f t s r e s u l t -  i n c o m m e n s u r a t e ways o f s e e i n g  f a c i l i t a t e the  b e h a v i o u r by  of paradigmatic  to  and  bases: f o r some o f t h e i r a c t i o n s . observing  children's  i n v o l v i n g . s i n k i n g and s u p p o r t f o r w h a t he  investigatory  floating objects,  has  a child-paradigm  water.  S u p p o r t was  t h e w r i t e r f o u n d some  termed c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s or p o i n t s  view about n a t u r a l events. to hold  activities,  of  A l l c h i l d r e n , f o r example appeared  that objects  s i n k when f i l l e d  a l s o f o u n d f o r Kuhn's s u g g e s t i o n  with  that  i i i c h i l d r e n ' s v i e w s o f t e n show s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s t o t h o s e Aristotelians.  In t h i s case,  of  t h e l e a r n e r s appeared t o see  w a t e r as an e x t e r n a l , A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e , m o t i v e f o r c e w h i c h c a u s e s o b j e c t s t o s i n k o r move f r o m t h e i r n a t u r a l  floating  positions. During  the course  of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ,  a l l children  a p p e a r e d t o e n c o u n t e r numerous n o v e l o b s e r v a t i o n s —facts  and f i n d i n g s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r  Applying  or anomalies  expectations.  t h e p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d  water,all  learners discovered  with  that the p l a s t i c straw f l o a t e d .  The a s s i m i l a t i o n o f a n o m a l y , i n one i n s t a n c e , r e s u l t e d i n w h a t has  been termed a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m  shift.  During  this  experience  t h e c h i l d ' s e a r l i e r v i e w t h a t f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s do n o t d i s p l a c e w a t e r was r e p l a c e d b y a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d v i e w i n v o l v i n g water  displacement. Although  conceptual  o n l y one c h i l d - p a r a d i g m  s h i f t or perceptual-  t r a n s p o s i t i o n seemed r e a s o n a b l y  evident  i n the study,  t h e w r i t e r f e l t t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t was u s e f u l i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f modern s c i e n t i f i c v i e w s .  He  speculated  shifts  that a modified  in children's perception. the p o t e n t i a l usefulness and  teacher  role could f a c i l i t a t e  I n a d d i t i o n , he s p e c u l a t e d o f the study  f o r classroom  about  teaching  suggested s e v e r a l problems f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e l a t e d  t o c u r r i c u l u m development.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I  Page THE  PROBLEM AND  ITS CONTEXT .  1  Statement of the Problem  1  The C o n t e x t o f t h e S t u d y  3  Justification  f o r t h e Method o f Study  ...  L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study II  THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE  6 STUDY: THOMAS S.  KUHN'S VIEW OF SCIENCE  7  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Terms U s e d Kuhn's A p p r o a c h t o t h e H i s t o r y Science  7 of  Kuhn's V i e w o f S c i e n t i f i c D e v e l o p m e n t III  22 ...  24  DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES USED IN  IV  5  THE  STUDY  30  The L e a r n i n g S i t u a t i o n  30  Recording the Results  33  The T e a c h e r R o l e  35  SYNOPSES OF THE  LEARNING SESSIONS  41  Method of P r e s e n t i n g O b s e r v a t i o n s  41  Summary o f T e a c h i n g R e s u l t s  42  Synoptic Reports  43  V Chapter V  Page AN EXPLORATORY CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE CHILDREN'S  INVESTIGATORY A C T I V I T I E S  59  C h i l d - P a r a d i g m s and C h i l d - P a r a d i g m I d e a s A d a p t e d f r o m Kuhn  VI  Shifts: 59  I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f A p p a r e n t Examples o f C h i l d P a r a d i g m s and C h i l d - P a r a d i g m S h i f t s . . .  64  Summary  75  SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THE PRESENT  STUDY TO SCIENCE TEACHING  Summary o f t h e M o s t S i g n i f i c a n t Reflections  Results  78 . .  78  on t h e P o s s i b l e U s e f u l n e s s o f  the Study  80  REFERENCES  84  APPENDIX A - VERBATIM TRANSCRIPTIONS SESSIONS FOR ONE LEARNER  OF THE TEACHING 87  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure  1  Page  PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT  35  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . W. B o l d t for suggesting the investigation without which  this thesis  and f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g  would never have been  help  completed.  Dr. B o l d t ' s i n t e r e s t , p a t i e n c e , and encouragement i n t h e study are g r a t e f u l l y A special  acknowledged.  t h a n k y o u i s a l s o g i v e n t o D r . H. C a n n o n ,  D r . J . Coombs, a n d M r s . J . Woodrow f o r t h e i r throughout  t h e study.  suggestions  C H A P T E R PROBLEM  AND  ITS  I CONTEXT  CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND I T S CONTEXT The term  present study i s a p r e l i m i n a r y stage i n a long-  study o f l a r g e r magnitude l e a d i n g t o t h e development o f  a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g , f i r m l y b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s and l e a r n e r s c o p i n g w i t h complex s c i e n t i f i c knowledge under c l a s s r o o m c o n d i t i o n s . chapter t h e problem of  o f the study i s d e l i n e a t e d .  The c o n t e x t  t h e study i s then p r o v i d e d showing i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  elementary  school science teaching.  method o f s t u d y i s t h e n p r e s e n t e d of  In this  A justification  f o r the  f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n  the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the study.  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  The  General The  for  Problem study i s d i r e c t e d toward  t h e development o f a theory  t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g complex s c i e n t i f i c  S. Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c  knowledge,  Thomas  development i s employed as a  c o n c e p t u a l framework i n t h e s t u d y .  Utilizing  c e r t a i n Kuhnian concepts, the w r i t e r attempted  adaptations of to conceptualize  t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex knowledge by c h i l d r e n and t o s u g g e s t i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s b a s e d on e x p l i c i t constructs.  The a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s a p p r o a c h  theoretical  was t h o u g h t  to l i e  2  i n the  possibility  developing  the  that theory  strategy  can  p o i n t to p o s s i b l e areas  f u r t h e r and  for  thereby g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n  to subsequent e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . D e l i n e a t i o n of the The  P r o b l e m and  Method o f  present exploratory  i n f i v e stages.  The  Investigation  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  c e n t r a l problem f o r the  t o e x a m i n e Kuhn's w r i t i n g s f o r c o n c e p t s and to the  g r o w t h and  c a r r i e d forward  first  phase  processes r e l a t e d  development of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge which  a p p e a r e d p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g how might acquire  complex knowledge.  ularly relevant  and  s i g n i f i c a n t i n Kuhn's v i e w o f  teacher the  r o l e from ideas  usefulness  data.  of the  teacher  partic-  scientific  chapter.  i n v e s t i g a t o r formulated  d r a w n f r o m Kuhn's e v o l u t i o n a r y  development of s c i e n c e .  observational  The  second phase, the  children  Concepts considered  development are presented i n the next In the  was  The  teacher  r o l e was  view  used t o  In a d d i t i o n , the w r i t e r explored  teacher  r o l e and  functions  a  obtain  the  for possible classroom  the experimental  of  use.  procedures are  presented  t h i r d phase i n v o l v e d  obtaining  i n Chapter I I I . The observations phenomena.  main problem of the  of c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s of The  researcher, performing the teacher  learners into contact i n t e r a c t e d w i t h the  with various  learners  t h e i r modes o f t h o u g h t .  role,  n a t u r a l phenomena  f o r the purpose of  D e p e n d i n g on  natural brought  and  discovering  t h e i r r e s p o n s e s he  tried  3 various aspects of the teacher r o l e .  Synoptic reports highlight-  ing observations considered p a r t i c u l a r l y study are presented The  s i g n i f i c a n t t othe  i n Chapter IV.  f o u r t h phase o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , p r e s e n t e d i n  C h a p t e r V , f o c u s e s o n - c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f how c h i l d r e n complex knowledge u t i l i z i n g concepts.  adaptations o f s e v e r a l Kuhnian  I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f apparent  modes o f t h o u g h t  acquire  examples o f c h i l d r e n ' s  along w i t h s p e c u l a t i o n s about p o s s i b l e p e r c e p t u a l  bases f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s views have a l s o been p r e s e n t e d chapter i n order t o give greater concreteness  i n the  and scope t o t h e  a b s t r a c t i o n s p u t foreward. D u r i n g t h e f i f t h phase o f t h e s t u d y , c o m p r i s i n g V I , t h e w r i t e r summarized t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t  Chapter  investi-  g a t i o n , s p e c u l a t e d about t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e study f o r t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e , and suggested  s e v e r a l problems f o r f u t u r e  investigation.  THE CONTEXT OF THE STUDY  The  s t u d y , by f o c u s i n g on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex  knowledge, i s c o n s i s t e n t . w i t h t h e major concerns s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m movement ( T a n n e r ,  of the recent  1966, pp. 362-370.).  I n t h e absence o f an adequate t h e o r y o f c l a s s r o o m  learning,  s c h o l a r s have t u r n e d t o e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks o f the v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s as sources o f i d e a s f o r t e a c h i n g .  4 For example, E a s l e y  ( E a s l e y , 1967,  p.  216.)  states,  W h i l e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s do n o t o r d i n a r i l y d e t e r m i n e how k n o w l e d g e s h o u l d be t a u g h t , t h e y p r o v i d e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s w h i c h h a v e some prima facte value i n formulating educational p r o b l e m s f o r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Some s u c h r e l e v a n t framework i s e s p e c i a l l y needed i n the absence o f a t h e o r y of l e a r n i n g adequate t o deal w i t h these pedagogical problems. Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t was the t h e o r e t i c a l  framework i n the study  P r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i s t s have p l a y e d development i n the  selected  for several  reasons.  a major r o l e i n c u r r i c u l u m  r e c e n t c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m movement.  Kuhn  argues t h a t s c i e n t i s t s , because of c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s t h e i r t r a i n i n g , h a v e a m i s t a k e n image o f s c i e n c e and scientific enterprise  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 3 a , pp.  350-351.).  f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t s c i e n t i s t s v i e w s c i e n c e as t h e o f f a c t s and  t h e o r i e s found i n t e x t books.  p r o g r a m s d e v e l o p e d by  s c i e n t i s t s tend  of l e a r n i n g s c i e n t i f i c  f a c t s , laws,  "content"  f o r the Advancement o f S c i e n c e of science  science  importance  t h e o r i e s as o p p o s e d  "content"  s c i e n c e g r o w s and  to  enterprise—a beings.  education,  the American A s s o c i a t i o n  (AAAS), s t r e s s t h e  ( A t k i n , 1 9 6 2 c , pp.  ment f o r c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m ,  o f how  notes,  accumulation  emphasis i n s c i e n c e  some c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s , most n o t a b l y  of s c i e n t i f i c  Kuhn  s u b j e c t t o a l l t h e i d i o s y n c r a s i e s o f human  In o p p o s i t i o n t o the  aspects  the  t o emphasize the  and  in  Consequently,  r e f l e c t i n g the a c t u a l s p i r i t of the s c i e n t i f i c human a c t i v i t y  as  1-7.).  The  "process" c u r r e n t move-  however, p o s t u l a t e s t h a t the  teaching  s h o u l d proceed i n the l i g h t of knowledge develops  ( T a n n e r , 1966,  p.  365.).  A  5  t h e o r e t i c a l framework  for teaching  and l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e  on Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t desirable f o r adaptation  t o science  e l e m e n t s w h i c h c o u l d be l a b e l l e d be c a l l e d  "process",  "human" a s p e c t s  based  appears e s p e c i a l l y  t e a c h i n g because  "content"  i t combines  and t h o s e w h i c h  could  and g i v e s major c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e  of the s c i e n t i f i c enterprise.  1 9 6 3 c , p. 310.) seems t o i m p l y  Kuhn  (Kuhn,  that children's acquisition of  modern s c i e n t i f i c v i e w s m i g h t f o l l o w a n e v o l u t i o n a r y  pattern  somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n s e e n i n t h e g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t  of science.  Scholars  such as A t k i n and K a r p l u s  h o l d a view, s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the w r i t e r , about t h e a p p l i c ability  o f Kuhn's i d e a s  f o r science  u t i l i z e d t h e K u h n i a n framework termed  "discovery-invention"  JUSTIFICATION  The m e t h o d o f s t u d y be d e s c r i b e d  t o formulate  1962, pp. 45-51.).  used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n can best The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s  r e c e n t l y b y a number o f  an adequate b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  processes o f teaching  and l e a r n i n g complex  ( E a s l e y , 1966, pp. 8-9.). Cronbach be g i v e n  strategy  s u g g e s t s e x p l o r a t o r y m e t h o d s be u s e d w i t h a  view t o formulating  should  a teaching  FOR THE METHOD OF STUDY  has been emphasized  Easley  They h a v e  ( A t k i n and K a r p l u s ,  as e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e .  mode o f r e s e a r c h scholars.  teaching.  subject  (Cronbach, 1966, pp. 539-545.).  matter  feels that f i n a n c i a l support  t o e x p l o r a t o r y and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l  p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h o s e w h i c h examine  the  studies,  t h e o r i e s o f c o g n i t i v e growth  In addition, Atkin  encourages  6 r e l a t i v e l y high r i s k exploratory ventures. s u c h a s how c h i l d r e n l e a r n a n d d e v e l o p be  He f e e l s t h a t i s s u e s ^  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , should  i n v e s t i g a t e d even though t h e r e i s l i t t l e  chance o f immediate  reward and t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h s h o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y focus on r e a d i l y s o l v a b l e problems  ( A t k i n , 1968b, pp. 1 2 - 1 8 . ) .  LIMITATIONS .OF. THE STUDY  There a r e s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e present The  study.  s t u d y , because i t i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e , does n o t attempt  t o t e s t an h y p o t h e s i s .  I n s t e a d , t h e m a i n i n t e n t o f t h i s mode  o f r e s e a r c h i s t o m a t c h w h a t a p p e a r s t o be p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l i d e a s w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n and t o r a i s e problems f o r f u t u r e empirical investigation.  The p r e s e n t p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e o f  t h e s t u d y c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a n a t u r a l h i s t o r y phase i n t h e development o f a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r classroom As  such,  i t has been conducted  learning.  i n a l o o s e , f l e x i b l e , and  h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e manner a t t e m p t i n g t o u n c o v e r f a c t s a n d i n c i dents  t h a t may s u g g e s t ,  of research i n classroom across subject f i e l d s present  study.  perhaps,  new a n d u n e x p l o r e d  t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g .  avenues  Generalizability  and c u l t u r e s l i e s beyond t h e scope o f t h e  Furthermore,  the r e s u l t s of the present  s h o u l d n o t be d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d t o o t h e r  children.  study  CHAPTER  II  THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: THOMAS S. KUHN'S VIEW OF SCIENCE  CHAPTER I I THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF S.  This chapter  KUHN'S VIEW OF  provides  r e f e r e n c e f o r Kuhn's i d e a s . s t r e s s e s concepts value  and  THE  STUDY: THOMAS  SCIENCE  the reader w i t h a The  processes  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l w h i c h appear t o have  for adaptation to science teaching.  the w r i t e r paraphrases  Kuhn c l o s e l y , a n d ,  d e s i r a b l e , quotes d i r e c t l y .  convenient  Quotations  To  potential  ensure  accuracy,  w h e r e deemed  are placed w i t h i n  q u o t a t i o n marks, w i t h the r e f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e d d i r e c t l y in parenthesis.  The  r e f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h e name o f t h e  t h e y e a r o f p u b l i c a t i o n , and author  a letter  e x a m p l e , w r o t e two by  '1962a' and  similar  t h e p a g e number.  h a s w r i t t e n more t h a n one  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  '1962b'.  f o l l o w i n g the year.  When t h e same  I f Kuhn, f o r  i s acknowledged i n a  of the p a r t i c u l a r  DESCRIPTION OF  are  t h e s e w o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  Paraphrasing  paragraph.  TERMS USED  Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n c e d e p e n d s h e a v i l y on t h e o f a number o f t e r m s , s u c h a s :  author,  book p e r y e a r , t h e books  b o o k s i n 1962,  f o r m a t a t t h e end  viability  paradigm, normal s c i e n c e ,  e x t r a o r d i n a r y s c i e n c e , anomaly, c r i s i s , Some o f t h e s e  afterward  and  scientific revolution.  terms are o r i g i n a l w h i l e o t h e r s are used i n  new  8 settings..  Following, i s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of these  o r i g i n a l e x p r e s s i o n s , and t h o s e u s e d i n new  contexts.  Paradigm Kuhn d e s c r i b e s a p a r a d i g m a s a s c i e n t i f i c which a p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n t i f i c  achievement  community a c k n o w l e d g e s , f o r a t i m e ,  as s u p p l y i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r i t s f u r t h e r p r a c t i c e . commitment t o Newton's l a w s o f m o t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e ,  The  provided  s c i e n t i s t s w i t h a paradigm f o r f u t u r e work i n mechanics. a c h i e v e m e n t h e l d t o be p a r a d i g m a t i c by a f i e l d o f s c i e n c e two c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  An displays  F i r s t , the achievement i s accepted  i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t i s r e c e i v e d b y a g r o u p whose members do try to create alternatives.  Furthermore, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y  o p e n - e n d e d t o l e a v e many p r o b l e m s to resolve.  f o r a group o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p . 10; K u h n , 1 9 6 3 a , p .  358.)  A c c o r d i n g t o Kuhn, a p a r a d i g m has g r e a t i n f l u e n c e the s c i e n t i f i c  community.  I t i n d i c a t e s the sorts of  t h a t n a t u r e d o e s and d o e s n o t c o n t a i n . i n which t h e s e e n t i t i e s behave. q u e s t i o n s w h i c h ;may  I t a l s o r e l a t e s t h e ways  In a d d i t i o n , i t determines the  argues t h a t a paradigm l i m i t s the s c i e n t i f i c p r o b l e m s w h i c h h a v e an a s s u r e d s o l u t i o n . t h e t e c h n i q u e s and i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t may  solution.  Finally,  on  entities  l e g i t i m a t e l y be a s k e d a b o u t n a t u r e .  solve these problems.  not  Kuhn  community t o  The p a r a d i g m d e t e r m i n e s p r o p e r l y be u s e d t o  the paradigm sets standards of  A paradigm functions f o r a s c i e n t i f i c  community by  p r o v i d i n g l a w s , t h e o r i e s , problems, methods, i n s t r u m e n t s ,  and  9  standards of s o l u t i o n together (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , pp. 1 9 6 3 a , pp.  349,  4,  5,  358,  10,  i n an  18,  59,  102,  p r a c t i c e s , nor  entire conjugation.  125;  "Instead,  l i k e an  common l a w ,  f o r r e p l i c a t i o n as i t  a r t i c u l a t i o n and  s p e c i f i c a t i o n under  accepted  i t i s an  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p.  object new  and  more  2 3 ) ( G i l l i s p i e , 1962,  suggesting  a t t a c k , types of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , paradigm a l s o provides t a t i o n of o b s e r v a t i o n . pp.  9-11;  implicitly explicit  s c i e n t i s t acquires from the  paradigm.  60,  p.  121,  scientific  statements of s c i e n t i f i c  a t a c i t component  of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge.  r u l e but  1 9 6 2 a , pp.  p r i n c i p a l l y by  392-39 3.)  554;  of  t h a t the  The  interpre-  Karplus,  1964,  125.) rules explicitly  l a w s , t h e o r i e s and  i n a r t i c u l a b l e p a r t o f what the  1252.)  a s t y l e o r manner  F i r s t , the paradigm  Kuhn s p e c u l a t e s  c e p t and  p.  p r o b l e m s , methods  instrumentation.  the  stringent  standards of s o l u t i o n .  ( H a w k i n s , 1963, 59,  the  further  a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r the  K u h n , 1 9 6 2 a , pp. The  and  for  judicial for  Kuhn s t r e s s e s t h a t a p a r a d i g m p r o v i d e s k n o w l e d g e by  propositions  verb i s the p a t t e r n  d e c i s i o n i n the  o f a c q u i r i n g new  Kuhn,  a closed set of  i s i t q u i t e an o b j e c t  i s i n g r a m m a t i c a l u s a g e w h e r e one  conditions."  108,  359.)  A paradigm, however, i s not and  i n e x t r i c a b l e mixture.  provides types  paradigm a l s o This  of  contains  knowledge i s  s c i e n t i s t l e a r n s not  e x a m p l e and  and  practice.  by  pre-  (Kuhn,  10 P a r a d i g m s , s u c h as t h e C o p e r n i c a n T h e o r y , may  be  s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive t o c o n t a i n a whole s c i e n c e . n o t e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t l a r g e r p a r a d i g m s may o b s e r v a t i o n a l , i n s t r u m e n t a l and  be  conceptual  divided  Kuhn  into  paradigms.  An  o b s e r v a t i o n a l p a r a d i g m d e t e r m i n e s t h e n a t u r a l phenomena t h a t t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o m m u n i t y a c t u a l l y o b s e r v e s and  reports.  In  a s t r o n o m y , f o r e x a m p l e , an o b s e r v a t i o n a l p a r a d i g m d e t e r m i n e s observable An  heavenly bodies  i n a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of the  i n s t r u m e n t a l paradigm governs the manipulative  p r o c e d u r e s t h a t may e x a m p l e , an  l e g i t i m a t e l y be  employed.  the  universe.  and  instrumental  In the  previous  i n s t r u m e n t a l paradigm suggests c e r t a i n equipment  s u c h as t e l e s c o p e s . an o b s e r v a t i o n  F i n a l l y , conceptual  i s t o be  paradigms determine  i n t e r p r e t e d or explained.  A  how  conceptual  p a r a d i g m i n t e r p r e t s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f a h e a v e n l y b o d y as  being  a s t a r , a p l a n e t o r a comet.  Kuhn,  1 9 6 2 a , pp.  43,. 59 ,  (Gillispie,  1962,  p.  1252;  60.)  Paradigms are of p a r t i c u l a r importance because they down t h e  law  to future scientists.  learns h i s science mainly  The  student,  through t e x t books.  lay  Kuhn a r g u e s ,  These books  do  n o t d e s c r i b e t h e s o r t s o f p r o b l e m s t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n may  be  a s k e d t o s o l v e and  their  solution.  the v a r i e t y of techniques  Instead, these  t h e p r o f e s s i o n has  available for  books e x h i b i t problem s o l u t i o n s t h a t  come t o a c c e p t  as p a r a d i g m s .  t h e n i s a s k e d e i t h e r w i t h a p e n c i l and  paper or i n  l a b o r a t o r y , t o s o l v e f o r h i m s e l f problems very i n b o t h method and  substance to those  The  student the  closely related  through which the  text  11  book o r t h e accompanying exercises,"  l e c t u r e has led,him.  a s Kuhn r e f e r s t o t h e m , p r o d u c e  Einstellungen.  "finger  These  "mental  sets"  or  T h i s commitment t o p a r a d i g m s e n a b l e s t h e s t u d e n t  t o p e r f o r m l a t e r r e s e a r c h i n w h i c h he c a n t a k e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s of h i s f i e l d  f o r granted.  ( G i l l i s p i e , 1962, p. 1252; Kuhn,  1 9 6 2 a , p p . 46., 1 6 4 ; K u h n , 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 344-345; pp.  Kuhn, 1963b,  350-351.)  Normal S c i e n c e Kuhn d e s c r i b e s n o r m a l s c i e n c e a s t h a t e n t e r p r i s e i n w h i c h t h e s c i e n t i f i c community a t t e m p t s t o f o r c e n a t u r e i n t o and r e l a t i v e l y i n f l e x i b l e c o n c e p t u a l b o x e s .  preformed  With the a c q u i s i t i o n  o f a p a r a d i g m , t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o m m u n i t y c a n make p r e d i c t i o n s about n a t u r e . all  D u r i n g normal s c i e n c e t h e s c i e n t i s t s  t h e i r might and s k i l l  strive  t o bring nature into closer  w i t h these expectations.  with  agreement  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 5, 2 3 - 2 4 ;  Kuhn,  19 6 3 a , p . 360.) There a r e p r i n c i p a l l y two t y p e s o f normal activities-experimental  a n d theoretical  science  investigations.  (Kuhn,  1 9 6 2 a , p . 25.) Experimental  activity  3  upon t h r e e c l a s s e s o f p r o b l e m s :  i n Kuhn's v i e w , t e n d s t o f o c u s the determination of significant  f a c t , t h e matching o f f a c t w i t h t h e o r y , and t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n of theory.  The f i r s t a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d  toward  i n c r e a s i n g t h e a c c u r a c y a n d s c o p e o f known f a c t s , s u c h a s t h e  12  determination of specific gravities of materials or the boiling points of solutions.  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 25-26.)  C e n t r a l t o t h e second i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h e matching o f observation with theory.  Atwood's machine,  f o r e x a m p l e , was  d e v e l o p e d i n an attempt t o match t h e o r y - d e t e r m i n e d p r e d i c t i o n s o f Newton's s e c o n d l a w o f m o t i o n w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n . (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 26-27.) F i n a l l y , a t h i r d class of experimental a c t i v i t y of a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e paradigm. the determination  Some a c t i v i t y  of physical  constants.  u n i v e r s a l g r a v i t a t i o n , f o r example,  consists  i s concerned  with  Newton's l a w o f  provided a workable  p a r a d i g m e v e n t h o u g h t h e u n i v e r s a l g r a v i t a t i o n a l c o n s t a n t was n o t a c c u r a t e l y known.  Scientists,  f o r t h e n e x t two c e n t u r i e s ,  engaged i n d e s i g n i n g a p p a r a t u s i n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e constant with greater precision.  O f t e n , paradigm  involves the formation of q u a n t i t a t i v e laws.  articulation  Coulomb's l a w  relating the force of e l e c t r i c a l attraction to the distance between p o i n t charges i s a case i n p o i n t .  A f i n a l type of  e x p e r i m e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n aims a t e x t e n d i n g t h e scope o f a p a r a d i g m t o a c c o u n t f o r phenomena c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h o s e f o r w h i c h t h e p a r a d i g m was d e v e l o p e d .  F o r example,  t h e paradigm  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c a l o r i c t h e o r y were a p p l i c a b l e t o h e a t i n g and c o o l i n g b y m i x t u r e s a n d t o c h a n g e s  of state.  Other  experi-  m e n t s r e v e a l e d t h a t h e a t c o u l d b e r e l e a s e d o r a b s o r b e d i n many o t h e r ways:  such a s , c h e m i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n , by compression o f  .13  a gas and by f r i c t i o n .  The c a l o r i c t h e o r y was s u b s e q u e n t l y  e x t e n d e d t o a p p l y t o e a c h o f t h e s e phenomena. pp.  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a ,  27-30.) Theoretical  activity  3  Kuhn s u g g e s t s , t e n d s  to fall  into  t h e same t h r e e c l a s s e s a s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  investigations.  First,  applying theory t o  t h e o r e t i c a l work i s d i r e c t e d toward  p r a c t i c a l problems.  P r o b l e m s o f t h i s s o r t may d i s p l a y a new  a p p l i c a t i o n o f a paradigm o r i n c r e a s e t h e p r e c i s i o n o f a previous application.  When Newton d e v e l o p e d  h i s theory o f motion, h i s  a p p l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d K e p l e r ' s laws and s c a t t e r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s of pendulums, i n c l i n e d p l a n e s , and t i d e s . was  I n a d d i t i o n , Newton  a b l e t o d e r i v e Boyle's law and a m a t h e m a t i c a l  computing t h e speed o f sound.  relationship for  By c o m p a r i s o n w i t h p r e s e n t d a y  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f Newton's . i d e a s , Newton's a p p l i c a t i o n s l a c k e d scope and p r e c i s i o n .  (Kuhn,. 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 30-31.)  A second type o f t h e o r e t i c a l a c t i v i t y  consists of  m o d i f y i n g t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n c e r t a i n phenomena.  Newton, f o r  i n s t a n c e , was f o r c e d t o t r e a t a p e n d u l u m b o b a s a p o i n t mass when d e f i n i n g p e n d u l u m l e n g t h .  This assumption r e s t r i c t e d t h e  agreement between p r e d i c t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n .  These  limitations  o f a g r e e m e n t l e f t many f a s c i n a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l p u z z l e s f o r Newton's s u c c e s s o r s .  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 31-32.)  F i n a l l y , there are t h e o r e t i c a l puzzles aiming articulation.  Often t h i s sort  a t paradigm  of articulation consists of  r e f o r m u l a t i n g a t h e o r y i n t o a c l e a r e r a n d more l o g i c a l  form..  14 Newton s views were w r i t t e n i n 1  his  d i f f i c u l t t o a p p l y , p a r t l y because only i m p l i c i t i n i t s applications.  Vririo-Lpia.  T h i s book  s o much o f i t s m e a n i n g  was was  C o n s e q u e n t l y , many  s c i e n t i s t s w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e - w r i t i n g Newton's t h e o r y i n an e q u i v a l e n t , b u t more u s e f u l f o r m .  (Kuhn, 19 6 2 a , p p .  32-33.)  Examining the a c t i v i t i e s of normal s c i e n c e , the a p p e a r s t o be a puzzle solving"  solver.  Kuhn u s e s t h e  term  scientist  "puzzle  i n t h e s e n s e o f t h e k i n d o f a c t i v i t y e n g a g e d i n by  chess p l a y e r .  a  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p u z z l e s i s t h a t t h e outcome  i s u s u a l l y w e l l known i n a d v a n c e .  Because  the s c i e n t i s t  often  knows e x a c t l y w h a t he i s t r y i n g t o f i n d , t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p u z z l e i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h many o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f n o r m a l P u z z l e s a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y an a s s u r e d s o l u t i o n .  science.  Problems,  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , s u c h as o b t a i n i n g l a s t i n g w o r l d p e a c e , do have t h i s  concomitant assurance.  These problems  are  not  rejected  b y t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o m m u n i t y as m e t a p h y s i c a l , as t h e c o n c e r n o f a n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e , o r s o m e t i m e s as j u s t t o o p r o b l e m a t i c t o be worth the time. sopially  Thus, a paradigm can i n s u l a t e s c i e n c e  i m p o r t a n t problems  to p u z z l e form.  s i m p l y because  they are not  from reducible  I n a d d i t i o n t o an a s s u r e d s o l u t i o n , a p u z z l e  must have r u l e s t o l i m i t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n and t h e s t e p s b y w h i c h t h i s is  solution i s obtained.  r e q u i r e d t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e r u l e s i n s u c h a way  d e s i r e d outcome i s p r o d u c e d . o n l y on h i s l a c k o f s k i l l .  The  scientist  that the  I f he f a i l s , t h a t f a i l u r e Such a f a i l u r e cannot c a l l  reflects into  q u e s t i o n t h e r u l e s w h i c h h i s p a r a d i g m has s u p p l i e d , f o r w i t h o u t  15 t h e s e r u l e s t h e r e w o u l d be no p u z z l e s t o s o l v e i n t h e f i r s t place-  (Gillispie,  1962, p. 1252;  K u h n , 1 9 6 3 a , p p . 362-363;  K u h n , 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 36-40;  Kuhn, 1963b, pp. 348-349;  Kuhn, 1 9 6 5 ,  p p . 8-9.) N o r m a l s c i e n c e i s a h i g h l y convergent scientists  arefirm t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s  n o t t r y t o s e e k new d i s c o v e r i e s .  activity  i n which  i n their thinking.  Often t h e i r a c t i v i t y  They do produces  p u z z l e s t h a t appear t o be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e paradigm.  At  such times, t h e i r m a i n t a i n i n g f a i t h i na paradigm r e q u i r e s t h e ability  t o support  unbearable. tension.  a t e n s i o n t h a t c a n o c c a s i o n a l l y become  Kuhn r e f e r s t o t h i s s t a t e o f m i n d a s a n  essential  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p . 2 4 ; K u h n , 1 9 6 3 b , p p . 3 4 2 , 3 4 3 , 3 4 9 ,  3 5 1 , 3 5 2 , 353.) Kuhn c o n t e n d s t h a t a s c i e n c e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m a n o n - s c i e n c e b y a commitment t o a p a r a d i g m a n d i t s s u b s e q u e n t normal science t r a d i t i o n .  S i n c e a s t r o l o g e r s h a d r u l e s , b u t no  paradigms f o r making a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s , a s t r o l o g y ceased t o be a s c i e n c e b e c a u s e i t l e f t n o p u z z l e s f o r i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s to  resolve.  (Kuhn, .1965, p p . 10-13.)  Anomaly An a n o m a l y  i s d e s c r i b e d b y Kuhn a s a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e  paradigm-induced expectations o f normal s c i e n c e .  When t h e  outcome o f a p u z z l e does n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e p a r a d i g m , t h e p u z z l e gains  a s p e c i a l importance.  I t i s t h e n t h a t t h e p u z z l e seems  16 to acquire  t h e s t a t u s o f an anomaly.  F o r example, t h e d i s c o v e r y  o f t h e d i s c - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e o f U r a n u s was a n o m a l o u s b e c a u s e i t conflicted with the scientific expectations  community's  earlier  t h a t Uranus had s t a r - l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  1 9 6 2 a , p p . 5, 5 2 , 1 1 4 - 1 1 5 ; 1963a, pp. 364-365;  Kuhn, 1962b, pp. 762, 763;  Kuhn, 1963b, p. 351;  f o r producing  anomalies.  equipment f o r normal s c i e n c e  leads  i n no o t h e r way.  gence o f r e s e a r c h  Kuhn,  has a b u i l t i n  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e l a b o r a t e to a d e t a i l of information  and t o a p r e c i s i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n - t h e o r y obtained  (Kuhn,  K u h n , 1 9 6 5 , p . 15.)  Normal s c i e n c e , because o f i t s n a t u r e , mechanism  theoretical  match, t h a t c o u l d be  Kuhn s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s t h i s c o n v e r -  a c t i v i t y on a d r a s t i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d  e s o t e r i c problems t h a t e v e n t u a l l y leads  t o anomalies.  set of (Kuhn,  1 9 6 2 a , p p . 2 4 , 6 4 , 65.) Crisis A crisis  i s a c o n d i t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s when an a n o m a l y  appears p a r t i c u l a r l y  s t r i k i n g o r i s educed  different laboratories.  The a n o m a l y l a s t s s o l o n g a n d  as d e e p l y i n t o t h e t h e o r y  Kuhn, 1963c,  T h e r e i s no f u l l y  call  into question  penetrates  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a ,  330-331.) general  anomalies that can lead t o c r i s i s . clearly  i n many  t h a t l a r g e s c a l e paradigm changes  a r e r e q u i r e d t o make t h e a n o m a l y l a w - l i k e . pp. 6 6 - 6 8 ;  repeatedly  rule f o rrecognizing "Sometimes  such  an anomaly  will  e x p l i c i t and f u n d a m e n t a l g e n e r a l i z -  a t i o n s o f t h e paradigm, as t h e prbblem o f e t h e r d r a g d i d f o r  17  t h o s e who At  accepted Maxwell's theory."  other  t i m e s an  practical  a n o m a l y may  importance.  (Kuhn,- 1 9 6 2 a , p.  invoke c r i s i s  In the Ptolemic design  i f i t has p a r t i c u l a r  s y s t e m s u c h an  prevented the  accurate  consideration  fostered a c r i s i s which eventually  Copernican r e v o l u t i o n .  and  that ordinarily  p.  82.)  Extraordinary  of calendars.  make an  there The  s e v e r a l of t h e s e combine.  area of d i f f i c u l t y ,  made t o w o r k .  science  other pressing,  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a ,  as t h a t p e r i o d  The  j u s t w h e r e and  scientific  how  t a t i o n t o i s o l a t e the ture eventually  thinking—the  freedom t o This  to a s s i m i l a t e the Herschel  be  response to Herschel's  science.  anomaly r e v e a l e d  Additional  seek  experimen-  the  anomalous a  typical  experimentation  t h a t U r a n u s moved among  s u g g e s t e d t h a t U r a n u s was  an  to give i t struc-  d i s c - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e o f U r a n u s , was  p e r i o d of e x t r a o r d i n a r y  see,  c o m m u n i t y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a n o m a l y p r e c i s e l y and  The  anomaly.  f a r t h e y can  r e s u l t s i n s p e c u l a t i v e t h e o r i e s about  anomalous b e h a v i o u r .  in  Initially,  to a s s i m i l a t e the  different solutions in different directions.  the  the  are pushed h a r d e r than e v e r to  i n c r e a s i n g d e g r e e o f divergent  stars.  still  s c i e n t i f i c community r e s p o n d s t o anomaly.  i s a d d i t i o n a l experimentation  discovery,  led to  Science  r u l e s of normal science  i n the  are  anomaly  practical  anomaly p a r t i c u l a r l y  Kuhn r e f e r s t o e x t r a o r d i n a r y which the  This  Kuhn p r e s u m e s t h e r e  c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t can  82.)  a comet.  the  Further  18  r e s e a r c h by t h e l e a d i n g a s t r o n o m e r s was observed finally  motion t o a cometary motion. e n d e d when L e x e l l s u g g e s t e d  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , pp. K u h n , 1 9 6 3 a , pp. The  6,  K u h n , p.  o f R o e n t g e n ' s X - r a y s was  crisis  t h a t t h e o r b i t was  planetary.  Kuhn, 1962b, pp.  762,  342.)  view of nature.  More  place, e s t a b l i s h e d techniques changed, f o r s c i e n t i s t s relevant variable. and  K u h n , 1962b., p.  763.)  assimilation  i t taught  ways.  "In the  found t h e y had  to  be  failed to control a  i n c l u d e d both the  redesign  r e v i s e d ways o f a s k i n g o l d q u e s t i o n s . " In addition., the s c i e n t i f i c  community  a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f v i s i o n t h a t r e s u l t e d i n f o u r more  s o r t s o f r a d i a t i o n b e i n g d i s c o v e r e d i n the next decade Roentgens work. 762,  first  f o r c a t h o d e r a y r e s e a r c h had  These changes/  of o l d apparatus  The  important,  s c i e n t i s t s t o v i e w o l d s i t u a t i o n s i n new  pp.  763;  not, f o r example, merely the a d d i t i o n  type of r a d i a t i o n .  experienced  the  a s s i m i l a t i o n o f anomaly r e q u i r e s a r e p l a c e m e n t o f  t h e p a r a d i g m t o p r o v i d e a new  o f a new  This s t a t e of  82-90, 114-115;  366-368;  unable t o match  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p .  57-59 , 6 1 ;  after  Kuhn, 1962b,  763.) During  e x t r a o r d i n a r y s c i e n c e t h e new  p a r a d i g m i s a d v a n c e d by o r a g r o u p o f them.  candidate  some p a r t i c u l a r i m a g i n a t i v e  T h i s s c i e n t i s t o r group of  individual,  scientists,  m u s t c o n v e r t t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n t o t h e new practicing science.  way  Kuhn d e s c r i b e s t h e r e a s o n s , why  ponents of competing paradigms f a i l  for  t o make c o m p l e t e  w i t h e a c h o t h e r ' s v i e w p o i n t , as t h e incommensurability  of  the  pro-  contact of  the  19  p r e and  post r e v o l u t i o n a r y normal s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n s .  the f i r s t p l a c e , t h e r e i s o f t e n disagreement about the o f p r o b l e m s t h a t any  candidate  In  list  f o r p a r a d i g m must r e s o l v e .  In  a d d i t i o n , . t h e r e i s w h a t Kuhn c a l l s a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  between  t h e two  t o under-  schools.  The  Copernican  t h e o r y was  difficult  s t a n d because i t changed the meaning of the word " e a r t h " . third  fundamental aspect of the incommensurability  of  competing  paradigms r e s u l t s because the proponents of each paradigm practicing  t h e i r science i n d i f f e r e n t worlds.  d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s , t h e two  The  are  "Practicing  groups o f s c i e n t i s t s see  in  different  t h i n g s when t h e y l o o k f r o m t h e same p o i n t i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n . " (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p.  149.)  A r i s t o t l e , f o r e x a m p l e , saw  o b j e c t as a c o n s t r a i n e d b o d y t h a t a c h i e v e d point only after a tortuous saw  ' t o and  i t as a p e n d u l u m t h a t r e p e a t e d  s u r a b i l i t y makes i t d i f f i c u l t t h e i r r i v a l r y through (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p .  rest  f r o ' motion, i t s motion.  a  a t i t s low while This  The  f o r the competitors t o r e s o l v e  a l o g i c a l s t e p by  step conversation.  146-152.)  t o a new  most e f f e c t i v e  i s t h a t they can  i t c a n be  b e t t e r than  p a r a d i g m by t h e p r o p e r  be  choice of  a r g u m e n t f o r t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f a new s o l v e the puzzles  paradigm to a c r i s i s . if  Galileo  incommen-  Some members o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c c o m m u n i t y c a n transformed  swinging  The  new  t h a t have l e d  paradigm  the o l d  p a r a d i g m i s e v e n more a p p e a l i n g  shown t o be q u a n t i t a t i v e l y i t s competitor.  argument.  as w e l l  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p .  as q u a l i t a t i v e l y 152-153.)  20  A n o t h e r p e r s u a s i v e a r g u m e n t c a n be d e v e l o p e d i f t h e new  p a r a d i g m p e r m i t s p r e d i c t i o n o f phenomena t h a t h a d  been unsuspected.  C o p e r n i c u s ' t h e o r y , f o r example,  previously  suggested  t h a t p l a n e t s s h o u l d be l i k e t h e e a r t h , t h a t Venus s h o u l d show p h a s e s , and t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e m u s t be v a s t l y p r e v i o u s l y been supposed.  l a r g e r t h a n had  In the next s i x t y years, the obser-  v a t i o n o f t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s c o n v i n c e d many s c i e n t i s t s t h a t maybe t h i s p a r a d i g m was exploiting. The  b e t t e r t h a n t h e one t h a t t h e y h a d  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p .  been  153-154.)  r e a l i s s u e during paradigm debates concerns which  p a r a d i g m s h o u l d i n t h e f u t u r e g u i d e r e s e a r c h o r p r o b l e m s many of The  w h i c h n e i t h e r c o m p e t i t o r can y e t c l a i m t o r e s o l v e c o m p l e t e l y . i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t has a c h o i c e between  an o l d e r  paradigm  t h a t c a n s o l v e a g r e a t many p r o b l e m s , b u t h a s f a i l e d w i t h  a  few; and, a newer p a r a d i g m t h a t can s o l v e fewer p r o b l e m s , b u t can s o l v e t h o s e w i t h w h i c h i t s p r e d e c e s s o r has f a i l e d . d e c i s i o n , Kuhn m a i n t a i n s , i s b a s e d on f a i t h . reason or another the s c i e n t i f i c  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p . Scientific  faith  t r a d i t i o n i s again established.  154-158.)  Revolution  A scientific  r e v o l u t i o n , i n Kuhn's v i e w , i s t h e p r o c e s s  b y w h i c h an o l d e r p a r a d i g m i s r e p l a c e d i n w h o l e o r i n p a r t an i n c o m p a t i b l e new because  a  When f o r one  c o m m u n i t y comes t o h a v e  i n a paradigm, a normal s c i e n t i f i c  Such  one.  by  The o l d e r p a r a d i g m c e a s e s t o f u n c t i o n  i t cannot r e s o l v e c e r t a i n p u z z l e s o f major importance.  21 The  s c i e n t i f i c community  then experiences a period of e x t r a -  ordinary science which eventually leads t o the acceptance of a new  paradigm.  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p.  Scientific to  91.)  revolutions, vary along a continuum w i t h  the extent the fundamentals o f a f i e l d  acceptance of E i n s t e i n ' s r e l a t i v i t y  are a f f e c t e d .  respect The  t h e o r y t o r e p l a c e Newton's  laws o f motion o r t h e advent o f C o p e r n i c a n i s m t o r e p l a c e t h e P t o l e m i c t h e o r y a r e examples o f l a r g e - s c a l e paradigm r e p l a c e m e n t s . T h e r e a r e , however,many f a r s m a l l e r b u t s t r u c t u r a l l y  similar  r e v o l u t i o n a r y episodes that are c e n t r a l to s c i e n t i f i c Roentgen's  d i s c o v e r y o f X - r a y s , f o r e x a m p l e , r e s u l t e d i n an  instrumental paradigm replacement. of  In t h i s  instance, the coating  f a m i l i a r a p p a r a t u s w i t h l e a d r e s u l t e d i n a new  field.  view of the  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , pp. 5 7 - 5 9 , 6 1 , 66-67.) A f t e r a s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n the s c i e n t i f i c  observes d i f f e r e n t l y  at least  research-engagement. gestalt switch.  a part  Kuhn c o m p a r e s  community  of the world of  its  this shift to a visual  "What w e r e d u c k s i n t h e s c i e n t i s t ' s w o u l d  the  r e v o l u t i o n are rabbits afterwards.  the  e x t e r i o r o f t h e box f r o m above  below."  advance.  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p. Kuhn, however,  The man  who  first  before saw  l a t e r sees i t s i n t e r i o r  from  110.)  n o t e s a p r i m e weakness  i n t h i s analogy.  W i t h t h e g e s t a l t s w i t c h t h e v i e w e r knows h i s p e r c e p t i o n s h i f t e d b e c a u s e he c a n make i t s h i f t b a c k and f o r t h w h i l e h e h o l d s t h e same p i e c e o f p a p e r i n h i s h a n d s .  has  repeatedly, The  lines  22  on t h e p a p e r f o r m an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e v i e w e r can r e g u l a t e h i s p e r c e p t i o n .  The  s c i e n t i s t , on t h e  other  h a n d , h a s no e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n on w h i c h t o b a s e h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s . "In the sciences, t h e r e f o r e , i f perceptual switches p a r a d i g m c h a n g e s , we may changes  directly."  look f o r i n d i r e c t w i t h a new before."  not expect s c i e n t i s t s  (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 113.) and b e h a v i o r a l  p. 114.)  KUHN'S APPROACH TO THE  to attest  " R a t h e r we  evidence that the  paradigm sees d i f f e r e n t l y (Kuhn, 1962,  accompany  f r o m t h e way  HISTORY OF  must  scientist  he h a d  (Kuhn, 1962a, p p .  to these  seen  111-114.)  SCIENCE  T r a d i t i o n a1 H i s t o r l o g r a p h y The t e x t books that this  collection  of facts,  i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l image o f s c i e n c e . image i s m i s l e a d i n g .  attempts t o r e v e a l historian  t h e o r i e s , and methods i n c u r r e n t  how  The  each increment  t h e o r y was  13,  1791.  discovered  i s said  accumulated.  or invented.  t o have d i s c o v e r e d  scientific  and 1781,  fact,  For example,  But the  law  man,  and  S i r William  t h e p l a n e t Uranus  However, a c l o s e r l o o k a t h i s t o r y  B e t w e e n 1690 recorded  historiography  o f s c i e n c e has n o t been a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e by w h i c h  and a t w h a t t i m e e a c h c o n t e m p o r a r y  Herschel  traditional  Kuhn i n d i c a t e s  reveals  on  March  disagreement.  t h e same o b j e c t i s known t o h a v e b e e n  s e v e n t e e n t i m e s as a s t a r .  H e r s c h e l , u s i n g a much  i m p r o v e d t e l e s c o p e , n o t i c e d an a n o m a l o u s d i s c - l i k e  appearance.  A f t e r c l o s e r o b s e r v a t i o n he n o t i c e d t h a t i t a l s o c h a n g e d  position.  23 Herschel  differed  from t h e e a r l i e r s c i e n t i s t s by s u p p o s i n g  U r a n u s t o be a c o m e t .  B u t i t was n o t u n t i l s e v e r a l months  t h a t L e x e l l suggested t h a t t h e o b j e c t observed by H e r s c h e l a planet. Herschel  When was t h e p l a n e t U r a n u s d i s c o v e r e d ? r a t h e r t h a n L e x e l l who d i s c o v e r e d  it?  later was  A n d was i t  The r e s u l t o f  t h e s e doubts and d i f f i c u l t i e s has been a h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e study Contemporary The  of science.  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 1-3.)  Historiography contemporary h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f science, r a t h e r  than  the  seeking  o f permanent c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f an o l d e r s c i e n c e t o  our  present  vantage, attempts t o d i s p l a y the h i s t o r i c a l  of t h a t science  i n i t s own t i m e .  as K u h n , now a s k ,  integrity  Historians of science,  such  f o r example, n o t about t h e r e l a t i o n o f  G a l i l e o ' s v i e w s t o t h o s e o f modern s c i e n c e , b u t r a t h e r a b o u t t h e . r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s views and those o f h i s group, t h a t i s , his teachers, sciences.  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and immediate s u c c e s s o r s  i n the  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p . 3.)  Kuhn's E v o l u t i o n a r y V i e w o f S c i e n c e Kuhn a d d r e s s e s h i m s e l f m a i n l y  t o scientists with the  i n t e n t o f a t t a c k i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t view t h a t they h o l d toward s c i e n c e .  themselves  Drawing from t h e h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e ,  psychology, philosophy,  and p h y s i c s , he p r e s e n t s  t h e development  of science  as a c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v o l u t i o n from p r i m i t i v e  Initially,  each s c i e n t i s t , i n a f i e l d , has a view which determines  a s t y l e o f a c q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l knowledge..  beginnings.  Some o f t h e s e v i e w s  24 become I n c r e a s i n g l y a c c e p t e d community u n t i l  b y o t h e r members o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c  e v e n t u a l l y t h e e n t i r e p r o f e s s i o n i s working  u n d e r a common v i e w o r p a r a d i g m .  T h i s e v o l u t i o n a r y development  w i l l be extended and c l a r i f i e d i n t h e remainder o f t h e c h a p t e r . (Gillispie,  1 9 6 2 , p . 1 2 5 1 , 1 2 5 3 ; K u h n , 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 3-7.)  KUHN'S VIEW OF S C I E N T I F I C DEVELOPMENT  The  P r i m i t i v e Beginnings  of a Science  Kuhn c o n c e p t u a l i z e s t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p l e x knowledge i n any s c i e n t i f i c  f i e l d as p r o c e e d i n g  variant of the following pattern.  Originally,  a l o n g some m i n o r scientific  e n d e a v o r c o n s i s t s o f t h e random c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s . activity  e v e n t u a l l y leads t o t h e formation o f competing  of science.  •gve-se ienoe  schools  F i n a l l y , a f i r s t p a r a d i g m e v o l v e s b e c a u s e one  s c h o o l emerges t r i u m p h a n t . x  This  The d e v e l o p m e n t a l  pattern of this  phase i s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . (Kuhn,  1962a, pp. 1 1 , 15-17;  K u h n , 1 9 6 3 b , p p . 346-347.)  ' Kuhn h o l d s t h a t a random f a c t - g a t h e r i n g s t a g e i s e s s e n t i a l to  the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f many s c i e n t i f i c  s c i e n t i s t p e r f o r m s random e x p e r i m e n t s , simply t o observe  what w i l l happen.  r e s u l t s i n the accumulation a s s i m i l a t i o n o f these  fields.  I n i t i a l l y , each  i n t h e absence This divergent  of theory, activity  of a large pool of facts.  f a c t s by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t  a personal view o f t h e f i e l d .  The produces  This view functions f o ra p a r t i e -  . 25  ular  s c i e n t i s t s i m i l a r t o t h e manner i n w h i c h a p a r a d i g m f u n c t i o n s  f o r a s c i e n t i f i c community-.  In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the personal  determines l e g i t i m a t e problems, types of a n a l y s i s ,  and  standards  o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , methods  of s o l u t i o n .  a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g 1 9 6 2 a , pp. The those  x i , 11, 15-16;  In a d d i t i o n ,  i n t h e awareness o f anomaly.  343,  346.)  forces nature  into  to  "pre-  This a c t i v i t y i n e v i t a b l y The  (Kuhn,  are s i m i l a r , i n nature,  o f n o r m a l s c i e n c e i n w h i c h he  e s t a b l i s h e d conceptual" boxes.  i t provides  experimentation.  K u h n , 1 9 6 3 b , pp.  scientist's activities  view  results  s c i e n t i s t then experiences  a  s i t u a t i o n s i m i l a r to the a c t i v i t i e s of e x t r a o r d i n a r y s c i e n c e , i n w h i c h he  attempts  t o a s s i m i l a t e the anomaly.  The  assimilation  o f a n o m a l y r e q u i r e s an a d j u s t m e n t o f h i s p e r s o n a l v i e w o f field.  Kuhn d e p i c t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f  knowledge as p r o g r e s s i n g t h r o u g h personal view. p.  a series  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , pp.  the  complex  of such s h i f t s i n  x i , 6 1 , 62;  K u h n , 19 6 3b,  343.) T h i s phase o f the a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex knowledge  p a r t i c u l a r relevance children  to the study.  Kuhn b e l i e v e s t h a t y o u n g  o f t e n hold views s i m i l a r to those  Many o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s show i m p o r t a n t Aristotle.  has  of p r i m i t i v e  p a r a l l e l s to those  tribes. of  26  The w o r l d v i e w s o f p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s and o f c h i l d r e n t e n d t o be a n i m i s t i c . That i s , c h i l d r e n and many p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s do n o t d r a w t h e same h a r d and f a s t d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t we do b e t w e e n o r g a n i c and i n o r g a n i c n a t u r e , b e t w e e n l i v i n g and l i f e l e s s t h i n g s . . The o r g a n i c r e a l m h a s a c o n c e p t u a l p r i o r i t y , and t h e b e h a v i o r o f c l o u d s , f i r e , and s t o n e s t e n d s t o be e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i n t e r n a l d r i v e s and d e s i r e s t h a t move men a n d , p r e s u m a b l y , a n i m a l s . A s k e d why b a l l o o n s go u p , one c h i l d o f f o u r a n s w e r s , ' B e c a u s e t h e y w a n t t o f l y away." A n o t h e r , age s i x , e x p l a i n s t h a t b a l l o o n s go up b e c a u s e ' t h e y l i k e t h e air. So when y o u l e t go t h e y go up i n t h e s k y . ' (Kuhn, 1 9 5 7 , pp. 9 6 - 9 7 . ) ( K u h n , 1 9 6 3 c , p p . 310-313.) As t h e f i e l d d e v e l o p s , s o m e o f t h e s c i e n t i s t ' s become a c c e p t e d by o t h e r members o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c f o r m schools electricity  of  science.  The  many f i e l d s  e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e were almost  experimenters.  as t h e r e w e r e i m p o r t a n t  research, evolved.  theory could best explain.  One  t o o k a t t r a c t i o n as t h e f u n d a m e n t a l  while s t i l l  electrical  electrical  f o r conduction e f f e c t s .  phenomena t h a t electricians  phenomena.  t o be  Another  repulsive effects.  effect,  difficulty  account-  school then evolved  a "fluid".  ( K u h n , 1 9 6 2 a , pp.  K u h n , 1 9 6 3 b , pp.  346-347.)  Another  repulsion together to  which  T h i s group, however,  h a d d i f f i c u l t y r e c o n c i l i n g i t s t h e o r y w i t h a number o f  pp.. 3 5 4 - 3 5 7 ;  about  electrical  r e p u l s i o n as t h e f u n d a m e n t a l  A l l o f t h e s e s c h o o l s had  considered e l e c t r i c i t y  and  the  Each s c h o o l  e a r l y group of  a n o t h e r h e l d a t t r a c t i o n and  be e q u a l l y b a s i c . ing  In  as many, v i e w s  emphasized the p a r t i c u l a r group of e l e c t r i c a l  group regarded  develop.  of  G r a d u a l l y , s e v e r a l competing s c h o o l s , or  traditions in electrical  its  community t o  development o f the h i s t o r y  i s t y p i c a l o f t h e way  the n a t u r e of e l e c t r i c i t y  views  13-15;  attractive  Kuhn, 1963a,  27  W i t h i n each school the accepted to  a p a r a d i g m by d e t e r m i n i n g  view functions  c e r t a i n p u z z l e s t o be  F u r t h e r development produces anomalies,  similar  resolved.  the a s s i m i l a t i o n  of  w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e s a replacement o f the p a r t i c u l a r view. These shifts  i n view are s i m i l a r t o the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s  t h a t accompany s c i e n t i f i c scientific  r e v o l u t i o n s i n t h a t they  of the s c i e n t i f i c field.  revolutions.  They d i f f e r  x i , 61,  from  a f f e c t the  s c i e n t i f i c , progress,.is. accomplished. field  from.first principles.  tend t o c i r c l e back over e n e r g y i s s p e n t on  In doing so, i n v e s t i g a t o r s  t h e same g r o u n d .  interschool conflict,  354-357;  Emergence o f a F i r s t The one  little  Each, s c h o o l must, b u i l d  F u r t h e r m o r e , much r a t h e r t h a n on  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f n a t u r a l phenomena.. (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , pp. K u h n , 1 9 6 3 a , pp.  entire  62.)  While the schools of science e x i s t , r e l a t i v e l y  its  view  affect only a proportion  community, w h i l e the l a t t e r  (Kuhn, 1962a, pp.  i n world  K u h n , 1 9 6 3 b , p.  the  13-17;  346.)  Paradigm  schools of science disappear  of the pre-paradigm schools.  The  w i t h the triumph  competition  of  between  s c h o o l s o f s c i e n c e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e i r i n c o m m e n s u r a b l e ways o f seeing the world.  However, t h r o u g h  a development, s i m i l a r to  r e s o l u t i o n of competing paradigms, the s c i e n t i f i c brought to accept success argument  the  community i s  a f i r s t paradigm. In e l e c t r i c i t y , F r a n k l i n ' s  i n e x p l a i n i n g the Leyden j a r presented f o r t h e emergence o f t h e  t h e most  f l u i d t h e o r y as t h e  effective first  28 paradigm.  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p . 4, 1 7 - 1 8 ;  K u h n , 1 9 6 3 a , pp.  354-  357.) The  a c c e p t a n c e o f a f i r s t p a r a d i g m , Kuhn c o n t e n d s , i s  a sign of maturity i n the h i s t o r i c a l  d e v e l o p m e n t o f any  field.  Freed from concern about b a s i c fundamentals, the c r e a t i v e s c i e n t i s t c o n c e n t r a t e s u p o n t h e s u b t l e s t and m o s t e s o t e r i c aspects of nature. of  " E v e r s i n c e p r e h i s t o r i c a n t i q u i t y one  field  s t u d y a f t e r a n o t h e r has c r o s s e d t h e d i v i d e between what t h e  h i s t o r i a n might c a l l proper."  i t s p r e h i s t o r y as a s c i e n c e and i t s h i s t o r y  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p. 27.)  c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e emergence a few o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . " 1962a, pp. 19-22;  " T h i s c e n t u r y a p p e a r s t o be of a f i r s t concensus i n p a r t s o f (Kuhn, 1 9 6 3 b , p. 347.)  K u h n , 1 9 6 3 a , p. 357;  (Kuhn,  K u h n , 1963b, p p .  347-  348.) The D e v e l o p m e n t  of a Mature  Science  The m a t u r e p e r i o d o f s c i e n t i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t h a s been i m p l i e d .  Kuhn a r g u e s t h a t n o r m a l s c i e n c e p r e s u p p o s e s a  c o n c e p t u a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l f r a m e w o r k a c c e p t e d b y an scientific  already  community.  G i v e n such a framework,  entire  scientific  r e s e a r c h t e n d s t o be a f o r m o f p u z z l e - s o l v i n g r a t h e r t h a n e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e unknown.  The r e s u l t i n g mode o f  p r a c t i c e i n e v i t a b l y e v o k e s " c r i s e s " w h i c h c a n n o t be w i t h i n t h e p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d framework. o n l y when t h e community  a c c e p t s a new  scientific resolved  Normal s c i e n c e conceptual  returns  structure  w h i c h c a n a g a i n g o v e r n i t s s e a r c h f o r n o v e l f a c t s and more r e fined theories.  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , c o v e r . )  29 Summary  Kuhn m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o m p l e x is  knowledge  a c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v o l u t i o n from p r i m i t i v e beginnings.  compares  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t t o D a r w i n ' s The  Ovigi.n of  According t o Darwin, " s u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t " c r i t e r i o n upon w h i c h e v o l u t i o n d e p e n d s . e v o l u t i o n depends o n t h e " f i t t e s t "  way  sees t o p r a c t i c e i t s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  He  Species.  organism i s the  In science, paradigm the s c i e n t i f i c  community  I n no s e n s e d o e s  this  development imply, t h a t acience i s n e c e s s a r i l y p r o g r e s s i n g toward an u l t i m a t e t r u t h .  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p p .  169-172.)  C H A P T E R  DESCRIPTION  OF USED  I I I  EXPERIMENTAL IN  THE  STUDY  PROCEDURES  CHAPTER I I I DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES USED I N THE STUDY This chapter presents the experimental procedures to  obtain observational data f o ri l l u s t r a t i n g  of  how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e c o m p l e x k n o w l e d g e .  apparent  used  examples  Described are the  l e a r n e r s , t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k s , t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s , t h e methods by w h i c h  t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a were r e c o r d e d , and t h e t e a c h e r  r o l e employed i n t h e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s .  THE LEARNING SITUATION  The  Learners Three Vancouver c h i l d r e n from G e n e r a l Gordon  S c h o o l were used i n t h e s t u d y .  The s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l  t h a t s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s i n t h e neighbourhood  Elementary reported  were c o n s i d e r e d  e c o n o m i c a l l y poor b u t g e n e r a l l y most c h i l d r e n had w o r k i n g backgrounds.  class  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f each l e a r n e r and h i s f a m i l y  background i s provided before t h e s y n o p t i c r e p o r t s i n Chapter IV e n a b l i n g t h e r e a d e r t o form a m e n t a l b e f o r e r e a d i n g about h i s a c t i v i t i e s  picture of the child  and t h e r e b y making t h e  s y n o p s e s more i n t e l l i g i b l e . G e n e r a l Gordon Elementary i n t h e s t u d y f o r two r e a s o n s .  S c h o o l was s e l e c t e d f o r u s e  First,  i t s nearness  t othe  31 University the  of  B r i t i s h . Columbia reduced the  c h i l d r e n by  his willingness The  taxi.  actual  s e l e c t i o n of the The  a g r a d e - f o u r boy,  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  writer and  any  age  selected  learners  differences as  the  The  i n m a t u r i t y and  b e c a u s e he  r a p p o r t more r e a d i l y w i t h  writer  views.  selected  f e l t t h a t he  could  b o y s o f t h i s age  t h a n h a v i n g t h r e e boys i n the  willing  experience for  determining  G r a d e two problems  y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n when t a k e n f r o m t h e  youngest learners  The  grade-two  grade s t i p u l a t i o n s were  children's  The  the  w o u l d be  thus provide a c r i t e r i o n  among t h e  classroom s i t u a t i o n .  oldest  done by  to select a  minimum g r a d e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d  might a r i s e with the  and  c h i l d r e n was  a g r a d e - s i x g i r l who  intended to provide differences between the  research.  asked him  study.  transporting  school p r i n c i p a l expressed  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  school p r i n c i p a l . boy,  Secondly, the  cost of  that  security  boys f o r the  two  establish  than g i r l s .  s t u d y , a g i r l was  was  Rather  c h o s e n as  the  learner.  Learning  Tasks  Data required c o m p l e x k n o w l e d g e was investigatory  f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g how o b t a i n e d by  The  F l o a t , was  a source of  u s e d as  guide f o r the  observing  1968,  acquire  children's  a c t i v i t i e s o f phenomena i n v o l v i n g  floating objects.  Sink or F l o a t ,  children  sinking  and  ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY u n i t , S i n k  pp.  ideas  17-38.).  or  (ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY, After  r e a d i n g the  u n i t , w h i c h gave d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s  teacher's of  what  of  32 c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y s a y a n d do when w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s u g g e s t e d activities,  the w r i t e r f e l t that learning tasks  s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g obtaining shifts.  associated  with  o b j e c t s were p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r  apparent examples o f c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s Moreover, l e a r n i n g tasks  and  associated with  child-paradigm  s i n k i n g and  f l o a t i n g b o d i e s were s e l e c t e d because t h e y embodied s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s such as f o r c e , mass, volume, and d e n s i t y w h i c h a r e c e n t r a l t o many n a t u r a l phenomena. Piaget's  experiments with s p e c i f i c  Previous gravity  s t u d i e s , s u c h as ( P i a g e t , 1929, pp.  222-228.), have i n d i c a t e d l e a r n i n g problems w i t h these By  observing  sinking for  concepts.  children's investigatory a c t i v i t i e s involving  and f l o a t i n g  o b j e c t s , the study attempted t o account  some p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s f o r t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s b y e x a m i n i n g  t h e n a t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f t h o u g h t w i t h r e s p e c t t o s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s s u c h as mass, volume, d e n s i t y , and f o r c e . The  materials  the  synoptic  The  Learning The  u s e d and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s p e r f o r m e d a r e d e s c r i b e d i n reports  included  i n Chapter IV.  Sessions learning sessions  took place  i n the television  studio  i n the Education B u i l d i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Here, twice  a week f o r a two week p e r i o d , e a c h c h i l d h a d f o u r ,  one-half  hour l e a r n i n g sessions  floating  objects.  teacher  To e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t  and l e a r n e r s t o u r e d  hour before  t o i n v e s t i g a t e s i n k i n g and  the f i r s t  with the children, the  the Education B u i l d i n g f o r one-half  session.  Although the f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n  p e r i o d was r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t , t h e t e a c h e r  f e l t he h a d e s t a b l i s h e d  33  an a t t i t u d e o f c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h a l l l e a r n e r s . youngest l e a r n e r had h i s s e s s i o n s f i r s t . the ten-year  o l d and t h e n  Each day t h e  He was f o l l o w e d b y  the oldest learner.  By u s i n g  this  sequence, t h e w r i t e r attempted t o reduce t h e interchange among l e a r n e r s . relatively  He f e l t t h a t t h e o l d e s t l e a r n e r w o u l d r e c e i v e  f e w i d e a s f r o m t h e y o u n g e s t l e a r n e r , who h a d h i s  sessions f i r s t , situation.  than would t h e youngest l e a r n e r i n a reverse  When t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e n o t p e r f o r m i n g  i n the learning  sessions, they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n supervised a c t i v i t i e s nearby science l a b o r a t o r i e s . making electromagnets, generating  of ideas  Some o f t h e s e  working  static electricity.  by t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s .  i n the  activities  included  w i t h b a t t e r i e s and b u l b s , and The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w e r e c h o s e n  T h e r e w e r e , h o w e v e r , no a c t i v i t i e s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s .  RECORDING THE RESULTS  The  Independent Observer During  the l e a r n i n g sessions, a graduate student  at the  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p e r f o r m e d t h e r o l e o f an i n d e p e n d e n t observer. and  His p a r t i c u l a r role consisted of observing the a c t i v i t i e s  r e c o r d i n g on p a p e r s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s  useful f o r conceptual-  i z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge. expected  t o s p e c u l a t e a s t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f t h o u g h t .  w r i t e r prepared ing  t h e independent observer  h i s f u n c t i o n i n t h e study.  observer  I n a d d i t i o n , h e was  seemed t o u n d e r s t a n d  The  f o rh i s role by"describ-  A f t e r t h i s t r a i n i n g , t h e independent t h e purpose o f t h e study.  During  34 the  subsequent a n a l y s i s of the i n v e s t i g a t o r y  the  independent  value, mainly  observer's  because of t h e i r  were n o t u s e d  trial  knowledge.  runs w i t h  itated his ability not  anticipated,  planning  t o be  incompleteness,  of  and  however,  little consequently  to c o n c e p t u a l i z e the c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n  complex s c i e n t i f i c ing  n o t e s were f o u n d  activities,  P e r h a p s more p r e p a r a t i o n , i n c l u d -  the independent to perform  this  the independent  learning  of  tasks designed  o b s e r v e r , would have type  of a n a l y s i s .  observer proved to lead the  facil-  Although  valuable i n  learner into  apparent  anomalies. Video-Taping A two video-tape learning the  r e c o r d e r were u s e d  sessions.  start  One  camera was  and  to record results  l o c k e d the t e l e v i s i o n  the other  other overt actions.  the t e c h n i c i a n to concentrate mainly activities verbal two  and  to capture  responses  microphones.  so t h a t t h e y  from  The  on  significant  o f t h e t e a c h e r and cameras and  f o c u s e d on h i s The  investigator  the c h i l d ' s  facial  the  facial instructed  manipulative  expressions.  l e a r n e r were r e c o r d e d  The by  m i c r o p h o n e s were p o s i t i o n e d  did,not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the  f o l l o w i n g diagram.  At  cameras i n  learning  situation.  a c t u a l placement o f the r e c o r d i n g equipment i s i l l u s t r a t e d the  inch  the  s e t f o r an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f  investigations while  expressions  a Sony EV-200, one  A t e c h n i c i a n made t h e v i d e o - r e c o r d i n g s .  o f e a c h s e s s i o n he  position. child's  V i d i c o n camera c h a i n and  The in  35  Table with  Covered Objects  Learner  Overhead ^Microphone  o o  Neck Microphone  0°  Objects  •  •  Table  0  n oo  Water Container  Teacher Television Cameras  One-Way Glass  Independent Observer .-  VIDEO-TAPE RECORDER  Technician  =s»  Figure 1 P h y s i c a l Arrangement o f t h e L e a r n i n g  Environment  THE TEACHER ROLE  During  the learning  certain  teacher  desired  observational data.  appropriate and  sessions, the investigator  performed  f u n c t i o n s f o r the purpose o f g a t h e r i n g the The t e a c h e r r o l e  f o r o b t a i n i n g apparent  selected  seemed  examples o f c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s  c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t s w h i c h were b e i n g  sought  i n the study.  36  The t e a c h e r f u n c t i o n s w e r e f o r m u l a t e d f r o m i d e a s d r a w n Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t .  from  In addition, the teacher  r o l e a p p e a r e d p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g science i n the classroom.  Further d e t a i l s concerning the  a p p l i c a t i o n of the teacher r o l e to the classroom s i t u a t i o n be p r o v i d e d i n C h a p t e r V I .  The p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r f u n c t i o n s  used i n t h e study a r e presented below showing t h e i r for  will  importance  o b t a i n i n g o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n c e . 1. I n i t i a l l y ,  t h e teacher attempted  t o enrich the learner's  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l phenomena b y  encouraging  h i m t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e v e n t s t h r o u g h h i s own o b s e r v a t i o n s and e x p e r i m e n t s . for  Introducing the learning sessions,  example, t h e teacher presented t h e l e a r n e r w i t h  numerous o b j e c t s and a w a t e r  container.  He t h e n  instructed  t h e l e a r n e r t o f i n d o u t what he c o u l d a b o u t s i n k i n g and floating objects.  I n t h i s manner t h e t e a c h e r i n t e n d e d t o  f a c i l i t a t e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n c r e t e - e m p i r i c a l backg r o u n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h phenomena r e l a t e d t o s i n k i n g a n d floating.  Kuhn's v i e w a b o u t t h e p r i m i t i v e b e g i n n i n g s i n  the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge suggests s i m i l a r developmental which  a  period of learning activities i n  t h e s t r e s s i s on a c q u i r i n g c o n c r e t e - e m p i r i c a l  experience w i t h a r e s t r i c t e d range o f n a t u r a l events. 2. D u r i n g t h e l a t e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s , d a t a was s o u g h t f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f t h o u g h t .  The  second  teacher  p r o b l e m by  f u n c t i o n attempted  e l i c i t i n g accounts  F o r example, the  to  h i s view of t h i s  bar  of  that,  soap  float  sinks.  one  The  phenomenon by  and  not  the  this  of the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s .  l e a r n e r observes  f l o a t i n g w h i l e another  t o meet  bar of  teacher  soap  inquires  a s k i n g , "Why  other?"  Kuhn  does  lative  of s c i e n t i f i c  development,  ideas are a b s t r a c t e d to account  obtained.  The  i n v e n t to account  i n the  specu-  f o r the information  i n t e n t of the teacher r o l e  ideas that children  one  suggests  as c o n c r e t e - e m p i r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e p r o g r e s s e s  p r i m i t i v e beginnings  as  was  for  to  identify  their  experiences. During their  the use  children's activities,  f o r new  experiences.  i n the r e t r i e v a l of t h i s  structuring  situations  child-paradigms  and  then  function.  s e t time  activities. r o l e was  The  taken  extend  perform  this  apparent  introduced opportunities for views.  The  teacher this  i n t r o d u c e d s i t u a t i o n s whenever  prepared  to investigate  following illustration  from  to  by  o r sequence f o r p e r f o r m i n g  I n s t e a d he  t h e c h i l d was  To  to i d e n t i f y  l e a r n e r to apply h i s apparent  f o l l o w e d no  felt  for  teacher  learner to  of h i s i d e a s .  f u n c t i o n , the t e a c h e r attempted  The  kind of data  p e r m i t t i n g the  the range o f a p p l i c a t i o n  the  sought  o f e s t a b l i s h e d views or c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s  e x p l a i n or account assisted  d a t a was  the  learning  the s t r u c t u r e d  of t h i s  sessions.  he  The  teacher teacher  38  by  noting  the learner's manipulations  and  i z a t i o n s assumed t h a t h e h a d a p r e v i o u s l y point o f view that objects To  provide  established  s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h  water.  t h e c h i l d w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o extend h i s  view, the teacher tube.  conceptual-  asked t h e l e a r n e r t o s i n k a p l a s t i c  Kuhn s u g g e s t s t h a t s c i e n c e  progresses  a phase o f a p p l i c a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n  through  of established  views.  U t i l i z i n g an a d a p t a t i o n  of this idea, the  teacher  attempted t o f a c i l i t a t e  the child's articulation  and  extension  o f p r i o r knowledge.  4. I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s ,  data  r e l a t e d t o anomalies o r v i o l a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s expectations occurred  were s o u g h t .  Some o f t h e s e  anomalies  n a t u r a l l y a s w i l l be n o t e d i n C h a p t e r V.  Others were f e l t t o be i n d u c e d by t h e t e a c h e r . d a t a were g a t h e r e d by a r r a n g i n g  The  learning situations i n  s u c h a way t h a t t h e l e a r n e r e n c o u n t e r e d a n o m a l i e s o r became a w a r e o f i m p l i c i t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h i s mode o f thought.  Often the teacher  f a c i l i t a t e d t h e inducement  o f an awareness o f v i o l a t i o n s o f e x p e c t a t i o n the  l e a r n e r r e p e a t an a c t i v i t y  recognize teacher inducing  by having  u n t i l he appeared t o  t h a t s o m e t h i n g was w r o n g .  As i n t h e p r e v i o u s  f u n c t i o n , t h e r e was no s c h e d u l e d t i m e f o r anomalies.  Instead,  the teacher  remained  a l e r t t o s i t u a t i o n s which appeared u s e f u l f o r b r i n g i n g the  c h i l d t o an a w a r e n e s s o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y .  For  39 example, the  child  function held Attempting  described  that  objects  to a l e r t  him  behaviour of objects conceptualization, a plastic water.  i n the  s i n k when f i l l e d  to the  does not  the  fact  teacher  s t r a w w h i c h does n o t  I n t h i s manner t h e  mode o f  adaptation  thought.  violations established  5. A  final  of  investigatory  teacher  a child's  new this  c o n f l i c t w i t h the did  not  offer  methods o f speculate him  child's  suggestions  attack.  to explore  asked the  the  old.  course of  ideas  The  well-  The  as  evidence with  teacher,  thoughts.  investigator concepts  he  the  invited and  view., a b o u t s p e c i f i c a plastic  in  to  to desired  to b r i n g the  sink  serious  designed  s i n k when f i l l e d  learner to  scientists  established  then  his conceptualizations  objects  sophisticated  an  that of obtaining  observations  example, i n a t t e m p t i n g view t h a t  f u n c t i o n was  activities  Instead,  about the  the  activity.  w i t h the  structured  with  in  that  during  replacement of  instance,  sink  inconsistency  anomalies or  f u n c t i o n was  ones i n c o m p a t i b l e  to  expected that  teacher  of expectations  observed  s i n k when f i l l e d  f r o m Kuhn's s u g g e s t i o n  sometimes become aware o f  with water.  the  asked him  teacher  This  that  teacher  n e c e s s a r i l y match h i s  l e a r n e r w o u l d become aware o f t h e his  previous  or  child  to  encouraged  more f u l l y .  learner  from  For a  w i t h w a t e r t o a more g r a v i t y , the straw.  When  teacher the  straw d i d not s i n k a c c o r d i n g to the c h i l d ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s , the t e a c h e r encouraged the cause. The  learner postulated that p l a s t i c  teacher then suggested  ness tube.  o f h i s s p e c u l a t i o n by Kuhn s u g g e s t s  speculative By  The  t h e l e a r n e r t o s p e c u l a t e as t o  inconsistencies  children  scientists  often  f o r anomalous  t o s p e c u l a t e about  i n t h e i r views,  a similar  explore the  experimenting with a  ideas to account  encouraging  facilitate  that  t h a t he  floats. usefulplastic  develop situations. apparent  the teacher intended t o  d e v e l o p m e n t o f complex k n o w l e d g e .  C H A P T E R  SYNOPSES  OF  THE  IV  LEARNING  SESSIONS  CHAPTER  SYNOPSES OF  METHOD OF Synoptic  i s by  the  view of the  twelve,  thirty  those  children's of  PRESENTING OBSERVATIONS  method o f p r e s e n t i n g  general  izes  synoptic  children  minute t e a c h i n g  sessions.  reported  ideas  The  first.  l e a r n e r a r e documented by  A.  emphas-  of the  the  f r o m Kuhn's v i e w youngest  from the  stressing similarities  s y n o p s e s o f one  Appendix  Each r e p o r t  obtained  i n performance between the  a  the  of the  dissimilarities  transcription  teaching  made d u r i n g  adapted  sessions  Results  then presented  verbatim  of the  appear u s e f u l i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g  investigations using  are  results  numerous o b s e r v a t i o n s  results,which  are  the  r e p o r t s — a method w h i c h g i v e s  s c i e n t i f i c development.  learner  LEARNING SESSIONS  Reports  The sessions  THE  IV  and  learners. reference  learning sessions  older  The to  a  comprising  Verbatim T r a n s c r i p t i o n A verbatim sessions include and  transcription  i s presented  i n A p p e n d i x A.  a r e c o r d of both the  non-verbal  of the  behaviour.  learning  These t r a n s c r i p t i o n s  teacher's  The  ten-year-old's  verbatim  and  learner's  verbal  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s enable  the  reader t o obtain  addition, the in  more i n f o r m a t i o n  they provide  accuracy  about t h e s e s s i o n s .  In  a source w i t h which t h e r e a d e r can check  and c o n t e n t o f t h e s y n o p t i c  reports.  The e n t r i e s  t h e v e r b a t i m t r a n s c r i p t i o n a r e numbered t o f a c i l i t a t e  documentation o f t h e synopses.  SUMMARY OF TEACHING  A general acquaint before  RESULTS  view o f t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s  t h e r e a d e r w i t h t h e most i m p o r t a n t  t h e more d e t a i l e d s y n o p t i c  reports  Phenomena r e l a t e d t o s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g g a t e d by a l l t h r e e were p l a c e d activities  included  sinking  oldest  "floaters",  learner  on f l o a t i n g  they expressed  and  objects the  A l l three  s i n k when f i l l e d  floating  objects Other  "sinkers", In of differ-  participated i ndifferent  many o f t h e same  learners  felt  w i t h water. that  smaller  activities,  conceptualizations.  used such f a m i l i a r  f l o a t whereas l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s s i n k . objects  investi-  or float.  investigated the effect  frequently  seven-year-old held  "heavier"  were  bodies.  and u t i l i z e d  explanations  "heavy".  objects  During several a c t i v i t i e s  Although a l l learners  Their  are presented.  b o a t s , and d i s p l a c i n g v o l u m e s o f w a t e r .  addition,.the liquids  observations  i n water t o determine i f they sink  constructing  ent  learners.  i s provided t o  t e r m s as " I v g h t "  and d e m o n s t r a t e d  that  Unlike  learners,  the older  quantities of materials He a l s o  d i s p l a c e more w a t e r t h a n  felt  "lighter"  that objects  43 of equal s i z e . placed they  A l l learners  that materials  when  i n w a t e r have a n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n , e i t h e r t h e y s i n k o r  float,  and t h a t  an e x t e r n a l m o t i v e i s r e q u i r e d  them f r o m t h e s e p o s i t i o n s . the  tended t o hold  term  objects  "air" i n t h e i r float  The two o l d e s t  investigations.  i f they contain  learner's  t o move mentioned  They s p e c u l a t e d  that  "air".  SYNOPTIC REPORTS  Synopses o f t h e Seven-Year-Old's Description age  7.6, r e p o r t e d  subjects his  of learner.  Investigations The y o u n g e s t l e a r n e r ,  t h a t he was i n g r a d e two a n d t h a t h i s f a v o r i t e  were a r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  father's  occupation  He was u n c e r t a i n o f  b u t d i d m e n t i o n t h a t he o c c a s i o n a l l y  made s p e e c h e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . of  thinking  aloud  Robert,  during  t h a t h e e n j o y e d .the  H i s manner  t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s seemed t o i n d i c a t e  learning sessions.  The t e a c h e r  and t h e  i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r were most i m p r e s s e d w i t h h i s o r i g i n a l and  c r e a t i v e techniques.  Robert  b o a t s a t home a f t e r d o i n g  stated  t h a t he p l a y e d  similar activities  ideas  with  i n the f i r s t  session.  Session  1.  The t e a c h e r  t o engage t h e l e a r n e r with  role f o rthe f i r s t  s e s s i o n was  i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f phenomena  s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g  pursue i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s  objects.  associated  He i n v i t e d t h e l e a r n e r t o  o f i n q u i r y and o f f e r e d t h e n e c e s s a r y  44 assistance learner's the  to c a r r y out  these a c t i v i t i e s .  investigations during  following synoptic  this  The  session  r e s u l t s of  are  recorded  the in  report.  R o b e r t b e g i n s by p l a c i n g s e v e r a l o b j e c t s i n t o t h e w a t e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s i n k and w h i c h f l o a t . While working he comments f r e e l y on what he i s d o i n g and t h i n k i n g . H i s method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n seems t o be s i m p l y t o n o t e new f a c t s as t h e y o c c u r . B e f o r e many o f h i s e x p e r i m e n t s he p r e d i c t s what he e x p e c t s t o h a p p e n . A t one p o i n t he p r e d i c t s t h a t a g o l f b a l l w i l l s i n k e v e n t h o u g h a s t y r o f o a m b a l l o f t h e same s i z e f l o a t s . P l a c i n g a sponge i n t h e w a t e r , he w a t c h e s as i t a b s o r b s w a t e r and e x p l a i n s t h a t i t m i g h t s i n k when i t g e t s "all watery". S h o r t l y a f t e r he p r e d i c t s and o b s e r v e s a p l a s t i c t u b e s i n k i n g as a r e s u l t o f w a t e r e n t e r i n g . He s u c c e s s f u l l y e x t e n d s t h i s i d e a t o a s m a l l e r p l a s t i c tube. Continuing h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , Robert expresses s u r p r i s e when a l a r g e b a r o f wax and a l a r g e polyethylene cube f l o a t w h i l e a much s m a l l e r l u c i t e cube s i n k s . O c c a s i o n a l l y he r e l a t e s h i s a c t i v i t i e s t o h i s p r e v i o u s experiences. A t one p o i n t he m e n t i o n s t h a t a t home h i s p l a s t i c i n e s i n k s a f t e r i t has b e e n i n t h e w a t e r f o r a few m i n u t e s . D u r i n g h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a submerged, i n v e r t e d p a p e r cup r e t u r n s t o t h e s u r f a c e . When a s k e d t o e x p l a i n t h i s phenomena, R o b e r t r e p l i e s , "Because i t ' s so light." On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n he n o t e s t h a t "heavy" aluminum c u b e s c a n be u s e d t o s i n k a c o r k . He a t t e m p t s t o s i n k a sponge and b a r o f wax combination by p l a c i n g v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s on t o p . He u s e s aluminum c u b e s t o s i n k i t more q u i c k l y . This a c t i v i t y eventually l e a d s h i m t o b u i l d i n g v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e s s u c h as b o a t s . R o b e r t s p e n d s c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e on t h i s s e e m i n g l y e n j o y able a c t i v i t y .  Session first  session,  requiring  the  2.  the  teacher  a d d i t i o n to performing the  teacher  learner  Because of Robert's a,loud, t h e  In  attempted to i n t r o d u c e  to u t i l i z e  s t y l e of felt  his previous  tasks  the  situations  modes o f  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n w h i c h he  i t unnecessary to probe the  of  attack. thinks  learner  for  45 speculative  accounts o f h i s experiences.  report highlights significant  The f o l l o w i n g  events of t h i s  synoptic  session.  Robert chooses t o continue h i s a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e l a s t s e s s i o n by b u i l d i n g b o a t s w i t h t h e b a r o f wax. During t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a "sailboat," the bar of wax s e p a r a t e s f r o m t h e sponge and s i n k s . When a s k e d t o e x p l a i n t h i s o c c u r r e n c e , R o b e r t i s u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e c a u s e b u t s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e wax i s e i t h e r "wet  inside"  or  "heavy".  E x a m i n i n g a p l a s t i c t u b e , n e a r l y f u l l o f w a t e r , he o b s e r v e s how one end f l o a t s and one end s i n k s . He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t one e n d s i n k s b e c a u s e i t i s f i l l e d with water. He t h e n e x p l a i n s t h a t wood s i n k s when  "water-logged".  The t e a c h e r e n c o u r a g e s R o b e r t t o i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i o u s methods o f f l o a t i n g - p l a s t i c i n e . As an i n i t i a l a t t e m p t , he t e s t s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y a s m a l l e r p i e c e o f p l a s t i c i n e . He t h e n p l a c e s i t on t h e b a r o f wax and makes i t f l o a t . The t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t he t r y making t h e p l a s t i c i n e f l o a t alone. R o b e r t r e s p o n d s by f o r m i n g i t i n t o a "ball" s h a p e and a f t e r f a i l i n g a p p e a r s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s task i s impossible. P r e s s e d t o c o n t i n u e , he t e s t s p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r p i e c e s o f p l a s t i c i n e u n t i l he a p p a r e n t l y l o s e s i n t e r e s t i n t h i s a c t i v i t y and r e t u r n s t o h i s earlier investigations. Upon l o o k i n g a t t h e v a r i o u s o b j e c t s a v a i l a b l e , he n o t i c e s a ping.pong b a l l . He p r e d i c t s t h a t i t w i l l s i n k i f i t i s f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r and a s k s i f he may p u t a h o l e i n t h e b a l l to test h i s idea. The t e a c h e r o f f e r s t h e n e c e s s a r y e n c o u r a g e m e n t and a s s i s t a n c e t o c a r r y o u t t h i s i n v e s t i g a tion. A f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g much d i f f i c u l t y , he f i n a l l y , manages t o f i l l i t w i t h w a t e r u s i n g a r a t h e r c r e a t i v e arrangement. Upon p l a c e m e n t o f t h e b a l l i n w a t e r , R o b e r t s t a t e s p r o u d l y , " J sunk i t . "  Session  3.  The m a i n mode o f t e a c h i n g  for this  session  was t o engage t h e l e a r n e r i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w h i c h p e r m i t e x tension  and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f h i s p r e v i o u s  ideas.  The  teacher  e n c o u r a g e d . t h e l e a r n e r t o s e l e c t t h e a c t i v i t i e s , and as a r e s u l t R o b e r t ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were n o t a l w a y s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  sinking  46 and  floating  phenomena.  below i n s y n o p t i c  The r e s u l t s  of this  session  are recorded  form.  R o b e r t b e g i n s by p e r f o r m i n g an e x p e r i m e n t a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t a t t h e end o f t h e l a s t s e s s i o n . He a t t e m p t s t o s e e i f t h e p i n g pong b a l l s t i l l s i n k s i f t h e l a r g e tube, used f o r f i l l i n g t h e b a l l w i t h w a t e r , i s r e p l a c e d by a s m a l l e r t u b e . Following the same p r o c e d u r e as l a s t t i m e , he h a s l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y making t h e b a l l s i n k . He soon h a s a n o t h e r i d e a — " I ' l l try and get this [ s t y r o f o a m b a l l ] to sink." A f t e r a b r i e f attempt a t f i l l i n g the b a l l w i t h water, he a r t i c u l a t e s h i s f o r m e r v i e w b y e x p l a i n i n g t h a t there i s s t u f f i n s i d e the b a l l which prevents the water from e n t e r i n g . I n an a t t e m p t t o h a v e t h e l e a r n e r e x t e n d h i s i d e a t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r , t h e t e a c h e r a s k s i f he c a n s i n k a p l a s t i c s t r a w . Robert suggests t h a t the straw f l o a t s because t h e water escapes through the ends o f t h e s t r a w and commences, t o s e a l them w i t h plasticine. The s t r a w s t i l l does n o t s i n k and he s p e c u l a t e s t h a t the water escapes through the p l a s t i c i n e . A d d i n g more m a t e r i a l s , i n a f u r t h e r a t t e m p t t o s e a l t h e s t r a w , he e v e n t u a l l y s i n k s one e n d . He e x p l a i n s t h a t one end s i n k s b e c a u s e i t i s "heavier". He t h e n p r o c e e d s t o s i n k t h e o t h e r e n d by a d d i n g more p l a s t i c i n e . P r o c e e d i n g f r o m a s u g g e s t i o n by t h e t e a c h e r , R o b e r t f l o a t s a r u b b e r c o r k by p l a c i n g i t on a s p o n g e . He t h e n adds a n o t h e r c o r k t o t h e s p o n g e . Disinterested i n p u r s u i n g t h i s i d e a , he b e g i n s t o wash t h e m a t e r i a l s . I n an a t t e m p t t o d i s c o u r a g e t h i s s e e m i n g l y p o i n t l e s s a c t i v i t y , t h e t e a c h e r a s k s i f he c a n s i n k a r u b b e r b a l l . Robert, r e c a l l i n g h i s experience with the styrofoam b a l l , does n o t t h i n k i t c a n s i n k . He t h e n a t t e m p t s t o put a l l t h e o b j e c t s i n t o the water c o n t a i n e r . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s a c t i v i t y , much w a t e r s p i l l s o n t o t h e t a b l e and f l o o r . When a s k e d what h a p p e n e d t o t h e w a t e r , he n o t e s t h a t t h e o b j e c t s "made i t oome up more". The t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t he work w i t h t h e aluminum f o i l . R o b e r t a t t e m p t s t o s i n k t h e f o i l by p e r m i t t i n g w a t e r t o flow over i t , but i s not s u c c e s s f u l . He t e s t s a s m a l l "sorunohed-up" p i e c e o f f o i l and f i n a l l y a l a r g e r "sorunched-up" piece, but neither sink.  Session investigating  4.  Hoping  irrelevant  to prevent the learner  activities  as i n t h e l a s t  from session, the  47 teacher addition  structured  the f i n a l  to f a c i l i t a t i n g  the learner's  teacher attempted t o e l i c i t the observations.  The  s e s s i o n much more c l o s e l y .  further  following  investigations,  In the  s p e c u l a t i v e statements  about  r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d .  I n v e s t i g a t i n g t h r e e b a r s o f soap., R o b e r t e x p l a i n s t h a t one f l o a t s b e c a u s e i t i s "lighter". Asked t o f l o a t t h e o t h e r s o a p , he r e s p o n d s by t e s t i n g a s m a l l e r p i e c e o f the soap. A f t e r f i v e attempts i n which the s i z e o f t h e soap becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s m a l l e r he c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t d o e s n o t f l o a t b e c a u s e " i t is a different kind- of soap". When a s k e d what i s d i f f e r e n t a b o u t i t , he r e p l i e s ,  "It's  a different  color."  F o l l o w i n g a s u g g e s t i o n by t h e t e a c h e r , R o b e r t p l a c e s a p i e c e o f s o a p i n t o a w a t e r - f i l l e d t u b e and n o t i c e s a s l i g h t r i s e i n the water l e v e l . Wishing t o pursue t h i s i d e a , t h e t e a c h e r a s k s w h i c h w i l l make t h e w a t e r r i s e more,.an aluminum cube o r a l u c i t e cube o f e q u a l s i z e . P l a c i n g t h e c u b e s one a t a t i m e i n t o t h e t u b e and m a k i n g e x t r e m e l y c r u d e m e a s u r e m e n t s , he e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e w a t e r r i s e s more w i t h t h e aluminum cube b e c a u s e i t i s "heavier." He i n c r e a s e s t h e s c o p e o f h i s i d e a by c o m p a r i n g t h e r i s e i n w a t e r o f a p o l y e t h y l e n e cube and an aluminum c u b e . A g a i n , . m a k i n g e x t r e m e l y r o u g h m e a s u r e m e n t s , he n o t e s t h a t t h e p o l y e t h y l e n e cube d o e s n o t make t h e w a t e r r i s e b e cause i t f l o a t s . Wishing to explore the notion that f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s d i s p l a c e l e s s water than s i n k i n g o b j e c t s , t h e t e a c h e r a s k s R o b e r t t o compare t h e r i s e i n w a t e r f o r a s m a l l aluminum c y l i n d e r and a much l a r g e r wooden cylinder. A f t e r i n v e s t i g a t i n g , he s t a t e s t h a t t h e wood d o e s make t h e w a t e r r i s e b u t n o t as much as t h e aluminum. A t t h i s p o i n t , R o b e r t r e a c h e s f o r t h e 50 m l . g r a d u a t e w h i c h h a s b e e n s i t t i n g on t h e t a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e sessions. He a p p a r e n t l y knows i t c a n be u s e d t o measure q u a n t i t i e s of water. The t e a c h e r p e r m i t s h i m t o e x p e r i m e n t m e a s u r i n g d i f f e r e n t amounts o f w a t e r b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g s p e c i f i c problems. Throughout h i s measurements, R o b e r t u s e s t h e n u m e r i c a l m a r k i n g s on t h e s i d e o f t h e g r a d u a t e w i t h o u t any a p p a r e n t t h o u g h t as t o t h e u n i t s involved. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , q u a n t i t i e s o f water are m e a s u r e d as h e i g h t s r a t h e r t h e n as v o l u m e s . E n c o u r a g e d by t h e t e a c h e r , R o b e r t r e p e a t s a number o f experiments performed using the p l a s t i c tube. Comparing t h e e q u a l - s i z e d aluminum and l u c i t e c u b e s a g a i n , he n o t i c e s t h a t b o t h make t h e w a t e r r i s e t h e same amount. The t e a c h e r i s s u r p r i s e d w i t h h i s c o n c l u s i o n due t o h i s  48 c r u d e and a p p r o x i m a t e m e a s u r e s o f v o l u m e . He d o e s n o t draw R o b e r t ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t e a r l i e r he s a i d aluminum made t h e w a t e r r i s e h i g h e r t h a n l u c i t e . Robert does n o t appear t o c o n s i d e r t h i s n o t i o n e i t h e r , f o r l a t e r , he s t i l l m a i n t a i n s t h a t aluminum makes w a t e r r i s e h i g h e r because i t i s h e a v i e r . R o b e r t a g a i n compares t h e s m a l l aluminum c y l i n d e r and t h e m u c h l a r g e r wooden c y l i n d e r . P l a c i n g t h e wood i n t o t h e g r a d u a t e , he p u s h e s i t b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e and i s amazed t o s e e t h e h e i g h t t o w h i c h t h e w a t e r r i s e s . He now s t a t e s t h a t t h e wood makes t h e w a t e r r i s e h i g h e r t h a n t h e aluminum. -  I n a n o t h e r c o m p a r i s o n , he n o t e s t h a t an aluminum cube makes t h e w a t e r r i s e h i g h e r t h a n a f l o a t i n g p o l y e t h y l e n e cube. D u r i n g t h i s comparison, Robert mentions t h a t t h e aluminum c u b e r a i s e s t h e w a t e r "three" ( p r e s u m a b l y 3 m l . ) , when i n f a c t t h e c u b e s a r e o n l y 1 1/2 m l . i n volume. T h i s comment r e i n f o r c e s t h e t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g s t h a t he u s e s t h e " w e i g h t " as a c r i t e r i o n f o r many o f h i s c o m p a r i s o n s r a t h e r t h a n t h e a c t u a l volume i n c r e a s e as i n d i c a t e d by t h e g r a d u a t e . As a f i n a l a c t i v i t y , R o b e r t i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e r i s e i n w a t e r l e v e l e x p e r i e n c e d b y a d d i n g numerous aluminum c u b e s and c y l i n d e r s t o the graduate. He i s i m p r e s s e d with the h e i g h t t o w h i c h t h e w a t e r r i s e s and c o n t i n u e s t o a d d c u b e s as t h e w a t e r pours over the t o p . A f t e r using a l l the aluminum o b j e c t s , he adds a few p o l y e t h y l e n e c u b e s . He e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e aluminum o b j e c t s a r e t h e "heaviest" and t h a t t h e y make t h e w a t e r r i s e f a s t e s t b e c a u s e t h e y make t h e w a t e r "come up to the top". E x t e n d i n g h i s i d e a s , he repeats the experiment u s i n g l e s s water i n the graduate. He seems f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h i s a c t i v i t y .  Synopses  o f the Ten-Year-Old's  Description of learner. t h a t he was i n g r a d e subjects of science  Investigations  Jeff,  f o u r and t h a t he e s p e c i a l l y and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  o c c a s i o n a l l y w o r k e d on s c i e n c e p r o j e c t s was a m a t h e m a t i c s  age 10:0, r e p o r t e d  teacher at a l o c a l  mother, a s c h o o l n u r s e .  l i k e d the  He s t a t e d  a t home.  t h a t he  His father  s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l and h i s  During the sessions J e f f  appeared  disinterested to  enjoy  i n freely  w o r k i n g on p r o b l e m s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r  p o i n t , when p e r m i t t e d asked, being  "Could  t o pursue i n d i v i d u a l  you. please  give  me a problem  posed.  A t one  interests, to do?"  Jeff  Despite  c o n t i n u a l l y f r u s t r a t e d by t h e problems p r e s e n t e d ,  remained c o o p e r a t i v e The  i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s and seemed  teacher  he  and i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s .  was p l e a s e d w i t h h i s c a r e f u l m a n i p u l a t i o n s  thoughtful speculations.  and  J e f f m e n t i o n e d t h a t he o f t e n  consider-  ed p r o b l e m s o l u t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s . Session teacher  role  facilitating  1.  and e n c o u r a g i n g  of and  t o perform  individual investigations.  was t r y i n g  of balance  learner into the f i r s t  t o i n s t i l l the learner's  phenomena.  s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g  session are recorded  dissimilarities  t h e same  session-  t h e r e s e a r c h e x p e r i m e n t , he d i d n o t d i s c o u r a g e  investigations the  intended  f o r a l l learners during the f i r s t  Because t h e t e a c h e r in  The t e a c h e r  Instead  early  he s u b t l y d i v e r t e d  activities.  below, s t r e s s i n g  between t h e t e n - y e a r - o l d  Jeff's  interest  The r e s u l t s similarities  and t h e y o u n g e r  learner.  U n l i k e t h e s e v e n - y e a r - o l d , J e f f d o e s n o t show p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n p l a y i n g w i t h t h e numerous i t e m s t o d e t e r m i n e i f they s i n k o r f l o a t . H i s a c t i v i t i e s t e n d t o b e more sophisticated. Many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a p p e a r t o be an e x t e n s i o n o f h i s p r e v i o u s i d e a s a b o u t s i n k i n g and f l o a t ing. On one o c c a s i o n , he adds v a r i o u s o b j e c t s t o a m e d i c i n e c u p s i n k i n g i t t o a c e r t a i n d e p t h (26b, 2 7 c , 28c). As a f o l l o w - u p a c t i v i t y , he s i n k s two m e d i c i n e c u p s t o t h e same d e p t h (29b, 3 0 c ) . He n o t i c e s , t h a t a p i e c e o f c o l o r e d c h a l k s i n k s a f t e r a . few s e c o n d s i n w a t e r ( 3 2 b ) . According t o h i s explanation  50 t h e w a t e r d i s p l a c e s t h e "air" i n s i d e t h e "holes" of t h e c h a l k and "weighs i t down" (3.6c, 3 7 c , 3 8 c , 3 9 c ) . T h i s v i e w i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t h e l d by t h e s e v e n - y e a r old. J e f f seems t o e x p r e s s h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n more maturely A t one p o i n t , J e f f s t a r e s a t a s p o n g e w h i c h he has p l a c e d i n w a t e r (52b). The t e a c h e r i n q u i r e s a b o u t h i s thoughts (53a). J e f f r e p l i e s , "I'm counting how many seconds before it sinks (53c)." He seems c o n f u s e d as t h e s p o n g e c o n t i n u e s t o f l o a t ( 5 6 c , 57b, 5 8 c , 59b) and assumes t h a t i t i s composed o f t h e w r o n g "kind of stuff" (62c). P r e s e n t e d w i t h a s t r a w ( 6 6 a ) , J e f f p r e d i c t s t h a t , as i t becomes f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r , i t w i l l s i n k ( 7 1 c , 7 2 c ) . A f t e r repeated e f f o r t , i n which a l l the a i r i s f o r c e d o u t and r e p l a c e d w i t h w a t e r , t h e s t r a w c o n t i n u e s t o f l o a t (76b, 79b, 8 0 b ) . He has an e x t r e m e l y p u z z l e d l o o k on h i s f a c e (81b) b u t o f f e r s no s p e c u l a t i o n s a b o u t t h i s phenomenon ( 8 1 c ) . Responding to a teacher s u g g e s t i o n ( 8 3 a ) , J e f f a t t e m p t s t o f l o a t t h e s t r a w on end (84b). I n i t i a l l y , he t r i e s t o f i l l one end o f t h e s t r a w w i t h w a t e r t o "weigh i t down" (85b, 8 6 c ) . On a l a t e r t r i a l , he v a r i e s t h e q u a n t i t y o f p l a s t i c i n e on one end ( 8 9 b ) , n o t i n g t h a t "too much p l a s t i c i n e " makes i t s i n k t o the bottom (90c, 9 1 c ) . He d o e s n o t manage t o f l o a t t h e s t r a w v e r t i c a l l y (9 3 c ) . :  Session  2.  of f a c i l i t a t i n g speculative ideas teacher  the  learner's a c t i v i t i e s  about the o b s e r v a t i o n s .  and  role consisted  probing  his ideas.  The  for  In a d d i t i o n , the  attempted to s t r u c t u r e s i t u a t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g  l e a r n e r , t o apply and  In t h i s session the,teacher  the  results, stressing similarities  d i f f e r e n c e s between l e a r n e r s , are  i n c l u d e d i n the  following  report. A f t e r p l a c i n g an aluminum c y l i n d e r i n w a t e r ( 9 5 b ) , J e f f s p e c u l a t e s t h a t an o b j e c t f l o a t s i f t h e r e i s  "air"  i n s i d e and  the  "compartment"  does n o t  "weigh  too much" ( 1 0 1 c ) . Asked t o f l o a t p l a s t i c i n e (104a), J e f f molds i t i n t o a cup (104b). Due to the q u a n t i t y o f p l a s t i c i n e u s e d , he i s u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s e n d e a v o u r s  51  (104b, 107b, 114b). P r e s s e d t o c o n t i n u e (116a), he r e d u c e s t h e amount o f p l a s t i c i n e b u t s t i l l i t s i n k s (118b). He f e e l s t h a t "holes" i nhis plasticine cause i t t o s i n k (122c). L a t e r , he s p e c u l a t e s t h a t t h e p l a s t i c i n e i s t o o "heavy" a n d w o u l d s t i l l s i n k e v e n i f t h e r e w e r e no "holes" (126c). He f l o a t s t h e p l a s t i c i n e by a t t a c h i n g i t t o a c o r k (128b). When a s k e d t o e x p l a i n why j i t f l o a t s now ( 1 2 9 a ) , J e f f s t a t e s , "This thing (cork) that f l o a t s by i t s e l f has nothing to -gull i t down (129c)." Jeff i s introduced t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of sinking a p i e c e o f aluminum f o i l (132a, 134a). H i s method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o bend t h e f o i l i n v a r i o u s shapes p e r m i t t i n g water t o f l o w over t h e f o i l (134b). After p e r s i s t e n t f a i l u r e (134b), he pushes t h e f o i l t o t h e bottom o f t h e water c o n t a i n e r t o assure himself t h a t i t d o e s s i n k ( 1 3 7 b , 13.7c). Continuing, h i s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n appears i n c r e a s i n g l y p u z z l e d as each t r i a l f a i l s (141b). He f e e l s t h a t "aiv " trapped i n the f o i l , causes i t t o f l o a t (146c). To o v e r c o m e t h i s d i f f i c u l t y h e makes t h e f o i l "even" b y r e m o v i n g t h e w r i n k l e s ( 1 4 8 c , 150b).. A s a f i n a l e f f o r t , h e p u t s a hole i n the centre of the f o i l expecting the water t o f l o w t h r o u g h a n d make i t s i n k ( 1 5 2 b ) . He o f f e r s no explanations f o r t h i s apparently confusing experience (155b). R e t u r n i n g t o h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , h e adds v a r i o u s c u b i c a l o b j e c t s t o a p i e c e o f aluminum f o i l observing whether i t s i n k s o r f l o a t s (156b). 3  Session  3.  The r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r  similar t o that of session t w o — f a c i l i t a t i n g and  eliciting  Initially,  i n t h i s s e s s i o n was further activities  s p e c u l a t i v e ideas about t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  the teacher  obtained.  a t t e m p t e d t o engage t h e l e a r n e r i n  personal investigations.  U n l i k e t h e younger boy,  J e f f became  b o r e d w i t h t h i s mode o f i n q u i r y a n d p r e f e r r e d t o w o r k o n teacher  suggested  problems.  The s i m i l a r i t i e s  and d i f f e r e n c e s i n  performance a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g synopsis.  52  A s k e d t o f l o a t p l a s t i c i n e (169a, 1 7 1 a ) , J e f f t r i e s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y by enclosing various f l o a t a b l e objects s u c h a s a c o r k a n d a r u b b e r b a l l ( 1 7 1 b ) . He a p p e a r s t o be a p p l y i n g h i s previous idea t h a t objects f l o a t u n l e s s "•gulled down" b y a n e x t e r n a l f o r c e ( 1 7 1 b , 1 7 2 b , 173b). He e x t e n d s t h i s v i e w b y a t t a c h i n g p l a s t i c i n e t o a p l a s t i c tube (176b). P r e s s e d t o f l o a t t h e p l a s t i c i n e a l o n e (180a), he breaks i t i n t o a s m a l l e r p i e c e as d i d t h e s e v e n - y e a r - o l d ( 1 8 0 b ) . J e f f a p p e a r s t o know t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s p o i n t l e s s a n d r e t u r n s t o h i s "cup" i d e a (180b, 1 8 1 b ) . A f t e r r e p e a t e d f a i l u r e (182b), he r e p o r t s t h a t t h e p l a s t i c i n e h a s "leaks" a n d i s "too heavy" (185c). He f e e l s t h a t t h e "leaks" have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e f f e c t a n d t h a t i t i s m a i n l y t o o "heavy" (186c). T u r n i n g t o t h e p l a s t i c t u b e s , he r e g u l a t e s t h e d e p t h o f s i n k i n g b y v a r y i n g t h e amount o f w a t e r i n s i d e t h e t u b e ( 1 9 8 b , 2 0 3 c , 2 0 6 b , 2 0 8 b ) . A t o n e p o i n t h e comments, "The  air  lifts  it  up >  the  water  pulls  it  down  (2l3a)."  He c o n t i n u e s t o e x p e r i m e n t a n d n o t e s t h a t b y v a r y i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a i r and w a t e r i n t h e ends o f t h e t u b e , he c a n c o n t r o l w h i c h e n d s i n k s a n d w h i c h e n d f l o a t s (214b). He t h e n t r i e s t o s i n k t h e a l u m i n u m f o i l b y b e n d i n g i t i n v a r i o u s shapes a c c o r d i n g t o h i s p r e v i o u s i d e a s a n d a g a i n i s p u z z l e d when h i s e f f o r t s f a i l ( 2 2 1 b ) . F o l l o w i n g a suggestion by t h e teacher, J e f f i n v e s t i g a t e s k e e p i n g a p i e c e o f a l u m i n u m f o i l a f l o a t when d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s a r e added (223b, 224b, 2 2 5 b ) . Session  4.  Since  t h e l e a r n e r p r e f e r r e d t o work on  teacher-suggested problems, t h e teacher f u r t h e r s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h he c o u l d about s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . teacher  continued  observations.  presented him with  apply  h i s conceptualizations  During t h i s session, t h e  t o probe f o r s p e c u l a t i v e ideas  The r e s u l t s a r e i n c l u d e d  about t h e  i nthe following  presentation. Continuing from l a s t s e s s i o n , J e f f i n v e s t i g a t e s a p i e c e o f a l u m i n u m f o i l f l o a t i n g when v a r i o u s i t e m s a r e added (226b, 229b, 231b). From h i s e x p e r i e n c e s , he n o t e s t h a t h e c a n p l a c e f e w e r "heavier" objects on t h e f o i l ( 2 3 7 c ) . Prompted by t h e t e a c h e r t o s i n k a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f aluminum f o i l t h a n t h a t used i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n s ( 2 4 0 a ) , J e f f e x p e r i e n c e s much f r u s t r a t i o n b u t e v e n t u a l l y manages t o s i n k o n e l a y e r  53 o f t h e f o i l u s i n g h i s f o r m e r method (241b, 243b, 244b, 25 3b). He e x p l a i n s t h a t two l a y e r s o f f o i l do n o t s i n k "because a i r i s t r a p p e d between t h e l a y e r s c a u s i n g the f o i l t o "oome up" (259c, 262c, 2 6 3 c ) . Then, J e f f s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e s h i s method t o t h e o l d aluminum f o i l (278b, 2 7 8 c ) . Returning t o the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s with p l a s t i c tubes, J e f f n o t i c e s a l a r g e t u b e s i n k due t o w a t e r "pulling i t down" (282b, 2 8 4 c ) . When r e m i n d e d o f t h e s t r a w e x p e r i m e n t ( 2 8 5 a ) , he f e e l s t h a t t h e w a t e r a l s o "pulls i t down" ( 2 8 5 c ) . U r g e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e ( 2 8 7 a ) , he f i n d s t h a t t h e s t r a w f l o a t s when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r ( 2 8 7 b ) . He a p p e a r s p u z z l e d and d e v e l o p s h i s v i e w t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e new i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d (289b, 2 9 3 c ) . He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t t h e s t r a w , b e c a u s e o f i t s s h a p e , does n o t h o l d s u f f i c i e n t w a t e r t o "pull i t down" ( 2 9 3 c ) . He extends t h e range o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s i d e a by s i n k i n g a s m a l l e r p l a s t i c tube (295b). Given a polyethylene b a g t o e x p l o r e ( 2 9 9 a ) , he o b s e r v e s t h a t i t f l o a t s when f i l l e d w i t h water. He does,.not a p p e a r t o d o u b t h i s v i e w s and s u g g e s t s t h a t i t f l o a t s b e c a u s e e i t h e r t h e bag f l o a t s o r t h e r e i s a i r t r a p p e d i n t h e bag (319c). Removing t h e a i r (325b., 326b) , he a p p e a r s t o s e e t h e b a g o f w a t e r a s s i n k i n g when i n f a c t i t i s f l o a t i n g (328b, 329c, 3 3 0 c ) . As t h e s e s s i o n e n d s , he a g r e e s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r t h a t i f y o u g e t enough w a t e r i n s i d e an o b j e c t i t w i l l s i n k (332a, 3 3 2 c ) .  Synopses  o f the Eleven-Year-Old's  Description that or  of learner.  s h e was i n g r a d e  "B" i n most o f h e r s c h o o l work.  most c o o p e r a t i v e . the At  A r l e n e , age 11:7 r e p o r t e d  s i x and t h a t  and h e r m o t h e r , a h o u s e w i f e .  she appeared  opportunity  she r e c e i v e d  to freely  g r a d e s o f "A"  Her f a t h e r was a f i s h e r m a n  D u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s A r l e n e was  However, s h e r e m a i n e d  teacher's questions. first,  Investigations  uncommitted  H e r u s u a l r e p l y was, "I don't  wished  that  know."  u n c e r t a i n o f what t o do when g i v e n t h e investigate with the materials.  s e s s i o n s p r o g r e s s e d , s h e a p p e a r e d much more r e l a x e d mentioned  t o many o f  she enjoyed t h i s  type o f l e a r n i n g  t h e r e was more t i m e f o r i n d i v i d u a l  As t h e  and a f t e r w a r d  and t h a t s h e  investigation  at school.  54 Session the  1.  The  eleven-year-old  was  children-encouraging within  the  bodies. following in  teacher  r o l e i n the  s i m i l a r to that  and  facilitating  of  r e s u l t s of the  synoptic  report,  p e r f o r m a n c e among t h e  first  two  session  for  other  i n d i v i d u a l experimentation  r e a l m o f phenomena r e l a t e d t o  The  the  first  s i n k i n g and  session  are  floating  presented  stressing similarities  and  in  the  differences  learners.  U n l i k e the p r e v i o u s l e a r n e r s , A r l e n e appears confused when g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o f r e e l y i n v e s t i g a t e w i t h the m a t e r i a l s . The t e a c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t she use t h e water to d i s c o v e r whether o b j e c t s s i n k or f l o a t . A f t e r a number o f t r i a l s she' n o t e s t h a t wood f l o a t s b e c a u s e i t i s "pretty light" while a g o l f b a l l sinks because i t i s "pretty heavy". Her method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n seems to i n v o l v e mentally weighing the o b j e c t s t o determine i f t h e y s i n k o r f l o a t and t e s t i n g t h o s e o f w h i c h she i s uncertain. Arlene agrees with the other l e a r n e r s t h a t o b j e c t s sink when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r . Applying t h i s i d e a to a straw, she u s e s a p r o c e d u r e s i m i l a r , t o t h a t o f t h e s e v e n - y e a r o l d i n w h i c h she p l u g s t h e ends o f t h e s t r a w t o p r e v e n t water from escaping. U s i n g t o o t h p i c k s and b i r t h d a y c a n d l e s as s e a l s , she i s u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h e r e n d e a v o r s . L a t e r , she submerges a wooden cube i n an a t t e m p t t o make  it  "waterlogged".  Asked t o f l o a t p l a s t i c i n e , Arlene immediately attaches i t t o the styrofoam b a l l . She t h e n embarks i n a s e r i e s of a c t i v i t i e s designed t o s i n k a cork; abandoning the i d e a a f t e r r e p e a t e d f a i l u r e t o u n i t e the eork to a rubber cork. She n o t e s t h a t a w a t e r - f i l l e d m e d i c i n e cup s i n k s . Hoping t o pursue t h i s i d e a , the t e a c h e r reminds her o f the straw. She d o e s n o t r e t u r n t o h e r p r e v i o u s method b u t i n s t e a d a t t a c h e s d i f f e r e n t "heavy" m a t e r i a l s t o t h e straw causing i t to s i n k .  Session the  first  2.  session,  observations,  In a d d i t i o n t o p e r f o r m i n g the the  probed  teacher  elicited  for speculative  descriptions  ideas  about the  tasks  of  of investiga-  55 tions, her  and i n t r o d u c e d  ideas.  s i t u a t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g t h e l e a r n e r t o apply  A synopsis  of the results  i s provided  below.  The t e a c h e r i n t r o d u c e s A r l e n e t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f floating plasticine. U n l i k e t h e y o u n g e s t l e a r n e r who tested "increasingly smaller pieces of p l a s t i c i n e , A r l e n e r e s p o n d s s i m i l a r t o t h e t e n - y e a r - o l d by f o r m i n g i t i n t o a c u p . B e c a u s e she e x p e r i e n c e s much d i f f i c u l t y with breaks i n her p l a s t i c i n e , the teacher o f f e r s a t h i n s h e e t o f p l a s t i c i n e w i t h w h i c h t o work. A r l e n e has l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y f l o a t i n g h e r p l a s t i c i n e c u p and adds v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s u n t i l i t s i n k s . She i n c r e a s e s t h e d e p t h o f h e r cup s o t h a t more o b j e c t s c a n be a d d e d . She s p e c u l a t e s t h a t w a t e r e n t e r s "holes in the sides  and  weighs  i t down".  E x t e n d i n g h e r i d e a s t o a p i e c e o f aluminum f o i l , s h e b u i l d s a number o f b o a t s and o b s e r v e s e a c h s i n k due t o t h e a d d i t i o n o f aluminum, l u c i t e , and p o l y e t h y l e n e cubes. A s k e d t o make the; aluminum f o i l s i n k a l o n e , A r l e n e crumples i t i n t o d i f f e r e n t : shapes a t t e m p t i n g t o make, "holes""through w h i c h t h e w a t e r c a n f l o w and f o r c e i t down. U n l i k e t h e t e n - y e a r - o l d , she does n o t s t a y w i t h t h i s p r o b l e m and r e t u r n s t o h e r e a r l i e r i n v e s t i gations . She d i s c o v e r s t h a t h e r p l a s t i c i n e b o a t s t i l l f l o a t s when w r a p p e d a r o u n d a s t y r o f o a m b a l l . Session  3.  The t e a c h e r  similar to that of the last investigations, apply  previous  speculations  forthis  s e s s i o n was  session-facilitating  individual  i n t r o d u c i n g problems p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , and p r o b i n g  about t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d .  from t h e t h i r d and  role  f o r further Significant  results  s e s s i o n a r e r e p o r t e d below s t r e s s i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s  d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e l e a r n e r s . A r l e n e b e g i n s by e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h t h e p l a s t i c t u b e s . Her i n i t i a l a c t i v i t i e s a p p e a r t o be an e x t e n s i o n o f the t h e o r e t i c a l ideas d i s p l a y e d i n the previous sessions. A t one p o i n t , she v a r i e s t h e amount o f p l a s t i c i n e r e q u i r e d t o s i n k a wooden c u b e . Later, s p e n d i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e w o r k i n g on a s e e m i n g l y e n j o y a b l e p u z z l e , s h e comments, "It takes more of the wood things to make i t [ p l a s t i c t u b e ] stand up in the  water  than  it does  the metal  things."  56 A r l e n e ' s method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e y o u n g e s t l e a r n e r , t e n d s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on i n c r e a s i n g t h e r a n g e o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f h e r i d e a s , r a t h e r t h a n on i n v e s t i g a t i n g p r o b l e m s t h a t a p p e a r t o be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h her expectations. T h i s mode o f i n q u i r y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h i s s e s s i o n when she a p p a r e n t l y e n j o y s e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t cube and p l a s t i c i n e a r r a n g e m e n t s r e q u i r e d t o s i n k v a r i o u s c o r k combinations.  Session to  incorporate  with  4.  i n t o her  provide earlier  Arlene ideas,  several different liquids.  facilitating  the  learner's  conceptualizations. the  To  r e s u l t s of  the  The final  The  activities  with the  teacher  teacher and  f u r t h e r phenomena  role consisted  eliciting  following synoptic  presented  report  her of  speculative includes  session.  The t e a c h e r p r e s e n t s A r l e n e w i t h s e v e n l i q u i d s w i t h w h i c h to experiment: b a k i n g s o d a and w a t e r , s u g a r and w a t e r , c o r n s t a r c h and w a t e r , s a l t w a t e r , s o a p w a t e r , o i l , and water. She b e g i n s by p l a c i n g v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s i n t h e l i q u i d s , o b s e r v i n g whether each f l o a t s or s i n k s . I n i t i a l l y , she t e s t s e a c h o b j e c t i n a l l s e v e n s o l u t i o n s b u t s o o n r e f i n e s h e r t e c h n i q u e by t e s t i n g t h e s o a p and s u g a r s o l u tions f i r s t . She a p p a r e n t l y knows t h a t i f s o m e t h i n g s i n k s i n t h e s e s o l u t i o n s , t h e n i t s i n k s i n t h e o t h e r s as w e l l . A t f i r s t , she e x p r e s s e s s u r p r i s e as many o b j e c t s s i n k i n t h e o i l . As t h e . s e s s i o n p r o g r e s s e s , she comes t o e x p e c t t h i s o c c u r r e n c e and a t one p o i n t she t e s t s v a r i o u s i t e m s s i m p l y t o d i s c o v e r w h i c h do f l o a t i n o i l . She n o t i c e s t h a t one b a r o f s o a p f l o a t s i n w a t e r w h i l e a n o t h e r s i n k s and s p e c u l a t e s t h a t e i t h e r one f l o a t s b e c a u s e i t i s "Ivory" or the other sinks because i t i s "bigger". The t e a c h e r a s k s what w o u l d h a p p e n i f b o t h were e q u a l s i z e . U n l i k e t h e s e v e n - y e a r - o l d , she f e e l s t h a t s i z e makes l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e and t h a t i t d e p e n d s m a i n l y on t h e "brand" o f s o a p . She e x t e n d s h e r p r e v i o u s i d e a t h a t " w a t e r l o g g e d " o b j e c t s s i n k . b y .submerging a s t y r o f o a m b a l l i n w a t e r . Unlike t h e o t h e r l e a r n e r s , she o f f e r s no r e a s o n s f o r h e r r e p e a t e d failures.  Returning t o her i n v e s t i g a t i o n s with various l i q u i d s , A r l e n e appears content t o p l a y w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s o b s e r v i n g whether each s i n k s o r f l o a t s . She o f f e r s few c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t t h e phenomenon. Pressed by t h e t e a c h e r , she s p e c u l a t e s t h a t o b j e c t s f l o a t b e t t e r i n "thick" l i q u i d s , s u c h a s t h e s u g a r and w a t e r s o l u t i o n , t h e n t h e y do i n o i l w h i c h i s "thin".  CHAPTER  V  AN EXPLORATORY CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE CHILDREN'S INVESTIGATORY ACTIVITIES  CHAPTER V  AN  EXPLORATORY CONCEPTUALIZATION OF  THE  CHILDREN'S  INVESTIGATORY A C T I V I T I E S  The scientific  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the k n o w l e d g e t o be  a number o f a d a p t a t i o n s ment. and  The  particular  tentative  Apparent  illustrated  in this  chapter  o f Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c  concepts  adaptations  examples  children's acquisition  drawn f r o m Kuhn a r e  described  illustrating  the  i n the next  concepts  of  utilizes  developidentified sectioni  conclude  the  -chapter.  CHILD-PARADIGMS AND  CHILD-PARADIGM  SHIFTS:  IDEAS ADAPTED FROM KUHN  The of  present  s c i e n c e i n an  a p a r a d i g m and scientific concepts, in  study  utilized  e x p l o r a t o r y manner.  a paradigm s h i f t  development.  suggestion  A major impetus  that there  activities  and  how  develops  (Kuhn, 1 9 6 3 c , p.  confines  itself  Kuhn f o u n d  adaptations  t o account for this  is a parallel  tigatory  o f Kuhn's v i e w the notions  of  useful in conceptualizing  Utilizing  the w r i t e r attempted  children.  adaptations  f o r modes o f  a p p r o a c h was  Kuhnian thought  Kuhn's  between c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s -  scientific  310.).  of these  The  k n o w l e d g e grows present  t o u t i l i z i n g what a p p e a r t o be  study,  and  however,  potentially  59 useful  ideas  gatory  f r o m Kuhn t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i -  behaviour.  Aspects  o f Kuhn's V i e w o f S c i e n c e  Present  He  achievement acquires He  the  d e s c r i b e s a p a r a d i g m as from which a p a r t i c u l a r  tacit  and  explicit  t o be  community o f  a scientific  p u z z l e can  familiar then  standards  scientific  recognized  consciousness.  t o an  knowledge.  f o r the  n o t be  anomaly o r v i o l a t i o n  are o f t e n not  On  Implied  potentially According  capable  of  one.  s o l u t i o n of problems.  r e s o l v e d through  as  other  of deeply such  the  scientist  paradigm which at l e a s t  compares t h i s  shift  status  periphery  responds directed  appears  anomalous  i s the process  to a visual  It  Anomalies  engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s  o f accommodating t h e  of  importance.  are pushed t o the  occasions  When  the use  rooted views.  and  t o Kuhn, a p a r a d i g m s h i f t  He  the  instrumentation  o l d e r p a r a d i g m i s r e p l a c e d - i n w h o l e o r i n p a r t by new  are  p u z z l e seems t o a c q u i r e t h e  a w a r e n e s s o f anomaly by  t o w a r d i n v e n t i n g a new  scientists  application.  paradigms, i t o f t e n a c q u i r e s s p e c i a l t h a t the  scientific  perceptual-conceptual  a s k e d , methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t y p e s and  o f an  important  of  t h a t s h o u l d be made, l e g i t i m a t e q u e s t i o n s  permissible,  of  an  useful  from the h i s t o r y  knowledge through  o r manner o f a c q u i r i n g new  sorts of observations  is  of data  s t r e s s e s t h a t a paradigm i m p l i e s a  style  the  i d e a of a paradigm p a r t i c u l a r l y  conceptualizing c e r t a i n kinds  science.  to  Study  Kuhn f o u n d in  Relevant  experience. by w h i c h an  gestalt  an  incompatible switch.  60 "What were d u c k s i n t h e s c i e n t i s t s ' are r a b b i t s that,  afterwards."  although  shifts,  the  (Kuhn, 1962a, p .  scientists  shifts  do  not  such  as  i n subsequent  110.)  always a t t e s t  i n p e r c e p t i o n c a n be  behavioural evidence ceptualization  world before the  revolution  Kuhn  to  paradigm  I n f e r r e d from  c o n s i s t e n t use  notes  of the  indirect  recon-  activities.  Speculative Conceptualization of Children's A c q u i s i t i o n of  Knowledge The  concept  of a child-paradigm,  idea of a s c i e n t i f i c  p a r a d i g m , was  an  a d a p t a t i o n o f Kuhn's  i n v e n t e d by  the  writer with  a view t o e x p l o r i n g the p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s of the concept teaching childs'  and  learning  view of nature.  manipulations, use  science.  and  Implied  with n a t u r a l events  knowledge. i s an  experience.  necessary  f o r h i s understanding  found  indicators  I t provides the  child  l e a r n e r ' s v e r b a l and investigatory  e x p o s e d t o two  inferred  path  (Kuhn, 1963c, pp.  from  Behavbe  question. the  a c t i o n s w h i l e engaged i n  o f some n a t u r a l phenomenon. of a child-paradigm,  c a r s , one  apparatus  i t i s e n v i s i o n e d , can  p a r a d i g m s c a n be  of a p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t o r  to  concrete-  intellectual  to a teacher  activity  a  for dealing  v e r b a l responses  non-verbal  tends  of the n a t u r a l world.  of child-paradigms,  among a c h i l d ' s  At other times,  A child-paradigm  a b s t r a c t i o n d e r i v e d from  empirical  to  are p r e f e r r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s which a c h i l d  i n a c q u i r i n g new  ioural  A child-paradigm refers  for  b l u e and  310-311.).  one The  As  consider a  r e d , moving i n a cars depart from  an  example  child straight the  same  61 line, one  but the red c a r starts  at the f i n i s h  the c h i l d that  replies,  the c h i l d  speed.  the c a r which -  "The blue  i n which  In t h i s  one."  i s an i n c o n s i s t e n t  implicit  account  "fast"  i n a child's  f o r an e v e n t  a child  the motion  a red car starts  t o immediate  has been  of different  very l a t e  and h a s t o  t o catch a blue car at the f i n i s h The c h i l d  now r e p o r t s  o b j e c t by t h e c h i l d .  e m p l o y s a new c h i l d - p a r a d i g m i n i d e n t i f y i n g paradigm,  think-  i n response t o  When t h e r e d c a r moves s u f f i c i e n t l y as t h e " f a s t e r "  self-  i n h i s mode o f t h o u g h t .  F o r e x a m p l e , assume t h a t  (Kuhn, 19 6 3 c , p . 3 1 1 . ) .  In t h i s  through  c a n become aware o f  o f anomaly i m p l i c i t  i n which  move e x c e p t i o n a l l y  perceived  a child  t o a demonstration i n v o l v i n g  automobiles  "faster."  i s used t o  d e s c r i b e s as " f a s t e r "  speculated that, either  or inconsistencies  a teacher question.  toy  indicates  l e a d s d u r i n g most o f t h e m o t i o n .  A behavioural indicator  subjected  response  "faster,"  about moving o b j e c t s , a  the c h i l d  g e n e r a t i o n o r t e a c h e r inducement,  ing  This  car travels  a "goal-reaching" c r i t e r i o n  instance,  I t i s further  anomalies  and t h e n c a t c h e s t h e b l u e  When a s k e d w h i c h  has a p o i n t o f view  child-paradigm, judge  line.  later  the criterion  f o r "faster"  perceptual experience, that  t h e r e d c a r as rapid,  i t is  The c h i l d  now  the "faster" c a r . seems more bound  i s , the c h i l d  goes  more by a p p e a r a n c e s  t h a n i n t h e s i t u a t i o n where t h e " g o a l -  reaching  i s used.  child  criterion"  at f i r s t  replies  that  The two c r i t e r i a  says t h e b l u e c a r i s " f a s t e r "  the red car i s "faster".  conflict.  and t h e n  The  immediately  Such a p a r a d o x i c a l  62 situation, in  i frecognized  by t h e c h i l d ,  t h e c h i l d ' s mode o f t h o u g h t .  a c h i l d ' s subsequent overt  The w r i t e r  actions,  expressions,  constitutes  an anomaly  speculates  that  such as f r u s t r a t e d and  puzzled  facial  sighs, wrinkling  o f e y e b r o w s , and  tapping  o f f i n g e r s , p r o v i d e cues f o r i n f e r r i n g awareness o f  anomalies.  Children, like of  a scientific  the writer  paradigm s h i f t  may u n d e r g o  Child-paradigm  sistencies view.  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n b r o u g h t about by r e s o l v i n g  or contradictions  A constructive  cognitive  shift  increasingly  learns more  i n a particular  "clearly"  r e s o l u t i o n o f an anomaly i s s e e n as a  Through t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f anomalies a c h i l d  s i g n i f i c a n t conceptual errors (Kuhn, 1963c, p . 3 1 2 . ) .  experiment, the c h i l d  resolve  and t h u s t o t h i n k  R e t u r n i n g t o t h e moving  c a n be f o r c e d  t o an a w a r e n e s s o f  i n h i s mode o f t h o u g h t by t e a c h e r d i r e c t e d  i m e n t s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , and i n t e r r o g a t i o n perceived  established  r i c h e r and more a d e q u a t e t o cope w i t h new o r more  to avoid  contradiction  implicit  incon-  i n w h i c h t h e c o n c e p t u a l a p p a r a t u s becomes  c o m p l e x phenomena.  situations.  the c o n f l i c t  The c h i l d ,  about  exper-  teacher-  however, m i g h t n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y  i n h i s mode o f t h o u g h t .  He s h o u l d  probably  adequately prepared through experience with a p a r t i c u l a r  anomalous s i t u a t i o n p r i o r t o i n d u c i n g and  shifts  s e e n a s t r a n s i t i o n s b e t w e e n modes o f t h o u g h t o f i n c r e a s i n g  intellectual  be  something  i n t h e growth and development  t h e i r knowledge o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d .  are  car  envisions,  paradigm s h i f t .  an a w a r e n e s s o f anomaly  I f he h a s t h e n e c e s s a r y e x p e r i e n t i a l and  intellectual the w r i t e r can  r e q u i s i t e s to restructure h i s conceptual.apparatus,  speculates  that  a reconceptualization  p r o b a b l y be b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t e a c h e r  quent c o n s i s t e n c y possibility  that  o f the event  facilitation.  Subse-  i n t h e u s e o f a new i d e a w o u l d p o i n t a paradigm s h i f t  had taken p l a c e .  to the  Apparent  examples o f t h e s e p a r a d i g m a t i c b e h a v i o u r s a r e p r e s e n t e d next  s e c t i o n f r o m an e x p l o r a t o r y  investigatory  Speculative Paradigm  analysis of the  i n the  children's  activities.  Bases  f o r C h i l d - P a r a d i g m s and C h i l d -  Shifts  In a d d i t i o n t o d e s c r i b i n g a p p a r e n t examples o f c h i l d p a r a d i g m s and p a r a d i g m s h i f t s ,  this  chapter includes  speculations  a b o u t p o s s i b l e b a s e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f t h o u g h t . argues t h a t  c h i l d r e n ' s views o f t e n  those o f A r i s t o t l e 96-97.). and  show s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s t o  and o f p r i m i t i v e t r i b e s  Kuhn, f o r example, s u g g e s t s t h a t  members o f p r i m i t i v e t r i b e s  s u c h as t h e i d e a t h a t  historical  (Kuhn, 1957, p p . children, Aristotle,  d e r i v e many o f t h e i r  t h e sun r e v o l v e s  common s e n s e and e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e using  Kuhn  ideas,  around t h e e a r t h ,  from  (Kuhn, 1957, p . 4 4 . ) . By  a c c o u n t s o f e a r l y v i e w s a b o u t s i n k i n g and  f l o a t i n g b o d i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n  about the c h i l d r e n ' s  previous  e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e phenomenon as s o u r c e s o f s p e c u l a t i o n , the  writer provides  actions.  some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s  f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s  64 ILLUSTRATIONS OF APPARENT EXAMPLES OF CHILD-PARADIGMS OF  Robert's objects  CHILD-PARADIGM SHIFTS  (7:6) i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h  e x e m p l i f i e d an a p p a r e n t  surprise  child-paradigm.  a much s m a l l e r l u c i t e  point of  view o r c h i l d - p a r a d i g m  criterion  f o r ordering sinking  this  t h a t " s i z e " was  an  a  important  and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s .  l a r g e r p i e c e s o f f o i l would s i n k .  apply h i s p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d concept  activity,  smaller pieces of p l a s t i c i n e .  the f o i l  second,  smaller.  continued  the p l a s t i c i n e  Although  with h i s i n i t i a l did  cube sank s u g g e s t e d  Robert  i n s t a n c e he made h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s known b y p r e d i c t i n g  increasingly,  the  His expressed  t h e c h i l d - p a r a d i g m t o s i n k a p i e c e o f aluminum f o i l . I n  increasingly to  and f l o a t i n g  a t s e e i n g a l a r g e b a r o f wax and a l a r g e p o l y e t h y l e n e  cube f l o a t w h i l e  applied  sinking  these  to float  still  He a l s o  i n trying  observed  attempted  to float  In the  first  a f t e r each t r i a l  sank as i t was made  and i n  increasingly  outcomes seemed t o c o n f l i c t  e x p e c t a t i o n s , h i s v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l  n o t appear t o i n d i c a t e  that  behaviour  t h a t he p e r c e i v e d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s as  i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s view t h a t s m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s  should  I n s t e a d , he a p p e a r e d  experience  for  d e s c r i b i n g the behaviour  Sometimes he u s e d utilized  a "size"  other e a s i l y  phenomenon o f s i n k i n g not  to rely  enable  Robert  on i m m e d i a t e - c o n c r e t e of sinking  and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s .  c r i t e r i o n while  observed  a t o t h e r times  p r o p e r t i e s t o account  and f l o a t i n g  float.  bodies.  he  f o r the  The two c r i t e r i a d i d  t o make a c o n s i s t e n t match between o b s e r v a t i o n  65 and p r e v i o u s l y  established  Attempting the  concepts.  to alert  the learner to this  t e a c h e r asked Robert t o p l a c e  i n water. Asked  Robert noticed  piece  o f t h e soap.  two e q u a l - s i z e d  float,  After five  t h a t i t d i d n o t f l o a t because  attempts, i n which t h e  saw  color."  This  the necessity  floating the  response appeared  he c h o s e  characteristic—"color". showed s i m i l a r i t i e s  (Clagett,  to report  to Aristotelian  an i m m e d i a t e l y o b s e r v a b l e  accounts which  established  revealed  the existence  "That  floats  relatively  golf  pretty  little  s t y r o f o a m b a l l ) , would b a l l would  of  a second  c h i l d - p a r a d i g m f o r s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g  tall."  i n water, Evidently  i n t o the water.  float.  Robert he meant  At this  t e a c h e r a s k e d h i m i f he t h o u g h t a g o l f b a l l , the  stressed  o b s e r v a b l e as a c u e f o r ..understanding n a t u r e  A f t e r p l a c i n g a styrofoam b a l l  commented, sank  account f o r  1957, p p . 2 5 - 2 7 . ) .  previously  it  t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he  T h i s way o f r e s p o n d i n g t o d i f f i c u l t y  Other experiments  bodies.  soap".  or a t l e a s t , not being able t o state h i s  explicitly,  immediate  of  i t , he r e p l i e d , "It's a  N o t k n o w i n g what c o n c e p t w o u l d  soap experiment,  the  kind  f o r a new c o n c e p t t o a c c o u n t f o r s i n k i n g and  phenomena.  intuition  s m a l l e r / : he c o n c l u d e d  i t was a "different  When a s k e d what was d i f f e r e n t a b o u t  sank.  he r e s p o n d e d b y t e s t i n g a  s i z e o f t h e soap was made p r o g r e s s i v e l y  different  b a r s o f soap  t h a t one f l o a t e d w h i l e t h e o t h e r  t o make t h e o t h e r soap  smaller  inconsistency,  that  point, the  (of e q u a l s i z e t o  Robert p r e d i c t e d  that the  s i n k and then s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrated h i s  prediction.  In another experiment,  cup was s e e n  "popping"  this  to the surface.  occurrence, Robert  these experiments, criterion evidence  replied,  i t appeared  f o rordering forthis  a submerged, i n v e r t e d ,  sinking  When a s k e d  "Because  i t ' s so light."  and f l o a t i n g  aluminum c u b e s  Robert,  from h i s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h  bodies 1957,  c o u l d be u s e d  an A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e  paradigm  f o rdistinguishing  a sponge i n w a t e r , i t might  predicted water  .  a result For  "light"  that  and o b s e r v e d t h a t  this  These  view  sinking  and f l o a t i n g  "all watery".  "heavy"  and f l o a t i n g (Clagett,  a plastic  tube  a c t i v i t i e s suggested  resulted  assumed t h a t  "waterlogged"  this  phenomenon.  after  a mode o f t h o u g h t  s i n k when f i l l e d  with  water.  from p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s i n which  mode o f t h o u g h t  this  he  "water-  o c c u r r e n c e and as with  water.  c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a  f o r conceptualizing  Employing  he  sank as a r e s u l t o f  a l l . o b j e c t s . s a n k when, f i l l e d  sank s e v e r a l o t h e r o b j e c t s  Placing  and e x p l a i n e d  o f wood s i n k i n g when i t became  criterion  child-  objects.  Shortly  He p r o b a b l y d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h i s  convenience,  floating  Perhaps  and  he w a t c h e d as i t a b s o r b e d w a t e r  h e a r d o t h e r s speak  logged"  to sink a cork.  view  sinking  embodying t h e n o t i o n t h a t o b j e c t s  had  Further  a c t i v i t i e s suggested another  s i n k when i t g e t s  entering.  Possibly  "weight"  69.).  S e v e r a l o f Robert's  that  objects.  c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f " w e i g h t " p.  From  included h i s explanation that  "heavy"  objects, held  to explain  as i f R o b e r t u t i l i z e d a  mode o f t h o u g h t  paper  t h e s i n k i n g and  c r i t e r i o n , he  successfully  s u c h as a p i n g pong b a l l and a s m a l l  67 plastic  t u b e b y f i l l i n g them w i t h w a t e r .  a p p l y i n g h i s view  t o a styrofoam b a l l  opportunity, t o the teacher, t o lead recognizing  abandoned t h i s  activity  after  a brief  he n o t i c e d  objects  straw.  Robert  to f i l l  the b a l l  that  his  mode o f t h o u g h t .  felt  i f one assumed  expectations,  up with  In t h i s  i n s t a n c e , he a p p a r e n t l y assumed straw, p o s s i b l y  (sink)."  problem by u s i n g p l a s t i c i n e  because  v i a t h e o t h e r as was  comment, "Maybe i f I had something i t might  He  as an anomaly o r i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n  i t e n t e r e d one e n d and l e f t  plastic  result  s i n k , t h e t e a c h e r asked Robert t o  kept e s c a p i n g from t h e p l a s t i c  e v i d e n c e d by t h i s ends  could  t h e s t r a w f l o a t e d when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r .  not perceive the r e s u l t  t h a t water  t o an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e  Contrary to h i s e a r l i e r  did  The  The p o t e n t i a l i t y  attempt  t o force the learner  a l lwaterfilled  sink a p l a s t i c  the  objects  water.  contradiction with observation that  he  into  however, was n o t r e a l i z e d b e c a u s e  Attempting  that  as an e x c e l l e n t  the learner  s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r .  the s i t u a t i o n ,  with  appeared  an i n c o n s i s t e n c y o r anomaly, n a m e l y , t h a t  do n o t a l w a y s of  Robert's i n t e r e s t i n  to  plug  He c o p e d w i t h t h e u n e x p e c t e d  to seal  the water  inside  the straw.  s t r a w d i d n o t s i n k and R o b e r t s p e c u l a t e d , " J know  why i t won't  sink.  The water  A d d i n g more p l a s t i c i n e he e v e n t u a l l y  sank  e n d sank b e c a u s e  the  "weight"  i t was  criterion  through  i n a further  one e n d .  one  gets  the p l a s t i c i n e . "  attempt t o s e a l t h e straw,  A t t h i s p o i n t , he e x p l a i n e d "heavier".  that  A p p a r e n t l y he now saw  as more a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r accounting f o r  68 the to  s i n k i n g end  of the p l a s t i c  see the o s c i l l a t i o n  first  he " s a i d  explain  that  criterion  resolve  the paradox  Placing t a i n i n g water, if  to Robert,  R o b e r t commented, level  w a t e r was  floating  immediately  r i s e , he  not prepared to  thought.  after  objects  this  one  cylinder  floats."  replied,  This  response  of a child-paradigm f o r objects.  According  d i d n o t d i s p l a c e any w a t e r .  experiment,  con-  When a s k e d  "No."  d i s p l a c e d by v a r i o u s  this  Almost  t h e t e a c h e r a s k e d Vthe  experiment, Robert s t a t e d  i t f l o a t e d , d i d cause the water  t o employ a n o t h e r c r i t e r i o n , determining  i f objects  to c o n f l i c t .  At f i r s t  d i s p l a c e water. c y l i n d e r ) was noticed attested to this  "That  "weight"  learner  t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f a much l a r g e r wooden c y l i n d e r .  Following though  i n h i s mode o f  To  the straw d i d not  E v i d e n t l y , he was  t o i n d i c a t e the existence  d e t e r m i n g how  to test  implicit  that  a  a p o l y e t h y l e n e cube i n a p l a s t i c  i t made t h e w a t e r  appeared  of the f a c t  At  w i t h water.  s t r a w , however, he u t i l i z e d  w i t h water.  appear  as i n c o n s i s t e n t .  sank when f i l l e d  and made no m e n t i o n  s i n k when f i l l e d  Robert d i d not  between c r i t e r i a  objects  the s i n k i n g  straw.  that  possibly  stated  that  "size"  oscillation  overt  criteria  objects  object  i n the water  appeared  "weight", f o r  two  floating  even  now  appeared  d i d not  (wooden  " l a r g e " o r "heavy",  i t d i d cause a r i s e  t o n o r g a v e any  He  or  The  However, when.the f l o a t i n g  made s u f f i c i e n t l y  t h e wood,  to r i s e .  d i s p l a c e d water. he  that  level.  the He  child neither  c u e s , s u c h as f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s ,  between h i s r e s p o n s e s .  His  subsequent  activities,  however, a p p e a r e d t o i n d i c a t e a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m  i n w h i c h he accommodated t h e o b s e r v a t i o n d i s p l a c e water.  Evidence of t h i s  that  apparent s h i f t  i n c l u d e d h i s c o n s i s t e n t employment o f t h e new During  polyethylene  addition, pursuing  i n perception  child-paradigm..  overflow.  cube c a u s e d t h e w a t e r l e v e l  individual  floatable polyethylene  b e c a u s e he h a d l e a r n e d namely, t h a t f l o a t i n g  several  cubes t o a g r a d u a t e c a u s i n g  water t o  to avoid  a significant  about  conceptual  child-paradigm  use  o f t h e new p o i n t o f v i e w i n s u b s e q u e n t  Although  appeared e v i d e n t  from h i s c o n s i s t e n t activities.  (10:0) n o t e d t h a t a p i e c e o f c o l o r e d c h a l k  a few s e c o n d s  and t h e n s a n k .  s c i e n t i f i c matters,  t o develop a reason  his  explanation,  and  "weighed  air  "pulls"  water entered  i t down". them down.  and r e p e a t e d  f o rh i s discovery. t h e "holes"  this  interest  h i s experiment According  to  i n s i d e the straw  A t a n o t h e r p o i n t , he m e n t i o n e d  that  These t h o u g h t f u l e x p l a n a t i o n s appeared  to i n d i c a t e a child-paradigm s i n k when f i l l e d  floated  He was i n t r i g u e d w i t h  phenomenon, p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e o f h i s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d understanding  error,  change i n p e r c e p t i o n ,  the  attempting  displacement,  o b j e c t s do n o t d i s p l a c e w a t e r .  shift  In  appeared t o i n d i c a t e , i n a Kuhnian  Robert d i d n o t v e r b a l l y acknowledge t h i s  Jeff  to rise.  he added  These a c t i v i t i e s  activities,  v i e w , t h a t R o b e r t c o u l d now t h i n k more c l e a r l y  in  objects  one i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , he n o t e d t h a t a s m a l l  floating  for  floating  shift  w i t h water.  embodying t h e n o t i o n  that  Perhaps d u r i n g p r e v i o u s  w a t e r , he h a d n o t i c e d t h a t o b j e c t s  such as b o a t s ,  objects play  with  p a p e r , and  70 bottles this  sank as a r e s u l t o f water e n t e r i n g .  view, l i k e  that  o f t h e s e v e n - y e a r - o l d , was c a l l e d  "waterlogged" c r i t e r i o n Apparently both  f o r s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g  learners  saw t h e n e c e s s i t y  s u c h as w a t e r , f o r s i n k i n g o b j e c t s . ities  to that  (Clagett,  This  o f A r i s t o t e l i a n s which h e l d  f o r c e was r e q u i r e d  For simplicity,  after the  that  that  (sponge)  objects  s i n k when f i l l e d  and  that  of stuff".  sank w h i l e  "natural order" 69.).  positions  it  A t one takes  to float  outcome a p p e a r e d as an anomaly t o  w i t h water.  At the conclusion  f l o a t i n g bodies.  paradigm appeared  p.  The sponge c o n t i n u e d  Indications  namely, of Jeff's  h i s repeated e f f o r t s  of this  a c t i v i t y , he  He now a p p e a r e d t o u s e what  be t e r m e d a " m a t e r i a l i t y " c r i t e r i o n  substances  motive  t h e sponge d i d n o t s i n k b e c a u s e i t was n o t made  t h e r i g h t "kind  could  how many seconds  s o m e t h i n g was wrong i n c l u d e d  t h e sponge.  explained  This  objects.  because i t c o n f l i c t e d w i t h h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  awareness t h a t  of  sinks."  repeated t r i a l s .  to sink  an e x t e r n a l  1957, p . 1 6 9 . ) .  that  child  force,  v i e w showed s i m i l a r -  t o move e l e m e n t s f r o m t h e i r n a t u r a l  he commented, "I'm counting  before  bodies.  o f an e x t e r n a l  He a p p l i e d h i s v i e w i n s i n k i n g o t h e r point  a  f o r ordering  In t h i s  instance,  Jeff held  that  "heavy"  "light"  materials  floated.  This  child-  s i m i l a r to the A r i s t o t e l i a n  o f s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s  According  were d i s t i n g u i s h e d  sinking  to Aristotle,  view about t h e ( C l a g e t t , 1957,  s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g  i n t o two g r o u p s — o b j e c t s w h i c h were  f l o a t e d w h i l e t h o s e w h i c h were "heavy"  sank.  bodies "light"  71 Jeff's he  subsequent  could not resolve  "materiality" the  the c o n f l i c t  criteria.  "materiality"  activities  appeared  D u r i n g many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , he u s e d  criterion.  He e x p l a i n e d  f o r example,  c o u l d n o t be made t o f l o a t  material.  On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , s u c h as s i n k i n g the "waterlogged"  Attempting in  to alert  because  however, t h a t unexpected this  the straw f l o a t e d  anomaly seemed e v i d e n t  on h i s face..  He o f f e r e d  p o s s i b l y because this  s i n k when f i l l e d  outcome a p p e a r e d  he f e l t  a plastic  the learner t o the c o n f l i c t  - U t i l i z i n g h i s "waterlogged" c r i t e r i o n ,  t h a t t h e straw would  i t was a  "heavy" tube,  implicit  to sink a p l a s t i c Jeff  with water.  e v e n when f i l l e d  anomalous t o J e f f .  predicted He n o t i c e d ,  w i t h water.  This  Awareness o f  from t h e extremely p u z z l e d l o o k s  no s p e c u l a t i o n s  about  this  phenomenon,  u n a b l e t o cope w i t h t h e anomaly a t  time. During the f i n a l  interest  back  to the  f l o a t when f i l l e d  session, the teacher channelled J e f f ' s  plastic  w i t h water.  straw.  The s t r a w  Jeff's  he s t a r e d  experiment,  at the floating  straw.  to conflict  perception of this  a p p a r e n t anomaly was i n d i c a t e d b y h i s s u b s e q u e n t first,  continued to  T h i s outcome a p p e a r e d  w i t h h i s "waterlogged" c r i t e r i o n .  in  that  criterion.  h i s mode o f t h o u g h t , t h e t e a c h e r a s k e d J e f f  straw.  that  between t h e " w a t e r l o g g e d " and  plasticine  he u t i l i z e d  to-indicate  Jeff  response.  At  repeated h i s  and a f t e r b e i n g u n s u c c e s s f u l , he s i g h e d and s a t back,  h i s chair.  He r e p e a t e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t  again and, a f t e r t h e  72  s t r a w c o n t i n u e d t o f l o a t , he pushed i t w i t h h i s hand t o t h e bottom o f t h e water c o n t a i n e r .  The s t r a w s u r f a c e d a n d J e f f  commented, "I guess  floats.".  the plastic  The t e a c h e r  then  i n q u i r e d a s t o why t h e p l a s t i c s t r a w f l o a t e d w h i l e t h e p l a s t i c tube d i d not. and thinner if the  the  Jeff explained,  and it  plastic  plastic  has  floats (straw)  lots  float. of  (plastic  more plastic  and there's will  tube)--well—there's  f i r s t he attempted  a lot  "That  not But  in  very in  straw) it  is  than  water  much water,  this  case  longer and  then  (plastic  plastic—but—heavier  water."  At  t o e x p l a i n t h e f l o a t i n g straw by u s i n g h i s  "materiality" criterion.  He assumed t h a t t h e s t r a w  floated  b e c a u s e t h e p l a s t i c , o f w h i c h i t was c o m p o s e d , f l o a t e d .  Through  t e a c h e r i n t e r r o g a t i o n , however, he r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e f l o a t i n g straw c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e " m a t e r i a l i t y " c r i t e r i o n because he r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e p l a s t i c t u b e s a n k when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r . T h e f l o a t i n g s t r a w now a p p e a r e d t o c o n f l i c t w i t h b o t h h i s " w a t e r logged"  c r i t e r i o n and h i s " m a t e r i a l i t y " c r i t e r i o n .  attempted his  t o account  Jeff  f o r t h e anomaly b y m o d i f y i n g a seqment o f  c h i l d - p a r a d i g m t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r . I n  t h i s i n s t a n c e , h e assumed t h a t t h e s h a p e o f t h e s t r a w d i d n o t permit  s u f f i c i e n t water t o enter.  "waterlogged"  He e m p l o y e d h i s m o d i f i e d  c r i t e r i o n , namely t h a t o b j e c t s must  permit  s u f f i c i e n t water t o enter before they s i n k , c o n s i s t e n t l y i n future a c t i v i t i e s  such as s i n k i n g a s m a l l p l a s t i c tube.  By  asking the learner t o sink a polyethylene bag, the teacher attempted  t o f o r c e J e f f t o a deeper awareness o f t h e c o n t r a d i c -  73 t i o n between h i s v i e w and t h e o b s e r v a t i o n not  s i n k even though they  filled  polyethylene  puzzled the  facial  direct  b a g f l o a t e d when p l a c e d  expression  The w a t e r -  i n water.  seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he  When e x p l a i n i n g t h e phenomenon, he went  observation  and i n s i s t e d  expectations.  refuse views  Jeff's recognized  with  Perhaps c h i l d r e n ,  information  scientists, their  often  theoretical  (11:7) i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f phenomena a s s o c i a t e d  confused  paradigmatic  o f the younger l e a r n e r s .  when g i v e n  materials.  objects yielded considerably  for illustrating  activities  the opportunity  Her u s u a l  as t h e s e s s i o n s p r o g r e s s e d  suggests,  At f i r s t ,  less  than d i d she appeared  i n v e s t i g a t e the  questions,  she o f t e n  r e p l y was,, "I don't  know."  s h e a p p e a r e d more r e l a x e d and  c o n s i d e r a b l e time i n r e p e t i t i v e  P e r h a p s , as P i a g e t  behaviour  to freely  In response t o the teacher's  remained noncommittal.  spent  like  (Kuhn, 1962a, p . 2 4 . ) .  s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g  But,  against  t h a t t h e b a g sank a c c o r d i n g t o  t o s e e t h a t w h i c h does n o t a g r e e w i t h  Arlene's  the  with water.  f l o a t i n g b a g as a s e r i o u s c o n f r o n t a t i o n t o h i s mode o f  thought.  his  are f i l l e d  t h a t some o b j e c t s do  investigatory activities.  her r e p e t i t i v e behaviour  was t h e  e x t e r n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e g r o w t h and e x p r e s s e d "need" o f e m e r g i n g through a c t i o n  "cognitive a b i l i t i e s "  (Elkind,  Experimenting floated, Arlene "vi>e-tty- li.ght".  to realize  the  themselves  1957, p . 5 4 4 . ) .  t o determine whether o b j e c t s  commented t h a t wood  floated  sank o r  b e c a u s e xt was  These remarks appeared t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  Arlene  utilized  a child-paradigm  i n her investigations.  According  to  her  v i e w , s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d on  the  b a s i s o f "weight".  Like  the other  l e a r n e r s , she f e l t  some o b j e c t s were n a t u r a l l y "heavy" and t h u s sank w h i l e objects  were  "light"  and f l o a t e d .  She c o n t i n u e d  mode o f t h o u g h t t o s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l o b j e c t s . investigation  w h i c h s h e was  child-paradigm  like  sank o r f l o a t e d .  the other  Support  forthis  i t with  water from e s c a p i n g .  in  She t e s t e d t h o s e o f  that objects  water.  birthday  the  floating  p o s s i b l y b e an i n d i c a t i o n  straw as c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h  ball still that  utilized  s i n k when f i l l e d  and a wooden c u b e . floating  after  they should  filled  t o prevent  to float.  o f any i n c o n s i s t e n c y  her expectations. child-paradigm,  water, t o sink a styrofoam  In both cases,  considerable  activity,  t h a t she p e r c e i v e d  her apparent with  I t was  anomolous b e c a u s e  H e r i m m e d i a t e engagement i n a n o t h e r  Later, Arlene that objects  candles  experience  o f f e r e d no v e r b a l o r n o n - v e r b a l s i g n s  however,, c o u l d  s i n k when  B e i n g u n s u c c e s s f u l , she  The s t r a w c o n t i n u e d  t o say i f she found t h i s  her thinking.  a  view i n c l u d e d h e r attempt t o s i n k  p l u g g e d t h e ends o f t h e s t r a w w i t h  she  H e r method o f  l e a r n e r s , appeared t o h o l d  embodying t h e n o t i o n  a s t r a w by f i l l i n g  difficult  t o apply her  uncertain.  Arlene,  water.  other  seemed t o i n v o l v e a m e n t a l w e i g h i n g o f t h e o b j e c t s  to determine i f they  with  that  she o b s e r v e d t h e o b j e c t s  time i n water.  s i n k b u t o f f e r e d no s p e c u l a t i o n s  She commented a s t o why  75 they  d i d not.  problems. type  Again  she  proceeded  to explore areas  The  of  acquired the necessary  teacher presented phenomenon:  solutions  on  sinking  the  learner with a  to investigate and  floating bodies.  of  Arlene  different  appeared  t o p l a y w i t h the m a t e r i a l s o b s e r v i n g whether each i n the d i f f e r e n t  understand  t h e c h i l d ' s mode o f t h o u g h t ,  attempting  to e l i c i t  inferring  teacher, Arlene "thick"  such  held the A r i s t o t e l i a n  (Cohen and  Drabkin,  asked  to  several questions useful.for  l e a r n e r , however, o f f e r e d Pressed  by  few  the  speculated that objects floated better  " t h i c k n e s s " and  r e l a t i v e l y weak and  The  sank  t e a c h e r , anxious  about the o b s e r v a t i o n s .  finally  liquids,  The  d e s c r i p t i o n s of .observations  d i d i n o i l w h i c h was  relative  liquids.  a child-paradigm..  conceptualizations  she  confidence  slightly  the e f f e c t  or f l o a t e d  they  this  conflict.  different  in  solvable  Perhaps A r l e n e r e q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l time w i t h  o f l e a r n i n g b e f o r e she  content  to immediately  as t h e  sugar  "thin". "thinness"  and w a t e r s o l u t i o n ,  Her  determination of  was  by  "feel".  notion that "thin"  1958,  p.  the  Possibly  liquids  t h e r e f o r e l e s s bouyant than  than  were  "thick"  liquids  239.).  SUMMARY  This  chapter  attempted  of thought  by  scientific  development.  t o account  f o r c h i l d r e n s modes 1  u s i n g a number o f a d a p t a t i o n s o f Kuhn's v i e w F r o m an e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s o f  of  the  children's exhibit  investigatory activities,  i t appeared as i f c h i l d r e n  p a r a d i g m a t i c b e h a v i o u r i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex  knowledge. children  M o r e o v e r , t h e v i e w s and a c t i o n s  often  showed s t r i k i n g  Aristotelians.  parallels  e x p r e s s e d by t h e  t o those o f  A l l c h i l d r e n , f o r example, t e n d e d t o c l a s s i f y  s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s i n t o "two g r o u p s — " l i g h t " f l o a t while  "heavy"  objects  sink.  to A r i s t o t l e ' s "natural-order" bodies which d i s t i n g u i s h e d were " l i g h t "  the A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e  a l l learners  n e e d f o r an e x t e r n a l  ( C l a g e t t , 1957, p . 1 6 9 . ) .  f o r c e which caused o b j e c t s  learners, the seven-year-old materials  felt  to sink.  that  smaller  oldest  learner  appeared t o h o l d  weak and t h e r e f o r e  Unlike  the older  quantities of In a d d i t i o n ,  a child-paradigm  " t h i n " l i q u i d s were  l e s s bouyant than  During  saw w a t e r a s an  f l o a t e d whereas l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s sank.  t o t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n view t h a t  and  from those which  investigations, the children frequently  external  similarities  v i e w o f s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g  "heavy" o b j e c t s  m o t i v e f o r c e t o move o b j e c t s  the  v i e w showed  ( C l a g e t t , 1957, p . 6 9 . ) . A l s o ,  appeared t o h o l d  their  This  objects  similar  relatively  "thick" liquids  (Cohen  D r a b k i n , 1958, p . 2 3 9 . ) . During t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s ,  a l l three  children  appeared t o encounter anomalies o r v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e i r expectations. widely.  The i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s t o anomaly, however, d i f f e r e d The s e v e n - y e a r - o l d a p p e a r e d c o n t e n t t o p l a y w i t h t h e  materials. previously  When s i t u a t i o n s a r o s e w h i c h c o n f l i c t e d w i t h h i s stated  ideas,  he o f t e n  gave i n c o n s i s t e n t a c c o u n t s f o r  77 the  phenomena.  exploring  conflicting  interests. resolve  A p p a r e n t l y he  an  a r e a s and  Nevertheless, inconsistency  a child-paradigm  shift  floating  do  objects  adequate view t h a t  on  the  necessity  u s u a l l y p u r s u e d more  one  occasion,  he  t h e y do  d i s p l a c e water.  hand, u s u a l l y responded t o  by  immediately t r y i n g  He  appeared r e l u c t a n t to r e l i n q u i s h h i s e s t a b l i s h e d to account  f o r the  ideas.  With the  direct  observation  conceptual an  avoided  areas of  p r o b l e m s due of  polyethylene to  confines.  awareness o f  learning.  anomaly by bag  oldest  anomaly i n s t i l l conflict  to her  by  apparent  anomalous  views  against  established responded  a d i f f e r e n t manner.  engaging i n immediately confidence  and  previous went  learner, Arlene,  anomaly  situation.  modifying his  e x p e r i m e n t , he  lack of  a more  awareness o f  force nature i n t o previously The  by  ten-year-old,  the  t o a s s i m i l a t e the  an  that  replaced The  to  experiencing  e s t a b l i s h e d view,  d i s p l a c e w a t e r , was  of  enjoyable  appeared  i n h i s mode o f t h o u g h t by  i n w h i c h an  not  feel  on  tried  other  d i d not  to  She solvable  with this  type  C H A P T E R  VI  SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THE PRESENT STUDY TO SCIENCE TEACHING  CHAPTER V I  SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THE PRESENT STUDY TO SCIENCE TEACHING  SUMMARY OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT RESULTS  From t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s appeared evident acquiring  f o r t h e v i e w i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e "seen  somewhat s i m i l a r t o Kuhn's h i s t o r i c a l  t h e development o f s c i e n c e .  To t h e w r i t e r ,  modes o f t h o u g h t r e f l e c t e d a k i n d characterized the  study.  as c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s  to  object  objects  float.  to hold  that  and c h i l d - p a r a d i g m  a point filled  f o r ordering  In t h i s instance,  sink  quantities  on t h e o t h e r hand,  appeared  sinking  t h e v i e w was  even though s m a l l  The t e n - y e a r - o l d ,  sinking  on s e v e r a l  and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s .  occasions  taken  o f t h e same appeared  water.  In a d d i t i o n , a l l  a p p e a r e d t o e x p r e s s and u t i l i z e  o f view o r c h i l d - p a r a d i g m t h a t with  shifts i n  the composition o r " m a t e r i a l i t y " of the object  distinguished learners  behaviour  The s e v e n - y e a r - o l d , f o r e x a m p l e ,  f l o a t i n g objects. large  pattern  the children's  of paradigmatic  s e e " s i z e " as an i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n  that  develop-  i n t e l l e c t u a l l y w i t h t h e phenomenon o f s i n k i n g  floating objects.  and  as  A l l t h e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d t o have t h e i r own p r e f e r r e d  ways o f c o p i n g and  support  complex k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h some s o r t o f n a t u r a l  mental process, in  o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , some  objects  sink  when  79 Although i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c • i n children s  exhibited Aristotelian-like that objects  motive  features.  s i n k when f i l l e d  appeared to  between o b s e r v a t i o n established  expectation  p a r a d i g m s , new  d i s p l a c e w a t e r was  use  and  i n w h i c h an  earlier  replaced  acknowledge t h i s  of the  by  external  to derive  unusual s a t i s f a c t i o n  how  shifts,  using  a shift  an  in  the  floating  objects  i n c o m m e n s u r a t e and  shift.  To  seven-year-  conceptualization  his  not sophis-  did  not  consistent  activities  illustrate,  in repetitive  do  more  A l t h o u g h he  change i n p e r c e p t i o n ,  child-paradigm  placing various  in  during  d i s p l a c e water.  the  container.  instance,  r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n subsequent  w a t e r t o see  the  t o s i n k o r move f r o m  encountered  view t h a t  indicated  volving  view  a b s t r a c t i o n s o f a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  I n one  v i e w t h a t t h e y do  verbally  a kind of  behaviour, child-paradigm  investigatory activities,  ticated  point of  Through i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n match  seemed t o emerge.  occurred  they  floating positions.  seemed a p p a r e n t .  old's  the  w a t e r , f o r example,  s e e w a t e r a c t i n g as  Another paradigmatic  sort  with  In the  f o r c e w h i c h c a u s e d some o b j e c t s  their natural  also  details,  v i e w s seemed t o h a v e common g r o u n d i n t h a t  1  children  specific  he  activities  f l o a t a b l e polyethylene  objects  much t h e w a t e r l e v e l w o u l d r i s e  in a  seemed inin  80 REFLECTIONS ON THE POSSIBLE USEFULNESS  1. The w r i t e r e n v i s i o n s t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f behaviour"  holds  children's  acquisition  it  may  be u s e f u l  OF THE STUDY  "paradigmatic  c o n s i d e r a b l e promise i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g o f knowledge.  f o r educators  He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t  to give greater consider-  a t i o n t o e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t t e r n s i n c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f thought.  To a s s i s t  developers  teachers  m i g h t c o n s i d e r c o m p i l i n g a taxonomy o f  paradigmatic  behaviours  dealing with d i f f e r e n t suggested  i n the classroom, c u r r i c u l u m  f o r various sorts of children n a t u r a l phenomena  teaching strategies  along  with  and l e a r n i n g t a s k s f o r  i n d u c i n g t r a n s p o s i t i o n s from paradigm t o paradigm. classroom children could  t e a c h e r s , who than  assist  h a v e more e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t  do r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e s o c i a l i n this  i n g c h i l d r e n ' s . modes o f t h o u g h t  of paradigmatic having  culture,  teachers potent such  o f such  child-paradigms  v a r y w i t h age,  In  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were a c c e p t e d  classroom  from o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s  learning  f o r a l l concerned.  t h i s way,  then,  s c h o l a r s i n a c o n c e i v a b l y more  c u r r i c u l u m development program.  cooperation  taxonomy  a r e s e e n as a u s e f u l  an u n d e r t a k i n g .  could assist  assist  Related research studies  and amount o f e d u c a t i o n  concomitant  and d e s c r i b -  i n compiling the proposed  behaviours.  t o do w i t h how  and t h e r e b y  with  sciences,  e n d e a v o u r by i d e n t i f y i n g  curriculum developers  Perhaps  could possibly  Moreover, i f  by t e a c h e r s , i n forming  a theory of  ensue w i t h b e n e f i t s  81 Since  the  c h i l d r e n i n the  Aristotelian-like might c o n s i d e r opportunity own,  study  views of n a t u r e ,  the  t o express  and  before  develop  activities From t h e  be  more r e a d i l y  the  scientific  grasped  by  I t may  identifying  c h i l d r e n who  along  to a l o n g i t u d i n a l or v e r t i c a l c h i l d r e n n e e d t i m e and  i evident t o new Since a  to the and  exercises  of t h e i r  and  more p o t e n t  thereby  imply an  c o u l d p o s s i b l y be  "tacit"  have  "size"  may  acquired  alone  floating  is  bodies. to  consider opposed  Perhaps  activities and  of  to  skills  articulate  to  the  u s e f u l n e s s - become  clearly  prepare  shift  him  for a  modes o f t h i n k i n g .  component and  "explicit" and  child  their  in point,  "density",  development.  ideas, observations,  child-paradigms  "tacit"  a case  a h o r i z o n t a l , as  appropriate  p o i n t where l i m i t a t i o n s  or  acquired.  u s e f u l f o r curriculum developers  l e a r n i n g tasks  newly a c q u i r e d  as  concept,  f o r o r d e r i n g s i n k i n g and  a l s o be  t o be  study,  p r e r e q u i s i t e p o i n t of view t h a t  unimportant  2.  concept  of the present  appears t h a t the  Aristotelian,  a developmental sequence  f o r each s c i e n t i f i c  it  developers  In a d d i t i o n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n  to i d e n t i f y i n g  results  curriculum  i n t r o d u c i n g more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  v i e w s o f n a t u r a l phenomena. given  hold  a d v a n t a g e s o f g i v i n g c h i l d r e n an  views o f nature  m i g h t be  appeared t o  two  components o f  "explicit" developed  knowledge,  component, l a b o r a t o r y to f a c i l i t a t e  both  k n o w l e d g e , s u c h as f a c t s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , knowledge o f  a t t i t u d e s , standards,  procedures,  82 and  instrumental s k i l l s .  The l a b o r a t o r y e n v i r o n m e n t ,  would a l s o appear u s e f u l  for facilitating  i n modes o f t h o u g h t  through  interaction  as a way o f e n a b l i n g a c h i l d t o  contend held  i s seen  interaction.  w i t h o t h e r s about t h e v i a b i l i t y  v i e w s and t h e r e b y  enhancing  n a t u r a l paradigm s h i f t s  3. F i n a l l y ,  science". prepared  t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e  experientially  alone, the teacher  and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y b u t "cannot  could possibly  p o w e r f u l ways o f v i e w i n g Such a t e a c h e r  o f "modern  assuming a c h i l d  mode o f t h o u g h t  conceptual  toward t h e r e p l a c e -  views w i t h those  More e x p l i c i t l y ,  more p o w e r f u l  to facilitate  i n children directed  ment o f i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  of individually  the p o s s i b i l i t y of  c o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d  transpositions  Social  taking place.  the w r i t e r speculates  teacher role  ful  social  transitions  i s adequately  to shift  make t h e t r a n s i t i o n  suggest  new and more  some a s p e c t o f t h e c h i l d ' s  r o l e w o u l d a p p e a r t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s where c h i l d r e n  to hold A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e views,  taken  as e v e r y d a y  to a  views o f n a t u r e .  world. usetend  Aristotelian  perceptions of the world, are  immensely p e r s u a s i v e , e v e n t o a d u l t s , and c a n u s u a l l y adequately  cope w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s o f most n a t u r a l  encountered. that  I t seems u n r e a s o n a b l e ,  c h i l d r e n , who  appear t o h o l d  views o f nature, w i l l  naturally  t o t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d out  the i n t e r p o s i t i o n  events  t h e r e f o r e , t o assume  Aristotelian-like  o r even w i l l i n g l y  shift  p o i n t s o f view o f s c i e n c e w i t h -  o f some e x t e r n a l a g e n t  such  as a  83 teacher. the nature  Future and  teacher-role.  r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be  effectiveness  of such  undertaken to a  ascertain  facilitating  REFERENCES  REFERENCES A t k i n , J . Myron. "Using B e h a v i o u r a l l y - S t a t e d O b j e c t i v e s f o r Designing the C u r r i c u l u m : A Cautionary Note", Paper d e l i v e r e d at the annual meeting of the American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1968a. . "Research S t y l e s i n Science Education," Address d e l i v e r e d at the annual meeting of the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Research i n Science Teaching, Chicago, 1968b. . "'Process i n Science Education," Paper d e l i v e r e d at the annual convention of the N a t i o n a l Science Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n , Washington, D.C, 1968c. 1  A t k i n , J . M y r o n and K a r p l u s , R. "Discovery or Invention?" The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r . V o l . 29, S e p t e m b e r 19 6 2 , pp. 4 5 - 5 1 . Barber,  Bernard. "Book R e v i e w o f The S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c Revolutions," A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w . V o l . 28, 1 9 6 3 , p. 293.  C l a g e t t , M a r s h a l l . Greek Science Schuman, 1957.  i n A n t i q u i t y . London, A b e l a r d -  C o h e n , M.R. and D r a b k i n , I . E . A S o u r c e Book i n G r e e k C a m b r i d g e , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958.  Science.  Cronbach, L . J . "The R o l e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n I m p r o v i n g Education," P h i D e l t a K a p p a n . V o l . 4 7 , J u n e 1966, pp. 5 3 9 - 5 4 5 . E a s l e y , J.A. "The N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s and E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h - A Comparison," Paper read at the Annual Spring Confere n c e , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , B r o c k p o r t , New York, 1966. • - '•  " L o g i c and H e u r i s t i c i n M a t h e m a t i c s C u r r i c u l u m Reform," Problems i n . t h e P h i l o s o p h y of Mathematics. A m s t e r d a m , N o r t h - H o l l a n d , 19 67.  E l k i n d , David. " P i a g e t and M o n t e s s o r i , " Harvard R e v i e w . V o l . 3 7 , F a l l 1967, p. 544. G i l l e s p i e , C h a r l e s C. December 1 9 6 2 ,  "The N a t u r e o f S c i e n c e , " pp. 1 2 5 1 - 1 2 5 3 .  Educational Science. V o l .  138,  85 H a l l , M a r y B. "Book R e v i e w o f The S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c Revolutions," American H i s t o r i c a l Review. V o l . 68, A p r i l 1963, p. 700. Hawkins, David. "Book R e v i e w o f The S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c Revolutions," American J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c s . V o l . 31, 1963, pp. 554-555. H u n t , J . McV. 1961.  I n t e l l i g e n c e and E x p e r i e n c e .  New Y o r k , R o n a l d ,  Karplus, Robert. "Science i n the Elementary School," 1964. D i s t r i b u t e d b y t h e S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Improvement Study, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley,4, C a l i f o r n i a . K u h n , Thomas S. The C o p e r n i c a n R e v o l u t i o n . Books, 1957.  New Y o r k ,  . The S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1962a.  Vintage  Chicago,  _________ " H i s t o r i c a l Structure of S c i e n t i f i c Discovery," Science. V o l . 1 3 6 , J u n e 1 9 6 2 , p p . 760-764. _______ "The F u n c t i o n o f Dogma i n S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h , " S c i e n t i f i c C h a n g e , e d . A.C. C r o m b i e , New Y o r k , P B a s i c B o o k s , 1 9 6 3 , p p . 896 +• x i i . ]_______' "The E s s e n t i a l T e n s i o n : T r a d i t i o n a n d I n n o v a t i o n i n S c i e n t i f i c Research," Scientific Creativity: I t s R e c o g n i t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , e d . C.W. T a y l o r a n d F. B a r r o n , New Y o r k , J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , 1 9 6 3 . ________ "A F u n c t i o n f o r T h o u g h t E x p e r i m e n t s , " Melanges A l e x a n d r e K o y r e \ e d . R. T a t o n and I . B . C o h e n , P a r i s , Hermann, 1 9 6 3 , p p . 307-334. '.  . "Logic o f Discovery o r Psychology of Research?" Paper r e a d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Coloquium on P h i l o s o p h y o f S c i e n c e , London, 1965.  Piaget, Jean. The C h i l d ' s C o n c e p t i o n o f t h e W o r l d . New H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d Company, 1 9 2 9 .  York,  S m i t h , 0.B. a n d Meux, M i l t o n . Study o f t h e L o g i c o f Teaching. Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research, C o l l e g e o f Education, University of I l l i n o i s .  Tanner, D a n i e l . " C u r r i c u l u m T h e o r y : Knowledge and C o n t e n t , Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . J u n e 1 9 6 6 , pp.  362-371. W e t h e r i n g t o n , R o n a l d K. "The Cultural Evolution,"  1 9 6 2 , pp.  716-719.  I n d i v i d u a l i n H i s t o r y and i n Science. V o l . 1 3 8 , November  A P P E N D IX  A  VERBATIM TRANSCRIPTIONS OF THE TEACHING SESSIONS FOR ONE  LEARNER  APPENDIX A  VERBATIM TRANSCRIPTIONS  OF THE TEACHING  SESSIONS FOR ONE  A verbatim teaching  sessions  reader to obtain addition, accuracy old's they  LEARNER  t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f the four, one-half o f one l e a r n e r  are presented enabling the  more i n f o r m a t i o n  the reader  about the s e s s i o n s .  In  can use t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s t o check t h e  and c o n t e n t o f t h e s y n o p t i c  learning session include  hour  are selected  many o b s e r v a t i o n s  study which c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  used  reports.  The t e n - y e a r - ,  f o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n because i n the e a r l i e r  children's  part  o f the  a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex  knowledge.  A  format  i s devised  f o r recording  v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r on t h e t a p e s . are  separated  i n t o three  The e v e n t s t h a t  columns—the  learner's  non-verbal responses,  sponses.  T h e s e columns a r e l e t t e r e d  respectively.  Events  are l i s t e d  ing  teacher  his  previous  side  teacher's  those recorded  a c t i o n s , the verbal r e -  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and a r e When t h e l e a r n e r beside  responds  the correspond-  S i m i l a r l y , i f t h e l e a r n e r comments on  activities,  its' appropriate  place  " a " , "b", a n d " c "  a c t i o n , the event i s l i s t e d action.  and non-  took  and t h e l e a r n e r ' s  numbered f o r c o n v e n i e n t r e f e r e n c e . to a teacher  the verbal  the verbal  response i s reported  non-verbal a c t i o n .  items s e l e c t e d  Asterisks  be-  denote  f o r use i n t h e s y n o p t i c  reports.  Dashes a r e  u s e d whenever t h e  Additional  explanations  enclosed  i n parenthesis.  speaker pauses o r  clarifying  the  hesitates.  observations  are  THE  RECORD OF  A TEN-YEAR-OLD  INVESTIGATING SINKING AND Jeff  S.  -  FLOATING OBJECTS  (10.0)  Learner s Non-Verbal Responses 1  Number  SESSION  1  Teacher A c t i o n  I  -  (a)  J e f f , b e f o r e we s t a r t , I want y o u t o t a k e a q u i c k l o o k a r o u n d and j u s t see e x a c t l y what we have on both t a b l e s .  Surveys surrounding ials .  Have y o u g o t a g e n e r a l o f what t h e r e i s ?  Smiles  What a r e you  Float  idea  8  (c)  I  see  I'm t r y i n g t o see i f I can make t h i s {medicine cup) f l o a t evenly. Yes.  evenly?  e v e n now,  Yes,  Adds v a r i o u s o b j e c t s t o m e d i c i n e cup. Each time cup o v e r t u r n s . Shakes h e a d and s m i l e s .  Sets medicine That's  mater-  thinking?  6 7  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  6/2/69.  What we want you t o do i s j u s t p l a y with the m a t e r i a l s and see what you can f i n d out.  5  (b)  cup  i n water,  almost, C a r e f u l l y p l a c e s two c o r k s i n s i d e cup.  small  I think that's  even.  Learner s Non-Verbal Responses 1  Number 9  Teacher A c t i o n That's  e v e n as  can  (a) be-  (b)  Learner's 'Verbal Responses  -  10  Removes o b j e c t s  11  Adds l a r g e p i e c e o f p l a s t i c i n e to centre of p l a s t i c straw. S e a l s ends w i t h s m a l l e r amounts o f p l a s t i c i n e . Places straw i n water  from water.  (sinks) .  12  Didn't  13  D i d you  14  Just  i t float? expect  trying  to  Smiles.  i t to? see.  W e l l , I was to see. ......  15  Places  16  Removes p l a s t i c i n e f r o m centre of straw. Tests again (floats).  17  S e t s p a p e r cup c o n t a i n i n g rubber cork i n water. Obs e r v e s t h e n submerges.  18  A t t e m p t s t o b a l a n c e c o r k on s t y r o f o a m b a l l (unsuccess-  straw i n water  (sinks) .  ful) .  again  just  trying  Learner s Non-Verbal Responses 1  Number  Teacher  A c t i o n (a)  (b)  19  T r i e s t o balance wax on s t y r o f o a m then r e v e r s e s .  20  L i f t s two l u c i t e cubes. P l a c e s one i n w a t e r ( s i n k s ) .  21  P i n g pong b a l l i s p l a c e d i n s i d e m e d i c i n e cup {capsizes) . R e p e a t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t medicine cup.  22  B a l a n c e s aluminum cube i n s i d e medicine cup.  23  Attaches p l a s t i c i n e to styrofoam b a l l . Upon placement i n water, p l a s t i c i n e f a l l s o f f and s i n k s .  24  Tries repeatedly to balance r u b b e r c o r k on p l a s t i c tube.  25 26*  What a r e y o u t r y i n g a t t h e moment?  Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  piece of ball,  T r y i n g t o make t h i s { r u b b e r cork) balance.  t o do O b j e c t s {aluminum cube, rubber cork, and polyethylene cube) a r e p l a c e d i n s i d e medicine cup. Each t i m e cup c a p s i z e s .  'Number  T e a c h e r A c t i o n (a)  Learner's Non-Verbal Responses  Learner s V e r b a l Responses 1  (b)  (c)  27*  C o u l d y o u e x p l a i n what y o u a r e d o i n g now?  I'm t r y i n g t o s e e how much weight i t takes t o take i t {medicine cup) down t h a t f a r .  28*  Take i t down s o i t ' s j u s t even?  Yes.  29*  30*  A t t e m p t s t o j o i n two medi c i n e cups u s i n g an e l a s t i c band and p a p e r c l i p s . What a r e y o u g o i n g with that?  t o do  I'm t r y i n g t o s e e i f t h i s Weight, I can e q u a l i t i n t h a t o n e , and make i t s o i t s t a y s even w i t h t h i s w e i g h t (aluminum cube).  31  Experiences d i f f i c u l t y j o i n ing cups. Abandons e f f o r t s .  32*  Observes p i e c e o f c o l o r e d chalk sink.  33  What do y o u t h i n k ?  34  At  35  You  36  Have y o u g o t any i d e a s ?  first  Repeats o b s e r v a t i o n .  At  first-.  At f i r s t i t f l o a t s . Then t h e s e c o n d t i m e i t j u s t goes down and I'm w o n d e r i n g how come i t does t h a t .  which-  a r e w o n d e r i n g how come?  Yes . Repeats  experiment.  W e l l , b e c a u s e t h e w a t e r goes i n t o the holes i n here t h a t hold the a i r . vo  Teacher A c t i o n s  Number  (a)  Learner's 'Non-Verbal R e s p o n s e s (b)  Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  37*  That h o l d the a i r ?  Well-  38*  What happens t o t h e a i r ?  W e l l , i t w e i g h s i t down s o i t can f l o a t .  39*  Oh!  And t h e a i r g e t s can't f l o a t .  40  I wonder i f t h a t happens.  o u t so i t  always  41  Surveys surrounding materials.  42  Balances  cine, cork,  objects  (plasti-  aluminum cube, rubber l u c i t e cubes) on  large irregular piece of styrofoam. E f f o r t s are unsuccessful. 43  What a r e y o u t r y i n g now?  44  J u s t make i t go e v e n .  45  t o do  I'm t r y i n g t o make t h i s (styro foam) go e v e n .  S i n k s m e d i c i n e cup and g o l f ball combination. Attaches p l a s t i c i n e to golf ball. Places i n water  (sinks).  Number  Teacher  A c t i o n (a)  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b)  Learner s V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c) 1  46  What a r e y o u t r y i n g t o do with the p l a s t i c i n e ?  I thought floated.  47  And t h e n y o u were g o i n g t o s t i c k i t on t h e r e , were you?  Y e s , and s e e i f • t h i s float.  48  That's  the p l a s t i c i n e could  a good i d e a .  49  P i e c e o f aluminum f o i l sinks a f t e r three l u c i t e c u b e s and r u b b e r c o r k a r e added.  50  What d i d y o u f i n d o u t w i t h t h i s , anything?  51  Nothing.  52*  {Laughs).  Observes i n t e n t l y absorbs water.  Nothing.  as sponge  53*  What a r e y o u t h i n k i n g ?  I'm c o u n t i n g how many s e c onds i t t a k e s b e f o r e t h a t {sponge) sinks.  54  Before  Yes .  55  Oh, I s e e . You s h o u l d have a watch f o r t h i s , s h o u l d n ' t you? Then y o u c o u l d t i m e it.  56*  i t sinks? Continues  observing  sponge.  I think I ' l l t r y again.  Learner s Non-Verbal Responses 1  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  (b)  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  (c)  Wrings water from sponge. Repeats o b s e r v a t i o n .  57*  S h o u l d I p u t t h e w a s h e r on top? Is t h a t a l r i g h t ?  58* you  S e t s r u b b e r c o r k on s p o n g e . Observes, smiles s l i g h t l y , and removes c o r k .  59*  If  like.  60  What seems t o be  61  The  62*  What do y o u suppose i s happening?  63  Not the r i g h t stuff.  chalk  I t won't  happening?  sink.  did-remember. T h i s s t u f f , it's made o f , i t won't go down.. I t ' s n o t the r i g h t k i n d o f s t u f f .  kind of  64  Puts k n i f e i n water, r e moves , and l o o k s a r o u n d room.  65  Do y o u see a n y t h i n g y o u want t o t r y ?  else  66*  How a b o u t i f we go back t o t h i s one {plastic straw)? J u s t work w i t h i t f o r a few m i n u t e s and see what y o u can come up w i t h . Remember You were w o r k i n g w i t h i t before.  Smiles,  shakes  {negatively).  head  Threads p l a s t i c straw w i t h longer paper straw. Places s t r a w s i n w a t e r b u t removes when p a p e r s t r a w i s t o o long f o r container.  Learner s N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b)  Learners V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  1  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  67  68  B a l a n c e s s t r a w between two s m a l l paper d i x i e cups. Uses aluminum cubes t o s t e a d y the cups. Are it?  you t r y i n g  to  balance  Shakes h e a d f o r p o s i t i v e answer.  69  Removes o b j e c t s orts f a i l .  70  What i f I g i v e y o u a p r o b lem t o t r y ? J u s t throw the straw i n .  71  What do y o u n o t i c e ?  72*  Then i t w i l l  73  W e l l , we c o u l d l o o k and s e e .  74  Is  75  Not y e t .  76  after  eff-  W e l l , t h e w a t e r k e e p s coming up u n t i l i t g e t s f u l l and then i t w i l l s i n k .  sink? just  Yes, take  a  Observes straw  I think so.  closely.  i t sinking?  No.  Continues observing  straw.  Oh, I s e e . B e c a u s e some w a t e r b l o c k e d up t h e o p e n i n g t h e r e , so t h e r e ' s a l i t t l e b i t of a i rl e f t there.  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  77  As l o n g as t h e r e ' s a l i t t l e bit of a i rl e f t i t w i l l float. I s t h a t what y o u think?  78  Maybe-  79* 80*  Have y o u g o t a l l t h e a i r out y e t ?  81*  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b)  . Yes .  Squeezes straw r e p l a c i n g a i r pockets w i t h water.  I ' l l t r y and s e e i f t h e r e ' s water i n t h e r e .  Continues r e p l a c i n g a i r with water.  No.  Stares a t straw. Puzzled l o o k a p p e a r s on f a c e .  There,  Like  82  It  83*  Do y o u t h i n k y o u c o u l d make i t f l o a t on i t s e n d r a t h e r than sideways?  Stands  84*  Y e s , so i t d o e s n ' t over.  Holds v e r t i c a l l y , straw f a l l s .  floats  Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  i t floats.  anyhow.  fall  85*  Tries water  86*  How a r e y o u g o i n g t h i s , now?  about  87  To w e i g h i t down. Oh, I see. T h a t ' s good.  straw  vertically.  releases,  this?  I don't  think so.  r e p e a t e d l y by p l a c i n g i n one end o f s t r a w . W e l l , I t r y and p u t some w a t e r i n t h e end so i t w i l l have s o m e t h i n g i n t h e b o t t o m t o w e i g h t i t down.  Teacher  Number  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b)  A c t i o n (a)  Can I u s e s o m e t h i n g too?  88 Oh, y e s , t h a t w o u l d be great.  90*  Is i t getting closer or can y o u t e l l ?  91*  W i t h o u t any p l a s t i c i n e  92  Oh, y o u have t o o much on now. Is that i t ?  93*  W e l l , j u s t g i v e t h i s one more t r y and we w i l l l e a v e i t f o r t o d a y and t h e n go on t o some new ones n e x t day. How does t h a t sound?  94  II  -  else  A t t a c h e s p l a s t i c i n e t o end o f s t r a w and t r i e s a g a i n . Repeats e f f o r t s s e v e r a l t i m e s by r e s h a p i n g p l a s t i cine .  89*  SESSION  'Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  I t h i n k , t h e way I h a d i t , b e f o r e i t was c l o s e r . No, w i t h p l a s t i c i n e b u t I p u t more p l a s t i c i n e o n .  on?  11/2/69  J e f f , I want y o u t o s t a r t where we l e f t o f f l a s t week and t h e n we w i l l i n t r o d u c e some p r o b l e m s l a t e r . Do a n y t h i n g y o u want j u s t t o s t a r t us o f f ,  Yes.  Reshapes P l a s t i c i n e and t r i e s again (sinks).  •Number  Teacher  Action  (a)  Learner's •Non-Verbal R e s p o n s e s (b) P l a c e s s o l i d aluminum i n d e r i n water.  95*  feels  cyl-  so l i g h t ?  Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c) I was t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t i f t h i s was h o l l o w b e c a u s e i t f e e l s so l i g h t when I p i c k i t up.  96  It  97  I f i t was h o l l o w , what w o u l d happen?  I t would f l o a t air in i t .  98  I f i t has a i r i n i t , i t floats?  Yes.  99  I see.  i f i t has  H o l d s f i n g e r o v e r end o f s t r a w when r e m o v i n g from w a t e r , and o b s e r v e s w a t e r trapped i n i t .  100  101*  Yes.  I was c u r i o u s .  if  i t (aluminum  You s a i d ,  cube) h a d  air i n i t , i t floated. What d i f f e r e n c e does t h e a i r make, do y o u know?  W e l l , i f i t had a i r e n c l o s e d i n i t , l i k e , say a hollow t u b e i f I b l o c k e d up b o t h ends and t h e r e ' s a i r i n t h e middle, i t should f l o a t . The w e i g h t t h a t was i n s i d e w e l l - t h e a i r t h a t was i n s i d e t h e compartment and i f t h e compartment d i d n ' t w e i g h t o o much, t h e n i t s h o u l d f l o a t . L  102  Oh, I s e e .  103  Could I g i v e you another problem?  Yes.  vo VD  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  104*  Take some p l a s t i c i n e and see i f y o u c a n make i t float.  105  What a r e y o u t r y i n g f i r s t of all?  106  Oh, I s e e .  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b)  Learner's •Verbal R e s p o n s e s (c)  Molds p l a s t i c i n e i n t o cup. Places i t i n water (sinks). Repeats.  t o do  Make i t so i t ' s h o l l o w . W e l l , n o t a l l t h e way hollow, sort of l i k e that. Well, sort works.  107*  Repeats ure .  previous  of like  a boat  proced-  108  Is t h a t s t u f f pretty s t i f f ?  109  You m i g h t want t o t r y some of t h i s . I d o n ' t know. I t h a s n ' t been used y e t . I t s h o u l d n o t be t o o b a d . (Hands learner more plasticine).  110  What seems t o be t h e trouble?  W e l l , i f i t g e t s wet, i t won't s i n k .  111  I f i t g e t s wet i t won't sink?  Yes.  112  You m i g h t want t o t r y some o f t h i s . I t ' s n o t wet a t a l l . (Hands learner new plasticine).  113  J a c k (independent do y o u want t o p a s s  {plasticine)  Yes.  Continues to experience f a i l u r e with h i s p l a s t i c i n e cups.  observer), D r i e s hands on p a p e r a towel?  towel.  Learner s N o n - V e r b a l Responses  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  1  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  (b)  Experiences further f a i l u r e . Face appears i n c r e a s i n g l y f r u s t r a t e d w i t h each t r i a l .  114*  115  You d o n ' t t h i n k float?  i t can  116*  Well,, how w o u l d y o u l i k e t o keep w o r k i n g w i t h i t f o r a few m i n u t e s y e t , j u s t t o be sure? You have l o t s o f t i m e i f y o u need i t .  117  You d o n ' t t h i n k float at a l l .  I don't t h i n k float.  (c)  i t can  No. C o n t i n u e s t o mold p l a s t i c i n e i n t o cup.  i t can  118*  R e p e a t s w i t h s m a l l e r quantity of plasticine (sinks).  119  What were y o u t r y i n g t h a t time?  120  J u s t a i r , y o u were t r y i n g t o g e t r i d o f some o f t h e weight o f the p l a s t i c i n e were you?  Make i t s o t h e w e i g h t o f t h e p l a s t i c i n e w a s n ' t much and just the a i r .  t o do  121  Yes.  Repeats  122  Why won't i t f l o a t  123  Holes i n the p l a s t i c i n e ?  then?  twice.  (Smiles) I t h i n k I found out why i t won't f l o a t . Because t h e r e i s h o l e s i n the p l a s t i c i n e . Yes.  Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  Learner s N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b) 1  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  124  What d i f f e r e n c e does make?  that  Demonstrates w i t h l a r g e r cup w h i l e e x p l a i n i n g .  W e l l , if. i t ' s a t the bottom - s e e , i t (water) goes through.  125  Oh, I s e e . So what w o u l d you n e e d t o make i t f l o a t ? P l a s t i c i n e w i t h no h o l e s in i t ?  W e l l , something with i t t h a t would f l o a t .  126*  What i f t h e p l a s t i c i n e had no h o l e s i n i t , w o u l d t h a t make any d i f f e r e n c e ?  I don't t h i n k s o .  127  Oh,  you don't t h i n k s o .  128*  F l o a t s p l a s t i c i n e by attaching i t t o cork.  129*  There i t f l o a t s . i t f l o a t now?  Why  does  130  Yes.  131  Oh,  132*  How a b o u t i f y o u t r y some o f t h i s . {Points to  Because t h i s t h i n g t h a t f l o a t s by i t s e l f h a s n ' t g o t a n y t h i n g t o p u l l i t down. So t h a t m e a n s - w e l l - i t c a n float-without-  I see.  aluminum  That's  good.  foil).  133  That  134*  C a n " y o u make i t s i n k , w e l l without putting, just.by i t s e l f ? Do y o u t h i n k y o u c a n make i t s i n k ?  Places f o i l smiles.  i n w a t e r and  floats.  It  floats.  Yes-because w e l l Bends f o i l and p l a c e s i t i n water. Part o f f o i l remains f l o a t i n g . Repeats several times.  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  135  What a r e y o u t r y i n g t o do now?  136  Make i t s i n k .  137*  It w i l l  139  Do y o u t h i n k y o u c a n g e t i t to sink without pushing i t down?  140  Oh, I s e e . T h a t ' s good. Okay, l e t ' s s e e y o u g e t i t t o s i n k by i t s e l f .  sink  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  (c)  Make i t s i n k .  now.  141*  Now,  I know i t w i l l  Because  I pushed  sink.  i t down.  I was j u s t e x p e r i m e n t i n g t o see i f i t would s i n k .  R e p e a t s f o r m e r method s e v e r a l t i m e s . Face appears i n c r e a s i n g l y f r u s t r a t e d . On last t r i a l fingers twitch. How do y o u go a b o u t t h i s ? See i f y o u c a n g e t enough w a t e r on t o p t o f o r c e i t down?  143  144  (b)  Pushes f o i l t o b o t t o m o f w a t e r . O b s e r v e s as i t r e m a i n s submerged.  138  142  Learner's Non-Verbal Responses  Yes.  Observes f o i l slowly i n g f o r about t h i r t y onds . You g o t p a r t  of i t .  sinksecYes, I j u s t missed the very top parts.  Teacher A c t i o n  Number  Learner's Non-Verbal Responses  (a)  Repeats t h r e e  145  (c)  times.  Demonstrates w h i l e ing.  explain-  W e l l , b e c a u s e I t h i n k , see i f i t floats like that, t h e n when i t goes down there i s a i r caught i n t h e r e .  146*  Any i d e a what k e e p s i t to float?  147  Oh, I s e e . There's always a i r caught which keeps h o l d i n g i t up, i s t h a t i t ?  W e l l , i t ' s so d r y , i t won't go u n d e r , I g u e s s .  148*  So i f y o u a r e g o i n g t o i t t o s i n k , what w o u l d do?  W e l l , I ' d t r y and i t was e v e n .  149  So  150  Okay, l e t ' s s e e works.  i t was  causing  Learner s V e r b a l Responses 1  (b)  get you  i t so  Yes.  even? how  that  Removes w r i n k l e s f r o m f l a t p i e c e o f f o i l and s e t s i t i n water { s t i l l floats). Repeats. F i n g e r s s t a r t to twitch. Can I r i p a h o l e there?  151 152*  Y e s , s u r e , y o u can use any p a r t o f i t y o u want. T e a r i t a l l a p a r t i f you l i k e .  153  You p u t middle.  154  T h a t ' s what happened w i t h y o u r p l a s t i c i n e wasn't i t ?  a hole  get  in  the  through  Rips hole i n centre of f o i l and p l a c e s i t back i n w a t e r {floats). Stares at i t w i t h p u z z l e d l o o k on f a c e . Yes, Yes .  i t should  sink.  Learner's Teacher A c t i o n  Number  (a)  157  We have o n l y a b o u t a m i n u t e l e f t . Do y o u have one more s u g g e s t i o n and we w i l l t r y i t ? Then we'11 have t o l e a v e i t u n t i l n e x t week. It  floats  quite well  (b)  Verbal  R e s p o n s e s (c)  Floats  foil  with  objects  (aluminum cube lueite cube, ohalk covk poly 3  3  ylene cube) a time.  3  eth^  added one a t  now.  158  F o i l s i n k s when l a r g e aluminum cube i s added.  SESSION  I I I - 13/2/69  159  A l l r i g h t J e f f , you look l i k e y o u have a l r e a d y g o t s o m e t h i n g i n mind. J u s t c a r r y on.  H o l d s thumb o v e r e n d o f w a t e r - f i l l e d s t r a w and l i f t s i t from water.  I'm t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t why t h e w a t e r s t a y s i n when I p u t my thumb up t h e r e .  Experiments with d i f f e r e n t ways o f k e e p i n g w a t e r i n straw.  160  161  Why in?  162  I see.  163  1  R e p e a t s e x p e r i m e n t and s t a r e s a t outcome.  155  156*  Non-Verbal Responses  Learner s  B e c a u s e t h e r e i s no a i r up h e r e so i t c a n t a k e t h e place of the water. I guess.  do y o u s u p p o s e i t s t a y s  P l a c e s r u b b e r c o r k and piece o f chalk i n water  {both  sink) .  Number  Teacher  A c t i o n (a)  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b)  164  L i f t s piece of colored chalk.  165  Observes b a r o f soap s i n k in water.  166  Pushes b a r o f wax u n d e r s u r f a c e and t h e n t r i e s t o b a l a n c e d i f f e r e n t cubes on it.  167  C o u l d y o u p l e a s e t e l l me a problem? (quietly).  168  I beg your  169*  Okay, what do y o u s a y we go b a c k t o t h e p l a s t i c i n e , we have some h e r e and h e r e , and s e e what we c a n f i n d out with i t today.  pardon.  170  Could you p l e a s e t e l l a problem? Attaches a long s t r i p of p l a s t i c i n e around s t y r o f o a m ball. Plasticine falls off upon p l a c e m e n t i n w a t e r . Repeats experiment. T h i s t i m e , p l a s t i c i n e does n o t f a l l o f f u n t i l a f t e r a few seconds. Places knife  i n water  (sinks) 171*  172*  Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  I'm s t i l l c u r i o u s t o s e e i f you can g e t t h e p l a s t i c i n e to f l o a t . The l a s t day y o u were h a v i n g a l i t t l e t r o u b l e with i t .  Molds p l a s t i c i n e around cork and s e t s i n w a t e r (sinks). Repeats s e v e r a l t i m e s . Attempts d i f f e r e n t v a r i a t i o n s - r e m o v e s some p l a s t i c i n e , uses another c o r k . Replaces cork with rubber ball (still sinks).  me  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  173*  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l Responses  (b)  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  (c)  Places p l a s t i c i n e inside a s e a l e d h o l l o w tube  (floats). 174  T h a t ' s one way.  175  L e t ' s s e e how many d i f f e r e n t ways y o u c a n come up with.  176*  P l a s t i c tube f l o a t s w i t h p l a s t i c i n e attached to bottom s i d e .  177  There's  178  Can y o u f l o a t i t w i t h t h e p l a s t i c i n e on t o p ?  179  Okay.  180*  Oh, y e s . L e t s go b a c k t o t h a t t o u g h one. See i f you can g e t t h e p l a s t i c ine t o f l o a t with nothing e l s e , j u s t by i t s e l f . You h a v e t r i e d a few i d e a s . L e t ' s see i f you can get it.  181*  Adds l a r g e b a l l o f p l a s t i c i n e t o end o f t u b e b u t does not p l a c e i t i n water.  another. Can I p u t some on t h e bottom too? Forms a c o m p l e t e c i r c l e o f p l a s t i c i n e a r o u n d t u b e and sets i t i n water.  Test larger p l a s t i c i n e (sinks). Sighs.  cup  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  182*  Learner's Non-Verbal Responses  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  (c)  S t a r e s a t p l a s t i c i n e on t a b l e . Molds i t i n t o a cone {sinks). Repeats. L i f t s p l a s t i c i n e and shakes head.  183  What do  184  T h a t l a s t t i m e , what were y o u t r y i n g t o do?  I t r i e d to hollow  185*  Hollow i t out, happened?  Well, there's leaks i n i t and i t ' s s t i l l t o o h e a v y and i t f e l l down.  186*  Do you t h i n k t h e l e a k s had a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h i t ?  187  Oh,  188  Do to no  I  you  but  I don t - w e l l - I ' m t r y i n g t o make i t w i t h o u t anything else. 1  what  (Thinks  you t h i n k i t w o u l d h e l p have a f l a t p i e c e w i t h leaks i n i t ? [Presents  f l a t pieces  of  plasticine)  for  a few  i t out.  seconds).  W e l l , not r e a l l y , but i f i t wasn't w e i g h t , i f i t w a s n ' t w e i g h t e d down, i t w o u l d have a l l t o do w i t h i t .  see.  Maybe you 189  need?  Places f l a t piece of p l a s t i c i n e i n water {sinks). Removes p l a s t i c i n e , s t a r e s a t i t , and t r i e s a g a i n .  could t r y that. Repeats experiment w i t h l a r g e r sheet of p l a s t i c i n e  (sinks)  .  Learner s N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b) 1  Number  Teacher  A c t i o n (a)  190  Molds i n t o  (sinks).  191  1  shape  </^^^/^  Repeats, Sighs, s t a r e s a t p l a s t i c i n e , and t a p s h i s thumb.  192  Have y o u g o t any o t h e r ideas?  193  You a r e a l l e x h a u s t e d t h a t one?  194  Oh, I s e e .  195  L e t ' s s e e i f we c a n f i n d out anything u s i n g these t u b e s . We've g o t some h e r e and some s m a l l e r ones h e r e i f y o u n e e d them. H e r e ' s a n o t h e r one. J u s t u s e w h a t e v e r you l i k e and s e e i f y o u can f i n d o u t a n y t h i n g . (Helps learner aolleat tubes scattered among materials .)  196  this  Learner s V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  on  (Smiles) Smiles  and nods  agreement.  Has d i f f i c u l t y r e m o v i n g y e l l o w - c a p s f r o m end o f tube.  No.  Learner s Non-Verbal Responses  Learner s V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  1  Teacher  /Number 197  Action  (a)  1  Oh, y o u c a n a l w a y s p u t on t h e r e d c a p s . They go on much e a s i e r , i f y o u need them.  198  V a r i e s amount o f w a t e r i n s i d e t u b e . Sometimes t u b e s i n k s a t other times i t floats.  199  T r i e s i n s e r t i n g l a r g e alum-. inum cube i n t o t u b e (it is  too  200  Here a r e some s m a l l e r ones i f y o u want them. (Points  to  smaller  aluminum  cubes).  big).  I n s e r t s r u b b e r c o r k and f i v e aluminum cubes i n t o tube. It floats.  201  F i l l s t u b e w i t h aluminum cubes. It s t i l l floats when p l a c e d i n w a t e r .  202  Observes objects,  203*  204  What a r e y o u t r y i n g here?  t o do  tube, f i l l e d floating.  Demonstrates w h i l e explaining.  Continues watching i t float.  with I'm t r y i n g t o s i n k i t so i t j u s t f l o a t s down, s l o w l y and maybe-because I d o n ' t want i t t o p l o p down l i k e that or to stay f l o a t i n g at t h e t o p . I want i t t o go b a c k and f o r t h .  Number 205  .Teacher A c t i o n  Learner.' s Non-Verbal Responses  (a)  Adds w a t e r c a u s i n g sink. Now  (b)  (c)  i t to  i t sinks.  So I have  208  t o l e t o u t some.  Removes some w a t e r f r o m t u b e (sinks). Repeats three times.'Each time tube s i n k s .  209  What c a u s e s i t t o s i n k I t never used t o .  210  Oh, y o u added weight?  some more  211  Oh, y o u added  some w a t e r .  now?  212  213*  1  T h a t ' s a b o u t what y o u have there, i s n ' t i t ? Pretty close.  206* 207  Learner s V e r b a l Responses  The w a t e r , t h e added  weight.  Yes, t h e water.  Continues removing water, e v e n t u a l l y one end f l o a t s , the o t h e r s i n k s . What k e e p s c a u s i n g one end t o come up?  W e l l , I c a n ' t make i t s o there i s j u s t the r i g h t e v e n amount and-so t h e w a t e r goes down t o t h a t end and t h e a i r comes up h e r e , so t h e a i r l i f t s i t up and t h i s p u l l s i t down.  Learner s Non-Verbal Responses  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  1  Teacher A c t i o n  Number  (a)  214*  Can y o u do i t t h e o t h e r way r o u n d , so t h e y e l l o w end s t a y s up?  215  Oh y e s , so i t works b o t h ways.  (b)  I n v e r t s tube c a u s i n g o t h e r end t o f l o a t .  L i f t s s m a l l e r p l a s t i c tube and s t r u g g l e s t o remove cap f r o m end.  216  217  Do  218  I ' l l t a k e i t o f f f o r you i f you l i k e .  you want t h e t o p  No,  off?  219  Motions t o balance poly-e t h y l e n e cube on t u b e b u t does n o t .  220  Surveys s u r r o u n d i n g materials.  221*  (c)  We have o n l y a c o u p l e o f m i n u t e s l e f t . Do y o u want t o t r y y o u r aluminum f o i l f r o m l a s t week? You w i l l remember what we were t r y i n g t o do. We have l o t s o f p i e c e s o f aluminum f o i l i f you need o t h e r s , i f you d o n ' t l i k e t h e one you have.  Performs about t e n r a p i d t r i a l s i n which f o i l i s b e n t i n v a r i o u s shapes and p l a c e d i n w a t e r . Each time f o i l f l o a t s .  I'm  trying  to  figure-  T e a c h e r A c t i o n (a)  Number 222 223*  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b)  Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  O b s e r v e s c l o s e l y as f o i l s t a n d s on edge i n w a t e r . •  Here i s a p r o b l e m . See i f y o u c a n make t h i s one (lucite cube) these t h r e e f l o a t on t o p o f t h e aluminum [three  cubes-one aluminum, two l u c i t e ) .  224*  Takes l a r g e r p i e c e o f f o i l , f o l d s i t , adds c u b e s (floats). Smiles.  225'  How many more c a n y o u add  SESSION  IV  226*  A l l r i g h t , J e f f , y o u were t r y i n g to balance things with the t i n f o i l . Let's see how y o u do t o d a y . We d i d n ' t have much t i m e l a s day.  227  What do y o u n o t i c e ?  228  It's starting o f a sudden.  -  Adds p o l y e t h y l e n e cube causing i t to sink.  18/2/69  to sink a l l  P l a c e s f o i l i n w a t e r . Adds c o r k , l u c i t e cube, t h r e e p o l y e t h y l e n e c u b e s , and t h r e e aluminum c u b e s b e f o r e i t sinks. It's  starting  to sink.  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  • Learner's V e r b a l Responses  (b)  (c)  Bends s i d e s o f f o i l s l i g h t l y upward and adds o b j e c t s . R e p l a c e s aluminum c u b e s w i t h wood c u b e s .  229*  230  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l Responses  Do y o u t h i n k y o u w i l l g e t more o r l e s s on t h i s t i m e ?  W e l l , i f I use t h e s e t h i n g s (aluminum cubes), they are a l i t t l e h e a v i e r , and i f I d o n 1 use them I s h o u l d g e t more o n . 1  231*  Repeats experiment, p i l i n g s e v e r a l c o r k s and wood cubes onto f o i l . F i n a l l y sinks.  232  I t seems l i k e y o u g o t q u i t e a few more on t h i s t i m e ?  F o l d s aluminum i n t o b o a t and r e p e a t s p r o c e d u r e .  233  What a r e you t r y i n g now?  Demonstrates explaining.  t o do  234 235  236  while  Repeats boat experiment. S m i l e s as i t s i n k s . E v e r y t i m e i t seems t o be getting a l i t t l e better. Repeats. Boat c a p s i z e s r a t h e r than s i n k s .  It  started  to  sink.  Make i t so I c a n l e a n a g a i n s t i t (sides of  things boat).  Learner s N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b) 1  Number  Teacher  A c t i o n (a)  237*  What have y o u f o u n d o u t so f a r ?  238  The l e s s y o u c a n p u t o n . A n y t h i n g e l s e , about t h e aluminum i t s e l f , maybe?  239  It's  240* •  I b r o u g h t some d i f f e r e n t aluminum t o d a y . Maybe y o u could t r y working w i t h i t and s e e i f y o u c a n s i n k i t . Remember t h e l a s t t i m e , y o u were h a v i n g a l i t t l e t r o u b l e . (Hands learner  in  242  243*  (Thinks That  eight  241*  1  W e l l , so f a r , t h e h e a v i e r the t h i n g s a r e , the l e s s you c a n p u t o n .  hard t o sink.  f o i l folded layers) .  Learner s V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  Folds f o i l i n t o f l a t sheet w i t h a b o u t a one i n c h rudder running along l o n g i tudinal axis. F o i l s t i l l floats. T h a t l o o k s l i k e what y o u were t r y i n g t o do w i t h t h e p l a s t i c i n e t h e o t h e r day. Is t h a t i t ? Drops f o i l , b e n t i n "S" shape, i n t o water (floats). Repeats s e v e r a l times.  for a few  i t ' s hard  seconds).  to sink.  Learner s Non-Verbal Responses  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  1  Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  244*  sink?  (b)  Pushes f o i l t o b o t t o m o f w a t e r , r e l e a s e s , and f o i l surfaces. Smiles.  I t won't  Demonstrates w h i l e ing.  B e c a u s e when I push i t down i t k e e p s coming b a c k up.  explain-  sink.  245  T h a t won't  246  Have y o u any i d e a what makes i t k e e p coming up?  F o r one t h i n g , i t ' s different kind.  247  Yes.  And  248  What's d i f f e r e n t  249  I t seems h e a v i e r b u t i t comes up?  Yes. U n f o l d s f o i l once (now four layers thick). Places i n w a t e r (floats). Submerges  (surfaces)  Unfolds  251 252  253*  I f i t ' s too l a r g e , you m i g h t want t o t e a r i t i n h a l f i f i t ' s too large.  .  to a single  layer.  Cuts small pieces o f f o i l , removes w r i n k l e s , and s e t s i n water (floats). Pushes f o i l t o b o t t o m o f w a t e r (remains submerged). S t a r e s a t i t and w r i n k l e s eyebrows.  a  that's a l l .  Well,  about i t ?  250  (c)  i t seems  heavier.  Learner s •Non-Verbal R e s p o n s e s (b)  Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  1  Number 254  T e a c h e r A c t i o n (a) I wonder why?  Removes f o i l and s e t s i t on t o p o f w a t e r (floats). Stares a t f o i l .  255  Adds aluminum cube t o f o i l b u t removes when f o i l starts to sink.  256  I n v e r t s f o i l and r e p e a t s w i t h aluminum c u b e .  257  Stares at f l o a t i n g f o i l . Pushes i t below s u r f a c e and o b s e r v e s c l o s e l y as i t r e m a i n s submerged.  258  Pushs i n v e r t e d cupped p i e c e of f o i l t o bottom o f water causing bubbles o f a i r t o surface.  259  H o l d s two p i e c e s o f f o i l i n hands and i n d i c a t e s h o l l o w s p a c e between them.  260* 261  Yes.  I t s t a y s down b e c a u s e when I hold i t together there i s a hollow space i n i t . So up  W h i l e e x p l a i n i n g , submerges two p i e c e s o f f o i l c a u s i n g a i r bubbles t o r i s e .  i t will again.  float,  go b a c k  Just l i k e i f I p u s h — . T h e r e ' s t h e a i r come o u t .  'Number 262*  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  F o i l surfaces submerged. I s e e . T h a t sounds quite interesting.  265  W e l l , c o u l d y o u make i t s i n k j u s t by i t s e l f , w i t h o u t y o u p u s h i n g i t down? What do y o u t h i n k ? What w o u l d y o u have t o do?  266  Just  after  being  See t h e r e ' s some a i r i n i t now, so i t came b a c k up.  Just  l e t i t sink.  Like  I d i d now.  It's it's  s i n k i n g , I t h i n k . Yes, sunk.  l e t i t sink.  267  Watches c a r e f u l l y as i s placed i n water.  foil  L i k e y o u d i d now.  269  Continues  observing.  Yes.  271 272  Learner's V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c) And i f I made t h e a i r come out o f t h e other t h i n g s , i t w o u l d have come o u t , - b u t t h e n i t w o u l d n ' t have sunk.  264  270  (b)  Yes.  263*  268  Learner's Non-Verbal Responses  Observes another p i e c e o f f o i l sinking slowly. I see.  •Number  Teacher Actions  (a)  273  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (b) Repeats  274  And e v e n t u a l l y i t w i l l g e t down t o t h e bottom?  275  But i t won't i f i t has a i r in i t ?  1  observation. Yes .  {Shakes  head in  negative  manner) No, t h a t ' s what I t h i n k was wrong t h e l a s t time.  276  The l a s t t i m e y o u had t o o much a i r , i s t h a t i t ?  277  I see.  278*  I f you use t h e o t h e r paper now, how w i l l i t work?  279  T h a t ' s good, b u t t h e l a s t Nods n e g a t i v e l y . t i m e y o u c o u l d n o t do i t o r you d i d n ' t t h i n k o f t h a t way, r i g h t ?  280  That's r e a l l y  good.  Learner s V e r b a l R e s p o n s e s (c)  Y e s , t h a t ' s what I t h i n k b u t I'm n o t s u r e .  Drops c u r v e d , s i n g l e l a y e r of former f o i l i n t o water. O b s e r v e s as i t s l o w l y sinks.  {Smiles) I sunk i t . B e c a u s e I t h i n k t h a t when I c u r v e d i t h e r e , i t goes down and t h e n h a s t o keep on g o i n g and t h e n a f t e r a w h i l e t h e w a t e r comes up on i t g r a d u a l l y because the water i s moving.  Learner s Non-Verbal Responses 1  Number 281  Teacher A c t i o n  (a)  When y o u work w i t h t h e s e t u b e s s e e what y o u c a n f i n d o u t ? (Helps learner  gather  tubes) .  282*  Places t h r e e tubes i n t r i a n g u l a r arrangement water, observes, then removes.  (b)  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  (c)  in  Removes c a p s f r o m t u b e and s e t s i t i n water (sinks).  283  What c a u s e s t h a t now?  to  sink,  284  Which i s h e a v i e r t h a n which?  The w a t e r , the tube.  285*  I s t h a t what happened t o t h e s t r a w t h e o t h e r day too?  Y e s , t h a t ' s what I t h i n k .  286  Because t h e water f l o w s i n and i t ' s h e a v i e r t h a n t h i s t h i n g c a n h o l d up.  Removes t u b e  287*  Remember when we  288  How  (Hands straw).  learner  come?  used  from  i t pulls  down  water.  this?  plastic P o i n t s a t straw w h i l e explaining.  W e l l , b e c a u s e when t h e water ran i n i t o n l y got t o a c e r t a i n amount and no more w a t e r c o u l d push i n then the a i r could get o u t - i t j u s t pushed i n t h e air. T h e r e ' s n o t enough room.  Learner s N'on-Verbal R e s p o n s e s  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  1  'Number  Teacher A c t i o n  (a) .  (b)  P l a c e s straw i n water a g a i n (floats). Stares at i t , s i g h s , s i t s back, r e p e a t s , and t h e n p u s h e s straw t o bottom o f container.  2 89*  W e l l , what i f i t f i l l e d r i g h t up w i t h w a t e r .  290  The p l a s t i c  291  T h e r e ' s n o t enough  292  C o u l d y o u g e t anymore i n ?  Demonstrates explaining.  293*  Why d o e s n ' t t h e t u b e do t h e same t h i n g when i f f i l l s up?  Picks  294  So, i t ' s t h e amount o f w a t e r t h a t makes t h e difference,then, i s i t ?  Observes l a r g e tube  295*  How  S e t s t u b e i n w a t e r and observes i t sink.  Y e s , and t h e r e ' s n o t enough w a t e r i n i t t o p u l l i t down.  floats? water?  about t h e l i t t l e  {Hands le.avnev tube .)  (c)  one?  smallev  No. See, i f I f i l l i t up and t h e n i t comes b a c k up. When I push i t t o t h e bottom i t comes back up.  while  up l a r g e  B e c a u s e t h e r e ' s more w a t e r i n the tube. See, l i k e t h a t (stvaw) i s a l o t more plastic: i n i t than water. And i f p l a s t i c f l o a t s and t h e r e ' s n o t v e r y much w a t e r , then the p l a s t i c w i l l f l o a t . But i n t h i s c a s e (tube) there's l o t s of p l a s t i c but heavier water.  tube.  sink.  * Yes.  It  sinks too.  Teacher A c t i o n  Number  (a)  296  J u s t on a c o u n t o f i t has so much w a t e r i n t h e r e , i s that i t ?  297  And n o t enough c a n g e t i n s i d e the straw?  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l Responses  (b)  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  Y e s , t h a t ' s what I t h i n k .  P l a c e s straw i n s i d e tube and s t a n d s b o t h v e r t i c a l l y i n water.  298  299*  How  about w i t h t h i s  300  I was w o n d e r i n g , w i t h t h e b a g , i f y o u f i l l e d i t up j u s t f u l l o f w a t e r now.  301  Do y o u t h i n k t h e r e w o u l d be enough w a t e r i n t h e r e t o make i t s i n k ?  (Presents learner small polyethylene  bag?  with bag.)  P l a c e s r u b b e r b a l l and c o r k i n bag.  Removes o b j e c t s  from bag.  Yes.  Uses p l a s t i c t u b e t o bag w i t h w a t e r .  302 303  Do y o u t h i n k t h a t w i l l be enough w a t e r ? What i f y o u t i e d t h e t o p on t h a t (bag)? Maybe y o u have a l i t t l e t o o much.  304  W i l l t h a t s t i l l be enough? What do y o u t h i n k ?  (c)  fill  Dumps o u t some o f t h e water.  Yes.  Teacher A c t i o n  Number  (a)  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  (b)  Okay, what does  t h a t do?  Makes i t so i t ' s e a s i e r to put i t around. (Easier  to t i e ) .  307  Okay.  (Helps  learner  tie  bag. )  308  P l a c e s bag i n t o  309  Now i s t h a t - O h , i t ' s n o t deep enough f o r y o u , i s t h a t i t ? Maybe we c o u l d dump i n a l i t t l e more o f t h i s water j u s t t o see.  310  It  311  I s t h a t on t h e b o t t o m t h e r e o r - (Pushes log  313  water.  F i l l s c o n t a i n e r w i t h more w a t e r and p u t s b a g back in i t .  It  sinks.  sinks.  down. ) 312  (c)  H o l d s t o p o f bag and t w i r l s bottom.  305 306  Learner's Non-Verbal Responses  Examines bag c l o s e l y t o determine i f i t i s floating.  Maybe we c o u l d t r y i t i n h e r e (nearby bucket of water) j u s t t o be s u r e . I t s h o u l d be deep enough, right? P l a c e s bag i n b u c k e t , s t a r e s , p u s h e s i t down.  It doesn't  sink.  Number 314  T e a c h e r A c t i o n (a) Still  doesn't  Learner's Non-Verbal Responses  (b)  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  (c)  sink.  315  L i f t s b a g f r o m b u c k e t and drops back i n .  316  I'm g o i n g t o dump back some o f t h i s w a t e r .  {quietly).  317  I t h i n k I b e t t e r dump b a c k some o f t h i s w a t e r .  318 319  Uses p l a s t i c t u b e t o empty water from c o n t a i n e r . Oh, t h a t ' s f i n e . We have o n l y a minute l e f t anyhow. I was w o n d e r i n g , do y o u have any e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s o n e , why i t d o e s n ' t work?  320  W e l l , maybe t h e p l a s t i c f l o a t s , o r maybe t h e t a g f l o a t s , or there's a l i t t l e b i t of a i ri n there.  Removes b a g f r o m w a t e r and examines c l o s e l y .  See, t h e w a t e r ' s t h e way down.  not a l l  321  Oh, I s e e .  It's  322  So what do y o u t h i n k i s causing i t ?  F o r one t h i n g , t h e a i r . The p l a s t i c helps i t .  What d i f f e r e n c e does t h e p l a s t i c make?  Well, the p l a s t i c I think?  n o t a l l t h e way  full.  floats,  Learner s Non-Verbal Responses  Learner's V e r b a l Responses  1  Teacher A c t i o n  'Number 323  (a)  Oh, I s e e . W i t h t h e though,.you s a i d i t just that i t didn't enough w a t e r i n i t . that i t ?  (b)  (Confused  straw was have Is Stares thirty  325*  U n t i e s bag, r e f i l l s w i t h w a t e r u n t i l a b o u t onethird full. Now, how a r e we g o i n g t o get r i d o f the a i r ?  327  Do  329  T w i s t s bag s e v e r a l t o remove a i r .  Now  faoe)  I'm g o i n g t o t r y l e t t i n g more w a t e r i n and l e t t i n g out the a i r .  times I think  T i e s bag and p l a c e s i t i n bucket of water (floats). i t sinks?  330 331  a t bag f o r about seconds.  y o u want a hand?  328*  on  Yes .  324  326*  look  (c)  Now  I've g o t i t .  i t sinks.  Yes. Examines bag c l o s e l y and squeezes t o p .  So i t was j u s t on a c c o u n t of the a i r a f t e r a l l , i s that i t ?  Y e s , t h a t ' s what I t h i n k .  Number  T e a c h e r A c t i o n (a)  332  So i t d o e s n ' t r e a l l y matter i f the p l a s t i c f l o a t s o r n o t , i f you g e t enough w a t e r i n t h e r e , you are a l l right?  333  That i s  Learner's N o n - V e r b a l Responses  Removes b a g f r o m  -  Learner's V e r b a l Responses Yes .  interesting.  334  (b)  water.  (c)  

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