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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An exploratory study in conceptualizing children's investigatory activities of natural phenomena by utilizing… Lindberg, Wayne Charles 1969

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AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN CONCEPTUALIZING CHILDREN'S INVESTIGATORY ACTIVITIES OF NATURAL PHENOMENA BY UTILIZING THOMAS S. KUHN'S VIEW OF SCIENCE AS A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK by WAYNE CHARLES LINDBERG B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1969 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e -ments f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l -a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . WAYNE C. LINDBERG Department o f EDUCATION The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date AUGUST 15, 1969 ABSTRACT The s t u d y , by e x p l o i t i n g Thomas S. Rutin"s. v iew o f s c i e n t i f i c development, a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . A t t h e p r e s e n t p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e o f t h e e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y , the w r i t e r c o n c e n t r a t e d on Kuhn's h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n o f s c i e n c e i n w h i c h paradigms form r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n s s e p a r a t e d by s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n new and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d v i e w s of t h e f i e l d . The w r i t e r f e l t t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v i ews o f n a t u r a l phenomena by c h i l d r e n might f o l l o w some s o r t o f e v o l u t i o n a r y , K u h n i a n - l i k e p a t t e r n o f p a r a d i g m a t i c i n v e s -t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . These a c t i v i t i e s would be s e p a r a t e d by t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d s o f e f f o r t o r p a r a d i g m - l i k e s h i f t s r e s u l t -i n g i n new and incommensurate ways o f s e e i n g n a t u r a l phenomena. To f a c i l i t a t e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f such a p a t t e r n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l b e h a v i o u r by c h i l d r e n , t h e w r i t e r f o r m u l a t e d a t e a c h e r r o l e based on i d e a s drawn from Kuhn. The p r e s e n t s t u d y attempted t o p r o v i d e a p p a r e n t examples o f c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f thought and s p e c u l a t i v e bases: f o r some o f t h e i r a c t i o n s . By o b s e r v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , i n v o l v i n g . s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s , t h e w r i t e r found some s u p p o r t f o r what he has termed c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s o r p o i n t s o f v i e w about n a t u r a l e v e n t s . A l l c h i l d r e n , f o r example appeared t o h o l d a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r . Support was a l s o found f o r Kuhn's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i i i c h i l d r e n ' s v i e w s o f t e n show s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s t o t h o s e o f A r i s t o t e l i a n s . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e l e a r n e r s appeared t o see w a t e r as an e x t e r n a l , A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e , m o t i v e f o r c e w h i c h causes o b j e c t s t o s i n k o r move from t h e i r n a t u r a l f l o a t i n g p o s i t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , a l l c h i l d r e n appeared t o e n c o u n t e r numerous n o v e l o b s e r v a t i o n s o r anomalies — f a c t s and f i n d i n g s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . A p p l y i n g t h e p o i n t o f view t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r , a l l l e a r n e r s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e p l a s t i c s t r a w f l o a t e d . The a s s i m i l a t i o n o f anomaly, i n one i n s t a n c e , r e s u l t e d i n what has been termed a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t . D u r i n g t h i s e x p e r i e n c e t h e c h i l d ' s e a r l i e r v i e w t h a t f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s do n o t d i s p l a c e w a t e r was r e p l a c e d by a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d view i n v o l v i n g w a t e r d i s p l a c e m e n t . A l t h o u g h o n l y one c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t o r p e r c e p t u a l -c o n c e p t u a l t r a n s p o s i t i o n seemed r e a s o n a b l y e v i d e n t i n t h e s t u d y , t h e w r i t e r f e l t t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t was u s e f u l i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f modern s c i e n t i f i c v i e w s . He s p e c u l a t e d t h a t a m o d i f i e d t e a c h e r r o l e c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e s h i f t s i n c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , he s p e c u l a t e d about t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s t u d y f o r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g and s u g g e s t e d s e v e r a l problems f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m development. TABLE OF CONTENTS Ch a p t e r Page I THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT . 1 Statement o f t h e Problem 1 The C o n t e x t o f t h e Study 3 J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e Method o f Study . . . 5 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study 6 I I THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: THOMAS S. KUHN'S VIEW OF SCIENCE 7 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Terms Used 7 Kuhn's Approach t o t h e H i s t o r y o f S c i e n c e 22 Kuhn's View o f S c i e n t i f i c Development . . . 24 I I I DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES USED IN THE STUDY 30 The L e a r n i n g S i t u a t i o n 30 R e c o r d i n g t h e R e s u l t s 33 The Teacher R o l e 35 IV SYNOPSES OF THE LEARNING SESSIONS 41 Method of P r e s e n t i n g O b s e r v a t i o n s 41 Summary o f T e a c h i n g R e s u l t s 42 S y n o p t i c R e p o r t s 43 V Chapter Page V AN EXPLORATORY CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE CHILDREN'S INVESTIGATORY ACTIVITIES 59 Child-Paradigms and Child-Paradigm S h i f t s : Ideas Adapted from Kuhn 59 I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Apparent Examples o f C h i l d -Paradigms and Child-Paradigm S h i f t s . . . 64 Summary 75 VI SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THE PRESENT STUDY TO SCIENCE TEACHING 78 Summary of the Most S i g n i f i c a n t R e s u l t s . . 78 R e f l e c t i o n s on the P o s s i b l e U s e f u l n e s s o f the Study 80 REFERENCES 84 APPENDIX A - VERBATIM TRANSCRIPTIONS OF THE TEACHING SESSIONS FOR ONE LEARNER 87 LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT 35 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. W. B o l d t f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g h e l p w i t h o u t w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s would never have been completed. Dr. B o l d t ' s i n t e r e s t , p a t i e n c e , and encouragement i n t h e st u d y a r e g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. A s p e c i a l thank you i s a l s o g i v e n t o Dr. H. Cannon, Dr. J . Coombs, and Mrs. J . Woodrow f o r t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y . C H A P T E R I PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e i n a l o n g -term s t u d y o f l a r g e r magnitude l e a d i n g t o the development o f a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g , f i r m l y based on o b s e r v a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s and l e a r n e r s c o p i n g w i t h complex s c i e n t i f i c knowledge under c l a s s r o o m c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e problem o f t h e s t u d y i s d e l i n e a t e d . The c o n t e x t o f t h e s t u d y i s t h e n p r o v i d e d showing i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g . A j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e method o f s t u d y i s t h e n p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The G e n e r a l Problem The s t u d y i s d i r e c t e d toward t h e development o f a t h e o r y f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g complex s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, Thomas S. Kuhn's view o f s c i e n t i f i c development i s employed as a c o n c e p t u a l framework i n t h e s t u d y . U t i l i z i n g a d a p t a t i o n s o f c e r t a i n Kuhnian c o n c e p t s , t h e w r i t e r attempted t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex knowledge by c h i l d r e n and t o suggest i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s based on e x p l i c i t t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . The advantage o f t h i s approach was thought t o l i e 2 i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e o r y can p o i n t t o p o s s i b l e a r e a s f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e s t r a t e g y f u r t h e r and t h e r e b y g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n t o subsequent e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . D e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e Problem and Method o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n The p r e s e n t e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d f o r w a r d i n f i v e s t a g e s . The c e n t r a l problem f o r t h e f i r s t phase was t o examine Kuhn's w r i t i n g s f o r c o n c e p t s and p r o c e s s e s r e l a t e d t o t h e growth and development o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge w h i c h appeared p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g how c h i l d r e n might a c q u i r e complex knowledge. Concepts c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c -u l a r l y r e l e v a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t i n Kuhn's view o f s c i e n t i f i c development a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . I n t h e second phase, t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r f o r m u l a t e d a t e a c h e r r o l e from i d e a s drawn from Kuhn's e v o l u t i o n a r y v iew o f t h e development o f s c i e n c e . The t e a c h e r r o l e was used t o o b t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e w r i t e r e x p l o r e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e t e a c h e r f u n c t i o n s f o r p o s s i b l e c l a s s r o o m use. The t e a c h e r r o l e and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . The main problem o f t h e t h i r d phase i n v o l v e d o b t a i n i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s o f n a t u r a l phenomena. The r e s e a r c h e r , p e r f o r m i n g th e t e a c h e r r o l e , b r o u g h t l e a r n e r s i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h v a r i o u s n a t u r a l phenomena and i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e l e a r n e r s f o r t h e purpose o f d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i r modes o f t h o u g h t . Depending on t h e i r r e s p o n s e s he t r i e d 3 v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e t e a c h e r r o l e . S y n o p t i c r e p o r t s h i g h l i g h t -i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r IV. The f o u r t h phase o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , p r e s e n t e d i n Cha p t e r V, f o c u s e s o n - c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e complex knowledge u t i l i z i n g a d a p t a t i o n s o f s e v e r a l Kuhnian c o n c e p t s . I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f apparent examples o f c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f th o u g h t a l o n g w i t h s p e c u l a t i o n s about p o s s i b l e p e r c e p t u a l bases f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s views have a l s o been p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c h a p t e r i n o r d e r t o g i v e g r e a t e r c o n c r e t e n e s s and scope t o t h e a b s t r a c t i o n s p u t f o r e w a r d . D u r i n g t h e f i f t h phase o f t h e s t u d y , c o m p r i s i n g C h a p t e r V I , t h e w r i t e r summarized t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i -g a t i o n , s p e c u l a t e d about t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y f o r t e a c h i n g s c i e n c e , and suggested s e v e r a l problems f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . THE CONTEXT OF THE STUDY The s t u d y , by f o c u s i n g on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex knowledge, i s c o n s i s t e n t . w i t h t h e major concerns o f t h e r e c e n t s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m movement (Tanner, 1966, pp. 362-370.). I n t h e absence o f an adequate t h e o r y o f c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g , s c h o l a r s have t u r n e d t o e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks o f t h e v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s as s o u r c e s o f i d e a s f o r t e a c h i n g . 4 F o r example, E a s l e y ( E a s l e y , 1967, p. 216.) s t a t e s , W h i l e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s do n o t o r d i n a r i l y d e t e r m i n e how knowledge s h o u l d be t a u g h t , t h e y p r o v i d e c o n c e p t u a l frameworks w h i c h have some prima facte v a l u e i n f o r m u l a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l problems f o r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Some such r e l e v a n t framework i s e s p e c i a l l y needed i n t h e absence o f a t h e o r y o f l e a r n i n g adequate t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e p e d a g o g i c a l problems. Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c development was s e l e c t e d as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework i n t h e s t u d y f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l s c i e n t i s t s have p l a y e d a major r o l e i n c u r r i c u l u m development i n t h e r e c e n t c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m movement. Kuhn argues t h a t s c i e n t i s t s , because o f c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g , have a m i s t a k e n image o f s c i e n c e and t h e s c i e n t i f i c e n t e r p r i s e (Kuhn, 1963a, pp. 350-351.). Kuhn n o t e s , f o r example, t h a t s c i e n t i s t s v i e w s c i e n c e as t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f f a c t s and t h e o r i e s found i n t e x t books. C o n s e q u e n t l y , s c i e n c e programs d e v e l o p e d by s c i e n t i s t s t e n d t o emphasize t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l e a r n i n g s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s , l a w s , and t h e o r i e s as opposed t o r e f l e c t i n g t h e a c t u a l s p i r i t o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c e n t e r p r i s e — a human a c t i v i t y s u b j e c t t o a l l t h e i d i o s y n c r a s i e s o f human b e i n g s . I n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e " c o n t e n t " emphasis i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , some c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t s , most n o t a b l y t h e American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e Advancement o f S c i e n c e (AAAS), s t r e s s t h e " p r o c e s s " a s p e c t s o f s c i e n c e ( A t k i n , 1962c, pp. 1-7.). The c u r r e n t move-ment f o r c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m , however, p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c " c o n t e n t " s h o u l d p r o c e e d i n t h e l i g h t o f knowledge o f how s c i e n c e grows and d e v e l o p s (Tanner, 1966, p. 365.). A 5 t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e based on Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c development appears e s p e c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e f o r a d a p t a t i o n t o s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g because i t combines elements w h i c h c o u l d be l a b e l l e d " c o n t e n t " and t h o s e w h i c h c o u l d be c a l l e d " p r o c e s s " , and g i v e s major c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e "human" a s p e c t s o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c e n t e r p r i s e . Kuhn (Kuhn, 1963c, p. 310.) seems t o i m p l y t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f modern s c i e n t i f i c v i ews might f o l l o w an e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t t e r n somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n seen i n t h e growth and development o f s c i e n c e . S c h o l a r s such as A t k i n and K a r p l u s h o l d a v i e w , s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e w r i t e r , about t h e a p p l i c -a b i l i t y o f Kuhn's i d e a s f o r s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g . They have u t i l i z e d t h e Kuhnian framework t o f o r m u l a t e a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y termed " d i s c o v e r y - i n v e n t i o n " ( A t k i n and K a r p l u s , 1962, pp. 45-51.). JUSTIFICATION FOR THE METHOD OF STUDY The method o f s t u d y used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n can b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . The im p o r t a n c e o f t h i s mode o f r e s e a r c h has been emphasized r e c e n t l y by a number o f s c h o l a r s . E a s l e y s u g g e s t s e x p l o r a t o r y methods be used w i t h a vie w t o f o r m u l a t i n g an adequate b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r o c e s s e s o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g complex s u b j e c t m a t t e r ( E a s l e y , 1966, pp. 8-9.). Cronbach f e e l s t h a t f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t s h o u l d be g i v e n t o e x p l o r a t o r y and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h o s e w h i c h examine t h e o r i e s o f c o g n i t i v e growth (Cronbach, 1966, pp. 539-545.). I n a d d i t i o n , A t k i n encourages 6 r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r i s k e x p l o r a t o r y v e n t u r e s . He f e e l s t h a t i s s u e s ^ such as how c h i l d r e n l e a r n and d e v e l o p i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d even though t h e r e i s l i t t l e chance o f immediate reward and t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h s h o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o c u s on r e a d i l y s o l v a b l e problems ( A t k i n , 1968b, pp. 12-18.). LIMITATIONS .OF. THE STUDY There a r e s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The s t u d y , because i t i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e , does n o t attempt t o t e s t an h y p o t h e s i s . I n s t e a d , t h e main i n t e n t o f t h i s mode o f r e s e a r c h i s t o match what appears t o be p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l i d e a s w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n and t o r a i s e problems f o r f u t u r e e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The p r e s e n t p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e o f th e s t u d y can be c o n s i d e r e d a n a t u r a l h i s t o r y phase i n t h e development o f a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g . As s u c h , i t has been conducted i n a l o o s e , f l e x i b l e , and h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e manner a t t e m p t i n g t o uncover f a c t s and i n c i -d e n t s t h a t may s u g g e s t , p e r h a p s , new and u n e x p l o r e d avenues o f r e s e a r c h i n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y a c r o s s s u b j e c t f i e l d s and c u l t u r e s l i e s beyond t h e scope o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s h o u l d n o t be d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d t o o t h e r c h i l d r e n . C H A P T E R I I THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: THOMAS S. KUHN'S VIEW OF SCIENCE CHAPTER I I THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: THOMAS S. KUHN'S VIEW OF SCIENCE T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s t h e r e a d e r w i t h a c o n v e n i e n t r e f e r e n c e f o r Kuhn's i d e a s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l s t r e s s e s c o n c e p t s and p r o c e s s e s w h i c h appear t o have p o t e n t i a l v a l u e f o r a d a p t a t i o n t o s c i e n c e t e a c h i n g . To ensure a c c u r a c y , t h e w r i t e r p a r a p h r a s e s Kuhn c l o s e l y , and, where deemed d e s i r a b l e , quotes d i r e c t l y . Q u o t a t i o n s a r e p l a c e d w i t h i n q u o t a t i o n marks, w i t h t h e r e f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e d d i r e c t l y a f t e r w a r d i n p a r e n t h e s i s . The r e f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h e name o f t h e a u t h o r , t h e y e a r o f p u b l i c a t i o n , and t h e page number. When t h e same a u t h o r has w r i t t e n more t h a n one book p e r y e a r , t h e books a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a l e t t e r f o l l o w i n g t h e y e a r . I f Kuhn, f o r example, w r o t e two books i n 1962, t h e s e would be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by '1962a' and '1962b'. P a r a p h r a s i n g i s acknowledged i n a s i m i l a r f ormat a t t h e end o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r p a r a g r a p h . DESCRIPTION OF TERMS USED Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n c e depends h e a v i l y on t h e v i a b i l i t y o f a number o f t e r m s , such a s : paradigm, normal s c i e n c e , e x t r a o r d i n a r y s c i e n c e , anomaly, c r i s i s , and s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n . Some o f t h e s e terms a r e o r i g i n a l w h i l e o t h e r s a r e used i n new 8 s e t t i n g s . . F o l l o w i n g , i s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e o r i g i n a l e x p r e s s i o n s , and t h o s e used i n new c o n t e x t s . P aradigm Kuhn d e s c r i b e s a paradigm as a s c i e n t i f i c achievement w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n t i f i c community acknowledges, f o r a t i m e , as s u p p l y i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r i t s f u r t h e r p r a c t i c e . The commitment t o Newton's laws o f m o t i o n , f o r example, p r o v i d e d s c i e n t i s t s w i t h a paradigm f o r f u t u r e work i n mechanics. An achievement h e l d t o be p a r a d i g m a t i c by a f i e l d o f s c i e n c e d i s p l a y s two c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i r s t , t h e achievement i s a c c e p t e d i n t h e sense t h a t i t i s r e c e i v e d by a group whose members do n o t t r y t o c r e a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y open-ended t o l e a v e many problems f o r a group o f p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o r e s o l v e . (Kuhn, 1 9 6 2 a , p. 10; Kuhn, 1963a, p. 358.) A c c o r d i n g t o Kuhn, a paradigm has g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on t h e s c i e n t i f i c community. I t i n d i c a t e s t h e s o r t s o f e n t i t i e s t h a t n a t u r e does and does not c o n t a i n . I t a l s o r e l a t e s t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e s e e n t i t i e s behave. I n a d d i t i o n , i t d e t e r m i n e s t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h ;may l e g i t i m a t e l y be asked about n a t u r e . Kuhn argues t h a t a paradigm l i m i t s t h e s c i e n t i f i c community t o problems w h i c h have an a s s u r e d s o l u t i o n . The paradigm d e t e r m i n e s t h e t e c h n i q u e s and i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t may p r o p e r l y be used t o s o l v e t h e s e problems. F i n a l l y , t h e paradigm s e t s s t a n d a r d s o f s o l u t i o n . A paradigm f u n c t i o n s f o r a s c i e n t i f i c community by p r o v i d i n g l a w s , t h e o r i e s , p r o b l e m s , methods, i n s t r u m e n t s , and 9 s t a n d a r d s o f s o l u t i o n t o g e t h e r i n an i n e x t r i c a b l e m i x t u r e . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 4, 5, 10, 18, 59, 102, 108, 125; Kuhn, 1963a, pp. 349, 358, 359.) A paradigm, however, i s not a c l o s e d s e t o f p r o p o s i t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s , nor i s i t q u i t e an o b j e c t f o r r e p l i c a t i o n as i t i s i n g r a m m a t i c a l usage where one v e r b i s t h e p a t t e r n f o r t h e e n t i r e c o n j u g a t i o n . " I n s t e a d , l i k e an a c c e p t e d j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n i n t h e common law, i t i s an o b j e c t f o r f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t i o n and s p e c i f i c a t i o n under new and more s t r i n g e n t c o n d i t i o n s . " (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 2 3 ) ( G i l l i s p i e , 1962, p. 1252.) Kuhn s t r e s s e s t h a t a paradigm p r o v i d e s a s t y l e o r manner o f a c q u i r i n g new knowledge by s u g g e s t i n g p roblems, methods o f a t t a c k , t y p e s o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , and s t a n d a r d s o f s o l u t i o n . The paradigm a l s o p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r t h e i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n . (Hawkins, 1963, p. 554; K a r p l u s , 1964, pp. 9-11; Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 59, 60, 121, 125.) The s c i e n t i s t a c q u i r e s s c i e n t i f i c r u l e s e x p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y from t h e paradigm. F i r s t , t h e paradigm p r o v i d e s e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s o f s c i e n t i f i c l a w s , t h e o r i e s and t y p e s o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . Kuhn s p e c u l a t e s t h a t t h e paradigm a l s o c o n t a i n s a t a c i t component o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. T h i s knowledge i s t h e i n a r t i c u l a b l e p a r t o f what t h e s c i e n t i s t l e a r n s n o t by p r e -c e p t and r u l e b u t p r i n c i p a l l y by example and p r a c t i c e . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 392-39 3.) 10 P aradigms, such as t h e C o p e r n i c a n Theory, may be s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive t o c o n t a i n a whole s c i e n c e . Kuhn n o t e s , however, t h a t l a r g e r paradigms may be d i v i d e d i n t o o b s e r v a t i o n a l , i n s t r u m e n t a l and c o n c e p t u a l paradigms. An o b s e r v a t i o n a l paradigm d e t e r m i n e s t h e n a t u r a l phenomena t h a t t h e s c i e n t i f i c community a c t u a l l y o b s e r v e s and r e p o r t s . I n astronomy, f o r example, an o b s e r v a t i o n a l paradigm d e t e r m i n e s t h e o b s e r v a b l e h e a v e n l y b o d i e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s e . An i n s t r u m e n t a l paradigm governs t h e m a n i p u l a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s t h a t may l e g i t i m a t e l y be employed. I n t h e p r e v i o u s example, an i n s t r u m e n t a l paradigm s u g g e s t s c e r t a i n equipment such as t e l e s c o p e s . F i n a l l y , c o n c e p t u a l paradigms d e t e r m i n e how an o b s e r v a t i o n i s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d o r e x p l a i n e d . A c o n c e p t u a l p aradigm i n t e r p r e t s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f a h e a v e n l y body as b e i n g a s t a r , a p l a n e t o r a comet. ( G i l l i s p i e , 1962, p. 1252; Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 43,. 59 , 60.) Paradigms a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e because t h e y l a y down t h e law t o f u t u r e s c i e n t i s t s . The s t u d e n t , Kuhn a r g u e s , l e a r n s h i s s c i e n c e m a i n l y t h r o u g h t e x t books. These books do n o t d e s c r i b e t h e s o r t s o f problems t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n may be asked t o s o l v e and t h e v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e i r s o l u t i o n . I n s t e a d , t h e s e books e x h i b i t problem s o l u t i o n s t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n has come t o a c c e p t as paradigms. The s t u d e n t t h e n i s asked e i t h e r w i t h a p e n c i l and paper o r i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y , t o s o l v e f o r h i m s e l f problems v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n b o t h method and s u b s t a n c e t o t h o s e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e t e x t 11 book o r t h e accompanying l e c t u r e has l e d , h i m . These "finger exercises," as Kuhn r e f e r s t o them, produce "mental sets" o r Einstellungen. T h i s commitment t o paradigms e n a b l e s t h e s t u d e n t t o p e r f o r m l a t e r r e s e a r c h i n w h i c h he can t a k e t h e fundamentals o f h i s f i e l d f o r g r a n t e d . ( G i l l i s p i e , 1962, p. 1252; Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 46., 164; Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 344-345; Kuhn, 1963b, pp. 350-351.) Normal S c i e n c e Kuhn d e s c r i b e s normal s c i e n c e as t h a t e n t e r p r i s e i n w h i c h t h e s c i e n t i f i c community a t t e m p t s t o f o r c e n a t u r e i n t o p reformed and r e l a t i v e l y i n f l e x i b l e c o n c e p t u a l boxes. W i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a paradigm, t h e s c i e n t i f i c community can make p r e d i c t i o n s about n a t u r e . D u r i n g normal s c i e n c e t h e s c i e n t i s t s s t r i v e w i t h a l l t h e i r m ight and s k i l l t o b r i n g n a t u r e i n t o c l o s e r agreement w i t h t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 5, 23-24; Kuhn, 19 6 3a, p. 360.) There a r e p r i n c i p a l l y two t y p e s o f normal s c i e n c e activities-experimental and theoretical i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 25.) Experimental activity3 i n Kuhn's v i e w , tends t o f o c u s upon t h r e e c l a s s e s o f problems: t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t , t h e mat c h i n g o f f a c t w i t h t h e o r y , and t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e o r y . The f i r s t a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d toward i n c r e a s i n g t h e a c c u r a c y and scope o f known f a c t s , such as t h e 12 d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c g r a v i t i e s o f m a t e r i a l s o r t h e b o i l i n g p o i n t s o f s o l u t i o n s . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 25-26.) C e n t r a l t o t h e second i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h e matching o f o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h t h e o r y . Atwood's machine, f o r example, was dev e l o p e d i n an attempt t o match t h e o r y - d e t e r m i n e d p r e d i c t i o n s o f Newton's second law o f motion w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l o b s e r v a t i o n . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 26-27.) F i n a l l y , a t h i r d c l a s s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t s o f a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e paradigm. Some a c t i v i t y i s concerned w i t h t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l c o n s t a n t s . Newton's law o f u n i v e r s a l g r a v i t a t i o n , f o r example, p r o v i d e d a w o r k a b l e paradigm even though t h e u n i v e r s a l g r a v i t a t i o n a l c o n s t a n t was not a c c u r a t e l y known. S c i e n t i s t s , f o r t h e n e x t two c e n t u r i e s , engaged i n d e s i g n i n g a p p a r a t u s i n an attempt t o det e r m i n e t h e c o n s t a n t w i t h g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n . O f t e n , paradigm a r t i c u l a t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f q u a n t i t a t i v e l a w s . Coulomb's law r e l a t i n g t h e f o r c e o f e l e c t r i c a l a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e d i s t a n c e between p o i n t c harges i s a case i n p o i n t . A f i n a l t y p e o f e x p e r i m e n t a l a r t i c u l a t i o n aims a t e x t e n d i n g t h e scope o f a paradigm t o account f o r phenomena c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h o s e f o r w h i c h t h e paradigm was d e v e l o p e d . F o r example, t h e paradigm a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c a l o r i c t h e o r y were a p p l i c a b l e t o h e a t i n g and c o o l i n g by m i x t u r e s and t o changes o f s t a t e . O ther e x p e r i -ments r e v e a l e d t h a t h e a t c o u l d be r e l e a s e d o r absorbed i n many o t h e r ways: such a s , c h e m i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n , by compre s s i o n o f .13 a gas and by f r i c t i o n . The c a l o r i c t h e o r y was s u b s e q u e n t l y extended t o a p p l y t o each o f t h e s e phenomena. (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 27-30.) Theoretical activity3 Kuhn s u g g e s t s , tends t o f a l l i n t o t h e same t h r e e c l a s s e s as t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . F i r s t , t h e o r e t i c a l work i s d i r e c t e d toward a p p l y i n g t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c a l p r oblems. Problems o f t h i s s o r t may d i s p l a y a new a p p l i c a t i o n o f a paradigm o r i n c r e a s e t h e p r e c i s i o n o f a p r e v i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n . When Newton d e v e l o p e d h i s t h e o r y o f m o t i o n , h i s a p p l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d K e p l e r ' s laws and s c a t t e r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f pendulums, i n c l i n e d p l a n e s , and t i d e s . I n a d d i t i o n , Newton was a b l e t o d e r i v e Boyle's law and a m a t h e m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r computing t h e speed o f sound. By comparison w i t h p r e s e n t day a p p l i c a t i o n s o f Newton's .ideas, Newton's a p p l i c a t i o n s l a c k e d scope and p r e c i s i o n . (Kuhn,. 1962a, pp. 30-31.) A second t y p e o f t h e o r e t i c a l a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t s o f m o d i f y i n g t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n c e r t a i n phenomena. Newton, f o r i n s t a n c e , was f o r c e d t o t r e a t a pendulum bob as a p o i n t mass when d e f i n i n g pendulum l e n g t h . T h i s assumption r e s t r i c t e d t h e agreement between p r e d i c t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n . These l i m i t a t i o n s o f agreement l e f t many f a s c i n a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l p u z z l e s f o r Newton's s u c c e s s o r s . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 31-32.) F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e t h e o r e t i c a l p u z z l e s a i m i n g a t paradigm a r t i c u l a t i o n . O f t e n t h i s s o r t o f a r t i c u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f r e f o r m u l a t i n g a t h e o r y i n t o a c l e a r e r and more l o g i c a l form.. 14 Newton 1 s views were w r i t t e n i n h i s Vririo-Lpia. T h i s book was d i f f i c u l t t o a p p l y , p a r t l y because so much o f i t s meaning was o n l y i m p l i c i t i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many s c i e n t i s t s were concerned w i t h r e - w r i t i n g Newton's t h e o r y i n an e q u i v a l e n t , b u t more u s e f u l form. (Kuhn, 19 62a, pp. 32-33.) Ex a m i n i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f normal s c i e n c e , t h e s c i e n t i s t appears t o be a puzzle solver. Kuhn uses t h e term " p u z z l e s o l v i n g " i n t h e sense o f t h e k i n d o f a c t i v i t y engaged i n by a chess p l a y e r . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p u z z l e s i s t h a t t h e outcome i s u s u a l l y w e l l known i n advance. Because t h e s c i e n t i s t o f t e n knows e x a c t l y what he i s t r y i n g t o f i n d , t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p u z z l e i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h many o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f normal s c i e n c e . P u z z l e s a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an a s s u r e d s o l u t i o n . P r o b l e m s , on t h e o t h e r hand, such as o b t a i n i n g l a s t i n g w o r l d peace, do not have t h i s c o n c o m i t a n t a s s u r a n c e . These problems a r e r e j e c t e d by t h e s c i e n t i f i c community as m e t a p h y s i c a l , as t h e c o n c e r n o f a n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e , o r sometimes as j u s t t o o p r o b l e m a t i c t o be w o r t h t h e t i m e . Thus, a paradigm can i n s u l a t e s c i e n c e from s o p i a l l y i m p o r t a n t problems s i m p l y because t h e y a r e not r e d u c i b l e t o p u z z l e form. I n a d d i t i o n t o an a s s u r e d s o l u t i o n , a p u z z l e must have r u l e s t o l i m i t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n and t h e s t e p s by w h i c h t h i s s o l u t i o n i s o b t a i n e d . The s c i e n t i s t i s r e q u i r e d t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e r u l e s i n such a way t h a t t h e d e s i r e d outcome i s produced. I f he f a i l s , t h a t f a i l u r e r e f l e c t s o n l y on h i s l a c k o f s k i l l . Such a f a i l u r e cannot c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e r u l e s w h i c h h i s paradigm has s u p p l i e d , f o r w i t h o u t 15 t h e s e r u l e s t h e r e would be no p u z z l e s t o s o l v e i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e - ( G i l l i s p i e , 1962, p. 1252; Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 36-40; Kuhn, 1963a, pp. 362-363; Kuhn, 1963b, pp. 348-349; Kuhn, 1965, pp. 8-9.) Normal s c i e n c e i s a h i g h l y convergent a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h s c i e n t i s t s a r e f i r m t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g . They do not t r y t o seek new d i s c o v e r i e s . O f t e n t h e i r a c t i v i t y produces p u z z l e s t h a t appear t o be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e paradigm. A t such t i m e s , t h e i r m a i n t a i n i n g f a i t h i n a paradigm r e q u i r e s t h e a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t a t e n s i o n t h a t can o c c a s i o n a l l y become u n b e a r a b l e . Kuhn r e f e r s t o t h i s s t a t e o f mind as an essential tension. (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 24; Kuhn, 1963b, pp. 342, 343, 349, 351, 352, 353.) Kuhn contends t h a t a s c i e n c e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a n o n - s c i e n c e by a commitment t o a paradigm and i t s subsequent normal s c i e n c e t r a d i t i o n . S i n c e a s t r o l o g e r s had r u l e s , b u t no paradigms f o r making a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s , a s t r o l o g y ceased t o be a s c i e n c e because i t l e f t no p u z z l e s f o r i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o r e s o l v e . (Kuhn, .1965, pp. 10-13.) Anomaly An anomaly i s d e s c r i b e d by Kuhn as a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e para d i g m - i n d u c e d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f normal s c i e n c e . When t h e outcome o f a p u z z l e does n o t agree w i t h t h e paradigm, t h e p u z z l e g a i n s a s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e . I t i s t h e n t h a t t h e p u z z l e seems 16 t o a c q u i r e t h e s t a t u s o f an anomaly. F o r example, t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e d i s c - l i k e appearance o f Uranus was anomalous because i t c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e s c i e n t i f i c community's e a r l i e r t h e o r e t i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t Uranus had s t a r - l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 5, 52, 114-115; Kuhn, 1962b, pp. 762, 763; Kuhn, 1963a, pp. 364-365; Kuhn, 1963b, p. 351; Kuhn, 1965, p. 15.) Normal s c i e n c e , because o f i t s n a t u r e , has a b u i l t i n mechanism f o r p r o d u c i n g a n o m a l i e s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e l a b o r a t e equipment f o r normal s c i e n c e l e a d s t o a d e t a i l o f i n f o r m a t i o n and t o a p r e c i s i o n o f o b s e r v a t i o n - t h e o r y match, t h a t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i n no o t h e r way. Kuhn s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s t h i s c o n v e r -gence o f r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y on a d r a s t i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d s e t o f e s o t e r i c problems t h a t e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s t o a n o m a l i e s . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 24, 64, 65.) C r i s i s A c r i s i s i s a c o n d i t i o n t h a t r e s u l t s when an anomaly appears p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g o r i s educed r e p e a t e d l y i n many d i f f e r e n t l a b o r a t o r i e s . The anomaly l a s t s so l o n g and p e n e t r a t e s as d e e p l y i n t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t l a r g e s c a l e paradigm changes ar e r e q u i r e d t o make t h e anomaly l a w - l i k e . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 66-68; Kuhn, 1963c, 330-331.) There i s no f u l l y g e n e r a l r u l e f o r r e c o g n i z i n g such an o m a l i e s t h a t can l e a d t o c r i s i s . "Sometimes an anomaly w i l l c l e a r l y c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n e x p l i c i t and fundamental g e n e r a l i z -a t i o n s o f t h e paradigm, as t h e prbblem o f e t h e r d r a g d i d f o r 17 t h o s e who a c c e p t e d M a x w e l l ' s t h e o r y . " (Kuhn,- 1962a, p. 82.) A t o t h e r t i m e s an anomaly may i n v o k e c r i s i s i f i t has p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . I n t h e P t o l e m i c system such an anomaly p r e v e n t e d t h e a c c u r a t e d e s i g n o f c a l e n d a r s . T h i s p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o s t e r e d a c r i s i s w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o t h e C o p e r n i c a n r e v o l u t i o n . Kuhn presumes t h e r e a r e s t i l l o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t can make an anomaly p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e s s i n g , and t h a t o r d i n a r i l y s e v e r a l o f t h e s e combine. (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 82.) E x t r a o r d i n a r y S c i e n c e Kuhn r e f e r s t o e x t r a o r d i n a r y s c i e n c e as t h a t p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e s c i e n t i f i c community responds t o anomaly. I n i t i a l l y , t h e r e i s a d d i t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e anomaly. The r u l e s o f normal s c i e n c e a r e pushed h a r d e r than e v e r t o s e e , i n t h e a r e a o f d i f f i c u l t y , j u s t where and how f a r t h e y can be made t o work. The s c i e n t i f i c community i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n c r e a s i n g degree o f divergent thinking—the freedom t o seek d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . T h i s experimen-t a t i o n t o i s o l a t e t h e anomaly p r e c i s e l y and t o g i v e i t s t r u c -t u r e e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n s p e c u l a t i v e t h e o r i e s about t h e anomalous b e h a v i o u r . The response t o H e r s c h e l ' s anomalous d i s c o v e r y , t h e d i s c - l i k e appearance o f Uranus, was a t y p i c a l p e r i o d o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y s c i e n c e . A d d i t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e anomaly r e v e a l e d t h a t Uranus moved among t h e s t a r s . H e r s c h e l s u g g e s t e d t h a t Uranus was a comet. F u r t h e r 18 r e s e a r c h by t h e l e a d i n g astronomers was u n a b l e t o match t h e o b s e r v e d m o t i o n t o a cometary m o t i o n . T h i s s t a t e o f c r i s i s f i n a l l y ended when L e x e l l s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e o r b i t was p l a n e t a r y . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 6, 82-90, 114-115; Kuhn, 1962b, pp. 762, 763; Kuhn, 1963a, pp. 366-368; Kuhn, p. 342.) The a s s i m i l a t i o n o f anomaly r e q u i r e s a r e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e paradigm t o p r o v i d e a new v i e w o f n a t u r e . The a s s i m i l a t i o n o f Roentgen's X - r a y s was n o t , f o r example, m e r e l y th e a d d i t i o n o f a new t y p e o f r a d i a t i o n . More i m p o r t a n t , i t t a u g h t s c i e n t i s t s t o v i e w o l d s i t u a t i o n s i n new ways. " I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , e s t a b l i s h e d t e c h n i q u e s f o r cathode r a y r e s e a r c h had t o be changed, f o r s c i e n t i s t s found t h e y had f a i l e d t o c o n t r o l a r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e . These changes/ i n c l u d e d b o t h t h e r e d e s i g n o f o l d a p p a r a t u s and r e v i s e d ways o f a s k i n g o l d q u e s t i o n s . " Kuhn, 1962b., p. 763.) I n a d d i t i o n . , t h e s c i e n t i f i c community e x p e r i e n c e d a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f v i s i o n t h a t r e s u l t e d i n f o u r more s o r t s o f r a d i a t i o n b e i n g d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e n e x t decade a f t e r R o e n t g e n s work. (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 57-59 , 61; Kuhn, 1962b, pp. 762, 763.) D u r i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y s c i e n c e t h e new c a n d i d a t e f o r paradigm i s advanced by some p a r t i c u l a r i m a g i n a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l , o r a group o f them. T h i s s c i e n t i s t o r group o f s c i e n t i s t s , must c o n v e r t t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n t o t h e new way o f p r a c t i c i n g s c i e n c e . Kuhn d e s c r i b e s t h e r e a s o n s , why t h e p r o -ponents o f competing paradigms f a i l t o make complete c o n t a c t w i t h each o t h e r ' s v i e w p o i n t , as t h e incommensurability o f t h e 19 p r e and p o s t r e v o l u t i o n a r y normal s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n s . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e r e i s o f t e n disagreement about th e l i s t o f problems t h a t any c a n d i d a t e f o r paradigm must r e s o l v e . I n a d d i t i o n , . t h e r e i s what Kuhn c a l l s a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g between the two s c h o o l s . The C o p e r n i c a n t h e o r y was d i f f i c u l t t o under-s t a n d because i t changed th e meaning o f t h e word " e a r t h " . The t h i r d fundamental a s p e c t o f t h e i n c o m m e n s u r a b i l i t y o f competing paradigms r e s u l t s because t h e proponents o f each paradigm a r e p r a c t i c i n g t h e i r s c i e n c e i n d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s . " P r a c t i c i n g i n d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s , t h e two groups o f s c i e n t i s t s see d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s when t h e y l o o k from t h e same p o i n t i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n . " (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 149.) A r i s t o t l e , f o r example, saw a s w i n g i n g o b j e c t as a c o n s t r a i n e d body t h a t a c h i e v e d r e s t a t i t s low p o i n t o n l y a f t e r a t o r t u o u s 'to and f r o ' m o t i o n , w h i l e G a l i l e o saw i t as a pendulum t h a t r e p e a t e d i t s m o t i o n . T h i s incommen-s u r a b i l i t y makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e c o m p e t i t o r s t o r e s o l v e t h e i r r i v a l r y t h r o u g h a l o g i c a l s t e p by s t e p c o n v e r s a t i o n . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 146-152.) Some members o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c community can be t r a n s f o r m e d t o a new paradigm by t h e p r o p e r c h o i c e o f argument. The most e f f e c t i v e argument f o r t h e proponents of a new paradigm i s t h a t t h e y can s o l v e t h e p u z z l e s t h a t have l e d t h e o l d p aradigm t o a c r i s i s . The new paradigm i s even more a p p e a l i n g i f i t can be shown t o be q u a n t i t a t i v e l y as w e l l as q u a l i t a t i v e l y b e t t e r t h a n i t s c o m p e t i t o r . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 152-153.) 20 A n o t h e r p e r s u a s i v e argument can be d e v e l o p e d i f t h e new paradigm p e r m i t s p r e d i c t i o n o f phenomena t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y been u n s u s p e c t e d . C o p e r n i c u s ' t h e o r y , f o r example, s u g g e s t e d t h a t p l a n e t s s h o u l d be l i k e t h e e a r t h , t h a t Venus s h o u l d show pha s e s , and t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e must be v a s t l y l a r g e r t h a n had p r e v i o u s l y been supposed. I n t h e n e x t s i x t y y e a r s , t h e o b s e r -v a t i o n o f t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s c o n v i n c e d many s c i e n t i s t s t h a t maybe t h i s paradigm was b e t t e r t h a n t h e one t h a t t h e y had been e x p l o i t i n g . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 153-154.) The r e a l i s s u e d u r i n g paradigm debates concerns w h i c h paradigm s h o u l d i n t h e f u t u r e g u i d e r e s e a r c h o r problems many of w h i c h n e i t h e r c o m p e t i t o r can y e t c l a i m t o r e s o l v e c o m p l e t e l y . The i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t has a c h o i c e between an o l d e r paradigm t h a t can s o l v e a g r e a t many pr o b l e m s , b u t has f a i l e d w i t h a few; and, a newer paradigm t h a t can s o l v e fewer p r o b l e m s , b u t can s o l v e t h o s e w i t h w h i c h i t s p r e d e c e s s o r has f a i l e d . Such a d e c i s i o n , Kuhn m a i n t a i n s , i s based on f a i t h . When f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r t h e s c i e n t i f i c community comes t o have f a i t h i n a paradigm, a normal s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n i s a g a i n e s t a b l i s h e d . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 154-158.) S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n A s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n , i n Kuhn's v i e w , i s t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h an o l d e r paradigm i s r e p l a c e d i n whole o r i n p a r t by an i n c o m p a t i b l e new one. The o l d e r paradigm ceases t o f u n c t i o n because i t cannot r e s o l v e c e r t a i n p u z z l e s o f major i m p o r t a n c e . 21 The s c i e n t i f i c community t h e n e x p e r i e n c e s a p e r i o d o f e x t r a -o r d i n a r y s c i e n c e w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f a new paradigm. (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 91.) S c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n s , v a r y a l o n g a continuum w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e x t e n t t h e fundamentals o f a f i e l d a r e a f f e c t e d . The a c c e p t a n c e o f E i n s t e i n ' s r e l a t i v i t y t h e o r y t o r e p l a c e Newton's laws o f m o t i o n o r t h e advent o f C o p e r n i c a n i s m t o r e p l a c e t h e P t o l e m i c t h e o r y a r e examples o f l a r g e - s c a l e paradigm r e p l a c e m e n t s . There a r e , however,many f a r s m a l l e r b u t s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r r e v o l u t i o n a r y e p i s o d e s t h a t a r e c e n t r a l t o s c i e n t i f i c advance. Roentgen's d i s c o v e r y o f X - r a y s , f o r example, r e s u l t e d i n an i n s t r u m e n t a l paradigm r e p l a c e m e n t . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e c o a t i n g o f f a m i l i a r a p p a r a t u s w i t h l e a d r e s u l t e d i n a new view o f t h e f i e l d . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 57-59, 61, 66-67.) A f t e r a s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n t h e s c i e n t i f i c community o b s e r v e s d i f f e r e n t l y a t l e a s t a p a r t o f t h e w o r l d o f i t s research-engagement. Kuhn compares t h i s s h i f t t o a v i s u a l g e s t a l t s w i t c h . "What were ducks i n t h e s c i e n t i s t ' s would b e f o r e th e r e v o l u t i o n a r e r a b b i t s a f t e r w a r d s . The man who f i r s t saw th e e x t e r i o r o f t h e box from above l a t e r sees i t s i n t e r i o r from below." (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 110.) Kuhn, however, n o t e s a prime weakness i n t h i s a n a l o g y . W i t h t h e g e s t a l t s w i t c h t h e v i e w e r knows h i s p e r c e p t i o n has s h i f t e d because he can make i t s h i f t back and f o r t h r e p e a t e d l y , w h i l e he h o l d s t h e same p i e c e o f paper i n h i s hands. The l i n e s 22 on t h e paper form an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e v i e w e r can r e g u l a t e h i s p e r c e p t i o n . The s c i e n t i s t , on t h e o t h e r hand, has no e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n on w h i c h t o base h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s . " I n t h e s c i e n c e s , t h e r e f o r e , i f p e r c e p t u a l s w i t c h e s accompany paradigm changes, we may n o t e x p e c t s c i e n t i s t s t o a t t e s t t o t h e s e changes d i r e c t l y . " (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 113.) "Rather we must l o o k f o r i n d i r e c t and b e h a v i o r a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s c i e n t i s t w i t h a new paradigm sees d i f f e r e n t l y from t h e way he had seen b e f o r e . " (Kuhn, 1962, p. 114.) (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 111-114.) KUHN'S APPROACH TO THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE T r ad i t i o n a1 H i s t o r l o g r a p h y The c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s , t h e o r i e s , and methods i n c u r r e n t t e x t books i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l image o f s c i e n c e . Kuhn i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s image i s m i s l e a d i n g . The t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y a t t e m p t s t o r e v e a l how each i n c r e m e n t accumulated. But t h e h i s t o r i a n o f s c i e n c e has n o t been a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e by w h i c h man, and a t what t i m e each contemporary s c i e n t i f i c f a c t , law and t h e o r y was d i s c o v e r e d o r i n v e n t e d . F o r example, S i r W i l l i a m H e r s c h e l i s s a i d t o have d i s c o v e r e d t h e p l a n e t Uranus on March 13, 1791. However, a c l o s e r l o o k a t h i s t o r y r e v e a l s d i s a g r e e m e n t . Between 1690 and 1781, t h e same o b j e c t i s known t o have been r e c o r d e d s e v e n t e e n t i m e s as a s t a r . H e r s c h e l , u s i n g a much improved t e l e s c o p e , n o t i c e d an anomalous d i s c - l i k e appearance. A f t e r c l o s e r o b s e r v a t i o n he n o t i c e d t h a t i t a l s o changed p o s i t i o n . 23 H e r s c h e l d i f f e r e d from t h e e a r l i e r s c i e n t i s t s by s u p p o s i n g Uranus t o be a comet. But i t was n o t u n t i l s e v e r a l months l a t e r t h a t L e x e l l s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e o b j e c t o b s e r v e d by H e r s c h e l was a p l a n e t . When was t h e p l a n e t Uranus d i s c o v e r e d ? And was i t H e r s c h e l r a t h e r t h a n L e x e l l who d i s c o v e r e d i t ? The r e s u l t o f t h e s e doubts and d i f f i c u l t i e s has been a h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e st u d y o f s c i e n c e . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 1-3.) Contemporary H i s t o r i o g r a p h y The contemporary h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f s c i e n c e , r a t h e r t h a n t h e s e e k i n g o f permanent c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f an o l d e r s c i e n c e t o our p r e s e n t v a n t a g e , a t t e m p t s t o d i s p l a y the h i s t o r i c a l i n t e g r i t y o f t h a t s c i e n c e i n i t s own t i m e . H i s t o r i a n s o f s c i e n c e , such as Kuhn, now ask, f o r example, n ot about t h e r e l a t i o n o f G a l i l e o ' s v i e w s t o t h o s e o f modern s c i e n c e , b u t r a t h e r about t h e . r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s views and t h o s e o f h i s group, t h a t i s , h i s t e a c h e r s , c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and immediate s u c c e s s o r s i n t h e s c i e n c e s . (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 3.) Kuhn's E v o l u t i o n a r y View o f S c i e n c e Kuhn a d d r e s s e s h i m s e l f m a i n l y t o s c i e n t i s t s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f a t t a c k i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i s t v i ew t h a t t h e y themselves h o l d toward s c i e n c e . Drawing from t h e h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e , p s y c h o l o g y , p h i l o s o p h y , and p h y s i c s , he p r e s e n t s t h e development o f s c i e n c e as a c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v o l u t i o n from p r i m i t i v e b e g i n n i n g s . I n i t i a l l y , each s c i e n t i s t , i n a f i e l d , has a view w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s a s t y l e o f a c q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l knowledge.. Some o f t h e s e views 24 become I n c r e a s i n g l y a c c e p t e d by o t h e r members o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c community u n t i l e v e n t u a l l y t h e e n t i r e p r o f e s s i o n i s w o r k i n g under a common v i e w o r paradigm. T h i s e v o l u t i o n a r y development w i l l be extended and c l a r i f i e d i n t h e remainder o f t h e c h a p t e r . ( G i l l i s p i e , 1962, p. 1251, 1253; Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 3-7.) KUHN'S VIEW OF SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT The P r i m i t i v e B e g i n n i n g s o f a S c i e n c e Kuhn c o n c e p t u a l i z e s t h e e a r l y development o f complex knowledge i n any s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d as p r o c e e d i n g a l o n g some minor v a r i a n t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n . O r i g i n a l l y , s c i e n t i f i c endeavor c o n s i s t s o f t h e random c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s . T h i s a c t i v i t y e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f competing s c h o o l s o f s c i e n c e . F i n a l l y , a f i r s t paradigm e v o l v e s because one s c h o o l emerges t r i u m p h a n t . The d e v e l o p m e n t a l p a t t e r n o f t h i s •gve-sexienoe phase i s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 11, 15-17; Kuhn, 1963b, pp. 346-347.) ' Kuhn h o l d s t h a t a random f a c t - g a t h e r i n g s t a g e i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e development o f many s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s . I n i t i a l l y , each s c i e n t i s t p e r f o r m s random e x p e r i m e n t s , i n t h e absence o f t h e o r y , s i m p l y t o o b s e r v e what w i l l happen. T h i s d i v e r g e n t a c t i v i t y r e s u l t s i n t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f a l a r g e p o o l o f f a c t s . The a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c t s by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t produces a p e r s o n a l v i e w o f t h e f i e l d . T h i s v i e w f u n c t i o n s f o r a p a r t i e -. 25 u l a r s c i e n t i s t s i m i l a r t o t h e manner i n w h i c h a paradigm f u n c t i o n s f o r a s c i e n t i f i c community-. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e p e r s o n a l view d e t e r m i n e s l e g i t i m a t e p r o b l e m s , t y p e s o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , methods o f a n a l y s i s , and s t a n d a r d s o f s o l u t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , i t p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. x i , 11, 15-16; Kuhn, 1963b, pp. 343, 346.) The s c i e n t i s t ' s a c t i v i t i e s a r e s i m i l a r , i n n a t u r e , t o t h o s e o f normal s c i e n c e i n w h i c h he f o r c e s n a t u r e i n t o " p r e -e s t a b l i s h e d c o n c e p t u a l " boxes. T h i s a c t i v i t y i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t s i n t h e awareness o f anomaly. The s c i e n t i s t t h e n e x p e r i e n c e s a s i t u a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y s c i e n c e , i n w h i c h he a t t e m p t s t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e anomaly. The a s s i m i l a t i o n o f anomaly r e q u i r e s an adjustment o f h i s p e r s o n a l view o f t h e f i e l d . Kuhn d e p i c t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex knowledge as p r o g r e s s i n g t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f such s h i f t s i n p e r s o n a l v i e w . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. x i , 61, 62; Kuhn, 19 6 3b, p. 343.) T h i s phase o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex knowledge has p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e s t u d y . Kuhn b e l i e v e s t h a t young c h i l d r e n o f t e n h o l d views s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f p r i m i t i v e t r i b e s . Many o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s show i m p o r t a n t p a r a l l e l s t o t h o s e o f A r i s t o t l e . 26 The w o r l d views o f p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s and o f c h i l d r e n t e n d t o be a n i m i s t i c . That i s , c h i l d r e n and many p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s do not draw t h e same h a r d and f a s t d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t we do between o r g a n i c and i n o r g a n i c n a t u r e , between l i v i n g and l i f e l e s s t h i n g s . . The o r g a n i c r e a l m has a c o n c e p t u a l p r i o r i t y , and t h e b e h a v i o r o f c l o u d s , f i r e , and s t o n e s t e n d s t o be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f t h e i n t e r n a l d r i v e s and d e s i r e s t h a t move men and, presumably, a n i m a l s . Asked why b a l l o o n s go up, one c h i l d o f f o u r answers, 'Because t h e y want t o f l y away." A n o t h e r , age s i x , e x p l a i n s t h a t b a l l o o n s go up because 'they l i k e t h e a i r . So when you l e t go t h e y go up i n t h e s k y . ' (Kuhn, 1957, pp. 96-97.)(Kuhn, 1963c, pp. 310-313.) As t h e f i e l d develops,some o f t h e s c i e n t i s t ' s v i e w s become a c c e p t e d by o t h e r members o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c community t o form schools of science. The development o f t h e h i s t o r y o f e l e c t r i c i t y i s t y p i c a l o f t h e way many f i e l d s d e v e l o p . I n t h e e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e were al m o s t as many, views about t h e n a t u r e of e l e c t r i c i t y as t h e r e were i m p o r t a n t e l e c t r i c a l e x p e r i m e n t e r s . G r a d u a l l y , s e v e r a l competing s c h o o l s , o r t r a d i t i o n s i n e l e c t r i c a l r e s e a r c h , e v o l v e d . Each s c h o o l emphasized t h e p a r t i c u l a r group o f e l e c t r i c a l phenomena t h a t i t s t h e o r y c o u l d b e s t e x p l a i n . One e a r l y group o f e l e c t r i c i a n s t o o k a t t r a c t i o n as t h e fundamental e l e c t r i c a l phenomena. A n o t h e r group r e g a r d e d e l e c t r i c a l r e p u l s i o n as t h e fundamental e f f e c t , w h i l e s t i l l a n o t h e r h e l d a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n t o g e t h e r t o be e q u a l l y b a s i c . A l l o f t h e s e s c h o o l s had d i f f i c u l t y a c c o u n t -i n g f o r c o n d u c t i o n e f f e c t s . A n o t h e r s c h o o l t h e n e v o l v e d w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d e l e c t r i c i t y t o be a " f l u i d " . T h i s group, however, had d i f f i c u l t y r e c o n c i l i n g i t s t h e o r y w i t h a number o f a t t r a c t i v e and r e p u l s i v e e f f e c t s . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 13-15; Kuhn, 1963a, pp.. 354-357; Kuhn, 1963b, pp. 346-347.) 27 W i t h i n each s c h o o l t h e a c c e p t e d view f u n c t i o n s s i m i l a r t o a paradigm by d e t e r m i n i n g c e r t a i n p u z z l e s t o be r e s o l v e d . F u r t h e r development produces a n o m a l i e s , t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e s a r e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r v i e w . These s h i f t s i n v i e w a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n w o r l d view t h a t accompany s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n s . They d i f f e r from s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n s i n t h a t t h e y a f f e c t o n l y a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c community, w h i l e t h e l a t t e r a f f e c t t h e e n t i r e f i e l d . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. x i , 61, 62.) W h i l e t h e s c h o o l s o f s c i e n c e e x i s t , r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c , p r o g r e s s , . i s . a c c o m p l i s h e d . Each, s c h o o l must, b u i l d i t s f i e l d f r o m . f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s . I n d o i n g s o , i n v e s t i g a t o r s t e n d t o c i r c l e back o v e r t h e same ground. F u r t h e r m o r e , much energy i s spent on i n t e r s c h o o l c o n f l i c t , r a t h e r t h a n on t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f n a t u r a l phenomena.. (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 13-17; Kuhn, 1963a, pp. 354-357; Kuhn, 1963b, p. 346.) Emergence o f a F i r s t Paradigm The s c h o o l s o f s c i e n c e d i s a p p e a r w i t h t h e t r i u m p h o f one o f t h e p r e - p a r a d i g m s c h o o l s . The c o m p e t i t i o n between s c h o o l s o f s c i e n c e r e s u l t s from t h e i r incommensurable ways o f s e e i n g t h e w o r l d . However, t h r o u g h a development, s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f competing paradigms, th e s c i e n t i f i c community i s b r o u g h t t o a c c e p t a f i r s t paradigm. I n e l e c t r i c i t y , F r a n k l i n ' s s u c c e s s i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e Leyden j a r p r e s e n t e d t h e most e f f e c t i v e argument f o r t h e emergence o f t h e f l u i d t h e o r y as t h e f i r s t 28 paradigm. (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 4, 17-18; Kuhn, 1963a, pp. 354-357.) The a c c e p t a n c e o f a f i r s t paradigm, Kuhn c o n t e n d s , i s a s i g n o f m a t u r i t y i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f any f i e l d . F r e e d from c o n c e r n about b a s i c f u n d a m e n t a l s , t h e c r e a t i v e s c i e n t i s t c o n c e n t r a t e s upon t h e s u b t l e s t and most e s o t e r i c a s p e c t s o f n a t u r e . "Ever s i n c e p r e h i s t o r i c a n t i q u i t y one f i e l d o f s t u d y a f t e r a n o t h e r has c r o s s e d t h e d i v i d e between what t h e h i s t o r i a n m ight c a l l i t s p r e h i s t o r y as a s c i e n c e and i t s h i s t o r y p r o p e r . " (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 27.) " T h i s c e n t u r y appears t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e emergence o f a f i r s t concensus i n p a r t s o f a few o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . " (Kuhn, 1963b, p. 347.) (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 19-22; Kuhn, 1963a, p. 357; Kuhn, 1963b, pp. 347-348.) The Development o f a Mature S c i e n c e The mature p e r i o d o f s c i e n t i f i c development has a l r e a d y been i m p l i e d . Kuhn argues t h a t normal s c i e n c e presupposes a c o n c e p t u a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l framework a c c e p t e d by an e n t i r e s c i e n t i f i c community. G i v e n such a framework, s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h tends t o be a form o f p u z z l e - s o l v i n g r a t h e r t h a n e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e unknown. The r e s u l t i n g mode of s c i e n t i f i c p r a c t i c e i n e v i t a b l y evokes " c r i s e s " w h i c h cannot be r e s o l v e d w i t h i n t h e p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d framework. Normal s c i e n c e r e t u r n s o n l y when t h e community a c c e p t s a new c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e w h i c h can a g a i n govern i t s s e a r c h f o r n o v e l f a c t s and more r e -f i n e d t h e o r i e s . (Kuhn, 1962a, c o v e r . ) 29 Summary Kuhn m a i n t a i n s t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex knowledge i s a c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v o l u t i o n from p r i m i t i v e b e g i n n i n g s . He compares t h e development t o Darwin's The Ovigi.n of Species. A c c o r d i n g t o D a r w i n , " s u r v i v a l o f t h e f i t t e s t " o r g a n i s m i s t h e c r i t e r i o n upon w h i c h e v o l u t i o n depends. I n s c i e n c e , paradigm e v o l u t i o n depends on t h e " f i t t e s t " way t h e s c i e n t i f i c community sees t o p r a c t i c e i t s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . I n no sense does t h i s development imply, t h a t a c i e n c e i s n e c e s s a r i l y p r o g r e s s i n g toward an u l t i m a t e t r u t h . (Kuhn, 1962a, pp. 169-172.) C H A P T E R I I I DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES USED IN THE STUDY CHAPTER I I I DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES USED IN THE STUDY T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s used t o o b t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g a p p a r e n t examples o f how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e complex knowledge. D e s c r i b e d a r e t h e l e a r n e r s , t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k s , t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s , t h e methods by w h i c h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a were r e c o r d e d , and t h e t e a c h e r r o l e employed i n t h e t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s . THE LEARNING SITUATION The L e a r n e r s Three Vancouver c h i l d r e n from G e n e r a l Gordon E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l were used i n t h e s t u d y . The s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l r e p o r t e d t h a t s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s i n t h e neighbourhood were c o n s i d e r e d e c o n o m i c a l l y poor b u t g e n e r a l l y most c h i l d r e n had w o r k i n g c l a s s backgrounds. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f each l e a r n e r and h i s f a m i l y background i s p r o v i d e d b e f o r e t h e s y n o p t i c r e p o r t s i n C h a p t e r IV e n a b l i n g t h e r e a d e r t o form a m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f t h e c h i l d b e f o r e r e a d i n g about h i s a c t i v i t i e s and t h e r e b y making t h e synopses more i n t e l l i g i b l e . G e n e r a l Gordon E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l was s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h e s t u d y f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t s nearness t o t h e 31 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h . Columbia reduced the c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e c h i l d r e n by t a x i . S e c o n d l y , t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l e x p r e s s e d h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r e s e a r c h . The a c t u a l s e l e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n was done by t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l . The w r i t e r asked him t o s e l e c t a grade-two boy, a g r a d e - f o u r boy, and a g r a d e - s i x g i r l who would be w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The grade s t i p u l a t i o n s were i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a t u r i t y and e x p e r i e n c e between the l e a r n e r s and t h u s p r o v i d e a c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g any age d i f f e r e n c e s among the c h i l d r e n ' s v i e w s . Grade two was s e l e c t e d as t h e minimum grade i n o r d e r t o a v o i d problems t h a t m i ght a r i s e w i t h younger c h i l d r e n when t a k e n from the s e c u r i t y o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . The w r i t e r s e l e c t e d boys f o r t h e two y o u n g e st l e a r n e r s because he f e l t t h a t he c o u l d e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t more r e a d i l y w i t h boys o f t h i s age t h a n g i r l s . R a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g t h r e e boys i n t h e s t u d y , a g i r l was chosen as t h e o l d e s t l e a r n e r . The L e a r n i n g Tasks Data r e q u i r e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e complex knowledge was o b t a i n e d by o b s e r v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s o f phenomena i n v o l v i n g s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . The ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY u n i t , S i n k o r  F l o a t , was used as a s o u r c e o f i d e a s (ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY, S i n k o r F l o a t , 1968, pp. 17-38.). A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e f o r t h e u n i t , w h i c h gave d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f what 32 c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y say and do when w o r k i n g w i t h t h e su g g e s t e d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e w r i t e r f e l t t h a t l e a r n i n g t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s were p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r o b t a i n i n g a p p a r e n t examples o f c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s and c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t s . M oreover, l e a r n i n g t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s were s e l e c t e d because t h e y embodied s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s such as f o r c e , mass, volume, and d e n s i t y w h i c h a r e c e n t r a l t o many n a t u r a l phenomena. P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , such as P i a g e t ' s e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y ( P i a g e t , 1929, pp. 222-228.), have i n d i c a t e d l e a r n i n g problems w i t h t h e s e c o n c e p t s . By o b s e r v i n g c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s , t h e s t u d y attempted t o account f o r some p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s f o r t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s by e x a m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f tho u g h t w i t h r e s p e c t t o s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t s such as mass, volume, d e n s i t y , and f o r c e . The m a t e r i a l s used and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s performed a r e d e s c r i b e d i n th e s y n o p t i c r e p o r t s i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r IV. The L e a r n i n g S e s s i o n s The l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s t o o k p l a c e i n t h e t e l e v i s i o n s t u d i o i n t h e E d u c a t i o n B u i l d i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Here, t w i c e a week f o r a two week p e r i o d , each c h i l d had f o u r , o n e - h a l f hour l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s t o i n v e s t i g a t e s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . To e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e t e a c h e r and l e a r n e r s t o u r e d t h e E d u c a t i o n B u i l d i n g f o r o n e - h a l f hour b e f o r e t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n p e r i o d was r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t , t h e t e a c h e r f e l t he had e s t a b l i s h e d 33 an a t t i t u d e o f c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h a l l l e a r n e r s . Each day t h e youngest l e a r n e r had h i s s e s s i o n s f i r s t . He was f o l l o w e d by th e t e n - y e a r o l d and t h e n t h e o l d e s t l e a r n e r . By u s i n g t h i s sequence, t h e w r i t e r a t t e m p t e d t o reduce t h e i n t e r c h a n g e o f i d e a s among l e a r n e r s . He f e l t t h a t t h e o l d e s t l e a r n e r would r e c e i v e r e l a t i v e l y few i d e a s from t h e youngest l e a r n e r , who had h i s s e s s i o n s f i r s t , t h a n would t h e youngest l e a r n e r i n a r e v e r s e s i t u a t i o n . When t h e c h i l d r e n were n o t p e r f o r m i n g i n t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s , t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s u p e r v i s e d a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e nearby s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r i e s . Some o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d making e l e c t r o m a g n e t s , w o r k i n g w i t h b a t t e r i e s and b u l b s , and g e n e r a t i n g s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were chosen by t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s . There were, however, no a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . RECORDING THE RESULTS The Independent O b s e r v e r D u r i n g t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s , a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia performed t h e r o l e o f an independent o b s e r v e r . H i s p a r t i c u l a r r o l e c o n s i s t e d o f o b s e r v i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s and r e c o r d i n g on paper s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s u s e f u l f o r c o n c e p t u a l -i z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge. I n a d d i t i o n , he was e x p e c t e d t o s p e c u l a t e as t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f t h o u g h t . The w r i t e r p r e p a r e d t h e independent o b s e r v e r f o r h i s r o l e b y " d e s c r i b -i n g h i s f u n c t i o n i n t h e s t u d y . A f t e r t h i s t r a i n i n g , t h e independent o b s e r v e r seemed t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e purpose o f t h e s t u d y . D u r i n g 34 the subsequent a n a l y s i s of the i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , however, the independent observer's notes were found to be of l i t t l e v a l u e , mainly because of t h e i r incompleteness, and consequently were not used to c o n c e p t u a l i z e the c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. Perhaps more p r e p a r a t i o n , i n c l u d -i n g t r i a l runs w i t h the independent o b s e r v e r , would have f a c i l -i t a t e d h i s a b i l i t y t o perform t h i s type of a n a l y s i s . Although not a n t i c i p a t e d , the independent observer proved v a l u a b l e i n p l a n n i n g l e a r n i n g t a s k s designed to l e a d the l e a r n e r i n t o apparent anomalies. Video-Taping A two V i d i c o n camera c h a i n and a Sony EV-200, one i n c h v i d e o - t a p e r e c o r d e r were used t o r e c o r d r e s u l t s from the l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s . A t e c h n i c i a n made the v i d e o - r e c o r d i n g s . At the s t a r t of each s e s s i o n he l o c k e d the t e l e v i s i o n cameras i n p o s i t i o n . One camera was s e t f o r an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the c h i l d ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w h i l e the o t h e r focused on h i s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s and o t h e r o v e r t a c t i o n s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r i n s t r u c t e d the t e c h n i c i a n t o concentrate mainly on the c h i l d ' s m a n i p u l a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and t o capture s i g n i f i c a n t f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . The v e r b a l responses of the teacher and l e a r n e r were recorded by two microphones. The cameras and microphones were p o s i t i o n e d so t h a t they d i d , n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The a c t u a l placement o f the r e c o r d i n g equipment i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g diagram. 35 Table Covered w i t h Objects o o 0° Neck M i c r o -phone Teacher One-Way Glass Learner Objects • • 0 n oo T e l e v i s i o n Cameras Overhead ^Microphone Table Water Con t a i n e r Independent Observer . -VIDEO-TAPE RECORDER T e c h n i c i a n =s» F i g u r e 1 P h y s i c a l Arrangement o f the L e a r n i n g Environment THE TEACHER ROLE During the l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r performed c e r t a i n teacher f u n c t i o n s f o r the purpose of g a t h e r i n g the d e s i r e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l data. The teacher r o l e s e l e c t e d seemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o b t a i n i n g apparent examples of child-paradigms and c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t s which were being sought i n the study. 36 The t e a c h e r f u n c t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d from i d e a s drawn from Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n t i f i c development. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r r o l e appeared p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . F u r t h e r d e t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r r o l e t o t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n w i l l be p r o v i d e d i n C h a p t e r V I . The p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r f u n c t i o n s used i n t h e s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d below showing t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e f o r o b t a i n i n g o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Kuhn's v i e w o f s c i e n c e . 1. I n i t i a l l y , t h e t e a c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o e n r i c h t h e l e a r n e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l phenomena by e n c o u r a g i n g him t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e v e n t s t h r o u g h h i s own o b s e r v a t i o n s and e x p e r i m e n t s . I n t r o d u c i n g t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s , f o r example, t h e t e a c h e r p r e s e n t e d t h e l e a r n e r w i t h numerous o b j e c t s and a w a t e r c o n t a i n e r . He t h e n i n s t r u c t e d t h e l e a r n e r t o f i n d o u t what he c o u l d about s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . I n t h i s manner t h e t e a c h e r i n t e n d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n c r e t e - e m p i r i c a l back-ground e x p e r i e n c e w i t h phenomena r e l a t e d t o s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g . Kuhn's v i e w about t h e p r i m i t i v e b e g i n n i n g s i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge s u g g e s t s a s i m i l a r d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e s t r e s s i s on a c q u i r i n g c o n c r e t e - e m p i r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a r e s t r i c t e d range o f n a t u r a l e v e n t s . 2. D u r i n g t h e l a t e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s , d a t a was sought f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s modes o f t h o u g h t . The second teacher f u n c t i o n attempted t o meet t h i s problem by e l i c i t i n g accounts o f the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s . For example, the l e a r n e r observes one bar of soap f l o a t i n g w h i l e another s i n k s . The teacher i n q u i r e s as t o h i s view of t h i s phenomenon by a s k i n g , "Why does one bar of soap float and not the other?" Kuhn suggests t h a t , as c o n c r e t e - e m p i r i c a l experience progresses i n the p r i m i t i v e beginnings of s c i e n t i f i c development, specu-l a t i v e ideas are a b s t r a c t e d to account f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d . The i n t e n t of the teacher r o l e was to i d e n t i f y i d e a s t h a t c h i l d r e n i n v e n t to account f o r t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . During the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s , data was sought f o r t h e i r use of e s t a b l i s h e d views or child-paradigms t o e x p l a i n or account f o r new e x p e r i e n c e s . The teacher a s s i s t e d i n the r e t r i e v a l of t h i s k i n d of data by s t r u c t u r i n g s i t u a t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g the l e a r n e r t o extend the range o f a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s i d e a s . To perform t h i s f u n c t i o n , the teacher attempted to i d e n t i f y apparent child-paradigms and then i n t r o d u c e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the l e a r n e r t o apply h i s apparent views. The t e a c h e r f o l l o w e d no s e t time or sequence f o r performing t h i s f u n c t i o n . Instead he i n t r o d u c e d s i t u a t i o n s whenever he f e l t the c h i l d was prepared to i n v e s t i g a t e the s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s t e acher r o l e was taken from the l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s . The teacher 38 by n o t i n g t h e l e a r n e r ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n s and c o n c e p t u a l -i z a t i o n s assumed t h a t he had a p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d p o i n t o f vi e w t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r . To p r o v i d e t h e c h i l d w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e x t e n d h i s vi e w , t h e t e a c h e r asked t h e l e a r n e r t o s i n k a p l a s t i c t u b e . Kuhn s u g g e s t s t h a t s c i e n c e p r o g r e s s e s t h r o u g h a phase o f a p p l i c a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f e s t a b l i s h e d v i e w s . U t i l i z i n g an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h i s i d e a , t h e t e a c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c h i l d ' s a r t i c u l a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f p r i o r knowledge. 4. I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , d a t a r e l a t e d t o anomalies o r v i o l a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s were sought. Some o f t h e s e anomalies o c c u r r e d n a t u r a l l y as w i l l be n o t e d i n Ch a p t e r V. Other s were f e l t t o be i n d u c e d by t h e t e a c h e r . The d a t a were g a t h e r e d by a r r a n g i n g l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n such a way t h a t t h e l e a r n e r e n c o u n t e r e d anomalies o r became aware o f i m p l i c i t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h i s mode o f th o u g h t . O f t e n t h e t e a c h e r f a c i l i t a t e d t h e inducement o f an awareness o f v i o l a t i o n s o f e x p e c t a t i o n by h a v i n g t h e l e a r n e r r e p e a t an a c t i v i t y u n t i l he appeared t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t something was wrong. As i n t h e p r e v i o u s t e a c h e r f u n c t i o n , t h e r e was no s c h e d u l e d t i m e f o r i n d u c i n g a n o m a l i e s . I n s t e a d , t h e t e a c h e r remained a l e r t t o s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h appeared u s e f u l f o r b r i n g i n g t h e c h i l d t o an awareness o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y . F o r 39 example, the c h i l d d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s teacher f u n c t i o n h e l d t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. Attempting to a l e r t him to the f a c t t h a t the observed behaviour of o b j e c t s does not n e c e s s a r i l y match h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , the teacher asked him to s i n k a p l a s t i c straw which does not s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. In t h i s manner the teacher expected t h a t the l e a r n e r would become aware of the i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s mode of thought. T h i s teacher f u n c t i o n was an a d a p t a t i o n from Kuhn's sugg e s t i o n t h a t s c i e n t i s t s sometimes become aware of anomalies or s e r i o u s v i o l a t i o n s of e x p e c t a t i o n s d u r i n g the course of w e l l -e s t a b l i s h e d i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t y . 5. A f i n a l t e acher f u n c t i o n was t h a t of o b t a i n i n g evidence of a c h i l d ' s replacement o f e s t a b l i s h e d ideas w i t h new ones in c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the o l d . The t e a c h e r , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s designed to c o n f l i c t w i t h the c h i l d ' s thoughts. The i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d not o f f e r suggestions as t o d e s i r e d concepts or methods of a t t a c k . I n s t e a d , he i n v i t e d the c h i l d t o s p e c u l a t e about the o b s e r v a t i o n s and then encouraged him t o e x p l o r e h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s more f u l l y . For example, i n attempting to b r i n g the l e a r n e r from a view t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water to a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d view., about s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y , the teacher asked the l e a r n e r t o s i n k a p l a s t i c straw. When the straw d i d not s i n k a c c o r d i n g to the c h i l d ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s , the teacher encouraged the l e a r n e r t o s p e c u l a t e as t o the cause. The l e a r n e r p o s t u l a t e d t h a t p l a s t i c f l o a t s . The teacher then suggested t h a t he e x p l o r e the u s e f u l -ness of h i s s p e c u l a t i o n by experimenting w i t h a p l a s t i c tube. Kuhn suggests t h a t s c i e n t i s t s o f t e n develop s p e c u l a t i v e ideas to account f o r anomalous s i t u a t i o n s . By encouraging c h i l d r e n t o s p e c u l a t e about apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e i r views, the teacher intended t o f a c i l i t a t e a s i m i l a r development of complex knowledge. C H A P T E R I V SYNOPSES OF THE LEARNING SESSIONS CHAPTER IV SYNOPSES OF THE LEARNING SESSIONS METHOD OF PRESENTING OBSERVATIONS Syn o p t i c Reports The method o f p r e s e n t i n g the r e s u l t s of the t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s i s by the s y n o p t i c r e p o r t s — a method which g i v e s a g e n e r a l view of the numerous o b s e r v a t i o n s made d u r i n g the twelve, t h i r t y minute t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s . Each r e p o r t emphas-i z e s those r e s u l t s , w h i c h appear u s e f u l i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u s i n g ideas adapted from Kuhn's view of s c i e n t i f i c development. The s e s s i o n s of the youngest l e a r n e r are r e p o r t e d f i r s t . R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from the o l d e r c h i l d r e n are then presented s t r e s s i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n performance between the l e a r n e r s . The synopses o f one l e a r n e r are documented by r e f e r e n c e t o a v e r b a t i m t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s comprising Appendix A. Verbatim T r a n s c r i p t i o n A v e r b a t i m t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the t e n - y e a r - o l d ' s l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s i s presented i n Appendix A. These t r a n s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d e a r e c o r d of both the t e a c h e r ' s and l e a r n e r ' s v e r b a l and non-verbal behaviour. The verbatim t r a n s c r i p t i o n s enable the reader t o o b t a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n about the s e s s i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , they p r o v i d e a source w i t h which the reader can check the accuracy and content of the s y n o p t i c r e p o r t s . The e n t r i e s i n the verbatim t r a n s c r i p t i o n are numbered t o f a c i l i t a t e documentation o f the synopses. SUMMARY OF TEACHING RESULTS A g e n e r a l view of the l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s i s p r o v i d e d t o acq u a i n t the reader w i t h the most important o b s e r v a t i o n s b e f o r e the more d e t a i l e d s y n o p t i c r e p o r t s are presented. Phenomena r e l a t e d t o s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s were i n v e s t i -gated by a l l t h r e e l e a r n e r s . During s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s o b j e c t s were p l a c e d i n water t o determine i f they s i n k or f l o a t . Other a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d s i n k i n g " f l o a t e r s " , f l o a t i n g " s i n k e r s " , c o n s t r u c t i n g b o a t s , and d i s p l a c i n g volumes of water. In a d d i t i o n , . t h e o l d e s t l e a r n e r i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t o f d i f f e r -ent l i q u i d s on f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . Although a l l l e a r n e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , they expressed and u t i l i z e d many of the same c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s . T h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y used such f a m i l i a r terms as "Ivght" and "heavy". A l l t h r e e l e a r n e r s f e l t and demonstrated t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. U n l i k e the o l d e r l e a r n e r s , the s e ven-year-old h e l d t h a t s m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s of m a t e r i a l s f l o a t whereas l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s s i n k . He a l s o f e l t t h a t "heavier" o b j e c t s d i s p l a c e more water than "lighter" o b j e c t s 43 o f e q u a l s i z e . A l l l e a r n e r s tended t o h o l d t h a t m a t e r i a l s when pl a c e d i n water have a n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n , e i t h e r they s i n k o r they f l o a t , and t h a t an e x t e r n a l motive i s r e q u i r e d t o move them from these p o s i t i o n s . The two o l d e s t l e a r n e r ' s mentioned the term "air" i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . They s p e c u l a t e d t h a t o b j e c t s f l o a t i f they c o n t a i n "air". SYNOPTIC REPORTS Synopses o f the Seven-Year-Old's I n v e s t i g a t i o n s D e s c r i p t i o n of l e a r n e r . The youngest l e a r n e r , Robert, age 7.6, r e p o r t e d t h a t he was i n grade two and t h a t h i s f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t s were a r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . He was u n c e r t a i n o f h i s f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n but d i d mention t h a t he o c c a s i o n a l l y made speeches a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. His manner of t h i n k i n g aloud d u r i n g the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he enjoyed .the l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s . The teacher and the independent observer were most impressed w i t h h i s o r i g i n a l i d e a s and c r e a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . Robert s t a t e d t h a t he played w i t h boats a t home a f t e r doing s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n the f i r s t s e s s i o n . S e s s i o n 1. The teacher r o l e f o r the f i r s t s e s s i o n was to engage the l e a r n e r i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . He i n v i t e d the l e a r n e r t o pursue i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s o f i n q u i r y and o f f e r e d the necessary 44 a s s i s t a n c e to c a r r y out these a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s of the l e a r n e r ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n are recorded i n the f o l l o w i n g s y n o p t i c r e p o r t . Robert begins by p l a c i n g s e v e r a l o b j e c t s i n t o the water to determine which s i n k and which f l o a t . While working he comments f r e e l y on what he i s doing and t h i n k i n g . His method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n seems t o be simply to note new f a c t s as they occur. Before many of h i s experiments he p r e d i c t s what he expects t o happen. At one p o i n t he p r e d i c t s t h a t a g o l f b a l l w i l l s i n k even though a styrofoam b a l l of the same s i z e f l o a t s . P l a c i n g a sponge i n the water, he watches as i t absorbs water and e x p l a i n s t h a t i t might s i n k when i t gets "all watery". S h o r t l y a f t e r he p r e d i c t s and observes a p l a s t i c tube s i n k i n g as a r e s u l t o f water e n t e r i n g . He s u c c e s s f u l l y extends t h i s i d e a to a s m a l l e r p l a s t i c tube. C o n t i n u i n g h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , Robert expresses s u r p r i s e when a l a r g e bar o f wax and a l a r g e p o l y e t h y l e n e cube f l o a t w h i l e a much s m a l l e r l u c i t e cube s i n k s . O c c a s i o n a l l y he r e l a t e s h i s a c t i v i t i e s t o h i s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . At one p o i n t he mentions t h a t a t home h i s p l a s t i c i n e s i n k s a f t e r i t has been i n the water f o r a few minutes. During h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a submerged, i n v e r t e d paper cup r e t u r n s to the s u r f a c e . When asked t o e x p l a i n t h i s phenomena, Robert r e p l i e s , "Because i t ' s so light." On another o c c a s i o n he notes t h a t "heavy" aluminum cubes can be used t o s i n k a cork. He attempts to s i n k a sponge and bar of wax combination by p l a c i n g v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s on top. He uses aluminum cubes t o s i n k i t more q u i c k l y . T h i s a c t i v i t y e v e n t u a l l y leads him to b u i l d i n g v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e s such as b o a t s . Robert spends c o n s i d e r a b l e time on t h i s seemingly enjoy-ab l e a c t i v i t y . S e s s i o n 2. In a d d i t i o n to performing the tasks of the f i r s t s e s s i o n , the t e a c h e r attempted to i n t r o d u c e s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g the l e a r n e r to u t i l i z e h i s p r e v i o u s modes of a t t a c k . Because of Robert's s t y l e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n which he t h i n k s a,loud, the teacher f e l t i t unnecessary to probe the l e a r n e r f o r 45 s p e c u l a t i v e accounts of h i s e x p e r i e n c e s . The f o l l o w i n g s y n o p t i c r e p o r t h i g h l i g h t s s i g n i f i c a n t events of t h i s s e s s i o n . Robert chooses t o continue h i s a c t i v i t i e s o f the l a s t s e s s i o n by b u i l d i n g boats w i t h the bar of wax. During the process o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a "sailboat," the bar of wax separates from the sponge and s i n k s . When asked t o e x p l a i n t h i s occurrence, Robert i s u n c e r t a i n as t o the cause but supposes t h a t the wax i s e i t h e r "wet i n s i d e " or "heavy". Examining a p l a s t i c tube, n e a r l y f u l l o f water, he observes how one end f l o a t s and one end s i n k s . He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t one end s i n k s because i t i s f i l l e d w i t h water. He then e x p l a i n s t h a t wood s i n k s when "water-logged". The teacher encourages Robert t o i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i o u s methods of f l o a t i n g - p l a s t i c i n e . As an i n i t i a l attempt, he t e s t s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y a s m a l l e r p i e c e of p l a s t i c i n e . He then p l a c e s i t on the bar of wax and makes i t f l o a t . The teacher suggests t h a t he t r y making the p l a s t i c i n e f l o a t alone. Robert responds by forming i t i n t o a "ball" shape and a f t e r f a i l i n g appears t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s t a s k i s i m p o s s i b l e . Pressed t o c o n t i n u e , he t e s t s p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r p i e c e s o f p l a s t i c i n e u n t i l he appar-e n t l y l o s e s i n t e r e s t i n t h i s a c t i v i t y and r e t u r n s t o h i s e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Upon l o o k i n g at the v a r i o u s o b j e c t s a v a i l a b l e , he n o t i c e s a ping.pong b a l l . He p r e d i c t s t h a t i t w i l l s i n k i f i t i s f i l l e d w i t h water and asks i f he may put a h o l e i n the b a l l t o t e s t h i s i d e a . The tea c h e r o f f e r s the necessary encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e t o c a r r y out t h i s i n v e s t i g a -t i o n . A f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g much d i f f i c u l t y , he f i n a l l y , manages t o f i l l i t w i t h water u s i n g a r a t h e r c r e a t i v e arrangement. Upon placement of the b a l l i n water, Robert s t a t e s p r o u d l y , " J sunk i t . " S e s s i o n 3. The main mode of t e a c h i n g f o r t h i s s e s s i o n was t o engage the l e a r n e r i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which permit ex-t e n s i o n and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f h i s pr e v i o u s i d e a s . The teacher encouraged.the l e a r n e r t o s e l e c t the a c t i v i t i e s , and as a r e s u l t Robert's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were not always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i n k i n g 46 and f l o a t i n g phenomena. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s e s s i o n are recorded below i n s y n o p t i c form. Robert begins by performing an experiment almost i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t a t the end o f the l a s t s e s s i o n . He attempts t o see i f the p i n g pong b a l l s t i l l s i n k s i f the l a r g e tube, used f o r f i l l i n g the b a l l w i t h water, i s r e p l a c e d by a s m a l l e r tube. F o l l o w i n g the same procedure as l a s t time, he has l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y making the b a l l s i n k . He soon has another i d e a — " I ' l l try and get this [styrofoam b a l l ] to sink." A f t e r a b r i e f attempt a t f i l l i n g the b a l l w i t h water, he a r t i c u l a t e s h i s former view by e x p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e r e i s s t u f f i n s i d e the b a l l which prevents the water from e n t e r i n g . In an attempt t o have the l e a r n e r extend h i s i d e a t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water, the teacher asks i f he can s i n k a p l a s t i c straw. Robert suggests t h a t the straw f l o a t s because the water escapes through the ends of the straw and commences, t o s e a l them w i t h p l a s t i c i n e . The straw s t i l l does not s i n k and he s p e c u l a t e s t h a t the water escapes through the p l a s t i c i n e . Adding more m a t e r i a l s , i n a f u r t h e r attempt t o s e a l the straw, he e v e n t u a l l y s i n k s one end. He e x p l a i n s t h a t one end s i n k s because i t i s "heavier". He then proceeds t o s i n k the ot h e r end by adding more p l a s t i c i n e . P roceeding from a sug g e s t i o n by the t e a c h e r , Robert f l o a t s a rubber cork by p l a c i n g i t on a sponge. He then adds another cork t o the sponge. D i s i n t e r e s t e d i n p u r s u i n g t h i s i d e a , he begins t o wash the m a t e r i a l s . In an attempt t o d i s c o u r a g e t h i s seemingly p o i n t l e s s a c t i v i t y , the teacher asks i f he can s i n k a rubber b a l l . Robert, r e c a l l i n g h i s experience w i t h the styrofoam b a l l , does not t h i n k i t can s i n k . He then attempts t o put a l l the o b j e c t s i n t o the water c o n t a i n e r . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s a c t i v i t y , much water s p i l l s onto the t a b l e and f l o o r . When asked what happened t o the water, he notes t h a t the o b j e c t s "made i t oome up more". The teacher suggests t h a t he work w i t h the aluminum f o i l . Robert attempts t o s i n k the f o i l by p e r m i t t i n g water t o flow over i t , but i s not s u c c e s s f u l . He t e s t s a s m a l l "sorunohed-up" p i e c e o f f o i l and f i n a l l y a l a r g e r "sorunched-up" p i e c e , but n e i t h e r s i n k . S e s s i o n 4. Hoping t o prevent the l e a r n e r from i n v e s t i g a t i n g i r r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t i e s as i n the l a s t s e s s i o n , the 47 t e a c h e r s t r u c t u r e d the f i n a l s e s s i o n much more c l o s e l y . In a d d i t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t i n g the l e a r n e r ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the t e a c h e r attempted t o e l i c i t f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t i v e statements about the o b s e r v a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d . I n v e s t i g a t i n g t h r e e bars of soap., Robert e x p l a i n s t h a t one f l o a t s because i t i s "lighter". Asked to f l o a t the o t h e r soap, he responds by t e s t i n g a s m a l l e r p i e c e of the soap. A f t e r f i v e attempts i n which the s i z e of the soap becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s m a l l e r he concludes t h a t i t does not f l o a t because " i t is a different kind- of soap". When asked what i s d i f f e r e n t about i t , he r e p l i e s , " I t ' s a d i f f e r e n t color." F o l l o w i n g a s u g g e s t i o n by the t e a c h e r , Robert p l a c e s a p i e c e of soap i n t o a w a t e r - f i l l e d tube and n o t i c e s a s l i g h t r i s e i n the water l e v e l . Wishing t o pursue t h i s i d e a , the teacher asks which w i l l make the water r i s e more,.an aluminum cube or a l u c i t e cube of equal s i z e . P l a c i n g the cubes one a t a time i n t o the tube and making extremely crude measurements, he e x p l a i n s t h a t the water r i s e s more w i t h the aluminum cube because i t i s "heavier." He i n c r e a s e s the scope of h i s i d e a by comparing the r i s e i n water of a p o l y e t h y l e n e cube and an aluminum cube. Again,. making extremely rough measurements, he notes t h a t the p o l y e t h y l e n e cube does not make the water r i s e be-cause i t f l o a t s . Wishing to e x p l o r e the n o t i o n t h a t f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s d i s p l a c e l e s s water than s i n k i n g o b j e c t s , the teacher asks Robert t o compare the r i s e i n water f o r a s m a l l aluminum c y l i n d e r and a much l a r g e r wooden c y l i n d e r . A f t e r i n v e s t i g a t i n g , he s t a t e s t h a t the wood does make the water r i s e but not as much as the aluminum. A t t h i s p o i n t , Robert reaches f o r the 50 ml. graduate which has been s i t t i n g on the t a b l e throughout the s e s s i o n s . He a p p a r e n t l y knows i t can be used to measure q u a n t i t i e s of water. The t e a c h e r permits him to exper-iment measuring d i f f e r e n t amounts of water b e f o r e p r e -s e n t i n g s p e c i f i c problems. Throughout h i s measurements, Robert uses the numerical markings on the s i d e of the graduate without any apparent thought as to the u n i t s i n v o l v e d . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , q u a n t i t i e s of water are measured as h e i g h t s r a t h e r then as volumes. Encouraged by the t e a c h e r , Robert repeats a number of experiments performed u s i n g the p l a s t i c tube. Comparing the e q u a l - s i z e d aluminum and l u c i t e cubes a g a i n , he n o t i c e s t h a t b o t h make the water r i s e the same amount. The t e a c h e r i s s u r p r i s e d w i t h h i s c o n c l u s i o n due t o h i s 48 crude and approximate measures of volume. He does not draw Robert's a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t e a r l i e r he s a i d aluminum made the water r i s e h i g h e r than l u c i t e . Robert does not appear t o c o n s i d e r t h i s n o t i o n e i t h e r , f o r l a t e r , he s t i l l m a intains t h a t aluminum makes water r i s e h i g h e r because i t i s h e a v i e r . Robert again compares the s m a l l aluminum c y l i n d e r and the -much l a r g e r wooden c y l i n d e r . P l a c i n g the wood i n t o the graduate, he pushes i t below the s u r f a c e and i s amazed t o see the h e i g h t t o which the water r i s e s . He now s t a t e s t h a t the wood makes the water r i s e h i g h e r than the aluminum. In another comparison, he notes t h a t an aluminum cube makes the water r i s e h i g h e r than a f l o a t i n g p o l y e t h y l e n e cube. During t h i s comparison, Robert mentions t h a t the aluminum cube r a i s e s the water "three" (presumably 3 m l . ) , when i n f a c t the cubes are onl y 1 1/2 ml. i n volume. T h i s comment r e i n f o r c e s the teacher's f e e l i n g s t h a t he uses the "weight" as a c r i t e r i o n f o r many o f h i s comparisons r a t h e r than the a c t u a l volume i n c r e a s e as i n d i c a t e d by the graduate. As a f i n a l a c t i v i t y , Robert i n v e s t i g a t e s the r i s e i n water l e v e l e xperienced by adding numerous aluminum cubes and c y l i n d e r s t o the graduate. He i s impressed w i t h the h e i g h t t o which the water r i s e s and continues t o add cubes as the water pours over the top. A f t e r u s i n g a l l the aluminum o b j e c t s , he adds a few p o l y e t h y l e n e cubes. He e x p l a i n s t h a t the aluminum o b j e c t s are the "heaviest" and t h a t they make the water r i s e f a s t e s t because they make the water "come up to the top". Extending h i s i d e a s , he repea t s the experiment u s i n g l e s s water i n the graduate. He seems f a s c i n a t e d w i t h t h i s a c t i v i t y . Synopses of the Ten-Year-Old's I n v e s t i g a t i o n s D e s c r i p t i o n o f l e a r n e r . J e f f , age 10:0, r e p o r t e d t h a t he was i n grade f o u r and t h a t he e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d the s u b j e c t s o f s c i e n c e and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . He s t a t e d t h a t he o c c a s i o n a l l y worked on s c i e n c e p r o j e c t s at home. His f a t h e r was a mathematics teacher a t a l o c a l secondary s c h o o l and h i s mother, a s c h o o l nurse. During the s e s s i o n s J e f f appeared d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n f r e e l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g the m a t e r i a l s and seemed to enjoy working on problems t h a t the teacher posed. At one p o i n t , when p e r m i t t e d t o pursue i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s , J e f f asked, "Could you. please give me a problem to do?" D e s p i t e being c o n t i n u a l l y f r u s t r a t e d by the problems presented, he remained c o o p e r a t i v e and i n t e r e s t e d i n the l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s . The t e a c h e r was p l e a s e d w i t h h i s c a r e f u l m anipulations and t h o u g h t f u l s p e c u l a t i o n s . J e f f mentioned t h a t he o f t e n c o n s i d e r -ed problem s o l u t i o n s between the l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s . S e s s i o n 1. The teacher intended t o perform the same teac h e r r o l e f o r a l l l e a r n e r s d u r i n g the f i r s t s e s s i o n -f a c i l i t a t i n g and encouraging i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Because the t e a c h e r was t r y i n g t o i n s t i l l the l e a r n e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n the r e s e a r c h experiment, he d i d not disc o u r a g e J e f f ' s e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f balance phenomena. Instead he s u b t l y d i v e r t e d the l e a r n e r i n t o s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s of the f i r s t s e s s i o n are recorded below, s t r e s s i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between the t e n - y e a r - o l d and the younger l e a r n e r . U n l i k e the sev e n - y e a r - o l d , J e f f does not show p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n p l a y i n g w i t h the numerous items t o determine i f they s i n k or f l o a t . His a c t i v i t i e s tend t o be more s o p h i s t i c a t e d . Many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s appear t o be an ex t e n s i o n of h i s pr e v i o u s i d e a s about s i n k i n g and f l o a t -i n g . On one o c c a s i o n , he adds v a r i o u s o b j e c t s t o a medicine cup s i n k i n g i t t o a c e r t a i n depth (26b, 27c, 28c). As a follow-up a c t i v i t y , he s i n k s two medicine cups t o the same depth (29b, 30c). He notices, t h a t a p i e c e of c o l o r e d c h a l k s i n k s a f t e r a . few seconds i n water (32b). A c c o r d i n g t o h i s e x p l a n a t i o n 50 t h e w a t e r d i s p l a c e s t h e "air" i n s i d e t h e "holes" o f t h e c h a l k and "weighs i t down" (3.6c, 37c, 38c, 3 9 c ) . T h i s view i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t h e l d by t h e s e v e n - y e a r -o l d . J e f f seems t o e x p r e s s h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n more m a t u r e l y A t one p o i n t , J e f f s t a r e s a t a sponge w h i c h he has p l a c e d i n w a t e r (52b). The t e a c h e r i n q u i r e s about h i s t h o u g h t s (53a). J e f f r e p l i e s , "I'm counting how many seconds before it sinks (53c)." He seems c o n f u s e d as t h e sponge c o n t i n u e s t o f l o a t (56c, 57b, 58c, 59b) and assumes t h a t i t i s composed o f t h e wrong "kind of stuff" ( 6 2 c ) . P r e s e n t e d w i t h a s t r a w (6 6 a ) , J e f f p r e d i c t s t h a t , as i t becomes f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r , i t w i l l s i n k (71c, 7 2 c ) . A f t e r r e p e a t e d e f f o r t , i n w h i c h a l l t h e a i r i s f o r c e d out and r e p l a c e d w i t h w a t e r , t h e s t r a w c o n t i n u e s t o f l o a t (76b, 79b, 80b). He has an e x t r e m e l y p u z z l e d l o o k on h i s f a c e (81b) b u t o f f e r s no s p e c u l a t i o n s about t h i s phenomenon (8 1 c ) . Responding t o a t e a c h e r s u g g e s t i o n (83a), J e f f a t t e m p t s t o f l o a t t h e s t r a w on end : (84b). I n i t i a l l y , he t r i e s t o f i l l one end o f t h e s t r a w w i t h w a t e r t o "weigh i t down" (85b, 8 6 c ) . On a l a t e r t r i a l , he v a r i e s t h e q u a n t i t y o f p l a s t i c i n e on one end (89b), n o t i n g t h a t "too much p l a s t i c i n e " makes i t s i n k t o t h e bottom (90c, 9 1 c ) . He does n o t manage t o f l o a t t h e s t r a w v e r t i c a l l y (9 3 c ) . S e s s i o n 2. I n t h i s s e s s i o n t h e , t e a c h e r r o l e c o n s i s t e d o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e l e a r n e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s and p r o b i n g f o r s p e c u l a t i v e i d e a s about t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e a c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o s t r u c t u r e s i t u a t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g t h e l e a r n e r , t o a p p l y h i s i d e a s . The r e s u l t s , s t r e s s i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between l e a r n e r s , a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t . A f t e r p l a c i n g an aluminum c y l i n d e r i n water (95b), J e f f s p e c u l a t e s t h a t an o b j e c t f l o a t s i f t h e r e i s "air" i n s i d e and the "compartment" does not "weigh too much" (101c). Asked t o f l o a t p l a s t i c i n e (104a), J e f f molds i t i n t o a cup (104b). Due to the q u a n t i t y of p l a s t i c i n e used, he i s u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s endeavours 51 (104b, 107b, 114b). P r e s s e d t o c o n t i n u e (116a), he reduces t h e amount o f p l a s t i c i n e b u t s t i l l i t s i n k s (118b). He f e e l s t h a t "holes" i n h i s p l a s t i c i n e cause i t t o s i n k (122c). L a t e r , he s p e c u l a t e s t h a t t h e p l a s t i c i n e i s t o o "heavy" and would s t i l l s i n k even i f t h e r e were no "holes" (126c). He f l o a t s t h e p l a s t i c i n e by a t t a c h i n g i t t o a c o r k (128b). When asked t o e x p l a i n why j i t f l o a t s now (129a), J e f f s t a t e s , "This thing (cork) that f l o a t s by i t s e l f has nothing to -gull i t down (129c)." J e f f i s i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s i n k i n g a p i e c e o f aluminum f o i l (132a, 134a). H i s method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o bend t h e f o i l i n v a r i o u s shapes p e r m i t t i n g w a t e r t o f l o w o v e r t h e f o i l (134b). A f t e r p e r s i s t e n t f a i l u r e (134b), he pushes t h e f o i l t o t h e bottom o f t h e w a t e r c o n t a i n e r t o a s s u r e h i m s e l f t h a t i t does s i n k (137b, 13.7c). C o n t i n u i n g , h i s f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n appears i n c r e a s i n g l y p u z z l e d as each t r i a l f a i l s (141b). He f e e l s t h a t "aiv3" t r a p p e d i n t h e f o i l , causes i t t o f l o a t (146c). To overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y he makes t h e f o i l "even" by removing t h e w r i n k l e s (148c, 150b).. As a f i n a l e f f o r t , he p u t s a h o l e i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e f o i l e x p e c t i n g t h e w a t e r t o f l o w t h r o u g h and make i t s i n k (152b). He o f f e r s no e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s a p p a r e n t l y c o n f u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e (155b). R e t u r n i n g t o h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , he adds v a r i o u s c u b i c a l o b j e c t s t o a p i e c e o f aluminum f o i l o b s e r v i n g whether i t s i n k s o r f l o a t s (156b). S e s s i o n 3. The r o l e o f t h e t e a c h e r i n t h i s s e s s i o n was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f s e s s i o n t w o — f a c i l i t a t i n g f u r t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and e l i c i t i n g s p e c u l a t i v e i d e a s about t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d . I n i t i a l l y , t h e t e a c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o engage t h e l e a r n e r i n p e r s o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . U n l i k e t h e younger boy, J e f f became b o r e d w i t h t h i s mode o f i n q u i r y and p r e f e r r e d t o work on t e a c h e r s u g g e s t e d problems. The s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s y n o p s i s . 52 Asked t o f l o a t p l a s t i c i n e (169a, 1 7 1 a ) , J e f f t r i e s u n s u c c e s s f u l l y by e n c l o s i n g v a r i o u s f l o a t a b l e o b j e c t s s u ch as a c o r k and a r u b b e r b a l l (171b). He appears t o be a p p l y i n g h i s p r e v i o u s i d e a t h a t o b j e c t s f l o a t u n l e s s "•gulled down" by an e x t e r n a l f o r c e (171b, 172b, 173b). He ex t e n d s t h i s v i e w by a t t a c h i n g p l a s t i c i n e t o a p l a s t i c t u b e (176b). P r e s s e d t o f l o a t t h e p l a s t i c i n e a l o n e (180a), he b r e a k s i t i n t o a s m a l l e r p i e c e as d i d t h e s e v e n - y e a r - o l d (180b). J e f f appears t o know t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s p o i n t l e s s and r e t u r n s t o h i s "cup" i d e a (180b, 181b). A f t e r r e p e a t e d f a i l u r e (182b), he r e p o r t s t h a t t h e p l a s t i c i n e has "leaks" and i s "too heavy" ( 1 8 5 c ) . He f e e l s t h a t t h e "leaks" have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e f f e c t and t h a t i t i s m a i n l y t o o "heavy" ( 1 8 6 c ) . T u r n i n g t o t h e p l a s t i c t u b e s , he r e g u l a t e s t h e d e p t h o f s i n k i n g by v a r y i n g t h e amount o f w a t e r i n s i d e t h e tub e (198b, 203c, 206b, 208b). A t one p o i n t he comments, "The air lifts it up > the water pulls it down (2l3a)." He c o n t i n u e s t o ex p e r i m e n t and n o t e s t h a t by v a r y i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a i r and w a t e r i n t h e ends o f t h e t u b e , he can c o n t r o l w h i c h end s i n k s and w h i c h end f l o a t s (214b). He t h e n t r i e s t o s i n k t h e aluminum f o i l by b e n d i n g i t i n v a r i o u s shapes a c c o r d i n g t o h i s p r e v i o u s i d e a s and a g a i n i s p u z z l e d when h i s e f f o r t s f a i l (221b). F o l l o w i n g a s u g g e s t i o n by t h e t e a c h e r , J e f f i n v e s t i g a t e s k e e p i n g a p i e c e o f aluminum f o i l a f l o a t when d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s a r e added (223b, 224b, 225b). S e s s i o n 4. S i n c e t h e l e a r n e r p r e f e r r e d t o work on t e a c h e r - s u g g e s t e d p r o b l e m s , t h e t e a c h e r p r e s e n t e d him w i t h f u r t h e r s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h he c o u l d a p p l y h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s about s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . D u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n , t h e t e a c h e r c o n t i n u e d t o probe f o r s p e c u l a t i v e i d e a s about t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n . C o n t i n u i n g from l a s t s e s s i o n , J e f f i n v e s t i g a t e s a p i e c e o f aluminum f o i l f l o a t i n g when v a r i o u s i t e m s a r e added (226b, 229b, 231b). From h i s e x p e r i e n c e s , he n o t e s t h a t he can p l a c e fewer "heavier" o b j e c t s on t h e f o i l ( 2 37c). Prompted by t h e t e a c h e r t o s i n k a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f aluminum f o i l t h a n t h a t used i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n s ( 2 4 0 a ) , J e f f e x p e r i e n c e s much f r u s t r a t i o n b u t e v e n t u a l l y manages t o s i n k one l a y e r 53 of the f o i l u s i n g h i s former method (241b, 243b, 244b, 25 3b). He e x p l a i n s t h a t two l a y e r s o f f o i l do not s i n k "because a i r i s trapped between the l a y e r s c a u s i n g the f o i l t o "oome up" (259c, 262c, 263c). Then, J e f f s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e s h i s method t o the o l d aluminum f o i l (278b, 278c). Returning t o the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h p l a s t i c tubes, J e f f n o t i c e s a l a r g e tube s i n k due t o water "pulling i t down" (282b, 284c). When reminded of the straw experiment (285a), he f e e l s t h a t the water a l s o "pulls i t down" (285c). Urged t o i n v e s t i g a t e (287a), he f i n d s t h a t the straw f l o a t s when f i l l e d w i t h water (287b). He appears p u z z l e d and develops h i s view t o account f o r the new i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d (289b, 293c). He specu-l a t e s t h a t the straw, because o f i t s shape, does not h o l d s u f f i c i e n t water t o "pull i t down" (293c). He extends the range o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s i d e a by s i n k i n g a s m a l l e r p l a s t i c tube (295b). Given a p o l y e t h y l e n e bag t o e x p l o r e (299a), he observes t h a t i t f l o a t s when f i l l e d w i t h water. He does,.not appear t o doubt h i s views and suggests t h a t i t f l o a t s because e i t h e r the bag f l o a t s o r th e r e i s a i r trapped i n the bag (319c). Removing the a i r (325b., 326b) , he appears t o see the bag of water as s i n k i n g when i n f a c t i t i s f l o a t i n g (328b, 329c, 330c). As the s e s s i o n ends, he agrees w i t h the te a c h e r t h a t i f you get enough water i n s i d e an o b j e c t i t w i l l s i n k (332a, 332c). Synopses o f the Eleven-Year-Old's I n v e s t i g a t i o n s D e s c r i p t i o n o f l e a r n e r . A r l e n e , age 11:7 r e p o r t e d t h a t she was i n grade s i x and t h a t she r e c e i v e d grades o f "A" or "B" i n most of her s c h o o l work. Her f a t h e r was a fisherman and her mother, a housewife. During the s e s s i o n s A r l e n e was most c o o p e r a t i v e . However, she remained uncommitted t o many of the t e a c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n s . Her u s u a l r e p l y was, "I don't know." At f i r s t , she appeared u n c e r t a i n o f what t o do when given the o p p o r t u n i t y t o f r e e l y i n v e s t i g a t e w i t h the m a t e r i a l s . As the s e s s i o n s p r o g r e s s e d , she appeared much more r e l a x e d and afterward mentioned t h a t she enjoyed t h i s type o f l e a r n i n g and t h a t she wished t h e r e was more time f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t s c h o o l . 54 S e s s i o n 1. The teacher r o l e i n the f i r s t s e s s i o n f o r the e l e v e n - y e a r - o l d was s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the two other c h i l d r e n - e n c o u r a g i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l experimentation w i t h i n the realm of phenomena r e l a t e d to s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . The r e s u l t s of the f i r s t s e s s i o n are presented i n the f o l l o w i n g s y n o p t i c r e p o r t , s t r e s s i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance among the l e a r n e r s . U n l i k e the p r e v i o u s l e a r n e r s , A r l e n e appears confused when giv e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to f r e e l y i n v e s t i g a t e w i t h the m a t e r i a l s . The t e a c h e r suggests t h a t she use the water to d i s c o v e r whether o b j e c t s s i n k or f l o a t . A f t e r a number of t r i a l s she' notes t h a t wood f l o a t s because i t i s "pretty light" w h i l e a g o l f b a l l s i n k s because i t i s "pretty heavy". Her method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n seems to i n v o l v e m e n t a l l y weighing the o b j e c t s t o determine i f they s i n k or f l o a t and t e s t i n g those of which she i s u n c e r t a i n . A r l e n e agrees w i t h the other l e a r n e r s t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. A p p l y i n g t h i s i d e a to a straw, she uses a procedure s i m i l a r , to t h a t of the seven-year-o l d i n which she plugs the ends of the straw to prevent water from e s c a p i n g . Using t o o t h p i c k s and b i r t h d a y candles as s e a l s , she i s u n s u c c e s s f u l i n her endeavors. L a t e r , she submerges a wooden cube i n an attempt to make i t "waterlogged". Asked t o f l o a t p l a s t i c i n e , A r l e n e immediately attaches i t t o the styrofoam b a l l . She then embarks i n a s e r i e s of a c t i v i t i e s designed t o s i n k a cork; abandoning the i d e a a f t e r repeated f a i l u r e t o u n i t e the eork to a rubber cork. She notes t h a t a w a t e r - f i l l e d medicine cup s i n k s . Hoping t o pursue t h i s i d e a , the t e a c h e r reminds her o f the straw. She does not r e t u r n t o her p r e v i o u s method but i n s t e a d attaches d i f f e r e n t "heavy" m a t e r i a l s to the straw c a u s i n g i t to s i n k . S e s s i o n 2. In a d d i t i o n t o performing the tasks of t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n , the teacher e l i c i t e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of o b s e r v a t i o n s , probed f o r s p e c u l a t i v e ideas about the i n v e s t i g a -55 t i o n s , and i n t r o d u c e d s i t u a t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g the l e a r n e r t o apply her i d e a s . A synopsis o f the r e s u l t s i s p r o v i d e d below. The teacher i n t r o d u c e s A r l e n e t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f l o a t i n g p l a s t i c i n e . U n l i k e the youngest l e a r n e r who t e s t e d " i n c r e a s i n g l y s m a l l e r p i e c e s o f p l a s t i c i n e , A r l e n e responds s i m i l a r t o the t e n - y e a r - o l d by forming i t i n t o a cup. Because she experiences much d i f f i -c u l t y w i t h breaks i n her p l a s t i c i n e , the tea c h e r o f f e r s a t h i n sheet of p l a s t i c i n e w i t h which t o work. A r l e n e has l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y f l o a t i n g her p l a s t i c i n e cup and adds v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s u n t i l i t s i n k s . She i n c r e a s e s the depth of her cup so t h a t more o b j e c t s can be added. She s p e c u l a t e s t h a t water e n t e r s "holes in the sides and weighs i t down". Extending her ideas t o a p i e c e of aluminum f o i l , she b u i l d s a number of boats and observes each s i n k due to the a d d i t i o n o f aluminum, l u c i t e , and p o l y e t h y l e n e cubes. Asked t o make the; aluminum f o i l s i n k a l o n e , A r l e n e crumples i t i n t o d i f f e r e n t : shapes attempting t o make, "holes""through which the water can flow and f o r c e i t down. U n l i k e the t e n - y e a r - o l d , she does not s t a y w i t h t h i s problem and r e t u r n s t o her e a r l i e r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n s . She d i s c o v e r s t h a t her p l a s t i c i n e boat s t i l l f l o a t s when wrapped around a styrofoam b a l l . S e s s i o n 3. The teacher r o l e f o r t h i s s e s s i o n was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the l a s t s e s s i o n - f a c i l i t a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i n t r o d u c i n g problems p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t y t o apply p r e v i o u s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , and pr o b i n g f o r f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t i o n s about the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d . S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s from the t h i r d s e s s i o n are r e p o r t e d below s t r e s s i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among the l e a r n e r s . A r l e n e begins by experimenting w i t h the p l a s t i c tubes. Her i n i t i a l a c t i v i t i e s appear to be an e x t e n s i o n o f the t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s d i s p l a y e d i n the pr e v i o u s s e s s i o n s . At one p o i n t , she v a r i e s the amount of p l a s t i c i n e r e q u i r e d t o s i n k a wooden cube. L a t e r , spending c o n s i d e r a b l e time working on a seemingly e n j o y a b l e p u z z l e , she comments, "It takes more of the wood things to make i t [ p l a s t i c tube] stand up in the water than it does the metal things." 56 A r l e n e ' s method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s i m i l a r to t h a t of the youngest l e a r n e r , tends t o c o n c e n t r a t e on i n c r e a s i n g the range of a p p l i c a t i o n of her i d e a s , r a t h e r than on i n v e s t i g a t i n g problems t h a t appear to be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h her e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h i s mode of i n q u i r y i s p a r t i c -u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n the l a t t e r h a l f of t h i s s e s s i o n when she a p p a r e n t l y enjoys experimenting w i t h d i f f e r e n t cube and p l a s t i c i n e arrangements r e q u i r e d t o s i n k v a r i o u s cork combinations. S e s s i o n 4. To p r o v i d e A r l e n e w i t h f u r t h e r phenomena to i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o her e a r l i e r i d e a s , the t e a c h e r presented her w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t l i q u i d s . The teacher r o l e c o n s i s t e d of f a c i l i t a t i n g the l e a r n e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s and e l i c i t i n g s p e c u l a t i v e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g s y n o p t i c r e p o r t i n c l u d e s the r e s u l t s o f the f i n a l s e s s i o n . The t e a c h e r p r e s e n t s A r l e n e w i t h seven l i q u i d s w i t h which t o experiment: baking soda and water, sugar and water, c o r n s t a r c h and water, s a l t w a t e r , soapwater, o i l , and water. She begins by p l a c i n g v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s i n the l i q u i d s , o b s e r v i n g whether each f l o a t s or s i n k s . I n i t i a l l y , she t e s t s each o b j e c t i n a l l seven s o l u t i o n s but soon r e f i n e s her technique by t e s t i n g the soap and sugar s o l u -t i o n s f i r s t . She a p p a r e n t l y knows t h a t i f something s i n k s i n these s o l u t i o n s , then i t s i n k s i n the others as w e l l . At f i r s t , she expresses s u r p r i s e as many o b j e c t s s i n k i n the o i l . As t h e . s e s s i o n p r o g r e s s e s , she comes t o expect t h i s occurrence and at one p o i n t she t e s t s v a r i o u s items simply t o d i s c o v e r which do f l o a t i n o i l . She n o t i c e s t h a t one bar o f soap f l o a t s i n water w h i l e another s i n k s and s p e c u l a t e s t h a t e i t h e r one f l o a t s because i t i s "Ivory" or the o t h e r s i n k s because i t i s "bigger". The teacher asks what would happen i f both were equal s i z e . U n l i k e the s e v e n - y e a r - o l d , she f e e l s t h a t s i z e makes l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e and t h a t i t depends mainly on the "brand" of soap. She extends her p r e v i o u s i d e a t h a t "waterlogged" o b j e c t s sink.by .submerging a styrofoam b a l l i n water. U n l i k e the o t h e r l e a r n e r s , she o f f e r s no reasons f o r her repeated f a i l u r e s . R e t u r n i n g t o her i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h v a r i o u s l i q u i d s , A r l e n e appears content t o p l a y w i t h the m a t e r i a l s o b s e r v i n g whether each s i n k s o r f l o a t s . She o f f e r s few c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s about the phenomenon. Pressed by the t e a c h e r , she s p e c u l a t e s t h a t o b j e c t s f l o a t b e t t e r i n "thick" l i q u i d s , such as the sugar and water s o l u -t i o n , then they do i n o i l which i s "thin". C H A P T E R V AN EXPLORATORY CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE CHILDREN'S INVESTIGATORY ACTIVITIES CHAPTER V AN EXPLORATORY CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE CHILDREN'S INVESTIGATORY ACTIVITIES The c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge to be i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s chapter u t i l i z e s a number of a d a p t a t i o n s of Kuhn's view of s c i e n t i f i c develop-ment. The p a r t i c u l a r concepts drawn from Kuhn are i d e n t i f i e d and t e n t a t i v e a d a p t a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n the next s e c t i o n i Apparent examples i l l u s t r a t i n g the concepts conclude the -chapter. CHILD-PARADIGMS AND CHILD-PARADIGM SHIFTS: IDEAS ADAPTED FROM KUHN The pre s e n t study u t i l i z e d a daptations of Kuhn's view of s c i e n c e i n an e x p l o r a t o r y manner. Kuhn found the n o t i o n s of a paradigm and a paradigm s h i f t u s e f u l i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g s c i e n t i f i c development. U t i l i z i n g a d a p t a t i o n s of these Kuhnian concepts, the w r i t e r attempted t o account f o r modes of thought i n c h i l d r e n . A major impetus f o r t h i s approach was Kuhn's su g g e s t i o n t h a t there i s a p a r a l l e l between c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s -t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s and how s c i e n t i f i c knowledge grows and develops (Kuhn, 1963c, p. 310.). The p r e s e n t study, however, c o n f i n e s i t s e l f t o u t i l i z i n g what appear to be p o t e n t i a l l y 59 u s e f u l ideas from Kuhn to c o n c e p t u a l i z e c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i -g a t ory behaviour. Aspects of Kuhn's View o f Science Relevant to the  Present Study Kuhn found the i d e a of a paradigm p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g c e r t a i n kinds of d a t a from the h i s t o r y of s c i e n c e . He d e s c r i b e s a paradigm as an important s c i e n t i f i c achievement from which a p a r t i c u l a r community of s c i e n t i s t s a c q u i r e s t a c i t and e x p l i c i t knowledge through a p p l i c a t i o n . He s t r e s s e s t h a t a paradigm i m p l i e s a p e r c e p t u a l - c o n c e p t u a l s t y l e or manner of a c q u i r i n g new knowledge. Implied are the s o r t s of o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t should be made, l e g i t i m a t e q u e s t i o n s t o be asked, methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , types of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n p e r m i s s i b l e , and standards f o r the s o l u t i o n of problems. When a s c i e n t i f i c p u z z l e can not be r e s o l v e d through the use of f a m i l i a r paradigms, i t o f t e n a c q u i r e s s p e c i a l importance. I t i s then t h a t the s c i e n t i f i c p u z z l e seems t o a c q u i r e the s t a t u s of an anomaly or v i o l a t i o n o f deeply r o o t e d views. Anomalies are o f t e n not r e c o g n i z e d as such and are pushed to the p e r i p h e r y of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . On other o c c a s i o n s the s c i e n t i s t responds to an awareness o f anomaly by engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t e d toward i n v e n t i n g a new paradigm which at l e a s t appears p o t e n t i a l l y capable of accommodating the anomalous e x p e r i e n c e . A c c o r d i n g to Kuhn, a paradigm s h i f t i s the process by which an o l d e r paradigm i s replaced- i n whole or i n p a r t by an i n c o m p a t i b l e new one. He compares t h i s s h i f t t o a v i s u a l g e s t a l t s w i t c h . 60 "What were ducks i n the s c i e n t i s t s ' world b e f o r e the r e v o l u t i o n are r a b b i t s a f t e r w a r d s . " (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 110.) Kuhn notes t h a t , although s c i e n t i s t s do not always a t t e s t t o paradigm s h i f t s , the s h i f t s i n p e r c e p t i o n can be I n f e r r e d from i n d i r e c t b e h a v i o u r a l evidence such as c o n s i s t e n t use o f the recon-c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n subsequent a c t i v i t i e s . S p e c u l a t i v e C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s A c q u i s i t i o n  of Knowledge The concept of a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m , an a d a p t a t i o n of Kuhn's i d e a of a s c i e n t i f i c paradigm, was i n v e n t e d by the w r i t e r w i t h a view to e x p l o r i n g the p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s of the concept f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e . A c h i l d - p a r a d i g m r e f e r s t o a c h i l d s ' view of nature. Implied are p r e f e r r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s , m a n i p u l a t i o n s , and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s which a c h i l d tends to use i n a c q u i r i n g new knowledge. A c h i l d - p a r a d i g m f o r d e a l i n g w i t h n a t u r a l events i s an a b s t r a c t i o n d e r i v e d from c o n c r e t e -e m p i r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . I t p r o v i d e s the i n t e l l e c t u a l apparatus necessary f o r h i s understanding of the n a t u r a l world. Behav-i o u r a l i n d i c a t o r s of c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s , i t i s e n v i s i o n e d , can be found among a c h i l d ' s v e r b a l responses t o a teacher q u e s t i o n . At o t h e r times, c h i l d paradigms can be i n f e r r e d from the l e a r n e r ' s v e r b a l and non-verbal a c t i o n s w h i l e engaged i n i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t y of some n a t u r a l phenomenon. As an example of a p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t o r of a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m , c o n s i d e r a c h i l d exposed t o two c a r s , one b l u e and one r e d , moving i n a s t r a i g h t path (Kuhn, 1963c, pp. 310-311.). The cars depart from the same 61 l i n e , but the red c a r s t a r t s l a t e r and then catches the b l u e one a t the f i n i s h l i n e . When asked which c a r t r a v e l s " f a s t e r , " the c h i l d r e p l i e s , "The blue one." T h i s response i n d i c a t e s t h a t the c h i l d has a p o i n t o f view about moving o b j e c t s , a chi l d - p a r a d i g m , i n which a " g o a l - r e a c h i n g " c r i t e r i o n i s used t o judge speed. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the c h i l d d e s c r i b e s as " f a s t e r " the c a r which leads d u r i n g most of the motion. - I t i s f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t e d t h a t , e i t h e r through s e l f -g e n e r a t i o n o r teacher inducement, a c h i l d can become aware of anomalies or i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i m p l i c i t i n h i s mode of thought. A b e h a v i o u r a l i n d i c a t o r of anomaly i m p l i c i t i n a c h i l d ' s t h i n k -i n g i s an i n c o n s i s t e n t account f o r an event i n response t o a t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n . For example, assume t h a t a c h i l d has been s u b j e c t e d t o a demonstration i n v o l v i n g the motion o f d i f f e r e n t toy automobiles i n which a red c a r s t a r t s very l a t e and has t o move e x c e p t i o n a l l y " f a s t " t o c a t c h a blu e car a t the f i n i s h (Kuhn, 19 6 3c, p. 311.). The c h i l d now r e p o r t s the red c a r as " f a s t e r . " When the red c a r moves s u f f i c i e n t l y r a p i d , i t i s p e r c e i v e d as the " f a s t e r " o b j e c t by the c h i l d . The c h i l d now employs a new c h i l d - p a r a d i g m i n i d e n t i f y i n g the " f a s t e r " c a r . In t h i s paradigm, the c r i t e r i o n f o r " f a s t e r " seems more bound t o immediate p e r c e p t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t i s , the c h i l d goes more by appearances than i n the s i t u a t i o n where the " g o a l -r e a c h i n g c r i t e r i o n " i s used. The two c r i t e r i a c o n f l i c t . The c h i l d a t f i r s t says the b l u e c a r i s " f a s t e r " and then immediately r e p l i e s t h a t the red c a r i s " f a s t e r " . Such a p a r a d o x i c a l 62 s i t u a t i o n , i f re c o g n i z e d by the c h i l d , c o n s t i t u t e s an anomaly i n the c h i l d ' s mode of thought. The w r i t e r s p e c u l a t e s t h a t a c h i l d ' s subsequent o v e r t a c t i o n s , such as f r u s t r a t e d and pu z z l e d f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , s i g h s , w r i n k l i n g of eyebrows, and ta p p i n g o f f i n g e r s , p r o v i d e cues f o r i n f e r r i n g awareness of anomalies. C h i l d r e n , the w r i t e r e n v i s i o n s , may undergo something l i k e a s c i e n t i f i c paradigm s h i f t i n the growth and development of t h e i r knowledge of the n a t u r a l world. Child-paradigm s h i f t s are seen as t r a n s i t i o n s between modes of thought o f i n c r e a s i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n brought about by r e s o l v i n g i n c o n -s i s t e n c i e s or c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n a p a r t i c u l a r e s t a b l i s h e d view. A c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s o l u t i o n o f an anomaly i s seen as a c o g n i t i v e s h i f t i n which the conc e p t u a l apparatus becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y r i c h e r and more adequate t o cope w i t h new or more complex phenomena. Through the r e s o l u t i o n o f anomalies a c h i l d l e a r n s t o a v o i d s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e p t u a l e r r o r s and thus t o t h i n k more " c l e a r l y " (Kuhn, 1963c, p. 312.). Returning t o the moving car experiment, the c h i l d can be f o r c e d t o an awareness o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n h i s mode o f thought by tea c h e r d i r e c t e d exper-iments, demonstrations, and i n t e r r o g a t i o n about t e a c h e r -p e r c e i v e d s i t u a t i o n s . The c h i l d , however, might not a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t i n h i s mode of thought. He should probably be adequately prepared through experience w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r anomalous s i t u a t i o n p r i o r to i n d u c i n g an awareness of anomaly and paradigm s h i f t . I f he has the necessary e x p e r i e n t i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e q u i s i t e s t o r e s t r u c t u r e h i s conceptual.apparatus, the w r i t e r s p e c u l a t e s t h a t a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f the event can probably be brought about by teacher f a c i l i t a t i o n . Subse-quent c o n s i s t e n c y i n the use of a new i d e a would p o i n t to the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a paradigm s h i f t had taken p l a c e . Apparent examples of these paradigmatic behaviours are presented i n the next s e c t i o n from an e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s o f the c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . S p e c u l a t i v e Bases f o r C h i l d - Paradigms and C h i l d - Paradigm S h i f t s In a d d i t i o n t o d e s c r i b i n g apparent examples of c h i l d -paradigms and paradigm s h i f t s , t h i s chapter i n c l u d e s s p e c u l a t i o n s about p o s s i b l e bases o f the c h i l d r e n ' s modes of thought. Kuhn argues t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s views o f t e n show s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s t o those o f A r i s t o t l e and of p r i m i t i v e t r i b e s (Kuhn, 1957, pp. 96-97.). Kuhn, f o r example, suggests t h a t c h i l d r e n , A r i s t o t l e , and members of p r i m i t i v e t r i b e s d e r i v e many of t h e i r i d e a s , such as the i d e a t h a t the sun r e v o l v e s around the e a r t h , from common sense and everyday experience (Kuhn, 1957, p. 44.). By u s i n g h i s t o r i c a l accounts of e a r l y views about s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g bodies and i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h i l d r e n ' s p r e v i o u s experiences w i t h the phenomenon as sources of s p e c u l a t i o n , the w r i t e r p r o v i d e s some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s . 64 ILLUSTRATIONS OF APPARENT EXAMPLES OF CHILD-PARADIGMS OF CHILD-PARADIGM SHIFTS Robert's (7:6) i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s e x e m p l i f i e d an apparent child-paradigm. His expressed s u r p r i s e a t s e e i n g a l a r g e bar of wax and a l a r g e p o l y e t h y l e n e cube f l o a t w h i l e a much s m a l l e r l u c i t e cube sank suggested a p o i n t o f view or ch i l d - p a r a d i g m t h a t " s i z e " was an important c r i t e r i o n f o r o r d e r i n g s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . Robert a p p l i e d the c h i l d - p a r a d i g m t o s i n k a p i e c e o f aluminum f o i l . In t h i s i n s t a n c e he made h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s known by p r e d i c t i n g t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r p i e c e s of f o i l would s i n k . He a l s o attempted to apply h i s p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d concept i n t r y i n g t o f l o a t i n c r e a s i n g l y , s m a l l e r p i e c e s o f p l a s t i c i n e . In the f i r s t a c t i v i t y , the f o i l continued t o f l o a t a f t e r each t r i a l and i n the second, the p l a s t i c i n e s t i l l sank as i t was made i n c r e a s i n g l y s m a l l e r . Although these observed outcomes seemed t o c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s i n i t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , h i s v e r b a l and non-verbal behaviour d i d not appear t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he p e r c e i v e d the o b s e r v a t i o n s as i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s view t h a t s m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s should f l o a t . I n stead, he appeared to r e l y on immediate-concrete experience f o r d e s c r i b i n g the behaviour o f s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . Sometimes he used a " s i z e " c r i t e r i o n w h i l e a t oth e r times he u t i l i z e d o t h e r e a s i l y observed p r o p e r t i e s t o account f o r the phenomenon of s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . The two c r i t e r i a d i d not enable Robert t o make a c o n s i s t e n t match between o b s e r v a t i o n 65 and p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d concepts. Attempting t o a l e r t the l e a r n e r t o t h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y , the t eacher asked Robert t o p l a c e two e q u a l - s i z e d bars o f soap i n water. Robert n o t i c e d t h a t one f l o a t e d w h i l e the oth e r sank. Asked t o make the other soap f l o a t , he responded by t e s t i n g a s m a l l e r p i e c e o f the soap. A f t e r f i v e attempts, i n which the s i z e o f the soap was made p r o g r e s s i v e l y smaller/: he concluded t h a t i t d i d not f l o a t because i t was a "different kind of soap". When asked what was d i f f e r e n t about i t , he r e p l i e d , "It's a different color." T h i s response appeared t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he saw the n e c e s s i t y f o r a new concept t o account f o r s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g phenomena. Not knowing what concept would account f o r the soap experiment, o r a t l e a s t , not being able t o s t a t e h i s i n t u i t i o n e x p l i c i t l y , he chose to r e p o r t an immediately observable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c — " c o l o r " . T h i s way of responding t o d i f f i c u l t y showed s i m i l a r i t i e s t o A r i s t o t e l i a n accounts which s t r e s s e d the immediate observable as a cue f o r ..understanding nature ( C l a g e t t , 1957, pp. 25-27.). Other experiments r e v e a l e d the e x i s t e n c e o f a second p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d c h i l d - p a r a d i g m f o r s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . A f t e r p l a c i n g a styrofoam b a l l i n water, Robert commented, "That floats pretty t a l l . " E v i d e n t l y he meant t h a t i t sank r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n t o the water. At t h i s p o i n t , the teac h e r asked him i f he thought a g o l f b a l l , (of equal s i z e t o the styrofoam b a l l ) , would f l o a t . Robert p r e d i c t e d t h a t the g o l f b a l l would s i n k and then s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrated h i s p r e d i c t i o n . In another experiment, a submerged, i n v e r t e d , paper cup was seen "popping" to the s u r f a c e . When asked to e x p l a i n t h i s o c c u rrence, Robert r e p l i e d , "Because i t ' s so light." From these experiments, i t appeared as i f Robert u t i l i z e d a "weight" c r i t e r i o n f o r o r d e r i n g s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . F u r t h e r evidence f o r t h i s mode of thought i n c l u d e d h i s e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t "heavy" aluminum cubes c o u l d be used to s i n k a cork. Perhaps Robert, from h i s p r e v i o u s experience w i t h "light" and "heavy" o b j e c t s , h e l d an A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e view t h a t s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g bodies c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s o f "weight" ( C l a g e t t , 1957, p. 69.). S e v e r a l o f Robert's a c t i v i t i e s suggested another c h i l d -paradigm f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . P l a c i n g a sponge i n water, he watched as i t absorbed water and e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t might s i n k when i t gets "all watery". S h o r t l y a f t e r he p r e d i c t e d and observed t h a t a p l a s t i c tube sank as a r e s u l t of water e n t e r i n g . These a c t i v i t i e s suggested a mode of thought embodying the n o t i o n t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. P o s s i b l y t h i s view r e s u l t e d from p a s t experiences i n which he had heard others speak of wood s i n k i n g when i t became "water-logged" . He probably d i d not understand t h i s occurrence and as a r e s u l t assumed t h a t a l l . o b j e c t s . s a n k when, f i l l e d w i t h water. For convenience, t h i s mode of thought c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a "waterlogged" c r i t e r i o n f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g phenomenon. Employing t h i s c r i t e r i o n , he s u c c e s s f u l l y sank s e v e r a l o t h e r o b j e c t s such as a p i n g pong b a l l and a s m a l l 67 p l a s t i c tube by f i l l i n g them w i t h water. Robert's i n t e r e s t i n a p p l y i n g h i s view t o a styrofoam b a l l appeared as an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y , t o the te a c h e r , t o l e a d the l e a r n e r i n t o r e c o g n i z i n g an i n c o n s i s t e n c y o r anomaly, namely, t h a t o b j e c t s do not always s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. The p o t e n t i a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n , however, was not r e a l i z e d because Robert abandoned t h i s a c t i v i t y a f t e r a b r i e f attempt t o f i l l the b a l l w i t h water. Attempting t o f o r c e the l e a r n e r t o an awareness of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c o u l d r e s u l t i f one assumed t h a t a l l w a t e r f i l l e d o b j e c t s s i n k , the teacher asked Robert t o s i n k a p l a s t i c straw. Contrary t o h i s e a r l i e r e x p e c t a t i o n s , he n o t i c e d t h a t the straw f l o a t e d when f i l l e d w i t h water. He d i d not p e r c e i v e the r e s u l t as an anomaly or i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s mode o f thought. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , he a p p a r e n t l y assumed t h a t water kept e s c a p i n g from the p l a s t i c straw, p o s s i b l y because he f e l t i t entered one end and l e f t v i a the ot h e r as was evidenced by t h i s comment, "Maybe i f I had something to plug the ends up with i t might (sink)." He coped w i t h the unexpected problem by u s i n g p l a s t i c i n e t o s e a l the water i n s i d e the straw. The p l a s t i c straw d i d not s i n k and Robert s p e c u l a t e d , " J know why i t won't sink. The water gets through the p l a s t i c i n e . " Adding more p l a s t i c i n e i n a f u r t h e r attempt t o s e a l the straw, he e v e n t u a l l y sank one end. A t t h i s p o i n t , he e x p l a i n e d t h a t one end sank because i t was "heavier". Apparently he now saw the "weight" c r i t e r i o n as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r accounting f o r 68 the s i n k i n g end of the p l a s t i c straw. Robert d i d not appear to see the o s c i l l a t i o n between c r i t e r i a as i n c o n s i s t e n t . At f i r s t he "said t h a t o b j e c t s sank when f i l l e d w i t h water. To e x p l a i n the s i n k i n g straw, however, he u t i l i z e d a "weight" c r i t e r i o n and made no mention of the f a c t t h a t the straw d i d not s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. E v i d e n t l y , he was not prepared t o r e s o l v e the paradox i m p l i c i t i n h i s mode of thought. P l a c i n g a p o l y e t h y l e n e cube i n a p l a s t i c c y l i n d e r con-t a i n i n g water, Robert commented, "That one floats." When asked i f i t made the water l e v e l r i s e , he r e p l i e d , "No." T h i s response appeared t o i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e of a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m f o r determing how water was d i s p l a c e d by v a r i o u s o b j e c t s . A c c o r d i n g to Robert, f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s d i d not d i s p l a c e any water. Almost immediately a f t e r t h i s experiment, the teacher asked Vthe l e a r n e r t o t e s t the displacement of a much l a r g e r wooden c y l i n d e r . F o l l o w i n g t h i s experiment, Robert s t a t e d t h a t the wood, even though i t f l o a t e d , d i d cause the water to r i s e . He now appeared t o employ another c r i t e r i o n , p o s s i b l y " s i z e " or "weight", f o r determining i f o b j e c t s d i s p l a c e d water. The two c r i t e r i a appeared to c o n f l i c t . At f i r s t he s t a t e d t h a t f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s d i d not d i s p l a c e water. However, when.the f l o a t i n g o b j e c t (wooden c y l i n d e r ) was made s u f f i c i e n t l y " l a r g e " or "heavy", the c h i l d n o t i c e d t h a t i t d i d cause a r i s e i n the water l e v e l . He n e i t h e r a t t e s t e d t o nor gave any o v e r t cues, such as f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , t o t h i s o s c i l l a t i o n between h i s responses. His subsequent a c t i v i t i e s , however, appeared t o i n d i c a t e a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t i n which he accommodated the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s d i s p l a c e water. Evidence of t h i s apparent s h i f t i n p e r c e p t i o n i n c l u d e d h i s c o n s i s t e n t employment of the new child-paradigm.. During one i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f o r example, he noted t h a t a s m a l l f l o a t i n g p o l y e t h y l e n e cube caused the water l e v e l t o r i s e . In a d d i t i o n , p u r s u i n g i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s , he added s e v e r a l f l o a t a b l e p o l y e t h y l e n e cubes t o a graduate c a u s i n g water t o overflow. These a c t i v i t i e s appeared t o i n d i c a t e , i n a Kuhnian view, t h a t Robert c o u l d now t h i n k more c l e a r l y about displacement, because he had l e a r n e d t o a v o i d a s i g n i f i c a n t c onceptual e r r o r , namely, t h a t f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s do not d i s p l a c e water. Although Robert d i d not v e r b a l l y acknowledge t h i s change i n p e r c e p t i o n , the c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t appeared e v i d e n t from h i s c o n s i s t e n t use o f the new p o i n t o f view i n subsequent a c t i v i t i e s . J e f f (10:0) noted t h a t a p i e c e of c o l o r e d c h a l k f l o a t e d f o r a few seconds and then sank. He was i n t r i g u e d w i t h t h i s phenomenon, p o s s i b l y because o f h i s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i n t e r e s t i n understanding s c i e n t i f i c matters, and repeated h i s experiment attempting t o develop a reason f o r h i s d i s c o v e r y . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , water entered the "holes" i n s i d e the straw and "weighed i t down". At another p o i n t , he mentioned t h a t a i r "pulls" them down. These t h o u g h t f u l e x p l a n a t i o n s appeared t o i n d i c a t e a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m embodying the n o t i o n t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. Perhaps d u r i n g p r e v i o u s p l a y w i t h water, he had n o t i c e d t h a t o b j e c t s such as boats, paper, and 70 b o t t l e s sank as a r e s u l t o f water e n t e r i n g . For s i m p l i c i t y , t h i s view, l i k e t h a t of the seven-year-old, was c a l l e d a "waterlogged" c r i t e r i o n f o r s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . A p p a r e n t l y both l e a r n e r s saw the n e c e s s i t y of an e x t e r n a l f o r c e , such as water, f o r s i n k i n g o b j e c t s . T h i s view showed s i m i l a r -i t i e s t o t h a t o f A r i s t o t e l i a n s which h e l d t h a t an e x t e r n a l motive f o r c e was r e q u i r e d t o move elements from t h e i r n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n s ( C l a g e t t , 1957, p. 169.). He a p p l i e d h i s view i n s i n k i n g o t h e r o b j e c t s . At one p o i n t he commented, "I'm counting how many seconds i t takes before that (sponge) sinks." The sponge continued t o f l o a t a f t e r repeated t r i a l s . T h i s outcome appeared as an anomaly t o the c h i l d because i t c o n f l i c t e d w i t h h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s , namely, t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. I n d i c a t i o n s of J e f f ' s awareness t h a t something was wrong i n c l u d e d h i s repeated e f f o r t s t o s i n k the sponge. At the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s a c t i v i t y , he e x p l a i n e d t h a t the sponge d i d not s i n k because i t was not made of the r i g h t "kind of stuff". He now appeared t o use what c o u l d be termed a " m a t e r i a l i t y " c r i t e r i o n f o r o r d e r i n g s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , J e f f h e l d t h a t "heavy" substances sank w h i l e "light" m a t e r i a l s f l o a t e d . T h i s c h i l d -paradigm appeared s i m i l a r t o the A r i s t o t e l i a n view about the " n a t u r a l o r d e r " o f s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g bodies ( C l a g e t t , 1957, p. 69.). A c c o r d i n g t o A r i s t o t l e , s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g bodies were d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t o two g r o u p s — o b j e c t s which were " l i g h t " f l o a t e d w h i l e those which were "heavy" sank. 71 J e f f ' s subsequent a c t i v i t i e s appeared t o - i n d i c a t e t h a t he c o u l d not r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t between the "waterlogged" and " m a t e r i a l i t y " c r i t e r i a . During many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , he used the " m a t e r i a l i t y " c r i t e r i o n . He e x p l a i n e d f o r example, t h a t p l a s t i c i n e c o u l d not be made t o f l o a t because i t was a "heavy" m a t e r i a l . On ot h e r o c c a s i o n s , such as s i n k i n g a p l a s t i c tube, he u t i l i z e d the "waterlogged" c r i t e r i o n . Attempting t o a l e r t the l e a r n e r t o the c o n f l i c t i m p l i c i t i n h i s mode of thought, the teacher asked J e f f t o s i n k a p l a s t i c straw. - U t i l i z i n g h i s "waterlogged" c r i t e r i o n , J e f f p r e d i c t e d t h a t the straw would s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. He n o t i c e d , however, t h a t the straw f l o a t e d even when f i l l e d w i t h water. T h i s unexpected outcome appeared anomalous t o J e f f . Awareness of t h i s anomaly seemed e v i d e n t from the extremely p u z z l e d looks on h i s face.. He o f f e r e d no s p e c u l a t i o n s about t h i s phenomenon, p o s s i b l y because he f e l t unable t o cope w i t h the anomaly a t t h i s time. During the f i n a l s e s s i o n , the teacher c h a n n e l l e d J e f f ' s i n t e r e s t back t o the p l a s t i c straw. The straw continued t o f l o a t when f i l l e d w i t h water. T h i s outcome appeared t o c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s "waterlogged" c r i t e r i o n . J e f f ' s p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s apparent anomaly was i n d i c a t e d by h i s subsequent response. A t f i r s t , he s t a r e d a t the f l o a t i n g straw. J e f f repeated h i s experiment, and a f t e r b e i n g u n s u c c e s s f u l , he sighed and s a t back, i n h i s c h a i r . He repeated the experiment again and, a f t e r the 72 s t r a w c o n t i n u e d t o f l o a t , he pushed i t w i t h h i s hand t o t h e bottom o f t h e w a t e r c o n t a i n e r . The s t r a w s u r f a c e d and J e f f commented, "I guess the plastic floats.". The t e a c h e r t h e n i n q u i r e d as t o why t h e p l a s t i c s t r a w f l o a t e d w h i l e t h e p l a s t i c tube d i d n o t . J e f f e x p l a i n e d , "That (plastic straw) is longer and thinner and it has a lot more plastic in it than water and if the plastic floats and there's not very much water, then the plastic (straw) will float. But in this case (plastic tube)--well—there's lots of plastic—but—heavier water." A t f i r s t he att e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e f l o a t i n g s t r a w by u s i n g h i s " m a t e r i a l i t y " c r i t e r i o n . He assumed t h a t t h e s t r a w f l o a t e d because t h e p l a s t i c , o f w h i c h i t was composed, f l o a t e d . Through t e a c h e r i n t e r r o g a t i o n , however, he r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e f l o a t i n g s t r a w c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e " m a t e r i a l i t y " c r i t e r i o n because he r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e p l a s t i c tube sank when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r . The f l o a t i n g s t r a w now appeared t o c o n f l i c t w i t h b o t h h i s "water-l o g g e d " c r i t e r i o n and h i s " m a t e r i a l i t y " c r i t e r i o n . J e f f a t t e m p t e d t o acc o u n t f o r t h e anomaly by m o d i f y i n g a seqment o f h i s c h i l d - p a r a d i g m t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , he assumed t h a t t h e shape o f t h e s t r a w d i d n o t p e r m i t s u f f i c i e n t w a t e r t o e n t e r . He employed h i s m o d i f i e d " w a t e r l o g g e d " c r i t e r i o n , namely t h a t o b j e c t s must p e r m i t s u f f i c i e n t w a t e r t o e n t e r b e f o r e t h e y s i n k , c o n s i s t e n t l y i n f u t u r e a c t i v i t i e s s uch as s i n k i n g a s m a l l p l a s t i c t u b e . By a s k i n g t h e l e a r n e r t o s i n k a p o l y e t h y l e n e bag, t h e t e a c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o f o r c e J e f f t o a deeper awareness o f t h e c o n t r a d i c -73 t i o n between h i s view and the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t some o b j e c t s do not s i n k even though they are f i l l e d w i t h water. The water-f i l l e d p o l y e t h y l e n e bag f l o a t e d when p l a c e d i n water. J e f f ' s p u z z l e d f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he r e c o g n i z e d the f l o a t i n g bag as a s e r i o u s c o n f r o n t a t i o n t o h i s mode of thought. When e x p l a i n i n g the phenomenon, he went a g a i n s t d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and i n s i s t e d t h a t the bag sank a c c o r d i n g t o h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s . Perhaps c h i l d r e n , l i k e s c i e n t i s t s , o f t e n r e f u s e t o see t h a t which does not agree w i t h t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l views (Kuhn, 1962a, p. 24.). A r l e n e ' s (11:7) i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s y i e l d e d c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g p a radigmatic behaviour than d i d the a c t i v i t i e s o f the younger l e a r n e r s . At f i r s t , she appeared confused when giv e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o f r e e l y i n v e s t i g a t e the m a t e r i a l s . In response t o the tea c h e r ' s q u e s t i o n s , she o f t e n remained noncommittal. Her u s u a l r e p l y was,, "I don't know." But, as the s e s s i o n s progressed she appeared more r e l a x e d and spent c o n s i d e r a b l e time i n r e p e t i t i v e i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . Perhaps, as P i a g e t suggests, her r e p e t i t i v e behaviour was the e x t e r n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e growth and expressed the "need" of emerging " c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s " to r e a l i z e themselves through a c t i o n ( E l k i n d , 1957, p. 544.). Experimenting to determine whether o b j e c t s sank or f l o a t e d , A r l e n e commented t h a t wood f l o a t e d because xt was "vi>e-tty- li.ght". These remarks appeared t o i n d i c a t e t h a t A r l e n e u t i l i z e d a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m i n her i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to her view, s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g bodies were d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s o f "weight". L i k e the other l e a r n e r s , she f e l t t h a t some o b j e c t s were n a t u r a l l y "heavy" and thus sank w h i l e other o b j e c t s were " l i g h t " and f l o a t e d . She continued t o apply her mode of thought t o s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l o b j e c t s . Her method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n seemed t o i n v o l v e a mental weighing o f the o b j e c t s t o determine i f they sank or f l o a t e d . She t e s t e d those of which she was u n c e r t a i n . A r l e n e , l i k e the o t h e r l e a r n e r s , appeared t o h o l d a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m embodying the n o t i o n t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. Support f o r t h i s view i n c l u d e d her attempt t o s i n k a straw by f i l l i n g i t w i t h water. Being u n s u c c e s s f u l , she plugged the ends o f the straw w i t h b i r t h d a y candles t o prevent water from e s c a p i n g . The straw continued t o f l o a t . I t was d i f f i c u l t t o say i f she found t h i s experience anomolous because she o f f e r e d no v e r b a l o r non-verbal s i g n s o f any i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n her t h i n k i n g . Her immediate engagement i n another a c t i v i t y , however,, c o u l d p o s s i b l y be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t she p e r c e i v e d the f l o a t i n g straw as c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h her e x p e c t a t i o n s . L a t e r , A r l e n e u t i l i z e d her apparent c h i l d - p a r a d i g m , t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water, t o s i n k a styrofoam b a l l and a wooden cube. In both cases, she observed the o b j e c t s s t i l l f l o a t i n g a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e time i n water. She commented t h a t they should s i n k but o f f e r e d no s p e c u l a t i o n s as t o why 75 they d i d not. Again she proceeded to immediately s o l v a b l e problems. Perhaps A r l e n e r e q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l time w i t h t h i s type of l e a r n i n g b e f o r e she a c q u i r e d the necessary c o n f i d e n c e to e x p l o r e areas of c o n f l i c t . The t e a c h e r presented the l e a r n e r w i t h a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t phenomenon: t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s on s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . A r l e n e appeared content t o p l a y w i t h the m a t e r i a l s o b s e r v i n g whether each sank or f l o a t e d i n the d i f f e r e n t l i q u i d s . The t e a c h e r , anxious t o understand the c h i l d ' s mode of thought, asked s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s attempting to e l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n s of .observations u s e f u l . f o r i n f e r r i n g a child-paradigm.. The l e a r n e r , however, o f f e r e d few c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s about the o b s e r v a t i o n s . Pressed by the t e a c h e r , A r l e n e f i n a l l y s p e c u l a t e d t h a t o b j e c t s f l o a t e d b e t t e r i n " t h i c k " l i q u i d s , such as the sugar and water s o l u t i o n , than they d i d i n o i l which was " t h i n " . Her d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e " t h i c k n e s s " and "thinness" was by "feel". P o s s i b l y she h e l d the A r i s t o t e l i a n n o t i o n t h a t " t h i n " l i q u i d s were r e l a t i v e l y weak and t h e r e f o r e l e s s bouyant than " t h i c k " l i q u i d s (Cohen and Drabkin, 1958, p. 239.). SUMMARY T h i s chapter attempted t o account f o r c h i l d r e n 1 s modes of thought by u s i n g a number of ad a p t a t i o n s of Kuhn's view o f s c i e n t i f i c development. From an e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s of the c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , i t appeared as i f c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t paradigmatic behaviour i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n o f complex knowledge. Moreover, the views and a c t i o n s expressed by the c h i l d r e n o f t e n showed s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s t o those o f A r i s t o t e l i a n s . A l l c h i l d r e n , f o r example, tended t o c l a s s i f y s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g bodies i n t o "two g r o u p s — " l i g h t " o b j e c t s f l o a t w h i l e "heavy" o b j e c t s s i n k . T h i s view showed s i m i l a r i t i e s t o A r i s t o t l e ' s " n a t u r a l - o r d e r " view of s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g bodies which d i s t i n g u i s h e d "heavy" o b j e c t s from those which were " l i g h t " ( C l a g e t t , 1957, p. 69.). A l s o , a l l l e a r n e r s appeared t o h o l d the A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e need f o r an e x t e r n a l motive f o r c e t o move o b j e c t s ( C l a g e t t , 1957, p. 169.). During t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the c h i l d r e n f r e q u e n t l y saw water as an e x t e r n a l f o r c e which caused o b j e c t s t o s i n k . U n l i k e the o l d e r l e a r n e r s , the seven-year-old f e l t t h a t s m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s o f m a t e r i a l s f l o a t e d whereas l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s sank. In a d d i t i o n , the o l d e s t l e a r n e r appeared t o h o l d a ch i l d - p a r a d i g m s i m i l a r t o the A r i s t o t e l i a n view t h a t " t h i n " l i q u i d s were r e l a t i v e l y weak and t h e r e f o r e l e s s bouyant than " t h i c k " l i q u i d s (Cohen and Drabkin, 1958, p. 239.). During t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , a l l t h r e e c h i l d r e n appeared t o encounter anomalies or v i o l a t i o n s of t h e i r expec-t a t i o n s . The i n d i v i d u a l responses t o anomaly, however, d i f f e r e d w i d e l y . The seven-year-old appeared content t o p l a y w i t h the m a t e r i a l s . When s i t u a t i o n s arose which c o n f l i c t e d w i t h h i s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i d e a s , he o f t e n gave i n c o n s i s t e n t accounts f o r 77 the phenomena. App a r e n t l y he d i d not f e e l the n e c e s s i t y of e x p l o r i n g c o n f l i c t i n g areas and u s u a l l y pursued more enjoyable i n t e r e s t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , on one o c c a s i o n , he appeared t o r e s o l v e an i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s mode of thought by e x p e r i e n c i n g a c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t i n which an e s t a b l i s h e d view, t h a t f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s do not d i s p l a c e water, was r e p l a c e d by a more adequate view t h a t they do d i s p l a c e water. The t e n - y e a r - o l d , on the o t h e r hand, u s u a l l y responded t o an awareness of anomaly by immediately t r y i n g t o a s s i m i l a t e the anomalous s i t u a t i o n . He appeared r e l u c t a n t to r e l i n q u i s h h i s e s t a b l i s h e d views and t r i e d t o account f o r the anomaly by modifying h i s p r e v i o u s i d e a s . With the p o l y e t h y l e n e bag experiment, he went a g a i n s t d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n t o f o r c e nature i n t o p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d c o n c e p t u a l c o n f i n e s . The o l d e s t l e a r n e r , A r l e n e , responded to an awareness of anomaly i n s t i l l a d i f f e r e n t manner. She avoided areas of c o n f l i c t by engaging i n immediately s o l v a b l e problems due t o her apparent l a c k o f confidence w i t h t h i s type of l e a r n i n g . C H A P T E R V I SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THE PRESENT STUDY TO SCIENCE TEACHING CHAPTER VI SPECULATIONS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THE PRESENT STUDY TO SCIENCE TEACHING SUMMARY OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT RESULTS From the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the presen t study, some support appeared e v i d e n t f o r the view i n which c h i l d r e n are "seen as a c q u i r i n g complex knowledge through some s o r t of n a t u r a l develop-mental p r o c e s s , somewhat s i m i l a r t o Kuhn's h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n i n the development o f s c i e n c e . To the w r i t e r , the c h i l d r e n ' s modes of thought r e f l e c t e d a k i n d of paradigmatic behaviour c h a r a c t e r i z e d as child-paradigms and ch i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t s i n the study. A l l the c h i l d r e n appeared t o have t h e i r own p r e f e r r e d ways of coping i n t e l l e c t u a l l y w i t h the phenomenon of s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . The seven-year-old, f o r example, appeared t o see " s i z e " as an important c r i t e r i o n f o r o r d e r i n g s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the view was taken t h a t l a r g e o b j e c t s s i n k even though s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f the same o b j e c t f l o a t . The t e n - y e a r - o l d , on the other hand, appeared to h o l d t h a t the composition or " m a t e r i a l i t y " of the o b j e c t d i s t i n g u i s h e d s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . In a d d i t i o n , a l l l e a r n e r s on s e v e r a l o c casions appeared t o express and u t i l i z e a p o i n t of view or ch i l d - p a r a d i g m t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water. 79 Although i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c • i n s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s , the c h i l d r e n 1 s views seemed to have common ground i n t h a t they e x h i b i t e d A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e f e a t u r e s . In the p o i n t o f view t h a t o b j e c t s s i n k when f i l l e d w i t h water, f o r example, the c h i l d r e n appeared to see water a c t i n g as a k i n d of e x t e r n a l motive f o r c e which caused some o b j e c t s t o s i n k or move from t h e i r n a t u r a l f l o a t i n g p o s i t i o n s . Another paradigmatic behaviour, c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t s , a l s o seemed apparent. Through i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n match between o b s e r v a t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n encountered i n u s i n g e s t a b l i s h e d paradigms, new a b s t r a c t i o n s o f a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o r t seemed t o emerge. In one i n s t a n c e , d u r i n g the seven-year-o l d ' s i n v e s t i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , a s h i f t i n c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n which an e a r l i e r view t h a t f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s do not d i s p l a c e water was r e p l a c e d by an incommensurate and more s o p h i s -t i c a t e d view t h a t they do d i s p l a c e water. Although he d i d not v e r b a l l y acknowledge t h i s change i n p e r c e p t i o n , h i s c o n s i s t e n t use o f the r e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n subsequent a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e d the c h i l d - p a r a d i g m s h i f t . To i l l u s t r a t e , he seemed t o d e r i v e unusual s a t i s f a c t i o n i n r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n -v o l v i n g p l a c i n g v a r i o u s f l o a t a b l e p o l y e t h y l e n e o b j e c t s i n water to see how much the water l e v e l would r i s e i n a c o n t a i n e r . 80 REFLECTIONS ON THE POSSIBLE USEFULNESS OF THE STUDY 1. The w r i t e r e n v i s i o n s t h a t the n o t i o n of "paradigmatic behaviour" holds c o n s i d e r a b l e promise i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge. He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t i t may be u s e f u l f o r educators t o g i v e g r e a t e r c o n s i d e r -a t i o n t o e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t t e r n s i n c h i l d r e n ' s modes of thought. To a s s i s t t e a c h e r s i n the classroom, c u r r i c u l u m developers might c o n s i d e r c o m p i l i n g a taxonomy of paradigmatic behaviours f o r v a r i o u s s o r t s o f c h i l d r e n d e a l i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t n a t u r a l phenomena along w i t h suggested t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and l e a r n i n g t a s k s f o r i n d u c i n g t r a n s p o s i t i o n s from paradigm t o paradigm. Perhaps classroom t e a c h e r s , who have more e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t w i t h c h i l d r e n than do r e s e a r c h e r s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , c o u l d a s s i s t i n t h i s endeavour by i d e n t i f y i n g and d e s c r i b -i n g c h i l d r e n ' s . modes of thought and thereby a s s i s t c u r r i c u l u m developers i n c o m p i l i n g the proposed taxonomy o f p a r a d i g m a t i c behaviours. R e l a t e d r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s having t o do w i t h how child-paradigms vary w i t h age, c u l t u r e , and amount of ed u c a t i o n are seen as a u s e f u l concomitant of such an undertaking. In t h i s way, then, t e a c h e r s c o u l d a s s i s t s c h o l a r s i n a c o n c e i v a b l y more potent c u r r i c u l u m development program. Moreover, i f such r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were accepted by t e a c h e r s , c o o p e r a t i o n from other d i s c i p l i n e s i n forming a theory of classroom l e a r n i n g c o u l d p o s s i b l y ensue w i t h b e n e f i t s f o r a l l concerned. 81 Since the c h i l d r e n i n the study appeared t o h o l d A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e views of n a t u r e , c u r r i c u l u m developers might c o n s i d e r the advantages of g i v i n g c h i l d r e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o express and develop A r i s t o t e l i a n , or t h e i r own, views o f nature b e f o r e i n t r o d u c i n g more s o p h i s t i c a t e d views of n a t u r a l phenomena. In a d d i t i o n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n might be g i v e n t o i d e n t i f y i n g a developmental sequence o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r each s c i e n t i f i c concept to be a c q u i r e d . From the r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t study, as a case i n p o i n t , i t appears t h a t the s c i e n t i f i c concept, "density", may be more r e a d i l y grasped by c h i l d r e n who have a c q u i r e d the p r e r e q u i s i t e p o i n t of view t h a t " s i z e " alone i s unimportant f o r o r d e r i n g s i n k i n g and f l o a t i n g b o d i e s . I t may a l s o be u s e f u l f o r c u r r i c u l u m developers to c o n s i d e r i d e n t i f y i n g l e a r n i n g tasks along a h o r i z o n t a l , as opposed t o a l o n g i t u d i n a l or v e r t i c a l development. Perhaps c h i l d r e n need time and a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s t o a r t i c u l a t e newly a c q u i r e d i d e a s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , and s k i l l s t o the p o i n t where l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i r usefulness- become c l e a r l y i e v i d e n t t o the c h i l d and thereby prepare him f o r a s h i f t to new and more potent modes of t h i n k i n g . 2. Since child-paradigms imply two components of knowledge, a " t a c i t " component and an " e x p l i c i t " component, l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be developed to f a c i l i t a t e both " e x p l i c i t " knowledge, such as f a c t s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , and " t a c i t " knowledge o f a t t i t u d e s , standards, procedures, 82 and i n s t r u m e n t a l s k i l l s . The l a b o r a t o r y environment, would a l s o appear u s e f u l f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t r a n s i t i o n s i n modes o f thought through s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s seen as a way of e n a b l i n g a c h i l d t o contend w i t h others about the v i a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l l y h e l d views and thereby enhancing the p o s s i b i l i t y o f n a t u r a l paradigm s h i f t s t a k i n g p l a c e . 3. F i n a l l y , the w r i t e r s p e c u l a t e s t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e teacher r o l e c o u l d be formulated t o f a c i l i t a t e c o nceptual t r a n s p o s i t i o n s i n c h i l d r e n d i r e c t e d toward the r e p l a c e -ment o f i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c views w i t h those of "modern s c i e n c e " . More e x p l i c i t l y , assuming a c h i l d i s adequately prepared e x p e r i e n t i a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y t o s h i f t t o a more powerful mode of thought but "cannot make the t r a n s i t i o n a l o ne, the teacher c o u l d p o s s i b l y suggest new and more powerful ways of viewing some aspect of the c h i l d ' s world. Such a teacher r o l e would appear t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y use-f u l i n t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s where c h i l d r e n tend t o h o l d A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e views of nature. A r i s t o t e l i a n views, taken as everyday p e r c e p t i o n s of the world, a r e immensely p e r s u a s i v e , even t o a d u l t s , and can u s u a l l y adequately cope w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s of most n a t u r a l events encountered. I t seems unreasonable, t h e r e f o r e , t o assume t h a t c h i l d r e n , who appear t o h o l d A r i s t o t e l i a n - l i k e views of na t u r e , w i l l n a t u r a l l y or even w i l l i n g l y s h i f t t o the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p o i n t s of view of s c i e n c e w i t h -out the i n t e r p o s i t i o n o f some e x t e r n a l agent such as a 83 t e a c h e r . Future r e s e a r c h should be undertaken to a s c e r t a i n the nature and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such a f a c i l i t a t i n g t e a c h e r - r o l e . R E F E R E N C E S REFERENCES A t k i n , J . Myron. " U s i n g B e h a v i o u r a l l y - S t a t e d O b j e c t i v e s f o r D e s i g n i n g t h e C u r r i c u l u m : A C a u t i o n a r y N o t e " , Paper d e l i v e r e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e American E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1968a. . 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V o l . 138, December 1962, pp. 1251-1253. 85 H a l l , Mary B. "Book Review o f The S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s , " American H i s t o r i c a l Review. V o l . 68, A p r i l 1963, p. 700. Hawkins, D a v i d . "Book Review o f The S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s , " American J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c s . V o l . 31, 1963, pp. 554-555. Hunt, J . McV. I n t e l l i g e n c e and E x p e r i e n c e . New Y o r k , R o n a l d , 1961. K a r p l u s , R o b e r t . " S c i e n c e i n t h e El e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , " 1964. D i s t r i b u t e d by t h e S c i e n c e C u r r i c u l u m Improvement St u d y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 4 , C a l i f o r n i a . Kuhn, Thomas S. The C o p e r n i c a n R e v o l u t i o n . New Y o r k , V i n t a g e Books, 1957. . The S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c R e v o l u t i o n s . C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1962a. _________ " H i s t o r i c a l S t r u c t u r e o f S c i e n t i f i c D i s c o v e r y , " S c i e n c e . V o l . 136, June 1962, pp. 760-764. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ "The F u n c t i o n o f Dogma i n S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h , " S c i e n t i f i c Change, ed. A.C. Crombie, New Y o r k , P B a s i c Books, 1963, pp. 896 +• x i i . ] _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ' "The E s s e n t i a l T e n s i o n : T r a d i t i o n and I n n o v a t i o n i n S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h , " S c i e n t i f i c C r e a t i v i t y : I t s R e c o g n i t i o n and Development, ed. C.W. T a y l o r and F. B a r r o n , New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons, 1963. ________ "A F u n c t i o n f o r Thought E x p e r i m e n t s , " Melanges A l e x a n d r e Koyre\ ed. R. Taton and I.B. Cohen, P a r i s , Hermann, 1963, pp. 307-334. '. . " L o g i c o f D i s c o v e r y o r P s y c h o l o g y o f R e s e a r c h ? " Paper r e a d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Coloquium on P h i l o s o p h y o f S c i e n c e , London, 1965. P i a g e t , J e a n . The C h i l d ' s C o n c e p t i o n o f t h e World. New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Company, 1929. S m i t h , 0.B. and Meux, M i l t o n . Study o f t h e L o g i c o f T e a c h i n g . Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s . Tanner, D a n i e l . "Curriculum Theory: Knowledge and Content, Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research. June 1966, pp. 362-371. Wetherington, Ronald K. "The I n d i v i d u a l i n H i s t o r y and i n C u l t u r a l E v o l u t i o n , " S c i e n c e . V o l . 138, November 1962, pp. 716-719. A P P VERBATIM TRANSCRIPTIONS FOR E N D I X A OF THE TEACHING SESSIONS ONE LEARNER APPENDIX A VERBATIM TRANSCRIPTIONS OF THE TEACHING SESSIONS FOR ONE LEARNER A verbatim t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f the f o u r , one-half hour t e a c h i n g s e s s i o n s of one l e a r n e r are presented e n a b l i n g the reader to o b t a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n about the s e s s i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the reader can use the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s t o check the accuracy and content of the s y n o p t i c r e p o r t s . The ten-year-, o l d ' s l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n are s e l e c t e d f o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n because they i n c l u d e many o b s e r v a t i o n s used i n the e a r l i e r p a r t o f the study which c o n c e p t u a l i z e d c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n of complex knowledge. A format i s dev i s e d f o r r e c o r d i n g the v e r b a l and non-v e r b a l behaviour on the tapes. The events t h a t took p l a c e are separated i n t o three c o l u m n s — t h e teacher's a c t i o n s , the l e a r n e r ' s non-verbal responses, and the l e a r n e r ' s v e r b a l r e -sponses. These columns are l e t t e r e d "a", "b", and"c" r e s p e c t i v e l y . Events are l i s t e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and are numbered f o r convenient r e f e r e n c e . When the l e a r n e r responds to a teacher a c t i o n , the event i s l i s t e d b e side the correspond-i n g teacher a c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , i f the l e a r n e r comments on h i s p r e v i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , the v e r b a l response i s r e p o r t e d be-s i d e i t s ' a p p r o p r i a t e non-verbal a c t i o n . A s t e r i s k s denote those recorded items s e l e c t e d f o r use i n the s y n o p t i c r e p o r t s . Dashes are used whenever the speaker pauses or h e s i t a t e s . A d d i t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n s c l a r i f y i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s are e n c l o s e d i n p a r e n t h e s i s . THE RECORD OF A TEN-YEAR-OLD INVESTIGATING SINKING AND FLOATING OBJECTS J e f f S. - (10.0) Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) SESSION I - 6/2/69. 1 5 6 7 8 J e f f , b e f o r e we s t a r t , I want you to take a quick look around and j u s t see e x a c t l y what we have on both t a b l e s . Have you got a g e n e r a l i d e a of what there i s ? What we want you to do i s j u s t play with the m a t e r i a l s and see what you can f i n d out. What are you t h i n k i n g ? F l o a t evenly? That's even now, almost, Surveys surrounding mater-i a l s . Smiles Adds v a r i o u s o b j e c t s to medicine cup. Each time cup o v e r t u r n s . Shakes head and s m i l e s . Sets medicine cup i n water, C a r e f u l l y p l a c e s two s m a l l corks i n s i d e cup. Yes, I see I'm t r y i n g t o see i f I can make t h i s {medicine cup) f l o a t evenly. Yes. I t h i n k t h a t ' s even. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's 'Verbal Responses 9 That's even as can be- -10 Removes o b j e c t s from water. 11 Adds l a r g e p i e c e of p l a s -t i c i n e to c e n t r e of p l a s t i c straw. Seals ends with s m a l l e r amounts of p l a s t i c -i n e . P l a c e s straw i n water (sinks) . 12 Didn't i t f l o a t ? Smiles. 13 Did you expect i t to? W e l l , I was j u s t t r y i n g to see. 14 J u s t t r y i n g t o see. . . . . . . 15 P l a c e s straw i n water again (sinks) . 16 Removes p l a s t i c i n e from centre of straw. Tests again (floats). 17 Sets paper cup c o n t a i n i n g rubber cork i n water. Ob-serves then submerges. 18 Attempts to balance cork on styrofoam b a l l (unsuccess-ful) . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) L e a r n e r 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 19 T r i e s t o balance p i e c e o f wax on styrofoam b a l l , then r e v e r s e s . 20 L i f t s two l u c i t e cubes. Pla c e s one i n w a t e r ( s i n k s ) . 21 Ping pong b a l l i s p l a c e d i n s i d e medicine cup {cap-sizes) . Repeats with d i f f e r e n t medicine cup. 22 Balances aluminum cube i n -s i d e medicine cup. 23 Attaches p l a s t i c i n e to styrofoam b a l l . Upon placement i n water, p l a s -t i c i n e f a l l s o f f and s i n k s . 24 T r i e s r e p e a t e d l y t o b a l -ance rubber cork on p l a s -t i c tube. 25 What are you t r y i n g t o do at the moment? T r y i n g t o make t h i s { r u b b e r cork) balance. 26* Objects {aluminum cube, rubber cork, and polyethyl-ene cube) are pl a c e d i n -s i d e medicine cup. Each time cup c a p s i z e s . 'Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) L e a r n e r 1 s V e r b a l Responses (c) 27* Could you e x p l a i n what you are doing now? I'm t r y i n g to see how much weight i t takes t o take i t {medicine cup) down t h a t f a r . 28* Take i t down so i t ' s j u s t even? Yes. 29* Attempts t o j o i n two med-i c i n e cups u s i n g an e l a s t i c band and paper c l i p s . 30* What are you going t o do with that? I'm t r y i n g to see i f t h i s Weight, I can equal i t i n th a t one, and make i t so i t stays even w i t h t h i s weight (aluminum cube). 31 Experiences d i f f i c u l t y j o i n -i n g cups. Abandons e f f o r t s . 32* Observes p i e c e o f c o l o r e d chalk s i n k . 33 What do you thi n k ? Repeats o b s e r v a t i o n . At f i r s t - . 34 At f i r s t which- At f i r s t i t f l o a t s . Then the second time i t j u s t goes down and I'm wondering how come i t does t h a t . 35 You are wondering how come? Yes . 36 Have you got any ideas? Repeats experiment. W e l l , because the water goes i n t o the holes i n here t h a t h o l d the a i r . vo Number Teacher A c t i o n s (a) Learner's 'Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 37* That h o l d the a i r ? W e l l -38* What happens to the a i r ? W e l l , i t weighs i t down so i t can f l o a t . 39* Oh! And the a i r gets out so i t can't f l o a t . 40 I wonder i f t h a t always happens. 41 Surveys surrounding m a t e r i a l s . 42 Balances o b j e c t s (plasti-cine, aluminum cube, rubber cork, l u c i t e cubes) on l a r g e i r r e g u l a r p i e c e of styrofoam. E f f o r t s are u n s u c c e s s f u l . 43 What are you t r y i n g to do now? I'm t r y i n g to make t h i s (styro foam) go even. 44 J u s t make i t go even. 45 Sinks medicine cup and g o l f b a l l combination. Attaches p l a s t i c i n e to g o l f b a l l . P l a c e s i n water ( s i n k s ) . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner 1s V e r b a l Responses (c) 46 What are you t r y i n g to do with the p l a s t i c i n e ? I thought the p l a s t i c i n e f l o a t e d . 47 And then you were going t o s t i c k i t on t h e r e , were you? Yes, and see i f • t h i s c o u l d f l o a t . 48 That's a good i d e a . 49 Pi e c e o f aluminum f o i l s i n k s a f t e r three l u c i t e cubes and rubber cork are added. 50 What d i d you f i n d out w i t h t h i s , anything? {Laughs). Nothing. 51 Nothing. 52* Observes i n t e n t l y as sponge absorbs water. 53* What are you t h i n k i n g ? I'm counting how many sec-onds i t takes before t h a t {sponge) s i n k s . 54 Before i t s i n k s ? Yes . 55 Oh, I see. You should have a watch f o r t h i s , shouldn't you? Then you co u l d time i t . Continues o b s e r v i n g sponge. 56* I t h i n k I ' l l t r y again. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 57* Wrings water from sponge. Repeats o b s e r v a t i o n . 58* Should I put the washer on top? Is t h a t a l r i g h t ? 59* I f you l i k e . Sets rubber cork on sponge. Observes, smiles s l i g h t l y , and removes cork. 60 What seems to be happening? I t won't s i n k . 61 The chalk did-remember. 62* 63 What do you suppose i s happening? Not the r i g h t k i n d of s t u f f . T h i s s t u f f , it's made o f , i t won't go down.. I t ' s not the r i g h t k i n d of s t u f f . 64 Puts k n i f e i n water, r e -moves , and looks around room. 65 Do you see anything e l s e you want to t r y ? Smiles, shakes head {negatively). 66* How about i f we go back to t h i s one {plastic straw)? J u s t work with i t f o r a few minutes and see what you can come up with. Remember You were working with i t b e f o r e . Threads p l a s t i c straw with longer paper straw. Plac e s straws i n water but removes when paper straw i s too long f o r c o n t a i n e r . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learners V e r b a l Responses (c) 67 Balances straw between two small paper d i x i e cups. Uses aluminum cubes to steady the cups. 68 Are you t r y i n g to balance i t ? Shakes head f o r p o s i t i v e answer. 69 Removes o b j e c t s a f t e r e f f -o r t s f a i l . 70 What i f I gi v e you a prob-lem t o t r y ? J u s t throw the straw i n . 71 What do you n o t i c e ? W e l l , the water keeps coming up u n t i l i t gets f u l l and then i t w i l l s i n k . 72* Then i t w i l l sink? Yes, I t h i n k so. 73 W e l l , we co u l d j u s t take a look and see. Observes straw c l o s e l y . 74 Is i t s i n k i n g ? No. 75 Not y e t . 76 Continues o b s e r v i n g straw. Oh, I see. Because some water blocked up the opening t h e r e , so there's a l i t t l e b i t o f a i r l e f t t h e r e . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 77 As long as there's a l i t t l e b i t of a i r l e f t i t w i l l f l o a t . Is t h a t what you thin k ? . Yes . 78 Maybe-79* Squeezes straw r e p l a c i n g a i r pockets with water. I ' l l t r y and see i f th e r e ' s water i n t h e r e . 80* Have you got a l l the a i r out yet? Continues r e p l a c i n g a i r with water. No. 81* Stares at straw. Puzzled look appears on f a c e . There, i t f l o a t s . 82 I t f l o a t s anyhow. 83* Do you t h i n k you c o u l d make i t f l o a t on i t s end r a t h e r than sideways? Stands straw v e r t i c a l l y . L i k e t h i s ? 84* Yes, so i t doesn't f a l l o ver. Holds v e r t i c a l l y , r e l e a s e s , straw f a l l s . I don't t h i n k so. 85* T r i e s r e p e a t e d l y by p l a c i n g water i n one end of straw. 86* How are you going about t h i s , now? W e l l , I t r y and put some water i n the end so i t w i l l have something i n the bottom to weight i t down. 87 To weigh i t down. Oh, I see. That's good. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) 88 89* Oh, yes, t h a t would be g r e a t . 90* Is i t g e t t i n g c l o s e r or can you t e l l ? 91* Without any p l a s t i c i n e on? 9 2 Oh, you have too much on now. Is t h a t i t ? 93* W e l l , j u s t g i v e t h i s one more t r y and we w i l l leave i t f o r today and then go on t o some new ones next day. How does t h a t sound? SESSION II - 11/2/69 94 J e f f , I want you to s t a r t where we l e f t o f f l a s t week and then we w i l l i n -troduce some problems l a t e r . Do anything you want j u s t t o s t a r t us o f f , Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) 'Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) Can I use something e l s e too? Attaches p l a s t i c i n e t o end of straw and t r i e s again. Repeats e f f o r t s s e v e r a l times by reshaping p l a s t i -c i n e . I t h i n k , the way I had i t , before i t was c l o s e r . No, w i t h p l a s t i c i n e but I put more p l a s t i c i n e on. Yes. Reshapes P l a s t i c i n e and t r i e s again (sinks). •Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's •Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 95* Places s o l i d aluminum c y l -i n d e r i n water. I was t r y i n g t o f i n d out i f t h i s was hollow because i t f e e l s so l i g h t when I p i c k i t up. 96 I t f e e l s so l i g h t ? Yes. 9 7 I f i t was hollow, what would happen? I t would f l o a t i f i t has a i r i n i t . 98 I f i t has a i r i n i t , i t f l o a t s ? Yes. 99 I see. 100 Holds f i n g e r over end of straw when removing from water, and observes water trapped i n i t . 101* I was c u r i o u s . You s a i d , i f i t (aluminum cube) had a i r i n i t , i t f l o a t e d . What d i f f e r e n c e does the a i r make, do you know? W e l l , i f i t had a i r enclosed i n i t , l i k e , say a hollow tube i f I blocked up both ends and th e r e ' s a i r i n the middle, i t should f l o a t . The weight t h a t was i n s i d e -w e l l - t h e a i r t h a t was i n s i d e the compartment and i f the compartment d i d n ' t weigh too much, then i t should f l o a t . L 102 Oh, I see. 103 Could I g i v e you another problem? Yes. vo VD Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's •Verbal Responses (c) 104* Take some p l a s t i c i n e and see i f you can make i t f l o a t . Molds p l a s t i c i n e i n t o cup. Places i t i n water (sinks). Repeats. 105 What are you t r y i n g t o do f i r s t o f a l l ? Make i t so i t ' s hollow. W e l l , not a l l the way hollow, s o r t of l i k e t h a t . 106 Oh, I see. W e l l , s o r t o f l i k e a boat works. 107* Repeats previous proced-ure . 108 Is t h a t s t u f f {plasticine) p r e t t y s t i f f ? Yes. 109 You might want to t r y some of t h i s . I don't know. I t hasn't been used y e t . I t should not be too bad. (Hands learner more plasticine). Continues to experience f a i l u r e with h i s p l a s t i -c i n e cups. 110 What seems to be the t r o u b l e ? W e l l , i f i t gets wet, i t won't s i n k . 111 I f i t gets wet i t won't sink? Yes. 112 You might want t o t r y some of t h i s . I t ' s not wet a t a l l . (Hands learner new plasticine). 113 Jack (independent observer), do you want to pass a towel? D r i e s hands on paper towel. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 114* Experiences f u r t h e r f a i l u r e . Face appears i n c r e a s i n g l y f r u s t r a t e d with each t r i a l . I don't t h i n k i t can f l o a t . 115 You don't t h i n k i t can f l o a t ? No. 116* Well,, how would you l i k e to keep working w i t h i t f o r a few minutes y e t , j u s t t o be sure? You have l o t s of time i f you need i t . Continues t o mold p l a s t i -c i n e i n t o cup. 117 You don't t h i n k i t can f l o a t at a l l . 118* Repeats with s m a l l e r quan-t i t y o f p l a s t i c i n e (sinks). 119 What were you t r y i n g to do t h a t time? Make i t so the weight of the p l a s t i c i n e wasn't much and j u s t the a i r . 120 J u s t a i r , you were t r y i n g to get r i d of some of the weight of the p l a s t i c i n e were you? Yes. 121 Repeats t w i c e . (Smiles) I t h i n k I found out why i t won't f l o a t . 122 Why won't i t f l o a t then? Because there i s holes i n the p l a s t i c i n e . 123 Holes i n the p l a s t i c i n e ? Yes. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) L e a r n e r 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 124 What d i f f e r e n c e does t h a t make? Demonstrates with l a r g e r cup while e x p l a i n i n g . W e l l , i f . i t ' s at the bottom -see, i t (water) goes through. 125 Oh, I see. So what would you need to make i t f l o a t ? P l a s t i c i n e with no holes i n i t ? W e l l , something with i t t h a t would f l o a t . 126* What i f the p l a s t i c i n e had no holes i n i t , would t h a t make any d i f f e r e n c e ? I don't t h i n k so. 127 Oh, you don't t h i n k so. 128* F l o a t s p l a s t i c i n e by a t t a c h i n g i t t o cork. 129* There i t f l o a t s . Why does i t f l o a t now? Because t h i s t h i n g t h a t f l o a t s by i t s e l f hasn't got anything t o p u l l i t down. 130 Yes. So t h a t means-well-it can f l o a t - w i t h o u t -131 Oh, I see. That's good. 132* How about i f you t r y some of t h i s . {Points to aluminum f o i l ) . Places f o i l i n water and sm i l e s . I t f l o a t s . 133 That f l o a t s . Yes-because w e l l -134* Can"you make i t s i n k , w e l l without p u t t i n g , j u s t . b y i t s e l f ? Do you t h i n k you can make i t sink? Bends f o i l and p l a c e s i t i n water. P a r t o f f o i l remains f l o a t i n g . Repeats s e v e r a l times. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 135 What are you t r y i n g to do now? Make i t s i n k . 136 Make i t s i n k . 137* Pushes f o i l t o bottom of water. Observes as i t remains submerged. Now, I know i t w i l l s i n k . 138 I t w i l l s i n k now. Because I pushed i t down. 139 Do you th i n k you can get i t to s i n k without pushing i t down? I was j u s t experimenting to see i f i t would s i n k . 140 Oh, I see. That's good. Okay, l e t ' s see you get i t to s i n k by i t s e l f . 141* Repeats former method s e v e r a l times. Face appears i n c r e a s i n g l y f r u s t r a t e d . On l a s t t r i a l f i n g e r s t w i t c h . 142 How do you go about t h i s ? See i f you can get enough water on top to f o r c e i t down? Yes. 143 Observes f o i l s l owly s i n k -i n g f o r about t h i r t y sec-onds . 144 You got p a r t of i t . Yes, I j u s t missed the very top p a r t s . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) L e a r n e r 1 s V e r b a l Responses (c) 145 Repeats three times. 146* Any i d e a what keeps causing i t t o f l o a t ? Demonstrates while e x p l a i n -i n g . W e l l , because I t h i n k , see i f i t f l o a t s l i k e t h a t , then when i t goes down there i s a i r caught i n t h e r e . 147 Oh, I see. There's always a i r caught which keeps h o l d i n g i t up, i s t h a t i t ? W e l l , i t ' s so dry, i t won't go under, I guess. 148* So i f you are going to get i t to s i n k , what would you do? W e l l , I'd t r y and get i t so i t was even. 149 So i t was even? Yes. 150 Okay, l e t ' s see how t h a t works. Removes w r i n k l e s from f l a t p i e c e of f o i l and s e t s i t i n water { s t i l l floats). Repeats. F i n g e r s s t a r t t o t w i t c h . 151 Can I r i p a h o l e through there? 152* Yes, sure, you can use any p a r t of i t you want. Tear i t a l l apart i f you l i k e . Rips h o l e i n c e n t r e of f o i l and p l a c e s i t back i n water {floats). Stares at i t with p u z z l e d look on f a c e . 153 You put a h o l e i n the middle. Yes, i t should s i n k . 154 That's what happened with your p l a s t i c i n e wasn't i t ? Yes . Learner's L e a r n e r 1 s Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Non-Verbal Responses (b) V e r b a l Responses (c) 155 Repeats experiment and s t a r e s at outcome. 156* We have only about a minute l e f t . Do you have one more suggestion and we w i l l t r y i t ? Then we'11 have t o leave i t u n t i l next week. F l o a t s f o i l w ith o b j e c t s (aluminum cube3 l u e i t e cube, ohalk3 covk3 poly eth^ ylene cube) added one at a time. 157 I t f l o a t s q u i t e w e l l now. 158 F o i l s i n k s when l a r g e aluminum cube i s added. SESSION I I I - 13/2/69 159 A l l r i g h t J e f f , you look l i k e you have a l r e a d y got something i n mind. J u s t c a r r y on. Holds thumb over end of w a t e r - f i l l e d straw and l i f t s i t from water. I'm t r y i n g to f i n d out why the water stays i n when I put my thumb up t h e r e . 160 Experiments with d i f f e r e n t ways of keeping water i n straw. 161 162 Why do you suppose i t stays in ? I see. Because there i s no a i r up here so i t can take the pl a c e of the water. I guess. 163 P l a c e s rubber cork and p i e c e of chalk i n water {both sink) . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 164 L i f t s p i e c e o f c o l o r e d c h a l k . 165 Observes bar of soap s i n k i n water. 166 Pushes bar of wax under s u r f a c e and then t r i e s to balance d i f f e r e n t cubes on i t . 167 Could you p l e a s e t e l l me a problem? (quietly). 168 I beg your pardon. Could you ple a s e t e l l me a problem? 169* Okay, what do you say we go back to the p l a s t i c i n e , we have some here and here, and see what we can f i n d out with i t today. Attaches a long s t r i p of p l a s t i c i n e around styrofoam b a l l . P l a s t i c i n e f a l l s o f f upon placement i n water. Repeats experiment. T h i s time, p l a s t i c i n e does not f a l l o f f u n t i l a f t e r a few seconds. 170 Pla c e s k n i f e i n water (sinks) 171* I'm s t i l l c u r i o u s to see i f you can get the p l a s t i c i n e to f l o a t . The l a s t day you were having a l i t t l e t r o u b l e w i t h i t . Molds p l a s t i c i n e around cork and sets i n water (sinks). Repeats s e v e r a l times. Attempts d i f f e r e n t v a r i a -tions-removes some p l a s t i -c i n e , uses another cork. 172* Replaces cork with rubber b a l l ( s t i l l sinks). Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 173* Place s p l a s t i c i n e i n s i d e a se a l e d hollow tube ( f l o a t s ) . 174 That's one way. 175 L e t ' s see how many d i f f e r -ent ways you can come up w i t h . Adds l a r g e b a l l o f p l a s t i c -ine to end of tube but does not p l a c e i t i n water. 176* P l a s t i c tube f l o a t s w i t h p l a s t i c i n e a ttached t o bottom s i d e . 177 There's another. 178 Can you f l o a t i t with the p l a s t i c i n e on top? Can I put some on the bottom too? 179 Okay. Forms a complete c i r c l e of p l a s t i c i n e around tube and set s i t i n water. 180* 181* Oh, yes. Le t s go back t o t h a t tough one. See i f you can get the p l a s t i c -ine to f l o a t with n o t h i n g e l s e , j u s t by i t s e l f . You have t r i e d a few i d e a s . L e t ' s see i f you can get i t . T e s t l a r g e r p l a s t i c i n e cup (sinks). S i g hs. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 182* Stares at p l a s t i c i n e on t a b l e . Molds i t i n t o a cone {sinks). Repeats. L i f t s p l a s t i c i n e and shakes head. 183 What do you need? I don 1 t - w e l l - I ' m t r y i n g to make i t without any-t h i n g e l s e . 184 That l a s t time, what were you t r y i n g to do? I t r i e d t o hollow i t out. 185* Hollow i t out, but what happened? W e l l , there's leaks i n i t and i t ' s s t i l l too heavy and i t f e l l down. 186* Do you t h i n k the leaks had anything to do with i t ? (Thinks for a few seconds). W e l l , not r e a l l y , but i f i t wasn't weight, i f i t wasn't weighted down, i t would have a l l to do with i t . 187 Oh, I see. 188 Do you t h i n k i t would help to have a f l a t p i e c e with no leaks i n i t ? [Presents f l a t pieces of p l a s t i c i n e ) Maybe you c o u l d t r y t h a t . Places f l a t p i e c e of p l a s -t i c i n e i n water {sinks). Removes p l a s t i c i n e , s t a r e s at i t , and t r i e s again. 189 Repeats experiment w i t h l a r g e r sheet of p l a s t i c i n e (sinks) . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner 1 s V e r b a l Responses (c) 190 Molds i n t o t h i s shape (sinks). </^^^/^ 191 Repeats, Sighs, s t a r e s at p l a s t i c i n e , and taps h i s thumb. 192 Have you got any other ideas? (Smiles) No. 193 You are a l l exhausted on t h a t one? Smiles and nods agreement. 194 Oh, I see. 195 L e t ' s see i f we can f i n d out anything u s i n g these tubes. We've got some here and some s m a l l e r ones here i f you need them. Here's another one. J u s t use whatever you l i k e and see i f you can f i n d out anything. (Helps learner aolleat tubes scattered among materials .) 196 Has d i f f i c u l t y removing yellow-caps from end of tube. /Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) L e a r n e r 1 s Non-Verbal Responses Learner 1 s V e r b a l Responses (c) 197 Oh, you can always put on the r e d caps. They go on much e a s i e r , i f you need them. 198 V a r i e s amount of water i n -si d e tube. Sometimes tube s i n k s a t other times i t f l o a t s . 199 T r i e s i n s e r t i n g l a r g e alum-. inum cube i n t o tube (it is too big). 200 Here are some s m a l l e r ones i f you want them. (Points to smaller aluminum cubes). I n s e r t s rubber cork and f i v e aluminum cubes i n t o tube. I t f l o a t s . 201 F i l l s tube with aluminum cubes. I t s t i l l f l o a t s when p l a c e d i n water. 202 Observes tube, f i l l e d w ith o b j e c t s , f l o a t i n g . 203* What are you t r y i n g to do here? Demonstrates while e x p l a i n i n g . I'm t r y i n g t o sink i t so i t j u s t f l o a t s down, s l o w l y and maybe-because I don't want i t to plop down l i k e t h a t o r to s t a y f l o a t i n g at the top. I want i t to go back and f o r t h . 204 Continues watching i t f l o a t . Number .Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner.' s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner 1 s V e r b a l Responses (c) 205 That's about what you have t h e r e , i s n ' t i t ? P r e t t y c l o s e . 206* Adds water causing i t to s i n k . 207 Now i t s i n k s . So I have to l e t out some. 208 Removes some water from tube (sinks). Repeats three times.'Each time tube s i n k s . 209 What causes i t to sink now? I t never used t o . The water, the added weight. 210 Oh, you added some more weight? Yes, the water. 211 Oh, you added some water. 212 Continues removing water, e v e n t u a l l y one end f l o a t s , the other s i n k s . 213* What keeps causing one end to come up? We l l , I can't make i t so there i s j u s t the r i g h t even amount and-so the water goes down to t h a t end and the a i r comes up here, so the a i r l i f t s i t up and t h i s p u l l s i t down. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) L e a r n e r 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 214* Can you do i t the other way round, so the y e l l o w end stays up? I n v e r t s tube causing other end to f l o a t . 215 Oh yes, so i t works both ways. 216 L i f t s s m a l l e r p l a s t i c tube and s t r u g g l e s t o remove cap from end. 217 Do you want the top o f f ? No, I'm t r y i n g t o f i g u r e -218 I ' l l take i t o f f f o r you i f you l i k e . 219 Motions to balance poly--ethylene cube on tube but does not. 220 Surveys surrounding m a t e r i a l s . 221* We have only a couple of minutes l e f t . Do you want to t r y your aluminum f o i l from l a s t week? You w i l l remember what we were t r y -i n g to do. We have l o t s of p i e c e s of aluminum f o i l i f you need o t h e r s , i f you don't l i k e the one you have. Performs about ten r a p i d t r i a l s i n which f o i l i s bent i n v a r i o u s shapes and p l a c e d i n water. Each time f o i l f l o a t s . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) 222 223* • Here i s a problem. See i f you can make t h i s one (lucite cube) these three f l o a t on top of the aluminum [three cubes-one aluminum, two l u c i t e ) . 224* 225' How many more can you add SESSION IV - 18/2/69 226* 227 228 A l l r i g h t , J e f f , you were t r y i n g to balance t h i n g s with the t i n f o i l . L e t ' s see how you do today. We d i d n ' t have much time l a s day. What do you n o t i c e ? I t ' s s t a r t i n g to sink a l l of a sudden. Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) Observes c l o s e l y as f o i l stands on edge i n water. Takes l a r g e r p i e c e of f o i l , f o l d s i t , adds cubes (floats). Smiles. Adds p o l y e t h y l e n e cube causing i t t o s i n k . Places f o i l i n water. Adds cork, l u c i t e cube, three p o l y e t h y l e n e cubes, and three aluminum cubes before i t s i n k s . I t ' s s t a r t i n g to s i n k . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) • Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 229* Bends s i d e s of f o i l s l i g h t -l y upward and adds o b j e c t s . Replaces aluminum cubes with wood cubes. 230 Do you t h i n k you w i l l get more or l e s s on t h i s time? W e l l , i f I use these t h i n g s (aluminum cubes), they are a l i t t l e h e a v i e r , and i f I don 11 use them I should get more on. 231* Repeats experiment, p i l i n g s e v e r a l corks and wood cubes onto f o i l . F i n a l l y s i n k s . I t s t a r t e d t o s i n k . 232 I t seems l i k e you got q u i t e a few more on t h i s time? Folds aluminum i n t o boat and repeats procedure. 233 What are you t r y i n g to do now? Demonstrates w h i l e e x p l a i n i n g . Make i t so I can l e a n t h i n g s a g a i n s t i t (sides of boat). 234 Repeats boat experiment. Smiles as i t s i n k s . 235 Everytime i t seems to be g e t t i n g a l i t t l e b e t t e r . 236 Repeats. Boat c a p s i z e s r a t h e r than s i n k s . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner 1 s V e r b a l Responses (c) 237* What have you found out so f a r ? W e l l , so f a r , the h e a v i e r the t h i n g s are, the l e s s you can put on. 238 The l e s s you can put on. Anything e l s e , about the aluminum i t s e l f , maybe? (Thinks for a few seconds). That i t ' s hard t o s i n k . 239 I t ' s hard t o s i n k . 240* • I brought some d i f f e r e n t aluminum today. Maybe you co u l d t r y working w i t h i t and see i f you can sink i t . Remember the l a s t time, you were having a l i t t l e t r o u b l e . (Hands learner f o i l folded in eight layers) . 241* Folds f o i l i n t o f l a t sheet with about a one i n c h rudder running along l o n g i -t u d i n a l a x i s . F o i l s t i l l f l o a t s . 242 That looks l i k e what you were t r y i n g t o do wit h the p l a s t i c i n e the other day. Is t h a t i t ? 243* Drops f o i l , bent i n "S" shape, i n t o water (floats). Repeats s e v e r a l times. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 244* Pushes f o i l to bottom of water, r e l e a s e s , and f o i l s u r f a c e s . Smiles. I t won't s i n k . 245 That won't sink? Demonstrates while e x p l a i n -i n g . Because when I push i t down i t keeps coming back up. 246 Have you any i d e a what makes i t keep coming up? For one t h i n g , i t ' s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . 247 Yes. And t h a t ' s a l l . 248 What's d i f f e r e n t about i t ? W e l l , i t seems h e a v i e r . 249 I t seems h e a v i e r but i t comes up? Yes. 250 Unfolds f o i l once (now four layers thick). Places i n water (floats). Submerges (surfaces) . 251 Unfolds to a s i n g l e l a y e r . 252 I f i t ' s too l a r g e , you might want to t e a r i t i n h a l f i f i t ' s too l a r g e . Cuts s m a l l p i e c e s of f o i l , removes w r i n k l e s , and sets i n water (floats). 253* Pushes f o i l t o bottom of water (remains submerged). Stares at i t and w r i n k l e s eyebrows. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1 s •Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 254 I wonder why? Removes f o i l and se t s i t on top of water (floats). Stares a t f o i l . 255 Adds aluminum cube to f o i l but removes when f o i l s t a r t s t o s i n k . 256 I n v e r t s f o i l and repeats with aluminum cube. 257 Stares at f l o a t i n g f o i l . Pushes i t below s u r f a c e and observes c l o s e l y as i t remains submerged. 258 Pushs i n v e r t e d cupped p i e c e of f o i l to bottom of water causing bubbles of a i r to s u r f a c e . 259 Holds two p i e c e s of f o i l i n hands and i n d i c a t e s hollow space between them. I t stays down because when I h o l d i t together there i s a hollow space i n i t . 260* Yes. So i t w i l l f l o a t , go back up a g a i n . 261 While e x p l a i n i n g , submerges two p i e c e s of f o i l c ausing a i r bubbles t o r i s e . J u s t l i k e i f I p u s h — . There's the a i r come out. 'Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 262* Yes. And i f I made the a i r come out of the other t h i n g s , i t would have come out,-but then i t wouldn't have sunk. 263* F o i l s u r f a c e s a f t e r b e i ng submerged. See there's some a i r i n i t now, so i t came back up. 264 I see. That sounds q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g . 265 W e l l , c o u l d you make i t sink j u s t by i t s e l f , w i t h -out you pushing i t down? What do you t h i n k ? What would you have t o do? J u s t l e t i t s i n k . 266 J u s t l e t i t s i n k . 267 Watches c a r e f u l l y as f o i l i s p l a c e d i n water. L i k e I d i d now. 268 L i k e you d i d now. 269 Continues o b s e r v i n g . I t ' s s i n k i n g , I t h i n k . Yes, i t ' s sunk. 270 Yes. 271 Observes another p i e c e of f o i l s i n k i n g slowly. 272 I see. •Number Teacher A c t i o n s (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner 1 s V e r b a l Responses (c) 273 Repeats o b s e r v a t i o n . 274 And e v e n t u a l l y i t w i l l get down to the bottom? Yes . 275 But i t won't i f i t has a i r i n i t ? {Shakes head in negative manner) No, t h a t ' s what I t h i n k was wrong the l a s t time. 276 The l a s t time you had too much a i r , i s t h a t i t ? Yes, t h a t ' s what I t h i n k but I'm not sure. 277 I see. 278* I f you use the other paper now, how w i l l i t work? Drops curved, s i n g l e l a y e r of former f o i l i n t o water. Observes as i t slo w l y s i n k s . {Smiles) I sunk i t . Because I t h i n k t h a t when I curved i t here, i t goes down and then has to keep on going and then a f t e r a w h i l e the water comes up on i t grad-u a l l y because the water i s moving. 279 That's good, but the l a s t time you co u l d not do i t or you d i d n ' t t h i n k of t h a t way, r i g h t ? Nods n e g a t i v e l y . 280 That's r e a l l y good. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) L e a r n e r 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 281 When you work with these tubes see what you can f i n d out? (Helps learner gather tubes) . Places three tubes i n t r i a n g u l a r arrangement i n water, observes, then removes. 282* Removes caps from tube and se t s i t i n water (sinks). 283 What causes t h a t to s i n k , now? Because the water flows i n and i t ' s h e a v i e r than t h i s t h i n g can h o l d up. 284 Which i s h e a v i e r than which? The water, i t p u l l s down the tube. 285* Is t h a t what happened to the straw the other day too? Yes, t h a t ' s what I t h i n k . 286 Removes tube from water. 287* Remember when we used t h i s ? (Hands learner p l a s t i c straw). 288 How come? Po i n t s at straw w h i l e e x p l a i n i n g . W e l l , because when the water ran i n i t only got to a c e r t a i n amount and no more water c o u l d push i n then the a i r could get o u t - i t j u s t pushed i n the a i r . There's not enough room. 'Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) . Learner 1 s N'on-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 2 89* W e l l , what i f i t f i l l e d r i g h t up with water. Place s straw i n water again (floats). Stares at i t , s i g h s , s i t s back, re p e a t s , and then pushes straw t o bottom of c o n t a i n e r . 290 The p l a s t i c f l o a t s ? Yes, and there's not enough water i n i t to p u l l i t down. 291 There's not enough water? No. 292 Could you get anymore i n ? Demonstrates while e x p l a i n i n g . See, i f I f i l l i t up and then i t comes back up. When I push i t to the bottom i t comes back up. 293* Why doesn't the tube do the same t h i n g when i f f i l l s up? Pi c k s up l a r g e tube. Because there's more water i n the tube. See, l i k e t h a t (stvaw) i s a l o t more p l a s t i c : i n i t than water. And i f p l a s t i c f l o a t s and there's not very much water, then the p l a s t i c w i l l f l o a t . But i n t h i s case (tube) there's l o t s of p l a s t i c but h e a v i e r water. 294 So, i t ' s the amount of water t h a t makes the d i f f e r e n c e , t h e n , i s i t ? Observes l a r g e tube s i n k . * Yes. 295* How about the l i t t l e one? {Hands le.avnev smallev tube .) Sets tube i n water and observes i t s i n k . I t s i n k s too. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 296 J u s t on acount of i t has so much water i n t h e r e , i s t h a t i t ? Yes, t h a t ' s what I t h i n k . 297 And not enough can get i n s i d e the straw? 298 P l a c e s straw i n s i d e tube and stands both v e r t i c a l l y i n water. 299* How about w i t h t h i s bag? (Presents learner with small polyethylene bag.) P l a c e s rubber b a l l and cork i n bag. 300 I was wondering, w i t h the bag, i f you f i l l e d i t up j u s t f u l l o f water now. Removes o b j e c t s from bag. 301 Do you t h i n k there would be enough water i n th e r e to make i t sink? Yes. 302 Uses p l a s t i c tube to f i l l bag w i t h water. 303 Do you t h i n k t h a t w i l l be enough water? What i f you t i e d the top on t h a t (bag)? Maybe you have a l i t t l e too much. Dumps out some of the water. 304 W i l l t h a t s t i l l be enough? What do you t h i n k ? Yes. Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 305 Holds top of bag and t w i r l s bottom. 306 Okay, what does t h a t do? Makes i t so i t ' s e a s i e r to put i t around. (Easier to t i e ) . 307 Okay. (Helps learner t i e bag. ) 308 Place s bag i n t o water. 309 Now i s that-Oh, i t ' s not deep enough f o r you, i s t h a t i t ? Maybe we could dump i n a l i t t l e more of t h i s water j u s t to see. F i l l s c o n t a i n e r w i t h more water and puts bag back i n i t . I t s i n k s . 310 I t s i n k s . 311 Is t h a t on the bottom there o r - (Pushes log down. ) Examines bag c l o s e l y to determine i f i t i s f l o a t i n g . 312 Maybe we co u l d t r y i t i n here (nearby bucket of water) j u s t t o be sure. I t should be deep enough, r i g h t ? 313 Places bag i n bucket, s t a r e s , pushes i t down. I t doesn't s i n k . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 314 S t i l l doesn't s i n k . 315 L i f t s bag from bucket and drops back i n . 316 I'm going to dump back some of t h i s water. { q u i e t l y ) . 317 I t h i n k I b e t t e r dump back some o f t h i s water. 318 Uses p l a s t i c tube to empty water from c o n t a i n e r . 319 Oh, t h a t ' s f i n e . We have onl y a minute l e f t anyhow. I was wondering, do you have any explana-t i o n f o r t h i s one, why i t doesn't work? W e l l , maybe the p l a s t i c f l o a t s , or maybe the t a g f l o a t s , or t h e r e ' s a l i t t l e b i t of a i r i n t h e r e . 320 Removes bag from water and examines c l o s e l y . See, the water's not a l l the way down. 321 Oh, I see. I t ' s not a l l the way f u l l . 322 So what do you t h i n k i s causing i t ? What d i f f e r e n c e does the p l a s t i c make? For one t h i n g , the a i r . The p l a s t i c helps i t . W e l l , the p l a s t i c f l o a t s , I t h i n k ? 'Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner 1 s Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 323 Oh, I see. With the straw though,.you s a i d i t was j u s t t h a t i t d i d n ' t have enough water i n i t . Is t h a t i t ? (Confused look on faoe) Yes . 324 Stares at bag f o r about t h i r t y seconds. I'm going to t r y l e t t i n g more water i n and l e t t i n g out the a i r . 325* Unties bag, r e f i l l s w i t h water u n t i l about one-t h i r d f u l l . 326* Now, how are we going to get r i d of the a i r ? Twists bag s e v e r a l times to remove a i r . 327 Do you want a hand? I t h i n k I've got i t . 328* T i e s bag and p l a c e s i t i n bucket of water (floats). Now i t s i n k s . 329 Now i t s i n k s ? Yes. 330 Examines bag c l o s e l y and squeezes top. 331 So i t was j u s t on account of the a i r a f t e r a l l , i s t h a t i t ? Yes, t h a t ' s what I t h i n k . Number Teacher A c t i o n (a) Learner's Non-Verbal Responses (b) Learner's V e r b a l Responses (c) 332 So i t doesn't r e a l l y matter i f the p l a s t i c f l o a t s or not, i f you get enough water i n t h e r e , you are a l l r i g h t ? Yes . 333 That i s i n t e r e s t i n g . 334 -Removes bag from water. 

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