UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An Indian ivory carving from Begram Leese, Marilyn Kathleen 1969

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A N I N D I A N I V O R Y C A R V I N G FROM BEGRAM b y M A R I L Y N L E E S E A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE D E G R E E OF M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i n e A r t s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S e p t e m b e r , 1969* In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agr e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f F i n e A r t s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date Sep tember 1 5 , 1 9 6 9 * i ABSTRACT I n 1939, a r i c h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d was made i n A f g h a n i -s t a n when a hoard of l u x u r y o b j e c t s was e x c a v a t e d i n a " p a l a t i a l r e s i d e n c e " a t Begram, s i t e o f a n c i e n t K a p i s a . Among the p r e c i o u s a r t i c l e s b r o u g h t t o l i g h t were hundreds of I n d i a n i v o r y c a r v i n g s w h i c h a t one time d e c o r a t e d r o y a l f u r n i s h i n g s b e l o n g i n g t o Kushan k i n g s . K a p i s a was once the summer c a p i t o l of o p u l e n t and p o w e r f u l r u l e r s who c o n t r o l l e d a l a n d e x t e n d i n g from the Ganges R i v e r i n t o C e n t r a l A s i a . C r e a t e d by f o r m e r nomads whose r u l i n g p r i n c e s gave the m s e l v e s the d y n a s t i c name of Kushan, the Indo-S c y t h i a n Empire s t r a d d l e d the r o u t e s t o Rome, I r a n and C h i n a and was v i r t u a l l y the c e n t r e o f the w o r l d i n the f i r s t c e n t u -r i e s o f our e r a . Y e t no i n t e g r a l r e c o r d of the Kushans has been found i n any t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e , and t h e i r h i s t o r y has been p i e c e d t o g e t h e r from fragments of i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d over the l a s t c e n t u r y f rom th e s t u d y of c o i n s , c r y p t i c t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s , and worn i n s c r i p t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , the h i s t o r y o f I n d i a ' s a r t from th e same p e r i o d s u f f e r s from a p a u c i t y o f documention; i t s c h r o n o l o g y , a l t h o u g h now r e c e i v i n g the a t t e n t i o n o f modern s c h o l a r s h i p , i s s t i l l i n a s t a t e o f f l u x . The d i s c o v e r y o f the i v o r i e s a t K a p i s a e n r i c h e s n o t o n l y our knowledge of the Kushans, b u t i t adds a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o our i n f o r m a t i o n about e a r l y I n d i a n a r t as i t was d u r i n g Kushan r u l e , p r i o r t o the f o u r t h c e n t u r y when a c l a s s i c a l c i v i l i z a t i o n began t o emerge under the Gupta d y n a s t y . i i One of the i v o r i e s , a n a lyzed i n t h i s study, i s unique i n i t s wealth of symbolic d e t a i l . R epresenting a torana and two s t a n d i n g female f i g u r e s , the i v o r y plaque once adorned a r o y a l couch t h a t p o s s i b l y served as a Kushan throne. The i v o r y ' s iconography r e l a t e s t o the Kushan dynasty's concern w i t h l e g i t i m a c y of r u l e ; there i s an a s s e r t i o n of the s a c r e d and worthy c h a r a c t e r of Kushan s o v e r e i g n s . Moreover, the i v o r y makes v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o Srl-Lakshmi, Indian Goddess of Royal Fortune, a d e i t y analagous w i t h Roma or the H e l l e n i s t i c Tyche. In the iconography of the two s t a n d i n g female f i g u r e s , the concept of Srl-Lakshmi i s apparent, but these f i g u r e s are f u r t h e r shown w i t h overtones of Indian g o d l l n g s , d i v i n e c o n s o r t s and Near E a s t e r n goddesses whose f u n c t i o n s p a r a l l e l those of Srl-Lakshmi i n a s s u r i n g the regime p o l i t i c a l and n a t u r a l p r o s p e r i t y . The s y n c r e t i c c h a r a c t e r of the I v o r y ' s iconography corresponds w i t h t h a t of c o i n s and s e a l s from the p e r i o d of Huvishka, a name taken by one or more Kushan emperors r u l i n g i n the second century A.D. The s t y l e of the i v o r y plaque has o f t e n been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t of Sanchi, an Indian monument of the f i r s t c entury A.D. where a torana gateway bears a carved panel upon which i s i n s c r i b e d " G i f t of the Ivory Carvers of V i d i s a " . With r e s p e c t t o s u r f a c e treatment, s p a t i a l d e v i c e s , t o n a l arrangement, n a t u r a l i s m of poses and f i g u r a l p r o p o r t i o n s , however, the Sanchi p a n e l does not compare w i t h the Begram plaque. In t r a c -i n g the e v o l u t i o n of s t y l e d u r i n g the i n t e r v a l between these H i two w o r k s , a n I n d i a n i v o r y f o u n d a t P o m p e i i , a r e l i e f f r o m A m a r a v a t i , t h e d o n o r f i g u r e s a t K a r l T , a n d t h e B h u t e s v a r r a i l i n g f i g u r e s f r o m t h e M a t h u r a r e g i o n a r e e x a m i n e d . The B h u t e s v a r f i g u r e s a r e b e l i e v e d t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e r e i g n o f K a n i s h k a , m o s t p o w e r f u l o f K u s h a n m o n a r c h s , whose a c c e s s i o n i n i t i a t e d a n e r a b e g i n n i n g p e r h a p s a b o u t A.D. 110-15. A l t h o u g h t h e B e g r a m i v o r y a l l u d e s t o t h e B h u t e s v a r m o d e l , t h e p l a q u e i s c l o s e r i n s t y l e t o l a t e r M a t h u r a w o r k s . E e l i e f c a r v i n g s a n d s c u l p t u r e s a c c o m p a n i e d b y d a t e d i n s c r i p t i o n s d i s c l o s e a p e r i o d o f c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r c e n t u r y o f K a n i s h k a ' s e r a , when new I n f l u e n c e s p e r m e a t e t h e I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n . T h i s s t y l i s t i c a s s i m i l a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d b y t h e B egram i v o r y j h e n c e i n s t y l e , a s i n I c o n o g r a p h y , t h e i v o r y i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p e r i o d o f H u v i s h k a , whose name a p p e a r s on i n s c r i p t i o n s f r o m t h e y e a r 28 t o t h e y e a r 64 o r 67 o f K a n i s h k a * s e r a . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter I PROVENANCE 6 I I ICONOGRAPHY ]> I I I STYLE. . . . . . . . 31 IV CONCLUSION 4-7 FOOTNOTES . 4-9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 64-ILLUSTRATIONS 73 V ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e 1 Women Standing under a Torana. Found a t Begram. Cat. Jk.b.5: Kabul Museum. (4-1 x 2k cm.). Ivory. Photo c o u r t e s y of Musee Guimet. 2 Map. Kushan Empire. R o s e n f i e l d , DAK. 3 M i r r o r Handle. Found a t Pompeii; Museo Nazionale, Naples. (Height! 25 cm.). I v o r y . Rowland, AAA. F i g - 3. k Sanchi Stupa I. South t o r a n a . East p i l l a r f r o n t . R e c e i p t of the B o d h i s a t t v a ' s headdress l n the T r a y a s t r i m s a P a r a d i s e . I n s c r i b e d by t h e - i v o r y c a r v e r s of V i d i s a . R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, F i g . 155. 5 Drawing of°right sexterior s i d e - o f a r o y a l f u r n i s h i n g reassembled w i t h i v o r y plaques found a t Begram. Draw-i n g by P. Hamelin. Ensemble No. Jk. Photo c o u r t e s y of Musee Guimet; - * j 6 Ayagapet^a ( t a b l e t of homage) wit h J a i n a Tirthamkara surrounded by the astamangala. K a n k a l i T i l a . Lucknow .Museum. (Height: 89 cm.). Vogel, SM. PI. LIVb. 7 Yakshi and Palm Tree. Gandhara r e g i o n . Lahore Museum. No. 2364. (19-3A" x 6-1/8"). I n g h o l t , GAP, F i g . 36O. 8 L i f e i n the Palace and The R e n u n c i a t i o n . From Jamrud. K a r a c h i . No. 507 ( f o r m e r l y i n Lahore, No. 567). (24-3/8" x 20|"). Photo from H. I n g h o l t , GAP, F i g . 39. 9 Drawing of Impression from Kushan i n t a g l i o gem i n the B r i t i s h Museum. PHARRO and ARD0XSH0. R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, Text F i g . 13. 10 Uma and &iva. Kosam. Gupta p e r i o d . Banerjea, Hindu  Iconography, PI. XXXVIII, 2. 11 R a i l i n g p i l l a r . AmaravatT. B r i t i s h Museum. No. k. (8' 10|" x 2' I 0 i " ) . B a r r e t t , SABM, PI. XXII. 12 K a r l i . C h a i t y a facade. Donor couple t o the l e f t of the l e f t entrance. E a r l y second century A.D. Zimmer, HIIA, PI. 82. 13 K a r l T . C h a i t y a facade. Donor couple t o the r i g h t of the l e f t entrance. E a r l y second century A.D. Lee, H i s t o r y of Far E a s t e r n A r t , F i g . 97. v i 14 R a i l i n g f i g u r e . Bhutesvar. C a l c u t t a Museum. (He i g h t i 1.27 cm.). Vogel, SM, PI. X V I I I ( b ) . 15 R a i l i n g f i g u r e . Bhutesvar. Mathura Museum. (Hei g h t i 1.27 cm.). Vogel, SM, PI. X V I I I ( e ) . 16 Female f i g u r e of d e c o r a t i v e p a n e l . Gandhara. Museum f u r I ndische Kunst, B e r l i n . ( H e i g h t i 37 cm.). S c h i s t . H a l l a d e , Gandharan•Art of Northern I n d i a , P I. 4 7 . 17 The V i s i t of Indra and His Host t o the I n d r a s a l a Cave, dated i n the yea r 89• Mamane D h e r i , Charsadda sub-d i v i s i o n . Peshawar No. 1944.° (30" x 2 9 i " ) I n g h o l t , GAB, F i g . 131 . 18 Image of Nagaraja Dadhikarna, dated i n the year 52. Bhutesvar. Mathura Museum'C.21. ( H e i g h t i 23 cm.). Vo g e l , SM, P I . XLId. 19 P e d e s t a l and p a r t of a B o d h i s a t t v a t r i n i t y , d a t e d _ i n the y e a r 39 i under the r e i g n of Huvlshka. Mathura r e g i o n . C a l c u t t a Museum. Add. 4145. (Heighti 66 cm.). Vogel, SM, P I . XXVIb. 20 Kushan p r i n c e l y p o r t r a i t s t a t u e , dated i n the year 42. Mathura Museum No. E . 2 5 . ( H e i g h t i 2 ' 5 " ) . 'Red S l k r i sandstone. R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, F i g . 13 . 21 J a i n a p e d e s t a l , dated i n _ t h e year 49 ( a l s o read as samvat 7 9 ) . K a n k a l i T i l a . Lucknow Museum. J . 2 0 . ( H e i g h t i 51 cm.} Width! 68 cm.). Vog e l , SM, P I . LXb. 22 The V i s i t of Indra. Mathura r e g i o n . Mathura Museum. No. H . l l . ( H e i g h t i 46 cm.). Vogel, SM, P I . L I ( b ) . 23 Fragment of a stone l i n t e l w i t h scenes of the l i f e of the Buddha and other Buddhist images. From the Huvlshka V i h a r a . Jamalpur. Lucknow Museum No. B.208. (Lengthi about 5 f e e t ) . Red S i k r l sandstone. Rosen-f i e l d , DAK, F i g . 40. 24 Image of K a r t t i k e y a , dated i n the yea r 1 1 . Mathura Museum No. 2949. ( H e i g h t i 3 3 " ) . Red S i k r l sandstone. R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, F i g . 4 9 . 25 P e d e s t a l of s t a n d i n g image of_Sakyamuni, dated i n the year 22, the r e i g n of Vaskushana. Found a t Saftchl. Sanchi Museum No. A 83 . B u f f S i k r i sandstone. (Width 1 6 " ) . R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, F i g . 34. 26 Tympanum, carved on two s i d e s . K a h k a l i T i l a . Lucknow Museum No. J . 5 5 5 « ( H e i g h t i 98 cm.). Vogel, SM, PI. L V I I . v i i 27 Tympanum, carved on two s i d e s . Mathura r e g i o n . Boston Museum of Fi n e A r t s . 26.241. (Height! 78.1 cm., Width! 50 cm.). Vogel, SM, P i . LV. 28 Fragment of a S c u l p t u r e d P a n e l . K a n k a l i T i l a . Lucknow Museum. Drawing from Smith, J a i n ' s t u p a , P I . LXXXVI. v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e t o acknowledge indebtedness t o Dr. Mary Morehart f o r her encouragement and guidance. Dr. Morehart t h o u g h t f u l l y photographed the Begram i v o r i e s i n the Kabul Museum, and her suggestions f o r r e v i s i o n of the t e x t have been of g r e a t s e r v i c e , a l t h o u g h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e r r o r i s my own. I would a l s o l i k e t o convey a p p r e c i a t i o n to P r o f e s s o r George Rosenberg f o r o f f e r i n g a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . Members of the Pine A r t s L i b r a r y and the I n t e r - L i b r a r y Loan Department of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were most h e l p f u l w i t h r e s p e c t t o source m a t e r i a l , much of i t d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n . Some r e s e a r c h was undertaken as w e l l a t the B r i t i s h Museum, and the f a c i l i t i e s of the Musee" Guimet i n P a r i s were k i n d l y made a v a i l a b l e by M i l e . Jeannine Auboyer, C u r a t o r . F i n a l l y , I wish t o express g r a t e f u l n e s s t o my f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y my husband, upon whose p a t i e n t u n derstanding and support t h i s work has depended. 1 INTRODUCTION t A t Begram, members of the French A r c h a e o l o g i c a l M i s s i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n excavated hundreds of e l a b o r a t e l y carved Indian i v o r i e s . Some were found i n 1937t hut a g r e a t e r number were d i s c o v e r e d i n 1939* The complete c o l l e c t i o n was catalogued and p u b l i s h e d i n two p a r t s , the f i r s t a p p e a r i n g i n 1939* and the 2 second i n 1954. The 1954 p u b l i c a t i o n i n c l u d e d a comparative 3 study of the Begram i v o r i e s by P h i l i p p e S t e r n . Taking i n t o con-s i d e r a t i o n the d i v e r s e m o t i f s and v a r i e d techniques used on the I v o r i e s , S t e r n dated them over a p e r i o d extending from the f i r s t c e ntury A.D. t o the middle of the t h i r d c e n t u r y , thereby a l l o w i n g them to correspond w i t h s t r a t i g r a p h i c evidence i n d i c a t i n g the p e r i o d of the Great Kushans. In S t e r n ' s study, the i v o r i e s a re d i v i d e d b a s i c a l l y i n t o two s t y l i s t i c groups, one e a r l i e r , the other l a t e r . Those i v o r i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h r e l i e f c a r v i n g and r a t h e r squat f i g u r e s are a s s i g n e d t o the f i r s t group, d a t i n g as e a r l y as the f i r s t c e n t u r y . The second group i s t y p i f i e d by e l e g a n t l y g r a c e f u l f i g u r e s out-l i n e d on a f l a t s u r f a c e and s i g n i f i e s the s t y l i s t i c e v o l u t i o n of I n d i a n a r t , i n t h a t the supple and elongated f i g u r e s approach the 4 type known i n the Gupta p e r i o d (320-647). The order of S t e r n ' s arrangement i m p l i e s a p r o g r e s s i v e refinement of s t y l e from the f i r s t t o the t h i r d c entury, but r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n Indian a r t makes i t c l e a r t h a t the e v o l u t i o n was not as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as St e r n ' s grouping suggests^ The i v o r y plaque shown i n F i g u r e 1, from the time of i t s 2 d i s c o v e r y i n 1939» h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a w o r k f r o m t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y A . D . A n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e i v o r y a p p e a r e d i n 1 9 ^ 0 w i t h a r e p o r t o n t h e B e g r a m e x c a v a t i o n s b y J o s e p h H a c k i n , t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e F r e n c h A r c h a e o l o g i c a l M i s s i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n ^ H a c k i n r e -m a r k e d i n t h e r e p o r t t h a t t h e i v o r y ' s t o r a n a m o t i f w a s r e m i n i s -c e n t o f t h e g a t e w a y s a t S a n c h i , a n d h e f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h e i v o r y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e e a r l y s c h o o l o f M a t h u r a w h i c h w a s d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y o f t h e C h r i s t i a n E r a . A s o n e o f t h e f i n e s t o f t h e B e g r a m i v o r i e s , t h e p l a q u e i s o f t e n c i t e d w i t h 7 s i m i l a r r e m a r k s ' t h a t l i n k i t w i t h t h e r e i g n o f t h e p o w e r f u l K u s h a n , K i n g K a n i s h k a , p o p u l a r l y t h o u g h t t o h a v e r«ul^ve:d f r o m A.D. 7 8 . T h e d a t e o f K a n i s h k a ' s a c c e s s i o n h a s b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f m u c h d i s c u s s i o n . A s e m i n a r w a s h e l d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f L o n d o n i n A p r i l , I 9 6 0 a n d a r g u m e n t s w e r e p r e s e n t e d f o r A.D. 7 8 , 1 1 0 - 1 5 , Q 128 a n d 1 4 4 . M o r e r e c e n t l y , J o h n R o s e n f i e l d p u b l i s h e d D y n a s t i c  A r t o f t h e K u s h a n s w h e r e i n h e s t a t e d h i s r e a s o n s - u s i n g I n d i a n a n d C h i n e s e s o u r c e s - f o r t e n t a t i v e l y a c c e p t i n g t h e a r g u m e n t f o r 1 1 0 - 1 5 ? R o s e n f i e l d w o r k e d w i t h t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i n o r g a n -i z i n g K u s h a n c o i n s a n d p o r t r a i t s a n d f o u n d i t a c c e p t a b l e . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t u d y o f t h e B e g r a m i v o r y p l a q u e t h e 1 1 0 - 1 5 t h e o r y h a s a l s o p r o v e d c o m p a t i b l e . K a n i s h k a ' s a c c e s s i o n m a r k e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a n e r a w h i c h l a s t e d f o r a t l e a s t n i n e t y - e i g h t y e a r s . F r o m d a t e d i n s c r i p t i o n s 1 0 a c h r o n o l o g y w i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d h a s b e e n d e v i s e d b y R o s e n f i e l d - 1 a s f o l l o w s t 3 Kanishka I r u l e s V a s i s h k a r u l e s P e r i o d of Huvishka(s) Kanishka I I appears Vasudeva I r u l e s 1 t o 23 24 to 28 28 t o 60 4 l 64/67 to 98 A f t e r Vasudeva's r e i g n a second Kushan e r a began and the new c a l e n d r i c a l system was used f o r some f o r t y y e a r s b e g i n n i n g w i t h the r e i g n of Kanishka I I I . The reason f o r the two eras i s not known, and i t has been observed t h a t there does not seem t o be an i n t e r r u p t i o n i n c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o i n s and s c u l p t u r e . The end of the second Kushan e r a came d u r i n g the t h i r d c e n t u r y , and a l t h o u g h i t has been suggested t h a t 'Sasanian 11 i n v a s i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e , there i s y e t I n s u f f i c i e n t evidence to a s c e r t a i n why i n s c r i p t i o n s ceased to be dated w i t h i n the Kushan e r a . J u s t p r i o r t o , and d u r i n g the two eras (the p e r i o d of the Great Kushans) the Dynasty c o n t r o l l e d the n o r t h and n o r t h -western p a r t s of I n d i a . A few of the works from the n o r t h -western p a r t , the Gandhara r e g i o n , bear dated i n s c r i p t i o n s , but these are w r i t t e n w i t h the Kharoshthi s c r i p t and s c h o l a r s ' i n t e r -12 p r e t a t l o n s do not always agree. The i n s c r i p t i o n s from the Mathura r e g i o n a r e w r i t t e n i n Brahml s c r i p t . They have been s t u d i e d by eminent e p i g r a p h i s t s and I n d o l o g i s t s who have reached 13 agreement i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of many. Although a g r e a t number come from one s i t e , KankalT T i l a , dated Mathura i n s c r i p t i o n s are b e l i e v e d r e l a t i v e l y dependable. Because the i v o r y of Figure, 1 i s the r e s u l t of Kushan patronage, i t i s compared i n the f o l l o w i n g study w i t h other 4 Kushan works, some of which bear dated i n s c r i p t i o n s . Without the date of Kanishka's a c c e s s i o n f i r m l y f i x e d , however, these i n s c r i p t i o n s cannot be p r e c i s e l y equated w i t h the C h r i s t i a n E r a . Thus I have p r e f e r r e d t o a s s i g n the i v o r y a p l a c e w i t h i n the Kushan c a l e n d r i c a l system. The a r t of the Kushans d i d not develop autonomously and a study of t h i s Begram i v o r y must i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e t o works from Indians e a r l i e r times and from r e g i o n s other than those under Kushan domination. R e c e n t l y , the d a t i n g of I n d i a * s e a r l y monu-ments has been s u b j e c t e d t o renewed i n v e s t i g a t i o n by I n d i a n and Western s c h o l a r s , thereby b r i n g i n g about a r e v i s i o n i n I n d i a n chronology. There a r e , however, c e r t a i n f o o t h o l d s and these i n c l u d e the d e c o r a t i o n of S a n c h i r s Stupa I I which i s from the l a s t q u a r t e r of the second century B.C., and the s c u l p t u r e of Bharhut, b e l o n g i n g t o the p e r i o d of d e c l i n e i n Sunga power from 14 72 t o 25 B.C. The monuments which have been redated i n c l u d e t the cave temples a t Bhaja, now a s s i g n e d t o the e a r l y f i r s t 15 century B.C., i n s t e a d of second century B.C.; the Great Stupa a t Sanchi ( a l s o c a l l e d Sanchi I) now dated to A.D. 15-3©, r a t h e r 16 _ _ than the f i r s t c entury B.C.; the e a r l y s c u l p t u r e of K a r l i , now p l a c e d a t the b e g i n n i n g of the second century A.D., while i t was e a r l i e r thought to be from the f i r s t c entury A.D. S u b j e c t t o t h i s s h i f t i n g chronology i s a p r o p o s a l t o s h o r t e n the p e r i o d over which Amaravati's marbles were worked. T h i s p r o p o s a l would have Amaravatl's e a r l i e s t phase moved up from the f i r s t century B.C. t o the f i r s t c entury A.D. to correspond w i t h Sanchi I, 5 w h i l e the l a t e s t phase would remain as dated i n the l a s t h a l f of the second century or a t the b e g i n n i n g of the t h i r d century 17 t o correspond w i t h the e a r l y r e l i e f s a t Nagarajunakonda. R e l a t i v e l y few I n d i a n m a t e r i a l s remain from these e a r l y c e n t u r i e s and the d i s c o v e r y of the Begram i v o r i e s p r o v i d e s a welcome a d d i t i o n . To uncover the wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n they h o l d , a c o n c e n t r a t e d study of each i s necessary w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t y l e and iconography. The f o l l o w i n g study c e n t r e s upon the i v o r y plaque of F i g u r e 1 alone, as one of the most outstand-i n g of the Begram i v o r i e s . T h i s study i s but a b e g i n n i n g i n an attempt t o widen-the dimension of knowledge of I n d i a ' s a r t i s t i c h e r i t a g e . • < . ' 6 I« PROVENANCE . . . Men have s p e c u l a t e d s i n c e the l830's about the mound a t Begram. S i t u a t e d i n A f g h a n i s t a n near the j u n c t i o n of the Ghorband and P a n j i r R i v e r s which flow t o g e t h e r as the P a n j i r i n t o the Indus R i v e r and f i n a l l y out t o the A r a b i a n Sea (Mapi F i g u r e 2 ) , Begram i s i n a v a l l e y surrounded by the mountain ranges of the Paropamlsadae and the Hindu Kush. The Europeans who f i r s t surveyed the Begram mound connected i t w i t h the s i t e of one of Alexander the Great's s e t t l e m e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g h i s f a b l e d journey t o the borders of I n d i a * Perhaps, some thought, Begram was once the Macedonian's A l e x a n d r l a - a d -2 Caucusumj others b e l i e v e d the mound covered a n c i e n t Niceae, 3 mentioned i n a h i s t o r y of Alexander's e x p l o i t s by A r r i a n . There was a l s o a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y . Begram c o u l d be the s i t e of the Kushan s t r o n g h o l d Kapisa, a c i t y mentioned i n both Western and Chinese r e c o r d s , and a s t o p p i n g - o f f p l a c e f o r t r a d e r s moving be-tween the Roman Empire and the O r i e n t . B e l i e v i n g Begram t o be Kapisa, Joseph Haekin i n 1936 headed the French A r c h a e o l o g i c a l M i s s i o n i n A f g h a n i s t a n t o i n s t i t u t e a sy s t e m a t i c e x c a v a t i o n of the s i t e . The f i r s t season of d i g g i n g determined the main a r t e r y of an o l d c i t y which l a y beneath the mound. On e i t h e r s i d e of the a r t e r y , rooms thought t o be p a r t of a bazaar y i e l d e d decorated and stamped p o t t e r y of a u t i l i t -a r i a n n a t u r e , domestic a r t i c l e s of bronze and i r o n such as ewers, g r i d i r o n s and l o c k s , and more important, Kushan c o i n s which Hackin dated between the f i r s t and t h i r d c e n t u r i e s A.D. 7 R e t u r n i n g f o r a second season i n 1937* the French team of a r c h a e o l o g i s t s c o n c e n t r a t e d upon a s e c t i o n where a p a l a t i a l r e s i d e n c e i s thought t o have sto o d . Many i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g rooms were uncovered and i n one, Room Number Ten, Mme. R i a Hackin and J e a n 7 ^ C a r l found o b j e c t s s u g g e s t i n g a r o y a l storehouse. Room Number Ten's c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d of s e v e r a l types of ornamental glassware, vases of a l a b a s t e r , v e s s e l s and f u r n i t u r e - p a r t s i n bronze, and p r e c i o u s i v o r y plaques and s t a t u e t t e s ^ D i g g i n g a t Begram continued i n 1938 and a g a i n i n 1939* In t h i s f o u r t h season Mme. Hackin and C a r l s t a r t e d work on the s i t e of a g r e a t h a l l a d j o i n i n g Room Number Ten. The s i t e c h o i c e was a happy onet i t r e v e a l e d a w a l l e d - i n hoard of even more t r e a s u r e . Here was a f a s c i n a t i n g accumulation of S y r i a n g l a s s , fragments of Chinese l a c q u e r bowls and boxes, p l a s t e r models of s i l v e r plaques from the G r e c o - L a t i n West, H e l l e n i s t i c bronze f i g u r i n e s , and more 6 of the I n d i a n i v o r y c a r v i n g s i n even g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y . Such an I n t e r n a t i o n a l assortment of sumptuous o b j e c t s found a t the same l e v e l as the Kushan c o i n s confirms t h a t Begram i n the f i r s t c e n t u r i e s of the C h r i s t i a n E r a was indeed the Kushan way-p l a c e c a l l e d KSpisa, and a d d i t i o n a l l y , the r e s i d e n c e of Kushan k i n g s . The excavators a l s o uncovered f o u n d a t i o n s of an e a r l i e r c i t y , and a t t h i s lower l e v e l a c o i n of E u k r a t i d e s ( c i r c a f i r s t h a l f of the second century B.C.) was found. The c o i n bears the images of a seated person on a throne and an elephant protome which i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a KharoshthI legendt K a v i s i y e Nagara-7 devata - the c i t y god of KSpis'a. 8 In a l l , there were probably three s u c c e s s i v e c i t i e s t h a t caused the mound a t Begram. The f i r s t c i t y , which may or may not have been e s t a b l i s h e d by Alexander under a name other than Kapisa, was i n h a b i t e d by the Indo-Greek ki n g s and the f i r s t r u l e r s of the Kushan dynasty. The second c i t y was r e a l l y an e x t e n s i o n of the o l d e r town. There i s evidence t h a t the second c i t y was burned down In the t h i r d c e n t u r y . Roman Ghirshman, who headed f u r t h e r Begram ex c a v a t i o n s l n 1941 and 1942, has suggested t h a t an i n v a s i o n of the i.Sasanian Shapur I i n A.D. 241 was r e -Q s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e s t r u c t i o n , whatever the cause, the c i t y was r e b u i l t . The t h i r d c i t y , however, must have been abandoned by the Kushans sometime d u r i n g the l a t e f o u r t h or e a r l y f i f t h c e n t u r y , f o r an E p t h a l l t e c o i n w i t h a p o r t r a i t of a s a r of G a r j i s t a n was found a t t h i s l e v e l , thus announcing the a r r i v a l of 9 a people o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as the White Huns. The c l u e s which l e d to the e x c a v a t i o n of Begram-Kapisa are to be found i n a n c i e n t r e c o r d s . In the f i r s t c entury A.D. P l i n y 10 mentioned C a p i s a as the c a p i t a l of the r e g i o n Caplsene. Ptolemy, w r i t i n g i n the second century A.D., gave Kapisa's approximate, a l t h o u g h not q u i t e a c c u r a t e , g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n * 1 Hsiian-tsang, a seventh-century Chinese Buddhist p i l g r i m who journeyed a c r o s s A s i a , wrote In h i s j o u r n a l of a c i t y c a l l e d K l a - p i - s h i , g i v i n g s 12 what proved t o be the most p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n f o r Kapi s a . Hsiian-tsang* s j o u r n a l a c t e d as a guide f o r the French O r i e n t a l i s t A l b e r t Foucher who i n 1922 f o l l o w e d the Chinese monk's d e s c r i b e d r o u t e and thus l o c a t e d K l a - p i - s h i a t Begram, thereby i n s p i r i n g 9 Joseph Hackin t o undertake e x c a v a t i o n of the s i t e . Hsiian-tsang knew Kapis a as a " r o y a l c i t y " w i t h " o b j e c t s of merchandise from a l l p a r t s " . His j o u r n a l , as t r a n s l a t e d by Samuel B e a l , f u r t h e r states« "According t o t r a d i t i o n , Kanishka Raja of Gandhara i n o l d days having subdued a l l the n e i g h b o u r i n g p r o v i n c e s and brought i n t o obedience people of d i s t a n t c o u n t r i e s , he governed by h i s army a wide t e r r i t o r y , even to e a s t of the T ' s u n g - l i n g mountains. Then the t r i b e s who occupy the t e r r i t o r y t o the west of the r i v e r , f e a r i n g the power of h i s arms, sent hostages t o him. K a n i s h k a - r a j a having r e c e i v e d the hostages, t r e a t e d them w i t h s i n g u l a r a t t e n t i o n , and ordered f o r them s p e c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f o r the c o l d and hot weather; d u r i n g the c o l d they r e s i d e d i n I n d i a and i t s d i f f e r e n t p a r t s , i n the summer they came back t o K a p i s a . " 14 Hsiian-tsang a l s o claimed t o have seen on the w a l l s of a K a p i s a b u i l d i n g p a i n t i n g s d e p i c t i n g the hostages who appeared to him t o be Chinese. Attempts have been made t o c o r r e l a t e Hsuan-tsang's s t o r y of the hostages w i t h a r e p o r t i n the Chinese annal Hou Han-shu t o the e f f e c t t h a t a King An-kuo of Kashgar (A.D. 107-H3) sent an u n c l e and r e t a i n e r s to the Kushan k i n g of the Yueh-chih t r i b e , and t h a t the hostages were w e l l treated*-* The Hou Han-shu makes no mention of the Kushan k i n g s ' s name, but i f Hsuan-tsang*s s t o r y i s taken Into c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h the Chinese a n n a l , they t o g e t h e r suggesti l ) the Kushan k i n g was Kanishka; 2) the r e i g n of Kanishka corresponds w i t h t h a t of the Kashgar k i n g , thus s u p p o r t i n g the A.D. 110-115 theory f o r Kanishka's a c c e s s i o n ; 3) "the Kapisa palace complex w i t h i t s t r e a s u r e s was i n h a b i t e d by Kanishka i n the e a r l y second century A.D. Chinese annals such as the Hou Han-shu t e l l something of 10 the Kushans e a r l y h i s t o r y when they were known only as the Yi i e h - c h i h . The nomadic Yueh-chih t r i b e dwelt i n China a t one 16 time, a l t h o u g h they are Caucasoid i n appearance. During the second century B.C. they were d r i v e n westward by i n v a d e r s and around 135 B.C. they a r r i v e d i n the Oxus r e g i o n . They were v i s i t e d by the Chinese General Chan-ch'ien who r e p o r t e d t h a t by approximately 1 2 9 B.C. the Yueh-chih h e l d B a c t r i a i n s u b j u g a t i o n . S h o r t l y a f t e r the General's v i s i t , the Yiieh-chih moved a c r o s s the Oxus R i v e r and s e t t l e d i n B a c t r i a . There they adopted the urban and commercial modes of the Indo-Greeks who had e a r l i e r e s t a -blished H e l l e n i c kingdoms i n t h a t a r e a . The Yueh-chih n a t i o n , d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e p r i n c i p a l i t i e s , had a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n estim-a t e d a t 400,000 i n about 35 B.C. A t t h i s time, one of the f i v e p r i n c e s took over complete c o n t r o l , thus g i v i n g h i s c l a n name, 17 Kuei-shang, t o the e n t i r e n a t i o n . The s i n g u l a r p r i n c e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the u n i f i c a t i o n of the 18 Yueh-chih n a t i o n i s b e l i e v e d t o be K u j a l a Kadphises. His name appears on e a r l y Kushan c o i n s which a l s o show a Roman head of a type g e n e r a l l y agreed t o be Augustan. Western r e c o r d s t e l l of I n d i a n embassies sent to the c o u r t of Augustus, and i t may be, 1 9 i n f a c t , t h a t these embassies were Kushan. As t r a d e r s , the Kushans must have had c l o s e connections w i t h the Romans. In Nero's time, a c c o r d i n g to P l i n y , the Romans p a i d up t o the value of one hundred m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s a y e a r t o 20 I n d i a , Seres and A r a b i a f o r goods as s p i c e s , s i l k s and gems. P l i n y wrote t h a t owing t o the s c a r c i t y of i v o r y i n the Roman 11 Empire, the h i g h l y v a l u e d commodity was by the f i r s t century 21 " r a r e l y obtained except from I n d i a " . Kushan trade i n such s o u g h t - a f t e r merchandise brought Roman g o l d i n t o the a r e a . I t has been theorized., t h a t , because I n d i a ' s n a t u r a l g o l d r e s o u r c e s are extremely low, the source of g o l d f o r the fr e q u e n t m i n t i n g of p r e s t i g i o u s Kushan g o l d c o i n s must have been the Roman 22 Empire. In t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h the Roman Empire and the O r i e n t , the Kushans would have served as middlemen. The o l d S i l k Route, a l o n g which K a p i s a was l o c a t e d , passed through Kushan t e r r i t o r y . Cargo coming i n t o the t e r r i t o r y by way of the Tarim B a s i n from China would have been guided by Kushans e i t h e r o verland i n a westward d i r e c t i o n t o A s i a Minor, or a c r o s s the Paropamisadae t o be f l o a t e d on r a f t s down t o the mouth of the Indus R i v e r f o r transshipment westward, or down a l o n g the southward road t o Mathura, U j j a y i n l - and the In d i a n west-coast p o r t s as Barygaza 23 which had s h i p p i n g connections w i t h A l e x a n d r i a . Kapisa, as a f o c a l p o i n t f o r trade moving e i t h e r t o or from the Roman Empire and the O r i e n t , was an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e n t r e as t e s t i f i e d by the S y r i a n , H e l l e n i s t i c , Chinese and In d i a n f i n d s a t Begram. Although some of the In d i a n i v o r i e s of Begram were c l e a r l y i ntended f o r r o y a l use, others may have been s t o r e d f o r t r a d e . Perhaps I n d i a n i v o r y c a r v i n g , l i k e the i v o r y I t s e l f , was tr a d e d w i t h the Romans. A carved i v o r y m i r r o r handle from I n d i a ( F i g u r e 3) was found i n 1939 a t Pompeii. How t h i s m i r r o r handle came to be a t Pompeii i s a matter f o r s p e c u l a t i o n , but i t i s c l e a r t h a t 12 I n d i a n i v o r y c a r v i n g was known i n the Roman Empire b e f o r e A.D. 24 79 . Ivory c a r v i n g i s one of I n d i a ' s most a n c i e n t c r a f t s . Even 25 _26 the e a r l i e s t of s i t e s l n I n d i a , Mohenj6-Daro and Harappa, have p r o v i d e d i v o r y c a r v i n g s . These must date from the t h i r d m i l l e n n i u m B.C. From a p e r i o d and l o c a t i o n c l o s e r t o Begram are the i v o r y c a r v i n g s from the mounds of B h i r and S i r k a p a t T a x i l a . A t the Bhir, Mound, an i v o r y d o l l was found, s a i d to date not 27 l a t e r than the middle of the second century B.C. The S i r k a p s i t e f u r n i s h e d many i v o r y o b j e c t s , among them a f i n e l y d e c orated comb which shows f i g u r e s of humans and an elephant. The comb i s 28 b e l i e v e d t o be from the f i r s t century A.D. The l a r g e number of i v o r i e s found a t Begram suggests t h a t i v o r y c a r v i n g f l o u r i s h e d under Kushan patronage, c e r t a i n l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the Great Kushans, when Kanishka, Huvlshka and Vasudeva r e i g n e d . A c e n t r e of i v o r y c a r v i n g i s known through an i n s c r i p t i o n on the South Gateway a t the Great Stupa a t Sanchi ( F i g u r e 4 ) . The i n s c r i p t i o n s t a t e s t h a t the r e l i e f c a r v i n g there was the ._29 g i f t of the i v o r y c a r v e r s of V l d i s a . V i d i s a , modern B h i l s a , i s only a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from S a n c h i . Since V i d i s a was w i t h i n the Kushan Empire, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s was the s c h o o l of i v o r y c a r v e r s the Kushans p a t r o n i z e d . That some of the i v o r i e s found a t Begram were intended f o r r o y a l use i s obvious from the way i n which they were found. C e r t a i n plaques, as F i g u r e 1 , were l y i n g s i d e by s i d e i n p o s i t -i o n s t h a t suggested they were once sh e a t h i n g f o r a now-13 d i s i n t e g r a t e d wooden frame. With the a i d of Brahmi c h a r a c t e r s on,the back of each plaque, the i v o r i e s were arranged by the a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and some i d e a of the shape of the frame can be ga i n e d . A r e c o n s t r u c t i o n drawing ( F i g u r e 5) suggests t h a t the i v o r y belonged to a r o y a l couch which might have served as a 30 throne. 3 14 l i s ICONOGRAPHY An c i e n t w r i t e r s as Varaha M i h i r a leave l i t t l e doubt t h a t the ornamentation of r o y a l f u r n i s h i n g s was a matter of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e . In an e a r l y f i f t h - c e n t u r y a s t r o l o g i c a l t e x t , B r i h a t - s a m h l t a 1 Varaha M i h i r a o u t l i n e s the approved method f o r c a r v i n g i v o r y panels t h a t would adorn r e g a l s e a t s , and he makes c l e a r the n e c e s s i t y of c a r v i n g upon such panels only images which b r i n g good f o r t u n e and p r o s p e r i t y . The i v o r y plaque found a t Begram (F i g u r e l ) , o u t s t a n d i n g among i t s companion panels of the r o y a l couch by v i r t u e of i t s t o r a n a , was indeed carved w i t h pr o p i t u o u s images as I w i l l show. A l l of i t s emblems are a u s p i c i o u s s i g n s w i t h overtones of concern f o r m a t e r i a l triumph, m a t e r i a l abundance and wealth, l e g i t i m a c y of r u l e , and d i v i n e s a n c t i o n and support of the r u l i n g house. The torana m o t i f s have an I n d i a n background but one a s p e c t of the i v o r y t h a t seems p a r t i c u l a r l y Kushan i s the way i n which two females stand t o g e t h e r under the torana gateway. This i v o r y plaque i s unique among the others i n t h a t one female appears t o a t t e n d the other. While the B r l h a t - s a m h l t a i s devoted to the d e t a i l i n g of s i g n s of good augury, no mention i s made of a feminine couple such as t h i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s the t e x t does d e s c r i b e the torana and 2 the r u l e s f o r i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The time-honoured symbols i t must bear r e i t e r a t e the b a s i c i d e a l s of a s o c i e t y t h a t f o s t e r e d Hinduism, Buddhism and J a i n i s m . The I n d i a n i d e a l s served the Kushans too as the torana and i t s emblems on the i v o r y t e s t i f y . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the meaning behind each of torana emblems l e a d s to the matter of Kushan i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Indian p r i n c i p -l e s , and the p e c u l i a r i l y s y n c r e t i c nature of Kushan i d e o l o g y as embodied i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the feminine c o u p l e . In a p o s i t i o n of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e a l o n g the i v o r y ' s top t o r a n a a r c h i t r a v e are three symbols which i n d i c a t e t h a t the k i n g i s a devaputra or Son of God. The t i t l e I s a favoured one of 3 Kushan ki n g s f o r i t appears o f t e n on donative i n s c r i p t i o n s . The Law of Blanu t e l l s t h a t the d i v i n e I n d i a n k i n g i s formed of p a r t -i c l e s of gods, and the gods are l i s t e d t o i n c l u d e Agni ( f i r e -the power of p u r i t y and d e s t r u c t i o n ) , Vayu (wind - freedom of movement and e x t e n s i o n ) , Surya (sun - majesty, wealth and energy), Candra (moon - v e g e t a t i o n and f r u i t f u l n e s s ) , Yama (Lord of J u s t i c e ) , Kubera (Lord of Wealth), Varuna (source of dharma i n the sense of order of the s t a t e ) , and Indra (the r e g u l a t o r of dharma). In the Suvaranaprabhasa S u t r a , a t e x t known d u r i n g Kushan times, the devaputra i s c a l l e d the son of t h i r t y - t h r e e " s o v ereigns of the gods" although he i s always dependent upon the 5 gods' f a v o u r . In order t o remain as k i n g , he must always honor and p r o p i t i a t e these d e i t i e s . The a r c h i t r a v e emblems are p l a c e d upon the r o y a l i v o r y f o r the very purpose of paying homage to those who c o n t r o l the d e s t i n y of the Kushan k i n g and h i s dynasty. The symbol^appearing a t the c e n t r e of the torana's top a r c h -i t r a v e i s doubly p r o p i t u o u s because i t i s made up of two vener-a b l e I n d i a n a s s e r t i o n s of d i v i n e presence, the t r l s u l a and the c a k r a . The composite m o t i f must have a l o n g h i s t o r y f o r i t 16 enjoyed extraordinary currency p r i o r to the Kushan eras. I t can he found decorating jewellery at Bharhut, as an ornament on 6 u t e n s i l s from Ta x i l a , as a blossom hanging from a "wishing-tree" 7 vine on a r e l i e f at Bharhut, as an emblem on a royal throne shown 8 9 at Bharhut and Sanchi I, as an object of worship atop a p i l l a r i n -10 r e l i e f s at Amaravati, and as a dominant motif upon torapas as at 11 Bharhut, Kankali T i l a , and on the Begram ivory, whether the motif appears at Buddhist or Jaina s i t e s or on a royal ivory, i t expresses the d e i f i c a t i o n of a universal king. The emblem 12 appears on Kushan coins from the time of Vima Kadphises, who preceded Kanishka, and as such i t became the mark of the r u l i n g house, s i g n i f y i n g i t s divine nature. To the composite symbol are brought the connotations of i t s separate parts. The t r l s u l a i s SIva*s t r i d e n t and with t h i s weapon he i s triumphant over matters of creation and preser-13 ' vation. Siva i s looked upon as a sort of Father-God; i n f a c t , a prototype of Siva with trident i n his role of c o n t r o l l e r of 14 productivity i s found on a seal from Mohenjo-Daro. In Kushan times, Siva became the centre of a c u l t that worshiped him f o r his procreative powers of the form of the ling^am 1^ Siva as 0ESH0 i s depicted with the t r i s u l a on Kushan coins, and on the 16 reverse the Kushan king too Is shown with the t r l s u l a . As an earthly representative of Siva, a point so c l e a r l y made by the dual representation, the king with his tri d e n t symbolizes the dynasty's v i c t o r i o u s nature. Further the t r i s u l a shared by both the king and Siva on Kushan coins at t e s t s to the realm's steady 17 p r o l i f e r a t i o n and the d i g n i t y accorded t o i t s r u l e r s . The other h a l f of the composite symbol on the torana i s the c a k r a which supports the t r l s u l a . Often c a l l e d the Wheel of the Law, the c a k r a has many a s s o c i a t i o n s . A l l i e d w i t h the sun i n shape, the c a k r a denotes the f i e r y c e n t r e of the u n i v e r s e and 17 b r i n g s t o mind the Sun Gods Surya and A g n i . I t i s moreover, dharma, the p r i n c i p l e around which a l l r e v o l v e s and thereby i t 18 suggests the gods who govern the u n i v e r s e . In i t s w h e e l - l i k e form, the c a k r a i n d i c a t e s i n f i n i t e motion and p e r f e c t i o n and the 19 gods who govern i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . The c a k r a , a d d i t i o n a l l y , i s the a l l - c o n q u e r i n g d i s c u s , a weapon of Vishnu and one of the 20 seven gems of the C a k r a v a r t i n , the U n i v e r s a l Monarch. The P a l l Dlgha Nlkaya r e l a t e s t h a t the wheel belongs as a r o y a l emblem atop the p a l a c e , but whenever the k i n g f a i l s i n h i s v i r t u e , the 21 emblem a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s a p p e a r s . The c a k r a on the i v o r y torana, however, has p e t a l s where spokes should be. Thus i t becomes imbued w i t h the i d e a of government of nature and v e g e t a t i o n and suggests f o r example, the moon d e i t y Candra, p l u s a whole host of a s s o c i a t e d s p i r i t s whose f u n c t i o n s c e n t r e upon f e r t i l i t y . The c a k r a i s i n essence the g r e a t realm of the gods, but a t the hub of the system i s the d i v i n e monarch who connects the heavens w i t h the domain of man. On e i t h e r s i d e of t h i s composite m o t i f a t the c e n t r e of the t o r a n a , i s a second important emblem c a l l e d the s r l v a t s a . The s r i v a t s a appears i n the form of two opposing "S" shapes, r e c a l l -i n g somewhat two r a i s e d snakes or nagas, known from Vedic times 18 as g u a r d i a n s . The s r l v a t s a ' s prototype can be seen on a Mohenjo-Daro s e a l which shows two a r c h i n g serpent necks r i s i n g up from e i t h e r s i d e of a Tree of L i f e f o r they are guarding the 22 s a c r e d source of a l l e x i s t e n c e . I t i s w i t h the same n o t i o n of p r o t e c t i o n t h a t the s r l v a t s a i s i n c l u d e d as one of the t h i r t y -_ _ 23 three mahapurusalakganas which mark a g r e a t man a t b i r t h . The so-marked c h i l d i s t o be guarded by the gods, and i n t h i s r e s p e c t the s r l v a t s a s i g n appears on the f o o t p r i n t s which s i g -_24 n i f y the Buddha a t Amaravati, and upon the che s t s of r e l i g i o u s . _ -25 / s a i n t s a t K a n k a l l T i l a . But s p e c i f i c a l l y , the s r l v a t s a Is a s i g n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Vishnu. In d e v e l o p i n g Hindu theism d u r i n g the Kushan p e r i o d , Vishnu was known as the son of Surya and as 26 the keeper of wealth. There i s evidence of a c u l t of Vishnu, as 27 ^ _ there a re i n d i c a t i o n s of a s o l a r d e i t y c u l t . S t i l l the s r l v a t s a s i g n does not appear on Kushan c o i n s , nor does the name Vishnu appear i n c o i n legends. Yet the name of Vishnu's human manifest-a t i o n i s Vasudeva, a name pur p o s e l y chosen by one or more Kushan 2 8 y k i n g s . The s r l v a t s a on the i v o r y ' s t o r a n a may suggest the presence of Vishnu, but e s s e n t i a l l y i t must r e p r e s e n t h i s s a n c t i o n and the sacred g u a r d i a n s h i p the dynasty i s t o r e c e i v e . Beside the s r l v a t s a s on the top of the i v o r y ' s t o r a n a a re two symbols which must r e p r e s e n t the bhadrasana, l i t e r a l l y r o y a l 29 throne. T h i s emblem i s made up of a l o t u s p e d e s t a l surmounted by a t r i a n g l e and i t seems e s p e c i a l l y r e l a t e d w i t h S r i - L a k s h m i , I n d i a n Goddess of Royal Fortune. The l o t u s i s Lakshmi's a t t r i -30 bute, and on a r e l i e f a t P i t a l k h o r a , Lakshmi i s seated i n the padmasana. or t r i a n g u l a r p o s i t i o n , upon a l o t u s which has i t s p e t a l s t u r n i n g downwards as they do i n the bhadrasana on the i v o r y . Another r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Lakshmi - as Gaja-Lakshml, the promoter of b i r t h and abundance - shows her s t a n d i n g on the same type of l o t u s p e d e s t a l w h i l e elephants l i f t t h e i r trunks t o pour water over her i n the r i t e of l u s t r a t i o n . Such r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s 31 can be seen a t Sanchi I I and on e a r l y c o i n s from the Kushan 32 t e r r i t o r y . A t Bharhut there i s a carved m e d a l l i o n which has e l e p h a n t s i n the same w o r s h i p f u l a t t i t u d e , but i n the p l a c e of 33 the Lakshmi goddess, there i s a t r i a n g l e , a symbol of the l i f e -source b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by the Hindu y a n t r a . Lakshmi then, must be r e f e r r e d t o by the bhadrasana i n her d u a l r o l e ; t h a t as r o y a l o verseer and t h a t as the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the abundance of the regime. S t r a n g e l y , Lakshmi i s absent on Kushan coinage a f t e r the I n i t i a l appearance of Gaja-Lakshml. I t seems unimaginable t h a t the Kushans f o r g o t Lakshmi*s powers f o r there i s a d d i t i o n a l a t t e s t a t i o n t o her presence on the i v o r y i n the punna-ghata symbol. T h i s i s known as the burgeoning v e s s e l or vase of p l e n t y and the s i g n i s p l a c e d on the torana p o s t s between the two lower a r c h i t r a v e s . The body of the vase i s made up of l o t u s p e t a l s and i t r e s t s upon a support of l o t u s palmettes while more f o l i a g e i s s u e s from the top of the j a r ; thus i t p e r t a i n s t o Lakshmi's b o u n t i f u l n a t u r e . The punna-ghata i s m i s s i n g from Kushan c o i n s , a l t h o u g h the c o r n u c o p i a i s r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s i s 20 34 h e l d b y a g o d d e s s l a b e l e d ARD0XSH0, p e r h a p s a l o c a l e a s t e r n I r a n i a n g o d d e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w a t e r a n d m o i s t u r e , a n d a r e l -a t i v e o f t h e I r a n i a n A n a h i t a , c a l l e d "Mazdean l o r d o f t h e f e r t i l i z i n g w a t e r s e n t r u s t e d b y A h u r a Mazdah w i t h t h e c a r e o f 35 a l l c r e a t e d b e i n g s . " A c c o r d i n g t o J o h n R o s e n f i e l d , t h e K u s h a n c u l t o f ARD0XSH0 seems t o h a v e b e e n c e n t r e d u p o n d y n a s t i c a n d p o l i t i c a l a b u n d a n c e , w h e r e a s a n o t h e r K u s h a n g o d d e s s , NANA, ArdTi 37 36 e m p h a s i z e d n a t u r a l phenomena. NANA h a s b e e n e q u a t e d w i t h A r d v i -A n a h i t i who i s o f t e n shown on / S a s a n i a n c o i n s w i t h a w a t e r - j a r * w h i c h , l i k e t h e c o r n u c o p i a , r e l a t e s t o t h e l o t u s - f i l l e d v e s s e l o f l i f e - g i v i n g w a t e r s w h i c h i s t h e p u n n a - g h a t a . The punna-gha-ta, a l o n g w i t h t h e t r i s u l a - c a k r a a n d t h e s r l v a t s a , commonly a p p e a r s on e a r l y B u d d h i s t t o r a n a s , b u t t h e b h a d r a s a n a ( i n t h e f o r m i t a p p e a r s on t h e i v o r y ) i s n o t a p p a r e n t . I t i s h o w e v e r one o f t h e e i g h t a^-bamangala o f t h e J a i n a , a s a r e t h e o t h e r t h r e e o f t h e i v o r y ' s m o t i f s a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d . B e c a u s e t h e a ^ t a m a n g a l a o f e i g h t a u s p i c i o u s s y m b o l s p e r t a i n s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o J a i n a s a i n t s ( F i g u r e 6) one w o n d e r s i f t h e a d a p t i o n o f f o u r o f t h e emblems i s meant t o c o n n e c t t h e r o y a l h o u s e i n some way w i t h t h e J a i n a s . A l t h o u g h K a n i s h k a ' s c o i n s show s e v e r a l I r a n i a n a n d H i n d u d e i t i e s , a s w e l l a s t h e B u d d h a , t h e r e i s n o r e f e r e n c e t o J a i n i s m . A l e g e n d i s r e c o r d e d w h i c h t e l l s o f K a n i s h k a s t o p p i n g a t a J a i n a s i t e t o w o r s h i p , m i s t a k e n l y t h i n k i n g i t a B u d d h i s t s t u p a . The s t o r y , f r o m t h e S u t r a l a m k a r a , e n d s w i t h K a n i s h k a s a y i n g t h a t t h e J a i n a s a i n t s a r e n o t d e s e r v i n g o f h i s 39 homage. M a j o r J a i n a s i t e s w e r e M a t h u r a a n d T a z i l a , a n d f r o m t h e 21 i n s c r i p t i o n s at Kankali T i l a ( i n the v i c i n i t y of Mathura), i t i s c l e a r that Huvishka and following r u l e r s supported the 40 Jainas. Thus the use of d i s t i n c t i v e l y Jaina symbols with respect to t h e i r grouping, suggests that the ivory might have been produced f o r a r u l e r who followed Kanishka, and who wished to have the sanction of Jaina d e i t i e s as w e l l . In addition to the four astamangala signs, there are further auspicious motifs upon the ivory's torana. The tor-toise , shown i n the spaces between the ends of the upper and 4l middle architraves, "lends weal to a prince's reign", according to the Brlhat-samhita. Closely associated with Varuna, "great king, dispenser of j u s t i c e and punisher of s i n , l o r d of the 42 r i v e r s and of increase", the t o r t o i s e i s the embodiment of the creative p r i n c i p l e . Appearing as a symbol on the torapa, the t o r t o i s e implies the blessings of the gods with respect to order and fecundity. The mangoes which appear below the tortoises at the ends of the architraves are s i m i l a r l y symbolic of creation 43 and plenty as are the lotuses decorating the arch and the garlands along the architraves. On the top architrave, the garland issues from the mouth of the c r o c o d i l i a n makara, another animal symbol that, l i k e the t o r t o i s e , denotes the Watery 44 Source. While not outstanding on the Begram ivory, the makara motif must have been important to the Kushans, f o r i t i s i n -cluded as a s i g n i f i c a n t symbol denoting fierceness as well as munificence, on the mace held by Kanishka i n one of the most 45 imposing p o r t r a i t s of Indian a r t . 22 Among the other animal m o t i f s on the i v o r y are two t h a t p e r t a i n t o the k i n g as the centre of the u n i v e r s e . The s a r d u l a . 46 l i t e r a l l y "an animal made by a r t " , serves as a b r a c k e t j o i n i n g the lowest t o r a n a a r c h i t r a v e t o the p i l l a r s t h a t support the s t r u c t u r e . A s i m i l a r i v o r y s a r d u l a excavated a t Begram has been i n c l u d e d i n the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n drawing of the throne as a b r a c k e t a t the co r n e r s of the f u r n i s h i n g ( F i g u r e 5)« T h i s parrot-beaked, l i o n - h e a d e d c r e a t u r e has an a r c h i n g neck, a mane of p e a r l s , a p a i r of r a i s e d f o r e l e g s , two open wings, and r e a r -i n g h i n d l e g s which merge w i t h a f i s h t a i l . One of the most f a n t a s t i c p r o d u c t i o n s of the In d i a n i m a g i n a t i o n , the s a r d u l a has been g i v e n the necessary p r o p e r t i e s which a l l o w i t a u t h o r i t y 4 ? over the three spheres - the water, the l a n d and the a i r . The s a r d u l a r e f e r s , t h e r e f o r e , t o the u n i v e r s a l k i n g who f u n c t i o n s as the hub of the cak r a and who has power over every medium. The b i r d s a l s o share i n t h i s mastery, and they are shown o u t s i d e the p i l l a r s of the torana t o stand above a r a i l i n g of a type t h a t surrounds stupas. These b i r d s seem t o be p a r r o t s , b i r d s of good augury. L i k e the Kushan's r o y a l geese (hamsas). as employ-ed on the Kanishka r e l i q u i a r y , they are f a c i n g l e f t . Thus i t would seem t h a t the b i r d s on the i v o r y are performing 4 8 pradakshina ( r i t u a l circumambulation). They are moving i n the d i r e c t i o n of the sun as they c i r c l e hallowed ground. The sacred s i t e must be, i n the s t r i c t e s t sense, the ki n g ' s throne. The t o r a n a i t s e l f i s pr o o f of the ki n g ' s e x a l t e d s t a t e . T h i s gateway s t r u c t u r e r e p r e s e n t s one of the f o u r d i r e c t i o n s 23 t h a t c r o s s a t the cosmic c e n t r e . In I n d i a the torana marks the entrance to a stupa, the c e n t r e of which i s analagous w i t h the world a x i s . The stupa's mound shape r e p r e s e n t s the dome of heaven and separates the human sphere from the p a r a d i s e of the gods. The world a x i s from e a r l i e s t times was r e p r e s e n t e d as a t r e e w i t h powers of l i f e - g i v i n g , w i s h - g i v i n g and knowledge p r o f f e r m e n t . The a r c h below the torana on the i v o r y p a r a l l e l s the stupa's dome shape, j u s t as the s t a l k which grows up from the ground beneath the f e e t of the s t a n d i n g f i g u r e on the r i g h t , suggests the p r i m e v a l t r e e . Thus the I v o r y ' s torana together w i t h the a r c h and the t r e e r e f e r t o the k i n g ' s throne as a u n i v e r s a l c e n t r e where the k i n g j o i n s the g l o r i f i e d domain of d e i t i e s . The f i g u r e s p l a c e d i n the spaces between the torana's a r c h i t r a v e s on the i v o r y are i n h a b i t a n t s of the Northern Quad-r a n t of the p a r a d i s e i n the heavens. The r u l e r of t h i s realm i s Kubera, Lord of Wealth. Kubera i s shown on the i v o r y i n the cen t r e of the lower a r c h i t r a v e space. Beside him are two Kinnaras, half-human, h a l f - b i r d c r e a t u r e s which are c e l e s t i a l m u s i c i a n s . In the upper a r c h i t r a v e space are the A t l a n t i d s . These gnome-like c r e a t u r e s are r u l e d , as are the Kinnaras, by K u b e r a ^ The A t l a n t i d s support the uppermost a r c h i t r a v e decor-a t e d w i t h the g a r l a n d which i s s u e s from the makaras' mouths; Kubera and the Kinnaras are shown w i t h the meandering v i n e - l i k e m o t i f . These s p i r i t s , i n t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h v e g a t a t i v e m o t i f s , e x h i b i t t h e i r powers over f e r t i l i t y . I 24 But what of the two f i g u r e s s t a n d i n g t o g e t h e r under the archway beneath the torana? These well-endowed feminine f i g u r e s wear only sheer drapery hanging from a j e w e l l e d b e l t about the h i p s , a beaded c o l l a r - l i k e n e c k l a c e , t h i c k a n k l e t s , and rows of b r a c e l e t s . T h e i r h a i r i s swept t o one s i d e , k notted and bound w i t h r i b b o n . Leaves and branches appear Immediately behind the f i g u r e s ' heads, and f l o w e r s are shown a t t h e i r s i d e . One of the f i g u r e s seems t o be an a t t e n d a n t f o r she holds a d i s h f o r the other f i g u r e . While g a z i n g I n t o a hand-held m i r r o r , the seem-i n g l y more important f i g u r e d i p s a f i n g e r i n t o the p r o f f e r e d d i s h . Although I know of no example of f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n e x a c t l y t h i s way, c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of these f i g u r e s can be found elsewhere. The compound nature of t h e i r iconography r e v e a l s t h a t l a y e r s of meaning are c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . F i r s t , because they are shown w i t h the l e a v e s and branches of a t r e e , the two f i g u r e s must be Y a k s h i s . These wondrous bei n g s are t r e e s p i r i t s , r u l e d by Kubera. They have the power of assuming both male and female shapes. These g o d l i n g s are gener-a l l y s p e c i f i e d as Yakshas although the female a s p e c t r e q u i r e s the d e s i g n a t i o n Y a k s h i . Yakshas^ belong t o t h a t stratum of f o l k l o r -i s t i c thought t h a t p r o v i d e d so much of I n d i a ' s f e r t i l i t y symbol-ism. They are u s u a l l y benevolent c r e a t u r e s who, when worshiped, secure r a i n and the f l o o d i n g of f i e l d s f o r r i c h h a r v e s t s . More-over, they p r o t e c t the farmers and t h e i r v i l l a g e s from malevolent monsters t h r e a t e n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y . Yakshas have been an essen-t i a l p a r t of I n d i a ' s v i l l a g e c u l t u r e , and they were granted a 25 p l a c e i n the pantheon of I n d i a ' s formal r e l i g i o n s . The appear-ance of the female Yakshis upon the Begram pla<q:ue a f f i r m s t h a t the Kushans too c o u l d h a r d l y ignore the Yakshi's power t o b r i n g abundance t o the regime and t o ward o f f e v i l i n f l u e n c e s . The woman and. t r e e m o t i f , i n d i c a t i n g the Yakshi and her power over f e c u n d i t y , i s w e l l known i n e a r l y I n d i a n a r t . At Bharhut the Y a k s h i holds one branch of the t r e e and she p l a c e s her h e e l a g a i n s t the trunk? S i m i l a r l y the Yakshis which serve as b r a c k e t s on the toranas a t Sanchi I touch the t r e e and f o l -52 iage appears above them. Ya k s h i s h o l d i n g t r e e s appear a t Bodh 53 - -54 -55 Gaya, Amaravati and a t Mathura. They a l l wear the j e w e l l e d b e l t (mekhala), which i s a l i f e - l o n g charm, and most wear j e w e l l e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the Begram f i g u r e s . The Begram f i g u r e s do not touch the t r e e w i t h t h e i r h e e l s , but one of the f i g u r e s does h o l d a branch. T h e i r h a i r s t y l e and the l e a v e s which appear immediately behind the head almost as i f p a r t of a headdress are u n u s u a l . The c l o s e s t p a r a l l e l i s a Yakshi from Gandhara ( F i g u r e 7 ) , probably d a t i n g t o the p e r i o d of Huvlshka 56 or Vasudeva. A Y a k s h i f i g u r e of a s i m i l a r p e r i o d from Gandhara i s a l s o shown w i t h l e a v e s above her head and she demonstrates the 57 Y a k s h i ' s c a p a c i t y f o r g u a r d i a n s h i p as she holds a spear. In another Gandhara r e l i e f ( F i g u r e 8), two palace s e n t r i e s , one w i t h a weapon l i k e the Y a k s h i , p r o t e c t the r e s i d e n c e of Sakyamuni. These p a i r e d f i g u r e s are not shown w i t h a t r e e , but they do appear t o g e t h e r under an a r c h l i k e the Begram f i g u r e s . 26 W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of the Begram i v o r i e s , t he r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of two f e m a l e s s i d e b y s s i d e a t a doorway i s r a r e . As Y a k s h i s , t h e Begram f i g u r e s a l r e a d y i m p l y p r o t e c t i o n even w i t h o u t weapons, and t h e i d e a t h a t they s t a n d a t a r o y a l e n t r a n c e l i k e the Gandharan p a l a c e s e n t r i e s s u g g e s t s they a r e i n t e n d e d t o de f e n d t h e t h r o n e t h e y a d o r n . That the Begram f e m i n i n e f i g u r e s appear as a p a i r b r i n g s t o mind the mlthuna c a l l e d f o r by the B r i h a t - s a m h l t a when s t a t i n g 58 c o u p l e s s h o u l d a d o r n the t o r a n a . The mlthuna i s n o t o n l y a u s p i c i o u s i n t h a t i t s u g g e s t s the p r o d u c t i v e c o u p l e , b u t i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i d e a o f s a k t i o r female energy. A l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n t t h a n the amorous male and female a t e n t r a n c e s on - - 59 r e l i e f s a t Nagarajunakonda, t h e two fem a l e s under the Begram t o r a n a , and a d d i t i o n a l l y t h e o t h e r f e m i n i n e c o u p l e s t h a t appear on accompanying p a n e l s o f the same r o y a l couch ( F i g u r e 5) perhaps a l l u d e t o the s^aktl c oncept w h i c h p r o c l a i m s female energy as the so u r c e o f power. T h i s d o c t r i n e was b e g i n n i n g t o d e v e l o p d u r i n g the Kushan periodf°thus i t c o u l d be t h a t the i v o r y s u g g e s t s s a k t i as a b a s i s f o r Kushan ascendancy.. I n t h i s l i g h t , t he fe m a l e s of the i v o r y can r e f e r t o the r o y a l c o n s o r t s who o f f e r power t o k i n g s . The Asvaghosha B u d d h a c a r l t a d e s c r i b e s a goddess who ov e r s e e s the r u l e s of k i n g s and who was p e r t u r b e d when Sakyamunl chose t o assume the r o l e o f 61 a monk. The Junagadh i n s c r i p t i o n of A.D. 367 s t a t e s t h a t the / _ goddess S r i , as R o y a l Good F o r t u n e , s e l e c t e d Skandagupta as h e r 62 ' -husband. S i m i l a r l y the S r l - R a t n a , one of the Seven J e w e l s of 27 the C a k r a v a r t i n , supports the r i g h t e o u s Buddhist r u l e r w i t h her presence as h i s c o n s o r t , as seen on r e l i e f s a t Amaravati, 63 Jaggayyapeta, and Nagarajunakonda. F u r t h e r , the H a r s h a c a r l t a d e s c r i b e s Harsha as be i n g embraced by the goddess of Royal G l o r y 6 4 / and then b e i n g f o r c e d t o mount the throne. In the Raghuvamsa, Ki n g D i l i p a , even though h i s harem was f u l l , c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f 65 wed only t o h i s r o y a l queen and the Goddess of Fortune. The Begram feminine f i g u r e s , i n a d d i t i o n to sug g e s t i n g r o y a l c o n s o r t s , the mlthuna and Yakshis w i t h t h e i r d u a l f u n c -t i o n s , f u r t h e r i n f e r two Kushan d e i t i e s PHARRO and ARDOXSHO. L i k e the Begram f i g u r e s i n t h a t both touch a d i s h , the Kushan d e i t i e s appear on a s e a l which i s probably from the p e r i o d of 66 Huvishka ( F i g u r e 9 ) . PHARRO, shown on Kushan c o i n s sometimes as a male and a t other times as a female d e i t y , on the s e a l holds the d i s h , and ARDOXSHO seems t o touch i t as w e l l . PHARRO i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of Khvareno, the I r a n i a n concept of g l o r y and l e g i t i m a c y of k i n g s . The d i s h PHARRO holds i s a v e s s e l of flames t o s i g n i f y the d i v i n e l i g h t of Khvareno which bathes the worthy k i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o John R o s e n f i e l d , "the l i g h t i s the t a l i s m a n 67 of h i s l a w f u l r e i g n , a guarantee of h i s u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y " . S ince the Kushans were acq u a i n t e d w i t h t h i s concept, the d i s h which the Begram f i g u r e s h o l d may make a s i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e . The Kushan s e a l f u r t h e r shows ARDOXSHO as h o l d i n g a cor n -o u c u p i a , and i t has been e a r l i e r s t a t e d t h a t t h i s Kushan goddess i s r e l a t e d t o Lakshmi i n the sense of p o l i t i c a l abundance. PHARRO a l s o i m p l i e s Lakshmi as Sri-La k s h m i , Goddess of Royal Good 28 Fortune; the Khvareno which PHARRO p e r s o n i f i e s i s t r a n s l a t e d w i t h both S r i and Lakshmi i n Z o r o a s t r i a n S a n s k r i t l i t e r a t u r e i n I n d i a . The manner i n which the f i g u r e on the l e f t of the ivory-seems t o wait upon the lad y on the r i g h t a d d i t i o n a l l y suggests the I n d i a n Lakshmi. The Pompeii i v o r y ( F i g u r e 4) shows a t t e n d -ants h o l d i n g cosmetic j a r s f o r a c e n t r a l f i g u r e who i s b e l i e v e d 6 9 -t o be Lakshmi and moreover, the C l a s s i c a l A p h r o d i t e . Lakshmi — 7 0 i s shown a t Sanchi I I as w e l l , where two l a d i e s - i n - w a i t i n g h o l d j a r s f o r h e r . Thus the p l a c i n g of the d i s h - h o l d i n g f i g u r e i n a subordinate p o s i t i o n on the Begram i v o r y suggests a g a i n the i d e a of Lakshmi i s p r e s e n t . Although Lakshmi and S r i r e f e r t o the a n c i e n t f o l k goddess known not only f o r p r o s p e r i t y , success, and g l o r y , but f o r beauty and r a d i a n c e as w e l l , the d e i t y i s never shown i n e a r l y Indian a r t w i t h a m i r r o r a t t r i b u t e . The e a r l i e s t i d e n t i f i e d goddess of which I know shown h o l d i n g a m i r r o r i s Uma, re p r e s e n t e d on an e a r l y Gupta s c u l p t u r e ( F i g u r e 1 0 ) . Since Uma, the g e n t l e c o n s o r t of S i v a , i s goddess of l i g h t , the appearance of the m i r r o r i n her 71 hand i s f i t t i n g . As a r e f l e c t o r of l i g h t , the m i r r o r h e l d by the f i g u r e on the i v o r y can make r e f e r e n c e not only t o Uma, but t o Khvareno a d d i t i o n a l l y , the miraculous i l l u m i n a t i o n a t t a c h i n g i t s e l f t o k i n g s . I t has been noted t h a t Lakshmi does not appear on Kushan c o i n s , but Uma" a p p a r e n t l y does, f o r the legend 0MM0 i s marked on a c o i n from Huvishka's p e r i o d . The feminine f i g u r e on t h i s c o i n , 29 however, does not h o l d the m i r r o r , but i n s t e a d she i s shown wit h a f l o w e r , l i k e the l o t u s of Lakshmi, and l i k e the l o t u s f l o w e r s t h a t appear b e s i d e the Begram f i g u r e s . Although the worship of Uma predates the c o i n of Huvishka, t h i s i s the only e a r l y r e p -72 r e s e n t a t i o n of the goddess w i t h her name s t a t e d . One might s p e c u l a t e t h a t something of Lakshmi*s f u n c t i o n has been assumed by Uma, and t h a t the i v o r y makes r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s . On the Kushan c o i n , OMMO i s shown w i t h OESHO, who i s S i v a : on another c o i n from Huvishka*s p e r i o d , OESHO i s shown w i t h 73 NAN. In s t u d y i n g these c o i n s , R o s e n f i e l d has made the assumption 74 t h a t OMMO and NANA were correlated'. NANA can a l s o r e l a t e t o Lakshmi as has a l r e a d y been i n d i c a t e d , f o r they share a r o l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o n a t u r a l phenomena. NANA has much i n common w i t h ARDOXSHO and draws not only from the Western A s i a n d e i t i e s of ve g e t a t i o n , f e r t i l e waters, g e n e r a t i o n and b i r t h , but p a r t i c u -l a r l y from the Mesopotamian NANA, d e s c r i b e d on a Babylonian t a b l e t as: "Lady of l a d i e s , goddess of goddesses, d i r e c t r e s s of mankind, m i s t r e s s of the s p i r i t s and heaven, possessor of so v e r e i g n power; the l i g h t of heaven and e a r t h , daughter of the Moon God, r u l e r of weapons, a r b i t r e s s of b a t t l e s ; goddess of 75 l o v e , the power over p r i n c e s and over the sc e p t r e of k i n g s . " Thus the feminine f i g u r e s on the Begram i v o r y make a mul t i t u d e of r e f e r e n c e s , but e s s e n t i a l l y t h e i r meaning i s co n s t a n t . There i s ever the i n s i s t e n c e upon the d i v i n e support-e r s of the regime, and upon the worthiness of the k i n g , whether the f i g u r e s are read as Yakshis or the i d e a l r o y a l c o n s o r t s of 30 k i n g s . B a s i c a l l y the I n d i a n concept of Lakshmi i s always p r e s e n t , but those d e i t i e s w i t h s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s have been absorbed, making the i v o r y a d i s t i n c t i v e l y Kushan p r o d u c t i o n . Many m o t i f s have been ma r s h a l l e d t o announce the Kushans' p r e r o g a t i v e t o r u l e as the w i l l of the gods. The s y n c r e t i c nature of the i v o r y suggests the p e r i o d of Huvishka or l a t e r , when c o i n s make c l e a r the exchange and condensation of the r o l e s and f u n c t i o n s of d e i t i e s t h a t would s a n c t i o n the dynasty. 31 I I I i STYLE While the Begram plaque has been connected w i t h the early-s c h o o l of Mathura, I t has a l s o been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f i r s t c e n t ury A.D. c a r v i n g s of the Great Stiipa a t S a n c h i . There are three reasons f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Sanchi, namelyi the s h a r i n g of the torana form; the i n s c r i p t i o n on the South Gate which mentions the i v o r y c a r v e r s of V i d i s a ; and most p e r t i n e n t , a supposed s i m i l a r i t y i n s t y l e . F o r t u n a t e l y , the Sanchi panel b e a r i n g the V i d i s a c a r v e r s * i n s c r i p t i o n i s s t i l l i n r e l a t i v e l y good c o n d i t i o n so t h a t much of the scene's carved d e t a i l remains ( F i g u r e 3); t h i s i s not the case w i t h r e s p e c t to the s a d l y d e t e r i o r a t e d Amohini Ayaga-pefta» the only r e l e v a n t and dated example of the e a r l y s c h o o l 1 of Mathura from the f i r s t century A.D. In a n a l y z i n g the s t y l e of the Begram plaque, t h e r e f o r e , I have chosen t o compare I t w i t h the f i r s t century i v o r y c a r v e r s * panel a t Sanchi, e s p e c i -a l l y s i n c e a s t y l i s t i c analogy might be expected i n works produced by members of the same g u i l d . The f o l l o w i n g , however, w i l l d i s c l o s e t h a t the works have l i t t l e i n common because the Begram i v o r y i s not of the f i r s t c entury A.D., but i s i n s t e a d , a l a t e r work. To b e g i n w i t h , there i s the matter of s u r f a c e treatment. Even though the s i z e of the two works d i f f e r s (the Begram plaque's nine j o i n e d p i e c e s add up to an o v e r a l l dimension of about s i x t e e n by t e n Inches, approximately h a l f the t o t a l s u r f -ace of the Sanchi stone r e l i e f ) , and the m a t e r i a l s are not the 32 same, these f a c t o r s are not s u f f i c i e n t t o account f o r the d i s -s i m i l a r i t y i n h a n d l i n g . On the Satfchi p a n e l , each d e t a i l has been modeled w i t h a d e s i r e t o express a c t u a l volumes. Compared w i t h the Sanchi c a r v e r ' s l o v i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e l a b o r a t e meandering v i n e which decorates the border running down the s i d e s of the p i l l a r , the same v i n e m o t i f on the i v o r y ' s torana seems but a c a s u a l e x e r c i s e , f o r i t i s i n c i s e d i n a schematic f a s h i o n . A l s o i n c i s e d on the Begram i v o r y i s the r i b b o n and bead d e s i g n used f o r the swags which hang from the archway; however, the Begram c a r v e r has demonstrated t h a t he can model the swags as w e l l f o r they are shown-in the round on the torana p i l l a r s . T h i s d e l i b e r a t e combination of h i g h r e l i e f and l i g h t l y c u t l i n e i s not found anywhere a t S a n c h i . In keeping w i t h t h i s r a t h e r s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e r p l a y between techniques, the Begram c a r v e r has c r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t kinds of space and a d d i t i o n a l l y , v a r i a t i o n s i n t o n a l p a t t e r n . On one p a r t , he has crowded f i g u r e s w i t h i n the spaces between the t o r a n a a r c h i t r a v e s , and has enveloped the f i g u r e s w i t h shadow, making use of b o l d c o n t r a s t . On another p a r t , the two feminine f i g u r e s have been s e t a g a i n s t an open archway where ample space i s allowed overhead, and where s u b t l e changes i n tone are to be found. A t Sanchi, w i t h n a r r a t i v e d i c t a t i n g the arrangement, f i g u r e s seem to s t r a i n one a g a i n s t the other as they surge forward from a u n i f o r m l y deep background. There i s none of the s p a t i a l and t o n a l a l t e r n a t i o n of the Begram i v o r y . The i v o r y i n t h i s r e s p e c t suggests an a t t i t u d e q u i t e removed from the 33 p r e v a l e n t mood of the Sanchi c a r v e r s of the f i r s t century A.D. Regardless of t h i s d i s p a r i t y i n approach, the Sanchi r e l i e f s and. the i v o r y from Begram have been l i n k e d together because of a supposed s i m i l a r i t y i n the r e n d e r i n g of f i g u r e s . I t has been observed t h a t the f i g u r e s of both are carved i n an 2 " a d d i t i v e " manner, t h a t i s , the f a s h i o n e d body was conceived i n p a r t s , r a t h e r than as an i n t e r - r e l a t e d u n i t . Even i f t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n were t o apply to the Begram i v o r y ' s s t a n d i n g f i g u r e on the l e f t , i t cannot p e r t a i n to the r i g h t - h a n d f i g u r e . In c o n t r a s t w i t h her companion's f r o n t a l pose, the goddess on the r i g h t i s shown i n the t r l b h a n g a p o s i t i o n t h a t i n v o l v e s a com-p l i c a t e d placement of body weight, the e f f e c t of which can be seen throughout her e n t i r e body. Most of her weight i s p l a c e d over the r i g h t l e g , and the l e f t knee i s s l i g h t l y bent. The p e l v i s i s turned i n the d i r e c t i o n t h a t the l e f t knee f a c e s and the h i p s are t h r u s t a c c o r d i n g l y over the s u p p o r t i n g r i g h t l e g . Because she holds the m i r r o r t o one s i d e , she t u r n s her shoulder a l i t t l e , and consequently the t u r n i s r e f l e c t e d by a t w i s t a t the w a i s t . I f one were to draw i n three dimensions a l i n e which touched upon the p o i n t s of f l e x i o n throughout her body, from the l e g s , t o the t o r s o , and to the t i l t of the head, a s p i r a l would r e s u l t . The t r l b h a n g a pose without doubt i s a l s o shown a t Sanchi, but i t i s attempted c a u t i o u s l y as the awkwardly bent f i g u r e s i n the scene above the V i d i s a c a r v e r s i n s c r i p t i o n w i l l t e s t i f y . Even the dancer who appears In the scene below the i n s c r i p t i o n , w h i l e a remarkable f i g u r e i n i t s e l f , 34 i s s t i f f l y r e p r e s e n t e d from head t o t h i g h . The f i g u r e on the l e f t s i d e of the Begram i v o r y then, suggests a paradox. She has a c e r t a i n r i g i d i t y t h a t comes w i t h b e i n g f r o n t a l and she does seem " a d d i t i v e " i n t h a t , f o r example, her hands are mis-matched w i t h r e s p e c t t o s i z e , whatever the reason f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n p a r t s , the f a c t t h a t she has been Included w i t h the g r a c e f u l l y swaying f i g u r e on the r i g h t a f f i r m s t h a t she i s not of the Sanchi t r a d i t i o n . C e r t a i n l y the p r o p o r t i o n s of bot h the Begram f i g u r e s are not those of female f i g u r e s a t Sanc h i . The d i f f e r e n c e i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n the r e l a t i v e s i z e of the heads. The Begram f i g -u r e s have l a r g e s q u a r i s h f a c e s w i t h t h i c k prominent f e a t u r e s . T h e i r eyes are p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n c t i v e t only the bottom e y e l i d i s d e f i n i t e l y v i s i b l e and i f the upper l i d i s meant to,be i n -c l u d e d , i t must f o l d where the eyebrow i s d e f i n e d ; the e y e b a l l p r o t r u d e s s l i g h t l y from tan opening, shaped t o draw to a l i n e a t the outer edge. A f a i n t double crease l n the forehead of the m i r r o r - h o l d i n g f i g u r e i s shown as she s m i l i n g l y approves her own r e f l e c t i o n . The f i g u r e h o l d i n g the d i s h t u r n s her head a l i t t l e t o one s i d e and seems t o r e f l e c t upon a p r i v a t e thought. Even though t h e i r a c t i o n s i n t e r - r e l a t e , t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s convey separate i n t e r e s t s and i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s , u n l i k e the f i g u r e s of Sanchi which share a common f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n imply-i n g wonderment and awe. Before c o n t i n u i n g w i t h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Begram plaque, l e t us t u r n elsewhere f o r a moment, i n order t o f o l l o w 35 on from the s t y l e of the Sanchi* r e l i e f . The Sanchi f i g u r e s ' e x p r e s s i o n suggests the g e n t l e gaze of each of the f i g u r e s on the i v o r y m i r r o r handle found a t Pompeii ( F i g u r e 4), another 3 work c i t e d i n con n e c t i o n w i t h the i v o r i e s found a t Begram. The Pompeii i v o r y ' s f i n e l y modeled eye sockets and l i d s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the i n c i s e d p u p i l s , are f e a t u r e s found on c e r t a i n l a r g e -4 5 f i g u r e s a t Sanchi as w e l l as a t P i t a l k h o r a , a s i t e contemporary w i t h S a n c h i . The s t i f f t o r s o and r a t h e r pole-shaped l e g s w i t h a n k l e t s c o v e r i n g the lower h a l f ( p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s h o r t on the c e n t r a l f i g u r e of the Pompeii i v o r y ) a l s o f o l l o w the Sanchi t r a d i t i o n . F u r t h e r , the s t r a i g h t c r o s s - l e g g e d pose i s shown on a West Gate r e l i e f a t S a n c h i . When the i v o r y was f i r s t dated by Amedeo M a i u r i i n 1939 t o about A.D. 20-50, the reasons g i v e n f o r such a date werej l ) the f a c t t h a t the s t a t u e t t e shows a "cruder r e a l i s m " than was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r the s t y l e of the f l o u r i s h i n g Suhga p e r i o d (185-72 B.C.); 2) the house a t Pompeii i n which the i v o r y was found i s a s t r u c t u r e d a t i n g probably"from the p e r i o d of Nero (A.D. 54-58) ; 3) a terminus ante quem i s pr o v i d e d by the e r u p t i o n of Mount Vesuvius, and the d e s t r u c t i o n of Pompeii 6 i n A.D. 79 . A second study of the s t a t u e t t e , p u b l i s h e d by M i r e l l a L e v i D'Ancona i n 1950» was made i n the l i g h t of the Amohini r e l i e f but without e x t e n s i v e comparison w i t h Sanchi I . In p a r t , t h i s was probably because Sanchi I was then thought t o be from the f i r s t century B.C. so t h a t a c l o s e s t y l i s t i c r e -7 l a t i o n s h i p was not expected. However, the study d i d make 36 mention of Amaravati, another important s i t e f o r e a r l y Indian a r t , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the i v o r y ' s c r o s s - l e g g e d pose. No d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t a t e d because the r e f e r e n c e used by D'Ancona dated the p e r t i n e n t Amaravati r e l i e f t o the t h i r d or 8 _ _ f o u r t h c e n t u r y . There i s , however, an Amaravati r e l i e f ( F i g u r e 11), a s s i g n e d by Douglas B a r r e t t to the second century "middle 9 phase", which shows a f i g u r e w i t h the same s t i f f l y c r o s s e d l e g s , a s i m i l a r h a i r s t y l e w i t h a r o s e t t e on the forehead, and a c o r -r e s p o n d i n g l y l a r g e number of a n k l e t s . Furthermore, the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s of t h i s Amaravati f i g u r e i n c l u d e the j u t t i n g c h i n , the p u f f y cheeks and the l o n g narrow nose of the Pompeii s t a t u e t t e . Y e t none of the f i g u r e s on the Amaravati r e l i e f are as s t i l t e d as those on the Pompeii i v o r y , and the c r o s s - l e g g e d pose of the A m a r a v a t i • f i g u r e does not seem as awkward f o r there i s a g r e a t e r sense of t h r u s t throughout the h i p s . Thus i t seems to me t h a t the i v o r y i s r e l a t e d t o the Sanchi t r a d i t i o n but can be dated c l o s e t o A.D. 79 as i t r e p r e s e n t s a s t y l e which serves as a b r i d g e between t h a t of Sanchi and Amaravati. T h i s e x c u r s i o n from the s t y l e of Sanchi to t h a t of Amara-v a t i by way of the Pompeii i v o r y g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n of the d i r e c t i o n i n which Indian a r t was moving i n the p e r i o d between the f i r s t c entury and the b e g i n n i n g of the second century. D u r i n g t h i s time a r t i s t s s t r i v e d f o r n a t u r a l i s m , f i r s t w i t h r e s p e c t to volumes and then w i t h r e s p e c t t o movement, l e a d i n g to f u l l - b o d i e d v i t a l i t y of the donor f i g u r e s on the c h a i t y a h a l l facade a t K a r l i ( F i g u r e s 12 and 13). The K a r l ! works have been 37 _ -10 compared t o those of Amaravati, and a r e l a t i o n s h i p can be seen i n the shared w o r s h i p f u l female pose of arms r a i s e d above the head ( F i g u r e s 11 and 12) and i n a s i m i l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of male f i g u r e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o pose, expansiveness, p r o p o r t i o n s and costume. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the female f i g u r e s of K a r l i have been y 11 compared w i t h the Bhutesvar r a i l i n g f i g u r e s a t Mathura f o r they have i n common the i d e a l i z e d voluptuous p r o p o r t i o n s and the con-f i d e n t t r a n s c e n d i n g of stone (Compare F i g u r e s 13 and 14). The K a r l i f i g u r e s have been dated t o the e a r l y second century, poss-12 „ i b l y as l a t e as A.D. 120, and I b e l i e v e t h a t the Bhutesvar f i g u r e s must a l s o come from the e a r l y second c e n t u r y . The q u a l i t y of warmth and v i v a c i o u s n e s s i n the Bhutesvar f i g u r e s speaks of a p e r i o d of g r e a t enthusiasm, as must have been the case d u r i n g the e a r l y y e ars of Kanishka*s r e i g n when Buddhism was r a p i d l y ^ s p r e a d i n g and when r u l e r s of v a r i o u s p a r t s of I n d i a hastened t o p a t r o n i z e Buddhist b u i l d i n g programs. With the spread of Buddhism came the esta b l i s h m e n t of models which a r t i s t s were t o f o l l o w f o r c e n t u r i e s . One of the models t h a t c e r t a i n l y i n s p i r e d a r t i s t s i n the Kushan empire can be seen i n the Bhute-s v a r f i g u r e t h a t / s t a n d s w i t h a m i r r o r i n her hand, her body arranged i n a contrapposto pose ( F i g u r e 15)« I t i s t h i s f i g u r e , not those of Sanchi I, t h a t would seem t o be a prototype f o r the f i g u r e on the r i g h t s i d e of the Begram plaque. While the Bhute-svar and Begram f i g u r e s share e s s e n t i a l l y the same pose and a t t r i b u t e s , l o c a l conventions w i t h r e s p e c t t o costume, r e n d e r i n g of drapery and f a c i a l f e a t u r e s have been f o l l o w e d . 38 A f i g u r e on a s m a l l panel from the Gandhara r e g i o n ( F i g u r e l 6 ) i s a l s o c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the Bhutesvar f i g u r e and the Begram plaque. An approximate date f o r the Gandhara f i g u r e can be gained by i t s s i m i l a r i t y w i t h c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of a s c u l p t u r e dated i n the year 89 of Kanishka's e r a ( F i g u r e 17), one of the few dated works from the Gandhara r e g i o n . Representing the V i s i t of Indra and H i s Host to the I n d r a s a l a Cave, t h i s s c u l p -t u r e shows f i g u r e s w i t h narrow s l a n t e d eyes l i k e the m i r r o r -h o l d i n g Gandhara f i g u r e , and t o the f a r r i g h t of the base of the dated s c u l p t u r e a s m a l l feminine f i g u r e of s i m i l a r propor-t i o n s wears an i d e n t i c a l costume. The two Gandhara works f u r t h e r compare i n t h a t the drapery f o l d s are r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a double p a r a l l e l l i n e ( t o be observed on the s m a l l e r f i g u r e s of the dated work). Another r e l i e f from Gandhara ( F i g u r e 8 ) , e a r l i e r i n date than the I n d r a s a l a Cave s c u l p t u r e , shows a palace scene. T h i s Gandharan p a l a c e scene was mentioned i n the p r e c e d i n g chapter on iconography because i t shares w i t h the Begram i v o r y the m o t i f of two feminine f i g u r e s s t a n d i n g s i d e by s i d e under an a r c h . H a r a l d I n g h o l t has a s s i g n e d the palace scene r e l i e f to Group I I , a grouping which corresponds w i t h a Buddhist image dated i n the y e a r 51 of Kanishka*s e r a , w h i l e the I n d r a s a l a 13 Cave s c u l p t u r e , of the year 89, has been a s s i g n e d t o Group IV. The r e l i e f w i t h the palace scene seems to be of a p e r i o d c l o s e t o the Begram plaque i n t h a t both employ the a r c h t o g a i n spaciousness, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the Gandhara c a r v e r has 39 a d d i t i o n a l l y made use of Western p e r s p e c t i v e . Both the i v o r y plaque and the p a l a c e scene d e p i c t some f i g u r e s i n more con-f i n e d compartments than o t h e r s . Both show h i g h r e l i e f combined w i t h p a t t e r n I n c i s e d on a f l a t s u r f a c e . Both demon-s t r a t e a v a r i a t i o n of t o n a l c o n t r a s t i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . Although the Begram i v o r y was found a t Kapisa which i s i n the Gandharan r e g i o n , the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s , f i g u r a l p r o p o r t i o n s and f r o n t a l stance i t d i s p l a y s are not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Gandharan r e l i e f s j u s t examined. The Brahmi c h a r a c t e r on the 14 back of the plaque i n d i c a t e s a c a r v e r from the Mathura r e g i o n . In keeping w i t h the p e r i o d suggested by the Gandhara palace scene, the plaque can be compared w i t h dated Mathura works from the mid-century p e r i o d of Kanishka's e r a . A Nagaraja f i g u r e dated i n the year 52 ( F i g u r e 18), f o r example, suggests a c e r t a i n f a c i a l resemblance i n the c l e f t c h i n , the lower l i p w i t h a double curve, the l o n g nose and wide n o s t r i l s , the wide-open eyes which bulge s l i g h t l y a t the opening, the d i s t i n c t lower l i d s , and the merging of an upper l i d w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n of the eyebrow. The Nagaraja has a s l i g h t i n d e n t a t i o n a l o n g the f o r e -head, and the f i g u r e on the r i g h t of the Begram i v o r y has a s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The Nagaraja i s f r o n t a l l i k e the f i g u r e on the l e f t of the i v o r y , but h i s p r o p o r t i o n s are even more compressed. As the Nagaraja f i g u r e i s from Bhutesvar, the s i t e of the e a r l i e r r a i l i n g f i g u r e s , i t i l l u s t r a t e s the dramatic change i n the Mathura s t y l e t h a t took p l a c e between the f i r s t years of 40 Kanishka's r e i g n and the year 5 2 . John R o s e n f i e l d has remarked upon an i n t e r r u p t i o n i n c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y d u r i n g the second q u a r t e r century of Kanishka*s e r a w i t h r e s p e c t to c o i n s and 15 s c u l p t u r e . He a t t r i b u t e s this.change to i n c r e a s i n g r e l i g i o u s domination and the i n f l u e n c e of the I r a n i a n sphere t o which the Kushans n a t u r a l l y g r a v i t a t e d . The Bhutesvar female f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t the I n d i a n i d e a l and mark the s c h o o l of Mathura" a t i t s h e i g h t . They have throughout t h e i r bodies an e x p r e s s i o n of v i g o u r , a q u a l i t y t h a t becomes more exaggerated a t Amaravati where the I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n i s not i n t e r r u p t e d . In Mathura works, however, the v i t a l i t y becomes summarized i n the i n t e n s e f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , while the body becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y condensed w i t h r e s p e c t to p r o p o r t i o n s and more s t a t i c w i t h r e g a r d to pose. The change can be observed by comparing the f o l l o w i n g from the second q u a r t e r century of Kanishka*s e r a i a) the f i g u r e s of a B o d h i s a t t v a T r i n i t y fragment dated i n the year 39 ( F i g u r e 19) • The f i g u r e ' s propor4--tions are not u n n a t u r a l , and the poses are v a r i e d . The f i g u r e s a t e i t h e r s i d e of the seated Buddha sway to one s i d e , w i t h the contrapposto stance of the Bhutesvar r a i l i n g f i g u r e s . The s m a l l f i g u r e s on the l e f t of the p e d e s t a l e x h i b i t two p o s i t i o n s ; the f i r s t i s f r o n t a l w i t h weight p l a c e d e q u a l l y on both f e e t , and the second suggests a t w i s t i n g movement, w i t h one l e g bending to c r o s s over the other. b) a Kushan p r i n c e l y p o r t r a i t s t a t u e d a t e d i n the y e a r 42 ( F i g u r e 2 0 ) . The pose i s f r o n t a l , and the f i g u r e i s s q u a t . c) the f e m i n i n e f i g u r e s of a K a n k a l i T i l a p e d e s t a l 16 d a t e d i n t h e y e a r 49 ( F i g u r e 2 1 ) . U n l i k e t h o s e f i g u r e s of the B o d h i s a t t v a T r i n i t y o f 39 mentioned above, t h e r e i s no movement suggested i n the poses of any of t h e s e f i g u r e s . A l l the f i g u r e s wear the same s m i l i n g e x p r e s s i o n , and t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s a r e somewhat compressed. d) the N a g a r a j a d a t e d 52 ( F i g u r e 1 8 ) . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the f i g u r e s o f the K a n k a l i T i l a p e d e s t a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o e x p r e s s i o n , the N a g a r a j a i s even more r i g i d , seeming t o be h e l d by the f o r c e s of symmetry. A f t e r t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d , c o n t i n u i t y i n the newly-e s t a b l i s h e d s t y l e can be seen by e x a m i n i n g the f o l l o w i n g works from t h e n e x t t h r e e q u a r t e r s of a c e n t u r y i e) a r e l i e f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e V i s i t of I n d r a ( F i g u r e 22) w i t h f i g u r e s grouped i n s e r i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o pose. T h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s a r e n o t t o o d i f f e r -e n t from the f i g u r e s on the K a n k a l i T i l a p e d e s t a l d a t e d 49 and t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s a r e r e m i n i s c e n t of the N a g a r a j a from the y e a r 52. The way i n w h i c h the e n t i r e s u r f a c e i s b r o k e n up i n t o s m a l l s e c t i o n s compares w i t h a r e l i e f from 42 Huvishka's V i h a r a ( F i g u r e 23) showing s i m i l a r d o l l - l i k e f i g u r e s . R o s e n f i e l d has dated the l a t t e r r e l i e f t o the f i r s t decade of the 17 second Kushan e r a . f ) an image of K a r t t i k e y a , dated i n the year 11 of the second Kushan e r a ( F i g u r e 24). L i k e the f i g u r e s on the V i s i t of Indra r e l i e f mentioned above, a " f r o z e n " countenance i s d i s p l a y e d and the body seems f i r m l y l o c k e d i n i t s p o s i t i o n . g) a p e d e s t a l f o r the image of Sakyamuni dated i n the year 22 of the second Kushan e r a ( F i g u r e 18 25). The arrangement of the f i g u r e s i s h i e r -a t i c . The body p r o p o r t i o n s are f u r t h e r reduced and the pose i s r e s t r i c t e d . The f a c i a l f e a t u r e s and e x p r e s s i o n are emblematic, s u g g e s t i n g the same wide-eyed l o o k of s u r p r i s e found on the much e a r l i e r Nagaraja. Where does the Begram i v o r y f i t i n t o t h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n ? I f the i v o r y ' s s t a n d i n g f i g u r e s were t o r e p r e s e n t the second q u a r t e r - c e n t u r y p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n which precedes the Nagaraja dated 52 of Kanishka's e r a , the combination of easy grace and f r o n t a l ! t y c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d . T h i s combination i s found on the B o d h i s a t t v a T r i n i t y of the y e a r 39 ( F i g u r e 19) and on an undated J a i n a tympanum ( F i g u r e 26) from K a n k a l i T T l a , a s i t e where the e a r l i e s t i n s c r i p t i o n i s dated i n the year 29 19 w i t h the mention of Huvishka. On the tympanum, the poses and p r o p o r t i o n s of c e r t a i n female f i g u r e s remind one of the 43 Bhutesvar r a i l i n g f i g u r e s . Other tympanum f i g u r e s , f o r example a t the top r i g h t c o r n e r, approach f r o n t a l i t y , l i k e the f i g u r e on the l e f t s i d e of the Begram i v o r y . There i s a second tympanum (F i g u r e 27) from the Mathura r e g i o n t h a t i n d i c a t e s the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d as w e l l . The f i g u r e s of t h i s tympanum are s t o c k i e r than the dominant f i g u r e s s t a n d i n g on the B o d h i s a t t v a T r i n i t y of the year 39 ( F i g u r e 19), but t h e i r roundness h i n t s of the p r i n c e l y p o r t r a i t s t a t u e of the y e a r 42 ( F i g u r e 20). F u r t h e r , l i k e the Begram f i g u r e s , the tympanum f i g u r e s d i s p l a y a c e r t a i n I n t e n s i t y , s uggestive of the K a n k a l i T i l a p e d e s t a l dated i n the year 49 ( F i g u r e 21). What makes t h i s tympanum unusual however, i s the v a r i a t i o n i n ex-p r e s s i o n , c l e a r l y seen on the f a c e s of the tympanum's winged c r e a t u r e s . One l o o k s out to the viewer and s m i l e s but the other e x h i b i t s an e x p r e s s i o n of a d o r a t i o n . Such i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n i s unusual i n Mathura a r t , and here the manner of d e p i c t i n g p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t i e s p o i n t s to a c l o s e connec-t i o n w i t h the Begram i v o r y . Even though these Mathura tympanums, taken t o g e t h e r w i t h the dated works from 39f 42, 49 and 52, suggest t h a t the Begram i v o r y was carved d u r i n g the second q u a r t e r century of Kanishka's e r a , t h e r e i s y e t a p u z z l i n g matter to be c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s concerns the p a i r e d , s l i g h t l y wavy l i n e s which are l i g h t l y i n c i s e d on the l e g s of the Begram f i g u r e s to i n d i c a t e drapery f o l d s . P a r a l l e l drapery f o l d s appear s p o r a d i c a l l y i n e a r l y I n d i a n a r t . During the " e a r l y phase" of Amaravati, f o r example, 4 4 the f o l d s are shown w i t h double l i n e s , but t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 20 d i s a p p e a r s by the "middle phase". In Gandharan a r t , p a i r e d i n c i s e d l i n e s are r e g u l a r l y used by the time the p e r i o d of the Group IV r e l i e f s i s reached. I t i s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t I n g h o l t c o n s i d e r s the L e i t m o t i f f o r the Group IV s c u l p t u r e s , and, as a l r e a d y noted above, the p a i r e d p a r a l l e l l i n e s are to be seen on f i g u r e s of the I n d r a s a l a Gave s c u l p t u r e of the year 8 9 ( F i g u r e 17). The drapery f o l d s on the i v o r y , however, are shown as g e n t l y u n d u l a t i n g , u n l i k e the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of f o l d s on the Group IV Gandharan s c u l p t u r e s . Wavy f o l d l i n e s are r e l a t i v e l y r a r e i n e a r l y I n d i a n a r t , but they do appear on a few r e l i e f s _ _ _ _ 2 i from K a n k a l i T i l a . The K a n k a l i T l l a r e l i e f s are known t o me 0 6 only through drawings and one ( F i g u r e 2 8 ) shows the double l i n e s l i g h t l y i n c i s e d upon the l e g s as found on the Begram i v o r y . The female f i g u r e i n t h i s drawing has a s e t e x p r e s s i o n and she i s s t i f f l y r e p r e s e n t e d . The male f i g u r e , on which the p a i r e d wavy l i n e s can be d i s c e r n e d , i s very much l i k e the dated image of K a r t t i k e y a from the year 11 of the second Kushan e r a ( F i g u r e 23). The photograph of the dated K a r t t i k e y a image shows no t r a c e of the double wavy l i n e s , and the s t a t u e would have to be examined f i r s t - h a n d to determine whether these, i n f a c t , e x i s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the f i g u r e on the r e l i e f i n the K a n k a l i T i l a drawing does b r i n g up the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the m o t i f of double wavy l i n e s belongs t o a p e r i o d a f t e r the mid-45 c e n t u r y p o i n t of Kanishka*s e r a . I t h i n k , however, t h a t there are a d d i t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s problem. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the m o t i f had a b r i e f e a r l y appearance a t the time the Begram i v o r y was carved, only to be dropped from use, and then to reappear a g a i n a t a l a t e r d a t e . In Gandharan a r t , f o r example, the double l i n e s are Introduced i n t o a very few of the e a r l y Group I s c u l p t u r e s to be used on c e r t a i n f i g u r e s 22 o n l y , but t h i s type of f o l d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n does not predominate u n t i l the p e r i o d of the Group IV works. On the other hand, i t has a l r e a d y been noted t h a t l i t t l e change took p l a c e i n the Mathura s t y l e f o r the t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of a century f o l l o w i n g the Nagaraja of the y e a r 52. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e then, t h a t the form of the c u l t image K a r r t i k e y a was a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a t K a n k a l i T i l a by the mid-point of Kanishka's e r a , and t h a t the d r i l y executed dated image of the y e a r 11 of the next e r a i s simply another r e p e t i t i o n . Thus i t c o u l d be t h a t the Begram i v o r y and the r e l i e f a t K a n k a l i T T l a are a c t u a l l y not too f a r removed i n date, although the Begram i v o r y appears to be the e a r l i e r . In any case, e i t h e r of these two a l t e r n a t i v e s would a l l o w the Begram i v o r y t o remain as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the second q u a r t e r century of Kanishka's e r a . Looking back i n summary, the Begram i v o r y cannot be of the f i r s t c entury A.D., even i f the e a r l i e s t of arguments i s used r e g a r d i n g K a n i s h k a T s a c c e s s i o n . I t s s t y l e i s not of the Sanchi t r a d i t i o n . Rather the i v o r y ' s s t y l e has developed from the Bhutesvar f i g u r e s ; these works, and not the Begram plaque, 46 b e l o n g to the f i r s t years of Kanishka's r e i g n . The Begram c a r v e r shared w i t h the Gandharan a r t i s t the a d a p t i o n of the Bhutesvar model, and he worked s i m i l a r l y w i t h a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the Begram c a r v e r probably came t o the Kushan summer palace from the Mathura r e g i o n . In f a c t , he may have been t r a i n e d i n V i d i s a , the town famous f o r i t s i v o r y g u i l d , f o r i t i s not too d i s t a n t from Mathura and i t was i n c l -uded i n the Kushan Empire. His manner of r e n d e r i n g f i g u r e s suggests the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d l e a d i n g to the mid-point of Kanishka*s e r a , as shown by dated Mathura c a r v i n g s . The p e r i o d i n which the Begram i v o r y c a r v e r worked was probably t h a t of Huvlshka, whose name appears on I n s c r i p t i o n s from the year 28 to the year 64 or 6? of Kanlshka's e r a , w i t h an i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the year 4 l w i t h a s h o r t r e i g n of Kanishka I I . Should the i v o r y be of a s l i g h t l y l a t e r date, i t must r e p r e s e n t the work of a remarkable i v o r y c a r v e r who was s t i l l a b l e to impart to h i s f i g u r e s a sense of i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n an atmosphere where t h i s q u a l i t y was u s u a l l y d enied. 47 IVi CONCLUSION O r i g i n a l l y a nomadic race w i t h no imposing a r t of i t s own, the Indo-Scythians p a t r o n i z e d t r a d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n the areas they conquered. In the n o r t h e r n Kushan t e r r i t o r y , a former H e l l e n i c realm, Gandharan s c u l p t u r e s r e v e a l Greco-Roman c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The e a r l y p r o d u c t i o n s from the Mathura r e g i o n to the south of the Kushan Empire are c l e a r l y based on Indian forms. The Kushans drew upon a t h i r d c u l t u r e sphere as w e l l f o r I r a n i a n i n f l u e n c e Is apparent i n Mathura works from Huvishka*s p e r i o d . A l s o i n Huvlshka's time, coinage appears w i t h Near E a s t e r n and Indian imagery d e p i c t i n g a broadened, i n t e r n a t i o n a l pantheon. Marked w i t h Kharcshthi, Brahml and Greek legends, the c o i n s were intended t o appeal t o a p o l y g l o t of peoples. The cosmopolitan nature of Huvishka"s p e r i o d i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by the Indian, I r a n i a n , Chinese and Roman t i t l e s assumed by Kanishka I I on a famous i n s c r i p t i o n dated i n the year 4 l a t Ara: Mahara.jasa Ra.1atlra.1asa Devaputrasa Ka'i'sarasa - "Of the Great King, the King of Kings, the Son of God, Caesar". The a n a l y s i s of iconography and s t y l e of the r e g a l Kushan i v o r y found a t Begram a l s o p o i n t s t o the s y n c r e t i c q u a l i t y of the p e r i o d of Huvishka. The i v o r y r e f e r s t o v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s t h a t worked t o c a s t the Kushan monarch i n a r o l e embracing a medley of sacred and p r i n c e l y i d e a l s . The manner i n which the i v o r y was carved r e f l e c t s a w o r l d l y a s s o r t -ment of techniques and an a b s o r p t i o n of d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s . Carved to meet a r i s t o c r a t i c demands, the i v o r y 48 n e v e r t h e l e s s r e v e a l s an a e s t h e t i c i m p l y i n g c o e x i s t e n c e of c o n v i c t i o n and i d e o l o g y a l s o apparent i n dated Mathura s c u l p t -u r e s from around the mid-point of Kanishka's e r a . The p e r i o d of Kushan hegamony drew t o a c l o s e sometime d u r i n g the t h i r d century A.D., l e s s than a hundred years a f t e r the p e r i o d of Huvishka. Probably a t the time of the dynasty's c o l l a p s e , the plaque and i t s companion i v o r i e s were hidden away i n the K a p i s a palace t o await r e v i v a l of Kushan power. The t r e a s u r e remained, only t o be uncovered by the Begram ex c a v a t o r s . Now i n the t w e n t i e t h century, the i v o r y plaque o f f e r s i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of a u t h o r i t y which h e l d sway over a heterogeneous empire a f t e r the r e i g n of Kanishka. I t i s t a n g i b l e evidence of a l e g a c y l e f t to the Gupta dynasty, a l e g a c y which must have been a very r e a l f a c t o r i n the c r e a t i o n of I n d i a ' s c l a s s i c a l c i v i l i z a t i o n of the f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s A.D. 49 N O T E S ABBREVIATIONS USED IN NOTES AA A r t l b u s A s l a e AB A r t B u l l e t i n B a r r e t t , SABM B a r r e t t , Douglas. S c u l p t u r e s from Amarayatl  i n the B r i t i s h Museum. Londons B r i t i s h Museum, 1954. Coomaraswamy, HIIA Coomaraswamy, A.K. t H i s t o r y of I n d i a n and  Indonesian A r t . New York: E. Weyhe, 1927. Cunningham, Bharhut Cunningham, Alexander. The Stupa of  Bharhut. V a r a n a s i : I n d o l o g l c a l Book House, 1962. Ghirshman, Begram Ghlrshman, R. Begram recherches a r c h e o l o - giques e t h l s t o r l q u e s sur l e s Kouchans. Me'moires de l a d e l e g a t i o n arche'ologique f r a n c a i s e en A f g h a n i s t a n , V o l . X I I . C a i r o i L ' l n s t i t u t f r a n c a i s d ' a r c h e o l o g i e o r i e n t a l e , 1946. 7 Hackin, RAB Hackin, Joseph. Recherches a r c h e o l o g l q u e s a Begram. Memoires de l a d e l e g a t i o n a r c h ^ o l o g i q u e f r a n c a i s e en A f g h a n i s t a n , V o l . 9 . P a r i s . 1939. ? Hackin, NRAB Hackin, Joseph, e t a l . N o u v e l l e s recherches  arch'sologique f r a n c a i s e en A f g h a n i s t a n , 2 v o l s . P a r i s : T95*n HJAS Harvard J o u r n a l of A s i a t i c S t u d i e s . I n g h o l t , GAP I n g h o l t , H a r a l d . Gandharan A r t In P a k i s t a n . New Yorks Pantheon Books, 1957* JA J o u r n a l A s l a t l q u e . JRAS J o u r n a l of the Royal A s i a t i c S o c i e t y . R o s e n f i e l d , DAK R o s e n f i e l d , John. The Dynastic A r t of the  Kushans. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1967. Rowland, AAA Rowland, Benjamin. A n c i e n t A r t from A f g h a n i s -t a n . New Yorki The A s i a S o c i e t y , 1966. Rowland, AAI . Rowland, Benjamin. The A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e  of I n d i a . 3rd E d i t i o n . Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1965. 50 Smith, J a i n Stupa Smith, V i n c e n t A. The J a i n Stupa and  Other A n t i q u i t i e s of Mathura. A_rcheological Survey of I n d i a , New I m p e r i a l S e r i e s , V o l . XX. A l l a h a b a d t Government Pr e s s , 1901. S t e r n and B e n e s ^ i , Amaravati S t e r n , Philippe and M i r e i l l e B e n 6 s t i . E v o l u t i o n du s t y l e I n d l e n d'Amaravati. P a r i s s Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , 1961. Vogel, SM Vogel, J . Ph. La s c u l p t u r e de Mathura. Ars A s i a t i c a , XV. P a r i s and B r u s s e l s t G. Van Oest, 1930. Zimmer, AIA Zimmer, H e i n r i c h . The A r t of In d i a n A s i a . 2 V o l s . B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s XXXIX. New York. Pantheon, 1955. 51 NOTES.TO INTRODUCTION 1 H a c k i n , HAD, 1 9 3 9 . 2 H a c k i n , NRAB, 1 9 5 ^ « A l t h o u g h H a c k i n d i e d d u r i n g World War I I , the r e s u l t s of h i s work were p u b l i s h e d under h i s name ( c a t a l -o g u i n g was u n d e r t a k e n by the Warburg I n s t i t u t e i n London). I n t h i s c a t a l o g u e commentaries by A. Foucher, J . C a r l , V. E l i s s e e f f , 0. Kurz and Ph. S t e r n appear. •^Ph. S t e r n . "Les I v o i r e s e t Os d ^ c o u v e r t s a Begram. L e u r p l a c e dans I n v o l u t i o n de l ' a r t de l ' I n d e , " NRAB. 1 9 5 4 , pp. 19 - 5 * K 4 S t e r n , p. 49 ^ I n r e v i e w i n g H a c k i n , NRAB, i n HJAS, X V I I I (1955) Benjamin Rowland remarked t h a t t h i s arrangement l e a d s t o o v e r s i m p l i f i -c a t i o n . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t o be e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l such an a l l o c a t i o n s h o u l d have the f o u n d a t i o n of d a t e s m a r k i n g the b e g i n n i n g and end o f the s e r i e s , pp. 479-488. 6 H a c k i n , "The 1939 D i g a t Begram - I I , " A s i a 40 ( 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 608-612. 7M. Rogers, "An I v o r y S a r d u l a from Begram," AA, XV ( 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 8 s t a t e s t h a t t h i s p l a q u e ( F i g u r e l ) , No. B39»34b, " p r o v i d e s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p a r i s o n " w i t h the f i r s t c e n t u r y s c h o o l o f Mathura. The comparison he chooses i s the " H o l i " r e l i e f . The " H o l i " r e l i e f i s i n s c r i b e d , bat- i n f a c t , i t s d a t e i s n o t a s s u r e d . B. Rowland, A A I , p. 66, has even suggested t h a t the Begram pla q u e c o u l d be a " p r o t o t y p e " f o r the f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D. i v o r y c a r v e r s o f B h i l s a who c o n t r i b u t e d a p a n e l a t SanchT. I n r e v i e w i n g H a c k i n , NRAB, however, Rowland s t a t e s t h a t F i g u r e 4 9 5 ( t h e number a l l o c a t e d i n NRAB t o the Begram plaque shown here i n F i g u r e l ) appears t o be r e l a t e d t o the M i d d l e Phase of the A m a r a v a t i s t y l e , o r l a t e second c e n t u r y A.D. I t would appear t h a t he d i s c o u n t e d t h i s e a r l i e r v i e w . o The p a p e r s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e t o me, a l t h o u g h many a r e mention-ed t h r o u g h o u t R o s e n f i e l d , DAK. 9j.bld., p. 257-8. T h i s i s A.K. N a r a i n ' s argument, w i t h w h i c h R o s e n f i e l d i s i n agreement. °Rosenfield, I M . p. 28,-^Ghirshman, Begram, p. l 6 0 . T h i s t h e o r y i s based upon a t r i l i n -g u a l i n s c r i p t i o n o f Shapur I a t Naqsh-i-Rustam w h i c h mentions the c onquest o f the Kushan Empire t o a c e r t a i n boundary. T h i s boundary has n o t y e t been a g r e e d upon by s c h o l a r s . See R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 16. Shapur I r u l e d from A.D. 2 4 l . 52 One i n s c r i p t i o n t h a t i s not d i s p u t e d i s on a s c u l p t u r e from Peshawar, from the year 89. See I n g h o l t , GAP, P i . 131. summary of Mathura i n s c r i p t i o n s i s found i n R o s e n f i e l d , DAK pp. 263-73. 1 "^Rowland, Review NRAB, BJAS, p. 481. See ^ r e g a r d i n g Sanchi I I , M a r s h a l l and Foucher, The Monuments of Sanchi, and r e g a r d i n g Bharhut, Cunningham, Bharhut. p. 142. ^ S p i n k , "On the Development of E a r l y Buddhist A r t i n I n d i a , " AB, XL (1958), pp. 95-104. l 6Zimmer, ALA, p. 235. 1 7 S p i n k , pp. 95-104. 1 8 B a r r e t t , SABM, p. 53• 53 NOTES TO C H A P T E R I : PROVENANCE ^Two s u c h e x p l o r e r s w e r e C h a r l e s M a s s o n - i a n d C.A. C o u r t . M a s s o n f o u n d m a ny c o i n s a t t h e s i t e a n d p u b l i s h e d t h e s e . S e e " M e m o i r o n t h e A n c i e n t C o i n s F o u n d a t B e g r a m , " J A S B , (1834), p . 153, a n d " S e c o n d M e m o i r , " - J A S B , (1836), p . 7 . A l s o s e e H.H. W i l s o n , A r i a n a A n t i g u a , p p . 10 -11 . C o u r t ' s f i n d i n g s w e r e p u b l i s h e d a s " C o n j e c t u r e s s u r l e s m a r c h e s d ' A l e x a n d r e d a n s l a B a c t r i a n e , " J A , I I (1837), P. 373. o T h i s w a s M a s s o n ' s o p i n i o n , a s w e l l a s C o u r t ' s . ^ T h e i s s u e i s a t a n g l e d o n e , a n d a c c o r d i n g t o H a c k i n , R A B , p . 4 , M c C r i n d l e , E . J a c q u e t a n d H.H. W i l s o n w e r e o f t h i s o p i n i o n . R o w l a n d , A A A , p . 24 s t a t e s " i t i s c o n c e d e d b y m o s t t h a t i t may c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s i t e o f N i s s a " . S p e l l i n g o f t h e a n c i e n t c i t y s e e m s t o b e t h e g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m , s i n c e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a n c i e n t t e x t s v a r y . A r r i a n , I n d l k a , t r a n s , b y M c C r i n d l e , p . 183, m e n t i o n s t h e c i t y N y s a . S e e T a r n , T h e G r e e k s i n B a c t r i a a n d I n d i a , p p . 96 f f . a n d p p . 460-462. D e y d i e r o u t -l i n e s t h e i s s u e i n C o n t r i b u t i o n a l ' e ^ t u d e d e l ' a r t d u G a n d h a r a , P P . 94-97. ^ H a c k i n , B A B , 1939. ^ T h e w o r k o f 1937 i s d e s c r i b e d b y J . A u b o y e r " F r e n c h E x c a v a t i o n s i n I n d o - C h i n a a n d A f g h a n i s t a n , " H J A S , I I I (1938), p p . 213-218. 6 H a c k i n , " T h e 1939 D i g a n d B e g r a m - I a n d I I , " A s i a (1940), P P . 525-5285 608-612. "^The c o i n a n d i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d b y T a r n , T h e G r e e k s  i n B a c t r i a a n d I n d i a , p . 213. S e e a l s o N a r a i n , T h e I n d o G r e e k s , p p . 63-64, f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s . o G h i r s h m a n , B e g r a m , p . 160. 9 H a c k i n , " T h e 1939 D i g a t B e g r a m - I I , " A s i a , p . 6 l 0 . 1 0 P l i n y , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , V I , 92, t r a n s , b y R a c k h a m a n d J o n e s , 1947-56. 1 1 P t o l e m y , G e o g r a p h y V I I ( 49 ) , t r a n s , b y M c C r i n d l e i n R.D. M a j u m d a r , C l a s s i c a l A c c o u n t s o f I n d i a . M e n t i o n e d b y A . C u n n i n g h a m , T h e A n c i e n t G e o g r a p h y o f I n d i a , p . 16. H s i i a n - t s a n g , T r a v e l s , t r a n s , b y S. B e a l , p . 116. 1 ^ F o u c h e r , "De. K a p i s i a P u s h k a r a v a t l , " B u l l e t i n o f t h e S c h o o l o f  O r i e n t a l S t u d i e s , V I (1922) . ^ H s i i a n - t s a n g , T r a v e l s , p p . 118-19. 54 ^ H o u Han-shu. H 8 . 1 3 h . See R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 3 7 . 16 Zimmer, AIA, I, p. 7 , has suggested the Kushans were of Mongolian o r i g i n . C o i n images and p o r t r a i t c a r v i n g s show the f e a t u r e s to be of the Indo-Scythians without the Mongolian e p i c a n t h l c f o l d and without h i g h cheek bones. Rather, they have narrow heads, prominent noses, abundant and heavy J h a i r , and b e ards. Chinese sources i n d i c a t e t h a t among the Yueh-chih t h e r e were even persons w i t h r e d h a i r and b l u e eyes. See R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 9 . See a l s o E i J . P h i l l i p s , "New L i g h t on the A n c i e n t H i s t o r y of the E u r a s i a n Steppe," American J o u r n a l  of Archaeology. 6 l (1957)t PP. 2 6 9 - 2 8 0 . 17 ' I b i d . , pp. 7 - 1 1 f o r e a r l y h i s t o r y of the Kushans. See a l s o note 12 , p. 281-2 f o r survey of Chinese source m a t e r i a l , much of which was adapted from the papers of E. Zurcher and E.G. Pulleybank, o f f e r e d to the London Seminar, A p r i l i 9 6 0 . l 8 C o i n s 4 , 5 , i n R o s e n f i e l d , DAK. See a l s o note 2 7 , p. 283 f o r v a r y i n g views r e g a r d i n g the c o i n s . • ^ s t r a b o I, XV, l . 7 3 t e l l s of an embassy sent from I n d i a t o Caesar Augustus. Many embassies a p p a r e n t l y v i s i t e d the c o u r t of T r a j a n . F o r a summary, see R.C. Majumdar, C l a s s i c a l  Accounts of I n d i a , pp. 474-483* See a l s o H. Rawllnson, I n t e r c o u r s e Between I n d i a and the Western World. (Cambridge 1 U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , 1926, p. 107. 2 0 N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , x i i , 4 1 . 1 9 . See a l s o E.W. Warmington, The  Commerce Between the Roman Empire and I n d i a , pp. 2 7 2 f f . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t of the grand t o t a l , I n d i a ' s share was more than h a l f . 2 l N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , v i i i , 4. 2 2 R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 2 1 . 2 3 I M d . , p. 2 1 . 24 A. M a i u r i , " S t a t u e t t a eburnea d i a r t e Indiana a Pompeii," Le a r t l . I (1938-39) . PP* 111-15, M. L e v i D'Aneona, "An I n d i a n S t a t u e t t e from Pompeii," AA, X I I I ( 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 1 6 6 - 8 0 . 2 ^ J . M a r s h a l l , Mohen.1 o-daro. I I , pp. 2 6 2 - 2 6 3 , I I I , P i . CXXXII, 1 0 ,L 3 7 5 . 26 — D.H. Sahni, Harappa. A.R.A.S.I., 1923-24, I, p. 53; see a l s o M.S. V a t s , E x c a v a t i o n s a t Harappa, 2 v o l s . D e l h i , 1940. 2 ^ J . M a r s h a l l , A Guide t o T a x l l a . I, p. 1 0 9 ; I I , pp. 6 5 1 and 6 5 6 ; I I I , P i . 2 0 3 . 55 2 8 A . Ghosh, " T a x i l a ( S l r k a p ) 1944-45 , " A n c i e n t I n d i a . 4 (1947-1948), pp. 41-84, e s p e c i a l l y pp. 79-80 and P I . XX. 2 9 M a r s h a l l , A Guide t o S a n c h i . P i . VI ( a ) . 56 NOTES TO CHAPTER III ICONOGRAPHY 1 B r l h a t - s a m h l t a . LXXIX., t r a n s . Kern, JRAS, VII ( 1 8 7 4 ) , pp. 8 1 -1 3 4 . 2 B r l h a t - s a m h l t a , LVI, JRAS, VI (1873). PP. 279 f f . -''The t i t l e devaputra appears on Mathura i n s c r i p t i o n s . A t Surkh K o t a l the k i n g i s r e f e r r e d t o on i n s c r i p t i o n s as bagoshao (God King) and hagopouro (Son of God). A c c o r d i n g to R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 202, a t no time b e f o r e the Kushans were kin g s c a l l e d devaputra i n Indian l i t e r a t u r e or i n s c r i p t i o n s . C o d i f i e d i n the post-Kushan p e r i o d , i n the t h i r d or f o u r t h century A.D. from t r a d i t i o n s of v a r y i n g a n t i q u i t y . Trans, by Buhler, Sacred Books of the E a s t , V o l . XXV, pp. 216-17. The Laws of Manu are f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d by J . Gonda, "The s a c r e d c h a r a c t e r of a n c i e n t I n d i a n k i n g s h i p , " i n S a c r a l K i n g s h i p , pp. 172-180. S t r e s s e d i s the p o i n t t h a t these conceptions belong more t o Vaishnavism than t o other Indian t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n s . ^The Suvaranaprabhlsa S u t r a i s a Mahayana t e x t w r i t t e n i n northwestern I n d i a . I t i s now l o s t , but S. L e v i , u s i n g v a r i a n t Chinese and Nepalese t r a n s l a t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l S a n s k r i t t e x t , produced a s y n t h e t i c v e r s i o n In JA, 1934, pp. 3-8. The p e r t i n e n t passage r e a d s i "The t h i r t y - t h r e e s o v e r e i g n s of the gods each g i v e him a r o y a l p o r t i o n , meta-morphose him, and make him s o v e r e i g n among men; i n order to bar the route t o e v i l a c t i o n s , d e s t r o y t h a t which i s c o n t r a r y t o the Law, suppress impiety, smile upon those who do good i n order to t u r n them toward the d i v i n e abode." ^ M a r s h a l l , A Guide t o T a x i l a , I I I , P i . 185. "^Cunningham, Bharhut. P i . X L I I I . 8 I b i d . , P I . X I I , XXX. 9Zimmer, ALA, V o l . I I , PI. 1 7 . 1 0 B a r r e t t , SABM, P i . IX ( b ) . 1 : L S m i t h , J a i n Stupa, P i . XL. l 2 R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, Coins l 6 , 157 and 227. •^For a d i s c u s s i o n of the Hindu t r i n i t y and the changing r o l e of §iva w i t h r e s p e c t to Brahma and Vishnu, see J . Banerjea, Hindu  Iconography, pp. 446 f f . The word S i v a i t s e l f means "auspic-i o u s " . 57 l 2 * I b l d . , P i . V I I . •^For example, see Coomaraswamy, HIIA, P i . XVIII ( 66 ) . l 6 R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, see e s p e c i a l l y P I. VI I , IX, X. OESHO c o i n s are a n a l y z e d , pp. 92-95• ^ A c c o r d i n g t o Coomaraswamy, HIIA, p. 41, a d i s c of go l d was p l a c e d behind the f i r e a l t a r t o r e p r e s e n t the sun and i t i s from t h i s t h a t the Wheel of the Law has developed. 1 R / x In t h i s c a p a c i t y , the cakra was p l a c e d upon a p i l l a r of Asoka t o announce the Buddhist Law w i t h r e s p e c t t o the government of the u n i v e r s e . Coomaraswamy, HIIA, p. 17 . The Vedic gods suggested a r e , f o r example, V a r u n a a n d Indra. f o r i n s t a n c e , Vayu who can r e p r e s e n t freedom of movement. 2 0 R e l i e f s showing the cak r a weapon of the U n i v e r s a l Monarch,are from Jaggayyapeta, see Zimmer, ALA, V o l . I I , p i . 3 7 ; from Amaravati, S t e r n and B e n e s t i , Amaravati, P i . XII (a ) ; and from Nagarajunakonda, R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, F i g . 1 5 9 * 21 - — Digha Nlkaya, I I I , t r a n s . Rhys Davids, Sacred Books of the  Buddhists, pp. 1 9 2-232. Coomaraswamy, HIIA, P i . I I , 6 . 23pratimamalakganam» (53-54) , t r a n s . Banerjea, Hindu Iconography, pp. 607-08. " Oh, _ _ • S t e r n and B e n e s t i , Amaravati, P i . I l l ( b ) . 2 ^ S m i t h , J a i n Stupa, P i . XC. 2 ^ R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 194 s t a t e s t h a t a t t h i s time Vishnu was thought of as Surya*s_second son. The f i r s t son was Brahma, the t h i r d was S i v a , Surya's p r o t e c t o r . 2 ? F o r example, R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, F i g . 88 shows a C o r i n t h i a n c a p i t a l w i t h Surya and h i s c h a r i o t . F i g . 124 shows the s o l a r d e i t y d r e s s e d i n Kushan garb. S o l a r d e i t i e s MIRRO and ELIOS appear on Kushan coinage of Kanishka and Huvlshka. The Samba and Bhavlshya Puranas g i v e accounts of the Sun God i n I n d i a . See R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 305* n. 66 f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s . 2 8 F o r other i m p l i c a t i o n s of the name Vasudeva, see R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, pp. 1 0 4-05. 2 ^ T h i s term i s taken from Coomaraswamy, HIIA, p. 26, and from Coomaraswamy's d e s c r i p t i o n of the symbol on the J a i n a astamangala. Yaksas I I , p. 79, and P i . 3 1 • 58 - ^ W i l l e t t s , "Excavations a t P i t a l k h o r a , " O r i e n t a l A r t . VII (1961), p. 64. -^Coomaraswamy, Yakgas I I , PI. l 4 ( l ) . 3 2 H o s e n f i e l d , DAK, Coin 274. •^Cunningham, Bharhut, PI. XXVIII. ^ R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, Coi n of Huvishka, shown as Coin 82. 3 ^ I b i d . , p. 87. See a l s o G. Hoffman, "Austige aus s y r i s c h e n Akten p e r i s c h e r M a r t y r e r , " Abhandlungen f u r d i e Kunde des Morgenlandes. 7 (1880), pp. 147 f f ; Ajidre Maricq, " B a k t r i e n ou Eteo-Tokharien," JA, (l960),_pp. 161-66; A l f r e d Foucher, L ' a r t gr£oo-bouddhlque du Gandhara, V o l . I I , p. 857• 3 6 R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 88. • ^ I b l d . , p. 88. A r d v l - A n a h i t a appears crowned, c a r r y i n g a fl o w e r or b i r d as w e l l as the water vase i n the r e l i e f c a r v i n g s and t o r e u t i c s of the Sasanians. See H. In g h o l t , H. S e y r i g , J . St a r c k y , R e c e u l l des t e s s e r e s de Palmyre, nos. 238-42, 285, 286. -^For a d e s c r i p t i o n of each of the astamangala, see Coomaraswamy, Yaksas I I , p. 79• Acro s s ^ t h e top row they a r e , from l e f t t o r i g h t , the f i s h , m i r r o r , s r l v a t s a , and vaddhamanaka. Below appear the t r 1 s u l a - c a k r a , papna-pacchl, (or - p u t a ) , badhrasana, and punpa-ghata. • ^ R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, pp. 33 and 285» c i t i n g Asvaghosha, Sutralam- kara ( s i c ) , t r a n s , by Edouard Huber ( P a r i s : E. Leroux), 1908. 40 ' R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, Appendix I I I , I n s c r i p t i o n s . ^ B r i h a t - s a m h l t a , LXIV t r a n s . Kern, JBAS, VI (1863), p. 338. 42 Coomaraswamy, Yaksas I I , p. 37* ^ I n c a t a l o g u i n g t h i s i v o r y , Hackin, NRAB, no. 34.b.5, r e f e r r e d t o "bananas" and f o l l o w e d t h i s w i t h a q u e s t i o n mark. I have p r e f e r r e d t o t h i n k t h a t these are mangoes; mangoes are an o f t -mentioned a u s p i c i o u s symbol and are p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Y a kshis i n v a r i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . ^ T h e makara symbol has been the s u b j e c t of many s t u d i e s : See J . Vogel, Revue des a r t s a s i a t i q u e s . VI (1929-30), pp. 133-147; H. Cousens, "The Makara i n Indian Ornament," A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Survey of I n d i a , Annual Report. 1903-1904, pp. 227-231. G. Combaz, Melanges c h l n o i s e s e t bouddhlques, V II (1938-45), pp. 136-172; A. Coomaraswamy, Yaksas I I , pp. 47-56; .0. Viennot, A r t s a s i a t i q u e s , I (1954), pp. 189-208. The makara i n 59 c o n n e c t i o n w i t h v e g e t a t i o n and moisture p r e v a i l s a t Sanchi, Bodh Gaya and AmaravatT, however, the makara i s a l s o an emblem of p a s s i o n and death and t h i s symbolic value i s appar-ent a t Mathura and Bharhut. The l a t t e r a spect of the makara has y e t t o be s t u d i e d , but c f . Barua, Barhut, p. 78; Cunningham, Bharhut, P i . XXIV.2; Hsiian-tsang, B e a l t r a n s . , V o l . I I , pp. 135-36; S. L e v i , B u l l e t i n de 1 ' a s s o c i a t i o n des  amis de 1'orient , no. 3 (1939), PP. 19-39. 45 -'A study of Kanishka's mace appears i n R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 179. See a l s o P i . 2(b). 46 -S t e l l a Kramrish, The Hindu Temple. V o l . I I , p. 333, note 104 "Sardula i s the name of an animal shape 'ma^e by a r t ' . I t i s a l s o known as V i r a l a i n O r i s s a or V y a l a . . . S a r d u l a means a t i g e r , l e o p a r d , panther; a demon, a k i n d of b i r d , or the animal Sarabha which i s s t r o n g e r than a l i o n , has e i g h t l e g s and of which there i s n o l i k e n e s s on the e a r t h . . . The s a r d u l a i s a l s o c a l l e d Slmha-virala. i f i t has the head of a l i o n . . . " M i l l a r d Rogers, "An Ivory S a r d u l a from Begram," AA, XV (1952), pp. 5-9, summarizes Kramrish's f u r t h e r remarks as " I t i s an animal made by a r t w i t h the body of a l i o n and may have the beak of a p a r r o t . The s a r d u l a i s commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e a r l s which o f t e n i s s u e from i t s mouth.". Often the s a r d u l a a t Begram i s shown w i t h a r i d e r who holds the sword of know-le d g e . 47 'In t h i s r e s p e c t , see Coomaraswamy, Yaksas I I , pp. 50-53* ^^see J . Vogel, The Goose i n Indian L i t e r a t u r e and A r t , pp. 57-8, P I . V I . ^B. Rowland, AAI, pp. 43-44, 48-49, w i t h r e s p e c t to the stupa and the p i l l a r . See the s e a l of P i . I I (6) In Coomaraswamy's HILA f o r an e a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s a c r e d t r e e ; l a t e r , T i b e t a n p a i n t i n g s make the r o l e of the t r e e as the support of the heavens v e r y c l e a r . -^See Coomaraswamy, Yaksas, pp. 4-l4, r e g a r d i n g the v a r i o u s i n h a b i t a n t s of Kubera's p a r a d i s e . 5 lRowland, AAI, P i . l 4 ( A ) . -^Coomaraswamy, Yaksas, P i . 11 ( l ) , (2). ^ Y a k s a s , P i . 5. ^ B a r r e t t , SABM. P i . V I I . 5^Yaksas, P i . 6 (2); Yaksas I I , P i . 2(3) and note P i . 18 (2), which shows two y a k s h i s t o g e t h e r , one h o l d i n g an o b j e c t which i s probably a m i r r o r . 60 - ' i n g h o l t , GAP, p. 150, s t a t e s t h a t t h i s r e l i e f belong to Group I I I , and f o r reasons e x p l a i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter, t h i s group should p r o p e r l y f a l l somewhere between 51 and 89 of Kanishka*s e r a , a c c o r d i n g t o I n g h o l t * s chronology. ^ ' I n g h o l t , GAP. Cat. 361, d e s c r i b e d on p. 151. 5 8 B r l h a t - s a m h i t a , L v i ( 1 5 ) . 5 9Rowland, AAI, P i . 73 ( A ) . ^°Signs of t h i s d e v e l o p i n g concept are the Gandharan s c u l p t u r e s which p a i r Haritl-ARDOXSHO w i t h Pancika-PHARRO. See R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 94 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of l a k t i w i t h r e s p e c t t o the Kushans. 61 B u d d h a c a r i t a , X .9» t r a n s , by Johnston, p. 142. 6? F l e e t , I n s c r i p t i o n s of the E a r l y Gupta Kings and T h e i r  S u c c e s s o r s , p. 50 . The p o l i t i c a l background f o r t h i s s t a t e -ment, a c c o r d i n g t o R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 306, n. 102, was the f a c t t h a t Skandagupta had not been the l e g i t i m a t e h e i r to the throne as h i s mother had not been crowned Queen. ^ s e e n » 20 above w i t h r e s p e c t to the r e l i e f s showing the C a k r a v a r t i n and h i s Seven Jewels. 64 H a r s h a c a r i t a , t r a n s . Cowell and Thomas, pp. 57-58. 6%aghuvamsa, L . 3 2 : see R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 199. 6 6 D e s c r i b e d , R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 102. I t i s p l a c e d i n the p e r i o d of Huvlshka on the b a s i s of l e t t e r types and c o i n cognates. 6 7 R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 198. 68 B a i l e y , Z o r o a s t r i a n Problems i n the Ninth-Century Books, pp. 1-78. 6 9D'Ancona, "An I n d i a n S t a t u e t t e from Pompeii," AA, X I I I (1950), pp. 166-80. 7°Coomaraswamy, Yakgas I I , P i . 14 ( l ) . ^ B a n e r j e a , Hindu Iconography, pp. 180-81. 7 2 R o s e n f l e l d , DAK, C o i n 166. 7 3 I b l d . , C o i n 165. 7 ^ I b i d . , p. 94. 61 7 % i n g , The Seven T a b l e t s of C r e a t i o n . V o l . I, pp. 2 2 2 f f . 62 NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I * STYLE The ayagapetta i s I n s c r i b e d w i t h the date 72 of an e r a not d e f i n e d . However, Bachhofer c o n s i d e r s t h i s to be the Vikrama e r a and he dates the Amohini r e l i e f a t A.D. 14. Most s c h o l a r s agree i n t h i s r e s p e c t . See EIS, PI. 7 4 . 2 T h i s i s an o b s e r v a t i o n made by Rowland, AAA, p. 2 7 . 3 Rowland, AAA, makes r e f e r e n c e t o the Pompeii i v o r y w i t h r e s -p ect to the Begram works; M i r e l l a L e v i D'ancona, "An Indian S t a t u e t t e from Pompeii," AA, X I I I , 3 ( 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 1 6 6 - 8 0 , a l s o b e l i e v e s them t o be r e l a t e d , a l t h o u g h she compares the Ivory m i r r o r handle w i t h a s t a t u e t t e and fragment of a head from Begram, r a t h e r than w i t h the i v o r y plaque. 4 M a r s h a l l , The Buddhist A r t of Gandhara, PI. 1 0 . ^ W l l l e t t s , "Excavations a t P i t a l k h o r a , " O r i e n t a l A r t , VII ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 5 8 . ^A. M a i u r i , " S t a t u e t t a eburnea d i a r t e Indiana a Pompei," Le A r t i , I ( 1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 ) . PP. 1 1 1 - 1 5 . 7D*ancona, p. 1 7 3 , n. 1 8 . The Yakshi from Sanchi compared wi t h the i v o r y i s a well-worn example and o f f e r s l i t t l e d e t a i l w i t h r e s p e c t t o f a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . See p. 1 7 4 f o r a compar-i s o n , which concludes t h a t "the i v o r y s t a t u e t t e i s m a n i f e s t l y l a t e r " . I t i s dated t o the middle of the f i r s t century-A.D. fl I b i d . , p. 1 7 6 . The r e f e r e n c e c o n s u l t e d was K. de B. Codring-ton and W. R o t h e n s t e i n , A n c i e n t I n d i a , (London, 1 9 2 6 ) , p i . 27A. Q The "middle phase" a c c o r d i n g t o B a r r e t t , SABM, p. 56 can be l i n k e d w i t h an i n s c r i p t i o n of k i n g who may have r u l e d In A.D. 157« A c t u a l l y the "middle phase" would seem t o cover the e a r l y second century as w e l l as the mid-century p e r i o d . See PI. 27A. 10W. Spink, "On the Development of E a r l y Buddhist A r t i n I n d i a , " AB, XL ( 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 9 6 . 1 1 I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . , p. 9 7 . Spink has observed t h a t an i n s c r i p t i o n i n the o h a i t y a h a l l should be dated to A.D. 1 2 0 , and he assumes t h a t work was completed by t h i s d ate. • ^ I n g h o l t , GAP, p. 3 0 . The Buddhist image of the year 51 i s mentioned but not i l l u s t r a t e d i n Bachhofer, EIS, I, pp. 1 0 1 -1 0 4 . I n g h o l t a l s o r e f e r s t o J.E. Lohuizen-De Leeuw, The 63 " S c y t h i a n " P e r i o d , (Leiden, 1949). wherein the s c u l p t u r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d , P I. XXIII, P i g . 39 . Jeannine Auboyer, c u r a t o r of the Musee Guimet, who has examined the Ivory f i r s t - h a n d , made mention of the BrahmT c h a r a c t e r i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , May 30, 1969. • ^ R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 106. 16 The i n s c r i p t i o n on t h i s p e d e s t a l i s sometimes read samvat 79; however, I have accepted R o s e n f i e l d * s l i s t i n g as the year 4 9 . See R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, Appendix I . 11About the r e l i e f , R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, pp. 209-10, s a y s i "The d e s c r i p t i v e , a s s e r t i v e q u a l i t y of e a r l i e r statements was superseded by a formal p r i n c i p l e which was h i e r a t i c i n s p i r i t . Scenes from the J a t a k a t a l e s d i m i n i s h e d i n q u a n t i t y and dramatic content; n a r r a t i v e episodes from the l i f e of the Buddha became i n c r e a s i n g l y condensed i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n ; c o n v e r s e l y c u l t images became more and more r e f i n e d as v e h i c l e s of a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . The l a r g e r e l i e f panel from Huvishka's V i h a r a c l e a r l y r e v e a l s these tendencies a t work a t about A.D. 225. T h i s p e d e s t a l was found a t Sanchi, but i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was t r a n s p o r t e d from Mathura. The date has been s u b j e c t t o c o n t r o v e r s y , but R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, p. 295, s t a t e s t h a t there i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the p e d e s t a l belongs t o the newer Kushan e r a . 7See R o s e n f i e l d , DAK, Appendix I, f o r i n s c r i p t i o n l i s t i n g . Bachhofer, EIS, I, p. 110 and I I , PI. 103, dates t h i s tympanum to A.D. 127 u s i n g f o r the date of Kanishka's a c c e s s i o n , A.D. 78. T h i s would mean t h a t he a s s i g n s the tympanum t o the yea r 49 of Kanishka*s e r a . 20 / See S t e r n and B e n e s t i , AmaravatT, who a s s i g n the p e r t i n e n t r e l i e f s t o " f i r s t p a r t " of f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . 2 l S m i t h , J a i n Stupa, P I . LXXXVI, LXXXVIII, LXXXXIX, XCVIII. The f o l d s marks a l s o appear on a B o d h i s a t t v a from Sarnath. See Vo g e l , SM, P I . XX V I I I ( b ) . 2 2 I n g h o l t , GAP, P I . IV ( 1 ) . 6 4 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Asvaghosha. B u d d h a c a r l t a . T r a n s l a t e d from S a n s k r i t by E.H. Johnston. Verses 1-14, 2 volumes. Panjab U n i v e r s i t y O r i e n t a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , no. 3 2 . C a l c u t t a i B a p t i s t M i s s i o n P r e s s , 1936. Auboyer, Jeannine. 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