UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Metropolitan government and planning : a case study of selected metropolitan areas in Canada Lee, Eugene Lieh-Jing 1969

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METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT AND PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OP SELECTED METROPOLITAN AREAS IN CANADA by EUGENE LIEH-JING LEE B. A., P r o v i n c i a l Chung-Hsing U n i v e r s i t y , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF i MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of Community and Re g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f {^synnrnuMZE*^, Ctsngj fyx^&lJzQ fs$&H/n,</*\ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada 7 Date i i ABSTRACT In the t w e n t i e t h century, we are e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d u r -b a n i z a t i o n and m e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n i n North America. F o l l o w i n g t h i s m e t r o p o l i t a n area e x p l o s i o n are the severe s o c i a l , human, and p h y s i c a l problems t h a t have occured i n our b i g urban a r e a s . S o l u t i o n s of these problems are i n h i b i t e d by the complex s t r u c -ture of l o c a l governments i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . The problem i s d e s c r i b e d as too many governments and not enough government. Today, r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g d e a l s not o n l y with the problem of r e s o u r c e development, but a l s o w i t h the development of metro-p o l i t a n a r e a s . However, i f m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i s to be e f f e c t i v e , i t must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a fo r m a l area-wide p o l i -t i c a l s t r u c t u r e with l e g i t i m a t e power. Thus, the hypothesis i s e s t a b l i s h e d : f o r p l a n n i n g a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l to be  s u c c e s s f u l , i t must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a w e l l o r g a n i z e d a r e a -wide government a u t h o r i t y , and must o b t a i n a w e l l - c o - o r d i n a t e d  working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u i t a b l y m o d i f i e d l o c a l governments  and l o c a l p l a n n i n g b o d i e s . C i t i e s of our time are governed by two kinds of g r a v i t a -t i o n a l f o r c e s : f o r c e s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( c e n t r i p e t a l ) , and f o r c e s of d i s p e r s a l ( c e n t r i f u g a l ) . The i n t e r - a c t i o n of these two trends produces a new form of sett l e m e n t c a l l e d the m e t r o p o l i s . T h i s phenomenon i s the r e s u l t of the s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances of the p a s t c e n t u r y . The spread of p o p u l a t i o n outward from the core has brought w i t h i t a corres p o n d i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a -i i i t i o n of the government p a t t e r n . New u n i t s of l o c a l government have m u l t i p l i e d with a s t o n i s h i n g r a p i d i t y i n the o u t l y i n g a r e a s . M e t r o p o l i t a n problems, such as water supply, sewage d i s p o s a l , open space, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , unbalanced t a x a t i o n , can not be met without some f a i r l y s u b s t a n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes and com-prehensive p l a n n i n g on an area-wide b a s i s . I n Canada, we have g e n e r a l l y used a committee system f o r our l o c a l government o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, our l o c a l govern-ments are unable to d e a l with these r e c e n t l y developed metropo-l i t a n problems. They have to be r e - o r g a n i z e d ; and the attempts to r e - o r g a n i z e l o c a l governments have been a l o n g the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : (1) i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l arrangements; (2) s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e a u t h o r i t i e s ; (3) annexation or c o n s o l i d a t i o n ; and, (4) c i t y -county s e p a r a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n . However, none of these attempts has f u r n i s h e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n to the m a n i f o l d problems i n v o l v e d i n the development of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area as a whole. Although community p l a n n i n g can be t r a c e d back to a n c i e n t times, the modern e r a of c i t y p l a n n i n g began i n t h i s c e n t u r y . Today, c i t y p l a n n i n g has been r e c o g n i z e d as an aspect of the process of l o c a l government. However, re g i o n s of h i g h p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and complex urban development a c t i v i t i e s r e -q u i r e a r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n f o r the development of r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . The m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g agency should seek e s t a b l i s h m e n t and acceptance of g o a l s , both long-range and immediate, f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n area's p h y s i c a l , economic, and i v s o c i a l development. I t should s t r i v e to c o - o r d i n a t e l o c a l p l a n n i n g , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . The most d e s i r a b l e arrange-ment i s t h a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o an area-wide and m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l government. By t h i s , the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n can more e a s i l y be t i e d i n t o the programs and decision-making processes of an on-going body t h a t has o p e r a t i o n a l powers. We d e s i r e e f f i c i e n t government. L a r g e - s c a l e , m e t r o p o l i -tan wide o r g a n i z a t i o n i s not the most a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e of orga-n i z a t i o n f o r the p r o v i s i o n of a l l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d i n a m e t r o p o l i s . L o c a l governments s t i l l have v i t a l r o l e s to p l a y i n the l i v e s of t h e i r c i t i z e n s and i n these r o l e s they should be conserved. However, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can be made more n e a r l y equal i n s i z e through c o n s o l i d a t i o n and amalgamation to st r e n g t h e n the c a p a c i t y of t h e i r l o c a l governments. Then, a d i v i s i o n of f u n c t i o n s between the " m e t r o p o l i t a n " government and the " l o c a l " governments i s ne c e s s a r y . The same argument:.' i s th a t reasonable d i s t i n c t i o n can be drawn between the concerns of m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g and those of l o c a l community p l a n n i n g . Duties and a u t h o r i t i e s must be a p p r o p r i a t e to area, p o p u l a t i o n , and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . Only when a l l of these f a c t o r s are balanced a t the h i g h e s t l e v e l , w i l l community s a t i s f a c t i o n be maximized. Based on the t h e o r e t i c a l f i n d i n g s , the C r i t e r i a f o r the purposes of t e s t i n g the a c t u a l cases can be d e r i v e d as i n the f o l l o w i n g s : V I . M e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t y should be o r g a n i z e d as general--purpose government. I I . M e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t y should have enough l e g a l powers to perform s e r v i c e s . I I I . M e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t y should remain c o n t r o l l -a b l e by and a c c e s s i b l e to i t s c i t i z e n s . IV. L o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s should be m o d i f i e d to make e f f i c i e n t l o c a l governments, and l o c a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s should be en-couraged . V. Geographic adequacy. VI. B a s i c m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n should be r e s e a r c h , p l a n n i n g , c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and advice and a s s i s -tance . V I I . M e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g body should have power of review over l o c a l p l a n s . Three a c t u a l cases are s t u d i e d based on C r i t e r i a to t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s on i t s p r a c t i c a l grounds. The three cases are M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area, M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area, and M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area. The three m e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t i e s are s t u d i e d under C r i t e r i a I to V; and the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s are s t u d i e d under C r i t e r i a I I I to V I I . The study both i n depth and i n scope of these three m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i s able to prove the v a l i d i t y of the C r i t e r i a which are d e r i v e d from the t h e o r e t i c a l f i n d i n g s . T h e r e f o r e , the hypothesis i s p r o p e r l y proved to be both t h e o r e c t i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y v a l i d . In Canada, the p r o v i n c e s have v i t a l r o l e s to p l a y i n v i r e s o l v i n g o ur m e t r o p o l i t a n p r o b l e m s , the s u b j e c t o f a n o t h e r work. However, t h i s s h o u l d be v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I must express my he a r t y thanks to P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman of the School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g f o r h i s e x c e l l e n t s u p e r v i s i o n throughout the course o f w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l to Dr. Robert W. C o l l i e r of the School f o r h i s generousness i n p r o v i d i n g ma-t e r i a l , a d v i c e , and c r i t i c i s m . Dr. H. Peter Oberlander, the' Head of the Sch o o l , a l s o deserves my s p e c i a l acknowledgement f o r h i s encouragement d u r i n g the whole course of my study i n the S c h o o l . My g r e a t e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n has to be d i r e c t e d to those p l a n n e r s of the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, the Pl a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of the Greater Winnipeg, and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and ma-t e r i a l which can not be obtained from elsewhere. I a l s o want to thank Miss M. J . Dwyer, L i b r a r i a n , and Miss J . Wade of the F i n e A r t s D i v i s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , f o r t h e i r h e l p . Mrs. Edward T. Wang, who typed the whole t h e s i s , should a l s o r e c e i v e my g r e a t e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n and best wishes. TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 1 R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g as The Means to Solve M e t r o p o l i t a n Problems 4 Purpose and Scope 5 The Hypothesis 7 Methodology 8 D e f i n i t i o n s 9 O r g a n i z a t i o n 11 I I . URBANIZATION, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR PLANNING FUNCTIONS IN CANADA 12 U r b a n i z a t i o n and M e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n i n The Twentieth Century and i n North America 12 L o c a l and M e t r o p o l i t a n Government O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada 20 L o c a l and M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s 26 Conclusions 33 The C r i t e r i a f o r T e s t i n g Purpose 39 I I I . THE METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER AREA 49 The M e t r o p o l i t a n Government A u t h o r i t y 54 The M e t r o p o l i t a n and L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s ... 6 l CHAPTER PAGE Conclusions 71 IV. THE METROPOLITAN WINNIPEG AREA 74 The M e t r o p o l i t a n Government A u t h o r i t y 79 The M e t r o p o l i t a n and L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s ... 86 Conclusions 93 V. THE METROPOLITAN TORONTO AREA 97 The M e t r o p o l i t a n Government A u t h o r i t y 104 The M e t r o p o l i t a n and L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s ... 110 Conclusions 121 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 125 The T h e o r e t i c a l V a l i d i t y of The Hypothesis 126 The V a l i d i t y of The C r i t e r i a 127 The V a l i d i t y of The Hypothesis 131 A F u r t h e r Study: The Role of Province 134 BIBLIOGRAPHY 138 APPENDIX 151 LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE I . The Percentage of World P o p u l a t i o n L i v i n g i n C i t i e s of 2 0 , 0 0 0 and 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 People 13 I I . The P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area: 1921-1986 50 I I I . The P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area: 1901-1986 76 IV. The P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area: 1921-198O 99 V. A Comparison of Three M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas Based on The C r i t e r i a 132 LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS ILLUSTRATION PAGE I . Pour Concepts of M e t r o p o l i s 17 I I . The Lower Mainland Region of B r i t i s h Columbia .... 52 I I I . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area 77 IV. B a s i c O r g a n i z a t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of the Greater Winnipeg 80 V. M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 100 VI. M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area 101 V I I . Toronto Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area 102 V I I I . The O r g a n i z a t i o n of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto 106 IX. The R a t i o n a l e f o r an A r e a l D i v i s i o n of Governmental Powers w i t h i n the Modern Democratic S t a t e 133 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I . The Problem About a century ago, Abraham L i n c o l n i n d e s c r i b i n g a problem of a completely d i f f e r e n t time and context than the p r e s e n t problem of mushrooming suburbs and d e c l i n i n g center c i t i e s wrote, " I f we c o u l d f i r s t know where we a r e , and whither we are t e n d i n g , we c o u l d b e t t e r judge what to do, and how to do i t . " The process of u r b a n i z a t i o n i s a c c e l e r a t i n g a l a r m i n g l y . Between I85O and 1950 the Index of u r b a n i z a t i o n changed a t a much h i g h e r r a t e than from 1800 to I85O. But the r a t e of change from 1950 to i960 was twice t h a t of the p r o c e e d i n g f i f t y y e a r s . I t was estimated t h a t i n i960, the world's p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n urban p l a c e s of a l l s i z e s had a l r e a d y reached 33 per cent of the world's t o t a l population." 1' I n North America, the phenomenon of m e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n i s more s t r i k i n g than the r a p i d process of u r b a n i z a t i o n i n the world. By 1950 almost n i n e t y m i l l i o n Americans l i v e d i n the 168 s t a n d a r d m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , about 57 p per cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s m e t r o p o l i t a n K i n g s l e y D a v i s , "The U r b a n i z a t i o n of the Human Popula-t i o n " , E k i s t i c s . V o l . 21, No. 122 (January, 1966), p. 4. 2 P h i l i p M. Hauser, "The Challenge of M e t r o p o l i t a n Growth". Urban Land. V o l . 17, No. 11 (December, 1958), p. 3. 2 a r e a e x p l o s i o n w e re t h e s e r v e s o c i a l , human a n d p h y s i c a l p r o -b l e m s t h a t h a v e o c c u r e d w i t h i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . M o s t o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e n o t p u r e l y l o c a l i n n a t u r e , t h a t i s , t h e y c a n n o t be l i m i t e d i n s c o p e m e r e l y b y j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . T h e y a r e a r e a - w i d e a n d h a v e i m p a c t o n t h e q u a l i t y o f l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e w h o l e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . Many c o m m u n i t i e s a r e w i t h o u t h e l p i n s t u d y i n g t h e i r m e t r o p o l i t a n n e e d s ; c o n t i n u i t y a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a r e a p l a n n i n g i s l a c k i n g i n o t h e r s ; a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t i m e a n d s c o p e a r e p l a c e d o n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f mos t o f t h e a g e n c i e s s e t up t o d e a l w i t h a r e a - w i d e p r o b l e m s . S o l u t i o n s a r e m o s t l y i n h i b i t e d b y t h e c o m p l e x s t r u c t u r e o f l o -c a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . E f f o r t s , o n a n a r e a -w i d e b a s i s t o r e s o l v e , t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h c o n f r o n t s u c h a n u r b a n i z e d r e g i o n a r e i m p e d e d b y t h e u n p l a n n e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e most o f o u r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . The p r o b l e m i s d e s c r i b e d a s t o o many g o v e r n m e n t s a n d n o t e n o u g h g o v e r n m e n t . R e g a r d l e s s how one v i e w s m e t r o p o l i t a n p r o b l e m s - - w h e t h e r a s b o u n d a r y p r o b l e m s , as a r e a - w i d e n e e d s f o r s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s , o r o t h e r s - - a n i m p o r t a n t p l a c e e x i s t s f o r c a r e f u l c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m s t h a t a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h a n y m e t r o p o l i t a n n e e d . The a c t o f s e r v i n g one n e e d , o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g one ^Vincent O s t r o m , C h a r l e s M. T i e b o u t a n d R o b e r t W a r r e n , "The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t i n M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s : A T h e o r e t i c a l I n q u i r y " , R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t a n d P l a n n i n g . J . F r i e d m a n n a n d W. A l o n s o , e d i t o r s ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 5 4 2 . 3 f u n c t i o n impinges upon other f u n c t i o n s i n many ways, such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y upon l a n d use d e c i s i o n s . The a c t i o n of one g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c y a f f e c t s other government agencies and t h e i r programs. Consquently, the l a c k of a process of govern-ment i n m e t r o p o l i t a n area i s regarded as b e i n g the c r u c i a l me-t r o p o l i t a n area problem. Luthur G u l i c k s t a t e d t h a t : . . . I t thus seems c l e a r t h a t we now need to c r e a t e i n some of the l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n areas an e n t i r e l y new l a y e r of area-wide self-government broad enough to cover the m e t r o p o l i t a n map. . . .The major task f o r t h i s new l a y e r of l o c a l self-government i s not p r i m a r i l y adminis-t r a t i v e . I t i s p o l i t i c a l , namely the development and a d o p t i o n of major plans and p o l i c i e s f o r the e n t i r e metro-p o l i t a n r e g i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y as to l a n d use and the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n systems; water supply; a i r and water p o l l u t i o n ; waste d i s p o s a l ; slum c l e a r a n c e and housing; r e g i o n a l r e -c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ; the maintenance of minimum standards on h e a l t h , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and crime; c i v i l defense; and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the methods of f i n a n c i n g ^ t h e s e broad community n e c e s s i t i e s and d i v i d i n g the c o s t s . The r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of l o c a l governments to d e a l w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n problems i s t h e r e f o r e claimed as necessary; and two r a t h e r d e f i n i t e and opposing ideas have emerged. One i s the recommendation f o r very simple s t r u c t u r a l s o l u t i o n s i n c e r t a i n areas; the other i s an emphasis on f e d e r a l , t w o - l e v e l arrangements. The simple s o l u t i o n s are o f t e n u n i t a r y , involy.r i n g . c r e a t i o n of one government e n t i t y f o r the whole of a metro-p o l i t a n a r e a . Such s o l u t i o n s are f r e q u e n t l y recommended i n the s m a l l e r m e t r o p o l i t a n areas and i n those whose p r e - e x i s t i n g Luthur G u l i c k , Metro-Changing Problems, and,.Lines ..of  A t t a c k . (Washington, D. C. :~" Governmental A f f a i r s I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 2 6 . 4 government s t r u c t u r e i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e . J The f e d e r a l arrangement i s regarded s u i t a b l e i n the major and more complex m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . Arthur Bromage s t a t e d t h a t : M e t r o p o l i t a n sprawl has over-reached our en l a r g e d c e n t r a l c i t i e s and our c i t y - c o u n t i e s i n the gre a t agglomerations. Only f e d e r a t i o n o f governments and the b u i l d i n g of an u p p e r t i e r m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l , w i t h l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e processes to r d e a l w i t h v a r i o u s aspects of f u n c t i o n s , w i l l s u f f i c e . I I . R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g as the Means to Solve M e t r o p o l i t a n Problems In the p a s t , r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s has d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h the problem of resource development, such as the Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y program, as a means f o r im-p r o v i n g the economic w e l f a r e of people, while c i t y p l a n n i n g has mainly been concerned with problems of l a n d use c o n t r o l and c i r c u l a t i o n . However, i t i s now r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s do r e q u i r e r e g i o n a l treatment i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , such as water and e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , sewage d i s p o s a l , f l o o d c o n t r o l , garbage and waste d i s p o s a l , a i r and water p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , r e c r e a t i o n a l space and f a c i l i t i e s , ^ S t a n l e y S c o t t , " M e t r o p o l i t a n Problems and S o l u t i o n s , A D i s c u s s i o n " , M e t r o p o l i t a n ^ A r e a Problems. S t a n l e y S c o t t , e d i t o r (Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a : Bureau of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , i 9 6 0 ) , p. 18 . ^ A r t h u r Bromage, "Representation i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Govern-ment", P r o c e e d i n g s 6 3 r d . N a t i o n a l Conference on Government. N a t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l League, 1958, p. 26 . — 5 p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a r e a -wide p l a n n i n g . We have agreed t h a t both of these f u n c t i o n s — development and c o n t r o l — s h o u l d be brought t o g e t h e r i n a common framework and t h a t the l o g i c a l framework f o r t h i s purpose i s 7 the c i t y r e g i o n . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g can help to guide u r b a n i z a t i o n , i n d u s -t r i a l i z a t i o n and i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n i n a balanced way. The need f o r balanced i n t e g r a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t development a c t i v i t i e s i n the r e g i o n , and the need f o r continuous e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r s o c i a l and environmental i m p l i c a t i o n s can o n l y be s a t i s f i e d by proper r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l . However, as there are a g r e a t number of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n a m e t r o p o l i s , and as the c o - o p e r a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s necessary f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g , the problems a r e : ( l ) who should assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g ; and, (2) what form of machinery i s best and most e f f i c i e n t ? I I I . Purpose and Scope The need f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i s e v i d e n t as s t a t e d above. However, i f m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i s to become e f f e c t i v e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of p u b l i c p o l i c y , i t must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a f o r m a l area-wide p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e with l e g i t i m a t e power. The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t any p l a n 'John Friedmann, "The Concept of a P l a n n i n g Region -The E v o l u t i o n of an Idea i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s " , R e g i o n a l Deve-lopment and P l a n n i n g . J . Friedmann and W. Alonso, e d i t o r s - ( C a m -b r i d g e : The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 5 1 2 . 6 which seeks to c o n t r o l and to guide the growth of the metropo-l i t a n a rea r e q u i r e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a form of m e t r o p o l i t a n government. T h i s government must have power to do something about r e g i o n a l p l a n s , not a l l o w i n g p l a n s to be i g n o r e d or vetoed by s m a l l , l e g a l l y p r o t e c t e d segments of the a r e a . There-f o r e , b e t t e r a n a l y s i s of how a m e t r o p o l i t a n area i s governed can l e a d i n t u r n to more a p p r o p r i a t e measures f o r the p r o v i s i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g . I n Canada, the process of u r b a n i z a t i o n and m e t r o p o l i -t a n i z a t i o n i s a l s o p r o c e e d i n g a t a r a p i d r a t e . There has been a steady t r e n d toward the b i g Canadian c e n t e r s — m o r e than 40 per cent of Canada's p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n seventeen m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . The Gorden Commission 198O f o r e c a s t sees a f u r t h e r i n -t e n s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s t r e n d : 80 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be urban and, of the remainder, o n l y nine per cent w i l l be t r u r a l farm.^ W i t h i n these r a p i d l y growing m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , there have been many ways to meet t h e i r area-wide problems, such as the m e t r o p o l i t a n governments i n Toronto and Winnipeg. I t has been s t a t e d t h a t the need f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g over these l a r g e areas was the c h i e f f o r c e behind the f o r m a t i o n D a n i e l R. Grant, "Metro's Three Faces", N a t i o n a l . C i v i c  Review. V o l . LV, No. 6 (June, 1966), p. 320. ^L. 0 . G e r t l e r , "Regional P l a n n i n g and Development", R e g i o n a l and-^Resource. P l a n n i n g ^ i n -Canada. Ralph R. Krueger, et_ a t . , e d i t o r s (Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston of Canada, Ltd.; 1963), p. 24. of such m e t r o p o l i t a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, the ge n e r a l problems of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n t h i s country, as I n d i c a t e d by L. 0. G e r t l e r , are t h a t : ( l ) the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n covers the urban-centered r e g i o n i n o n l y a few areas of the country; ( 2 ) the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g bodies are mostly a d v i s o r y and municipa-l i t i e s can e a s i l y r e j e c t t h e i r p l a n s ; and, ( 3 ) p r o v i n c i a l support i s not s u f f i c i e n t . 1 1 The main purpose and scope of t h i s t h e s i s then i s an attempt t o d i s c o v e r the s t a t u s of the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i n Canada's m e t r o p o l i t a n areas; the m e t r o p o l i t a n i n s -t i t u t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the m e t r o p o l i t a n government o r g a n i z a t i o n s , m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s , and l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t i s hoped t h a t through t h i s study, the e r r o r s i n the pas t can be d i s c o v e r e d and c o r r e c t e d , arid t h a t f u t u r e trends of m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i n Canada can be i n d i c a t e d . IV. The Hypothesis The c o n d i t i o n s f o r s u c c e s s f u l m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g are many and have been s t u d i e d i n many r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s and r e p o r t s . The hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s i s : " f o r p l a n n i n g a t  the m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l to- ~-.be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must be i n t e -Anthony Adamson, "How to Make R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Work" Community P l a n n i n g Review. V o l . 1 1 , No. 4 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 5 . 1 1 G e r t l e r , op_. c i t . . p. 3 1 • 8 g r a t e d i n t o a w e l l o r g a n i z e d area-wide government a u t h o r i t y . and must o b t a i n a w e l l c o - o r d i n a t e d working r e l a t i o n s h i p with  s u i t a b l y m o d i f i e d l o c a l governments and l o c a l p l a n n i n g b o d i e s . " The meaning of the term " w e l l o r g a n i z e d " does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a t o t a l l y powerful metropolitan-wide government a u t h o r i t y w i t h very weak l o c a l governments, but r a t h e r a metropolitan-wide government a u t h o r i -t y w i t h proper power and o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s o n l y of metropolitan-wide importance and w i t h h i g h l e v e l of support from the s u i t a b l y m o d i f i e d l o c a l governments. I t i s a l s o necessary t h a t the term " w e l l c o - o r d i n a t e d " means a metropolitan-wide p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n d e a l i n g with metro-p o l i t a n - w i d e p l a n n i n g matters while l o c a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area are s t i l l encouraged. V. Methodology The method of examination i n t h i s t h e s i s i s an ex-t e n s i v e and I n t e n s i v e study of the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e s u p p l e -mented by a q u e s t i o n a i r r e to gather the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s not a v a i l a b l e i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia l i b r a r y . To prove the v a l i d i t y of the h y p o t h e s i s , two kinds of r e s e a r c h techniques are employed: t h e o r e t i c a l , and case study r e s e a r c h . Por the purposes of t e s t i n g the cases, c r i t e r i a are e s t a b l i s h e d based on the t h e o r e t i c a l f i n d i n g s . The M e t r o p o l i -tan Areas of Vancouver, Winnipeg and Toronto are s e l e c t e d f o r case study. 9 VI. D e f i n i t i o n s I t i s f e l t t h a t some terms are used throughout t h i s t h e s i s should be d e f i n e d : P l a n n i n g . P r i m a r i l y a way of t h i n k i n g about s o c i a l and economic problems, p l a n n i n g i s o r i e n t e d pre-dominantly toward the f u t u r e ; i s d e e ply concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n of goals to c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s ; and s t r i v e s f o r comprehensiveness i n p o l i c y and p r o -gram. Whenever these modes of thought are a p p l i e d , there i s a 12 presumption t h a t p l a n n i n g i s b e i n g done. C i t y P l a n n i n g . A means f o r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n t i c i p a t i n g and a c h i e v i n g adjustment i n the p h y s i c a l environment of a c i t y con-s i s t e n t with s o c i a l and economic trends and sound p r i n c i p l e s of c i v i c d e s i g n . I t i n v o l v e s a c o n t i n u i n g process of d e r i v i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , and p r e s e n t i n g a broad and comprehensive program f o r urban development and renewal. I t Is designed to f u l f i l l o c a l o b j e c t i v e s of s o c i a l , economic, and p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , c o n s i d e r i n g both immediate needs and those of the f o r e s e e a b l e 1^ f u t u r e . J R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must be thought of as a s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r t a k i n g of a s p e c i a l k i n d . P r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d 12 J . Priedmann, "Regional P l a n n i n g as a F i e l d of Study", R e g i o n a l Development and P l a n n i n g . J . Friedmann and W. Alonso, e d i t o r s (Cambridge: The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 6 l . ^ F . S t u a r t Chapin, J r . , Urban Land Use P l a n n i n g (Ur-bana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. v i . 10 t o t h e f u t u r e , i t l o o k s t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l p u r p o s e s a n d s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s . I t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e o r d e r i n g o f human a c t i v i t i e s i n s u p r a - u r b a n s p a c e — t h a t i s , i n 14 a n y a r e a w h i c h i s l a r g e r t h a n a s i n g l e c i t y . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s a l s o d e f i n e d a s a p r o c e s s , b a s e d on l a w and. u n d e r t a k e n b y a f o r m o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t , d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s i n f l u e n c i n g d e v e l o p m e n t , p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c i n a manner t h a t r e s u l t s , i n t h e a r e a s where p e o p l e s e t t l e a nd e s t a b l i s h r e g i o n a l c o m m u n i t i e s , i n t h e b e s t e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e s o u n d e s t u s e o f r e s o u r c e s t h a t o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n i s c a p a b l e o f e f f e c t i n g . 1 ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g . M e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i s a p r o c e s s f o r d e s i g n i n g t h e s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s o f a n a c t i v i t y - e n g a g e d p o p u -l a t i o n w i t h i n m e t r o p o l i t a n s p a c e a n d , i n t u r n , f o r m a k i n g r a -t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s t h a t w i l l l e a d d e v e l o p m e n t t o w a r d s d e s i r e d g o a l s . T h e s e s p a t i a l g o a l s must o f c o u r s e r e f l e c t , a n d i n t u r n h e l p t o a t t a i n , c e r t a i n h i g h e r - o r d e r , n o n - s p a t i a l g o a l s c o n -c e r n e d w i t h t h e q u a l i t i e s o f u r b a n l i f e t h a t a r e s o u g h t . I t i s a n i n t e g r a l a s p e c t o f g o v e r n i n g . B e i n g c e n t r a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g p o l i c i e s , i t i s a p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . 1 ^ 14 F r i e d m a n n , o p . fiit.. p . 63 . " ^ G e r t l e r , op_. c i t . . p . 26 . " ^ S t a n l e y S c o t t ( e d . ) , M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a P r o b l e m s ( B e r -k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : B u r e a u o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and U n i v e r -s i t y E x t e n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , I 9 6 0 ) , p . 134. 11 M u n i c i p a l i t y . I n t h i s t h e s i s a m u n i c i p a l i t y means a town, c i t y , or o t h e r urban area having powers of l o c a l s e l f - g o v e r n -ment. M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. Any Census ar e a , as d e f i n e d i n the 1966 Census of Canada, which i n c l u d e s more than one m u n i c i p a l i t y i s a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . M e t r o p o l i t a n Problem. A problem i s m e t r o p o l i t a n i f a l l of the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s are s a t i s f i e d : ( l ) the problem i s urban i n c h a r a c t e r ; (2) i t s scope transcends the boundaries of a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n ; and, (3) i t i s thought to be an 17 a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t f o r community decision-making. ' V I I . O r g a n i z a t i o n T h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t s of s i x Chapters. Chapter I con-t a i n s the problem, the hypothesis and the d e f i n i t i o n s . In Chapter I I , t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h i s used to t e s t the t h e o r e -t i c a l v a l i d i t y of the h y p o t h e s i s . In each of Chapters I I I , IV and V, there i s a study on one m e t r o p o l i t a n area; and the r e s e a r c h on these cases t e s t s the hypothesis on i t s p r a c t i c a l grounds. F i n a l l y , Chapter VI c o n t a i n s the summary and c o n c l u -s i o n s . •••'James G. Coke, "The O b j e c t i v e s of M e t r o p o l i t a n Study", M e t r o p o l i t a n A n a l y s i s : Important Elements of Study and A c t i o n . Stephen B. Sweeney, e d i t o r ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Penn-s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1958), p. 21. CHAPTER I I URBANIZATION,- LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR PLANNING FUNCTIONS IN CANADA I . U r b a n i z a t i o n and M e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n i n the Twentieth Century and i n North America The f i r s t c i t i e s appeared sometime between 6000 and 5000 B. C. I n the p r e - i n d u s t r i a l age, c i t i e s were p r i m a r i l y s e a t s of the p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , commercial, and c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s of s o c i e t y . The i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y r e v e r s e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n between v i l l a g e s and c i t i e s . Lewis Mumford once s a i d , "the c i t y has b u r s t open and s c a t t e r e d i t s complex organs and o r g a n i z a t i o n s over the e n t i r e landscape."" 1" T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was s e t i n motion toward the end of the n i n e t e e n t h century and e a r l y i n the t w e n t i e t h cen-t u r y w i t h the i n v e n t i o n of the telephone, the e l e c t r i c s t r e e t -c a r , the subway, and the powered e l e v a t o r . Even more f a r -r e a c h i n g was the impact of the automobile and t r u c k . The d e c e n n i a l r a t e of i n c r e a s e of the world p o p u l a t i o n was 2 . 7 p e r c e n t from 165O to 1 7 0 0 ; 3.2 p e r c e n t from 1700 to 1 7 5 0 ; 4 . 5 p e r c e n t from 1750 to 1 8 0 0 ; 5.3 p e r c e n t from 1800 to J . C. B o l l e n s and H. J . Schmandt, The M e t r o p o l i s t I t s  People. P o l i t i c s , and Economic L i f e (New York: Harper and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1965) , p. 37. 13 1850; 6 .5 p e r c e n t from I85O to 1900; and 8 .3 p e r c e n t from 1900 to 1950. From I95O to i 9 6 0 the world p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d from 2,400 m i l l i o n t o 2,917 m i l l i o n , a g a i n of 21.5 percent i n a decade. The U n i t e d Nations p r e d i c t e d t h a t , by the year 2000, 2 the world p o p u l a t i o n w i l l r e a c h 6,267 m i l l i o n . The number of c i t i e s i n the world with a p o p u l a t i o n of 100,000 or more i n c r e a s e d from 36 in; 1800 t o 678 by 1950; by i 9 6 0 the number had i n c r e a s e d to 1 ,128. The precentage of world p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n c i t i e s can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : TABLE I THE PERCENTAGE OF WORLD POPULATION LIVING IN CITIES OF 20,000 AND 100,000 PEOPLE* C i t i e s of 20,000 C i t i e s of 100,000 or more or more 1800 2.4 1.7 I85O 4 .3 2.3 1900 9.2 5-5 1950 2 0 . 9 13.1 K i n g s l e y D a v i s , " O r i g i n and Growth of U r b a n i z a t i o n " , M e t r o p o l i s ; Values i n C o n f l i c t . C. E. E l i a s , e t a l . , e d i t o r s (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co., Inc., 1964), p. 12. Homer Hoyt, "The Growth of C i t i e s from 1800 to I960 and F o r e c a s t s to Year 2000", Land Economics. Volume XXXIX, No. 2 (May, 1963), p . . 171. 3 I b i d . p. 170. 14 I t was a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t by I960, 20 percent of the e a r t h ' s p o p u l a t i o n , or 590 m i l l i o n people, were l i v i n g i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas of 100,000 or more—50 times as many as i n 1800/ The U n i t e d S t a t e s Census of 1920 was the f i r s t t o r e v e a l t h a t more than h a l f of the American people l i v e d i n urban a r e a s . I n i960, 69.9 p e r c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s was recorded as urban-', while 63 percent r e s i d e d i n Standard M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l Area'.*"' I n Canada, a c c o r d i n g t o the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s -t i c s , the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1951 Was n e a r l y 14 m i l l i o n , of which 62.9 p e r c e n t (8.8 m i l l i o n ) was urban and 37.1 p e r c e n t (5.1 m i l l i o n ) was r u r a l . By the; census year, 196l, the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n (had i n c r e a s e d to 18.2 m i l l i o n p e o p l e . Of t h i s 69.6 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l was urban. A c c o r d i n g to another s e t of f i g u r e s r e l e a s e d by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Canada's seventeen m e t r o p o l i t a n areas accounted f o r 63.93 percent (5«6 m i l l i o n ) of the t o t a l urban p o p u l a t i o n of 8.8 m i l l i o n i n 1951; ^Nels Anderson, "Aspects of Urbanism and U r b a n i z a t i o n " , Urbanism and U r b a n i z a t i o n . Nels Anderson, e d i t o r (Netherlands: E. J . B r i l l , L e i d e n , 1964), p. 3. ^ B o l l e n s and Schmandt, op_. c i t . . p. 12. ^ J . S. Vandiver, " U r b a n i z a t i o n and Urbanism i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s " , Urbanism and U r b a n i z a t i o n . Nels Anderson, e d i -t o r ( N e t h erlands: E. J . B r i l l , L e i d e n , 1964), p. 161. 1 5 and i n 196I these f i g u r e s rose to 64 .28 p e r c e n t (8 .1 m i l l i o n ) of the t o t a l urban p o p u l a t i o n of 12.7 m i l l i o n . The concen-t r a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i s g r e a t e s t i n the Province of O n t a r i o which has seven of these seventeen standard m e t r o p o l i -7 t a n a r e a s . 1 C i t i e s of our time are e v i d e n t l y governed by two kinds of g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e s : f o r c e s of c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( c e n t r i p e t a l ) and f o r c e s of d i s p e r s a l ( c e n t r i f u g a l ) . These two kinds of f o r c e s are i n a c t i o n upon the m a t e r i a l of the c i t y , t r a n s f o r m -i n g the c i t y ' s nature and r e b u i l d i n g i t i n a new form. A l -though on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e more and more of the p o p u l a t i o n i s becoming urban, there i s , w i t h i n the urban areas, an i n c r e a s i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . The i n t e r - a c t i o n of these two trends has produced a new form of s e t t l e m e n t c a l l e d the m e t r o p o l i s . I t i s no l o n g e r a " c i t y , " as t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n had been understood i n the p a s t ; but on the other hand, i t i s c e r t a i n l y not a "country," e i t h e r . T h i s combination of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and d e - c e n t r a l i z a -t i o n has r e s u l t e d l a r g e l y from the s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i -c a l advances of the p a s t century. The r i s e of the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with the i n c r e a s i n g use of automo- ' b i l e s . Because of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the automobile, the urban p o p u l a t i o n has s i n c e the 1930's r a p i d l y spread beyond the the o l d c i t y l i m i t s . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the suburbs by i 960 'T. J . P l u n k e t t , Urban Canada and I t s Government (To-r o n t o : Macmilliam of Canada, 1968), p. 77. 16-' had almost equaled the p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l of the c e n t r a l c i t i e s o and had 48.6 p e r c e n t of the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e s i d e n t s . Most comtemporary s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s tend to r e g a r d the m e t r o p o l i s as a mosaic of sub-areas whose i n h a b i t a n t s are h i g h -l y inter-dependent on a d a i l y b a s i s i n terms of needs, communi-c a t i o n s , and commutation to and from work. The c e n t r a l and o t h e r p o r t i o n s of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area have a h i g h degree of economic and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Thus m e t r o p o l i t a n growth en-l a r g e s freedom of c h o i c e , and freedom of choice i n tur-n a t t r a c t s f u r t h e r growth. T h i s has g i v e n the m e t r o p o l i s amazing v i t a l i t y and s t a y i n g power. Now, o n l y m e t r o p o l i s can support l a r g e i n v e n t o r i e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y those of a f i n a n c i a l , l e g a l , t e c h n i c a l , and p r o m o t i o n a l n a t u r e . Such s e r v i c e s c o n s t i t u t e the main source of economic s t r e n g t h of the m e t r o p o l i s and of our n a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , f o u r b a s i c types of land-use.can'be\ i d e n t i -f i e d w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i s : c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r i a l , r e -s i d e n t i a l , and open a r e a s . ^ However,several ways of d e s c r i b i n g and a n a l y z i n g these s p a t i a l arrangements have been d e v i s e d by geographers and s o c i o l o g i s t s . Those most commonly r e f e r r e d t o are c o n c e n t r i c zones, s e c t o r s , starshaped c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , and m u l t i p l e n u c l e i . H i g h l y s i m p l i f i e d drawings of these f o u r B o l l e n s and Schmandt, op_. c i t . . p. 1 9 . 9Hans Blumenfeld, "The Urban P a t t e r n " , The Modern Me-t r o p o l i s : I t s O r i g i n . Growth. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . and P l a n n i n g . Paul D. S p r e i r e g e n , e d i t o r (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1967), p. 54. 17 th e o r e t i c a l patterns are presented i n the following f i g u r e : POUR CONCEPTS OF METROPOLIS STAR-SHAPE MULTIPLE NUCLEI 1 Economic Nucleus 2 Transition Zone 3 Working Class Residential 4 Middle Class Residential 5 Upper-Middle and Upper Class Residential — M a j o r Traffic Arteries According to the f i r s t view, a metropolitan area tends to resemble a series of concentric zones d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by-type of land use and structure. The sector concept i s a modi-f i c a t i o n of the concentric zone pattern. Upon questioning the symmetry or homogeneity of such zones, I t holds that growth 18 occurs i n s e c t o r s which extend r a d i a l l y from the center toward the p e r i p h e r y of the a r e a . The star-shaped p a t t e r n i s a f u r -t h e r refinement o f the s e c t o r t h e o r y . I t views urban growth as a l i n e a r development a l o n g the main r a d i a l s — t h e roads and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r t e r i e s t h a t converge on the c e n t r a l c o r e . The f o u r t h method of a n a l y z i n g the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n r e j e c t s the n o t i o n t h a t the community i s u n i - c e n t e r e d , as the c o n c e n t r i c z o n e l t h e o r y l e a d s one t o assume. P o i n t i n g out t h a t many phenomena of urban l i f e o ccur i n c l u s t e r s , t h i s method of ana-l y s i s denies t h a t the round o f d a i l y l i f e r e v o l v e s mainly about a s i n g l e c e n t e r . I t holds t h a t w i t h i n the p r i n c i p a l n u c l e u s — the core o r c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t — a r e c o ncentrated the home or r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s o f business and i n d u s t r y , f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , major government a g e n c i e s , l e g a l and o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s , the t h e a t r e and oth e r c u l -t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , and the shopping area f o r s t y l e merchandise and comparative buying. C l u s t e r e d about the core through-out the m e t r o p o l i t a n area i s a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f s u b c e n t e r s : n e i g h -borhood and r e g i o n a l shopping c e n t e r s , suburban c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s , o u t l y i n g i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , and l o c a l govern-ment o f f i c e s . T h i s l a s t concept appears the most meaningful and r e a l i s t i c . 1 0 The spread o f p o p u l a t i o n outward from the core has brought w i t h i t a corres p o n d i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the govern-B o l l e n s and Schmandt, op. c i t . . pp. 50-55• 19 mental p a t t e r n . As the o r i g i n a l boundaries become inadequate to accommodate the newcomers, the corporate l i m i t s of the c i t y were expanded by annexing adjacent a r e a s . By the end of the n i n e t e e n t h century, however, the outward movement had s t a r t e d t o out-run) the a b i l i t y of the core c i t y t o enlarge i t s l e g a l b oundaries. With the d i f f u s i o n of p o p u l a t i o n a l l over the landscape, the m e t r o p o l i s began to look more and more l i k e a f o r m l e s s agglomeration of people and e n t e r p r i s e . New u n i t s of l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t — c i t i e s , towns, v i l l a g e s , s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s , and a wide v a r i e t y of other s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t s — m u l -t i p l i e d w i t h a s t o n i s h i n g r a p i d i t y i n the o u t l y i n g a r e a s . To-day, governmental f r a g m e n t a t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d as a major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of our m e t r i p o l i s . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a c c o r d i n g to the 1962 Census of Government, there were 18,442 l o c a l governments, an average of 11 e i g h t y - s e v e n f o r each m e t r o p o l i s . The s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n can be seen i n Canada. Since each government i s a seperate u n i t and l e g a l l y independent, i t i s a b l e , i f I t wishes, to a c t u n i l a t e r a l l y and without concern f p r the d e s i r e s of the people i n n e i g h b o r i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Because of these circumstances w i t h i n our m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , problems, such as the impact of urban l a n d uses on a g r i c u l t u r e , s u f f i c i e n c y of water supply, sewage d i s p o s a l , a v a i l a b i l i t y of open space, c h a o t i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems and I b i d . . p. 142. 2 0 unbalanced t a x a t i o n , can not be met without some f a i r l y sub-s t a n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes and comprehensive p l a n n i n g f o r area-wide needs. I I . L o c a l and M e t r o p o l i t a n Government O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Cariada L o c a l government i n Canada i s i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l p o s i t i o n than e i t h e r of the two s e n i o r l e v e l s of govern-ment. T h i s i s because the B r i t i s h North America Act p r o v i d e d t h a t the power to make laws r e s p e c t i n g l o c a l matters was -a s s i g n e d e x c l u s i v e l y to the p r o v i n c e s . The system i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the United S t a t e s where l o c a l government comes under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the I n d i v i d u a l s t a t e . Many f a c t o r s have an i n f l u e n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the type of l o c a l government which develops i n a country, and the e x t e n t to which i t i s s e l f - g o v e r n e d . Some of the important f a c t o r s are the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c o u n t r y — i t s l o c a t i o n , i t s p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development, and 1 2 i t s n a t i o n a l development. As l o c a l government i n Canada i s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e s , there are t e n d i s t i n c t systems. G e n e r a l l y , Canada has u t i l i z e d a committee system f o r t h e i r l o c a l government o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s committee system and o t h e r forms of l o c a l government o r g a n i z a t i o n are d i s c u s s e d Kenneth Grant Grawford, Canadian M u n i c i p a l Government (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 1 5 . 21 b r i e f l y below: The Council-Committee System. The m a j o r i t y of m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s i n Canada operate through committees which must r e -p o r t t o the c o u n c i l as a whole on the matters assi g n e d t o them. C o u n c i l committees are of two k i n d s — s p e c i a l committees and s t a n d i n g committees. Normally, s p e c i a l committees are s e t up to r e p o r t on some p a r t i c u l a r problem and are disbanded a f t e r t h e i r assignment has been concluded. Standing committees, on the o t h e r hand, are u s u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by by-law on a p e r -manent b a s i s and have a c o n t i n u i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c e r t a i n m a tters. The most f r e q u e n t c r i t i s i s m s of t h i s system are the m u l t i p l i c i t y of committees, the p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h minor de-t a i l s , the d u p l i c a t e d d i s c u s s i o n and debate, and the demands on c o u n c i l members' time. The Council-Manager System. The council-manager system as i t i s o f t e n c a l l e d , attempts to b r i n g about a c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n between p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . To t h i s end, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l e f t t o a s i n g l e o f f i c i a l known as the c i t y manager, while the c o u n c i l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c i e s . The p r o v i s i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e management, b e t t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and c o n t i n u i t y i n p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s . G e n e r a l l y speaking, the p o s i t i o n of the manager i s a l e s s 22 dominant one i n Canada than i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s : i n Canada t h i s system does not attempt a complete and f o r m a l break be-tween p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Some c i t i e s i n Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a have developed what can be r e f e r r e d to as the " C o u n c i l - S i n g l e Appointed Commissioner System." The s i n g l e appointed commissioner i s i n r e a l i t y the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r , and i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the budget, c o - o r d i n a t i n g the work o f the c i v i c departments, and a d v i s i n g the c o u n c i l on matters of o v e r - a l l p o l i c y . The C o u n c i l - C i t y Commissioner System. T h i s form of m u n i c i p a l government o r g a n i z a t i o n occurs almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n the two western p r o v i n c e s of Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a . The mayor i n t h i s system i s e x - o f f i c i o a commissioner i n a d d i t i o n to those appointed by the c o u n c i l . I t has a l s o been adopted i n the C i t y of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. However, the mayor i n Vancou-ve r i s no l o n g e r a commissioner. The B o a r d - o f - C o n t r o l Form. The b o a r d - o f - c o n t r o l form of c i v i c government i s found o n l y i n O n t a r i o . I t has been widely e s t a -b l i s h e d i n the Toronto a r e a . T h i s system of c i v i c government d i v i d e s the l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s between two s e p a r a t e l y e l e c t e d b o d i e s — t h e c o u n c i l and the board-of-c o n t r o l . L e g i s l a t i o n , or p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , i s the respon-s i b i l i t y of the former, while a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the r e s p o n s i -b i l l t y of the l a t t e r . 23 13 M e t r o p o l i t a n growth has r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e - s c a l e a d j u s t -ments i n e x i s t i n g l o c a l governments and i n the c r e a t i o n of many new l o c a l u n i t s . However, the m e t r o p o l i t a n area's needs f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , housing, open space, c o n t r o l of urban spr a w l , and so f o r t h , can o n l y be met i f there i s a m e t r o p o l i -t a n government equipped: ( l ) t o s e t up p o l i c i e s and s t i m u l a t e p u b l i c support f o r these p o l i c i e s ; (2) to r e c o n c i l e admini-s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s when there i s con t r o v e r s y ; (3) t o c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ; and, (4) to assume new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t r e q u i r e a c t i o n on an a r e a -wide b a s i s . What i s needed i s a form of r e g i o n a l or m e t r o p o l i t a n multipurpose government which i s equipped t o d e a l not o n l y w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems, but a l s o w i t h p o l i c y - m a k i n g and e n f o r c i n g . As t o the pr e s e n t methods i n forming m e t r o p o l i t a n o r g a n i -z a t i o n s , f o u r d i s t i n c t approaches may be d i s c e r n e d : ( l ) The f i r s t approach emphasizes the e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n of l o c a l govern-ment. I t examines the adaptive measures i n terms of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t r a d i t i o n a l governments. T h i s approach c a l l e d the " j u r i s d i c t i o n a l " approach. (2) Another approach concen-t r a t e s on the needs and purposes of a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , such as h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n , o r r e c r e a t i o n . I t tends to minimize P l u n k e t t , op_. c i t . . pp. 1 4 - 5 5 . \ 2 4 t r a d i t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s , a n d t e n d s t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n s p e c i a l -p r o g r a m a r e a s , t o t h e v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n o f a l l o t h e r c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s . T h i s i s t h e " f u n c t i o n a l " a p p r o a c h . ( 3 ) T h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e t h i r d a p p r o a c h i s t o m i n i m i z e b o t h t r a d i t i o n a l g o v e r n -m e n t s a n d i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s i n f a v o r o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l n e e d s o f t h e r e g i o n . E x i s t i n g g o v e r n m e n t s a n d s p e c i a l d i s -t r i c t s a r e r e g a r d e d a s o b s t a c l e s t o p r o g r e s s . T h e n e e d s o f a r e a - w i d e g o v e r n m e n t a r e e m p h a s i z e d . T h i s t e n d e n c y c a l l e d t h e " r e g i o n a l " a p p r o a c h . A n d , ( 4 ) A t t e n t i o n may b e f o c u s e d n o t o n t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n o f g o v e r n m e n t , o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s t o b e p e r f o r m e d , o r o n t h e n e e d s o f t h e r e g i o n a s a w h o l e , b u t r a t h e r o n t h e " m e t h o d s " a v a i l a b l e f o r a d a p t i n g l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t 1 4 t o c h a n g i n g n e e d s . U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t y e a r s , a t t e m p t s t o r e - o r g a n i z e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t t o d e a l w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n a l o n g t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : I n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l A r r a n g e m e n t s . C o - o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , h a v e f r e q u e n t l y b e e n w o r k e d o u t b e t w e e n l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t u n i t s i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h i s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s t h e s a l e o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e , s u c h a s w a t e r , b y t h e c e n t r a l c i t y t o o n e o r m o r e s u b u r b a n l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s . S u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e f a i r l y e a s y t o i m -R o s c o e C. M a r t i n , M e t r o p o l i s • i n T r a n s i t i o n ( W a s h i n g -t o n , D. C. : T h e U. S. H o u s i n g a n d Home F i n a n c e A g e n c y , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 2 . 25 plement s i n c e they do not r e q u i r e any change i n the l o c a l government, s t r u c t u r e . S p e c i a l - P u r p o s e A u t h o r i t i e s . These are u s u a l l y separate i n -dependent u n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e a s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e t o a number of l o c a l governments. T h i s d e r v i c e has r e c e i v e d con-s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . The p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l s i m p l i c i t y of t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t has, however, l e d t o t h e i r p r o l i f e r a t i o n i n many a r e a s , and t h i s has r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n f u s i o n . Annexation o r C o n s o l i d a t i o n . Annexation i n v o l v e s the absorp-t i o n , 'by the c e n t r a l c i t y , o f t e r r i t o r i e s contiguous to r i t ; Many of the l a r g e r c i t i e s a chieved t h e i r p r e s e n t s i z e by way of annexation. I n some i n s t a n c e s , i t was a matter of the c e n t r a l c i t y annexing an u n i n c o r p o r a t e d f r i n g e area or a r e l a -t i v e l y weak l o c a l government u n i t t h a t was e x p e r i e n c i n g f i n a n -c i a l d i f f i c u l t y . While annexation i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e , and p r o -b a b l y d e s i r a b l e i n the s m a l l e r urban areas, i t i s no lon g e r c o n s i d e r e d f e a s i b l e i n the l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas where there are w e l l - e n t r e n c h e d and s t a b l e l o c a l governments on the p e r i - / phery of the c e n t r a l c i t y . C i t y - C o u n t y S e p a r a t i o n and C o n s o l i d a t i o n . I n Canada, a county-form of government e x i s t s i n the p r o v i n c e s of A l b e r t a , Quebec, O n t a r i o , and Nova S c o t i a , and i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r u r a l form of government. I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , where the county system i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the governmental framework of most s t a t e s , 26 i t has to some extent been u t i l i z e d , as an agency f o r d e a l i n g w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n problems. Thus, where a county embraces a m e t r o p o l i t a n area i t has o f t e n been given r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r — IS area-wide urban s e r v i c e s . While some of these approaches to m e t r o p o l i t a n govern-ment o r g a n i z a t i o n have r e l i e v e d s p e c i f i c problems, non have f u r n i s h e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n t o the m a n i f o l d problems i n v o l v e d i n the development of the area as a whole. The web of the m e t r o p o l i s continues to be f a s h i o n e d , i n response to the f o r c e s of u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The p o l i -t i c a l system embodied i n i t evolves o r g a n i c a l l y r a t h e r than r a t i o n a l l y . Governmental changes take p l a c e g r a d u a l l y and on an ad-hoc b a s i s while s o c i a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and economic developments proceed r a p i d l y . But somehow the system, d e s p i t e i t s seeming i r r a t i o n a l i t y and l a c k of a sense of d i r e c t i o n , shows no s i g n s of succumbing. More f a v o r a b l e to defenders of the status-quo than to i n n o v a t o r s , the p o l i t i c a l system of the m e t r o p o l i s f a c e s the l o n g h a u l ahead. Only the f u t u r e w i l l d e cide i t s f a t e . 1 ^ I I I . L o c a l and M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n There are r e l i a b l e r e c o r d s of E g y p t i a n and Mesopotamian c i t i e s whose s t r e e t s were l a i d out on the f a m i l i a r r e c t a n g u l a r 'Plunkett, op_. c i t . , pp. 8 2 - 8 3 . B o l l e n s and Schmandt, op_. c i t . . p. 212. 27 p a t t e r n even over f i v e thousand years ago. However, the r o o t s of modern p l a n n i n g movement are found i n the changed mode of l i v i n g which accompanied the r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the n i n e t e e n t h / c e n t u r y . Much of the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h i s movement was drawn from the Chicago World P a i r of 18'93J."L^ In the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s c entury, the emphasis i n c i t y p l a n -n i n g was on the " c i t y b e a u t i f u l " . I t s emphasis was almost wholly upon c i v i c c e n t e r s , p a r k s , and s t r e e t s and through-f a r e s . These were d e a l t w i t h as a r c h i t e c t u r a l problems. I t was not u n t i l the twenties t h a t c i t y p l a n n i n g put i t s emphasis on the " c i t y p r a c t i c a l " . Today, the emphasis i s on the human beings who populate a community. Not very many years ago, the mere mention of the word " p l a n n i n g " conjured up v i s i o n s of government r e g i m e n t a t i o n , c r e e p i n g s o c i a l i s m , and i n f r i n g e m e n t of p r i v a t e r i g h t s . A l -though r e s i s t e n c e to community p l a n n i n g s t i l l e x i s t s today, the process i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as a l e g i t i m a t e f u n c t i o n of government. Businessmen, as w e l l as c i v i c reformers and newspapers, have become s t r o n g advocates of p l a n n i n g . Even the people who were o r i g i n a l l y most h o s t i l e t o the concept, such as r e a l - e s t a t e o p e r a t o r s and b u i l d e r s , have r e l u c t a n t l y come to accept the f a c t t h a t land-use expansion and development cannot be l e f t e n t i r e l y to the d i s c r e t i o n of the market and 'Robert A. Walker, The P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n i n Urban  Government (Second e d i t i o n ; . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1951) , p. 12 . 2 8 t h e i n g e n u i t y o f i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s , b u t must be s u b j e c t t o i ft r e s p o n s i b l e p u b l i c c o n t r o l . The r e c o g n i t i o n i s t h a t when i t comes t o z o n i n g , l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n , arid, t h e s y s t e m o f c i r -c u l a t i o n a n d t r a f f i c , t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s become i m p o s s i b l e o f r a t i o n a l a t t a c k u n l e s s t h e r e i s a s i n g l e c e n t e r f o r c o -o r d i n a t e d a n a l y s i s , p l a n n i n g , a n d a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g c a n be t r a c e d b a c k f r o m p r i m i t i v e t i m e s t o t h e E g y p t i a n , C h i n e s e , I n d i a n , G r e e k , Roman, M e d i e v a l , R e n a i s s a n c e , a n d o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s , t h e modern e r a o f c i t y p l a n n i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b e g a n w i t h t h e 19 p a s s a g e o f t h e f i r s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e i n 1909* Z o n i n g i s t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t a n o u t g r o w t h o f t h e a n c i e n t common l a w o f n u i s a n c e s , w h i c h r e s t s u p o n t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t no p e r s o n s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o u s e h i s p r o p e r t y i n a n y way t h a t w o u l d c a u s e i n j u r y t o o t h e r s . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , h o w e v e r , t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n p l a n n i n g saw i n z o n i n g a n d s u b -d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l t o o l s f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a much b r o a d e r p u r p o s e t h a n n u i s a n c e c o n t r o l - - n a m e l y , t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a r a t i o n a l , l a n d - u s e p a t t e r n f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y . H o w e v e r , i t seems i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f c i t y p l a n n i n g , w h i c h h a d l i m i t e d p l a n n i n g m e r e l y t o s t r e e t s , p a r k s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , z o n i n g , a n d e t c . , w i l l g i v e way t o a c o n c e p t w h i c h w i l l i n c l u d e t h e s e f u n c t i o n s a s w e l l a s t h e more r e c e n t a d d i t i o n s t o m u n i -18 B o l l e n s a n d S c h m a n d t , op_. p i t . . p . 275. 19 ^ M e l v i l l e C. B r a n c h , P l a n n i n g : A s p e c t s a n d A p p l i c a t i o n s (New Y o r k , L o n d o n , S y d n e y : J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 1 4 . 1 29 c i p a l s e r v i c e s , s u c h as u r b a n r e n e w a l , h o u s i n g , e t c . The argument i s t h a t the l o c a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s an a s p e c t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f l o c a l government. I t i s government l o o k i n g t o t h e f u t u r e , d e t e r m i n i n g d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s , and s e e k i n g the 20 b e s t and most e c o n o m i c a l means f o r a c h i e v i n g them. There a r e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o ncepts o f t h e r o l e o f c i t y p l a n n i n g : An Independent A c t i v i t y o f the C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission. T h i s c o n c e p t h o l d s t h a t c i t y p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be independent and i n s u l a t e d f r o m the mainstream o f p o l i t i c a l and admini'-_"> s t r a t i v e a f f a i r s . The body i n charge o f c i t y p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be the c i t i z e n commission. A S t a f f A i d t o t h e C h i e f E x e c u t i v e . T h i s concept r e g a r d s the p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r as a s t a f f a i d \ t o the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e , and the p l a n n i n g commission as an a s s i s t i n g and a d v i s o r y b o a r d t o t h e p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r . T h i s concept i s a c t u a l l y an o u t g r o w t h o f t h e central-management i d e a , and i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n most p u b l i c - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t e x t s . A P o l i c y - M a k i n g A c t i v i t y o f the C i t y C o u n c i l . The t h i r d con-c e p t h o l d s t h a t the c i t y c o u n c i l i s the p r i m a r y c l i e n t o f t h e c i t y p l a n n i n g agency because i t i s the f i n a l p o l i c y - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y i n m u n i c i p a l government. The c i t y p l a n n i n g commission i s a d v i s o r y t o t h e c o u n c i l . The c i t y p l a n n i n g W a l k e r , op_. c i t . . p. 129. 30 d i r e c t o r p r e s e n t s t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e c i t y p l a n n i n g 21 c o m m i s s i o n t o t h e c i t y c o u n c i l . I n a r e a s o f l o w p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , t h e p o l i t i c i a n i s o f t e n t h e p l a n n e r s H o w e v e r , r e g i o n s o f h i g h p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y a n d c o m p l e x u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e i n s -t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f a r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , a n d f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a s t a f f o f w e l l - e q u i p p e d p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s . W i t h i n a n y c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , m a t t e r s , s u c h a s l o c a t i o n , s i z e , g r o w t h , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a m e n i t i e s a n d t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , a l l r e q u i r e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o p l a n i n t e l l i g e n t l y , a c o m m u n i t y m u s t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i t s p o s i t i o n a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l a r g e r g e o g r a p h i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e g i o n . R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s n o t o n l y e s s e n t i a l b u t o f i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e i n v i e w o f t h e 22 e m e r g e n c e o f m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f w e l l - d e v e l o p e d m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n s , t h e u r b a n p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e e m e r g i n g t o d a y a r e a r a n d o m c o l l e c t i o n o f l o c a l p l a n s a n d p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d t o m e e t l o c a l o b j e c t i v e s . E a c h c o m m u n i t y , i n s e e k i n g a n o p t i m u m s o l u t i o n t o i t s o w n p r o b l e m s , d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y w o r k i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . P o r e x a m p l e , 2 1 T . J . K e n t , J r . , T h e U r b a n G e n e r a l P l a n ( S a n F r a n c i s -c o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y , 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 12-16. 22 V a n d i v e r , " U r b a n i z a t i o n a n d U r b a n i s m , " T h e C h a n g i n g  M e t r o p o l i s . F . J . T i e t z e a n d J . E . M c K e o w n , e d i t o r s ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o m p a n y , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 3 1 . 31 many sub-urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have chosen t o promote the development of s i n g l e - f a m i l y houses on l a r g e l o t s as a means of f o r e s t a l l i n g c o s t l y Investments i n new u t i l i t y systems. When a l a r g e number of communities i n an area l i m i t t h e i r planned development i n t h i s way, the net r e s u l t has o f t e n been t o f o r c e a v a s t outward movement of people to the f r i n g e s of m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , c r e a t i n g a need f o r new and expensive u t i l i t y systems i n the p e r i p h e r a l communities, and f o r c i n g l o n g commuting t r i p s to the c e n t r a l c i t i e s . A p a t t e r n of development t h a t i s economical f o r many suburbs can be ve r y 2^ c o s t l y f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n area and the n a t i o n a t l a r g e . J The f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g bodies to the l o c a l u n i t s v a r i e s w i d e l y . At one end of the continuum are the agencies which are e s t a b l i s h e d and f i n a n c e d by p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and groups. Those i n t h i s category have no o f f i c i a l s t a n d i n g except to s t i m u l a t e the i n t e r e s t s of the c i t i z e n r y and l o c a l governments i n metropolitan-wide p l a n n i n g through r e s e a r c h , p r e p a r a t i o n of l a n d use p l a n s , eco-nomic a n a l y s e s , and p u b l i c i t y concerning the problems of the a r e a . The New York R e g i o n a l P l a n A s s o c i a t i o n and P i t t s b u r g h R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n are two of the b e t t e r known p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d . At the other end are those agencies which are c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s of a ge n e r a l metro-p o l i t a n or area-wide government i n much the same way t h a t c i t y 'Bollens and Schmandt, op_. c i t . , p. 296. 32 p l a n n i n g commissions a r e component u n i t s o f t h e i r m u n i c i p a l governments. The M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d and the P l a n n i n g Department of M e t r o p o l i t a n Dade County, F l o r i d a , f a l l i n t o t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Between t h e s e two extreme a r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f m e t r o p o l i t a n o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g b o d i e s w i t h 2 4 v a r i e d degrees o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r l o c a l u n i t s . The t y p e o f area-wide p l a n n i n g agency t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y becoming more p o p u l a r i s the m e t r o p o l i t a n o r r e g i o n a l commi-s s i o n s e r v i n g a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f governments t h r o u g h o u t an u r b a n complex. These a g e n c i e s have no o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e l o c a l u n i t s a l t h o u g h t h e i r b o a r d membership may be a p p o i n t -ed b y t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g governments. The N o r t h e a s t e r n I l l i -n o i s M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a P l a n n i n g Commission i s a prominent 2B example o f t h i s t y p e . ^ I n 1 9 6 2 , a committee o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n -n e r s i s s u e d a s tatement on the r o l e o f m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g t h a t i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e s i n c e i t e x p r e s s e d t h e consensus of p r o f e s s i o n a l s on a r e l a t i v e l y new a c t i v i t y i n the l o c a l government f i e l d . The committee o u t l i n e d the n a t u r e and o b j e c t i v e s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : The m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g agency s h o u l d seek th e development o f a u n i f i e d p l a n f o r l a n d u s e , d e n s i t y and d e s i g n , the p r o v i s i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s , and the p r e s e r -v a t i o n o f open space and w i se use o f n a t u r a l r e -s o u r c e s . I t s h o u l d s t r i v e t o c o - o r d i n a t e l o c a l I b i d . , p. 3 0 2 . 2 5 I b i d . 33 p l a n n i n g , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , w i t h p l a n n i n g a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l ; s i m i l a r l y , the m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n should be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h s t a t e and n a t i o n a l p l a n s — p a r t i c u l a r l y those a f f e c t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and n a t u r a l resource programs and f u n c t i o n s t h a t are m e t r o p o l i t a n i n scope. To t h i s purpose, there should be a l e g a l requirement t h a t the agency review the content conformity or compati-b i l i t y of a l l p r o p o s a l s a f f e c t i n g the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . . . . . The m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g agency should seek e s t a b l i s h m e n t and acceptance of g o a l s , b o t h . l o n g -range and immediate, f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n area's p h y s i c a l development (with due r e g a r d to economic and s o c i a l f a c t o r s ) . These goals should be the b a s i s f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of the comprehenisve me-t r o p o l i t a n area p l a n — a n d t h a t p l a n , i n t u r n , should serve as a framework w i t h i n which may be c o - o r d i n a t e d the comprehensive p l a n s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , c o u n t i e s and o t h e r u n i t s of government i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . 2 " The most d e s i r a b l e arrangements f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n -n i n g are i n the few cases where the r e s p o n s i b l e agency i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of an area-wide government. I n such cases, the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n can more e a s i l y be t i e d i n t o the programs and decision-making processes of an on-going p u b l i c body t h a t has o p e r a t i o n a l powers. IV. Conclusions I n 1 9 3 8 , Lewis Mumford i n h i s b r i l l i a n t study "The C u l -ture of C i t i e s , " s t a t e d t h a t he c o u l d not and would not escape the f a c t t h a t i t was the c i t y which gave a r e g i o n i t s c u l t u r a l American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , The Role of Metropo-l i t a n P l a n n i n g (Chicago: American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , 1 9 6 2 ) , P p T T - 5 . 34 27 v i t a l i t y . ' L a t e r , L o u i s W i r t h p r oposed t h a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n 28 r e g i o n s h o u l d be a p l a n n i n g u n i t . The m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n i s many-faceted and m u l t i -d i m e n s i o n a l w i t h economic, s o c i a l , and government i n t e r d e p e n - , d e n c i e s . F i r s t l y , the c o n d i t i o n o f the economy of a metropo-l i t a n a r e a has a d i r e c t and major b e a r i n g on the a b i l i t y o f i t s governments t o f i n a n c e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s and, i n t u r n , the governments o f the a r e a t h r o u g h t h e i r s e r v i c e s and c o n t r o l s a f f e c t t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f i t s economy. S e c o n d l y , work s p e c i a l i -z a t i o n produces a l a b o r f o r c e o f many d i v e r s i f i e d t y p e s , t h u s b r i n g i n g t o the m e t r o p o l i s new s o c i a l v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s as w e l l as broadened demands upon i t s governments. T h i r d l y , the s h i f t i n g s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f c e n t r a l c i t i e s o f t e n causes changes I n the a t t i t u d e s and p o s i t i o n s o f b o t h c e n t r a l c i t y and suburban p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s . T h i s i s f r e q u e n t l y e v i d e n t on a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s , i n c l u d i n g p l a n s f o r 29 m e t r o p o l i t a n government r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n . Most o f us d e s i r e e f f i c i e n t l o c a l government, but t h i s means more t h a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e competence. What we r e a l l y ^John Friedmann, "The Concept of a P l a n n i n g R e g i o n -The E v o l u t i o n o f an I d e a i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , R e g i o n a l Deve-lopment and P l a n n i n g . John Friedmann and W i l l i a m A l o n s o , e d i t o r s (Cambridge: The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 5 0 6 . p Q L o u i s W i r t h , . "The M e t r o p o l i t a n R e g i o n as a P l a n n i n g U n i t " , N a t i o n a l Conference on P l a n n i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s o f the C onference h e l d a t I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d i a n a , May 2 5 - 2 7 , 1942 ( C h i c a g o : ASPO, 1 9 4 2 ) . P Q -^Bollens and Schmandt, op_. c i t . . p. 30« 35 d e s i r e i s l o c a l government e f f i c i e n t i n the sense t h a t i t r e s -ponds to the community's needs and i t s a s p i r a t i o n s , t h a t i t p e r mits maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i t s c i t i z e n s i n the d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l of l o c a l a f f a i r s , and t h a t , w i t h i n t h i s framework, i t a d m i n i s t e r s l o c a l undertakings e c o n o m i c a l l y and w i t h com-30 petence. However, i t i s most ( d o u b t f u l t h a t the cause of l o c a l democracy i s advanced by p e r m i t t i n g a system t h a t en--courages subordinate a u t h o r i t i e s to thwart and impede one a n o t her. The s t r u c t u r e of Canadian m u n i c i p a l government shows both B r i t i s h and American i n f l u e n c e . With i t s r o o t s i n the B r i t i s h system, the council-committee form of l o c a l government has continued i n widespread use i n Canada. The tendency t o f o s t o r r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o u n c i l s e l e c t e d on a n o n - p a r t i s a n b a s i s more c l e a r l y r e s u l t s from North American t r a d i t i o n s . While the almost u n i v e r s a l Canadian p r a c t i c e of e l e c t i n g the mayor s e p a r a t e l y may d e r i v e from the U n i t e d S t a t e s ' c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between e x e c u t i v e and l e g i -s l a t i v e powers, the f a c t t h a t Canadian mayors have not been a s s i g n e d any r e a l a u t h o r i t y , i n c o n t r a s t to t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s , seems to i n d i c a t e a r e l u c t a n c e t o p r o v i d e the substance f o r any genuine s e p a r a t i o n of powers. Such r e -l u c t a n c e , i t should be noted, i s e n t i r e l y i n accordance w i t h the concept of r e s p o n s i b l e government adhered to by most P l u n k e t t , op_. c i t . , p. 8. 36 Commonwealth C o u n t r i e s . However, the p o l i t i c a l boundaries of the v a r i o u s u n i t s of l o c a l government found i n Canadian metro-p o l i t a n areas were e s t a b l i s h e d l o n g before the advent of the automobile, i n an e r a t h a t was p r i m a r i l y r u r a l - o r i e n t e d . The e x i s t e n c e of a v a r i e t y of out-moded and inadequate l o c a l govern-ment u n i t s and s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h i n the metropo-l i s , none of which has d e c i s i v e c o n t r o l over the area as a 31 whole, makes a major c o n t r i b u t i o n to the m e t r o p o l i t a n problem. T o o l s f o r p l a n n i n g implementation are s c a t t e r e d . Not o n l y are they s c a t t e r e d among many m u n i c i p a l u n i t s w i t h i n urban a r e a s , but they are a l s o s c a t t e r e d among d i f f e r e n t e n a b l i n g and a u t h o r i z i n g s t a t u t e s . T h i s s c a t t e r i n g of the v i t a l t o o l s r e s u l t s not o n l y i n a l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n , i f a l l of the a v a i l a b l e powers are c o n f e r r e d on every m u n i c i p a l i -t y ; '/'but a l s o a l a c k of c o n s i s t e n c y , s i n c e not a l l the m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s w i t h i n the same area w i l l u s u a l l y possess the same powers. The l i m i t a t i o n s a r i s i n g out of the s c a t t e r i n g of sub-s t a n t i v e power are r e - i n f o r c e d by our system of l o c a l govern-ment; the system assumes a degree of l o c a l autonomy t h a t impedes t h a t attainment of r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . I n l a r g e p a r t the problem i s one of s c a l e , as l o c a l communities may not be o r g a n i z e d on a geographic b a s i s s u f f i c i e n t l y e x t e n s i v e or s t r a t e g i c to a l l o w them to undertake the n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g I b i d . . pp. 6 9 - 8 0 . 37 32 and development d e c i s i o n s . P l a n n i n g and development of the p h y s i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l environment are among the most complex and d i f f i c u l t tasks'1' of government. U r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n are c l o s e l y linked,hence: two d i s t i n c t but r e l a t e d s e t s of i s s u e s must be d e a l t w i t h : on the one hand, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l q u e s t i o n s concerning the p l a n n i n g and development of c i t i e s ; on the o t h e r hand, the economic questions a r i s i n g i n con-: n e c t i o n w i t h i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . These two s e t s of problems 33 should meet and be r e s o l v e d i n u r b a n i z a t i o n p o l i c y . J The p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery and the p r o -cedures used a t the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government w i l l a f f e c t the c h a r a c t e r of the p o l i c y , the q u a l i t y of p l a n s which are intended t o embody the p o l i c y , and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n . M e t r o p o l i t a n o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s ; a t the same stage today t h a t c i t y p l a n n i n g was about f i f t y years ago. I t i s winning r e c o g n i t i o n but i t s t i l l remains o u t s i d e the main-stream of l o c a l government l i f e . The growing number of a r e a -wide p l a n n i n g agencies f u r n i s h e s t a n g i b l e evidence of the c u r r e n t ferment i n t h i s f i e l d . So does the movement toward the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l s of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s , 3 D a n i e l R. Mandelker, "A L e g a l S t r a t e g y f o r Urban Development", P l a n n i n g f o r a Nation o f C i t i e s , Sam Bass Warner, e d i t o r (Cambridge: The M. I . T. Pr e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 2 1 1 . 33 -^Vandiver, op_. c i t . . p. 30 . 38 a movement t h a t g i v e s promise of p r o v i d i n g an i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanism, i m p e r f e c t as i t may be, f o r r e l a t i n g p l a n n i n g to the e x e c u t i n g a g e n c i e s . T h i s l a t t e r development may w e l l o f f e r the most advanced s o l u t i o n t h a t can be expected i n im-34 p r o v i n g the governmental processes of the m e t r o p o l i s . However, the r o l e of m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i s not y e t r e s o l v e d , mainly because of the r e l u c t a n c e of d i f f e r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n s to give up any e x i s t i n g a u t h o r i t y , the i n e v i t -a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s of i n t e g r a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s o r g a n i z e d to operate s e p a r a t e l y , and the presence of d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i n -t e r e s t s . P l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s who are i n a p o s i -t i o n t o a r t i c u l a t e community needs and goals and r a l l y p u b l i c support. I t i s p r e c i s e l y i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h a t m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i s s e r i o u s l y handicapped. Part of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s from a l a c k of c o r r e l a t i o n of long-term p l a n o b j e c t i v e s with the more immediate decision-making a c t i v i t y which occu-p i e s the m a j o r i t y of a p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r ' s time. I f p l a n n i n g does not c o n t r i b u t e to h i s immediate o b j e c t i v e with concrete a c t i o n , t h e p o l i t i c i a n w i l l l o s e I n t e r e s t i n the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , before p o l i t i c a l support can e x i s t f o r p l a n n i n g on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l , the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n must prove i t s v a l i d i t y and e f f i c i e n c y a t each l e v e l of government, and a l s o a t each f u n c t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of B o l l e n s and Schmandt, op_. c i t . , p. 303. 39 35 government. ^ Duties and a u t h o r i t i e s must be a p p r o p r i a t e t o a r e a , po-p u l a t i o n , and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . Only when a l l of these f a c t o r s are balanced a t the h i g h e s t l e v e l , w i l l community s a -t i s f a c t i o n be maximized. V. The C r i t e r i a f o r T e s t i n g Purposes The i n - e f f e c t i v e n e s s charged to many e x i s t i n g metropo-l i t a n p l a n n i n g agencies stems l a r g e l y from t h e i r l a c k of p o l i -t i c a l muscle and from t h e i r i n - a b i l i t y or f a i l u r e t o p a r t i c i -pate e f f e c t i v e l y when d e c i s i o n s are taken. Such l a c k of power and i n f l u e n c e tend to be r e - i n f o r c i n g . The i n - a b i l i t y t o meet the demands c r e a t e s a gap between e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e i r f u l -f i l l m e n t ; as confidence i n the p l a n n i n g agency i s l o s t , i t s power i n t u r n decreases. Although t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l governments are u s e f u l i n meeting l o c a l problems, they cannot meet the problems of commu-n i c a t i o n , l e a d e r s h i p , and e x p r e s s i o n i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n con-t e x t . I f the m e t r o p o l i s i s to r e a c h i t s g r e a t e s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i t w i l l have to c r e a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s through which common d i s -c u s s i o n , common decision-making and common a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are -^Vincent J . Moore, "The S t r u c t u r e of P l a n n i n g and R e g i o n a l Development," Emerging C i t i e s of America. Government R e l a t i o n s and P l a n n i n g - P o l i c y Conference, January 22-24, 1965 (Washington, D. C. : AIP), p. 4. 40 f a c i l i t a t e d . 3 6 Large s c a l e , metropolitan-wide o r g a n i z a t i o n i s un-q u e s t i o n a b l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a l i m i t e d number of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , but i t i s not the most a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e of o r g a n i -z a t i o n f o r the p r o v i s i o n of a l l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d i n a m e t r o p o l i s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t there should be a d i v i s i o n of f u n c t i o n s between the " m e t r o p o l i t a n " government and the " l o c a l " governments. There are two reasons f o r t h i s : (1) l o c a l govern-ments have v i t a l r o l e s to p l a y i n the l i v e s of t h e i r c i t i z e n s and i n these r o l e s they should be conserved; and, (2) a metro-p o l i t a n government should o n l y undertake s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n e d governmental f u n c t i o n s of m e t r o p o l i t a n s i g n i f i c a n c e . 3 7 I t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t reasonable d i s t i n c t i o n s can be drawn between the concerns of m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g and those of l o c a l community p l a n n i n g , so t h a t m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n -n i n g can focus on problems and i s s u e s of g r e a t e r than l o c a l impact without i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h matters of p u r e l y l o c a l con-c e r n . However, i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t continued progress 3 W i l l i a m N. C a s s e l l a , " O b j e c t i v e s of M e t r o p o l i t a n Government L i s t e d " , N a t i o n a l C i v i c Review, V o l . XLVTII, No. 1 (January, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 2 9 . 3 7 I b i d . -3^The J o i n t Center f o r Urban S t u d i e s of the Massachu-s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of Technology and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , The  E f f e c t i v e n e s s of M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g (Washington, D.. C.: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , June 3 0 , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 115. 41 w i l l r e q u i r e a c o - o r d i n a t e d approach between the concerns of m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g and l o c a l p l a n n i n g . I t i s important here to propose some c r i t e r i a t o e v a l u -ate the m e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t i e s of three s e l e c t e d m e t r o p o l i t a n areas of Canada, and to prove the v a l i d i t y of the h y p o t h e s i s . The c r i t e r i a are mainly d e r i v e d from "The Role of M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g " prepared i n 1962 by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Conference Committee of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, and from " A l t e r n a t i v e Approaches to Governmental Re-organiza-t i o n i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas, A Commission Report" prepared i n 1962 by the U n i t e d S t a t e s A d v i s o r y Commission on I n t e r g o v e r n -mental R e l a t i o n s . However, i n a p p l y i n g c r i t e r i a , two l i m i t a -t i o n s must be c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d : (1) an a p p r a i s a l of t h i s k i n d , as any a p p r a i s a l i n the s u b j e c t matter and methodology of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , can o n l y suggest tendencies and l i k e -l i h o o d s ; and, (2) some of the c r i t e r i a are compatible, but o n l y i f each i s moderated, not maximized. Balance i s necessary, f o r some of the c r i t e r i a p u l l i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s , r e f l e c t -i n g c o n t r a d i c t o r y values which the d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a are presumed to secure. C r i t e r i o n I . M e t r o p o l i t a n government should be o r g a n i z e d as general-purpose r a t h e r than s i n g l e - p u r p o s e government. A s s i g n -ment of f u n c t i o n s to g e n e r a l purpose government i s more l i k e l y to produce a proper b a l a n c i n g of t o t a l l o c a l needs and r e -sources, a c o n d i t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e decision-making and p o l i -t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s l i k e l y to produce more e f f i c i e n t 42 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n through b e t t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n among f u n c t i o n s and the r e d u c t i o n of overhead c o s t s . I t can sharpen c i t i z e n c o n t r o l by e n a b l i n g the c i t i z e n to co n c e n t r a t e , r a t h e r than d i f f u s e h i s a t t e n t i o n on those o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o f f i c i a l s w ith the power to make d e c i s i o n s . Adherence to t h i s c r i t e r i o n means m i n i m i z i n g the o v e r l a p p i n g among u n i t s of government. y Broad scope f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n government i s important because s e r v i c e s depend upon one another. When a government c o n t r o l s s u f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e s , i t can not onl y balance p r e s e n t needs and a s s i g n p r i o r i t i e s , but i t can a l s o p l a n f o r the f u t u r e . Government should have under I t s a e g i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r enough of the s e r v i c e s to c o n s i d e r them as a t o t a l package to balance one with another, to a s s i g n p r i o r i t i e s , always > 40 t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n values of sub-areas and groups. The m e t r o p o l i t a n government should serve as a focus of l e a d e r -s h i p . T h e r e f o r e , a general-purpose government f o r the metro-p o l i t a n area i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e . C r i t e r i o n I I . The u n i t of government performing a f u n c t i o n should have the l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y to perform 39 - ^ A d v i s o r y Commission on Intergovernmental R e l a t i o n s , A l t e r n a t i v e Approaches to Governmental R e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Metro-p o l i t a n Areas, A Commission Report (Washington. D. C. : U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , June, 1962), p. 13. 40 - • , Performance of ..Urban F u n c t i o n s : L o c a l and Area-wide (Washington. D. C. U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 'September, 1963), p. 56. 43 41 the s e r v i c e s a s s i g n e d to i t . Government needs s u f f i c i e n t l e g a l a u t h o r i t y to undertake a s e r v i c e or an aspect of a s e r v i c e , and to cope adequately with the f o r c e s that c r e a t e the problems which the c i t i z e n s expect i t to handle. There-f o r e , the governmental j u r i s d i c t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g any s e r v i c e should be l a r g e enough to enable the b e n e f i t s from t h a t s e r v i c e to be consumed p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n . C r i t e r i o n I I I . The performance of f u n c t i o n s by a u n i t of government should remain c o n t r o l l a b l e by and a c c e s s i b l e to i t s 42 r e s i d e n t s . A c c e s s i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y of government are determined to a s i g n i f i c a n t degree by f a c t o r s that have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s i z e of the government. These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the number and nature of e l e c t i v e o f f i c i a l s , the manner of t h e i r e l e c t i o n (by d i s t r i c t or a t l a r g e ) , t h e i r terms, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of powers among them, the a p p o i n t i v e p e r s o n n e l , and many o t h e r s . L o c a l c o n t r o l and a c c e s s i b i l i t y may be more p r a c t i c a b l e f o r the c i t i z e n of a s i n g l e area-wide government with e f f e c t i v e over-view of a l l f u n c t i o n s as w e l l as a degree of remoteness from v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s , than f o r the c i t i z e n of a s m a l l communi-t y which i s o v e r l a i d by many u n i t s of government, s u b j e c t to 43 p r e s s u r e s , over which he has no c o n t r o l . As James Madison 4 l I b i d . p . 41. ^ I b i d . 4 3 I b i d 56. argued i n "The F e d e r a l i s t " , the l a r g e r the area of government, the l e s s the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t any one s p e c i a l group w i l l domi-nate the government, and thus the g r e a t e r the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the many d i v e r s e groups of the community w i l l have t h e i r i n -t e r e s t s r e s p e c t e d . T h e r e f o r e , i n terms of e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l and a c c e s s i b i l i t y , the u n i t of government should be l a r g e enough t o make I t u n l i k e l y t h a t any s i n g l e i n t e r e s t can domi-nate i t . C r i t e r i o n IV. While t r a d i t i o n a l concepts of sm a l l and i n t i -mate l o c a l governments are i m p o s s i b l e to q u a l i f y , they are very r e a l and c o n s t i t u t e one of the e s s e n t i a l s i n our s c a l e of values as to what we want our governments to be and how we want them to f u n c t i o n . O b v i o u s l y , i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n and complexity of government s e r v i c e s c r e a t e i n e x o r a b l e pressue f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n , but not e l i m i n a t i o n , of these v a l u e s . A l -though the s m a l l l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have t h e i r advantages, they can, l i k e many good t h i n g s , be overdone. The problem i s one of b a l a n c i n g t r a d i t i o n a l values with pres e n t day and f u t u r e r e a l i t i e s . The l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s s i z e - - i t s p o p u l a t i o n and i t s land area--as w e l l as i t s r e s o u r c e s has c o n s i d e r a b l e hear-i n g on i t s l o c a l government's c a p a c i t y to a d m i n i s t e r and pro v i d e the s e r v i c e s i t s c i t i z e n s r e q u i r e . Much cou l d be done to s t r e n g t h e n the c a p a c i t y of l o c a l government u n i t s under ^ J a m e s Madison, The F e d e r a l i s t (New York: The Mordern L i b r a r y , 1 9 4 l h pp. 5 3 - 6 2 . 45 m e t r o p o l i t a n government by boundary adjustment. N a t u r a l d i -v i s i o n s and the c h a r a c t e r of urban development would have to be c o n s i d e r e d , but w i t h i n t h i s context m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o u l d be made more n e a r l y equal i n s i z e through c o n s o l i d a t i o n and amal-45 gamation. J As to the f u n c t i o n of p l a n n i n g , however, l o c a l p l a n n i n g i s a l s o needed f o r : ( l ) c o - o r d i n a t i o n of urban f u n c t i o n s p r o -v i d e d on a m u n i c i p a l i t y - b y - m u n i c i p a l i t y b a s i s so as to produce the most e f f e c t i v e o v e r - a l l l o c a l program; and, (2) guidance of l o c a l development w i t h i n area-wide g u i d e l i n e s proposed by 46 the m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g body. C r i t e r i o n V. The u n i t of government c a r r y i n g on a f u n c t i o n s h o u l d have a geographic area of j u r i s d i c t i o n adequate f o r e f f e c t i v e performance. In o r d e r t o c o - o r d i n a t e and perform any type of s e r v i c e , the government should have p o l i t i c a l con-47 t r o l of the t o t a l c a u s a l area and t o t a l area a f f e c t e d . Where the p o l i t i c a l community does not c o n t a i n the whole a r e a , some i n t e r e s t s may be d i s - r e g a r d e d . A c i t y , f o r i n s t a n c e , may decide to d i s c h a r g e i t s sewage below i t s boundaries, and the a f f e c t e d p u b l i c there may have no v o i c e i n t h i s d e c i s i o n . However, the meaning of geographic adequacy should not ^ T . J . P l u n k e t t , op_. c i t . . p. 114. 46' A d v i s o r y Commission, Performance of Urban F u n c t i o n s , op. c i t . . p. 225 47 I b i d . , p. 51. 46 be l i m i t e d o n l y to the Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. Any u r b a n i z e d area which i s contiguous to the Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area should a l s o be regarded as p a r t of. the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , the meaning of geographic adequacy should i n d i c a t e the t o t a l a rea of the Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area p l u s the u r b a n i z e d a r e a , i f there i s any, which i s contiguous to the Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. C r i t e r i o n V I . To c a r r y out m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s , f o u r b a s i c f u n c t i o n s should be performed by the m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g agency: A. Research: The m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g agency should concen-t r a t e upon aspects of i s s u e s t h a t are c l e a r l y of m e t r o p o l i t a n s i g n i f i c a n c e and operate w i t h i n the agency's competence. Re-s e a r c h should p r o v i d e the data needed f o r p r e p a r i n g a compre-hensive p l a n . B. P l a n n i n g : To be e f f e c t i v e , m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g should be comprehensive so t h a t i t can p r o v i d e a forum f o r the r e s o -l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and needs i n p r o v i d i n g urban s e r v i c e s . T h i s f u n c t i o n should be to prepare a comprehensive p l a n . C. Co-operation and C o - o r d i n a t i o n : The p r i n c i p a l r o l e of area-wide p l a n n i n g should be to develop recommendations f o r area-wide goals f o r p h y s i c a l development,, and to propose plans f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t i o n s toward attainment of the goals a t the v a r i o u s a f f e c t e d l e v e l of government. D. Advice and A s s i s t a n c e : The m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g agency 47 should be r e l a t e d to other p l a n n i n g agencies and l o c a l govern-ment and non-government o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s f u n c t i o n should be to e s t a b l i s h standards f o r p l a n n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and to en-48 courage l o c a l u n i t s to adopt and p r o p e r l y a d m i n i s t e r them. C r i t e r i o n V I I . There should be a l e g a l requirement t h a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g agency reviews the content, conformity or c o m p a t i b i l i t y of a l l p r o p o s a l s a f f e c t i n g the m e t r o p o l i t a n 49 a r e a . These p r o p o s a l s would i n c l u d e such measures of muni-c i p a l p l a n n i n g as the l o c a l comprehensive p l a n and zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l s . However, the m e t r o p o l i t a n body's review power i s o n l y the power to be heard, not the power to approve or r e j e c t . The power of review i s not the power of veto, but r a t h e r the n e c e s s i t y of comment on p r o p o s a l s a f f e c t i n g the SO m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g agency's a u t h o r i t y i s o n l y to advise and make suggestions to l o c a l i t i e s . In each of the f o l l o w i n g three Chapters, a m e t r o p o l i t a n area i s s t u d i e d , the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area i n Chapter I I I , the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area i n Chapter IV, and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area i n Chapter V. These M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas are. s t u d i e d and-appraised based on the C r i t e r i a . The three m e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t i e s are s t u d i e d under 48 H O I b i d . . p. 221. ^ 9 I b i d . . p. 220. 5°Ibid.. p. 221. 48 C r i t e r i a I to V; and the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s are s t u d i e d under C r i t e r i a I I I to V I I . A f t e r each s e c t i o n i n each of the f o l l o w i n g three Chapters, an a r b i t r a r y a p p r a i s a l based on the C r i t e r i a i s g i v e n . The a p p r a i s a l may be " e x c e l l e n t " , "good", " f a i r " , o r "poor". In the l a s t Chapter,there i s a g e n e r a l comparison of the three M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas based on the C r i -t e r i a and the a r b i t r a r y a p p r a i s a l s to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the hypothesis on i t s p r a c t i c a l g r o u n d s . CHAPTER I I I THE METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER AREA Vancouver i s the western r a i l w a y terminus i n Canada. I t i s l o c a t e d on an e x c e l l e n t deep-sea harbor; and i t i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n , business and f i n a n c i a l c e n t e r f o r B r i t i s h Colum-b i a and much of the western p r a i r i e s . I t has three b a s i c . economic f u n c t i o n s : ( l ) i t i s the hub of B r i t i s h Columbia's secondary i n d u s t r y ; (2) i t i s the p r o v i n c i a l focus f o r t e r t i a r y or s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y ; and, (3) i t i s the major p o r t f o r western Canada In the Lower Mainland Region, the r a p i d r a t e of popula-t i o n growth and p u r c h a s i n g power i s the main stimulus to i t s i n d u s t r i a l development. The p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l n a t i o n a l output of manufactured goods produced i n t h i s Region rose from 2.6 per cent i n 1931 to 4 .2 per cent i n 1956 ( i n $ terms). By p 1976 i t should r i s e a g a i n to around 5 per cent. The widening range and the more advanced type of manufacturing which has developed i n the Lower Mainland i n r e c e n t years makeQ f o r a more s t a b l e and f l e x i b l e economy, and provide.^ a s t r o n g e r f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u t u r e growth. However, the i n d u s t r i a l e s t a -blishments i n t h i s Region are mostly grouped i n the M e t r o p o l i -P o p u l a t i o n Trends i n the Lower Mainland. 1921 - 1986: Summary (New Westminster, Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, A p r i l , 1968). p , Manufacturing I n d u s t r y i n the Lower Main-l a n d of B. C. (New Westminster, January, 19E0), p. i . 50 t a n Vancouver Area. At t h i s moment there i s no i n d u s t r i a l de-velopment f u r t h e r than f i f t y minutes d r i v i n g time from down-3 town Vancouver. M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s becoming more im-p o r t a n t as a s e r v i c e and trade c e n t e r r a t h e r than a manufactur-4 i n g c e n t e r . R e s i d e n t i a l development i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver has a l s o taken p l a c e i n a c o n s i s t e n t c e n t r i p e t a l f a s h i o n . The p a s t , p r e s e n t , and f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n growth can be seen as shown i n the f o l l i w n g t a b l e : TABLE I I THE POPULATION GROWTH IN METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER AREA 1921 - 1986 Year . Number of P o p u l a t i o n 1921 2 2 2 , 2 9 4 1931 3 3 7 , 2 1 8 1941 3 9 4 , 5 8 8 1951 562,048 1956 6 6 5 , 1 1 0 1961 7 9 0 , 2 5 9 1966 8 9 2 , 3 8 4 1971 1 , 0 2 6 , 0 0 0 1976 1 , 1 6 9 , 0 0 0 1981 1 , 3 3 5 , 0 0 0 1986 1 , 5 2 4 , 0 0 0 I n d u s t r i a l Land Prospects i n the Lower Main-- s  l a n d Region of B r i t i s h Columbia (New Westminster, November, • 1 9 6 T ) , p. 1 3 . k .City of Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver's  Changing P o p u l a t i o n (Vancouver, June, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 6 . 51 T h i s p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s from 1921 to 1966 are d e r i v e d from the Census of Canada, while the r e s t are p r o j e c t e d by the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d . H o w e v e r , massive 6 m i g r a t i o n i s the key f a c t o r i n t h i s r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth. M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver f i r s t r e c e i v e d o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i -t i o n i n the 1951 Census of Canada. Today, i t i n c l u d e s 15 l o c a l a r e a s : West Vancouver, North Vancouver D i s t r i c t , North Vancou-ver C i t y , U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands, Vancouver C i t y , Burnaby, ri ' ; P o r t Moody, Coquitlam, New Westminster, E r a s e r M i l l s , P o r t Co-qu i t l a m , Richmond, D e l t a , Surrey and White Rock. On June 29, 1967, under S u b - s e c t i o n ( l ) of S e c t i o n 766 of the M u n i c i p a l Act of the Pr o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, the P r a s e r - B u r r a r d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was e s t a b l i s h e d by L e t t e r s P a t e n t . The name of t h i s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was f u r t h e r changed to the Gr e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t on June 13, 1968.^ The G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n c l u d e s a l l the^'J mu-n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n the Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area p l u s two e l e c t o r a l areas t h a t are the E l e c t o r a l Area A ( U n i v e r s i t y H i l l ) and the E l e c t o r a l Area B ( l o c o ) . T h e r e f o r e , the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s regarded i n t h i s t h e s i s as the -''Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, P o p u l a t i o n  Trends. 1921 ^ 1986, l o c . c i t . 6 °Ibid. ^The name was changed by a supplementary L e t t e r s Patent on June' 13, 1968. Q The P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, The B. C. Gazet t e . V o l . CVTI, No. 28 ( V i c t o r i a , J u l y 13, 1967T"T~ INSET M l l K - ^ ^ O U V E R J VANCOUVE. . -• ;ctxjuiT-1 VANCOUVER jBURNAEY \^WW'^'tJ^lir ^ . J " I .AJ^L^^0^ MAPLE RIDGE" '</ IV* ;KENTV ' /'ii, 'sin* |. m»' RICHMOND AlSSlOW > CHIU-IWACK, . CHIIUIWHACK 'i i l l " / , fa DELTA SURREY U N G L E Y ctANGLEY CITY MATSQ.UI a. .1"/-UMAS | : 8 O U N 0 A M BAY WHITE ROCK II • ' l c * IM A 0 A J _ I  ~ 1 U M i T 6 » " S T A T E S • N SCALE OF MILES >0 Z V 6 a to tr J—i a— t-a—n;xr~Krr-| A P R I L , 1966 S O U R C E : L O W E R M A l J J -• L A N O R E G I O N A L P L A N -N I N G B O A R D BOUNDARY OF VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN AREA MUNICIPAL OR INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY iilfc' MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN* THE LOWER MAINLAND REGION O F BRITISH COLUMBIA 53 m e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. In 19^9, a t the i n v i t a t i o n of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Mr. R. C. McDonald, a meeting was h e l d i n Burnaby a t which i t was d e c i d e d to p e t i t i o n the P r o v i n c i a l Government to d e c l a r e the Lower Mainland Region a "Regional P l a n n i n g Area." The p e t i t i o n was an o f f i c i a l agreement t h a t each community--and each i n d i v i d u a l through h i s c o u n c i l — h a s a stake i n the growth and development of the Region as a whole. T h e r e f o r e , the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board was e s t a b l i s h e d and the P l a n n i n g Area was g a z e t t e d by p r o c l a m a t i o n of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s on June 2 1 , 1949» under the Town P l a n n i n g A c t . I n 1 9 5 7 , the p r o v i s i o n s f o r Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n -n i n g were brought under the M u n i c i p a l Act of B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r e s e n t Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i s governed by D i v i s i o n 6 , P a r t XXI of the M u n i c i p a l Act, Chapter 2 5 5 , R. S. B. C. i 9 6 0 as amended. 9 Since the p l a n n i n g area of the Lower Mainl'and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i n c l u d e s a l l the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area p l u s 15 o t h e r l o c a l a r e a s , 1 0 the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n -n i n g Board i s , t h e r e f o r e , regarded as the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancou-Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Annual Report, 1966 (New Westminster, January, 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 3 . 1 0 T h e r e are 14 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o u t s i d e of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area. However, there i s one un-organized area which a l s o should be counted. 5 4 v/er p l a n n i n g body because there i s no other area-wide p l a n n i n g body. I . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Government A u t h o r i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n has i n r e c e n t years p r o v i d e d f o r the est a b l i s h m e n t of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n can be s t a t e d as below: A. To c r e a t e an adaptable type of o r g a n i z a t i o n capable of h a n d l i n g any i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e , w i t h the a f f e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s h e l p i n g i n the de s i g n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . B. To pre s e r v e both the i d e n t i t y of e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and a sense of community, even i f t h i s i n v o l v e s e x t r a c o s t . C. To broaden the borrowing base of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s with-. 7 out removing t h e i r t a x i n g powers. D. To p r o v i d e a l o c a l decision-making body f o r the un-orga-n i z e d areas of the Province."1'"1' The i d e a of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s c l e a r l y towards the est a b l i s h m e n t of general-purpose and a r e a -wide government a u t h o r i t i e s to p r o v i d e a s s i g n e d s e r v i c e s on area-wide base. When and where the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f e e l s -^T. R a s h l e i g h , "B. C.'s New Reg i o n a l D i s t r i c t s " . Com-munity P l a n n i n g i n B. C. V o l . VI, No. 1 (February, 1966), p. 3. 55 there i s a l o c a l need and demand f o r a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , he prepares a recommendation t h a t a d i s t r i c t be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n powers, o b l i g a t i o n s and d u t i e s . The M i n i s t e r ' s r e -commendations are f i r s t forwarded to the a f f e c t e d m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s . W i t h i n s i x t y days, the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s may h o l d a referendum on whether the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s to share the co s t of the proposed f u n c t i o n s of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . When the s i x t y - d a y w a i t i n g p e r i o d i s over, the M i n i s t e r may recommand to the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l t h a t L e t t e r s Patent 12 c r e a t i n g a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t be i s s u e d . The Greater Vancou-ver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was c r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g to t h i s procedure. In a d d i t i o n t o the p r o v i s i o n s i n the M u n i c i p a l Act, f u n c t i o n s are p r o v i d e d t o the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t by L e t t e r s Patent o r supplementary L e t t e r s P a t e n t. Before making a r e -commandation t o add any f u n c t i o n , the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s must r e c e i v e from the R e g i o n a l Board a request t h a t i t be granted the power to undertake a f u n c t i o n , such request to s p e c i f y the member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which are to p a r t i c i p a t e and the b a s i s f o r s h a r i n g the c o s t f o r each f u n c t i o n . However, before advancing a r e q u e s t , the R e g i o n a l Board must r e c e i v e the consent of the c o u n c i l of each m u n i c i p a l i t y which i s to 13 p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f u n c t i o n . J T h e r e f o r e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t , •'-"Ibid. 1 3 T h e Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. M u n i c i p a l A c t . Chap-t e r 2 5 5 , S e c t i o n s 7 6 6 ( 2 ) , 7 6 6 ( 3 ) and 766(4), R. S. B. C. i 9 6 0 as amended. 56 while the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i s p r i m a r i l y a P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the assignment of f u n c t i o n s i s mainly on the i n i t i a t i v e of l o c a l governments; and the p a r t i -c i p a t i o n of the l o c a l governments i n a s s i g n i n g f u n c t i o n s to the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i s a l s o on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . At the p r e s e n t time, the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has o n l y been a s s i g n e d the h o s p i t a l f u n c t i o n which i s p r o v i d e d by Pro-v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . I :f \ i n c l u d e d i n i t s L e t t e r s Patent, the R e g i o n a l Board can prepare a r e g i o n a l p l a n which o u t l i n e s p r o j e c t e d major uses of l a n d , i n c l u d i n g major roads. T h i s p l a n i s adopted by a m a j o r i t y of a l l the D i r e c t o r s . No p u l b i c h e a r i n g or a p p r o v a l by i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l i s r e q u i r e d . Since the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has not been a s s i g n e d a p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n a t t h i s moment, the area-wide p l a n n i n g matters i n Me-t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area have to be performed by the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board which i s a separate e n t i t y from the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . T h i s i s h i g h l y u n d e s i r a b l e a c c o r -d i n g to the hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s . B e s i d e s , there has been no working r e l a t i o n s h i p between the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and the 14 .. »•-• .^ .v-.- • ' R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board.; 4 ; The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Government A u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "poor". Mr. Jim Mclean, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w h e l d a t the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Vancouver, August 9 , 1968. 5 7 L e g a l Powers. G e n e r a l l y , the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t can have the same l e g a l powers as any m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s i s s t a t e d under S e c t i o n 7 7 5 of the M u n i c i p a l Act t h a t : Except as i s otherwise p r o v i d e d under t h i s D i v i s i o n or L e t t e r s Patent, the p r o v i s i o n s of P a r t I I to V I I I , i n c l u s i v e r e l a t i n g to r u l e s , requirements, and p r o c e -dures a p p l y , mutatis mutandis, to a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and to the R e g i o n a l Board and the D i r e c t o r s t h e r e o f i n r e s p e c t of any or a l l of the powers, d u t i e s , and o b l i -g a t i o n s of the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t or of the R e g i o n a l Board granted or imposed under t h i s D i v i s i o n as i f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t were a m u n i c i p a l i t y ; . . . . T h e r e f o r e , the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s able to have a broad scope of l e g a l a u t h o r i t y f o r the purpose of performing i t s a s s i g n e d f u n c t i o n s . However, the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t does not have t a x -i n g power. I t r e c e i v e s i t s annual revenue from the member mu-n i c i p a l i t i e s . The G r e a t er Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has not yet been a s s i g n e d any f u n c t i o n other then h o s p i t a l s , however, but i t has the p o t e n t i a l to e x e r c i s e c e r t a i n l e g a l powers when i t i s a s s i g n e d more f u n c t i o n s , such as housing, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , waste d i s p o s a l , park a c q u i s i t i o n , e t c . At the present time the a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Government A u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n I I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " f a i r " . However, the a p p r a i s a l may be b e t t e r when more f u n c t i o n s are a s s i g n e d to the R e g i o n a l D i s -t r i c t i n the f u t u r e . C o n t r o l . Under the p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n , a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i s c o n t r o l l e d by i t s r e g i o n a l boards Under S e c t i o n 7 6 9 (of the M u n i c i p a l Act, i t i s s t a t e d t h a t : 58 . . . the R e g i o n a l Board s h a l l c o n s i s t of the r e -q u i s i t e number of D i r e c t o r s appointed by the C o u n c i l or T r u s t e e s of each m u n i c i p a l i t y from among i t s members . . . and the r e q u i s i t e number of D i r e c t o r s e l e c t e d from the e l e c t o r a l areas . . . . There i s no d i r e c t c o n t r o l by the c i t i z e n s . The c i t i z e n s can o n l y e x e r c i s e t h e i r power on the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t through t h e i r m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s which appoint D i r e c t o r s to the Re-g i o n a l Board. The number of D i r e c t o r s each m u n i c i p a l i t y or area has and the number of votes each D i r e c t o r has on R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t matters i s c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g the p o p u l a t i o n of the muni-c i p a l i t y by the " v o t i n g u n i t " , a p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s p e c i f i e d i n the L e t t e r s P a t e n t . D i r e c t o r s vote o n l y on matters which are of concern t o t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f i n a n c i a l l y . T h i s r e s -t r i c t i o n does not ap p l y t o any p r o p o s a l r e l a t e d to t h a t f u n c t i o n which w i l l r e q u i r e such member m u n i c i p a l i t y to become l i a b l e t o share i n the c o s t o f the f u n c t i o n a t a f u t u r e date. The D i r e c t o r s e l e c t one of themselves to be Chairman and appoint s t a f f . At the pr e s e n t time, there are 21 D i r e c t o r s i n the R e g i o n a l Board of the Gr e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . They come from 14 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and 2 e l e c t o r a l a r e a . ^ As to the term of o f f i c e of the D i r e c t o r s , i t i s s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n ( l ) , S e c t i o n 771 of the M u n i c i p a l Act of B r i -t i s h Columbia t h a t : I b i d . 59 Each D i r e c t o r appointed by a m u n i c i p a l i t y to a Re g i o n a l Board upon the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e u n t i l the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of January i n the year next succeeding o r u n t i l the appointment of h i s s u c c e s s o r , whichever i s the l a t e r . and under S u b s e c t i o n (2) of the same S e c t i o n t h a t : A f t e r the f i r s t appointment of D i r e c t o r s by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , each m u n i c i p a l D i r e c t o r s h a l l be appointed a n n u a l l y , on or before the f i r s t day of February, by r e s o l u t i o n of the C o u n c i l or of the T r u s t e e s , as the case may be, and s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e u n t i l the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of January of the year next succeeding or u n t i l the appointment of h i s su c c e s s o r , whichever i s the l a t t e r . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n ensures t h a t no D i r e c t o r can h o l d o f f i c e i n the R e g i o n a l Board l o n g e r than one year u n l e s s he i s r e -appointed by h i s c o u n c i l . R e g i o n a l Board revenues are obt a i n e d each year from the member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The un-organized.areas are taxed through the P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r of F i n a n c e . Each m u n i c i p a l i t y o r area c o n t r i b u t e s o n l y to those r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t expenses which the L e t t e r s Patent say i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r . The budget of the Gr e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . f o r the year 1968 was o n l y $ 6 0 , 0 0 0 . 1 6 The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Government A u t h o r i t y i n regard to C r i t e r i o n I I I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " f a i r " . L o c a l Governments and T h e i r F u n c t i o n s . Since the e s t a b l i s h -ment of the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n June, 1967, l 6 I b i d . 60 17 no l o c a l government has been d i s s o l v e d , amalgamated, 1 or i n c o r p o r a t e d because of t h i s new e s t a b l i s h m e n t . Although there are many s m a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , such as North Vancouver C i t y , P o r t Moody, P o r t Coquitlam, New Westminster and F r a s e r M i l l s , a l l the l o c a l governments w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h i s Re-g i o n a l D i s t r i c t have been p r e s e r v e d . Under S e c t i o n 790 of the M u n i c i p a l Act i t i s s t a t e d t h a t : The powers, o b l i g a t i o n s , and d u t i e s of a member mu-n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l be reduced o n l y to the extent t h a t any of them have been a s s i g n e d to the e x c l u s i v e j u r i -s d i c t i o n o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t under L e t t e r s Patent or to the extent p r o v i d e d i n t h i s D i v i s i o n . S i nce the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has o n l y been a s s i g n e d the h o s p i t a l f u n c t i o n , the l o c a l governments i n t h i s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t i l l m a i n t a i n a l l the other f u n c t i o n s they had before the est a b l i s h m e n t of t h i s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i n 1967« However, most l o c a l governments i n the Lower Mainland Region have a s s i g n e d c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s to some s i n g l e - p u r p o s e f u n c t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , such as the G r e a t e r Vancouver Water D i s -t r i c t , the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t , Vancouver-Fraser Parks D i s t r i c t , e t c . Although there were p r o p o s a l s f o r the amalgamation of North Vancouver C i t y and North Vancouver D i s t r i c t , and f o r the amalgamation of Vancouver C i t y and Burnaby D i s t r i c t , the former was defeated by a g e n e r a l vote of the c i t i z e n s i n both m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s on September 1 9 , 1 9 6 8 , and the l a t t e r i s s t i l l under study by both m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d . 61 T h e r e f o r e , the a p p r a i s a l t o the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Governmental A u t h o r i t y i n regard to C r i t e r i o n IV i s to be " f a i r " . Geographic Adequacy. The Gr e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c o n t a i n s the t o t a l Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area p l u s the E l e c t o r a l Area A and the E l e c t o r a l Area B. However, i t does not i n c l u d e Langley D i s t r i c t , P i t t Meadows, and Maple Ridge which have been d e v e l o p i n g r a p i d l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s . T h i s may be the o n l y shortcoming i n terms of the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ' s geographic adequacy. The a p p r a i s a l to the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Government A u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n V i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " f a i r " . I I . The M e t r o p o l i t a n and L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s Since the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i s a separate e n t i t y from the Gr e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , i t i s necessary here to study f i r s t l y and b r i e f l y the ^ Planning Board's o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s . The Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i s governed by the p r o v i s i o n s of D i v i s i o n 6 , P a r t XXI of the M u n i c i p a l Act of B r i t i s h Columbia which e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t : (1) each muni c i r ' p a l i t y w i t h i n the P l a n n i n g Area appoints to the Board one member of i t s C o u n c i l who s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e f o r one year; (2) the Board e l e c t e s i t s own Chairman and determines i t s own procedure; and, (3) the f i n a n c i a l support of the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board 62 s h a l l be shared by the component m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on a per c a -18 p i t a b a s i s . However, the Board a l s o comprises one member appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . T h i s member i s p r i v i l e g e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n General Meetings of the Board, and s h a l l be e l i g i b l e to h o l d any e l e c t i v e o f f i c e . There are two important committees under the Board. The t e c h n i c a l Committee, composed of s e n i o r M u n i c i p a l Planners from member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the P r o v i n c e , a d v i s e s the S t a f f E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r on the Board's t e c h n i c a l work program. Secondly, there i s the M u n i c i p a l S t a f f Committee, composed of one s e n i o r m u n i c i p a l s t a f f member appointed by C o u n c i l from each m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s Committee serves as a l i a i s o n between the s t a f f and member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on t e c h n i c a l matters r e l a -t i n g to p l a n n i n g programs, and on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the O f f i -1Q c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . J There are 28 member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n the P l a n n i n g Board. C o n t r o l . Under Su b s e c t i o n 4 , S e c t i o n 720 of the M u n i c i p a l Act, i t i s s t a t e d t h a t : The Board s h a l l c o n s i s t of one member of C o u n c i l appointed by the C o u n c i l o f each m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n the area and one member appointed by the L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l who s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e d u r i n g p l e a s u r e . S i n c e the members of the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Annual Report, 1966, op_. c i t . . , p. 9. 1 9 I b i d . . p. 10. 63 are not e l e c t e d d i r e c t l y by the c i t i z e n s i n the Pla n n i n g Region, the c i t i z e n s can not e x e r c i s e t h e i r power d i r e c t l y over the Board. As to the term of o f f i c e of the P l a n n i n g Board members, i t i s s a i d under S u b s e c t i o n 6 , S e c t i o n 720 of the same Act t h a t "the term of o f f i c e of each C o u n c i l member, except f o r the i n i t i a l appointment, i s f o r one year or u n t i l h i s s u c c e s s o r i s a p p o i n t e d . " I t i s a l s o p r o v i d e d under S u b s e c t i o n 7 of the same S e c t i o n t h a t "the Board s h a l l , from i t s own members, e l e c t a Chairman, and s h a l l determine i t s own procedure." T h i s means t h a t the P l a n n i n g Board, whose members are appointed by the member m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , i s the s o l e a u t h o r i t y i n determin-i n g i t s own a f f a i r s . The P l a n n i n g Board r e c e i v e s i t s revenue from i t s member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area P l a n -n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n I I I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " f a i r " . L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s . Under the p r o v i s i o n s i n the M u n i c i -p a l A c t , no l o c a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i s l o s t or as s i g n e d to the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board. Although the P l a n n i n g Board can p r o v i d e p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s to any member m u n i c i p a l i t y , t h i s s e r v i c e has to be agreed upon by both p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d ; and no compulsory power i s giv e n t o the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i n t h i s r e g a r d . T h e r e f o r e , l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e t a i n f u l l 64 a u t h o r i t y on l o c a l p l a n n i n g matters s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s of any o f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . Among the 28 member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, 10 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have employed p r o f e s s i o n a l p a l n n i n g s t a f f s : Burnaby, Coquitlam, D e l t a , New Westminster, North Vancouver C i t y , North Vancouver D i s t r i c t , Richmond, Surrey, Vancouver, and West Vancouver. A l l of these are w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Gr e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . T h i s means t h a t most of the l o c a l governments w i t h i n the Metro-p o l i t a n Vancouver Area have t h e i r own p l a n n i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and programs. Although over h a l f of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n the Re-g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Area having not e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own p a l n n i n g s e r v i c e s , they are s m a l l i n s i z e , and are ab l e t o o b t a i n ne-c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s from the Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Board by c o n t r a c t . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area P l a n -n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n IV i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "good". Geographic Adequacy. The Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Area i s i n the extreme south-west corner of the Mainland of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , i t s boundaries extend about 25 m i l e s n o r t h of and roughly p a r r a l l e l to the Un i t e d S t a t e s boundary, and running from the S t r a i t of Georgia a t Vancouver eastward about 100 miles i n l a n d to the Town of Hope a t the entrance to the F r a s e r R i v e r Canyon. The m e t r o p o l i t a n development i s concentrated i n the 65 Western p a r t of the Region, about o n e - t h i r d of the P l a n n i n g Area, f o c u s i n g on Vancouver. Although the M e t r o p o l i t a n Van-couver Area i s growing c o n t i n u o u s l y and r a p i d l y , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the u r b a n i z e d area w i l l not be a b l e to grow beyond the boundaries o f the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Area i n the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area P l a n -n i n g f u n c t i o n s i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n V i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " e x c e l l e n t " . M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s . The prime r o l e of the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i s to prepare a r e g i o n a l p l a n . The M u n i c i p a l Act does not d e f i n e the exact content or nature of the R e g i o n a l P l a n . A second r o l e of the Board i s to p r o -v i d e T e c h n i c a l S t a f f f o r l o c a l p l a n n i n g on a f e e - f o r - s e r v i c e 2 0 b a s i s upon request of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The approach to the p r e p a r a t i o n of an o v e r a l l R e g i o n a l P l a n has been t o c a r r y out a s e r i e s of b a s i c s t u d i e s to examine the Region i n i t s many aspects of p a r k l a n d , i n d u s t r i a l l a n d , farmland, r e s i d e n -t i a l l a n d , and p o p u l a t i o n . The f a c t s , f i n d i n g s and recommen-d a t i o n s of these s t u d i e s were i n t e g r a t e d i n the Board's 1964 r e p o r t "Chance and Challenge" which formed the b a s i s of the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n enacted on August 29, 1966. F o l l o w i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s and o b j e c t i v e s i n the r e -p o r t "Chance and Challenge", a s e r i e s of steps were taken by I b i d . . p. 4 . 66 the Board to prepare d r a f t r e p o r t s , s o l i c i t the comments and r e a c t i o n s of the C o u n c i l s , M u n i c i p a l s t a f f , arid P r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s . The O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n f o r the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Area was adopted i n accordance with the p r o -v i s i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l Act by the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board on June 1 7 , 1 9 6 5 ; and was l a t e r adopted by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l of the P r o v i n c i a l Government on August 2 9 , 1 9 6 6 . The O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n c o n s t i t u t e s the c o - o r d i n a t e d development p o l i c y of the Lower Mainland m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h e i r a g e n c i e s , the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, the Pro-v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, and i t s a g e n c i e s . The t e x t of the P l a n c o n s i s t s of three p a r t s : the General P r o v i s i o n s , the Development Area P o l i c i e s , and the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o v i s i o n s . The Schedules of the P l a n c o n s i s t of the Long Range P l a n Map, 21 the Current Stage P l a n Maps, and other r e f e r e n c e maps. The P l a n has thereby p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r m u n i c i p a l development p o l i c i e s and community p l a n s t u d i e s , f o r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e u t i l i t y system ex t e n s i o n s and improvements, f o r highway l o c a -t i o n p l a n s , f o r s c h o o l and c o l l e g e p l a n n i n g , and f o r M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g programs. However, t h i s P l a n has o n l y proposed some ge n e r a l concepts f o r the f u t u r e development. I t does not give any r e a l i s t i c s uggestions f o r the f u t u r e growth of M e t r o p o l i t a n Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, O f f i c i a l Re-g i o n a l P l a n (New Westminster, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 2 . 67 Vancouver. The P l a n n i n g Board's r o l e i n g u i d i n g the o v e r a l l deve-lopment of the Region i s i n v o l v i n g the Board and i t s s t a f f more and more i n the programs and a c t i v i t i e s of other govern-ment a g e n c i e s . While having c l o s e contact w i t h l o c a l govern-* ments, the Board a l s o has working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h P r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s , F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , and i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s . A key p a r t of t h i s R e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n of the Board i s the l i a i s o n w i t h and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the v a r i o u s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t i -v i t i e s a t work b u i l d i n g the Region. On each major study by the Board, a p u b l i c meeting has been h e l d to r e c e i v e r e a c t i o n s from a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . These are i n a d d i t i o n to the meetings of the Board w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , P r o v i n c i a l , Mu-n i c i p a l , and F e d e r a l s t a f f . F o r example, d u r i n g the p e r i o d of p r e p a r i n g the R e g i o n a l P l a n , from January, 1965 to J u l y , 1 9 6 6 , the Board h e l d a s e r i e s of meetings w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and Board s t a f f reviewed the P l a n 22 p o l i c i e s i n s p e c i a l meetings with the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . How-ever, the Board's T e c h n i c a l Committee i s i n c r e a s i n g l y perform-i n g a key c o - o r d i n a t i n g r o l e . T h i s Committee, c o n s i s t i n g mainly of the p r e s e n t P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r s of the Lower Mainland m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , meets monthly to d i s c u s s and e v a l u a t e matters of i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l concern. In a d d i t i o n t o con-t r i b u t i n g to the Board's t e c h n i c a l work program, the Committee 22 , Annual Report. 1 9 6 6 , op. c i t . , p. 1 1 . 68 members have taken advantage of the monthly meetings to ex-p l o r e matters of mutual l o c a l concern and to e s t a b l i s h im-proved working r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s t a f f s working on s i m i l a r problems i n n e i g h b o r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . However, i f the co-o r d i n a t i o n f u n c t i o n of the Board i s to be t r u l y s u c c e s s f u l , i t i s apparant t h a t the Board's T e c h n i c a l Committee co u l d w e l l be expanded t o i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from a l l the Lower Main-l a n d M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , as w e l l as from other governmental agen-c i e s a c t i v e i n the Region. T h i s need has been a p p r e c i a t e d by the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , and i n a d d r e s s i n g the Board on Junary 1 6 , 1 9 6 8 , the M i n i s t e r announced t h a t a T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee would be a s s i g n e d to the Board with r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n from the s e v e r a l P r o v i n c i a l Departments and from 23 F e d e r a l Departments. A l s o under the R e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n , the Board p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the Region and i t s many aspects to the m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s , development a u t h o r i t i e s , p r i v a t e f i r m s and i n d i v i -d uals . The Board a l s o maintains a r e f e r e n c e l i b r a r y t h a t i s used by P r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l agencies i n a d d i t i o n to use i n keeping the Board up to date on the l a t e s t l i t e r a t u r e i n R e g i o n a l and Community P l a n n i n g . The Board's s t a f f endeavor to f u r t h e r the cause of p l a n n i n g by g i v i n g p u b l i c addresses on requ e s t , and by f u r n i s h i n g d i s p l a y m a t e r i a l s on community and , Annual Report, I 9 6 7 (New Westminster, January, 1 9 6 8 ) , p.~F" 6 9 2 4 and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g m atters. Under the "municipal p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e " r o l e of the Board, i t may "undertake community p l a n n i n g work f o r a member m u n i c i p a l i t y on such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as are mutually agreed upon." T h i s s e r v i c e i s a v a i l a b l e on request t o : ( 1 ) those member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s not having p l a n n i n g s t a f f and to t h e i r Commissions and Boards--to conduct p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s and to p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i n g p l a n n i n g a d v i c e ; ( 2 ) those m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s having p l a n n i n g s t a f f - - t o a s s i s t on a c o n s u l t i n g b a s i s i n the conduct of major s t u d i e s , and to p l a c e l o c a l s t u d i e s i n a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . In t h i s case, the Board's s t a f f serve as an ex t e n s i o n of the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g department s t a f f ; ( 3 ) any i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l agency; and, ( 4 ) P r o v i n c i a l Government d e p a r t -2 5 ments. J Considerable use has been made of the mu n i c i p a l p l a n -n i n g s e r v i c e s i n c e i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 4 9 w i t h s t u d i e s of community p l a n s , s c h o o l p l a n s , park p l a n s , commercial c e n t e r s t u d i e s , apartment s t u d i e s , c i v i c c e n t e r s t u d i e s , s e r v i c i n g s t u d i e s , advance s t r e e t and s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n n i n g , zoning by-laws, s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l by-laws, and r e p l o t t i n g schemes. However, the Board has e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c i e s to govern t h i s s e r v i c e : ( l ) the s e r v i c e i s an a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by the Board's p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f - - t h e Board i t s e l f does not review or i n f l u e n c e the t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e o f f e r e d to m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s ; . Annual Report. 1 9 6 6 . op. c i t . . p. 7« 2 5 I b i d . 70 (2) a l l s t u d i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r i e d out remain as c o n f i -d e n t i a l r e p o r t s to the m u n i c i p a l i t y , agency, or department u n t i l r e l e a s e d by them; (3) o n l y a t o t a l amount of l o c a l p l a n -n i n g work i s to be undertaken as w i l l u t i l i z e the s t a f f time a s s i g n e d to the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e under the Board's Annual P r o g r a m . ^ T h e r e f o r e , the a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n regard to C r i t e r i o n VI i s to be "good". L e g a l Powers. Although member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s on r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g matters, the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board has no l e g a l a u t h o r i t y to i n t e r f e r e w i t h l o c a l p l a n n i n g matters. The Board has no l e g a l power to review l o c a l p l a n s and programs, or even to give any advice to i t s member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i f the Board i s not r e -quested to do so. . I t i s s t a t e d i n the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n t h a t : . . . each Respon s i b l e A u t h o r i t y w i t h i t s a g e n c i e s , and any group of Respons i b l e A u t h o r i t i e s with t h e i r Agencies, s h a l l comply wi t h the Re g i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s , General P o l i c i e s , and Development Area P o l i c i e s of t h i s P l a n . . . .27 However, i t i s s t i l l i n doubt whether the p r o v i s i o n s of the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n r e a l l y have any r e g u l a t o r y power on l o c a l p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I b i d . . pp. 7 - 9 . , O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n , op. c i t . , p. 12. 71 The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area P l a n -n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n regard to C r i t e r i o n VTI i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "poor". I I I . Conclusions The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s designed to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r the v a r i o u s communities i n a r e g i o n to work together through t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on a common R e g i o n a l Board which w i l l have c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n r e s p e c t to r e g i o n a l p r o -blems. In a statement made by the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s s a i d t h a t , " i t i s a device f o r combining f u n c t i o n s . I t i s not a p o l i t i c a l amalgamation. I t i s f u n c t i o n a l amalgamation i n which a board i s e s t a b l i s h e d 28 to undertake s e r v i c e s and a d m i n i s t e r them j o i n t l y " . The M i n i s t e r f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t " r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s do not have t a x i n g a u t h o r i t y and, except f o r h o s p i t a l s , have no s t a t u t o r y f u n c t i o n s a p p l i e d by law"; and " r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s are not meant to pave the way f o r amalgamation of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the d i s t r i c t s , a lthough some amalgamations should take p l a c e , t.29 e s p e c i a l l y on the Lower Mainland. ^ T h e r e f o r e , I t i s c l e a r t h a t the i d e a of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s an attempt to make l o c a l governments p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e g i o n a l matters while s t i l l p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r own s t a t u s as much as Vancouver Sun (Vancouver), September 10, 1968, p. 1 and p. 6 . 2 9 I b i d . 72 p o s s i b l e . However, i t should be mentioned t h a t , although the i d e a of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i s good, t h e i r success w i l l be de-pendent upon P r o v i n c i a l s t i m u l u s to make l o c a l governments i n -volve themselves more i n r e g i o n a l i s s u e s . There i s another i s s u e t h a t i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of l o c a l governments i n the R e g i o n a l Board. Under the p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n , the R e g i o n a l Board D i r e c t o r s are appointed by t h e i r C o u n c i l s . The M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ' i d e a on t h i s i s t h a t " e l e c t i n g a separate r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l ... would c r e a t e f r i c t i o n s between the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and the l o c a l c o u n c i l s . " 3 0 Whether t h i s i s true or not, and whether t h i s arrangement i s more democratic, are q u e s t i o n s t h a t are l e f t i n doubt. The .greatest problem of s u c c e s s f u l p l a n n i n g i n the Me-t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area i s the s e p a r a t i o n of government a u t h o r i t y from the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . Since both the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board are e s t a b l i s h e d under P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , the remedy l i e s with the P r o v i n c i a l Government. The M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has s t a t e d i n regard to t h i s i s s u e t h a t " i t (the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board) would become p a r t of the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . I t would be changed from i t s present p o s i t i o n , i n e f f e c t an a d v i s o r y board, to t h a t of the p l a n n i n g s e c t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l r e g i o n a l 3 0 i b i d . 7 3 Board"; and "there should he one r e g i o n a l government f o r the 31 Lower Mainland." T h i s means t h a t there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of e n l a r g i n g the prese n t j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Gr e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t to i n c l u d e the whole Lower Mainland Region 32 i n s t e a d of f o u r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s ^ a t p r e s e n t . The d e a d l i n e f o r t h i s change has been s e t by the M i n i s t e r f o r the e a r l y 33 1 9 7 0 ' s . T h i s change i s s u r e l y welcomed a c c o r d i n g to the hypothesis o f t h i s t h e s i s . The events i n the Lower Mainland Region support the v a l i d i t y o f the hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s . I b i d * 32 The f o u r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i n the Lower Mainland Region are the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , the Dewdney-A l o u e t t e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , and the Fraser-Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . Vancouver Sun, l o c . c i t . CHAPTER IV THE METROPOLITAN WINNIPEG AREA M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg, s i t u a t e d mid-way between Montreal and Vancouver a t the e a s t e r n edge of the P r a i r i e r e g i o n , i s Canada's f o u r t h l a r g e s t m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . Besides being the p o l i t i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , medical and c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l of Mani-toba, M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg i s s t i l l an important t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n , commercial, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r f o r much of Western Canada. I t has a v a r i e d i n d u s t r i a l base, such as low c o s t power, a l a r g e supply of f r e s h water, and e x c e l l e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . S i n ce wheat exports f i r s t began to t r i c k l e from the west, Winnipeg has been the headquarter of the Canadian Wheat Board and many world famous g r a i n companies. 1 Because Winni-peg l i e s almost i n the center of the 8 0 - m i l e c o r r i d o r between Lake Winnipeg and the boundary of U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t has been the h i s t o r i c gateway to the west. Today, as i n a l l of i t s days, Winnipeg's economy has drawn s t r e n g t h from i t s l i n e s of communication and the f a c i l i t i e s t h a t serve them. While a g r i -c u l t u r e s t i l l remains important, manufacturing, a l o n g w i t h trade and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , has c o n t r i b u t e d an important ba-l a n c i n g i n f l u e n c e i n Winnipeg's economy. A Report on M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n (Winnipeg, The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg, P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , August 25 , 1964) , p. 4 . 75 From the p o i n t of view of employment and the value of s a l e s , food and beverage, c l o t h i n g , metal f a b r i c a t i n g , p r i n t i n g , p u b l i s h i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment i n d u s t r i e s are Winni-p peg's most s i g n i f i c a n t i n d u s t r i e s . Of the m i s c e l l a n e o u s manu-f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , 73*9 per cent are l o c a t e d i n downtown Winnipeg. Because of the p r o s p e c t i v e expansion of western a g r i c u l t u r e , and development based on gas, o i l , m i n e r a l and pulpwood r e s o u r c e s , there are good grounds f o r e x p e c t i n g t h a t a major share of the growth of western demand w i l l be c h a n n e l l -ed toward Winnipeg. Although the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Census Area does not c o i n c i d e w i t h the p o l i t i c a l boundaries of the e n t i r e Metropo-l i t a n Area, the d i f f e r e n c e i s so s m a l l t h a t , to a l l i n t e n t s and purpose, the p o p u l a t i o n of the Census Area may be accepted 4 as t h a t of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area. The p a s t , present and f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n growth are shown i n the f o l l i w n g t a b l e : (please see Table I I I on next page ( 7 6 ) ) . F o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area as a whole, 54 per cent or 64,511 of the 1951-1961 p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e was due to n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e and 46 per cent, 54,665, was due to net migration.-' 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . . p. 9 . ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg P o p u l a t i o n Study: 1961-1986 (Win-ni p e g , The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg, P l a n -n i n g D i v i s i o n ) , : p. 4. 5 I b i d . , p. 20. 76 TABLE I I I THE POPULATION GROWTH IN METROPOLITAN WINNIPEG AREA 1901 - 1986* Year T o t a l Metro. P o p u l a t i o n 1901 1921 1931 1941 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1986 4 8 , 0 0 0 2 2 7 , 9 8 5 2 9 4 , 9 0 5 302,024 3 5 6 , 8 1 3 4 0 9 , 6 8 7 4 7 5 , 9 8 9 5 0 8 , 7 5 9 6 1 5 , 0 0 0 9 8 0 , 0 0 0 M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg P o p u l a t i o n Study: 1961-1986 (Winnipeg: The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Gr e a t e r Winni-peg, P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n ) , p. 4 ; and, Gr e a t e r Winnipeg 1 9 8 l : A Study of P o p u l a t i o n Growth (Winnipeg: The M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission of Greater Winnipeg, A p r i l , 1 9 5 7 ) , P' 6 . Before the es t a b l i s h m e n t of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i n the Winnipeg Area i n i 9 6 0 , many of the e s s e n t i a l i n t e r - m u n i -c i p a l s e r v i c e s were operated by s i n g l e - p u r p o s e boards and commissions. Among them were The Greater Winnipeg Water D i s -t r i c t , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1913 , The Mosquito Abatement D i s t r i c t ( 1 9 2 7 ) , The Gr e a t e r Winnipeg S a n i t a r y D i s t r i c t ( 1 9 3 5 ) , The M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission ( 1 9 4 9 ) , The M e t r o p o l i t a n C i v i l Defence Board ( 1 9 5 1 ) , and The Gr e a t e r Winnipeg T r a n s i t Commi-s s i o n ( 1 9 5 3 ) . 6 M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg (Winnipeg, The M e t r o p o l i t a n Cor-p o r a t i o n of Gr e a t e r Winnipeg), p. 1 . METROPOLITAN CORPORATION OF GREATER WINNIPEG PLANNING DIVISION u 78 I n 1 9 5 5 , the P r o v i n c i a l Government of Manitoba e s t a -b l i s h e d an i n v e s t i g a t i n g commission to i n q u i r e i n t o the need f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n government. T h i s commission presented i t s r e p o r t i n 1 9 5 9 ' In t h i s r e p o r t , i t recommended the e s t a b l i s h -ment of a s t r o n g m e t r o p o l i t a n government wi t h c o n t r o l over many p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg B i l l was then i n -troduced by the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n the s p r i n g l e g i s l a t i v e s e s s i o n of i 9 6 0 . I t i n c o r p o r a t e d many of the recommendations of the i n v e s t i g a t i n g commission, but r e j e c t e d i t s e i g h t - c i t y i d e a . The B i l l passed through the Manitoba L e g i s l a t u r e , and r e c e i v e d the assent of the Lieutenant-Governor on March 2 6 , 1 9 6 0 . ^ The s i n g l e - p u r p o s e boards and commissions l i s t e d above were d i s s o l v e d , and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were assumed by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h other s e r v i c e s which p r e -v i o u s l y had been a d m i n i s t e r e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s themselves. The f i r s t M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l was e l e c t e d on Wednesday, Octo-g ber 2 6 , and h e l d i t s i n a u g u r a l meeting the f o l l i w n g Monday. The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i s a l s o the a u t h o r i t y i n charge of the p l a n n i n g matters i n t h i s Area. I n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of the G r e a t e r Winnipeg i s regarded as the m e t r o p o l i t a n govern-ment a u t h o r i t y of the G r e a t e r Winnipeg Area. 'S. George R i c h , "Planning i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg", Community P l a n n i n g Review. V o l . X I I , No. 2 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 2 2 . Q The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of G r e a t e r Winnipeg, Me-t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg, op. c i t . , p. 13• 79 I . The Metropolitan.Government A u t h o r i t y • O r g a n i z a t i o n . The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winni-peg operates under the council-committee system: t h a t i s , the C o r p o r a t i o n operates under the d i r e c t i o n of the e l e c t e d c o u n c i l with s t a n d i n g committees. An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n c o r r e s -ponds to each s t a n d i n g committee. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o d i v i s i o n s , each of which has a d i r e c t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e to a c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r , known as the e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r of the C o r p o r a t i o n . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n can be seen i n the F i g u r e on next page. On January 1 , 1 9 6 1 , the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l o f f i c i a l l y assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the t r a n s i t system, the water supply and sewage d i s p o s a l system, area p l a n n i n g , and assessment. C i v i l defence, parks, the zoo, m u n i c i p a l g o l f courses, mosqui-to abatement, zoning, b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s , and i n s p e c t i o n s were assumed as m e t r o p o l i t a n s e r v i c e s on A p r i l 1 , 1961; and the me-t r o p o l i t a n s t r e e t system, i n c l u d i n g b r i d g e s and a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c c o n t r o l on May 1 , 1 9 6 1 . Weed C o n t r o l came, under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l i n A p r i l , 1 9 6 5 . 9 The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i s the s i n g l e m e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t y i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg. I t i s a l s o a general-purpose government. The a p p r a i s a l of t h i s M e t r o p o l i -I b i d . , p. 1 2 . (CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEEJ- CHAIRMAN ANO COUNCIL MUNICIPAL BOARD ___J PERSONNEL FINANCE PLANNING COMMITTEE COMMITTEE COMMITTEE L.. PUBLIC UTILITIES BOARD STREETS AND TRANSIT COMMITTEE V/ATER AND SEWER COMMITTEE " I I PARKS AND PROTECTION COMMITTEE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR CORPORATION SOLICITOR ft SECRETARY B Y - L A W S CONTRACT* CLAIMS EXPROPRIATIONS LITIGATIONS LEGISLATION DIRECTOR OF ASSESSMENT REAL PROPERTY COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT OIRECTOR OF FINANCE a TREASURER ACCOUNTING ANO TREASURY RESEARCH PURCHASING DIRECTOR OF PLANNING AREA PLANNING SUBDIVISION APPROVAL ZONING BUILDING PERMITS BWLMNG.aECT'L, AND PUIM8ING INSPECTIONS. CLERK OF THE COUNCIL DIRECTOR OF STREETS AND TRANSIT MAINTENANCE, CONSTRUCTING, AND TRAFFIC CONTROL ON> TRANSIT SYSTEM, MAJOR STREETS, BRIDGES AND SUBWAYS* DIRECTOR OF WATER AND SEWER WATER SUPPLY (WHOLESALE) TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE DIRECTOR OF PARKS AM) PROTECTION METRO PARKS Z O O , METRO GOLF COURSES CIVIL DEFENCE M030UIT0 ABATEMENT WEED CONTROL INFORMATION OFFICER PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT Source: The K e t r o p o l i t a n Corporation of Greater Winnipeg, I968 BASIC L C O E N D — ADMINISTRATION CONSULTATION • • • • • APPEAL ORGANIZATION 81 tan Winnipeg Government A u t h o r i t y i n re g a r d to the C r i t e r i o n I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " e x c e l l e n t " . L e g a l Powers« The M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act a s s i g n s the f o l l i w n g f u n c t i o n s , powers, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the Cor-p o r a t i o n : A. Assessment on a uni f o r m b a s i s of a l l p r o p e r t y f o r metro-p o l i t a n purposes and f o r the purposes of l o c a l t a x a t i o n ; B. The supply, s t o r a g e , treatment, p r e s s u r e , and a r t e r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of water to area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (The m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ) ; C. Sewage c o l l e c t i o n and d i s p o s a l , not i n c l u d i n g l o c a l c o l l e c t i o n ; D. P u l b i c t r a n s p o r a t i o n , major s t r e e t s and b r i d g e s , i n c l u d -i n g t r a f f i c c o n t r o l ; E. Major parks, m u n i c i p a l g o l f courses, zoo; P. C i v i l defence; G. Mosquito abatement; E. Weed c o n t r o l ; I . The Act a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r e v e n t u a l m e t r o p o l i t a n r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r garbage and r e f u s e d i s p o s a l , and c e r t a i n powers under the R i v e r s and Streams Act when proclaimed by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l . 1 0 I n e x e r c i s i n g the Cor p o r a t i o n ' s powers, i t i s p r o v i d e d under S e c t i o n 7 of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act t h a t : I b i d . , p. 7 . 82 Without r e s t r i c t i n g the a u t h o r i t y of the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l t o c o n s i d e r r e s o l u t i o n s on any s u b j e c t or matter, the powers of the c o r p o r a t i o n may be e x e r c i s e d e i t h e r by by-law or by r e s o l u t i o n of the c o u n c i l , except where, by this* Act or any. other Act .of-the L e g i s l a t u r e or by a g e n e r a l by-law of the c o r p o r a t i o n r e g u l a t i n g the proceed-ings of the c o u n c i l , a power i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e d to be e x e r c i s e d by by-law. The C o r p o r a t i o n has no c o n t r o l over e d u c a t i o n or over m u n i c i p a l b o r r o w i n g . 1 1 Another l i m i t a t i o n i n e x e r c i s i n g the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s powers i s s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n 7, S e c t i o n 83 of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act t h a t : Notwithstanding any o t h e r p r o v i s i o n of t h i s A ct, ex-cept by the enactment of the m e t r o p o l i t a n development p l a n or by a l a n d use by-law passed to implement t h a t p l a n , the c o r p o r a t i o n s h a l l not enact a by-law t h a t would have the e f f e c t of changing the use to which any l a n d i n the a d d i t i o n a l zone might be put u n l e s s the c o u n c i l of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n which the l a n d i s s i t u a t e d has, by r e s o l u t i o n , consented to the change. The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Governmental A u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n I I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "good". C o n t r o l . Under Su b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 10 of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act, i t i s s t a t e d t h a t "There s h a l l be a m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n area; and the powers of the c o r -p o r a t i o n s h a l l be e x e r c i s e d by the c o u n c i l as p r o v i d e d i n S e c t i o n 7." As to the v o t i n g power of the members of the M e t r o p o l i t a n R i c h , op_. c i t . , p. 23 . 83 C o u n c i l , i t i s p r o v i d e d under S u b s e c t i o n 2 , S e c t i o n 13 of the same Act t h a t : Each member of the c o u n c i l ( i n c l u d i n g the chairman except where the c o u n c i l c o n s i s t s of e l e v e n members) has one vote on each q u e s t i o n t o be decided by the c o u n c i l ; but i n the event of a t i e vote, whether the c o u n c i l c o n s i s t s of t e n or el e v e n members, the c h a i r -man has an a d d i t i o n a l or c a s t i n g vote. The f i r s t M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l , c o n s i s t i n g of ten mem-ber s , was e l e c t e d on October 2 6 , I 9 6 0 f o r a term of f o u r y e a r s , and the second was e l e c t e d on October 2 8 , 1964 f o r a term of two y e a r s . Present l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e s f o r subsequent two-year terms o f . o f f i c e . The f i r s t Chairman of the C o u n c i l was appointed by the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r a f o u r - y e a r term. Subsequent chairman are e l e c t e d by the C o u n c i l which may s e l e c t 12 one of i t s own members, or a former chairman. In the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area, the c o u n c i l l o r s are s e l e c t e d by d i r e c t e l e c t i o n to C o u n c i l . F o r e l e c t o r a l purposes the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area i s d i v i d e d i n t o t e n d i v i s i o n s . One mem-ber of the C o u n c i l i s e l e c t e d by the e l e c t o r s of each d i v i s i o n . Each e l e c t o r a l d i v i s i o n i s composed of a p a r t o f the c e n t r a l C i t y of Winnipeg and p a r t s of one or more of the other m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s . Thus each d i v i s i o n cuts a c r o s s m u n i c i p a l boundaries. The v o t e r s of the C i t y of Winnipeg form a m a j o r i t y i n f i v e of of the d i v i s i o n s , and suburban v o t e r s form a m a j o r i t y i n the The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg, Me-t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg, op. c i t . , p. 9 . 84 13 o t h e r f i v e . T h e r e f o r e , the c o u n c i l members are e l e c t e d d i r e c t l y by G r eater Winnipeg c i t i z e n s on an even b a s i s . Nomination of candidates to the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l takes p l a c e on the f i r s t Wednesday of October every two years from 1 9 6 4 , and e l e c t i o n s are on the f o u r t h Wednesday of the month. The members take o f f i c e on the f i r s t Tuesday immediate -14 l y f o l l o w i n g the d e c l a r a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the e l e c t i o n . E v e r y c i t i z e n e l i g i b l e to vote i n h i s m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s i s e l i g i b l e to vote i n one m e t r o p o l i t a n d i v i s i o n . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Government A u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n I I I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " e x c e l l e n t " . L o c a l Governments and T h e i r F u n c t i o n s . When the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n was newly e s t a b l i s h e d i n I960, the C o r p o r a t i o n covered the e n t i r e area of ten c i t i e s or m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , most of s i x o t h e r s , and s m a l l p a r t s of another t h r e e — a t o t a l of n i n e t e e n government u n i t s , w i t h a t o t a l area of 256 square 15 m i l e s , and w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of n e a r l y a h a l f - m i l l i o n people. y In 1964, another amendment removed p o r t i o n s of f i v e r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s from w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n boundaries, r e d u c i n g the number of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to f o u r t e e n . I t was 1 3 I b i d . 1 4 I b i d . . p. 10. • ^ R i c h , Loc. c i t , 85 acknowledged t h a t these areas l i k e l y would be i n c l u d e d a g a i n a t some l a t e r date when urban development r e q u i r e s i t . 1 ^ At p r e -sent time, there are e l e v e n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s wholly w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n boundaries. They are the c i t i e s of Winnipeg, S t . James, S t . B o n i f a c e , E a s t K i l d o n a n , West K i l d o n a n , Transcona; the suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of P o r t Garry, Old K i l d o n a n , North Ki l d o n a n ; and the towns of Tuxedo and Brooklands* The other three suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which have l a r g e areas w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n boundaries are the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of S t . V i t a l , Charleswood, and A s s l n i b o i a . A l l f o u r t e e n m u n i c i a p l i t i e s maintained t h e i r s t a t u s a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i n i 9 6 0 . However, they have l o s t c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s which have been a s s i g n e d to the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n because these f u n c t i o n s are regarded as i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l , and can be b e t t e r performed by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Government A u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n IV i s Judged to be " f a i r " . Geographic Adequacy. The M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area proper covers 166.60 square m i l e s . However, the M e t r o p o l i t a n Corpora-t i o n can a l s o e x e r c i s e c e r t a i n powers w i t h i n the a d d i t i o n a l 17 zone which covers 492.86 square m i l e s . T h e r e f o r e , the t o t a l The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of the Greater Winnipeg, F o u r t h Annual Report. 1964 (Winnipeg, 1965), p. 2 . 17 1 The a d d i t i o n a l zone i s an area of l a n d some f i v e m iles i n depth extend i n g beyond and e n c i r c l i n g the m e t r o p o l i t a n boun-dary. 86 area under the c o n t r o l of the C o r p o r a t i o n i s 6 5 9 . 4 6 square m i l e s . Under the M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n , which was : adopted i n A p r i l of 1 9 6 8 , no urban expansion w i l l be p e r m i t t e d i n the a d d i t i o n a l zone w i t h i n the term of the Pla n , except f o r some low d e n s i t y expansion of some e x i s t i n g v i l l a g e s . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Government A u t h o r i t y i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n V i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " e x c e l l e n t " . t I I . The M e t r o p o l i t a n and L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s P a r t IV of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act which became e f f e c t i v e on A p r i l 1, 1961 made the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n the p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r the whole of the ar e a , i n c l u d i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of zoning, b u i l d i n g , plumbing and e l e c t r i c a l by-laws, and the a p p r o v a l of s u b d i v i s i o n of l a n d . "These /_; : f u n c t i o n s had p r e v i o u s l y been the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s independently. The work of the Metropo-l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission, an a d v i s o r y board of which some but not a l l the area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had been members, was taken over by the C o r p o r a t i o n on January 1, 1 9 6 1 . The Pla n n i n g D i v i -s i o n of the C o r p o r a t i o n was i n i t i a l l y s t a f f e d by the t r a n s f e r of employees from the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission, and-from the Zoning, B u i l d i n g , Plumbing and E l e c t r i c a l I n s p e c t i o n 87 1 o S t a f f s of area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . At the p r e s e n t time, the work of the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o three branches: (1) the Department of Research and Program Development, which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r long range p l a n n i n g ; (2) the Department of I n s p e c t i o n and P l a n n i n g C o n t r o l , which i s i n charge of c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g and enforcement of l a n d use c o n t r o l s ; and, (3) the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s . There are 140 employees i n the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n . 1 9 C o n t r o l . Under S u b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 23 of The M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act, i t i s s t a t e d t h a t "the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l may by by-law appoint such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s of the c o r p o r a -t i o n as i t deems necessary to c a r r y on the business of the c o r p o r a t i o n . " T h i s i s f u r t h e r s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n 2 of the same S e c t i o n t h a t "a person appointed under s u b s e c t i o n ( l ) , . i s s u b j e c t to t h i s Act and to the a u t h o r i t y of the c o u n c i l , and s h a l l d i s c h a r g e such d u t i e s as may be imposed upon him by the c o u n c i l or by t h i s Act." I t i s c l e a r t h a t the c i t i z e n s can e x e r c i s e t h e i r a u t h o r i t y on a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n matters through the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . l 8 S i x t h Annual Report. 1966 (Winnipeg: The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of the G r e a t e r Winnipeg, 1 9 6 7), p. F - 1 7 ' 1 9 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from the answer of the q u e s t i o n n a i r r e which were sent tq~) P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg i n J u l y , 1 9 6 8 . 88 The employees of the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n are a l s o under the a u t h o r i t y of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . As to the a p p o i n t -ment of the D i r e c t o r of the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , i t i s s a i d under S u b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 25 of The M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act t h a t : . . . the c o u n c i l may appoint a person to have, s u b j e c t as h e r e i n p r o v i d e d , s u p e r v i s i o n over, and a u t h o r i t y i n r e s p e c t o f , t h a t s e r v i c e , f a c i l i t y , or system . . . . The employees of the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n are a l s o employed by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n . T h i s i s p r o v i d e d under S e c t i o n 86 of the same Act t h a t : The c o r p o r a t i o n s h a l l e s t a b l i s h a Department of P l a n n i n g as p a r t of i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s h a l l employ such p l a n n e r s , p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r s , •_ a s s i s t a n t s , i n s p e c t o r s , and employees as are ne.--c e s s a r y to enable the c o r p o r a t i o n to d i s c h a r g e the d u t i e s and e x e r c i s e the powers charged or c o n f e r r e d upon i t under t h i s P a r t . T h e r e f o r e , the c i t i z e n s have c o n t r o l of a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n -n i n g matters through the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n regard to C r i t e r i o n I I I i s judged to be "good". L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s . I t was s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t the Me-t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i s the s o l e a u t h o r i t y i n charge of p l a n -n i n g matters w i t h i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area. However, the Department of Urban Renewal and Housing of the C i t y of Winnipeg, which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of urban r e -newal schemes i n the C i t y , i s a l o c a l agency d e a l i n g with matters of a p l a n n i n g nature. T h i s l o c a l Department works 89 c l o s e l y with the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Corpora-20 t i o n on urban renewal s t u d i e s i n the C i t y of Winnipeg. How-ever, there i s no l o c a l p l a n n i n g establishment other than the Department of Urban Renewal and Housing of the C i t y of Winnipeg i n the whole M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, a l l of the p l a n n i n g work being performed by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n IV i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "poor". Geographic Adequacy. The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n has not on l y the s o l e a u t h o r i t y i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area proper but a l s o i n the a d d i t i o n a l zone i n terms of e x e r c i s i n g i t s p l a n n i n g powers. The a d d i t i o n a l zone i s an area of land some f i v e m iles i n depth extending beyond and e n c i r c l i n g the m e t r o p o l i t a n boundary. The C o r p o r a t i o n i s g i v e n p l a n n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n over t h i s area i n order t h a t development on the f r i n g e of the urban area c o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d . Ad mentioned e a r l i e r , no urban de-velopment a t the presen t time i s envisaged f o r t h i s area with the e x c e p t i o n of some planned l o w - d e n s i t y development i n and 21 around e x i s t i n g v i l l a g e communities. The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n regard to C r i t e r i o n V i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n , S i x t h Annual Report. 1 9 6 6 . op. c i t . , p. 9« 21 The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg, P l a n -n i n g D i v i s i o n , D r a f t Development P l a n of Winnipeg (Winnipeg, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 3 3 . 9 0 " e x c e l l e n t " . M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s . The d u t i e s of the Pl a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n are pr o v i d e d by Pro-v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n s and by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . T h i s i s s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n 3 , S e c t i o n 8 6 of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Win-ni p e g Act t h a t : P l a n n e r s , p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r s , a s s i s t a n t s , i n s p e c t o r s and employees i n the Department of Pla n n i n g s h a l l d i s -charge such d u t i e s , i n a d d i t i o n to those s t a t e d h e r e i n , as are p r e s c r i b e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . At the pr e s e n t time, the major f u n c t i o n s of the Pla n n i n g D i v i -s i o n a r e : A. p r e p a r a t i o n and implementation of the Development P l a n ; B. p r e p a r a t i o n and implementation of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Zoning By-law; C. b u i l d i n g , plumbing, and e l e c t r i c a l i n s p e c t i o n s ; D. development p l a n examination; E. i s s u e of b u i l d i n g , plumbing, and e l e c t r i a l p e r m i t s , and occupancy c e r t i f i c a t e s ; and F. c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g i n c l u d i n g s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l , r e - z o n i n g , 22 and Board of Adjustment. The s t u d i e s which have been made d u r i n g the p a s t years of the C o r p o r a t i o n are many, and pro v i d e a sound b a s i s f o r the fo r m a t i o n o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n . These s t u d i e s cover such s u b j e c t s as s c h o o l , the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , 22 • .' ,i I n f o r m a t i o n from the, answer of the q u e s t i o n n a i r r e , l o c . c i t . - * • • 91 new m e t r o p o l i t a n base maps, p o p u l a t i o n , m e t r o p o l i t a n urban r e -newal, parks and r e c r e a t i o n , m e t r o p o l i t a n area t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r i v e r bank development, i n d u s t r i a l development, land use r e c o r d s , new m e t r o p o l i t a n zoning by-law, e t c . S t u d i e s are a l s o b e i n g undertaken t o enable d e t a i l e d area plans to be completed f o r every p a r t of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. These plans w i l l d e f i n e i n more d e t a i l the f u t u r e l a n d use c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a r e a , and p r o v i d e f o r such t h i n g s as s c h o o l s , parks, r e g i o n a l and neighborhood shopping c e n t e r s , town c e n t e r s , e t c . , and a l s o give more s p e c i f i c guidance to the area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on the 23 f u t u r e development of t h e i r communities. I t i s s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n 1 , S e c t i o n 79 of the Metro-p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act t h a t : A f t e r the coming i n t o f o r c e of t h i s s e c t i o n , the me-t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l s h a l l , s u b j e c t as h e r e i n p r o v i d e d , as soon as i t i s p r a c t i c a b l e , cause t o be prepared and approved and by by-law e s t a b l i s h , a p l a n . and under S u b s e c t i o n 2 of the same S e c t i o n t h a t "the p l a n , which s h a l l be a t t a c h e d t o and form p a r t of the by-law . . ., i n g e n e r a l terms, s h a l l e s t a b l i s h the p a t t e r n of f u t u r e use of l a n d . " The p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t on the Development P l a n was p r e -pared i n November, 1 9 6 1 ; and the D r a f t Development Plan i n 1963 and 1 9 6 4 . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Development Plan was prepared i n 1966 and was o f f i c i a l l y adopted on A p r i l 1 1 , 1968 a f t e r many he a r i n g s , s t u d i e s and r e v i s i o n s . -'The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg, The  M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n (Winnipeg, A p r i l , 1 9 6 8 ) . 92 The broad purpose of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n i s to secure and promote o r d e r l y growth, economic development and d e s i r a b l e amenities w i t h i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. The P l a n t r a n s l a t e s t h i s broad purpose i n t o " o b j e c t i v e s " f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the courses of a c t i o n or " p o l i c i e s " t h a t have to be f o l l o w e d by a l l l e v e l s of government f o r the attainment of the o b j e c t i v e s . The Plan i s aimed a t a c h i e v i n g a compact urban area w i t h a concentrated c e n t e r and a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p a t t e r n of l i v i n g , working and commercial areas connected by e f f i c i e n t and economical s e r v i c e systems. I t looks ahead twenty t o twen-t y - f i v e years when the p o p u l a t i o n w i l l have reached about 780,000. 2 4 The M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w -i n g major elements: r e s i d e n t i a l development, centers f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , i n d u s t r i a l l a n d , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , open space, urban d e s i g n and f i s c a l p o l i c i e s . A zoning by-law f o r the Me-t r o p o l i t a n Area w i l l f o l l o w a f t e r adoption o f the P l a n . ^ The P l a n may by by-law be a l t e r e d or amended from time to time as the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l deems d e s i r a b l e . S i n c e a community i s never s t a t i c , but c o n s t a n t l y chang-i n g and growing, much of the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n ' s e f f o r t i s devoted t o c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g t a s k s , i n v o l v i n g the p r o c e s s i n g of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r new development, r e n o v a t i o n s , r e - z o n i n g s , sub-24 IMd. 2 5 I b i d . 93 d i v i s i o n s , and a l l of those matters r e l a t i v e to the p h y s i c a l 26 growth of the community. Because the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i s the s i n g l e p a l n -n i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area, the P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l p l a n n i n g matters i n t h i s Area. The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n VI i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " e x c e l l e n t " . L e g a l Powers. I t i s s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 83 of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act t h a t : . . . the c o r p o r a t i o n has e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area and o t h e r than d w e l l i n g s l o c a t e d i n areas zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l uses f o r the purpose of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and enforcement of the p l a n ; and f o r t h a t purpose and f o r the purpose of d e v e l o p i n g any f e a t u r e of The M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n , the me-t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l may enact by-laws, having f o r c e i n both or e i t h e r the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a and the a d d i t i o n a l zone, or i n p a r t s of both or e i t h e r the m e t r o p o l i t a n area and the a d d i t i o n a l zone, . . . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n VII i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " e x c e l l e n t " . I I I . Conclusions I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to B i l l 62, an Act to e s t a b l i s h the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of G r e a t e r Winnipeg, Premier Duff R o b l i n s a i d , i n p a r t : M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n , S i x t h Annual Report, 1966, op« c i t . , p. 9. 94 The p r i n c i p l e on which t h i s B i l l r e s t s c o n s i s t s of two r a t h e r simple thoughts. F i r s t of a l l , t h a t we should develop a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r t h i s m e t r o p o l i -t a n area t h a t would be charged with, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i d i n g a u n i f i e d development p l a n . And secondly, t h a t we should a l s o p r o v i d e f o r the c e n t r a l c o n t r o l of c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s to the p u b l i c w i t h i n t h i s same urban area . . . .^7 I t i s c l e a r t h a t the est a b l i s h m e n t of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Corpora-t i o n o f Gr e a t e r Winnipeg was due to the r e c o g n i t i o n of the im-portance of area-wide p l a n n i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i o n between p l a n -n i n g and oth e r government f u n c t i o n s . However, t h i s achievement c o u l d not be r e a l i s e d without a gre a t e f f o r t on the p a r t of the Manitoba P r o v i n c i a l Government i n the years p r e c e e d i n g the est a b l i s h m e n t s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i n i960. The M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n was prepared by the Pl a n n i n g D i v i s i o n i n c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h a l l other d i v i s i o n s of the C o r p o r a t i o n . I t t y p i f i e d the i n t e r - d i v i s i o n a l team-work which the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been ab l e to e s t a b l i s h . The p l a n n e r s , t h e r e f o r e , a c t as c o - o r d i n a t o r s . They do not attempt to t e l l o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s what to do, but r a t h e r attempt t o super-impose the pl a n s prepared by the i n d i v i d u a l s e p e c i a l i s t s , 28 and to make sure t h a t the edges of these p l a n s match. The p l a n n i n g concept contained i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winni-peg Act departs from the North American t r a d i t i o n i n one im-'M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n , M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg, op. c i t . , p. 3• 28 R i c h , op_. c i t . , p. 2 7 . 95 p o r t a n t way: i t does not i n c o r p o r a t e d i r e c t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s ; and i t does not p r o v i d e f o r a p l a n n i n g board o r a p l a n n i n g commission with appointed c i t i z e n membership. However, t h i s . d o e s not mean t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been i g n o r e d or con s i d e r e d unnecessary, but r a t h e r i t has served to c l a r i f y and d e f i n e the areas of r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y of the three groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s , the p l a n n e r s , 29 the p o l i t i c i a n s and the c i t i z e n s , i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . However, an important short-coming o f the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area i s the e l i m i n a t i o n of the l o c a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . The Pl a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n , consequently, has to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l p l a n n i n g matters i n t h i s M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, from the p r e p a r a t i o n of l o n g range p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s to the examination of plumbing and b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s , e t c . The task i s too b i g ; and, t h e r e f o r e , the p l a n n i n g s t a f f of the D i v i s i o n have to devote much of t h e i r p r e c i o u s time to d e a l i n g with these matters which can be p r o p e r l y assumed by l o c a l p l a n n i n g b o d i e s . T h i s i s h i g h l y u n d e s i r a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o the hypothesis o f t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s a l s o s t a t e d i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n t h a t the e f f e c t i v e implementation o f the P l a n r e q u i r e s l e g i s l a -t i v e a c t i o n s by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. These a c t i o n s r e l a t e t o p o l i c i e s and standards f o r p r o v i d i n g open space, parks and 2 9 I b i d . 96 s c h o o l s i t e s , urban renewal, i n d u s t r i a l development, r i v e r -banks, r e f u s e d i s p o s a l , d e s i g n c o n t r o l , l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n f o r ' f e a t u r e s of the P l a n , and f i s c a l m a tters. When the P l a n i s put i n t o f o r c e and i n e f f e c t i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, i t might prove more e f f i c i e n t to review and r e - d r a f t P a r t IV of the Me-t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act which r e l a t e s to the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , than to take independent a c t i o n on each 30 of these matters. A l l the events which have o c c u r r e d i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area a l s o j u s t i f y the hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s . The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg, The  M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n , l o c . c i t . CHAPTER V THE METROPOLITAN TORONTO AREA M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, Canada's second l a r g e s t m e t r o p o l i s , i s s i t u a t e d i n southern O n t a r i o on the n o r t h shore of Lake On-t a r i o . M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto i s the f a s t e s t growing urban cen-t e r i n Canada i n terms of p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . Toronto i s the c a p i t a l of the Province of O n t a r i o , and the M e t r o p o l i t a n area i s a l s o a cent e r of i n d u s t r y , commerce, c u l t u r e , and f o r e i g n t r a d e . B e i n g a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i s , Toronto produces goods and p e r -forms s e r v i c e s of gr e a t d i v e r s i t y , not o n l y f o r the l o c a l popu-l a t i o n but f o r a l l of Canada. In 1961 employment i n the Metro-p o l i t a n Toronto Census Area amounted to 7 8 9 , 6 5 1 , which was about 43 per cent of i t s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , an u n u s u a l l y h i g h 1 p r o p o r t i o n compared wi t h the n a t i o n a l 35»5 per cen t . F i r s t i n employment i s manufacturing, which was the l i v e l i h o o d of more than 2 3 4 , 5 0 0 0 , or about 30 per cent of the l a b o r f o r c e i n 1 9 6 1 . S e r v i c e s c o n s t i t u t e a broad category, which i n r e c e n t years has assumed g r e a t importance i n Toronto's economic s t r u c t u r e . Trade, both wholesale and r e t a i l , a l s o assumes an important r o l e i n 2 Toronto's economy. The continued growth of manufacturing, Donald Kerr and Jacob S p e l t , The Changing Face of  Toronto (Ottawa: G e o g r a p h i c a l Branch, Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 7 4 . 2 I b i d . 98 trade and f i n a n c e can be e x p l a i n e d w i t h i n the framework of the market, l a b o r supply and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s of Toronto. The development p a t t e r n of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto shows a wide-spread d i s p e r s a l of r e s i d e n t i a l and employment areas and a s t r o n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of development downtown and a t f o c a l of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. The p o p u l a t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area i n 1967 had grown by 60 per cent s i n c e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i n 1953; the i n c r e a s e of n e a r l y 5 5 , 0 0 0 persons per year r e p r e s e n t s an annual growth r a t e of about 4 per c e n t . The Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area as d e f i n e d by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r than the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area. The growth of p o p u l a t i o n i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Census Area, the M e t r o p o l i t a n To-ronto P l a n n i n g Area, and the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n To-ronto can be seen as i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : (please see Table 4 on next page ( 9 9 ) ) ' A l a r g e " p r o p o r t i o n of Toronto's p o p u l a t i o n growth, amounting to more than h a l f of the t o t a l , has stemmed from immigration. About o n e - t h i r d of the r e s i d e n t s of the area were born o u t s i d e of Canada, and n e a r l y 25 per cent of the area's i n h a b i t a n t s immigrated to Canada s i n c e the War. The f r i n g e areas s u r r o u n d i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto are a l s o undergoing M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, M e t r o p o l i t a n To-r o n t o 1967 (Toronto, J u l y , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 1 0 . 99 TABLE IV THE POPULATION GROWTH IN 1921. -METROPOLITAN 1980* TORONTO AREA Year Metro. Census Metro. P l a n n i n g Area Area Muni, of - Metro 1921 1931 1 9 4 1 1951 1956 1961 1966 1980 8 6 2 , 7 0 2 961,154 1 , 2 1 0 , 3 5 3 1 , 5 0 4 , 2 7 7 1,824,589 2 , 1 5 8 , 4 9 6 6 4 0 , 0 0 2 8 5 2 , 5 6 4 9 5 0 , 4 9 0 1 , 1 9 4 , 8 8 7 1 , 4 7 5 , 8 1 1 1 , 7 7 7 , 8 5 8 2 , 1 0 0 , 3 7 0 2 , 8 1 1 , 6 0 0 6 1 1 , 4 4 3 8 1 8 , 3 4 8 9 0 9 , 9 2 8 1 , 1 1 7 , 4 7 0 1 , 3 5 8 , 0 2 8 1 , 6 1 8 , 7 8 7 1 , 8 8 1 , 6 9 1 2 , 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 * M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, M e t r o p o l i t a n  Key F a c t s (Toronto: M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, January, 1 9 6 8 ) . urban development. Most of the f r i n g e growth has been o c c u r i n g i h the western s e c t i o n Toronto Township, S t r e e t s v i l l e , and Por t C r e d i t . T h i s growth i s p a r t of the h i s t o r i c development t r e n d a l o n g the n o r t h shore of Lake O n t a r i o between Toronto and Hamilton. In the 1 9 4 0 's, the i n a b i l i t y to expand needed m u n i c i -p a l s e r v i c e s to meet the demands of the growing p o p u l a t i o n c r e a t e d a c r i s i s i n l o c a l government i n the Toronto a r e a . F o l l o w i n g e x t e n s i v e hearings In 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 , the On t a r i o M u n i c i p a l Board under the chairmanship of L. R. Cumming, Q. C , handed I b i d . I Mile M E T R O P O L I T A N T O R O N T O M U N I C I P A L I T I E S METROPOLITAN TORONTO PLANNING BOARO JAN. 1968. N O R T H TOWNSHIP OF] ^TORONTO GORE TOWNSHIP OF VAUGHAN R I D G E / V I L L A G E or - j S T o u r f V I L L E TOWNSHIP OF MARKHAM ( V I L L A G E O F 1 M A R K H A M BOROUGH OF NORTH YORK M I D D L E T H R E E W E S T V ? F R I N G E T O W N O F S T R E E T S V I L L E S \ TOWNSHIP OF TORONTO ( B E C A M E T H E T O W N O F M I S S I S S A U G A J A N . I 1 9 6 8 ) T O W N OF IMPORT CREDIT BOROUGH OF/ ?:ETOBICOKE L " « . BOROUGH O F , JTORK I N N E R T H R E E CITY OF TORONTO BOROUGH OF SCARBOROUGH E A S T F R I N G E TOWNSHIP OF PICKERING I 1 V I L L A G E O F P I C K E R I N G , T O W N O f A J A X MUNICIPALITY OF METROPOLITAN TORONTO y 2 M I L E S G R O U P I N G S O F M U N I C I P A L I T I E S M E T R O P O L I T A N T O R O N T O P L A N N I N G A R E A A j i r T C i n D A i I T A M T n o n M T O o i t u u i M f t R n t n n J A M I Q R A . . . . . . MUNICIPALITY OF METROPOLITAN TORONTO . M U N I C I P A L I T I E S T O R O N T O C E N S U S M E T R O P O L I T A N A R E A (DEFINED BY DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS) 103 down i t s h i s t o r i c d e c i s i o n on Januray 2 0 , 1 9 5 3 , recommending the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a f e d e r a t e d m e t r o p o l i t a n government which would have j u r i s d i c t i o n over matters of common conern to a l l 13 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The P r o v i n c i a l government subsequently adopted the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Act ( B i l l 8 0 ) , and on A p r i l 1 5 , 1953 the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto C o u n c i l h e l d i t s f i r s t meeting, assuming j u r i s d i c t i n g over the area on January 1, 1 9 5 4 . However, d e s p i t e the M e t r o p o l i t a n Corporation's success i n s u s t a i n i n g the p h y s i c a l and economic growth of the ar e a , many problems remained and caused i n c r e a s i n g concern. I t was e v i d e n t t h a t the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l needs of the o l d e r areas would r e q u i r e i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n ; f i n a n c i a l d i s p a r i t i e s continued to e x i s t between the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t to s c h o o l s ; and a growing concern was expressed r e g a r d i n g e q u a l i t y of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Coun-c i l . In 1 9 6 3 , the P r o v i n c i a l Government appointed a Royal Commission on M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto; and i n June, 1965 Dr. H. C. Goldenberg, Q. C , d e l i v e r e d to the Government h i s Report of the Royal Commission. On January 1 , 1967 a new M e t r o p o l i t a n Government was c r e a t e d . The area was r e - o r g a n i z e d from 13 muni-c i p a l i t i e s to s i x — t h e C i t y o f Toronto and the f i v e Boroughs of Ea s t York, E t o b i c o k e , North York, Scarborough and York. The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l was r e - c o n s t i t u t e d to pro v i d e r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n on the b a s i s of p o p u l a t i o n . Some new f u n c t i o n s were a s s i g n e d t o the new M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n . In O n t a r i o , p l a n n i n g areas are e s t a b l i s h e d f o r 104 community p l a n n i n g purposes under The Pl a n n i n g Act, R.S.O. Chapter 296, which i s ad m i n i s t e r e d by the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i -p a l A f f a i r s . P l a n n i n g areas e x i s t e d before the fo r m a t i o n of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto; the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Act, 1953, p r o v i d e d f o r the c r e a t i o n of a m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g a r e a , to continue and expand the area-wide p l a n n i n g which had been c a r r i e d on s i n c e 1946. The M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto i s regarded as the m e t r o p o l i t a n government and p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area. I . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Government" A u t h o r i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l , which c o n s i s t s of 33 members coming from the s i x l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on a p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s . The policy-recommending body of the C o u n c i l i s i t s E x e c u t i v e Commi-t t e e which c o n s i s t s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Chairman, the s i x l o c a l m u n i c i p a l mayors, and two s e n i o r c o n t r o l l e r s and two aldermen of the C i t y of Toronto. The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l may e s t a b l i s h s t a n d i n g or othe r committees, and a s s i g n d u t i e s to them as the C o u n c i l regards d e s i r a b l e . At the presen t time, the f i v e S tanding Committees of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n a r e : ( l ) l e g i s l a t i o n and p l a n n i n g , (2) parks and r e c r e a t i o n , (3) t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , (4) w e l f a r e and housing, and, (5) works. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n can be seen i n the 105 c h a r t on the next page. In 1 9 5 3 , while the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e t a i n e d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y , the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n took i n t o i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n the wholesale supply and p u r i f i c a t i o n of water, p r o v i s i o n of major storm and s a n i t a r y sewers and the c o n t r o l o f water p o l l u t i o n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b a s i c e d u c a t i o n c o s t s , p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the major road network, r e -g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the county j a i l and the lower c o u r t s , p u b l i c housing, r e g i o n a l parks, homes f o r the aged and the care of i n d i g e n t h o s p i t a l p a t i e n t s and n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . In 1957 , the f u n c t i o n s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n p o l i c i n g , l i c e n s i n g and a i r p o l l u t i o n were a s s i g n e d to the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n . On January 1 , 1967 the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n was r e - o r g a n i z e d , and was p r o v i d e d new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s wel-f a r e and housing, l i b r a r i e s , ambulance s e r v i c e , Canadian N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n , waste d i s p o s a l , and e d u c a t i o n . ^ The o p e r a t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i s based on p o o l i n g of the f i n a n c i a l r esources of the area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s through a system of m e t r o p o l i t a n assessment and t a x a t i o n . The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n ' s funds are secured by an annual l e v y on each of the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , based on t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n 7 of the t o t a l assessment i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, Summary of Pro-cedures of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board E f f e c t i v e  A p r i l 1 . 1967 (Toronto. May 1 , 1967).. "^Metropolitan Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, M e t r o p o l i t a n  Toronto 1 9 6 7 . op. c i t . . p. 1 2 . METROPOLITAN ORGANIZATION Police Commission 5 Members f '-!-! i Parks and " Recreation | Committee ^ 7 Members Parks Department Source Property Department Licensing Commission 3 Members . J 4T Metropolitan Council 33 Members Metropolitan Toronto Planning Board Metropolitan Toronto Housing Company Limited t - - i Legislation and Planning Committee • Members I 7  rr Transportation Committee 7 Members Executive Committee 11 Members Roads Department Traffic Department M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, 1 9 6 7 y Legal Department Treasury Department Clerk's Department Welfare and Housing Committee 8 Members Welfare Department Housing Department Audit Department Assessment Department Courts of Revision Personnel Department 1 Toronto Transit Commission Works • Committee 7 Members Works Department 1 Emergency Services Department 107 The a p p r a i s a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Government A u t h o r i t y i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " e x c e l l e n t " . L e g a l Powers. The powers of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n are e x e r c i s e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . I t i s s t a t e d under Sub-s e c t i o n 2 , S e c t i o n 3 of the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Act t h a t "except where otherwise p r o v i d e d , the powers of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l s h a l l be e x e r c i s e d by by-law". I t i s a l s o p r o v i d e d under S u b s e c t i o n 3 of the same S e c t i o n t h a t : A by-law passed by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l i n the e x e r c i s e of any of i t s powers and i n good f a i t h s h a l l not be open to q u e s t i o n , or be quashed, s e t a s i d e or d e c l a r e d i n v a l i d e i t h e r wholly o r p a r t l y , on account of the unreasonableness or supposed unreasonableness of i t s p r o v i s i o n s or any of them. As to the l e g a l powers of the E x e c u t i v e Committee of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n , i t i s p r o v i d e d under S u b s e c t i o n 2 , S e c t i o n 12 of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Act t h a t : The E x e c u t i v e Committee has a l l the powers and d u t i e s of a board of c o n t r o l under s u b s e c t i o n 1 of s e c t i o n 206 . of The M u n i c i p a l Act, and s u b s e c t i o n 2 to 15 and 17 to 19 of t h a t s e c t i o n apply mutatis mutandis. The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Government A u t h o r i t y i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n I I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "good". C o n t r o l . The M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto i s c o n t r o l l e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . At the present time, the Metropo-l i t a n C o u n c i l c o n s i s t s of 33 members. Twelve members come from the C i t y of Toronto; s i x from the Borough of North York; f i v e 108 from the Borough of Scarborough; f o u r from the Borough of E t o -b i c o k e ; three from the Borough of York; two from the Borough of E a s t York. Each l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s share of the number of members on the C o u n c i l i s based on the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . Members take t h e i r s e a t s on M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l by v i r t u e of t h e i r e l e c t i o n to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s . The members who are e l e c t e d with the h i g h e s t votes to t h e i r l o c a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s a u t o m a t i c a l l y become the members of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l e l e c t s one of i t s own members or any other person as i t s Chairman. The Chairman i s the head of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l and the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n . The Chairman and a l l other mem-bers serve f o r a term of three y e a r s . As to the v o t i n g power of the members, i t i s s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n 2 , S e c t i o n 8 of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i -tan Toronto Act t h a t "each member of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l , except the Chairman, has one vote o n l y , and the Chairman does not have a vote except i n the event of an e q u a l i t y o f v o t e s . " The a p p r a i s a l to the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Government A u t h o r i t y i n regard to C r i t e r i o n I I I i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "good". L o c a l Governments and T h e i r F u n c t i o n s . The establishment of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto does not i n d i c a t e the e l i m i n a t i o n of l o c a l governments. The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n has been a s s i g n e d o n l y these f u n c t i o n s which can be c a r r i e d out 109 most e f f e c t i v e l y on an area-wide b a s i s . Those f u n c t i o n s o f p u r e l y l o c a l nature have remained with the l o c a l governments. On January 1, 1 9 6 7 , the 13 l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were combined i n t o s i x m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by alrnagamation as f o l l o w s : A. Toronto, Swansea and F o r e s t H i l l became the C i t y o f Toronto; B. York and Weston became the Borough of York; C. E a s t York and Leaside became the Borough of E a s t York; D. E t o b i c o k e , Long Branch, New Toronto, and Mimico became the Borough of E t o b i c o k e ; E. North York became the Borough of North York; g F. Scarborough became the Borough of Scarborough. The c o n s o l i d a t i o n of l o c a l governments i n t o s i x Boroughs was c l e a r l y an attempt to form more e f f i c i e n t l o c a l governments i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area to p r o v i d e b e t t e r l o c a l s e r -v i c e s . B e s i d e s , the p r i n c i p l e of a t w o - l e v e l form of metropo-l i t a n government i s s t i l l m aintained. The a p p r a i s a l to the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Governmental A u t h o r i t y i n regard to C r i t e r i o n IV i s judged to be " e x c e l l e n t " . Geographic Adequacy. The urban development i n Toronto Area has reached f a r beyond the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n p r o p e r . To the e a s t , urban development has reached i n t o the P i c k e r i n g Township, P i c h e r i n g and Ajax. To the n o r t h , the u r b a n i z e d area has extended i n t o Vaughan, Woodbridge, Markham, and Richmond , M e t r o p o l i t a n Key F a c t s . l o c . c i t . 110 H i l l . To the west, the h e a v i e s t urban expansion o c c u r s , and people have moved i n t o P o r t C r e d i t , Toronto Township, S t r e e t -s v i l l e , and even i n O a k v i l l e . However, the p o l i t i c a l j u r i s -d i c t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i s s t i l l l i m i t e d w i t h i n the same area (240 square m i l e s ) as i t was i n 1953. The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Government A u t h o r i t y i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n V i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "poor". I I . The M e t r o p o l i t a n and L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s The composition o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board i s e s t a b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s of the Prov i n c e of On t a r i o under S e c t i o n 5 of the P l a n n i n g A c t . The members of the Board are appointed by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l , s u b j e c t to the ap p r o v a l of the M i n i s t e r . On May 2, 1967 the M i n i s t e r e s t a b l i s h e d a 28 men membership f o r the Board. T h i s new composition i n c r e a s e d the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the f r i n g e area which had no p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Metro-p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . In a d d i t i o n , the new composition w i l l ensure much c l o s e r l i a i s o n w i t h l o c a l p l a n n i n g boards than has been the case i n the p a s t through r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from those boards.^ The Board appoints an E x e c u t i v e Committee composed of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Chairman of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Coun-c i l , and two members appointed a n n u a l l y by the Board, to make ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, Summary of Proce-dures , op. c i t . , p. 3» I l l recommendations concerning p e r s o n n e l , o r g a n i z a t i o n and admini-s t r a t i v e matters, i n c l u d i n g the Board's .annual budget, and to t r a n s a c t Board matters d u r i n g the p e r i o d between r e g u l a r Board 10 meetings. The s t a f f of the Board i s or g a n i z e d i n t o f o u r d i v i s i o n s -a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , land use, r e s e a r c h and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . There i s a f u r t h e r breakdown i n the l a n d use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i v i -s i o n s i n t h a t s e c t i o n s of each d i v i s i o n d e a l w i t h development c o n t r o l and comprehensive p l a n n i n g respectively." 1'' 1' C o n t r o l . Under S u b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 3 of The P l a n n i n g Act, i t i s s t a t e d t h a t : The C o u n c i l of the de s i g n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l a p point the p l a n n i n g board of a p l a n n i n g a r e a , and every appointment to the p l a n n i n g board of a j o i n t p l a n n i n g area i s s u b j e c t to the a p p r o v a l of the M i n i s t e r . and under S u b s e c t i o n 2 of the same S e c t i o n t h a t : Where a p l a n n i n g area c o n s i s t s of p a r t o r a l l of one m u n i c i p a l i t y and t e r r i t o r y without m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , every appointment to the p l a n n i n g board of the p l a n n i n g area i s s u b j e c t to the appro v a l of the M i n i s t e r . I t i s c l e a r t h a t the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the Me-t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l of Toronto have a great a u t h o r i t y i n the fo r m a t i o n o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board. As to the composition of the P l a n n i n g Board, i t i s p r o -I b i d . " ^ I b i d . , p. 6. 112 v i d e d under S u b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 4 of the same Act t h a t : A p l a n n i n g board . . . s h a l l c o n s i s t o f , (a) Where the p l a n n i n g area c o n s i s t s of p a r t or a l l of one m u n i c i p a l i t y or of p a r t or a l l of one mu n i c i -p a l i t y and t e r r i t o r y without m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the head of the c o u n c i l of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s a member ex o f f i c i o ; or (b) i n the case of a j o i n t p l a n n i n g a r e a , the head of the c o u n c i l of the designated m u n i c i p a l i t y i s a member ex o f f i c i o , and f o u r , s i x or e i g h t members who are not employees of a m u n i c i p a l i t y or of a l o c a l board. However, the members of the P l a n n i n g Board who are members of the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l can not c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r i t y of the members of the Pl a n n i n g Board. As to the term of o f f i c e of the P l a n n i n g Board members, i t i s p r o v i d e d under S u b s e c t i o n 5 , S e c t i o n 4 of the same Act t h a t : The members of the p l a n n i n g board who are not members of a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e f o r three y e a r s , p r o v i d e d t h a t on the f i r s t appointment the c o u n c i l of the d e s i g n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y , from among such members s h a l l designate members who s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e , (a) u n t i l the 1st day of January of the year f o l l o w i n g the. date of appointment; (b) u n t i l the 1st day of January of the second year f o l l o w i n g the date of appointment; and (c) u n t i l the 1 s t day of January of the t h i r d year f o l l o w i n g the date of appointment, r e s p e c t i v e l y , so t h a t as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e o n e - t h i r d of such members s h a l l r e t i r e each year; and the members of the p l a n n i n g board who are members of a c o u n c i l s h a l l be appointed a n n u a l l y . The members of the P l a n n i n g Board are ab l e t o be r e - a p p o i n t e d . The g r e a t power of the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has been noted e a r l i e r . T h i s i s f u r t h e r p r o v i d e d under S e c t i o n 5 of The P l a n n i n g Act t h a t : 113 Notwithstanding any o t h e r p r o v i s i o n i n t h i s A c t , the M i n i s t e r may, i n order to s u i t the s p e c i a l needs of any p l a n n i n g a r e a , vary the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the p l a n n i n g board, the procedures by which i t i s appointed, the term of o f f i c e of i t s members, and the manner i n which i t i s to f u n c t i o n , and designate the f u n c t i o n s of the p l a n n i n g board w i t h i n the scope of s e c t i o n 10, and may make s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g to the recommendation, adop-t i o n and a p p r o v a l of the o f f i c i a l p l a n of the p l a n n i n g a r e a . The c i t i z e n s of the P l a n n i n g Area t h e r e f o r e do not have any important r o l e i n t h e i r area-wide p l a n n i n g matters. The P l a n n i n g Board r e c e i v e s i t s f i n a n c i a l support from the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto. The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n I I I i s judged to be "poor". L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s . The M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Act p r o v i d e d f o r the c r e a t i o n of a p l a n n i n g area which has been d e f i n e d as M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto p l u s one t i e r of town-s h i p s surrounding i t , a t t o t a l of 19 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , s i x w i t h i n Metro and 13 i n the f r i n g e a r e a . The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n i s the d e s i g n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r the p l a n n i n g a r e a . Each of 19 l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s a l s o a s u b s i d i a r y p l a n n i n g a r e a . In the t w o - l e v e l p l a n n i n g system of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area, the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Board i s con-cerned with e s t a b l i s h i n g the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n and p r i n c i p l e s of development, l e a v i n g to l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l . The l o c a l p l a n n i n g boards have r e t a i n e d the r i g h t to formulate o r amend t h e i r own o f f i c i a l p l a n s , p r o v i d e d a p p r o v a l i s obtained from the M e t r o p o l i t a n 114 P l a n n i n g Board and the P r o v i n c i a l Government. A l l 19 l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have employed p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s , or have appointed p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s to d e a l with t h e i r l o c a l p l a n n i n g matters. The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n regard to C r i t e r i o n - I V i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "good". Geographic Adequacy. On June 2 3 , 1953 the M e t r o p o l i t a n Coun-c i l recommended that "the P l a n n i n g Area be the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, and i n a d d i t i o n , the Townships o f : Toronto, Toronto Core, Vaughan, Markham and P i c k e r i n g and a l l i n c o r p o r a -ted M u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h e r e i n . " T h i s was the area subsequently d e s i g n a t e d by the M i n i s t e r of P l a n n i n g and Development, then r e s p o n s i b l e f o r community p l a n n i n g , as The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toron-to P l a n n i n g Area. The area beyond M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto but w i t h i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area i s c a l l e d the " F r i n g e " area of the P l a n n i n g Area, and the 13 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h e r e i n , the "Fringe M u n i c i p a l i t i e s " . The 13 F r i n g e M u n i c i p a l i -t i e s are the Towns of Ajax, M i s s i s s a u g e , Port C r e d i t , Richmond H i l l and S t r e e t s v i l l e , the Townships of Markham, P i c k e r i n g , Vaughan and Toronto Core, and the V i l l a g e s of Markham, P i c k e r i n g , S t o u f f v i l l e and Woodbridge, Thus the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n -n i n g Area i s made up of the C i t y of Toronto and the f i v e Bo-broughs and the 13 F r i n g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The t o t a l area under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n 115 P l a n n i n g Board i s 720 square m i l e s , about 480 square m i l e s l a r -ger than the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto p r o p e r . However, a t the p r e -sent time, the urban development a l o n g the n o r t h shore of Lake O n t a r i o has reached beyond the western boundary of the Pl a n n i n g Area i n t o O a k v i l l e . The f u t u r e urban development of Toronto Area w i l l c e r t a i n l y proceed i n t o those areas where the P l a n n i n g Board has no p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l a t a l l . The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n r e g a r d to C r i t e r i o n V i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " f a i r " . M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s . The P l a n n i n g Board has been a s s i g n e d such d u t i e s as are s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 10 of The P l a n n i n g Act t h a t : 9 Every p l a n n i n g board s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e and survey the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the development of the p l a n n i n g area and may perform such o t h e r d u t i e s of a p l a n n i n g nature as may be r e f e r r e d to i t by any c o u n c i l having j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g a r e a , and without l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of the f o r e g o -i n g i t s h a l l , (a) prepare maps, drawings, t e x t s , s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a -t i o n and a l l other m a t e r i a l necessary f o r the study, e x p l a n a t i o n and s o l u t i o n o f problems or matters a f f e c t i n g the development of the p l a n n i n g area; (b) h o l d p u b l i c meetings and p u b l i s h i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the purpose of o b t a i n i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n and co-opera-t i o n of the i n h a b i t a n t s of the p l a n n i n g area i n de-t e r m i n i n g the s o l u t i o n of problems or matters a f f e c t -i n g the development of the p l a n n i n g area; (c) c o n s u l t with any l o c a l board having j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g area; (d) prepare a p l a n f o r the p l a n n i n g area s u i t a b l e f o r ad o p t i o n as the o f f i c i a l p l a n t h e r e o f and forward i t to the c o u n c i l s of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a f f e c t e d t h e r e -by, and recommand such p l a n to the c o u n c i l of the desig n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r adoption; 116 (e) recommend from time to time to the c o u n c i l s of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the p l a n n i n g area the implementa-t i o n of any of the f e a t u r e s of the o f f i c i a l p l a n of the p l a n n i n g a r e a ; ( f ) review the o f f i c i a l p l a n from time to time and r e -commend amendments t h e r e t o to the c o u n c i l of the d e s i g n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r a d o p t i o n . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board has conducted many s t u d i e s i n the past y e a r s , such as apartment d i s t r i b u t i o n and d e n s i t y study, m e t r o p o l i t a n urban renewal study, w a t e r f r o n t p l a n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study, commuter r a i l study, water and sewer s e r v i c e s , m e t r o p o l i t a n park system, g e n e r a l l a n d use, p o p u l a t i o n and d e n s i t y p l a n , urban development boundary, s c h o o l , housing, employment study, shopping c e n t e r s and r e t a i l d i s t r i -b u t i o n , and many o t h e r s . The Board has c a r r i e d out a compre-hensive p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h program and a comprehensive t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n program, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the M e t r o p o l i t a n Roads and T r a f f i c Departments, the Toronto T r a n s i t Company, the Depart-ment of Highways and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto and Region Trans -12 p o r t a t i o n Study. The Board i s a l s o charged by the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Metro-p o l i t a n Toronto Act w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n of an o f f i c i a l p l a n c o v e r i n g l a n d uses, ways of communication, s a n i t a t i o n , green b e l t s and park areas, and p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . On December 1 5 , 1966 the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l adopted the " M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area". T h i s Plan had i t s o r i g i n s i n the 1959 D r a f t O f f i c i a l M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, M e t r o p o l i t a n  Toronto 1 9 6 7 , op. c i t . , p. 3 3 . 117 P l a n which has r e v i s e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Board i n 1964 and giv e n e x t e n s i v e p u l b i c hearings throughout the P l a n n i n g Area d u r i n g 1 9 6 5 . The Plan was adopted by the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Board i n December, 1965 as a p l a n s u i t a b l e f o r adoption as an " o f f i c i a l p l a n " w i t h i n the meaning of The P l a n n i n g Act, but was subsequently r e v i s e d and adopted by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l i n December, 1966 not as an " o f f i c i a l p l a n " but as a statement of the p o l i c y of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n f o r the p l a n n i n g of f u t u r e M e t r o p o l i t a n works and s e r v i c e s and as a guide f o r f u t u r e development i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n -1^ n i n g Area. J The M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n proposes an urban area w i t h i n the P l a n n i n g Area f o r f u t u r e development. The proposed urban area comprises about 400 square m i l e s ; i t p r o v i d e s f o r almost com-p l e t e development of Metro i t s e l f , and f o r development of about 36 per cent of the f r i n g e . The Urban'Development Area's boun-dary i s o n l y the l i m i t of urban development which can be accom-14 modated i n the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . The area f o r urban deve-lopment w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y compact, wi t h r e s i d e n t i a l and employ-ment areas d i s p e r s e d so as to permit reasonable a c c e s s i b i l i t y and i n t e r c h a n g e . I n t e n s i v e uses w i l l be concentrated i n the C e n t r a l Area and a t s e l e c t e d l o c a t i o n s throughout the Urban JThe M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, M e t r o p o l i t a n  P l a n f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Planning. Area (Toronto, Decem-ber, 1 9 6 6 ), p. 1 . 14' M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, Summary of Proce-dures , op. c i t . , p. 5« 118 Development Area a t the f o c a l p o i n t s of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 15 system. ^ Lands o u t s i d e the urban development boundary w i l l be r e s e r v e d f o r p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and u n - i n t e n s i v e r u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l uses."^ i n 196k, the P l a n n i n g Board a l s o completed the T r a n s -p o r t a t i o n P l a n which served as a b a s i s f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n . The P l a n n i n g Board a c t s i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y to the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l , and the s e r v i c e s of i t s t e c h n i c a l s t a f f are made a v a i l a b l e to the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , both to d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c problems and to a s s i s t them i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own o v e r a l l p l a n s . In c o n j u n c t i o n with the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the Board a d v i s e s the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the O n t a r i o M u n i c i p a l Board on new p l a n s of s u b d i v i s i o n and zoning by-laws, and makes recommendations to the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l on the l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n of major roads, t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s and the t i m i n g of sewer and water f a c i l i t i e s and other major 17 p u b l i c works. 1 The s e r v i c e s to l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are p r o -v i d e d a t no c o s t to the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s except f o r p u b l i -c a t i o n c o s t s where a s u b s t a n t i a l volume of r e p o r t s i s r e q u i r e d . 1^The M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n , o p . . c i t . , p. 3• , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, M e t r o p o l i t a n To-r o n t o 1967. op. c i t . , p. 34. ,10. Years of P r o g r e s s : M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  1953-1963 (Toronto, June, 1963J7 p. 16. 119 The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n VT i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be "good". L e g a l Powers. I t i s s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n 1 , S e c t i o n 15 of The P l a n n i n g Act t h a t : Notwithstanding any other g e n e r a l or s p e c i a l A c t , where an o f f i c i a l p l a n i s i n e f f e c t , no p u b l i c work s h a l l be undertaken and, except as p r o v i d e d i n su b s e c t i o n s 2 and 3 , no by-law s h a l l be passed f o r any purpose t h a t does not conform t h e r e w i t h . and under S e c t i o n 16 of the same Act t h a t "A by-law t h a t con-forms w i t h an o f f i c i a l p l a n s h a l l be deemed to implement the o f f i c i a l p l a n whether the by-law i s passed before o r a f t e r the o f f i c i a l p l a n i s approved." An o f f i c i a l p l a n , t h e r e f o r e , i s b i n d i n g on the m u n i c i -p a l i t y which has adopted i t , and i n t h i s case on the l o c a l mu-n i c i p a l i t y which has adopted i t , and i n t h i s case on the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area as w e l l . A l l s u b s i d i a r y o f f i c i a l p l ans must conform t o the Metro-p o l i t a n O f f i c i a l P l a n i f there i s one. To f a c i l i t a t e the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Board's work i n p r e p a r a t i o n of a p l a n and i n the implementation of such a p l a n , the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e f e r s a l l o f f i c i a l p l a n amendments, l o c a l o f f i c i a l p l a n amendments, and s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the P l a n n i n g Area to the Board; and the On t a r i o M u n i c i -p a l Board d i r e c t s t h a t n o t i c e of a l l zoning by-laws be giv e n to 120 the Board. In cases where l o c a l amendments conform to the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n , the s t a f f of the P l a n n i n g Board i s a u t h o r i z e d to thus i n d i c a t e to the M i n i s t e r . The zoning by-laws are handled i n the same way as o f f i c i a l p l a n amendments. As to sub-d i v i s i o n p l a n s , l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s forward t h e i r recommenda-t i o n s f o r a p p r o v a l to the P l a n n i n g Board which then i n c o r p o r a t e s i t s views and the views of any agency i t may have c o n s u l t e d be-f o r e f o r w a r d i n g these s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n s to the M i n i s t e r . The Commissioner of the P l a n n i n g Board i s a u t h o r i z e d to submit r e -commendations on s u b d i v i s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s d i r e c t l y to the M i n i s t e r . 1 9 T h e r e f o r e , although the O f f i c i a l P l a n i s not i n e x i s t e n c e , the P l a n n i n g Board i s a b l e to express i t s o p i n i o n s on l o c a l p l a n n i n g matters. I t i s a l s o p r o v i d e d under S e c t i o n 33 of The P l a n n i n g Act t h a t : In a d d i t i o n to any other remedy or p e n a l t y p r o v i d e d by law, any c o n t r a v e n t i o n of a by-law t h a t implements an o f f i c i a l p l a n and any c o n t r a v e n t i o n of s e c t i o n 15 may be r e s t r a i n e d by a c t i o n a t the i n s t a n c e of the p l a n n i n g board of the p l a n n i n g area i n which the c o n t r a v e n t i o n took p l a c e or any m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n or p a r t l y w i t h i n such p l a n n i n g area or any r a t e p a y e r of any such m u n i c i -p a l i t y , and any c o n t r a v e n t i o n of an order of the M i n i s t e r made under s e c t i o n 27 may be r e s t r a i n e d by a c t i o n a t the i n s t a n c e of the M i n i s t e r or the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n which the c o n t r a v e n t i o n took p l a c e or any a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y or any r a t e p a y e r of any such m u n i c i p a l i t y o r a d j o i n i n g muni-c i p a l i t y . Although the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n has not been adopted as , Summary of Procedures. op. c i t . , p. 6 . I b i d . , pp. 6 - 7 . 121 the O f f i c i a l P l a n , the p r o v i s i o n s of l e g a l powers to the P l a n -n i n g Board are good. The a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s i n re g a r d to C r i t e r i o n VII i s t h e r e f o r e judged to be " e x c e l l e n t " . I I I . Conclusions The p h i l o s o p h y behind the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the M u n i c i p a l i -t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto i s based on the r e c o g n i t i o n of two b a s i c f a c t o r s : r e p r e s e n t a t i o n common to both l e v e l s of c o u n c i l , and a d i s t i n c t i o n between those s e r v i c e s which are most e f f e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e d on an area-wide b a s i s and those which are 20 p u r e l y l o c a l . As to the f i r s t concept, members are not e l e c t e d d i r e c t l y to the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l but become members of the C o u n c i l by v i r t u e of e l e c t i o n to o f f i c e i n t h e i r l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as mayors, aldermen or c o n t r o l l e r s . T h i s has ensured c o n t i n u i t y and c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the o p e r a t i o n s of 2 the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n and the l o c a l area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . As to the second concept, the t w o - l e v e l p l a n n i n g machinery im-poses on the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the b a s i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g u l a t i n g and deter m i n i n g t h e i r own appearance and s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , while imposing on the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n W i l l i a m R. A l l e n , Q. C , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto - A S u c c e s s f u l Metroplex, an address to the Advanced A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n s t i t u t e , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , J u l y 2 1 , 19&7, P« 4. 21 M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, M e t r o p o l i t a n To-r o n t o 1967, op. c i t . , p. 4. 122 the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g the area-wide framework r e -q u i r e d f o r the development of the area as a whole. However, the P l a n n i n g Board's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Metro-p o l i t a n C o u n c i l i s of c r i t i c a l importance. As i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d i n the Provinc e of O n t a r i o , p l a n n i n g boards are intended to be a d v i s o r y b o d i e s . Although t h i s arrangement i s reasonable, the process f o r the ad o p t i o n o f an o f f i c i a l p l a n i s d i f f i c u l t and f u l l of f r u s t r a t i o n . T h i s can be seen i n the p r o v i s i o n s f o r the a d o p t i o n o f an o f f i c i a l p l a n under S u b s e c t i o n 2, S e c t i o n 10 of The P l a n n i n g Act t h a t : No p l a n s h a l l be recommended f o r ad o p t i o n unless i t i s approved by a vote o f the m a j o r i t y of a l l the members of the p l a n n i n g board; and under S u b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 11 of the same Act t h a t : The p l a n as f i n a l l y prepared and recommended by the p l a n n i n g board s h a l l be submitted t o the c o u n c i l of the d e s i g n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y ; and under S u b s e c t i o n 2 of the same S e c t i o n :,that:. The c o u n c i l of the desig n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y may adopt the p l a n by by-law; and under S u b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 12 of the same Act t h a t : Upon adoption,:, the p l a n s h a l l be submitted by the c o u n c i l t h a t adopted i t to the M i n i s t e r . . .; and under S u b s e c t i o n 2 of the same S e c t i o n t h a t : The M i n i s t e r may then approve the p l a n , whereupon i t i s the o f f i c i a l p l a n of the p l a n n i n g area; and under S u b s e c t i o n 1, S e c t i o n 12a of the same Act t h a t : The M i n i s t e r may r e f e r any p a r t of the p l a n t o the M u n i c i p a l Board . . .; and f i n a l l y under S u b s e c t i o n 2 of the same S e c t i o n t h a t : 123 When a p a r t of the p l a n has been r e f e r r e d to the M u n i c i p a l Board, the M i n i s t e r may approve the remainder of the p l a n , whereupon the remainder, to g e t h e r w i t h such p a r t of the p l a n as may be approved by the M u n i c i p a l Board, i s the o f f i c i a l plan, of the p l a n n i n g a r e a . B e s i d e s , there i s n o t h i n g i n The P l a n n i n g Act which says an o f f i c i a l p l a n must be implemented. T h i s i s one of the unre--._ s o l v e d i s s u e s of p l a n n i n g i n the Province of O n t a r i o . The q u e s t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s how to encourage p o s i t i v e m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n t o implement the o f f i c i a l p l a n? In o t h e r r e s p e c t s , the M e t r o p o l i t a n Plan f o r the Toronto Area, as a statement of the C o r p o r a t i o n , d e a l s l a r g e l y with those development p r i n c i p l e s , p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s which are c o n s i d e r e d t o be d i r e c t l y of P r o v i n c i a l concern. These a r e , i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , those matters which a f f e c t d i r e c t Pro-v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s such as the highway system; secondly, those matters which a f f e c t the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f development i n the surr o u n d i n g r e g i o n ; and t h i r d l y , those matters which may a f f e c t , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , P r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s to the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto or to l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 22 i n the P l a n n i n g Area. There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t there w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l p r e s s u r e s f o r f u r t h e r urban development i n the f r i n g e areas w e l l beyond the p r o v i s i o n s made by the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n . I t i s f o r e s e e a b l e t h a t f u t u r e urban expansion w i l l go i n t o the Oshawa area immediatley t o the e a s t , and the Ha m i l t o n - B u r l i n g t o n The M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, M e t r o p o l i t a n  P l a n , o p . . c i t . , p. 1. 124 area to the west. T h e r e f o r e , the Province must adopt p o l i c i e s to secure a s u i t a b l e p a t t e r n of r e g i o n a l development i n t h i s l a r g e Toronto urban complex. T h i s i s s t a t e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board: the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board appeals to the Province of O n t a r i o f o r a comprehensive p o l i c y statement r e g u l a t i n g and shaping the f u t u r e development of the whole south c e n t r a l r e g i o n of the P r o v i n c e . 2 3 : At the p r e s e n t time, o n l y the Province has p l a n n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n over the whole r e g i o n . M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto has e x t r a - t e r r i t o r i a l p l a n n i n g powers over the outer t h i r t e e n l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . They have t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Board, but they are not r e p r e s e n t e d on the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l t h a t i s 24 empowered to adopt a p l a n f o r t h e i r a r e a . There i s a l s o a s t r o n g need f o r a r e - a p p r a i s a l of the government s t r u c t u r e i n the f r i n g e areas and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto. I t i s very c l e a r t h a t the events i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area have supported the v a l i d i t y of the hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s . ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, Summary of Proce-dures , op. c i t . , p. 5• ^ W i l l i a m R. A l l e n , Q. C , "The Place of the P l a n n i n g Board i n the Community", Community.Planning Review, V o l . 1 2 , No. 3" ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 2 3 . CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s t h e s i s has i n v o l v e d a process of t e s t i n g the v a l i -d i t y of the h y p o t h e s i s , which i s : f o r p l a n n i n g a t the metropo-l i t a n l e v e l to-.',- be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a  w e l l o r g a n i z e d area-wide government a u t h o r i t y , and must o b t a i n  a w e l l c o - o r d i n a t e d working r e l a t i n s h i p with s u i t a b l y m o d i f i e d  l o c a l governments and l o c a l p l a n n i n g b o d i e s . T h i s has been done by t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h and case s t u d i e s . T h i s t h e s i s does not i n t e n d to propose any U t o p i a n i d e a s , but r a t h e r t r y to give some p r a c t i c a l d i r e c t i o n s , and to p o i n t out what courses of a c t i o n should be f o l l o w e d i n s o l v i n g our m e t r o p o l i t a n p r o -blems. Although t h i s t h e s i s i s mostly l i m i t e d i n the scope to Canada, i t s f i n d i n g s and p r i n c i p l e s may be a p p l i e d a t l e a s t to othe r p a r t s of the democratic world. T h i s t h e s i s has been ab l e to cover o n l y a s m a l l p a r t of today's numerous m e t r o p o l i t a n problems. Many other m e t r o p o l i t a n problems, such as the c o n f l i c t s between c e n t r a l c i t y and sub-urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , c i t i z e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a f f a i r s , c o n f l i c t s between m e t r o p o l i t a n and l o c a l p l a n n i n g au-t h o r i t i e s , the proper d i v i s i o n of government f u n c t i o n s between m e t r o p o l i t a n and l o c a l governments, the proper r o l e s of upper governments i n s o l v i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n problems, e t c . , are not s t u d i e d here. T h e r e f o r e , t h i s t h e s i s has o n l y t r i e d to examine a segment of those m e t r o p o l i t a n problems, and to propose a few 126 p r i n c i p l e s which should be f o l l o w e d i n any proper government a c t i o n t o d e a l w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n problems. I . The T h e o r e t i c a l V a l i d i t y of the Hypothesis In Chapter I, today's m e t r o p o l i t a n problems have been p o i n t e d out as the consequences of the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , the r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n i n the t w e n t i e t h century, and the i n a b i l i t y of l o c a l governments to cope w i t h new demands. Only e f f i c i e n t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l can s o l v e today's m e t r o p o l i t a n problems e f f e c t i v e l y . However, the n e c e s s i t y f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n w i t h a w e l l -o r g a n i z e d m e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t y has been proved e s s e n t i a l i n making m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g e f f i c i e n t . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s sequence of r e a s o n i n g , the hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s was e s t a b l i s h e d . In Chapter I I , the d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s on the causes of r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n i n the t w e n t i e t h century, the c h a r a c t e r of m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , and the i n a b i l i t y of l o c a l governments to cope with m e t r o p o l i t a n problems prove that there i s a need f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g and a n e c e s s i t y f o r l o c a l government r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h on the l o c a l government s t r u c t u r e of Canada, and the forms of. m e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t y i n North America has a l s o proved t h a t there i s a need f o r a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d m e t r o p o l i t a n government to d e a l with m e t r o p o l i -tan problems. F i n a l l y , the study of the f u n c t i o n s of p l a n n i n g , the need f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of p l a n n i n g and government i n 127 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , and the n e c e s s i t y f o r government r e - o r g a -n i z a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g e f f i c i e n c y a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l has proved the t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y of the h y p o t h e s i s . Based on the t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y of the hypothesis and on the arguments i n Chapter I I , C r i t e r i a have been worked out to t e s t the three cases: the M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas of Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Toronto. I I . The V a l i d i t y of the C r i t e r i a Although the C r i t e r i a proposed i n Chapter I I have been used f o r the purposes of t e s t i n g the a c t u a l cases, they should a l s o be r e c o g n i z e d as the p r i n c i p l e s f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n government and p l a n n i n g . A b r i e f comparison of the three cases s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s can be used to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the C r i t e r i a : M e t r o p o l i t a n Government Should Be Organized as General-Purpose  Government. The Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has o n l y been a l l o c a t e d the h o s p i t a l f u n c t i o n . I t s i n - e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n s a t i s f y i n g o t h e r m e t r o p o l i t a n needs can be seen by the e x i s t -ence of many other s i n g l e - p u r p o s e d i s t r i c t s and boards i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. The s e p a r a t i o n of the area-wide p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n , i n the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, has proved h i g h l y u n d e r s i r a b l e i n terms of e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g im-p l e m e n t a t i o n . Both the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of G r e a t e r Winnipeg 128 and the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto have demonstrated t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r o v i d i n g area-wide s e r v i c e s as g e n e r a l -purpose governments. T h i s supports the v a l i d i t y of C r i t e r i o n I . M e t r o p o l i t a n Government Should Have S u f f i c i e n t L e g a l Powers. The Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has the po-t e n t i a l i t y to e x e r c i s e i t s l e g a l powers to perform s e r v i c e s when i t has been a s s i g n e d more f u n c t i o n s . Both the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg and the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto have good l e g a l powers to perform those r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s s i g n e d to them. T h i s supports the v a l i d i t y of C r i t e r i o n I I . M e t r o p o l i t a n Government Should Remain C o n t r o l l a b l e by and  A c c e s s i b l e to I t s C i t i z e n s . The members on the R e g i o n a l Board of the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t are appointed by l o c a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s . I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s arrangement of i n d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , b e i n g democratic or not, i s s t i l l i n doubt. The d i r e c t e l e c t i o n s of the members on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Councils' of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg and the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto are more l i k e l y t o ensure \. c i t i z e n s 1 r o l e and promote c i t i z e n s 1 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r m e t r o p o l i t a n a f f a i r s . T h i s supports the v a l i d i t y of C r i t e r i o n I I I . 129 L o c a l M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Should Be M o d i f i e d to Create E f f i c i e n t  L o c a l Governments. and L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s Should Be  Encouraged. In the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area, where no l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y has been m o d i f i e d , i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g problems e x i s t and are i n c r e a s i n g . The e s t a b l i s h e d l o c a l p l a n -n i n g bodies are unable to cope p r o p e r l y w i t h these i n t e r - m u n i -c i p a l problems. The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg has been b u i l t up as a s t r o n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d m e t r o p o l i t a n govern-ment, e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of i t s p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . As govern-ment f u n c t i o n s i n c r e a s e , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h i s m e t r o p o l i t a n government w i l l be a b l e to handle a l l the s e r v i c e s demanded without e f f i c i e n t l o c a l governments to share the burden. In M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, the former t h i r t e e n m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s were c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o s i x on January 1, 1967 • T h i s mo-d i f i c a t i o n was c l e a r l y based on the i d e a t h a t the l o c a l govern-ments should be made e f f i c i e n t i n p e r f o r m i n g l o c a l s e r v i c e s by m o d i f y i n g t h e i r boundaries. T h i s lends support to C r i t e r i o n IV. Geographic Adequacy. The G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has a p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n e x c l u d i n g some ur b a n i z e d areas while the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board possesses a more than adequate geographic j u r i s d i c t i o n i n terms of p l a n n i n g f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. I t i s d o u b t f u l as to how these two bodies c o u l d f u n c t i o n t o g e t h e r and develop an e f f i c i e n t program 130 f o r the f u t u r e development of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area. The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg has a r e l a t i v e l y good geographic j u r i s d i c t i o n i n terms of i t s p o l i -t i c a l and p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l . Urban development has exceeded the p o l i t i c a l and p l a n -n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t f o r the M u n i c i p a l i t y t o handle i t s area-wide problems. T h i s supports the v a l i d i t y of C r i t e r i o n V. B a s i c M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s Should Be Research, P l a n -n i n g . Co-operation and C o - o r d i n a t i o n , and Advice and A s s i s t a n c e . The Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board has c a r r i e d out com-prehensive s t u d i e s and prepared the O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . I t a l s o maintains a good working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o c a l p l a n -n i n g o f f i c i a l s , and pr o v i d e s a s s i s t a n c e to l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s when req u e s t e d . The P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of G reater Winnipeg has a l l the p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the Area. I t has worked out comprehensive s t u d i e s as w e l l as the O f f i c i a l M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n . However, i t does not co-operate with or p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e to the l o c a l m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s except the C i t y of Winnipeg. The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board has s t u d i e d i t s Area e x t e n s i v e l y , and has been ab l e to prepare a m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n which was adopted by the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l as a s t a t e -131 ment of i t s o b j e c t i v e s . I t has not been a b l e to b u i l d up a very sound working r e l a t i o n s h i p with l o c a l p l a n n i n g b o d i e s . However, the P l a n n i n g Board p r o v i d e s a s s i s t a n c e to l o c a l muni-c i p a l i t i e s . T h i s supports the v a l i d i t y of C r i t e r i o n VI. The M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Body Should Have The Power of Review  Over L o c a l P l a n s . The Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board i s p u r e l y an a d v i s o r y body. L o c a l p l a n n i n g bodies adopt i t s suggestions o n l y on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . T h e r e f o r e , i t s success i s a l s o l i m i t e d i n terms of area-wide p l a n n i n g implementation. The P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of G r e a t e r Winnipeg i s the o n l y p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the whole M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. T h e r e f o r e , i t does not have any d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s r e g a r d . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board has the review power over l o c a l p l a n s . T h e r e f o r e , area-wide o b j e c t i v e s can be more r e a d i l y ensured. T h i s supports the v a l i d i t y of C r i t e r i o n VTI. o A b r i e f comparison of the three M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas based on the C r i t e r i a can be presented i n Table V on the next page. I I I . The V a l i d i t y of the Hypothesis The success of p l a n n i n g as a f u n c t i o n of government i s h i g h l y dependent upon the s t r u c t u r e of the government. There-132 TABLE V A COMPARISON OP THREE METROPOLITAN AREAS BASED ON THE CRITERIA C r i t e r i a Metro Vancouver Area Metro Winnipeg Area Metro Toronto Area Metro. Govt. A u t h o r i t y : I M u l t i -F u n c t i o n poor e x c e l l e n t e x c e l l e n t I I Power f a i r good good I I I C o n t r o l f a i r e x c e l l e n t good IV L o c a l -Government f a i r f a i r e x c e l l e n t V Area f a i r e x c e l l e n t poor Metro, and L o c a l P l a n -n i n g : I I I C o n t r o l f a i r good poor IV L o c a l -P l a n n i n g good poor good V Area e x c e l l e n t e x c e l l e n t f a i r VI Metro.-P l a n n i n g good e x c e l l e n t good VII Power poor e x c e l l e n t e x c e l l e n t 133 f o r e , i f p l a n n i n g i n m e t r o p o l i t a n area i s to be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must be a t t a c h e d t o w e l l - o r g a n i z e d m e t r o p o l i t a n and l o c a l governments w i t h a proper d i v i s i o n o f government powers between them. In a democratic s o c i e t y , the c r u c i a l i s s u e i n the a r e a l d i v i s i o n of government powers l i e s i n the achievement of a r e s p o n s i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e system of government. Paul Y l v i s a -ker attempts to p o r t r a y t h i s problem i n the c h a r t which i s reproduced below: 1 | the Rationale for an Areal Division of Governmental Powers within the Modern Democratic State B A S I C VALUES LIBERTY (Consti tut ional ism, w i t h a g o o d l y admixture of laissez-faire) E Q U A L I T Y (Especial ly as e m b o d i e d i n Its c o r o l l a r y o f democracy a n d the a x i o m o f wide-scale part ic ipa-tion) W E L F A R E (service) 1 INSTRUMENTAL VALUES OF T H E AREAL WVKIOH O f POWERS ... - .v. I.e., The means b y which orfp ts presumed t o realize the g i v e n bas ic voices; e x p r e w s d i n terms o f the: Individual Governmental P r t e w * " V , " Gives further assurance ef protection against arbitrary or hasty governmental a c t i o n ? ' ' - ' i — b y p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l a n d more readi ty a v a i l a b l e points o f access, pressure, a n d control; — b y m a k i n g It possible f o r minorit ies t s a v a i l themselves o f governmental position a n d power; — b y serving to keep governmental power c lose t o its or igins , a n d governmental officials witltfrJ reach o f their masters. O n the negative s ide , provides a further b a r r i e r to the concentration o f Social , economic, a n d pol i t ica l power . • -O n the positive s ide, provides oddi t jeuoj a n d more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e opportunit ies for- participation O i a means o f contributing to the development both of the i n d i v i d u a l ( in the Ar is tote l ian t r a d i t i o n o f citizenship) a n d o f publ ic p o l i c y . A d d i t i o n a l assurance that demands w i l l b e h e a r d a n d that needs w i l l be served. — b y . p r o v i d i n g a system o f twriileivmfipg)power a m o n g governmenta l JeveJv assuring rViirfion a n d debate/ ;." • '[ : — b y creat ing a network o f campo Hrrfej»ts/ to lo-c a l i z e HI* which may besef t t e l ^ y - j t ^ t i e . 1 ! ' .. Gives further assurance of: v - j . v - . ' —responsiveness a w l flexibility? p —energy a n d "collective w i s d o m " ; * • —consent a n d loyalty '•>*•• f- • Gives further assurance tTiai gover)rpYofttdl act ion w i l l be effective (granted the t r a i o * lhifei_=l.iriniedl*' a te ly above) , ar id that pertorrrwince v«fl . b e more efficient, in a c c o r d wi th the administrative Djihclples • f t . ' : ' . . — s c a l e ; < ' . • ,.^$> — d e l e g a t i o n ; . ' . — d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ; " "-v — s p e c j a S i o t i e r i ; — t h e ' a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d yardstick effect ef com-parat ive costSi Paul Y l v i s a k e r , "Some C r i t e r i a f o r a 'Proper' A r e a l D i v i s i o n o f Governmental Powers", R e g i o n a l Development and  Pl a n n i n g , J . Priedmann and W. Alonso, e d i t o r s (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M. I . T. Pre s s , 1964) , p. 524. 134 As noted, the problem i s to devise the means whereby the b a s i c values of l i b e r t y , e q u a l i t y , and w e l f a r e could be r e a l i z e d on an optimum b a s i s through an a r e a l d i v i s i o n of powers. T h i s t h e s i s has demonstrated a way to r e s o l v e t h i s problem. I t i s f e l t t h a t the hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s has been supported to be v a l i d . IV. A F u r t h e r Study: The Role of P r o v i n c e I f a community chooses to p l a n , i t must implement the d e c i s i o n through i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . I t i s the government which i s b e s t s u i t e d to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g . Although the r o l e of l o c a l governments i n d e a l -i n g w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n problems i n Canada i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e , the key to s o l v i n g the complex d i f f i c u l t i e s l i e s w i t h the p r o v i n -c i a l governments. T h i s f a c t has been found i n t h i s t h e s i s : t h a t w i t h i n the three Areas s t u d i e d i n Chapters I I I , . IV, and V, the p r o v i n c e s have p l a y e d v i t a l r o l e s i n s o l v i n g t h e i r me-t r o p o l i t a n problems. The a b i l i t y of l o c a l governments to meet c r i t i c a l development problems i s l a r g e l y c o n d i t i o n e d by the p r o v i n c e . The t o o l s which the l o c a l i t i e s can u t i l i z e , the money they spend, and the powers they e x e r c i s e , are to a great extent determined by the a c t i o n s of the p r o v i n c e s . The B r i t i s h North America A c t , which i s the c o n s t i t u t i o n of Canada, a s s i g n s to the p r o v i n c i a l governments s o v e r e i g n t y i n a l l matters r e l a t i n g to p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s , i n a l l matters of a l o c a l n a ture, and over a l l crown lands and r e -135 s o u r c e s . T h e r e f o r e , p l a n n i n g as i t r e l a t e s to communities, r e s o u r c e s , and p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , i s a l s o a p r o v i n -p c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . There i s no doubt t h a t i f l o c a l i t i e s are to f u n c t i o n w e l l , the p r o v i n c e must p r o v i d e the proper framework and many of the means f o r them to do so. A c t i o n s of the p r o v i n c e to d e a l w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n p r o -blems can be many; but i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s to study these i n d e t a i l . D etermination of how f a r , and i n what d i r e c t i o n s a p r o v i n c e should go depends on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : (1) i t s h i s t o r i c a l experience i n d e a l i n g w i t h urban development problems; (2) the r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t y of m e t r o p o l i t a n problems; and, (3) a judgement on whether or not the m u l t i p l i c i t y of l o c a l governments i s c a u s i n g a l o s s of l o c a l c o n t r o l over l o c a l problems of the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . In o r d e r to make i n t e l l i -gent judgements, there i s a need f o r u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e s and p o l i c i e s to serve as a framework to guide m e t r o p o l i t a n growth. The p r o v i n c e can, and must, p r o v i d e t h i s u n i f i e d d i m e n s i o n — p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r f a c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n , making province-wide p r o j e c t i o n s of economic, s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l development t r e n d s , and f o r m u l a t i n g i m a g i n a t i v e , w e l l - t h o u g h t - o u t development g o a l s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, D i v i s i o n of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , P l a n n i n g f o r R e g i o n a l Development i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver, S p r i n g , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 1 . C o u n c i l of S t a t e Governments, "The S t a t e s ' Role i n Urban Development", M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i t i e s , M. N. D a n i e l s o n , e d i t o r (Boston and Toronto: L i t t l e , Brown and Comapny, i 9 6 0 ) , pp. 3 1 5 - 3 1 6 . 136 However, the r o l e of the p r o v i n c e s of Canada i n m u n i c i -p a l a f f a i r s has been c a p r i c i o u s . No p r o v i n c e makes p r o v i s i o n f o r continuous, or p e r i o d i c review of i t s m u n i c i p a l problems. The p r o v i n c i a l governments seem unconvinced t h a t the metropo-l i t a n problems are h i g h p r i o r i t y i s s u e s , or t h a t the problems are s e r i o u s enough to warrant e f f e c t i v e government r e - o r g a n i -z a t i o n . One of the reasons f o r t h i s l a c k of sympathy with c i t i e s i s the . i r c o n t i n u e d r u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The w i l l i n g n e s s of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s to p l a c e a hig h p r i o r i t y on urban problems has not y e t caught up wit h the p o p u l a t i o n movements of the l a s t twenty or t h i r t y y e a r s . I t i s true t h a t the Conservative Government i n Manitoba, the P r o g r e s s i v e Conservative Government i n O n t a r i o , and the S o c i a l C r e d i t Government i n B r i t i s h Columbia 4 are b u i l t upon s t r o n g r u r a l support. Another reason why c i t i e s f a i l t o get a sympathetic h e a r i n g a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l i s because they g e n e r a l l y are under-represented i n p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s . Some of t h i s urban u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s due to continued i n a c t i o n on the q u e s t i o n of r e - d i s t r i b u t i n g s e a t s i n p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s . The p r o v i n c i a l governments c o u l d undertake wholesale r e - d i s t r i -b u t i o n but i t i s e a s i e r and sometimes s a f e r to do n o t h i n g . ^ Despite t h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of p r o v i n c i a l i n a c t i o n , H a r o l d Kaplan, The R e g i o n a l C i t y (Toronto: Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1965), p. 18 . 5 I b i d . 137 the Canadian r e c o r d on m e t r o p o l i t a n reform i s b e t t e r than the American. The s i t u a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r the most p a r t , i s f a r more c r i t i c a l than i n Canada. Urban under-repre-s e n t a t i o n i n t h e i r s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s i s more b l a t a n t than i n any Canadian p r o v i n c e ; and p a r t y c o n t r o l of the s t a t e l e g i s l a -t u r e i s u s u a l l y more r u r a l - b a s e d . Most Canadian c i t i e s get a somewhat b e t t e r d e a l from t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l governments than American c i t i e s do from t h e i r s t a t e governments. As a r e s u l t , Canadian c i t i e s have had l e s s i n c e n t i v e f o r by-passing the p r o v i n c i a l governments and s e e k i n g d i r e c t f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e . The c i t i e s i n Canada a l s o r e a l i z e t h a t , under the p r e s e n t s t a t u s of Canadian f e d e r a l i s m , the p r o v i n c e s are too powerful to be by-passed.^ Too o f t e n the p l a n n e r s and reformers who are convinced t h a t they have the s o l u t i o n s to m e t r o p o l i t a n problems d i s m i s s the o b s t a c l e s to reform as mere " p o l i t i c s " . But the p r e v a i l -i n g systems i n our p r o v i n c e s r e f l e c t deep-seated a t t i t u d e s and understandable s e l f - i n t e r e s t . The o b s t a c l e s to reform are n e i t h e r t r i v i a l nor s t u p i d . They are r e a l , numerous, and d i f f i c u l t to overcome. However, to f i n d a proper r o l e f o r the p r o v i n c e to d e a l w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n problems i s beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , and should be the s u b j e c t of another work. ' i b i d . , pp. 19-20. 138 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS B o l l e n s , J . C , and H. J . 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D r a f t Development P l a n of Winnipeg. Winnipeg: P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , 1 9 6 3 . . M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg P o p u l a t i o n Study: 1 9 6 1 - 1 9 6 8 . Winnipeg: P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n . The M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto. 1967 The New Metro-p o l i t a n Toronto. Toronto: The m u n i c i p a l i t y .of Metropo-l i t a n Toronto, 1967 . . M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n f o r The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area. Toronto: The.Muni, of Metro. Toronto, December, 1 9 6 6 . . . . M e t r o p o l i t a n Plan f o r The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area: Supplement. Toronto: The Muni, of Metro. Toronto, December, 1 9 6 6 . , M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board. 10 years of Progress: M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto 1953 - 1 9 6 3 . Toronto: Metro. Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, 1 9 6 3 . • M e t r o p o l i t a n Key F a c t s . Toronto: Metro- Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, January, 1 9 6 8 . . M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto 1967 . Toronto: Metro. Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, J u l y , 1967 . 146 . O f f i c i a l P l a n of The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Area. Toronto: Metro. Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, December, I 9 S 5 . . Summary of Procedures of The M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board E f f e c t i v e A p r i l 1, 196*7"" Toronto:. Metro. Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, May 1, I967. Vancouver, C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. Vancouver's Changing Po-p u l a t i o n . Vancouver: C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., June, 1964. 14? D. PROCEEDINGS Bromage, A r t h u r . "Representation i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Government," Proceedings, 6 3 r d N a t i o n a l Conference on Government. Na-t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l League, 1958"". Knapp, E. H. "Economic, S o c i a l , and C u l t u r a l Development of Center C i t y , " Emerging C i t i e s of America. Proceedings of The Government R e l a t i o n s and Pla n n i n g P o l i c y Conference a t Washington, D. C., January 22-24, 1 9 6 5 . Chicago: American I n s t i t u t e of Pl a n n e r s , 1 9 6 5 . Pp. 7 3 - 8 0 . Moore, V. J. "The S t r u c t u r e of P l a n n i n g and Regional Develop-ment," Emerging C i t i e s of America. Proceedings of The Government R e l a t i o n s and P l a n n i n g P o l i c y Conference, 1965 . Chicago: A. I . P., 1965- Pp. 1-17-Wirth, L o u i s . "The M e t r o p o l i t a n Region as A P l a n n i n g U n i t , " N a t i o n a l Conference on P l a n n i n g . Proceedings of the Con-f e r e n c e h e l d a t I n d i a n a p o l i s , Indiana, May 2 5 - 2 7 , 1942. Chicago: American S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 1942. Pp. 141 -151-1 4 8 E . R E P O R T S A l l e n , W. R. M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o — - A S u c c e s s f u l M e t r o p l e x , A n a d d r e s s t o t h e A d v a n c e d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n s t i t u t e , H a r -v a r d U n i v e r s i t y o n J u l y 21 , 1967-S c o t t , S t a n l e y ( e d . ) . M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a P r o b l e m s . R e p o r t o f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t C o n f e r e n c e o n M e t r o p o l i t a n P r o b l e m s , J u l y 2 4 - 2 5 , 1958. B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : B u r e a u o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i -f o r n i a , i 9 6 0 . 149 F. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Oike, P e r r y . "Winnipeg." Term Paper prepared f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e 425 i n t h e . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966. P e r r y , Percy A. "Power, F u n c t i o n and Region: A Study of Three F a c t o r s i n R e g i o n a l Development." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1967. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, D i v i s i o n of Community and Re-g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . "Planning f o r Region a l Development i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Vancouver: U, B. C , Div. of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , S p r i n g , 1965>«; Wakelin, Charles H. "The E f f e c t i v e n e s s of A M e t r o p o l i t a n Agency i n Improving The L o c a l M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g Process; An E v a l u a t i o n of The Case i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver." Un-p u b l i s h e d Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966. 15© G. NEWSPAPER Vancouver Sun. September 10, 1968. Pp. 1 and 6. H. INTERVIEW McLean, Jim. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w h e l d a t the Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Vancouver, August 9, I9S8. 1 5 1 APPENDIX THE QUESTIONAIRRE SENT TO THE LOWER MAINLAND REGIONAL PLANNING BOARD, THE PLANNING DIVISION.OP THE METRO-POLITAN CORPORATION OP GREATER WINNIPEG, AND THE METROPOLITAN TORONTO PLANNING'. BOARD IN JULY, 1 9 6 8 . . 1 . Please d e s c r i b e the presen t geographic area covered by your agency or r e f e r me t o a p u b l i c a t i o n where I can o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 2. When and under what l e g i s l a t i o n was your agency e s t a b l i s h e d ? 3 . (a) I s your agency a t t a c h e d t o a m e t r o p o l i t a n or r e g i o n a l government? Yes ( ) When and under what l e g i s l a t i o n ? No ( ) (b) Have there been any o f f i c i a l i n q u i r i e s i n t o metropo-l i t a n o r r e g i o n a l government i n the p a s t 20 year s ? Yes ( ) Please l i s t . No ( ) 4. Please l i s t the major f u n c t i o n s of your agency or r e f e r me to a p u b l i c a t i o n where I can o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 5 . Please d e s c r i b e the main t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i -s i o n s of your agency or r e f e r me t o a p u b l i c a t i o n where I can o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 6. Approximately how many people are norm a l l y employed by your agency? 7. Have your prepared a comprehensive m e t r o p o l i t a n or r e g i o n a l p l a n ? 152 Yes ( ) Please give t i t l e and date o f p u b l i c a t i o n . No ( ) 8. Has the comprehensive m e t r o p o l i t a n or r e g i o n a l p l a n been adopted? Yes ( ) Date? No ( ) Can you r e f e r me t o any p u b l i c a t i o n o r newspaper s t o r i e s t h a t w i l l e x p l a i n why? 9 . Have you i n your own or i n c o o p e r a t i o n with other agencies prepared any m e t r o p o l i t a n or r e g i o n a l plans f o r a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s h o r e l i n e , r e c r e a t i o n , e t c ? Yes ( ) Please l i s t t i t l e and date of p u b l i c a t i o n . No ( ) 1 0 . (a) Have any of the s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n a l plans been o f f i -c i a l l y adopted? Yes ( ) Please l i s t . No ( ) (b) Have any of the s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n a l plans not o f f i -c i a l l y adopted n e v e r t h l e s s i n your o p i n i o n been used •>; as a guide ? Yes ( ) Please l i s t . No ( ) 1 1 . Are there any other agencies i n t h i s m e t r o p o l i t a n area a l s o c a r r y i n g on c e r t a i n l a n d use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s on an area-wide b a s i s ? Yes ( ) Please give name and address. No ( ) 153 1 2 . Please g i v e the names of the l o c a l p l a n n i n g bodies of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n your m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . 13« Please l i s t your p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the p a s t three to f i v e y ears t h a t w i l l p r o b a b l y be r e l e v a n t to my r e s e a r c h and t h e i r p r i c e s . THANK YOU VERY MUCH' 

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