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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Metropolitan government and planning : a case study of selected metropolitan areas in Canada Lee, Eugene Lieh-Jing 1969

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METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENT AND PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OP SELECTED METROPOLITAN AREAS I N CANADA  by  EUGENE L I E H - J I N G L E E B.  A., P r o v i n c i a l C h u n g - H s i n g U n i v e r s i t y ,  1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  i  MASTER OF ARTS in  the School of  Community a n d R e g i o n a l We a c c e p t required  THE  this  thesis  Planning  as conforming t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA January,  1969  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  i npartial  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  the  Library  I further for  shall  make i t f r e e l y  agree that  permission  available  Columbia,  I agree  that  f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study.  for extensive  copying of this  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r  by  his  of  this  written  representatives. thesis  I t i sunderstood  f o rfinancial  shall  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  D e p a r t m e n t o f {^synnrnuMZE*^, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  gain  that  Ctsngj  Columbia  fyx^&lJzQ  fs$&H/n,</*\  7  ii  ABSTRACT  In the twentieth century,  we a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d u r -  b a n i z a t i o n and m e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . t h i s metropolitan area and  p h y s i c a l problems  Solutions ture is  o f these  of local  e x p l o s i o n are the severe t h a t have o c c u r e d  Following  social,  human,  i n our b i g urban  problems a r e i n h i b i t e d  b y t h e complex  governments i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s .  areas. struc-  The p r o b l e m  d e s c r i b e d a s t o o many g o v e r n m e n t s a n d n o t enough  government.  Today, r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g d e a l s n o t o n l y w i t h  the problem  of resource politan  areas.  effective, tical  development, but a l s o w i t h the development o f metroHowever, i f m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i s t o be  i t must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o  s t r u c t u r e with  established: successful,  a formal area-wide  l e g i t i m a t e power.  poli-  Thus, the h y p o t h e s i s i s  f o r planning a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n  level  t o be  i t must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a w e l l o r g a n i z e d  area-  wide g o v e r n m e n t a u t h o r i t y , and must o b t a i n a w e l l - c o - o r d i n a t e d working r e l a t i o n s h i p and  local  planning  Cities  with s u i t a b l y modified  o f o u r t i m e a r e g o v e r n e d b y two k i n d s  (centrifugal).  phenomenon i s t h e r e s u l t advances o f the p a s t  called  The s p r e a d  and f o r c e s  of these  two  the m e t r o p o l i s .  o f the s c i e n t i f i c  century.  of gravita-  (centripetal),  The i n t e r - a c t i o n  p r o d u c e s a new f o r m o f s e t t l e m e n t  from the core  governments  bodies.  tional forces: forces of concentration of d i s p e r s a l  local  trends This  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l of population  outward  has brought w i t h i t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a -  iii  tion  o f t h e government p a t t e r n .  have m u l t i p l i e d  with astonishing r a p i d i t y  M e t r o p o l i t a n problems, such open s p a c e , without  In our  local  substantial  government  i n the o u t l y i n g areas.  as water supply,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , unbalanced  some f a i r l y  prehensive  New u n i t s o f l o c a l  sewage  disposal,  t a x a t i o n , c a n n o t be met  institutional  changes a n d com-  p l a n n i n g on a n a r e a - w i d e b a s i s . Canada, we have g e n e r a l l y u s e d a committee government o r g a n i z a t i o n .  However, o u r l o c a l  govern-  r e c e n t l y developed  metropo-  ments a r e u n a b l e  to deal with  l i t a n problems.  T h e y have t o be r e - o r g a n i z e d ; a n d t h e a t t e m p t s  to  re-organize  lines:  local  g o v e r n m e n t s have b e e n a l o n g  (1) i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l  authorities; county  these  system f o r  (3) a n n e x a t i o n  arrangements;  the f o l l o w i n g  (2) s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e  o r c o n s o l i d a t i o n ; a n d , (4) c i t y -  s e p a r a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n .  However, none o f t h e s e  a t t e m p t s has f u r n i s h e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y  solution  to the manifold  problems i n v o l v e d i n the development o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a as a  whole. Although  ancient century. of  times,  community p l a n n i n g  c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o  t h e modern e r a o f c i t y p l a n n i n g began i n t h i s  T o d a y , c i t y p l a n n i n g has b e e n r e c o g n i z e d a s a n a s p e c t  the process  of l o c a l  government.  However, r e g i o n s o f h i g h  p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y a n d complex u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s r e quire  a r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n f o r the development o f  regional  interests.  seek e s t a b l i s h m e n t  The m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g a g e n c y and a c c e p t a n c e  of goals, both  immediate, f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n area's  physical,  should  long-range  and  e c o n o m i c , and  iv  social  development.  planning,  both  I t should  strive  p u b l i c and p r i v a t e .  to co-ordinate  The most  local  desirable  arrange-  ment i s t h a t t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i s i n t e g r a t e d into  a n a r e a - w i d e and m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t .  the p l a n n i n g and  f u n c t i o n c a n more e a s i l y  decision-making  operational We  processes  be t i e d  By  into  this,  the programs  o f a n o n - g o i n g body t h a t  has  powers.  desire e f f i c i e n t  government.  t a n wide o r g a n i z a t i o n i s n o t t h e most  Large-scale, appropriate  metropoli-  scale of  orga-  n i z a t i o n f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f a l l p u b l i c s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d i n a metropolis.  L o c a l governments s t i l l  in  of their  the l i v e s  conserved. equal  division the  governments i s n e c e s s a r y .  metropolitan  distinction  planning  governments.  financial  resources.  a t the h i g h e s t  The  c a n be drawn  and t h o s e  and a u t h o r i t i e s must  balanced  local  o f f u n c t i o n s between the " m e t r o p o l i t a n "  that reasonable  and  r o l e s they  should  be  t h r o u g h c o n s o l i d a t i o n and a m a l g a m a t i o n t o  the c a p a c i t y of t h e i r  "local"  Duties  and i n t h e s e  r o l e s to play  However, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c a n be made more n e a r l y  i n size  strengthen  citizens  have v i t a l  of l o c a l  and  same argument:.' i s  community to area,  O n l y when a l l o f t h e s e will  government  between t h e c o n c e r n s o f  be a p p r o p r i a t e  level,  Then, a  community  planning. population,  f a c t o r s are  satisfaction  be  maximized. B a s e d on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  f i n d i n g s , the C r i t e r i a  purposes o f t e s t i n g the a c t u a l cases followings:  f o r the  c a n be d e r i v e d a s i n t h e  V  I.  Metropolitan  government a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d  general--purpose  government.  II.  government a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d  Metropolitan  powers t o p e r f o r m  be  have enough  M e t r o p o l i t a n government a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d  able  by  IV.  legal  remain  controll-  a c c e s s i b l e to i t s c i t i z e n s .  Local m u n i c i p a l i t i e s should  local  as  services.  III.  and  organized  g o v e r n m e n t s , and  local  be  modified  planning  t o make  efficient  functions should  be  en-  couraged . V.  Geographic  adequacy.  VI. Basic metropolitan  planning  planning,  and  co-operation  f u n c t i o n should  c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and  be  research,  advice  and  assis-  tance . VII. Metropolitan planning local  hypothesis  on  are  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto authorities functions  the  are  d e p t h and  to prove  are  the  t o be In  Area.  grounds.  The  three  i n scope o f these o f the  findings.  both  three  Criteria  Therefore,  t h e o r e c t i c a l l y and  Canada, t h e  three  metropolitan  s t u d i e d under C r i t e r i a  validity  The  Criteria  to  cases  M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area,  s t u d i e d under C r i t e r i a  theoretical  proved  s t u d i e d b a s e d on  i t s practical  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area,  in  have power o f r e v i e w  over  plans. Three a c t u a l cases  the  body s h o u l d  provinces  I t o V;  and  the  metropolitan  areas  study  derived  the h y p o t h e s i s  have v i t a l  and  planning  The  practically  are  government  I I I to V I I .  which are  test  both  i s able from  i s properly  valid.  r o l e s to p l a y i n  vi r e s o l v i n g our metropolitan the s u b j e c t of another  problems,  work.  However, t h i s  s h o u l d be  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I must e x p r e s s Wiesman o f t h e S c h o o l his  my h e a r t y  t h a n k s t o P r o f e s s o r Brahm  o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l  e x c e l l e n t s u p e r v i s i o n throughout  this  thesis.  I am p a r t i c u l a r l y  Collier  o f the School  terial,  a d v i c e , and c r i t i c i s m .  Head o f t h e S c h o o l ,  the course  grateful  the  School.  W.  i n p r o v i d i n g ma-  D r . H. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r , t h e '  a l s o deserves  h i s encouragement d u r i n g  for  of writing  t o Dr. Robert  f o r h i s generousness  for  Planning  my s p e c i a l  acknowledgement  t h e whole c o u r s e  o f my s t u d y i n  My g r e a t e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n h a s t o be d i r e c t e d t o t h o s e planners  o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  Regional  Planning  D i v i s i o n o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Corporation  Winnipeg, and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto co-operation terial  Planning Board, the o f the Greater  Planning Board f o r  their  and a s s i s t a n c e i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a n d ma-  w h i c h c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d  from  elsewhere.  I a l s o want t o t h a n k M i s s M. J . Dwyer, L i b r a r i a n , a n d Miss  J . Wade o f t h e F i n e  their should  help.  Arts Division,  University Library, f o r  M r s . Edward T. Wang, who t y p e d  t h e whole  thesis,  a l s o r e c e i v e my g r e a t e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n a n d b e s t  wishes.  TABLE OP  CONTENTS  CHAPTER I.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION The  1  Problem  Regional  1  Planning  Metropolitan  as The Means t o S o l v e 4  Problems  P u r p o s e a n d Scope  5  The  7  Hypothesis  Methodology  8  Definitions  9  Organization II.  11  URBANIZATION, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR PLANNING FUNCTIONS I N CANADA Urbanization  12  a n d M e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n i n The  T w e n t i e t h Century and i n N o r t h America L o c a l and M e t r o p o l i t a n in  Government  12  Organization  Canada  20  L o c a l and M e t r o p o l i t a n  Planning  Functions  26 33  Conclusions The III.  Criteria  39  f o r T e s t i n g Purpose  THE METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER  AREA  49 54  The  Metropolitan  Government A u t h o r i t y  The  Metropolitan  and L o c a l P l a n n i n g  Functions  ...  6l  CHAPTER  PAGE 71  Conclusions IV.  74  THE METROPOLITAN WINNIPEG AREA  79  The M e t r o p o l i t a n Government A u t h o r i t y The M e t r o p o l i t a n a n d L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s  ...  93  Conclusions V.  97  THE METROPOLITAN TORONTO AREA The M e t r o p o l i t a n Government A u t h o r i t y The M e t r o p o l i t a n and L o c a l P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s  SUMMARY AND  104 ...  110 121  Conclusions VI.  86  125  CONCLUSIONS  The T h e o r e t i c a l V a l i d i t y  o f The H y p o t h e s i s  126  The V a l i d i t y  o f The C r i t e r i a  127  The V a l i d i t y  o f The H y p o t h e s i s  131  A F u r t h e r S t u d y : The R o l e  of Province  134  BIBLIOGRAPHY  138  APPENDIX  151  L I S T OP TABLES  TABLE I.  PAGE The P e r c e n t a g e o f W o r l d P o p u l a t i o n L i v i n g of  II.  i n Cities  2 0 , 0 0 0 and 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 People  The P o p u l a t i o n  Growth i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  13 Vancouver  Area: 1921-1986 III.  The P o p u l a t i o n  Growth i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  50 Winnipeg  Area: 1901-1986 IV.  The P o p u l a t i o n  76  Growth i n M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o  A r e a : 1921-198O V.  A Comparison  o f Three M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas  on The C r i t e r i a  99 Based 132  L I S T OP  ILLUSTRATIONS  ILLUSTRATION I.  PAGE 17  Pour Concepts of M e t r o p o l i s  II.  The  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n o f B r i t i s h  III.  The  Metropolitan  IV.  Basic of  Greater  ....  of the  52 77  Winnipeg Area  Organization the  Columbia  Metropolitan  Corporation 80  Winnipeg  V.  Metropolitan  Toronto M u n i c i p a l i t i e s  100  VI.  Metropolitan  Toronto Planning  101  VII. VIII.  Toronto The  Census M e t r o p o l i t a n  Organization  Metropolitan IX.  The  Rationale  o f the  Area  102  Area  Municipality  of 106  Toronto f o r an  Powers w i t h i n t h e  Areal Division  of  Governmental  Modern D e m o c r a t i c S t a t e  133  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  I.  About a c e n t u r y  The  ago,  problem of a completely present  wrote,  we  are  tending,  do  it." The  much h i g h e r  1950  " I f we we  process  I85O  Between  different  to  i960  estimated  in  urban places  could f i r s t  was  the  world.  By  1950  168  standard  per  cent  1800  twice  declining  know where we  the  center  a r e , and and  to  I85O.  But  the  whither  how  to  r a t e of  t h a t o f the p r o c e e d i n g  i960,  of a l l s i z e s  fifty  the world's p o p u l a t i o n  had  a l r e a d y reached  33  a change  years.  living  per  cent  of  population." ' 1  In North America, more s t r i k i n g  than  Index of u r b a n i z a t i o n changed a t  from  that i n  world's t o t a l  context  of u r b a n i z a t i o n i s a c c e l e r a t i n g a l a r m i n g l y .  r a t e than  was  is  t i m e and  c o u l d b e t t e r j u d g e what t o do,  1950  and  It  the  Abraham L i n c o l n i n d e s c r i b i n g a  p r o b l e m o f mushrooming s u b u r b s and  cities  from  Problem  than  the  t h e phenomenon o f m e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n r a p i d process  almost n i n e t y m i l l i o n  metropolitan  areas  i n the  of u r b a n i z a t i o n i n  Americans United  lived  in  the  the  S t a t e s , about  57  p  of the  total population.  Following this  metropolitan  K i n g s l e y D a v i s , "The U r b a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Human P o p u l a t i o n " , E k i s t i c s . V o l . 21, No. 122 ( J a n u a r y , 1966), p . 4. P h i l i p M. H a u s e r , Growth". Urban L a n d. V o l . 2  "The  17,  Challenge of Metropolitan No. 11 (December, 1958), p .  3.  2  area  e x p l o s i o n were t h e serve  blems t h a t have occured these  problems  without and  and have  i n studying  implementation  limitations  their  of area  o f time  area.  planning  Solutions  inhibited  are mostly  governments  wide b a s i s  region  functions  and the e x i s t e n c e  areas.  living  and of  problems.  boundary p r o b l e m s , as area-wide  or  others--an  of  t h e programs  on an  which confront  that attempt t o deal  areas.  any  an  which  The p r o b l e m i s government.  problems--whether  f o r careful with  such  distribution of  needs f o r s p e c i f i c  exists  area-  jurisdictions  how o n e v i e w s m e t r o p o l i t a n  as  need.  Efforts,  of overlapping  place  of  area-wide  a s t o o many g o v e r n m e n t s a n d n o t e n o u g h  important  boundaries.  needs; c o n t i n u i t y  a r e impeded by t h e unplanned  most o f o u r m e t r o p o l i t a n  Regardless  i s , they  by t h e complex s t r u c t u r e o f l o -  i n metropolitan  urbanized  described  that  on t h e a c t i v i t i e s  with  t o resolve, the d i f f i c u l t i e s  characterize  Most o f  i s lacking i n others;  and scope a r e placed s e t up t o d e a l  pro-  Many c o m m u n i t i e s a r e  metropolitan  most o f t h e agencies  cal  i n nature,  impact on t h e q u a l i t y  t h e whole m e t r o p o l i t a n help  local  areas.  i n scope merely by j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  They a r e area-wide within  human a n d p h y s i c a l  within metropolitan  are not purely  c a n n o t be l i m i t e d  social,  services,  co-ordination  metropolitan  The a c t o f s e r v i n g one n e e d , o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g  one  ^ V i n c e n t O s t r o m , C h a r l e s M. T i e b o u t a n d R o b e r t W a r r e n , "The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t i n M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s : A T h e o r e t i c a l I n q u i r y " , R e g i o n a l Development and P l a n n i n g . J . F r i e d m a n n a n d W. A l o n s o , e d i t o r s ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : T h e M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 5 4 2 .  3 function  i m p i n g e s u p o n o t h e r f u n c t i o n s i n many ways, s u c h  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y upon l a n d use one  governmentagency  t h e i r programs.  affects  Consquently,  decisions.  other  the  a c t i o n of  government a g e n c i e s  l a c k of a process  ment i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a  i s regarded  tropolitan  Luthur  area problem.  The  as  as b e i n g t h e  of  and  govern-  crucial  me-  Gulick stated that:  . . . I t t h u s seems c l e a r t h a t we now n e e d t o c r e a t e i n some o f t h e l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s an e n t i r e l y new l a y e r o f a r e a - w i d e s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t b r o a d enough t o c o v e r t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n map. . . .The m a j o r t a s k f o r t h i s new l a y e r of l o c a l self-government i s not p r i m a r i l y administrative. I t i s p o l i t i c a l , n a m e l y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and a d o p t i o n o f m a j o r p l a n s and p o l i c i e s f o r t h e e n t i r e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y as t o l a n d use and t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s ; w a t e r s u p p l y ; a i r and w a t e r p o l l u t i o n ; w a s t e d i s p o s a l ; s l u m c l e a r a n c e and h o u s i n g ; r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ; t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f minimum s t a n d a r d s on h e a l t h , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and c r i m e ; c i v i l d e f e n s e ; and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e methods o f f i n a n c i n g ^ t h e s e b r o a d community n e c e s s i t i e s and d i v i d i n g t h e c o s t s . The  r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of l o c a l  governments to d e a l  m e t r o p o l i t a n problems i s t h e r e f o r e claimed two  rather definite  and  opposing  the  recommendation f o r v e r y  c e r t a i n areas;  the  other  arrangements.  The  simple  i n g . c r e a t i o n o f one politan  area.  i d e a s have emerged.  simple  structural  and  One  is  solutions i n  i s an e m p h a s i s on f e d e r a l ,  two-level  s o l u t i o n s are o f t e n u n i t a r y , involy.r  government e n t i t y f o r t h e  whole o f a m e t r o -  S u c h s o l u t i o n s a r e f r e q u e n t l y recommended i n t h e  s m a l l e r m e t r o p o l i t a n areas  Attack.  as n e c e s s a r y ;  with  and  i n those  whose p r e - e x i s t i n g  L u t h u r G u l i c k , M e t r o - C h a n g i n g Problems, and,.Lines ..of ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. :~" G o v e r n m e n t a l A f f a i r s I n s t i t u t e ,  1957), p.  26.  4  government  structure i s relatively  arrangement  i s regarded  metropolitan  areas.  simple.  The f e d e r a l  J  s u i t a b l e i n t h e m a j o r and more  A r t h u r Bromage s t a t e d t h a t  complex  :  M e t r o p o l i t a n s p r a w l has o v e r - r e a c h e d o u r e n l a r g e d c e n t r a l c i t i e s and o u r c i t y - c o u n t i e s i n t h e g r e a t agglomerations. O n l y f e d e r a t i o n o f governments and the b u i l d i n g o f an u p p e r t i e r m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l , w i t h l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s t o r deal with various aspects of f u n c t i o n s , w i l l s u f f i c e .  II.  Regional  Planning  a s t h e Means t o S o l v e  Metropolitan  Problems  In the past, r e g i o n a l planning dealt p r i m a r i l y with as  i n the United  the problem of resource  t h e Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y program,  proving  t h e economic w e l f a r e  has m a i n l y  been  circulation. services  of people,  S t a t e s has  development,  such  as a means f o r i m -  while  city  planning  concerned w i t h problems o f l a n d use c o n t r o l and  However, i t i s now r e c o g n i z e d  do r e q u i r e r e g i o n a l t r e a t m e n t  s u c h as w a t e r a n d e l e c t r i c i t y  supply,  t h a t some  i n metropolitan  specific areas,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , sewage  disposal, flood  control,  g a r b a g e a n d waste  d i s p o s a l , a i r and  water p o l l u t i o n  c o n t r o l , r e c r e a t i o n a l space and  facilities,  ^ S t a n l e y S c o t t , " M e t r o p o l i t a n P r o b l e m s and S o l u t i o n s , A D i s c u s s i o n " , Metropolitan^Area Problems. S t a n l e y S c o t t , e d i t o r (Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a : B u r e a u o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , i 9 6 0 ) , p . 18. ^ A r t h u r Bromage, " R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n M e t r o p o l i t a n G o v e r n ment", P r o c e e d i n g s 6 3 r d . N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n Government. N a t i o n a l M u n i c i p a l L e a g u e , 1958, p. 26. —  5 police  protection, education,  h e a l t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  wide p l a n n i n g .  We  d e v e l o p m e n t and  c o n t r o l — s h o u l d be  f r a m e w o r k and  have a g r e e d  t h a t the  that both  logical  of these  area-  functions —  brought together  in a  common  framework f o r t h i s purpose i s  7 the  city  region. Regional  planning  can  help  trialization  and  for  i n t e g r a t i o n of the  in  balanced the  internal migration  r e g i o n , and  the  and  environmental  proper  regional planning However, as  necessary  who  should  and,  (2)  the  co-operation  planning,  responsibility  as  P u r p o s e and  s t a t e d above.  need  activities their  satisfied  by  level.  of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  the problems a r e :  f o r metropolitan and  most  (l)  planning;  efficient?  Scope  need f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  t o become e f f e c t i v e  with  as  The  e v a l u a t i o n of o n l y be  indus-  a g r e a t number o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  what f o r m o f m a c h i n e r y i s b e s t  The  must be  are  way.  development  a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n  f o r metropolitan  III.  evident  and  assume t h e  different  i m p l i c a t i o n s can  there  within a metropolis,  urbanization,  i n a balanced  need f o r c o n t i n u o u s  social  is  to guide  i n metropolitan  areas  However, i f m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g  is is  i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of p u b l i c p o l i c y , i t  integrated into  l e g i t i m a t e power.  a formal The  area-wide p o l i t i c a l  reason  for this  structure  i s t h a t any  plan  'John F r i e d m a n n , "The C o n c e p t o f a P l a n n i n g R e g i o n The E v o l u t i o n o f an I d e a i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , R e g i o n a l Devel o p m e n t and P l a n n i n g . J . F r i e d m a n n and W. A l o n s o , editors (Cambridge: The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 512. -  6 w h i c h s e e k s t o c o n t r o l and litan  a r e a r e q u i r e s the  government.  by  of  of a form of  allowing plans  something  ignored  a metropolitan area  or  area.  There-  i s governed  l e a d i n t u r n t o more a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r e s f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n metropolitan  tanization a steady per  planning.  i s also proceeding  t r e n d toward the  cent of  areas.  will rural  at a rapid  of t h i s  u r b a n and,  farm.^  as  has  over  T h e r e has  trend:  80  i n seventeen  f o r e c a s t sees  per  cent of  Within these  rapidly  population  was  the  cent w i l l  growing m e t r o p o l i t a n area-wide  c h i e f f o r c e behind  be  areas,  problems,  and  been s t a t e d t h a t the need f o r comprehensive l a r g e areas  40  a further i n -  the  the m e t r o p o l i t a n governments i n T o r o n t o  these  than  been  metropolitan  o f the remainder, o n l y nine per  t h e r e have b e e n many ways t o meet t h e i r such  rate.  metropoli-  b i g Canadian c e n t e r s — m o r e  G o r d e n C o m m i s s i o n 198O  The  be  o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and  Canada's p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s  tensification  It  t o be  metropo-  metropolitan  s m a l l , l e g a l l y p r o t e c t e d segments o f t h e  I n Canada, t h e p r o c e s s  t  growth of the  T h i s government must have power t o do  f o r e , b e t t e r a n a l y s i s o f how can  the  establishment  about r e g i o n a l p l a n s , not vetoed  to guide  Winnipeg. planning  the  formation  D a n i e l R. G r a n t , " M e t r o ' s T h r e e F a c e s " , N a t i o n a l . C i v i c R e v i e w . V o l . LV, No. 6 ( J u n e , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 320. ^ L . 0 . G e r t l e r , " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t " , R e g i o n a l and-^Resource. P l a n n i n g ^ i n -Canada. R a l p h R. K r u e g e r , et_ a t . , e d i t o r s ( T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n o f Canada,  Ltd.;  1 9 6 3 ) , p . 24.  of such m e t r o p o l i t a n  organizations.  problems of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g L.  0. G e r t l e r , are t h a t :  However,  i n this  country,  the  general  as I n d i c a t e d  by  ( l ) the p l a n n i n g  f u n c t i o n covers  the  u r b a n - c e n t e r e d r e g i o n i n o n l y a few a r e a s  o f the country;  (2)  the  regional planning  lities  bodies  can e a s i l y r e j e c t  support  i s not  a r e m o s t l y a d v i s o r y and  their plans;  sufficient.  and,  t h e s i s t h e n i s an  t o d i s c o v e r the s t a t u s of the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  function  i n Canada's m e t r o p o l i t a n  titutional  establishments;  metropolitan  areas;  study,  corrected, function  the m e t r o p o l i t a n  ins-  a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e  government o r g a n i z a t i o n s , m e t r o p o l i t a n  f u n c t i o n s , and l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . this  (3) provincial  1 1  The m a i n p u r p o s e and s c o p e o f t h i s attempt  municipa-  the e r r o r s i n the past arid t h a t f u t u r e t r e n d s  planning  I t i s hoped t h a t  c a n be d i s c o v e r e d of metropolitan  through  and  planning  i n Canada c a n be i n d i c a t e d .  IV.  The  The  Hypothesis  conditions f o r successful metropolitan  planning  a r e many and have b e e n s t u d i e d i n many r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s and reports.  The h y p o t h e s i s  the m e t r o p o l i t a n  level  of t h i s  thesis i s : " f o r planning at  to- ~-.be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must  be  inte-  A n t h o n y Adamson, "How t o Make R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Community P l a n n i n g R e v i e w . V o l . 1 1 , No. 4 ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 5 . 1 1  Gertler,  op_. c i t . .  p. 3 1 •  Work"  8  grated and  into  a well  o r g a n i z e d area-wide  must o b t a i n a w e l l  c o - o r d i n a t e d working  suitably modified l o c a l The  metropolitan-wide governments, but ty  g o v e r n m e n t s and  meaning o f the term  necessarily indicate  It  importance  i s also necessary that  and  planning function dealing with while l o c a l  a questionairre  available  i n the U n i v e r s i t y  case  encouraged.  i n this  to gather  the v a l i d i t y  thesis  on t h e  ex-  literature  Columbia  of t e s t i n g  the  supplei s not  library.  o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s , two  are employed: t h e o r e t i c a l ,  the purposes  i s an  the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t  of B r i t i s h  and  kinds  case  Toronto  of  study  cases, c r i t e r i a  theoretical findings.  o f V a n c o u v e r , W i n n i p e g and  study.  metro-  Methodology  mented by  Areas  of  planning functions  I n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f the a v a i l a b l e  e s t a b l i s h e d based  authori-  "well co-ordinated"  and  research techniques  local  governments.  method o f e x a m i n a t i o n  Por  powerful  government  The  research.  not  with high l e v e l  the term  w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area are s t i l l  To p r o v e  planning bodies."  " w e l l o r g a n i z e d " does  suitably modified local  V.  with  organization for providing services  politan-wide p l a n n i n g matters  tan  local  rather a metropolitan-wide  means a m e t r o p o l i t a n - w i d e  tensive  relationship  government a u t h o r i t y w i t h v e r y weak  only of metropolitan-wide the  authority.  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a t o t a l l y  w i t h p r o p e r power and  support from  government  are  The M e t r o p o l i -  are s e l e c t e d f o r  9 VI.  It thesis  is felt  s h o u l d be  Planning.  Definitions  t h a t some t e r m s a r e u s e d t h r o u g h o u t  defined:  Primarily  a way  of  t h i n k i n g about s o c i a l  problems, p l a n n i n g i s o r i e n t e d pre-dominantly is  deeply  concerned  decisions; gram.  and  this  w i t h the  strives  Whenever t h e s e  relation  modes o f t h o u g h t  economic  toward the f u t u r e ;  of goals  f o r comprehensiveness  and  to  collective  i n p o l i c y and  pro-  are a p p l i e d , there  is a  12 presumption that planning City Planning.  of  with  civic  social  design.  o r g a n i z i n g , and for  and  economic t r e n d s  and  sound  I t involves a continuing process p r e s e n t i n g a broad  and  renewal.  o b j e c t i v e s of s o c i a l ,  considering both  and  i n the p h y s i c a l environment of a c i t y  u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t and  local  done.  A means f o r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n t i c i p a t i n g  a c h i e v i n g adjustment sistent  i s being  e c o n o m i c , and  i m m e d i a t e needs and  principles of  comprehensive  I t Is designed  those  con-  to  deriving, program fulfil  physical well-being, of the  foreseeable  1^ future. Regional  J  Planning.  scientific  Regional  undertaking  p l a n n i n g must be  of a s p e c i a l k i n d .  thought  o f as  a  Primarily oriented  12 J . P r i e d m a n n , " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g as a F i e l d o f S t u d y " , R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t and P l a n n i n g . J . F r i e d m a n n and W. A l o n s o , e d i t o r s ( C a m b r i d g e : The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 6 l . ^ F . S t u a r t C h a p i n , J r . , U r b a n L a n d Use P l a n n i n g bana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1965), p. v i .  (Ur-  10 to  the  future, i t looks  purposes  and  ordering  of  spatial  to  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  arrangements.  human a c t i v i t i e s  social  I t i s concerned with  the  i n supra-urban s p a c e — t h a t  i s , in  14 any  area  which i s l a r g e r than a Regional  on  law  and. u n d e r t a k e n b y  directed  towards  a manner t h a t establish the  planning  city.  i s also defined a form of  as  a process,  responsible  based  government,  i n f l u e n c i n g development, p r i v a t e or p u b l i c  results,  regional  s o u n d e s t use  single  of  i n the  a r e a s where p e o p l e  communities, resources  i n the  that  best  our  settle  and  environment  and  civilization  is  in  capable  of e f f e c t i n g . ^ 1  Metropolitan designing  Planning.  the  spatial  Metropolitan arrangements  planning  of  an  i s a process  activity-engaged  lation  within metropolitan  space and,  tional  decisions  l e a d development towards  that  goals.  These s p a t i a l  help  attain,  to  cerned an  with  integral  with  the  will goals  must of  certain higher-order, qualities  aspect  of  of  establishing policies,  reflect,  non-spatial  urban l i f e  governing.  popu-  i n t u r n , f o r making  course  Being  that  are  centrally  i t is a political  for  ra-  desired and  in  goals  turn  con-  sought.  It is  concerned  activity. ^ 1  14 F r i e d m a n n , op.  fiit..  p.  63.  " ^ G e r t l e r , op_. c i t . . p . 26. " ^ S t a n l e y S c o t t ( e d . ) , M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a P r o b l e m s (Berk e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : B u r e a u o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Univers i t y E x t e n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , I960), p. 134.  11 Municipality.  In t h i s  city,  urban area  or other  t h e s i s a m u n i c i p a l i t y means a having  powers o f l o c a l  town,  self-govern-  ment.  Metropolitan Census o f  Area.  Metropolitan  in  appropriate  (2)  This  s u b d i v i s i o n ; and,  research grounds.  on  i f a l l of  of  the  hypothesis  Finally,  research  hypothesis.  i s a study these  the  ( l ) the problem i s urban  (3)  the  boundaries of  a  i t i s t h o u g h t t o be  an  17 '  Organization  the problem, the  there  municipality i s  t h e s i s c o n s i s t s of s i x Chapters.  validity  1966  i n the  s u b j e c t f o r community d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  Chapter I I , t h e o r e t i c a l  V,  satisfied:  i t s scope transcends  VII.  and  defined  A problem i s metropolitan  c o n d i t i o n s are  single p o l i t i c a l  tical  as  area.  Problem.  character;  tains  Census a r e a ,  Canada, w h i c h i n c l u d e s more t h a n one  a metropolitan  following  Any  cases  on  one  the  definitions.  i s used to t e s t In each of  metropolitan  t e s t s the  C h a p t e r VI  and  Chapter I  the  In  theore-  Chapters I I I , IV  area;  hypothesis  contains  the  con-  on  and  the  i t s practical  summary and  conclu-  sions .  •••'James G. Coke, "The O b j e c t i v e s o f M e t r o p o l i t a n S t u d y " , Metropolitan Analysis: I m p o r t a n t E l e m e n t s o f S t u d y and A c t i o n . S t e p h e n B. Sweeney, e d i t o r ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1958), p . 21.  CHAPTER I I  URBANIZATION,- LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, METROPOLITAN GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND FUNCTIONS IN  I. Urbanization  and  5000 seats  B.  first  C.  I n the  of the  leaders  CANADA  Metropolitanization i n  T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y and The  cities  i n North  appeared  political,  the  cities.  L e w i s Mumford once s a i d , " t h e  landscape."" "  This  1  end  of the  tury with  transformation  nineteenth the  subway, and  reaching  was The  1750;  2.7  the  the  impact  decennial  percent 4.5  century  i n v e n t i o n of the  c a r , the  was  of p o p u l a t i o n  i t s complex o r g a n s and  of the  was  e a r l y i n the  telephone,  the  3.2  burst  and  open  over the  entire  of the percent  5.3  twentieth electric  and  the  cen-  street-  E v e n more f a r -  a u t o m o b i l e and  to 1800;  cultural  s e t i n motion toward  r a t e of increase  f r o m 1750  were p r i m a r i l y  c i t y has  organizations  t o 1700;  and  between v i l l a g e s  powered e l e v a t o r .  f r o m 165O  percent  and  6000  revolution dramatically  reversed  scattered  cities  c o m m e r c i a l , and  industrial  distribution  America  age,  religious,  The  the  sometime b e t w e e n  pre-industrial  of s o c i e t y .  THEIR PLANNING  truck. world  population  f r o m 1700  percent  f r o m 1800  to to  J . C. B o l l e n s and H. J . Schmandt, The M e t r o p o l i s t Its P e o p l e . P o l i t i c s , and E c o n o m i c L i f e (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 37.  13 1850; to  6 . 5 p e r c e n t f r o m I85O t o 1900; and 8 . 3 p e r c e n t f r o m  1950.  1900  From I95O t o i 9 6 0 t h e w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d  f r o m 2,400 m i l l i o n a decade.  The  t o 2,917  million,  a g a i n o f 21.5  United Nations p r e d i c t e d  percent i n  t h a t , by t h e y e a r 2000,  2 t h e w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n w i l l r e a c h 6,267 The  million.  number o f c i t i e s i n t h e w o r l d w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f  1 0 0 , 0 0 0 o r more i n c r e a s e d f r o m  36  i n ; 1800  i 9 6 0 t h e number had i n c r e a s e d t o 1 , 1 2 8 . w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n c i t i e s can be  t o 678 The  by 1950;  precentage  seen i n the  by of  following  table: TABLE THE  I  PERCENTAGE OF WORLD POPULATION L I V I N G C I T I E S OF 2 0 , 0 0 0 AND 100,000 PEOPLE*  IN  C i t i e s of 20,000  C i t i e s o f 100,000  or  o r more  1800 I85O 1900 1950  more  2.4 4.3 9.2 20.9  1.7  2.3 5-5 13.1  K i n g s l e y D a v i s , " O r i g i n and Growth o f U r b a n i z a t i o n " , M e t r o p o l i s ; V a l u e s i n C o n f l i c t . C. E . E l i a s , e t a l . , e d i t o r s ( B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1964), p . 12.  Homer H o y t , "The G r o w t h o f C i t i e s f r o m 1800 t o I960 and F o r e c a s t s t o Y e a r 2000", L a n d E c o n o m i c s . Volume XXXIX, No.  2 (May, 1963), p . . 171. 3  Ibid.  p.  170.  14 It the  was  earth's  also pointed  out  p o p u l a t i o n , o r 590  metropolitan  areas  100,000  of  I960, 20  t h a t by  m i l l i o n people,  percent  of  were l i v i n g  in  as many as  in  or more—50 times  1800/ The reveal  United  States  t h a t more t h a n  Census o f 1920  half  of  urban areas.  In  i960, 69.9  United  was  recorded  in  States  Standard In  tics,  the  w h i c h 62.9 (5.1  the  percent  of the  t o the  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1951  m i l l i o n ) was  (8.8 rural.  By  63  Dominion Bureau of  Statis-  n e a r l y 14 m i l l i o n ,  u r b a n and  the; c e n s u s y e a r ,  37.1  of the  According  figures  r e l e a s e d by  the  seventeen metropolitan m i l l i o n ) of the  Of  accounted f o r  63.93  Schmandt, op_.  cit..  p.  set  69.6 of  Canada's  percent  million  ^ N e l s A n d e r s o n , " A s p e c t s o f U r b a n i s m and U r b a n i s m and U r b a n i z a t i o n . N e l s A n d e r s o n , e d i t o r E . J . B r i l l , L e i d e n , 1964), p . 3.  total  this  to another  t o t a l u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n o f 8.8  ^ B o l l e n s and  the  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , areas  of  percent  196l,  percent  urban.  the  Area'.*"'  m i l l i o n people.  was  in  resided  p o p u l a t i o n (had i n c r e a s e d t o 18.2 total  lived  percent  Was  m i l l i o n ) was  to  population of  as urban-', w h i l e  Canada, a c c o r d i n g  the f i r s t  American people  Metropolitan S t a t i s t i c a l  percent  was  in  (5«6 1951;  Urbanization", (Netherlands:  12.  ^ J . S. V a n d i v e r , " U r b a n i z a t i o n and U r b a n i s m i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , U r b a n i s m and U r b a n i z a t i o n . N e l s A n d e r s o n , e d i tor ( N e t h e r l a n d s : E . J . B r i l l , L e i d e n , 1964), p . 161.  15  and of  i n 196I the  these  figures  rose  t o 64.28 p e r c e n t  t o t a l u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n o f 12.7  t r a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n areas O n t a r i o w h i c h has  million.  (8.1  million)  The  concen-  i s g r e a t e s t i n the Province  seven of these  seventeen  standard  of  metropoli-  7 tan  areas.  1  Cities  of our  time  a r e e v i d e n t l y governed by  of g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e s : f o r c e s of concentration and  f o r c e s of d i s p e r s a l  forces ing  are  the  (centrifugal).  city's  nature  and  becoming urban, t h e r e decentralization. p r o d u c e d a new no  longer a  " c i t y , " as on  either.  This  combination  t i o n has  resulted  cal  the  called  that i n s t i t u t i o n  the p a s t ; but  century.  r e g i o n i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with the Because o f the  the  old city  limits.  Al-  two  the had  trends  has  metropolis.  It is  been understood a  in  "country,"  o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and d e - c e n t r a l i z a -  l a r g e l y from the  u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n has  form.  o t h e r hand, i t i s c e r t a i n l y not  advances of the p a s t  biles.  transform-  u r b a n a r e a s , an i n c r e a s i n g  i n t e r - a c t i o n of these  form of settlement  of  more o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s  i s , w i t h i n the  The  kinds  city,  r e b u i l d i n g i t i n a new  t h o u g h on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e more and  kinds  (centripetal)  T h e s e two  i n a c t i o n upon the m a t e r i a l of the  two  scientific The  rise  I n the  technologi-  o f the  metropolitan  i n c r e a s i n g use  o f automo- '  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  s i n c e the  and  automobile,  1930's r a p i d l y  spread  United S t a t e s , the  the  beyond  suburbs by  'T. J . P l u n k e t t , U r b a n Canada and I t s Government r o n t o : M a c m i l l i a m o f Canada, 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 7 7 .  the i960  (To-  16-' had  almost  and  had  equaled  48.6  the p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l  percent  of the  ly  as  cations,  and  scientists  a mosaic of sub-areas  inter-dependent  on  the  central o  cities  metropolitan residents.  Most comtemporary s o c i a l metropolis  of  tend  to regard  whose i n h a b i t a n t s a r e  a d a i l y b a s i s i n terms o f needs,  c o m m u t a t i o n t o and  f r o m work.  The  the high-  communi-  central  and  o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a have a h i g h d e g r e e  of  e c o n o m i c and  en-  social  interaction.  l a r g e s f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , and attracts  f u r t h e r growth.  vitality  and  large  Now,  g i v e n the m e t r o p o l i s only metropolis  inventories, transportation f a c i l i t i e s ,  promotional  source  nature.  those  of a f i n a n c i a l ,  of economic s t r e n g t h of the m e t r o p o l i s  and  and  open a r e a s . ^  a n a l y z i n g these  g e o g r a p h e r s and are  spatial  nuclei.  Bollens  main  of our  nation.  industrial,  re-  a r r a n g e m e n t s have b e e n d e v i s e d  sociologists.  T h o s e most commonly r e f e r r e d  Highly simplified  and  technical,  H o w e v e r , s e v e r a l ways o f d e s c r i b i n g  c o n c e n t r i c zones, s e c t o r s , starshaped  multiple  support  special  legal,  and  amazing  of land-use.can'be\ i d e n t i -  w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i s : c e n t r a l business,  sidential,  and  can  Such s e r v i c e s c o n s t i t u t e the  G e n e r a l l y , f o u r b a s i c types fied  growth  f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i n tur-n  T h i s has  s t a y i n g power.  services—particularly and  Thus m e t r o p o l i t a n  by to  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , and  drawings of these  Schmandt, op_. c i t . . p .  four  19.  H a n s B l u m e n f e l d , "The U r b a n P a t t e r n " , The Modern Metropolis : I t s O r i g i n . G r o w t h . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . and P l a n n i n g . P a u l D. S p r e i r e g e n , e d i t o r ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The M. I . T. P r e s s , p. 9  1967),  54.  17  t h e o r e t i c a l p a t t e r n s are p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e :  POUR CONCEPTS OF METROPOLIS  STAR-SHAPE  MULTIPLE NUCLEI  1 Economic Nucleus 2 Transition Zone 3 Working Class Residential 4 Middle Class Residential 5 Upper-Middle and Upper Class Residential — M a j o r Traffic Arteries  A c c o r d i n g t o the f i r s t view, a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a tends to resemble a s e r i e s o f c o n c e n t r i c zones d i f f e r e n t i a t e d bytype o f l a n d use and s t r u c t u r e .  The s e c t o r concept i s a modi-  f i c a t i o n o f the c o n c e n t r i c zone p a t t e r n . symmetry o r homogeneity  Upon q u e s t i o n i n g the  o f such zones, I t holds t h a t  growth  18 occurs  i n s e c t o r s which extend  the p e r i p h e r y o f the a r e a . ther refinement as a l i n e a r  the center  toward  The s t a r - s h a p e d p a t t e r n i s a f u r -  o f the s e c t o r theory.  I t views urban  development a l o n g t h e main r a d i a l s — t h e  transportation arteries The  r a d i a l l y from  growth  roads and  t h a t converge on t h e c e n t r a l  core.  f o u r t h method o f a n a l y z i n g t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n r e j e c t s t h e  n o t i o n t h a t t h e community i s u n i - c e n t e r e d , a s t h e c o n c e n t r i c z o n e l t h e o r y l e a d s one t o assume. phenomena o f u r b a n l i f e lysis  denies  a single the  t h a t the round  center.  I t holds  institutions,  i n clusters,  of daily  life  tural facilities, comparative  of business  services,  and t h e shopping  buying.  revolves mainly  district—are  about  nucleus—  concentrated the  and i n d u s t r y , f i n a n c i a l  major government a g e n c i e s ,  specialized professional  t h i s method o f a n a -  that w i t h i n the p r i n c i p a l  core o r c e n t r a l business  home o r r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s  and  occur  P o i n t i n g o u t t h a t many  l e g a l and o t h e r  t h e t h e a t r e and o t h e r  cul-  area f o r s t y l e  merchandise  C l u s t e r e d about t h e core  through-out  the m e t r o p o l i t a n area i s a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f subcenters:  neigh-  borhood and r e g i o n a l s h o p p i n g  business  districts,  outlying industrial  ment o f f i c e s .  This last  and  1 0  realistic. The  brought  c e n t e r s , suburban c e n t r a l  spread  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , and l o c a l  concept  appears  t h e most  o f p o p u l a t i o n outward from  with i ta corresponding  govern-  meaningful  t h e core has  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the govern-  B o l l e n s a n d Schmandt, o p . c i t . .  p p . 50-55•  19 mental p a t t e r n .  As  the o r i g i n a l  boundaries  t o accommodate t h e newcomers, t h e c i t y were e x p a n d e d by  annexing  become  corporate l i m i t s  adjacent areas.  By  inadequate of  t h e end  t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, t h e o u t w a r d movement started its  t o out-run) the a b i l i t y  l e g a l boundaries.  over  the  like  a formless  units  landscape,  of l o c a l  districts, tiplied day,  and  of the  city  to  of  had  enlarge  With the d i f f u s i o n of p o p u l a t i o n a l l  t h e m e t r o p o l i s b e g a n t o l o o k more and  agglomeration  of people  government—cities,  and  enterprise.  towns, v i l l a g e s ,  a wide v a r i e t y o f o t h e r s p e c i a l  with astonishing r a p i d i t y  governmental fragmentation  characteristic  core  the  of our  more New  school  districts—mul-  i n the o u t l y i n g a r e a s .  To-  i s r e c o g n i z e d as a m a j o r  metripolis.  I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1962 Government, t h e r e were 18,442 l o c a l  Census o f  g o v e r n m e n t s , an a v e r a g e  of  11 eighty-seven f o r each m e t r o p o l i s . be and  seen  i n Canada.  legally  i n neighboring  similar situation  S i n c e e a c h government i s a s e p e r a t e  independent,  u n i l a t e r a l l y and  The  without  i t i s a b l e , i f I t wishes, concern  can  unit  to act  f p r the d e s i r e s o f the  people  jurisdictions.  Because of these areas, problems, such  circumstances  as t h e i m p a c t  w i t h i n our  of urban l a n d uses  agriculture,  s u f f i c i e n c y o f w a t e r s u p p l y , sewage  availability  o f open s p a c e ,  I b i d . . p.  142.  metropolitan on  disposal,  c h a o t i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems  and  20  unbalanced stantial  t a x a t i o n , can  institutional  area-wide  not  be  c h a n g e s and  Metropolitan  Organization  Local  This  respect  sub-  comprehensive p l a n n i n g  for  Government  i n Cariada  than  either  of the  i s because the B r i t i s h  two  senior levels  North America Act  t h e power t o make laws r e s p e c t i n g l o c a l  assigned  some f a i r l y  g o v e r n m e n t i n Canada i s i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n s t i t u -  tional position  that  without  needs.  I I . L o c a l and  ment.  met  e x c l u s i v e l y to the p r o v i n c e s . is similar  to t h a t of the  g o v e r n m e n t comes u n d e r t h e  The  United  jurisdiction  of  govern-  provided  m a t t e r s was system i n  States  -  this  where  local  of the I n d i v i d u a l  state. Many f a c t o r s have an of l o c a l extent  influence i n determining  government w h i c h d e v e l o p s  i n a country,  to which i t i s s e l f - g o v e r n e d .  factors  are  location,  Some o f t h e  the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  its political  and  and  of the  the  type  the  important  country—its  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development,  and  12  its  n a t i o n a l development.  under the  jurisdiction  systems.  Generally,  for  their  local  and  other  forms o f l o c a l  (Toronto:  As  local  government i n Canada i s  of the p r o v i n c e s ,  Canada has  utilized  government o r g a n i z a t i o n .  there  are  ten  a committee This  distinct  system  committee  government o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e  system  discussed  K e n n e t h G r a n t G r a w f o r d , C a n a d i a n M u n i c i p a l Government U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 1 5 .  21 briefly  The  below:  Council-Committee  councils port  System.  c o u n c i l as  Council  committees are  standing  committees.  to report  the  majority  of  municipal  i n Canada o p e r a t e t h r o u g h c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h must  t o the  their  The  on  matters assigned  kinds—special  some p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m and  hand, are  manent b a s i s  o f two  the  and  to  committees  N o r m a l l y , s p e c i a l committees are  a s s i g n m e n t has  other  a whole on  been c o n c l u d e d .  are  u s u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by  have a c o n t i n u i n g  disbanded  Standing  rethem.  and set  up  after  committees,  b y - l a w on  a  on  per-  responsibility for certain  matters. The  most f r e q u e n t  multiplicity tails, on The is  the  of  committees, the  duplicated  c o u n c i l members'  often  called,  this  system are  pre-occupation  the  w i t h minor  d e b a t e , and  the  de-  demands  time.  attempts  The  c o u n c i l - m a n a g e r s y s t e m as i t  to b r i n g  about a c l e a r - c u t  administration.  responsibility  is left  manager, w h i l e  the  To  this  to a s i n g l e o f f i c i a l  council i s responsible  end,  division  administrative  known as  f o r the  the  city  formulation  policies. The  better in  of  d i s c u s s i o n and  Council-Manager System.  b e t w e e n p o l i c y and  of  critisisms  p r o v i s i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  co-ordination  p o l i c y and  Generally  of m u n i c i p a l  administration  s p e a k i n g , the  are  administration, highly desirable  p o s i t i o n of  the  management,  and  continuity  objectives.  manager i s a  less  22  d o m i n a n t one this  i n Canada t h a n i n t h e  s y s t e m does n o t  tween p o l i c y and  be  the  a c o m p l e t e and  i n S a s k a t c h e w a n and  r e f e r r e d t o as  Commissioner System." reality  States:  i n Canada  formal  break  be-  administration.  Some c i t i e s what can  attempt  United  the  The  A l b e r t a have  "Council-Single  s i n g l e appointed  chief administrative  responsible  f o r administering  work o f t h e  civic  officer,  the  developed  Appointed  commissioner  and  is primarily  budget, c o - o r d i n a t i n g  d e p a r t m e n t s , and  is in  a d v i s i n g the  council  the on  matters of o v e r - a l l p o l i c y . The  C o u n c i l - C i t y Commissioner System.  government o r g a n i z a t i o n western provinces this  by  the  ver  i s no  longer  a  The  Board-of-Control  i n the  divides  the  control. sibility  Alberta.  mayor i n those  a l s o been adopted i n the However, t h e  Form.  The  City  mayor i n V a n c o u -  board-of-control  i n Ontario.  Toronto area. and  This  I t has  system of  administrative  elected bodies—the  former, while  form of  civic  been w i d e l y  esta-  civic  government  functions  c o u n c i l and  L e g i s l a t i o n , or p o l i c y formulation, of the  The  two  commissioner.  legislative  separately  I t has  Columbia.  government i s f o u n d o n l y blished  municipal  a commissioner i n a d d i t i o n to  council.  of Vancouver, B r i t i s h  form of  almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n the  o f S a s k a t c h e w a n and  system i s e x - o f f i c i o  appointed  two  occurs  This  administration  the  board-of-  i s the i s the  between  responresponsi-  23 billty  of the l a t t e r .  13  M e t r o p o l i t a n growth has r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e - s c a l e a d j u s t ments i n e x i s t i n g  local  many new l o c a l u n i t s . for  g o v e r n m e n t s and i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f However, t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , housing,  sprawl,  and so f o r t h ,  public  support  strative (3)  f o r these  and p o l i t i c a l  i s a metropoli-  ( l ) t o s e t up p o l i c i e s policies;  and s t i m u l a t e  (2) t o r e c o n c i l e  d i f f e r e n c e s when t h e r e  t o c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ;  assume new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  needs  open s p a c e , c o n t r o l o f urban  c a n o n l y be met i f t h e r e  t a n government e q u i p p e d :  area's  admini-  i s controversy; a n d , (4) t o  t h a t r e q u i r e a c t i o n on an a r e a -  wide b a s i s . What i s n e e d e d i s a f o r m o f r e g i o n a l o r m e t r o p o l i t a n multipurpose with  government which i s e q u i p p e d t o d e a l n o t o n l y  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems, but a l s o with policy-making  and  enforcing. As  to the present  zations, four distinct first ment.  f o rtraditional  trates  T h i s approach  (2) A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h  on t h e needs and purposes o f a p a r t i c u l a r  s u c h as h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n ,  or recreation.  pp. 1 4 - 5 5 .  called  concen-  activity,  I t tends t o minimize  \  P l u n k e t t , op_. c i t . .  govern-  measures i n t e r m s o f t h e i r  governments.  approach.  organi-  ( l ) The  the e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n of l o c a l  I t examines t h e a d a p t i v e  "jurisdictional"  metropolitan  a p p r o a c h e s may be d i s c e r n e d :  approach emphasizes  significance the  methods i n f o r m i n g  24  traditional  governments,  program  areas, t o the  tions.  This  of  the  third  ments  and  needs  of  t r i c t s  are  regarded  to  on  the  very  out  area.  This  such local  as  ( 3 ) The  consideratendency  on  govern-  the  governmental  governments  and  special  to progress. This  (4) A t t e n t i o n  government, the needs  recent with  or  of  available  the  needs  of  tendency called  may  the  The  dis-  be  focused  individual  region  f o r adapting  as  a  not  on  functions  whole,  local  the  but  government  years,  attempts to re-organize  metropolitan  problems  have  local  been  along  lines:  Inter-governmental  worked  a l lo t h e r  special-  14  to deal  following  of  "methods"  needs.  respect  i n  of  emphasized.  And,  pattern  U n t i l  with  of  approach.  obstacles  are  approach.  government  concentrate  i n favor  Existing  government  changing  the  functions  as  performed, or  rather  to  exclusion  "functional"  region.  existing be  tends  approach i s to minimize both traditional  the  "regional"  to  v i r t u a l  individual  area-wide  the  i s the  and  to  Arrangements.  certain  between  local  usually  water, by  governments.  public  central  Such  services,  government  involves  the  Co-operative  the  units  sale  city  have  of  t o one  arrangements  arrangements  frequently  i n a  been  metropolitan  a particular o r more  are f a i r l y  service,  suburban easy  to  im-  R o s c o e C. M a r t i n , M e t r o p o l i s • i n T r a n s i t i o n (Washington, D. C. : T h e U . S . H o u s i n g a n d H o m e F i n a n c e Agency, S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 2.  25 plement s i n c e they government,  do n o t r e q u i r e a n y change i n t h e l o c a l  structure.  Special-Purpose  Authorities.  These a r e u s u a l l y s e p a r a t e i n -  dependent u n i t s e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e a number o f l o c a l  governments.  a specific  T h i s d e r v i c e has r e c e i v e d  siderable p o p u l a r i t y i n metropolitan areas. legal  simplicity  of their  their proliferation considerable  Annexation  amount o f p o l i t i c a l  Many o f t h e l a r g e r of annexation. city  city,  cities  Annexation  has r e s u l t e d  achieved  contiguous  t h e i r present  cial  While annexation  fringe  size  area  is still  b y way  are  and s t a b l e l o c a l  phery of the c e n t r a l  relafinan-  i t i s no l o n g e r  i n the l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas  well-entrenched  or a  p o s s i b l e , and p r o -  considered feasible  where  there  g o v e r n m e n t s on t h e p e r i - /  city.  Separation  and C o n s o l i d a t i o n .  I n Canada, a  f o r m o f government e x i s t s  i n the provinces  O n t a r i o , a n d Nova S c o t i a ,  and i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r u r a l  an  r  t h a t was e x p e r i e n c i n g  d e s i r a b l e i n the s m a l l e r urban areas,  government.  to i t ;  I n some i n s t a n c e s , i t was a m a t t e r o f t h e  government u n i t  City-County  in a  i n v o l v e s the absorp-  of territories  t i v e l y weak l o c a l  bably  The p o l i t i c a l a n d  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n f u s i o n .  annexing an u n i n c o r p o r a t e d  difficulty.  con-  h a s , however, l e d t o  i n many a r e a s , and t h i s  t i o n , 'by t h e c e n t r a l  central  establishment  or Consolidation.  service to  county-  o f A l b e r t a , Quebec,  I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , where t h e c o u n t y  form of system i s  i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l f r a m e w o r k o f most  states,  26 it  has  with  t o some e x t e n t  metropolitan  metropolitan  b e e n u t i l i z e d , as  problems.  area  i t has  an  agency f o r d e a l i n g  T h u s , where a c o u n t y embraces  o f t e n been g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  a  for  — IS area-wide urban s e r v i c e s . While  some o f t h e s e  approaches to m e t r o p o l i t a n  ment o r g a n i z a t i o n have r e l i e v e d furnished involved o f the  a satisfactory i n the  solution  metropolis  continues  t o be  an  Governmental  ad-hoc b a s i s w h i l e  developments proceed its  rapidly.  metropolis decide  than  faces  and  the  web  The  organically rather  to  polithan  g r a d u a l l y and  somehow t h e  economic  system,  l a c k of a sense of  despite  direction,  More f a v o r a b l e t o d e f e n d e r s  to innovators,  the p o l i t i c a l  l o n g h a u l ahead.  Only the  on  system of future  of the  will  its fate. ^ 1  III.  L o c a l and  There are cities  But  The  i n response  industrialization.  place  have  problems  a whole.  t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and  s i g n s of succumbing.  status-quo  as  fashioned,  changes t a k e  social,  seeming i r r a t i o n a l i t y  shows no the  area  s y s t e m embodied i n i t e v o l v e s  rationally.  p r o b l e m s , non  t o the m a n i f o l d  development o f the  t h e f o r c e s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and tical  specific  govern-  Metropolitan Planning  reliable  records  whose s t r e e t s were l a i d  ' P l u n k e t t , op_. Bollens  and  cit.,  of Egyptian  out  pp.  on  Function and  the f a m i l i a r  82-83.  Schmandt, op_.  cit..  p.  212.  Mesopotamian rectangular  27 p a t t e r n even over f i v e  thousand  years  o f modern p l a n n i n g movement a r e f o u n d living  which accompanied the r a p i d  half  of the n i n e t e e n t h / c e n t u r y .  this  movement was  In the  drawn f r o m  e a r l y p a r t of t h i s  n i n g was  on  the  T h e s e were d e a l t  was  until  on  not the  beings  the  the  century,  "city practical". populate  Not  v e r y many y e a r s  World P a i r  I t s e m p h a s i s was streets  and  ago,  L  plan-  almost throughIt  i t s emphasis the  visions  t h e mere m e n t i o n o f t h e o f government  human  word  regimentation,  infringement of private  B u s i n e s s m e n , as w e l l as  who  civic  rights.  exists  Al-  today,  o p e r a t o r s and  builders,  come t o a c c e p t  the f a c t  t h a t land-use  cannot  entirely  to the  left  ' R o b e r t A. Government ( S e c o n d  P r e s s , 1951), p.  reformers  of p l a n n i n g .  were o r i g i n a l l y most h o s t i l e  as r e a l - e s t a t e  be  and  t h a t c i t y p l a n n i n g put  n e w s p a p e r s , have become s t r o n g a d v o c a t e s  such  J  i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as a l e g i t i m a t e f u n c t i o n  government.  the people  18'93 ." ^  the emphasis i n c i t y  t h o u g h r e s i s t e n c e t o community p l a n n i n g s t i l l  of  of  community.  " p l a n n i n g " c o n j u r e d up  the process  latter  inspiration for  T o d a y , t h e e m p h a s i s i s on  who  creeping socialism,  u r b a n i z a t i o n i n the  and  roots  c h a n g e d mode o f  w i t h as a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o b l e m s .  twenties  a  i n the  Chicago  centers, parks,  fares.  However, t h e  Much o f t h e  "city beautiful".  w h o l l y upon c i v i c  ago.  t o the have  expansion  discretion  and Even  concept,  reluctantly and  development  o f the market  and  W a l k e r , The P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n i n U r b a n e d i t i o n ; . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o  12.  28 the  ingenuity of i t s participants, i  responsible  culation of  rational  t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s become  attack unless  there  analysis, planning,  Although times  Medieval,  Renaissance,  of city  i sa single  t o the Egyptian,  planning  center  impossible  for co-  and a c t i o n .  community p l a n n i n g  primitive  era  The r e c o g n i t i o n i s t h a t when i t  l a n d u s e r e g u l a t i o n , arid, t h e s y s t e m o f c i r -  and t r a f f i c ,  ordinated  ft  public control.  comes t o z o n i n g ,  b u t must be s u b j e c t t o  and other  c a n be t r a c e d b a c k  Chinese,  I n d i a n , Greek,  historical  i n the United  States  from  periods,  Roman,  t h e modern  began w i t h t h e 19  passage Zoning  of the f i r s t  comprehensive  i sto a certain  extent  common l a w o f n u i s a n c e s , no  person should  that  would  however, those division purpose  i n  than  t o use his property  t o others.  I n the United  interested i nplanning  nuisance  land-use  1909*  an outgrowth o f t h e ancient  control--namely,  States,  saw i n z o n i n g  that the concept  limited  planning  merely t o streets,  zoning,  and e t c . , w i l l  give  and subbroader  the implementation  p a t t e r n f o r t h e community.  seems i n e v i t a b l e  that  i n a n y way  c o n t r o l t o o l s f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a much  rational,  these  ordinance  which r e s t s upon t h e p r i n c i p l e  be p e r m i t t e d  cause i n j u r y  zoning  of city  of a  However, i t  planning,  which had  parks, transportation,  way t o a c o n c e p t w h i c h w i l l  f u n c t i o n s a s w e l l a s t h e more r e c e n t  include  a d d i t i o n s t o muni-  18 B o l l e n s a n d S c h m a n d t , op_. p i t . . p . 2 7 5 . 19 ^ M e l v i l l e C. B r a n c h , P l a n n i n g : A s p e c t s a n d A p p l i c a t i o n s (New Y o r k , L o n d o n , S y d n e y : J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 14.  1  29 c i p a l s e r v i c e s , s u c h as u r b a n r e n e w a l ,  housing,  argument i s t h a t the l o c a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s the process  of l o c a l government.  the f u t u r e , determining b e s t and  etc.  i s an a s p e c t  of  I t i s government l o o k i n g t o  d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e s , and  most e c o n o m i c a l  The  seeking  means f o r a c h i e v i n g them.  There are three d i f f e r e n t concepts  the  20  of the r o l e of  city  planning: An I n d e p e n d e n t A c t i v i t y o f t h e This concept holds and  Commission.  t h a t c i t y p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be  independent  i n s u l a t e d f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f p o l i t i c a l and  strative affairs. be  City Planning  the  citizen  The  body i n charge o f c i t y p l a n n i n g  This  p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r as a s t a f f a i d \ t o t h e  concept regards  the  chief executive,  and  t h e p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n a s an a s s i s t i n g and the p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r .  public-administration  advisory board  T h i s c o n c e p t i s a c t u a l l y an  c e n t r a l - m a n a g e m e n t i d e a , and  to  outgrowth  i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n most  texts.  A P o l i c y - M a k i n g A c t i v i t y of the cept holds  should  commission.  A S t a f f A i d t o the Chief E x e c u t i v e .  of the  admini'-_">  City Council.  The  t h a t the c i t y c o u n c i l i s the p r i m a r y  third  con-  c l i e n t of  c i t y p l a n n i n g agency because i t i s the f i n a l  policy-making  a u t h o r i t y i n m u n i c i p a l government.  planning  The  commission i s a d v i s o r y to the c o u n c i l .  W a l k e r , op_. c i t . . p .  129.  city The  city  planning  the  30  director  presents  commission  In often  the  areas  the  density  to  the city  of  development of  a  any  staff  of  of  and  growth,  the  take  into  larger  i n  responsible  economic of  order  social  resources, plan  essential  but  high  f o r  require  function f o r  matters,  as  a  an  region.  insthe  administration  such  Within as  location,  characteristics, a l l require  i s  population  the  i n t e l l i g e n t l y ,  economic of  planning  p o l i t i c i a n  a c t i v i t i e s  and  consideration i t s position and  of  the  planning  process,  and  to  c i t y  professional planners.  planning  geographical  only  regions  development  well-equipped  allocation  Therefore,  a  the  density,  regional interests,  comprehensive  size,  not  of  urban  of  21  population  However,  complex  t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n  council.  low  planners  and  recommendations  to  amenities  be  considered.  community  integral Regional  increasing importance  must  part  of  a  planning  i n  view  of  i s the  22 emergence In the  urban  of the  of  objectives. i t s own  of  the  areas. well-developed  are  plans  emerging  and  community,  problems, i n  of  that  local Each  people  the  does  not  today  policies i n  metropolitan are  designed  seeking  an  larger metropolitan  a  area.  plans,  random to  meet  optimum  n e c e s s a r i l y work  T. J . K e n t , J r . , The Urban General Chandler P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1964), pp. 2 1  co:  absence  patterns  collection  to  metropolitan  i n  local  solution the  Por  interests  example,  P l a n (San 12-16.  Francis-  22 Vandiver, " U r b a n i z a t i o n and U r b a n i s m , " The M e t r o p o l i s . F. J . T i e t z e and J . E. McKeown, e d i t o r s Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1964), p. 31.  Changing (Boston:  31  many s u b - u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have c h o s e n t o p r o m o t e t h e development  o f s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o u s e s on l a r g e l o t s  of f o r e s t a l l i n g  c o s t l y I n v e s t m e n t s i n new u t i l i t y  When a l a r g e number o f c o m m u n i t i e s p l a n n e d development  i n this  been t o f o r c e a v a s t of metropolitan utility long  i n an area  systems.  limit  way, t h e n e t r e s u l t  their  has o f t e n  o u t w a r d movement o f p e o p l e  areas,  as a means  to the f r i n g e s  c r e a t i n g a n e e d f o r new and e x p e n s i v e  s y s t e m s i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l c o m m u n i t i e s , and f o r c i n g  commuting t r i p s  development  that  to the c e n t r a l c i t i e s .  A pattern of  i s e c o n o m i c a l f o r many s u b u r b s c a n be  very  2^ c o s t l y f o r the metropolitan The bodies  formal  area  and t h e n a t i o n a t l a r g e .  relationship of metropolitan  to the l o c a l u n i t s varies widely.  J  planning  A t one e n d o f t h e  c o n t i n u u m a r e t h e a g e n c i e s w h i c h a r e e s t a b l i s h e d and f i n a n c e d by p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have no o f f i c i a l the  citizenry  planning  category  the i n t e r e s t s of  o f land use p l a n s ,  concerning Plan  i n this  i n metropolitan-wide  preparation  and p u b l i c i t y  Planning  Those  to stimulate  governments  through research,  the problems o f the  A s s o c i a t i o n and P i t t s b u r g h  i n this  field.  At the other  which a r e c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s  end a r e  of a general  metro-  o r a r e a - w i d e g o v e r n m e n t i n much t h e same way t h a t 'Bollens  eco-  A s s o c i a t i o n a r e two o f t h e b e t t e r known  organizations  those agencies politan  except  The New Y o r k R e g i o n a l  Regional private  standing  and l o c a l  nomic a n a l y s e s , area.  and g r o u p s .  a n d Schmandt, op_. c i t . , p . 2 9 6 .  city  32 p l a n n i n g commissions are governments.  The  component u n i t s o f t h e i r  municipal  M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d and  the  P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Dade C o u n t y , F l o r i d a , fall  into this  classification.  Between these  two  extreme  the m a j o r i t y of m e t r o p o l i t a n or r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g bodies  are with  24  v a r i e d degrees of r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r l o c a l The  type  units.  of area-wide p l a n n i n g agency t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y  b e c o m i n g more p o p u l a r  i s t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n o r r e g i o n a l commi-  s s i o n s e r v i n g a m u l t i p l i c i t y of governments throughout urban complex.  These a g e n c i e s  the l o c a l u n i t s although ed by  h a v e no  organic relationship  t h e i r b o a r d m e m b e r s h i p may  the p a r t i c i p a t i n g governments.  an  The  be  Northeastern  to  appointIlli-  n o i s M e t r o p o l i t a n Area P l a n n i n g Commission i s a prominent 2B  example o f t h i s In ners  1962,  type.  ^  a committee of the American I n s t i t u t e of  i s s u e d a s t a t e m e n t on t h e r o l e o f m e t r o p o l i t a n  planning  t h a t i s of considerable s i g n i f i c a n c e since i t expressed c o n s e n s u s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s on a r e l a t i v e l y new l o c a l government f i e l d .  The  Plan-  the  a c t i v i t y i n the  committee o u t l i n e d the nature  o b j e c t i v e s of m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: The m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g a g e n c y s h o u l d s e e k t h e development of a u n i f i e d p l a n f o r l a n d use, d e n s i t y and d e s i g n , t h e p r o v i s i o n a n d c o r r e l a t i o n o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s , a n d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o p e n s p a c e and w i s e u s e o f n a t u r a l r e sources. I t should s t r i v e to co-ordinate l o c a l I b i d . , p. 2 5  Ibid.  302.  and  33 p l a n n i n g , b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , w i t h p l a n n i n g a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l ; s i m i l a r l y , the m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n s h o u l d be c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h s t a t e and n a t i o n a l p l a n s — p a r t i c u l a r l y those a f f e c t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e p r o g r a m s and f u n c t i o n s t h a t are m e t r o p o l i t a n i n scope. To t h i s p u r p o s e , t h e r e s h o u l d be a l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t the agency r e v i e w the c o n t e n t c o n f o r m i t y o r compatib i l i t y of a l l p r o p o s a l s a f f e c t i n g the m e t r o p o l i t a n area. . . . . The m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g a g e n c y s h o u l d s e e k e s t a b l i s h m e n t and a c c e p t a n c e o f g o a l s , b o t h . l o n g r a n g e and i m m e d i a t e , f o r t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a ' s p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( w i t h due r e g a r d t o e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l f a c t o r s ) . T h e s e g o a l s s h o u l d be t h e b a s i s f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the comprehenisve met r o p o l i t a n area p l a n — a n d that plan, i n turn, should s e r v e as a f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h may be c o - o r d i n a t e d the comprehensive p l a n s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , c o u n t i e s and o t h e r u n i t s o f government i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n area. " 2  The n i n g are  most d e s i r a b l e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n  i n t h e few  cases  where t h e r e s p o n s i b l e a g e n c y i s  i n t e g r a l p a r t o f an a r e a - w i d e g o v e r n m e n t . p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n can more e a s i l y be and  decision-making  has  o p e r a t i o n a l powers.  processes  IV. I n 1938, ture  of C i t i e s , "  the f a c t  litan  o f an  tied  In such into  the  cases,  an the  programs  o n - g o i n g p u b l i c body t h a t  Conclusions  L e w i s Mumford i n h i s b r i l l i a n t s t a t e d t h a t he  t h a t i t was  plan-  the  could not  and  study  "The  would n o t  Cul-  escape  c i t y w h i c h gave a r e g i o n i t s c u l t u r a l  A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , The R o l e o f M e t r o p o P l a n n i n g (Chicago: American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , 1 9 6 2 ) ,  PpTT-5.  34  vitality.  2 7'  L a t e r , L o u i s W i r t h proposed t h a t the  metropolitan  28 r e g i o n s h o u l d be The  w i t h e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , and  Firstly,  l i t a n a r e a has its  unit.  m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n i s m a n y - f a c e t e d and  dimensional dencies.  a planning  multi-  government i n t e r d e p e n - ,  t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e economy o f a m e t r o p o -  a d i r e c t and  m a j o r b e a r i n g on t h e a b i l i t y  governments t o f i n a n c e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s and,  governments of the area  through  i n t u r n , the  t h e i r s e r v i c e s and  a f f e c t t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f i t s economy.  Secondly,  controls  work  speciali-  z a t i o n p r o d u c e s a l a b o r f o r c e o f many d i v e r s i f i e d t y p e s , b r i n g i n g t o t h e m e t r o p o l i s new  s o c i a l v a l u e s and  of c e n t r a l c i t i e s  c h a n g e s I n t h e a t t i t u d e s and p o s i t i o n s o f b o t h and  s u b u r b a n p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s and  political  thus  expectations  a s w e l l a s b r o a d e n e d demands u p o n i t s g o v e r n m e n t s . the s h i f t i n g s o c i a l composition  of  Thirdly, o f t e n causes  central  leaders.  city This i s  f r e q u e n t l y e v i d e n t on a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s , i n c l u d i n g p l a n s m e t r o p o l i t a n government r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n . M o s t o f us d e s i r e e f f i c i e n t  for  29  l o c a l government, but  means more t h a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e .  What we  this  really  ^ J o h n F r i e d m a n n , "The C o n c e p t o f a P l a n n i n g R e g i o n The E v o l u t i o n o f an I d e a i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , R e g i o n a l Devel o p m e n t a n d P l a n n i n g . J o h n F r i e d m a n n and W i l l i a m A l o n s o , e d i t o r s ( C a m b r i d g e : The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 506. p Q  L o u i s W i r t h , . "The M e t r o p o l i t a n R e g i o n as a P l a n n i n g U n i t " , N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on P l a n n i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e h e l d a t I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d i a n a , May 2 5 - 2 7 , 1942 (Chicago: ASPO, 1 9 4 2 ) . PQ  - ^ B o l l e n s and  S c h m a n d t , op_. c i t . .  p.  30«  35 desire  is local  ponds t o the  government e f f i c i e n t  community's n e e d s and  p e r m i t s maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f and it  c o n t r o l of administers  i n the  sense  affairs,  and  local  undertakings  i t res-  i t s aspirations, that i t  i t s citizens  local  that  i n the d i r e c t i o n  that, within  this  economically  and  framework, with  com-  30 petence. local  However, i t i s most d o u b t f u l (  that  d e m o c r a c y i s a d v a n c e d by p e r m i t t i n g  the  cause  of  a system that  c o u r a g e s s u b o r d i n a t e a u t h o r i t i e s t o t h w a r t and  impede  en--  one  another. The  structure  both B r i t i s h British has  basis  council-committee  i n w i d e s p r e a d use  relatively  small  government shows  With i t s r o o t s form of  i n Canada.  local  The  c o u n c i l s e l e c t e d on  a  in  the  government  tendency  to  non-partisan  more c l e a r l y r e s u l t s f r o m N o r t h A m e r i c a n t r a d i t i o n s .  While the  almost u n i v e r s a l Canadian p r a c t i c e of e l e c t i n g  mayor s e p a r a t e l y  may  tional  of  tradition  s l a t i v e powers, the assigned  any  counterparts,  real  luctance,  derive  from the  United  fact  that  authority,  i n contrast  to t h e i r  be  noted, i s e n t i r e l y  concept of r e s p o n s i b l e Plunkett,  op_.  and  American  Such  8.  the  re-  i n accordance  government a d h e r e d t o by  c i t . , p.  legi-  been  to provide  of powers.  the  constitu-  C a n a d i a n mayors have n o t  genuine s e p a r a t i o n  i t should  States'  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between e x e c u t i v e  seems t o i n d i c a t e a r e l u c t a n c e  s u b s t a n c e f o r any  the  Canadian municipal  American i n f l u e n c e .  system, the  continued  fostor  and  of  most  with  36 Commonwealth C o u n t r i e s . the  various  politan  units  of  local  existence  era  t h a t was  of a v a r i e t y of  ment u n i t s  and  long  before  the  advent of  inadequate l o c a l  authorities within  decisive  c o n t r o l o v e r the  the  of  metrothe  primarily rural-oriented.  out-moded and  special-purpose  none o f w h i c h has  p o l i t i c a l boundaries  government f o u n d i n C a n a d i a n  a r e a s were e s t a b l i s h e d  a u t o m o b i l e , i n an  lis,  However, t h e  The govern-  metropo-  a r e a as  a 31  w h o l e , makes a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n Tools only  are  f o r planning  they s c a t t e r e d  urban a r e a s , but enabling vital all  and  t o o l s r e s u l t s not  of  the  a lack of  palities  within  powers.  The  the  statutes. only  o r g a n i z e d on  I b i d . . pp.  units  within  on  since  r e - i n f o r c e d by  of  our  of  of r e g i o n a l  s c a l e , as  every  not  a l l the  local  autonomy  objectives.  In  municisame  govern-  large  extensive  necessary  sub-  that  c o m m u n i t i e s may  sufficiently  i f  municipali-  s c a t t e r i n g of  system of  them t o u n d e r t a k e t h e  69-80.  the  local  local  the  co-ordination,  conferred  out  Not  s c a t t e r i n g of  i n a lack of  a geographic basis  to allow  scattered.  among d i f f e r e n t  This  consistency,  problem.  same a r e a w i l l u s u a l l y p o s s e s s t h e  attainment  p r o b l e m i s one  strategic  scattered  s y s t e m assumes a d e g r e e o f  impedes t h a t the  also  limitations arising  s t a n t i v e power a r e ment; t h e  among many m u n i c i p a l  a v a i l a b l e powers a r e  t y ; '/'but a l s o  metropolitan  implementation are  they are  authorizing  to the  not  part be  or  planning  37 and development d e c i s i o n s .  32  P l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p h y s i c a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d social  e n v i r o n m e n t a r e among t h e most  tasks' ' o f g o v e r n m e n t .  l i n k e d , h e n c e : two d i s t i n c t  but r e l a t e d  must be d e a l t w i t h : on t h e one h a n d , s o c i a l questions  concerning  sets of issues  and p h y s i c a l  t h e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o f c i t i e s ;  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e e c o n o m i c nection with  and d i f f i c u l t  U r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a r e  1  closely  complex  questions  industrialization.  arising  i n con-:  T h e s e two s e t s o f p r o b l e m s 33  s h o u l d meet and be r e s o l v e d i n u r b a n i z a t i o n p o l i c y . The p o l i t i c a l  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery and t h e p r o -  cedures used a t the various l e v e l s the  character of the p o l i c y ,  intended  J  o f government  the q u a l i t y  t o embody t h e p o l i c y ,  will  of plans  affect  which are  and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r  realization. M e t r o p o l i t a n o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s ; a t t h e same t o d a y t h a t c i t y p l a n n i n g was a b o u t f i f t y winning r e c o g n i t i o n but i t s t i l l stream o f l o c a l  government  wide p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s current ferment i n t h i s the  establishment  years  ago.  I ti s  remains o u t s i d e the main-  life.  The g r o w i n g number o f a r e a -  f u r n i s h e s t a n g i b l e evidence field.  stage  of the  So does t h e movement t o w a r d  of metropolitan  councils of public  officials,  D a n i e l R. M a n d e l k e r , "A L e g a l S t r a t e g y f o r U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t " , P l a n n i n g f o r a N a t i o n o f C i t i e s , Sam B a s s Warner, e d i t o r ( C a m b r i d g e : The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 2 1 1 . 3  33 -^Vandiver,  op_. c i t . .  p. 30.  38 a movement t h a t g i v e s p r o m i s e o f p r o v i d i n g an mechanism, i m p e r f e c t the  executing  offer  as  i t may  agencies.  This  be,  f o r r e l a t i n g planning  latter  t h e most a d v a n c e d s o l u t i o n  institutional  d e v e l o p m e n t may  t h a t c a n be  to  well  expected  in  im-  34 proving  the  governmental processes  However, t h e resolved, mainly jurisdictions able  of m e t r o p o l i t a n  metropolis. planning  because of the r e l u c t a n c e of  t o g i v e up  difficulties  operate  role  of the  any  existing  yet  different  a u t h o r i t y , the  of i n t e g r a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s  s e p a r a t e l y , and  i s not  inevit-  organized  the presence o f d i f f e r e n t  to  local i n -  terests . Planning tion  requires p o l i t i c a l  to a r t i c u l a t e  support. planning arises  community n e e d s and  It is precisely  in this  t h e more i m m e d i a t e  pies  the m a j o r i t y of a p o l i t i c a l  decision-making  action,the p o l i t i c i a n w i l l  planning its also  on  validity  that  before  efficiency  and  plan objectives which  occu-  If  planning  o b j e c t i v e with  concrete  political  support  the p l a n n i n g  at each l e v e l  Schmandt, op_.  difficulty  time.  planning can  exist  f u n c t i o n must o f government,  a t each f u n c t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n the Bollens  posi-  rally public  activity  leader's  in a  metropolitan  l o s e I n t e r e s t i n the  a regional level, and  and  Part of t h i s  c o n t r i b u t e t o h i s immediate  Therefore,  are  c o r r e l a t i o n of long-term  with  function.  goals  respect  i s s e r i o u s l y handicapped.  from a l a c k of  does n o t  l e a d e r s who  c i t . , p.  various 303.  for prove and  levels  of  39 35 government.  ^  Duties pulation, factors  and  and  authorities  financial  are balanced  tisfaction  be V.  The  pate  resources.  The  effectively  from t h e i r  the  demands c r e a t e s a gap  t o be  confidence  power i n t u r n Although  cussion,  The  to  poli-  partici-  S u c h l a c k o f power in-ability  between e x p e c t a t i o n s  and  t o meet  their  ful-  i n the p l a n n i n g agency i s l o s t , i t s  decreases. traditional  l e a d e r s h i p , and  I f the m e t r o p o l i s  will  sa-  metropo-  lack of  or f a i l u r e  taken.  re-inforcing.  meeting l o c a l problems, they  it  community  t o many e x i s t i n g  in-ability  when d e c i s i o n s a r e  i n f l u e n c e tend  text.  will  stems l a r g e l y f r o m t h e i r  and  nication,  level,  these  C r i t e r i a f o r T e s t i n g Purposes  i n - e f f e c t i v e n e s s charged  as  when a l l o f  po-  maximized.  m u s c l e and  fillment;  appropriate to area,  Only  a t the h i g h e s t  l i t a n planning agencies tical  must be  local  governments a r e u s e f u l i n  c a n n o t meet t h e p r o b l e m s o f  e x p r e s s i o n i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n i s to reach  have t o c r e a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s common d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  and  i t s greatest through  commucon-  possibilities,  w h i c h common  dis-  common a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e  - ^ V i n c e n t J . Moore, "The S t r u c t u r e o f P l a n n i n g and R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , " E m e r g i n g C i t i e s o f A m e r i c a . Government R e l a t i o n s and P l a n n i n g - P o l i c y C o n f e r e n c e , J a n u a r y 22-24, 1965 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. : A I P ) , p . 4.  40  facilitated. Large questionably services,  3 6  s c a l e , metropolitan-wide appropriate  but  i t i s not  z a t i o n f o r the metropolis.  politan  t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e  "metropolitan"  There are  ments have v i t a l i n these  f o r a l i m i t e d number o f p u b l i c  I t i s b e l i e v e d that there  governments.  two  reasons  r o l e s they  should  be  those ning  of l o c a l can  focus  impact without cern.  on p r o b l e m s and interfering  be  a division  (1)  conserved;  and,  so  "local"  local  govern-  citizens  (2)  significance.  a metroassigned 3 7  distinctions planning  i s s u e s of g r e a t e r than  can  and  that metropolitan  plan-  local  with matters of p u r e l y l o c a l that continued  con-  progress  C a s s e l l a , "Objectives of M e t r o p o l i t a n N a t i o n a l C i v i c R e v i e w , V o l . X L V T I I , No.  29.  Ibid. -  ^ T h e J o i n t Center f o r Urban S t u d i e s of the Massachus e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y and H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.. C.: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , June 3 0 , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 115. 3  of  the  of t h e i r  concerns of m e t r o p o l i t a n  community p l a n n i n g ,  W i l l i a m N. Government L i s t e d " , (January, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 3  lives  that reasonable  However, i t i s a l s o c l e a r  3 7  organi-  only undertake s p e c i f i c a l l y  i s also recognized  drawn b e t w e e n t h e  should  for this:  governmental f u n c t i o n s of m e t r o p o l i t a n  be  s c a l e of  government and  r o l e s to p l a y i n the  government s h o u l d  It  un-  p r o v i s i o n of a l l p u b l i c services required i n a  f u n c t i o n s between the  and  organization i s  1  41  will  require a co-ordinated  metropolitan It ate  the  planning  and  i s important  metropolitan  metropolitan  areas  hypothesis.  The  and  from  local  of  Canada, and  Committee  of  the  tion  i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas,  1962  by  mental R e l a t i o n s . t i o n s must be k i n d , as of  the  (2) some o f  for  some o f t h e  ing  c o n t r a d i c t o r y values to  criteria  Role  criteria  Re-organiza-  two  in different  which the  limitathis  methodology  tendencies  and  compatible,  Balance  is  general-purpose  necessary,  criteria  reflectare  Metropolitan r a t h e r than  government s h o u l d single-purpose  be  organized  government.  ment o f f u n c t i o n s t o g e n e r a l p u r p o s e g o v e r n m e n t i s more to produce a proper  tical  a  only  secure.  Criterion I.  sources,  likebut  directions,  different  in  Intergovern-  criteria,  are  of  Planners,  (1) an a p p r a i s a l o f  maximized. pull  of  C o m m i s s i o n on  suggest  the  Metropolitan  s u b j e c t m a t t e r and  only  the  of  Commission R e p o r t " p r e p a r e d  recognized:  each i s moderated, not  presumed  A  evalu-  selected  "The  to Governmental  Advisory  s c i e n c e s , can  the  American I n s t i t u t e  a p p r a i s a l i n the  and,  by  However, i n a p p l y i n g  clearly  social  lihoods; if  any  to  the v a l i d i t y  d e r i v e d from  i n 1962  " A l t e r n a t i v e Approaches  States  to prove  are mainly  prepared  of  planning.  government a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h r e e  criteria  the U n i t e d  concerns  h e r e t o p r o p o s e some c r i t e r i a  Metropolitan Planning" Conference  a p p r o a c h between t h e  b a l a n c i n g of  total  condition for effective  responsibility.  It is likely  l o c a l n e e d s and  decision-making t o p r o d u c e more  and  as  Assignlikely repoli-  efficient  42  administration and  through  b e t t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n among f u n c t i o n s  the r e d u c t i o n o f overhead  costs.  c o n t r o l by e n a b l i n g the c i t i z e n diffuse with  h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h o s e  to concentrate,  Broad  for  criterion y  s c o p e f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n government i s i m p o r t a n t  sufficient  services,  Government s h o u l d  When a government  i t can not o n l y balance  have u n d e r I t s a e g i s  one w i t h a n o t h e r ,  present  but i t can a l s o p l a n f o r the responsibility  enough o f t h e s e r v i c e s t o c o n s i d e r them a s a t o t a l  to balance  than  t h e o v e r l a p p i n g among u n i t s o f g o v e r n m e n t .  needs a n d a s s i g n p r i o r i t i e s , future.  rather  Adherence t o t h i s  b e c a u s e s e r v i c e s depend u p o n one a n o t h e r . controls  citizen  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o f f i c i a l s  t h e power t o make d e c i s i o n s .  means m i n i m i z i n g  I t can sharpen  to assign p r i o r i t i e s ,  package  always  > 40  taking into The  consideration values  metropolitan  ship.  Criterion should  government s h o u l d  Therefore,  p o l i t a n area II.  o f sub-areas  a general-purpose  serve  and groups.  as a f o c u s  of leader-  government f o r t h e m e t r o -  i s highly desirable. The u n i t  have t h e l e g a l  o f government p e r f o r m i n g  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y  a function to perform  39 - ^ A d v i s o r y C o m m i s s i o n on I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l R e l a t i o n s , A l t e r n a t i v e A p p r o a c h e s t o G o v e r n m e n t a l R e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Metrop o l i t a n A r e a s , A Commission R e p o r t ( W a s h i n g t o n . D. C. : U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , J u n e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 3 .  40  -  •  , P e r f o r m a n c e o f ..Urban F u n c t i o n s : L o c a l and A r e a - w i d e ( W a s h i n g t o n . D. C. U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 'September, 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 5 6 .  43 the  services  legal  authority  service, the  that  and  to  to  to  the  s h o u l d be  service  to  Criterion III.  Government needs s u f f i c i e n t o r an  cope a d e q u a t e l y w i t h t h e  be  large  enough t o e n a b l e  performance of  within  functions  government s h o u l d r e m a i n c o n t r o l l a b l e  by  and  of  that  for  the  a create  handle.  j u r i s d i c t i o n responsible  consumed p r i m a r i l y  The  aspect  forces  c i t i z e n s expect i t to  governmental  service  41 i t .  undertake a s e r v i c e  problems which the  fore, any  assigned  Thereproviding  benefits  from  the j u r i s d i c t i o n .  by  a unit  of  accessible  to i t s  42 residents. are  determined  little  to a  relationship  factors the  A c c e s s i b i l i t y and  include  manner o f  terms, the  to  the  many  control  c i t i z e n of a  number and  from vested  and  pressures,  ^ 4 3  the  government.  nature of (by  district  elective or at  a c c e s s i b i l i t y may  as  well  i n t e r e s t s , than f o r  o v e r w h i c h he  I b i d . p .  41.  Ibid.  Ibid  that  have  These officials,  large),  their  appointive  be  more  practicable  s i n g l e a r e a - w i d e government w i t h  t y w h i c h i s o v e r l a i d by  l  of  government  others.  over-view of a l l f u n c t i o n s  4  size  factors  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f powers among them, the  Local the  s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e by  their election  p e r s o n n e l , and  for  the  c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y of  56.  the  many u n i t s has  no  as  a degree of  c i t i z e n of of  effective  remoteness  a small  communi-  government, s u b j e c t to 43 control. As James M a d i s o n  argued the nate the  i n "The F e d e r a l i s t " , t h e l a r g e r t h e a r e a  l e s s the l i k e l i h o o d  t h e government, and thus many d i v e r s e  terests and  that  a n y one s p e c i a l g r o u p w i l l the greater  accessibility,  Therefore,  that  have t h e i r  in-  i n terms o f e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l  t h e u n i t o f government  e n o u g h t o make I t u n l i k e l y t h a t  domi-  the l i k e l i h o o d  g r o u p s o f t h e community w i l l  respected.  o f government,  should  be l a r g e  any s i n g l e i n t e r e s t can domi-  nate i t .  Criterion  IV.  mate l o c a l very  real  values  While  traditional  governments a r e i m p o s s i b l e and c o n s t i t u t e  complexity  though the s m a l l can, l i k e  inti-  to q u a l i f y , they a r e  realities.  local  land  ing  on i t s l o c a l  create  things,  be o v e r d o n e .  values  municipality's  size--its  government's  the s e r v i c e s  capacity  i t s citizens  pressue  the capacity  of l o c a l  Al-  advantages,  day and f u t u r e  p o p u l a t i o n and  has c o n s i d e r a b l e to administer  require.  and  The p r o b l e m i s  with present  area--as w e l l as i t s r e s o u r c e s  to strengthen  inexorable  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have t h e i r  traditional  The l o c a l  its  services  increasing population  but not e l i m i n a t i o n , of these values.  many good  of balancing  provide  and  one o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s i n o u r s c a l e o f  Obviously,  o f government  for modification,  one  of small  a s t o what we want o u r g o v e r n m e n t s t o be a n d how we  want them t o f u n c t i o n .  they  concepts  and  Much c o u l d  government u n i t s  hear-  be done  under  ^ J a m e s M a d i s o n , The F e d e r a l i s t (New Y o r k : The M o r d e r n L i b r a r y , 1 9 4 l h pp. 5 3 - 6 2 .  45 metropolitan visions be  and  government  by b o u n d a r y a d j u s t m e n t .  the c h a r a c t e r  considered,  o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d have  but w i t h i n t h i s  made more n e a r l y e q u a l  Natural d i -  context  i n size  to  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s could  t h r o u g h c o n s o l i d a t i o n and  be  amal-  45 gamation.  J  As t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f p l a n n i n g , is  however,  local  planning  a l s o needed f o r : ( l ) c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f urban f u n c t i o n s  vided  pro-  on a m u n i c i p a l i t y - b y - m u n i c i p a l i t y b a s i s s o as t o p r o d u c e  t h e most  effective  of  development w i t h i n area-wide g u i d e l i n e s p r o p o s e d by  local  over-all  l o c a l program;  and,  (2) g u i d a n c e  46 the  metropolitan  C r i t e r i o n V. should  have  effective any type trol  planning  The u n i t  o f government  a geographic  performance.  body.  area  In order  causal area  Where t h e p o l i t i c a l area,  of j u r i s d i c t i o n  some i n t e r e s t s may to discharge  decide  the  a f f e c t e d p u b l i c there  J. Plunkett,  and t o t a l  community  and  perform  have p o l i t i c a l 47  may  does n o t c o n t a i n t h e A city,  have no v o i c e  of geographic  op_. c i t . . p .  con-  area a f f e c t e d . whole  f o r instance,  i t s sewage b e l o w i t s b o u n d a r i e s ,  However, t h e m e a n i n g ^T.  should  be d i s - r e g a r d e d .  may  adequate f o r  to co-ordinate  o f s e r v i c e , t h e government  of the t o t a l  c a r r y i n g on a f u n c t i o n  and  i n this decision.  adequacy should  not  114.  46' op. c i t . .  Advisory p . 225  Commission,  47 I b i d . , p . 51.  Performance of Urban  Functions,  46 be  limited  o n l y to the  Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a .  area  which i s contiguous  also  be  regarded  t o the  if  o f the  there  adequacy s h o u l d  indicate  Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a p l u s  i s any,  urbanized  Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a  as p a r t of. t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .  the meaning o f g e o g r a p h i c area  Any  which i s contiguous  Therefore, the  total  the u r b a n i z e d  to the  should  area,  Census M e t r o p o l i t a n  Area. Criterion  VI.  To  c a r r y out m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g  four basic functions should planning A.  significance  hensive B. be  The  and  of i s s u e s that are  operate  should provide  metropolitan  clearly  w i t h i n the agency's  the d a t a  of  concen-  metropolitan  competence.  needed f o r p r e p a r i n g a  Re-  compre-  plan.  Planning:  To  comprehensive  lution  the  m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g agency should  upon a s p e c t s  search  p e r f o r m e d by  agency:  Research:  trate  be  policies,  be so  effective,  t h a t i t can p r o v i d e  of c o n f l i c t i n g  services.  metropolitan planning  interests  This f u n c t i o n should  and be  should  a forum f o r the  reso-  needs i n p r o v i d i n g u r b a n to prepare  a  comprehensive  plan. C.  Co-operation  and  area-wide p l a n n i n g area-wide for  s h o u l d be  goals f o r p h y s i c a l  co-ordinating public  of the D.  Co-ordination:  g o a l s a t the  Advice  and  and  to develop  principal  private  The  role  of  recommendations f o r  development,, and  various affected  Assistance:  The  to propose  a c t i o n s toward level  of  plans  attainment  government.  metropolitan planning  agency  47 should  be  ment and be  related  to other planning  agencies  non-government o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  to e s t a b l i s h  standards  and  local  This function  f o r planning  governshould  r e g u l a t i o n s and  to  en-  48 courage l o c a l  u n i t s t o a d o p t and  properly administer  them.  There should  a l e g a l requirement  that  Criterion VII. metropolitan or  planning  be  agency reviews  c o m p a t i b i l i t y of a l l proposals  the  content,  affecting  the  the  conformity  metropolitan  49 area.  These p r o p o s a l s  cipal  planning  subdivision  or r e j e c t . the  local  c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n and  However, t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n  t h e power t o be  The  heard,  power o f r e v i e w  not  i s not  the  area.  i s only  In each of  Therefore, to advise  and  body's  affecting planning  make s u g g e s t i o n s Chapters,  to a  area  i s s t u d i e d , the  III,  t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g A r e a i n C h a p t e r IV,  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  metropolitan  A r e a i n C h a p t e r V.  Ibid..  p.  221.  ^ Ibid..  p.  220.  ° I b i d . . p.  221.  9  5  b a s e d on  These the  government a u t h o r i t i e s a r e  48 H O  and  review  approve but  the agency's  localities.  metropolitan  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area i n Chapter  Areas are. s t u d i e d a n d - a p p r a i s e d three  zoning  power t o  metropolitan  the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e  muni-  t h e power o f v e t o ,  n e c e s s i t y o f comment on p r o p o s a l s SO  metropolitan authority  the  controls.  power i s o n l y  rather  as  would i n c l u d e such measures o f  and  the  Metropolitan  Criteria. studied  The under  48 Criteria  I t o V; and  Criteria  I I I to VII.  following Criteria "fair",  three  teria  o r "poor".  and  hypothesis  A f t e r each s e c t i o n  are studied  The  a p p r a i s a l may  I n the l a s t  b a s e d on t h e  "excellent",  Chapter,there i s a  of the three M e t r o p o l i t a n the a r b i t r a r y a p p r a i s a l s on i t s p r a c t i c a l  be  "good",  general  A r e a s b a s e d on t h e  to t e s t  grounds.  under  i n each o f the  C h a p t e r s , an a r b i t r a r y a p p r a i s a l  i s given.  comparison  the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s  the v a l i d i t y  Crio f the  CHAPTER I I I THE  METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER AREA  Vancouver It  i s located  distribution, bia  i s the w e s t e r n r a i l w a y t e r m i n u s i n Canada.  on an e x c e l l e n t  b u s i n e s s and f i n a n c i a l  functions:  ( l ) i t i s t h e hub (2)  secondary industry; service  industry;  h a r b o r ; and  i t i s the  center f o r B r i t i s h  and much o f t h e w e s t e r n p r a i r i e s .  economic  or  deep-sea  I t has  Colum-  three basic  of B r i t i s h  .  Columbia's  i t i s the p r o v i n c i a l f o c u s f o r t e r t i a r y (3)  and,  i t i s the major p o r t f o r western  Canada In tion  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n , t h e r a p i d  growth  industrial output 2.6  rate  of popula-  and p u r c h a s i n g power i s t h e m a i n s t i m u l u s development.  of manufactured  p e r c e n t i n 1931  The  p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l  goods p r o d u c e d  t o 4.2  i n this  p e r c e n t i n 1956  to i t s national  Region rose from ( i n $ terms).  By  p 1976  i t should r i s e  a g a i n to around  5 per cent.  r a n g e and  t h e more a d v a n c e d  developed  i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d i n r e c e n t  more s t a b l e  and f l e x i b l e  foundation f o r future blishments  i n this  The  widening  type o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g which  y e a r s makeQ f o r a  economy, and p r o v i d e . ^ a  growth.  has  stronger  However, t h e i n d u s t r i a l  Region are m o s t l y grouped  i n the  esta-  Metropoli-  P o p u l a t i o n T r e n d s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . 1921 - 1986: Summary (New W e s t m i n s t e r , Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , A p r i l , 1968). p land  o f B.  C.  , M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r y i n t h e Lower (New W e s t m i n s t e r , J a n u a r y , 19E0), p . i .  Main-  50 t a n Vancouver A r e a .  A t t h i s moment t h e r e  velopment f u r t h e r than f i f t y  i s no i n d u s t r i a l  minutes d r i v i n g  de-  t i m e f r o m down-  3 town V a n c o u v e r . portant  M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r i s b e c o m i n g more  as a s e r v i c e and  trade  im-  center r a t h e r than a manufactur-  4 ing  center. R e s i d e n t i a l development  also  taken place  present,  i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  i n a consistent centripetal fashion.  and f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n  has  The  past,  g r o w t h c a n be s e e n as shown i n  the f o l l i w n g t a b l e : TABLE I I THE  POPULATION GROWTH I N METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER AREA  1921  Year  -  1986  . Number o f  Population  1921 1931 1941  222,294 337,218 394,588  1951  562,048  1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986  665,110 790,259 892,384 1,026,000 1,169,000 1,335,000 1,524,000  I n d u s t r i a l L a n d P r o s p e c t s i n t h e Lower Main-l a n d R e g i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (New W e s t m i n s t e r , November, • s  196T), p.  13.  k .City o f Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver's Changing P o p u l a t i o n (Vancouver, June, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 6 .  51 This population figures from  from  t h e Census o f Canada, w h i l e  Lower M a i n l a n d  Regional  1921  t o 1966  the r e s t  are derived  a r e p r o j e c t e d by t h e  Planning B o a r d . H o w e v e r ,  massive  6 m i g r a t i o n i s the key f a c t o r  i n this  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver f i r s t i n t h e 1951  tion  ver  City,  received o f f i c i a l  recogni-  T o d a y , i t i n c l u d e s 15  Census o f Canada.  a r e a s : West V a n c o u v e r , N o r t h  r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth.  Vancouver D i s t r i c t ,  North  U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s , V a n c o u v e r C i t y ,  local  VancouBurnaby, ri';  P o r t Moody, C o q u i t l a m ,  New W e s t m i n s t e r , E r a s e r M i l l s ,  q u i t l a m , Richmond, D e l t a , S u r r e y and White On of  June 29,  1967,  under S u b - s e c t i o n  the M u n i c i p a l A c t o f the Province  Praser-Burrard Regional Patent.  District  The  two  areas  District  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  Trends.  was f u r t h e r on June  changed  13, 1968.^  includes a l l  that are the E l e c t o r a l  and the E l e c t o r a l  Area B  District  766  Columbia, the  the^'J  w i t h i n t h e Census M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r A r e a  electoral  Hill)  (l) of Section  was e s t a b l i s h e d b y L e t t e r s  G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  nicipalities  Rock.  of B r i t i s h  The name o f t h i s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  to the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l  P o r t Co-  (loco).  i s regarded  Area  A  muplus  (University  Therefore, the Greater i n this  -''Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 1921 ^ 1986, l o c . c i t .  t h e s i s as the Population  6 °Ibid. on  ^The June' 13,  name was c h a n g e d b y a s u p p l e m e n t a r y 1968.  Letters  Patent  Q  Vol.  The P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , The B . C. G a z e t t e . CVTI, No. 28 ( V i c t o r i a , J u l y 13, 1967T"T~  INSET  MllK  -^^OUVERJ  VANCOUVE..-  '</ I V *  •  ;ctxjuiT-  jBURNAEY \^WW'^'tJ^  1 VANCOUVER  I  .AJ^L^^ ^  ^.J"  lir  0  ;KENT  MAPLE RIDGE"  'sin*  V  |. m»'  ' /'ii,  'i  > CHIU-IWACK,  RICHMOND . CHIIUIWHACK  AlSSlOW  SURREY  DELTA  UNGLEY  .1"/-  tANGLEY CITY  c  WHITE R O C K |:8OUN0AM  UMAS  II  BAY ~  a.  MATSQ.UI  ' l c * IM A 0 A U M i T 6 » " 1  J  _  S T A T E S  • N  •  I  BOUNDARY  OF VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN A R E A  MUNICIPAL O R INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY SCALE OF MILES >0 Z V 6 a to tr J—i a— t-a—n;xr~Krr-| APRIL,  1966  SOURCE: LOWER  MAlJJ-  •LANO REGIONAL  PLAN-  NING  BOARD  iilfc'  MOUNTAINOUS  TERRAIN*  THE LOWER MAINLAND REGION O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A  fa  ill"/,  53 metropolitan  government a u t h o r i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n  I n 19^9, Affairs,  Mr.  R.  w h i c h i t was declare  a t the  decided  p e t i t i o n was  and  each i n d i v i d u a l  an  Planning  Region a  official  Regional  Affairs  I n 1957,  by  Division  S. B.  C.  6,  on  other  by p r o c l a m a t i o n  June 2 1 ,  1949»  P a r t XXI  Municipal Regional  the p l a n n i n g  in  the  Therefore,  established  and  Minister  u n d e r the Town  Planning  Regional  Act of B r i t i s h  Planning Board Act,  Plan-  Columbia.  i s governed  Chapter 255,  R.  9  area  o f t h e Lower Mainl'and  i n c l u d e s a l l the local areas,  1 0  Regional  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  ning Board i s , t h e r e f o r e , regarded  1966  Area."  of the  of the M u n i c i p a l  amended.  to  community--  a stake  t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r Community and  i 9 6 0 as  P l a n n i n g Board 15  Planning  agreement t h a t e a c h  gazetted  Lower M a i n l a n d  Since  plus  "Regional  P l a n n i n g B o a r d was  n i n g were b r o u g h t u n d e r the present  P r o v i n c i a l Government  through h i s c o u n c i l — h a s  A r e a was  of Municipal  The  the  Municipal  h e l d i n Burnaby a t  d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e R e g i o n as a w h o l e .  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  Act.  to p e t i t i o n  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  g r o w t h and  of the M i n i s t e r of  C. M c D o n a l d , a m e e t i n g was  The  the  invitation  Vancouver.  as  Area  Regional  Plan-  the m e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancou-  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , A n n u a l (New W e s t m i n s t e r , J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 3 .  Report,  T h e r e a r e 14 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o u t s i d e o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area. However, t h e r e i s one u n - o r g a n i z e d a r e a w h i c h a l s o s h o u l d be c o u n t e d . 1 0  54  v/er p l a n n i n g body b e c a u s e  there  i s no o t h e r a r e a - w i d e  planning  body.  I . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Government A u t h o r i t y Organization. provided  Provincial  l e g i s l a t i o n has i n r e c e n t  f o r the establishment  Columbia.  of regional d i s t r i c t s  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s  legislation  years i n British  c a n be s t a t e d a s  below: A.  To c r e a t e a n a d a p t a b l e  type  of o r g a n i z a t i o n capable o f  h a n d l i n g any i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e , w i t h municipalities B.  To p r e s e r v e and  the a f f e c t e d  helping i n the design of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  both  the i d e n t i t y  of existing  a s e n s e o f community, e v e n i f t h i s  municipalities  involves extra  cost. C.  To b r o a d e n t h e b o r r o w i n g out  D.  removing t h e i r  To p r o v i d e nized areas The  clearly  a local  with-.  7  t a x i n g powers. decision-making  body f o r t h e u n - o r g a -  o f t h e Province." '" ' 1  1  idea of regional d i s t r i c t s  towards  the establishment  wide g o v e r n m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s area-wide  base o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  i nBritish  Columbia i s  o f general-purpose  to provide  assigned  and a r e a -  s e r v i c e s on  base.  When a n d where t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s  feels  -^T. R a s h l e i g h , "B. C.'s New R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s " . Comm u n i t y P l a n n i n g i n B. C. V o l . V I , No. 1 ( F e b r u a r y , 1966), p . 3.  55 there  i s a local  n e e d a n d demand f o r a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , he  p r e p a r e s a recommendation t h a t c e r t a i n powers, o b l i g a t i o n s commendations a r e f i r s t councils.  a district  and d u t i e s .  forwarded  Within s i x t y days,  the proposed f u n c t i o n s  sixty-day to  waiting  period  t o the a f f e c t e d  the municipal  councils  may  hold  the cost  district.  When t h e  the M i n i s t e r  the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l  municipal  i s t o share  o f the r e g i o n a l i s over,  with  The M i n i s t e r ' s r e -  a r e f e r e n d u m on w h e t h e r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y of  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  that  may recommand  Letters  Patent  12 creating a regional ver  district  Regional D i s t r i c t  be i s s u e d .  was c r e a t e d  according  In a d d i t i o n t o the p r o v i s i o n s functions Patent  are provided  Patent.  commandation t o a d d a n y f u n c t i o n , Affairs be  must r e c e i v e  granted  specify the  procedure.  district  by L e t t e r s  B e f o r e making a r e -  the M i n i s t e r  of  Municipal  from the R e g i o n a l Board a request  t h e power t o u n d e r t a k e a f u n c t i o n ,  that i t  such request to  t h e member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h a r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e a n d  basis  before  to this  Vancou-  i n the Municipal Act,  t o the r e g i o n a l  o r supplementary L e t t e r s  The G r e a t e r  f o rsharing  the cost f o r each f u n c t i o n .  advancing a request,  t h e R e g i o n a l B o a r d must  However, receive  the  consent o f the c o u n c i l o f each m u n i c i p a l i t y which i s to 13 p a r t i c i p a t e i n the function. Therefore, i t i s c l e a r that, J  •'-"Ibid. T h e Province of B r i t i s h t e r 255, Sections 766(2), 766(3) a s amended. 1 3  C o l u m b i a . M u n i c i p a l A c t . Chapa n d 766(4), R. S. B . C. i 9 6 0  56 while  the  establishment  Provincial mainly  on  responsibility, the  initiative  c i p a t i o n of the the  local  regional district  present  of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s  is primarily a  the assignment of f u n c t i o n s i s  of l o c a l  g o v e r n m e n t s ; and  the  governments i n a s s i g n i n g f u n c t i o n s i s a l s o on  a voluntary basis.  Vancouver Regional  At  time,  the  Greater  been a s s i g n e d  the  h o s p i t a l f u n c t i o n which i s p r o v i d e d  vincial :  can p r e p a r e  a m a j o r i t y o f a l l the  Directors.  i n d i v i d u a l municipal  Vancouver R e g i o n a l function at this  No  only  by  Pro-  District  has  not  Mainland  Regional  from the R e g i o n a l to the  Authority  pulbic hearing Since  been a s s i g n e d  a  or  by  approval  the  Greater  planning  performed by  the  Planning Board which i s a separate District.  hypothesis  This  of t h i s  14 ..  a p p r a i s a l of i n regard  thesis.  Besides,  »••-• 4  entity  there  District  Me-  Lower  i s highly undesirable  between t h e R e g i o n a l  P l a n n i n g Board.;  The  major  moment, t h e a r e a - w i d e p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s i n  working r e l a t i o n s h i p  Regional  Board  T h i s p l a n i s adopted  council i s required.  t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r A r e a have t o be  no  the  has  the R e g i o n a l  a r e g i o n a l p l a n which o u t l i n e s p r o j e c t e d  uses of l a n d , i n c l u d i n g major roads.  ding  District  to  legislation. I f\ i n c l u d e d i n i t s L e t t e r s P a t e n t ,  by  parti-  accorhas  and  been the  .^.v-.- • ' ;  t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r Government  to C r i t e r i o n  I i s therefore  judged to  be  "poor".  Mr. J i m M c l e a n , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w h e l d a t t h e Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , V a n c o u v e r , August 9, 1968.  Greater  57  Legal  Powers.  Generally,  same l e g a l powers as 775  Section  of  the  any  the  regional  municipality.  Municipal  Act  district This  can  have  i s stated  the  under  that:  E x c e p t as i s o t h e r w i s e p r o v i d e d u n d e r t h i s D i v i s i o n o r L e t t e r s P a t e n t , the p r o v i s i o n s o f P a r t I I to V I I I , i n c l u s i v e r e l a t i n g t o r u l e s , r e q u i r e m e n t s , and p r o c e dures a p p l y , m u t a t i s mutandis, to a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and t o t h e R e g i o n a l B o a r d and t h e D i r e c t o r s t h e r e o f i n r e s p e c t o f any o r a l l o f t h e p o w e r s , d u t i e s , and oblig a t i o n s o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o r o f the R e g i o n a l B o a r d g r a n t e d o r i m p o s e d u n d e r t h i s D i v i s i o n as i f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t were a m u n i c i p a l i t y ; . . . . Therefore, of  the  Regional D i s t r i c t  legal authority  f o r the  functions.  However, the  ing  I t receives  power.  i s able  t o have a b r o a d  scope  purpose of performing i t s assigned  Regional D i s t r i c t  does n o t  i t s a n n u a l revenue f r o m the  have  tax-  member  mu-  nicipalities. The  G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  b e e n a s s i g n e d any it  has  the  is  assigned  function  not  yet  o t h e r t h e n h o s p i t a l s , however,  p o t e n t i a l to e x e r c i s e more f u n c t i o n s ,  has  but  c e r t a i n l e g a l powers when i t  s u c h as  housing,  transportation,  waste d i s p o s a l , p a r k a c q u i s i t i o n , e t c . At  time the  appraisal  of  the  V a n c o u v e r Government A u t h o r i t y  i n regard  to  C r i t e r i o n II i s  therefore better trict  present  j u d g e d t o be  "fair".  when more f u n c t i o n s i n the  Control. is  the  assigned  to  a p p r a i s a l may  the  Regional  be  Dis-  future. Under the  c o n t r o l l e d by  Municipal  are  However, t h e  Metropolitan  Act,  present  legislation,  i t s r e g i o n a l boards  i t i s stated  that:  a regional  Under S e c t i o n  district  769  (of  the  58 . . . the Regional Board s h a l l c o n s i s t of the r e q u i s i t e number o f D i r e c t o r s a p p o i n t e d by t h e C o u n c i l o r T r u s t e e s o f e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y f r o m among i t s members . . . a n d t h e r e q u i s i t e number o f D i r e c t o r s e l e c t e d from the e l e c t o r a l areas . . . . T h e r e i s no d i r e c t c o n t r o l by t h e c i t i z e n s . only  exercise  t h e i r power on t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t  t h e i r municipal gional  c o u n c i l s which appoint  Directors  through  t o t h e Re-  Board. The  and  The c i t i z e n s c a n  number o f D i r e c t o r s  each m u n i c i p a l i t y  or area  t h e number o f v o t e s e a c h D i r e c t o r has on R e g i o n a l  m a t t e r s i s c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n  has  District  o f the muni-  c i p a l i t y by t h e " v o t i n g u n i t " , a p o p u l a t i o n  figure specified  in  on m a t t e r s  the L e t t e r s Patent.  are  does n o t a p p l y  f u n c t i o n which w i l l liable  t o share  Directors  appoint the  vote only  of concern t o t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f i n a n c i a l l y .  triction  The  Directors  t o any p r o p o s a l  require  At the present  tish  Columbia  Ibid.  ( l ) , Section  that:  date.  a r e 21 D i r e c t o r s i n  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  T h e y come f r o m 14 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d 2 e l e c t o r a l  under S u b s e c t i o n  t o become  t o be C h a i r m a n a n d  time, there  t o the term o f o f f i c e  res-  related to that  i n the cost o f the f u n c t i o n a t a f u t u r e  Regional Board o f the Greater  As  This  s u c h member m u n i c i p a l i t y  e l e c t one o f t h e m s e l v e s  staff.  which  District.  area.^  of the D i r e c t o r s , i t i s stated  771 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l  Act of B r i -  59 Each D i r e c t o r appointed by a m u n i c i p a l i t y t o a R e g i o n a l B o a r d upon t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e u n t i l the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of January i n the year next s u c c e e d i n g o r u n t i l the appointment o f h i s s u c c e s s o r , whichever i s the l a t e r . and  under S u b s e c t i o n  (2) o f t h e same S e c t i o n t h a t :  A f t e r t h e f i r s t appointment o f D i r e c t o r s by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , e a c h m u n i c i p a l D i r e c t o r s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d a n n u a l l y , on o r b e f o r e t h e f i r s t d a y o f F e b r u a r y , by r e s o l u t i o n o f the C o u n c i l o r o f the T r u s t e e s , a s t h e c a s e may b e , a n d s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e u n t i l the t h i r t y - f i r s t day o f January o f the year next succeeding o r u n t i l the appointment o f h i s successor, whichever i s the l a t t e r . This  legislation  ensures  the R e g i o n a l Board appointed  l o n g e r t h a n one y e a r u n l e s s he i s r e -  by h i s c o u n c i l .  R e g i o n a l Board member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . the P r o v i n c i a l contributes Letters  t h a t no D i r e c t o r c a n h o l d o f f i c e i n  revenues a r e o b t a i n e d each year The u n - o r g a n i z e d . a r e a s  Minister of Finance.  o n l y to those  Patent  a r e taxed  through  Each m u n i c i p a l i t y o r area  r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t expenses which t h e  say i t i s responsible f o r .  G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . f o r  $60,000.  from the  The b u d g e t o f t h e  the year  1968  was o n l y  1 6  The Authority  a p p r a i s a l o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r Government i n regard to C r i t e r i o n  I I I i s t h e r e f o r e judged  t o be  "fair". L o c a l Governments a n d T h e i r F u n c t i o n s . ment o f t h e G r e a t e r  l 6  Ibid.  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  Since District  the e s t a b l i s h i n June,  1967,  60 no l o c a l  government has b e e n d i s s o l v e d , amalgamated,  incorporated  because of t h i s  new  a r e many s m a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , P o r t Moody, P o r t all  the l o c a l  Coquitlam,  New  establishment.  s u c h as N o r t h  have b e e n  Under S e c t i o n 790  1  or  Although  Vancouver  Westminster and F r a s e r  governments w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n  gional District  17  there  City, Mills,  of this  Re-  preserved. o f the M u n i c i p a l Act i t i s s t a t e d  that: The p o w e r s , o b l i g a t i o n s , and d u t i e s o f a member mun i c i p a l i t y s h a l l be r e d u c e d o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t a n y o f them have b e e n a s s i g n e d t o t h e e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t under L e t t e r s Patent or t o the e x t e n t p r o v i d e d i n t h i s D i v i s i o n . Since  the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  assigned  the h o s p i t a l f u n c t i o n ,  Regional D i s t r i c t had  before  still  the l o c a l  has o n l y b e e n  governments i n t h i s  m a i n t a i n a l l the o t h e r f u n c t i o n s  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of t h i s  they  Regional D i s t r i c t i n  1967«  However, most  local  Region  have a s s i g n e d  c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s t o some s i n g l e - p u r p o s e  functional trict,  districts,  g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h e Lower  s u c h a s t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r Water  t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r Sewerage  Vancouver-Fraser  Parks  Mainland  and D r a i n a g e  Dis-  District,  District, etc.  A l t h o u g h t h e r e were p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y and N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t , and f o r t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r C i t y and B u r n a b y D i s t r i c t , t h e f o r m e r was d e f e a t e d by a g e n e r a l v o t e o f t h e c i t i z e n s i n b o t h m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on September 1 9 , 1 9 6 8 , a n d t h e l a t t e r i s s t i l l u n d e r s t u d y by b o t h m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d .  61 Therefore,  the a p p r a i s a l  t o the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  Governmental A u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d  to Criterion  I V i s t o be  "fair". Geographic contains  the t o t a l  Electoral not  Adequacy.  Area  The G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l  Census M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r A r e a  A and the E l e c t o r a l  include Langley  the o n l y shortcoming  geographic  adequacy.  The  appraisal  Authority i n regard  p l u s the  However, i t does  D i s t r i c t , P i t t Meadows, a n d Maple R i d g e  w h i c h have b e e n d e v e l o p i n g r a p i d l y be  Area B.  District  i n recent years.  i n terms o f the R e g i o n a l  This  may  District's  t o t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r Government to Criterion  V i s t h e r e f o r e judged  t o be  "fair". II.  The M e t r o p o l i t a n a n d L o c a l P l a n n i n g  Since separate it  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  Functions  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board  isa  entity  from  the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l  District,  i s necessary  here  t o study f i r s t l y and b r i e f l y the ^Planning  Board's o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s . The  Lower M a i n l a n d  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board  by  the p r o v i s i o n s of D i v i s i o n  of  British  pality of  and,  w i t h i n the P l a n n i n g Area  electes (3)  P a r t XXI o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t  Columbia which e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t : (1)  i t s C o u n c i l who s h a l l  Board  6,  appoints  hold office  support  e a c h muni c i r '  t o the Board  f o r one y e a r ;  i t s own C h a i r m a n a n d d e t e r m i n e s  the f i n a n c i a l  i s governed  one member  (2) the  i t s own  procedure;  o f the Regional Planning  Board  62  shall  be s h a r e d  b y t h e component m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on a p e r c a -  18 pita  basis.  appointed is  However, t h e B o a r d a l s o c o m p r i s e s one member  by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l .  privileged  and  shall  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n General  be e l i g i b l e  The  member  Meetings o f the Board,  t o h o l d any e l e c t i v e  T h e r e a r e two i m p o r t a n t  This  office.  committees under the B o a r d .  t e c h n i c a l Committee, composed o f s e n i o r M u n i c i p a l  f r o m member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d t h e P r o v i n c e ,  advises  Planners the S t a f f  Executive  D i r e c t o r o n t h e B o a r d ' s t e c h n i c a l work p r o g r a m .  Secondly,  there  one  i s the M u n i c i p a l  senior municipal  each m u n i c i p a l i t y . the  staff  ting  staff This  Staff  Committee, composed o f  member a p p o i n t e d  Committee  serves  by C o u n c i l  as a l i a i s o n  from between  a n d member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o n t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s  to planning  c i a l Regional  rela-  p r o g r a m s , a n d on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e O f f i 1Q  Plan.  J  T h e r e a r e 28 member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e P l a n n i n g Board. Control. Act,  Under S u b s e c t i o n  i ti s stated  4,  S e c t i o n 720 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l  that:  The B o a r d s h a l l c o n s i s t o f one member o f C o u n c i l appointed by the C o u n c i l o f each m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n t h e a r e a a n d one member a p p o i n t e d b y t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l who s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e d u r i n g pleasure. Since  t h e members o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l  1966,  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l op_. c i t . . , p . 9. 1 9  Ibid..  p . 10.  Planning  Planning  Board, Annual  Board  Report,  63  are the  not e l e c t e d d i r e c t l y  by the c i t i z e n s  i n the Planning  c i t i z e n s c a n n o t e x e r c i s e t h e i r power d i r e c t l y  Region,  over the  Board. As it  i s s a i d under S u b s e c t i o n  that the is  t o the term o f o f f i c e  "the term o f o f f i c e initial  o f e a c h C o u n c i l member,  except f o r  or u n t i l  i s a l s o p r o v i d e d under S u b s e c t i o n "the Board s h a l l ,  Chairman, and s h a l l that  h i s successor  ing  determine  councils,  i t s own a f f a i r s .  f r o m i t s member The  be  i t s own p r o c e d u r e . "  T h i s means by t h e  i s the sole a u t h o r i t y i n determin-  municipalities.  i n regard  to C r i t e r i o n  Vancouver Area  I I I i s therefore  Planjudged  "fair".  A c t , no l o c a l  Lower M a i n l a n d Board  a  The P l a n n i n g B o a r d r e c e i v e s i t s r e v e n u e  Local Planning Functions.  this  f r o m i t s own members, e l e c t  a p p r a i s a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  ning Functions  pal  7 o f t h e same  t h e P l a n n i n g B o a r d , whose members a r e a p p o i n t e d  member m u n i c i p a l  in  S e c t i o n 720 o f t h e same A c t  a p p o i n t m e n t , i s f o r one y e a r  Section that  and  members,  appointed." It  to  6,  o f the P l a n n i n g Board  planning function i s lost  Regional  can provide  Under the p r o v i s i o n s i n the M u n i c i -  Planning Board.  or assigned  Although  upon by b o t h p a r t i e s  no c o m p u l s o r y power i s g i v e n t o t h e R e g i o n a l regard.  the Planning  p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s t o a n y member m u n i c i p a l i t y ,  s e r v i c e h a s t o be a g r e e d  this  t o the  Therefore,  local  municipalities  involved;  Planning retain  Board  full  64 a u t h o r i t y on l o c a l p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s o f any o f f i c i a l  Regional  s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s  Plan.  Among t h e 28 member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f t h e R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 10 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have e m p l o y e d p r o f e s s i o n a l palnning  s t a f f s : Burnaby, Coquitlam,  North Vancouver Surrey, the  City,  D e l t a , New  North Vancouver D i s t r i c t ,  Westminster, Richmond,  V a n c o u v e r , a n d West V a n c o u v e r . A l l o f t h e s e  jurisdiction  of the Greater  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  are within District.  T h i s means t h a t most o f t h e l o c a l  governments w i t h i n t h e M e t r o -  politan  own p l a n n i n g  and  V a n c o u v e r A r e a have t h e i r  establishments  programs. Although  over  gional Planning services,  they  half  o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e Re-  Area having  not established t h e i r  are small i n s i z e ,  cessary planning  and a r e a b l e  own  palnning  t o o b t a i n ne-  s e r v i c e s f r o m t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  Planning  Board by c o n t r a c t . The  a p p r a i s a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area  ning Functions t o be  bia,  to Criterion IV i s therefore  judged  "good".  Geographic the  i n regard  Plan-  Adequacy.  The Lower M a i n l a n d  extreme south-west c o r n e r i t s boundaries  parrallel Strait  extend  to the United  of Georgia  o f the Mainland  a b o u t 25 m i l e s  Area i s i n  of B r i t i s h  from the  a t V a n c o u v e r e a s t w a r d a b o u t 100 m i l e s  metropolitan  Colum-  n o r t h o f and r o u g h l y  S t a t e s boundary, and r u n n i n g  t o t h e Town o f Hope a t t h e e n t r a n c e The  Planning  to the F r a s e r R i v e r  development i s c o n c e n t r a t e d  inland Canyon.  i n the  65 Western p a r t o f the R e g i o n , about o n e - t h i r d o f the Area,  f o c u s i n g on V a n c o u v e r .  Although  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  c o u v e r A r e a i s g r o w i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y and that  the u r b a n i z e d  boundaries  area  will  o f the R e g i o n a l  not  be  rapidly,  able  Planning  Planning  i t is  Vancertain  t o grow beyond  Area i n the  the  foreseeable  future. The  a p p r a i s a l of the  ning functions i n regard  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area  to C r i t e r i o n V i s therefore  Plan-  judged  to  be " e x c e l l e n t " . Metropolitan Planning Mainland The of  Regional  Municipal  Functions.  prime r o l e  Planning Board i s to prepare  A c t does n o t  the R e g i o n a l  The  Plan.  d e f i n e the  A second r o l e  exact of  vide Technical Staff f o r l o c a l planning  o f the  Lower  a regional plan.  content  or  nature  the Board i s to  pro-  on a f e e - f o r - s e r v i c e 20  b a s i s upon r e q u e s t  o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f an out  a series  many a s p e c t s tial  report  of parkland,  industrial  population.  of these  The  Regional  "Chance and  land, farmland,  facts,  Challenge"  f i n d i n g s and  which formed the  Plan enacted  on A u g u s t 29,  the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s port  been t o  to  carry  residenrecommen1964  s t u d i e s were i n t e g r a t e d i n t h e B o a r d ' s  "Chance and  Official  P l a n has  approach  o f b a s i c s t u d i e s t o examine t h e R e g i o n i n i t s  l a n d , and  dations  o v e r a l l Regional  The  Challenge",  I b i d . . p.  4.  and  a series  basis of  1966.  the  Following  o b j e c t i v e s i n the of steps  were t a k e n  reby  66 the Board  to prepare  reactions  of  officials. Regional visions  the The  Councils, Municipal Official  Planning of  the  draft reports, s o l i c i t  Regional  A r e a was  Municipal  Order-in-Council  of the  comments  arid  Provincial  P l a n f o r the  Lower  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  1965;  and  was  later  the  pro-  Regional  adopted  P r o v i n c i a l Government on  and  Mainland  adopted i n accordance with  A c t by  June 1 7 ,  P l a n n i n g B o a r d on  staff,  the  by 29,  August  1966. The  Official  development p o l i c y agencies, vince Plan  the  Regional of  the  c o n s i s t s of  Schedules of  Regional  co-ordinated  municipalities,  their  P l a n n i n g B o a r d , the  i t s agencies.  three p a r t s :  the  General  the  Administrative Provisions.  the  Plan  and  c o n s i s t o f the  The  Pro-  C o l u m b i a , and  Development Area P o l i c i e s , The  c o n s t i t u t e s the  Lower M a i n l a n d  Lower M a i n l a n d  of B r i t i s h  Plan  t e x t of  the  P r o v i s i o n s , the  L o n g Range P l a n  Map,  21 the  Current  S t a g e P l a n Maps, and  P l a n has  thereby  policies  and  utility  provided  the b a s i s f o r m u n i c i p a l  system extensions  and  s e r v i c i n g programs.  any  concepts  realistic  However, t h i s  f o r the  suggestions  private  improvements, f o r highway  college planning, Plan  has  f u t u r e development. f o r the  and  The  development  community p l a n s t u d i e s , f o r p u b l i c and  t i o n p l a n s , f o r s c h o o l and  general  o t h e r r e f e r e n c e maps.  for  loca-  Municipal  only proposed  some  I t does n o t  give  f u t u r e growth of  Metropolitan  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , O f f i c i a l g i o n a l P l a n (New W e s t m i n s t e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 2 .  Re-  67 Vancouver. The lopment  P l a n n i n g Board's  of the Region  role  i n g u i d i n g the o v e r a l l  i s involving  the Board  more and more i n t h e p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s ment a g e n c i e s .  While  ments, the Board  having close  a l s o has  contact  with l o c a l  of t h i s Regional f u n c t i o n  w i t h and  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the v a r i o u s p u b l i c  the Board, a p u b l i c  from a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . meetings  o f the Board  nicipal,  and F e d e r a l  o f the Board  the R e g i o n .  m e e t i n g has  Provincial  i s the  each major  study  to receive  are i n a d d i t i o n  A  liaison  and p r i v a t e  w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  actiby  reactions to the  Provincial,  Mu-  F o r example, d u r i n g the p e r i o d J a n u a r y , 1965  preparing  the R e g i o n a l P l a n , from  the Board  held a series  and  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and B o a r d  their  On  been h e l d  These  staff.  with  govern-*  inter-municipal agencies.  key p a r t  a t work b u i l d i n g  i t s staff  of other govern-  working r e l a t i o n s h i p  a g e n c i e s , F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , and  vities  and  deve-  o f meetings  w i t h the staff  to J u l y ,  of  1966,  municipalities  reviewed  the P l a n 22  policies ever,  i n s p e c i a l meetings  the Board's  i n g a key  Technical  w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Committee  co-ordinating role.  This  i s increasingly  Committee,  m a i n l y o f the p r e s e n t P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r s municipalities,  meets m o n t h l y  of i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l tributing 22  t o the Board's  concern.  consisting  evaluate matters  In addition to  t e c h n i c a l work p r o g r a m , t h e  , Annual Report. 1966,  perform-  o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  t o d i s c u s s and  and r e g i o n a l  How-  op.  cit.,  p.  con-  Committee 11.  68 members have t a k e n a d v a n t a g e plore  matters o f mutual  local  proved working r e l a t i o n s h i p s problems  o f the monthly meetings  c o n c e r n and t o e s t a b l i s h imbetween s t a f f s  i n neighboring municipalities.  ordination function  o f the Board  it  the Board's  i s apparant that  be e x p a n d e d  to include  land M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , cies  active  Planning  1968,  However, i f t h e c o -  Technical  successful,  Committee  could  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m a l l t h e Lower  as w e l l as from o t h e r governmental  i n the Region.  Junary 16,  w o r k i n g on s i m i l a r  i s t o be t r u l y  T h i s need  the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , on  to ex-  has b e e n  Mainagen-  a p p r e c i a t e d by  and i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e B o a r d  t h e M i n i s t e r announced  Committee would  well  that a Technical  be a s s i g n e d t o t h e B o a r d w i t h r e p r e -  s e n t a t i o n from the s e v e r a l  Provincial  Departments  and f r o m  23 Federal  Departments. A l s o under  the R e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n ,  the Board p r o v i d e s  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e R e g i o n a n d i t s many a s p e c t s t o t h e m u n i c i palities, duals .  development  authorities,  private  firms  The B o a r d a l s o m a i n t a i n s a r e f e r e n c e  and i n d i v i -  library  that i s  u s e d by P r o v i n c i a l a n d m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s i n a d d i t i o n in  k e e p i n g t h e B o a r d up t o d a t e on t h e l a t e s t  R e g i o n a l a n d Community P l a n n i n g . to f u r t h e r  The B o a r d ' s  literature i n staff  the cause o f p l a n n i n g by g i v i n g p u b l i c  r e q u e s t , and by f u r n i s h i n g d i s p l a y m a t e r i a l s  , Annual Report, I967  1 9 6 8 ) , p.~F"  t o use  endeavor  a d d r e s s e s on  on community and  (New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  January,  69  and  regional planning  matters.  Under the " m u n i c i p a l B o a r d , i t may " u n d e r t a k e municipality  24  planning  s e r v i c e " r o l e of the  community p l a n n i n g  on s u c h t e r m s a n d c o n d i t i o n s  a g r e e d upon."  This  service  work f o r a member  as a r e m u t u a l l y  i s a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t  t h o s e member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s n o t h a v i n g p l a n n i n g their  Commissions a n d B o a r d s - - t o  to p r o v i d e ties the  continuing  having planning  advice;  staff--to  assist  conduct o f major s t u d i e s ,  regional  context.  extension  In this  o f the municipal  inter-municipal  ( 2 ) those  local  municipali-  department  basis i n  studies  the Board's s t a f f  planning  and t o  s t u d i e s and  on a c o n s u l t i n g  and t o place  case,  staff  conduct p l a n n i n g  planning  to: ( 1 )  ina  s e r v e as an  staff;  ( 3 ) any  a g e n c y ; a n d , ( 4 ) P r o v i n c i a l Government  depart-  25  ments. ning  C o n s i d e r a b l e u s e has b e e n made o f t h e m u n i c i p a l  J  service  since  community p l a n s ,  i t was e s t a b l i s h e d  school  plans,  i n 1949 with studies of  park plans,  apartment s t u d i e s ,  studies,  advance s t r e e t and s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n n i n g ,  ( l ) the s e r v i c e  Board's p r o f e s s i o n a l influence  studies,  servicing zoning by-  policies  i s an a d v i s o r y  s t a f f - - t h e Board  the t e c h n i c a l advice  offered  t o govern  Ibid.  this  service provided  itself  by t h e  does n o t r e v i e w o r  to municipal  councils;  . Annual R e p o r t . 1 9 6 6 . op. c i t . . p . 7« 2 5  center  c o n t r o l b y - l a w s , a n d r e p l o t t i n g schemes.  However, t h e B o a r d has e s t a b l i s h e d service:  center  commercial  studies,  laws, s u b d i v i s i o n  civic  plan-  70 (2)  a l l s t u d i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n  dential until  reports  carried  t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y , agency, o r department  r e l e a s e d b y them;  (3) o n l y a t o t a l  n i n g work i s t o be u n d e r t a k e n a s w i l l assigned Annual  o u t r e m a i n as c o n f i -  t o the m u n i c i p a l  planning  amount o f l o c a l  utilize  the s t a f f  plantime  s e r v i c e under the Board's  Program.^ Therefore,  the a p p r a i s a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Area P l a n n i n g F u n c t i o n s  i n regard  Vancouver  t o C r i t e r i o n V I i s t o be  "good".  Legal  Powers.  bility  Although  member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have r e s p o n s i -  f o r d e c i s i o n s on r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s ,  Mainland  Regional  interfere  with  power t o r e v i e w advice  t h e Lower  P l a n n i n g B o a r d has no l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o  local local  planning matters. plans  The B o a r d has no  legal  and programs, o r even t o g i v e any  t o i t s member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i f t h e B o a r d i s n o t r e -  quested  t o do s o .  . I t i s stated i n the O f f i c i a l  Regional  Plan  that:  . . . each Responsible A u t h o r i t y with i t s agencies, and a n y g r o u p o f R e s p o n s i b l e A u t h o r i t i e s w i t h t h e i r A g e n c i e s , s h a l l comply w i t h t h e R e g i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s , G e n e r a l P o l i c i e s , and Development Area P o l i c i e s o f t h i s P l a n . . . .27 However, i t i s s t i l l Official  Regional  l o c a l planning  i n doubt whether the p r o v i s i o n s o f the  P l a n r e a l l y have a n y r e g u l a t o r y power on  activities.  I b i d . . pp. 7-9. , O f f i c i a l Regional  P l a n , op. c i t . , p . 12.  71 The ning  appraisal  Functions  o f the Metropolitan  i n regard  to C r i t e r i o n  Vancouver Area  VTI i s t h e r e f o r e  Planjudged  t o be " p o o r " . III. The for  Conclusions  Regional D i s t r i c t  the various  communities  i s designed i n a region  through t h e i r representatives will  t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o work  on a common R e g i o n a l B o a r d  have c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  i n respect  blems.  I n a s t a t e m e n t made b y t h e M i n i s t e r  Affairs  of B r i t i s h  for It  which  to regional  of  Columbia, i t i s s a i d t h a t ,  combining f u n c t i o n s .  together  pro-  Municipal " i t isa  I t i s not a p o l i t i c a l  i s f u n c t i o n a l amalgamation i n which a board  device  amalgamation. i s established  28 to undertake Minister taxing  services  further  authority  functions  applied  and a d m i n i s t e r  stated  that  them j o i n t l y " .  "regional  districts  The  do n o t have  a n d , e x c e p t f o r h o s p i t a l s , have no s t a t u t o r y b y law";  and " r e g i o n a l  districts  are not  meant t o p a v e t h e way f o r a m a l g a m a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the  districts,  a l t h o u g h some a m a l g a m a t i o n s s h o u l d t a k e  place,  t.29 especially that an  on t h e Lower M a i n l a n d .  the idea  attempt  t o make l o c a l  matters while and  p. 6. 2 9  o f the r e g i o n a l  still  ^  district  Therefore,  I t i s clear  i nBritish  governments p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e g i o n a l  preserving  t h e i r own s t a t u s  a s much a s  V a n c o u v e r Sun ( V a n c o u v e r ) , September 1 0 ,  Ibid.  Columbia i s  1968,  p. 1  72 possible. idea  However, i t s h o u l d  of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s  be  mentioned  i s good, t h e i r  p e n d e n t upon P r o v i n c i a l s t i m u l u s volve  local  governments i n the  legislation, their this  i s another issue  the  The  that  i s the  create  frictions  local  councils."  between the  i s true  a r r a n g e m e n t i s more d e m o c r a t i c , a r e  left  i n doubt. The . g r e a t e s t  problem of  planning  Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t  the  Board are  remedy l i e s  of M u n i c i p a l "it part  (the of  of  3 0  function. and  established  w i t h the  Affairs  has  Greater  the  ibid.  or not,  the  Since  of  planning  on  council and  ...  the  whether  that  are  i n the  Me-  government  b o t h the  Lower M a i n l a n d  Greater  Regional  under P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n ,  P r o v i n c i a l Government. stated  by  idea  and  questions  i n regard  to  the  Minister  issue  that  B o a r d ) would become  position, in effect s e c t i o n of  The  this  Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t .  changed f r o m i t s p r e s e n t to t h a t  Affairs'  separation  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g the  appointed  successful planning  Vancouver Area i s the  a u t h o r i t y f r o m the  Planning  are  of  present  regional d i s t r i c t  this  tropolitan  Under the  of Municipal  Whether t h i s  3 0  de-  governments i n -  " e l e c t i n g a separate regional d i s t r i c t  would  be  representation  Regional Board.  Minister  the  issues.  Regional Board D i r e c t o r s  Councils. i s that  success w i l l  t o make l o c a l  t h e m s e l v e s more i n r e g i o n a l There  that, although  an  political  I t would advisory regional  be  board,  73  B o a r d " ; a n d " t h e r e s h o u l d he one r e g i o n a l  government f o r t h e  31 Lower M a i n l a n d . " enlarging  T h i s means t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f  the present  jurisdiction  o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver  Regional D i s t r i c t  t o i n c l u d e t h e whole Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n 32 of four Regional D i s t r i c t s ^ at present. The d e a d l i n e  instead for  this  change has b e e n s e t b y t h e M i n i s t e r f o r t h e e a r l y  33 1970's.  T h i s change  hypothesis  of this  The e v e n t s validity  i s s u r e l y welcomed  a c c o r d i n g t o the  thesis. i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  o f the hypothesis  of this  Region  support the  thesis.  Ibid* 32 The f o u r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a r e t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , t h e DewdneyA l o u e t t e Regional D i s t r i c t , the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y Regional D i s t r i c t , and the Fraser-Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . V a n c o u v e r Sun, l o c .  c i t .  CHAPTER THE  IV  METROPOLITAN WINNIPEG AREA  M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g , s i t u a t e d mid-way b e t w e e n and  Vancouver a t  the  e a s t e r n edge o f  Canada's f o u r t h l a r g e s t m e t r o p o l i t a n political,  educational, medical  and  the  Prairie  area.  M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg i s s t i l l  an  tion,  c o m m e r c i a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  industrial  as  low  Since  lies  wheat e x p o r t s  the  headquarter  center  gateway t o t h e  c o m m u n i c a t i o n and  trade  still  and  lancing  o f the  o f the  80-mile  boundary of U n i t e d west.  d a y s , W i n n i p e g ' s economy has  culture  transporta-  base,  o f f r e s h w a t e r , and  famous g r a i n c o m p a n i e s .  almost i n the  historic  Mani-  center f o r  f i r s t began t o t r i c k l e  been the  many w o r l d  L a k e W i n n i p e g and the  of  the  such  excellent  facilities.  w e s t , W i n n i p e g has B o a r d and  important  a varied industrial  c o s t power, a l a r g e s u p p l y  transportation  peg  I t has  being  capital  toba,  much o f W e s t e r n C a n a d a .  region, i s  Besides  cultural  Montreal  the  C a n a d i a n Wheat Because  1  Winni-  c o r r i d o r between  S t a t e s , i t has  T o d a y , as  been  i n a l l of i t s  drawn s t r e n g t h f r o m i t s l i n e s  the f a c i l i t i e s  that serve  remains important,  service industries,  from  manufacturing,  has  i n f l u e n c e i n Winnipeg's  them.  c o n t r i b u t e d an  While  along  of  agri-  with  important  ba-  economy.  A R e p o r t on M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n ( W i n n i p e g , The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n o f G r e a t e r W i n n i p e g , P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , A u g u s t 25, 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 4 .  75 From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f employment and sales,  food  and  p u b l i s h i n g and  the  value  beverage, c l o t h i n g , metal f a b r i c a t i n g ,  of  printing,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment i n d u s t r i e s are  Winni-  p  p e g ' s most s i g n i f i c a n t facturing  Because of  agriculture,  and  a major share toward  of  litan and  cent  are  miscellaneous  are  manu-  l o c a t e d i n downtown  the p r o s p e c t i v e e x p a n s i o n  there  the  the  gas,  of  western  o i l ,mineral  and  good g r o u n d s f o r e x p e c t i n g  g r o w t h o f w e s t e r n demand w i l l  be  that  channell-  Winnipeg.  Although coincide  per  Of  d e v e l o p m e n t b a s e d on  pulpwood r e s o u r c e s ,  ed  73*9  industries,  Winnipeg.  industries.  with  Area,  t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g Census A r e a does  the p o l i t i c a l  the  boundaries  d i f f e r e n c e i s so  purpose, the  small  p o p u l a t i o n of the  o f the  entire  not  Metropo-  that, to a l l i n t e n t s  Census A r e a may  be  accepted  4 as and  that of  the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg A r e a .  future population  (please  see For  64,511  Table the  and  I I I on  46 p e r  2  Ibid.  3  Ibid..  next  p.  54,665,  present table:  (76)).  page  population  cent,  past,  shown i n t h e f o l l i w n g  M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a as  1951-1961  o f the  increase  growth are  The  a w h o l e , 54  per  cent  i n c r e a s e was  due  to n a t u r a l  was  due  to net  migration.-'  9.  1961-1986  ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg P o p u l a t i o n Study: n i p e g , The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n o f G r e a t e r W i n n i p e g , ning D i v i s i o n ) , p. 4. :  5  Ibid.,  p.  or  20.  (WinPlan-  76 TABLE I I I THE  POPULATION GROWTH I N METROPOLITAN WINNIPEG AREA  1901  Year  - 1986*  T o t a l Metro.  1901 1921 1931 1941 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1986  Population  48,000 227,985 294,905 302,024  356,813 409,687 475,989 508,759 615,000 980,000  M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg P o p u l a t i o n Study: 1961-1986 ( W i n n i p e g : The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n o f G r e a t e r W i n n i peg, P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n ) , p. 4; and, Greater Winnipeg 1 9 8 l : A S t u d y o f P o p u l a t i o n G r o w t h ( W i n n i p e g : The M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission o f G r e a t e r W i n n i p e g , A p r i l , 1 9 5 7 ) , P' 6 . Before in  the establishment  the Winnipeg Area i n i 9 6 0 ,  cipal  s e r v i c e s were o p e r a t e d  commissions. trict, (1927),  established The G r e a t e r  i n 1913,  many o f t h e e s s e n t i a l  inter-muni-  by s i n g l e - p u r p o s e  b o a r d s and  W i n n i p e g Water D i s -  The M o s q u i t o Abatement  Winnipeg S a n i t a r y D i s t r i c t  (1951),  Defence Board (1953).  Corporation  Among them were The G r e a t e r  Metropolitan Planning  ssion  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Commission  District  ( 1 9 3 5 ) , The  ( 1 9 4 9 ) , The M e t r o p o l i t a n  a n d The G r e a t e r  Winnipeg T r a n s i t  Civil  Commi-  6  M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g ( W i n n i p e g , The M e t r o p o l i t a n p o r a t i o n o f G r e a t e r Winnipeg), p . 1.  Cor-  METROPOLITAN CORPORATION OF GREATER WINNIPEG PLANNING DIVISION  u  78 I n 1955, blished for  an  the  investigating  metropolitan  report  Provincial  commission to i n q u i r e i n t o  government.  i n 1959'  In  this  services.  troduced  by  the  idea.  The  received 1960.^  Bill  the The  had  The  first  ber  26,  The  of  the  the  the  was  spring  b o a r d s and  along with by  Corporation  planning matters  then i n legislative  on M a r c h  commissions  other  listed  above  were assumed by s e r v i c e s which  i s a l s o the  t h e r e f o r e , the  Greater  26,  e l e c t e d on Wednesday,  in this  Winnipeg i s regarded  ment a u t h o r i t y o f t h e  many  the pre-  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s themselves.  C o u n c i l was  Metropolitan  Greater  establish-  recommendations  h e l d i t s i n a u g u r a l meeting the f o l l i w n g  thesis,  its  c o n t r o l over  Lieutenant-Governor  been a d m i n i s t e r e d  this  need  rejected i t s eight-city  their responsibilities  Corporation,  charge o f the In  of  Metropolitan  and  the  t h r o u g h t h e M a n i t o b a L e g i s l a t u r e , and  single-purpose  were d i s s o l v e d , and  viously  Government i n t h e  commission, but  passed  assent  Metropolitan  government w i t h  I t i n c o r p o r a t e d many o f  investigating  esta-  commission p r e s e n t e d  M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg B i l l  Provincial  i960.  s e s s i o n of of  the  The  This  r e p o r t , i t recommended t h e  ment o f a s t r o n g m e t r o p o l i t a n public  Government o f M a n i t o b a  as  Winnipeg  Octog  Monday.  authority i n  Area. Metropolitan  Corporation  the m e t r o p o l i t a n  govern-  Area.  'S. George R i c h , " P l a n n i n g i n M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g " , Community P l a n n i n g R e v i e w . V o l . X I I , No. 2 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 2 2 . Q  The M e t r o p o l i t a n t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g , op.  Corporation of Greater c i t . , p. 13•  Winnipeg,  Me-  79 I.  The M e t r o p o l i t a n . G o v e r n m e n t A u t h o r i t y •  Organization.  The  Metropolitan  peg operates  under  Corporation  operates  with  standing  the council-committee under  ponds t o e a c h s t a n d i n g  of G r e a t e r  system: t h a t i s , the  An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n  committee.  is  responsible to a chief administrative o f f i c e r ,  of  next  known as t h e  A detailed description  o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n be  J a n u a r y 1,  1961,  assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  seen i n the F i g u r e  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  f o r the t r a n s i t  defence, parks,  abatement,  zoning,  the zoo, m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g permits,  assumed as m e t r o p o l i t a n tropolitan traffic  street  jurisdiction The government  and  golf  on  s e r v i c e s on A p r i l  1,  1961.  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Metropolitan  Ibid.,  p.  12.  The  mosqui-  1,  1961; and  and  the  me-  arterial  Weed C o n t r o l came, u n d e r Council i n A p r i l ,  Corporation  government.  supply  assessment. courses,  i s the s i n g l e  a u t h o r i t y i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg.  general-purpose  officially  and i n s p e c t i o n s were  system, i n c l u d i n g b r i d g e s  c o n t r o l on May  Council  system, the water  sewage d i s p o s a l s y s t e m , a r e a p l a n n i n g ,  Civil to  who  page. On  and  e a c h o f w h i c h has a d i r e c t o r  o f the C o r p o r a t i o n .  the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s  corres-  administrative function  organized  director  divisions,  The  is  executive  Winni-  the d i r e c t i o n o f the e l e c t e d c o u n c i l  committees.  into  Corporation  1965.  the 9  metropolitan  I t i s also a  a p p r a i s a l of t h i s  Metropoli-  CHAIRMAN ANO COUNCIL  (CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEEJ-  ___J  MUNICIPAL BOARD  L..  PUBLIC UTILITIES BOARD  "I  PERSONNEL COMMITTEE  FINANCE COMMITTEE  STREETS AND TRANSIT COMMITTEE  PLANNING COMMITTEE  I PARKS AND PROTECTION COMMITTEE  V/ATER AND SEWER COMMITTEE  EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR  CORPORATION SOLICITOR ft SECRETARY BY-LAWS CONTRACT* CLAIMS EXPROPRIATIONS  DIRECTOR OF ASSESSMENT REAL PROPERTY COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT  OIRECTOR OF FINANCE a TREASURER ACCOUNTING ANO TREASURY RESEARCH PURCHASING  LITIGATIONS LEGISLATION  DIRECTOR OF PLANNING AREA PLANNING SUBDIVISION APPROVAL ZONING BUILDING PERMITS  BWLMNG.aECT'L, AND PUIM8ING INSPECTIONS.  CLERK OF THE COUNCIL  DIRECTOR OF STREETS AND TRANSIT MAINTENANCE, CONSTRUCTING, AND TRAFFIC CONTROL ON> TRANSIT SYSTEM, MAJOR S T R E E T S , BRIDGES AND SUBWAYS*  INFORMATION OFFICER  DIRECTOR OF WATER AND SEWER WATER SUPPLY (WHOLESALE) TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE  DIRECTOR OF PARKS AM) PROTECTION METRO PARKS Z O O , METRO GOLF COURSES CIVIL D E F E N C E M030UIT0 ABATEMENT WEED CONTROL  PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT  L C O END —  Source:  The K e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n o f G r e a t e r W i n n i p e g , I968 BASIC  ADMINISTRATION CONSULTATION  •••••  ORGANIZATION  APPEAL  81  t a n W i n n i p e g Government A u t h o r i t y i n r e g a r d is  therefore  judged  L e g a l Powers«  t o the C r i t e r i o n I  t o be " e x c e l l e n t " .  The M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g A c t a s s i g n s t h e  f o l l i w n g f u n c t i o n s , powers, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  t o the Cor-  poration: A.  A s s e s s m e n t on a u n i f o r m  b a s i s o f a l l property f o r metro-  p o l i t a n purposes and f o r the purposes o f l o c a l B.  The s u p p l y ,  storage,  distribution palities C.  treatment,  pressure,  taxation;  and a r t e r i a l  o f w a t e r t o a r e a m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (The m u n i c i -  are responsible f o r l o c a l  distribution);  Sewage c o l l e c t i o n a n d d i s p o s a l , n o t i n c l u d i n g l o c a l collection;  D.  P u l b i c t r a n s p o r a t i o n , major s t r e e t s and b r i d g e s , ing  traffic  includ-  control;  E.  Major parks,  municipal  P.  Civil  G.  Mosquito  E.  Weed  I.  The A c t a l s o p r o v i d e s  golf  courses, zoo;  defence; abatement;  control;  bility  f o r eventual  metropolitan  responsi-  f o r g a r b a g e and r e f u s e d i s p o s a l , a n d c e r t a i n  u n d e r t h e R i v e r s a n d S t r e a m s A c t when p r o c l a i m e d Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council.  by the  1 0  In e x e r c i s i n g the Corporation's  powers, i t i s p r o v i d e d  under S e c t i o n 7 o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg A c t t h a t :  Ibid., p. 7.  powers  82 Without r e s t r i c t i n g the a u t h o r i t y of the m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l t o c o n s i d e r r e s o l u t i o n s on any s u b j e c t o r m a t t e r , t h e powers o f t h e c o r p o r a t i o n may be e x e r c i s e d e i t h e r by b y - l a w o r by r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o u n c i l , e x c e p t where, by t h i s * A c t o r any. o t h e r A c t . o f - t h e L e g i s l a t u r e o r by a g e n e r a l b y - l a w o f t h e c o r p o r a t i o n r e g u l a t i n g the p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e c o u n c i l , a power i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e d t o be e x e r c i s e d by b y - l a w . The municipal  Corporation borrowing.  Corporation's of the  1 1  has  no  c o n t r o l over education  Another l i m i t a t i o n  Winnipeg Act  over  in exercising  powers i s s t a t e d u n d e r S u b s e c t i o n  Metropolitan  or  7,  the  Section  83  that:  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g any o t h e r p r o v i s i o n o f t h i s A c t , e x c e p t by t h e e n a c t m e n t o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n o r by a l a n d use b y - l a w p a s s e d t o implement t h a t p l a n , the c o r p o r a t i o n s h a l l not e n a c t a by-law t h a t would have t h e e f f e c t o f c h a n g i n g t h e use t o w h i c h any l a n d i n t h e a d d i t i o n a l zone m i g h t be p u t u n l e s s t h e c o u n c i l o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n w h i c h t h e l a n d i s s i t u a t e d h a s , by r e s o l u t i o n , c o n s e n t e d to the change. The Authority  a p p r a i s a l of i n regard  to  the  Metropolitan  Criterion  Winnipeg  II i s therefore  Governmental judged to  be  "good". Control.  Under S u b s e c t i o n  Winnipeg Act,  shall  Section  7." As  metropolitan be  to the  Rich,  Section  i t i s stated that  c o u n c i l f o r the poration  1,  exercised  the  v o t i n g power o f  op_.  c i t . , p.  23.  of  "There s h a l l  area; by  10  and  the  be  Metropolitan a  metropolitan  powers o f  c o u n c i l as  the  the  the  provided  members o f  the  cor-  in  Metropolitan  83 Council,  i t i s provided  under S u b s e c t i o n  2 , S e c t i o n 13 o f t h e  same A c t t h a t : E a c h member o f t h e c o u n c i l ( i n c l u d i n g t h e c h a i r m a n e x c e p t where t h e c o u n c i l c o n s i s t s o f e l e v e n members) has one v o t e on e a c h q u e s t i o n t o be d e c i d e d b y t h e c o u n c i l ; b u t i n the event o f a t i e v o t e , whether t h e c o u n c i l c o n s i s t s o f t e n o r e l e v e n members, t h e c h a i r man h a s a n a d d i t i o n a l o r c a s t i n g v o t e . The  first  Metropolitan  C o u n c i l , c o n s i s t i n g o f t e n mem-  b e r s , was e l e c t e d o n O c t o b e r 2 6 , I 9 6 0 f o r a t e r m o f f o u r  years,  and  t h e s e c o n d was e l e c t e d o n O c t o b e r 2 8 , 1 9 6 4 f o r a t e r m o f  two  years.  year  Present  l e g i s l a t i o n provides  terms o f . o f f i c e .  appointed  The f i r s t  by the P r o v i n c i a l  Subsequent  f o r subsequent two-  C h a i r m a n o f t h e C o u n c i l was  Government f o r a f o u r - y e a r  term.  c h a i r m a n a r e e l e c t e d b y t h e C o u n c i l w h i c h may s e l e c t  12 one  o f i t s own members, o r a f o r m e r In  selected  chairman.  the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area, by d i r e c t  election  to Council.  the c o u n c i l l o r s are For electoral  the  M e t r o p o l i t a n Area i s d i v i d e d i n t o  ber  o f the C o u n c i l i s e l e c t e d by the e l e c t o r s o f each  Each e l e c t o r a l  division  The of  One memdivision.  i s composed o f a p a r t o f t h e c e n t r a l  C i t y o f Winnipeg and p a r t s palities.  ten divisions.  purposes  o f one o r more o f t h e o t h e r  Thus e a c h d i v i s i o n  cuts across  municipal  munici-  boundaries.  v o t e r s o f the C i t y o f Winnipeg form a m a j o r i t y i n f i v e o f the d i v i s i o n s ,  and suburban v o t e r s form a m a j o r i t y i n the  The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg, op. c i t . , p . 9 .  o f Greater  W i n n i p e g , Me-  84 other  five.  13  d i r e c t l y by  Therefore,  Greater  place  from 1964, month.  on  the  and  The  c o u n c i l members a r e e l e c t e d  Winnipeg c i t i z e n s  Nomination of takes  the  candidates  first  t o the  an  even b a s i s .  Metropolitan  Wednesday o f O c t o b e r e v e r y  e l e c t i o n s are  members t a k e  on  on  the  office  on  Council two  years  f o u r t h Wednesday o f the  first  the  Tuesday immediate -  14 ly  f o l l o w i n g the  Every  citizen  eligible  eligible  to vote  The Authority  d e c l a r a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s to vote  i n one  o f the  i n his municipal  metropolitan  elections is  division.  a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg i n regard  to C r i t e r i o n  election.  Government  III i s therefore  judged to  be  "excellent". Local  Governments and  Corporation  was  covered  entire  of  the  newly e s t a b l i s h e d i n  s i x o t h e r s , and  nineteen  Their Functions.  area  of ten  cities  When t h e  I960, the  a  Corporation  or m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  small p a r t s of another  government u n i t s , w i t h  Metropolitan  total  three—a  area  o f 256  total  most of  square 15  miles,  and In  rural  with 1964,  a p o p u l a t i o n of n e a r l y a h a l f - m i l l i o n people. another  amendment removed p o r t i o n s o f  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s from w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  reducing  the  number o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o f o u r t e e n .  1 3  Ibid.  1 4  Ibid..  p.  10.  •^Rich, Loc. c i t ,  five  boundaries, It  was  y  85 acknowledged  t h a t these  some l a t e r  date  sent  there  time,  metropolitan  likely  three the  and  included again At  1  are  eleven m u n i c i p a l i t i e s wholly  boundaries.  They a r e  East  the  Kildonan,  suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of P o r t  Kildonan;  w o u l d be  when u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e s i t . ^  James, S t . B o n i f a c e , the  areas  the  cities  within  Garry,  towns o f Tuxedo and  boundaries  are  the  Old Kildonan,  Brooklands*  St.  Transcona;  The  s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h have l a r g e a r e a s  metropolitan  pre-  of Winnipeg,  West K i l d o n a n ,  at  North  other  within  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of S t .  Vital,  C h a r l e s w o o d , and A s s l n i b o i a . All after  the  fourteen m u n i c i a p l i t i e s maintained establishment  However, t h e y assigned are by  to the  regarded the  have l o s t  as  Authority  tion  Corporation  been  C o r p o r a t i o n because these c a n be  i960.  in  functions  b e t t e r performed  Corporation.  a p p r a i s a l o f the i n regard  status  c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s w h i c h have  M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g Government  to C r i t e r i o n IV The  166.60 s q u a r e m i l e s .  can  Metropolitan  i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l , and  G e o g r a p h i c Adequacy. covers  the  Metropolitan  Metropolitan The  of  their  i s J u d g e d t o be  "fair".  M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area However, t h e  proper  Metropolitan  Corpora-  a l s o e x e r c i s e c e r t a i n powers w i t h i n t h e a d d i t i o n a l 17  zone w h i c h c o v e r s  Fourth  492.86 square m i l e s .  Therefore,  The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e G r e a t e r A n n u a l R e p o r t . 1964 (Winnipeg, 1965), p. 2.  the  total  Winnipeg,  17 The a d d i t i o n a l zone i s an a r e a o f l a n d some f i v e i n d e p t h e x t e n d i n g b e y o n d and e n c i r c l i n g t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n dary. 1  miles boun-  86 area  under the c o n t r o l o f the C o r p o r a t i o n  i s 659.46  square  miles. U n d e r t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n , w h i c h was : adopted in  i n April  of 1968,  no u r b a n e x p a n s i o n  will  be  permitted  t h e a d d i t i o n a l zone w i t h i n t h e t e r m o f t h e P l a n , e x c e p t f o r  some  low d e n s i t y e x p a n s i o n The  Authority  o f some e x i s t i n g  villages.  a p p r a i s a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg i n regard  to Criterion  V i s therefore  Government  j u d g e d t o be  "excellent".  t II. Part effective  The M e t r o p o l i t a n a n d L o c a l P l a n n i n g  I V o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n W i n n i p e g A c t w h i c h became  on A p r i l  1,  1961  made t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  the  planning  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of zoning,  b u i l d i n g , p l u m b i n g and  of s u b d i v i s i o n of land.  had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  various m u n i c i p a l i t i e s independently. litan not  Planning  Commission, an a d v i s o r y board  a l l the area  "These / _ ;  :  of the  o f w h i c h some b u t  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had b e e n members, on J a n u a r y 1,  1961.  s i o n of the C o r p o r a t i o n  was i n i t i a l l y  staffed  of employees from the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g from the Zoning,  electrical  The work o f t h e M e t r o p o -  by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n  over  Corporation  a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e whole o f t h e a r e a , i n c l u d i n g  by-laws, and the a p p r o v a l functions  Functions  was  taken  The P l a n n i n g  Divi-  by t h e t r a n s f e r  Commission, and-  B u i l d i n g , Plumbing and E l e c t r i c a l  Inspection  87 Staffs  of area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . At  is and  the p r e s e n t  organized  i n t o three  (2)  the  work o f  branches:  (1)  the  the  Planning D i v i s i o n  Department o f  D e p a r t m e n t o f I n s p e c t i o n and  which i s i n charge of c o n t r o l s ; and,  140  employees i n the  Control.  Planning D i v i s i o n .  This  same S e c t i o n t h a t subject  to t h i s  discharge  c o u n c i l o r by exercise  1,  S e c t i o n 23 "the  A c t and  to the  o f The  the  Act."  be  of  council the  the  of  the 2 of  citizens  matters  the  (l),.is  council,  imposed upon him  I t i s c l e a r t h a t the  may  corpora-  under s u b s e c t i o n  t h e i r a u t h o r i t y on a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n  Metropolitan  are  Metropolitan  business  a u t h o r i t y of  s u c h d u t i e s as may  land  There  i s f u r t h e r s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n  "a p e r s o n a p p o i n t e d  this  Control,  1 9  metropolitan  t o c a r r y on  range  enforcement of  such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s  i t deems n e c e s s a r y  corporation."  and  Research  Planning  administrative services.  i t i s stated that  by-law appoint  shall  the  Under S u b s e c t i o n  Winnipeg Act,  t i o n as  current planning  (3)  use  the  time, the  Program Development, which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l o n g  planning;  by  1o  and  by  the  can  through  Council.  l8 S i x t h A n n u a l R e p o r t . 1966 ( W i n n i p e g : The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of the G r e a t e r Winnipeg, 1967), p. F-17' T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e r i v e d f r o m the answer o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r r e w h i c h were s e n t tq~) P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg i n J u l y , 1968. 1 9  88 The the  employees  a u t h o r i t y of  ment o f  the  the  the  1,  Planning  Metropolitan  D i r e c t o r o f the  under S u b s e c t i o n Act  of  D i v i s i o n are  Council.  Planning  As  Division,  S e c t i o n 2 5 o f The  a l s o under  t o the i t is  Metropolitan  appointsaid  Winnipeg  that: . . . the c o u n c i l may a p p o i n t a p e r s o n t o h a v e , s u b j e c t a s h e r e i n p r o v i d e d , s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r , and a u t h o r i t y i n r e s p e c t o f , that s e r v i c e , f a c i l i t y , or system . . . .  The  employees  of  the  Planning  Metropolitan  Corporation.  the  that:  same A c t  D i v i s i o n are  This  a l s o e m p l o y e d by  i s provided  the  u n d e r S e c t i o n 86  of  The c o r p o r a t i o n s h a l l e s t a b l i s h a D e p a r t m e n t o f P l a n n i n g as p a r t o f i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s h a l l employ s u c h p l a n n e r s , p l a n n i n g o f f i c e r s , •_ a s s i s t a n t s , i n s p e c t o r s , and e m p l o y e e s as a r e ne.c e s s a r y t o e n a b l e t h e c o r p o r a t i o n t o d i s c h a r g e the d u t i e s and e x e r c i s e the powers c h a r g e d o r c o n f e r r e d upon i t u n d e r t h i s P a r t . -  Therefore,  the  ning matters The Functions Local  a p p r a i s a l of i n regard  to  Metropolitan the  Functions.  Metropolitan  Corporation  I t was  i s the  stated earlier  Metropolitan  Winnipeg, which i s r e s p o n s i b l e  matters of a planning  Winnipeg Area  City,  is a  nature.  Planning  "good".  t h a t the  s o l e a u t h o r i t y i n charge of  D e p a r t m e n t o f U r b a n R e n e w a l and  n e w a l schemes i n the  plan-  Council.  C r i t e r i o n I I I i s j u d g e d t o be  n i n g m a t t e r s w i t h i n the the  have c o n t r o l o f a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n  through the  Planning  tropolitan  citizens  Winnipeg Area. Housing of  the  f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n local This  plan-  However, City  of  of urban  agency d e a l i n g  local  Me-  Department  with works  re-  89 closely  with  the Planning  Division  of the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Corpora-  20 tion  on u r b a n r e n e w a l s t u d i e s i n t h e C i t y o f W i n n i p e g .  ever,  there  i s no l o c a l  planning  establishment  other  How-  than the  D e p a r t m e n t o f U r b a n Renewal a n d H o u s i n g o f t h e C i t y  of Winnipeg  in  work  t h e whole M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a ,  p e r f o r m e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n The Functions  appraisal i n regard  a l l of the p l a n n i n g  being  Corporation.  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area to C r i t e r i o n IV i s therefore  Planning  j u d g e d t o be  "poor". G e o g r a p h i c Adequacy.  The M e t r o p o l i t a n  C o r p o r a t i o n has n o t  only  the s o l e a u t h o r i t y i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Area proper but  also  i n the a d d i t i o n a l  powers. in  zone i n t e r m s o f e x e r c i s i n g  The a d d i t i o n a l  depth extending  boundary.  zone i s a n a r e a  i n order  this  area  area  c o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d .  exception  i s given planning  jurisdiction  Ad m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , time i s envisaged  o f some p l a n n e d  low-density  miles  the m e t r o p o l i t a n  t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e f r i n g e  velopment a t the p r e s e n t the  o f l a n d some f i v e  beyond and e n c i r c l i n g  The C o r p o r a t i o n  i t s planning  over  of the urban no u r b a n d e -  f o r this  area  with  d e v e l o p m e n t i n and  21 around e x i s t i n g The Functions  op.  village  appraisal i n regard  communities.  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area to C r i t e r i o n V i s therefore  Metropolitan c i t . , p . 9«  Corporation,  Planning  j u d g e d t o be  S i x t h Annual Report.  1966.  21 The M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n o f G r e a t e r W i n n i p e g , P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , D r a f t Development P l a n o f Winnipeg (Winnipeg,  1963), p. 33.  90 "excellent". Metropolitan Division vincial  Planning  Functions.  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Corporation  of the Planning  are provided  L e g i s l a t i o n s and by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n nipeg  The d u t i e s  by P r o -  Council.  This i s  3 , S e c t i o n 8 6 o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Win-  Act that:  Planners, planning o f f i c e r s , a s s i s t a n t s , inspectors and e m p l o y e e s i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P l a n n i n g s h a l l d i s charge such d u t i e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o those s t a t e d h e r e i n , as a r e p r e s c r i b e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l . At  the present  time,  the major f u n c t i o n s  o f the P l a n n i n g  Divi-  sion are: A.  preparation  and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the Development  B.  p r e p a r a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Plan; Zoning  By-law; C.  b u i l d i n g , plumbing, and e l e c t r i c a l  inspections;  D.  development p l a n  E.  i s s u e o f b u i l d i n g , plumbing, and e l e c t r i a l p e r m i t s , and  examination;  occupancy c e r t i f i c a t e s ; and F.  current planning  including subdivision control,  re-zoning,  22 and  Board of Adjustment. The  of  s t u d i e s w h i c h have b e e n made d u r i n g  the Corporation  formation cover ,i cit.  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  such subjects 22  a r e many, a n d p r o v i d e  as s c h o o l ,  the past  years  a sound b a s i s f o r t h e  Development P l a n .  These  the c e n t r a l business  studies  district,  • • .' I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m the, answer o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r r e , * • •  loc.  91 new m e t r o p o l i t a n  b a s e maps, p o p u l a t i o n ,  metropolitan  n e w a l , p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n , m e t r o p o l i t a n river  bank d e v e l o p m e n t , i n d u s t r i a l  new m e t r o p o l i t a n  zoning  part  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  i n more d e t a i l and  provide  the f u t u r e  Area.  guidance  These p l a n s  town c e n t e r s ,  to the area  being  t o be c o m p l e t e d f o r  as s c h o o l s , p a r k s ,  shopping centers,  g i v e more s p e c i f i c  plans  are also  l a n d use c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  f o r such things  neighborhood  transportation,  d e v e l o p m e n t , l a n d use r e c o r d s ,  by-law, e t c . S t u d i e s  undertaken t o enable d e t a i l e d area every  area  urban r e -  will  define  of the area,  r e g i o n a l and  e t c . , and a l s o  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on t h e 23  future  development o f t h e i r It  communities.  i s s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n  1,  S e c t i o n 79 o f t h e M e t r o -  politan  Winnipeg A c t t h a t : A f t e r t h e c o m i n g i n t o f o r c e o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e met r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l s h a l l , s u b j e c t as h e r e i n p r o v i d e d , as s o o n a s i t i s p r a c t i c a b l e , c a u s e t o be p r e p a r e d and approved and by by-law e s t a b l i s h , a p l a n .  and  under Subsection  which s h a l l in  general  land." pared and  2 o f t h e same S e c t i o n t h a t  be a t t a c h e d terms, s h a l l  t o and f o r m p a r t  "the p l a n ,  o f the by-law  . . .,  e s t a b l i s h the p a t t e r n o f f u t u r e use o f  The p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t on t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n was i n November, 1 9 6 1 ;  1964.  The M e t r o p o l i t a n  1966 a n d was o f f i c i a l l y hearings,  and t h e D r a f t D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n  i n 1963  D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n was p r e p a r e d  a d o p t e d on A p r i l  11,  pre-  in  1968 a f t e r many  s t u d i e s and r e v i s i o n s .  -'The Metropolitan  M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n o f G r e a t e r W i n n i p e g , The Development P l a n (Winnipeg, A p r i l , 1 9 6 8 ) .  92 The is  broad  to secure  and  this  description  broad  purpose i n t o  o f the courses  area  objectives. with  c e n t e r and a c l e a r l y  pattern  a h e a d t w e n t y t o twen-  have r e a c h e d  M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n  Metropolitan area, urban design  industrial  and f i s c a l  t r o p o l i t a n Area w i l l  about  Metropolitan Since  follow after  A zoning adoption  b y - l a w f o r t h e Meo f the P l a n . ^  but constantly  chang-  Division's effort i s  tasks, i n v o l v i n g the processing of  f o r new d e v e l o p m e n t , r e n o v a t i o n s ,  Ibid.  The  C o u n c i l deems d e s i r a b l e .  to current planning  IMd.  space,  o r amended f r o m t i m e t o t i m e a s  a community i s n e v e r s t a t i c ,  24  f o r the  l a n d , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , open  i n g a n d g r o w i n g , much o f t h e P l a n n i n g  applications  c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w -  development, c e n t e r s  policies.  P l a n may b y b y - l a w be a l t e r e d  2 5  defined  urban  connected by e f f i c i e n t  I t looks  when t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i l l  i n g major e l e m e n t s : r e s i d e n t i a l  devoted  of  2 4  The  the  t h a t have t o  o f government f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t  w o r k i n g and commercial a r e a s  years  780,000.  " o b j e c t i v e s " f o l l o w e d by a  of a c t i o n or " p o l i c i e s "  economical s e r v i c e systems.  ty-five  The P l a n  The P l a n i s a i m e d a t a c h i e v i n g a compact  a concentrated  of l i v i n g ,  Plan  development  w i t h i n the Metropolitan Area.  f o l l o w e d by a l l l e v e l s  the  and  and promote o r d e r l y growth, economic  d e s i r a b l e amenities  translates  be  purpose o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Development  re-zonings, sub-  93 divisions,  and  a l l of those  matters r e l a t i v e  to the p h y s i c a l  26 growth of the  community.  Because  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  n i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the Division  Corporation  i s the  M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area,  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l planning matters  The Functions  a p p r a i s a l of the i n regard  single the  Planning  in this  M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area  t o C r i t e r i o n VI  paln-  Area.  Planning  i s t h e r e f o r e judged to  be  "excellent". Legal the  Powers.  I t i s s t a t e d under Subsection  M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Act  1,  S e c t i o n 83  of  that:  . . . t h e c o r p o r a t i o n has e x c l u s i v e a u t h o r i t y i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a and o t h e r t h a n d w e l l i n g s l o c a t e d i n areas zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l uses f o r the purpose of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e p l a n ; and f o r t h a t p u r p o s e and f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e v e l o p i n g any f e a t u r e o f The M e t r o p o l i t a n D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n , t h e met r o p o l i t a n c o u n c i l may e n a c t b y - l a w s , h a v i n g f o r c e i n b o t h o r e i t h e r t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a and t h e a d d i t i o n a l zone, o r i n p a r t s o f b o t h o r e i t h e r the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a and t h e a d d i t i o n a l z o n e , . . . The Functions  a p p r a i s a l of i n regard  the  M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area  to C r i t e r i o n VII  i s therefore  Planning  judged t o  be  "excellent". III.  I n the  i n t r o d u c t i o n to B i l l  Metropolitan  Corporation  Roblin  i n part:  op«  said,  cit.,  Conclusions  Metropolitan p . 9.  of Greater  Corporation,  62,  an  Act  to e s t a b l i s h  Winnipeg, Premier  the  Duff  S i x t h Annual Report,  1966,  94 The p r i n c i p l e on w h i c h t h i s B i l l r e s t s c o n s i s t s o f two r a t h e r s i m p l e t h o u g h t s . F i r s t o f a l l , t h a t we s h o u l d develop a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r t h i s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a t h a t would be c h a r g e d with, t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g a u n i f i e d development p l a n . And s e c o n d l y , t h a t we s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e f o r t h e c e n t r a l c o n t r o l o f c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e p u b l i c w i t h i n t h i s same u r b a n area . . . .^7 It  i s clear  tion  t h a t the establishment  of Greater  portance  c o u l d n o t be r e a l i s e d Manitoba P r o v i n c i a l  The Planning the  a n d c o - o r d i n a t i o n between p l a n -  government f u n c t i o n s .  establishments  without  Government i n t h e y e a r s  preceeding the i n i960.  M e t r o p o l i t a n D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n was p r e p a r e d  Corporation.  tell  achievement  on t h e p a r t o f t h e  Corporation  i n co-ordination with I t typified  a l l other  the i n t e r - d i v i s i o n a l  which t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been a b l e  to  However, t h i s  a great e f f o r t  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Division  planners,  super-impose  specialists the plans  by the  divisions of team-work  to establish.  t h e r e f o r e , a c t as c o - o r d i n a t o r s .  other  Corpora-  W i n n i p e g was due t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m -  o f area-wide p l a n n i n g  n i n g and other  of the Metropolitan  The  T h e y do n o t a t t e m p t  what t o d o , b u t r a t h e r a t t e m p t t o  prepared  by the i n d i v i d u a l  sepecialists, 28  and  t o make s u r e The  peg  planning  Act departs  cit.,  t h a t t h e edges o f t h e s e concept  Rich,  match.  i n the Metropolitan  from the North American t r a d i t i o n  'Metropolitan p . 3•  28  contained  plans  Winni-  i n one i m -  C o r p o r a t i o n , M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg, op.  op_. c i t . , p . 2 7 .  95 portant tion  way: i t does n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d i r e c t  i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g  provide  f o r a p l a n n i n g board  appointed  policies;  or a planning  c i t i z e n membership.  r a t h e r i t has s e r v e d  ponsibility  of the three  to c l a r i f y  participa-  a n d i t does n o t  commission  However, t h i s . d o e s  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been i g n o r e d but  citizen  with  n o t mean t h a t  or considered  unnecessary,  and d e f i n e t h e a r e a s  groups o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  of res-  the planners,  29 the p o l i t i c i a n s  and the c i t i z e n s ,  However, a n i m p o r t a n t functions  i n the planning  short-coming  o f the p l a n n i n g  i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Winnipeg Area i s the e l i m i n a t i o n  of the l o c a l  planning function.  Metropolitan  Corporation,  for a l l planning  matters  The P l a n n i n g  consequently, i n this  is  examination  D i v i s i o n of the  h a s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e  M e t r o p o l i t a n Area,  p r e p a r a t i o n o f l o n g range p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s the  process.  and o b j e c t i v e s t o  o f plumbing and b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s ,  t o o b i g ; and, t h e r e f o r e , the p l a n n i n g  have t o d e v o t e much o f t h e i r p r e c i o u s  from the  staff  etc.  The t a s k  of the D i v i s i o n  time t o d e a l i n g w i t h  m a t t e r s w h i c h c a n be p r o p e r l y assumed b y l o c a l p l a n n i n g This  i s highly undesirable  according  t o the hypothesis  these  bodies. of this  thesis. It  i s a l s o s t a t e d i n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Development  that  the e f f e c t i v e  tive  a c t i o n s by the P r o v i n c i a l  to p o l i c i e s 2 9  implementation  and s t a n d a r d s  Ibid.  o f the Plan requires  Government.  Plan  legisla-  These a c t i o n s  relate  f o r p r o v i d i n g open s p a c e , p a r k s and  96 school  sites,  urban renewal, i n d u s t r i a l  banks, r e f u s e features into  d i s p o s a l , design  of the  f o r c e and  Plan,  in effect  p r o v e more e f f i c i e n t tropolitan and  and  responsibilities,  matters.  When t h e  Metropolitan  t o r e v i e w and  Winnipeg Act  river-  control, land acquisition f o r '  fiscal i n the  development,  than to take  is  put  A r e a , i t might  re-draft Part  which r e l a t e s to the  Plan  IV of the  planning  Me-  function  i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n on  each  30 of  these All  matters. the  e v e n t s w h i c h have o c c u r r e d  Winnipeg Area a l s o  The Metropolitan  justify  the  hypothesis  i n the of  this  Metropolitan Corporation of Greater Development P l a n , l o c . c i t .  Metropolitan thesis.  Winnipeg,  The  CHAPTER V  THE METROPOLITAN TORONTO AREA  Metropolitan Toronto, is  situated  tario. ter  largest metropolis,  i n s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o on t h e n o r t h s h o r e  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  i s the f a s t e s t  o f Lake On-  growing  i n Canada i n terms o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e .  capital is  Canada's s e c o n d  urban  Toronto  cen-  i s the  o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a  also a center of industry,  commerce, c u l t u r e , a n d f o r e i g n  trade. B e i n g a l a r g e m e t r o p o l i s , Toronto produces forms s e r v i c e s lation  b u t f o r a l l o f Canada.  p o l i t a n Toronto about  of great d i v e r s i t y ,  goods a n d p e r -  not o n l y f o r the l o c a l  I n 1961  Census A r e a amounted  popu-  employment i n t h e M e t r o -  to 7 8 9 , 6 5 1 ,  w h i c h was  43 p e r c e n t o f i t s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , a n u n u s u a l l y h i g h  1 proportion  compared w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l  employment  i s manufacturing,  than 2 3 4 , 5 0 0 0 , Services  o r about  constitute  both wholesale  First i n  w h i c h was t h e l i v e l i h o o d  o f more  30 p e r c e n t o f the l a b o r f o r c e  a broad  assumed g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e  35»5 p e r c e n t .  c a t e g o r y , w h i c h i n r e c e n t y e a r s has  i n Toronto's  and r e t a i l ,  i n 1961.  economic s t r u c t u r e .  a l s o assumes a n i m p o r t a n t  role i n  2 Toronto's  economy.  The c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,  D o n a l d K e r r a n d J a c o b S p e l t , The C h a n g i n g F a c e o f T o r o n t o ( O t t a w a : G e o g r a p h i c a l B r a n c h , M i n e s and T e c h n i c a l Surveys, 1965), p. 74. 2  Ibid.  Trade,  98 trade  and  finance  can  market, l a b o r supply The  be and  strong  the  had  grown by  Metropolitan  55,000 persons per about 4 per the  60 p e r  year  cent  the  The  ronto  Planning  ronto  can  Table  4 on  be  Toronto  A r e a , and  i n the  n e x t page  (99))'  A large"proportion a m o u n t i n g t o more t h a n h a l f  born outside inhabitants  Canada, and  immigrated  areas  surrounding  ronto  Metropolitan 1967 (Toronto,  The  establishment  A r e a as  of  nearly of  defined  l a r g e r than  growth of the  of  Metropolitan  increase  is slightly  Area.  by  the  population  Metropolitan  To-  M u n i c i p a l i t y of Metropolitan  To-  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : (please  of Toronto's p o p u l a t i o n of  the  About o n e - t h i r d o f of  the  and  at focal  annual growth r a t e  Census A r e a ,  the  s e e n as  immigration.  an  the  Census M e t r o p o l i t a n  Toronto Planning  Metropolitan  T o r o n t o shows a  s i n c e the  i n 1953;  represents  of  the  Toronto.  employment a r e a s  population  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s  Metropolitan in  The  Corporation  cent.  of  o f d e v e l o p m e n t downtown and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  the  framework o f  transportation f a c i l i t i e s  o f r e s i d e n t i a l and  concentration  A r e a i n 1967 of  w i t h i n the  development p a t t e r n of M e t r o p o l i t a n  wide-spread d i s p e r s a l a  explained  total,  the  t o Canada s i n c e  per the  Toronto are  growth,  stemmed  residents of  n e a r l y 25  Metropolitan  has  cent War. also  see  the  from area  were  of the  area's  The  fringe  undergoing  Toronto Planning Board, Metropolitan J u l y , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 10.  To-  99 TABLE I V THE POPULATION GROWTH I N METROPOLITAN TORONTO AREA 1921. - 1980*  Year  M e t r o . Census Area  Metro. Planning Area  1921 1931 1941 1951 1956 1961 1966 1980  862,702 961,154 1,210,353 1,504,277 1,824,589 2,158,496  640,002 852,564 950,490 1,194,887 1,475,811 1,777,858 2,100,370 2,811,600  Muni, of - Metro  611,443 818,348 909,928 1,117,470 1,358,028 1,618,787 1,881,691 2,400,000  * M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Planning Board, M e t r o p o l i t a n Key F a c t s ( T o r o n t o : M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , January, 1 9 6 8 ) . urban development. ih  Most o f t h e f r i n g e  the western s e c t i o n  Port  Credit.  This  g r o w t h has b e e n  occuring  T o r o n t o Township, S t r e e t s v i l l e , and  growth i s p a r t o f the h i s t o r i c  development  t r e n d a l o n g t h e n o r t h s h o r e o f Lake O n t a r i o between  T o r o n t o and  Hamilton. In pal  services  the 1940's,  t h e i n a b i l i t y t o expand needed  munici-  t o meet t h e demands o f t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n  created a c r i s i s  i n local  government  Following extensive hearings  i n the Toronto area.  In 1950-51,  the Ontario  B o a r d u n d e r t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f L . R. Cumming, Q. C ,  Ibid.  Municipal handed  I Mile  M E T R O P O L I T A N  METROPOLITAN TORONTO PLANNING BOARO  JAN. 1968.  T O R O N T O  MUNICIPALITIES  / V I L L A G E  or  -jSTourf VILLE  N O R T H TOWNSHIP OF] TOWNSHIP  ^TORONTO  OF  VAUGHAN  TOWNSHIP  GORE  OF  ( V I L L A G E 1  R I D G E  E A S T  MARKHAM OF  M A R K H A M  F R I N G E  BOROUGH  OF NORTH  TOWNSHIP  YORK  OF  PICKERING  M I D D L E  I  T H R E E  V I L L A G E  BOROUGH  OF  1  P I C K E R I N G ,  OF  TOWN  W E S T  Of  A J A X  SCARBOROUGH  V ?  BOROUGH OF/  F R I N G E  TOWN  ?:ETOBICOKE  OF  S T R E E T S V I L L E  S  \  BOROUGH O F , JTORK  L  TOWNSHIP  "  «  .  I N N E R  OF  TORONTO ( B E C A M E OF J A N .  T H E  CITY  T H R E E OF  TORONTO  TOWN  M I S S I S S A U G A I  1 9 6 8 )  MUNICIPALITY OF METROPOLITAN  TORONTO  y  T O W N OF IMPORT CREDIT  2  M I L E S  G R O U P I N G S M E T R O P O L I T A N  AjirTCinDAi  I T A M  TnonMTO  oi  t u u i M f t  R n t n n  J A M  I Q R A  O F  M U N I C I P A L I T I E S  T O R O N T O  P L A N N I N G  A R E A  ......  . T O R O N T O  MUNICIPALITY  OF METROPOLITAN  TORONTO  MUNICIPALITIES C E N S U S  METROPOLITAN  (DEFINED BY DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS)  A R E A  103 down i t s h i s t o r i c  d e c i s i o n on J a n u r a y 2 0 , 1 9 5 3 ,  the  of a federated metropolitan  establishment  w o u l d have  jurisdiction  13 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . adopted and  1,  15,  1954.  government  1953 t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o jurisdicting  However, d e s p i t e  which  m a t t e r s o f common c o n e r n t o a l l  The P r o v i n c i a l  meeting, assuming  success  government  subsequently  the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  on A p r i l  first  over  recommending  over  Act ( B i l l 8 0 ) ,  Council held i t s  the area  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  on J a n u a r y  Corporation's  i n s u s t a i n i n g t h e p h y s i c a l and economic growth o f t h e  a r e a , many p r o b l e m s r e m a i n e d a n d c a u s e d i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n . was  evident  areas  with  t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l needs o f t h e o l d e r  would r e q u i r e i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n ; f i n a n c i a l  continued  to exist  respect  between t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  t o s c h o o l s ; and a growing concern  disparities  particularly was  expressed  r e g a r d i n g e q u a l i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n cil.  In 1963, the P r o v i n c i a l  Government a p p o i n t e d  C o m m i s s i o n on M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o ; G o l d e n b e r g , Q. C , the R o y a l  On J a n u a r y 1 ,  Government was c r e a t e d .  East York, Etobicoke,  tion  The a r e a  1967 a new M e t r o p o l i t a n  was r e - o r g a n i z e d and t h e f i v e  f r o m 13 m u n i Boroughs o f  North York, Scarborough and York.  C o u n c i l was r e - c o n s t i t u t e d t o p r o v i d e  on t h e b a s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n .  assigned  Royal  a n d i n J u n e , 1965 D r . H. C.  to s i x — t h e C i t y o f Toronto  Metropolitan  a  Coun-  d e l i v e r e d t o t h e Government h i s R e p o r t o f  Commission.  cipalities  It  t o t h e new M e t r o p o l i t a n In Ontario, planning  The  representa-  Some new f u n c t i o n s were Corporation.  areas  are established f o r  104  community p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s u n d e r The P l a n n i n g Chapter 296, pal  Affairs.  which i s administered Planning  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto; 1953,  Act, area,  provided  to continue  been c a r r i e d The as  areas  by t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i -  e x i s t e d before  the formation o f  f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n the area-wide p l a n n i n g  M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto government and p l a n n i n g  The M e t r o p o l i t a n  w h i c h had  i s regarded  a u t h o r i t y o f the  Authority  Corporation  i s c o n t r o l l e d by  C o u n c i l , w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f 33 members  Metropolitan  planning  Area.  I . The M e t r o p o l i t a n G o v e r n m e n t " Organization.  Toronto  1946.  on s i n c e  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  R.S.O.  the M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n  and expand  the metropolitan  the  Act,  coming  f r o m t h e s i x l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on a p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s . p o l i c y - r e c o m m e n d i n g body o f t h e C o u n c i l i s i t s E x e c u t i v e ttee  which c o n s i s t s o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  local  municipal  The other  of  Metropolitan  desirable.  C o u n c i l may e s t a b l i s h  At the p r e s e n t  Committees o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n and  planning,  welfare  (2)  parks  and housing,  a n d two  Toronto.  committees, and a s s i g n d u t i e s  regards  Commi-  Chairman, the s i x  m a y o r s , a n d two s e n i o r c o n t r o l l e r s  aldermen of the C i t y  The  t o them a s t h e C o u n c i l time,  the f i v e  Corporation are:  a n d r e c r e a t i o n , (3)  a n d , (5)  works.  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Metropolitan  standing or  Standing  (l) legislation  transportation,  (4)  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  Corporation  c a n be s e e n i n t h e  105 chart  on t h e n e x t  page.  In 1953, their into  individual  while  the l o c a l  identity,  i t s jurisdiction  municipalities retained  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  the wholesale  supply  Corporation  took  and p u r i f i c a t i o n o f  water, p r o v i s i o n o f major s t o r m and s a n i t a r y sewers and t h e c o n t r o l o f water p o l l u t i o n ,  responsibility f o rbasic  c o s t s , p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the major r o a d gional planning,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the county  lower c o u r t s , p u b l i c housing, aged and t h e care  were a s s i g n e d  On J a n u a r y 1 ,  a n d was p r o v i d e d  f a r e and housing,  libraries,  Corporation  new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  ambulance  resources  through a system o f m e t r o p o l i t a n  on  to the Metropolitan  wel-  s e r v i c e , Canadian  o p e r a t i o n o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  p o o l i n g o f the f i n a n c i a l  Metropolitan  policing,  National  waste d i s p o s a l , and e d u c a t i o n . ^  The on  and t h e  homes f o r t h e  1967 t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  was r e - o r g a n i z e d ,  Exhibition,  jail  the f u n c t i o n s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n  l i c e n s i n g and a i r p o l l u t i o n Corporation.  network, r e -  o f i n d i g e n t h o s p i t a l p a t i e n t s and n e g l e c t e d  I n 1957,  children.  r e g i o n a l parks,  education  Corporation's  Corporation  i s based  o f the area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  assessment and t a x a t i o n .  funds a r e secured  each o f the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  by an annual  b a s e d on t h e i r  The levy  proportion  7 of the t o t a l assessment  i n the Metropolitan  Area.  M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Summary o f P r o cedures o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board E f f e c t i v e A p r i l 1 . 1967 ( T o r o n t o . May 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) . . Toronto  "^Metropolitan Toronto Planning Board, 1967. op. c i t . . p. 1 2 .  Metropolitan  METROPOLITAN  ORGANIZATION  1  4T Metropolitan  Licensing Commission 3 Members  Police Commission 5 Members  Council 33 Members  . J  f  '-!-!  Parks and " Recreation | Committee ^ 7 Members i  I  Legislation and Planning Committee • 7 Members M  Parks Department  Source  rrTransportation  Metropolitan Toronto Housing Company Limited t  Committee 11 Members  Traffic Department  Welfare Department  Toronto Transit Commission  - - i  Welfare and Housing Committee 8 Members  Executive  Committee 7 Members  Roads Department  Metropolitan Toronto Planning Board  Works • Committee 7 Members  Housing Department  Works Department  Metropolitan Toronto Planning Board, 1 9 6 7 y  1  Property Department  Legal Department  Treasury Department  Clerk's Department  Audit Department  Assessment Department  Courts of Revision  Personnel Department  Emergency Services Department  107 The  a p p r a i s a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Authority i n regard  Toronto  to C r i t e r i o n I i s t h e r e f o r e  Government j u d g e d t o be  "excellent". Legal  Powers.  exercised  by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  section 2, Act  that  Council.  Corporation are  I t i s s t a t e d under  S e c t i o n 3 o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n  " e x c e p t where o t h e r w i s e  Metropolitan provided  The powers o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  Council shall  under S u b s e c t i o n  provided,  Sub-  Toronto  t h e powers o f t h e  be e x e r c i s e d b y b y - l a w " . 3 o f t h e same S e c t i o n  I t i s also  that:  A by-law p a s s e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n C o u n c i l i n t h e e x e r c i s e o f a n y o f i t s powers a n d i n good f a i t h s h a l l n o t be o p e n t o q u e s t i o n , o r be q u a s h e d , s e t a s i d e o r d e c l a r e d i n v a l i d e i t h e r w h o l l y o r p a r t l y , on a c c o u n t o f the u n r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o r s u p p o s e d u n r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o f i t s p r o v i s i o n s o r a n y o f them. As  t o t h e l e g a l powers o f t h e E x e c u t i v e  Metropolitan  Corporation,  i t i s provided  Committee o f t h e  under S u b s e c t i o n  S e c t i o n 12 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n  2,  Toronto Act that:  The E x e c u t i v e Committee has a l l t h e powers a n d d u t i e s of a board o f c o n t r o l under s u b s e c t i o n 1 o f s e c t i o n 206 . o f The M u n i c i p a l A c t , a n d s u b s e c t i o n 2 t o 15 a n d 17 t o 19 o f t h a t s e c t i o n a p p l y m u t a t i s m u t a n d i s . The  a p p r a i s a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Authority i n regard  Toronto  to C r i t e r i o n I I i s therefore  Government j u d g e d t o be  "good". Control. by  the Metropolitan  litan the  The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Council.  At the present  C o u n c i l c o n s i s t s o f 33 members.  C i t y of Toronto;  Toronto i s c o n t r o l l e d time, the Metropo-  T w e l v e members come f r o m  s i x from the Borough o f North York;  five  108 from  the Borough of Scarborough; f o u r from the Borough of E t o -  bicoke;  three  from  of East York. members  The  Each l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s share  take  their  of their election  seats  the  municipal  to their  The  respective municipal the highest  Metropolitan  Council elects  of  C o u n c i l and t h e c h i e f  the M e t r o p o l i t a n Metropolitan  As  Corporation.  executive  o f f i c e r of  years.  2,  Act that  S e c t i o n 8 o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i " e a c h member o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  t h e C h a i r m a n , has one v o t e  have a v o t e The  Authority  The C h a i r m a n i s t h e h e a d  t o t h e v o t i n g power o f t h e members, i t i s s t a t e d  tan Toronto  not  members  The C h a i r m a n a n d a l l o t h e r mem-  f o r a term o f t h r e e  under S u b s e c t i o n  except  to t h e i r  one o f i t s own  as i t s Chairman.  serve  votes  councils.  Council.  o r any o t h e r p e r s o n  bers  C o u n c i l by  c o u n c i l s a u t o m a t i c a l l y become t h e members o f  Metropolitan  the  the Borough  o f t h e number o f  on M e t r o p o l i t a n  members who a r e e l e c t e d w i t h  local  two f r o m  on t h e C o u n c i l i s b a s e d on t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . Members  virtue  the Borough of York;  except  o n l y , a n d t h e C h a i r m a n does  i n the event  o f an e q u a l i t y o f v o t e s . "  a p p r a i s a l t o the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto i n regard  Council,  to C r i t e r i o n I I I i s therefore  Government j u d g e d t o be  "good". L o c a l Governments a n d T h e i r F u n c t i o n s .  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  the  does n o t i n d i c a t e t h e  M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  elimination has  of l o c a l  been a s s i g n e d  governments.  only  these  The M e t r o p o l i t a n  of  Corporation  f u n c t i o n s w h i c h c a n be c a r r i e d o u t  109 most e f f e c t i v e l y purely  local  on a n a r e a - w i d e  n a t u r e have r e m a i n e d  On J a n u a r y 1, combined  basis.  into  1967,  t h e 13  s i x municipalities  Those  functions of  with the l o c a l  governments.  local municipalities  were  by a l r n a g a m a t i o n as f o l l o w s :  A.  T o r o n t o , Swansea a n d F o r e s t  Hill  became t h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o ;  B.  Y o r k a n d Weston became t h e B o r o u g h o f Y o r k ;  C.  E a s t Y o r k a n d L e a s i d e became t h e B o r o u g h o f E a s t  D.  E t o b i c o k e , Long Branch,  New T o r o n t o , a n d M i m i c o  York; became t h e  Borough o f E t o b i c o k e ; E.  N o r t h Y o r k became t h e B o r o u g h o f N o r t h  York; g  F.  Scarborough The  was in  consolidation  clearly  an attempt  of l o c a l  litan  B e s i d e s , the p r i n c i p l e government i s s t i l l The  Authority Geographic  appraisal  to provide better  governments local  o f a t w o - l e v e l form o f metropo-  Governmental  i n r e g a r d t o C r i t e r i o n I V i s j u d g e d t o be Adequacy.  The u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t the M e t r o p o l i t a n  into  "excellent".  i n Toronto  Area  Corporation proper.  has r e a c h e d i n t o  P i c h e r i n g and A j a x .  extended  ser-  maintained.  the e a s t , urban development  has  s i x Boroughs  local  to the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  r e a c h e d f a r beyond  Township,  governments i n t o  t o f o r m more e f f i c i e n t  the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Area  vices.  has  became t h e B o r o u g h o f S c a r b o r o u g h .  To  the P i c k e r i n g  To t h e n o r t h , t h e u r b a n i z e d a r e a  Vaughan, W o o d b r i d g e , Markham, and Richmond  , M e t r o p o l i t a n Key F a c t s .  loc.  cit.  110  Hill.  To t h e w e s t , t h e h e a v i e s t  p e o p l e have moved i n t o  Port  C r e d i t , Toronto Township, S t r e e t -  sville,  and even i n O a k v i l l e .  diction  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  the  same a r e a The  Authority  urban expansion o c c u r s , and  However, t h e p o l i t i c a l  Corporation  (240 s q u a r e m i l e s )  is still  limited  within  a s i t was i n 1 9 5 3 .  a p p r a i s a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n i n regard  juris-  Toronto  to C r i t e r i o n V i s therefore  Government judged  t o be  "poor".  Board  II.  The M e t r o p o l i t a n  The  composition  and L o c a l P l a n n i n g  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Functions  Toronto  i s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l  Province  The  members o f t h e B o a r d a r e a p p o i n t e d subject  Affairs of  under S e c t i o n 5 o f the P l a n n i n g A c t .  the  Council,  of Ontario  Planning  to the approval  by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  o f the M i n i s t e r .  On May 2,  1967  t h e M i n i s t e r e s t a b l i s h e d a 28 men membership f o r t h e B o a r d .  This  new c o m p o s i t i o n  fringe  area  politan  Council.  case  cil,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e M e t r o -  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e new c o m p o s i t i o n with  l o c a l planning  boards  will  Board appoints  an E x e c u t i v e  Chairman, V i c e - C h a i r m a n ,  ensure  than has been  i n the p a s t through r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from those  The the  the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the  w h i c h had no p o l i t i c a l  much c l o s e r l i a i s o n the  increased  Committee  boards.^  composed o f  Chairman o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  a n d two members a p p o i n t e d  annually  ^Metropolitan Toronto Planning d u r e s , o p . c i t . , p . 3»  Coun-  b y t h e B o a r d , t o make  B o a r d , Summary o f P r o c e -  Ill  recommendations strative  concerning  matters,  personnel,  organization  and a d m i n i -  i n c l u d i n g the Board's . a n n u a l budget, and t o  t r a n s a c t Board matters during  the p e r i o d  between r e g u l a r  Board  10 meetings. The  staff  administration, is  o f the Board  i s organized  land use, research  a f u r t h e r breakdown i n t h e l a n d  sions  i n that  sections  Control. it  Under S u b s e c t i o n  i s stated  divisions-  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  There  use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of each d i v i s i o n  c o n t r o l and comprehensive p l a n n i n g  into four  deal  with  divi-  development  respectively." '' '  1, S e c t i o n  1  1  3 o f The P l a n n i n g A c t ,  that:  The C o u n c i l o f t h e d e s i g n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l a p p o i n t the p l a n n i n g board o f a p l a n n i n g a r e a , and every appointment to the p l a n n i n g board o f a j o i n t p l a n n i n g area i s s u b j e c t t o the approval o f the Minister. and  under S u b s e c t i o n  2 o f t h e same S e c t i o n  that:  Where a p l a n n i n g a r e a c o n s i s t s o f p a r t o r a l l o f one m u n i c i p a l i t y and t e r r i t o r y w i t h o u t m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , every appointment to the p l a n n i n g board o f the p l a n n i n g area i s s u b j e c t t o the approval of the M i n i s t e r . It  i s c l e a r that  tropolitan formation As  the M i n i s t e r o f Municipal  Council  o f T o r o n t o have a g r e a t  o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Affairs  a u t h o r i t y i n the  Toronto Planning  to the composition o f the P l a n n i n g  Ibid. " ^ I b i d . , p . 6.  a n d t h e Me-  Board.  Board, i t i s p r o -  112  v i d e d under S u b s e c t i o n  1, S e c t i o n 4 o f t h e same A c t t h a t :  A p l a n n i n g board . . . s h a l l c o n s i s t o f , (a) Where t h e p l a n n i n g a r e a c o n s i s t s o f p a r t o r a l l o f one m u n i c i p a l i t y o r o f p a r t o r a l l o f one m u n i c i p a l i t y and t e r r i t o r y w i t h o u t m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the head o f the c o u n c i l o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s a member e x o f f i c i o ; o r (b) i n t h e c a s e o f a j o i n t p l a n n i n g a r e a , t h e head o f the c o u n c i l o f the d e s i g n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y i s a member e x o f f i c i o , and f o u r , s i x o r e i g h t members who a r e n o t e m p l o y e e s of a m u n i c i p a l i t y o r o f a l o c a l board. However, t h e members o f t h e P l a n n i n g B o a r d who a r e members o f the  metropolitan  council  members o f t h e P l a n n i n g As it  can not c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r i t y o f the Board.  t o t h e term o f o f f i c e  i s provided  under S u b s e c t i o n  o f t h e P l a n n i n g B o a r d members, 5,  S e c t i o n 4 o f t h e same A c t  that: The members o f t h e p l a n n i n g b o a r d who a r e n o t members of a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e f o r three y e a r s , p r o v i d e d t h a t on t h e f i r s t a p p o i n t m e n t t h e c o u n c i l o f t h e d e s i g n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y , f r o m among s u c h members s h a l l d e s i g n a t e members who s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e , (a) u n t i l t h e 1 s t d a y o f J a n u a r y o f t h e y e a r f o l l o w i n g the. d a t e o f a p p o i n t m e n t ; (b) u n t i l t h e 1 s t d a y o f J a n u a r y o f t h e s e c o n d y e a r f o l l o w i n g t h e date o f appointment; and (c) u n t i l the 1 s t day o f January o f the t h i r d y e a r f o l l o w i n g the date o f appointment, r e s p e c t i v e l y , so t h a t a s n e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e o n e - t h i r d o f s u c h members s h a l l r e t i r e e a c h y e a r ; a n d t h e members o f t h e p l a n n i n g b o a r d who a r e members o f a c o u n c i l s h a l l be appointed annually. The  members o f t h e P l a n n i n g B o a r d a r e a b l e t o be The  been noted of  re-appointed.  g r e a t power o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has earlier.  This i s further provided  The P l a n n i n g A c t t h a t :  under S e c t i o n 5  113 N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g any o t h e r p r o v i s i o n i n t h i s A c t , the M i n i s t e r may, i n o r d e r t o s u i t t h e s p e c i a l needs o f a n y p l a n n i n g a r e a , vary the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the p l a n n i n g b o a r d , t h e p r o c e d u r e s by w h i c h i t i s a p p o i n t e d , t h e t e r m o f o f f i c e o f i t s members, a n d t h e manner i n w h i c h i t i s to f u n c t i o n , a n d d e s i g n a t e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p l a n n i n g b o a r d w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f s e c t i o n 10, and may make s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the recommendation, adopt i o n and a p p r o v a l o f the o f f i c i a l p l a n o f the p l a n n i n g area. The any  important The  the  role  of the Planning i n their  Functions  Local  a p p r a i s a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto i n regard  to C r i t e r i o n  Functions.  Act provided  surrounding  M e t r o a n d 13  the d e s i g n a t e d  19  local  Area  I I I i s j u d g e d t o be  f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a p l a n n i n g  i t , at total  Planning  area  p l u s one t i e r  area.  The M e t r o p o l i t a n  o f town-  Corporation  m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r the p l a n n i n g a r e a .  Area,  which  s i x within  municipalities i s also a subsidiary planning  Planning  from  "poor".  o f 19 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  In the t w o - l e v e l p l a n n i n g  cerned  support  The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n  i n the f r i n g e  is  Toronto  matters.  Toronto.  b e e n d e f i n e d as M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o  ships  t h e r e f o r e do n o t have  Planning Board r e c e i v e s i t s f i n a n c i a l  Planning  Toronto  Area  area-wide p l a n n i n g  Municipality of Metropolitan The  has  citizens  Each of area.  system o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  the M e t r o p o l i t a n Planning Board  i s con-  w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n and p r i n c i p l e s o f  development, l e a v i n g t o l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  detailed  retained  planning  the r i g h t  plans, provided  control.  to formulate  approval  The l o c a l  planning  o r amend t h e i r  i s obtained  own  boards  have  official  from the M e t r o p o l i t a n  114  Planning  B o a r d and 19  All planners, their  the  local  Provincial  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have e m p l o y e d p r o f e s s i o n a l  o r have a p p o i n t e d  local The  Functions  Government.  planning  planning  to d e a l  with  matters.  a p p r a i s a l o f the i n regard  officials  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  Area  Planning  to C r i t e r i o n - I V i s t h e r e f o r e judged  to  be  "good". On  June 2 3 ,  1953  "the  Planning  A r e a be  G e o g r a p h i c Adequacy. cil  recommended  that  Metropolitan Toronto, Toronto  and  i n a d d i t i o n , the  C o r e , Vaughan, Markham and  ted M u n i c i p a l i t i e s designated  by  the  therein."  Development,  then  The  Metropolitan  Toron-  area  the  as  Planning  Planning  Area,  and  the  "Fringe M u n i c i p a l i t i e s " .  ties  are  the  Towns o f A j a x ,  Hill  and  Streetsville,  Vaughan and  Toronto  Stouffville  and  total  the  13 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  the The  but  13  Port  Fringe MunicipaliC r e d i t , Richmond  t h e T o w n s h i p s o f Markham, P i c k e r i n g ,  Woodbridge, of the  Fringe  area  Area i s c a l l e d  Mississauge,  C o r e , and  n i n g A r e a i s made up  subsequently  beyond M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  therein,  The  a l l incorpora-  and  The  13  Toronto,  M i n i s t e r of Planning  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  the  Townships o f :  area  Area.  b r o u g h s and  M u n i c i p a l i t y of  the  to Planning  of  Coun-  T h i s was  f o r community p l a n n i n g ,  "Fringe" area  the  P i c k e r i n g and  responsible  w i t h i n the  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  the  Villages  Thus t h e  o f Markham, P i c k e r i n g ,  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  C i t y of Toronto  and  the  five  PlanBo-  Municipalities.  under the  jurisdiction  of the  Metropolitan  115  Planning Board ger  than  sent  i s 720  square  the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  time,  into  Oakville.  Area  will  c e r t a i n l y proceed  the n o r t h shore  into  control at  those  areas  o f Lake  Toronto  where t h e P l a n n i n g  all.  a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto i n regard  lar-  However, a t t h e p r e -  The f u t u r e u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t o f  B o a r d has no p l a n n i n g  Functions  miles  beyond the w e s t e r n boundary o f the P l a n n i n g  Area  The  proper.  the urban development a l o n g  O n t a r i o has r e a c h e d  480 s q u a r e  m i l e s , about  Area  to C r i t e r i o n V i s t h e r e f o r e judged  Planning t o be  "fair".  Metropolitan Planning Functions. assigned 10  such  The P l a n n i n g B o a r d has b e e n  d u t i e s as a r e s t a t e d under S u b s e c t i o n  o f The P l a n n i n g  1,  Section  Act that: 9  E v e r y p l a n n i n g board s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e and s u r v e y t h e p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p l a n n i n g a r e a a n d may p e r f o r m s u c h o t h e r d u t i e s o f a p l a n n i n g n a t u r e a s may be r e f e r r e d t o i t by a n y c o u n c i l h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g a r e a , and w i t h o u t l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y o f the f o r e g o ing i t shall, (a) p r e p a r e maps, d r a w i n g s , t e x t s , s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a l l o t h e r m a t e r i a l n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s t u d y , e x p l a n a t i o n and s o l u t i o n o f problems o r m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g the development o f the p l a n n i n g a r e a ; (b) h o l d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d p u b l i s h i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the p l a n n i n g area i n det e r m i n i n g the s o l u t i o n o f problems o r matters a f f e c t i n g the development o f the p l a n n i n g a r e a ; (c) c o n s u l t w i t h any l o c a l board h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g area; (d) p r e p a r e a p l a n f o r t h e p l a n n i n g a r e a s u i t a b l e f o r a d o p t i o n as t h e o f f i c i a l p l a n t h e r e o f a n d f o r w a r d i t to the c o u n c i l s o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a f f e c t e d t h e r e by, a n d recommand s u c h p l a n t o t h e c o u n c i l o f t h e designated m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r adoption;  116 (e) recommend f r o m t i m e t o t i m e t o t h e c o u n c i l s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g a r e a the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f any o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f the o f f i c i a l p l a n o f the p l a n n i n g a r e a ; ( f ) r e v i e w the o f f i c i a l p l a n f r o m t i m e t o t i m e and r e commend amendments t h e r e t o t o t h e c o u n c i l o f the designated m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r adoption. The  Metropolitan  many s t u d i e s and  i n the  d e n s i t y study,  plan,  Toronto Planning  past  years,  metropolitan  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study,  housing,  and  conducted distribution  urban renewal study, study,  waterfront  water  and  park system, g e n e r a l l a n d  use,  d e n s i t y p l a n , urban development boundary,  employment  bution,  and  hensive  planning  study,  many o t h e r s .  shopping centers The  B o a r d has  r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m and  t a t i o n program, i n c o n j u n c t i o n Traffic  apartment  commuter r a i l  sewer s e r v i c e s , m e t r o p o l i t a n population  s u c h as  B o a r d has  with  and  retail  carried  out  a  districompre-  a comprehensive  the  Metropolitan  transporRoads  Departments,  the  T o r o n t o T r a n s i t Company, the  ment o f Highways and  the  Metropolitan  T o r o n t o and  school,  and  Depart-  Region Trans -  12 portation  Study.  The  B o a r d i s a l s o c h a r g e d by  p o l i t a n Toronto covering belts  the  Act with  the  l a n d u s e s , ways o f  and  park areas,  On  December 1 5 ,  "Metropolitan  and  M u n i c i p a l i t y of  preparation  o f an  official  Metroplan  communication, s a n i t a t i o n , green  public transportation.  1966  the  P l a n f o r the  P l a n had  the  Metropolitan Metropolitan  Area".  This  i t s o r i g i n s i n the  Toronto  Metropolitan Toronto Planning 1967, op. c i t . , p . 33.  Council  adopted  Toronto  Planning  Draft  Official  1959  Board,  Metropolitan  117 P l a n w h i c h h a s r e v i s e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n 1964 a n d g i v e n e x t e n s i v e Area d u r i n g 1965.  p u l b i c hearings  Planning Board i n  throughout  The P l a n was a d o p t e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  P l a n n i n g B o a r d i n December, 1965 a s a p l a n s u i t a b l e as  an " o f f i c i a l  but  r e v i s e d a n d a d o p t e d by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  C o u n c i l i n December, 1966 n o t as an " o f f i c i a l statement o f the p o l i c y o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  guide  f o r adoption  p l a n " w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g o f The P l a n n i n g A c t ,  was s u b s e q u e n t l y  planning  the P l a n n i n g  p l a n " b u t as a  Corporation f o r the  o f f u t u r e M e t r o p o l i t a n works a n d s e r v i c e s a n d a s a  f o r f u t u r e development i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  Plan-  1^ ning Area. The Planning  J  M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n proposes an urban a r e a  Area f o r f u t u r e development.  comprises about plete 36  development o f Metro i t s e l f ,  p e r cent  dary  400 s q u a r e m i l e s ;  o f the f r i n g e .  i s only  the l i m i t  within the  The p r o p o s e d u r b a n  i tprovides  f o r almost  area com-  and f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f a b o u t  The U r b a n ' D e v e l o p m e n t A r e a ' s  boun-  o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h c a n be accom14  modated i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e  future.  lopment w i l l  compact, w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l a n d e m p l o y -  ment a r e a s and  be r e l a t i v e l y  dispersed  interchange.  so as t o p e r m i t  I n t e n s i v e uses w i l l  The a r e a f o r u r b a n  reasonable  deve-  accessibility  be c o n c e n t r a t e d  C e n t r a l Area and a t s e l e c t e d l o c a t i o n s throughout  i n the  the Urban  The M u n i c i p a l i t y of Metropolitan Toronto, Metropolitan P l a n f o r t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g . A r e a ( T o r o n t o , DecemJ  ber,  1966), p . 1.  14' M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Summary o f d u r e s , o p . c i t . , p . 5«  Proce-  118 Development Area a t  the  focal points  of the  transportation  15 system. ^ reserved rural  Lands o u t s i d e f o r productive  and in  portation  the  urban development boundary w i l l  agricultural activity  and  be  un-intensive  r e c r e a t i o n a l uses."^ 196k,  the  Planning  Plan which served  Board a l s o completed as  a b a s i s f o r the  the  Trans-  Metropolitan  Plan. The  Planning  Metropolitan are  C o u n c i l , and  made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e  with  specific  overall plans.  the  Board advises  Ontario  Municipal  b y - l a w s , and  and  the  i n an  the  advisory  s e r v i c e s of  local  to a s s i s t  new  plans  makes r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s design  the  their  local municipalities Affairs  and  the  o f s u b d i v i s i o n and  to the  of major roads,  t i m i n g o f sewer and  deal  them i n d e v e l o p i n g  with  the  i t s technical staff  M i n i s t e r of Municipal  B o a r d on  capacity to  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , both to  In c o n j u n c t i o n  l o c a t i o n and  the  the  p r o b l e m s and  own  on  Board a c t s  Metropolitan transit  water f a c i l i t i e s  and  zoning Council  facilities  other  major  17 public vided  works. a t no  cation  1  The  s e r v i c e s to l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are  c o s t to the  l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s except f o r  c o s t s where a s u b s t a n t i a l volume o f r e p o r t s ^The M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n o p . . c i t . , p . 3• 1  Plan, , ronto  Metropolitan Toronto Planning 1967. op. c i t . , p . 34.  1953-1963  (Toronto,  publi-  i s required. Metropolitan  Board, Metropolitan  ,10. Years of Progress: June, p. 16.  1963J7  Toronto,  pro-  Metropolitan  To-  Toronto  119 The Functions  a p p r a i s a l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n i n regard  to C r i t e r i o n  Toronto Area  VT i s t h e r e f o r e  Planning  j u d g e d t o be  "good". Legal The  Powers.  Planning  1,  I t i s s t a t e d under Subsection  S e c t i o n 15 o f  Act that:  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a n y o t h e r g e n e r a l o r s p e c i a l A c t , where an o f f i c i a l p l a n i s i n e f f e c t , no p u b l i c work s h a l l be u n d e r t a k e n and, e x c e p t as p r o v i d e d i n s u b s e c t i o n s 2 and 3 , no b y - l a w s h a l l be p a s s e d f o r a n y p u r p o s e t h a t does not conform t h e r e w i t h . and  u n d e r S e c t i o n 16  forms w i t h  o f t h e same A c t t h a t  an o f f i c i a l  plan  shall  "A b y - l a w t h a t  be deemed t o i m p l e m e n t t h e  official  p l a n whether the by-law i s p a s s e d b e f o r e  official  p l a n i s approved."  An pality  official  politan  Official  Plan  facilitate  preparation the  i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n  A l l subsidiary o f f i c i a l  To  i f there  case on t h e l o c a l  Toronto Planning  plans  mu-  Area as  must c o n f o r m t o t h e M e t r o -  i s one.  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Planning  B o a r d ' s work i n  o f a p l a n and i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f such a p l a n ,  M i n i s t e r of Municipal  amendments, l o c a l  Board d i r e c t s  Affairs  official  w i t h i n the Planning pal  c a s e on t h e l o c a l  w h i c h has a d o p t e d i t , a n d i n t h i s  municipalities  o r a f t e r the  t h e r e f o r e , i s b i n d i n g on t h e m u n i c i -  which has adopted i t , and i n t h i s  nicipality  well.  plan,  con-  Area  refers  a l l official  plan  p l a n amendments, and s u b d i v i s i o n s  t o the Board; and the O n t a r i o  that notice of a l l zoning  Munici-  b y - l a w s be g i v e n t o  120 the B o a r d .  In  cases  Metropolitan Plan, to  thus  handled  its  i n the  local  the  forwarding  Minister.  1 9  existence,  planning It  The  official  zoning  by-laws  p l a n amendments. their  P l a n n i n g Board which then a g e n c y i t may  s u b d i v i s i o n plans  Planning Board  i s able  As  to  sub-  recommendaincorporates  t o the M i n i s t e r .  Official  to  re-  the  P l a n i s not  to express  be-  The  to submit  subdivision applications directly the  are  have c o n s u l t e d  Planning Board i s a u t h o r i z e d  although  the  Planning Board i s authorized  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s forward  Therefore, the  amendments c o n f o r m t o  o f the  v i e w s o f any  the  commendations on  as  to the  these  Commissioner of  local  staff  same way  f o r approval  v i e w s and  fore  the  i n d i c a t e t o the M i n i s t e r .  division plans, tions  where l o c a l  in  i t s opinions  matters.  i s also provided  u n d e r S e c t i o n 33  o f The  Planning  Act  that: I n a d d i t i o n t o any o t h e r remedy o r p e n a l t y p r o v i d e d by law, any c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f a b y - l a w t h a t i m p l e m e n t s an o f f i c i a l p l a n and a n y c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f s e c t i o n 15 may be r e s t r a i n e d by a c t i o n a t t h e i n s t a n c e o f t h e p l a n n i n g board o f the p l a n n i n g a r e a i n w h i c h the c o n t r a v e n t i o n t o o k p l a c e o r any m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n o r p a r t l y w i t h i n s u c h p l a n n i n g a r e a o r any r a t e p a y e r o f any s u c h m u n i c i p a l i t y , and any c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f an o r d e r o f t h e M i n i s t e r made u n d e r s e c t i o n 27 may be r e s t r a i n e d by a c t i o n a t t h e i n s t a n c e o f the M i n i s t e r o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n which the c o n t r a v e n t i o n t o o k p l a c e o r any a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y o r any r a t e p a y e r o f any s u c h m u n i c i p a l i t y o r a d j o i n i n g m u n i cipality. Although  on  the  M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n has  , Summary o f P r o c e d u r e s . I b i d . , pp.  6-7.  not  op.  been adopted  c i t . , p.  as  6.  121  the  Official  Plan,  t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f l e g a l powers t o t h e P l a n -  n i n g Board a r e good. Area Planning judged  The a p p r a i s a l o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  Functions  i n regard  to Criterion VII i s therefore  t o be " e x c e l l e n t " .  III.  The  philosophy  ty of Metropolitan  Conclusions  behind  Toronto  the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the M u n i c i p a l i -  i s b a s e d on t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f two  basic factors: representation and  Toronto  common t o b o t h l e v e l s  a d i s t i n c t i o n between those  e f f e c t i v e l y provided  of c o u n c i l ,  s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e most  on a n a r e a - w i d e b a s i s a n d t h o s e  which a r e  20 purely  local.  elected of  As t o t h e f i r s t  directly  c o n c e p t , members a r e n o t  to the M e t r o p o l i t a n  the C o u n c i l by v i r t u e o f e l e c t i o n  municipalities ensured  C o u n c i l b u t become members to o f f i c e  i n their  as mayors, aldermen o r c o n t r o l l e r s .  local  T h i s has  c o n t i n u i t y a n d c o - o r d i n a t i o n between t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f 2  the As  Metropolitan t o the second  Corporation  area m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  concept, the two-level planning  p o s e s on t h e l o c a l  machinery im-  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the b a s i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  r e g u l a t i n g and d e t e r m i n i n g characteristics,  and t h e l o c a l  while  their  own a p p e a r a n c e and s p e c i a l  i m p o s i n g on t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  Corporation  W i l l i a m R. A l l e n , Q. C , M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o - A S u c c e s s f u l M e t r o p l e x , an a d d r e s s t o t h e A d v a n c e d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n s t i t u t e , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , J u l y 2 1 , 19&7, P« 4.  21  ronto  Metropolitan Toronto Planning 1 9 6 7 , o p . c i t . , p . 4.  Board, M e t r o p o l i t a n To-  122  the  responsibility  f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e area-wide framework r e -  q u i r e d f o r the development o f the area However, t h e P l a n n i n g politan in  advisory process full the  Board's r e l a t i o n s h i p  Council i s of c r i t i c a l  the Province bodies.  of Ontario,  of f r u s t r a t i o n . adoption  This  t o the Metro-  As i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d  boards a r e intended  t o be  arrangement i s r e a s o n a b l e ,  o f an o f f i c i a l  plan  i s difficult  the and  c a n be s e e n i n t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r  o f an o f f i c i a l  o f The P l a n n i n g  importance.  planning  Although t h i s  f o r the adoption  as a whole.  p l a n under S u b s e c t i o n  2, S e c t i o n 10  Act that:  No p l a n s h a l l be recommended f o r a d o p t i o n u n l e s s i t i s a p p r o v e d b y a v o t e o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f a l l t h e members of the planning board; and  under Subsection  1, S e c t i o n 11 o f t h e same A c t t h a t :  The p l a n a s f i n a l l y p r e p a r e d a n d recommended b y t h e p l a n n i n g b o a r d s h a l l be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e c o u n c i l o f the d e s i g n a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y ; and  under S u b s e c t i o n the  and  2 o f t h e same S e c t i o n  The c o u n c i l o f t h e d e s i g n a t e d p l a n by by-law;  under Subsection  1, S e c t i o n  :,that:.  m u n i c i p a l i t y may  adopt  12 o f t h e same A c t t h a t :  Upon adoption,:, t h e p l a n s h a l l be s u b m i t t e d b y t h e c o u n c i l t h a t a d o p t e d i t t o t h e M i n i s t e r . . .; and  under Subsection is  and  and  2 o f t h e same S e c t i o n  that:  The M i n i s t e r may t h e n a p p r o v e t h e p l a n , whereupon i t the o f f i c i a l plan of the planning area;  under Subsection  1, S e c t i o n 12a o f t h e same A c t t h a t :  The M i n i s t e r may r e f e r a n y p a r t o f t h e p l a n M u n i c i p a l B o a r d . . .;  t o the  finally  that:  under S u b s e c t i o n  2 o f t h e same S e c t i o n  123 When a p a r t o f t h e p l a n h a s b e e n r e f e r r e d t o t h e M u n i c i p a l B o a r d , t h e M i n i s t e r may a p p r o v e t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p l a n , whereupon t h e r e m a i n d e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h s u c h p a r t o f t h e p l a n a s may be a p p r o v e d b y t h e M u n i c i p a l Board, i s the o f f i c i a l plan, o f the p l a n n i n g a r e a . Besides,  there  i s nothing  official  p l a n must be i m p l e m e n t e d .  solved issues of planning question, action  This  i s one o f t h e unre--._  i n the Province  other  the o f f i c i a l  are in  respects,  the Metropolitan  development p r i n c i p l e s ,  considered the f i r s t  vincial  of Ontario.  t o be d i r e c t l y  instance,  those  The  municipal  plan?  Area, as a statement o f the C o r p o r a t i o n , those  A c t w h i c h s a y s an  t h e r e f o r e , i s how t o e n c o u r a g e p o s i t i v e  t o implement In  i n The P l a n n i n g  policies  Plan f o r the Toronto  deals  largely  with  and r e g u l a t i o n s  of P r o v i n c i a l  concern.  matters which a f f e c t  which These a r e ,  direct  i n t e r e s t s such as t h e highway system; s e c o n d l y ,  matters which a f f e c t surrounding directly  region;  the general and t h i r d l y ,  or indirectly,  Municipality  those  p a t t e r n o f development i n the those  m a t t e r s w h i c h may  Provincial financial  of Metropolitan  Pro-  affect,  o b l i g a t i o n s to the  Toronto or to l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  22 in  the Planning  Area.  There i s l i t t l e pressures  doubt t h a t  there  will  be s u b s t a n t i a l  f o r f u r t h e r urban development i n t h e f r i n g e  w e l l b e y o n d t h e p r o v i s i o n s made b y t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n is  foreseeable  Oshawa a r e a  Plan,  that f u t u r e urban expansion w i l l  i m m e d i a t l e y t o t h e e a s t , and t h e  The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n o p . . c i t . , p . 1.  areas  Plan.  It  go i n t o t h e  Hamilton-Burlington  Toronto,  Metropolitan  124 area to  to the  secure  large  a  west.  Therefore,  the  Province  must a d o p t  policies  s u i t a b l e p a t t e r n of r e g i o n a l development i n  Toronto urban  Toronto Planning  complex.  This  i s s t a t e d by  the  this  Metropolitan  Board:  the M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d a p p e a l s t o the P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o f o r a comprehensive p o l i c y statement r e g u l a t i n g and s h a p i n g t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e whole s o u t h c e n t r a l r e g i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e . 3 : 2  At  the  over  present  the  whole  time,  their they  not  Province  the  T o r o n t o has  outer  representatives are  the  has  planning  jurisdiction  region.  Metropolitan powers o v e r  only  extra-territorial  thirteen local on  represented  the on  municipalities.  Metropolitan the  planning  Planning  Metropolitan  T h e y have  Board,  Council  but  that i s  24 empowered strong the  to adopt a p l a n f o r t h e i r  need f o r a r e - a p p r a i s a l o f  f r i n g e areas It  i s very  and  their  clear  this  the  the  government  the  events  i n the  validity  is also a  structure i n  of  the  Toronto.  Metropolitan hypothesis  of  thesis.  ^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto Planning d u r e s , o p . c i t . , p . 5•  Board  There  r e l a t i o n s h i p to M e t r o p o l i t a n  that  T o r o n t o A r e a have s u p p o r t e d  area.  B o a r d , Summary o f  Proce-  ^ W i l l i a m R. A l l e n , Q. C , "The P l a c e o f t h e P l a n n i n g i n t h e Community", C o m m u n i t y . P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , V o l . 12,  No. 3" ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p .  23.  CHAPTER V I  SUMMARY AND  This dity  well  t h e s i s has i n v o l v e d a p r o c e s s  o f the h y p o t h e s i s ,  litan  level  which i s : f o r p l a n n i n g  working r e l a t i n s h i p  governments and l o c a l  done b y t h e o r e t i c a l does n o t i n t e n d  planning  a t the metropo-  suitably  directions,  be f o l l o w e d  blems.  this  Although  T h i s has b e e n  studies.  This thesis  t h e s i s i s mostly  t o d a y ' s numerous m e t r o p o l i t a n  limited  i n the scope to  may be a p p l i e d a t l e a s t t o  t o cover  problems.  only a small part of Many o t h e r  p r o b l e m s , s u c h as t h e c o n f l i c t s  between c e n t r a l  urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  participation  metropolitan  citizen's  between m e t r o p o l i t a n  the proper and l o c a l  pro-  world.  t h e s i s has been a b l e  conflicts  courses  i n s o l v i n g our metropolitan  p a r t s o f the democratic  thorities,  modified  and t o p o i n t o u t what  Canada, i t s f i n d i n g s a n d p r i n c i p l e s  affairs,  obtain  t o propose any U t o p i a n i d e a s , b u t r a t h e r t r y t o  some p r a c t i c a l  This  with  bodies.  r e s e a r c h and case  of a c t i o n should  other  the v a l i -  a r e a - w i d e g o v e r n m e n t a u t h o r i t y , a n d must  a well co-ordinated  give  of t e s t i n g  to-.',- be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a  organized  local  CONCLUSIONS  division  city  metropolitan and sub-  i n metropolitan  and l o c a l p l a n n i n g a u -  o f government f u n c t i o n s  governments, the proper  between  r o l e s o f upper  governments i n s o l v i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n problems, e t c . , a r e n o t studied  here.  Therefore,  a segment o f t h o s e  this  metropolitan  t h e s i s has o n l y  tried  t o examine  p r o b l e m s , and t o p r o p o s e a f e w  126 principles  which should  be  followed  a c t i o n to deal with metropolitan  I . The In pointed rapid of  as  Theoretical Validity  the  consequences of  u r b a n i z a t i o n i n the  o f the  the  twentieth  at  the  metropolitan  m e t r o p o l i t a n problems e f f e c t i v e l y . the  i n t e g r a t i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n  and  the  inability  demands.  Only  efficient  level  solve  can  today's  However, t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r  planning function with a w e l l -  government a u t h o r i t y has  essential  i n making m e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n n i n g  sequence of r e a s o n i n g ,  been  the  metropolitan  was  p r o b l e m s have  industrialization,  organized  to t h i s  government  Hypothesis  century,  g o v e r n m e n t s t o cope w i t h new  regional planning  proper  problems.  Chapter I, today's m e t r o p o l i t a n  out  local  i n any  been p r o v e d  efficient.  According  the  hypothesis  of t h i s  detailed  s t u d i e s on  the  thesis  established. I n Chapter I I , the  r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n i n the metropolitan  areas,  and  cope w i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n metropolitan  planning  twentieth  the  century,  inability  of  problems prove and  the  local  the  of  character  of  governments  to  that there  a necessity for local  causes  i s a need f o r government  re-  organization.  The  r e s e a r c h on  local  government s t r u c t u r e  of  Canada, and  the  f o r m s of. m e t r o p o l i t a n  government a u t h o r i t y  in  N o r t h A m e r i c a has  a l s o proved  that there  well-organized  metropolitan  government  tan problems.  Finally,  study  the  need f o r t h e  the  of  i s a need f o r a  to d e a l with  metropoli-  the f u n c t i o n s o f  i n t e g r a t i o n of planning  and  planning,  government i n  127 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , and  the  n e c e s s i t y f o r government  re-orga-  n i z a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g e f f i c i e n c y a t the m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l proved  the  theoretical  B a s e d on on  the  to t e s t  the  validity  theoretical  arguments i n Chapter the  three  W i n n i p e g , and  of the  validity  II, Criteria  The  the  Validity  of the  C r i t e r i a proposed  used f o r the p u r p o s e s o f t e s t i n g recognized  as  A brief  have b e e n worked  comparison of used  The  been a l l o c a t e d  to t e s t  Greater  i n Chapter  f o r the  the  the  three  cases  validity Be  Vancouver,  Metropolitan Area. i n the  they  been should  studied i n this Criteria:  as  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  single-purpose The  I I have  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  o f the  Organized  the h o s p i t a l f u n c t i o n .  e n c e o f many o t h e r  proved  out  Criteria  General-Purpose  District  districts  s e e n by and  only  Regional  the  exist-  boards i n the  s e p a r a t i o n o f the area-wide  Lower M a i n l a n d  has  Its in-effectiveness i n  s a t i s f y i n g o t h e r m e t r o p o l i t a n needs c a n be  function,  and  planning.  M e t r o p o l i t a n Government S h o u l d Government.  hypothesis  the a c t u a l c a s e s ,  the p r i n c i p l e s  m e t r o p o l i t a n government and  c a n be  of the  Toronto.  Although  thesis  hypothesis.  c a s e s : the M e t r o p o l i t a n Areas o f  II.  a l s o be  has  planning  Planning Board,  h i g h l y u n d e r s i r a b l e i n terms o f e f f e c t i v e  planning  has im-  plementation. B o t h the  Metropolitan Corporation of Greater  Winnipeg  128 and  the  M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  have  demonstrated  t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r o v i d i n g a r e a - w i d e s e r v i c e s as purpose  governments. This  supports  Metropolitan The tentiality  the  validity  Government S h o u l d  Greater  Corporation  those  supports  the  responsibilities validity  M e t r o p o l i t a n Government S h o u l d Accessible  to I t s C i t i z e n s .  Board of the local  this  Greater  municipal  is still The  of  Winnipeg  have good to  members on  I t has  legal  them.  Criterion II.  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  councils.  the  District  and  Regional are  been p o i n t e d  appointed  out  representation, being  e l e c t i o n s o f t h e members on  Metropolitan  \. c i t i z e n s  their metropolitan This  po-  services  assigned  Corporation  that  democratic  supports  1  role  and  the  Metropolitan  of Greater  M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  to ensure  the  i n doubt.  direct  Councils' o f the the  has  Powers.  Remain C o n t r o l l a b l e b y The  arrangement of i n d i r e c t  or not,  Legal  of Greater  the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  This  in  District  I.  more f u n c t i o n s .  Metropolitan  powers t o p e r f o r m  and  Criterion  Have S u f f i c i e n t  Vancouver R e g i o n a l  been a s s i g n e d  B o t h the  by  of  t o e x e r c i s e i t s l e g a l powers t o p e r f o r m  when i t has  and  general-  a r e more  promote c i t i z e n s  1  validity  of  likely  participation  affairs. the  Winnipeg  Criterion III.  129 Local Municipalities  Should  L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t s . and Encouraged. local  I n the  ning bodies cipal  and  are  M o d i f i e d to Create  Local Planning Functions  Efficient  Should  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver Area,  m u n i c i p a l i t y has  problems e x i s t  Be  are  unable  where  been m o d i f i e d , i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g increasing.  The  established local  t o cope p r o p e r l y w i t h t h e s e  up  as a s t r o n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d  ment, e s p e c i a l l y  metropolitan  i n terms o f i t s p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n .  ment f u n c t i o n s i n c r e a s e , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h i s g o v e r n m e n t w i l l be without  efficient In  able to handle local  were c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o was  ments s h o u l d be modifying  their  This Geographic  clearly  based  on  made e f f i c i e n t  lends support  the  governAs  govern-  metropolitan  s e r v i c e s demanded the  burden.  thirteen municipali1,  1967  i d e a t h a t the  i n performing  Adequacy.  to C r i t e r i o n  The  local  •  This  local  mo-  govern-  s e r v i c e s by  IV.  G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l e x c l u d i n g some u r b a n i z e d  Regional  adequate geographic  the M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a .  bodies  January  has  boundaries.  t h e Lower M a i n l a n d  more t h a n  the former  s i x on  a political jurisdiction  while  a l l the  governments t o share  Metropolitan Toronto,  dification  for  plan-  inter-muni-  M e t r o p o l i t a n C o r p o r a t i o n of Greater Winnipeg  been b u i l t  has  no  problems. The  ties  Be  P l a n n i n g Board  jurisdiction  develop  areas  possesses  a  i n terms o f p l a n n i n g  I t i s d o u b t f u l as  c o u l d f u n c t i o n t o g e t h e r and  District  an  t o how  these  efficient  two  program  130 for  the f u t u r e development o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver The  relatively tical  Metropolitan  Corporation  good g e o g r a p h i c  and p l a n n i n g  of Greater  jurisdiction  jurisdictions  Therefore, its  This  supports  the v a l i d i t y  of Criterion  ning.  Co-operation  It  Toronto.  Regional  ning o f f i c i a l s ,  Be R e s e a r c h ,  the O f f i c i a l Regional  a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p  and p r o v i d e s  Plan-  and A s s i s t a n c e .  P l a n n i n g B o a r d has c a r r i e d  s t u d i e s and p r e p a r e d  a l s o maintains  Should  V.  and C o - o r d i n a t i o n , and Advice  Lower M a i n l a n d  when  and p l a n -  problems.  Metropolitan Planning Functions  prehensive  the p o l i t i c a l  f o r the M u n i c i p a l i t y t o handle  Basic  The  i n terms o f i t s p o l i -  of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Metropolitan  i t i s also d i f f i c u l t  area-wide  Winnipeg has a  control.  Urban development has exceeded ning  Area.  with  o u t comPlan.  local  plan-  assistance to l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  requested. The  Planning  Division  of the Metropolitan  of Greater  W i n n i p e g has a l l t h e p l a n n i n g  the  Area.  I t has worked o u t c o m p r e h e n s i v e  the  Official  not  co-operate  palities  except  The  responsibilities i n  M e t r o p o l i t a n Development P l a n . with  or provide  the C i t y  Corporation  s t u d i e s as w e l l as However, i t does  a s s i s t a n c e t o the l o c a l  munici-  of Winnipeg.  M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto  P l a n n i n g B o a r d has s t u d i e d i t s  A r e a e x t e n s i v e l y , a n d has b e e n a b l e  to prepare  p l a n w h i c h was a d o p t e d b y t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  a  metropolitan  C o u n c i l as a s t a t e -  131 ment o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s . very  I t has  not  sound w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p  However, t h e  been a b l e  with  local  Planning Board provides  to b u i l d  planning  up  a  bodies.  a s s i s t a n c e to l o c a l  muni-  cipalities . This The  supports  p u r e l y an  suggestions is  of Greater  The  o n l y on  Criterion  this  Have The  VI. Power o f R e v i e w  Regional  Planning  L o c a l planning bodies  a voluntary basis.  Planning  Division  Winnipeg i s the  Therefore,  i t s success  implementation.  of the M e t r o p o l i t a n  only planning  Board  adopt i t s  Therefore,  i n terms of area-wide p l a n n i n g  Metropolitan Area.  Corporation  a u t h o r i t y i n the  i t does n o t  have any  whole  difficulty  regard. The  power o v e r be  of  Lower M a i n l a n d  a d v i s o r y body.  also limited The  in  validity  M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Body S h o u l d  Over L o c a l P l a n s . is  the  Metropolitan Toronto local plans.  more r e a d i l y This  P l a n n i n g B o a r d has  Therefore,  the  review  area-wide o b j e c t i v e s  can  ensured.  supports  the  validity  of C r i t e r i o n  VTI.  o A brief b a s e d on  the  comparison of the  Criteria  can  be  three  presented  Metropolitan i n Table  V on  Areas the  next  page. III. The  The  success  Validity  of the  of p l a n n i n g  h i g h l y d e p e n d e n t upon t h e  as  Hypothesis  a f u n c t i o n o f government i s  s t r u c t u r e o f the  government.  There-  132  TABLE V A COMPARISON  Criteria  OP THREE METROPOLITAN AREAS BASED ON THE CRITERIA  Metro  Vancouver Area  Metro  Winnipeg Area  Metro T o r o n t o Area  Metro. Govt. Authority: I MultiFunction  poor  excellent  excellent  II  fair  good  good  fair  excellent  good  fair  fair  excellent  fair  excellent  poor  fair  good  poor  good  poor  good  excellent  excellent  fair  good  excellent  good  poor  excellent  excellent  III  Power Control  IV LocalGovernment V  Area  Metro, and Local Planning: III  Control  IV LocalPlanning V  Area  VI Metro.Planning VII  Power  133 fore,  i f p l a n n i n g i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l , i t  must be a t t a c h e d t o w e l l - o r g a n i z e d m e t r o p o l i t a n a n d l o c a l governments w i t h a p r o p e r d i v i s i o n them.  In a democratic society,  division  o f government powers b e t w e e n  the c r u c i a l  o f g o v e r n m e n t powers l i e s  issue  i n the areal  i n t h e achievement  r e s p o n s i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e system o f government. ker attempts reproduced |  t o p o r t r a y t h i s problem  below:  Paul  of a Ylvisa-  i n the c h a r t which i s  1  the Rationale for an Areal Division of Governmental Powers within the Modern Democratic State INSTRUMENTAL  VALUES  BASIC  VALUES  OF  T H E AREAL  Individual Gives  LIBERTY  —by  (Constitutionalism, goodly admixture faire)  with a o f laissez-  WVKIOH  Of  POWERS  ... -  .v.  I.e., The means b y w h i c h orfp ts p r e s u m e d t o realize t h e g i v e n b a s i c v o i c e s ; e x p r e w s d i n terms o f t h e :  further  providing  assurance  " V , "  Governmental P r t e w * ef protection  additional a n d more  a v a i l a b l e points o f access, pressure,  and  against  arbitrary  readity  or hasty  governmental  action?''-' i  twriileivmfipg)power  — b y . p r o v i d i n g a system o f  control;  a m o n g g o v e r n m e n t a l JeveJv a s s u r i n g rViirfion a n d  — b y m a k i n g It possible f o r minorities t s a v a i l  debate/  themselves o f g o v e r n m e n t a l position a n d p o w e r ;  — b y c r e a t i n g a network o f campo Hrrfej»ts/ t o l o -  — b y serving t o k e e p g o v e r n m e n t a l p o w e r c l o s e  c a l i z e HI* w h i c h m a y b e s e f t t e l ^ y - j t ^ t i e . ! '  ;."  • '[  :  ..  1  t o its o r i g i n s , a n d g o v e r n m e n t a l officials witltfrJ r e a c h o f their masters. EQUALITY (Especially a s e m b o d i e d i n Its c o r o l l a r y o f d e m o c r a c y a n d the a x i o m o f wide-scale p a r t i c i p a tion)  O n t h e negative s i d e , p r o v i d e s a further b a r r i e r t o the concentration o f Social, economic, a n d p o l i t i c a l power. • O n the positive side, p r o v i d e s o d d i t j e u o j a n d more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s forparticipation O i a means o f contributing t o the development both o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( i n the A r i s t o t e l i a n t r a d i t i o n o f citizenship) a n d o f p u b l i c p o l i c y .  WELFARE  G i v e s further assurance of: —responsiveness awl —energy  a n d "collective  v-j.v-. ' flexibility? p wisdom"; *  —consent a n d loyalty  •  '•>*••  f- •  G i v e s further assurance tTiai gover)rpYofttdl a c t i o n A d d i t i o n a l assurance that d e m a n d s w i l l b e h e a r d w i l l b e effective ( g r a n t e d the t r a i o * lhifei_=l.iriniedl*' a n d that needs w i l l be served. a t e l y a b o v e ) , arid that pertorrrwince v«fl . b e more efficient, i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e administrative Djihclples  (service)  •ft  1  .':  '  ..  —scale; < ' . • ,.^$> —delegation; .' . —decentralization; " "-v —specjaSiotieri; — t h e ' a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d yardstick effect ef comp a r a t i v e costSi  P a u l Y l v i s a k e r , "Some C r i t e r i a f o r a ' P r o p e r ' A r e a l D i v i s i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t a l Powers", R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t a n d P l a n n i n g , J . P r i e d m a n n a n d W. A l o n s o , e d i t o r s (Cambridge,  M a s s a c h u s e t t s : The M. I . T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 5 2 4 .  134 As  noted,  values an  the p r o b l e m i s t o d e v i s e  of l i b e r t y ,  optimum b a s i s  thesis  has It  t o be  If  t h a t the  A Further  a community  S t u d y : The  chooses  Although  governments.  t h a t w i t h i n the V,  of  This  problem. t h e s i s has  been  Province  t o p l a n , i t must i m p l e m e n t  s u i t e d t o assume t h e the  role  This fact  of  local  It is  the  the  responsibility  governments i n d e a l -  has  lies  been found  The  vital  ability  The  t o o l s which the  money t h e y  s p e n d , and  d e t e r m i n e d by  of l o c a l  The  British  Canada, a s s i g n s  in  a l l matters r e l a t i n g  to the p r o v i n c i a l to property and  and  can u t i l i z e ,  over  the the  to a  great  provinces.  governments and  me-  g o v e r n m e n t s t o meet  e x e r c i s e , are  a c t i o n s o f the  nature,  thesis:  I I I , . IV,  North America A c t , which i s the  of  matters of a l o c a l  in this  the  provin-  c o n d i t i o n e d by  localities  t h e powers t h e y the  the  roles i n solving their  development problems i s l a r g e l y  province.  with  Areas s t u d i e d i n Chapters  have p l a y e d  t r o p o l i t a n problems.  extent  Role  complex d i f f i c u l t i e s  three  the p r o v i n c e s  critical  of t h i s  on  m e t r o p o l i t a n p r o b l e m s i n Canada i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e ,  t o s o l v i n g the  cial  to resolve this  hypothesis  realized  of powers.  through i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e .  for planning.  key  c o u l d be  basic  valid.  government which i s b e s t  ing with  welfare  areal division  d e m o n s t r a t e d a way  IV.  decision  t h r o u g h an  is felt  supported  e q u a l i t y , and  t h e means whereby t h e  civil  constitution  sovereignty  rights,  a l l crown l a n d s  in a l l  and  re-  135 sources.  T h e r e f o r e , p l a n n i n g as i t r e l a t e s  r e s o u r c e s , and p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ,  to  communities,  i s also a provin-  p  cial are  responsibility.  T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t i f l o c a l i t i e s  to f u n c t i o n well,  framework  t h e p r o v i n c e must p r o v i d e  and many o f t h e means f o r them t o do  A c t i o n s of the p r o v i n c e blems to  these  in detail.  what d i r e c t i o n s (1)  i t s historical  problems; (3)  and, local  (2)  a judgement  to serve  The p r o v i n c e pulling  intensity  projections  on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : development  of m e t r o p o l i t a n problems;  of l o c a l  of  c o n t r o l over  In order  t o make  to guide  c a n , and must, p r o v i d e and  of economic,  this  metropolitan unified  i n f o r m a t i o n , making  social  and  growth.  dimension— province-wide  and p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t  and f o r m u l a t i n g i m a g i n a t i v e , w e l l - t h o u g h t - o u t  local  intelli-  i s a need f o r u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e s  as a f r a m e w o r k  together facts  thesis  or not the m u l t i p l i c i t y  i s causing a loss  pro-  f a r , and i n  i n d e a l i n g with urban  on w h e t h e r  there  of t h i s  o f how  go depends  of the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .  judgements,  policies  should  experience  the r e l a t i v e  governments  problems gent  to deal with metropolitan  Determination  a province  proper  so.  c a n be many; b u t i t i s n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n  study  the  development  trends, goals.  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D i v i s i o n o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , P l a n n i n g f o r R e g i o n a l Development i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver, S p r i n g , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 1. C o u n c i l o f S t a t e G o v e r n m e n t s , "The S t a t e s ' R o l e i n U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t " , M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i t i e s , M. N. D a n i e l s o n , e d i t o r ( B o s t o n a n d T o r o n t o : L i t t l e , Brown and Comapny, i 9 6 0 ) ,  pp.  315-316.  136 However, t h e r o l e pal affairs  of the provinces  has b e e n c a p r i c i o u s .  for  continuous,  The  provincial  or periodic  No p r o v i n c e  review  cities  One o f t h e r e a s o n s  of p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s has  f o rthis  i s the . i r c o n t i n u e d r u r a l  t h a t the metropo-  government r e - o r g a n i -  l a c k o f sympathy  orientation.  to place a high p r i o r i t y  with  The w i l l i n g n e s s on u r b a n problems  n o t y e t c a u g h t up w i t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n movements o f t h e  last  twenty o r t h i r t y  years.  I t i s true that the Conservative  Government i n M a n i t o b a , t h e P r o g r e s s i v e in  problems.  i s s u e s , o r t h a t the problems  s e r i o u s enough t o warrant e f f e c t i v e  zation.  makes p r o v i s i o n  of i t s municipal  g o v e r n m e n t s seem u n c o n v i n c e d  l i t a n problems a r e h i g h p r i o r i t y are  o f Canada i n m u n i c i -  O n t a r i o , and the S o c i a l  Conservative  Government  C r e d i t Government i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  4 are  built  upon s t r o n g r u r a l  Another reason  why c i t i e s  hearing a t the p r o v i n c i a l under-represented  level  i nprovincial  urban u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n question of r e - d i s t r i b u t i n g The  provincial  support. fail  to get a  i s because they legislatures.  i s due t o c o n t i n u e d seats i n p r o v i n c i a l  sympathetic generally are Some o f t h i s inaction  on t h e  legislatures.  governments c o u l d undertake w h o l e s a l e  re-distri-  b u t i o n b u t i t i s e a s i e r a n d sometimes s a f e r t o do n o t h i n g . ^ Despite Harold  this  general pattern of p r o v i n c i a l  Kaplan,  The R e g i o n a l  B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1965), 5  Ibid.  City  p . 18.  (Toronto:  inaction, Canadian  137 the  Canadian r e c o r d  American. part,  The  s i t u a t i o n i n the  in their  United  somewhat b e t t e r d e a l cities  Canadian c i t i e s  and  party  do  from t h e i r  have had  o f t e n the  t h e y have t h e obstacles  ing  systems i n our  neither  governments.  the  direct  legisla-  As  a  get  a  than result, the  federal assistance.  t h a t , under the provinces  are  to  nor  present too  powerful  r e f o r m e r s who  stupid.  The  But  the  dismiss prevail-  deep-seated a t t i t u d e s  obstacles  They a r e  convinced  problems  "politics".  reflect  are  real,  to reform numerous,  and  are and  overcome.  metropolitan be  as mere  provinces  However, t o f i n d  should  and  s o l u t i o n s to metropolitan  self-interest.  trivial  difficult  planners  to reform  understandable  and  seeking  Canadian f e d e r a l i s m ,  the  with  state  by-passed.^ Too  that  under-repre-  l e s s incentive f o r by-passing  i n Canada a l s o r e a l i z e  t o be  Urban  the  most  Most C a n a d i a n c i t i e s  state  The  of  f o r the  f r o m t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l governments  g o v e r n m e n t s and  status  States,  c o n t r o l o f the  provincial cities  i s b e t t e r than  t h a n i n Canada.  i s u s u a l l y more r u r a l - b a s e d .  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Metropolitan Area Problems. Report of i f i c Coast Conference on Metropolitan Problems, July 1958. Berkeley, California: Bureau of Public tration and U n i v e r s i t y Extension, University of C a l i -  i960.  149 F . UNPUBLISHED  MATERIALS  Oike, Perry. "Winnipeg." Term P a p e r p r e p a r e d f o r A r c h i t e c t u r e 425 i n t h e . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 6 6 . P e r r y , P e r c y A. "Power, F u n c t i o n a n d R e g i o n : A Study of Three F a c t o r s i n R e g i o n a l Development." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver,  1967.  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D i v i s i o n o f Community and Regional Planning. " P l a n n i n g f o r R e g i o n a l Development i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Vancouver: U, B. C , D i v . o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , S p r i n g , 1965>«; W a k e l i n , C h a r l e s H. "The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f A M e t r o p o l i t a n A g e n c y i n I m p r o v i n g The L o c a l M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s ; An E v a l u a t i o n o f The Case i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . " Unp u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1966.  15© G.  V a n c o u v e r Sun.  NEWSPAPER  September  H.  10,  1968.  Pp. 1 and  6.  INTERVIEW  McLean, J i m . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w h e l d a t t h e G r e a t e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , V a n c o u v e r , A u g u s t 9, I 9 S 8 .  Vancouver  151  APPENDIX  THE QUESTIONAIRRE SENT TO THE LOWER MAINLAND REGIONAL PLANNING BOARD, THE PLANNING DIVISION.OP THE METROPOLITAN CORPORATION OP GREATER WINNIPEG, AND THE METROPOLITAN TORONTO PLANNING'. BOARD I N JULY, 1 9 6 8 . . 1.  Please  describe  the present  geographic area  covered  by y o u r  a g e n c y o r r e f e r me t o a p u b l i c a t i o n where I c a n o b t a i n  this  information. 2.  When a n d u n d e r what l e g i s l a t i o n was y o u r a g e n c y  3.  (a)  I s your agency a t t a c h e d  to a metropolitan  established? or regional  government?  (b)  Yes  (  )  No  (  )  Have t h e r e litan  4.  to 5.  (  )  No  (  )  list  legislation?  been any o f f i c i a l i n q u i r i e s  Please  20  years?  list.  the major f u n c t i o n s o f your agency o r r e f e r  a p u b l i c a t i o n where I c a n o b t a i n t h i s  Please  i n t o metropo-  o r r e g i o n a l government i n t h e p a s t  Yes  Please  When a n d u n d e r what  describe  me  information.  t h e main t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  divi-  s i o n s o f y o u r a g e n c y o r r e f e r me t o a p u b l i c a t i o n where I can 6.  obtain this  information.  A p p r o x i m a t e l y how many p e o p l e a r e n o r m a l l y  employed by y o u r  agency? 7.  Have y o u r p r e p a r e d plan?  a comprehensive m e t r o p o l i t a n  or regional  152  8.  Yes  (  )  No  (  )  Please  give t i t l e  and date  of publication.  Has t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e m e t r o p o l i t a n o r r e g i o n a l p l a n  been  adopted? Yes  (  )  Date?  No  (  )  Can y o u r e f e r me t o a n y p u b l i c a t i o n o r n e w s p a p e r stories  9.  that w i l l  e x p l a i n why?  Have y o u i n y o u r own o r i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r  agencies  prepared  any m e t r o p o l i t a n o r r e g i o n a l p l a n s  specific  function  such  f o ra  as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s h o r e l i n e , r e c r e a t i o n ,  etc?  10.  Yes  (  )  No  (  )  (a)  (b)  Please  ;  11.  title  and d a t e  Have a n y o f t h e s p e c i f i c cially  adopted?  Yes  (  )  No  (  )  Please  of publication.  f u n c t i o n a l plans  been  offi-  f u n c t i o n a l plans  not o f f i -  list.  Have a n y o f t h e s p e c i f i c cially  •>  list  adopted n e v e r t h l e s s i n your o p i n i o n been used  as a guide ? Yes  (  )  No  (  )  Are there  Please  list.  any o t h e r a g e n c i e s  c a r r y i n g on c e r t a i n  i n this  metropolitan area  also  l a n d use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g  functions  on an a r e a - w i d e  Yes  (  )  Please  No  (  )  basis?  g i v e name a n d a d d r e s s .  153  12.  Please  give  t h e names o f t h e l o c a l  municipalities 13«  Please  list  planning bodies  w i t h i n your metropolitan  area.  your p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the past  years  that w i l l probably  their  prices.  of the  three  to five  be r e l e v a n t t o my r e s e a r c h a n d  THANK YOU VERY MUCH'  

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