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Growth patterns in reading achievement Andrade, Teresa Manalad 1969

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GROWTH PATTERNS IN READING ACHIEVEMENT  by TERESA MANALAD ANDRADE M.A.,  N a t i o n a l Teachers C o l l e g e ,  1957  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Doctor of  Education  i n the Department of Education  We accept t h i s required  dissertation  as conforming to  the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  August,  1969  In  presenting  an  advanced  the  Library  I further for  this  thesis  degree shall  agree  scholarly  in partial  fulfilment  of the requirements f o r  at the University  of British  Columbia,  make that  permission  purposes  by  his representatives.  of  this  written  thes.is  i t freely  may  be g r a n t e d  of  gain  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  August 15,  by  1969  Columbia  shall  copying  t h e Head  It i s understood  for financial  f o r reference  f o r extensive  permission.  Department  Date  available  that  n o t be a l l o w e d  and  thesis  Department or  that  Study.  of this  o f my  copying  I agree  or  publication  without  my  ABSTRACT GROWTH PATTERNS IN READING ACHIEVEMENT Teresa M. Andrade U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 The Problem The purposes of t h i s study were (1) and analyze p a t t e r n s  to  investigate  of growth i n r e a d i n g achievement  from  grade three through grade seven of c h i l d r e n with d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l s t a t u s of reading r e a d i n e s s and (2)  t o f i n d out what  e a r l y c h i l d h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i s t i n g u i s h e d those who have become good and poor readers i n grade  five.  Methods and Procedures The f i r s t  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a r e t r o s p e c t i v e ,  t u d i n a l study of the p a t t e r n s  longi-  of the means i n Word Meaning  and Paragraph Meaning of the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t . The s u b j e c t s were 300 seventh graders who had scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n  available  Readiness T e s t s i n grade one and  on the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t i n grades three through seven.  These p u p i l s were randomly s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n  of 517 c h i l d r e n from 14 elementary  schools.  A n a l y s i s of  v a r i a n c e , t t e s t s and graphs were employed i n comparing the growth p a t t e r n s normal, average,  e x h i b i t e d by p u p i l s i n the s u p e r i o r , h i g h low normal, and poor r i s k c a t e g o r i e s of  reading readiness.  The second p a r t was an ex post f a c t o study i n which the F i s h e r exact p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t was used i n  identifying  c e r t a i n p r e s c h o o l arid beginning s c h o o l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t differentiated  the good from the poor grade f i v e  Case s t u d i e s were made on s i x t e e n good readers  readers.  and.sixteen  poor readers randomly s e l e c t e d from the top 27 per cent and the bottom 27 per cent of a p o p u l a t i o n of 315 grade p u p i l s from f i v e elementary s c h o o l s .  five  Information was o b -  t a i n e d from the scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s , permanent s c h o o l r e c o r d s , and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r e n t s . Conclusions 1.  The three h i g h e s t groups of r e a d i n e s s c a t e g o r i e s , the s u p e r i o r , h i g h normal, and average maintained their  relative  p o s i t i o n s throughout the  five-year period.  entire  This trend i n d i c a t e d that  p u p i l s with high i n i t i a l  s t a t u s of reading r e a d i -  ness continue to perform w e l l i n reading throughout the elementary g r a d e s . 2.  Those i n the s u p e r i o r group remained s u p e r i o r , on the average, and even tended to p r o g r e s s at a f a s t e r r a t e than those i n the other  cate-  g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . 3.  The s l o p e s of the curves on Paragraph Meaning of the average and the low normal groups and on Word Meaning of the low normal and the poor r i s k groups tended to be s i m i l a r .  4.  There in  appeared  the growth  readiness  5.  6.  t o be  no  curves  but  plateau  of a l llevels  something  like  from grades  five  to s i x .  There  was  rise  i n growth  a steep  in  grade  of  reading  The  seven  the  f o r a l lthe f i v e  mean g a i n s  reading  grade  from grade  readiness the boys  levels.  were  f o u n d t o be  only  f o r the high  Paragraph Meaning  8.  was  reading  categories  and  characteristics  through  different  surpassed  the g i r l s  category  i n preschool  grade were  found t o  the poor  (a) r e a d i n g  (b) e a g e r n e s s  t o do  curiosity,  (d) i n t e r e s t  (e)  congenial  (f)  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , (g) w a s  relationship  normal Meaning.  and  early  differentiate  readers  i n the  readiness  t h i n g s by  (c)  grades  on  f o r the high  t h a t were  cate-  himself,  i n reading, with  at  however,  i n most  c a t e g o r i e s on Word  between t h e good and  grade  for a l l  differences,  normal  The  school years  three  significant  low normal  gory,  reading  groups.  The  and  fifth  in  four  readiness.  In general, all  of  a plateau  noted  seven were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  7.  i n grade  parents,  read  to  and  given help ception,  i n reading,  (i) auditory  (h) v i s u a l perception,  (j) r i c h n e s s of v e r b a l concepts, l a r y , and  (1)  number  per-  knowledge.  (k) v o c a b u -  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r wishes to acknowledge her indebtedness to all  those who generously gave t h e i r  time and a s s i s t a n c e toward  making t h i s study p o s s i b l e . She i s deeply g r a t e f u l  to the members of her  committee:  Dr. Harold M. C o v e l l , Dr. T . D . M . McKie, Dr. Glen M. C h r o n i s t e r , Dr. F r e d e r i c k Bowers, and Dr. Kenneth Slade f o r t h e i r  valuable  advice and h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s .  under-  T h e i r encouragement,  s t a n d i n g and support helped make a d i f f i c u l t  task more  pleasant. She a l s o wishes to express her g r a t i t u d e o p e r a t i o n g i v e n by the o f f i c i a l s  and s t a f f  f o r the c o -  of the Richmond and  Vancouver s c h o o l boards and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing C e n t r e . go to the parents who w i l l i n g l y  participated  Profound thanks in this  study.  She a p p r e c i a t e s the k i n d a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by her c o l l e a g u e s and f r i e n d s and to them she g i v e s g r a t e f u l  acknowledgment.  S p e c i a l acknowledgment i s due to the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency f o r g i v i n g the w r i t e r the  opportunity  to do post graduate work at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia on a Colombo s c h o l a r s h i p grant and to the N a t i o n a l Economic C o u n c i l and the Bureau of P u b l i c Schools of the P h i l i p p i n e s f o r g r a n t i n g her leave of absence f o r the d u r a t i o n of study.  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE THE PROBLEM Introduction  1  Importance of the Study.  4  Statement of the Problem  6  Hypotheses  7  Definition  II.  1  of Terms  8  L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study  10  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  11  P r e d i c t i v e Studies I n v o l v i n g P u p i l s  in  Grade One  11  Reading Readiness and Reading Success i n High Grade L e v e l s  19  Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Reading Readiness Reading Achievement.  . . .  Reading Achievement Growth  21 . . .  23  Summary III.  29  DESIGN AND PROCEDURES Growth P a t t e r n s  32  i n Reading Achievement . . .  32  The Design The P o p u l a t i o n and S e l e c t i o n of Subjects Procedures i n C o l l e c t i n g Data  32 .  35 37  CHAPTER  PAGE D e s c r i p t i o n of the Tests Used i n the Study  39  E a r l y Childhood C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Good and Poor Readers i n Grade V. .  44  The Design  45  S e l e c t i o n o f Subjects f o r the Study. . . .  47  Procedures i n C o l l e c t i n g the Data  48  Summary IV.  49  PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA  50  Analysis of Variance  50  Hypothesis 1  53  Hypothesis 2  . . . . .  Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 4' V  . . . . . . . "." . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Hypothesis 5 . . .  67 72 88  Summary o f the Data on the Case S t u d i e s . . F i n d i n g s from the Case S t u d i e s V.  64  . . . . . .  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  93 100 106  Summary o f Design and Procedures  106  Summary of F i n d i n g s  108  Growth P a t t e r n s i n Reading Achievement . .  108  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Good and Poor. Readers . 109 Educational Implications  . . .  Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research  I l l 113  PAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY  116  APPENDIX A.  I n t e r v i e w Guide  B.  An I n t e r v i e w w i t h  C.  Case  Studies  a Parent.  .  124  . . . . . .•. . .  128 133  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.  PAGE Predictive Validity  Studies of Reading  Readiness T e s t s II.  Distribution  30  of Subjects Included  in  the  Study III.  36  D i s t r i b u t i o n of P u p i l s A c c o r d i n g to Readiness C a t e g o r i e s  IV. V.  Standardized T e s t s used i n the Study Reliability  38  C o e f f i c i e n t s and Related  Metropolitan VI.  36  Data,  Readiness T e s t s , Grade I.  Predictive Validity  of M e t r o p o l i t a n  T e s t s as Found f o r the 919  .  .  .  40  Readiness  First-Grade  P u p i l s i n the White Schools of a Country System  41  VII.  A n a l y s i s of Variance  (Paragraph Meaning)  . . .  51  VIII.  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e  (Word Meaning) . . . . . .  52  IX.  Mean K Scores by Grade on Paragraph Meaning i n the S t a n f o r d Achievement Test of Both Sexes i n the S u p e r i o r , High Normal, Average, Low Normal and Poor Risk C a t e g o r i e s of Reading Readiness  X.  54  Mean K Scores by Grade on Word Meaning i n  the  Standord Achievement Test of Both Sexes i n the S u p e r i o r , High Normal, Average, Low Normal and Poor Risk C a t e g o r i e s Reading Readiness.  .  of 54  TABLE XI.  PAGE Comparison of Means Between Readiness C a t e g o r i e s by Grade of Both Sexes  XII.  55  Comparison of Slopes Between Reading Readiness C a t e g o r i e s of Both Sexes  XIII.  59  Comparison of Means Between Grades by Readiness Category on Paragraph Meaning of the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t  XIV.  65  Comparison of Means Between Grades by Readiness Category on Word Meaning of S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t .  XV.  Mean Gains  (K S c o r e s ) i n the  the  . . .  66  Stanford  Achievement T e s t of Both Sexes XVI.  68  Comparison of Mean Gains from Grade 3 to Grade 7 Between Reading R e a d i n e s s . C a t e g o r i e s of Both Sexes  XVII.  69  Mean K Scores by Grade on Paragraph Meaning i n the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t i n  the  S u p e r i o r , High Normal, Average, Low Normal, and Poor Risk C a t e g o r i e s of Reading Readiness. XVIII.  73  Mean K Scores by Grade on Paragraph Meaning the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t i n  in  the  S u p e r i o r , High Normal, Average, Low Normal, and Poor Risk C a t e g o r i e s of Reading Readiness  74  TABLE XIX.  PAGE Comparison of Means Between Boys and G i r l s by Readiness Category and by Grade on Paragraph Meaning, and Word Meaning on the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t  XX.  75  Comparison of Slopes Between Boys and G i r l s by Readiness Category  87  L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  PAGE T r e n d o f Means on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g o f B o t h Sexes i n F i v e L e v e l s  2.  of Reading Readiness . .  T r e n d o f Means on Word M e a n i n g o f B o t h Sexes in  F i v e L e v e l s o f Reading Readiness . . . . .  3.  Mean G a i n s  ( K - S c o r e s ) on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g .  4.  Mean G a i n s  ( K - S c o r e s ) on Word M e a n i n g  5.  C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s  . .  C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s  C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s  C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s  .  C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s  78 i n t h e Low  C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s  . . . . . . .  C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s  82 i n the High  N o r m a l Group on Word M e a n i n g . 12.  C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s Group on Word "Meaning  80  i n the Superior  Group on Word M e a n i n g 11.  79  i n the Poor  R i s k Group on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g 10.  77  i n the Average  N o r m a l Group on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g 9.  71  i n the High  Group on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g 8.  71  76  N o r m a l Group on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g 7.  61  i n the Superior  Group on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g 6.  60  ,  83  i n the Average 84  FIGURE 13.  PAGE C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s  i n t h e Low  N o r m a l Group on Word M e a n i n g . 14.  C o m p a r i s o n o f Boys and G i r l s Risk  15.  86  . .  89  of Reading Readiness . .  90  o f Reading Readiness.  T r e n d o f Means on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g o f i n Five Levels  T r e n d o f Means on Word M e a n i n g o f Boys i n Five  18.  .  T r e n d o f Means on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g o f  Girls 17.  85  i n the Poor  Group on Word M e a n i n g  Boys i n F i v e L e v e l s 16.  . . . . . . . .  Levels  o f Reading Readiness  91  T r e n d o f Means on Word M e a n i n g o f G i r l s i n Five Levels  o f Reading Readiness.  92  CHAPTER I THE  PROBLEM  T h i s chapter presents an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the study and g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the (1) importance o f the study,  (2) statement  o f the problem,  (3) hypotheses,  (4) d e f i n i t i o n o f terms, and (5) l i m i t a t i o n s o f the study. I. The  INTRODUCTION  importance o f r e a d i n e s s i n the t o t a l reading  development o f each c h i l d has long been r e c o g n i z e d . the e a r l y study conducted  Since  by Deputy"'' i n 1930, the concept  of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s has gained wide acceptance  among read-  i n g e x p e r t s , r e s e a r c h e r s , t e a c h e r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Conant claimed t h a t " s i n c e r e a d i n g and the l e a r n i n g o f readi n g are complex, i t should be c l e a r t h a t i n s u r i n g to read i s an important program."  2  readiness  f a c t o r i n the r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n  I t has been s a i d , t o o , t h a t "the progress young  c h i l d r e n make when they e n t e r s c h o o l i n the primary  grades  depends t o a l a r g e extent upon t h e i r r e a d i n e s s f o r l e a r n i n g  . Erby C. Deputy, P r e d i c t i n g First-Grade' Reading Achievement: A Study o f Reading Readiness ( C o n t r i b u t i o n s to E d u c a t i o n No. 425. New York: Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1936). 2 James B. Conant, Learning t o Read (New J e r s e y : E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , 1962), p. 4.  2  and  upon t h e p r o v i s i o n s t h e s c h o o l makes f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n  readiness." that  This being  3  "an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the case,  of readiness  teacher  will  growth.  . . . Readiness w i l l  all  do much t o f a c i l i t a t e  teachers  i n every  read  i f reading  begun b e f o r e  that  the c h i l d ' s  reading concern o f  situation.""*  "reading  readiness  implies  that  be s u c c e s s f u l a n d i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g t o i s introduced  t h a t he i s l i k e l y is  on t h e p a r t o f t h e  be an e v e r - p r e s e n t  learning  Gates s t a t e d t h a t a child will  Bond and Wagner b e l i e v e d  to f a i l  that  when he i s ' r i p e '  f o r i t and  and t o be a n n o y e d when  time."  5  Further,  instruction  I l g and Ames  surmised  " p o s s i b l y t h e g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h c a n be made  toward g u a r a n t e e r i n g  t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l  child  will  getthe  most p o s s i b l e o u t o f h i s s c h o o l  experience  i s t o make  tain  experience  a t what i s f o r  him  t h a t he s t a r t s the r i g h t  truly by  ready  time.  that  school  This  and n o t m e r e l y  c u s t o m o r by  should  cer-  be t h e t i m e when he i s  some t i m e a r b i t r a r i l y  decided  upon  law."6  M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s . Directions for A d m i n i s t e r i n g and Key f o r S c o r i n g (New Y o r k : Harcourt, B r a c e and W o r l d , I n c . , 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 1 4 . 4  to  Read  Guy L . Bond and E v a Bond Wagner, T e a c h i n g (New Y o r k : The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1 9 6 6 ) , ,  the C h i l d p. 1 6 .  ^Arthur L. Gates, "Basal P r i n c i p l e s i n Reading n e s s T e s t i n g , " T e a c h e r C o l l e g e R e c o r d , 4 0 : 4 9 5 (March,  Readi1 9 3 9 ) .  ^ F r a n c e s L . I l g and L o u i s e B a t e s Ames, S c h o o 1 R e a d i n e s s , B e h a v i o r T e s t s U s e d a t t h e G e s e l l I n s t i t u t e (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 1 4 .  3 Numerous s t u d i e s aimed at i d e n t i f y i n g  the r e a d i n e s s  f a c t o r s which are r e l a t e d t o success i n beginning reading have been made. attested  While most of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have  to the r e l e v a n c e of reading r e a d i n e s s f o r  the  i n i t i a l stage i n r e a d i n g , there seems to be some d i s a greement as to what r e a d i n e s s f a c t o r s best p r e d i c t success.  H a r r i s o n argued t h a t " s i n c e r e a d i n g i s an i n t e l -  l e c t u a l p r o c e s s , f a c t o r s of i n t e l l e c t u a l t e r i n g reading r e a d i n e s s are of g r e a t e r group of  reading  factors."  development f o s - . importance than any  7  8 Morphett and Washburne  concluded t h a t a mental age  of s i x i s necessary f o r a c h i l d to succeed i n reading and t h a t a mental age of s i x and a h a l f more n e a r l y i n s u r e s 9 success.  However, r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s by Davidson,  and D u r k i n  1 1  10  Wilson,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t some c h i l d r e n with mental ages  below s i x a l s o make progress i n r e a d i n g .  Gates contended  7  L u c i l e M. H a r r i s o n , Reading Readiness (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 6. p M.V. Morphett and C . Washburne, "When Should C h i l d r e n Learn to Read?" Elementary School J o u r n a l , 31:496-503, March, 1 9 3 1 . Q  Helen P. D a v i d s o n , "An Experimental Study of B r i g h t , Average, and D u l l C h i l d r e n at the Four-Year Mental L e v e l , " Genetic Psychology Monographs, 9:119-287, March, 1 9 3 1 . "^Frank T . W i l s o n , "Reading Progress i n K i n d e r g a r t e n and Primary G r a d e s , " Elementary School J o u r n a l , 38:442-49, F e b r u a r y , 1938. "'""'"Dolores D u r k i n , C h i l d r e n Who Read E a r l y Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , 174 p p .  (New York:  4 t h a t "the c r u c i a l mental age l e v e l w i l l vary with the materials;  the type of t e a c h i n g ; the s k i l l of the  teacher;  the s i z e of the c l a s s ; the amount of p r e c e d i n g p r e p a r a t o r y work; the thoroughness of examination; the frequency and the treatment of s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  such as v i s u a l d e f e c t s  1 9  of the p u p i l ; and other II.  factors."  IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and emotional f a c t o r s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s to r e a d i n g achievement has continued to be the t o p i c of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s among educators and r e s e a r c h e r s .  A p e r u s a l of  the  r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e has r e v e a l e d t h a t most of these s t u d i e s have used f i r s t - g r a d e c h i l d r e n as t h e i r  subjects.  However,  13 Gray  maintained t h a t s t u d i e s of beginning reading must be  regarded as i n c o n c l u s i v e s i n c e l e a r n i n g to read i s  still  very incomplete at the b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s . The p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the " f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e a d i n e s s f o r l e a r n i n g to read to achievement i n r e a d i n g at the h i g h e r grade l e v e l s has made C.W. Hunnicutt and W i l l i a m J . Iverson ( e d s . ) , Research i n the Three R's (New York: Harper & B r o t h e r s , 1958), p. 57. 13 Writing  W i l l i a m S. G r a y , The Teaching of Reading and (London: UNESCO and Evans B r o s . , 1956), p. 44.  5  it  necessary t h a t f u r t h e r  s t u d i e s be conducted i n t h i s  area.  A knowledge of the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p h y s i c a l ,  intellectual,  and emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h i g h l y r e l a t e d  to success  reading i n intermediate  in  grades c o u l d be u s e f u l to parents  and to teachers of k i n d e r g a r t e n  and f i r s t  grade.  Since the  foundation f o r reading i s l a i d i n p r e s c h o o l and beginning s c h o o l y e a r s , parents and teachers c o u l d cooperate i n p r o v i d i n g the e a r l y experiences t h a t would h e l p c h i l d r e n grow into  reading. Many s t u d i e s on p a t t e r n s  of r e a d i n g growth have been  based only on c r o s s s e c t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n and these do not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t the p a t t e r n s  for a particular  group or i n d i v i d u a l s i n c e c h i l d r e n grow at d i f f e r e n t  rates  and reach s i m i l a r developmental stages at d i f f e r e n t ages. Most of the l o n g i t u d i n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on reading  growth  have been conducted i n l a b o r a t o r i e s or c l i n i c s on s m a l l groups or s p e c i a l c a s e s .  A few l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s on  l a r g e u n s e l e c t e d groups have used e i t h e r  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  or l e v e l s of i n t e l l i g e n c e  as base l i n e .  There remains a  need to i d e n t i f y  of reading growth e x h i b i t e d by  patterns  youngsters i n v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of reading r e a d i n e s s .  An  awareness of these p a t t e r n s would g i v e teachers and a d m i n i s trators  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be u s e f u l i n p l a n n i n g and  c a r r y i n g out r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s programs i n s c h o o l s .  If  slowness i n r e a d i n g c o u l d be detected e a r l y i n the c h i l d r e n ' s  6 development g r e a t e r focus on p r e v e n t i v e and remedial measures could be p l a c e d d u r i n g the e a r l i e r s c h o o l years i n order t o minimize f a i l u r e s i n r e a d i n g i n l a t e r III.  years.  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  T h i s study was designed  t o i n v e s t i g a t e and analyze  the p a t t e r n s o f growth i n r e a d i n g achievement t h a t have taken p l a c e from grade three t o grade seven among a group of  c h i l d r e n belonging  t o the s u p e r i o r , high normal, aver-  age, below normal, and poor r i s k c a t e g o r i e s of readiness a t the beginning  o f f i r s t grade.  Another purpose o f t h i s i n -  v e s t i g a t i o n was t o i d e n t i f y p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and emotional  social  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s while i n p r e s c h o o l , k i n d e r -  g a r t e n and f i r s t grade o f good and poor readers i n i n t e r m e d i a t e grades.  I t attempted t o answer the f o l l o w i n g  questions: 1.  What i s the nature o f growth i n reading  achieve-  ment o f c h i l d r e n i n each o f f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of reading 1.1.  readiness?  Are the p a t t e r n s o f group means o f r e a d i n g achievement d i f f e r e n t from one category  1.2.  t o another?  Is there a p l a t e a u i n grade f o u r which i n d i c a t e s l a c k of growth i n the reading growth curve ing  f o r each category o f read-  readiness?  1.3.  Is the mean g a i n i n r e a d i n g  achievement  from grade three t o grade seven d i f f e r ent f o r each of f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of reading 1.4.  readiness?  Are the r e a d i n g growth p a t t e r n s among boys d i f f e r e n t from those among g i r l s ?  2.  What p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n b e f o r e and i n grade one d i s t i n g u i s h those who have become good and poor readers  i n i n t e r m e d i a t e grades?  IV.  HYPOTHESES  The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were t e s t e d i n t h i s study: 1.  There i s no d i f f e r e n c e among the p a t t e r n s o f group means i n reading achievement o f p u p i l s belonging  t o each o f the s u p e r i o r , high normal,  average, low normal, and poor r i s k c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g 2.  readiness.  There i s a p l a t e a u i n grade four i n the reading growth curve f o r each category of reading readiness.  3.  There are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean gains from grade three t o grade seven among the groups i n f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f reading readiness.  8  4.  There are sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e a d i n g growth p a t t e r n s of the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of reading  5.  readiness.  There are some outstanding physical, intellectual,  social,  childhood and  emotional  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that d i s t i n g u i s h  those who  have become good and poor  readers  i n grade V.  1.  early  five.  DEFINITION OF TERMS  P a t t e r n s of reading growth - the p r o f i l e of means i n r e a d i n g achievement from grade three to grade seven as assessed by the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t s g i v e n at the end of each s c h o o l year.  2.  Reading readiness - the t i m e l i n e s s of what we wish t o teach i n the l i g h t of the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to p r o f i t from i t not only at the beginning  stages of l e a r n i n g to read.but at  every step i n the c h i l d ' s progress  from  simple reading tasks t o those t h a t are more complicated.14  14  Margaret G. McKim, Guiding Growth i n Reading i n the Modern E l e m e n t a r y School, (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1955) , p. 36 . 1  9 3.  Readiness category - a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s as measured by the Metropolitan  Readiness T e s t s .  Category  Score  Superior  90 -  High Normal  ^..80  Average Low Normal  -  89  .65 -  79  40 -  64  Poor Risk 4.  100  0-39  Reading achievement - the g a i n from one year to another i n Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning expressed i n K - s c o r e s as measured by the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t s g i v e n at  the  end of each g r a d e . 5.  K - s c o r e s - standard scores d e r i v e d from G a r d n e r ' s K - s c a l e which i s claimed to have approximately  equal u n i t s throughout  the  e n t i r e range of the s c a l e . 6.  Significant difference  - any  difference  found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e per cent  level.  10 •VI.  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  Since t h i s was a r e t r o s p e c t i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l study, the i n v e s t i g a t o r had t o depend only on measures t h a t e x i s t . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study were c o n f i n e d  mostly, to the  s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s measured by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Tests,.  Readiness  CHAPTER  II  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The acceptance of the concept of r e a d i n e s s as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the growth of each c h i l d has r e s u l t e d i n a l a r g e number of s t u d i e s which have attempted to i d e n t i f y r e a d i n e s s f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to success i n r e a d i n g .  Research  on reading r e a d i n e s s and r e a d i n g achievement growth to t h i s study are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  studies involving f i r s t  grade p u p i l s ;  related  These i n v e s t i -  g a t i o n s have been c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : dictive  the  (2)  (1)  pre-  reading  r e a d i n e s s and success i n r e a d i n g i n h i g h e r grade l e v e l s ; (3)  sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n reading r e a d i n e s s and reading  achievement; and (4) achievement I.  l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s on r e a d i n g  growth.  PREDICTIVE STUDIES INVOLVING PUPILS IN GRADE ONE Dean* administered the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests  and the Monroe Reading A p t i t u d e Tests f o r P r e d i c t i o n and A n a l y s i s of Reading A b i l i t i e s to p u p i l s of f i v e  first  rooms d u r i n g the f i r s t week of the s c h o o l term to to what extent these t e s t s can p r e d i c t reading  grade  determine  achievement.  Using the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t as c r i t e r i o n ,  he  C h a r l e s Dean, " P r e d i c t i n g F i r s t Grade Reading Achievement," Ihe Elementary School J o u r n a l , 39:609-16, A p r i l , 1939.  12 found t h a t the scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n correlated  Readiness T e s t s  .59 with reading achievement and the scores on  the Monroe Reading A p t i t u d e T e s t s c o r r e l a t e d i n g achievement.  The r e l a t i o n  .41 with r e a d -  of mental age as assessed by  the S t a n f o r d R e v i s i o n of the Binet-Simon I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale to reading achievement was r e l a t i v e l y being .62.  Mental age, t h e r e f o r e ,  h i g h , the  was found to be a b e t t e r  p r e d i c t o r of the reading achievement of f i r s t than r e a d i n e s s  correlation  grade p u p i l s  tests.  In an attempt to prove t h a t homogeneous grouping w i t h r e s p e c t to a b i l i t y  and r e a d i n e s s would make f o r  effec-  2 t i v e teaching,, Roslow  used the Kuhlmann-Anderson I n t e l l i -  gence T e s t s and the Monroe Reading A p t i t u d e Tests i n p l a c i n g first  grade c h i l d r e n i n three s e c t i o n s .  mental ages above 6,  IQ above 110,  Children with  and reading a p t i t u d e  c e n t i l e s above 60 were assigned to S e c t i o n 1.  per-  P u p i l s with  mental ages from 5.6  to 6 . 0 ,  aptitude  from 40 to 60 were p l a c e d i n S e c t i o n 2.  percentiles  IQ from 95 t o 110,  Those w i t h mental ages below 5 . 6 , aptitude  and reading  IQ below 95, and reading  p e r c e n t i l e s below 40 were i n S e c t i o n 3.  All  these  c h i l d r e n had been g i v e n a program of reading r e a d i n e s s Sydney Roslow, "Reading Readiness and Reading Achievement i n F i r s t G r a d e , " J o u r n a l of Experimental Educ a t i o n , 9:154-59, December, 1940.  13 activities  while  p l a c e m e n t was classroom  i n kindergarten.  to minimize  tutoring  difficulties At  while  the  m e a s u r e d by  had  end  the  i n the  Gates Primary  the  of each  reading  The  reading  t o be  above  results mental  of  this  oral  the  study  with  percentile  below  50  can  grade under  reading and  readiness  preventive  reading  reading.  IQ  instruction  and  was  the  princi-  principal  children  end  of  belief  100,  successfully  and  be  including  activities  reading  achievement  The  the  the  below  a program  out-of-  evaluated  i n t e r m s o f A,B,C,D, and  supported  6,  this  grade.  Reading Tests  child  purpose of  to children with  norm f o r t h e  below  the  i n reading,  achievement of  age  first  first  o f grade one,  their  found  failure  been g i v e n  p a l 's r a t i n g s o f oral  Since  first  as  F.  a whole  grade.  The  that children with  taught  an  i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , and  i n addition to regular  with  aptitude  to read  differential  was  in  placement, remedial classroom  teaching. Henig Clark  Reading  of p u p i l s ' of  the  3  determined Readiness  progress.  first  g r a d e as  the Test  Using  forecasting value and the  criterion,  of  the  of  teachers'  the  estimates  t e a c h e r s ' marks a t the he  found  Max S. H e n i g , " P r e d i c t i v e V a l u e n e s s T e s t and T e a c h e r ' s F o r e c a s t s , " The J o u r n a l , 50:41-46, September, 1949.  Lee-  contingency  end co-  of a Reading ReadiElementary School  14 e f f i c i e n t s of .60  and  .55 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  T h i s showed t h a t  a s u b s t a n t i a l degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between reading r e a d i n e s s t e s t r e s u l t s and reading achievement. d i c t i v e value of the t e a c h e r s ' judgement was  The  pre-  j u s t as h i g h .  In an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y 4 the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests,,  Mitchell  tested  p u p i l s i n white and negro schools i n September. p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s , Primary t e r e d the f o l l o w i n g The  I B a t t e r y were  The  of 1170 Metro-  adminis-  May.  c o r r e l a t i o n s between the r e a d i n e s s scores  and  the achievement scores f o r a l l s u b t e s t s and the t o t a l were computed.  tests  C o r r e l a t i o n s between the s u b t e s t s of the  M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n ment T e s t s ranged from .51 t o .63.  Achieve-  M i t c h e l l concluded  that  the r e a d i n e s s t e s t s were good p r e d i c t o r s of f i r s t grade learning. ready  She  found the g i r l s i n her sample to be more  f o r formal r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n than the boys.  mean f o r the boys i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests 73.92 w h i l e t h a t of the g i r l s was 2.5 was  76.42.  s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e per cent  The was  The d i f f e r e n c e of level.  B l y t h e C. M i t c h e l l , "The M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests as P r e d i c t o r s of F i r s t - G r a d e Reading Achievement," E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 22:765-72, Winter, 1962.  15 Dykstra^ s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l e c t e d measures of a u d i t o r y f i r s t grade and  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n at the beginning of  reading  achievement a t the end  of  first  grade. Each of the  331  boys and  from e i g h t schools  was  given  gence Test and i n the  first  301  g i r l s randomly s e l e c t e d  the Lorge-Thorndike  seven d i f f e r e n t a u d i t o r y  f o u r weeks of s c h o o l .  Intelli-  discrimination tests  These t e s t s of  auditory  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were s e l e c t e d from the Murphy-Durrell.Diagn o s t i c Reading Readiness T e s t , . t h e Gates Reading Readiness T e s t , the Harrison-Stroud  Reading Readiness P r o f i l e s ,  the Reading Aptitude. T e s t s . achievement was  following spring,  reading  measured by the word r e c o g n i t i o n and  graph meaning subtests He  The  and  of the Gates Primary Reading  paraTest.  found the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the  measures of a u d i t o r y  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and  to be r e l a t i v e l y low  (from .19  to .46).  t h i s study t h a t s k i l l i n a u d i t o r y  reading He  achievement  i n f e r r e d from  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not  s u f f i c i e n t to guarantee success i n l e a r n i n g to read. A comparison of the  judgment of k i n d e r g a r t e n  w i t h the r e s u l t s of f o u r s t a n d a r d i z e d  teachers  tests for predicting  Robert D y k s t r a , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between S e l e c t e d Measures of A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and Reading Achievement at the End of F i r s t Grade," (unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, M i n n e a p o l i s , 1962).  16 kindergarteners'  success i n f i r s t  grade was done by M a t t i c k .  Nine hundred seventy-two k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n were randomly s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n of 14,000 as s u b j e c t s of  the  study. A l l the k i n d e r g a r t e n teachers i n the s c h o o l  district  were asked to r a t e each c h i l d i n the c l a s s e s as having h i g h , average, or low p o t e n t i a l  f o r success i n grade one.  1  These  t e a c h e r s ' marks were completed before the s t a n d a r d i z e d  tests  were a d m i n i s t e r e d . During l a t e A p r i l and May, each p u p i l took any two of the f o l l o w i n g :  L e e - C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t ,  p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s , Form R, Lorge-Thorndike  Metro-  Intelligence  T e s t s , Form A , and the C a l i f o r n i a Short-Form T e s t of  Mental  Maturity. In October of the f o l l o w i n g school, y e a r , grade teachers made a p r e l i m i n a r y  all  r a t i n g of t h e i r  achievement as h i g h , average, or low.  first  pupils'  Correlation c o e f f i -  c i e n t s were computed between the k i n d e r g a r t e n  teachers  1  r a t i n g s and the p u p i l s ' scores on the f o r e g o i n g t e s t s and between the f i r s t - g r a d e  teachers'  r a t i n g s and the p u p i l s '  scores on these same s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s .  The c o e f f i c i e n t s  of c o r r e l a t i o n ranged from. .546  The  between the M e t r o p o l i t a n  to  .368.  correlation  Readiness T e s t s , Form R, and  first-  W i l l i a m E . M a t t i c k , " P r e d i c t i n g Success i n the F i r s t G r a d e , " The Elementary School J o u r n a l , 42:273-75, F e b r u a r y , 1963.  17 grade t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s was found t o be the h i g h e s t . M a t t i c k concluded from t h i s study t h a t o f the f i v e  pre-  d i c t o r s o f f i r s t grade success, the M e t r o p o l i t a h Readiness T e s t s were the most e f f e c t i v e . 7  Barrett  i n v e s t i g a t e d the a b i l i t y o f seven v i s u a l  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n tasks t o p r e d i c t f i r s t grade reading ment.  achieve-  The s u b j e c t s o f the study were 331 boys and 301 g i r l s .  The t o t a l sample had a mean reading score of grade 2.3 and a mean IQ o f 10 2. The t e s t s used were: Tests>  1) Gates P i c t u r e D i r e c t i o n s  2) Gates Word Matching T e s t , 3) Gates Word-Card  Matching T e s t , 4) Gates Reading L e t t e r s and Numbers 5) P a t t e r n Copying T e s t , 6) P i c t u r e Square. Test, 7) Reversals T e s t .  Test,  and  The Gates Primary Word R e c o g n i t i o n  Test  and the Gates Primary Paragraph Reading Test were used t o assess the e n d - o f - f i r s t grade reading  achievement.  A m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s showed t h a t Reading L e t t e r s and Numbers was the b e s t s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r o f reading  achievement i n grade one.  The optimum combination f o r  p r e d i c t i n g f i r s t - g r a d e r e a d i n g achievement were Reading L e t t e r s and Numbers, P a t t e r n Copying, and Word Matching.  Thomas C. B a r r e t t , " V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Tasks as P r e d i c t o r s of F i r s t Grade Reading Achievement," The Reading Teacher, 18:257-61, January, 1965.  18 p  Thackray  used m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n a s s e s s i n g the  p r e d i c t i v e value of v a r i o u s aspects of r e a d i n g  readiness:  v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , mental a b i l i t y , home environment, and emotional  and p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s .  He ad-  m i n i s t e r e d t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f 182 c h i l d r e n from e l e v e n schools the f o l l o w i n g measures:  Harrison-Stroud.  Readiness P r o f i l e s , the K e l v i n Measurement of A b i l i t y  Test  f o r I n f a n t s , and a m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e P i c t u r e Vocabulary  Test  which he c o n s t r u c t e d .  He a l s o c o l l e c t e d the t e a c h e r s '  r a t i n g s of g e n e r a l a b i l i t y , t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s of language and speech, and made notes of the c h i l d r e n ' s homes.  on the socio-economic The emotional  background  and p e r s o n a l  atti-  tudes o f the s u b j e c t s were based on the t e a c h e r s ' r a t i n g s of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , c o o p e r a t i o n with a d u l t s , c o o p e r a t i o n with other c h i l d r e n , p e r s i s t e n c e , s t a b i l i t y and p r e v a i l i n g attitude.  Using the Southgate Group Reading Test as c r i t e r -  i o n , he found  the a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n sub-  t e s t s o f the H a r r i s o n - S t r o u d Reading Readiness P r o f i l e s t o c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y with reading achievement, the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s being  .53 and .50 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  c u l a r sample, the H a r r i s o n - S t r o u d  In t h i s  parti-  Reading Readiness P r o f i l e s  proved a v a l i d measure o f reading readiness  (.59).  D.V. Thackray, "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Reading Readiness and Reading P r o g r e s s , " B r i t i s h Journal, of Educ a t i o n a l Psychology, 35:252-54, June, 1965.  19 In the a n a l y s i s of data r e c e i v e d by the Minnesota C o o r d i n a t i n g Center from twenty seven f i r s t  grade  reading  9  p r o j e c t s , Bond and Dykstra p r e d i c t o r of f i r s t  r e p o r t e d t h a t the b e s t s i n g l e  grade r e a d i n g success was the Murphy-  D u r r e l l L e t t e r Names T e s t . c o r r e l a t i o n s between  T h i s t e s t had c o e f f i c i e n t  .52 and .60 with both the  of  Stanford  Word R e c o g n i t i o n and the S t a n f o r d Paragraph Meaning subt e s t s f o r each of the s i x treatments used i n the gation  (basal, i . t . a . ,  investi-  p h o n i c s , language e x p e r i e n c e ,  g u i s t i c t r e a t m e n t , and b a s a l and p h o n i c s ) . t h a t the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y  lin-  They found out  of a s i n g l e s u b t e s t such as  the L e t t e r Names s u b t e s t i s about the same as t h a t of  the  whole r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s b a t t e r y .  it  They concluded t h a t  probably was not necessary to g i v e the e n t i r e r e a d i n e s s test i f  the only purpose was to p r e d i c t r e a d i n g achievement" II.  READING READINESS AND READING SUCCESS IN HIGH GRADE LEVELS  A few r e s e a r c h e r s have used grade l e v e l s other the f i r s t  i n determining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  than  reading  Guy Bond and Robert D y k s t r a , "The Cooperative Research Program i n F i r s t Grade Reading I n s t r u c t i o n , " Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 2:116-17, Summer, 1967.  20 r e a d i n e s s and reading achievement.  Powell and P a r s e l y * ^  i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e s u l t s of  the  L e e - C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t administered i n September to 863 f i r s t graders and the r e s u l t s of the  California  Reading T e s t g i v e n to the same students the f o l l o w i n g year at the b e g i n n i n g of the second g r a d e .  R e l a t i o n s h i p s were  determined by means of the Pearson product moment c o r r e l a tion technique.  The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the L e e - C l a r k  Reading Readiness T e s t was a u s e f u l p r e d i c t o r of success f o r c h i l d r e n i n the second g r a d e . useful primarily  It  reading  was found  as a p r e d i c t o r of the t o t a l reading r e s u l t s  of the e n t i r e group. Kingston** u t i l i z e d  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  Readiness T e s t s  and the S t a n f o r d Achievement Tests f o r r e l a t i n g f i r s t  grade  r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s to t h i r d and f o u r t h grade reading a c h i e v e ment.  The scores of the boys were t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y  from  those of the g i r l s .  Multiple  r e g r e s s i o n equations were c a l -  c u l a t e d to determine  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the t o t a l scores  and s u b t e s t scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests and  Marvin Powell and Kenneth M. P a r s e l y , "The R e l a t i o n Between Grade Reading Readiness and Second Grade Reading Achievement," The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 54:229-33, F e b r u a r y , 1961. A l b e r t J . K i n g s t o n , "The R e l a t i o n s h i p of F i r s t Grade Readiness to T h i r d and Fourth Grade Achievement," The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 56:61-67, O c t o b e r ,  1962.  21  the t o t a l and s u b t e s t s scores on the t h i r d and f o u r t h  grade  S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t s . F i r s t grade r e a d i n e s s scores c o r r e l a t e d  significantly  with r e a d i n g achievement at both t h i r d and f o u r t h levels  (between .3 and . 6 ) .  However, the p r e d i c t i o n of  achievement i n the t h i r d and f o u r t h grades of p u p i l s from t h e i r  grade  individual  r e a d i n e s s scores i n the f i r s t  grade was  not f e a s i b l e as i n d i c a t e d by the s i z e of the c o e f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n obtained i n t h i s III.  of  sample.  SEX DIFFERENCES IN READING READINESS AND READING ACHIEVEMENT  There i s a g e n e r a l agreement among r e s e a r c h e r s and educators t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s do e x i s t i n r e a d i n g . 12 Carroll's  study of 1100 c h i l d r e n at the f i r s t  showed t h a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y  grade  s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s  d u r i n g the r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s p e r i o d .  level appear  She concluded t h a t  s i n c e they e x i s t e d before formal t e a c h i n g i n reading took place, i t  was probable t h a t such d i f f e r e n c e s might be due  to reading r e a d i n e s s f a c t o r s  alone.  M a r j o r i e Wight C a r r o l l , "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Reading Readiness at the F i r s t Grade L e v e l , " Elementary E n g l i s h , 25:370-75, O c t o b e r , 1948.  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n  conducted by Balow  13  in  f i r s t grade classrooms i n S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a , significant differences  thirteen indicated  i n reading r e a d i n e s s and reading  achievement i n f a v o r of the g i r l s .  However, when reading  was h e l d c o n s t a n t , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two sexes were too s m a l l to be s i g n i f i c a n t .  The data supported a non-  m a t u r a t i o n a l theory of sex d i f f e r e n c e s  i n reading a c h i e v e -  ment . 14 Summers  found t h a t i n every comparison analyzed  females made s i g n i f i c a n t l y ment than males.  g r e a t e r gains i n reading  Even when p o s s i b l e i n i t i a l  the  achieve-  differences  between the sexes were c o n t r o l l e d by u s i n g the  covariance  d e s i g n , the females continued to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  superior  to the males. 15 Konski  found no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s when  she measured reading r e a d i n e s s i n twelve s e l e c t e d a r e a s . However, when the reading achievement t e s t s were given 13  at  I r v i n g H. Balow, "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n F i r s t Grade R e a d i n g , " Elementary E n g l i s h , 40:303-06, 320, March, 1963. 14 Edward George Summers, "An E v a l u a t i o n of Reading Growth and R e t e n t i o n Under Two Plans of O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Seventh Grade Developmental Reading" (unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1963). 15 V i r g i n i a J . K o n s k i , "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n . i n t o D i f f e r ences Between Boys and G i r l s i n S e l e c t e d Reading Readiness Areas and i n Reading Achievement" (unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i , Columbia, 1951).  23 the end of f i r s t  g r a d e , the g i r l s  scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y  h i g h e r than the b o y s . 16 Wozencraft  reported differences  i n favor of  the  g i r l s when she made comparisons between the sexes i n r e s pect to the mean scores obtained on Paragraph Meaning, Word Meaning, Reading Average, A r i t h m e t i c  Reasoning, A r i t h -  metic Computation, and A r i t h m e t i c Average of the Achievement T e s t . ficant  Stanford  More d i f f e r e n c e s were found t o be s i g n i -  i n the t h i r d grade than i n the s i x t h g r a d e .  might i n d i c a t e  that while g i r l s  i n s c h o o l achievement, h i g h e r grade  started off  This  at an advantage  boys tended to catch up with them i n  levels. IV.  READING ACHIEVEMENT GROWTH  There i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on reading growth because studies o f ' t h i s  k i n d are u s u a l l y slow and c o s t l y .  the few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  i s the comparison of reading  Among growth  17 from grade two to seven made by M c E l r o y .  T h i s study was  conducted i n an upper middle c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l town.  suburban  The scores used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were those  Marian Wozencraft, "Sex Comparisons of C e r t a i n A b i l i t i e s , " The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 57:21-23, September, 1963. Kathryn Kohn M c E l r o y , "A Comparative Study of Reading Growth from Grades Two to S e v e n , " The Reading T e a c h e r , 25:98-101, September, 1961.  from the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n ; C a l i f o r n i a Mental M a t u r i t y T e s t i n grades two,  four,  and the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement T e s t i n grades t h r e e , and s e v e n .  the  and s i x ; five,  The median scores i n v o c a b u l a r y , comprehension  and t o t a l reading f o r each grade were p l o t t e d on graphs. Comparative s t u d i e s were then made on the growth  patterns  r e v e a l e d on g r a p h s . McElroy observed an almost i d e n t i c a l p a t t e r n i n v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension from grades two to seven.  She found  a lack of growth between the t h i r d and f o u r t h grades and between the f o u r t h and f i f t h g r a d e s .  There w a s h o w e v e r ,  an  a c c e l e r a t i o n of growth between the f i f t h and s i x t h g r a d e s . 18 The purpose of S u t t o n ' s variations  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was "to study  i n reading achievement.of  c h i l d r e n over a seven-  year p e r i o d who scored high on measures used i n  kindergarten  to determine reading r e a d i n e s s , t o observe uniqueness i n i n d i v i d u a l as he matures, and t o d i s c o v e r environmental f l u e n c e s t h a t tend to f o s t e r i n d i v i d u a l i t y  the in-  and independence  in reading." Two hundred ten p u p i l s were f o l l o w e d up from k i n d e r g a r t e n through the s i x t h grade by the i n v e s t i g a t o r .  For  Rachel S . S u t t o n , " V a r i a t i o n s i n Reading A c h i e v e ment of S e l e c t e d C h i l d r e n , " Elementary E n g l i s h , 37:97-100, F e b r u a r y , 1960.  25 each year the parents completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s about c h i l d ' s family, behavior.  health h i s t o r y ,  child's activities  the  and  The teachers made a summary r a t i n g of each c h i l d  on s o c i a l adjustment every y e a r .  Each c h i l d was i n t e r -  viewed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r  i n the second and s i x t h  grades.  twice,  An i n t e n s i v e study was made of two c h i l d r e n with  h i g h achievement  potential.  Sutton found t h a t p r e c o c i t y and slowness i n reading may be d e t e c t e d e a r l y i n the c h i l d ' s development.  She sug-  gested t h a t through a l o n g i t u d i n a l study of p u p i l s i n a g i v e n community, a s c h o o l s t a f f concept of n o r m a l i t y  c o u l d develop i t s own  i n . c h i l d growth and c o u l d a l s o c o n -  c e p t u a l i z e normal r e a d i n g achievement f o r each c h i l d . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the development of achievement growth from grades f i v e  reading  to nine was done, by  19 Shankman. level,  Information on f a m i l y background,  intelligence  and y e a r l y grade l e v e l scores i n r e a d i n g ,  language,  and s p e l l i n g as assessed by the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Tests was obtained from the s c h o o l permanent r e c o r d c a r d s . C h i l d r e n whose scores d e v i a t e d more than two standard d e viations  from the mean were s t u d i e d as i n d i v i d u a l  cases.  F l o r e n c e Vogel Shankman, "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Development of Reading Achievement Growth from Grades Four to Nine"- (unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1959).  26 A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e to age, s i b l i n g p l a c e ment,  course chosen f o r h i g h s c h o o l , and p a r e n t ' s o c c u p a t i o n  was taken by the i n v e s t i g a t o r  f o r case s t u d y .  Using a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e she found s i g n i f i c a n t ferences i n r e a d i n g achievement from year to year but between the s e x e s .  dif-  not  No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found  between s i b l i n g placement,  course chosen f o r h i g h s c h o o l and  p a r e n t ' s o c c u p a t i o n and r e a d i n g achievement.  There was a  negative c o r r e l a t i o n between r e a d i n g achievement i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and r e a d i n g achievement i n the  the  elementary  school. 20 Eddings  aimed to i d e n t i f y  patterns  growth among a group of p u p i l s i n grade s i x .  of  reading The v a r i a b l e s  used as areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s study were gence, p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , environmental and  intelli-  experiential  background, and emotional and s o c i a l development. She c o n s t r u c t e d three q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on the e n v i r o n mental and e x p e r i e n t i a l  background of the s u b j e c t .  These  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were answered by the s u b j e c t s , t h e i r and t h e i r  teachers.  parents  Information on the y e a r l y s c h o o l  attendance and g e n e r a l reading achievement of the  subjects  Inez C l a r k E d d i n g s , "Patterns of Reading Growth: A L o n g i t u d i n a l Study of P a t t e r n s of Reading Growth Throughout the Six Grades i n Two Elementary Schools" (unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of South C a r o l i n a , Columbia, 1956).  27 i n the second through the f i f t h grades was obtained from s c h o o l cumulative r e c o r d s .  The p u p i l s ' g e n e r a l reading p e r -  formance, i n t e l l i g e n c e , v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y f u n c t i o n i n g , and s o c i a l and emotional development were measured by the examiner u s i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s and i n d i v i d u a l examinations. Based on evidence obtained i n her study Eddings concluded that patterns  of r e a d i n g growth are e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y among  groups of elementary p u p i l s .  She r e p o r t e d t h a t among groups  of normal grade s i x p u p i l s of comparable mental a b i l i t y  the  reading achievement of g i r l s tends to be h i g h e r than t h a t of boys but w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t reading l e v e l groups there was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the p a t t e r n s of r e a d i n g growth of the s e x e s . 21 Namkin arithmetic  i n v e s t i g a t e d p u p i l growth i n r e a d i n g and  s k i l l s from grade two through grade e i g h t with  the purpose of determining the s t a b i l i t y patterns  of these growth  and comparing these p a t t e r n s with those obtained  from l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s of i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Two hundred  f i f t y j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s who had scores a v a i l a b l e the f o u r t h , . s i x t h ,  for  s e v e n t h , and e i g h t h grades were the sub-  j e c t s of t h i s s t u d y .  The grade e q u i v a l e n t scores were c o n -  v e r t e d i n t o K - s c o r e s t o p r o v i d e an i n t e r v a l  scale for  the  Sidney Namkin, " S t a b i l i t y of Achievement T e s t S c o r e s , A L o n g i t u d i n a l Study of the Reading and A r i t h m e t i c Subtests of the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t " (unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , R u t g e r s , The State U n i v e r s i t y , New Brunswick, 1966).  28  study of growth from grades f o u r through e i g h t .  A subgroup  of seventy p u p i l s was s t u d i e d from grade two through grade eight. He observed t h a t p a t t e r n s grade were l e s s s t a b l e There was a f a i r l y  of growth below  fourth  than those of higher grade  levels.  s t a b l e p a t t e r n of achievement at  the  beginning of. grade four which becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more s t a b l e at h i g h e r grade l e v e l s .  The g r e a t e s t  gains were  found to be between grades 6.1 and 7.1. In a study of the reading growth of  intermediate 22  pupils m  the p u b l i c s c h o o l s of Maob, U t a h , Dugger  found  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between vocabulary development and pupil mobility ability  at the 1 per cent l e v e l and comprehension and  at the 5 per cent l e v e l .  n i f i c a n t , sex d i f f e r e n c e s  There were a l s o no s i g -  i n reading r e a d i n e s s among white  s u b j e c t s but there was s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e the g i r l s  among Negro s u b j e c t s .  i n favor  of  Growth was found to be con-  tinuous i n P a t t e r n C o p y i n g , I d e n t i c a l Forms, A u d i t o r y c r i m i n a t i o n , . Phonemes, Word Meaning, and L i s t e n i n g .  DisThe  e n r i c h e d reading r e a d i n e s s program was s u p e r i o r to the b a s a l readers program i n P a t t e r n C o p y i n g , I d e n t i c a l Forms, and J e r o l d O r v i l l e Dugger, "A Study of the Reading Growth of Intermediate Grade P u p i l s i n the P u b l i c Schools of Maob, Utah" (unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Colorado State C o l l e g e , G r e e l e y , 1961).  29 Word Meaning but were e q u i v a l e n t i n A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and Phonemes. 23 Ketcham and L a f f i t t e  p l o t t e d the i n d i v i d u a l r e -  cords of the mental and r e a d i n g growth of f i f t y  elementary  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and found a high degree of s i m i l a r i t y between i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l o n g i t u d i n a l records f o r mental age and those f o r reading age.  The growth curves  r e v e a l e d t h a t c h i l d r e n achieved t h e i r mental a b i l i t i e s reading s k i l l s  and  a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s which l e d them t o express  doubts on the accuracy of p r e d i c t i n g mental a b i l i t i e s  and  academic progress a t the completion of the elementary  school  from performances i n the e a r l y V. The  grades.  SUMMARY  t a b l e on page 30 summarizes the s t u d i e s on p r e -  d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s t e s t s .  The  different  r e a d i n e s s measures, with the e x c e p t i o n of the a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s u b t e s t used by Dykstra which had a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .19, were found t o be good p r e d i c t o r s of r e a d i n g achievement a t the end of f i r s t  and h i g h e r grade  levels.  Warren A. Ketcham and Rondeau G. L a f f i t t e , "How Well Are They L e a r n i n g ? " E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 16:37-41, 350, March, 1959.  30 TABLE I PREDICTIVE VALIDITY STUDIES OF READING READINESS TESTS  Study  Readiness Test  Reading Test  No.of Cases  Coef.of Correlation  Dean  Metropolitan  Metropolitan  116  59  Monroe  Metropolitan  116  41  98  60  Henig  Lee-Clark  Teachers' marks  Mitchell  Metropolitan  Metropolitan  Dykstra  Selected Auditory d i s  Gates  Barrett  Selected Visual d i s .  Gates  632  Thackray  Harrison-Stroud  Southgate  182  59  1170  51 t o 63  632  19 t o .46  ,30 t o 61  Powell & -j Parseley  . Lee-Clark  California  863  ,43  Kingston  Metropolitan  Stanford  272  ,3 t o ,6  A p e r u s a l of the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e has r e v e a l e d t h a t most of the s k i l l s measured by d i f f e r e n t reading r e a d i ness t e s t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o success The  skills  i n reading.  commonly evaluated were v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , muscular c o o r d i n a t i o n and motor  31 skills,  l i n g u i s t i c attainments,  and knowledge of l e t t e r s .  The s t u d i e s reviewed have shown t h a t sex d i f f e r ences do e x i s t  i n reading readiness and r e a d i n g achievement.  While g i r l s u s u a l l y have been found t o be s u p e r i o r t o boys at the beginning  significantly  r e a d i n g stage, boys have  tended to catch up a t the h i g h e r grade  levels.  The l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s on r e a d i n g growth gave  evi-  dence of v a r i a t i o n s i n reading achievement of c h i l d r e n a t each grade l e v e l .  CHAPTER  III  DESIGN AND PROCEDURES The purposes of t h i s s t u d y , as s t a t e d i n Chapter were t w o - f o l d .  One was to analyze the growth p a t t e r n s  I, in  r e a d i n g achievement of groups of c h i l d r e n who had been c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to l e v e l s of reading r e a d i n e s s w h i l e they were i n the f i r s t investigate  grade.  The other purpose was to  the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of good  and poor readers i n the intermediate  grades.  Because these  were two i n v e s t i g a t i o n s conducted on two d i f f e r e n t  popu-  l a t i o n s , the d e s c r i p t i o n of the d e s i g n and the procedure of each are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y i n t h i s I.  chapter.  GROWTH.PATTERNS IN READING ACHIEVEMENT  The Design To i n v e s t i g a t e ment a r e t r o s p e c t i v e  the growth p a t t e r n s  i n reading a c h i e v e -  l o n g i t u d i n a l study was made of  the  development i n reading achievement of a group of 300 p u p i l s who were i n grade seven i n September,.1967.  T h i s group c o n -  s i s t e d of 150 boys and 150 g i r l s b e l o n g i n g to f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of reading r e a d i n e s s when they were i n grade.  The i n i t i a l  different first  r e a d i n e s s s t a t u s of each s u b j e c t was  determined from the t o t a l r e a d i n e s s score on the  Metropolitan  33  Readiness T e s t s taken when he was i n f i r s t grade i n September,  1961.  Growth i n r e a d i n g achievement was measured by  the s u b t e s t s on Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning of  the  S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t - a d m i n i s t e r e d every May from 1964 through May, 1968,  t h a t i s , at each grade l e v e l from  third  through s e v e n t h . A multifactor  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e with repeated  measurement d e s i g n was made on four v a r i a b l e s : ing readiness category, replication. tor: risk.  "trial"  There were f i v e  or repeated measurement, and  l e v e l s of the r e a d i n e s s f a c -  s u p e r i o r , h i g h normal, average, low normal, and poor F i v e " t r i a l s " were made, one f o r each grade from  grade three through grade seven. tions.  sex, read-  There were two r e p l i c a -  The r e p l i c a t i o n f a c t o r was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o  the  d e s i g n because the groups of students i n the r e a d i n e s s c a t e g o r i e s were not random g r o u p s . by " t r i a l "  For t h i s reason a category  i n t e r a c t i o n might r e s u l t from i n i t i a l  differences  between the groups other than those due to d i f f e r e n c e s l e v e l of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s .  in  Separate analyses were done  f o r Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning. Comparisons of the growth p a t t e r n s of groups of p u p i l s i n the v a r i o u s r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s c a t e g o r i e s were made by submittirigtto g r a p h i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l analyses the r e s u l t s of the s u b t e s t s on Paragraph Meaning and Word  34  Meaning of the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t . F i g u r e s were employed to d e p i c t g r a p h i c a l l y the trend of the means of the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of reading r e a d i n e s s . of the l i n e  f o r each category was computejd.  d e s c r i b e d the r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n r e a d i n g  The s l o p e  T h i s slope  achievement  accompanying the i n c r e a s e i n grade l e v e l of p u p i l s belonging to each category of reading r e a d i n e s s .  Tests of  signifi-  cant d i f f e r e n c e s were made between each p a i r of s l o p e s . the d i f f e r e n c e was found t o be. s i g n i f i c a n t at the b e t t e r than the  .05 l e v e l , i t  If  .05 or  was concluded t h a t the slopes  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r the c a t e g o r i e s being compared . For each category of- r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s , t tests of s i g n i f i c a n c e between each p a i r of c o n s e c u t i v e grades were made to determine  if  p l a t e a u s i n the growth p a t t e r n s  existed.  Mean gains from grade to grade and the o v e r a l l mean g a i n from grade three through grade seven f o r each of  the  f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s were computed and compared to d i s c o v e r i f  they were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to  initial  s t a t u s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n reading achievement growth were determined s t a t i s t i c a l l y c a l l y by p l o t t i n g  by means of the t t e s t ,  and g r a p h i -  and comparing the means i n Paragraph  Meaning and Word Meaning by grade and by sex f o r the superior,  h i g h normal, average,  low normal, and poor r i s k  cate-  35  gories The  of reading  Population The  in  the  readiness.  and  S e l e c t i o n of Subjects .  population  seventh  c o n s i s t e d of a l l the p u p i l s e n r o l l e d  grade of the p u b l i c elementary  Richmond, B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , who  took the  R e a d i n e s s T e s t s when t h e y were i n f i r s t the  in  Metropolitan g r a d e i n 1961  and  S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t when t h e y were i n g r a d e s  through  seven.  Of  school d i s t r i c t found of  schools  a total  with  of seventeen schools  complete r e c o r d s  the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests from grade t h r e e  on page 36  the  g r a d e s e v e n c l a s s e s , f o u r t e e n were  t o have p u p i l s .with  ment T e s t  in  three  and  the  of the  Stanford  through grade seven.  shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  results Achieve-  Table  o f s u b j e c t s among  II  the  schools. The readiness  517 test  c h i l d r e n with and  were c l a s s i f i e d according  into  to t h e i r  T e s t s , Form R,  Table  girls. selected parable  The  I I I on page  The An  listing equal  reading  five  total  taken  September, 1961. in  the  complete r e c o r d s  of the  achievement t e s t s  categories of reading scores  on  result  of the  results readiness  the M e t r o p o l i t a n  when t h e y were i n f i r s t  Readiness  grade i n  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s shown  36.  o f t h e b o y s was  done s e p a r a t e l y f r o m  number o f p u p i l s f o r e a c h sex was  f o r e a c h g r o u p t o be analysis.  reading  Since  able  thirty  t o do  came o u t  an  exact  t o be  the  the  randomly and  com-  smallest  36 TABLE I I DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS INCLUDED IN THE STUDY  School Number  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Total  14  No.of Grade 7 Pupils .  No. with MRT and SAT R e s u l t s (Gr. 3-Gr.  7)  No. o f P u p i l s Included i n the Sample  120 73 53 87 94 88 90 88 84 86 73 47 38 90  84 16 12 51 56 66 40 5 34 19 44 19 18 83  53 14 9 26 35 37 22 2 15 14 22 13 10 28  1111  517  300  TABLE I I I DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS ACCORDING TO READINESS CATEGORIES  Readiness. Categories Superior High Normal Average Low Normal Poor Risk Total  Total Score  90 - 100 80 - 89 65 - 79 40 - 64 0 - 39  No. of P u p i l s Boys Girls  30 44 80 71 33 258  33 54 84 57 31 259  number among the g r o u p s , t h i r t y boys and t h i r t y g i r l s were randomly s e l e c t e d f o r each of f i v e readiness.  c a t e g o r i e s of  reading  For purposes of r e p l i c a t i o n these groups of  t h i r t y s u b j e c t s were each f u r t h e r  randomly d i v i d e d  into  two groups of f i f t e e n f o r each c a t e g o r y . Procedures i n C o l l e c t i n g Data The t e s t i n g program i n Richmond p r o v i d e d f o r a district-wide  t e s t i n g schedule every s c h o o l y e a r .  l o n g i t u d i n a l r e c o r d s of i n t e l l e c t u a l p u p i l s were a v a i l a b l e  and academic growth of  i n almost a l l of the  schools i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t .  Hence,  elementary  However, the records  v a r i e d from s c h o o l to s c h o o l and sometimes from c l a s s to class.  Many of the p u p i l s had s c h o o l permanent r e c o r d  cards which d i d not i n c l u d e the s u b t e s t r e s u l t s and had to be excluded from the sample. The M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s r e s u l t s and the y e a r l y grade l e v e l scores on the Word Meaning and Paragraph Meaning s u b t e s t i n r e a d i n g as determined by the  Stanford  Achievement T e s t were obtained from the s c h o o l permanent record cards.  Data not a v a i l a b l e  from the s c h o o l permanent  r e c o r d cards were taken from r e p o r t s on promotion and S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t c l a s s records and c l a s s a n a l y s i s c h a r t s prepared by the teachers a f t e r each examination. The r e s u l t s of the t e s t s utilized  in this  study.  l i s t e d i n Table TV on page 38 were  38 TABLE IV STANDARDIZED TESTS USED IN THE STUDY  Form of Test  Name of T e s t  M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests S t a n f o r d Achievement Test S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t S t a n f o r d Achievement Test S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t  R J K J K W  Date Given  Sept., May, May, May ,. May, May,  1961 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968  P a r a l l e l forms of the f o u r t h e d i t i o n of the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t , Forms J and K, were a l t e r n a t e l y used when the p u p i l s were i n grades three through s i x but Form W of the f i f t h e d i t i o n was used i n grade seven.  However, the  equivalence, of the two e d i t i o n s has been determined.by the p u b l i s h e r s from grades f i v e through n i n e which makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r the users of the t e s t s t o compare performances on the two e d i t i o n s . converted  Hence, the scores on Form W were  t o e q u i v a l e n t scores on Form J and Form K by  u s i n g a t a b l e p r o v i d e d by the p u b l i s h e r s . The grade e q u i v a l e n t scores on the Word Meaning and Paragraph Meaning s u b t e s t s were converted by u s i n g the K - t a b l e s Achievement T e s t .  i n t o K-scores  found i n the Manual t o the S t a n f o r d  T h i s procedure was necessary because  39 grade, e q u i v a l e n t s do not c o n s t i t u t e  s e r i e s of equal u n i t s .  A g a i n of one year from grade one to grade two may not r e p r e s e n t the same amount of growth i n a b i l i t y  as does a  g a i n of a year from grade s i x to grade seven.  Since t h i s  study i n v o l v e d accurate measurement of growth i n r e a d i n g achievement,  there was a need f o r a s c a l e of equal u n i t s .  The K - s c a l e s have u n i t s t h a t are 1  approximately  equal throughout the e n t i r e range of the s c a l e .  Each u n i t  i s equal to one-seventh the standard d e v i a t i o n of n a t i o n a l grade f i v e  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n .  the  The average  performance of grade 10 c h i l d r e n was s e l e c t e d as the  refer-  ence p o i n t and was assigned a grade score of 100. K - u n i t s are obtained by f i t t i n g a s e r i e s of  over-  l a p p i n g frequency curves on the same a b s c i s s a i n such a way t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n s of p u p i l s i n c o n s e c u t i v e grades who o b t a i n the same score i n a p a r t i c u l a r  t e s t correspond  t o the p r o p o r t i o n s g i v e n by the o r i g i n a l d a t a .  Equal units  then are equal d i s t a n c e s along the common a b s c i s s a . D e s c r i p t i o n of the Tests Used i n the Study The M e t r o p o l i t a n  Readiness T e s t s .  The  Metropolitan  Readiness T e s t s are designed to measure the d i f f e r e n t a s -  E r i c F . Gardner, "Comments on S e l e c t e d S c a l i n g Techniques w i t h a D e s c r i p t i o n of a Mew Type of S c a l e , " J o u r n a l of Childhood P s y c h o l o g y , 6:38-43, 1950.  40 pects  of readiness  pupils. of  These t e s t s  kindergarten  tests  for school  contained  of  or beginning  are d e v i s e d  The  s u c h as  Tests  are  sentences, and  end  s i x sub-  a r e Word M e a n i n g , Copying. and  abilities concepts,  visual-perceptual  quantitative relation-  abilities.  data  shown i n T a b l e  are median v a l u e s  booklet  The  richness of v e r b a l  and  sensory-motor reliability  a t the  grade.  t o measure t r a i t s  knowledge of n u m e r i c a l  s h i p s , and  beginning  M a t c h i n g Numbers, and  comprehension of phrases skills,  of f i r s t  i n a sixteen-page  school beginners  of  are u s u a l l y administered  Sentences, Information, These s u b t e s t s  instruction  f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n  V below.  The  Readiness  c o r r e l a t i o n s given  o f s i x measurements o f g r o u p s o f  first  graders. TABLE  V  R E L I A B I L I T Y COEFFICIENTS AND RELATED DATA, METROPOLITAN READINESS TESTS, GRADE I *  Test Word M e a n i n g Sentences Information Matching Numbers Copying Tests 1-4 Tests 1-6  Rel. Coef. .583 .535 .586 .773 .839 .762 .828 .890  1st T e s t i n g Mean . S.D.  2nd T e s t i n g Mean S.D.  Stan. Error Meas.  15.61 10.52 12.02 13.19 13.50 5.26 51.07 69.71  15.92 2.26 10 .86 2.27 12.39 1.89 14.19 3.75 14.38 4.85 5.31 2.75 53.20 8.13 72.96 13.12  1.62 1.63 1.33 2.02 1.92 1.35 3.66 4.62  2.51 2.39 2.06 4.23 4.78 2.76 8.83 13.92  * M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s , Form R, D i r e c t i o n f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g and Key f o r S c o r i n g (New Y o r k : Harcourt, B r a c e and W o r l d , I n c . , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 30.  41 Reviewers of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s claimed t h a t these t e s t s are among the most w i d e l y used and 2 among the s u p e r i o r r e a d i n e s s t e s t s now a v a i l a b l e .  Table  VI below shows the c o r r e l a t i o n between the Met r opo1itan Readiness T e s t s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s . TABLE VI PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF METROPOLITAN READINESS TESTS AS FOUND FOR THE 919 FIRST-GRADE PUPILS IN THE WHITE SCHOOLS OF A COUNTY;' SYSTEM*  C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Tests (1959 E d i t i o n , Primary 1 Battery) Met. Read. Tests  Tests 1- 4 Test 5 T e s t s 1- 6 (Total) Mean S.D.  Word Knowledge  Word Discrim.  Reading  Ave. Arith. Rdg. Concepts T e s t s and Skills  .467 .563  .462 .581  .427 .512  .482 .589  .558 1.87 .44  .557 1.99 .61  .511 2.01 .59  .578 1.96 .52  Mean  S• D  .544 .622  53.4 15.1  9 .3 5 .1  .632 2.31 .61  75.1  15 .6  * B l y t h e C . M i t c h e l l , "The M e t r o p o l i t a n . Readiness T e s t s as P r e d i c t o r s of F i r s t - G r a d e Achievement," E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 22:767, W i n t e r , 1962.  The c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n between the  Metropo11tan  Readiness T e s t s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s ranged from .427  to  .632.  In t h i s  l a r g e sample of 9i;9 p u p i l s these  c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n which are s i g n i f i c a n t at the  Yearbook  .005  Oscar K. Buros ( e d . ) , Fourth Mental Achievement. (Highland Park: The Gryphon P r e s s , 1953), p. 570.  level  proved t h a t the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s . a r e good  p r e d i c t o r s of success at the f i r s t g'rade The S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t .  level.  The S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e -  ment T e s t i s designed to measure outcomes of school i n s t r u c t i o n .  It  elementary  c o n s i s t s of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of  b a t t e r i e s f o r v a r i o u s grades and covers d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . P e r i o d i c r e v i s i o n s of t h i s t e s t have been made. The Word Meaning s u b t e s t of the S t a n f o r d Achievement Test i s a m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e type.  It  c o n s i s t s of items which  measure knowledge of synonyms, of simple d e f i n i t i o n s , ready a s s o c i a t i o n s .  and  There are a l s o items which measure  h i g h e r - l e v e l comprehension of concepts represented by words, and f u l l n e s s of understanding of terms.  Words i n c l u d e d i n  t h i s t e s t are those t h a t occur most f r e q u e n t l y  in children's  speaking and r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r i e s . The Paragraph Meaning s u b t e s t measures the c h i l d ' s comprehension of the paragraph by s e l e c t i n g the proper word f o r each omission i n . t h e paragraph.  It  t e s t s a l s o the  p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y to understand connected d i s c o u r s e . graphs s e l e c t e d are graduated i n d i f f i c u l t y s u b j e c t s of i n t e r e s t to c h i l d r e n .  Para-  and are on  These paragraphs  are  George A . F e r g u s o n , S t a t i s t i c a 1 . A n a l y s i s i n Psychology and E d u c a t i o n (New York: McGraw H i l l Book Company, 1966), p. 413.  43 based on g e n e r a l reading m a t e r i a l s , s c i e n c e , geography, h i s t o r y , f i n e a r t s , and  literature.  Reviews of the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t are f a v o r able.  Agatha Townsend^ s a i d t h a t the S t a n f o r d Achievement  Test holds a p o s i t i o n of importance i n the t e s t i n g program which i s hard to d u p l i c a t e because i t can be used with or without  the whole b a t t e r y ; i t h a s . f i v e e q u i v a l e n t forms  f o r each l e v e l ; i t s s c o r i n g system permits, a l o n g i t u d i n a l growth study, over- a wide range; and  the r e s u l t s w i t h i n  these  5  l i m i t s are u n u s u a l l y dependable.  James R. Hobson  remarked  t h a t the r e a d i n g s u b t e s t s of the S t a n f o r d Achievement Test are the o l d e s t i n a widely used achievement b a t t e r y and main one  of the most s a t i s f a c t o r y reading t e s t s .  Mariam  Bryan s t a t e d t h a t "the 196 4 e d i t i o n of the S t a n f o r d ment T e s t s t i l l designed  M.  Achieve-  r a t e s high among s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t b a t t e r i e s  f o r use at the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l s .  . . . The  S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t w i l l o f f e r keen competition most other s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s because of continuous  re-  to  (a) i t o f f e r s a. means  measurement from grade 1 through grade 9 and  (b) many t e s t users f e e l comfortable  working with i t as a  Yearbook  Oscar K. Buros ( e d . ) / F i f t h Mental Measurement (Highland Park: The GrypO^n P r e s s , 1959), pp.656-57.  Yearbook  Oscar K. Buros (ed.), Fourth Mental Measurement (Highland Park: The Gryp*33t5. P r e s s , 1953", p. 555.  r e s u l t of long e x p e r i e n c e . " test  Robinson  commented t h a t  this  i s a dependable measure of reading achievement and  among the b e s t survey t e s t s f o r elementary of i t s  format,  contents, standardization,  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n II.  s c h o o l s because norms, and ease  and s c o r i n g .  EARLY CHILDHOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE V  The i n v e s t i g a t o r had o r i g i n a l l y planned t o conduct t h i s p a r t of the study on the same p o p u l a t i o n used f o r growth s t u d y .  However, because of the r e t r o s p e c t i v e  of t h i s s t u d y , i t available  was necessary to depend on data  the  nature  already  on permanent r e c o r d cards and other s c h o o l r e c o r d s .  Unfortunately, was undertaken,  i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t where the growth there were no r e c o r d s of the  scores on the Metropo1itan  study  subtests  Read1hess T e s t s * • The data  from  these s u b t e s t s s c o r e s were necessary i n the second p a r t of this  study, because they are s t a n d a r d i z e d measures of  s t a t u s i n v a r i o u s aspects of r e a d i n e s s .  Therefore,  initial rather  than drop t h i s p a r t of the study which was c o n s i d e r e d impor-  Yearbook 7  Yearbook  Oscar K. Buros ( e d . ) , S i x t h Mental Measurement (Highland P a r k : The Gryphon P r e s s , 1965), p. 26. Oscar K. Buros ( e d . ) , F i f t h Mental Measurement (Highland Park: The Gryphon P r e s s , 1959), p. 656.  45 tant, i t  was d e c i d e d . t o s e l e c t another s c h o o l  district  where s u b t e s t s scores of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s were  available.  The Design The ex post f a c t o d e s i g n was used i n t h i s second p a r t of the s t u d y .  Ex post f a c t o r e s e a r c h i s one " i n which the  independent v a r i a b l e  or v a r i a b l e s have a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d and  i n which the r e s e a r c h e r s t a r t s w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n of a dependent v a r i a b l e . o r v a r i a b l e s .  He then s t u d i e s the  dependent v a r i a b l e s i n r e t r o s p e c t f o r t h e i r tions to,  and e f f e c t  positive  o n , the dependent v a r i a b l e  inrela-  or  variables. In the ex post f a c t o study an i n v e s t i g a t o r t h i n g s as they a r e . variables.  Neither  He can not c o n t r o l the  takes  independent  can he make use of randomization b e -  cause the s u b j e c t s and treatments are a l r e a d y assigned to groups.  Because of t h i s  l a c k of c o n t r o l i t  is  difficult  t o draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s from ex post f a c t o r e s e a r c h . There i s always a danger of making erroneous because of the i n a b i l i t y  to manipulate  interpretations  independent  t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t i n the i n d i v i d u a l s s t u d i e d .  variables  Great care  F r e d N. K e r l i n g e r , Foundations of B e h a v i o r a l Research (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, I n c . , 1967), p. 360.  46 and c a u t i o n should be p r a c t i s e d when i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s of ex post f a c t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, the dependent v a r i a b l e was  r e a d i n g achievement i n grade f i v e .  v a r i a b l e s were s c h o o l entrance  The independent  age, home background, and  e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , and emot i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which c o u l d not be  manipulated.  I t was not the purpose of t h i s study t o s t a t e any c a u s a l connection between the dependent v a r i a b l e and any of the independent v a r i a b l e s but t o f i n d out which, i f any,  o f these independent v a r i a b l e s were r e l a t e d t o and  might i n f l u e n c e success  i n r e a d i n g i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e  grades. Case s t u d i e s were made on a sample of good and poor r e a d e r s .  Parents were i n t e r v i e w e d t o gather  facts  about t h e i r c h i l d ' s p r e s c h o o l , k i n d e r g a r t e n , and f i r s t grade experiences  t h a t might have c o n t r i b u t e d t o . h i s be-  coming a good or a poor reader by the time he was i n grade f i v e .  The data on r e a d i n e s s category, r i c h n e s s o f  v e r b a l concepts, perception*;;  vocabulary, v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , a u d i t o r y  number knowledge, and motor c o n t r o l were  based on the r e s u l t s of the Metropo1itan administered  Readiness T e s t s  t o each c h i l d when he was i n k i n d e r g a r t e n .  To be able t o a s c e r t a i n which of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n v e s t i g a t e d d i s t i n g u i s h e d the good readers  from the  47 poor r e a d e r s , the F i s h e r exact p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t T h i s t e s t determined  9  was  used.  whether the t r a i t s s t u d i e d d i f f e r e n -  t i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the s u c c e s s f u l and f u l readers i n the f i f t h  unsuccess-  grade.  S e l e c t i o n of Subjects f o r the Study; The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s p a r t of the study c o n s i s t e d of 315 grade f i v e p u p i l s , 154 boys and 161 g i r l s , elementary  schools i n Vancouver who  Reading T e s t s i n May,  196 8.  The  in five  took the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e  c h i l d r e n belonging to the  top 27 per cent were c l a s s i f i e d , as gOod readers and those i n the- bottom 27 per cent were c o n s i d e r e d as poor r e a d e r s . Twenty-seven per cent was  chosen as the c u t - o f f p o i n t be-  cause K e l l e y " ^ has shown t h a t f o r normally  distributed  s c o r e s , i n order t o y i e l d upper and lower groups which are unquestionably d i f f e r e n t w i t h r e s p e c t to the t r a i t i n quest i o n , and a t the same time to minimize  l o s s of i n f o r m a t i o n ,  27 per cent should be s e l e c t e d a t each extreme. The  s u b j e c t s f o r the case s t u d i e s were s e l e c t e d  from  the top 27 per cent and the bottom 27 per cent of the popu-  9 Sidney S i e g e l , Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s . (New McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956), pp. 96-103.  York:  T r u m a n L. K e l l e y , "The S e l e c t i o n of Upper and Lower Groups f o r the V a l i d a t i o n of T e s t Items," The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 30:17-24, January, 1939. 10  48 lation.  It  was a r b i t r a r i l y  decided t h a t an  investigation  of s i x t e e n p u p i l s from each group would be s u f f i c i e n t show d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  to  i n p r e s c h o o l and b e -  g i n n i n g s c h o o l years of good and poor r e a d e r s .  A sampling  plan" i n which 20 per cent of students wass s e l e c t e d r a n domly from each of the f i v e  schools was used to o b t a i n  the  t h i r t y - t w o s u b j e c t s f o r case s t u d i e s . Procedures i n C o l l e c t i n g the The s c h o o l entrance  Data  age, r e a d i n e s s c a t e g o r y ,  scores and t o t a l score on the M e t r o p o l i t a n  subtest  Readiness .Tests  a d m i n i s t e r e d to the s u b j e c t s i n May, 1963 were obtained from a l i s t  compiled by the Department  of Research and  S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s of the Vancouver School B o a r d . . The date of b i r t h ,  address and name of p a r e n t s ,  and the r e s u l t s  of  the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Tests were gathered from the s c h o o l permanent r e c o r d c a r d s . An i n t e r v i e w  guide was used w h i l e  parents t o gather p e r t i n e n t p e r i e n c e s of t h e i r during h i s e a r l y  information  interviewing on t r a i t s and ex-  c h i l d before he went to s c h o o l and  school years.  cluded background i n f o r m a t i o n ,  The Interview G u i d e * * i n physical,  See Appendix A , pp . 124-127 .  intellectual,  49  social,  and emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n e a r l y  childhood  days of the s u b j e c t of the case study. III.  SUMMARY  T h i s study c o n s i s t e d of two separate i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . The f i r s t was  a r e t r o s p e c t i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l study of the  p a t t e r n s of growth i n r e a d i n g achievement of 300 grade seven c h i l d r e n w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l readiness.  s t a t u s of reading  Reading achievement growth was based on K-scores  on Word Meaning  and Paragraph Meaning  S t a n f o r d Achievement  s u b t e s t s of the  Te'st a d m i n i s t e r e d y e a r l y from grade  three through grade seven.  The growth p a t t e r n s were analyzed  and compared g r a p h i c a l l y and s t a t i s t i c a l l y by u s i n g the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and the t t e s t . In  the second i n v e s t i g a t i o n the ex p o s t f a c t o method  was used i n determining e a r l y c h i l d h o o d  characteristics  t h a t were r e l a t e d t o the r e a d i n g achievement of s i x t e e n good readers and s i x t e e n poor readers i n grade f i v e . exact p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t was the good  traits  The F i s h e r  a p p l i e d t o determine which of  i n v e s t i g a t e d d i s t i n g u i s h e d the poor from the  readers.  CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA The p r e s e n t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of data are presented i n the order i n which the hypotheses are s t a t e d . ings on the study of growth p a t t e r n s  i n reading  of groups of c h i l d r e n w i t h d i f f e r e n t  initial  r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s are d i s c u s s e d f i r s t .  The f i n d achievement  status  This i s  of  followed  by the d i s c u s s i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n p r e s c h o o l , kindergarten,  and f i r s t  grade of c h i l d r e n who have become  good and poor readers i n the f i f t h I. Tables VII  grade.  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE  and V I I I present the r e s u l t s of  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e made to determine  if  there were s i g n i -  f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the f i x e d f a c t o r s : r e a d i n e s s . c a t e g o r y and " t r i a l " replication.  the  sex,  reading  and the random f a c t o r ,  The d i f f e r e n c e between sexes was found to be  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  .05 l e v e l .  r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s and the  The f i v e  "trial"  ments each year from grade three significantly different  at the  c a t e g o r i e s of  or the repeated measurethrough grade seven were  .01 l e v e l on both Paragraph  Meaning and Word Meaning s u b t e s t s of the S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e ment T e s t . Interactions the  .025  between r e p l i c a t i o n and " t r i a l "  l e v e l i n Word Meaning.  The category by  reached  "trial"  TABLE V I I ANALYSIS  Source of Variation* Between  I(  140 . 5 7 6 0 634 .7972 20623 .9319 2 .8821 150 . 2 7 7 8 1223 .0769 566 .4859 33230 .6025  (PARAGRAPH MEANING)  df  Mean Square  1 1 4 1 4 4 4 280  140 634 5155 2 37 305 141 118  .5760 .7972 .9830 .8821 .5695 .7692 .6215 .6807  7 5 0 *-A 750<r 3 0 0 <i_ 3 7 5 <£_ 1 5 0 <r kc 150 *\ 75 ABC  4 4 4 16 4 16 16 16 1120  13885 26 63 50 35 12 18 17 19  .7645 .2152 .4292 .5153 .7905 .6349 .6020 .6853 .2170  + 300** 150 fc + 150«r>c + 6 0 'to + 75<rV + 30 ACD + 30<*"AC& +  E x p e c t e d Mean  F  Square  v  A  c  + + + + + +  +  *t,,  5 3 75*^ 1 5 0 <rV 5 5 75 5  1.18 220.26 137.24 .02 .32 2.16 1.19  5 5  +  5  +  1  1>  L  05 ,001  Ss.  D AD BD CD ABD ACD BCD ABCD ID(ABC)  *A B C  VARIANCE  Ss  A B C AB AC BC ABC ABC)  Within  Sum o f Squares  OF  55543 104 253 808 143 202 297 282 21523  = = =  .0581 . 8608 .7168 .2451 .1619 .1592 .6321 .9653 .0273  Replication (random) Sex ( f i x e d ) Category (fixed)  150  -r  V  ffV  C  75 30  ff . v  fr6c  a  15<TM}CD +  D = I =  15 <TA&CD + I * " V  Trial (fixed) S u b j e c t (random)  529.68 1.36 1, 77 4, 00 1. 86 66 05 92  ^-.001  01  i—  TABLE  VIII  A N A L Y S I S OF V A R I A N C E  Source o f Variation*  Sum o f Squares  df  .  Mean Square  (WORD M E A N I N G )  E x p e c t e d Mean  Between Ss, A B C AB AC BC ABC I  (ABC)  93.4534 1481.2533 24425.1082 3.5607 122.3613 11283.1128 764.5945 34728.8027  1 1 4 1 4 4 4 280  83015.0498 277.7227 939.1133 5098.8418 61.0438 350.8730 360.1548 208.0773 264657.9944  4 4 4 16 4 16 16 16 1120  93 . 4 5 3 4 1481 .2533 6106 .2770 3 .5607 30 . 5 9 0 3 320 . 7 7 8 2 191 .1486 124 . 0 3 1 4  + 750 °"A 750 O°A+ 300o' v  t  +  ,375<r>x 150<rV 150 f V  + + +  s  c  5 375 150 5 5 75 5  F  Square V  + +  5  +  5 «\  +  1  5  <,  1  f  v  x  tl  .75 4.16.00 199.61 .03 .25 1.68 1.54  05 ^-•001  Within Ss. D AD BD CD ABD ACD BCD ABCD I D ( A B C )  *A B C  = = =  R e p l i c a t i o n (random) Sex (fixed) Category (fixed)  20753 69 234 318 15 21 22 13 23  .7625 .4307 .7783 .6776 .2609 .9296 .5097 .0048 .6232  +  300 * " c 150 ^ 150 ^ A c 60 <r c 75 < ^ 30 T ^ O D  +•  c  +  +  v  D  +  Bt  30 <p\c» 1 5 * A-BCD  D I  = =  + + +  1 5 0 ° ftc 1 75 30 1 1 15 . 1 v  + 1 ^ +1. l < r ^  Trial (fixed) S u b j e c t s (random)  298.91 2.94 - 15.38 14.53 .65 .93 1.73 .55  ^..025 025 001  cn  53 interaction  was s i g n i f i c a n t at the  i n g and h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the Meaning.  T h i s means t h a t i t  .01 l e v e l i n Word Mean.001  level in  Paragraph  i s possible that factors  than r e a d i n e s s category might be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the ferences among the groups of c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d i n study.  However,  "trial" if  it  dif-  this  t h i s would be a s l i m p o s s i b i l i t y because  the r e p l i c a t i o n by category by " t r i a l " not s i g n i f i c a n t .  other  interactions  were  T h i s would mean t h a t the category by  p a t t e r n was the same f o r both r e p l i c a t i o n s .  Thus  was not category t h a t accounted f o r the d i f f e r e n c e ,  it  would have to be something e l s e systematic and common to both samples such as socio-economic background or  parents  1  education. II.  HYPOTHESIS 1  There i s no d i f f e r e n c e  among the p a t t e r n s  of group  means i n reading achievement of p u p i l s belonging to each of the s u p e r i o r , high normal, average,  low normal, and poor  r i s k c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . The mean K scores of the t o t a l group of used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n  subjects  on Paragraph Meaning and Word  Meaning are shown i n Table IX and Table X on page 54.  A  grade to grade comparison of these means between r e a d i n e s s c a t e g o r i e s presented i n Table XI r e v e a l s s i g n i f i c a n t ferences beyond the  .05 l e v e l f o r almost a l l p a i r s  of  dif-  54 TABLE IX MEAN K SCORES BY GRADE ON PARAGRAPH MEANING IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST OF BOTH SEXES IN THE SUPERIOR, HIGH NORMAL, AVERAGE, LOW NORMAL AND POOR RISK CATEGORIES OF READING READINESS  Readiness Category Superior High Normal Average Low N o r m a l Poor R i s k  Grade 3 82.24 77.65 76.17 75.35 75.21  Mean K S c o r e s Grade 4 Grade 5 . Grade 6 86.58 81.66 79.48 77.93 77.44  92.66 86.84 84.13 81.74 82.16  95.65 89.67 86.70 85.31 84.35  Grade 7 102.82 96.60 93.13 91.54 89 .92  TABLE X MEAN K SCORES BY GRADE ON WORD MEANING IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST OF BOTH SEXES IN THE SUPERIOR, HIGH NORMAL, AVERAGE, LOW NORMAL AND POOR RISK CATEGORIES OF READING READINESS  Readiness Category Superior High Normal Average Low N o r m a l Poor R i s k  Grade 3 75.04 72.35 70.62 70.29 69.18  Mean K S c o r e s Grade: 4 Grade 5 G r a d e 6 78.28 75.50 73.29 73.29 72.42  87.44 81.30 78.31 76.52 76.67  94.02 85.99 83.04 80.53 79.39  Grade 7 104.52 94.77 90.25 86.69 86.15  TABLE X I COMPARISON OF MEANS BETWEEN READINESS CATEGORIES BY GRADE OF BOTH SEXES  Grade  Readiness Categories Compared  Paragraph Meaning t Prob. t Value  Word M e a n i n g - t Value t Prob.  S u p e r i o r , High Normal S u p e r i o r , Average S u p e r i o r , Low N o r m a l S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk High Normal, Average H i g h N o r m a l , Low N o r m a l High Normal, Poor R i s k A v e r a g e , Low N o r m a l Average, Poor Risk Low N o r m a l , P o o r R i s k  7.269 10.389 12.580 11.707 3.042 5.192 44.820 2.183 2.146 0.369  .000 .000 .000 .000 .003 .000 .000 .028 .031 .712*  5.919 9.138 10.690 13.082 4.008 5.324 8.095 0.792 3.383 2.902  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .435* .001 .004  S u p e r i o r , High Normal S u p e r i o r , Average S u p e r i o r , Low N o r m a l S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk High Normal, Average H i g h N o r m a l , Low N o r m a l High Normal, Poor R i s k A v e r a g e , Low N o r m a l Average, Poor R i s k Low N o r m a l , P o o r R i s k  5.592 8.157 11.193 11.721 2.651 5.202 5.820 2.205 2.862 0.821  .000 .000 .000 .000 .008 .000 .000 .027 .005 .418*  4.706 8.856 8.905 9.994 4.329 4.363 5.751 0.011 1.724 11.724  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .0.00 .939* .082* .082* Ul  TABLE XI  Grade-  Readiness C a t e g o r i e s Compared.  (continued)  Paragraph Meaning t Value t Prob.  Word Meaning t Value t Prob.  S u p e r i o r , High Normal S u p e r i o r , Average S u p e r i o r , Low Normal S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk High Normal, Average High Normal, Low Normal High Normal, Poor Risk Average, Low Normal A v e r a g e , Poor Risk Low Normal, Poor Risk  6.030 9.110 13.091 11.337 3.064 6.584 5.358 3.244 2.343 -0.588  .000 .000 .000 .000 .003 .000 .000 .002 .019 .565*  5.970 10.002 12.220 11.602 3.891 6.404 5.892 3.122 2.632 -0.247  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .002 .009 .792*  S u p e r i o r , High Normal S u p e r i o r , Average S u p e r i o r , Low Normal S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk High Normal, Average High Normal, Low Normal High Normal, Poor Risk Average, Low Normal Average, Poor Risk Low Normal, Poor Risk  6.489 10.467 12.789 12.840 3.567 5.544 6 .189 1.951 2.969 1.302  .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .000 .000 .049 .003 .191*  6.384 9.173 12.115 13.292 2.759 5.599 6.872 2.803 4.151 1.498  .000 .000 .000 .000 .006 .000 .000 .006 .000 .131*  (Tl  TABLE XI  (continued)  Readiness Categories Compared  P a r a g r a p h Meaning t Value - t Prob.  Word M e a n i n g t Prob t value  S u p e r i o r , High Normal S u p e r i o r , Average S u p e r i o r , Low Normal S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk High Normal, Average H i g h N o r m a l , Low N o r m a l High Normal, Poor R i s k A v e r a g e , Low N o r m a l Average, Poor R i s k Low N o r m a l , P o o r R i s k  5.633 9.092 11.052 12.372 3.283 5.003 6.461 1.641 3.232 1.712  6.707 11.072 13.711 14.124 3.514 6.228 6.642 3.214 3.698 0.479  * not  significant  -  .000 .000 .000 .000 .001 .000 .000 .098* .002 .084*  .000 .000 .000 .000 . .001 .000 .000 .002 .000 .638*  58 readiness c a t e g o r i e s . the  The comparisons- t h a t d i d not reach  .05 l e v e l were those on Paragraph Meaning between  low normal and poor r i s k groups i n grades three  the  through  seven and between the average and low normal groups i n grade seven only and on Word Meaning between the low normal and poor . r i s k groups i n grades f o u r through s i x ,  between  the average and low normal groups i n grades three and f o u r , and between the average and poor r i s k groups i n grade It  can be seen i n Table XII  cant d i f f e r e n c e s at b e t t e r than the  t h a t there were s i g n i f i .01 l e v e l between  slopes of the growth curves of the d i f f e r e n t ness c a t e g o r i e s .  four.  the  reading r e a d i -  Only the comparisons between the  average  and the low normal groups on Paragraph.Meaning and the low normal and p o o r r i s k groups on Word Meaning f e l l j  the  .05 l e v e l .  It  s h o r t of  i s probable t h a t because of the  large  sample most of the d i f f e r e n c e s became s i g n i f i c a n t although not o b v i o u s l y i m p o r t a n t .  Moreover, when s l o p e s were com-  pared l e a s t squares s t r a i g h t  l i n e s were f i t t e d to the d a t a .  Although " l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n equations may serve q u i t e  well  to d e s c r i b e s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t are roughly  like  linear  functions""'" the t e s t s of d i f f e r e n c e between  the  York:  W i l l i a m L . Hays, S t a t i s t i c s f o r P s y c h o l o g i s t s (New H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1960), p. 539.  59 TABLE X I I COMPARISON OF SLOPES BETWEEN READING READINESS CATEGORIES OF BOTH SEXES  Readiness Categories Compared  . df  S u p e r i o r , High Normal S u p e r i o r , Average S u p e r i o r , Low N o r m a l S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk High Normal, Average H i g h N o r m a l , Low N o r m a l High Normal, Poor R i s k A v e r a g e , Low N o r m a l Average, Poor Risk Low N o r m a l , P o o r R i s k  118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118  * not slopes  i n this  particular  caution. Table  from grade  differences  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .455* .000 .007  sample s h o u l d XV  i n the  "trial"  They became v e r y  increased  again  p a g e s 60  and  total  be  16 .030 20 .588 25 .000 27 .692 4 .964 11 .189 13 .115 7 .246 8 .571 0 .915  .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .355*  treated with  i n grades  constant.  means were l a r g e i n g r a d e s small  i n grades  s i x t o seven.  five  Figures  four  1 and  2 on  61 show g r a p h i c a l l y t h e t r e n d o f t h e means o f  group  f o r each  category  of. r e a d i n g  readiness  r e v e a l t h a t t h e p l o t s a r e cwfc.vilinear, h e n c e  straight  lines  of  trend.  their  The  t o s i x but  P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g and Word M e a n i n g , r e s p e c t i v e l y . figures  con-  on page 6 8 shows t h a t t h e mean  t o g r a d e were n o t r e l a t i v e l y  to f i v e .  the  3 .425 6 . 803 7 .832 10 .417 3 .546 4 .667 7 .180 0 .714 3 .333 2 .817  Word Meaning V a l u e t Prob.  significant  siderable gains  Paragraph Meaning t V a l u e t Prob... t  t o them i s a p t t o g i v e  only  in  The fitting  a crude p i c t u r e  70  65 5  Grade F i g u r e 1. sexes  Level  T r e n d o f means on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g o f b o t h i n f i v e l e v e l s of reading readiness.  61 Superior H i g h Normal Average _ _ _ _ _ Low Normal ...... P o o r R i s k  3  4  5 Grade  Figure in  6  7  Level  2. T r e n d o f means on Word Meaning f i v e levels of reading readiness.  of both sexes  62  On Paragraph Meaning, the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between the s u p e r i o r group and the h i g h normal group was i n grade s i x . The d i f f e r e n c e was g r e a t e s t i n grade f i v e between the h i g h normal and average groups and between the average and low normal groups.  The low normal and poor  r i s k .sgroups appeared t o be most d i f f e r e n t i n grade seven. The d i f f e r e n c e , however, was  s l i g h t and was  not s i g n i f i c a n t .  On Word Meaning, the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e was  i n grade  seven f o r the three h i g h e s t c a t e g o r i e s o f reading r e a d i n e s s . The b i g g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between the low normal and the poor r i s k groups was  i n grade s i x .  The growth curves r e v e a l t h a t p u p i l s who  started  s u p e r i o r i n reading r e a d i n e s s , on the average, remained s u p e r i o r through grade seven.  They even tended t o progress  more r a p i d l y than those c h i l d r e n i n other c a t e g o r i e s o f r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s w i t h a f a s t e r growth r a t e on Word Meaning than on Paragraph Meaning. The.high normal and the average groups e x h i b i t e d p a t t e r n s of growth on Paragraph Meaning  t h a t appears s i m i -  l a r t o the s u p e r i o r group" except" f o r the g e n e r a l  levels.  However, the semi-plateau i n grades f i v e to s i x i s more marked i n the h i g h normal and average groups than i n the superior.  On Word Meaning, the r a t e of growth of the high  normal group slowed down from grade f o u r through grade s i x .  63 The p u p i l s i n the three h i g h e r c a t e g o r i e s maintained  their  s u p e r i o r i t y over those i n the two lower groups from grade three  through grade s e v e n . T e s t s of d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the low  normal and the poor r i s k groups showed t h a t t h e i r p a t t e r n s d i d not d i f f e r  significantly.  growth  However, while  the  p u p i l s i n the low normal category had a slow but continuous growth from the t h i r d grade through the seventh g r a d e ,  the  r a t e of growth of those i n the poor r i s k category f l u c t u ated from grade to g r a d e . It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the i n c r e a s e i n growth  i n r e a d i n g achievement was more marked i n grade seven than i n any other g r a d e .  T h i s may be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t  s i n c e "achievement i n s c h o o l .  .  that  . tends t o be an e x p r e s s i o n  2 of t o t a l growth" most l i k e l y  the s p u r t s i n reading achievement growth  accompany s p u r t s i n sex m a t u r i n g ,  p h y s i c a l growth, and i n t e l l e c t u a l adolescent y e a r s .  It  general  development d u r i n g p r e -  i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that, many of  the  c h i l d r e n would a l r e a d y have mastered the s k i l l s i n reading by the time they were i n grade seven and thus got h i g h e r scores on the r e a d i n g s u b t e s t s of the S t a n f o r d Achievement Test. ^William C . Olson and Byron 0. Hughes, "Concept of Growth - T h e i r S i g n i f i c a n c e to T e a c h e r s , " Childhood E d u c a t i o n , 21:53-63, O c t o b e r , 1944.  64  Based on the evidence p r e s e n t e d , the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there i s no d i f f e r e n c e  among the p a t t e r n s  of group means i n  reading achievement was r e j e c t e d f o r the s u p e r i o r , high normal,  and average c a t e g o r i e s but was accepted f o r the  low  normal and poor r i s k c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . III.  HYPOTHESIS 2  There i s a p l a t e a u i n grade four i n the reading growth curve f o r each category of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . To f i n d out i f  such p l a t e a u s e x i s t i n the  reading  growth curve f o r each of the s u p e r i o r , high normal, low normal, and poor r i s k c a t e g o r i e s , a t t e s t of  average,  signifi-  cance was made on the d i f f e r e n c e of the means of the on the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t between each p a i r of  scores con-  secutive grades. Table X I I I on page 65 shows the comparison of means between grades by r e a d i n e s s category on Paragraph Meaning and Table XIV on page 66 presents the comparison on Word Meaning.  The computed t v a l u e s f o r the comparisons made  between grade three and grade f o u r f o r . e a c h category of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s were a l l than the  .01 l e v e l .  found to be s i g n i f i c a n t ' a t  better  Contrary t o the f i n d i n g s of previous  r e s e a r c h , these r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t no p l a t e a u  existed  from the month of May i n grade three to the month of May i n grade four i n the reading growth curve f o r each category of  65 TABLE X I I I COMPARISON OF MEANS BETWEEN GRADES BY READINESS CATEGORY ON PARAGRAPH MEANING OF THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST  Readiness Category  Grades Compared  Superior  Gr.4, Gr.5, Gr .6, Gr.7,  High Normal  Gr.4, Gr.5, Gr .6, Gr.7,  Average  Low N o r m a l  Poor  Risk  t Value  df  t  Gr .3 Gr. 4 Gr.5 Gr.6  4.878 6.332 3.458 8.367  59 59 59 59  0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000  Gr.3 Gr.4 Gr.5 Gr.6  5.229 6.184 3.403 8.851  59 59 59 59  0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000  Gr.4, Gr. 3 G r . 5 , Gr.4 G r . 6 , Gr.5 G r . 7 , Gr.6  4;773 7.432 3.807 7.581  59 59 59 59  0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000  Gr.3 Gr.4 Gr.5 Gr.6  5.076 6.661 6.402 8.368  59 59 59 59  0.000 0.000 0 .000 0.000  G r . 4 , Gr.3 G r . 5 , Gr.4 G r . 6 , Gr.5 G r . 7 , Gr.6  5.451 7.262 3.054 7.139  59 59 59 59  0.000 0.000 0.003 0.000  G r . 4, -Gr.5., Gr .6, Gr.7,  Prob.  66  TABLE XIV COMPARISON OF MEANS BETWEEN GRADES BY READINESS CATEGORY ON WORD MEANING OF THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST  Readiness Category  Grades Compared  Superior  Gr.4, Gr.5, Gr.6, Gr.7,  High Normal  df  t  4.370 10.146 6.009 9.795  59 59 59 59  0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000  G r . 4 , Gr.3 G r . 5 , Gr.4 G r . 6 , Gr.5 G r . 7 , Gr.6  5.697 7.776 5.204 8.776  59 59 59 59  0.000 0 .000 0.000 0.000  Average  G r . 4 , Gr.3 G r . 5 , Gr.4 G r . 6 , Gr.5 G r . 7 , Gr.6  5.165 8.361 5.784 7.728  59 59 59 59  0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000  Low N o r m a l  Gr.4, Gr.5, Gr .6 , Gr.7,  Gr. 3 Gr.4 Gr.5 Gr.6  6.394 7.258 8.757 6.760  59 59 59 59  0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000  Poor  Gr.4, Gr.5, Gr.6, Gr.7,  Gr. 3 Gr.4 Gr.5 Gr.6  9.748 8.354 5.475 9.578  59 59 59 59  0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000  Risk  Gr.3 Gr.4 .Gr.5 Gr.6.  t  Value  Prob.  67 reading r e a d i n e s s .  Perhaps the grade f o u r reading program  i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t where t h i s study was conducted has been c a r e f u l l y e v a l u a t e d and p r o v i s i o n s have been made to meet the needs of the p u p i l s d u r i n g t h i s t r a n s i t i o n from primary to i n t e r m e d i a t e  period  grades.  The comparisons made between a l l other grades were a l s o found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .  F i g u r e 1 p r e v i o u s l y shown on  page 60, however, r e v e a l s s e m i - p l a t e a u s i n grades f i v e six. on Paragraph Meaning f o r a l l c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n e s s except the low normal.  to  reading  There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t the growth r a t e i n r e a d i n g began to slow down because a t t e n t i o n g i v e n to r e a d i n g has decreased d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . It  i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t teachers were s t i l l  developing  l i t e r a l comprehension and g i v i n g l e s s emphasis on the handl i n g of ideas i n t h e i r  t e a c h i n g of r e a d i n g .  The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there i s a p l a t e a u i n grade four i n the r e a d i n g growth curve of each of the category of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s was  rejected. IV.  HYPOTHESIS 3  There are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean gains from grade three through grade seven among the groups i n f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . The increments of the means of both sexes by r e a d i ness category on Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning are  68 g i v e n i n T a b l e XV. differences grade  These  data reveal  that  i n t h e amount o f g a i n s f r o m g r a d e  s e v e n among a l l c a t e g o r i e s o f r e a d i n g  Generally,. the h i g h e s t  category yielded  b o t h P a r a g r a p h Meaning  and Word M e a n i n g .  the  t h e r e were  lowest category, produced  Meaning  b u t on Word M e a n i n g ,  slightly  three  readiness.  the g r e a t e s t g a i n The p o o r r i s k  t h e s m a l l e s t - g a i n on the poor r i s k  more b u t i n s i g n i f i c a n t  through  group,  Paragraph  group y i e l d e d  g a i n t h a n t h e low  normal  group. TABLE  XV  MEAN GAINS (K SCORES)IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST OF BOTH SEXES  Readiness Category  Grades 3-4  .  Grades 4-5 .  Grades Grades ,. 6-7 5-6  Grades 3-7 .  ( P a r a g r a p h Meaning) Superior High Normal Average Low N o r m a l Poor R i s k  4.34 4.01 3.31 2.58 2.23  6.08 5.18 4.65 3.81 4.72  2.99 2.83 2.57 3.57 2.19  7.17 6.93 6.43 6.23 5.57  20.58 18.95 16.96 16.19 14.71  (Word Meaning) Superior High Normal Average Low N o r m a l Poor R i s k  3.24 3.15 2.67 3.00 3.24  9.16 5.80 5.02 3.23 4.25  6.58 4.69 4.73 4.01 2.72  10.50 8.78 7.21 6.16 6.76  on  29.48 22.42 19.63 16.40 16.97  a  69 The  tests  o f s i g n i f i c a n c e made on t h e t o t a l mean  gains  from grade  group  o f s u b j e c t s gave the d a t a found i n T a b l e XVI.  differences reading yond  .05  level..  and p o o r r i s k  Word M e a n i n g  seven  f o r the  between mean g a i n s o f a l m o s t a l l p a i r s  readiness categories  the  normal  t h r e e through grade  failed  The of  compared were s i g n i f i c a n t be-  Only the comparison groups  total  between t h e  low  on b o t h P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g  to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e  TABLE  a t the  .05  and level.  XVI  COMPARISON OF MEAN GAINS FROM GRADE 3 TO GRADE 7 BETWEEN READING READINESS CATEGORIES OF BOTH SEXES  Reading Readiness C a t e g o r i e s Compared  df  Paragraph Word Meaning Meaning t t t t Value Prob. . Value Prob.  S u p e r i o r , High Normal S u p e r i o r , Average S u p e r i o r , Low N o r m a l S u p e r i o r , Poor R i s k High Normal, Average H i g h Normal,Low N o r m a l High Normal,Poor Risk A v e r a g e , Low N o r m a l Average, Poor R i s k Low N o r m a l , P o o r R i s k  118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118  5 .471 8 .332 10 .985 10 .627 2 .729 4 .876 5 .030 1 .940 2 .373 -0 .709  * not s i g n i f i c a n t  .000 .000 .000 .000. .007 .000 .000 .052 .018 .486*  5 .330 8 .822 10 .600 10 .935 3 .112 4 .953 5 .501 2 .116 2 .862 -0 .871  .000 .000 .000 .000 .002 .000 .000 .034 .005 .389*  70 F i g u r e 3 and F i g u r e 4 on page 71 g i v e a c l e a r e r t u r e of the increments.  pic-  The curves of the mean gains of the  f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s d i f f e r somewhat i n d e t a i l but the g e n e r a l t r e n d i s s i m i l a r , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the curve f o r the low normal group.  The curves f o r the  s u p e r i o r , high normal, average, and poor r i s k show a r h y t h m i c a l t r e n d .  categories,  I t i s a rhythm of an i n c r e a s e i n  ineremeints.i; from grade f o u r t o grade f i v e f o l l o w e d by a d e c l i n e from grade f i v e t o grade s i x , and a r a p i d from grade s i x t o grade seven.  increase  The curve of the increments  f o r the low normal group shows a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e from grade three through grade seven on Word Meaning.  However, on  Paragraph Meaning, there i s a s l i g h t decrease from grade f i v e t o grade s i x f o l l o w e d by a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n grade seven. The c h i l d r e n ' s r a p i d l y expanding c u r r i c u l u m and i n t e r e s t s have p o s s i b l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the decrease i n the mean g a i n i n Paragraph Meaning from grade f i v e to grade s i x . Many u n f a m i l i a r words they have met i n such s u b j e c t s as s c i e n c e and s o c i a l comprehension yet  s t u d i e s might have caused d i f f i c u l t y i n  a t t h i s . l e v e l , because they probably have not  developed independent r e a d i n g h a b i t s and s k i l l s .  There  should be p r o v i s i o n s i n the r e a d i n g program f o r a c o n t i n u ous development ing  of s k i l l s  a p p r o p r i a t e to the k i n d of read-  tasks the c h i l d r e n are expected t o perform at each rung  of the e d u c a t i o n a l  ladder.  10  Superior High Normal Average LOw N o r m a l Poor Risk  0-  3-4 4 - 5 Grade ' 5 - 6 Level 6 - 7 F i g u r e 3 . Mean G a i n s ( K - S c o r e s ) on P a r a g r a p h Meaning.  Superior High Normal  F i g u r e 4 . Mean G a i n s Meaning.  ( K - S c o r e s ) on Word  72 It  i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t many of the teachers who  had i n s t r u c t e d the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study had l i m i t e d i n g , i n developmental r e a d i n g and made few attempts diagnose the reading d i f f i c u l t i e s six pupils.  train-  to  of these grade f i v e and  An unbalanced r e a d i n g program with more em-  p h a s i s on t e a c h i n g reading as a mechanical process r a t h e r than as a t o o l f o r b e t t e r understanding and  interpretation  i n content areas a l s o might have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r pupils'  failure  the  to m a i n t a i n r a p i d growth i n reading compre-  hension . By the time the p u p i l s were i n grade seven many would have mastered the mechanics of reading f a i l y w e l l , would have enabled them to read more e f f e c t i v e l y  which  during  t h i s p e r i o d of r a p i d growth i n comprehension, speed and reading  interest. Except f o r the comparison between the low normal  and poor r i s k g r o u p s , i t may be s t a t e d w i t h reasonable c o n f i d e n c e , t h a t i n g e n e r a l , there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean gains from grade three through grade seven- f o r the group i n each of the c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . V.  HYPOTHESIS 4  There are s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the reading growth p a t t e r n of the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s .  73  From T a b l e V I I and T a b l e V I I I p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n on p a g e s 51 and 52, i t was sex  differences  shown t h a t t h e r e were  a t t h e .05 l e v e l .  significant  A comparison o f the  means i n P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g and Word M e a n i n g s e p a r a t e l y by readiness  c a t e g o r y b e t w e e n t h e b o y s and t h e g i r l s w o u l d  more c l e a r l y such  where t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  exist  show  and t h e e x t e n t o f  differences. The  mean K s c o r e s o f t h e b o y s and t h e g i r l s i n t h e  s u p e r i o r , h i g h n o r m a l , a v e r a g e , low n o r m a l , and p o o r g r o u p s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e X V I I and T a b l e X V I I I .  A  risk  comparison  TABLE X V I I MEAN K SCORES BY GRADE ON PARAGRAPH MEANING IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN THE SUPERIOR, HIGH NORMAL, AVERAGE, LOW NORMAL, AND POOR RISK CATEGORIES OF READING READINESS  Readiness Category  Grade 3  Grade. 4  Mean K S c o r e s Grade 5 Grade 6 a.  Superior High Normal Average Low N o r m a l Poor Risk  82.29 78.46 75.66 75.34 75.11  88.01 83.81 78.55 78.03 76.53  Superior High Normal Average Low N o r m a l Poor Risk  82.19 76.84 76.68 75.36 75.31  85.15 79.50 80.41 77.83 78.36  Boys 94.71 89.18 83.38 82.55 82.41  b.  Grade. 7  96. 91. 86. 86. 84.  19 66 42 45 38  103.56 99.82 92.88 93.23 90.62  95. 11 87. 69 86 .97 84. 18 . 84.32  102.0 8 93.39 93.39 89.86 89.23  Girls 90.62 84.51 84.89 80.92 81.92  74 TABLE X V I I I MEAN K SCORES BY GRADE ON PARAGRAPH MEANING IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN THE SUPERIOR, HIGH NORMAL, AVERAGE, LOW NORMAL, AND POOR RISK CATEGORIES OF READING READINESS  Readiness Category  Grade  3  Mean K S c o r e s Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 a.  Superior High Normal Average Low N o r m a l Poor Risk  75 73 69 71 69  .57 .19 .62 .00 .37  78. 40 76. 13 72. 42 73. 65 72. 00  Superior High Normal Average Low N o r m a l Poor Risk  of  74 71 71 69 68  .51 .52 .62 .58 .99  78. 15 74. 86 74. 17 72. 93 72. 85  Boys 89.06 83.53 78.08 77.70 77.22  b.  i n reading  96 89 82 82 80  .98 .55 .46 .07 .08  105. 90 98. 95 90. 46 89. 32 88. 00  91 82 83 78 78  .07 .42 .62 .98 .70  103. 15 90. 58 90. 05 84. 06 84. 32  Girls 85.82 79.06 78.54 75.34 76.12  t h e s e means i s shown i n T a b l e XIX on page Sex d i f f e r e n c e s  75.  achievement growth are  b e s t d e p i c t e d by c o m p a r i n g t h e g r o w t h c u r v e s o f b o y s girls to  s e p a r a t e l y by r e a d i n g  Grade 7  readiness category.  and  Figures  9 show t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g .  5  In the  s u p e r i o r , h i g h n o r m a l , and low n o r m a l g r o u p s , t h e b o y s  sur-  passed the g i r l s  be-  tween  t h e b o y s and t h e g i r l s  greatest level.  a t a l l grade l e v e l s .  i n the s u p e r i o r group  i n g r a d e f i v e w h i c h was T h i s was  The d i f f e r e n c e  significant  f o l l o w e d by a d e c r e a s i n g  at the  was .04  r a t e o f growth  TABLE X I X C O M P A R I S O N OF MEANS BETWEEN BOYS AND G I R L S BY R E A D I N E S S CATEGORY AND GRADE ON P A R A G R A P H M E A N I N G AND WORD M E A N I N G OF THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST  Readiness Category.  Grades Compared  Superior  High  Normal  Average  Low  Normal  Poor  *  Risk  significant  3 4 5 6 7 3 4 5 6 7 3 4 5 6 7 3 4 5 6 7 3 4 5 6 7  Paragraph df .t-value. 54 56 56 55 52 49 .48 53 56 54 56 55 54 56 56 56 56 54 56 56 54 52 56 54 55  - 0 ..065 - 1 ..555 - 2 ..060 - 0 ,.571 - 0 ,.661 - 1 ..505 - 2 ..719 - 2 .,674 - 2 ..271 - 3 ,.131 1..195 1..150 0,.885 0,.359 0,.249 0,.026 - 0 ,.170 - 1 ..351 - 1 ,.768 - 1 ,.861 0,.214 1,.541 - 0 ,.292 - 0 ..038 - 0 ,.716  Meaning t-probability 0 .905 0 .122 0 .042* 0 .577 0 .519 0 .135 0 .009* 0 .010* 0 .026* 0 .003* 0 .235 0 .254 0 .384 0 .720 0 .792 0 .928 0 .841 0 .179 0 .079 0 .065 0 .814 0 .125 0 .764 0 .921 0 .484  .  ,  .  .  d  f  54 56 51 56 55 52 54 39 41 50 52 56 51 54 49 45 56 41 44 46 49 56 56 55 56  BY  Word Meaning t-value t-prbb'abil: - 1 ..051 - 0 ..191 - 1 ,.425 - 2 ..218 - 0 ..938 - 2 ..157 - 1 ..182 - 2 ..580 - 3 ..386 - 3 ,.069 2..222 1..861 0,.378 0..576 - 0 ..185 - 1 ,.912 - 0 ,.762 - 2 ,.221 - 2 ,.025 - 2 ,.429 - 0 ..491 0,.804 - 0 ,.840 - 0 ,.927 - 1 ..654  0..298 0..828 0..156 0.. 0 2 9 * 0..355 00.. 0 3 4 * 0..241 0.. 0 1 3 * 0,. 0 0 2 * 0.. 0 0 4 * 0.. 0 2 9 * 0,.065 0..707 0,.574 0,.832 0..059 0..455 0.. 0 3 0 * 0.. 0 4 6 * 0.. 0 1 8 * 0,.631 0,.430 0,.409 0..361 0,.100  70 I  5 Grade  Level  F i g u r e 5. C o m p a r i s o n o f b o y s and g i r l s g r o u p on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g .  i n the  superior  Figure 6 . Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the high normal group on Paragraph Meaning.  70  I  i  »  3  4  •  1—  5  6  7  Grade L e v e l F i g u r e 7. Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the average group on Paragraph Meaning.  70  -—  1  3  4  1  5 Grade L e v e l  F i g u r e 8 , Comparison of boys and g i r l s normal group on Paragraph Meaning.  i  i_  6  7  i n the  low  80  Boys Girls  3  4  5  6  7  Grade L e v e l F i g u r e 9. Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the poor r i s k group on Paragraph Meaning.  81  for  the boys, thus b r i n g i n g the two sexes c l o s e r t o g e t h e r  i n grade s i x and grade seven. There was group. the  a marked sex d i f f e r e n c e i n the high normal  The boys e x h i b i t e d a more r a p i d r a t e of growth than  girls.  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n grades f o u r through seven  were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t b e t t e r than the .05  level.  The growth p a t t e r n s f o r the two average groups are so the  s i m i l a r t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s can be d i s r e g a r d e d . boys f e l l below the g i r l s .  There was  Here  a s l a c k e n i n g of  growth from grade f i v e through grade s i x . No  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes were found i n the low normal group. The g i r l s  i n the poor r i s k group showed a c o n s t a n t  r a t e of development,  the curve approximating a s t r a i g h t  line.  The curve f o r the boys i n t h i s group i s somewhat i r r e g u l a r f a l l i n g below the g i r l s ceeding the g i r l s  i n grade three and grade f o u r , ex-  i n grade f i v e ,  f a l l i n g below again i n  grade s i x and going up a g a i n i n grade seven.  No  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s , however, were found between the boys and the girls  i n the poor r i s k  group.  The comparisons between the boys and g i r l s on Word<v Meaning  are shown i n F i g u r e s 10 t o 14.  The means o f the  boys were c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r than the means of the g i r l s from grade three through grade seven i n the s u p e r i o r , high normal, and low normal c a t e g o r i e s .  The d i f f e r e n c e s were  found to be s i g n i f i c a n t a t b e t t e r than the .05 l e v e l only  70  L  i  i  3  1  1  1  4  5  6  1  7  Grade L e v e l F i g u r e 10. Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the s u p e r i o r group on Word Meaning.  Figure 1 1 . Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the high normal group on Word Meaning.  105 Boys Girls 100  84  105I-  8 5  .  Boys Girls  lOOh  95 L  65 5 Grade  Level  F i g u r e 13. C o m p a r i s o n o f b o y s and g i r l s n o r m a l g r o u p on Word M e a n i n g .  i n t h e low  105  8  F i g u r e 14. Comparison of boys and g i r l s -in the poor r i s k group on Word Meaning.  87  i n grade s i x i n the s u p e r i o r group, i n grade three i n the average group, and i n grades f i v e , low normal group.  s i x and seven i n the  The d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t a l l  grades except grade f o u r i n the h i g h normal group.  In the  poor r i s k group, the boys' means were a l s o h i g h e r than the g i r l s ' means f o r a l l grades except i n grade f o u r . i n the average group, the boys f e l l below the g i r l s grade three to grade s i x and went s l i g h t l y girls the  i n grade seven.  However, from  h i g h e r than the  The e x t e n t of the d i f f e r e n c e between  two sexes appeared t o become b i g g e r from grade f i v e  to  grade seven f o r a l l c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s w i t h the  e x c e p t i o n of the average group. The degree of s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s be-  between the slopes of the curves of the boys and the g i r l s has been determined s t a t i s t i c a l l y .  The r e s u l t s of these  comparisons are shown i n Table XX. TABLE XX COMPARISON OF SLOPES BETWEEN BOYS AND  Readiness Category Superior High Normal Average Low Normal Poor Risk  GIRLS BY READINESS CATEGORY  Paragraph Meaning t-Prob. t-Value 0.162 2.324 1.218 0.698 2.609  *not s i g n i f i c a n t  .875* .023 .228* .510* .018  Word Meaning t-Value t-Prob.  df  5.562 10.363 3.134 5.329 4.788  58 58 58 58 58  .000 .000 .006 .000 .000  88 As e x p l a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y on page 58 the  significant  p r o b a b i l i t i e s - might have r e s u l t e d from f o r c i n g l i n e a r i t y  on  curvilinear data.  the  F i g u r e s 15 to 18 r e v e a l curvatures i n  t r e n d of the means of the boys and the g i r l s f o r a l l  cate-  g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s .  VI.  HYPOTHESIS 5  There are some outstanding e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p h y s i c a l , intellectual,  social,  and emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t  d i s t i n g u i s h those who have become good and poor readers grade  in  five. Information on the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s second p a r t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was obtained by the i n v e s t i g a t o r  from the  school  permanent r e c o r d c a r d s , from s u b t e s t r e s u l t s of the  Metro-  p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s , and from parent i n t e r v i e w s .  A  l e t t e r e x p l a i n i n g the purpose of the study and r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n to conduct the i n t e r v i e w  was sent to the  of each c h i l d i n c l u d e d i n the sample.  The  parents  interviewees  were requested to s e l e c t the time most convenient f o r Information was e l i c i t e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r conversation  through  them.  informal  with both parents i n three c a s e s , with the  See Appendix B, pp. 128-132.  F i g u r e 15. T r e n d o f means on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g o f boys i n the f i v e l e v e l s o f r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s .  F i g u r e 16. Trend of means on Paragraph Meaning of g i r l s i n "the f i v e l e v e l s of reading r e a d i n e s s .  91  1  I  3  4  1  1  5  6  Grade  L  7  Level  F i g u r e 17. T r e n d o f means on Word M e a n i n g the f i v e l e v e l s o f r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s .  o f boys i n  5 Grade L e v e l F i g u r e 18. Trend of means on Word Meaning of g i r l s i n the f i v e l e v e l s of reading r e a d i n e s s .  93 fathers  i n two c a s e s , and with the mothers i n  cases.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r wanted to i n c l u d e  twenty-seven  information  about o c c u p a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of parents s i n c e these c o u l d c o l o r the whole s e t of r e p l i e s e l i c i t e d the i n t e r v i e w .  L o c a l School Board r e s t r i c t i o n s ,  during  however,  prevented the i n c l u s i o n of questions r e l a t e d to these data i n the i n t e r v i e w  guide.  The d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n p r e s c h o o l and e a r l y  s c h o o l years of s i x t e e n good readers and s i x t e e n  poor readers i n the f i f t h grade i s presented i n the form of 4 case s t u d i e s .  The i n f o r m a t i o n from each case study has  been summarized under a number o f c a t e g o r i e s f o r ease of a n a l y s i s of  data.  Summary of the Data on the Case Studies The data from the case s t u d i e s have been summarized to uncover c e r t a i n t r a i t s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d common among good readers and a l s o those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t i n g poor readers i n the f i f t h g r a d e .  to  The summary f o l l o w s  c l o s e l y the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n by m a j o r . h e a d ings done i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the case s t u d i e s . Since the sample s i z e was s m a l l  (N = 32)  and most of  the t a b l e s were w i t h a s i n g l e degree of freedom, the use of c h i - s q u a r e t e s t s on these data was r u l e d o u t .  See Appendix C , pp. 133-174.  The r e s u l t s  94  of  chi-square tests  on t a b l e s w i t h more  f r e e d o m w o u l d a l s o have b e e n m e a n i n g l e s s 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e c e l l s than  5.  had e x p e c t e d  T h e r e were a l s o some c e l l s  cies of less The termining  than  than  b e c a u s e more  in  than  frequencies of less  with  expected  frequen-  1.  Fisher exact p r o b a b i l i t y the s i g n i f i c a n c e  t e s t was u s e d  i n de-  o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f g o o d and  poor readers p o s s e s s i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the  one d e g r e e o f  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s were d i c h o t o m i z e d  studied. A l l  and t h e d o t t e d  lines  t h e summary o f t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e where t h e d i v i s i o n  was  made. Those c h i l d r e n  s i x y e a r s o f age and o v e r were p u t  t o g e t h e r because they  a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be m a t u r e  enough f o r s c h o o l work. The classified  pupils with as l i k e l y  were g r o u p e d w i t h gories. taken  average  t o succeed  those  were  i n f i r s t - g r a d e work s o t h e y  i n t h e h i g h n o r m a l and s u p e r i o r c a t e -  The same d i v i s i o n was  from  readiness category  done w i t h  a l l the t r a i t s  t h e s u b t e s t s c o r e s on t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  Readiness  Tests. The  f i r s t - b o r n s were j o i n e d w i t h  "only  children"  b e c a u s e t h e y were g e n e r a l l y t r e a t e d as " o n l y c h i l d r e n " b e fore  the r e s t . o f The  the c h i l d r e n  display  o f energy  i n t h e f a m i l y were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was  m i z e d as i n d i c a t e d b e c a u s e i t was  born. dichoto-  assumed t h a t c h i l d r e n  with  95  more than average energy are p h y s i c a l l y w e l l and c o u l d be b e t t e r l e a r n e r s than those with j u s t average or l e s s  energy.  Poor Reader  Good Reader Total  Boy  3  7  3  5  8  4 0  2 3  6 3  1 4  0 3  1 7  Superior High Normal Average  1 4 3  0 3 4  1 7 7  0 0 6  0 2 0  0 2 6  Low Normal Poor Risk  0 '0  1 0  1 0  2 0  5 1  7 1  7 1  5 3  12 4  5 3  6 2  11 5  3 5  3 5  6 10  2 6  3 5  5 11  Only c h i l d First  0 3  2 2  2 5  1 1  0 2  1 3  Intermediate Last  2 3  2 2  4 5  3 3  3 3  6 6  Boy  Girl  Below 69 months  4  69-72 months Above 72 months  Girl  Total  Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age  Readiness  category  Language spoken a t home Monolingual Bilingual Number o f c h i l d r e n i n family 4 o r more 1 to 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y  Good Reader Boy Physical  Girl  Poor Reader  Total  Boy  Girl  Total  characteristics  *Visual perception Superior High Average  3 3 2  3 2 1  6 5 3  0 4 0  1 2 2  1 6 2  Low Poor  0 0  1 1  1 1  4 0  1 2  5 2  Superior High Average  3 1 4  1 5 1  4 6 5  0 3 0  1 0 2  1 3 2  Low Poor  0 0  1 0  1 0  5 0  3 2  8 2  Superior High Average  1 3 1  0 2 0  1 5 1  0 3 1  2 1 0  2 4 1  Low Poor  3 0  6 0  9 0  3 1  2 3  5 4  More than average  2  1  3  3  4  7  Average Less than average  4 2  5 2  9 4  3 2  4 0  7 2  *Auditory perception  *Motor c o n t r o l  D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g  * Tests.  From s u b t e s t s scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness  97  Good Reader Boy  Total  Boy  3 5  11 .5  7 1  1 7  8 8  8 0  4 4  12 4  0 . 1 8 7  1 15  7 1  8 0  15 1  0 8  1 15  Superior High Average  2 6 0  1 6 1  12 1  3 3  Low Poor  0 0  0 0  0 0  1 0  2 2  3 2  Superior High Average  1 3 3  2 4 1  3 7 4  0 2 2  1 1 2  1 3 4  Low Poor  1 0  1 0  2 0  3 1  2 2  5 3  Intellectual  Girl  Poor Reader Girl  Total  characteristics  Participated in conversation Yes No  8 0  C u r i o u s , asked q u e s t i o n s , e x p l o r e d new things Yes No Displayed i n t e r e s t reading Yes No *Richness of concept  *Number  in  verbal 3  1  1 2  1  2 4 5  knowledge  From s u b t e s t s scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Tests.  1 7  Readiness  98  Good Reader Boy  Girl  Poor Reader  Total  Boy  Girl  Total  Vocabulary Superior High Average  6 2 0  3 4 1  9 6 1  3 0 5  2 1 0  5 1 5  Low Poor  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  3 2  3 2  8 0  4 4  12 4  6 2  3 5  9 7  7 1  7 1  14 2  6 2  6 2  12 4  8 0  4 4  12 4  5 3  5 3  10 6  8 0  3 5  11 5  7 1  4 4  11 5  7 1  6 2  13 3  2 6  3 5  5 11  Social  characteristics  Enjoyed being w i t h others Yes No Liked  teachers  Yes No Shared toys and games Yes No Harmonious, not shy Yes No Emotional  characteristics  Congenial r e l a t i o n s h i p with parents Yes No  From s u b t e s t s scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests.  99 Good Reader Boy  Girl  Poor Reader  Total  Boy  Girl  Total  Congenial r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h teacher and schoolmates Yes No Had  5 3  5 3  10 6  3 5  3 5  6 10  8 0  4 4  12 4  0 8  4 4  4 12  4 4  2 6  6 10  3 5  2 6  5 11  0 8  0 8  0 16  1 7  1 7  2 14  5 3  4 4  9 7  6 2  4 4  10 6  3  4  4  8  5  4  4  8  self-confidence  Yes No Had the a b i l i t y t o concentrate Yes No Overdependent Yes No E x p e r i e n t i a l background i  i  Travelled outside Province Yes No Went on outings with f a m i l y or f r i e n d s 1 or more times/week Less o f t e n than once a week Was read t o 1 o r more times/week Less o f t e n than once a week  3  7  1  1  2  5  9  7  7  14  100 Good Reader Boy  Girl  Poor Reader  Total  Boy  Girl  Total  Was t o l d s t o r i e s to 1 or more times/week Less o f t e n than once a week Was g i v e n help reading  6  4  10  4  4  8  2  4  6  4  4  8  3 5  1 7  4 12  0 8  0 8  0 16  6  5  11  4  6  10  2  3  5  4  2  6  in  Yes No Watched t e l e v i s i o n 15 or fewer hours a week More than 15 hours a week  F i n d i n g s from the Case S t u d i e s The p r o b a b i l i t y f o r each t r a i t obtained by u s i n g the F i s h e r exact p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t was l i s t e d under the main headings. Probability  Characteristics Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age  .260  Readiness category  .007*  Language spoken at home  .283  Number of c h i l d r e n i n the P o s i t i o n i n the  family  family  .271 .161  101 Characteristics Physical  Probability  characteristics  Visual perception  .049*  Auditory perception  .001*  Motor c o n t r o l  .277  D i s p l a y o f energy w h i l e p l a y i n g  .099  Intellectual  characteristics  Participated  i n conversation  .162  Eager t o do t h i n g s by h i m s e l f  .000*  C u r i o u s , asked q u e s t i o n s  .000*  D i s p l a y e d i n t e r e s t i n reading  .000*  Richness o f v e r b a l concept  .022*  Number knowledge  .024*  Vocabulary  .022*  Social  characteristics  Enjoyed being with others  .161  Liked teachers  .241  Shared toys and games  .226  Harmonious  .296  Emotional  characteristics  Congenial r e l a t i o n s h i p with parents  .005*  Congenial r e l a t i o n s h i p with teacher and schoolmates  .109  102 Characteristics  Probability  Had s e l f confidence  .006*  Had the a b i l i t y to concentrate  .271  Overdependent  .470  E x p e r i e n t i a l background T r a v e l l e d outside Province  .26 4  Went on outings" with f a m i l y or f r i e n d s  .276  Was read to  .049*  Was t o l d s t o r i e s to  .219  Was g i v e n h e l p i n reading  .050*  Watched t e l e v i s i o n  *  . . .  .271  significant  Background i n f o r m a t i o n .  There were e i g h t c h i l d r e n i n  the poor r e a d e r s ' group and seven i n the good r e a d e r s who entered s c h o o l below 5 years and 9 months.  1  group  The number  of c h i l d r e n w i t h s c h o o l entrance ages above 6 years was larger  among poor readers than among good readers  (7 v s .  3).  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t s c h o o l entrance age probably does not a f f e c t success i n r e a d i n g i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s . None of the poor .readers belonged to the s u p e r i o r category of r e a d i n e s s and there were only two poor readers with h i g h normal i n i t i a l r e a d i n e s s s t a t u s .  Among the good  103 readers there was one i n the s u p e r i o r group and seven i n the h i g h normal category of r e a d i n e s s .  Only one good  reader s t a r t e d with a low normal r e a d i n e s s l e v e l  while  e i g h t poor readers were i n the lower l e v e l s of r e a d i n e s s . The p r o b a b i l i t y  c a l c u l a t e d on these data i s  p l i e s that i n i t i a l  .007.  T h i s im-  reading r e a d i n e s s may be a f a c t o r  d i s t i n g u i s h e s good readers from poor readers at the grade  that fifth  level. Since an almost equal number of good and poor  readers  (4 and 5, r e s p e c t i v e l y )  languages, i t  can not be i n f e r r e d i n t h i s study t h a t b i -  lingualism affects grades.  was found speaking two  r e a d i n g success i n the  intermediate  The language spoken at home, the number of  i n the f a m i l y and the p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y  fell  children  s h o r t of  the 5 per cent l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Physical characteristics.  Visual perception  (p = .04-9) and a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n by the i n i t i a l  (p = .001)  readiness test d i s t i n g u i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the good readers from the poor r e a d e r s . bability  as determined  The exact p r o -  t e s t performed on motor c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y of  energy w h i l e p l a y i n g f a i l e d to reach the 5 per cent  level  of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Intellectual characteristics.  The parent  interview  data showed marked d i f f e r e n c e s between good and poor readers i n three  t r a i t s under t h i s h e a d i n g .  They were eagerness to  104 do t h i n g s by h i m s e l f , reading.  c u r i o s i t y , and d i s p l a y of i n t e r e s t  With p r o b a b i l i t i e s  differentiated  these  characteristics  A l s o , r i c h n e s s of v e r b a l  (p = . 0 2 2 ) , number knowledge  concept  (p = . 0 2 4 ) , and vocabulary  as assessed by the Metropo11tan  distinguished significantly five  .000  s i g n i f i c a n t l y between good and poor readers  i n the f i f t h g r a d e .  (p. = .022)  of  in  Readiness T e s t s  the good from the poor grade  readers. Social characteristics.  The good and poor readers  were found to be very s i m i l a r i n r e l a t i o n  to the  characteristics selected for this  The F i s h e r exact  probability  study.  t e s t d i d not r e v e a l any s i g n i f i c a n t  social  difference  between the f r e q u e n c i e s obtained f o r the good and the poor readers  1  groups.  Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Among the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s investigated during•the two showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s the poor r e a d e r s . at home (p = . 0 0 5 ) .  emotional  parent,  interviews  between the good and  Good readers tend to be more c o n g e n i a l A probability  of  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n p r e s c h o o l and e a r l y  .006  implies  that  s c h o o l years i s a  t r a i t which d i s t i n g u i s h e s good from poor readers i n elementary  grades.  Good c o n c e n t r a t i o n a b i l i t y ,  a  later  feeling  of s e c u r i t y i n s c h o o l , and independence developed e a r l y the formative significance.  years d i d not reach the 5 per cent l e v e l  in of  105 E x p e r i e n t i a l background.  The amount of t r a v e l  t e l e v i s i o n viewing and the number of o u t i n g s w i t h and/or friends f a i l e d and poor r e a d e r s .  and  family  to show any d i s t i n c t i o n between good  There were almost as many good readers  as there were poor readers who had been t o l d s t o r i e s  before  they went to s c h o o l and d u r i n g the beginning s c h o o l y e a r s . Four of the good readers and none among the poor readers were g i v e n p r e s c h o o l h e l p i n readincr.  Exact  probability  computed on these data showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e the 5 per cent  at  level.  A l l the good readers except one were read to by t h e i r mothers or by t h e i r their  o l d e r b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s during  early childhood days.  S i x of the poor readers were  never read to before they went t o s c h o o l .  Only two of  the  poor readers were read to once a week and e i g h t were read to l e s s o f t e n .  The F i s h e r exact p r o b a b i l i t y  data y i e l d e d a p r o b a b i l i t y  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  t e s t on these .049  level.  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The into  discussion i n this  four sections:  cedures,  chapter  has been d i v i d e d  (1) t h e summary o f t h e d e s i g n  and p r o -  (2) t h e summary o f f i n d i n g s , (3) e d u c a t i o n a l i m -  plications,  a n d (4) s u g g e s t i o n s I.  The  SUMMARY OF DESIGN AND  aim o f t h e f i r s t  investigate,  f o r further research. PROCEDURES  part of this  study  was t o  i n r e t r o s p e c t , t h e growth p a t t e r n s  i n reading  a c h i e v e m e n t o f a. g r o u p o f g r a d e s e v e n c h i l d r e n who s t a r t e d schooling with  different  levels  of reading  readiness.  Growth i n r e a d i n g was d e f i n e d as t h e m e a s u r e d g a i n ing  achievement from y e a r The  records  Meaning s u b t e s t s the  t o year.  procedure c o n s i s t e d i n gathering  of the results  o f t h e S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t g i v e n t o  from grade t h r e e  o f growth i n r e a d i n g superior, high categories derived  f o r a period of five  through grade seven.  The c u r v e s  f o r each group o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e  n o r m a l , a v e r a g e , low n o r m a l , a n d p o o r  o f reading  readiness  from t h e p u p i l s '  conclusions  continuous  on t h e P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g a n d Word  same c h i l d r e n a t y e a r l y i n t e r v a l s  years,  i n read-  of this  risk  were b a s e d on t h e K - s c o r e s  actual scores.  p a r t o f the study  The f i n d i n g s / s a n d  were b a s e d on s t a t i s -  107 tical  and g r a p h i c a l comparisons of the trend of the means  e x h i b i t e d by each of the groups i n the f i v e reading readiness.  levels  A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and the t t e s t  s i g n i f i c a n c e were employed i n the s t a t i s t i c a l the  of of  treatment of  data. The purpose of the second p a r t of the study was to  identify istics  c e r t a i n p r e s c h o o l and beginning s c h o o l c h a r a c t e r -  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h those who have become good and poor  readers i n grade f i v e .  To do t h i s , case s t u d i e s were made  on s i x t e e n good readers and s i x t e e n poor readers  selected  from the top 27 per cent and the bottom 27 per cent of a p o p u l a t i o n of 315 grade f i v e p u p i l s from f i v e schools.  elementary  The o b j e c t i v e l y measured c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of good  and poor readers were obtained from the r e s u l t s of  the  MetropoTitan Readiness T e s t s and other s i g n i f i c a n t  data  recorded i n the s c h o o l permanent r e c o r d c a r d s .  Other  per-  t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained by means of i n t e r v i e w  with  parents of each of the s i x t e e n good and s i x t e e n poor readers. Statistical  a n a l y s i s of the data was done by a p p l y i n g  the F i s h e r exact p r o b a b i l i t y  test.  The computed p r o b a b i l i t y  showed which of the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s e l e c t e d i  f o r the study s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the poor readers i n the grade f i v e  the good readers  level.  108 II.  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS  Growth P a t t e r n s i n Reading Achievement A thorough  examination  of the t r e n d o f the mean  scores on the Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning s u b t e s t s of  the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t e x h i b i t e d by groups of  c h i l d r e n i n grade seven with d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l  reading  r e a d i n e s s s t a t u s has l e d t o the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1.  The three h i g h e s t groups, the s u p e r i o r , high  normal, and average maintained  their relative positions  throughout the e n t i r e f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d .  This trend  indi-  cated t h a t p u p i l s with high l e v e l s o f r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s a t the beginning to  perform  o f t h e i r formal reading experience  continued  w e l l i n r e a d i n g throughout the elementary  2.  Those with s u p e r i o r i n i t i a l r e a d i n g  grades.  readiness  s t a t u s remained s u p e r i o r , on the average, and even tended to  progress  reading  readiness. 3.  of ing be  The slopes o f the curves on Paragraph Meaning  the average and the low normal groups and on Word Meano f the low normal and the poor r i s k groups tended t o similar. 4.  in  a t a f a s t e r r a t e than the other c a t e g o r i e s o f  Theretappeared  t o be no p l a t e a u i n grade f o u r  the growth curves o f a l l l e v e l s o f reading readiness but  something l i k e a p l a t e a u was noted grade 6.  from grade 5 through  109  5.  There was  a steep r i s e i n growth i n reading i n  grade seven f o r a l l the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g  readi-  ness . 6.  The mean gains from grade three through grade  seven were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r a l l the r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s groups.  The s u p e r i o r group y i e l d e d the g r e a t e s t  g a i n on both Paragraph Meaning  and Word Meaning.  The poor  r i s k group had the s m a l l e s t g a i n on Paragraph Meaning exceeded the low normal group on Word Meaning by  .57  but K-  score p o i n t s . 7.  In g e n e r a l , the boys surpassed  grade l e v e l s .  the g i r l s at a l l  The d i f f e r e n c e s , however, were found t o be  s i g n i f i c a n t i n most grades only f o r the high normal on Paragraph Meaning  category  and f o r the high normal and low normal  c a t e g o r i e s on Word Meaning. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the use of more m a s c u l i n e - o r i e n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n the elementary grades i n the schools where the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  conducted might have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the  b e t t e r performance i n r e a d i n g by the boys. C h a r a c t e r i s t i e s of Good and Poor Readers Conclusions  d e r i v e d from the f i n d i n g s of the i n v e s t i -  g a t i o n on the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of good and poor readers i n grade f i v e were summarized  as f o l l o w s :  110  1. initial  Good readers  i n grade f i v e g e n e r a l l y had h i g h e r  r e a d i n g readiness s t a t u s as measured by the Metro-  p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . 2.  More grade f i v e good readers were eager t o do  t h i n g s by themselves and they were more s e l f - c o n f i d e n t and independent d u r i n g t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d days than were poor r e a d e r s . 3.  Good readers  i n grade f i v e , i n c o n t r a s t t o poor  r e a d e r s , were g e n e r a l l y c u r i o u s about t h e i r environment d u r i n g t h e i r p r e s c h o o l and beginning u s u a l l y asked a l o t o f q u e s t i o n s f o r almost 4.  school years.  They  and demanded e x p l a n a t i o n  anything. More good readers i n grade f i v e d i s p l a y e d p r e -  s c h o o l i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g than d i d the poor r e a d e r s . They o f t e n requested and enjoyed 5.  t h a t s t o r i e s be t o l d o r . r e a d t o them  p i c t u r e books and magazines. More good readers than poor readers i n grade  f i v e were e m o t i o n a l l y w e l l a d j u s t e d a t home d u r i n g p r e s c h o o l and e a r l y s c h o o l y e a r s .  Good readers tended t o  be more c o n g e n i a l a t home d u r i n g these 6.  More good readers  their  years.  than poor readers i n grade  f i v e were read t o and g i v e n h e l p i n r e a d i n g d u r i n g  their  e a r l y c h i l d h o o d days. 7.  School entrance  age d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e  n i f i c a n t l y between good and poor readers i n grade  sig-  five.  I l l  Good readers and poor readers were found  to be s i m i l a r i n  r e l a t i o n to language spoken at home, number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y , and p o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y . 8.  The  skills  and a b i l i t i e s measured by the  subtests  of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests t h a t were found  to be  u s e f u l as p r e d i c t o r s of reading achievement at the grade were r i c h n e s s of v e r b a l concept,  fifth  auditory perception,  vocabulary, v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , and number knowledge. s u b t e s t 6 , Copying, which measures motor c o n t r o l , to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e at the 5 per cent III.  failed  level.  EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS  T h i s study has  shown t h a t the c h i l d ' s r e a d i n e s s f o r  r e a d i n g should be of g r e a t concern and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  Parents  to p a r e n t s ,  teachers,  should be aware of the  effect  the e a r l y environment of the c h i l d has on h i s l a t e r patterns.  Only  Long b e f o r e a c h i l d goes to s c h o o l  reading  parents  should s t i m u l a t e r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s by p r o v i d i n g v a r i o u s experiences  at home.  s c h o o l experiences  They should expand the c h i l d ' s  pre-  by s u p p o r t i n g h i s c u r i o s i t y by answer-  i n g p a t i e n t l y and promptly h i s q u e r i e s .  They should  en-  courage the c h i l d to do t h i n g s f o r h i m s e l f , to e x p l o r e d i s c o v e r new  experiences,  and to s o l v e h i s own  and  problems.  They should f o s t e r the c h i l d ' s love f o r r e a d i n g by or r e a d i n g w e l l - s e l e c t e d and appealing s t o r i e s to  telling him.  112 C h i l d r e n come to k i n d e r g a r t e n d i f f e r e n t reading p o t e n t i a l s The teacher  and f i r s t  grade w i t h  and r e a d i n e s s f o r  reading.  should be able to observe evidences of  readi-  ness f o r reading i n each c h i l d i n her c l a s s to guide her her t e a c h i n g .  Teachers should make use of the r e s u l t s  readiness t e s t s .  T h i s c o u l d be supplemented by other  formation obtained from p a r e n t s .  It  i s i d e a l to  of in-  introduce  a c h i l d to the reading process at the time when h i s to read i s strong and when he i s ready to r e a d .  desire  But r e a d -  i n g r e a d i n e s s i s not something t o be waited f o r .  It  can be  developed through p r o v i d i n g the c h i l d r e n with a v a r i e t y experiences such as l e t t i n g them t a l k about t h e i r experiences or r e t e l l s t o r i e s read or t o l d to  in  of  personal  them.  Teachers can arouse i n c h i l d r e n a d e s i r e to read by making p i c t u r e books, s t o r y books and other reading available  to  them.  The a d m i n i s t r a t o r program.  materials  Harris  should p l a n an e f f e c t i v e  surmised t h a t "an e f f e c t i v e  readiness  readiness p r o -  gram should make use of r e a d i n e s s t e s t s t h a t can l o c a t e areas of weakness and should p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g  se-  quences i n each area i n which a weakness i s found.""'' King contended t h a t " a s t i m u l a t i n g p r e - r e a d i n g  program,  A l b e r t J . H a r r i s , "Key F a c t o r s i n a S u c c e s s f u l Reading Program," Elementary E n g l i s h , 46:69. J a n u a r y , 1969.  113 which i n c l u d e s l i t e r a t u r e , and a u d i t o r y  training,  language, and s p e c i f i c v i s u a l  w i l l contribute  directly  to  learning  2 to  read." The a d m i n i s t r a t o r  should see to i t  t h a t the  reading  program p r o v i d e s f o r a s y s t e m a t i c development of the ing s k i l l s appropriate  to the k i n d of reading tasks  readthe  c h i l d r e n w i l l meet at each grade l e v e l from k i n d e r g a r t e n college..  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n should be g i v e n to the  to  period  when the c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s i n r e a d i n g begins t o bog down. More emphasis should be p l a c e d on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n standing of what has been read r a t h e r r e c o g n i t i o n i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  than on mere word  of the reading c u r r i c u l u m .  A good working r e l a t i o n s h i p between teachers and parents p l a n together  and under-  administrator,  i s necessary i n order t h a t they can  on how to help the c h i l d r e n grow i n t o  There should be frequent  reading.  c o n f e r e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y with  parents of p r e s c h o o l , k i n d e r g a r t e n ,  and f i r s t  grade p u p i l s  so t h a t they c o u l d d i s c u s s the r o l e s t h a t each can p l a y l a y i n g a s t r o n g foundation f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s reading IV.  growth.  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  T h i s study has brought to a focus a number of needing f u r t h e r  in  issues  research.  E t h e l M. K i n g , "Beginning Reading: The Reading T e a c h e r , 22:553, March, 1969.  When and How,"  114 The in  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study showed a c o n s i s t e n t drop  the r a t e o f reading growth a t the f i f t h  and s i x t h grade  l e v e l s i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s of reading r e a d i n e s s except the low normal group.  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the f a c t o r s t h a t con-  t r i b u t e d t o t h i s drop i n r a t e of reading growth i s suggested. A r e p l i c a t i o n o f the study on the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d good from poor readers i n the h i g h e r grades should be made u s i n g sources of i n f o r mation i n a d d i t i o n t o p a r e n t s .  The data might be gathered  from k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade t e a c h e r s v a t i o n s and r e c o l l e c t i o n s , h e a l t h r e c o r d s ,  1  w r i t t e n obsercumulative  r e c o r d s , and the r e s u l t s o f r e a d i n e s s and other  standar-  d i z e d t e s t s administered t o the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e i r p r e s c h o o l and e a r l y s c h o o l y e a r s .  Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s worth  l o o k i n g i n t o are onset o f language, age a t which the c h i l d s t a r t e d t o walk, e d u c a t i o n o f p a r e n t s , and home l i t e r a r y environment. Since i t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t the foundations of  r e a d i n g are l a i d long b e f o r e a c h i l d goes t o s c h o o l and  t h a t the parents are the c h i l d ' s f i r s t t e a c h e r s , how would the attendance  of parents i n a parent education course be  r e l a t e d t o the c h i l d ' s r e a d i n e s s f o r reading and r e a d i n g achievement?  The answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n may u l t i m a t e l y  l e a d t o the need f o r parent e d u c a t i o n as a p a r t o f the  115 r e g u l a r s c h o o l program. is currently  An e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y  relevant.  Would an e a r l y s t a r t i n s c h o o l , e s p e c i a l l y f o r those c h i l d r e n who come from poor home environment, a f f e c t i n g achievement i n l a t e r years?  read-  Many p r e s c h o o l experiences  were found to c o n t r i b u t e to success i n r e a d i n g .  Hence e a r l y  s c h o o l i n g f o r c h i l d r e n whose parents c o u l d not p r o v i d e them with f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s would be a s u i t a b l e t o p i c  for  research. K i n d e r g a r t e n programs have been f o s t e r i n g s o c i a l and emotional growth.  Would an emphasis on c o g n i t i v e growth  i n k i n d e r g a r t e n r e s u l t i n b e t t e r r e a d i n g achievement i n  the  elementary grades? One l i m i t a t i o n the f a c t t h a t i t  of the study on growth p a t t e r n s was  was r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n nature and had t o  depend mostly on data a v a i l a b l e i n s c h o o l s .  A longitudinal  study of i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s d e l i b e r a t e l y planned to be  fol-  lowed up from k i n d e r g a r t e n through grade seven u s i n g r e l i a b l e r e s e a r c h instruments may y i e l d more comprehensive i n f o r m a t i o n and may r e v e a l more r e l i a b l e p a t t e r n s i n g growth.  of r e a d -  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  117  A.  BOOKS  Bond, Guy L . and E v a Bond Wagner. Teaching the C h i l d Read. New Y o r k : . The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1966. B u r o s , O s k a r K. ( e d . ) . F o u r t h M e n t a l Measurement Highland Park: The G r y p h o n P r e s s , 1965.  to ~  Yearbook.  . F i f t h M e n t a l Measurement Y e a r b o o k . G r y p h o n P r e s s , 1966.  Highland Park:  The  S i x t h M e n t a l Measurement Y e a r b o o k . G r y p h o n P r e s s , 1967.  Highland Park:  The  C o n a n t , James B. L e a r n i n g t o Read. T e s t i n g ; S e r v i c e " ! 1962 .  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"The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f F i r s t Grade R e a d i n e s s t o T h i r d a n d F o u r t h Grade A c h i e v e m e n t , " The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 5 6 : 6 1 - 6 7 , O c t o b e r ,  1962.  M a t t i c k , W i l l i a m E . " P r e d i c t i n g Success i n t h e F i r s t Grade," The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 4 2 : 2 7 3 - 7 5 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 3 . M c E l r o y , K a t h r y n Mohn. "A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f R e a d i n g Growth f r o m G r a d e s Two t o S e v e n , " The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 2 5 : 9 8 - 1 0 1 , September, 1 9 6 1 .  121 M i t c h e l l , Blythe. "The M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s as P r e d i c t o r s o f F i r s t Grade A c h i e v e m e n t , " E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 22:765-72, W i n t e r , 1962. M o r p h e t t , M.V. and C. Washburne. "When S h o u l d C h i l d r e n L e a r n t o Read?" The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 31:496503, M a r c h , 1931. O l s o n , W i l l i a m C. and B y r o n 0. Hughes. "Concepts o f GrowthT h e i r S i g n i f i c a n c e t o T e a c h e r s , " Childhood E d u c a t i o n , 21:53-63, O c t o b e r , 1944. P o w e l l , M a r v i n and K e n n e t h M. P a r s l e y , J r . "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between F i r s t Grade R e a d i n g R e a d i n e s s and Second Grade R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t , " The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 54:229-33, F e b r u a r y , 1961. P r e s c o t t , George A. "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n e s s T e s t s R e s u l t s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 48, A p r i l , 1955. Roslow, Sydney. " R e a d i n g R e a d i n e s s and R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t i n F i r s t Grade," J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 9:15 4-159, December, 19 40. S a n d e r s o n , A . E . "The I d e a o f R e a d i n g R e a d i n e s s : A Ree x a m i n a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 6:3-8, November, 1963. S u t t o n , R a c h e l S. " V a r i a t i o n s i n Reading Achievement o f S e l e c t e d C h i l d r e n , " E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 37:97-100, F e b r u a r y , 1960. T h a c k r a y , D.V. "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between R e a d i n g R e a d i n e s s and R e a d i n g P r o g r e s s , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology,.35:252-54, J u n e , 1965. W i l s o n , F r a n k T. " R e a d i n g P r o g r e s s i n K i n d e r g a r t e n and P r i m a r y G r a d e s , " The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 38:442-49, F e b r u a r y , 193 8. D.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS  C o v e l l , H a r o l d M. "A S t u d y o f t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Good and P o o r R e a d e r s o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s M a t e r i a l s a t t h e E l e v e n t h Grade L e v e l . " Unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , T a l l a h a s s e , F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1955.  122 Dugger, J e r o l d O r v i l l e . "A S t u d y o f R e a d i n g Growth o f I n t e r m e d i a t e Grade P u p i l s i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f Maob, U t a h . " Unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , B o u l d e r , C o l o r a d o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1960. Dykstra, Robert. "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between S e l e c t e d M e a s u r e s o f A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t a t t h e End o f F i r s t G r a d e . " Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, University of M i n n e s o t a , 1962. Eddings, Inez C l a r k . " P a t t e r n s o f Reading Growth: A L o n g i t u d i n a l S t u d y o f P a t t e r n s o f R e a d i n g Growth T h r o u g h o u t t h e S i x G r a d e s i n Two E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s . " Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia, U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h C a r o l i n a , 1950. K o n s k i , V i r g i n i a J', "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o D i f f e r e n c e s Between Boys and G i r l s i n S e l e c t e d R e a d i n g R e a d i n e s s -Areas- and i n R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t . " Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia, U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i , 1951. Namkin, S i d n e y . "The S t a b i l i t y o f A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t S c o r e s , A L o n g i t u d i n a l S t u d y o f R e a d i n g and A r i t h m e t i c Subt e s t s o f the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t . " Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , R u t g e r s - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , New B r u n s w i c k , 1966. . ' " '\ ..^ " Shankman, F l o r e n c e V o g e l . "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e D e v e l o p ment o f R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t Growth f r o m G r a d e s F o u r t o Nine." U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1959. Summers, Edward G e o r g e . "An E v a l u a t i o n o f R e a d i n g Growth and R e t e n t i o n Under Two P l a n s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Seventh Grade Developmental Reading." Unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, M i n n e a p o l i s , 1963.  A P P E N D I C E S  124  APPENDIX A INTERVIEW GUIDE Home and Family Background Language spoken at home: Monolingual Bilingual Multilingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the  family:  Number of Number of P o s i t i o n of c h i l d i n the  brothers sisters  family:  First Intermediate Last Only c h i l d II.  Physical  Characteristics  When p l a y i n g how much energy d i d the c h i l d have compared to c h i l d r e n h i s age? d e f i n i t e l y more than average above average d e f i n i t e l y l e s s than average In what type of a c t i v i t i e s d i d the c h i l d do e s p e c i a l l y well? o u t d o o r , a c t i v e games i n d o o r , q u i e t games III.  Intellectual  Did your c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e Yes No  Characteristics  i n conversations?  Was he eager to do t h i n g s by h i m s e l f ? Yes No Was he c u r i o u s ? Yes No Did your c h i l d show any p r e s c h o o l i n t e r e s t to read? Yes No IV.  in  learning  Social Characteristics  Did your c h i l d enjoy being with others? Yes No Did he share h i s toys and games with others? _____  Yes No  What was the c h i l d ' s behavior l i k e before he school? ' '  got i n t o q u i t e a l o t of shy harmonious  Did your c h i l d attend k i n d e r g a r t e n ? .  '  1 year 6 months l e s s than 6 months  Did he l i k e h i s teacher i n  kindergarten?  Yes No Did he l i k e h i s teacher i n f i r s t Yes No  grade?  started trouble  Yes  I  126 V.  Emotional C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  How do you t h i n k your c h i l d and you got along with each other b e f o r e he entered school? some t r o u b l e sometimes poor behavior no t r o u b l e at a l l When your c h i l d f i r s t to stay home?  attended s c h o o l d i d he say he wanted Yes No Only i n the beginning intermittently most of the time  Did your c h i l d f e e l  self-confident? Yes NQ  How d i d the c h i l d r e a c t when he was engaged i n some work or game? gave up e a s i l y •' sometimes he gave u p , sometimes he d i d n ' t worked to the end of the task Was your c h i l d overdependent? •' " '  . Yes No VI.  E x p e r i e n t i a l Background  Did you t r a v e l anywhere o u t s i d e Vancouver with your c h i l d b e f o r e he s t a r t e d school? Yes No If s o , where d i d you go? ' How long d i d you stay there? Did you go on outings with your c h i l d before he s t a r t e d Yes No If s o , how often? once a week once a month less often  school?  127 Did you t e l l him s t o r i e s before he s t a r t e d Yes No I f so, how often?  school?  every day once a week less often Did you o r anybody e l s e g i v e the c h i l d p r e s c h o o l help with reading? Yes No Did the c h i l d watch t e l e v i s i o n b e f o r e s t a r t i n g Yes No I f so, how often?  school?  5 or fewer hours p e r week 6 t o 15 hours p e r week 16 or more hours per week What v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g s do you t h i n k your c h i l d from watching t e l e v i s i o n ?  acquired  i n t e r e s t i n w r i t t e n words vocabulary development . i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s t o r y Did you read t o him b e f o r e he s t a r t e d school? No I f so, how often? •  '  Yes  every day two or three times a week less often  How d i d your c h i l d r e a c t when you t o l d him o r read him stories? very i n t e r e s t e d ' s l i g h t l y interested not i n t e r e s t e d  128 APPENDIX B AN INTERVIEW WITH A PARENT. The f o l l o w i n g i s a sample i n t e r v i e w A l l names except the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s interviewee  with a p a r e n t .  are f i c t i t i o u s .  The  was the mother of a g i r l who had been c l a s s i f i e d  as a good grade f i v e reader based on her scores on the Gate'sM a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s .  The s c h o o l r e c o r d s showed t h a t  she entered s c h o o l at the age of 68 months.  Her  initial  r e a d i n e s s s t a t u s was average. Interviewer  (approaching the parent i n a r e l a x e d and  f r i e n d l y manner):  Good e v e n i n g , Mrs. B e l l .  Andrade. Parent  I  am Teresa  I phoned you about your daughter Ann.  (knowing the purpose of the v i s i t because of a  l e t t e r sent i n advance by the i n t e r v i e w e r  and a telephone  c a l l c o n f i r m i n g the date and time of the i n t e r v i e w ) : Miss Andrade. Interviewer:  Come i n ,  Have a s e a t .  A n n ' s s c h o o l r e c o r d s show t h a t she has  been g e t t i n g p r e t t y good marks i n r e a d i n g s i n c e the first Parent:  grade. Oh, she sure loves to r e a d .  favorite  subject.  There i s h a r d l y a day you can see  her come home without any l i b r a r y Interviewer:  It  Reading i s her  book.  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t many of A n n ' s c h a r -  a c t e r i s t i c s d u r i n g her e a r l y c h i l d h o o d days are l a t e d to her being a good reader now? p o s s i b l y look back and t r y  Could you  t o r e c a l l which ones?  re-  129 Parent:  Oh, w e l l ,  l e t us s e e .  What I remember  fully  w e l l i s t h a t as a c h i l d she had been c u r i o u s about, w r i t t e n words on t e l e v i s i o n . ask what a word says t i l l t i f y TV commercials.  She would always  she c o u l d f i n a l l y  iden-  And she seemed t o be very  i n t e r e s t e d i n the l e t t e r s  of the alphabet so t h a t  she knew a l r e a d y how to read and w r i t e them b e f o r e she went t o Interviewer:  school.  Who taught her the l e t t e r s  of  the  alphabet? Parent:  I did.  Because she seemed to be so i n t e r -  e s t e d i n them I was encouraged to teach h e r . Interviewer:  You probably read or t o l d her s t o r i e s  too. Parent:  Oh y e s .  She i s an only c h i l d and I c o u l d  g i v e her the b e s t a t t e n t i o n  and c a r e .  I did  it  almost every n i g h t before she went t o b e d . Interviewer: Parent:  And was she i n t e r e s t e d i n them?  Y e s , she was.  about them.  She would even ask q u e s t i o n s  She was a c u r i o u s c h i l d and demanded  explanation for everything.  Sometimes she would  even ask us what we had been doing when we were k i d s . Interviewer:  I hope you won't mind i f  I ask you how  you and your c h i l d got along w i t h each other b e f o r e she went to  school.  130 Parent:  Oh, not at a l l .  Sometimes Ann was m i s -  chievous but she was good on the average.  She  was a happy g i r l . Interviewer:  Could you p o s s i b l y t e l l me how much  energy Ann had when p l a y i n g compared to  other  c h i l d r e n her age? Parent:  I  should say j u s t average.  She l i k e d  w i t h the neighbors but she e a s i l y gave up. though she c o u l d get along w i t h o t h e r s , times p r e f e r r e d p l a y i n g Interviewer:  playing Al-  she o f t e n  alone.  Was she w i l l i n g  to share her toys with  her playmates? Parent:::; Y e s , she d i d share her toys most of the e s p e c i a l l y w i t h S h i r l e y , her best f r i e n d .  time,  They are  very good f r i e n d s and Ann l i k e d very much to go to kindergarten Interviewer:  school with her.  Did she l i k e her teachers i n  g a r t e n and f i r s t Parent:  kinder-  grade?  She l i k e d them, e s p e c i a l l y Miss C l a r k e ,  sweet k i n d e r g a r t e n Interviewer:  teacher.  Do you speak any other language  aside  from E n g l i s h ? Parent:  No.  Interviewer:  her  Do you remember i f  part i n conversations?  Ann u s u a l l y  took  131  Parent:  My, she was a good t a l k e r .  She would t a l k  with anybody who came to see u s . Interviewer: Parent:  Was she eager to do t h i n g s by h e r s e l f ?  Ann was independent as a s m a l l c h i l d .  had s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . be done. just  She  She never asked what should  She t r i e d to do t h i n g s by h e r s e l f ,  but  l i k e i n p l a y i n g she would g i v e up b e f o r e  the  task was done. Interviewer:  How o f t e n d i d Ann watch t e l e v i s i o n  b e f o r e she went to school? Parent:  Not too much.  I was a f r a i d i t  would s p o i l  her eyes so she spent only about an hour a day watching t e l e v i s i o n . Interviewer:  D i d you go on o u t i n g s w i t h her b e f o r e  she s t a r t e d Parent:  school?  We went on outings almost every weekend and  we s t i l l do i t Interviewer:  It  now. was n i c e t a l k i n g to you and h e a r i n g  about these i n t e r e s t i n g behaviors of Ann during her p r e s c h o o l d a y s . Parent:  It  was a p l e a s u r e to t h i n k back.  It  would  r e a l l y be i n t e r e s t i n g to f i n d out whether what happened i n the past i s r e l a t e d t o a c c h i l d ' s achievement r i g h t now.  I hope to hear about the  132  ' r e s u l t of your study Interviewer:  I w i l l do t h a t , M r s . B e l l .  f o r g i v i n g me a p a r t of your p r e c i o u s Goodbye.  Thank you time.  133 APPENDIX C CASE STUDIES  The e a r l y  childhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  good and poor readers following  reader  case s t u d i e s .  ted  the  Each case study has been numbered  l e t t e r , G or P represented respectively,  thirty-two  i n grade f i v e are d e s c r i b e d i n  and a code used to i d e n t i f y each s u b j e c t . first  of  In each code the  a good reader  and the second l e t t e r ,  "boy" or " g i r l " r e s p e c t i v e l y .  coded g r o u p s , GB, G G , . P B ,  and PG.  code was a numeral r e p r e s e n t i n g  or a poor  B or G r e p r e s e n -  Thus, there were f o u r The t h i r d symbol i n each  the number of the s u b j e c t  in  each of the four g r o u p s . The i n f o r m a t i o n  r e l a t i n g to each case study has been  written informally  to suggest the f l a v o r  w i t h the p a r e n t s .  The main headings i n each case study were  background i n f o r m a t i o n , characteristics, teristics,  and e x p e r i e n t i a l  background.  heading are s h o r t statements  Metropolitan  emotional  charac-  behaviors  s c h o o l years as r e -  during the i n t e r v i e w s  and as  r e c o r d cards and records of  Readiness T e s t s .  intellectual  Under each, main  d e s c r i b i n g t r a i t s or  of the c h i l d d u r i n g p r e s c h o o l and e a r l y  from s c h o o l permanent  interview  physical characteristics,  social characteristics,  c a l l e d by the p a r e n t ( s )  of the  The f o l l o w i n g  the  characteristics  were based on the s u b t e s t r e s u l t s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n ness T e s t s :  gathered  Readi-  134  Richness of v e r b a l concept ( i n v o l v i n g comprehension of spoken words).  T e s t 1 - Word Meaning  Auditory perception ( i n v o l v i n g comprehension of spoken sentences)  Test 2 -  Sentences  Vocabulary  Test 3 -  Information  Visual  Test 4 -  Matching  Number knowledge  Test 5 -  Numbers  Motor  T e s t 6 - Copying  perception  control  Categorizations  f o r T e s t s 1 to 4 and Test 6, which  were not p r o v i d e d f o r i n the manual, were done u s i n g the same p r o p o r t i o n s as i n d i c a t e d i n the manual f o r the readiness scores.  Categorization  total  f o r T e s t 5 was p r o v i d e d  f o r i n the manual. Categories Superior High Normal Average Low Normal Poor  Tests 1 +4 18-19 15-17 12-14 8-11 0-7  Tests 2 + 3  Test 6  13-14 11-12 9-10 6- 8 0-5  10 8-9 6-7 4-5 0-3  135 Case Study No. 1 Background  GBl  information  School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - High Normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 1 Physical  (English)  characteristics  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - High Normal Auditory perception - Superior Motor c o n t r o l - Low Normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - more than Intellectual  average  characteristics  L i k e d to converse w i t h guests Eager t o explore Asked a l o t of q u e s t i o n s Interested i n pictures Memory - good Richness of v e r b a l concept - s u p e r i o r Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - high normal Social  characteristics Enjoyed the company of playmates Shared toys w i t h f r i e n d s L i k e d teachers i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t Harmonious  Emotional  characteristics  Got along p r e t t y w e l l with parents Liked school Had s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e F i n i s h e d work begun  grade  136 E x p e r i e n t i a l background T r a v e l l e d to the S t a t e s F r e q u e n t l y went on outings with f a m i l y Was read to every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r f i v e or more hours per week  Case Study No. 2 Background  GB2  information  School entrance age - 71 months Readiness category - High Normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 1  (English)  Physical characteristics Visual.perception - superior A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - average Motor c o n t r o l - average D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g -  average  Intellectual characteristics A good c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t Eager to e x p l o r e Curious L i k e d books very much Richness of v e r b a l concept - high normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - average Social characteristics Enjoyed p l a y i n g with others Shared games and toys L i k e d teachers Harmonious  137 Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Sometimes got i n t o t r o u b l e at home Congenial i n school Independent Gave up work e a s i l y E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went to the zoo and the museum L i s t e n e d to s t o r i e s t o l d almost every day Was read t o every day Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s i x to f i f t e e n hours a week  Case Study No. 3 Background  GB3  information  School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - High Normal Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l ( E n g l i s h and German) Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 6 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 6 Physical characteristics Visual perception - superior A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal Motor c o n t r o l - h i g h normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - average Intellectual characteristics Answered q u e s t i o n s asked Wanted to t r y new t h i n g s Wanted to know almost e v e r y t h i n g Requested parents to r e a d . t o him o f t e n Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - h i g h normal  138  Social  characteristics L i k e d teachers Enjoyed the company o f s i s t e r s and b r o t h e r Friendly  Emotional  characteristics  Had no t r o u b l e a t a l l a t home Liked school Worked t i l l end o f tasks E x p e r i e n t i a l background T r a v e l l e d t o the P r a i r i e s Went f i s h i n g with f r i e n d s and f a m i l y Went t o l i b r a r y with members o f the f a m i l y who a l l love t o read Did not watch t e l e v i s i o n i n p r e s c n o o l days because the f a m i l y had no t e l e v i s i o n s e t a t t h a t time Was read t o two o r three times a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day  Case Study No. 4  GB4  Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - average Language spoken a t home - monolingual Number o f c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 6 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 6 Physical  (English)  characteristics  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - average A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - average Motor c o n t r o l - high normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - average  139  Intellectual characteristics Always ready to t a l k about anything Eager f o r new experiences Demanded e x p l a n a t i o n Did not show p r e s c h o o l i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g to read Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - h i g h normal Number knowledge - average Social characteristics Harmonious L i k e d teachers J o i n e d q u i e t games such as checkers and b u i l d i n g b l o c k s Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s • Got along w e l l with the f a m i l y C r i e d i n s c h o o l only i n the beginning Was not i n t e r e s t e d i n f i r s t grade E x p e r i e n t i a l background Seldom went on outings with f a m i l y Was not g i v e n h e l p i n r e a d i n g at home Was read to l e s s o f t e n than once a week  Case Study No. 5 Background  GB5  information  School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 5 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2  (English)  140 Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - average Auditory perception - superior Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - l e s s than  average  Intellectual characteristics C u r i o u s / asked why t h i n g s happen Solved h i s own problems Enjoyed going over p i c t u r e books Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge- low normal Social characteristics Socially well-adjusted Shared toys w i t h f r i e n d s Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Found no t r o u b l e at home or i n s c h o o l A happy c h i l d Gave up work sometimes E x p e r i e n t i a l background Seldom went on o u t i n g s w i t h f a m i l y Was read to two or three times a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s i x to f i f t e e n hours per week Was t o l d s t o r i e s l e s s o f t e n than once a week  141 Case Study No. 6 Background  GB6  information  School entrance age - 72 months Readiness category - High Normal Language spoken at home — monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal Auditory perception - superior Motor c o n t r o l - s u p e r i o r D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - l e s s than Intellectual  average  characteristics  L i k e d to do t h i n g s without h e l p Imitated other c h i l d r e n Very i n t e r e s t e d i n s t o r i e s t o l d or read C r e a t i v e , loved to p a i n t and draw Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - h i g h normal Social characteristics L i k e d teachers Friendly Harmonious Emotional e h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Had s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e Lack c o n c e n t r a t i o n when engaged i n some task L i k e d s c h o o l , . e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n grade one  142 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Given p r e s c h o o l help w i t h r e a d i n g , taught p h o n i c s . Was read t o two or three times a week T r a v e l l e d to North America Went on outings once a month  Case Study No. 7 Background  GB7  information  School entrace age - 72 months Readiness category - s u p e r i o r Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l perception - superior A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - average Motor c o n t r o l - h i g h normal D i s p l a y of energy when, p l a y i n g - more than  average  Intellectual characteristics Shared i n r e l a t i n g experiences e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g mealtime Asked q u e s t i o n s Had a l i b r a r y corner and l i k e d l i b r a r y books Very i n t e r e s t e d i n s t o r i e s t o l d C r e a t i v e , enjoys drawing Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - s u p e r i o r Social characteristics Enjoyed companionship Shared toys w i t h playmates  143  Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C o n g e n i a l a t home Did not l i k e f i r s t grade teacher Worked t o the end o f task E x p e r i e n t i a l background Was read t o every day Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r f i v e or fewer hours p e r week Had p l e n t y of reading m a t e r i a l s a t home Was t o l d s t o r i e s o f t e n  Case Study No. 8 Background  GB8  information  School entrance age - 70 months Readiness category - average Language spoken a t home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 3  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - average Motor c o n t r o l - h i g h normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g Intellectual  average  characteristics  Exchanged e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h f r i e n d s Observant and i n t e r e s t e d in: t h i n g s I n t e r e s t e d i n books Curious about p r i n t e d words on t e l e v i s i o n Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - high normal Number knowledge - average  commercials  144 Social characteristics L o v a b l e , a f r i e n d of everybody L i k e d teachers Shared toys and games Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did not get i n t o t r o u b l e Shy at the beginning i n k i n d e r g a r t e n s c h o o l Not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h joh undertaken, sometimes gave u p , sometimes d i d not E x p e r i e n t i a l background T r a v e l l e d i n North America Went on outings once a week with parents and f r i e n d s Was read to every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r more than s i x t e e n hours per week  Case Study No. 9 Background  GG1  information  School entrance age - 76 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l ( E n g l i s h and German) Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 1 Physical characteristics Visual perception - superior A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - average Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g -  average  145 Intellectual characteristics Observant but d i d . n o t t a l k much probably because of language d i f f i c u l t y ; parents, did not speak E n g l i s h Loved to look at p i c t u r e s i n books. Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - h i g h normal Number knowledge - h i g h normal (  Social  characteristics Enjoyed the company of other c h i l d r e n L i k e d teachers Shy with a d u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y with s t r a n g e r s , b e f o r e going to s c h o o l but -became s o c i a l l y w e l l adjusted l a t e r .  Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did not want t o go to s c h o o l i n the beginning because of language handicap.. Quite shy before s t a r t i n g s c h o o l E x p e r i e n t i a l background Parents speak a f o r e i g n language and c o u l d not g i v e the c h i l d h e l p w i t h r e a d i n g . But the c h i l d was exposed to the environment, hence she e a s i l y p i c k e d up words. They went on outings once a week and t r a v e l l e d to o u t - o f - t o w n p l a c e s . Through t e l e v i s i o n viewing the c h i l d developed her vocabulary and b e came i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g .  Case Study No. 10 Background  GG2  information  School entrance age - 66 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 5 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 3  (English)  146  Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - average A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - average Intellectual characteristics Did not t a l k much Eager t o do t h i n g s by h e r s e l f I n t e r e s t e d i n s t o r i e s read or t o l d to her Loved books C r e a t i v e , enjoyed p a i n t i n g Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - h i g h normal Number knowledge - low normal Social characteristics Shy Played only w i t h s i s t e r s and b r o t h e r s L i k e d teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C r i e d i n s c h o o l i n the beginning C o n g e n i a l at home Has s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n t i a l background Mother too busy to g i v e any p r e s c h o o l h e l p i n reading Read to by e l d e r b r o t h e r s once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s by members of the f a m i l y l e s s o f t e n than once a week Had not t r a v e l l e d Seldom went on o u t i n g s with f a m i l y  147  Case Study No. 11 Background  GG3  information  School entrance age - 7 4 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l ( E n g l i s h and German) Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 4 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 1 Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Auditory perception - superior Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - l e s s than  average  Intellectual characteristics C u r i o u s , eager t o l e a r n Very i n t e r e s t e d i n - s t o r i e s read or t o l d her Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - average Social characteristics• L i k e d teachers Shy with a d u l t s Would not share toys w i t h others Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Bossy with other c h i l d r e n Did not l i k e s c h o o l at the beginning Had no s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , gave up e a s i l y when working or p l a y i n g  148 E x p e r i e n t i a l background S i c k l y and c o u l d not go on outings o f t e n Read t o every day Mother t o l d s t o r i e s and asked q u e s t i o n s on the s t o r y almost every day Did not watch t e l e v i s i o n d u r i n g p r e s c h o o l days, no t e l e v i s i o n s e t a t the time  Case Study No. 12  GG4  Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age - 68 months Readiness category - average Language spoken a t home - monolingual Number o f c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 1 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - only c h i l d Physical  (English)  characteristics  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - poor A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - high normal Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - average Richness of v e r b a l concept - high normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - high normal Intellectual  characteristics  A good t a l k e r Demanded e x p l a n a t i o n f o r e v e r y t h i n g ' Wanted t o know what parents do when they were k i d s Wanted t o do t h i n g s by h e r s e l f I n t e r e s t e d i n the l e t t e r s of the alphabet Curious about w r i t t e n words on t e l e v i s i o n  149 Social characteristics A happy c h i l d Got along w e l l w i t h others L i k e d k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one teachers Shared p l a y t h i n g s with f r i e n d s Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s L i k e d very much to go to s c h o o l with a g i r l Had s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e Mischievous at times  friend  E a s i l y gave up when engaged i n some tasks E x p e r i e n t i a l background Learned to read and w r i t e the alphabet before going to s c h o o l through p a r e n t s ' h e l p Was t o l d s t o r i e s every n i g h t Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r f i v e to fewer hours per week Went on outings with parents once a week  Case Study No. 13 Background  GG5  information  School entrance age - 76 months Readiness category - h i g h normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 1 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - only c h i l d  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - high normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - more than average  150 Intellectual characteristics Curious as a c h i l d Loved to mimic Enjoyed c o n v e r s i n g with others S t a r t e d walking at 10 months S a i d b i g words heard on t e l e v i s i o n Richness of v e r b a l concept - s u p e r i o r Vocabulary - h i g h normal Number knowledge - s u p e r i o r Social Characteristics Always greeted people and bade, them goodbye Shared toys with other c h i l d r e n L i k e d teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A happy c h i l d Ha d good power of c o n c e n t r a t i o n Loved parents and grandmother very much Self-confident (  E x p e r i e n t i a l background Watched t e l e v i s i o n and l e a r n e d new words Exposed to the environment. Mother took her out and showed her t h i n g s around Went on o u t i n g s with parents once a week Was read to every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s and asked q u e s t i o n s on them once a week Case Study No. 14 Background  GG6  information  School entrance age - 71 months Readiness category - h i g h normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2  (English)  151 Physical  characteristics  V i s u a l perception - superior A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal Motor c o n t r o l - high normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - average Intellectual  characteristics  Did not p a r t i c i p a t e much i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s A l e r t , quick to grasp t h i n g s I n t e r e s t e d i n books and magazines C r e a t i v e , loved to draw Showed eagerness to do t h i n g s by h e r s e l f Richness of v e r b a l concept - high normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - s u p e r i o r Social  characteristics Played only with s i s t e r Shy Liked  Emotional  teachers  characteristics  Mother was s t r i c t ; u s u a l l y screamed at c h i l d r e n when g i v i n g orders Congenial i n s c h o o l •? When engaged i n some work or game sometimes she gave up e a s i l y and sometimes worked t i l l the end of task Experiential  background  T r a v e l l e d to North America Father has a keen mind and u s u a l l y asked questions Was read to l e s s o f t e n than once a week because mother was too busy Was seldom t o l d s t o r i e s Went r a r e l y on o u t i n g s  Case Study No. 15 Background  GG7  information  School entrance age - 69 months Readiness category - h i g h normal Language spoken at home - E n g l i s h Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2 Physical characteristics V i s u a l perception - superior A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal Motor c o n t r o l - high normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - average Intellectual characteristics An e n e r g e t i c c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t I n t e r e s t e d i n books and always asked mother read f o r her Loved to i m i t a t e others Richness of v e r b a l concept •- h i g h normal Vocabulary - h i g h normal Number knowledge - h i g h normal Social  characteristics Very f r i e n d l y and c o o p e r a t i v e L i k e d k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t grade Shared toys and games Harmonious  Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s F e l t secure at home L i k e d s c h o o l a l l the time  teachers  153  E x p e r i e n t i a l background T r a v e l l e d to North America Went on o u t i n g s once a month Had p l e n t y of books at home Was not t o l d s t o r i e s at home d u r i n g e a r l y s c h o o l year Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r more than one and a h a l f hours per week  Case Study No. 16 Background  GG8  information  School entrance age - 66 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l ( E n g l i s h and Chinese) Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 4 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2 Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - high normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - l e s s than  average  Intellectual characteristics Not much of a t a l k e r because of language b a r r i e r Had s e l f m o t i v a t i o n ; e x p l o r e d new t h i n g s Curious about p r i n t e d words Enjoyed books and other reading m a t e r i a l s Richness of v e r b a l concept - average Vocabulary - average Number knowledge- high normal  154 Social  characteristics Hated outdoor games P r e f e r r e d t o p l a y by h e r s e l f a t home L i k e d teachers  Emotional  characteristics  Congenial a t home and i n s c h o o l Worked t i l l end o f task Had s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n t i a l background Was not g i v e n any h e l p i n r e a d i n g because parents speak a f o r e i g n language a t home Older s i s t e r sometimes read s t o r i e s t o h e r Did not go on outings with f a m i l y  Case Study No. 17  PB9  Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - average Language spoken a t home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2 Physical  (English)  characteristics  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - high normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - high normal Motor c o n t r o l - average D i s p l a y o f energy when p l a y i n g - average  155 Intellectual  characteristics  Observant Enjoyed t a l k i n g w i t h playmates Did not show i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g , p r e f e r r e d p l a y periods i n school Not c u r i o u s Richness o f v e r b a l concept - average Vocabulary - average Number knowledge - low normal Social  characteristics Harmonious Shared toys and games with others L i k e d teachers Enjoyed company o f f r i e n d s  Emotional  characteristics  Got along w e l l w i t h members o f the f a m i l y Congenial i n s c h o o l F i n i s h e d work begun Lacked s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n t i a l background Was never read t o , parents are non-readers Was not g i v e n any p r e s c h o o l h e l p with reading Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r s i x t o f i f t e e n hours per week Went on outings once a week T r a v e l l e d to United States Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week  Case Study No. 18  PB10  Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age - 76 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken a t home - bilingual Chinese)  ( E n g l i s h and  156 Number o f c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y -11 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 7 Physical  characteristics  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - low normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y o f energy when p l a y i n g - l e s s than average Intellectual characteristics Bashful with adults Showed no i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g t o read Not. eager t o d i s c o v e r new things Never asked q u e s t i o n s Richness o f v e r b a l concept - high normal Vocabulary - average Number knowledge - low normal Social  characteristics Withdrawn Bashful Shared toys w i t h playmates L i k e d teachers  Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Shy i n s c h o o l , had i n f e r i o r i t y complex Lazy, u n w i l l i n g t o do any work Did not g e t much a t t e n t i o n from parents because of too many c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y E x p e r i e n t i a l background Was not read t o nor was t o l d s t o r i e s because parents speak a f o r e i g n language Did not go on o u t i n g s w i t h f a m i l y Environment not conducive to l e a r n i n g Watched t e l e v i s i o n more than s i x t e e n hours a week but claimed he d i d not l e a r n anything from i t T r a v e l l e d t o the S t a t e s and North America  157 Case Study No. 19  PB11  Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age - 66 months Readiness category - average Language spoken a t home - b i l i n g u a l ( E n g l i s h and I t a l i Number o f c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 3 Physical  characteristics  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - high normal Motor c o n t r o l - h i g h normal D i s p l a y o f energy when p l a y i n g - average Intellectual  characteristics  Enjoyed t a l k i n g with f r i e n d s Did not d i s p l a y any i n t e r e s t f o r reading Not i n q u i s i t i v e Richness o f v e r b a l concept - low normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - average Social  characteristics S o c i a l l y w e l l adjusted Harmonious Shared games and toys L i k e d teachers  Emotional  characteristics  Father d i e d when he was s t i l l very young and mother got very s i c k I n a t t e n t i v e , s l i g h t l y , i n t e r e s t e d i n s t o r i e s read o r t o l d t o him L e f t work undone  158 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Was read t o once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Very seldom went on outings Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s i x t e e n o r more hours a week Was not g i v e n any p r e s c h o o l help with reading  Case Study No. 20 Background  PB12  information  School entrance age - 76 months Readiness category - average Language spoken a t home - b i l i n g u a l ( E n g l i s h and German) Number o f c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y -1 Physical  characteristics  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - low n o r m a l Motor c o n t r o l - h i g h normal D i s p l a y o f e n e r g y when p l a y i n g - more t h a n Intellectual  average  characteristics  Enjoyed conversing with playmates D i d n o t show any p r e s c h o o l i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g to read Not c u r i o u s Richness o f v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - average Number k n o w l e d g e - a v e r a g e  Social  characteristics Happy and p o l i t e Harmonious Liked teachers  child  159 Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s R e s t l e s s i n f i r s t grade Easy-going Inattentive Gave up work or game e a s i l y Did not l i k e s c h o o l i n the beginning E x p e r i e n t i a l background Seldom went on outings w i t h parents Parents are not fond of r e a d i n g , they never him s t o r i e s Seldom read t o T r a v e l l e d to North America  Case Study No. 21 Background  told  PB13  information  School entrance age - 70 months Readiness category - average Language spoken.at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Motor c o n t r o l - h i g h normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - more than Intellectual  characteristics  Enjoyed t a l k i n g about experiences Eager t o do t h i n g s f o r h i m s e l f Asked q u e s t i o n s No p r e s c h o o l i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g to read Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge- low normal  average  160 Social  characteristics Enjoyed companionship Shared toys and games L i k e d teachers  Emotional  characteristics  Congenial a t home and i n s c h o o l S m i l i n g , sunny d i s p o s i t i o n Worked t o the end of any task g i v e n him S l i g h t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s t o r i e s t o l d or read t o him E x p e r i e n t i a l background Was read t o every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day Went on outings w i t h parents f r e q u e n t l y Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s i x t o f i f t e e n hours per week Had t o o much p a r e n t a l permissiveness  Case Study No. 22  PB14  Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age - 66 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken a t home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y -11 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 7 Physical  (English)  characteristics  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - low normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - average Motor c o n t r o l - poor D i s p l a y o f energy when p l a y i n g - average  161  Intellectual characteristics Took p a r t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s Not i n t e r e s t e d i n reading i n s p i t e of the many r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e at home More i n t e r e s t e d i n drawing and trumpet p l a y i n g Not i n q u i s i t i v e Never attempted to do t h i n g s by h i m s e l f Richness of v e r b a l concept - average Vocabulary - average Number knowledge - poor Social characteristics An e x t r o v e r t Harmonious Shared toys w i t h f r i e n d s L i k e d teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Neat w i t h h i s work and belongings F i n i s h e d work begun Moody; sometimes poor b e h a v i o r , sometimes good Belongs to a b i g f a m i l y and q u i t e i n s e c u r e at home F e l t more secure at s c h o o l Lacked s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings w i t h f a m i l y once a week Was read to l e s s o f t e n than once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s only when i n f o r m a t i o n was asked f o r Was not g i v e n any h e l p w i t h r e a d i n g Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r more than s i x t e e n hours per week Had p l e n t y of books i n the house  162 Case Study No. 23 Background  PB15  information  School entrance age - 73 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 3  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - low normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h normal Motor c o n t r o l - low normal d i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - more than average Intellectual  characteristics  Joined conversations Did not show any p r e s c h o o l i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g • to read Not c u r i o u s Did not d i s p l a y eagerness to do anything by h i m s e l f Richness of v e r b a l concept - average Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - h i g h normal Social characteristics Harmonious with f r i e n d s Shared toys w i t h playmates Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Hated teacher i n f i r s t grade because she s c o l d e d him i n c l a s s and he got embarrassed; not at a l l i n t e r e s t e d i n f i r s t grade Behavior at home was sometimes good and at other times bad  163 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings w i t h f a m i l y once a week T r a v e l l e d i n North America and the S t a t e s Was read to once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r more than s i x t e e n hours per-week  Case Study No. 24 Background  PB16  information  School entrance age - 74 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home — monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 1 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - only c h i l d  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - low normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g -  l e s s than  average  Intellectual Characteristics Had no i n t e r e s t i n . l e a r n i n g to read d u r i n g p r e s c h o o l years Restrained i n conversations Not i n q u i s i t i v e Did not attempt to do t h i n g s by h i m s e l f Richness of v e r b a l concept - s u p e r i o r Vocabulary - average Number knowledge - h i g h normal  164 Social characteristics Very shy and q u i e t Did not share toys with others Did not l i k e h i s teachers i n e a r l y grades Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Over dependent C r i e d most of the time i n k i n d e r g a r t e n s c h o o l ' Gave up e a s i l y when p l a y i n g or working E x p e r i e n t i a l background Seldom went on o u t i n g s w i t h parents Seldom was t o l d s t o r e s or read t o Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r 16 or more hours per week Was not g i v e n p r e s c h o o l h e l p w i t h r e a d i n g  Case Study No. 25 Background  PG9  information  School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l ( E n g l i s h and Chinese) Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 1 Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - average A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - poor Motor c o n t r o l - h i g h normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g -  average  165 Intellectual  characteristics  Was  i n h i b i t e d from engaging i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s because of poor command of language Not i n q u i s i t i v e Did not show any s i g n of i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g t o read Richness of v e r b a l concept - low normal Vocabulary - poor Number knowledge - low normal  Social  characteristics Bashful i n school Did not enjoy the company of other c h i l d r e n  Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Had i n f e r i o r i t y complex because of language d i f f i c u l t y Lacked p a r e n t a l a t t e n t i o n because parents are too busy w i t h t h e i r b u s i n e s s and h a r d l y have time l e f t f o r the c h i l d r e n E x p e r i e n t i a l background Never went on outings w i t h parents Was not t o l d s t o r i e s or read t o Nobody e l s e gave the c h i l d p r e s c h o o l h e l p w i t h reading Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r s i x .to f i f t e e n , hours a week where she l e a r n e d E n g l i s h L i v e d i n a community where playmates were b i l i n g u a l too, speaking a second language d i f f e r e n t from her own.  Case Study No. 26 Background  PG10  information  School entrance age - 67 months Readiness c a t e g o r y - poor r i s k Language spoken a t home - monolingual (English)  166 Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 6 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 5 Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - poor A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - poor Motor c o n t r o l - poor D i s p l a y of- energy when p l a y i n g - more than average Intellectual characteristics Hardly t a l k e d with people other than members of the family No i n t e r e s t at a l l i n r e a d i n g d u r i n g p r e s c h o o l years No i n i t i a t i v e to do any k i n d of work Not i n q u i s i t i v e Richness of v e r b a l concept - poor Vocabulary - poor Number knowledge - poor Social characteristics Got i n t o q u i t e a l o t of t r o u b l e with the other children Did not l i k e k i n d e r g a r t e n teacher but l i k e d the grade teacher Did not share toys with others  first  Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Behavior at home was sometimes good and sometimes bad Restless L e f t work u n f i n i s h e d sometimes S u f f e r e d by comparison with a b r i g h t e r s i s t e r Had s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n t i a l background Had t r a v e l l e d i n North America Went on outings with parents once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s i x to f i f t e e n hours a week  167 Was t o l d s t o r i e s before he s t a r t e d s c h o o l l e s s o f t e n than once a week Was not g i v e n any p r e s c h o o l h e l p w i t h reading Was not read to  Case Study No. 27 Background  PG11  information  School entrance age - 75 months Readiness category - high normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2  (English)  Physical characteristics Visual perception - superior A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - high normal Motor c o n t r o l - s u p e r i o r D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - average Intellectual characteristics Answered i n m o n o s y l l a b l e s when t a l k e d to Was not eager to do t h i n g s by h e r s e l f Not c u r i o u s Not i n t e r e s t e d i n books Richness of v e r b a l concept - h i g h normal Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge- h i g h normal Social characteristics Very shy P r e f e r r e d to work alone L i k e d teachers Would not share toys with others  168  Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Not i n t e r e s t e d i n s c h o o l Busy, always doing something but d i d not always complete the task Had s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e E x p e r i e n t i a l background T r a v e l l e d i n North America Was read to every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s i x to f i f t e e n hours per week Went on outings once a month with parents No h e l p was g i v e n i n e a r l y r e a d i n g  Case Study No. 28 Background  PG12  information  School entrance age -.7 4 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 1  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - poor A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - average Motor c o n t r o l - poor D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - more than Intellectual characteristics Seldom t a l k e d Was not i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g to Did not ask q u e s t i o n s No i n i t i a t i v e  read  average  169 Did not show any d e s i r e to do t h i n g s by h i m s e l f Richness of v e r b a l concept - low normal Vocabulary - h i g h normal Number knowledge - poor Social characteristics Enjoyed being With playmates L i k e d teachers Shared toys Harmonious Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C o n g e n i a l at home L i k e d s c h o o l although she was not good with her s c h o o l work No confidence i n s e l f Gave up e a s i l y when engaged i n some work E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings with parents once a week Was not t o l d s t o r i e s Was not read to Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r s i x t e e n or more hours per. week Was not g i v e n any h e l p i n r e a d i n g  Case Study No. 29 Background  PG13  information  School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 3  (English)  170 Physical  characteristics  V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - average A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Motor c o n t r o l - s u p e r i o r D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - more than Intellectual  average  characteristics  P a r t i c i p a t e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n only when asked Not i n q u i s i t i v e Did not show any i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g t o read Was not eager t o do t h i n g s by h e r s e l f Richness o f v e r b a l concept - poor Vocabulary - low normal Number knowledge - low normal Social  characteristics Shy L i k e d teachers U n w i l l i n g t o share toys with P r e f e r r e d t o p l a y alone  Emotional  others  characteristics  Cried intermittently i n kindergarten Had no confidence i n onoft'e'rsei'f F e l t secure a t home Worked t i l l end of task Depended t o o much on o l d e r s i s t e r  school  E x p e r i e n t i a l background T r a v e l l e d i n North America Went on outings once a.week with parents Was read t o three times a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n f i v e or fewer hours per week Was not helped w i t h p r e s c h o o l r e a d i n g  171  Case Study No. 3 0  PG14  Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age - 7 3 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 4 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - poor A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Motor c o n t r o l - low normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - average Intellectual characteristics Reticent Not eager to e x p l o r e Not i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g ' t o read Did not show any i n t e r e s t f o r books Richness of v e r b a l concept - average Vocabulary - low normal Number knowledge - average Social characteristicsTimid Did not l i k e teacher i n f i r s t grade but l i k e d k i n d e r g a r t e n teacher P r e f e r r e d q u i e t games Shares toys w i t h b r o t h e r and s i s t e r s Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Carefree Inattentive Lacked c o n c e n t r a t i o n Gave up e a s i l y any work engaged i n self-confident  the  172 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings very seldom Was t o l d s t o r i e s l e s s o f t e n than once a week Was read to r a r e l y Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r s i x t e e n or more hours a week Was not g i v e n h e l p i n r e a d i n g d u r i n g p r e s c h o o l years  Case Study No. 31 Background  PG15  information  School entrance age - 6 8 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l ( E n g l i s h and French) Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 4 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 4 Physical characteristics V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - h i g h .normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Motor c o n t r o l - poor D i s p l a y of- energy when p l a y i n g - more than average Intellectual characteristics Asked many q u e s t i o n s I n t e r e s t e d i n many t h i n g s around her A good c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t at home but not i n s c h o o l Read aloud w e l l but poor i n comprehension Wanted to t r y new t h i n g s Showed i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g t o read before going to s c h o o l Richness of v e r b a l concept - average Vocabulary - low normal Number knowledge - average  173 Social characteristics Enjoyed the company of other L i k e d teachers Harmonious Shared toys and games  children  Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Very c l o s e to parents Wanted to go home d u r i n g f i r s t days i n s c h o o l Self-confident Had good c o n c e n t r a t i o n a b i l i t y F i n i s h e d a l l tasks s t a r t e d E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings once a week Mother answered a l l q u e s t i o n s asked Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r fewer than f i v e hours per week T r a v e l l e d to the States Did not get any h e l p w i t h r e a d i n g Was read to three times a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day  Case Study No. 32 Background  PG16  information  School entrance age - 68 months Readiness category - h i g h normal Language spoken at home - monolingual Number of c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2  (English)  Physical characteristics V i s u a l perception - superior Auditory perception - superior Motor c o n t r o l - low.normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g -  average  174  Intellectual characteristics Restrained i n expression Did not show any i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g to Seldom asked questions. Did not venture to do t h i n g s by h e r s e l f Richness of v e r b a l concept - s u p e r i o r Vocabulary - s u p e r i o r Number knowledge - s u p e r i o r  read  Social characteristics Enjoyed being w i t h others Shared toys and games w i t h f r i e n d s L i k e d teachers Bashful Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did not l i k e to go to s c h o o l i n the beginning Lacked s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e C o n g e n i a l at home Worked to the end of any task E x p e r i e n t i a l background T r a v e l l e d to the S t a t e s Was read to l e s s o f t e n than once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n f o r f i v e o r . f e w e r hours per week Had p l e n t y of books at home but c h i l d d i d not show any i n t e r e s t i n them Went on outings once a month Was not g i v e n any h e l p with r e a d i n g  

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