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Growth patterns in reading achievement 1969

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GROWTH PATTERNS IN READING ACHIEVEMENT by TERESA MANALAD ANDRADE M.A. , Nat ional Teachers C o l l e g e , 1957 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Doctor of Education i n the Department of Education We accept th is d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s . i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e August 15, 1969 ABSTRACT GROWTH PATTERNS IN READING ACHIEVEMENT Teresa M. Andrade Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 The Problem The purposes of th is study were (1) to invest igate and analyze patterns of growth in reading achievement from grade three through grade seven of ch i ld ren with d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l status of reading readiness and (2) to f i n d out what ear ly childhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d is t ingu ished those who have become good and poor readers in grade f i v e . Methods and Procedures The f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a r e t r o s p e c t i v e , l o n g i - tud ina l study of the patterns of the means in Word Meaning and Paragraph Meaning of the Stanford Achievement Test . The subjects were 300 seventh graders who had ava i lab le scores on the Metropol i tan Readiness Tests i n grade one and on the Stanford Achievement Test i n grades three through seven. These pupi ls were randomly se lected from a populat ion of 517 ch i ld ren from 14 elementary schoo ls . Ana lys is of var iance , t tests and graphs were employed in comparing the growth patterns exhib i ted by pupi ls i n the super io r , high normal, average, low normal, and poor r i s k categories of reading readiness . The second part was an ex post facto study i n which the F isher exact p r o b a b i l i t y tes t was used i n i d e n t i f y i n g ce r ta in preschool arid beginning school c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the good from the poor grade f i v e readers. Case studies were made on sixteen good readers and.sixteen poor readers randomly se lected from the top 27 per cent and the bottom 27 per cent of a populat ion of 315 grade f i ve pupi ls from f i v e elementary schools . Information was ob- tained from the scores on the Metropol i tan Readiness T e s t s , permanent school records , and interviews with parents. Conclusions 1. The three highest groups of readiness ca tegor ies , the super io r , high normal, and average maintained the i r r e l a t i v e pos i t ions throughout the ent i re f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d . This trend ind icated that pup i ls with high i n i t i a l status of reading r e a d i - ness continue to perform wel l i n reading through- out the elementary grades. 2. Those i n the superior group remained super ior , on the average, and even tended to progress at a fas te r rate than those i n the other cate- gor ies of reading readiness. 3. The slopes of the curves on Paragraph Meaning of the average and the low normal groups and on Word Meaning of the low normal and the poor r i s k groups tended to be s i m i l a r . 4. T h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be no p l a t e a u i n g r a d e f o u r i n t h e g r o w t h c u r v e s o f a l l l e v e l s o f r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s b u t s o m e t h i n g l i k e a p l a t e a u was n o t e d f r o m g r a d e s f i v e t o s i x . 5. T h e r e was a s t e e p r i s e i n g r o w t h i n r e a d i n g i n g r a d e s e v e n f o r a l l t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . 6. The mean g a i n s f r o m g r a d e t h r e e t h r o u g h g r a d e s e v e n w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r a l l t h e r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s g r o u p s . 7. I n g e n e r a l , t h e b o y s s u r p a s s e d t h e g i r l s a t a l l g r a d e l e v e l s . The d i f f e r e n c e s , h o w e v e r , w e r e f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n m o s t g r a d e s o n l y f o r t h e h i g h n o r m a l c a t e g o r y on P a r a g r a p h M e a n i n g and f o r t h e h i g h n o r m a l and l o w n o r m a l c a t e g o r i e s o n Word M e a n i n g . 8. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n p r e s c h o o l and e a r l y s c h o o l y e a r s t h a t w e r e f o u n d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e b e t w e e n t h e g o o d and t h e p o o r r e a d e r s i n t h e f i f t h g r a d e w e r e (a) r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s c a t e - g o r y , (b) e a g e r n e s s t o do t h i n g s b y h i m s e l f , (c) c u r i o s i t y , (d) i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g , (e) c o n g e n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s , ( f ) s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , (g) was r e a d t o and g i v e n h e l p i n r e a d i n g , (h) v i s u a l p e r - c e p t i o n , ( i ) a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , ( j ) r i c h n e s s o f v e r b a l c o n c e p t s , (k) vocabu- l a r y , and ( 1 ) number knowledge. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The wr i ter wishes to acknowledge her indebtedness to a l l those who generously gave the i r time and assistance toward making th is study p o s s i b l e . She i s deeply g r a t e f u l to the members of her committee: Dr. Harold M. C o v e l l , Dr. T.D.M. McKie, Dr. Glen M. Chronis ter , Dr. Freder ick Bowers, and Dr. Kenneth Slade for the i r valuable advice and h e l p f u l suggest ions. Their encouragement, under- standing and support helped make a d i f f i c u l t task more p leasant . She a lso wishes to express her grat i tude for the co - operat ion given by the o f f i c i a l s and s t a f f of the Richmond and Vancouver school boards and school d i s t r i c t s and of the Un i - v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre. Profound thanks go to the parents who w i l l i n g l y pa r t i c ipa ted i n th is study. She appreciates the kind assistance given by her colleagues and f r iends and to them she gives g ra te fu l acknowledgment. Spec ia l acknowledgment i s due to the Canadian Interna- t i o n a l Development Agency for g iv ing the wr i ter the opportunity to do post graduate work at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia on a Colombo scholarship grant and to the Nat ional Economic Counci l and the Bureau of Publ ic Schools of the Ph i l ipp ines for granting her leave of absence for the durat ion of the study. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. THE PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 Importance of the Study. 4 Statement of the Problem 6 Hypotheses 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 8 L imi ta t ions of the Study 10 II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11 Pred ic t ive Studies Involving Pupi ls i n Grade One 11 Reading Readiness and Reading Success i n High Grade Levels 19 Sex Di f ferences i n Reading Readiness Reading Achievement. . . . 21 Reading Achievement Growth . . . 23 Summary 29 III. DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 32 Growth Patterns i n Reading Achievement . . . 32 The Design 32 The Populat ion and Se lec t ion of Subjects . 35 Procedures i n C o l l e c t i n g Data 37 CHAPTER PAGE Description of the Tests Used i n the Study 39 Early Childhood Characteristics of Good and Poor Readers i n Grade V. . 44 The Design 45 Selection of Subjects for the Study. . . . 47 Procedures i n Co l l e c t i n g the Data 48 Summary 49 IV. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 50 Analysis of Variance 50 Hypothesis 1 53 Hypothesis 2 . . . . . 64 Hypothesis 3 . . . . . . 67 Hypothesis 4' V . "." . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Hypothesis 5 . . . 88 Summary of the Data on the Case Studies. . 93 Findings from the Case Studies . . . . . . 100 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 106 Summary of Design and Procedures 106 Summary of Findings 108 Growth Patterns i n Reading Achievement . . 108 Characteristics of Good and Poor. Readers . 109 Educational Implications . . . I l l Suggestions for Further Research 113 PAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY 116 APPENDIX A. Interview Guide . 124 B. An Interview w i t h a Parent. . . . . . .•. . . 128 C. Case Stud i e s 133 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. P red ic t i ve V a l i d i t y Studies of Reading Readiness Tests 30 II. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Subjects Included in the Study 36 III . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Pupi ls According to Readiness Categories 36 IV. Standardized Tests used i n the Study 38 V. R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s and Related Data, Metropol i tan Readiness T e s t s , Grade I. . . . 40 VI . P red ic t i ve V a l i d i t y of Metropol i tan Readiness Tests as Found for the 919 F i rs t -Grade Pupi ls i n the White Schools of a Country System 41 VI I . Ana lys is of Variance (Paragraph Meaning) . . . 51 VI I I . Ana lys is of Variance (Word Meaning) . . . . . . 52 IX. Mean K Scores by Grade on Paragraph Meaning i n the Stanford Achievement Test of Both Sexes i n the Super ior , High Normal, Average, Low Normal and Poor Risk Cate- gor ies of Reading Readiness 54 X. Mean K Scores by Grade on Word Meaning i n the Standord Achievement Test of Both Sexes i n the Super ior , High Normal, Average, Low Normal and Poor Risk Categories of Reading Readiness. . 54 TABLE PAGE XI . Comparison of Means Between Readiness Categories by Grade of Both Sexes 55 XII. Comparison of Slopes Between Reading Readiness Categories of Both Sexes 59 XIII . Comparison of Means Between Grades by Readiness Category on Paragraph Meaning of the Stanford Achievement Test 65 XIV. Comparison of Means Between Grades by Readiness Category on Word Meaning of the Stanford Achievement Tes t . . . . 66 XV. Mean Gains (K Scores) in the Stanford Achievement Test of Both Sexes 6 8 XVI. Comparison of Mean Gains from Grade 3 to Grade 7 Between Reading Readiness.Cate- gor ies of Both Sexes 69 XVII. Mean K Scores by Grade on Paragraph Meaning i n the Stanford Achievement Test i n the Super ior , High Normal, Average, Low Normal, and Poor Risk Categories of Reading Readiness. 73 XVIII. Mean K Scores by Grade on Paragraph Meaning i n the Stanford Achievement Test i n the Super ior , High Normal, Average, Low Normal, and Poor Risk Categories of Reading Readiness 74 TABLE PAGE XIX. Comparison of Means Between Boys and G i r l s by Readiness Category and by Grade on Paragraph Meaning, and Word Meaning on the Stanford Achievement Test 75 XX. Comparison of Slopes Between Boys and G i r l s by Readiness Category 87 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Trend of Means on Paragraph Meaning of Both Sexes i n F i v e L e v e l s of Reading Readiness . . 60 2. Trend of Means on Word Meaning of Both Sexes i n F i v e L e v e l s of Reading Readiness . . . . . 61 3. Mean Gains (K-Scores) on Paragraph Meaning. . . 71 4. Mean Gains (K-Scores) on Word Meaning 71 5. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the Sup e r i o r Group on Paragraph Meaning 76 6. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the High Normal Group on Paragraph Meaning . 77 7. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the Average Group on Paragraph Meaning 78 8. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the Low Normal Group on Paragraph Meaning 79 9. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the Poor Risk Group on Paragraph Meaning . . . . . . . 80 10. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the S u p e r i o r Group on Word Meaning 82 11. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the High Normal Group on Word Meaning. , 83 12. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the Average Group on Word "Meaning 84 FIGURE PAGE 13. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the Low Normal Group on Word Meaning. . . . . . . . . 85 14. Comparison of Boys and G i r l s i n the Poor Risk Group on Word Meaning . 86 15. Trend of Means on Paragraph Meaning of Boys i n F i v e L e v e l s of Reading Readiness. . . 89 16. Trend of Means on Paragraph Meaning of G i r l s i n F i v e L e v e l s of Reading Readiness . . 90 17. Trend of Means on Word Meaning of Boys i n F i v e L e v e l s o f Reading Readiness 91 18. Trend of Means on Word Meaning of G i r l s i n F i v e L e v e l s of Reading Readiness. 92 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM This chapter presents an introduction to the study and gives information regarding the (1) importance of the study, (2) statement of the problem, (3) hypotheses, (4) d e f i n i t i o n of terms, and (5) limi t a t i o n s of the study. I. INTRODUCTION The importance of readiness i n the t o t a l reading development of each c h i l d has long been recognized. Since the early study conducted by Deputy"'' i n 1930, the concept of reading readiness has gained wide acceptance among read- ing experts, researchers, teachers, and administrators. Conant claimed that "since reading and the learning of read- ing are complex, i t should be clear that insuring readiness to read i s an important factor i n the reading i n s t r u c t i o n program." 2 I t has been said, too, that "the progress young children make when they enter school i n the primary grades depends to a large extent upon t h e i r readiness for learning . Erby C. Deputy, Predicting First-Grade' Reading Achievement: A Study of Reading Readiness (Contributions to Education No. 425. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1936). 2 James B. Conant, Learning to Read (New Jersey: Educational Testing Service, 1962), p. 4. 2 and upon the p r o v i s i o n s the sch o o l makes f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n r e a d i n e s s . " 3 T h i s being the case, Bond and Wagner b e l i e v e d t h a t "an understanding o f rea d i n e s s on the p a r t of the teacher w i l l do much to f a c i l i t a t e the c h i l d ' s r e a d i n g growth. . . . Readiness w i l l be an ever- p r e s e n t concern of a l l t eachers i n every l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . " " * Gates s t a t e d t h a t "reading r e a d i n e s s i m p l i e s t h a t a c h i l d w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l and i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g to read i f r e a d i n g i s i n t r o d u c e d when he i s ' r i p e ' f o r i t and t h a t he i s l i k e l y to f a i l and to be annoyed when i n s t r u c t i o n i s begun b e f o r e t h a t t i m e . " 5 F u r t h e r , I l g and Ames surmised t h a t " p o s s i b l y the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n which can be made toward g u a r a n t e e r i n g t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d w i l l g et the most p o s s i b l e out of h i s s c h o o l experience i s to make c e r - t a i n t h a t he s t a r t s t h a t s c h o o l experience a t what i s f o r him the r i g h t time. T h i s should be the time when he i s t r u l y ready and not merely some time a r b i t r a r i l y decided upon by custom or by la w . " 6 M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s . D i r e c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g and Key f o r S c o r i n g (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1 9 5 0 ) , p. 1 4 . 4 Guy L. Bond and Eva Bond Wagner, Teaching the C h i l d to Read (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1 9 6 6 ) , , p. 1 6 . ^Arthur L. Gates, "Basal P r i n c i p l e s i n Reading Readi- ness T e s t i n g , " Teacher C o l l e g e Record, 4 0 : 4 9 5 (March, 1 9 3 9 ) . ^Frances L. I l g and Lo u i s e Bates Ames, Schoo1 Readi- ness, Behavior T e s t s Used a t the G e s e l l I n s t i t u t e (New York: Harper and Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 1 4 . 3 Numerous studies aimed at i d e n t i f y i n g the readiness factors which are re la ted to success i n beginning reading have been made. While most of these invest iga t ions have at tested to the relevance of reading readiness for the i n i t i a l stage in reading, there seems to be some d i s a - greement as to what readiness factors best p red ic t reading success. Harr ison argued that "since reading i s an i n t e l - l e c t u a l p rocess , factors of i n t e l l e c t u a l development fos- . t e r ing reading readiness are of greater importance than any 7 group of f a c t o r s . " 8 Morphett and Washburne concluded that a mental age of s ix i s necessary for a c h i l d to succeed in reading and that a mental age of s ix and a ha l f more nearly insures 9 10 success. However, research f indings by Davidson, Wi lson, and D u r k i n 1 1 ind icated that some ch i ld ren with mental ages below s ix a lso make progress i n reading. Gates contended 7 L u c i l e M. Har r ison , Reading Readiness (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1939) , p. 6. p M.V. Morphett and C. Washburne, "When Should Chi ldren Learn to Read?" Elementary School J o u r n a l , 31:496-503, March, 1931. Q Helen P. Davidson, "An Experimental Study of Br igh t , Average, and Du l l Chi ldren at the Four-Year Mental L e v e l , " Genetic Psychology Monographs, 9:119-287, March, 1931. "^Frank T. Wi lson, "Reading Progress i n Kindergarten and Primary Grades," Elementary School Journa l , 38:442-49, February, 1938. "'""'"Dolores Durkin, Chi ldren Who Read Ear ly (New York: Teachers Col lege P r e s s , 1966), 174 pp. 4 that "the c r u c i a l mental age l e v e l w i l l vary with the mate r ia ls ; the type of teaching; the s k i l l of the teacher; the s i ze of the c l a s s ; the amount of preceding preparatory work; the thoroughness of examination; the frequency and the treatment of s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , such as v i s u a l defects 1 9 of the p u p i l ; and other f a c t o r s . " II. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and emotional factors of reading readiness to read- ing achievement has continued to be the topic of i n v e s t i - gations among educators and researchers . A perusal of the re la ted l i t e r a t u r e has revealed that most of these studies have used f i r s t - g r a d e ch i ld ren as the i r sub jec ts . However, 13 Gray maintained that studies of beginning reading must be regarded as inconclus ive since learning to read i s s t i l l very incomplete at the beginning stages. The pauci ty of research on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the " factors associated with readiness for learning to read to achievement i n reading at the higher grade l eve ls has made C.W. Hunnicutt and Wil l iam J . Iverson (eds . ) , Research i n the Three R's (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958), p. 57. 13 Wi l l iam S. Gray, The Teaching of Reading and Wri t ing (London: UNESCO and Evans B r o s . , 1956), p. 44. 5 i t necessary that fur ther studies be conducted i n t h i s area. A knowledge of the ear ly childhood p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , and emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h ighly re la ted to success i n reading i n intermediate grades could be usefu l to parents and to teachers of kindergarten and f i r s t grade. Since the foundation for reading i s l a i d i n preschool and beginning school years , parents and teachers could cooperate i n pro- v id ing the ear ly experiences that would help ch i ld ren grow in to reading. Many studies on patterns of reading growth have been based only on cross sect ions of the populat ion and these do not necessar i l y represent the patterns for a p a r t i c u l a r group or i n d i v i d u a l s ince ch i ld ren grow at d i f f e r e n t rates and reach s i m i l a r developmental stages at d i f f e r e n t ages. Most of the long i tud ina l invest iga t ions on reading growth have been conducted i n laborator ies or c l i n i c s on small groups or s p e c i a l cases. A few long i tud ina l studies on large unselected groups have used e i ther chronologica l age or l eve ls of i n t e l l i g e n c e as base l i n e . There remains a need to i d e n t i f y patterns of reading growth exhib i ted by youngsters i n var ious categories of reading readiness. An awareness of these patterns would give teachers and adminis- t ra tors information that could be use fu l i n planning and carry ing out reading readiness programs i n schools . If slowness i n reading could be detected ear ly i n the c h i l d r e n ' s 6 development greater focus on preventive and remedial mea- sures could be placed during the e a r l i e r school years i n order to minimize f a i l u r e s i n reading i n l a t e r years. I I I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study was designed to investigate and analyze the patterns of growth i n reading achievement that have taken place from grade three to grade seven among a group of children belonging to the superior, high normal, aver- age, below normal, and poor r i s k categories of readiness at the beginning of f i r s t grade. Another purpose of t h i s i n - vestigation was to i d e n t i f y physical, i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s while i n preschool, kinder- garten and f i r s t grade of good and poor readers i n intermediate grades. I t attempted to answer the following questions: 1 . What i s the nature of growth i n reading achieve- ment of children i n each of f i v e categories of reading readiness? 1 . 1 . Are the patterns of group means of reading achievement d i f f e r e n t from one category to another? 1 . 2 . Is there a plateau i n grade four which indicates lack of growth i n the reading growth curve for each category of read- ing readiness? 1.3. Is the mean gain i n reading achievement from grade three to grade seven d i f f e r - ent for each of f i v e categories of reading readiness? 1.4. Are the reading growth patterns among boys d i f f e r e n t from those among g i r l s ? 2. What physical, i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and emotional ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of children before and i n grade one distinguish those who have become good and poor readers i n intermediate grades? IV. HYPOTHESES The following hypotheses were tested i n thi s study: 1. There i s no difference among the patterns of group means i n reading achievement of pupils belonging to each of the superior, high normal, average, low normal, and poor r i s k categories of reading readiness. 2. There i s a plateau i n grade four i n the reading growth curve for each category of reading readiness. 3. There are s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the mean gains from grade three to grade seven among the groups i n f i v e categories of reading readiness. 8 4. There are sex differences i n the reading growth patterns of the f i v e categories of reading readiness. 5. There are some outstanding early childhood physical, i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , and emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that distinguish those who have become good and poor readers i n grade f i v e . V. DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. Patterns of reading growth - the p r o f i l e of means i n reading achievement from grade three to grade seven as assessed by the Stanford Achievement Tests given at the end of each school year. 2. Reading readiness - the timeliness of what we wish to teach i n the l i g h t of the child's a b i l i t y to p r o f i t from i t not only at the beginning stages of learning to read.but at every step i n the child's progress from simple reading tasks to those that are more complicated.14 14 Margaret G. McKim, Guiding 1 Growth i n Reading in the Modern Elementary School, (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1955) , p. 36 . 9 3. Readiness category - a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n reading readiness as measured by the Metropol i tan Readiness Tes ts . Category Score Superior 90 - 100 High Normal ^..80 - 89 Average .65 - 79 Low Normal 40 - 64 Poor Risk 0 - 3 9 4. Reading achievement - the gain from one year to another i n Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning expressed i n K-scores as measured by the Stanford Achievement Tests given at the end of each grade. 5. K-scores - standard scores derived from Gardner's K-scale which i s claimed to have approximately equal uni ts throughout the ent i re range of the s c a l e . 6. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference - any d i f fe rence found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e per cent l e v e l . 10 •VI. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Since t h i s was a retrospective longitudinal study, the investigator had to depend only on measures that e x i s t . The findings of t h i s study were confined mostly, to the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s measured by the Metropolitan Readiness Tests,. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The acceptance of the concept of readiness as an i n t e g r a l part of the growth of each c h i l d has resu l ted in a large number of studies which have attempted to i d e n t i f y the readiness factors re la ted to success in reading. Research on reading readiness and reading achievement growth re la ted to th is study are discussed i n th is chapter. These i n v e s t i - gations have been c l a s s i f i e d in to four ca tegor ies : (1) pre- d i c t i v e studies invo lv ing f i r s t grade p u p i l s ; (2) reading readiness and success in reading i n higher grade l e v e l s ; (3) sex d i f ferences in reading readiness and reading achievement; and (4) long i tud ina l studies on reading achievement growth. I. PREDICTIVE STUDIES INVOLVING PUPILS IN GRADE ONE Dean* administered the Metropol i tan Readiness Tests and the Monroe Reading Aptitude Tests for P red ic t ion and Ana lys is of Reading A b i l i t i e s to pupi ls of f i v e f i r s t grade rooms during the f i r s t week of the school term to determine to what extent these tests can pred ic t reading achievement. Using the Metropol i tan Achievement Test as c r i t e r i o n , he Charles Dean, "Predict ing F i r s t Grade Reading Achievement," Ihe Elementary School J o u r n a l , 39:609-16, A p r i l , 1939. 12 found that the scores on the Metropol i tan Readiness Tests cor re la ted .59 with reading achievement and the scores on the Monroe Reading Aptitude Tests cor re la ted .41 with read- ing achievement. The r e l a t i o n of mental age as assessed by the Stanford Revis ion of the Binet-Simon In te l l igence Scale to reading achievement was r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , the c o r r e l a t i o n being .62. Mental age, there fore , was found to be a bet ter p red ic tor of the reading achievement of f i r s t grade pupi ls than readiness t e s t s . In an attempt to prove that homogeneous grouping with respect to a b i l i t y and readiness would make for e f f e c - 2 t i v e teaching,, Roslow used the Kuhlmann-Anderson I n t e l l i - gence Tests and the Monroe Reading Aptitude Tests in p lac ing f i r s t grade ch i ld ren i n three sec t ions . Chi ldren with mental ages above 6, IQ above 110, and reading aptitude per- c e n t i l e s above 60 were assigned to Sect ion 1. Pupi ls with mental ages from 5.6 to 6.0, IQ from 95 to 110, and reading aptitude percent i l es from 40 to 60 were placed i n Sect ion 2. Those with mental ages below 5.6, IQ below 95, and reading aptitude percent i l es below 40 were i n Sect ion 3. A l l these ch i ld ren had been given a program of reading readiness Sydney Roslow, "Reading Readiness and Reading Achievement i n F i r s t Grade," Journal of Experimental Edu- c a t i o n , 9:154-59, December, 1940. 13 a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . S i n c e t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p l a c e m e n t was t o m i n i m i z e f a i l u r e i n r e a d i n g , o u t - o f - c l a s s r o o m t u t o r i n g h a d b e e n g i v e n t o c h i l d r e n w i t h r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i l e i n t h e f i r s t g r a d e . A t t h e e n d o f g r a d e o n e , r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t was m e a s u r e d by t h e G a t e s P r i m a r y R e a d i n g T e s t s and t h e p r i n c i - p a l 's r a t i n g s o f t h e i r o r a l r e a d i n g . The p r i n c i p a l e v a l u a t e d t h e o r a l r e a d i n g o f e a c h c h i l d i n t e r m s o f A,B,C,D, and F. The r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n as a w h o l e was f o u n d t o be a b o v e t h e norm f o r t h e e n d o f f i r s t g r a d e . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h m e n t a l age b e l o w 6, w i t h IQ b e l o w 1 0 0 , a n d w i t h an a p t i t u d e p e r c e n t i l e b e l o w 50 c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y be t a u g h t t o r e a d i n f i r s t g r a d e u n d e r a p r o g r a m i n c l u d i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l p l a c e m e n t , r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , a n d r e m e d i a l a n d p r e v e n t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g . H e n i g 3 d e t e r m i n e d t h e f o r e c a s t i n g v a l u e o f t h e L e e - C l a r k R e a d i n g R e a d i n e s s T e s t and o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' e s t i m a t e s o f p u p i l s ' p r o g r e s s . U s i n g t h e t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s a t t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t g r a d e a s c r i t e r i o n , he f o u n d c o n t i n g e n c y c o - Max S. H e n i g , " P r e d i c t i v e V a l u e o f a R e a d i n g R e a d i - n e s s T e s t and T e a c h e r ' s F o r e c a s t s , " The E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 5 0 : 4 1 - 4 6 , S e p t e m b e r , 1949. 14 e f f i c i e n t s of .60 and .55 respectively. This showed that a substantial degree of relationship exists between reading readiness test results and reading achievement. The pre- d i c t i v e value of the teachers' judgement was just as high. In an investigation of the predictive v a l i d i t y of 4 the Metropolitan Readiness Tests,, M i t c h e l l tested 1170 pupils i n white and negro schools i n September. The Metro- p o l i t a n Achievement Tests, Primary I Battery were adminis- tered the following May. The correlations between the readiness scores and the achievement scores for a l l subtests and the t o t a l tests were computed. Correlations between the subtests of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests and the Metropolitan Achieve- ment Tests ranged from .51 to .63. M i t c h e l l concluded that the readiness tests were good predictors of f i r s t grade learning. She found the g i r l s i n her sample to be more ready for formal reading i n s t r u c t i o n than the boys. The mean for the boys i n the Metropolitan Readiness Tests was 73.92 while that of the g i r l s was 76.42. The difference of 2.5 was s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e per cent l e v e l . Blythe C. M i t c h e l l , "The Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of First-Grade Reading Achievement," Educational and Psychological Measurement, 22:765-72, Winter, 1962. 15 Dykstra^ studied the relationship between selected measures of auditory discrimination at the beginning of f i r s t grade and reading achievement at the end of f i r s t grade. Each of the 331 boys and 301 g i r l s randomly selected from eight schools was given the Lorge-Thorndike I n t e l l i - gence Test and seven d i f f e r e n t auditory discrimination tests i n the f i r s t four weeks of school. These tests of auditory discrimination were selected from the Murphy-Durrell.Diag- nostic Reading Readiness Test,.the Gates Reading Readiness Test, the Harrison-Stroud Reading Readiness P r o f i l e s , and the Reading Aptitude. Tests. The following spring, reading achievement was measured by the word recognition and para- graph meaning subtests of the Gates Primary Reading Test. He found the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the measures of auditory discrimination and reading achievement to be r e l a t i v e l y low (from .19 to .46). He i n f e r r e d from thi s study that s k i l l i n auditory discrimination i s not s u f f i c i e n t to guarantee success i n learning to read. A comparison of the judgment of kindergarten teachers with the results of four standardized tests for predicting Robert Dykstra, "The Relationship Between Selected Measures of Auditory Discrimination and Reading Achievement at the End of F i r s t Grade," (unpublished Doctoral disser- t a t i o n , University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1962). 16 k indergarteners ' success i n f i r s t grade was done by Mat t ick . Nine hundred seventy-two kindergarten ch i ld ren were randomly se lected from a populat ion of 14,000 as subjects of the study. A l l the kindergarten teachers i n the school d i s t r i c t were asked to rate each c h i l d i n the c lasses as having h igh , 1 average, or low po ten t i a l for success i n grade one. These teachers ' marks were completed before the standardized tests were administered. During la te A p r i l and May, each p u p i l took any two of the fo l lowing: Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Tes t , Metro- p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s , Form R, Lorge-Thorndike In te l l igence T e s t s , Form A , and the C a l i f o r n i a Short-Form Test of Mental Matur i ty . In October of the fo l lowing school, year , a l l f i r s t grade teachers made a prel iminary ra t ing of t h e i r p u p i l s ' achievement as h igh , average, or low. Cor re la t ion c o e f f i - c ients were computed between the kindergarten teachers 1 ra t ings and the p u p i l s ' scores on the foregoing tests and between the f i r s t - g r a d e teachers ' rat ings and the p u p i l s ' scores on these same standardized t e s t s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n ranged from. .546 to .368. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the Metropol i tan Readiness T e s t s , Form R, and f i r s t - Wi l l iam E . Mat t ick , "Predict ing Success i n the F i r s t Grade," The Elementary School Journa l , 42:273-75, February, 1963. 17 grade teachers' ratings was found to be the highest. Mattick concluded from t h i s study that of the f i v e pre- dictors of f i r s t grade success, the Metropolitah Readiness Tests were the most e f f e c t i v e . 7 Barrett investigated the a b i l i t y of seven v i s u a l discrimination tasks to predict f i r s t grade reading achieve- ment. The subjects of the study were 331 boys and 301 g i r l s . The t o t a l sample had a mean reading score of grade 2.3 and a mean IQ of 10 2. The tests used were: 1) Gates Picture Directions Tests> 2) Gates Word Matching Test, 3) Gates Word-Card Matching Test, 4) Gates Reading Letters and Numbers Test, 5) Pattern Copying Test, 6) Picture Square. Test, and 7) Reversals Test. The Gates Primary Word Recognition Test and the Gates Primary Paragraph Reading Test were used to assess the e n d - o f - f i r s t grade reading achievement. A multiple regression analysis showed that Reading Letters and Numbers was the best single predictor of read- ing achievement i n grade one. The optimum combination for predicting f i r s t - g r a d e reading achievement were Reading Letters and Numbers, Pattern Copying, and Word Matching. Thomas C. Barrett, "Visual Discrimination Tasks as Predictors of F i r s t Grade Reading Achievement," The Reading Teacher, 18:257-61, January, 1965. 18 p Thackray used multiple correlations i n assessing the predictive value of various aspects of reading readiness: v i s u a l and auditory discrimination, mental a b i l i t y , home environment, and emotional and personal attitudes. He ad- ministered to a representative sample of 182 children from eleven schools the following measures: Harrison-Stroud. Readiness P r o f i l e s , the Kelvin Measurement of A b i l i t y Test for Infants, and a multiple-choice Picture Vocabulary Test which he constructed. He also co l l e c t e d the teachers' ratings of general a b i l i t y , teachers' ratings of language and speech, and made notes on the socio-economic background of the children's homes. The emotional and personal a t t i - tudes of the subjects were based on the teachers' ratings of self-confidence, cooperation with adults, cooperation with other children, persistence, s t a b i l i t y and pr e v a i l i n g attitude. Using the Southgate Group Reading Test as c r i t e r - ion, he found the auditory and v i s u a l discrimination sub- tests of the Harrison-Stroud Reading Readiness P r o f i l e s to correlate highly with reading achievement, the cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s being .53 and .50 respectively. In this p a r t i - cular sample, the Harrison-Stroud Reading Readiness P r o f i l e s proved a v a l i d measure of reading readiness (.59). D.V. Thackray, "The Relationship Between Reading Readiness and Reading Progress," B r i t i s h Journal, of Edu- cational Psychology, 35:252-54, June, 1965. 19 In the ana lys is of data received by the Minnesota Coordinat ing Center from twenty seven f i r s t grade reading 9 p r o j e c t s , Bond and Dykstra reported that the best s ing le pred ic tor of f i r s t grade reading success was the Murphy- D u r r e l l Le t te r Names Tes t . This test had c o e f f i c i e n t of cor re la t ions between .52 and .60 with both the Stanford Word Recognit ion and the Stanford Paragraph Meaning sub- tests for each of the s ix treatments used i n the i n v e s t i - gat ion (basal , i . t . a . , phonics , language experience, l i n - g u i s t i c treatment, and basal and phonics ) . They found out that the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of a s ing le subtest such as the Let ter Names subtest i s about the same as that of the whole reading readiness bat tery . They concluded that i t probably was not necessary to give the ent i re readiness tes t i f the only purpose was to pred ic t reading achievement" II. READING READINESS AND READING SUCCESS IN HIGH GRADE LEVELS A few researchers have used grade l eve ls other than the f i r s t i n determining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reading Guy Bond and Robert Dykstra , "The Cooperative Research Program i n F i r s t Grade Reading I n s t r u c t i o n , " Reading Research Quar ter ly , 2:116-17, Summer, 1967. 20 readiness and reading achievement. Powell and Parsely*^ invest igated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e s u l t s of the Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test administered in September to 863 f i r s t graders and the resu l ts of the C a l i f o r n i a Reading Test given to the same students the fo l lowing year at the beginning of the second grade. Relat ionships were determined by means of the Pearson product moment c o r r e l a - t ion technique. The f ind ings ind icated that the Lee-Clark Reading Readiness Test was a use fu l p red ic tor of reading success fo r ch i ld ren i n the second grade. It was found use fu l p r imar i l y as a pred ic tor of the t o t a l reading resu l ts of the ent i re group. K ingston** u t i l i z e d the Metropol i tan Readiness Tests and the Stanford Achievement Tests for r e l a t i n g f i r s t grade reading readiness to t h i r d and fourth grade reading achieve- ment. The scores of the boys were treated separately from those of the g i r l s . Mu l t ip le regression equations were c a l - culated to determine the re la t ionsh ips of the t o t a l scores and subtest scores on the Metropol i tan Readiness Tests and Marvin Powell and Kenneth M. Parse ly , "The Relat ion Between Grade Reading Readiness and Second Grade Reading Achievement," The Journal of Educat ional Research, 54:229-33, February, 1961. A lber t J . Kingston, "The Relat ionship of F i r s t Grade Readiness to Th i rd and Fourth Grade Achievement," The Journal of Educat ional Research, 56:61-67, October, 1962. 21 the t o t a l and subtests scores on the t h i r d and fourth grade Stanford Achievement T e s t s . F i r s t grade readiness scores corre la ted s i g n i f i c a n t l y with reading achievement at both t h i r d and fourth grade leve ls (between .3 and .6 ) . However, the p red ic t ion of achievement i n the t h i r d and fourth grades of i n d i v i d u a l pup i ls from t h e i r readiness scores i n the f i r s t grade was not f e a s i b l e as ind icated by the s ize of the c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n obtained in th is sample. II I . SEX DIFFERENCES IN READING READINESS AND READING ACHIEVEMENT There i s a general agreement among researchers and educators that sex d i f fe rences do e x i s t i n reading. 12 C a r r o l l ' s study of 1100 ch i ld ren at the f i r s t grade l e v e l showed that s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f fe rences appear during the reading readiness per iod . She concluded that s ince they ex is ted before formal teaching i n reading took p l a c e , i t was probable that such d i f ferences might be due to reading readiness factors a lone. Marjorie Wight C a r r o l l , "Sex Di f ferences i n Reading Readiness at the F i r s t Grade L e v e l , " Elementary E n g l i s h , 25:370-75, October, 1948. 13 An i n v e s t i g a t i o n conducted by Balow i n th i r teen f i r s t grade classrooms i n S t . Pau l , Minnesota, ind icated s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ferences i n reading readiness and reading achievement i n favor of the g i r l s . However, when reading was held constant , the d i f fe rences between the two sexes were too small to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The data supported a non- maturational theory of sex d i f ferences i n reading achieve- ment . 14 Summers found that i n every comparison analyzed the females made s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater gains i n reading achieve- ment than males. Even when poss ib le i n i t i a l d i f fe rences between the sexes were cont ro l l ed by using the covariance des ign , the females continued to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior to the males. 15 Konski found no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f fe rences when she measured reading readiness i n twelve se lected areas. However, when the reading achievement tests were given at 13 I rv ing H. Balow, "Sex Di f ferences i n F i r s t Grade Reading," Elementary E n g l i s h , 40:303-06, 320, March, 1963. 14 Edward George Summers, "An Evaluat ion of Reading Growth and Retention Under Two Plans of Organizat ion for Seventh Grade Developmental Reading" (unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of Minnesota, Minneapol is , 1963). 15 V i r g i n i a J . Konski , "An Inves t iga t ion . in to D i f fe r - ences Between Boys and G i r l s i n Selected Reading Readiness Areas and i n Reading Achievement" (unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of M i s s o u r i , Columbia, 1951). 23 the end of f i r s t grade, the g i r l s scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the boys. 16 Wozencraft reported d i f fe rences i n favor of the g i r l s when she made comparisons between the sexes i n r e s - pect to the mean scores obtained on Paragraph Meaning, Word Meaning, Reading Average, Ar i thmet ic Reasoning, A r i t h - metic Computation, and Ar i thmet ic Average of the Stanford Achievement T e s t . More d i f fe rences were found to be s i g n i - f i c a n t i n the t h i r d grade than i n the s ix th grade. This might ind ica te that while g i r l s star ted of f at an advantage i n school achievement, boys tended to catch up with them i n higher grade l e v e l s . IV. READING ACHIEVEMENT GROWTH There i s l i t t l e research on reading growth because studies o f ' t h i s kind are usual ly slow and c o s t l y . Among the few invest iga t ions i s the comparison of reading growth 17 from grade two to seven made by McElroy. This study was conducted i n an upper middle c lass r e s i d e n t i a l suburban town. The scores used i n th is inves t iga t ion were those Marian Wozencraft, "Sex Comparisons of Cer ta in A b i l i t i e s , " The Journal of Educat ional Research, 57:21-23, September, 1963. Kathryn Kohn McElroy, "A Comparative Study of Reading Growth from Grades Two to Seven," The Reading Teacher, 25:98-101, September, 1961. from the Metropol i tan Readiness Tests i n k indergarten; the C a l i f o r n i a Mental Maturity Test i n grades two, four , and s i x ; and the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test i n grades three, f i v e , and seven. The median scores i n vocabulary, comprehension and t o t a l reading for each grade were p lo t ted on graphs. Comparative studies were then made on the growth patterns revealed on graphs. McElroy observed an almost i d e n t i c a l pattern i n voca- bulary and comprehension from grades two to seven. She found a lack of growth between the t h i r d and fourth grades and between the fourth and f i f t h grades. There w a s h o w e v e r , an acce le ra t ion of growth between the f i f t h and s ix th grades. 18 The purpose of Sutton's inves t iga t ion was "to study var ia t ions i n reading achievement.of ch i ld ren over a seven- year per iod who scored high on measures used i n kindergarten to determine reading readiness , to observe uniqueness in the i n d i v i d u a l as he matures, and to d iscover environmental i n - f luences that tend to fos ter i n d i v i d u a l i t y and independence i n read ing ." Two hundred ten pup i ls were followed up from k inder- garten through the s ix th grade by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . For Rachel S. Sutton, "Var iat ions i n Reading Achieve- ment of Selected C h i l d r e n , " Elementary E n g l i s h , 37:97-100, February, 1960. 25 each year the parents completed quest ionnaires about the c h i l d ' s fami ly , heal th h i s t o r y , c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t i e s and behavior . The teachers made a summary ra t ing of each c h i l d on s o c i a l adjustment every year . Each c h i l d was i n t e r - viewed by the inves t iga tor twice, i n the second and s ix th grades. An in tensive study was made of two ch i ld ren with high achievement p o t e n t i a l . Sutton found that precoc i ty and slowness i n reading may be detected ear ly in the c h i l d ' s development. She sug- gested that through a long i tud ina l study of pupi ls i n a given community, a school s t a f f could develop i t s own concept of normality i n . c h i l d growth and could a lso con- ceptual ize normal reading achievement for each c h i l d . An inves t iga t ion of the development of reading achievement growth from grades f i v e to nine was done, by 19 Shankman. Information on family background, i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l , and year ly grade l e v e l scores i n reading, language, and s p e l l i n g as assessed by the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Tests was obtained from the school permanent record cards. Chi ldren whose scores deviated more than two standard de- v ia t ions from the mean were studied as i n d i v i d u a l cases. Florence Vogel Shankman, "An Invest igat ion of the Development of Reading Achievement Growth from Grades Four to Nine"- (unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1959). 26 Add i t iona l information with reference to age, s i b l i n g p lace - ment, course chosen for high s c h o o l , and parent 's occupation was taken by the invest iga tor for case study. Using ana lys is of variance she found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - ferences i n reading achievement from year to year but not between the sexes. No s i g n i f i c a n t re la t ionsh ips were found between s i b l i n g placement, course chosen for high school and parent 's occupation and reading achievement. There was a negative c o r r e l a t i o n between reading achievement i n the jun ior high school and reading achievement i n the elementary s c h o o l . 20 Eddings aimed to i d e n t i f y patterns of reading growth among a group of pupi ls i n grade s i x . The var iab les used as areas of inves t iga t ion i n th is study were i n t e l l i - gence, p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , environmental and exper ien t i a l background, and emotional and s o c i a l development. She constructed three quest ionnaires on the envi ron- mental and e x p e r i e n t i a l background of the subject . These quest ionnaires were answered by the sub jec ts , t h e i r parents and t h e i r teachers . Information on the year ly school attendance and general reading achievement of the subjects Inez Clark Eddings, "Patterns of Reading Growth: A Longi tudina l Study of Patterns of Reading Growth Throughout the Six Grades i n Two Elementary Schools" (unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Un ivers i ty of South C a r o l i n a , Columbia, 1956). 27 i n the second through the f i f t h grades was obtained from school cumulative records . The p u p i l s ' general reading per- formance, i n t e l l i g e n c e , v i s u a l and auditory func t ion ing , and s o c i a l and emotional development were measured by the examiner using standardized tests and i n d i v i d u a l examinations. Based on evidence obtained i n her study Eddings concluded that patterns of reading growth are es tab l ished ear ly among groups of elementary p u p i l s . She reported that among groups of normal grade s i x pupi ls of comparable mental a b i l i t y the reading achievement of g i r l s tends to be higher than that of boys but wi th in d i f f e r e n t reading l e v e l groups there was l i t t l e d i f fe rence between the patterns of reading growth of the sexes. 21 Namkin invest igated p u p i l growth i n reading and ar i thmet ic s k i l l s from grade two through grade eight with the purpose of determining the s t a b i l i t y of these growth patterns and comparing these patterns with those obtained from long i tud ina l studies of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Two hundred f i f t y jun ior high school pupi ls who had scores ava i lab le for the f o u r t h , . s i x t h , seventh, and eighth grades were the sub- jec ts of th is study. The grade equivalent scores were con- verted in to K-scores to provide an i n t e r v a l scale for the Sidney Namkin, " S t a b i l i t y of Achievement Test Scores , A Longi tudina l Study of the Reading and Ar i thmet ic Subtests of the Stanford Achievement Test" (unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Rutgers, The State U n i v e r s i t y , New Brunswick, 1966). 28 study of growth from grades four through e igh t . A subgroup of seventy pupi ls was studied from grade two through grade e igh t . He observed that patterns of growth below fourth grade were less stable than those of higher grade l e v e l s . There was a f a i r l y stable pattern of achievement at the beginning of. grade four which becomes increas ing ly more stable at higher grade l e v e l s . The greatest gains were found to be between grades 6.1 and 7.1. In a study of the reading growth of intermediate 22 pupi ls m the pub l ic schools of Maob, Utah, Dugger found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rences between vocabulary development and p u p i l mob i l i t y at the 1 per cent l e v e l and comprehension and a b i l i t y at the 5 per cent l e v e l . There were a lso no s i g - n i f i c a n t , sex d i f fe rences i n reading readiness among white subjects but there was s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence i n favor of the g i r l s among Negro sub jec ts . Growth was found to be con- tinuous i n Pattern Copying, Ident ica l Forms, Auditory D i s - cr iminat ion, . Phonemes, Word Meaning, and L i s t e n i n g . The enriched reading readiness program was super ior to the basal readers program i n Pattern Copying, Ident ica l Forms, and J e r o l d O r v i l l e Dugger, "A Study of the Reading Growth of Intermediate Grade Pupi ls i n the Publ ic Schools of Maob, Utah" (unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Colorado State Co l l ege , Greeley, 1961). 29 Word Meaning but were equivalent i n Auditory Discrimination and Phonemes. 23 Ketcham and L a f f i t t e plotted the i n d i v i d u a l re- cords of the mental and reading growth of f i f t y elementary school children and found a high degree of s i m i l a r i t y between in d i v i d u a l differences i n the longitudinal records for mental age and those for reading age. The growth curves revealed that children achieved t h e i r mental a b i l i t i e s and reading s k i l l s at d i f f e r e n t rates which led them to express doubts on the accuracy of predicting mental a b i l i t i e s and academic progress at the completion of the elementary school from performances i n the early grades. V. SUMMARY The table on page 30 summarizes the studies on pre- d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y of reading readiness t e s t s . The d i f f e r e n t readiness measures, with the exception of the auditory d i s - crimination subtest used by Dykstra which had a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .19, were found to be good predictors of reading achievement at the end of f i r s t and higher grade l e v e l s . Warren A. Ketcham and Rondeau G. L a f f i t t e , "How Well Are They Learning?" Educational Leadership, 16:37-41, 350, March, 1959. 30 TABLE I PREDICTIVE VALIDITY STUDIES OF READING READINESS TESTS Study Readiness Test Reading Test No.of Coef.of Cases Correla- tion Dean Metropolitan Monroe Henig Lee-Clark M i t c h e l l Metropolitan Dykstra Barrett Selected Auditory dis Selected Visual d i s . Powell & . -j Lee-Clark Parseley Kingston Metropolitan Metropolitan 116 Metropolitan 116 Teachers' marks 9 8 Metropolitan 1170 Gates Gates Thackray Harrison-Stroud Southgate C a l i f o r n i a Stanford 632 632 182 863 272 59 41 60 51 to 63 19 to .46 ,30 to 61 59 ,43 ,3 to ,6 A perusal of the related l i t e r a t u r e has revealed that most of the s k i l l s measured by d i f f e r e n t reading readi- ness tests were s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to success i n reading. The s k i l l s commonly evaluated were v i s u a l discrimination, auditory discrimination, muscular coordination and motor 31 s k i l l s , l i n g u i s t i c attainments, and knowledge of l e t t e r s . The studies reviewed have shown that sex d i f f e r - ences do e x i s t i n reading readiness and reading achievement. While g i r l s usually have been found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior to boys at the beginning reading stage, boys have tended to catch up at the higher grade l e v e l s . The longitudinal studies on reading growth gave e v i - dence of variations i n reading achievement of children at each grade l e v e l . CHAPTER III DESIGN AND PROCEDURES The purposes of th is study, as stated in Chapter I, were two- fo ld . One was to analyze the growth patterns i n reading achievement of groups of ch i ld ren who had been c l a s s i f i e d according to l eve ls of reading readiness while they were i n the f i r s t grade. The other purpose was to invest igate the ear ly chi ldhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of good and poor readers in the intermediate grades. Because these were two invest iga t ions conducted on two d i f f e r e n t popu- l a t i o n s , the descr ip t ion of the design and the procedure of each are discussed separately i n th is chapter. I. GROWTH.PATTERNS IN READING ACHIEVEMENT The Design To invest igate the growth patterns i n reading achieve- ment a re t rospect ive long i tud ina l study was made of the development i n reading achievement of a group of 300 pupi ls who were in grade seven i n September,.1967. This group con- s i s t e d of 150 boys and 150 g i r l s belonging to f i v e d i f f e r e n t categories of reading readiness when they were i n f i r s t grade. The i n i t i a l readiness status of each subject was determined from the t o t a l readiness score on the Metropol i tan 33 Readiness Tests taken when he was in f i r s t grade i n Septem- ber , 1961. Growth i n reading achievement was measured by the subtests on Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning of the Stanford Achievement Test - administered every May from 1964 through May, 1968, that i s , at each grade l e v e l from t h i r d through seventh. A mu l t i f ac to r ana lys is of variance with repeated measurement design was made on four v a r i a b l e s : sex, read- ing readiness category, " t r i a l " or repeated measurement, and r e p l i c a t i o n . There were f i v e l eve ls of the readiness f a c - t o r : super io r , high normal, average, low normal, and poor r i s k . F ive " t r i a l s " were made, one for each grade from grade three through grade seven. There were two r e p l i c a - t i o n s . The r e p l i c a t i o n fac tor was introduced into the design because the groups of students i n the readiness cate - gor ies were not random groups. For t h i s reason a category by " t r i a l " i n te rac t ion might r e s u l t from i n i t i a l d i f ferences between the groups other than those due to d i f fe rences i n l e v e l of reading readiness. Separate analyses were done for Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning. Comparisons of the growth patterns of groups of pupi ls i n the various reading readiness categories were made by submittirigtto graphica l and s t a t i s t i c a l analyses the r e s u l t s of the subtests on Paragraph Meaning and Word 34 Meaning of the Stanford Achievement T e s t . Figures were employed to depict g raph ica l l y the trend of the means of the d i f f e r e n t categories of reading readiness . The slope of the l i n e for each category was computejd. This slope described the rate of increase in reading achievement accompanying the increase i n grade l e v e l of pup i ls belonging to each category of reading readiness. Tests of s i g n i f i - cant d i f fe rences were made between each pa i r of s lopes . If the d i f fe rence was found to be. s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 or bet ter than the .05 l e v e l , i t was concluded that the slopes were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t for the categories being com- pared . For each category of- reading readiness, t tests of s i g n i f i c a n c e between each p a i r of consecutive grades were made to determine i f plateaus i n the growth patterns ex is ted . Mean gains from grade to grade and the o v e r a l l mean gain from grade three through grade seven for each of the f i v e categories of reading readiness were computed and com- pared to d iscover i f they were p o s i t i v e l y re la ted to i n i t i a l status of reading readiness . Sex d i f ferences in reading achievement growth were determined s t a t i s t i c a l l y by means of the t t e s t , and graph i - c a l l y by p l o t t i n g and comparing the means in Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning by grade and by sex for the super- i o r , high normal, average, low normal, and poor r i s k cate- 35 g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . The P o p u l a t i o n and S e l e c t i o n of Subjects . The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a l l the p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n the seventh grade of the p u b l i c elementary schools i n Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia, who took the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s when they were i n f i r s t grade i n 1961 and the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t when they were i n grades three through seven. Of a t o t a l of seventeen schools i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t with grade seven c l a s s e s , f o u r t e e n were found to have p u p i l s .with complete records of the r e s u l t s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests and the S t a n f o r d Achieve- ment T e s t from grade three through grade seven. Table I I on page 36 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u b j e c t s among the s c h o o l s . The 517 c h i l d r e n w i t h complete records of the r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s t e s t and the r e a d i n g achievement t e s t s r e s u l t s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r t o t a l scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s , Form R, taken when they were i n f i r s t grade i n September, 1961. The r e s u l t of the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s shown i n Table I I I on page 36. The l i s t i n g of the boys was done s e p a r a t e l y from the g i r l s . An equal number of p u p i l s f o r each sex was randomly s e l e c t e d f o r each group to be able to do an exact and com- par a b l e a n a l y s i s . Since t h i r t y came out to be the s m a l l e s t 36 TABLE II DISTRIBUTION OF SUBJECTS INCLUDED IN THE STUDY School No.of Number Grade 7 Pupils . No. with MRT and SAT Results (Gr. 3-Gr. 7) No. of Pupils Included i n the Sample 1 120 84 53 2 73 16 14 3 53 12 9 4 87 51 26 5 94 56 35 6 88 66 37 7 90 40 22 8 88 5 2 9 84 34 15 10 86 19 14 11 73 44 22 12 47 19 13 13 38 18 10 14 90 83 28 Total 14 1111 517 300 TABLE III DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS ACCORDING TO READINESS CATEGORIES Readiness. Total No. of Pupils Categories Score Boys G i r l s Superior 90 - 100 30 33 High Normal 80 - 89 44 54 Average 65 - 79 80 84 Low Normal 40 - 64 71 57 Poor Risk 0 - 39 33 31 Total 258 259 number among the groups, t h i r t y boys and t h i r t y g i r l s were randomly se lected for each of f i v e categories of reading readiness. For purposes of r e p l i c a t i o n these groups of t h i r t y subjects were each fur ther randomly d iv ided in to two groups of f i f t e e n for each category. Procedures i n C o l l e c t i n g Data The tes t ing program i n Richmond provided for a d i s t r i c t - w i d e tes t ing schedule every school year . Hence, long i tud ina l records of i n t e l l e c t u a l and academic growth of pup i ls were ava i lab le i n almost a l l of the elementary schools i n the school d i s t r i c t . However, the records var ied from school to school and sometimes from c lass to c l a s s . Many of the pupi ls had school permanent record cards which d id not include the subtest r e s u l t s and had to be excluded from the sample. The Metropol i tan Readiness Tests r e s u l t s and the year ly grade l e v e l scores on the Word Meaning and Paragraph Meaning subtest i n reading as determined by the Stanford Achievement Test were obtained from the school permanent record cards . Data not ava i lab le from the school permanent record cards were taken from reports on promotion and Stanford Achievement Test c lass records and c lass ana lys is charts prepared by the teachers a f ter each examination. The r e s u l t s of the tes ts l i s t e d i n Table TV on page 38 were u t i l i z e d i n th is study. 38 TABLE IV STANDARDIZED TESTS USED IN THE STUDY Name of Test Form Date Given of Test Metropolitan Readiness Tests R Sept., 1961 Stanford Achievement Test J May, 1964 Stanford Achievement Test K May, 1965 Stanford Achievement Test J May ,. 1966 Stanford Achievement Test K May, 1967 Stanford Achievement Test W May, 1968 P a r a l l e l forms of the fourth e d i t i o n of the Stanford Achievement Test, Forms J and K, were alternately used when the pupils were i n grades three through six but Form W of the f i f t h e d i t i o n was used i n grade seven. However, the equivalence, of the two editions has been determined.by the publishers from grades f i v e through nine which makes i t possible for the users of the tests to compare performances on the two editions. Hence, the scores on Form W were converted to equivalent scores on Form J and Form K by using a table provided by the publishers. The grade equivalent scores on the Word Meaning and Paragraph Meaning subtests were converted into K-scores by using the K-tables found i n the Manual to the Stanford Achievement Test. This procedure was necessary because 39 grade, equivalents do not const i tu te ser ies of equal u n i t s . A gain of one year from grade one to grade two may not represent the same amount of growth i n a b i l i t y as does a gain of a year from grade s ix to grade seven. Since th is study involved accurate measurement of growth in reading achievement, there was a need for a scale of equal u n i t s . The K - s c a l e s 1 have uni ts that are approximately equal throughout the ent i re range of the s c a l e . Each un i t i s equal to one-seventh the standard dev ia t ion of the nat iona l grade f i v e frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n . The average performance of grade 10 ch i ld ren was selected as the r e f e r - ence point and was assigned a grade score of 100. K-units are obtained by f i t t i n g a ser ies of over- lapping frequency curves on the same abscissa i n such a way that the proport ions of pupi ls i n consecutive grades who obtain the same score i n a p a r t i c u l a r tes t correspond to the proport ions given by the o r i g i n a l data . Equal uni ts then are equal distances along the common a b s c i s s a . Descr ip t ion of the Tests Used i n the Study The Metropol i tan Readiness Tes ts . The Metropol i tan Readiness Tests are designed to measure the d i f f e r e n t as - E r i c F. Gardner, "Comments on Selected Sca l ing Techniques with a Descr ip t ion of a Mew Type of S c a l e , " Journal of Childhood Psychology, 6:38-43, 1950. 40 pects of r e a d i n e s s f o r s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n of beginning p u p i l s . These t e s t s are u s u a l l y administered a t the end of k i n d e r g a r t e n or beginning of f i r s t grade. The s i x sub- t e s t s c o ntained i n a sixteen-page b o o k l e t are Word Meaning, Sentences, Information, Matching Numbers, and Copying. These s u b t e s t s are d e v i s e d to measure t r a i t s and a b i l i t i e s of s c h o o l beginners such as r i c h n e s s of v e r b a l concepts, comprehension of phrases and sentences, v i s u a l - p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s , knowledge of numerical and q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n - s h i p s , and sensory-motor a b i l i t i e s . The r e l i a b i l i t y data f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Te s t s are shown i n Table V below. The c o r r e l a t i o n s g i v e n are median values of s i x measurements of groups of f i r s t g r a d e r s . TABLE V RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS AND RELATED DATA, METROPOLITAN READINESS TESTS, GRADE I* T e s t R e l . Coef. 1st T e s t i n g Mean . S.D. 2nd T e s t i n g Mean - S.D. Stan. E r r o r Meas. Word Meaning .583 15.61 2.51 15.92 2.26 1.62 Sentences .535 10.52 2.39 10 .86 2.27 1.63 Information .586 12.02 2.06 12.39 1.89 1.33 Matching .773 13.19 4.23 14.19 3.75 2.02 Numbers .839 13.50 4.78 14.38 4.85 1.92 Copying .762 5.26 2.76 5.31 2.75 1.35 T e s t s 1-4 .828 51.07 8.83 53.20 8.13 3.66 T e s t s 1-6 .890 69.71 13.92 72.96 13.12 4.62 * M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s , Form R, D i r e c t i o n f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g and Key f o r S c o r i n g (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1948), p. 30. 41 Reviewers of the Metropol i tan Readiness Tests claimed that these tests are among the most widely used and 2 among the super ior readiness tests now a v a i l a b l e . Table VI below shows the c o r r e l a t i o n between the Met r opo1itan Readiness Tests and the Metropol i tan Achievement T e s t s . TABLE VI PREDICTIVE VALIDITY OF METROPOLITAN READINESS TESTS AS FOUND FOR THE 919 FIRST-GRADE PUPILS IN THE WHITE SCHOOLS OF A COUNTY;' SYSTEM* Cor re la t ion with Metropol i tan Achievement Tests (1959 E d i t i o n , Primary 1 Battery) - Met. Word Word Ave. A r i t h . Read. Know- D i s - Read- Rdg. Concepts Tests ledge cr im. ing Tests and Mean S • D S k i l l s Tests 1- 4 .467 .462 .427 .482 .544 53.4 9 .3 Test 5 .563 .581 .512 .589 .622 15.1 5 .1 Tests 1- 6 (Total) .558 .557 .511 .578 .632 75.1 15 .6 Mean 1.87 1.99 2.01 1.96 2.31 S.D. .44 .61 .59 .52 .61 * Blythe C. M i t c h e l l , "The Metropoli tan. Readiness Tests as Predic tors of F i rs t -Grade Achievement," Educat ional and Psycholog ica l Measurement, 22:767, Winter, 1962. The c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n between the Metropo11tan Readiness Tests and the Metropol i tan Achievement Tests ranged from .427 to .632. In th is large sample of 9i;9 pupi ls these c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n which are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .005 Oscar K. Buros (ed. ) , Fourth Mental Achievement. Yearbook (Highland Park: The Gryphon Press , 1953), p. 570. l e v e l proved that the Metropol i tan Readiness Tes ts .a re good pred ic tors of success at the f i r s t g'rade l e v e l . The Stanford Achievement Tes t . The Stanford Achieve- ment Test i s designed to measure outcomes of elementary school i n s t r u c t i o n . I t cons is ts of d i f f e r e n t l eve ls of ba t te r ies for var ious grades and covers d i f f e r e n t sub jec ts . Per iod ic rev is ions of t h i s tes t have been made. The Word Meaning subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test i s a mul t ip le -cho ice type. It cons is ts of items which measure knowledge of synonyms, of simple d e f i n i t i o n s , and ready a s s o c i a t i o n s . There are a lso items which measure h i g h e r - l e v e l comprehension of concepts represented by words, and f u l l n e s s of understanding of terms. Words included i n th is tes t are those that occur most frequently i n c h i l d r e n ' s speaking and reading vocabular ies . The Paragraph Meaning subtest measures the c h i l d ' s comprehension of the paragraph by se lec t ing the proper word for each omission i n . t h e paragraph. It tests a lso the p u p i l ' s a b i l i t y to understand connected d iscourse . Para- graphs se lected are graduated i n d i f f i c u l t y and are on subjects of i n t e r e s t to c h i l d r e n . These paragraphs are George A. Ferguson, Stat i s t i c a1 .Analys is i n Psy- chology and Education (New York: McGraw H i l l Book Company, 1966), p. 413. 43 based on general reading materials, science, geography, history, f i n e a r t s , and l i t e r a t u r e . Reviews of the Stanford Achievement Test are favor- able. Agatha Townsend^ said that the Stanford Achievement Test holds a p o s i t i o n of importance i n the testing program which i s hard to duplicate because i t can be used with or without the whole battery; i t has.five equivalent forms for each l e v e l ; i t s scoring system permits, a longitudinal growth study, over- a wide range; and the results within these 5 l i m i t s are unusually dependable. James R. Hobson remarked that the reading subtests of the Stanford Achievement Test are the oldest i n a widely used achievement battery and re- main one of the most s a t i s f a c t o r y reading t e s t s . Mariam M. Bryan stated that "the 196 4 e d i t i o n of the Stanford Achieve- ment Test s t i l l rates high among standardized test batteries designed for use at the elementary school l e v e l s . . . . The Stanford Achievement Test w i l l o f f e r keen competition to most other standardized tests because (a) i t offers a. means of continuous measurement from grade 1 through grade 9 and (b) many test users f e e l comfortable working with i t as a Oscar K. Buros ( e d . ) / F i f t h Mental Measurement Yearbook (Highland Park: The GrypO^n Press, 1959), pp.656-57. Oscar K. Buros (ed.), Fourth Mental Measurement Yearbook (Highland Park: The Gryp*33t5. Press, 1953", p. 555. r e s u l t of long exper ience." Robinson commented that th is test i s a dependable measure of reading achievement and among the best survey tes ts for elementary schools because of i t s format, contents, s tandard iza t ion , norms, and ease of administrat ion and s c o r i n g . II. EARLY CHILDHOOD CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD AND POOR READERS IN GRADE V The inves t iga tor had o r i g i n a l l y planned to conduct th is part of the study on the same populat ion used for the growth study. However, because of the re t rospect ive nature of th is study, i t was necessary to depend on data already ava i lab le on permanent record cards and other school records . Unfortunate ly , i n the school d i s t r i c t where the growth study was undertaken, there were no records of the subtests scores on the Metropo1itan Read1hess Tests * • The data from these subtests scores were necessary i n the second part of th is study, because they are standardized measures of i n i t i a l status i n various aspects of readiness. Therefore, rather than drop th is part of the study which was considered impor- Oscar K. Buros (ed. ) , S ixth Mental Measurement Yearbook (Highland Park: The Gryphon Press , 1965), p. 26. 7 Oscar K. Buros (ed. ) , F i f t h Mental Measurement Yearbook (Highland Park: The Gryphon Press , 1959), p. 656. 45 tant , i t was decided. to s e l e c t another school d i s t r i c t where subtests scores of the Metropol i tan Readiness Tests were a v a i l a b l e . The Design The ex post facto design was used i n th is second part of the study. Ex post facto research i s one " in which the independent var iab le or var iab les have already occurred and i n which the researcher s ta r ts with the observation of a dependent v a r i a b l e . o r v a r i a b l e s . He then studies the i n - dependent var iab les i n re t rospect for t h e i r p o s i t i v e r e l a - t ions t o , and e f f e c t on, the dependent var iab le or v a r i a b l e s . In the ex post facto study an inves t iga tor takes things as they are . He can not cont ro l the independent v a r i a b l e s . Neither can he make use of randomization be- cause the subjects and treatments are already assigned to groups. Because of th is lack of cont ro l i t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw v a l i d conclusions from ex post facto research. There i s always a danger of making erroneous in terpre ta t ions because of the i n a b i l i t y to manipulate independent var iab les that already e x i s t i n the in d iv id u a ls s tud ied . Great care Fred N. K e r l i n g e r , Foundations of Behavioral Research (New York: Ho l t , Rinehart and Winston, I n c . , 1967), p. 360. 46 and caution should be practised when interpreting the re- sults of ex post facto investigations. In this p a r t i c u l a r study, the dependent variable was reading achievement i n grade f i v e . The independent variables were school entrance age, home background, and early childhood physical, i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , and emo- t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which could not be manipulated. I t was not the purpose of this study to state any causal connection between the dependent variable and any of the independent variables but to f i n d out which, i f any, of these independent variables were related to and might influence success i n reading i n the intermediate grades. Case studies were made on a sample of good and poor readers. Parents were interviewed to gather facts about t h e i r child's preschool, kindergarten, and f i r s t grade experiences that might have contributed to.his be- coming a good or a poor reader by the time he was i n grade f i v e . The data on readiness category, richness of verbal concepts, vocabulary, v i s u a l perception, auditory perception*;; number knowledge, and motor control were based on the results of the Metropo1itan Readiness Tests administered to each c h i l d when he was i n kindergarten. To be able to ascertain which of the characteris- t i c s investigated distinguished the good readers from the 47 9 poor readers, the Fisher exact p r o b a b i l i t y test was used. This t e s t determined whether the t r a i t s studied d i f f e r e n - t i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the successful and unsuccess- f u l readers i n the f i f t h grade. Selection of Subjects for the Study; The population for t h i s part of the study consisted of 315 grade f i v e pupils, 154 boys and 161 g i r l s , i n f i v e elementary schools i n Vancouver who took the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests i n May, 196 8. The children belonging to the top 27 per cent were c l a s s i f i e d , as gOod readers and those i n the- bottom 27 per cent were considered as poor readers. Twenty-seven per cent was chosen as the cut-off point be- cause Kelley"^ has shown that for normally d i s t r i b u t e d scores, i n order to y i e l d upper and lower groups which are unquestionably d i f f e r e n t with respect to the t r a i t i n ques- t i o n , and at the same time to minimize loss of information, 27 per cent should be selected at each extreme. The subjects for the case studies were selected from the top 27 per cent and the bottom 27 per cent of the popu- 9 Sidney Siegel, Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s . (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956), pp. 96-103. 1 0Truman L. Kelley, "The Selection of Upper and Lower Groups for the Validation of Test Items," The Journal of Educational Psychology, 30:17-24, January, 1939. 48 l a t i o n . I t was a r b i t r a r i l y decided that an inves t iga t ion of s ix teen pup i ls from each group would be s u f f i c i e n t to show d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n preschool and be- ginning school years of good and poor readers. A sampling plan" i n which 20 per cent of students wass se lected ran- domly from each of the f i v e schools was used to obtain the th i r ty - two subjects for case s t u d i e s . Procedures i n C o l l e c t i n g the Data The school entrance age, readiness category, subtest scores and t o t a l score on the Metropol i tan Readiness .Tests administered to the subjects i n May, 1963 were obtained from a l i s t compiled by the Department of Research and Spec ia l Services of the Vancouver School Board . . The date of b i r t h , address and name of parents , and the resu l ts of the Gates-MacGini t ie Reading Tests were gathered from the school permanent record cards . An interview guide was used while interviewing parents to gather per t inent information on t r a i t s and ex- periences of t h e i r c h i l d before he went to school and during h is ear ly school years . The Interview Guide** i n - cluded background informat ion, p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , See Appendix A , pp . 124-127 . 49 s o c i a l , and emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n early childhood days of the subject of the case study. I I I . SUMMARY This study consisted of two separate investigations. The f i r s t was a retrospective longitudinal study of the patterns of growth i n reading achievement of 300 grade seven children with d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l status of reading readiness. Reading achievement growth was based on K-scores on Word Meaning and Paragraph Meaning subtests of the Stanford Achievement Te'st administered yearly from grade three through grade seven. The growth patterns were analyzed and compared graphically and s t a t i s t i c a l l y by using the analysis of variance and the t t e s t . In the second investigation the ex post facto method was used i n determining early childhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that were related to the reading achievement of sixteen good readers and sixteen poor readers i n grade f i v e . The Fisher exact p r o b a b i l i t y test was applied to determine which of the t r a i t s investigated distinguished the poor from the good readers. CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA The presentat ion and ana lys is of data are presented i n the order i n which the hypotheses are s ta ted . The f i n d - ings on the study of growth patterns i n reading achievement of groups of ch i ld ren with d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l status of reading readiness are discussed f i r s t . This i s fol lowed by the d iscuss ion of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n preschool , k indergarten, and f i r s t grade of ch i ld ren who have become good and poor readers i n the f i f t h grade. I. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE Tables VII and VIII present the r e s u l t s of the ana lys is of var iance made to determine i f there were s i g n i - f i c a n t d i f fe rences among the f ixed f a c t o r s : sex, reading readiness.category and " t r i a l " and the random f a c t o r , r e p l i c a t i o n . The d i f fe rence between sexes was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . The f i v e categories of reading readiness and the " t r i a l " or the repeated measure- ments each year from grade three through grade seven were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the .01 l e v e l on both Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning subtests of the Stanford Achieve- ment T e s t . Interact ions between r e p l i c a t i o n and " t r i a l " reached the .025 l e v e l i n Word Meaning. The category by " t r i a l " TABLE V I I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (PARAGRAPH MEANING) S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n * Sum o f S q u a r e s d f Mean S q u a r e E x p e c t e d Mean S q u a r e F B e t w e e n Ss A 140 .5760 1 140 .5760 750 *-A + B 634 .7972 1 634 .7972 750<r v A + C 20623 .9319 4 5155 .9830 300 <i_ + AB 2 .8821 1 2 .8821 375 <£_ + AC 150 .2778 4 37 .5695 150 <r kc + BC 1223 .0769 4 305 .7692 150 *\ c + ABC 566 .4859 4 141 .6215 75 ABC + I ( ABC) 33230 .6025 280 118 .6807 W i t h i n S s . D 55543 .0581 4 13885 .7645 300** + AD 104 . 8608 4 26 .2152 150 f f Vfc C + BD 253 .7168 4 63 .4292 150«r>c + CD 808 .2451 16 50 .5153 6 0 'to + ABD 143 .1619 4 35 .7905 75<rV + ACD 202 .1592 16 12 .6349 30 a ACD + BCD 297 .6321 16 18 .6020 30<*"AC& + ABCD 282 .9653 16 17 .6853 15<TM}CD + ID(ABC) 21523 .0273 1120 19 .2170 5 *t,, 3 7 5 * ^ 150 <rV 5 5 75 5 150 V 75 ffvfr6c. 30 15 <TVA&CD 5 5 + 5 + 1 -r + I*" 1.18 220.26 137.24 .02 .32 2.16 1.19 1>L 05 ,001 529.68 ^-.001 1.36 1, 4, 1. 77 00 86 66 05 92 01 *A = R e p l i c a t i o n (random) B = Sex ( f i x e d ) C = C a t e g o r y ( f i x e d ) D = T r i a l ( f i x e d ) I = S u b j e c t (random) i— TABLE V I I I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (WORD MEANING) S o u r c e o f V a r i a t i o n * Sum o f S q u a r e s d f . Mean S q u a r e E x p e c t e d Mean S q u a r e F B e t w e e n Ss, A 93.4534 1 93 .4534 750 °"A + 5 V .75 B 1481.2533 1 1481 .2533 750 O°A- + 375 + 5 4.16.00 C 24425.1082 4 6106 .2770 300o- v t ' 150 + 5 <, 199.61 A B 3.5607 1 3 .5607 ,375<r>xs + 5 .03 A C 122.3613 4 30 .5903 150<rVc + 5 1 .25 B C 11283.1128 4 320 .7782 150 f V + 75 + 5 «\ x 1.68 A B C 764.5945 4 191 .1486 + 5 f v t l 1.54 I ( A B C ) 34728.8027 280 124 .0314 W i t h i n S s . D 83015.0498 4 20753 .7625 300 *"c + 150 °vftc + 1 298.91 A D 277.7227 4 69 .4307 150 ^ c + • 1 2.94 B D 939.1133 4 234 .7783 150 ^ A c + 75 + 1 ^ - 15.38 C D 5098.8418 16 318 .6776 60 <rvcD + 30 +1 . l < r ^ 14.53 A B D 61.0438 4 15 .2609 75 <^ B t + 1 .65 A C D 350.8730 16 21 .9296 30 T^OD + 1 .93 B C D 360.1548 16 22 .5097 30 <p\c» + 15 1.73 A B C D 208.0773 16 13 .0048 15 * A-BCD + . 1 .55 I D ( A B C ) 264657.9944 1120 23 .6232 05 ^ - • 0 0 1 ^..025 025 001 *A = R e p l i c a t i o n (random) B = S e x ( f i x e d ) C = C a t e g o r y ( f i x e d ) D = T r i a l ( f i x e d ) I = S u b j e c t s (random) cn 53 i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l i n Word Mean- ing and h ighly s i g n i f i c a n t at the .001 l e v e l i n Paragraph Meaning. This means that i t i s poss ib le that factors other than readiness category might be responsible for the d i f - ferences among the groups of ch i ld ren included i n th is study. However, th is would be a s l im p o s s i b i l i t y because the r e p l i c a t i o n by category by " t r i a l " in te rac t ions were not s i g n i f i c a n t . This would mean that the category by " t r i a l " pattern was the same for both r e p l i c a t i o n s . Thus i f i t was not category that accounted for the d i f f e r e n c e , i t would have to be something e lse systematic and common to both samples such as socio-economic background or parents 1 educat ion. II. HYPOTHESIS 1 There i s no d i f fe rence among the patterns of group means i n reading achievement of pup i ls belonging to each of the super io r , high normal, average, low normal, and poor r i s k categories of reading readiness. The mean K scores of the t o t a l group of subjects used in th is inves t iga t ion on Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning are shown i n Table IX and Table X on page 54. A grade to grade comparison of these means between readiness categories presented i n Table XI reveals s i g n i f i c a n t d i f - ferences beyond the .05 l e v e l for almost a l l pa i rs of 54 TABLE IX MEAN K SCORES BY GRADE ON PARAGRAPH MEANING IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST OF BOTH SEXES IN THE SUPERIOR, HIGH NORMAL, AVERAGE, LOW NORMAL AND POOR RISK CATEGORIES OF READING READINESS Readiness Mean K Scores Category Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 . Grade 6 Grade 7 S u p e r i o r 82.24 86.58 92.66 95.65 102.82 High Normal 77.65 81.66 86.84 89.67 96.60 Average 76.17 79.48 84.13 86.70 93.13 Low Normal 75.35 77.93 81.74 85.31 91.54 Poor Risk 75.21 77.44 82.16 84.35 89 .92 TABLE X MEAN K SCORES BY GRADE ON WORD MEANING IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST OF BOTH SEXES IN THE SUPERIOR, HIGH NORMAL, AVERAGE, LOW NORMAL AND POOR RISK CATEGORIES OF READING READINESS Readiness Mean K Scores Category Grade 3 Grade: 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 S u p e r i o r 75.04 78.28 87.44 94.02 104.52 High Normal 72.35 75.50 81.30 85.99 94.77 Average 70.62 73.29 78.31 83.04 90.25 Low Normal 70.29 73.29 76.52 80.53 86.69 Poor Risk 69.18 72.42 76.67 79.39 86.15 TABLE XI COMPARISON OF MEANS BETWEEN READINESS CATEGORIES BY GRADE OF BOTH SEXES Grade Readiness C a t e g o r i e s Compared Paragraph t Value Meaning t Prob. Word Meaning - t Value t Prob. S u p e r i o r , High Normal 7.269 .000 5.919 .000 S u p e r i o r , Average 10.389 .000 9.138 .000 S u p e r i o r , Low Normal 12.580 .000 10.690 .000 S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk 11.707 .000 13.082 .000 High Normal, Average 3.042 .003 4.008 .000 High Normal, Low Normal 5.192 .000 5.324 .000 High Normal, Poor Risk 44.820 .000 8.095 .000 Average, Low Normal 2.183 .028 0.792 .435* Average, Poor Risk 2.146 .031 3.383 .001 Low Normal, Poor Risk 0.369 .712* 2.902 .004 Su p e r i o r , High Normal 5.592 .000 4.706 .000 S u p e r i o r , Average 8.157 .000 8.856 .000 S u p e r i o r , Low Normal 11.193 .000 8.905 .000 S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk 11.721 .000 9.994 .000 High Normal, Average 2.651 .008 4.329 .000 High Normal, Low Normal 5.202 .000 4.363 .000 High Normal, Poor Risk 5.820 .000 5.751 .0.00 Average, Low Normal 2.205 .027 0.011 .939* Average, Poor Risk 2.862 .005 1.724 .082* Low Normal, Poor Risk 0.821 .418* 11.724 .082* U l TABLE XI (continued) Grade- Readiness Categories Compared. Paragraph Meaning t Value t Prob. Word Meaning t Value t Prob. Super ior , High Normal 6.030 .000 5.970 .000 Super ior , Average 9.110 .000 10.002 .000 Super ior , Low Normal 13.091 .000 12.220 .000 Super ior , Poor Risk 11.337 .000 11.602 .000 High Normal, Average 3.064 .003 3.891 .000 High Normal, Low Normal 6.584 .000 6.404 .000 High Normal, Poor Risk 5.358 .000 5.892 .000 Average, Low Normal 3.244 .002 3.122 .002 Average, Poor Risk 2.343 .019 2.632 .009 Low Normal, Poor Risk -0.588 .565* -0.247 .792* Super ior , High Normal 6.489 .000 6.384 .000 Super ior , Average 10.467 .000 9.173 .000 Super ior , Low Normal 12.789 .000 12.115 .000 Super ior , Poor Risk 12.840 .000 13.292 .000 High Normal, Average 3.567 .001 2.759 .006 High Normal, Low Normal 5.544 .000 5.599 .000 High Normal, Poor Risk 6 .189 .000 6.872 .000 Average, Low Normal 1.951 .049 2.803 .006 Average, Poor Risk 2.969 .003 4.151 .000 Low Normal, Poor Risk 1.302 .191* 1.498 .131* (Tl TABLE XI (continued) Readiness C a t e g o r i e s Paragraph Meaning Word Meaning Compared t Value - t Prob. t value t Prob S u p e r i o r , High Normal 5.633 .000 6.707 .000 S u p e r i o r , Average 9.092 .000 11.072 .000 S u p e r i o r , Low Normal 11.052 .000 13.711 .000 S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk 12.372 .000 14.124 .000 High Normal, Average 3.283 .001 3.514 . .001 High Normal, Low Normal 5.003 .000 6.228 .000 High Normal, Poor Risk 6.461 .000 6.642 .000 Average, Low Normal 1.641 .098* 3.214 .002 Average, Poor Risk 3.232 .002 3.698 .000 Low Normal, Poor Risk 1.712 - .084* 0.479 .638* * not s i g n i f i c a n t 58 readiness ca tegor ies . The comparisons- that d id not reach the .05 l e v e l were those on Paragraph Meaning between the low normal and poor r i s k groups i n grades three through seven and between the average and low normal groups i n grade seven only and on Word Meaning between the low normal and poor . r isk groups i n grades four through s i x , between the average and low normal groups in grades three and four , and between the average and poor r i s k groups i n grade four . It can be seen i n Table XII that there were s i g n i f i - cant d i f fe rences at bet ter than the .01 l e v e l between the slopes of the growth curves of the d i f f e r e n t reading r e a d i - ness ca tegor ies . Only the comparisons between the average and the low normal groups on Paragraph.Meaning and the low normal and poor j r i s k groups on Word Meaning f e l l short of the .05 l e v e l . I t i s probable that because of the large sample most of the d i f fe rences became s i g n i f i c a n t although not obviously important. Moreover, when slopes were com- pared leas t squares s t ra igh t l i n e s were f i t t e d to the data. Although " l inear regression equations may serve qui te wel l to describe s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t ions that are roughly l i k e l i n e a r functions""'" the tests of d i f fe rence between the Wil l iam L. Hays, S t a t i s t i c s for Psychologists (New York: Ho l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1960), p. 539. 59 TABLE XII COMPARISON OF SLOPES BETWEEN READING READINESS CATEGORIES OF BOTH SEXES Paragraph Word Readiness C a t e g o r i e s Meaning Meaning Compared . df t Value t Prob... t Value t Prob. S u p e r i o r , High Normal 118 3 .425 .000 16 .030 .000 S u p e r i o r , Average 118 6 . 803 .000 20 .588 .000 S u p e r i o r , Low Normal 118 7 .832 .000 25 .000 .000 S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk 118 10 .417 .000 27 .692 .000 High Normal, Average 118 3 .546 .000 4 .964 .000 High Normal, Low Normal 118 4 .667 .000 11 .189 .000 High Normal, Poor Risk 118 7 .180 .000 13 .115 .000 Average, Low Normal 118 0 .714 .455* 7 .246 .000 Average, Poor Risk 118 3 .333 .000 8 .571 .000 Low Normal, Poor Risk 118 2 .817 .007 0 .915 .355* * not s i g n i f i c a n t s l o p e s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample should be t r e a t e d with con- s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n . Table XV on page 6 8 shows t h a t the mean gains from grade to grade were not r e l a t i v e l y c onstant. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the " t r i a l " means were l a r g e i n grades f o u r to f i v e . They became very s m a l l i n grades f i v e t o s i x but i n c r e a s e d again i n grades s i x to seven. F i g u r e s 1 and 2 on pages 60 and 61 show g r a p h i c a l l y the t r e n d of the means of the t o t a l group f o r each category of. r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s i n Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f i g u r e s r e v e a l t h a t the p l o t s are cwfc.vilinear, hence f i t t i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e s t o them i s apt to g i v e only a crude p i c t u r e of t h e i r t r e n d . 70 6 5 5 Grade L e v e l F i g u r e 1 . Trend of means on Paragraph Meaning of both sexes i n f i v e l e v e l s of reading r e a d i n e s s . 61 S u p e r i o r High Normal Average _____ Low Normal ...... Poor Risk 3 4 5 6 7 Grade L e v e l F i g u r e 2. Trend of means on Word Meaning of both sexes i n f i v e l e v e l s of read i n g r e a d i n e s s . 62 On Paragraph Meaning, the greatest difference be- tween the superior group and the high normal group was i n grade s i x . The difference was greatest i n grade f i v e be- tween the high normal and average groups and between the average and low normal groups. The low normal and poor r i s k .sgroups appeared to be most d i f f e r e n t i n grade seven. The difference, however, was s l i g h t and was not s i g n i f i c a n t . On Word Meaning, the greatest difference was i n grade seven for the three highest categories of reading readiness. The biggest difference between the low normal and the poor r i s k groups was i n grade s i x . The growth curves reveal that pupils who started superior i n reading readiness, on the average, remained superior through grade seven. They even tended to progress more rapidly than those children i n other categories of reading readiness with a faster growth rate on Word Meaning than on Paragraph Meaning. The.high normal and the average groups exhibited patterns of growth on Paragraph Meaning that appears simi- l a r to the superior group" except" for the general l e v e l s . However, the semi-plateau i n grades f i v e to six i s more marked i n the high normal and average groups than i n the superior. On Word Meaning, the rate of growth of the high normal group slowed down from grade four through grade s i x . 63 The pupi ls i n the three higher categories maintained the i r s u p e r i o r i t y over those i n the two lower groups from grade three through grade seven. Tests of d i f fe rence between the means of the low normal and the poor r i s k groups showed that the i r growth patterns d id not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . However, while the pup i ls i n the low normal category had a slow but continuous growth from the t h i r d grade through the seventh grade, the rate of growth of those i n the poor r i s k category f l u c t u - ated from grade to grade. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the increase i n growth i n reading achievement was more marked i n grade seven than i n any other grade. This may be explained by the fac t that s ince "achievement i n school . . . tends to be an expression 2 of t o t a l growth" the spurts i n reading achievement growth most l i k e l y accompany spurts i n sex maturing, general p h y s i c a l growth, and i n t e l l e c t u a l development during pre - adolescent years . I t i s a lso poss ib le that, many of the ch i ld ren would already have mastered the s k i l l s i n reading by the time they were i n grade seven and thus got higher scores on the reading subtests of the Stanford Achievement Tes t . ^William C. Olson and Byron 0. Hughes, "Concept of Growth - Their S ign i f i cance to Teachers," Childhood Educat ion, 21:53-63, October, 1944. 6 4 Based on the evidence presented, the hypothesis that there i s no d i f fe rence among the patterns of group means i n reading achievement was re jected for the super io r , high norm- a l , and average categories but was accepted for the low normal and poor r i s k categories of reading readiness. II I . HYPOTHESIS 2 There i s a plateau i n grade four i n the reading growth curve for each category of reading readiness. To f i n d out i f such plateaus e x i s t i n the reading growth curve for each of the super io r , high normal, average, low normal, and poor r i s k ca tegor ies , a t tes t of s i g n i f i - cance was made on the d i f fe rence of the means of the scores on the Stanford Achievement Test between each pa i r of con- secut ive grades. Table XIII on page 65 shows the comparison of means between grades by readiness category on Paragraph Meaning and Table XIV on page 66 presents the comparison on Word Meaning. The computed t values for the comparisons made between grade three and grade four for .each category of reading readiness were a l l found to be s i g n i f i c a n t ' a t better than the .01 l e v e l . Contrary to the f indings of previous research , these r e s u l t s ind icated that no plateau existed from the month of May i n grade three to the month of May i n grade four i n the reading growth curve for each category of 65 TABLE XIII COMPARISON OF MEANS BETWEEN GRADES BY READINESS CATEGORY ON PARAGRAPH MEANING OF THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST Readiness Category Grades Compared t Value df t Prob. S u p e r i o r Gr.4, Gr .3 4.878 59 0.000 Gr.5, Gr. 4 6.332 59 0.000 Gr .6, Gr.5 3.458 59 0.001 Gr.7, Gr.6 8.367 59 0.000 High Normal Gr.4, Gr.3 5.229 59 0.000 Gr.5, Gr.4 6.184 59 0.000 Gr .6, Gr.5 3.403 59 0.001 Gr.7, Gr.6 8.851 59 0.000 Average Gr.4, Gr. 3 4;773 59 0.000 Gr.5, Gr.4 7.432 59 0.000 Gr.6, Gr.5 3.807 59 0.000 Gr.7, Gr.6 7.581 59 0.000 Low Normal Gr. 4, Gr.3 5.076 59 0.000 -Gr.5., Gr.4 6.661 59 0.000 Gr .6, Gr.5 6.402 59 0 .000 Gr.7, Gr.6 8.368 59 0.000 Poor Risk Gr.4, Gr.3 5.451 59 0.000 Gr.5, Gr.4 7.262 59 0.000 Gr.6, Gr.5 3.054 59 0.003 Gr.7, Gr.6 7.139 59 0.000 66 TABLE XIV COMPARISON OF MEANS BETWEEN GRADES BY READINESS CATEGORY ON WORD MEANING OF THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST Readiness Category Grades Compared t Value df t Prob. S u p e r i o r Gr.4, Gr.3 4.370 59 0.000 Gr.5, Gr.4 10.146 59 0.000 Gr.6, .Gr.5 6.009 59 0.000 Gr.7, Gr.6. 9.795 59 0.000 High Normal Gr.4, Gr.3 5.697 59 0.000 Gr.5, Gr.4 7.776 59 0 .000 Gr.6, Gr.5 5.204 59 0.000 Gr.7, Gr.6 8.776 59 0.000 Average Gr.4, Gr.3 5.165 59 0.000 Gr.5, Gr.4 8.361 59 0.000 Gr.6, Gr.5 5.784 59 0.000 Gr.7, Gr.6 7.728 59 0.000 Low Normal Gr.4, Gr. 3 6.394 59 0.000 Gr.5, Gr.4 7.258 59 0.000 Gr .6 , Gr.5 8.757 59 0.000 Gr.7, Gr.6 6.760 59 0.000 Poor Risk Gr.4, Gr. 3 9.748 59 0.000 Gr.5, Gr.4 8.354 59 0.000 Gr.6, Gr.5 5.475 59 0.000 Gr.7, Gr.6 9.578 59 0.000 67 reading readiness . Perhaps the grade four reading program i n the school d i s t r i c t where th is study was conducted has been c a r e f u l l y evaluated and prov is ions have been made to meet the needs of the pup i ls during t h i s t r a n s i t i o n per iod from primary to intermediate grades. The comparisons made between a l l other grades were a lso found to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure 1 prev iously shown on page 60, however, reveals semi-plateaus i n grades f i v e to six. on Paragraph Meaning for a l l categories of reading readiness except the low normal. There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that the growth rate in reading began to slow down because a t tent ion given to reading has decreased during th is p e r i o d . It i s a lso poss ib le that teachers were s t i l l developing l i t e r a l comprehension and g iv ing less emphasis on the hand- l i n g of ideas i n the i r teaching of reading. The hypothesis that there i s a plateau i n grade four i n the reading growth curve of each of the category of reading readiness was re jec ted . IV. HYPOTHESIS 3 There are s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ferences i n the mean gains from grade three through grade seven among the groups i n f i v e categories of reading readiness. The increments of the means of both sexes by r e a d i - ness category on Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning are 68 g i v e n i n Table XV. These data r e v e a l t h a t there were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amount of gains from grade three through grade seven among a l l c a t e g o r i e s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . G e n e r a l l y , . the h i g h e s t category y i e l d e d the g r e a t e s t g a i n on both Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning. The poor r i s k group, the lowest category, produced the s m a l l e s t - g a i n on Paragraph Meaning but on Word Meaning, the poor r i s k group y i e l d e d a s l i g h t l y more but i n s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n than the low normal group. TABLE XV MEAN GAINS (K SCORES)IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST OF BOTH SEXES Readiness Grades Grades Grades Grades Grades Category 3-4 . 4-5 . 5-6 ,. 6-7 3-7 . (Paragraph Meaning) S u p e r i o r 4.34 6.08 2.99 7.17 20.58 High Normal 4.01 5.18 2.83 6.93 18.95 Average 3.31 4.65 2.57 6.43 16.96 Low Normal 2.58 3.81 3.57 6.23 16.19 Poor Risk 2.23 4.72 2.19 5.57 14.71 (Word Meaning) S u p e r i o r 3.24 9.16 6.58 10.50 29.48 High Normal 3.15 5.80 4.69 8.78 22.42 Average 2.67 5.02 4.73 7.21 19.63 Low Normal 3.00 3.23 4.01 6.16 16.40 Poor Risk 3.24 4.25 2.72 6.76 16.97 69 The t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e made on the t o t a l mean gains from grade three through grade seven f o r the t o t a l group of s u b j e c t s gave the data found i n Table XVI. The d i f f e r e n c e s between mean ga i n s of almost a l l p a i r s of r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s c a t e g o r i e s compared were s i g n i f i c a n t be- yond the .05 l e v e l . . Only the comparison between the low normal and poor r i s k groups on both Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning f a i l e d to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 l e v e l . TABLE XVI COMPARISON OF MEAN GAINS FROM GRADE 3 TO GRADE 7 BETWEEN READING READINESS CATEGORIES OF BOTH SEXES Paragraph Word Meaning Meaning Reading Readiness t t t t C a t e g o r i e s Compared df Value Prob. . Value Prob. S u p e r i o r , High Normal 118 5 .471 .000 5 .330 .000 S u p e r i o r , Average 118 8 .332 .000 8 .822 .000 S u p e r i o r , Low Normal 118 10 .985 .000 10 .600 .000 S u p e r i o r , Poor Risk 118 10 .627 .000. 10 .935 .000 High Normal, Average 118 2 .729 .007 3 .112 .002 High Normal,Low Normal 118 4 .876 .000 4 .953 .000 High Normal,Poor Risk 118 5 .030 .000 5 .501 .000 Average, Low Normal 118 1 .940 .052 2 .116 .034 Average, Poor Risk 118 2 .373 .018 2 .862 .005 Low Normal, Poor Risk 118 -0 .709 .486* -0 .871 .389* * not s i g n i f i c a n t 70 Figure 3 and Figure 4 on page 71 give a clearer p i c - ture of the increments. The curves of the mean gains of the f i v e categories of reading readiness d i f f e r somewhat i n d e t a i l but the general trend i s s i m i l a r , with the exception of the curve for the low normal group. The curves for the superior, high normal, average, and poor r i s k categories, show a rhythmical trend. I t i s a rhythm of an increase i n ineremeints.i; from grade four to grade f i v e followed by a decline from grade f i v e to grade s i x , and a rapid increase from grade six to grade seven. The curve of the increments for the low normal group shows a gradual increase from grade three through grade seven on Word Meaning. However, on Paragraph Meaning, there i s a s l i g h t decrease from grade f i v e to grade six followed by a rapid increase i n grade seven. The children's rapidly expanding curriculum and interests have possibly contributed to the decrease i n the mean gain i n Paragraph Meaning from grade f i v e to grade s i x . Many unfamiliar words they have met i n such subjects as science and s o c i a l studies might have caused d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehension at t h i s . l e v e l , because they probably have not yet developed independent reading habits and s k i l l s . There should be provisions i n the reading program for a continu- ous development of s k i l l s appropriate to the kind of read- ing tasks the children are expected to perform at each rung of the educational ladder. 10 0- S u p e r i o r High Normal Average LOw Normal Poor Risk 3 - 4 4 - 5 Grade ' 5 - 6 L e v e l 6 - 7 F i g u r e 3 . Mean Gains (K-Scores) on Paragraph Meaning. S u p e r i o r High Normal F i g u r e 4 . Mean Gains (K-Scores) on Word Meaning. 72 I t i s a lso poss ib le that many of the teachers who had ins t ruc ted the ch i ld ren i n th is study had l imi ted t r a i n - i n g , i n developmental reading and made few attempts to diagnose the reading d i f f i c u l t i e s of these grade f i ve and s ix p u p i l s . An unbalanced reading program with more em- phasis on teaching reading as a mechanical process rather than as a t o o l for bet ter understanding and in te rpre ta t ion i n content areas a lso might have been responsible for the p u p i l s ' f a i l u r e to maintain rap id growth i n reading compre- hension . By the time the pupi ls were i n grade seven many would have mastered the mechanics of reading f a i l y w e l l , which would have enabled them to read more e f f e c t i v e l y during th is per iod of rap id growth i n comprehension, speed and reading i n t e r e s t . Except for the comparison between the low normal and poor r i s k groups, i t may be stated with reasonable con- f idence , that i n genera l , there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ferences i n the mean gains from grade three through grade seven- for the group i n each of the categories of reading readiness. V. HYPOTHESIS 4 There are s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f fe rences i n the reading growth pattern of the f i v e categories of reading readiness. 73 From Table VII and Table V I I I p r e v i o u s l y g i v e n on pages 51 and 52, i t was shown t h a t there were s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s a t the .05 l e v e l . A comparison of the means i n Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning s e p a r a t e l y by r e a d i n e s s category between the boys and the g i r l s would show more c l e a r l y where the d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t and the extent of such d i f f e r e n c e s . The mean K scores of the boys and the g i r l s i n the s u p e r i o r , h i g h normal, average, low normal, and poor r i s k groups are g i v e n i n Table XVII and Table XVIII. A comparison TABLE XVII MEAN K SCORES BY GRADE ON PARAGRAPH MEANING IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN THE SUPERIOR, HIGH NORMAL, AVERAGE, LOW NORMAL, AND POOR RISK CATEGORIES OF READING READINESS Readiness Mean K Scores Category Grade 3 Grade. 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade. 7 a. Boys S u p e r i o r 82.29 88.01 94.71 96. 19 103.56 High Normal 78.46 83.81 89.18 91. 66 99.82 Average 75.66 78.55 83.38 86. 42 92.88 Low Normal 75.34 78.03 82.55 86. 45 93.23 Poor Risk 75.11 76.53 82.41 84. 38 90.62 b. G i r l s S u p e r i o r 82.19 85.15 90.62 95. 11 102.0 8 High Normal 76.84 79.50 84.51 87. 69 93.39 Average 76.68 80.41 84.89 86 . 97 93.39 Low Normal 75.36 77.83 80.92 84. 18 89.86 Poor Risk 75.31 78.36 81.92 . 84. 32 89.23 74 TABLE XVIII MEAN K SCORES BY GRADE ON PARAGRAPH MEANING IN THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN THE SUPERIOR, HIGH NORMAL, AVERAGE, LOW NORMAL, AND POOR RISK CATEGORIES OF READING READINESS Readiness Mean K Scores Category Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 a. Boys S u p e r i o r 75 .57 78. 40 89.06 96 .98 105. 90 High Normal 73 .19 76. 13 83.53 89 .55 98. 95 Average 69 .62 72. 42 78.08 82 .46 90. 46 Low Normal 71 .00 73. 65 77.70 82 .07 89. 32 Poor Risk 69 .37 72. 00 77.22 80 .08 88. 00 b. G i r l s S u p e r i o r 74 .51 78. 15 85.82 91 .07 103. 15 High Normal 71 .52 74. 86 79.06 82 .42 90. 58 Average 71 .62 74. 17 78.54 83 .62 90. 05 Low Normal 69 .58 72. 93 75.34 78 .98 84. 06 Poor Risk 68 .99 72. 85 76.12 78 .70 84. 32 of these means i s shown i n Table XIX on page 75. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n rea d i n g achievement growth are bes t d e p i c t e d by comparing the growth curves of boys and g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y by rea d i n g r e a d i n e s s category. F i g u r e s 5 to 9 show these comparisons on Paragraph Meaning. In the s u p e r i o r , h i g h normal, and low normal groups, the boys sur- passed the g i r l s at a l l grade l e v e l s . The d i f f e r e n c e be- tween the boys and the g i r l s i n the s u p e r i o r group was g r e a t e s t i n grade f i v e which was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .04 l e v e l . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by a d e c r e a s i n g r a t e of growth TABLE X I X COMPARISON OF MEANS BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS BY READINESS CATEGORY AND BY GRADE ON PARAGRAPH MEANING AND WORD MEANING OF THE STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST R e a d i n e s s C a t e g o r y . G r a d e s P a r a g r a p h Compared d f . t - v a l u e . M e a n i n g t - p r o b a b i l i t y . , . . d f Word M e a n i n g t - v a l u e t - p r b b ' a b i l : S u p e r i o r 3 54 -0. .065 0 .905 54 - 1 . .051 0. .298 4 56 - 1 . .555 0 .122 56 -0. .191 0. .828 5 56 -2. .060 0 .042* 51 - 1 , .425 0. .156 6 55 -0, .571 0 .577 56 -2. .218 0. .029* 7 52 -0, .661 0 .519 55 -0. .938 0. .355 H i g h N o r m a l 3 49 - 1 . .505 0 .135 52 -2. .157 00. .034* 4 .48 -2. .719 0 .009* 54 - 1 . .182 0. .241 5 53 -2. ,674 0 .010* 39 -2. .580 0. .013* 6 56 -2. .271 0 .026* 41 -3 . .386 0, .002* 7 54 -3, .131 0 .003* 50 -3, .069 0. .004* A v e r a g e 3 56 1. .195 0 .235 52 2. .222 0. .029* 4 55 1. .150 0 .254 56 1. .861 0, .065 5 54 0, .885 0 .384 51 0, .378 0. .707 6 56 0, .359 0 .720 54 0. .576 0, .574 7 56 0, .249 0 .792 49 -0. .185 0, .832 Low N o r m a l 3 56 0, .026 0 .928 45 - 1 , .912 0. .059 4 56 -0, .170 0 .841 56 -0, .762 0. .455 5 54 - 1 . .351 0 .179 41 -2, .221 0. .030* 6 56 - 1 , .768 0 .079 44 -2, .025 0. .046* 7 56 - 1 , .861 0 .065 46 -2, .429 0. .018* P o o r R i s k 3 54 0, .214 0 .814 49 -0. .491 0, .631 4 52 1, .541 0 .125 56 0, .804 0, .430 5 56 -0, .292 0 .764 56 -0, .840 0, .409 6 54 -0. .038 0 .921 55 -0, .927 0. .361 7 55 -0, .716 0 .484 56 - 1 . .654 0, .100 * s i g n i f i c a n t 70 I 5 Grade L e v e l F i g u r e 5. Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the s u p e r i o r group on Paragraph Meaning. Figure 6 . Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the high normal group on Paragraph Meaning. 70 I i » 1— • 3 4 5 6 7 Grade Level Figure 7. Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the average group on Paragraph Meaning. 70 -— 1 1 i i_ 3 4 5 6 7 Grade Level Figure 8 , Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the low normal group on Paragraph Meaning. Boys G i r l s 8 0 3 4 5 6 7 Grade Level Figure 9. Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the poor r i s k group on Paragraph Meaning. 81 for the boys, thus bringing the two sexes closer together i n grade six and grade seven. There was a marked sex difference i n the high normal group. The boys exhibited a more rapid rate of growth than the g i r l s . The differences i n grades four through seven were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at better than the .05 l e v e l . The growth patterns for the two average groups are so s i m i l a r that sex differences can be disregarded. Here the boys f e l l below the g i r l s . There was a slackening of growth from grade f i v e through grade s i x . No s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the sexes were found i n the low normal group. The g i r l s i n the poor r i s k group showed a constant rate of development, the curve approximating a straight l i n e . The curve for the boys i n th i s group i s somewhat i r r e g u l a r f a l l i n g below the g i r l s i n grade three and grade four, ex- ceeding the g i r l s i n grade f i v e , f a l l i n g below again i n grade six and going up again i n grade seven. No s i g n i f i c a n t differences, however, were found between the boys and the g i r l s i n the poor r i s k group. The comparisons between the boys and g i r l s on Word<v Meaning are shown i n Figures 10 to 14. The means of the boys were consistently higher than the means of the g i r l s from grade three through grade seven i n the superior, high normal, and low normal categories. The differences were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at better than the .05 l e v e l only 70 L i i 1 1 1 1 3 4 5 6 7 Grade Level Figure 10. Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the superior group on Word Meaning. Figure 1 1 . Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the high normal group on Word Meaning. 105 Boys G i r l s 84 100 105I- 8 5 . Boys G i r l s l O O h 95 L 65 5 Grade L e v e l F i g u r e 13. Comparison of boys and g i r l s i n the low normal group on Word Meaning. 105 8 Figure 14. Comparison of boys and g i r l s -in the poor r i s k group on Word Meaning. 87 i n grade six i n the superior group, i n grade three i n the average group, and i n grades f i v e , six and seven i n the low normal group. The differences were s i g n i f i c a n t at a l l grades except grade four i n the high normal group. In the poor r i s k group, the boys' means were also higher than the g i r l s ' means for a l l grades except i n grade four. However, i n the average group, the boys f e l l below the g i r l s from grade three to grade six and went s l i g h t l y higher than the g i r l s i n grade seven. The extent of the difference between the two sexes appeared to become bigger from grade f i v e to grade seven for a l l categories of reading readiness with the exception of the average group. The degree of significance of the differences be- between the slopes of the curves of the boys and the g i r l s has been determined s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The results of these comparisons are shown i n Table XX. TABLE XX COMPARISON OF SLOPES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS BY READINESS CATEGORY Readiness Category Paragraph t-Value Meaning t-Prob. Word Meaning t-Value t-Prob. df Superior 0.162 .875* 5.562 .000 58 High Normal 2.324 .023 10.363 .000 58 Average 1.218 .228* 3.134 .006 58 Low Normal 0.698 .510* 5.329 .000 58 Poor Risk 2.609 .018 4.788 .000 58 *not s i g n i f i c a n t 88 As explained prev iously on page 58 the s i g n i f i c a n t p robab i l i t i es - might have resul ted from forc ing l i n e a r i t y on c u r v i l i n e a r data. Figures 15 to 18 reveal curvatures i n the trend of the means of the boys and the g i r l s for a l l cate- gor ies of reading readiness. V I . HYPOTHESIS 5 There are some outstanding ear ly chi ldhood p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l , and emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that d i s t i n g u i s h those who have become good and poor readers i n grade f i v e . Information on the ear ly childhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the subjects se lected for th is second part of the inves- t i g a t i o n was obtained by the invest iga tor from the school permanent record cards , from subtest resu l ts of the Metro- p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s , and from parent in terv iews. A l e t t e r expla in ing the purpose of the study and requesting permission to conduct the interview was sent to the parents of each c h i l d included i n the sample. The interviewees were requested to s e l e c t the time most convenient for them. Information was e l i c i t e d by the interviewer through informal conversat ion with both parents in three cases, with the See Appendix B, pp. 128-132. F i g u r e 15. Trend of means on Paragraph Meaning of boys i n the f i v e l e v e l s of reading r e a d i n e s s . Figure 16. Trend of means on Paragraph Meaning of g i r l s i n "the f i v e l e v e l s of reading readiness. 91 I 1 1 1 L 3 4 5 6 7 Grade L e v e l F i g u r e 17. Trend of means on Word Meaning of boys i n the f i v e l e v e l s of read i n g r e a d i n e s s . 5 Grade Level Figure 18. Trend of means on Word Meaning of g i r l s i n the f i v e levels of reading readiness. 93 fathers i n two cases, and with the mothers i n twenty-seven cases. The inves t iga tor wanted to include information about occupation and educat ional l e v e l of parents since these could co lor the whole set of r e p l i e s e l i c i t e d during the interv iew. Loca l School Board r e s t r i c t i o n s , however, prevented the i n c l u s i o n of questions re la ted to these data i n the interview guide. The descr ip t ion of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n preschool and ear ly school years of s ixteen good readers and s ixteen poor readers i n the f i f t h grade i s presented in the form of 4 case s t u d i e s . The information from each case study has been summarized under a number of categories for ease of ana lys is of data . Summary of the Data on the Case Studies The data from the case studies have been summarized to uncover ce r ta in t r a i t s in ear ly childhood common among good readers and a lso those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t i n g to poor readers i n the f i f t h grade. The summary fol lows c l o s e l y the presentat ion of the information by major.head- ings done i n the descr ip t ion of the case s tud ies . Since the sample s i ze was small (N = 32) and most of the tables were with a s ing le degree of freedom, the use of chi -square tests on these data was ru led out . The resu l ts See Appendix C, pp. 133-174. 94 of c h i - s q u a r e t e s t s on t a b l e s with more than one degree of freedom would a l s o have been meaningless because more than 20 per cent of the c e l l s had expected f r e q u e n c i e s of l e s s than 5. There were a l s o some c e l l s w i t h expected frequen- c i e s of l e s s than 1. The F i s h e r exact p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t was used i n de- t e r m i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p r o p o r t i o n s of good and poor readers p o s s e s s i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d . A l l the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s were dichotomized and the d o t t e d l i n e s i n the summary of the data i n d i c a t e where the d i v i s i o n was made. Those c h i l d r e n s i x years of age and over were put tog e t h e r because they are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be mature enough f o r s c h o o l work. The p u p i l s w i t h average r e a d i n e s s category were c l a s s i f i e d as l i k e l y t o succeed i n f i r s t - g r a d e work so they were grouped w i t h those i n the hi g h normal and s u p e r i o r c a t e - g o r i e s . The same d i v i s i o n was done wi t h a l l the t r a i t s taken from the s u b t e s t scores on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s . The f i r s t - b o r n s were j o i n e d with "only c h i l d r e n " because they were g e n e r a l l y t r e a t e d as "only c h i l d r e n " be- f o r e the r e s t . o f the c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y were born. The d i s p l a y of energy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was d i c h o t o - mized as i n d i c a t e d because i t was assumed t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h 95 more than average energy are physically well and could be better learners than those with just average or less energy. Good Reader Boy G i r l Total Poor Reader Boy G i r l Total Background information School entrance age Below 69 months 4 3 7 3 5 8 69-72 months 4 2 6 1 0 1 Above 72 months 0 3 3 4 3 7 Readiness category Superior 1 0 1 0 0 0 High Normal 4 3 7 0 2 2 Average 3 4 7 6 0 6 Low Normal 0 1 1 2 5 7 Poor Risk ' 0 0 0 0 1 1 Language spoken at home Monolingual 7 5 12 5 6 11 B i l i n g u a l 1 3 4 3 2 5 Number of children i n family 4 or more 3 3 6 2 3 5 1 to 3 5 5 10 6 5 11 Position i n the family Only c h i l d 0 2 2 1 0 1 F i r s t 3 2 5 1 2 3 Intermediate 2 2 4 3 3 6 Last 3 2 5 3 3 6 Good Reader Poor Reader Boy G i r l Total Boy G i r l Total Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s *Visual perception Superior 3 3 6 0 1 1 High 3 2 5 4 2 6 Average 2 1 3 0 2 2 Low 0 1 1 4 1 5 Poor 0 1 1 0 2 2 *Auditory perception Superior 3 1 4 0 1 1 High 1 5 6 3 0 3 Average 4 1 5 0 2 2 Low 0 1 1 5 3 8 Poor 0 0 0 0 2 2 *Motor control Superior 1 0 1 0 2 2 High 3 2 5 3 1 4 Average 1 0 1 1 0 1 Low 3 6 9 3 2 5 Poor 0 0 0 1 3 4 Display of energy when playing More than average 2 1 3 3 4 7 Average 4 5 9 3 4 7 Less than average 2 2 4 2 0 2 * From subtests scores on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests. 97 Good Reader Poor Reader Boy G i r l To ta l Boy G i r l To ta l I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Par t i c ipa ted i n conversat ion Yes No 8 0 3 5 11 .5 7 1 1 7 8 8 Cur ious , asked quest ions , explored new things Yes 8 4 12 0 . 1 1 No 0 4 4 8 7 15 Displayed in te res t i n reading Yes 7 8 15 0 1 1 No 1 0 1 8 7 15 *Richness of verbal concept Superior 2 1 3 1 1 2 High 6 6 12 3 1 4 Average 0 1 1 3 2 5 Low Poor *Number knowledge Superior High Average 0 0 1 3 3 0 0 2 4 1 0 0 3 7 4 1 0 0 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 2 1 3 4 Low Poor 1 0 1 0 2 0 3 1 2 2 5 3 Tes ts . From subtests scores on the Metropol i tan Readiness 98 Good Reader Poor Reader Boy G i r l To ta l Boy G i r l Tota l Vocabulary Superior High Average 6 2 0 3 4 1 9 6 1 3 0 5 2 1 0 5 1 5 Low Poor 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 3 2 S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed being with others Yes No 8 0 4 4 12 4 6 2 3 5 9 7 Liked teachers Yes No 7 1 7 1 14 2 6 2 6 2 12 4 Shared toys and games Yes No 8 0 4 4 12 4 5 3 5 3 10 6 Harmonious, not shy Yes No 8 0 3 5 11 5 7 1 4 4 11 5 Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Congenial r e l a t i o n s h i p with parents Yes No 7 1 6 2 13 3 2 6 3 5 5 11 From subtests scores on the Metropol i tan Readiness Tes ts . 99 Good Reader Poor Reader Boy G i r l Total Boy G i r l Total Congenial relationship with teacher and schoolmates Yes No 5 3 5 3 10 6 3 5 3 5 6 10 Had self-confidence Yes No 8 0 4 4 12 4 0 8 4 4 4 12 Had the a b i l i t y to concentrate Yes No 4 4 2 6 6 10 3 5 2 6 5 11 Overdependent Yes No 0 8 0 8 0 16 1 7 1 7 2 14 Expe r i e n t i a l background i i Travelled outside Province Yes No 5 3 4 4 9 7 6 2 4 4 10 6 Went on outings with family or friends 1 or more times/week Less often than once a week 3 5 4 4 4 4 8 8 Was read to 1 or more times/week Less often than once a week 3 5 7 9 1 7 1 7 2 14 100 Good Reader Poor Reader Boy G i r l Tota l Boy G i r l Tota l Was t o l d s t o r i e s to 1 or more times/week Less often than once a week Was given help i n reading Yes No Watched t e l e v i s i o n 15 or fewer hours a week More than 15 hours a week 6 2 3 5 6 2 4 4 1 7 5 3 10 6 4 12 11 5 4 4 0 8 4 4 4 4 0 8 6 2 8 8 0 16 10 6 Findings from the Case Studies The p r o b a b i l i t y fo r each t r a i t obtained by using the F isher exact p r o b a b i l i t y test was l i s t e d under the main headings. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Background information School entrance age Readiness category Language spoken at home Number of ch i ld ren i n the family P o s i t i o n i n the family P r o b a b i l i t y .260 .007* .283 .271 .161 101 Characteristics P r o b a b i l i t y Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Visual perception .049* Auditory perception .001* Motor control .277 Display of energy while playing .099 I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Participated i n conversation .162 Eager to do things by himself .000* Curious, asked questions .000* Displayed i n t e r e s t i n reading .000* Richness of verbal concept .022* Number knowledge .024* Vocabulary .022* Soci a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed being with others .161 Liked teachers .241 Shared toys and games .226 Harmonious .296 Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Congenial relationship with parents .005* Congenial rel a t i o n s h i p with teacher and schoolmates .109 102 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s P r o b a b i l i t y Had s e l f confidence .006* Had the a b i l i t y to concentrate .271 Overdependent .470 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Trave l led outside Province .26 4 Went on outings" with family or f r iends .276 Was read to .049* Was t o l d s t o r i e s to .219 Was given help i n reading .050* Watched t e l e v i s i o n .271 * s i g n i f i c a n t . . . Background informat ion. There were eight ch i ld ren in the poor readers' group and seven in the good readers 1 group who entered school below 5 years and 9 months. The number of ch i ld ren with school entrance ages above 6 years was larger among poor readers than among good readers (7 v s . 3) . This ind icates that school entrance age probably does not a f fec t success i n reading i n the intermediate grades. None of the poor .readers belonged to the superior category of readiness and there were only two poor readers with high normal i n i t i a l readiness s ta tus . Among the good 103 readers there was one i n the superior group and seven in the high normal category of readiness. Only one good reader s tar ted with a low normal readiness l e v e l while e ight poor readers were i n the lower l eve ls of readiness. The p r o b a b i l i t y ca lcu la ted on these data i s .007. This im- p l i e s that i n i t i a l reading readiness may be a factor that d is t ingu ishes good readers from poor readers at the f i f t h grade l e v e l . Since an almost equal number of good and poor readers (4 and 5, respect ive ly ) was found speaking two languages, i t can not be in fe r red i n t h i s study that b i - l ingual ism a f fec ts reading success i n the intermediate grades. The language spoken at home, the number of ch i ld ren in the family and the p o s i t i o n i n the family f e l l short of the 5 per cent l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . V i s u a l percept ion (p = .04-9) and auditory percept ion (p = .001) as determined by the i n i t i a l readiness test d is t ingu ished s i g n i f i c a n t l y the good readers from the poor readers. The exact p ro - b a b i l i t y tes t performed on motor cont ro l and d isp lay of energy while p lay ing f a i l e d to reach the 5 per cent l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The parent interview data showed marked d i f fe rences between good and poor readers i n three t r a i t s under th is heading. They were eagerness to 104 do things by h imsel f , c u r i o s i t y , and d isp lay of i n t e r e s t in reading. With p r o b a b i l i t i e s of .000 these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between good and poor readers i n the f i f t h grade. A l s o , r ichness of verbal concept (p = .022), number knowledge (p = .024), and vocabulary (p. = .022) as assessed by the Metropo11tan Readiness Tests d is t ingu ished s i g n i f i c a n t l y the good from the poor grade f i v e readers. S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The good and poor readers were found to be very s i m i l a r i n r e l a t i o n to the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s se lected for th is study. The F isher exact p r o b a b i l i t y tes t d id not reveal any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence between the frequencies obtained for the good and the poor readers 1 groups. Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Among the emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s invest igated during•the parent, interviews two showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ferences between the good and the poor readers. Good readers tend to be more congenial at home (p = .005). A p r o b a b i l i t y of .006 impl ies that se l f -conf idence in preschool and ear ly school years i s a t r a i t which d is t ingu ishes good from poor readers i n l a t e r elementary grades. Good concentrat ion a b i l i t y , a f ee l ing of secur i ty in s c h o o l , and independence developed ear ly in the formative years d id not reach the 5 per cent l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 105 E x p e r i e n t i a l background. The amount of t r a v e l and t e l e v i s i o n viewing and the number of outings with family and/or f r iends f a i l e d to show any d i s t i n c t i o n between good and poor readers. There were almost as many good readers as there were poor readers who had been t o l d s t o r i e s before they went to school and during the beginning school years . Four of the good readers and none among the poor readers were given preschool help in readincr. Exact p r o b a b i l i t y computed on these data showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f fe rence at the 5 per cent l e v e l . A l l the good readers except one were read to by t h e i r mothers or by t h e i r o lder brothers or s i s t e r s during t h e i r ear ly chi ldhood days. Six of the poor readers were never read to before they went to schoo l . Only two of the poor readers were read to once a week and e ight were read to less o f ten . The F isher exact p r o b a b i l i t y tes t on these data y ie lded a p r o b a b i l i t y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .049 l e v e l . CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s chapter has been d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s : (1) the summary of the design and pro- cedures, (2) the summary of f i n d i n g s , (3) e d u c a t i o n a l im- p l i c a t i o n s , and (4) suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . I. SUMMARY OF DESIGN AND PROCEDURES The aim of the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s study was t o i n v e s t i g a t e , i n r e t r o s p e c t , the growth p a t t e r n s i n readi n g achievement of a. group of grade seven c h i l d r e n who s t a r t e d s c h o o l i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of re a d i n g r e a d i n e s s . Growth i n r e a d i n g was d e f i n e d as the measured g a i n i n read- i n g achievement from year t o year. The procedure c o n s i s t e d i n g a t h e r i n g continuous records of the r e s u l t s on the Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning s u b t e s t s of the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t g i v e n t o the same c h i l d r e n a t y e a r l y i n t e r v a l s f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s , from grade three through grade seven. The curves of growth i n readi n g f o r each group of c h i l d r e n i n the s u p e r i o r , high normal, average, low normal, and poor r i s k c a t e g o r i e s o f re a d i n g r e a d i n e s s were based on the K-scores d e r i v e d from the p u p i l s ' a c t u a l s c o r e s . The findings/sand c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s p a r t of the study were based on s t a t i s - 107 t i c a l and graphica l comparisons of the trend of the means exhib i ted by each of the groups in the f i v e l eve ls of reading readiness. Ana lys is of variance and the t t es t of s i g n i f i c a n c e were employed i n the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of the data. The purpose of the second part of the study was to i d e n t i f y ce r ta in preschool and beginning school character - i s t i c s that d i s t i n g u i s h those who have become good and poor readers i n grade f i v e . To do t h i s , case studies were made on s ixteen good readers and s ixteen poor readers se lected from the top 27 per cent and the bottom 27 per cent of a populat ion of 315 grade f i v e pupi ls from f i v e elementary schools . The ob jec t i ve ly measured c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of good and poor readers were obtained from the r e s u l t s of the MetropoTitan Readiness Tests and other s i g n i f i c a n t data recorded i n the school permanent record cards . Other per- t inent information was obtained by means of interview with parents of each of the s ixteen good and s ixteen poor readers. S t a t i s t i c a l ana lys is of the data was done by applying the F isher exact p r o b a b i l i t y t e s t . The computed p r o b a b i l i t y showed which of the ear ly childhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s se lected i for the study s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the good readers from the poor readers i n the grade f i v e l e v e l . 108 I I . SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Growth Patterns i n Reading Achievement A thorough examination of the trend of the mean scores on the Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning subtests of the Stanford Achievement Test exhibited by groups of children i n grade seven with d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l reading readiness status has led to the following conclusions: 1. The three highest groups, the superior, high normal, and average maintained t h e i r r e l a t i v e positions throughout the entire five-year period. This trend i n d i - cated that pupils with high levels of reading readiness at the beginning of t h e i r formal reading experience continued to perform well i n reading throughout the elementary grades. 2. Those with superior i n i t i a l reading readiness status remained superior, on the average, and even tended to progress at a faster rate than the other categories of reading readiness. 3. The slopes of the curves on Paragraph Meaning of the average and the low normal groups and on Word Mean- ing of the low normal and the poor r i s k groups tended to be s i m i l a r . 4. Theretappeared to be no plateau i n grade four i n the growth curves of a l l levels of reading readiness but something l i k e a plateau was noted from grade 5 through grade 6. 109 5. There was a steep r i s e i n growth i n reading i n grade seven for a l l the f i v e categories of reading readi- ness . 6. The mean gains from grade three through grade seven were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t for a l l the reading readiness groups. The superior group yielded the greatest gain on both Paragraph Meaning and Word Meaning. The poor r i s k group had the smallest gain on Paragraph Meaning but exceeded the low normal group on Word Meaning by .57 K- score points. 7. In general, the boys surpassed the g i r l s at a l l grade l e v e l s . The differences, however, were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t i n most grades only for the high normal category on Paragraph Meaning and for the high normal and low normal categories on Word Meaning. I t i s possible that the use of more masculine-oriented materials i n the elementary grades i n the schools where the investigation was conducted might have contributed to the better performance i n reading by the boys. Characteristies of Good and Poor Readers Conclusions derived from the findings of the i n v e s t i - gation on the early childhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of good and poor readers i n grade f i v e were summarized as follows: 110 1 . Good readers i n grade f i v e generally had higher i n i t i a l reading readiness status as measured by the Metro- p o l i t a n Readiness Tests i n kindergarten. 2 . More grade f i v e good readers were eager to do things by themselves and they were more self-confident and independent during t h e i r early childhood days than were poor readers. 3 . Good readers i n grade f i v e , i n contrast to poor readers, were generally curious about t h e i r environment during t h e i r preschool and beginning school years. They usually asked a l o t of questions and demanded explanation for almost anything. 4. More good readers i n grade f i v e displayed pre- school i n t e r e s t i n reading than did the poor readers. They often requested that stories be to l d or.read to them and enjoyed picture books and magazines. 5. More good readers than poor readers i n grade f i v e were emotionally well adjusted at home during t h e i r preschool and early school years. Good readers tended to be more congenial at home during these years. 6. More good readers than poor readers i n grade f i v e were read to and given help i n reading during t h e i r early childhood days. 7. School entrance age did not d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i g - n i f i c a n t l y between good and poor readers i n grade f i v e . I l l Good readers and poor readers were found to be s i m i l a r i n r e l a t i o n to language spoken at home, number of children i n the family, and p o s i t i o n i n the family. 8 . The s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s measured by the subtests of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests that were found to be useful as predictors of reading achievement at the f i f t h grade were richness of verbal concept, auditory perception, vocabulary, v i s u a l perception, and number knowledge. Only subtest 6 , Copying, which measures motor control, f a i l e d to reach significance at the 5 per cent l e v e l . I I I . EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS This study has shown that the child's readiness for reading should be of great concern to parents, teachers, and administrators. Parents should be aware of the e f f e c t the early environment of the c h i l d has on his l a t e r reading patterns. Long before a c h i l d goes to school parents should stimulate reading readiness by providing various experiences at home. They should expand the child's pre- school experiences by supporting his c u r i o s i t y by answer- ing p a t i e n t l y and promptly his queries. They should en- courage the c h i l d to do things for himself, to explore and discover new experiences, and to solve his own problems. They should foster the chil d ' s love for reading by t e l l i n g or reading well-selected and appealing stories to him. 112 Chi ldren come to kindergarten and f i r s t grade with d i f f e r e n t reading potent ia ls and readiness for reading. The teacher should be able to observe evidences of r e a d i - ness fo r reading i n each c h i l d i n her c lass to guide her i n her teaching. Teachers should make use of the r e s u l t s of readiness t e s t s . This could be supplemented by other i n - formation obtained from parents . I t i s i d e a l to introduce a c h i l d to the reading process at the time when h is des i re to read i s strong and when he i s ready to read. But read- ing readiness i s not something to be waited f o r . I t can be developed through providing the ch i ld ren with a var ie ty of experiences such as l e t t i n g them ta lk about t h e i r personal experiences or r e t e l l s t o r i e s read or t o l d to them. Teachers can arouse i n ch i ld ren a des i re to read by making p ic ture books, story books and other reading mater ia ls ava i lab le to them. The administrator should plan an e f f e c t i v e readiness program. Harr is surmised that "an e f f e c t i v e readiness pro - gram should make use of readiness tests that can locate areas of weakness and should provide s p e c i f i c learning se - quences i n each area i n which a weakness i s found.""'' King contended that " a s t imulat ing pre-reading program, A lber t J . H a r r i s , "Key Factors i n a Successful Reading Program," Elementary E n g l i s h , 46:69. January, 1969. 113 which includes l i t e r a t u r e , language, and s p e c i f i c v i s u a l and auditory t r a i n i n g , w i l l contr ibute d i r e c t l y to learning 2 to read ." The administrator should see to i t that the reading program provides for a systematic development of the read- ing s k i l l s appropriate to the kind of reading tasks the ch i ld ren w i l l meet at each grade l e v e l from kindergarten to c o l l e g e . . Spec ia l a t tent ion should be given to the per iod when the c h i l d r e n ' s progress i n reading begins to bog down. More emphasis should be placed on in te rpre ta t ion and under- standing of what has been read rather than on mere word recogni t ion i n the preparat ion of the reading curr icu lum. A good working r e l a t i o n s h i p between adminis t ra tor , teachers and parents i s necessary i n order that they can plan together on how to help the ch i ld ren grow in to reading. There should be frequent conferences, e s p e c i a l l y with parents of p reschoo l , k indergarten, and f i r s t grade pupi ls so that they could d iscuss the ro les that each can play in lay ing a strong foundation for the c h i l d r e n ' s reading growth. IV. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH This study has brought to a focus a number of issues needing fur ther research. E the l M. K ing , "Beginning Reading: When and How," The Reading Teacher, 22:553, March, 1969. 114 The findings of t h i s study showed a consistent drop i n the rate of reading growth at the f i f t h and sixth grade levels i n a l l categories of reading readiness except the low normal group. An investigation of the factors that con- tributed to thi s drop i n rate of reading growth i s suggested. A r e p l i c a t i o n of the study on the early childhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that distinguished good from poor readers i n the higher grades should be made using sources of i n f o r - mation i n addition to parents. The data might be gathered from kindergarten and f i r s t grade teachers 1 written obser- vations and r e c o l l e c t i o n s , health records, cumulative records, and the results of readiness and other standar- dized tests administered to the children during t h e i r pre- school and early school years. Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s worth looking into are onset of language, age at which the c h i l d started to walk, education of parents, and home l i t e r a r y environment. Since i t i s generally accepted that the foundations of reading are l a i d long before a c h i l d goes to school and that the parents are the child's f i r s t teachers, how would the attendance of parents i n a parent education course be related to the child's readiness for reading and reading achievement? The answer to thi s question may ultimately lead to the need for parent education as a part of the 115 regular school program. An explorat ion in to th is p o s s i b i l i t y i s current ly re levant . Would an ear ly s t a r t i n schoo l , e s p e c i a l l y for those ch i ld ren who come from poor home environment, a f f ec t read- ing achievement i n l a t e r years? Many preschool experiences were found to contr ibute to success i n reading. Hence ear ly school ing for ch i ld ren whose parents could not provide them with favorable condit ions would be a su i tab le topic for research. Kindergarten programs have been fos te r ing s o c i a l and emotional growth. Would an emphasis on cogni t ive growth i n kindergarten r e s u l t i n bet ter reading achievement i n the elementary grades? One l i m i t a t i o n of the study on growth patterns was the fac t that i t was re t rospect ive i n nature and had to depend mostly on data ava i lab le in schools . A long i tud ina l study of i n d i v i d u a l pup i ls de l ibe ra te ly planned to be f o l - lowed up from kindergarten through grade seven using r e - l i a b l e research instruments may y i e l d more comprehensive information and may reveal more r e l i a b l e patterns of read- ing growth. B I B L I O G R A P H Y 117 A. BOOKS Bond, Guy L. and Eva Bond Wagner. Teaching the C h i l d to Read. New York:. The MacMillan Company, 1966. ~ Buros, Oskar K. (ed.). Fourth Mental Measurement Yearbook. Highland Park: The Gryphon P r e s s , 1965. . F i f t h Mental Measurement Yearbook. Highland Park: The Gryphon P r e s s , 1966. S i x t h Mental Measurement Yearbook. Highland Park: The Gryphon P r e s s , 1967. Conant, James B. L e a r n i n g to Read. New J e r s e y : E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g ; Service"! 1962 . Deputy, Erby C. P r e d i c t i n g F i r s t Grade Reading Achievement: A Study of Reading Readiness. C o n t r i b u t i o n to E d u c a t i o n No. 425. New York: Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1936. Durkin, D o l o r e s . C h i l d r e n Who Read E a r l y . New York: Teachers C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1966. 174 pp. Ferguson, George A. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n Psychology and E d u c a t i o n . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966. 446 pp. Gray, W i l l i a m S. The Teaching of Reading and W r i t i n g . London: UNESCO and Evan Bros., 1956. H a r r i s o n , L u c i l a M. Reading Readiness. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1939. 255 pp. Hess, Robert D. and Roberta Meyer Bear. E a r l y E d u c a t i o n : C u r r e n t Theory, Research, and A c t i o n Change. Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1968, 272 pp. Hunnicutt, C.W. and W i l l i a m J . Iverson (eds.). Research i n the Three R's. New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1958. I l g , Frances L. and L o u i s e Bates Ames. School Readiness: Behavior T e s t s Used a t the G e s e l l I n s t i t u t e . New York: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1965. 396 pp. 118 Johansson, B r o r A. C r i t e r i a of School Readiness. Stockholm: A l m q v i s t & W i k s e l l , 1965. 333 pp. K e r l i n g e r , Fred N. Foundations of B e h a v i o r a l Research. New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, Inc., 1967. McArdle, S i s t e r M arguerite (ed.). The Teaching of Reading i n the Elementary S c h o o l s . Washington: The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. McKim, Margaret. Guiding Growth i n Reading i n the Modern Elementary School. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1950. Myers, Jerome L. Fundamentals of Expe r intent a 1 Design. . Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1966i O s t l e , Bernard. S t a t i s t i c s . i n Research. Ames: St a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. R u s s e l l , David. C h i l d r e n Learn t o Read. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1961. 612 pp. S i e g e l , Sidney. Nonpar ante t r i e S t a t i s t i c s . New York: McGraw- H i l l Book Company Inc., 1956. B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT, LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS A n a s t a s i , Anne (ed.). T e s t i n g Problems i n P e r s p e c t i v e . Washington: American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , 1966, 671 pp. M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s , Form R, D i r e c t i o n s f o r Adminis- t e r i n g and Key f o r S c o r i n g . New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1950. Readiness f o r Reading and R e l a t e d Language A r t s , A D i g e s t of C u r r ent Research. Champaign: N a t i o n a l Conference on Research i n E n g l i s h , 1950. C. PERIODICALS Bagford, Jack. "Reading Readiness Scores and Success i n Reading," The Reading Teacher, 21:324-28, January, 1968. 119 Baker, Emily V. "Reading Readiness i s S t i l l Important," Elementary E n g l i s h , 32:17-23, January, 1955. Balow, I r v i n g M. "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n F i r s t Grade Reading," Elementary E n g l i s h , 40:303-06, 320, March, 1963. B a r r e t t , Thomas C. " V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Tasks as P r e d i c - t o r s of F i r s t Grade Reading Achievement," The Reading Teacher, 18:257-61, January, 1965. Bond, Guy L. and Robert D y k s t r a . "The Cooperative Research Program i n F i r s t Grade Reading I n s t r u c t i o n , " Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 2:116-17, Summer, 1967. Bra d l e y , B e a t r i c e E. "An Experimental Study of the Readiness Approach to Reading," Elementary School J o u r n a l , 56:262-67, February, 1956. C a r r o l l , M a r j o r i e Wight. "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Readiness a t the F i r s t Grade L e v e l , " Elementary E n g l i s h , 25:370-75, October, 1948. Davidson, Helen P. "An Experimental Study of B r i g h t , Average, and D u l l C h i l d r e n a t the Four-Year Mental L e v e l , " G e n e t i c Psychology. Monographs, 9:119-287, March, 1931. Dean, C h a r l e s . " P r e d i c t i n g F i r s t Grade Reading Achievement," The Elementary School J o u r n a l , 39:609-16, A p r i l , 1939. Dobson, James C. and Kenneth D. Hopkins. "The R e l i a b i l i t y and P r e d i c t i v e V a l i d i t y o f the Lee C l a r k Readiness T e s t , " J o u r n a l of Developmental Reading,. 278-281. Gardner, E.F. "Comments on S e l e c t e d S c a l i n g Techniques with a D e s c r i p t i o n of a New Type of S c a l e , " J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l Psychology, 6:38-43, 1950. Gates, A r t h u r I . "Basal P r i n c i p l e s i n Reading Readiness T e s t i n g , " Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 40:495-506, March, 1939. , and Guy L. Bond. "Reading Readiness, A Study of F a c t o r s Determining Success and F a i l u r e i n Beginning Reading," Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 37:679-85, May, 1936. Grant, A l b e r t . "The Comparative V a l i d i t y of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s and the Pintner-Cunningham Primary Mental T e s t s , " The Elementary School J o u r n a l , 38:599-605, A p r i l , 1938. 120 . "A Comparison of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests and the Pintner-Cunningham Primary Mental T e s t , " The Elementary School J o u r n a l , 38:118-26, October, 1937. Hanson, Harlan S. "The Impact of the Home L i t e r a r y E n v i r o n - ment on Reading A t t i t u d e , " Elementary E n g l i s h , 46:17-23, January, 1969. Hanson, E a r l and H. A l a n Robinson. "Reading Readiness and Achievement i n Primary Grade C h i l d r e n o f D i f f e r e n t Socio-Economic S t r a t a , " The Reading Teacher, 21:52-56, 70, October, 1957. H a r r i s , A l b e r t J . "Key F a c t o r s i n a S u c c e s s f u l Reading Program," Elementary E n g l i s h , 46:69-76, January, 1969. Henig, Max S. " P r e d i c t i v e Value of a Reading Readiness T e s t and of Te a c h e r s 1 F o r e c a s t s , " The Elementary School J o u r n a l , 49:41-46, September, 1949. H i l l i a r d , George H. and El e a n o r T r e x e l l . "Information Background as a F a c t o r i n Reading Readiness and Reading P r o g r e s s , " The Elementary S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 38:255-63, 1938. K e l l e y , Truman L. "The S e l e c t i o n of Upper and Lower Groups f o r the V a l i d a t i o n of T e s t Items," The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 30:17-24., January, 1939. Ketcham, Warren A. and Rondeau G. L a f f i t t e , J r . "How Wel l are They L e a r n i n g ? " E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p , 16:37-41, 350, March, 1959. King, E t h e l M. "Beginning Reading: When and How," The Reading Teacher, 22:550-53, 581, March, 1969. K i n g s t o n , A l b e r t J . J r . "The R e l a t i o n s h i p of F i r s t Grade Readiness t o T h i r d and Fourth Grade Achievement," The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 56:61-67, October, 1962. M a t t i c k , W i l l i a m E. " P r e d i c t i n g Success i n the F i r s t Grade," The Elementary School J o u r n a l , 42:273-75, February, 1963. McElroy, Kathryn Mohn. "A Comparative Study of Reading Growth from Grades Two to Seven," The Reading Teacher, 25:98-101, September, 1961. 121 M i t c h e l l , B l y t h e . "The M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t s as P r e d i c t o r s of F i r s t Grade Achievement," E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 22:765-72, Winter, 1962. Morphett, M.V. and C. Washburne. "When Should C h i l d r e n Learn t o Read?" The Elementary School J o u r n a l , 31:496- 503, March, 1931. Olson, W i l l i a m C. and Byron 0. Hughes. "Concepts of Growth- T h e i r S i g n i f i c a n c e to Teachers," Childhood E d u c a t i o n , 21:53-63, October, 1944. Powell, Marvin and Kenneth M. P a r s l e y , J r . "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between F i r s t Grade Reading Readiness and Second Grade Reading Achievement," The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 54:229-33, February, 1961. P r e s c o t t , George A. "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Tests R e s u l t s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , 48, A p r i l , 1955. Roslow, Sydney. "Reading Readiness and Reading Achievement i n F i r s t Grade," J o u r n a l of Experimental E d u c a t i o n , 9:15 4-159, December, 19 40. Sanderson, A.E. "The Idea of Reading Readiness: A Re- examination," E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 6:3-8, November, 1963. Sutton, Rachel S. " V a r i a t i o n s i n Reading Achievement of S e l e c t e d C h i l d r e n , " Elementary E n g l i s h , 37:97-100, February, 1960. Thackray, D.V. "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Reading Readiness and Reading P r o g r e s s , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology,.35:252-54, June, 1965. Wilson, Frank T. "Reading Progress i n K i n d e r g a r t e n and Primary Grades," The Elementary School J o u r n a l , 38:442-49, February, 193 8. D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS C o v e l l , H arold M. "A Study of the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Good and Poor Readers of S o c i a l S t u d i e s M a t e r i a l s at the El e v e n t h Grade L e v e l . " Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r - t a t i o n , T a l l a h a s s e , F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1955. 122 Dugger, J e r o l d O r v i l l e . "A Study of Reading Growth of Intermediate Grade P u p i l s i n the P u b l i c Schools of Maob, Utah." Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Boulder, Colorado S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1960. Dykstra, Robert. "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between S e l e c t e d Measures of A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and Reading Achievement a t the End of F i r s t Grade." Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , M i n n e a p o l i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 1962. Eddings, Inez C l a r k . "Patterns of Reading Growth: A L o n g i t u d i n a l Study of P a t t e r n s of Reading Growth Throughout the S i x Grades i n Two Elementary Schools." Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia, U n i - v e r s i t y of South C a r o l i n a , 1950. Konski, V i r g i n i a J', "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o D i f f e r e n c e s Between Boys and G i r l s i n S e l e c t e d Reading Readiness -Areas- and i n Reading Achievement." Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia, U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i , 1951. Namkin, Sidney. "The S t a b i l i t y of Achievement T e s t Scores, A L o n g i t u d i n a l Study of Reading and A r i t h m e t i c Sub- t e s t s o f the S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t . " Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y , New Brunswick, 1966. . ' " ' \ . . ̂  " Shankman, F l o r e n c e V o g e l . "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Develop- ment of Reading Achievement Growth from Grades Four t o Nine." Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1959. Summers, Edward George. "An E v a l u a t i o n of Reading Growth and R e t e n t i o n Under Two Plans of O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Seventh Grade Developmental Reading." Unpublished D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, M i n n e a p o l i s , 1963. A P P E N D I C E S 124 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW GUIDE Home and Family Background Language spoken at home: Monolingual B i l i n g u a l M u l t i l i n g u a l Number of ch i ld ren i n the fami ly : Number of brothers Number of s i s t e r s P o s i t i o n of c h i l d i n the fami ly : F i r s t Intermediate Last Only c h i l d II. Phys ica l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s When p lay ing how much energy did the c h i l d have compared to ch i ld ren h is age? d e f i n i t e l y more than average above average d e f i n i t e l y less than average In what type of a c t i v i t i e s d id the c h i l d do e s p e c i a l l y well? outdoor, act ive games indoor , quiet games III. I n t e l l e c t u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did your c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n conversations? Yes No Was he eager to do things by himself? Yes No Was he curious? Yes No Did your c h i l d show any preschool i n t e r e s t i n learning to read? Yes No IV. S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did your c h i l d enjoy being with others? Yes No Did he share h is toys and games with others? _____ Yes No What was the c h i l d ' s behavior l i k e before he s tar ted school? ' got in to qui te a l o t of trouble ' shy harmonious Did your c h i l d attend kindergarten? ' Yes I . 1 year 6 months less than 6 months Did he l i k e h is teacher i n kindergarten? Yes No Did he l i k e h is teacher i n f i r s t grade? Yes No 126 V. Emotional C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s How do you think your c h i l d and you got along with each other before he entered school? some trouble sometimes poor behavior no trouble at a l l When your c h i l d f i r s t attended school d id he say he wanted to stay home? Yes No Only i n the beginning in te rmi t ten t ly most of the time Did your c h i l d f e e l s e l f - c o n f i d e n t ? Yes NQ How did the c h i l d react when he was engaged i n some work or game? gave up e a s i l y • ' sometimes he gave up, sometimes he d i d n ' t worked to the end of the task Was your c h i l d overdependent? • ' " ' . Yes No VI . E x p e r i e n t i a l Background Did you t r a v e l anywhere outside Vancouver with your c h i l d before he star ted school? Yes No If s o , where d id you go? ' How long d id you stay there? Did you go on outings with your c h i l d before he s tar ted school? Yes No If s o , how often? once a week once a month less often 127 Did you t e l l him stories before he started school? Yes No If so, how often? every day once a week less often Did you or anybody else give the c h i l d preschool help with reading? Yes No Did the c h i l d watch t e l e v i s i o n before s t a r t i n g school? Yes No If so, how often? 5 or fewer hours per week 6 to 15 hours per week 16 or more hours per week What valuable learnings do you think your c h i l d acquired from watching television? i n t e r e s t i n written words vocabulary development . information about history Did you read to him before he started school? ' Yes No If so, how often? • every day two or three times a week less often How did your c h i l d react when you t o l d him or read him stories? very interested ' s l i g h t l y interested not interested 128 APPENDIX B AN INTERVIEW WITH A PARENT. The fo l lowing i s a sample interview with a parent . A l l names except the in terv iewer 's are f i c t i t i o u s . The interviewee was the mother of a g i r l who had been c l a s s i f i e d as a good grade f i ve reader based on her scores on the Gate's- MacGini t ie Reading Tes ts . The school records showed that she entered school at the age of 68 months. Her i n i t i a l readiness status was average. Interviewer (approaching the parent i n a relaxed and f r i e n d l y manner): Good evening, Mrs. B e l l . I am Teresa Andrade. I phoned you about your daughter Ann. Parent (knowing the purpose of the v i s i t because of a l e t t e r sent i n advance by the interviewer and a telephone c a l l confirming the date and time of the in terv iew): Come i n , Miss Andrade. Have a seat . Interviewer: Ann's school records show that she has been get t ing pret ty good marks i n reading since the f i r s t grade. Parent: Oh, she sure loves to read. Reading i s her favor i te subject . There i s hardly a day you can see her come home without any l i b r a r y book. Interviewer: I t i s poss ib le that many of Ann's char- a c t e r i s t i c s during her ear ly childhood days are r e - la ted to her being a good reader now? Could you poss ib ly look back and t ry to r e c a l l which ones? 129 Parent: Oh, w e l l , l e t us see. What I remember f u l l y we l l i s that as a c h i l d she had been curious about, wr i t ten words on t e l e v i s i o n . She would always ask what a word says t i l l she could f i n a l l y iden- t i f y TV commercials. And she seemed to be very in terested i n the l e t t e r s of the alphabet so that she knew already how to read and wri te them be- fore she went to schoo l . Interviewer: Who taught her the l e t t e r s of the alphabet? Parent: I d i d . Because she seemed to be so i n t e r - ested i n them I was encouraged to teach her . Interviewer: You probably read or t o l d her s to r i es too. Parent: Oh yes . She i s an only c h i l d and I could give her the best a t tent ion and care . I d id i t almost every night before she went t o bed. Interviewer: And was she in terested i n them? Parent: Yes, she was. She would even ask questions about them. She was a curious c h i l d and demanded explanat ion for everyth ing. Sometimes she would even ask us what we had been doing when we were k i d s . Interviewer: I hope you won't mind i f I ask you how you and your c h i l d got along with each other be- fore she went to s c h o o l . 130 Parent: Oh, not at a l l . Sometimes Ann was mis- chievous but she was good on the average. She was a happy g i r l . Interviewer: Could you poss ib ly t e l l me how much energy Ann had when play ing compared to other ch i ld ren her age? Parent: I should say just average. She l i k e d p lay ing with the neighbors but she e a s i l y gave up. A l - though she could get along with others , she often times preferred p lay ing alone. Interviewer: Was she w i l l i n g to share her toys with her playmates? Parent:::; Yes, she d id share her toys most of the time, e s p e c i a l l y with S h i r l e y , her best f r i e n d . They are very good f r iends and Ann l i k e d very much to go to kindergarten school with her . Interviewer: Did she l i k e her teachers i n k inder - garten and f i r s t grade? Parent: She l i k e d them, e s p e c i a l l y Miss C la rke , her sweet kindergarten teacher. Interviewer: Do you speak any other language aside from Engl ish? Parent: No. Interviewer: Do you remember i f Ann usual ly took part i n conversations? 131 Parent: My, she was a good t a l k e r . She would ta lk with anybody who came to see us . Interviewer: Was she eager to do things by herse l f? Parent: Ann was independent as a small c h i l d . She had s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . She never asked what should be done. She t r i e d to do things by h e r s e l f , but jus t l i k e i n p lay ing she would give up before the task was done. Interviewer: How often d id Ann watch t e l e v i s i o n before she went to school? Parent: Not too much. I was a f r a i d i t would s p o i l her eyes so she spent only about an hour a day watching t e l e v i s i o n . Interviewer: Did you go on outings with her before she s tar ted school? Parent: We went on outings almost every weekend and we s t i l l do i t now. Interviewer: I t was nice ta lk ing to you and hearing about these i n t e r e s t i n g behaviors of Ann during her preschool days. Parent: I t was a pleasure to think back. I t would r e a l l y be i n t e r e s t i n g to f i n d out whether what happened i n the past i s re la ted to a c c h i l d ' s achievement r i g h t now. I hope to hear about the 132 ' r e s u l t of your study Interviewer: I w i l l do for g iv ing me a part Goodbye. that , Mrs. B e l l . Thank you of your precious t ime. 133 APPENDIX C CASE STUDIES The ear ly childhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of th i r ty - two good and poor readers i n grade f i v e are described i n the fo l lowing case s tud ies . Each case study has been numbered and a code used to i d e n t i f y each subject . In each code the f i r s t l e t t e r , G or P represented a good reader or a poor reader r e s p e c t i v e l y , and the second l e t t e r , B or G represen- ted "boy" or " g i r l " r e s p e c t i v e l y . Thus, there were four coded groups, GB, GG, .PB, and PG. The t h i r d symbol i n each code was a numeral represent ing the number of the subject in each of the four groups. The information r e l a t i n g to each case study has been wr i t ten in formal ly to suggest the f l avor of the interview with the parents . The main headings i n each case study were background informat ion, phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , emotional charac- t e r i s t i c s , and e x p e r i e n t i a l background. Under each, main heading are short statements descr ib ing t r a i t s or behaviors of the c h i l d during preschool and ear ly school years as r e - c a l l e d by the parent(s) during the interviews and as gathered from school permanent record cards and records of the Metropol i tan Readiness T e s t s . The fo l lowing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were based on the subtest resu l ts of the Metropol i tan Readi- ness Tes ts : 134 Richness of verbal concept ( involving comprehension of Test 1 - Word Meaning spoken words). Auditory percept ion ( involv ing comprehension of spoken sentences) Test 2 - Sentences Vocabulary Test 3 - Information V i s u a l percept ion Test 4 - Matching Number knowledge Test 5 - Numbers Motor cont ro l Test 6 - Copying Categor izat ions for Tests 1 to 4 and Test 6, which were not provided for i n the manual, were done using the same proport ions as ind icated i n the manual for the t o t a l readiness scores . Categor izat ion for Test 5 was provided for i n the manual. Categories Tests 1 +4 Tests 2 + 3 Test 6 Superior 18-19 13-14 10 High Normal 15-17 11-12 8-9 Average 12-14 9-10 6-7 Low Normal 8-11 6- 8 4-5 Poor 0-7 0-5 0-3 135 Case Study No. 1 GBl Background information School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - High Normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 1 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - High Normal Auditory percept ion - Superior Motor cont ro l - Low Normal Display of energy when play ing - more than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Liked to converse with guests Eager to explore Asked a l o t of questions Interested i n p ic tures Memory - good Richness of verbal concept - super ior Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge - high normal S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed the company of playmates Shared toys with f r iends Liked teachers i n kindergarten and f i r s t grade Harmonious Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Got along pret ty wel l with parents Liked school Had se l f - con f idence F in ished work begun 136 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Trave l led to the States Frequently went on outings with family Was read to every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n for f i ve or more hours per week Case Study No. 2 GB2 Background information School entrance age - 71 months Readiness category - High Normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 1 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l . p e r c e p t i o n - super ior Auditory percept ion - average Motor cont ro l - average Display of energy when play ing - average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A good conversa t iona l i s t Eager to explore Curious Liked books very much Richness of verba l concept - high normal Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge - average S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed p lay ing with others Shared games and toys Liked teachers Harmonious 137 Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Sometimes got in to trouble at home Congenial i n school Independent Gave up work e a s i l y E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went to the zoo and the museum Listened to s to r ies t o l d almost every day Was read to every day Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s ix to f i f t e e n hours a week Case Study No. 3 GB3 Background information School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - High Normal Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l (English and German) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 6 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 6 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - super ior Auditory percept ion - high normal Motor cont ro l - high normal Display of energy when p lay ing - average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Answered questions asked Wanted to t ry new things Wanted to know almost everything Requested parents to read. to him often Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge - high normal 138 S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Liked teachers Enjoyed the company of s i s t e r s and brother Friendly Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Had no trouble at a l l at home Liked school Worked t i l l end of tasks E x p e r i e n t i a l background Travelled to the P r a i r i e s Went f i s h i n g with friends and family Went to l i b r a r y with members of the family who a l l love to read Did not watch t e l e v i s i o n i n prescnool days because the family had no t e l e v i s i o n set at that time Was read to two or three times a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day Case Study No. 4 GB4 Background information School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of children i n the family - 6 Position i n the family - 6 Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l perception - average Auditory perception - average Motor control - high normal Display of energy when playing - average 139 I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Always ready to ta lk about anything Eager for new experiences Demanded explanation Did not show preschool i n t e r e s t i n learning to read Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - high normal Number knowledge - average S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Harmonious Liked teachers Joined quiet games such as checkers and bu i ld ing blocks Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s • Got along we l l with the family Cr ied i n school only i n the beginning Was not in terested i n f i r s t grade E x p e r i e n t i a l background Seldom went on outings with family Was not given help i n reading at home Was read to less often than once a week Case Study No. 5 GB5 Background information School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 5 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 2 140 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - average Auditory percept ion - super ior Motor cont ro l - low normal Display of energy when play ing - less than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Cur ious/ asked why things happen Solved h is own problems Enjoyed going over p ic ture books Richness of verba l concept - high normal Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge- low normal S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S o c i a l l y wel l -ad justed Shared toys with f r iends Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Found no trouble at home or i n school A happy c h i l d Gave up work sometimes E x p e r i e n t i a l background Seldom went on outings with family Was read to two or three times a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s ix to f i f t e e n hours per week Was t o l d s t o r i e s less often than once a week 141 Case Study No. 6 GB6 Background information School entrance age - 72 months Readiness category - High Normal Language spoken at home — monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 2 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - high normal Auditory percept ion - super ior Motor cont ro l - super ior Display of energy when p lay ing - less than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Liked to do things without help Imitated other ch i ld ren Very in terested i n s to r i es to ld or read Crea t ive , loved to paint and draw Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge - high normal S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Liked teachers Fr iend ly Harmonious Emotional e h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Had se l f -conf idence Lack concentrat ion when engaged i n some task Liked school , .ext remely in terested i n grade one 142 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Given preschool help with reading, taught phonics. Was read to two or three times a week Trave l led to North America Went on outings once a month Case Study No. 7 GB7 Background information School entrace age - 72 months Readiness category - super ior Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 2 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - super ior Auditory percept ion - average Motor cont ro l - high normal Display of energy when, p lay ing - more than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Shared i n r e l a t i n g experiences e s p e c i a l l y during mealtime Asked questions Had a l i b r a r y corner and l i k e d l i b r a r y books Very in terested i n s t o r i e s t o l d C r e a t i v e , enjoys drawing Richness of verba l concept - high normal Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge - superior S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed companionship Shared toys with playmates 143 Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Congenial at home Did not l i k e f i r s t grade teacher Worked to the end of task E x p e r i e n t i a l background Was read to every day Watched t e l e v i s i o n for f i v e or fewer hours per week Had plenty of reading materials at home Was t o l d stories often Case Study No. 8 GB8 Background information School entrance age - 70 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of children i n the family - 3 Position i n the family - 3 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - high normal Auditory percept ion - average Motor cont ro l - high normal Display of energy when p lay ing - average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Exchanged experiences with friends Observant and interested in: things Interested i n books Curious about printed words on t e l e v i s i o n commercials Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - high normal Number knowledge - average 144 S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Lovable , a f r i end of everybody Liked teachers Shared toys and games Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did not get in to trouble Shy at the beginning i n kindergarten school Not consistent with joh undertaken, sometimes gave up, sometimes d id not E x p e r i e n t i a l background Trave l led i n North America Went on outings once a week with parents and f r iends Was read to every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day Watched t e l e v i s i o n for more than s ixteen hours per week Case Study No. 9 GG1 Background information School entrance age - 76 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l (English and German) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 1 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - super ior Auditory percept ion - average Motor cont ro l - low normal Display of energy when play ing - average 145 I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Observant but ( d i d . n o t ta lk much probably because of language d i f f i c u l t y ; parents, did not speak Eng l ish Loved to look at p ic tures i n books. Richness of verba l concept - high normal Vocabulary - high normal Number knowledge - high normal S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed the company of other ch i ld ren Liked teachers Shy with a d u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y with s t rangers , before going to school but -became s o c i a l l y w e l l - adjusted l a t e r . Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did not want to go to school i n the beginning because of language handicap.. Quite shy before s t a r t i n g school E x p e r i e n t i a l background Parents speak a fore ign language and could not give the c h i l d help with reading. But the c h i l d was exposed to the environment, hence she e a s i l y picked up words. They went on outings once a week and t r a v e l l e d to out-of-town p laces . Through t e l e v i s i o n viewing the c h i l d developed her vocabulary and be- came in terested i n reading. Case Study No. 10 GG2 Background information School entrance age - 66 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 5 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 3 146 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - average Auditory percept ion - low normal Motor cont ro l - low normal Display of energy when play ing - average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did not ta lk much Eager to do things by herse l f Interested i n s t o r i e s read or t o l d to her Loved books C r e a t i v e , enjoyed pa int ing Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - high normal Number knowledge - low normal S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Shy Played only with s i s t e r s and brothers Liked teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Cr ied i n school i n the beginning Congenial at home Has se l f - con f idence E x p e r i e n t i a l background Mother too busy to give any preschool help i n reading Read to by e lder brothers once a week Was to ld s t o r i e s by members of the family less often than once a week Had not t r a v e l l e d Seldom went on outings with family 147 Case Study No. 11 GG3 Background information School entrance age - 7 4 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l (English and German) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 4 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 1 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Auditory percept ion - super ior Motor cont ro l - low normal Display of energy when p lay ing - l ess than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Cur ious , eager to learn Very in terested i n -stories read or t o l d her Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge - average S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s • Liked teachers Shy with adults Would not share toys with others Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Bossy with other ch i ld ren Did not l i k e school at the beginning Had no s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , gave up e a s i l y when working or p lay ing 148 Ex p e r i e n t i a l background Sickly and could not go on outings often Read to every day Mother t o l d s t o r i e s and asked questions on the story almost every day Did not watch t e l e v i s i o n during preschool days, no t e l e v i s i o n set at the time Case Study No. 12 GG4 Background information School entrance age - 68 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of children i n the family - 1 Positio n i n the family - only c h i l d Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l perception - poor Auditory perception - high normal Motor control - low normal Display of energy when playing - average Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - superior Number knowledge - high normal I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A good talker Demanded explanation for everything' Wanted to know what parents do when they were kids Wanted to do things by herself Interested i n the l e t t e r s of the alphabet Curious about written words on t e l e v i s i o n 149 S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A happy c h i l d Got along wel l with others Liked kindergarten and grade one teachers Shared playthings with f r iends Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Liked very much to go to school with a g i r l f r i e n d Had se l f - con f idence Mischievous at times E a s i l y gave up when engaged i n some tasks E x p e r i e n t i a l background Learned to read and write the alphabet before going to school through parents ' help Was t o l d s t o r i e s every night Watched t e l e v i s i o n for f i v e to fewer hours per week Went on outings with parents once a week Case Study No. 13 GG5 Background information School entrance age - 76 months Readiness category - high normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 1 P o s i t i o n i n the family - only c h i l d Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - high normal Auditory percept ion - high normal Motor cont ro l - low normal Display of energy when play ing - more than average 150 I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Curious as a c h i l d Loved to mimic Enjoyed conversing with others Started walking at 10 months Said b ig words heard on t e l e v i s i o n Richness of verbal concept - super ior Vocabulary - high normal Number knowledge - super ior S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Always greeted people and bade, them goodbye Shared toys with other ch i ld ren Liked teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A happy c h i l d Ha(d good power of concentrat ion Loved parents and grandmother very much S e l f - c o n f i d e n t E x p e r i e n t i a l background Watched t e l e v i s i o n and learned new words Exposed to the environment. Mother took her out and showed her things around Went on outings with parents once a week Was read to every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s and asked questions on them once a week Case Study No. 14 GG6 Background information School entrance age - 71 months Readiness category - high normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 2 151 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - super ior Auditory percept ion - high normal Motor cont ro l - high normal Display of energy when play ing - average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did not p a r t i c i p a t e much i n conversations A l e r t , quick to grasp things Interested i n books and magazines Crea t i ve , loved to draw Showed eagerness to do things by herse l f Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge - super ior S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Played only with s i s t e r Shy Liked teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Mother was s t r i c t ; usua l ly screamed at ch i ld ren when g iv ing orders Congenial i n school •? When engaged i n some work or game sometimes she gave up e a s i l y and sometimes worked t i l l the end of task E x p e r i e n t i a l background Trave l led to North America Father has a keen mind and usua l ly asked questions Was read to less often than once a week because mother was too busy Was seldom t o l d s t o r i e s Went ra re ly on outings Case Study No. 15 GG7 Background information School entrance age - 69 months Readiness category - high normal Language spoken at home - Eng l ish Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 2 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - superior Auditory percept ion - high normal Motor cont ro l - high normal Display of energy when play ing - average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s An energet ic conversa t iona l i s t Interested i n books and always asked mother read for her Loved to imitate others Richness of verbal concept •- high normal Vocabulary - high normal Number knowledge - high normal S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Very f r i e n d l y and cooperative Liked kindergarten and f i r s t grade teachers Shared toys and games Harmonious Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s F e l t secure at home Liked school a l l the time 153 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Trave l led to North America Went on outings once a month Had plenty of books at home Was not t o l d s t o r i e s at home during ear ly school year Watched t e l e v i s i o n for more than one and a ha l f hours per week Case Study No. 16 GG8 Background information School entrance age - 66 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l (English and Chinese) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 4 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 2 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - high normal Auditory percept ion - high normal Motor cont ro l - low normal Display of energy when play ing - less than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Not much of a ta lker because of language b a r r i e r Had s e l f mot ivat ion; explored new things Curious about pr in ted words Enjoyed books and other reading mater ia ls Richness of verbal concept - average Vocabulary - average Number knowledge- high normal 154 So c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Hated outdoor games Preferred to play by herself at home Liked teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Congenial at home and i n school Worked t i l l end of task Had self-confidence Ex p e r i e n t i a l background Was not given any help i n reading because parents speak a foreign language at home Older s i s t e r sometimes read stories to her Did not go on outings with family Case Study No. 17 PB9 Background information School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of children i n the family - 2 Position i n the family - 2 Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Visual perception - high normal Auditory perception - high normal Motor control - average Display of energy when playing - average 155 I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Observant Enjoyed t a l k i n g with playmates Did not show in t e r e s t i n reading, preferred play periods i n school Not curious Richness of verbal concept - average Vocabulary - average Number knowledge - low normal Soc i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Harmonious Shared toys and games with others Liked teachers Enjoyed company of friends Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Got along well with members of the family Congenial i n school Finished work begun Lacked self-confidence E x p e r i e n t i a l background Was never read to, parents are non-readers Was not given any preschool help with reading Watched t e l e v i s i o n for six to f i f t e e n hours per week Went on outings once a week Travelled to United States Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Case Study No. 18 PB10 Background information School entrance age - 76 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - bilingual (English and Chinese) 156 Number of children i n the family -11 Position i n the family - 7 Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l perception - low normal Auditory perception - low normal Motor control - low normal Display of energy when playing - less than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Bashful with adults Showed no i n t e r e s t i n learning to read Not. eager to discover new things Never asked questions Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - average Number knowledge - low normal Soc i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Withdrawn Bashful Shared toys with playmates Liked teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Shy i n school, had i n f e r i o r i t y complex Lazy, unwilling to do any work Did not get much attention from parents because of too many children i n the family E x p e r i e n t i a l background Was not read to nor was t o l d s t o r i e s because parents speak a foreign language Did not go on outings with family Environment not conducive to learning Watched t e l e v i s i o n more than sixteen hours a week but claimed he did not learn anything from i t Travelled to the States and North America 157 Case Study No. 19 PB11 Background information School entrance age - 66 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l (English and I t a l i Number of children i n the family - 3 Position i n the family - 3 Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l perception - high normal Auditory perception - high normal Motor control - high normal Display of energy when playing - average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed talking with friends Did not display any in t e r e s t for reading Not i n q u i s i t i v e Richness of verbal concept - low normal Vocabulary - superior Number knowledge - average Soc i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S o c i a l l y well adjusted Harmonious Shared games and toys Liked teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Father died when he was s t i l l very young and mother got very sick Inattentive, s l i g h t l y , interested i n stories read or to l d to him Lef t work undone 158 Ex p e r i e n t i a l background Was read to once a week Was to l d s t o r i e s once a week Very seldom went on outings Watched t e l e v i s i o n from sixteen or more hours a week Was not given any preschool help with reading Case Study No. 20 PB12 Background i n f o r m a t i o n School entrance age - 76 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l (English and German) Number of children i n the family - 2 Position i n the family -1 P h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n - hig h normal A u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n - low normal Motor c o n t r o l - hig h normal D i s p l a y of energy when p l a y i n g - more than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed c o n v e r s i n g with playmates Did not show any p r e s c h o o l i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g to read Not c u r i o u s Richness o f v e r b a l concept - hig h normal Vocabulary - average Number knowledge - average Social c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Happy and p o l i t e c h i l d Harmonious L i k e d teachers 159 Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Rest less i n f i r s t grade Easy-going Inattent ive Gave up work or game e a s i l y Did not l i k e school i n the beginning E x p e r i e n t i a l background Seldom went on outings with parents Parents are not fond of reading, they never t o l d him s t o r i e s Seldom read to Trave l led to North America Case Study No. 21 PB13 Background information School entrance age - 70 months Readiness category - average Language spoken.at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 2 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - high normal Auditory percept ion - low normal Motor cont ro l - high normal Display of energy when p lay ing - more than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed t a l k i n g about experiences Eager to do things for himself Asked questions No preschool in te res t i n learning to read Richness of verba l concept - high normal Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge- low normal 160 Social c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed companionship Shared toys and games Liked teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Congenial at home and i n school Smiling, sunny d i s p o s i t i o n Worked to the end of any task given him S l i g h t l y interested i n st o r i e s t o l d or read to him Exp e r i e n t i a l background Was read to every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day Went on outings with parents frequently Watched t e l e v i s i o n from six to f i f t e e n hours per week Had too much parental permissiveness Case Study No. 22 PB14 Background information School entrance age - 66 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of children i n the family -11 Position i n the family - 7 Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l perception - low normal Auditory perception - average Motor control - poor Display of energy when playing - average 161 I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Took part i n conversations Not in teres ted i n reading i n sp i te of the many reading mater ia ls ava i lab le at home More in terested i n drawing and trumpet p lay ing Not i n q u i s i t i v e Never attempted to do things by himself Richness of verbal concept - average Vocabulary - average Number knowledge - poor S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s An extrovert Harmonious Shared toys with f r iends Liked teachers Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Neat with h is work and belongings F in ished work begun Moody; sometimes poor behavior , sometimes good Belongs to a b ig family and quite insecure at home F e l t more secure at school Lacked se l f - con f idence E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings with family once a week Was read to less often than once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s only when information was asked for Was not given any help with reading Watched t e l e v i s i o n for more than s ixteen hours per week Had plenty of books i n the house 162 Case Study No. 23 PB15 Background information School entrance age - 73 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 3 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - low normal Auditory percept ion - high normal Motor cont ro l - low normal d isp lay of energy when p lay ing - more than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Joined conversations Did not show any preschool i n t e r e s t i n learning• to read Not curious Did not d isp lay eagerness to do anything by himself Richness of verbal concept - average Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge - high normal S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Harmonious with f r iends Shared toys with playmates Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Hated teacher i n f i r s t grade because she scolded him i n c lass and he got embarrassed; not at a l l in terested i n f i r s t grade Behavior at home was sometimes good and at other times bad 163 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings with family once a week Trave l led in North America and the States Was read to once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n for more than s ixteen hours per-week Case Study No. 24 PB16 Background information School entrance age - 74 months Readiness category - average Language spoken at home — monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 1 P o s i t i o n i n the family - only c h i l d Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - low normal Auditory percept ion - low normal Motor cont ro l - low normal Display of energy when p lay ing - less than average I n t e l l e c t u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Had no in te res t in. learning to read during preschool years Restrained i n conversations Not i n q u i s i t i v e Did not attempt to do things by himself Richness of verbal concept - super ior Vocabulary - average Number knowledge - high normal 164 S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Very shy and quiet Did not share toys with others Did not l i k e h is teachers in ear ly grades Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Over dependent Cr ied most of the time i n kindergarten school ' Gave up e a s i l y when play ing or working E x p e r i e n t i a l background Seldom went on outings with parents Seldom was t o l d stores or read to Watched t e l e v i s i o n for 16 or more hours per week Was not given preschool help with reading Case Study No. 25 PG9 Background information School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l (English and Chinese) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 1 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - average Auditory percept ion - poor Motor cont ro l - high normal Display of energy when play ing - average 165 I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Was i n h i b i t e d from engaging i n conversations because of poor command of language Not i n q u i s i t i v e Did not show any sign of i n t e r e s t i n learning to read Richness of verbal concept - low normal Vocabulary - poor Number knowledge - low normal Soc i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Bashful i n school Did not enjoy the company of other children Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Had i n f e r i o r i t y complex because of language d i f f i c u l t y Lacked parental attention because parents are too busy with t h e i r business and hardly have time l e f t for the children E x p e r i e n t i a l background Never went on outings with parents Was not t o l d s t o r i e s or read to Nobody else gave the c h i l d preschool help with reading Watched t e l e v i s i o n for six .to fif t e e n , hours a week where she learned English Lived i n a community where playmates were b i l i n g u a l too, speaking a second language d i f f e r e n t from her own. Case Study No. 26 PG10 Background information School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - poor r i s k Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) 166 Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 6 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 5 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - poor Auditory percept ion - poor Motor cont ro l - poor Display of- energy when playing - more than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Hardly ta lked with people other than members of the family No i n t e r e s t at a l l i n reading during preschool years No i n i t i a t i v e to do any kind of work Not i n q u i s i t i v e Richness of verbal concept - poor Vocabulary - poor Number knowledge - poor S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Got in to qui te a l o t of t rouble with the other ch i ld ren Did not l i k e kindergarten teacher but l i k e d the f i r s t grade teacher Did not share toys with others Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Behavior at home was sometimes good and sometimes bad Rest less Le f t work unf in ished sometimes Suffered by comparison with a br ighter s i s t e r Had se l f - con f idence E x p e r i e n t i a l background Had t r a v e l l e d i n North America Went on outings with parents once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s ix to f i f t e e n hours a week 167 Was to ld s t o r i e s before he s tar ted school less often than once a week Was not given any preschool help with reading Was not read to Case Study No. 27 PG11 Background information School entrance age - 75 months Readiness category - high normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 2 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 2 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - super ior Auditory percept ion - high normal Motor cont ro l - super ior Display of energy when p lay ing - average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Answered i n monosyllables when talked to Was not eager to do things by herse l f Not curious Not in terested i n books Richness of verbal concept - high normal Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge- high normal S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Very shy Preferred to work alone Liked teachers Would not share toys with others 168 Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Not in terested i n school Busy, always doing something but d id not always complete the task Had se l f - con f idence E x p e r i e n t i a l background Trave l led i n North America Was read to every day Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day Watched t e l e v i s i o n from s ix to f i f t e e n hours per week Went on outings once a month with parents No help was given i n ear ly reading Case Study No. 28 PG12 Background information School entrance age -.7 4 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 1 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - poor Auditory percept ion - average Motor cont ro l - poor Display of energy when play ing - more than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Seldom talked Was not in terested i n learning to read Did not ask questions No i n i t i a t i v e 169 Did not show any desi re to do things by himself Richness of verbal concept - low normal Vocabulary - high normal Number knowledge - poor S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed being With playmates Liked teachers Shared toys Harmonious Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Congenial at home Liked school although she was not good with her school work No confidence i n s e l f Gave up e a s i l y when engaged i n some work E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings with parents once a week Was not to ld s t o r i e s Was not read to Watched t e l e v i s i o n for s ix teen or more hours per. week Was not given any help i n reading Case Study No. 29 PG13 Background information School entrance age - 67 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 3 170 Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Visual perception - average Auditory perception - low normal Motor control - superior Display of energy when playing - more than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Participated i n conversation only when asked Not i n q u i s i t i v e Did not show any int e r e s t i n learning to read Was not eager to do things by herself Richness of verbal concept - poor Vocabulary - low normal Number knowledge - low normal Soc i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Shy Liked teachers Unwilling to share toys with others Preferred to play alone Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Cried intermittently i n kindergarten school Had no confidence i n onoft'e'rsei'f F e l t secure at home Worked t i l l end of task Depended too much on older s i s t e r E x p e r i e n t i a l background Travelled i n North America Went on outings once a.week with parents Was read to three times a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n f i v e or fewer hours per week Was not helped with preschool reading 1 7 1 Case Study No. 3 0 PG14 Background information School entrance age - 7 3 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 4 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 2 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - poor Auditory percept ion - low normal Motor cont ro l - low normal Display of energy when play ing - average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Ret icent Not eager to explore Not in terested i n l e a r n i n g ' t o read Did not show any i n t e r e s t for books Richness of verbal concept - average Vocabulary - low normal Number knowledge - average S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - Timid Did not l i k e teacher i n f i r s t grade but l i k e d the kindergarten teacher Preferred quiet games Shares toys with brother and s i s t e r s Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Carefree Inattent ive Lacked concentrat ion Gave up e a s i l y any work engaged i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n t 172 E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings very seldom Was t o l d s t o r i e s less often than once a week Was read to ra re ly Watched t e l e v i s i o n for s ixteen or more hours a week Was not given help i n reading during preschool years Case Study No. 31 PG15 Background information School entrance age - 6 8 months Readiness category - low normal Language spoken at home - b i l i n g u a l (English and French) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 4 P o s i t i o n i n the family - 4 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - high .normal Auditory percept ion - low normal Motor cont ro l - poor Display of- energy when play ing - more than average I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Asked many questions Interested i n many things around her A good conversa t iona l i s t at home but not i n school Read aloud wel l but poor i n comprehension Wanted to t ry new things Showed i n t e r e s t i n learning to read before going to school Richness of verbal concept - average Vocabulary - low normal Number knowledge - average 173 S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed the company of other ch i ld ren Liked teachers Harmonious Shared toys and games Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Very c lose to parents Wanted to go home during f i r s t days i n school S e l f - c o n f i d e n t Had good concentrat ion a b i l i t y F in ished a l l tasks s tar ted E x p e r i e n t i a l background Went on outings once a week Mother answered a l l questions asked Watched t e l e v i s i o n for fewer than f i v e hours per week Trave l led to the States Did not get any help with reading Was read to three times a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s every day Case Study No. 32 PG16 Background information School entrance age - 68 months Readiness category - high normal Language spoken at home - monolingual (English) Number of ch i ld ren i n the family - 3 P o s i t i o n i n the f a m i l y - 2 Phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s V i s u a l percept ion - super ior Auditory percept ion - super ior Motor cont ro l - low.normal Display of energy when play ing - average 174 I n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Restrained i n expression Did not show any in te res t i n learning to read Seldom asked questions. Did not venture to do things by herse l f Richness of verbal concept - super ior Vocabulary - super ior Number knowledge - super ior S o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Enjoyed being with others Shared toys and games with f r iends Liked teachers Bashful Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Did not l i k e to go to school i n the beginning Lacked se l f - con f idence Congenial at home Worked to the end of any task E x p e r i e n t i a l background Trave l led to the States Was read to less often than once a week Was t o l d s t o r i e s once a week Watched t e l e v i s i o n for f i v e or.fewer hours per week Had plenty of books at home but c h i l d d id not show any i n t e r e s t i n them Went on outings once a month Was not given any help with reading

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