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An analysis of the effects of an experimental remedial reading program on the comprehension skills of… Ahrendt, Kenneth Martin 1969

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REMEDIAL READING PROGRAM ON THE COMPREHENSION SKILLS OF POTENTIAL SCHOOL DROPOUTS by KENNETH MARTIN AHRENDT B. A. i n Ed., M. A., Arizona State University, 1962 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in the Faculty of Education We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Kenneth M. Ahrendt D e p a r t m e n t o f Reading, Faculty of Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e ABSTRACT Chairman: Professor Glenn M. Chronister Ahrendt; K. M. An analysis of the effects of an experimental remedial reading program on the comprehension s k i l l s of potential school dropouts. The present study investigated the effects of a specially designed remedial reading program consisting of intensive training sessions which emphasized the direct instruction of vocabulary s k i l l s by the use of context clue or by structural analysis and dictionary usage using individual teaching tech-niques rather than group teaching techniques on the compre-hension s k i l l s of potential school dropouts. The subjects in this experimental study were grade eight students from a junior secondary school. They were divided into three categories: (1) comprehension and vocabulary scores the same as or less than grade 6.0; (2) comprehension score the same as or less than grade 6.0; but vocabulary score the same as or greater than grade 6.0; and (3) vocabu-lary score the same as or less than grade 6.0; but comprehen-sion score the same as or greater than grade 6.0. Thirty-six subjects were identified on the basis of these c r i t e r i a . Each subject in each of the three categories was assigned to one of three treatment conditions at random. They received four treatment lessons; forty minutes each over a period of four weeks. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials were worksheets prepared by the experimenter. Each subject was given the Gates-MacGinitie  Reading Test] Survey E, Form 1, The School Interest Inventory; a pre- and post- paper-pencil Comprehension Test "X", and a common transfer task which consisted of a reading selection and comprehension questions constructed by the experimenter. The findings of t h i s experimental study indicate that the treatment effects observed i n terms of the number of cor-rect responses on the transfer task with acquired vocabul-aries were not s i g n i f i c a n t . The treatment effects i n terms of the time i n minutes to the completion of the transfer task with acquired vocabularies were s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i n g that the treatment with the use of contextual clues was part-i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e to those subjects i n Category 3. Both the treatments with the use of contextual clues and s t r u c t u r a l analysis with dictionary usage were e f f e c t i v e to Category 3 subjects who were lacking i n vocabulary s k i l l s when the kind of transfer comprehension t e s t with acquired vocabularies v i a four sessions of treatment were given. The analysis of performance on the transfer t e s t with new vocabularies indicates that the remedial treatments as compared to the non-remedial control treatment are s i g n i f i = cant. The treatment with the use of contextual clues i s no more e f f e c t i v e than the treatment with the use of s t r u c t u r a l analysis with dictionary usage. The treatment effects on comprehension were interpreted on the r e s u l t s of the s i g n i f i c a n t practice effects observed o v e r f o u r e x p o s u r e t r e a t m e n t s . T h e s e s u g g e s t t h a t e x t e n d e d t r e a t m e n t s o f t h e k i n d s u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w o u l d h a v e s h o w n s i g n i f i c a n t r e m e d i a l t r a i n i n g e f f e c t s v i a t h e u s e o f c o n t e x t u a l c l u e s i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y s k i l l s . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Reading Achievement 2 Remedial Reading Programs 5 The School Interest Inventory 6 Experimental Studies 7 The Problem 12 Hypotheses 13 De f i n i t i o n of Terms 14 I I . METHODS AND PROCEDURE 16 Experimental Design 16 Subjects 17 Tests 19 Materials 19 Procedures . . . . . 20 I I I . RESULTS OF THE STUDY 24 Analysis of Treatment Data 25 Analysis of Comprehension C r i t e r i o n Measures with Acquired Vocabularies 36 Analysis of Transfer Comprehension C r i t e r i o n Measure with New Vocabularies. . . 39 IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 42 Findings . 43 i i i CHAPTER PAGE Discussion of Results 45 Summary of Results 47 Implications f o r Further Research 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY 49 APPENDIX A 55 APPENDIX B 60 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Mean Number of Correct Responses to Four Exposure Tests 26 2. Mean Time/Minutes to the Completion of Four Exposure Tests 28 3. Mean Number of Correct Responses to the Common Transfer Test with Acquired Vocabularies. . . . 36 4. Mean Time/Minutes to the Completion of the Transfer Test with Acquired Vocabularies. . . . 37 5. Mean Number of Correct Responses to Pre- and Post- Comprehension Transfer Task with New Vocabularies 39 6. Adjusted Mean Number of Correct Responses to the Comprehension Transfer Test with New Vocabularies 40 7. A Summary Table of the Analysis of Variance on the Number of Correct Responses to the Four Exposure Tests 56 8. A Summary Table of Analysis of Variance on the Time/Minutes to the Completion of the Four Exposure Tests. . . . . . . 57 9. A Summary Table of Analysis of Variance on the Number of Correct Responses to the Transfer Test with Acquired Vocabularies . . . . . . . . 58 V TABLE PAGE 10. A Summary Table of Analysis of Variance on the Time/Minutes to the Completion of the Transfer Test with Acquired Vocabularies 58 11. A Summary Table of Analysis of Covariance on the Number of Correct Responses to the Comprehen-sion Transfer Test with New Vocabularies with the Pre-Test as Covariate 59 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Mean Number of Correct Responses to Four Exposure Tests for Subjects in Category 1 . . . 30 2. Mean Number of Correct Responses to Four Exposure Tests for Subjects in Category 2 . . . 31 3. Mean Number of Correct Responses to Four Exposure Tests for Subjects in Category 3 . . . 32 4. Mean Time/Minutes to the Completion of Four Exposure Tests for Subjects in Category 1 . . . 33 5. Mean Time/Minutes to the Completion of Four Exposure Tests for Subjects i n Category 2 . . . 34 6. Mean Time/Minutes to the Completion of Four Exposure Tests for Subjects in Category 3 . . . 35 CHAPTER I I. Statement of the Problem Findley suggests that potential school dropouts tend to have reading d i s a b i l i t i e s which may result in discouragement and dissatisfaction with school. •L Young and others point out that low reading a b i l i t y and poor academic achievement which may result in early school leaving seem to be characteristics generally associated with the individual classified as a potential dropout. Many secondary school students may have failed to master the basic reading s k i l l s in vocabulary and/or comprehension. It can be said that comprehension i s a primary goal of read-ing instruction and word recognition i s a prerequisite. A conservative estimate i s that 85 per cent of the secondary school student's classwork i s devoted to reading. Therefore; in order to succeed in school the secondary student must be able to read. Warren G. Findley, "Language Development and Dropouts," The Dropout, Daniel Schreiber, ed., (Washington: The National Education Association, 1964), pp. 159-169. 2 Walter C. Young, "The Effectiveness of Selected School Programs for Potential Dropouts," (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Miami, ,1964)..,.. p. 54» Ruth Penty, Reading A b i l i t y and the High School Dropout; (New York: The Teachers College Press, University of Columbia, 1956), p. 93? Joseph C. Bledsoe, "An Investigation of Six Correlates of Student Withdrawal from High School," Journal of Educational Research, 53:3-6, (September, 1959). 2 I. READING ACHIEVEMENT Every poor reader may be a potential dropout. He starts to f a i l early i n the elementary school and the habit of f a i l -ure and f r u s t r a t i o n deepens as he progresses through school. The mechanism of reading d i s a b i l i t y , according to Findley, operates to produce loss of self-confidence, i f not indeed sel f - r e s p e c t . I t may r e s u l t as a secondary e f f e c t of emotion-a l disturbance, but i t also i s a primary factor i t s e l f i n generating and spreading personal d i s t r e s s . The Maryland State Department of Education investigated pupils who dropped out of school during the year ending June, 1961. They found that 10 per cent of the dropouts were read-ing below grade three, and 36 per cent of the dropouts were reading between grades three to s i x . 4 Snepp found i n h i s study of 128 dropouts from the Evans-v i l l e Indiana high schools during 1955-56 school year that 21.4 per cent were retarded i n reading three or more years; 26.6 were retarded two years; and s l i g h t l y over 22 per cent were retarded one year. Snepp concluded i n dealing with the dropout problem that reading i s a major factor c o n t r i -buting to the poor showing of the dropout i n school work and in t h e i r f i n a l l y leaving school. He further stated that , Warren G. Findley, "Language Development and Dropouts," The School Dropout, D. Schreiver^ ed., (Washington:. The National Education Association, 1964), pp. 161-169. 4Leonard M. M i l l e r , "The Dropout:.., Schools Search for Clues to His Problem," The School Dropout, D. Schreiber, ed., (Washington: The National Education Association, 1964), pp. 161-169. 3 they lack the basic s k i l l to learning—the a b i l i t y to read well—and are unable to meed academic requirements.^ Ruth Penty collected data in a four year study, Septem-ber, 1947 to June, 1953, of the high school in Battle Creek, Michigan, to discover the relationship of reading achievement to the rate of high school dropouts before graduation, A total of 593 tenth graders were found to be in the lower 25 per cent as measured by the Iowa Silent Reading Test. In this lower quarter the dropouts and the graduates were compared on the basis of reading and I. Q. test scores. She found that the percentage of poor readers who dropped out of school before graduation exceeded the good readers who dropped out of school before graduation at the .01 level of confidence. More than three-fourths of the poor readers who were interviewed by Penty and her staff stated that they had received in high school no help in finding material they could understand or otherwise improve their reading.^ Burke and Simons in a study of 300 inmates at the Youth Center of the Department of Corrections at Larton, Virginia, concluded that school experiences contribute to some pupil's desire to leave school as soon as legally possible. These experiences result in negative attitudes, truancy, low achieve-ment, and frustration. The pattern that characterizes the 5 Daniel W. Snepp, "Can We Salvage the Dropout?" The  Clearing Housed 31:49-59, (September, 1956). 6Ruth C. Penty, Reading A b i l i t y and the High School Dropout, (new York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1956), p. 93. 4 dropout i s symbolic of a long h i s t o r y of school experiences that for him have been unrewarding and f r u s t r a t i n g . They found that 76 per cent of the inmates were reading below the grade f i v e l e v e l when they entered the i n s t i t u t i o n . They concluded that these inmates had f a i l e d i n reading early i n t h e i r school careers.' A f t e r studying dropouts over a period of three years, Bledsoe found that such students from the ninth grade had a mean reading comprehension score of grade 7.9, while the mean comprehension score for the remaining ninth graders was grade 8.9. 8 Stevens found a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the mean scores i n reading of twelfth grade graduates and dropouts when t tests were applied. The mean score for graduates was 58.8, and the mean score for dropouts was 31.8. Half of the dropouts f e l l below the 20th percentile, one-fourth f e l l between the 20th and 50th percentile, and one-fourth f e l l above the 50th percentile on standardized reading t e s t s . He concluded that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between poor reading a b i l i t y and the tendency to drop out of school.^ ...Nelson S. Burke and A l f r e d E. Simons,.. .The Problable Syn-drome, .in .Terms, of Educational. Experiences- which Eercipitates  Dropouts, Delinquents. and Eventual Incarceration, I n s t i t u t e fo r C r i m i n i l o g i c a l Research, Department of Corrections, (Wash-ington: Ui S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1965), p. 57. 8Joseph C. Bledsoe, "An Investigation of Six ..Correlates . of Student Withdrawal from High School," Journal of Education-a l Research, 53:3-6, (September, 1959). ^J. Joseph Stevens; "The Development and Testing of a Model f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Potential School Dropouts," (unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Colorado State College, 1965), pp. 13-58. 5 Remedial Reading Programs Matthews and Roan designed a curriculum demonstration project f o r public school students i n grades seven to twelve i n a large urban population center of 50,000. The students for the curriculum demonstration program were selected on the f i v e factors of i n t e l l i g e n c e , reading achievement, general achievement; socio-economic status, and adjustment to school. The curriculum demonstration students along with the control group, made up approximately the lower 14 per cent of the t o t a l school population. They found that loxtf reading achievement was most common of the f i v e factors considered for t h i s group. They also found that by the seventh graded a combination of poor read-ing a b i l i t y ^ poor self-concept, and alie n a t i o n to school caused by repeated f a i l u r e s increased greatly the p r o b a b i l i t y of early school leaving. As part of the project an in d i v i d u a l i z e d reading program was developed to overcome reading d e f i c i e n c i e s . Over a three year period the students i n the curriculum demonstration pro-gram continued to develop i n reading and to change t h e i r attitude toward s c h o o l . ^ Bowman, Director of the Quincy Youth Development Project, Quincy, I l l i n o i s , questioned potential dropouts about what they f e l t was t h e i r greatest need i n school. They said that 1 Charles V. Matthews and John E. Roan, "A Curriculum Demonstration Program f o r Dropout Prone Students;" (Edwardsville, I l l i n o i s : Southern I l l i n o i s University, 1966); pp. 1-120. (Mimeographed.) 6 they wanted to know how to read, and standardized t e s t scores indicated that they were weak i n t h i s area. An experimental program i n reading conducted over a two year period was suc-ce s s f u l i n changing the pupil's attitudes toward s c h o o l . ^ I I . THE SCHOOL INTEREST INVENTORY Reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e on dropouts, Cottle found that there were approximately f i f t e e n major reasons why students l e f t school. Ten items dealing with each of the f i f t e e n rea-sons for leaving school were constructed and combined i n ran-dom fashion i n a 150 item inventory c a l l e d The School Interst  i n v e n t o r y . 1 2 Items common to dropouts were grouped i n four sections: (1) those concerned with the home, (2) the school, (3) econom-i c stress; and (4) the student's feelings toward things i n general. Herrman and Cottle found ninety items out of the 150 items i n The School Interest Inventory d i f f e r e n t i a t e d responses of dropouts from those who stay i n s c h o o l . ^ H p . Bowman; "Dropouts In and Out of School," A speech presented at the 29th Annual I l l i n o i s Governor's Conference on Children and Youth; May, I960; The Citizen's Committee on Youth, (Cincinnati; Ohio, 1961). ^ W i l l i a m C. Cottle, "Dropout, Delinquent and Other Sca-les of the School Interest.Inventory," The .Nineteenth Year-book of the National Council on Measurement i n Education, .'(Ames, Iowa: The National Council on Measurement i n Ecuc-ation; 1962); pp. 92-96. 13 Lyndon Herman and William C. .Cottle, "An Inventory to Identify High School Dropouts," The Vocational Guidance  Quarterly, 6:22-3, (Spring, 1958). 7 Childers attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of The  School Interest Inventory in identifying potential dropouts. He found that the percentage of correct classification was 80.9 for the total male sample (125) and 75.0 for the total female sample (125). He concluded that for the purpose of screening potential dropouts upon entry to grade nine, The  School Interest Inventory was found to be an effective instrument.^ 4 I I I . EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES Peterson conducted an experimental study at the junior high school level. She taught context usage to the experi-mental group. The control group was exposed to incidential mentods and wide reading in order to improve context clue usage. She found a significant gain was made by the experi-mental group through the direct approach of teaching context clue usage. The control group showed no significant improve-ment.*^ Hafner conducted an experimental study with f i f t h graders. His experimental program included the use of context clues through contrast; explanatory words and phrases, and inferences. 1 4Robert D. Childers, "The Identification of Potential School Dropouts by Discriminant Analysis," (unpublished Doctoral dissertation; University of Georgia, 1965), p. 108. •^Ellen I. Peterson;' "Developing Vocabulary Through Contextual Clues in the Junior High School^" (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Department of Education, Syracuse University; 1942); pp. 282-285. 8 Worksheets were prepared by the experimenter. The experiment-a l lessons were taught i n t h i r t y - f i v e minute periods three times a week fo r a period of four weeks. He found no s i g n i f i -cant differences between the control and experimental groups, but h i s data suggested that teaching context clues would be more productive i n helping students improve comprehension 16 than by i n c i d e n t i a l exposure and wide reading methods. Zahner and Gray both suggest that verbal context i s a more valuable aid i n a t t a i n i n g precise meaning than the dictionary because i n the f i n a l analysis the meaning f o r a word can s h i f t i n a selection depending upon the context.*^ Davis further supports the suggestion of Zahner and Gray i n a f a c t o r i a l study of comprehension. He found that a know-ledge of word meaning and the a b i l i t y to se l e c t the correct meaning from the context were esse n t i a l factors i n compre-h e n s i o n . 1 8 Wendell Weaver suggests that the words that follow a new or strange word i n a sentence are more l i k e l y to a i d the ^Lawrence E. Hafner, "An Experimental Study of the E f f e c t s of Various Reading Achievement Scores of Teaching Selected Context Clues to a Group of F i f t h Graders," (unpub-l i s h e d Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n ; University of Missouri, 1960), P. 94. 1 7 W. Gray, "Reading and .Factors Influencing Reading E f f i c i e n c y ; " Reading i n General Education. W. S. Gray, ed., (Washington: American Council on Education, 1940), pp. 22-90, 1 8 F r e d e r i c k B. Davis.;, "Fundamental Factors of Compre-hension i n Reading," Psychometricka, 9:1850197, (September, 1944). 9 reader i n contextual analysis than those words that precede i t . He further suggests that students should be taught to read the entire sentence before attempting to determine the meaning of an unknown word. He states that "this pattern of delayed attack i n contextual analysis i s also conducive to better o v e r a l l comprehension, f o r i t prevents interruption i n the continuity of the thinking process." 4' Jackson and Dizney conducted an extensive study i n vocabulary development and i t s possible effects on reading comprehension and rat e . F o r t y - f i v e senior high school stu-dents were randomly assigned to two English classes. The experimental class received twenty-seven weeks of intensive vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n using the Harbrace Vocabulary Workshop. The control group received no formal vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n . The experimental group showed s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n vocabulary understanding. On the other hand; there was no difference between groups i n the l e v e l of reading comprehension. 2 0 However] the experimenters did not teach context clue usage to the experimental group i n t h i s study. Lieberman conducted an experimental study on the teaching of vocabulary on reading and concept achievement. She used forty-two grade f i v e students divided into twenty-one matched pairs as control and experimental groups. The experimental x yWendell Weaver; "The P r e d i c t a b i l i t y of Word Meaning," New Development i n Programs, Training Aids, and Procedures, The National Reading Conference Proceedings, V o l . 12, 1963. 2°Jeanne Jackson and H. Dizney; "Intensive Vocabulary Training;" Journal of Developmental Reading, 6:221-229;^ 1963. 10 group received a series of d i r e c t experience vocabulary l e s -sons. The control group received conventional i n s t r u c t i o n i n vocabulary development ( i . e . prefixes, roots, s u f f i x e s , ant-onyms, synonyms; and context clue usage). Both the control and experimental group received f o r t y lessons, twice a week for a period of twenty weeks. Both groups used i d e n t i c a l vo-cabulary words. She found no s t a t i s t i c a l difference i n read-ing achievement between the control and experimental groups.^ Jenkins reported the re s u l t s of a study i n which she used f i v e grade seven English classes equated i n age, I . Q., and scores on a s i l e n t reading t e s t . One group received no spec i a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n vocabulary development. A second group received i n s t r u c t i o n i n vocabulary development using a reading s k i l l s workbook with vocabulary exercises. The t h i r d group received vocabulary i n s t r u c t i o n by using i n d i v i d u a l word study and the dictionary. A fourth group received i n s t r -uction i n synonyms, antonyms and words l i s t s . The f i f t h group received i n s t r u c t i o n i n the use of prefixes, roots and suf-f i x e s to improve vocabulary s k i l l s . The t h i r d and fourth groups made the most improvement i n vocabulary growth as mea-sured by a s i l e n t reading t e s t . No in s t r u c t i o n was given to any of the groups i n context clue usage. The f i f t h group / J-Janet E. Lieberman, The E f f e c t .of Direct Instruction  in Vocabulary Concepts on Reading Achievement, U. S. Depart-ment of Healthi Education and Welfare, O f f i c e of Education, (Washington: U. S. Government Prin t i n g O f f i c e , 1967), pp. 1-14. 11 using prefixes, roots and suffixes, made the le a s t improve-oo ment i n vocabulary growth." In a study conducted by Otterman, the structure of 250 words was taught to ten seventh grade classes. The experi-mental group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the control group on a t e s t of s p e l l i n g but not on tests of general vocabulary o ^  and reading comprehension." Hunt conducted an experimental study with a group of u n i v e r s i t y students between the a b i l i t y to use s t r u c t u r a l analysis and cores on vocabulary and reading t e s t s . He found that a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( i . e . tests of word el e -ments, and word-meaning construction and word derivation) ranged i n correlations from .30 to .44 with vocabulary scores. Correlations of vocabulary and l e v e l of comprehension a b i l i t y with the a b i l i t y to use context appeared somewhat higher than with the a b i l i t y to use s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s . 2 4 The gains from teaching s t r u c t u r a l analysis and the best way of doing so does not seem to be c l e a r l y indicated by 00 Marguerite Jenkins; "Vocabulary Development:.. . A, Read-Experiment i n Seventh Grade English," Peabody Journal of  Education, 19:347-351, (May, 1942). 2 3 L o i s M. Otterman; "The Value of Teaching Pr e f i x and Word Roots;" Journal of Educational Research. 48:611-616, ( A p r i l ; 1955). 2 4 J a c o b T. Hunt, "The Relationship of Structural A b i l i t y i n Word Analysis and the A b i l i t y to Use Context Clues to Vocabulary and Reading;" (unpublished Doctoral di s s e r t a t i o n ; University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1951). 12 research. Many children are unable to transfer t h e i r know-ledge of word parts to new situations involving new words. J Too often a student may be able to recognize words and pronounce them correctly, but nevertheless be incapable of gaining the intended meaning of the writer when words are combined into sentences, paragraphs, and larger s e l e c t i o n s . The use of context clues appears to be a useful approach to the derivation of the meaning of unfamiliar words, and allows the reader to use the context to gain complete compre-hension from the selection read. Structural analysis seems to be a useful v e h i c l e to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. However, t h i s s k i l l depends upon the reader's know-ledge of the meaning of the various prefixes, roots and suf-f i x e s used i n English. Statement of the Problem The purpose of thi s study i s to determine whether a s p e c i a l l y designed remedial reading program consisting of intensive t r a i n i n g Sessions which emphasize the d i r e c t i n s t r -uction of vocabulary s k i l l s by the use of context clues or by st r u c t u r a l analysis and dictionary usage using i n d i v i d u a l teaching techniques rather than group teaching techniques 2 5 D a v i d H. Russell, Children Learn to Read, (2nd ed.); (new York: B l a i s d e l l Publishing Co., 1961), p. 314. -26Rober.t L... Curry, "Teaching the Decoding S k i l l s , " Improving Reading i n Secondary Schools; . L. Hafner, ed., (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1967), p. 84. 13 w i l l improve trie comprehension s k i l l s of the potential school dropout. !The context clue usage approach to vocabulary development allows the reader to determine word meaning from the surround-ing context. I t also allows the reader to use inference to determine meaning. The reader can read the entire sentence before attempting to determine the meaning of an unknown word. This allows him to follow the t r a i n of thought before he stops to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Reading the complete sentence many times allows the reader to f i n d the contextual clue to the meaning of the unfamiliar word. The s t r u c t u r a l analysis approach ( i . e . p r e f i x , root, and s u f f i x ) to vocabulary s k i l l development presumes that the reader has f i r s t hand knowledge of the common prefixes, roots, and suffixes used i n English -in order to determine the meaning of the unfamiliar word. This s k i l l requires the reader to memorize a l i s t of the most commonly used prefixes, roots, and suffixes or use the dictionary to look up the meaning of the unfamiliar word. Hypotheses 1. A s p e c i a l l y designed remedial reading treatment which emphasizes the d i r e c t i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n of vocabulary s k i l l s by the use of context clues, and s t r u c t u r a l analysis along with dictionary usage w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve the comprehension s k i l l s of the potential school dropout as com-pared to the non-direct i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n of these 14 vocabulary s k i l l s . 2. A s p e c i a l l y designed remedial reading treatment which emphasizes the d i r e c t i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n of vocabulary s k i l l s by the use of context clues as compared to the d i r e c t i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n of vocabulary s k i l l s by the use of s t r u c t u r a l analysis along with dictionary usage w i l l s i g n i f i -cantly improve the comprehension s k i l l s of the pot e n t i a l s chool dropout. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms For the purpose of c l a r i f y i n g the terms used i n the study, the following d e f i n i t i o n s were used: The School Interest Inventory; A standardized t e s t devised to measure the p r o b a b i l i t y of a student's dropping out of school. The items used are designed to ascertain the stu-dent's attitude toward school and h i s l i k e l i h o o d of remaining or leaving early. Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Survey E: A standardized reading t e s t used for Grades 7 to 9. The t e s t consists of three parts: Speed and Accuracy, Vocabulary, and Comprehension. Dropout: The term dropout i s used most often to design-ate elementary or secondary students who have been i n attend-ance during the regular school term and who withdraw before graduation from Grade 12 or before completing an equivalent program of studies. Such a student i s considered a dropout whether h i s dropping out occurs during or between regular school terms or whether h i s dropping out occurs before or 15 a f t e r he has passed the compulsory school attendance age. Remedial Reading Program: A program designed to help the student correct any reading a b i l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s i n vocab-ulary and/or comprehension s k i l l s that would cause him to read two or more grades below grade l e v e l . Remedial Reader: Remedial readers are those readers who are reading two grades or more below grade l e v e l norm i n vocabulary and/or comprehension as measured by the Gates- MacGinitie Reading Test, Survey E. Context Clues: The verbal context i n which a word occurs which helps the student to decipher the meaning of the sentence. Structural Analysis; The a b i l i t y to break a word into i t s p r e f i x , root, and s u f f i x i n order to determine the meaning of the word. S y l l a b l e s : The a b i l i t y to divide words into units of sound i n order to determine i t s correct pronunciation. 16 CHAPTER II I. Methods and Procedures Experimental Design (Remedial Reading Program) In order to carry out the experimental design used i n t h i s study one experimental v a r i a b l e was manipulated, that i s , the approach. The method of presentation used i n t h i s study was an indivudual approach rather than a group approach i n order to have the reading a c t i v i t y under the control of the experimenter. Treatment One. This experimental treatment s p e c i f i c a l l y sought to improve the a b i l i t y of the subjects to use the following selected context aids to meaning: (1) determine how a word changes i t s meaning by a s h i f t i n usage—from one part of speech to another ( i . e . noun to verb); (2) by d e f i n i t i o n — the unknown word i s defined i n the surrounding sentence or sentences, (3) by d i r e c t explanation—examples included or d i r e c t l y explained i n the context, and (4) by the meaning expressed i n a single sentence and gained through the i n t e r -pretation of the sentence. Treatment Two. This experimental treatment sought to improve the a b i l i t y of the subjects to use the following e l e -ments of s t r u c t u r a l analysis along with dictionary usage to determine meaning: (1) to determine the meaning of compound words by d i v i d i n g them into t h e i r common elements; (2) to determine the meaning of a word by using the dictionary, (3) to determine the meaning of a word by the use of prefixes, roots and s u f f i x e s , and (4) to divide a word into s y l l a b l e s with the a i d of the dictionary. 17 Treatment Three. This experimental treatment sought to determine the subject's knowledge of word meaning without the a i d of i n s t r u c t i o n by the experimenter, the use of context clues, the use of s t r u c t u r a l analysis or without the a i d of the dictionary. Subjects Grade eight students i n a junior secondary school were administered the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Survey E, Form 1, and The School Interest Inventory to determine t h e i r l e v e l of reading a b i l i t y and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l to be school dropouts. Those subjects who scored two grades or more below grade l e v e l norm (8.0) i n vocabulary and/or comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitle Reading Test and whose raw score on The  School Interest Inventory was the same as or greater than t h i r t y were considered f o r t h i s study. Research indicates that r e l a t i v e l y few students who score below twenty drop out of school, and t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true of males. 2^ In order to assess the improvement of comprehension s k i l l s made by each subject, the s e n s i t i v i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r treatment to a group, and the e f f i c a c y of each of the three treatments used with each of the three groups of d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the subjects were divided into the following three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : 2^William C. Cottle; Examiner 1s Manual for The School  Interest Inventory, (New York: Houghton-Mifflin Co.; 1966), p. 9. 18 Category One - Subjects whose comprehension and vocabulary scores were the same as or less than grade 6.0. Category Two - Subjects whose comprehension scores were the same as or less than grade 6.0, but whose vocabulary scores were the same as or greater than grade 6.0. Category Three - Subjects whose vocabulary scores were the same as or less than grade 6.0, but whose comprehension scores were the same as or greater than grade 6.0. T h i r t y - s i x subjects, twelve i n each category; were ident-i f i e d on the basis of the c r i t e r i a stated above. Each sub-ject i n each of the three categories was assigned to one of the three treatment conditions on the basis of random s e l e c t -ion allowing four subjects i n each of the nine c e l l s . Treatment One Treatment Two . Treatment Three Category 1 4 4 . 4 Category 2 4 4 4 Category 3 4 4 4 N = 36 • -Subjects i n each of the three categories and treatment conditions received four treatment lessons; f o r t y minutes each over a period of four weeks. 19 Tests The following t e s t was used for subject selection as potential school dropouts: The School Interest Inventory i s a t o o l used i n the early detection of potential dropouts. The Inventory d i f f e r s from a standardized t e s t i n that there are no tables of per-c e n t i l e s , scores, or averages. The subject's raw scores are arranged from the highest to the lowest, a higher score i n d i c a t i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y of the subject's early school leaving. In a study to evaluate the effectiveness of The School  Interest Inventory; Childers concluded that f o r the purposes screening potential school dropouts, the Inventory was found to be an e f f e c t i v e instrument. 2 8 Material The i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials used i n the three treatment conditions consisted of worksheets prepared by the experi-menter. The material was chosen from The New Practice Readers. The r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l of the selections was grade s i x as mea-sured by the Dale-Chall Formula f o r Predicting Readability. The word count for each selection varied between 215 to 225 words. 2 8Robert D. Childers, "The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Potential School Dropouts by Discriminant Analysis;" (unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n . University of Georgia, 1965), p. 108. 20 Each worksheet f o r each of the treatment lessons consist-ed of ten vocabulary words. Subjects i n each of the three categories and treatment conditions were exposed to the same vocabulary words. The reading selection given to each subject was the same for the three categories and treatment conditions. Procedures A treatment schedule was devised by the experimenter to allow each subject f o r t y minutes of treatment time. The sub-jects f o r each of the three categories and treatment conditions were assigned a treatment time on the basis of random assign-ment. This procedure was followed to avoid any subject from being assigned the same treatment time throughout the t r e a t -ment sequence. The experimenter met with the subjects i n d i v -i d u a l l y i n a s p e c i a l room designated f o r t h i s purpose. The following procedures were followed for each subject i n the three categories and treatment conditions. Session One. The experimenter introduced himself to the subject. The subject was administered an informal reading t e s t c a l l e d Comprehension Test "X" to measure h i s a b i l i t y to (1) read for s p e c i f i c f a c t s , (2) make inferences from the material read, and (3) i d e n t i f y the main idea. The subject was instructed to work the practice exercises before working the t e s t items. Forty minutes was a l l o t t e d to complete t h i s task. Session Two. The experimenter met i n d i v i d u a l l y with the subject and presented him with the f i r s t worksheet of 21 instructional material for his category and treatment group. The subject was given instructions by the experimenter on how to use the worksheet. Twenty-five minutes was allotted to this task. The experimenter was available to the subject for assistance and re-enforcement. Upon completion of the instructional material the sub-ject was given a reading selection with comprehension quest-ions. He was instructed to read the selection and answer the questions without referring to the selection.. Fifteen minutes was allotted to complete this task. The experimenter recorded the time i t took the subject to complete the task. Session Three. The experimenter presented the subject with the second worksheet of instructional material for his category and treatment group. The experimenter gave the sub-ject instructions on how to use the worksheet. Twenty-five minutes was allotted for this task. The experimenter was available to the subject for assistance and re-enforcement. Upon completion of the instructional material the subject was given a reading selection with comprehension questions. He was instructed to read the selection and answer the quest-ions without referring to the selection. Fifteen minutes was allotted to this task. The experimenter recorded the time i t took the subject to complete the task. Session Four. The experimenter presented the subject with the third worksheet of instructional material for his category and treatment group. The experimenter gave the sub-ject instructions on how to use the worksheet. Twenty-five 22 minutes was a l l o t t e d for t h i s task. The experimenter was available to the subject f o r assistance and re-enforcement. Upon completion of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material the subject was given a reading selection with comprehension questions. He was instructed to read the sel e c t i o n and answer the quest-ions without r e f e r r i n g to the s e l e c t i o n . F i f t e e n minutes was a l l o t t e d to t h i s task. The experimenter recorded the time i t took the subject to complete the task. Session F i v e . The experimenter presented the subject with the fourth and f i n a l worksheet of i n s t r u c t i o n a l material fo r h i s category and treatment group. The experimenter gave the subject instructions on how to use the worksheet. Twenty-f i v e minutes was a l l o t t e d f o r t h i s task. The experimenter was available for assistance and re-enforcement. Upon completion of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material the subject was given a reading s e l e c t i o n with comprehension questions. He was instructed to read the selection and answer the quest-ions without r e f e r r i n g to the s e l e c t i o n . F i f t e e n minutes was a l l o t t e d for t h i s task. The experimenter recorded the time i t took the subject to complete the task. Session S i x . The subjects i n each of the three categories and treatment conditions were given a common transfer task. This common transfer task consisted of a reading selection and comprehension questions written by the experimenter. I t included the f o r t y vocabulary words used i n the four t r e a t -ment lessons. The experimenter instructed the subject to read the selection and answer the questions without r e f e r r i n g to the 23 s e l e c t i o n . The experimenter recorded the time i t took the subject to complete t h i s task. Session Seven. The subjects i n each of the three cate-gories and treatment conditions were given the post-test form of the Comprehension Test "X". They were instructed to work the practice exercises before completing the t e s t items. Forty minutes was a l l o t t e d to complete t h i s task. 2 4 CHAPTER III Results of the Study In order to carry out the experimental design used in this study one experimental variable was manipulated, that i s , the approach. The method of presentation used in this study was an individual approach rather than a group approach in order to have the reading activity under the control of the experimenter. The dependent variables during treatment in this experi-ment were measured in terms of the number of correct responses to the reading selection which followed each of the treatment sessions, and the total amount.of time in minutes i t took the subject to read the selection and answer the comprehension questions. The dependent variables during the common transfer task were the number of correct responses to the questions in the common transfer task with acquired vocabularies and the total amount of time in minutes i t took the subject to read the common transfer task with acquired vocabularies and answer the comprehension questions. In order to assess the improvement of comprehension s k i l l s made by each subject, the sensitivity of a particular treatment to a group, and the efficacy of each of the three treatments with each of the three groups of differing char-acteristics, the subjects were divided into the following three categories: 25 Category One - Subjects whose comprehension and vocab-ulary scores were the same as or less than grade 6.0. Category Two - Subjects whose comprehension scores were the same as or less than grade 6.0, but whose vocabulary scores were the same as or greater than grade 6.0. Category Three - Subjects whose vocabulary scores were the same as or less than grade 6.0, but whose comprehension scores were the same as or greater than grade 6.0. T h i r t y - s i x subjects were i d e n t i f i e d on the basis of the c r i t e r i a stated above. Each subject i n each of the three cat-egories was assigned to one of the three treatment conditions at random thus four subjects to each of the nine c e l l s . Subjects i n each of the three categories and treatment conditions received four treatment lessons, f o r t y minutes each over a period of four weeks. Analysis of Treatment Data An examination of the subjects' course of practice dur-ing the four treatment sessions was needed before the analysis of the transfer e f f e c t to the comprehension of reading mater-i a l s r e s u l t i n g from the vocabulary treatment. The data i n Table 1 represent the mean number of cor-r e c t responses to the four exposure tests which consisted of a reading selection and comprehension questions. Table 1 Mean Number of Correct Responses to Four Exposure Tests (N .= 36) ; Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 1 Expos 2 ure 3 4 1 Expos 2 sure 3 4 1 Expos 2 sure 3 4 Category 1. . .2 .50. 2.75. 2.50 2.75 3.25 2.00 2.75 3.75 2.25 2.50 2.00 2.75 Category 2 2.00 2.00 3.00 2 .7.5 3.00 3.00 .2.50 3.25 1.75 2.50 2.25 3.50 Category 3 3.25 2.75 2.75 3.50 3.75 2.75 .3.25 3.25 3.25 2.75 3.25 4.00 <7i 27 The data i n Table 2 (page 28) represent the mean time/ minutes to the completion of the four exposure tests which consisted of a reading selection and comprehension questions. An analysis of variance was performed on the dependent v a r i a b l e of the number of correct responses to the four ex-posure t e s t s . The e f f e c t due to the category of the subjects was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , F(2, 27) = 4.12, £ <.05. (Appendix A; Table 7.) This indicates that Category 3 sub-jects appear to get most benefit from treatment exposures over other Category subjects. The e f f e c t due to the four exposure tests was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , (Appendix Aj Table 7); whereas a l l other effects were non-significant. Figures 1, 2 and 3 graphically present that data present-ed i n Table 1 for the three categories and treatment condi-t i o n s . These data show that by the fourth treatment exposure the subjects' o v e r a l l performance improved i n terms of the number of correct responses to the exposure t e s t s . The same trends were apparent i n Figures 4, 5, and 6, which represent the data i n Table 2 for the three categories and treatment conditions. By the fourth treatment exposure the subjects had decreased the amount of time i n minutes to complete the exposure t e s t s . An analysis of variance was performed on the dependent v a r i a b l e on the time/minutes to the completion of the four exposure t e s t s . The i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between treatment and category of the subjects was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ; F,(4, 27) = 3.10, £ <.05 (Appendix A, Table 8). The main Table 2 Mean Time/Minutes to the Completion of Four Exposure Tests (N = 36) Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 1 Expos 2 mre 3 4 1 Expos 2 sure 3 4 1 Expos 2 sure 3 4 Category 1 5.50 8.00 4.25 4.00 10.00 7.25 6.. 50 5.25 6.50 4.50 5.75 6.25 Category 2 9.75 6.00 4.25 5.50 9.25 6.00 5.00 4.50 7.00 6.00 6.75 6.00 Category 3 9.75 5.00 3.75 4.75 8.00 3 .50 4.50 4.00 9.75 8.25 6.00 7.50 M 00 29 e f f e c t due to the four exposure tests by subjects was s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , F(3, 81) = 14.83, p_ <.01 (Appendix A; Table 8 ) J whereas a l l other effects were non-significant. Thus, the analysis of mean correct responses and mean com-plet i o n time during treatment exposures suggest that there was a general practice e f f e c t over four exposures and that the practice e f f e c t i s remarkable i n Category 3 subjects under Treatment 1 and 2. 30 4 . 3. •P u u u o u u 0) Xi E 2. 1. 0. 00 75 50 25 00 75 50 25 00 75 50 25 00 75 50 25 00 i \ / i i / \ \ / \ \ A \ i • • 1 . 2 Exposures FIGURE 1 4 Treatment 1 A A Treatment 2 ^ £y Treatment 3 ^ MEAN NUMBER OF CORRECT RESPONSES TO FOUR EXPOSURE TESTS FOR SUBJECTS IN CATEGORY 1 31 +J u d) u u o u u Q) e 4.00 .75 .50 .25 3.00 .75 .50 .25 2.00 .75 .50 .25 1.00 -.75 .50 .25 0.00 ,t > > < >-— —< > * < • -< 1 2 Exposures FIGURE 2 4 Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 O O — o — o MEAN NUMBER OF CORRECT RESPONSES TO FOUR EXPOSURE TESTS FOR SUBJECTS IN CATEGORY 2 32 u <D U U O U u Xi 4.00 .75 .50 .25 3.00 .75 .50 .25 2.00 .75 .50 .25 1.00 .75 .50 .25 0.00 c ) • *— V \ s • ; : V ; V N s / V —) 1 2 Exposures FIGURE 3 Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 X — -X — X MEAN NUMBER OF CORRECT RESPONSES TO FOUR EXPOSURE TESTS FOR SUBJECTS IN CATEGORY 3 33 Kl -P C 10.00 .75 .50 .25 9.00 .75 .50 .25 8.00 .75 .50 .25 7.00 .7.5 .50 .25 6.00 .75 .50 .25 5.00 .75 .50 .25 4.00 .75 .50 .25 3.00 % ) ( • • ' ) • 0.00 I i \ > \ V \ \ \ \ > \ \ i V v L \ V \ \ \ \ \ \ —f \ \ V k \ \ A / L X ( \ 1 Exposures FIGURE 4 Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 A A A MEAN TIME/MINUTES TO THE COMPLETION OF FOUR EXPOSURE TESTS FOR SUBJECTS IN CATEGORY 1 34 CO cu •P c •H s 10. 9. 8 . 7. 5. 4. 3. 00 75 50 25 0.0 75 50 25 00 75 50 25 00 75 50 25 00 75 50 25 00 75 50 25 00 75 50 25 00 (•• ) 0.00 < \ < A V \ A V \ 'A V \ < K < \ V • V * S s « V > \ < > Exposures FIGURE 5 Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 O-O-6- o MEAN TIME/MINUTES TO THE COMPLETION OF FOUR EXPOSURE TESTS FOR SUBJECTS IN CATEGORY 2 1 2 3 4, Exposures FIGURE 6 Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 X X X X X -X MEAN TIME/MINUTES TO THE COMPLETION OF FOUR EXPOSURE TESTS FOR SUBJECTS IN CATEGORY 3 36 Analysis, of Transfer Comprehension C r i t e r i o n Measures With  Acquired Vocabularies I t was expected that] i f there would be any e f f e c t of vocabulary treatments i t should transfer to the comprehension of reading materials? the vocabularies of which were already made f a m i l i a r to the subjects. The comprehension perform-ance was observed i n terms of two measures: the number of correct responses and the completion time. The mean number of correct responses to the common transfer t e s t with acquired vocabularies of the nine groups are. shown. .in..;Tabler ,3. Table 3 Mean Number of Correct Responses to the Common Transfer Test with Acquired Vocabularies (N = 36) Treatment One Treatment Two - -Treatment Three 5.75 Category 1 7.25 7.25 Category 2 7.25 7.75 8.75 ; Category 3 7.75 8.-00 6.75 An analysis of variance was performed on the dependent var i a b l e of the number of correct responses to the common transfer t e s t with acquired vocabularies. The two main eff e c t s and int e r a c t i o n e f f e c t were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y signi-f i c a n t . (Appendix A, Table 9.) The data i n Table 4 represent the mean time i n minutes to the completion of the common transfer t e s t with acquired vocabularies. 37 Table 4 Mean Time/Minutes to the Completion of the Transfer Test with Acquired Vocabularies (N = 36) . Treatment One Treatment . Two Treatment , Three Category 1 5.50 12.50 10.75 Category 2 9.00 8.50 10.50 Category 3 7 # 7 5 5.25 12.00 An analysis of variance was also performed on the depend-ent v a r i a b l e of the time i n minutes to the completion of the common transfer t e s t with acquired vocabularies. The main e f f e c t due to the three treatments was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t , F(2, 27) = 6.40, £ <.01. The interaction e f f e c t between treatment and category of the subjects was s t a t i s t i c -a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( l , 27) = 4.855, £ <.05, (Appendix A, Table 10). In order to i d e n t i f y the source of between-treatment variance and also t e s t the two experimental hypotheses, as stated i n Chapter l ; within each category of subjects two orthogonal comparisons were made. In Category 1 the f i r s t comparison between the combined mean of Treatment 1 and 2 and the mean of Treatment 3 ( i . e . mean difference = 1.75) was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( l , 27) = 9.00, £ <.01. A l -though Treatment 1 was e n t i r e l y responsible for t h i s s i g n i f i -cant difference; Treatment 2 being lower than Treatment 3. Another orthogonal comparison between the means of Treatment 38 1 and 2 ( i . e . mean difference = 7.00) was found to be s i g n i -f i c a n t ; F ( l ; 27) = 4.33, 2 <05. In Category 2 an orthogonal comparison between the combined mean of Treatment 1 and 2 and the mean of Treatment 3 ( i . e . mean difference = 1.75) was found to be n o n - s i g n i f i c -ant, F ( l , 27) = 1.41, £ > . 0 5 . An orthogonal comparison bet-ween the means of Treatment 1 and 2 ( i . e . mean difference = .50) was found to be non-significant F ( l ; 27) = .148, £ > . 0 5 . In Category 3 an orthogonal comparison between the comb-ined mean of Treatment 1 and 2 and the mean of Treatment 3 ( i . e . mean difference = 5.50) was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( l , 27) = 12.50, p_ <.01. An orthogonal comparison between the mean of Treatment 1 and the mean of Treatment 2 ( i . e . mean difference = 2.50) was found to be non-significant, F ( l , 27) = 3.87, £ > . 0 5 . On the basis of the above analysis, i t can be said that Treatment 1 was e f f e c t i v e to those subjects i n Category 1, while both Treatment 1 and 2 were e f f e c t i v e to Category 3 subjects who were lacking i n vocabularies when the kind of the transfer comprehension t e s t with vocabularies acquired v i a four sessions of treatment was given. The above analysis of data based on time measure seems to provide useful information regarding treatment ef f e c t s , whereas the data of the number of correct responses do not at a l l , perhaps because of i n s e n s i t i v i t y to the treatment given the transfer comprehension t e s t . 39 The Analysis of.-.Transfer Comprehension C r i t e r i o n Measure  With New Vocabularies In order to evaluate the transfer of vocabulary s k i l l treatments to the comprehension of e n t i r e l y new reading materials, two p a r a l l e l forms of paper-pencil tests were given to a l l the subjects p r i o r to the treatment and after the treatment, Thus, mean numbers of correct responses were observed on performance on pre- and post- comprehension transfer task with new vocabularies, as shown i n Table 5. Table 5 Mean Number of Correct Responses to Pre- and Post-Comprehension Transfer Task with New Vocabularies . (N = 36) .. .., Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment.3 . . Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Category 1 33.25 36.75 30.25 • 37.25 ' 31.75 '34.00 Category 2 29.50 33.00 3 1 . 7 5 3 9 . 0 0 '' 31.25 32.00 Category 3 34.00 "• 40.00 • - 38;75 40.75 37.75 38.75 An analysis of variance was performed on the pre-test measure, and i t was found that only the main e f f e c t due to category of subjects was s i g n i f i c a n t , F(2, 27) = 5.49, jo ^ .05. This means that Category 3 subjects performed best on a com-prehension t e s t p r i o r to treatments, which was indicated by the f a c t that the mean of Category 3 was s t a t i s t i c a l l y higher than the other two categories, F ( i ; 27) = 4.74, £ <.05. The i n i t i a l s u p e r i o r i t y of Category 3 was not unexpected, because Category 3 was o r i g i n a l l y defined as Consisting of 40 those subjects with high comprehension but with lower vocab-ulary l e v e l . In evaluating the transfer e f f e c t of vocabulary treatments properly, i t was necessary to eliminate the i n i t i -a l l y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of comprehension a b i l i t y , an analysis of covariance was performed on the post-test measure using the pre-test measure as a covariate. The adjusted mean number of correct responses to the transfer t e s t i s presented i n Table 6, and the r e s u l t s of the analysis of covariance i s shown i n Appendix A; Table 11. Table 6 Adjusted Mean Number of Correct Responses to the Comprehension Transfer Test with New Vocabularies - (N .= .3.6.). Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 Category 1 36.70 38.34 k•- 34.52 Category 2 34.37 3 9 . 5 2 • 32.71 Category 3 39.67 - 38.62 37.00 F i r s t of a l l , v a r i a t i o n due to the covariate was s i g n i -f i c a n t , F ( l , 26) = 8.90, 2<.05y and the t e s t of equality of regression l i n e s of each of three remedial treatments showed that the three slopes were approximately p a r a l l e l , F(2, 30 = 1.43, p_ = .21. The main e f f e c t due to treatments was found s i g n i f i c a n t ; F(2^ 26) = 5.03, p_ ^ .05? whereas the main e f f e c t due to category and i t s in t e r a c t i o n with treatments was non-s i g n i f i c a n t . In order to t e s t the two experimental hypotheses, as stated i n Chapter 1, two orthogonal comparisons were made 41 among adjusted treatment means. An orthogonal contrast between the combined adjusted mean of Treatment 1 and 2 and the adjusted mean of Treatment 3 was found s i g n i f i c a n t ] F ( l , 26) = 7.71] p_ ^ .05. This i n d i -cates the f i r s t experimental hypothesis can be said to be confirmed. The other orthogonal contrast between the adjusted means of Treatment 1 and 2 was found non-significant, F ( l , 26) = 1.63; p_^.05. The non-significant difference] though i n the expected d i r e c t i o n , indicates that Treatment 1 i s no better than Treatment 2 i n producing the transfer e f f e c t to the comprehension of reading materials. 42 CHAPTER IV Summary and Conclusions Problem The purpose of t h i s study was to determine whether a s p e c i a l l y designed remedial reading program consisting of intensive t r a i n i n g sessions which emphasized the d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n of vocabulary s k i l l s by the use of context clues or by s t r u c t u r a l analysis and dictionary usage under an i n d i -v i d u a l rather than a group treatment would improve the compre-hension s k i l l s of potential school dropouts. Procedures The subjects i n t h i s study were grade eight students from a junior secondary school i n a large metropolitan area. They were divided i n t o three categories: (1) subjects whose comprehension and vocabulary scores were the same as or less than grade 6.0, (2) subjects whose comprehension scores were the same as or less than grade 6.0, but whose vocabulary scores were the same as or greater than grade 6.0, and (3) subjects whose vocabulary scores were the same as or less than grade 6.0; but whose comprehension scores were the same as or greater than grade 6.0. T h i r t y - s i x subjects were i d e n t i f i e d on the basis of these c r i t e r i a . Each subject i n each of the three categories was assigned to one of three treatment conditions at random. They received four treatment lessons, f o r t y minutes each over a period of four weeks. 43 The i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials used i n the three treatment conditions consisted of worksheets prepared by the experi-menter. Each treatment session was followed by a comprehen-sion test which consisted of a reading selection and compre-hension questions. Each subject was given the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Survey E; Form 1] The School Interest Inventory, a pre- and post-test form of a Comprehension Test, and a common trans-fer task which consisted of a reading selection and compre-hension questions constructed by the experimenter. Findings I t was hypothesized that a s p e c i a l l y designed remedial reading treatment as defined i n t h i s study and designed to emphasize the d i r e c t i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n of vocabulary s k i l l s by the use of context clues as compared to the di r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n of vocabulary s k i l l s by the use of st r u c t u r a l ana-l y s i s along with dictionary usage would s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve the comprehension s k i l l s of the potential school dropout. I f there were any effects of the two experimental t r e a t -ments at a l l i t was also expected that the treatments should s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve the comprehension s k i l l s of potential school dropouts as compared to the non-direct i n d i v i d u a l n i n s t r -uction of these vocabulary s k i l l s . The number of correct responses to and the completion time on the four exposure tests during the treatments and on the common transfer comprehension te s t with the acquired 44 vocabularies; and the number of correct responses to the f i n a l transfer comprehension t e s t with new vocabularies were ana-lyzed, y i e l d i n g r e s u l t s as follows: (1) By the fourth treatment exposure the subjects over-a l l performance improved i n terms of the number of correct responses to the exposure tests as shown i n Figures 1, 2 and 3. The o v e r a l l observed improvements were found s i g n i f i c a n t , F(3, 81) = 6.51; p ^ . O l , i n terms of the number of correct responses] and F(3, 81) = 14.83, p_<.01, i n terms of the time measure. (2) An analysis of variance was performed on the depend-ent v a r i a b l e of the number of correct responses to the common transfer t e s t with acquired vocabularies. The two main effects and the in t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . (3) An analysis of covariance performed on the depend-ent v a r i a b l e of the number of correct responses to the com-prehension transfer t e s t with new vocabularies with the pre-te s t as covariate was s i g n i f i c a n t ; F_:C2, 26) = 5.03, p_ ^ .05. (4) An orthogonal contrast between the adjusted means of Treatment 1 and 2 was found non-significant, F ( l , 26) = 1.63, £ ^ . 0 5 . (5) An evaluation of the F values for the difference between the mean of Treatment 1 and 2 for the mean number of correct responses to the pre- and post- comprehension trans-f e r task with new vocabularies was found non-significant for a l l three categories of subjects. 4 5 Discussion of Results The e f f e c t due to the four exposure tests was s t a t i s t i c -a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . By the fourth treatment exposure the subjects' o v e r a l l performance improved i n terms of the number of correct responses to the exposure tests, and the amount of time to complete the exposure tests had decreased. The ana-l y s i s of the mean correct responses and mean completion time during treatment seems to suggest that there was a general practice e f f e c t over four exposures, and that the practice e f f e c t was remarkable i n Category 3 subjects under Treatment 1 and 2. This e f f e c t was to be expected as subjects i n Cate-gory 3 were c l a s s i f i e d as those subjects whose vocabulary s k i l l s were the same as or less than grade 6.0; but whose comprehension s k i l l s were the same as or greater than grade 6.0. The exposure of subjects i n Category 3 to vocabulary s k i l l development would tend to improve t h e i r vocabulary s k i l l s and also help to maintain or improve t h e i r comprehen-sion s k i l l s . The analysis of the data based on the time measure to the completion of the transfer task with acquired vocabularies seems to provide useful information regarding treatment effects whereas the data of the number of correct responses do not] perhaps because of the i n s e n s i t i v i t y to the treatment given the transfer comprehension t e s t . From the data presented i t would seem that i f the t r e a t -ment exposures had been continued the number of correct responses by the subjects to the transfer task with acquired 46 vocabularies would have been sensi t i v e to the treatment e f f e c t s , namely the improvement of comprehension through intensive t r a i n i n g i n vocabulary s k i l l s . The analysis of the pre-test data to evaluate the trans-f e r e f f e c t of vocabulary s k i l l treatments on the comprehen-sion of new reading materials indicated that only the main e f f e c t due to the category of subjects was s i g n i f i c a n t . In pa r t i c u l a r , the subjects i n Category 3 performed best on a comprehension t e s t p r i o r to treatment. The supe r i o r i t y of Category 3 subjects i s not unexpected as Category 3 subjects were defined as consisting of those subjects with high compre-hension but a lower vocabulary l e v e l . An analysis of covariance was performed on the post-test measure using the pre-test measure as a covariate. The main e f f e c t due to treatments was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t , whereas the main e f f e c t due to category and i t s interactions with the treatment was non-significant. The data indicated that the pre- and post-test forms of a paper-pencil t e s t measured what i t purported to measure, mainly the comprehension s k i l l s of the subjects. An orthogonal contrast between the adjusted means of Treatment 1 and 2, and the adjusted mean of Treatment 3 was found s i g n i f i c a n t . This f i n d i n g was i n opposition to Hafner's findings i n h i s experimental study i n which there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the experimental and control groups. An orthogonal contrast between the adjusted means of Treatment 1 and 2 were found non-significant. Even though 47 t h i s data indicated Treatment 1 was no better than Treatment 2 the difference was i n the expected d i r e c t i o n . This f i n d -ing agrees with Hafner's which suggested that context clues would be more productive i n helping students improve compre-hension. Summary of Results The findings of t h i s experimental study indicate that the treatment e f f e c t s observed i n terms of the number of cor-re c t responses on the transfer task with acquired vocabul-aries were not s i g n i f i c a n t . The treatment e f f e c t s i n terms of the time i n minutes to the completion of the transfer task with acquired vocabularies were s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i n g that the treatment with the use of contextual clues was part-i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e to those subjects i n Category 3. Both the treatments with the use of contextual clues and s t r u c t u r a l analysis with dictionary usage were e f f e c t i v e to Category 3 subjects who were lacking i n vocabulary s k i l l s when the kind of transfer comprehension t e s t with acquired vocabularies v i a four sessions of treatment were given. The analysis of performance on the transfer t e s t with new vocabularies indicates that the remedial treatments as compared to the non-remedial control treatment are s i g n i f i -cant. The treatment with the use of contextual clues i s no more e f f e c t i v e than the treatment with the use of s t r u c t u r a l analysis with dictionary usage. The treatment e f f e c t s on comprehension were interpreted 48 on the re s u l t s of the s i g n i f i c a n t practice effects observed over four exposure treatments. These suggest that extended treatments of the kinds used i n the present study would have shown s i g n i f i c a n t remedial t r a i n i n g e f f e c t s v i a the use of contextual clues i n the t r a i n i n g of vocabulary s k i l l s . Implications f o r Further Research (1) The present study should be re p l i c a t e d a f t e r pro-v i s i o n has been made for more treatment sessions over a period of one school term (18 weeks). (2) The materials used for the treatment lessons should be taken from the subject matter textbooks used i n the junior secondary schools. (3) This type of study should be conducted i n the ele-mentary school at the grade s i x l e v e l to determine whether or not early i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and treatment can prevent the potential school dropout from becoming a dropout. BIBLIOGRAPHY .50. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Arbuckle, Douglas S. "Counseling and Dropouts? General Considerations," Guidance and the School Dropout. Washington, D. C.: The National Education Association, 1964. Bent, Rudyard K., and Kronenberg, Henry H. Princi p l e s of  Secondary Education. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966. Conant, James B. Slums and Suburbs. New York; McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1961. Curry, Robert. L. "Teaching Decoding S k i l l s , " L. Hafner, ed. Improving Reading In Secondary Schools. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1967. Drews.,. Elizabeth M. "The Schools: Climate A f f e c t s F a l l o u t , " The School Dropout. Washington, D. C.: National Educ-ation Association, 1964. Findley.,. Warren G. "Languare Development and Dropouts," The  School Dropout. Washington, D. C : The National Educ-ation Association, 1964. Goodman, Paul. P r o f i l e of the School Dropout. New York: Vantage Books, 1967. Gowan, John Curtis and Demos, George D. .(.eds...).,,.. The. Dis-advantaged and Potential Dropouts; Compensatory Educ-ation a l Programs. S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, 1961. Gray, W. S. "Reading and Factors Influencing Reading . E f f i -ciency, " W. S. Gray, ed. Reading i n General Education. Washington, D. C.: The American Council on Education, 1940. Greene, Bert I . Preventing Student Dropouts. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . ; Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. Lambert, Nadine. "The High School Dropout i n the Elementary School," Guidance and the School Dropout. Washington, D. C : The National Education Association, 1964. Lichter, Solomon O.., and others. The Dropouts; A Treatment. . Study of the I n t e l l e c t u a l l y Capable Students who Dropout of High School. New York; The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962. 51 Marksheffel, Ned D. Better Reading i n the Secondary School. New Yorks The Ronald Press, 1966. Mouly, George J . The Science of Educational Research. New Yorks American Book Company, 1963. Penty, Ruth C. Reading A b i l i t y and High School Dropouts. New Yorks Teachers College, Bureau of Publications, Columbia University, 1956. Porter.,, John. . The V e r t i c a l Mosaics An Analysis of S o c i a l Class and Power i n Canada. Torontos The University of Toronto Press, 1966. Russell, David H. Children Learn to Read. 2nd ed. New York: B l a i s d e l l Publishing Company, 1961. Sax, G i l b e r t . Empirical Foundations of Educational Research. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J.s Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968. Schreiber.,, Daniel. "An Introduction to the School Dropouts," Project: School Dropout. Washington, D. C.s The Nat-ion a l Education Association, 1964. Stauffer.,. Russell G. Directing Reading Maturity As A Cogni-t i v e Process. New York: Harper & Row, 1969. Tannenbaum, Abraham J . Dropout or. Diploma: A Socio-Economic  Analysis of Early School Withdrawal. New York: Teach-ers College, Bureau of Publications, Columbia Univer-s i t y , 1966. Z e l l e r , Robert. Lowering the Odds on Student Dropouts. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J.s Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT, LEARNED SOCIETIES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Burke, Nelson S. .and. others. . The. Probable Syndrome i n .Terms  of. Educational Experience Which Eercipitates Dropouts, Delinquency, and Eventual Incarceration. I n s t i t u t e for C r i m i n i l o g i c a l Research, Department of Corrections. Washington, D. C.; U. S. Government Printing O f f i c e , 1964. Cottle, William C. "Dropout, Delinquent and Other Scales, of The School Interest. Inventory," The Nineteenth .Yearbook  of the National Council of Measurement i n Education. Ames, Iowas The National Council on Measurement i n Education, 1962. 52: Lieberman.,. Janet E. The E f f e c t of .Direct Instruction i n Vocabulary Concepts on Reading Achievement. U. S. Depart-ment of Health, Education and Welfare, O f f i c e of Educ-ation. Washington, D. C : U. S. Government Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1967 Miller., Leonard M. The Dropout: Schools Search f o r Clues to  His Problem. O f f i c e of Education, U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Washington, D. C : U. S. Government Prin t i n g O f f i c e , 1964. Schreiber; Daniel. "The School Dropout," The Educationally Retarded and Disadvantaged, pp. 211-236. The S i x t y - s i x t h Yearbook of the National Society f o r the Study of Educ-ation, Part I. Chicago: The University of Chicago ^ Press, 1967. Weaver.,.-Wendell. ."The P r e d i c t a b i l i t y of Word Meaning," New  Development i n Programs, Training Aids, and Procedures. The National Reading Conference, Volume 12, 1963. C. PERIODICALS American School Board Journal. "Administrative News: Drop-out Study," American School Board Journal, 153:2, October, 1966. Bledsoe, Joseph C. "An Investigation of Six Correlates of Student Withdrawal Prior to Graduation," Journal of Educational Research, 53:3-6, September, 1956. Cook, E. S. "An Analysis of Factors Related to Withdrawal from High School Prior to Graduation," Journal of  Educational Research, 50:475-483, 1956. Davis, Frederick B. "Fundamental Factors of Comprehension in Reading," Psychometricka, 9:185-197, September, 1944. Epps, Margaret W. and Cottle, William C. "Further Validation of a Dropout Scale," The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 7:2, 90-93; Winter, 1958-59. Herrman, W. L. and Cottle, William C. "An Inventory to Identify High School Dropouts," The Vocational Guidance  Quarterly, 6:122-123, Winter, 1958. Jackson, Jeanne and Dizney, H. "Intensive Vocabulary Train-ing," Journal of Developmental Reading, 6:221-229, 1963. 53 Jenkins, Marguerite. "Vocabulary Development:.. , A Reading Experiment i n Seventh Grade English," Peabody Journal  of Education, 19:347-351, May, 1942. Lanier, J . Armand. "A Guidance-Faculty Study of Student Withdrawals," Journal of Educational Research, 43:204-213, November, 1949. Otterman, Lois M. , "The Value of Teaching. Pr e f i x and Word Roots," Journal of Educational Research, 48:611-616, A p r i l , 1955. Schreiber, Daniel. "The Dropout and Delinquent:. A Promising Practice Gleaned from a Year of Study," Phi Delta Kappan, 44:215-221, February, 1963. Snepp, Daniel W. "Can We Salvage the Dropouts?" The Clearing House, 31:1, 49-54, September, 1956. Snepp, Daniel W. "Why.They Dropout: Eight Clues to Greater Holding Power," The Clearing House, 27:492-494, A p r i l , 1953. "The Scope of the Dropout Problem: An ... Educator Looks.at the Dropout Problem," New York School  Boards Association Journal, 5:5, December, 1963. Thomas, Robert J . "An Empirical Study of High School Drop-outs, .in .Regard to Ten Possible Factors," Journal of  Educational Sociology, 28:11-18, September, 1954. Vincent, Gordon B. and Black, Donald B. "The Dropout. Is .. Society Burden.: ..Fact or F i c t i o n ? " Canadian. Education and Research Digest, 6:4, 313-329, December, 1966. Voss, H.. L. -"Some Types .of..High School Dropouts," Journal of Educational Research, 59:8, 363-367, A p r i l , 1966. Young, Joe M. "Lost, Strayed or Stolen:. Action Research on a Dropout Group," The Clearing House, 29:2, 89-92, October, 1954. Young, H. John. "Why and When?" The B. C. Teacher, 47:4, 162; January, 1968. D. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Childers, Robert D. "The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Potential School Dropouts by Discriminant Analysis." Unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , The University of Georgia, 1965. 5.4 Gillingham, Jonathan. "A Study of Dropouts: Dade County F l o r i d a Public Schools, 1960-63." Dade County Public Schools, Department of Research and Information, May, 1964. (Mimeographed.) Hafner, Lawrence E. "An Experimental Study of the E f f e c t s of Various Reading Achievement Scores of Teaching Selected Context Clues to a Group of F i f t h Graders." Unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Missouri, 1960. Hunt, Jacob T. "The Relationship of Structural A b i l i t y i n Word Analysis and the A b i l i t y to Use Context Clues to Vocabulary and Reading." Unpublished Doctoral d i s -sertation, University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1951. Kirkhaus, Harold. "1962-63 Dropouts." Peoria I l l i n o i s Board of Education, Peoria Public Schools, September 19, 1962. (Mimeographed.) Matthews, Charles V. and Roan, John E. "A Curriculum Demon-str a t i o n Program for Dropout Prone Students.? Edwards-v i l l e , I l l i n o i s : Southern I l l i n o i s University, 1966. (Mimeographed.) Matthews, Charles V. "A Curriculum for Dropout Prone Stu-dents." Edwardsville, I l l i n o i s : Southern I l l i n o i s University, 1966. (Mimeographed.) M i l l e r ; S. M. "School Dropouts and the American Society." Syracuse University Youth Development Center, Syracuse, New York, 1963. (Mimeographed.) Peterson, E l l e n I . "Developing Vocabulary Through Contextual Clues i n the. Junior High School." Unpublished Doctoral di s s e r t a t i o n , Syracuse University, 1942. Stevens, J . Joseph. "The Development of a Model f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Potential School Dropouts." Unpub-li s h e d Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Connecticut, 1964. Young, Walter C. "The Effectiveness of Selected School Pro-grams for Potential Dropouts," Unpublished Doctoral di s s e r t a t i o n , University of Miami, 1965. 55 APPENDIX A 56 Table 7 A Summary Table of the Analysis of Variance on the Number of Correct Responses to the Four Exposure Tests (N = 36) . .Source of Sum .of ...Degree, of .. ...Mean. Variation Squares Freedom Square F £ Treatment (T) 3. 35 2 1 .67 1.31 n. s. Categories (C) 10. 51 2 5 .26 4.12 <. 05 T x C 2. 11 4 .53 .41 n. s. Er.r.or/TC.... 34. 44. 27 1 .28 . . Exposures (E) 10. 69 3 3 .56 6.51 <• 01 T x E 4. 54 6 .76 1.38 n. s. C x E 3. 21 6 .53 .97 n. s. T x C x E •7. 50 12 .62 1.14 n. s. Error/TCE 44. 31 81 •55 5.T Table 8 A Summary Table of Analysis of Variance on the Time/Minutes to the Completion of the Four Exposure (N = 36) .... Tests .. Source of Var i a t i o n . Sum of Squares Degree of . Freedom Mean Square F P Treatment (T) 16.43 2 8.22 1 .20 n .s. Categories (C) .85 2 .43 .06 n .s. T x C 84.44 4 21.11 3 .10 < .05 Error/TC .183.74. . .27 ...... . 6.80 . ..... , , . . . . .... . Exposures (E) 238.25 3 79.41 14 .83 < ,.01 T x E 54.29 6 9.05 1 .69 n .s. C x E 30.87 6 5.15 .96 n .s. T x C x E 65.33 12 5.44 1 .02 n .s. Error/TCE . 433.72 81 5.35 58 Table 9 A Summary Table of Analysis of Variance on the Number of Correct Responses to the Transfer Test with Acquired Vocabularies (N = 36) . . Source of ~~ Sum of Degree of .. Mean Variat i o n Squares Freedom Square F p Treatment (T) 4.056 2 2.028 1.90 n.s. Categories (C) 8.389 2 4.194 2.46 <.15 pClO T x C 10.111 4 2.528 n.s. Error. .Within , ; 4 6 . 0 0 0 ....,- 27 • , . 1.704 Table 10 A Summary Table of Analysis of Variance on the Time/Minutes to the Completion of the Transfer Test with Acquired Vocabularies (N = 36). . . .. Source of .. Sum of Degree of . Mean . Variation Squares Freedom Square F P Treatment (T) 82.667 2 41.333 6.404 <.01 Categories (C) 10.500 2 5.250 0.8135 n.s. T x C 125.333 4 31.333 4.855 <.05 Error. Within 174.247 27 6.454 59 Table 11 A Summary Table of Analysis of Covariance on the Number of Correct Responses to the Comprehension Transfer Test with New Vocabularies with the Pre-Test as Covariate (N. = 36) . , .Source of Sum .of .. Degree of Mean Variation Squares Freedom -> Square F P Treatment (T) 100.1741 2 50.08 5.03 <. 05 Categories (C) 37.497 2 18.75 1.89 n. s. T x C 44.374 4 11.09 1.12 n. s. Covariate 88.47 1 88.47 8.90 <. 01 Error Within..-,. 258.52 ... . 26 9.94 60 APPENDIX B 61 COMPREHENSION TEST "X" - SESSION ONE Samples A wide-brimmed, high-crowned Mexican sombrero or hat, can have several uses. You can carry water i n i t s deep crown. P u l l i t down over your face, and you can nap i n the bright sunshine. You canecarry bananas i n i t s sturdy brim. When the straw f i n a l l y wears out, you can feed the sombrero to a burro. 1. The paragraph says a sombrero has a high brim crown decoration 2. The uses for the sombrero are modern senseless p r a c t i c a l 3. The best heading f o r t h i s paragraph i s A Perfect Water Bucket A "Multi-Purpose" Hat A Sun-Protector On May 1, a l l Hawaiians celebrate L e i Day, or Friendship Day. On t h i s annual holiday every man, woman, and c h i l d wears a l e i , or garland of sweet-scented flowers. To Hawaiians, the l e i s are tokens of love and friendship. These flower rings are also tossed around the necks of v i s i t i o r s to Hawaii when they a r r i v e and when they leave. 1. V i s i t o r s to Hawaii are given l e i s to show wealth friendship health 2. This story describes one of Hawaii's customs gardens occupations 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Hawaii's Abundance of Flowers A Royal Welcome A Hawaiian Trad i t i o n 62 Some years ago, a lead box was discovered i n a wall of an o l d h o s p i t a l i n Mexico C i t y . Inside was a wooden box— locked. An old key was i n the lock and i t turned. The l i d swung open. The box was the c o f f i n of Cortes, the Spaniard who had conquered the c a p i t o l of the Aztecs more than 400 years before. 1. The c o f f i n was found i n the wall of an old c a p i t o l c i t y h o s p i t a l 2. This discovery was r e l a t e d to Mexico's language h i s t o r y geography 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Burial Customs i n Mexico An Important Discovery An Aztec B u r i a l The most important holiday i n Korea i s New Year's Day, which people s t a r t to celebrate on January 22. In pre-paring f o r t h i s holiday season, Koreans scrub t h e i r houses from top to bottom. During the fifteen-day cele-bration, they wear remodeled or bright, new o u t f i t s and c a l l on f r i e n d s . At the end of t h i s national holiday, everyone i s declared a year older. 1. Korea's New Year's celebration i s a national thanksgiving meeting holiday 2. This winter holiday season l a s t s over two months weeks years 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Korea's Favorite Holiday S o c i a l L i f e i n Korea Costumes of the Koreans 63 3. In the 1940's, three Frenchmen s a i l e d down the Niger River i n a native canoe. During the 2,600 mile voyage, they stopped often to v i s i t with cooperative A f r i c a n natives. The explorers recorded t h e i r interviews and took thousands of photographs that t e l l about native l i f e along the Niger. 1. The three Frenchmen traveled i n the continent of Europe A s i a A f r i c a 2. The natives they v i s i t e d could be described as warlike h e l p f u l s a i l o r s 3. The best heading f o r t h i s paragraph i s Ways of Gathering Information A Primitive Method of Travel An Expedition Into Niger Country 4. A crude picture of a cat on a barn may be a child's draw-ing or i t may be a hobo sign meaning that a kind woman l i v e s i n the house. The "knights of the road" have t h e i r own secret symbols. Their signs indicate both good and trouble places. Hoboes learn t h i s code i n "jungles", or hobo camps. 1. The code of the hoboes i s secret s&lemn s t r i c t 2. A hobo who knows t h i s code i s probably i n t e l l i g e n t safer hungry 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Code-Making How to Read a Code An Unusual Language 5. Surprisingly, i t i s often hard to i d e n t i f y odors of com-mon things when you cannot see them. Tfcy t h i s . Have a fr i e n d b l i n d f o l d you and hold under your nose things with a d i s t i n c t i v e odor, such as vinegar, peppermints, or g a r l i c . 64 Now name each item. You may be wrong. Because you could not see the item, your brain did not know what to get you ready to smell. 1. When blindfolded, i t i s harder to i d e n t i f y ideas smells noises 2. The senses of sight and smell are connected i d e n t i c a l unrelated 3. The best heading f o r t h i s paragraph i s A B l i n d f o l d Test f o r Odors Unusual Odors The Amazing Sense of Smell 6. Weathermen often use s c i e n t i f i c calculations to predict weather. These calculations have to do with the study of a i r masses. I f s c i e n t i s t s can figur e out at a given time the number, the nature, and the location of a i r masses, t h e i r forecasts can be reasonable accurate. 1. To predict weather s c i e n t i s t s often study a i r masses balloons forecasts 2. A high percentage of weather reports are guesses correct f a i r 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s What We Know About A i r Masses S c i e n t i f i c Weather Forecasting The Peculiar Nature of the Weather Puzzle 7. "SOS - SOS - bow leaking, forward holds flooding." As the captain of a nearby ship reads the urgent message, his own l i n e r i s b a t t l i n g f i e r c e gales. Nevertheless, he changed course toward the damaged f r e i g h t e r . Hours l a t e r , he sighted the l i s t i n g ship. His crew made four unsuccessful attempts to help the distressed ship. 65 F i n a l l y ; the rescue was accomplished. 1. The sinking ship was a destroyer freigh t e r tanker 2. An SOS i s a request f o r guidance location assistance 3. The best heading for these paragraphs i s A Storm on the Ocean A Rescue at Sea A Message of Distress 8. Sodium pentothal i s an amazing drug. I t i s sometimes used as an anesthetic i n surgery. I t can also be i n -jected into a person's veins to cause a hypnotic state. During the time a person i s so drugged, he may express subconscious thoughts that can be then interpreted by a physician. As a r e s u l t , sodium penthothal i s often c a l l e d a "truth serum". 1. Sodium pentothal i s a kind of vein serum surgeon 2. This drug i s most h e l p f u l i n the treatment of measles pneumonia mental i l l n e s s 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Studying the Subconscious Mind Two Uses f o r Sodium Pentothal Subconscious Thoughts 9. Strange as i t seems, l i g h t n i n g "makes" f e r t i l i z e r . Dur-ing storms; l i g h t n i n g sparks cause nitrogen and oxygen to unite. The substance formed dissolves i n moisture i n the a i r and forms n i t r i c acid, which f a l l s with r a i n and f e r t -i l i z e s the s o i l . Nearly 100 m i l l i o n tons of t h i s acid f a l l s to earth annually. 66 1. The n i t r i c acid i s brought to the ground by wind r a i n l i g h t n i n g 2. N i t r i c acid helps to maintain our supply of r a i n oxygen food 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s F e r t i l i z e r From the A i r Composition of the A i r Lightning i n the S o i l 10. Underlying about 600,000 square miles of the continent of A u s t r a l i a i s a vast reservoir of underground water. I t formed through the ages as r a i n f e l l on the inner slopes of the mountains that e n c i r c l e the i s l a n d . The water sank r a p i d l y through the sandy s o i l u n t i l i t reached an impervious layer of s o i l . There the water se t t l e d , forming an underground lake. The Australian people have put th i s underground water supply to work.. They have sunk bores, ranging i n depth from 50 to 5,000 feet, into the water basin. The artes-ian water; when tapped, often gushes f o r t h i n a continu-ous stream. However, i n the area where a large number of d r i l l i n g s have caused the pressure to be reduced] the water i s pumped to the surface. Water from t h i s reser-v o i r has permitted large a r i d areas i n the "outback" to be used f o r grazing sheep and c a t t l e . 1. The story t e l l s about A u s t r a l i a ' s underground watershed water basin mines 2. Artesian wells have helped A u s t r a l i a ' s l i v e s t o c k industry s i z e resorts 3. The best heading for these paragraphs i s Water Conservation i n A u s t r a l i a W e l l - D r i l l i n g i n A u s t r a l i a A Natural Underground Reservoir 11. The Everglades, a swamp area covering over 5,000 square miles i n F l o r i d a , i s a storybook jungle. 67 Numerous channels wind through saw grass, and gama grass marshes. Rare f i s h and a l l i g a t o r s l i v e i n these murky waters. Some waterways are tunnels walled by tangled roots of mangrove trees. On the roots creep b r i l l i a n t l y banded s n a i l s . Scorpions and cottonmouth snakes s l i t h e r along the logs. Cypress and palmetto trees form a dense growth, where exotic t r o p i c a l birds make t h e i r nests. Among these are the i b i s , egret, and jacana. B i t i n g , buzzing insects f i l l the a i r . As you might expect, few people l i v e i n t h i s wild but beautiful region. 1. Much of the Everglades region i s farmland swampland 2. This area i s very appealing to skiers n a t u r a l i s t s 3. The best heading for these paragraphs i s A T r i p Through the Everglades The Everglades: A Jungle Wonderland Waterways of the Everglades S c i e n t i s t s have discovered that chemicals produced by certain microbes i n the s o i l can be used.as a n t i b i o t i c drugs. One such medicine i s t y r o t h f i c i n . Tt i s pro-duced by the common s o i l germ B a c i l l u s brevis. In English; t h i s name means "short rod". Ty r o t h r i c i n by i t s e l f i s too poisonous to take i n t e r -n a l l y . I t must be mixed with d i s t i l l e d water or with other chemicals before i t can be used s a f e l y . T y r o t h r i c i n i s a powerful enemy of certain disease germs that get into the human body. I t i s used i n some nose sprays and throat lozenges to treat sinus and throat i n f e c t i o n s . I t i s also used i n preparing surgical dressings. 1. T y r o t h r i c i n i s an a n t i b i o t i c tableland swimmers microbe germ drug 68 2. The s o i l microbe B a c i l l u s brevis i s immense b e n e f i c i a l useless 3. The best heading for these paragraphs i s J An Important A n t i b i o t i c Drug Fighting Diseases with Drugs Curing Throat Infections 13. Joseph P u l i t z e r was a lawyer, newspaperman, and a member of the Missouri Le g i s l a t u r e . In h i s public l i f e and through h i s newspaper, P u l i t z e r fought corruption. In 1878 he purchased two St. Louis newspapers, the Dispatch and the Evening Post, which he merged to form the great St. Louis Post-Dispatch. He made hi s fortune with t h i s newspaper. Upon hi s death; P u l i t z e r l e f t an endowment of $2,000,000 to Columbia Un i v e r s i t y . He s p e c i f i e d that a portion of t h i s fund should be used to e s t a b l i s h a school of journal-ism at the Un i v e r s i t y . The remainder of the money was to be used to est a b l i s h annual awards f o r Americans who made distinguished achievements i n journalism, music, l i t e r a -ture; and the a r t s . In 1917 the trustees of Columbia University awarded the f i r s t P u l i t z e r p r i z e s . Besides the annual awards, special i n d i v i d u a l c i t a t i o n s are pre-sented from time to time to deserving Americans. 1. The P u l i t z e r prizes are awarded to Americans annually ocassionally sec r e t l y 2. P u l i t z e r ' s papers fought against corruption with education rewards facts 3. The best heading f o r these paragraphs i s A Worthy Contribution A Great American J o u r n a l i s t A Money-Making Newspaper 14. The l i b r a r y of the New York Academy of Medicine serves other medical l i b r a r i e s through the Americas. I t s compre' hensive c o l l e c t i o n of medical l i t e r a t u r e i s one of the largest i n the Western Hemisphere. Its services are so varied that only a small percentage of physicians, even 69 i n the New York area, r e a l i z e the scope of i t s f a c i l i t i e s . Requests for professional assistance come from many-sources. Some come from physicians i n i s o l a t e d areas. Some come from harassed medical men who are pressed to meet a deadline for a manuscript or a speech. Others come from authors, lawyers; professors, and lecturers who need abstracts of books. The l i b r a r y o f f e r s i t s service free of charge to physi-cians and professors. A small fee i s usually required for assistance to non-medical people. 1. The services of the l i b r a r y are quite i s o l a t e d v a r i e d r e s t r i c t e d 2. Its r i c h e s t treasure i s i t s c o l l e c t i o n of medical abstracts speeches l i t e r a t u r e 3. The best heading for these paragraphs i s A Treasury of Medical L i t e r a t u r e Modern-Day Medical Research ^ Questions Medical Librarians Answer An important agency within the Department of Commerce of the United States Government i s the National Bureau of Standards. The primary job of t h i s agency i s to set up standards for a l l weights and measures. S c i e n t i s t s work in the agency's laboratories to obtain more and more accurate measurements of heat, time, volume, and the l i k e . Besides se t t i n g standards for weights and measures, the bureau performs many other tasks. The f i r s t time a Gov-ernment agency purchases any product, the bureau must put the product to extensive tests to see whether i t w i l l meet certain s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . In addition, the bureau deals i n basic research i n chemistry, physics, mathe-matics and engineering. 1. A l l weights and measures must meet certain products standards functions 2. A l l manufactured a r t i c l e s purchased by the Federal Government must conform to s p e c i a l requirements tests prices The best heading for these paragraphs i s Uncle Sam's Department of Commerce The Work of Government Agencies The Operations of the Bureau of Standards 71 TREATMENT ONE - SESSION TWO WORKSHEET Notice the underlined word i n the sentences below. Read the sentences c a r e f u l l y i n order to determine the meaning of the underlined words as they are used i n these sentences. 1. There, are gardens today, however, i n which no hoes are employed. 1. hired 2. used 3. work 2. The seeds are planted i n sawdust and kept moist. 1. cool 2. warm 3. wet 3. Tomato plants have grown t a l l and have produced f i n e tomatoes. 1. work 2. grown 3. used 4. Five hundred men are employed or work i n the c i t y park system. Employed means 5. The produce department at Safeway has a large selection of f r u i t s and vegetables. Produce means 6. We keep produce moist by spraying i t with a f i n e spray of water Produce means Moist means 7. Parts of the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia are a r i d and have very l i t t l e or no water. A r i d means 8. In the a r i d regions of the world the land i s dry. A r i d means 9. We had very l i t t l e r a i n &nd the land became a r i d . A r i d means 7.2 10. A f t e r the heavy r a i n there was a great deal of moisture on the grass. Moisture means 11. The plants began to sprout or grow r a p i d l y a f t e r they had received some moisture. Sprout means Moisture means 12. In the lumber m i l l s there i s a great deal of sawdust. Sawdust means 13. When.he fi n i s h e d sawing the board there was a p i l e of sawdust l e f t . Sawdust means 14. The R. C. M. P. patrol the highway to keep i t safe. Highway means 15. The men produced a large p i l e of logs i n a short time. Produced means 16. He produced or made a shoe a second with his new machine. Produced means 17. The employer gave his men a r a i s e i n pay. Employer means 18. His employer or boss gave him a weeks vacation. Employer means 19. The boys asked the employer for a job. Employer means 20. The employer expected the men to produce a days work. Employer means Produce means 73 TREATMENT TWO - SESSION TWO WORKSHEET Look up the meaning of the following words i n your dictionary. Also divide the words into s y l l a b l e s . Use your dictionary. 1. a r i d 2. moist 3. sprout 4. produce Compound Words Many times smaller words are joined together to make another word. Divide the following compound words into t h e i r smaller word parts. 5. sawdust .  6. highway Root or Base Words Many times we add a p r e f i x or s u f f i x to a root or base word and change the meaning of that word. Place the root word on the blank space to the l e f t and what has been added to the root or base word on the blank space to the r i g h t . 7. produced 8. employed _______________ 9. employer 10. moisture 74 TREATMENT THREE - SESSION TWO WORKSHEET Study the following l i s t of words c a r e f u l l y . Write the meaning of these words in the blank spaces. 1. sprout 2. a r i d 3. sawdust 4. highway 5. employed 6. moist 7. produced 8. employer 9. produce 10. moisture 75r READING SELECTION - SESSION TWO When the word garden i s mentioned, most people think of spring planting, of good s o i l , and of weeds and hoes. There are gardens today, however, i n which no hoes are employed and which require no s o i l for t h e i r plants. In place" of s o i l , these gardens have tanks of water contain-ing plant food. Wire screens are placed over the tops of the tanks and covered with sawdust, moss, or anything which w i l l hold moisture and keep out l i g h t . The seeds are planted in the sawdust and kept moist. Heating pipes i n the tank below keep the water warm and the a i r moist. Some pipes may also contain holes to allow a i r to bubble through the water to bring oxygen to the plants. Soon the seeds sprout and the roots begin to grow. Eventually the roots extend to the water i n the tank where they f i n d a l l of the food they need. Under t h i s plan, tomato plants have grown t a l l and sturdy and have produced f i n e tomatoes. Potatoes, grains, and many kinds of vegetables and flowers have been grown with success i n t h i s kind of garden. During World War II many of our troops stationed on a r i d islands grew fresh vegetables f o r themselves i n t h i s way. 76 COMPREHENSION CHECK The best heading f o r th i s selection i s a. A New Kind of Garden b. Plants and Sawdust c. Very Large Tomato Plants d. How To Warm Water Which two sentences about the selection are not true? a. The water i s heated by means of pipes. b. The seeds are placed i n the sawdust and flooded with water. c. The new kind of garden does not need to be hoed. d. The plant food i s placed i n the sawdust. e. The seeds are planted in something which w i l l hold water. While not d i r e c t l y stated, i t can be reasoned fcom the a r t i c l e that a. gardening has not changed since 1900. b. gardening cannot be improved. c. ways of gardening a f f e c t the s i z e of plants. 77 TREATMENT ONE - SESSION THREE WORKSHEET Read the following sentences c a r e f u l l y . Pay p a r t i c u l a r attent-ion to the underlined word i n the sentence. Determine the meaning of the underlined word as they are used i n the sentence. 1. Your memory helps you to remember lessons you have learned i n c l a s s . Memory means 2. Your mind's a b i l i t y to .bring back past experiences you have had i s your memory. Memory means 3. We have many happy memories of our childhood. Memories means 4. Recall i s one kind of remembering. Recall means 5. He could not r e c a l l the name of the new boy i n his homeroom. Recall means 6. Please r e c a l l the name of the buss you rode yesterday. Recall means 7. Do you recognize the new boy i n your homeroom? You saw him yesterday i n the c a f e t e r i a . Recognize means . 8. He recognized the sweater he had l o s t l a s t week. I t was in the school l o s t and found box. Recognized means 9. Do you recognize the poem on page 19? You read i t yester-day i n class Recognize means . 78 10. Recognition i s another kind of remembering. Recognition means 11. Having a personal .reason for remembering i s one of the most important factors or aids i n a good memory. Factors means 12. This problem i s made up of many factors or parts. Factors means 13. One important factor i n getting a job i s neatness. Factor means 14. I f you understand the entire .history lesson before you t r y to remember any pa r t i c u l a r dates, your memory may surprise you. Pa r t i c u l a r means 15. John could r e c i t e the whole poem from memory. He doesn't need to use his book. Recite means 16. His a b i l i t y to play baseball was the best i n the school. A b i l i t y means 17. That i s an unusual or d i f f e r e n t ending to the story. Unusual means 18. Concentrate on your a b i l i t y to r e c i t e the poem from memory. Concentrate means_ 19. Having a personal reason f o r remembering your lessons w i l l help you concentrate better. Concentrate means 20. His unusual a b i l i t y to concentrate on h i s running made him the school track s t a r . Concentrate means 79 TREATMENT TWO - SESSION THREE WORKSHEET Look up the meaning of the following words i n your d i c t i o n -ary. Also divide the words into s y l l a b l e s . Use your dictionary. 1. a b i l i t y 2. concentrate 3. memory 4. p a r t i c u l a r 5. factors Prefixes, Roots and Suffixes Study the following l i s t of prefixes, roots, and suffixes c a r e f u l l y . Study the following l i s t of words. Determine the meaning of the words l i s t e d below by using the prefixes, roots, and s u f f i x e s . Prefixes Roots Suffixes re - again cognito - remember ion - r e s u l t know un - not c i t o - say, speak 1. r e c a l l :2. recognition 3. recognize 4. unusual 5. r e c i t e 80 TREATMENT THREE - SESSION THREE WORKSHEET Study the following l i s t of words c a r e f u l l y . Write the meaning of these words i n the blank spaces. 1. memory 2. r e c a l l 3. recognition 4. recognize 5. factors 6. a b i l i t y 7. concentrate 8. p a r t i c u l a r 9. unusual 10. r e c i t e 81 READING SELECTION - SESSION THREE Your mind's a b i l i t y to bring back experiences you have had i s your memory. There are two kinds of remembering, re-c a l l and recognition. For instance, you may not be able to r e c a l l the poem you read yesterday i n class, but i f you see i t again, you w i l l know i t i n s t a n t l y because you recognize i t . Some few people have " t o t a l r e c a l l " often spoken of as photographic memory. A person with t o t a l r e c a l l can r e c i t e a whole page of a book he has read only once, or play a musical composition a f t e r hearing i t . This i s very unusual, however, and most people have d i f f i c u l t y i n remembering the names they heard the day before. This i s not because most people lack the a b i l i t y to remember, but because they had not paid much attention to what they heard. They f e l t no personal reasons to remember. Having a personal reason for remembering i s one of the most important factors i n a good memory. When you have a strong reason f o r remembering, concentr-ate as you read or l i s t e n , and t r y to connect the new i n f o r -mation to things you already know. A d e t a i l i s easy to remember when i t f i t s into a whole that makes sense. I f you understand the entire h i s t o r y lesson before you t r y to remem-ber any p a r t i c u l a r dates, your memory may surprise you. 82 COMPREHENSION CHECK The best t i t l e f o r t h i s a r t i c l e would be a. People Who Can Remember Whole Pages. b. People Who Can't Remember Names. c. Your Memory and How You May Improve I t . d. Recognition. Which two sentences are not true? a. I f you can't remember things, you have no memory. b. Recognition and r e c a l l are two kinds of memory. c. Total r e c a l l i s remembering something i n i t s ent i r e t y . d. A person can remember anything better i f he has a strong reason for doing i t . e. Your memory has nothing to do with your mind. While not d i r e c t l y stated, i t can be reasoned from the a r t i c l e that a. I f he w i l l t r y hard enough, one man can remember as well as another. b. Recall and recognition are the same thing. c. Wanting to do a thing i s very important to being able to do i t . d. Details are more e a s i l y remembered by f i t t i n g them into a whole. ,83 TREATMENT ONE - SESSION FOUR WORKSHEET Read the following sentences c a r e f u l l y . Pay p a r t i c u l a r attention to the underlined word i n the sentence. Determine the meaning of the underlined word in the sentence as i t i s used i n the sentence. 1. A good transportation system allows you to t r a v e l e a s i l y across town. Transportation means 2. The men wanted to transport or move the logs across land to the water. Transport means 3. An automobile i s a good means of transportation. Transportation means 4. The l i q u i d part of your blood, c a l l e d plasma, car r i e s food to the body c e l l s and carries waste products away. Plasma means 5. As your blood moves through your body, i t keeps the body heat constant, so that your temperature remains at 98.6 degrees. Constant means: 1. moving 2. the same 3. up and down 6. The constant ri n g i n g of the f i r e b e l l brought the f i r e department to the f i r e . Constant means: 1. moving 2. steady 3. changing 7. Jack was constantly pushing other people from behind. Constantly means: 1. never 2. always 3. sometimes 8. Your blood stops flowing by c l o t t i n g . C l o t t i n g means 9. You could bleed to death from a l i t t l e cut on your finger i f your blood did not c l o t or stop flowing. Clot means 84 10. I f your blood did not c l o t you would bleed to death. Clot means 11. The red corpuscles in your blood carry oxygen from the lungs to the body c e l l s , and carbon dioxide back from the c e l l s to the lungs. Corpuscles means 12. When the blood supply i s shut o f f from the brain, a person becomes unconscious. Unconscious means 13. John was knocked unconscious and did not move. Unconscious means 14. He remained unconscious for the f i r s t three days he was in the h o s p i t a l . Unconscious means 15. The blood has protective powers. I t protects your body from i n f e c t i o n and keeps you healthy. Protective means: 1. not safe 2. guard 3. open Protects means: 1. guards 2. allows 3. open 16. When you are i l l , bacteria or germs enter your body. Bacteria means 17. Many bacteria are small germs which cannot be seen with the naked eye. Bacteria means 18. When your heart i s functioning i t i s pumping blood through your body. Your heart always works whether you are sleeping or awake. Functioning means 19. An i n f e c t i o n i s a germ which enters the body through an open cut or bruise. Infection means 85 TREATMENT TWO - SESSION FOUR WORKSHEET Look up the meaning of the following words i n your dictionary. Also divide the words into s y l l a b l e s . Use your dictionary. 1. plasma 2. bacteria 3. constant 4. in f e c t i o n 5. corpuscles Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes Study the following l i s t of prefixes, roots, and suffixes c a r e f u l l y . Study the following l i s t of words. Determine the meaning of the words l i s t e d below by using the prefixes, roots, and s u f f i x e s . Prefixes Roots Suffixes trans - across porto- carry ation - act of un - not 1. transportation 2. unconscious Root or Base Words Many times we add a p r e f i x or s u f f i x to a root or base word and change the meaning of that word. Place the root word on the blank space to the l e f t and what has been added to the root or base word on the blank space to the r i g h t . 1. functioning 2. protective 3. c l o t t i n g •8.6 TREATMENT THREE - SESSION FOUR WORKSHEET Study the following l i s t of words c a r e f u l l y . Write the meaning of these words in the blank spaces. 1. transportation 2. plasma 3. constant 4. protective 5. c l o t t i n g 6. unconscious 7. bacteria 8. functioning 9. corpuscles 10. i n f e c t i o n 87 READING SELECTION - SESSION FOUR Your blood i s a transportation system. The l i q u i d part of your blood, c a l l e d plasma, carries food to the body c e l l s and carries waste products away. The red corpuscles i n your blood carry oxygen from the lungs to the body c e l l s and carbon dioxide back from the c e l l s to the lungs. As your blood moves through your body, i t keeps the body heat constant, so that your temperature normal-l y remains at 98.6 degrees. I t keeps the amount of water i n the body constant, too, taking water from the intestines and giving i t to the lungs, sweat, glands, and kidneys. The blood also has protective powers. When you are i l l , b acteria enter your body, and there i s danger of i n f e c t i o n . Then the white corpuscles i n your blood come to your aid by absorbing the bacteria and the broken-down tissue c e l l s . Another kind of protective power i s the a b i l i t y of your blood to stop flowing by c l o t t i n g . You could bleed to death from a cut on your finger i f your blood did not c l o t . The blood i s important to every part of the body. When the blood supply i s shut o f f from the brain, a person becomes unconscious. Your blood i s only about eight percent of your body weight, but i t s correct functioning can mean the difference between l i f e and death. COMPREHENSION CHECK The best heading for t h i s selection i s a. The Work of the Red Corpuscles b. What Plasma Is c. Different Parts of the Body d. The Functions of the Blood Which two sentences about the selection are not true? a. White corpuscles absorb bacteria. b. Red corpuscles carry oxygen. c. As your blood moves through your body, i t keeps your temperature constant. d. Blood does not a f f e c t your health. e. The brain needs no blood. I f a man weighscl50 pounds, his blood would weigh about a. 8 pounds b. 11 pounds, 8 ounces c. 12 and a half pounds d. 12 pounds 89 TREATMENT ONE - SESSION FIVE WORKSHEET Read the following paragraphs c a r e f u l l y . Notice the under-l i n e d words. Try to determine the meaning of the underlined words as they are used i n the paragraphs. The clues to t h e i r meanings are contained i n the paragraphs. Although the body's temperature may vary above and below 98.6 degrees., these changes are usually quite small. Most variations or changes above 98.6 degrees t e l l the doctor that there i s something wrong with us. A change i n the body's temperature of more than ten degrees would probably cause death. The changes i n body temperature happen at varying rates of speed. 1. Vary means 2. Variations means 3. Varying means In the body heat i s produced at a l l times. The heat i s car-r i e d by the blood to the skin surfaces. From t h e r e , i t passes o f f into the a i r . This.,process i s c a l l e d evaporation, and allows the body heat to evaporate or pass o f f into the a i r and helps us to keep cool. 4. Evaporation means 5. Evaporate means Many new wrist watches are automatic which allows them to work by themselves, without our winding them. They wind them-selves automatically and you do not need to wind them by hand. 6. Automatic means 7. Automatically means The t r a i n reversed i t s e l f and went back to the st a t i o n . When a car i s i n reverse i t moves backwards. 8. Reversed means 9. Reverse means 90 Driving regulations are laws passed by the.Province to govern or r u l e drivers on the road or i n the c i t y . 10. Regulations means When a student breaks a school regulation or r u l e he hurts himself and others. 11. Regulation means T r a f f i c l i g h t s regulate or control the t r a f f i c flow on our c i t y s t r e e t s . 12. Regulate means The R. C. M. P. constables wear a uniform which i s the same throughout Canada. 13. Uniform means Money i n Canada i s uniform. I t i s the same throughout the country. 14. Uniform means There was a continuous flow of water i n the stream. I t never stopped running. 15. Continuous means The a i r continuously blows across the apple orchard. I t never stops blowing. 16. Continuously means The pain was continuous. I t only stopped aft e r he took the medicine. 17. Continuous means I t had a d e l i c a t e smell of apples. You could hardly t e l l that there were any used i n the mix. 18. Delicate means The picture had a de l i c a t e touch of blue, which could hardly be seen. 19. Delicate means 91 TREATMENT TWO - SESSION FIVE WORKSHEET Look up the meaning of the following words i n your dictionary. Also divide the words into s y l l a b l e s . Use your dictionary. 1. delicate 2. vary 3. evaporate Prefixes, roots, suffixes Study the.following l i s t of prefixes, roots, and suffixes c a r e f u l l y . Study the following l i s t of words. Determine the meaning of the words l i s t e d below by using the prefixes, roots, and s u f f i x e s . Prefixes Roots Suffixes uni - one regulo - control ation - act of auto - s e l f 4. uniform 5. regulation_ 6 . Automatically. Many times we add a p r e f i x or s u f f i x to a root or base word and change the meaning of that word. Place the root or base word on the blank space to the l e f t and the pr e f i x or suf-f i x that has been added on the blank space to the r i g h t . 7. reversed ___________________ 8. varying 9. variati o n s 10. continuous 92 TREATMENT THREE - SESSION FIVE WORKSHEET Study the following l i s t of words c a r e f u l l y . Write the meaning of these words on the blank spaces. 1. vary 2. va r i a t i o n s 3. regulation 4. automatically 5. varying 6. uniform 7. del i c a t e 8. continuous 9. evaporates 10. reversed 93 READING SELECTION - SESSION FIVE The normal body temperature of a fully-grown person measures 98.6 degrees on a Fahrenheit thermometer. Although the body's temperature may vary above and below t h i s point, the v a r i a t i o n s usually are quite small. A change i n the body's temperature of more than ten degrees either way would probably cause death. The regulation of body temperature i s a de l i c a t e and continuous process. In man and other warm-blooded animals, temperature i s automatically kept uniform under normal condi-t i o n s . In the body, heat i s produced at a l l times, but at varying rates of speed. The heat i s car r i e d by the blood to the skin surfaces. From there, i t passes o f f into the a i r . I f the body becomes too warm, the surface vessels become larger and carry more blood. In t h i s way, more heat can be brought to the surface of the skin and sent out of the body. In addition, as the body becomes warmer, the sweat glands pour out perspiration which evaporates and helps cool the body. These processes are reversed when the body becomes cold. To keep the body temperature from dropping f a r below the nor-mal, the surface blood vessels grow smaller and perspiration i s checked. COMPREHENSION CHECK This a r t i c l e i s about a. Medicine b. Science c. The Body's Heating and Cooling System d. How We Regulate Body Temperature Which two sentences are not true? a. The body produces heat b. Body heat should be 97°. c. Body heat changes are usually s l i g h t . d. We perspire when we are too cold. e. Surface blood vessels get bigger when the body gets too cold. While not d i r e c t l y stated, i t can be reasoned from the a r t i c l e that a. perspiring i s harmful. b. body temperature never changes. c. the blood serves the body as a transportation system. 95 COMMON TRANSFER TASK - SESSION SIX WORKSHEET The desert i s very hot and dry. Because the desert i s a r i d there i s very l i t t l e water a v a i l a b l e . Today, however, the desert has the a b i l i t y to produce f r u i t s , vegetables, and a v a r i e t y of crops. We must recognize that the desert at one time had not produced any crops at a l l You w i l l r e c a l l , i f you search back into your memory, how the Indians were the f i r s t to s e t t l e the desert. The Indians were the f i r s t people who employed a vast highway of d i t c h e s — c a l l e d i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s — t o bring water to the des-ert from the mountains. Once the Indians had t h e i r i r r i g a t i o n system functioning automatically, they produced crops of corn and vegetables f o r t h e i r v i l l a g e s . The a b i l i t y of the Indians to provide a constant supply of water allowed them to keep t h e i r plants and trees moist. By using sawdust and wood chips around the base of trees and plants they could hold the moisture i n the ground longer. Grass began to sprout along the i r r i g a t i o n canals and helped to stop the evaporation of the water. The Indians used t h i s continuous supply of water for t h e i r f i e l d s , c a t t l e , and personal use. This p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y of the Indian to bring water to the desert caused the white man to recognize the advantages of developing the desert regions of the country. 96 There are varying tales of how the west was s e t t l e d by the white man. Before the development of an adequate trans-portation system to the west, few white men s e t t l e d there. Many factors caused the white man's recognition of the value of the new lands i n the west. There were no regulations set down by the government, nor were there any uniform laws to control the settlement of the west. Men who had been west would r e c i t e t a l l tales about the free land and gold. There were many variations of the same t a l e t o l d by d i f f e r e n t people. There was an unusual movement west by the white man. Men began to concentrate on building large c a t t l e ranches. Men who owned large ranches became an employer of many ranch hands or cowboys. The barb wire fence offered a protective r i n g around the ranch. The barb wire fence scratched the hides of the c a t t l e and bacteria entered the open sores and caused i n f e c t i o n . Many c a t t l e had to be k i l l e d because of these i n f e c t i o n s . Range wars broke out between ranchers. The causes of these wars would vary. Many cowboys were found unconscious on the range. Many died because blood plasma had not been discovered. Doctors knew l i t t l e about the c l o t t i n g a b i l i t y of blood or about the red and white corpuscles i n our blood that f i g h t i n f e c t i o n . There was a del i c a t e balance between l i f e and death in the old west. Now, thanks to modern medi-cine, that balance has been reversed. 97 COMPREHENSION CHECK The best t i t l e f o r t h i s selection i s a. The Development of the Desert b. Indians and I r r i g a t i o n Canals c. Development of Cattle Ranches d. Modern Medical Discoveries True or False: a. Because there was very l i t t l e water available the desert was hot and dry. b. The fence helped to develop large c a t t l e ranches and control the c a t t l e . c. The Indians were the f i r s t people to s e t t l e the desert. d. The white man never s e t t l e d on the desert. e. Cattle ranches were developed by the Indians. f . Range wars broke out among the c a t t l e ranchers i n the west. g. Men who s e t t l e d i n the west broke the government land regulations. h. Many cowboys were k i l l e d during the range wars. Although not d i r e c t l y stated, i t can be reasoned from the selection that a. the west would have been developed without water and transportation b. the Indians would never give up t h e i r land to anyone. c. white men would have developed the desert even i f the Indian had not already done so. 98 COMPREHENSION TEST "X" - SESSION SEVEN Samples Vending machines cause people to use more coins today than ever before. Put coins i n certain machines and you can have your picture taken or hear a record. The r i g h t coin i n the r i g h t machine can get you candy, gum, or a drink. For a couple of coins, one machine w i l l even b r o i l hamburgersl 1. Vending machines cause people to use hamburgers coins records 2. Vending machines may replace the jobs of some clerks machines travelers 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Service While you Wait A New Way to Take Pictures Those Marvelous Vanding Machines One of the rarest birds of North America i s the whooping crane. Approximately f i f t y are a l i v e today. These birds usually nest i n Canada and winter i n Texas. The adult bird stands four or f i v e feet high and has a wingspread of six to eight f e e t . Their loud, deep c a l l s can be heard a mile or so away. 1. Whooping cranes usually winter i n Canada Texas North America 2. Today these birds are nearly famous tamed extinct 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s A Rare B i r d of North America Habits of Cranes The Largest Bird i n Texas 99 One of the most important commercial f i s h i n g areas i n the world i s the Grand Banks of the North A t l a n t i c . The banks are broad, underwater plateaus at or near the outer margin of the continental s h e l f . They extend from Nantucket to the eastern coast of Newfoundland. Many kinds of f i s h , including cod, haddock, and flounder, can be found in these waters. 1. The Grand Banks are underwater currents plateaus v a l l e y s 2. The boundaries of the Grand Banks are natural unknown man-made 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Fishing Regions of North America An Important Source of Food North A t l a n t i c Fishing Banks Dogs selected to be "seeing eyes" for b l i n d persons must be dependable and l o y a l . They must also be very i n t e l l -igent, for they must learn to obey signs and respond to si g n a l s . Seeing-eye dogs are often decision-makers for t h e i r masters. 1. Dogs trained to guide the b l i n d must be f r i e n d l y big l o y a l 2. Seeing-eye dogs are ac t u a l l y taught to f i g h t think track 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s The Importance of Signals Man's Best Friend Seeing-Eye Dogs Today most Canadians enjoy fresh, health-giving f r u i t s and vegetables the year around. In areas where winter months are cold, produce i s brought i n from warm regions of the West and South. The tasty f r u i t s and c r i s p 1.00 vegetables are shipped i n r a i l r o a d r e f r i g e r a t o r cars, r e f r i g e r a t e d cars, r e f r i g e r a t e d trucks or airplanes. 1. F r u i t s and vegetables are important f o r work t r a v e l health 2. Fresh f r u i t i s available anytime because of good transportation markets gardens 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Gardens of the West Fresh Produce A l l Year Around Transportation of Fresh Food 4. "These are the times that t r y men's souls." Thomas Paine s t i r r e d the feelings of Americans with those words i n 1776. Paine might be c a l l e d the news commentator of t h i s era. The books and pamphlets he wrote to interpret the news and rouse Americans to rev o l t were best s e l l e r s . Some hist o r i a n s say that no one else did so much to bring about the Revolution. 1. Thomas Paine helped cause people to reform f l e e revolt 2. This man aroused Americans by guns threats words 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Early News Reporting Thomas Paines Fighter for Freedom The Work of Historians 5. The Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e i n Washington, D. C. i s an important center for research. I t was founded as a re s u l t of a g i f t from an Englishman who never v i s i t e d the United States—James Smithson. He bequeathed money to est a b l i s h an i n s t i t u t i o n f or the "increase and d i f f u s i o n of knowledge among men". 101' 1. The I n s t i t u t i o n was founded with money from taxes a g i f t the government 2. The I n s t i t u t i o n ' s purposes are s c i e n t i f i c and educational l i t e r a r y expensive 3. The best heading f o r t h i s paragraph i s An Englishman's Fortune __An Englishman's Wonderful G i f t Spreading Knowledge 6. Basenji, which means "bush things", i s the name of an unusual breed of dog. The breed i s native to A f r i c a and i s centuries o l d . Reportedly, basenjis were pets of the royal Egyptian Pharaohs. Today, also, some people prefer t h i s dog as a pet, for i t i s "barkless". Usually i t expresses i t s e l f i n noises that resemble c r i e s , whines, or chuckles. 1. The dog t o l d about i n the paragraph cannot cry whine bark 2. At one time, basenjis were pets of Egyptian warriors ru l e r s slaves 3. The best heading f o r t h i s paragraph i s Ancient Household Pets Unusual V a r i e t i e s of Dogs An Unusual Dog 7. Every year; shopwindows and catalogs display the l a t e s t styles i n sandals. Perhaps you have admired t h i s "modern" footwear. In r e a l i t y , sandals are not modern— they date back to the Egypt of 2000 B. C. The Egyptian papyrus sandals of long ago c l o s e l y resemble the p l a i t e d straw sandals of today. 1. The Egyptians made sandals of straw paper papyrus 102 2. For ages, sandals have had great appeal secrets s i g n i f i c a n c e 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Keeping Up-to-Date In the Days of the Egyptians A New-Old Shoe 8. S i l i c o s i s i s a lung disease that may develop i f a person inhales too much dust containing s i l i c s . Quarry workers and miners who work with s i l i c s - b e a r i n g rock are most l i k e l y to be affected. The disease i s marked by short-ness of breath, coughing, and chest pains. I t can develop into tuberculosis. 1. The paragraph t e l l s about s i l i c a dust can cause dizziness disease disaster 2. To keep dust from his lungs, a worker could wear a scarf goggles a mask 3. The best heading f o r t h i s paragraph i s Dangerous Occupations The Spread of Disease An Occupational Lung Disease 9. Your signature i s unique. No one else anywhere has one exactly l i k e i t . Be aware of your obligation to i t . Once you sign your name to a document, you must f u l f i l l the provisions or terms as stated. Always read a paper c a r e f u l l y before you sign i t . Read the f i n e p r i n t , no matter how small i t i s . Take nothing for granted. Use your signature sensibly. 1. No two people have exactly the same document provisions signature 2. By signing a document, you may enter into an agreement application argument 103 3. The best heading for t h i s paragraph i s Know your Documents Your Signature—Your Promise How To Improve Your Signature 10. A good cartoonist can get a message across i n just a few l i n e s ; and by his art he may t r y to persuade the reader to his way of thinking on a certain subject. In many cases, cartoonists have considerable influence on public opinion. Often a p o l i t i c a l cartoonist i n t e n t i o n a l l "overstates" things i n hi s drawings. I f he i s sketching a famous per-son, he may exaggerate one of that person's prominent features. For instance, he may lengthen an already long nose or widen an already broad g r i n . Such exaggeration of personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s c a l l e d "caricature". Many cartoonists, expecially p o l i t i c a l ones, d e l i v e r a t e l y use caricature to make people or events a t t r a c t i v e or unattract-ive to the pub l i c . 1. Exaggeration of a person's features i s c a l l e d humor _ c a r i c a t u r e p o l i t i c a l 2. Some cartoonists achieve a serious purpose with experiments r i d i c u l e silence 3. The best heading for these paragraphs i s The Penalty of Prominent Features Cartoonists Compared to Writers A Special Technique of the, Cartoonist 11. Tin i s seldom used i n i t s pure m e t a l l i c form. Instead i t i s mixed with other metals to form a l l o y s , or i t i s used to coat cert a i n metals Tin i s alloyed with copper to form bronze for b e l l s , pipes, and castings. When i t i s mixed with lead, the a l l o y gives us solder, t i n f o i l , and lead f o i l . Tin p l a t e — t h a t i s , sheet metal coated with t i n — i s manu-factured by a simple process. F i r s t , iron or s t e e l sheets are thoroughly cleaned with a c i d . Then they are 104' dipped into vats of molten t i n and palm o i l . When the sheets are coated to the required thickness, they are taken from the vats and cleaned. Tin has numerous i n d u s t r i a l uses. I t i s used i n the manufacture of automobile parts. I t i s also used to coat roofing materials, water spouts, buckets, pans, toys, and many other a r t i c l e s . 1. T i n i s used to coat other metals and to form f i x t u r e s sheets alloys 2. These paragraphs show that t i n i s extremely useful expensive rare 3. The best heading for these paragraphs i s Metal Al l o y s The World's Tin Supply A Valuable Metal Rubies and sapphires are two of the most important synthe-t i c gems produced today. Such jewels are not imitation, precious stones, but gems made by man instead of nature. Synthetic rubies and sapphires are made of corundum, an aluminum oxide. To form t h i s oxide, pure alum crystals are roasted at 2,400 degrees farenheit to a feathery white powder. To t h i s white powder, a gem maker adds coloring agents—chromic oxide to produce the reddof rubies, and iron and titanium to create the blue of sapphires. The powder i s then fed into intensely hot hydrogen furn-aces, where the powder melts. The drops of melted powder b u i l d up and are formed into small rods on a f i r e c l a y base. Then a jewel maker uses a copper-and-diamond saw to s l i c e the rods into d i s c s . 1. Snythetic rubies and sapphires are made of 2. copper Extreme cold corundum f i r e c l a y i s v i t a l in making synthetic gems. pressure heat 105 3. The best heading for these paragraphs i s Recognizing Imitation Jewels Two A r t i f i c i a l But Genuine Jewels Mining Rubies and Sapphires 13. Skin diving, long a popular hobby, has become important to science and industry. Skin divers lead geologists to r i c h o i l deposits beneath the ocean. They also a s s i s t marine b i o l o g i s t s i n studying animals and plants that l i v e below the surface of the ocean. Skin diving archaeolo-g i s t s r e t r i e v e objects from ancient, sunken ships. A skin diver can move quite f r e e l y when diving. He i s not hampered by cumbersome equipment. Most skin divers use only a mask, a snorkel, and f i n s . But divers who explore depths of more than twenty-five feet have to have special breathing apparatus c a l l e d "lungs". The technical name for t h i s equipment i s S e l f -Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus, or SCUBA, for short. By breathing compressed a i r from the tank strap-ped to h i s back, a skin diver can stay submerged for an hour or longer. 1. Skin divers help f i n d o i l deposits. geographers marines geologists 2. Skin divers must be s k i l l e d b i o l o g i s t s swimmers s a i l o r s 3. The best heading f o r these paragraphs i s Skin-Diving Equipment Skin-Diving, A Popular Hobby Skin-Diving, More Than A Hobby 14. For more than a century, audiences have t h r i l l e d to the music of Frederic Chopin. This Polish-born composer wrote scores for the piano that include romantic waltzes. Chopin was a c h i l d prodigy. He gave his f i r s t piano con-cert when he was eight and began composing soon a f t e r . At the time of his graduation from high school, he was 106 recognized as the leading p i a n i s t i n Warsaw, the c a p i t a l of Poland. Chopin i s regarded by many as the greatest of a l l com-posers f o r the piano. His more than two hundred composi-tions show his appreciation of the effects that a piano can produce. 1. Chopin composed for the score piano concerts 2. Chopin could be c a l l e d a musical contemporary genius graduate 3. The best heading for these paragraphs i s Famous Piano Compositions A Talented Composer Waltzes, Nocturnes, and Mazurkas M i l l i o n s of earthquakes occur each year. Many cause wide-spread destruction and loss of l i f e . S c i e n t i s t s who study the causes of earthquakes believe that tremendous stresses and pressures b u i l d up inside the earth. These stresses and pressures cause the rocks on the inside to change shape. The rocks bend slowly, storing up energy as they do so. This energy then causes s t r a i n i n the rocks that form the earth's crust. When the s t r a i n becomes too great, the rocks rupture and cause an earthquake. Ruptures; or f a u l t s , are the f o c a l point of an earthquake, but the v i b r a t i n g earth generates seismic waves that can be f e l t hundreds of miles away. Seismic waves, of which there are three types—shear, surface, and compressional — c a n pass through the earth i n about twenty-one minutes. The study of these waves has given s c i e n t i s t s much i n f o r -mation about the core of the earth and about i t s structure. 1. Earthquakes are due to inside the earth. surfaces waves stresses 2. S c i e n t i s t s are now able to earthquakes. produce measure prevent The best heading for these paragraphs Studying Seismic Waves When the Earth Shakes Destruction of the Earth 

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