UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The internal arrangement of urban arterial business districts Montgomery, David Alexander 1968

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1969_A8 M65.pdf [ 6.26MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104181.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104181-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104181-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104181-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104181-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104181-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104181-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104181-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104181.ris

Full Text

T H E I N T E R N A L A R R A N G E M E N T O F U R B A N A R T E R I A L B U S I N E S S D I S T R I C T S by D A V I D A L E X A N D E R M O N T G O M E R Y B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1965 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S in . t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f G E O G R A P H Y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A S e p t e m b e r , I968 ( 1 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h.i>s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date AJpu.pj, A B S T R A C T T h e pu rpose o f t h i s s t u d y w a s t o examine t h e p a t t e r n s o f f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f bus iness t y p e s on a r t e r i a l shopping s t r e e t s in V a n c o u v e r . I n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e s t u d y a s s e s s e d t h e r e l e v a n c e t o V a n c o u v e r o f s p a t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s c h e m e s as t h e y have been developed in geograph ic l i t e r a t u r e t o d e s c r i b e t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e in o t h e r c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y C h i c a g o . V a n c o u v e r ' s unplanned c o m m u n i t y bus iness d i s t r i c t s t a k e t h e f o r m o f s t r i n g - s t r e e t s o r r ibbons in t h a t bus ine s se s a r e l o c a t e d a long t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s b u t r a r e l y d o w n i n t e r s e c t i n g s t r e e t s ; a n d , t h e s t r i p s e x t e n d f o r d i s t a n c e s in e x c e s s o f t h r e e t h o u s a n d f e e t . . A t t h e same t i m e , h o w e v e r , t h e d i s t r i c t s c o n t a i n c o n f o r m a t i o n s o f bus ines s t y p e s w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o n v e n i e n c e - and shopping-goods c e n t e r s as d e s c r i b e d in p r e -v ious c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . A s e r i e s o f w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s e s p r o p o s e d t h a t a c o r e -f r a m e c o n c e p t be u sed t o develop a model o f t he bus iness a r r a n g e m e n t s . T h e model w a s t e s t e d i n f o u r a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s and c o n f i r m e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h r e e f u n c t i o n a l s u b - a r e a s . ( i) T h e c o r e o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s is m o r e c o m -p l e t e l y deve loped on one side o f t he d i s s e c t i n g a r t e r y in the a r e a o f peak land v a l u e s . T h e c o r e con t a in s shopping-goods i i s t o r e s -which s e r v e c o m p a r a t i v e shopping t r i p s . ( i i ) T h e f r a m e is composed o f s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n a l l y unl inked s u b - a r e a s w h i c h s e r v e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e shopping t r i p s . . B u s i n e s s e s l o c a t e in t h e f r a m e because t h e y depend t o some e x t e n t on t h e high d e n s i t y t r a f f i c g e n e r a t e d by t h e r e t a i l c o r e y e t do n o t r e q u i r e t h e degree o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y a t t e n d a n t a t t h e c o r e . T h e low r e n t a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n in t h e f r a m e p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g new b u s i n e s s e s . ( i i i ) T h e r i b b o n con ta in s bus inesses w h i c h s e r v e s i n g l e -v i s i t shopping t r i p s and a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y u n l i n k e d . T h e c o r e - f r a m e c o n f o r m a t i o n evo lved f r o m an i n i t i a l l y d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n o f bus ines se s c a t e r i n g t o w a l k - i n t r a d e . A f t e r W o r l d W a r I I r e t a i l s t o r e s began t o group in a l i m i t e d number o f l o c a t i o n s in r e s p o n s e t o t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f shopping a c t i v i t i e s and t h e w i d e - s p r e a d use o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e . A . p r o m i n e n t f r a m e e m e r g e d in t h e 1950 's w i t h t h e e n t r y o f f i n a n c i a l , medica l and o t h e r o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s . i i i A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S T h e f o l l o w i n g d e s e r v e spec i a l m e n t i o n f o r t h e i r help in t he p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y : D r . W a l t e r G . H a r d w i c k o f t he D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , f o r his e n c o u r a g e m e n t and adv ice p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e s t u d y ' s f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d ; t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t f o r a l l owing t h e i r d a t a t o be u sed in t h i s s t u d y ; and M r . T . B r o c k S t a n l e y o f t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , who w a s invo lved in t h e p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f c o m m e r c i a l zon ing , f o r his m o s t he lp fu l c o m m e n t s . . A v e r y s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my w i f e , D o n n a , w h o s e s u b s t a n t i a l p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and u n t i r i n g p a t i e n c e made c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . D a v i d A l e x a n d e r M o n t g o m e r y S e p t e m b e r , 1968. r T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A B S T R A C T A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S L I S T O F T A B L E S L I S T O F I L L U S T R A T I O N S C h a p t e r I T H E I N T E R N A L A R R A N G E M E N T O F U R B A N A R T E R I A L B U S I N E S S D I S T R I C T S T h e P r o b l e m W o r k i n g H y p o t h e s e s S t u d y A r e a I I R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E .... M o d e l s o f O u t l y i n g C o m m e r c i a l S t r u c t u r e P l a n n i n g M o d e l s T h e C o r e - F r a m e C o n c e p t C o n s u m e r B e h a v i o u r a n d t h e I n t e r n a l A r r a n g e m e n t o f B u s i n e s s A r e a s S u m m a t i o n I I I T H E S E T T I N G A N D A N A L Y T I C A L P R O C E D U R E T h e S e t t i n g A n a l y t i c a l P r o c e d u r e I V T H E P R E S E N T S T R U C T U R E O F U R B A N A R T E R I A L S I N V A N C O U V E R A n a l y s i s o f t h e F r a s e r - S t r e e t B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t D i s t r i c t 2 — H a s t i n g s S t r e e t D i s t r i c t 3—West B r o a d w a y A v e n u e P a g e i i i i i v v 1 12 39 52 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ( con t inued) C h a p t e r P a g e D i s t r i c t h—Kerrisdale V E V O L U T I O N O F . A R T E R I A L B U S I N E S S D I S T R I C T S - . 92 C h a n g e in U r b a n A r t e r i a l C o m -p o s i t i o n T h e C h a n g i n g I n t e r n a l A r r a n g e m e n t S u m m a t i o n V I C O N C L U S I O N 118 P l a n n i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s B I B L I O G R A P H Y 126 . A P P E N D I C E S A . C L A S S I F I C A T I O N S O F B U S I N E S S T Y P E S 131 B . C L U S T E R A N A L Y S I S 134 C . L A N D U S E P R O F I L E S 136 D . C H A N G E I N T H E N U M B E R O F F I N A N C E A N D O F F I C E E S T A B -L I S H M E N T S A N D T H E N U M B E R O F I N D I V I D U A L O F F I C E S , lJ+l iv L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e P a g e I C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f B u s i n e s s T y p e s 2+5 I I A r e a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B u s i n e s s T y p e s on F r a s e r S t r e e t 60 I I I A r e a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S h o p p i n g - G o o d s B u s i n e s s T y p e s on F r a s e r S t r e e t 62 I V C h a n g e i n t h e N u m b e r o f E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a t T e n Y e a r I n t e r v a l s f r o m 1927 t o 1966 95 V P e r C e n t o f P u r c h a s e s M a d e i n D o w n t o w n , V a n c o u v e r by R e s i d e n t s o f t h e F r a s e r S t r e e t B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t T r a d e H i n t e r l a n d 101 A P P E N D I X D C h a n g e in t h e N u m b e r o f F i n a n c e and O f f i c e E s t a b l i s h m e n t s and t h e N u m b e r o f Ind iv idua l O f f i c e s . . . 12+1 L I S T O F I L L U S T R A T I O N S F i g u r e P a g e 1 . C o m p o n e n t s o f t he R e t a i l S t r u c t u r e 2 2 . H i e r a r c h y o f S h o p p i n g C e n t e r s 11 3. U r b a n A r t e r i a l C o m m e r c i a l D i s t r i c t s 2+1 2+. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f B u s i n e s s T y p e s ? F r a s e r S t r e e t 53 5. L a n d U s e G r o u p s : F r a s e r S t r e e t 56 6. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e t a i l G r o u p and A s s e s s e d L a n d V a l u e s : F r a s e r S t r e e t 59 7. F u n c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n : F r a s e r S t r e e t 68 8. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f B u s i n e s s T y p e s : H a s t i n g s S t r e e t 70 9. L a n d U s e G r o u p s : H a s t i n g s S t r e e t 71 10. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e t a i l G r o u p and A s s e s s e d L a n d V a l u e s : H a s t i n g s S t r e e t 73 11. F u n c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n : H a s t i n g s S t r e e t . . . . 75 12. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f B u s i n e s s T y p e s : W e s t B r o a d w a y 76 13. L a n d U s e G r o u p s : W e s t B r o a d w a y 78 14. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e t a i l G r o u p and A s s e s s e d L a n d V a l u e s : W e s t B r o a d w a y 80 15. F u n c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n : W e s t B r o a d w a y 82 16. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f B u s i n e s s T y p e s : K e r r i s d a l e . . 82+ 17. L a n d U s e G r o u p s : K e r r i s d a l e 86 v i L I S T O F I L L U S T R A T I O N S (con t inued) F i g u r e P a g e 1 8 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e t a i l G r o u p and A s s e s s e d L a n d V a l u e s : K e r r i s d a l e 88 19. F u n c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n : K e r r i s d a l e . ' . . . . 90 2 0 . L a n d U s e G r o u p s : C o m b i n e d D a t a o f • S t u d y D i s t r i c t s . . . 91 2 1 . T h e C h a n g i n g R e t a i l C o m p o n e n t 97 2 2 . T h e C h a n g i n g S e r v i c e C o m p o n e n t 99 2 3 . T h e C h a n g i n g R e t a i l A r r a n g e m e n t : W e s t B r o a d w a y A v e n u e and F r a s e r S t r e e t 102+ 22+. T h e C h a n g i n g S e r v i c e A r r a n g e m e n t : W e s t B r o a d w a y A v e n u e and F r a s e r S t r e e t 108 2 5 . T h e C h a n g i n g R e t a i l A r r a n g e m e n t : " H a s t i n g s S t r e e t and K e r r i s d a l e I l l 2 6 . T h e C h a n g i n g S e r v i c e A r r a n g e m e n t : H a s t i n g s S t r e e t and K e r r i s d a l e 112+ 2 7 . L a n d U s e D i s t r i b u t i o n : F r a s e r S t r e e t 137 2 8 . L a n d U s e D i s t r i b u t i o n : H a s t i n g s S t r e e t 138 2 9 . L a n d U s e D i s t r i b u t i o n : - ' W e s t B r o a d w a y 139 3 0 . . L a n d U s e D i s t r i b u t i o n : K e r r i s d a l e 12+0 C H A P T E R I T H E I N T E R N A L A R R A N G E M E N T O F U R B A N A R T E R I A L B U S I N E S S D I S T R I C T S T h e P r o b l e m C e n t r a l p lace t h e o r y and p rev ious e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have p r o d u c e d evidence t h a t u r b a n bus iness t y p e s f a l l i n t o o r d e r l y h i e r a r c h i c a l p a t t e r n s o f shopping c e n t e r s and bus iness d i s t r i c t s * ( F i g u r e 1 ) . T h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s have been genera l ly c l a s s e d as h i g h w a y - o r i e n t e d and u r b a n a r t e r i a l r i bbon d e v e l o p m e n t s . W i t h -p i n t he u r b a n a r t e r i a l f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p , r e c o g n i t i o n has been g iven t o the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e number and kinds o f bus iness t y p e s l o c a t e d adjacent t o r e t a i l c e n t e r s . T h e s t r u c t u r e o f a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s o r shopping s t r e e t s , h o w e v e r , has long been t h e sub j ec t o f vague d e f i n i t i o n . T h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g models w e r e i n d i c a t e d du r ing the r e s e a r c h s t a g e o f a planning project-^ involv ing t h e c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n o f t he s t r u c t u r e and p a t t e r n o f subu rban c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s in the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . A n a t t e m p t w a s made t o apply t h e c o m m e r c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s chemes developed in r e c e n t s t u d i e s t o t h i s s t r u c t u r e . T h e a t t e m p t r evea l ed t h e inadequacy o f t he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f c e r t a i n o f the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s and f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f V a n c o u v e r ' s unplanned c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s , i . e . , t h o s e bus iness a r e a s f u n c t i o n i n g as F i g u r e 1. C O M P O N E N T S O F T H E R E T A I L S T R U C T U R E -C E N T E R S P l a n n e d o r Unp lanned B U S I N E S S D I S T R I C T S R I B B O N S S P E C I A L I Z E D A R E A S C o n v e n i e n c e U r b a n A r t e r i a l H i g h w a y -O r i e n t e d A u t o m o b i l e R o w s N e ighbourhood T r a d i t i o n a l N e w S u b u r b a n S h o p p i n g S t r e e t R i b b o n P r i n t i n g D i s t r i c t s C o m m u n i t y E n t e r t a i n m e n t D i s t r i c t s R e g i o n a l E x o t i c M a r k e t s M e t r o p o l i t a n C B D F u r n i t u r e D i s t r i c t s M e d i c a l C e n t e r s S o u r c e : B . « J . L . B e r r y and H . M . M a y e r , C o m p a r a t i v e  S t u d i e s o f C e n t r a l P l a c e S y s t e m s , R e p o r t t o t h e o f f i c e o f N a v a l R e s e a r c h , N O N R 2121-18 , P r o j e c t N R 389-196 (1962).,.. P a r t I I I . 3 community shopping d i s t r i c t s . The d i s t r i c t s generally take the form of s t r i n g - s t r e e t s or urban a r t e r i a l ribbons in t h a t businesses are located along t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s but rarely down intersecting s t r e e t s , and, the st r i p s extend f o r distances in excess of 3,000 f e e t . A t the same time, however, the d i s t r i c t s contain a mix of business types which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of convenience- and shopping-goods c e n t e r s . Although some classifications have recognized t h a t centers and ribbons are o f t e n areally adjacent, the signi-ficance of their association has not been studied in any det a i l . This study is designed to c l a r i f y some of these issues through an analysis of establishments in several neighbourhoods of Vancouver. A review of the pertinent l i t e r a t u r e indicates t h a t the scale of generalization, and assumptions and concepts employed in the derivation of c l a s s i f i c a t o r y and s t r u c t u r a l models of intraurban commercial s t r u c t u r e have inhibited a flexible and comprehensive approach to the study of the internal arrange-ment of suburban business d i s t r i c t s . S e veral models of spatial organization categorize the commercial conformations as centers or ribbons. Centers are characterized by internal unity and business types generating multi-purpose shopping t r i p s ; ribbons, by a lack of internal unity and business types generating single-purpose shopping t r i p s . k E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r bus iness d i s t r i c t s a t a f i n e r sca l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a t r a n s i t i o n zone appea r s t o e x i s t in a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e major c a t e g o r i e s o f land u s e s . P l a n n i n g - d e s i g n s t u d i e s o f bus iness d i s t r i c t s c o n d u c t e d a t t h e l a r g e r sca l e o f t he individual c e n t e r i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e o f i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n c e n t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e induced by d i s s e c t i n g a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s and n o n - c o m m e r c i a l land u s e s . T h e s e imped imen t s in f luence t h e mode and e x t e n t o f t h e f l o w o f c o n s u m e r s t h r o u g h o u t the d i s t r i c t a n d , c o n c o m i t a n t -l y , t h e f u n c t i o n a l groupings- w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . T h e models have t e n d e d t o ignore t h e s t o c h a s t i c n a t u r e and unexpla ined l o c a t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n the r e t a i l and s e r v i c e s y s t e m by r ig id ly l ink ing c e r t a i n s t o r e and c o m m o d i t y g roups w i t h c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s de f ined on the bas i s o f c e n t r a l p lace a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c o n s u m e r shopping h a b i t s . R e c e n t s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n m u s t by app roached w i t h g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y . I n some ca se s i t may be e x p e c t e d t h a t one t y p e o f c o m m o d i t y w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d i n s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n a l groupings o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s depending on the r e t a i l i n g p r a c t i c e . A d o p t i o n o f t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y could s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r t h e i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n o f t y p e s o f f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s and a c c o m m o d a t e t h e s t o c h a s t i c n a t u r e o f t he r e t a i l and s e r v i c e s y s t e m . A t t h e same t i m e , w h a t appea r t o a b e r r a n t bus iness l o c a t i o n s i n r e c e n t s t u d i e s may be expla ined by a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f c o n c e p t s and a change i n s c a l e . T h e p a t t e r n and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e ou t l y ing bus iness a r e a s in V a n c o u v e r has been ana lysed t o de r ive a f u n c t i o n a l model d e s c r i b i n g t h e i n t e r n a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f r e t a i l and s e r v i c e uses a t t h e c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r l eve l in t h e bus iness h i e r a r c h y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n has been g iven t o t h e p a t t e r n o f a s s o c i a t i o n o f ' c e n t e r ' and 'ribbon'* f u n c t i o n a l bus iness t y p e s us ing t h e c o r e - f r a m e c o n c e p t f o r m u l a t e d by H o r w o o d and B o y c e as a f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e a n a l y s i s . I n t h i s c o n t e x t an a t t e m p t is made t o i d e n t i f y t h e c r i t i c a l va r i ab l e s in f luenc ing t h e l o c a t i o n o f bus iness groupings in t h e f u n c t i o n a l s u b - r e g i o n s o f V a n c o u v e r ' s u r b a n a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s ; a n d , us ing t i m e - s e r i e s a n a l y s i s , t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o c e s s e s o f change w h i c h l ed t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p r e s e n t c o n f o r m a t i o n s . T h e a d o p t e d f o r m a t p r o v i d e s an e f f e c t i v e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and exp l ana t i on o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y bus iness d i s t r i c t s o f t he C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ; and c l a r i f i e s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f c u r r e n t suburban c o m m e r c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s c h e m e s , t h e l o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f bus iness t y p e s d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n unplanned c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r s . 6 W o r k i n g H y p o t h e s e s T h e p rob lem may be c a s t in the f o r m o f a s e r i e s o f loose w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s e s each o f w h i c h may be t e s t e d us ing d a t a f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . H y p o t h e s i s 1. I t is h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t u r b a n a r t e r i a l s t r i n g -s t r e e t s a r e composed o f f u n c t i o n a l s u b - a r e a s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d in a r e g u l a r p a t t e r n f r o m d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t . P r e v i o u s geograph ica l s t u d i e s have been p r i m a r i l y c o n -c e r n e d w i t h p lac ing t h e v a r i o u s nuc lea t ions and s t r i p s o f i n t r a -u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y i n t o a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y f r a m e w o r k . T h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s made a t t h i s s c a l e , i . e . , t h e ' c e n t e r ' and ' r i b b o n ' c a t e g o r i e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s c h e m e s , t e n d t o mask v a r i a t i o n s i n t he s t r u c t u r e o f t h e v a r i o u s c e n t e r s and r i b b o n s . H y p o t h e s i s 2. I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a r e a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f unplanned c e n t e r s and t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f adjacent r i bbon deve lopmen t s may be ana lysed by c ons ide r i ng the r e t a i l c o r e , and t h e r e t a i l p e r i p h e r y and adjacent r i b b o n , as t h e c o r e and f r a m e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f s u b u r b a n bus iness d i s t r i c t s . P a t t e r n s o f c o n s u m e r behav iour have gene ra l ly been p o s i t e d t o expla in t h e s t r u c t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s developed in s u b u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l s t u d i e s . R ibbons a r e the f o c u s o f s i n g l e -pu rpose shopping w h i c h s u p p o r t f r e e - s t a n d i n g bus iness t y p e s ; a n d , c e n t e r s a r e t h e f o c u s o f m u l t i - p u r p o s e shopping t r i p s w h i c h 7. support highly interdependent a c t i v i t i e s . Recent studies, however, indicate t h a t consumer behaviour must not be so rigidly defined, and is not nearly so simply s t a t e d , especially with regard to consumer behaviour within r e t a i l c e nters. The core-frame concept provides a vehicle through which to apply a more refined and pliant approach to the classification of business types by patterns of consumer behaviour within business d i s t r i c t s . Within the context of this concept additional hypotheses may be formulated. Hypothesis 3* The r e t a i l core of the business d i s t r i c t is com-posed of establishments o f f e r i n g high order goods located in the area of peak land values and the highest density land-use. The s t o r e s group under conditions of active competition to encourage comparative shopping by pedestrian movement. The extent of the core is limited by the distance within which the pedestrians are willing to shop. The apparel-goods s t o r e s are the leading a t t r a c t o r s of the core most dependent on competition and accessibility. They provide the f o c a l point to which other stores in the business d i s t r i c t orient their locations. In this sense, the r e t a i l core provides the fulcrum f o r the d i s t r i c t ' s s t r u c t u r a l balance. I f the core were lacking, the d i s t r i c t would lose i t s p a t t e r n of internal unity. 8 H y p o t h e s i s L, T h e f r a m e o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t d i sp lays p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h a r e t r a n s i t i o n a l b e t w e e n the r i b b o n and the c o r e . T h e s e p r o p e r t i e s c r e a t e a p a r a d o x in a c e n t e r - r i b b o n mode l—' typ ica l* c e n t e r bus iness t y p e s occupy ing a r e a s o f r e l a t i v e l y low land va lues and low d e n s i t y land u s e ; ' t y p i c a l ' r i bbon bus ines s t y p e s occupy ing a r e a s o f r e l a t i v e l y high land va lues and high d e n s i t y land u s e . T h e f r a m e has s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n a l s u b - a r e a s . T h e p a t t e r n o f a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t o r e t y p e s w i t h i n each s u b - a r e a i n d i c a t e s t h e r e is some i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , a l t hough n o t t o t h e e x t e n t o f t h a t e x i s t i n g in t h e c o r e . O n t h e o t h e r hand , s u b - a r e a s a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y un l inked , each s u b -a r e a s e r v i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y s i n g l e - v i s i t shopping t r i p s . T h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e f r a m e adjacent t o the c o r e i n d i c a t e s l inkage w i t h the c o r e . T h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e f r a m e l o c a t e t h e r e because t h e y depend t o some e x t e n t on the high d e n s i t y t r a f f i c g e n e r a t e d by t h e r e t a i l c o r e y e t do n o t r e q u i r e t h e degree o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y a t t e n d a n t a t t h e c o r e . F r a m e a c t i v i t i e s include p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , f i n a n c i a l , h a r d l i n e , and gene ra l p u r -chase bus iness t y p e s . H y p o t h e s i s 5« T h e c o r e - f r a m e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s is a p o s t - W o r l d W a r I I d e v e l o p m e n t . I n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y , e f f e c t e d by the w i d e - s p r e a d use o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e , has induced a p a t t e r n o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n in the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l componen t s o f t h e u r b a n s y s t e m . W h a t w e r e f o r m e r l y c o n s i d e r e d d o w n t o w n f u n c t i o n s — a p p a r e l , d e p a r t m e n t , v a r i e t y , f u r n i t u r e , and s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l s t o r e s , a n d , s e r v i c e and f i n a n c i a l o f f i c e s - — e n t e r e d t h e o u t l y i n g c o m m e r c i a l land use s t r u c t u r e , . T h e changes i n t r o d u c e d t o the s t r u c t u r e o f c e r t a i n a r t e r i a l bus iness s t r e e t s can be v i e w e d a t t w o l e v e l s ; ( i ) t h e g r o s s c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i c t s changed f r o m t h e dominance o f conven ience -goods o u t l e t s t o a complex r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by a l l t y p e s o f goods and s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h no one group a s s e r t i n g c o m p l e t e dominance o f t he c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e . ( i i ) t h e i n i t i a l p a t t e r n o f d i s p e r s e d a r t e r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r i e n t e d t o s t r e e t c a r and w a l k i n g t r a d e evo lved as a un i f i ed p a t t e r n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a g g l o m e r a t i n g i n a r e g u l a r m a n n e r , t h e c o r e -f r a m e - r i b b o n f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s , o r i e n t e d t o au tomobi l e t r a d e . S t u d y A r e a T h e h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t e s t e d i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r w h i c h s e r v e s as t h e c o r e o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c i t i e s and m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r a r e a . T h e popula t ions o f t he r e s p e c t i v e a r e a s a r e 410,375 and 8 9 2 , 2 8 6 . ^ T h i s s t u d y is c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e 10 d i s t r i c t c e n t e r s as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 2. T h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y d i s t r i c t s w h i c h w e r e s t u d i e d , and the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I a f t e r a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e . T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l ana lyses a r e p r e s e n t e d in C h a p t e r I V and V , r e s p e c t i v e l y , and t h e conc lus ions in C h a p t e r V I . F o o t n o t e s ^ F o r a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e see C h a p t e r I I . p F u n c t i o n is de f ined as "any q u a l i t y , t r a i t o r f a c t so r e l a t e d t o a n o t h e r t h a t i t is dependent upon and v a r i e s w i t h t h a t o t h e r " , in W e b s t e r ' s C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y . F i f t h E d i t i o n , ( S p r i n g f i e l d , G . and C . M e r r i a m C o m p a n y , 1946) . T h e w.ord f u n c t i o n , o r d e r i v a t i o n s o f t h e w o r d , is employed i n the . t e x t t o deno te bus iness t y p e s w h o s e l o c a t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r , o r r e s p o n s e t o t h e f a c t o r s o f l o c a t i o n , i s s i m i l a r . -^The p r o j e c t w a s being c o n d u c t e d by the L a n d U s e S e c t i o n , V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r o f 1966. ^ C o n f o r m s t o the d e f i n i t i o n suppl ied by R . U . R a t c l i f f . " I n t e r n a l A r r a n g e m e n t o f L a n d U s e s " , U r b a n L a n d E c o n o m i c s . ( N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1949) . C e n s u s o f C a n a d a . ( 1966) . C H A P T E R I I R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E T h e g e o g r a p h e r ' s t r a d i t i o n a l p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e in t h e s p a t i a l ana lys i s o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f r e t a i l i n g has been t h e s t u d y o f f o r m . W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f f u n c t i o n have been u s e d t o expla in t h e r e g u l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f f o r m o c c u r r i n g in t h e p a t t e r n o f l o c a t i o n o f t e r t i a r y a c t i v i t i e s . " F o r f e w g e o g r a p h e r s wou ld q u e s t i o n t h e t h e s i s t h a t f o r m and f u n c t i o n a r e so t h o r o u g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d t h a t each has t o be judged in t h e l igh t o f i t s being a p r o d u c t o f o r a d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o t h e o t h e r . " * T h e geograph ica l t r e a t m e n t o f c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e has gene ra l l y f o c u s e d i t s d i s c u s s i o n o f f u n c t i o n on c u s t o m e r shopping h a b i t s w h e r e i n t h e p a t t e r n o f l o c a t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i s , i n t h e m a i n , a r e s p o n s e t o t h e p a t t e r n o f c o n s u m e r b e h a v i o u r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l g roupings o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , by t h e f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f c o m m o d i t y t y p e s , i s dependent on t h e w a y in w h i c h c o n s u m e r s f u l f i l l t h e i r demands f o r t h e v a r i o u s c o m m o d i t y l i n e s . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p h y s i c a l f o r m o f bus ines s d i s t r i c t s and the w a y in w h i c h people u t i l i z e t h e d i s t r i c t s and t h e i r componen t p a r t s s e r v e s as t h e c e n t e r o f i n t e r e s t in t h e r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e . 13 T h e r e v i e w is p r e s e n t e d in t w o p a r t s : f i r s t , a s t u d y o f t h o s e w o r k s w h i c h have been p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h f o r m , i . e . , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f space r e l a t i o n s o f bus iness d i s t r i c t s and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; and s e c o n d , a s t u d y o f t h o s e w o r k s i n v e s t i -g a t i n g c o n s u m e r behav iour and t h e l o c a t i o n a l needs o f individual r e t a i l and s e r v i c e b u s i n e s s e s . M o d e l s o f O u t l y i n g C o m m e r c i a l , S t r u c t u r e  Mode l s in U r b a n G e o g r a p h y M a l c o l m P r o u d f o o t 2 u n d e r t o o k a p ionee r ing e f f o r t t o d e s c r i b e t h e p a t t e r n s o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y and land uses in 1935. H e i s o l a t e d f i v e t y p e s o f r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e , t h e bas ic e l emen t s o f w h i c h may be f o u n d t o d a y : ( i ) t he c e n t r a l bus ines s d i s t r i c t w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f shopping-goods s t o r e s and a c c e s s i b i l i t y f r o m t h e e n t i r e c i t y p o p u l a t i o n ; ( i i ) t he o u t l y i n g bus iness c e n t e r w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o t h e C B D w i t h a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c o n v e n i e n c e -goods s t o r e s and a t r a d e a r e a r e s t r i c t e d t o a s e g m e n t o f t h e c i t y p o p u l a t i o n ; ( i i i ) t he p r i n c i p a l bus iness t h o r o u g h f a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b o t h s h o p p i n g - and conven ience -goods s t o r e s and c u s t o m e r s d e r i v e d f r o m t r a f f i c a long t h e t h o r o u g h f a r e ; 14 ( iv ) t h e ne ighbourhood bus iness s t r e e t w i t h d i s p e r s e d r o w s o f conven ience -goods s t o r e s and a t r i b u t a r y a r e a r e s t r i c t e d t o w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e ; (v) t he i s o l a t e d s t o r e c l u s t e r c o n s i s t i n g o f n o n -c o m p e t i t i v e conven ience-goods s t o r e s s e r v i n g the immedia t e w a n t s o f c o n s u m e r s w i t h i n e a sy wa lk ing d i s t a n c e . I t i s n o t e d t h a t P r o u d f o o t f i nds b o t h shopping-goods and conven ience -goods s t o r e s l o c a t e d in t h e o u t l y i n g bus iness t h o r o u g h f a r e . T h e l a t t e r a r e s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by " l a r g e , w ide ly s p a c e d s h o p p i n g - and conven ience -goods s t o r e s " ^ t a k i n g t h e f o r m o f r e l a t i v e l y r e g u l a r n e t w o r k s f o l l o w i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r u c k i n g r o u t e s . R a t c l i f f , in e c o l o g i c a l l y - i n s p i r e d s t u d i e s o f t h e i n t e r n a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f u r b a n land u s e s , i n t r o d u c e s p a t t e r n s o f l a n d -values and t h e c o n c e p t o f c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y t o f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e t h e r e t a i l s t r u c t u r a l - t y p e s . N u c l e a t i o n s " i n t h e h igher f o r m s t e n d t o a s sume a s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y . " ^ T h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c e n t e r s and r ibbons " i s t h e l a ck o f i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t he ca se o f t h e s t r i n g - s t r e e t as c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e more d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n o f uses t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e nuc l ea t i on ."5 N u c l e a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y appear a t t h e more i m p o r t a n t i n t e r s e c t i o n s and c r e a t e "a p y r a m i d i n g o f land va lues t o a peak t o the i n t e r -s e c t i o n . " 6 C e n t e r s f r e q u e n t l y appear as peaks o f deve lopment 15 in a s t r i n g - s t r e e t w h e r e t h e boundary b e t w e e n t h e t w o is a m a t t e r o f . a r b i t r a r y d e f i n i t i o n . R e c e n t a t t e m p t s t o c o n s t r u c t a comprehens ive c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n o f o u t l y i n g bus iness s t r u c t u r e have c u l m i n a t e d in t h e s t u d i e s o f B . J . L . B e r r y . 7 T h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c e n t r a l p lace t h e o r y and r i g o r o u s q u a n t i t a t i v e ana lys i s t o the i n t e r n a l bus iness s t r u c t u r e o f t he c i t y has a l l o w e d the deve lopment o f a more p r e c i s e c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s c h e m e . B y ob ta in ing g roups o f s p a t i a l l y a s s o c i a t e d bus iness t y p e s t h r o u g h the use o f f a c t o r and m a t r i x l inkage a n a l y s i s , he has p r o v i d e d w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d e m p i r i c a l evidence o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f f o u r c o n f o r m a t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s , and the bus iness d i s t r i c t s o r f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s t h e y c r e a t e . T h e s e c o n f o r m a t i o n s a r e : ( i ) t he n u c l e a t e d shopping c e n t e r t y p e , ( i i ) u r b a n . a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s ( s u p p l i e s - r e p a i r a r t e r i a l s ) , ( i i i ) h i g h w a y - o r i e n t e d bus iness d i s t r i c t s ( r i bbons ) , ( iv ) au tomobi l e r o w f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s ( s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s ) ® ( S e e F i g u r e 1) . T h e f o u r c o n f o r m a t i o n s a r e mutua l ly exc lus ive as f u n c t i o n a l g roups b u t t h e y need n o t be s p a t i a l l y e x c l u s i v e . W i t h i n t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e n u c l e a t e d c e n t e r s , t h r e e leve ls o f a h i e r a r c h y a r e r e c o g n i z e d — n e i g h b o u r h o o d , c o m m u n i t y , 16 and r e g i o n a l . T h e names are d e s c r i p t i v e o f t he t r i b u t a r y a r e a s s e r v e d by e a c h . W i t h i n each t y p e a r e f o u n d t h e o r d e r s o f goods c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h a t c e n t e r . T h e c e n t e r s , t h e n , a r e m o s t e f f e c t i v e l y ana lysed by c e n t r a l p lace t h e o r y . H i g h w a y - o r i e n t e d f a c i l i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d e i t h e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o demands o c c u r r i n g s p a t i a l l y as a f l o w along h ighways o r t h e y a r e bus iness t y p e s r e q u i r i n g expans ive s i t e s and r e a d y a c c e s s . T h e bus iness t y p e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h i s d i s t r i c t a r e gasol ine and s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s and d r i v e - i n r e s t a u r a n t s . U r b a n a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s l o c a t e w i t h i n u rban a r e a s " b u t w h i c h w i t h i n u r b a n a r e a s a r e a p p a r e n t l y m o s t s u c c e s s f u l w h e n l o c a t e d a long u r b a n a r t e r i a l h i g h w a y s ."9 When l o c a t e d ad jacent t o n u c l e a t e d c e n t e r s , add i t i ona l m e m b e r s o f t h e u r b a n a r t e r i a l bus iness t y p e appea r as t h e s i z e o f t h e c e n t e r i n c r e a s e s . . A r t e r i a l s i m m e d i a t e l y adjoining t h e C B D a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e appea rance o f o f f i c e equipment and supply e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , and in l a rge c i t i e s , " s k i d - r o w " . T h e au tomobi l e r o w f u n c t i o n a l a r e a i s a s p e c i a l i z e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f d e a l e r s i n new and used a u t o m o b i l e s . I n t h e l a t e r s t u d y o f t h e C i t y o f C h i c a g o , C o m m e r c i a l  S t r u c t u r e and C o m m e r c i a l B l i g h t , a s i m i l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w a s d e r i v e d , b u t w i t h i m p o r t a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s . W i t h i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f n u c l e a t e d shopping c e n t e r s , " s m a l l e r shopping-goods c e n t e r s " 17 w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a t a l eve l be low the r eg iona l shopping c e n t e r s . P l a n n e d and unplanned c e n t e r s w e r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on t h e bas i s o f des ign and c o n t r o l l e d i n t e g r a t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n ; and t h e l a ck o f uppe r f l o o r f u n c t i o n s and t h e p e r i p h e r a l u se s in t h e p lanned c e n t e r s . T h r e e v a r i a n t s in t h e h i e r a r c h y o f c e n t e r s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d ; c e n t e r s s e r v i n g h igher income a r e a s o f t h e c i t y , c e n t e r s s e r v i n g l o w e r income a r e a s o f t he c i t y , and planned c e n t e r s . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e u r b a n a r t e r i a l and h i g h w a y - o r i e n t e d d i s t r i c t s w e r e combined under a gene ra l head ing , r i b b o n s , w h i c h w a s f u r t h e r subdiv ided t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e r ibbons adjacent  t o c e n t e r s and i s o l a t e d r i b b o n s . T h e bus iness t y p e s occupy ing t h e r i bbons w e r e c l a s s e d as c e n t e r , u r b a n a r t e r i a l , o r h i g h w a y -o r i e n t e d u s e s . T h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s o f V a n c o u v e r p o s s e s s a s t r i n g -s t r e e t o r r i b b o n s t r u c t u r e b u t include f u n c t i o n s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y and . smal l - shopping goods c e n t e r t y p e . B e r r y d i s c u s s e s in some d e t a i l t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f s m a l l e r s h o p p i n g -goods c e n t e r s and r ibbons ad jacen t t o c e n t e r s , Unp lanned c e n t e r s and r ibbons w e r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e p a t t e r n o f land v a l u e s . T h e o u t e r l i m i t s o f c e n t e r s w e r e "g iven by t h o s e p o i n t s a t w h i c h va lues t u r n u p w a r d s f r o m t h e l eve l s o f t h e r idges t o w a r d s t h e he igh t s o f t h e c o n e s " ^ w h i c h 18 a r e f o c u s e d on major s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n s . A r e g u l a r s t r a t i f i -c a t i o n o f u ses a c c o r d i n g t o o r d e r o f e n t r y and ub iqu i ty w a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e land value c o n e s . M o r e s p e c i a l i z e d shopping uses s e r v i n g l a r g e r popu la t ions f i l l e d t h e peak whi le more ub iqu i tous convenience uses s e r v i n g loca l ne ighbourhoods occup ied t h e p e r i p h e r y . T h e s m a l l e r shopping goods c e n t e r is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h r e e c o n c e n t r i c • r i n g s o f f u n c t i o n s : ( i ) t h e shopping goods c e n t e r t y p e w i t h jun io r d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , shoe s t o r e s , and men's and women ' s c l o t h i n g s t o r e s a t t h e peak value a r e a , (i i) c o m m u n i t y bus iness c e n t e r t y p e w i t h v a r i e t y , c l o t h i n g , j e w e l r . y s t o r e s , f l o r i s t s , and banks o c c u p y i n g t h e n e x t r i n g , ( i i i ) ne ighbourhood bus iness c e n t e r t y p e w i t h g r o c e r y s t o r e s o r s m a l l e r s u p e r m a r k e t s , d r u g s t o r e s , l aundr i e s and d r y c l e a n e r s , b a r b e r s h o p s , b e a u t y s a l o n s , and sma l l r e s t a u r a n t s . ^ R i b b o n s appea r as r i dges o f land va lues b e t w e e n t h e peaks o f t h e c e n t e r s and t h e low expans ive a r e a s o f r e s i d e n t i a l land v a l u e s . When l o c a t e d ad jacent t o c e n t e r s , t h e y a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f u r n i t u r e and appl iance s t o r e s , o f f i c e equipment s a l e s , f u n e r a l p a r l o u r s , l u m b e r y a r d s , and bui lding and household suppl ies s u c h as h e a t i n g a n d ' p l u m b i n g , e l e c t r i c a l r e p a i r , rad io and T . V . sa les and s e r v i c e , e t c . ^ 19 T h e subd iv i s ion o f r i b b o n d i s t r i c t s under t h e "ad jacen t" and " i s o l a t e d " c a t e g o r i e s under l ines a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i t h i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t he a t t e n u a t e d p a t t e r n o f V a n c o u v e r ' s c o m m u n i t y bus iness d i s t r i c t s . T h o s e a c t i v i t i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l ma in tenance o f a home l o c a t e d in t h e r ibbons ad jacen t t o c e n t e r s a r e " l a r g e l y r e spons ib l e f o r t h e i n t e n s i f i -c a t i o n o f r i b b o n use c lose t o c e n t e r s . " ^ T h o s e u s e s — h e a t i n g and p lumbing d e a l e r s , l umber y a r d s , e l e c t r i c supply s t o r e s , e t c . , — a r e mi s s ing in t h e i s o l a t e d r i b b o n s . B e r r y s t a t e s t h a t t h e s e u se s may i n d i c a t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f a " f r a m e " ad jacent t o n u c l e a t e d c e n t e r s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t is n o t e d t h a t t h e gene ra l p a t t e r n o f land u se s is sub jec t t o change w h e n some f u n c t i o n s w i t h e a r l y o r d e r o f e n t r y change sca le and l ines o f g o o d s . M o s t uses a lso have a cons ide rab l e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f land va lues r e s u l t i n g f r o m chance and h i s t o r y w h i c h a l low a range o f l o c a t i o n a l cho ices t h e r e b y d i s t o r t i n g t h e c o n c e n t r i c zonation.^4 P l a n n i n g Mode l s P l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e is p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h des ign c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f planned shopping c e n t e r s . E m p h a s i s is p l aced on a c c e s s i b i l i t y , p r o v i s i o n o f adequa te o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g , and t h e e f f i c i e n t a r r a n g e m e n t o f bus iness f a c i l i t i e s t o 20 encourage an even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e h i c u l a r and p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c . T h e planning s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d on a f i n e r sca le t h a n geographic s t u d i e s . A t t h i s sca le t h e y s u g g e s t v a r i a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t w i t h i n c e n t e r s t h a t a r e n o t d e t e c t e d by the o t h e r w o r k s . W h e r e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f unplanned bus iness d i s t r i c t s is p r o p o s e d , p a r k i n g and t r a f f i c f l o w s a r e again t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . ^ V e h i c u l a r and p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s and the b a r r i e r s t h e y c r e a t e f o r e f f i c i e n t c o m m e r c i a l s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e r e b y become the f o c u s o f shopping d i s t r i c t r e d e v e l o p m e n t models and d i s c u s s i o n s . W i t h i n the c o n -t e x t o f planning the p h y s i c a l des ign o f shopping d i s t r i c t s , one o f t h e guiding ru l e s t h a t b e a r s s i g n i f i c a n t i m p o r t w h e n applied t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f u r b a n a r t e r i a l s is t h e gene ra l ly a c c e p t e d p r e c e p t t h a t s t r i p s o f s t o r e s p rov id ing commod i t i e s o f a c o m p a r a t i v e and s u s c i p i e n t n a t u r e , should n o t e x c e e d f o u r h u n -d r e d f e e t in l e n g t h . T h i s is t h e d i s t a n c e c o n s u m e r s a r e w i l l i ng t o move by f o o t w i t h i n ' a c e n t e r . 1 6 O n e model o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s be l o c a t e d on one s ide o f t he major t r a f f i c a r t e r y , i n a s t r i p , w i t h p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d a t t h e r e a r . A v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s model p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e s t o r e s be s e t back f r o m t h e a r t e r y in a s t r i p , " L " , o r " U " shaped des ign w i t h 21 p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d in f r o n t . 1 7 i t i s o f spec i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r and economic h e a l t h o f c e n t e r s may v a r y on each s ide o f a t r a f f i c a r t e r y . 1 ® T h i s o c c u r s e spec i a l ly w h e r e t h e r e a r e wide s t r e e t s o r l a rge t r a f f i c v o l u m e s , w i t h o u t adequa te c r o s s w a l k f a c i l i t i e s t o p r o m o t e p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g and r e c r o s s i n g o f t h e s t r e e t . T h e s e models w o u l d appear t o be m o s t appl icable w h e r e t h e economic v i a b i l i t y o f bus ines se s i s much s t r o n g e r on one s ide o f t he s t r e e t t h a n the o t h e r . T h e o t h e r f u n d a m e n t a l model is based on t h e " m a l l " c o n c e p t o f f a c i n g s t r i p s . T h r o u g h - t r a f f i c is r o u t e d a round t h e bus ines s d i s t r i c t , r e l inqu i sh ing t h e s t r e e t s e p a r a t i n g the s t o r e s t o p e d e s t r i a n movemen t and l i m i t e d public v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s . I n t h i s w a y t h e v i a b i l i t y o f b o t h s ides o f t h e s t r e e t i s f a c i l i t a t e d . F o s t e r and N e l s o n s t u d i e d a f i f t e e n mile long s t r i n g -s t r e e t deve lopmen t i n s u b u r b a n L o s A n g e l e s f o r a h i g h w a y -i m p a c t s tudy.!9 T h e a u t h o r s f o u n d f o u r g roups o f bus iness e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a long t h e b o u l e v a r d : (i) • :• s t o r e s s e r v i n g ne ighbourhood needs , ( i i ) s t o r e s s e r v i n g a w i d e r t r a d e a r e a and g e n e r a t i n g planned t r i p s , ( i i i ) s t o r e s s e r v i n g c a s u a l t r a d e f r o m a wide t r a d e a r e a 22 ( iv ) and s t o r e s r e f l e c t i n g the p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t he b o u l e v a r d i t s e l f . T h e b u s i n e s s e s d i f f e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a t i o n in one o f t h r e e c o n c e n t r i c . zones ex t end ing f r o m t h e C B D : ( i ) low r e n t a l a r e a s adjacent t o t h e C B D , ( i i ) i nne r zones o f nodal and a r t e r i a l r e t a i l i n g , ( i i i ) a h ighway o r i e n t e d o u t e r z o n e . 20 H . R . P a r k e r c u e x a m i n e d t h e ne ighbour use p a t t e r n b e t w e e n shops in L i v e r p o o l ' s unplanned bus iness d i s t r i c t s t o examine w h e t h e r any p r inc ip l e s o f space u t i l i z a t i o n apply w h i c h could be o f use in r edeve lop ing shopping a r e a s . H e c o m p a r e d t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f shops as ne ighbours t o the o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c y . P o s i t i v e and nega t ive dev ia t ions f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c y r e f l e c t e d a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and r e p u l s i v e n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , b e t w e e n bus iness t y p e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g groupings w e r e i d e n t i f i e d : ( i ) D a i l y s h o p p i n g — g r o c e r s , p r o d u c e , c o n f e c t i o n e r s , d r u g g i s t s . ( i i ) O c c a s i o n a l s h o p p i n g — f u r n i t u r e , o u t f i t t e r s , appl iance s h o p s , ( i i i ) S e r v i c e s h o p s — l a u n d e r s , shoe r e p a i r . T h e p h y s i c a l l ink b e t w e e n the dai ly shopping and o c c a s i o n a l shopping g roups w a s p r o v i d e d by shoe s t o r e s and b u t c h e r s . 23 A s t u d y o f t h e r e t a i l s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f K i n g C o u n t y ( S e a t t l e ) , W a s h i n g t o n , 2 1 used a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y scheme s i m i l a r t o t h a t developed by B e r r y . T h e c a t e g o r y o f s u b -reg iona l nuc lea t ions ( comparab le t o c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r s ) was subdivided t o emphas ize the d i s t i n c t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the o lder s u b u r b a n shopping d i s t r i c t s and the n e w e r i n t e g r a t e d shopping c e n t e r s . T h e c o r e - f r a m e c o n c e p t w a s i n t r o d u c e d as a veh ic le t h r o u g h w h i c h t o make the d i s t i n c t i o n . A s the s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d in a g r o w i n g subu rban a r e a , h o w e v e r , the u s e -fu lnes s o f t he c o n c e p t was l i m i t e d . T h e C o r e - F r a m e C o n c e p t I n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f a s p a t i a l f r a m e w o r k f o r C B D 22 a n a l y s i s , H o r w o o d and B o y c e i n t r o d u c e d the c o r e - f r a m e c o n -c e p t w h e r e i n the f r a m e is l o c a t e d a t t he p e r i p h e r y o f t he c o r e o f t h e C B D . T h e i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t he c o r e -f r a m e c o n c e p t is "no t so much t h a t t he a c t i v i t i e s in the c o r e and f r a m e a r e d i s t i n c t f r o m each o t h e r , bu t r a t h e r t h a t d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l , and h i s t o r i c a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e a s c r i b e d t o the c o r e and f r a m e r e s p e c t i v e l y . " 2 - ^ T h e gene ra l p r o p e r t i e s o f the C B D c o r e a r e : i n t e n s i v e land u s e , ex t ended v e r t i c a l s c a l e , l i m i t e d h o r i z o n t a l s c a l e , c o n c e n t r a t e d d a y t i m e p o p u l a t i o n , f o c u s o f i n t r a c i t y mass t r a n s i t , c e n t e r o f spec i a l i z ed f u n c t i o n s , and i n t e r n a l l y cond i t ioned b o u n d a r i e s . 24 T h e gene ra l p r o p e r t i e s o f t he C B D f r a m e a r e : s e m i -i n t e n s i v e land u s e , p r o m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a l s u b r e g i o n s , ex t ended h o r i z o n t a l s c a l e , unl inked f u n c t i o n a l s u b r e g i o n s , and external ly-cond i t i oned b o u n d a r i e s . I n concluding t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o r e - f r a m e c o n -c e p t , H o r w o o d and B o y c e r e c o g n i z e d t h a t " the c o r e and f r a m e a r e a lso d i s ce rn ib l e in o u t l y i n g shopping d i s t r i c t s . I n f a c t a l l a g g r e g a t i o n s o f bus iness may be ana lysed w i t h i n t h e gene ra l c o n t e x t o f t he c o r e - f r a m e c o n c e p t . " ^ C o n s u m e r B e h a v i o u r and t h e I n t e r n a l A r r a n g e m e n t o f B u s i n e s s A r e a s T h e L o c a t i o n P r o c e s s I n t h e i r choice o f l o c a t i o n s r e t a i l and s e r v i c e bus ines se s a r e mainly in f luenced by the d e s i r e t o maximize a c c e s s i b i l i t y ^ ^ t o the p a r t i c u l a r g roup o f c o n s u m e r s who might be e x p e c t e d t o use t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . I n land value t h e o r y , r e n t is synonymous w i t h a c c e s s i b i l i t y . T h e degree o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y w h i c h a f i r m d e s i r e s is e x p r e s s e d by t h e amoun t i t is w i l l i ng t o pay f o r each p a r c e l o f land in a bus iness d i s t r i c t . ° S i m m o n s d e s c r i b e s t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h i s goal as c o n s i s t i n g o f t w o s t e p s . " F i r s t , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a c e n t e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r d e r o f the good o r s e r v i c e , and t h e n l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c e n t e r on t h e bas i s o f t he b i d - r e n t c u r v e and c o m p e t i n g f i r m s . "^7 A f i r m s b i d -2 5 r e n t c u r v e 2 8 j s d e r i v e d by de f in ing a c u r v e of* p o t e n t i a l r e n t -paying a b i l i t y o v e r t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t on the bas i s o f e x p e c t e d sa les a t v a r i o u s p l a c e s . T h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e b i d - r e n t c u r v e and t h e a c t u a l land r e n t s w i t h i n bus iness d i s t r i c t s d e s c r i b e t h e s i t e s on w h i c h a bus iness may be l o c a t e d . T h e r e s u l t o f t he l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s is t he f o r m d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ( p . 18) f o r s m a l l e r shopping-goods c e n t e r s . H i g h e r o r d e r goods needing t h e m o s t a c c e s s i b i l i t y pay t h e h ighes t r e n t s n e a r the peak land value i n t e r s e c t i o n ; a n d , t h e l o w e r o r d e r goods l o c a t e a w a y f r o m the i n t e r s e c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r b i d - r e n t c u r v e s . A t t r i b u t e s o f A c c e s s i b i l i t y T h e c o n c e p t o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y is t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e x p l a n a t o r y va r i ab l e unde r ly ing t h e l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s . S t u d i e s o f t he s t r u c t u r e o f c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e t h e i n t e r n a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f bus iness d i s t r i c t s w i t h t h e major componen t o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y , p a t t e r n s o f c o n s u m e r shopping  h a b i t s . C o n s u m e r behav iour has p r o v i d e d the r a t i o n a l e f o r expla ining the s t r u c t u r e o f bus iness d i s t r i c t s in a l l geograph ica l s t u d i e s o f c o m m e r c i a l f o r m . M a n y t e r m s have been f o r m u l a t e d t o r e l a t e c o m m o d i t y and e s t a b l i s h m e n t t y p e s t o c u s t o m e r shopping h a b i t s . 26 1. C o n v e n i e n c e - S h o p p i n g - S p e c i a l t y T h i s is t he m o s t common sca le used in t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f r e t a i l i n g . C o n s u m e r s ' goods have been c l a s s i f i e d . in m a r k e t i n g l i t e r a t u r e as conven ience , shopp ing , and s p e c i a l t y goods a c c o r d -ing t o c o n s u m e r buying behav iour .^9 C o n v e n i e n c e goods a r e t h o s e goods w h i c h t h e c o n s u m e r usua l ly d e s i r e s t o p u r c h a s e a t f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s w i t h a minimum o f e f f o r t a t t he m o s t conven ien t and a c c e s s i b l e s t o r e . P u r c h a s e s a r e o f s m a l l un i t value made soon a f t e r t he idea o f p u r c h a s e e n t e r s t h e b u y e r s mind w i t h l i t t l e f a s h i o n e lement i n v o l v e d . S h o p p i n g goods a r e usua l ly p u r c h a s e d i n f r e q u e n t l y and only a f t e r t h e c o n s u m e r c o m p a r e s q u a l i t y , p r i c e , and s t y l e in a number o f s t o r e s . T h e p u r c h a s e s o f t e n involve a s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e n d i t u r e and may n o t be made f o r some t i m e a f t e r t he idea has e n t e r e d the mind o f t h e b u y e r . S u c h goods include f u r n i t u r e , women ' s c l o t h i n g and s h o e s , r u g s , and j e w e l r y . S p e c i a l t y goods have a p a r t i c u l a r a t t r a c t i o n f o r t he c o n s u m e r so t h a t he w i l l go o u t o f his w a y t o p u r c h a s e t h e m , i . e . , t h e y c o n s i s t o f t h o s e p r o d u c t s w h i c h many b u y e r s i n s i s t on having and f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e wi l l i ng t o make a spec ia l p u r c h a s i n g e f f o r t . S u c h goods include s p e c i a l t y f u r n i t u r e s t o r e s ( D a n i s h , C o l o n i a l , A n t i q u e ) , exc lu s ive a p p a r e l , expens ive j e w e l r y , and e x o t i c g i f t s . 3 0 27 Within the framework of these categories, economists have characterized convenience-goods retailing as adhering to a market condition of monopolistic competition wherein location competition is the dominant element; and, shopping-goods retailing as conforming to active competition wherein variations in price and quality encourage consumers to shop around f o r competitive goods.31 Cohen and Lewis^ 2> maintain t h a t market conditions are now the reverse with the advent of large numbers of planned centers. The original formulation, however, s t i l l holds f o r unplanned centers. Out of a host of other teminology, the following are some of the concepts used most frequently in connection with s t o r e location. 2. Complementarity-Substitutability Some establishments group together because they are complementary to each other in the sense that the demand f o r their products or services is a joint one, S u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y , on the other hand, encourages a polarity in business location,33 3. Genera tive-Suscipient Generative s t o r e types are capable of drawing customers directly f r o m their homes; suscipient types depend on impulse buying f r o m t r a f f i c generated by the leading s t o r e s , or generative s t o r e s , in a shopping area .34 Voorhees measured 28 t h e d r a w i n g p o w e r o f a c e n t e r by t h e amoun t o f f l o o r a r e a d e d i c a t e d t o a p p a r e l .35 i+. L a w o f C o m p a t i b i l i t y N e l s o n has d e s c r i b e d t h e e f f e c t s o f s t o r e groupings by his " L a w o f C o m p a t i b i l i t y " w h e r e i n , " t h o s e compa t ib l e bus ine s se s l o c a t e d in c lose p r o x i m i t y w i l l show an i n c r e a s e in bus iness volume p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the t o t a l c u s t o m e r i n t e r c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e m , i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the r a t i o o f bus iness volume o f t h e l a r g e r s t o r e and the s m a l l e r s t o r e , and p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e sum o f the r a t i o s o f p u r p o s e f u l p u r c h a s i n g t o t o t a l p u r c h a s i n g in each o f t h e s t o r e s ."36 T h e c o n v e n i e n c e - s h o p p i n g - s p e c i a l t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is v e r y f l e x i b l e as goods f u l f i l l i n g t h e same need may be t r e a t e d as c o n v e n i e n c e - g o o d s , s h o p p i n g - g o o d s , o r s p e c i a l t y - g o o d s depending upon indiv idual c o n s u m e r ' s buying h a b i t s and the qua l i t y and t h e ub iqu i ty o f t h e g o o d . T h e u se fu lne s s o f t h e " s p e c i a l t y - g o o d " c a t e g o r y has been ques t i oned s ince o f t e n c o n s u m e r s compare goods i n t h e s e l i n e s . S p e c i a l t y - g o o d s may t h e n be c o n s i d e r e d as a s p e c i a l case o f t h e shopping-goods c a t e g o r y . Leigh.37 has g iven w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d evidence t h a t t h e i r unique def in ing p r o p e r t i e s include a r e s t r i c t e d range o f i t e m s , v e r y s e n s i t i v e soc i a l l y l o c a l i z e d d e m a n d s , and p r o d u c t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by a d v e r t i s i n g and d i sp lay t o c r e a t e a d i s t i n c t i t t image" . 29 F u n c t i o n a l S h o p p i n g A r e a s : T r i p  P u r p o s e and S t o r e L i n k a g e s T h e c o n c e p t o f c e n t r a l p lace is b u i l t on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t a popu la t i on d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r space has needs f o r c o n s u m e r ' s goods w h i c h a r e p r e d i c t a b l e and w h i c h r e s u l t in a r e g u l a r p a t t e r n o f s e r v i c e c e n t e r s . B e r r y r e s t a t e s t h e c o n c e p t o f c o n s u m e r behav iour underp inning c e n t r a l p lace t h e o r y in apply ing i t t o t h e h i e r a r c h y o f o u t l y i n g c e n t e r s . T h e r e is a p r e s s u r e f o r s t o r e s t o g r o u p , r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e t e n d e n c y o f c o n s u m e r s t o make a s ingle t r i p b e t w e e n one c e n t e r and t h e i r h o m e s , shopping f r o m s t o r e t o s t o r e i n t h e c e n t e r f o r t h e s e t o f goods w h i c h t h e y e x p e c t t o be o f f e r e d i n t h a t l eve l o f c e n t e r . F u n c t i o n s a t any one l e v e l a r e t h u s l inked i n t o nuc l ea t ions by c o n s u m e r ' s d e s i r e s t o v i s i t s e v e r a l o f t h e m on a s ingle t r i p .38 S t a t e d in a n o t h e r m a n n e r , c o n s u m e r s on any p a r t i c u l a r shopping t r i p v i s i t t h a t c e n t e r con ta in ing t h e l eve l o f f u n c t i o n s w h i c h s a t i s f y t h e i t e m s on t h e i r shopping l i s t . T h e bus iness t y p e s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e r ibbons mee t t h e i n f r e q u e n t , s p e c i a l i z e d demands o f c o n s u m e r s t h a t ca l l f o r an " o c c a s i o n a l spec i a l pu rpose t r i p t o t h e s t o r e o r a spec i a l h o u s e -ca l l on t h e p a r t o f t h e s a l e s m a n , o r t h e y may be able t o a t t r a c t a l a rge m a r k e t on t h e i r o w n by v i r t u e o f p r i c e , v a r i e t y , e t c . l ike t h e d i scoun te r s."39 D e s p i t e common a r t e r i a l l o c a t i o n , t h e u r b a n a r t e r i a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o t a s s o c i a t e d f u n c t i o n a l l y as a r e s u l t o f l inkage on t h e same t r i p and a r e t h e r e f o r e " s i n g l e -s t a n d i n g " o r " f r e e - s t a n d i n g " . 30 L e i g h makes a p e r t i n e n t o b s e r v a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t r a d i t i o n a l c e n t r a l p lace c o n c e p t s o f c o n s u m e r behav iou r .40 I n a s t u d y o f t he s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s p e c i a l i z e d r e t a i l i n g , he s u g g e s t s t h a t d i s t a n c e m i n i m i z a t i o n c o n c e p t s o f c o n s u m e r behav iour a r e becoming l e s s c r i t i c a l due t o i n c r e a s e d c o n s u m e r mob i l i t y and s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e t a i l e r t a c t i c s . H e main ta ins t h a t t h e t h e o r y m o s t adequa te ly expla ins t h e s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f l o w - o r d e r s t a n d a r d i z e d goods d i s t r i b u t e d by mass r e t a i l i n g me thods ( s u p e r m a r k e t s , d r u g s t o r e s ) w h i c h a r e sub jec t t o i n -t e n s i v e s p a t i a l c o m p e t i t i o n . I f t h i s d i c h o t o m y in c o n s u m e r behav iour is t h e c a s e , t h e n t h e c o n c e p t o f shopping c e n t e r s s e r v i n g t h e needs o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y m u l t i - p u r p o s e shopping t r i p s becomes ques t ionab le and b e a r s i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e r a t i o n a l e unde r ly ing t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and exp lana t ion o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f o u t l y i n g bus iness c e n t e r s . T h e c o m p l e x i t y o f shopping hab i t p a t t e r n s is p o i n t e d o u t i n s e v e r a l s o u r c e s . F o s t e r and N e l s o n have n o t e d t h a t " w h a t i s needed is a r o u t e map o f a c t u a l p u r c h a s e s , c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e add i t i ona l s t o p s made du r ing t h e p a r t i c u l a r t r i p . " ^ B o a l and J o h n s o n t r a c e d t h e l inkages b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a long a r ibbon d e v e l o p -men t in C a l g a r y .42 C e n t e r s and r ibbons w e r e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y on t h e bas i s o f c o n s u m e r l inkages r a t h e r t h a n p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h c o n s u m e r s w e r e c o n d u c t e d a t , 31 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s belonging t o s e v e n bus iness t y p e s . U s i n g t h e f o u r f u n c t i o n a l g roupings o f B e r r y ( p . 15) t h e y f o u n d a c o n -s ide rab le ove r l ap o f l o c a t i o n a l and f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s a long -t h e r i b b o n . C e n t e r bus iness t y p e s g e n e r a t e d the h ighes t p r o -p o r t i o n o f spec i a l pu rpose t r i p s and w e r e t h e only e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h " w a l k i n g l i n k s " . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , B e r r y has s h o w n t h a t land va lues a r e highly c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p e d e s t r i a n movemen t ( r > 0 . 9 0 ) > 3 H i g h w a y - o r i e n t e d bus iness t y p e s ( s e r v i c e s t a t i o n and d r i v e - i n ) w e r e l inked t o t h e c e n t e r in a s e r v i c e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h e n t h e y w e r e l oca t ed - ad jacent t o t h e c e n t e r . S p e c i a l f u n c t i o n bus iness t y p e s w e r e l inked w i t h i n t h e i r g r o u p . T h e u r b a n a r t e r i a l bus iness t y p e s had a low l eve l o f l inkage w i t h i n t h e i r o w n group and w i t h t h e o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t some l inkages w h i c h wou ld seem unl ike ly w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h e n t h e y w e r e l o c a t e d side by s i d e . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e l i m i t e d by t h e n a r r o w range o f bus iness t y p e s used t o t r a c e l i n k a g e s . S i m m o n s n o t e s t h a t c o m m u n i t y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y appea r s t o be dec l in ing in t h e f a c e o f i n c r e a s e d s c a t t e r a t i o n o f s p e c i a l i z e d f o c i w i t h i n t h e u r b a n s y s t e m as a r e s u l t o f i n -c r e a s i n g m o b i l i t y .44 T h e e f f e c t on c o n s u m e r behav iour is t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f s p e c i a l p u r p o s e , as opposed t o m u l t i - p u r p o s e shopping t r i p s . 32 T h e C o m m u n i t y B u i l d e r s * C o u n c i l o f t he U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e have d i s a g r e e d o v e r t h e c o n c e p t o f " o n e - s t o p shopp ing" I n s t r u c t u r i n g ax ioms f o r s t o r e g roup ing in p lanned c e n t e r s , c o n t r o v e r s y has been g e n e r a t e d o v e r t h e l o c a t i o n o f " f o o d c e n t e r s " . O n e s choo l o f t h o u g h t holds t h a t w h e r e t w o s u p e r m a r k e t s a r e planned f o r a c e n t e r t h e y should be s e p a r a t e d t o s p r e a d p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c and demands on p a r k i n g s p a c e s , t o p rov ide t h e g r e a t e s t amoun t o f i n t e r p l a y b e t w e e n s t o r e s , and t o p r o m o t e " o n e - s t o p s h o p p i n g " . A n o t h e r holds t h a t w h e r e f o o d c e n t e r s a r e planned t h e y should be s e g r e g a t e d f r o m t h e shopping-goods g roup ing f o r convenience and c o m p e t i t i o n s ince shopping f o r each group o f goods is c o n d u c t e d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . "Women buy g r o c e r i e s whi le w e a r i n g s l a c k s . T h e y come t o t h e d r e s s shop w i t h h a t s and g l o v e s . " ^ - 6 T h i s s choo l c o n s i d e r e d the s u p e r m a r k e t s as n o n -e s s e n t i a l i n a shopping-goods c e n t e r . V o o r h e e s f o u n d t h a t r eg iona l c e n t e r s need n o t include a f u l l c o m p l e m e n t o f conven ience-goods s ince t h e f r e q u e n c y o f p u r c h a s e w a s much g r e a t e r T h e ave rage p e r s o n t r a v e l l e d f i v e minu t e s f o r f o o d , f i f t e e n minu tes f o r appa re l and h o u s e -hold i t e m s w h e r e s e l e c t i o n w a s r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t , and up t o t h i r t y minu tes w h e r e s e l e c t i o n and p r i c e w e r e i m p o r t a n t . I n a d d i t i o n , "wh i l e making t h e p u r c h a s e s f o r shopp ing -goods , a t t h e t w o h i g h e r - o r d e r c e n t e r s , t he shoppe r w i l l t a k e a d v a n -t age o f s t o r e s o f f e r i n g convenience i t e m s w h i c h a r e avai lable a t a l o w e r - o r d e r c e n t e r c l o s e r t o h o m e . " ^ F i n a l l y , C o h e n and L e w i s no te t h a t "economic c o m p l e -m e n t a r i t y and a c t i v e co m p e t i t i o n encourage c r o s s - s h o p p i n g , whi le monopo l i s t i c c o m p e t i t i o n , conven ience , and f u n c t i o n a l l y a n t i p a t h e t i c goods d i s c o u r a g e c r o s s - s h o p p i n g ."49 I t wou ld a p p e a r t h e n , t h a t spec i a l pu rpose shopping t r i p s w i t h i n bus iness d i s t r i c t s , a r e more common t h a n c e n t r a l p lace a s s u m p t i o n s i m p l y ; a n d , t h a t t he c o n c e p t o f f u n c t i o n a l u n i t y o f shopping-goods c e n t e r s s e r v i n g m u l t i - p u r p o s e t r i p s may be mis lead ing in t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l s u b - a r e a s . S u m m a t i o n T h e f o l l o w i n g gene ra l conc lus ions may be d r a w n f r o m t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . 1. A topo logy o f u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e has been f o r m u l a t e d in geograph ic l i t e r a t u r e a t a sca le w h i c h o b s c u r e s p a t t e r n s o f bus iness l o c a t i o n in unplanned a r t e r i a l d i s t r i c t s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f shopping a r e a des ign and c u s t o m e r buying h a b i t s c o n d u c t e d a t a f i n e r s ca l e s u g g e s t t h a t bus ines se s l o c a t e d w i t h i n c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s a r e a r r a n g e d in more c o m -plex p a t t e r n s o f f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n t h a n has been s p e c i f i e d . 2 . T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e expla ined by c e n t r a l p lace 34 a s s u m p t i o n s abou t c o n s u m e r behav iour and the r e s p o n s e o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s t o t h i s b e h a v i o u r . T h e a s s u m p t i o n s become s u s p e c t w h e n v i e w e d in t h e l i g h t o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s o f m u l t i p l e -p u r p o s e shopping and shopping a t t h e n e a r e s t c e n t e r a r e r e - • s t r i c t e d t o a deg ree w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t s t h e p r e v i o u s p o s t u l a t i o n s abou t f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . 3. • A l c h i a n , ^ i n a d e p a r t u r e f r o m economic a s s u m p t i o n s o f p r o f i t o p t i m i z a t i o n and c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t a m y r i a d o f u n i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s in f luence t h e l o c a t i o n a l dec i s ions o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s ; a n d , t h a t f i r m s develop by t h e i m i t a t i o n o f s u c c e s s and by t r i a l and e r r o r . T h r o u g h o u t t h e r e v i e w , t h e s t o c h a s t i c n a t u r e o f c o m m e r c i a l l o c a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h e d e s i r e a b i l i t y o f a more f l ex ib l e s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g f u n c t i o n a l groupings o f bus iness t y p e s . F o o t n o t e s ^ S . B . C o h e n , and G . K . L e w i s . " F o r m and F u n c t i o n in t h e G e o g r a p h y o f R e t a i l i n g , " E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y , 43, 1 ( J a n u a r y , 1967) , p . 1. 2 N . < J . F r o u d f o o t . " T h e M a i n O u t l y i n g B u s i n e s s C e n t e r s o f C h i c a g o . " Unpub l i shed P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1936. T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w a s based i n , ' p a r t on I . K . R o l p h ' s 1929 s t u d y T h e L o c a t i o n S t r u c t u r e o f R e t a i l  T r a d e . . " - ( W a s h i n g t o n : U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n and D o m e s t i c C o m m e r c e , D o m e s t i c C o m m e r c e S e r i e s , N o . 8, 35 1929), w h i c h w a s composed o f f o u r l eve l s o f s u b - c e n t e r s , a n d , ne ighbourhood- shopp ing , s t r i n g , and i s o l a t e d u n i t s . 3 I b i d . , p . 3 9 7 . "^R. U . R a t c l i f f . " I n t e r n a l A r r a n g e m e n t o f L a n d U s e s , " U r b a n L a n d E c o n o m i c s . . ( N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1949), p . 412. 5 I b i d . , p . 415. 6 I b i d . , p . 412. 7 B . C T . L . B e r r y . " R i b b o n D e v e l o p m e n t s in the U r b a n B u s i n e s s P a t t e r n , " A n n a l s o f t he A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f  G e o g r a p h e r s , 48 (1959), p p . 145-55. B . « J . L . B e r r y . C o m m e r c i a l S t r u c t u r e and C o m m e r c i a l  B l i g h t . ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1963). Q B e r r y , op_. c i t . , 1959. 9 I b i d . , p . 148. l O B e r r y , op_. c i t . , 1963, p . 31. U I b i d . , p . 4 9 . 1 2 I b i d . , p . 23. ^ I b i d . , p . 80. ^ I b i d . , p . 9 4 . ^ T h i s s e c t i o n is based on d i s c u s s i o n s held w i t h p l anne r s employed by t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . ^ C o m m u n i t y B u i l d e r s ' C o u n c i l . T h e C o m m u n i t y B u i l d e r s ' H a n d b o o k . ( W a s h i n g t o n : U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e , I960), p . 278. 36 1 7 I b i d . , p . 275. K e e b l e , L e w i s . P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e o f T o w n and  C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g . ( T h e E s t a t e s G a z e t t e L i m i t e d , L o n d o n , 1964), p . 109. 19 G . « J . F o s t e r and H . J . N e l s o n . V e n t u r a B o u l e v a r d : S t r i n g - T y p e S h o p p i n g S t r e e t . ( L o s A n g e l e s : R e a l E s t a t e R e s e a r c h P r o g r a m , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1958) . 20 H . R . P a r k e r . " S u b u r b a n S h o p p i n g F a c i l i t i e s in L i v e r p o o l , " T h e T o w n P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , 3 3 , 3 (1962) , p p . 197-223. T h e f i r s t p a r t o f t he t w o p a r t a r t i c l e c o m p a r e d t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f L i v e r p o o l w i t h the . 'h ierarchia l s t r u c t u r e o f L o n d o n as o b s e r v e d by W . S . C a r r u t h e r s . " S e r v i c e C e n t e r s in L o n d o n , " T o w n P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , 3 3 , 1 ( A p r i l , 1962) . ^ K i n g C o u n t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . L o c a t i o n a l  T e n d e n c i e s and S p a c e R e q u i r e m e n t s o f R e t a i l B u s i n e s s in  S u b u r b a n K i n g C o u n t y . ( S e a t t l e , 1963) . 2 2 E . M . H o r w o o d and R . R . B o y c e . S t u d i e s o f t he  C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t and U r b a n F r e e w a y D e v e l o p m e n t . ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1959). 23 I b i d . , p . 19. 2 ^ I b i d . , p . 2 2 . ^ " A c c e s s i b i l i t y " r e f e r s t o the many f a c t o r s w h i c h lead t o e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s , n o t j u s t a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t r a f f i c in g e n e r a l . 2 6 R . U . R a t c l i f f . U r b a n L a n d E c o n o m i c s . ( N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1949) . 2 | 7 i J . W . S i m m o n s . T h e Chang ing P a t t e r n o f R e t a i l  L o c a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y R e s e a r c h P a p e r , N o . 9 2 , ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , I964) , p . 3 5 . 37 p o ' T h e t e r m o r i g i n a t e d f r o m the s choo l o f human e c o l o g y . A m o s H a w l e y . H u m a n E c o l o g y . ( N e w Y o r k : R o n a l d P r e s s , 1950) . 2 ^ c . F . P h i l l i p s and D . J . D u n c a n . M a r k e t i n g : P r i n -c iples and M e t h o d s . ( H o m e w o o d , I l l i n o i s , 1962+) , p p . 6 2 - 6 . ^ R . L e i g h . " S p e c i a l t y R e t a i l i n g : . A G e o g r a p h i c A n a l y s i s , " B . C . G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , N o . 6 (1966), p p . 21-2. A u b e r t — K r i e r . " M o n o p o l i s t i c and I m p e r f e c t C o m p e t i t i o n in R e t a i l T r a d e , " in E . H . C h a m b e r l i n ( e d . ) . Monopo ly and C o m p e t i t i o n and T h e i r R e g u l a t i o n s . ( L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n , 1952+) . 3 2 c o h e n and L e w i s , op_. c i t . , p . 2+. 3 3 p a r k e r , £ £ . c i t . , p . 221. 32+ R . L . N e l s o n and F . T . . A s c h m a n . T h e C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f M a j o r S h o p p i n g 1 D i s t r i c t s . ( W a s h i n g t o n : U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n N o . 2 2 , F e b r u a r y , 1952+) , P. 2+5. 3 5 - ^ A . M . V o o r h e e s , e t . a l . S h o p p i n g H a b i t s and T r a v e l  P a t t e r n s . ( W a s h i n g t o n : U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n N o . 22+, 1955), p . 21. 3 6 R . L . N e l s o n . T h e S e l e c t i o n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n . ( C h i c a g o : F . W . D o d g e , 1958), p . 5 8 . 3 ? R . L e i g h , o £ . c i t . , p p . 2.1-22. 3 8 B e r r y , op_. c i t . , 1963, p . 21. 3 9 I b i d . , p . 2 3 . ^ ° L e i g h , o £ . c i t . , p . 2 3 . ^ F o s t e r and N e l s o n , op_. c i t . , p . 5 9 . 38 ^ 2 F . W . B o a l , and D . B . J o h n s o n . " T h e F u n c t i o n s o f R e t a i l and S e r v i c e E s t a b l i s h m e n t s on C o m m e r c i a l R i b b o n s , " T h e C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , 9 , 3 (1965), p p . 154-169. ^ 3 B r i a n J . L . B e r r y and H a r o l d M . M a y e r . . A C o m -p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f C e n t r a l P l a c e S y s t e m s . R e p o r t t o t h e O f f i c e o f N a v a l R e s e a r c h , 2121-18, P r o j e c t N R 3 8 9 - 1 9 6 , 1961, P a r t I I I . ^ S i m m o n s , op_. c i t . , p . 150. 45 ^ C o m m u n i t y B u i l d e r s * C o u n c i l , op_. c i t . , p . 2 8 4 . ^ 6 I b i d . , p . 2 8 5 . ^ V o o r h e e s , e t . a l . , op_. c i t . , p . 13. ^ W . D . S t o l l . " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S h o p p i n g C e n t e r s , " T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y , 21 (1967), p . 170. 49 C o h e n and L e w i s , op_. c i t . , p . 31. 50 A r m e n A . A l c h i a n . " U n c e r t a i n t y , E v o l u t i o n , and E c o n o m i c T h e o r y , " J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , 58 ( J u n e , 1950) , p p . 211-221. T H E C H A P T E R I I I S E T T I N G A N D A N A L Y T I C A L P R O C E D U R E T h e S e t t i n g V a n c o u v e r is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o t h e r c i t i e s o f t he N o r t h A m e r i c a n P a c i f i c c o a s t in t h a t i t ' s g r o w t h has been r e c e n t and r a p i d . F r o m an e s t i m a t e d 300 people i n 1880, 1 t h e C i t y has g r o w n t o a popu la t i on o f o v e r 2+00,000 peop le . V a n c o u v e r c i t y is i t s e l f t h e c o r e o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o f 900 ,000 p e o p l e . A . p r o d u c t o f t h e s t r e e t c a r e r a , t h e c i t y l a c k s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r m o f o lde r e a s t e r n c i t i e s , i . e . , t h e c l a s s i c a l c o n c e n t r i c r i n g p a t t e r n o f B u r g e s s and P a r k 2 w h i c h w a s e s t a b l i s h e d du r ing a s t a g e o f p e d e s t r i a n movemen t i n the j ou rney t o w o r k . T h e only e x c e p t i o n is a v e r y n a r r o w band adjacent t o the c e n t r a l bus iness d i s t r i c t . E v e n t h i s band , h o w e v e r , is n o t comple t e due t o the unique s i t e o f V a n c o u v e r ' s d o w n t o w n on a s m a l l peninsula w i t h i t s mainland c o n n e c t i o n o r i e n t e d t o the e a s t . W o l f o r t h n o t e s t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f w o r k i n g m e n ' s r e s i d e n c e s n e v e r appea r s t o have been d e t e r m i n e d by d i s t a n c e f r o m zones o f economic a c t i v i t y . T h e same f a r e b r o u g h t t h e w o r k e r f r o m f o r t y b locks as f r o m f o u r . " 3 40 F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p ronounced s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s e c t o r a l f o r r r A o f t h e o u t l y i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r ea as m e a s u r e d by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f i n c o m e , o c c u p a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n . W i t h -in t h e gene ra l p a t t e r n o f s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , t h r e e h i g h - r i s e a p a r t m e n t a r e a s have deve loped : (1) t h e W e s t E n d immed ia t e ly adjacent t o the C B D , (2) t h e K i t s i l a n o a r e a n o r t h o f t h e W e s t B r o a d w a y bus iness d i s t r i c t , and (3) K e r r i s d a l e adjacent t o t h e K e r r i s d a l e bus iness d i s t r i c t . F r o m 1890 s t r e e t c a r r o u t e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d along t h e main a r t e r i e s . A t the same t i m e , t h e s e a r t e r i e s w e r e zoned c o m m e r c i a l f o r m o s t o f t h e i r l e n g t h . A s a r e s u l t , a s t r i n g p a t t e r n o f u r b a n a r t e r i a l c o m m e r c i a l deve lopment w a s encou raged w h i c h p e r s i s t s u n t i l t o d a y . T h e f o r e m o s t example is t h e n e a r l y u n i n t e r r u p t e d c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p ex t end ing f o r e igh t miles along t h e K i n g s w a y , in the e a s t e r n s e c t o r o f t h e c i t y , t h r o u g h B r o a d w a y in t h e w e s t e r n s e c t o r . - A n o t h e r long s t r i p e x t e n d s s o u t h f r o m t h e C B D along M a i n S t r e e t , t he boundary b e t w e e n t h e high and low income s e c t o r s o f t he c i t y . T h e o t h e r a r t e r i a l c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s e x t e n d n o r t h and s o u t h f r o m the K i n g s w a y , and s o u t h f r o m W e s t B r o a d w a y . F o u r o f t he a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s w e r e s e l e c t e d lie Index source: I.L.Bell. Metropolitan Vancouver,' An Overview for Social Planners. (Vancouver: Research Deportment, Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver, 1965)-. 4 2 f o r t h e ana lys i s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n and d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e C B D . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Index L o w D i s t r i c t 1. F r a s e r S t r e e t is l o c a t e d f o u r miles f r o m t h e d o w n -t o w n c o r e on t h e boundary b e t w e e n a r e a s w i t h a v e r a g e and below a v e r a g e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d i c e s . D i s t r i c t 2 . H a s t i n g s S t r e e t is l o c a t e d t w o miles f r o m t h e c o r e i n an a r e a w i t h low and below a v e r a g e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d i c e s . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x H i g h D i s t r i c t 3« W e s t B r o a d w a y is l o c a t e d t h r e e miles f r o m t h e c o r e i n a n a r e a o f ave rage and above ave rage s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . D i s t r i c t 4«. K e r r i s d a l e is l o c a t e d f o u r miles f r o m the c o r e in a n a r e a w i t h a high s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d e x . A n a l y t i c a l P r o c e d u r e D a t a T h r e e s o u r c e s o f d a t a p rov ide t h e r a w m a t e r i a l f o r t h e main body o f t h e a n a l y s i s . 1. L a n d use maps f o r each o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s w e r e compi led by f i e l d w o r k in 1966 .5 I n i t i a l l y , each bus iness 43 t y p e w a s n o t e d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o any c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s c h e m e . 2 . C i v i c land a s s e s s m e n t va lues w e r e t a k e n f r o m c o m -p i l a t i ons o f t he V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t and f r o m t h e C i t y t a x r o l l s . 3. T i m e - s e r i e s land use maps w e r e compi led f r o m a p r i v a t e p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y D i r e c t o r y . 6 T h e D i r e c t o r y gives t h e land use f o r each a d d r e s s a long a l l c i t y s t r e e t s . A n a l y s i s T h e f i r s t f o u r h y p o t h e s e s as ou t l i ned e a r l i e r ( p p . 6-8) a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t f o r m o f the bus iness d i s t r i c t s . T h e h y p o t h e s e s a r e t e s t e d c o n s e c u t i v e l y in t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . T h e f i f t h h y p o t h e s i s , r e l a t e d t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l  deve lopmen t o f c u r r e n t f o r m s , is t e s t e d in C h a p t e r V . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f B u s i n e s s T y p e s T h e v a r i a b l e s u sed d u r i n g the ana lys i s w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m , and g iven o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s b y , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f bus iness t y p e s . A s p o i n t e d o u t in t h e r ev i ew, r e t a i l and s e r v i c e bus iness t y p e s have been c l a s s i f i e d by (i) t h e g e n e r a l i z e d c o m m o d i t y l ines o f f e r e d by e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( t h e s u p p l y ) , ( i i ) t h e manner and p a t t e r n in w h i c h c o n s u m e r s p r o c u r e p a r t i c u l a r c o m m o d i t i e s ( t h e demand) a n d , ( i i i ) t h e s p a t i a l c o n f o r m a t i o n s o f bus iness t y p e s ( l o c a t i v e r e s p o n s e t o the i n t e r a c t i o n o f supply and d e m a n d ) . T h i s s t u d y is c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e f i n i n g t h e l a t t e r t y p e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by examining i n cons ide rab le d e t a i l t h e s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f bus iness t y p e s on u r b a n a r t e r i a l shopping s t r e e t s . 7 A s a f i r s t s t e p in t h e ana lys i s o f t he bus iness d i s t r i c t s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d by c o m m o d i t y l ines as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e I . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w a s d e -ve loped f r o m t h e c a t e g o r i e s employed by R a t c l i f f in a s t u d y o f r e t a i l land u s e s , a n d , by t h e c o m m o d i t y line groupings s u g g e s t e d by the U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e f o r shopping c e n t e r d e v e l o p m e n t . ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w a s u s e d f o r b o t h t h e ana lys i s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e and t h e t i m e -s e r i e s a n a l y s i s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e P r e s e n t S t r u c t u r e T h e land use c a t e g o r i e s w e r e e x p r e s s e d in q u a n t i t a t i v e f o r m by m e a s u r i n g t h e p e r c e n t space t h a t each occup ied p e r b lock in each o f t h e c e n t e r s . A S t a n d a r d U n i t o f L a n d A r e a Q ( S U L A ) w a s deve loped by F . W . Wi les t o d e s c r i b e t h e amoun t o f space occup ied by each g round f l o o r land use in a c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t . T h e S U L A is t h e s t a n d a r d l o t in a s t u d y a rea 45 T A B L E I C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F B U S I N E S S T Y P E S L e v e l s o f A g g r e g a t i o n I I H I I V 1 F o o d 2 D r u g 5 G e n e r a l - m e r c h a n d i s e 6 , 7 S o f t l ines 8 H a r d l ines 9 B u i l d i n g S u p p l i e s 10 r O t h e r R e t a i l 3 A u t o m o t i v e C o n v e n i e n c e S h o p p i n g R e t a i l 12 13 11 17 P e r s o n a l s e r v i c e B u s i n e s s s e r v i c e F i n a n c e O t h e r o f f i c e S e r v i c e 16 E n t e r t a i n m e n t 4 R e s t a u r a n t 18 E d u c a t i o n 15 19 P a r k i n g N o n - c o m m e r c i a l N o n - c o m m e r c i a l * C o d e number s f o r bus iness t y p e s , A p p e n d i x A . 2+6 m e a s u r e d by i t s w i d t h and d e p t h . I n t h i s s t u d y , only t h e w i d t h o f t h e l o t w a s c o n s i d e r e d and appea r s t o p r o v i d e an adequa te m e a s u r e o f t h e space occup ied by each land u s e . T h e c o s t in amount o f t i m e s p e n t in compi l ing g round f l o o r a r e a w a s f e l t t o be p r o h i b i t i v e and the add i t i ona l a c c u r a c y a t t a i n e d t o be marg ina l f o r t he p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y . T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e t h u s m e a s u r e d by t h e l e n g t h o f f r o n t a g e t h e y c o n s u m e d . The I r reasurement w a s e x p r e s s e d in w h a t may be t e r m e d a S t a n d a r d U n i t o f F r o n t a g e ( S U F ) w h i c h is t h i r t y - t h r e e f e e t in l e n g t h . T h e f i r s t and second h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t e s t e d by examining t h e a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and gene ra l mix o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r e ach side o f t h e a r t e r i a l s ( F i g u r e s 2+,8, 12, 16) , and t h e n , by c o r r e l a t i n g the land use v a r i a b l e s b lock by b lock f o r each d i s t r i c t . . A q u a n t i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s , w a s s e l e c t e d f o r ana lys ing t h e s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f bus iness t y p e s . M c C a r t y and S a l i s b u r y s t a t e t h a t on the bas i s o f e x i s t i n g ev idence , v i s u a l c o m p a r i s o n does n o t "p rov ide an e f f e c t i v e means o f d e t e r m i n i n g o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s b e t w e e n s e t s o f s p a t i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d p h e n o m e n a . " 9 C l u s t e r ana lys i s is a gene ra l t e r m deno t ing a l a rge c l a s s o f n u m e r i c a l t e chn iques w h i c h a r e u sed f o r de f in ing • 47 groups o f o p e r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d in s i m i l a r i t y m a t r i c e s . 10 T h e t echn iques v a r y in c o m p l e x i t y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l eve l and t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t one d e s i r e s t o examine in a c o r -r e l a t i o n m a t r i x . T h e me thods v a r y f r o m simple e x t r a c t i o n o f b a s i c - p a i r s t o f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . T h e techn ique chosen f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y is t h e w e i g h t e d p a i r - g r o u p m e t h o d o f c l u s t e r i n g by a v e r a g e l i n k a g e . T h e o r i g i n and r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e , and t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b l e s t o n o r m a l i t y a r e p r e s e n t e d in A p p e n d i x B . B r i e f l y , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x is u sed as a bas i s f o r d i s c e r n i n g t h e l eve l s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t o c c u r among the v a r i a b l e s . S i n c e a v e r a g e s a r e u sed in t h i s t e c h n i q u e , and s ince t h e v a r i a n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s depends on t h e i r m a g n i t u d e , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e t r a n s f o r m e d t o F i s h e r ' s 2 v a l u e s . . One o r more p a i r s o f v a r i a b l e s a r e s e l e c t e d w h i c h have t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t e ach v a r i a b l e c o n t a i n e d in t h e m is more highly c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e o t h e r t h a n w i t h any o t h e r v a r i a b l e . L i n k a g e s a r e c o m p u t e d b e t w e e n the a v e r a g e o f t h e s e p a i r s and t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s t o develop a new m a t r i x . B a s i c - p a i r s a r e aga in s e l e c t e d and t h e p r o c e d u r e is con t inued u n t i l a l l t h e leve ls o f l inkage in t h e s e t o f d a t a a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e r e s u l t s o f t he ana lys i s a r e u s e d t o develop " d e n d r o g r a m s " ( F i g u r e s 5 , 9 , 13, 17 ) , t r e e l i k e h i e r a r c h i c a l 48 d i a g r a m s t h a t show t h e r e l a t i o n s among a l l t he v a r i a b l e s in a g iven s e t . T h e r e s u l t a n t s t a t i s t i c a l model is t r a n s l a t e d in to a s p a t i a l model by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m c l u s t e r ana lys i s on land use p r o f i l e s c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each o f t he bus iness g r o u p s . ( A p p e n d i x C , F i g u r e s 27 -30) A s S i m m o n ' s n o t e s , " T h e s p a t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n the o c c u r r e n c e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s can be d e r i v e d and s p e c i f i e d in a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , a l t hough no s p a t i a l model is impl ied o t h e r t h a n the knowledge t h a t , g iven t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f one o f t w o r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e o t h e r f o l l o w s . " * * T h e t h i r d and f o u r t h h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t e s t e d , and t h e c o r e and f r a m e s p e c i f i e d , by c o m p a r i n g a b lock by b lock g r a p h i c a l ana lys i s o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f land va lues ( F i g u r e s 6 , 10, 11+, 18) f o r e ach d i s t r i c t . . A s s e s s e d L a n d V a l u e s M u n i c i p a l i t i e s have been de l ega t ed t h e p o w e r t o levy a " p r o p e r t y t a x " on l a n d , i m p r o v e m e n t s , and m a c h i n e r y , b u t n o t on p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y . L a n d and i m p r o v e m e n t s a r e a s s e s s e d s e p a r a t e l y , by l a w , and a r e ba sed on f i f t y p e r c e n t o f " c u r r e n t m a r k e t v a l u e . " A s s e s s m e n t s a r e checked by the 49 P r o v i n c i a l A s s e s s m e n t C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h may o r d e r o r make r e a s s e s s m e n t s t o b r i n g t h e m w i t h i n a f e w p e r c e n t o f t he f i f t y p e r c e n t s t a n d a r d . T h u s , a s s e s s m e n t s a r e o f a r e a s o n -ably good q u a l i t y . * 2 T h e a s s e s s e d va lues o f land f o r each l o t in t h e c o m -m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s w e r e compi led and r e d u c e d t o a value p e r squa re f o o t p e r l o t . L a n d value p r o f i l e s w e r e t h e n c o n -s t r u c t e d f o r each s ide o f t h e main a r t e r y o f t he d i s t r i c t s and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f bus iness c o n f o r m a t i o n s . T i m e - S e r i e s A n a l y s i s T h e f i f t h h y p o t h e s i s w a s t e s t e d by us ing t h e V a n c o u v e r  C i t y D i r e c t o r y t o t r a c e t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e a t f i v e , t e n y e a r i n t e r v a l s . T h e land use p a t t e r n was i n -v e s t i g a t e d a t t w o l e v e l s : 1, T h e g r o s s changes in t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e bus iness t y p e s w i t h i n the c e n t e r s a t e ach i n t e r v a l . 2. T h e individual l o c a t i v e changes and t h e changing space r e l a t i o n s o f s e l e c t e d bus iness t y p e s — f o o d , a p p a r e l , s e r v i c e , f i n a n c e , and o f f i c e . F o o t n o t e s * D . P . K e r r . " U r b a n G e o g r a p h y o f V a n c o u v e r , " U n p u b l i s h e d M . A . t h e s i s , D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , U n i v e r -s i t y o f T o r o n t o , . 1940, gives 279 in 1882. 50 ^ E r n e s t E . B u r g e s s . " T h e G r o w t h o f t h e C i t y , " R . E . P a r k , E . W . B u r g e s s and R . D . M c K e n z i e ( e d s . ) , T h e C i t y , , ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1925). 3 j , R . W o l f o r t h . " R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n and the P l a c e o f W o r k , " B . C . G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , N o . 2+ (1965), p . 11. o m e r H o y t . T h e S t r u c t u r e and G r o w t h o f R e s i d e n t i a l Ne ighbourhoods in A m e r i c a n C i t i e s . ( W a s h i n g t o n : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1939) , f o r m u l a t e d a model o f s e c t o r a l g r o w t h as d i s t i n c t f r o m g r o w t h by c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s . ^ T h e L a n d U s e S e c t i o n , V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , compi led land use maps f o r t he c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s o f t h e C i t y in t h e s u m m e r o f 1965. T h e maps o f t he s t u d y d i s t r i c t s w e r e upda t ed in t h e f i e l d by t h e w r i t e r d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r o f I966. ^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D i r e c t o r i e s , V a n c o u v e r C i t y D i r e c -t o r y . ( V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) . 7 A d i s c u s s i o n o f land use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and f i e l d s u r v e y t echn iques is inc luded in f T . S . C h a p i n . U r b a n L a n d U s e  P l a n n i n g , ( U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l ino is P r e s s , 1965), PP. 271-77. o F . W . W i l e s . L a n d D e v e l o p m e n t and T a x a t i o n in a C e n t r a l C o m m e r c i a l Z o n e . ( V a n c o u v e r , 1965) , p . 9. ^ H . H . M c C a r t y , and N . E . S a l i s b u r y . V i s u a l C o m p a r i s o n o f I s o p l e t h M a p s as a M e a n s o f D e t e r m i n i n g C o r r e l a t i o n  B e t w e e n S p a t i a l l y D i s t r i b u t e d P h e n o m e n a . ( I o w a C i t y : D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f I o w a , S e r i e s N o . 3 , 1961) , p . 78. l ° T h e t echn ique has been used b y : M . A . M e l t o n . " C o r r e l a t i o n S t r u c t u r e o f M o r p h o m e t r i c P r o p e r t i e s o f D r a i n a g e • S y s t e m s and t h e i r C o n t r o l l i n g A g e n t s , " J o u r n a l o f G e o l o g y , 66, 2+ (1958), p p . 2+2+2-24-60 ; P . H a g g e t . " L o c a t i o n a l , D i m e n s i o n a l , and C o s t - r a t i o v a r i a b l e s in P o r t u g u e s e I n d u s t r y ; a M a t r i x A n a l y s i s . " M i m e o g r a p h e d , (1959). B a r u c h B o x e r . 51 O c e a n S h i p p i n g in t h e E v o l u t i o n o f H o n g K o n g . ( D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , R e s e a r c h P a p e r N o . 72, U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1961), p p . 2+7-59; a n d , P . « J . R i m m e r . " T h e P r o b l e m o f C o m -p a r i n g and C l a s s i f y i n g S e a p o r t s , " P r o f e s s i o n a l G e o g r a p h e r , 18, 2 (1966) , p p . 83-91. n < J . W . S i m m o n s . " D e s c r i p t i v e M o d e l s o f U r b a n L a n d U s e , " T h e C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , 9, 3 (1965), p p . 170-74. ' W i l e s , op_. c i t . , p . 3. C H A P T E R I V T H E P R E S E N T S T R U C T U R E O F U R B A N A R T E R I A L S I N V A N C O U V E R - T h e t e s t o f t he h y p o t h e s e s and the a n a l y t i c a l f r a m e -w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h the t e s t s w e r e c o n d u c t e d a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by i n i t i a l l y s t u d y i n g in d e t a i l t he F r a s e r S t r e e t bus iness d i s t r i c t . T h i s c e n t e r w a s s e l e c t e d because i t has been t h e f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h in o t h e r s t u d i e s o f v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , p r o v i d e s s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s . ' T h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r r e -l a t e s t h e f ind ings o f t h e ana lys i s o f t h e r ema in ing t h r e e bus iness d i s t r i c t s t o the f ind ings f o r F r a s e r S t r e e t and n o t e s t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s and v a r i a t i o n s . . A n a l y s i s o f t h e F r a s e r S t r e e t B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t  G e n e r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i b u t i o n T h e F r a s e r S t r e e t bus iness d i s t r i c t ( F i g u r e 4 ) , e x -t end ing f r o m T h i r t y - s e v e n t h A v e n u e t o F i f t y - f i r s t A v e n u e , con t a in s 195 bus ines s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e x t e n d i n g a long b o t h s ide o f F r a s e r S t r e e t f o r 2,700 f e e t , and n o r t h a long the e a s t side f o r an add i t i ona l 1,950 f e e t . F i f t y - o n e p e r . c e n t o f t he bus iness f r o n t a g e o f F r a s e r S t r e e t is occup ied by r e t a i l bus iness w h i c h c o n s i s t s Figure 4. D I S T R I B U T I O N O F B U S I N E S S T Y P E S F R A S E R S T R E E T I 37 T H Ave. N O R T H S T R I P 5k a mix o f c o n v e n i e n c e - and shopping-goods s t o r e s , t h e l a t t e r o c c u p y i n g t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t he bus iness f r o n t a g e and i n -cluding a jun io r d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e . T h e r e f o r e , a l t hough the d i s t r i c t a s s u m e s t h e o u t w a r d f o r m o f a s t r i n g - s t r e e t , i t s o v e r -a l l f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r is t h a t o f a s m a l l e r shopping-goods o r c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r . T h e c e n t e r w a s i n i t i a l l y subdiv ided us ing p h y s i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l b a r r i e r s . T h e w e s t and e a s t s ides o f t h e s t r e e t a r e each bounded by p r i v a t e and publ ic land t o the s o u t h and n o r t h , and s e p a r a t e d by F r a s e r S t r e e t . T h e n o r t h e r n a r e a is bounded by p r i v a t e land t o t h e n o r t h and s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e e a s t s ide by publ ic l a n d . W i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f models o f bus iness s t r u c t u r e , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f bus iness t y p e s wou ld c o n s t i t u t e a bas i s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the combined e a s t and w e s t s ides as a c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r , and the n o r t h e r n s t r i p as a r i b b o n adjacent t o a c e n t e r . T h e f o r m e r have t h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t and f o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e i r f r o n t a g e occup ied by shopping u s e s ; t h e l a t t e r c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y o f n o n - c o m m e r c i a l uses ( t h i r t y - o n e p e r c e n t ) w i t h a u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l o t h e r u s e s . A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t i n g evidence e m e r g e s w h e n c o m p a r i n g the number o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t o t h e number o f S U F ' s f o r each a r e a o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t . T h e r a t i o o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s - t o S U F ' s on t h e w e s t s ide is 1.31 o r n i n e t y - s i x e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on 7 2 . 5 55 S U F ' s ; t he e a s t s ide r a t i o is 1.09, o r s e v e n t y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on 63.5 S U F ' s ; and the n o r t h s t r i p r a t i o is 0.55 o r , t w e n t y -nine e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on f i f t y - t w o S U F ' s . . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , h o w e v e r , e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e e a s t and w e s t s i d e s . C o n s u m e r goods s t o r e s ( shopping and convenience) a c c o u n t f o r s e v e n t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e w e s t s ide f r o n t a g e , and only f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e e a s t s ide f r o n t a g e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r ema in ing s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f bus iness t y p e s occupy r e l a t i v e l y even p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e e a s t e r n f r o n t a g e , whi le on t h e w e s t , only f i nance and o f f i c e and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s occupy s i g n i f i c a n t , a m o u n t s . B u s i n e s s D i s t r i b u t i o n by C i t y B l o c k s T h e c o m m e r c i a l g roups as s h o w n in F i g u r e 1+ w e r e c o r -r e l a t e d by p e r c e n t s p a c e - o c c u p a n c e p e r b l o c k , and the r e s u l t -ing c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x w a s ana lysed by c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . C o m -p a r i s o n o f t h e d e n d r o g r a m o f F i g u r e 5 w i t h t he d i s t r i b u t i o n o f bus ines s g roups as p o r t r a y e d g r aph i ca l l y in A p p e n d i x C , F i g u r e 27, enables the f o r m e r t o be i n t e r p r e t e d in s p a t i a l t e r m s , i . e . , t h e d e n d r o g r a m r e p r e s e n t s o n e - h a l f o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t w i t h t h e bus iness g roups l o c a t i n g a w a y f r o m t h e c e n t e r in t h e o r d e r t h e y appea r in t h e d e n d r o g r a m . T h e conven ience - shopp ing " b a s i c - p a i r " is l o c a t e d c e n t r a l l y t o the o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . F i s h e r ' s Z ( f rom c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ) 23 m m r > Z • 30 CO m 0) =° m CO G) 33 • c TJ (0 57 A u t o m o t i v e - p a r k i n g occup ies t h e p e r i p h e r y , and t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t - e d u c a t i o n ' b a s i c - p a i r ' occup ies s i t e s b e t w e e n t h e f o r m e r t w o . T h e f inance and o f f i c e , and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e g roups a r e m o s t c lo se ly l inked w i t h the conven ience - shopp ing p a i r as i n d i c a t e d by t h e l eve l and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r a v e r a g e -l inkage e n t r y . T w o main c l u s t e r s emerge w h i c h a r e n e g a t i v e l y c o r -r e l a t e d : a c e n t r a l g roup ing o f r e t a i l and s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ; a n d , t w o loose ly l inked p e r i p h e r a l c l u s t e r s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t and e d u c a t i o n , and a u t o m o t i v e and n o n - c o m m e r c i a l u s e s . T h e bus iness t y p e s w i t h i n each c l u s t e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e 'unplanned c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r ' and ' r i b b o n ' c a t e g o r i e s o f p r e v i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . I t is e v i d e n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a r t e r i a l s t r e e t p o s s e s s e s a r e g u l a r a r r a n g e m e n t o f land uses and f u n c t i o n a l s u b - a r e a s , and does n o t a l ign i t s e l f w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e loose ly de f ined ' u rban a r t e r i a l ' c a t e g o r i e s o f o t h e r s t u d i e s . C l o s e r ana lys i s o f t h e land use p r o f i l e s r e v e a l s a d -d i t i o n a l ev idence o f f u n c t i o n a l groupings w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t . O n t h e w e s t s i d e , convenience and shopping e s t a b l i s h m e n t s domina te b locks t h r e e t o eight, i n c l u s i v e . B l o c k s one and t w o a r e n o t o r i e n t e d t o any s p e c i f i c bus iness c o n f o r m a t i o n , a l t hough p e r -sona l s e r v i c e , and f i nance and o f f i c e occupy s l i g h t l y more 58 f r o n t a g e . O n t h e e a s t s i d e , t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f bus iness t y p e s is v e r y w e a k . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c o n s u m e r goods and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t f o r a v e r y sma l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e bus iness f r o n t a g e in b locks s e v e n and e i g h t . A l i b r a r y , and o t h e r n o n -c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s domina te t h e b locks r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e t a i l bus ine s se s domina te b locks t h r e e , f o u r , and s i x ; and b locks one and f i v e a r e mainly occup ied by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e t a i l and s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . T h e n o r t h e r n s t r i p (b locks nine t o f o u r t e e n ) is occup ied by a . d i v e r s i t y o f bus iness t y p e s w i t h none o f t h e r e -t a i l o r s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s e i t h e r individual ly o r t o g e t h e r domina t ing t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e t a i l B u s i n e s s T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l c l u s t e r w a s ana lysed by a g r aph i c s t u d y o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e componen t s o f t he shopping group ( F i g u r e 6) . T h e l o c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f shopping and convenience e s t a b l i s h m e n t s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r a c t e d geographic s t u d y because o f t h e i r u b i q u i t y , d i v e r s e n a t u r e , and s e n s i t i v i t y t o c o n s u m e r b e h a v i o u r . D e s p i t e t h e i n t e n s e s t u d y , c o n s u m e r goods s t o r e s a r e s t i l l t h e sub j ec t o f much c o n t r o v e r s y in l o c a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . A f t e r p r o b i n g t h e l o c a t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c Figure 6. D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E T A I L s F R A S E R S T R E E T G e n e r o l M e r c h a n d i s e S o f t L i n e H a r d L i n e (HI! B u i l d i n g S u p p l i e s O t h e r S h o p p i n g " 4 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 A S S E S S E D L A N D V A L U E S WEST SIDE EAST SIDE I 2 3 4 5 6 C I T Y B L O C K S 60 r e t a i l bus iness t y p e s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s ana lys i s a r e i n t e r -p r e t e d i n the l i g h t o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f land va lues and c o n -s u m e r behav iour as p r e s e n t e d in the r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e . T h e f o l l o w i n g t ab le s u m m a r i z e s t h e a r e a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f bus ines s t y p e s . T A B L E I I A R E A L A S S O C I A T I O N O F B U S I N E S S T Y R E S O N F R A S E R S T R E E T B l o c k W e s t S i d e E a s t S i d e 14 . N o n - C o m m e r c i a l N o n - C o m m e r c i a l 9 8 N o n - C o m m e r c i a l 7 S h o p p i n g L i b r a r y 6 S h o p p i n g 5 and F i n a n c e and S e r v i c e and. S h o p p i n g 4 C o n v e n i e n c e 3 2 S e r v i c e ' and A u t o m o t i v e and C o n v e n i e n c e 1 F i n a n c e F i n a n c e , S e r v i c e and S h o p p i n g F i g u r e 6 d e p i c t s t h e b r e a k d o w n o f shopping-goods bus iness t y p e s p e r b l o c k . T h e f i v e subdiv i s ions o f t h e ' s h o p -61 ping ' c a t e g o r y each appear s e v e r a l t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t b o t h t h e e a s t and the w e s t s i d e . I n m o s t o f t he b locks one o f t he groupings is d o m i n a n t . T h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g dominan t groupings made f r o m t h i s d a t a m u s t be cau t i oned by t h e p r o -p o r t i o n o f t o t a l f r o n t a g e p e r b lock t h a t t he groupings o c c u p y . T h e w e s t s ide is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f o u r p a t t e r n s o f a s s o c i a t i o n . B l o c k s one and t w o t a k e n t o g e t h e r a r e d o m i n a t e d by g e n e r a l me rchand i se s t o r e s . T h e g roup ing is n o t c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t , h o w e v e r , as shopping a c t i v i t i e s occupy only t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e f r o n t a g e in each b l o c k . S o f t l ine s t o r e s a r e c l e a r l y dominan t in b locks t h r e e , f o u r , and f i v e , occupy ing f r o m t w e n t y - f o u r t o t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t o f t h e f r o n t a g e . H a r d line s t o r e s , ( f u r n i t u r e and f l o o r i n g ) domina te b lock s i x , and h a r d line and ' o t h e r ' r e t a i l s t o r e s domina te b l o c k s s e v e n and e i g h t . A g a i n , h o w e v e r , shopping bus iness t y p e s only a c c o u n t f o r o n e - t h i r d o f t h e f r o n t a g e in b lock s e v e n . T h e e a s t e r n s t r i p o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t exh ib i t s a d i v e r s i t y o f shopping b u s i n e s s e s . B l o c k s one , t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , and s i x a r e d o m i n a t e d r e s p e c t i v e l y by building suppl ies ( l umber y a r d ) , h a r d l ines ( l a r g e f u r n i t u r e and appl iance s t o r e s ) , g ene ra l m e r c h a n d i s e ( s m a l l d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e ) , s o f t l i n e , and ' o t h e r ' r e t a i l s t o r e s . T h r e e s u p e r m a r k e t s a r e dominant in the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e convenience line bus iness t y p e s . T h e s u p e r m a r k e t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l hav ing g r o s s f l o o r a r e a s o f 7 , 0 0 0 - 8 , 0 0 0 squa re f e e t . T h e y a r e l o c a t e d in b locks f o u r and s e v e n on t h e w e s t s ide and in b lock t w o on t h e e a s t s i d e . T h e f o l l o w i n g t ab le s u m m a r i z e s t h e a r e a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f bus ines s t y p e s . T A B L E I I I A R E A L A S S O C I A T I O N O F S H O P P I N G - G O O D S B U S I N E S S T Y P E S O N F R A S E R S T R E E T B l o c k W e s t . S i d e E a s t S i d e 8 H a r d line and ' O t h e r 1 7 F o o d 6 H a r d line • O t h e r ' 5 S o f t l ine S o f t line k S o f t line and F o o d G e n e r a l M e r c h a n d i s e 3 S o f t line H a r d line 2 F o o d 1 B u i l d i n g S u p p l i e s T h e t h e d i s t r i c t f i n a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t he f u n c t i o n a l d iv i s ions w i t h i n is c o m p l e t e d by c o m p a r i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f bus ines s t y p e s w i t h land va lues and p r e s e n t p a t t e r n s o f c o n -s u m e r b e h a v i o u r . 63 P a t t e r n s o f A s s e s s e d L a n d V a l u e s -T h e w e s t s ide p r o f i l e o f land va lues in F i g u r e 6 e x h i b i t s gene ra l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t a n d a r d " c o n e - s h a p e d " c o n -f i g u r a t i o n . T h e va lues d e s c e n d f r o m a w e l l - d e f i n e d 'peak' o r maximum o f $3 . 50 p e r s q u a r e f o o t in b lock t h r e e t o a minimum o f $1.60 p e r squa re f o o t i n b locks one and e i g h t . T h e p r o f i l e d e p a r t s f r o m t h e conven t i ona l model in t h a t t h e gene ra l shape is a s y m m e t r i c a l and t h e va lues a t s t r e e t c o r n e r s b r i s t l e above the g e n e r a l m i d - b l o c k v a l u e s . T h e e a s t s ide p r o f i l e e x h i b i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he ' r i dge ' o f land va lues e x p e c t e d a long ' t y p i c a l ' r i b b o n s t r e e t s . T h e maximum value is $2 .80 p e r squa re f o o t in b lock t h r e e , c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r t h a n t h e maximum f o r t h e w e s t s i d e ; a n d , t h e r e is no m a r k e d o r o r d e r l y d e s c e n t o f t h e va lues f r o m t h e m a x i m u m . T h e a b r u p t d e p r e s s i o n o f va lues in b lock s even m a r k s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a publ ic land u s e . O t h e r w i s e , t h e va lues f r o m b locks one t o e igh t r e t a i n a u n i f o r m c o n f i g u r a t i o n . B e r r y l inked ' r i b b o n ' bus iness t y p e s w i t h r i dges o f land v a l u e s , and c e n t e r , o r shopping and convenience bus ines se s w i t h s y m m e t r i c a l cones o f land v a l u e s . I f t h i s p a t t e r n o f a s s o c i a t i o n is a s s u m e d t o e x i s t i n t h e F r a s e r S t r e e t bus iness d i s t r i c t , t h e n t h e p a t t e r n o f bus iness t y p e s w i l l be s y m m e t r i c a l w i t h c o n v e n i e n c e - and shopping-goods s t o r e s occupy ing t h e w e s t 6L side o f t h e s t r e e t , and household and bui lding s u p p l i e s , h o u s e -hold and bus iness s e r v i c e s , and household r e p a i r f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d on t h e e a s t s i d e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n is va l id f o r t he r e t a i l g r o u p s l o c a t e d on t h e w e s t s i d e . T h e e a s t s i d e , h o w e v e r , c o n t a i n s a complex o f bus iness t y p e s w h i c h exceeds t h e e x p e c t e d . P a t t e r n s o f C o n s u m e r B e h a v i o u r C e n t r a l p lace t h e o r y p laces c o m m e r c i a l c l u s t e r s in a h i e r a r c h y by the o r d e r o f e n t r y o f g o o d s . T h e h i g h e s t o r d e r goods o c c u p y t h e a r e a o f h i g h e s t land v a l u e s . M a r k e t i n g t h e o r y ma in ta ins t h a t t he h i g h e s t o r d e r goods in a c e n t e r a r e t h e " m a i n a t t r a c t o r s " o f t h a t c e n t e r . T h e l o w e r o r d e r goods ( conven i ence -goods ) a r e u b i q u i t o u s , v i s i t e d a t f r e q u e n t i n t e r v a l s and t h e r e f o r e n o t uniquely d e f i n i t i v e in c e n t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . H i g h - o r d e r goods a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t h e s o f t line o r a p p a r e l goods in c o m m u n i t y l eve l c e n t e r s . A . c o m p r e h e n s i v e ana lys i s o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f bus ines s d i s t r i c t s m u s t a lso c o n s i d e r t h e gene ra l sca le o f o p e r a t i o n o f individual c o n s u m e r s goods e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n s u m e r o r i e n t a t i o n . M o s t o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e gene ra l ly s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and wide ly r e c o g n i z e d . T h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n is based on e m p i r i c a l evidence in t h e bus ines s d i s t r i c t and r e c e n t s t u d i e s 65 o f c o n s u m e r behav iour as r e v i e w e d . M e d i u m and l a r g e - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y : ( i ) d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d s t o r e s o f f e r i n g s e v e r a l c o m -m o d i t y l ines o f a h ighe r o r d e r ( d e p a r t m e n t and d i s c o u n t s t o r e s ) . ( i i ) s t o r e s s p e c i a l i z i n g in a n a r r o w range o f h igher o r d e r c o m m o d i t i e s ( f u r n i t u r e and appl iance s t o r e s ) and ( i i i ) s t o r e s o f f e r i n g a wide range o f l o w - o r d e r goods ( s u p e r m a r k e t s ) . T h e c a t e g o r i e s a r e r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o u b i q u i t y . D e -p a r t m e n t s t o r e s and s u p e r m a r k e t s w i t h i n unplanned c e n t e r s p r o m o t e " o n e - s t o p s h o p p i n g " . F u r n i t u r e s t o r e s d i f f e r in t h a t t h e y a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d . by c o m p a r a t i v e s hopp ing . S m a l l - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y : ( i ) s t o r e s spec i a l i z i ng in a n a r r o w range o f h igher o r d e r c o m m o d i t i e s (an t ique f u r n i t u r e , e x o t i c g i f t s t o r e s , e x c l u s i v e men's w e a r ) . ( i i ) s t o r e s o f f e r i n g a l i m i t e d range o f h igher o rde r • goods ( c l o t h i n g , s h o e , and a c c e s s o r y appare l ) and ( i i i ) s t o r e s o f f e r i n g l o w e r o r d e r goods in b o t h wide and n a r r o w ranges o f goods ( g r o c e r y , d r u g s t o r e , h a r d w a r e , b a k e r y , d a i r y ) . T h e c a t e g o r i e s a r e r a n k e d in a scend ing o r d e r s o f u b i q u i t y . S p e c i a l t y s t o r e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " o n e - s t o p 66 shopp ing" a l though t h e r e may be some c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n c e n t e r s . T h e h ighe r o r d e r shopping—goods s t o r e s a r e c h a r a c -t e r i z e d by r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t s , and i n t e n s i v e c o m p a r a t i v e shopping f o r s t y l e , qua l i t y and p r i c e w i t h i n the c e n t e r . T h e l o w e r o r d e r , w i d e - r a n g e s t o r e s a r e t h e f o c u s o f f r e q u e n t v i s i t s and shopping among s t o r e s o f t h e same t y p e , i f a l l t h e goods a r e n o t o f f e r e d by one s t o r e . T h e l i m i t e d range t y p e a r e v i s i t e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y and shopping may be c o m p a r a t i v e . F r a s e r S t r e e t has one l a r g e - s c a l e f u r n i t u r e and appl iance s t o r e l o c a t e d in b lock t h r e e on t h e e a s t s i d e . T h e m e d i u m - s i z e s t o r e s include t h e t h r e e s u p e r m a r k e t s , t he f u r n i -t u r e and appl iance s t o r e s , and t h e jun ior d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e . "With r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e I I I , t h e s u p e r m a r k e t s a r e l o c a t e d in b locks f o u r and s e v e n on t h e w e s t , and t w o on t h e e a s t ; t h e f u r n i t u r e and appl iance s t o r e s in b locks s i x , s e v e n and e igh t on t h e w e s t , and f o u r and s i x on t h e e a s t ; a n d , t h e jun ior d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e in b lock f o u r on t h e e a s t . T h e r e is h o s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a l g roup ing o f t h e t h r e e bus iness t y p e s . T h e s u p e r m a r k e t s a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m each o t h e r by r e l a t i v e l y long d i s t a n c e s . T h e f u r n i t u r e and appl iance s t o r e s a r e g rouped only in b lock t h r e e on the e a s t s i d e . M a n y o f t h e l a r g e s u p e r m a r k e t s now being c o n s t r u c t e d , occupy w h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be f r e e - s t a n d i n g s i t e s , i . e . , t h e y a r e 67 l o c a t e d a t t h e p e r i p h e r y o f c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s o r in c o m p l e t e c o m m e r c i a l i s o l a t i o n . U n l i k e t h e i r s m a l l e r c o u n t e r p a r t s , t h e y g e n e r a t e t h e i r o w n bus iness and do n o t need the add i t iona l d r a w i n g p o w e r p r o v i d e d by o t h e r s t o r e s in a shopping d i s t r i c t . T h e s m a l l - s c a l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s domina te t h e c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e on F r a s e r S t r e e t . T h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e grouping, o f t h e s m a l l - s c a l e s o f t line s t o r e s in b locks t h r e e , f o u r , and f i v e o f t h e w e s t s ide is t he m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d as t h e s e bus iness t y p e s a r e highly i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o c o n s u m e r b e h a v i o u r . T h e o t h e r bus iness t y p e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y evenly d i s -p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e a s t and w e s t s i d e s . T h e m e r c h a n t s o f F r a s e r S t r e e t p rov ide o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s f r o m b locks t w o t o e igh t a t t he r e a r o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on t h e w e s t s i d e . A s u r v e y o f t h e number o f c a r s p a r k e d on t h e s e s i t e s a t m i d - m o r n i n g and m i d - a f t e r n o o n i n t e r v a l s du r ing t h e week s h o w e d t h a t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f b lock f o u r , b lock t h r e e c o n t a i n e d a t l e a s t t w i c e as many a u t o -mobiles as t h e o t h e r s . A u g m e n t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t s i x t y p e r p c e n t o f t h e c o n s u m e r s t r a v e l t o the d i s t r i c t by c a r , a n d , t h e knowledge t h a t p e d e s t r i a n s w i l l only w a l k 2+00 f e e t in a shopping t r i p ( see p . 2 0 ) , t h e r e t a i l c o r e and t h e c o r e - f r a m e model o f t h e d i s t r i c t a r e de l inea t ed as i n F i g u r e 7 . Figure 7 F U N C T I O N A L A S S O C I A T I O N FRASER STREET 600 |_ F e e t 1 2 0 0 R e t a i I F i n a n c e Persona I Se r v i c e G e n e r a I M e r c h o n d i s e H a r d L i n t : : x*X:S: : : ' : : : : : M i x e d i r Core F r a m e Ribbon 69 D i s t r i c t 2 — H a s t i n g s S t r e e t  G e n e r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i b u t i o n T h e H a s t i n g s S t r e e t bus iness d i s t r i c t is o r i e n t e d e a s t -w e s t and l o c a t e d abou t t w o miles f r o m t h e d o w n t o w n . T h e f r o n t a g e s a long e a c h b lock a r e longer t h a n on n o r t h - s o u t h runn ing s t r e e t s due t o the r e c t a n g u l a r g r i d s y s t e m o f V a n -c o u v e r S t r e e t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , in o r d e r t o r e t a i n ' t h e same sca l e o f ana lys i s as w a s u sed w i t h F r a s e r S t r e e t , t h e a b -n o r m a l l y long b locks f r o m K a m l o o p s t o R e n f r e w a r e d iv ided i n t o t w o p a r t s and numbered a c c o r d i n g l y in t h e t a b l e s and d i a -g r a m s . N a n a i m o S t r e e t is t h e main n o r t h - s o u t h a r t e r y w h i c h i n t e r s e c t s w i t h H a s t i n g s . T h e a u t o m o t i v e c o m m e r c i a l group domina t e s t h e o t h e r • c a t e g o r i e s in t h e amoun t o f space consumed w i t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t : . : ( F i g u r e 8 ) . T h e r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e equally r e p r e s e n t e d on b o t h s i d e s . T h e f inance and o f f i c e , and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e g roups a r e l a r g e l y l o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h s i d e . C l u s t e r ana lys i s y ie lded t w o nega t i ve ly c o r r e l a t e d groupings o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ( F i g u r e 9) • F i r s t , a c o m -plex s e t o f l inks among the r e t a i l and s e r v i c e c o m p o n e n t s , and s e c o n d , a c l u s t e r d o m i n a t e d by a u t o m o t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . R e f e r e n c e t o the land use p r o f i l e s ( A p p e n d i x C , F i g u r e 28) r e v e a l s , as w a s t h e case w i t h F r a s e r S t r e e t , t h a t t h e Figure 8. D I S T R I B U T I O N O F B U S I N E S S HASTINGS STREET T Y P E S Semlin^T 600 _ 1 _ Feet 1200 SOUTH SIDE Nangimo 5t, NORTH SIDE ( P A R K I N G ) . EDUCATION E N T E R T A I N M E N T CONVENIENCE SHOPPING NON-COMMERCIAL PERSONAL - S E R V I C E FINANCE and OFFICE Figure 9 L A N D U S E G R O U P S HASTINGS STREET • ^ ^ ^ # ^ ^ ^ 72 d e n d r o g r a m r e f l e c t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l g roups f o r one—half o f t h e c e n t e r . T h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f c o n v e n i e n c e - and shopping-goods s t o r e s , and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , and f inance and o f f i c e f o r m t h e t w o b a s i c - p a i r s w i t h i n the c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d c l u s t e r . T h e v a r i o u s c o m m e r c i a l g roups a r e c l e a r l y l o c a l i z e d in t h i s d i s t r i c t : r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e g rouped nea r t h e geograph ica l c e n t e r ; s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ove r l ap and a r e l o c a t e d i m -med ia t e ly adjacent t o b o t h s ides o f t h e r e t a i l c o n c e n t r a t i o n ; a n d , a u t o m o t i v e s t o r e s domina te t h e r e s p e c t i v e e n d s , e spec ia l ly t h e e a s t e n d , o f t h e d i s t r i c t . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e R e t a i l B u s i n e s s T h e main ob jec t ive in ana lys ing t h e r e t a i l g roup is t o i d e n t i f y a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f shopping-goods e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h l o c a t e t o g e t h e r t o g e n e r a t e c o m p a r a t i v e shopp ing . One l a rge t h r e e - s t o r y bui lding domina te s t h e c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e on t h e s o u t h s ide o f b locks s ix and s e v e n ( F i g u r e 10) . T h e s t r u c t u r e con t a in s t w o sma l l s u p e r m a r k e t s , a f u r n i t u r e s t o r e , and a jun ior d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , and is t he only building o f i t s s i ze in t h e f o u r s t u d y d i s t r i c t s . T h e sma l l a p p a r e l s t o r e s a r e g rouped on b locks f i v e , s i x , and s e v e n on t h e n o r t h s i d e , and b lock f i v e on t h e s o u t h s i d e . T h e p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e s m a l l e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on t h e Figure 10. D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E T A I L G R O U P HASTINGS S T R E E T Gene r o I M e r c h a n d i s e I S o f t L i n e {.•.'.VI Hard L i n e B u i l d i n g S u p p l i e s ES23 O t h e r Shopping I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A S S E S S E D L A N D V A L U E S NORTH SIDE SOUTH SIDE I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 C I T Y B L O C K S 74 n o r t h s ide is r e f l e c t e d i n t h e land use d e n s i t y w h i c h , is much h igher on t h e n o r t h s ide o f t h e ar ter ia l—117 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s consuming 126 S U F ' s , as c o m p a r e d t o s e v e n t y - e i g h t e s t a b l i s h -m e n t s e x t e n d i n g o v e r 129 S U F ' s on t h e s o u t h s i d e . T h e d e n s i t y on b locks f i v e t o e igh t on t h e n o r t h s ide and b lock f i v e i n t h e s o u t h is n e a r l y double t h a t o f t h e o t h e r b locks in t h e d i s t r i c t . F u n c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s T h e even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l space on b locks f i v e t o s e v e n on b o t h s ides o f t he s t r e e t co inc ides c lo se ly w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f land va lues f r o m $1.50 t o a maximum o f f o u r do l l a r s p e r squa re f o o t in t h e same a r e a . When t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n is c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n s abou t c o n s u m e r behav iour as ou t l i ned in the ana lys i s o f F r a s e r S t r e e t , a model o f f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ( F i g u r e 11) is f o r m u l a t e d f o r t he d i s t r i c t . D i s t r i c t 3— W e s t B r o a d w a y A v e n u e T h e W e s t B r o a d w a y bus iness d i s t r i c t is l o c a t e d a t t h e w e s t e r n end o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p w h i c h ex t ends a c r o s s t h e e n t i r e c i t y . M a c d o n a l d S t r e e t is t h e main n o r t h - s o u t h a r t e r y w h i c h i n t e r s e c t s w i t h W e s t B r o a d w a y in t h e d i s t r i c t . T h e mix o f c o m m e r c i a l and n o n - c o m m e r c i a l l and uses ( F i g u r e 12) r e f l e c t s t h e d ive r se , f u n c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e uses d i s t r i b u t e d Figure II. F U N C T I O N A L A S S O C I A T I O N HASTINGS STREET I 1 Fea t 6 0 0 1200 I I F i n a n c e Mixed Au t o m o b i l « Row |||||| Fr a me R ibbon Figure 12. D I S T R I B U T I O N O F B U S I N E S S T Y P E S WEST BROADWAY 600 Feet 1200 SOUTH SIDE .Collingwood St. 77 along the a t t e n u a t e d a r t e r i a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t he W e s t B r o a d -w a y d i s t r i c t e x h i b i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h an i n t e r n a l l y o r d e r e d c o m m e r c i a l a r e a . T h e c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s on t h e n o r t h s ide a r e domina t ed by shopping-goods f a c i l i t i e s . F i n a n c e and o f f i c e , convenience and a u t o m o t i v e g roups c o n s t i t u t e t h e bulk o f t h e r ema in ing c o m m e r c i a l f r o n t a g e . O n t h e s o u t h s i d e , t h e c o n v e n i e n c e -group occup i e s a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r amoun t o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l space w h i c h is o t h e r w i s e evenly a l l o c a t e d t o s e v e r a l bus iness g r o u p s . T h e p r e v a l e n c e o f s m a l l - s c a l e r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on the n o r t h side is r e f l e c t e d in the land use density—117 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on 1 2 6 ' S U F ' s . T h e s o u t h side con t a in s e i g h t y -s i x e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on 118 S U F ' s . T h e a r e a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f bus ine s se s along t h e a r t e r y ( F i g u r e 13 and A p p e n d i x C , F i g u r e 29) is n o t so c l e a r l y l o -ca l i z ed as is t h e a s s o c i a t i o n on H a s t i n g s S t r e e t . C o n v e n i e n c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e loose ly l inked t o a c e n t r a l c l u s t e r c o n s i s t i n g o f shopping and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e c o m p o n e n t s ; a n d , e n t e r t a i n -men t and educa t i ona l f a c i l i t i e s f o r m t h e b a s i c - p a i r o f p e r i p h e r a l land use a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e convenience s t o r e s on W e s t B r o a d w a y range in s i z e f r o m the ub iqu i tous sma l l g r o c e r y and c o n f e c t i o n e r y s t o r e s t o a l a r g e s u p e r m a r k e t ( 16,000 squa re f e e t o f g r o s s f l o o r Figure 13. L A N D U S E G R O U P S WEST BROADWAY i _ i 79 a r e a ) . . T h e l a t t e r is l o c a t e d on t h e s o u t h side a t t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e d i s t r i c t . T h i s s i t e is a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n s o f s m a l l - a n d m e d i u m - s i z e d s t o r e s as o b s e r v e d in t h i s and t h e p r e -v ious ly ana ly sed d i s t r i c t s , and r e f l e c t s t h e f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n w h i c h o c c u r s b e t w e e n s t o r e s o f a s i m i l a r t y p e b u t d i f f e r e n t s c a l e . A t the p e r i p h e r a l s i t e , t h e s u p e r m a r k e t f u n c t i o n s mainly as a f r e e - s t a n d i n g c o m m e r c i a l u n i t . T h e one m e d i u m - s i z e d s t o r e and the s m a l l e r g r o c e r y s t o r e s a r e more c lo se ly l i nked t o t h e c o n s u m e r i n t e r p l a y g e n e r a t e d by the s h o p -ping b u s i n e s s e s a t t h e c o r e o f t h e d i s t r i c t , and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , l o c a t e d n e a r o r w i t h i n the c e n t r a l c l u s t e r . R e t a i l B u s i n e s s T h e loose ly o r g a n i z e d p a t t e r n o f bus iness g roups is m o s t ev iden t upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f t he d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l bus iness t y p e s ( F i g u r e 12+) . T h e s o f t line s t o r e s a r e r e p r e -s e n t e d f r o m b locks 5a t o s e v e n on t h e n o r t h s i d e , and b locks s i x t o e igh t on t h e s o u t h s i d e . T h e m o s t p r o m i n e n t c o n c e n -t r a t i o n s o c c u r on b locks 5a and s e v e n , on the n o r t h and s o u t h s i d e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . J u n i o r d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s and l a rge f u r n i -t u r e s t o r e s a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e W e s t B r o a d w a y d i s t r i c t . . A s w a s t h e case in t h e o t h e r bus iness d i s t r i c t s , t h e l a rge bui ld ing supply bus ines se s a r e s i t u a t e d a t t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e d i s t r i c t . Figure 14. D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E T A I L G R O U P WEST BROADWAY 'V A S S E S S E D L A N D V A L U E S NORTH SIDE " SOUTH SIDE C I T Y B L O C K S A s s e s s e d L a n d V a l u e s T h e land va lues ( F i g u r e 12+) a r e no tab le f o r t h e i r c o n -s i s t e n t l eve l t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y a r e a . T h e only v a r i a t i o n s a r e a s l i g h t r i s e in value b e t w e e n b locks 5a and s e v e n on t h e n o r t h s i d e , and an a b r u p t i n c r e a s e a t t h e c o r n e r o f t h e t w o i n t e r s e c t i n g major a r t e r i e s on t h e s i t e s o f a d r u g s t o r e and t w o - s t o r e y o f f i c e bu i l d ing . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n by w h i c h c o m m e r c i a l c e n t e r s w e r e s e l e c t e d by land va lues in t h e C h i c a g o s t u d y , W e s t B r o a d w a y wou ld f a l l i n t o t h e 'r ibbon* c a t e g o r y . Y e t t h e f o r e g o i n g ana lys i s has r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e l a rge p r o p o r t i o n o f r e t a i l bus iness appea r ing i n t h i s d i s t r i c t m u s t qua l i fy i t as a bus iness c e n t e r . F u n c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s A s b e f o r e , t h e p a t t e r n o f bus iness a s s o c i a t i o n may be e x p r e s s e d in the f o r m o f a c o r e - f r a m e model ( F i g u r e 1 5 ) . T h e c o m p a r a t i v e goods s t o r e s a r e t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e c o r e , and mixed r e t a i l and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s occupy t h e a r e a i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t . T h e l a rge s u p e r m a r k e t , and t h e g o v e r n m e n t l i quor s t o r e on . b lock f o u r each p rov ide t h e i r o w n o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g . T h e i r l o c a t i o n and sca le o f o p e r a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y f r e e - s t a n d i n g in f u n c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y a r e inc luded w i t h i n t h e ' r i bbon ' s u b - a r e a o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t . Figure 15. F U N C T I O N A L A S S O C I A T I O N WEST BROADWAY I L 600 I 1200 I F e et F o o d E n t e r t a i n m e n t feW:::::::":;:":' M i x e d i ^ j g R e t a i l 'ffi&&88& B u i l d i n g S u p p l i e s ;: :: :: :x :: :: ::|x: A u: o ; : ' : : : : : : : : : : : : : :y ' : i f i n a n c e •x%w"i*:: : : o n d SiS§S^ f O f f ' " •iiiiiSW:;:;: M i x e d ftetoil Core Frarrig JCyj R i b b o n 83 D i s t r i c t 2+—Kerr isdale T h e K e r r i s d a l e bus iness d i s t r i c t is s i t u a t e d f o u r miles f r o m d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e and E a s t and W e s t B o u l e v a r d s ( F i g u r e 16) . E a c h s ide o f t h e B o u l e v a r d c a r r i e s t w o - w a y t r a f f i c . W e s t B o u l e -v a r d , h o w e v e r , is l inked t o t h e main n o r t h - s o u t h a r t e r i a l ( A r b u t u s S t r e e t ) and t h e r e b y c a r r i e s much t h e g r e a t e r volume o f t r a f f i c . T h e d i s t r i c t i s t he only one w h i c h has deve loped a long t w o i n t e r s e c t i n g a r t e r i e s . T h e major po in t o f i n t e r e s t in t h i s case is t h e f o r m t a k e n by t h e c o r e - f r a m e m o d e l . T h e d i s t r i c t is d o m i n a t e d by shopping-goods bus ines se s and s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f conven i ence , a u t o m o t i v e , and p e r -sona l s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . T h e bulk o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l deve lopment i s d i s t r i b u t e d along F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e ; e i g h t y - f i v e e s t a b l i s h -m e n t s consume s i x t y - n i n e S U F ' s on t h e n o r t h s i d e ; a n d , s e v e n t y - f i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s occupy s e v e n t y - f o u r S U F ' s on t h e s o u t h s i d e . W e s t B o u l e v a r d c o n t a i n s s i x t y - s i x s t o r e s on s e v e n t y - f i v e S U F ' s . T h e r e t a i l componen t on W e s t B o u l e v a r d is mainly composed o f h a r d line and ' o t h e r ' r e t a i l s t o r e s , and l a c k s any s i g n i f i c a n t showing o f a p p a r e l s t o r e s . E a s t B o u l e v a r d w a s b y p a s s e d in t h e s t u d y as i t is occup ied by r e s i d e n t i a l land uses accompan ied by a minor number o f c o n f e c t i o n e r y and Figure 16. D I S T R I B U T I O N O F B U S I N E S S T Y P E S K E R R I S D A L E 600 ENTERTAINMENT ( P A R K I N G ) £ • NON-COMMERCIAL FINANCE and OFFICE PERSONAL SERVICE AUTOMOTIVE 85 o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a t c o r n e r l o c a t i o n s . T h e B o u l e v a r d p r o v i d e s a f o r m i d a b l e b a r r i e r t o p e d e s t r i a n m o v e m e n t as i t i s v e r y wide and occup ied by t h e t r a c k s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H y d r o R a i l w a y . A n e f f e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r t o movemen t is c r e a t e d s o u t h o f F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e b e t w e e n F o r t y - s e c o n d and F o r t y - t h i r d by the K e r r i s d a l e C o m m u n i t y C e n t e r . T h e land use d e n s i t y i s h ighes t on the n o r t h side o f F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e . O n t h i s same s i d e , t he shopping and convenience g roups occupy n e a r l y s e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e f r o n t a g e w i t h f i nance and o f f i c e , and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s a b s o r b i n g m o s t o f t h e r ema in ing s p a c e . O n the s o u t h s ide o f t h e s t r e e t , shopp ing , f i nance and o f f i c e , and a u t o m o t i v e consume r e l a t i v e l y equal p o r t i o n s o f t h e f r o n t a g e w e s t o f t h e B o u l e v a r d ; a n d , convenience, p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , and n o n - c o m m e r c i a l uses a r e dominan t e a s t o f t h e B o u l e v a r d . T h e d e n d r o g r a m ( F i g u r e 17) is ba sed on a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x w h i c h w a s c o m p u t e d us ing the land use d a t a f o r t h e e n t i r e d i s t r i c t . L a n d use p r o f i l e s ( A p p e n d i x C , F i g u r e 30) w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e . T h i s w a s n o t done f o r W e s t B o u l e v a r d because o f t he o c c u r r e n c e o f r e l a t i v e l y low n u m b e r s o f bus ines se s a long W e s t B o u l e v a r d w h e n c o m p a r e d t o F o r t y - f i r s t ; a n d , because t h e s e bus ine s se s a r e mainly o f F i s h e r ' s Z ( f rom c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ) m ZD X) CO o > r -m r > Z • m • c (J) 87 t h e a u t o m o t i v e , h a r d l i n e , and ' o t h e r ' r e t a i l c o m m e r c i a l g roups whose l o c a t i o n s a r e c l e a r l y l o c a l i z e d . C l u s t e r ana lys i s r e v e a l s t h a t t he ' r i bbon ' p o r t i o n o f t h e bus ines s d i s t r i c t does n o t e x i s t i n a f o r m s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b s e r v e d i n the o t h e r s t u d y d i s t r i c t s , i . e . , t he a u t o m o t i v e group alone is n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a l l t he o t h e r bus iness g r o u p s . S h o p p i n g and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , convenience and f i nance and o f f i c e , and e d u c a t i o n and n o n - c o m m e r c i a l uses f o r m t h e b a s i c - p a i r s o f t h e main c l u s t e r . T h e a c t i v i t i e s a r e d i s -t r i b u t e d a long F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e i n t h i s o r d e r f r o m t h e geog raph i ca l c e n t e r . T h e conven ience -goods c a t e g o r y in K e r r i s d a l e is r e p r e -s e n t e d by t w o l a r g e s u p e r m a r k e t s l o c a t e d on t h e n o r t h and s o u t h s ides o f F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e in t h e same b lock (b lock 6 ) ; by a m e d i u m - s i z e d o p e r a t i o n on b lock t w o o f t h e s o u t h s i d e ; a n d , by numerous s m a l l g r o c e r y s t o r e s n e a r the d i s t r i c t ' s geog raph ica l c e n t e r . R e t a i l B u s i n e s s T h e n o r t h and s o u t h s ides o f b lock f i v e on F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e c o n t a i n a m e d i u m - s i z e d v a r i e t y s t o r e and a jun ior d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y ( F i g u r e 18) . L a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s o f f r o n t a g e a r e occup ied by a p p a r e l s t o r e s on b locks t w o , Figure 18. D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E T A I L G R O U P K E R R I S D A L E ( 4 1 S T ) A S S E S S E D L A N D V A L U E S NORTH SIDE SOUTH SIDE C I T Y B L O C K S t h r e e , f i v e and s e v e n on t h e n o r t h s i d e , and b locks f o u r and f i v e on t h e s o u t h s i d e . T h e a p p a r e l g roup ing on b lock s e v e n is composed o f s e v e r a l f a s h i o n - a p p a r e l s t o r e s c a t e r i n g t o t r a f f i c f r o m the high income r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o f S h a u g h n e s y , n o r t h - e a s t o f t h e d i s t r i c t . T h e g roup ing would appea r t o f u n c t i o n much like s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s , s u c h as f u r n i -t u r e r o w s (see p . 15) w h i c h s t a n d in i s o l a t i o n o f o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and seek t o c r e a t e i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n and c o m -p l e m e n t a r i t y . F u n c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n S i n c e high land values a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a rge volumes o f p e d e s t r i a n m o v e m e n t , t he p rob lem o f de l im i t i ng the c o r e in K e r r i s d a l e is c l a r i f i e d w hen t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s o f t line e s t a b l i s h m e n t s is c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the p a t t e r n o f a s s e s s e d land va lues ( F i g u r e 18) . V a l u e s i n c r e a s e r ap id ly f r o m $1.50 p e r squa re f o o t in b lock t h r e e t o g r e a t e r t h a n f o u r do l l a r s p e r squa re f o o t in b lock f i v e . T h i s i n c r e a s e is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f t he bulk o f a p p a r e l s t o r e s on F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e . T h e land va lues a long W e s t B o u l e v a r d a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y l o w . T h e c o m m e r c i a l land uses on the B o u l e v a r d a r e l o c a t e d b e t w e e n F o r t y - t h i r d and F o r t y - s i x t h A v e n u e s . S i n c e t h e y Figure 19. F U N C T I O N A L A S S O C I A T I O N K E R R I S D A L E I U I ° 3 0 0 600 R e t a i l l&i&Silj F e e i and ftjffjijil'iffi S e r v i c e X:':':':':'l'x F r a m e R i b b o n 9 0 a r e i s o l a t e d by a land use b a r r i e r f r o m the c o r e , and s ince t h e mix o f h a r d ( e . g . , u p h o l s t e r y ) and s o f t ( e . g . , d r e s s m a k e r ) line r e t a i l bus iness t y p e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by spec i a l pu rpose shopp ing , t h e s t r i p s o u t h o f F o r t y - f i r s t is c o n s i d e r e d t o f u n c t i o n as a c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n ( F i g u r e 1 9 ) . S u m m a t i o n T h e f o l l o w i n g gene ra l conc lus ions may be d r a w n f r o m t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . 1. T h e a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s a r e composed o f r e g u l a r f u n c t i o n a l groupings of 1 bus iness t y p e s w h i c h a r e a r r a y e d in a s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r t o s e r v e a wide range o f s h o p -ping and s e r v i c e n e e d s . 2 . T h e f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t he a r t e r i a l s may be e x p r e s s e d in t h e f o r m o f a c o r e - f r a m e model ( F i g u r e 2 0 ) . T h e model i d e n t i f i e s s u b - a r e a s o f bus iness groupings w i t h r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 3. T h e c o r e o f t h e d i s t r i c t s is composed o f t he leading a t t r a c t o r s w h i c h group t o o b t a i n t h e advan tages o f c o m p a r a t i v e shopp ing . O t h e r bus ines se s l o c a t e in t h e c o r e because t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o s u p p o r t t h e h igher r e n t s in o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e high t r a f f i c volume a t t e n d a n t t o . t h e s o f t line c l u s t e r . 4. T h e f r a m e con ta in s a wide range o f bus iness t y p e s Figure 20. L A N D U S E G R O U P S C O M B I N E D DATA OF STU D Y Dl S T RI CT S CORE FRAME ' RIBBON J-' ^ ^ y <f ^ J>" & <$> ^ ^ 0 - 4 0 0 - 2 0 c: 0 0 0 - 0 - 2 0 91 w h i c h l o c a t e ad jacent t o the c o r e b e c a u s e : (i) t h e y r e q u i r e t h e volume o f t r a f f i c g e n e r a t e d by t h e c o r e b u t canno t s u p p o r t t h e r e n t , o r ('.ii) t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e t r a f f i c a t t r a c t e d by the c o r e , y e t a r e e s s e n t i a l l y f r e e - s t a n d i n g in n a t u r e . T h e f o r m e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t t he f r a m e p r o v i d e s a l o c a t i o n f o r t he deve lopmen t o f new r e t a i l s t o r e s ( incuba t ion) .3 T h e l a t t e r inc ludes s p e c i a l t y and h a r d line s t o r e s , a n d , many gene ra l o f f i c e and f i n a n c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . F o o t n o t e s *The F a c u l t y o f C o m m e r c e and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , has c o n d u c t e d numerous m a r k e t i n g s t u d i e s i n V a n c o u v e r . 2 H . M . S k i l l i n g s . . " A C o n s u m e r S u r v e y o f t h e S h o p p i n g H a b i t s o f t h e R e s i d e n t s o f t h e F r a s e r A r e a . , " Unpub l i shed G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , F a c u l t y o f C o m m e r c e and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M a r c h , 1966; a n d , N . C . M c D o w a l l . " A C o n s u m e r S u r v e y o f t h e S h o p p i n g H a b i t s o f t h e R e s i d e n t s o f t h e F r a s e r A r e a . , " Unpub l i shed G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , F a c u l t y o f C o m m e r c e and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i -s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967. ^ A n unpubl ished s t u d y o f t he d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v a c a n t p r e m i s e s in V a n c o u v e r bus iness d i s t r i c t s c o n d u c t e d in 1966 by t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , C i t y , o f V a n c o u v e r , r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f v a c a n c i e s w e r e l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e c e n t r a l r e t a i l c l u s t e r . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t ends t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e f r a m e p r o v i d e s i n c u b a t o r y s i t e s f o r new b u s i n e s s . C H A P T E R V E V O L U T I O N O F A R T E R I A L B U S I N E S S D I S T R I C T S I t w a s h y p o t h e s i z e d ( C h a p t e r I , p p . 8 - 9 ) t h a t t h e c o r e - f r a m e model o f f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n in o u t l y i n g bus iness d i s t r i c t s i s unique t o the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the s e c o n d w o r l d w a r ; a n d , t h a t i t is a p r o d u c t o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s a c t i n g on t h e s p a t i a l equi l ibr ium o f c o m m e r c i a l g r o w t h ( d i s p e r s i o n and deve lopment o u t s i d e the c e n -t r a l bus ines s d i s t r i c t ) , w h i l e , a t t he same t i m e , encourag ing a g g l o m e r a t i o n in t h e d e c e n t r a l i z e d l o c a t i o n s ( i n t e g r a t e d l o c a t i o n -a l morphology w i t h i n bus iness d i s t r i c t s a long u r b a n a r t e r i e s ) # J " . E . V a n c e i s o l a t e d f i v e "dynamic f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e " 1 w h i c h a r e r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e : 1. Chang ing modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n have i n c r e a s e d t h e m o b i l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , e spec ia l ly w i t h the w i d e s p r e a d use o f t h e au tomobi le a t t h e expense o f r a p i d t r a n s i t , and a l t e r e d t h e l o c a t i o n a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . 2 . C h a n g i n g p u r c h a s i n g p o w e r and t a s t e s in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have caused a r i s e in c o n s u m p t i o n o f f o r t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t b e t w e e n 1929 and 1955. in " c o n s t a n t d o l l a r s " , and e f f e c t e d a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f c o n s u m e r p r e f e r e n c e s . 92 3 . S u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f t he u r b a n popu la t i on as a r e s u l t o f t he au tomobi le has c r e a t e d l a rge new a r e a s conducive t o t h e deve lopmen t o f t he i n t e g r a t e d , " m a s s - s e l l i n g " shopping c e n t e r . i+. P l a n n i n g g o a l s , imp lemen ted by public zon ing , have " s o u g h t t o do a w a y w i t h t h e i s o l a t e d shop and have r e i n f o r c e d t h e economic t r e n d t o w a r d i n t e g r a t i o n o f shopping f a c i l i t i e s . " 2 5 . C h a n g e s in m e r c h a n d i z i n g have lead t o deve lopment o f t he l a r g e - s c a l e equ iva len t o f t he " g e n e r a l s t o r e " and e r a s e d the d i s t i n c t i v e l ines o f d e m a r c a t i o n among t y p e s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . S i m m o n s has t a b u l a t e d the r e s p o n s e s t o t e m p o r a l p r o -c e s s e s in t h e changing c o m p o s i t i o n o f bus iness c o n f o r m a t i o n s i n C h i c a g o . 3 T h e main e f f e c t s on r e t a i l i n g have b e e n : a r a p i d i n c r e a s e in t h e sca le o f m e r c h a n d i z i n g ; a s h i f t in c o n -s u m p t i o n t o h igher o r d e r goods ; t h e deve lopment o f planned c e n t e r s w h i c h have d i s t o r t e d - t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c c e n t r a l p lace s t r u c t u r e by spec i a l i z i ng t o p roduce c o m p e t i t i o n among c e n t e r s as opposed t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; t h e g r o w t h o f major u r b a n a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s , d i s c o u n t e r s , and l a rge independents a t t h e expense o f ne ighbourhood r ibbons and s c a t t e r e d s t o r e s c a t e r i n g t o w a l k - i n t r a d e ; a n d , t he r e t r e a t o f t h e p e r i p h e r y o f unplanned c e n t e r s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g peak land values a t t he c e n t e r . T h e c h a r a c t e r o f r i bbon r e t a i l i n g is changing mainly in 93 r e s p o n s e t o the a u t o and i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y . T h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r i p s a r e becoming more d i v e r s i f i e d and developing a p a t t e r n o f u r b a n a r t e r i a l g roupings w h i c h B e r r y t e r m s the new s u b -u r b a n r i b b o n — f u r n i t u r e , a m u s e m e n t s , s p o r t i n g g o o d s , d r i v e - i n s , and d i s c o u n t s t o r e s ( S e e p p . 16-19). T h i s p a t t e r n is s u p -p l a n t i n g t h e p r e - W o r l d W a r I I s t r u c t u r e o f shopping-goods and conven ience -goods mixes w h i c h P r o u d f o o t found g r e w up a r o u n d i n t e r c h a n g e p o i n t s on mass t r a n s i t l ines w i t h the i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f t he s t r e e t r a i l w a y in the 1890's . T h e i n c r e a s i n g bui ld-up o f o u t l y i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s s a w the conven ience -goods s t o r e s l o c a t e d a t major s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n s give w a y t o t h e deve lopmen t o f s t r i n g - s t r e e t s and c r u c i f o r m bus iness c e n t e r s a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s . T h e c u r r e n t morpho log ica l e x p r e s s i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l change w i t n e s s e s t h e decl ine o f r i bbon deve lopmen t s as s t o r e s m i g r a t e t o c e n t e r s , t he deve lopment o f i n t e g r a t e d planned c e n t e r s , and the g r o w t h o f t h e new r ibbon development .^" T h e s t u d y d i s t r i c t s o f V a n c o u v e r w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d a t t e n y e a r i n t e r v a l s f r o m 1927 t o 1966. D u r i n g t h i s t i m e - s p a n , t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r g r e w f r o m a popu la t i on o f n e a r l y 200 ,000 t o 400 ,000 w i t h i t s p e r c e n t a g e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the m e t r o p o l i t a n popu l a t i on dec l in ing f r o m abou t s e v e n t y p e r c e n t t o f o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t . O v e r t h i s same p e r i o d , r e s i d e n t i a l popu la t i on d e n s i t i e s s u r r o u n d i n g the bus iness d i s t r i c t s developed as f o l l o w s : t h e F r a s e r S t r e e t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i n c r e a s e d f r o m an ave rage o f 5 , 0 0 0 t o 14 ,000 p e r s o n s p e r squa re m i l e ; H a s t i n g s f r o m 13 , 0 0 0 t o 1 5 , 0 0 0 ; B r o a d w a y f r o m 9 , 0 0 0 t o 2 0 , 0 0 0 ( a p a r t m e n t deve lopmen t ) ; a n d , K e r r i s d a l e f r o m l e s s t h a n 2 ,500 t o abou t 8 , 0 0 0 . 5 T h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s w e r e t r a v e r s e d by s t r e e t c a r l ines f r o m t h e beginning o f t he s t u d y p e r i o d t h r o u g h t h e e a r l y 1950 ' s . T h e F r a s e r and H a s t i n g s l ines w e r e developed f r o m 1900 t o 1909 and r e p l a c e d by e l e c t r i c t r o l l e y s e r v i c e in 1948 and 1955, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e B r o a d w a y and K e r r i s d a l e l ines c a r r i e d t r a f f i c f r o m t h e i r i n c e p t i o n b e t w e e n 1920 and 1928 t o 1955 and 1953, r e s p e c t i v e l y , b e f o r e r e p l a c e m e n t by t r o l l e y s . T h e F r a s e r S t r e e t line w a s n o t i n t e r s e c t e d by a n o t h e r line a t any p o i n t . T h e H a s t i n g s , B r o a d w a y , and K e r r i s d a l e ( F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e ) l ines w e r e i n t e r s e c t e d by o t h e r l ines a t N a n a i m o , M a c d o n a l d , and B o u l e v a r d ( R i c h m o n d i n t e r u r b a n ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 6 Change in U r b a n A r t e r i a l C o m p o s i t i o n  R e t a i l C h a n g e T h e number o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n each bus iness d i s t r i c t i n c r e a s e d r e g u l a r l y up t o t h e 1957 p e r i o d ( T a b l e I V ) . B e t w e e n 1957 and I 9 6 6 t h e number o f s t o r e s had dec l ined s l i g h t l y o r r ema ined r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . T h e decl ine can be T A B L E I V i C H A N G E I N T H E N U M B E R O F • E S T A B L I S H M E N T S A T T E N Y E A R I N T E R V A L S F R O M 1927 T O I966 B R O A D W A Y F R A S E R H A S T I N G S 27 37 47 57 66 27 37 47 57 66 27 37 47 57 66 F R E Q U E N C Y O F O C C U R R E N C E A . R E T A I L 25 68 85 102 102 61 83 80 119 108 22 60 65 88 86 I C o n v e n i e n c e 20 43 33 27 31 32 45 32 34 25 15 37 30 28 24 I I S h o p p i n g 2 20 46 67 64 25 33 45 68 76 5 14 26 50 44 I I I A u t o m o t i v e 3 5 6 8 7 4 5 3 7 7 2 9 . 9 10 18 B . S E R V I C E 6 25 40 80 68 13 24 39 57 58 5 25 28 53 61 I P e r s o n a l 5 21 29 42 41 9 18 24 29 26 2 20 20 29 27 I I F i n a n c e , o f f i c e 1 4 11 38 27 4 6 15 28 32 3 5 8 24 34 c . E N T E R -T A I N M E N T 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 1 3 1 4 3 D . R E S T A U -R A N T 1 4 10 17 3 4 8 11 10 4 6 9 10 E . E D U C A -T I O N 3 4 4 1 3 2 2 2 2 T O T A L 31 98 131 198 194 78 114 129 193 182 28 94 100 156 162 T A B L E I V (con t inued) K E R R I S D A L E 4 1 S T W E S T B L V D . 27 37 47 57 66 27 37 47 57 66 F R E Q U E N C Y O F O C C U R R E N C E A . R E T A I L 32 61 69 93 89 27 48 33 26 36 I Conven i ence 14 32 31 27 26 16 18 10 5 5 I I S h o p p i n g 15 27 37 61 59 9 21 14' 17 22 I I I A u t o m o t i v e 3 2 1 5 4 - 2 9 9 4 9 B . S E R V I C E 14 27 26 50 57 14 18 15 15 21 I P e r s o n a l 5 17 13 18 30 9 16 10 11 14 I I F i n a n c e , O f f i c e , 9 10 13 32 27 5 2 5 4 7 c . E N T E R -T A I N M E N T 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 D . R E S T A U -R A N T 2 3 2 6 6 1 2 1 2 E . E D U C A - 1 3 2 1 2 T I O N T O T A L 49 93 98 154 153 41 69 52 45 59 a t t r i b u t e d i n some measu re t o the changes in sca l e w h i c h have o c c u r r e d in f o o d , a p p a r e l , f u r n i t u r e , arid a u t o m o t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . I n t h e p e r i o d 1927 t o I966, F r a s e r S t r e e t i n c r e a s e d f r o m s e v e n t y - e i g h t t o 182 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; H a s t i n g s f r o m t w e n t y -e igh t t o 162; B r o a d w a y f r o m t h i r t y - o n e t o 194; and K e r r i s d a l e f r o m n i n e t y t o 212 . T h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a decl ine in p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e r e t a i l componen t ( F i g u r e 21) a n d , an a c c o m p a n y i n g i n c r e a s e i n the s e r v i c e componen t ( F i g u r e 2 2 ) . I n each d i s t r i c t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l t r e n d s v a r y q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , b u t a r e d i r e c t i o n a l l y s i m i l a r . K e r r i s d a l e d i sp lays t h e l e a s t r e l a t i v e a m o u n t o f change o v e r the f i f t y y e a r p e r i o d in t h i s r e g a r d . T h e gene ra l decl ine o f t w e n t y t o t h i r t y p e r c e n t in t h e r e t a i l s e c t o r is l a r g e l y expla ined by t h e d e c r e a s e in the number o f f o o d line s t o r e s . T h e i n c r e a s e o f shopping-goods s t o r e s r anges f r o m f i v e t o t w e n t y p e r c e n t o v e r t h e f i f t y y e a r p e r i o d . W i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , t h e a p p a r e l o r s o f t line e s t a b -l i s h m e n t s have s h o w n r e m a r k a b l y l i t t l e r e l a t i v e change , a l t hough t h e r e has been an a b s o l u t e i n c r e a s e . O n t h e w h o l e , w i t h t h e no tab le e x c e p t i o n o f K e r r i s d a l e , t he conven ience - shopp ing goods p r o p o r t i o n has been r e v e r s e d o v e r t i m e . K e r r i s d a l e p o s s e s s e d a more complex mix o f f u n c t i o n s in 1927 due t o i t s r e l a t i v e l y T H E C H A N G I N G R E T A I L C O M P O N E N T 0 Figure 21. d i s t a n t l o c a t i o n f r o m the C B D . T h i s d i s t a n c e w a s augmen ted by an i n d i r e c t t r a n s i t l ink ( a c r o s s F o r t y - f i r s t , t h e n d o w n G r a n -vi l le ) . O v e r a l l , l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n is c u r r e n t l y o b s e r v e d among t h e bus ines s d i s t r i c t s d e s p i t e t h e i r being l o c a t e d a t v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e s f r o m t h e C B D in d i v e r s e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h e y show l i t t l e s ign o f w i t h e r i n g , and no s t r o n g t r e n d t o occupance so le ly by s e r v i c e and ' u rban a r t e r i a l ' f u n c t i o n s . S e r v i c e Change T h e s e r v i c e s e c t o r i n c r e a s e d by t e n t o t w e n t y p e r c e n t o v e r t h e p e r i o d s t u d i e d . T h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e i n c r e a s e has r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e emergence o f o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s — d o c t o r s , d e n t i s t s , l a w y e r s , loan compan ie s , r e a l t o r s , and i n s u r a n c e a g e n c i e s — i n the o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s . . A c u r v e p l o t t e d f o r t h e number o f individual o f f i c e s (may be s e v e r a l o f f i c e s p e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t ) i n d i c a t e s the e x t e n t t o w h i c h the i n c r e a s e has t a k e n p lace beyond t h a t s u g g e s t e d by t h e c u r v e f o r t h e number o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ( F i g u r e 22). A s w a s the case w i t h r e t a i l i n g , t h e changes v a r y q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , b u t n o t d i r e c t i o n a l l y . K e r r i s d a l e e x h i b i t s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p a t t e r n o f s e r v i c e bus iness c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h a s l i g h t r e v e r s a l in the p e r c e n t a g e s o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e and o f f i c e . T h e p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e bus ines se s i n c r e a s e d rap id ly t o 0 1 1 1 Figure 22. 100 W o r l d W a r I I , and s i n c e , have s h o w n a t endency t o d e c l i n e . T h e g r e a t e s t change is e x h i b i t e d by H a s t i n g s S t r e e t . F r a s e r and B r o a d w a y a r e t end ing t o r e t u r n t o t h e 1927 l e v e l . T h e o f f i c e c a t e g o r y w a s subdiv ided ( A p p e n d i x D ) t o s t u d y t h e s e p a r a t e f i n a n c i a l , m e d i c a l , and gene ra l o f f i c e u s e s . T h e g r o w t h o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w a s e x t r e m e l y r a p i d du r ing t h e 1950 ' s . E a c h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s is r e l a t i v e l y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d in a l l c e n t e r s by I966; h o w e v e r , F r a s e r S t r e e t s h o w s a h ighe r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f medica l s e r v i c e s , and H a s t i n g s S t r e e t a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n gene ra l o f f i c e u s e s . R e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e I V s h o w s t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n c r e a s e has been s h o w n by t h e o t h e r bus iness groupings o v e r t h e s t u d y p e r i o d . T h e only s i g n i f i c a n t change wou ld appea r t o be t h a t , w h e r e a s a l i m i t e d mix o f bus iness t y p e s e x i s t e d in 1927, by 1966 a l l o f t h e bus iness a c t i v i t i e s w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d t o some degree in the c e n t e r . C h a n g e s i n S h o p p i n g P a t t e r n s T h e changing bus iness componen t s coincide c lose ly w i t h t h e o b s e r v e d changes o f c o n s u m e r shopping p a t t e r n s in t h e F r a s e r S t r e e t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a ( T a b l e V ) . S k i l l i n g s 7 and M c D o w a l l ® sampled 195 homes in an a r e a mean t t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h e t r a d e h i n t e r l a n d o f t he bus iness d i s t r i c t . T h e i r d a t a w a s T A B L E V P E R C E N T O F P U R C H A S E S M A D E I N D O W N T O W N V A N C O U V E R B Y R E S I D E N T S O F T H E F R A S E R S T R E E T B U S I N E S S D I S T R I C T T R A D E H I N T E R L A N D — C o m m o d i t i e s 1955 1966 C o m m o d i t i e s 1955 1966 Conven i ence S h o p p i n g (con t inued) G r o c e r i e s 15 3 H a r d w a r e 27 11 M e a t s 24 5 B u i l d i n g S u p p l i e s 5 4 G a s , o i l 4 3 A p p l i a n c e s 40 42 S h o p p i n g S e r v i c e M e n ' s c l o t h e s 71 42 D o c t o r 34 18 Women 's c l o the s 73 52 D e n t i s t 31 10 C h i l d ' s c l o t h e s 65 21 O p t o m e t r i s t 23 23 M e n ' s shoes 71 38 L a w y e r 14 20 Women 's shoes • 76 46 B a n k 30 9 F u r n i t u r e 61 35 B a r b e r S h o p 14 B e a u t y S a l o n : 6 102 c o m p a r e d t o t h e r e s p o n s e s ob t a ined i n a s i m i l a r s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d in 1955.9 T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f T a b l e V show the p e r c e n t o f p u r c h a s e s made d o w n t o w n . T h e amoun t r e q u i r e d t o t o t a l 100 p e r c e n t is mainly t r a c e a b l e t o t h e F r a s e r S t r e e t d i s t r i c t and t h e p lanned r eg iona l c e n t e r w h i c h is l o c a t e d t o the w e s t o f t h e a r e a . T h e p r o c u r e m e n t o f c o n v e n i e n c e - g o o d s , a l r e a d y low by 1955, n e a r l y d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m t h e l i s t o f d o w n t o w n p u r c h a s e s . I n 1955, t h e d o w n t o w n a r e a handled s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p u r c h a s e s o f f a s h i o n g o o d s . B y 1965, t h e p e r c e n t a g e had d e c r e a s e d t o a b o u t f o r t y p e r c e n t w i t h chi ld ' s c l o t h i n g and men's shoes s h o w i n g t h e g r e a t e s t d e c l i n e . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f major app l i ances , household goods f o l l o w e d t h e same p a t t e r n . B y 1955, t h e d o w n t o w n a r e a had been supp lan t ed by o u t l y i n g bus iness d i s t r i c t s as t h e main p r o v i d e r o f s e r v i c e s . M e d i c a l , d e n t a l , and banking s e r v i c e s show the m o s t s i g n i f i -c a n t dec l ine s ince t h a t t i m e . T h e decl ine in i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d o w n t o w n w a s a lso accompan ied by an i n c r e a s e in c a r o w n e r s h i p and use o f the . a u t o f o r shopping t r i p s . 1 0 I n 1955, s i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o w n e d c a r s , and t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e shopping t r i p s w e r e made by c a r . B y 1966, e i gh ty p e r c e n t o f t h e people 103 o w n e d c a r s , and s i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e shopping t r i p s w e r e made by c a r . T h e C h a n g i n g I n t e r n a l A r r a n g e m e n t T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o n v e n i e n c e - and appa re l -goods s t o r e s w a s p l o t t e d a t t e n y e a r i n t e r v a l s , a n d , t h e d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , f i n a n c e , and o f f i c e a t t w e n t y y e a r i n t e r v a l s f o r each o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s . T h e c o r e - f r a m e s t r u c t u r e o f t he bus iness d i s t r i c t s has evolved f r o m t w o d i s t i n c t i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s : 1. D e v e l o p m e n t f r o m a p a t t e r n o f d i s p e r s e d c o n v e n i e n c e -and shopping-goods s t o r e s ex t end ing the l e n g t h o f t h e a r t e r i a l s . 2. D e v e l o p m e n t f r o m a nodal l o c a t i o n c r e a t e d by t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t w o s t r e e t c a r l ines on major u r b a n a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s . D e v e l o p m e n t f r o m D i s p e r s i o n  R e t a i l A r r a n g e m e n t T h e c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a long B r o a d w a y and F r a s e r have e x t e n d e d a long the g r e a t e r l e n g t h o f t he a r t e r i e s s ince 1927 ( F i g u r e 23). D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f o o d and a p p a r e l s t o r e s has d e c l i n e d . A t t h e same t i m e , by 1966, t h e a p p a r e l g roups on F r a s e r had a h ighe r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a n t h e f o o d g r o u p ; a n d , t he a p p a r e l group on B r o a d w a y , whi le Figure 23. C H A N G I N G R E T A I L A R R A N G E M E N T • S h o p p i n g ( a p p a r e l ) 4 0 - P e r Cent of Other Establishments O C o n v e n i e nc.e (f o o d ) • S u p e r m a r k e t a n d f o u n d i n g d a t e WEST BROADWAY AVENUE 1 9 2 7 O o o o o • o oo Q . — O O m o O 61 19 3 7 1 Q 4 7 O B O O o O O 0 B O o o 0 B S« o o O O O mo Bo s ° oo o o o o oo° o o • ° s B O ss O B O O B B ° 0 •[ o o goo ooo B O • • O O B O B O o o O O B O O O o -B fl O So S ° o 42 O >3 fl 0 B 7 1 9 5 7 o° u o S o O B ~ B • 11 O O ! oo g • B B • • • So •9* • Q • • • \ B • o • • to oo o 2 • 3 i 9 6 6 O 1964 • O O O l O i Of l| Q o [lo • 1 9 4 1 88 O 15 • 10 F R A S E R S T R E E T 0 o o 0 . B 8888-88-888 5 888: o88<?" • oo °88S o6$fB °88S! 0 •° B o B o o8s: •P oo o 38 o 7 — •J 1 • 6 • 14 88' Q O I O O l 8851S o O 22 B I I m 83" O B O O B B B 885 • • • o« o O 15 • 12 O 19b" • Ml oS ooSS E o • • 19 6 2 > ' • 8: • B c8 o •1954 15 105 s u r p a s s i n g t h e number o f f o o d s t o r e s in 1957, had dec l ined s l i g h t l y in p r o p o r t i o n by 1966. T h e main d i s t r i b u t i o n a l change has been t h e a g g l o m e r -a t i o n o f t h e s t o r e s a long a r e s t r i c t e d p o r t i o n o f t h e a r t e r y . T h e n u c l e a r s t r u c t u r e o f I966 co inc ides c lose ly w i t h t h e w i d e -s p r e a d use o f t h e au tomobi le ( p . 102) . T h e l o c a t i o n a l change is m o s t c l e a r l y o b s e r v e d on B r o a d -w a y . A p p a r e l s t o r e s e n t e r e d t h e d i s t r i c t in 1937, and du r ing t h i s p e r i o d and t h e f o l l o w i n g , w e r e a lso s c a t t e r e d along the a r t e r y in t h e " l o o s e l y l i n k e d " , u r b a n a r t e r i a l p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d by R a t c l i f f and P r o u d f o o t ( p p . 13-14). B y 1947, h o w e v e r , t h e i n i t i a l i nd i ca t i ons o f a c lose ly l inked a s s o c i a t i o n o f a p p a r e l bus iness t y p e s a p p e a r e d w i t h t h e g roup ing s i t u a t e d a t B a y s w a t e r S t r e e t — - i n a l i nea r f o r m (as opposed t o c r u c i f o r m ) , and t w o b locks w e s t o f t he s t r e e t -c a r i n t e r s e c t i o n a t B r o a d w a y and M a c d o n a l d . T h e appa re l g roup ing w a s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e e n t r y o f a l a rge number o f s t o r e s in 1957; a n d , by 1966, t h e a p p a r e l s t o r e s l o c a t e d a l m o s t solely, in t h e t h r e e b lock a r e a bounded by M a c d o n a l d and B a l a c l a v a S t r e e t s . T h e e f f e c t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g sca le o f f o o d r e t a i l i n g w a s v e r y no t i ceab le a f t e r 1937. T h e e n t r y o f a m e d i u m - s i z e s u p e r m a r k e t in 1941 and a l a rge s u p e r m a r k e t in 1964 w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by a m a r k e d d e c r e a s e in t h e number o f sma l l f o o d and c o n f e c t i o n e r y s t o r e s . S i n c e t h e n t h e sma l l and m e d i u m -s i ze s t o r e s have a l igned t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e c e n t r a l a p p a r e l c l u s t e r whi le t h e l a r g e s u p e r m a r k e t has l o c a t e d on a f r e e -s t a n d i n g s i t e . T h e F r a s e r S t r e e t bus iness d i s t r i c t evo lved in a s i m i l a r manner t o B r o a d w a y A v e n u e . T h e d i s t r i c t now has a c lo se ly l inked a p p a r e l g roup ing w h i c h has developed a w a y f r o m a major a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n in a l i nea r f o r m . F r a s e r S t r e e t w a s occup ied by a more d i v e r s e a s s o r t -men t o f bus iness t y p e s in 1927. T h e a p p a r e l group w a s r e l a t i v e l y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d evenly a long the a r t e r y i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e more numerous f o o d s t o r e s . T h e p a t t e r n w a s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e e n t r y o f add i t i ona l b u s i n e s s e s , e spec ia l ly f o o d , by 1937. A l m o s t a l l t h e r e t a i l bus ines se s w e r e l o c a t e d on t h e s ide o f t he a r t e r y c a t e r i n g t o ou tbound t r a f f i c . O v e r t h e p e r i o d spanning W o r l d W a r I I , t h e r e t a i l s t o r e s dec l ined s h a r p l y in number and p r o p o r t i o n . T h e r e c e s s i o n may be expla ined by t h e f a c t t h a t F r a s e r S t r e e t is l o c a t e d in an a r e a w i t h r e s i d e n t s o f low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and t h a t i t w a s t h i s group o f people t h a t w a s m o s t s e v e r e l y t a x e d by w a r t i m e s h o r t a g e s . T h e exp l ana t i on is r e a f f i r m e d upon e x -amining t h e p a t t e r n in t h e o t h e r c e n t e r s : H a s t i n g s S t r e e t , 107 ( F i g u r e 25) l i k e w i s e l o c a t e d i n a low income a r e a , s h o w e d no g r o w t h d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d ; a n d , B r o a d w a y ( F i g u r e 23) and K e r r i s d a l e ( F i g u r e 25) l o c a t e d in high income s e c t i o n s , b o t h exh ib i t p a t t e r n s o f con t inued d e v e l o p m e n t . . A r e s u r g e n c e o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s had o c c u r r e d by 1957. T h e a p p a r e l s t o r e s w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d on the t h r e e b lock a r e a b e t w e e n F o r t y - s i x t h and F o r t y - n i n e t h A v e n u e s ; a n d , by 1966, t h i s p a t t e r n w a s more c o m p l e t e l y a s s e r t e d w i t h t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f m o s t o f t h e r e t a i l i n g t o t h i s a r e a . T h i s c e n t r a l c l u s t e r is l o c a t e d f i v e b locks s o u t h o f t h e major i n t e r s e c t i n g a r t e r y , F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e . T h e change in sca l e o f t h e f o o d s e c t o r w a s r e f l e c t e d by t h e demise o f c o n f e c t i o n e r y s t o r e s , a n d , by t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e t w o m e d i u m - s i z e s u p e r m a r k e t s a t each end o f t h e c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t w h e r e space f o r o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g w a s m o r e r ead i ly a v a i l a b l e . S e r v i c e A r r a n g e m e n t T h e s e r v i c e bus ines se s have ma in ta ined a p a t t e r n o f d i s p e r s i o n o v e r t h e l e n g t h o f t h e a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s . . A t the s ame t i m e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h t h e y r e p r e s e n t has r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . T h e only no t i ceab l e change has o c c u r r e d in t h e i n c r e a s e o f gene ra l o f f i c e s w h i c h have p r o p o r t i o n a l l y r i s e n f r o m t h r e e p e r c e n t t o t w e l v e Figure 24. T H E C H A N G I N G S E R V I C E A R R A N G E M E N T O P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e • O f f i c e ' • 4 0 - P e r Cent of Other Establishments F i n a n c e W E S T B R O A D W A Y A V E N U E J 1 9 2 7 • o o o o 0 O 16 • 3 - • 0 1 9 4 7 ° O J o • 0 •o oo •o o O 18 • 7 2 196.6 FRASER S T R E E T • o -» ~~0~ n o S 0 0 • O 12 • 3 -•• 3 O o« "~o~| o i8o o •o • o • •o ••00 O 18 • 9 • 2 O o l 07 O f f * OOtJL to* fO"0 000 • • o • •• O 13 • 12 5 109 p e r c e n t f r o m 1927 t o 1966, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e bus ine s se s on B r o a d w a y , a l t hough d i s t r i b u t e d a long i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h , t e n d t o exh ib i t some c o n c e n t r a t i o n nea r the c l u s t e r a t B a y s w a t e r . T h i s is p a r t i c u l a r l y the case w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s wh ich e n t e r e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a f t e r W o r l d W a r I I and l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e r e t a i l node and a t i t s p e r i p h e r y . . T h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t i s a lso c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f s e r v i c e bus inesses f r o m t h e e x t r e m i t i e s o f t h e s t r i p s . . A s w i t n e s s e d in C h a p t e r I V , t h e s e a r e a s have been occup ied by f r e e - s t a n d i n g , r i bbon bus iness t y p e s . T h e s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s on F r a s e r S t r e e t w e r e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e n o r t h e r n e x t r e m i t y o f r i bbon b u s i n e s s , w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d a long t h e a r t e r y by 1966. T h i s p a t t e r n evo lved f r o m t h e s o m e w h a t l e s s d i s p e r s e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 1927 and 1937. T h e f i n a n c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e n t e r e d the d i s t r i c t by 1947 and w e r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e r e t a i l i n g c l u s t e r and a t i t s p e r i p h e r y . T h e a r e a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l b u s i n e s s e s , e spec ia l ly b a n k s , w i t h t h e r e t a i l c o r e i n d i c a t e s t h e c lose f u n c -t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s b e t w e e n shopping t r i p s and the p r o c u r e m e n t o f funds n e c e s s a r y t o do t h e shopp ing . T h e con t inued d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n r e a f f i r m s t h e p r e v i o u s p o s t u l a t e t h a t in t h e main t h e s e r v i c e bus inesses have r e t a i n e d m o s t o f t h e l o c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e m i n 110 t h e 1930 ' s , i . e . , t h e y a r e u sed on s p e c i a l pu rpose t r i p s and a r e e s s e n t i a l l y f u n c t i o n a l l y u n l i n k e d . T h e o lde r p a t t e r n o f w a l k - i n t r a d e has been supp lemen ted by s i n g l e - s t o p a u t o m o t i v e v i s i t s . D e v e l o p m e n t F r o m <a N o d e R e t a i l  R e t a i l A r r a n g e m e n t T h e g r o w t h o f t he H a s t i n g s S t r e e t and K e r r i s d a l e bus iness d i s t r i c t s ( F i g u r e 25) i s c lose ly l inked t o i n i t i a l d e - . v e l o p m e n t a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f . s t r e e t c a r l ines a t H a s t i n g s and N a n a i m o , and F o r t y - f i r s t and B o u l e v a r d , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n each c a s e , t h e g r o w t h has been an o u t w a r d expans ion along one o f t h e a r t e r i a l s , f r o m the s t r e e t c a r node , n o t in t h e c r u c i f o r m shape o f unplanned shopping c e n t e r s as o b s e r v e d in C h i c a g o . A s w a s t h e ca se w i t h t h e o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in t h e H a s t i n g s S t r e e t b u s i -ness d i s t r i c t has d e c r e a s e d m a r k e d l y o v e r the f i f t y y e a r p e r i o d . A t t he s ame t i m e , t h e number o f a p p a r e l s t o r e s has i n c r e a s e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y now c o n s t i t u t e t h e same p r o p o r t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s as t h e f o o d s t o r e s . T h e decl ine in the number o f f o o d s t o r e s was c o m p e n s a t e d t o some degree by t h e a d d i t i o n in t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s o f t w o m e d i u m - s i z e s u p e r -m a r k e t s i n t h e t h r e e - s t o r e y s t r u c t u r e w e s t o f N a n a i m o . T h e bulk o f t h e g r o w t h on H a s t i n g s S t r e e t f r o m 1927 Figure 25. T H E C H A N G I N G R E T A I L A R R A N G E M E N T Shopp ing ( a p p a r e l ) 4 0 - P e r Cent of Other Establishments O C o n v e n i e n e e ( f o o d ) • S u p e r m a r k e t a n d f o u n d i n g d a t e 1 9 2 7 1937 H A S T I N G S S T R E E T 1 9 4 7 oo oo ooo Q O O O l o o p o o 'oo o o o O 5 0 • 14 O 36 • 7 O 27 • 8 K E R R I S D A L E JQQL 1 9 2 7 oooco 30 9 COl 195 7 [ • • • • • • I U H -So" O 14 • 18 1 9 5 7 1 9 6 6 o • n o o • • • 2 1 9 5 9 1 9 6 4 i i 8 o o O 16 • 12 O 13 • 9 1 9 3 7 c88« n 1 \W 0 O 27 ° E • 15 ^3 1 9 4 7 OOlJ ™ Q. 7 & i & ° 8 O 22 • II O O O l 1 9 6 6 oopi —• | o s&aNSk 13 •Om O 112 t o 1947 w a s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e b lock w e s t o f N a n a i m o S t r e e t . D u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d a number o f c o n f e c t i o n e r y and sma l l g r o c e r y s t o r e s l o c a t e d in a d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n a long t h e e x t r e m i t i e s . T h e i n i t i a l node o f g r o w t h w a s en l a rged by one b lock by t h e e r e c t i o n o f t h e l a r g e s t r u c t u r e , p r e v i o u s l y m e n -t i o n e d , w h i c h housed a jun io r d e p a r t m e n t and f u r n i t u r e s t o r e . B y 1957 t h e new a p p a r e l s t o r e s w e r e l o c a t e d on t h e f a c i n g b l o c k . T h e r e t a i l deve lopmen t has undergone v e r y l i t t l e l o c a t i o n a l change , as c o m p a r e d t o the con t inua l ly ad jus t ing p a t t e r n o b s e r v e d on F r a s e r and B r o a d w a y . .; 1 B y 1966, v e r y f e w r e t a i l s t o r e s w e r e l o c a t e d ou t s ide t h e c e n t r a l t w o - b l o c k c l u s t e r . T h e K e r r i s d a l e d i s t r i c t has undergone t h e same m o r -pholog ica l changes—a decl ine in the o v e r a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , a n d , an accompany ing i n c r e a s e in t h e number o f a p p a r e l s t o r e s t o equal t h e p r e s e n t number o f f o o d s t o r e s . T w o l a r g e s u p e r m a r k e t s e n t e r e d the d i s t r i c t d u r i n g the l a s t p e r i o d and occup ied p o s i t i o n s s i t u a t e d o u t s i d e t h e r e t a i l c o r e . A . change o f sca l e a l so o c c u r r e d in the a p p a r e l s e c t o r w i t h t h e e n t r a n c e o f a v a r i e t y and jun ior d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e in 1950 and 1951, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e o r ig ina l c l u s t e r o f r e t a i l s t o r e s l o c a t e d a t t h e F o r t y - f i r s t - W e s t B o u l e v a r d i n t e r s e c t i o n has e m e r g e d as t h e 1] c e n t r a l f o c u s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e ; h o w e v e r , t h e a p p a r e l s t o r e s have s t e a d i l y extended, o u t f r o m t h i s a r ea in each d i r e c t i o n a long F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e . A s n o t e d in C h a p t e r I V , t h e a p p a r e l s t o r e s t o the e a s t o f t h e B o u l e v a r d a r e f a s h i o n s t o r e s appeal ing t o r e s i d e n t s o f t he adjacent high income d i s t r i c t and a c t t o g e t h e r as a s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l a r e a . S e r v i c e A r r a n g e m e n t T h e deve lopment o f s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ( F i g u r e 26) has f o l l o w e d much t h e same c o u r s e as on F r a s e r and B r o a d w a T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s has r ema ined s t a b l e . T h e only v a r i a t i o n o c c u r s in the g r o w t h o f t h e s e r v i c e bus inesses f r o m t h e o r ig ina l node as opposed t o deve lopment f r o m a d i s p e r s e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e f i n a n c i a l bus inesses exh ib i t t h e only t e n d e n c y t o a g g l o m e r a t e . T h e y a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n and i m m e d i a t e l y adjacent t o the c e n t r a l r e t a i l c l u s t e r . S u m m a t i o n T h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s may be d r a w n f r o m t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . 1. T h e decl ine o f convenience s t o r e s o v e r t h e p e r i o d f r o m 192? t o 1966 more t h a n o f f s e t an i n c r e a s e in shopping s t o r e s t o cause a d e c r e a s e in the o v e r a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s . I t should be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , as d i s c u s s e d in t h e Figure 26. C H A N G I N G S E R V I C E A R R A N G E M E N T O P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e • O f f i c e • 40 - P e r Cent of Other Establishments H A S T I N G S S T R E E T • F i n a n c e 1927 1947 -•- o ° o • O 7 • 7 O O P o o — O 2 0 • 6 I 960 i o o*- • o •I i n oo o • o o 15 • 13 K E R R I S D A L E O O O * 1 I »l 1 1 _ • 1 n o o«_ •_ O 15 • II • 4-• |M| t t rSpoor « .0°¥ 1 _ c o » « c o o l 81 •• o o O 13 • 9 • 2 op* SiAoSSi^oo**" oo»»oo 1 man?1 * C omm 0 0 O 17 • 10 • 3 115 p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h a t t he s ca l e o f o p e r a t i o n in t h e f o o d r e t a i l i n g i n d u s t r y i n c r e a s e d a n d , consequen t ly many s t o r e s became f r e e - s t a n d i n g , no l onge r r e q u i r i n g a l o c a t i o n in a r e t a i l a g g l o m e r a t i o n . 2. A n i n c r e a s e in t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s caused an i n c r e a s e in t h e o v e r a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f s e r v i c e b u s i n e s s e s . T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e bus ine s se s has dec l ined s l i g h t l y s ince t h e s econd W o r l d W a r . 3 . Q n F r a s e r S t r e e t and W e s t B r o a d w a y A v e n u e the c u r r e n t c o r e - f r a m e c o n f o r m a t i o n evo lved f r o m an i n i t i a l p a t t e r n o f s p a t i a l l y d i s p e r s e d and f u n c t i o n a l l y unl inked c o n v e n i e n c e - and shopping-goods s t o r e s e x t e n d i n g the l e n g t h o f t he a r t e r i a l s . T h e shopping-goods s t o r e s , as t h e y i n c r e a s e d in number s o v e r t h e y e a r s , g rouped in one l o c a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e t o changing p a t t e r n s o f c o n s u m e r b e h a v i o u r . 4 . O n H a s t i n g s S t r e e t and in K e r r i s d a l e the p r e s e n t f o r m developed f r o m a nodal l o c a t i o n a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t w o s t r e e t c a r l ines on major u r b a n a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s . O v e r the s t u d y p e r i o d t h e nodal l o c a t i o n w a s occup ied by t h e i n c r e a s i n g number s o f shopping-goods s t o r e s . S e r v i c e s bus ines se s l o c a t e d in t h e f r a m e . I n t h e H a s t i n g s bus iness d i s t r i c t g r o w t h e x t e n d e d o u t w a r d s a long only one o f t h e i n t e r s e c t i n g a r t e r i a l s . I n K e r r i s d a l e deve lopmen t o c c u r r e d along b o t h F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e 116 and W e s t B o u l e v a r d ; h o w e v e r , t h e bulk o f t h e g r o w t h e x t e n d e d o u t w a r d s f r o m the i n t e r s e c t i o n a long F o r t y - f i r s t A v e n u e . F o o t n o t e s -i < J . E . V a n c e . " E m e r g i n g P a t t e r n s o f C o m m e r c i a l S t r u c t u r e i n A m e r i c a n C i t i e s , " L u n d S e r i e s in G e o g r a p h y , S e r i e s B , H u m a n G e o g r a p h y , N o . 24 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 2+86-88. 2 I b i d . , p . 4 8 7 . ^ « J . W . S i m m o n s . T h e C h a n g i n g P a t t e r n o f R e t a i l  L o c a t i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y R e s e a r c h P a p e r , N o . 9 2 , ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1962+) , p p . 12+7-50. ^ I b i d . , p . 1 3 7 . 5 C e n s u s o f C a n a d a . ( I 9 6 6 ) . H a r l a n d B a r t h o l o m e w and A s s o c i a t e s . A P l a n f o r  t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B_.C_. ( V a n c o u v e r : T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , V a n c o u v e r , 1928) . A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t U p o n E c o n o m i c B a c k g r o u n d and P o p u l a t i o n . ( V a n c o u v e r : T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , V a n c o u v e r , 192+2+) • A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t U p o n t h e M a j o r S t r e e t P l a n . ( V a n c o u v e r : T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , V a n c o u v e r , 1947) . A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t U p o n T r a n s i t . ( V a n c o u v e r : T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , V a n c o u v e r , 192+5). ^ H . M . . S k i l l i n g s . " A C o n s u m e r S u r v e y o f t h e S h o p p i n g H a b i t s o f t h e R e s i d e n t s o f t h e F r a s e r A r e a . " U n p u b l i s h e d G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , F a c u l t y o f C o m m e r c e and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. N . C . M c D o w a l l . " A C o n s u m e r S u r v e y o f t h e S h o p p i n g H a b i t s o f t h e R e s i d e n t s o f t h e F r a s e r • A r e a , " U n p u b l i s h e d G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , F a c u l t y o f C o m m e r c e and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967. 9 U n p u b l i s h e d d a t a o f t h e F a c u l t y o f C o m m e r c e and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M c D o w a l l , op_. c i t . , p . 108 . C H A P T E R V I C O N C L U S I O N T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w a s t o examine t h e p a t t e r n s o f f u n c t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f bus iness t y p e s on a r t e r i a l shopping s t r e e t s i n V a n c o u v e r . I n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e s t u d y a s s e s s e d t h e r e l e v a n c e t o V a n c o u v e r o f s p a t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t o r y schemes as t h e y have been developed in geograph ic l i t e r a t u r e t o d e s c r i b e t h e c o m m e r c i a l s t r u c t u r e in o t h e r c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y C h i c a g o ( B e r r y ) . T h e s e s c h e m e s d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f o r m and f u n c t i o n in t h r e e f u n d a m e n t a l t y p e s o f bus iness d i s t r i c t s . C e n t r a l p lace a s s u m p t i o n s abou t c o n s u m e r behav iour p rov ide much o f t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . (i) C e n t e r s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a nodal f o r m a t major i n t e r s e c t i o n s , a t t e n d a n t peak land v a l u e s , and bus ines se s w i t h a high degree o f f u n c t i o n a l i n t e rdependence ( m u l i t - p u r p o s e t r i p s ) . ( i i ) S p e c i a l i z e d a r e a s c o n t a i n bus ines se s w h i c h gene ra l ly r e q u i r e m o r e space and a r e d i s t r i b u t e d in l i nea r f o r m , bu t w h i c h a lso e x h i b i t a cons ide rab le deg ree o f f u n c t i o n a l i n t e rdependence t h r o u g h c o m p e t i t i o n and c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y . ( i i i ) R i b b o n s a r e l i n e a r in f o r m , occupy a r e a s o f u n i f o r m l y low land v a l u e s , and a r e composed o f bus ines se s 119 exh ib i t i ng a low l eve l o f f u n c t i o n a l l inkage ( s i n g l e - p u r p o s e t r i p s ) . W h e t h e r appl ied t o V a n c o u v e r ' s unplanned c o m m u n i t y bus iness d i s t r i c t s alone o r t o g e t h e r , t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s do n o t adequa t e ly d e s c r i b e the f o r m and f u n c t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . T h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l i nea r f o r m , a f u l l mix o f shopping and s e r v i c e bus ines se s w i t h v a r y i n g f u n c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , and i r r e g u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s o f land v a l u e s , bus iness t y p e s , and i n t e r n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s o f f u n c t i o n a l groupings o f bus iness t y p e s . A . s e r i e s o f w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s e s p r o p o s e d t h a t a c o r e -f r a m e c o n c e p t be u s e d t o develop a model o f t he bus iness a r r a n g e m e n t s . T h e model w a s t e s t e d in f o u r a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s t r i c t s and c o n f i r m e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h r e e f u n c t i o n a l s u b -a r e a s . ( i) T h e c o r e o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s is composed o f r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f f e r i n g h i g h - o r d e r goods , is l o c a t e d in the a r e a o f peak land va lues and h i g h e s t d e n s i t y land u s e , and is more c o m p l e t e l y developed on one s ide o f t he d i s s e c t i n g a r t e r y w h i c h a c t s as a b a r r i e r t o p e d e s t r i a n m o v e m e n t . T h e s t o r e s group under cond i t ions o f a c t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n t o encourage c o m p a r a t i v e shopping by p e d e s t r i a n m o v e m e n t . T h e e x t e n t o f t h e c o r e is l i m i t e d by the d i s t a n c e w i t h i n w h i c h t h e p e d e s t r i a n s a r e w i l l i ng t o shop (gene ra l ly in the o r d e r o f 2+00 f e e t ) . 120 T h e a p p a r e l goods s t o r e s a r e the leading a t t r a c t o r s o f t he c o r e and a r e m o s t dependent on c o m p e t i t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . T h e y p rov ide t h e f o c a l p o i n t t o w h i c h o t h e r s t o r e s in t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t o r i e n t t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . . I f t h e c o r e w e r e l ack ing t h e d i s t r i c t s wou ld a s sume t h e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . o f t h e loose ly l inked bus ines se s on u r b a n a r t e r i a l s as d e s c r i b e d in p r e v i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . ( i i ) T h e f r a m e o f t h e business: d i s t r i c t s d i sp lays p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h a r e t r a n s i t i o n a l b e t w e e n t h e r e t a i l c o r e and t h e f u n c t i o n a l l y unl inked p e r i p h e r y . T h e f r a m e has s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n a l s u b - a r e a s . T h e p a t t e r n o f a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f s t o r e t y p e s w i t h i n each s u b - a r e a i n d i c a t e t h e r e is some i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , a l t hough n o t t o the e x t e n t o f t h a t e x i s t i n g in t h e c o r e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s u b - a r e a s a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y un l inked , each s u b - a r e a s e r v i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y s i n g l e - v i s i t shopping t r i p s . T h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e f r a m e ad jacen t t o t h e c o r e i n d i c a t e s l inkage w i t h the c o r e . T h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e f r a m e l o c a t e t h e r e because t h e y depend t o some e x t e n t on the h i g h - d e n s i t y t r a f f i c g e n e r a t e d by t h e r e t a i l c o r e y e t do n o t r e q u i r e t h e degree o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y a t t e n d a n t a t t h e c o r e . T h e f r a m e p r o v i d e s s i t e s f o r t h e deve lopment o f s m a l l -s ca l e r e t a i l bus ine s se s by o f f e r i n g low r e n t a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n 121 i n l o c a t i o n s w h i c h d e r i v e b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o t h e t r a f f i c g e n e r a t e d by the c o r e . F r a m e a c t i v i t i e s include p e r -sona l s e r v i c e , f i n a n c i a l , s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l and h a r d line s t o r e s and g e n e r a l p u r c h a s e bus iness t y p e s . ( i i i ) T h e r i b b o n is l o c a t e d a t t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t he bus iness d i s t r i c t s in a r e a s o f low land va lues and low land use d e n s i t i e s . T w o t y p e s o f . bus iness c o n f o r m a t i o n s a r e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c : f i r s t , f u n c t i o n a l l y unl inked bus iness t y p e s ( s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s and d r i v e - i n r e s t a u r a n t s ) r e q u i r i n g l a rge a m o u n t s o f space and f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h n o n - c o m m e r c i a l land u s e s ; and s e c o n d , f u n c t i o n a l l y l inked bus iness t y p e s as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e ' s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a s ' o f a p r e v i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( B e r r y ) . T h e c o r e - f r a m e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a r t e r i a l bus iness d i s -t r i c t s is a p o s t - W o r l d W a r I I d e v e l o p m e n t . B e f o r e the w a r t h e a r t e r i a l s c o n t a i n e d a p redominance o f conven ience-goods s t o r e s w h i c h w e r e l o c a t e d a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s in r e s p o n s e t o p e d e s t r i a n and s t r e e t c a r m o v e m e n t . T h e s t r u c t u r e w a s much l ike t h e loose ly o r g a n i z e d p a t t e r n o f t h e ne ighbourhood bus iness s t r e e t as d e s c r i b e d by P r o u d f o o t ( see p . 12+). A f t e r t h e w a r i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y , e f f e c t e d by t h e w i d e - s p r e a d use o f t h e a u t o m o b i l e , induced a p a t t e r n o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n in t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l componen t s o f t h e u r b a n s y s t e m . W h a t w e r e f o r m e r l y c o n s i d e r e d d o w n -t o w n f u n c t i o n s — a p p a r e l , d e p a r t m e n t , v a r i e t y , f u r n i t u r e , and s p e c i a l t y r e t a i l s t o r e s , a n d , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , m e d i c a l , l e g a l , and f i n a n c i a l o f f i c e s — e n t e r e d t h e o u t l y i n g c o m m e r c i a l land use s t r u c t u r e . T h e h ighe r o r d e r r e t a i l s t o r e s began t o group in one l o c a t i o n as t h e au tomobi l e became a major f a c t o r in t h e shopping t r i p . . A t the c o r e , t h e a p p a r e l s t o r e s g rouped in an a r e a w i t h d imens ions conducive t o p e d e s t r i a n movemen t in o r d e r t o encourage c o m p a r a t i v e and impuls ive shopping a f t e r t h e c o n s u m e r p a r k e d in the immed ia t e v i c i n i t y . T h e r e t a i l s t o r e s and s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l e s s d e p e n d -e n t on c o m p e t i t i o n and c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y l o c a t e d ad jacent t o t h e c o r e i n t h e f r a m e . T h e deve lopmen t o f t h e f r a m e has been r e i n f o r c e d by the i n f l u x o f s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h had f o r m e r -ly l o c a t e d a l m o s t so le ly in t h e C B D . T h e p e r i p h e r a l , o r r i b b o n , s e g m e n t s o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t s have been occup ied by a v a r i e t y o f c o m m e r c i a l and n o n - c o m m e r c i a l land uses w h i c h e i t h e r r e q u i r e l a rge a m o u n t s o f space o r a r e o r i e n t e d t o s p e c i a l pu rpose u s e s . P l a n n i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s T h e main p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d by i n t r a u r b a n s t r i p p e d c o m -m e r c i a l deve lopmen t a r e (i) p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , ( i i ) t h e i n e f f i c i e n t use o f c o m m e r c i a l space w h i c h 123 is m a n i f e s t in high v a c a n c y r a t e s and t h e dup l i c a t i on o f s e r v i c e s , and ( i i i ) d e t e r i o r a t i n g buildings and t h e gene ra l u n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f o lde r high d e n s i t y d e v e l o p m e n t s . P l a n n e r s have a t t e m p t e d t o a l l e v i a t e t h e p r o b l e m s t h r o u g h p e r s u a s i o n , zon ing , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and r e d e v e l o p m e n t . M o s t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o b l e m s in t h e inne r c i t y in t h e immed ia t e v i c i n i t y o f t h e c e n t r a l bus iness d i s t r i c t . A t t e m p t s t o r e c t i f y t h e p r o b l e m s i n o u t l y i n g a r e a s o f t h e c i t y t h r o u g h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p lanning p o l i c y have been r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e use o f p e r s u a s i o n and z o n i n g . P e r s u a s i o n is i n t ended t o encourage the p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o adhe re t o r easonab le s t a n d a r d s o f bui lding main tenance and t o p r o v i d e o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g . Z o n i n g b y - l a w s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o r e s t r i c t t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l r i b b o n , p r e v e n t t h e e n t r y o f bus iness t y p e s w h o s e o p e r a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s wou ld f u r t h e r a g g r e v a t e a r t e r i a l p r o b l e m s , and d e c r e a s e t h e u n i n t e r -r u p t e d l e n g t h o f t h e r i bbon o v e r t i m e by d e s i g n a t i n g a r e a s w h e r e c o m m e r c e becomes a n o n c o n f o r m i n g u s e . T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t w h e r e zoning is t h e o p e r a t i o n a l planning t o o l employed in a t t e m p t i n g t o m i t i g a t e p r o b l e m s in o u t -ly ing u r b a n a r t e r i a l s , t he c o r e - f r a m e c o n c e p t p r o v i d e s an a n a l y t i c a l dev ice by w h i c h zoning may be more e f f e c t i v e l y employed 124 in t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f planning g o a l s . T h e e v o l u t i o n o f t he bus iness d i s t r i c t s in t h e l a s t f i f t y y e a r s has s een t h e deve lopmen t o f a c o m p a c t c e n t r a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e . P l a n n i n g goals have gene ra l ly sough t t o change d i s p e r s e d p a t t e r n s o f bus ine s se s on a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s t o t h i s more c o m p a c t s t r u c t u r e . Z o n i n g can r e i n f o r c e and encourage t h i s t r e n d t h r o u g h a c o r e - f r a m e a p p r o a c h t o z o n i n g . T h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o m m e r c i a l zoning po l icy should c o n c e n t r a t e on encourag ing c o m m e r c i a l g r o w t h a t t h e c o r e and t h e ad jacen t p a r t s o f t he f r a m e . S i n c e t h e d i s s e c t i n g a r t e r i e s o f t h e bus ines s d i s t r i c t s a c t as a b a r r i e r t o p e d e s t r i a n m o v e -men t deve lopmen t should be o r i e n t e d t o a single s ide o f t he s t r e e t . O f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g should be p r o v i d e d a t t h e r e t a i l c o r e w h e r e c o m p a r a t i v e shopping t r i p s p r e d o m i n a t e and c o n -s u m e r s p a r k f o r r e l a t i v e l y l onge r p e r i o d s . T h e f r a m e con t a in s bus iness t y p e s w h i c h g e n e r a t e s s p e c i a l p u r p o s e t r i p s and l i m i t e d c o m p a r a t i v e shopping w h i c h do n o t c o n t r i b u t e as s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o p a r k i n g and t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n . M a n y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e f r a m e and m o s t a c t i v i t i e s in t h e r i bbon a r e f r e e - s t a n d i n g bus iness t y p e s and a r e n o t i n t e g r a l t o the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e bus iness d i s t r i c t . A s s u c h the a r e a s in w h i c h t h e s e bus ine s se s a r e l o c a t e d may be r e z o n e d t o a c c o m -moda te a l t e r n a t e land u s e s . 125 T h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f many f r a m e and r ibbon a r e a s , h o w e v e r , poses ques t i ons r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . S i n c e t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e f r a m e o f the bus iness d i s t r i c t s may p rov ide s i t e s f o r t h e i n c u b a t i o n o f new b u s i n e s s e s , and s ince the i n t e g r a t e d planned shopping d i s t r i c t s do n o t p r o v i d e comparab le low r e n t a l s i t e s , t h e e l im ina t i on o f t h e f r a m e may inh ib i t c o m m e r c i a l g r o w t h in t h e c i t y by r e m o v i n g many bus ines s o p p o r t u n i t i e s . O n the o t h e r hand , i t s e l i m i n a t i o n may r e d u c e t h e economic i n e f f i c i e n c y i n h e r e n t in t h e d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s and t h e o p e r a t i o n o f . marg ina l b u s i n e s s e s . T h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s i s sue is a chal lenge t o f u r t h e r s t u d y . B I B L I O G R A P H Y A l c h i a n , A r m e n A . " U n c e r t a i n t y , E v o l u t i o n , and E c o n o m i c T h e o r y , " J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l E c o n o m y , L V I I I ( J u n e , 1950) . 2 1 1 - 2 1 . A p p l e b a u m , W . and S . B . C o h e n . " T h e D y n a m i c s o f S t o r e T r a d i n g A r e a s and M a r k e t E q u i l i b r i u m , " A n n a l s o f t h e  A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s , 51 (1961) , 8 3 - 8 8 . A u b e r t - K r i e r , J . " M o n o p o l i s t i c and I m p e r f e c t C o m p e t i t i o n i n R e t a i l T r a d e , " E . H . C h a m b e r l i n ( e d . ) , Monopoly and  C o m p e t i t i o n and T h e i r R e g u l a t i o n s . L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n , 1954. B e l l , L . I . M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r , A n O v e r v i e w f o r S o c i a l P l a n n e r s . V a n c o u v e r : R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t , C o m m u n i t y C h e s t and C o u n c i l s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a , I 9 6 5 . . B e r r y , B . J . L . C o m m e r c i a l S t r u c t u r e and C o m m e r c i a l B l i g h t . D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y R e s e a r c h P a p e r , N o . 8 5 . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , I 9 6 3 . B e r r y , B . J . L . " R i b b o n D e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e U r b a n B u s i n e s s P a t t e r n , " A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f  G e o g r a p h e r s , 2+8 ( J u n e , 1959) , 12+5-55. B e r r y , B r i a n J . L . and A . P r e d . C e n t r a l P l a c e S t u d i e s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , I 9 6 I . B e r r y , B . J . L . , H . G . B a r n u m , and R . . J . T e n n a n t , " R e t a i l L o c a t i o n and C o n s u m e r B e h a v i o u r , " P a p e r s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , 9 (1962) , 6 5 - 1 0 6 . B o a l , F . W . and D . B . J o h n s o n . " T h e F u n c t i o n s o f R e t a i l and S e r v i c e E s t a b l i s h m e n t s on C o m m e r c i a l R i b b o n s , " T h e C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , 9 , 3 (1965) , 154 -169 . B o x e r , B a r u c h . O c e a n S h i p p i n g in t h e E v o l u t i o n o f Hong!, ' K o n g . ' D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y R e s e a r c h P a p e r , N o . 72 . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , I 9 6 I . 127 B u r g e s s , E r n e s t W . " T h e G r o w t h o f t h e C i t y , " R . E . P a r k , E . W . B u r g e s s and R . D . M c K e n z i e ( e d s . ) , T h e C i t y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1925. C a r o l , H a n s . " T h e H i e r a r c h y o f C e n t r a l F u n c t i o n s W i t h i n t h e C i t y , " A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f  G e o g r a p h e r s , 50 ( D e c e m b e r , I960), 419-38. C a r r u t h e r s , W . S . " S e r v i c e C e n t e r s i n L o n d o n , " T o w n  P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , 3 3 , 1 ( A p r i l , 1962). C h a m b e r l i n , E d w a r d . T h e T h e o r y o f M o n o p o l i s t i c C o m p e t i t i o n . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1936. C h a p i n , F . S . U r b a n L a n d U s e P l a n n i n g . U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l ino i s P r e s s , 1965 • C o h e n , S . B . and G . K . L e w i s . " F o r m and F u n c t i o n in t h e G e o g r a p h y o f R e t a i l i n g , " E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y , ' 4 3 , 1 ( J a n u a r y , 1967), 1-42. C o m m u n i t y B u i l d e r s ' C o u n c i l . T h e C o m m u n i t y B u i l d e r s ' H a n d -b o o k . W a s h i n g t o n : U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e , I 9 6 0 . C u r r y , L e s l i e . " T h e G e o g r a p h y o f S e r v i c e C e n t e r s W i t h i n T o w n s : T h e E l e m e n t s o f an O p e r a t i o n a l A p p r o a c h , " L u n d S t u d i e s in G e o g r a p h y , S e r i e s B , H u m a n G e o g r a p h y , N o . 24 (1962), 3 1 - 5 4 -F o s t e r , G . < J . and H . « J . N e l s o n . V e n t u r a B o u l e v a r d : S t r i n g -T y p e S h o p p i n g S t r e e t . L o s A n g e l e s : R e a l E s t a t e R e s e a r c h P r o g r a m , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1958. H a g g e t t , P e t e r . L o c a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s in H u m a n G e o g r a p h y . N e w Y o r k : S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , I966. H a r l a n d B a r t h o l o m e w and A s s o c i a t e s . A P l a n f o r t he C i t y  o f V a n c o u v e r , B . C . V a n c o u v e r : T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , 1928. H a r l a n d B a r t h o l o m e w and A s s o c i a t e s . A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t  U p o n E c o n o m i c B a c k g r o u n d and P o p u l a t i o n . V a n c o u v e r : T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , 1944. 128 H a r l a n d B a r t h o l o m e w and A s s o c i a t e s . . A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t U p o n  T h e M a j o r S t r e e t P l a n . V a n c o u v e r : T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m -m i s s i o n , 1947. H a r l a n d B a r t h o l o m e w and A s s o c i a t e s . A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t U p o n  T r a n s i t . V a n c o u v e r : T o w n P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , 1945. H o r w o o d , E . M . and R . R . B o y c e . S t u d i e s o f t h e C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s  D i s t r i c t and U r b a n F r e e w a y D e v e l o p m e n t . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1959. H o y t , H o m e r . " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and S i g n i f i c a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S h o p p i n g C e n t e r s , " A p p r a i s a l J o u r n a l , ( A p r i l , 1958), 2 1 4 - 2 2 . H o y t , H o m e r . T h e S t r u c t u r e and G r o w t h o f R e s i d e n t i a l N e i g h -bourhoods in A m e r i c a n C i t i e s . W a s h i n g t o n : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1939. :"" K e e b l e , L e w i s . . P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e o f T o w n and C o u n t r y  P l a n n i n g . L o n d o n : T h e E s t a t e s G a z e t t e L i m i t e d , I964. K e r r , D . P . " U r b a n G e o g r a p h y o f V a n c o u v e r . " Unpub l i shed M . A . t h e s i s , D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1940. K i n g C o u n t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . L o c a t i o n a l T e n d e n c i e s and S p a c e  R e q u i r e m e n t s o f R e t a i l B u s i n e s s i n S u b u r b a n K i n g C o u n t y . S e a t t l e , 19 6 3 . L e i g h , R . " S p e c i a l t y R e t a i l i n g : A G e o g r a p h i c A n a l y s i s , " B . C . G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , N o . 6 (I966) . M a r t i n e a u , P . " T h e P e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e R e t a i l S t o r e , " H a r v a r d  B u s i n e s s R e v i e w , 36 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1958), 4 7 . M c C a r t y , H . H . and N . E . S a l i s b u r y . V i s u a l C o m p a r i s o n o f I s o -p l e t h M a p s as a_ M e a n s o f D e t e r m i n i n g C o r r e l a t i o n B e t w e e n  S p a t i a l l y D i s t r i b u t e d P h e n o m e n a . D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y , S e r i e s N o . 3 . I o w a C i t y : U n i v e r s i t y o f I o w a , I 9 6 I . M c D o w a l l , N . C . " A C o n s u m e r S u r v e y o f t h e S h o p p i n g H a b i t s o f t h e R e s i d e n t s o f t h e F r a s e r A r e a . " Unpub l i shed G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , F a c u l t y o f C o m m e r c e and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967. M e l t o n , M . A . " C o r r e l a t i o n S t r u c t u r e o f M o r p h o m e t r i c P r o p e r t i e s o f D r a i n a g e S y s t e m s and T h e i r C o n t r o l l i n g A g e n t s , " J o u r n a l o f G e o l o g y , 66, 4 (1958)", 442 -460. 129 N e l s o n , R . L . T h e S e l e c t i o n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n . C h i c a g o : F . W . D o d g e , 1958 . N e l s o n , R . L . and F . T . A s c h m a n . C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e h a b i l i -t a t i o n o f M a j o r S h o p p i n g D i s t r i c t s . U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e : T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n , N o . 2 2 . W a s h i n g t o n : F e b r u a r y , 1959 . N o r b o r g , K . ( e d . ) . T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c a l U n i o n • S y m p o s i u m i n U r b a n G e o g r a p h y , L u n d , I 9 6 0 . L u n d : G l e e r u p , 1962 . P a r k e r , H . R . " S u b u r b a n S h o p p i n g F a c i l i t i e s in L i v e r p o o l , " T h e T o w n P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , 3 3 , 3 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 1 9 7 - 2 2 3 . P h i l l i p s , C . F . and D.<J". D u n c a n . M a r k e t i n g : P r i n c i p l e s and M e t h o d s . H o m e w o o d , I l l i n o i s : R i c h a r d I r w i n I n c . , 196k. P i c k f o r d , C T . H . H i g h w a y - O r i e n t e d and U r b a n A r t e r i a l C o m m e r -c i a l A r e a s . . A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e , I n f o r m a t i o n R e p o r t N o . 177. C h i c a g o : S e p t e m b e r , 19 6 3 . P r o u d f o o t , N . i J . " T h e M a i n O u t l y i n g B u s i n e s s C e n t e r s o f C h i c a g o . " U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1936 . R a t c l i f f , R . U . U r b a n L a n d E c o n o m i c s . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w -H i l l , 19i+9. R a t c l i f f , R . U . " D y n a m i c s o f E f f i c i e n c y in t h e L o c a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f U r b a n A c t i v i t i e s , " R . M . F i s h e r ( e d . ) , T h e M e t r o p o l i s in M o d e r n L i f e . N e w Y o r k : Doub leday and C o . , 1955, 1 2 5 - 4 8 . R i m m e r , P . J " . " T h e P r o b l e m o f C o m p a r i n g and C l a s s i f y i n g S e a p o r t s , " P r o f e s s i o n a l G e o g r a p h e r , 18, 2 ( I 9 6 6 ) , 1 7 0 - 7 4 . R o l p h , I . K . T h e L o c a t i o n S t r u c t u r e o f R e t a i l T r a d e . W a s h -i n g t o n : U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n and D o m e s t i c C o m m e r c e , D o m e s t i c C o m m e r c e S e r i e s , N o . 8 , 1929 . 130 R u s h t o n , G . , R . C . Gol ledge and W . A . V . C l a r k . " F o r m u l a t i o n and T e s t i n g o f a N o r m a t i v e M o d e l f o r t h e S p a t i a l A l l o c a t i o n o f G r o c e r y E x p e n d i t u r e s by a D i s p e r s e d P o p u l a t i o n , " T h e  A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f G e o g r a p h e r s , 57, 2 ( J u n e , 1967) , 3 8 9 - 4 0 0 . S k i l l i n g s , H . M . " A C o n s u m e r S u r v e y o f t he S h o p p i n g H a b i t s o f t h e R e s i d e n t s o f t he F r a s e r A r e a . " U n p u b l i s h e d G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , F a c u l t y o f C o m m e r c e and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I966. S i m m o n s , . J . W . , " D e s c r i p t i v e M o d e l s o f U r b a n L a n d U s e , " T h e C a n a d i a n G e o g r a p h e r , 9 , 3 (19.65), 170 -174 . S i m m o n s , J . W . . . T h e C h a n g i n g P a t t e r n o f R e t a i l L o c a t i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y R e s e a r c h P a p e r , N o . 9 2 . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , I964. S t o l l , W . D . " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S h o p p i n g C e n t e r s , " T r a f f i c  Q u a r t e r l y , 21 (1967) , 1 5 9 - 7 7 . T o u s e l y , R . D . , E . C l a r k and F . E . C l a r k . P r i n c i p l e s o f  M a r k e t i n g . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1962. V a n c e , J . E . " E m e r g i n g P a t t e r n s o f C o m m e r c i a l S t r u c t u r e in A m e r i c a n C i t i e s , " L u n d S e r i e s in G e o g r a p h y , S e r i e s B , H u m a n G e o g r a p h y , N o . 24 (1962) , 4 8 5 - 5 1 9 . V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . V a n c o u v e r ' s C h a n g i n g  P o p u l a t i o n . V a n c o u v e r : J u n e , I964. V o o r h e e s , A . M . , G . B . S h a r p e and J . T . S t e g m a i e r . S h o p p i n g H a b i t s and T r a v e l P a t t e r n s . U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n N o . 2 4 . W a s h i n g t o n , 1955. W i l e s , F . W . L a n d D e v e l o p m e n t and T a x a t i o n in a C e n t r a l  C o m m e r c i a l Z o n e . V a n c o u v e r , I 9 6 5 . W o l f o r t h , J . R . " R e s i d e n t i a l . L o c a t i o n and the P l a c e o f W o r k , " B . C . G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , N o . 4 (1965) . . A P P E N D I X A C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F B U S I N E S S T Y P E S B u s i n e s s G r o u p s F r o m : R . U . R a t c l i f f . " I n t e r n a l A r r a n g e m e n t o f L a n d U s e s , " H . M a y e r and C . K o h n ( e d s . ) , R e a d i n g s in . U r b a n G e o g r a p h y . ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1959) , p . 4 1 1 . F o o d S t o r e s F u r n i t u r e - H o u s e h o l d G r o u p A u t o m o t i v e G r o u p L u m b e r - B u i l d i n g - H a r d w a r e G r o u p F i l l i n g S t a t i o n s R e s t a u r a n t G r o u p G e n e r a l - M e r c h a n d i s e G r o u p D r u g s t o r e s . • A p p a r e l G r o u p O t h e r R e t a i l S t o r e s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n B y B u s i n e s s T y p e s B u s i n e s s t y p e headings f r o m t h e above and f r o m : C o m m u n i t y B u i l d e r s ' C o u n c i l . T h e C o m m u n i t y B u i l d e r s ' H a n d -b o o k . ( W a s h i n g t o n : U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e , i 9 6 0 ) , p . 274. B u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s under each heading f r o m : B u r e a u o f t h e B u d g e t . S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l . ( W a s h i n g -t o n : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1957) . 1. F o o d 1. ( con t inued) 5411 5423 5410 5431 5422 5441 132 A P P E N D I X A (con t inued) ( con t inued ) 6 . ( con t inued ) 5451 5632 5462 5633 5491 5634 5499 5933 5641 D r u g 5651 5662 5912 5663 5664 A u t o m o t i v e 5665 5671 5511 5681 5521 5699 5531 5541 7 . D r y G o o d s 5599 5936 5714 5699 F o o d S e r v i c e 8 . F u r n i t u r e - H o u s ehold 5812 5813 5712 5713 G e n e r a l M e r c h a n d i s e 5715 ( D e p a r t m e n t S t o r e s ) 5719 5722 5 3 H 5732 5322 5931 5323 5934 5331 5431 9 . L u m b e r - B u i l d i n g -5351 H a r d w a r e 5392 5393 5211 5212 C l o t h i n g and A p p a r e l 5221 5231 5612 5241 5613 5251 5621 5 6 3 1 -133 A P P E N D I X A ( con t inued) O t h e r R e t a i l 15. P a r k i n g 5733 ; M u s i c ) 7521 5921 L i q u o r ) 7522 5941 B o o k ) 5943 [ S t a t i o n e r y ) 1 6 . E n t e r t a i n m e n t 5952 S p o r t s ) 5953 [ B i c y c l e ) 7 8 3 -5962 ! F e e d ) 7911 5969 [ G a r d e n ) t o 5971 [ J e w e l r y ) 7949 5992 [ F l o r i s t ) 5993 [ C i g a r ) 17. O t h e r O f f i c e 5994 : j 'News ) 5996 [ P h o t o S u p p l y ) 8 0 1 -5997 [ G i f t , N o v e l t y ) t o ( M e d i c a l ) 5998 O p t i c a l ) 8 0 9 -5999 M i s c e l l a n e o u s ) 8 1 1 - ( L e g a l ) 8 9 1 - ( E n g i n e e r i n g , F i n a n c e . A r c h i t e c t u r a l ) 8 9 3 - ( A c c o u n t i n g ) 60 — t o 1 8 . E d u c a t i o n 6 6 — 8 2 ? -12. P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e 7211 t o 7299 7511 ( A u t o R e n t a l ) 13 . B u s i n e s s S e r v i c e 7 3 1 -t o 7 3 9 -14. A u t o and H o u s e h o l d R e p a i r 7531 t o 7699 A P P E N D I X B C L U S T E R A N A L Y S I S A v e r a g e s w e r e used r a t h e r t h a n S p e a r m a n ' s sums o f v a r i a b l e s m e t h o d . S o k a l and R o h l f ^ in an e v a l u a t i o n o f c l u s t e r i n g t echn iques f o u n d t h e p a i r - g r o u p me thod m o s t s a t i s -f a c t o r y i n t h a t i t s h o w s l e s s d i s t o r t i o n o f t he o r i g i n a l s i m i l a r i t y c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x and is devoid o f an a r b i t r a r y c r i t e r i o n o f group f o r m a t i o n . T h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e t echn ique is c o n t a i n e d in S o k a l and S n e a t h . 3 T h e nine c a t e g o r i e s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d f o r each b lock in p a i r - w i s e f a s h i o n us ing P e a r s o n ' s p r o d u c t momen t c o e f f i c i e n t . T h e v a r i a b l e s and n i n e t y - t h r e e o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e f i r s t t e s t e d f o r g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t by c h i - s q u a r e t o t h e n o r m a l , b inomia l , p o i s s o n , and nega t i ve b inomial d i s t r i b u t i o n s . T h e c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c w a s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m z e r o a t t h e .05 P . H . A . S n e a t h . " T h e C o n s t r u c t i o n o f T a x o n o m i c G r o u p s , " G . C . . A i n s w o r t h and P . H . A . S n e a t h ( e d s . ) , M i c r o -b ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T w e l f t h S y m p o s i u m o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r G e n e r a l M i c r o b i l o g y ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 289 -332 . 2 R . R . S o k a l and F . C F . R o h l f . " T h e C o m p a r i s o n o f D e n d r o g r a m s by O b j e c t i v e M e t h o d s , " T a x o n , 11 (I962), p p . 33 -40 . 3 R . R . S o k a l and P . H . A . S n e a t h . P r i n c i p l e s o f N u m e r i -ca l T a x o n o m y . ( S a n F r a n c i s c o : W . H . F r e e m a n and C o . , 1963), p p . 310-12. 135 s i g n i f i c a n c e leve l f o r t h e nega t i ve b inomia l d i s t r i b u t i o n . A . l o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w a s appl ied t o t h e d a t a t o a p p r o x i m a t e n o r m a l i t y and t h e r e b y f u l f i l l t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f n o r m a l i t y in p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . A P P E N D I X C L A N D U S E P R O F I L E S F i g u r e 2 7 — F r a s e r S t r e e t F i g u r e 2 8 — H a s t i n g s S t r e e t F i g u r e 2 9 — W e s t B roadway-F i g u r e 3 0 — K e r r i s d a l e L A N D U S E Figure 27 D I S T R I B U T I O N CONVENIENCE iJLtTT zJ-m a. 2 3 4 -5-6 7 8 9 l 0 11 , 2 1 3 | 4 AUTOMOTIVE F R A S E R S T R E E T SHOPPING P E R S O N A L S E R V I C E West Side FINANCE and OFFICE ENTERTAINMENT ( P A R K I N G ! N O N - C O M M E R C I A L West Side 20 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 io 12 14 C I T Y B L O C K S Figure 28. L A N D U S E D I S T R I B U T I O N HASTINGS S T R E E T CONVENIENCE SHOPPING ' PERSONAL SERVICE FINANCE and OFFICE M South Side 20 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO 11 | 2 1 3 AUTOMOTIVE ENTERTAINMENT J -20 North Side ( P A R K I N G ) NON-COMMERCIAL South Side m* J J -20 North Side I 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 io 11 , 2 1 3 C I T Y B L O C K S Figure 29. L A N D U S E D I S T R I B U T I O N WEST BROADWAY CONVENIENCE SHOPPING PERSONAL SERVICE F INANCE and OFFICE Smith Side • 20 -I - P ^ ^ - ^ o -u -20 North Side -20 North Side 20 _J I m 1. I i — r n j U 1 I 2 2 4 5 5 O 6 7 8 9 I 0 -20 LT-L C I T Y B L O C K S Figure 30. L A N D U S E D I S T R I B U T I O N K E R R I S D A L E CONVENIENCE SHOPPING PERSONAL SERVICE FINANCE ond OFFICE South Side I 2 3 4 5 6 7 • AUTOMOTIVE ENTERTAINMENT ( P A R K I N G ) NON-COMMERCIAL I South Side L r 2 3 4 5 6 7 North Side 20 TZT -20 C I T Y B L O C K S A P P E N D I X D C H A N G E I N T H E N U M B E R O F F I N A N C E A N D O F F I C E E S T A B L I S H M E N T S A N D T H E N U M B E R O F I N D I V I D U A L O F F I C E S 27 37 47 57 66 B R O A D W A Y E * 0 * E O E O E O E O F i n a n c e 1 1 2 2 6 9 7 7 O f f i c e . 1 1 2 2 4 5 21 31 13 20 M e d i c a l 1 1 5 11 11 20 7 17 F R A S E R F i n a n c e 2 2 1 1 3 3 6 6 10 1 1 O f f i c e 2 2 3 3 6 6 14 22 11 16 M e d i c a l 2 4 6 8 :'8 24 11 27 H A S T I N G S F i n a n c e 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 12 15 O f f i c e 1 1 1 2 4 5 19 25 17 29 M e d i c a l 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 3 5 14 K E R R I S D A L E ' 41 S T F i n a n c e 2 2 2 2 3 3 7 9 8 10 O f f i c e 4 4 4 4 5 7 13 15 11 17 M e d i c a l 3 3 4 4 5 6 12 18 8 17 W E S T B L V D . F i n a n c e 2 2 O f f i c e 3 3 1 1 4 4 4 4 7 12 M e d i c a l 1 1 1 1 * ' E ' f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t , ' O ' f o r o f f i c e 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104181/manifest

Comment

Related Items