UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The theory and practice of education in the People's Republic of China Hawkins, John Noel 1969

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THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF EDUCATION IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA by JOHN NOEL HAWKINS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f A r t s i n the Department of Asian Studies We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1969  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  advanced degree at  the  Library  I further for  shall  the  agree that  his  permission  of  this  written  representatives.  available  May  21,  1969  for  for extensive  g r a n t e d by  gain  permission.  Asian  British  the  It i s understood  Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  be  thes,is f o r f i n a n c i a l  Department of  f u l f i l m e n t of  U n i v e r s i t y of  make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  that  not  the  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  c o p y i n g or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ii  ABSTRACT The  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d i s c u s s the development o f the  t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f e d u c a t i o n i n the People's R e p u b l i c o f China u s i n g as much as p o s s i b l e the framework out o f which the Chinese themselves  view  communists  it.  P a r t I d e a l s w i t h e d u c a t i o n c o n t e x t u a l l y i n order t o e s t a b l i s h i t as an i m p o r t a n t component o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n i n t r a n s i t i o n a l such as C h i n a .  Both Western and Chinese  z a t i o n are considered.  Chapter  societies  communist concepts o f moderni-  i of Part I i s a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l  survey  of the development o f e d u c a t i o n i n pre-communist C h i n a . P a r t I I c o n s t i t u t e s the b u l k of- the t h e s i s and d i s c u s s e s the two main components o f Chinese  communist e d u c a t i o n — t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e .  C h a p t e r i i i i s an a n a l y s i s o f the e v o l u t i o n o f the Chinese of e d u c a t i o n .  The method used i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the major documents  d e a l i n g w i t h the Chinese 1934.  communist t h e o r y  communist t h e o r y o f knowledge and e d u c a t i o n s i n c e  Most o f these were w r i t t e n by Mao and were based on h i s  of Marxism-Leninism  which i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l .  understanding  A f t e r 1949, the  two most i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l documents (1950 and 1958) are t r a n s l a t e d i n the Appendix and d i s c u s s e d i n the t e x t .  T h i s chapter on t h e o r y t r a c e s  common themes i n the t h e o r y and bears out the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t i n i t s most e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s the communist t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a s i n c e 1934 has remained c o n s t a n t .  Chapter i v d e a l s w i t h the q u a n t i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n s i n c e 1949 and g i v e s a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s , e n r o l l m e n t  (supported  i n the Appendix w i t h - t a b l e s ) and changes i n the p r a c t i c e of e d u c a t i o n . Chapter  v attempts  a s y n t h e s i s of the s e c t i o n s on t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e  by j u x t a p o s i n g t h e o r e t i c a l campaigns a g a i n s t the responses educational i n s t i t u t i o n s .  of v a r i o u s  A l l of these campaigns were designed  to b r i n g  about a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of e d u c a t i o n . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n supports the main a s s e r t i o n o f the t h e s i s t h a t s i n c e 1949 the Chinese  communist t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n has never been r e a l i z e d i n  p r a c t i c e and i n f a c t has met s t i f f r e s i s t a n c e i n c e r t a i n a r e a s . led  t o the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n the f i e l d  T h i s has  of e d u c a t i o n and the k i n d s  of e d u c a t i o n a l reforms which are t a k i n g p l a c e  today.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES  .  INTRODUCTION . . . .  .  v 1  PART I CHAPTER i  CONCEPTS OF MODERNIZATION  CHAPTER.ii  HISTORICAL SURVEY OF EDUCATION IN PRE-COMMUNIST CHINA Traditional ' Republican E a r l y Communist 1934-1949  e  CHAPTER i i i  9 10 11  PART I I  .EDUCATION IN CHINA: THEORY M a t e r i a l i s t i c World View M a r x i s t Theory o f Knowledge Mao Tse-tung: E d u c a t i o n a l Theory Ch'ien C h u n - j u i — L u T i n g - y i  CHAPTER i v  CHAPTER v  '  3  EDUCATION: PRACTICE P r i m a r y and Secondary E d u c a t i o n Half-Work, H a l f - S t u d y — S p a r e - T i m e Higher Education '  CHAPTER v i  ...  Education  15 17 19 27 37 40 43  IDEOLOGICAL CAMPAIGNS AND UNIVERSITY RESPONSE Cheng Feng Movement — 1 9 5 0 Hundred F l o w e r s Campaign 1957 Great Leap Forward 1958 S o c i a l i s t Education Movement—Cultural R e v o l u t i o n 1962-1969  48 49 56 69  CONCLUSION  94  BIBLIOGRAPHY  75  96  APPENDIX Tables Translations  100 101 107  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I  PRIMARY SCHOOLS, 1948-60  101  TABLE I I  SECONDARY GENERAL SCHOOLS, 1948-1959  102  TABLE I I I  SECONDARY SPECIALIZED SCHOOLS, 1948-59  103  TABLE IV .  SPARE-TIME STUDENTS, 1949-58  104  TABLE V  HIGHER EDUCATION, 1948-60  105  TABLE V I  HIGHER EDUCATION:  106  ENROLLMENT BY FIELD, 1928-58- . . . . .  INTRODUCTION My e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h i s s u b j e c t was  f i r s t generated i n P e k i n g i n l a t e  August of 1966 as I watched thousands of s t u d e n t s go on s t r i k e the s c h o o l s . education.  T h i s was  against  the b e g i n n i n g of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n  By the end of August n e a r l y e v e r y major u n i v e r s i t y i n C h i n a  was c l o s e d and the s t u d e n t s , now o r g a n i z e d i n t o Red-Guard detachments, had r e c e i v e d p u b l i c support from Mao Tse-tung t o c a r r y t h e i r s t r u g g l e o t h e r areas of Chinese s o c i e t y .  into  Thus began the g r e a t e s t upheavel e v e r t o  a f f e c t s o c i e t y and e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a . I t would be i m p o s s i b l e to attempt to understand such a movement w i t h o u t some knowledge  of China's e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y .  I n September of  1967 I began graduate work a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.'  Under  the d i r e c t i o n o f P r o f e s s o r W i l l i a m . L . H o l l a n d , I completed a seminar paper on e d u c a t i o n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n i n the People's R e p u b l i c of C h i n a .  This  p r e s e n t paper, a l s o under the d i r e c t i o n of P r o f e s s o r H o l l a n d , was a n a t u r a l outgrowth of the seminar p r o j e c t .  The f i n a l r e s e a r c h i n g and r e v i s i o n of  t h i s t h e s i s was completed a t the U n i v e r s i t y of H a w a i i w i t h the a b l e h e l p of P r o f e s s o r Ronald S. Anderson, Department  of E d u c a t i o n a l F o u n d a t i o n s .  The encouragement and guidance of these two men h e l p e d g r e a t l y i n the c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s paper.  Many h e l p f u l comments were a l s o made by P r o f e s s o r  Heath Chamberlain and P r o f e s s o r Rene Goldman both of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  2 Research on modern (post-communist) lacking. mental  Where i t does e x i s t  framework w i t h i n which  Chinese e d u c a t i o n i s w o e f u l l y  t h e r e i s a tendency to n e g l e c t the fundathe Chinese communists themselves view the  p l a c e of e d u c a t i o n i n a s o c i a l i s t  s o c i e t y — M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m and the  2 thought o f Mao  Tse-tung.  Events which  or i r r a t i o n a l become more comprehensible the context of Marxism-Leninism By combining  at f i r s t once one  glance appear  i n t e r p r e t s them w i t h i n  and the f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  the two main s e c t i o n s of t h i s p a p e r — t h e  of e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a — i t e d u c a t i o n i n China may honest attempt  chaotic  t h e o r y and  i s hoped that a more complete  practice  p i c t u r e of  emerge; a p i c t u r e which w i l l be the r e s u l t  to view the r o l e of e d u c a t i o n as the Chinese  see i t and at the same time to t r a n s l a t e  Mao.  of an  communists  t h i s view i n t o terms  understandable  to the Western r e a d e r .  A s i n g u l a r example of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of. n e g l e c t is. evident, i n . . such r e c e n t books as Tsang Chiu-sam's, S o c i e t y , S c h o o l s , & Progress i n China (London: Pergamon P r e s s , 1968), p. 103, "Communism i s out-and-out materialism." 2 The "thought of Mao Tse-tung" as i t was used d u r i n g the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i s to be understood as h i s a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t and apply the t e n e t s of Marxism-Leninism to Chinese c o n d i t i o n s (from c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h P a r t y i d e o l o g u e s i n China i n l a t e summer of 1966).  PART I CHAPTER i CONCEPTS.OF MODERNIZATION E v e r y c u l t u r e , even the most " p r i m i t i v e , " must p r o v i d e f o r the f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n i f i t i s t o s u r v i v e . s o c i o l o g i s t s ; e s p e c i a l l y M a r i o n J . Levy.''"  T h i s has been noted  by  H i s a n a l y s i s , however, i s  more concerned w i t h those s o c i e t i e s which are i n a s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n — t r a n s i t i o n from the stage of t r a d i t i o n a l  ( i . e . , those n a t i o n s commonly  r e f e r r e d t o as "emerging," "underdeveloped," w o r l d " ) t o b e i n g f u l l y modernized. i s u s u a l l y expressed  or b e l o n g i n g t o the  While e d u c a t i o n i n p r i m i t i v e  i n terms of i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g ( i . e . ,  "third societies  transmitting  the c u l t u r e ) the e d u c a t i o n of t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i s more f o r m a l . importance  of r a i s i n g these d i s t i n c t i o n s , which seem o b v i o u s , i s to p l a c e  C h i n a d i r e c t l y w i t h i n the group of those n a t i o n s which are modernized"  The  "relatively  or " p a r t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d " and c o n s e q u e n t l y to make c l e a r t h a t  the attempt b e i n g made by the l e a d e r s of C h i n a to modernize her e d u c a t i o n i s b e i n g c l o s e l y watched by the r e s t o f the t h i r d w o r l d as b e i n g a p o s s i b l e model f o r development. W r i t e r s on the s u b j e c t of m o d e r n i z a t i o n and l e a d e r s of m o d e r n i z i n g n a t i o n s a l i k e p l a c e a g r e a t d e a l of emphasis on the importance  of e d u c a t i o n .  T h i s i s of course d i c t a t e d by the urgent needs of t r a n s i t i o n a l  societies  to t r a i n t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s to f i t i n w i t h the demands of a modern s o c i e t y . The manner i n which they go about t h i s t a s k has a profound e f f e c t on the  M a r i o n J . Levy, M o d e r n i z a t i o n and the S t r u c t u r e of S o c i e t i e s ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), pp. 624-634.  4 f u t u r e course o f the n a t i o n a t t e m p t i n g t o modernize.  I t t h e r e f o r e becomes  i m p e r a t i v e t o seek f o r and e x p l a i n a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the concept of m o d e r n i z a t i o n . • S i n c e t h i s paper d e a l s w i t h the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f e d u c a t i o n i n the P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c of C h i n a i t s p a r t i c u l a r approach t o m o d e r n i z i n g through e d u c a t i o n w i l l become apparent.  It is  i m p o r t a n t t h a t the Chinese term f o r m o d e r n i z a t i o n wei h s i n (jjj'jj ^fj")— l i t e r a l l y , "move toward the new"—has been used i n a c o n t e x t which c a l l s i n t o doubt the u s e f u l n e s s o f such a concept (the c u r r e n t term i s h s i e n t a i hua Ej^^-flj) • The most i m p o r t a n t i n s t a n c e o f i t s use i s i n the document w r i t t e n b y Mao Tse-tung i n 1949 e n t i t l e d "On the P e o p l e ' s Democratic D i c t a t o r s h i p . " H i s use o f the word m o d e r n i z a t i o n appears i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the r i s e of modern Japan.  In order to transform i t s e l f  from a f e u d a l t o a modern n a t i o n  Japan p r o m p t l y "modernized" i n the Western sense o f the word.  That i s ,  Japan l e a r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y from the f o r e i g n c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , whereas C h i n a r e l i e d on t h e o r i e s of M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m adapted t o a Chinese e n v i r o n ment.  The n a t u r a l consequence of Japanese m o d e r n i z a t i o n , as Mao saw i t ,  was t o f o r c e the n a t i o n t o become i m p e r i a l i s t i c as e v i d e n c e d by Japan's i n v a s i o n of Chinese t e r r i t o r y i n the 1930's.  The o n l y t r u e path t o modern2  i z a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o Mao was the p a t h of Marxism-Leninism. of m o d e r n i z a t i o n was  Any o t h e r k i n d  something the c a p i t a l i s t n a t i o n s t r i e d t o pass o f f as  p r o g r e s s but i n f a c t was n o t . The p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f the term m o d e r n i z a t i o n has m a i n l y come from the West, p a r t i c u l a r l y N o r t h A m e r i c a .  Benjamin Schwartz has p o i n t e d out i n  an a r t i c l e d i r e c t l y r e l a t i n g the concept of m o d e r n i z a t i o n w i t h C h i n a t h a t 2  P e o p l e ' s D a i l y , J u l y 1,  1949.  t h e r e are two d i s t i n c t v e r s i o n s of the concept of m o d e r n i z a t i o n .  One  v e r s i o n t r e a t s the " p r o c e s s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n " as a v a s t , a l l embracing, i m p e r s o n a l , h i s t o r i c f o r c e v e r y much l i k e Marx's "mode of p r o d u c t i o n . " It  takes i n t o account r e v o l u t i o n s , i d e o l o g i e s , n a t i o n a l i s m , and  the  p o l i c i e s o f governments a l l of which are s i m p l y s u r f a c e e r u p t i o n s of this force.  I n another p o p u l a r v e r s i o n , m o d e r n i z a t i o n becomes a c o n s c i o u s  3 movement or c o n s c i o u s a c t of l a r g e or s m a l l groups of men.  While  two views have v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i e t y Schwartz t h a t they are not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e .  these notes  Even i f i t i s assumed t h a t the  f i r s t v e r s i o n o f an i m p e r s o n a l f o r c e i s v a l i d then i t must a l s o be assumed t h a t v a r y i n g p r i o r i t i e s w i l l be served a c c o r d i n g t o whatever group i s i n power. The w r i t i n g s on m o d e r n i z a t i o n are voluminous  and f o r t h i s r e a s o n I t  i s n e c e s s a r y to s e l e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e spokemen f o r each of the above versions.  The view w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s m o d e r n i z a t i o n as a " p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p -  ment" l e a d i n g t o something more or l e s s d e f i n i t e has as one of i t s c h i e f spokesman M a r i o n J . Levy who  d i s c u s s e s i n minute d e t a i l how  this  process  a f f e c t s or should a f f e c t each aspect of the s o c i e t y of a p a r t i c u l a r n a t i o n . ^ He  focuses on e d u c a t i o n as one o f the b a s i c t a s k s t h a t must be faced by a  s o c i e t y a t t e m p t i n g t o modernize.  Among some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  problems faced by what he terms " r e l a t i v e l y modernized"  and  s o c i e t i e s Levy notes  t h a t i n a modernized s o c i e t y s c h o o l s f a l l i n t o the c a t e g o r y of b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as i n t e r m e d i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( e . g . , g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and 3 Benjamin Schwartz, " M o d e r n i z a t i o n and the M a o i s t V i s i o n — S o m e R e f l e c t i o n s on Chinese Communist G o a l s , " C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y (January-March, 1965), p. 3. ^ Levy, pp. 624-634'\  specialized education).  I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e e x i s t s a l a r g e number o f s p e c i a l  s c h o o l s i n which o n l y s p e c i a l members o f s o c i e t y may be educated.  Levy  p o i n t s out t h a t there a r e s o c i e t i e s which are more " r e l a t i v e l y modernized" than o t h e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o e d u c a t i o n and t h i s i s u s u a l l y determined the e x t e n t o f s c h o o l i n g .  by  I n l e s s modernized s o c i e t i e s s c h o o l i n g i s  r e s t r i c t e d t o c e r t a i n members o f s o c i e t y and t h i s element of d i s t i n c t i o n i s more i m p o r t a n t than o t h e r v a r i a b l e s ( e . g . , the s u b j e c t s taken up, the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f s c h o o l s , the source o f t h e i r s u p p o r t , t h e i r governance, etc.).  One o f the r e s t r i c t i o n s on p o p u l a r e d u c a t i o n faced by r e l a t i v e l y  modernized s o c i e t i e s i s c o s t .  T h i s r e f e r s t o n o t o n l y the immediate c o s t  of p h y s i c a l p l a n t and t e a c h e r - e d u c a t i o n but a l s o the c o s t o f t a k i n g young people away from t h e i r f a m i l i e s and s o c i e t y as p r o d u c e r s . i s i m m e d i a t e l y r a i s e d , the apparent  Thus the problem  dichotomy between l a b o r and e d u c a t i o n .  F i n a l l y , Levy notes t h a t i t i s e x t r e m e l y important t h a t the educated i n d i v i d u a l u t i l i z e h i s knowledge t o f i t the e l i t e r o l e s t h a t u s u a l l y go with higher education. 0  product.  There must be a planned u t i l i z a t i o n o f the educated  As t o types o f s c h o o l s found i n " r e l a t i v e l y modernized" s o c i e t i e s  Levy l i s t s types o f s c h o o l s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n f o u r ways: elementary  (1) g r a d i n g ; e.g.,  ( f o c u s e d on the s i m p l e s t forms o f l i t e r a c y ) ; middle  schools;  h i g h s c h o o l s , (2) v o c a t i o n a l v s . i n t e l l e c t u a l s c h o o l s (Levy notes t h a t i n the e a r l y p e r i o d o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s are p r o b a b l y more i m p o r t a n t ) , (3) p r o f e s s i o n a l v s . i n t e l l e c t u a l s c h o o l s ( e . g . , m e d i c a l s c h o o l and law s c h o o l are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s i n t h a t p u p i l s u s u a l l y have some form o f i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g t o o ) , (4) p r i v a t e v s . p u b l i c i n source o f funds.^  5  Levy, pp. 624-634.  .  7 These then are some of the more g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f what e d u c a t i o n means f o r a s o c i e t y undergoing  "the p r o c e s s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n . " .The. o t h e r  view which t r e a t s m o d e r n i z a t i o n as a c o n s c i o u s p r o j e c t or g o a l has been s p e l l e d out by s c h o l a r s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n i n a s p e c i a l conference h e l d i n Bermuda under the a u s p i c e s of the Conference  on Modern Japan of the  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A s i a n S t u d i e s , i n January, 1962.  They concluded t h a t the  f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a are b a s i c to " i n t e l l e c t u a l modernization : 11  (1) the  s y s t e m a t i c a c c u m u l a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l l y v e r i f i a b l e knowledge and weakening of r e l i g i o u s or c u l t u r a l dogmas, (2) acceptance o f s o c i a l change i n human a f f a i r s , on the i n d i v i d u a l ,  o f the  the concept  (3) an i n c r e a s e i n the v a l u e p l a c e d  (4) growing a t t e n t i o n t o the v o c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l ,  i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g o f the i n d i v i d u a l ,  and  (5) s e c u l a r i z a t i o n and emphasis  on m a t e r i a l goods, (6) the c r e a t i o n through mass media of communications of new  i n t e r e s t and b e l i e f groups w i t h n a t i o n a l , c l a s s , or o c c u p a t i o n a l  o r i e n t a t i o n s , (7) c o n s t a n t l y w i d e n i n g o r b i t of i n d i v i d u a l involvement i n i n t e l l e c t u a l communities beyond the f a m i l y , v i l l a g e , or p r o v i n c e to the s t a t e and to s u p r a n a t i o n a l i d e a l s ,  (8) improvement of the means of  d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i d e a l s to a l l members o f the  society.^  These i n d i c a t i o n s of the i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n can, I b e l i e v e , be taken as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g t h a t i s b e i n g done i n non-Chinese c i r c l e s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n N o r t h America.  W h i l e the l e a d e r s i n C h i n a seem to have no use f o r the  concept  of m o d e r n i z a t i o n i n the Western sense t h e i r p r a c t i c e o f t e n y i e l d s the same results.  T h i s o c c a s i o n a l o v e r l a p p i n g , however, should not be g e n e r a l i z e d .  ^ M. B. Jansen, ed. Changing Japanese A t t i t u d e s Toward M o d e r n i z a t i o n ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 23.  8 Their theoretical  and p r a c t i c a l approach t o e d u c a t i o n i s q u i t e  and a t times d i r e c t l y opposed t o t h a t mentioned above.  distinct  9 CHAPTER i i HISTORICAL SURVEY OF EDUCATION IN PRE-COMMUNIST CHINA Traditional E d u c a t i o n e x i s t e d i n some form i n C h i n a ( i n the sense t h a t Levy speaks of i t :  s c h o o l i n g ) from as e a r l y as the Chou d y n a s t y (1122-249  But. a system of e d u c a t i o n beyond v i l l a g e s c h o o l s and p r i v a t e  B.C.).  academies  d i d not r e a l l y come i n t o b e i n g u n t i l the r e i g n of the T'ung C h i h Emperor i n 1862 and then o n l y i n response t o f o r e i g n a g g r e s s i o n and not based on any o v e r a l l p l a n f o r development.  I t was n o t , i n f a c t , u n t i l the  m i s s i o n a r i e s ( J e s u i t s , c a . 1500) a r r i v e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n ceased t o be a n y t h i n g but C o n f u c i a n l e a r n i n g based on the e x a m i n a t i o n system.  Attempts  were made t o r e f o r m the Empire e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the impact of the European powers.  Kang Yu-wei's success i n p e r s u a d i n g the Emperor Kuang Hsu t o  a b o l i s h the e x a m i n a t i o n and s e t up a more open e d u c a t i o n a l system was perhaps the most d r a m a t i c .  The r e s u l t was not m o d e r n i z a t i o n ,  however,  but a r e a c t i o n a r y coup d'etat.''' The d e f e a t o f the Boxers i n 1901 compelled the Chinese i m p e r i a l court  t o pay the European and American Powers r e p a r a t i o n s .  B u t the  Americans i n an a c t t h a t was both.generous a n d . p r a c t i c a l l e d the way i n 2 r e s t i t u t i o n by r e t u r n i n g t h e i r $300 m i l l i o n f o r . e d u c a t i o n a l purposes. The reasons were t w o - f o l d :  on the one hand t h e r e was a d e s i r e t o h e l p  the Chinese and on the o t h e r a d e s i r e t o s t r e n g t h e n the a l r e a d y v e r y ^ Joseph A. Lauwerys, " C h i n a , " Communist E d u c a t i o n ed. Edmund J . K i n g (London: Methuen & Co. L t d . , 1960), p. 258. Stewart F r a s e r , Chinese Communist E d u c a t i o n ( N a s h v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 262.  Vanderbilt  10 l i v e l y i n t e r e s t s o f the Americans i n C h i n a .  U n t i l 1949 American  educators  had an immense i n f l u e n c e i n both the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f e d u c a t i o n i n China.  Republican In the p e r i o d from 1922,  the " w a r l o r d p e r i o d , " t o 1931,  c o n d i t i o n s i n China were c h a o t i c .  social  There were l a r g e - s c a l e s t r i k e s , s m a l l -  s c a l e c i v i l wars, and both l a r g e and s m a l l s c a l e famines.  But i n the  p e r i o d o f c o n f u s i o n A m e r i c a n - t r a i n e d e d u c a t o r s were a b l e t o i n t r o d u c e modern s c h o o l s i n many p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y unhindered  by the w a r l o r d s .  A League o f N a t i o n s r e p o r t on e d u c a t i o n i n China concluded  i n 1930 t h a t  the s t a t e o f a f f a i r s as r e g a r d s e d u c a t i o n was q u i t e good.  The number o f  p u p i l s i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l s had almost doubled t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s had a l s o i n c r e a s e d . criticisms.  The r e p o r t a l s o made many  One o f the most i n t e r e s t i n g c r i t i c i s m s was t h a t o f the undue  i n f l u e n c e o f the American model o f e d u c a t i o n . Chinese  s i n c e 1915. The number o f  3  The r e p o r t warned the  t h a t they should n o t adopt w h o l e s a l e a l l the r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f the  American e d u c a t i o n a l system s i n c e many p a r t s o f i t were n o t s u i t e d t o the p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s o f China.the communists.  T h i s judgment was soon t o be echoed by  The d i r e c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n was s t i l l q u i t e t r a d i t i o n a l .  U n t i l 1929 the purpose o f e d u c a t i o n f o l l o w e d T s a i Yuan-pei's d i r e c t i v e o f 1912  t h a t e d u c a t i o n should emphasize m o r a l i t y and be supplemented by  u t i l i t a r i a n and a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n .  This i s only a s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n of  the p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f the Manchus.  J  Lauwerys, p. 264.  When, i n 1929, the  Kuomintang under the l e a d e r s h i p o f Chiang K a i - s h e k , p a r t i a l l y u n i f i e d the c o u n t r y the p a r t y . p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t e d u c a t i o n should f o l l o w the Three P e o p l e ' s P r i n c i p l e s o f Sun Y a t - s e n . by the New L i f e Movement launched  T h i s was f o l l o w e d  i n 1934 by Chiang K a i - s h e k which made  i t c l e a r t h a t d e s p i t e h i s sometimes r e v o l u t i o n a r y r h e t o r i c h i s r e a l  stance  4  was  that of a Confucian. E a r l y Communist 1934-1949 The  war  p e r i o d 1934 t o 1944 was f o r the communists a time o f g u e r i l l a  a g a i n s t Japan and e v a s i o n t a c t i c s from the Kuomintang s u p p r e s s i o n  campaigns.  D u r i n g t h i s time e d u c a t i o n i n the l i b e r a t e d areas was e x t r e m e l y  distrubed.  The l i b e r a t e d areas were g e n e r a l l y made up o f two d i s t i n c t  regions.  The f i r s t was the forward g u e r i l l a a r e a which r e p r e s e n t e d the  main l i n e o f r e s i s t a n c e t o the Japanese and a t times t o the Kuomintang armies.  I t was h i g h l y m o b i l e , changing i t s p o s i t i o n i n accordance  the c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  with  I t was a l s o v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e t o a t t a c k and t h e r e f o r e  no r e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l network c o u l d be s e t up. F o r these r e a s o n s , e d u c a t i o n except f o r the most r u d i m e n t a r y k i n d , was i m p o s s i b l e .  The second  area could  be c a l l e d t h e s t a b l e base a r e a f o r i t was here t h a t the g u e r i l l a u n i t s were s a f e s t from a t t a c k .  Because o f the s t a b i l i t y o f t h i s a r e a i t was p o s s i b l e  t o have many days warning o f an impending a t t a c k and t h e r e f o r e p l e n t y o f time t o o r g a n i z e a defense o r a r e t r e a t . '  The n a t u r e o f t h i s r e a r a r e a  a l l o w e d f o r a more o r l e s s s t r u c t u r e d e d u c a t i o n a l system t o develop and i t was here t h a t the communists began t o f o r m u l a t e the i d e a s t h a t were t o guide them i n the f u t u r e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y .  I n the l i b e r a t e d  ^ J . C. Cheng, B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s U n d e r l y i n g the Chinese Communist Approach t o E d u c a t i o n , U.S. Dept. o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e No. 51 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , January, 1961), p. 20.  12 areas the h i g h e s t l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was T h i s c o n s i s t e d of two or more p r o v i n c i a l border a r e a s . i t s own  e d u c a t i o n a l d i r e c t i v e s geared  Thus, there was U n t i l 1944  c a l l e d the r e g i o n . Each r e g i o n had  to the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the a r e a .  no c e n t r a l e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . the b a s i c model f o r c u r r i c u l u m and o r g a n i z a t i o n was  Western, e s p e c i a l l y American.  There was  o f course a p o l i t i c a l  l i n e which  g e n e r a l l y s t r e s s e d r e s i s t a n c e t o Japanese a g g r e s s i o n and Kuomintang r e a c t i o n but o t h e r than t h a t the p o l i c y was  almost e n t i r e l y non-Chinese.  In  compulsory e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l  lower e d u c a t i o n the communists advocated  r e g i o n s , a step which they n a t u r a l l y thought  of as p r o g r e s s i v e .  most r e g i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g s i a r e j e c t e d by the p e a s a n t s .  But i n  region, this line  was  T h i s c o n f r o n t e d the communists w i t h t h e i r f i r s t  r e a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n between what the people  f e l t they needed ( i n response  to p r a c t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ) and what the t h e o r y s a i d they needed (the t h e o r y i n t h i s case not b e i n g Marxism-Leninism Western e d u c a t i o n ) . 5  but r a t h e r the i m p l i e d t h e o r y of  x h e r e s u l t of the problem was  the f i r s t  important  i n s t a n c e of the communists' w i l l i n g n e s s to be f l e x i b l e w i t h r e g a r d to educational theory.  They d e c i d e d t h a t i t would be b e s t to have the  people  of the v a r i o u s r e g i o n s e n t e r i n t o the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s w i t h r e g a r d to e d u c a t i o n .  I n t h i s way  the P a r t y f e l t they c o u l d get a more a c c u r a t e  i d e a of the needs of each a r e a . In the f i e l d of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s i m i l a r problems had The  faced.  f i r s t u n i v e r s i t i e s ( i . e . , R e s i s t - J a p a n U n i v e r s i t y — Y e n a n : Lu Hsun  Academy) were o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y based on a f o u r year l i b e r a l  (New  to be  a r t s model  M i c h a e l L i n d s a y , Notes on E d u c a t i o n a l Problems i n Communist China York: I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1950), p. 37.  13 d e r i v e d from Western c o u n t r i e s . ^ w i t h the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of t h e o r y a r t i c l e i n C h i e h Fang J i h Pao a r t i c l e was  entitled,  "The  The and  concern of the Chinese communists p r a c t i c e was  again revealed  i n an  ( L i b e r a t i o n D a i l y ) dated A p r i l 7, 1944.  The  Q u e s t i o n of the Reform of G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n i n  the Base Areas' ^ and d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h the q u e s t i o n of the v a l i d i t y of 1  what had been c a l l e d "new t o the e d u c a t i o n  education."  The  term "new  based on Western models t h a t was  the " o l d e d u c a t i o n "  of i m p e r i a l C h i n a .  The  education"  new  referred  only i n r e l a t i o n to.  w r i t e r of the a r t i c l e  was  c a r e f u l to note t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s of the China about which he was demanded new t h a t had  solutions.  The  s o - c a l l e d "new  education"  was.an  writing  education  been developed by c o u n t r i e s a l r e a d y i n a stage of advanced  industrialization.  China's economic base was  "new  the p r o d u c t of p e a c e f u l  education"  was  to the demands of a war the l a r g e c i t i e s and not  of r e s i s t a n c e .  In a d d i t i o n to r e g u l a r education, T h i s was  Thus the way  was  The  suited  the product of  was  c l e a r f o r the Party,  organization.  adult education  was  c a r r i e d on  e s p e c i a l l y o b s e r v a b l e when one  t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese peasant who  not  from the p o i n t of view of the  a more M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t type of e d u c a t i o n a l  quite extensively.  c o n d i t i o n s and was  Furthermore i t was  the r u r a l a r e a s .  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a more Chinese and  s t i l l mainly agrarian.  contrasted  the  only i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s v i l l a g e  e x i s t e n c e w i t h the peasant of the l i b e r a t e d . a r e a s who  was  i n t e n s e l y and Q  i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s and  i n the o u t s i d e  world.  L i t e r a c y campaigns were a l s o c a r r i e d out i n the l i b e r a t e d areas but many ^ Lindsay,  p.  39.  ^ Lindsay,  p.  59.  p.  43.  8 Lindsay,  of these were e x p e r i m e n t a l and d i d not stand up i n p r a c t i c e .  I t can  g e n e r a l l y be s a i d t h a t the whole p e r i o d up t o 1949 when the People's R e p u b l i c was p r o c l a i m e d was a time o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n the f i e l d o f education.  But i t was t h i s v e r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h a t a l l o w e d the communists  to- a v o i d some o f the problems which they would a s s u r e d l y have met o t h e r w i s e .  15 PART I I CHAPTER i i i EDUCATION IN CHINA:  THEORY  E v e r y p o l i c y t h a t i s f o r m u l a t e d , every a c t i o n t h a t i s c a r r i e d out i n the People's R e p u b l i c o f China has p o l i t i c a l o v e r t o n e s . c o n s i d e r a t i o n s pervade a l l forms o f thought l a r l y true of educational p o l i c y .  and a c t i o n .  Ideological  This i s p a r t i c u -  Inasmuch as Mao Tse-tung and o t h e r  p o l i c y makers i n China m a i n t a i n t h a t they are f o l l o w i n g the t h e o r y and a t t e m p t i n g t o put i n t o p r a c t i c e the t e a c h i n g s o f Marxism-Leninism e s s e n t i a l f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  it is  o f the development o f e d u c a t i o n i n China t o  examine the t h e o r y o f Marx and L e n i n and then the p a r t i c u l a r manner i n which Mao adapted i t t o Chinese  reality.  M a t e r i a l i s t World View M a r x i s t s c o n s i d e r d i a l e c t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m t o be the main f o u n d a t i o n s o f the s c i e n c e o f Marxism-Leninism.^  Since the e a r l y  1920's Mao has c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t  and as such views  r e a l i t y from a d e c i d e d l y m a t e r i a l i s t  p o i n t o f view.  Materialism i s  based on r e c o g n i t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e o f n a t u r e separate from man's consciousness.  However, a t the same time man i s p a r t o f n a t u r e and a c t s  to change i t , thus changing h i m s e l f .  M a r x i s t s b e l i e v e the q u e s t i o n o f the  1 0. V. K u u s i n e n , Fundamentals o f Marxism-Leninism Languages P u b l i s h i n g House, 1963), p. 21. S t u a r t Schram, Mao Tse-tung (Great B r i t a i n : p. 57.  (Moscow:  Foreign  Penguin Books, 1966),  16 r e l a t i o n of the human mind to m a t e r i a l b e i n g i s the fundamental of a l l v a r i e t i e s of p h i l o s o p h y .  question  In t h i s sense Marx s a i d :  . . . the idea' i s n o t h i n g e l s e than the m a t e r i a l world r e f l e c t e d by the human mind and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o forms of thought. 3  Those who- c o n s i d e r the m a t e r i a l b a s i s — n a t u r e — t o be primary thought and  s p i r i t as the p r o p e r t y of matter, then must be  and  regard  s a i d to  belong  4 to the camp of m a t e r i a l i s m . In Marxism, m a t e r i a l i s m i s combined w i t h d i a l e c t i c s organic u n i t y .  Marx and Engles drew much from the d i a l e c t i c a l  of Hegel but d i f f e r e d of thought, to m a t t e r . Marx and E n g l e s  to form an  completely  w i t h him  on h i s theory .of the  Whereas Hegel sought to put  drew the o p p o s i t e  thought relation  thought b e f o r e matter,  conclusion.:  M a t e r i a l i s m and i d e a l i s m d i f f e r i n t h e i r answers to the q u e s t i o n of the source of our knowledge and of the r e l a t i o n of knowledge to the p h y s i c a l world . . . the q u e s t i o n i s decided i n favour, of m a t e r i a l i s m , f o r the concept matter, e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y i m p l i e s n o t h i n g but o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y e x i s t i n g independently of the human mind and r e f l e c t e d by i t . ^ L e n i n makes i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t : ... the p h y s i c a l world e x i s t s independently of the mind of man and e x i s t e d long p r i o r to man, p r i o r to any human e x p e r i e n c e ; the p s y c h i c a l , - the mind, e t c . i s the h i g h e s t product of matter ( i . e . , p h y s i c a l ) , i t i s a f u n c t i o n of that p a r t i c u l a r l y complex fragment of matter c a l l e d the human b r a i n . ^ Thus the M a r x i s t  theory of knowledge developed;  Chinese e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y much more  3  K a r l Marx, C a p i t a l  ^ Kuusinen, p.  (New  York:  understandable.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1967), I ,  23.  ^ V. I . L e n i n , C o l l e c t e d Works (Moscow: House, 1962), XIV, 260-261. 6  L e n i n , XIV,  a theory which makes  227-228.  F o r e i g n Languages P u b l i s h i n g  19.  17  M a r x i s t Theory of Knowledge .The Marxist  u n i t y of t h e o r y and  p r a c t i c e i s a fundamental concept i n the  t h e o r y of knowledge.  Marx b e l i e v e d a l l knowledge ( a l l s c i e n c e s  i n c l u d i n g the most a b s t r a c t ) came i n t o b e i n g i n response to the ments of man's p r a c t i c a l l i f e .  Lenin  require-  said:  The s t a n d p o i n t of l i f e , of p r a c t i c e , should be fundamental i n the t h e o r y of knowledge.^  first  and  Thus, u n l i k e e a r l i e r m a t e r i a l i s t s , Marx i n c l u d e d p r a c t i c e i n the  theory  of knowledge and  cognitive  process.  viewed p r a c t i c e as the b a s i s and  I t f o l l o w s t h a t knowledge can o n l y be t r u l y a t t a i n e d i n man's  r e l a t i o n to h i s environment, e s p e c i a l l y h i s l a b o r . p r a c t i c e i t becomes p o s s i b l e f o r man to change i t . The enriched  W i t h the emphasis  not o n l y to know the w o r l d but  c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e o r y and  by p r a c t i c e and  the c o n d i t i o n s The  purpose of the  also  (theory  p r a c t i c e guided by t h e o r y ) t h e r e f o r e makes p o s s i b l e  f o r s o c i e t y ' s m a t e r i a l and  technical progress.  i n t e r n a l dynamics of c o g n i t i o n r e s t s on the t h e o r y of r e f l e c t i o n  (which i n t u r n i s based on the concepts of m a t e r i a l i s m Lenin  practice  on  discussed  above).  said:  C o g n i t i o n i s the e t e r n a l , e n d l e s s a p p r o x i m a t i o n of thought to the o b j e c t . The r e f l e c t i o n of n a t u r e i n man's thought must be understood not " l i f e l e s s l y , " not " a b s t r a c t l y , " not d e v o i d of movement, NOT WITHOUT CONTRADICTIONS, but i n the e t e r n a l PROCESS of movement, the a r i s i n g of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and t h e i r s o l u t i o n . S i n c e c o g n i t i o n i s the r e s u l t of the r e f l e c t i o n of o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y i n man's mind i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume, as Marx does, t h a t knowledge too i s  7  L e n i n , XIV,  142.  8  Lenin, XXXVIII,  195.  18 a. r e f l e c t i o n o f the o b j e c t i v e w o r l d .  I t i s not the t h i n g s themselves or  t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s and r e l a t i o n s that e x i s t mental  i n man's c o n s c i o u s n e s s , but  images or r e f l e c t i o n s o f them, which convey more or l e s s  (depending  on one's c l a s s background) the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o b j e c t s c o g n i z e d : ^ In the s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n t h a t men c a r r y on t h e y e n t e r i n t o d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s t h a t are i n d i s p e n s a b l e and independent & of t h e i r w i l l ; these r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n correspond t o a d e f i n i t e stage o f development of. t h e i r m a t e r i a l powers o f p r o d u c t i o n . The sum t o t a l o f these r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the economic s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y — t h e r e a l f o u n d a t i o n , on which r i s e l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s and to which correspond d e f i n i t e forms o f s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The mode o f p r o d u c t i o n i n m a t e r i a l l i f e determines the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and s p i r i t u a l p r o c e s s e s o f life. I t i s not the consciousness o f men that determines t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , b u t , on the c o n t r a r y , t h e i r s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e determines t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . - ^ Marx was c a r e f u l t o p o i n t out, however, that the r e f l e c t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e world i n man's c o n s c i o u s n e s s  (thought) i s not t o be understood  as a s i n g l e a c t , but r a t h e r as comprised first is  of many a s p e c t s and s t e p s .  stage o f c o g n i t i o n c o n s i s t s o f s e n s a t i o n s .  L e n i n wrote:  The  "Matter  the o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y g i v e n to us i n sensation."''"''' I t can then be  s a i d t h a t a l l knowledge proceeds  from these s e n s a t i o n s which p r o v i d e us  w i t h an o b j e c t i v e l y c o r r e c t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the environment. the p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e .  The next  Knowledge gained as a r e s u l t  Kuusinen,  Co., ^  stage i s the l e v e l o f a b s t r a c t  thought.  of p e r c e i v i n g s e n s a t i o n s can s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  p. 96.  K a r l Marx, C r i t i q u e o f P o l i t i c a l Economy (Chicago: 1904), pp. 11-12. Kuusinen,  This i s  p. 29.  C h a r l e s H. K e r r &  thought.  The  l e a p from sensory  p e r c e p t i o n to a b s t r a c t thought i s a q u a l i -  t a t i v e l e a p which completes the c y c l e of c o g n i t i o n and  l e a d s the way  to  action: From l i v i n g p e r c e p t i o n t o a b s t r a c t thought and from t h i s to p r a c t i c e — s u c h i s the d i a l e c t i c a l path of the c o g n i t i o n of t r u t h , of the c o g n i t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . ^ Thus, Marx, Engles,and L e n i n developed what was  f o r them a  coherent,  s c i e n t i f i c w o r l d view which c o u l d serve as a guide f o r a l l s o c i a l I t remained f o r Mao  and  activity.  the Chinese Communist P a r t y t o u t i l i z e t h e i r t h e o r i e s  and make the a p p r o p r i a t e changes t o f i t them i n t o a Chinese environment. Mao  Tse-tung:  The most important  E d u c a t i o n a l Theory  t h e o r e t i c a l documents which c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o  e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y were w r i t t e n , by Mao f o l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  before  1949.  W r i t e r s on  education  of the P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c f o l l o w e d Mao's l e a d  and p r o b a b l y were e c h o i n g him to a g r e a t e x t e n t  (the two most important  these w i l l be examined below i n depth) but the p e r i o d 1934  to 1949  saw  of the  e v o l u t i o n of what has been a more or l e s s c o n s i s t e n t t h e o r y of the l e a r n i n g process  and o f the purpose which s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n ought to s e r v e .  It  i s t h i s c o n s i s t e n t t h e o r e t i c a l stance even up to the c u r r e n t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t h a t stands out i n such b o l d r e l i e f and adds new t o some of the causes behind'the t u r m o i l .  understanding  To be s u r e , d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s of  the t h e o r y have been emphasized a c c o r d i n g t o o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s but the e a r l i e s t p o l i c y statements of Mao Red Guards one The 1934  1 2  from  t o the most r a d i c a l charges of the  can e a s i l y t r a c e v a r i o u s common themes.  f i r s t major statement d e a l i n g w i t h e d u c a t i o n was made by Mao  j u s t " as Kuomintang armies were t i g h t e n i n g t h e i r " c i r c l e of s t e e l Lenin, XXXVIII,  171.  in and  20  c o n c r e t e " around J u i c h i n , c a p i t a l of the Chinese S o v i e t R e p u b l i c . was  This  a p e r i o d when s t a b l e base areas had not y e t been b u i l t on a l a r g e  s c a l e , and  the communists had g e n e r a l l y had  up a genuine e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  l i t t l e experience  Thus, Mao  was  i n setting  d e s c r i b i n g what  e d u c a t i o n should be a c c o r d i n g to the t h e o r e t i c a l p r e c e p t s to which he adhered r a t h e r than any knowledge he had gained through  experience:  Where l i e s the g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f the (Chinese) s o v i e t c u l t u r a l education? I t aims a t e d u c a t i n g the broad t o i l i n g masses w i t h the s p i r i t of communism, a t c a u s i n g c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n to serve the r e v o l u t i o n a r y war, and the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , a t combining e d u c a t i o n and l a b o r , and a t t u r n i n g the broad Chinese masses i n t o a people who enjoy c i v i l i z a t i o n and h a p p i n e s s . What i s then • the c e n t r a l t a s k of s o v i e t c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n ? I t i s to c a r r y out u n i v e r s a l f r e e e d u c a t i o n , t o develop widespread s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n , t o attempt t o e r a d i c a t e i l l i t e r a c y , and t o c r e a t e a m u l t i t u d e of s e n i o r cadres to l e a d the s t r u g g l e . ^ 3  T h i s was In  a r e p o r t to the Second N a t i o n a l S o v i e t D e l e g a t e s  Congress.  t h i s statement two themes emerge which w i l l r e c u r a g a i n and a g a i n i n  a l l f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y statements. the c u l t u r a l and  F i r s t t h e r e i s the emphasis on r a i s i n g  l i t e r a c y l e v e l of the broad masses of Chinese who  been o u t s i d e the r e a l m of e d u c a t i o n f o r c e n t u r i e s . type of e d u c a t i o n i s to serve the c l a s s s t r u g g l e . on combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r .  have  Furtherm.o-re, t h i s The  second i s the s t r e s s  Both themes are found i n  the w r i t i n g s of Marx and L e n i n e s p e c i a l l y the f i r s t .  The  second g r a d u a l l y  assumed more importance f o r the Chinese i n a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t e x t .  In  p r a c t i c e i t r a n i n t o some d i f f i c u l t y . I n October of 1935 Mao's f o r c e s had  completed the Long March and  were i n c o n t r o l of the S h e n s i - K a n s u - N i n g h s i a base a r e a was  border area.  somewhat n o r t h of Yenan near Pao-an.  Their stable  F o l l o w i n g the S i a n  Cheng, B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s , p. 5 — e m p h a s i s added.  i n c i d e n t i n December of 1936 t h e y proceeded t o occupy Yenan w h i c h then became the main s t a b l e base a r e a . t i o n w i t h the Kuomintang  T h i s was a p e r i o d of r e l a t i v e coopera-  government f o r c e s as the two s i d e s l a i d  t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s to f i g h t the common enemy Japan.  Having now o n l y t o  f i g h t the Japanese, the communists were a b l e t o extend t h e i r i n t o ever l a r g e r areas. f i r s t t a s k s was  aside  influence  I n each o f the newly l i b e r a t e d a r e a s , one of the  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a new e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n m a i n l y  based on the t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s which the communists had advocated from e a r l i e r days.  But one of the main r e s u l t s of the e x p e r i e n c e s they encoun-  t e r e d i n the r e c e n t l y l i b e r a t e d areas was to b e t t e r s u i t the environment.  the "bending" of t h e o r y i n o r d e r  I t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of calm t h a t  Mao began t o study Marxism i n t e n s i v e l y and many of h i s t h e o r e t i c a l statements date from h i s y e a r s i n Y e n a n . ^  I t was i n J u l y of 1937 t h a t he wrote the  w e l l known e s s a y "On P r a c t i c e , " where he d e a l t w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge  and p r a c t i c e , between knowing and d o i n g .  I n h i s i n c e s s a n t urge  t o e s t a b l i s h an i n d e s t r u c t i b l e bond between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e  (an urge  c o n t i n u a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n a l l d o m e s t i c and f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s ) Mao  i n this  a r t i c l e r e v e a l s h i s debt t o Marx and L e n i n but even more so r e v e a l s h i s debt to the c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e s he has encountered i n the l i b e r a t e d base a r e a s . H i s e s s a y i s i n t r o d u c e d by a g e n e r a l statement of d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m as he understands i t , knowledge,  says Mao,  and e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e s t o knowledge.  Man's  depends on s o c i a l p r a c t i c e , t h a t i s , knowledge  on p r o d u c t i o n and the c l a s s s t r u g g l e .  He s t a t e d t h a t i n c l a s s  depends  society  everyone l i v e s as a member of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s and e v e r y k i n d of t h i n k i n g i s stamped w i t h the brand of a c l a s s .  Thus, d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m has  S t u a r t Schram, The P o l i t i c a l Thought of Mao Tse-tung (New York: P r a e g e r , 1963), p. 44. 1 4  22 two o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :  one  i s i t s c l a s s n a t u r e — i t i s i n the  s e r v i c e of the p r o l e t a r i a t ; the o t h e r i s i t s p r a c t i c a l i t y — i t the dependence of t h e o r y on p r a c t i c e .  emphasizes  He then goes on t o d i s c u s s the  e x a c t process of knowledge l i s t i n g f i v e stages of movement. The his  first  stage i s the stage o f p e r c e p t i o n where man  o n l y sees what  senses t e l l him but cannot f o r m u l a t e l o g i c a . l c o n c l u s i o n s about the  phenomena he p e r c e i v e s . The  A t t h i s stage he cannot c o n c e p t u a l i z e .  second stage b e g i n s as s o c i a l p r a c t i c e c o n t i n u e s and images p i l e  up and are r e i n f o r c e d to the p o i n t where a " l e a p " takes p l a c e i n the b r a i n and  f u l l cognition i s realized.  Then and o n l y then can man  and grasp the essence of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n .  concepts  Only then can he see  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i o u s sense p e r c e p t i o n s . t h e o r e t i c a l stage of knowledge.  form  the  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s the  There i s l i t t l e i n t h i s t o d i s t i n g u i s h  i t from the two l e v e l s of thought d e s c r i b e d by Marx and L e n i n ( s e n s o r y and a b s t r a c t , see p. 19). to  However, where Marx and L e n i n a s s i g n s p e c i a l  these two l e v e l s , Mao,  almost  importance  c e r t a i n l y as a r e s u l t of h i s - p r a c t i c a l  -experience, goes on to e l a b o r a t e on t h r e e f i n a l p r a c t i c a l stages of a t t a i n i n g r e a l knowledge. The to  t h i r d i s to a p p l y the t h e o r y and knowledge thus a t t a i n e d i n order  a c t i v e l y change the w o r l d as i t i s p e r c e i v e d .  I n t h i s sense the  first  two stages are u s e l e s s u n l e s s they are employed i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r a c t i c e . F o u r t h , the knowledge gained as a r e s u l t of p e r c e p t i o n (the  first  t h e o r e t i c a l s t a g e ) , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n (the second t h e o r e t i c a l s t a g e ) , and revolutionary practice  (the t h i r d or p r a c t i c a l stage) must be used i n a  planned manner to succeed  i n moving toward  the g o a l s of a r e v o l u t i o n a r y  23 society. through  I f the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s are s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r a p l a n then the movement o f knowledge may  w i t h regard to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r But Mao  goes on to say  complete  process.  (and most i m p o r t a n t l y too) t h a t the movement  of human knowledge i s not complete.  Those who  t h e i r environment and moving from one t o change themselves w i t h the new p a r t i a l l y and  be c o n s i d e r e d  goals  have succeeded i n  stage t o another must now  conditions.  changing  be  able  They must be a b l e to a l t e r  sometimes w h o l l y t h e i r i d e a s , t h e o r i e s , p l a n s , or programmes  because of u n f o r e s e e n M a r x i s t , as Mao  circumstances  i n the course of p r a c t i c e .  A true  sees i t , must r e c o g n i z e t h a t :  i n the a b s o l u t e and g e n e r a l p r o c e s s of development of the u n i v e r s e , the development of each p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s i s r e l a t i v e , and t h a t hence, i n the e n d l e s s f l o w of a b s o l u t e t r u t h , man's knowledge of a p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s at any g i v e n stage of development i s o n l y r e l a t i v e t r u t h . The sum t o t a l of innumerable r e l a t i v e t r u t h s constitutes absolute truth.15 This, may  not be the. c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Marx would have reached  a c c o u n t f o r the f l e x i b i l i t y t h a t has and  but i t does  c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Chinese  leadership  i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r d e s i r e to u t i l i z e M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m as a guide r a t h e r  than as dogma:  I t i s p r e c i s e l y the t h e o r e t i c a l groundwork f o r many of the  changes t h a t have taken p l a c e i n the p r a c t i c e of e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a . The  purpose of c o r r e c t knowledge i s t o b u i l d a new  meant f o r Mao "On  culture.  What t h i s  can be seen i n an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n t h r e e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g  P r a c t i c e " e n t i t l e d , "On  the New  Democracy" (1940).  Here he  discussed  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r e and p o l i t i c s and more s p e c i f i c a l l y what the c o n t e n t of the new  democracy would  be:  Mao T s e - t u n g , "On P r a c t i c e , " S e l e c t e d Works ( P e k i n g : Foreign Languages P u b l i s h i n g House, 1965), I , 3 0 7 — h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as SW.  24  Any g i v e n c u l t u r e (as an i d e o l o g i c a l form) i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the p o l i t i c s and economics of a g i v e n s o c i e t y , and the former i n t u r n has a tremendous i n f l u e n c e and e f f e c t upon the l a t t e r ; economics i s the base, and p o l i t i c s and c o n c e n t r a t e d e x p r e s s i o n of economics. T h i s i s our fundamental v i e w of the r e l a t i o n of c u l t u r e t o p o l i t i c s and economics and o f the r e l a t i o n of p o l i t i c s t o economics. 0  C u l t u r e i s thus seen i n a s t r i c t l y m a t e r i a l i s t sense as a r e f l e c t i o n of o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y but i n c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h a t r e a l i t y . I n d i s c u s s i n g the c o n t e n t of the "new  democracy" Mao  stated that i t  would be n a t i o n a l i s t i c i n t h a t i t would uphold the d i g n i t y and independence o f the Chinese n a t i o n and bear the stamp of t h e i r own characteristics.  national  S e c o n d l y , i t would be s c i e n t i f i c and s t a n d f o r s e e k i n g  the t r u t h from f a c t s and f o r the u n i t y of t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e .  Thirdly,  the new d e m o c r a t i c . c u l t u r e would b e l o n g t o the broad masses, t h a t i s , the workers and peasants.''"'' T h i s document f u r t h e r c o n s o l i d a t e s Mao s adherence 1  c o n c e p t i o n of knowledge  t o the m a t e r i a l i s t  and b e g i n s t o move more b o l d l y i n the d i r e c t i o n  of making, the u n i t y of t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a prime g o a l of Chinese educational policy. By 1942 problems had begun t o a r i s e w i t h r e g a r d t o p u t t i n g  into  p r a c t i c e some of the t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s which the communists had adopted from Marx and L e n i n .  D u r i n g the p e r i o d 1940 t o 1943 the t o t a l a r e a h e l d  by the communists was expanding but the p o p u l a t i o n under t h e i r  control  was  Education  f a l l i n g due t o Japanese p r e s s u r e on the s t a b l e base a r e a s .  i n these a r e a s c o u l d not be h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d e s p e c i a l l y on the p r i m a r y l e v e l but i n s p i t e of these d i f f i c u l t i e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of middle  Mao Tse-tung, "On New Democracy," SW P u b l i s h i n g House, 1965), I I , 340. 1 7  (Peking:  Mao Tse-tung, "On New Democracy," pp. 380-381.  F o r e i g n Languages  25 s c h o o l s were s e t up. g e n e r a l ignorance  Problems were of two t y p e s :  the f i r s t i n v o l v e d a  o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and t h i s r e s u l t e d i n the  a p p l i c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s thought t o be p r o g r e s s i v e year-round,  f o r m a l compulsory e d u c a t i o n ) ; the second was  i n t e l l e c t u a l s who  had  the problem o f  The  l a t t e r problem  defending was  e s p e c i a l l y since during t h i s period three u n i v e r s i t i e s  were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the few s t a b l e base areas not h a r a s s e d  by the Japanese  (Yenan, South'East S h a n s i , Shansi-Chahar-Hopei border r e g i o n ) . u n i v e r s i t i e s were the f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s the communists had experience  (i.e.,  l e a r n e d t h e i r t h e o r y w e l l but had d i f f i c u l t y  i t under the h a r s h r e a l i t i e s of g u e r i l l a l i f e . the most c r i t i c a l  uncritical  i n the f i e l d o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .  The  to g a i n  For t h i s reason they were  u n u s u a l l y w a t c h f u l of the t e a c h e r - i n t e l l e c t u a l s (some, p r o f e s s i n g Marxism, some n o t ) , many of whom had  f l e d the c i t i e s e i t h e r t o escape the Japanese  or the Kuomintang and were the p r i n c i p a l source of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the cadres. to  I t was  impress  a t t h i s time t h a t Mao  articles  intended  on: the i n t e l l e c t u a l s h i s o p i n i o n s about c u l t u r e , knowledge,and  the u n i t y of t h e o r y and The  wrote two i m p o r t a n t  new  practice.  f i r s t a r t i c l e d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h the r o l e of the  intellectual  and h i s f a i l u r e a t times to be r e l e v a n t : How can those who have o n l y b o o k - l e a r n i n g be t u r n e d i n t o i n t e l l e c t u a l s , i n the t r u e sense? The o n l y way i s t o get them to take p a r t i n p r a c t i c a l work and become p r a c t i c a l w o r k e r s , to get those engaged i n the o^r e t i c a l work t o study p r a c t i c a l problems. I n t h i s way our aim can be a t t a i n e d . 1 8 The  second a r t i c l e a few months l a t e r f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d the primacy  o f p o l i t i c s w i t h r e g a r d to any s o c i a l a c t i v i t y i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n :  Mao T s e - t u n g , " R e c t i f y the P a r t y ' s S t y l e of Work," SW F o r e i g n Languages P u b l i s h i n g House, 1965), 111,40. 1 8  (Peking:  26  I n the w o r l d today a l l c u l t u r e , a l l l i t e r a t u r e and a r t b e l o n g to d e f i n i t e c l a s s e s and a r e geared t o d e f i n i t e p o l i t i c a l l i n e s . There i s i n f a c t no such t h i n g as a r t f o r a r t ' s sake, a r t t h a t stands above c l a s s e s o r a r t t h a t i s detached from o r independent of p o l i t i c s . 1 9 W i t h the c o n c l u s i o n o f the Yenan Forum on L i t e r a t u r e and A r t t h e r e c o u l d be no doubt i n anyone's mind as t o the d i r e c t i o n which Chinese s o c i e t y would take once the communists a c h i e v e d power.  I t remained o n l y f o r the  f i n a l v i c t o r y . t o g i v e the Communist P a r t y o f C h i n a the o p p o r t u n i t y n e c e s s a r y to b e g i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e o r i e s t h a t had never r e a l l y been  implemented  i n any o t h e r s o c i e t y . The  f i n a l v i c t o r y came on October 1, 1949, as Mao Tse-tung stood on  the  T ' i e n An Men i n P e k i n g and f o r m a l l y p r o c l a i m e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  the  Chinese P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c .  One o f t h e f i r s t s t e p s was t o convene the  Chinese P e o p l e ' s P o l i t i c a l C o n s u l t a t i v e Conference (the f i r s t meeting had a c t u a l l y been h e l d e a r l i e r , i n September o f 1949) whose t a s k i t would be to form a d e m o c r a t i c c o a l i t i o n government.  One o f the r e s u l t s o f the  conference was the a d o p t i o n by a l l p a r t i e s o f the Common Program which was- t o serve as an i n t e r i m c o n s t i t u t i o n , the b a s i s f o r the u n i t e d  front,  the  principles  c o a l i t i o n government and w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e d a l l the e s s e n t i a l  l a i d down by Mao i n h i s a r t i c l e "On the P e o p l e ' s D e m o c r a t i c D i c t a t o r s h i p . " 2 0 Chapter v o f the Common Program d e a l t w i t h the c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y t o be f o l l o w e d i n the new C h i n a .  G e n e r a l l y i t was a summary o f the  t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i d e a s a r t i c u l a t e d e a r l i e r by Mao. Four o f the a r t i c l e s s p e c i f i c a l l y dealt with education:  19 Mao Tse-tung, "Yenan Forum on L i t e r a t u r e and A r t , " SW ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Languages P u b l i s h i n g House, 1965), I I I , 86. 20 Schram, Mao Tse-tung, p. 252.  27 A r t i c l e 41: The c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n o f the P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a a r e new d e m o c r a t i c , t h a t i s , n a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c and popular . . . . A r t i c l e 43: E f f o r t s w i l l be made t o d e v e l o p t h e n a t u r a l sciences t o p l a c e them a t t h e s e r v i c e o f i n d u s t r i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d n a t i o n a l defense construction. A r t i c l e 46: The method o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a i s the u n i t y o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . The P e o p l e ' s government s h a l l r e f o r m the o l d e d u c a t i o n a l system, subject m a t t e r and t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n . A r t i c l e 47: I n o r d e r t o meet t h e w i d e s p r e a d n e e d s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y w o r k and n a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k , u n i v e r s a l e d u c a t i o n s h a l l be c a r r i e d o u t , m i d d l e a n d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s h a l l be s t r e n g t h e n e d , t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h a l l be s t r e s s e d , t h e e d u c a t i o n o f w o r k e r s d u r i n g t h e i r ' s p a r e t i m e a n d e d u c a t i o n o f c a d r e s who a r e a t t h e i r p o s t s s h a l l be s t r e n g t h e n e d , a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h a l l be a c c o r d e d t o y o u n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s a n d o l d s t y l e intellectuals I n a p l a n n e d and s y s t e m a t i c manner.21 Thus,  w i t h t h e Common P r o g r a m g u i d e  would  influence The  during  any f u t u r e  two m o s t  important  education  Democracy;"  (to  People's  of theory  (1934-1949)  workers  were,  it  a theoretical  sense  contributed  to the C u l t u r a l  Ch'ien Since  these  two themes  fully  communist  Notes  " O n New  years to  o f the  "national  were  prominent  present.  in practice  of education  that  i n 1966.  Ting-yi theory.of  e d u c a t i o n has d e v i a t e d  from the l i n e s which had been d e v e l o p i n g s i n c e  Lindsay,  emerge  the emphasis  up t o t h e  the theory  R e v o l u t i o n i n the f i e l d  Chun-jui—Lu  1949 t h e C h i n e s e  that  geared  to  emphasis  Practice;"  i n the e a r l y  t o be e x p r e s s e d  to r e a l i z e  the  and A r t " ) and s e c o n d , Although  true  and c o n t i n u e  i t was t h e f a i l u r e  down w h i c h  and p r a c t i c e  and p e a s a n t s — " O n  and p r a c t i c e .  i s nevertheless  laid  first,  R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a e d u c a t i o n was I n p r a c t i c e  construction"  Indeed,  i n terms  "Yenan Forum on L i t e r a t u r e  on t h e u n i t y o f t h e o r y  little  themes  serve  clearly  decisions.  the p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n  on c l a s s  in  policy  l i n e s were  on E d u c a t i o n a l P r o b l e m s ,  p.  194.  the e a r l y  thirties.  28 Where i t has changed i t has been i n response t o p r a c t i c a l demands. many s t a t e m e n t s , d i r e c t i v e s , a n d r e p o r t s i s s u e d over the p a s t  The  seventeen  y e a r s a l l f o l l o w Mao's t h e o r y as developed s i n c e 1934 d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n the emphasis put on the p a r t i c u l a r program o r campaign then i n p r o g r e s s . But two r e p o r t s stand out i n the p e r i o d p r e v i o u s t o the C u l t u r a l Revolution.  One was g i v e n by the d i r e c t o r o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n 1950,  II  C h ' i e n C h u n - j u i , and the o t h e r by V i c e - M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n L u T i n g - y i i n 1958... The d a t e s are s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e the f i r s t r e p r e s e n t s the c r u c i a l p e r i o d o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l system and the second i s d u r i n g the G r e a t Leap Forward when the n e x t d r a s t i c r e o r g a n i z a t i o n took p l a c e .  Both o f these documents appear i n the Appendix  Chinese and i n t r a n s l a t i o n .  A d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s below.  i n the o r i g i n a l  The o v e r a l l  s i g n i f i c a n c e , o f b o t h documents l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t the t h e o r y o u t l i n e d i n each o f them i s b a s i c a l l y the same. Ch'ien Chun-jui  (^.^A^  J(fi} ) b o r n i n 1903 i s a n a t i v e o f K i a n g s u  p r o v i n c e and a graduate o f K i a n g s u E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e .  Following  g r a d u a t i o n , C h ' i e n went t o Japan t o study the new e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s of t h a t c o u n t r y .  When he r e t u r n e d he j o i n e d the Communist P a r t y (1926)  and was v e r y a c t i v e i n e d u c a t i o n a l a f f a i r s up t o 1949.  H i s c a r e e r ranged  from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o t e a c h i n g and a t d i f f e r e n t times he h e l d the p o s i t i o n s of p r o f e s s o r o f S h e n s i U n i v e r s i t y , e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f o f t h e New C h i n a News Agency, Dean o f E d u c a t i o n a t N o r t h C h i n a U n i v e r s i t y , V i c e - M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n (1951), and D i r e c t o r o f Higher E d u c a t i o n from 1949 t o 1953. then became i n v o l v e d i n the S i n o - S o v i e t F r i e n d s h i p A s s o c i a t i o n much time i n Moscow.  He  spending  T h i s a p p a r e n t l y was h i s undoing as he has b e e n . i n 99  d i s g r a c e s i n c e 1961 when he was d i s m i s s e d from t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n . 99  Who's Who i n Communist C h i n a (Hong Kong: 1966) . •• . • •  Union Research  Institute,  His  r e p o r t was p r e s e n t e d i n May of 1950 a t the c o n c l u s i o n of the  F i r s t N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l Work Conference h e l d i n P e k i n g . first official  I t was the  document on e d u c a t i o n t o be p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w i n g the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c .  As such i t r e p r e s e n t s a f o r m a l i z e d  s y n t h e s i s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y and i d e a s which had developed d u r i n g the  e a r l y p e r i o d s o f s t r u g g l e , o f the Chinese Communist P a r t y .  The funda-  m e n t a l i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s document as w e l l as the o t h e r have changed i n emphasis over the y e a r s but not i n the e s s e n t i a l c o n t e n t .  L e t us l o o k  at  t h i s document as one c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s  of  Chinese e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . The r e p o r t i s i n two p a r t s which r e v e a l the o v e r r i d i n g concerns o f  the  Chinese communists toward e d u c a t i o n .  The f i r s t  section i s e n t i t l e d ,  "On the P o l i c y t h a t E d u c a t i o n Serves Workers and P e a s a n t s " and the second i s c a l l e d , "On the P o l i c y t h a t E d u c a t i o n Serves P r o d u c t i v e C o n s t r u c t i o n . " The f i r s t  s e c t i o n r e a f f i r m s the d e c i s i o n s reached a t the Yenan Forum  on L i t e r a t u r e and A r t i n 1942 w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t the success o f the 23  r e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a depended on the broad masses o f workers and p e a s a n t s . It  f o l l o w s then t h a t not o n l y must l i t e r a t u r e and a r t serve the i n t e r e s t s  of  the w o r k e r s and peasants but so a l s o must e d u c a t i o n .  He notes t h a t the  workers and peasants comprise 80 t o 90 per cent o f the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n . The a l l i a n c e o f these two c l a s s e s i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f the people's d e m o c r a t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p and w i t h o u t t h a t a l l i a n c e the r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d never have been f u l l y won.  A secondary r e a s o n f o r h a v i n g a p o l i c y t o serve  workers and peasants i s t h a t these are the two c l a s s e s which have been h i s t o r i c a l l y the most oppressed and e x p l o i t e d and thus have had '  Mao Tse-tung, "Yenan Forum," p. 77.  little  30  chance f o r e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e .  He c o n c l u d e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the  s c h o o l system s h o u l d and must answer the needs o f the w o r k i n g peasantry before a l l e l s e .  A t t h i s p o i n t the author admits t h a t p r e s e n t l y  the " g r e a t m a j o r i t y " o f s t u d e n t s a r e s t i l l peasants  c l a s s and  sons and daughters  o f middle  and urban p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e .  Once i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n should serve workers and peasants education.  i t then becomes n e c e s s a r y t o d e c i d e on the content o f the new C h ' i e n sees the content i n terms o f t h r e e concepts.  i t must be t h o r o u g h l y n a t i o n a l .  First-,  By t h i s he means a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t .  It  f u r t h e r must e l i m i n a t e the remnants of i l l u s i o n s about American i m p e r i a l i s m in particular.  T h i s would i n c l u d e what he c a l l s w o r s h i p o f Western  c a p i t a l i s t c i v i l i z a t i o n by c e r t a i n members o f the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n must advocate  The new  r e v o l u t i o n a r y . p a t r i o t i s m , l o v e f o r the  P a r t y , the army, and the l e a d e r s but must on the o t h e r hand oppose narrowminded n a t i o n a l i s m which would negate the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f a s o c i a l i s t society.  F i n a l l y , a n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n must support u n i t y w i t h  the S o v i e t Union and oppose i s o l a t i o n i s m . The second aspect o f the c o n t e n t o f the new e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t i t should be t h o r o u g h l y s c i e n t i f i c .  I t must advocate  the study and e x p l a n a -  t i o n o f h i s t o r y , economics, p o l i t i c s , c u l t u r e , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l from a M a r x i s t s c i e n t i f i c and h i s t o r i c a l v i e w p o i n t .  To be t r u l y  the new e d u c a t i o n must propagate " t h e u n i v e r s a l t r u t h " o f  affairs scientific  Marxism-Leninism,  i n t r o d u c e the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s o f the S o v i e t Union, and promote the l e v e l o f ^ ' s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o f the masses. F i n a l l y , the new e d u c a t i o n must be p o p u l a r .  That i s , i t must pro-  pagate the v i e w p o i n t s o f the workers and p e a s a n t s , not o f the b o u r g e o i s i e .  ' It  must  such  propagate  as  truths  i d e a l i s m and v a r i o u s  The  final  section  s p e c i f i c measures These measures worker  to  fall  and p e a s a n t  strengthened;  (2)  into  six  course be  ended  areas:  geared  Part  was  of  II  deals  taken  to  set  up';  section be of  of  for  the  above.  cadres  of  supplementary education  (6)  (4)  for  (5)  all  be for  spare-time s h o u l d be  proletarian  at  short-  levels  should '  children.  C h ' i e n ' s report  f o r workers  the  preparations  schools  their  content;  with  L i b e r a t i o n Army m u s t  education;  peasants,and  construction  construction. poor  This  emphasizing  and p e a s a n t s ;  facilities  must  would have of  to  Part  into  be made  II  p o l i c y designed was  was  country  producing class  remainder  it  be  three  must  be  p r i m a r i l y open  Regarding content,  v i e w p o i n t and  the  habit  of  the  perhaps  schools  the  to  be  the  China  an e d u c a t i o n a l  policy  some  sort  production. and  productive stressed  love  productive  since  w o u l d mean t h a t  content  document  e s t e e m and  serve  necessary  have  to m a i n t a i n  outlines  to  c o n s i d e r e d by C h ' i e n  and t o  implement a p o l i c y i n c o r p o r a t i n g  education. the  the  arrangement The  literacy  w i t h an e d u c a t i o n a l  an e c o n o m i c a l l y  which p u l l e d of  first  Productive  national  still  education  People's  spare-time  s h o u l d be  thoughts  classes.  construction. root  the  (1)  deals  policy outlined  similar organization  of  them i n t e r m s  two  the  s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d ;  workers,  the  C h ' i e n ' s document  implement  for  a  e d u c a t i o n must  toward  these  (3)  establishment  thrown open to  broad  up;  middle schools  This  to  set  of  anti-scientific  1  doctrines.  categories:  a program f o r  peasants  the  I to  o r i g i n and  education for  Part  taken  be  of  of  M a r x i s m and n o t  religious  be  w o r k e r s must  made  s u c h as  3  for  the  measures  construction the  labor.  need  to  to  be  into establish  Traditionally,  32  the educated  members of Chinese  any k i n d o f manual l a b o r .  s o c i e t y by d e f i n i t i o n d i d n o t engage i n  T h i s a t t i t u d e p e r s i s t e d up t o the end of the  R e p u b l i c a n p e r i o d among many i n t e l l e c t u a l s and was one of the f i r s t b e h a v i o r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which the communists sought t o change.  The  second f a c t o r o f c o n t e n t was t o emphasize the development of s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a p r i o r i t y a r e a .  Ch'ien l i s t e d seven measures  which would have t o be taken t o implement the above p o l i c y : elementary  establish  e d u c a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r cadres and the masses;  s t r e n g t h e n l a b o r e d u c a t i o n i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l s i n order t o make c h i l d r e n understand  the importance  o f l a b o r and p r o d u c t i o n ; emphasize the develop-  ment of i n t e r m e d i a t e and j u n i o r t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n ; i m p r o v i s e new t e a c h i n g methods i n v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s ; r e f o r m h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n ; systematically establish various technical colleges; establish  short-term  s p e c i a l courses and t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s . These seven measures ended P a r t I I and concluded  the document.  Where  P a r t I c o n s i d e r e d the p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f the new e d u c a t i o n , P a r t I I emphasized the more pragmatic where Chinese  aspects.  T h i s i s the a r e a ( a d m i t t e d l y shaded)  and Western i d e a s o f e d u c a t i o n a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n o v e r l a p .  Three  of the p o i n t s c o n s i d e r e d by Levy t o be e s s e n t i a l f o r the m o d e r n i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n i n t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s are d i r e c t l y d e a l t w i t h by Ch'ien ( f o r Levy's d i s c u s s i o n see above pp. 6  and  7 ).  They i n c l u d e the c o s t o f  e d u c a t i o n which L e v y sees as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y the c o s t o f t a k i n g l a b o r e r s away from the f i e l d s and f a c t o r i e s , the planned u t i l i z a t i o n o f the educated p r o d u c t , and the d i s t i n c t i o n between v o c a t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l  schools  w i t h the former as more i m p o r t a n t i n the e a r l y p e r i o d of m o d e r n i z a t i o n . C h ' i e n c l e a r l y s e t s f o r t h a p o l i c y o f combining  labor with education,  thus  r e c o g n i z i n g the problem Levy foresaw and o f f e r i n g a p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n t o i t . C h ' i e n f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d the need t o c o n c e n t r a t e on e s t a b l i s h i n g  technical  and v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s t o meet the needs of a n a t i o n w h i c h was t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e i n any r e a l sense o f the w o r l d . ground c o n t i n u e  just  beginning  These areas of common  to appear throughout the p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n , but  s o l u t i o n s proposed by the Chinese communists have d i s t i n c t i v e  the  features  w h i c h s e t them a p a r t from those of Western s c h o l a r s . The  b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l threads r u n n i n g  through Ch'ien's document are  of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t here s i n c e they r e c u r a g a i n and a g a i n i n o f f i c i a l p o l i c y statements up to the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n .  I t i s t r u e t h a t statements  i s s u i n g from the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n d e a l w i t h some of the same t o p i c s , b u t the c o n t e x t i n w h i c h they appear and  the emphasis o n . p u t t i n g them i n t o  p r a c t i c e i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from those a p p e a r i n g r e a s o n they are d e a l t w i t h i n a separate  section.  The  before.  For  this  next p r e - C u l t u r a l  R e v o l u t i o n p o l i c y statement of importance came w i t h the Great Leap Forward. On the b a s i s of d e c i s i o n s reached at a conference  of e d u c a t i o n a l work  convened by the C e n t r a l Committee of the Chinese Communist P a r t y i n Lu T i n g - y i , ( ?'£ ^  )  an  1958,  a l t e r n a t e member of the P o l i t b u r o and V i c e -  M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n wrote an a u t h o r i t a t i v e a r t i c l e i n the j o u r n a l Hongqi a t r a n s l a t i o n of which appears i n the appendix. i s a n a t i v e of Wuhsi, K i a n g s u . i n Moscow and was  Lu T i n g - y i , born i n  1904,  He graduated from Sun Yat Sen U n i v e r s i t y  q u i t e a c t i v e d u r i n g the c i v i l war.  He had v e r y c l o s e  t i e s w i t h the S i n o - S o v i e t F r i e n d s h i p A s s o c i a t i o n and has r e c e n t l y been a t t a c k e d by the Red Guards and p u b l i c l y paraded f o r committing e x a c t l y analogous w i t h the ones he opposed i n h i s 1-958 The  b a s i c t h r u s t of Lu's  productive 24  Who  e r r o r s almost  article. ^  a r t i c l e i s h i s combining e d u c a t i o n  2  with  l a b o r and a t t a c k i n g the h o l d which the b o u r g e o i s i e have h e l d  s Who  i n Communist C h i n a .  • over e d u c a t i o n s i n c e 1949.  34  .  Lu p o i n t s out i n the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s a r t i c l e  t h a t the two most i m p o r t a n t achievements i n the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n i n the p a s t n i n e y e a r s s i n c e the r e v o l u t i o n have been the a p p l i c a t i o n i n a l l s c h o o l s of the p r i n c i p l e o f combining  education with productive labor,  and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a g r i c u l t u r a l middle  schools.  The  f i r s t is. a  t h e o r e t i c a l achievement and the l a t t e r i s a p r a c t i c a l achievement. the key word i n the a r e a of t h e o r y i s p r i n c i p l e . theme i n d e t a i l t o show how  However,  Lu e l a b o r a t e s on  this  i n p r a c t i c e the p r i n c i p l e of combining  education .  w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r has never been r e a l i z e d . He b e g i n s by d i s c u s s i n g the purpose of s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n .  T h i s area  of h i s a r t i c l e c o i n c i d e s v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h the v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l  state-  ments d e a l t w i t h above i n d i c a t i n g the same, b a s i c t h r e a d s are s t i l l  running  through o f f i c i a l p o l i c y .  He r e i t e r a t e s the two main themes of e d u c a t i o n a l  p o l i c y which say t h a t the purpose of e d u c a t i o n i s t o h e l p do away w i t h a l l e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s e s and a l l systems of e x p l o i t a t i o n and the g o a l of e d u c a t i o n has always been t o have an e d u c a t i o n a l system which serves the workers and peasants.  I n l i n e w i t h t h i s i s an e d u c a t i o n which w i l l r e a l i z e the  concept  of,, "from each a c c o r d i n g to h i s a b i l i t y and to each a c c o r d i n g to h i s needs," e l i m i n a t e the d i f f e r e n c e between town and c o u n t r y and e l i m i n a t e the d i f f e r e n c e between m e n t a l and manual l a b o r . Ch'ien's  1950  report.  Lu next d i s c u s s e s the meaning o f knowledge and here  he d i r e c t l y quotes from Mao's 1942 Work."  None of t h i s i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from  a r t i c l e , " R e c t i f y the P a r t y ' s S t y l e of  He reemphasizes t h a t t h e r e are two k i n d s of knowledge:  the-knowledge  o f c l a s s . s t r u g g l e and the knowledge of the s t r u g g l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n . does t h i s f o r reasons  o t h e r than mere r e p e t i t i o n .  He  He p o i n t s out t h a t f o r  the past n i n e y e a r s b o u r g e o i s pedagogues have o b s t r u c t e d attempts  to put  i n t o p r a c t i c e i n the a r e a of c u r r i c u l u m these two k i n d s o f knowledge. Furthermore,  they have c o n s i s t e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d  t h a t the masses of  people  are not a b l e to run e d u c a t i o n i n the sense t h a t they would have a hand i n d e c i d i n g and f o r m u l a t i n g c u r r i c u l u m . i n b l o c k i n g attempts  The reason they have been s u c c e s s f u l  to have a mass e d u c a t i o n i s , a c c o r d i n g t o L u , because  they have gained i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the Communist P a r t y . been the f i r s t h i n t of shortcomings  T h i s may. have  t h a t were l a t e r r e v e a l e d i n the  Cultural Revolution. Lu s t r e s s e d t h a t the debate which had gone on i n the p a s t n i n e y e a r s between the b o u r g e o i s pedagogues and the genuine communists c e n t e r e d the q u e s t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s a l l - r o u n d development. view was  The  on  bourgeois  e s s e n t i a l l y e l i t i s t m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t e x p e r t s were more a b l e to  guide the development of e d u c a t i o n than were the masses who be educated.  were going t o  The view of o t h e r s i n the P a r t y h e l d t h a t s t u d e n t s should be  a l l o w e d to a c q u i r e broader knowledge so t h a t they c o u l d be enough to be a b l e t o t r a n s f e r from one  form of p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y to  another depending on the p a r t i c u l a r needs of. the c o u n t r y . be accomplished  by combining  versatile  This could only  education with productive labor.  F i n a l l y Lu l i s t e d some of the s p e c i f i c measures w h i c h would have t o be t a k e n i n o r d e r t o implement the mass l i n e . be a c o m b i n a t i o n  of u n i t y w i t h d i v e r s i t y .  F i r s t , t h e r e would have to  T h i s meant t h a t the purpose of  the t r a i n i n g would be u n i f i e d , t h a t i s , t o t r a i n s o c i a l i s t - m i n d e d , educated workers.  The  s c h o o l s , however, would be r u n by c e n t r a l or l o c a l  authorities.  Second, the s p r e a d i n g of e d u c a t i o n would have t o be combined w i t h the r a i s i n g of e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s .  T h i r d , o v e r - a l l p l a n n i n g would have to be  combined w i t h d e - c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o b r i n g i n t o p l a y the  initiative.  36  of b o t h the v a r i o u s c e n t r a l government departments and the l o c a l and the masses. political,  authorities  F o u r t h , the mass l i n e would have t o be a p p l i e d i n the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , pedagogic, and r e s e a r c h work i n the s c h o o l s .  From t h i s document i t becomes c l e a r t h a t d e s p i t e the campaign of the Great Leap Forward and a l l the changes i t brought t o Chinese  s o c i e t y the  b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l stance i n the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n had not changed ficantly.  What we  l e a r n i n a d d i t i o n to t h i s i s t h a t i f the  elements mentioned by Lu were not overcome then another c e r t a i n l y would be n e c e s s a r y .  T h i s i s i n f a c t how  signi-  bourgeois  campaign almost  i t turned but, but  b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n and i t s meaning f o r e d u c a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have a more d e t a i l e d background of the p r a c t i c e of the. Chinese  communist approach t o e d u c a t i o n .  37  CHAPTER i v EDUCATION:  PRACTICE  T h i s c h a p t e r i s a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f the q u a n t i t a t i v e features of education i n China i n c l u d i n g s t a t i s t i c a l  i n f o r m a t i o n on such  areas as e n r o l l m e n t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , a n d g r a d u a t e s . some o f the p r a c t i c a l achievements  By examining  o f the communists i n the f i e l d o f  e d u c a t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g as t o what degree t h e o r y has been u n i f i e d w i t h p r a c t i c e . P r i m a r y and Secondary  Education  S i n c e the 1920's the p a t t e r n p r e v a i l i n g i n the f i e l d o f p r i m a r y and secondary e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a has been t h a t o f a twelve year c y c l e d i v i d e d i n t o three b a s i c parts:  s i x year p r i m a r y or elementary s c h o o l f o l l o w e d by  a t h r e e year j u n i o r m i d d l e and a t h r e e year s e n i o r m i d d l e s c h o o l .  The  i n f l u e n c e o f the American  elementary  system i s q u i t e apparent.  c y c l e was f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r years : 0 f by two y e a r s o f s e n i o r grades.  The s i x year  j u n i o r grades f o l l o w e d  T h i s p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1960.  The most n o t a b l e changes i n the e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o c c u r r e d i n 1958 when a s e r i e s o f reforms were undertaken m a i n l y t o i n t r o duce the p r a c t i c e o f p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m . A l l s t u d e n t s i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l from age n i n e and up worked f o u r hours i n p r o d u c t i v e labor.  The n e x t major r e f o r m came i n 1960. The new r e f o r m s , o u t l i n e d by  Yang H s i u - f e n g and L u T i n g - y l , c e n t e r e d around number o f y e a r s i n the p r i m a r y - s e c o n d a r y  the i n t e n t i o n t o reduce the  c y c l e i n the f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l s .  As u s u a l , t h i s r e f o r m had been experimented  w i t h i n advance a t v a r i o u s  38  i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n v a r i o u s forms.  The c o n c l u s i o n o f the Communist Party-  was  t h a t the d i f f e r e n t experiments proved the f e a s i b i l i t y of s h o r t e n i n g  the  cycle.  The f i n a l form d e c i d e d upon was a u n i f i e d c y c l e of t e n y e a r s '  d u r a t i o n as opposed  to the p r e v i o u s twelve y e a r d i v i d e d c y c l e .  t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e of t h i s new the  s t u d e n t was  c y c l e was  A quali-  t h a t w i t h i n the t e n year p e r i o d  to r e a c h the l e v e l of a c o l l e g e freshman.  Furthermore,  b o t h Lu and Yang c a l l e d f o r s u i t a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n p h y s i c a l ' l a b o r as p a r t of  the new r e f o r m s .  b a s i c a l l y economic.  The reasons g i v e n f o r the new  changes by Lu were  He s t r e s s e d t h a t by the time s t u d e n t s are seventeen  they have had t e n y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g and are c o n s i d e r e d f u l l man  power  u n i t s and t h e r e f o r e needed f o r p r o d u c t i o n . ^ The new reforms i m p l y t h a t from 1949 to 1960 s e r i o u s weaknesses existed.  A c c o r d i n g to L u , " c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d s " had been lowered i n the  sense t h a t such b a s i c courses as a n a l y t i c a l geometry had been dropped the  c u r r i c u l u m , and lower s t a n d a r d s i n achievement  study p r e v a i l e d . manner.  i n foreign  from  language  Most of the s c i e n c e s were a l s o b e i n g taught i n a  backward  So i n t h i s sense the reforms d e a l t s o l e l y w i t h r a i s i n g the educa-  t i o n a l l e v e l w h i l e a t the same time s h o r t e n i n g the p e r i o d of e d u c a t i o n and increasing productive labor. the  More i m p o r t a n t , however, was  t h a t throughout  l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the reforms t h e r e was no mention of the  p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n which the new e d u c a t i o n was  to t a k e .  Indeed, Lu i n  his  speech d i d not even mention the e x i s t e n c e of p o l i t i c a l c o u r s e s i n the  new  curriculum.  o  H i s approach was  s t r i c t l y pragmatic.  1 Robert D. Barendsen, Planned Reforms i n the P r i m a r y and Secondary S c h o o l System i n Communist China, U.S. Dept. of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , a n d W e l f a r e No. 45 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , August, 1960), p. 6. Barendsen, Planned Reforms, p. 9.  The development.of p r i m a r y s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s was d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s between 1950 75 per c e n t .  Although  and  rapid  especially  1953 when e n r o l l m e n t i n c r e a s e d  there i s u s u a l l y v a r i a t i o n i n p r o p o r t i o n s of  s c h o o l age  c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l a t any g i v e n time the t r e n d cannot be  disputed:  1953 — 50.7  per c e n t ; 1956—61.3 per c e n t ; 1958 — 85 per c e n t ;  3 1 9 6 0 — 8 7 per c e n t .  I n terms of b u i l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s  f l o o r s p a c e has doubled  s i n c e 1949  i t i s true that  i n both p r i m a r y and secondary  but Chang H s i - j o , M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , s t a t e d i n 1957 inadequate  that t h i s i s s t i l l  from the s t a n d p o i n t of the needs of the p e o p l e .  4  An average  s c h o o l day f o r p r i m a r y s t u d e n t s i s spent i n l e a r n i n g language, and p o l i t i c a l In  In  mathematics  studies.  a d d i t i o n to the g e n e r a l secondary  secondary  schools  s c h o o l s , mentioned above,  s c h o o l s o f the normal and v o c a t i o n a l type were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d .  the normal-secondary s c h o o l s the p e r i o d s of study were d i v i d e d i n t o  two and  t h r e e year terms.  I n g e n e r a l , the q u a l i t y of these s c h o o l s  was  low as.good t e a c h e r s were drawn to the more p r e s t i g i o u s g e n e r a l - s e c o n d a r y schools. who  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the c y c l e of h a v i n g poor t e a c h e r s t r a i n  teachers  were handicapped.from the s t a r t and p r o b a b l y had to t e a c h i n another  normal-secondary s c h o o l and so on.  D e s p i t e the c r u c i a l need f o r t e a c h e r s ,  p r o g r e s s i n t h i s a r e a has been r e l a t i v e l y slow (see Table 10). 1958,  due  doubled  to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p a r t - t i m e s c h o o l s , e n r o l l m e n t  Then i n almost  and t e a c h e r s were i n even s h o r t e r supply."'  3 Leo O r l e a n s , "An Over-View of China's E d u c a t i o n , " Chinese S o c i e t y Under Communism: A Reader, ed. W i l l i a m T. L i u (New York: John W i l e y and Sons, 1967), p. 338. Leo O r l e a n s , P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower and E d u c a t i o n i n Communist C h i n a (Washington: N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n P u b l i c a t i o n NSF 61-3, 1960), p. 84. 5  O r l e a n s , "An Over-View," p.  344.  40 The v o c a t i o n a l - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s are meant t o t r a i n middle technical specialists.  level  There i s g r e a t c o n f u s i o n as t o the nature  these s c h o o l s , but d e s p i t e t h i s c o n f u s i o n i t i s c l e a r t h a t the l e a d e r s have r e a l i z e d the shortage o f i n t e r m e d i a t e t e c h n i c a l and have t r i e d to emphasize v o c a t i o n a l - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . has been good i t has not been i m p r e s s i v e (see Table ILL). p e r i o d o n l y about one m i l l i o n have been graduated  of  Chinese  personnel While  progress  Over a t e n year  i n t h i s area.  I t appears  t h a t w i t h the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n g r e a t e r s t r e s s w i l l be a p p l i e d t o the development of t h i s l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n .  Half-Work, H a l f - S t u d y — S p a r e ^ T i m e  Education  •  I t i s c l e a r t h a t one of the major e d u c a t i o n a l problems f a c i n g , t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i s t o p r o v i d e adequate manpower n e c e s s a r y t o r a i s e p r o d u c t i o n to a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l .  Because of the l a r g e number of workers  and peasants needed i n f a c t o r i e s and farms i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f r e e them: for  a s u f f i c i e n t amount o f e d u c a t i o n .  N a t u r a l l y , some s o c i e t i e s s o l v e  t h i s problem by m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t i t i s not i m p o r t a n t t o educate masses o f people a t such an e a r l y stage and t h e r e f o r e s c h o o l i n g i s m a i n l y f o r a technological e l i t e .  However, i n China s e r i o u s attempts have been made t o  r a i s e the c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l  l e v e l of workers and peasants  along w i t h  those of o t h e r c l a s s e s and indeed the e n t i r e e d u c a t i o n a l system i s s a i d to be m a i n l y f o r the worker and peasant c l a s s e s . V a r i o u s methods have been t r i e d to p r o v i d e f o r both e d u c a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n p r i n c i p a l l y  the  h a l f - w o r k , h a l f - s t u d y s c h o o l s i n the c o u n t r y s i d e and the spare-time  schools  i n the  6  cities.  O r l e a n s , "An Over-View," p.  344.  41 The  half-work,  h a l f - s t u d y s c h o o l s i n c r e a s e d the number o f secondary  s c h o o l s i n the r u r a l areas a t the j u n i o r m i d d l e l e v e l .  One o f the reasons  why a s p e c i a l type o f s c h o o l was s e t up was a g a i n economic.  I t was  cheaper f o r the S t a t e t o operate s i n c e i t r e q u i r e d no s p e c i a l equipment, i t d i d n o t take students  completely  out o f the p r o d u c t i o n r e a l m as d i d  the r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e secondary schools, and the students knowledge o f farming methods. province  a l r e a d y had some  The f i r s t s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n K i a n g s u  i n 1958. A t t h a t time students worked p a r t o f the day and s t u d i e d  the r e s t depending on the season.  There were f o u r b a s i c courses:  „ mathematics, p o l i t i c s , and g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r e . the shortage o f q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . s t r o n g e s t i n these s c h o o l s .  Standards were low due t o  I n the communes P a r t y l e a d e r s h i p was  By the 1960's n o t much was heard about these  s c h o o l s and i t was thought t h a t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e had d e c l i n e d . 1962  a modified  Then i n  system was announced w i t h major changes i n the a l l o c a t i o n  of study and work.  Before  t h a t t i m e , students had worked a t t h e i r  t a s k p a r t o f the day and then s t u d i e d the remainder. used a s e a s o n a l  Chinese,  regular  The 1962 r e f o r m s  approach whereby the student worked d u r i n g the growing  season f u l l - t i m e and s t u d i e d f u l l - t i m e d u r i n g the s l a c k season.  This  . s h i f t has been a t t a c k e d by the Red Guards r e c e n t l y on the grounds t h a t i t s p l i t s up the c o n s t a n t  i n t e r - f l o w o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e .  Spare-time e d u c a t i o n  7  f o r workers i n the c i t i e s has been an o f f i c i a l l y  d e c l a r e d p o l i c y s i n c e 1950 when the Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C o u n c i l i s s u e d the " D i r e c t i v e on D e v e l o p i n g Spare-Time E d u c a t i o n  f o r Workers and  Robert D. Baredsen CsicJ , "The I n n o v a t i o n o f Half-Work and H a l f - S t u d y S c h o o l s , " Chinese S o c i e t y Under Communism: A Reader, ed. W i l l i a m T. L i u (New York: John W i l e y and Sons, 1967), pp. 345-362. 7  42  S t a f f Members."  8  Leaders i n C h i n a have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d the need f o r  r a i s i n g the t e c h n i c a l l e v e l of the w o r k i n g f o r c e as a n e c e s s a r y a d j u n c t to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  T h i s type o f - e d u c a t i o n has been conducted  i n spare-  time s c h o o l s w i t h i n the f a c t o r i e s , mines,and o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s i n China. Under the 1950 d i r e c t i v e the p r i o r i t y was education.  The program was  c l e a r l y g i v e n to p o l i t i c a l  c o o r d i n a t e d by the t r a d e u n i o n s — t h e mass  o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the w o r k e r s .  They pushed p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n forward under  the p r e s s of p o l i t i c a l events of the time (Korean war, L i b e r a t e Taiwan movement, e t c . ) .  T h e r e f o r e , the development and e x p a n s i o n of c u l t u r a l  t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n was  c o m p a r a t i v e l y slow.  and  The reasons f o r the l a g i n  development were o u t l i n e d by Yang H s i u - f e n g , then M i n i s t e r of H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n (1950):  inadequate speed i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a complete  spare-time  e d u c a t i o n a l system from p r i m a r y s c h o o l through u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s ;  no  guarantee of s t u d y time f o r w o r k e r s ; inadequate numbers of q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s ; low q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the s t u d e n t s ; l a c k of funds. 9 The  s i t u a t i o n changed somewhat i n 1958 when, as a r e s u l t of the Great  Leap Forward, i n t e l l e c t u a l s were "sent down" ( b  ) to the c o u n t r y s i d e  and i n a d d i t i o n t o w o r k i n g they set up many a d d i t i o n a l spare-time s c h o o l s . But problems developed a g a i n i n 1959 and 1961 when a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s a s t e r s caused a c u t i n p e r s o n n e l i n the p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s and some workers e n r o l l e d d u r i n g the Great Leap Forward were dropped i n the p l a n n i n g .  The development,  t h e n , was  thus c a u s i n g d i s l o c a t i o n  uneven.  Pi  ° P a u l Harper, Spare Time E d u c a t i o n f o r Workers i n Communist C h i n a , U.S. Dept. of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , a n d W e l f a r e No. 30 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1964), p. 3. 9 »Harper.yvSpare'-'Time E d u c a t i o n , p.. 10. -- .-  43 O r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l came from two s o u r c e s : mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the t r a d e u n i o n s . bility  the P a r t y and  the  The unions r e t a i n e d the r e s p o n s i -  f o r p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n w h i l e the c u l t u r a l and t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s  were t u r n e d over t o management.  The  c o n t e n t o f the c u l t u r a l  and  t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s was determined by the P a r t y . ^ The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s type of e d u c a t i o n was  great.  The  e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the i n d u s t r i a l workers and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r t e c h n o l o g i c a l ' l e v e l has r i s e n markedly.  average potential  Before 1949 between 75 and  per cent of China's workers were i l l i t e r a t e .  I n the n i n e y e a r s  l i b e r a t i o n these f i g u r e s have a c t u a l l y been r e v e r s e d — 7 0  80  following  t o 80 per cent  11 literate.  On the o t h e r hand, o n l y 1 t o 2 per cent reached c o l l e g e  level.  P r o b a b l y the g r e a t e s t importance of t h i s type o f s c h o o l i n g , from a p r a c t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , i s t h a t i t i s used to r e p l e n i s h and expand the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l of the f a c t o r i e s or t o s t a f f newly e s t a b l i s h e d s u b s i d i a r y p l a n t s by drawing on the e n t e r p r i s e s ' own workers  (for figures  on spare-time e d u c a t i o n see Table TV). Higher Education Perhaps by the new  the most numerous and s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i o n a l changes made  l e a d e r s h i p i n China have been i n the a r e a of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .  By f a r the b u l k o f the changes have been q u a n t i t a t i v e i n n a t u r e .  H a r p e r , Spare Time E d u c a t i o n , p.  While  20.  H Harper, Spare Time E d u c a t i o n , p. 22. L i t e r a t e i s taken to be s c h o o l or above. T h i s was r e p o r t e d i n 1960 by Lu T i n g - y i . H a r p e r , Spare Time E d u c a t i o n , p.  24,  primary  ' these are important  >  . 44  i t i s the q u a l i t a t i v e adjustments which have c r e a t e d  the g r e a t e s t c o n t r o v e r s y both abroad and w i t h i n C h i n a ;  There i s a  paradox i n t h a t on the one hand, those n a t i o n s 'unsympathetic t o the new s i t u a t i o n i n China f e e l t h a t t h e q u a l i t a t i v e changes have been t o o f a r r e a c h i n g while, on the o t h e r hand r e c e n t Red Guard a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t for  some the changes have n o t been f a r - r e a c h i n g enough. The Chinese communists have r e o r g a n i z e d the c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s  and r e a d j u s t e d c o l l e g e departments s i x t i m e s .  The f i r s t  t i o n s p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e d q u a n t i t a t i v e changes.  four reorganiza-  The o t h e r two (the G r e a t  Leap Forward and the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n ) d e a l t w i t h p o l i t i c a l and ideological rectification. The  f i r s t d e c i s i o n r e o r g a n i z i n g h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was taken a t the  N a t i o n a l Conference on H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n h e l d i n 1950 i n P e k i n g . r e o r g a n i z e d the v a r i o u s c o l l e g e s o f e n g i n e e r i n g .  I t simply,  One.year l a t e r a second  ' and l a r g e r r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n N o r t h , East, and C e n t r a l C h i n a . The  t a r g e t s t h i s time were a l s o c o l l e g e s o f s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g and  the reason g i v e n was t o i n t e n s i f y the e d u c a t i o n o f advanced i n d u s t r i a l s p e c i a l i s t s arid t e c h n i e a n s .  U n i v e r s i t i e s were d i s s e c t e d and the p a r t s  reformed t o comprise more s p e c i a l i z e d u n i v e r s i t y u n i t s .  F o r example, the  e n g i n e e r i n g c o l l e g e of P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y and a l l departments o f Yenching U n i v e r s i t y ' s c o l l e g e s o f s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Tsinghua U n i v e r s i t y t o make the l a t t e r a m u l t i - d e p a r t m e n t . school.  technological  A t the same t i m e , Tsinghua U n i v e r s i t y ' s c o l l e g e s o f a r t s , s c i e n c e ,  and law t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e t h r e e s i m i l a r c o l l e g e s o f Yenching U n i v e r s i t y were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y which was t o be made a u n i v e r s i t y o f a comprehensive n a t u r e .  T h i s a l s o happened i n many o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s  45 ( i . e . , the e n g i n e e r i n g  c o l l e g e s of Nankai and T i e n t s i n T a i Koo  Universi-  t i e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t o T i e n t s i n U n i v e r s i t y and N a n k a i became a  comprehensive a r t s s c h o o l ) . The:.third r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o c c u r r e d and  f i v e - a n t i movements of 1952  anti-bureaucratism;  five-anti:  a n t i - t h e f t of s t a t e p r o p e r t y ,  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the  (three-anti:  three-anti  anti-corruption,  anti-waste,  a n t i - b r i b e r y , a n t i - t a x evasion,  anti-fraud,  a n t i - t h e f t of s t a t e economic s e c r e t s ) .  T h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d not a f f e c t the u n i v e r s i t i e s n a t i o n w i d e but  was  confined  This  t o the two a d m i n i s t r a t i v e zones of N o r t h and E a s t C h i n a .  movement was  a l s o aimed at f u r t h e r c o n s o l i d a t i n g the t e c h n i c a l and  scientific •  departments of those u n i v e r s i t i e s i n v o l v e d . The The  f o u r t h r e o r g a n i z a t i o n came i n 1953  f i r s t three r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s had  to an unmanageable number. Therefore,  i n 1953  The  as a r e s u l t of the K o r e a n  expanded the e d u c a t i o n a l  demands of the war  N a v i g a t i o n a l School,  institutions  necessitated  a number of u n i v e r s i t i e s were a b o l i s h e d :  war.'  a cutback.  Shansi,  Northeast  Shanghai N a v i g a t i o n a l S c h o o l and F u k i e n N a v i g a t i o n a l  S c h o o l a l l merged to become D a i r e n N a v i g a t i o n a l S c h o o l ; Hunan, K u a n g s i , Kueichow and Nanchang U n i v e r s i t i e s were a l l a b o l i s h e d . l a t t e r p a r t of 1953  when the Korean war was  However, i n the  brought to an end most of  the  u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r m e r l y a b o l i s h e d were r e s t o r e d . D u r i n g the e n t i r e p e r i o d from 1950 f o l l o w e d e s p e c i a l l y i n c u r r i c u l a and Union.  to 1953  the dominant model  course content was  t h a t of the  Soviet  I n the p r o c e s s of r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r e i g n - r u n u n i v e r s i t i e s were  expropriated  and  t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and  I n a d d i t i o n to the m a n i p u l a t i n g  c u r r i c u l a accordingly  transformed.  of p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d u n i v e r s i t i e s  46 the.communists a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a. number of p o l i t i c a l u n i v e r s i t i e s  and  u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t i e s ( i . e . , C h i n a People's U n i v e r s i t y i n P e k i n g and China N a t i o n a l M i n o r i t y School a l s o i n P e k i n g ) . The  f i f t h r e o r g a n i z a t i o n came i n 1958  and was  movement known as the G r e a t Leap F o r w a r d . many areas of Chinese l i f e t h i s p e r i o d emphasis was  The  p a r t of a broader  Great Leap Forward a f f e c t e d  (see Chapter v) e s p e c i a l l y e d u c a t i o n .  s e r i o u s l y put on the i d e o l o g i c a l and  i m p l i c a t i o n s , of e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y at the h i g h e r l e v e l s .  During  political In a d d i t i o n ,  more u n i v e r s i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d but u n l i k e the o l d ones these were organized  on a p o l i t i c a l b a s i s .  Worker and peasant e d u c a t i o n was  especial  1 -3  stressed. The  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d above are i n the a r e a o f f a c i l i t y  changes, d e p a r t m e n t a l r e a l i g n m e n t s , and readjustments.  to a l e s s e r degree i d e o l o g i c a l  C o n c u r r e n t w i t h the p h y s i c a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s was  c u r r i c u l a reform.  the  C u r r i c u l u m i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s has  gone change almost c o n t i n u o u s l y s i n c e 1949. out as p e r i o d s of major change.  The  c o n s o l i d a t i o n of power (1949-1952). Cultural Revolution.  The  Two  f i r s t was The  under  p e r i o d s , however, stand  d u r i n g the e a r l y days of  second has been d u r i n g  the  e a r l y p e r i o d w i l l be d e a l t w i t h here and  changes  o c c u r r i n g as a r e s u l t of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter v. C u r r i c u l a r r e f o r m was  one  of the most important  subjects discussed  at the A l l - C h i n a Higher E d u c a t i o n Conference h e l d i n August of  1950.  13 I Wo-sheng, Communist China 1949-1959 (Hong Kong: I n s t i t u t e , 1961), I I I , 110.  Union Research  47  A c t u a l l y , c u r r i c u l a r r e f o r m had begun p r i o r to t h a t i n some areas of C h i n a . As soon as an a r e a was  l i b e r a t e d c u r r i c u l a r r e f o r m of the s c h o o l s i n t h a t  a r e a s t a r t e d almost i m m e d i a t e l y .  So i n many areas c u r r i c u l a r r e f o r m had  been g o i n g on f o r about a year b e f o r e the o f f i c i a l d i r e c t i v e f o r i t was promulgated.  From o f f i c i a l u n i v e r s i t y r e p o r t s and o t h e r sources i t appears  t h a t such r e f o r m developed  i n four s t a g e s : ^  (1) p r e l i m i n a r y reforms  i n c l u d i n g the a b o l i t i o n of o l d Kuomintang i d e o l o g y c o u r s e s , the a d o p t i o n of courses i n d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m and p o l i t i c a l economy, (2) major c u r r i c u l a r reforms i n a l l d e p a r t m e n t s — i . e . , the a d o p t i o n of new  courses  i n e l e c t r o k i n e t i c s , astronomy, e t c . , (3) i n s p e c t i o n and readjustment the new  c u r r i c u l u m by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , (4) supplementary  based on the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ' s  of  reforms  inspection.^  Between 1952 and 1966 minor changes i n c u r r i c u l a have taken p l a c e r e g u l a r l y but the p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d above has g e n e r a l l y p r e v a i l e d .  Other  more q u a n t i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e e x p a n s i o n i n e n r o l l ment and f a c i l i t i e s  (see Table V) and the t r e n d towards more p r a c t i c a l  and s c i e n t i f i c work (see Table V I ) . r e l e a s e d from mainland students.  From 1949  One  i n t e r e s t i n g and i m p o r t a n t  sources concerns the s o c i a l background  to 1958 worker  statistic  of u n i v e r s i t y  and peasant e n r o l l m e n t i n c r e a s e d from  20.46 per cent i n 1949 t o 36.42 per cent i n 1958.  A g a i n s t the  background  of the Chinese communist t h e o r y of e d u c a t i o n d i s c u s s e d above i t would appear t h a t t h e i r t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of p r o l e t a r i a n e d u c a t i o n does not a c c o r d . Red Guard charges d u r i n g the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n v a l i d a t e the above and m a i n t a i n t h a t from 1958  to 1962  the s i t u a t i o n d i d not  improve.^  1^ Chung S h i h , H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Communist C h i n a (Hong Kong: Research I n s t i t u t e , 1953), p. 26. 1 5  Chung, p.  24.  16 O r l e a n s , P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower, p.  65.  statistic  Union  CHAPTER v IDEOLOGICAL CAMPAIGNS AND UNIVERSITY RESPONSE In  Chapter i i i some o f the v a r i o u s reforms i n the a r e a o f e d u c a t i o n  were d i s c u s s e d .  These i n c l u d e d m a i n l y q u a n t i t a t i v e reforms and t o a  l e s s e r degree q u a l i t a t i v e , i d e o l o g i c a l r e f o r m s . emphasis w i l l be s t r i c t l y  I n t h i s chapter the  on the i d e o l o g i c a l campaigns which have o c c u r r e d  s i n c e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the People's R e p u b l i c i n 1949. The Chinese themselves do n o t d i s t i n g u i s h between m a t e r i a l changes and t h e o r e t i c a l changes.  I n s t e a d , they s t r e s s the interdependence  i d e o l o g i c a l change. the o t h e r .  o f m a t e r i a l change and  One c o u l d n o t have o c c u r r e d , they contend, w i t h o u t  W h i l e t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e i t i s e q u a l l y t r u e t h a t the two  developed a t a d i f f e r e n t pace.  Thus, they are d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y i n  t h i s work, b u t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them should be kept, i n mind. S i n c e 1949 there have been f i v e major i d e o l o g i c a l campaigns which have d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . over t h r e e year p e r i o d s . of  They were spread r o u g h l y  I n each o f these campaigns p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s  the Chinese communist t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n have been pursued.  Usually,  the campaign was d i r e c t e d from the top down u s i n g the medium o f the mass organizations. of  The purpose  of t h i s chapter i s to d i s c u s s i n d e t a i l  the campaigns and then t o g i v e c o n c r e t e examples o f the responses  the u n i v e r s i t i e s .  I n each case the i l l u s t r a t i o n  My aim w i l l be t o c l a r i f y mainland.  what appears  each from  chosen i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  t o be p e r i o d i c chaos on the Chinese  49 '  Cheng Feng  Movement—1950  The term cheng-feng ( c o n t r a c t i o n o f the p h r a s e , cheng t u n t s o feng: c o r r e c t the s t y l e o f work) f i r s t appeared i n a speech g i v e n on F e b r u a r y 1, 1942,  by Mao Tse-tung i n a Yenan l e c t u r e h a l l t o more t h a n a thousand  P a r t y members.  I n the speech Mao launched a broad a t t a c k on the e r r o r s  of the P a r t y ' s s t y l e o f work and thought.  H i s main t a r g e t s were s u b j e c t i v i s m  i n . thought, s e c t a r i a n i s m ( s e p a r a t i o n from the masses) i n P a r t y r e l a t i o n s , and  formalism  i n l i t e r a t u r e and a r t .  T h i s was the i n a u g u r a t i o n o f the f i r s t  Cheng Feng Movement and covered o n l y the p e r i o d from 1942 t o 1944. movement developed i n t h r e e s t a g e s : mainly for  The  f i r s t , a p e r i o d o f study and d i s c u s s i o n  o f a s e r i e s o f documents d e a l i n g w i t h the r e f o r m o f t e a c h i n g methods  cadres;  second, a p e r i o d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f P a r t y work by the t r a i n i n g  s c h o o l s themselves; t h i r d , a c o n c l u d i n g e v a l u a t i o n s e s s i o n where members of i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s and organs r a t e d the q u a l i t y of t h e i r comrade's work and  submitted  reports to higher  levels.  The f i r s t Cheng Feng Movement was a Chinese p r o d u c t and e x p r e s s e d the Chinese Communist P a r t y ' s w i l l i n g n e s s and d e t e r m i n a t i o n p l a n t h e i r own r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s .  to organize  and  The f i r s t t a s k o f the r e f o r m  movement was t o e r a d i c a t e d o g m a t i s m — m a i n l y dogmatic i m i t a t i o n o f R u s s i a n models.  The movement was aimed away from empty t h e o r i z i n g and toward the  s o l u t i o n of the many p r a c t i c a l problems t h a t faced the P a r t y a f t e r 1937. These i n c l u d e d the war o f r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t Japan, the s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l i n the face of b l o c k a d e by the Kuomintang a r m i e s , the e x p a n s i o n of P a r t y membership t o 800,000 and composed o f d i v e r s e e l e m e n t s , the g r e a t d i s t a n c e between war bases and the consequent problem o f c o o r d i n a t i o n ,  50 and  l a c k of a c e n t r a l government.  t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n together  f o r war  Cheng Feng Movement of 1942-1944.  Mao  faced a s t a g g e r i n g t a s k i n w e l d i n g  and r e v o l u t i o n . The method was  The  answer was  a v e r y thorough procedure  which i n v o l v e d each member d i s c u s s i n g w i t h o t h e r s the problems and which e x i s t e d i n h i s own reform. and  T h i s was  work, c o n f e s s i n g h i s e r r o r s , and p r o m i s i n g  defects to  f o l l o w e d by another s e r i e s of c r i t i c i s m then s t r u g g l e ,  f i n a l l y some form of u n i t y . 1 By 1950  the Communist P a r t y had been t h r u s t i n t o a. p o s i t i o n o f t r e -  mendous r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . new  the  A g a i n , as i n the Yenan p e r i o d , the P a r t y faced  and e x t e n s i v e b a s i c problems.  F i r s t among these was  the r a p i d e x p a n s i o n  of P a r t y f u n c t i o n s which i n t u r n c r e a t e d two more problems, t h a t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y and p o p u l a r  support.  Another b a s i c problem  was  the v i r t u a l e x p l o s i o n of P a r t y membership from 800,000 t o 5,000,000, second o n l y t o the S o v i e t Union (6,300,000).  T h i s demanded a s p e c i a l i n d o c t r i -  n a t i o n program f o r the many new members most of whom were e i t h e r uneducated peasants or i n t e l l e c t u a l s from the u n i v e r s i t i e s , each w i t h h i s  own  i d e o l o g y or l a c k o f i t . The Mao  f i r s t h i n t of a new  Cheng Feng Movement came i n 1950,  Tse-tung, i n a s h o r t paragraph at the end  Plenum of the C e n t r a l Committee h e l d i n June.  a g a i n from  of h i s . r e p o r t to the T h i r d I n t h i s paragraph h e . i n s t r u c t e d  the whole P a r t y to engage i n a l a r g e - s c a l e i d e o l o g i c a l r e m o l d i n g d u r i n g the coming t h r e e seasons (summer, autumn, w i n t e r ) and  movement  to overcome  1 Boyd Compton, Mao's China: P a r t y Reform Documents, 1942-1944 ( S e a t t l e , Washington: U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1952), pp-. x v - l i i . 2 Compton, p.  46.  t h e i r f e e l i n g s of arrogance and officially  accomplished,  be a t t a c k e d .  a n a l y s i s of c o n d i t i o n s , and the development of c r i t i c i s m  The  4  There were two  f i r s t was  s e t s of major e r r o r s which were t o  bureaucratism  i n the P a r t y s t r u c t u r e , , and  authoritarianism-pride-arrogance.  restatements  of those a t t a c k e d i n the f i r s t Cheng Feng Movement i n  l e a d e r of the s t a t e .  l o o k i n g at i t s e l f  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e r e f l e c t e d the e n l a r g e d  Cheng Feng Movement; i t was  On September 29, 1951,  I n h i s speech Chou suggested t h a t  i n the P e k i n g - T i e n t s i n a r e a . ^  c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by an a r t i c l e from C h ' i e n C h u n - j u i which he a t t a c k e d u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s and  Compton, p.  48.  4  universities  T h i s speech  was  on November 1, i n  i n t e l l e c t u a l s and i n s t r u c t e d  them to take p a r t i n the r e f o r m movement i n t r o d u c e d by Mao  47.  (/^'•  Chou E n - l a i d e l i v e r e d a f i v e hour l e c t u r e i n P e k i n g  a " s t u d y campaign f o r i d e o l o g i c a l r e f o r m " be i n i t i a t e d by the  3 Compton, p.  included  educational  i n the form of "thought r e f o r m "  which o f f i c i a l l y opened the campaign.  of North China mainly  as  education.  Cheng Feng Movement f i r s t began to a f f e c t the  s t r u c t u r e i n September, 1951,  1942  scope of the  not j u s t aimed at the P a r t y but  many o t h e r areas of s o c i e t y p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i e l d of The  the  These e r r o r s seem to be  w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e t h a t t h i s time the P a r t y was  1950  the  study of c e r t a i n documents, summarization of work  self-criticism.  second was  The movement began  on J u l y 1, w i t h a C e n t r a l Committee d i r e c t i v e i n d i c a t i n g  method of r e f o r m :  and  self-satisfaction.  ~* C u r r e n t Background, No. 169, A p r i l , 1952 G e n e r a l ) — h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as CB.  (Hong Kong:  in  1950.  U.S.  Consulate  )  The movement began t o g a i n momentum i n l a t e 1951 when Kuo Mo-jo o u t l i n e d a g e n e r a l method f o r i n i t i a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the movement: (1) t o l a u n c h an i d e o l o g i c a l r e m o l d i n g movement among t e a c h e r s which would s t a r t i n P e k i n g and T i e n t i s n and e v e n t u a l l y spread throughout C h i n a ; (2) as f a r as p o s s i b l e t o send t e a c h e r s t o take p a r t i n a g r a r i a n r e f o r m ; (3) to  send the b o u r g e o i s t e a c h e r s t o p o l i t i c a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s ; (4) t o take  o t h e r measures t o f u r t h e r the i d e o l o g i c a l r e m o l d i n g movement.^  He moreover  l i s t e d some o f the p r i n c i p a l t r a i t s which were t o be e l i m i n a t e d from the a t t i t u d e s o f u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s and t e a c h e r s :  (1) " f e u d a l " m e n t a l i t y  r e f l e c t i n g i n c o r r e c t a t t i t u d e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s toward l a b o r ; (2) absence of  s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s or c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t ;  (3) i n d i v i d u a l i s m which  opposed group c o n s c i o u s n e s s and s o c i a l i s m ; (4) h e r o i s m or the demand f o r personal glory;  (5) hedonism; (6) i d e a l i s m , which opposed M a r x i s t m a t e r i a l i s m  (7) c o r r u p t i o n and low m o r a l s . ^ The a c t u a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the movement began i n P e k i n g and T i e n t s i n ( i n k e e p i n g w i t h the tendency o f the Chinese communists t o experiment i n a l i m i t e d a r e a i n the i n i t i a l  stages).  Over 3,000 p r o f e s s o r s from l e a d i n g  u n i v e r s i t i e s i n N o r t h C h i n a p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the e a r l y stages o f the movement which was t o l a s t f o u r months.  A s p e c i a l n i n e t e e n man committee headed  by Ma H s u - l u n , M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , was s e t up t o guide the movement. On November 18, P'eng Chen opened the second stage o f the movement. F o l l o w i n g t h i s came the many d r a m a t i c c o n f e s s i o n s from some o f the l e a d i n g educational f i g u r e s i n China.  ^ Stewart F r a s e r , " E d u c a t i o n and P o l i t i c s i n Red C h i n a , " Colorado Q u a r t e r l y , No. 1, IX (Summer, 1960), 26. ^ F r a s e r , " E d u c a t i o n and P o l i t i c s , " p. 9.  53 The organs in  f o l l o w i n g are a series  on the m a i n l a n d c o n c e r n i n g  education.  with  o f d a i l y news  They range  the i n i t i a l  its  expansion  the  ideological  reform  to other  areas.  23,  on the scope  from the l e a d i n g  o f t h e C h e n g F e n g Movement  1951 t o e a r l y  1952 a n d d e a l  largely  o u t i n t h e P e k i n g - T i e n t s i n a r e a a n d show They p r o v i d e  c a m p a i g n was c a r r i e d  The New C h i n a News A g e n c y on O c t o b e r  the advance  from l a t e  carried  releases  out i n  (hereafter  a better  understanding  o f how  practice.  referred  o f the N o r t h C h i n a  t o a s NCNA)  reported  movement:  Over 3,000 t e a c h e r s o f i n s t i t u t e s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n P e k i n g and T i e n t s i n l a u n c h e d i n S e p t e m b e r u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n a s t u d y campaign aimed a t r e f o r m i n g t h e i r own t h o u g h t s . Twenty u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study campaign . . . . The s t u d y i s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f l i s t e n i n g t o r e p o r t s , r e a d i n g documents, and the development o f c r i t i c i s m and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . ' The p e r i o d o f s t u d y i s t o l a s t four months. U n i v e r s i t y p r e s i d e n t s a l l o v e r N o r t h C h i n a have s e t up s i m i l a r s t u d y c o m m i t t e e s t o t h o r o u g h l y l e a r n M a r x i s m Leninism. Other u n i v e r s i t i e s a r e : Tsinghua, Normal, Peking A g r i c u l t u r a l U n i v e r s i t y , F u j e n U n i v e r s i t y , N o r t h C h i n a Communications C o l l e g e , College of Engineering of North China, China Union Medical C o l l e g e , Peking U n i v e r s i t y , T i e n t s i n U n i v e r s i t y , Nankai U n i v e r s i t y , China Mining C o l l e g e , Hopei Marine Products C o l l e g e , F o r e i g n Languages S c h o o l , C e n t r a l F i n e A r t s C o l l e g e , Central Conservatory of Music.8 On November and i n d i c a t e d  12,  t h e NCNA r e p o r t e d  the nature  on the e x p a n s i o n  of the m a t e r i a l  t o be s t u d i e d  o f t h e movement i n the  study  program: The o r g i n a l 3 , 0 0 0 g r o u p h a s g r o w n t o 6 , 1 8 8 and some e m p l o y e e s o f the s c h o o l s have a l s o j o i n e d i n . . . . The s t u d y program w i l l b e made up o f f i v e s t a g e s : 1. s t u d y C h o u E n - l a i ' s r e p o r t on t h e p r o b l e m o f i d e o l o g i c a l reform for i n t e l l e c t u a l s . 2. study P'eng Chen's r e p o r t on q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the t h r e e m a j o r movements ( a g r a r i a n r e f o r m , resist-America, aid-Korea, suppression of counter-revolutionaries).  CB,  N o . 169.  54 3. study of Hu Ch'iao-mu's T h i r t y Years of Mao Tse-tung's Theory of the Chinese R e v o l u t i o n as the Combination of Marxism-Leninism w i t h the Chinese R e v o l u t i o n . 4. study of L i Fu-ch'un's r e p o r t on economic c o n s t r u c t i o n . 5. g e n e r a l summary of the f o u r a r t i c l e s , e x a m i n a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i d e o l o g y , e x a m i n a t i o n of work, e t c . ^ N  Whereas the 1942 Cheng Feng Movement r e f o r m documents were e i t h e r S o v i e t i n o r i g i n o r a t l e a s t S o v i e t - i n s p i r e d , the documents l i s t e d i n the above a r t i c l e are e n t i r e l y C h i n e s e . P e k i n g - T i e n t s i n a r e a had  By l a t e November the movement i n the  c o n s o l i d a t e d t o a p o i n t where i t began to g i v e  l e a d e r s h i p to o t h e r study movements.  On November 20, a d i s p a t c h from  P e k i n g r e p o r t e d i n Ta Kung Pao r e v e a l e d t h a t the study movement f o r s e l f r e f o r m was  b e i n g u n f o l d e d by the t e a c h e r s of Yenching U n i v e r s i t y under the  d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p o f the Study Committee f o r C o l l e g e Teachers and T i e n t s i n .  The  of Peking  t e a c h e r s a t Yenching:  . . . d i v i d e d i n t o n i n e t e e n groups and up' t o the end o f October t h r e e f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s have been h e l d by each of the n i n e t e e n groups. A t the forums h e l d by the v a r i o u s groups the t e a c h e r s have i n general, exposed f r a n k l y t h e i r p a s t and p r e s e n t t h o u g h t s . A t the second meeting an a n a l y s i s and c r i t i c i s m of thoughts and v i e w p o i n t s was made d u r i n g which p r o f e s s o r of h i s t o r y Nieh Ch'ung-ch'i c o n f e s s e d h i s motive i n s i g n i n g b e f o r e the l i b e r a t i o n an a n t i - s o v i e t and anti-communist d e c l a r a t i o n . . . . P r o f e s s o r C h ' i Ssu-ho r e l a t e d h i s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n p r e - l i b e r a t i o n days. A l t h o u g h some o f the t e a c h e r s made too much empty t a l k w i t h o u t c o o r d i n a t i n g i t w i t h t h e i r thoughts the g r e a t e r p a r t of the p a r t i c i p a n t s employed the weapon of c r i t i c i s m and s e l f c r i t i c i s m and bared t h e i r former m i s t a k e n concepts.10 T h i s seemed t o be the b e g i n n i n g of the numerous " c o n f e s s i o n s " which appear l a t e r i n the movement.  The  c o n f e s s i o n s emanated from well-known  p r o f e s s o r s of a l l u n i v e r s i t i e s but p r e d o m i n a n t l y  CB, No.  169.  CB, No.  169.  from t h o s e - p r o f e s s o r s  55  who had been educated abroad, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n America. f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n easy to d i s c e r n . a b r i e f b i o g r a p h y of h i s l i f e , a t t i t u d e s he might have had. t h a t he s t i l l was  The  The c o n f e s s i o n s  c o n f e s s o r would b e g i n by  c a r e f u l not to leave out any  giving  incorrect  He would go on to l i s t h i s f a u l t s and  i n need of r e f o r m .  admit  He would conclude h i s c o n f e s s i o n  on a note of hope t h a t w i t h proper guidance  from the P a r t y he might  finally  c a s t away f o r e v e r a l l v e s t i g e s Of b o u r g e o i s a n t i - s o c i a l thought and  finally  become a t r u e a s s e t to the new  China.  B e s i d e s the f l u r r y of c o n f e s s i o n s  in  l a t e November and e a r l y December, study groups a l s o engaged i n c r i t i c i s m  of  o t h e r well-known  Dr. Hu S h i h .  personages.  Foremost among those c r i t i c i z e d  A Ta Kung Pao r e p o r t on November 30,  was  stated:  In the second committee meeting o f the P e i Ta ( P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y ) and Nankai groups, p r o f e s s o r s denounced Hu S h i h and d i s c u s s e d Chang P o - l i n . P r o f e s s o r s who knew both of them p e r s o n a l l y would form study groups w i t h p r o f e s s o r s who d i d not know them w e l l and the men would then be d i s c u s s e d . H Hu S h i h was e v e n t u a l l y c r i t i c i z e d by h i s own  son.  Up t o December the s t u d y groups i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s c o n c e n t r a t e d on p r o f e s s o r s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s s i n c e t h i s i s where the g r e a t e s t bourgeois influence e x i s t e d .  Then i n l a t e December NCNA-reported t h a t the  movement had spread to the Academia S i n i c a and the R a i l w a y Institute:  Research  '  S c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h workmen i n P e k i n g s t a r t e d a study campaign f o r i d e o l o g i c a l r e m o l d i n g i n e a r l y December. Two hundred r e s e a r c h and t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l from the Academy of .Sciences i n P e k i n g and one hundred from the R a i l w a y Research' I n s t i t u t e took p a r t . The study campaign was t o enable the r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e c o g n i z e the new e r a , to d i s t i n g u i s h between the enemy and. o u r s e l v e s , to c r i t i c i z e b o u r g e o i s i d e a s , and to serve the p e o p l e . The p e r i o d of study i s f i x e d a t f o u r months. To l e a d  1 1  CB, No.  169.  56 the campaign the Academy of S c i e n c e s e t up the "Study Committee of Research Workers of the C h i n a Academy of S c i e n c e " on November 22 w i t h Kuo Mo-jo f o r Chairman. On December 18 a m o b i l i z a t i o n meeting was h e l d p r e s i d e d over by Kuo Mo-jo. The importance of i d e o l o g i c a l r e m o l d i n g was s t r e s s e d from the s t a n d p o i n t of s o c i e t y and s t a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n . I n t e l l e c t u a l s a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s c a r r y w i t h them momentous t a s k s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g s t a t e i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , and n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . But i n t e l l e c t u a l s are e s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o erroneous thoughts i . e . , l i b e r a l i s m , i n d i v i d u a l i s m , a b o v e - c l a s s , and a b o v e - p o l i t i c s ideas'. T h i s s h o u l d be done away w i t h . C e r t a i n members s a i d t h a t p o l i t i c s have been e l e v a t e d enough and s c i e n c e not enough so l e a v e us a l o n e . T h i s i s erroneous and these people have t o be shown t h a t they are s t i l l c l a s s animals.12 By J a n u a r y , 1952, v i r t u a l l y a l l c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n N o r t h C h i n a had been a f f e c t e d i n one way or another by the r e f o r m movement.  'The  end o f 1952 saw the movement spread throughout the whole of C h i n a . The r e f o r m movement and the response i t evoked subsequent  formed a p a t t e r n f o r  r e f o r m movements i n the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f C h i n a .  A l l of these movements aimed a t e r a d i c a t i n g b o u r g e o i s i n f l u e n c e among the i n t e l l e c t u a l s and each time the t a c t i c s changed s l i g h t l y . Feng Movement was  The  1950 Cheng  c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d i n 1953 by a campaign d e s i g n e d to  prepare s t u d e n t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s a l i k e f o r acceptance of the i n t e g r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . Hundred F l o w e r s Campaign  1957  The p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c was  a time of r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l a p p a r a t u s , and  the p e r i o d spanning the Cheng Feng Movement and the Hundred F l o w e r s 13 Campaign has been viewed i n terms of g r a d u a l retrenchment. 1 2  CB, No.  Following  169. '  13 Stewart F r a s e r , Chinese Communist E d u c a t i o n ( N a s h v i l l e , V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 32.  Tennessee:  57 the end of the Korean War the atmosphere was for  one  domestic a f f a i r s a g a i n r e c e i v e d p r i o r i t y  of r e a p p r a i s a l .  This stock-taking period  some degree of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .  summer of 1953  During  and  allowed the  a s e r i e s of c r i t i c a l c o n f e r e n c e s on h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n  h e l d at w h i c h h i g h - r a n k i n g  Party o f f i c i a l s reversed  was  the p r e v i o u s d i r e c t i o n  14 w h i c h s t r e s s e d q u a n t i t y over q u a l i t y . encouragement was  Thus, i n December of  g i v e n t o young people t o forego t h e i r s t u d i e s and  p a r t i n " g l o r i o u s work i n the f i e l d s and  factories."^  back on f a c i l i t i e s . and  One  was  take  There were a t  l e a s t two o b j e c t i v e reasons f o r t r i m m i n g the r a t e of e n r o l l m e n t  the Korean War  1953  and c u t t i n g  the severe economic d i s l o c a t i o n caused by  the other was  the e q u a l l y severe need to c a t e r t o .  q u a l i t y r a t h e r than q u a n t i t y to meet the needs of the f i r s t F i v e Year P l a n scheduled t o b e g i n i n 1953. assured  The  students  t h a t s u s p e n s i o n of s t u d i e s was  i n v o l v e d i n t h i s campaign were  o n l y temporary and  c o u l d be p r o p e r l y accommodated i n c o l l e g e . retrenchment had  o n l y u n t i l they •  Yet, i t i s c l e a r that a  taken p l a c e and a r e s u l t of t h i s campaign was  of the f o r m e r l y suspect  and  t h a t many  t a i n t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s were i g n o r e d and  permitted  t o r e t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n b o t h t e a c h i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  1956  The  c o n s o l i d a t i o n i n the. i n s t i t u t e s of h i g h e r  was  j u s t one  l e a r n i n g from 1953  a s p e c t l e a d i n g up t o the events which c u l m i n a t e d  a n t i - r i g h t i s t campaign d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n 1957.  The  to  i n an period  p o p u l a r l y known as the Hundred F l o w e r s Campaign which l e d to a r e c t i f i c a t i o n campaign w i t h i n the P a r t y s t r u c t u r e and has been s u b j e c t e d  the a n t i - r i g h t i s t campaign  t o much a n a l y s i s over the i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s .  F r a s e r , Chinese Communist E d u c a t i o n ,  p.  33.  F r a s e r , Chinese Communist E d u c a t i o n ,  p.  33.  In  order  58 to attempt a t r u l y c l e a r p i c t u r e of the events d u r i n g these y e a r s i t i s n e c e s s a r y b r o a d l y to a n a l y z e both e x t e r n a l as w e l l as i n t e r n a l  factors.  C o u p l i n g t h i s w i t h developments as they were r e l a t e d i n the Chinese  press  i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the m o t i v e s of Mao his  s u p p o r t e r s i n p u r s u i n g t h i s u n u s u a l campaign r e f e r r e d to by  and  one  f o r e i g n commentator as " . . . t h i s c o l o s s a l m i s t a k e . A r e p o r t i n January, 1956, by Chou E n - l a i p r e s e n t e d some r a t h e r s t r i k i n g f i g u r e s on the s t a t u s of i n t e l l e c t u a l s . of  H i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t  the 100,000 " h i g h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l s " o n l y 40 per cent a c t i v e l y  supported  the P a r t y , another 40 per cent were n e u t r a l , and the r e m a i n i n g 20 per cent e i t h e r opposed s o c i a l i s m or were o u t r i g h t  counter-revolutionaries.^  C o n s i d e r i n g the t o t a l number .of i n t e l l e c t u a l s  (3,840,000),^  t h i s would  mean a. hard core o p p o s i t i o n group o f 768,000 i n t e l l e c t u a l s ; a f o r m i d a b l e opposition.  As has been mentioned  above, the e x i g e n c i e s of the r e t r e n c h -  ment p o l i c y meant t h a t the i n t e l l e c t u a l s a t a l l l e v e l s were l e f t to themselves  f o r a p e r i o d of about t h r e e y e a r s .  F o r a l o o k a t what they  were d o i n g d u r i n g t h i s time i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e and r e v e a l i n g to note some of  the news a r t i c l e s d e a l i n g w i t h developments i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s .  A l t h o u g h these a r t i c l e s appeared mentioned  a f t e r Chou's speech many of the changes  had been i n the p r o c e s s of development f o r a t l e a s t one y e a r . " ^  In March, 1956, NCNA r e p o r t e d t h a t Nankai U n i v e r s i t y of T i e n t s i n had f u r t h e r improved  the w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the t e a c h i n g f a c u l t i e s ,  R o d e r i c k MacFarquhar, The Hundred F l o w e r s Campaign and the I n t e l l e c t u a l s (New York: F r e d e r i c k P r a e g e r , 1960), p. 12.  Chinese  ^ S. J . Noumoff, "China's C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n as a R e c t i f i c a t i o n Movement," P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , Nos. 3 & 4, XL ( F a l l , 1 9 6 7 — W i n t e r , 1968), 224. 1 8  Noumoff, "China's C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , " p.  224.  19  Survey C h i n a M a i n l a n d P r e s s , No. 1258, March, 1956 C o n s u l a t e G e n e r a l ) — h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as SCMP.  (Hong Kong:  U.S.  59 e n g i n e e r s , and m e d i c a l w o r k e r s .  T h i s i n c l u d e d d e c r e a s i n g the d u r a t i o n  and f r e q u e n c y o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r c o n f e r e n c e s i n the mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  and meetings such as those  I t was f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t :  I n o r d e r not t o waste t o o much time a t t e n d i n g t o the o r d i n a r y problems o f l i v e l i h o o d N a n k a i U n i v e r s i t y has d e c i d e d t o s e t up s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s and s m a l l mess h a l l s f o r t e a c h i n g f a c u l t i e s . 2 0 A n o t i c e posted a t T i e n t s i n U n i v e r s i t y and r e p o r t e d i n Kuang Ming J i h Pao A p r i l , 1956, i n d i c a t e d the degree t o which p r o f e s s o r s were g a i n i n g back some o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s p r i v i l e g e s : For the purpose o f s e c u r i n g the t e a c h e r s o f t h i s u n i v e r s i t y w i t h time f o r t e a c h i n g and s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i t i s hereby p r o v i d e d that: 1. the t e a c h e r s o f t h i s u n i v e r s i t y w i l l be- a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n or b u s i n e s s from 2:30 t o 5:00 p.m. on Tuesday and F r i d a y o n l y . 2. v i s i t o r s i n t e n d i n g t o v i s i t t h i s u n i v e r s i t y were r e q u e s t e d t o c o n t a c t t h i s u n i v e r s i t y i n advance f o r p e r m i s s i o n and appointments and t o make t h e i r v i s i t s on the a p p o i n t e d times o t h e r w i s e they w i l l n o t be r e c e i v e d . 2 1 A remarkable  e d i t o r i a l i n People's D a i l y , March, 1956, f r a n k l y d e s c r i b e d  some o f the changes w h i c h had taken p l a c e i n Peking's Tsinghua i n the a r e a o f w o r k i n g  conditions for higher  University  intellectuals:  Many i n s t i t u t e s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g have taken steps t o i n t r o d u c e b e t t e r w o r k i n g and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r the .high i n t e l l e c t u a l s . The P e k i n g Tsinghua U n i v e r s i t y r e c e n t l y s e t up a s p e c i a l r e a d i n g room f o r p r o f e s s o r s only . . . . P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y has a l s o a s p e c i a l r e a d i n g room f o r p r o f e s s o r s from which they may borrow books a t any time by t e l e p h o n e . Tsinghua U n i v e r s i t y adopts the method of i s s u i n g p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment cards t o p r o f e s s o r s and a s s i s t a n t p r o f e s s o r s . These cards e n t i t l e t h e i r h o l d e r s to p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment i n the s c h o o l c l i n i c , the mess h a l l , and the consumers' c o o p e r a t i v e . . . ; the China M e d i c a l U n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d e s the p r o f e s s o r s and' the m a j o r i t y o f l e c t u r e r s w i t h more s p a c i o u s q u a r t e r s and a d d i t i o n a l f u r n i t u r e and bathrooms. I n the N o r t h e a s t I n s t i t u t e o f Pharmacology s p e c i a l t a b l e s a r e s e t up f o r the p r o f e s s o r s and l e c t u r e r s i n  i U  SCMP, No. 1258.  2 1  SCMP, No. 1288, A p r i l , 1956.  60 the mess h a l l s where they can have t h e i r meals w i t h o u t queuing up and where they can o r d e r t h e i r d i s h e s from the menu and have some served a t t h e i r t a b l e s by the c o o k s . 2 2  While i t i s h a r d l y l i k e l y t h a t the i n t e l l e c t u a l s were aware o f the e x a c t parameters  o f t h e i r freedom they s u r e l y must have known when they were  a p p r o a c h i n g the l i m i t s . these-developments  I t i s h i g h l y p o s s i b l e t h a t Chou E n - l a i  considered  when he p r e s e n t e d h i s 1956 r e p o r t on the i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  The P a r t y ' s concern was not o n l y l i m i t e d i n v o l v e d i t s own s t r u c t u r e .  In a situation  to i n t e l l e c t u a l s but a l s o  somewhat p a r a l l e l t o t h a t  f o l l o w i n g the Communist P a r t y ' s s e i z u r e o f power P a r t y membership had jumped d r a s t i c a l l y from 4,500,000 a t the end o f 1949 t o 12,720,000 by 1957. Of t h i s number o n l y 1,740,000 were c a t e g o r i z e d as i n d u s t r i a l  proletarians  r e p r e s e n t i n g 13.5 per cent o f the t o t a l P a r t y membership.  These were  b a s i c a l l y new r e c r u i t s whose l e v e l o f p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s c l e a r l y was l e s s than d e s i r e d . themselves  Many o f the o l d e r cadres were charged w i t h d i v o r c i n g  from the masses ( s e c t a r i a n i s m ) , e s t a b l i s h i n g i r r a t i o n a l p r i v i l e g 25  and e x h i b i t i n g  arrogance.  I t was a g a i n s t such a background  t h a t the  s l o g a n o f " L e t a Hundred F l o w e r s Bloom" was f i r s t e x p r e s s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a t h e a t r e f e s t i v a l i n the f a l l o f 1955. d e l i v e r e d a speech e n t i t l e d :  Then i n May,1956, Lu Ting-y  " L e t a Hundred F l o w e r s Bloom!  L e t a Hundred  27 S c h o o l s Contend!") T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t r e a l "thaw" i n the P a r t y ' s SCMP, 1260, March, 1 9 5 6 — e m p h a s i s added. 1  2 2  2 3  Noumoff, "China's C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , " p. 225.  2 4  Noumoff, p. 225.  25  Noumoff, p. 225.  F o r a complete d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s movement see, Rene Goldman, " R e c t i f i c a t i o n Campaign a t P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y , " C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y ( O c t o b e r — December, 1962), p. 138. 2 7  CB, No. 406, May, 1956.  r e l a t i o n s w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l s and s t u d e n t s .  However, i n the early-  stages  The n e x t major speech was  few dared t o respond t o the i n v i t a t i o n .  g i v e n by Mao Tse-tung on F e b r u a r y 27, 1957, a t an e n l a r g e d Supreme. S t a t e Conference and was e n t i t l e d :  s e s s i o n o f the  "On the C o r r e c t H a n d l i n g o f  90  C o n t r a d i c t i o n s Among the P e o p l e . "  I n t h i s speech (which was n o t r e l e a s e d  to the p u b l i c u n t i l June 10) Mao announced t h a t a r e c t i f i c a t i o n campaign was about t o be launched and i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h P a r t y by n o n - P a r t y people should be e a r n e s t l i k e a " m i l d breeze and a t h i n r a i n . "  c r i t i c i s m o f the  i t should n e v e r t h e l e s s be  The f i r s t o f f i c i a l d i r e c t i v e was  r e l e a s e d by the C e n t r a l Committee on A p r i l 30, 1957, and s t i p u l a t e d t h a t the focus o f the movement was t o be on the c o r r e c t h a n d l i n g o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s among the p e o p l e .  The l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d on the movement by Mao i n h i s  F e b r u a r y 27 speech were not s p e l l e d out i n the A p r i l document (in f a c t there i s some q u e s t i o n as t o whether these l i m i t a t i o n s were a c t u a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the F e b r u a r y speech or o n l y a f t e r the a n t i - r i g h t i s t campaign had s t a r t e d i n June when the speech was r e l e a s e d t o the p u b l i c ) .  I n any case, the  d i r e c t i v e i n d e s c r i b i n g the movement as based on the c o r r e c t h a n d l i n g o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s among the people i n d i c a t e d t h a t c r i t i c i s m must be c o n s t r u c t i v e towards s o c i a l i s m and the P a r t y and n o t d e s t r u c t i v e . . The work,"29  campaign e n t i t l e d , '-movement f o r the r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f s t y l e and w  a  s  d e s i g n e d t o e r a d i c a t e the " t h r e e e v i l s " which,plague any  l a r g e , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l power-wielding s t r u c t u r e :  bureaucratism,  subjectivism,  30 and  sectarianism.  Bureaucratism  i s analogous t o " r e d t a p e . "  28 Schram, The P o l i t i c a l Thought, p. 240. 2? MacFarquhar, Hundred F l o w e r s , 30 MacFarquhar, p. 35.  p. 35.  Subjectivism  62 i s an a r e a of d e v i a t i o n the Chinese communists have always been d e e p l y concerned w i t h and which meant the b l i n d a p p l i c a t i o n of the t h e o r i e s of Marxism and L e n i n i s m w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p r a c t i c a l  conditions.  F i n a l l y , s e c t a r i a n i s m i s the arrogance and condescending  a t t i t u d e of P a r t y  members towards o u t s i d e r s . I n s h o r t , c r i t i c i s m was  T h i s was  a f a u l t m a i n l y of the o l d e r c a d r e s .  t o be s t r i c t l y p o s i t i v e and should be designed to  s t r e n g t h e n the P a r t y and not weaken or d e s t r o y i t . Another ground  f a c t o r to be c o n s i d e r e d i n an e f f o r t t o understand  the back-  of the Hundred F l o w e r s Campaign and i t s r e l a t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n i s  the e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n 1956 and 1957. t h a t s i n c e the A p r i l , 1954  I t must be remembered  S i n o - I n d i a n agreement on T i b e t and the r e s u l t i n g  " F i v e P r i n c i p l e s of P e a c e f u l C o e x i s t e n c e " C h i n a had been moving s t e a d i l y i n the d i r e c t i o n of m o d e r a t i o n  i n h e r f o r e i g n p o l i c y and a p a r a l l e l t r e n d  i n her domestic- p o l i c y . , T h i s was  f o l l o w e d by the Geneva conference a t  which C h i n a , r e p r e s e n t e d a b l y by P r e m i e r Chou E n - l a i , p l a y e d a c r u c i a l r o l e i n m e d i a t i n g the d i s p u t e between the V i e t Minh and the F r e n c h Indo-China.  L a t e r t h a t same s p r i n g the S o v i e t Union began moving i n a  more l i b e r a l d i r e c t i o n as e v i d e n c e d by Khrushchov's rapprochement w i t h T i t o . Congress  over  The y e a r 1956  of the CPSU and Khrushchov's  April visit  and  saw the meeting of the 20th  s c a t h i n g a t t a c k on S t a l i n which  l a t e r c r i t i c i z e d by the Chinese as the b e g i n n i n g of r e v i s i o n i s m .  was  Then i n  October, 1956, a b l o o d l e s s r e v o l u t i o n i n Poland brought Wladyslaw Gomulka to power.  Gomulka had the support of the P o l i s h people and was  d e f y the S o v i e t P r e s i d i u m which  able to  ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of M o l o t o v and Zhukov)  had f l o w n to Warsaw and r e p o r t e d l y t h r e a t e n e d armed i n t e r v e n t i o n . o  p.  -i  D a v i d H o r o w i t z , From Y a l t a to Vietnam 287.  (Great B r i t a i n :  Penguin,  1967),  63 Gomulka, however, was a b l e t o p r e s e r v e h i s r e v o l u t i o n because o f h i s p o p u l a r support and the S o v i e t l e a d e r s c o u l d count on P o l i s h f e a r o f Germany t o keep Poland l o y a l t o the R u s s i a n a l l i a n c e . d i d not f a r e as w e l l .  Demonstrations  Hungary, however,  o c c u r r e d on October  21 and 23  m o t i v a t e d by the same n a t i o n a l i s t i c d e s i r e s t h a t had rocked  Poland  ( a l t h o u g h from the v e r y f i r s t , r e v o l u t i o n a r y f e r v o r was more i n t e n s e i n Hungary due t o the g r e a t e r s u f f e r i n g o f the Hungarians R a k o s i regime."^  2  under the v i c i o u s  The l e a d e r s h i p , i n the person o f Erno Gero, ordered  the crowds f i r e d upon, a p p o i n t e d Nagy p r e m i e r , and w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g Moscow c a l l e d i n S o v i e t t r o o p s t o put down the p e o p l e .  Finally,  Suslov  and Mikoyan ( t h e l a t t e r f u r i o u s t h a t S o v i e t t r o o p s had. b e e n . c a l l e d i n ) a r r i v e d , removed Gero and agreed been r e s t o r e d . 3 3  t o withdraw S o v i e t troops.when o r d e r had  T h i s was p a r t o f the background which i n f l u e n c e d Mao's  speech on c o n t r a d i c t i o n s among the p e o p l e .  He was c l e a r l y p r o f o u n d l y  a f f e c t e d by the e x p e r i e n c e o f E a s t e r n Europe and was anxious t o take measures t o prevent s i m i l a r d i s o r d e r s among the Chinese  people.  What a t the time  appeared t o be a sudden s h i f t o f domestic p o l i c y thus appears p r e d i c t a b l e ( w i t h the advantage o f h i n d s i g h t ) . T u r n i n g now t o some o f the types o f c r i t i c i s m l e v e l e d a t the P a r t y : both c o n s t r u c t i v e and d e s t r u c t i v e were p r e s e n t .  A l t h o u g h the p r e c i s e  c r i t e r i a o f c o n s t r u c t i v e and d e s t r u c t i v e were not expressed u n t i l Mao's speech appeared i n p r i n t i n June some s c h o l a r s b l a t a n t l y overstepped what were s u r e l y i m p l i c i t b o u n d a r i e s o f c r i t i c i s m , the Hundred F l o w e r s Campaign  H o r o w i t z , p. 288. H o r o w i t z , p. 288.  64 notwithstanding.  Most o f the e a r l y c r i t i c i s m s emanated from the  u n i v e r s i t i e s and were m i l d and h e s i t a n t . t h i s type o f c r i t i c i s m t h a t was to  the P a r t y and  socialism.  Kuang Ming J i h Pao  on May  considered  One  4 was  Most were f a c t u a l , and c o n s t r u c t i v e and  beneficial  i n .the form of s e l f - c r i t i c i s m by  to break the i c e .  emphasis on u n i t y and  i t was  o f the f i r s t c r i t i c i s m s a p p e a r i n g  o l d - t i m e P a r t y member then t e a c h i n g at P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y . been designed  Peking  in an  T h i s may  P r o f e s s o r Feng T i n g d e c r i e d the  have  over-  the s i n g u l a r l a c k o f c r i t i c i s m among P a r t y members.  T h i s he thought would l e a d to a k i n d of s t a g n a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n . academic circles: Chairman Mao submitted t h a t t h e r e should be u n i t y , c r i t i c i s m , u n i t y . T h i s i s to say t h a t we should f i r s t s t a r t w i t h the d e s i r e f o r u n i t y p a s s i n g through c r i t i c i s m and a r r i v e a t . b e t t e r u n i t y on a new f o u n d a t i o n . I f we o n l y t a l k of u n i t y , and whenever we meet we o n l y t a l k of p l e a s a n t t h i n g s a v o i d i n g c r i t i c i s m s , t h a t w i l l be a v u l g a r u n i t y ; and y e t at p r e s e n t P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y i s f a c e d w i t h a s i t u a t i o n i n which t h e r e i s u n i t y , u n i t y and a g a i n u n i t y , but too l i t t l e c r i t i c i s m . But . o n l y t a l k i n g of u n i t y does not l e a d to any changes i n t h i n k i n g . T h i s was  a g e n e r a l opening f o r the more p a r t i c u l a r types of  criticism  which followed. Many o f the a r t i c l e s a p p e a r i n g on the f a u l t s of s u b j e c t i v i s m and  during.the  sectarianism.  e a r l y s p r i n g months centered One  t h a t combined the  two was  w r i t t e n by the Deputy D i r e c t o r of the I n s t i t u t e of  Science  ( L e i T'ien-chueh) on May  Mechanical  20 and r e p o r t e d i n Kuang Ming J i h Pao:  There i s a tendency f o r p o l i t i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to o v e r r i d e c u l t u r a l and t e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Many s t u d e n t s sent to S o v i e t R u s s i a f i n d d i f f i c u l t y k e e p i n g up w i t h t h e i r s t u d i e s .... The s t o c k of a student who has been to R u s s i a r i s e s s k y - h i g h on h i s r e t u r n and he gets a cushy job and a p r i n c e l y s a l a r y and e n j o y s a l l s o r t s of p r i v i l e g e s i n c l u d i n g meals a t s p e c i a l messes . . . .35 MacFarquhar, p.  79.  MacFarquhar, p.  83.  65 On the q u e s t i o n s of d o c t r i n a r i a n i s m and b u r e a u c r a t i s m Kuang Ming J i h Pao presented  two c r i t i c i s m s on May  1, one by a p r o f e s s o r of e d u c a t i o n a t  E a s t China Normal U n i v e r s i t y , Chu Y u - h s i e n , and another' by the head of the b i o l o g y department a t F u t a n U n i v e r s i t y , T'an.  Chia-cheng:  Chu Y u - h s i e n — D u r i n g the p a s t few y e a r s the fundamental f e a t u r e has been the m e c h a n i c a l c o p y i n g of S o v i e t e x p e r i e n c e s . There has been a s t r o n g t i n g e of d o c t r i n a i r i s m . Up to the p r e s e n t , Chinese i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n are s t i l l u s i n g R u s s i a n t e x t b o o k s on e d u c a t i o n . No t e x t b o o k s on e d u c a t i o n have been w r i t t e n and p u b l i s h e d by o u r s e l v e s to s u i t the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s of C h i n a . . . .36 T'an C h i a - c h e n g — I t i s understood t h a t i n the c e n t r a l government t h e r e are now about f o r t y or f i f t y m i n i s t r i e s . E v e r y m i n i s t r y has e s t a b l i s h e d some s c h o o l s , p u b l i s h i n g houses, and r e s e a r c h c e n t e r s . Each o f them needs a number of high-grade i n t e l l e c t u a l s as l e a d e r s . T h e r e f o r e , many top c l a s s i n t e l l e c t u a l s are t i e d down w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s and v e r y few of them are a c t u a l l y d o i n g any r e s e a r c h . T h i s i s an enormous waste . . . . Here I t h i n k i t i s n e c e s s a r y to r e p e a t : t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between s c i e n c e and p o l i t i c s . A s c i e n t i s t should not separate h i m s e l f from p o l i t i c s ; but s c i e n c e s t h e m s e l v e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y the n a t u r a l sciences—are classless.37 Of c o u r s e , f o l l o w i n g the r i f t w i t h , the S o v i e t Union i n 1958 s i n c e the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t h e r e has been l e s s m e c h a n i c a l the e x p e r i e n c e s of the S o v i e t Union.  and  expecial'ly  copying of  T'an's c r i t i c i s m on the o t h e r hand,  d e a l s w i t h the n a t u r e of an expanding b u r e a u c r a c y .  A t t e m p t s were made  s h o r t l y a f t e r the Hundred F l o w e r s Campaign t o s t r e a m l i n e the s t r u c t u r e of the b u r e a u c r a c y  ( a l t h o u g h one can be assured t h a t the a u t h o r ' s  sentence would c e r t a i n l y not pass M a r x i s t s c r u t i n y ) . of s e c t a r i a n i s m was  A clear description  g i v e n by P r o f e s s o r Ma Tse-min, o f the C e n t r a l South  C o l l e g e of Finance and Economics and r e p o r t e d i n the May Kuang Ming J i h Pao: O  Si  MacFarquhar,.p. 91. 37  last  MacFarquhar, p.  91.  8 t h i s s u e of  66 Some Party comrades are so self-righteous that they regard whatever they say and do as representative Of the Party as a whole and 100 per cent c o r r e c t — i n d e e d as truth i t s e l f , they being the personification of truth . . . . t h i s i s l i k e a 'Christian believer saying "I represent God."38 The above examples of c r i t i c i s m against the "three evils -sectarianism,' 11  subjectivism, bureaucratism—were of the b e n e f i c i a l type and seem to have been what the Party had i n mind when the c a l l for c r i t i c i s m went out. But not a l l c r i t i c i s m f e l l within this category.  As was revealed i n the  a n t i - r i g h t i s t struggle that broke out i n June Of 1957 there were those who went beyond the acceptable parameters l a i d out by the Party and focused their attacks on the very foundations of Party rule and socialism i t s e l f . One such example,- reported i n People's Daily on May 31, originated from the 39 department of economics at China People's University.  In this a r t i c l e  Ko P'ei-ch'i, lecturer i n i n d u s t r i a l economics, d i r e c t l y attacked the foundations of the Party: When the Communist Party entered the c i t y i n 1949, the common people welcomed i t with food and drink and looked upon i t as a b e n e f i c i a l force. ' Today, the common people choose to estrange themselves from the Communist Party as i f i t s members were gods and devils . . . i f the Communist Party distrusted me the d i s t r u s t would be mutual. China, belongs to 600,000,000 people including the counter-revolutionaries. I t does not belong to the Communist Party alone . . . the masses may knock you down, k i l l the communists, overthrow you. This cannot be described as unpatriotic f o r the communists no longer serve the people. The downfall of the Communist Party does not mean the downfall of China . . . . 4 0  To say that the Communist Party does not serve the people casts doubt on their claim to represent the "People"  (primarily workers.and peasants)  and therefore undermines the raison d'etre of a vanguard r u l i n g party. 3 8  MacFarquhar, pp. 93-94.  39 Many of the "anti-Party" a r t i c l e s were written by instructors i n economics and related f i e l d s . See, MacFarquhar. MacFarquhar, p. 89.  67 T h i s type of c r i t i c i s m was  c e r t a i n l y not c o n s i d e r e d  and  The  the Communist P a r t y . "  c r i t i c i s m i n even h a r s h e r  " b e n e f i c i a l to s o c i a l i s m  f o l l o w i n g month Ko P ' e i - c h ' i c o n t i n u e d  his  language:  I want t o r e i t e r a t e once a g a i n t h a t the masses want to overthrow the Communist P a r t y and k i l l the communists. I f you do not r e f o r m and make e f f o r t s and the d e g e n e r a t i o n i s a l l o w e d to c o n t i n u e , t h e r e w i l l come the day when you w i l l t r a v e l t h a t road . . . W h i l e some t a l k e d of e v e n t s t h a t would come i f the P a r t y d i d not change i t s ways other advocated o u t r i g h t d i s s o l u t i o n of P a r t y  rule:  "Doing away w i t h the a b s o l u t e l e a d e r s h i p of the P a r t y , " s a i d Huang C h e n - l u , " i s aimed a t s t r e n g t h e n i n g the P a r t y l e a d e r s h i p and making the P a r t y a vanguard . . . ." " The a b s o l u t e l e a d e r s h i p of the P a r t y must be done away w i t h . The p r i v i l e g e s of P a r t y members must be done away with'." 2 4  Huang Chen-lu and  Chang Po-shen, b o t h of Shenyang Normal C o l l e g e , were  l a t e r l a b e l e d r i g h t i s t s i n the campaign which f o l l o w e d .  There i s l i t t l e  doubt t h a t some of t h e i r more s u b s t a n t i v e c r i t i c i s m s were v a l i d and recognized  probably  as such by the P a r t y l e a d e r s h i p which opened up the p e r i o d  c r i t i c i s m but i t was  the manner i n which they presented  t h a t caused t h e P a r t y c o n c e r n .  their  of  criticism  To.suggest t h a t the P a r t y r e l i n q u i s h  t h e i r p o s i t i o n of power meant e i t h e r t h a t one had remained i g n o r a n t  of  the P a r t y l i n e  was  (which i s l i t e r a l l y  presenting a d i r e c t challenge  impossible  t o the P a r t y .  i n China) or t h a t one The  l a t t e r i s most l i k e l y  the case; even MacFarquhar admits t h a t the two main f i g u r e s i n the r i g h t i s t campaign (Chang Po-chun and L o - L u n g - c h i ) were o b v i o u s l y , for  power.  anti-  grasping  44  ^  MacFarquhar, p.  88.  4 2  MacFarquhar, p.  106.  From a u t h o r ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n P e k i n g w i t h Wu Shao-tse, member of Communist P a r t y and member of the S t a n d i n g Committee of the A l l - C h i n a Youth F e d e r a t i o n , August, 1966. 4 4  MacFarquhar, p.  265.  the  68 The May  r e s u l t of a l l t h i s c r i t i c i s m ( d u r i n g a p e r i o d r o u g h l y  1 t o June 8) was  t h a t on June 8, 1957,  an e d i t o r i a l i n P e o p l e ' s  D a i l y announced the l a u n c h i n g of a c o u n t e r - a t t a c k who  on c e r t a i n " r i g h t i s t s "  wished t o do away w i t h the Communist P a r t y and  question decided  s t i l l remains as to e x a c t l y why  from  Mao  and  socialism.^  o t h e r s i n the  The leadership  on a course which c e r t a i n l y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n i t many dangers.  T h i s w i l l never be a b s o l u t e l y r e s o l v e d u n t i l i t i s p o s s i b l e to r e f e r to the i n t e r n a l f i l e s of the Communist P a r t y but  some reasonable  can be made on the b a s i s of e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .  conjectures  For instance i t i s  known t h a t the P a r t y has always been concerned w i t h , the l e v e l of c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  political  Attempts have been made to e x p l a i n  the p r i n c i p l e s of s o c i a l i s m i n i n t e l l e c t u a l terms ( i . e . , Yenan Forum) and v i g o r o u s  a t t e m p t s have been made t o b r i n g about c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l  changes i n the minds of i n t e l l e c t u a l s  ( i . e . , cheng-feng and  but the P a r t y has never been e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l . (see p. 58) a t t e s t s t o t h i s .  "thought  reform  Chou E n - l a i ' s r e p o r t  I t i s a l s o known t h a t the P a r t y was  deeply  i n f l u e n c e d by e x t e r n a l e v e n t s (e.g., e v e n t s i n E a s t e r n Europe, the "thaw" i n the S o v i e t U n i o n , the agreement w i t h I n d i a ) and peaceful c oe-xistence. own  l i m i t a t i o n s and  On the o t h e r hand the P a r t y was  f a i l u r e s and  There was  by Wu  t o r e v e a l them no reason f o r  concerns w i t h the i d e o l o g y of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s and w i t h  s t y l e and work of the P a r t y t o e x c l u d e each o t h e r .  of  o p e n l y aware of i t s  thought t h a t the b e s t way  would be t o encourage c r i t i c i s m from o u t s i d e r s . these two  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  the  I t has been suggested  Shao-tse t h a t a d e s i r e t o d e a l w i t h both of these concerns a t the  same time was  a t the r o o t of the d e c i s i o n to la'unch the Hundred F l o w e r s  45' MacFarquhar, p.  263.  1  69 Campaign.  T h i s i s e n t i r e l y r a t i o n a l and r e a s o n a b l e  t h a t the P a r t y was  and  i n no way  indicates  caught unawares when i t launched i t s a n t i - r i g h t i s t  struggle. The  o v e r - a l l e f f e c t of the Hundred F l o w e r s Campaign and  i n the f i e l d of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was i n terms of compulsory p o l i t i c a l  a g e n e r a l t i g h t e n i n g up of the  The  curriculum  courses.and i n d o c t r i n a t i o n . A p a r t  these g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the regime had f o l l o w i n g year.  i t s aftermath  Great Leap Forward was  from  o t h e r t h i n g s i n mind f o r the t o usher i n a new  e r a of  expanding p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and more i m p o r t a n t l y , a more v i g o r o u s campaign t o r e a l i z e s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s .  The The  1958  R e c t i f i c a t i o n Campaign, the "blooming and c o n t e n d i n g "  i n t e l l e c t u a l s and convince  Great Leap Forward  of the  the r e s u l t a n t a n t i - r i g h t i s t campaign a l l served  the P a r t y t h a t the time was  and q u a n t i t a t i v e " l e a p f o r w a r d . "  ripe for a significant  Thus i n May,-  1968,  to  qualitative  L i u Shao-chi gave  the keynote speech of the Great Leap Forward e n t i t l e d , "The  Present  S i t u a t i o n , the P a r t y ' s G e n e r a l L i n e f o r S o c i a l i s t C o n s t r u c t i o n and I t s Future T a s k s , i n  w h i c h he o u t l i n e d the v a r i o u s p o s i t i v e c o n d i t i o n s  w h i c h f a v o r e d a leap forward important  i n a l l a s p e c t s of s o c i e t y .  areas i n c l u d e d i n the campaign was  s p r i n g the P a r t y c a l l e d a n a t i o n a l conference e x a c t l y how The  education.  One  of the most  L a t e r i n the  on e d u c a t i o n  to determine  t o make e d u c a t i o n a v i t a l p a r t of the Great Leap Forward.  r e s u l t of the conference  by the S t a t e C o u n c i l and  was  an e d u c a t i o n a l d i r e c t i v e i s s u e d  jointly  the C e n t r a l Committee and r e l e a s e d i n September,  Robert R. Bowie and John K i n g F a i r b a n k , Communist C h i n a 1955-1959: P o l i c y Documents w i t h A n a l y s i s (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962), p. 416. 4 6  70 1958.  4 7  I n J u l y , Lu T i n g - y i had g i v e n h i s f a r - r e a c h i n g speech ( d i s c u s s e d  on p. 33 ) on e d u c a t i o n and the two documents t o g e t h e r form the  theoretical  b a s i s f o r some o f the most a m b i t i o u s g o a l s ever proposed b e f o r e  the  C u l t u r a l Revolution.. The  September d i r e c t i v e r e i t e r a t e d  the need t o make h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n  u n i v e r s a l . a n d put a d e a d l i n e of f i f t e e n y e a r s on i t . Another f i f t e e n y e a r s were to be a l l o t e d i n o r d e r to r a i s e s t a n d a r d s . s p e c i f i c a l l y denounced as b o u r g e o i s  The  directive  such i d e a s as " e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s own  sake" and " p r o f e s s i o n a l mangement of- e d u c a t i o n by e d u c a t o r s " and i n s t e a d suggested  t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g be a d m i n i s t e r e d by  committees.  Other major d e f e c t s of e d u c a t i o n i n the past were i t s d i v o r c e  from p r o d u c t i o n and l a b o r , i t s a l o o f n e s s from p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s , i t s n e g l e c t of p o l i t i c s and i t s l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p by the P a r t y . r e c t i f y the l a t t e r shortcoming  the d i r e c t i v e suggested  t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a -  t i v e committees of c o l l e g e s would f u n c t i o n under the guidance r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a s s i g n e d to them.  The  remolding  Top p r i o r i t y would be g i v e n to  of b o t h t e a c h e r s and  Campaign) and promotion  of P a r t y  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the P a r t y would  d e s i g n a t e a p p r o p r i a t e P a r t y members t o o r g a n i z e and l e a d the a c t i v i t i e s of each c l a s s .  I n order to  students  political  ideological  (a r e s u l t of the Hundred' F l o w e r s  of t e a c h e r s would-be based more on t h e i r  political  and i d e o l o g i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than had p r e v i o u s l y been done i n the past.' I n - t h e case of s t u d e n t s , e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r achievements would be more i n terms of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s  and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s o l v e  p r a c t i c a l problems.  People's D a i l y , September 20,  1958.  71 As was mentioned i n Lu's program was The  a r t i c l e , a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of the  new  to be the i n t e g r a t i o n of l e a r n i n g w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r .  d i r e c t i v e ordered  t h a t s c h o o l s of a l l l e v e l s should make p r o v i s i o n s  i n the c u r r i c u l u m f o r r e g u l a r l a b o r a c t i v i t i e s by every s t u d e n t . b r i d g e the gap between e d u c a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n , s c h o o l s and were t o e s t a b l i s h f a c t o r i e s and engage i n p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r .  To  universities  farms where students would be able to  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , t h a t i n the communes  ( a l s o pushed ahead d u r i n g the Great Leap Forward) s m a l l - s c a l e f a c t o r i e s were set up to h e l p merge the d i f f e r e n c e s between c i t y and  countryside.  The Great Leap Forward was  of the most  p r a c t i c a l was  a p e r i o d of i n n o v a t i o n s and one  the i d e a of part-work,  geared to s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s : spare-time;  part-study.  T h i s i d e a of course  f a c t o r y workers would study i n t h e i r  i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , s t u d e n t s would work i n t h e i r s p a r e - t i m e ;  farms, farmers would study d u r i n g the o f f - s e a s o n . spare-time  was  u n i v e r s i t i e s t h e r e was  on  I n a d d i t i o n to the  a mushrooming o f i n s t i t u t i o n s  going  48 under the name of "Red  and E x p e r t U n i v e r s i t i e s . " .  The  as a concept demands t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s ' s t r i v e to be both sound and t e c h n i c a l l y competent.  term " r e d - e x p e r t " ideologically  W i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y t h e r e i s a d u a l  emphasis on p o l i t i c a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . c o n t r o l s the p o l i t i c a l end and  the e x p e r t s the t e c h n i c a l end.  s l o g a n throughout i s t o " l e t p o l i t i c s take•command."  The The  Party guiding  W i t h the renewed  emphasis on p o l i t i c s e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r e t i c a l pronouncements a g a i n brought f o r t h Mao's d e f i n i t i o n of knowledge as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y of two  types:  Theodore H s i - e n Chen, The P o p u l a r i z a t i o n of H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Communist C h i n a , U.S. Dept. of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare No. 24 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1959) p. 7.  the  72 knowledge o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e and the knowledge o f the s t r u g g l e f o r production.  49  The  competence o f t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s a l i k e was t o be  judged i n terms o f these two types o f knowledge; a n y t h i n g e l s e was relatively  unimportant.  I n k e e p i n g w i t h the Chinese communists' i n c l i n a t i o n t o experiment w i t h a p o l i c y b e f o r e p u t t i n g i t i n t o wide-spread p r a c t i c e , one o f the f i r s t s c h o o l systems t o i n s t i t u t e work-study Eastern province of Liaoning.  programs was i n the N o r t h -  On F e b r u a r y 5, 1958, People's D a i l y  r e p o r t e d t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n department o f L i a o n i n g was mapping out p l a n s t o enable s t u d e n t s t o work w h i l e s t u d y i n g . to be s e t up i n remote mountain a r e a s .  The s c h o o l s were  S t u d e n t s , p r i n c i p a l s , and t e a c h e r s  were t o c o n s t r u c t the p h y s i c a l p l a n t , engage i n farm work t o grow t h e i r own food and thus- become an e n t i r e l y s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g community.  The  a r t i c l e went on t o s t r e s s t h a t a prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s type o f s c h o o l was t o save money f o r the S t a t e .  I f the s c h o o l proved  viable,  then the system was t o be spread t o o t h e r areas o f the p r o v i n c e . More a l o n g i d e o l o g i c a l l i n e s was the case o f a middle s c h o o l i n Kaiping hsien—Shenyang  M i d d l e S c h o o l — w h o s e graduates were a s s i g n e d t o  the T a i Yang Shen f r u i t growers c o o p e r a t i v e .  These s t u d e n t s , boys and  g i r l s , worked s i d e by s i d e w i t h farmers i n an e f f o r t t o i n t e r g r a t e themselves w i t h the p e a s a n t s .  The a r t i c l e  stated:  By t a k i n g p a r t i n l a b o r the youths have a l s o r e a l i z e d t h a t the food they e a t o r the c l o t h e s they wear do not come by e a s i l y , which i s a v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e f o r them.-*! 4.9 . ee a r t i c l e by L u T i n g - y i i n Appendix. s  50 CB, No. 503, F e b r u a r y , 1958. 51 CB, No. 503.  At l e a s t one  i n t e r e s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n of the above statement concerns the  s o c i a l background of the students i n t h i s middle to  go to the c o u n t r y t o get e x p e r i e n c e  school.  I f they needed  i n l a b o r i n g i t would seem t h a t  they were not from l a b o r i n g f a m i l i e s thus i n d i c a t i n g the  continued  dominance of many s c h o o l s by the b o u r g e o i s i e and the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of urban elements i n the s c h o o l system as a whole. One operated One  outgrowth of the Great Leap Forward was  the emergence o f p r i v a t e l y  s c h o o l s , l i t e r a l l y owned and operated by p a r e n t s and  such s c h o o l was  r e p o r t e d i n People's D a i l y , F e b r u a r y  students.  6, 1958.  The  a r t i c l e r e v e a l e d t h a t i n Kweichow p r o v i n c e alone 6,000 p r i v a t e primary s c h o o l s had been formed.  These s c h o o l s were to be operated  p r i n c i p l e of " d i l i g e n c e and s c h o o l i n Sanhui h s i e n was and o p e r a t i o n .  P a r e n t s and  thrift."  The  on the  example of Chanming p r i m a r y  c i t e d t o d e s c r i b e the method of c o n s t r u c t i o n s t u d e n t s i n the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a a l l c o n t r i b u t e d  t h e i r l a b o r to the g a t h e r i n g o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and the making of b r i c k s . The  l a n d was  c l e a r e d by the p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s , and  were s e t up.  The  suitable structures  a r t i c l e emphasized t h a t the p a r t p l a y e d by the  parents,  s t u d e n t s , and t e a c h e r s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the s c h o o l gave them a sense of p r i d e and. accomplishment which was  reflected i n better  s c h o o l work, and  The  care of the s c h o o l .  done i n a number o f ways. t u i t i o n was  attendance,  f i n a n c i n g of these s c h o o l s i s  I f the s c h o o l was  run by a c o o p e r a t i v e ,  c o l l e c t e d to supplement the l a b o r of the s t u d e n t s .  In  then one  s c h o o l shock t r o o p s were formed t o h e l p out i n the mines by c a r r y i n g antimony 52 ore f o r s h o r t d i s t a n c e s . to  At another  study and h a l f t o p r o d u c t i o n . 5 2  CB, No.  503.  s c h o o l students devoted h a l f a day  I n a l l the s c h o o l s the i d e a was  for  74 p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s t o pay t h e i r , own way a l l e v i a t i n g the c o s t t o the S t a t e .  as much as p o s s i b l e , thus  By d o i n g the work themselves  they  would combine study w i t h l a b o r , t h e o r y w i t h p r a c t i c e , thus p r o g r e s s i n g a t the same time on an i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l . s t r u c t u r e o f the Chanming s c h o o l was  The  internal Operational  d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l :  P r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are c a r r i e d out i n groups. The s c h o o l set up a p r o d u c t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n committee. The s c h o o l i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r groups, each of which s e t s up f o u r p r o d u c t i o n teams. Each group i s a s s i g n e d t o a f i x e d f a r m i n g a r e a and t a s k . The s t u d e n t s get work p o i n t s f o r t h e i r j o b s and o b t a i n payment a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r work.^ 3  Another i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the Great Leap Forward was  the c o l l e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n of the young.  To remove the c h i l d r e n from  the f a m i l y s e t t i n g a l t o g e t h e r would a g a i n serve the d u a l purpose of b e i n g economical  (by f r e e i n g the p a r e n t s f o r more l a b o r ) and  ideologically  p r o g r e s s i v e (by b e i n g able t o devote more c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t s a t education).  I t was  t o appear throughout e d u c a t i o n was  i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s t h a t b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s began the c i t i e s o f C h i n a .  The  combining  a l s o c a r r i e d out i n these s c h o o l s as was  October 24, 1958,  socialist  of l a b o r w i t h  r e p o r t e d on  i n Kuang Ming J i h Pao::  Primary s c h o o l s on the suburbs of P a o t i n g , Hopei p r o v i n c e are promoting the b o a r d i n g system . . . i t f a c i l i t a t e s e d u c a t i n g the c h i l d r e n i n c o l l e c t i v i s m and h e l p s f o s t e r c o l l e c t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s and communist s t y l e s . ... The s t u d e n t s have made o u t s t a n d i n g achievements i n h e l p i n g people's communes plow l a n d I n the p r i n c i p l e of w o r k i n g while studying. The above examples serve t o i l l u s t r a t e the k i n d s of responses from the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s i n China t o the Great Leap F o r w a r d .  CB, No.'503. CB, No.  503.  received  T h i s campaign,  75 u n l i k e the others p r e c e d i n g i t , t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . .  t r u l y seemed t o attempt  the s y n t h e s i s o f  The Cheng Feng Movement o f 1951, and the Hundred  F l o w e r s Campaign o f 1956 b o t h s t r e s s e d .the importance  of i d e o l o g i c a l  c o r r e c t n e s s and sought .to i n c u l c a t e t h i s i n the s c h o o l system and i n those d i r e c t l y connected w i t h i t ( i . e . , the i n t e l l e c t u a l s ) . the e a r l i e r campaigns s e r i o u s l y undertook  Neither of  the t a s k o f combining the  t h e o r i e s they espoused w i t h the p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n around them.  But  appearances are n o t always what.they seem and a l t h o u g h the Great Leap Forward move'd more i n the d i r e c t i o n o f combining  theory w i t h p r a c t i c e  than  had the p r e v i o u s campaigns the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the advances made a t the h e i g h t o f the campaign were q u i c k l y l o s t as the opposition reasserted i t s e l f .  S o c i a l i s t Education Movement—Cultural The  R e v o l u t i o n 1962-1969  S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement which l a s t e d from 1962 t o 1966 has  been c l a i m e d by the Red Guards and o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s as b e i n g the d i r e c t antecedent  t o the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n . F o r  this  reason,  the two movements have been i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n under one h e a d i n g i n o r d e r more c l e a r l y t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p .  I n the p a s t ,  i n f o r m a t i o n on the S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement has been v e r y scant f o r the simple, r e a s o n t h a t mainland documents a v i l a b l e t o the West seldom a n a l y z e d the movement i n depth.  T h i s l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n has r e c e n t l y been .  c o r r e c t e d ' d u e t o a 1964 Chinese N a t i o n a l i s t r a i d on the p r o v i n c e o f F u k i e n which y i e l d e d s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t documents d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h  R i c h a r d Baum and F r e d e r i c k Teiwes, Ssu Ch'ing: The S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement of 1962-1966 ( B e r k e l y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968), p. 9. Most of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f the S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement i s taken from the above s o u r c e .  76 the S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement i n the r u r a l a r e a s .  These i n t e r n a l  P a r t y communications p r o v i d e the b u l k o f what i s known about t h i s movement and a l t h o u g h they are r e s t r i c t e d t o the problems o f the r u r a l areas t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the urban movement c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d t h a t o f the .  . j  countryside. The  56  S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement was t o be an i n s t r u m e n t t o c o r r e c t  some " u n h e a l t h y t e n d e n c i e s " which had a r i s e n among l o c a l P a r t y p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g the bad y e a r s o f 1959 t o 1961. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , these i n c l u d e d c o r r u p t i o n among b a s i c l e v e l c a d r e s , an o v e r a l l d e c l i n e i n morale and a general r e l a x a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l The  control.^  S o c i a l s t E d u c a t i o n Movement, t h e n , was n o t d i r e c t e d a t e i t h e r  s t u d e n t s or i n t e l l e c t u a l s but r a t h e r by the P a r t y a t l o c a l P a r t y o f f i c i a l s . The  campaign, o f c o u r s e , had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e inasmuch as P a r t y a f f a i r s and e d u c a t i o n a l a f f a i r s tend t o have a good d e a l o f o v e r l a p b u t i n i t s i n i t i a l phase r e s t r i c t e d i t s e l f t o those w i t h i n the P a r t y . The  f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n o f the movement came w i t h the Tenth Plenum o f  the C e n t r a l Committee which took p l a c e i n September, 1962, b u t the s p e c i f i c s were n o t known u n t i l the c a p t u r e o f the F u k i e n documents.  From the v e r y  b e g i n n i n g o f the movement t h e r e appeared t o be a c o n f l i c t i n h e r e n t i n the method o f r e c t i f i c a t i o n .  The movement was f i r s t experimented  such areas as L i e n c h i a n g i n F u k i e n p r o v i n c e .  with i n  Work teams o f o u t s t a n d i n g  P a r t y members and cadres o f the upper l e v e l s were sent down t o a i d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the r e c t i f i c a t i o n a p p a r a t u s .  ^  Baum, p. 10.  5 7  Baum, pp. 12-13.  By March, 1963, the movement  77 had  gained momentum and begun t o take shape as a s y s t e m a t i c  campaign.  The  o r i g i n a l d i r e c t i v e o f the Tenth Plenum had s t i p u l a t e d t h a t poor and  lower-middle peasants were t o take a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the making of d e c i s i o n s at the l o c a l l e v e l s .  Y e t the p r e s t i g i o u s work teams were a l s o on the  scene and the a c t u a l power o f b o t h groups was never c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .  Thus,  CO  t e n s i o n s arose between the two which were never f u l l y r e s o l v e d .  Finally,  i n September o f 1962 the movement was o f f i c i a l l y launched a g a i n s t the background o f stepped up e f f o r t s a t s y s t e m a t i z i n g c a d r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a b o r and i n t e n s i f i e d c l a s s - o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . To accompany the o f f i c a l s a n c t i o n i n g o f . t h e campaign the C e n t r a l Committee i s s u e d a new d i r e c t i v e c a l l e d the L a t e r Ten P o i n t s (Hou Shih T ' i a o) 59 which attempted t o p r o v i d e more d e t a i l e d p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s .  I n general  the tone o f the document was o p t i m i s t i c and s t a t e d t h a t the movement would probably personnel work.  be completed i n three m o n t h s . ^  The d i r e c t i v e c a l l e d f o r o u t s i d e  t o be formed i n t o work teams t o c a r r y out i n t e n s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l  A t t h i s p o i n t the work teams were warned t h a t they should not i n t e r f e r e  w i t h the l o c a l power s t r u c t u r e .  E v e r y i n d i c a t i o n was t h a t the movement was  g o i n g t o be a m i l d one i n t h a t cadres ( b a s i c l e v e l ) were t o l d s i m p l y t o r e c t i f y t h e i r ways and even former l a n d l o r d and r i c h peasant f a m i l i e s were t o be t r e a t e d g e n t l y .  The L a t e r Ten P o i n t s r e v e a l e d t h a t s e r i o u s d e t e r i o r a -  t i o n had t a k e n p l a c e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the cadres and the masses. Cadres were t o l d t h a t o n l y a s m a l l number o f them were able t o understand 61 the q u e s t i o n o f i d e o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . This i s a Baum, p. 16. 5 8  5 9  Baum, p. 20.  6 0  Baum, p. 22.  ^  Baum, p. 24.  78 serious admission  because i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t b e f o r e the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n  t h e r e was e v i d e n c e t h a t major d i f f i c u l t i e s e x i s t e d w i t h i n the P a r t y s t r u c t u r e e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f the f a i l u r e o f p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s , I n the summer o f 1964 the S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement moved i n t o h i g h gear.  The f i r s t e v a l u a t i o n o f the campaign was made p e r s o n a l l y by Mao who 62  found t h a t the movement was not p r o g r e s s i n g as w e l l as e x p e c t e d . major problem c o n t i n u e d  The  t o be t h a t o f the c o n f l i c t between the o u t s i d e  p e r s o n n e l who had come down t o the c o u n t r y s i d e t o s u p e r v i s e and the l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p who o s t e n s i b l y were t o manage t h e i r own a f f a i r s .  I n September  of 1964 a R e v i s e d D r a f t o f the L a t e r Ten P o i n t s was i s s u e d by the C e n t r a l 63 Committee.  I n many ways s i m i l a r t o the o r g i n a l L a t e r Ten P o i n t s t h i s  document was d e c i d e d l y p e s s i m i s t i c c o n c e r n i n g The time f o r c o m p l e t i o n  the o u t l o o k o f the movement.  o f the movement was now pushed ahead t o s i x y e a r s ,  and new emphasis was p l a c e d on the work teams and the power they were t o wield.  T h i s was coupled w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h  organizations.  The most important  local  change i n t h i s document was i n r e g a r d  to d e a l i n g w i t h l o c a l b a s i c l e v e l c a d r e s .  Whereas p r e v i o u s l y t h e i r s h o r t -  comings had been d e s c r i b e d as m i n o r , the tone o f the R e v i s e d D r a f t was fundamentally  different.  The masses were exhorted  s e r i o u s l y to c r i t i c i z e  the b a s i c l e v e l cadres and d u r i n g the f a l l o f 1964 t h e i r power and p r e s t i g e were s e r i o u s l y undermined. By the end o f 1964 there was u n c e r t a i n t y as t o the b a s i c nature o f the cadre problem and the proper focus o f s o c i a l i s t e d u c6 a? t i o n w o r k . ^  4  Baum, p. 27. 6 3 6 4  Baum, p. 29. Baum, p. 34.  Beginning emphasis.  i n J u l y o f 1965 the movement a g a i n e x p e r i e n c e d  Mao's works were now h e l d t o be the-key  S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement.^  a shift in  t o success , i n the  The t h r u s t of the s t r u g g l e among the cadres  s h i f t e d from the b a s i c , l e v e l cadres t o those a t the h s i e n l e v e l and above. The q u e s t i o n i s then r a i s e d as t o what happened between September o f 1963 and September o f 1964 t o cause such a s h i f t o f emphasis w i t h r e g a r d to b a s i c l e v e l cadres.  The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n g i v e s p a r t i a l answers.  The S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement had o r g i n a t e d i n response t o what were c a l l e d "spontaneous t e n d e n c i e s  toward c a p i t a l i s m " among c e r t a i n r i c h peasants  and e x - l a n d l o r d s and the shortcomings such a s i t u a t i o n t o d e v e l o p . ^  o f c e r t a i n P a r t y p e r s o n n e l who  allowed  Up t o the September, 1964, R e v i s e d D r a f t •  the s t r u g g l e s h i f t e d almost t o t a l l y t o the .basic l e v e l c a d r e s .  Official  p u b l i c a t i o n s d u r i n g and a f t e r the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n charge t h a t the R e v i s e d D r a f t and i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n his followers.6  7  were the work of L i u Shao-chi  and  A noted Ceylonese Communist P a r t y member r e s e a r c h e d the  C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n w h i l e i n China i n 1966 and 1967 and d e s c r i b e s a case h i s t o r y o f one commune and i t s e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g the S o c i a l i s t  Education  Movement. The S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement had r e p o r t e d l y reached  a commune i n  Taoyuan and was p r o g r e s s i n g w e l l i n c h e c k i n g the r i s e o f c a p i t a l i s t t e n d e n c i e s and r e c t i f y i n g c e r t a i n P a r t y p e r s o n n e l . ^  6 5  Baum, p. 43.  ^  Baum,.p. 45.  8  I n 1964 work teams  ^ T h e j a Gunawardhana, China's C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n (Ceylon: P u b l i s h e r s , 1967), p. 70. ^  Gunawardhana, p. 70.  Gunawardhana  80 were sent down and began to d i r e c t t h e i r a t t a c k s s o l e l y a g a i n s t the and  o r d i n a r y commune members.  considered  The  cadres  Communist P a r t y b r a n c h i n Taoyuan  p a r t i c u l a r l y advanced and r e s e n t e d  was  the a t t a c k s of the work teams.  But'the work team a t t a c k e d 85% of the cadres i n the b r i g a d e and many o r d i n a r y members were f o r c e d t o make p u b l i c s e l f c r i t i c i s m . The s e c r e t a r y of the P a r t y branch who had devoted h i s work to advance the road to s o c i a l i s m was the f i r s t t a r g e t . . . . [_He was] a r b i t r a r i l y e x p e l l e d from the P a r t y w i t h o u t any f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . 6 9 The  "Taoyuan e x p e r i e n c e "  China. was  Red  was  r e p o r t e d l y the p a t t e r n i n many o t h e r areas of  Guard w a l l p o s t e r s charged t h a t the S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n  b e i n g usurped by L i u i n order  i n the r u r a l a r e a s . charges of the Red had  Movement  to g a i n him and h i s f o l l o w e r s a f o o t h o l d  While there i s l i t t l e  concrete  e v i d e n c e to support the  Guards i t i s known t h a t by September of 1965  the  attacks  once a g a i n s h i f t e d t h i s time away from the b a s i c l e v e l cadres toward  P a r t y o f f i c i a l s at the h s i e n l e v e l and and Mao  above, and  the s t r u g g l e between L i u  had begun openly- to develop. '"' 7  W h i l e the movement thus p r o g r e s s e d p l a y w r i g h t W.u Han committee was  began.  the November 1965  By A p r i l , 1966,  a t t a c k on .  the e n t i r e P e k i n g M u n i c i p a l  i m p l i c a t e d thus r e v e a l i n g a more s e r i o u s power s t r u g g l e .  W i t h the d i s m i s s a l of P'eng Chen i n e a r l y June, p u b l i c n o t i c e was the "Great P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . "  7  i n August of 1966  not the S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n 69 Gunawardhana, p. 7 0  7  1 Baum, p.  45.  of  the q u e s t i o n was  When the  Central  r a i s e d as t o whether or  Movement ought to be combined w i t h the C u l t u r a l  70.  Baum, Ssu C h ' i n g , p.  given  P r i o r to t h a t time the term  "Great S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n " had been used. ''" Committee met  Party  44.  81 Revolution.  A t t h a t time i t was d e c i d e d t o keep the two s e p a r a t e or a t 72  l e a s t t o a l l o w them t o develop on t h e i r own.  Despite  Chou E n - l a i ' s  d i r e c t i v e t h a t Red Guards should n o t e n t e r the r u r a l areas o r the i n d u s t r i a l areas the movement once under way c o u l d not be stopped, and i n December of 1966 the p o l i c y was changed t o i n c l u d e a l l areas and the S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n Movement b o t h i n the c i t y and the c o u n t r y s i d e  was o v e r t a k e n by  the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . A complete d i s c u s s i o n o f the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n  i s not p o s s i b l e i n  t h i s paper p r i m a r i l y because o f the l e n g t h t h a t such a study would r e q u i r e but a l s o because there continue l a t e s t upheaval.  t o e x i s t many gaps i n our knowledge o f t h i s  Some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s as t o some o f the c a u s a l f a c t o r s  i n v o l v e d i n the development o f the movement b o t h a t the mass l e v e l and w i t h i n the power s t r u c t u r e are p o s s i b l e and n e c e s s a r y i n order  t o understand  what the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n meant f o r the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . I t i s c l e a r t h a t f o r a movement such as the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n t o b e g i n and develop as r a p i d l y as i t d i d a b a s i s f o r r e v o l t b o t h i n the top l e a d e r s h i p a r e a and among the masses o f people had t o e x i s t .  I t has been  s u f f i c i e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the b a s i s among the l e a d e r s h i p was what had been an i n c r e a s i n g l y growing c o n f l i c t between Mao's v i s i o n o f China's f u t u r e and L i u S h a o - c h i ' s . "the  two l i n e s . "  represented (at  T h i s was o f f i c i a l l y expressed as the s t r u g g l e between  I n s i m p l e s t terms, L i u Shao-chi and h i s c l o s e  associates  the l i n e which would b r i n g about the r e s t o r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m  l e a s t i n the eyes o f the s u p p o r t e r s  o f Mao), and Mao and L i n P i a o  r e p r e s e n t e d the l i n e w h i c h was d e f e n d i n g s o c i a l i s m . The b a s i s among the 72 D e c i s i o n o f the C e n t r a l Committee o f the Chinese Communist P a r t y C o n c e r n i n g the Great P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n (Peking: Foreign Languages P u b l i s h i n g House, 1967), p. 45.  82 masses has not been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d , but i t i s known t h a t  considerable  d i s c o n t e n t e x i s t e d among s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those o f worker and  peasant  o r i•g i•n . 73 The  background of the s t r u g g l e of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n among the  top l e a d e r s h i p can be b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as CPC)  The  Communist P a r t y of China.  has r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s e d t h a t the s e i z u r e of  p o l i t i c a l power i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e to the l a u n c h i n g of an economic, s o c i a l , and  cultural revolution.  r e v o l u t i o n i s considered of view of the CPC.  Among these t h r e e k i n d s of r e v o l u t i o n the  the most f a r - r e a c h i n g and d i f f i c u l t from the p o i n t  I t i s the most fundamental s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s changing  the minds and h e a r t s o f the p e o p l e .  Thus, the c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n reaches  i n t o a l l a s p e c t s of China's c u l t u r a l l i f e : and  language.  Revolution  The  f i r s t shot of the c u r r e n t Great P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l  when Mao  suggested t h a t Wu  From O f f i c e be c r i t i c i z e d . a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "On Office'."  l i t e r a t u r e , a r t , education,  ( h e r e a f t e r s i m p l y C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n ) may  October of 1965  cultural  the New  The  have been f i r e d in'  Han's n o v e l H a l J u i D i s m i s s e d  t a s k f e l l to Yao Wen-yan who  wrote an  H i s t o r i c a l N o v e l 'Hai J u i D i s m i s s e d  However, p u b l i c a t i o n of Yao's a r t i c l e was  reportedly  From prevented  on o r d e r s from P'eng Chen, F i r s t S e c r e t a r y of the P e k i n g M u n i c i p a l C o m m i t t e e . By December Mao  had e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t H a i J u i r e f e r r e d to the a c t i o n  taken at the 1959  CPC  C e n t r a l Committee's Lushan Conference a t which P'eng  Te-huai l e d an a t t a c k on the outcome of Mao's Great Leap Forward and subsequently and  73  dismissed.  "others."  74  P'eng Te-huai was  was  r e p o r t e d l y backed by P'eng Chen  7 5  M i c h a e l Oksenberg, The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n Review 1967, M i c h i g a n Papers on Chinese S t u d i e s No. 2 ( M i c h i g a n : M i c h i g a n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p. 14. Red F l a g , June 1, 1967. 7 4  P e t e r S. H. Tang and Joan M. Maloney, Communist China: The Domestic Scene 1949-1967 (South Orange, New J e r s e y : Seton H a l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p. 107. 7 5  83 By F e b r u a r y , 1966,  two d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed l i n e s had begun to  emerge w i t h i n the ranks of the CPC.  The  P'eng Chen f a c t i o n proposed ah  " O u t l i n e R e p o r t " l a t e r c r i t i c i z e d as b e i n g a c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y a i m i n g at a r e s t o r a t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m .  Meanwhile, L i n P i a o and  members of the P e o p l e ' s L i b e r a t i o n Army ( h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d PLA) counter  r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "Forum Summary."  The  r e p o r t s drew the b a t t l e l i n e s and " h e r a l d e d 7  made to P'eng.  the coming of the g r e a t  Wu Han,  t o "those who  Peking  Vice-Mayor, of  are s h e l t e r i n g the  F i n a l l y i n June P'eng was  developing  storm  From F e b r u a r y t o e a r l y June no  openly  attacked,  the e n t i r e P e k i n g M u n i c i p a l Committee of the CPC  Since the s t r u g g l e was  two  I n s t e a d , other members of the  P e k i n g ) always w i t h a v e i l e d r e f e r e n c e 77  r e p l a c e d , and  issued a  appearance of these  M u n i c i p a l Committee were a t t a c k e d . ( i . e . , Teng T'o,  counter-revolutionaries."  other  f)  of the P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . " d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e was  program  was  i n t o an i n t r a - P a r t y c o n f l i c t at  reorganized. the  h i g h e s t l e v e l s an enormous f o r c e o u t s i d e the ranks of the P a r t y was  needed 78  by Mao  i n order t o s u c c e s s f u l l y do b a t t l e .  The  f o r m a t i o n of the Red  a r e s u l t of any  one  Guards was  person's d e c i s i o n .  T h i s f o r c e was  the Red  Guards.  not an event which o c c u r r e d The  as  Red Guards as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y  mass o r g a n i z a t i o n d i r e c t l y a t t a c k i n g the P a r t y n a t u r a l l y had  t o have a  b a s i s f o r r e v o l t which had  The  the Red Guards was  developed over a p e r i o d of time.  basis for  the d i s c o n t e n t which had b u i l t up among worker  peasant s t u d e n t s who  r e a l i z e d t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l system which was  supposed t o be geared toward the p r o l e t a r i a t was Red F l a g , J u l y 1, 1967.  and officially  i n a c t u a l i t y s t i l l i n the  7 6  7 7  Red F l a g , May  16,  1967.  78  T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was made to the a u t h o r by j o u r n a l i s t Mark Gayne of the Toronto S t a r d u r i n g a symposium at the U n i v e r s i t y of H a w a i i i n 1967.  84 hands of " b o u r g e o i s " e d u c a t o r s .  The b u l k of the e v i d e n c e c i t e d f o r t h i s  charge r e s t e d on the Red Guards' v i e w t h a t the o l d e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e stressed s e l f i n t e r e s t .  T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the c e n t e r of the  r e v i s i o n i s t concept of e d u c a t i o n .  Examples of s e l f i n t e r e s t were the  extreme emphasis p l a c e d upon academic achievement, e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n s , p r e s t i g e ' g a i n e d by b e i n g i n the u n i v e r s i t y , and c o m p e t i t i o n f o r j o b s . A l l of  these t r a i t s of the u n i v e r s i t y were seen as a n t i s o c i a l and The Red Guards f i r s t appeared  individualistic.  i n June, 1966, and c o n s i s t e d o f a number 80  of  s t u d e n t s from Tsinghua U n i v e r s i t y .  They were r e s p o n d i n g to and  s u p p o r t i n g the a c t i o n s of a group of g i r l G i r l s ' M i d d l e S c h o o l who  s t u d e n t s from P e k i n g Number 1  on June 6 had w r i t t e n a l e t t e r t o the C e n t r a l  Committee and Chairman Mao  p r o p o s i n g t h a t the o l d system of e n r o l l i n g s t u d e n t s  i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s be a b o l i s h e d because of the " f e u d a l i s t i c " n a t u r e of the e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n s .  They f u r t h e r proposed  that senior  m i d d l e s c h o o l graduates go among the w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , and s o l d i e r s to i n t e g r a t e themselves w i t h the masses and t o get an i d e o l o g i c a l d i p l o m a from the p r o l e t a r i a t .  These p r o p o s a l s a l l seem c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i d e o l o g i c a l  l i n e which had p r e v a i l e d up t o t h a t p o i n t .  I t was  t h e r e f o r e s u r p r i s i n g when  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s - of the s c h o o l e x p e l l e d a l l the g i r l s who had t a k e n p a r t i n the d r a f t i n g of the document. M i d d l e S c h o o l which was 7 9  T h i s brought about a s t r i k e w i t h i n the G i r l s '  supported by s t u d e n t s of P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y , C h i n a  P e o p l e ' s D a i l y , November 20,  1967.  80 K. H. Ea.n, ed. The Chinese C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n : (New York: M o n t h l y Review P r e s s , 1968), p. 185. 8 1  P e k i n g Review, June 24,  1966.  S e l e c t e d Documents  85 P e o p l e ' s U n i v e r s i t y and Tsinghua U n i v e r s i t y , ^ 8  Y i e l d i n g under the combined  p r e s s u r e of s t u d e n t groups, the C e n t r a l 'Committee on June 13, 1966, the S t a t e C o u n c i l i s s u e d a j o i n t statement announcing  and  t h e i r d e c i s i o n to  83 change the e x i s t i n g e x a m i n a t i o n system.  T h i s a c t i o n encouraged  s t u d e n t s t o speak out on o t h e r i s s u e s , and by l a t e June groups  the  calling  themselves Red Guards had formed i n most of the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r learning i n Peking.  Serious proposals f o r educational reform  encompassing  a l l a s p e c t s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n came from Chinese P e o p l e ' s U n i v e r s i t y and Tsinghua U n i v e r s i t y .  T h e i r suggested reforms i n c l u d e d e n r o l l m e n t p r i o r i t i e s  f o r worker and peasant y o u t h , s h o r t e n i n g of c o u r s e s , more democracy i n the c l a s s r o o m , m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g i n the s c h o o l s , i n c r e a s e d study of Mao's works, 84 l e a r n i n g from w o r k e r s , combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r , e t c . By August  18 Mao had come out i n support of the Red Guards thus e n c o u r a g i n g  u n i t s * t o be formed  throughout China's e d u c a t i o n a l apparatus and c o n s e q u e n t l y  c l o s i n g down the e n t i r e s c h o o l system. -* 8  A l t h o u g h Red Guards began t o  move about i n a l l s e c t o r s of the s o c i e t y ( r u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , e t c . ) the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l o n l y d e a l w i t h t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and the p r o g r e s s o f the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n a l s e c t o r . F o r f i v e months s t u d e n t s a l l over C h i n a made demands c o n c e r n i n g the r e f o r m of the e d u c a t i o n a l system. But i t was not u n t i l J a n u a r y , 1967, t h a t 82 T h i s i s from a u t h o r ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h A u s t r a l i a n j o u r n a l i s t and e d u c a t i o n a l i s t Myra Roper who was i n C h i n a a t the time and w i t n e s s e d the s t r i k e and i t s a f t e r m a t h , March, 1967. Q  O  Wang Hsueh-wen, "An A n a l y t i c a l Study of the Chinese Communist E d u c a t i o n a l R e v o l u t i o n , " I s s u e s and S t u d i e s , I V , No. 17 ( A p r i l , 1968), 24. 8 4  P e o p l e ' s D a i l y , J u l y 12,  8 5  Wang, p. 25.  1966.  86 the C e n t r a l Committee prepared and r e l e a s e d a c o n c r e t e p l a n f o r r e f o r m . The p l a n c o n s i s t e d of twenty-two p o i n t s most of which were answers t o the p r o p o s a l s made by u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . d a t i o n s of the r e p o r t i n c l u d e d : institutions  Some of the more important recommen-  (1) e n r o l l m e n t f o r most s c h o o l s i n c l u d i n g  of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g s h a l l be determined  by a t w i n system  recommendation (not n e c e s s a r i l y academic recommendation) and  of  selection;  (2) the d u r a t i o n o f s c h o o l i n g s h a l l be l i m i t e d to a t o t a l o f from t e n to f o u r t e e n y e a r s depending on the s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y to cover the m a t e r i a l and the s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n the c o u n t r y ; (3) e n t r a n c e e x a m i n a t i o n s a b o l i s h e d ; (4) middle  s h a l l be  s c h o o l and p r i m a r y s c h o o l s h a l l be combined i n t o a  c o n t i n u o u s e i g h t year c o u r s e ; (5) Mao's works s h a l l be used i n a l l s c h o o l s ; (6) p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h a l l be r e p l a c e d by m i l i t a r y R u s s i a n g r a d i n g system  training;  (7) the  s h a l l be r e p l a c e d by a more d e m o c r a t i c system  g r a d i n g i n study groups;  of  (8) a s t u d e n t ' s f i n a l performance s h a l l be d e t e r -  mined by a t h r e e - i n - o n e c o m b i n a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e r s , t e a c h e r s , and s t u d e n t s ; (9) a student may  s k i p grades i f he i s a b l e and graduate  ahead  of t i m e ; (10) p o l i t i c a l departments s h a l l be set up i n e v e r y s c h o o l to take charge o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ;  (11) summer and w i n t e r v a c a t i o n s s h a l l  be used f o r p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r ; (12) academic t i t l e s etc.)  s h a l l be a b o l i s h e d . ^ 8  ( i . e . , p r o f e s s o r , dean,  These p r o p o s a l s are r e v e a l i n g i n a p o l i t i c a l  sense because they i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of p o l i t i c s i n the s c h o o l s up to the time of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n had  f o r some been l e s s  than  satisfactory. F i n a l l y i n F e b r u a r y and March of 1967  the C e n t r a l Committee i s s u e d  many n o t i c e s a s k i n g s t u d e n t s to r e t u r n to t h e i r c l a s s e s to c o n t i n u e making  8 6  Wang, pp. 25-26.  87 r e v o l u t i o n i n the s c h o o l s . out of the r u r a l and  The  i n t e n t here was  to get the Red  i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s of the country  the r e v o l u t i o n a r y committees i n the f a c t o r i e s and  Guards  i n order  to  allow  communes to take over  87 control.'  From March, 1967,  d r i f t i n g back to c l a s s e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s are now  to the p r e s e n t ,  s t u d e n t s have been g r a d u a l l y  i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t most c o l l e g e s  i n s e s s i o n but w i t h a constant  and  presence of t e n s i o n i n  the a i r . D u r i n g the two y e a r s from March, 1967, teachers  t o March, 1969,  students  from the c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s of C h i n a experimented w i t h  numerous r e f o r m s d e s i g n e d to update the u n i v e r s i t y s t r u c t u r e . time, the P a r t y , now  apparently  under Mao's c o n t r o l , has  p o l i c y statements o u t l i n i n g i t s concept of the new was  and  not u n t i l 1969  t h a t the s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r  be c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r v i e w s .  The  issued  educational  groups and  At the same official system.  It  the P a r t y seemed to  f o l l o w i n g pages w i l l t r a c e the  develop-  ment of some of the major p r a c t i c a l measures t h a t have been experimented with.  T h i s w i l l b r i n g i n t o sharper focus the s i t u a t i o n which p r e v a i l s  today i n the f i e l d of The  education.  P e o p l e ' s D a i l y e d i t o r i a l on October 25, 1967,  s t u d e n t s t o resume c l a s s e s and  continue  called for a l l  the r e v o l u t i o n i n the  schools.  W h i l e i t i s known t h a t the s t u d e n t s d i d not i m m e d i a t e l y heed the c a l l the- P a r t y , i t was  a t t h i s time t h a t the f i r s t s e r i o u s reforms began to be  implemented i n p r a c t i c e i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s . to respond w i t h a p r a c t i c a l program was  One  of the- f i r s t u n i v e r s i t i e s  Shanghai's Tungchi U n i v e r s i t y w i t h  over 7,000 s t u d e n t s of a r c h i t e c t u r e and e n g i n e e r i n g . 8 7  of  People's D a i l y , October 25,  1967.  The  f a c t that  the  s t u d e n t s were c a l l i n g f o r a new program t o r e v o l u t i o n i z e e d u c a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t they were n o t y e t a c c e p t i n g the twenty-two p o i n t p r o p o s a l handed them by the C e n t r a l Committee i n 1967.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the  d i r e c t i o n f o r the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n , a t l e a s t i n p r a c t i c e , was s t i l l b a s i c a l l y i n the hands o f the s t u d e n t s . Tungchi U n i v e r s i t y , f o r m e r l y a p o l y t e c h n i c u n i v e r s i t y , was a t the time o f the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n a combined c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i tecture u n i v e r s i t y .  On October 30, 1967, i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t  Red Guard u n i t s had formed a t h r e e - i n - o n e  alliance  student  ( r e v o l u t i o n a r y cadres-  mass o r g a n i z a t i o n l e a d e r s - m i l i t i a ) and were i n the p r o c e s s o f changing the O Q  name o f the u n i v e r s i t y i n t o "May 7 Commune." was t o c a r r y out f i n a l l y the long-promised tive labor. and  The purpose o f the commune  merging o f e d u c a t i o n and produc-  The commune i t s e l f c o n s i s t s o f a u n i v e r s i t y , d e s i g n c e n t e r ,  c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t i o n , thus,- h a v i n g a t h r e e - f o l d f u n c t i o n — t e a c h i n g ,  d e s i g n i n g , and c o n s t r u c t i o n .  The p e r i o d o f study i s t h r e e y e a r s ;  theoretical  study has been i n c r e a s e d and p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r i s becoming a r e a l i t y .  Students  a t t e m p t i n g t o e n r o l l a r e chosen p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s o f t h e i r c l a s s background, p r i o r i t y b e i n g g i v e n t o w o r k e r s , of People's L i b e r a t i o n Army men.  peasants,  and sons and daughters  Many o f the c l a s s e s are a c t u a l l y h e l d on  c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s and the s t u d e n t s employ workers f o r p r a c t i c a l demonstrations of theory.  A l l s t u d e n t s take p a r t i n p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r and s p e c i a l i z e  o n l y i n the t h i r d and f i n a l year o f study.  The s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s  t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s experiment l i s t e d f o u r advantages o f t h i s type o f education: 8 8  SCMP, No. 4053, F e b r u a r y , 1968.  89 • 1. . L e a d e r s h i p of the u n i v e r s i t y w i l l be f i r m l y i n the hands of the p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and the u n i v e r s i t y w i l l not be dominated, as i t was f o r m e r l y , by b o u r g e o i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s . 2. Chairman Mao's p o l i c y of combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r w i l l be c a r r i e d out. T h i s w i l l e n r i c h the content of t e a c h i n g and study and promote the development of the s t r u g g l e f o r p r o d u c t i v e and s c i e n t i f i c e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . 3. S i n c e content w i l l be l i n k e d w i t h a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s , t e a c h i n g and study can be s t r e a m l i n e d and c o n c e n t r a t e d and so end o v e r l a p p i n g i n the c u r r i c u l u m , p r e s e r v i n g i t from b e i n g overburdened w i t h s u p e r f l u o u s m a t e r i a l . 4. They w i l l h e l p the i d e o l o g i c a l remoulding of i n t e l l e c t u a l s and t o e l i m i n a t e the d i f f e r e n c e s between town and c o u n t r y , between the worker and the peasant, and between m e n t a l and manual l a b o r . 8 9  The  experience  of Tungchi U n i v e r s i t y i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the k i n d s  a c t i v i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i n the c i t i e s 1967  and  1968.  However, i n the r u r a l areas e q u a l l y important  were t r i e d i n t h i s e a r l y stage which e v e n t u a l l y developed i n t o  of  during  experiments the  s i t u a t i o n .which p r e v a i l s today. One  of the f i r s t p u b l i c r e p o r t s of the reforms t h a t were t a k i n g p l a c e  i n the c o u n t r y s i d e came from the Wukou P a r t - t i m e M i d d l e S c h o o l i n Wuyuan county, K i a n g s i P r o v i n c e i n November of 1968.  I n the p r e f a c e to the  r e p o r t the editor*commented t h a t the p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n i s l i k e l y to be more s p e e d i l y r e a l i z e d i n the r u r a l areas than i n the The  r e p o r t went on.to d e s c r i b e how  t e a c h i n g i s c a r r i e d on and what  c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n  i n t h i s type of s c h o o l :  . . . g e t t i n g out of the classroom, making workers and peasants i t s t e a c h e r s , u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n bases as classrooms, l i n k i n g t h e o r y w i t h p r a c t i c e , l e a r n i n g b o t h t e a p r o c e s s i n g i n the workshops o f the p l a n t a t i o n and f a r m i n g i n the f i e l d s . 9 1 8 9  SCMP, No.  4053.  P e k i n g Review, November 1, 1968,  p.  4.  P e k i n g Review, November 1, 1968,  p. 4  cities.  90  This close combination  of t e a c h i n g w i t h p r o d u c t i o n i s to r e c t i f y  the  p r e v i o u s e r r o r o f s e a s o n a l study and work. P o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n has a l s o been i n c r e a s e d : ... i n the case of p o l i t i c a l c o u r s e s , Chairman Mao's works e s p e c i a l l y h i s l a t e s t s e r i e s of i n s t r u c t i o n s and those c o n c e r n i n g the r e v o l u t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n , are the s o l e t e a c h i n g material.92 A p a r t from courses d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h p o l i t i c s i t i s now  the p o l i c y  to use p o l i t i c a l examples as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r a l l c o u r s e s .  Mathe-  m a t i c a l problems are expressed  percentages  i n term of c l a s s e d u c a t i o n (e.g.,  of l a n d l o r d e x p l o i t a t i o n , e t c . ) as are such courses as f o r e i g n language go  and  chemistry. One  o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t reforms put i n t o p r a c t i c e a t the Wukou  S c h o o l i s the use of the most s k i l l e d workers and peasants  as t e a c h e r s  i n s t r u c t o r s and the emphasis on sending i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n t o the ranks the workers and p e a s a n t s .  Although  t h i s was  and  of  o n l y h i n t e d a t i n the Wukou  a r e a i t l a t e r became the dominant model f o r the p r e s e n t ongoing r e v o l u t i o n i n education.  I t a l s o l e d the way  f o r a more c o o r d i n a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y  between the P a r t y and the r e v o l u t i o n a r y committees formed from the  Red  Guard u n i t s and o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y groups (e.g., army and worker g r o u p s ) . A g a i n s t the background of the two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e models f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m d i s c u s s e d above the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i n the c i t i e s and i s more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e .  countryside  R e p o r t s of the r e v o l u t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n have been  emanating almost d a i l y from the mainland  s i n c e l a t e 1968  and e a r l y  1969.  From these r e p o r t s a p a t t e r n i s b e g i n n i n g to develop which w i l l p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r s p e c u l a t i o n on f u t u r e t r e n d s of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n education. no  P e k i n g Review, November,1, 1968,  p.  P e k i n g Review, November 1, 1968,  pp.  5.  no  5-6.  91 On January 17, 1969, Hsinhua r e p o r t e d on Chairman Mao's l a t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the management of s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s i n the countryside.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n the most r e l i a b l e a l l i e s  the w o r k i n g c l a s s are the poor and lower-middle p e a s a n t s .  of  I t i s their  d u t y to p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n t e a c h i n g and management f o r the s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s of the r u r a l a r e a s .  S i n c e the advent of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n  i n the c o u n t r y s i d e poor and lower-middle peasants have e n t e r e d the s c h o o l s i n l a r g e numbers f o r the f i r s t time and a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r e p o r t now c o n t r o l the m a j o r i t y o f the  institutions.  On January 22, 1969, Hsinhua r e p o r t e d on the s i t u a t i o n i n the Here, as i n the r u r a l a r e a s , the most advanced s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c  cities.  group—the  w o r k i n g c l a s s — a r e r e p o r t e d to be i n f i r m c o n t r o l of t h e . s c h o o l s and colleges.  They have entered- the s c h o o l s i n l a r g e numbers as the C u l t u r a l  R e v o l u t i o n has advanced and are now development, t e a c h i n g , and  providing direction for curriculum  administration.  As f o r the u n i v e r s i t y y o u t h who have a l r e a d y had some e d u c a t i o n and are not from e i t h e r of the above two s o c i a l groups (workers or  peasants)  t h e i r t a s k i s to go t o the c o u n t r y s i d e to be re-educated by the poor  and  94 lower-middle p e a s a n t s .  By F e b r u a r y :  . . . hundreds of m i l l i o n s of armymen and people throughout the c o u n t r y e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y went i n t o a c t i o n . They launched a wide-spread and l a r g e - s c a l e campaign to urge young people w i t h e d u c a t i o n to go t o the c o u n t r y s i d e . 9 5 A t t h i s time the purpose was more c l e a r l y  9 4  of sending educated youth i n t o the c o u n t r y s i d e  stated:  Hsinhua NewsAgency, January 18,  1969.  Hsinhua News Agency, F e b r u a r y 8,  1969.  95  92 . . . f o r young people w i t h e d u c a t i o n , g o i n g t o the c o u n t r y s i d e to be r e - e d u c a t e d by the poor and lower-middle peasants i s the fundamental way f o r r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g t h e i r t h i n k i n g and f o r becoming s u c c e s s o r s t o the r e v o l u t i o n a r y cause o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . 9 6 I t i s c l e a r from the above t h a t the dominant group i n the P a r t y i s v e r y concerned w i t h those who are g o i n g t o succeed them i n l e a d i n g the revolution.  J u s t as the Red Guards charged t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s  i n t h e ' c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s were b o u r g e o i s i n background and not - r e v o l u t i o n a r y , the, P a r t y has now t a k e n s t e p s t o make the t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n more c l o s e l y a c c o r d w i t h the p r a c t i c e .  The f a c t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the Red  Guards has a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e d attempts by the P a r t y and the army t o remold. t h e i r t h i n k i n g and p o l i t i c a l l y n e u t r a l i z e some o f the more d i s r u p t i v e factions. A l l the emphasis has n o t been on the s t u d e n t s . a major concern o f the P a r t y and o f s t u d e n t groups.  I n t e l l e c t u a l s are s t i l l The i n s t r u m e n t now  b e i n g used t o r e - e d u c a t e some i n t e l l e c t u a l s i s c a l l e d "Mao Tse-tung thought propaganda  teams."  A "Mao Tse-tung thought propaganda  of workers and PLA s o l d i e r s .  An example o f how they are used i s i l l u s t r a t e d  by the e x p e r i e n c e o f N a n k a i U n i v e r s i t y . thought propaganda  team" i s composed  On F e b r u a r y 9, 1969, a "Mao Tse-tung  team" was sent t o N a n k a i t o a i d i n the r e - e d u c a t i o n o f  some o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l s : I n r e - e d u c a t i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n l i n e w i t h Chairman Mao's i n s t r u c t i o n , the workers and P.L.A. propaganda teams a t N a n k a i U n i v e r s i t y emphasized c l a s s e d u c a t i o n . Asked t o t a l k about t h e i r p a s t s u f f e r i n g s , e l d e r l y workers condemned the v i c i o u s o l d s o c i e t y b e f o r e the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . A t the same t i m e , the t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s were o r g a n i z e d t o go see poor and l o w e r - m i d d l e peasants . . . . A l l t h i s h e l p e d r a i s e . t h e t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s ' c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t h e i r awareness o f the s t r u g g l e between the two l i n e s . 9 7 96 H s i n h u a News Agency, F e b r u a r y 8, 1969. 97 H s i n h u a News Agency, F e b r u a r y 9, 1969.  93 Thus, the response of the u n i v e r s i t i e s to the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n has  been e x p r e s s e d i n v a r i o u s forms.  But  e x t e n s i v e i d e o l o g i c a l campaign y e t and l a s t i n g imprint  t h i s i s by f a r the most  one  t h a t i s d e s i g n e d to make a  on s o c i e t y i n C h i n a , e s p e c i a l l y i n the a r e a of e d u c a t i o n .  At the p r e s e n t stage of the movement b o t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r y and  the P a r t y (now  procedure and  c o n t r o l l e d by Mao)  seem to be  than at any  time i n the p a s t .  b o t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r y not  i n agreement on  g o a l s of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n .  i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s i s s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g ,  but  committees  The  the revolution  the d i r e c t i o n i s c l e a r e r  now  W i t h the P e o p l e ' s L i b e r a t i o n Army r e i n f o r c i n g  committees and Mao's f a c t i o n of the P a r t y , i t does  appear l i k e l y t h a t the p r e s e n t t r e n d w i l l be r e v e r s e d i n the near  future.  94 CHAPTER v i CONCLUSION  I n a study as broad as t h i s one many types o f c o n c l u s i o n s a r e possible.  I w i l l o n l y o u t l i n e the most s t r i k i n g and perhaps most  s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t can be drawn from the above m a t e r i a l . The m a t e r i a l has n a t u r a l l y f a l l e n i n t o the c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e s i n c e t h i s i s the t e r m i n o l o g y most c o n s i s t e n t l y used by the Chinese.  The t h e o r y o f s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n i n China can be s a i d t o have  developed  over a p e r i o d o f about t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s .  The b u l k o f t h i s  development has been a t the hands o f Mao Tse-tung who began w i t h the b a s i c f o u n d a t i o n s o f Marxism-Leninism of C h i n a .  and adapted them t o the c o n d i t i o n s  Over t h i s p e r i o d the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l i s t  education  have remained c o n s t a n t as r e v e a l e d i n the documents d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter i i . F o l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the People's R e p u b l i c adjustments  were made  i n the t h e o r y i n o r d e r t o a p p l y i t i n p r a c t i c e b u t the fundamentals d i d not change. In  terms o f p r a c t i c a l achievements the Chinese  communists have taken  g r e a t s t r i d e s i n r e o r g a n i z i n g the e n t i r e s o c i e t y and m o d e r n i z i n g aspects of i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y education. at  E d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s have i n c r e a s e d  a steady r a t e as have t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances.  i n t h i s sense the Chinese  many  There i s no.doubt t h a t  communists have been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . But i t has  been the w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of some P a r t y members t o step around the t h e o r y when i t seemed e x p e d i e n t t h a t has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c u r r e n t i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n .  upheavel  I t appears t h a t t h e r e have always been "two  l i n e s " a t l e a s t w i t h r e g a r d t o the m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f the e d u c a t i o n a l system.  95 One " l i n e " contends t h a t s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y but p u t s the emphasis on e x p e r t i s e .  The o t h e r would r a t h e r s t r e s s the development o f  p o l i t i c a l awareness and c o r r e c t n e s s t o the p o i n t of c l o s i n g down the s c h o o l s t o a c h i e v e t h i s k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n .  The l a t t e r " l i n e " now  has  the l e v e r a g e of power a n d . s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h .behind i t to m a i n t a i n i t s e l f f o r the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e .  I t i s much too e a r l y t o judge which  "line"  or c o m b i n a t i o n t h e r e o f w i l l b e s t serve the i n t e r e s t s of e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a . Even d u r i n g p e r i o d s of extreme p o l i t i c i z a t i o n the Chinese have managed t o r e a l i z e s i g n i f i c a n t s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l g o a l s . ^  Given the  r e l a t i v e nature of such concepts as "academic s t a n d a r d s " i t i s not y e t p o s s i b l e to come t o any h a r d c o n c l u s i o n s as t o the l e v e l of standards of e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n a today. " P r o l e t a r i a n e d u c a t i o n " i s thus b e i n g implemented perhaps f i r s t time i n h i s t o r y i n the P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c of C h i n a .  The  f o r the theory i s  f i n a l l y b e g i n n i n g to a c c o r d w i t h the p r a c t i c e and the success or f a i l u r e of the c u r r e n t Chinese model of e d u c a t i o n w i l l have a profound  influence  on the f u t u r e development not o n l y of C h i n a but of o t h e r t r a n s i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i n s e a r c h of e d u c a t i o n a l models.  These i n c l u d e the development of an atomic bomb i n 1964, the t o t a l a r t i f i c i a l s y n t h e s i s of a complete p r o t e i n — i n s u l i n ( f o r the f i r s t time i n h i s t o r y ) , and the e x p l o s i o n of a hydrogen bomb d u r i n g the upheavel of the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . Other s c i e n t i f i c " f i r s t s " have a l s o been developed by f o r m e r l y uneducated workers and peasants whose o n l y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were j o b e x p e r i e n c e and p o l i t i c a l development. Roland H a r a r i , "The Long March of Chinese S c i e n c e , " Science J o u r n a l , IV, No. 4 ( A p r i l , 1968), pp. 78-84.  96 LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED Advance A l o n g the Road Opened Up by the October 1967.  Socialist Revolution.  Peking,  Barendsen, Robert D. Planned Reforms i n the P r i m a r y and Secondary School System i n Communist C h i n a . Washington D.C., 1960. Baum, R i c h a r d and F r e d e r i c k C. Teiwes. Ssu-Ch'ing: Movement o f 1962-1966. B e r k e l y , 1968.  S o c i a l i s t Education  Bowie, Robert R., and John K i n g F a i r b a n k . Communist China. 1955-1959, P o l i c y Documents w i t h A n a l y s i s . Mass., 1962. Chao Chung and Yang I - f a n .  Students i n M a i n l a n d C h i n a .  Hong Kong,  1956.  Chen, H s i - e n Theodore. The P o p u l a r i z a t i o n of Higher E d u c a t i o n i n Communist C h i n a . No. 51. Washington D.C., 1959. Cheng, J . C. B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s U n d e r l y i n g the Chinese Communist Approach t o E d u c a t i o n . No. 51. Washington D.C., 1961. . "The E d u c a t i o n a l System i n Modern and C h i n a , " Contemporary C h i n a . Hong Kong, 1958-1959. C h i Tung-wei. 1954.  Contemporary  E d u c a t i o n f o r the P r o l e t a r i a t e i n Communist C h i n a .  Hong Kong,  C h ' i e n C h u n - j u i . " G e n e r a l P o l i c y of P r e s e n t E d u c a t i o n a l C o n s t r u c t i o n , " People's E d u c a t i o n Nos. 1-2 (May,, 1950), 10-16, 8-11. China Reconstructs. Chung S h i h .  Peking.  H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n Communist C h i n a .  Hong Kong,  1953.  C i r c u l a r of the C e n t r a l Committee of the Chinese Communist P a r t y . Compton, Boyd.  Mao's China:  C u r r e n t Background.  P a r t y Reform Documents 1942-1944.  .  Seattle,  1967. 1952.  Hong Kong.  D e c i s i o n of the C e n t r a l Committee of the Chinese Communist P a r t y the Great P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n . P e k i n g , 1966. Engles, Frederick.  Peking,  Anti-Durhing.  Moscow,  D i a l e c t i c s of N a t u r e .  Concerning  1954. London,  Fan, K. H. ( e d . ) . The Chinese C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n : New York, 1968.  1946. S e l e c t e d Documents.  97 Forward A l o n g the High Road of Mao F r a s e r , Stewart.  Tse-tung's  Chinese' Communist E d u c a t i o n .  Thought.  Peking,  Nashville,  . " E d u c a t i o n and P o l i t i c s i n Red C h i n a , " Q u a r t e r l y , I X , No. 1 (Summer 1960).  1967.  1965. Colorado  Goldman, Rene. " R e c t i f i c a t i o n Campaign a t P e k i n g U n i v e r s i t y , " Q u a r t e r l y (October-December 1962), 138-153.  China  The Great P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a .  (8), Peking,  1967.  The Great P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a .  (9), Peking,  1967.  The Great P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a .  (10), Peking,  1967.  The Great S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a .  (1), Peking,  1966.  The Great S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a .  (2), Peking,  1966.  The Great S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a .  (3), Peking,  1966.  The Great S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a .  (6), Peking,  1966.  The G r e a t S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a .  (7), Peking,  1967.  Gunawardhana, T h e j a .  China's C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n .  Ceylon,  H a r a r i , Roland. "The Long March of Chinese S c i e n c e , " I V , No. 4 ( A p r i l 1968), 78-84. Hsinhua News Agency.  1967.  Science J o u r n a l ,  Tokyo.  H a r p e r , P a u l . Spare Time E d u c a t i o n f o r Workers i n Communist C h i n a . Washington D.C. , 1964. Hu C. T. "Communist E d u c a t i o n : ( A p r i l - J u n e 1962), 84-97. I Wo-sheng.  Theory and P r a c t i c e , "  Communist C h i n a 1949-1959.  Jansen, M. B. ( e d . ) . P r i n c e t o n , 1965.  Changing  Hong Kong,  China Q u a r t e r l y  1961.  Japanese A t t i t u d e s Toward M o d e r n i z a t i o n .  Johnson, Chalmers A. Communist P o l i c i e s Toward the I n t e l l e c t u a l C l a s s . Hong Kong, 1960. K i n g , Edmund J . Communist E d u c a t i o n . K u u s i n e n , 0. V.  (ed.).  London,  1963.  Fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism.  Moscow, 1963.  •98 L e n i n , V. I . C o l l e c t e d Works. . Levy, M a r i o n J . 1966.  XIV.  Moscow, .1962.. '  C o l l e c t e d Works.  XXXVIII.  Moscow, 1962.  M o d e r n i z a t i o n and the S t r u c t u r e o f S o c i e t i e s .  Princeton,  L i n d s a y , M i c h a e l . Notes on E d u c a t i o n a l Problems i n Communist C h i n a . New York, 1950. L i u , W i l l i a m T. ( e d . ) . New Y o r k , 1967.  Chinese S o c i e t y Under Communism:  A  Reader.  Lu T i n g - y i . " E d u c a t i o n Must Be Combined W i t h P r o d u c t i v e L a b o r , " Red V I I (1958), 1-12. MacFarquhar, R o d e r i c k . I n t e l l e c t u a l s . New Mao  Tse-tung.  Marx, K a r l .  The Hundred F l o w e r s Campaign and the Chinese York, 1960.  S e l e c t e d Works. Capital. .  Flag,  4 v o l s . P e k i n g , 1965.  3 v o l s . New  York,  1967.  C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy.  Chicago,  1904.  Noumoff, S. J . "China's C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n as a R e c t i f i c a t i o n Movement," • P a c i f i c A f f a i r s , XL, Nos. 3-4 ( F a l l 1967-Winter 1968) 221-234. Oksenberg, M i c h a e l .  The C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n Review.  M i c h i g a n , 1968.  O r l e a n s , Leo A. P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower and E d u c a t i o n i n Communist C h i n a . Washington D.C., 1960. P a v l o v , I . P. P e k i n g Review. People's D a i l y . Red F l a g .  S e l e c t e d Works.  Moscow, 1955.  Peking. Peking.  Peking.  Schram, S t u a r t .  Mao Tse-tung. .  London,  1966.  The P o l i t i c a l Thought of Mao  Tse-tung.  New  York,  1963.  Schwartz, Benjamin. " M o d e r n i z a t i o n and the M a o i s t V i s i o n — S o m e R e f l e c t i o n s on Chinese Communist G o a l s , " C h i n a Q u a r t e r l y (January-March 1965) 3-10. Survey China M a i n l a n d P r e s s .  Hong Kong.  Tang, P e t e r S. H. Communist C h i n a as a Developmental Model f o r Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s . Washington D.C, 1960.  99 and Joan Maloney. 1949-1967.  Communist China:  The Domestic Scene  New Jersey, 1967.  Trumbull, Robert (ed.).  This .is .Communist ,China.  New York, 1968.  Tsang Chiu-sam. Society, Schools & Progress ...in China. London, 1968. Wang.Hsueh-wen. "An A n a l y t i c a l Study of the Chinese Communist'Educational Revolution'," Issues & Studies, IV, No. 7 (April 1968) 24-30. Weiner, Myron.  Modernization: .The Dynamics of Growth.  Who's Who i n Communist China.  New York, 1966.  Hong Kong, 1966.  Wong, Jennings L. Specializations i n Higher Technological Education.in Communist China. Washington D;C, 1959. Yao Wen-yuan. On the Counter-Revolutidnary Double-Dealer Chou Yang. Peking, 1967.  100 •  APPENDIX  101  TABLE I PRIMARY SCHOOLS, 1948-60  a  ( I n thousands)  S c h o o l Year  1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59 1959-60  Entrants  17,500 16,169 • 20,170 •  Enrollment  24,391 28,924 43,154 51,100 51,664 51,218 53,126 63,464 64,279 86,400 90,000  Graduates  2,387 2,829 4,232 5,942 9,945 10,136 10,254 12,287 12,307 16,225  B l a n k s i n d i c a t e f i g u r e s are not a v a i l a b l e . "^Leo A.. O r l e a n s , P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower and E d u c a t i o n i n Communist China,(NSF 61-3; Washington D.C.: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1960), p. 32, c i t i n g Ten G r e a t Years ( P e k i n g : S t a t e S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau, I960).  102  TABLE I I SECONDARY GENERAL SCHOOLS, 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 5 9 (In  S c h o o l Year  1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53' 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58. 1958-59  a  thousands)  Total Enrollment  .  • • •  1,305 1,305 1,568 2,490 2,9333,587 3,900 5,165 6,281 8,520  Graduates  280 296 284 221 454 644 969 939 1,299 1,313 •  • .  Blanks i n d i c a t e f i g u r e s are not a v a i l a b l e . a .' • ' ' Leo A. O r l e a n s , P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower and E d u c a t i o n I n Communist • C h i n a (NSF 61-3; Washington D.C.: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1960), p. 35, c i t i n g Ten Great Y e a r s , ( P e k i n g : S t a t e S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau, 1960) .  103  TABLE I I I SECONDARY SPECIALIZED SCHOOLS, 1 9 4 8 - 5 9 (In  thousands)  Enrollment  Total Enrollment  S c h o o l Year Normal  1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58 1958-59  a  Graduates  Vocational  . .•  . .  151.7 159.4 219.8 345.2 369.0 308.0 219.0 273.4 320.0 620.0  77.1 97.8 162.9 290.4 299.4 300.0 318.1 337.0 458.0 850.0  .  229.0 257 .0 383.0 636.0 668.0 608.0 537 .0 812.0 778.0 1,470.0  72.0 75.0 57.0 68.0 118.0 169.0 235.0 174.0 146.0 191.0 213.0  Blanks' i n d i c a t e f i g u r e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . ^ e o A. O r l e a n s , P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower and E d u c a t i o n i n Communist C h i n a (NSF 61-3: Washington D.C: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1960), p. 32, c i t i n g Ten G r e a t Years ( P e k i n g : State S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau, 1960).  TABLE IV SPARE-TIME STUDENTS, 1949-58 (In  a  thousands)  Spare-time S c h o o l s Year Higher  0.1 .4 1.6 4.1 9.7 13.2 15.9 63.8 75.9 150.0  1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958  Secondary Vocational  0.1 .1 .3 .7 1.1 186.0 195.0 563.0 588.0  . . . .  Secondary  Primary  249.0 404.0 760.0 1,167.0 2,236.0 2,714.0 5,000.0  1,375.0 1,523.0 2,088.0 4,538.0 5,195.0 6,267.0 26,000.0  B l a n k s i n d i c a t e f i g u r e s are not a v a i l a b l e . L e o A. O r l e a n s , P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower and E d u c a t i o n I n Communist C h i n a (NSF 61-3; Washington D.C: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1960), p. 49, c i t i n g Ten Great Years ( P e k i n g : State S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau, 1960). a  105  TABLE V HIGHER EDUCATION, 1948-60  a  S c h o o l Year  Enrollment  Graduates  1948- 49 1949- 50 1950- 51 1951- 52 1952- 53 1953- 54 1954- 55 1955- 56 1956- 57 1957- 58 1958- 59 1959- 60  . . . . . 117,000 137,000 153,000 191,000 212,000 253,000 288,000 -403,000 414,000 660,000 810,000  21,000 18,000 19,000 32,000 48,000 47,000 55,000 63,000 56,000 72,000 62,000 . . . .  Blanks i n d i c a t e  '  f i g u r e s a r e not a v a i l a b l e .  C h i n a (NSF 61-3; Washington D.C.: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1960), p. 61, c i t i n g Ten G r e a t Years ( P e k i n g : S t a t e S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau.,' I960) .  106  TABLE VI HIGHER EDUCATION: ENROLLMENT BY FIELD, 1928-58  School Year  1928-40* 1940-49* 1950-55* 1955- 56 1956- 57 1957- 58  b  Engineering  Science  5,000 15,000 .60,000 109,600 150,000 ' 177,600  4,000 6,000 15,000 . 20,000 25,000 27,100  :  * Indicates that the figure i s an average for.the years i n d i c a t e d . T h i s breakdown does not include such important increases made .Ih the f i e l d s of h e a l t h , f o r e s t r y , and a g r i c u l t u r e which increased at an equal rate. a  ^Leo A. Orleans, P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower and Education i n Communist China (NSF 61-3; Washington D.C: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , I960), p. 69, c i t i n g 1928-48: Chung-kuo Chiao-yu Nien-chien (Shanghai: M i n i s t r y of Education, 1948), 1949-50 and 1952-56: Jen-min Shou-ts'e (Peking: 1957), 1950-52: New China News Agency, December 2, 1954, 1956-57: Jen-min Jihrpao, March 18, 1957, 1957-58:Jen-min Chiao-yu, October 9, 1957.  107  GENERAL POLICY OE PRESENT EDUCATIONAL CONSTRUCTION By C h ' i e n C h u n - j u i May, 1950 Part I :  "On an E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y t o Serve the Workers and P e a s a n t s "  The e d u c a t i o n o f the Chinese People's R e p u b l i c i s the e d u c a t i o n o f the new democracy. That i s , i t i s an e d u c a t i o n t h a t i s n a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c , and o f the masses. T h i s h a s a l r e a d y been determined v e r y d e f i n i t e l y - i n the w r i t t e n works o f Chairman Mao and i n the "Common Program o f the People's P o l i t i c a l Consultative Council."  of  At the p r e s e n t s t a g e , what p o l i c y Ought we t o adopt f o r the promotion the new d e m o c r a t i c e d u c a t i o n ?  To serve the workers and peasants and t o serve p r o d u c t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a t the h e a r t o f the p r e s e n t p o l i c y t o c a r r y out the e d u c a t i o n o f the new democracy. To leave t h i s p o l i c y i s f o r us t o commit e r r o r s and m i s t a k e s 1. I s i t p o s s i b l e t o have e d u c a t i o n w h i c h does n o t serve the w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , and s o l d i e r s ? I t i s . Not o n l y i s i t p o s s i b l e but m o r e o v e r . t h i s has been the a c t u a l i t y o f China's o l d e d u c a t i o n o f a few thousand y e a r s ago and o f China's o l d e d u c a t i o n of a few decades ago. The e d u c a t i o n c a r r i e d out by the Chiang K a i - s h e k r e a c t i o n a r i e s was n o t t o serve the workers and p e a s a n t s , b u t r a t h e r served the d e a d l y enemies o f the workers and p e a s a n t s i m p e r i a l i s m , f e u d a l i s m , and b u r e a u c r a t i c c a p i t a l i s m . I n t h e " p a s t t h i s . k i n d of e d u c a t i o n i n j u r e d and poisoned thousands and tens o f thousands o f c h i l d r e and youth and caused them t o become t o o l s and s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m s o f the p u b l i c enemies o f the Chinese p e o p l e . But no m a t t e r how much i t was used, the r e a c t i o n a r y o l d e d u c a t i o n c o u l d n o t f i n a l l y save the l i v e s ' o f the r e a c t i o n a r y group. I m p e r i a l i s m has now been d r i v e n o u t ; f e u d a l i s m and b u r e a u c r a t i c c a p i t a l i s m have been b a s i c a l l y d e f e a t e d , b u t t h a t base t o o l ( r e a c t i o n a r y e d u c a t i o n ) which does n o t serve the w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , and s o l d i e r s b u t i n s t e a d s e r v e s the r e a c t i o n a r i e s must now a l s o f o l l o w the Kuomintang i n t o the g r a v e . People who s a y , " I don't serve anyone, I don't p a r t i c i p a t e i n p o l i t i c s , I'm f o r e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s own sake," a r e d e c e i v i n g themselves and o t h e r s . I n o l d C h i n a , i f you weren't an a l e r t e d u c a t i o n a l worker s e r v i n g the people l i k e the f i g h t e r Mr. T'ao H s i n g - c h i h (1891-1942) then you would be a s o - c a l l e d " o u t s i d e o f p o l i t i c s , e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s own sake" type o f person. I n t h a t c a s e , r e g a r d l e s s o f what y o u r s u b j e c t i v e hopes were, o b j e c t i v e l y you would always be unable t o a v o i d becoming an i n s t r u m e n t o f the r e a c t i o n a r i e s a l t h o u g h you would c e r t a i n l y be d i f f e r e n t from those r e a c t i o n a r y elements wh c a r r y out r e a c t i o n a r y e d u c a t i o n on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . Because, say as  108  much as you l i k e that you are for "education for i t s own sake" objectively you would then docilely administer the reactionary's educational p o l i c y . Who doesn't know that this kind of policy i s d i r e c t l y opposed to the interests of the Chinese people and supports the interests of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucratic capitalism. In new China the common people have taken power. The four democratic classes under the leadership of the working class are now putting into effect the p o l i t i c s of the people's democratic dictatorship to struggle to r e a l i z e the interest of the whole people. However, at f i r s t glance i t seems to be very l o f t y for you to say without r e a l l y noticing what you are saying that, "I won't participate i n p o l i t i c s ; I won't serve anyone; I won't be used by anyone," while a l l the time behind your back there i s a small group of people who secretly applaud you and say, "bravo." This small group i s now s i t t i n g ih Taiwan and Washington. They believe your l o f t i n e s s can perform the function of s p l i t t i n g up the Chinese people's strength and weakening the Chinese people's d i c t a t o r s h i p . That i s to say, you begin hot to serve the Chinese people but rather the enemies of the, Chinese people. The world today has never been more c l e a r l y divided, " i f you do not participate on one side then you automatically are on the other s i d e . " If "democratic individualism" i s considered l o f t y then why i s i t considered valuable by Dean Acheson? One can think deeply on t h i s . "I want to serve a l l the people but I can't just serve the workers and peasants." I f you want to serve the people then that i s just f i n e . But what i s meant by the "people?" F i r s t , there i s the working c l a s s ; second, there i s the peasant c l a s s ; t h i r d , there i s the petty bourgeoisie; and fourth, there i s the national bourgeoisie. These four classes together at the present stage in China comprise the "people." It i s therefore very clear that the feudal class, the bureaucratic bourgeois class and their p o l i t i c a l representatives the Kuomintang reactionaries aire decidedly not the people of new China but on the contrary are. the enemies of the Chinese people. Everyone who t r u l y wants to serve the people must f i r s t and foremost determinedly oppose the people's enemies because the Chinese .people's f i r s t and direct Interest i s to defeat these enemies. Workers who indicate a desire to serve the people must f i r s t and foremost determinedly cast off the influence of the old education.of the Kuomintang.reactionaries. This being done they must then determinedly and vigorously oppose the Kuomintang's reactionary education and uproot the kind of influence reactionary education has made among the people—that i s to say, struggle to purge the remaining remnants of feudal, comprador, and f a s c i s t thought among the people. He who does otherwise is. unworthy of being called one who serves the people. Our education i s the people's education; i t Is an education to serve the people. At the present stage i n China i t i s an education i n the service of the four democratic classes. This kind of education ought to be subordinate to the common interests of the four classes. It ought to oppose imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucratic capitalism; establish an independent^ democratic, u n i f i e d , peaceful and prosperous new China, and serve the interests of the economy, government, and culture of the four classes. If the c u l t u r a l education at the present stage in China results i n not serving any one class within the four democratic classes (such as the national bourgeoisie or the working class) to the point of opposing their interests  109  (such as r a i s i n g the s l o g a n of d e f e a t i n g c a p i t a l i s m w h i l e meaning i n f a c t t o r e p r e s s the w o r k i n g c l a s s ) then t h a t w i t h o u t a doubt i s an e r r o r . Then why do we want " s e r v i n g the workers and p e a s a n t s " to be the c e n t r a l d i r e c t i o n o f the p r e s e n t day c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the people's e d u c a t i o n and not l i m i t our c e n t r a l d i r e c t i o n to a g e n e r a l " s e r v e the p e o p l e " or perhaps " s e r v e the n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e or the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e ? " T h i s c e r t a i n l y depends on the p r e s e n t day c o n d i t i o n s of the n a t i o n . First: "The f o u n d a t i o n of the people's d e m o c r a t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p i s the a l l i a n c e between the w o r k i n g c l a s s , peasant c l a s s , and urban p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e , and the main a l l i a n c e i s t h a t between the w o r k i n g c l a s s and peasant c l a s s . T h i s i s because these two c l a s s e s comprise 80 to 90 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n of C h i n a . The main f o r c e s i n o v e r t h r o w i n g i m p e r i a l i s m and the Kuomintang r e a c t i o n a i r e s were these two c l a s s e s . To go from the new democracy to s o c i a l i s m w i l l m a i n l y depend on the a l l i a n c e of these two c l a s s e s " (Mao Tse-turig, "On the P e o p l e ' s Democratic D i c t a t o r s h i p " ) . "The Chinese p r o l e t a r i a t , p e a s a n t r y , and i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e w i l l c e r t a i n l y be the b a s i c s t r e n g t h o f the n a t i o n ' s d e s t i n y " (Mao Tse-tung, "On the New Democracy"). Since they are the f o u n d a t i o n , the b a s i c s t r e n g t h and those on whom we depend, then why ought not our e d u c a t i o n c l e a r l y and s u r e l y use i t s main and b a s i c s t r e n g t h t o serve the workers and peasants? The people's d e m o c r a t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p i s l i k e a b u i l d i n g . The worker-peasant a l l i a n c e i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g . I f the f o u n d a t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g i s not s t u r d y and does not use r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e but r a t h e r common c l a y , then our b u i l d i n g w i l l not be s o l i d , and we cannot complete a t a l l , b i g b u i l d i n g . A l l our e d u c a t i o n a l workers ought t o i n c r e a s i n g l y r a i s e h i g h the c u l t u r a l , s c i e n t i f i c , and p o l i t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t of the w o r k i n g c l a s s and the peasant c l a s s ; s t r e n g t h e n the l e a d e r s h i p a u t h o r i t y o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s ; s t r e n g t h e n the worker-peasant a l l i a n c e and a l s o t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n and c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h so t h a t they w i l l complete t h i s b i g b u i l d i n g w i t h a c o m p l e t e l y modernized, r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e f o u n d a t i o n of the people's democratic d i c t a t o r s h i p . Second: " I n these f o u r c l a s s e s , a g a i n , the w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , and s o l d i e r s are the main f o r c e ; the number o f p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e are c o m p a r a t i v e l y few; the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s are n a t u r a l l y c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l and a l s o compared w i t h the w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , and s o l d i e r s , the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e have the support of c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n " (Mao Tse-tung, "Yenan Forum on L i t e r a t u r e and A r t " ) . As to the n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e , these people are even fewer and they have even more c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . I n o l d C h i n a the r e p r e s s i v e e x p l o i t a t i v e c l a s s f o r c i b l y o c c u p i e d and shut the doors o f e d u c a t i o n . T h i s k i n d o f i r r a t i o n a l t h i n g remained many thousands o f y e a r s i n C h i n a and i n a l l the w o r l d . I n f a c t , however, c u l t u r e i s the c r e a t i o n of the l a b o r e r s , moreover i t i s t o serve p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . Only when the h i s t o r y of mankind emerged i n t o c l a s s e s d i d the e x p l o i t a t i v e c l a s s f o r c i b l y take over the c r e a t i v e c u l t u r e of the l a b o r e r s as t h e i r own. Moreover they c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e i r c o n t r o l and s t r e n g t h e n e d the t o o l s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n and r e p r e s s i o n over the l a b o r e r s . Only w i t h the v i c t o r y of the October R e v o l u t i o n i n the S o v i e t Union d i d c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n a g a i n u n i t e w i t h i t s o r i g i n a l m a s t e r s — t h e w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , and broad m a s s e s — a n d d i d the t a s k of c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n become the t a s k of s e r v i n g the workers and p e a s a n t s . I n t h i s way c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n then became a k i n d of p o w e r f u l weapon to h e l p s o c i a l i s t  110 c o n s t r u c t i o n f l o u r i s h i n g l y and t h r i v i n g l y develop i n the S o v i e t Union. After the Second World War v a r i o u s people's d e m o c r a t i c n a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h , a l l w i t h the S o v i e t Union as a model, these n a t i o n s developed a new educat i o n t o serve the workers and peasants which was moreover used as a weapon to a c c e l e r a t e the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i s m and the v a r i o u s people's democracies. S i n c e October o f l a s t year i n C h i n a the p r o l e t a r i a t , which forms the b a s i s o f the people's d e m o c r a t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p , under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the worker-peasant a l l i a n c e have a l r e a d y on a n a t i o n - w i d e s c a l e r e p l a c e d i m p e r i a l i s m , the command o f the b i g l a n d l o r d s , the b i g b o u r g e o i s i e , compradore, and f a s c i s t d i c t a t o r s h i p . T h i s change i n the b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t e d u c a t i o n should c e r t a i n l y be l e d by the thought o f the p r o l e t a r i a t and m a i n l y be a people's e d u c a t i o n which s e r v e s the workers and peasants by r e p l a c i n g the l e a d e r s h i p o f f e u d a l i d e a s , compradore and f a s c i s t i d e a s , a l l o f w h i c h a r e m a i n l y r e a c t i o n a r y types o f e d u c a t i o n which serve i m p e r i a l i s m , f e u d a l a u t h o r i t y , and b u r e a u c r a t i c c a p i t a l i s m . We have t o say t h a t the p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f e d u c a t i o n i n China a r e not commensurate w i t h the p r e s e n t b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s o f our n a t i o n . Our n a t i o n i s a l r e a d y a n a t i o n l e d by the p r o l e t a r i a t ' s worker-peasant a l l i a n c e f o r m i n g the b a s i s o f the p e o p l e ' s d e m o c r a t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p . But what about our e d u c a t i o n ? The workers and peasants o f the whole c o u n t r y w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the few numbers i n the l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s , spare-time s c h o o l s , and o l d l i b e r a t i o n u n i t w i n t e r s t u d i e s a r e s t i l l , e x t r e m e l y s h o r t o f r e g u l a r and s u i t a b l e c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . A l t o g e t h e r , u n i v e r s i t i e s and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s i n the whole c o u n t r y a r e about 200; s t u d e n t s a r e about 15,000. M i d d l e s c h o o l s are a l t o g e t h e r about 5,000; s t u d e n t s a r e about- 150,000. P r i m a r y s c h o o l s a r e about 30,000; s t u d e n t s a r e about 2,000,000 o r more. W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f o l d l i b e r a t i o n u n i t s , p r i m a r y , and m i d d l e s c h o o l s which a l r e a d y have a g r e a t many s t u d e n t s who are sons and daughters o f workers and p e a s a n t s , most o f the v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s a r e d e c i d e d l y s t i l l sons and daughters of the m i d d l e - p e a s a n t s and urban p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e . I n the whole n a t i o n 80 p e r cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n i s comprised o f the w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , and broad masses and t h e i r sons and daughters a r e b a s i c a l l y s t i l l shut o u t s i d e the doors o f the s c h o o l s . To r e s o l u t e l y change these c o n d i t i o n s , t o cause e d u c a t i o n t o t r u l y be a d e m o c r a t i c e d u c a t i o n , t o t r u l y serve the cause o f r a i s i n g h i g h the c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l l e v e l o f the workers and p e a s a n t s , and t o cause the v a r i o u s c l a s s o f s c h o o l s t o open the doors f o r the sons and daughters o f the w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , and broad masses i s something t h a t can no l o n g e r be postponed. I n accordance w i t h the reasons s t a t e d above, we must d e c i d e t h a t a t the p r e s e n t stage i n C h i n a , e d u c a t i o n ought t o f i r s t and m a i n l y serve the workers and p e a s a n t s . . I s h a v i n g an e d u c a t i o n which " s e r v e s the workers and p e a s a n t s " and an e d u c a t i o n which " s e r v e s the p e o p l e " a c o n t r a d i c t i o n ? No, t h e r e i s no c o n t r a d i c t i o n . T h i s i s s i m p l y because p e o p l e ' s e d u c a t i o n must serve the people and the f o u n d a t i o n s o f the p e o p l e , t h e i r b a s i c power, and the people's l i v e l i h o o d m a i n l y depend on the w o r k i n g c l a s s and the p e a s a n t r y . F o r t h i s reason we must f i r s t and m a i n l y serve the workers and p e a s a n t s , and o n l y then can we most c o r r e c t l y and most e f f e c t i v e l y serve the p e o p l e . O t h e r w i s e , we w i l l s i m p l y l o s e s i g h t o f the e s s e n t i a l and d e a l w i t h the l e s s e s s e n t i a l , put the c a r t b e f o r e the h o r s e , and our s t r e n g t h o f s e r v i n g the people w i l l then come t o n o t h i n g .  Ill Does e d u c a t i o n which i s to serve the workers and peasants mean t h a t i t w i l l not serve o t h e r d e m o c r a t i c c l a s s e s ? No, i t does n o t . I t i s s i m p l y because the workers and peasants are the n a t i o n ' s main p a r t and a t the p r e s e n t stage are a l s o those who most l a c k c u l t u r e . I t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t we ought t o f i r s t use our main s t r e n g t h t o g i v e e d u c a t i o n t o the workers and peasants. The r o o t s must be put down, o n l y then can the branches and l e a v e s grow to be l u x u r i o u s . The base of the workers and peasants has been made w e l l , and the o t h e r d e m o c r a t i c c l a s s e s who have f o l l o w e d them have a l s o r e c e i v e d the o r i g i n a l and subsequent b e n e f i t s . T h i s i s because the workers and peasants are the c r e a t o r s o f s o c i a l w e a l t h , and they r e p r e s e n t the n a t i o n ' s p r o d u c t i v e and l e a d e r s h i p s t r e n g t h . I n a l l a s p e c t s they r a i s e h i g h and s t r e n g t h e n the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the people's d e m o c r a t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p and comprehensively develop the a l l i a n c e o f the f o u r c l a s s e s so t h a t the e n t i r e s o c i a l economy w i l l advance f o r w a r d . T h i s i s one p o i n t . Another i s t h a t a l t h o u g h we say t h a t the s t r e n g t h of e d u c a t i o n f i r s t and m a i n l y r e s t s on the person of the workers and p e a s a n t s , we by no means say t h a t our e d u c a t i o n w i l l then not c o n s i d e r the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e o r the n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e . A t p r e s e n t , sons and daughters o f the n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e and urban p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e are s t i l l v e r y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s . They c e r t a i n l y can c o n t i n u e t o go on s t u d y i n g i n these s c h o o l s to the p o i n t t o which they are s u f f i c i e n t l y prepared t o leave the s c h o o l s and undertake t h e i r p a r t i n w o r k i n g f o r the people's n a t i o n . We are not even a l i t t l e opposed to t h i s , we even welcome i t . We don't mean o n l y the n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e but even more so the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e ( t h e y are a l s o b a s i c elements i n the n a t i o n ) even the f e u d a l l a n d l o r d c l a s s s t i l l has v e r y many sons arid daughters s t u d y i n g i n new China's s c h o o l s . Does the s t a t e need t o e n t i r e l y run these l a n d l o r d sons and daughters from the s c h o o l s ? There's c e r t a i n l y no need. As l o n g as they are u n w i l l i n g to be w i t h the opponents of the people we w i l l a l l o w them to c o n t i n u e l e a r n i n g a t the s c h o o l s . Only i f they i n t h e i r own t h i n k i n g r e v o l t from t h e i r o r i g i n a l c l a s s — t h e f e u d a l c l a s s (they are the Chinese people's e n e m i e s ) — c a n they then g r a d u a l l y d e s i r e to serve the p e o p l e . I t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s depends on whether t h e i r own l a b o r i n g l i f e i s v i g o r o u s . Moreover, by s t u d y i n g arid g a i n i n g a b i l i t y they w i l l not go back to s e r v i n g the f e u d a l c l a s s but r a t h e r w i l l serve the people. The w o r k i n g c l a s s as l e a d e r s o f the n a t i o n have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e d u c a t i n g the whole people o f C h i n a , r e f o r m i n g and h e i g h t e n i n g t h e i r thought and t r a i n i n g t h e i r new n a t i o n a l p u b l i c m o r a l i t y so they w i l l become good c i t i z e n s and good c o n s t r u c t i v e people f o r the People's R e p u b l i c of C h i n a . " I s i t p r e j u d i c e d t o serve the workers and p e a s a n t s ? " I t depends on how you l o o k a t i t . Because the workers and peasants occupy a d e c i d e d l y l a r g e number o f the people and are the n a t i o n ' s b a s i c s t r e n g t h , they have r e c e i v e d the l e a s t amount of c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and f o r t h i s reason the emphasis o f e d u c a t i o n i s on them. I f t h i s i s s o - c a l l e d " p r e j u d i c e " t h e n , i s the h e a r t j u s t p r e j u d i c e d a l i t t l e or i s i t p r e j u d i c e d a . l o t ? T h i s i s a q u e s t i o n of s t a n d p o i n t . I f you l o o k a t t h i s q u e s t i o n from the s t a n d p o i n t o f the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e or the b o u r g e o i s i e then you can f e e l t h a t t h i s p o l i c y i s p r e j u d i c e d . But i f you can stand from the l a b o r i n g people's s t a n d p o i n t and look a t t h i s q u e s t i o n then you can agree t h a t t h i s p o l i c y i s c o r r e c t , r e a s o n a b l e , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n , j u s t . Old China's e d u c a t i o n was s i m p l y an e d u c a t i o n t o serve the l a n d l o r d c l a s s and b o u r g e o i s i e , o r an e d u c a t i o n to serve the e x t r e m e l y few i n s o c i e t y ; i t was an e d u c a t i o n w i t h r u l e s t o p r o t e c t the e x p l o i t e r s and o p p r e s s o r s and as such was most unreasonable and most Incorrect.  112  2. A f t e r h a v i n g e x p l a i n e d why our e d u c a t i o n ought t o f i r s t and m a i n l y serve the workers and peasants now we are g o i n g to d i s c u s s the q u e s t i o n of how, i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , i t s h o u l d o p e r a t e . T h i s i s m a i n l y a d i s c u s s i o n of two q u e s t i o n s : one i s the q u e s t i o n o f the c o n t e n t of e d u c a t i o n ; the second i s the q u e s t i o n o f the p r o v i s i o n s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . . We w i l l f i r s t d i s c u s s the q u e s t i o n of c o n t e n t . The Common Program has c l e a r l y determined: "The c u l t u r a l educat i o n f o r the Chinese People's R e p u b l i c i s a c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r the new democracy; t h a t i s , i t i s n a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c , and o f the masses." A t the same time i t determined: "The main t a s k of the c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n a l work of the people's government ought to be t o r a i s e h i g h the c u l t u r a l l e v e l of the p e o p l e , support the n a t i o n ' s c o n s t r u c t i v e t a l e n t s , wipe out f e u d a l , compradore, and f a s c i s t thought and d e v e l o p a thought t o serve the p e o p l e . " T h i s then determines the c o n t e n t of new China's e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i s the e d u c a t i o n o f the new democracy. The c o n t e n t o f t h i s new d e m o c r a t i c e d u c a t i o n i s t o be l e d by the•thought of the w o r k i n g c l a s s and f i r s t and foremost be s u i t a b l e w i t h what the workers and peasants i n s i s t on h a v i n g . T h i s i s because workers and peasants more than any o t h e r c l a s s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e q u e s t t h i n g s w h i c h are n a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c , and o f the masses. For t h i s r e a s o n our new e d u c a t i o n must f i r s t and foremost serve the workers and p e a s a n t s . I t must be t h o r o u g h l y n a t i o n a l i s t , t h a t i s , t h o r o u g h l y opposed t o i m p e r i a l i s t a g g r e s s i o n . I t must advocate r e s p e c t , independence, and l i b e r a t i o n f o r the Chinese n a t i o n . We must t h o r o u g h l y wipe out compradore thought and the t h o u g h t , o f n a t i o n a l c a p i t u l a t i o n i s m . Today we must e m p h a t i c a l l y do away w i t h those c u r r e n t elements among the people who s t i l l r e s i d u a l l y have i l l u s i o n s about American i m p e r i a l i s m and expose those who d a n g e r o u s l y e x p r e s s " i n d i v i d u a l i s m . " We must oppose those who speak of "western c u l t u r e " which i s t o b l i n d l y and b a s e l y honor the p s y c h o l o g y o f c a p i t a l i s t c u l t u r e . We want t o use our g r e a t e s t s t r e n g t h t o advocate revolutionary patriotism: t o persuade and Impel the people to z e a l o u s l y l o v e t h e i r own g r e a t f a t h e r l a n d ; t o n o u r i s h and t r a i n the people's i r o n and s t e e l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o p r o t e c t the f a t h e r l a n d ' s t e r r i t o r y and s o v e r e i g n t y , and n o t a l l o w the I m p e r i a l i s t s and t h e i r r u n n i n g dogs t o usurp one i n c h of ground. We must persuade the people t o z e a l o u s l y l o v e the f a t h e r l a n d ' s r e s o u r c e s , c o n s c i o u s l y economize and l o v i n g l y p r o t e c t the n a t i o n ' s p r o p e r t y and make i t the s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e v e r y p a t r i o t . We s h o u l d z e a l o u s l y l o v e the Chinese n a t i o n ' s l o n g and h o n o r a b l e h i s t o r i c a l s t r u g g l e and s h o u l d e x c e e d i n g l y make known the Chinese n a t i o n ' s own h i s t o r i c a l , n a t i o n a l heroes and peasant l e a d e r s such as Ch'en Sheng, Wu Kuang, Yu F e i , S h i h K e - f a , L i Tz-chung, Hung Hsiu-chuan, e t c . We s h o u l d z e a l o u s l y l o v e our own b r a v e , i n d u s t r i o u s , g r e a t p e o p l e . We s h o u l d z e a l o u s l y l o v e the f a t h e r l a n d ' s l i b e r a t o r s — t h e t o i l i n g , l a b o r i n g P e o p l e ' s L i b e r a t i o n Army. We s h o u l d z e a l o u s l y l o v e the l e a d e r s of the Chinese p e o p l e ' s l i b e r a t i o n campaign the Chinese Communist P a r t y . We s h o u l d z e a l o u s l y l o v e the Chinese people's g r e a t l e a d e r Mao Tse-tung and c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y s t u d y h i s thoughts and s t y l e o f work and p e r s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w him. Another a s p e c t I s t h a t we s h o u l d oppose narrow n a t i o n a l i s m and s h o u l d make m a n i f e s t and m u t u a l l y combine the new p a t r i o t i s m w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and u n i t e w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l f r i e n d s such as the S o v i e t Union and j o i n w i t h the v a r i o u s p e o p l e ' s d e m o c r a c i e s . We s h o u l d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y sympathize w i t h and t r a i n the c o l o n i a l p e o p l e ' s l i b e r a t i o n  113 a c t i v i t y and a c t i v e l y j o i n i n the worldwide o p p o s i t i o n t o new war p r o v o c a t o r s and l a s t i n g l y p r o t e c t the i d e a s and s t r u g g l e on a l l s i d e s f o r peace and s e c u r i t y . We must p e r s i s t e n t l y oppose exchanging n a t i o n a l s e l f - r e s p e c t f o r n a t i o n a l p r i d e and b o a s t f u l n e s s and not be contemptuous d f weak s m a l l n a t i o n s who haven't y e t become independent. We must oppose the thought of i s o l a t i o n i s m which attempts on a worldwide s c a l e t o " c u l t i v a t e o n e s e l f exclusively." Second, our new e d u c a t i o n w h i c h f i r s t and foremost s e r v e s the workers and peasants must be t h o r o u g h l y s c i e n t i f i c . T h i s k i n d of s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n " i s opposed t o a l l f e u d a l . a n d s u p e r s t i t i o u s thought, i t advocates s e e k i n g the t r u t h from a c t i o n , i t advocates o b j e c t i v e t r u t h , and advocates making t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e one" (Mao Tse-tung, "On the New Democracy"). For t h i s r e a s o n we must "advocate the use of the s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t of view, do r e s e a r c h and e x p l a i n h i s t o r y , economics, p o l i t i c s , c u l t u r e , and a l s o i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s " and " s t r i v e t o d e v e l o p the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s " and " u n i v e r s a l i z e s c i e n t i f i c knowledge." We must cause the " l o v e of s c i e n c e " to become a common v i r t u e f o r the whole n a t i o n of the Chinese P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c , ( 4 4 t h , 4 3 r d , 42nd a r t i c l e s o f the Common Program ). Today we ought t o e m p h a t i c a l l y propagate the u n i v e r s a l t r u t h of M a r x i s m ^ L e n i n i s m and c r i t i c i z e i d e a l i s m and v a r i o u s k i n d s o f s u p e r s t i t i o u s t h o u g h t . We w i l l use our g r e a t e s t s t r e n g t h t o i n t r o d u c e the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s of the S o v i e t Union and moreover t o combine w i t h the n a t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c thought of the p r o g r e s s i v e c a p i t a l i s t s t o r a i s e up the c u l t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c l e v e l o f the g r e a t workerpeasant masses and t o overcome t h e i r backward, i g n o r a n t c o n d i t i o n s . We w i l l make the b a s i c knowledge o f g e n e r a l s c i e n c e r e l e v a n t t o the worker-peasant masses and t h e i r cadre's p r o d u c t i o n . We w i l l b r i n g about g e n e r a l s c i e n t i f i c b a s i c e d u c a t i o n and cause the s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s o f the worker-peasant p r o f e s s i o n s t o be c o r r e c t l y combined and not do one t h i n g t o the n e g l e c t o f the o t h e r . We w i l l p e r s i s t e n t l y oppose s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h and s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i s " r e s i s t a n t t o change." That i s , an a t t i t u d e w h i c h r e j e c t s new d i s c o v e r i e s and i n v e n t i o n s and a l s o the u n p r i n c i p l e d s t a n d p o i n t of s e c t a r i a n i s m . T h i s k i n d of s t a n d p o i n t and a t t i t u d e i s as m u t u a l l y i n t o l e r a n t to the people's i n t e r e s t and t o the w o r k e r s ' and p e a s a n t s ' i n t e r e s t s as i s water t o f i r e . T h i r d , our new e d u c a t i o n which f i r s t and foremost s e r v e s the workers and peasants must be t h o r o u g h l y of the masses. I t s c o n t e n t must be subo r d i n a t e t o the worker-peasant mass a l l i a n c e , and must not v i o l a t e the worker-peasant mass a l l i a n c e . I f the c u r r e n t and f u t u r e cadres ( c u r r e n t u n i v e r s i t y , m i d d l e s c h o o l s t u d e n t s must a l l h e r e a f t e r serve the workerpeasant c a d r e s ) do not propagate from the p o i n t of v i e w of the worker-peasant masses but r a t h e r o n l y from the p o i n t of v i e w of the l a n d l o r d c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s and do not propagate the t r u t h s o f the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (such as D a r w i n i a n e v o l u t i o n and Marxism) but r a t h e r o n l y propagate i d e a l i s m , f e u d a l s u p e r s t i t i o n , r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s , and a n t i - s c i e n t i f i c t h o u g h t , then t h a t i s s i m p l y i n the r e a l m of thought w h i c h i n j u r e s the workers and peasants and worker-peasant cadres and causes them t o s t a l l and r e t r e a t t o a p o s i t i o n of backwardness. I t would a l s o weaken and d e s t r o y the main p a r t of t h e i r u s e f u l s e r v i c e t o the n a t i o n ; i t would weaken and d e s t r o y the w o r k i n g c l a s s ' s u s e f u l n e s s t o the n a t i o n ' s l e a d e r s h i p and a l s o weaken and d e s t r o y our p e o p l e ' s d e m o c r a t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p . T h i s then does not c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of the Chinese people but r a t h e r w i t h those o f the r e a c t i o n a r i e s  114  b o t h w i t h i n and w i t h o u t the c o u n t r y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the c o n t e n t o f the people's e d u c a t i o n must correspond t o the needs of the workers and peasants and correspond w i t h t h e i r long-range i n t e r e s t s ; i t w i l l be c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h e i r a c t u a l l i f e and s t r u g g l e (such as the war w i t h the Kuomintang r e a c t i o n a r i e s , struggle w i t h t y r a n t s , land reform s t r u g g l e s , record-breaking a c t i v i t i e s , people's c o n g r e s s e s , p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . ) and s h o u l d n ' t break away from t h e i r a c t u a l l i f e and s t r u g g l e . We should use the s p i r i t of the worker-peasant masses t o e x p r e s s the c o n t e n t of the new e d u c a t i o n . A t the same t i m e , our language r e f o r m and our words must s t r i v e to approach t h a t o f the worker and peasant masses. A c c o r d i n g t o Chairman Mao's d i r e c t i v e and the people's government - p r o v i s i o n , i . e . , the above mentioned n a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c and mass s t a n d a r d s , e v e r y c l a s s o f our s c h o o l and a l l the e d u c a t i o n a l organs ought t o s e v e r e l y and e a r n e s t l y examine t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e n t and p e r s i s t e n t l y and s t e a d i l y r e f o r m the c u r r e n t c o n t e n t o f t e a c h i n g and c r e a t e a new c o n t e n t o f t e a c h i n g and cause i t to be a p p r o p r i a t e t o the needs o f the worker-peasant l a b o r i n g people and t h e i r c a d r e s . T h i s i s the s e r i o u s t a s k of a l l the e d u c a t i o n a l workers i n today's new C h i n a .  3. I n order t o a p p l y the c o n t e n t of the p e o p l e ' s e d u c a t i o n , what k i n d of p r e p a r a t i o n s ought we make, and when should we s e t t o work? What advantages are i n our hands now? F i r s t , we have Chairman Mao, a harmonious p e o p l e ' s government, and the c e n t r a l Chinese government a l l o f which p r o v i d e us w i t h c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the people's e d u c a t i o n . Second, w i t h r e s p e c t to t r a i n i n g and r a i s i n g , up a l a r g e group o f cadres t o serve the workers and p e a s a n t s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o r a i s i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f the w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , and masses, and a l s o w i t h r e s p e c t t o e x p e r i e n c e i n e d u c a t i n g r u r a l , v i l l a g e boys, and y o u t h , the Chinese Communist P a r t y w i t h over twenty y e a r s of l e a d i n g the Chinese p e o p l e ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e has accumulated r i c h worker-peasant e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e (the f i r s t of which was peasant e d u c a t i o n ) . Because the p e r i o d and c o n d i t i o n s of these e x p e r i e n c e s are d i f f e r e n t , t h e r e are some a s p e c t s which ought t o be r e v i e w e d , d i s c a r d e d , or s u p p l e m e n t e d — b u t b a s i c a l l y they are c o r r e c t . H e n c e f o r t h , l a r g e - s c a l e p r a c t i c e t o c a r r y out the people's e d u c a t i o n w i l l be v e r y u s e f u l . Third, workers and peasants s h o u l d now u r g e n t l y seek c u l t u r e and I f they seek c u l t u r e they w i l l " t r a n s f o r m t h e i r i d e n t i t y . " Workers and peasants w i t h t h i s k i n d of h i g h degree of c o n s c i o u s n e s s and f i e r y support are our g r e a t e s t advantageous c o n d i t i o n f o r c a r r y i n g out p e o p l e ' s e d u c a t i o n . F o u r t h , we s h o u l d s t a r t d e p a r t i n g from the e x p e r i e n c e o f S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . The d i r e c t i o n o f S o v i e t c o n s t r u c t i o n and our d i r e c t i o n i s s i m i l a r but though the s t a t e o f a f f a i r s of the two c o u n t r i e s have v e r y g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s the S o v i e t e x p e r i e n c e i s s t i l l b a s i c a l l y v e r y u s e f u l t o us. Do- we have d i f f i c u l t i e s now? F o r the g e n e r a l promotion o f p e o p l e ' s e d u c a t i o n f o r workers and peasants we s t i l l l a c k n e c e s s a r y funds, t e a c h e r s (both i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y ), and e x p e r i e n c e . But f o l l o w i n g the improvement i n f i n a n c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s , f o l l o w i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n movement of the whole n a t i o n , these d i f f i c u l t i e s c a n . g r a d u a l l y be overcome.  115 Under the above mentioned f a v o r a b l e and d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s , what k i n d o f t h i n g s can and s h o u l d we do. F i r s t , we must r e i n f o r c e the e d u c a t i o n o f worker-peasant cadres and P e o p l e ' s L i b e r a t i o n Armymen. Our worker-peasant cadres who are w o r k i n g i n the armed f o r c e s , government a g e n c i e s , and o r g a n i z e d groups are the backbone o f today's new C h i n a and are the most t r e a s u r e d p r o p e r t y of our c o u n t r y . They who are c o n s t a n t l y under s h a r p l y s t r u g g l i n g c o n d i t i o n s , s y s t e m a t i c a l l y l a c k i n g l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , now ought t o g r e a t l y s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r c u l t u r a l and s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n . F o r more than twenty y e a r s our courageous r e v o l u t i o n a r y army under the d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p of Chairman Mao has v e r y s e r i o u s l y and v i g o r o u s l y promoted r e v o l u t i o n a r y , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and m i l i t a r y e d u c a t i o n and a c h i e v e d g l o r i o u s r e s u l t s and accumulated r i c h e x p e r i e n c e . Now our P e o p l e ' s L i b e r a t i o n Army should c o n s t r u c t a more modern n a t i o n a l defense army, and t h i s would r e q u i r e a l l our m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s t o a c q u i r e an even h i g h e r c u l t u r a l , s c i e n t i f i c , and p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . F o r t h i s r e a s o n we must c o n t i n u e to r e i n f o r c e the e d u c a t i o n a l work o f our m i l i t a r y . I n terms o f c o n t e n t i t must be more e n r i c h e d and s y s t e m a t i c ; the system and method has t o be changed to be more r e g u l a t e d . Second, we must promote s p a r e - t i m e supplementary e d u c a t i o n f o r w o r k e r s . What p o s i t i o n s h o u l d worker e d u c a t i o n have i n the whole e d u c a t i o n ? We say worker e d u c a t i o n ought t o occupy an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n i n people's e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s not o n l y because the w o r k i n g c l a s s i s our c o u n t r y ' s l e a d i n g c l a s s , because i t and the peasant c l a s s i s the n a t i o n ' s d e c i s i v e p a r t but r a t h e r because the w o r k i n g c l a s s i s d e s p e r a t e l y i n need of supplementary e d u c a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g the f a i l u r e of the 1927 r e v o l u t i o n , the Chinese Communist P a r t y as the vanguard o f the Chinese w o r k i n g c l a s s then c o r r e c t l y s h i f t e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n t o the r u r a l a r e a s . From t h i s up to 1949, when every- l a r g e c i t y was l i b e r a t e d , t h i s vanguard o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s has i n the p a s t twenty-two l o n g , long, y e a r s b a s i c a l l y and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l e f t t h e i r o r i g i n a l c l a s s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , China's w o r k i n g c l a s s has o n l y been c a r r i e d on by h a v i n g the vanguard l e a d the peasants and the d e m o c r a t i c p a r t i e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g and d e v e l o p i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m i e s , r e v o l u t i o n a r y b a s e s , and a r e v o l u t i o n a r y government. A l t h o u g h the main body of t h i s c l a s s d u r i n g e v e r y r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d has c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s , they s t i l l s u f f e r e d under i m p e r i a l i s m and the Kuomintang's r e a c t i o n a r y t e r r o r and c o u l d n ' t r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r i e n c e or r e c e i v e the e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r own vanguard. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the workers o f e v e r y l a r g e c i t y who have j u s t been l i b e r a t e d f i n d t h a t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l thought l e v e l i s g e n e r a l l y lower than the P e o p l e ' s L i b e r a t i o n Army f i e l d commanders (they are m o s t l y p e a s a n t s ) but a l s o g e n e r a l l y lower than the peasants of the o l d l i b e r a t e d areas who have been through r e v o l u t i o n a r y war and l a n d r e f o r m a c t i v i t y . The l e a d e r s h i p c l a s s o f new China and those b e i n g l e d ( o f course o n l y a f r a c t i o n ) w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r thought and p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s are t e m p o r a r i l y under these k i n d s of abnormal c o n d i t i o n s which are a t y p i c a l r e s u l t o f the development of the Chinese r e v o l u t i o n , but these k i n d s o f c o n d i t i o n s ought t o be q u i c k l y changed. The method of changing i s a s s u r e d l y not t o lower the l e v e l o f the peasants but r a t h e r ought t o be t h a t the w o r k i n g c l a s s would pursue c a t c h i n g up w i t h a l l p o s s i b l e speed. T h i s then i s the g r e a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s and t h e i r vanguard i n today's C h i n a . I t i s a l s o the g r e a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  116 o f a l l the people's e d u c a t i o n a l workers. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the Chinese Communist P a r t y , our s t a f f , w o r k e r s , a s s o c i a t i o n s , and e d u c a t i o n a l workers ought to c o o r d i n a t e t o g e t h e r , d i v i d e l a b o r , and work t o g e t h e r to take t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h and r e i n f o r c e supplementary e d u c a t i o n . The number of workers i n a l l areas who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n supplementary e d u c a t i o n i s a l r e a d y 500,000; and we are g o i n g t o make even g r e a t e r advances. T h i s k i n d of worker supplementary e d u c a t i o n can g e n e r a l l y s e t up a c l a s s o r d e r e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t of p r i m a r y and h i g h - e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s p r i m a r y s c h o o l s are f o r l e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r s and the f o u r k i n d s of mathem a t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s ; m i d d l e s c h o o l s are. m a i n l y f o r l i t e r a t u r e , mathematics, c u r r e n t community a f f a i r s , and promotion o f e d u c a t i o n f o r M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t government. I n a p o r t i o n of the f a c t o r i e s , i f c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t , we a l s o can e s t a b l i s h the e q u i v a l e n t o f m i d d l e s c h o o l s , s u p p l e mentary e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s I n which the course o f study would m a i n l y be l i t e r a t u r e and mathematics, and g e n e r a l knowledge courses of h i s t o r y and n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . A p o r t i o n o f the e d u c a t i o n a l workers ought t o engage i n supplementary e d u c a t i o n f o r workers and r e g a r d t e a c h i n g workers as t h e i r h i g h e s t p e r s o n a l honor. F o r these e d u c a t i o n a l workers, i t i s not o n l y a q u e s t i o n o f t e a c h i n g but a l s o a q u e s t i o n of l e a r n i n g . Chairman Mao says: "Only by r e p r e s e n t i n g the masses can one t e a c h the masses; o n l y by becoming a s t u d e n t of the masses can one become a t e a c h e r o f the m a s s e s " ("Yenan Forum on L i t e r a t u r e and Art?*). Comrades who want t o become t e a c h e r s of the workers ought t o s t r i v e t o r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s and ought to s t r i v e a t the same time to become s t u d e n t s o f the w o r k e r s . We s h o u l d work toward s o l v i n g the q u e s t i o n o f t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e s for worker e d u c a t i o n . T h i r d , i s supplementary e d u c a t i o n f o r p e a s a n t s . T h i s i s one of the b i g g e s t p r o j e c t s o f new China's people's e d u c a t i o n . Chairman Mao says: "A s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n I s t h a t o f e d u c a t i n g the p e a s a n t s " (?0n People's • Democratic D i c t a t o r s h i p ^ ) . From t h i s we can see t h a t e d u c a t i n g the peasants i s a s e r i o u s problem. I t must be s a i d t h a t the Chinese w o r k i n g c l a s s by. means o f i t s vanguard has c a r r i e d through i t s l o n g s t r u g g l e : of e d u c a t i o n a l work among the p e a s a n t s . I t s purpose has been t o h e i g h t e n the c o n s c i o u s ness o f the p e a s a n t s , t i g h t l y and r i g o r o u s l y u n i t e the peasants and e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n the worker-peasant a l l i a n c e . U s i n g t h i s as a f o u n d a t i o n I t has a l s o sought t o e s t a b l i s h and defend the r e v o l u t i o n a r y base areas and the r e v o l u t i o n a r y government and t o s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t f o r e i g n i n v a d e r s and i n t e r n a l r e a c t i o n a r i e s . T h i s s t r u g g l e has been won.. I n t h a t case, why do we say t h a t now the e d u c a t i o n o f the peasants i s s t i l l a s e r i o u s s t r u g g l e ? T h i s i s because China's peasants s t i l l have t o complete l a n d r e f o r m w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f the e n t i r e c o u n t r y ; a f t e r t h a t , w i t h i n a l o n g p e r i o d o f time they can c o l l e c t i v i z e and modernize t h e i r own s c a t t e r e d and backward economy. Chairman Mao t e l l s us: "Peasant a g r i c u l t u r e i s d i v e r s i f i e d and a c c o r d i n g to the e x p e r i e n c e of the S o v i e t Union, a l o n g p e r i o d and c o n s c i e n t i o u s work i s needed b e f o r e a g r i c u l t u r e can be s o c i a l i z e d . Without s o c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e t h e r e can be no complete and s o l i d socialism" ("On People's Democratic D i c t a t o r s h i p " ) . The evidence i s here t h a t from now on the t a s k of the Chinese w o r k i n g c l a s s toward e d u c a t i n g the peasants i s e s p e c i a l l y g r e a t and e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t . A l l o f our e d u c a t i o n a l workers ought to have s u f f i c i e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s .  117 In the o l d l i b e r a t e d areas i t i s a f a c t t h a t the Communist P a r t y a c h i e v e d f a n t a s t i c r e s u l t s i n the promotion of e d u c a t i o n among the p e a s a n t s . They d i d t h i s by means o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y war and v a r i o u s k i n d s of r e v o l u t i o n a r y struggle ( i . e . , rent r e d u c t i o n , i n t e r e s t r e d u c t i o n , land r e f o r m , j o i n i n g the army, e t c . ) and by u s i n g l a r g e and s m a l l group m e e t i n g s , making r e p o r t s , p e r f o r m i n g p l a y s , s i n g i n g f o l k songs, e t c . These methods and forms i n the f u t u r e w i l l s t i l l be v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n peasant e d u c a t i o n . We must c e r t a i n l y develop and modify these e x p e r i e n c e s t o make them s t i l l more s u c c e s s f u l f o r the p e a c e f u l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the environment. I n the o l d l i b e r a t e d areas another k i n d of Important e d u c a t i o n a l form was w i n t e r - s t u d y . T h i s form u t i l i z e s the peasants s l a c k , w i n t e r season i n o r d e r to c o r r e l a t e among a l l areas and v i l l a g e s the p r e s e n t - d a y , c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s and to promote the study of e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r s and p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n . A t the o u t s e t o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the c e n t r a l people's government, g u i d e l i n e s were i s s u e d to p o p u l a r i z e the promotion of w i n t e r - s t u d y . H e n c e f o r t h , we w i l l be more prepared to c a r r y i t o u t . D u r i n g the f a l l of t h i s year we are g o i n g t o h o l d an a l l - c o u n t r y , worker-peasant e d u c a t i o n a l conference a t which we w i l l prepare a study o f the i m p o r t a n t e x p e r i e n c e s of t h i s y e a r ' s w i n t e r - s t u d y program and h o l d d i s c u s s i o n s c o n e r n i n g the problems of t e a c h e r s and course m a t e r i a l i n the w i n t e r - s t u d y program. F o u r t h , i s the p r e p a r a t i o n and promotion of e d u c a t i o n f o r c h a r a c t e r r e c o g n i t i o n . The p l a n I s t o g r a d u a l l y , w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of the e n t i r e c o u n t r y , sweep away i l l i t e r a c y . Chairman Mao says: "The n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a new C h i n a i s to sweep away i l l i t e r a c y among the 80 per cent p o r t i o n o f China's p o p u l a t i o n " ("On U n i t e d Government"). These are not' o r d i n a r y c o n d i t i o n s nor are they c o n d i t i o n s you can or cannot have but r a t h e r they are a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a new C h i n a i s work t h a t has a l r e a d y begun. But we have s t i l l not made ready the one n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n : about 80 per cent of the e n t i r e c o u n t r y ' s p o p u l a t i o n are s t i l l i l l i t e r a t e , and t h i s p o r t i o n are b a s i c a l l y the workers and peasants who are new China's l e a d e r s h i p c l a s s and b a s i c s t r e n g t h . The s e r i o u s n a t u r e o f the problem i s r i g h t h e r e . What must the w o r k i n g c l a s s r e l y on In o r d e r to lead? They must r e l y on t r u t h , the t r u t h of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s I n o r d e r to l e a d . What must the workers and peasants r e l y on to become the b a s i c f o r c e o f the new democracy? They must m a i n l y r e l y on the f a c t t h a t they r e p r e s e n t the s o c i e t y ' s p r o d u c i n g power and are the producers of a l l the w e a l t h . From t h i s we know t h a t i n o r d e r to make the f o u n d a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p of our c o u n t r y even s t r o n g e r i t won't do t o have complete i l l i t e r a c y or the m a j o r i t y i l l i t e r a t e . Workers and peasants must study the r e c o g n i t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s v e r y q u i c k l y and they must have grasped the b a s i c c u l t u r a l t o o l s i n order to have a grasp of s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y . Only then can they s t r e n g t h e n l e a d e r s h i p , promote p r o d u c t i o n , and a c q u i r e the n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r new China's healthy construction. T a k i n g a l o o k a t the S o v i e t Union we f i n d t h a t two y e a r s a f t e r the success of the October R e v o l u t i o n , t h a t i s , December 26, 1919, L e n i n h i m s e l f i s s u e d a d i r e c t i v e p u t t i n g a d e a d l i n e on the e l i m i n a t i o n o f illiteracy. L e n i n s a i d : " I n a c o u n t r y of i l l i t e r a c y i t i s not p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h communism." F u r t h e r m o r e , he s a i d : " I n o r d e r to make a l l the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the R e p u b l i c c o n s c i o u s l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p o l i t i c a l life the people's committee r e q u i r e d : ( l ) a l l the i n h a b i t a n t s of the R e p u b l i c  118 between the ages of f i v e and f i f t y who.cannot read and w r i t e must a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r w i l l use e i t h e r t h e i r own e t h n i c language or R u s s i a n i n order t o l e a r n r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . " The d i r e c t i v e a l s o r e q u i r e d t h a t : "The P e o p l e ' s E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t r y and i t s l o c a l o f f i c e s have the r i g h t to absorb i l l i t e r a c y s t u d i e s , use l a b o r d u t y methods, and c a l l , those who have not e n t e r e d the army but have had e d u c a t i o n t o be t e a c h e r s . T h e i r l a b o r w i l l be p a i d a c c o r d i n g to an e d u c a t i o n a l worker's s a l a r y . The P e o p l e ' s E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t r y and I t s l o c a l o f f i c e s must absorb a l l k i n d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o r k i n g f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f i l l i t e r a c y such as p r o f e s s i o n a l worker's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l o c a l P a r t y b r a n c h e s , communist y o u t h l e a g u e s , women's worker's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and any o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The People's E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t r y must use c i t i z e n ' s r e s i d e n c e s , churches, c l u b s , f a c t o r i e s , and o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s t o a i d i n the e l i m i n a t i o n of i l l i t e r a c y . A l l those who a v o i d the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h i s d i r e c t i v e and o b s t r u c t those s t u d y i n g i n the program must be h e l d c r i m i n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e . " The P e o p l e ' s E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t r y o f the S o v i e t Union on the b a s i s o f t h i s d i r e c t i v e o r g a n i z e d the " A l l R u s s i a n E x t r a o r d i n a r y Committee f o r the E l i m i n a t i o n o f I l l i t e r a c y . " Sole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f i l l i t e r a c y and the promotion o f a mass movement t o read r e s t e d w i t h t h i s committee. T h e i r s l o g a n was: "Each p e r s o n who can read must teach one who cannot." Reading s c h o o l s , p r i m a r y s c h o o l s and worker's s c h o o l s were t o be e s t a b l i s h e d throughout the e n t i r e c o u n t r y . I n 1920 the magazine "Wipe Out I l l i t e r a c y " appeared. I n 1923, the head o f the magazine o r g a n i z e d an a s s o c i a t i o n to wipe out i l l i t e r a c y . He o r g a n i z e d a c u l t u r a l army of over 10,0.00 ( l a t e r t o expand to 100,000) which became the b a s i c cadre f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f i l l i t e r a c y . A t the end of 1927 the f i r s t stage of the i l l i t e r a c y e l i m i n a t i o n concluded and the second stage began w i t h the c e n t r a l t a s k b e i n g t o e l i m i n a t e urban i l l i t e r a c y and r a i s e the b l i n d e r s of the s e m i - l i t e r a t e u r b a n i t e s and m i l i t a r y u n i t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , they e s t a b l i s h e d r e a d i n g s c h o o l s and s e m i - l i t e r a t e s c h o o l s . I n 1930 the government of the S o v i e t Union r e s o l v e d t o s e t up tens of thousands o f a d u l t s c h o o l s throughout the e n t i r e c o u n t r y . By 1939 the S o v i e t Union had 89.0 per cent of t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s from age n i n e t o f o r t y - n i n e l i t e r a t e . At the p r e s e n t the S o v i e t Union has b a s i c a l l y wiped out i l l i t e r a c y . A f t e r the twenty y e a r s of hard s t r u g g l e the S o v i e t Union from 1919 to 1939 had b a s i c a l l y , c o m p l e t e l y wiped out i l l i t e r a c y among t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n o f almost 200 m i l l i o n . I n C h i n a , the p o p u l a t i o n i s 475 m i l l i o n and the r a t i o of i l l i t e r a c y i s even g r e a t e r than t h a t i n R u s s i a a t the time o f the October R e v o l u t i o n . Furthermore r e a d i n g i s more d i f f i c u l t because of the need to r e c o g n i z e c h a r a c t e r s . For t h i s r e a s o n we ought t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h i s i s going t o be a l o n g and d i f f i c u l t t a s k . T h i s i s a t a s k t h a t we ought t o immediately prepare f o r . P r e s e n t l y i n worker spare-time e d u c a t i o n , w i n t e r - s t u d y , and m i l i t a r y u n i t e d u c a t i o n the f i r s t aspect to c a r r y out i s r e c o g n i t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s . I n the a r e a s where c o n d i t i o n s are alreadyp r e p a r e d , ( i . e . , l a n d r e f o r m a l r e a d y c a r r i e d out, f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i o n a l r e a d y on the t r a c k ) we can experiment w i t h c h a r a c t e r r e c o g n i z i n g e d u c a t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r r e c o g n i z i n g movement i n the N o r t h e a s t at Lu Hsun and D a i r e n f u r n i s h e s us w i t h p r e c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and s u f f i c i e n t c o n f i d e n c e . Planning, r e s e a r c h , and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n should i m m e d i a t e l y b e g i n i n the a r e a o f  119  character reform. The worker-peasant educational conference held this f a l l should provide a workable plan toward these great tasks. It should set the pace so that beginning next year In quite a few areas l i t e r a c y education can be promoted with the purpose of wiping i l l i t e r a c y . F i f t h , we must undertake the rapid completion of worker-peasant middle schools. Chairman Mao has said: "From now on the government ought to plan to cultivate various kinds of i n t e l l e c t u a l cadres from among the broad masses of the people" ("On United Government"). In China there are very few i n t e l l e c t u a l cadres who have come from a background of the working class or peasantry. In terms of constructing a new China this kind of situation i s very unfavorable. It i s even more unfavorable i n terms of having new China reach new democracy and socialism. For this reason, our greatest r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to use Marxism-Leninism and the s o c i a l and natural sciences to cultivate a new type of i n t e l l e c t u a l from among the workers and peasants. This r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s related to the fate of our country, and i t i s therefore necessary that we e s p e c i a l l y shoulder.and seriously take up this r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In order to cultivate i n t e l l e c t u a l s from among workers and peasants the sole use of worker-peasant vocational school i s i n s u f f i c i e n t . We must mainly have workers and peasants rapidly completing middle school and then attract the best of them and encourage them to f i n i s h a middle-level of c u l t u r a l and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i n three to four years and then go on to high school where they can continue their studies. This kind of student w i l l have l e f t his o r i g i n a l work post to devote spare-time to study and and not f u l l - t i m e . The courses i n the short-course middle schools for the workers and peasants w i l l be mainly l i t e r a t u r e and mathematics. 'Outside of this there w i l l be physics, h i s t o r y , geography, biology, and the common sense of hygiene. The Central Chinese Ministry of Education has already experimented with worker-peasant short-course middle schools and have found that among those i n the m i l i t a r y and worker-peasant youth who participated there are many who learn very vigorously and extremely f a s t . In a small amount of time the misconception has already been broken which says: workers and peasants learn mathematics slowly. In f a c t , i t i s precisely the opposite. Their consciousness i s comparatively higher than that of other youth and they learn mathematics f a s t e r . We have already prepared to set up these short-course middle schools i n a l l areas, and we w i l l strive to gradually and popularly establish short-course middle schools by next year among People's Liberation Army units and other groups. Sixth, a l l classes of schools i n the entire country must open up their doors to the workers and peasants and their sons and daughters. The doors of the u n i v e r s i t i e s ought to be opened for the general worker and peasant youth and cadres. This kind of policy w i l l not be liked or be easy to accept among most i n t e l l e c t u a l s and a portion of u n i v e r s i t y professors. They think that workers and peasants are stupid, d i r t y , and not f i t for u n i v e r s i t y . In f a c t , i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s of new China who i s i t that i s mOst f i t ? It i s the workers and peasants because the workers and peasants are the main group In the nation and are the cornerstone of construction. Furthermore, the most important thing i s to cultivate  120 i n t e l l e c t u a l s who were once workers and peasants and make them the s t r o n g backbone of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the new C h i n a . The workers and peasants are the c l e a n e s t i n both body and s p i r i t compared w i t h a l l o t h e r c l a s s e s . From t h e i r s o c i a l s t r u g g l e and s t r u g g l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n I t can h a r d l y be s a i d t h a t they are not i n t e l l i g e n t . I t i s o n l y because they were o r i g i n a l l y poor and had no r i g h t o r money t o a t t e n d s c h o o l t h a t they are u n c u l t u r e d and not c l e a n . T h e r e f o r e , who i s the c r i m i n a l ? The c r i m i n a l s have a l r e a d y been d e f e a t e d and whoever t r i e s a g a i n t o suppress the w o r k e r s and peasants i n t o b e i n g u n c u l t u r e d and d i r t y w i l l c e r t a i n l y be opposed. The workers and peasants who e n t e r e d the s c h o o l s i n the S o v i e t Union and went to the u n i v e r s i t i e s or s c i e n t i f i c s c h o o l s , graduated and became t e c h n i c i a n s , p r o f e s s o r s , members of s c i e n t i f i c i n s t i t u t e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the h i g h e s t S o v i e t s , r e c e i v e d m a s t e r s degrees, d o c t o r ' s degrees, and one r e c e i v e d the S t a l i n P r i z e . From a l l t h a t has been s a i d are the w o r k e r s and peasants any l e s s c l e a n than the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e or the b o u r g e o i s i e ? The answer i s n e g a t i v e . . R e c e n t l y , the c e n t r a l people's government has e s t a b l i s h e d the C h i n a People's U n i v e r s i t y ; i t w i l l serve as a good example. T h i s u n i v e r s i t y ' s r e g u l a r course c o n s i s t s o f seven d e p a r t m e n t s — e c o n o m i c s , economic p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c e , t r u s t and l o a n , c o o p e r a t i v e t r a d e , f a c t o r y management, f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , and law. The course o f study i s from two to f o u r y e a r s . I n the f i r s t y e a r , 1,400 were a d m i t t e d , the m a j o r i t y of these were those who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y work f o r a t l e a s t seven y e a r s o r had worked f o r t h r e e y e a r s as worker-peasant cadres as w e l l as o u t s t a n d i n g workers w i t h t h r e e y e a r s w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e . A f t e r they e n t e r e d s c h o o l they v i g o r o u s l y s t u d i e d p o l i t i c s , R u s s i a n , and v a r i o u s k i n d s o f t e c h n i c a l knowledge. Thus f a r t h e i r p r o g r e s s has been v e r y f a s t and Chinese p r o f e s s o r s and R u s s i a n p r o f e s s o r s a l i k e are q u i t e s a t i s f i e d w i t h the s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g . A l l of our u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s s h o u l d f o l l o w the example o f C h i n a People's U n i v e r s i t y and g r a d u a l l y but f i r m l y absorb those worker and peasant youth w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d i n g i n t o the s c h o o l s and g i v e them s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . We should p l a n t o p o s i t i v e l y s e t up a d d i t i o n a l worker-peasant s h o r t - c o u r s e middle s c h o o l s , or worker-peasant supplementary e d u c a t i o n . The u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s ought t o get prepared i n a l l r e s p e c t s so t h a t i n t h r e e or f o u r y e a r s they w i l l be a b l e to absorb most o f the graduates from the worker-peasant s h o r t - c o u r s e middle s c h o o l s and c o n s i d e r the c u l t i v a t i o n of worker-peasant i n t e l l e c t u a l s as t h e i r g r e a t e s t responsibility. The m i d d l e - s c h o o l s o f our r e c e n t l y l i b e r a t e d areas must a l s o open t h e i r doors t o the worker-peasant y o u t h . N e e d l e s s t o say, r e g u l a r s c h o o l s , normal s c h o o l s , and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s a i l - must p l a n t o admit the sons and daughters o f workers and p e a s a n t s . W i t h i n the number o f s t u d e n t s they admit a f i x e d r a t i o , a c c o r d i n g t o the d i f f e r e n c e s of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , must be worker and peasant youth and the sons and daughters o f workers and p e a s a n t s . These s c h o o l s must a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n c r e a s e the number o f worker and peasant supplementary c o u r s e s . As f o r p r o m o t i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l and s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n t h i s i s up t o the o r i g i n a l t e a c h e r s .  121 Our elementary schools and kindergartens should a l s o admit the sons and daughters of workers and peasants. Elementary school teachers should consider i t t h e i r highest honor to teach sons and daughters of workers and peasants. Our great fatherland and people give these kind of teachers ' our highest regard and respect because they have contributed t h e i r greatest e f f o r t s toward the future of the fatherland and the people.  122 Part I I :  "On an Educational Policy to Serve Productive Construction"  4. Another main policy and goal of people's education in new China i s simply for the recovery and development of the people's economy, or In other words, to serve productive construction. It i s very clear that this policy and the policy that education serves the workers and peasants are inseparable. Those who understand the laws of s o c i a l development a l l know that material conditions form the foundation for society. "The mode of production i n material l i f e determines society, p o l i t i c s arid s p i r i t u a l l i f e " (Marxi " C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy"). The Chinese people's revolution has already achieved basic v i c t o r y . Its main purpose now i s to liberate the material productive forces i n China from the bondage of neo-colonialism and neo-feudalism and be able to seek a smoother development from among the new productive r e l a t i o n s . The government and culture of new China and the entirety of new China's construction i s a l l based on this kind of development of the material productive forces; only then can i t develop and consolidate. If we do not have the development of the material productive forces i n new China, that i s to say, i f In the beginning we do not have the people's economic recovery and development then the construction and c u l t u r a l construction of the new people's democratic government w i l l not be dependable and w i l l not have a foundation. Everyone knows that a l l things must have dependability and foundation or they w i l l collapse. It i s precisely because of this that following the Chinese people's achievement of basic victory i n the revolutionary war Chairman Mao told us that "the serious task facing us i s productive construction" ("On the People's Democratic D i c t a t o r s h i p " ) . He moreover pointed out "following the attainment of the high tide of economic construction, we cannot avoid trying to attain a high tide i n c u l t u r a l construction" ("Opening Speech for People's P o l i t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n " ) . From this one must distinguish which i s to come f i r s t . Without the slightest doubt, economic construction i s the Chinese nation's f i r s t and fundamental task. This i s one aspect. S t i l l another aspect i s that "any given culture i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the p o l i t i c s and economy of the given society and the culture i n turn has a great influence on the p o l i t i c s and economy of the given society" (Mao Tse-tung, "On the New Democracy"). These sentences present us with a kirid of task. We cannot f a l l asleep or wait but rather we have, to vigorously and powerfully use the new culture to correctly r e f l e c t the new economy and new p o l i t i c s and also influence greatly the present new p o l i t i c s and new economy. This i s also to say that theory must not be divorced from practice and by u n i t i n g theory with practice a l l our p o l i c i e s are given d i r e c t i o n and Impetus. According to this p r i n c i p l e i n old China we used revolutionary c u l t u r a l education to "raise the masses." That Is to say, . we raised up the working people's consciousness to help them to unite, get arms,and defeat the productive relations of colonialism, neo-colonialism, neo-feudalism and thereby establish the productive relations of the new democracy; In accordance with this same p r i n c i p l e in new China we must  123 c o n s c i o u s l y (not b l i n d l y ) and p o w e r f u l l y ( n o t p a s s i v e l y or by f o r c e ) r a i s e the workers c o n s c i o u s n e s s one more step and u n i t e t h e i r f o r c e s , arm them w i t h s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y so as t o develop the m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s o f s o c i e t y and develop, the people's economy i n o r d e r t o c o n s o l i d a t e the f o u n d a t i o n o f the n a t i o n ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n . The new economy i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f the new c u l t u r e and the new economic c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be the p r e r e q u i s i t e c o n d i t i o n f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new c u l t u r e . T h i s i s one a s p e c t . Another i s t h a t the new c u l t u r e g i v e s the new economy g r e a t d i r e c t i o n and impetus. A l l o f the b u i l d e r s o f new China must s e c u r e l y grasp t h i s p r i n c i p l e and o n l y a f t e r wards can they c o n s c i o u s l y and c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h l i g h t from heavy, slow from f a s t and by p l a n n i n g , g r a d u a l l y promote our work. The concept t h a t e d u c a t i o n alone can "save the c o u n t r y " i s m i s t a k e n . E d u c a t i o n must be r e v o l u t i o n a r y e d u c a t i o n and o n l y then can i t produce i t s e f f e c t towards s a v i n g the c o u n t r y ; t h i s i s one. On the o t h e r hand, r e v o l u t i o n a r y e d u c a t i o n a l work toward s a v i n g the c o u n t r y has been h a v i n g a c e r t a i n g r e a t e f f e c t , but t h i s k i n d o f e f f e c t cannot be s a i d t o be the most important or even the o n l y one because the t a s k o f s a v i n g the c o u n t r y i n v o l v e s p o l i t i c a l . , m i l i t a r y , economic, c u l t u r a l , and o t h e r v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of r e v o l u t i o n a r y work. I n the p r o c e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g new China the new c u l t u r e and the new e d u c a t i o n must be the g r e a t e s t t a s k . T h i s i s w i t h o u t doubt. But t h i s k i n d Of e f f e c t can o n l y be a c h i e v e d i f our c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n can, under r e a l c o n d i t i o n s , serve the w o r k i n g people and prod u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . I f t h i s i s not done then we won't be a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h i s k i n d o f e f f e c t and i n f a c t may produce the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t . Speaking o f an e d u c a t i o n which serves p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n C h i n a has m a i n t a i n e d an e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a f o r over t h i r t y y e a r s and t h i s i s : "Now i n C h i n a the most i m p o r t a n t and d i f f i c u l t problem i s t h a t o f the people's l i v e l i h o o d ; s e e k i n g the fundamental s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem o f l i v e l i h o o d i s e d u c a t i o n " ( " D e c l a r a t i o n o f the E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the 1917 Chinese E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n " ) . I n h i s t o r y i t i s v e r y c l e a r : the most i m p o r t a n t and d i f f i c u l t problem i s t h a t o f l i v e l i h o o d ; t h i s I s correct,' but the method o f s o l v i n g t h i s problem from the r o o t s i n o l d C h i n a c o u l d not be by " e d u c a t i o n " b u t had t o be by " r e v o l u t i o n " o r "the People's r e v o l u t i o n c a r r i e d out under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . " Certainly one o f the g r e a t p r o j e c t s o f the people's r e v o l u t i o n I n c l u d e s the t a s k o f s e t t i n g up r e v o l u t i o n a r y e d u c a t i o n . And what about i n new China? The most i m p o r t a n t and d i f f i c u l t problem i s s t i l l t h a t o f l i v e l i h o o d ; t h i s i s a l s o c o r r e c t , b u t i n o r d e r t o s o l v e t h i s problem from the r o o t s you must use the concept t h a t " p r i v a t e and p u b l i c must be s a t i s f i e d , worker and peasant must b e n e f i t , c i t y and c o u n t r y must h e l p each o t h e r , I n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l must t r a d e ; the g o a l i s t o develop p r o d u c t i o n and have a f l o u r i s h i n g economy" ("Common Program"). "Only e d u c a t i o n " w i l l n o t a c h i e v e t h i s purpose. Our people's e d u c a t i o n t o serve p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n should c e r t a i n l y r a i s e h i g h the worker's p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y and s p i r i t and r a i s e h i g h the l e v e l o f the worker's c u l t u r e , s c i e n c e , and technology. I t should a l s o c u l t i v a t e the cadre's p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h the aim o f i m p r o v i n g t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e s k i l l s i n a l l a s p e c t s . I t should be p o s s i b l e f o r our people's e d u c a t i o n t o a c h i e v e t h i s Important e f f e c t . T h i s k i n d o f people's e d u c a t i o n must r e b u i l d and develop the people's  - 124 economy; t h i s i s n e c e s s a r y and cannot be a v o i d e d . Those who"'cannot see the n e c e s s i t y and importance o f t h i s and oppose people's--'education a r e c e r t a i n l y mistaken. y y  "Does e d u c a t i o n t h a t serves p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n n o t serve o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n ? " NOJ our people's e d u c a t i o n a l s o s e r v e s t h e people's p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . What we have j u s t s t a t e d i s the important p o i n t and g o a l o f our p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l work which i s t o serve p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s because p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s the fundamental b a s i s o f the o v e r - a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the c o u n t r y . We must a l l s t r i v e t o c e n t e r our e f f o r t s around t h i s fundamental b a s i s . To leave t h i s i s f o r us t o commit e r r o r s .  5. I n our p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n what s h o u l d t h e c o n t e n t o f our e d u c a t i o n emphasize i n e d u c a t i n g t h e c i t i z e n s who work f o r p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . F i r s t o f a l l , i n e v e r y d i f f e r e n t k i n d and d i f f e r e n t l e v e l o f educat i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n we s h o u l d e r e c t c o r r e c t concepts and h a b i t s f o r the r e s p e c t and l o v e o f l a b o r . We s h o u l d e l i m i n a t e our i n c o r r e c t concepts and h a b i t s o f d e s p i s i n g work and the w o r k e r s . " T h i s i s because man's w o r l d and man h i m s e l f were c r e a t e d through l a b o r . Labor forms the b a s i s f o r s o c i e t y ' s s u r v i v a l and development. L a b o r e r s a r e t h e c r e a t o r s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , work should become the w o r l d ' s most r e s p e c t a b l e o c c u p a t i o n and l a b o r e r s s h o u l d become the w o r l d ' s most r e s p e c t a b l e p e o p l e . " "We must g i v e t o the l a b o r e r s , e s p e c i a l l y those h e r o e s and d i s c o v e r e r s who through t h e i r work make i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r i e s and c r e a t i o n s , t h e i r deserved p r a i s e . We should g i v e those j o b l e s s , p a r a s i t i c i n s e c t s o f s o c i e t y t h e i r deserved s c o r n . T h i s i s one o f the i d e a l s - o f our new morality^" (The above q u o t a t i o n s a r e taken from L i u Shao-chi's speech c e l e b r a t i n g Labor Day i n P e k i n g ) . T h e r e f o r e , no m a t t e r what t h e s i t u a t i o n , our e d u c a t i o n should be i n accordance w i t h s o c i e t y ' s s c i e n t i f i c d e v e l o p ment (and n o t i n accordance w i t h those who p u t themselves above c l a s s e s ) . I t should s t i m u l a t e people t o develop extreme enthusiasm and optimism f o r l a b o r , t o r e v e a l the-base and shameful n a t u r e o f e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s e s , j o b l e s s n e s s , e t c . and w i d e l y p r o c l a i m a l l d i s c o v e r i e s and c r e a t i o n s no m a t t e r how m i n u t e . I t should employ a l l methods and procedures w h i c h a r e s u i t a b l e t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e and r e q u i r e m e n t , o r g a n i z e a l l those who were o r i g i n a l l y n o n - l a b o r e r s t o g r a d u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r , f u r t h e r develop p r o d u c t i o n , and a l s o o b t a i n the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o b e t t e r t h e i r l i v e s . W i t h i n our w o r k i n g f o r c e , we have t o make profound and widespread p r o g r e s s i n our d i s c i p l i n e s o f l a b o r e d u c a t i o n . W i t h i n our a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r we s h o u l d f o r c e f u l l y " o r g a n i z e , " p r a c t i c e m u t u a l a s s i s t a n c e , and assemble knowledge o f p r o d u c t i o n and•oppose a g r i c u l t u r a l i d e a l i s t i c education. I n our p r o g r e s s i n p u r s u i n g the c o n t e n t f o r e d u c a t i n g t h e people we must s e r i o u s l y oppose the v u l g a r b e l i e f s o f t h e s o - c a l i e d c a p i t a l i s t l a b o r - e d u c a t i o n . These s o - c a l l e d i d e a l s o f c a p i t a l i s t l a b o r - e d u c a t i o n o n l y make the l a b o r e r s o f c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y aware o f t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s and h e l p s them t o u n i t e t o f i g h t f o r a common cause, t o f i n d a way t o emancipate themselves. That i s t o say "because o f economic o p p r e s s i o n and r e a l i z a t i o n  125 of the d e f i c i e n c y of knowledge, workers can't o b t a i n a b e t t e r j o b or a b e t t e r wage. That i s why the aim o f l a b o r - e d u c a t i o n i s t o i n c r e a s e the l a b o r e r s s k i l l s and knowledge, t o e l e v a t e them from commonplace workers to s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s , from s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s to f u l l y t r a i n e d . workers and t h e r e f o r e a l l o w them to have a b e t t e r j o b , p o s i t i o n and l i f e " (Chen P i a o , "The V i e w p o i n t / o f E v e r y C o u n t r y ' s Labor E d u c a t i o n " p. 3 ) . Because of t h i s , s o - c a l l e d l a b o r e d u c a t i o n i s m e r e l y a t o o l f o r the c a p i t a l i s t s to e x p l o i t t h e i r more tame l a b o r e r s . The purpose of our education for productive c o n s t r u c t i o n i s i n o p p o s i t i o n to t h i s . Through our e d u c a t i o n , we want our w o r k i n g f o r c e t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r s t r e n g t h s to s e c u r i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t , the p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r own c o u n t r y and t o b e t t e r p l a n the development o f t h e i r own homeland. Second, our people's e d u c a t i o n should emphasize s c i e n t i f i c d e v e l o p ments and the t r a i n i n g of s k i l l s . We a l s o want t o c l o s e l y combine t h i s e d u c a t i o n w i t h our economic n e c e s s i t i e s ( i n c l u d i n g the s h o r t - r u n and long-run requirements). W i t h i n the broad masses, e s p e c i a l l y the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r , we should v o i c e our o p p o s i t i o n t o s u p e r s t i t i o n and o l d c o n s e r v a t i v e t h i n k i n g . We should b r o a d c a s t everywhere the s k i l l s and knowledge of the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , e t c . We should use the w o r l d ' s newest s c i e n t i f i c i n v e n t i o n s t o a i d a l l our v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i s t s . Here we should e s p e c i a l l y take I n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n R u s s i a ' s s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, s k i l l s and accomplishments and i n p r a c t i c e combine t h i s w i t h China's p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n and g r a d u a l l y make p r o d u c t i o n s u i t a b l e t o the needs of a l l . N a t u r a l l y , we w i l l a l s o have t o study the accomplishments of the s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s o f the c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s w h i c h would i n t u r n f u r t h e r our p l a n n i n g . Chairman Mao has a l r e a d y informed us " I m p e r i a l i s t s have e s t i m a t e d t h a t our economic system w i l l be a f a i l u r e . They have stood a s i d e w a i t i n g t o see our f a i l u r e . We must conquer a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s . We must l e a r n economy from the e x p e r t s (no m a t t e r who they a r e ) . We should t r e a t them as t e a c h e r s and l e a r n from them r e s p e c t f u l l y and h o n e s t l y . I f we don't know then we must admit our i g n o r a n c e . We must not p r e t e n d o t h e r w i s e . We must not put on any f a l s e f r o n t s and a c t s u p e r i o r . I n a few months, a year or two, or t h r e e or f i v e y e a r s , we w i l l e v e n t u a l l y l e a r n i t . I n R u s s i a , some o f the communists d i d not f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the o p e r a t i o n of the economy a t the b e g i n n i n g , and the I m p e r i a l i s t s were a w a i t i n g t h e i r f a i l u r e . But the R u s s i a n s succeeded. Under the l e a d e r s h i p o f L e n i n and S t a l i n they not o n l y knew about r e v o l u t i o n but they a l s o knew about c o n s t r u c t i o n . They have a l r e a d y b u i l t a n o t a b l e , g l o r i o u s s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r y . The S o v i e t Union i s our b e s t model. We must l e a r n from the S o v i e t U n i o n " (On the P e o p l e ' s D e m o c r a t i c D i c t a t o r s h i p ) . Because of t h i s we must l e a r n from R u s s i a . We must l e a r n from the e x p e r t s of p r o d u c t i v e s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s . Our educators must summon, l e a d , and h e l p the new breed i n C h i n a t o p r a c t i c e s c i e n c e . S t a l i n once s a i d : " I n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t we must have knowledge. We must know how t o d e a l w i t h s c i e n c e . I n f r o n t o f you stands a. rampart which symbolizes s c i e n c e and a l l o t h e r branches of knowledge. No m a t t e r what we do we must b a t t e r down t h i s rampart." New China's e d u c a t o r s must summon, l e a d , and h e l p our youths t o a t t a c h and occupy t h i s rampart: the symbol o f s c i e n c e and s k i l l s . T h i s would m o b i l i z e our  126  younger g e n e r a t i o n t o become the new s o c i e t y ' s most o p t i m i s t i c and f o r c e f u l c o n s t r u c t o r s . The f i r s t requirement o f our e d u c a t o r s i s o f course t o c o n s t a n t l y i n c r e a s e t h e i r own knowledge. How on e a r t h can one t e a c h i f he h i m s e l f does not know the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d ? What we have t o l e a r n i n s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s and knowledge must be c l o s e l y t i e d i n w i t h the p r a c t i c e o f p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . We must take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n new China's immediate needs and long-term require-; ments. Here we must proceed on two f r o n t s : on the one hand, we must s t r o n g l y oppose the p r a c t i c e of dogmatism. On the o t h e r hand, we must oppose those who emphasize s k i l l s and u n d e r e s t i m a t e s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n i n g and oppose those narrow-minded i n d i v i d u a l s who o n l y care f o r today and not f o r the f u t u r e . The b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the o l d e d u c a t i o n was the s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e and i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Up t o the p r e s e n t day t h i s remains a v e r y s e r i o u s problem w h i c h e x i s t s i n the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n our s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n s c h o o l s l o c a t e d i n the newly l i b e r a t e d a r e a s . We must f o r c e f u l l y conquer these problems. The e d u c a t o r s of the d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l s i n our e d u c a t i o n a l s e c t o r must have a profound u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the b a s i c d i r e c t i o n o f new China: to go from a backward a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r y t o develop i n t o a modern i n d u s t r i a l one. The e d u c a t o r s must a l s o be f a m i l i a r w i t h China's d e m o c r a t i c government, the communist approach toward the n a t i o n ' s v a r i o u s p o l i c i e s , and the r a t e o f p r o g r e s s . Then the e d u c a t o r s should e x p l o i t t h e i r s k i l l s t o b e n e f i t the p e o p l e , e l i m i n a t e the d r e g s , and combine these d i r e c t i o n s , p o l i c i e s and sequences i n an e x a c t manner i n o r d e r t o educate our y o u t h s . Moreover, they s h o u l d a n a l y z e and t e s t t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s t o expand what they e x c e l l i n , t o overcome t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s , and then to l e a r n new knowledge and s k i l l s from o t h e r s . I n t h i s way, we can t r u t h f u l l y combine our t h e o r y , knowledge, and p r a c t i c e . Our e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d p r o f o u n d l y r e c o g n i z e : among us the m a j o r i t y came from an o l d e r s o c i e t y . What we l e a r n e d I n the p a s t was b a s i c a l l y c a p i t a l i s t s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. A segment o f t h i s e d u c a t i o n even today i s v e r y b e n e f i c i a l and u s e f u l t o the Chinese and t o the r e s t of the w o r l d . But the o t h e r segments are a l r e a d y a n c i e n t and may even be h a r m f u l . We must d e f i n i t e l y c a s t away t h a t w h i c h i s a n c i e n t and h a r m f u l . We must r e c e i v e the newest s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s and i n v e n t i o n s (these are e s p e c i a l l y p l e n t i f u l i n R u s s i a because o f t h e i r s o c i a l i s t system which guarantees the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a b o r ' s d i s c o v e r i e s of a l l w o r k e r s , farmers, and i n t e l l e c t u a l s ) . The use of these new s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s and i n v e n t i o n s w i l l be b e n e f i c i a l f o r new China's c o n s t r u c t i o n . To the s c i e n t i s t s and e d u c a t o r s , " c o n s e r v i n g the a n c i e n t r e g u l a t i o n s " and "to be fond o f a n t i q u i t y " I s c l e a r l y not g l o r i o u s but s i n f u l . S t i l l a n o t h e r - p o s s i b l e d e v i a t i o n i s t h a t of pragmatism. T h i s d e v i a t i o n , which has o r i g i n a t e d i n many s c h o o l s i s becoming a v e r y dangerous phenomenon. We must be a b l e t o p r e v e n t and combat i t a t any t i m e . New China's s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n must not o n l y be concerned w i t h the needs o f a l l the v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l departments but must concern i t s e l f w i t h the e n t i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f new C h i n a and i t s f u t u r e needs. T h i s k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n must have i t s f o u n d a t i o n i n s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. Then from t h i s p e r f e c t f o u n d a t i o n we w i l l go i n accordance w i t h the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r  127 and p r a c t i c e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . The aim of t h i s e d u c a t i o n i s not to develop youths i n t o s h o r t - s i g h t e d , narrow-minded " a r t i s a n s " or "fragments." The aim i s to develop them i n t o broad-minded, c r e a t i v e p l a n n e r s whose development i s f o r the e n t i r e s o c i e t y . Because o f t h i s , merely t a l k i n g about the p r a c t i c e of s k i l l s but e i t h e r u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g or r e j e c t i n g the b a s i c reasons f o r s c i e n t i f i c study i s both wrong and dangerous. We must p o i n t out t h a t more than a few o f these dangerous d e v i a t i o n s have been c r e a t e d . F i r s t of a l l , a p o r t i o n of the educators are remnants of the i m p e r i a l i s t s . They underestimate the study of t h e o r y . They tend.to wipe out the u s e f u l n e s s of theory and p r a c t i c e . Secondly, a p o r t i o n of the educators have been exposed to America's e x p e r i m e n t a l i s m and pragmatism. These isms i n d i r e c t l y s t i r up the educator's i n t e r e s t s and lower i h p r e s t i g e the. s c i e n t i f i c guide to human l i v i n g — M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . The combined e f f e c t of these two d e v i a t i o n s t o g e t h e r w i t h the n a t i o n ' s need f o r s k i l l e d p e r s o n n e l i s a p o s s i b l e cause o f the above mentioned d e v i a t i o n s . We must be e s p e c i a l l y c a r e f u l about t h i s . Another m a n i f e s t a t i o n of pragmatism Is i t s u n i v e r s a l overemphasis on s p e c i a l i z a t i o n or more commonly, e a r l y s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . To adapt to the needs of a l l branches of our economy, s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of s k i l l s i s a n e c e s s i t y . In the o l d days, the u n i v e r s i t y ' s emphasis was on s u p p o r t i n g the " w e l l rounded i n d i v i d u a l . " However, i n r e a l i t y t h i s was o f t e n o n l y support of those who "know e v e r y t h i n g but don't know a n y t h i n g . " T h i s i s u t t e r l y u n d e s i r a b l e . Having to adapt our p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n to the urgent needs of the d i f f e r e n t branches of the economy we must e m p h a t i c a l l y , i n the s h o r t - r u n , put i n t o o p e r a t i o n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s to t r a i n the m a j o r i t y of the middle and lower s k i l l e d p e r s o n n e l . A few of the o l d e r s c h o o l s s t u b b o r n l y m a i n t a i n t h e i r o l d p h i l o s o p h i e s and r e f u s e to operate or p l a n f o r the s h o r t - t e r m s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s , and they d e c l i n e to s o l v e t h e i r fundamental d e f i c i e n c i e s . T h i s i s wrong and must be c o r r e c t e d . But we cannot r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n from t h i s and say t h a t a l l s c h o o l s should s u b d i v i d e t h e i r s u b j e c t s and departments, and s p e c i a l i z e from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g . T h i s way of t h i n k i n g does not r e c o n c i l e w i t h the d i s t a n t b e n e f i t s of the c o u n t r y ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n . Marx, E n g l e s , L e n i n , and S t a l i n have r e p e a t e d l y emphasized t h a t r e v o l u t i o n a r y e d u c a t i o n ought to support those who b e l i e v e In o v e r - a l l development. Marx, i n C a p i t a l advocated the s u b s t i t u t i o n of those handicapped l a b o r e r s by those i n f a v o r "of a l l - r o u n d development" and a l s o the replacement of those who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o n l y a p o r t i o n of a p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s . I n h i s P r i n c i p l e s of Communism, E n g l e s suggested t h a t e d u c a t i o n must l i b e r a t e the youth of the n a t i o n . I t must r i d them of " a l i e n a t i o n which i s an i n f e c t i o n of the modern d i v i s i o n of l a b o r . " A c c o r d i n g to L e n i n we should support those "who have the s k i l l s to r e c o g n i z e the importance o f knowledge." I n speaking about s k i l l - t r a i n i n g , Marx advocates t h a t i t should Introduce to c h i l d r e n and youths a l l of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s and fundamentals of p r o d u c t i o n and a l s o permit them to use a l l of the simple t o o l s f o r p r o d u c t i o n . L e n i n a l s o emphasized the h a n d l i n g of b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c knowledge as the major duty of skill-training. He demanded the "broadening of g e n e r a l knowledge w i t h i n the: s p e c i a l i z e d o c c u p a t i o n a l and s k i l l - t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s . " He a l s o warned a g a i n s t and sought to prevent t o o - e a r l y s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . S t a l i n has a l s o r e p e a t e d l y p o i n t e d out t h a t youths must l e a r n the b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c knowledge to grasp and' c o n t r o l s k i l l s and a l s o to m a i n t a i n the economic c o n s t r u c t i o n  128 of socialism (See Mei Ting Ssu Chi, History of World.Education, translated by Yeh Wen-hsiung, pp. 390-413). New China's people's education must be based upon these exact principles and seek to reconcile fundamental s c i e n t i f i c knowledge with s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Taking into consideration the over-all and long-term benefits of the nation, we want to support the construction a b i l i t i e s of our nation and prevent unsuitable deviations i n specialization.  6. HOw should we proceed i n establishing the content of the above mentioned education for productive construction? F i r s t of a l l , we should strengthen our c u l t u r a l education among the worker-peasant cadres and worker-peasant masses. This i s the primary requirement i n order to raise the productive s k i l l s of the worker-peasant cadres and masses. We have already mentioned this type of work and i t Is needless to repeat i t again here. At the present time the worker-peasant cadres and masses should study mathematics and reading. But at the same time we must not de-emphasize the practice of learning s k i l l s . For example., schools for workers should emphasize c u l t u r a l education In general but at the same time they should also take time out to apply the methods of apprenticeship and teacher-pupil relationships i n order to proceed i n the learning of s k i l l s . In those areas where land reform has already taken place, peasant education naturally should be based on the a b i l i t y to read, but at the same time i t should also employ a l l opportunities (for example: production contests, selecting models of labor, exhibiting excellent a g r i c u l t u r a l products, putting, on performances, etc.) to broadcast the improvements and advances of a g r i c u l t u r a l s k i l l s . In the nation's a g r i c u l t u r a l area we should especially use advanced a g r i c u l t u r a l s k i l l s to influence and guide the peasants and to gradually approach the use of modern s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s . Within the d i f f e r e n t divisions of the various occupations, one of the most important duties of the worker-peasant cadres i s to study the advanced s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s of their occupations. Our elementary schools should be based on the above mentioned principles so as to improve and strengthen the present labor education. They should also improve the entire content of current elementary education thereby permitting children to become aware of the importance of productive labor and help to maintain their love for labor and their ardent affection for the working people's thoughts and habits. In order to support the a b i l i t y for productive construction i n the intermediate and middle schools, new China's middle school education within a few years should emphasize the development, of s k i l l - t r a i n i n g for the middle schools. According to our present incomplete information, the number of s k i l l - t r a i n i n g schools or occupational schools at the middle l e v e l are very limited. For example, i n the Northeast the current enrollment df a l l e l i g i b l e secondary students i n the middle schools i s 81.3 per cent. However, s k i l l - t r a i n i n g secondary students totaled only 7.2 per cent. In north China the current enrollment of secondary school students Is 73.2 per cent whereas  129  the s t u d e n t s i n the s k i l l - t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s amount t o o n l y 5.6 per c e n t . Our c o u n t r y i s i n urgent need o f middle, l e v e l s k i l l e d p e r s o n n e l , and t h e demand o f secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s f o r t h e l e a r n i n g o f p r o d u c t i v e s k i l l s i s e q u a l l y h i g h . F o r example, t h i s y e a r ' s i n c r e a s e o f the l a b o r f o r c e i n the N o r t h e a s t amounted t o 170,000. T h i s w i l l r e q u i r e an a d d i t i o n a l 17,000 s k i l l e d middle l e v e l p e r s o n n e l . C u r r e n t l y t h e r e i s a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l i n the p r o v i n c e o f Shangtung which i s . a d v e r t i s i n g f o r s t u d e n t s and thus f a r many have a p p l i e d . I n f a c t the e n t i r e c l a s s o f Shangtung's F i r s t Intermediate school a p p l i e d . To develop s k i l l - t r a i n i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r the middle l e v e l p e r s o n n e l does n o t mean we have t o c o n v e r t a l l the i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s i n t o v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s . I n our e n t i r e n a t i o n the c u r r e n t number o f i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s i s so few t h a t i t i s p i t i f u l . Even the common s c h o o l s at the secondary l e v e l should be g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d i n the f u t u r e . The major method f o r d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i a l s k i l l - t r a i n i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r middle l e v e l p e r s o n n e l must be through the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the Department o f E d u c a t i o n and v a r i o u s o t h e r departments and b u s i n e s s e s . T h i s must be done i n o r d e r to put i n t o o p e r a t i o n a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s and d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f d r i l l c l a s s e s f o r p r o d u c t i v e s k i l l s . These s k i l l - t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o l d e r v o c a t i o n a l type e d u c a t i o n . They must proceed w i t h n e c e s s a r y and s u i t a b l e p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o develop our youth's i d e a s t o serve the p e o p l e . Secondly, new China's v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s o r s k i l l - t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s must on t h e one hand become more s u i t a b l e t o meet the p r a c t i c a l needs o f the new economic c o n s t r u c t i o n , must improve the c o n t e n t o f the d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , and must combine l e a r n i n g w i t h p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . On the o t h e r hand, we must make a s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o combat the d e v i a t i o n o f u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g the v a l u e o f b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and l e a r n i n g . I n e v e r y v o c a t i o n a l o r s k i l l - t r a i n i n g s c h o o l , even i f they a r e s h o r t - t e r m , t h e r e should be the p r a c t i c e o f such b a s i c s c i e n t i f i c knowledge as mathematics, p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y , e t c . H i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n new China should support and c o n t r o l the newest accomplishments and achievements o f modern s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o s u f f i c i e n t l y combine t h e o r y w i t h p r a c t i c e , t o r e c o n c i l e p h y s i c s w i t h p r a c t i c a l i t y , the e x p e r i e n c e s o f s c i e n c e w i t h p r o d u c t i o n and t o p a r t i c i p a t e o p t i m i s t i c a l l y i n the new d e m o c r a t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h s k i l l e d p e r s o n n e l . Because o f t h i s , the o r i g i n a l h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n o l d China must be c o n s t r u c t e d t h o r o u g h l y and f i r m l y . The c e n t r a l focus o f t h i s type o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s through the r e s h a p i n g o f the methods o f t e a c h i n g and e s p e c i a l l y through the r e s h a p i n g o f course c o n t e n t . The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e f o r a l t e r i n g the c u r r i c u l u m f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s the combination o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . F o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o c o r r e c t l y serve p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n the v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l a o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n (such as s c i e n c e , i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , f i n a n c e , economies, e t c . ) a l l must be based on the p r a c t i c a l needs o f economic c o n s t r u c t i o n . B a s i c knowledge must be combined w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge, the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e o r e t i c a l l e a r n i n g must be combined w i t h p r a c t i c e o f p r o d u c t i o n a l l o f which w i l l l e a d t o a g r a d u a l improvement i h c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s i s a g r e a t and onerous t a s k . I n May o f t h i s year an  130 I n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n a l conference was h e l d i n the N o r t h e a s t . Various t o p i c s were d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d i n g the need t o r e g u l a t e the d i v i s i o n o f v a r i o u s systems and o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l s i n ' the N o r t h e a s t , r e - e v a l u a t e p a r t s o f the course content a l l of which was designed to enable the s c h o o l s t o more a c c u r a t e l y e v a l u a t e the a b i l i t y of t h e i r s p e c i a l i s t s . The Department of E d u c a t i o n o f the c e n t r a l government has a l r e a d y a f f i l i a t e d i t s e l f w i t h the v a r i o u s departments o f economic c o n s t r u c t i o n and w i l l i n v i t e and gather t o g e t h e r numerous s p e c i a l i s t s t o work on t h i s t a s k . The c e n t r a l government has hopes t h a t a l l these p r e p a r a t i o n s w i l l p r e p a r e the way f o r the f i r s t n a t i o n a l conference on h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . They hope t h a t they w i l l be a b l e t o p r e p a r e a temporary d r a f t of the major c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h w i l l serve as the g o a l o f the n a t i o n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g to be reached w i t h i n a s e t p e r i o d of t i m e . I n order to adapt t o the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e needs o f p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n we must not o n l y a l t e r the content of t e a c h i n g w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , but the Department of E d u c a t i o n must be prepared t o combine w i t h the d i f f e r e n t branches o f economic c o n s t r u c t i o n i n order t o a c c u r a t e l y d e c i d e upon the a d d i t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l and s p e c i a l i z e d s c h o o l s . A c c o r d i n g t o i t s own needs and p o s s i b i l i t i e s , every u n i v e r s i t y should add s h o r t - t e r m p r e p a r a t i o n courses and s h o r t - t e r m t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s . F o r example: the C e n t r a l E d u c a t i o n Department has r e c e n t l y cooperated w i t h the C e n t r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Department t o e s t a b l i s h a p r e p a r a t i o n course i n T s i n g h u a U n i v e r s i t y i n "the advantages o f farm-land waters." I t a l s o cooperated w i t h the Department of I n d u s t r y t o operate an i n d u s t r i a l p r e p a r a t i o n course i n T s i n g h u a U n i v e r s i t y . The s t u d e n t s o f t h i s c l a s s graduated i n t h r e e or f o u r y e a r s . The Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l s o cooperated w i t h the Weather Bureau of the P e o p l e ' s R e v o l u t i o n a r y Committee and e s t a b l i s h e d a c l a s s i n the t r a i n i n g o f weather f o r e c a s t e r s a l s o i n T s i n g h u a U n i v e r s i t y . The members o f t h i s c l a s s w i l l graduate w i t h i n f i v e months. These types of a d d i t i o n s are t o be e n f o r c e d throughout a l l the n a t i o n ' s u n i v e r s i t i e s . To p l a n t o j o i n i n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n a l l the i n s t i t u t e s Of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g must be geared to the p l a n f o r n a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and proceed i n a w e l l - p l a n n e d and w e l l - o r g a n i z e d .-manner. I n t h i s a r e a the N o r t h e a s t has a l r e a d y made a v e r y good s t a r t . To p r a c t i c e t h i s k i n d o f work we must f i r m l y remove the r e m a i n i n g isms such as r e l i g i o n and Shan Tou which e x i s t i n a p o r t i o n o f the c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . Teachers o f the whole n a t i o n must submit t o the needs of the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n and the e n t i r e country. I n t h i s manner, our i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g w i l l be b e t t e r equipped t o render t h e i r s e r v i c e s to more f u l l y and s u f f i c i e n t l y serve b a s i c p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  SOURCE:  Jen Min Chiao Yu (People's E d u c a t i o n ) May & June, 1950) .  ( P e k i n g , Nos. .1 & 2,  ^  131  A  nu it ft 14 •'• V 1« k ft i,% ft ' w rr-j rr '« •it i& 13 n-j v'c ^ .(•- 'i'l: fi-j iji ri'-j n ri rr •I' IW -i•tr a '!• )i i l > w AI if!) ifii • is*•iii i T VA K Iii!] >fsti 13 11. in „ A. iVii 1st ivi Sfc i3 111 X f f i rr :r. 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M s s a* EJ: ^ ^ to fa ioi fw t/c Mfe-'o» • ii-: jli i£ ffi rft ft o' aa r -.r>inffm:\t°iii >^^xK(.iw^ft"KCffM-fi- ^ K -?4«>• ffi ^ ft & si w x m m *jt ^ - n 4vffiRI - ffi # fa-^ 'K JIPffiffi ilk ^; W K{ * S Ri. »'f ;iX H • m'-m x - * CI fa ft • H ffi ' 2k ^ ft .u ^ <i' tie. fa fa -w m *tk m m n - as at ^ % ffi M ^ u> ^ ,t )ic w & fr K ft fw ffi . n w. ?± ¥4 A a ^, ^-..». n *> fa • U!i ;> i!;.' r Vd ti fa ft ft ^ fw ^7 K? fa J.V M?JJ> ^ *,*,• PA HI M V> t;r I-A m n • fW "1 : i : 7 H f'l? ^5 fV ^ l"J & i '4T ' P'J ft fa ' 4i- • *! =li K ' # »V ' ^ ^ A .tz. ». .-A » «Jrtii/fc. -m w A m .x 31 * « *H w -=1= * -m i';- ^ ;".u 5i fr -w- in ft ft ^ ft ^ ^ :• ' * x m fr i&faffifat»t ^ fa . is; >t< V Tfi I'H ^ -.^ -ft ^ ^' ^ ft - •!« » • U ft fa Sir ff -iv 5.X & «1 -l'M ^ A X » X ^ * ^r- Rl > W • f'l fa hi ?!•£ ' x P « f t - rp: & w m ff fr fr A iM- n.ft«P ?^ ffi ^ m ^ s « J;!i *f ^ tV ^>¥ « f5 !»t fa iii- : © ' W IS ^ fflU ff ^: ?K ^ > , 17 Li ?ft 7 !ix ?ffe 5A a -!f- M fa ^ r< 7 i:u ffi t i ^ ^ ^ • a m 'a fa « ui > in 0 ff £«:' ^3 at - : ^ ? « JE. fa r i ^ . si- fa » \k U iS « U . ?R fl- W ' W 5u **t W in «l I ' i • St A ^ r  r  :  n  ;  :  142  EDUCATION MUST BE COMBINED WITH PRODUCTIVE LABOR By L u T i n g - y i September, 1958 E d i t o r i a l S t a f f ' s Note: T h i s a r t i c l e was w r i t t e n by comrade Lu T i n g - y i on the b a s i s o f the c o n c l u s i o n drawn a t a conference o f e d u c a t i o n a l work convened by the C e n t r a l Committee o f the P a r t y . The C e n t r a l Committee means t h i s t o be a d i r e c t i v e t o a l l l e v e l s o f P a r t y committees. We hope t h a t a l l l e v e l s o f P a r t y committees when d i s c u s s i n g t h i s d i r e c t i v e w i l l do so i n l i g h t o f L u T i n g - y i ' s a r t i c l e . When P a r t y committees i n the s c h o o l s d i s c u s s these m a t t e r s they may i n c l u d e i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s non-Party p r o f e s s o r s and t e a c h e r s .  Since e a r l y l a s t y e a r , e d u c a t i o n i n our c o u n t r y has developed v e r y q u i c k l y . Up t o the end o f June, Incomplete f i g u r e s compiled by the S t a t e S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau r e p o r t i n the e n t i r e c o u n t r y t h e r e a r e a l r e a d y 1,240 c o u n t i e s w i t h u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n ; 68,000 middle s c h o o l s r u n by the people themselves; more than 400 i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g newly e s t a b l i s h e d by the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90 m i l l i o n people throughout the c o u n t r y a t t e n d i n g l i t e r a c y c o u r s e s , and. 444 c o u n t i e s throughout the c o u n t r y i n w h i c h i l l i t e r a c y has been wiped out i n the main. The v i c t o r y i n the r e c t i f i c a t i o n campaign and the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the b o u r g e o i s r i g h t i s t s has g i v e n r i s e t o our c o u n t r y ' s g r e a t l e a p forward I n a g r i c u l t u r e and p r o d u c t i o n . The a g r i c u l t u r a l and p r o d u c t i v e g r e a t l e a p forward has then g i v e n r i s e t o an upsurge i n the t e c h n i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n s . The g r e a t advance i n e d u c a t i o n i s one s i g n o f the h i g h t i d e o f the c u l t u r a l revolution. At the end o f l a s t year and,beginning o f t h i s y e a r , t h e r e were two measures w h i c h pushed f o r w a r d the advance o f e d u c a t i o n . One was the a p p l i c a t i o n i h a l l the s c h o o l s i n the c o u n t r y o f combining work w i t h s t u d y . The o t h e r was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l m i d d l e s c h o o l s . The p r a c t i c e of w o r k i n g w h i l e s t u d y i n g b e g i n s t o combine the o r d i n a r y s c h o o l i n g w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . T h i s b r e a k s the a g e - o l d t r a d i t i o n i n the s c h o o l s o f l o o k i n g down on p h y s i c a l l a b o r , changes the s c h o o l ' s atmosphere, and a l s o has a v e r y good i n f l u e n c e on the s o c i a l atmosphere. The a g r i c u l t u r a l middle s c h o o l s v o c a t i o n a l ( t e c h n i c a l ) s c h o o l s are s e t up by the people themselves, and operate on a part-work and p a r t - s t u d y b a s i s ; " these k i n d s o f  143 schools meet the students' desire to continue their studies, prepares a g r i c u l t u r a l technicians, are comparatively easy to establish and meet the needs of today. Without state financing they s t i l l lighten the economic burden of the students' f a m i l i e s , therefore from the moment they were encouraged they have been springing up like "bamboo shoots after a spring r a i n " numbering tens of thousands i n a few months. With primary school graduates not having to worry about the lack of opportunity for further study, primary schools run by the people themselves have also increased greatly, and primary education has also become universal in many provinces, autonomous regions, and c i t i e s . To meet the growing needs of production, adult education has also developed; the high tide of the l i t e r a c y campaign has emerged, and a l l s o r t s . o f spare-time, general, and technical schools have emerged i n great numbers. This high tide of the c u l t u r a l revolution has spread from the countryside to the c i t i e s where another stream i s evident—the establishment of factories by schools and schools by f a c t o r i e s . This combination of schooling and productive labor has resulted i n the campaign to reform school curriculum, e f f o r t s to change school systems, and the change i n the composition of the teaching s t a f f s , etc. Our educational work i s exactly l i k e a hundred flowers i n bloom, l i k e ten thousand galloping horses. Education i s now breaking the bounds of exclusive control by experts and of doctrinairism to become the work of the whole Party and the whole people, to become s o c i a l i s t education suited to the situation i n our country. This kind of transformation has taken place under the leadership of the Party. So called absurdities as, "more, faster, better, and more economical results cannot obtain i n education," "laymen- cannot lead experts," "Party committees do not understand education," "the masses do not understand education" are being smashed to smithereens. Our country i s a nation of the p r o l e t a r i a t d i c t a t o r s h i p ; i t is a s o c i a l i s t state. Our education i s not an education of the bourgeoisie but rather a s o c i a l i s t education. Without the leadership of the Communist Party s o c i a l i s t education would be inconceivable. S o c i a l i s t education i s one of the powerful weapons for transforming the old and building the new society. The purpose of the s o c i a l i s t revolution and s o c i a l i s t construction i s to do away with a l l exploiting classes and a l l systems of exploitation including their remnants and to bring into being a communist society i n which the p r i n c i p l e from each according to h i s a b i l i t y and to each according to his needs i s carried out and the difference between town and country and between mental and manual labor eliminated. This i s precisely the purpose of s o c i a l i s t education. This kind of education can only be led by a p o l i t i c a l party of the working class (the Communist Party); the bourgeoisie i s not q u a l i f i e d to lead education of this type. Only under the leadership of the Communist. Party can educational work assume the hew appearance i n which we see i t today. During the past few years, prolonged debates have taken place on educational p o l i c y . At the conference on educational work convened by the Central Committee df the Chinese Communist Party i n A p r i l and June of this year, many theoretical and p r a c t i c a l problems were settled..  144  The Chinese Communist P a r t y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y has always been t h a t e d u c a t i o n should serve the p o l i t i c s o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s and should be combined w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . To a p p l y t h i s p o l i c y , e d u c a t i o n must be l e d by the Communist P a r t y . T h i s p o l i c y i s d i r e c t l y opposed t o t h a t of the b o u r g e o i s i e . B o u r g e o i s e d u c a t i o n i s l e d by b o u r g e o i s p o l i t i c i a n s ; i t s e r v e s the p o l i t i c s o f the b o u r g e o i s i e t h a t i s , i t serves the d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the b o u r g e o i s i e ; i t i s I n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h p r o l e t a r i a t d i c t a t o r s h i p . Under the s o c i a l i s t system, the b o u r g e o i s i e do not dare openly advocate t h a t e d u c a t i o n should be l e d by b o u r g e o i s p o l i t i c i a n s and be a weapon a g a i n s t the p r o l e t a r i a n d i c t a t o r s h i p ; i t o n l y can put forward h y p o c r i t i c a l and d e c e p t i v e p r o p o s a l s such as " e d u c a t i o n should be l e d by e x p e r t s " and " e d u c a t i o n f o r e d u c a t i o n ' s sake" w i t h the purpose o f p r e v e n t i n g e d u c a t i o n from s e r v i n g , the p r o l e t a r i a n d i c t a t o r s h i p . T h e r e f o r e , i n our s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r y , the e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y advocated by the b o u r g e o i s i e i s m a n i f e s t e d i n the p r o p o s i t i o n s : e d u c a t i o n f o r the sake o f e d u c a t i o n , m e n t a l and manual work are s e p a r a t e , e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be l e d by e x p e r t s . E d u c a t i o n f i r s t and foremost i s the a c q u i s i t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n of knowledge. But what i s knowledge? What i s the purpose o f t r a n s m i t t i n g and a c q u i r i n g knowledge? As r e g a r d s these q u e s t i o n s , our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the b o u r g e o i s i e . Most b o u r g e o i s pedagogues h o l d t h a t o n l y book knowledge i s knowledge and t h a t p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e cannot be regarded as knowledge. T h e r e f o r e , t h e i r v i e w i s t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s r e a d i n g books; the more a person reads the more knowledge he has, and those who have book knowledge are o f a h i g h e r o r d e r . As f o r p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y manual l a b o r and manual work, t h i s i s h u m i l i a t i n g , t h i s " l e a d s nowhere." There are o t h e r b o u r g e o i s pedagogues who m a i n t a i n t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s l i f e , and l i f e i s e d u c a t i o n , t h e y do not understand l i f e as the p r a c t i c e o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e and the s t r u g g l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n , and they do not s t r e s s the importance of t h e o r y so i n the end they i n e f f e c t w r i t e o f f e d u c a t i o n . These two s e t s o f b o u r g e o i s views may appear t o be opposed to each o t h e r but s p r i n g from the same r o o t . They say, humans have no c l a s s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , pedagogy i s a branch o f l e a r n i n g which stands above c l a s s e s . The v i e w of we communists i s d i f f e r e n t . We b e l i e v e t h a t pedagogy i s a branch o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e . A l l the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s must be guided by p o l i t i c s , e d u c a t i o n b e i n g no e x c e p t i o n . People need e d u c a t i o n I n o r d e r t o wage the c l a s s s t r u g g l e and the s t r u g g l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n . We b e l i e v e i n a l l the w o r l d t h e r e are o n l y two k i n d s o f knowledge. One i s knowledge o f the c l a s s s t r u g g l e . C l a s s s t r u g g l e i s the s t r u g g l e between groups o f men of d i f f e r e n t economic s t a t u s , and t h i s has a l r e a d y e x i s t e d f o r s e v e r a l thousand y e a r s . A t p r e s e n t , i n the p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n i n our c o u n t r y t h e r e i s s t i l l c l a s s s t r u g g l e . I n the f u t u r e , when c l a s s e s no l o n g e r e x i s t even though t h e r e w i l l be no c l a s s s t r u g g l e t h e r e w i l l s t i l l be c o n t r a d i c t i o n s among the p e o p l e , t h e r e f o r e , f o r t e n thousand y e a r s t h e r e w i l l s t i l l be poisonous weeds, t h a t i s , t h e r e w i l l s t i l l be a s t r u g g l e between t r u t h and f a l s e h o o d , between the advanced and the backward, and between those who promote and those who r e t a r d the development o f the p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s . The o t h e r type o f knowledge i s t h a t of the s t r u g g l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n , t h a t i s , knowledge men g a i n i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t n a t u r e . P h i l o s o p h y I s the summation and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of these two k i n d s of knowledge. P h i l o s o p h y i s  145 important because the philosophy of d i a l e c t i c a l materialism provides men with a correct method of thought. The essential d i s t i n c t i o n between men l i e s not i n differences of " d i s p o s i t i o n " or personality but f i r s t of a l l in their different class standpoints, and i n addition, in their d i f f e r e n t methods of thinking. Class standpoints and methods of thinking are interrelated and at the same time d i s t i n c t from each other. Errors often emanate from two sources, one i s class o r i g i n and the other i s o r i g i n of methods of thinking. If people want to avoid making great errors or to commit fewer errors then they must study p o l i t i c s and study philosophy. We communists also maintain that there are two kinds of one-sided, incomplete knowledge. Book knowledge completely divorced from p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s one k i n d . Comrade Mao Tse-tung says: "What kind of knowledge i s that which students get from books? Granted that their knowledge i s e n t i r e l y true knowledge; i t i s also the theories written down by their forefathers to sum up the experiences of the struggle for production and of the struggle between classes, but i t i s s t i l l not knowledge they acquired through their own personal experience. It i s e n t i r e l y necessary that they should i n h e r i t this kind of knowledge, but i t must be realized that this kind of knowledge i s s t i l l something one-sided, something which has been v e r i f i e d by others but not by themselves. It i s more important that they should be well versed in applying such knowledge in l i f e and practice. Therefore, I would advise those who have only book knowledge but l i t t l e or no p r a c t i c a l experience to be aware of their own shortcomings and be modest." Experience without theory, which i s usually perceptual or p a r t i a l Is also a kind of one-sided, incomplete knowledge. Comrade Mao Tse-tung says: "Our comrades who are engaged in p r a c t i c a l work, i f they misuse their experience w i l l also come to f a u l t . It i s true that these people are often r i c h i n experience and this i s certainly valuable; but i f they then rest content with such experience that i s also very dangerous. They ought to know that their knowledge i s often perceptual and p a r t i a l , they lack r a t i o n a l knowledge and comprehensive knowledge, that i s to say, they lack theory and their knowledge i s comparatively incomplete. In order to do revolutionary work well i t i s not satisfactory to have comparatively incomplete knowledge." What then i s comparatively complete knowledge? Comrade Mao Tse-tung says: "In the world there i s only one kind of true theory, and that i s theory which i s drawn from objective r e a l i t y and then in turn v e r i f i e d by i t ; nothing else can be called theory i n our sense." " A l l comparatively complete knowledge i s acquired from two stages: the f i r s t stage i s that of perceptual knowledge, and the second i s the stage of r a t i o n a l knowledge, r a t i o n a l knowledge being the development of perceptual knowledge to a higher p l a n e . " "There are two kinds of incomplete knowledge: one is knowledge already contained i n books, and the other i s knowledge which i s usually perceptual and p a r t i a l , and both are one-sided. Only by combining the two can'excellent and comparatively complete knowledge emerge" ("Rectify the Party's Style of Work," Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, V o l . I I I ) . The purpose of education i s to enable students to acquire comparatively complete knowledge and not one-sided, incomplete knowledge. It follows then that teachers must have comparatively complete knowledge. • Our educational workers always say, "Education is, the people's business." This i s good, because in our country this i s true. But from the experience in the past nine years we can see that this phrase has two d i f f e r e n t  146 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . B o u r g e o i s pedagogues m a i n t a i n the masses o f people are e n t i t l e d to r e c e i v e e d u c a t i o n , but as f o r r u n n i n g e d u c a t i o n , t h a t i s not f o r the masses o f people but o n l y f o r the e x p e r t s . T h e i r slogans are " p r o f e s s o r s must r u n s c h o o l s , " "laymen cannot l e a d e x p e r t s , " "the P a r t y does not understand e d u c a t i o n , " "the masses do not understand e d u c a t i o n , " " s t u d e n t s .must not c r i t i c i z e teachers," e t c . These myths put forward by the bourgeois pedagogues were even accepted as t r u e by some of our comrades who f o r g o t t h a t our P a r t y on hundreds and thousands o f o c c a s i o n s had been c a l l e d "laymen " but as i t u l t i m a t e l y turned out proved i n f a c t more e x p e r t than any e x p e r t s . Some o f our comrades advocated t h i s k i n d of p r o p o s i t i o n : (1) o n l y the s t a t e may r u n s c h o o l s , (2) o n l y one k i n d o f s c h o o l may be s e t u p — g e n e r a l , f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l s . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e shows: bourgeois pedagogues are e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n because i t t i e s the hands of the masses and does not p e r m i t them t o s e t up s c h o o l s . Bourgeois pedagogues know: i f e d u c a t i o n were run a l o n g these l i n e s , i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r our c o u n t r y t o i n s t i t u t e u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y and secondary e d u c a t i o n and t h e r e would be no hope o f i n s t i t u t i n g u n i v e r s a l h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n because the s t a t e has no way o f c a r r y i n g the g r e a t burden o f e x p e n d i t u r e s i n v o l v e d w i t h o u t heavy damage t o p r o d u c t i o n . We communists do not agree w i t h b o u r g e o i s pedagogues. We t h i n k t h a t the masses of people need e d u c a t i o n f o r the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n and s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n . As the masses of people are a b l e t o conduct r e v o l u t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n they are o f course capable not o n l y o f r e c e i v i n g e d u c a t i o n but a l s o o f r u n n i n g education. I n r u n n i n g e d u c a t i o n you need to r e l y on a corps o f s p e c i a l i s t s f o r w i t h o u t a p o w e r f u l s p e c i a l i z e d corps t h i n g s w i l l hot go w e l l , and a t p r e s e n t , t h i s corps of s p e c i a l i s t s s t i l l needs t o be g r e a t l y strengthened by t r a n s f e r r i n g cadres and e s t a b l i s h i n g t e a c h e r ' s t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s . But the corps o f s p e c i a l i s t s i n e d u c a t i o n must i n t e g r a t e w i t h the masses, and r e l i a n c e on the masses i n r u n n i n g e d u c a t i o n i s the more i m p o r t a n t . Only by l i n k i n g the s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l workers w i t h the masses, a d h e r i n g t o the mass l i n e of from the masses and back t o the masses and c a r r y i n g out the p o l i c y o f s e t t i n g up s c h o o l s by the whole people under the l e a d e r s h i p of the P a r t y , i s i t p o s s i b l e , i n f a c t c e r t a i n , f o r our c o u n t r y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l work t o achieve g r e a t e r , f a s t e r , b e t t e r , and more e c o n o m i c a l r e s u l t s . And o n l y under the l e a d e r s h i p of the P a r t y and the s e t t i n g up of s c h o o l s by the whole people i s i t p o s s i b l e t o do a l l - r o u n d p l a n n i n g , d u l y c o n s i d e r i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g a l l a s p e c t s , so t h a t not o n l y does the e d u c a t i o n a l work grow but grows i n a way t h a t h e l p s and does not impede the development of production. Our e d u c a t i o n a l workers a l s o always say, " E d u c a t i o n a l work must r e c e i v e l e a d e r s h i p from the P a r t y . " T h i s i s undoubtedly c o r r e c t because s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n must be l e d by the Communist P a r t y and e d u c a t i o n a l work i n the s o c i a l i s t P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c of C h i n a must be l e d by the Communist P a r t y of China. But as t o what l e a d e r s h i p i s , and what k i n d of l e a d e r s h i p i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e are d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . What the b o u r g e o i s pedagogues c a l l "Party l e a d e r s h i p " i s simply "Party leadership i n p o l i t i c a l matters and our l e a d e r s h i p i n v o c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s . " On q u e s t i o n s not r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n they may l i s t e n to the P a r t y , but i f the P a r t y has something to say. about e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s , p o l i c i e s , systems, methods, and so on, they r e g a r d t h a t as u n a c c e p t a b l e . They want P a r t y l e a d e r s h i p i n words, but not i n p r a c t i c e , and they may l i s t e n t o the P a r t y ' s words on minor q u e s t i o n s ,  147 but on .major questions they want to have their own way i n defiance of the Party. Some of our comrades in the Party who work in the educational f i e l d i n r e l a t i o n to Party committees put themselves up as experts and f a i l to respect committee leadership; this i s art expression of bourgeois influence i n our Party. In educational c i r c l e s i n our country the "theory" that the p r i n c i p a l laws governing educational work are drawn from the study of history of education was spread widely i n the past few years. Therefore, you only need to study the history of education, while recognizing Party leadership i n the abstract, i n order to be able to run education, and i t i s not necessary to have s p e c i f i c Party leadership. In studying the h i s t o r y of education i f you proceed from the standpoint of Marxist h i s t o r i c a l materialism, i t i s indeed useful and helps towards an understanding of the laws which governed education for thousands of years i n the era of class society. But i t must be understood, these kinds of laws governing education i n the era of class society are not the same as the laws governing s o c i a l i s t education, much less the laws governing s o c i a l i s t education i n China. For the past thousands of years, education was In the hands of the slave-owners, the landlord c l a s s , and the bourgeoisie. The p r i n c i p l e laws to be derived from this kind of educational history are those governing exploiting-class education. The laws of this kind of education are certainly a great deal d i f f e r e n t from the laws of s o c i a l i s t education. I f these laws were copied, mistakes would be i n e v i t a b l e , the facts a l r e a d y show that the so-called " p r i n c i p l e laws governing educational work are to be drawn from the study of the history of education" i s i n r e a l i t y a pretence by which the study of history of education Is used to r e t a i n bourgeois educational ideas, p o l i c i e s , systems, methods, and so on intact under the s o c i a l i s t system and pass these off as s o c i a l i s t . China's educational history has some aspects which are of the people: the Confucian idea that "no d i s t i n c t i o n should be made between men of a l l sorts and conditions i n matters of i n s t r u c t i o n ; " Mencius' idea that "people are more important than l o r d s ; " Hsun Tzu's idea that "man w i l l overcome nature;" Chu Yuan's c r i t i c i s m of r o y a l t y ' s v i c e s ; Su-ma Chien's eulogy of resistance to e v i l ; the ancient materialism of Wang Chung, Fan Chen, L i u Tsung-yuan, Chang T s i , and Wang F u - c h i h ; the democratic l i t e r a t u r e of Kuan Han-ching, Shih Nai-an, Wu Cheng-en, and Tsao Hsueh-chin and the democratic revolution of Sun Yat-sen. The conditions under which these people lived was d i f f e r e n t , and many of them did not write s p e c i f i c a l l y on education, but what has been said above could not but have i t s impact on the education of the people, and when talking about the history of the Chinese education a l l this must be mentioned. But speaking of the major aspects of education for over the past thousand years education was certainly an instrument i n the hands of the exploiting classes, while s o c i a l i s t education i s an instrument i n the hands of the working class. From an Instrument i n the hands of the exploiting to an instrument in the hands of the working class i s a qualitative leap in education and a great revolution i n education I t s e l f . To study the history of education and not see this qualitative leap i s to depart from d i a l e c t i c s — i t i s metaphysical. We advocate the study of the history of education, but we oppose the kind of view which states that the p r i n c i p a l laws of s o c i a l i s t education can be found through such study because that view would lead us to right d e v i a t i o n i s t mistakes. Moreover, the laws of s o c i a l i s t education, even though they are of the same character i n d i f f e r e n t countries, i n d i f f e r e n t countries there are d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i c features. If you do not study the d i f f e r e n t s p e c i f i c features of dnefe own country then doctrinaire  148 mistakes would be made. What are our s p e c i f i c features? F i r s t , our country i s a s o c i a l i s t country; second, the population i s large, and covers a large area; t h i r d , the economy i s backward and the culture is backward; fourth, i t i s led by the Communist Party and i t s industry and agriculture i s rapidly leaping forward; f i f t h , and most important, our country has carried out a serious r e c t i f i c a t i o n campaign and a n t i - r i g h t i s t struggle. The people are encouraged to a i r their views, contend, debate to the f u l l e s t extent, and publicize their views i n tatsepao. We must define our educational p r i n c i p l e s , p o l i c i e s , systems, methods, and so on i n accordance with these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of our own, combining the universal truths of Marxism with the s p e c i f i c conditions of pur country. From this one can see that the so-called theory that "the most important laws of education come from the study of educational h i s t o r y " i s an extremely dangerous "theory" which divorces education from r e a l i t y and leads i t to right deviationist and doctrinaire mistakes. Not proceeding from the objective r e a l i t i e s of one's own country i s subjective, anti-Marxist thinking. If we make mistakes i n our way of thinking, we cannot find out the p r i n c i p l e laws governing the development of things. I f we do not proceed from r e a l i t y and instead go against the universal truths of Marxism we w i l l surely make mistakes, either right d e v i a t i o n i s t mistakes or doctrinaire mistakes or both, and this i s the important lesson we should draw from the educational work of our country. We are Marxists so we maintain that i t i s necessary to proceed from objective r e a l i t y , therefore, we must f i r s t study our own conditions, and we must study this with enthusiasm. We must also study the experiences of our fraternal countries seriously, and we must study history seriously, but our purpose i s not to copy or transplant but rather to understand h i s t o r y , understand h i s t o r i c a l materialism in the f i e l d of education, i n order i n accordance with our own conditions to have aid in doing our work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Whatever work we do, i t a l l must r e l y closely on the leadership of the Party because i t i s only the Communist Party that knows our conditions best and knows Marxism best. The Communist Party i s the highest form of organization of the working c l a s s , i t must and can give leadership to everything. From the Central Committee down to the basic organizations, the Communist Party i s the organized, d i s c i p l i n e d vanguard of the working c l a s s . We r e l i e d on this vanguard for the v i c t o r y i n the revolutionary war and for the success of the s o c i a l i s t revolution on the economic, p o l i t i c a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l fronts, and we must r e l y on i t for victory i n the technical and c u l t u r a l revolutions. Our educational workers should not only accept Party leadership i n p o l i t i c s but also i n educational ideas, p o l i c i e s , and work, and only i n this way i s i t possible to keep up with the times, and only i n this way can one; avoid mistakes or make fewer mistakes. The debate on educational work that has been going on i n recent years, i n the f i n a l analysis, b o i l s down to the question, "What i s a l l - r o u n d development?" "Producing f u l l y developed human beings" Is what Marxists believe i n and plan to achieve this goal through education. It i s just fine that our educational workers often talk about all-round development. However, i n the interpretation of " a l l - r o u n d development" there are different p r i n c i p l e s . Looking at the experiences of our country's education i n the past nine years, although the bourgeois pedagogues do not d i r e c t l y  149 and openly oppose all-round development and even appear to " a c t i v e l y support the p r i n c i p l e , " s t i l l they interpret i t one-sidely as meaning education through extensive book knowledge, and they do not advocate students studying p o l i t i c s or p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n productive labor. This i s to vulgarize the idea of all-round development and equate i t with the bourgeois educational p o l i c y which raises " k n o w - a l l s . " We communists interpret all-round development as compared with the bourgeoisie in a completely d i f f e r e n t way. The basic content of all-round development i s that students should acquire comparatively broader knowledge and become v e r s a t i l e people able to, "depending on the requirements of society or their own i n c l i n a t i o n s go over i n sequence from one branch of production to another" (Engles, " P r i n c i p l e s of Communism"). We advocate that workers should be versatile i n i n d u s t r i a l production, and peasants should be v e r s a t i l e In a g r i c u l t u r a l production, moreover, we advocate that workers should become peasants and peasants should become workers; we advocate that c i v i l i a n s should take up m i l i t a r y service, and m i l i t a r y men become producers; cadres should participate i n physical labor and productive workers in administration. A l l these propositions are already gradually being put into practice. These kinds of measures involve d i v i s i o n of labor and also change of work so that i t conforms to the needs of society and compared with d i v i s i o n of labor under the c a p i t a l i s t system ours i s more reasonable. It moreover enables the state, i n s o c i a l l y necessary times, to increase production and carry out reasonable readjustment of the productive forces, without causing s o c i a l upheaval. Our i n d u s t r i a l leap forward and our a g r i c u l t u r a l leap forward is already giving rise to this problem: when producer's goods grow i n output to p a r t i a l l y transfer them to other branches of production to the point where i t meets the current maximum demands of the people and there i s a surplus, otherwise there w i l l be f a i l u r e to meet the demands of the people, to develop the productive forces of society continuously and to raise the people's standard of l i v i n g continuously. Our educational work and other relevant national work must prepare the ground for such a transfer. Education should cause students to acquire broader knowledge, but how broad depends on concrete objective and subjective conditions. In the future, when communist society i s f u l l y consolidated, developed, and matured men w i l l be trained i n many kinds of work and be able to undertake many kinds of professions while s p e c i a l i z i n g in selected f i e l d s . This i s our aim, we must go i n this d i r e c t i o n . In our country's present conditions, we can t r a i n people to do many kinds of work, but we s t i l l cannot t r a i n "people capable of doing any and a l l kinds of work." The basic content of all-round development i s that the knowledge which the student gains should not be one-sided nor incomplete knowledge but rather be comparatively complete knowledge. This then means that education must serve p o l i t i c s and be combined with productive labor. Marx in speaking of his ideal of education for the future s a i d : "This kind . of education w i l l enable every c h i l d over a given age to combine productive labor with instruction and gymnastics, not only as one method of adding' e f f i c i e n c y to production but as the only method of producing f u l l y developed human beings" (Capital, V o l . I ) . That i s to say, students should acquire comparatively complete knowledge and not only engage in mental labor but manual labor as w e l l . Book knowledge alone, no matter how broad, i s s t i l l p a r t i a l and incomplete. People without any experience of p r a c t i c a l work  150 and only with extensive book knowledge are only what the bourgeoisie c a l l s "know-alls" and not what we c a l l people with all-round development. In childhood physical development i s necessary, and this kind of development must be sound. During childhood i t i s necessary to inculcate a communist spirit., s t y l e , and c o l l e c t i v e heroism which i s the moral education of our day.. These two are both linked to i n t e l l e c t u a l education. They are both related to manual work, and therefore the p r i n c i p l e of combining education with labor i s unshakable. In b r i e f , the all-round development we advocate i s that students should acquire comparatively complete and comparatively broader knowledge, grow up physically f i t and acquire communist morals. In "On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People," comrade Mao Tse-tung said; "Our educational policy must enable a l l those who receive an education to develop morally, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y , and become cultured, socialist-minded workers." This then i s our educational policy of all-round development. "A s o c i a l i s t minded, cultured worker" i s one who i s p o l i t i c a l l y conscious, cultured, and able to undertake both mental and manual work. This i s a person who i s developed i n an all-round way, both p o l i t i c a l l y and professionally and i s a worker-intellectual and an intellectual-worker. We advocate the educational policy of all-round development and consider that the only method of t r a i n i n g human beings to be all-round developed i s to educate them to serve working-class p o l i t i c s and combine education with productive labor. We say, "the only method" because there i s no other method to achieve this aim. Bourgeois pedagogues do not agree; they consider that to t r a i n someone i n what they c a l l " a l l - r o u n d development" there i s only one method, and that i s to have them read books and learn by memorization. They are absolutely opposed to students learning p o l i t i c s and i n p a r t i c u l a r , to students becoming laborers. According to our educational policy of all-round development we can and must r e l y on the masses to run education. According to the bourgeoisie's so-called educational policy of " a l l - r o u n d development," they can only r e l y on the experts to run education, not the masses. According to our educational policy of all-round development, education must be under the leadership of the Communist Party. According to the bourgeoisie's so-called educational policy of " a l l - r o u n d development" education can only be under the leadership of the experts, hot of the Party because the Party i s "a layman." From this we can see that d i f f e r e n t interpretations of all-round development lead to different and even opposite conclusions. Therefore, we say, that the debate i n recent years on educational work f i n a l l y comes down to the question of "what i s all-round development." This i s a struggle between proletarian and bourgeois educational ideas. If we followed our bourgeois pedagogues' attitude toward knowledge, toward education as the people's business, towards Party leadership, and towards all-round development, our education would then return back to the old bourgeois road. Precisely because o f . t h i s , we-must give a clear explanation of our Communist Party's interpretation of these questions. In the past nine years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, our educational work under the leadership of the Communist Party has made great achievements. These are^-the recovery of the right to  151 run e d u c a t i o n , a r i g h t f o r m e r l y usurped by the i m p e r i a l i s t s ; the s a t i s f a c t o r y t a k i n g over o f the s c h o o l s a l l over the c o u n t r y ; the a b o l i t i o n o f the Kuomintang's r e a c t i o n a r y f a s c i s t system o f s c h o o l management and the a b o l i t i o n o f i t s f a c i s t e d u c a t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s by i t s s p e c i a l agents; the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n system; the b a s i c w i p i n g out o f c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and o t h e r bad elements h i d d e n i n e d u c a t i o n a l c i r c l e s ; the opening o f courses i n M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m i n the s c h o o l s . I d e o l o g i c a l r e m o u l d i n g has a l s o been conducted among the t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s ; u n i v e r s i t i e s and departments have been r e o r g a n i z e d and t e a c h i n g systems reformed; s t r u g g l e s have been c a r r i e d out among b o u r g e o i s r i g h t i s t s ; the number o f s t u d e n t s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , m i d d l e s c h o o l s and p r i m a r y s c h o o l s has i n c r e a s e d s e v e r a l t i m e s . Many b i g advances have a l s o been made i n the a n t i - i l l i t e r a c y campaign and i n spare-time and c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n ; the p o l i c y o f w o r k i n g w h i l e s t u d y i n g has been a p p l i e d i n a l l s c h o o l s ; among the e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k e r s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the P a r t y have been e s t a b l i s h e d ; l a r g e numbers o f people have been t r a i n e d as cadres f o r s o c i a l i s t e d u c a t i o n . However, on the e d u c a t i o n a l f r o n t , the s t r u g g l e between w o r k i n g - c l a s s i d e a s and b o u r g e o i s i d e a s has been p r o c e e d i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y . T h i s s t r u g g l e i s i n the n a t u r e o f a s t r u g g l e between the s o c i a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t r o a d s . B o u r g e o i s t h i n k i n g has o b s t r u c t e d the development o f e d u c a t i o n . A t the time when the b o u r g e o i s r i g h t i s t s made t h e i r a t t a c k , they even t r i e d t o use the s t u d e n t s as a s t e p p i n g stone f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m . Chang Po-shun, Lo L u n g - c h i , Tseng Chao-lun, ' and Chien Wei-chang and o t h e r s a l l had t h i s as t h e i r aim. The v i c t o r y i n the a n t i - r i g h t i s t s t r u g g l e arid the g r e a t leap forward i n i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e have caused bad t h i n g s t o t u r n i n t o good t h i n g s and have enabled people t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the danger and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f b o u r g e o i s e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g . The work i n the p a s t n i n e y e a r s has g i v e n us e x p e r i e n c e and a l l o w e d us t o e x p l a i n more c l e a r l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y our P a r t y ' s p o l i c y o f e d u c a t i o n a l work. The c h i e f m i s t a k e o r d e f e c t i n our e d u c a t i o n a l work has been the d i v o r c e o f e d u c a t i o n from p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r w i t h e d u c a t i o n was a p o l i c y f i r s t put out by our P a r t y i n 1934. Comrade Mao Tse-tung had a l r e a d y s a i d : "What i s the g e n e r a l p o l i c y f o r the S o v i e t c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n ? I t i s t o educate the broad masses of l a b o r e r s i h the s p i r i t o f communism, t o make c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n serve the r e v o l u t i o n a r y war and the c l a s s struggle., t o combine e d u c a t i o n w i t h l a b o r and t o enable the Chinese people t o e n j o y c i v i l i z a t i o n and h a p p i n e s s . " I n 1954 when the p e r i o d o f economic r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was completed and the f i r s t F i v e Year P l a n was a l r e a d y I n o p e r a t i o n , the C e n t r a l Committee r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n o f adding p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r t o the s c h o o l s ' c u r r i c u l a . But the p r o p o s a l encountered some o b s t r u c t i o n s and c o u l d n o t be i n s t i t u t e d . A t the March 1967 n a t i o n a l conference on propaganda work', I n an A p r i l 8, "People's D a i l y " e d i t o r i a l o f the same y e a r , and a t the J a n u a r y 1958 meeting i n Nanning, the C e n t r a l Committee o f the P a r t y . c o n t i n u a l l y s t r e s s e d i t s p o l i c y t h a t e d u c a t i o n must be combined w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . I t i s o n l y now t h a t the P a r t y ' s p o l i c y has been c a r r i e d out on a n a t i o n - w i d e s c a l e . . E d u c a t i o n must serve p o l i t i c s , must be combined w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r , and must be under the l e a d e r s h i p of the P a r t y ; these t h r e e t h i n g s  152 are i n t e r r e l a t e d . E d u c a t i o n s e p a r a t e d from p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r must l e a d , t o a degree, to the n e g l e c t of p o l i t i c s , and P a r t y l e a d e r s h i p i n e d u c a t i o n a l work. I n t h i s way, e d u c a t i o n w i l l be d i v o r c e d from the r e a l i t i e s of our c o u n t r y and e v e n t u a l l y cause r i g h t d e v i a t i o n i s t and doctrinaire mistakes. The c o m b i n a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r i s a requirement of the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n , o f s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n , of the g r e a t g o a l of c o n s t r u c t i n g a communist s o c i e t y , and of the heed t o develop our e d u c a t i o n w i t h g r e a t e r , f a s t e r , b e t t e r , and more e c o n o m i c a l r e s u l t s . The s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n has as i t s aim the w i p i n g out of a l l e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s e s , a l l systems of e x p l o i t a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r remnants. A t p r e s e n t , i n the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n and on the economic f r o n t b a s i c v i c t o r y has been won, and on the p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l f r o n t s the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n has a l s o a c h i e v e d d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y . A c c o r d i n g to the Second S e s s i o n of the E i g h t h N a t i o n a l Congress of the Chinese Communist P a r t y our t a s k i s " t o c o n t i n u e t o c a r r y out the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n on the economic, p o l i t i c a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l f r o n t s w h i l e a c t i v e l y c a r r y i n g out the t e c h n i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n s . " The c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n i s t o enable a l l 600 m i l l i o n Chinese people t o do p r o d u c t i v e work and s t u d y , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of those who cannot do t h i s . T h i s means t o make the masses of workers and peasants i n t e l l e c t u a l s and make i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n t o l a b o r e r s . Only when b o t h masses of workers and peasants and I n t e l l e c t u a l s develop a l o n g the l i n e of making up what they l a c k w i l l i t be p o s s i b l e t o t h o r o u g h l y change the i r r a t i o n a l l e g a c y of the o l d s o c i e t y and e r a d i c a t e the backwardness of each. That i s t o say, we must e l i m i n a t e the c u l t u r a l d e f i c i e n c y of the masses of workers and peasants and e l i m i n a t e the b o u r g e o i s t h i n k i n g of the I n t e l l e c t u a l s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s i s a v e r y f a r - r e a c h i n g r e v o l u t i o n , one w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n serve w o r k i n g - c l a s s p o l i t i c s and the combinat i o n of e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . Marx has s a i d : "The e a r l y c o m b i n a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r i s one o f the most p o w e r f u l ways of t r a n s f o r m i n g p r e s e n t - d a y s o c i e t y " ( " C r i t i q u e of the Gotha Program"). I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y through the c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n w i t h o u t combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . The c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n i s b e n e f i c i a l t o the c o u n t r y , t o masses of workers and p e a s a n t s , and to the I n t e l l e c t u a l s . Only those who s t i c k t o the s t a n d p o i n t of the b o u r g e o i s i e do not want such a r e v o l u t i o n . The b o u r g e o i s p o l i c y of e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s own sake and the p o l i c y of d i v o r c i n g m e n t a l from p h y s i c a l l a b o r i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the socialist revolution. S o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n demands extreme e f f o r t , s t r u g g l i n g ahead w i t h s t r e n g t h , and a l s o i t demands i n d u s t r i o u s and t h r i f t b u i l d i n g of the c o u n t r y . S o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n a l s o demands t e c h n i q u e and c u l t u r e and the t r a i n i n g of l a r g e numbers of s o c i a l i s t minded and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y p r o f i c i e n t t e c h n i c i a n s i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the p r i n c i p l e of a c h i e v i n g g r e a t e r , f a s t e r , b e t t e r , and more e c o n o m i c a l r e s u l t s . I n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y these needs of s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n we must a l s o combine e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . L e n i n s a i d : " I f we do not combine the t r a i n i n g of the younger g e n e r a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r then i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o v i s u a l i z e the i d e a l of f u t u r e s o c i e t y ; n e i t h e r t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n w i t h o u t p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r , nor p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r w i t h o u t p a r a l l e l t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n c o u l d have been r a i s e d t o the h e i g h t demanded by p r e s e n t - d a y t e c h n i q u e and the s t a t e of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge" ("Pearls of N a r o d n i k s ' H a r e - B r a i n e d Schemes" i n  153 " E d u c a t i o n a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , " 1956, V o l . V I ) . The p o l i c y of combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r w i l l c e r t a i n l y r a i s e h i g h the q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n , and t h i s i s so not o n l y f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l e d u c a t i o n but f o r m o r a l and p h y s i c a l as w e l l . The p o l i c y o f d i v o r c i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y from p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r cannot meet the needs o f s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f u t u r e communist s o c i e t y w i l l be one of from each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s a b i l i t y and t o each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s needs and a s o c i e t y i n which the d i f f e r e n c e s between town and c o u n t r y and between m e n t a l and manual l a b o r . are e l i m i n a t e d . Our b i g l e a p forward i n i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e has made the a t t a i n m e n t o f communism no l o n g e r a f a r d i s t a n t p r o s p e c t . Marx and E n g l e s , one hundred and t e n y e a r s agOj i n the Communist M a n i f e s t o f o r m u l a t e d t e n measures t o e s t a b l i s h a communist s o c i e t y which " i n the most advanced c o u n t r i e s w i l l be g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e . " Of these t e n measures the f i r s t e i g h t have a l r e a d y been c a r r i e d through i n our c o u n t r y through the a d o p t i o n o f methods s u i t a b l e t o the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s , and the l a s t two which are b e g i n n i n g t o be c a r r i e d out a r e : "the c o m b i n a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , the g r a d u a l a b o l i t i o n of the d i s t i n c t i o n between town and c o u n t r y , and the c o m b i n a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . " Everyone can see t h a t because o f the a p p l i c a t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l development o f the p o l i c y of " d e v e l o p i n g i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w h i l e g i v i n g p r i o r i t y t o heavy i n d u s t r y ; c e n t r a l i z i n g the l e a d e r s h i p , o v e r - a l l p l a n n i n g , proper d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r , and c o o r d i n a t i o n to develop n a t i o n a l and l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s and l a r g e , s m a l l , and medium-sized e n t e r p r i s e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y " i n d u s t r y has a l s o appeared i n the r u r a l areas and a l s o the phenomenon of workers who are peasants and peasants who are workers has emerged. T h i s phenomenon i s the bud o f communist society. Because the p r i n c i p l e of combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r i s b e g i n n i n g t o proceed, w i t h s c h o o l s s e t t i n g up f a c t o r i e s and farms, and f a c t o r i e s and a g r i c u l t u r a l c o - o p e r a t i v e s s e t t i n g up s c h o o l s on a l a r g e s c a l e , the phenomenon of s t u d e n t s who are workers and peasants and workers and peasants who are s t u d e n t s i s emerging. T h i s k i n d of phenomenon a l s o i s a bud o f communist s o c i e t y . I t can be imagined, when our c o u n t r y e n t e r s i n t o communism our s o c i e t y ' s b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be many communes. W i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , each b a s i c u n i t w i l l have w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , t r a d e r s , s t u d e n t s , and m i l i t i a . Speaking o f e d u c a t i o n , each b a s i c u n i t w i l l have i t s own p r i m a r y s c h o o l s and secondary s c h o o l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g ; a t the same time, each person w i l l have the time t o a c q u i r e e d u c a t i o n as both a l a b o r e r and i n t e l l e c t u a l . E n g l e s , i n the "Housing Q u e s t i o n , " a n t i c i p a t e d t h i s k i n d of s i t u a t i o n when he s a i d : " I t i s p r e c i s e l y because o f t h i s k i n d o f i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n t h a t human l a b o r and i t s p r o d u c t i v e power has been r a i s e d to such a h i g h l e v e l t h a t f o r the f i r s t time i n the h i s t o r y o f humanity i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h a r a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r among a l l , we can not o n l y produce enough f o r the p l e n t i f u l consumption of a l l members o f s o c i e t y and f o r a g r e a t r e s e r v e fund but can a l s o l e a v e each person s u f f i c i e n t l e i s u r e so t h a t what i s r e a l l y w o r t h p r e s e r v i n g i n h i s t o r i c a l l y i n h e r i t e d c u l t u r e — s c i e n c e , a r t , forms o f i n t e r c o u r s e — m a y not o n l y be p r e s e r v e d but be changed from a monopoly of the r u l i n g c l a s s i n t o the common p r o p e r t y of the whole s o c i e t y and may be f u r t h e r developed." I n o r d e r t o a t t a i n t h i s k i n d of p r o s p e c t , our e d u c a t i o n a l work must not go i n the d i r e c t i o n o f d i v o r c i n g mental and manual l a b o r but. r a t h e r i n the d i r e c t i o n o f combining m e n t a l w i t h manual l a b o r and e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r .  154 To get faster, better, and more economical results in education seems impossible to the bourgeois educationalist's. Since the beginning of last year the tremendous growth of educational work has proved that by applying the mass line i n education it. i s possible that education can develop greater, faster, and more economically. The combination of education with labor can cause education to become a warmly welcomed a c t i v i t y among the workers and peasants, and i t i s an important method of arousing mass i n i t i a t i v e In the setting up of schools. Under Party leadership.the p r i n c i p l e s of running schools by applying the mass line are: f i r s t , . t o combine unity with d i v e r s i t y . The purpose of t r a i n i n g i s u n i f i e d , that i s to t r a i n s o c i a l i s t minded, cultured workers; but central a u t h o r i t i e s , l o c a l authorit i e s , f a c t o r i e s , mines, enterprises, and a g r i c u l t u r a l co-operatives can a l l run the schools, and the schools can take on varied forms. The schools can be f u l l - t i m e part-work part-study, or spare-time and they may c o l l e c t fees or be f r e e . The present spare-time schools, as production grows further and working hours can be shortened, w i l l be the same as the part-work partstudy schools. As production greatly developes and public accumulation greatly r i s e s , the schools presently charging fees can s i m i l a r l y become free. Second, the u n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n of education must be combined with the r a i s i n g of educational l e v e l s , and the l e v e l of education must be raised on the basis of popularization, and popularization must be guided in order to raise the l e v e l of education. Some of the f u l l - t i m e , part-work part-study, and the spare-time schools take on the task of r a i s i n g educational courses to popularize education. Because those schools which are popularizing are the part-work part-study schools, they are able to meet the whole or greater part of the expenditures themselves, find l o c a l teachers i n accordance with the p r i n c i p l e that "every capable person can teach" and can develop gradually with aid from the government i n perfecting their c u r r i c u l a , equipment, and teaching s t a f f . In schools where courses in labor are lacking, we should stress introducing courses i n labor, and i n schools where basic courses are deficient the stress should be on introducing the basic courses so that both kinds of schools can develop those aspects that are lacking and more e f f e c t i v e l y apply the p r i n c i p l e of combining theory with practice. Third, we must combine o v e r - a l l planning with decentralization, bring into play the i n i t i a t i v e of the various central government departments, the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and the masses i n order to cause education to develop with greater, faster, and better economical r e s u l t s . Because of the guidance of the Party committees, the central and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , in their planning of educational work, can develop education as fast as possible and enable this development to benefit, not hinder, the growth of production. Fourth, we must apply the mass line i n the p o l i t i c a l , administrative, pedagogic, and research work of the schools. In these kinds of work i t i s necessary to adopt the methods of open and free a i r i n g of views, tatsepao, and under the guidance of Party committees, the method of the "three combinations" (For example, the method can be adopted of combining, under the leadership of the Party committees, the e f f o r t s of the teachers and students i n the working out of teaching plans and programs, and i n teaching, the method can be adopted of i n v i t i n g people with p r a c t i c a l experience to give lectures, in accordance with the teachers i n special f i e l d s a l l under the. leadership of the Party and so on) and between leaders and rank and f i l e , between teachers and students to establish democratic relations of equality thereby changing the o l d , i r r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Experience has already indicated that where these methods have been adopted great achievements have been made.  155  Before e d u c a t i o n can be combined w i t h l a b o r , a s t r u g g l e must be waged and i t must be a p r o t r a c t e d one. Why? Because t h i s i s a r e v o l u t i o n i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the o l d t r a d i t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n a l work which have been around f o r thousands o f y e a r s . The p r i n c i p l e o f s e p a r a t i n g m e n t a l l a b o r from manual l a b o r i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n a l work has a l r e a d y dominated f o r thousands of y e a r s . A l l the c l a s s e s i n h i s t o r y have adhered t o t h i s p r i n c i p l e . Over two thousand y e a r s ago, C o n f u c i u s opposed the combining o f e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r and condemned as a " s m a l l man" Fan C h i h who " r e q u e s t e d t o be taught husbandry" and " r e q u e s t e d t o be taught gardening Mencius opposed Hsu H s i n g and s a i d , "Those who l a b o r w i t h t h e i r minds govern o t h e r s ; those who l a b o r w i t h t h e i r s t r e n g t h are governed by o t h e r s ; those who are governed by o t h e r s support them; those who govern o t h e r s are supported by them. T h i s i s a p r i n c i p l e u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . " On t h i s p o i n t b o u r g e o i s pedagogues are i n complete agreement w i t h C o n f u c i u s and Mencius. E d u c a t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y combined w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r but was separated i n c l a s s s o c i e t y . Now they must be a g a i n combined. The e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y U t o p i a n s o c i a l i s t s F o u r i e r and Owen were the f i r s t t o put forward the i d e a of combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r . Marx, E n g l e s , and L e n i n a l l supported t h i s i d e a . Marx, i n V o l . I o f C a p i t a l expressed the view t h a t a part-work p a r t - s t u d y s c h o o l was p r e f e r a b l e t o f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l i n g f o r c h i l d r e n . I n "The D i r e c t i v e s to the D e l e g a t e s of the P r o v i s i o n a l C e n t r a l C o u n c i l on Some Q u e s t i o n s " Marx suggested " I n a r a t i o n a l s o c i a l o r d e r e v e r y c h i l d from the age o f n i n e must become a p r o d u c t i v e w o r k e r ; " he m a i n t a i n e d t h a t c h i l d r e n from age n i n e t o age twelve s h o u l d , e i t h e r a t home or i n a workshop do two hours work e v e r y day, c h i l d r e from t h i r t e e n y e a r s to f i f t e e n y e a r s of age should do f o u r h o u r s , and c h i l d r e n from s i x t e e n t o seventeen y e a r s o f age should do s i x h o u r s o f work. He b e l i e v e d t h a t "the c o m b i n a t i o n o f remunerative p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r , m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n , p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e , and p o l y t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g can r a i s e the w o r k i n g c l a s s a good d e a l above the middle and h i g h e r c l a s s e s . " Marx once p r e d i c t e d t h a t " t h e r e i s no doubt, t h a t the w o r k i n g c l a s s must come i n t o power, and when i t does t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n , both t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l , w i l l take i t s proper p l a c e w i t h i n the w o r k i n g c l a s s s c h o o l s " ( C a p i t a l V o l . I ) . Only i n a s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r y l e d by the w o r k i n g c l a s s and the Communist P a r t y , can the p r i n c i p l e o f combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r be put i n t o e f f e c t and be o f g r e a t use to r e v o l u t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n . Marx's prophecy w i l l be r e a l i z e d i n our c o u n t r y . We must r e a l i z e t h a t t o put i n t o e f f e c t the c o m b i n a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r means we must f i g h t w i t h the o l d t r a d i t i o n s t h a t have e x i s t e d f o r thousands of y e a r s . I f we do not have the communist s t y l e o f k n o c k i n g down o l d i d o l s , b u r y i n g d o c t r . i n a i r i s m , d a r i n g t o t h i n k , speak, and do, and i f we do not have the c r e a t i v e s p i r i t o f combining the u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s o f Marxism w i t h the c o n c r e t e r e a l i t i e s o f our c o u n t r y then we cannot succeed C u r r e n t l y , i n our e d u c a t i o n a l work, v i g o r o u s e f f o r t s are b e i n g made t o p u l l down the o l d and s e t up the new. B o u r g e o i s i d e a s and d o c t r i n a i r e i d e a s are b e i n g broken down, and new M a r x i s t e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s , systems, methods, c u r r i c u l a , and s c h o o l systems s u i t e d t o our c o u n t r y are b e i n g c r e a t e d . The f o u n d a t i o n s of t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n are sound and s o l i d The M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m teaches us t h a t the supers t r u c t u r e must conform t o the economic base. The p o l i t i c a l system i s the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , the c o n c e n t r a t e d e x p r e s s i o n o f economics. E d u c a t i o n comes  156 I n t o the c a t e g o r y o f i d e o l o g y and i s a l s o a s u p e r s t r u c t u r e ; i t s e r v e s politics. C l a s s s o c i e t y has e x i s t e d f o r over a thousand y e a r s and has had slave-owner ownership, l a n d l o r d ownership, and c a p i t a l i s t ownership as I t s economic base. Conforming t o these types o f ownership a r e p o l i t i c a l systems such as slave-owner, l a n d l o r d , and b o u r g e o i s d i c t a t o r s h i p s . The types o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t serve these d i c t a t o r s h i p s o f the s l a v e - o w n e r s , the l a n d l o r d s , and the b o u r g e o i s i e d i f f e r from each o t h e r b u t a l l have t h i s i n common t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s d i v o r c e d from p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r and mental and manual l a b o r a r e s e p a r a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , manual l a b o r e r s a r e d e s p i s e d . The s e p a r a t i o n o f m e n t a l from manual l a b o r i s a need o f a l l e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s e s i n c l u d i n g the b o u r g e o i s i e . I n our s o c i e t y s o c i a l i s t ownership i s the economic base. The p o l i t i c a l system s u i t e d t o s o c i a l i s t ownership i s p r o l e t a r i a n d i c t a t o r s h i p . Our e d u c a t i o n s e r v e s p r o l e t a r i a n d i c t a t o r s h i p and t h e r e f o r e , our e d u c a t i o n c o n t r a r y t o the o l d t r a d i t i o n s which have p e r s i s t e d f o r thousands o f y e a r s must put i n t o p r a c t i c e the p r i n c i p l e o f combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e the d i f f e r e n c e between m e n t a l and manual l a b o r and t h i s a l s o means w i p i n g out a l l o f the s u r v i v i n g systems o f e x p l o i t a t i o n t h a t have e x i s t e d i n h i s t o r y so t h a t a l l mankind may e n t e r i n t o - communist s o c i e t y . The p o l i c y o f combining e d u c a t i o n w i t h p r o d u c t i v e l a b o r i s needed by the w o r k i n g c l a s s and a l l o t h e r w o r k i n g p e o p l e . T h i s p o l i c y conforms t o the p e o p l e ' s d e s i r e s and w i l l c e r t a i n l y p r e v a i l . On the o t h e r hand, the p o l i c y o f d i v o r c i n g m e n t a l from manual l a b o r inasmuch as i t does n o t conform t o t h e s o c i a l i s t economic base, and the needs o f the people w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be d i s c a r d e d by the people even though i t may have e x i s t e d as t r a d i t i o n f o r thousands o f y e a r s . W i t h p o l i t i c s i n command and under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the P a r t y and by r a l l y i n g the e n t i r e P a r t y and a l l e d u c a t i o n a l workers t o oppose the e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s o f the b o u r g e o i s i e and a t the same time a p p l y the P a r t y ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y we can c a r r y through our c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n so t h a t a l l o f our 600 m i l l i o n people w i l l be a b l e t o do p r o d u c t i v e work and w i l l be a b l e t o s t u d y t h e r e b y changing them i n t o new men who a r e b o t h l a b o r e r s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  SOURCE:  Hong'qi (Red F l a g ) (No. 7, September 1, 1958).  157  L A 'ipsa  d&i}}>*&&*j<i%:®m&> >bmrif&*'j?%.  iff.  B3&Emifc»RT.  S < a * s m s i T . »3ft:CT^WfS8, x^#»33J**7fr, M T j r m f f i M T ^ S ^ x fits?!;,  fflSTBfcSg^fllKlSK,  ffist&WftMBfc&W.  MfalfcWM,  s^siE#8re#^rBih&^&jR&EiBft. j g i f a ^ f i i f t & a ^ ^ c a ^ * , ft»W*«f-»?a3&:  .2 •  3 & & » t i  £*n  arena  &Wft1rS£®^-  1958^  159  &mt*ij&&m, m&Twtm, ^& im\ a  m&t*5kA!8%Si, ^ibfrwi.  * " W * f i » t o ^ i  %r®&m'&%3mr--mA,  JHS*  'm?&&nt<kft&  -^nt^n^  sarcasm,  a  nm^&Efrstsis^ra, w a a £ & f f i # a * k . •  BBfl(ii5fcj£, jf«fga  *ftSft_a2a^S5j5fi3feSK6SA, &#£BSS®ffi^fl&A, ©sash  BHsaw&jgja  e  *mwmmzcc{n'Mi&,  « B W T « ^ S ,  a i ^ a a . /PIS, & # » A t f e t f e f f i & g ^ , a & f & n r s M j  ia^*i^fosfc«aa«i  160  . •. a f i f t & f f x f l s * ,  « s ' t ^ w t f ] « ' ,  '« i . jTSiais-aisaj&n,  t$£3b  c—> smm&frm,  ' sur«. &ntt&itifM%±-r,  7-mt&jmw, .4.  &&#6& ' H # a & n to s & ;  s s T ^ r i s ^ s ^ ^ — ^ 3 ^ ^ m s j s e & ' ^ %  (-)  — a  nm&Rfr&>  mtt&M-ma^  mtm  HM«I  •xmm&m,  tetrxmrnM. y  m&  mx&tt,  :  1  tun**.  pFhtmcug® 1958^  ^tbAzmx, mmwrnm, ^mmm^mi,^. mm. ®%7t^&&*tt±m-&Kmmsa,sum* warn*-5kfc®.^mwR^ sm&i&sts,  2fc#, »*WflSJfc35gfo ffiAWBfcFK, B ^ A ^ & i r ^ , ^ifi^ARttgtff.K+B&Wa^^iSPJfl&ffS,  WIE»W&»  te^£*MT4'!&^^7«&&-TO  ^MJbWS,  te^SW£#J^M5ff3fc5&  JL  tst mAtim&fta^^fir^fijj-?!'^w^fi^Bia".  •a.  ^wmiVd&^rim^  :*^£«fsik  IM*/  |. . © M i l ' , tt»ft&. JEL2®MJ:fl«llfc^^»^85EfiI, 4 ^ « ^ 4 ^ f l £ * f l W  ?m&w&m iAm*, &mt£8&x%m33£®, m-^^x^^B.mm^ y  mm%-"&&*w>i"io'  . .6.  (mm-. "-Kmxj&w)  ^teskxA^sxik^?**^  'l958^  163  £&&mte$r 3:xy&£, i  ftwMmiimm?<£<m,  &#M#PIS*J&!&> 3C&Jfi:&£&fl&&3&,  ffi^ff'syrofibs^ffs  H*&#1BM;P^  -frft*," 5 & F f t & » & * i S f c ^ r s S - ^ * S , # J ^ i £ ^ W & M A 3 S M - : & ' & . '  wacKiss&iiWA. s t M S ' S t i t f , ^#^M3?ffia^s^  jj&MA.  0  %m}mmw£  aSfifcS^MSJaWA, M x a x t d U , S f c S X A T O f t i l S f c a - ^ , • a s  *Plg^7-«XA.  &wMm*mv£mm-ifjj£u  mt&mmttm%, m*mrvt&mmrn^ns&  « £ # S a ? F E T I I M W ± X 6 & 8 i @ j «&JfiIf«i#&+a«TS?B3fclti  s ^ ^ r f t M ,  . W J & ^ a M ^ a ^ u i ^ ,  .8•  x&iB^re&iwgffl,  ^wigfctf-tSfi&K^fe*,.  V  s£«7  A«Jt  s  ^  '  *  w  a  1958^  165  ifcW^ifei^-Sfr^, i « h ^ X ¥ ^ J 0 K 8 S » , dfeiit^X«fig2Fr13!J35fl«J,  "k^rs^ferBrStsiiBfiaAffa, ^ ® » s # t o ^ ^  a  ^  srK-siwfe  166  gffifBSTi • & & W f i 3 t o a & r * 8 £ ; e * \  ft^5J4HS2cSXik6txfrr  !l}  *£Ei7 £ £ X i I k f t £ & M t f j & # T , xikfngc.vi!iMB-t#^5  M  a  xr^J^c^frifc^T^^,  ##3£S87J&#BIK£,  #SffiS7#£fllXA8U&,  XA&JUP^ftfa  m&Af£K8U£.mO£&~&?lrT^g£*f£&SI#xfi<j#  ^jKfeBhaWSl* fn^^Sfc^ffi!^^,  • 10.  «  ,  "3&7£Sl3&f I'  .  19583s  167  *HtittfcWtt9ttt H#JM*x^KWJfoik&#j,  .tmWM&, ttftf&xfe,  X^W^fafnt^faf^fe  s Bfags,  &M£m?@i&£M&.'tfo  ^ffixfjs* 's&^xflsBiwgBxff**, «a®xfi5*S5ifcfc«&,*iS:,*^  nitons, aim%#®#Tft& Hit>s."fifj*s B  t  ~&m?m  E » S 7 J L F ^ f £ £ ± f a - i M t M , «E#&>M&CIW. —^#Jpjxffj-, ft-#.fr#f&A, ^ ^ f & ^ A ,  S5 7 S3  S E W S  wpk%&mfrkftW^nm®?s  mmAwiirik&m&m&mtt&mm , ^tm^-^m^±m  b,  TO  in¥A%'££A,  Jl=m  J 8 A 3 & ¥ A , 5^T^MS-tlL o 0  .11.  168  'fcXABfrfeffiiSfSlJfc^ , - b » M # ^ f a 7 K ^ " I S S f ^ t S : 0  XAEf  r  £®J&& " ("Sf*sr"ss-S) K 5 i r « x A ^ ^ * r % ® ^ w t t ^ ^ f r t s s s s s , a t / 0  '•ftjftjffiifj&it-, SkTSSBfeSBfi, MW%t&3iX,  JR^iSasSfifcfiS^r^XRIft, a f f  K , " f e 3 E r ^ S l ^ ® : . ^ f a i f c W & ^ ^ B r M - ^ M ^ f a , Bffi«ff3fa&W,  £  e  g£W-¥ft/*<£«S&fa#£h  ^Xfa^-^aSSJli,  AXAEfr«afn-§J^3frARJ9fS35fi?i.  *flteAf«&ffi3?, S ^ J L i ^ « r f H & ,  »i&a!«r, # 5 £ f a ® ^ T ,  AS $  mmmt, m&-'WzimmwfiiJiftm, u.nf&*  ^ f c A P A A f i S f e / * , A A i £ # 3 , &%&&&$m-3Ukto'$&'=f'tfy®A. • .13.  • •' . • \1958#  

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