UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A model for individual choice in a social context Reimer, William Charles 1969

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1969_A8 R45.pdf [ 4.01MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104169.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104169-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104169-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104169-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104169-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104169-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104169-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104169-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104169.ris

Full Text

A MODEL FOR INDIVIDUAL CHOICE IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT by W i l l i a m C h a r l e s Reimer B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 5 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n t h e Department o f ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 6 9 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes.is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT In t h i s paper a model f o r c h o i c e making b e h a v i o r i s d e v e l o p e d . I t i n c l u d e s two independent v a r i a b l e s ; t h e r e l e v a n c e o f a s t i m u l u s and t h e openness o f c h a n n e l s , and one dependent v a r i a b l e ; t he l i k l i h o o d o f an a c t o c c u r r i n g a l o n g a c h a n n e l . The model i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t - t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m a t w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r measurement. Two examples a r e g i v e n f o r the model. One i s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e model t o t h e c h o i c e making b e h a v i o r o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and the l a t t e r i s i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a s m a l l group,, The l a t t e r example i s used f o r a t e s t o f the model, and i t c o n s e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s and measures f o r t h i s t e s t . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e some s u p p o r t f o r t h e s t r u c t u r e p r o p o s e d and when t h e p r e d i c t i o n s a r e compared w i t h an a l t e r n a t i v e model t h e r e seems t o be 1 i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n a c c u r a c y . S u g g e s t i o n s a r e then made f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h which may be made on t h e model. i i f T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I . The B a s i c Model 5 I I I . A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Model t o Programme C h o i c e s o f S t u d e n t s 21 IV. A p p l i c a t i o n o f Model t o S m a l l Groups I n t e r a c t i o n 2k V. R e s u l t s 34 V I . Comparison o f Models 50 V I I . . C o n c l u s i o n s 53 V I M . F o o t n o t e s 56 IX. B i b l i o g r a p h y 60 X. A p p e n d i x A - R e l i a b i l i t y o f S o u r c e s 61 X I . A p p e n d i x B - Computer Program - Main 63 X I I . A p p e n d i x C - Computer S u b r o u t i n e 68 I V L i s t of Tables TABLE I TABLE I la M a t r i x of P r e d i c t i o n s by Hypotheses 1 and 2 35 The P r o p o r t i o n of T o t a l S t a t e -ments D i r e c t e d to Chooser which were Task 37 TABLE l i b TABLE I I la The P r o p o r t i o n of T o t a l S t a t e -ments F o l l o w i n g a Task Statement which were I n i t i a t e d by Chooser 38 The P r o p o r t i o n of T o t a l S t a t e -ments D i r e c t e d to Choosers which were S o c i a l - E m o t i o n a l 38 TABLE 1Mb - The P r o p o r t i o n o f T o t a l S t a t e -ments F o l l o w i n g a S o c i a l - E m o t i o n a l Statement which were I n i t i a t e d by Chooser 38 TABLE IV TABLE Va TABLE Vb P r o p o r t i o n of T o t a l Statements Made by Chooser for which Feed-back Occurred 39 R e s u l t s of Order R e l a t i o n s From Session A 39 Summary R e s u l t s of Order R e l a t i o n s From Session A kO TABLE VI - T o t a l S t a t i s t i c s for Hypotheses 1 and 2 kO TABLE V i l a - Data for Comparison of E r r o r and Non-error Samples k\ TABLE VI lb - C a l c u l a t i o n s for Tests of S i g n i f i c a n c e Between E r r o r and Non-error Samples kk TABLE V i l l a - R esults of P r e d i c t i o n s of S i g n i f i c a n c e Using Relevance Alone c o n t i n u e d L i s t o f T a b l e s TABLE V I I lb - Data f o r Comparison o f E r r o r and N o n - e r r o r Samples --Openness Ignored TABLE IX - R e s u l t s o f P r e d i c t i o n s U s i n g Openness A l o n e TABLE Xa - R e s u l t s f o r T h r e e P e r i o d s o f S e s s i o n A, Task S t i m u l i TABLE Xb - R e s u l t s f o r Three P e r i o d s o f S e s s i o n A, S o c i a l - E m o t i o n a l S t i m u l i TABLE XI - Summary R e s u l t s f o r T e s t o f Hypotheses 3 and k TABLE X I I - R e s u l t s C o n s i d e r i n g Openness A l o n e TABLE X I I I - R e s u l t s C o n s i d e r i n g Openness a F u n c t i o n o f C u e i n g vi Lexicon of Sets and R e l a t i o n s B a s i c Model Set B = (a, b , c, . . . n) Set S = (m, n, o, . . i v) p on SxB } R on SxB Set P = (d, e, f , . . . 1) Set C = PxP > ° on C i - 1 on C - i n d i v i d u a l s choosing - s t i m u l i - relevance of stimulus - order of relevance - a l t e r n a t i v e p o s i t i o n s - channels of choice - order of openness - l i k e l i h o o d of moving along channel Relevance on S Set A = (o, p, q, . . -.. u) oc on SxA £ L on SxA £ A on A - order of ease of d e t e c t i o n - o r i e n t a t i o n s - a s s o c i a t i o n of s t i m u l i with o r i e n t a t i o n s - order of a s s o c i a t i o n s - importance o f o r i e n t a t i o n s Openness ^ F on C - f a m i l i a r i t y with C 3 on CxA - increase of rewards u on CxA - order of rewards I INTRODUCTION C h o i c e t h e o r y i s l i m i t e d by t h e l a c k o f t h e o r e t i c a l l i n k s between c o g n i t i v e and c h o i c e making p r o c e s s e s o f men and t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s which i n f l u e n c e them. C o g n i t i v e s t u d i e s d e a l w i t h such n o t i o n s a s s t i m u l u s s a m p l i n g , a s s o c i a t i o n s and r e i n f o r c e m e n t , ' c h o i c e making w i t h m a x i m i z a t i o n o f u t i l i t y and p r e f e r e n c e , and s o c i a l t h e o r y w i t h c o n c e p t s such as s t a t u s , norms, or r e f e r e n c e s . ^ T h e r e i s good t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i -c a t i o n f o r t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f each o f t h e s e a s p e c t s o f c h o i c e making b e h a v i o r i n t h a t s e p a r a t i o n a l l o w s t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n t r o l s f o r t e s t i n g t h e p r o p o s i t i o n s g e n e r a t e d by t h e t h e o r i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, such s e p a r a t i o n may demand t h a t s i m p l i f y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s must be made which a r e c o n t r a r y t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a . The a s s u m p t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y a s used by most o f t h e t h e o r i s t s o f u t i l i t y i s one example where t h i s o c c u r s . B o t h t h e o r i e s o f c o g n i t i o n and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s u g g e s t t h a t t h e knowledge o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f g o a l s , which i s n e c e s s a r y In r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , i s i n most c a s e s p r o b l e m a t i c and f o r t h e c h o i c e maker u s u a l l y u n c e r t a i n . S i m i l a r l y , c h o i c e t h e o r y emphasizes t h e i m p o r t a n c e which p r e f e r e n c e and p e r c e p t u a l o r d e r i n g s may make on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s t i m u l u s and r e s p o n s e . The im p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e o r d e r i n g s i s most o b v i o u s i n t h e c a s e o f s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e , as d e m o n s t r a t e d i n s t u d i e s such as t h e Asch e x p e r i m e n t which shows how s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s o p e r a t e t o i n f l u e n c e j u d g e m e n t s . 4 In t h e l i g h t o f t h e s e s t u d i e s , i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s t i m u l u s and a re s p o n s e may i n v o l v e a c o m p l i c a t e d system o f s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s . The r e s u l t o f t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n o f a s p e c t s o f t h e c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n has been a l i m i t a t i o n on t h e t y p e o r range o f s u b s t a n t i v e problems w i t h which.we can d e a l . The a s s u m p t i o n o f r a t i o n a l i t y a l o n e has meant t h a t one must d e a l w i t h s i t u a t i o n s where g o a l s a r e c l e a r such as - 2 ~ i n games o r s i m p l e d e c i s i o n s . The a s s u m p t i o n o f l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n c o g n i t i v e and c h o i c e making p r o c e s s e s has meant t h a t one must d e a l w i t h l a r g e numbers o f p e r s o n s o r h i g h l y c o n s t r a i n e d s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s s t u d y i s an a t t e m p t t o b r i d g e t h e gap between t h e s e v a r i o u s emphases i n c h o i c e b e h a v i o r by f o r m u l a t i n g a model which i n t e g r a t e s c o g n i t i v e , and s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a r e s p o n s e . I t can be c o n s i d e r e d a model i n s o f a r as i t r e l a t e s v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s o f p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d t h e o r e t i c a l systems i n a p a r t i c u l a r way. In t h i s p a p e r , t h e model i s not t e s t e d as a whole, but c o n t r o l s a r e i n t r o -duced which a l l o w r a t h e r s i m p l e p r o p o s i t i o n s t o be t e s t e d . T h i s i s r a t h e r i n a d e q u a t e i n s o f a r as t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between e l e m e n t s o f t h e model a r e s i m p l i f i e d , b u t i t a l l o w s a number o f p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t s on d a t a which a r e d i f f i c u l t t o measure beyond an o r d i n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s a l s o l e a v e s open the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n o f p a r a m e t e r s w i t h which t h e model as a c o m p l e t e system may be t e s t e d . H. Simon-* has a t t e m p t e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f c h o i c e by p o s i t i n g a ' P r i n c i p l e o f Bounded R a t i o n a l i t y ' . A major consequence o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s t h a t : t h e i n t e n d e d r a t i o n a l i t y o f an a c t o r r e q u i r e s him t o c o n s t r u c t a s i m p l i f i e d model o f t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h i t . He behaves r a t i o n a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s model, and such b e h a v i o r i s n o t even a p p r o x i m a t e l y o p t i m a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r e a l w o r l d . Simon uses t h e P r i n c i p l e as a g u i d e t o c o n s t r u c t i n g a t h e o r y o f r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r which w i l l not i g n o r e t h e v a r i o u s l i m i t s on t h e human c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r c o m p u t a t i o n . We w i l l e x t e n d i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s t o i n c l u d e a c o n c e r n , not o n l y f o r c o m p u t a t i o n , but f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n i t s e l f . U n l i k e Simon, we w i l l a v o i d the use o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s as v a r i a b l e s , and c o n c e n t r a t e on a s t r u c t u r a l f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m . By u s i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h , i t i s e a s i e s t t o make - 3 -t h e n e c e s s a r y l i n k s between t h e c o g n i t i v e and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y began as an e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and the r e l a t e d c h o i c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l program i n h i g h s c h o o l . S i n c e t h e r a t i o n a l models f o r c h o i c e b e h a v i o r l a c k e d a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t u -a l i z a t i o n o f the e f f e c t o f s o c i a l and c o n t e x t u a l i n f l u e n c e s on t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f s t r a t e g i e s , t h e y were i n a d e q u a t e t o d e a l w i t h t h e s u b s t a n t i v e a s p e c t s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e n o n r a t i o n a l models were v e r y o f t e n d e v o i d o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s which would a l l o w them t o be e a s i l y r e l a t e d t o r a t i o n a l models o f d e c i s i o n making. In o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a c o n c e p t u a l framework which c o u l d h a n d l e b o t h o f t h e s e a s p e c t s , a new f o r m u l a t i o n was begun. A t t h e same t i m e i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e were many o t h e r s u b s t a n t i v e a r e a s which were i n a d e q u a t e l y examined because o f t h e same k i n d o f t h e o r e t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e a r c h f o r c o n c e p t u a l adequacy became extended t o a s e a r c h f o r a t h e o r y o f c h o i c e b e h a v i o r which c o u l d h a n d l e b o t h t h e r a t i o n a l i t y and the l i m i t a t i o n s on r a t i o n a l i t y i n a number o f d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , two major q u e s t i o n s were g e n e r a t e d and t h e y form t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t i s : 'which c o n c e p t s w i l l a d e q u a t e l y h a n d l e t h e r a t i o n a l and i t s b o u n d a r i e s i n the c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n ? ' and t h e second i s : 'how can t h e y most e a s i l y be r e l a t e d ? 1 . In o r d e r t o answer t h e f i r s t , c o n c e p t s must be found which a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o p e r c e p t i o n , d e c i s i o n making and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e . S i n c e we a r e a l s o o p e r a t i n g under a demand f o r t e s t i n g , the s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f a measurement t e c h n i q u e f o r t h e s e c o n c e p t s must a l s o be made. T h i s i n v o l v e s i n i t s e l f the s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f f u r t h e r c o n c e p t u a l systems which p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r l i n k i n g t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s t o t h e s p e c i f i c e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s * The second q u e s t i o n f o c u s e s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e c o n c e p t s as t h e y a r e d e v e l o p e d . There a r e a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e ways i n which t h i s may be done.^ The most t r a d i t i o n a l way i s by means o f v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s s t a t e m e n t s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e i n g ' g r e a t e r ' , ' e q u a l ' , o r ' l e s s ' under v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s ; t h e major f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t b e i n g t h a t the s t a t e m e n t s a r e l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . S e c o n d l y , th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s may be r e p r e s e n t e d i n m a t h e m a t i c a l terms and t h e c o n c e p t s r e l a t e d t o a n u m e r i c a l system. In o r d e r t o do t h i s , two f o r m a l problems o a r i s e which must be h a n d l e d as p a r t o f the measurement p r o b l e m . The f i r s t i s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p r o b l e m which a r i s e s from t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e system o f numbers must be homomorphic ( o r i f p o s s i b l e i s o m o r p h i c ) w i t h t h e e m p i r i c a l o p e r a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s . The second i s t h e u n i q u e n e s s problem which a r i s e s from the r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t each p o s s i b l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e number system which i s i s o m o r p h i c o r homomorphic t o t h e e m p i r i c a l o p e r a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s i s r e c o g n i z e d and s t a t e d . In p r a c t i c a l terms, t h i s means t h a t the s c a l e o f t y p e s f o r each measurement must be d e t e r m i n e d and made e x p l i c i t . I f t h e s e two r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e s a t i s f i e d , t h e l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the m a t h e m a t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In an a t t e m p t t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m a t h e m a t i c s , the model f o r c h o i c e d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s paper w i l l be o r i e n t e d toward a language which p e r m i t s a s s i g n m e n t t o a number system. T h i s does n o t mean t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s a r e numbered, but o n l y t h a t they a r e d e v e l o p e d w i t h a c o n c e r n f o r t h e i r e v e n t u a l o r d e r i n g i n t o a n u m e r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y , t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be on an o r d i n a l l e v e l because o f t h e r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y f o r measurement which t h i s e n t a i l s . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h i s t y p e o f measurement a r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e b a s i c model i s d e v e l o p e d i n o r d e r t o show t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p a s c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . T h i s b a s i c model w i l l be p r e s e n t e d on a v e r y a b s t r a c t l e v e l s i n c e i t i s i n t e n d e d a s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f s u b s t a n t i v e c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n s . 11 THE BASIC MODEL 9 As we have i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , a d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s w i l l be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as one which i n v o l v e s t h r e e f a c t o r s : p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c h o i c e , t h e d e c i s i o n i t s e l f , and s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s which c o n s t r a i n t h e c h o i c e . These a r e not Independent f a c t o r s , but t h e y a f f e c t one a n o t h e r a t a number o f p o i n t s i n d e c i s i o n making. Under t h i s g e n e r a l framework, i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r o n l y t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s where a d e c i s i o n i s f o r c e d o r where t h e s u b j e c t i s c o n s c i o u s o f making a d e c i s i o n . The model can be a p p l i e d t o any s i t u a t i o n where t h e c o n d i t i o n s a r e f u l f i l l e d and where b e h a v i o r i s c o n c e i v e d o f by t h e r e s e a r c h e r as a c h o i c e between a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . In t h i s r e s p e c t i t s t a n d s as a c o n c e p t u a l framework which may be r e l e v a n t f o r b e h a v i o r not t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d c h o i c e b e h a v i o r , a l t h o u g h i t s i m p r e c i s i o n w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e l i m i t s on t h i s use, e s p e c i a l l y f o r t e s t i n g p u r p o s e s . The f i r s t a s p e c t o f c h o i c e b e h a v i o r , t h a t o f p e r c e p t i o n , i n v o l v e s t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e ways i n which an i n d i v i d u a l s e l e c t s and o r d e r s a s p e c t s o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . S i n c e we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n o f c h o i c e , t h i s would n a t u r a l l y l i m i t t h e number o f f a c t o r s t o t h o s e which a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e c h o i c e i t s e l f . The c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s f o r t h i s p a r t o f t h e model a r e borrowed from t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n p s y c h o l o g y o f s i g n a l d e t e c t i o n and s t i m u l u s s a m p l i n g t h e o r y . ' ^ A more c o m p l e t e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e way i n w hich t h e s e a r e used w i l l f o l l o w . P e r c e p t i o n i n v o l v e s not o n l y t h e e l e m e n t s which d e f i n e f o r t h e c h o i c e maker t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e c i s i o n , but t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s which a r e a v a i l a b l e t o him as w e l l . F a c t o r s such as t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o him w i l l i n f l u e n c e t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h o s e t h i n g s which he w i l l p e r c e i v e as p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . - 6 -When we c o n s i d e r t h e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which a c h o i c e maker w i l l p l a c e on h i s p e r c e p t i o n s , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r e i s an i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s and t h e second a s p e c t o f t h e model; t h a t o f s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s . As a means o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h t s e f f e c t we wi11 use a t h e o r y o f a s s i g n m e n t o f meaning d e v e l o p e d by Ogden and R i c h a r d s ^ and c o n s i d e r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t as dependent on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e f e r e n c e s . T h i s w i l l a l s o a l l o w c o n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y on t h e p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h e r i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r e l e m e n t s o f p e r c e p t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s on p e r c e p t i o n w i l l n a t u r a l l y i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c o n s t r a i n t s on t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s which a r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s u b j e c t as w e l l as t o h i s p e r c e p t i o n s . F i n a l l y , we w i l l a t t e m p t t o i n t e g r a t e t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e ways i n w h i c h a p e r s o n may o r d e r h i s p e r c e p t i o n s and a l t e r n a t i v e s i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s p r e f e r e n c e s f o r g o a l s and g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . T h i s f a c t o r i s not independent o f t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f a d e c i s i o n and w i l l be I n t r o d u c e d i n a way t h a t i t can show an e f f e c t on b o t h p e r c e p t i o n and s e l e c t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . The i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f d e c i s i o n making i s by no means a s i m p l e t a s k , but i t I s p o s s i b l e i n s o f a r as we can f i n d c o n c e p t s which have r e l e v a n c e t o a l l t h r e e . The c o n c e p t s t o be used a r e t a k e n from a number o f s o u r c e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f s o c i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y . Most o f them a r e g e n e r a l enough t o a l l o w I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s model as w e l l as w i t h t h e i r use i n o t h e r a r e a s , and a t t h e same t i m e t h e y a l l o w a r e a s o n a b l e d e g r e e o f o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . The b a s i c model f o r p e r c e p t i o n and c h o i c e uses a s t r u c t u r e d e v e l o p e d 1 ? i n s i g n a l d e t e c t i o n t h e o r y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s t i m u l u s and a r e s p o n s e i s seen as t h e r e s u l t o f two p r o c e s s e s . The f i r s t i s an ' a c t i v a t i o n p r o c e s s 1 i n which s t i m u l i i n t h e e n vironment a c t i v a t e s e n s o r y \ i s t a t e s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The second i s a ' d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s ' which o p e r a t e s w i t h t h e s e n s o r y s t a t e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e s p o n s e . T h e r e i s no c l a i m made t h a t t h e s e p r o c e s s e s r e p r e s e n t a c t u a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , r a t h e r t h e y s t a n d s i m p l y as a t h e o r e t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s t i m u l u s and a r e s p o n s e . T h i s t y p e o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n a l l o w s one t o c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t on b e h a v i o r o f b o t h v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e p e r s o n ' s environment as w e l l as t h e way i n which he h a n d l e s t h e elements i n h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . In s i g n a l d e t e c t i o n t h e o r i e s t h e f i r s t e lement o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p e r s o n and h i s environment i s h a n d l e d by p o s i t i n g a v a r i e t y o f s e n s o r y s t a t e s . Such s t a t e s have been d e a l t w i t h b o t h as a continuum and as d i s c r e t e s t a t e s . ' ^ U s u a l l y t h e y a r e used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s u b j e c t ' s awareness w i t h r e g a r d t o one p a r t i c u l a r s t i m u l u s . An example o f t h i s i s found i n A t k i n s o n , e t . a l . ^ 4 where t h r e e s t a t e s a r e p o s i t e d : s Q = no d e t e c t i o n S j = d e t e c t i o n i n o b s e r v a t i o n i n t e r v a l 1 s„ = d e t e c t i o n i n o b s e r v a t i o n i n t e r v a l 2. 2 The model b e i n g d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y d e v i a t e s from t h i s use f o r i t uses t h e n o t i o n o f an a c t i v a t i o n p r o c e s s i n much t h e same way as t h e s a m p l i n g o f a s t i m u l u s element i s used i n s t i m u l u s s a m p l i n g t h e o r y . I n t h i s t h e o r y an e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n i s c o n c e i v e d o f as c o n s i s t i n g o f a number o f d i s t i n c t s t i m u l u s e l e m e n t s which may be grouped on t h e b a s i s o f a t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o r by t h e s u b j e c t h i m s e l f . To each element t h e r e a r e a s s o c i a t e d one o r more r e s p o n s e s and i t i s t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s which become a l t e r e d o r r e i n f o r c e d by e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n . For our p u r p o s e s , we w i l l c o n c e i v e o f t h e c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n as c o n s i s t i n g o f s t i m u l u s elements which become o r a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s o r o r i e n t a t i o n s which a r e i m p o r t a n t t o th e i n d i v i d u a l i n the c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In the language. - 8 -o f s i g n a l d e t e c t i o n t h e o r y , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f a s t i m u l u s w i t h an o r i e n t a -t i o n a c t i v a t e s t h e s e n s o r y s t a t e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t o r i e n t a t i o n . The measure on t h i s a c t i v a t i o n p r o c e s s , when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s i s termed t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e s t i m u l u s . The d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s o p e r a t e s i n terms o f t h e s e s e n s o r y s t a t e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e b o t h t h e e x t e n t t o which each s t a t e i s a c t i v a t e d and t o a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . A v a r i e t y o f models a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . The model p r e s e n t e d h e r e depends p r i m a r i l y i n t h e a c t o f c h o i c e b e i n g c o n c e i v e d 16 as m o t i o n from one p o s i t i o n t o a n o t h e r . The motion may be made by i n d i v i d u a l s , a t t i t u d e s , commitments, i n t e r a c t i o n o r a number o f o t h e r s i m i l a r c o n c e p t s . The measure o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s i s termed t h e openness o f a c h a n n e l . Each c h o i c e i s made by a p e r s o n , however, and v a l u e s a r e a s s i g n e d t o p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e c h o i c e makers. With t h i s b r i e f o v e r v i e w we wi11 now s p e c i f y t h e major v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d . DEFINITION 1: L e t B = ( a , b, c n ) 1 7 be t h e s e t o f i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o s i n g . DEFINITION 2a: L e t S = (m, n, o, . . ., v) be t h e s e t o f s t i m u l i i n v o l v e d i n t h e c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n . A d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e n o t i o n o f s t i m u l i has been a c o n s t a n t i s s u e i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l development o f p s y c h o l o g y . 1 ^ P r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s i n v a r i a b l y mean s u b s t a n t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and t h e y l o s e genera 1 i z a b i 1 i t y w h i l e g a i n i n g t h e i r p r e c i s i o n . Vague d e f i n i t i o n s on t h e o t h e r hand run i n t o problems o f measurement and c o n c e p t u a l p r e c i s i o n which a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r good t h e o r y . For t h e pu r p o s e s o f t h e b a s i c model we w i l l adopt t h e s t r a t e g y used by most t h e o r i s t s d e a l i n g w i t h s t i m u l u s s a m p l i n g n o t i o n s . T hat s t r a t e g y i s t o l e a v e t h e s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n o f s t i m u l i open and t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s t i m u l i t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e i r model. T h i s . a l l o w s a - 9 -g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the t h e o r e t i c a l model. The o n l y r e q u i r e m e n t i s t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f ' s t i m u l u s ' i s made v e r y c l e a r i n t h e s i t u a t i o n s t o which t h e model a p p l i e s . T h i s w i l l be done a t a l a t e r p o i n t i n t h i s p a p e r . DEFINITION 2b: 'p' i s a b i n a r y r e l a t i o n on SxB such t h a t i f meS and R e l e v a n c e i s a c o n c e p t which i n v o l v e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t i m u l u s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s t i m u l u s and s e n s o r y s t a t e s o f t h e d e c i s i o n maker, and t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e s t a t e s t o t h e d e c i s i o n maker. A t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a measurement o f the n o t i o n w i l l be d e a l t w i t h a t a l a t e r p o i n t i n t h i s p a p e r . DEFINITION 2c: >* i s a p a r t i a l l y o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n on SxB such t h a t i f , The s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e measurement f o r ^ w i l l be g i v e n a t a l a t e r p o i n t i n t h e paper when th e n o t i o n o f r e l e v a n c e i s d i s c u s s e d . DEFINITION 3a: L e t P = ( d , e, f , . . ., 1) be the s e t o f a l t e r n a t i v e p o s i t i o n s from which and t o which one may move i n a c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n . The s u b s t a n t i v e meaning o f a p o s i t i o n i s dependent on t h e t y p e o f c h o i c e b e i n g examined. By u s i n g t h e term ' p o s i t i o n ' we i m p l y t h a t t h e c h o i c e i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as movement i n a s p a c e . T h i s space may be s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r p h y s i c a l d e p e n d i n g on t h e c h o i c e b e h a v i o r under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . DEFINITION 3b: L e t C = (P x P) be a s e t o f o r d e r e d p a i r s d e s i g n a t e d as t h e 'channels o f c h o i c e ' . aG8 then mpa I f f t h e s t i m u l u s m i s r e l e v a n t f o r p e r s o n a. m,n £S and a.beB t h e n , (m,a) (n,b) i f f s t i m u l u s m i s more r e l e v a n t f o r p e r s o n a than s t i m u l u s n i s f o r p e r s o n b, o r e l s e t h e r e l e v a n c e i s t h e same. - 10 -0 DEFINITION 3c: ^ i s a p a r t i a l l y o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n on C such t h a t i f d, e, f , g„e P then (d,e) £ ( f , g ) i f f t h e channel o f c h o i c e from d t o e i s as open or more open than t h e c h a n n e l o f c h o i c e from f t o g. U}e)^° ( f , g ) i f f (d,e)»° ( f , g ) ^ (f,9h° (d,e) (d,e)>° ( f , g ) i f f (d,e)*° (f,g)but(f,g)i° (d,e) The openness o f a ch a n n e l i n v o l v e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f b o t h t h e c h o i c e maker's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e t y p e o f c h o i c e d e f i n e d by the channel as w e l l as t h e p o t e n t i a l which t h e ch a n n e l has f o r s a t i s f y i n g h i s c o n c e r n s . F u r t h e r e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e n o t i o n s a l o n g w i t h a b a s i s f o r t h e measurement o f openness w i l l be p r e s e n t e d a t a l a t e r s t a g e i n t h i s p a p e r . DEFINITION 3d: ^' i s a p a r t i a l l y o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n on C such t h a t i f d, e, f , g e P then (d , ek 1 ( f , g ) i f f t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a person moving a l o n g channel (d,e) i s as g r e a t as o r g r e a t e r than t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f him moving a l o n g channel ( f , g ) . (d.e)'v 1 ( f , g ) i f f ( d , e ) * ' ( f , g ) ~ (f,g)»' (d,e) (d,e)>' ( f , g ) i f f ( d , e ) * ' ( f , g ) b u t ( f , g ) ^ 1 (d,e) The n o t i o n o f l i k e l i h o o d on c h a n n e l s i s t h e major dependent v a r i a b l e o f t h e model. In o r d e r t o measure i t , a d d i t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s must be made t o l i n k t h e c o n c e p t w i t h b e h a v i o r . The e a s i e s t measure f o r l i k e l i h o o d i s a measure o v e r a number o f c h o i c e s where a c h o i c e i s d e f i n e d as t h e same t h i n g as movement a l o n g a c h a n n e l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , when we use l i k e l i h o o d as a dependent v a r i a b l e , i t i s a p r e d i c t i o n about a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h o i c e s o v e r p e r s o n s o r a c t s r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c a c t . W i t h t h i s i n mind we can s p e c i f y t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r t h e measurement o f l i k e l i h o o d . n=l 1 = 1 t«*l n=l 1 = 1 t = l where C = s e t o f c h a n n e l s a,b eB d,e,1e P N - t o t a l number o f p e r s o n s c h o o s i n g K = t o t a l number o f c h a n n e l s T = t o t a l number o f t r i a l s T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e x p r e s s e d i n i t s most g e n e r a l f o r m . I t may be reduced a c c o r d i n g t o t h e com p a r i s o n s which a r e t o be made. For example, t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a c h o i c e may be e x p r e s s e d o v e r c h a n n e l s f o r one p e r s o n . In t h i s c a s e , t h e p r e d i c t i o n would be made on t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f one person u s i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c h a n n e l from a l l t h o s e a v a i l a b l e t o him and t h e summation o v e r 'n' i n each denominator would be dropped. Two p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e t h e b a s i c model. They a r e s p e c i f i e d i n a l i n g u i s t i c f o r m a t , w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o r d i n a l r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n by numbers b e i n g c a r r i e d by t h e d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n above. PROPOSITION 1: The g r e a t e r t h e r e l e v a n c e o f a s t i m u l u s a c t i n g on a p e r s o n , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a c h o i c e by t h a t p e r s o n f o l l o w i n g t h a t s t i m u l u s . PROPOSITION 2: The more open a channel o f c h o i c e , t h e more l i k e l y w i l l a p e r s o n a c t i n i t s d i r e c t i o n . F o r t h e sake o f s i m p l i c i t y t h e b a s i c model has been p r e s e n t e d w i t h o u t any e x p a n s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e major v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d . B e f o r e we can s t a t e the measurement r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e l e v a n c e and openness, a g r e a t e r amount o f t h e o r e t i c a l e x p a n s i o n o f them i s r e q u i r e d . - 12 -The R e l e v a n c e o f t h e S t i m l u s : As mentioned above, t h e c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n w i l l be h a n d l e d by the use of two b a s i c v a r i a b l e s ; t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s t i m u l i and t h e openness o f c h o i c e c h a n n e l s . In terms o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l model, t h e r e l e v a n c e w i l l be used as a measure o f t h e a c t i v a t i o n p r o c e s s , w h i l e the openness o f c h a n n e l s w i l l be used f o r h a n d l i n g t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s i n t h e d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s . The b a s i c model d e a l s w i t h s i t u a t i o n s where a s p e c i f i c c h o i c e i s n o t a l w a y s made by t h e d e c i s i o n maker. C o n s e q u e n t l y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s p e c i f y t h e c o n d i t i o n s which i n f l u e n c e a p e r s o n t o choose. T h i s i s done through the use o f t h e c o n c e p t o f s t i m u l i a s t h o s e e v e n t s which i n f l u e n c e t h e making o f a d e c i s i o n o r a t l e a s t s t a r t t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i d i n g . The e x t e n t to which e v e n t s i n f l u e n c e t h i s p r o c e s s i s termed t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h a t s t i m u l u s . The f i r s t p r o b l e m then i s t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f e v e n t s which a r e c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f a d e c i s i o n . These e v e n t s we w i l l c o n s i d e r as ' s t i m u l i ' i n the language o f t h e model. The s e l e c t i o n o f which e v e n t s a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s p r i m a r i l y a problem f o r s u b s t a n t i v e c o n c e r n g u i d e d by s u b s t a n t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . T h i s would i n v o l v e a p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e open term ' s t i m u l u s ' i n a p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n . Once t h i s has been done, t h e r e a r e two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be made from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f the model. The f i r s t i s t h e e f f e c t o f c u e i n g t y p e f a c t o r s such as loudness or d i r e c t i o n which a r r e s t a p e r s o n ' s a t t e n t i o n , and t h e second i s t h e e f f e c t o f p e r c e p t u a l s o r t i n g by the per s o n c h o o s i n g . The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n may be d e a l t w i t h by judgemental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a p s y c h o p h y s i c a l n a t u r e . T h i s means t h a t t h e e x t e n t t o which a s t i m u l u s can be c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d i s a measure o f i t s r e l e v a n c e . The second c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n v o l v e s f u r t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l assump^ t i o n s about t h e s t r u c t u r e o f p e r c e p t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y o f symbols proposed by Ogden and R i c h a r d s ' ^ any s t i m u l u s c a r r i e s w i t h i t a wide v a r i e t y o f a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h e p e r s o n s n e a r b y . I t i s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t p e r s o n s make sense o f and i d e n t i f y t h e s t i m u l u s . Ogden and R i c h a r d s i d e n t i f y t h i s f o r m a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s as one p r o c e s s by which meaning i s e s t a b l i s h e d . ^ 0 I t may a l s o be seen as one way i n which p e r s o n s r e l a t e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r e nvironment 21 t o s i m p l i f i e d models o f ' r e a l i t y ' i n t h e manner proposed by Simon. We w i l l p r o p o s e t h a t communication and the accomp l i s h m e n t o f group g o a l s r e q u i r e s a g r e a t d e a l o f s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e most common a s s o c i a t i o n s made w i t h s t i m u l i between t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d . The development and use o f a language w i t h common d e f i n i t i o n s i s one example o f t h e way i n which a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e made and used. S o c i a l i z a t i o n may be c o n c e i v e d o f as a p r o c e s s i n which p e r s o n s a r e t a u g h t which a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , and f o r c e r t a i n g o a l s . A l t h o u g h t h e number o f p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s i s v e r y l a r g e t h e a c t u a l number o f t h o s e made i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i s v e r y s m a l l . T h i s i s due t o t h e p r o c e s s e s d e s c r i b e d i n the l a s t two p a r a g r a p h s above, where the n e c e s s i t y f o r s h a r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s r e duces t h e t o t a l p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s . I t i s t h e t a s k o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b a s i s on which t h e s e r e d u c t i o n s a r e made. They may be c o n t e x t u a l , f o r m a l l y d e f i n e d as group g o a l s o r d e r i v e d from t h e o r i e s about t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i t s e l f . The b e s t method o f d e t e r m i n i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l depend on t h e p a r t i c u l a r s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e b e i n g d e a l t w i t h by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . One way i n which we w i l l s i m p l i f y t h e p r o c e s s o f h a n d l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s i s t o c o l l a p s e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s p o s s i b l e i n t o c a t e g o r i e s c a l l e d o r i e n t a t i o n s . In t h i s way a s s o c i a t i o n s may be reduced by g r o u p i n g them e i t h e r n o m i n a l l y o r o r d i n a l l y i n t o c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l e n t e r p r i s e . The o r i e n t a t i o n s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e may be d e c i d e d on t h e b a s i s - ]k -o f l i n g u i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s used by t h e a c t o r s o r t h e y may s i m p l y be a n a l y t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s made by t h e o b s e r v e r . A major c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f o r i e n t a t i o n s i s t h a t each o r i e n t a t i o n has a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , a d i m e n s i o n a l o n g which rewards may be c a l c u l a t e d . In t h i s way a s s o c i a t i o n s may be a n a l y t i c a l l y o r d e r e d t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s o f c a l c u l a t i o n f o r t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n can be seen when we come t o s p e c i f y t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f rewards i n DEFINITION 6b and 6c. A t t h i s p o i n t , we have i n d i c a t e d t h r e e f a c t o r s t o c o n s i d e r i n t h e measurement o f r e l e v a n c e . The f i r s t i s the c u e i n g e f f e c t o f a s t i m u l u s , t h e second i s t h e s e t o f o r i e n t a t i o n d i m e n s i o n s a c t i v a t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h a t s t i m u l u s , and t h e t h i r d i s t h e o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e o f t h o s e o r i e n t a t i o n s i n s o f a r as t h e c h o i c e maker i s c o n c e r n e d . In o r d e r t o combine t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t o one measure, i t i s u s e f u l t o s p e c i f y i n a more f o r m a l way, t h e e l ements o f t h e measure. r DEFINITION ka: i s a p a r t i a l l y o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n on S such t h a t i f m, n £ S then m£ n i f f the s t i m u l u s m i s more e a s i l y d e t e c t e d than the s t i m l u s n. C c c m ^ n i f f m ^ n > \ n ^ m C C £ m > n i f f m > n but n% m I f we assume t h a t the ease o f d e t e c t i o n w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e d by t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t i m e s a s t i m u l u s i s i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y o v e r a s e r i e s o f C t r i a l s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p £ by a c o m p arison o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r r e c t c h o i c e s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s s t i m u l i . S i n c e t h i s i s not the o n l y way i n which t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be measured ( a s s u m p t i o n s about t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f i m p o r t a n c e w i t h i n t h e c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n may a l s o p r o v i d e a b a s i s ) , the measurement w i l l be l e f t open a t t h i s s t a g e . - 15 -DEFINITION kb: L e t A = ( o , p, q, . . ., u) be t h e s e t o f o r i e n t a t i o n s As we have i n d i c a t e d above, t h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e a n a l y t i c d i m e n s i o n s i n terms o f which t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h s t i m u l i a r e grouped. In most c a s e s they w i l l be c o n c e p t u a l i m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , but t h e y may be supplemented by i n f o r m a t i o n or l i n g u i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s p r o v i d e d by t h e s u b j e c t s . The major r e q u i r e m e n t i s t h a t each o r i e n t a t i o n can be r e p r e s e n t e d as a s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n . DEFINITION kc; <x i s a b i n a r y r e l a t i o n on SxA such t h a t i f m e S and o £ A then m a o i f f t h e s t i m u l u s m i s a s s o c i a t e d A s t i m u l u s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an o r i e n t a t i o n by means o f a c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n each s u b s t a n t i v e a r e a . The p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s i s l e f t open i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e f l e x i b i l i t y t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e model. For example, one may be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e way i n which a c e r t a i n s t i m u l u s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an o r i e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h rewards; i . e . , a s t i m u l u s i s l i n k e d t o rewards p r o v i d e d by a p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n d i m e n s i o n . DEFINITION kd: ^ L i s a p a r t i a l l y o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n on SxA such t h a t I f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t i m u l i and o r i e n t a t i o n s has been measured by d i r e c t q u e s t i o n n i n g o f the c h o i c e maker, we can d e f i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p above i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: w hich a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e ' c h o o s e r s ' i n t h e c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n . w i t h t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f o r t h e 'person c h o o s i n g ' . i f m,n e S and o,p e A then (m,o) 5 (n,p) i f f t h e s t i m u l u s m i s more l i k e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o or i t i s e q u a l l y l i k e l y , than t h e s t i m u l u s n i s w i t h t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p. - 16 -T T (n,p) (m,o) £ (n,p) i f f t=l t = l t U T U (m,s) t = l s=l t = l s=l where m,n e S o,p e A T = t o t a l number o f t r i a l s U = t o t a l number o f o r i e n t a t i o n s A DEFINITION ke: i s a p a r t i a l l y o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n on A. such t h a t As i n t h e c a s e o f > t h e r e a r e a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s f o r c a l c u l a t i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f o r i e n t a t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t e c h n i q u e s o r t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i t u a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n have t h e l e a s t c o n s t r a i n t s on the s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f o r i e n t a t i o n s . I f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s can be assumed t o e x i s t on a continuum, t h e r e a r e A 22 s e v e r a l s c a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r m e a s u r i n g >, . Guttman s c a l e s a r e t h e most r i g o u r o u s i n t h i s a r e a and a r e t h e r e f o r e p r e f e r a b l e t o o t h e r s i m p l e o r d e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The c h o i c e o f s c a l e w i l l depend on t h e t y p e o f o r i e n t a t i o n s d e a l t w i t h , however, and t h i s d e c i s i o n w i l l be l e f t t o t h e s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h p roblem. The r e l e v a n c e o f a s t i m u l u s i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f t h e measures f o r t h r e e v a r i a b l e s . On an o r d i n a l l e v e l , the s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e s e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s i s an e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e d u r e , and g r e a t l y r e d u c e s t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n which can be used. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l f o r some o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i n o r d e r t o measure i f o,p eA then o ^ p i f f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o i s more i m p o r t a n t o r equal i n i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p f o r t h e p e r s o n c h o o s i n g . o ^ ^ p i f f o ^ ^ p p ^ o o ~> p i f f o i ^ p but p o 17 the r e l e v a n c e . An a l t e r n a t i v e would be t o use i n t e r v a l s c a l e s f o r t h e s e measures and then t o r e l a t e them i n a m a t h e m a t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . For t h e pu r p o s e s o f t h i s paper we w i l l choose t h e former method, and the m a t h e m a t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be l e f t f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . As an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n c e , we w i l l d i v i d e each o f the t h r e e v a r i a b l e s ( s t r e n g t h o f d e t e c t i o n , l i k e l i h o o d o f a s s o c i a t i o n , and im p o r t a n c e ) i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s ; h i g h and low, and we w i l l c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s o n l y w i t h t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h has t h e g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e p e r s o n c h o o s i n g . F o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , the r e l e v a n c e o f any s t i m u l u s w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: ASSUMPTION 1:1 S t i m u l i which have a h i g h s t r e n g t h o f d e t e c t i o n and a h i g h l i k e l i h o o d o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the o r i e n t a t i o n o f g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e , have t h e h i g h e s t r e l e v a n c e f o r t he p e r s o n c h o o s i n g . ASSUMPTION 1:2 S t i m u l i which have a low s t r e n g t h o f d e t e c t i o n and a low l i k e l i h o o d o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e , have t h e lo w e s t r e l e v a n c e f o r t he p e r s o n c h o o s i n g . ASSUMPTION 1:3 S t i m u l i which have a h i g h s t r e n g t h o f d e t e c t i o n and a low l i k e l i h o o d o f a s s o c i a t i o n and t h o s e which have a low s t r e n g t h o f d e t e c t i o n and a h i g h l i k e l i -hood o f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the o r i e n t a t i o n o f g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e , have a medium r e l e v a n c e f o r t h e p e r s o n c h o o s i n g . These a s s u m p t i o n s w i l l be used f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f o r d i n a l d a t a o n l y . The Openness o f Channels: In the s t r u c t u r e o f the model each c h o i c e i s seen as a movement from one p o s i t i o n t o a n o t h e r . Both t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c h o i c e p o s i t i o n s as w e l l as the n a t u r e o f t h a t which moves between t h e p o s i t i o n s w i l l change w i t h each s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e . In the s i m p l e s t t y p e o f c h o i c e e x p e r i m e n t p o s i t i o n s may be e i t h e r p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , o r a t t i t u d i n a l l o c a t i o n s and the a t t r i b u t e - 18 -moving w i l l be p e r s o n s . One v a r i a t i o n from t h i s form would be t o make p o s i t i o n s as pe r s o n s and the a t t r i b u t e moving between them some a b s t r a c t a c t i o n o t t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n such as i n t e r a c t i o n , moving a pen, or b l o o d r e l a t i o n s . No m a t t e r how the c h o i c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n c o n t e n t , i t i n c l u d e s i n a l l c a s e s two p o s i t i o n s ; one which l o c a t e s the a t t r i b u t e moving b e f o r e the c h o i c e , and one which l o c a t e s i t a f t e r t he c h o i c e . The openness o f a c h a n n e l i s a measure on a channel a c c o r d i n g t o the ease w i t h w h i c h i t may be used. T h i s i s not a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o d e t e r m i n e f o r i t i n v o l v e s p e r c e p t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which v a r y w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l and each s i t u a t i o n . In an a t t e m p t t o o r d e r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y , ease o f u s i n g a c i i a n n e l w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o a measure o f t h e f a m i l i a r i t y w h i c h a p e r s o n has w i t h the ch a n n e l i n the p a s t , and a measure o f t h e rewards which i t p r o m i s e s t o t h e c h o i c e maker. r DEFINITION 5a: £ i s a p a r t i a l l y o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n on C such t h a t i f C^, e C then F i f f t h e p e r s o n c h o o s i n g i s m o r e . f a m i 1 i a r w i t h o r e q u a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h a res p o n s e than w i t h a r e s p o n s e . F c 2 i f f c, >/ c 2 * c 2 >/ c 1 F F JF C > C i f f C. > C b u t C / C 1 2 1 ' 2 2 * 1 The n o t i o n o f f a m i l i a r i t y i s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a measure o f t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e ' c h o i c e maker' i s aware o f t h e n a t u r e o f a p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e , whether t h a t i s i n terms o f i t s consequences, the b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , o r t h e s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n o f i t . The measure o f t h i s v a r i a b l e would u s u a l l y e n t a i l an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a p e r s o n ' s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the channel o f c h o i c e , r a n g i n g on the one hand from h i s p r e v i o u s c h o i c e s made a l o n g t h a t c h a n n e l , t o s i m p l y h i s knowledge o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c h o i c e , got by word o f mouth o r r e a d i n g . F a m i l i a r i t y i s not a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e i t h e r t he c o n t e n t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g a c h o i c e , nor i s i t dependent - 19 -on t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s a measure o f t h e amount o f p r e v i o u s e x p o s u r e t h a t one has had t o a p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e . DEFINITION 5b: g i s a b i n a r y r e l a t i o n on CxA such t h a t i f d e C and o e A then d g o i f f t h e channel d i s p e r c e i v e d by the ' c h o i c e maker 1 t o i n c r e a s e t h e rewards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o r i e n t a t i o n o. The s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p assumes t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n s a l o n g a p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n d i m e n s i o n a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h rewards o f a s o c i a l o r m a t e r i a l n a t u r e . These rewards must be s p e c i f i e d i n each r e s e a r c h e n t e r p r i s e , p r e f e r a b l y w i t h f eedback from the s u b j e c t s about t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s i n t h i s r e g a r d . The use o f a channel may have e i t h e r l o n g o r s h o r t term consequences f o r t h e i n c r e a s e i n r e w a r d s . A t t h i s p o i n t i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o l i m i t the c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o one or t h e o t h e r , a l t h o u g h p a r t i c u l a r r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s may s u g g e s t a s e l e c t i o n . DEFINITION 5c: £ U i s a p a r t i a l l y o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n on CxA such t h a t i f d,e e C and o,pe A then ( d , o ) ^ . (e,p) i f f t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r o r equal i n c r e a s e i n rewards a l o n g d i m e n s i o n o by u s i n g channel d than t h e r e i s a l o n g d i m e n s i o n p by u s i n g channel e, from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e ' c h o o s e r 1 . (d,o) ^ U (e,p) i f f (d,o) ^ U (e,p) ( e , p ) ^ U (d,o) (d,o) > U (e,p) i f f ( d , o ) > , U ( e , p ) b u t ( e , p ) ^ U (d,o) The c o m p l e x i t y of measurement f o r t h i s r e l a t i o n can be s u b s t a n t i a l l y r educed by making o = p. The measure may be d e t e r m i n e d by d i r e c t measure-ment on the r e s p o n s e s o f the p e r s o n c h o o s i n g o r i t may be done by the use o f t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e i n r e w a r d s . In o r d e r t o reduce t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s which t h e s e measures h o l d , we w i l l d i v i d e the measures f o r f a m i l i a r i t y and t h e i n c r e a s e i n rewards i n t o - 20 -dichotomous v a r i a b l e s . From t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w t h e f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s w i l l r e p r e s e n t how t h e y may be used as measurements f o r openness. ASSUMPTION 1:4 A channel which has b o t h h i g h f a m i l i a r i t y and h i g h i n c r e a s e i n rewards on t h e most i m p o r t a n t o r i e n t a t i o n has t h e h i g h e s t openness. ASSUMPTION 1:5 A c h a n n e l which has h i g h f a m i l i a r i t y o r h i g h i n c r e a s e i n rewards, on t h e most i m p o r t a n t o r i e n t a t i o n has medium openness. ASSUMPTION 1:6 A channel which has low f a m i l i a r i t y and low i n c r e a s e i n rewards on t h e most i m p o r t a n t o r i e n t a t i o n has low openness. 111 APPLICATION OF THE MODEL TO PROGRAMME CHOICES OF STUDENTS B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o a t e s t o f t h i s model on s m a l l groups d a t a , some tim e w i l l be sp e n t c o n s i d e r i n g one way i n which the b a s i c model may be used i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ' d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r programme o f s t u d i e s . The problem w i l l be c o n c e i v e d as a problem o f c o n f l i c t between v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s which the s t u d e n t may c o n s i d e r i n h i s c h o i c e o f programme. The format f o r comparing t h e B a s i c Model t o t h e s t u d e n t ' s d e c i s i o n w i l l f o l l o w t h e format on pages 8-11 which p r e s e n t s t he b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n s and p r o p o s i t i o n s o f t h e model. The d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s i f t h e y r e f e r t o d e f i n i t i o n s i n t h e B a s i c M odel. The number o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be t h e same as t h a t i n t h e B a s i c Model, and t h e page r e f e r e n c e w i l l be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e p a r e n t h e s e s . T h i s same format w i l l be used when t h e b a s i c model i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s m a l l groups d a t a a t a l a t e r s t a g e i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . (DEFINITION 1; p. 8) The s e t B w i l l i n c l u d e a l l t h o s e s t u d e n t s who must d e c i d e on t h e i r programme of s t u d i e s . T h i s w i l l u s u a l l y o c c u r b e f o r e grade 9 i n the s c h o o l system examined. (DEFINITION 2a; p. 8) S i n c e we a r e s e t t i n g up the prob l e m as one i n which t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t o f r e f e r e n c e s , t h e s e t S, o f s t i m u l i may c o n s i s t o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r communicated by each o f t h e r e f e r e n c e groups t o t h e s t u d e n t . One way i n which t h i s may be done i s t o c o n s i d e r t h e s t u d e n t as i n f l u e n c e d by h i s p a r e n t s , t h e s c h o o l , and h i s p e e r s . In t h i s c a s e t h e s e t S would c o n s i s t o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e s e t h r e e g roups. I t i s p o s s i b l e i n a d d i t i o n t o o p e r a t i o n a 1 i z e t h e s e t o an even more s p e c i f i c l e v e l by r e f e r r i n g t o s t i m u l i as p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f b e h a v i o r by which t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e conveyed t o t h e s t u d e n t . In o r d e r t o s p e c i f y t h e r e l a t i o n p (DEFINITION 2b; p. 9) we must r e f e r t o t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h a t n o t i o n i n DEFINITIONS ka-ke; pp. 14-16. - 22 -(DEFINITION 4a; p. 14) The d e c i s i o n r u l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r e l a t i o n % may be based on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the c o n t e x t i n which d e c i s i o n s a r e made. T h i s r e l a t i o n would then depend on the p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y between t h e c h o o s e r and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f one o r t h e o t h e r s t i m u l i . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s t i m u l i would s h i f t as a f u n c t i o n o f whether the c h o i c e was made w h i l e i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s ( t e a c h e r s ) or p e e r s . (DEFINITION 4b; p. 15) S i n c e t h e s e t o r o r i e n t a t i o n s i s p r i m a r i l y an a n a l y t i c n o t i o n , we a r e f r e e t o s p e c i f y them i n terms o f a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t . One c o n s i d e r a t i o n made by A. S t i n c h c o m b e ^ s p e c i f i e s t h e d i m e n s i o n o f t i m e as a r e l e v a n t f a c t o r . T h i s can be s p l i t i n t o o r i e n t a t i o n s by c o n s i d e r i n g s e t A as p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . Rewards would t h e n become d i v i d e d i n t o t h o s e which a r i s e as t h e r e s u l t o f c o n c e r n f o r the p a s t , t h o s e which a r e a p a r t o f t h e p r e s e n t , and t h o s e which a r e 'promised' i n the f u t u r e . (DEFINITION 4c; p. 15) The d e c i s i o n r u l e for« and ^ L may be based upon a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e way i n which each r e f e r e n c e j u s t i f i e s i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s t o the s t u d e n t . U s i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n , we would f i n d t h a t t h e s c h o o l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n s s i n c e most o f i t s c o n c e r n f o r programme i s based upon t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f f u t u r e j o b s . P a r e n t s o r f a m i l y may have t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n as w e l l , o r i t may emphasize t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y c o n c e r n s and thus be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p a s t . P e e r groups may be o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y t o the p r e s e n t and thus be a s s o c i a t e d by t h e 'chooser' t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n . Each o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s may be v e r i f i e d by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f some i n s t r u m e n t t o t h e 'chooser'. (DEFINITION 4e; p. 16) The r e l a t i o n :>A may be found by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f an i n s t r u m e n t t o the s t u d e n t t o d i s c o v e r t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f the v a r i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n s . (DEFINITION 3a; p. 9) The p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s f o r movement by the s t u d e n t may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l t y p e s : u n i v e r s i t y program, g e n e r a l program, or d r o p p i n g o u t . These a r e s u g g e s t e d because o f t h e r e l a t i v e ease o f measurement which t h e y e n t a i l and because i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e t h e s e t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e s as d i s t i n c t s i n c e t h e s c h o o l system r e q u i r e s a c h o i c e by each s t u d e n t i n t h e s e t h r e e t e r m s . (DEFINITION 5a; p. 18) G i v e n t h e s e t o f p o s i t i o n s , f a m i l i a r i t y may be d e t e r m i n e d by a measure o f t h e p a s t e x p e r i e n c e which a s t u d e n t has had w i t h t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , by t h e amount o f c o n t a c t he has had w i t h p e r s o n s who have chosen one o f t h e t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h i s may i n v o l v e p a r e n t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s , o r p e e r s . 23 (DEFINITION 5b; p. 18) The b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the extent of rewards would depend on a measurement of these rewards as perceived by the student. In order to l i m i t the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t might be best to consider the extent to which various a l t e r n a t i v e s would s a t i s f y the expectations o f the three reference groups. (DEFINITION 3d; p. 10) The dependent v a r i a b l e may be d e a l t with e i t h e r by s p e c i f i c case or by aggregating students by s i m i l a r i t y ofi openness and relevance and the Importance of various o r i e n t a t i o n s . T his d i s c u s s i o n Is meant simply to give an i n d i c a t i o n of one way in which the B a s i c Model a l l o w s the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of a d e c i s i o n problem in terms of s o c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s on r a t i o n a l i t y . In order to use i t , the measures f o r the v a r i a b l e s would have to be strengthened and perhaps a l t e r e d as the r e s u l t of greater c l a r i f i c a t i o n . T h i s p r o j e c t w i l l be l e f t f o r f u r t h e r research. SUMMARY A model f o r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of a choice s i t u a t i o n which includes a r a t i o n a l framework and the l i m i t a t i o n s on that r a t i o n a l model has been generated. The B a s i c Model included a set B ( i n d i v i d u a l s choosing), a set S ( s t i m u l i ) , and a set P ( p o s i t i o n s ) . The l a s t two of these sets had R 0 an a s s o c i a t e d measure on S, > on P ) , and the dependent v a r i a b l e was a measure on the set PxP ( ). The two measures, £ and ^° were then developed f u r t h e r i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the relevance of s t i m u l i and the openness of channels. In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n one new set (A; o r i e n t a t i o n s ) . —. . / C L A F U\ and f i v e more measures were introduced. ( , > , ^ , % , ^ /. A d i s c u s s i o n followed of one way in which t h i s model may be a p p l i e d to the s i t u a t i o n of occupational choice by high school students. IV APPLICATION OF THE MODEL TO SMALL GROUPS INTERACTION The f i r s t t e s t s o f t h e model w i l l be made from a s e r i e s o f p s y c h o -t h e r a p y s e s s i o n meetings in a s m a l l groups l a b o r a t o r y . The groups were composed o f from t h r e e t o s i x u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and a t h e r a p i s t and t h e y met r e g u l a r l y f o r a s i x month p e r i o d . Two groups met d u r i n g t h i s t i m e under t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e same t h e r a p i s t . Each s e s s i o n l a s t e d about 90 m i n u t e s d u r i n g which t i m e the i n t e r a c t i o n was r e c o r d e d on m a g n e t i c tap e and an o b s e r v e r w r o t e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the i n t e r a c t i o n on a c o n t i n u o u s r o l l t a p e . A f t e r t h e s e s s i o n , t h e r e c o r d i n g was r e p l a y e d and t h e t w e l v e c a t e g o r i e s from B a l e s ' I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s A n a l y s i s were added t o t h e r o l l t y p e . Each i n t e r a c t i o n was then punched on t o computer c a r d s w i t h i n f o r m a -t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e p e r s o n s p e a k i n g , the p e r s o n spoken t o , and the B a l e s c a t e g o r y which b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e r e were seven o b s e r v e r s d u r i n g t h e s i x month p e r i o d who coded i n t h i s way a t o t a l o f 37 s e s s i o n s . In o r d e r t o t e s t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e c o d i n g from each o f t h e o b s e r v e r s , one s e s s i o n was s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o B a l e s ' c a t e g o r i e s by each o f t h e o b s e r v e r s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o m p a r i s o n between o b s e r v e r s was not v e r y p r o m i s i n g , f o r t h e r e were l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n b o t h t h e c o d i n g f o r the c a t e g o r y t y p e and i n t h e number o f u n i t s . ^ The d i s c r e p a n c y i n number o f u n i t s was not a c r u c i a l problem f o r t h e t e s t s which were c o n d u c t e d i n t h i s paper s i n c e t h e y were r e c l a s s i f i e d by a s s u m p t i o n i n t o 26 e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e s t a t e m e n t s . The major problem o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e d i s c r e p a n c y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o s t a t e m e n t t y p e . In o r d e r t o t e s t t h e model we must f i r s t o f a l l make a s e r i e s o f p r o p o s i t i o n s which w i l l b r i d g e the gap between t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s and t h e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e group. As a format f o r d o i n g t h i s we w i l l - 25 -f o l l o w the o r d e r o f d e f i n i t i o n s i n t h e b a s i c model and make t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . (DEFINITION 1; p. 8 ) 2 7 T h e s e t B w i l l i n c l u d e a l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n a p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o t h e r a p y s e s s i o n . In o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e the problem o f l a t e commers t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e s s i o n , we w i l l use o n l y t h o s e s e s s i o n s i n which t h e r e were a c o n s t a n t number o f p e r s o n s from b e g i n n i n g t o end. T h i s r educes t h e number o f a c c e p t a b l e s e s s i o n s t o 35. (DEFINITION 2a; p. 8) In o r d e r t o h a n d l e the c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s e v e r e l y l i m i t t he n a t u r e o f s t i m u l i . S i n c e t h e o b j e c t o f a p s y c h o t h e r a p y s e s s i o n i s t o i n t e r a c t , we wi 11 assume t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f such a s i t u a t i o n a r e the s t a t e m e n t s made by i n d i v i d u a l s . In a d d i t i o n , each s t a t e m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be bounded by a change i n s p e a k e r . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s a r a t h e r s e v e r e c l a i m f o r t h e n a t u r e o f a s t i m u l u s , i t p r o v i d e s c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n v e n i e n c e i n h a n d l i n g . ASSUMPTION 2:1 The s e t o f s t i m u l i c o n s i s t s o n l y o f t h e a c t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e members o f the group, and each s t i m u l u s i s bounded by a change i n s p e a k e r . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s t i m u l u s may be d e s i g n a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. For a p a r t i c u l a r S m ) n > 0 > t e S m = t h e p e r s o n s p e a k i n g n = t h e pe r s o n spoken t o o = t h e dominant c a t e g o r y which t h e s t a t e m e n t r e p r e s e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o B a l e s ' I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s A n a l y s i s ^ t = the o r d e r o f t h e sta t e m e n t as a f u n c t i o n o f t i m e . R e l e v a n c e o f t h e Stimulus'. In o r d e r t o h a n d l e t h e n o t i o n o f r e l e v a n c e , we must t u r n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n on pages 12f. which g i v e s t h e b a s i s f o r i t s e v a l u a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e r e l a t i o n as s p e c i f i e d i n DEFINITION ka; t h a t o f d e t e c t i o n . In the s m a l l groups s e t t i n g t h e amount o f v a r i a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s t a t e m e n t s i s minor enough t o i g n o r e a t t h i s p o i n t . However, t h e r e a r e a number o f c o n t e x t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which - 26 -can be c o n s i d e r e d t o fee r e l e v a n t c u e i n g p r o c e s s e s . The most o b v i o u s one i s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l u s . When one pe r s o n speaks t o a n o t h e r , he s e l e c t s from t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s p o s s i b l e and f o c u s s e s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e group on t h i s p e r s o n . T h i s f o c u s s i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d a s t r o n g cue which o p e r a t e s on t h e c h o i c e maker i f he i s t h e p e r s o n a d d r e s s e d . ASSUMPTION 2:2 A s t i m u l u s d i r e c t e d t o t h e ' c h o i c e m a k e r , 2 9 i s a s t r o n g e r cue than one d i r e c t e d away f r o m him. As a second c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e l e v a n c e i t I s n e c e s s a r y t o s p e c i f y t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s used by t h e a c t o r s i n t h e s i t u a t i o n under s t u d y o r t o s p e c i f y them as a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s . The o r i e n t a t i o n s w i l l i n d i c a t e a b a s i s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s t i m u l i which a r e r e l e v a n t from t h o s e which a r e n o t . S i n c e a p s y c h o t h e r a p y group i s c o n s t i t u t e d o f p e r s o n s i n s e a r c h o f s o l u t i o n s f o r p r o b l e m s , we w i l l assume t h a t t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e d e t e r m i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o g o a l s . The c o n c e r n o f i n d i v i d u a l s o t h e r than the t h e r a p i s t , f o r t h e g o a l s o f t h e group i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e i r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s o l u t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l problems as a r e a s o n f o r coming t o t h e group. Examples o f t h e s e c o n c e r n s can be seen i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f why th e y came. ". . .a means t o s o l v e some o f t h e s e problems t h a t I even don't know I have. " ". . . i t ' s good p r a c t i c e t o e x p r e s s m y s e l f . . ." ". . . t o l e a r n p a r t y manners." " I t may be a way t o r e e s t a b l i s h ( p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . " ^ As a means t o a c h i e v i n g t h e v a r i e t y o f s p e c i f i c g o a l s w h i c h p e r s o n s have, t h e r e i s common agreement t h a t i t may be done t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f o n e s e l f . Complementary t o t h i s i s a c o n c e r n t h a t o t h e r p e r s o n s may be f r e e t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s . From t h e s e two i n f e r e n c e s , we may p o s t u l a t e two g o a l s which a r e p r e v a l e n t i n t h e group: - 27 -1. e x p r e s s i o n o f s e l f 2. e x p r e s s i o n by o t h e r s T r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e s e g o a l s i n t o o r i e n t a t i o n s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e y be u n i d i m e n s i o n a l . T h i s i s e a s i l y s a t i s f i e d by c o n s i d e r i n g e x p r e s s i o n i n terms o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s t a t e m e n t s . T h i s can be r e p r e s e n t e d m a t h e m a t i c a l l y as a s i n g l e d i m e n s i o n from 0 t o n where n i s t h e g r e a t e s t number o f s t a t e m e n t s made by a pe r s o n about h i m s e l f , o r by o t h e r s i n t h e group about t h e m s e l v e s . The i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e s e two o r i e n t a t i o n s w i l l s h i f t from p e r s o n t o p e r s o n . The major d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be between t h e t h e r a p i s t and t h e p a t i e n t s . W h i l e c o n d u c t i n g a p s y c h o t h e r a p y group, t h e t h e r a p i s t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n i t i a t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n , d r a w i n g out p a t i e n t s so t h a t t h e y w i l l e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s and m a i n t a i n i n g a c e r t a i n amount o f group c o h e s i o n w i t h o u t t a k i n g s i d e s . The p a t i e n t s , on t h e o t h e r hand a r e r e s p o n s i b l e s i m p l y f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n . In f a c t , however, t h e r e a r e v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and we f i n d t h a t some p a t i e n t s tend t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s p r i m a r i l y w i t h d r a w i n g out f e l l o w p a t i e n t s , and some w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o r o f t h e group. For t h e pu r p o s e s o f t e s t i n g , however, we w i l l i g n o r e any v a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d and make t h e f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n . ASSUMPTION 2:3 S e l f e x p r e s s i o n i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t o r i e n t a t i o n f o r a l l t h e p a t i e n t s i n the group. The second a s p e c t o f t h e n o t i o n o f r e l e v a n c e i n v o l v e s a st a t e m e n t o f t h e e x t e n t t o which v a r i o u s s t i m u l i a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e major o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e group. In o r d e r t o do t h i s , t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t i m u l i w i l l be used t o reduce the s t i m u l i i n t o s e t s which can be e a s i l y h a n d l e d . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e d e f i n e d i n ASSUMPTION 2:1 as d i r e c t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g o r i g i n and d e s t i n a t i o n ) , t y p e , - 28 -and t i m e . The f o u r t h a s s u m p t i o n e l i m i n a t e s t i m e as a c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f r e l e v a n c e , and we a r e l e f t w i t h d i r e c t i o n and c o n t e n t o n l y . ASSUMPTION 2:k The t i m e a t which a s t i m u l u s o c c u r s has no i n f l u e n c e on t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h a t s t i m u l u s . In o r d e r t o s p e c i f y t h e t y p e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s , B a l e s has d e v i s e d a scheme which he c a l l s I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s A n a l y s i s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i v i d e s i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t o t w e l v e b a s i c t y p e s . These t w e l v e may be r e g r o u p e d i n t o two groups; s i x h a v i n g t o do w i t h s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l i n t e r -a c t i o n s and s i x h a v i n g t o do w i t h t h e t a s k o f t h e group. I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e t y p e s depends t o a g r e a t d e a l on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s g i v e n t o them by the o b s e r v e r s and t h e r e f o r e we would e x p e c t t h a t t h e r e might be v a r i a t i o n i n t h e a s s ignment t o c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i s b o r n e out by a t e s t o f r e l i a b i l i t y c o n d u c t e d on t h e d a t a from t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s but i t w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n our c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f measurement e r r o r and t h e p r e d i c t i o n s t o be made w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s e r r o r . ^ ' In the c o d i n g o f i n t e r a c t i o n , t a s k s t a t e m e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d as t h o s e which p r o v i d e or a s k f o r p r o c e d u r a l d i r e c t i o n , o p i n i o n s , f e e l i n g s o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . A c t u a l l y , t h e y a r e d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f the e x t e n t t o which t h e y do not i m p l y e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t on t h e p a r t o f t h e s p e a k e r . S o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s a r e s t a t e m e n t s which r e i n f o r c e o r c h a l l e n g e s o l i d a r i t y i n t h e group by r a i s i n g s t a t u s , s u p p o r t i n g p e r s o n s , l a u g h i n g , j o k i n g , r e j e c t i n g o t h e r s , a s k i n g f o r h e l p o r showing a n t a g o n i s m . The l i n k between t h e b e h a v i o r ( s t a t e m e n t s ) and o r i e n t a t i o n s i n t h e group i s p r o v i d e d by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the ways i n which s t i m u l i o f f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e accomplishment o f t h e g o a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s . The r e l e v a n c e o f a s t a t e m e n t i s then a measure o f t h e ... 29 -e x t e n t t o which a s t i m u l u s p r o v i d e s a cue t o one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e g o a I s . S i n c e t a s k s t a t e m e n t s as d e f i n e d a r e t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s which d e a l w i t h t h e t a s k o f t h e group, and s i n c e t a s k i n v o l v e s t h e s t a t e m e n t o f o p i n i o n and t h e f o r m a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s , t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n s spoken t o , t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s . S o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s , on t h e o t h e r hand i n v o l v e a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f r e a c t i o n , d i s a g r e e m e n t and s u p p o r t which i s not d i r e c t e d t o t h e t a s k o f e x p r e s s i o n i n a p r i m a r y s e n s e . They a r e more l i a b l e t o d i s r u p t t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n between p e r s o n s and by t h e i r n a t u r e i n c r e a s e t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f r e s p o n s e . On t h i s b a s i s , we can s t a t e one f u r t h e r a s s u m p t i o n . ASSUMPTION 2:5 Task s t a t e m e n t s a r e more l i k e l y t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e l f e x p r e s s i o n than w i t h s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s . U s i n g a s s u m p t i o n 2:2, 2:3, and 2:5 we can now c o n s t r u c t an o r d e r o f r e l e v a n c e which i n c l u d e s b o t h t h e d i r e c t i o n and c o n t e n t o f s t a t e m e n t s . most r e l e v a n t : t a s k s t a t e m e n t s d i r e c t t o 'chooser'. mesium r e l e v a n c e : s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s d i r e c t e d t o 'chooser' and t a s k s t a t e m e n t s d i r e c t e d away from ' c h o o s e r ' . low r e l e v a n c e : s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s d i r e c t e d away from 'chooser'. S i n c e t h e d a t a a r e o r d i n a l a t t h i s p o i n t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r -mine t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s on an i n t e r v a l s c a l e . The a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o examine each l e v e l o f r e l e v a n c e s e p a r a t e l y when we a r e t e s t i n g t h e model. C o n s e q u e n t l y , we can o n l y d e a l w i t h p a t i e n t s and make s e p a r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the t h r e e t y p e s o f s t a t e m e n t s . One f u r t h e r a s s u m p t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , however, i n o r d e r t o make the p r e d i c t i o n s on a q u a n t i t a t i v e b a s i s . - 30 -ASSUMPTION 2:6 W i t h i n each s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s ( h i g h , medium and low r e l e v a n c e ) t h e r e l e v a n c e o f each s t a t e m e n t i s th e same f o r a l l p e r s o n s . T h i s w i l l a l l o w a c o mparison o f p e r s o n s as t o t h e t o t a l number o f s t i m u l i a c t i n g upon them. (DEFINITION 3a; p. 9) The s e t P wi11 be c o n s i d e r e d as i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e s e t B o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e group, w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e t o t a l group. As a r e s u l t , t h e e n t i t y c o n c e i v e d as moving i n t h i s example i s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n . (DEFINITION 3b; p. 9) Channels a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y d e f i n e d as e x i s t i n g between a l l p e r s o n s and between a l l p e r s o n s and t h e group. The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s t h a t a channel does not e x i s t from t h e group t o t h e p e r s o n . The Openness o f C h a n n e l s : Openness i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f t h e ease w i t h which a c h a n n e l may be used, and i t can be measured by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f f a m i l i a r i t y and t h e i n c r e a s e i n rewards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c h a n n e l . S i n c e each o f the p e r s o n s i n t h e group were s t r a n g e r s , e x c e p t f o r t h e t h e r a p i s t , we w i l l assume t h a t t h e f a m i l i a r i t y i s c o n s t a n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , openness w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a f u n c t i o n o n l y o f t h e i n c r e a s e i n rewards i m p l i e d by a c h a n n e l . As we have i n d i c a t e d , p e r s o n s i n a p s y c h o t h e r a p y group a r e t h e r e f o r t h e purpose o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r p r o b l e m s . The major reward i n such a s i t u a t i o n would be t o get a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e t o t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s . U s i n g t h i s b a s i s , we can then d e f i n e openness as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n which a person has about the r e s p o n s e o f a n o t h e r . Most o f the m a t e r i a l produced on e x p e c t a t i o n has i t s c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s which a person may have about o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r about n o n - i n t e r p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s , and not n e c e s s a r i l y t o h i s b e h a v i o r w i t h r e l a t i o n t o h i m s e l f . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o h a n d l e - 31 -32 e x p e c t a t i o n s In r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t a s k a b i l i t y o n l y . In t h i s paper however, e x p e c t a t i o n i s more i n the l i n e o f a s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y about t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e s p o n s e by o t h e r s t o o n e s e l f as t h e r e s u l t o f i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i n v o l v e s an e x p e c t a t i o n about t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a r e s p o n s e as w e l l a s about t h e n a t u r e o f the r e s p o n s e . Each i n d i v i d u a l , then can be c o n s i d e r e d as h a v i n g an e x p e c t a t i o n about whether a n o t h e r p e r s o n w i l l r e s pond t o him, and whether t h i s r e s p o n s e w i l l be o f a c e r t a i n t y p e . The f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n can be c o n c e i v e d o f as a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . I t b e g i n s w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n which a s u b j e c t has about o t h e r s when he comes i n t o t h e group, whether t h i s be on the b a s i s o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s i m i l a r groups o r p e r s o n s or on t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s under which t h e group was formed. These e x p e c t a t i o n s then become adapt e d o r a l t e r e d a s i n t e r a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e and they i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e subsequent i n t e r a c t i o n . The s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e forma-t i o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s thus b r i n g s us c l o s e r t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g t h i s s u b j e c t a l t h o u g h t h e b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s t i l l r e m a i n s; t h a t i s , we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s by a s u b j e c t r e g a r d i n g o t h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s t o h i m s e l f . As t h e r e s u l t o f t h e o r e t i c a l l y l i n k i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h p a s t occurrences we can now l i n k t he n o t i o n o f openness o f a channel and the p a s t e x p e r i e n c e which each i n d i v i d u a l has had w i t h r e g a r d t o fe e d b a c k from h i s a c t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . DEFINITION 5: Whenever an a c t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r r i n g from p e r s o n i t o p e r s o n j i s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d by an a c t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n from p e r s o n j t o p e r s o n i , we wi11 c o n s i d e r t h a t f e e d b a c k has o c c u r r e d from j t o i . ASSUMPTION 2:7 The more o f t e n f e e d b a c k has o c c u r r e d from p e r s o n j t o p e r s o n i , t h e more open wi 11 be t h e c h a n n e l from i t o j . - 32 -T h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f openness l e a v e s one problem f o r which we must make an a d d i t i o n a l a s s u m p t i o n . S i n c e openness i s d e f i n e d on i n t e r a c t i o n s i t p r o v i d e s no b a s i s from which t o a s s i g n v a l u e s f o r openness p r e v i o u s t o i n t e r a c t i o n . In o r d e r t o a c c o u n t f o r t h i s we w i l l make t h e f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n . ASSUMPTION 2:8 A l l c h a n n e l s a r e e q u a l i n openness p r e v i o u s t o any i n t e r a c t i o n . S i n c e we a r e not i n c l u d i n g t h e t h e r a p i s t i n our a n a l y s i s , t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e i n openness; t h a t which r e s u l t s from r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , i s not d e a l t w i t h . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n may be changed a t a l a t e r s t a g e i f we i n c l u d e o t h e r t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s and s t a t u s or e x p e r i e n c e v a r i a b l e s . (DEFINITION 3d; p. 10) The r e l a t i o n ^' i s i n t e r p r e t e d as an o r d e r r e l a t e d t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i n the group. I t w i l l be n u m e r i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n between p e r s o n s and from t h a t e x p r e s s i o n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h e o r d i n a l form o f t h e model as i s i n d i c a t e d i n D e f i n i t i o n 3d. We a r e now i n a p o s i t i o n t o t r a n s l a t e t h e g e n e r a l form o f the model i n t o a s p e c i f i c s e r i e s o f h y p o t h e s e s which can be t e s t e d . To do t h i s we w i l l s p e c i f y t h e way i n which t h e v a r i a b l e s o f P r o p o s i t i o n 1 and 2 a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e d a t a , and use t h e p o s t u l a t e s as t h e b a s i s o f h y p o t h e s e s t o p r e d i c t t h e amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n between p e r s o n s . S i n c e we w i l l be u s i n g summary s t a t i s t i c s t o t e s t t h e model i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o mention one s h i f t i n t h e use o f t h e measures on t h e v a r i a b l e s . The p o s t u l a t e s a r e s t a t e d i n terms o f t h e r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f s i n g l e s t i m u l i . The measures however, a r e s t a t e d i n terms o f t o t a l number o f s t a t e m e n t s o f e q u a l r e l e v a n c e . The n o t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t i f each s t i m u l u s has t h e same r e l e v a n c e , a g r e a t e r number o f t h e s e s t i m u l i would i n c r e a s e t h i s i n f l u e n c e on a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n , and - 33 -we would e x p e c t a g r e a t e r amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n by him. HYPOTHESIS 1 The g r e a t e r t h e number o f s t i m u l i o f e q u a l r e l e v a n c e a c t i n g on a p e r s o n , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l he p a r t i c i p a t e i f t h e openness o f c h a n n e l s from h i s p o s i t i o n a r e e i t h e r e q u a l o r i n c r e a s e d , ( c f : PROPOSITION 1; ASSUMPTIONS 1:1-1:6, 2:4, 2:6, 2:7, 2:8) HYPOTHESIS 2. The g r e a t e r the amount o f fe e d b a c k t o p e r s o n i , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n from p e r s o n i , i f t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s t i m u l i on him i s e i t h e r e q u a l o r i n c r e a s e d , ( c f ; PROPOSITION 2; ASSUMPTIONS 1:1-1:6, 2:4, 2:6, 2:7, 2:8) HYPOTHESIS 3, I f t he number o f s t i m u l i o f equal r e l e v a n c e a c t i n g on p e r s o n i i s g r e a t e r than or e q u a l t o t h e number o f s t i m u l i o f the same r e l e v a n c e a c t i n g on p e r s o n j , then t h e amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n o f p e r s o n i i s g r e a t e r than o r e q u a l t o t h e amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n o f p e r s o n j , i f t h e c h a n n e l s o r i g i n a t i n g a t p e r s o n i a r e as open o r more open than t h e c h a n n e l s o r i g i n a t i n g a t p e r s o n j . ( c f : PROPOSITION 1; ASSUMPTIONS 1:1-1:6, 2:4, 2:6, 2:7, 2:8) HYPOTHESIS 4. I f t h e amount o f f e e d b a c k from p e r s o n j t o p e r s o n i i s g r e a t e r than o r e q u a l t o t h e amount o f f e e d b a c k from p e r s o n 1 t o person k, and t h e amount o f s t i m u l i o f eq u a l r e l e v a n c e on p e r s o n i i s g r e a t e r than o r e q u a l t o t h e amount o f s t i m u l i o f t h e same r e l e v a n c e t o p e r s o n k, then t h e f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n from i t o j i s g r e a t e r than o r e q u a l t o t h e f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n from p e r s o n k t o p e r s o n 1. ( c f : PROPOSITION 2; ASSUMPTIONS 1:1-1:6, 2:4, 2:6, 2:7, 2:8) V RESULTS The h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d on seven o f t h e s e s s i o n s which were randomly s e l e c t e d from the t h i r t y f i v e a c c e p t a b l e s e s s i o n s . The f i r s t two h y p o t h e s e s d e a l w i t h changes i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n r a t e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s due t o changes i n s t i m u l i a c t i n g on them and t h e openness o f c h a n n e l s a v a i l a b l e t o them. The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t e s t s were t a k e n from summary s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n d a t a produced by a computer program d e v e l o p e d by t h e a u t h o r t o p r o v i d e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o b a b i l i t i e s from one s t a t e m e n t t o t h e n e x t . ^ The second two h y p o t h e s e s d e a l w i t h changes i n i n t e r a c t i o n r a t e s between c h a n n e l s . Because o f the number o f d i f f e r e n t c h a n n e l s i n v o l v e d , an a d a p t i o n was made t o t h e above program t o p r i n t out a t a b l e s u mmarizing t h e r e s u l t s . For a l l o f t h e s e t e s t s , s t a t e m e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d as s t i m u l i o n l y i f the y were o f t h e t y p e s p e c i f i e d by t h e t h e o r y , i . e . , t a s k o r s o c i a l -e m o t i o n a l . I f t a s k s t a t e m e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d , o n l y t h e s t a t e m e n t s f o l l o w i n g a t a s k s t a t e m e n t were used as measures f o r t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a r e s p o n s e . In t h i s way, t h e problem o f d i f f e r e n t i a l r e l e v a n c e f o r t h e two t y p e s o f s t a t e m e n t s i s kept under c o n t r o l , The prob l e m was f u r t h e r s i m p l i f i e d by c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h e h i g h r e l e e a n c e s t a t e m e n t s and p a r t o f t h e medium r e l e v a n c e s t a t e m e n t s . Only t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l -e m o t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s d i r e c t e d t o t h e choo s e r were c o n s i d e r e d t o be medium r e l e v a n c e statements.^5 I f we c o n s i d e r h y p o t h e s e s 1 and 2, we can form a m a t r i x r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n s made from them such as t h a t i n T a b l e I . - 35 -T A B U I M a t r i x o f P r e d i c t i o n s made by Hypotheses 1 and 2. R e l e v a n c e o f St i m u l i R m,a < m.a ' t ' t + 1 Op a t < ° a t + l enness o f Chann a t % ° a t + 1 e l s a t > 0 a t + l a t < " a t + l ! a < a t t+1 ? m , a t ^ R m,a t + i 1 a < a t t+1 1 a ^ a t t+1 a t > ! a t + l m , a t > R m,a t + 1 ? a t > l a t + l a t > ' a t + l The o r d i n a l r e l a t i o n s e x p r e s s e d a r e a l l r e l a t i o n s o ver t i m e . The e n t r i e s i n the m a t r i x show t h e p r e d i c t i o n s which a r e made by hyp o t h e s e s I and 2. T h i s m a t r i x w i l l be t h e b a s i s f o r t e s t s t o be made w i t h t h e model. T a b l e s I I , a,b; I I I , a,b,; and IV show t h e r e s u l t s f o r one s e s s i o n o n l y . The r e s u l t s from t h e o t h e r f o u r s e s s i o n s w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e same t e c h n i q u e s . ^ T a b l e s Va and Vb show t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e s e s s i o n A o n l y , and T a b l e VI shows t h e r e s u l t s from a l l seven t e s t s e s s i o n s . The p r e d i c t i o n s from b o t h t a s k s t a t e m e n t s and s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s a r e combined s i n c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t y p e need not be c o n t r o l l e d i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l p r e d i c t i o n s . These t a b l e s a r e shown i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p r o c e s s by which h y p o t h e s e s 1 and 2 were t e s t e d . Each s e s s i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o p e r i o d s - 36 -o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f hour. For each o f t h e s e p e r i o d s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s t a t e m e n t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e ( t a s k o r s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l ) which were d i r e c t e d t o each p e r s o n were c a l c u l a t e d . T h i s measure forms t h e b a s i s f o r a measure on s t i m u l i a c t i n g on t h e c h o o s e r , ( c f : T a b l e s I l a , I l i a ) S e c o n d l y , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l t h e s t a t e m e n t s which each p e r s o n made which were f o l l o w e d by a r e s p o n s e by some o t h e r member o f t h e group ( i . e . , f e edback) was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each p e r i o d . ( T a b l e IV) T h i s measure formed t h e b a s i s f o r a measure o f the openness o f c h a n n e l s . P r e d i c t i o n s were made by comparing t h e s e measures between p e r i o d s . T h i s p r o c e s s was used s i n c e t h e measures c o u l d o n l y be made o v e r a s e r i e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s f o r c e d a d i v i s i o n o f the t o t a l s e s s i o n i n t o p e r i o d s of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o p r o v i d e t h e s e measures. S i n c e the p r e d i c t i o n s a r e made on changes which o c c u r o v e r t i m e , t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f p e r i o d s then a l l o w e d an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e changes. T a b l e Va shows the way i n which t h e s e comparisons were made and t h e measures which the d a t a produced. For example, the f i r s t l i n e i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t f o r p e r s o n 2 l e s s s t a t e m e n t s o f t a s k c o n t e n t were d i r e c t e d t o him i n p e r i o d 2 than i n p e r i o d 1. ( c f : T a b l e I l a ; p e r i o d 1 = .22, p e r i o d 2=.12) However, t h e r e was a g r e a t e r amount o f f e e d b a c k from t h e t o t a l amount o f s t a t e m e n t s he made i n p e r i o d 2 than i n p e r i o d 1. ( c f : T a b l e IV; p e r i o d 1=.66, p e r i o d 2=.80) T a b l e 1 shows us t h a t t h i s does not a l l o w us t o make a p r e d i c t i o n about t h e c h o i c e s he w i l l make, f o r o r d i n a l measures w i l l not a l l o w us t o compare the amount o f r e l e v a n c e t o t h e amount o f openness. I f we examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r i o d 1 and 3 f o r person 2, however, we see t h a t b o t h the p r o p o r t i o n o f t a s k s t a t e m e n t s d i r e c t e d t o him and t h e amount o f f e e d b a c k which he got were g r e a t e r i n p e r i o d 1 than i n p e r i o d 3. T a b l e II shows t h e p r e d i c t i o n t o be t h a t we would e x p e c t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s t a t e m e n t s f o l l o w i n g a t a s k s t a t e m e n t d i r e c t e d - 37 -t o him would then be h i g h e r i n p e r i o d I than i n p e r i o d 3. T a b l e s l i b , and Va show t h i s p r e d i c t i o n t o be a c c u r a t e , ( c f : T a b l e l i b ; p e r i o d 1 = .23, p e r i o d 3 = .20) T a b l e Vb r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s from a s i m i l a r t y p e o f c o m p a r i s o n f o r a l l p e r s o n s d u r i n g s e s s i o n A. T h i s t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d i n t h e t e s t i n g o f h y p o t h e s e s 3 and 4 as w e l l . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t i t was done by means o f a computer program s i n c e t h e number o f co m p a r i s o n s t o be made was g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . A f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s w i l l f o l l o w when t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e t e s t e d . The r e s u l t s f n T a b l e VI show t h a t 12.3% o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n s which can be made i n t h e sample a r e t r u e e r r o r s . Of t h e t o t a l number o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s which can be examined, 32% d i d not p r o v i d e enough i n f o r m a t i o n on an o r d i n a l l e v e l t o make p r e d i c t i o n s . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e sample, t h e o c c u r e n c e o f 88% c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s p r o v i d e s some s u p p o r t t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s c o n s i d e r e d , b u t o n l y i f we c o n s i d e r t h e e r r o r as e r r o r due t o measurement. As a f i r s t s t e p i n the e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e r r o r , we can assume t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n r e l a t i n g t h e openness and r e l e v a n c e t o t h e d a t a ( a s s u m p t i o n s 2:1-2:5, 2:7-2:8) a r e c o r r e c t , and at t e m p t t o e v a l u a t e t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n r e l a t i n g t h e n u m e r i c a l t y p e o f d a t a t o t h e o r d i n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e measures, ( a s s u m p t i o n 2:6) T a b l e I l a The P r o p o r t i o n o f T o t a l S t a t e m e n t s D i r e c t e d To Chooser Which Were Task ( S e s s i o n A) RECEIVED BY PERSON PERIOD 1 PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3 2 3 4 6 7 9 .22 (26)* .08 (10) .09 (11) .02 (3) .08 (10) .26 (31) 9 .12 (16) .01 (1) .25 (32) .01 (1) .07 (9) .32 (42) .20 (25) .03 (4) .10 (12) .18 (22) .00 (0) .20 (25) ' ^ f r e q u e n c i e s i n p a r e n t h e s e s - 38 T a b l e l i b The P r o p o r t i o n o f T o t a l S t a t e m e n t s F o l l o w i n g A Task Statement Which Were I n i t i a t e d by Chooser ( S e s s i o n A) INITIATED BY PERSON PERIOD 1 PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3 2 .23 (27) .13 ( 1 7 ) .20 (25) 3 .18 (21) .02 (3) .Ok (5) k .18 (22) . 2 6 (33) .14 (17) 6 .08 (1) .02 (3) .15 (18) 7 .14 ( 1 7 ) .14 (18) .01 (1) 9 .18 (22) .30 (39) .23 (28) T a b l e I l i a The P r o p o r t i o n o f T o t a l S t a t e m e n t s D i r e c t e d t o Choosers Which Were S o c i a l - E m o t i o n a l ( S e s s i o n A) RECEIVED BY PERSON PERIOD 1 PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3 2 . 2 0 (29) . 1 3 ( 2 2 ) . 2 1 ( 2 8 ) 3 . 0 6 ( 8 ) . 0 1 ( 1 ) . 0 3 (k) k . 1 7 ( 2 5 ) . 3 3 ( 5 7 ) . 1 1 ( 1 5 ) 6 . 0 1 ( 2 ) . 0 1 ( 1 ) , 1 1 (]k) 7 . 0 8 ( 1 1 ) . 1 0 (17) . 0 2 ( 2 ) 9 . 1 5 ( 2 2 ) . 1 7 ( 3 6 ) . 1 0 ( 1 3 ) T a b l e I I lb The P r o p o r t i o n o f T o t a l S t a t e m e n t s F o l l o w i n g a S o c i a l - E m o t i o n a l Statement Which Were I n i t i a t e d by Chooser ( S e s s i o n A) INITIATED BY PERSON PERIOD 1 PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3 2 .22 (3D .11 (20) .21 (27) 3 .05 (7) .02 (3) .02 (3) 4 .22 (3D .33 (58) .16 (21) 6 .02 (3) .00 (0) .10 ( 1 3 ) 7 . 1 7 (25) .11 (20) .02 (2) 9 .11 (16) .22 (38) .14 (18) - 39 Table IV The P r o p o r t i o n of T o t a l Statements Made by Chooser f o r Which Feedback Occurred (Session A) INITIATED BY PERSON 2 3 k 6 7 9 PERIOD 1 .66 (38) .36 ( 1 0 ) .47 ( 2 5 ) . 5 0 (2) .36 ( 1 5 ) .66 ( 2 5 ) PERIOD 2 .80 (3D .33 (2) .65 (59) .33 0) .29 (12) .67 (53) PERIOD 3 .57 (30) .75 (6) .58 (22) .65 (20) .50 (2) .63 (29) /• , Table Va R e s u l t s o f Order R e l a t i o n s From Session A (PERIODS PERSON COMPARED) TASK OPENNESS SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL relevance frequency relevance frequency ( h 2 (1-2) > > < > > (2-3) < < > < < (1-3) > > > < > 3 (1-2) > > > > > (2-3) < < < (1-3) > > < > > h (1-2) < < < < < (2-3) > > > > > (1-3) < > < > > 6 (1-2) > < > > (2-3) < < < < < (1-3) < < < < < 7 (1-2) > > > < > (2-3) > > < > > (1-3) > > < > > 9 (1-2) < < < < < (2-3) > > > > > (1-3) > < > > < Table Vb Summary R e s u l t s of Order R e l a t i o n s From Session A >° OPENNESS OF CHANNELS <° RELEVANCE >' *» <! >' < • >' <' FREQUENCY > R 8 0 3 0 0 0 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < R 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 9 CORRECT PREDICTIONS - 18 UNPREDICTABLE = 13 ERRORS » 5 Table VI Tot a l S t a t i s t i c s For Hypotheses 1 and 2 SESSION NO. CORRECT NO. INCORRECT UNPREDICTABLE TOTAL A 18 5 13 36 B 23 2 11 36 C 16 2 6 24 D 14 1 9 24 E 13 3 8 24 F 13 0 5 18 G 17 3 10 30 TOTALS 114 16 62 192 NO. INCORRECT _ 1£ TOTAL 130 - 41 -T a b l e VI l a Data f o r Comparison o f E r r o r And N o n - E r r o r Samples SESSION PERSON (PERIODS)(TYPE) E R R 0 R SAMPLE NON-ERROR SAMPLE PERCENTAGE PERCENTAGE PERCENTAGE PERCENTAGE DIFF. DIFF, DIFF. DIFF. OPENNESS RELEVANCE OPENNESS RELEVANCE B 5 (1-2) (SE) .05 .02 3(2-3) (SE) .17 .10 9 (1-2) (SE) .14 .06 4(1 -2 ) (SE) .06 .06 A 3 (2-3) (SE) .42 .02 2(1 -3) (SE) .09 .01 4 (1-3) (T) .11 .01 3(1-3) (T) .39 .05 6 0-2) (T) .17 .01 7(1-2) (T) .07 .01 9 (1 -3 ) (T) .03 .06 7(1-3) (T) .14 .08 9 (1-3) (SE) .03 .05 6(2-3) (SE) .32 .10 C 4 (1-3) (T) .00 4(1 -2 ) (T) .09 .08 8 (1-3) (SE) .34 .00 7(2-3) (SE) .31 .15 D 7 (1-2) (T) .08 .03 3(2-3) (T) .15 .29 E 2 (1-2) (T) .02 .01 4(1 -2) (T) .03 .04 3 (1-2) (T) .01 .06 2(1-3) (T) .24 .12 3 (1-2) (SE) .01 .08 4(2-3) (SE) .01 .02 G 2 (1-2) (T) .24 .01 3(1 -3] (T) .22 .05 2 (1-3) (T) •15 .01 6(1-3! (T) .00 .18 4 (2-3) (SE) .38 .00 5(1-3] (SE) .04 J O TOTALS 2.36 .43 2.33 1.44 AVERAGES .22 .03 .14 .09 - kl -If t h i s assumption is weak, we would expect to f i n d the greatest extent of e r r o r between those periods where the d i f f e r e n c e s in openness or relevance a r e s m a l l e s t . In order to t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , a l l the r e l a t i o n s where e r r o r s occurred were examined, and the increase or decrease was c a l c u l a t e d for both the openness of channels and the relevance o f s t i m u l i . «• T h i s data i s presented in T a b l e V i l a along with a sample of data taken from among those r e l a t i o n s where no e r r o r s o c c u r r e d . As a means of c o n t r o l l i n g for d i f f e r e n c e s in sessions or type of statement, the two samples were matched with regard to these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In a l l other respects the n o n - e r r o r sample was randomly s e l e c t e d by the use of a t a b l e of random 37 numbers. Two s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were made, one on the openness o f channels and the other on the relevance of s t i m u l i . For each v a r i a b l e , the n u l l hypothesis that the means of the e r r o r sample and the n o n - e r r o r sample were from the same p o p u l a t i o n was t e s t e d . The c a l c u l a t i o n s for these t e s t s are presented in T a b l e V M b . In the case of openness of channels, the n u l l hypothesis Is accepted at the 5% l e v e l , but rejected at the 10% l e v e l . For the relevance of s t i m u l i , i t i s rejected at the .5% l e v e l . With regard to the relevance of s t i m u l i , t h i s would suggest that one source of e r r o r l i e s in assumption 2:6. For the openness of channels, i t is not c l e a r l y the c a s e . These f i n d i n g s a l s o suggest one other f a c t o r of importance to the c e n t r a l p o s t u l a t e number 2. If there is no d i f f e r e n c e between the means in the e r r o r sample and the n o n - e r r o r sample for the openness of channels, i t may be because the openness as measured has no inf luence on the amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s can be e a s i l y checked by examining the v a r i a t i o n s in i n t e r a c t i o n s o l e l y from the point o f view of the relevance o f s t i m u l i . . . The data from t h i s examination a r e presented in Table V i l l a . The p r o p o r t i o n o f error in p r e d i c t i o n s w h i t e i g n o r i n g openness i s v e r y c l o s e t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n found w h i l e I n c l u d i n g i t . A ' t ' t e s t r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e e r r o r r a t i o s a r e c a l c u l a t e d from t h e same p o p u l a t i o n s . T a b l e VI I l b shows t h e r e s u l t s o f an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n o r d e r r e l a t i o n s between t h e sample o f e r r o r s and a s i m i l a r sample o f n o n - e r r o r s . A ' t ' t e s t shows t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between s e s s i o n s f o r e r r o r and n o n - e r r o r samples a r e e q u a l may be r e j e c t e d a t a v e r y h i g h l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e openness o f c h a n n e l s has v e r y l i t t l e t o do w i t h t h e amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n by any p e r s o n i n t h e group i f we c o n s i d e r a l l p o s s i b l e c h a n n e l s . T a b l e IX shows t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e openness o f c h a n n e l s a l o n e . I t r e a f f i r m s t h e r e l a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f openness but a t t h e same t i m e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e may be a weak r e l a t i o n between i t and t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n . S i n c e t h e openness o f c h a n n e l s i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y l i n k e d w i t h t h e g o a l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e members i n t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p y group, i t i s u s e f u l t o examine t h e r e s u l t s i n t h i s l i g h t . The openness o f c h a n n e l s i s a co n c e p t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and advantages o f v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s . S i n c e a p s y c h o t h e r a p y group i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a v i e w t o f r e e speech between p e r s o n s and t h e g o a l o f f r e e e x p r e s s i o n i s emphasized, we would e x p e c t t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e openness o f c h a n n e l s would be s l i g h t . S i n c e a t t h i s s t a g e o f t e s t i n g , we have d e a l t o n l y w i t h openness as measured o v e r a l l p o s s i b l e c h a n n e l s , the r e s u l t s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y show o n l y s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e openness o f c h a n n e l s i s a c o n c e p t which has r e l e v a n c e p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n and can th u s be b e s t t e s t e d by means of h y p o t h e s e s 3 and k which d e a l w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c c h a n n e l s between p e r s o n s . For t h a t r e a s o n , we w i l l h e s i t a t e i n t h e judgement on h y p o t h e s i s 2 and use t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t on h y p o t h e s i s h t o e v a l u a t e the s o u r c e o f e r r o r found i n t h e t e s t on h y p o t h e s i s 2. Tdb 1e V I i b C a l c u l a t i o n s f o r T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e Between E r r o r and N o n - E r r o r Samples To t e s t H y p o t h e s i s : Hq: j i = U q w i t h 1 5 d f . t _ x i * x 2 . "2 ; ~—T (n i - l ) s t + (n 2 - 1)s 2 1 A 1 n x + n 2 - 2 " j n. where 6 = 0 ( 1 ) Openness sample, t - 1 . 6 3 t 0 5 j 3 0 = 1 . 6 9 7 3 8 t J 0 , 3 0 = 1 - 3 1 0 H y p o t h e s i s r e j e c t e d a t . 1 0 l e v e l o n l y . ( 2 ) R e l e v a n c e sample. t - 3 . 0 8 t 0 0 5 ) 3 0 = 2 . 7 5 t . 0 0 5 , 3 0 = 3 " 6 5 H y p o t h e s i s r e j e c t e d a t . 0 0 5 l e v e l . T a b l e VI I l a SESSION A B C D E F G TOTALS R e s u l t s o f P r e d i c t i o n s U s i n g R e l e v a n c e A l o n e ( H y p o t h e s i s 1) NO. CORRECT NO. INCORRECT UNPREDICTABLE 28 3 0 22 23 21 18 24 166 No. i n c o r r e c t 8 6 2 1 3 0 6 26 2 6 t o t a l To t e s t H y p o t h e s i s : t = . 2 9 4 H y p o t h e s i s a c c e p t e d . 192 = J 3 5 Xj - x 2 = 0 t.\Q, 12 = K 3 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 _0_ 0 TOTAL 3 6 3 6 24 24 24 18 3 0 192 = mean from TABLE VI(P r oP« c c o r r e c t ) X t — e  i i VJIII i n u i _ u v i . \ 1 c o r r e c t ) X 2 = mean from TABLE Vlllaf>rop. - hS -T a b l e VI I l b Data For Comparison o f E r r o r and N o n - E r r o r Samples — Openness Igno r e d ERROR NON -SAMPLE ERROR DIFF. SAMPLE SESSION PERSON (PERIODS)(TYPE) RELEVANCE SESSION PERSON (PERIODS)(TYPE) DIFF. RELEVANCE A k (1-3) (T) .01 A 3 (1-3) (T) .05 3 (2-3) (SE) .02 2 (1-3) (T) .02 2 (1-3) (S) .01 k (2-3) (T) .15 7 (1-2) (SE) .02 k (2-3) (SE) .22 6 (1-2) (SE) .00 7 (1-3) (SE) .06 9 (1-3) (SE) .05 6 (2-3) (SE) .10 6 (1-2) (T) .01 9 (2-3) (SE) .07 9 (1-3) (T) .06 2 (2-3) (SE) .08 B k (1-3) (SE) .05 B 3 (2-3) (T) .13 9 (1-2) (SE) .06 7 (1-2) (T) .05 k (1-2) (T) .00 3 (1-2) (SE) .Ok 9 (1-3) (T) .00 5 (1-3) (SE) .15 7 (1-3) (SE) .00 9 (2-3) (SE) .02 5 (1-2) (SE) .02 9 (1-3) (SE) .08 C 3 (1-3) (T) .00 C 7 (2-3) (T) .15 7 (1-3) (SE) .04 8 (1-2) (SE) .13 D 7 (1-2) (T) .03 D 3 (1-3) (T) .Ok E 3 (1-2) (T) .06 E 4 (1-2) (T) .ok 2 (102) (T) .01 5 (1-3) (T) .10 3 (1-2) (SE) .08 k (1-3) (SE) .05 G 2 (1-3) (SE) .02 G 3 (2-3) (T) .11 2 (1-2) (SE) .00 6 (1-2) (T) .Ok 2 (1-2) (T) .01 4 (2-3) (T) .02 6 (1-2) (SE) .Ok 3 (1-3) (SE) .02 2 (2-3) (T) .00 5 (1-3) (SE) .10 2 (1-3) (T) .01 2 (2-3) (SE) • 02 TOTALS .61 2.04 AVERAGES .02 .08 To t e s t H y p o t h e s i s : P i ~ U 2 = 0 t = 60.83 \0005, ko = 3.55 H y p o t h e s i s r e j e c t e d a t r0005 l e v e l . - 46 -T a b l e IX R e s u l t s o f P r e d i c t i o n s U s i n g Openness A l o n e ( H y p o t h e s i s 2 ) SESSION A B C D E F G TOTALS NO. CORRECT 2 0 2 2 16 14 13 13 15 113 NO. INCORRECT 16 14 8 10 11 5 15 7 9 TOTAL 3 6 3 6 24 24 24 18 3 0 192 No. I n c o r r e c t T o t a l 79 192 .41 To t e s t h y p o t h e s i s U i -t - - 2 . 6 3 P r o b ( t < - 2 . 4 5 ) = . 0 5 H y p o t h e s i s r e j e c t e d . 5 0 = 0 U i = mean p r o p , c o r r e c t from TABLE IX T a b l e Xa R e s u l t s For Three P e r i o d s o f S e s s i o n A (Task St i m u l i ) OPENNESS >° „° <° FREQUENCY: >1 << >• <• >' <« RELEVANCE >* 1 6 4 15 17 2 6 51 14 31 12 2 7 R 89 13 15 3 7 48 14 2 2 16 79 < R 61 15 4 3 17 5 2 3 2 3 6 21 153 No, c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s = 5 6 5 No. u n p r e d i c t a b l e = 189 P r o p o r t i o n c o r r e c t = . 7 0 T a b l e Xb R e s u l t s For Three P e r i o d s o f S e s s i o n A ( S o c i a l - E m o t i o n a l S t i m u l i ) OPENNESS 0 > 0 0 < FREQUENCY: > 1 < 1 > 1 a. 1 < 1 > I % 1 < RELEVANCE >R 197 13 17 29 5 9 2 0 51 2 5 71 R 7 7 14 13 23 4 9 11 15 15 72 R < 38 2 2 41 14 40 3 6 12 13 123 No. c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s = 583 No. u n p r e d i c t a b l e = 248 P r o p o r t i o n c o r r e c t = .68 - 46b -Table XI Summary Results For Test Of Hypotheses 3 and 4 SESSION PERIOD ERROR RATIOS TASK SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL A 1 .403 .327 2 .340 . 3 5 1 3 . 3 3 0 . 2 8 6 8 1 .239 . 4 5 1 2 .308 .470 3 .416 .405 C 1 .379 .458 2 .246 .279 3 .320 - .333 D 1 .104 .149 2 .145 . 2 6 2 3 J 5 6 • 2 1 3 E 1 .210 .466 2 . 3 4 8 .389 3 .364 .389 F 1 .278 .421 2 .182 .476 3 .136 .091 G 1 .254 .365 2 .218 .214 3 .242 .261 12.674 AVERAGE ERROR RATIO = — = - 3 0 2 42 Hypotheses 3 and k Hypothesis 3 and k i n v o l v e t e s t s with regard to a l l the p o s s i b l e channels in the groups under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s amounts to a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of c a l c u l a t i o n s even for a small group of people. For t h i s reason, a computer program was developed to give summary data o f the form found in Table I . T h i s form w i l l a l l o w a test of both hypothesis 3 and k at one time. The t e s t s were conducted on each of the three h a l f hour periods which comprise a s i n g l e meeting of a group. T a b l e X shows the matrix for the three p e r i o d s of the s e s s i o n A . A l l the meetings are represented by the summary r e s u l t s in T a b l e X I . T h i s t a b l e shows approximately 70% c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s per group. Although t h i s i n d i c a t e s that there may be some r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d , i t is too I o w a p r o p o r t i o n to p r o v i d e strong support for the model. In f a c t , i t i s p o s s i b l e that the measure of openness a l o n e , without a reference to the relevance of s t i m u l i may account for the p r o p o r t i o n of c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s . The r e s u l t s from an examination of the p r e d i c t i o n s made by openness alone i s i n d i c a t e d in Table XI I. The comparison of r e s u l t s from the t e s t i n g of hypotheses 1 and 2 and those from hypotheses 3 and k reveal what at f i r s t appears as a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . In the former t e s t , the openness of a channel appeared to show very l i t t l e i f any inf l u e n ce on the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n by one person over t ime. On the other hand, the l a t t e r t e s t s seem to show that the openness has by far the more s i g n i f i c a n t inf luence on the frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n between channels at one point in time. The d i f f e r e n c e in these two r e s u l t s is due to the fact that hypotheses 1 and 2 were tested on s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s over time, whereas hypotheses 3 and k were tested across channels (and therefore persons) d u r i n g the same p e r i o d of time. The f i r s t two hypotheses suggest ( in the terms o f the model), that a major inf luence on a p e r s o n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n - H8 -o v e r t i m e i s v a r i a t i o n i n the r e l e v a n c e o f s t i m u l i w hich i n f l u e n c e him. The second two s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r a c t i o n r a t e s between p e r s o n s i s more a f u n c t i o n o f the a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o him than t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s t i m u l i a c t i n g upon him. I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e two f i n d i n g s cannot be e v a l u a t e d a t t h i s p o i n t . T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o r a i s e s a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e t h e o r e t -i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between the r e l e v a n c e o f a s t i m u l u s and t h e openness o f a c h a n n e l . The r e l e v a n c e o f a s t i m u l u s i s d e f i n e d i n terms of t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s t i m u l u s . The openness o f c h a n n e l s i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f rewards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s . A p r o b l e m a r i s e s i n the independence o f t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s i f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f an o r i e n t a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e rewards which i t p r o m i s e s . In t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s b o t h t h e r e l e v a n c e o f a s t i m u l u s and t h e openness o f c h a n n e l s a r e measured w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e same v a r i a b l e s . T h i s problem may be d e a l t w i t h i n a number o f ways. The b a s i s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i t depends on t h e e v e n t s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t i m u l i from channels,, R e l e v a n c e i s a measure on s t i m u l i and by d e f i n i t i o n t h e s e a r e e v e n t s which pr e c e e d a c h o i c e . Openness i s a measure on c h a n n e l s , which a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e a l t e r n a -t i v e s w hich a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r a c t i o n , ( i . e . , t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c h o i c e ) The B a s i c Model d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e s e two t h i n g s and thus p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r a n a l y t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g r e l e v a n c e and openness. U s i n g t h i s a s p e c t o f the model, one i s a i d e d i n d r a w i n g the l i n e which t h e o r e t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between t h o s e f a c t o r s which can be c o n s i d e r e d Tin h a n d l i n g r e l e v a n c e and t h o s e c o n s i d e r e d i n openness. As i t s t a n d s , t h i s , j l i n e i s l e f t u n s p e c i f i e d i n t h e B a s i c Model. - 49 -On the b a s i s of a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n the measure-ment of relevance and openness may preserve experimental independence of the v a r i a b l e s . For example, the a s s o c i a t i o n of s t i m u l i and o r i e n t a t i o n s ( r e l a t i o n « f DEFINITION 4c, p. 15) may be considered a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n and measured using perceptual s o r t i n g t e s t s , whereas the a s s o c i a t i o n of channels and rewards ( r e l a t i o n 8, DEFINITION 5b, p. 19) may be considered an ' o b j e c t i v e ' a s s o c i a t i o n and measured without reference to the chooser. Another t h e o r e t i c a l perspective might reverse these measures. The problem has been d e a l t with t h e o r e t i c a l l y in the small groups experiment by c o n s i d e r i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n of s t i m u l i and o r i e n t a t i o n s as a f u n c t i o n of the group goal ( c f : p. 27) and the a s s o c i a t i o n of channels and rewards as a f u n c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l rewards ( c f : p. 3'). As a r e s u l t of t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n the measurement of the two v a r i a b l e s has been made on d i f f e r e n t bases. The relevance i s determined by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the formal understanding of what a psychotherapy group e n t a i l s , and the open-ness has been determined on the ba s i s of a behavioral response by persons w i t h i n the group. The r e s u l t s as found provide no c o n c l u s i v e evidence against hypotheses 1 and 4 generated from the model. This means that not. only i s the model under s u s p i c i o n i n s o f a r as i t attempts to s p e c i f y the r e l a t i o n -ships between v a r i a b l e s , but both the meaning given to the v a r i a b l e s as well as the o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and measurement of the v a r i a b l e s are l i a b l e to a l t e r n a t e f o r m u l a t i o n s . Consequently, we are l e f t i n the p o s i t i o n of accepting them on a t e n t a t i v e b a s i s u n t i l some b e t t e r model can be found. 49a T a b l e XI I R e s u l t s C o n s i d e r i n g Openness A l o n e 28.646 AVERAGE CORRECT RATIO = : 42 = .682 H y p o t h e s i s : U i - u 2 = 0 M i = mean from TABLE XI u 2 = mean from TABLE XI I t = .67 t . 2 0 , 60 " ] - Z & « h y p o t h e s i s a c c e p t e d . T a b l e XI I I R e s u l t s C o n s i d e r i n g Openness as a F u n c t i o n o f C u e i n g ( c f . L e i k ) AVERAGE ERROR RATIO = .282 H y p o t h e s i s : Uj, - u 2 = 0 U i = mean from TABLE XI Vi 2 = mean from TABLE XI t = .80 ' .20, 60 = } - 2 * . . h y p o t h e s i s a c c e p t e d . VI COMPARISON OF MODELS As a f i r s t s t e p i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n we w i l l compare t h e model p r e s e n t e d h e r e w i t h a s i m i l a r model f o r i n t e r a c t i o n p r o p o s e d by R.K. L e i k . ^ 9 A l t h o u g h he has f o r m u l a t e d h i s model as a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r how t h e a s s u m p t i o n s he uses would a f f e c t an o r d i n a l t e c h n i q u e o f measurement such as we have used. The b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n which L e i k uses i s a 'norm o f r e c i p r o c i t y 1 which he presumes t o o p e r a t e i n group i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s means t h a t he l o c a t e s t h e i m p u l s e f o r i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e n o r m a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e group. In h i s model, t h e i n t e r a c t i o n d i r e c t e d t o a p e r s o n i s not o n l y a s t i m u l u s i n h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , but a 'command' ( i n t h e sense t h a t a norm commands) f o r a r e s p o n s e . F a i l u r e t o respond would then be seen as d e v i a n c e from t h i s norm r a t h e r than t h e l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d as i n t h e b a s i c model o f t h i s s t u d y . S i n c e t h e model p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s paper d e f i n e s a s t i m u l u s as a statement and t h e c h a n n e l s as r e l a t i o n s between p e r s o n s , h y p o t h e s i s 1 r e p r e s e n t s a h y p o t h e s i s which c o u l d be g e n e r a t e d from L e i k ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a -t i o n s h o u l d t h e n o t i o n o f openness o f c h a n n e l s be i g n o r e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V i l a f o r t h e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s t i m u l i a l o n e , L e i k ' s h y p o t h e s i s would make 86% c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s . T h i s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from th e p r e d i c t i o n s u s i n g b o t h r e l e v a n c e o f s t i m u l i and the openness o f c h a n n e l s , and i t i s i d e n t i c a l from a measurement p o i n t o f v i e w w i t h the o p e r a t i o n a l i -z a t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s t i m u l i . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e may a l s o be a l i n k between t h e co n c e p t o f norm o f r e c i p r o c i t y and t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s t i m u l i . I t depends s i m p l y on t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s norm as an i m p o r t a n t o r i e n t a t i o n f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k i n g . Thus any st a t e m e n t i s r e l e v a n t f o r him i n s o f a r as i t i s an ' i n v i t a t i o n ' t o s a t i s f y t h a t norm. - 51 -A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s when we examine the way in which L e i k p r e d i c t s the d i r e c t i o n of statements and the notion of the openness of channels. He assumes that a person w i l l speak to those who provide the greatest s t i m u l u s , as measured by the extent to which they speak. This approach to the d i r e c t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from the model presented i n t h i s paper in that i t considers the d i r e c t i o n as p r i m a r i l y dependent on a cueing process in which the cues are not n e c e s s a r i l y d i r e c t e d to the chooser. The b a s i c model i d e n t i f i e s d i r e c t i o n as the r e s u l t of expectations and s t r a t e g i e s f o r reaching goals. I f we use Leik's assumptions regarding the amount and d i r e c t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n we f i n d that i t provides approximately 72% c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s * ( c f : Table X I I I ) From a s t a t i s t i c a l point of view t h i s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the r e s u l t s obtained using the b a s i c model although there appears to be a s l i g h t increase in the percentage of c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s . We can only conclude that at l e a s t at the o r d i n a l l e v e l , there i s nothing on which to base a choice between the two representations of the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . This a l s o means that there i s s t i l l no strong support f o r the b a s i c model, nor i s there an obvious disconformation. In order to make a d e c i s i o n between these two models, i t would be necessary to examine the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v a r i a b l e s using the t h e o r e t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r them. For example, L e i k ' s model considers the d i r e c t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n as the r e s u l t of a cueing process, whereas the B a s i c Model i n t e r p r e t s i t as the r e s u l t of a maximization of rewards. I f a study were done on the v a r i a b l e of openness in which subjects were asked to give an account of t h e i r perception of reward o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( i . e . , measures as defined i n d e f i n i t i o n s 5b and 5c were more fundamentally derived) i t would be p o s s i b l e to decide between the two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s or to determine i f they were the same. - 52 -From t h i s p o i n t o f view the n e c e s s i t y f o r more p r e c i s e measures becomes apparent. Since the measures in the b a s i c model were l a r g e l y formulated on the b a s i s of assumed i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the nature of the s i t u a t i o n , there i s not a strong enough b a s i s f o r r e j e c t i n g the model. A greater amount of feedback from the subjects regarding t h e i r perception of rewards, o r i e n t a t i o n s , and a s s o c i a t i o n s would help to a l l e v i a t e t h i s problem. VI I CONCLUSIONS This p r o j e c t can only be concluded by a d i s c u s s i o n of the ways in which i t could be improved. This d i s c u s s i o n w i l l a l s o i n v o l v e a p r o j e c t i o n of some p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of the model i n s o f a r as these two things are l i n k e d to the problem of o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . The model was tested without fundamental measures of some of the v a r i a b l e s and as a r e s u l t i t i s weak sin c e the e r r o r s cannot be traced to s p e c i f i c assumptions. In working with models alone, the only a l t e r n a t i v e i s to propose a l t e r n a t i v e models and compare the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . However, t h i s has been of l i t t l e b e n e f i t i n the example used here and i t p o i n t s to the advantages of a method in which c o n t r o l s l i m i t the number of v a r i a b l e s d e a l t w i t h . For the model proposed, there are s i t u a t i o n s where one or the other of the majt>r. v a r i a b l e s can be c o n t r o l l e d or they can be experimentally introduced. For example, one may repeat a stimulus thereby c o n t r o l l i n g f o r relevance and examining the e f f e c t of the r e l a t i v e openness of various channels. The b a s i c model i s then reduced to a theory of choice based on goals and expectations. On the other hand, rank o r d e r i n g of preferences may be seen as a s i t u a t i o n where the channels are l i m i t e d and s t i m u l i are va r i e d i n s o f a r as t h e i r relevance i s considered. These l i m i t a t i o n s on the s i t u a t i o n would a l s o a l l o w the t e s t i n g of p r o p o s i t i o n s which are now assumptions of the B a s i c Model. The most important of these assumptions are made in the o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the v a r i a b l e s of the relevance of a stimulus and the openness of a channel. Assumptions 2:3 and 2:5 were made on the b a s i s of inferences drawn from the formal s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the nature of psychotherapy groups. There are no feedback checks on these assumptions from the subjects i n the groups. - Sh -Such feedback might a l l o w us to determine whether a normative explanation of relevance such as that used by L e i k , or an i n d i v i d u a l goal o r i e n t a t i o n notion i s a b e t t e r representation of the f a c t o r s involved i n relevance of a s t i m u l u s . I t would a l s o provide more power to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n used. The same problems a r i s e i n assumption 2:7 which i s based on inferences regarding the perception and l o c a l i z a t i o n of rewards by the i n d i v i d u a l s in the group. An a l t e r n a t i v e to fundamental measurement depends on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of models whereby the relevance of s t i m u l i may be estimated as a parameter. The B a s i c Model i t s e l f may be used i n t h i s way i f we c o n t r o l f o r the open-ness of channels. In t h i s way, the number of parameters implied by the model may be reduced, f o r i t would not be necessary to determine the u t i l i t i e s and weighting f a c t o r s f o r the o r i e n t a t i o n s involved in the choice s i t u a t i o n . Of greater importance than these matters which involve the c l a r i f i c a -t i o n of the B a s i c Model i s the question of s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e o r e t i c a l f ormulation which the weakness of t h i s study r a i s e s . I t i s obvious that the model as i t now stands i s too cumbersome to provide a b a s i s f o r accurate t e s t s . The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e has been discussed; to i s o l a t e and t e s t each aspect of the model; a second a l t e r n a t i v e i s to abandon the model as i t now stands and concentrate on the i n d i v i d u a l processes which the problem of choice i n v o l v e s . This leads us back to the problems s p e c i f i e d i n the f i r s t part of t h i s study. Such a s t r a t e g y tends to i s o l a t e the questions of pereeption from those of d e c i s i o n making. Without concepts which l i n k these two notions and a l l o w t h e o r e t i c a l formulations of perception to r e l a t e to d e c i s i o n making and v i c e versa, there i s the danger that each concern may be i s o l a t e d from the other and lose the advantage of g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y - 55 -or the a b i l i t y to adequately c o n c e p t u a l i z e the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between perception and d e c i s i o n making. This problem i s not solved by t h i s study, but in f a c t e x e m p l i f i e d i n i t s weaknesses. Nevertheless, the B a s i c Model does provide a c o n c e p t u a l i -z a t i o n of choice behavior which may be r e f i n e d s u f f i c i e n t l y in the f u t u r e to handle major aspects of t h i s behavior, i t s use of t h e o r e t i c a l concepts already prevalent i n s o c i o l o g y and psychology a l l o w l i n k s to be made with more advanced work i n s p e c i a l i z e d areas, and suggest a f u t u r e i n t e g r a t i o n of these f a c t o r s . For the time being, i t i s necessary to improve i t s . handling of measurement problems, both from a t h e o r e t i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l point of view. FOOTNOTES 1. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l models which use t h e s e c o n c e p t s see; R.C. A t k i n s o n , Bower, and C r o t h e r s , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o  M a t h e m a t i c a l L e a r n i n g T h e o r y , New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons, 1966. 2. For a g e n e r a l a c c o u n t o f t h e s e t y p e s o f s t u d i e s s e e , R.D. Luce and H. R a i f f a , Games and D e c i s i o n s . New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons, 1958, e s p . Chs. 2 and 13. 3. Such s t u d i e s range from g e n e r a l s u b s t a n t i v e a r e a s such as t h o s e d e a l t w i t h by Weber and M e r t o n , t o s m a l l groups r e s e a r c h , e.g., Cohen, B e r g e r , A s c h . k. A s c h , S.E. " E f f e c t s o f group p r e s s u r e upon t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n and d i s t o r t i o n o f judgements", i n C a r t w r i g h t and Z a n d e r , Group Dynamics, New Y o r k , H a r p e r and Row, 1953, pp. 189-200. 5. H.A. Simon, Models o f Man; S o c i a l and R a t i o n a l , New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons, 1957, pp. 196-206. 6. op. c i t . . p. 199. 7. c f . J.C. March and H.A. Simon, O r g a n i z a t i o n s , New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons, 1966, p. 7f. and A.L. S t i n c h c o m b e , C o n s t r u c t i n g S o c i a l  T h e o r i e s , New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , 1968. 8. P. Suppes and Z i n n e s , " B a s i c Measurement Theory", i n R.D. Luce, e t . a l . e d s . , Handbook o f M a t h e m a t i c a l P s y c h o l o g y V o l . I , John W i l e y and Sons, 1963, pp. 1-76. 9. As a means o f s i m p l i f y i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e B a s i c Model a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e major v a r i a b l e s ( r e l e v a n c e o f a s t i m u l u s and openness o f c h a n n e l s ) w i l l be l e f t t o l a t e r s e c t i o n s . 10. A t k i n s o n , (1966), Chs. 5 and 8. S i g n a l D e t e c t i o n t h e o r y has t y p i c a l l y been c o n c e r n e d w i t h the d e t e c t i o n by a s u b j e c t o f some s t i m u l u s from a background o f n o i s e . T h e o r i e s have been d e v e l o p e d w h i c h emphasise the p s y c h c p h y s i c a 1 a s p e c t s o f t h i s d e t e c t i o n as w e l l as the mechanisms which i n f l u e n c e a p e r s o n ' s r e s p o n s e . S t i m u l u s s a m p l i n g t h e o r y d e a l s w i t h s i m i l a r p r o b l e m s , but c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e r e s p o n s e as t h e r e s u l t o f p r e v i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e s t i m u l u s , thus p l a c i n g l e s s emphasis on t h e p s y c h o p h y s i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f s i g n a l d e t e c t i o n t h e o r y . The way i n which t h e s e t h e o r i e s r e l a t e t o t h e B a s i c Model w i l l be shown i n a l a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h i s p a p e r . 11. C.K.. Ogden and I . R i c h a r d s , The Meaning o f Meaning. New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t B r a c e and W o r l d , 1923. A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s on p, 13. - 5 7 -1 2 . A t k i n s o n , (1966), Ch. 5 . 1 3 . For r e f e r e n c e s see A t k i n s o n , ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 9 3 . 14. A t k i n s o n ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 9 4 . 1 5 . A t k i n s o n , (1966), Ch. 8 . 16. A p o s i t i o n b e f o r e t he c h o i c e and a p o s i t i o n a f t e r t h e c h o i c e . 1 7 . C o n v e n t i o n a l l e t t e r s w i l l be used t o r e f e r t o s e t s , e l ements o f s e t s and o r d e r r e l a t i o n s . Greek l e t t e r s w i l l be used t o r e f e r t o b i n a r y r e l a t i o n s on s e t s . 18. A t k i n s o n , ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 346. 1 9 . Ogden and R i c h a r d s , ( 1 9 2 3 ) , p. 5 3 . The term which t h e y use which i s e q u i v a l e n t t o our use o f t h e term ' a s s o c i a t i o n s ' i s 'engram'. 2 0 . Op. c i t . . p. 2 0 0 f . , 2 0 5 f . 2 1 . H. Simon, ( 1 9 5 7 ) , Po 2 0 1 . 2 2 . L. Guttman, "The B a s i s f o r Sealogram A n a l y s i s " i n Measurement and  P r e d i c t i o n , P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 9 , Ch. 3 , r e p r i n t e d i n B o b b s - M e r r i 1 1 R e p r i n t S e r i e s S - 4 1 3 . 23. S t i n c h c o m b e , A.L., R e b e l l i o n i n a High S c h o o l , C h i c a g o , Q u a d r a n g l e Books, 1964, Chs. 3 and 4 . 24. B a l e s , R, F „, "A Set o f C a t e g o r i e s f o r t h e A n a l y s i s o f S m a l l Group i n t e r a c t i o n " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 1 9 5 0 , 1 5 , pp. 2 5 7 - 2 6 3 . 2 5 . Sea Appendi x A. 2 6 . c f , ASSUMPTION 2 : 1 i n which s t a t e m e n t s a r e d e f i n e d by a change i n sp e a k e r . 2 7 . D e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be p l a c e d i n b r a c k e t s i f t h e y r e f e r t o d e f i n i t i o n s i n t h e B a s i c Model. The number o f the d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be the same as t h a t i n the B a s i c Model and t h e page r e f e r e n c e w i l l be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t he b r a c k e t s . 2 8 . S i n c e each s t a t e m e n t may be made up o f a number o f u n i t s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s p e c i f y some c r i t e r i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e dominant c a t e g o r y o f a s t a t e m e n t . S i n c e t h e Model i s co n c e r n e d w i t h t h e st a t e m e n t s as s t i m u l i , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f a st a t e m e n t ( f r o m t he p o i n t o f v i e w o f i t s r e s u l t ) i s t h a t p a r t which i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e e d s a r e s p o n s e . For t h i s r e a s o n , t h e c o n t e n t t y p e o f t h e l a s t u n i t i n a st a t e m e n t was chosen as t h e dominant c a t e g o r y o f that, s t a t e m e n t . - 5 8 -2 9 . The notion of 'choice maker' is based on an a n a l y t i c conception of the behavior, i t is not meant to imply that the ind iv idua l s neces-s a r i l y conceive of themselves as choice makers, but i t serves as:a means of r e l a t i n g the choice model to behavior, Consequently, each person may be considered to be a choice maker at any one point in time. For th i s reason we w i l l use the term in apostrophes in order to remind the reader of the s p e c i f i c use which is made of the term. 3 0 . These quotations were a l l taken from sessions outs ide of the sample but which included persons in the samp'e. 3 1 . c f . Appendix A. 3 2 . J , Berger, Cohen, and Z e i d i t c h , "Status Charac te r i s t i c s and Expecta-t ion S ta tes " , in Berger. Ze ld i t ch and Anderson, Soc io log i ca l Theories  in Progress, Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1 9 6 S , pp. 2 9 - 7 3 . 3 3 . See Appendix B, 3 4 . See Appendix C. 3 5 . Th is s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of ASSUMPTION 1 :3 (p, 17) is made in order to ease the problem of handl ing the data. By doing t h i s , we w i l l not deal with a l l the statements of medium relevance, but s ince we are only examining those statements which fo l low e p a r t i c u l a r type of st imulus, the resu l t s w i l l not be inf luenced by the statements of medium relevance which are not considered. For example, there may have been 2 0 statements of medium relevance for person 1 in per iod 1, but only 10 of these are socia l -emotiona1 statements which were d i rec ted to him. In per iod 2 there may be 3 0 statements of medium relevance for him, but only 5 which were soc ia l -emot ional statements d i rec ted to him. Considering .?, 1 1 of the medium relevance statements, the relevance increased from period 1 to period 2 , however, cons ider ing only the .social -emotional statements d i rec ted to person 1, there was a decrease in relevance.. Th i s problem is avoided because we are only p red i c t ing for changes in person 1 ' s i n terac t ion rate using statements immediately fo l lowing a st imulus. Therefore we would consider only those statements immediately fo l lowing a st imulus. Therefore we would consider only those statements immediately fo l lowing socia1 -emotiona1 statements d i rected to person 1, 3 6 . Since these involve cons iderable ca l cu l a t i on s only the summary data wi 11 be shown. 3 7 . Those re l a t i ons where errors occurred w i l l be termed the ' e r ror sample', and those randomly se lected from among correct pred ic t ions w i l l be termed the 'non-error sample 1 . - 59 -38. A l l 1 t ' v a l u e s were found i n S. S i e g e l , N o n p a r a m e t r i c S t a t i s t i c s  f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1956, p. 248. 39. R.K. L e i k , "The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A c t s i n S m a l l Groups", S o c i o m e t r y , V o l . 30, No. 3, September 1967, pp„ 280-299. 40. S i e g e l , S., N o n - P a r a m e t r i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r the B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k , M c G r a w H i l l , 1956, pp„ 47-52 and T a b l e #, p. 251. - 60 -BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 . A s c h , S.E., " E f f e c t s o f Group P r e s s u r e Upon t h e M o d i f i c a t i o n and D i s t o r t i o n o f Judgements" i n C a r t w r i g h t and Zander, Group Dynamics, New Y o r k , H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 5 3 , pp. 1 8 9 - 2 0 0 . 2 . A t k i n s o n , R.C., Bower and C r o t h e r s , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M a t h e m a t i c a l L e a r n i n g T h e o r y , New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons, 1 9 6 6 . 3 . B a l e s , R.F., "A Set o f C a t e g o r i e s f o r t h e A n a l y s i s o f S m a l l Group I n t e r a c t i o n " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Reivew, 1 9 5 0 , 1 5 , pp. 2 5 7 - 2 6 3 . 4 . B e r g e r , J . , Z e l d i t c h and A n d e r s o n , S o c i o l o g i c a l T h e o r i e s i n P r o g r e s s , B o s t o n , Houghton M i f f i n Company, 1 9 6 6 . 5 . Guttman, L., 'The B a s i s f o r Sealogram Ana 1 y s i s " , B o b b s - M e r r i 1 R e p r i n t S e r i e s S - 4 1 3 . 6 . L e i k , R.K., "The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A c t s i n S m a l l Groups", S o c i o m e t r y , V o l . 3 0 , No. 3 , September 1 9 6 7 , pp. 2 8 0 - 2 9 9 . 7 . Luce, R.D., and H. R a i f f a , Games and D e c i s i o n s , New Y o r k , W i l e y and Sons, 1 9 5 8 . 8 . March, J.C., and H.A. Simon, O r g a n i z a t i o n s , New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons, 1 9 6 6 . 9 . Ogden, C.K., and I . R i c h a r d s , The Meaning o f Meaning, New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t B r a c e and W o r l d , 1 9 2 3 . 1 0 . S i e g a l , S.. N o n p a r a m e t r i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k , M c G r a w H i l l Book Company, 1 9 5 6 . 1 1 . Simon, H.A..Models o f Man; S o c i a l and R a t i o n a l , New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons, 1 9 5 7 . 1 2 . Stinchcombe, A.L., R e b e l l i o n i n a H i g h S c h o o l , C h i c a g o , Quadrangle Books, 1 9 6 4 . 1 3 . C o n s t r u c t i n g S o c i a l T h e o r i e s , New Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , 1 9 5 8 . 14. Suppes, P., and Z i n n e s , " B a s i c Measurement T h e o r y " i n R.D. Luce, e t . a 1., Handbook o f M a t h e m a t i c a l P s y c h o l o g y V o l . I , John W i l e y and Sons, 1 9 6 3 , pp. 1 - 7 6 . APPENDIX A R e l i a b i l i t y o f S c o r e s S i n c e t h e r e were f o u r p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s c o r i n g o f d a t a from t h e p s y c h o t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s , i t was i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s e s c o r e s . In o r d e r t o do t h i s , one s e s s i o n was s e l e c t e d and each s c o r e r worked from t h e tape r e c o r d i n g t o d i v i d e t h e s e s s i o n i n t o u n i t s , and t o a s s i g n B a l e s ' c a t e g o r i e s t o the u n i t s . The t o t a l number o f u n i t s which were r e c o r d e d ranged from 1080 t o 1312 f o r t h e f o u r s c o r e r s i n v o l v e d . W i t h t h i s d i f f e r e n c e o f 232 i n t h e number o f u n i t s a l o n e , one would e x p e c t some v a r i a t i o n i n t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f c a t e g o r i e s . In o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f c a t e g o r y a s s i g n m e n t , t h e d i s c r e p a n c y i n u n i t s had t o be d e a l t w i t h . To make t h e c o m p a r i s o n s as e q u a l as p o s s i b l e the t o t a l u n i t s i n each o f B a l e s ' c a t e g o r i e s was c a l c u l a t e d , and a c h i squared t e s t was made o f a s a m p l i n g o f c o m p a r i s o n s . For t h e c o m p a r i s o n s between p e r s o n s on a l l c a t e g o r i e s o n l y 6 o f a sample o f 12 were s i g n i f i c a n t a t more th a n a 5% l e v e l . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h e i t h e r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o r d i r e c t i o n o f t h e ' e r r o r s ' i n t h e c o d i n g which t h i s s t a t i s t i c d e m o n s t r a t e s , s i m p l y because t h e r e i s no s t a n d a r d from which t o compare t h e v a r i o u s s c o r e s . We a r e l e f t under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h o n l y an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e measurement i n terms o f which t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t i n g s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . One o t h e r t e s t was made on the d a t a from a s e s s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e f f e c t o f s t a t e m e n t f o r m a t i o n on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . Two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s t a t e m e n t s were d e f i n e d . The f i r s t was i d e n t i f i e d by a change i n t h e s p e a k e r and t h e second was i d e n t i f i e d by e i t h e r a change - 62 -i n t h e s p e a k e r o r a change i n t h e p e r s o n spoken t o . The f r e q u e n c y o f s t a t e m e n t s o f each t y p e which were i n i t i a t e d by each p e r s o n , and which were d i r e c t e d t o each p e r s o n was c a l c u l a t e d . The t y p e o f s t a t e m e n t was d e t e r m i n e d i n the f i r s t d e f i n i t i o n by t h e l a s t u n i t i n t h e s t a t e m e n t , and i n t h e second d e f i n i t i o n by t h e f i r s t u n i t . A t e s t u s i n g Kolmogorov-Smirnov's t e c h n i q u e ^ f o r a s i n g l e sample r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e l a t i v e i n t a k e o r o u t p u t by i n d i v i d u a l s between t h e two d e f i n i t i o n s o f s t a t e m e n t s . APPENDIX B Computer Program - Main $IBFTC TRANG C PROGRAM WILL SET UP MATRIX OF FREQUENCIES OF TRANSFORMATIONS FROM C ONE SPEAKER TO THE NEXT C CONTROL CARDS ARE AS FOLLOWS C 1, FORMAT (I3A 6 , 1A2) C THE TITLE OF THE MATRIX WHICH IS REQUIRED C 2. FORMAT (112, IX, 3 1 1 , IX, 5 1 1 , 12) C IN ORDER TO SET UP THIS CARD CONSIDER ALL THE ENTRIES ON ONE C DATA CARD TO BE NUMBERED CONSEQUTIVELY. I.E., SPEAKERS, TO WHOM= 2, CATEGORY=3, NEXT SPEAKERS, ETC. C COL 2-THE STARTING POINT FOR TRANSFORMATIONS C COL 4-THE LOCATION OF THE COLUMNS ENTRY OF THE MATRIX C COL 6-THE NUMBER ADDED TO THE STARTING POINT TO GET THE NEXT C INTERACTION TO BE CONSIDERED C COL 8-PUT A '1' IN THIS COLUMN IF STATEMENTS WITH ONE CONDITION C ARE WANTED, PUT A '2> IF STATEMENTS WITH TWO CONDITIONS AND C CONSISTENT ORDER ARE WANTED, PUT A '3' IF ANY ORDER IS REQUIRED C TO INDICATE A STATEMENT C COL 10-16-FOR STATEMENTS WITH ONE CONDITION - IF THE LOCATION C IDENTIFIED BY ENTRY IN COLS 10 AND 12 HAVE THE SAME SYMBOL C THE COUNTING PROCESS WILL BE SKIPPED (THE LAST UNIT IN A C STATEMENT IDENTIFIES THE NATURE OF IT) C FOR STATEMENTS WITH TWO CONDITIONS - IF THE LOCATIONS IDENTIFIED C BY ENTRY IN COLS 10 and 12 HAVE THE SAME SYMBOL AND IF THE C LOCATIONS IDENTIFIED BY COLS 14 AND 16 HAVE THE SAME SYMBOL C THE COUNTING PROCESS WILL BE SKIPPED.(THE FIRST UNIT IN A C STATEMENT IDENTIFIES ITS NATURE) C IF COL 8='3' THE SYMBOLS IN COLS 10 AND 12 AND 14 AND 16 C CAN BE IN ANY ORDER FOR IT TO CONSTITUTE A STATEMENT C COL 18 - PUT A 1 1 1 IN HERE IF THE OMISSIONS OPTION IS WANTED C ( I F IT IS WANTED, AN ADDITIONAL CONTROL CARD IS NECESSARY) C COL 20 - THE LOCATION OF THE CHARACTER TO BE CHECKED FOR OMISSION C COL 22 - THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE PROBABILITY MATRIX IS TO BE SQUARED C COL 24 - PUT A 'l 1 IN THIS COLUMN IF THE FREQUENCY TABLE IS NOT C DESIRED IN THE PRINTOUT C COL 25 - ' 1 1 OMITS HORIZONTAL PROBABILITY MATRIX C COL 26 - '1' OMITS VERTICAL PERCENTAGE MATRIX C COLS 28-32 - THE NTH SQUARINGS OF THE PROBABILITY MATRIX MAY BE C DELETED BY PLACING THE APPROPRIATE N'S IN THESE COLUMNS C COL 34 - PUT A '1' IN THIS COLUMN IF MATRIX OF PREDICTIONS FROM C ORDINAL DATA IS WANTED. THIS VALUE MUST BE ON BOTH A REQUEST C FOR TRANSFORMATIONS FROM 1-2 AND 2-4 IN THAT ORDER FOR THE C OPTION TO WORK C 3. QQQ AT END OF DATA C 4. $END AT END OF CONTROL CARDS C DIMENSION X ( 8 0 0 0 ) , Y ( l 6 , 16), Y R ( l 6 , l 6 ) , YC(16, 16), N ( l 6 ) , 2 T I T L E ( 1 4 ) , N 0 ( 1 5 ) , Y1(16, 16), NSQ(5), N C 0 N ( l 4 ) , V ( 1 5 ) , NC0X ( 1 5 ) , W ( 1 5 ) , 0 ( 1 5 , 1 5 ) - 6k -C C PRELIMINARIES C INTEGER X DATA RETURN, NEND, BLNK, ADD, IBL, N/6HRETURN, 1HG, 6H 2 6H ADD , IH, 1H1, 1H2, 1H3, 1H4, 1H5, 1H6, 1H7, 1H8, 3 1H9, IHA, 1HB, 1HC, 1HD, 1HE, 1HF, 5HT0TAL/ ASSIGN 801 TO K CALL EOF(t,K) MY=1 NCNT-0 NDATA=0 NID=15 TITLE(2)=BLNK ISTMK1=BLNK ISTMK2=BLNK NSTMK=0 C C OPTION FOR ADDING DATA DECKS C 51 NC0UNT=1 NT0CRD=48 NTORD=NTOCRD C OPTION FOR NOT ADDING DATA DECKS  50 NDATA=NDATA+1 C READ IN D M A 1 R E A D ( 5 , 3 0 2 ) ( X ( M I N ) , NI N= NCOUNT , NTORO ) ,-D AT AD 302 F O R M A T ( 1 6 ( 3 A 1 , I X ) , 1 I X , 1 A 5 ) I F ( N C O U N T . E Q . l ) DAT E = DAT AD I F ( X ( N C O U N T ) . E Q . N E N D ) G O TO 2  NC0UNT=NTOR0+l NT0RU=NCUUNT+NTQCRD-1 GO TO l C OPERATIONS ON DATA READ IN 2 NT0TA!_ = N C 0 U N T - 1 A 0 0 I - T I T L E ( 2 ) 800 R E A 0 ( 5 , 4 ) ( T I T L E ( I T L E ) , I T L E = I , 1 4 ) 4 F 0 R M A T ( 1 3 A 6 | I A 2 ) C OPTION ON VARIOUS DATA DECKS ACTED I P O N I F ( T I T L E U ) . E O . R E T U R N . A \ J D . T I T L E ( 2 ) .EQ .ADDJGQ- TO 50 I F ( T I T L E ( 1 ) . E Q . R E T U R N . A N D . T I T L E ( 2 ) . N E . A D O ) 3 0 TO 51 C READ IN CONDITIONS ' R E A D l 5 , 3) ( N C O X ( N C O X I ) , N C 0 X I = 1 , 1 4 ) , { N S O ( N S Q I ) , i S Q I = 1 , 5 ) , ICOX( 15) 3 FOR MA T ( 1 1 I 2 , 1 X , 3 I 1 , 1 X , 5 1 1 , I ? ) C LOCATION CHANGES DO 102 NW=1,14 GO TO I 100 , 101 , 1 0 0 , 1 0 0 , 101 , 101 , 101 , 101 , 1 0 0 , 1 0 1 , 100 , 1 0 0 , 1 0 0 , 100) , .NW 101 NCON(NN)=NCOX(NW) -NCQX( 1 )  GO TO 102 100 NCON(NW)=NCOX(NW) 10? CONTINUE •\IST1=NC0N( I ) N J M P l = N C O N ( 3 ) NSTA=MC0N(4) , N M\J HK-0 C OMISS IONS OPTION CARD READ IN AND PRINTED OUT IF NECESSARY • I F ( N C 0 N { 9 ) ) 7 , 7 , 3 0 7 307 R E \ D ( 5 , 3 0 3 ) ( N O ( U E X I ) , M E X 1 = 1 , 1 5 ) 303 F O R M A T ( 1 5 ( I A 1 , I X ) ) C MATRIX ARRAY SET TO ZERO _7 DO 300 12=1,16 .  DO 301 J 2 = l , 1 6 Y ( 1 2 , J2)=0 301 CONTINUE 300 CONTINUE C INDICATOR FOR LAST OPERATION ON DATA CALCULATED NUN=3-NC0N ( 1 ) -NCQN ( 3 ) ; IF(NUN) 900,901,901 900 NMAX1-NTOTAL+NCON(1)-5 GO TO 902 ..901 N M A X1 = N T 0 T A L + N C 0 N ( 1 ) -3 C OPERATIONS ON DATA BEGUN 902 DO 200 NTWH0M = ,MST1 ,NMAX1 t N J M P l '  NWHO=NTWHOM+NCON(2) N S T M K = 0 .1=0 ' J=O C STATEMENTS OPTION ENACTED. I F ( NCQN ( 4 ) ) 950,950 , S : 8 N S TA T1=N TWHOM + NCON(5) NSTAT2=NTWH0M + NC0N ( 6.) NST.AT3 = NTV!li0M + NC'0N ( 7 ) N S T A T 4 = N T W110 M + N C 0 N ( 8 ) GO TO { 1000, 1001 , 1060, 1061),NSTA' 1001 I F ( X t N S T A T L ) .EQ.X1NSTAT2). AND•X(NSTAT 3) . EQ•X(NSTAT4 ) ) NS1MK=1 GO TO 950 1060 I F ( X t N S T A T l ) . EQ. X(NSTAT4).AMD.X{NST AT 3) . E Q . X ( N S T A T 2 ) ) N S TMK = 1 I F { X ( N S T A T 1 ) . EQ. X(NSTAT2).AND.X(NSTAT3) . E Q . X ( N S T A T 4 ) ) NST M K = 1 GO TO 95.0 . 1061 I F ( X ( N S T M 1 ) GO TO 950 .NE. X(NSTAT2).OR.X(NSTAT3) . N E . X ( N S T A T 4 ) ) GO TO 200 1000 I F | X ( N S T A T I ) . EQ. X(NSTAT2))GO TO 200 C OMISSIONS OPTION ENACTED 950 I F ( N C 0 N ( 9 ) ) 10 70,1070,304 304 NOP TN = N TWHOM + NCON(10) . DO 303 NEXCL = 1 ,15 C CHECK FOR COMPLICATIONS FROM STATEMENTS OPTION  IF(XINOPTN).EQ.NO(NEXCL))GO TO 1004 303 CONTINUE I F ( N S T M K . N E . l ) GO TO 9 r ISTMK1=X(NTWH0M) ISTMK2=X(NWH0) GO TO 200 . • 1_ 1004 I F ( I S T M K 1 . E Q . I B L ) GO TO 200 X(NTWHOM)=ISTMK1 IF (NC0N(2 ) .LE.3) X ( NVIHG ) = I S T MK 2 GO TO 9 C IDENTIFY TRANSFORMATIONS 1070 IF ( NSTMK . EO. 1 ) GO TO 200 , , 9 DO 202 NJ=1,NID C CHECK FOR OPTIONS COMPLICATIONS . 1003 IF(X(NTWHOM).EQ.N(NJ)) GO TO 10 GO TO 11 10 I=N.J 1 1 IF tX(NWI- IO) . E Q . N ( N J ) ) J = N J 202 C O N T I N U E I F ( I . E Q . O . O R . J . E Q . O ) GO TO 2 0 0 C B A S I C C A L C U L A T I O N FOR .MATRIX ARRAY Y ( I , J ) = Y ( I , J ) + l . 0 C SET C O M P L I C A T I O N S MARKER TO ZERO N S T M K = 0 I S T M K I = 1 B L I S T M K 2 = I D L 2 0 0 C O N T I N U E C COMPUTE ROW AND COLUMN SUMS . . ' M T O T A L = N I D + l ' , . DO 7 0 0 N R S U M = 1 , N I D DO 701 N C S U M = 1 , N I D Y ( N R S U M , M T O T A L ) = Y ( NRSUM, M T O T A L ) + Y ( NRSUM , N.CSUM ) Y ( M T O T A L , N R S U M ) = Y ( M T O T A L , N R S U M ) + Y ( N C S U M , N R S U M ) 701 C O N T I N U E 5 Y ( M T O T A L , M T O T A L ) = Y ( M T O T A L , M T O T A L ) + Y ( N R S U H , M T O T A L ) 7 0 0 C O N T I N U E J r C P R I N T OUT F R E Q U E N C E M A T R I X I F R E Q U I R E D I F ( N C 0 N ( 1 2 ) ) 4 5 0 , 4 5 0 , 4 5 3 4 5 0 C A L L P R N T ( T I T L E ,NDAT A , A D D I , D A T E , N C O X , N S Q ,NO) W R I T E ( 6 , 4 0 0 ) -4 0 0 F O R M A T ( 1 H 0 , 4 X , 3 1 H T A B L E OF T R A N S I T I O N F R E Q U E N C I E S / / ) C A L L MATRO ( Y , MTOT AL , N , 1 ) 4 5 8 N O R D = N C O X { 1 5 ) I F ( N O R D ) 4 5 1 , 4 5 1 , 4 0 1 401 NCN T = NCNT+1 GO TO ( 4 0 2 , 4 0 3 ) , N 0 R D 4 0 ? GO TO ( 1 0 1 0 , 1 0 1 1 ) , NCNT 4 0 3 GO TO ( 1 0 1 0 , 10 1 3 , 1 0 1 1 ) , N C N T 1 0 1 0 DO 2 0 0 0 I TRAN = '. , 1 6 DO 2 0 0 1 J T R A N = 1 , 1 6 .2001 I F ( I T R A N . E Q . l . O R . I T R A N . E Q . J T R A N ) GO TO 3 3 3 3 Y1 ( I TR AN , J T RAN ) = Y ( I TR A N , J T R AN ) +Y ( ITR AN , 1 3 ) GO TO 3 3 3 4 . 3 3 3 3 Y l ( I T R A N , J T R A N ) = Y ( I T R A N , J T R A N ) ' 3 3 3 4 C O N T I N U E 2 0 0 0 C O N T I N U E • GO TO 3 0 0 1 0 1 3 JOM = 0 C A L L O M A T R X ( 0 , Y , Y l , J i jM ) I F ( J O M . F Q . O ) GO TO 8 0 0 1011 NCNT=0 C A L L GROTS T ( Y , Y 1 , 0 , N , N O R D) GO TO 8 0 0 C COMPUTE ROW AND COLUMN P R O B A B I L I T I E S 451 DO 7 0 2 NR P ER = 1 , N I D DO 7 0 3 M C ? E R = 1 , M I D 1 Y R ( M R P F R , N C P E R ) = Y ( N R P E R , M C P E R ) / Y ( N R P E R , M T O T A L )  Y C ( N R P c R » N C P t: R ) = ( Y ( N R P E R , .N C P E R ) / Y ( M T 0 T A L , N C P E R ) ) * 1 0 0 . 7 0 3 C O N T I N U E 70.2 C O N T I N U E ' • DO 7 0 o N X P E R - 1 , M T O T A L Y R ( M T O T A L , N X P E R ) = Y ( M T O T A L , N X P E R ) / Y ( M T O T A L , M T O T A L ) YR(NXPER,MTOTAL)=Y(NXPES,MTOTAL) YC(NXPER,MTOTAL)=Y(NXPER,MTOTAL)/Y(MTOTAL.MTOTAL) YC(MTOTAL,NXPER)=Y(MTOTAL,NXPER) 706 CONTINUE C PRINT OUT PROBABILITY. MATRIX IF REQUIRED . \ IF ( NCON ( V3 ) ) 452,452,453 - . . . 452 CALL P'INT ( TI TLE,MDATA.ADDI , DATE ,NC0X,NSQ,NO) WRITE (6,704) • \ ; . 704 FORMAT(1H0,4X,33HT ABLE OF HORIZONTAL P R O B A B I L I T I E S / / ) CALL MATRO {YR,MTOTAL,N,2) C PRINT OUT PERCENTAGE MATRIX IF REQUIRED 453 I F ( N C 0 N ( 1 4 ) ) 454,454,455 454 CALL PRNTJTITLE,NDATA.ADDI,DATE,NCOX.NSQiNOJ WRITE ( 6 , 705) • , ' _____ 705 FORMAT(1H0,4X,29HTABLE OF VERTICAL PERCENTAGES//) CALL MATRO {YC,MTOTAL,N,3) C MATRIX MULTIPLICATION OPTION . . . 4 5 5 . I F ( N C O N ( l l ) ) 802,802,803 s . ' . 803 N M A T M K = N M AT M K+1 CALL MULT ( YR , YR , Y V, M 1 D, N I D ) ' "  C CHECK FOR PRINTOUT OMISSIONS DO 456 NSQU=1,5 IF(NSQ(NSQU).EQ.NMATMK) GO TO 457 456 CONTINUE C PRINT OUT SQUARED MATRICES CALL PRNT(TITLE,NDATA,ADD I,DAT E,NCOX,NSQ,NO ) WRITE ( 6 , 3 04) NM.ATMK 804 FORM A T( lHO».3 X ,25HP ROB A B I L I T Y TABLE SQUARED,14,I X,5 H TIM E S//) CALL MATRO (Yl,N'ID,N,2) C SET YR MATRIX EQUAL TO Y l MATRIX 457 DO 350 JP=1,.1_ DO 851 JQ=1.J6 : : ___________ Y R ( J P , J 0 ) = Y1 { J P » J Q ) 851 ' CONTINUE 850 CONTINUE C RECOGNITION OF END OF MATRIX MULTIPLICATION IF ( NM.ATMK. LT.NCONt 11 )) GO TO 803 C GO TO FROMT OF nRUGRAM AND READ THE NEXT CARD  802 GO TO 800 801 CONTINUE STOP END APPENDIX C Computer Subroutine $IBFTC ORDTST SUBROUTINE GROT ST(Y,Y1,0,N,HOR0 ) D If/ENS I ON Y( 16, 16) , Yl ( L6 , 16 ) ,N ( 16 ) ,G( 15 , 15) , OKI) (3,3,9), 2NA(15) ,T(15) ,NP(15) READ(5,50) MM, (NA( I ) , 1 = 1 ,15) 50 F0RMAT(I2,15{1X,1A1)) • ~ ' ' .1 F ( MORI). EQ . 1 ) RE AO ( 5 , 5 1 ) .( ( 0 ( I , J ) , J = 1 , NM ) , I = 1 , MM ) 51 FORMAT (2 OF 3.0) ; REACH 5, 51) ( T ( I ) , I = 1 , N M ) DO 52 I=1,NM DO 5 3 J = l , 15 ' . . I F ( N A ( I ) . E Q . N ( J ) ) GO TO 54 53 CONTINUE GO TO 5 2 1 • -54 MP(I)=J 52 CONTINUE . .. DO 40.0 .1 = 1,3 . . . . . . _ :. ... . . .s. DO 401 J=1,3 DO 402 K=l,9 f PRO ( I , J . K) =0. 0 ; ' 402 CONTINUE •• 401 CONTINUE .4 00 CONTINUE . . ,: . „. . COR=0.0 " ERR=0.0 UNKN=0. 0 : . •DO 100 11=1 , NM DO 101 J1=1,NM IF( Il.EQ.Jl) GO TO 101 DO 102 K1=I1,NM DO 1. 03 L1 = J 1 » NM I F ( 1< 1 . EC. L 1 ) GO T Q 10? ; IF ( 1 l.EO.Kl.AND.Jl.EO.L. 1 )G0 TO 103 IF (MP ( J 1 ) . E.Q . 1 ) GO TO 10 3 I--NP (II) . . .... . J=NP(J1) K=MP(K1) L = NP(L1) .  STEST= (Yl ( 16 , J ) /'Yl ( 16 ,16 ) )-( YU 16,L) / Yl { 16, 16) ) IF (STEST) 1,2,3 1 IS = 3 . . . . GO TO 4 2 IS = 2 GO 10 4 . ; 3 I S= 1 4 GO TO (55 , 56),MOR D 55 0TE ST = Q(J1 , I 1)-0(L1 , K 1 ) GO TO 57 56 0TE ST = 0(J,I )-0(L,K) 57 IF (OTEST) 5,6,7 . :  5 10=3 GO TO 0 6 10 = 2 -GO TO.8 7 10=1 8 F T E S T = Y ( J , I ) - Y ( L , K ) I F ( F T £ S T ) 9 , 1 0 , 1 1  9 IFT=3 GO TO 12 10 IFT = 2 GO TO .12 11 IFT=1 12 TTEST = T ( J 1 ) - T ( L l )  I F ( T T E S T ) 1 3 , 1 4 , 1 5 13 IT = 3 GO TO 16 14 IT=2 GO TO 16 15 IT=1  16 M F O = I F T + ( 1 0 - 1 ) * 3 I F ( I T . N E . 2 ) W R I T E { 6 , 5 0 0 ) I , J , K , L , I 1 , J 1 , K 1 , L I 500 FORMAT(1 HO,6HERROR , 8 1 5 ) ORD ( I S , IT , MFO)=ORD( IS , IT , M F 0 ) + 1 . 0 •> 103 CONTINUE < " 102 CONTINUE  101 CONTINUE 100 CONTINUE C O R = O R D < 1 , 2 , 1 ) + O R D ( 1 , ? , 4 ) + O R D ( 2 , 2 , 1 ) + O R D (2,2,5)+ O R D { 2 , 2 , 9 ) 2+ O R D ( 3 , 2 , 6 ) + O R 0 ( 3,2,9) E R R = O R O ( 1 , 2 , 2 ) + G R D ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) + O R D ( 1 , 2 , 5 ) + O R D ( 1 , 2 , 6 ) + 0 R D ( 2 , 2 , 2 ) 2 + O R Q ( 2 , 2 , 3 ) + C R D ( 2 , 2 , 4 ) + O R O ( 2 , 2 , 6 ) + U R D(?,2 , 7 ) +Q.< D ( 2 , 2 , S )  3 + O R D ( 3 , 2 , 4 ) + 0 R 0 ( 3 , 2 , 5 ) + O R D ( 3 , 2 , 7 ) + O R D ( 3 , 2 , 8 ) U N K N = O R O ( 1 , 2 , 7 ) + Q R 0 ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) + O R D ( 1 , 2 , 9 ) + 0 R D ( 3 , 2 , 1 ) + Q R D ( 3 , 2 , 2 ) 2 + 0 R 0 ( 3 , 2 , 3 ) ERRAT=ERR/(CGR+ERR) W R I T E ( 6 , 2 0 0 ) 200 F O R M A T ( 1 H 1 , I P X , 2 7 H M A T R I X OF OROER P R E D I C T I O N S / )  W R I T E ( 6 , 2 0 3 ) N M t ( N A ( I ) , I = 1 , 15) 203 FORMAT(12 X ,12HCONTROL C A R D , 2 X , I 3 , I 5 ( 2 X , 1 A 1 ) ) I F I M O R D . E O . 1) W R I T E ( 6 , 2 0 4 ) ( (0 ( I , J ) , J = 1 » N.M ) , I = 1 , NM ) 2 0 4 F 0 R M A T ( 1 ? X , 9 H » 0 ' A R R A Y , 2 X , 2 0 F 4 . 0 / 5 ( 2 3 X , 2 0 F 4 . 0 / ) 5 W R I T E ( 6 , 2 0 5 ) ( T (1) , I = 1 ,NM) 205 FORMAT ( 1 2 X , 3H 1 T ' ARR.A V , 2 X , 2 0 F 4 . 0 / 5 ( 2 3X , 2 0 F 4 . 0/ ) )  W R I T E ( 6 , 2 0 o ) 2 0 6 F O R M A T ( 1 H 0 , 3 9 X , 3 H 0 P E N N E S S / 2 1 6 X . 5 H GT , 1 5 X , 5 H EQ , 1 5 X , 5 H LT / 1 1 X , 4 H F R E Q / 3 1 ? X , 2HGT , 3 X , 2HE Q , 3X , 2 FLT , 8 X , 2 HOT , 3X , 2HEQ, 3X , 2HL T , 8X , 2HGT , 3 < , 2HfIQ , 4 3 X , 2 H L T/2X , OHSTIMULUS , 7 0 ( 1 H * ) / ) DO 300 1 = 1 , 3  OC 301 J = l , 3 WRITE ( 6 , 201 ) J ,.( OR D ( I , J , !<) » K= 1 » 9 ) 201 F 0 R M A T ( 1 H 0 , 3 X , I 3 , 3 H * , 3 F 5 . 0 , 2 X , 3 H * , 3 F 5 . 0 , 2 X , 3 H * , 3 F 5 . 0 ) W R I T E ( 6 , 2 0 2 ) 202 F0RMAT( I H 0 , 9 X , 7 0 ( 1 H * ) ) 301 CONTINUE . 300 CONTINUE WRITE (6 , 2 0 7 ) COR , E RR , VI iK N , ERR AT 207 F O R M A T ( 1 H 0 , 9 X , 1 4 H N G . CORRECT = , F 5 . 0 / 1 0 X , I 4 H N 0 . ERRORS = , F 5 . 0 / 2 1 0 X , 1 4 H N O . UNKNOWN = , F 5 . 0 / 1 O X , 1 4 H E R * O K RATIO = , F 1 0 . 5 ) RETURN E N D  $IBFTO 0MATRX SUBROUTINE OMATRX(0,Y,YI , JOM) ^ ; DIMENSION U( 15 , 15) , Y( 16, 16) ,Yl (16,16) C -PUT FORMATION OF 0 MATRIX IN HERE. IF A FURTHER MATRIX IS C . NOT TO BE. RE A D , JOM MUST BE. • .1 • DO 1 IOP=l,15 DO 2 JO?=1,15 r cn I OP , JQP )=Y(iOP,JOP)/Yi(iop,jop) ; 2 CONTINUE 1 CONTINUE ' RETURN . ; • ... . .. END 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104169/manifest

Comment

Related Items