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An experimental study of two approaches to teaching speech in terms of reducing speech anxiety Fandrich, Bernard 1969

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TWO APPROACHES TO TEACHING SPEECH IN TERMS OP REDUCING SPEECH ANXIETY BERNARD PANDRICH B.P.E., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of Speech and Drama, Faculty of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s thes,is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l h o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The hypotheses on which t h i s study i s based state that a group receiving an encountering approach to speech t r a i n i n g w i l l r e g i s t e r a greater reduction i n speech anxiety than a group receiving the conventional approach to speech t r a i n i n g ; the conventional group w i l l show a greater reduction i n speech anxiety than a control group that received no speech t r a i n i n g * The encountering approach consisted of encountering exercises, role-playing, creative drama, and discussion techniques. The conventional approach consisted of formal-ized speechmaking i n front of an audience. Subjects were 4? grade 12 students enrolled i n the English 12 course at Brita n n i a High School i n Vancouver. Three groups were randomly selected and each was assigned one of the experimental conditions. The experimenter met with the two treatment groups f o r f i f t e e n one hour sessions and taught the encounter approach to one group and the conventional approach to the other. An introspective measure was administered to each group i n the f i r s t and l a s t session. Two trained observers rated each subject i n terms of the overt manifestations of speech anxiety i n t h e i r f i n a l speeches. An analysis of covariance was made involving the r e s u l t s on the introspective measure (MAACL). The Kruskal-Wallace t e s t was used i n comparing the observational scores (TORCL). Both hypotheses were rejected. The r e s u l t s of the introspective measure were not s i g n i f i c a n t . However, i n comparing the r e s u l t s of the observer scores, a s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found between the encounter group and the other two groups. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the conventional and control groups. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page 1 INTRODUCTION 1 General Problem 1 Related Literature 1 S p e c i f i c Problem 8 Purpose 8 Hypotheses 9 Defin i t i o n s 9 Tests and Measures 10 11 MET HDD 1^ Subjects Ik Speech Classes and Assignments Ik Development of Groups 15 Experimental-Group Management 16 Schedule of Treatment and Testing 17 Introspective Measure 1? Encounter-Group Treatment 18 Conventional-Group Treatment 2k Introspective and Observational Measure 28 Scoring Methods Used 30 111 FINDINGS 31 Analysis of Introspective Scores 31 Analysis of Observational Scores 3k IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 36 REFERENCES kk APPENDIX A Multiple A f f e c t Adjective Check L i s t k8 B Trained Observer Report on Confidence Level 49 C Introspective and Observational Scores 50 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Pretest and Posttest Mean Anxiety Scores 32 2 Analysis of Covariance f o r the Encounter 33 3 TORCL Mean Anxiety Scores 35 CHAPTER 1: INTRO DUCTION Genera l Problem Today, as i n the p a s t , the speech teacher cont inues to be c o n f r o n t e d by s tudents who seek h e l p i n overcoming t h e i r problems of speech a n x i e t y . Even C i c e r o had t h i s pro b le m. He confessed t o C r a s s u s : " I v e r y o f t e n prove i t i n my own e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t I t u r n p a l e a t the o u t s e t o f a speech , and quake i n every l i m b and i n a l l my s o u l . " (?) I t i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t when speakers appear b e f o r e an audience they a t some t ime exper ience b e h a v i o r t h a t i s d i s i n t e g r a t e d , p o o r l y a d j u s t e d to the s i t u a t i o n , and an i n t e r f e r e n c e to e f f e c t i v e communication (16, p .320). V a r i o u s s t u d i e s have been done w h i c h demonstrate t h a t speech a n x i e t y i s a s e r i o u s problem, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h b e g i n n i n g speech s t u d e n t s . R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e I n a survey o f 789 s tudents e n r o l l e d i n a Communi-c a t i v e S k i l l s course a t the S ta te U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, Green lea f (21) found t h a t 89 per cent of the s tudents exper ienced e i t h e r m i l d , moderate, o r severe speech f r i g h t . K a s l and Mahl (2?) found s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n d i s t u r b e d 2 v e r b a l i z a t i o n i n the form of r e p e t i t i o n s , omissions, s t u t t e r i n g and incomplete sentences among high anxiety i n d i v i d u a l s . At Redlands "University, Dickens and Parker ( 1 2 ) reported s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n i n the pulse rate and blood pressure rates of over 9 0 percent of students while addressing an audience. The speech students themselves f e e l t h e i r lack of confidence and are not hesitant i n voicing t h e i r need f o r guidance and assistance i n overcoming t h e i r speech anxiety problems. In a survey conducted at the University of Minnesota, l e Blanc (28) asked 2*0 beginning speech students: "What do you expect to gain i n t h i s course? That i s , do you have any s p e c i a l goals or problems? Any s p e c i a l reasons f o r taking t h i s course?" In reply, 7 7 per cent of the students stated i n e f f e c t : "To improve i n self-confidence as a speaker." White p . 3 2 ) reported a survey of beginning speech students who were asked the question: "What do you consider to be your most important single speech need?" According to White, "the large majority" of the students indicated that they wanted "To gain poise and assurance when facing an audience." The above studies r e f l e c t the student's desire of wanting to e f f e c t i v e l y cope with speech anxiety and suggest to the speech teacher the need to f i n d methods to solve the problem. Although there i s an impressive backlog of research defining speech f r i g h t , dealing with measuring devices, and 3 the psychological, s o c i o l o g i c a l , and environmental factors assumed to be related to speech f r i g h t , very l i t t l e ' e x p e r i -mental work has been done to test s p e c i f i c speech anxiety remedies that have been proposed by various writers such as Paulson ( 3 7 )» I»ow and Sheets ( 3 2 ) , and Brygelson ( 5 ) . However, Robinson (38) surveyed 3 ^ speech textbooks i n order to determine whether there were consistent 'patterns suggested f o r the development of confidence.' He found three general advice patterns, each of which he tested experi-mentally to guage t h e i r r e l a t i v e effectiveness i n terms of increasing speech confidence. The three patterns were: 1) an emphasis upon the inherent ideas of the speech, 2) a stress on the preparation of the speech, and 3) a closer attention to bodily control. Robinson tested them by teaching each of the patterns of advice to a d i f f e r e n t section of beginning speech students at Ohio Wesleyan University. He reported no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -ferences i n the confidence gained among the three groups although the data indicated a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t lessening of speech anxiety i n each group as a r e s u l t of taking the course i n public speaking. Several other researchers such as Gilkinson ( 1 9 ) * Hendrickson ( 2 5 ) , and Low and Sheets ( 3 2 ) , c a r r i e d out research on the effects of general speech t r a i n i n g on speech anxiety. They found that s i g n i f i c a n t reductions i n anxiety occurred. "Undertaking general speech t r a i n i n g i s one of the methods mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r reducing speech anxiety. Le Blanc (28) mentioned three other methods i n which experimentation had been car r i e d out. These are as follows: (1) Studying the properties of speech anxiety — the review of symptoms and p h y s i o l o g i c a l states associated with speech anxiety. (2) Reinforcing the speaker's self-image — the deliberate emphasis of complimentary cues from the audience that depict the speaker as projecting poise and confidence. (3) C u l t i v a t i n g vocal and bodily control — the mastery of the whole body through exercises i n relaxation, breathing, vocal control, and bodily a c t i o n . The following two methods Le Blanc tested and the results of hi s experiment supported them: (1) Using hypnosis as a therapeutic method — the use of hypnosis as a method f o r reducing speech anxiety. ( 2 ) Undergoing group counseling — the use of small-group sessions involving i n t e r a c t i o n among several students and one or more counselors. 5 Le Blanc l i s t e d these theories which had not been tested experimentally: (1) Focusing on the significance of one's message — the integration of emotional a c t i v i t y toward the d e f i n i t e goal of carrying s i g n i f i c a n t ideas to an audience. (2) Developing habits of purposefulness — the development of a task o r i e n t a t i o n ; getting preoccupied with the task. (3) Working from (or memorizing) a speech o u t l i n e — bringing a speech outline to the platform, or working from an outline previously committed to memory. (k) Attending to the audience rather than to oneself — concentrating on t a l k i n g with, not at,or merely i n front of the audience. This involves be-coming audience-centered rather than speaker-centered. ( 5 ) Adapting through varied speaking experience  and practice — the exposure to d i f f e r e n t audiences; f i n d i n g frequent opportunities to speak. (6) "Dndergoing slowlv-in crease a doses of the "fear" s t i m u l i — the use of mild anxiety-provoking situations i n a series of speeches, gradually 6 increasing the stimulation i n each speaking experience. (7) Replacing fear by another emotion — the w i l l -f u l s ubstitution of serviceable "emotions" such as indignation, humor, p i t y , sympathy, and so on, f o r the f e e l i n g of personal f e a r . (8) Channeling nervous tension through bodily  movement and action — putting nervous tension to work: the deliberate use of gesture and movement i n a fashion that w i l l "consume" excess nervous energy; t h i s involves f i n d i n g natural, comfortable actions f o r the body, hands and f e e t . (9) Using psvchodrama as a therapeutic agent — the use of interpersonal "networks" i n a group as instruments f o r b u i l d i n g s o c i a l speech con-fidence; f o r example, the speaker directs h i s speech to a s p e c i f i c , sympathetic audience member who engages i n a f r i e n d l y questioning and commentary. (10) Removing tensions through emotional catharsis — i n s t i g a t i n g an " a r t i f i c i a l " attack of speech anxiety that w i l l have time to "burn i t s e l f out" well before the speech performance. (11) Keening p h y s i c a l l y f i t — keeping the body ph y s i c a l l y f i t which reduces s u s c e p t i b i l i t y 7 to emotional disruption, which i n turn allows f o r increased mental altertness and s e l f -confidence. (12) Discovering the causes of fear through s e l f - analvsis — the speech students i conscious re-evaluation of past experiences out of which speech fears originated. (13) Undergoing personal counseling — ta l k i n g over the problem with a teacher or some other competent person such as a psycho-therapist or p s y c h i a t r i s t . (1*0 Developing an improved " s o c i a l personality 1* — carrying out a plan f o r personality improve-ment; making new f r i e n d s , meeting a var i e t y of people, consciously becoming a more out-going i n d i v i d u a l . This l i s t can be c l a s s i f i e d into two major categories. One deals with the speaker i n r e l a t i o n to an audience d i r e c t l y , and the other, i n d i r e c t l y . In ( l ) - (10) the speaker i s offered s p e c i f i c methods f o r c o n t r o l l i n g his speech anxiety by focusing d i r e c t l y on the speech, emotional state of the speaker, or the audience. In ( l l ) - ( l 4 ) , the problem i s dealt with by concentrating on changing the "inner person." That i s , techniques versus personality. 8 S p e c i f i c Problem This study posed the following question: What significance i s there i n an informal, unstructured approach (hereafter termed "encountering") to teaching speech as compared to a formal, structured approach (hereafter termed "conventional") i n terms of reducing speech anxiety? Purpose The chief purpose of thi s study i s to provide some empirical data supporting an encountering method to teaching speech as a remedy for speech anxiety. I t was not known to what extent a combination of confrontation exercises, role playing, creative drama and discussion techniques would be eff e c t i v e i n reducing speech anxiety i n a select group of High School students. Would there be a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t reduction i n anxiety registered i n t h i s group when contrasted with a s i m i l a r group of students i n which there were no group a c t i v i t i e s , but i n which subjects merely received practice i n "formalized" public speaking? The aim then, of t h i s experiment i s to measure and compare reduction i n speech anxiety registered f o r three comparable groups of High School students subjected t o: Group 1 (Encountering approach to speech t r a i n i n g — involvement i n group a c t i v i t i e s and discussion) 9 Group 11 (Conventional approach to speech t r a i n i n g — practice i n speaking before an audience) Group 111 (Control group — no speech i n s t r u c t i o n given) It i s assumed i n t h i s study that reduction i n speech anxiety i s subject to measurement by introspective measures and observational measures. Hypotheses HYPOTHESIS l ; A group of High School students  receiving an encountering approach to speech t r a i n i n g w i l l show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y greater reduction i n speech anxiety than a comparable group of High School students receiving  the conventional approach to speech t r a i n i n g * HYPOTHESIS 11: A group of High School students  receiving a conventional approach to speech t r a i n i n g w i l l show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y greater reduction i n speech anxiety than a comparable group of High School students receiving  no speech t r a i n i n g . D e f i n i t i o n s Encountering Approach. This approach employed con-frontation exercises, r o l e playing, creative drama and 10 discussion techniques. Ideas, thoughts, experiences and feelin g s were expressed through a c t i v i t i e s and discussion. No r e s t r i c t i o n s were placed on topics so that f e e l i n g s or issues could be dealt with. Conventional Approach. Here a l l speech making was done formally. For example, students chose or were assigned speeches to be delivered i n front of the c l a s s . Emphasis was placed by the instr u c t o r on positive reinforcement rather than c r i t i c a l analysis of each speaker and speech. The main purpose i n t h i s group was to provide frequent opportunities to speak within a r e l a t i v e l y formal s e t t i n g . Speech Anxiety. In the present study t h i s term i s used interchangeably with "speech f r i g h t " and "speech confidence." I t refers to an "emotional state" of the subjects as measured by the Multiple A f f e c t Adjective Check L i s t and i s character-i z e d by measurable overt manifestations v i a Trained Observers. Tests and Measures Selected data on the three measures used i n t h i s experiment are presented here. ( S p e c i f i c procedures used i n t h e i r administration are presented i n Chapter 11.) MAACL (Multiple Affect Ad.iective Check L i s t ) . The MAACL was constructed to measure change i n anxiety over a s p e c i f i c time span. I t consists of 132 adjectives, 10 are anxiety "plus" terms and 11 anxiety "minus" terms. Scores 11 are obtained by adding the number of "plus" items checked to the number of "minus" items not cheeked. Subjects are asked to check those - adjectives that describe the way they f e e l at a p a r t i c u l a r moment. Administration of the test takes less than f i v e minutes i n most cases. V a l i d i t y . Researchers have used the MAACL i n a number of v a l i d i t y studies related to stage f r i g h t , examin-ation anxiety, hypnotically induced anxiety, and i n comparison with Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Subjects i n a stage f r i g h t study done by Atkinson (^5» V»9) were 30 actors and 10 actresses; h a l f were c l a s s i f i e d as amateurs and h a l f as professionals. The MAACL was completed on days p r i o r to or immediately a f t e r the stress s i t u a t i o n . Reports indicated s i g n i f i c a n t increases i n scores of both groups when tested just p r i o r to t h e i r performance. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between groups. Zuckerman (^5, p . 6 ) administered the MAACL to a class of 32 students on consecutive class meetings a week apart. Results showed a s i g n i f i c a n t increase, r e l a t i v e to the base l i n e , when the test was administered just p r i o r to an exam-i n a t i o n . He r e p l i c a t e d the study two more times. Fourth, f i f t h , s i x t h , seventh and eighth r e p l i c a t i o n s by other ex-perimenters v e r i f i e d the s e n s i t i v i t y of the MAACL as a  measuring instrument f o r anxiety. Results of four experiments conducted by L e v i t t , 12 Persky, and Brady (^5> p . 8 ) were a highly s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t i o n of hypnotically induced anxiety. Hypnotized subjects under no s t r e s s , established a baseline. While s t i l l under hypnosis; they had anxiety induced which was measured by the MAACL and found to be s i g n i f i c a n t below the .ooool l e v e l of confidence i n a l l four groups. The Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, a v a l i d anxiety measuring instrument ( ^ 5 , p. 1 9 ) , was correlated with the MAACL, Results indicated a c o r r e l a t i o n of . 2 9 and . 3 2 between the two t e s t s . However, i f the mean scores f o r a number of days were correlated with the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale scores, the correlations became . 5 2 and f o r the two t e s t s . R e l i a b i l i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y correlations indicated i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are high and very s i g n i f -icant ( . 8 5 ) while retest r e l i a b i l i t y correlations ( 7 day i n t e r v a l ) are low and only moderately s i g n i f i c a n t ( . 3 1 ) . However, because a f f e c t tests must be sensitive to changes i n emotions, i t i s not e s s e n t i a l that i t be s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e from day to day. Moods vary d a i l y requiring an a f f e c t measure to be sen s i t i v e to the f l u c t u a t i o n s . Group means should not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y unless the whole group i s exposed to some common str e s s . Zuckerman et a l . (^5» P« 17) used the MAACL and found i n a study of college students, that group means remained stable f o r three baseline daysV 13 In l i g h t of the above research, the writer used t h i s t e s t as the chief measuring instrument f o r his study. TORCL (Trained Observer Report on Confidence Level)• This was the only observational measure used i n the present study. I t i s an adaptation from a scale developed and used by LeBlanc (28) (Observational Report on Confidence Level) fo r measuring some of the overt manifestations of speech anxiety. The only difference between the two scales l i e s i n the observers. In Le Blanc's study the observers were speech students and i n the present study they were two speech Instructors. This report form i s a nine-point r a t i n g scale on which the observer indicates the degree of confidence ( l e v e l of anxiety) by c i r c l i n g one of the nine points on the scale with polar extremes of "Low Confidence" and "High Confidence." Similar overt manifestations of speech anxiety were the marking c r i t e r i a . Some evidence which indicated that subjects were not hampered by speech anxiety i n the f i n a l speech included playfulness, o r i g i n a l i t y , good language, absence of r e p e t i t i o n s , eye contact with the audience, and bodily c o n t r o l . CHAPTER 11: METHOD Subjects A t o t a l of 47 subjects were involved i n t h i s experi-ment. The subjects ranged i n age from sixteen to twenty-years; the mean age was 18 .6 years. They were grade 12 students enrolled i n the English 12 course at Br i t a n n i a High School i n Vancouver. The school i s located i n a pre-dominantly lower socio-economic area with a large d i v e r s i t y of ethnic groups. In the present experiment, 28 of the 4? subjects (60 per cent) were Chinese or Japanese. The two treatment groups met i n s p e c i a l speech classes during a seven day school week. A school week consisted of "7 days" (excluding weekends) each of which had f i v e periods — three i n the morning and two i n the afternoon. Each treatment group met f o r a t o t a l of 15 one hour sessions. Speech Classes and Assignments Class enrollment was as follows: encounter group 1 6 ; conventional group 17; control group 1^. One subject i n the encounter group and two i n the control group were absent on the day of the f i n a l t e s t i n g and are not included i n the re s u l t s of t h i s experiment. Each subject i n the conventional group averaged a t o t a l of 9 speaking assignments which 15 indicates the majority of the time spent i n t h i s group was devoted to speechmaking. Some of the time was given to l e c t u r i n g about the various kinds of speeches and the i n -vention, arrangement, s t y l e , and delivery of each kind of speech. No formal speechmaking was done i n the encountering group. Except f o r the f i r s t two speeches i n the conventional group, none of the assignments required research or p r i o r preparation. The choice of topic f o r most assignments was l e f t to the i n d i v i d u a l student'. The types of speeches assigned and s p e c i f i c procedures followed i n both treatment groups w i l l be described more f u l l y l a t e r i n t h i s chapter". Development of Groups Three groups of subjects were selected f o r t h i s study. Two were treated while the t h i r d served as a control group and received no treatment. For the purposes of t h i s experi-ment, the groups were selected according to the following c r i t e r i a and randomly assigned to one of the three experi-mental conditions: (1) Groups consisted of subjects enrolled i n the English 12 course. (2) Groups contained only those subjects whose class l e t t e r grades i n English put them i n the top segment of t h e i r c l a s s . 16 I t was assumed i n the present study that the ind i v i d u a l s within the groups were randomly selected and that they were equal i n terms of speech anxiety. Experimental-Group Management Seating and Physical Setting. The encounter group was arranged i n such a way that a l l of the subjects could p a r t i c i p a t e i n an easy and informal manner. For example, a c i r c u l a r seating arrangement around a large rectangular table was used so that group members could see and hear each other conveniently. The writer, who directed both the en-counter and conventional group sessions, was seated i n such a fashion that he too was part of the group. A small seminar room was used. The same room with s i m i l a r physical arrangements was used for the conventional group i n t h i s experiment. The only difference was that the seating was arranged around three sides of the table, the fourth side served as the area from which speeches were delivered. The inst r u c t o r was usually seated at the corner of the table, closest to the speaker and to h i s r i g h t . Each subject i n both treatment groups was permitted to choose his own place each session. Session Length and Time In t e r v a l s . The subjects involved i n the experimental-group treatments met f o r two 1 hour sessions each 7 school days. On Bay 1 of the 7 day 17 schedule, the researcher met with the encounter group from 11:00 to 12:00 and with the conventional group from 1:00 to 2:00 that afternoon. The next meeting was on Day b at which time the ^ encounter group met from 10:00 to lltOO and the con-ventional group from 11:00 to 12:00 the same morning*' Research "began the f i r s t week a f t e r the Christmas Holidays and terminated the l a s t day of school p r i o r to the Easter Holidays. The i n s t r u c t o r met with each group a t o t a l of 15 hours over the 12 week period. Session Attendance. Attendance was kept i n both treatment groups and averaged 90 per cent. Included i n t h i s study were a l l subjects who attended the f i r s t class meeting although three of those were not able to be tested i n the f i n a l session. Schedule of Treatment and Testing The treatment and t e s t i n g sequence used i n the present study was as follows: ( l ) Introspective Measure — F i r s t Speech'. The researcher met independently with each of the three groups involved i n t h i s experiment and gave the following directions at the f i r s t meeting: Each of you w i l l come before the class and give a short demonstration speech. That i s , you w i l l choose something to demonstrate and 18 explain to the rest of the c l a s s . For example, you may want to demonstrate how to put on a jacket. Assume your audience knows nothing about a jacket and explain i n precise d e t a i l every movement necessary f o r putting i t on. Be very descriptive i n your presentation. Take a few minutes and think about a topic f o r your speech. Before administration of the t e s t , subjects were t o l d no " r i g h t " or "wrong" answers existed and r e s u l t s would not be scored or counted against them. The instructions were read out and explained i f necessary. The procedure outlined above was used to create anxiety i n each subject who was then asked to complete the MAACL. Encounter-G-roup Treatment The f i r s t session consisted primarily of t e s t i n g . However, the instructor also gave a general introduction to the procedures to be followed i n the further sessions. That i s , he mentioned the goals of personal involvement through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group a c t i v i t i e s and discussion, and free communication through the expression of f e e l i n g s , ideas, thoughts and experiences as openly and as often as possible, as being the most important features of t h i s approach. 19 The second session consisted of a confrontation exercise c a l l e d " D r i f t i n g . " The whole group was asked to d r i f t aimlessly about the room without t a l k i n g . No time l i m i t was set f o r the a c t i v i t y . The experimenter also " d r i f t e d " about and was the l a s t to return to h i s chair. Each p a r t i -cipant was then asked to describe h i s feelings r e l a t i n g to the a c t i v i t y . The discussion that followed revolved around i n d i v i d u a l f e e l i n g s of self-consciousness, conformity, and goal o r i e n t a t i o n . In the t h i r d session members joined hands i n a c i r c l e and closed t h e i r eyes. After a few moments the leader sep-arated one p a i r of hands and led participants around the room. The members were asked to protect one another from bumping into objects on the f l o o r and other obstacles scattered about. After the a c t i v i t y , a discussion followed i n which feelings were r e l a t e d . Several members indicated they f e l t that they were being watched by other group participants although they knew each had h i s eyes closed. Others related f e e l i n g s of confidence and tr u s t i n those leading them, while some f e l t very insecure. Another v a r i a t i o n of a confrontation a c t i v i t y was used i n the fourth session. Each subject was asked to write two short paragraphs, one describing how he perceived himself and the other describing how he f e l t the group perceived him. When everyone had completed his description, they were collected 20 and read i n random order by the experimenter. After each description was read, the group was asked to i d e n t i f y the writer and comment upon that member's perception of himself. In the discussion that followed each exposition, the group was generally supportive and verbally reinforced many p o s i -t i v e personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . For example, one member f e l t her feel i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y were very evident to others and as a r e s u l t she did not have the courage to make f r i e n d s . The group, however, t o l d her they thought she was a very l i k e a b l e , warm, and seemingly s e l f -assured i n d i v i d u a l . In t h i s manner they reinforced her self-image. The encounter group i n the f i f t h session was a r b i t r a r i l y divided into three minor groups: the r o l e -playing group, the picture-making group, and the discussion group. Each expressed the topic "love" i n i t s own way. That i s , the role-playing group "acted out" what they f e l t love meant, the picture-making group drew pictures which depicted i t s concept of love, and the discussion group talked about love. A " s u r v i v a l game" was played i n the s i x t h session. The class was again divided into two groups and the follow-ing hypothetical s i t u a t i o n was presented. Each group was on a boat which was sinking. Only two people on each boat would survive and would become the perpetuators of the human race. 21 Each group was to eliminate - throw into the water - a l l except two survivors. Each person was to verb a l l y defend himself and t r y to be one of those who would remain. When the majority on board decided a member was to go "overboard", that participant was to leave the group. T h i r t y minutes was allowed f o r the exercise which was followed by discussion. In the seventh session the encounter group was a r b i -t r a r i l y divided into two. Each group chose a "conductor" who was responsible f o r the action of his "choir." One group served as the audience and chose a topi c which the other group used as a basis from which to create a story. When the "conductor" pointed to a s p e c i f i c person i n his "choir", that i n d i v i d u a l began a story based upon the topic suggested by the audience, which he continued without interruption and without noticeable grammatical mistakes u n t i l another person was appointed by the conductor to further the story. When an in d i v i d u a l made a mistake by not immediately furthering the imaginary t a l e , he was asked to leave the group. After the f i r s t "choir" had eliminated a l l i t s members, i t changed rol e s with the audience who followed the same procedure outlined above. In the eighth session each person was to have f i f t e e n pennies i n hi s possession. These he put on the table i n front of him. Participants were then instructed to permanently give away to other members as much money as 22 they wished. The experimenter also took part i n the a c t i v i t y , not giving away any of his pennies, hut receiving some from other members. The group then discussed feelings related to sharing, greed and monetary values. After a short discussion the experimenter t o l d the participants to walk around and take back as much money as they wished from each person. The i n -structor, however, did not take money from anyone although his supply quickly diminished. Discussion was then re l a t e d to feelings of g u i l t , greed, and se c u r i t y . The ninth session consisted of a creative drama exercise. A sequence of related sentences was written on a blackboard. From these, participants created and acted out a s p e c i f i c scene. For example: (Subject) A. Can you turn i t o f f (Subject) B. I don't hear anything A. But i t s so powerful B. What A. I can't do i t B. Gkay Tv/o members at a time would present a s i t u a t i o n by expressing the desired emotions through voice i n f l e c t i o n , emphasis on key words, and appropriate bodily action. For example, the f i r s t subject's l i n e "Can you turn i t o f f " can be either a statement or a question. I t can be said s a r c a s t i c a l l y , b i t t e r l y , l o v i n g l y , or pleadingly depending on the emotion 23 desired. The emphasis i n the second l i n e would be dependent upon the mood created i n the f i r s t l i n e , the s i t u a t i o n , and so f o r t h . The tenth, eleventh, and twelfth sessions consisted of simple discussion a c t i v i t i e s on topics of "Discrimination" and "Involvement." Participants were given permission to question the experimenter along any l i n e s they wished. This "interview" consisted of general questions related to speech courses at the University as well as more personal questions about the ins t r u c t o r ' s age, feelings of aloneness, and attitudes toward people and l i f e . The thirteenth and fourteenth sessions consisted of a modified form of the "survival game." Subjects were t o l d to give a t a l k of self-defence before a "jury". The "jury" was comprised of members of the encounter group who im-p a r t i a l l y considered the "evidence" presented and determined the fate of each p a r t i c i p a n t . Each person presented a hypo-t h e t i c a l argument stat i n g to whom or what he was indispensable. I f s u f f i c i e n t evidence was presented supporting h i s case, he was acquitted. I f not, he was condemned. The f i f t e e n t h session was devoted to r e t e s t i n g . The sequence followed and the tests administered w i l l be described l a t e r i n t h i s chapter. To the reader, the procedure described i n t h i s section may appear to be l i t t l e more than a f r i e n d l y discussion and 2k s o c i a l group. However, the topics f o r discussion and the a c t i v i t i e s p articipated i n were not those found i n the ordinary s o c i a l group. The encounter members talked f r e e l y about themselves, t h e i r reactions to each other, and t h e i r f e e l i n g s toward the experimenter. Through involvement i n both a c t i v i t i e s and discussion, subjects received insight into many of t h e i r feelings including speech anxiety. The experimenter i n t h i s group had four functions: ( l ) participant-discussant, (2) resource person, (3) discussion leader, and (k) a c t i v i t y leader. In the f i r s t r o l e , he became "one" of the group as much as circumstances permitted. In the second he acted as a resource person supplying information when requested or when he considered i t to be b e n e f i c i a l to the i n d i v i d u a l or group. In the t h i r d role he structured group discussion. In the fourth he suggested and c l a r i f i e d various a c t i v i t i e s and techniques^ Conventional—Group Treatment The methods followed i n t h i s group were r e l a t i v e l y "structured" i n comparison to the encounter group techniques. Each subject i n t h i s group gave at l e a s t 9 speeches on a var i e t y of t o p i c s . Five minutes was the maximum time allowed for any one speech. The p r i n c i p a l objective i n t h i s approach was to provide participants with speechmaking opportunities. The following types of speeches were described and assigned 25 during the treatment period: (1) Persuasive speeches (2) Informative speeches ( 3 ) Demonstration speeches (1+) Impromptu speeches (5) Speeches presenting a problem (6) Speeches involving o r a l interpretation of l i t e r a t u r e (7) Story t e l l i n g No attempt was made to have the subjects adhere s t r i c t l y to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each type of speech. The invention and arrangement of ideas, memory of the outl i n e , and delivery techniques, were b r i e f l y mentioned to the participants before a p a r t i c u l a r speech was required f o r presentation. For example, i n the persuasive speech the outline was as follows: (1) Draw attention to the issue (2) Identify the issue ( 3 ) Refute the objections ^resent alternatives (5) State s p e c i f i c action In the f i r s t regular classroom speech the subjects brought an object which they " r e a l l y loved" (an assignment from the previous session). The purpose i n bringing and demonstrating something of emotional significance was twofold: ( l ) i t would be easier to concentrate on the message of the speech, thereby 26 speech anxiety would presumably be lessened, and (2) each subject would understand more thoroughly the ideas inherent i n h i s speech. The i n s t r u c t o r suggested various techniques to enhance the communication process: eye contact, use of the hands and body, u t i l i z i n g v i s u a l aids, and " l e t t i n g go" of f e e l i n g s . The second and t h i r d sessions consisted of an o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n assignment. Each subject was asked to write a short ( 5 - 6 l i n e s ) poem, story or description of an ex-perience. The i n s t r u c t o r i l l u s t r a t e d and described one o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n technique which the class was requested to follow. In t h i s technique, the l i t e r a t u r e was taken to the scene, audience, or to s e l f . I f to the scene, the reader was to react as i f what he was r e l a t i n g had a c t u a l l y just occurred on an imaginary stage behind the audience. I f he presented i t to the audience, he was to concentrate on good eye contact and t a l k with and not at the audience. I f the reader deeided a p a r t i c u l a r l i n e or l i n e s should be said to himself, he was to "talk to himself" but loudly enough that the audience could hear and understand. Generally, any one reading employed a combination of these three. The l i t e r a t u r e was not to be "read" but instead an idea or sentence was to be grouped together, memorized, and then presented i n the manner just described. Emphasis was placed on " l e t t i n g go" of feelings and bodily a c t i o n . 27 In the fourth and f i f t h sessions persuasive speeches were given. The i n s t r u c t o r reinforced positive cues that depicted the speaker as possessing poise, control, and confidence. The experimenter pointed out desired character-i s t i c s , such as: eye contact with i n d i v i d u a l members i n the audience; use of the hands i n such a manner that they did not i n t e r f e r e with the communication process but instead reinforced the words and ideas of the speech; the use of good language; voice control; l o g i c a l arrangement and choice of ideas. In the s i x t h session the i n s t r u c t o r drew several squares on the f l o o r representing various "phases" of the informative speech. E a c h subject began i n the "walk-in" square, moved to the "predevelopment" square, then to the "development" square, and f i n a l l y to the "leaving the idea" square. In t h i s manner, simple speeches of information were presented. Topics for each speech i n the f i r s t s i x sessions were chosen by the students. The seventh and eighth sessions consisted of story-t e l l i n g . Each subject was asked to present a very descriptive story about a r e a l or imagined experience. Members were to attempt to create f e e l i n g through voice i n f l e c t i o n , choice of appropriate words, and use of the body. The i n s t r u c t o r decided the topics for the next four impromptu speeches which were presented i n the next s i x 28 sessions. Topics were as follows: 1. The time I was discriminated against 2. Involvement 3. Why I want to l i v e 4. I f I were God General topics were purposely chosen to allow a va r i e t y of thoughts and experiences to be expressed. Each speech topic was written on the blackboard at the beginning of the class period, f i v e minutes was allowed f o r either a mental or written grouping of ideas, and then participants presented a short speech. In the l a s t regular classroom speech each student was asked to choose a problem, describe i t s nature, and o f f e r solutions to i t . Arguments f o r both sides of the problem were presented although those not i n agreement with the solution offered were to be refuted. (2) Introspective and Observational Measures — Posttest. P r i o r to the f i n a l speech and te s t i n g of each subject, two trained observers were introduced as two speech professors from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. These observers were seated i n the back of the same small seminar room used f o r a l l the sessions. Immediately a f t e r the i n t r o -ductions, the following directions were read to the class (the same procedure was followed i n a l l three groups involved i n t h i s experiment): 29 1. In a few moments each of you w i l l he given a piece of clay and w i l l come before the group and give a speech f o r one minute. 2. Do not prepare the speech ahead of time. 3. Keep the speech i n the present tense. That i s , "I am holding the clay, I am moving i t from my l e f t hand to my ri g h t hand," and so on. k. Be as o r i g i n a l as possible; be cre a t i v e . 5. I f you cannot think of what to say or do with the clay, simply say: "I am holding the clay, I am holding the clay." 6. I w i l l go f i r s t and show you what I mean. The directions were repeated a f t e r the example "clay-speech" given by the i n s t r u c t o r . The MAACL was then immediately administered to each group just p r i o r to the speech. The order of presentation i n each group was determined by a random sel e c t i o n of names. Immediately a f t e r each speech was given, the two trained observers rated each subject according to a nine-point s c a l e . Similar overt manifestations of speech anxiety were the marking c r i t e r i a . Following the f i n a l session, student scores registered on the MAACL and the TORCL were analyzed and compared to determine whether s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences existed among groups. 30 Scoring Methods Used MAACL. The hand scoring s t e n c i l for anxiety was used f o r scoring the MAACL. The score was obtained by adding one point for every check appearing through a hole marked "plus" and adding one point f o r every item not checked i n a hole marked "minus". The t o t a l score was the number of "plus" adjectives checked and the number of "minus" adjectives not cheeked. TORCL. Each subject's score on t h i s measure was obtained by cal c u l a t i n g the average between the two scores c i r c l e d by the trained observers. CHAPTER 111: FINDINGS Introduction Since the chief concern of t h i s study was to deter-mine the r e l a t i v e effectiveness of two methods of speech t r a i n i n g on reduction i n anxiety, the analysis of covariance met the needs of t h i s experiment and was selected as the s t a t i s t i c a l method f o r analyzing r e s u l t s on the Introspective measure (MAACL). The Kruskal-Wallace test (kl, p.^06) was used i n comparing the Observational scores (TORCL) of the posttest. To determine pair-wise differences between group means on the TORCL, post-hoc comparisons were made (2k, p. ^ 8 3 ) . Analysis of MAACL Scores An analysis of covariance was made involving the scores (table l ) of the encounter, conventional, and control groups. As i l l u s t r a t e d i n table 2 , the re s u l t s of analysis show that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n anxiety, (F= - . 8 9 8 j df 2 A 0 ; p > . 0 5 ) . Because the o v e r a l l F test was not s i g n i f i c a n t , there was no need to test f o r s i g n i f i c a n t differences between pairs of groups. 32 Table 1 Pretest and Posttest Mean Anxiety Scores Group Pretest Posttest Encounter Group Conventional Group Control Group 13.6000 11.0000 11.0000 11.4667 9.0000 11.0000 33 Table 2 Analysis of Covariance f o r the Encounter, Conventional and Control Groups Source df SS MS F T o t a l Between Groups (adj.) Within Groups (adj.) k2 2 1*0 703.3516 30.2227 673.1289 15.113 16.8282 0.898 34 Analysis of Observational Scores The nature of the TORCL data required d i s t r i b u t i o n free s t a t i s t i c s . For t h i s the Kruskal-Wallace test was used. Since t i e s were involved i n the ranking, the H r e s u l t 9«266 was obtained by div i d i n g through by a corrected value i n order to determine the corrected value of H. Using the Chi square f o r K s t a t i s t i c , the r e s u l t 9*266 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l of confidence. Therefore pair-wise differences between means were examined using post-hoc comparisons (24, p.483). Por a value to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , the required difference f o r 2 and 41 degrees of freedom i s approximately 6.46 i n absolute value. An obtained difference of 6.74 was found between the encounter and conventional groups, and a d i f -ference of 9.64 was obtained between the encounter and control groups. Both comparisons were s i g n i f i c a n t . How-ever, comparisons between the conventional and control groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t (.57)• 35 Table 3  TORCL Mean Anxiety Scores Group Mean Score Encounter Group 6 . 2 Conventional Group 4.9 C o n t r o l Group 4 . 5 CHAPTER IV: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary of Problem Although many speech anxiety remedies and prevent-atives are reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e , few have been ex-perimentally tested. The present experiment sought to provide some empirical data supporting an encountering approach to speech t r a i n i n g i n contrast to a conventional approach to speech t r a i n i n g as a method f o r reducing speech anxiety!. Summary of Method This study involved an experimental evaluation of an encounter method as a technique f o r reducing the speech anxiety among a group of High School students. The subjects were 47 male and female students enrolled i n the English 12 course at Br i t a n n i a High School i n Vancouver. They were randomly selected and assigned to one of the following: Group 1 — Encounter-Group Treatment — involve-ment i n group a c t i v i t i e s and discussion^ Group 11 — Conventional-Group Treatment — practice i n formal speechmaking. Group 111 — Control-Group — no treatment." 37 The two treatment groups met with the experimenter a t o t a l of 15 hours extending over a 12 week period. Testing was done using an introspective measure (MAACL) i n the f i r s t and f i f t e e n t h sessions, and an observational measure i n which two trained observers rated the subjects i n a l l three groups while they gave t h e i r f i n a l speech. The analysis of covariance was the s t a t i s t i c a l method used i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s on the MAACL. The Kruskal-Wallace test f o r completely random design was used fo r comparing the observational scores. Testing the Hypotheses FIRST HYPOTHESIS: A GROUP OP HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS RECEIVING AN ENCOUNTERING APPROACH TO SPEECH TRAINING WILL SHOW A STATISTICALLY GREATER REDUCTION IN SPEECH ANXIETY THAN A COMPARABLE GROUP OP HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS RECEIVING THE CONVENTIONAL APPROACH TO SPEECH TRAINING. In t e s t i n g the f i r s t hypothesis the following findings were established: (1) This hypothesis would be rejected on the basis of posttest difference scores obtained from the Multiple A f f e c t Adjective Check L i s t . (2) This hypothesis would be accepted on the basis of posttest scores obtained from the Trained  Observer Report on Confidence Level. 38 SECOND HYPOTHESIS: A GROUP OP HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS RECEIVING A CONVENTIONAL APPROACH TO SPEECH TRAINING WILL SHOW A STATISTICALLY GREATER REDUCTION IN SPEECH ANXIETY THAN A COMPARABLE GROUP OP HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS RECEIVING NO SPEECH TRAINING. In t e s t i n g the second hypothesis the following findings were established: (1) This hypothesis would be rejected on the basis of posttest difference scores obtained from the Multiple A f f e c t Adjective Check L i s t . (2) This hypothesis would be rejected on the basis of posttest scores obtained from the Trained Observer Report on Confidence Level. Interpretations and Conclusions Reasons fo r hypotheses r e j e c t i o n by the MAACL. One may only speculate why both hypotheses were rejected. Although researchers have v e r i f i e d the MAACL as a measuring instrument f o r general anxiety (even stage f r i g h t ) , the conditions of the present study necessitated an extremely sensitive measure i n order to record each subject's reduction i n anxiety which occurred as a r e s u l t of speech t r a i n i n g . The p o s s i b i l i t y exists that the MAACL was not sensitive to speech anxiety 39 alone, but other factors may have influenced the r e s u l t s as w e l l . As already indicated e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper ( p . l l ) , the anxiety r e s u l t i n g from examinations i s s u f f i c i e n t to influence the r e s u l t s of the MAACL at a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t l e v e l . Thei,subjects i n the encounter and conventional groups had just completed a History examination i n the class period previous to the f i n a l speech t r a i n i n g session. The e f f e c t of the examination was s t i l l apparent when the groups entered the speech class f o r t h e i r f i n a l t e s t i n g . Therefore, r e s u l t s on the introspective measure were influenced by the anxiety which resulted from the History examination as well as anxiety which resulted from the speaking s i t u a t i o n . This f a c t o r may help explain why r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment were not s i g n i f i c a n t on the MAACL. More s i g n i f i c a n t MAACL r e s u l t s . Results may have been more relevant had subjects been clo s e l y matched i n terms of high speech anxiety. The matching would have resulted i n homogenous groups and the anxiety reduction would probably have been more meaninful a f t e r analysis was completed". Possible cause of s i g n i f i c a n t TORCL r e s u l t s . More d i f f i c u l t to ascertain i s why the encounter group indicated a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t reduction on the observational measure compared to the other two groups. I t i s possible that had pretest observation scores been obtained on t h i s measure, r e s u l t s would have indicated an i n i t i a l d i fference. 40 Thus the present posttest observations would have been meaningless i n that these discrepancies i n i t i a l l y existed, Questionabilitv of the observers. I t i s assumed the three groups were matched. The r e s u l t s therefore hinge on the r e l i a b i l i t y of the judges, both of whom were experienced i n noting overt manifestations of speech anxiety. In addition to the general c r i t e r i a of playfulness, good language, o r i g i n a l i t y , and good bo d i l y action, the observers mentioned i n conversation with the experimenter, that they u t i l i z e d an " i n t u i t i v e f e e l i n g " i n i n d i c a t i n g each subject's scored Non-verbal cues they "picked up" were taken into consider-ation when assigning scores. S p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a which describe the non-verbal are not possible to l i s t , nor are they necessary to describe because the v i s u a l cues of anxiety were the p r i n c i -p a l marking c r i t e r i a . The " i n t u i t i o n " was mentioned only to indicate that t h i s f a c t o r , whether consciously or unconscious-l y , was involved i n the decision-making process p a r t i c u l a r l y since both observers were experienced i n noting speech anxiety. I t i s noteworthy that the observers noticed a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the encounter group and the other two groups i n t h i s study. As already mentioned, the observers noticed more o r i g i n a l i t y , greater freedom of expression, more control of the hands, eyes, and body, and fewer re p e t i t i o n s i n the encounter group. These c r i t e r i a 41 were observed i n each subject as being indications of a lack of anxiety, however, the p o s s i b i l i t y exists that subjects i n i t i a l l y possessed these t r a i t s which were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and not learned speech s k i l l s ' . I f t h i s was the case, then the observers were r a t i n g person-a l i t i e s i n addition to or rather than speech anxiety. It also holds true, that i f a lack of speech anxiety r e s u l t s i n o r i g i n a l i t y , b odily control, and so f o r t h , then the opposite manifestations would be the r e s u l t of high anxiety or a r e f l e c t i o n of a banal personality, or a combination of both. I t would have been i n t e r e s t i n g to note whether a c o r r e l a t i o n existed between an "introversion-extroversion" scale on a personality t e s t and the observer r a t i n g scale used i n the present study. Had such a c o r r e l a t i o n existed, then one may assume that observers also rated t h i s person-a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . I t i s quite probable that there i s a connection between the " s o c i a l personality" and speech anxiety and one may be an i n d i c a t i o n of the other on the observational measure. In any case, the two observers i n the present study were looking f o r indications of freedom from the s t i f l i n g influence of speech anxiety, and were not concerned with the general anxiety l e v e l inherent i n each personality. Through t r a i n i n g and experience they had become aware of speech anxiety and i t s symptoms^ Reasons for s i g n i f i c a n t reductions of overt speech kz anxiety. An explanation for the s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n the overt manifestations of anxiety i n the encounter group may he due to the nature of the treatment i t s e l f . Most a c t i v i t i e s necessitated an involvement requiring the minimum of s e l f -consciousness. They were good exercises i n f o s t e r i n g spontaneity, o r i g i n a l i t y , and involvement. Participants r e a l i z e d f e e l i n g s of anxiety only hampered t h e i r own e f f e c t -iveness unless these fe e l i n g s were control l e d . They learned to accept them as being natural and t r i e d not to l e t them be a hindrance i n achieving t h e i r objectives. They also learned these fe e l i n g s were shared by nearly a l l speakers. Subjects discussed the u n i v e r s a l i t y of speech anxiety and related t h e i r own experiences i n order to reduce the problem to more r e a l -i s t i c proportions. In the conventional group, the i n s t r u c t o r made r e f e r -ence to b o d i l y action, expression, speech anxiety, and so f o r t h , and suggested ways to enhance the communication process. These were techniques designed for conscious ap p l i c a t i o n i n the speaking s i t u a t i o n . I t i s possible that the length of the speech t r a i n i n g sessions was not s u f f i c i e n t f o r these suggestions to beeome natural speech-making h a b i t s . Thus, when observed i n the f i n a l speech, they seemed to indicate a high anxiety l e v e l although t h e i r c o g n i t i v e l y perceived anxiety was s i m i l a r to that of the encounter group. Therefore no s i g n i f i c a n t difference existed 43 on the MAACL although i t did exist on the TORCL. Implications f o r further research. The researcher would l i k e to make several suggestions f o r other experi-menters who undertake s i m i l a r kinds of studies: (1) The administration of an observational pretest as well as the posttest. (2) A selection of subjects closely matched i n terms of high speech anxiety. ( 3 ) A combination of both the encounter and conventional approaches as a possible t h i r d group. ( 4 ) Administration of a personality t e s t i n addition to speech anxiety measures. 44 REFERENCES (1) Auer, J e f f e r y J . An Introduction to Research i n  Speech. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959. (2) Barnes, Harry G. Speech Handbook. Englewood C l i f f s : P r entice-Hall, Inc., 1965. (3) Bois, Samuel J . Explorations i n Awareness. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957• (4) Brown, Charles T., and Charles Van Riper. Speech and  Man. Englewood C l i f f s : P rentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. (5) Bryngelson, Hryng. Applying hygienic p r i n c i p l e s to speech problems. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 1943* 22, 351-354. (6) Capp, Blenn R. How to Communicate O r a l l y . Englewood C l i f f s : P rentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. (7) Cicero. De Oratore. 1 , XXVI, t r a n s l . by E.W. Sutton. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942. (8) Clevenger, Theodore, J r . An analysis of variance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of experienced stage f r i g h t to selected psychometric inventories. Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State University, 1958. Abstracted i n Speech  Monographs. 1959» 26, 8 9 . (9) Clevenger, Theodore, J r . A synthesis of experimental research i n stage f r i g h t . Quarterly Journal of Speech. 1959, 4 i , 134-145. (10) Clevenger, Theodore, J r . The ef f e c t of a physical change i n the speech s i t u a t i o n upon experienced stage f r i g h t . Journal of Communication. 1959» 1 0 , 131-135 (11) Clevenger, Theodore, J r . , and Gregg P h i f e r . What do beginning college speech texts say about stage f r i g h t ? Speech Teacher. 1959, 8 , 1-7. (12) Dickens, Milton, Francis Gibson, and Caleb P r a l l . An experimental study of the overt manifestation of stage f r i g h t . Speech Monographs. 1950, 12, 37-47. (13) Dickens, Milton, and William R. Parker. An experi-mental study of certain p h y s i o l o g i c a l , introspective and r a t i n g scale techniques f o r the measurement of stage f r i g h t . Speech Monographs. 1951, 18, 251-259. 45 (14) Driver, Helen I . Counseling and ^earning Through  Small-Group Piscussion. Madison: Monona Publishing Company, 1962. (15) Edwards, A l l e n D. Experimental Design i n Psycho- l o g i c a l Research. Hew York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. (16) Eisenson, Jon. The Psychology of Coamiunication. Hew York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1963. (17) Geer, J.H. E f f e c t of fear arousal upon task per-formance and verbal behavior. Journal of Abnormal  and S o c i a l Psychology. 1966, 21, 119-123. (18) Gilkinson, Howard. So c i a l fears as reported by students i n college speech classes. Speech  Monographs. 1942, £, 141-160. (19) Gilkinson, Howard. Indexes of change i n attitudes and behavior among students enrolled i n general speech courses. Speech Monographs. 1941, 8, 23-33* (20) Gilkinson, Howard, and Franklin H. Knower. Individual differences among students of speech as revealed by psychological t e s t s . Quarterly Journal of Speech. 1940, 26, 243-255. (21) Greenleaf, Floyd I. An exploratory study of speech f e a r . Quarterly Journal of Speech. 1952, 28, 326-330. (22) Gruner, Charles R. A further note on stage f r i g h t . Speech Teacher. 1964, 12, 223-224. (23) Hamilton, John I>. The psychodrama and i t s i m p l i -cations i n speech adjustment. Quarterly Journal of  Speech. 1943, 22, 6I-67. (24) Hays, William L. S t a t i s t i c s f o r Psychologists. Hew York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963-(25) Henrikson, Ernest L. Some effects on stage f r i g h t of a course i n speech. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 1943, 2£, 490-491. (26) Irwin, Joan V., and Marjorie Rosenberger. Modern  Speech. Hew York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1966. 46 (27) Kasl, S.V., and Mahl, G.P. The re l a t i o n s h i p of disturbances and hesitations i n spontaneous speech to anxiety. Journal of Personality and S o c i a l  Psychology. 1965, 1, 425-433. (28) l e Blanc, J.C., J r . An Investigation of the use of hypnosis as a method f o r Improving Speech Confidence. Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , "university of Minnesota Ann Arbor, Mi ch.: University Microfilms, 1964. No. 65-7789. (29) L e v i t t , Eugene E. The Psychology of Anxiety. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1967• (30) Lomas, Charles W. The psychology of stage fright". Quarterly Journal of Speech. 1937, 22, 35-44. (31) lomas, Charles W. Stage f r i g h t . Quarterly Journal  of Speech. 1944, 22., 479-485. (32) low, Gordon M., and Boyd V. Sheets. The r e l a t i o n of psychometric factors "to stage f r i g h t . Speech  Monographs. 1951, 18, 266-271. (33) Malamud, Daniel I., and Soloman Machover. Toward  Self-understanding; Group Techniques i n S e l f - c o n f r o n t a t i o n . S p r i n g f i e l d : C C . Thomas, 1965. (34) Monroe, Alan., and Douglas Ehninger. P r i n c i p l e s  and Types of Speech (6th ed.). Chicago: Scott, Jb'oresman and Company, 1967* (35) Murray, Elwood. The Speech Personality, (revised ed.). New York: J.B. l i p p i n c o t t Co., 1944. (36) O l i v e r , Robert T., and Rupert L. Cortright. E f f e c t i v e Speech. (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961. (37) Paulson, Stanley Pay. Changes i n confidence during a period of speech t r a i n i n g : transfer of t r a i n i n g and comparison of improved and non-improved groups on the B e l l Adjustment Inventory. Speech Monographs; 1951, 18, 26O-265. (38) Robinson, Edward R. An experimental inves t i g a t i o n of certain commonly suggested teaching methods f o r the development of confidence i n beginning students of public speaking. Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana University, 1956, Abstracted i n Speech Monographs. 1956, 22» 97-98. 47 (39) Robinson, Edward R. What can the speech teacher do about students' stage f r i g h t ? Speech Teacher. 1959, 8, 8-14. (40) Rose, Forrest H. T r a±ning i n speech and changes i n personality. Quarterly Journal of Speech. 1940, 2 6 , 193-196. (41) Ross, Raymond S. Speech Communication. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , i n c . , 1965. (42) S t e e l , Robert G.D. and James H. T o r r i e , P r i n c i p l e s  and Procedures of S t a t i s t i c s . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., I960. (43) Wheatley, B.C. The effects of four st y l e s of leader-ship upon anxiety i n small groups. Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Denver Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1966, No. 67-3592. (44) White, Eugene E. P r a c t i c a l Speech FundamentalsI New York: The MacMillan o0mpany, I960. (45) Zuckerman, Marvin, and Bernard Lupin. Manual f o r  the Multiple A f f e c t Adjective Check L i s t . San Diego: Educational and I n d u s t r i a l t e s t i n g Service, 1965* 48 APPENDIX A MULTIPLE APPECT ADJECTIVE CHECK LIST Copies of the MAACL earn be obtained by writing to: Educational and I n d u s t r i a l Testing Service, Post O f f i c e Box 7239, Can Diego, C a l i f o r n i a . 92107. 1 49 A P P E N D I X B T R A I N E D O B S E R V E R REPORT ON C O N F I D E N C E L E V E L S p e a k e r ' s n a m e : __________________________________«___ ( l o w c o n f i d e n c e ) 1 2 3 ^ 5 ^ 7 8 9 ( h i g h c o n f i d e n c e ) S p e a k e r ' s n a m e : ___________>>_______________^ ( l o w c o n f i d e n c e ) 1 2 3 ^ 5 ^ 7 8 9 ( h i g h c o n f i d e n c e ) 50 APPENDIX C Introspective Scores Pretest and Posttest Difference Scores Encounter Group Conventional Group Control Group re post pre post pre posi 20 8 10 10 0 3 18 16 11 2 17 10 11 13 ? 17 13 12 14 3 6 12 15 10 10 6 10 12 13 11 11 6 9 17 12 11 14 10 9 1 1 10 6 18 12 13 15 16 11 10 10 8 4 13 14 14 2 8 9 20 15 11 13 18 17 14 1 5 13 9 9 11 17 3 8 7 5 17 10 7 17 7 16 14 7 5 21 19 51 Observational Scores Ranked Encounter Group Conventional Group Control Group 3 . 5 ( 6 ) 3 . 0 ( 2 . 5 ) 1 .5 ( 1 ) 4 . 5 (14) 3 . 0 ( 2 . 5 ) 3 . 5 " ( 6 ) 5 . 0 ( 2 0 ) 3 . 5 ( 6 ) 3 . 5 ( 6 ) 5 . 5 ( 2 5 . 5 ) 3 . 5 ( 6 ) 3 . 5 ( 6 ) 5 . 5 ( 2 5 . 5 ) 4 . 0 ( 1 0 . 5 ) 4 . 0 ( 1 0 . 5 ) 5 . 5 ( 2 5 . 5 ) 4 . 5 (14) 4 . 5 (14) 6 . 0 ( 3 0 ) 4 . 5 (14) 4 . 5 (14) 6.5 ( 3 4 ) 4 . 5 (14) 5 . 0 ( 2 0 ) 6 . 5 ( 3 4 ) 5 . 0 ( 2 0 ) 5 . 5 ( 2 5 . 5 ) 7 . 0 ( 3 8 . 5 ) 5 . 0 ( 2 0 ) 5 . 5 ( 2 5 . 5 ) 7 . 0 ( 3 8 . 5 ) 5 . 0 ( 2 0 ) 6 . 0 ( 3 0 ) 7 . 5 (42) 5 . 5 ( 2 5 . 5 ) 7 . 0 ( 3 8 . 5 ) 7 . 5 (42) 6 . 0 ( 3 0 ) 7 . 5 (42) 6 . 5 ( 3 4 ) 8 . 0 ( 4 4 ) 6 .5 ( 3 4 ) 6 . 5 ( 3 4 ) 7.P ( 3 8 . 5 ) 

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