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Usefulness of the Marianne Frostig developmental test of visual perception, and the Frostig program for… Friesen, Elaine Cornelia 1969

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USEFULNESS OF THE MARIANNE FROSTIG DEVELOPMENTAL TEST OF VISUAL PERCEPTION AND THE FROSTIG PROGRAM FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF VISUAL PERCEPTION AT THE FIRST GRADE LEVEL by Elaine Cornelia Friesen B.A., University of Waterloo, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1969 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u lfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t fr e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of thi s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying o r publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The purpose of this Investigation was to determine whether the Marianne Frostig Program for the Development of Visual Perception is successful in terms of increased reading readiness and visual perceptual abilities, when used in the regular classroom. Thirty-two f i r s t grade pupils were selected as subjects on the basis of below-normal scores on the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery, Form A. Both the experimental and control groups were taught by the experimenter. Three times a week for six weeks the experimental group received fifteen to twenty minutes of physical, three-dimensional and two-dimensional exercises according to the Frostig Program for the Development of Visual Perception. The con-trol group received instruction as prescribed by the course of study. No significant improvement of the experimental group over the control group was found at the .05 level of significance. It was concluded that much further Investigation into the suitability of this program for a regular classroom should be done regarding the optimal age level and class size; training, personalities and attitudes of the teachers involved; and the optimal duration and concentration of the program. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. THE PROBLEM 1 The Problem 1 Purpose of the Study 4 Statement of the Hypotheses 5 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 I I I . PROCEDURE 11 Tests to be Used 11 Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception 11 Clymer-Barret Prereading Battery, Form A 14 Subject Selection 16 Administration of the Program 17 IV. RESULTS 20 Re testing 20 Analysis of the Data 20 V. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION 22 BIBLIOGRAPHY 24 APPENDIXES 27 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM That i t i s important for a child to experience success in school i s a fact that no psychologist, physician, parent nor educator w i l l dispute. That many children do not experience this success because of various physical, intellectual and emotional handicaps i s also an accepted fact. In recent years, investigators have begun to focus their attention on disturbances of perceptual functions which might cause failure to achieve normally in school. The market i s being flooded by tests purporting to measure various psycholinguistic and perceptual functions. Many of these tests, because of the pressure exerted on their authors, have been released prematurely. Although they describe elaborate standardization techniques and c l i n i c a l studies, authors seldom cite studies which demonstrate the usefulness of the test nor the subsequent remedial program in the setting in which they are li k e l y to be used most frequently. One such test i s the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception which was designed to be a tool for assessing def-i c i t s in visual perception in children between the ages of four and eight years. The areas of visual perception which Frostig attempts to explore i n five subtest areas are eye-motor coordination, figure-ground perception, form constancy, position in space, and perception of spatial relationships. Although these were never thought to be the only visual-perceptual a b i l i t i e s involved in the total process of visual perception, Frostig believed them to be important parts of the process and of par-ticular relevance to school performance.*" Frostig, Lefever and Phyllis Maslow, Marianne Frostig, D.W. Lefever and J.R.B. Whittlesley, "The Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception, 1963 standardization," Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , 19:463-99, 1964, Monograph Supplement 2-V9. 2 Whittlesley developed t h e i r test on the assumption that "adequate v i s u a l perceptual s k i l l s are of c r u c i a l importance i n learning to read and that v i s u a l perceptual a b i l i t i e s must be viewed as discrete e n t i t i e s which 2 develop, i n large measure, independently of one another." Supported by Piaget's theory that perception i s a major developmental task of the c h i l d between the ages of three and approximately seven and one-half years, Frostig also believed that v i s u a l perceptual s k i l l s are develop-mental i n nature and appear to mature most rapidly between the ages of four and seven and that these s k i l l s can be taught i n a structured program (referring to the Frostig Program for the Development of Visual 4 5 Perception ), i n the classroom. To further support her assumptions, the Marianne Frostig School of Educational Therapy has carried out several studies both before and after releasing the t e s t . With respect to r e l i a b i l i t y , F r ostig et a l c i t e test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s from .29 to .74 for the scale scores of Kindergarten children and from .39 to .69 for f i r s t grade children, and s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s ranging from .78 for children eight and nine years of age to .89 for children of f i v e and s i x years of age. With respect to v a l i d i t y , the authors, by comparing the Frostig test with the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test, have attempted to show that t h e i r test does not measure i n t e l l i g e n c e . The correlations obtained were from .318 to .460. Frostig et a l conclude from the scores of seventy-one abnormal children on the Frostig test that "the abnormal degree of scatter i n James N. Jacobs, "An evaluation of the Frostig v i s u a l perceptual tr a i n i n g program," Educational Leadership, 25 (January, 1968), p. 333. 3 Paul Mussen, J . J . Conger and Jerome Kagan, Child Development and  Personality, Second Edition (New York; Harper and Row, 1963), pp. 253-55. 4 Marianne Frostig and David Home, The Frostig Program for the  Development of Visual Perception; Teacher's Guide (Chicago: F o l l e t t Publishing Company, 1964). ^James N. Jacobs, op. c i t . , p. 333. 3 th e i r various subtests suggests that d i s t i n c t functions of v i s u a l perception can be disturbed independently and to varying degrees."*' The authors have not, however, attempted a factor-analytic study to support t h i s observation. Predictive v a l i d i t y i s tested i n the University Elementary School Study where i t was demonstrated that out of twenty-f i v e children aged four and one-half to s i x and one-half years who were exposed to reading material but not required to read, eight children did not learn to read and were l a t e r found to have perceptual quotients of less than 90, thus displaying v i s u a l perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s . Of those who had perceptual quotients of over 90, only one showed any reading d i f f i c u l t y . Research into other beginning reading situations i n which children were required to read showed a correlation c o e f f i c i e n t of from .4 to .5 between the v i s u a l perceptual test scores and reading scores. A p i l o t t r a i n i n g study attempting to assess methods of a l l e v i a t i n g the perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a c a r e f u l l y controlled s i t u a t i o n at the Frostig School showed that children with perceptual quotients of 90 or less did gain s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than those l e f t In the regular school s i t u a t i o n when retested on the Frostig Test. Of a c l i n i c a l school sample of f i f t y - t h r e e children with IQ's of 76 or more who had severe learning d i s a b i l i t i e s , 55 per cent had scores f a l l i n g below the 25th percentile on the Frostig Test. This observation was found to agree with a survey of perceptual scores on tests previously administered to these children.^ The authors propose further investigation into the r e l i a b i l -i t y and v a l i d i t y of t h e i r scale, but the results of t h i s work are not yet available. The ultimate proof of the efficacy of a diagnosis made on the basis of a test such as the Frostig Test must l i e i n the improvement i n Marianne F r o s t i g , D.W. Lefever and J.R.B. Whittlesley, "A developmental test of v i s u a l perception f o r evaluating normal and neurologically handicapped children," Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , 12:392, 1961. ^Maslow, F r o s t i g , Lefever and Whittlesley, op_. c i t . , p. 248. 4 achievement effected through the remediation of those perceptual d i f f i -c u l t i e s specified by the t e s t . The authors of the Frostig Test and Program have through t h e i r p i l o t study shown that t h i s i s so i n a c l i n -i c a l s e t t i n g . However, one questions the c r e d i b i l i t y of the study where the achievement of children trained i n a c l i n i c a l setting (the Frostig School) with specially-trained teachers i s compared with that of c h i l -dren l e f t i n a regular classroom se t t i n g . The Frostig Test and Program are being used i n many school d i s -g t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Both, according to the author, are e a s i l y u t i l i z e d i n a regular classroom s e t t i n g . At present, however, there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l evidence to show that the Frostig Program prescribed on the basis of test performance has been effec t i v e i n ameliorating perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s and promoting normal achievement when carried out i n the regular classroom. Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s to further investigate the useful-ness of the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of V i s u a l Perception and The F r o s t i g Program for the Development of Visual Perception i n the regular classroom setting with p a r t i c u l a r attention to the following questions: 1. W i l l children diagnosed as having perceptual disturbances according to the Frostig Test and trained according to the Frostig Program i n a regular classroom setting show a greater improvement i n perceptual s k i l l s than perceptually disturbed children receiving the regular first-grade language arts program? 2. W i l l these children trained on the Frostig Program also show a greater improvement i n reading readiness as measured by the Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery than those receiving the regular first-grade program? Some d i s t r i c t s include Richmond, Surrey, Vancouver, Coquitlam, West Vancouver, Prince George, Kamloops, Kimberley, Dawson Creek and Fort St. John. 5 Statement of the Hypotheses 1. Children with perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s trained i n the regular classroom on the Frostig Program w i l l show s i g n i f i c a n t l y more improve-ment i n those perceptual s k i l l s measured by the Frostig Test than those children with perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s who have not been trained accor-ding to the Fro s t i g Program. 2. Children with perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s trained i n the regular classroom on the Frostig Program w i l l show s i g n i f i c a n t l y more improve-ment i n reading readiness s k i l l s than children with perceptual d i f f i -c u l t i e s who have not been given the program. I t i s hoped that the findings of t h i s study, be they positive or negative w i l l prove to be useful to school d i s t r i c t s who, while they cannot make special c l i n i c a l provisions for their pupils exhibiting v i s u a l perceptual d e f i c i t s , w i l l be able to help classroom teachers to fi n d methods most suitable to the remediation of the learning and adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s these children w i l l experience. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I t has been said: Of the avenues by which the sense data, the raw material of perception, are received, the most important i s perhaps that of v i s i o n . We probably depend upon our a b i l i t i e s i n v i s u a l perception more than upon any other mode of perception to communicate with our environment. Our extreme reliance upon v i s u a l perception i s implied by the common metaphors of v i s i o n used i n our dai l y speech: we tend to say, "I'm looking forward to seeing you" rather than "I'm anticipating meeting you" or " l e t me see" when the more precise verb might be "consider." As these common usages imply, both d i r e c t experience and thought processes depend greatly upon adequate v i s u a l percep-t i o n and t h i s i s nowhere more true than i n r e l a t i o n to school learning.^ V i s u a l perception can be simply defined as "...the individual's organization and i n i t i a l interpretation or categorization of what he sees...."^ That i t i s a necessary condition for reading i s s e l f -evident for i t i s the "interpretation or categorization" of l e t t e r s on a page which we c a l l reading—an indispensible s k i l l to a l l areas of learning. Most test batteries which are being developed to diagnose learning problems include at least one subtest or scale aimed at measuring v i s u a l perceptual a b i l i t i e s . The I l l i n o i s Test of  Psycholinguistic A b i l i t i e s f o r example, includes v i s u a l perception both at a representative l e v e l and at an automatic-sequential l e v e l . 9 Marianne F r o s t i g , "Assessment of v i s u a l perception and i t s importance to education," The A.A.M.D. Education Reporter, 2 ( A p r i l , 1962), p. 11. ^Mussen, Conger and Kagan, op. c i t . , p. 248. "^Samuel A. Kirk and James J . McCarthy, The I l l i n o i s Test of  Psycholinguistic A b i l i t i e s , (Chicago: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1961). an i n d i c a t i o n of the importance of v i s u a l perception to the major areas 12 of psycholinguistic functioning. The Purdue Perceptual-Motor Survey includes several subtests requiring v i s u a l perception: eye-hand co-ordination, temporal s p a t i a l translation and form perception, a l l of 13 which Kephart considers to be among the basic s k i l l s needed to perform basic tasks and must be learned before the c h i l d can progress to more complex experiences. Getman stresses the importance of t o t a l integra-tion of v i s u a l processes for the successful adjustment of the i n d i v i d u a l 14 i n our society. S i m i l a r l y , remedial programs for these learning d i s -orders stress the importance of integrating a l l perceptual functions, including the v i s u a l perceptual, into an e f f i c i e n t whole. In programs such as the ones proposed by Fernald^"* and Monroe, development of the v i s u a l perceptual appears to be the ultimate goal. Both programs empha-size a multi-modal approach u t i l i z i n g the auditory and kinesthetic channels as w e l l as the v i s u a l and gradually narrowing i t down to the v i s u a l channels only. Frostig observed: Disturbances i n v i s u a l perception were by f a r the most frequent symptoms and seemed to contribute to the learning d i f f i c u l t i e s . Children who had d i f f i c u l t y i n w r i t i n g seemed to be handicapped by poor eye-hand coordination, and children who could not recognize words often seemed to have disturbances i n figure-ground 12 Eugene G. Roach, and Newell C. Kephart, The Purdue Perceptual- Motor Survey , (Columbus: Charles E. M e r r i l l Books, Inc., 1966). 13 Newell C. Kephart, The Slow Learner i n the Classroom, (Columbus: Charles E. M e r r i l l Books Inc., 1960). 14 G.W. Getman, "The visuomotor complex i n the acquisition of learning s k i l l s , " Learning Disorders: Special Child Publications of  Seattle Seguin School, Vol. I , (Seattle, Washington: Bernie Straub and Jerome Hellmuth Co-publishers, 1965), pp. 49-76. ^Grace Fernald, Remedial Techniques i n Basic School Subjects, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1943). Marion Monroe, Children Who Cannot Read, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932). 8 perception. Other children were unable to recognize a l e t t e r or word when i t was printed i n different sizes or colors, or when i t was printed i n upper-case p r i n t and they were used to seeing i t i n lower-case. I t was postulated that these children had poor form constancy. Like everyone else who has worked with young children, we noticed that many children produced l e t t e r s or words i n "mirror w r i t i n g . " Such reversals or rotations indicated a d i f f i c u l t y i n perceiving position i n space, while interchanging the order of l e t t e r s i n a word suggested d i f f i c u l t i e s i n analyzing s p a t i a l relationships (as w e l l as indicating the p o s s i b i l i t y of auditory perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s ) . As a r u l e , these l a t t e r children could neither read nor s p e l l longer words. I t was also observed that many of the children with evident d i s a b i l i t i e s i n v i s u a l perception had d i f f i c u l t y i n paying sustained attention and/or showed behavioral deviations. These observations lead to her work i n developing the Marianne Frostig  Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Frostig Program for the  Development of Visual Perception. Although Frostig believes that v i s -u a l perception i s probably the most important perceptual function and therefore emphasizes i t i n her assessment procedures and remedial program, she by no means postulates that they are the only functions important to learning success. Her evaluation of the developmental status of the c h i l d includes measurement of sensory-motor a b i l i t i e s , language, perception, thought processes and emotional and s o c i a l „ 18 maturity. Although i t s use i s wide-spread throughout the United States and Canada, the Frostig Test has been studied r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e . Questioning the lack of significance tests with respect to the statement of Frostig et a l that the greater degree of subtest scatter of the children with learning handicaps "suggests that d i s t i n c t functions ^Maslow, F r o s t i g , Lefever and Whittlesley, op. c i t . , p. 464 18 Marianne F r o s t i g , "The education of children with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s , " Progress i n Learning Disorders, ed. H. Myklebust, (New York: Grune and Statton Inc., 1967), p. 239. of v i s u a l perception can be disturbed independently and to varying 19 degrees," Corah and Powell conducted a factor-analytic study to determine what common factors did i n fact e x i s t i n the test scores and what proportion of the subtest variance was s p e c i f i c . The results of t h i s analysis showed that two major factors would account for most of the variance. They were general i n t e l l i g e n c e and developmental changes i n perception. The results also suggested that the Perceptual Quotient has a good age standardization, a low relationship with IQ and 20 may be a good measure of perceptual development. Working on Vernon's premise that children who have reading prob-lems show perceptual d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to recognize s i g n i f -icant d e t a i l s , distinguish one l e t t e r from another and f e e l confusion i n d i r e c t i o n of l e t t e r s and words, Olson conducted a study to determine i f the Frostig test predicted s p e c i f i c reading d i f f i c u l t i e s , i . e . , paragraph comprehension, word recognition, hearing sounds i n words, v i s u a l memory, using reversible words i n context, with a second-grade population. He found that the i n d i v i d u a l tests on the Frostig Test appeared to have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to either Mental Age or Chronological Age, and from these results concluded that the Frostig Test was of l i t t l e value i n predicting the s p e c i f i c reading a b i l i t i e s of the 21 students tested i n this study. Jacobs, assuming that the Frostig Test has construct v a l i d i t y , conducted a study with the purpose of determining whether children res-pond with higher scores on the test after completion of the perceptual trai n i n g program, and whether the effectiveness of the subsequent 19 F r o s t i g , Lefever and Whittlesley, op. c i t . , p. 392 20 Norman Corah and Barbara Powell, "A factor-analytic study of the Frostig Developmental Test of V i s u a l Perception," Perceptual and  Motor S k i l l s , 16:59-63, 1963. 21 Arthur V. Olson, "The Frostig Developmental Test of V i s u a l Perception as a predictor of s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t i e s with second-grade children," Elementary English, 43:869-72. 10 program (Frostig Program for the Development of Vis u a l Perception) might be related to age of intervention. The study revealed that experimental f i r s t graders gained most from the Frostig Program over controls, with prekindergarten children gaining second most and k i n -dergarten children showing no gain on the Frostig Test. This was con-trary to the prediction that prekindergarten children would gain most. Again, contrary to prediction, i t was found that no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences i n achievement on reading readiness tests existed for kindergarten children. Jacobs concludes that "while there i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence that the Frostig Program does increase Frostig v i s u a l perceptual scores, the question s t i l l remains whether these v i s u a l perceptual gains 22 favourably influence reading achievement." Test evaluators Anderson and Austin disagree i n t h e i r evaluation of the F r o s t i g Test. Although they do agree that the aesthetic quality and directions for the test are but mediocre, Anderson feels that the Frostig test has been prematurely offered as a finished product i n that i t s standardization i s incomplete and the theoretical position of the authors inadequately stated or demonstrated. Austin, on the other hand feels that i t i s indeed a v a l i d adequately standardized scale for the 23 prediction of learning d i f f i c u l t i e s . 22 Jacobs, op_. c i t . , pp. 332-40. ^^Mary Austin and James Anderson, quoted i n The Sixth Mental  Measurements Yearbook, edited by O.K. Buros, (New Jersey: Gryphon Press, 1965), No. 553. CHAPTER I I I PROCEDURE TESTS TO BE USED The Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception Standardization. The most recent standardization (1963) i s based on the responses of over two thousand public school children who l i v e d i n Southern C a l i f o r n i a and who were between the ages of three and nine years, who were tested on the 1961 e d i t i o n of the Frostig Test. The authors recognize that the sample was f a r from perfect as most subjects were from the middle calss areas near to the Marianne Frostig School of Educational Therapy and included no Negro children. The normative curves drawn from the standardization sample indicate that the maximum perceptual growth measured occurred between the ages of four and seven with less growth after the age of approximately seven and one-half 24 years when cognitive functions begin to predominate. Items. The c r i t e r i a f o r the f i n a l selection of the items i n each subtest area were good age progression and low contamination with other a b i l i t i e s . The c h i l d i s required to attempt ca r e f u l l y graded tasks i n 25 26 the f i v e areas of v i s u a l perception. ' 1. Eye-hand Coordination: The child's task i s to draw straight and curved l i n e s within increasingly narrow boundaries or to draw a straight l i n e to a target. Poor performance indicates that w r i t i n g may be d i f f i c u l t for the c h i l d and that kinesthetic methods used i n 24 Maslow, F r o s t i g , Lefever arid Whittlesley, op_. c i t . , p. 467. 25 I b i d , p. 466 26 Marianne F r o s t i g , "Testing as a basis for educational therapy," The Journal of Special Education, 2:19-20. 12 remedial reading are l i k e l y to have only limited success. 2. Figure-Ground: The c h i l d i s asked to discriminate between intersecting shapes and to f i n d hidden figures. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s area are p a r a l l e l l e d by d i f f i c u l t i e s i n sustaining and s h i f t i n g atten-tion and r i g i d i t y i n thought processes. 3. Form Constancy: The task here i s to discriminate d i f f e r e n t l y shaded and sized squares and c i r c l e s placed i n di f f e r e n t positions among shapes. Low scores on the Form Constancy subtest are claimed to predict problems with the recognition and discrimination of l e t t e r forms and transfer of reading s k i l l s from one context or size of p r i n t to another. 4. Position i n Space: This subtest explores the child's concept of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . The c h i l d i s asked to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between figures i n an i d e n t i c a l position and those i n a rotated position. A c h i l d with d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s area i s thought to have poor body awareness, especially with respect to the l e f t and rig h t sides of his body. He might also have problems with discriminating between l e t t e r s with the same form but d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n such as 'b' and 'd'. 5. Spatial Relations: The task i s to copy patterns by l i n k i n g dots. A d i s a b i l i t y i n t h i s area i s claimed to affect a child's a b i l i t y to learn to read and s p e l l . I t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t for him to construct words from l e t t e r s and s y l l a b l e s and to recognize the sequence of l e t t e r s i n a word. ' . . , Materials. The test consists of a booklet of outline drawings. The examiner needs, i n addition, an administration and scoring manual, a set of demonstration cards, coloured chalk (white, green and red) a chalkboard, a set of coloured pencils (red, green, brown and blue) along with a black lead primary pencil for each c h i l d , and a set of scoring templates. Administration. E x p l i c i t directions for administering the test are given i n the manual and should be s t r i c t l y followed. Optimum numbers for group testing are: Nursery School 1 - 4 Kindergarten 8 - 1 0 F i r s t Grade 12 - 16 Second Grade 10 - 20 Third Grade 20 - 40 Group administration should not be attempted u n t i l the children have been i n the classroom for at least two weeks. A proctor, i n addition 27 to the examiner, i s h e l p f u l but not necessary. The time required f o r group administration i s less than one hour; for i n d i v i d u a l administra-t i o n , t h i r t y to f o r t y - f i v e minutes. Scoring and administration. The manual also provides adequate instructions for scoring the test. Interpretation i s based on the following concepts: 1. Perceptual Age (PA): This concept i s defined i n terms of the performance of the average c h i l d i n the corresponding age group and indicates the child's development i n each v i s u a l perceptual a b i l i t y . Although i t i s c r i t i c i z e d on the same basis as Mental Age (MA) because children with the same MA's but diff e r e n t Chronological Ages (CA) w i l l perform d i f f e r e n t l y , i t does make easier an explanation to the teacher. For example, she w i l l understand better, "Eight-year-old Johnny cannot d i f f e r e n t i a t e position i n space (Subtest 4) as w e l l as a six-year-old boy i s expected to do," than "Johnny's subtest score of 8 indicates a 28 need for special t r a i n i n g . " 2. Perceptual Quotient (PQ): The PQ i s defined i n terms of constant percentiles above and below the median. A PQ of 90 or less indicates low v i s u a l perceptual a b i l i t y and that help i s needed. I t i s also important that the PQ not be used i n i s o l a t i o n from the scale scores obtained i n the f i v e subtests because these subtest scores are Marianne F r o s t i g , W. Lefever and J.R.B. Whittlesley, A dministration and Scoring Manual for the Marianne Frostig Developmental  Test of Visu a l Perception, (Palo A l t o : Consulting Psychologists Press, 1966) p. 8. 28 Maslow, F r o s t i g , Lefever and Whittlesley, op_. c i t . , p. 479 based on the assumption that f i v e different and r e l a t i v e l y independent a b i l i t i e s are tested and may be d i f f e r e n t l y trained. Using the PQ as a unitary measure of perceptual function may suggest that i t expresses 29 some common trend or factor. The manual for the Frostig Test includes tables which allow the examiner to e a s i l y convert raw scores to scale scores and the scale scores to PQ for three-month age inte r v a l s from 4-0 to 7-11, raw scores to PA equivalents and PQ to the equivalent percentile rank. These tables are not suitable for children who are ten years old or over, regardless of th e i r raw scores and PA i n planning remedial porgrams on the basis of the Frostig Test, the lowest and highest scores made by the c h i l d are of major importance. The a b i l i t i e s i n which the c h i l d i s deficient w i l l be the focus of remediation. His perceptual assets can 30 be used to master new material. The Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery Standardization. The Clymer-Barrett was standardized using 5,565 Kindergarten and first-grade children. I t has a s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .96 for the short form and .97 for the long form with c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from .90 to .97 for the i n d i v i d u a l sub-test s . The norms provided give both a percentile rank and a stanine 31 equivalent for both the long and short forms. Items. The Clymer-Barrett i s designed for use at the end of Kindergarten or the beginning of Grade One. I t consists of three sub-tests each containing two sections. 29 Maslow, F r o s t i g , Lefever and Whittlesley, op_. c i t . p. 481. 3 0 I b i d . pp. 469-78 31 Theodore Clymer and Thomas Barrett, Clymer-Barrett Prereading  Battery: Preliminary Manual Form A with Norms, (Princeton: Personnel Press, Inc., 1967), pp. 14-16 15 1. Visual Discrimination: Letter Recognition: The c h i l d i s required to f i n d the l e t t e r of the alphabet given by the examiner. Word Matching: The task here i s to choose from four s i m i l a r words the word which i s i d e n t i c a l to the stimulus word. 2. Auditory Discrimination: Beginning Sounds: The c h i l d must choose the picture whose name begins with the same sound as the one given by the examiner. 3. Visual Motor Coordination: Shape Completion: The task here i s to add the missing elements to make an incomplete figure look l i k e the com-pleted figure. Copy-a-Sentence: The c h i l d must copy a sentence exactly 32 from a model. Materials: Each c h i l d needs a test booklet and a p e n c i l : the examiner, an administration manual, the key and, i f desired, a stop-watch. Administration: The test i s so designed that i t can be admin-i s t e r e d i n either of two forms: 1. Long Form: This employs a l l s i x subtests, takes three periods of about t h i r t y minutes each and yi e l d s three diagnostic subtest scores and a battery t o t a l . 2. Short Form: This employs subtests 1 and 3 only, takes one period of about t h i r t y minutes and yields a single score. This form i s 33 the ttore suitable for screening. The test i s administered either i n a group or to the i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l . The preferred procedure i s that of giving the entire battery at Clymer and Barrett, op. c i t . , pp. 5-11 'ibid, pp. 3-4 one s i t t i n g observing the following schedule: Period I Letter recognition and word matching Period II Discrimination of beginning sounds and ending sounds Period III Shape completion and copy-a-sentence After the f i r s t . t e s t i n each period a few moments of passive rest are given in the children's desks, and after Period I and Period II, a few minutes for active relaxation. The manual includes explicit instructions for administration. Scoring and Interpretation. A scoring key i s provided which gives the correct answers to each item and provides directions for scor-ing each of the battery subtests. The norms provide a stanine equiv-alent for each subtest area and for the f u l l form and the short form. Also given, are percentile,ranks for the total raw scores for each form. Children whose percentile ranks are 40 or below are considered to need 34 extra attention. The Clymer-Barret was chosen as the measure for reading read-iness because i t has good positive correlations with end of f i r s t -, 35 ' reading achievement, because i t includes those s k i l l s commonly assumed to be good predictors of reading success and because i t i s widely used in the schools of British Columbia. SUBJECT SELECTION Subjects for this study were taken from the Grade One population of Prince George School D i s t r i c t . Grade One was chosen because previous study has shown that the largest gains i n perceptual s k i l l s as measured by the Frostig, and reading readiness s k i l l s as measured by various readiness batteries i n children who have received the Frostig Program 36 occur at the first-grade level. Three schools were involved i n the 34 Clymer and Barrett, op_. c i t . pp. 12-13 35 36 Ibid, p. 16, Table 7. Jacobs, op. c i t . , pp. 339-40 17 experiment: Quinson, Harwin and Central Fort George. These schools were selected because of thei r proximity to each other. During the l a s t week i n September and the f i r s t week i n October, the Frostig Test was administered to a l l the children i n the three classes, exactly according to i n s t r u c t i o n s , with no group larger than sixteen. Those children who obtained a PQ of 90 or less on the Frostig Test were then administered the Clymer-Barrett (long form) as w e l l . Those children who scored 90 or less on the Frostig and at the 40th percentile or less on the Clymer-Barrett then became subjects for the experiment. The t o t a l number of p u p i l s involved was thirty-two, with ten at Quinson, twelve at Harwin and ten at Central Fort George. These children were assigned randomly to the experimental or control groups. The control group consisted of f i f t e e n children; the experimental, of seventeen. ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROGRAM The experimenter went into each class three times a week for s i x weeks for a s i x t y to seventy-five minute session. In an e f f o r t to main-ta i n the semblance of a regular classroom s i t u a t i o n , the experimenter worked with the whole cl a s s , teaching both the control and experimental groups. The sessions were rotated on the following schedule: Day/Time 9:15-10:30 1:00-2:10 Monday Quinson Central Fort George Tuesday Harwin Quinson Wednesday Central Fort George Thursday Harwin Quinson Friday Central Fort George Harwin Each class consisted of approximately three a b i l i t y groups which could be taught together or separately as the lesson of the day demanded. In each session the experimental group was taught as a sep-arate group while the control group was taught as part of whichever a b i l i t y group they belonged to. The classroom set-up was the conven-t i o n a l or with desks and a small space f o r group a c t i v i t y . Each room was provided with a balance board, bean bags, p l a s t i c i n e , f e l t shapes and other three-dimensional materials a l l of which were readily a v a i l -able i n the school. The s t e n c i l s f o r the two-dimensional work sheets used i n the program were borrowed from the school d i s t r i c t ' s Central Library and would be available to any teacher who wished to use them. The lessons for the c l a s s , including the control group, were worked out with the teacher each day. The Frostig Program was administered accord-37 ing to the Frostig teacher's manual, each lesson being car e f u l l y pre-pared by the experimenter, a primary teacher of four years experience. Experimental Group. Each session the whole experimental group received ten minutes of physical exercises for coordination, balance, body awareness and eye-movements. They were given ten minutes of i n d i -v i d u a l l y prescribed and administered two-dimensional exercises i n each c h i l d ' s three lowest subtest areas. Each c h i l d received three to s i x worksheets per session, depending on the complexity of the tasks involved. These included a misture of areas so that two-dimensional tr a i n i n g i n each area was received every day. The remainder of the session was spent on such a c t i v i t i e s as cutting and pasting exercises, colouring, stringing beads, sorting shapes, building p l a s t i c i n e objects, drawing, building with blocks, a l l of which require a minimum of teacher supervision but are suggested as suitable i n the program. To follow Frostig's philosophy that the program must be an integrated one i n which other s k i l l s than the v i s u a l perceptual stressed by the Frostig Program 38 are developed, the children followed the program of t h e i r a b i l i t y group on days when there was no session. Control Group. The control group received the regular reading and reading readiness program as prescribed by the B.C. course of study Fr o s t i g and Home, op_. c i t . Frostig i n Johnson and Myklebust, op. c i t . , p. 249. for the primary grades i n the Copp-Clark or Language Experience serie s , with t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y group. In each c l a s s , although the Copp-Clark approach was followed, i t was supplemented with ideas from the Language Experience Programs. The a c t i v i t i e s included: low a b i l i t y : nursery rhymes, story sequences, naming objects, describing pictures, f a i r y t a l e s , auditory and v i s u a l discrim-i n a t i o n , rhyming, colour recognition, categorization, drawing, cutting and pasting and p r i n t i n g . Middle and high a b i l i t y : picture discussion and construction of experience charts, word recognition, v i s u a l and auditory discrimination, rhyming, l i s t e n i n g for story sequence, categorization, phonetic analysis, o r a l and s i l e n t reading s k i l l s , p r i n t i n g sentences and s t o r i e s . During the session, there was usually one group doing work with the teacher (experimenter) while two groups were working independently. Barbara R. Mercer, Teacher's Manual to Accompany Off to School, (Vancouver, Copp Clark, 1962). 40 Theodore Clymer, Bernice M. Christenson, David H. Ru s s e l l , Manual For Building Pre-Reading S k i l l s , K i t A, Language, (Boston: Ginn and Co., 1965) 41 Elizabeth A. Thorn, Anne McCreary-Juhasz, Audrey C. Smith, K.D. Munroe, M. Irene Richmond, Language Experience Reading Program: The Teacher's Sourcebook, Level I , (Toronto, W.J. Gage, Ltd., 1966). CHAPTER IV RESULTS Re testing Within three days of the completion of the program, each subject was retested on the Frostig and Clymer-Barrett exactly according to instructions. Analysis of the Data To test the hypothesis that children given the Frostig Program in the regular class w i l l make significant gains on the Frostig Test over children receiving the regular program, the difference between pretest and posttest scores on the Frostig Test was found for each child as demonstrated in the table on the following page. The mean improvement was found to be 17.25 for the experimental group and 14.2 for the control group. These were compared using the two-sample t-test and the 42 results were found to be insignificant at the .05 level. To test the hypothesis that children, given the Frostig Program in the regular class, w i l l make significantly greater gains in the read-ing readiness s k i l l s , as measured by the Clymer-Barrett, over children receiving the regular program, the difference between pretest and post-test scores on the Clymer-Barrett was found for each child. The mean improvement was found to be 14.235 for the experimental group and 13.267 for the control group. These were compared using the two-sample 43 t-test. The results were found to be insignificant at the .05 level. 42 See the Appendix for calculations. 43 See the Appendix for calculations. 21 TABLE I PRETEST, RETEST AND DIFFERENCE SCORES ON THE FROSTIG AND CLYMER-BARRETT FROSTIG CLYMER-BARRETT Subject Pretest Re test Difference Pretest Re test Difference Experimental Donna 87 87 0 38 36 - 2 Bobby 87 110 23 12 29 17 Clive 70 80 10 26 53 27 C l i f t o n 87 102 15 32 31 - 1 Laurie 85 110 25 28 44 16 Denise 66 82 16 5 9 4 Laurie 89 120 31 14 30 16 Wade 83 100 17 13 23 10 Al l a n 76 96 20 5 12 7 Jasper 87 83 - 4 8 9 1 Greg 80 99 9 19 23 4 Karla 42 70 28 1 2 1 Mac 85 102 17 23 51 28 Sharlyne 89 103 14 39 61 22 Kenneth 85 104 19 13 30 17 Steve 85 121 36 35 75 40 Michelle 85 102 17 28 53 25 Control Lincoln 82 98 16 18 44 26 Tony 87 94 7 21 47 26 D ebbie 87 98 12 31 34 3 Larry 89 100 11 24 47 23 Debora 81 94 13 37 71 34 Karen 72 90 18 28 41 13 Laurie 87 102 15 40 32 - 8 Wendy 82 77 - 5 24 29 5 Diane 83 105 22 19 50 31 Robert 70 80 10 16 16 0 Alan '85 100 15 18 29 11 Colin 90 96 6 5 21 17 V i o l e t t a 58 87 29 6 4 - 2 David 73 100 27 30 36 6 Gino 87 104 17 31 47 16 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION According to the results obtained i n this study, the Frostig Program was not succesful i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y increasing perceptual s k i l l s as measured by the Frostig Test nor i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y increasing reading readiness as measured by the Clymer-Barrett. As increased reading readiness i s the ultimate goal i n developing the perceptual s k i l l s , one could conclude that the test and the program are of limited usefulness i n the regular classroom and, therefore, should not be used except i n the c l i n i c a l setting. However, the results give r i s e to some doubts and questions which point to further investigation before such a conclusion i s drawn. F i r s t of a l l , i t i s interesting to note that i n a p i l o t t r a i n i n g study done i n the Kindergarten classes of f i v e schools i n Hermosa Beach, C a l i f o r n i a , the children trained i n eighteen sessions of eighty-five minutes each (including a "milk break" and recess) gained s i g n i f i c a n t l y more on the Frostig Test than did children i n the control group trained 44 according to prescribed school curriculum. The children i n t h i s study received eighteen sessions of an average of sixty-eight minutes each, not including recess, but did not show a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement. From th i s we could hypothesize that perhaps the first-grade children used here had gone beyond the age of fastest development. This, however, would not be supported by Jacobs who found the fastest rate of develop-45 occurring at the first-grade l e v e l . I t would be interesting to see i f Kindergarten children taught i n the regular classroom would improve s i g n i f i c a n t l y more. Maslow, F r o s t i g , Lefever and Whittlesley, op. c i t . p. 496. Jacobs, op. c i t . , p. 338. 23 One might also hypothesize that the difference l i e s in the fact that the pilot-study children were taught by specially trained 46 teachers. The experimenter was not specially trained in this area but was definitely aware of the developmental sequence through which c h i l -dren pass, and studied the test and program very carefully before attempting to teach by i t , as would a regular classroom teacher. The difference could also be explained by the fact that the pilot-study children were removed from the classroom for intensive training at the Frostig Center. It would appear to the experimenter that this i s prob-ably the most pertinent explanation in that the intense training could be given without interruption from children in other groups. The exper-imenter observed that even when the time was exactly planned, i t was very rushed to complete the session's work with every group. It was also apparent that these first-grade children, most of whom had not had Kindergarten, had not yet developed the independence nor self-discipline to work on their own for any length of time and that steady interrup-tions occurred. Perhaps, in order for the program to be successful i n the regular classroom i t should be carried over a longer period of time allowing for interruptions and a more relaxed approach. It may be also that significant results were not obtained by this particular experimenter. If one could conduct a similar experiment with a random sample of teachers and classes, perhaps the results would again be different because one would supposedly have a normal distribu-tion of teacher characteristics as well as pupil characteristics. It would appear, then, that before drawing any conclusions as to the usefulness of the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual  Perception and the Frostig Program for the Development of Visual  Perception i n the regular classroom, further investigation controlling the variables of class size, number of sessions and age of the subjects would be in order. Maslow, F r i s t i g , Lefever and Whittlesley, op. c i t . p. 496. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bortner, Morton (ed.). Evaluation and Education of Brain-Injured  Children. Springfield, I l l i n o i s : CC. Thomas, 1967. Buros, O.K. (ed.). The Sixth Mental Measurements Yearbook. New Jersey: Gryphon Press, 1965. Clymer, Theodore and Thomas C. Barrett. Clymer-Barrett Prereading  Battery, Form A. Princeton: Personnel Press, 1965. . Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery, Form A, Key. Princeton: Personnel Press, 1967. . Clymer-Barrett Prereading Battery Preliminary Manual, Form A. Princeton: Personnel Press, 1967. Clymer, Theodore, Bernice M. Christenson, David H. Russell. Manual  for Building Pre-reading S k i l l s , Kit A, Language. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1965. Corah, Norman L. and Barbara J. Powell. "A factor analytic study of the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception," Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , 16:59-63, 1963. Flower, Richard, Helen Gofman and Lucie Lawson (eds.). Reading  Disorders: A Multidisciplinary Symposium. Philadelphia: Davis Company, 1965. Frostig, Marianne. Administration and Scoring Manual for the Marianne  Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1961. . "Developmental Evaluation and the institution of remedial programs for children with learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , " The Challenge  of Capacity, 7:20-23, 1967. . "A treatment program." Bulletin for the Hospital for Sick Children, 15:46-50, 3rd and 4th quarters, 1966. . "Visual perception i n the brain-injured child," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 33:665-71, July, 1963. . "Education of children with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s , " Progress i n Learning Disorders, ed. H. Myklebust, New York: Grune and Statton, Inc., 1967. 25 . "The implication of developmental diagnosis of children with learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , and applications i n the normal classroom," Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 3:10-19, 1963. . "Testing as a basis for educational therapy," Journal of Special Education, 2:15-34, 1967. Frostig, Marianne and Wilma Hart. "Developmental evaluation and the institution of remedial programs for children with learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , " Principals' Journal, 7:2-24 Frostig, Marianne and David Home. "An approach to the treatment of children with learning d i f f i c u l t i e s , " Learning Disorders, 1:293-305. . "Assessment of visual perception and i t s importance in education," The A.M.M.D. Reporter, 2:1-12. . The Frostig Program for the Development of Visual Perception: Teacher's Guide. Chicago: Follett Publishing Company, 1964. Frostig, Marianne, D.W. Lefever and J.R.B. Whittlesley. The Marianne  Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception, Third Edition. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1964. __. "A developmental test of visual perception for evaluating normal and neurologically handicapped children," Perceptual and  Motor S k i l l s , 12:383-94, 1961. Hegge, T.G. and S.A. Kirk. Remedial Reading D r i l l s . Ann Arbour: G. Wahr, 1937. Hellmuth, Jerome (ed.). Learning Disorders. Special Child Publications of the Seattle Seguin School, Inc., Vol. I. Seattle: Bemie Straub and Jerome Hellmuth Co-publishers, 1965. Jacobs, James, N. "An evaluation of the Frostig visual-perceptual program," Educational Leadership, 25:332-40, 1968. Kephart, Newell C. The Slow Learner in the Classroom. Columbus: Charles E. M e r r i l l Books, Inc., 1960. Kirk, Samuel A. and J.J. McCarthy. The I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholin- guistic A b i l i t i e s . Chicago: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1961. Maslow, Phyllis, Marianne Frostig, D.W. Lefever and J.R.B. Whittlesley. "The Marianne Frostig developmental test of visual perception, 1963 standardization," Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , 19:463-99 1964, Monograph Supplement 2-V19. 26 Mcintosh, J.R. The Canadian Reading.Development Series: Off to School. Vancouver: Copp-Clark Publishing Co., 1960. Mercer, Barbara, Teacher's Manual to Accompany Off to School. Vancouver, Copp-Clark, 1962. Monroe, Marion. Children Who Cannot Read. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932. Mussen, Paul, J.J. Conger and Jerome Kagan. Child Development and Personality, Second Edition. New York: Harper and Row, 1963. Olson, Arthur V. "The Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception as a predictor of specific reading a b i l i t i e s with second-grade children," Elementary English, 43:869-72. Roach, Eugene C. and Newell C. Kephart. The Purdue Perceptual-Motor  Survey. Columbus: Charles E. M e r r i l l Books, 1966. Thorn, Elizabeth A., Anne McCreary-Juhasz, Audrey C. Smith, K.D. Munroe, M. Irene Richmond. Language Experience Reading Program: The  Teacher's Sourcebook, Level I. Toronto: W.J. Gage, 1965. Thorn, E., A. McCreary-Juhasz, A.C. Smith, K.D. Munroe, M.I. Richmond. Language Experience Reading Program, The Teacher's Sourcebook, Level II. Toronto: W.J. Gage, 1966. . Language Experience Reading Program, Just for Me, Level II-A. Toronto: W.J. Gage, 1965. 27 APPENDIX I CALCULATIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS I 1. Null Hypothesis: The experimental group did not improve signif-icantly more than the control group when retested on the Frostig Test. 2. St a t i s t i c a l Notation of the Null Hypothesis: H = ^ 4f -Af = 0 H l : ^ c ^ e ^ ^ c - ^ e ^ ° 3. If H i s true, then o t = (X - X ) - 0 ^ -v> t,T , „ (0 v • ob e c yte + Nc - 2) jr. * ' v - 2) V'Sp 1/Ne + 1/Nc where v = N. + N - 2 1 s 4. Assumptions: The variances are equal but unknown for the population. The samples are random. Independent observations, i.e., every child worked on his own. The sample approximates the normal curve. 5. Decision Rule: tfC = .05 Reject the null hypothesis i f t fe i s less than 1.96 or more than + 1.96. 6. Data: X = 17.25 S 2 = 53.7 e e X = 14.2 S 2 = 70.87 c c 'ob = t = (Xe - Xc) - 0 where Sp2 = (Nc - 1)(Sc 2) + (Ne - 1)(Se 2) \] Sp2/Nc +.;Sp2/Ne = Nc + Ne Sto = 3.05 = 1.099 2.775 8. Accept the nu l l hypothesis and reject the hypothesis that there i s a significant difference. 28 APPENDIX I I CALCULATIONS FOR HYPOTHESIS I I 1. N u l l Hypothesis: The experimental group did not improve s i g n i f -i c a n t l y more than the control group when retested on the Clymer-Barrett. 2. S t a t i s t i c a l Notation of the N u l l Hypothesis: See Appendix I. 3. See Appendix I . 4. Assumptions: See Appendix I. 5. Decision Rule: = .05 Reject the n u l l hypothesis i f t , i s less than -1.96 or more than +1.96. 6. Data: X = 14.235 143.441 e e X - 13.267 163.638 c 7. = .986 = .225 4.38 

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