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UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Quest for wholeness : D.H. Lawrence's shorter fiction Fraser, Keith William 1969

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QUEST FOR WHOLENESS: D. H. LAWRENCE'S SHORTER FICTION fey K e i t h W i l l i a m F r a s e r B. A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e Department o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s thes.is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT That one narrows the c r i t i c a l l y popular quest theme t o one of wholeness does not a x i o m a t i c a l l y assure a tapered, p e r t i n e n t monograph. For t h a t r e a s o n I have taken some care to c o n s t r u c t my approach t o D. H. Lawrence's s h o r t e r f i c t i o n w i t h three chapters which c a n a l i z e S e t t i n g , S t r u c t u r e , and Imagery toward t h i s quest f o r wholeness. And t o attenuate f u r t h e r , the three essays which connect w i t h each of these are t i t l e d "Landscape and P o i n t of View," "The Whole Story," 1 and " T r i a n g l e Versus the I n d i v i d u a l Consciousness." In the case of the f i r s t and l a s t , I use two of Law-rence's own essays t o k i n d l e the examinations o f c e r t a i n s h o r t s t o r i e s and n o v e l l a s . Chapter I endeavors t o r e l a t e the apparent i n f l u e n c e o f p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t i n g on the w r i t e r ' s c r e a t i o n of landscape, and to i l l u s t r a t e how c l o s e l y p o i n t of view a l l i e s i t s e l f w i t h s e t t i n g i n the c h a r a c t e r quest f o r wholeness. The t h i r d chapter r e c o g n i z e s the d i f f e r e n c e between s t r u c t u r a l and c o n c r e t e Imagery, then uses the t r i a n g l e image as an example o f the f i r s t k i n d t o show how t h i s image remains a n t i t h e t i c a l t o Lawrence's i d e a of the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s — f o r him the epitome o f wholeness. The middle chapter attempts t o l o c a t e a unique con-i i t r i b u t i o n by Lawrence to the short story art of the twen-t i e t h century, and to demonstrate successful and unsuccess-f u l quests by characters who a t t a i n archetypal scope which l i f t s them beyond the more n a t u r a l i s t i c figures i n the author's other shorter fiction© Of course, character success or lack of i t i n the search f o r wholeness remains the purpose i n the discussion of each story, regardless of chapter. And what the I n t r o -duction does, i n part, i s define the nature of that whole-ness as r e l a t e s to Lawrence's polemic essays; for the r e s t , i t reviews evaluation of the shorter f i c t i o n by the c r i t i c s . CONTENTS Chap t e r Page INTRODUCTION I . On Wholeness 1 I I . The C r i t i c s ^ FOOTNOTES 8 I . SETTING Landscape and P o i n t o f View 10 FOOTNOTES l\S I I . STRUCTURE The Whole S t o r y 5l I . The U n s u c c e s s f u l Quest 51+ I I . The S u c c e s s f u l Quest 81i FOOTNOTES 93 I I I . IMAGERY T r i a n g l e V e r s u s the I n d i v i d u a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s 95 FOOTNOTES 120 CONCLUSION 121 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 122 INTRODUCTION I On Wholeness A few weeks ago I r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r f r o m a C a n a d i a n s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r o f some r e p u t a t i o n , who s a i d he used t o r e a d Lawrence as a n i g h t watchman i n a Nova S c o t i a s a w m i l l i n the m i d d l e o f w i n t e r . And l a t e r when he v i s i t e d Eastwood where the a u t h o r was b o r n , he s u r p r i s e d h i m s e l f by s u p p l y i n g d i r e c t i o n s f o r a n o t h e r v i s i t o r a f t e r a mere f i f t e e n m inutes i n town: i t seems he knew t h e v i l l a g e i n s t i n c t i v e l y , as a r e s u l t o f Lawrence's superb a b i l i t y t o r e n d e r s e t t i n g i n h i s f i c t i o n . Pew w r i t e r s i n t h i s c e n t u r y have evoked a c c u r a c y o f p l a c e w i t h t h e p a s s i o n and d e l i c a c y o f Lawrence. T h i s " s p i r i t " (as he c a l l e d i t ) i n c l u d e s v i l l a g e s and chrysanthemums, farms and h a y s t a c k s , mountains and g l a c i e r s . I n h i s s h o r t e r f i c t i o n , as i n h i s n o v e l s , he c o n t i n u a l l y u n d e r s c o r e s the n a t u r a l w o r l d i n an e f f o r t t o b a l a n c e the d u a l i t y of modern e x i s t e n c e . F o r him, the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y s t r e s s e d t h e m e c h a n i c a l over the spontaneous, t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l o v e r the i n s t i n c t i v e , and the s o c i a l over the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Such d u a l i t i e s , o f c o u r s e , s a t u r a t e h i s f i c t i o n , so t h a t any s t u d y o f Lawrence must e v e n t u a l l y t u r n t o t h e s e a r c h by h i s c h a r a c t e r s f o r a r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e p o l a r i t i e s . And w holeness, or harmony 2 with the natural universe, becomes synonymous with t h e i r quest for this r e s o l u t i o n . In almost a l l his polemic essays, Lawrence repeatedly advocates a new fulcrum for the lopsided human equilibrium. Because he ultimately favors i n these debates, the " f u l l n e s s 1 of being** (Fantasia of the Unconscious ) f I have found c e r t a i n of them important i n my own essays which follow. His b r i e f 2 "The Individual Consciousness v. The S o c i a l Consciousness," for instance, seems a kernel essay f o r both an understanding and rationale of the quest theme. Here the i n d i v i d u a l con-s c i o u s n e s s — a c t u a l l y the condition of wholeness—presupposes "one l i v i n g continuum with a l l the universe," where there ap-pears no "cleavage" between subjective consciousness (me) and objective consciousness (you or i t ) , rather a unity of s e l f that embraces "naivete* ... innocence ... at-oness.'" But when the cleavage does occur s o c i a l consciousness r e s u l t s — t h e p r i n c i p a l representative of "the condition of the modern consciousness"—in e f f e c t a condition responsible f o r the unbalance and contrivance i n an unnatural world. This s o c i a l consciousness, contends Lawrence, occurs i n one of two ways. The f i r s t i s the old way of greed or selfishness, when the "me" wants to swallow the "you" and put an end to the continuum that way. The other i s the way of nega-tion , when the " I " wants to lapse out into the "you" or the " i t , " and so end a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of keeping up one's own bright nuclear c e l l a l i v e i n the tissue of the universe. In either way, there i s a lapse -from innocence and a f a l l into the state of vanity, ugly vanity. I t i s a vanity of positive tyranny, or 3 a v a n i t y o f n e g a t i v e t y r a n n y . The o l d v i l l a i n s - i n * . t h e - p i e c e f e l l i n t o the v a n i t y o f p o s i t i v e t y r a n n y , t h e new v i l l a i n s - i n - t h e - p e a c e , who are s t i l l c a l l e d s a i n t s and h o l y p e r s o n s , or a t w o r s t , God's f o o l s , a re s q u i r m i n g i n the v a n i t y o f n e g a t i v e t y r a n n y . They won't l e a v e the continuum a l o n e . They i n s i s t on p a s s i n g out i n t o i t . Which i s as bad as i f the eye s h o u l d i n s i s t on merging i t s e l f i n t o a oneness w i t h the nose. F o r we are none of us more t h a n a c e l l i n t h e e y e - t i s s u e , or a c e l l i n t h e n o s e - t i s s u e o r t h e h e a r t - t i s s u e o f the macrocosm, the u n i v e r s e . F i n a l l y , " a r t ... i s the r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e continuum i t s e l f , t h e v e r y n u c l e a r glimmer of the n a i v e i n d i v i d u a l . " T h e r e f o r e ( i f we may i n t e r p o l a t e ) , when wholeness p r e v a i l s synonymously w i t h t h i s continuum or i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e n an under-s t a n d i n g o f Lawrence's a r t r e s t s f u n d a m e n t a l l y upon a comprehen-s i o n o f t h a t w h o l e n e s s . I n A p o c a l y p s e f Lawrence w r i t e s t h a t "what man most p a s -s i o n a t e l y wants i s h i s l i v i n g wholeness and h i s l i v i n g u n i s o n , not h i s own i s o l a t e s a l v a t i o n of h i s ' s o u l ' . " Hence a r e l i g -i o n w h i c h keeps man away f r o m " h i s p h y s i c a l f u l f i l m e n t " remains p e r n i c i o u s t o t h e human need f o r " c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the cosmos, w i t h the w o r l d , w i t h mankind, w i t h the n a t i o n , w i t h the f a m i l y . " Thus the q u e s t f o r wholeness i s a s e a r c h f o r a new r e l i g i o n , one n e c e s s a r i l y e m p i r i c a l i n i t s n a t u r e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y my own a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s g r a p p l e w i t h c h a r a c t e r s who b o t h succeed and f a i l t o d i s c o v e r t h i s s p i r i t u a l i t y i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d . The f i r s t c h a p t e r moves d i r e c t l y i n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f such a w o r l d where Lawrence o f t e n c r e a t e s l a n d s c a p e i n a t y p -i c a l l y p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t f a s h i o n , a t e c h n i q u e s e r i o u s l y n e g l e c t e d by c r i t i c s o f h i s s h o r t e r f i c t i o n . The l a s t two c h a p t e r s a l s o t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h i s w o r l d , a l t h o u g h under-s t a n d a b l y t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of S t r u c t u r e and Imagery are not so d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o i t as S e t t i n g . C h a p t e r I I d e l i n e a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h Lawrence r e s o r t s t o t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and a r c h e t y p a l c h a r a c t e r s f o r h i s s h o r t e r f i c t i o n , w h i l e the f i n a l e s s a y c o r r e l a t e s a number o f s t o r i e s and n o v e l l a s i n terms o f the t r i a n g u l a r s t r u c t u r a l image, w h i c h few c r i t i c s have r e c o g n i z e d as o p e r a t i n g so e x t e n s i v e l y . Of c o u r s e , none of t h e c h a p t e r s are i n d e p e n d e n t s each adheres t o the quest theme, and s t o r i e s o f one c h a p t e r a r e sometimes d i s c u s s e d i n a n o t h e r when t h e s e g a i n by s u c h a d o u b l i n g - u p . I I The C r i t i c s But why t h e s h o r t e r f i c t i o n i n s t e a d of t h e n o v e l s ? F o r one t h i n g , Lawrence wrote over f i f t e e n hundred pages of s t o r i e s and n o v e l l a s , enough c l a i m s L e a v i s , t o l o c a t e him "among t h e g r e a t w r i t e r s — n o t m e r e l y among the memorable, k b u t among t h e g r e a t . " I f t h i s i s t r u e , L e a v i s 1 s i n g l e c h a p t e r d e v o t e d t o t h e t a l e s r a t h e r mocks h i s own a s s e r t i o n , 5 6 7 as do o t h e r g r a t u i t o u s nods by Hough, Moynahan, and D r a p e r . 8 9 1 0 A t l e a s t T e d l o c k , F o r d , and Sagar, attempt t o i n t e r r e l a t e the s h o r t e r f i c t i o n and n o v e l s , thus i n f e r r i n g a b a l a n c e d ap-p r o a c h t o Lawrence's f i c t i o n a l o euvre. Yet o n l y K i n g s l e y W/id-1 1 mer has d e v o t e d an e n t i r e book t o the s h o r t e r f i c t i o n a l o n e . 5 One o f t h e e a r l i e s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of Lawrence's s h o r t e r f i c t i o n was made by H. E. B a t e s , one w h i c h sums up a w i d e -s p r e a d a t t i t u d e t o the s t o r i e s . I n them Lawrence had no t i m e t o p r e a c h , t o l o s e h i s temper, t o go m y s t i c a l , o r t o persuade the r e a d e r t o l i s t e n t o him by the d o u b t f u l p r o c e s s o f s h o u t i n g a t the t o p of h i s v o i c e and f i n a l l y k i c k i n g him down-s t a i r s . Lawrence i s f o r once bound t o say what he has t o say w i t h i n r e a s o n a b l e , and even s t r i c t , l i m i t s o f time and space. O r d i n a r i l y d i c t a t o r i a l , Lawrence i s here d i c t a t e d t o by t h e f o r m he has chosen. The r e s u l t s have l i t t l e o f t h a t s l o b b e r i n g h y s t e r i a of the l a t e r n o v e l s ; t h e y are a g a i n and a g a i n a superb e x p r e s s i o n o f Lawrence's n a t u r a l g i f t s , s e n s i b i l i t y , v i s i o n , a supreme sense o f the p h y s i c a l (whether b e a u t i f u l or u g l y , human o r o t h e r w i s e ) , an uncanny sense of p l a c e , and a f l a m i n g v i t a l i t y . Unobscured by h y s t e r i a , by the p a s s i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l g o s p e l s , t h e s e q u a l i t i e s s h i n e t h r o u g h t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the f o r t y s t o r i e s t h a t Lawrence w r o t e . 1 2 G i v e n B a t e s ' s p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t the n o v e l s , and h i s d e s i r e t o make a case f o r the s h o r t e r f i c t i o n , he does r e c o g n i z e a unique-ness i n the s t o r i e s . As does P r a n k O'Connor, who c a l l s Law-r e n c e ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l w o r l d " m a g i c a l , " but who l a b e l s Lawrence "a r e c k l e s s l y i n s t i n c t i v e w r i t e r who as he grew o l d e r t r u s t e d more t o h i s i n s t i n c t and l e s s t o h i s 1 3 judgment" — o b v i o u s l y f o r g e t t i n g such a l a t e work as "The Man Who D i e d , " c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d and c o o l y judged. Hough a l s o r e c o g n i z e s the o u t s t a n d i n g accomplishment w h i c h Lawrence's s t o r i e s r e p r e s e n t , b u t f e e l s a need t o q u a l i f y h i s statement i n o r d e r t o r a t i o n a l i z e h i s own f a i l u r e t o devote more t h a n a few pages t o them. 6 . . . those who say, as many do, t h a t Lawrence 's bes t work i s i n h i s s h o r t e r p i e c e s have much reason on t h e i r s i d e . I n s u s t a i n e d r e a l i s a t i o n , i n f o r m a l completeness there i s c e r t a i n l y n o t h i n g to b e t t e r the bes t of h i s s h o r t e r t a l e s . But s imply t o p r e -f e r them p r o b a b l y i m p l i e s some r e d u c t i o n i n the importance of Lawrence as a whole ; by the student of Lawrence the s t o r i e s can best be seen i n r e l a t i o n to the s o l i d range of h i s longer w o r k s . C o n v e r s e l y , Prank Anion p r e f e r s t o view the s t o r i e s " o n t h e i r m e r i t s as s t o r i e s , and o n l y l a t e r i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o h i s other w o r k s . " He argues " t h a t Lawrence 's s t o r i e s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o h i s n o v e l s , d i s c l o s e an o r i g i n a l ' and s i g n i f i c a n t r e l e a s e of h i s f a c u l t i e s and t h a t they s tand as a s p e c i a l and unique achievement i n the a r t of the s h o r t 15 s t o r y . " But i f Amon's essay f a i l s to take much s t o c k of the n o v e l s , i t a l s o does not a l l u d e v e r y o f t e n to Lawrence 's p h i l o s o p h y . The A r t of P e r v e r s i t y f on the other hand, takes account of the w r i t e r ' s polemic w r i t i n g s i n order to apply the span of h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought to the s h o r t e r f i c t i o n . For t h a t r e a s o n , Widmer's book w i l l p r o b a b l y remain a s tandard one f o r some time t o come. D e s p i t e the o c c a s i o n a l j a r g o n i s t i c passage, the book s t i c k s w e l l t o i t s t h e s i s t h a t " p e r v e r s i t y . . . g i v e s much of Lawrence 's work i t s d i s t i n c t i v e b e i n g , " w h i l e a s s e r t i n g that the s h o r t e r f i c t i o n s " c o n s t i t u t e Lawrence 's c e n t r a l w r i t i n g s " w h i c h p l a c e him " a t l e a s t among the best of 16 the w r i t e r s of s h o r t f i c t i o n i n E n g l i s h i n h i s time (1910-30) . " Whether or not the s h o r t e r f i c t i o n are Lawrence 's c e n t r a l w r i t i n g s , however, does not d e t r a c t from t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e 7 c e n t e r i n terms o f modern masters of the s h o r t s t o r y * And whether we need a c c e p t t h e d e n i g r a t i o n of K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d ' s t a l e n t by L e a v i s i n o r d e r t o commend Lawrence's n e g l e c t e d r e p u t a t i o n , s t i l l does n o t h i n g t o b o l s t e r h i s own f a i l u r e a c t u a l l y t o show us t h e g r e a t n e s s he c l a i m s f o r t h i s w r i t e r ' s t a l e s i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . By and l a r g e , then, the c r i t i c s acknowledge t h a t t h e s h o r t e r f i c t i o n composes a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f Lawrence's work, and t h a t i t d e s e r v e s r e c o g n i t i o n . As y e t , however, few o f them have made t h e m a t i c s t u d i e s w h i c h become the Hggdical avenues t o a comprehension o f so much l i t e r a t u r e . FOOTNOTES 1 P s y c h o a n a l y s i s and the Unconscious and F a n t a s i a o f  the Unconscious (The " V i k i n g P r e s s : New York, I960), p. 212. 2 P h o e n i x : The Posthumous Papers o f D. H. Lawrence, ed. Edward D. McDonald ( W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . : London 1933), PP. 76l-761i. 3 (The V i k i n g P r e s s : New York, 1966), pp. 198-199. k F. R. L e a v i s , D. Lawrence: N o v e l i s t ( A l f r e d A. Knopf: New York, 195617 P« 308. 5 Graham Hough, The Dark Sun: A Study of_ D_j_ Hjj_ Lawrence ( G e r a l d Duckworth & Co. L t d . : London, 1956). 6 J u l i a n Moynahanp The Deed o f L i f e : The Novels and the  T a l e s o f Lawrence ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : P r i n c e t o n , 196*37. 7 R o n a l d P. Dr a p e r , D.^H. Lawrence (Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . : New York, 1961+). 8 E. W. T e d l o c k , J r . , D^ H. Lawrence: A r t i s t & R e b e l (The U n i v e r s i t y o f New Mexico P r e s s : Albuquerque, 1963). 9 George H. ForM, Double Measure: A Study o f t h e Nov e l s  and S t o r i e s o f Dj. IK Lawrence ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n : New York, 1963"). 9 10 Keith Sagar, The Art of Dj_ Hj_ Lawrence (Cambridge University Press: 1966). 11 The Art of Perversity; D. H. Lawrence1s Shorter  Fictions (University of Washington Press: Seattle, 1962). 12 The Modern Short Story (The Writer, Inc.: Boston, 191+1), PP. 197-198. 13 The Lonely Voice (Bantam Books, Inc.: New York 1968), p7~261. The Dark Sun, p. 168. 15 nD. H. Lawrence and the Short Story" in The Achieve- ment of D. Lawrence, ed. Frederick J. Hoffman and Harry T. MooreTUniversity of Oklahoma Press: Norman, 1953), P. 222. 16 i p. v i i . CHAPTER I SETTING Landscape and P o i n t of View 1 I n h i s a p p r a i s a l o f Cezanne's p a i n t i n g s , Lawrence sug-g e s t s as much about h i s own a r t i s t i c endeavors as about those o f the F r e n c h p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t . That i s not t o say, how-ev e r , t h a t Lawrence f a i l s i n h i s attempt t o c r e a t e c h a r a c t e r , as he b e l i e v e s Cezanne and the r e s t o f t h e p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t s t o have b l u n d e r e d by p a i n t i n g s i m p l y c e r e b r a l p e o p l e . At l e a s t i n the d e p i c t i o n of l a n d s c a p e , Lawrence admits the Frenchman's s t r o k e i n r e n d e r i n g i n t u i t i v e l y t h a t w h i c h escapes h i s b r u s h e l s e w h e r e , and here i t i s the two a r t i s t s seem sim-i l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l , whether o r not we a c c e p t the p r e v i o u s p a r t of Lawrence's c o n t e n t i o n . I n Qiis) b e s t l a n d s c a p e s ( w r i t e s Lawrence3 we are f a s c i n a t e d by t h e m y s t e r i o u s s h i f t i n e s s of t h e scene under our eyes; i t s h i f t s about as we watch i t . And we r e a l i z e , w i t h a s o r t of t r a n s p o r t , how i n t u i t i v e l y t r u e t h i s i s o f l a n d s c a p e . I t i s not s t i l l . I t has i t s own w e i r d anima, and t o our wide-eyed p e r c e p t i o n i t changes l i k e a l i v i n g a n i m a l under our gaze. T h i s i s a q u a l i t y Cezanne sometimes got m a r v e l l o u s l y . Lawrence c o u l d r a i s e a rumpus about the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e canvases o f t h e p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t s , b u t he does r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e y had broug h t l a n d s c a p e from the " d e l i c i o u s nowhereness" o f I m p r e s s i o n i s m , t o ^ s u b s t a n c e and t h e r e n e s s . " And Lawrence 11 s h a r e s more w i t h t h e m t h a n he c a r e s t o c o n c e d e . H i s own p a i n t i n g s , w r i t e s H e r b e r t R e a d , a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f " a n e x p r e s s i o n i s t , a n e x t r e m e e x a m p l e o f t h a t t y p e o f a r t i s t who s e e k s a d i r e c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n f e e l i n g and r e -p r e s e n t a t i o n , t o t h e n e g l e c t o f t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d 2 v a l u e s o f p r o p o r t i o n and h a r m o ny." To a l a r g e e x t e n t t h i s i s a l s o t r u e , o f L a w r e n c e t h e l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n i s t . L i k e C e z a n n e a n d t h o s e a r t i s t s who f o l l o w e d , he h i m s e l f a t t e m p t s t o r e v i t a l i z e " t h e d a r k p r o c r e a t i v e b o d y " f r o m w h i c h t h e I m p r e s s i o n i s t s h a d "made t h e g r a n d e s c a p e " ; i n a t l e a s t s i x s h o r t s t o r i e s a n d two n o v e l l a s he j u x t a p o s e s b o d y and land**-. scape i n s e a r c h o f t h a t w h i c h must c o n n e c t a n i n d i v i d u a l " w i t h t h e cosmos, w i t h t h e w o r l d , w i t h m a n k i n d , w i t h t h e n a t i o n , 3 w i t h t h e f a m i l y . " T h i s q u e s t f o r w h o l e n e s s i s e s p e c i a l l y i n d i c a t i v e o f L a w r e n c e ' s c h a r a c t e r s w h ere t h e l a n d s c a p e t h e y e x p e r i e n c e p o s s e s s e s t h e a l i v e n e s s o f a C6zanne o r a V a n Gogh, and a s -s i s t s i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e w r i t e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o t h e f r a g m e n t e d c o n d i t i o n o f man i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . C o n v i n c i n g l y , J a c k L i n d s a y a r g u e s t h a t L a w r e n c e r e a c h e d h i s m a t u r i t y i n f i c t i o n n o t a s one m i g h t e x p e c t t h r o u g h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f h i s l i t e r a r y p r e d e c e s s o r s , b u t t h r o u g h t h a t o f f o r e g o i n g p a i n t e r s . B y h i s r e a c t i o n s t o t h e F u t u r i s t s , L a w r e n c e s o u g h t " a r u p t u r e o f t h e o l d l i n k s t h a t w e r e s u p p o s e d t o h o l d a man t o g e t h e r , t o h o l d man t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r men"; and he l o o k e d f o r " a new c o n c e p t o f u n i t y i n w h i c h t h e f o r m s 12 o f c h a r a c t e r - d e f i n i t i o n had t o be b r o k e n up and r e c o n s t r u c t e d , " Such an i n s i g h t , f i n a l l y , i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f " h i s g r e a t power over t h e s p i r i t of p l a c e over the s t r o n g and d e l i c a t e bonds l i n k i n g man and n a t u r e . " The attempt, t h e n , t o show Lawrence's i n t e g r a t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e and p o i n t of view i s r e a l l y an e f f o r t t o l o c a t e the i n d i v i d u a l s e a r c h f o r wholeness i n t h e modern w o r l d where m e c h a n i c a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n c o n t r i v e s v i c i o u s l y a g a i n s t i t . I n "The I n d i v i d u a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s v . The S o c i a l C o n s c i o u s -n e s s , " Lawrence w r i t e s t h a t "you can make a r t out o f the c o l -l a p s e towards n o t h i n g n e s s : the c o l l a p s e of the t r u e i n d i v i d u a l i n t o t h e s o c i a l i n d i v i d u a l , " i n o t h e r words, t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h a t continuum w h i c h c o n n e c t s an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h t h e u n i v e r s e . P r e c i s e l y t h i s c o l l a p s e o c c u r s i n "'The P r u s s i a n O f f i c e r " (1913), one of Lawrence's f i n e s t s h o r t f i c t i o n s . Here l a n d s c a p e l e n d s p a r t i c u l a r emphasis t o the o r d e r l y who k i l l s h i s commanding o f f i c e r and escapes i n t o a w o r l d u n r e a l enough t o p r e v e n t r e c o v e r y o f " h i s n a t u r a l completeness i n h i m s e l f . " The f i r s t p a r a g r a p h e s t a b l i s h e s an a n t i t h e s i s between the d i s t a n t moun-t a i n "snow g l e a m i n g g e n t l y out o f t h e deep atmosphere," and the " s u f f o c a t i n g h e a t " o f r y e p a t c h e s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e s o l d i e r s p l o d on a " w h i t e , h ot r o a d . " I n t r o d u c e d as one now a b l e t o GU "walk a l m o s t w i t h o u t p a i n , " the o r d e r l y appears a b l e t o do so by " s t a r i n g a t the mountains ahead." T h i s immediate c o u n t e r -p o i n t of la n d s c a p e and p o i n t o f view s t r i k e s one as a r t i s t i c a l l y 13 r i g h t . To keep h i s mind from t h e b r u i s e s on h i s t h i g h s , the o r d e r l y has d i s c o v e r e d an opium, the one t o w h i c h he becomes f a t a l l y a d d i c t e d . But a p a r t f r o m h i s t h i r s t and p h y s i c a l p a i n , he i s a l s o s u f f e r i n g from a s p l i t i n i t i a t e d by the Cap-t a i n , (between h i m s e l f and "a sw e e t h e a r t , a g i r l f r o m the moun-t a i n s , independent and p r i m i t i v e . " So q u i t e n a t u r a l l y he a l -lows the s o l a c e o f the d i s t a n t l a n d s c a p e t o m i t i g a t e the h u r t o f f r u s t r a t e d l o v e , as w e l l as the p a i n o f b r u i s e s i n f l i c t e d by the s a d i s t i c C a p t a i n . M e t a p h y s i c a l l y , o f c o u r s e , the moun-t a i n s i n v i t e a n o t h e r p o i n t o f view, the p e r v e r s e l o n g i n g f o r the n e g a t i v e s o r t of s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h suggests t r a n -scendence, but o f f e r s m e r e l y a n n i h i l a t i o n ; as Lawrence w r i t e s e lsewhere (around the time o f composing " T h e . P r u s s i a n O f f i c e r " ) : F o r overhead t h e r e i s always the s t r a n g e r a d i a n c e of the mountains, t h e r e i s the myst e r y of the i c y r i v e r r u s h i n g t h r o u g h i t s p i n k s h o a l s i n t o t h e da r k n e s s o f the pine-woods, t h e r e i s always t h e f a i n t t a n g o f i c e on the a i r , and the r u s h o f h o a r s e - s o u n d i n g w a t e r . And the i c e and the upper r a d i a n c e o f snow are b r i l -l i a n t w i t h t i m e l e s s immunity from the f l u x and the warmth o f l i f e . Overhead t h e y t r a n s c e n d a l l l i f e , a l l the s o f t , m o i s t f i r e o f the b l o o d . So t h a t a man must needs l i v e under t h e r a d i a n c e o f h i s own n e g a t i o n . 6 I n the f l a s h b a c k o f P a r t I we d i s c o v e r t h e i m p l i c i t s e x u a l a t t r a c t i o n the C a p t a i n f e e l s f o r h i s o r d e r l y , and t h e l e n g t h t o w h i c h h i s r a g i n g j e a l o u s y w i l l p r o p e l r e v enge. I t i s the shock of the k i c k i n g he a d m i n i s t e r s the p r e v i o u s e v e n i n g t h a t s t i r s t o a head the o r d e r l y ' s " f e e l i n g as i f he h i m s e l f were coming t o p i e c e s . " Yet " t o save h i m s e l f " — s e r v e the two r e -14 m a i n i n g months b e f o r e d i s c h a r g e — h e must p r e t e n d t h a t h i s "master" does not e x i s t , and w i t h " a l l h i s i n s t i n c t ... a v o i d p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . " The b e g i n n i n g o f F a r t I I r e t u r n s us t o the march, and a g a i n a s s o c i a t e s landscape w i t h the o r d e r l y ' s p o i n t of v i e w . That the snowy peaks were r a d i a n t among the sky, t h a t the w h i t y - g r e e n g l a c i e r - r i v e r t w i s t e d t h r o u g h i t s p a l e s h o a l s , i n t h e v a l l e y below, seemed almost s u p e r n a t u r a l . A l s o h i s " f e v e r and t h i r s t " are a g a i n i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e r y e f i e l d s "soaked i n s u n s h i n e . " Yet when the company f i n a l l y h a l t s f o r r e f r e s h m e n t , the o r d e r l y does not remove h i s helmet l i k e the o t h e r s , f o r he w i s h e s " t o s t a y i n shadow, not t o be f o r c e d i n t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " Be t h a t as i t may, the C a p t a i n ' s " p r e s e n c e " s t i l l l e a v e s him " d i s e m b o w e l l e d , " as though he were " n o t h i n g , a shadow c r e e p i n g under the s u n s h i n e . " And s u n s h i n e , Lawrence c o n t i n u e s t o r e l a t e t o ; t h e C a p t a i n . I n the next scene, w h i l e the o r d e r l y p e r m i t s t h e s o p o r i f i c "blue mountains r i s i n g upon the l a n d " t o g a i n h o l d of him a g a i n , the s i g h t o f t h e a p p r o a c h i n g C a p t a i n i n whom we see "concen-t r a t e d a l l the l i g h t o f t h i s morning," s t a r t l e s him out o f h i s d r o w s i n e s s , i n t o f u l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . L a t e r , when he r e -t u r n s w i t h t h e f o o d the o f f i c e r commands, he f i n d s h i s master i n a c l e a r i n g where t h e r e i s " h a l f - s h a d e , " " s u n s h i n e and the f l i c k e r i n g shadow o f l e a v e s , " " g o l d - g r e e n shade," and " s p l a s h e d 15 l i g h t . " I n t h i s s e t t i n g the o r d e r l y b r e a k s the C a p t a i n ' s neck. T h i s immediate l a n d s c a p e s e r v e s t o e x t e r n a l i z e the o r d e r l y ' s i n n e r p i e c e m e a l c o n d i t i o n , as I t c o n t i n u e s t o do a f t e r t h e k i l l i n g , when t h e o r d e r l y r i d e s the C a p t a i n ' s h o r s e away "from the s u n - b l a z i n g v a l l e y " deeper I n t o t h e wood w i t h i t s " f l e c k e d shade" and " b r i g h t green r e n t s . " I n t h i s s e t t i n g , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , he l o s e s " c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the r e s t o f t h i n g s " ; unable t o f a c e the r e a l i t y of h i s deed, h i s quest f o r the wholeness he once knew becomes a n e g a t i v e s e a r c h f o r t h a t which d e s t r o y s him. W i t h t h e overwhelming emphasis on l i g h t and shadow i n these l a s t two landscape scenes, Lawrence seems t o f i c t i o n a l i z e the v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e s o f the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s i n such a way as t o connect w i t h h i s own i d e a t h a t t h e y had escaped f r o m the body by f r a g m e n t i n g i t . The e f f e c t i s h i g l y s u c c e s s f u l , e s p e c i a l l y as i t ap-pea r s j u x t a p o s e d t o a p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t l a n d s c a p e of moun-t a i n s t o w h i c h the o r d e r l y u l t i m a t e l y t u r n s f o r wholeness and r e d e m p t i o n . A good example h e r e o f what L i n d s a y d i s -c u s s e s , Lawrence c o n c e r n s h i m s e l f w i t h b r e a k i n g up the o l d i d e a s o f d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r , and s e a r c h i n g f o r a new concept o f c h a r a c t e r u n i t y . That the o r d e r l y l a t e r f i n d s o n l y f r a g -m e n t a t i o n I n the mountain l a n d s c a p e — i n a sense becomes one of the "lumps" the w r i t e r c r i t i c i z e d i n the p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t 16 canvases--does not suggest a s i m i l a r " h a t e " by Lawrence f o r the body; i n s t e a d i t i m p l i e s h i s u n d e r l y i n g sympathies f o r those same p a i n t e r s who viewed modern man a t odds w i t h h i s environment, saw h i m as complete as he c o u l d be i n a w o r l d c o n t r i v e d and l e s s t h a n whole. I n a s o l d i e r , t h e r e f o r e , on the eve o f t h e F i r s t World War, Lawrence p i c k s a s f l t t i n g c h a r a c t e r t o smash the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y m i l i t a r y i d e a l s t h a t s u p p o s e d l y c o n n e c t e d a man w i t h h i m s e l f , and w i t h the l a r g e r community. I n P a r t I I I , t h e o r d e r l y ' s c o n c e p t o f h i m s e l f as an o u t s i d e r , fragmented and o b l i v i o u s t o mankind, i s r e a l l y r e f l e c t i v e o f a s i n g u l a r awareness of h i s p o s i t i o n i n the immediate l a n d s c a p e t o w h i c h he has escaped. But now he had got beyond h i m s e l f . He had never been h e r e b e f o r e . Was i t l i f e , or not l i f e ? He was by h i m s e l f . They were i n a b i g , b r i g h t p l a c e , those o t h e r s , and he was o u t s i d e . The town, a l l the c o u n t r y , a b i g b r i g h t p l a c e o f l i g h t : and he wa3 o u t s i d e , h e r e , i n the darkened open beyond, where each t h i n g e x i s t e d a l o n e . But t h e y would a l l have t o come out t h e r e sometime, those o t h e r s . L i t t l e , and l e f t b e h i n d him, t h e y a l l were. There had been f a t h e r and mother and s w e e t h e a r t . What d i d they a l l m a t t e r ? T h i s was the open l a n d . I n t h i s passage Lawrence s e t t l e s i r r e v o c a b l y i n the o r d e r l y ' s i m a g i n a t i o n b o t h a w o r l d of l i g h t and a w o r l d o f d a r k . I n the immediate l a n d s c a p e , w i t h i t s d a r k n e s s "growing deeper," the s o l d i e r appears "amid" what he r e g a r d s "the r e a l i t y , ' ' o n e . the r e a l d a r k bottom." But as he approaches the edge o f t h e 17 wood he s t o p s s h o r t w i t h f e a r : There was a tremendous f l a r e o f g o l d , i m m e n s e — j u s t a few d a r k t r u n k s l i k e b a r s between him and i t . A l l the young l e v e l wheat was b u r n i s h e d g o l d g l a r i n g on i t s s i l k y g r e e n . A woman, f u l l - s k i r t e d , a b l a c k c l o t h on h e r head f o r h e a d - d r e s s , was p a s s i n g l i k e a b l o c k of shadow t h r o u g h t h e g l i s t e n i n g , g r een c o r n , i n t o t h e f u l l g l a r e . There was a farm, t o o , p a l e b l u e i n shad-ow, and the t i m b e r b l a c k . And t h e r e was a c h u r c h s p i r e , n e a r l y f u s e d away i n t h e g o l d . The woman moved on, away from him. He had no language w i t h w h i c h t o speak t o h e r . She was the b r i g h t , s o l i d u n r e a l i t y . She would make a n o i s e of words t h a t would confuse him, and h e r eyes would l o o k a t him w i t h o u t s e e i n g him. Not o n l y does Lawrence d e s c r i b e t h i s l a n d s c a p e i n p o s t -I m p r e s s i o n i s t terms (a l a n d s c a p e r e m i n i s c e n t o f Van Gogh's C o r n f i e l d w i t h C y p r e s s ) . b u t i t r e v e r t s h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s p o i n t o f view t o t h e w o r l d of l i g h t f r o m w h i c h the o r d e r l y has sought escape. T h i s r e f u g e e c a n o n l y t u r n f r o m the u n r e a l woman, how-eve r , t o the " w o n d e r - l i g h t " o f the mountains, "not f a r away, and r a d i a n t . " B e h i n d the s o f t , g r e y r i d g e of the n e a r e s t range the f a r t h e r mountains s t o o d g o l d e n and p a l e g r e y , the snow a l l r a d i a n t l i k e p u r e , s o f t g o l d . So s t i l l , g l e a m i n g i n t h e sky, f a s h i o n e d pure out of the ore o f the sky, th e y shone i n t h e i r s i l e n c e . He s t o o d and l o o k e d a t them, h i s f a c e i l l u m i n a t e d . And l i k e the gol d e n , l u s -t r o u s gleaming o f t h e snow he f e l t h i s own t h i r s t b r i g h t i n him. He s t o o d and gazed, l e a n i n g a g a i n s t a t r e e . And t h e n e v e r y t h i n g s l i d away i n t o space. W h i l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the w o r l d o f s u n l i g h t , these moun-t a i n s do not smack o f u n r e a l i t y t o the o r d e r l y , as does the woman. P i c t u r e d w i t h a l l t h e " s h i f t i n e s s " of a Cdzanne l a n d - * 18 scape, t h e y appear beyond r e a l i t y , "between e a r t h and heaven," and i n t h e end seem " t o have i t , t h a t w h i c h ( i s ) l o s t i n him." T h e i r wholeness s u g g e s t s a P l a t o n i c wholeness, a c t u a l l y as u n r e a l as t h e " s o l i d u n r e a l i t y " o f t h e woman i n t h e wheat f i e l d : n e i t h e r c a n he communicate w i t h the mountains, and h i s overwhelming d e s i r e " t o l e a v e h i m s e l f and be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h them," l e a d s t o t h e d e s p a i r o f an a d d i c t w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t opium. "He s t o o d s t i l l , " w r i t e s Lawrence, "mad w i t h s u f f e r i n g , h i s hands c r i s p i n g and c l u t c h i n g . Then he was t w i s t i n g i n a paroxysm on t h e g r a s s . " I n t h i s s u s c e p t i b l e c o n d i t i o n , t h e s u n l i g h t ( e x p l i c i t y l i n k e d w i t h the C a p t a i n e a r l i e r ) has, i r o n i c a l l y , o n l y t o d e s t r o y him. He l a y s t i l l , i n a k i n d o f dream o f a n g u i s h . H i s t h i r s t seemed t o have s e p a r a t e d i t s e l f f r o m him, and t o s t a n d a p a r t , a s i n g l e demand. Then the p a i n he f e l t was a n o t h e r s i n g l e s e l f . Then t h e r e was the c l o g o f h i s body, a n o t h e r s e p a r a t e t h i n g . There was some s t r a n g e , a g o n i s e d c o n n e c t i o n between them, b u t t h e y were d r a w i n g f a r t h e r a p a r t . Then t h e y would a l l s p l i t . The sun, d r i l l i n g down on him, was d r i l l i n g t h r o u g h t h e bond. Then t h e y would a l l f a l l , f a l l t h r o u g h t h e e v e r l a s t i n g l a p s e of s p a c e . F o r t h e second time e v e r y t h i n g s l i d e s away from him, and i t i s t h e l a s t . Fragmented he d i e s b e f o r e r e g a i n i n g c o n s c i o u s -ness, c o l l a p s e d i n t o n o t h i n g n e s s , a v i c t i m o f Lawrence's s h a t t e r e d continuum. P r o b a b l y the a u t h o r ' s most i n t e n s e s t atement o f the quest f o r w holeness, "The P r u s s i a n O f f i c e r " moves w i t h superb a r c h i -t e c t u r e f r o m th e f l a s h b a c k of P a r t I , t h r o u g h t h e k i l l i n g i n 19 P a r t I I , t o t h e denouement i n P a r t s I I I and IV. The move-ment f r o m one l a n d s c a p e t o a n o t h e r , moreover, l e a d s t o a p u r p o s e f u l j u x t a p o s i t i o n t h r o u g h o u t the s t o r y , a t the same time i n t e g r a t i n g t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w . "The H o r s e - D e a l e r ' s Daughter" (1916), on the o t h e r hand, has l e s s t o recommend i t i n terms of a s i m i l a r i n t r i c a c y and b u l k o f l a n d s c a p e . Yet p o i n t o f view does a g a i n work i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s e t t i n g , here around a farm i n E n g l a n d . T h i s l a n d s c a p e h e l p s t o convey the p o i g n a n t c o l l a p s e o f a h o r s e - d e a l e r ' s f a m i l y , and p r o v i d e s background f o r a l o v e s t o r y between Mabel P e r v i n and Dr. F e r g u s s o n . When the s t o r y opens, Mabel's t h r e e b r o t h e r s watch the o n l y l i f e t h e y have known come a p a r t "beyond the d a r k h o l l y bushes t h a t £separate3 the s t r i p o f lawn from the h i g h - r o a d " — w h e n t h e y w i t n e s s f o u r h o r s e s swing out of the y a r d f o r the l a s t t i m e . Meanwhile t h e r e are " s l o p i n g , dank, w i n t e r -d a r k f i e l d s " t h a t s t r e t c h "away on the open s i d e s , " out back. T h i s e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the i n t e r n a l where b o t h k i t c h e n and s t a b l e s now are "empty." R e s p o n s i b l e f o r " k e e p i n g the home t o g e t h e r " s i n c e the d e a t h of h e r mother, Mabel has kept her o w n s e l f t o g e t h e r by a f f e c t i n g a " b r u t a l l y proud, r e s e r v e d " a t t i t u d e toward the c o a r s e n e s s o f the male environment. But the d e a t h of her f a t h e r and t h e r e s u l t i n g debt has made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o p r o v i d e f a m i l y c o -h e s i o n as w e l l , and now Mabel's t a s k seems f i n i s h e d . A l r e a d y 20 she has s t a r t e d toward t h e i l l u s i o n o f wholeness, a c t u a l l y f r a g m e n t a t i o n and d e a t h . She need not demean h e r s e l f any more, g o i n g i n t o the shops and b u y i n g t h e c h e a p e s t f o o d . T h i s was a t an end. She thought o f nobody, not even o f h e r s e l f . M i n d l e s s and p e r s i s t e n t , she seemed i n a s o r t o f e c s t a s y t o be coming n e a r e r t o h e r f u l f i l m e n t , h er own g l o r i f i c a t i o n , a p p r o a c h i n g h e r dead mother, who was g l o r i f i e d . As she w a l k s t o the c h u r c h y a r d t o v i s i t h e r mother's grave f o r the l a s t t i m e , "a g r e y w i n t r y day, w i t h saddened, d a r k g r e e n f i e l d s ... b l a c k e n e d by the smoke o f f o u n d r i e s not f a r o f f " s u r r o u n d s h e r ; here the l a n d s c a p e appears an e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of Mabel's i n n e r sombre c o n d i t i o n . Yet she d i s c o v e r s an i n e v i t a b l e s e c u r i t y i n the c h u r c h y a r d , as she has always done: she r e a c h e s "a s u b t l e , i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h e r mother" t h a t s u g g e s t s a p e r v e r s e s p i r i t u a l i s m , because the normal w o r l d remains " f a r l e s s r e a l t h a n the w o r l d o f d e a t h she i n h e r i t e d f r o m h e r mother." L i k e t h e o r d e r l y , Mabel escapes the normal w o r l d by s e a r c h i n g out what she b e l i e v e s t o be a whole-n e s s — o n e t h a t s t r e s s e s shadows and d a r k n e s s . When she e n t e r s t h e s u i c i d a l pond ("the d e p r e s s i o n o f c a l l o u s w i n t r y o b s c u r i t y " ) f r o m w h i c h Pepgusson r e s c u e s h e r , she becomes " t h e d a r k shadow o f h e r b l a c k c l o t h i n g b e n e a t h the s u r f a c e of the w a t e r . " 21 E a r l i e r , P e r g u s s o n has e x p e r i e n c e d a momentary r e g e n -e r a t i o n when h i s eyes meet Mabel's b e s i d e h e r mother's tomb-s t o n e . And l a t e r , c r o s s i n g "the d a r k green f i e l d s , " n o s t a l -g i c a l l y o b s e r v i n g the P e r v i n home "on t h e n e a r e s t f r i n g e , " he d e t e c t s Mabel " r o v i n g a c r o s s the l a n d s c a p e , " " i n the green, s h a l l o w , soddened h o l l o w o f f i e l d s . " Here t h e la n d s c a p e n e a t l y f u s e s t h e woman who has p r e v i o u s l y a r o u s e d him i n the g r a v e y a r d , and the same woman who a g a i n makes h i s mind " a l i v e and a c t i v e . " But h i s v i s i o n o f her remains as d i s t o r t e d and fragmented as h i s v i e w of the l a n d s c a p e , f o r he c a n b a r e l y "make sure o f the s m a l l b l a c k f i g u r e i n the h o l l o w of t h e f a i l i n g day." Thus, w h i l e we r e a l i z e t h a t Pergusson's s i g h t of Mabel has e a r l i e r a c t e d l i k e "some p o w e r f u l d r u g " t o s t i r h i s mind w i t h new l i f e , i n the p r e s e n t scene t h e p e c u l i a r way Lawrence c o a l e s c e s the lan d s c a p e and the d o c t o r ' s p o i n t of v i e w , a l l o w s b o t h h i s c h a r a c t e r and us t o f e e l t h i s new l i f e more i n t i m a t e l y . He seemed t o see h e r i n t h e m i d s t o f such o b s c u r i t y , t h a t he was l i k e a c l a i r v o y a n t , s e e i n g r a t h e r w i t h the mind's eye tha n w i t h o r d i n a r y s i g h t . Yet he c o u l d see h er p o s i t i v e l y enough, w h i l s t he kep t h i s eye a t -t e n t i v e . He f e l t , i f he l o o k e d away f r o m h e r , i n the t h i c k , u g l y f a l l i n g dusk, he would l o s e h e r a l t o g e t h e r . The p i c t u r e i s one p r i m a r i l y o f f e e l i n g , the essence o f p o s t -I m r e s s i o n i s m , and s e c o n d l y o f knowing. Hence , we might a p p l y t o Lawrence what he w r i t e s elsewhere o f another a r t i s t : "He i s 2 2 c o n s c i o u s l y t r y i n g t o convey a f e e l i n g , he i s no l o n g e r 7 s t r i v i n g awkwardly t o r e n d e r a t r u t h , " I n r e s c u i n g Mabel f r o m h e r a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e and f r a g -m e n t a t i o n , P e r g u s s o n a l l o w s h e r f r a n k q u e s t i o n ("You l o v e me?") t o f o r c e him i n t o a c o n s c i o u s acknowledgement o f what he had u n c o n s c i o u s l y f e l t w a t c h i n g h e r e a r l i e r i n the e x t e r n a l w o r l d , "Yes." The word c o s t him a p a i n f u l e f f o r t . Not because i t wasn't t r u e . But because i t was t o o newly t r u e , t h e s a y i n g seemed t o t e a r open h i s n e w l y - t o r n h e a r t . And he h a r d l y wanted i t t o be t r u e , even now. Yet i n h i s commitment, P e r g u s s o n has managed t o l i b e r a t e Mabel's l i f e f r o m t h e u n r e a l i t y o f the g r a v e y a r d — t o g i v e i t t h e wholeness of s e x u a l l o v e . H i s acknowledgement o f l o v e i s what Lawrence's men d i s c o v e r d i f f i c u l t t o a r t i c u l a t e . D e s p i t e the Countess Han-n e l e ' s r e p e a t e d demands i n "The C a p t a i n ' s D o l l " ( 1 9 2 1 ) , A l e x -ander Hepburn d o w n r i g h t r e f u s e s t o make any such c o n c e s s i o n , y e t g a i n s f r o m h e r , i n the end, an acceptance of h i s m a r r i a g e p r o p o s a l . I n t h i s comic n o v e l l a (as i n l a t e r s h o r t e r f i c t i o n ) , Lawrence once a g a i n j u x t a p o s e s man and a l i v i n g m o untain l a n d -scape i n o r d e r t o h i g h l i g h t the b a s i c disharmony of the human c o n d i t i o n , t h e one i n i t i a t e d by such s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s as m a r r i a g e w h i c h o f t e n do more t o fragment t h a n t o j o i n . Not an e s p e c i a l l y i n c i s i v e work, "The C a p t a i n ' s D o l l " does examine, 23 however, the quest f o r wholeness as i t becomes p a r t and p a r c e l o f Hepburn's s e a r c h f o r h i m s e l f i n "a new r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h a n o t h e r " — e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e c o n c l u d i n g c l i m b I n t o the C S z a n n e - l i k e m o u n t a i n s . A f t e r h i s w i f e tumbles t o her d e a t h from a h o t e l w i n -dow, C a p t a i n Hepburn a t t e m p t s t o a v o i d a l l human c o n t a c t . He has c o n f e s s e d t o h i s German m i s t r e s s , Hannele, t h a t he i n f a c t l o v e d h i s w i f e , as he once l o v e d a caged b i r d i n h i s boyhood. C o n s e q u e n t l y h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n seems i r r e v o c a b l e . The c h i e f t h i n g t h a t the c a p t a i n knew, a t t h i s j u n c t u r e , was t h a t a h a t c h e t had gone t h r o u g h t h e l i g a t u r e s and v e i n s t h a t c o n n e c t e d him w i t h t h e p e o p l e of h i s a f f e c -t i o n , and t h a t he was l e f t w i t h t h e b l e e d i n g ends o f a l l h i s v i t a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Yet "a man h a s n ' t f i n i s h e d h i s l i f e a t f o r t y , " and so i n s e a r c h o f Hannele, he r e t u r n s t o Germany. The d o l l w h i c h Hannele once sewed i n a l i k e n e s s o f h i m s e l f , he d i s c o v e r s i n a shop window, and i t s e r v e s t o s y m b o l i z e h i s p r e s e n t " f o r l o r n e s s " and " i s o l a t i o n . " Yet soon I t d i s a p p e a r s , s o l d ; and when i t t u r n s up a g a i n , I t has become p a r t o f a modern a b s t r a c t canvas, a p i c t u r e w h i c h i n c l u d e s "two s u n f l o w e r s i n a g l a s s j a r , and a poached egg on t o a s t . " Hepburn p r o m p t l y p u r c h a s e s the p a i n t i n g , and t h u s moves c l o s e r toward a r e c o v e r y o f h i m s e l f . Here Lawrence g e t s i n h i s l i c k s a g a i n s t t h e p o s t -I m p r e s s i o n i s t s t y l e w h i c h p u r p o s e l y deformed th e body, and 2IL mocks Hepburn's t a s t e b o t h i n h i s p u r c h a s e , and l a t e r i n c l a i m i n g t h e canvas "goodi i t t- S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Hannele's d e c i s -i o n t o burn t h i s p i c t u r e — a f t e r she has f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d Hepburn's o n e - s i d e d terms of m a r r i a g e — i s a c t u a l l y the sym-b o l i c s u b s t i t u t i o n of r o m a n t i c , i l l u s o r y l o v e ( a p a i n t i n g i s two degrees removed f r o m r e a l i t y a c c o r d i n g t o P l a t o ) , f o r a l e s s e m o t i o n a l , a p p a r e n t l y more complete l o v e . Lawrence advoc a t e s the need f o r a f r e s h r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and w o m a n — i n t h i s c a s e found i n the wholeness o f a v e r y t r a d i t -i o n a l m a r r i a g e . The movement toward t h i s p a r t i c u l a r wholeness o c c u r s s p e c i f i c a l l y d u r i n g a c l i m b i n the A u s t r i a n A l p s , a f t e r Hep-b u r n a c c i d e n t l y meets Hannele (now engaged t o H e r r R e g i e r u n -g s r a t ) i n T y r o l . W h i l e T y r o l p o s s e s s e s the i l l u s i o n o f " f u l -n e s s , " the town, a c c o r d i n g t o Lawrence, i s r e a l l y " a l l t e r -r i b l e and d e v a s t a t i n g . " Thus the t r i p i n t o t h e mountainous l a n d s c a p e , away from the " m a g n i f i c e n t b l o n d f l e s h o f men and women" b a t h i n g i n the l a k e b e s i d e T y r o l , and from R e g i e r u n -g s r a t h i m s e l f ( d e s c r i b e d as c a p t a i n of a s i n k i n g s h i p ) , r e -p r e s e n t s a j o u r n e y f r o m f r i e n d s h i p s t h a t appear ephemeral, t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p presumably more c o n c l u s i v e . The " f o l d e d mountains" w h i c h Hannele and Hepburn approach, Lawrence r e n d e r s i n a p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t f a s h i o n . The s h i f t -i n g , a n i m a l q u a l i t y he admires i n Cezannes's l a n d s c a p e s i s the one he aims f o r h e r e ; i n t h e d i s t a n c e , f o r example, t h e 25 g l a c i e r seems " c o l d and angry"; and as passengers i n a m o t o r - c a r w h i c h c l i m b s upwards t h r o u g h a " v a l l e y of the shadow of d e a t h , " Hannele and Hepburn e v e n t u a l l y disembark t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r c l i m b toward the same g l a c i e r t h a t now appears " t o l o l l l i k e some a w f u l g r e a t tongue p u t o u t . " Hepburn, an astronomer whom Lawrence has e a r l i e r r e -p o r t e d as d e s i r i n g " t o be h i g h up, because of h i s s t a r s , " now f i n d s t h e r e a l i t y o f h e i g h t i n t h i s " l i v i d " l a n d s c a p e , loathsome. W h i l e the o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n of h i s t e l e s c o p e d i d not p r e v i o u s l y f o r c e emotion upon him, here t h e mountains open h i s eyes, f o r c e him i n t o an e m o t i o n a l commitment t h a t l e a d s t o h i s d e n i g r a t i o n o f those who f e e l " e x a l t e d , " " p r a n c i n g on m o u n t a i n - t o p s . " B o t h h i s p r o f e s s i o n o f " h a t e " f o r t h e i l u p l i f t " o f the mountains, and h i s c l a i m t h a t t h i s l a n d s c a p e e x i s t s as " l e s s " t h a n he, l e a d s Hannele t o d i a g -noses h i s a f f l i c t i o n as "megalomania." But because he gave h i m s e l f away, she f o r g a v e him and even l i k e d h i m . And the s t r a n g e p a s s i o n of h i s , t h a t gave out i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e f l a s h e s , was r a t h e r f a s c i n -a t i n g t o h e r . She f e l t j u s t a t i n y b i t s o r r y f o r him. But she wasn't g o i n g t o be b u l l i e d by him. She wasn't g o i n g t o g i v e i n t o him and h i s b l a c k p a s s i o n . No, neve r . I t must be l o v e on e q u a l terms o r n o t h i n g . F o r l o v e on e q u a l terms she was q u i t e r e a d y . She o n l y w a i t e d f o r him t o o f f e r i t . What the l a n d s c a p e does, t h e n , i s t o b r i n g b o t h t h e i r p o i n t s o f v i e w c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n t o d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n . 26 W h i l e L a w r e n c e s a r d o n i c a l l y u n d e r c u t s t o u r i s m a n d t h e s o r t s o f h o t e l s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s i t b r e e d s , h i s two c h a r a c t e r s c o n t i n u e t h e i r a s c e n t t o w a r d t h e g l a c i e r w i t h i t s " g r e a t paws o f i c e . " T e r r i f i e d a t i t s p r o s p e c t , t h e f o r m e r army c a p t a i n a p p r o a c h e s t h e " s w e a t i n g " " m o n s t e r " u n t i l I t becomes " h i s one d e s i r e — t o s t a n d upon i t , " s i n c e i t i s t h e l o t o f humans " t o go b e y o n d t h e i r f e a r . " I n p r e s e n t i n g t h e same i n t u i t i v e t r u t h o f l a n d s c a p e t h a t C 6 z a n ne o f f e r s , L a w r e n c e h u m o r o u s l y j u x -t a p o s e s t h e g l a c i e r as a " g r a n d b e a s t , " and " o u r h e r o " c r a w l -i n g "on f o u r l e g s " l i k e a c r a b a c r o s s i t . T h i s c o u n t e r p o i n t s e r v e s a d u a l p u r p o s e : 1) i t f l e s h e s o u t H e p b u r n ' s c h a r a c t e r b y i n d i c a t i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a c h a l l e n g e o f t h i s n a t u r e p r o d s h i m - - a c h a l l e n g e i n whose r e s p o n s e h e h a r d e n s t h e r i g i d i t y o f h i s p o s i t i o n I n r e l a t i o n t o H a n n e l e ; a n d 2 ) i t u n d e r c u t s H e p b u r n ' s s u p e r c i l i o u s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h i s l a n d s c a p e . R e -q u i r e d t o s i t on h i s t r o u s e r - s e a t " n o t k n o w i n g how t o g e t o f f , " he i s made t h e more l u d i c r o u s when he f i n a l l y d o e s e s c a p e , b y s t a t i n g h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r " t h e w o r l d w h e r e c a b b a g e s w i l l g r o w ." A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e l a n d s c a p e e x p e r i e n c e f o r h i m b e -comes b o t h " m a r v e l l o u s " a n d " a w f u l , " and a c t s as a c a t a l y s t f o r h i s p r o p o s a l o f m a r r i a g e t o H a n n e l e . A t t h i s p o i n t H e p b u r n ' s q u e s t t o s t o p up t h e s e v e r e d l i g a t u r e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i n c e h i s w i f e ' s d e a t h , t u r n s i n t o a c o y r e v e r s a l o f " p o p u l a r r o m a n c e s , " i n w h i c h men f a w n a t t h e f e e t o f women ( i l l u s t r a t e d by L a w r e n c e ' s cameo d e p i c t i n g 27 a g i r l w i t h a " w h i t e c o o l monster" of a dog on l e a s h — o b v i o u s -l y an a l l u s i o n t o the g l a c i e r w h i c h Hepburn has a l r e a d y w a l k -ed o v e r — a n d t h r e e a d m i r i n g men). Hepburn has had enough of t h a t k i n d o f t h i n g w i t h h i s f i r s t w i f e . Thus h i s p r o p o s a l t o Hannele r e f r a i n s f r o m o f f e r i n g m a r r i a g e "on a b a s i s o f l o v e , " f o r a l l t h a t would l e a d t o i s a woman making a d o l l of h i m — t h e thought o f w h i c h p r i c k s him " l i k e a t h o r n . " I n s t e a d , he d e s i r e s "a s o r t o f p a t i e n t G r i s e l d a " who w i l l agree " t o honor and obey" him. At t h e s t a t i o n — a t the bottom o f t h e l a n d s c a p e — H e p b u r n argues t h a t a woman's " h i g h e s t f a t e " i s " t o be l o v e d and s h i e l d e d as a w i f e — n o t as a f l i r t i n g woman." And, d e s p i t e h e r p r o t e s t s , Hannele u l t i m a t e l y c o n s e n t s t o such a f a t e by a g r e e i n g t o a wedding t h e f o l l o w i n g morning, and by h e r i n -t e n t i o n t o b u r n the p i c t u r e o f the d o l l . T h e r e f o r e i n the t r a d i t i o n a l comic r e s o l u t i o n we see a c l a s s i c a t t i t u d e t o m a r r i a g e evoked, and a g a i n s t a background of C e z a n n e - d i r e c t e d l a n d s c a p e , a c e r t a i n wholeness o f l i f e o b t a i n e d , where i t l e a v e s the f e m i n i n e p o i n t o f v i e w a p p a r e n t l y w i t h o u t much i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Yet t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o Lawrence e l s e w h e r e , must c o n t i n u e as the r o a d t o s i g n i f i c a n t c o n n e c t i o n : "Love, as a r e l a t i o n s h i p of u n i s o n , means and must mean, t o some 8 e x t e n t , t h e s i n k i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y . " On the o t h e r hand (as he w r i t e s i n A p o c a l y p s e ) . " t o y i e l d e n t i r e l y t o l o v e would be t o be absorbed, w h i c h i s the d e a t h of the i n d i v i d u a l : f o r t he i n d i v i d u a l must h o l d h i s own, or he ceases t o be ' f r e e ' 28 9 and i n d i v i d u a l . ' * Presumably, i n the a c h i e v e d r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f Hepburn and Hannele, Lawrence acknowledges t h a t a s t r o n g male p o i n t o f vi e w s h o u l d t h r i v e I n t h e t r a d i t -i o n a l sense i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between modern man and woman i s t o m a n i f e s t a v i a b l e w h o l e . At the same tim e , however, the woman s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o a s s e r t h e r i n d i v i d -u a l i t y i n harmonious j u x t a p o s i t i o n . Even so, Lou i s not about t o s c u t t l e h e r i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n " S t Mawr" (1921+) f o r the sake of a p r e c a r i o u s harmony. I n t h i s l o n g e s t of h i s n o v e l l a s , Lawrence a g a i n j u x t a p o s e s l a n d s c a p e and p o i n t o f view, t h i s time t o i l l u s t r a t e how such a womanly r e f u s a l l e a d s t o a ques t f o r wholeness as a r e s u l t o f an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y m a r r i a g e ( a l s o the s i t u a t i o n I n "The Woman Who Rode Away" and "Sun"). That does not mean t h a t a c q u i e s c e n c e t o t h e male p o i n t of view i s not a t t r a c t i v e t o Lawrence's women, but c a p i t u l a t i o n t o any husband l e s s t h a n a man, c e r t a i n l y i s . W h i l e Hannele ob-v i o u s l y f i n d s Hepburn complete and v i r i l e enough, Lou f e e l s I n her husband i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s s a t i s f a c t i o n — t h e i r r e l a t -i o n s h i p now "a nervous attachment, r a t h e r t h a n a s e x u a l l o v e . " An a r t i s t i n t h e most a f f e c t e d sense, R i c o resembles a "young p o s e r " who, d e s p i t e t h e s u p e r f i c i a l l i k e n e s s be-tween h i m s e l f and the s t a l l i o n h i s w i f e p u r c h a s e s , i s ^ a c -t u a l l y S t Mawr's a n t i t h e s i s : w i t h h er husband she senses "a b l u f f , an a t t i t u d e , " w i t h the horse "something much more 29 t e r r i f y i n g , and r e a l . " The f a i l u r e o f S t Mawr's r e a l i t y t o r u b o f f on R i c o d i r e c t s Lou toward a g r e a t e r dependence upon t h i s h o r s e as a means t o t h e wholeness she d e s i r e s , and t h e one she d i s c o v e r s f i n a l l y i n the l a n d s c a p e of N o r t h America. Here Lawrence adumbrates t h a t l a n d scape t h r o u g h the s t a l l i o n : Why d i d he seem t o h e r l i k e some l i v i n g background, i n t o w h i c h she wanted t o r e t r e a t ? When he r e a r e d h i s head and neighed from h i s deep c h e s t , l i k e deep w i n d - b e l l s r e s o u n d i n g , she seemed t o h e a r the echoes of a n o t h e r d a r k e r , more s p a c i o u s , more dangerous, more s p l e n d i d w o r l d t h a n o u r s , t h a t was beyond h e r . And t h e r e she wanted t o go. W h i l e R i c o s y m b o l i z e s "the complete f u t i l i t y o f her l i v -i n g " i n E n g l a n d where she (an American by b i r t h ) i s an " o u t -s i d e r , " Lou becomes g r a d u a l l y aware of a n e c e s s i t y f o r change. As she i n f o r m s h e r mother, Mrs. W i t t , she r e q u i r e s "the wonder back a g a i n , " or e l s e she w i l l d i e ; a t t h i s p o i n t "a pure an-i m a l man" l i k e P hoenix, the groom, r e p r e s e n t s t h a t wonder. A s c e t i c and i n c o m p l e t e , on the o t h e r hand, h e r husband e p i t -omizes "one o f mankind's m y r i a d c o n s p i r a t o r s , who c o n s p i r e t o l i v e i n a b s o l u t e p h y s i c a l s a f e t y , w h i l s t w i l l i n g the minor d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l p o s i t i v e l i v i n g . " The s t r u c t u r e o f " St Mawr" a c c e n t u a t e s the l a n d s c a p e s o f two c o u n t r i e s , b o t h i m p o r t a n t t o Lou's q u e s t f o r the wholeness w h i c h becomes her own i n the f i n a l scene o f the s t o r y . The h o r s e b a c k e x c u r s i o n t o t h e D e v i l ' s C h a i r ("one of those p l a c e s where the s p i r i t o f a b o r i g i n a l E n g l a n d s t i l l l i n g e r s " ) 30 enhances Lawrence's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h contemporary B r i t -a i n and the k i n d s o f p e o p l e who p o p u l a t e i t s upper c l a s s e s , f r i e n d s o f R i c o , who c o mprise the e v i l w o r l d Lou l a t e r i n t u i t s . A t l e n g t h t h e y s t o o d i n t h e p l a c e c a l l e d the C h a i r , l o o k i n g west, west towards Wales, t h a t r o l l e d i n g o l d e n f o l d s upwards. I t was n e i t h e r i m p r e s s i v e nor a v e r y p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e : the h o l l o w v a l -l e y w i t h farms, and t h e n the r a t h e r b a r e upheaval of h i l l s , * 1 s l o p e s w i t h c o r n and moor and p a s t u r e , r i s i n g l i k e a b a r r i c a d e , s e e m i n g l y h i g h , s l a n t -i n g l y . Y e t I t had a s t r a n g e e f f e c t on t h e i m a g i n -a t i o n . W h i l e the l a n d s c a p e a l l o w s Lou a p r i s t i n e awareness, her a s s e r t i o n t h a t modern man does not e x i s t i n the manner of h i s pagan a n c e s t o r s , s i m p l y passes over the heads of h e r husband and the o t h e r s . I n A p o c l a j p s e . Lawrence a l l u d e s t o t h i s dichotomy between a n c i e n t s p o n t a n e i t y and modern i m p e r c e p t i v e n e s s when he s u g g e s t s t h a t perhaps the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between us and the pagans l i e s i n our d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n t o the cosmos. W i t h us, a l l i s p e r s o n a l . Landscape and the sky, t h e s e are t o us the d e l i c i o u s background o f our p e r s o n a l l i f e , and no more. Even th e u n i v e r s e of t h e s c i e n t i s t i s l i t t l e more t h a n an e x t e n s i o n o f our p e r s o n a l i t y , t o u s . To the pagan, l a n d s c a p e and p e r s o n a l background were on the whole I n d i f -f e r e n t . But t h e cosmos was a v e r y r e a l t h i n g . A man l i v e d w i t h t h e cosmos, and knew i t g r e a t e r t h a n h i m s e l f . 10 However^ t h e modern ego (Hepburn's, f o r i n s t a n c e ) r e a c t s a g a i n s t a c o n c e s s i o n l i k e t h e l a s t p h r a s e , or e l s e i t never 31 t h i n k s t o m a r v e l a t a n y t h i n g beyond i t s own d i l e t t a n t i s m ( R i c o ' s , f o r example). Lou, c o n v e r s e l y , e x p e r i e n c e s the l a n d s c a p e i n an i n t u i t i v e manner w h i c h advances h e r i n -s i g h t , as i t c o n t i n u e s t o do i n the f o l l o w i n g scene w h i c h c o l l a b o r a t e s w i t h h e r v i e w p o i n t t o become s y m b o l i c o f t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n she does not y e t f u l l y comprehend. The Needle's Eye was a h o l e i n the a n c i e n t g r e y r o c k , l i k e a window, l o o k i n g t o E n g l a n d ; E n g l a n d a t t h e mom-ent i n shadow. A s t r e a m wound and g l i n t e d i n t h e f l a t shadow, and beyond t h a t the f l a t , i n s i g n i f i c a n t h i l l s heaped i n mounds o f shade. C l o u d was c o m i n g — t h e Eng-l i s h s i d e was i n shadow. Wales was s t i l l i n the sun, but the shadow was s p r e a d i n g . The day was g o i n g t o d i s a p p o i n t them. Lou was a t i n y b i t c h i l l e d , a l r e a d y . Not even t h e p i c t u r e s q u e l a n d s c a p e of Wales, e a r l i e r d e s-c r i b e d as "crumpled f o l d s , g o l d i s h i n the morning l i g h t , " now h o l d s much p r o m i s e . Y e t , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , "the Manby group" adores the shadowy, p e s s i m i s t i c view, as does R i c o who i s p u z z l e d by h i s w i f e ' s d i s t a s t e f o r i t . The t u r n i n g scene i n the n o v e l l a o c c u r s as t h e h o r s e s p i c k t h e i r way f r o m the Needle's Eye l o o k o u t , when St Mawr s u d d e n l y s h i e s . R i c o tugs " v i c i o u s l y " on the r e i n s i n ob-v i o u s d i s g u s t a t the h o r s e ' s i r r a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , and manages f o o l i s h l y t o p u l l i t c o m p l e t e l y over on top o f " h i m s e l f . But r i d i n g away t o f e t c h brandy f o r her i n j u r e d husband, Lou d i s c o v e r s t h a t a dead snake has caused St Mawr's queer be-h a v i o r ; and as a r e s u l t o f t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n she e x p e r i e n c e s an overwhelming awareness o f e v i l d rowning the w o r l d . Here 32 Lawrence t a k e s some a p o c a l y p t i c p o t s h o t s a t the i l l s o f b o l s h e v i s m and f a s c i s m , somewhat beyond h i s c h a r a c t e r one f e e l s , as he attempts t o snare i n a n u t s h e l l mankind under-m i n i n g i t s e l f b e n e a t h t h e veneer o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . As f a r as Lou's own l i f e goes, t h i s awareness s e r v e s t o round out t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n she has j u s t e x p e r i e n c e d v i e w i n g t h e E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e from the D e v i l ' s C h a i r and Needle's Eye, and e n a b l e s h e r c l e a r l y t o see R i c o and h i s f r i e n d s as e v i l , t r a i t o r s t o the l i f e f o r c e t h a t t h e i r a n c e s t o r s once p o s -s e s s e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the a u t h o r — m o r e t h a n c h a r a c t e r -s u g g e s t s t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t "the i n d i v i d u a l can b u t d e p a r t f r o m t h e mass, and t r y t o c l e a n s e h i m s e l f . " C e r t a i n l y Lou's awareness m a n i f e s t i n t h i s t r a n s i t i o n scene seems s t i l t e d , i n a way t h a t her h e i g h t e n e d i n s i g h t a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l l a - - a f t e r a n o t h e r s e r i o u s l a p s e by L a w r e n c e — d o e s n o t . But the scene does work t o f o c u s the h e r o i n e ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , and t o open the way f o r the American la n d s c a p e w h i c h p r o v i d e s Lou l e s s w i t h a sense of fragmented mankind, and more w i t h the f e e l i n g o f p u r e l y p e r s o n a l w hole-n e s s . L i k e Phoenix, she t o o p e r c e i v e s " t h a t c o u n t r y , w i t h i t s d a r k , heavy mountains h o l d i n g i n t h e i r l a p the g r e a t s t r e t c h e s o f p a l e , c r e a s e d , s i l e n t d e s e r t t h a t s t i l l i s v i r g i n o f i d e a , I t s word unspoken." But b e f o r e Lou completes p l a n s f o r h e r t r i p t o America, the E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e c o n t i n u e s t o work s u b t l e l y t o complete the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n she f e e l s . I n a scene w h i c h f o l l o w s the 33 d i s c o v e r y t h a t h e r husband p l a n s t o s e l l St Mawr t o F l o r a Manby so she can g e l d him, f o r example, Lou s t a n d s " a t the window, o v e r l o o k i n g t h e wet, c l o s e , hedged-and-fenced l a n d * scape" t h a t appears " e n c l o s e d " and " s t i f l i n g . " U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , h e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s c r a p e s a c r o s s the "whole eunuch c i v i l i -z a t i o n . " Hence f o r Lou, the voyage t o America assumes an escape f r o m what she f i n d s i n t o l e r a b l y " u n r e a l " i n E n g l a n d . From the deck o f t h e s h i p she watches t h e I s l e o f Wight "pass shadowy, i n a m i s t o f r a i n ... and w i t h i t , h e r l i f e , g o i n g l i k e a c l o t of shadow i n a m i s t o f n o t h i n g n e s s . " Y et the " f i l m - s e t t i n g " o f Texas does not a f f o r d the k i n d o f r e a l i s m she seeks e i t h e r ; so l e a v i n g St Mawr (who does not r e a p p e a r i n t he s t o r y ) , Lou, h e r mother, and Phoenix j o u r n e y t o S a n t a Fe w h i c h t h e y f i n d even more i n t o l e r a b l e t h a n Europe. Con-s e q u e n t l y , Mrs. W i t t r e t r e a t s t o her h o t e l room, and Lou and Ph o e n i x s e t o f f t o v i s i t the r a n c h Lou u l t i m a t e l y p u r c h a s e s . T h e i r m o t o r - c a r r i d e i n t o the mountainous l a n d s c a p e p a r a l l e l s t h e e a r l i e r one i n "The C a p t a i n ' s D o l l , " b u t here P h o e n i x ' s e f f o r t t o l u r e Lou's f a v o r ends i n r e b u f f ; she no l o n g e r w i s h e s " t o f o o l h e r s e l f i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t a Phoenix might be a husband and a mate." H i s l i f e , she senses, i s not much d i f f e r e n t t h a n h er husband's, and so she a f f i r m s h e r i n -dependence. "No, no," she s a i d t o h e r s e l f , " I was wrong t o r i d e 31| i n t he f r o n t s e a t w i t h him. I must s i t a l o n e , j u s t a l o n e . Because sex, mere sex, i s r e p e l l a n t t o me. I w i l l never p r o s t i t u t e m y s e l f a g a i n . U n l e s s some-t h i n g touches my v e r y s p i r i t , the v e r y q u i c k o f me, I w i l l s t a y a l o n e , j u s t a l o n e . A l o n e , and g i v e my-s e l f o n l y t o the unseen p r e s e n c e s , serve o n l y the o t h e r , unseen p r e s e n c e s . " What does t o u c h h e r s p i r i t she d i s c o v e r s i n Las C h i v a s , a r a n c h owned p r e v i o u s l y by a t r a d e r and h i s New Eng l a n d w i f e ( a c t u a l l y Mrs. Mabel Dodge S t e r n e whom Lawrence met i n Tao s ) , a p l a c e d e s c r i b e d amidst an a u r a o f " v a s t and l i v i n g l a n d s -cape." The d e s e r t swept i t s g r e a t f a w n - c o l o u r e d c i r c l e around, away beyond and below l i k e a beach, w i t h a l o n g mountain-s i d e o f pure b l u e shadow c l o s i n g .in t h e near c o r n e r , and s t r a n g e b l u i s h hummocks o f mountains r i s i n g l i k e wet r o c k f r o m a v a s t s t r a n d , away i n the m i d d l e d i s t a n c e , and beyond, i n t h e f a r t h e s t d i s t a n c e , p a l e b l u e c r e s t s o f mountains l o o k i n g over t h e h o r i z o n , f rom the west, as i f p e e r i n g i n from a n o t h e r w o r l d a l t o g e t h e r . Here the d i s t a n t mountains ( r e m i n i s c e n t o f those i n "The P r u s s i a n O f f i c e r " ) r e p r e s e n t " P a r a d i s e . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , the s t r u g g l e o f the New En g l a n d woman has been " t o make the ne a r -ness as p e r f e c t as t h e d i s t a n c e : f o r the d i s t a n c e was ab-s o l u t e b e a u t y . " But " w h i l e she r e v e l l e d i n t h e beauty o f the luminous w o r l d t h a t wheeled around and below h e r , t h e grey, r a t - l i k e s p i r i t o f the i n n e r mountains was a t t a c k i n g h e r f r o m b e h i n d . " T h i s d u a l i t y o f the p a r a d i s a l l a n d s c a p e , Lawrence des-c r i b e s f o r more t h a n a dozen pages, and s e r i o u s l y weakens the u n i t y o f h i s s t o r y ; c e r t a i n l y he c a p t u r e s "the a n i m o s i t y 35 of the s p i r i t of the place" which has attacked the ranch and forced i t s previous owners to give i t up, yet i t i s less i n t e g r a l to Lou's point of view than one would wish. It might be argued that when i t comes to landscape Lawrence does not wish to skimp; that he fears the c l i c h e he believes Cezanne's l a t e r and poorer landscapes to have f a l l e n into ("the very f a c t that we can reconstruct almost i n s t a n t l y from the few indications Cezanne gives shows what a c l i c h e the landscape i s , how i t exists already, ready-made, i n our minds, how i t exists i n a pigeon-hole of the consciousness, so to speak, and you need only be given i t s number to be able to get i t out, complete"). Also, i f we r e c a l l Herbert Read's words from e a r l i e r , Lawrence seems to lack as an ex-pressionist, p a r t i c u l a r sense of proportion. But neither of these r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s excuse Lawrence's error of judgment, and i n the concluding pages of "St Mawr"--v/hen Lawrence spe l l s out the precise impact that h i s landscape'should make—the weakness i s not i t s length, but that too l i t t l e of i t i s perceived d i r e c t l y by Lou. Lawrence gives her the f i n a l word, however, and i n the following passage landscape and her own point of view coalesce as they have e a r l i e r i n England. Of course, the strength of her awareness here r e f l e c t s the f u l f i l l m e n t of her quest for wholeness: the attainment of r e a l i t y and the i n d i v i d u a l consciousness• 3 6 "There's something e l s e f o r me, mother. There's some-t h i n g e l s e even t h a t l o v e s me and wants me. I c a n ' t t e l l you what i t i s . I t ' s a s p i r i t . And i t ' s h e r e , on t h i s r a n c h . I t ' s h e r e , i n t h i s l a n d s c a p e . I t ' s something more r e a l t o me t h a n men a r e , and i t soothes me, and i t h o l d s me up. I don't know what i t i s , d e f -i n i t e l y . I t ' s something w i l d , t h a t w i l l h u r t me some-ti m e s and w i l l wear me down sometimes. I know i t . But i t ' s something b i g , b i g g e r t h a n men, b i g g e r t h a n p e o p l e , b i g g e r t h a n r e l i g i o n . I t ' s something t o do w i t h w i l d A m e r i c a . And i t ' s something t o do w i t h me. I t ' s a m i s s i o n , i f you l i k e . I am i m b e c i l e enough f o r t h a t J — B u t i t ' s my m i s s i o n t o keep m y s e l f f o r t h e s p i r i t t h a t i s w i l d , and had w a i t e d so l o n g h e r e : even w a i t e d f o r s u ch as me. Now I've cornel Now I'm h e r e . Now I am where I want t o be: w i t h the s p i r i t t h a t wants me. — A n d t h a t ' s how i t i s . And n e i t h e r R i c o nor Phoenix nor anybody e l s e r e a l l y m a t t e r s t o me. They are i n the w o r l d ' s b a c k - y a r d . And I am h e r e , r i g h t deep i n America, where t h e r e ' s a w i l d s p i r i t wants me, a w i l d s p i r i t more t h a n men. And i t doesn't want t o save me e i t h e r . I t needs me. - I t c r a v e s f o r me. And t o i t , my sex i s deep and s a c r e d , deeper t h a n I am, w i t h a deep n a t u r e aware deep down of my s e x . I t saves me f r o m cheapness, mother. And even you c o u l d never do t h a t f o r me." O b v i o u s l y , the s p i r i t t o w h i c h Lou a c q u i e s c e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p she c o u l d n ot f i n d w i t h R i c o , u n d e r s t a n d a b l e o n l y i n the sense o f t h a t continuum w h i c h a l l o w s an i n d i v i d -u a l r a p p o r t w i t h the u n i v e r s e , and e x p l a i n a b l e i n terms o f the p r i m e v a l l a n d s c a p e w h i c h Lawrence p a i n t s w i t h t h e s h i f t -i n g t e c h n i q u e of the p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t s . E a r l i e r , i n Sea and S a r d i n i a , he defends l a n d s c a p e ' s i n -h e r e n t q u a l i t y : The s p i r i t o f t h e p l a c e i s a s t r a n g e t h i n g . Our m e c h a n i c a l age t r i e s t o o v e r r i d e i t . But i t does not s u c c e e d . I n t h e end the s t r a n g e , s i n i s t e r s p i r i t o f t h e p l a c e , so d i v e r s e and a d v e r s e i n d i f f e r i n g p l a c e s , w i l l smash our m e c h a n i c a l oneness i n t o s m i t h -e r e e n s , and a l l t h a t we t h i n k t h e r e a l t h i n g w i l l go 37 11 o f f w i t h a pop, a n d we s h a l l be l e f t s t a r i n g . L o u , h o w e v e r , e s c a p e s s u c h a n e x p e r i e n c e b y a v o i d i n g t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f m e c h a n i c a l i l l u s i o n , a n d b y r e c o g n i z i n g r e a l i t y i n t h e m o u n t a i n o u s s e t t i n g . B u t w h i l e a woman's j o u r n e y i n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n m o u n t a i n s c o n t i n u e s t o i n t e r e s t L a w r e n c e i n "The P r i n c e s s " ( 1 9 2 [ L ) , a n d "The Woman Who Rode Away" ( 1 9 2 l x ) ( t h e l a t t e r a s t o r y w h i c h b r i n g s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l a n d s c a p e t o a n a p o c a l y p t i c c l i m a x ) , h e r o i n e s s u b s e q u e n t t o L o u a r e n o t s o f o r t u n a t e i n t e r m s o f p e r c e i v i n g a s i m i l a r r e a l i t y . I n "The P r i n c e s s , " L a w r e n c e ' s c h a r a c t e r p o s s e s s e s a t a v i s t i c q u a l i t i e s o f r o y a l t y w h i c h h e r f a t h e r h a l f m a d l y i n s t i l l s d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e : t h e ones t h a t i n f u r i a t e h e r A m e r i c a n r e l a t i v e s whom s h e r e g a r d s as b e n e a t h h e r . C o l i n U r q u h a r t a l s o t e a c h e s h i s d a u g h t e r t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e a r e demons i n d i s g u i s e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y she l e a r n s " a b s o l u t e r e t i c -e n c e . " B u t t h e d e a t h o f h e r f a t h e r a l t e r s h e r v i e w ; a t t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s o f age s h e s e n s e s t h a t " s h e must do some-t h i n g , " a n d m a r r i a g e " i n t h e b l a n k a b s t r a c t " a p p e a r s t h e a n s w e r f o r h e r s u d d e n e m p t i n e s s . So she t r a v e l s w i t h M i s s Cummins t o a dude r a n c h w h e r e she e n c o u n t e r s Romero, a g u i d e , " a l o o f , a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l e i n t h e l a n d s c a p e . " A t -t r a c t e d t o h i m , t h e P r i n c e s s i n s i s t s t h a t he l e a d h e r and M i s s Cummins i n t o t h e p r o d i g o u s m o u n t a i n s , s o she may p e e r 38 over them " i n t o t h e i r s e c r e t h e a r t , " and "see the w i l d a n i m a l s move about i n t h e i r w i l d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " But i n h e r q u e s t t o uncover i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s or w holeness, the P r i n c e s s undergoes an a c u t e f r a g m e n t a t i o n . The t r a n s i t i o n i n t h i s s t o r y advances f r o m l i g h t n e s s t o dark, f r o m the b r i g h t f a i r y - t a l e w o r l d of pseudo-completeness t o one of demonic f r a g m e n t a t i o n . And the l a n d s c a p e p l a y s a key r o l e i n t h i s p a t t e r n , i t s e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d u a l i s m t h a t t h e New E n g l a n d woman i n "St Mawr" e n c o u n t e r -ed. W h i l e Romero remains "a f l i c k e r i n g b l a c k s p o t i n t h e d e l i c a t e p a l l o r of the g r e a t l a n d s c a p e , " the c o n t i n u a l r i s i n g and d i p p i n g o f t h e mounted P r i n c e s s seems alm o s t r e d o l e n t o f h e r p a s t l i f e w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s s u r a n c e s and un-p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s . A t once she i s e x c i t e d by the p r o s -p e c t o f t h e s u n - s p l a s h e d peaks above, and c h i l l e d a t the " t a n g l e o f decay and d e s p a i r " t h a t l i e s " i n t h e v i r g i n f o r e s t " she r i d e s t h r o u g h ; and, u n l i k e Lou, her p o i n t o f v i e w i n -c r e a s i n g l y a l l i e s i t s e l f w i t h the second a s p e c t o f the l a n d e r s e a p e — t h e n e g a t i v e one. When a lame h o r s e f o r c e s M i s s Cummins t o t u r n back t o the r a n c h , the P r i n c e s s and Romero c o n t i n u e t h e i r a s c e n t , u n t i l t h e y a t t a i n the r i d g e where the woman's p o i n t o f v i e w and t h e e n t i r e l a n d s c a p e are f u s e d i n an e x p r e s s i o n of t w i s t e d r e p u l s i o n . I t f r i g h t e n e d the P r i n c e s s , i t was so inhuman. She 39 had not thought i t c o u l d be so inhuman, so, as i t were, a n t i - l i f e . And y e t now one of h e r d e s i r e s was f u l f i l -l e d . She had seen i t , the m a s s i v e , gruesome r e p e l -l e n t c o r e o f the R o c k i e s . She saw i t t h e r e b e n eath h e r eyes, i n i t s g i g a n t i c , heavy gruesomeness. Perhaps i t i s "the blasphemous i m p e r t i n e n c e o f h e r own s t e r -i l i t y , " acknowledged e a r l i e r by a Roman cabman, t h a t c a r r i e s h e r h i g h e r above t h e d e s e r t and i t s r i d g e s , u n t i l the v i e w becomes " e t h e r e a l and t e r r i f y i n g i n i t s g l e a m i n g , p a l e , h a l f -b u r n i s h e d Immensity, t i l t e d a t the w e s t . " Here, suspended between two v i v i d l y p a i n t e d l a n d s c a p e s , she no l o n g e r f e e l s " i n t h e p i c t u r e " - - a s she has p r e v i o u s l y i n c l o t h e s t h a t match the l e a v e s and g r a s s . E n t e r a demonic w o r l d where Romero w i t h h i s " s t r a n g e , demon-like w a t c h f u l n e s s " r u l e s , i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s the a v a i l a b l e p r i n c e , and more an i r r e v o c a b l e e v i l . Under the m u l t i p l y i n g w e i g h t of d a r k n e s s , t h e P r i n c e s s l o s e s c o n t a c t w i t h the w o r l d as she has known i t . But un-l i k e the o r d e r l y , she has not s t i l l t h e hope of t h e mountains t o appease her l o n e l i n e s s , she has o n l y Romero; and he a t t e m p t s t o d e s t r o y h e r . G r a d u a l l y he assumes more an e x p r e s s i o n of t h e c i v i l i z e d , v u l g a r w o r l d f r o m w h i c h she has t u r n e d , t h a n an essence o f t h e mountains she w i l l never u n d e r s t a n d . The account o f t h e i r s t r u g g l e r e f l e c t s b o t h t h e c o l d n e s s i n the s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e , and the movement from enchantment t o d i s e n c h a n t m e n t . The P r i n c e s s ' l o s s o f v i r g i n i t y i s an im-mediate consequence of h e r u n c o n s c i o u s f e a r of the e x t e r n a l f r e e z i n g c o n d i t i o n . llO She dreamed i t was snowing, and t h e snow was f a l l i n g on h e r t h r o u g h t h e r o o f , s o f t l y , s o f t l y h e l p l e s s l y , and she was g o i n g t o be b u r i e d a l i v e . She was grow-i n g c o l d e r and c o l d e r , the snow was w e i g h i n g down on h e r . • The snow was g o i n g t o absorb h e r . And when the P r i n c e s s awakes and r e q u e s t s warmth from Romero, her c l a i m t o r o y a l t y becomes m e r e l y n o m i n a l : she has been promiscuous w i t h one whom h e r f a t h e r would have c a l l e d a commoner. But w h i l e h e r d e s i r e t o r e m a i n unconquered r e t a i n s f o r h e r t a t t e r s o f a dream w o r l d , Romero's d e t e n t i o n of h e r i n h i s mountain c a b i n c o n t i n u e s the " n e g a t i o n " o f e v e r y t h i n g she has t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . And u n t i l t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e manages t o k i l l the gui d e i n a s h o o t - o u t and t o r e s c u e h e r , she c l i n g s d e s p e r a t e l y t o h e r own a l o o f s p i r i t . Even t h a t , however, i s touched by the madness she l a t e r a s c r i b e s t o h e r c a p t o r — s o t h a t i n t h e modern w o r l d t o w h i c h she r e t u r n s , she remains a n a c h r o n i s t i c by c l i n g i n g t o t h e i l l u s i o n she i s s t i l l " t h e P r i n c e s s , a v i r g i n i n t a c t . " She r e f u s e s t o accept r e a l i t y as h e r f a t h e r r e f u s e d , and t h u s , d e s p i t e h e r m a r r i a g e t o an e l d e r l y man, has moved not c l o s e r b u t f a r t h e r f r o m whole> ness, toward t h e u l t i m a t e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s i l l u s i o n . "The Woman Who Rode Away" p o s s e s s e s a s t r a n g e f a s c i n a t i o n t h a t d e r i v e s b o t h f r o m t h e l a n d s c a p e and the m y s t e r i o u s p r a c -t i s e s o f t h e C h i l c h u i I n d i a n s . D i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h h er mar-r i a g e , t he c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r senses i n the d i s t a n t Mexican mountains a r e a l i t y , a wholeness, t h a t escapes h er l i v i n g i n where the i n e l u c t a b l e s p e c t a c l e o f her husband's e x t r a c t i n g p l a n t o b s c u r e s t h e " g r e a t , v o i d , t r e e - c l a d h i l l s p i l i n g be-h i n d one a n o t h e r , f r o m nowhere i n t o nowhere," Her husband® l i k e R i c o , l a c k s a sense of r e a l i t y , but u n l i k e t h a t e f f e t e c h a r a c t e r , keeps h i s w i f e " i n an I n v i n c i b l e s l a v e r y . " Her q u e s t f o r wholeness r e c e i v e s i t s impetus from t a l e s she h e a r s c o n c e r n i n g the p r i s t i n e p r a c t i s e s o f the C h i l c h u i I n d i a n s , d escendants of Montezuma, who i n h a b i t a v a l l e y t h r e e days r i d e i n t o t h e l a n d s c a p e . Her f a s c i n a t i o n f o r t h e mountains goes beyond m e r e l y e x p l o r i n g them, t o an i n t e r e s t i n t h e n a t i v e s who a p p a r e n t l y comprise th e i n n e r r e a l i t y of what the P r i n c e s s f i n d s e x t e r n a l l y gruesome. R e m i n i s c e n t of h e r own l o n g i n g f o r escape are a n o t h e r woman's words i n Sea and S a r d i n i a : "Oh, God, t o be f r e e of a l l t h e hemmed-in l i f e — t he h o r r o r of human t e n s i o n , t h e a b s o l u t e i n s a n i t y of machine . 1 2 p e r s i s t e n c e . " And so she r i d e s away. U n l i k e the s c i e n t i s t s who have attempted t o s t u d y the C h i l c h u i , she, l i k e K u r t z i n Conrad's H e a r t of Darkness,, s u c -c e s s f u l l y p e n e t r a t e s the i n d i g e n o u s " r e l i g i o n s and m y s t e r i e s . " U n l i k e K u r t z , however, she w i l l i n g l y a c c e p t s h e r own d e a t h as a f u n c t i o n a l p a r t o f her d e s i r e t o know the savage mind; K u r t z , on the o t h e r hand, can o n l y t u r n f rom the j u n g l e ' s i n e x p l i c a b l e t e r r o r , and d i e a fragmented and p e r i p h e r a l v i c t i m I n h i s r e -v u l s i o n f o r i t . Y e t she a l s o d i e s fragmented, because what she e v i d e n t l y m i s t a k e s f o r wholeness (as does the c h a r a c t e r k2 i n "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " ) i s m e r e l y t h e n e g a t i v e type o f s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h Lawrence d e s p i s e s . As t h e woman ascends t h e mountains, camping out a t n i g h t , h e r d e s t i n y becomes g r a d u a l l y i r r e v o c a b l e as t h e l a n d - -scape clamps i t s e l f around h e r p o i n t o f v i e w . Beyond the cottonwood t r e e s she c o u l d see, on each s i d e , t h e s t e e p s i d e s o f m o u n t a i n - s l o p e s hemming h e r i n , sharp-plumaged w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g aspen, and, h i g h e r up, w i t h s p r o u t i n g , p o i n t e d s p r u c e and p i n e t r e e . Her h o r s e went on a u t o m a t i c a l l y . I n t h i s t i g h t v a l l e y , on t h i s s l i g h t t r a i l , t h e r e was nowhere t o go but ahead, c l i m b i n g . The t h r e e I n d i a n s whom she e n c o u n t e r s agree t o l e a d h e r t o t h e i r v i l l a g e , and from t h i s p o i n t she b e g i n s t o e x u l t i n th e f e e l i n g t h a t she i s a l r e a d y "dead," as the l i g h t f a d e s f r om t h e mountains and darkness descends. The c l i m b t a k e s her " t o t h e r o o f o f t h e w o r l d , " f r o m w h i c h she descends t h r e e thousand f e e t t o the e x q u i s i t e s e t t i n g o f t h e C h i l c h u i v i l l a g e , where the I n d i a n s make her v i r t u a l p r i s o n e r u n t i l t h e y o f f e r h e r as a human s a c r i f i c e i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g scene o f the s t o r y . Meanwhile, t h e w i n t e r l a n d s c a p e and the cosmos n e a t l y assume the p r i m i t i v e p a r a l l e l s o f Man and Woman, White Man and I n d i a n , u n t i l t h e app a r e n t "mastery t h a t man must h o l d , and t h a t p asses from r a c e t o r a c e " I s p e r v e r s e l y a c h i e v e d i n the cave where the aged c a c i q u e s t a b s the woman—as the r a y s of the sun p e n e t r a t e t h e shadowy i n t e r i o r . A g a i n Lawrence uses land-.-scape as a p o w e r f u l e x p r e s s i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s e a r c h f o r a 43 r a p p o r t w i t h the cosmos; but t h i s r a p p o r t , as we s h a l l see i n a l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t o r y , f a i l s t o connect t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a n y t h i n g more t h a n her own n e g a t i o n , r e m i n -i s c e n t o f the o r d e r l y and h i s u n a t t a i n a b l e m o u n t a i n s , "Sun" (1925) and "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " (1926) are two f i n a l s t o r i e s w h i c h a l s o c o n c e r n freedom and i n d i v i d u a l w holeness, as the e n t i c e m e n t s o f l a n d s c a p e . I n the f i r s t s t o r y , J u l i e t ' s v i e w o f l i f e has been compressed i n s i d e New York where she e x p r e s s e s an a s c e t i c f e a r o f the sun ( i n t o w h i c h t h e d o c t o r s o r d e r h e r f o r h e a l t h r e a s o n s ) . L e a v i n g her husband b e h i n d , however, she s a i l s f r om the c i t y ' s fragmented " d r i b b l e s o f l i g h t , " toward the f u l l sun of the M e d i t e r r a n e a n l a n d s c a p e where she g i v e s h e r s e l f naked t o t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d . Her f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h the new environment r e f l e c t s h e r c o n d i t i o n e d sense o f a l a r g e c i t y ' s c o n s t a n t s c r u t i n y . I t appears i m p o s s i b l e f o r her t o h i d e "where e v e r y o l i v e t r e e has eyes, and e v e r y s l o p e i s seen from a f a r " ; y e t she d i s -c o v e r s a r o c k y b l u f f where a c y p r e s s t r e e s t a n d s " g u a r d i a n " f o r her "on the k n o l l w i t h y e l l o w i s h c l i f f s a t the f o o t . " And t h e sun becomes h e r l o v e r as t h e l a n d s c a p e g r a d u a l l y emerges t o a f f o r d her a new s e l f - c o n c e p t . When, out o f the sun a t noon, sometimes she s t o l e down over the r o c k s and p a s t the c l i f f - e d g e , down t o the deep g u l l y where th e lemons hung i n c o o l e t e r n a l shadow, and i n t h e s i l e n c e s l i p p e d o f f h e r wrapper t o wash h e r s e l f q u i c k l y a t one of the deep, c l e a r g r e e n b a s i n s , she would n o t i c e , i n t h e bare g r e e n t w i l i g h t under the lemon l e a v e s , t h a t a l l her body was r o s y , r o s y and t u r n i n g t o g o l d . She was l i k e a n o t h e r p e r s o n . She was a n o t h e r p e r s o n . Her s u r r o u n d i n g s p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the wholeness she has never e x p e r i e n c e d as w i f e t o a husband, " l i k e a worm t h a t the sun has never seen." R e s p o n s i b l e f o r a new p o i n t o f view a e s t h e t i c a l l y f r e e , t h e l a n d s c a p e becomes an Eden where she r e f u s e s " t o t h i n k o u t s i d e h e r g a r d e n . " However h e r husband a r r i v e s " l i k e a b l o t o f i n k on t h e p a l e , s u n - g l o w i n g s l o p e , " and the s t o r y c o n c l u d e s w i t h J u l -i e t ' s r e g r e t t h a t she must b e a r M a u r i c e ' s c h i l d , i n s t e a d of one f a t h e r e d by a v i b r a n t peasant she has n o t i c e d i n the l a n d s c a p e . But a t l e a s t she has become i n t i m a t e w i t h t h e sun w h i c h Lawrence c l a i m s , i n the f i n a l p a r a g r a p h o f A p o c a l y p s e . must c o n s t i t u t e the f i r s t s t e p toward wholeness. What we want i s t o d e s t r o y our f a l s e , i n o r g a n i c con-n e c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y those r e l a t e d t o money, and r e -e s t a b l i s h the l i v i n g o r g a n i c c o n n e c t i o n s , w i t h the cosmos, th e sun and e a r t h , w i t h mankind and n a t i o n and f a m i l y . S t a r t w i t h the sun, and t h e r e s t w i l l s l o w l y , s l o w l y happen. 13 "The Man Who Loved Islands'* appears the l a s t s t o r y i n w h i c h Lawrence a l l i e s l a n d s c a p e w i t h p o i n t o f view i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t r u g g l e toward f u l f i l l m e n t . L i k e "The P r i n c e s s " and "The Woman Who Rode Away," i t p o s s e s s e s a unique a r c h e t y p a l q u a l i t y whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I s h a l l d i s c u s s l a t e r . Here i t i s more i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d how Lawrence employs an i n -c r e a s i n g l y s u r r e a l i s t i c l a n d s c a p e as h i s h e r m i t i c c h a r a c t e r undergoes p r o g r e s s i v e f r a g m e n t a t i o n when h i s d e s i r e t o " r e -g a i n P a r a d i s e " — t h e wholeness o f the human q u e s t — b a c k f i r e s . To quote from A p o c a l y p s e a g a i n , " I f you a r e t a k i n g the p a t h of i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n , you had b e t t e r , l i k e Buddha, go o f f and be y o u r s e l f , and g i v e a thought t o nobody. Then you may a c h i e v e your N i r v a n a . " Which i s e x a c t l y what t h e man who moves p r o g r e s s i v e l y t o s m a l l e r i s l a n d s does, h o p i n g t o d i s c o v e r i n the s e a d d i t i o n a l l y c o n f i n e d l a n d s c a p e s a view of l i f e w h i c h i s f r e e and e x c l u s i v e l y h i s own. But n a t u r a l l y he f a i l s because h i s o b s e s s i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s m g r a d u a l l y negates the community i n w h i c h Lawrence b e l i e v e s the c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Wholeness r e s i d e s . "To have an i d e a l f o r the I n d i v i d u a l w h i c h r e g a r d s o n l y h i s i n d i v i d u a l s e l f and i g n o r e s h i s c o l l e c t i v e 15 s e l f i s i n the l o n g r u n f a t a l . " Or i n Donne's words, no man i s an i s l a n d unto h i m s e l f . O b v i o u s l y the i n d i v i d u a l s e l f i n "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " s l o w l y subsumes the c o l -l e c t i v e s e l f , when the i n c r e a s i n g d e s o l a t i o n o f r o c k and a t -mosphere on each p h y s i c a l l y d e c r e a s i n g i s l a n d , r e f l e c t s the man's growing a l i e n a t i o n i n terms o f h i s c o l l e c t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w . On h i s f i r s t i s l a n d t h i s v i e w p o i n t embraces q u i t e a t o t a l community where he r e s i d e s as "master," i n a " s e m i - f e u d a l d w e l l i n g - h o u s e , " and where the o t h e r s l i v e v i r t u a l l y as h i s s e r f s i n t h e i r row of c o t t a g e s . W i t h i t s h i l l s , bushes, and k6 f l o w e r s , the i s l a n d l a n d s c a p e h o l d s out "a u n i v e r s e " f o r the i s l a n d e r . Yet t h i s u n i v e r s a l i t y resembles a s y n t h e t i c brand w h i c h he has t o purchase w i t h a group o f yes-men, l i k e t h e b a i l i f f and b u t l e r j m a i n t a i n i n g i t , moreover, p r o v e s f i n a n -c i a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . So he s e t t l e s f o r a second s m a l l e r i s -l a n d where he t a k e s o n l y a f r a c t i o n of h i s o r i g i n a l s t a f f — t h u s s h i f t i n g f a r t h e r from, i n s t e a d o f c l o s e r t o , w h o l e n e s s . T h i s new home has "the c o l d n e s s , t h e g r e y n e s s , even the s o f t , c r e e p i n g f o g of the s e a , and the i s l e t of r o c k humped up i n i t a l l , l i k e the l a s t p o i n t i n space." A p p r o p r i a t e l y , the i s l a n d e r ' s p o i n t of v i e w narrows, h i s a m b i t i o n s r e c e d e . And t h e e t h e r e a l n a t u r e o f i l l u s i o n b e g i n s t o i n t r u d e : " h i s s p i r i t Q-sJ l i k e a d i m - l i t cave under water, where s t r a n g e s e a - f o l i a g e expands upon t h e w a t e r y atmosphere, and s c a r c e l y sways, and a mute f i s h shadow!ly s l i p s i n and s l i p s away a g a i n . A l l s t i l l and s o f t and u n c r y i n g , y e t a l i v e as r o o t e d seaweed i s a l i v e . " I n t h i s amorphous s t a t e he cannot r e s i s t h a v i n g sex w i t h one of h i s employees, b u t r a t h e r t h a n s a t i s -f a c t i o n , he a c h i e v e s o n l y h u m i l i a t i o n . The woman's pregnancy f o r c e s him i n t o m a r r i a g e , and an i n c r e a s i n g fragmented con-d i t i o n . Perhaps on a t h i r d i s l a n d , a l o n e , he can a t t a i n t he wholeness w h i c h has s u c c e s s f u l l y e l u d e d him thus f a r . At t h i s s t a g e the la n d s c a p e of the t h i r d i s l a n d p r oves v o i d l i k e h i m s e l f . I t was j u s t a few a c r e s of r o c k away i n the n o r t h , on t h e o u t e r f r i n g e o f t h e i s l e s . I t was low, i t r o s e low out of the g r e a t ocean. There was not a b u i l d i n g , not even a t r e e on i t . Only n o r t h e r n s e a -t u r f , a p o o l o f r a i n - w a t e r , a b i t of sedge, r o c k , and s e a - b i r d s . N o t h i n g e l s e . Under t h e weeping wet w e s t e r n s k y . T h i s shrunken l a n d s c a p e i n t i m a t e s a h e r m i t i c p o i n t of v i e w : now t h e i s l a n d e r d e s i r e s n o t h i n g more th a n t o watch the sea, "and t o f e e l h i s mind t u r n s o f t and hazy, l i k e t h e hazy ocean." He a v o i d s human c o n t a c t and s e l l s h i s sheep, the f r a g m e n t a t i o n n e a r l y complete because a l l e n c o u n t e r , he now f i n d s " r e p u l s i v e . " F i n a l l y w i n t e r a r r i v e s c o v e r i n g the s m a l l i s l a n d en-t i r e l y w i t h snow, so t h a t the t o t a l l y b l a n d l a n d s c a p e , w i t h the s e a e a t i n g " a t the w h i t e n e s s of the c o r p s e - l i k e l a n d , " p r e f i g u r e s h i s own d e a t h . Here a s u r r e a l i s t i c l a n d s c a p e , i n e f f e c t one e n n u n c i a t i o n of p o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s m , c a p t u r e s the essence of dream, i l l u s i o n , and t h e w e i r d passage of t i m e . The i s l a n d e r s t r u g g l e s w i t h h i s s h o v e l a g a i n s t t h i s d e a t h - l i k e c o n f i n e m e n t , but i n the end i s unable t o overcome the " g r e a t h e a p i n g w h i t e h i l l s " t h a t "(fume} l i k e v o l c a n o e s " t o d e s t r o y h i s i s l a n d and h i m s e l f . I m p o r t a n t l y , Lawrence a r r i v e s f u l l - c i r c l e w i t h t h i s scene: the o r d e r l y ' s mountains have r e t u r n e d e r r u p t i n g , y e t even more l n a c e s s i b l e t o an i s -l a n d e r who s u f f e r s i n "snow-sleep" i m a g i n i n g t o h i m s e l f , " I t i s summer." A g a i n the l a n d s c a p e has become l a r g e l y r e s p o n s -i b l e f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s fragmented c o n d i t i o n — h i s a b b r e v i a t e d , i l l u s o r y p o i n t o f v i e w ; and c e r t a i n l y what Lawrence w r i t e s i n one o f h i s e s s a y s : " L i f e i s not a q u e s t i o n o f p o i n t s , but 1 6 a q u e s t i o n o f f l o w . I t ' s the f l o w t h a t m a t t e r s , " has p a r -t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i s l a n d e r ' s i n -a p p r o p r i a t e l i f e s t y l e , and the p a r a b l e o f h i s l o s t r e a l i t y w h i c h r e f l e c t s modern man's f l e e i n g v i s i o n o f t o t a l i t y . U s i n g h i s pen l i k e a p a i n t b r u s h , t h e n , Lawrence shapes v e r b a l s e t t i n g s w h i c h l i n k a x i o m a t i c a l l y t o c h a r a c t e r p o i n t s o f v i e w . Perhaps more t h a n any o t h e r r e c e n t w r i t e r , he a f -f i r m s an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e a r t s f o r h e i g h t e n e d r e p -r e s e n t a t i o n , o f t h e human e x p e r i e n c e : i n h i s case the r e c u r -r i n g q u e s t f o r w h o l e n e s s . Poet, d r a m a t i s t , n o v e l i s t , Lawrence was a l s o p a i n t e r — n o t o n l y o f a c t u a l c a n v a s e s — b u t o f imag-i n a t i v e l a n d s c a p e s i n h i s s h o r t e r f i c t i o n . FOOTNOTES 1 " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o These P a i n t i n g s . " Phoenix, pp. 55l-$Qk. 2 ^Lawrence as a P a i n t e r , " P a i n t i n g s o f D_j_ H. Lawrence. ed. Mervyn Levy (Cory, Adams & Mackay: London, 196li), p. 63. 3 A p o c a l y p s e , p. 198. "The Impact of Modernism on Lawrence," P a i n t i n g s o f D. H. Lawrence, p. 52 . (MarkSchorer, "Lawrence and the S p i r i t o f P l a c e " A D ^ L Lawrence M i s c e l l a n y , ed. H a r r y T. Moore ( ( S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : Carbondale, 1959)) , pp. 280-29ii , a l s o d i s c u s s e s the s p i r i t o f p l a c e i n Lawrence's f i c t i o n , and s u g g e s t s the b a s i c p o l a r i t y "be-tween n a t u r a l p l a c e and n a t u r a l p l a c e c o r r u p t e d by un-n a t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e . " ) 5 Phoenix, p. 763. 6 T w i l i g h t i n I t a l y ( W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . : London, 1916), pp. 7 -8 . 7 T w i l i g h t i n I t a l y , p. 15. 8 • "S-<L®v.e Was Once a L i t t l e Boy," Phoenix I I : U n c o l - l e c t e d . U n p u b l i s h e d and Other Prose Works by D. H. Lawrence, ed. Warren R o b e r t s and H a r r y T. Moore ( W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . : London, 1968), p. )|)|J|. 5o 9 p . 196. 1 0 p . I 4 . I . 11 ( W i l l i a m H e i n e m a n n L t d . : L o n d o n , 1956), p . 55. 1 2 p . 2 6 . 1 3 p . 2 0 0 , Ik p . 1 9 7 15 A p o c a l y p s e , p . 1 9 5 • 1 6 "Do Women C h a n g e ? " , P h o e n i x I I , p . 5^2. CHAPTER I I STRUCTURE The Whole S t o r y I t i s not t o o uncommon an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the modern s h o r t s t o r y e v o l v e d f r o m two s t r u c t u r a l s o u r c e s : the t r a d i -t i o n a l b e g i n n i n g - m i d d l e - e n d e p i t o m i z e d by Maupassant, and the s l i c e - o f - l i f e r e p r e s e n t e d by Chekhov. W h i l e K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d appears most t o r e s e mble t h e R u s s i a n a u t h o r among B r i t i s h s h o r t s t o r y w r i t e r s , K i p l i n g comes c l o s e s t t o Mau-p a s s a n t . Lawrence, on t h e o t h e r hand, seems h a r d e r t o p l a c e , n o t because he t y p i f i e s the m i d d l e ground (whatever t h a t might b e ) , b u t because h i s h i g h l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t y l e tempts one toward g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about h i s s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h p r o v e s f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l . That does not i m p l y , however, t h a t he d i d not use t h i s s t r u c t u r e i n an o r i g i n a l way; were I asked f o r a k i n d o f s t o r y most t y p i c a l l y L a w r e n c i a n , my a n s w e r — f o r l a c k o f a more s u i t a b l e name—would be the Whole S t o r y . Such a s t o r y m a n i f e s t s a b e g i n n i n g - m i d d l e - e n d , but i n c l u d e s t r a i t s of t h e p a r a b l e and/or f a i r y - t a l e w h i c h Law-re n c e c o a l e s c e s t o c r e a t e a p a r t i c u l a r s h o r t f i c t i o n u n i q u e l y h i s own i n r e c e n t B r i t i s h l i t e r a t u r e . O c c a s i o n a l l y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Whole S t o r y crop up e l s e w h e r e i n h i s s h o r t e r f i c t i o n , b u t t h e y l a c k a p u r p o s e f u l 52 i n t e g r a t i o n w h i c h d i r e c t s s t r u c t u r e toward a p a r t i c u l a r e f f e c t . To my mind, Lawrence's Whole S t o r y i n f e r s b a s i c a l l y a double c o n c e p t : 1) i t s s t r u c t u r e i s such t h a t w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f t h e t a l e , space and time are so extended as t o a l -low an a r c h e t y p a l c h a r a c t e r t o e v o l v e — t h a t i s , Lawrence aims a t a t o t a l , c omplete, or whole p i c t u r e t h a t presupposes a k i n d of a p o c a l y p t i c i m p a c t ; 2) the Whole S t o r y pays p a r -t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the q u e s t f o r wholeness, because the j o u r n e y m o t i f makes t h a t i t s u n i v e r s a l theme. T h i s s o r t of s t o r y d i f f e r s f r o m the p a r a b l e i n l e n g t h and d e t a i l , and from the f a i r y - t a l e i n i t s use o f n a t u r a l i s m . Yet t h e Whole S t o r y d e n i e s n a t u r a l i s m t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t s t r e t c h e s toward myth, and the g r e a t e r t h i s d e n i a l , g e n e r a l l y t h e more o v e r t t h e use of symbol. As a r e s u l t none of t h e f o l l o w i n g s t o r i e s a r e "whole" i n q u i t e t h e same s e n s e . But, as suggested, t h e Whole S t o r y does employ a t t r i b u t e s o f b o t h p a r a b l e and f a i r y - t a l e by r a n g i n g t h e spectrum between them, a t t h e same time c o l o r -i n g language t h r o u g h i t s own p r i s m a t i c n a t u r e . Here, f o r i n s t a n c e , are opening s e n t e n c e s f r o m some of the s e ven s t o r i e s w h i c h f o l l o w i n d i s c u s s i o n : "There was a man who l o v e d i s l a n d s . " "They were t r u e i d e a l i s t s f r o m New E n g l a n d . " "There was a woman who was b e a u t i f u l , who s t a r t e d w i t h a l l the advantages, y e t she had no l u c k . " "There was a peasant near J e r u s a l e m who a c q u i r e d a young gamecock...." I n e v e r y example the p a s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e g i n s the s t o r y i n a 53 s i m p l e , d i r e c t f a s h i o n r e m i n i s c e n t of a B i b l i c a l s t o r y warming up. But Lawrence n u r t u r e s t h i s t o n e , not because of t h e C h r i s t i a n d i d a c t i c i s m i t s u g g e s t s , b u t because the c h o i c e o f words c a r e f u l l y p r e d e t e r m i n e s a c o n v e n t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r h i s own d i d a c t i c i s m w h i c h extends toward myth r a t h e r t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l r e l i g i o n — t o w a r d romance ( f a i r y - t a l e ) as w e l l as d i d a c t i c i s m ( p a r a b l e ) f o r i n s p i r a t -i o n . Thus t h i s tone i s c o n v e n t i o n a l i n the sense o f t r a d i t -i o n a l form, bu t not i n the modern s h o r t s t o r y where i t ap-p e a r s r e f r e s h i n g and o r i g i n a l . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f "England, My E n g l a n d " (1915), the o t h e r h a l f dozen Whole S t o r i e s w h i c h Lawrence wrote are a l l l a t e r ones, w r i t t e n i n l i g h t of h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , a m idst the f l u x o f h i s own q u e s t i n the w a n d e r i n g y e a r s , 1 9 2 1 L - 1 9 2 8 . By t h e n q u i t e mature i n terms of h i s own p h i l o s o p h y , Lawrence we see as i n t e r p r e t e r , t e a c h e r , p r o p h e t — a s w e l l as f i c t i o n w r i t e r — i n h i s i n s t i n c t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e I am p r o p o s i n g . The d i s c u s s i o n of t h e f i r s t s i x s t o r i e s w h i c h f o l l o w , r e v e a l s unsuccess as i t r e l a t e s t o a c q u i r e d wholeness, w h i l e d i s c u s s i p n of t h e l a s t , "The Man Who D i e d , " i l l u s t r a t e s the o n l y s u c c e s s f u l q u e s t by c h a r a c t e r ( t h e a r t i s t i c m e r i t s o f each s t o r y , of c o u r s e , a r e not c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h a s u c c e s s -f u l ^ q u e s t ) .» I The U n s u c c e s s f u l Quest The i s l a n d e r , as we have seen, f a i l s t o a c h i e v e f u l -ness of l i f e becase he embodies a l i f e s t y l e d i r e c t l y op-posed t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the human community Lawrence advocates i n A p o c a l y p s e . The s t r u c t u r e o f "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " p e r m i t s a c l e a r d e l i n e a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r , c a r e f u l l y marked o f f i n s e c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e t h r e e d e c r e a s i n g i s l a n d s , and t h e t h r e e i n c r e a s i n g s t a t e s o f human disillusionment« The l a n d s c a p e , as s u g g ested e a r l i e r , be-comes g r a d u a l l y s u r r e a l i s t i c , so t h a t i n terms o f f a n t a s y t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Whole S t o r y moves s y s t e m a t i c a l l y away f r o m the n a t u r a l w o r l d , i n t o a n o t h e r sphere t h a t a l l o w s the s t o r y ' s theme maximum e f f e c t . Never does Lawrence h o l d back the s t o r y ' s d i r e c t i o n nor i t s i n t e n t i o n ; he p r e f a c e s the b e g i n -n i n g o f t h e f i r s t i s l a n d ' s d e c l i n e w i t h the f o l l o w i n g s e n-t e n c e : "But under a l l t h i s , t h i n g s were not w e l l . " And when a cow f a l l s over a c l i f f one morning and d i e s , t h e a u t h o r q u i t e o p e n l y d e c l a r e s i t s f a l l ' ' " s y m b o l i c " o f b o t h the i s l a n d and the disenchantment t o f o l l o w . The s t o r y i t s e l f does not attempt t o h i d e i t s d i d a c t i c p u r p o s e . A f t e r i t i n t r o d u c e s an anonymous man who d e s i r e s an I s l a n d i n o r d e r " t o make i t a w o r l d o f h i s own," the second p a r a g r a p h unashamedly s t a t e s : 55 An i s l a n d , i f i t i s b i g enough, i s no b e t t e r t h a n a c o n t i n e n t . I t has t o be r e a l l y q u i t e s m a l l , be-f o r e i t f e e l s l i k e an i s l a n d ; and t h i s s t o r y w i l l show how t i n y i t has t o be, b e f o r e you can p r e -sume t o f i l l i t w i t h your own p e r s o n a l i t y . Lawrence t h e n l i k e n s an i s l a n d t o "a n e s t w h i c h h o l d s one egg, and one o n l y . T h i s egg i s the i s l a n d e r h i m s e l f . " The a u t h o r proceeds s l o w l y , f e e d i n g us the I s l a n d e r ' s age ( t h i r t y -f i v e ) , and the l e n g t h o f l e a s e the man a c q u i r e s on h i s f i r s t i s l a n d ( n i n e t y - n i n e y e a r s ) . He c o n t r a s t s h i s c h a r a c t e r w i t h Abraham who d e s i r e d numberless o f f s p r i n g (who t h e r e f o r e c o u l d never a c q u i r e f u l f i l l m e n t on an i s l a n d ) , and he e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t i s l a n d i s not a r o m a n t i c one of the South Seas, but one r a t h e r " q u i t e near a t home." Thus i n u n d e r s t a t i n g the i s l a n d ' s a r c h e t y p a l c o n n o t a t i o n s , Lawrence a c t u a l l y h e i g h t e n s them, so t h a t the Whole S t o r y q u a l i t i e s he seems t o a im a t , appear n o n c h a l a n t and u n a f f e c t e d . A l s o , by des-c r i b i n g the i s l a n d ' s p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s r e a l i s t i c a l l y , he s t r e n g t h e n s h i s case a g a i n s t the i s l a n d e r who b e g i n s t o l o s e h i s sense o f r e a l i t y t h r o u g h h i s i n c r e a s i n g d e s i r e tosisee t h i s p l a c e as $a®rainute w o r l d o f pure p e r f e c t i o n , made by man h i m s e l f . " I n accordance w i t h the n a t u r e o f the Whole S t o r y , l i n e a r and s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e c e i v e f u l l e x t e n s i o n . The p a s -s i n g seasons are d e s c r i b e d s l o w l y and i n d e t a i l : I n e a r l y s p r i n g , the l i t t l e ways and g l a d e s were a 56 snow of b l a c k t h o r n , a v i v i d w h i t e among the C e l t i c s t i l l n e s s o f c l o s e g reen and g r e y r o c k , b l a c k b i r d s c a l l i n g out i n t h e w h i t e n e s s and t h e i r f i r s t l o n g , t r i u m p h a n t c a l l s . . . • F o l l o w e d summer, and the cow-s l i p s gone, the w i l d r o s e s f a i n t l y f r a g r a n t t h r o u g h t h e h a z e . . . . And t h e n the s e a - f o g went, i t was au-tumn, the oat-sheaves l y i n g prone, the g r e a t moon, a n o t h e r i s l a n d , r o s e g o l d e n out o f the sea, and r i s i n g h i g h e r , t h e w o r l d o f t h e sea was w h i t e . . , , and w i n t e r came, d a r k s k i e s and dampness and r a i n , but r a r e l y f r o s t . The i s l a n d e r has s t i l l not m e r i t e d a t t e n t i o n ; Lawrence con t i n u e s t o address h i m s e l f t o "you": But once i s o l a t e y o u r s e l f on a l i t t l e i s l a n d i n the sea o f space, and the moment b e g i n s t o heave and ex-pand i n g r e a t c i r c l e s , the s o l i d e a r t h i s gone, and your s l i p p e r y , naked d a r k s o u l f i n d s h e r s e l f out i n t h e t i m e l e s s w o r l d , where the c h a r i o t s of the s o -c a l l e d dead dash down the o l d s t r e e t s of c e n t u r i e s , and s o u l s crowd on the footways t h a t we, i n the mo-ment, c a l l bygone y e a r s . The s o u l s o f the dead are a l i v e a g a i n , and p u l s a t i n g a c t i v e l y around you. You are out i n t h e o t h e r i n f i n i t y . I t i s t h i s i n f i n i t y , however, t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e p a s t , w h i c h makes the i s l a n d e r "uneasy." T h e r e f o r e t o a v o i d "any more o f t h i s s o r t o f awareness," he h a s t e n s t o f o c u s h i s a t t e n t i o n upon t h e I s l a n d "by s p e n d i n g money." Here we d i s -c e r n the nemesis of modern man who would deny h i s p a s t f o r the sake of " P a r a d i s e " i n t h e p r e s e n t ; w i t h o u t r o o t s he can never grow, become whole. N e v e r t h e l e s s the i s l a n d e r e s t a b -l i s h e s h i m s e l f as master i n a m e d i e v a l house, as i f mocking a p a s t s t y l e o f l i f e by p u r s u i n g i t t o the c o r e he r e a l l y 1 cannot s t a n d . P e o p l e d by h i r e l i n g s , and q u i t e a p a r t "from 57 t h e g r e a t o u t e r w o r l d , " the i s l a n d p o s s e s s e s an i d y l l i c f a c a d e : "There were J e r s e y cows, t i n k l i n g a slow b e l l , among the g o r s e . T ? There was a c a l l t o meals a t midday, and the p e a c e f u l smoking of chimneys a t e v e n i n g , when r e s t descended." And i n t h e k i n d o f s i m p l e tone w h i c h the Whole S t o r y espouses, the i s l a n d e r ' s wisdom and s t a t u s are e s t a b l i s h e d : "He t r e a t e d h i s g u e s t s r o y a l l y , h i s s e r -v a n t s l i b e r a l l y . Y e t he was shrewd, and v e r y w i s e . He never came the boss over h i s p e o p l e . Y et he kept h i s eye on e v e r y t h i n g , l i k e a shrewd, b l u e - e y e d young Hermes." A l l of w h i c h Lawrence e f f e c t i v e l y undercuts as the s t o r y p r o -g r e s s e s . I t i s d o u b t f u l whether any o f them ^servants]] r e a l l y l i k e d him, man t o man, or even woman t o man. But t h e n i t i s d o u b t f u l i f he r e a l l y l i k e d any o f them, as man to man, o r man t o woman. He wanted them t o be happy, and the l i t t l e w o r l d t o be p e r f e c t . But anyone who wants the w o r l d t o be p e r f e c t must be c a r e f u l not t o have r e a l l i k e s o r d i s l i k e s . A g e n e r a l g o o d w i l l i s a l l y ou c a n a f f o r d . The sudden t r a n s i t i o n f r o m enchantment t o disenchantment happens o v e r n i g h t , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e Whole S t o r y i n wh i c h s h a r p l i n e a r c o n n e c t i o n s o c c u r as i n g e n u o u s l y as s p a t i a l ones. Moreover, m i s f o r t u n e does not appear an i s o l a t e d phen-omenon, r a t h e r a u b i q u i t o u s one: "A man broke a l e g , a n o t h e r was c r i p p l e d w i t h r h e u m a t i c f e v e r . The p i g s had some s t r a n g e d i s e a s e . A s t o r m drove the y a c h t on a r o c k . The mason h a t e d the b u t l e r , and r e f u s e d t o l e t h i s daughter s e r v e a t t h e house." 58 Hence the i s l a n d e r ' s h u b r i s , h i s p a u c i t y of i n s i g h t , has met the a v e n g i n g " i n v i s i b l e hand" w h i c h s t r i k e s w i t h "heavy m a l e v o l e n c e . " The i s l a n d i t s e l f assumes demonic a t t r i b u t e s , and i t s p r e v i o u s apparent harmony r e c u r s o n l y s p a s m o d i c a l l y . F u r t h e r , t h e i s l a n d e r d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s s t a f f has c h e a t e d him, t h a t h i s d e b i t s f a r o utweigh h i s a s s e t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the f o u r t h y e a r f i n d s him on the m a i n l a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o s e l l the i s l a n d , "as a man who wants a d i v o r c e a t any c o s t . " I n t h e m i d d l e of t h e f i f t h y e a r , f i n a l l y , he s e l l s . However he has not l o s t f a i t h i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u l -f i l l i n g h i m s e l f i n a microcosm where he r e t a i n s h i s s t a t u s as m a s t e r . Y e t a second i s l a n d p r o v e s once a g a i n t h e f o o l i s h n e s s o f t h a t p r e s u p p o s i t i o n . On t h i s s m a l l e r i s l a n d the e x p e r i e n c e o f even a few s e r v i n g people f o r c e s him i n t o a complete aban-donment of s o c i e t y , i n t o t h e g rowing d e n i g r a t i o n o f h i s s e l f . N a t u r a l l y , t h e f a r t h e r away f r o m t h e l a r g e r w o r l d he t r a v e l s , t h e more remote becomes the a n c e s t r a l awareness w h i c h he has d i s m i s s e d on h i s f i r s t i s l a n d ; and f o r a L a w r e n c i a n c h a r a c t e r t h i s d i s m i s s a l c o u r t s d e s t r u c t i o n (one must f e e l the p r e s e n t t h r o u g h th e sense-knowledge of t h e p a s t ; when modern man d e n i e s t h i s he i s a l r e a d y l e s s t h a n w h o l e ) . Thus the i s -l a n d e r who t a k e s up r e s i d e n c e where t h e r e r e s i d e "no human g h o s t s , no g h o s t s o f any a n c i e n t r a c e , " f i n d s "no l o n g e r a ' w o r l d ' , " but i n s t e a d "a s o r t of r e f u g e . " 59 F o r a time he enjoys I l l u s o r y contentment. He spends most of h i s days i n a s t u d y w o r k i n g i n d o l e n t l y on a manus-c r i p t c a t a l o g u i n g m y t h o l o g i c a l f l o w e r s . But c u t away f r o m h i s i m a g i n a t i v e r o o t s , he e x p e r i e n c e s e n c r o a c h i n g u n c e r t a i n t y about t h e i d e a l he s e e k s , and the Whole S t o r y i s c a r e f u l t o a l l o w us t h i s i n t u i t i o n - - o r l a c k o f i t : "The i s l a n d e r s a i d t o h i m s e l f : ' I s t h i s h a p p i n e s s ? ' He s a i d t o h i m s e l f : 'I am t u r n e d i n t o a dream. I f e e l n o t h i n g , or I don't know what I f e e l . -Yet i t seems t o me I am happy.'" The r e p e t i t i o n e v i d e n t i n t h i s passage c o n t r i b u t e s t o our own p e r c e p t i o n o f the I s l a n d e r ' s amorphous p e r s p e c t i v e , because h i s s e l f p o s t u l a t i o n i s t h e a r c h e t y p a l one w h i c h he t r i e s t o answer w i t h o u t t h e awareness of a n y t h i n g but h i s own i n d i v i d u a l i s m . As a r e s u l t , he c o n f u s e s " t h e s o f t evanescence":;.of "gossamy t h i n g s , " t h a t w h i c h most c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s h i s own p o s i t i o n , f o r what i s r e a l or "permanent." Time, moreover, passes i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a s h i o n of the Whole S t o r y , w h i l e he r e -mains unconnected w i t h e v e r y s e a s o n . S p r i n g b r i n g s s e x u a l e n c o u n t e r w i t h F l o r a , one o f h i s s e r v a n t s . But the i s l a n d e r does not e n j o y i t , and the e f f o r t he e x e r t s t o s a t i s f y h i m s e l f o n l y succeeds i n d e s t r o y i n g the tenuous e x i s t e n c e t h a t he has seemed t o t a k e p l e a s u r e f r o m — on t h i s second i s l a n d , a l o o f and a l o n e . " S h a t t e r e d and f u l l of s e l f - c o n t e m p t " he s a i l s t o the c o n t i n e n t , u n t i l word of F l o r a ' s pregnancy r e a c h e s him. S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , of c o u r s e , 6 0 the s t o r y ' s second sharp l i n e a r c o n n e c t i o n o c c u r s , w h i c h p o r t e n d s P a r t I I I of the s t o r y — f o r the i s l a n d e r the pos-s i b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r i s l a n d : "At t h i s v e r y moment i t hap-pened t h e r e was an a u c t i o n of i s l a n d s . He got the map3, and s t u d i e d them. And a t the a u c t i o n he bought, f o r v e r y l i t t l e money, a n o t h e r i s l a n d . " And w h i l e t h e i s l a n d e r mar-r i e s F l o r a , he soon l e a v e s her f o r t h i s new p o s s e s s i o n , un-w i l l i n g t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and unable t o r e c o g n i z e t h e s o u r c e o f h i s r e c u r r i n g d i s e n c h a n t m e n t . On h i s f i r s t i s l a n d he c o u l d not assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s money, and on a second i s l a n d f o r h i s w i f e . T h e r e f o r e , Lawrence w r i t e s , "He went s t r a i g h t n o r t h , t o p r e p a r e h i s t h i r d i s -l a n d . " Here he cannot assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y even f o r him-s e l f . H i s movement, we n o t i c e , has t a k e n him f r o m l o r d t o husband t o h e r m i t , and i n e a c h r o l e he d i s c o v e r s h i m s e l f i n c a p a b l e o f j u r i s d i c t i o n . On the f i r s t i s l a n d t h e h i r e d h e l p c h e a t s him, on the second a s t r o n g - w i l l e d w i f e u s u r p t s him, w h i l e on the t h i r d h i s own f e a r s overwhelm him. Here, q u i t e a p a r t f r o m p e o p l e , he e n j o y s h i s dozen sheep. But p r e s e n t l y he s u s t a i n s shock a t "the sound of h i s own v o i c e , " and t h e l a s t v e s t i g e s o f i d y l l , the sheep, commence t o d i s -may him w i t h t h e i r "raucous baa." H a r d l y p a r t o f a p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g on t h i s r o c k y i s l a n d , these sheep he f i n d s " d e g r a d i n g . " 61 So he s e l l s them, now l e f t w i t h o u t even the excuse of G u l -l i v e r who p r e f e r r e d h o r s e s t o humans: "What r e p u l s i v e god i n v e n t e d a n i m a l s and e v i l - s m e l l i n g men? To h i s n o s t r i l s , the f i s h e r m e n and t h e sheep a l i k e s m e l l e d f o u l ; an un-c l e a n n e s s on the f r e s h e a r t h . " The s e a g u l l w h i c h o f t e n s t r u t s b e f o r e t h e i s l a n d e r ' s h u t — w i t h " t h r e e v e r y d i s t i n c t w h i t e d o t s " on i t s b l a c k f e a t h e r s — L a w r e n c e acknowledges as " p o r t e n t o u s , he had a meaning." E v e r obvious i n i t s use o f symbol, t h i s Whole S t o r y a b r u p t l y d e c l a r e s , " t h e n the b i r d came no m o r e " — w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a l l the b i r d s o f the i s l a n d l e a v e 2 m y s t e r i o u s l y . And subsequent t o t h i s omen of the d i s -a p p e a r i n g n a t u r a l w o r l d , Lawrence c o n t i n u e s w i t h such t r a n -s i t i o n s i n t o the s u r r e a l i s t i c w o r l d as t h e s e : "The days s h o r t -ened, and t h e w o r l d grew e e r i e . " "The d a r k days o f w i n t e r drew on." "Time had ceased t o p a s s . " "The sun shone no more." " D u r i n g the n i g h t t h e r e was a g r e a t s t o r m . " The f i n a l s e c t i o n o f "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " c l i m a x e s as the a p o c a l y p t i c impact g a i n s i t s s t r e n g t h f rom t h e t h i r d i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the l e s s o n w h i c h the s t o r y ' s second p a r a g r a p h p r o p o s e s . Here th e i s l a n d e r ' s i n t e n t i o n t o a c h i e v e wholeness w i t h i n h i m s e l f proves p a r t i c u l a r l y s e l f i s h and m i s d i r e c t e d , when the c o n f e s s e d i n t e n t i o n o f t h e s t o r y i s not o n l y r e a l -i z e d , but r e a l i z e d w i t h i n a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h a l l o w s f o r b o t h s i m p l i c i t y o f tone and a f e c u n d i t y o f d e t a i l . P a r t i c u l a r l y 62 e f f e c t i v e , t h e cosmos l e n d s i t s s u r r e a l i s t i c t o u c h , and the i s l a n d e r f a d e s o u t — n o t i n t o the p r o v e r b i a l s u n s e t — b u t i n t o t h e mouth o f another t y p e of d y i n g day: "Prom f a r o f f came the m u t t e r o f the u n s a t i s f i e d thunder, and he knew i t was the s i g n a l of the snow r o l l i n g over the s e a . He t u r n e d , and f e l t i t s b r e a t h on him." He a c h i e v e s no i n s i g h t because he has never grown; i n s t e a d i t i s the s t o r y , i t s p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e , t h a t i n f o r m s our p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s i n c r e a s i n g p r e d i c a m e n t and h i s f i n a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n . A. second s t o r y , " T h i n g s , " t e l l s t h e t a l e o f two " t r u e i d e a l i s t s " from New England who pursue a c i r c u l a r j o u r n e y from A m e r i c a t o Europe t o America i n t h e i r i d e a l i s t i c p u r -s u i t o f wholeness t h r o u g h beauty; the s t o r y i t s e l f a t t e s t s t o t h e f o o l i s h n e s s o f a c q u i r i n g b e a u t i f u l " t h i n g s " f o r t h e i r own sake, and t h e e q u a l f u t i l i t y o f b e l i e v i n g t h a t a s e t t i n g may p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l l m e n t w i t h o u t , f i r s t , i n s t i n c t i v e c o n v i c t i o n s of i t s o c c u p a n t s . T h i s s t o r y i s a s l i g h t one, f o r Lawrence appears i n t e r e s t e d i n t r e a t i n g t h e quest theme more w i t h sarcasm t h a n compassion. Moreover, f o r a l l the t r a v e l l i n g o f h i s two c h a r a c t e r s , he does not t a k e time t o e s t a b l i s h much i n t h e way o f s e t t i n g , the s o r t w h i c h des-c r i b e s "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s , " "England, My E n g l a n d , " "The P r i n c e s s , " "The Woman Who Rode Away," and "The Man Who D i e d . " C e r t a i n l y such a l a c k d e n i e s t h i s s t o r y the o r i g i n a l i t y 63 o f t he o t h e r s , a l t h o u g h "The Rocki n g - H o r s e Winner" l a c k s ; the same sensuous s e t t i n g , but a c h i e v e s a r e m a r k a b l e o r i g -i n a l i t y w i t h a unique j o u r n e y m o t i f . O v e r a l l , " T h i n g s " s a d l y m i s s e s t h e e x c e l l e n c e w h i c h marks the o t h e r Whole S t o r i e s , but does remai n a copy of the t y p e , however much i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appear o f f - h a n d e d , and l a c k genuine a p o c a l y p t i c i m p a c t . Here the husband and w i f e emerge as s o r t s o f E v e r y -p e o p l e because t h e n a r r a t i v e tone d e l i b e r a t e l y c u l t i v a t e s a p a r a b o l i c c o n t e x t . T h e i r name i s M e l v i l l e — i n t h e b e s t American q u e s t t r a d i t i o n — a n d t h e i r one g o a l " i s t o l i v e a f u l l and b e a u t i f u l l i f e . " " T h e r e f o r e , " Lawrence w r i t e s , "the two i d e a l i s t s , who were m a r r i e d i n New Haven, s a i l e d at once t o P a r i s : P a r i s of t h e o l d da y s . " B o t h the s p a t i a l and l i n e a r c o n n e c t i o n s are s h a r p ; Lawrence does not take time out as he d i d i n the e a r l y p a r t o f "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " t o b l u r them. Our i d e a l i s t s were f r i g h t f u l l y happy, but th e y were a l l t he t i m e r e a c h i n g out f o r something t o c o t t o n on t o . A t f i r s t , P a r i s was enough. They e x p l o r e d P a r i s t h o r o u g h l y . And th e y l e a r n e d F r e n c h t i l l t h e y almost f e l t l i k e F r e n c h p e o p l e , t h e y c o u l d speak i t so g l i b l y . D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t s e t s i n , however, as i t d i d f o r the i s l a n d e r ; because o f F r e n c h m a t e r i a l i s m and c y n i c i s m , the two i d e a l i s t s d e c i d e on a move t o I t a l y , t h e i r i d e a l i s m s t i l l much i n t a c t . There t h e y pursue the t e a c h i n g s o f Buddha, hop-61+ i n g " t o e l i m i n a t e f r o m t h e i r own s o u l s greed, p a i n , and sorro w , " as w e l l as t h e s e same e v i l s f r o m t h e w o r l d i t s e l f . But t h e i r dream o f a p e r f e c t u n i v e r s e s l o w l y s o u r s as t h e war makes obvi o u s t o them t h e f a t u i t y o f t h e i r c r u s a d e . "The b e a n s t a l k o f ' I n d i a n t h o u g h t ' , " s t a t e s the a u t h o r s a r -d o n i c a l l y , "had g i v e n way b e f o r e J a c k and J i l l had c l i m b e d o f f t h e t i p o f i t t o a f u r t h e r w o r l d . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y are now l e s s c e r t a i n "about t h e f u l l n e s s of t h e i r l i v e s . " The y e a r s pass qu i c k l y ; a decade a f t e r t h e o u t s e t o f t h e i r q u e s t , t h e y d e c i d e upon a r e t u r n t o A m e r i c a . N a t u r a l l y the i d e a l i s t s b r i n g back t h e i r " t h i n g s " — a c c u m u l a t e d f u r -n i t u r e t h e y have adored e x c e s s i v e l y f o r the sake o f an i n -h e r e n t "beauty" t h a t has l a r g e l y f a d e d . These t h e y are f o r c e d t o l o c k i n a warehouse (where t h e y become "shabby and w r e t c h e d " ) , because t h e i r new home i n New York, a two-roomed f l a t , does n ot a l l o w them freedom t o d e c o r a t e . Freedom, of c o u r s e , I s Erasmus M e l v i l l e ' s excuse f o r t u r n i n g down a job i n the s c h o l a s t i c w o r l d , and f o r moving west w i t h h i s w i f e , i n t o a mountain c a b i n . But t h e dr u d g e r y o f p r i m i t i v e l i v i n g c l a s h e s w i t h t h e i r i d e a l i s m ; so when a m i l l i o n a i r e f r i e n d o f f e r s them a c o t t a g e i n C a l i f o r n i a , t hey p r o m p t l y s c u r r y t h e r e " c a t c h i n g a t new v i n e - p r o p s o f hope." The P a c i f i c h o l d s out the freedom w h i c h t h e y have so l o n g sought, but " i t i s n ' t good enough"'7' because i t t h r e a t e n s t h e i r i d e a l i s t i c s o u l s . T h e r e f o r e , n i n e months l a t e r , " w i t h a s l i g h t h o l e i n 65 t h e i r m a t e r i a l c a p i t a l " ( l i k e the i s l a n d e r ) , t h e y r e t u r n t o New E n g l a n d t o attempt European t r a v e l once more. T h i s time the o l d w o r l d i s "a complete f a i l u r e , " a ""mis-e r a b l e , d i r t - e a t i n g c o n t i n e n t . " So w i t h t h e i r i d e a l i s m i r -r e v o c a b l y fragmented, t h e y r e v e r t t o A m e r i c a and the academic w o r l d o f C l e v e l a n d U n i v e r s i t y , where Erasmus, now f o r t y , agrees t o t e a c h European l i t e r a t u r e . On t h i s f i n a l meta-p h o r i c i s l a n d a l l i d e a l i s m has v a n i s h e d , and "a queer, e v i l s c h o l a s t i c l o o k of pure s c e p t i c i s m " descends upon Erasmus* countenance, a r e s u l t o f a t h i r t e e n - y e a r q u e s t . An i n a b i l i t y , or u n w i l l i n g n e s s , t o compromise has l e d the i d e a l i s t s f u l l -c i r c l e , w i t h n o t h i n g t o show but those " t h i n g s " t h a t cons-t i t u t e t h e i r nemesis. F o r a l l i t s b r e v i t y , a n d sarcasm, t h e n , the s t o r y does l a t c h on t o a u n i v e r s a l theme, by w e a k l y em-b o d y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Whole S t o r y . A much l o n g e r and more s i g n i f i c a n t s t o r y i s "England, My E n g l a n d , " w h i c h p i c t u r e s b o t h man and c o u n t r y s t i r r i n g i n the u n p l e a s a n t l i g h t of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y toward d i s i l -l u s i o n and f r a g m e n t a t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e o f the s t o r y s t r e s s e s l i n e a r and s p a t i a l e x t e n s i o n s , w h i l e the c h a r a c t e r , E g b e r t , e v o l v e s as one whose q u e s t f o r wholeness ( u n s u c c e s s f u l a g a i n ) v a l u e s freedom from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as an u l t i m a t e f u l f i l l m e n t . W i t h i t s extended f l a s h b a c k and subsequent events c e n t e r i n g around the p a r a d i s a l Crockham C o t t a g e , the s t o r y a c c e n t s a l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n (more t h a n t e n y e a r s ) , before!:the s p a t i a l s h i f t 6 6 o c c u r s , and E g b e r t t r a v e l s f r o m E n g l a n d t o t h e c o n t i n e n t where he d i e s i n war. Such t y p i c a l s e n t e n c e s as the f o l -l o w i n g mark the p a s s i n g y e a r s , the b u i l d i n g - u p o f d e t a i l i n t o a s t r u c t u r a l Whole S t o r y : " W e l l then, i n t o t h i s f a m i l y came E g b e r t . " "Then of c o u r s e c h i l d r e n came: a l o v e l y l i t t l e b l o n d e d a u g h t e r w i t h a head of t h i s t l e - d o w n . " "And as the y e a r s p a s s e d , the l i g h t n i n g c l e a r e d t h e sky more and more r a r e l y , l e s s and l e s s the b l u e showed." "So a f o r t n i g h t p a s s e d by, and the c h i l d : was f e v e r i s h , and t h e knee was more i n f l a m e d and grew worse and was p a i n f u l , p a i n -f u l . " " F o l l o w e d a d a r k and b i t t e r t i m e . " nAnd Joyce sub-m i t t e d , week a f t e r week, month a f t e r month, t o the t y r a n n y and p a i n o f t h e t r e a t m e n t . " "And t h e n the G r e a t War broke o u t . " So the s t o r y p r o g r e s s e s , f r o m E g b e r t ' s m a r r i a g e t o W i n i f r e d M a r s h a l l — f r o m the b e g i n n i n g o f v o l u n t a r y f i n a n -c i a l dependence upon h e r f a t h e r — t h r o u g h t h e i r c h i l d ' s a c -c i d e n t w h i c h lames h e r f o r l i f e , t o the s t o r y ' s c l i m a x . A l a r g e amount o f n a t u r a l i s t i c m a t e r i a l p recedes E g b e r t ' s j o u r n e y t o the c o n t i n e n t , p a r t of Lawrence's i n -t e n t i o n t o f a s h i o n an a p o c a l y p t i c moment t h a t demands as complete and u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r as p o s s i b l e . One must c o n s i d e r a l o n g w i t h the f u s i l l a d e of r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l , t h e o bvious s o r t o f a r c h e t y p a l I m p l i c a t i o n s Lawrence seeks t o c r e a t e , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t one r e l a t i n g t h e i d y l l i c Crockham t o Eden. The p e c u l i a r n a t u r e of Lawrence's Whole S t o r y p r e -67 supposes a complete honesty, a g i v i n g - o v e r t o as much d e t a i l needed i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c h a r a c t e r t o Man h i m s e l f . Seen i n t h i s l i g h t , Lawrence's m o r a l i z i n g ap-p e a r s l e s s a n n oying and more i n t e g r a l t o t h e p a r a b o l i c and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l n a t u r e of t h e s t o r y . I n "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " t h e d i d a c t i c i s m does not i n t r u d e because Lawrence does not attempt t o sneak i t i n : so t o o i n "England, My Eng-l a n d , " where one's i n i t i a l i m p u l s e s u g g e s t s a c o m p a r i s o n be-tween E g b e r t and t h e i s l a n d e r , b o t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f modern man and h i s d r i f t toward d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . Yet i n a number of ways, b o t h c h a r a c t e r s a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t . The i s l a n d e r a v o i d s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e p a s t , and assumes, a t f i r s t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g i s l a n d ; E g b e r t , on t h e o t h e r hand, n u r t u r e s the p a s t , and evades th e d u t y of p r o v i d i n g f o r h i s f a m i l y (he p r e f e r s t o l e t h i s f a t h e r -i n - l a w f u r n i s h him a home and a l l o w a n c e ) . About the t i m e the i s l a n d e r d e c i d e s t o smother a l l h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and move al o n e t o a t h i r d i s l a n d , E g b e r t e l e c t s t o embrace a k i n d o f w i l l f u l a m e n a b i l i t y by g i v i n g up h i s i s o l a t i o n and e n l i s t i n g i n the army. And w h i l e Lawrence seems not t o h o l d t h e i s -l a n d e r i n any f a v o r , he does imbue E g b e r t w i t h some q u a l i t i e s he h i m s e l f admires: a s t r o n g f e e l i n g f o r t h e p a s t , a h a t r e d f o r t h e w o r l d of commerce and war. What Lawrence would c r i t -i c i z e i n t h i s c h a r a c t e r , however, i s the m i s d i r e c t e d n a t u r e o f h i s q u e s t f o r w h o l e n e s s . A h e a r t "hard w i t h d i s i l l u s i o n " r e s u l t s when E g b e r t r e f u s e s t o connect w i t h a n y t h i n g more 68 t h a n d i l e t t a n t i s m , d e c l i n e s " t o g i v e h i m s e l f t o the w o r l d , " and thus remains a fragment. I n t h e f i r s t scene o f t h e s t o r y we see E g b e r t w o r k i n g but unable t o c u t a s t r a i g h t p a t h f r o m t h e edge o f the g a r -den on t o the common. H i s puzzlement i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e when Lawrence a s s o c i a t e s h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s " r e s i s t a n c e " t o c o n t i n u e , w i t h a s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n f o r the p a r a d i s a l q u a l i t i e s o f the garden and the p a s t , and h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o c a r v e out a disc-r e e t i o n beyond t h a t r e t r e a t . Ah, how he had l o v e d i t ' . The g r e e n garden p a t h , t h e t u f t s o f f l o w e r s , p u r p l e and w h i t e c o l u m b i n e s , and g r e a t O r i e n t a l r e d p o p p i e s w i t h t h e i r b l a c k chaps and m u l l e i n s t a l l and y e l l o w ; t h i s f l a m y garden w h i c h had been a garden f o r a thousand y e a r s , scooped out i n t h e l i t t l e h o l l o w among the s n a k e - i n f e s t e d com-mons. He had made i t flame w i t h f l o w e r s , i n the sun-cup under i t s hedges and t r e e s . So o l d , so o l d a p l a c e I And y e t he had r e - c r e a t e d i t . The p a s t t e n s e i n t h e f i r s t l i n e a l r e a d y s u g gests h i s d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r e s e n t w h i c h seeks t o d i s r u p t the i d e a l i s m t h a t e v i d e n t l y once was h i s and W i n i f r e d ' s i n t h e c o t t a g e g i v e n h i s w i f e by h e r f a t h e r . And one o f the f i r s t t h i n g s the s t o r y does i s remind us o f t h e forme r magic o f t h i s c o t t a g e ( " i t seemed t o c a s t a s p e l l on the two young p e o p l e " ) , by i m p l i c a t i n g the r e a d e r i n t h e a n c e s t r a l p a s -s i o n t h a t the house has known i n t h e p a s t ("You c o u l d not be I n t h e d a r k room f o r an hour w i t h o u t t h e i n f l u e n c e s com-i n g over you.") The Eden made p o s s i b l e by the c o n t i n u i n g 6 9 s u p p o r t o f E g b e r t ' s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , moreover, seems t o t h a t gentleman "a c h a p t e r of a l i v i n g romance": Go d f r e y M a r s h a l l does not appear t o mind h i s s o n - i n - l a w ' s r e f u s a l t o "come t o g r i p s w i t h l i f e , " because t h a t r e f u s a l bespeaks a con-tentment over w h i c h he h i m s e l f p r e s i d e s as an a r c h e t y p a l f a t h e r , c a r r y i n g "the o l d smoky t o r c h o f p a t e r n a l godhead." T h i s i s t h e t o r c h E g b e r t r e j e c t s f o r h i m s e l f , even a f t e r h i s own f a m i l y has a c q u i r e d the same dimensions as G o d f r e y ' s ( t h r e e d a u g h t e r s ) . B e f o r e h i s c h i l d r e n a r r i v e , however, W i n i f r e d f i n d s him p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e as a hus-band, because, as Lawrence d e c l a r e s , " n e i t h e r y e t r e a l i s e d the d i f f e r e n c e between work and romance." And a l t h o u g h E g b e r t performs h i s m a r r i e d r o l e c h i e f l y as an "amateur," h i s w i f e does not w o r r y because she c a n depend upon her f a t h e r " i n a l l the s e r i o u s m a t t e r s . " Yet t h e b i r t h o f h e r f i r s t c h i l d i n i t i a t e s a s h i f t i n W i n i f r e d ' s a t t i t u d e toward h e r h u s b a n d — b a r e l y d i s c e r n i b l e a t f i r s t , but i n c r e a s i n g l y a pparent as he r e f u s e s t o work f o r a l i v i n g . As i n "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s , " Lawrence seems de-l i b e r a t e i n h i s attempt t o a c h i e v e a maximum impact by a f -f e c t i n g a minimum o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . I n "England, My Eng-l a n d " he approaches t h a t end througtr b o t h the o c c a s i o n a l j u x -t a p o s i t i o n o f the c o n v e n t i o n a l p a r a b l e ( f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e one W i n i f r e d ' s mother r e c i t e s t o h e r about the d e s t i n y o f t h e l i l i e s o f the f i e l d ) , and the i r o n y w h i c h h i s c a s u a l f r a n k n e s s 70 o f t e n r e n d e r s . As E g b e r t ( t h e comic name of a p a s t E n g l i s h s o v e r e i g n ) c o n t i n u e s t o begrudge any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , Lawrence i s l e d t o remark: " W e l l , you can b r i n g an ass t o wa t e r , b u t you cannot make him d r i n k . The w o r l d was the wa t e r and Eg-b e r t was the a s s . And he wasn't h a v i n g any." Or when Eg-b e r t n e g l e c t s h i s f a t h e r - r o l e , a d v o c a t i n g o n l y a f a t u o u s l i b e r t y , t h e a u t h o r w r i t e s : "Poor W i n i f r e d was l i k e a f i s h out of wa t e r i n t h i s l i b e r t y , g a s p i n g f o r the denser element w h i c h s h o u l d c o n t a i n h e r . " B e s i d e s h i s c a s u a l o b v i o u s n e s s , however, Lawrence a l s o d i r e c t s h i s t a n g e n t i a l m o r a l i z i n g t o the s i m p l i c i t y he seek s ; h a r d l y i r o n i c , he d i s p l a y s the k i n d of d i d a c t i c i s m t h a t some might w e l l f i n d irksome when v i e w i n g the s t o r y s i m p l y as a p i e c e o f n a t u r a l i s m , but l e s s so when p e r c e i v i n g t h e a u t h o r ' s e f f o r t t o w r i t e o f modern m o r a l i t y w i t h i n a t r a d i t i o n a l , p a r a b o l i c s t r u c t u r e . C e r t a i n passages r e l a t i n g t o G o d f r e y M a r s h a l l q u a l i f y h e r e . What e v e n t u a l l y i n t e r r u p t s the s t o r y ' s f l a s h b a c k i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n the p r e s e n t , of the consequence o f E g b e r t ' s i r r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e as f a t h e r ( a l l o w i n g h i s c h i l d r e n t h e i r own way) I n t h e p a s t . The s t o r y has begun w i t h h i s d a u g h t e r ' s p e t u l a n t c r i e s t o her n u r s e , and c o n t i n u e s i n the p r e s e n t some dozen pages l a t e r , w i t h t h e e x e c u t i o n o f her t h r e a t t o r u n out where t h e r e are snakes; she f a l l s and c u t s her knee on the s i c k l e h e r f a t h e r has l e f t l y i n g about. C o n s e q u e n t l y the f o l l o w i n g scenes w h i c h key on Wojce s e r v e (a) t o i l l u s -71 t r a t e t h e e x t e n t o f her p r e c o c i t y as a p r o d u c t o f a l i b e r a l u p b r i n g i n g ; and by h e r u l t i m a t e need f o r a permanent l e g b r a c e , (b) t o suggest the lameness of E n g l i s h o f f s p r i n g who a r e p r o d u c t s i n the modern w o r l d o f an i d y l l i c back-ground t h a t p a r a d o x i c a l l y i m p l i e s a r c h e t y p a l obedience but b r e e d s i n s t e a d i n s o u c i a n t d i s r e s p e c t . As W i n i f r e d and h e r c h i l d r e n t r a n s f e r r e s i d e n c e t o London (near Joyce's n u r s i n g home), E g b e r t b e g i n s t o ex-p e r i e n c e the complete f u t i l i t y w h i c h b i t e s t h r o u g h h i s h e a r t " l i k e some slow, t o r p i d snake." Gone i s t h e Eden he once knew a t Crockham: now h i s c l o t h e s are t o r n , and he wanders "from p l a c e t o p l a c e , f r i e n d t o f r i e n d , " o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t i n g W i n i f r e d . As he becomes s i m i l a r t o Erasmus M e l -v i l l e , he r e f l e c t s an "Ishmael q u a l i t y , " " a n n u l l i n g the whole c o n v e n t i o n of the domestic home" i n h i s quest f o r freedom and w h o l e n e s s . What r e p l a c e s i d y l l i c E n g l a n d f o r him i s B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l i s m , whose p r e f e r e n c e over German m i l i t a r i s m he never acknowledges, but e n l i s t s n o n e t h e l e s s i n h i s c o u n t r y ' s f i g h t a g a i n s t i t . I n so d o i n g , he a b d i c a t e s f rom any p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l , and a c q u i e s c e s t o what amounts, he b e l i e v e s , t o sub-j u g a t i o n by h i s i n f e r i o r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y h i s c h o i c e r e p r e -s e n t s a n e g a t i v e one, and he remains a n a c h r o n i s t i c i n a modern w o r l d , u n s u i t a b l e as a s o l d i e r because h i s s e n s i b i l i -t i e s s u s t a i n d e g r a d a t i o n . He r e t u r n s p e r i o d i c a l l y t o C r o c k -ham, but t h e i d e a l i t y i t once s y m b o l i z e d f a i l s t o c o n j u r e 7 2 a n y t h i n g but f l e e t i n g memories; and those memories, f i n a l l y , are what he r e j e c t s a t h i s d e a t h , fragmented and a l o n e on the b a t t l e f i e l d , somewhat r e m i n i s c e n t of t h e o r d e r l y i n "The P r u s s i a n O f f i c e r . " B e t t e r the agony of d i s s o l u t i o n ahead t h a n t h e nausea of the e f f o r t backwards. B e t t e r the t e r r i b l e work s h o u l d go f o r w a r d , the d i s s o l v i n g i n t o the b l a c k sea of d e a t h , i n the e x t r e m i t y of d i s s o l u t i o n , t h a n t h e r e s h o u l d be any r e a c h i n g back towards l i f e . To f o r g e t ! To f o r g e t I U t t e r l y , u t t e r l y t o f o r g e t , i n the g r e a t f o r g e t t i n g o f d e a t h . To b r e a k the c o r e and the u n i t of l i f e , and t o l a p s e out on the g r e a t d a r k n e s s . Only t h a t . To b r e a k t h e c l u e , and m i n g l e and com-mi n g l e w i t h t h e one d a r k n e s s , w i t h o u t a f t e r w a r d s or f o r w a r d s . L e t the b l a c k sea o f d e a t h i t s e l f s o l v e the problem of f u t u r i t y . L e t the w i l l o f man break and g i v e up. Hence, the s t r u c t u r e o f "England, My E n g l a n d " b r i n g s b o t h c h a r a c t e r and r e a d e r f r o m an awareness of the n a t u r a l w o r l d t o one a p o c a l y p t i c i n terms of modern man m i s p l a c e d , and h i s c o u n t r y m i s d i r e c t e d . And i f t h i s s t o r y g a i n s i t s impact from E g b e r t ' s f a i l u r e t o r e c o n c i l e h i m s e l f t o a mech a n i c a l w o r l d , t h e n "The Rocking-Horse W i n n e r " a c q u i r e s i t s f o r c e f r o m t h e f a i l u r e o f a n o t h e r a r c h e t y p a l p r o t a g o n i s t , who a c c o r d s h i m s e l f t o o i n t e n s e l y t o the same w o r l d s a n d y d i e s a s i m i l a r fragmented v i c t i m . P a u l ' s q u e s t f o r wholeness a r i s e s f r o m a d e s i r e t o see h i s f a m i l y somehow more c o h e s i v e , f r e e from the r e p e t i t i v e c r y of t h e i r haunted house w h i c h echoes l i k e an axe on any f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n t h r o u g h l o v e . That "There must be more 1 73 money!" P a u l I n s t i n c t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e s as a symptom of h i s mother's f a i l u r e t o love her c h i l d r e n , and a consequence of her l u c k l e s s predicament which she i n c r e a s i n g l y c u l -t i v a t e s as the s t o r y p r o g r e s s e s . Consider the i n c a n t a t i o n of the opening l i n e s . There was a woman who was b e a u t i f u l who s t a r t e d w i t h a l l the advantages, y e t she had no l u c k . She married f o r l ove, and the love turned t o d u s t . She had bonny c h i l d r e n , yet she f e l t they had been t h r u s t upon her, and she c o u l d not l o v e them. They looked a t her c o l d -l y , as i f they were f i n d i n g f a u l t w i t h her. And hur-r i e d l y she f e l t she must cover up some f a u l t i n h e r -s e l f . Yet what i t was t h a t she must cover up she never knew. Nev e r t h e l e s s , when her c h i l d r e n were present, she always f e l t the c e n t r e of her h e a r t go h a r d . T h i s t r o u b l e d her, and In her manner she was a l l the more g e n t l e and anxious f o r her c h i l d r e n , as i f she l o v e d them v e r y much. Only she h e r s e l f knew t h a t at the c e n t r e of her h e a r t was a hard l i t -t l e p l a c e t h a t c o u l d not f e e l l o v e , no, not f o r any-body. Everybody e l s e s a i d of h e r : "She i s such a good mother. She adores her c h i l d r e n . " Only she h e r s e l f , and her c h i l d r e n themselves, knew i t was not so. They read i t i n each other's eyes. Aside from the i n t e n t i o n t o i n d i c a t e the s t o r y ' s subsequent tone, I quote at l e n g t h i n order (a) t o i l l u s t r a t e the p e r -v e r s i o n of a r c h e t y p a l mother love f o r o f f s p r i n g (which l e a d s , i n t u r n , t o the p e r v e r s i o n of the a r c h e t y p a l quest by son t o r e g a i n i t ) ; and (b) t o suggest the extent of the mother's h y p o c r i s y which r e q u i r e s a facade t o h i d e her l o s s of a once p r o p i t i o u s l i f e . T h i s l a s t c r e a t e s the phantas-magoric r a s p i n g of the house as the mother seeks t o regains t h a t l i f e which c o s t s b o t h money and, i n the end, her son's l i f e . 7k I n d e c l a i m i n g "The Rocking-Horse Winner," L e a v i s i n -s i n u a t e s t h a t the s t o r y p o r t r a y s something of a f r e a k i n Lawrence's canon because i t i s h a r d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . He does not r e c o g n i z e that t h i s s t o r y approximates the author's i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e which, as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t e d him i n h i s l a t e r y e a r s . That the s u b j e c t matter appears s u p e r f i c i a l l y t o d e a l w i t h c h i l d h o o d , i n no way d e t r a c t s from the s t o r y ' s n u c l e a r p l a c e among the s h o r t e r f i c t i o n t h a t here pursues the quest theme by means of s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s t r u e that d i a l o g u e usurpts a l l but a modicum of n a r r a t i o n , but g i v e n t h i s d i f f e r e n c e the s t o r y d e l i n e a t e s the same u n s u c c e s s f u l quest as those other Whole S t o r i e s so f a r d i s c u s s e d . L i k e "The P r i n c e s s , " the s t o r y of Paul and h i s horse f a l l s more t o the side of f a i r y - t a l e than t o par a b l e , of which the o v e r t d i d a c t i c i s m of "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " i s the best example. The paragraph quoted above connotes the rhythm and imagery of a f a i r y - t a l e u n f o l d i n g , w h i l e the r e s t of the s t o r y pursues the ma g i c a l nature o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r form. Of course such phrases as "At l a s t , " "And so," "One day," "And then," are not e x c l u s i v e l y a p r o v i n c e of the f a i r y - t a l e — a s we saw by s i m i l a r sharp l i n e a r connections i n "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " — b u t they do c o n t r i b u t e t o Paul's a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and h i s p u r s u i t of the money g r a i l . Prom h i s mother, Paul g r a d u a l l y l e a r n s t h a t h i s f a m i l y ' s 75 p o v e r t y has supposedly r e s u l t e d from h i s l u c k l e s s f a t h e r . In response t o h i s i n q u i r y , the mother r e p l i e s t h a t l u c k i s not money but r a t h e r what "causes you t o have money." For a l l i t s c r a s s undertones her d e f i n i t i o n c a r r i e s a c e r -t a i n l o g i c : " I f you're r i c h , you may l o s e your money. But i f you're lucky, you w i l l always get more money." Although she i s unable t o e x p l a i n the s p o r a d i c appearance of lu c k , t h i s does not prevent her son from I n i t i a t i n g h i s quest t o l o c a t e l u c k f o r h e r . "He went o f f by h i m s e l f , " s t a t e s Law-rence, "vaguely, i n a c h i l d i s h way, seeking f o r the c l u e t o ' l u c k ' . " Presumably i t s d i s c o v e r y w i l l b r i n g happiness t o h i s mother, thereby uncovering her l o s t l o v e of f a m i l y . Paul's quest a c q u i r e s f r e n e t i c overtones, q u i t e u n l i k e the s p o n t a n e i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the t r a d i t i o n a l k n i g h t l y s e a r c h t h a t rambles o f t e n i n t o i d y l l . On h i s rock i n g - h o r s e , he plunges "madly i n t o space" I n a d e l i r i u m t h a t unnerves h i s younger s i s t e r s . H i s i s a "mad l i t t l e journey" r u l e d by a "mechanical g a l l o p , " which conveys a f o r c e d , s y n t h e t i c q u e s t — t h e s o r t r e q u i r e d In a modern world where l u c k ( i n terms of money) l a c k s a l l I d e a l i s m . That h i s uncle c a l l s him a "young romancer" Implies the man's na i v e t e concerning b o t h the nature and Importance of the boy's s e a r c h : not un-t i l P a u l wins h i m s e l f twelve hundred pounds by c o r r e c t l y p r e -d i c t i n g the L i n c o l n horse race ( I r o n i c , as f a r as the quest m o t i f goes, t h a t h i s c h o i c e beats another named L a n c e l o t ) , 76 does the u n c l e b e g i n t o take him s e r i o u s l y . And w h i l e the g a rdener a t t r i b u t e s the boy's l u c k t o heaven and t h e s u p e r -n a t u r a l , t h e u n c l e , i n h i s summation o f t h e t a l e , negates the f i r s t by u n c o n s c i o u s l y i m p l i c a t i n g t h e d e v i l . The time l a p s e i n the s t o r y remains u n s p e c i f i e d , b u t I n t i m a t e s the t r a n s i t i o n f r o m c h i l d h o o d t o a d o l e s c e n c e - - a t w h i c h age P a u l g a i n s a t u t o r , b u t must sneak o f f t o r i d e h i s r o c k i n g - h o r s e . The Whole S t o r y , o f c o u r s e , a l l o w s f o r t h i s speedy t r a n s i t i o n and g a i n s i t s e f f e c t f r om t h e t e c h n i q u e . The key l i n e a r t r a n s i t i o n o c c u r s a f t e r P a u l has anonymously s i g n e d over f i v e thousand pounds t o h i s mother, thus h o p i n g t o appease the demonic w h i s p e r i n g w h i c h i s d e s t r o y i n g him: "Then," Lawrence w r i t e s , "something v e r y c u r i o u s happened. The v o i c e s I n t h e house sudd e n l y went mad, l i k e a c h o r u s of f r o g s on a s p r i n g e v e n i n g . " Because the mother has not s p a r e d a pound o f her " i n h e r i t a n c e , " the boy q u i c k l y d i s -c o v e r s h i m s e l f i n a worse predicament than e v e r ; i n s t e a d of m e r i t i n g him a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s mother, h i s q u e s t has n u r t u r e d m e r e l y a g r e a t e r a l i e n a t i o n , w h i c h now t h r e a t e n s f r a g m e n t a t i o n . He becomes " w i l d - e y e d and s t r a n g e , as i f something were g o i n g t o explode i n him." T h i s r e s u l t s f r o m a sudden i n a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t w i n n i n g h o r s e s , and I n -s t e a d o f c a p i t a l i z i n g , he l o s e s one hundred and f i f t y pounds. C o n s e q u e n t l y , as t h e Derby approaches, the s t o r y nears i t s c l i m a x . 77 At a p a r t y , meanwhile, the mother experiences "rushes of a n x i e t y about her boy," but when she telephones home the gover-ness r e a s s u r e s her. Only a f t e r she r e t u r n s does she uncover the source of her a n x i e t y by t r a c i n g a queer r u s h i n g sound to the noise of her son "madly s u r g i n g on h i s r o c k i n g - h o r s e . " H i s sudden scream, " I t ' s Malabar'.", and h i s plunge I n t o un-consciousness, seem t o c r y s t a l l i z e h i s overwhelming d e s i r e f o r l o v e — w h i c h the mother appears i n s t i n c t i v e l y t o r e c o g -n i z e i n " a l l her tormented motherhood." But her c u r i o u s non-committance as the boy nears d e a t h — " f e e l i n g her heart had gone, turned a c t u a l l y I n t o a s t o n e " — i m p l i e s t h a t such a motherhood f i n d s i t s source not I n any sudden remorse, but i n the im p u l s i v e nature of her h y p o c r i s y (as the s t o r y ' s opening paragraph makes c l e a r ) . Unable t o r e a l i z e the ex-t e n t of her own d u p l i c i t y , she cannot console the boy w i t h anything but a r a t h e r remote sentence when he does r e g a i n consciousness t o hear he has won an enormous sum on the Derby. Not even the uncle, who e a r l i e r confesses t o an awareness of the haunted v o i c e s , seems ab l e now t o i n t u i t the r o o t of the e v i l — a l t h o u g h (as mentioned above) he un-w i t t i n g l y f i n g e r s the demonic. "My God, Hester, you're eighty-odd thousand t o the good, and a poor d e v i l of a son t o the bad. But, poor d e v i l , poor d e v i l , he's best gone out of a l i f e where he r i d e s h i s r o c k i n g - h o r s e to f i n d a winner•" 78 H i s words sum up the s t o r y i n an a r c h e t y p a l resume, as one c r i t i c c a l l s i t "the statement of the moral appended i n the h form of a p r o v e r b , " but the uncle's e f f o r t t o p e r c e i v e some-t h i n g p o s i t i v e i n the death echoes d u l l y and w i t h l i t t l e meaning. What emerges, t h e r e f o r e , i s the n e g a t i o n of Paul's quest f o r wholeness w i t h i n the domestic world of the p e r v e r t e d f a i r y - t a l e . That l a s t phrase might e f f e c t i v e l y d e s c r i b e "The P r i n c e s s . " L i k e "The Rocking-Horse Winner," t h i s s t o r y d e r i v e s i t s Im-petus from a s t r u c t u r e informed by m y t h o l o g i c a l overtones, although i t s working-out g e n e r a l l y eventuates away from these i n t o n a t u r a l i s m . I n t h i s r e s p e c t the s t o r y d i f f e r s from "The Woman Who Rode Away," where n a t u r a l i s m t u r n s i n c r e a s i n g l y t o myth. In "The P r i n c e s s , " Lawrence i n t r o d u c e s h i s p i v o t a l charac-t e r as a possessor of two names, Mary Urquhart, her r e a l , and the P r i n c e s s , her make-believe. T h i s d u a l i t y , of course, sug-gests more than mere nomalism; i t foreshadows the c h a r a c t e r ' s v e r y r e a l s t r u g g l e between the world as she experiences i t , and the world as she imagines i t t o be: the s t r u g g l e i n which she r e f u s e s t o accept r e a l i t y i n her p r e f e r e n c e f o r the c h i l d -i s h v i s i o n she never overcomes. In h i s attempt t o emphasize her anachronism, Lawrence p r e f e r s t o c a l l her the P r i n c e s s throughout the s t o r y . L i k e Egbert, t h e r e f o r e , she remains a mythic f i g u r e t o the end, p u r s u i n g o n l y h a l f - h e a r t e d l y the 79 wholeness t h a t seems h e r s by a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h the modern w o r l d now t h r e a t e n s t o d i s p e n s e w i t h . Her i n a b i l i t y t o r e a c h wholeness i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , moreover, connotes the same i n a b i l i t y o f E g b e r t t o i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d a t Crockham. But w h i l e E g b e r t a c q u i r e s a s e l f - i n d u l g e n t s o l a c e w i t h i n the n a t u r a l cosmos, t h e P r i n c e s s d i s c o v e r s o n l y d e g r a d a t i o n , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t r e s embles t h e i s l a n d e r who a l s o r e f u s e s t o f a c e r e a l i t y . Upon a f i r s t r e a d i n g , "The P r i n c e s s " may not appear p a r t i c u l a r l y e x t e n s i v e i n terms o f e l a p s e d t i m e ; a f t e r a l l , the s t o r y ' s c e n t r a l e v e nts ( t h e r i d e i n t o t h e mountains, the s e d u c t i o n , and Romero's death) o c c u r w i t h i n a m a t t e r o f da y s . Ye't t h e l i n e a r p e r s p e c t i v e i s more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h a t . The s t r u c t u r e f u n c t i o n s i n a manner w h i c h i n c l u d e s an a c -count o f the main c h a r a c t e r ' s whole l i f e — f r o m her b i r t h t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h a p p i l y - e v e r - a f t e r ( i r o n i c h e r e ) — a n d t h i s account has more th a n g r a t u i t o u s i m p o r t a n c e . F o r t h e f i r s t s even pages, Lawrence does n o t h i n g e l s e but p r o v i d e us back-ground d e t a i l on the P r i n c e s s , I n o r d e r t h a t I t remains the p r i o r i t y i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h e r r e f u s a l t o f a c e t h e w o r l d and r e a l i t y . He d e s c r i b e s h e r f a t h e r as "a b i t mad," one who c l a i m s r o y a l d e s c e n t , and who re s e m b l e s "some o l d C e l t i c h e r o " : s p e a k i n g w i t h a v o i c e " d i r e c t out o f the hushed O s s i a n i c p a s t , " h e r f a t h e r a v o i d s " d e c i s i v e c o n n e c t i o n " by j o u r n e y i n g " v a g u e l y about, never a r r i v i n g anywhere, never 80 d o i n g a n y t h i n g , and never d e f i n i t e l y b e i n g a n y t h i n g . " Only when t h e mother " s u d d e n l y " d i e s , does the s t o r y ' s f a i r y - t a l e g e n t i l i t y r e c e i v e i t s f i r s t j o l t , and the t w o - y e a r - o l d d a u g h t e r r e v e r t s e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e wandering f a t h e r . W i t h him l i f e f o r the P r i n c e s s i s an e n d l e s s and p o i n t -l e s s j o u r n e y between c o u n t r i e s . Yet i t does not l a c k "the r o y a l t o u c h " because, as U r q u h a r t e x p l a i n s t o h e r i n a l o n g sermon, " o n l y you a r e r o y a l , a f t e r me. Always remember t h a t . And always remember, i t i s a g r e a t s e c r e t . " Thus f r o m h i s p e r v e r s i t y she a c q u i r e s an " a s s u r e d t o u c h o f c o n d e s c e n s i o n , " w h i c h u n f o r t u n a t e l y p e r m i t s h e r t o view l i f e m e r e l y "from t h e o u t s i d e . " C o n s e q u e n t l y her p e r c e p t i o n i s b o t h second-hand and u n r e a l : she knows " a l l about" a Roman cabman, f o r example, because she has r e a d of him i n Z o l a . And never do h e r i n c r e a s i n g y e a r s presuppose c l e a r - s i g h t e d n e s s , because t h e a u r a of i l l u s i o n t h a t has become h e r l i f e p r e v e n t s any s o r t of c o n v e n t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . The y e a r s e l a p s e "impercep-t i b l y , " and she r e t a i n s the u n d i m i n i s h e d " q u a l i t y o f t h e s e x l e s s f a i r i e s . " What the f i r s t seven pages of "The P r i n c e s s " do, t h e n , i s o r g a n i z e the r e a d e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f events t o f o l l o w i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d , by c o n s t r u c t i n g an a r c h e t y p a l microcosm w h i c h s e r v e s t o frame th e h e r o i n e ' s subsequent b e h a v i o r . I n t h i s Whole S t o r y , moreover, we u n d e r s t a n d the c h a r a c t e r ' s t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l a t t i t u d e t o r e a l i t y t h r o u g h an a c t u a l frame 81 Image, Near t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the s t o r y Lawrence w r i t e s : "She l o o k e d as i f she had s t e p p e d oat o f a p i c t u r e . But no one, t o h e r d y i n g day, ever knew e x a c t l y the s t r a n g e p i c t u r e h e r f a t h e r had framed h e r i n and f r o m w h i c h she never s t e p p e d , " No one, o f c o u r s e , but the r e a d e r knows t h e p i c t u r e , and w h i l e t h i s image a n i t i c i p a t e s t h e l a t e r r e f e r e n c e t o h e r f a c e " m o d e l l e d w i t h an a r c h e d nose l i k e a p r oud o l d F l o r e n t i n e p o r t r a i t , " and h e r g a z i n g " s a r d o n -i c a l l y ... out on a p r i n c e l e s s w o r l d , " i t a l s o l o o k s f o r -ward t o t h e c o n c l u d i n g s e n t e n c e w h i c h frames t h e s t o r y i t -s e l f , as t h e P r i n c e s s r e t r e a t s i n t o a p i c t u r e o f i l l u s o r y h a p p i n e s s : " L a t e r , she m a r r i e d an e l d e r l y man, and seemed p l e a s e d . " Such a p i c t u r e bespeaks an u n s u c c e s s f u l q u e s t f o r w h o l e n e s s - - i n Lawrence's hands the c o n c l u s i o n o f a modern f a i r y - t a l e where e x t e n s i o n s o f space and t i m e mould t h e i r own d i s t i n c t i v e s t r u c t u r e . I f the o p e n i n g pages of "The P r i n c e s s " s e r v e t o d e s -c r i b e t h e v e r y e x t r a o r d i n a r y n a t u r e of i t s h e r o i n e ( o r a n t i -h e r o i n e ) , t h o s e o f "The Woman Who Rode Away" h e l p t o e s -t a b l i s h i t s c h a r a c t e r as a more u s u a l I n d i v i d u a l — a house-w i f e d i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t her m a r r i a g e has f a l l e n s h o r t o f t h e " a d v e n t u r e " she once e x p e c t e d . Her c o n s c i o u s development had stopped m y s t e r i o u s l y w i t h h e r m a r r i a g e , c o m p l e t e l y a r r e s t e d . Her husband had never become r e a l t o h e r , n e i t h e r m e n t a l l y nor 82 p h y s i c a l l y . I n s p i t e o f h i s l a t e s o r t o f p a s s i o n f o r h e r , he never meant a n y t h i n g t o h e r p h y s i c a l l y . O b v i o u s l y , t h i s woman's qu e s t f o r wholeness presupposes a s e a r c h f o r t h e r e a l i t y d e f i c i e n t i n h e r p r e s e n t e x i s t e n c e , a q u e s t l e a d i n g t o t h e adven t u r e w h i c h has never a c t u a l i z e d i n m a r r i a g e . Only a f t e r t h i s h o u s e w i f e j o u r n e y s away f r o m h e r d o m i n e e r i n g husband does she assume q u a l i t i e s i n d i g e n o u s t o t h e u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Whole S t o r y . L i k e t h e i s -l a n d e r , however, she moves i n t o a m y t h o l o g i c a l w o r l d where i d y l l i c p r o m i s e t u r n s i n c r e a s i n g l y t o i l l u s i o n . C o m p l e t e l y p e r v e r t e d , h e r s e a r c h f o r r e a l i t y c a s t s o f f f a m i l y r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y , c h o o s i n g i n s t e a d an a l i e n c u l t u r e whose r i t u a l i s t i c 5 l i f e I s o l a t e s h e r i n a way she has never been by h e r husband. The decadent a t t r a c t i o n of t h i s s l a v e r y t w i s t s h e r concept o f freedom, so t h a t i n s t e a d o f r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t d e a t h (as does the c h a r a c t e r i n "The Man Who D i e d " ) , she a c c e p t s i t i r -r e v o c a b l y and w i t h o u t s t r u g g l e , l i k e E g b e r t . Hence, t h e un-s u c c e s s f u l q u e s t i n e v i t a b l y m i s j u d g e s r e a l i t y by s e t t l i n g p e r v e r s e l y f o r a m i s d i r e c t e d r o u t e : t h i s woman, Lawrence de-c l a r e s , "was overcome by a f o o l i s h r o m a n t i c i s m more u n r e a l t h a n a g i r l ' s . She f e l t i t was h e r d e s t i n y t o wander i n t o the s e c r e t haunts o f t h e s e t i m e l e s s , m y s t e r i o u s , m a r v e l l o u s I n d i a n s o f t h e mountains." I n h i s c o n c e r n t o i n c l u d e as much b i o g r a p h i c a l background as n e c e s s a r y , the a u t h o r f a s h i o n s h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i n e a r and s p a t i a l e x t e n s i o n s . Such p h r a s e s as "so the y e a r s went 83 by," a s s i s t i n f a s h i o n i n g the d u r a t i o n of the woman's i n -s u f f e r a b l e m a r r i a g e ; and the me n t i o n o f a t h r e e month t r i p f r o m Mexico t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , h e l p s t o show how s p a t i a l change cannot c u r e the woman's psyche when h e r husband I n -s i s t s on accompanying and m a i n t a i n i n g " h i s s p e l l o v er her. 1* But I n s t e a d o f e s t a b l i s h i n g the woman as " a g e l e s s " or " t i m e -l e s s " — w o r d s used t o d e s c r i b e the P r i n c e s s I n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h a t s t o r y - - h e r e the a r c h e t y p a l n a t u r e of the h e r o i n e i s f i x e d l a t e r i n the s t o r y . I n t h e S h a n g r a l a where she remains c a p t i v e o f the C h i l -c h u i I n d i a n s , "The days and t h e weeks went by," w r i t e s Law-re n c e , " i n a Vague k i n d o f contentment." At the same time t h e r e o c c u r a number o f passages w h i c h r e l a t e i n m e t i c u l o u s d e t a i l t he woman's h e i g h t e n e d s e n s i t i v i t y as a r e s u l t o f h e r d r u g - i n d u c e d o b s e r v a t i o n . F o r a l l h e r awareness, however, t h e woman's cosmic c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s b a s i c a l l y a n e g a t i v e one, because she resembles l i t t l e more t h a n a g u i n e a p i g f o r the C h i l c h u i who seek o n l y t o d e s t r o y h e r ; w i t h t h e i r d rugs t h e y hope t o f a t t e n h e r i d e n t i t y i n o r d e r t o murder i t . Her k i n d o f womanhood, I n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l , was t o be o b l i t e r a t e d a g a i n , and the g r e a t p r i m e v a l sym-b o l s were t o tower once more over t h e f a l l e n i n d i v i d u a l independence of women. The sharpness and t h e q u i v e r i n g nervous c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e h i g h l y - b r e d w h i t e woman was t o be d e s t r o y e d a g a i n , womanhood was t o be c a s t once more i n t o t h e g r e a t s t r e a m of i m p e r s o n a l sex and im-p e r s o n a l p a s s i o n . Thus t h i s nameless woman becomes f o r t h e C h i l c h u i the a r c h e t y -81+ p a l w h i t e woman; but i n s t e a d o f a c q u i r i n g wholeness t h r o u g h h e r independent q u e s t , she d i s c o v e r s t h a t the p r i m i t i v e w o r l d h o l d s out no l e s s a m e c h a n i c a l s u b j u g a t i o n t h a n the one she has e scaped. I n f a c t , h e r e i t i s more d e b i l i t a t i n g because she l o s e s a l l i n c l i n a t i o n t o r e s i s t h e r f a t e , s e n s i n g i n the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , o f w h i c h Lawrence w r i t e s e l s e -where j an a t t r a c t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Whole S t o r y ' s d e n i a l o f n a t u r a l i s m , use o f the " p r i m e v a l symbols" becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious as the s t o r y p r o g r e s s e s toward i t s a p o c a l y p t i c i m p a c t . Yet ob-v i o u s n e s s o f use does not presume an I n h e r e n t weakness o f 6 s t o r y , so t h a t when the o l d p r i e s t r a i s e s h i s k n i f e t o s t a b t h e woman i n the f i n a l scene, the symbols o f i c e s h a f t , sun, and cave, s t r a n g e l y e x c i t e i n a way as o r i g i n a l as any more s u b t l e one i n modern s h o r t f i c t i o n . F o r Lawrence the t r a n -scendence o f n a t u r a l i s m appears the means o f raining a e s t h e t i -c i s m f r o m worn a r c h e t y p a l symbols. But even more i m p o r t a n t l y , we must u n d e r s t a n d t h a t he moulds t h a t a e s t h e t i c i s m i n t o h i s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r u c t u r e . I I The S u c c e s s f u l Quest I n t h e n o v e l l a , "The Man Who D i e d , " Lawrence o f f e r s h i s own concept o f what C h r i s t ' s R e s u r r e c t i o n might more p r o f i t a b l y 85 have t u r n e d I n t o , a quest by a s c e t i c man f o r a f u l l s e n s u a l l i f e — p r o v i d e d f i n a l l y by the woman o f I s i s whose own q u e s t t o f i n d and reassemble the fragmented O s i r i s by s e x u a l i n t e r -a c t i o n , g r a d u a l l y a c h i e v e s t h e p l a c e the w r i t e r b e l i e v e d i t r i g h t l y d e s e r v e d i n the C h r i s t i a n scheme ( A p o c a l y p s e ) — a s t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d becomes harmonious w i t h the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r . A t l e a s t f o r h i m s e l f , Lawrence appears t o have b a l a n c e d the cosmos by a c h i e v i n g an e q u i l i b r i u m between t h e p r e s e n t and the p a s t , h i s t o r y and myth, c o n s c i o u s and un c o n s c i o u s ^ man and woman. E x c e s s e s on e i t h e r s i d e seem r e s o l v e d by h i s c h a r a c t e r who a c t s as a f u l c r u m , y e t who a l s o r e c o g n i z e s the p r e c a r i o u s n e s s o f t h i s b a l a n c e i n t h e end, by c a s t i n g o f f upon the ocean t o a v o i d b e t r a y a l , p r o m i s i n g t o come a g a i n . Because C h r i s t ' s l i f e and C r u c i f i x i o n a r e w e l l known, the s t r u c t u r e o f "The Man Who D i e d " presupposes t h e r e a d e r ' s awareness o f e v e n t s and t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t e s the Whole S t o r y ' s background m a t e r i a l , w h i c h u s u a l l y aims a t c r e a t i n g an a r c h e t y -p a l c a t e g o r y f o r c h a r a c t e r . I n s t e a d , P a r t I c o n c e n t r a t e s on a c q u a i n t i n g us w i t h a peasant and a cock, w h i c h becomes the symbol o f t h e r i s e n man who d i e d ( t h e o r i g i n a l t i t l e f o r Lawrence's m y t h o l o g i c a l account was a s e x u a l pun, "The Escaped C o c k " ) . There was a pea s a n t near J e r u s a l e m who a c q u i r e d a young gamecock w h i c h l o o k e d a shabby l i t t l e t h i n g , but w h i c h put on brave f e a t h e r s as s p r i n g advanced, and was r e s p l e n d e n t w i t h a r c h e d and orange neck by the time t h e f i g - t r e e s were l e t t i n g out l e a v e s f r o m t h e i r e n d - t i p s . 86 So t h e s t o r y b e g i n s ; t h e p a r a b o l i c tone c r e a t e s a p a r t i c u l a r mood, and the l i n e a r and s p a t i a l e x t e n s i o n s w o r k i n g backwards t o the a r c h e t y p a l c i t y o f J e r u s a l e m , e s t a b l i s h a framework i n w h i c h e v e n t s a c q u i r e a d e l i b e r a t e p e r s p e c t i v e . A l s o , t h e opening sentence i s i m p o r t a n t f o r i t s b r i e f account o f t h e n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s t h a t d e s c r i b e s the t r i u m p h o f s p r i n g over t h e co c k ' s w i n t e r - d e a d appearance: t h e s t o r y w h i c h f o l l o w s r e c o u n t s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same ev e n t , empha-s i z i n g the man who d i e d r a t h e r t h a n the b i r d . A l t h o u g h a l -ways e x p l i c i t , t h e symbol i s t a s t e f u l l y drawn; t h e b i r d i t -s e l f p o s s e s s e s l i f e , v i t a l i t y , s e x u a l d e s i r e , and f u l -f i l l m e n t — e v e r y t h i n g t h e man l a c k s i n i t i a l l y , b u t g a i n s as h i s moribund p a l l o r and I t s a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e tomb, g r a d u a l l y change p l a c e s w i t h a h e a l t h y countenance and a r a p p o r t w i t h t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d . At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f P a r t I the c o c k — " a saucy, f l a m -boyant b i r d , " "good f o r twenty h e n s " — s u f f e r s t h e i n d i g n i t y o f a t e t h e r w h i c h i t s owner f a s t e n s about i t s l e g t o p r e v e n t e scape. Thus t i e d , t h e b i r d , w r i t e s Lawrence, "no l o n g e r p r a n c e d and r u f f l e d and f o r g e d h i s f e a t h e r s " : i t s "body, s o u l and s p i r i t were t i e d by t h a t s t r i n g . " One morning, however, the cock l e a p s f o r w a r d , b r e a k s the s t r i n g , and e s c a p e s . Thus t h e s u c c e e d i n g scene g a i n s i n impact w i t h t h e c a r e f u l l y e x e c u t e d c o u n t e r p o i n t : At t h e same t i m e , a t the same hour b e f o r e dawn, on 87 the same morning, a man awoke f r o m a l o n g s l e e p i n w h i c h he was t i e d up. He woke numb and c o l d , i n -s i d e a c a r v e d h o l e i n t h e r o c k . Through a l l t h e l o n g s l e e p h i s body had been f u l l o f h u r t , and i t was s t i l l f u l l o f h u r t . He d i d not open h i s e y e s . Y e t he knew t h a t he was awake, and numb, and c o l d , and r i g i d , and f u l l o f h u r t , and t i e d up. H i s f a c e was banded w i t h c o l d bands, h i s l e g s were bandaged t o g e t h e r . Only h i s hands were l o o s e . W h i l e th e r e p e t i t i o n here o f " h u r t " g r a t e s a l i t t l e , Lawrence proceeds t o r e c o r d i n p r e c i s e d e t a i l how t h e C h r i s t f i g u r e s t r u g g l e s upward, h i s bandages f a l l away, and how he emerges f r o m h i s " l a i r " i n t o the d a w n — y e t " f i l l e d s t i l l w i t h the s i c k n e s s o f unspeakable d i s i l l u s i o n . " As the man t u r n s f r o m the c i t y t o f o l l o w t h e r o a d i n t o " t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , " he e n c o u n t e r s , as a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e , the e s c a p i n g cock w h i c h r o u s e s him f r o m "a k i n d o f h a l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s " w i t h i t s c r y . Responding t o t h e p e a s a n t ' s r e q u e s t f o r a i d , the man s p reads " h i s g r e a t w h i t e wings of a s h r o u d " ( a n o t h e r o b v i o u s l i n k i n g image), and the b i r d i s c a p t u r e d . Thus b i r d and c h a r a c t e r come t o g e t h e r , and f o r t h e r e s t o f P a r t I we observe the v i g o u o u s cock t h r o u g h t h e l a n g u i d eyes o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ; o n l y a f t e r t h e b i r d o b t a i n s i t s freedom does the man p r o c u r e the same freedom h i m s e l f . P a r t I a c c e n t s i n d i v i d u a l i s m , the c o n d i t i o n w h i c h Law-rence v i e w s i n Apocalypse as a n i t h e t i c a l b o t h t o l o v e and a sense o f wholeness o r r a p p o r t w i t h the cosmos. A l t h o u g h the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r t a k e s up r e s i d e n c e w i t h t h e p easant 88 and h i s w i f e , f o r example, he never a c h i e v e s any s o r t o f community w i t h them because he has none w i t h h i m s e l f ; he s u f f e r s a c u t e s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s because awareness o f h i s own s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e a l l o w s him no i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h o s e whom he e n c o u n t e r s . Not even the sensuous M a d e l i n e w i l l he s u f f e r t o t o u c h him: "Now I b e l o n g t o no one and have no.*connectIon, and m i s s i o n o r g o s p e l I s gone f r o m me,"1 he t e l l s h e r . M o r o s e l y he i n d u l g e s h i m s e l f i n the f a t u i t y o f h i s forme r l i f e , and c l a i m s t h a t he must ascend t o the F a t h e r I n o r d e r t o r e g a i n t h e f l e s h and be h e a l e d . But i n s t e a d he d e c i d e s t o " s e t out i n t o t h e phenomenal w o r l d , t o be f u l f i l l e d I n h i s own l o n e l i n e s s i n t h e m i d s t o f i t . F o r p r e v i o u s l y he had been t o o much mixed up i n i t . " He assumes the r o l e o f p h y s i c i a n ("because the power was s t i l l i n him t o h e a l any man o r c h i l d who touched h i s compassion"), p u r c h a s e s t h e pe a s a n t ' s cock, and s e t s out I n t o the w o r l d s e e k i n g r e g e n e r a t i o n . And b e f o r e the c o n c l u s i o n o f P a r t I , he d e p o s i t s t h e b i r d among a "kingdom" o f hens, s y m b o l i c a l l y c l e a r i n g the way f o r h i s own r e s u r r e c t i o n t o a s i m i l a r p h y s i c a l heaven o f wholeness and peace. 7 I n h i s e s s a y "The R i s e n L o r d , " Lawrence d e c l a r e s t h a t o f the t h r e e images o f C h r i s t , the C h r i s t i a n Churches s t r e s s o n l y the f i r s t t w o — C h r i s t - c h i l d and C h r i s t C r u c i f i e d — t o the e x c l u s i o n of C h r i s t R i s e n . He argues t h a t the f i r s t two " a r e 89 b o t h u n t r u e t o the I n n e r e x p e r i e n c e and f e e l i n g o f the young' 1 who do not share t h e i r e l d e r s ' a c c e p t a n c e o f the t r a d i t i o n a l l i m i t i n g images. "Now," he s t a t e s , "man cannot l i v e w i t h o u t some v i s i o n o f h i m s e l f " ; and i f man's f u n c t i o n i s r e g e n e r a t i o n t h e n the R i s e n L o r d s h o u l d be p r e a c h e d . C h r i s t r i s e n i n the f l e s h l We must a c c e p t the Image compl e t e , i f we a c c e p t i t a t a l l . We must take t h e myster y i n i t s f u l n e s s and i n f a c t . I t i s o n l y the Image o f our own e x p e r i e n c e . C h r i s t r i s e s , when He r i s e s f r om t h e dead, i n the f l e s h , n o t me r e l y as s p i r i t . He r i s e s w i t h hands and f e e t , as Thomas knew f o r c e r t a i n : and i f w i t h hands and f e e t , then w i t h l i p s and stomach and g e n i t a l s o f a man. C h r i s t r i s e n , and r i s e n i n the whole o f H i s f l e s h , not w i t h some l e f t o u t . Thus the d i r e c t i o n o f "The Man Who D i e d " p u r s u e s the theme o f wholeness, f r o m the i n d i v i d u a l i s m o f P a r t I , t o the i n -t e g r a t i o n w i t h woman i n P a r t I I . The second s e c t i o n opens w i t h a s p a t i a l s h i f t t o the M e d i t e r r a n e a n s h o r e l i n e . The f i r s t p a r a g r a p h i n t r o d u c e s t h e woman o f I s i s i n Se a r c h , amidst a n a t u r a l w o r l d s t i l l i n w i n t e r . P i c t o r i a l l y , t h e scene i s l o v e l y , a s p l e n d i d s e t t i n g f o r t h e r i t u a l i z e d e n c o u n t e r t o f o l l o w , t he w i n t e r c h i l l ap-p a r e n t l y no encumberance t o t h e l o i n - c l o t h e d s l a v e who b e a t s h i s companion, t h e n c o p u l a t e s w i t h h er on a smooth r o c k as t h e w o m a s j d f ? I s i s l o o k s on. T h i s scene, a l s o w i t n e s s e d by the man who d i e d , s e r v e s a d u a l purpose: i t b r i n g s t h e two p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s t o g e t h e r f o r the f i r s t t i m e , and i t 9 0 p r e s a g e s t h e i r own s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e s u b s e q u e n t l y i n the templ e . The b r u t a l i t y and a n i m a l i s m o f t h e p r e s e n t scene seems a d e l i b e r a t e attempt on Lawrence's p a r t t o h e i g h t e n th e s e n s i t i v e and v o l u n t a r y n a t u r e o f the l a t e r I n t e r c o u r s e . And w h i l e the h u m i l i a t i o n w h i c h the s l a v e boy e x p e r i e n c e s when made c o n s c i o u s o f h i s deed c o n t r a s t s w i t h the subsequent p r i d e o f t h e man who d i e d , so t h e I n d i f f e r e n c e o f the s l a v e g i r l d i f f e r s f r o m h e r m i s t r e s s ' s e n t h u s i a s m f o r h e r i n t e r -c o u r s e w i t h the man she b e l i e v e s the w a n d e r i n g O s i r i s . Perhaps because the m y t h i c a l woman o f I s i s i s l e s s known t h a n t h e C h r i s t f i g u r e , Lawrence t a k e s c a r e t o s k e t c h h e r background by e x p l a i n i n g h e r quest " f o r the fragments o f the dead O s i r i s , dead and s c a t t e r e d asunder, dead, t o r n a p a r t , and thrown i n fragm e n t s over the wide w o r l d . " An a r c h e t y p a l f i g u r e , she seeks w h o l e n e s s — r a t h e r l i k e t he woman who rode a w a y — a s "th e womb w h i c h w a i t s submerged and i n bud, w a i t s f o r the t o u c h of t h a t o t h e r i n w a r d sun t h a t streams i t s r a y s f r o m t h e l o i n s o f the male O s i r i s . " But u n l i k e h e r apparent c o u n t e r p a r t , the woman o f I s i s s u f f e r s n e i t h e r d e g r a d a t i o n nor d e a t h . Meanwhile the man t a k e s up r e s i d e n c e i n a s m a l l cave, a " l a i r " not u n l i k e t h e one he esc a p e d . B u t i t i s the temple w h i c h demands h i s a t t e n t i o n , a l s o the woman who has p r o p o s i t i o n e d him w i t h r e b i r t h . By d e c i d i n g , f i n a l l y , t h a t " u n l e s s we encompass" everyday l i f e " i n t h e c i r c l e o f the 91 g r e a t e r l i f e , a l l i s d i s a s t e r , " he overcomes h i s r e l u c t a n c e and a c c e p t s the o v e r t u r e s of t h i s woman, and enc o u n t e r s a n o t h e r "dawn, a new sun" t h r o u g h t h e i r s t y l i s e d , y e t spon-taneous i n t e r a c t i o n , "So the days came," Lawrence r e c o r d s ( s e e k i n g the t y p i c a l l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n of t h e Whole S t o r y w h i c h l e n d s a r c h e t y p a l p e r s p e c t i v e ) , "and the n i g h t s came, and days came a g a i n , and t h e c o n t a c t was p e r f e c t e d and f u l -f i l l e d , " And a p p r o p r i a t e l y , the n a t u r a l w o r l d r e s u r r e c t s i t s e l f f r o m the deadness o f w i n t e r when the man i s I n the '"fulness o f t o u c h " : Plum-blossom blew f r o m t h e t r e e s , the time of t h e n a r c i s s u s was p a s t , anemones l i t up the ground and were gone, t h e perfume of b e a n - f i e l d was i n the a i r . A l l changed, the bloss o m o f t h e u n i v e r s e changed I t s p e t a l s and swung round t o l o o k a n o t h e r way. The s p r i n g was f u l f i l l e d , a c o n t a c t was e s -t a b l i s h e d , the man and woman were f u l f i l l e d o f one an o t h e r , and d e p a r t u r e was i n the a i r . The man's d e p a r t u r e o c c u r s when h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n the promise o f the pregnant woman a l l o w s him t o s e t out t o sea i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c a p t u r e as an "escaped m a l e f a c t o r . " " I have sowed the seed o f my l i f e and my r e s u r r e c t i o n , and put my t o u c h f o r e v e r upon t h e c h o i c e woman o f t h i s day, and I c a r r y h e r perfume i n my f l e s h l i k e essence of r o s e s . She i s dear t o me i n t h e mi d d l e o f my b e i n g . But t h e g o l d and f l o w i n g s e r p e n t i s c o i l i n g up a g a i n , t o s l e e p a t t h e r o o t of my t r e e , " "So l e t the boat c a r r y me. Tomorrow i s a n o t h e r day. The s u g g e s t i o n i n thes e f i n a l l i n e s o f good and e v i l , time and 92 p l a c e , emphasizes t h e c y c l i c a l rhythm of the n a t u r a l w o r l d , and the c o n t i n u i n g n a t u r e o f t h e human q u e s t . That a p o s s i b i l i t y o f e v i l r emains t o d i s r u p t a c q u i r e d wholeness, appears i n -e v i t a b l y the human e x p e r i e n c e — a s t h i s most a r c h e t y p a l c h a r a -t e r o f a l l the Whole S t o r i e s ( C h r i s t - O s i r i s - U l y s s e s * P a n - e v e n Lawrence h i m s e l f ) d e l i g h t s n o n e t h e l e s s i n t h e c h a l l e n g e o f a new humanity. L i k e t h e d t h e r Whole S t o r i e s ( a p a r t f r o m " T h i n g s " ) , t h i s n o v e l l a i s s t r i k i n g and o r i g i n a l because i t c r e a t e s an a r c h e t y -p a l c h a r a c t e r , and u t i l i z e s a p a r t i c u l a r e x t e n s i o n o f space and time f o r an a p o c a l y p t i c e f f e c t w h i c h a r i s e s f rom t h e q u e s t f o r w h o l e n e s s . And w h i l e t h e t e r m c o n c o c t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r works;remains l e s s t h a n f e l i c i t i o u s , i t does c a u t e r i z e them i n a manner w h i c h n ot o n l y i n d i c a t e s t h e i r i n h e r e n t s t r u c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c , but demonstrates Lawrence's u n m i s t a k a b l e o r i g i n -a l i t y i n modern s h o r t f i c t i o n . FOOTNOTES 1 Lawrence's words about a p a r t i c u l a r way o f l i f e on the i s l a n d o f S a r d i n i a , c a l l t o mind the i s l a n d e r : "One f e e l s f o r t h e f i r s t t i me the r e a l o l d m e d i a e v a l l i f e , w h i c h i s en-c l o s e d i n i t s e l f and has no i n t e r e s t i n t h e w o r l d o u t s i d e . " Seaoand S a r d i n i a , p. 90. 2 As n a t u r a l i s m i s d e n i e d i n the Whole S t o r y , t h e use o f symbolism becomes o v e r t ( s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r ) . Hence i n t h i s s t o r y , as the n a t u r a l w o r l d assumes an ominous a r c h e t y p a l q u a l i t y , Lawrence p u r p o s e l y makes o b v i o u s t h a t o c c u r e n c e . T h i s o b v i o u s n e s s , a l s o o b s e r v a b l e i n "The Woman Who Rode Away" f o r example, r e l a t e s t o Eugene Goodheart's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Lawrence ''tends toward t h e making o f s w i f t s y m b o l i c con-d e n s a t i o n s o f f a c t s and e x p e r i e n c e s , w h i c h t h e n o v e l i s t i s g e n e r a l l y a t p a i n s t o p r e s e n t i n c a r e f u l d e t a i l . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , Lawrence's s h o r t e r works ... o f f e r h i s s y m b o l i c and m y t h i c i m a g i n a t i o n a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o p e r f o r m i t s p r o p h e t i c - v i s i o n a r y r o l e . " The U t o p i a n V i s i o n o f D. H. Lawrence (The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s : C h i c a g o , 19~S"3), p. 62. 3 F. R. L e a v i s , Dj_ Hj_ Lawrence: N o v e l i s t , , p. 371. k F r a n k Amon, "D. H. Lawrence and t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " The Achievement o f D. H. Lawrence, p. 232. 5 As Lawrence w r i t e s e l s e w h e r e : " i n the r e l i g i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l A m e r i c a , t h e r e i s no F a t h e r , and no Maker. There i s t h e g r e a t l i v i n g s o u r c e o f l i f e : say the Sun o f e x i s t e n c e : t o w h i c h you can no more p r a y t h a n you can p r a y t o E l e c t r i c i t y . And emerging from t h i s Sun a r e the g r e a t p o t e n c i e s , the i n -v i n c i b l e I n f l u e n c e s w h i c h make s h i n e and warmth and r a i n . From t h e s e g r e a t i n t e r r e l a t e d p o t e n c i e s o f r a i n and heat and thunder emerge t h e seeds o f l i f e i t s e l f , c o r n , and c r e a t u r e s l i k e snakes. And beyond t h e s e , men, p e r s o n s . But a l l emerge s e p a r a t e l y . There i s no oneness, no s y m p a t h e t i c i d e n t i f y i n g o n e s e l f w i t h the r e s t . The law o f i s o l a t i o n i s heavy on e v e r y c r e a t u r e . " Mornings i n Mexico ( W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . : London, 1956), p. 6ii. 9k 6 A b o u t t h e " c o n s t i t u t i v e " s y m b o l E l i s e o V i v a s w r i t e s t h a t i t i s " i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s b e y o n d e l u c i d a t i o n b y d i s -c u r s i v e l a n g u a g e . " He s t a t e s t h a t " t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s -t i t u t i v e s y m b o l i s e a s i l y g r a s p e d ... i n p o w e r f u l c o n s t r u c t -i o n s l i k e 'The R o c k i n g - H o r s e W i n n e r ' 7 and , ;The Woman Who Rode Away!." (281) "Were a p h i l o s o p h e r t o a s k me w h a t I mean by t h e t e r m , ' c o n s t i t u t i v e s y m b o l , ' I w o u l d a n s w e r t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i v e s y m b o l i s a c r e a t i v e s y n t h e s i s o f e m p i r i c a l m a t t e r w h i c h m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n d r a m a t i c and m o r a l t e r m s and w h i c h f u n c t i o n s c a t e g o r i c a l l y . B u t I w o u l d e m p h a s i z e . t h e w o r d s ' c r e a t i v e ' a n d ' s y n t h e s i s . ' F o r t h e c o n s t i t u t i v e s y m b o l i s n o t a r r i v e d a t b y a mere r e s h u f f l i n g o r r e a r -r a n g i n g o f t h e m a t t e r o f e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s c r e a t i v e a n d i t i s a g e n u i n e s y n t h e s i s . " (275) L a w r e n c e ; The F a i l u r e a n d t h e T r i u m p h o f A r t ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : B l o o m i n g t o n , I 9 6 0 ) . P h o e n i x I I . p p . 571-577. CHAPTER I I I IMAGERY T r i a n g l e V e r s u s the I n d i v i d u a l C o n s c i o u s n e s s E s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t I n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f any w r i t e r ' s a r t i s h i s s t r u c t u r a l Imagery, f o r t h a t p r o v i d e s a way of v i e w i n g t h e s h a p i n g p a t t e r n s of h i s v i s i o n . I n -deed, as opposed t o t h e many c o n c r e t e images t h a t a r i s e o n l y once i n Lawrence's s h o r t e r f i c t i o n ( e g . the r o c k i n g -h o r s e , t h e l a d y b i r d , the b l u e m o c a s s i n s , the c a p t a i n ' s d o l l , t h e f o x ) , h i s s t r u c t u r a l Images (which a r e few) r e -c u r a g a i n and a g a i n , t h e r e b y s u g g e s t i n g t h e m s e l v e s as s t a n d a r d moulds w i t h i n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i n t e r a c t i o n might p r o f i t a b l y be o b s e r v e d . Two s t r u c t u r a l images p a r t i c -u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t i n l o o k i n g a t Lawrence's s t o r i e s and n o v e l l a s are t h e f a m i l y and the t r i a n g l e . As a medium of d i s c u s s i o n the f i r s t has a t t r a c t e d c r i t i c s t o su c h p i e c e s as "Daughters o f the V i c a r , " "You Touched Me," "The H o r s e - D e a l e r ' s Daughter," "Odour o f Chrysanthemums," and o t h e r s . The t r i a n g l e , on t h e o t h e r hand, has s t i m u -l a t e d l e s s c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n as a means o f a p p r o a c h i n g the s t o r i e s , c e r t a i n l y s t r a n g e because a t l e a s t t w e n t y -f i v e o f them employ t h i s image, o b s e r v e d l y more t h a n the f a m i l y . By f a m i l y I mean p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n , of c o u r s e , not husband and w i f e who g e n e r a l l y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n -v o l v e d w i t h i n a t r i a n g l e , though the image does not l i m i t i t s e l f t o m a r r i e d c o u p l e s . B i o g r a p h i c a l l y , i t might be argued t h a t w h i l e Law-r e n c e ' s e a r l y background c o n t r i b u t e s t o the r e a p p e a r i n g f a m i l y image, h i s l a t e r e x p e r i e n c e i n w i n n i n g f o r him-s e l f a n o t h e r man's w i f e suggests the t r i a n g l e and i t s v a r i a t i o n s . The case f o r the l a s t , however, w h i l e p r o b -a b l y one r e a s o n f o r the c o n t i n u i n g r e c u r r e n c e o f t h i s s t r u c t u r a l image t h r o u g h subsequent y e a r s , does not t a k e I n t o account t h o s e few s t o r i e s w r i t t e n b e f o r e 1 9 1 2 , t h e ones w h i c h f e a t u r e t h e t r i a n g l e . I n any e v e n t , t h i s image recommends i t s e l f f o r use i n a s t u d y o f t h e q u e s t theme, f o r b e h i n d i t l i e s s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and a n t i p -a t h y f o r wholeness uor harmony. Wholeness, as I proposed i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , i s synonymous w i t h Lawrence's con- t i n u u m o f I n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s - - w h a t t h e t r i a n g l e i n -e v i t a b l y opposes because such a s i t u a t i o n s i g n i f i e s a s o c i a l c o n t r i v a n c e . I d e a l l y , the q u e s t f o r wholeness r e a c h e s a f u l f i l l m e n t i n a c o l l a p s e o f t h e t r i a n g l e and the u n i o n o f two i n d i v i d u a l s . Y et as o f t e n as not the q u e s t f a i l s , s o t h a t d e s p i t e t h e t r a n s m u t a t i o n of the t r i a n g l e image, as i n "The Pox," the f i n a l c o u p l e remains d i s h a r m o n i o u s • C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y t h e t r i a n g l e s t o r i e s r u n t h r o u g h the 97 e a r l y "Goose P a i r " (1909), t o t h e l a t e "The B l u e M o c a s s i n s " (1929). Among t h e e a r l y s t o r i e s f e a t u r i n g the t r i a n g l e a r e "A Modern L o v e r , " "The Old Adam," "New Eve and O l d Adam," "Shadow I n t h e Rose Garden," and "The Shades of S p r i n g . " I n t h e l a s t , Lawrence s k i l f u l l y evokes a p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g i n t o w h i c h Syson r e t u r n s t o v i s i t h i s f o r m e r s w e e t h e a r t whom he has not seen f o r some y e a r s . A l t h o u g h he has c o n -t i n u e d t o send h e r books o f v e r s e , t h e i r s u p p o s e d l y s p i r i t -u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p has not p r e v e n t e d Syson from m a r r y i n g i n the I n t e r i m , nor H i l d a f r o m t a k i n g the gamekeeper f o r a l o v e r . The t r i a n g l e image a c q u i r e s shape when the i n -t r u d e r l o s e s h i s humor i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the keeper about H i l d a . Not o n l y does S y s o n 1 s e d u c a t i o n c o n t r a s t m a r k e d l y w i t h P i l b e a n ' s p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e , b u t a l s o w i t h H i l d a ' s f a m i l y , who do not t r o u b l e t o h i d e t h e i r d i s t a s t e f o r h i s r e f i n e m e n t w h i c h causes them u n e a s i n e s s and a measure o f I n f e r i o r i t y . T h i s p e r n i c i o u s s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s -ness a l s o p l a g u e s t h e chance o f any r e d e m p t i o n , between Syson and H i l d a , of t h e i r o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . I f t he i n t r u d e r i n t e n d s s u c h a re d e m p t i o n by h i s r e -t u r n , however, H i l d a q u i c k l y d i s c o u r a g e s i t by i n f o r m i n g him t h a t she does n ot approve o f what he has become. Moreover, she makes a p o i n t o f e m p h a s i z i n g the wholeness she has a c -q u i r e d i n h i s absence. They v i s i t P i l b e a n ' s p r i m i t i v e l o g hut where we see H i l d a i n an i n s t i n c t i v e , n a t u r a l e n v i r o n -98 merit. Here she announces t o Syson t h a t w h i l e he once r e -t a r d e d her " s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e , " i n e f f e c t removing h e r f r o m her e s s e n t i a l s e l f w i t h h i s b u l l y i n g , now she no l o n g e r needs him. C o n s e q u e n t l y , Syson r e a l i z e s t h a t H i l d a i s h a r d l y " h i s B o t t i c e l l i a n g e l , " the " B e a t r i c e " he has come t o i d e a l i z e i n h i s absence. Thus he (not she, as Widmer i n f e r s ) , e x p e r i e n c e s a sense of l o s s i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g scene o f t h e s t o r y , when the t r i a n g l e a c h i e v e s I t s b e s t e f f e c t as the d e p a r t i n g Syson—who has d e c i d e d t o drop a l l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e g i r l — a c -c i d e n t l y w i t n e s s e s her and the keeper making l o v e . What Widmer f a i l s t o account f o r i s the d e b i l i t a t -i n g s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s of Syson, when he c l a i m s H i l d a ' s f i n a l l o v e r " a p p a r e n t l y o f the second-best s o r t t h a t Law-1 r e n c e t o uches on i n so many s t o r i e s . " He has o b v i o u s l y m i s t a k e n H i l d a ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o marry P i l b e a n as concom-i t a n t w i t h a sense o f l o s s , w h i c h i t i s n o t : nowhere i n the s t o r y does Lawrence suggest t h a t t h e g i r l has n o t be-come more h e r s e l f , nor l e s s c o n s c i o u s o f s e p a r a t i o n f r o m an i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , as a r e s u l t o f a n a t u r a l s e t -t i n g and Syson's absence. And she has no i n t e n t i o n of s p o i l i n g her harmonious r a p p o r t w i t h t h i s w o r l d by r i s k i n g m a t r i m o n i a l s u b j u g a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , she and P i l b e a n w i l l c o n t i n u e t h e i r spontaneous r e l a t i o n s h i p ^ he f u l f i l l i n g h e r b e t t e r t h a n any second-best l o v e r . 9 9 "Love Among t h e H a y s t a c k s , " a n o t h e r e a r l y s t o r y , a g a i n c o u p l e s the s t r u c t u r a l image of the t r i a n g l e and a p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g . Here the two r i v a l s are b r o t h e r s and the cause o f t h e i r r i v a l r y a P o l i s h g o v e r n e s s , P a u l a Jablonowsky, who s t i r s i n t h e younger s u i t o r memory o f h i s p r e v i o u s n i g h t ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h h e r . As the two men work b e s i d e each o t h e r s t a c k i n g hay, i t becomes c l e a r t h a t t h e s l i g h t l y o l d e r G e o f f r e y r e s e n t s h i s b r o t h e r ' s s u c c e s s , e s p e c i a l l y when P a u l a seemed o r i g i n a l l y t o p r e f e r h i m s e l f . M a u r i c e , o f c o u r s e , does not h e s i t a t e t o rub i n h i s own good f o r t u n e , so t h a t when P a u l a t a k e s a s e a t on the f e n c e t o w atch t h e h a y i n g , G e o f f r e y u n d e r s t a n d a b l y s e i z e s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o work i n a way w h i c h causes h i s nemesis t o sweat and f a l l b e h i n d . E v e n t u a l l y the "bed" o f hay be-comes a b a t t l e g r o u n d where, " l i k e o p p o s i n g b u l l s , " t he b r o t h e r s c o n f r o n t each o t h e r and s t r u g g l e ^ u n t i l M a u r i c e l o s e s h i s f o o t i n g and t o p p l e s t o the ground u n c o n s c i o u s . I n s t e a d o f a l l e v i a t i n g G e o f f r e y ' s f r u s t r a t i o n , however, t h e f a l l s e r v e s m e r e l y t o e x a c e r b a t e I t , as P a u l a r u s h e s t o M a u r i c e ' s a i d f u l l o f sympathy f o r the wounded b r o t h e r , and a c c u s a t i o n s f o r t h e o t h e r . D e s c r i b e d "as a w i l d c a t , " the governess i n d u l g e s M a u r i c e who s t r u g g l e s handsomely t o h i s f e e t w i t h "a s t r a n g e new ease." What g i v e s t h i s s t o r y a f r e s h n e s s and u l t i m a t e b a l a n c e I s the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f another woman w i t h whom G e o f f r e y l a t e r f a l l s i n l o v e ; from t h e t r i a n g u l a r s i t u a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y 100 s t a g e s , the s t o r y p r o g r e s s e s toward a f i n a l s t r u c t u r a l Image t h a t i s square--where wholeness appears the a c h i e v e -ment of a t l e a s t one of the c o u p l e s . T h i s movement com-mences i n P a r t I I when an obnoxious tramp b r e a k s i n upon the h a r v e s t e r s a t t h e i r l u n c h , r e q u e s t i n g f o o d . H i s w i f e a l s o approaches, and i n the e n s u i n g scene G e o f f r e y senses a " k i n s h i p " between h i m s e l f and t h i s woman " a t odds w i t h the w o r l d " and h e r husband. Immediately we sense a new t r i a n g l e a r i s i n g , but one t h a t q u i c k l y d i s s o l v e s as the c o u p l e presumably d i s a p p e a r s . I n P a r t I I I G e o f f r e y ' s l o n e l i n e s s t o w h i c h Lawrence e a r l i e r a l l u d e s , r e c e i v e s a f u l l e r t r e a t m e n t when he con -t r a s t s i t t o M a u r i c e ' s h a p p i n e s s l a t e r i n the a f t e r n o o n . But G e o f f r e y was s t i l l s u l l e n l y h o s t i l e t o the mo3t p a r t of t h e w o r l d . He f e l t i s o l a t e d . The f r e e and easy i n t e r - c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the o t h e r w o r k e r s l e f t him d i s t i n c t l y a l o n e . And he was a man who c o u l d n o t bear t o s t a n d a l o n e , he was t o o much a f r a i d o f the v a s t c o n f u s i o n of l i f e s u r r o u n d i n g him i n w h i c h he was h e l p l e s s . G e o f f r e y m i s t r u s t e d h i m s e l f w i t h everybody. T h i s l a c k o f c o n n e c t i o n or wholeness f o r the v i r g i n a l G e o f f r e y becomes acute i n P a r t TV when he o v e r h e a r s P a u l a and h i s b r o t h e r atop one of t h e h a y s t a c k s p r e p a r i n g t o make l o v e i n the d a r k n e s s . Suddenly " v e r y m i s e r a b l e , and j e a l o u s o f M a u r i c e " he r e t r e a t s t o t h e t o o l shed t o escape the r a i n , l e a v i n g t h e l o v e r s beneath a canvas c o v e r i n g . 101 I n t h e shed he s u r p r i s e s a woman s e e k i n g s h e l t e r , t he one who has e a r l i e r accompanied h e r tramp husband, be g g i n g f o o d f r o m t h e h a r v e s t e r s . Now he o f f e r s h e r b o t h f o o d and warmth. D e s p i t e t h e f o u r y e a r s o f " u n a l l e v i a t e d shame and degrada-t i o n " t h a t has caused h e r " l o n e l i n e s s , " and a n a t u r e "caked and s t e r i l e , " the woman s o f t e n s t o G e o f f r e y ' s t o u c h ; and i n t h e i r subsequent lovemaking t h e young man r e a c h e s a f u l n e s s never b e f o r e e x p e r i e n c e d : " W i t h h e r t o complete him, t o f o r m the c o r e o f him," Lawrence w r i t e s , "he was f i r m and whole." As a r e s u l t o f t h e i r u n i o n , c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l t r i a n g l e w h i c h saw G e o f f r e y t h e s u f f e r i n g o u t s i d e r , a re b r o k e n — a l t h o u g h t h e same image r e c e i v e s a l a s t g l a n c e when the o l d e r b r o t h e r once more ov e r h e a r s M a u r i c e and P a u l a the next morning. But t h i s time t h e o l d e r b r o t h e r senses no a t t r a c t i o n f o r the P o l i s h g i r l , Indeed he f e e l s r a t h e r con-temptuous o f h e r : w h i l e t h e tramp woman appears "neat and p r e t t y , " P a u l a l o o k s " w h i t e - f a c e d " w i t h p i e c e s o f hay s t i c k i n g I n h e r h a i r . As the f o u r l o v e r s squat around a f i r e , t h e s t r u c t u r a l image o f the t r i a n g l e has become a square, e a ch c o u p l e com-p l e m e n t i n g t h e o t h e r . And w h i l e the s t o r y ends w i t h a promise o f m a r r i a g e between M a u r i c e and P a u l a , i t a l s o c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e s i m p l e b u t f o r c e f u l s t a t e m e n t t h a t G e o f f r e y and L y d l a c o n t i n u e t o keep f a i t h , "one w i t h t h e o t h e r . " S i n c e Law-rence has spent c o n s i d e r a b l y more time d e t a i l i n g the a c t u a l 1 0 2 l o v e between t h e second c o u p l e , i t seems t h a t he r e g a r d s t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p as the more f u l f i l l i n g and s a t i s f a c t o r y . G e o f f r e y has a c h i e v e d a c o n d i t i o n o f wholeness w h i c h M a u r i c e has never a p p a r e n t l y l a c k e d , and f o r t h a t r e a s o n th e r e s o l u -t i o n o f t h e t r i a n g l e p r o v e s an i n t e g r a l and s u c c e s s f u l r e s -ponse t o t h e o l d e r b r o t h e r ' s q u e s t , r a t h e r t h a n a s i m p l e a f f i r m a t i o n o f the younger's a f f a i r . C e r t a i n l y a key s t r u c t u r a l image i n t h i s s t o r y , t h e t r i a n g l e assumes a new shape whose harmonious j u x t a p o s i t i o n of two c o u p l e s r e s u l t s i n a happy e n d i n g r e m i n i s c e n t o f a R e s t o r a t i o n p l a y . W i t h "The B l i n d Man" ( 1 9 1 8 ) the t r i a n g l e image becomes an e x t r e m e l y p o w e r f u l s t r u c t u r a l image, one t h a t d e v e l o p s t o an i m p o r t a n t degree the i n t e l l e c t u a l - v e r s u s - i n s t i n c t i v e - m a n o p p o s i t i o n w h i c h appears i n the e a r l y s t o r i e s , but r e c e i v e s more i n t e n s e t r e a t m e n t h e r e and i n l a t e r works l i k e "The L a d y b i r d " and "The B o r d e r L i n e . " W i t h t h e opening p a r a g r a p h the t r i a n g l e b e g i n s i m m e d i a t e l y t o assume shape. I s a b e l P e r v i n was l i s t e n i n g f o r two s o u n d s — f o r the sound of wheels on t h e d r i v e o u t s i d e and f o r the n o i s e of h e r husband's f o o t s t e p s i n t h e h a l l . Her d e a r e s t and o l d e s t f r i e n d , a man who seemed al m o s t i n d i s p e n s -a b l e t o h e r l i v i n g , would d r i v e up i n the r a i n y dusk of the c l o s i n g November day. The t r a p had gone t o f e t c h him f r o m the s t a t i o n . And her husband, who had been b l i n d e d i n F l a n d e r s , and who had a d i s f i g u r -i n g mark on h i s brow, would be coming i n from t h e out-house. The b l i n d man, we soon d i s c o v e r , p o s s e s s e s t h o s e c h a r a c -1 0 3 t e r i s t i c s ( n a i v e t e , i n n o c e n c e , at-oneneaa) w h i c h a l l o w h im a wholeness o f l i v i n g i n the s i m p l e r u r a l s e t t i n g o f h i s farm; h e r e d e s p i t e h i s h a n d i c a p , he e x p e r i e n c e s a l i v i n g continuum w i t h what surrounds him. He m i l k e d t h e cows, c a r r i e d i n t h e p a i l s , t u r n e d the s e p a r a t o r , a t t e n d e d t o t h e p i g s and h o r s e s . L i f e was s t i l l v e r y f u l l and s t r a n g l y serene f o r t h e b l i n d man, p e a c e f u l w i t h t h e alm o s t I n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e peace of im-mediate c o n t a c t i n d a r k n e s s . W i t h h i s w i f e he had a whole w o r l d , r i c h and r e a l and i n v i s i b l e . But Lawrence i s a l s o c a r e f u l t o d e l i n e a t e t h e s t r a i n w h i c h has o c c u r r e d p e r i o d i c a l l y between M a u r i c e and h i s w i f e . D e s p i t e I s a b e l ' s a t t e m p t s t o open t h e i r w o r l d t o v i s i t o r s , the b l i n d man has shown l i t t l e i n t e r e s t . Y e t t o the d e l i g h t o f h i s w i f e he has co n s e n t e d t o a v i s i t by B e r t i e R e i d , " t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l t y p e , " a s c e t i c and c o m p l e t e l y t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f h i m s e l f . F o r I s a b e l (who r e v i e w s books f o r a newspaper) t h e imminence of h e r o l d f r i e n d promises a s t i m u l a t i n g e v e n i n g f o r h e r s e l f , and h o p e f u l l y a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e two men, a l t h o u g h t h e y have not g o t a l o n g i n t h e p a s t . J u s t p r i o r t o B e r t i e ' s appearance, Lawrence o f f e r s two i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e w o r l d o f t h e b l i n d man, t h e f i r s t drama-t i z e d , the second s t a t e d : b o t h a n t i c i p a t e the scene where Ma u r i c e touches B e r t i e a t l e n g t h i n t h e b a r n . F i r s t l y , when I s a b e l seeks h e r husband out among t h e h o r s e s , she g a i n s some sense o f h i s w o r l d o f t o u c h where she views h im 10lx i n a m a s t e r f u l r o l e . The complete darkness w h i c h g r e e t s h e r i n t h e b a r n i s " s t a r t l i n g , " something w h i c h r e n d e r s her h e l p l e s s , i m p o s s i b l e t o t a k e f o r g r a n t e d as she e a r l i e r has w i t h " s u p e r f i c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n " the s o f t l y l i g h t e d d i n i n g - r o o m . S e c o n d l y , Lawrence i n d i c a t e s t h e b l i n d man's f u l n e s s i n h i s d a r k w o r l d o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , when he w r i t e s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s b l o o d i n s t i n c t . P e r v i n moved about almost u n c o n s c i o u s l y i n h i s f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s , d a r k though e v e r y t h i n g was. He seemed t o know t h e presence o f o b j e c t s b e f o r e he touched them. I t was a p l e a s u r e t o him t o r o c k t h u s t h r o u g h a w o r l d o f t h i n g s , c a r r i e d on t h e f l o o d i n a s o r t o f b l o o d -p r e s c i e n c e . He d i d not t h i n k much o r t r o u b l e much. So l o n g as he k e p t t h i s sheer immediacy of b l o o d -c o n t a c t w i t h the s u b s t a n t i a l w o r l d he was happy, he wanted no i n t e r v e n t i o n o f v i s u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I n t h i s s t a t e t h e r e was a c e r t a i n r i c h p o s i t i v i t y , b o r d e r -i n g sometimes on r a p t u r e . L i f e seemed t o move i n him l i k e a t i d e l a p p i n g l a p p i n g , and a d v a n c i n g , e n v e l o p -i n g a l l t h i n g s d a r k l y . I t was a p l e a s u r e t o s t r e t c h f o r t h t h e hand and meet the unseen o b j e c t , c l a s p i t , and p o s s e s s i t i n pure c o n t a c t . He d i d not t r y t o remember, t o v i s u a l i s e . He d i d not want t o . The new way o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s s u b s t i t u t e d i t s e l f i n him. A l t h o u g h M a u r i c e l a t e r r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s contempt f o r B e r t i e a r i s e s from " h i s own weakness," he f i n d s i t impos-s i b l e t o engage i n the d i n n e r s m a l l - t a l k , w h i c h s e r v e s o n l y t o i n t e n s i f y t h e awkwardness of the t r i a n g u l a r s i t u a t i o n f o r h i s w i f e and g u e s t . But h i s gaucheness he w i s h e s t o m o l l i f y l a t e r i n the b a r n , where B e r t i e s e a r c h e s him o u t . I n h i s attempt t o come t o terms w i t h t h i s i n t r u d e r , M a u r i c e g a i n s t h e c o n f i d e n c e he needs t o t o u c h B e r t i e ' s s k u l l and 105 face. In turn, he requests the lawyer to feel his scarred eye-sockets. Thus as Maurice grows stronger i n what he believes a new friendship, Bertie shrinks in terror from this repugnant contact—as he has from any contact in his l i f e . In this respect the concluding structural image within the story acquires a fresh perspective; no longer is i t the blind man who seeks escape from the triangle, but rather the ascetic Bertie. Yet while the story settles successfully for Maurice, who overcomes his immediate i n -security to experience the wholeness that is his by instinct (in contrast to the fragmented Bertie who loses the pros-perous appearance he i s incapable of sustaining), the im-pending birth of a new member of his family suggests yet another triangular situation for the blind man to overcome. That he w i l l triumph depends largely upon the capacity of the instinctive Lawrencian male to retain his individual consciousness; and that i s likely, for the new triangle w i l l involve an organic pattern which loses the contrived essence of the three-cornered image, thereby becoming another structural image, the sort which informs the family stories. With "The Fox" (1919-1921) the structural image of the triangle continues to play an integral part in the fibre of Lawrence's fi c t i o n , and in the consistency of his vision 106 so f a r as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f w h o l e n e s s . T h i s s t o r y r e p r e s e n t s Lawrence's most famous n o v e l l a , one whose c h a r a c t e r i n t e r a c t i o n and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t has l e d i d e a l l y t o a movie. D e s p i t e I t s t e r r i b l y g r a t u i t o u s c o n -c l u s i o n , "The Pox" p r e s s e s f r o m the t r i a n g l e p a t t e r n perhaps i t s most e f f e c t i v e r e n d e r i n g among a l l the s h o r t e r f i c t i o n . I t I s one of t h e few t r i a n g l e s t o r i e s t h a t uses two women and one man, i n s t e a d o f the more u s u a l two men and a woman. Ye t t h a t does not o b s c u r e the f a c t o f s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h i n t r u d e s w i t h Henry, the human f o x , t o d i s r u p t the q u a l i f i e d wholeness w h i c h B a n f o r d and March e x p e r i e n c e on t h e i r own, w o r k i n g t h e f a r m . The c l e a v a g e between the two women, however, h a r d l y r e s u l t s f r o m Henry's p r o p o s a l t o March. R a t h e r i t i s t h e a s c e t i c B a n f o r d , "a s m a l l , t h i n , d e l i c a t e t h i n g w i t h s pec-t a c l e s , " who I n i t i a t e s t h e c o n f l i c t o f t h e s t o r y w i t h h e r p o s s e s s i v e h a n k e r i n g t o r e t a i n t h e " r o b u s t " March f o r h e r own p a r t n e r . Not o n l y does t h e n a t u r e of t h e i r r e l a t i o n -s h i p appear u n n a t u r a l due t o l e s b i a n undertones, but be-cause " t h i n g s " have not t u r n e d out s u c c e s s f u l l y I n the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i r f a r m . I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e i r c o n d i t i o n of r u r a l wholeness i s b o t h a q u a l i f i e d one, and one w h i c h i n v i t e s the i n t r u s i o n o f a male i n t e r l o p e r who ( u n l i k e Syson and B e r t i e ReId) sh a r e s w i t h March a k i n d o f i n d i v i d -107 ual consciousness that smacks i n no way of i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m . Indeed, Lawrence makes clear that f o r March, Henry i s the f o x — a boy she cannot see "otherwise." Before Henry's a r r i v a l at the farm, the actual fox has so impressed i t -s e l f upon the g i r l ' s awareness—become the "master of her s p i r i t " — t h a t t h i s p a r a l l e l i s Inevitable. March searches for the fox i n order to plug a gap i n her l i f e . She s t i l l looked f o r him unconsciously when she went towards the wood. He had become a s e t t l e d e f f e c t i n her s p i r i t , a state permanently established, not con-tinuous, but always recurring. She did not know what she f e l t or thought: only the state came over herf as when he looked at her. This inexplicable f e e l i n g i n the presence of the fox i s the same emotion that Henry I n s t i l l s , one which Banford has no control over with the boy present, but one she succeeds i n purging when he i s absent. In short, she represents the s o c i a l consciousness that makes the t r i a n g l e s i t u a t i o n pernicious to a condition of wholeness between the other couple. This s o c i a l consciousness, however, does not ap-pear immediately. At f i r s t , Banford seems as amenable to Henrys! s residence as March seems i n d i f f e r e n t . While the* b i r d - l i k e Banford takes to Henry as she might to "her own young brother," i n -v i t i n g him to stay on at the farm because she i s "charmed by him," March chooses to remain the obscure member of the 1 0 8 t r i a n g l e , a p o s i t i o n f r o m w h i c h she d e r i v e s a s h o r t - l i v e d w h o l e n e s s . She became almost p e a c e f u l a t l a s t . He was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e f o x — a n d he was here i n f u l l p r e s e n c e . She need not go a f t e r him any more. There i n the shadow of h e r c o r n e r she gave h e r s e l f up t o a warm, r e l a x e d peace, a l m o s t l i k e s l e e p , a c c e p t i n g t h e s p e l l t h a t was on h e r . But she w i s h e d t o re m a i n h i d d e n . She was o n l y f u l l y a t peace w h i l s t he f o r g o t h e r , t a l k i n g t o B a n f o r d . H i d d e n i n t h e shadow o f t h e c o r n e r , she need not any more be d i v i d e d i n h e r s e l f , t r y i n g t o keep up two planes© o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . She c o u l d a t l a s t l a p s e i n t o t he odour o f t h e f o x . Q u i t e c o n t e n t i n h e r o b s c u r i t y , March i s a b l e t o l a p s e i n t o the f u l n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h a t w h i c h escapes her when Henry's m a r i t a l i n t e n t i o n becomes c l e a r , when Ban-f o r d l o s e s a l l fondness f o r t h e boy i n h e r j e a l o u s y : t h e n the i d e a l i t y o f t h e t r i a n g l e q u i c k l y c o l l a p s e s . What "The Pox" f e a t u r e s i s a s t r u c t u r a l image t h a t comes f u l l - c i r c l e , f r o m t h e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y d u a l i t y o f Ban-f o r d and March--through the t r i a n g l e image w h i c h o p e r a t e s f o r t he b u l k o f t h e s t o r y and p r o v i d e s i t s overwhelming i n t e r e s t — t o t he f i n a l d u a l i t y o f March and Henry w h i c h a g a i n p r o v e s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . D u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l d u a l i t y , the f o w l s f r o m whom the women expect t o make a l i v i n g , r e f u s e t o l a y eggs. The f o x , moreover, causes f u r t h e r d isenchantment by p l u n d e r i n g t h e i r hen r u n . Lawrence a n t i c i p a t e s t h e t r i a n g l e and B a n f o r d ' s l a t e r v o c a l i n -1 0 9 t r u s l o n s ( t h e s e a c t u a l l y p a r t of the t r i a n g l e w h i c h c a l l March f r o m H e n r y ) , by h a v i n g her break i n upon the f o x ' s s p e l l when March f i r s t e n c o u n t e r s i t as she s t a l k s t h e p r e d a t o r . We b e g i n to sense B a n f o r d * s c a l l as a c o u n t e r -p o i n t t o h e r f r i e n d ' s s e a r c h f o r some new experience! w h i c h w i l l t a k e h e r beyond t h e work-a-day sphere of t h e f a r m . On the v e r y e v e n i n g Henry proposes t o March, f o r ex-ample, B a n f o r d ' s c a l l i n t e r r u p t s t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n b e f o r e the boy can r e c e i v e an answer; b u t l a t e r t h a t n i g h t when he succeeds i n k i s s i n g March (foreshadowed by t h e l a t t e r ' s p a i n -f u l dream o f t h e f o x ) , B a n f o r d ' s c a l l does n o t come soon enough t o p r e v e n t her f r i e n d ' s a c c e ptance o f t h e p r o p o s a l . A t t h i s p o i n t the t r i a n g l e image ushers i n t h e f a t a l con-f l i c t between Henry and B a n f o r d . And, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the o n l y time t h e s t r u c t u r a l image becomes c o n c r e t e o c c u r s the day B a n f o r d l e a r n s o f the m a r r i a g e arrangement, t h e n r i d i c u l e s t h e i d e a t o Henry's t o r m e n t . A t l e n g t h he got up and s t a l k e d out i n t o t h e f i e l d s w i t h t h e gun. He came i n o n l y a t d i n n e r - t i m e , w i t h the d e v i l s t i l l i n h i s f a c e , b u t h i s manners became q u i t e p o l i t e . Nobody s a i d a n y t h i n g p a r t i c u l a r ; t hey s a t each one a t the sharp c o r n e r o f a t r i a n g l e , i n o b s t i n a t e remoteness. I n t h e a f t e r n o o n he went ( out a g a i n a t once w i t h the gun. He came i n a t n i g h t f a l l w i t h a r a b b i t and a p i g e o n . He s t a y e d i n a l l t h e e v e n i n g , b u t h a r d l y opened h i s mouth. He was i n the d e v i l of a temper, f e e l i n g he had been i n s u l t e d . That n i g h t Henry l e a r n s the e x t e n t o f B a n f o r d ' s p o s s e s -1 1 0 s i v e n e s s , when he o v e r h e a r s h e r c r i t i c i z i n g up and down h i s uncouthness and d e s i g n s t o make a f o o l o f March. He seems t o w i n a measure o f March's esteem, however, by k i l l i n g t he f o x i n the e a r l y hours o f the morning, and o f f e r i n g h e r t h e f u r . The o f f e r i n c i t e s March's second dream, t h i s one p o r -t e n d i n g B a n f o r d ' s d e a t h l a t e r i n t h e s t o r y . But meanwhile B a n f o r d c o n t i n u e s h e r campaign a g a i n s t Henry, and s e c u r e s March " i n t o l e a g u e " w i t h h e r s e l f . The scenes w h i c h f o l l o w are dominated by t h e t r i a n g l e image, u s u a l l y w i t h Henry a d i s t a n t member o f the p a t t e r n . He watches " w i t h r a g e , " f o r i n s t a n c e , when he observes March h a s t e n t o welcome B a n f o r d home f r o m t h e market, t a k e h er p a r c e l s , and w a l k t h r o u g h t h e f i e l d w i t h t h i s s l i g h t e r g i r l whom he d e t e s t s . Y et t h e boy does f e e l "a s e c r e t bond, a s e c r e t t h r e a d " between h i m s e l f and March, an i n t i m a c y w h i c h he hopes t o s t r e n g t h e n t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e and s e t t l e m e n t i n Canada. Hence, b e f o r e he r e t u r n s t o h i s r e g i m e n t , Henry e x t r a c t s f r o m March promise o f a C h r i s t m a s wedding; and she cannot h e l p but f a l l v i c t i m t o h i s s p e l l w h i c h as u s u a l e x c l u d e s B a n f o r d . I t was wonder w h i c h made h e r a t t e n d . And t h e n she f e l t the deep, heavy, p o w e r f u l s t r o k e o f h i s h e a r t y t e r r i b l e , l i k e something from beyond. I t was l i k e something from beyond, something a w f u l from o u t -s i d e , s i g n a l l i n g t o h e r . And t h e s i g n a l p a r a l y s e d h e r . I t beat upon h e r v e r y s o u l , and made her h e l p -l e s s . She f o r g o t J i l l . She c o u l d not t h i n k o f : J i l l any more. She c o u l d not t h i n k o f h e r . That t e r -r i b l e s i g n a l l i n g f r o m o u t s i d e J I l l B ut when Henry d e p a r t s f o r the army, B a n f o r d soon r e g a i n s the upper hand; the boy r e c e i v e s a l e t t e r f r o m March ex-p l a i n i n g t h a t t h e i r engagement must b r e a k o f f because, i n the l o n g r u n , J i l l p e r s o n i f i e s the o n l y r e a l i t y . When Henry r e a p p e a r s and k i l l s B a n f o r d by f e l l i n g a t r e e upon h e r , i t r e p r e s e n t s h i s own c a l c u l a t e d h a c k i n g -a p a r t o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l image t h a t has p l a g u e d h i s que s t f o r wholeness w i t h March. That t h i s f u l f i l l m e n t i s not an a x i o m a t i c r e s u l t of B a n f o r d * s d e a t h , i n no way j i l t s the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y n a t u r e o f the f i n a l d u a l i t y , b ut r a t h e r c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e d e p t h t h a t has been March's p s y c h o l o g i -c a l dependence upon h e r female f r i e n d . Yet Lawrence makes s u r e t h i s p o i n t i s d r i v e n home by o v e r s t a t i n g h i s case w i t h some d r e a d f u l metaphor w h i c h remains a t odds w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y t r i m s t y l e o f the r e s t o f the s t o r y . C e r t a i n l y March r e g r e t s t h e l o s s o f a t r i a n g u l a r s i t u a t i o n ( a l b e i t c o n t r i v e d ) t h a t has c o u p l e d the r e a s o n i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e o f B a n f o r d on the one hand, and the i n s t i n c t i v e a l l u r e o f Henry on the o t h e r . W i t h the absence o f B a n f o r d , Henry no l o n g e r a f f o r d s t h e same magic because he d e s i r e s o n l y her s u b j u g a t i o n . W i t h him t h e r e e x i s t s n e i t h e r a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y nor purpose, as t h e r e d i d w i t h B a n f o r d . Thus, w h i l e Lawrence sees the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r i n d i v i -d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , he a l s o sees the n e c e s s i t y f o r a ba-l a n c e between mind and body; i f t h e b l i n d raan-and h i s w i f e 1 1 2 suggest the p o t e n t i a l f o r a whole m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p as a r e s u l t of t h i s b a l a n c e o f o p p o s i t e s , then March and Henry connote i t s a n t i t h e s i s as the o f f s e t o f two a l i k e s . B o t h are i n s t i n c t i v e c r e a t u r e s shoved a p a r t by the p o s s e s s i v e s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h Henry now e v i d e n t l y t y p i f i e s ("He wanted t o t a k e away h e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and make h e r j u s t h i s woman")'. I n the way of s u b s t i t u t i o n , moreover, he appears unable t o p r o v i d e March w i t h even B a n f o r d ' s a s c e t i c i s m , t h u s i n i t i a t i n g h e r u n h a p p i n e s s . The c o n c l u s i o n o f "The Pox" i l l u s t r a t e s an example o f Lawrence's endeavor t o c u t beneath c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e t r a n s c e n d i n g p r o s e , b u t f a i l i n g because i t s tawdry e f f e c t v e e r s s h a r p l y away f r o m the s t o r y ' s overwhelming n a t u r a l i s m . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f "The P r u s s i a n O f f i c e r " succeeds w i t h t h i s d e l v i n g - u n d e r because the s u r -r e a l i s t i c a n g u i s h e x p e r i e n c e d by the o r d e r l y b e g i n s t o b u i l d much sooner t h a n t h e f i n a l s c ene. T h i s second s t o r y a l s o c r e a t e s a s p i r i t o f p l a c e w h i c h becomes an e x c e l l e n t c o u n t e r p o i n t t o a l o s s o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; and w h i l e "The Pox" approaches t h e same j u x t a p o s i t i o n , . h e r e i t might w e l l c o n c l u d e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , "The L a d y b i r d " ( 1 9 2 1 ) has not even a = s p i r i t o f p l a c e t o recommend i t s attempt a t p r o s e w h i c h , i f not aimed toward t r a n s c e n d e n c e , t h e n c e r t a i n l y toward a l l e g o r y i n t h e language o f Count Dionys Psanek, and t o -ward s h a l l o w a r c h e t y p e s w h i c h i n v o l v e t h a t gentleman and Lady Daphne A p s e l y . T h i s n o v e l l a u t i l i z e s t he t r i a n g l e 113 Image, a g a i n i n an e f f o r t t o i l l u s t r a t e c o n t r i v a n c e 'and s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y i t s s t y l e makes one w i s h f o r a s h o r t e r s t o r y , perhaps none a t a l l . The n o v e l l a i s l a r g e l y p o l e m i c and t e p i d l y c o n c e i v e d because Lawrence has not b o t h e r e d t o c r e a t e a s t r o n g s e t t i n g t h a t remains so i m p o r t a n t t o h i s s u c c e s s a t f a s h i o n i n g c h a r a c t e r . He appears t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s l a c k o f r e a l p l a c e a few pages from th e end, when he i d e n t i f i e s the Count w i t h t h e h i s -t o r i c a l grounds of an E l i z a b e t h a n manor, where he and Daphne consummate t h e i r a f f a i r ; but t h e scene does not i n c o r p o r a t e any of the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t do the farms i n t h e f o u r p r e v i o u s s t o r i e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , or t h e s e t t i n g o f ? T h e 7 B o r d e r L i n e . 1 * A t l e a s t one c r i t i c has found the l o n g scene between the Count and B a s i l A p s e l y — d i s c u s s i n g t h e n a t u r e o f l o v e — 2 " r e m a r k a b l e , " but I f o r one admit t o i t s t e d i o u s n e s s . T h i s scene b r i n g s b o t h men t o g e t h e r f o r the f i r s t t i m e , w e l l a f -t e r h a l f the s t o r y has e l a p s e d , when we b e g i n t o see t h e t r i a n g l e a c t u a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g as a s t r u c t u r a l image, r a t h e r t h a n as a nebulous i n e v i t a b i l i t y . Up u n t i l now, Lawrence has c o n c e n t r a t e d on s h a p i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Count, a German p r i s o n e r o f war i n a n i i E n g l i s h h o s p i t a l , and Lady Daphne, an a c q u a i n t a n c e f r o m younger days who v i s i t s him w h i l e she a w a i t s r e l e a s e of h e r own husband i n T u r k e y . I l l i i But when B a s i l does r e t u r n h i s w i f e f i n d s him u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , and b e g i n s " t o y e a r n w i s t f u l l y f o r " the Count. Through h i s f a m i l y c r e s t , t h e l a d y b i r d , D i o n y s t r a c e s h i s f o r e f a t h e r s back t o the E g y p t i a n Pharaohs, and c a r v e s d e s p i t e h i s s m a l l i s h p h y s i c a l s t a t u r e , an i n v e r t e d w o r l d of power, d a r k n e s s , and p a s s i o n . A g a i n s t the a s c e t i c , " i d e a l i s -t i c " B a s i l , t h e r e f o r e ^ he debates f o r a r e c o g n i t i o n of l o v e based on "obedience, s u b m i s s i o n , f a i t h , b e l i e f , r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y power." B a s i l , on the o t h e r hand, argues f o r the 3 P l a t o n i c i d e a l o f l o v e , and w h i l e he reminds us of t h e i n -e f f e c t u a l R i c o i n "St Mawr," the a r i s t o c r a t i c Count c a l l s t o mind A l e x a n d e r Hepburn ("The C a p t a i n ' s D o l l " ) who opts f o r t h e t o t a l s u b m i s s i o n o f w i f e t o husband. Yet i f t h e Count's b l o o d c o n s c i o u s n e s s a c q u i r e s the upper hand I n t h e n o v e l l a — w i n s Daphne's l o v e from her c e r e -b r a l husband, and i t d o e s — o n e . s e n s e s t h a t i t s v i c t o r y r e -p r e s e n t s a l e s s t h a n v i a b l e w holeness. D e s p i t e Lawrence's apparent a f f i r m a t i o n of D i o n y s ' i n s t i n c t i v e a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e over B a s i l ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d i d e a l i s m , "There i s , " as Widmer p o i n t s out, "a f u n d a m e n t a l I n c o m p l e t e n e s s , p a t h o s , and f a i l u r e - - i n t h e w o r l d l y senses, a t l e a s t — f o r t h e d a r k k p a s s i o n s , even when th e y w i n . " So w h i l e Daphne's sympathies f a l l t o her husband's arguments i n the l i g h t of r e a s o n , h e r emotions succumb t o t h e Count's power I n t h e d a r k of p a s s i o n 115 j and h i s bedroom. Daphne y e a r n s " a c t u a l l y t o c r o s s t h e b o r d e r " i n t o the d a r k underworld where the Count w i l l t a k e h e r be-yond the s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h she e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e daytime t r i a n g l e . But the wholeness t h i s c o u p l e seems t o r e a c h does not c a r r y over i n t o the l i g h t o f day, and t h e c o n t r i v a n c e o f t h e t r i a n g l e s u r v i v e s . The Count c o n t i n u e s as Daphne's n i g h t l o v e r and B a s i l , w i t h t h a t knowledge, h e r day l o v e r . Thus Di o n y s * v i c t o r y p r o v e s i n c o m p l e t e because t h i s "master of the u n d e r - w o r l d " cannot become Daphne's f u l l - t i m e l o v e r , f o r he has "no power i n t h e day." I t i s t r u e o f c o u r s e t h a t Lawrence r a r e l y , i f e v e r , p r e s e n t s an i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman, ( h a r -mony must, a f t e r a l l , a r i s e f r om a p e r f e c t i n t e g r a t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s ) ; but he does o f f e r i n some s t o r i e s the p o t e n t i a l f o r t h a t harmony or wholeness (as i n "The Shades of S p r i n g " or "The B l i n d Man" or "Love Among the H a y s t a c k s " ) . I n "The L a d y b i r d , " however, t h a t p o t e n t i a l does not e x i s t , nor does i t appear p o s s i b l e , f o r the c h a r a c t e r s c o l l a p s e under the w e i g h t of t o o much t h e o r i z i n g — w h a t the a u t h o r h i m s e l f p r e a c h -ed a g a i n s t . A l t h o u g h the t r i a n g l e r e a p p e a r s i n l a t e s t o r i e s 1 l i k e "The L o v e l y Lady" and "Mother and Daughter," I have chosen "The B o r d e r L i n e " (1921;) t o c l o s e t h e p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n of s t r u c -t u r a l imagery, because t h i s s t o r y c o n t i n u e s i n t h e v e i n of 1 1 6 those e a r l i e r f i c t i o n s w h i c h f o r c e f u l l y d i c h o t o m i z e the c o n s c i o u s and i n s t i n c t i v e s e l v e s , P w h i l e i t f u l f i l l s t h e q u e s t f o r wholeness t h r o u g h the c o l l a p s e o f t h e t r i a n g l e and t h e u n i o n of husband and w i f e . F i r s t the d i c h o t o m y . As i n l ,The L a d y b i r d , " Lawrence c r e a t e s two male c h a r a c t e r s , one i n d u l g e n t and i m p u l s i v e ( A l a n ) , the o t h e r a s c e t i c and c e r e b r a l ( P h i l i p ) . But i n t h i s s t o r y the p r a g m a t i c and d o m i n a t i n g man has r e d h a i r and b l u e eyes, w h i l e the i d e a l i s t i c and weak one assumes "the d a r k " appearance. The s t r o n g - w i l l e d K a t h e r i n e , as a r e s u l t o f a m a r r i a g e t o the f i r s t whom she c o u l d not en-d u r e , has m i s t a k e n l y f a l l e n "under th e s p e l l o f the d a r k I n s i d i o u s " j o u r n a l i s t , and m a r r i e d him, a f t e r h e r f i r s t husband goes m i s s i n g i n m i l i t a r y a c t i o n . She l e a d s h e r -s e l f t o b e l i e v e t h a t P h i l i p , whose " s t r e n g t h l i e s i n g i v i n g I n , " e x e m p l i f i e s the r e a l i t y of l o v e — o b v i o u s l y because he a l l o w s h e r "queen-bee s e l f " f u l l c o m plement— whereas A l a n " a s s e r t e d h i m s e l f l i k e a p i l l a r of r o c k , " and demanded a l o v e s u s t a i n e d by m a s c u l i n e dominance, f o r h e r a p p a r e n t l y an i l l u s i o n . E a r l i e r , A l a n has found P h i l i p " t o o much over the wrong s i d e o f t h e b o r d e r , " a s i d e w h i c h s u g g e s t s t o him s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and un-r e a l i t y . B u t, n a t u r a l l y , K a t h e r i n e has remained " b l i n d -f o l d e d " t o t h i s , i n s t e a d e n j o y i n g P h i l i p ' s " c u n n i n g " 1 1 7 m e c h a n i c a l l o v e w h i c h "put the s c a l e s , the b a l a n c e i n her hand." D e s p i t e t h e s i t u a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s e i n t e r m i t -t e n t f l a s h b a c k s , the s t o r y c h i e f l y c h r o n i c l e s K a t h e r i n e ' s r a i l w a y t r i p f r o m Prance over the b o r d e r i n t o post-war Germany, where a n o c t u r n a l s i g h t i n g o f her f i r s t husband d i s p l a c e s the e n n u i she has come t o f e e l f o r P h i l i p , |and p r e c i p i t a t e s a d e s i r e t o e x p e r i e n c e once a g a i n the l o v e o f A l a n . I r o n i c a l l y , the m i r a g e - l i k e s i g h t i n g o f h e r f i r s t l o v e s e r v e s m e r e l y t o i n t e n s i f y h e r p e r c e p t i o n t h a t t h e daytime r e a l i t y o f P h i l i p J s l o v e has become "an I l l u s i o n . " And w h i l e "The L a d y b i r d " c o n c l u d e s soon a f t e r a s i m i l a r p o i n t I s made, "The B o r d e r L i n e " c a r r i e s i t s q u e s t f o r the r e a l i t y o f a l o v e s e e m i n g l y dead, t o an a c t u a l r e s o l u t i o n . When K a t h e r i n e f i n a l l y a r r i v e s i n S t e i n b a c h t o ta k e up r e s i d e n c e w i t h P h i l i p , h e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i s "whimpering l i t t l e b e a s t " t a k e s h e r i n t o the w i n t e r f o r e s t i n s e a r c h o f h e r f i r s t husband. P h i l i p , y e l l o w and h o l l o w , would trudge s t u m b l i n g and r e e l i n g b e s i d e h e r : l u d i c r o u s . He was a man who never would walk f i r m on h i s l e g s . Now he j u s t f l o p p e d . She c o u l d f e e l A l a n among t h e t r e e s , t h e t h r i l l and v i b r a t i o n o f him. And sometimes she would g l a n c e w i t h b e a t i n g h e a r t a t a g r e a t round f i r - t r u n k t h a t s t o o d so a l i v e and p o t e n t , so p h y s i c a l , b r i s t l i n g a l l i t s v a s t d r o o p i n g greenness above: t h e snow. She c o u l d f e e l him, A l a n , i n the t r e e s ' po-t e n t p r e s e n c e . She wanted t o go and p r e s s h e r s e l f a g a i n s t the t r u n k . 1 1 8 T h i s t r i a n g u l a r Image, even w i t h o u t A l a n ' s p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e , r e l a y s i t s e l f toward a c l i m a x when P h i l i p — s i c k f r o m t h e c o l d — d i e s w i t h "a g h a s t l y g r i n of d e a t h " a t A l a n ' s d r a m a t i c e n t r a n c e f r o m t h e dead. T h i s s t r u c -t u r a l image transmutes f r o m a c o n d i t i o n of s o c i a l c o n s c -i o u s n e s s , i n t o the wholeness o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , when A l a n ( l i k e U l y s s e s , I t seems) u l t i m a t e l y draws, h i s w i f e " t o t h e o t h e r bed, i n t h e s i l e n t p a s s i o n o f a husband come back f r o m a v e r y l o n g j o u r n e y . " W i t h t h i s r e s o l u t i o n , K a t h e r i n e c r o s s e s t h e b o r d e r t o t h e " f u l l contentment" whose l o s s she e a r l i e r r e g r e t t e d , and submits i n t r u e L a w r e n c i a n f a s h i o n t o t h e power o f man, w h i c h e x p r e s s e s "her p e r f e c t i o n and h e r h i g h e s t a t t a i n m e n t . " No mere n i g h t l o v e r , A l a n e p i t o m i z e s as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e t h e r o l e Lawrence e x p e c t s man t o assume i n t h e wholeness of a d u a l i t y . Moreover, K a t h e r i n e ' s s u b m i s s i o n t o a l o v e r e s u r r e c t e d f rom the dead, t e s t i f i e s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b o t h s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l r e b i r t h , when l o v e becomes t h e r e l i g i o n of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , and i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e p l a c e s t h e t r i a n g l e , w h i c h c o n t i n u e s i n L a w r e n c i a n imagery a c o n t r i v a n c e . Not an o u t s t a n d i n g s t o r y , "The B o r d e r L i n e " n o n e t h e l e s s f u s e s the a u t h o r ' s i d e a s i n a r e l a t i v e l y s u b t l e manner, t o c r e a t e i n t e r e s t , t e n s i o n , and a coherence w h i c h a r i s e s 1 1 9 not from weary p o l e m i c s , but from a s t r u c t u r a l image t h a t owes i t s s t r e n g t h u l t i m a t e l y t o a c o n v i n c i n g sense of p l a c e . And i f wholeness transcends s e t t i n g , the quest f o r i t does n o t ; the s e a r c h cont inues because human I r -r e s o l u t i o n demands p r e c i s e l y t h a t . FOOTNOTES 1 The A r t o f P e r v e r s i t y , p. 132. 2 Monroe E n g e l , "The C o n t i n u i t y of Lawrence's S h o r t N o v e l s , " D_j_ Lawrence: A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s . ed. Mark S p i l k a T P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . : Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . , 1963), p. 96. 3 Lawrence w r i t e s i n F a n t a s i a o f t h e U n c o n s c i o u s : •^Weihave f a l l e n now i n t o t h e m i s t a k e of i d e a l i s m . Man always f a l l s i n t o one of the t h r e e m i s t a k e s . I n C h i n a , i t i s t r a d i t i o n . And i n the South Seas, i t seems t o have been i m p u l s e . Ours i s i d e a l i s m . Each of t h e t h r e e modes i s a t r u e l i f e - m o d e . But any one, a l one o r dominant, b r i n g s us t o d e s t r u c t i o n . We must depend on the wholeness o f our b e i n g , u l t i m a t e l y o n l y on t h a t , w h i c h i s our H o l y Ghost w i t h i n u s . " p. 166. The A r t o f P e r v e r s i t y , p. 1L6. CONCLUSION When Lawrence wrote w e l l he w r o t e s u p e r b l y , and nowhere does t h i s t a l e n t become more e v i d e n t t h a n i n the b e s t o f h i s s h o r t e r f i c t i o n . I n the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n I have not p r e -tended t o canvass a l l o f h i s s h o r t s t o r i e s and n o v e l l a s , nor have I f o u n d r e a s o n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between two o f t e n i n d i s -t i n g u i s h a b l e f orms. "The P r i n c e s s , " f o r example, r e g a r d e d as a s h o r t s t o r y , i s a t l e a s t as l o n g as "The Man Who D i e d , " i n -e v i t a b l y c o n s i d e r e d a n o v e l l a . Moreover, Lawrence h i m s e l f never drew any d i s t i n c t i o n s ; i n s t e a d , he d i s c o v e r e d i n h i s s h o r t e r f i c t i o n o v e r a l l a c h a l l e n g e f o r h i s e x p a n s i v e g e n i u s w h i c h o f f e r e d q u i c k e r s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n t h e n o v e l , a t the same time r e q u i r i n g as much I n g e n u i t y and p r e c i s i o n . That he f a i l e d t o meet these r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c e r t a i n o f h i s s l i g h t e r p i e c e s does not d e t r a c t i n any manner f r o m those s t o r i e s where S e t t i n g or S t r u c t u r e or Imagery ( c o n v e n t i o n a l c r i t i c a l r o u t e s i n t o s h o r t f i c t i o n ) r e v e a l s o u t s t a n d i n g a r t : as i n "The P r u s -s i a n O f f i c e r " or "The Man Who Loved I s l a n d s " or "The B l i n d Man." By no means does the quest f o r wholeness theme a f f o r d s t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t approach t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s e works, but i t does p r o v i d e a way of c o u p l i n g Lawrence's own p h i l o s o p h y — where such a human p u r s u i t counts f o r so m u c h — w i t h h i s s h o r t e r f i c t i o n where i t r e c k o n s f o r so much more. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Amon, F r a n k . "D. H. L a w r e n c e and t h e S h o r t S t o r y , " The A c h i e v e m e n t o f H. L a w r e n c e , e d . F r e d e r i c k J . H o f f m a n a n d H a r r y T. M o o r e . U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s : Norman, 1953. B a t e s , H. E . 'The M o d e r n S h o r t S t o r y . The W r i t e r , I n c . : B o s t o n , 1 9 k l . D r a p e r , R o n a l d P. D^ H. L a w r e n c e . Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . : New Y o r k , 19o\. E n g e l , M o n r o e . "The C o n t i n u i t y o f L a w r e n c e ' s S h o r t N o v e l s , " D. H. L a w r e n c e : A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , e d . M a r k S p i l k a . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . : E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N. J . , 1963. F o r d , G e o r g e H. D o u b l e M e a s u r e : A S t u d y o f t h e N o v e l s a n d -S t o r i e s , o f D. I U L a w r e n c e . H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n * New Y o r k , 196~5. Goodhear£, E u g e n e . The U t o p i a n V i s i o n o f D i H, L a w r e n c e . The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s : C h i c a g o , 1963. Hough, Graham. The D a r k Sun : A S t u d y o f D, E . L a w r e n c e . G e r a l d D u c k w o r t h & Co. L t d . : L o n d o n , 195>6". L a w r e n c e , D. H. A p o c a l y p s e . The V i k i n g P r e s s : New Y o r k , I 9 6 0 . . The C o m p l e t e S h o r t S t o r i e s . 3 V o l s . The V i k i n g P r e s s , I n c . : New Y o r k , 1 9 6 1 . . F o u r S h o r t N o v e l s . The V i k i n g P r e s s : New York, 1965. 123 • The Man Who D i e d . M a r t i n S e e k e r L t d . : L o n d o n , 1931. . M o r n i n g s i n M e x i c o and E t r u s c a n P l a c e s . W i l -l i a m H e i n e m a n n L t d . : L o n d o n , 1956. • P h o e n i x : The Posthumous P a p e r s o f D. H. Law- r e n c e . W i l l i a m H e i n e m a n n L t d . : L o n d o n , 1936". . P h o e n i x I I : U n c o l l e c t e d . U n p u b l i s h e d a n d O t h e r P r o s e Works b y D. I L L a w r e n c e . W i l l i a m H e i n e m a n n L t d . : L o n d o n , 19~6~8. . P s y c h o a n a l y s i s and t h e U n c o n s c i o u s and F a n t a s i a o f t h e U n c o n s c i o u s . The V i k i n g P r e s s : New Y o r k , I 9 6 0 . . S t Mawr a n d The V i r g i n a n d t h e G i p s y . P e n q u i n B o o k s L t d . : H a r m o n d s w o r t h , 1950• . S e a and S a r d i n i a . W i l l i a m H e i n e m a n n L t d . : L o n -d o n , 1956. . T w i l i g h t i n I t a l y . W i l l i a m H e i n e m a n n L t d . : London", 1916. L e a v i s , F . R. D_j_ H. L a w r e n c e : N o v e l i s t . A l f r e d A. K n o p f : New Y o r k , 1956T L i n d s a y , J a c k . "The I m p a c t o f M o d e r n i s m o n L a w r e n c e , " P a i n t i n g s o f L L a w r e n c e , e d . M e r v y n L e v y . C o r y , Adams & M a c k a y : L o n d o n , 1961j.. Moyriahan, J u l i a n . The Deed o f L i f e : The N o v e l s a n d t h e T a l e s o f D»_ H. L a w r e n c e . " " P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : P r i n c e t o n , 196~3. O'Connor, F r a n k . The L o n e l y V o i c e . B a n t a m B o o k s , I n c . New Y o r k , 1965T" 124 Read, H e r b e r t . "Lawrence as a P a i n t e r , " P a i n t i n g s o f D. H.  Lawrence., ed. Mervyn Levy. Cory, Adams & Mackay: London, 1964 • Sagar, K e i t h . The A r t o f D. H. Lawrence. Cambridge U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 19557 S c h o r e r , Mark. "Lawrence and t h e S p i r i t o f P l a c e , " A D . H_. Lawrence M i s c e l l a n y , ed. H a r r y T. Moore. S o u t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : C a r b o n d a l e , 195>9» T e d l o c k , E. W. J r . D. H. Lawrence: A r t i s t & R e b e l . The U n i v e r s i t y o f New Mexico P r e s s : Albuquerque, 1963. V i v a s , E l i s e o . H.. Lawrence: The F a i l u r e and the Triumph  of A r t . I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : B l o o m i n g t o n , I960. Widmer, K i n g s l e y . The A r t o f P e r v e r s i t y : D. H. Lawrence's  S h o r t e r F i c t i o n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s : S e a t t l e , 1962. 

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