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A descriptive study of difficulties in cross-cultural relationships of young adult Indians as evidenced… Kristjanson, Gustaf 1969

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A D E S C R I P T I V E STUDY O P D I F F I C U L T I E S I N C R O S S - C U L T U R A L R E L A T I O N S H I P S O F YOUNG A D U L T I N D I A N S A S E V I D E N C E D B Y L A C K O F F A C I L I T Y I N S P E E C H : A S U G G E S T E D P R O G R A M FOR SURMOUNTING S U C H D I F F I C U L T I E S b y G u s t a f K r i s t j a n s o n B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1939 B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1965 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S I n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S p e e c h a n d D r a m a ( F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e a u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A u g u s t , 1969. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agre e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f 5^Le ,&^J^ H ^CUv^e^lQ*-*^XL<^ o'j ^X*<~^^^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date lAM-K A B S T R A C T T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y w a s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e l a c k o f f a c i l i t y i n s p o k e n E n g l i s h w h i c h o c c u r s i n a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s l a c k o f f a c i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o h e a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n p r e v e n t i n g t h e m f r o m f u n c t i o n i n g e f f e c -t i v e l y i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y o f w h i c h t h e y a r e a p a r t . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f I n d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s a n d y o u t h * O p i n i o n s o f a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d o f o r a l c o m -m u n i c a t i o n w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d t h e f i n d i n g s o f e d u c a t i o n -i s t s who h a v e c o n d u c t e d s t u d i e s a m o n g I n d i a n s t u d e n t s w e r e r e v i e w e d . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h I n d i a n s t u d e n t s a n d w i t h a d u l t a u t h o r i t i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n . T h e s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e r s o n a l a n d c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , i n a d d i t i o n t o l a n g u a g e p r o b l e m s , p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n r e d u c i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n s p o k e n E n g l i s h o f I n d i a n p e o p l e . I t i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t a p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o g i v e t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e i n i n t e r a c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s p e e c h s k i l l s b e made a v a i l a b l e t o I n d i a n h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h i i i i n h i b i t e a s e o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n s p e e c h . T h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s i s d e v e l o p e d a n d a n o u t l i n e o f t h e p r o g r a m i s p r e s e n t e d . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y a r e d i s c u s s e d a n d a q u e s -t i o n n a i r e t o a s s e s s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d . T A B L E OE CONTENTS C H A P T E R P A G E 1. I N T R O D U C T I O N P r e a m b l e 1 T h e P r o b l e m k P u r p o s e s o f t h e S t u d y . 7 P r o c e d u r e s U s e d t o I n v e s t i g a t e t h e P r o b l e m 8 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 9 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e m a i n d e r o f t h e T h e s i s . 9 I I . P E R S O N A L I T Y FACTORS I N F L U E N C I N G S P E E C H F A C I L I T Y P e r s o n a l i t y a n d T r a n s f e r o f " M e a n i n g " . . 12 S e l f - C o n c e p t o f S e l f - i m a g e 16 R e t i c e n c e 1 8 S u m m a r y 21 I I I . S O C I A L AND C U L T U R A L FACTORS I N F L U E N C I N G S P E E C H F A C I L I T Y C o m m u n i c a t i o n — I n t e r p e r s o n a l A s p e c t s . . 23 S p e e c h a n d t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n . . . . . . 25 L i n g u i s t i c D i f f i c u l t i e s 2 8 O t h e r C r o s s - C u l t u r a l D i f f i c u l t i e s . . . . 33 T e a c h e r A t t i t u d e a n d C u l t u r e C o n f l i c t . . 39 O s b o r n S u r v e y o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n H i g h S c h o o l S p e e c h P r o b l e m s . . . . . . k2 V CHAPTER PAGE I I I . ( C o n t i n u e d ) Timmons Survey at" H a s k e l l I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e 45 Summary 48 I V . A PROPOSED PROGRAM POR IMPROVING SPEECH FACILITY.OP INDIAN" YOUTH R a t i o n a l e 50 Importance o f Speech T r a i n i n g . 51 T r a i n i n g i n Communication f o r N a t i v e S t u d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 S t a t u s o f O r a l Language i n P r e s e n t C u r r i c u l a . 58 S p e c i a l F a c t o r s t o ."be C o n s i d e r e d i n a Program f o r I n d i a n S t u d e n t s . . . . I 60 Grade L e v e l and Time L i m i t a t i o n . . . . . 61 O b j e c t i v e s 62 E x p e r i e n c e w i t h Speech E d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n s i n U.S.A . 64 V. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary 67 Recommendations 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 T i PAGE APPENDIX A STUDENT SURVEYS AND PROPOSED ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT P i l o t S u r v e y o f I n d i a n S t u d e n t s a t S t . Mary's I n d i a n S t u d e n t R e s i d e n c e a t M i s s i o n , B.C". 80 P r o p o s a l f o r a Study Comparing Speech A t t i t u d e s o f I n d i a n Young P e o p l e w i t h N o n - I n d i a n Young P e o p l e . . . . . 89 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on A t t i t u d e Toward Speech F a c i l i t y 93 APPENDIX B INTERVIEWS WITH INDIAN STUDENTS AT MISSION, B.C. AND WITH ADULTS WHO HAVE WORKED WITH.INDIAN STUDENTS . .. • 102 I n t e r v i e w s w i t h S t u d e n t s 102 Other I n t e r v i e w s . . . . 107 APPENDIX C CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR A PILOT PROGRAM AIMED AT DEVELOPING SPEECH COMMUNICATION SKILLS AMONG CANADIAN INDIANS AT APPROX-IMATELY JUNIOR MATRICULATION LEVEL Ilk O b j e c t i v e s Ilk The Program 115 Supplementary L i s t o f M a t e r i a l s . . . . 129' A CKNO WLEDG-EMMT S I w i s h . t o e x p r e s s my i n d e b t e d n e s s t o Dr. J.A. N i e m i f o r h i s h e l p f t i l s u g g e s t i o n s ; and a l s o t o Dr. A . j . More f o r h i s generous a s s i s t a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o p o s a l s c o n c e r n i n g a t t i t u d e measurement o f f e r e d a t th e end o f Appendix A. My th a n k s a l s o go t o Dr. C.E. Johnson, D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s f o r the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Vancouver D i s t r i c t , f o r h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t and f o r h i s h e l p i n a r r a n g i n g f o r the s u r v e y c a r r i e d out a t S t . Mary's I n d i a n S t u d e n t R e s i d e n c e a t M i s s i o n C i t y , B.C.; t o F a t h e r J.A. M o r r i s , A d m i n i s t r a t o r a t S t . Mary's; and t o S i s t e r Anne H a n l e y , C o u n s e l l o r a t the R e s i d e n c e , f o r h e r generous a s s i s t a n c e i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e r e . B u t , e s p e c i a l l y , I want t o convey my g r a t i t u d e f o r the e f f o r t s o f D r . P. Read Campbell o f the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n (Speech and Drama Department) a t U.B.C, whose h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s and c o n s t a n t encouragement made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . D r . Campbell's i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t o f the communication problems o f Canada's I n d i a n popu-l a t i o n was a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n t o me. B o t h h e r i n t e r e s t and her e f f o r t s a r e warmly a p p r e c i a t e d . In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Preamble S c a r c e l y a day pa s s e s w i t h o u t some r e f e r e n c e b e i n g made, i n t h e p r e s s o r on r a d i o o r t e l e v i s i o n t o what i s c a l l e d the " I n d i a n p r o b l e m " . By some t h i s problem i s r e -garded i n s o c i o l o g i c a l t e r m s , by o t h e r s as a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e , and by o t h e r s s t i l l p r i m a r i l y as an e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n . There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the ferment b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d among our f i r s t c i t i z e n s i n t h i s day and age t a k e s on a l l o f t h e s e a s p e c t s . But r e g a r d l e s s o f the p a r t i -c u l a r c o n t e x t i n w h i c h we choose t o v i e w i t , i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o deny t h a t communication i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n v o l v e d . E v e r y time we hear t a l k o f f o r m i n g a n o t h e r c o u n c i l , o f l o d g i n g a p r o t e s t o v e r some a c t t h a t has been committed, o f making a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the government, e t c . , t h e i s s u e o f communication ( o r perhaps we s h o u l d say l a c k o f i t ) i s a t the v e r y h e a r t o f t h e m a t t e r . When a l o c a l newspaper r e p o r t s t h a t " t h e r e i s a l a c k o f c o n s u l t -a t i o n , i n v o l v e m e n t , and communication w i t h t h e Indians"" 1", t h e i s s u e o f communication i s n o t o n l y i n v o l v e d , b u t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as such by t h e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s . 1 News i t e m i n t h e Vancouver Sun, F r i d a y , May 9> 1969* P o p u l a r w r i t e r s a r e f o n d o f r e f e r r i n g t o our time as as Age o f Communication. C e r t a i n l y a complex s o c i e t y i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y dependent upon t h e e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h i s p r o c e s s i n one f o r m o r a n o t h e r . Are the f e e l i n g s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f our a b o r i g i n a l n a t i v e p e o p l e s b e i n g a d e q u a t e l y communicated t o the " w h i t e " s o c i e t y w h i c h dominates and a l -most overwhelms them? Do t h e y e f f e c t i v e l y communicate among th e m s e l v e s ? W i t h e v e r y p a s s i n g y e a r I n d i a n s a r e becoming more v o c a l and more a r t i c u l a t e i n t h e i r demands f o r a g r e a t e r s h a r e i n t h e b e n e f i t s o f our s o c i e t y . P o s s i b l y one r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h e f a c t t h a t more and more t h e y a r e u s i n g a common l a n g u a g e , E n g l i s h . But a r e t h e y u s i n g i t i n such a way as b e s t t o f u r t h e r t h e i r i n t e r e s t s ? I n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e c u r r e c t i s s u e o f t h e Canadian Speech Communication J o u r n a l e n t i t l e d , "Speech Communication Problems o f I n d i a n s and Eskimos," Lynn R. Oshorn, D i r e c t o r o f I n t e r c u l t u r a l Programs, Communication R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas, has t h i s t o s ay: More th a n a t any o t h e r t i m e s i n c e t h e dawn o f h i s t o r y , man s t a n d s t o d a y i n need o f the c a p a c i t i e s and t o o l s o f e f f e c t i v e communi-c a t i o n t h r o u g h the medium o f o r a l e x p r e s s i o n . . . b o t h as speaker and l i s t e n e r . The e l e c t r o n i c media o f t e l e p h o n e , r a d i o , a n d - t e l e v i s i o n p r e s e n t us w i t h a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h p e r s o n -t o - p e r s o n s p e e c h communication i s l i t e r a l l y p o s s i b l e anywhere on t h e f a c e o f the e a r t h . And, i t i s i n t o t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t t h e N o r t h American I n d i a n and t h e Eskimo a r e t h r u s t w i t h a l l t h e i r p e c u l i a r c a p a c i t i e s 3 f o r , a n d " b a r r i e r s t o v i a b l e , p r o d u c t i v e , a n d r e w a r d i n g s p e e c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n . . . 2 O f c o u r s e , w h e n we s p e a k o f s p e e c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a g r e a t d e a l m o r e t h a n t h e p h y s i c a l a c t o f m a k i n g a u d i b l e a n d i n t e l l i g i b l e s o u n d s w i t h o n e ' s v o c a l a p p a r a t u s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i a l f a c t o r s a r e s o i n t e r -t w i n e d w i t h t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s o f o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t n o s t u d y d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l c a n a f f o r d t o i g n o r e t h e m . T h u s s p e e c h t r a i n i n g b e c o m e s , i n e f f e c t , " p e r s o n a l i t y " t r a i n i n g a n d s o c i a l t r a i n i n g q u i t e a s m u c h a s t r a i n i n g i n c e r t a i n v o c a l a n d a r t i c u l a t i v e s k i l l s . A s a m a t t e r o f f a c t , o n e o f t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h e p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n s o f y o u n g I n d i a n s a n d t h e k i n d o f s o c i a l m i l i e u i n w h i c h t h e y f u n c t i o n . C a n t h e s e b e m o d i -f i e d a n d d e v e l o p e d i n s u c h a w a y a s t o make t h e m m o r e e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t o r s ? T h e o p i n i o n h a s b e e n e x p r e s s e d t h a t " T h e r e e x i s t s i n m a n y y o u n g I n d i a n s t o d a y a n a s p i r -a t i o n , o f t e n u n c o n s c i o u s a n d u n a r t i c u l a t e d , t o t a k e a m o r e 3 e f f e c t i v e p a r t i n t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e . " C a n t h e s e " a s p i r a t i o n s " b e d i r e c t e d i n s u c h a w a y a s t o b e c o n s t r u c t i v e a n d s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g ? 2 L y n n R. O s b o r n , " S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n P r o b l e m s o f I n d i a n s a n d E s k i m o s , " C a n a d i a n S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n J o u r n a l , S p r i n g , 1 9 ^ 9 , V o l . I I , H o . 1 , p . 1 8 . 3 P . R e a d C a m p b e l l , P r e a m b l e t o "A R e s e a r c h S t u d y o f M e a n s o f O v e r c o m i n g t h e C o m m u n i c a t i o n P r o b l e m s o f t h e C a n a d i a n I n d i a n , " s u b m i s s i o n t o C a n a d a C o u n c i l , 196>9 ( m i n e o g r a p h e d m a t e r i a l ) The Problem Two primary assumptions u n d e r l i e t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t o f these i s t h a t N o r t h American I n d i a n s , by and l a r g e , do i n f a c t d i s p l a y a c o n s i d e r a b l e l a c k o f f a c i l i t y i n spoken E n g l i s h , a p p l y i n g standards t h a t we would o r d i n a r i l y apply i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y o f which they are a p a r t . While t h i s i s a matter o f common o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e r e i s a l s o abundant evidence from competent observers which s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s f a c t . Por example, one statement on t h i s s u b j e c t observes: While the I n d i a n student may have no d i f f i c u l t y communicating w i t h other members of h i s n a t i v e community, he u s u a l l y i s unable to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h members o f the non-Indian w o r l d . Whether b i l i n g u a l or not, when com-pared t o h i s non-Indian p e e r s , he i s l i k e l y t o d i s p l a y communication d e f i c i e n c i e s . . . . (these d e f i c i e n c i e s are p e r c e i v e d to b e ) . . . shyness, l a c k o f f l u e n c y , and i n a b i l i t y t o speak d i r e c t l y and f o r c e f u l l y . . . ^ The o p i n i o n expressed above has r e f e r e n c e to Indians who are n a t i v e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . However, t h e r e i s no reason to b e l i e v e t h a t the s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r s i n Canada i n s o f a r as communication f a c i l i t y i s concerned. While most o f the l i t e r a t u r e quoted on the s u b j e c t i s American — l a r g e l y because most o f the l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t i s American — i t i s the o p i n i o n o f t h i s w r i t e r , a f t e r making a survey o f what has been s a i d on the s u b j e c t by competent a u t h o r i t i e s , t h a t the problems encountered by Bureau o f 4 Proceedings on "Conference on Speech Communication and the American Indian Student, " U n i v e r s i t y o f South Dakota, V e r m i l l i o n , S.D., Sept., 1967 (mineographed) 5 I n d i a n A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s i n t h e U . S . A . a r e r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f o u r own I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h . ^ E i g h t y e a r s a g o t h e m e m b e r s o f a summer s c h o o l c l a s s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n ( t e a c h e r s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n I n d i a n s c h o o l s ) d r e w u p a n o u t l i n e w h e r e i n t h e y s u m m a r i z e d t h e l a c k o f s k i l l s w h i c h t h e y m o s t c o m m o n l y f o u n d a m o n g I n d i a n p u p i l s . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s e w e r e s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s p o o r e n u n c i a t i o n , p o o r s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e , p o o r p r o n u n c i a t i o n , d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e u s e o f E n g l i s h i n f l e c t i o n , d i f f i c u l t y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s , e t c . ^ I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n a n d C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e s s h o w a h i g h d e g r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y . I n f a c t , d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l t r i b a l g r o u p s a n d s e t t l e m e n t s a r e o f t e n f a r g r e a t e r t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n o n e c o u n t r y a n d a n o t h e r . I t i s f e l t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n d i s c u s s e d a b o v e — l a c k o f s p e e c h f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h o n t h e p a r t o f o u r a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n — i s j u s t i f i e d . O n e o b s e r v e r n o t e d : " S p e e c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e h a v i o u r o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n i s f r e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d a s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e n o n - I n d i a n . S u c h d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t e d b y v i r t u a l l y a l l who come i n c o n t a c t 5 S e e " T h e I n d i a n C h i l d a n d H i s E d u c a t i o n " ( P r o c e e d i n g s o f a C o n f e r e n c e o n t h e s u b j e c T T " U 7 B . C . D e p t . o f E x t e n s i o n , e s p . t h e a d d r e s s o f G.K. G o o d e r h a m , p p . l - l * * - . 6 " C l a s s r o o m O b j e c t i v e s a n d A c t i v i t i e s w i t h P u p i l s o f I n d i a n B a c k g r o u n d , " ( o u t l i n e d r a w n u p b y m e m b e r s o f C o u r s e E d . S 357» 1961 Summer S e s s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n ) w i t h , t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n . " 6 T h e s e c o n d a s s u m p t i o n made i s t h a t t h i s l a c k o f s p e e c h f a c i l i t y i s n o t c o n d u c i v e t o t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s i n t h e m i d - t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . A s o n e w r i t e r p u t s i t , "A g o o d command o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e t o d a y , m o r e t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , i s t h e m a s t e r k e y t o I n d i a n s ' S u c c e s s -es f u l t r a n s i t i o n t o 2 0 t h c e n t u r y l i v i n g . " S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t h a m p e r s t h e m i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o q u a l i f y t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e k i n d o f o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h t h e y m i g h t o f t e n w i s h t o f o l l o w ^ "A m a j o r c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r t o t h e e c o n o m i c d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e n a t i v e h a s b e e n h i s l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s n e c -e s s a r y f o r s k i l l e d e m p l o y m e n t . " 9 H e r e i s t h e w a y i t w a s summed u p i n a n o t h e r r e p o r t : T h e r e i s a b u n d a n t e v i d e n c e n o t o n l y t h a t I n d i a n s t u d e n t s l a g b e h i n d t h e i r A n g l o p e e r s i n a c q u i r i n g E n g l i s h c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s i n s c h o o l b u t t h a t l a c k o f E n g l i s h c o n s t i t u t e s o n e o f t h e g r e a t e s t h a n d i c a p s 7 B . J a n Z. T i m m o n s , "An E x p l o r a t o r y I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d C e r t a i n S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n V a r i a b l e s F o u n d A m o n g M a l e P o s t - H i g h S c h o o l V o c a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s a t H a s k e l l I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e i n L a w r e n c e , K a n s a s , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f K a n s a s , 1965) PP» 5 - 6 . 8 H i l d e g a r d T h o m p s o n , " C u l t u r e a n d L a n g u a g e , " I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n 2 8 ( A p r i l 1 5 , 1965) ! • 9 E l l e n D. J a c k s o n , "The T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h a s a S e c o n d L a n g u a g e t o A l a s k a n N a t i v e C h i l d r e n o f n o n - E n g l i s h S p e a k i n g B a c k g r o u n d o n t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n a n d F i r s t - G r a d e L e v e l s , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , , 1964) p.9 0 . 7 t o o c c u p a t i o n a l adjustment and advancement when t h e y g e t on t h e job.10 I t might be o b s e r v e d a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e l a c k o f f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h r e f e r r e d t o i s n o t a q u e s t i o n merely o f the c l a s s i c problem f a c e d by anyone when a t t e m p t i n g t o communicate i n a " f o r e i g n " l a n g u a g e . The d i f f i c u l t y i s found as w e l l among n a t i v e I n d i a n s whose o n l y language o f speech i s E n g l i s h . T h i s p o i n t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h f u r t h e r i n Chapter I I I . The problem, t h e r e f o r e , i s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e two assumptions o u t l i n e d above, namely t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s g e n e r a l l y l a c k speech f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h and t h a t t h i s i s a b a r r i e r t o t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l development. I f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e a c c e p t e d , the q u e s t i o n s t h a t remain t o be answered a r e : 1) What a r e t h e re a s o n s f o r t h i s l a c k o f f a c i l i t y ? 2) I f we know the r e a s o n s , a re t h e r e any p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h may be f o l l o w e d w h i c h might overcome t h e c o n d i t i o n ? P u r p o s e s o f t h e Study ( i ) To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e a s o n s f o r o r a l communication 10 1 . Madison Coombs, "The E d u c a t i o n a l Needs o f I n d i a n S t u d e n t s , " ( P i n a l T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t on t h e Work-shop f o r D i r e c t o r s o f NDEA I n s t i t u t e s f o r E d u c a t o r s o f American I n d i a n P u p i l s ) U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, Appendix B. 8 problems between I n d i a n s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y a d o l e s c e n t s ) and n o n - I n d i a n s . ( i i ) To d e v e l o p t h e o u t l i n e o f a speech program w h i c h c o u l d be used a t an upper h i g h s c h o o l age l e v e l w i t h I n d i a n s t u d e n t s ; o r w h i c h , w i t h s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s , c o u l d be used a t a lo w e r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l on t h e on& hand, o r a j u n i o r c o l l e g e l e v e l on the o t h e r . P r o c e d u r e s Used t o I n v e s t i g a t e t h e P r o b l e m ( i ) An i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e whole problem o f spe e c h f a c i l i t y and communi-c a t i o n among American I n d i a n s ; and the'.research f i n d i n g s o f o t h e r s who have concerned themselves w i t h t h i s p roblem were u t i l i z e d , ( i i ) The p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e w r i t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s as a t e a c h e r f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s w i t h a F e d e r a l Government I n d i a n S c h o o l was t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . ( i i i ) A r p i l o t s u r v e y was made i n t h e form o f a q u e s t i o n -n a i r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o I n d i a n h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s l i v i n g a t S t . Mary's I n d i a n ' S t u d e n t R e s i d e n c e a t M i s s i o n C a t y , B.C. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s appear i n Appendix A. ( i v ) I n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h some o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e f e r r e d t o above, and a l s o w i t h a d u l t s who have had p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h I n d i a n young p e o p l e . These are r e p o r t e d on i n Appendix B. 9 l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study ( i ) A l t h o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w h i c h a r e quoted r e f e r t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , a c t u a l f i r s t - h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s and con-t a c t s were l i m i t e d t o p e o p l e i n s o u t h e r n and c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, C o n d i t i o n s may n o t be a l t o g e t h e r t y p i c a l o f t h e r e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y , ( i i ) The program proposed i n Chapter IV and Appendix C can n o t be p r o p e r l y e v a l u a t e d u n t i l i t has a c t u a l l y been t r i e d o u t . I t s r e a l w o r t h and a p p l i c a b i l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , must remain f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g a m a t t e r o f s p e c u l a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Remainder o f t h e T h e s i s R e f e r e n c e was made above t o t h e f a c t t h a t p s ycho-l o g i c a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n any s p e e c h communication s i t u a t i o n . Chapter I I i s devoted t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i n s o f a r as t h e y may have a b e a r i n g on t h i s s t u d y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , the problems o f s e l f - c o n c e p t and t h e r e t i c e n t p e r s o n a l i t y a r e examined. Chapter I I I c o n s i d e r s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s o f low s e l f -concept and r e t i c e n c e as t h e y a p p l y i n the case o f I n d i a n p e o p l e s . E s p e c i a l l y , t h e whole q u e s t i o n o f " c u l t u r e -c o n f l i c t " i s b r o u g h t under r e v i e w . I n a d d i t i o n , any o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e thought t o have a b e a r i n g on i n a d e q u a t e speech f a c i l i t y among t h o s e whose c u l t u r a l "background i s I n d i a n a r e weighed and c o n s i d e r e d . I n Chapter IV a h y p o t h e t i c a l program aimed a t i m p r o v i n g t h e s k i l l s o f speech communication i s proposed and some s p e c u l a t i o n i s o f f e r e d as t o i t s p o s s i b l e u s e -f u l n e s s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f what has been d i s c u s s e d i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s . The g e n e r a l summary and c o n c l u s i o n s , o f c o u r s e , d e a l t w i t h i n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r . 1 1 CHAPTER I I P E R S O N A L I T Y F A C T O R S I N F L U E N C I N G S P E E C H F A C I L I T Y I t i s n o t w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y t o m a k e a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s o f p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h a f f e c t t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e p r o c e s s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n f a c e t s o f t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e a J s i g n i -f i c a n t h e a r i n g o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f s p e e c h f a c i l i t y , a n d t h e s e w i l l b e e x a m i n e d i n t h e l i g h t o f s o m e o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h h a s b e e n w r i t t e n o n t h e s u b j e c t . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f w h a t i s c a l l e d t h e " r e t i c e n t p e r s o n a l i t y " a r e c o n s i d e r e d , a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l o w s e l f - i m a g e o r l o w s e l f - c o n c e p t i s v i e w e d i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s p e e c h f a c i l i t y g e n e r a l l y . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d T r a n s f e r o f M e a n i n g I t m i g h t b e o f i n t e r e s t t o c o n s i d e r s o m e t h i n g o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f l a n g u a g e . O n e a u t h o r i t y h a s s u g g e s t e d , " L a n g u a g e b e g i n s o u t o f a n e c e s s i t y t o e x p r e s s w h a t i s i n s i d e t h e s e l f a n d t o c o m m u n i c a t e i t t o s o m e o n e o u t s i d e t h e s e l f . " " ' " L a n g u a g e i s u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d i n t h i s w a y — 1 C h a r l e s J . C a l i t r i , "The N a t u r e a n d V a l u e s o f C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t Y o u t h , " U . S . O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 1964, N o . 5 , p . 2 . a s a t r a n s f e r o f " i d e a s " o r " f e e l i n g s " f r o m o n e p e r s o n t o a n o t h e r . B u t p e r h a p s t h i s i s s o m e t i m e s t a k e n t o o l i t e r a l l y , a s t h o u g h t h e " m e s s a g e " i s s i m p l y t r a n s m i t t e d i n t a c t f r o m o n e v e s s e l t o a n o t h e r . A r e we n o t i g n o r i n g t h e r e b y t h e p e r s o n a l i t y a n d e m o t i o n a l s t a t e o f b o t h t h e s e n d e r a n d r e c e i v e r ? T h e f i e l d o f e x p e r i e n c e o f e a c h a f f e c t s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i c h i s g i v e n t o i t . When a m e s s a g e i s t r a n s m i t t e d , we c a n n e v e r b e c e r t a i n a s t o e x a c t l y h o w i t w i l l b e r e c e i v e d ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , w h a t t h e m e s s a g e w i l l " m e a n " t o t h e r e c i p i e n t . A s o n e a u t h o r i t y h a s s t a t e d : C o m m u n i c a t i o n d o e s n o t c o n s i s t o f t h e t r a n s - m i s s i o n o f m e a n i n g ( i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ) . M e a n i n g s a r e n o t t r a n s m i t t a b l e , n o t t r a n s -f e r a b l e . O n l y - m e s s a g e s a r e t r a n s m i t t a b l e a n d m e a n i n g s a r e n o t i n t h e m e s s a g e , t h e y a r e i n t h e m e s s a g e - u s e r s .2 I n t h i s v i e w o f t h e n a t u r e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e w r i t e r h a s i n d i c a t e d t h e v i t a l r o l e w h i c h i s p l a y e d , i n h i s o p i n i o n , b y p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s a n d b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t . A s h e e x p l a i n s i t , " M e a n i n g s a r e l e a r n e d . T h e y a r e p e r s o n a l , o u r o w n 3 p r o p e r t y . . . . . T h e y a r e i n u s , n o t i n m e s s a g e s . " To i g n o r e f e e l i n g s a n d a t t i t u d e s o r t o i g n o r e t h e p a r t p l a y e d b y a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e a n d b a c k g r o u n d i s t o i g n o r e a h i g h l y r e l e v a n t a r e a o f t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s 2 D a v i d K. B e r l o , T h e P r o c e s s o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( N e w Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , a n d W i n s t o n , I 9 6 0 ) , p . 1 7 5 . 3 I b i d . 1 4 o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . P e r s o n a l i t y , t h e n , s h o u l d h e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . T h e t e r m " p e r s o n a l i t y " r e f e r s t o t h a t w h i c h i s u n i q u e i n a n i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r . O n e d e f i n i t i o n h a s d e s c r i b e d i t a s " a p e r s o n ' s t o t a l r e a c t i v e c a p a c i t y , t h e 4 w a y h e r e s p o n d s t o o t h e r s a n d t o t h e s i t u a t i o n s h e m e e t s . " T h u s a p e r s o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y o n e k i n d o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s l i k e l y t o r e s p o n d s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m s o m e o n e w i t h a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f p e r s o n a l i t y . He g i v e s a s l i g h t l y d i f -f e r e n t " m e a n i n g " t o t h e m e s s a g e . R e f e r e n c e i s m ade i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s t o " i n t e r p e r s o n a l " a n d " i n t r a p e r s o n a l " c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n t e r -p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s e p a r a t e o r g a n i s m s . T h i s i s w h a t u s u a l l y c o m e s t o m i n d a s we s p e a k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . B u t , a s p o i n t e d o u t a b o v e , m u c h o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a m e s s a g e d e p e n d s u p o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s a n d f e e l i n g s w i t h i n h i m s e l f . I n t r a p e r s o n a l c o m -m u n i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e w a y i n w h i c h a p e r s o n r e s p o n d s t o h i m s e l f , t h e w a y i n w h i c h h e v i e w s h i m s e l f a n d i n t e g r a t e s h i s c o n c e p t s o f h i m s e l f . B o t h a r e i m p o r t a n t i n t h e o v e r -a l l p r o c e s s . A p r o m i n e n t a u t h o r i t y i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n h a s summed i t u p i n t h i s w a y : 4 C h a r l e s T. B r o w n , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S p e e c h ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n C o . , 1955) , P . 3 4 7 . 15 The g e n e r a l p r o c e s s o f communication i s one i n w h i c h p e o p l e i n t e r a c t f o r the purpose o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l and i n t r a -p e r s o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n I t i n v o l v e s r e c i p r o c a l s t i m u l a t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n , e m p l o y i n g "both v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l cues . 5 S i n c e t h e b a s i s o f any speech communication l i e s w i t h i n t h e p e r s o n who uses i t — i n h i s a t t i t u d e s , i n h i s f e e l i n g s , and i n h i s needs, t h e im p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s can r e a d i l y be a p p r e c i a t e d . They w i l l o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e communicative p r o c e s s . Brooks has n o t e d : " I n t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f communication i s thought t o r e s u l t f r o m some s o c i a l p s y cho-l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between spea k e r and l i s t e n e r t h r o u g h 6 t h e medium o f some message." I t would appear t o f o l l o w t h a t i f e i t h e r o f t h e c h i e f elements i n t h i s " s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n " — namely t h e sender and r e c e i v e r o f t h e message — i s i n a d e q u a t e f o r any r e a s o n , communication w i l l be u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y . I f , f o r example, t h e o r i g i n a t o r o f t h e message s u f f e r s f r o m f e e l i n g s o f inadequacy o r l a c k s t h e s k i l l t o put i n t o words t h e f e e l i n g s he would l i k e t o e x p r e s s , the a c t o f communication w i l l be made i n e f f e c t i v e t h e r e b y . 5 T h o r r e l B. F e s t , " I n t e r p e r s o n a l Communication: Recent R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s , " (paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e I n t e r -n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y o f T e c h n i c a l W r i t e r s and P u b l i s h e r s , Los A n g e l e s , May 8 - 1 1 , 1968)'. 6 K e i t h B r o o k s ( e d . ) , The Communicative A r t s and  S c i e n c e s o f Speech (Columbus, O h i o , C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l B o o k s , i n c . , l y b V ) , p.168. I f , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e c e i v e r o f a m e s s a g e l a c k s t h e s y m p a t h y a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e q u i r e d t o a s s i g n a p p r o p r i a t e m e a n i n g s t o t h a t m e s s a g e t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n may l i k e w i s e b e i n e f f e c t i v e . I t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e w r i t e r o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t e i t h e r o r b o t h o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y a p p l y i n t h e e a s e o f c o m m u n i c a t i v e i n t e r c h a n g e s b e t w e e n p e o p l e o f I n d i a n b a c k g r o u n d a n d t h o s e o f n o n - I n d i a n b a c k g r o u n d . S e l f - C o n c e p t o r S e l f - i m a g e T h e i d e a o f i d e n t i f y i n g s p e e c h e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s n o t a n e w o n e . N o r i s i t l i m i t e d t o t h o s e m a l f u n c t i o n s o f s p e e c h w h i c h r e s u l t f r o m some s e r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r . I t h a s b e e n n o t e d : T h e r e i s a " g r e y a r e a " b e t w e e n t h e c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e p a t h o l o g i e s a n d o b v i o u s i n e f f e c t i v e -n e s s a t n o r m a l s p e e c h p e r f o r m a n c e s . T h i s a r e a w a s f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d b y M u r r a y ' a s h a v i n g s o m e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p r o b l e m s o f p e r s o n -a l i t y . S p e e c h a n d p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s a r e n o w w i d e l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t o b e r e l a t e d m a l -f u n c t i o n s . 8 T h e " s p e e c h p e r s o n a l i t y " i s o b v i o u s l y p a r t o f t h e t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y , p e r h a p s e v e n t h e m a j o r p a r t o f i t . M u r r a y h a s s a i d , " S p e e c h d e v e l o p m e n t p a r a l l e l s p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d t h e same c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h c o n s t r i c t , d i s t o r t , o r e n h a n c e t h e o n e , c o n s t r i c t , d i s t o r t , o r 7 E l w o o d M u r r a y , T h e S p e e c h P e r s o n a l i t y ( C h i c a g o , New Y o r k : J . P . L i p p i n c o t t " ~ C o " . , 1 9 W ) , P r e f a c e , p . v i i . 8 G e r a l d M. P h i l l i p s , " R e t i c e n c e : P a t h o l o g y o f t h e N o r m a l S p e a k e r , " S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s , V o l . X X X V , N o . 1 ( M a r c h , 1968) p . 3 ^ e n h a n c e t h e o t h e r . " 9 I n a l e n g t h y a n a l y s i s a n d s t a t e m e n t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e C o m m i t t e e o n C u r r i c u l u m f o r t h e H i g h S c h o o l ( s p o n s o r e d b y t h e S p e e c h A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a ) t h i s v i e w i s p u t f o r w a r d : I n t h e f o r e g r o u n d o f a s p e e c h c u r r i c u l u m c e n t e r e d o n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d d e v e l o p -m e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i v e b e h a v i o u r a r e t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t s , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , f e e l i n g s , e m o t i o n s , a n d i n t e r n a l t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s o f y o u n g l i s t e n e r s . 1 ° T h i s s t r e s s o n s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e f i e l d o f s p e e c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s f u r t h e r e n l a r g e d o n i n t h e same s t a t e m e n t : S p e e c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n e n a b l e s a p e r s o n t o c o n s t r u c t a n d m a i n t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y s e l f c o n c e p t w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o h i s h a p p i n e s s a n d h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s a s a c o m m u n i c a t o r . A s h e t a l k s t o o t h e r s a p e r s o n r e v e a l s h i m s e l f ; h e b u i l d s i m a g e s a n d c r e a t e s r o l e s o f h i m s e l f . T h e a u t h o r s o f t h i s c u r r i c u l u m s t a t e m e n t g o o n t o o u t l i n e s o m e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s e l f t h a t c r e a t e c o m m u n i -c a t i o n p r o b l e m s . A m o n g t h e s e a r e : a s t a t e o f h i g h t e n s i o n , a s t a t e o f u n h a p p i n e s s , e t c . , b e c a u s e o f a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t ; t h e a b s e n c e o f r e s p o n s e o r a n i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o o r m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e ; u n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e c o n f u s i o n i n v o l v e d i n t h e s p e a k e r ' s 9 M u r r a y , l o c c i t . 10 W.E. B u y s , C.V. C a r l s o n , H. C o m p t o n & A . D . F r a n k , " S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e - H i g h S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V I I , N o . k, ( N o v . 1968), p.301. 11 I b i d . pp.304-305 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i m s e l f a n d o t h e r s ; i n a b i l i t y o r u n w i l l i n g -n e s s t o v e r b a l i z e g o a l s , a s p i r a t i o n s , e t c . T h e g o a l t h a t s p e e c h t r a i n i n g s h o u l d s t r i v e f o r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e a b o v e , i s o b v i o u s l y t h a t o f l e s s e n i n g t h e t e n s i o n , i m p r o v i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f a n d i n c r e a s i n g a w a r e n e s s t o o t h e r s ' . I n h i s w o r k T h e P r o c e s s o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n , B e r l o h a s a l s o e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n t p a r t p l a y e d b y s e l f - i m a g e : B e h a v i o u r i s a l s o a f f e c t e d b y o u r i m a g e s o f o u r s e l v e s . O u r s e l f - i m a g e s i n f l u e n c e t h e k i n d s o f m e s s a g e s we c r e a t e a n d t h e t r e a t m e n t we g i v e o u r m e s s a g e s . O u r e x p e c t a t i o n s a b o u t o u r own b e h a v i o u r a f f e c t w h i c h m e s s a g e s we a t t e n d t o . 1 3 He e m p h a s i z e s n o t m e r e l y * t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s e l f - c o n c e p t o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n , b u t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n o n s e l f - c o n c e p t . T h e t w o a r e s e e n a s m u t u a l l y a f f e c t i n g o n e a n o t h e r , a n d t h e e f f e c t i s o n g o i n g a n d c o n t i n u o u s . A s h e e x p l a i n s , " . . T h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f d o e s n o t p r e c e d e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I t i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I f l i t t l e © o m m u n i - -c a t i o n o f a n y k i n d t a k e s p l a c e , o n e m i g h t e x p e c t t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f t o b e i n a d e q u a t e . R e t i c e n c e A s o n e m i g h t e x p e c t , t h e n , t h e u s u a l r e s u l t o f a 12 I b i d . p.3 0 5 . 13 B e r l o , o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 8 1 4 I b i d . p.1 2 5 . l o w s e l f - i m a g e i s a r e t i c e n c e about t a k i n g p a r t i n communi-c a t i v e a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p u b l i c . One p i e c e o f a d v i c e , g i v e n i n a t e x t book on speech communication, v i e w s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - i m a g e and speech e f f e c t i v e n e s s and c a u t i o n s i t s r e a d e r s as f o l l o w s : I f y o u have an image o f y o u r s e l f as a q u i e t , i n t r o s p e c t i v e p e r s o n , y o u may f i n d t h a t y o u r image o f y o u r s e l f i n t e r -f e r e s w i t h y o u r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a s p e a k e r ; y o u may even r e b e l a g a i n s t h a v i n g t o g i v e speeches, c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h i s i s "not your n a t u r e " . I t may be w o r t h y o u r w h i l e t o re-examine y o u r image o f y o u r s e l f t o see whether y o u a r e t r y i n g t o make y o u r s e l f i n t o t h e most c a p a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y you can become o r whether y o u may n o t be too e a s i l y a c c e p t i n g , and t h e r e b y m a g n i f y i n g , presumed l i m i t a t i o n s o f a b i l i t y . Some a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s e x p r e s s e d h e r e i n w i l l be a p p l i e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n g i v e n i n Chapter T. A s t u d y was conducted by P h i l l i p s a t Penn State.. U n i v e r s i t y w h i c h throws some i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t on t h i s whole q u e s t i o n o f r e t i c e n c e . I t i n v o l v e d t h e a d m i n i s t e r i n g o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o o v e r f o u r thousand s t u d e n t s who were t a k i n g a b a s i c course i n speech a t t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n . About t e n p e r cen t o f them s c o r e d i n s u c h a way as t o be c l a s s i -f i e d as r e t i c e n t . P h i l l i p s then s t u d i e d d i a r y r e p p r t s ~ o f n e a r l y two hundred o f t h e s e r e t i c e n t s t u d e n t s and i n t e r -15 R o b e r t T. O l i v e r , D.C. D i c k e y , H.P. Z e l k o , Communicative Speech (New Y o r k , Dryden P r e s s , 1955) p . l * U 20 v i e w e d 139 o f them. He r e a c h e d a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s as a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Por example, he d etermined t h a t : . . ( t h e r e t i c e n t person)...may he d e f i n e d as a p e r s o n f o r whom a n x i e t y about p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r a l communication outweighs h i s p r o j e c t i o n o f g a i n from t h e s i t u a t i o n . He may o r may not be c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f what he has a t s t a k e when he communicates w i t h o t h e r s . He i s q u i t e aware, however, o f h i s i n c a p a b i l i t y and c o n -s e q u e n t l y seeks t o a v o i d i n t e r a c t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 1 ° I n o t h e r words, a s e l f - i m a g e w h i c h i s u n c e r t a i n o r n e g a t i v e t e n d s t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e e l i n g s o f a n x i e t y i n an i n t e r a c t i v e s i t u a t i o n . I t i s a l s o t h e v i e w o f ' P h i l l i p s t h a t : D e v e l o p m e n t a l l y , r e t i c e n c e may be c o n s t r u e d as an immature s t y l e o f communication p o s s i b l y r e t a i n e d as a defense i n a newly adopted s o c i e t y . So v i e w e d , i t becomes a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y d i s advantage d.17 I t would appear, t h e n , t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e t h a t have t o do w i t h s e l f - i m a g e and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o speech f a c i l i t y , i s r e l a t e d t o t h e problem o f the " c u l t u r a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d . " As P h i l l i p s p o i n t s o u t : 16 G e r a l d M. P h i l l i p s , " R e t i c e n c e : P a t h o l o g y o f the Normal S p e a k e r , " Speech Monographs, V o l . XXXV, No. 1 (March, 1968) p. W. 1? I b i d . p. 47 . 2 1 O u r s u r v e y o f r e t i c e n t c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t many h a v e come f r o m l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c o r e t h n i c - n a t i o n a l i t y h o m e s . S e v e r a l o f t h o s e s o i d e n t i f i e d d i r e c t l y a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t t a n g i b l e t h r e a t w h e n a t t e m p t i n g t o c o m m u n i c a t e i n e n v i r o n -m e n t s w h e r e t a l k w a s a c c o r d e d a d i f f e r e n t v a l u e t h a n i n t h e i r home s o c i e t i e s . 1 ° T h e o b v i o u s c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n a l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d a n d a l o w s e l f - c o n c e p t w i t h i n a d e q u a t e s p e e c h p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h t h i s s u r v e y b r i n g s o u t i s w e l l w o r t h k e e p i n g i n m i n d a s we t r y t o i s o l a t e f a c t o r s w h i c h may b e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e i n a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t y i n s p e e c h o f many o f o u r n a t i v e p e o p l e s . I n c o m m e n t i n g u p o n t h i s same s u r v e y a n o t h e r o b -s e r v e r , w r i t i n g i n t h e C a n a d i a n S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n J o u r n a l , r e m a r k s : A n i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n r e t i c e n t b e h a v i o u r a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e r e t i c e n t p e r s o n ' s n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s own s p e e c h p e r f o r m a n c e . . . T h e y w e r e e x c e s s i v e l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e y p h r a s e d t h e i r i d e a s a n d s e e m e d i n c a p a b l e o f a n y d e g r e e o f s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h . A t t h e same t i m e t h e y e x p r e s s e d t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e i r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w o u l d n o t b e o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e i r l i s t e n e r s . 1 9 S u m m a r y F r o m t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e f o r e , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , 1 8 I b i d . 1 9 L a u r a M u i r , " R e s e a r c h i n R e t i c e n c e , " C a n a d i a n S p e e c h  C o m m u n i c a t i o n J o u r n a l , S p r i n g , 1 9 6 8 , p . 2 0 . 22 t o g e t h e r w i t h l i m i t e d v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , a r e q u a l i t i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h h a v e a n i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g l a c k o f s p e e c h f a c i l i t y . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o w h a t i s s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d a " d e p r i v e d b a c k g r o u n d " i s a l s o b r o u g h t o u t . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s w i l l b e made s u b s e -q u e n t l y i n t h i s s t u d y . C H A P T E R I I I S O C I A L AND C U L T U R A L F A C T O R S I N F L U E N C I N G S P E E C H F A C I L I T Y We m u s t n e v e r a s s u m e t h a t we a r e f u l l y a w a r e o f w h a t we c o m m u n i c a t e t o s o m e o n e e l s e . T h e r e e x i s t s i n t h e w o r l d t o d a y t r e m e n d o u s d i s t o r t i o n s i n m e a n i n g a s men t r y t o c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . I n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o s e l f - c o n c e p t , w e r e d i s c u s s e d , w h i l e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s o c i a l m i l i e u i n w h i c h t h e i n -d i v i d u a l o p e r a t e s w a s l a r g e l y i g n o r e d a s s u c h . I n t h i s c h a p t e r s ome a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h i s s o c i a l m i l i e u , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s i t a f f e c t s t h e s p e e c h p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n i t . A l s o , r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e " c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t , " a n d m o s t p a r t i -c u l a r l y t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o b l e m s o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s . C o m m u n i c a t i o n — I n t e r p e r s o n a l A s p e c t s W h i l e t h e i n t r a p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( l o w s e l f - i m a g e , g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f i n a d e q u a c y i n v e r b a l -i z i n g o n e ' s t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s ) p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e , t h e r e a r e a l s o i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h m e r i t s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n . V e r y r e a l b a r r i e r s may e x i s t b e t w e e n o n e p e r s o n 1 E d w a r d T. H a l l , T h e S i l e n t L a n g u a g e (Ne w Y o r k , D o u b l e d a y & C o . , 1959) P«5^ 2k and another even where both f e e l confidence. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the communication source and receiver each possess certain communication s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , and knowledges. Bach exist within a s o c i a l system and a c u l t u r a l context. These a f f e c t how they w i l l react to messages. Communication repre-sents an attempt to couple these two i n d i v i d u a l s , these two psychological systems. 2 In t h i s passage Berlo describes the act of communication i n such a way as to point up the d i f f i c u l t y that could develop i f the s o c i a l systems and c u l t u r a l contexts of the "two psychological systems" d i f f e r . I f in d i v i d u a l s from widely divergent s o c i a l backgrounds attempt to com-municate, the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r assigning d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s of "meaning" to the message becomes considerable. This may be complicated further when non-verbal factors are considered. As H a l l points out: In addition to what we say i n our verbal language we are constantly communicating our r e a l feelings i n our s i l e n t language — the language of behaviour. Sometimes t h i s i s c o r r e c t l y interpreted by other n a t i o n a l -i t i e s , but more often i t i s not . 3 These d i f f i c u l t i e s i n " c r o s s - c u l t u r a l " communication are highly relevant to the problems being investigated i n t h i s study. Another d i f f i c u l t y , and one which likewise has a 2 David K. Berlo, The Process of Communication (New York, Holt, Rinehart, and V/insTon, I 9 6 0 ) p.llb". 3 H a l l , o p . c i t . , p.15* c u l t u r a l " b a s i s , i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n some s o c i e t i e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f s p e e c h i s n o t s o g r e a t l y e x e r c i s e d a s i n o t h e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , a s P h i l l i p s p o i n t s o u t i n t h e s t u d y r e f e r r e d t o i n a n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r , " T h e r e i s c l e a r e v i d e n c e t h a t l o w v a l u a t i o n o f o r a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y common i n l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s , a n d t h a t l i m i t e d v e r b a l e x p e r -L i e n e e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t l e a s t s o me s p e e c h r e t a r d a t i o n . " S p e e c h a n d t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n W h a t i s t h e a t t i t u d e o f I n d i a n s t o w a r d t h e u s e o f s p e e c h ? I n u s i n g t h e t e r m " r e t i c e n c e " w h e n s p e a k i n g o f I n d i a n p e o p l e we a r e a d m i t t e d l y a p p l y i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s o f m i d d l e - c l a s s w h i t e s o c i e t y t o t h e m , a n d we a r e f o r t h e m o s t p a r t j u d g i n g t h e m b y t h e i r s p e e c h b e h a v i o u r w h i l e f u n c t i o n i n g i n a m i d d l e - c l a s s , w h i t e , E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s o c i e t y . I s t h i s a f a i r j u d g e m e n t ? P o t h e y h a v e a s r e s t r a i n e d a p a t t e r n i n t h e i r own l a n g u a g e s a n d i n t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o c i a l s e t t i n g s ? T h e n a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e s h a v e i n h a b i t e d o u r h e m i -s p h e r e f o r c o u n t l e s s m i l l e n n i a . D u r i n g t h e a g e s t h a t t r a n s p i r e d b e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e a n s t h e y d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t i e s a n d ( i n some c a s e s ) r a t h e r e l a b o r a t e c i v i l i z a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e g e n e r a l l y i n h a r m o n y w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . W h i l e t h e y n e v e r d e v e l o p e d t h e k i n d o f s c r i p t w h i c h e n a b l e d 4 G e r a l d M. P h i l l i p s , " R e t i c e n c e : P a t h o l o g y o f t h e N o r m a l S p e a k e r , " S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s , V o l . X X X V , N o . 1 ( M a r c h , 1968) y.^T* t h e m t o r e c o r d t h e i r d e e d s a n d a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s i n w r i t t e n f o r m , t h e y a l l w e r e t h e p o s s e s s o r s o f a n o r a l t r a d i t i o n w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d a n d w h i c h s t i m u l a t e d a n d e x c i t e d t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s — m u c h a f t e r t h e m a n n e r o f o t h e r o r a l l i t e r a t u r e s i n o t h e r c i v i l i -z a t i o n s t h e w o r l d o v e r . T h e a r t o f t h e l e a d e r who c o u l d e x h o r t h i s p e o p l e t o g r e a t e n d e a v o u r , w h e t h e r i n w a r o r p e a c e , w a s h e l d i n h i g h e s t e e m ; i n f a c t i n some c a s e s i t w a s r e g a r d e d a s t h e h i g h e s t q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r c h i e f t a i n s h i p . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t i n some r e s p e c t s t h e y h a d a h i g h e r r e g a r d f o r w h a t we c a l l " o r a t o r y M t h a n do m o s t p e o p l e o f E u r o p e a n d e s c e n t . A d m i t t e d l y , t h e y h a d c e r t a i n a d v a n t a g e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . L i v i n g i n a c o m m u n a l s e t t i n g , w i t h n o o t h e r e n t e r t a i n m e n t a n d f e w o t h e r d i s t r a c t i o n s , t h e a r t o f t h e s t o r y - t e l l e r a n d t h e o r a t o r w a s a h l e t o f l o u r i s h . T h i s f a c t w a s p o i n t e d o u t i n a s t u d y o n p e r s u a s i v e s p e a k i n g a m o n g t h e I r o q u o i s u n d e r -5 t a k e n b y R e y n o l d s a f e w y e a r s a g o . I n h i s f i n d i n g s h e p o i n t s o u t , "A c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e o f f i c i a l t r a n s c r i p t s d i s c l o s e s t h a t s e v e r a l o f t h e o r a t o r s g a i n e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r e l o q u e n c e , v o c a l q u a l i t y , a n d t h e u s e o f a p p r o p r i a t e 5 Wynn R. R e y n o l d s , " P e r s u a s i v e S p e a k i n g o f t h e I r o q u o i s I n d i a n s a t T r e a t y C o u n c i l s " ( u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r -t a t i o n , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , New Y o r k , 1957), C h a p t e r I , P P . 4 , 5 . g e s t u r e s . " T h e n a m e s o f f a m o u s o r a t o r s ( n o t o n l y I r o q u o i s h u t o t h e r t r i b e s a s w e l l ) a r e f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a n n a l s t h a t r e c o r d d e a l i n g s b e t w e e n I n d i a n s a n d w h i t e o f f i c i a l s . N a m e s s u c h a s R e d J a c k e t , T e c u m s e h , B l a c k H a w k , R e d C l o u d a n d o t h e r s r e m i n d u s t h a t t h e e l o q u e n t a p p e a l w a s g r e a t l y h o n o u r e d a n d h a d a c e n t r a l p l a c e i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s . T h e i r a d d r e s s e s a n d p r o n o u n c e m e n t s h a v e s e l d o m b e e n e q u a l l e d f o r s i n c e r i t y a n d d i g n i t y , e v e n w h e n j u d g e d o n t h e b a s i s o f 7 t h e i r E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . A n d i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h e t r a n s l a t i o n f a i l s t o do j u s t i c e t o t h e q u a l i t y o f c o m m u n i -c a t i o n w h i c h may h a v e c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e l i v e s o f o u r a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s . J o h n C o l l i e r , i n h i s w o r k T h e I n d i a n s  o f t h e A m e r i c a s , a d v a n c e s t h e p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t m u c h o f t h e i r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w a s b e s t e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e m e d i u m o f s o n g s , d a n c i n g , a n d v i s u a l s y m b o l i s m o f o n e k i n d o r a n o t h e r . 8 H a s t h e o r a t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n d i e d o u t a m o n g n a t i v e I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s ? I n t h e i r p r e s e n t s t r u g g l e f o r a m o r e e q u i t a b l e p l a c e i n s o c i e t y t h e y a p p e a r t o h a v e some a b l e s p o k e s m e n . A n y o n e who h a s l i v e d i n a n I n d i a n c o m m u n i t y c a n t e s t i f y t o t h e f a c t t h a t " c e r e m o n i a l " a d d r e s s i s s t i l l a p p r e c i a t e d a n d h o n o u r e d . I h a v e p e r s o n a l l y a t t e n d e d 6 I b i d . , f i r s t p a g e ( A b s t r a c t o f t h e s i s ) . 7 L o u i s T. J o n e s , A b o r i g i n a l A m e r i c a n O r a t o r y , ( L o s A n g e l e s , S o u t h w e s t M u s e u m , 1 9 6 5 ) . 8 J o h n C o l l i e r , T h e I n d i a n s o f t h e A m e r i c a s ( N e w Y o r k , W.W. N o r t o n & C o . , 1W7) f u n c t i o n s w h e r e n a t i v e s p e a k e r s h a v e a c q u i t t e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h g r e a t c o u r t e s y a n d d i g n i t y , b o t h i n E n g l i s h a n d i n t h e i r own t o n g u e . I t w o u l d s e e m , t h e n , t h a t t r a d i t i o n b y n o m e a n s d i s -p a r a g e s t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s o f t h e p u b l i c s p e a k e r i n I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s . I n h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e p u b l i c s p e a k e r , t h e I n d i a n d e p e n d e d c o n s i d e r a b l y u p o n w h a t w r i t e r s o n c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c r e f e r t o a s " e t h i c a l p r o o f " . . I f t h e s p e a k e r w a s a man o f h i g h r e p u t a t i o n a n d s t a n d i n g i n h i s s o c i e t y , h i s w o r d s w o u l d b e l i s t e n e d t o w i t h g r e a t a t t e n t i o n . T h e o r d i n a r y p r i v a t e s p e a k e r , h o w e v e r , t h e m e r e c h a t t e r e r , w o u l d n o t command r e s p e c t a s s u c h . I n a h u n t i n g s o c i e t y , s i l e n c e c a n s o m e t i m e s b e a v a l u e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . H i s t o r -i c a l l y , m o s t o b s e r v e r s h a v e t e n d e d t o r e g a r d I n d i a n s a s r e l a t i v e l y l a c o n i c i n t h e i r e v e r y d a y s p e e c h . L i n g u i s t i c D i f f i c u l t i e s I t w a s w h e n t h e y w e r e o b l i g e d t o t a k e o n a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , h o w e v e r , o n e w i t h w h i c h t h e y w e r e e n t i r e l y u n f a m i l i a r , t h a t l a n g u a g e f l u e n c y r e a l l y s u f f e r e d — a t l e a s t i n t h e n e w l a n g u a g e . T h i s i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , a n d o n e m i g h t w e l l h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s c o u l d b e t h e p r i n c i p a l c a u s e o f t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y i n a c h i e v i n g f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h s p e e c h . M a n y s t u d i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , h a v e p o i n t e d u p t h e n e e d f o r e d u c a t i n g I n d i a n p u p i l s i n t h e u s e o f E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ; 29 a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n a n d f i r s t g r a d e l e v e l h a s b e e n i n s t i t u t e d i n m a n y l o c a l i t i e s . I n C a n a d a a s w e l l , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n come t o s c h o o l w i t h n o k n o w l e d g e o f E n g l i s h . O n e w r i t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e s i t u a t i o n : L a c k o f E n g l i s h w a s a n d s t i l l i s a t t h e r o o t o f m u c h o f t h e s c h o o l r e t a r d a t i o n o f I n d i a n p u p i l s . F o r m e r l y , s c h o o l b e g i n n e r s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o s p e n d t h e f i r s t y e a r l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , a f t e r w h i c h t h e y e n t e r e d G r a d e 1, a n d t h e n w e r e e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e E n g l i s h t h r o u g h s u b j e c t c o u r s e s . A s t h e l a t t e r i n c r e a s e d i n d i f f i c u l t y f r o m g r a d e t o g r a d e , p u p i l s h a d l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i m p r o v e t h e i r s p o k e n E n g l i s h . . T h a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n p u p i l a c h i e v e -m e n t a n d g r a d e s t a n d a r d s t e n d e d t o p e r s i s t w a s a l s o d u e t o o u r i n e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . 9 T h i s f a c t i s a l s o c o m m e n t e d o n i n A S u r v e y o f t h e C o n t e m - p o r a r y I n d i a n s o f C a n a d a ( r e f e r r e d t o u s u a l l y a s t h e H a w t h o r n R e p o r t ) a n d i t r e m a r k s i n o n e o f i t s r e c o m -m e n d a t i o n s : O n e n t e r i n g s c h o o l many I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , l i k e m a n y o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n C a n a d a , s p e a k E n g l i s h o r F r e n c h o n l y a s . a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e i f t h e y s p e a k i t a t a l l . 1 0 T h i s u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a n e w l a n g u a g e , o f c o u r s e , p o s e s d i f f i -c u l t i e s f a r b e y o n d m e r e l y c o p i n g w i t h a s t r a n g e v o c a b u l a r y . I t h a s b e e n n o t e d t h a t " T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d s t r u c t u r e o f a g i v e n 9 R o s e C. C o l l i o u , i n T h e E d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n C h i l d r e n i n C a n a d a ( L . G . P . W a l l e r , e d . ) ( . T o r o n t o , R y e r s o n P r e s s , 10 H a r r y B . H a w t h o r n ( e d . ) A S u r v e y o f t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y I n d i a n s o f ^ . C a n a d a , P a r t I I , ( O t t a w a , T h e Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r " , 1968) p . T 7 . i n d i v i d u a l * s n a t i v e l a n g u a g e w i l l p r e - d e t e r m i n e t h e o r g a n -11 i z a t i o n a n d s t r u c t u r e o f h i s t h i n k i n g . " A s S a p i r , t h e f a m o u s e t h n o l o g i s t - l i n g u i s t o b s e r v e d , " T h e f a c t o f t h e m a t t e r i s t h a t t h e ' r e a l ' w o r l d i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t b u i l t 1 ? u p o n t h e l a n g u a g e h a b i t s o f t h e g r o u p . " T h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f l e a r n i n g a s t r a n g e l a n g u a g e a r e n o t t o b e m i n i m i z e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p r o b l e m w i t h f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h i s n o t l i m i t e d t o t h o s e who e x p e r i e n c e i t a s a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e . E n c u l t u r a t i o n c a n b e j u s t a s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h o s e s p e a k i n g " E n g l i s h " w h i c h d i f f e r s s h a r p l y f r o m t h a t u s e d i n t h e s c h o o l o r l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y , e v e n i f t h i s ' E n g l i s h i s t h e i r o n l y l a n g u a g e . W r i t i n g i n a U . S . O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n a n o b s e r v e r n o t e s : F o r t h e s t u d e n t w h o s e n a t i v e s p e e c h , e v e n t h o u g h i t i s A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h , c o n t a i n s a g r e a t many s t r u c t u r a l , a r t i c u l a t o r y , a n d i n t o n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , l e a r n i n g t o s p e a k a l a n g u a g e t h a t i s a c c e p t a b l e o n t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l i s s u r e l y l i k e l e a r n i n g a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , w h i c h i s n o t a n e a s y t a s k . 1 3 I n t h e e x c e r p t q u o t e d , t h e w r i t e r i s n o t r e f e r r i n g t o I n d i a n p u p i l s . T h e c o n t e x t o f h e r r e m a r k s i s a d i s -11 J o n E i s e n s o n , J . J . A u e r , & J . V . I r w i n , T h e P s y c h o l o g y " o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( N e w Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y -C r o f t s , 1'967T p . 122. 12 E . S a p i r , q u o t e d b y J . V . I r w i n i n T h e P s y c h o l o g y  o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n l o c . c i t . 13 R o s e I . G o l d e n , "Ways t o I m p r o v e O r a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t Y o u t h , " U . S. O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 1964, N o . 5, ( W a s h i n g t o n , G o v ^ F P r i n t i n g O T f i c e ) p.101. c u s s i o n o f t h e problems o f e d u c a t i n g " c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t " y o u t h , and r e f e r s t o t h e y o u t h o f u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d a r e a s o f New Y o r k C i t y — c h i e f l y o f negro and P u e r t o R i c a n o r i g i n . The b a s i c p r o blem i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e same as t h a t en-c o u n t e r e d f r e q u e n t l y w i t h our American o r Canadian I n d i a n s . T h i s q u e s t i o n i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n an a r t i c l e i n The Speech  T e a c h e r , w h i c h d e a l s w i t h the problems o f t e a c h i n g speech t o t h e c u l t u r a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d . They are d e f i n e d as t h o s e who l i v e i n home environments " l i n g u i s t i c a l l y s t e r i l e i n E n g l i s h language d e v e l o p m e n t . " 1 ^ The a r t i c l e goes on t o i d e n t i f y them s p e c i f i c a l l y as Negroes, Southern Mountain W h i t e s , P u e r t o R i c a n s , Cubans, M e x i c a n s , and American I n d i a n s . "The problems o f c u l t u r a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n c o n c e r n t e a c h e r s o f speech because t h e r e i s no a r e a i n w h i c h t h e s e c h i l d r e n show g r e a t e r d i s a b i l i t y t h a n i n t h e language a r t s . " 1 - * My own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g I n d i a n c h i l d r e n b e a r s o u t t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f the above. The p u p i l s I t a u g h t a l l spoke E n g l i s h as t h e i r p r i n c i p a l l a n g u a g e , and v i r t u a l l y a l l o f them spoke i t as t h e i r o n l y language o f communication. Y e t t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f them e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n e x p r e s s i n g themselves i n t h e k i n d o f E n g l i s h ( w r i t t e n o r spoken) w h i c h i s o r d i n a r i l y used i n a c l a s s r o o m . lk Donald H. S m i t h , "Teaching Speech t o t h e C u l t u r a l l y D i s a d v a n t a g e d , " The Speech Teacher, V o l . XV, No. 2, March, 1966. p.lWT 15 I b i d . p . l 4 l . T h e H a w t h o r n R e p o r t , i n c o m m e n t i n g u p o n t h e l a n g u a g e p r o b l e m s o f c h i l d r e n who come f r o m I n d i a n h o m e s , o b s e r v e s : T h e c h i l d who c o m e s f r o m t h e home w h e r e E n g l i s h i s s p o k e n b y p a r e n t s a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e p r o b a b l y s p e a k s " I n d i a n E n g l i s h . " T h i s i s a v a r i a n t i n w h i c h E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e a n d w o r d s a r e u s e d b u t i n w h i c h f o r m s a n d m e a n i n g s o f t e n v a r y f r o m t h e s t a n d a r d o n e s o f t h e s c h o o l ; a n d a l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d who s p e a k s I n d i a n - E n g l i s h i s v i e w e d a s a n E n g l i s h s p e a k e r b y t h e s c h o o l , i n m o s t c a s e s h e i s a s m u c h i n n e e d o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n l a n g u a g e a s t h e n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d ' . 1 0 I t m i g h t b e a d d e d t h a t t h e c h i l d who c o m e s f r o m a home w h e r e " E n g l i s h " i s s p o k e n , b u t t h e " q u a l i t y a n d q u a n t i t y o f t h e E n g l i s h i s s u b - s t a n d a r d , i s s i m i l a r l y i n n e e d o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n l a n g u a g e . T h e R e p o r t c i t e d a b o v e m a k e s some r e v e a l i n g c o m p a r -i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a c k g r o u n d o f m o s t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n a n d t h a t o f w h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r t o b e t h e b a c k -,17 g r o u n d o f t h e t y p i c a l w h i t e c h i l d . I t p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n I n d i a n h o m e s l i t t l e t i m e i s s p e n t i n t e a c h i n g t h e c h i l d t o w a l k a n d t o t a l k . A l s o , u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f " V e r b a l P r a c t i c e a n d D e v e l o p m e n t " i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o n -v e r s a t i o n b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s i s l i m i t e d i n I n d i a n h o m e s , q u e s t i o n s a r e o f t e n a n s w e r e d i n m o n o s y l l a b l e s , a d u l t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y i n a c c u r a t e a n d l i m i t e d i n v o c a b -u l a r y , e t c . ; a l l o f t h e s e i n c o n t r a s t t o w h a t o n e e x p e c t s 16 H.B. H a w t h o r n ( e d . ) o p . c i t . , p . l 2 9 » 17 I b i d . p.112 . t o t a k e p l a c e i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n o n - I n d i a n homes. V e r b a l s k i l l s a r e mandatory f o r l e a r n i n g i n s c h o o l . The c h i l d who has f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h hooks, who has been engaging i n c o n -v e r s a t i o n w i t h a d u l t s , who has an e x t e n s i v e v o c a b u l a r y and who knows how t o use words i s a t a d i s t i n c t advantage when compared w i t h t h e c h i l d who has l i t t l e v e r b a l i n t e r -a c t i o n , no exposure t o books and who has l e a r n e d E n g l i s h f r om a d u l t s who use i t as a second language.!° An i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o l a c k o f v e r b a l s k i l l s has been l a r g e l y i g n o r e d thus f a r i n t h i s s t u d y , e x c e p t perhaps by i m p l i c a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e f a c t t h a t one r e a s o n f o r l a c k o f f a c i l i t y i n language r e s u l t s f r o m the c i r c u m s t a n c e o f most I n d i a n p u p i l s (and o t h e r c u l t u r a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d ) not h a v i n g s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r i e n c e and p r a c t i c e i n u s i n g i t ^ . O t h e r C r o s s - C u l t u r a l D i f f i c u l t i e s I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s r e f e r r e d t o above t h e r e a r e o t h e r and somewhat s u b t l e r problems o f communication w h i c h a r i s e between p e r s o n s who come from d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l b a ckgrounds. D i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h i s k i n d are sometimes d e s c r i b e d under t h e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g o f " c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t . " We a r e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d i n our h a b i t s , t h o u g h t s , and a t t i t u d e s by the h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s o f the s o c i e t y 18 I b i d . p.I lk a r o u n d u s . "The c o n c e p t i o n w h i c h e a c h i n d i v i d u a l f o r m s o f h i m s e l f , " a n o b s e r v e r r e m a r k s , " i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e r o l e w h i c h f a t e a s s i g n s t o h i m i n some s o c i e t y , a n d u p o n t h e o p i n i o n a n d a t t i t u d e w h i c h p e r s o n s i n t h a t s o c i e t y f o r m o f h i m . " " ^ W hen a p e r s o n m o v e s i n t o a n e w s o c i a l g r o u p h e i s s u d d e n l y c o m p e l l e d t o g a u g e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p e o p l e w h o s e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e g r o u p w i t h w h i c h h e w a s p r e v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d . I t i s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e p e r i o d w h e n h e i s s t i l l t r y i n g t o make t h e a d j u s t m e n t — t h a t h e m i g h t b e s a i d t o b e " b e t w e e n c u l t u r e s . " T h i s i s t h e t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d b y S t o n e q u i s t i n h i s b o o k , T h e  M a r g i n a l M a n . M a n y o f u s ( p e r h a p s m o s t o f u s ) e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g o f t h i s f e e l i n g a s we move f r o m o n e t y p e o f s o c i a l " b a c k g r o u n d t o a n o t h e r a t some t i m e i n o u r l i v e s . T h e e x t r e m e c a s e o f t h i s k i n d , w h e r e a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e n e w s e t o f a t -t i t u d e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s p u t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r a i n o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , m i g h t b e r e f e r r e d t o a s t h a t o f t h e " m a r g i n a l 20 m a n . " S t o n e q u i s t m e n t i o n s t h e i n s t a n c e o f p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e who a r e o f t e n f o r c e d t o s u c c u m b t o t h e p r e s s u r e o f , 21 a g g r e s s i v e a n d p o w e r f u l E u r o p e a n i n f l u e n c e s . He r e m a r k s t h a t : " A l l s u c h i n f l u e n c e s l e a d d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f f u n d a m e n t a l n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . T h e r e s u l t 19 R o b e r t E . P a r k , q u o t e d i n T h e M a r g i n a l Man b y E . V . S t o n e q u i s t ( N e w Y o r k , C h a r l e s T T T c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1937) p . x v i i ( i n t r o d u c t i o n ) 20 I b i d . p. 1 2 1 . 21 I b i d . p . 5 6 . i s tun c e r t a i n t y , r e s t l e s s n e s s , c o n f u s i o n a n d c o n f l i c t — 22 p e r h a p s c o m p l e t e s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . " T h e c o n d i t i o n o f m a n y I n d i a n p e o p l e s t o d a y w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e a c l a s s i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h a t o f t h e m a r g i n a l m a n . T h u s , w h i l e l i n g u i s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s ( e i t h e r u n -f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h E n g l i s h o r u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a n a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d o f E n g l i s h ) f o r m a n e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l p r o b l e m i n a d j u s t i n g t o a n e w c u l t u r e , f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n l i n g u i s t i c o n e s a r e i n v o l v e d . T h e H a w t h o r n R e p o r t d i s c u s s e s t h e " d i s c o n t i n u o u s " q u a l i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e I n d i a n c h i l d w h e n h e f i r s t a t t e n d s s c h o o l . Up t o n o w , l i f e h a s n o t b e e n e m p t y a n d m e a n i n g l e s s . H i s c h a r a c t e r h a d d e v e l o p e d a c e r t a i n o r i e n t a t i o n . H i s o r i e n t a t i o n a n d k n o w l e d g e a r e " d i f f e r e n t f r o m w h a t t h e s c h o o l e x p e c t s a n d r e q u i r e s . " 2 ^ " O b v i o u s l y , " t h e R e p o r t o b s e r v e s , " n e i t h e r t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l n o r t h e s c h o o l s t h a t o p e r a t e s p e c i a l l y f o r I n d i a n s a r e a t a l l c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e v a l u e s a n d t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e I n d i a n c h i l d ' s c u l t u r e . " I n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s p r o c e s s o r a t t e m p t e d p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n t h e R e p o r t h a s t h i s o p i n i o n t o o f f e r : 22 I b i d . 23 H a w t h o r n , o p . c i t . , p.6 . 2k I b i d . p . 7 . B y s e e k i n g t o make t h e c h i l d l e s s " I n d i a n " a n d , "by i m p l i c a t i o n , m o r e " m i d d l e - c l a s s w h i t e , " t h e s c h o o l i s a s k i n g h i m t o b e c o m e a d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n * C a n t h i s a c c u l t u r a t i o n t a k e p l a c e w i t h o u t c h a n g i n g t h e b a s i c p e r s o n -a l i t y o f t h e c h i l d — e v o l v e d t h r o u g h m e m b e r -s h i p i n h i s s p e c i f i c g r o u p t h r o u g h t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f l i f e ? " z 5 T h e p o i n t i s t h e n r a i s e d a s t o w h e t h e r s u c h a p r o c e d u r e c a n b e j u s t i f i e d . T h u s , r e c o g n i t i o n i s made o f t h e " m a r g i n a l " p o s i t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n c h i l d a s h e i s a c c u l -t u r a t e d t o w a r d a d i f f e r e n t w a y o f l i f e . T h e e f f e c t o f a d j u s t i n g t o a n e w s e t o f a t t i t u d e s a n d v a l u e s h a s b e e n summed u p b y a n o t h e r g r o u p i n t e r e s t e d i n I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s w a y : A s t u d e n t who c o m e s f r o m a c u l t u r e w h i c h i s c o o p e r a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n c o m p e t i t i v e , w h i c h d i s c o u r a g e s d i s s e n t , a n d w h i c h r e i n f o r c e s r e t i c e n c e , c a n n o t q u i c k l y a d a p t t o a c o m p e t i t i v e , a r g u m e n t a t i v e , a n d h i g h l y v e r b a l w o r l d w i t h o u t r u n n i n g . 2 t h e r i s k o f s e v e r e p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r i e n t a t i o n ! U o w h e r e i s t h i s d i s o r i e n t a t i o n m o r e e v i d e n t t h a n i n t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s t h a t c a n r e s u l t f r o m f a u l t y v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . C u l t u r a l c o n v e n t i o n s e n t e r h e r e v e r y s t r o n g l y . A n d t h e v e r b a l d i f f i c u l t y i s n o t l i m i t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e m e a n i n g s o f w o r d s o r g r o u p s o f w o r d s . I n some c a s e s , o t h e r s i g n s ( s u c h a s t h e i n f l e c t i o n o f t h e 25 I b i d . p.122. 26 P r o c e e d i n g s o n " C o n f e r e n c e o n S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n S t u d e n t , " U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h D a k o t a , V e r m i l l i o n , S.D., 196?. A p p e n d i x P. 37 v o i c e ) may b e m o r e e l o q u e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , H a l l o b s e r v e d t h a t : B y s i m p l y r a i s i n g t h e p i t c h o f t h e v o i c e a t t h e e n d o f a n u t t e r a n c e i n s t e a d o f l e t t i n g i t f a d e a w a y , i t i s p o s s i b l e ( i n E n g l i s h ) t o c h a n g e a s t a t e m e n t o f f a c t t o a q u e s t i o n * T h e f a c t t h a t c o m -m u n i c a t i o n c a n b e e f f e c t e d i n s o b r i e f a t i m e o n t h e c u l t u r a l l e v e l i s o f t e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n f u s i o n w h i c h s o o f t e n o c c u r s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e x c h a n g e s . ' S p e e c h c o n i m u n i c a t i o n h a s m a n y c o m p l e x f a c e t s , a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s b e c o m e o b v i o u s w h e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e b e t w e e n o n e c u l t u r e a n d a n o t h e r . A n o f f i c e r i n t h e E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h e m p h a s i z e d some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f a c c u l -t u r a t i o n i n t h i s w a y : I n t r a v e l l i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l w a y s , t h e I n d i a n i s h a v i n g t o l e a r n h o w t o c o p e w i t h c h a n g e s i n v a l u e s . I t i s m o s t d i f f i c u l t f o r a p e o p l e who w e r e b o r n i n t o a w o r l d w h e r e t h e i r d a i l y n e e d s w e r e m e t i n t h e i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t t o l e a r n t h e v a l u e o f a c c u m u l a t i n g k n o w l e d g e f o r i t s own s a k e , t h e v a l u e o f s a v i n g f o r a r a i n y d a y , t h e v a l u e o f p r a c t i s i n g s t r i n g e n t s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e i n o r d e r t o e n j o y t h e £8 b e n e f i t s o f p e r m a n e n t e m p l o y m e n t , e t c . . . T h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h i s c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t a f f e c t s t h e I n d i a n d u r i n g h i s s c h o o l c a r e e r i s summed u p i n t h e H a w t h o r n R e p o r t a s f o l l o w s : 2 7 E d w a r d T. H a l l , T h e S i l e n t L a n g u a g e ( N e w Y o r k , D o u b l e d a y & C o . , 1959), p. T2T7 2 8 L . J a m p o l s k y , i n T h e E d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n C h i l d r e n i n C a n a d a ( L . G . P . W a l l e r , ed - O ( T o r o n t o , R y e r s o n P r e s s , T 7 6 M , p. k 9 . 38 T h e I n d i a n c h i l d f r o m t h e f i r s t d a y o f s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e s f e w s u c c e s s e s a n d m a n y f r u s t r a t i o n s a n d l a c k s t h e a b i l i t y t o a r t i c u l a t e h i s c o n f u s i o n a n d m i s u n d e r -s t a n d i n g s a n d s o r e d u c e s h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e s o l v i n g t h e m . N e g a t i v e s e l f - i m a g e s b e g i n t o e m e r g e , r e i n f o r c e d u n w i t t i n g l y b y t e a c h e r s a n d p e e r s . T h e a l i e n a t i o n p r o c e s s b e c o m e s f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d r e a c h i n g i t s p e a k i n n e g a t i v i s n u a n d d e s p a i r b y a b o u t f i f t h o f s i x t h g r a d e . " H e r e , a s t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e H a w t h o r n R e p o r t s e e i t , i s a m o d e r a t e l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p i c t u r e o f I n d i a n p u p i l s u p t o a b o u t a g e t w e l v e o r s o — e x p e r i e n c i n g f r u s t r a t i o n s , l a c k i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o " a r t i c u l a t e h i s c o n f u s i o n s , " d e v e l o p i n g a " n e g a t i v e s e l f - i m a g e , " a n d a l l o f t h e s e r e s u l t i n g i n a f e e l i n g o f " a l i e n a t i o n . " T h e y a r e i n d e e d o n t h e m a r g i n o f t w o c u l t u r e s . "One o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g t h e m e s o f I n d i a n y o u t h i s t h e s e n s e o f a l i e n a t i o n t h e y f e e l w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r own c u l t u r e a n d a l s o t o n o n -'30 I n d i a n c u l t u r e . * T h i s s e n s e o f a l i e n a t i o n — o n e m i g h t c a l l i t a c r i s i s i n i d e n t i t y — h a s b e e n c o m m e n t e d u p o n b y a n o t h e r a u t h o r i t y o n I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r i e n t a t i o n w h i c h u n d e r w e a v e s t h e w h o l e f a b r i c o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n d i f f i c u l t y o f I n d i a n s a n d E s k i m o s , O s b o r n s t a t e s : I t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . . . m a n y o f w h i c h a r e p e r s o n a l l y a n d s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e . A s e l f - r e i n f o r c i n g c y c l e o f t e n a p p e a r s . D i f f i c u l t y i n m a s t e r i n g s p o k e n E n g l i s h d u e t o c u l t u r a l , l i n g u i s t i c , 29 H a w t h o r n , o p . c i t . , p.115 30 I b i d . p . l l 6 . 39 o r e d u c a t i o n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s f r e q u e n t l y l e a d s t o f r u s t r a t i o n a n d - w i t h d r a w a l , w h i c h i n t u r n may c a u s e e v e n f u r t h e r d e t a c h m e n t f r o m e i t h e r o r " b o t h t h e n a t i v e c u l t u r e a n d t h e d o m i n a n t n o n - I n d i a n c u l t u r e ^ , w h i c h t h e n may b e r e f l e c t e d i n g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n m a s t e r i n g s p o k e n E n g l i s h , a n d s o o n i n a o-, v i c i o u s a n d e v e n t u a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e s e q u e n c e . T h i s f e e l i n g o f a l i e n a t i o n w a s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e H a w t h o r n R e p o r t a s " r e a c h i n g i t s p e a k i n n e g a t i v i s m a n d d e s p a i r b y a b o u t f i f t h o r s i x t h g r a d e . " ( s e e p; -38) T h e s i t u a t i o n w o u l d n o t a p p e a r t o i m p r o v e a s t h e s t u d e n t s g r o w o l d e r : C h i l d r e n a r e c o m p l e t e l y d e f e a t e d b y t h e t i m e t h e y r e a c h t h e u p p e r g r a d e s ; t h e i r p o o r s e l f -i m a g e a n d e x p r e s s e d l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e a t t e s t t h e f a c t . T h i s w o u l d s e e m t o i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e m a n y I n d i a n s w i l l s t a t e t h e i r s e n s e o f w o r t h a s I n d i a n s , t h e y h a v e p a s s e d t h e p o i n t ' o f b e l i e v i n g i t a n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n h a v e s e n s e d ~ 2 t h e i r d o u b t s a n d e x p r e s s e d t h e same a m b i v a l e n c e . T h e f a c t o r s o f l o w s e l f - i m a g e a n d g e n e r a l l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e , w h i c h w e r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , a r e s e e n a s h a v i n g a n i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g o n t h e w h o l e , q u e s t i o n o f c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T e a c h e r A t t i t u d e a n d C u l t u r e C o n f l i c t I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e " c r o s s - c u l t u r a l " d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e I n d i a n p u p i l i t may h a v e b e e n a s s u m e d t h a t t h e d i f f i -c u l t i e s w e r e a l l o n t h e s i d e o f t h e c h i l d . T h e p r o b l e m m a y l i e , h o w e v e r , q u i t e a s m u c h o n t h e s i d e o f t h e t e a c h e r o f t h e . I n d i a n c h i l d . A s B e r l o h a s i n d i c a t e d , " A l l o f u s 31 L y n n R. O s b o r n , " S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n P r o b l e m s o f I n d i a n s a n d E s k i m o s , " ( P a p e r g i v e n a t a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f C a n a d i a n S p e e c h A s s o c i a t i o n , C c B a n f f ~ , A u g u s t , 1968) 32 H a w t h o r n , o p . c i t . , p.120. t e n d t o "be e g o c e n t r i c . We t e n d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e w o r l d from our vantage p o i n t . T h i s makes i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r -a c t , t o e m p a t h i z e . I t makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o communicate 33 a t a l l . " - ' - ' I n s h o r t , as p o i n t e d o u t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Chapter I I o f t h i s s t u d y , meanings f l o w from f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s q u i t e as much as t h e y do f r o m mere words. S i n c e our c u l t u r a l background p l a y s such a prominent p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g our a t t i t u d e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a v o i d b e i n g e t h n o c e n t r i c t o a t l e a s t some de g r e e . I n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s p o i n t , t h e Hawthorn R e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t e a c h e r s have a tendency t o l o o k upon c h i l d r e n from t h e m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e 34 e t h n o c e n t r i e a l l y . "Few t e a c h e r s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of t h e d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r e s from w h i c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n come t o be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r behaviour•"^5 To u n d e r s t a n d t h e c h i l d ' s background i s , t o a l a r g e measure, t o u n d e r s t a n d the c h i l d . And u n l e s s c a r e i s t a k e n t o r e s p e c t t h e c h i l d , w hatever h i s background, t h e r e i s danger t h a t he may be s t r i p p e d o f h i s d i g n i t y and h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The un-d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t r y i n g t o "make p e o p l e o v e r " i n our own c u l t u r a l image has been argued by an e d u c a t o r concerned 36 w i t h v a l u e s o f c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t y o u t h . He s t a t e s , 33 D a v i d K. B e r l o , The P r o c e s s o f Communication (Hew Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , p.176. 34 Hawthorn, o p . c i t . , p.120. 35 I b i d . p.121. 36 Chas. J . C a l i t r i , "The N a t u r e and V a l u e s o f C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t Y o u t h , " U.S. O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 1964, No. 5 , P - 2 . "It i s the f a i l u r e to recognize the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the implications of c u l t u r a l differences that makes for a f a i l u r e with young people."-^ In discussing the most important facts to he taken into account when teaching speech to the c u l t u r a l l y d i s -advantaged, a writer suggests that the following p r i n c i p l e s be observed: The f i r s t requirement i s that the teacher must have expositive attitude toward the c h i l d r e n . . 3 ° ..The second important attitude i s that Which the teacher must help the children develop toward themselves .39 I f the egos of the students are damaged and they have a low opinion of themselves as a r e s u l t , they are l i k e l y to per-form i n accordance with t h i s negative self-concept. The teacher who f a i l s to evoke the most favourable response of which the p u p i l i s capable i s f a i l i n g i n h i s own way as a communicator. An attitude of understanding and t r u s t , then, i s of the utmost importance i n b u i l d i n g the kind of s o c i a l climate i n which free and constructive communication can take place. L i l l y w h i t e has summed i t up i n t h i s way: 37 I b i d . p.8. 38 Donald H. Smith, "Teaching Speech to the C u l t u r a l l y Disadvantaged," The Speech Teacher, V o l . XV, No. 2 , March, 1966, p.l3fT7 39 I b i d . p.142. 4 2 I t w o u l d b e h e l p f u l i f we c o u l d t h i n k o f d i s o r d e r e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n a s a c o n t i n u u m w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g f r o m m a ny c a u s e s : s o me p a t h o l o g i c a l , some p s y c h o l o g i c a l , a n d s o m e s o c i a l : a l l c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e f a i l u r e t o b e u n d e r s t o o d . ^ 0 0 s h o r n S u r v e y o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n H i g h S c h o o l S p e e c h P r o b l e m s I n t h e f o r e g o i n g p a g e s a n e f f o r t h a s b e e n made t o i n d i c a t e t h e w e i g h t o f i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e a c r o s s c u l t u r a l l i n e s . I t w o u l d b e i n s t r u c t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t t o s e e w h a t e x t e n t t h i s c o n f o r m s w i t h c e r t a i n a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s made o n a l a r g e s c a l e w i t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n y o u n g p e o p l e . A s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f I n d i a n p u p i l s i n h i g h s c h o o l s p e e c h c l a s s e s w a s c o n d u c t e d a f e w y e a r s a g o , a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y w e r e p u b -l i s h e d i n t h e S e p t e m b e r , 19^7 i s s u e o f T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r . T h e s u r v e y t o o k t h e f o r m o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e m a i l e d o u t t o a l l A m e r i c a n h i g h s c h o o l s w h e r e a s i z e a b l e n u m b e r o f I n d i a n p u p i l s w e r e e n r o l l e d . ( T h e s e w o u l d b e w h a t we c a l l " i n t e g r a t e d " s c h o o l s — w h i t e a n d I n d i a n p u p i l s a t -t e n d i n g c l a s s e s t o g e t h e r . ) C o n t a c t w a s made w i t h 2 4 l s c h o o l s i n s e v e n t e e n s t a t e s — t h e s p e e c h t e a c h e r a t e a c h s c h o o l b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m p l e t i n g t h e f o r m . O f t h e s e , 4 0 p . N e l s o n a n d H. L i l l y w h i t e , ( S y m p o s i u m o n ) "A B r o a d e r C o n c e p t o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n D i s o r d e r s , " J o u r n a l o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n , X T ? , 1, M a r c h , 19&9. p . 3 » 43 1 1 2 w e r e r e t u r n e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d i n t h e s e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , e i g h t d i s t i n c t p r o b l e m a r e a s w e r e i n d i c a t e d : 1 . P e e l i n g s o f i n s e c u r i t y a n d i n a d e q u a c y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e I n d i a n p u p i l s g r o w i n g o u t o f e d u c a t i o n a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d s o c i a l d i s a d v a n -t a g e s a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e i r n o n - I n d i a n p e e r s . 2 . I r r e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e p a t t e r n s o f t h e I n d i a n p u p i l s w i t h r e s u l t i n g d i s r u p t i o n s a n d l a c k o f c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e i r w o r k i n t h e s p e e c h c l a s s • 3 . N a t u r a l r e t i c e n c e a n d s h y n e s s o f t h e I n d i a n p u p i l s , r e s u l t i n g i n a v o i d a n c e o f s p e e c h a c t i v i t y w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . 4 . M a n i f e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n c h o o s i n g t o p i c s u p o n w h i c h t o s p e a k . T h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t t h i s p r o b l e m g r e w o u t o f t h e p e e r g r o u p i n s e c u r i t y a n d f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y s e t f o r t h a b o v e i n n u m b e r o n e . 5 . C o m p a r a t i v e l y i n a d e q u a t e t r a i n i n g a n d b a c k -g r o u n d o f t h e I n d i a n p u p i l i n n e e d e d r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s , i d e a d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l s k i l l s . 6. S e r i o u s p r o b l e m s o f s t a g e f r i g h t a n d l a c k o f p o i s e a n d c o n f i d e n c e w h i c h w e r e m u c h m o r e p r o n o u n c e d i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e I n d i a n p u p i l s t h a n t h a t o f t h e n o n - I n d i a n p u p i l s . 7 . V o c a l i m p e d i m e n t s a n d i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e s p e e c h o f m a n y I n d i a n p u p i l s : p o o r v o c a b -u l a r i e s , m u m b l i n g , m o n o t o n a l d e l i v e r y , l a c k o f a d e q u a t e v o i c e p r o j e c t i o n , a r t i c u l a t o r y d i f f i c u l t i e s , a n d t h e s p e a k i n g o f E n g l i s h w i t h I n d i a n a c c e n t s . 8. I n s e n s i t i v i t y t o a u d i e n c e r e s p o n s e b e c a u s e o f a l m o s t t o t a l l a c k o f e y e c o n t a c t b y t h e I n d i a n p u p i l s w i t h t h e i r l i s t e n e r s . 1 4 1 L y n n R. 0 s h o r n , " T h e I n d i a n P u p i l i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l S p e e c h C l a s s , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V I , S e p t . , 19& 7 , N o . 3 . p . 1 8 8 . 44 W i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g t o a n a l y z e t h e s e r e s u l t s i n d e t a i l , i t can be seen — when a s s e s s e d by t h e s t a n d a r d s o f most i n -t e g r a t e d c l a s s r o o m s — t h a t a low s e l f - i m a g e , l a c k o f c o n f i -dence r e s u l t i n g f r om t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r s o c i a l b a c kground, and a g e n e r a l l a c k o f v o c a l f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h , e n t e r i n t o most o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s c i t e d above. T h i s t e n ds t o s u p p o r t t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d by a u t h o r i t i e s e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r as t o the r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g l a c k o f speech f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h o f I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . I n a s t u d y conducted p r e v i o u s l y by t h e same i n v e s t i -g a t o r among B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s s c h o o l s , s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d and summarized t h u s : C u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d , peer group p r e s s u r e , and the problems o f b i l i n g u a l i s m were l i s t e d a l m o s t unanimously by t h e re s p o n d e n t s as prime causes f o r the marked r e l u c t a n c e t o e n t e r i n t o c l a s s r o o m d i s c u s s i o n e v i d e n c e d by s t u d e n t s i n t h e I n d i a n secondary s c h o o l s . T y p i c a l r e s p o n s e s t o the query c o n c e r n i n g t h e causes f o r t h e marked r e l u c t a n c e e l i c i t e d s u c h comments a s : " c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n , l a c k o f v o c a b u l a r y , " " f e a r o f b e i n g l a u g h e d a t by o t h e r s , " and " b i l i n g u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t e n The w r i t e r o f t h i s s t u d y was employed f o r t h r e e y e a r s as a t e a c h e r a t t h e I n d i a n Bay S c h o o l a t B e l l a B e l l a , B.C. I t was o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h i s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n ( p r e - a d o l e s c e n t s i n Grades F i v e and S i x ) , w h i l e n o t b e i n g 42 Lynn Oshorn and C. Payne P o r t e r , "Programs o f Speech and Drama o p e r a t e d by t h e Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , "The  Speech T e a c h e r , V o l . XIV, No. 3 , S e p t . , 1965, p .183^. u n u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d i n temperament, d i d s e r i o u s l y l a c k f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h — b o t h w r i t t e n and spoken (when the c r i t e r i a n o r m a l l y used i n a c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n a r e a p p l i e d ) . They had d i s t i n c t l y n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s toward making c l a s s r o o m "speeches", u s u a l l y g i v i n g as t h e i r r e a s o n f o r t h i s r e l u c -t a n c e t h a t " T h e y ' l l l a u g h a t me." These o b s e r v a t i o n s t e n d t o c o n f i r m t h e o p i n i o n o f a u t h o r i t i e s quoted above. Some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f n a t i v e s t u d e n t s a r e summed up i n a statement w h i c h came out o f a c o n f e r e n c e on Speech Communication and t h e American I n d i a n S t u d e n t : The communication problems w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s t u d e n t d i s p l a y s a r e symptomatic o f a l a r g e r problem — t h a t o f c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n . The t e a c h e r o f Speech com-m u n i c a t i o n t o I n d i a n s must know from whence h i s s t u d e n t s have come, i f he i s t o h e l p them t o d e c i d e where t h e y a r e g o i n g . He must r e c o g n i z e t h a t s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l language h a b i t s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n c h i l d -hood a r e n o t e a s i l y changed.^ 3 Timmons S u r v e y a t H a s k e l l I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e A n o t h e r s t u d y w h i c h throws some i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t upon t h e a t t i t u d e s o f young I n d i a n s toward p u b l i c s p e a k i n g s i t u a t i o n s was t h a t made some f o u r y e a r s ago a t H a s k e l l I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e , a v o c a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d secondary s c h o o l f o r American male I n d i a n s t u d e n t s a t Lawrence, Kansas. C e r t a i n s p e e c h communication v a r i a b l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d , 4 3 "Conference on Speech Communication and t h e American I n d i a n S t u d e n t , " U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h Dakota, V e r m i l l i o n , S.D., 1 9 6 7 , Appendix P. 46 44 w i t h r e s u l t s w h i c h might he w o r t h e x a m i n i n g . I t was found t h a t t h e y showed c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o ward a s p e e c h s i t u a t i o n depending upon whether t h e y viewed t h e m s e l v e s as s p e a k e r s o r as l i s t e n e r s . Such f a c t o r s as t h e way a s p e a k e r i s d r e s s e d , t h e way he combs h i s h a i r , e t c . are r e g a r d e d as i m p o r t a n t i f t h e respondent v i s u a l i z e s h i m s e l f as t h e s p e a k e r , b u t much l e s s so when he r e g a r d s 4*5 h i m s e l f as a l i s t e n e r . There i s a s i m i l a r "double s t a n d a r d " e v i d e n t i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o e y e - c o n t a c t . As a l i s t e n e r , t h e y see t h i s f a c t o r as i m m a t e r i a l , as a speaker t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o e y e - c o n t a c t i s " u n f a v o u r a b l e " . ^ 0 As a speaker t h e y c o n s i d e r i t more i m p o r t a n t t o speak " g r a m m a t i c a l l y " whether t h e y are u n d e r s t o o d o r n o t . I n t h e r o l e o f a l i s t e n e r , m i s t a k e s i n grammar a r e n o t as i m p o r t a n t as b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d . ^ I n a l l o f t h e s e c a s e s t h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y more concern w i t h main-t a i n i n g a r e a s o n a b l y s e c u r e s e l f - i m a g e than t h e r e i s w i t h communicating as s u c h . As t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r o f t h e s t u d y a d m i t s , o f c o u r s e , i t i s n o t known whether t h e y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r om t h e i r w h i t e c o u n t e r p a r t s o f t h e same age and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 44 B. J a n Z. Timmons, "An E x p l o r a t o r y I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f A t t i t u d e s Toward C e r t a i n Speech Communication V a r i a b l e s Pound Among Male P o s t - H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s a t H a s k e l l I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e , Lawrence, Kansas", u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s -s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas, 1 9 6 5 . 45 I b i d . pp.8 7 - 8 8 . 46 I b i d . p.8 9 . 47 I b i d . p.97 I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t 'Indian s t u d e n t s a r e some-t i m e s h e s i t a n t t o e x p r e s s t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . However, Timmons found t h a t : "One o f t h e i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t can be made from t h i s s t u d y i s t h e f a c t t h a t a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g speech communication b e h a v i o u r do e x i s t among t h e s e s t u d e n t s . ° A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t r a i s e d i n t h i s same i n -v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h a t " I f the communicator i s p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g a s u p e r i o r a t t i t u d e , t h e s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l have n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s about t h e commun-i c a t i o n s i t u a t i o n . " ^ I n s h o r t , t h e y r e s e n t b e i n g t a l k e d down t o o r t o b e i n g m a n i p u l a t e d . Timmons quotes an ex-p e r i m e n t c a r r i e d out by Gibb w h e r e i n i t was found t h a t : " I m p l i c i t i n a l l a t t e m p t s t o a l t e r a n o t h e r p e r s o n i s the assum p t i o n by t h e change agent t h a t t h e p e r s o n t o be a l t e r e d i s i n a d e q u a t e . . . i g n o r a n t , unable t o make h i s own d e c i s i o n s , e t c . . " ' ' 0 The r e s u l t i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y a d e f e n -s i v e r e a c t i o n on the p a r t o f the l i s t e n e r . I t might be assumed t h a t by t h i s t i me t h e Canadian I n d i a n must be h i g h l y c o n d i t i o n e d t o d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n s ! I n a l l o f the above remarks, a concern w i t h " s e l f -image" i s n o t e d as a prominent f a c t o r i n any communication s i t u a t i o n . 48 I b i d . p.94. 49 I b i d . p.110°. 50 J a c k Gibb " D e f e n s i v e Communication," J o u r n a l o f Communication, V o l . X I , No. 3, ( S e p t . , 19ol) p.l44. 48 Summary I n t h i s Chapter an attempt has been made t o develop the p i c t u r e o f a people who i n f o r m e r t i m e s had a v i a b l e c u l t u r e w h i c h seemed t o s u i t t h e i r needs: a c u l t u r e i n wh i c h speech p a t t e r n s , w h i l e d i f f e r i n g i n some r e s p e c t s f r om t h o s e o f Europeans, n e v e r t h e l e s s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l l i f e . W i t h t h e impingement upon them o f a new c i v i l i z a t i o n , a new l a n g u a g e , and an un-f a m i l i a r c u l t u r e p a t t e r n , t h e i r own speech t r a d i t i o n s have n ot s t o o d them i n p a r t i c u l a r l y good s t e a d . As com-m u n i c a t o r s i n t h e E n g l i s h language (even those o f them who l e a r n E n g l i s h as a "mother tongue") t h e y have, by and l a r g e , e x h i b i t e d a l a c k o f f a c i l i t y . The f a c t o r s w h i c h seem t o u n d e r l i e t h i s , and w h i c h have been d i s c u s s e d i n the f o r e g o i n g pages a r e : 1 ) Lack o f p r a c t i c e i n u s i n g good E n g l i s h , e i t h e r because p a r e n t s do n o t n o r m a l l y use E n g l i s h i n the home o f use an ina d e q u a t e f o r m sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as " I n d i a n E n g l i s h " ; and t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l p a u c i t y o f v e r b a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e i r l i v e s . 2) These " c u l t u r a l " i n f l u e n c e s (home e n v i r o n -ment, e t c . ) a r e c o n t i n u e d a f t e r t h e y s t a r t s c h o o l , and i n some cases - t o a. degree -t h e s c h o o l , i n s t e a d o f c o u n t e r a c t i n g , a c t u a l l y r e i n f o r c e s some o f t h i s r e t i c e n c e . O p i n i o n s have been quoted t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e can be d e f l a t i n g and o f t e n d e t r i m e n t a l t o a good s e l f - i m a g e . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y f e e l i n h i b i t e d i n ex-p r e s s i n g t h e m s e l v e s . The q u e s t i o n o f i n h e r e n t a b i l i t y has not been d i s -c u s s e d above. The r e a s o n t h a t t h i s s t u d y i g n o r e s the " i n n a t e a b i l i t y " f a c t o r l i e s p a r t i a l l y i n the r e a l doubt as t o whether i t a c t u a l l y i s a f a c t o r a t a l l , o r a t any r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y s o . V e r b a l s k i l l s a re q u i t e l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f c u l t u r e r a t h e r t h a n g e n e t i c s ^ 1 The p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h e o m i s s i o n i s the f a c t t h a t t h i s s t u d y i s a t t e m p t i n g t o suggest ways i n w h i c h th e c u l t u r a l b i a s a g a i n s t g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n speech a c t i v i t i e s can be changed and improved. S i n c e " i n h e r e n t a b i l i t y " i s , b y d e f i n i t i o n , n o t s u b j e c t t o improvement, i t would be f r u i t l e s s t o d e a l w i t h i t . We a r e l e f t , t h e n , w i t h t h e two c l a s s e s o f i n -f l u e n c e s l i s t e d above, v i z . l a c k o f v e r b a l p r a c t i c e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n h i b i t i o n s r e s u l t i n g f r om c r o s s - c u l t u r a l communication p r o b l e m s , w h i c h appear t o a f f e c t speech f a c i l i t y o f I n d i a n p e o p l e i n a n e g a t i v e way. 51 J . E i s e n s o n and M. O g i l v i e "Speech C o r r e c t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l s " l e w Y o r k , The M a c M i l l a n Co., 1957, Chapter I V , pp. 56 -69 . C H A P T E R I V A P R O P O S E D PROGRAM POR I M P R O V I N G S P E E C H F A C I L I T Y O F I N D I A N Y O U T H S i n c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s t h e s o c i a l m e c h a n i s m h y w h i c h p e o p l e r e l a t e t h e m s e l v e s t o e a c h o t h e r , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a n a t t e m p t h e m ade t o p e r f e c t i t s u s e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t b e c a u s e o n e i s a b l e t o make u t t e r a n c e s h e n e e d s n o t h i n g f u r t h e r i s f a l s e . 1 R a t i o n a l e I f we c o n s i d e r t h e e v i d e n c e o f i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n q u o t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y , we may a s s u m e t h a t I n d i a n s b y a n d l a r g e a r e r e t i c e n t a n d f e e l t h e m s e l v e s l a c k i n g i n s p e e c h f a c i l i t y ( a t l e a s t i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g m i d d l e - c l a s s s e t t i n g ) ; a n d t h i s l a c k r e d u c e s t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n m o s t o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e i r l i v e s . Some s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n q u o t e d t o i n d i c a t e some o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s o f w e a k n e s s i n t h i s r e g a r d a m o n g a d o l e s c e n t o r y o u n g a d u l t I n d i a n s . T h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s a g e g r o u p . T h o s e who a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e e c h e d u c a t i o n w o r k w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d w h e r e b y t h i s m i g h t b e d o n e i s b y d i r e c t t r a i n i n g i n t h e t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e o f s p e e c h 1 M a r i e H o c h m u t h , " S p e e c h a n d S o c i e t y , " T h e B u l l e t i n  o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o T T r m c i p a i s , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 8 , p.32. communication Good speech i s the outcome o f e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g a lways and everywhere, even i n p r i m i t i v e and u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o c i e t i e s . Man does not l e a r n t o speak w e l l by i n s t i n c t as he l e a r n s t o b r e a t h e , t o eat and d r i n k , o r t o w a l k . H i s s u p e r i o r i t y o v er b i r d and b e a s t comes from h i s alm o s t l i m i t l e s s e d u c a b i l i t y , h i s i n d i v i d u a l power o f a d j u s t m e n t , h i s a d a p t a b i l i t y , and h i s a b i l i t y t o s t o r e up wisdom and hand i t on f r o m g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . 2 On t h e assumption t h a t I n d i a n s t u d e n t s would r e s p o n d , as do o t h e r s t u d e n t s , t o the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f speech t r a i n i n g , a h y p o t h e t i c a l c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e — h a v i n g I n d i a n p u p i l s a t t h e upper h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l i n mind — has been d e s i g n e d as p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y . I t appears as Appendix "C". T h i s p r e s e n t c h a p t e r w i l l be devoted t o p r e s e n t i n g a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s u c h a proposed program, and some o f the u n d e r l y i n g bases f o r i t . Importance o f Speech ^ r a i n i n g W h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f e d u c a t o r s a r e a g r e e d , a t l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , on t h e need f o r some k i n d o f spe e c h t r a i n i n g ( o r , a t l e a s t , e x p e r i e n c e ) i n the c l a s s r o o m , t h e r e i s wide disagreement as t o how t h i s may b e s t be a c c o m p l i s h e d . There a r e t h o s e who contend t h a t s t u d e n t s o b t a i n t h i s k i n d o f ex-p e r i e n c e i n any case i n t h e i r v a r i o u s c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s . A l s o , t h e r e a r e o t h e r s who f e e l t h a t i t can most s a t i s -2 Simeon P o r t e r , Modern L i n g u i s t i c s , (London, Andre D e u t s c h L t d . , 1957) P . 1 5 9 . f a c t o r i l y "be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the g e n e r a l program i n E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . T h i s i s more o r l e s s t h e o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e i n most Canadian s c h o o l s , where u n i t s i n o r a l language a r e i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h e E n g l i s h program. There i s a n o t h e r p o i n t o f v i e w , however, w h i c h c l a i m s t h a t t h e b e s t r e s u l t s a r e o b t a i n e d when speech i s ta u g h t d i r e c t l y as s u c h , by t e a c h e r s who have s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g 3 i n t h e s u b j e c t . Whether speech i s t a u g h t as a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n o f a g e n e r a l c o u r s e i n E n g l i s h o r as a cour s e i n i t s e l f i s perhaps u n i m p o r t a n t . What i s o f con c e r n i s t h e s k i l l , a b i l i t y , and a t t i t u d e o f t h e t e a c h e r who i s c o n d u c t i n g s u c h a c o u r s e and the time and a t t e n t i o n t h a t i s devoted t o i t . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t e a c h i n g o r a l E n g l i s h and t h e need f o r q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s t o t e a c h i t i s a b l y summarized by Rose C. C o l l i o u , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f Language A r t s I n s t r u c t i o n f o r t he Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n Ottawa, i n a l e t t e r t o t he w r i t e r o f t h i s s t u d y : A r e v i e w o f p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m s o v e r the y e a r s r e f l e c t s a n e g l e c t o f the importance o f t e a c h i n g o r a l E n g l i s h , n o t o n l y t o p u p i l s coming from n o n - E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g homes b u t a l s o t o E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p u p i l s . I n t h e l a s t decade, s l o w and g r a d u a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t he need t o emphasize o r a l communication a t t he p r i m a r y l e v e l i s now a l s o b e i n g em-p h a s i z e d i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s . However, a l t h o u g h some p r o v i n c e s a r e d e v e l o p i n g and p r o m o t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l programs f o r l e a r n i n g F r e n c h as a second l a n g u a g e , no s i m i l a r p r o -grams were ever developed a t the p r o v i n c i a l 3 O l i v e r W. N e l s o n , "Speech i n Secondary S c h o o l : A P o i n t o f View" U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 196? (mineographed) 53 l e v e l t o t e a c h E n g l i s h t o y o u n g s t e r s r e q u i r i n g i t t o l e a r n t h e c o n t e n t o f the c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p r o v i n c e s o f Canada. P o r l a c k o f d e v e l o p i n g s u c h programs many y o u n g s t e r s were j e o p a r d i z e d i n t h e i r academic perf o r m a n c e . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s need i s now h e i n g r e c o g n i z e d and h o p e f u l l y i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t s t r e s s on o r a l E n g l i s h w i l l a p p l y t o a l l grade l e v e l s o f p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s y s t e m s . I n t h i s day and age o f mass communication t h r o u g h t e c h n o l o g i e s o f o r a l - a u r a l communi-c a t i o n s , o r a l E n g l i s h d e s e r v e s as much c a r e -f u l programmed c o n t e n t and methodology e v a l u a t i o n commensurate w i t h the p u p i l ' s s o c i a l needs o f growth and p e r s o n a l i t y development as i s h e i n g g i v e n t o d e v e l o p -m e n t a l programs i n new mathematics and r e a d i n g programs. Techniques t o t e a c h v e r b a l communication s h o u l d be t a u g h t w i t h as much t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g c o n c e r n f o r s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n l i n g u i s t i c s , speech and drama s k i l l s as i s r e q u i r e d o f t h e t e a c h e r s p e c i a l - ' i s t i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s such as mathematics, s c i e n c e and o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m s u b j e c t s . T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t a p p l i e s n o t o n l y t o s t u d e n t s whose mother tongue i s E n g l i s h b u t i s a prime r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g communities, i f t h e y a r e t o r e c e i v e e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y and q u a l i t y o f performance i n t h e i r academic p r o g r e s s w h i l e a t t h e same tim e f o s t e r i n g wholesome a t t i t u d e s i n t h e i r s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s e t s a r i s i n g f r om ' s a y i n g what t h e y mean t o say' and 'meaning what t h e y say' w i t h s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e and r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s and one's s e l f . 4 There i s r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e w h i c h tends t o s u p p o r t t h e vi e w t h a t a cou r s e i n speech communication can produce p o s i -t i v e r e s u l t s i n a t l e a s t some r e s p e c t s . Ross r e f e r s t o a s t u d y c a r r i e d out a t Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y w h i c h i n d i c a t e d 4 R.C. C o l l i o u , p e r s o n a l l e t t e r t o t h e w r i t e r o f t h i s s t u d y , d a t e d June 13 , 19&9. a " s i g n i f i c a n t a n d p o s i t i v e " r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s h a v i n g t a k e n a b a s i c s p e e c h c o u r s e a n d s h o w i n g g r e a t e r r e a d i n e s s t o u n d e r t a k e w o r k a t t h e n e x t a c a d e m i c l e v e l . ^ A p a r t f r o m a s s i s t i n g t h e m t o b e c o m e b e t t e r i n t h e i r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , s p e e c h e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y a i m s t o h e l p a l l s t u d e n t s t o " d e v e l o p t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s p e e c h a b i l i t i e s t o a h i g h l e v e l o f t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s , " a n d t o " b e c o m e r e s p o n s i b l e a n d e f f e c t i v e p e r s o n s i n t h e s c h o o l a n d c o m m u n i t y . " P e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t a n d g r o w t h a r e u s u a l l y h i g h o n t h e l i s t o f o b j e c -t i v e s f o r a n y c o u r s e i n s p e e c h . T h e g r o w t h t h a t i s a i m e d f o r i s n o t o n l y i n t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , b u t a l s o i n t h e i n t r a p e r s o n a l o n e s . O n e t e a m o f w r i t e r s o b s e r v e : B u t h o w c a n we e v e r come t o k n o w o u r s e l v e s ? O n c e a g a i n , t h e w a y i s t h e s p e e c h w a y . We e x p l o r e o u r s e l v e s b y w o r d o f m o u t h . We c a r r y o n a c o n s t a n t d i a l o g u e w i t h o u r s e l v e s . We c omment o n w h a t we p e r c e i v e o r d o o r f e e l . T h r o u g h t h i s c o m m e n t a r y , s i l e n t a n d o t h e r w i s e , we r e v i s e o u r s e l f - i m a g e s a s we a r e c h a n g e d b y t h e e x p e r i e n c e we u n d e r g o . ? S p e e c h e d u c a t i o n e n d e a v o u r s t o b r i n g a b o u t t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e m o s t c o u r s e s i n s p e e c h i n c l u d e : p u b l i c a d d r e s s , d e b a t e s , p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n s , s y m p o s i u m s , d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s , c o n v e r s a t i o n , 5 R a y m o n d S. R o s s , S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1 9 6 5 ) p . 2 ( r e f e r s t o a s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t b y C h a r l e s H u r s t i n 1 9 & 1 ) 6 C L . B a l c o r a n d H.P. S e a b u r y , T e a c h i n g S p e e c h i n T o d a y ' s S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s ( N e w Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t , & W i n s t o n I n c . , 19651 7 C h a s . T. B r o w n a n d C h a s . V a n R i p e r , S p e e c h a n d Man ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1 9 6 6 ) p.3 7 . o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , c r e a t i v e drama, f o r m a l drama, and r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n . Such a v a r i e d and e x t e n s i v e scope o f a c t i -v i t y l e a d s one t o wonder whether any s i n g l e c l a s s i n speech would ever a t t e m p t a l l o f t h e s e a s p e c t s i n any one y e a r . Almost i n e v i t a b l y some p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n would have t o be e x e r c i s e d . T r a i n i n g i n Communication f o r N a t i v e S t u d e n t s The q u e s t i o n o f concern t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s whether a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s k i n d would be o f a s s i s t a n c e t o our young n a t i v e p e o p l e o f h i g h s c h o o l age. Would t h e y m i n i m i z e t h e i r problems o f communication? Dr. P. Read Campbell o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia has e x p r e s s e d t h i s o p i n i o n ...As I see i t , one o f t h e s e problem a r e a s has t o do w i t h l a c k o f development o f p a r t i -c i p a t i o n s k i l l s . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h t h i s l a c k i n n a t i v e I n d i a n s when t h e y a r e e n d e a v o u r i n g t o h o l d t h e i r own w i t h t h e i r E n g l i s h p e e r s — t o communicate i n a non-I n d i a n s e t t i n g . Today many young I n d i a n s w i t h d r a w from o r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r -p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . O t h e r s advocate v i o l e n c e . What appears t o be l a c k i n g i s a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how to become s t r o n g i n c o n s t r u c t i v e d i s s e n t . They need h e l p i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t t h e r e a re p o t e n -t i a l l y p o w e r f u l ways w h i c h t h e y c o u l d u t i l i z e i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t and economic p r o g r e s s . . . " Would a speech program p r o v i d e some o f the h e l p e n v i s i o n e d i n t h i s s t a t e m e n t ? L a B r a n t , i n s p e a k i n g g e n e r a l l y 8 P. Read Campbell, "A R e s e a r c h Study o f Means o f Over-coming t h e Communication Problems o f the Canadian I n d i a n , " ( s u b m i s s i o n t o Canada C o u n c i l , 19^9) 56 a b o u t s p e e c h d i f f i c u l t i e s o f " c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t " y o u t h , p o i n t e d o u t : T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e , m u c h o f i t f o u n d i n n e g r o c o l l e g e s , t h a t s p e e c h p r o b l e m s p e r s e c a n b e r e m e d i e d i f a p p r o a e h e d s e r i o u s l y a n d i f m o d e r n k n o w l e d g e i s a p p l i e d . . . . 9 P e r h a p s t h e m o s t r e l e v a n t c o m m e n t s o n t h i s q u e s t i o n come f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f a p r o j e c t c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e U n i -v e r s i t y o f A l a s k a . T h a t u n i v e r s i t y h a s a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f n a t i v e s t u d e n t s ( E s k i m o s , A l e u t s , a n d I n d i a n s ) t h a n o t h e r N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g . R e c o g n i z i n g t h e u n i q u e p o s i t i o n o f t h e A l a s k a n n a t i v e a s " i n e x o r a b l y i n t r a n s i t i o n t o w a r d a c u l t u r e w h i c h p r e s s e s i n u p o n h i m f r o m e v e r y s i d e , " 1 0 i t w a s d e c i d e d t h a t a summer o r i e n -t a t i o n p r o g r a m s h o u l d b e s e t u p " d e s i g n e d t o h e l p t h e A l a s k a n n a t i v e s t u d e n t t o a d j u s t t o c o l l e g e l i f e a n d t o p e r c e i v e a n d v e r b a l i z e h i s p r o b l e m s a s h e s e e s t h e m . " 1 1 A s P r o f e s s o r L e e S a l i s b u r y , r e p o r t i n g o n t h i s a p p r o a c h i n t h e J a n u a r y , 1966, i s s u e o f T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r e x p l a i n s i t , " T h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e p r o g r a m i s t o i m p r o v e h i s a b i l i t y t o c o m m u n i c a t e h i s t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s t o o t h e r s . " 1 2 9 L o u L a B r a n t , " G o a l s f o r C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t Y o u t h , " U . S . O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 1 9 6 4 , N o . 5 ((/Washington G o v ' t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ) p . 2 4 . 10 L e e H. S a l i s b u r y , " S p e e c h P r o b l e m s o f A l a s k a n N a t i v e S t u d e n t s , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V , N o . 1 , J a n u a r y , 1966. p.6 1 . 1 1 I b i d . p . 6 4 . 1 2 I b i d T h e p r o g r a m t o o k t h e f o r m o f p a r a l l e l c o u r s e s i n E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a n d a k i n d o f b a s i c a n t h r o p o l o g y . I n b e i n g i n t r o -d u c e d t o c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a b l e t o g a i n a b e t t e r i n s i g h t i n t o some o f t h e b a s e s o f t h e i r own c u l t u r e a n d t h e w a y i n w h i c h i t c o m p a r e d ( a n d o o c ; e a s i o n a l l y c o n f l i c t e d ) \ t f i t h t h e " E u r o p e a n " c u l t u r e o f t h e w h i t e man i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . C r o s s - c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m s w e r e d i s c u s s e d a n d t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s u s e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e s s i o n s a s a s s i g n m e n t s . T h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d i t w a s e x -p l a i n e d i n t h i s w a y : I f we h a s t e n t h i s a c c u l t u r a t i o n a t t h e e x p e n s e o f h i s n a t i v e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d , we c u t h i m o f f a t t h e r o o t s a n d d e s t r o y h i s i d e n t i t y . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h e c a n d e v e l o p a d e e p e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i s o r i g i n a l c u l -t u r e a n d a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s a d o p t e d o n e i f h e i s a b l e t o c o m p a r e t h e m o b j e c t i v e l y . 1 - ' S a l i s b u r y r e p o r t s t h a t h e f e l t t h a t t h e p r o g r a m h a d a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t i n o r i e n t i n g s t u d e n t s f o r c o l l e g e s t u d i e s : We c o u l d s e e a p h y s i c a l c h a n g e c o m i n g o v e r m a n y o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e y s e e m e d t o s t a n d s t r a i g h t e r , t o l a u g h m o r e e a s i l y a n d l e s s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y T h e y b e g a n t o l o o k a t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h n e w e y e s . H y p o c r i s y w a s n o t c o n f i n e d t o C a u c a s i a n s b u t c o u l d b e f o u n d a m o n g t h e i r o wn p e o p l e . . . 1 ^ " T h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e m u c h i n t h i s p r o g r a m t h a t r e c o m -m e n d s i t s e l f t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g a c o m m u n i c a t i o n c o u r s e f o r y o u n g n a t i v e s t u d e n t s i n o u r own c o u n t r y . I n 13 I b i d . , p.6 5 . 1 4 I b i d . , p.6 6 . d r a w i n g up t h e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s e t f o r t h i n Appendix C, I have s t r i v e n t o emphasize t h e s e a s p e c t s ; p e r s o n a l i t y growth and a s t r o n g s e l f - i m a g e ; improvement o f i n t e r a c t i v e s k i l l s ; and an i n c r e a s e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s o f o t h e r s . T h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s development o f E n g l i s h s k i l l s w i t h s o c i a l s k i l l s a ppears t o be an u n d e r l y i n g b a s i s f o r t h e program d e v e l o p e d by S a l i s b u r y and h i s a s s o c i a t e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l a s k a . S t a t u s o f O r a l Language i n t h e P r e s e n t C u r r i c u l a What b a s i s i s t h e r e i n t h e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y a u t h o r -i z e d f o r use a t the p r e s e n t s time f o r a communication program t h a t might be adapted f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r needs o f I n d i a n s t u d e n t s ? A number o f h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s put out by v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l departments o f e d u c a t i o n were examined t o see t o what e x t e n t and a t what l e v e l a speech communication course s u i t e d f o r t h i s purpose might be i n t r o -duced. I t was n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a tendency t o make the a c t i v i t i e s more g e n e r a l i n t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s . Such a c t i v i t i e s as p r a c t i c e i n g i v i n g o r a l r e p o r t s , r e a d i n g a l o u d , some drama, e t c . a r e recommended. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the A l b e r t a Course o f Study p r o v i d e s f o r a u n i t on " U n d e r s t a n d i n g P a r l i a m e n t a r y P r o c e d u r e " a t t h e Grade Ten l e v e l ; a l s o u n i t s on "Improving Your L i s t e n i n g and S p e a k i n g " ( t h i s i n c l u d e s c l a s s speeches) and "Knowing More About Radio and T e l e -v i s i o n " . I n B r i t i s h Columbia O r a l Language comes i n t o i t s o w n — o f f i c i a l l y a t l e a s t — a t t h e G r a d e E l e v e n l e v e l , w h e r e i t c a l l s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n v o i c e p r o d u c t i o n , b r e a t h i n g , a r t i c u l a t i o n , i n t o n a t i o n , e t c . , g e s t u r e , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , a n d " S p e a k e r - A u d i e n c e R e l a t i o n s " . S p e e c h m a k i n g i s a l s o p r o -v i d e d f o r ; a s w e l l a s c o n v e r s a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w s , p a n e l d i s c u s -s i o n , f o r m a l d e b a t e , o r a l r e a d i n g , d r a m a t i z a t i o n , a n d c h o r a l r e a d i n g . L i s t e n i n g s k i l l s a r e a l s o e m p h a s i z e d : " L i s t e n i n g i s a n a c t i v e , n o t a p a s s i v e p r o c e s s , "by w h i c h t h e l i s t e n e r u n d e r s t a n d s w h a t h e h a s h e a r d . " - ^ T h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e a n o p p o r t u n i t y p r o v i d e d h e r e t o c o n d u c t a f u l l - f l e d g e d s p e e c h c o u r s e , p r o v i d e d t h e r e w a s t h e t i m e a n d i n c l i n a t i o n t o p u t i t i n t o e f f e c t . A l l o f t h e s e c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s m a k e t h i s p r o -v i s i o n f o r s p e e c h o r o r a l l a n g u a g e a s p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l " L a n g u a g e " o r " E n g l i s h " p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . O n t a r i o h a s a s p e c i f i c c o u r s e o u t l i n e d w h i c h i s d e s i g n a t e d " S p e e c h A r t s " , o f f e r e d a t t h e G r a d e E l e v e n a n d T w e l v e l e v e l s a s a n e l e c t i v e i n t h e E n g l i s h p o r t i o n o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l p r o g r a m . T h i s c o u r s e i s q u i t e e l a b o r a t e i n i t s o b j e c t i v e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n . " ^ A f t e r e x a m i n i n g t h e s e v a r i o u s c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , I w o u l d c o n c l u d e t h a t a s h o r t c o u r s e o r s e r i e s o f u n i t s o n S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y a d a p t e d f o r I n d i a n s t u d e n t s 15 " S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l E n g l i s h , " P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D i v i s i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m , 1966. 16 " S p e e c h A r t s : E n g l i s h , S e n i o r D i v i s i o n , " O n t a r i o D e p t . o f E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m , R P - S 4 ( R e v i s e d 1 9 6 ? ) p p . 9 6 - 1 2 8 . c o u l d , i n f a c t , "be i n t r o d u c e d i n h i g h s c h o o l s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f C a n a d a w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k a n d p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l a . I n c e r t a i n p r o v i n c e s t h i s c o u l d m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e l y h e d o n e a t t h e G r a d e E l e v e n l e v e l , h u t i n a n y e v e n t i t c o u l d e a s i l y h e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a p o r t i o n o f t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e o f s t u d y . S p e c i a l F a c t o r s t o h e C o n s i d e r e d i n a P r o g r a m f o r I n d i a n  S t u d e n t s C e r t a i n o t h e r f a c t o r s h a v e t o h e c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t a t t h i s t i m e a l l I n d i a n s a t t e n d i n g h i g h s c h o o l ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f c e r t a i n s c h o o l s i n t h e f a r N o r t h ) a r e i n " i n t e g r a t e d " s c h o o l s . T h a t i s t o s a y , t h e y a r e m i n g l e d w i t h s t u d e n t s f r o m " w h i t e " s o c i e t y . W h a t m i g h t h e t h e p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t r y i n g t o i n t r o -d u c e a p r o g r a m i n t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r a c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l g r o u p ? T h e r e m i g h t w e l l h e some o b j e c t i o n m a d e , e v e n i n a l a r g e s c h o o l w h e r e d i v i s i o n o f c l a s s e s i s p r a c t i c a b l e a n d p o s s i b l e , t o s e g r e g a t i n g I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n a c l a s s r o o m b y t h e m s e l v e s , t o e n g a g e i n a p r o g r a m w h i c h t o t h e m m i g h t w e l l a p p e a r a s l i t t l e m o r e t h a n a g l o r i f i e d r e m e d i a l c o u r s e i n s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . How-e v e r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c l a s s r o o m s i n w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r e o f I n d i a n d e s c e n t c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o s t u d y i n g s u c h a c o u r s e . I n s u c h a c a s e i t m i g h t b e d e s i r a b l e t o a l t e r t h e e m p h a s i s f r o m " r a c i a l p r i d e " 61 t o " e t h n i c p r i d e " ( r e g a r d l e s s o f r a c e ) . There i s no e s s e n t i a l r e a s o n why t r a i n i n g i n speech communication o f t h e k i n d s u g -g e s t e d c o u l d not be adapted t o t h e needs o f a c l a s s r o o m w i t h a m i n g l i n g o f w h i t e and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n ! There i s a l s o a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a p r o j e c t o f t h i s k i n d c o u l d be h a n d l e d as an e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , o r as a s p e c i a l e l e c t i v e t o t h o s e who might w i s h t o v o l u n t e e r f o r i t — perhaps i n the f o r m o f a " F i r s t C i t i z e n s " c l u b , o r something o f t h e k i n d . Grade L e v e l and Time L i m i t a t i o n Assuming, t h e n , t h a t i t were p o s s i b l e t o i n t r o d u c e a program t o improve speech communication among I n d i a n p u p i l s o f h i g h s c h o o l age, what c h a r a c t e r might such a program t a k e ? I n an e f f o r t t o put t h i s p r o j e c t i n t o a somewhat r e a l i s t i c framework, i t was d e c i d e d t o p l a c e l i m i t s upon the t ime a v a i l a b l e f o r i t s o p e r a t i o n and t o d i r e c t i t p r i m a r i l y a t a g i v e n grade l e v e l . F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i t was assumed t h a t s t u d e n t s might be exposed t o t h i s program a t t h e Grade E l e v e n l e v e l . T h i s i s a r b i t r a r y , b u t i t happens t o f i t i n t o t h e B r i t i s h Columbia c o u r s e o f s t u d i e s a t t h i s grade l e v e l r a t h e r b e t t e r than e l s e w h e r e , and B r i t i s h Columbia has a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . There i s a c t u a l l y no r e a s o n why i t c o u l d not be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n any s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e , or f o r t h a t m a t t e r a t freshman c o l l e g e l e v e l . I t i s a l s o a r b i t r a r i l y 62 assumed t h a t about t h r e e dozen c l a s s p e r i o d s can be devoted t o i t ( e a c h perhaps 45 minutes or so i n l e n g t h ) . Twenty-seven c l a s s r o o m hours i s not a v e r y g r e a t l e n g t h o f time t o d e v e l o p i m p o r t a n t a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s , b u t i n a p i l o t p r o -p o s a l o f t h i s n a t u r e i t was f e l t t h a t i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c t o assume t h a t anyone would be w i l l i n g t o devote a g r e a t amount o f t i m e u n t i l i t s v a l u e had been e s t a b l i s h e d . O b j e c t i v e s I n e x amining t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f speech c u r r i c u l a g e n e r a l l y i t i s n o t e d t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s are o f t e n s t a t e d i n r a t h e r f l o w e r y terms and t e n d t o be sweeping i n n a t u r e . I t i s the o p i n i o n o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t more modest but more s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s are p r e f e r a b l e , i f one i s g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a c h i e v i n g them. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e b a s i c ob-j e c t i v e — t h a t o f i m p r o v i n g the s t u d e n t ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a communicator (whether speaker o r l i s t e n e r ) — w i l l always be t h e c e n t r a l core o f any speech program. I n a r r i v i n g a t ' o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , i t had t o be borne i n mind t h a t I n d i a n s g e n e r a l l y have a low s e l f -image, t h a t t h e y t e n d t o be r e t i c e n t , and t h a t t h e y a r e sometimes s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about t h e i r I n d i a n b a c k g r o u n d . A c c o r d i n g l y , some o f t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t g u i d e d me i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e were: 1) t o have a l i m i t e d number o f f a i r l y s p e c i f i c " b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s , " a l l o f w h i c h would be (a) r e l a t e d 63 t o t h e most u r g e n t needs o f I n d i a n p u p i l s , and (h) c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h something t a n g i b l e and a p p r e c i a b l e i n t h e time a v a i l a b l e . 2) t o emphasize the development o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s k i l l s and de-emphasize t h e n o t i o n o f some k i n d o f performance r e q u i r i n g the use o f t h e r i g h t " t e c h n i q u e s " . 3) t o develop g r a d u a l l y from b a s i c speech s i t u a t i o n s s u c h as c o n v e r s a t i o n t o thos e w h i c h c a l l f o r a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a p p r o a c h . I t was f e l t t h a t t o t r y t o a c h i e v e some o f t h e s e more s o p h i s -t i c a t e d s k i l l s t h a t a r e sometimes s t r i v e n f o r i n a speech program — s u c h as d e b a t e , p l a t f o r m s p e a k i n g , p l a y p r o d u c -t i o n , e t c . would be i m p r a d t i i e a l i n v i e w o f t h e r a t h e r l i m i t e d t i m e b e i n g a l l o w e d f o r t h e program. There i s a l s o t h e f a c t t h a t some a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as p l a t f o r m s p e a k i n g and debate can be c o n s i d e r e d as q u i t e t h r e a t e n i n g f o r any who a r e n a t u r a l l y r e t i c e n t i n p e r s o n a l i t y . Hence, i n t h e program as s e t f o r t h , r e l a t i v e l y few o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r a d d r e s s i n g t h e group as a group i n a f o r m a l o r s e m i - f o r m a l way. The a s p e c t s o f speech w h i c h a r e emphasized a r e t h o s e o f communicating i n a p e r s o n a l way w i t h a n o t h e r o r o t h e r s , w i t h s h a r i n g i d e a s , w i t h making an e f f o r t t o a p p r e c i a t e one a n o t h e r ' s v i e w s ; a l s o t h e a s p e c t o f t r y i n g t o d e v e l o p a 64 h e a l t h y a n d p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . I t w o u l d h e h o p e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d g e n e r a l l y " f e e l g o o d " a b o u t i n t e r c o m m u n i -c a t i o n i n t h e g r o u p . T h i s i s t h e r a t i o n a l e t h a t l i e s b e h i n d t h e e m p h a s i s o n c o n v e r s a t i o n , g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n , e t c . d e v e l o p -i n g o n l y g r a d u a l l y i n t o a n i n f o r m a l " p u b l i c s p e a k i n g " s i t u a t i o n t o w a r d t h e e n d o f t h e p r o g r a m . T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y , d i s c u s s i o n o f I n d i a n " h e r o e s " , e t c . i s d o n e w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f a r o u s i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o g r a m a n d t h e r e b y s t i m u l a t i n g t h e m t o c o m m u n i c a t e . E x p e r i e n c e w i t h S p e e c h E d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n s i n U.S.A. 1 7 I n a s t u d y r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r c o n c e r n i n g t h e s p e e c h p r o b l e m s o f I n d i a n p u p i l s i n A m e r i c a n h i g h s c h o o l s , t h e s p e e c h t e a c h e r s a t t h e s e s c h o o l s w e r e a s k e d t h i s q u e s t i o n , "What h a v e y o u f o u n d t o b e e f f e c t i v e m e a n s o f m e e t i n g a n d s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m s f a c e d i n t e a c h i n g t h e I n d i a n p u p i l i n t h e i n t e g r a t e d s p e e c h c l a s s ? " T h e a n s w e r s f e l l i n t o s i x m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s : 1 . P r o v i d i n g m a x i m u m o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a n d i m p r o v e d r a p p o r t a m o n g t h e I n d i a n a n d n o n - I n d i a n p u p i l s i n t h e c l a s s -r o o m s e t t i n g . 2 . A f f o r d i n g t h e I n d i a n p u p i l s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g r o u p s p e e c h a c t i v i t y ( i t a l i c s n o t i n t h e o r i g i n a l ) a s a p r e i u a e a n d " w a r m - u p " f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . M a n y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y h a d f o u n d d i s c u s s i o n p a n e l s a n d c h o r a l r e a d i n g t o b e e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e . . . 3 . E n c o u r a g i n g t h e I n d i a n p u p i l s t o s e l e c t s p e e c h t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r t r i b a l b a c k g r o u n d a.nd h e r i t a g e ; 1 7 L y n n R. O s b o r n , " T h e I n d i a n P u p i l i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l S p e e c h C l a s s , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V I , S e p t . , 1 9 6 ? . 4. D e v e l o p i n g a g r e a t e r k n o w l e d g e a n d t i n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e h i s t o r y , t r a d i t i o n s , a n d c u l t u r e o f t h e t r i b e ( s ) r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e I n d i a n p u p i l s i n t h e s p e e c h c l a s s 5. W o r k i n g w i t h t a p e r e c o r d e r s a n d i n s t r u c t i n g t h e p h o n e t i c s o f s p o k e n E n g l i s h t o h e l p I n d i a n p u p i l s o v e r c o m e t h e i r s u b s t a n d a r d s p e e c h . 6. E m p h a s i z i n g t o t h e I n d i a n p u p i l s t h e n e c e s -s i t y f o r g o o d s p e e c h i n e v e r y d a y l i v i n g ; fl j o b i n t e r v i e w s , s o c i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , e t c . T h e e m p h a s i s i n t h e a b o v e o n r a p p o r t , s o c i a l i n t e r -a c t i o n , a n d g r o u p s p e e c h a c t i v i t y , a s w e l l a s t h e e m p h a s i s o n I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n a n d c u l t u r e w o u l d s e e m t o c o n f i r m t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h g u i d e d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m p r o -p o s e d i n A p p e n d i x C. A t t h e C o n f e r e n c e o n S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s t u d e n t h e l d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h D a k o t a i n 19^7 o n e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t e m e r g e d w a s t h a t " C l a s s r o o m s p e e c h a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d b e g i n w i t h t h e s i m p l e a n d w o r k t o w a r d t h e c o m p l e x . G r o u p d i s c u s s i o n , t h e l e a s t t h r e a t e n i n g f o r m , s h o u l d p r e c e d e t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h 1 9 r e q u i r e m o r e p o i s e a n d f l u e n c y ( d e b a t e a n d p u b l i c a d d r e s s ) . " A n o t h e r s t a t e m e n t t o e m e r g e f r o m t h i s s a me c o n f e r e n c e w h i c h h a s a b e a r i n g o n t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h o n e m i g h t a p p r o a c h s p e e c h e d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n s t u d e n t s r e a d s a s f o l l o w s : 1 8 I b i d . , p . 1 8 8 . 19 c o n f e r e n c e o n S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n S t u d e n t , " U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h D a k o t a , V e r m i l l i o n , S.D., 1967 ( m i n e o g r a p h e d ) , A p p e n d i x F . 66 Because the I n d i a n s t u d e n t comes from a c u l t u r e i n w h i c h argument and controversy-a r e n ot s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r , he must g r a d u a l l y , but s y s t e m a t i c a l l y be shown t h a t many problems i n l i f e r e q u i r e c h o i c e s between c o n f l i c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . . . t h a t h e a l t h y disagreement i s n o t h o s t i l i t y and ac k n o w l e d g i n g a m i s t a k e i s not f a i l u r e . 2 0 T h i s c o n f e r e n c e was a l s o a d d r e s s e d by H i l d e g a r d Thompson, fo r m e r C h i e f o f t h e B r a n c h o f E d u c a t i o n , Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f o r a l E n g l i s h , Thompson had t h i s t o s ay: •":> O r a l E n g l i s h s h o u l d draw h e a v i l y on I n d i a n c u l t u r e f o r c o n t e n t and d i r e c t i o n . . I n d i a n p u p i l s . . . a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f expanding t h e i r c u l t u r a l background t o i n c l u d e i d e a s and v a l u e s f r o m l i f e around them....The o r a l E n g l i s h program can be a p o w e r f u l s o c i a l f o r c e i n expanding c u l t u r a l h o r i z o n s . . . . O r a l E n g l i s h programs s h o u l d s t r e n g t h e n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and communi-c a t i o n . The sweep o f h i s t o r y i n I n d i a n a f f a i r s has c a r r i e d w i t h , i t a heavy r e s i d u e o f n e g a t i v e emotions t h a t o f t e n b l o c k com-m u n i c a t i o n a c r o s s c u l t u r e s . . . 2 1 A l t h o u g h t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l has been i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e would seem t o be v a l u -a b l e a d v i c e here w h i c h Canadians might w e l l heed. 20 I b i d . 21 H i l d e g a r d Thompson, a d d r e s s d e l i v e r e d t o Conference on Speech Communication and t h e American I n d i a n S t u d e n t , V e r m i l l i o n , S.D., 1967. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Caught "between the I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n w o r l d as w e l l as between g e n e r a t i o n s , t h e I n d i a n c h i l d i s f a c e d w i t h an o v e r -whelming t a s k : t o assemble f o r h i m s e l f an i d e n t i t y i n s i t u a t i o n s o f t h e utmost c o n f u s i o n . He must a l s o d e v e l o p a s u f -f i c i e n t sense o f s e l f - w o r t h t o enable him to p r o g r e s s f r o m c h i l d h o o d t o a d u l t h o o d w i t h some c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s r o l e , h i s a b i l i t i e s , h i s l i m i t a t i o n s and some hope o f s u c c e s s . The p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r s u c h a t a s k i n c l u d e t h e development o f s k i l l s t o cope w i t h h i s environment and t h e s u p p o r t o f a d u l t s who w i l l b e l i e v e i n him and guide h im a l o n g h i s w a y . i Summary T h i s s t u d y has at t e m p t e d t o examine some o f the f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g t h e l a c k o f f a c i l i t y i n speech o f N o r t h American n a t i v e I n d i a n s i n g e n e r a l , w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on t h o s e o f h i g h s c h o o l age. The shyness and l a c k o f f l u e n c y i n t h e use o f spoken E n g l i s h w h i c h so many people o f I n d i a n a n c e s t r y d i s p l a y has been n o t e d and a t t e s t e d t o by a u t h o r i t i e s whose e x p e r i e n c e w i t h n a t i v e p e o p l e s had been ext e n s i v e ' . 1 Hawthorn, o p . c i t . , p . 1 0 3 . 6B Undoubtedly much o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s l a c k o f f a c i l i t y l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t so many o f them a r e u s i n g an u n f a m i l i a r tongue. However, i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t s p e e c h g e n e r a l l y i s not used as e x t e n s i v e l y i n I n d i a n s o c i -e t i e s as i n o u r s , a l t h o u g h i t i s v a l u e d on c e r e m o n i a l o c -c a s i o n s . By our s t a n d a r d s we would t e n d t o r e g a r d them as r e l a t i v e l y s i l e n t s o c i e t i e s . Moreover, t h i s non-communicative p a t t e r n i s e v i d e n t even among tho s e who have had s e v e r a l y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n and to whom E n g l i s h i s t h e i r p r i n c i p a l language o f speech; and also, among tho s e who have n e v e r spoken any language o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n f e r r e d t h a t s p e e c h d i f f i c u l t i e s o f I n d i a n s a r e n o t t o be e x p l a i n e d m e r e l y i n terms o f t h e u s u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t any p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e who a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o master a second l a n g u a g e . A u t h o r i t i e s have been quoted t o emphasize t h e f a c t : , t h a t , i n e f f e c t , l a c k o f f a c i l i t y i n E n g l i s h s k i l l s can l a r g e l y be equated w i t h l a c k o f s u c c e s s and w i t h l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y i n v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and hence w i t h a more d e p r e s s e d p o s i -t i o n on the economic and s o c i a l s c a l e . I n d i s c u s s i n g p u p i l a m b i t i o n s o f I n d i a n y o u t h s on a " n o r t h e r n r e s e r v a t i o n " i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Timmons makes t h e p o i n t : " A l t h o u g h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e s t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h the t e c h n i c a l knowledge n e f i e s s a r y t o l i v e o u t s i d e t h e i r c u l t u r a l g r o u p , t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i s needed 69 2 f o r s u c c e s s f u l c u l t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a c k o f a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h on t h e p a r t o f I n d i a n p e o p l e s and o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s who are c l a s s i f i e d as " c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d " o r " c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t " i s an o b v i o u s one, and l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t o f problems i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t y o u t h has been ex-amined, and i n some cases r e f e r r e d t o . W i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g t o m i n i m i z e th e e x i s t e n c e o r t h e v a l u e o f c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e — t h e i r l a n g -u a g es, t r a d i t i o n s , sense o f community, e t c . , i t i s n e v e r t h e -l e s s f e l t t h a t r e a l p r o g r e s s toward b e t t e r i n g t h e i r c o n d i t i o n w i l l n ot be made u n t i l t h e y become more e f f e c t i v e as communi-c a t o r s i n E n g l i s h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n spoken E n g l i s h . I t i s n o t a c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t the most prominent l e a d e r s o f t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e a t t h e p r e s e n t time i n t h e i r campaign f o r g r e a t e r r i g h t s and an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a more meaning-f u l way i n t h e b e n e f i t s o f our c i v i l i z a t i o n a r e t h o s e who a r e most a r t i c u l a t e and most v o c a l . I n a n a l y z i n g r e a s o n s f o r t h i s l a c k o f speech f l u e n c y , t h e c a r d i n a l f a c t o r o f l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e ( o r p r a c t i c e , o r t r a i n i n g ) i n t h e use o f good E n g l i s h has been r e c o g n i z e d . The remedy f o r t h i s k i n d o f d e f i c i e n c y can o n l y l i e i n a l o n g - t e r m program aimed a t d e v e l o p i n g t h o s e s k i l l s . 2 Timmons, o p . c i t . , p.5 70 I t i s , however, a fundamental c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t a c e r t a i n l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e , an u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h r e g a r d t o s e l f - i m a g e , c o u p l e d w i t h a m i s t r u s t o f tho s e w i t h whom t h e y a r e communicating ( a l l o f t h e s e b e i n g h i g h l y p e r s o n a l elements) a r e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o t h e r e t i c e n c e o f many I n d i a n p e o p l e . T h i s a s p e c t was d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I , and some o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e e f f e c t o f p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s upon speech b e h a v i o u r was examined. R e l e v a n t t o t h i s i s t h i s comment i n t h e Hawthorn R e p o r t : I t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e v a r i a b l e s o f s e l f - i m a g e , a s p i r a t i o n s and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e f o r the purposes o f d i s c u s s i o n . I n r e a l i t y , t h e y c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e r d e p e n d e n t c l u s t e r w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l y d etermines t h e d i r e c t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . When a s p i r a t i o n s cannot be a t t a i n e d and no sub-s t i t u t i o n o f g o a l s i s made, the s e l f - i m a g e i s r e d u c e d . A low s e l f - i m a g e can a l s o l o w e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n and t h u s e f f e c t i v e l y r e d uce h i s range o f v o c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . 3 The e f f e c t o f an u n s y m p a t h e t i c l i s t e n e r was a l s o r e -f e r r e d t o , p o i n t i n g up t h e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e p l a y e d by the t e a c h e r o r o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l i n a f f e c t i n g communicative b e h a v i o u r e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y . The whole f a c t o r o f " c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t " was l i k e w i s e c o n s i d e r e d — the c o n t r a s t e x p e r i e n c e d between t h e home o r neighbourhood environment on t h e one hand, t h e s c h o o l and l a r g e r community on t h e o t h e r . A u t h o r i t i e s were quoted t o 3 Hawthorn, o p . c i t . , p.141. i n d i c a t e t h e i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t s w h i c h t h i s f r e q u e n t l y p r o d u c e s . T h i s was d e a l t w i t h p r i n c i p a l l y i n Chapter I I I . The r e s u l t s o f s u r v e y s c a r r i e d out among American I n d i a n p u p i l s o f h i g h s c h o o l age were u t i l i z e d t o p i n p o i n t some o f t h e pr o b l e m a r e a s among t h e s e young people as r e g a r d s f a c i l i t y i n spoken E n g l i s h . i n an e f f o r t t o g i v e some c o n c r e t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h i s s t u d y , a h y p o t h e t i c a l program — aimed a t p r o d u c i n g a more e f f e c t i v e use o f communication s k i l l s — was d e v i s e d . Such a program c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d a t t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l and be i n c o r p o r a t e d as p a r t o f the r e g u l a r o r a l E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m . The o v e r a l l p h i l o s o p h y o f t h i s p r o -gram — d e s i g n e d f o r Canadian I n d i a n s t u d e n t s , b u t w h i c h c o u l d be m o d i f i e d t o be used f o r o t h e r s as w e l l — was t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r g e n e r a l awareness as communicators and to b u i l d up a sense o f s e l f - w o r t h . I t i s hoped t h a t such a program might go a t l e a s t a l i t t l e way toward overcoming some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o u t l i n e d above'. Recommendations (1) That the g e n e r a l r e t i c e n c e o f I n d i a n young peopl e be r e c o g n i z e d as an i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e i r development as s t u d e n t s and as e f f e c t i v e and s u c c e s s f u l c i t i z e n s ; p a r t i c -u l a r l y , perhaps w i t h i n a n o n - I n d i a n c u l t u r e . That t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and o t h e r s i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t a k e t h i s f a c t i n t o a c c o u n t and t a k e any s t e p s w i t h i n t h e i r power t o improve t h e i r communication s k i l l s . That an i n v e s t i g a t i o n he made t o determine f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e speech f a c i l i t y i n I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e proposed on page 93ff£in Appendix A) might s e r v e as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r such a s t u d y . I n any e v e n t , s u c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d i n c l u d e matched groups o f I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n s t u d e n t s and s h o u l d a t t empt t o determine whether t h e r e i s any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a t t i t u d e s toward speech o f I n d i a n s t u d e n t s and tho s e f r o m the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . B I B L I O G R A P H Y I B o o k s A l l p o r t , G o r d o n W. P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o e i a l E n c o u n t e r . B o s t o n , B e a c o n P r e s s , I 9 6 0 . A u e r , J . J . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o R e s e a r c h i n S p e e c h . New Y o r k , H a r p e r & B r o s . , " T 9 5 7 ; B a l c e r , C L . a n d S e a h u r y , H.P. T e a c h i n g S p e e c h i n  T o d a y ' s S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . JMew Y o r k , M o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , I 9 6 0 . B e a t t y , W i l l a r d W. ( e d . ) E d u c a t i o n f o r A c t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n , U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i a n S e r v i c e , 1944. B e r l o , D a v i d K. T h e P r o c e s s o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n . New Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , I 9 6 0 . B o r m a n n , E r n e s t G. 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T o r o n t o ' , R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 . W o l c o t t , H a r r y P. A K w a k i u t l V i l l a g e and S c h o o l . New Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston7"T957! A r t i c l e s i n P e r i o d i c a l s , A n n u a l B u l l e t i n s , e t c . A l l e n , R o n a l d R. " T h e New S p e e c h E d u c a t o r : P h i l o s o p h y a n d S t a n d a r d s , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V , N o . 1, J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 5 " T " p p . m - 1 9 . A r g y l e , M. a n d D e a n J . " E y e C o n t a c t , D i s t a n c e , a n d A f f i l i a t i o n , " S o c i o m e t r y , V o l . 28, N o . 3 , 1965, p p . 289 - 3 0 4 . B u y s , W.E., C a r l s o n , C.V., C o m p t o n , H., a n d P r a n k , A.D. " S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V I I , N o . 4 , N o v e m b e r , 1968, pp . 3 0 1 f f . C a l i t r i , C h a s . J . " T h e N a t u r e a n d V a l u e s o f C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t Y o u t h , " W a s h i n g t o n , G o v ' t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , U . S . O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 1964, N o . 5 , PP . 1 - ? : G i b b , J a c k . " D e f e n s i v e C o m m u n i c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f  C o m m u n i c a t i o n , V o l . X I , N o . 3» p p . 1 4 1 - 1 4 8 . G o l d e n , R o s e I . "Ways t o I m p r o v e O r a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t Y o u t h , " U .S. O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 1964, N o . 3 , pp.lUU - 1 0 " 9 T H o c h m u t h , M a r i e . " S p e e c h a n d S o c i e t y , " T h e B u l l e t i n o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l  P r i n c i p a l s , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 8 , C h a p t e r 2 , pp . 1 7 - 3 3 • L a B r a n t , L o u . " G o a l s f o r C u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t Y o u t h , " U . S . O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n B u l l e t i n . 1964, N o i 5» pp. 2 2 - 3 1 . M c N i c k l e , D ' A r c y . " T h e I n d i a n T e s t s t h e " M a i n s t r e a m , " T h e N a t i o n , V o l . 2 0 3 , N o . 9 , S e p t . 1966. M u i r , L a u r a . " R e s e a r c h i n R e t i c e n c e , " C a n a d i a n S p e e c h  C o m m u n i c a t i o n J o u r n a l , S p r i n g , 1968. N e l s o n , C. D o n a l d a n d L i l l y w h i t e H. "A S y m p o s i u m o n 'A B r o a d e r C o n c e p t o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n D i s o r d e r s ' , J o u r n a l o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n , V o l . X I V , N o . 1 , M a r c h , 1964, p p T J - T c H O s b o r n , L y n n R. " T h e I n d i a n P u p i l i n t h e H i g h S c h o o l S p e e c h C l a s s , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V I , N o . 3 , S e p t e m b e r , 1967, p p . 1 8 7 - 1 8 9 . . " S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V I I , N o . 1 , J a n u a r y , 1968. . " S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n P r o b l e m s o f I n d i a n s a n d E s k i m o s , " C a n a d i a n S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n J o u r n a l , V o l . I I , N o . 1 , S p r i n g , 1969. , a n d c . P a y n e P o r t e r . " P r o g r a m s o f S p e e c h a n d D r a m a O p e r a t e d b y t h e B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X I V , N o . 3 , S e p t e m b e r , 1965. : 77 P h i l l i p s , G - e r a l d M. " R e t i c e n c e : P a t h o l o g y o f t h e N o r m a l S p e a k e r , " S p e e c h M o n o g r a p h s , V o l . X X X V , N o . 1, M a r c h , 1968, pp . 3 9 f f . S a l i s b u r y , L e e H. " S p e e c h P r o b l e m s o f A l a s k a n N a t i v e S t u d e n t s , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V , N o . 1, J a n u a r y , 196b, p p . 6 1 - 6 7 . S m i t h , D o n a l d H. " T e a c h i n g S p e e c h t o t h e C u l t u r a l l y D i s a d v a n t a g e d , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V , N o . 2 , M a r c h , i 9 6 0 , pp.lWfTt S t e w a r t , E d w a r d C. "The S i m u l a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s , " J o u r n a l o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n , V o l . X V I , N o . 4, D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 6 . T h o m p s o n , H i l d e g a r d . " C u l t u r e a n d L a n g u a g e , " I n d i a n  E d u c a t i o n 28 ( A p r i l 15, 1965) 1. I I I . A d d r e s s e s , P a p e r s , a n d O t h e r R e c o r d e d S t a t e m e n t s C a m p b e l l , P . R e a d . P r e a m b l e t o "A R e s e a r c h S t u d y o f M e a n s o f O v e r c o m i n g t h e C o m m u n i c a t i o n P r o b l e m o f t h e C a n a d i a n I n d i a n , " s u b m i s s i o n t o C a n a d a C o u n c i l , 1969 ( m i m e o g r a p h e d ) " C l a s s r o o m O b j e c t i v e s a n d A c t i v i t i e s w i t h P u p i l s o f I n d i a n B a c k g r o u n d . " — a n o u t l i n e d r a w n u p b y m e m b e r s o f C o u r s e E d . S357, 196l Summer S e s s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , S a s k a t o o n . C o n f e r e n c e o n " S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n S t u d e n t , " U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h D a k o t a , V e r m i l l i o n , S.D., 1967, A p p e n d i x P ( m i m e o g r a p h e d ) C o o m b s , L . M a d i s o n . "The E d u c a t i o n a l N e e d s o f I n d i a n S t u d e n t s , " ( P i n a l T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t o f t h e W o r k s h o p f o r D i r e c t o r s o f NDEA I n s t i t u t e s f o r E d u c a t o r s o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n P u p i l s ) L a w r e n c e , K a n s a s , U n i v e r s i t y o f K a n s a s , 1967. P e s t , T h o r r e l B . " I n t e r p e r s o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n : R e c e n t R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s , " ( a p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y o f T e c h n i c a l W r i t e r s a n d P u b l i s h e r s ) L o s A n g e l e s , M a y , 1968. 78 The I n d i a n C h i l d and H i s E d u c a t i o n ( P r o c e e d i n g s o f a c o n f e r e n c e on t h e s u b j e c t h e l d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , September, 1967). U.B.C. • Dept. o f E x t e n s i o n (bound mineographed b o o k l e t ) . M cKenzie, K e i t h S. "The I n d i a n i n E d u c a t i o n : The C o n f l i c t o f V a l u e s Between S u b - C u l t u r a l Groups," Graduate S t u d i e s paper completed i n 1969» F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . N e l s o n , O l i v e r W. "Speech i n Secondary S c h o o l s : A P o i n t o f View," U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 196 7 (mimeographed). 0 s h o r n , Lynn R. "Speech Communication Problems o f I n d i a n s , and E s k i m o s , " (Paper g i v e n a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g , Canadian Speech A s s o c i a t i o n , C a l g a r y , -August, 1968). Thompson, H i l d e g a r d . "A Review o f P r e s e n t P o l i c i e s and P r a c t i c e s i n T e a c h i n g O r a l E n g l i s h t o I n d i a n P u p i l s , " ( a d d r e s s d e l i v e r e d t o Conference on Speech Communication and t h e American I n d i a n H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f Sou t h Dakota, 1967). I V . Theses J a c k s o n , E l l e n D. "The T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h as a Second Language t o A l a s k a n N a t i v e C h i l d r e n o f N o n - E n g l i s h S p e a k i n g Background on the K i n d e r g a r t e n and F i r s t - G r a d e L e v e l s . " u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1964. R e y n o l d s , Wynn R. " P e r s u a s i v e S p e a k i n g o f t h e I r o q u o i s I n d i a n s , " u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1957. Timmons, B. J a n Z. "An E x p l o r a t o r y I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f A t t i t u d e s Toward C e r t a i n Speech Communication V a r i a b l e s Pound Among Male P o s t - H i g h S c h o o l V o c a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s a t H a s k e l l I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e , Lawrence, Kansas." u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r -t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas, 1965. C u r r i c u l a E n g l i s h , S e n i o r D i v i s i o n , O n t a r i o D e p a r t m e n t o f \ C u r r i c u l u m E P - S 4 ( R e v i s e d , 1 9 6 7 ) p p . 9 6 - 1 2 8 . I n t e r i m S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m G u i d e , P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , 1963^ S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l E n g l i s h , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D i v i s i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m , 1966. APPENDIX A PILOT SURVEY OP INDIAN STUDENTS AT ST. MARY'S INDIAN STUDENT RESIDENCE AT MISSION, B.C. T h i s s u r v e y t o o k t h e form o f a p i l o t q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o l e a r n something o f the a t t i t u d e s o f I n d i a n h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a t t h i s l o c a t i o n toward speech s i t u a t i o n s . A t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f Dr. C.E. Johnson, D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f I n d i a n S c h o o l s f o r the Vancouver educa-t i o n a l d i s t r i c t (Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ) , and w i t h the k i n d c o - o p e r a t i o n o f F a t h e r J.A. M o r r i s , A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f S t . Mary's I n d i a n S t u d e n t R e s i d e n c e and t h e C o u n s e l l o r t h e r e , S i s t e r Anne H a n l e y , c o p i e s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were d i s t r i b u t e d a t t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n and f i l l e d out under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f S i s t e r Anne a t t h e i r e v e n i n g s t u d y p e r i o d . F o r m e r l y a " r e s i d e n t i a l school'!, ; S t . Mary's i s now o p e r a t e d as a s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e o r s u p e r v i s e d b o a r d i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e r v i n g p u p i l s who come from v a r i o u s Roman C a t h o l i c I n d i a n communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The s t u d e n t s come from a v a r i e t y o f t r i b e s and bands on Vancouver I s l a n d ( b o t h t h e West Coast and the Cowichan a r e a ) , from s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e S^uamish and Pemberton a r e a s , and f r o m v a r i o u s s e t t l e m e n t s i n the E r a s e r V a l l e y and t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia. They are t r a n s p o r t e d by bus e v e r y day i n t o t h e town o f M i s s i o n C i t y about a m i l e away, where t h e y a t t e n d a r e g u l a r " i n t e g r a t e d " p r o v i n c i a l h i g h s c h o o l . S i s t e r Anne a c t s i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f a guidance c o u n s e l l o r f o r them, and spends a p o r t i o n o f each day a t t h e s c h o o l i n M i s s i o n . She has y e a r s o f ex-p e r i e n c e i n I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n and f o l l o w s the p r o g r e s s o f a l l t h e p u p i l s under h e r charge w i t h g r e a t i n t e r e s t and d e d i c a t i o n . ' A copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e — t o g e t h e r w i t h a t a b u l a t i o n o f the r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s — i s i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h i s A p p e n d i x . I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s were e x p e c t e d t o evoke, i n most c a s e s , a p o s i t i v e o r a n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e . A l t e r n a t i v e answers were p r o v i d e d a f t e r each q u e s t i o n and a l l t h a t was r e q u i r e d o f the r e s p o n d e n t s was t h a t t h e y p l a c e a check mark a f t e r w h i c h e v e r response t h e y f e l t most a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o i t . The t o t a l o f r e s p o n s e s was n o t always e x a c t l y the same. I n a few cases i t e m s were n o t checked f o r e i t h e r r e p l y ; i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s b o t h r e a c t i o n s were t i c k e d o f f ( o c c a s i o n a l l y w i t h q u a l i f y i n g s t a t e m e n t s w r i t t e n i n ) so t h e y c o u l d n o t be t a b -u l a t e d i n t h e t o t a l . E i g h t y - t h r e e c o p i e s o f the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e 8 2 w e r e r e t u r n e d t o me, i n v o l v i n g 45 b o y s a n d 38 g i r l s i n G r a d e s E i g h t t o T w e l v e i n c l u s i v e . T h e a g e r a n g e o f t h e s t u d e n t s w a s f r o m 14 t o 20 ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f o n e b o y who w a s s t i l l 13), w i t h a m e a n a g e o f a b o u t s e v e n t e e n . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n b y g r a d e s w a s a s f o l l o w s : G r a d e E i g h t 13 ( a v e r a g e a g e a b o u t 14|- t o 15) G r a d e N i n e . 26 ( a v e r a g e a g e a b o u t 16) G r a d e T e n 10 ( a v e r a g e a g e a b o u t 16^ t o 17) G r a d e E l e v e n 21 ( a v e r a g e a g e a b o u t 17 t o 1 8 ) G r a d e T w e l v e 13 ( a v e r a g e a g e a b o u t 19) T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s w o r d e d a s f o l l o w s : I w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e i t i f y o u w o u l d t a k e a f e w m i n u t e s t o a n s w e r t h e s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s b e l o w . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s a s k a f e w t h i n g s a b o u t y o u , m o s t l y i n o r d e r t o f i n d o u t h o w y o u f e e l a b o u t t a l k i n g t o o t h e r p e o p l e a n d h o w y o u f e e l a b o u t y o u r own s k i l l s i n s p e a k i n g . Do n o t p u t y o u r name a n y w h e r e o n t h i s p a p e r . I d o n ' t w a n t t o k n o w who i s a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s . S o y o u c a n b e p e r f e c t l y f r a n k i n y o u r a n s w e r s . N o b o d y w i l l k n o w t h a t i t i s y o u who f e e l t h i s w a y a b o u t w h a t i s a s k e d . H o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e s e a r e b e i n g s e n t t o many o t h e r s t u d e n t s s u c h a s y o u r s e l f i t w i l l t e l l u s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t how a l o t o f p e o p l e f e e l . I w o u l d a s k y o u , t h e r e f o r e , t o b e a b s o l u t e l y h o n e s t i n y o u r a n s w e r s . F i r s t , f i l l i n : W h e t h e r y o u a r e a g i r l o r a b o y W h a t i s y o u r a g e ? W h a t g r a d e a r e y o u i n n o w ? N o w , a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . I n e a c h c a s e t h e p o s s i b l e a n s w e r h a s b e e n p l a c e d b e l o w t h e q u e s t i o n . C h o o s e w h i c h e v e r a n s w e r b e s t d e s c r i b e s h o w y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n a n d p u t a t i c k m a r k i n t h e b l a n k o p p o s i t e i t . c I n o t h e r w o r d s , j u s t t i c k o n e a n s w e r f o r e a c h q u e s t i o n . N o j t e : T h e r e f o l l o w e d t h e n t h e l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s w i t h a l t e r -n a t i v e a n s w e r s ( s h o w n b e l o w ) , e a c h a n s w e r f o l l o w e d b y a b l a n k s p a c e w h e r e a c h e c k m a r k c o u l d b e p l a c e d . T h e t o t a l who r e s p o n d e d t o e a c h a l t e r n a t i v e a n s w e r i s s h o w n , a n d a b r e a k d o w n i s made a c c o r d i n g t o s e x a n d a c c o r d i n g t o g r a d e - g r o u p . Q u e s t i o n s a n d A l t e r n a t i v e A n s w e r s Do y o u h a v e i d e a s a n d o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h i n g s w h i c h y o u w a n t t o s h a r e w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e , o r do y o u p r e f e r t o k e e p t h e m t o y o u r s e l f ? Y e s , I h a v e i d e a s I l i k e t o s h a r e w i t h o t h e r s . I w o u l d r a t h e r j u s t t h i n k a b o u t t h e m t o m y s e l f . B r e a k d o w n o f R e s p o n s e s H as 3 66 16 2. I f y o u h a v e a n i d e a y o u w a n t t o s h a r e w i t h s o m e o n e , do y o u f i n d i t e a s y t o t h i n k u p w o r d s t o e x p r e s s y o u r i d e a s ? I f i n d i t e a s y t o t h i n k u p w o r d s t h a t m e a n w h a t I w a n t t o s a y . I f i n d i t h a r d t o t h i n k u p w o r d s t h a t m e a n w h a t I w a n t t o s a y . 1? 62 3. W o u l d y o u r a t h e r t a l k a b o u t y o u r i d e a s o r w r i t e a b o u t t h e m . I w o u l d r a t h e r t a l k a b o u t t h e m . I w o u l d r a t h e r w r i t e a b o u t t h e m . 4 0 39 CQ O pq 05 00 ON o H CM H H H H FH . . • • • •H u Ci3 e> t!3 35 9 1 4 29 23 20 31 7 33 17 19 11 6 22 3 1 8 11 12 6 4 4 6 84 4 . Do you t h i n k t h a t o t h e r people u s u a l l y l i k e to l i s t e n to what you have to say? Yes, I t h i n k they u s u a l l y are w i l l i n g to l i s t e n . Ho, I don't t h i n k o t h e r people u s u a l l y care much ahout i t . 5• Do you l i k e t o express your idea s t o someone o l d e r than y o u r s e l f , or would you r a t h e r share them w i t h someone your own age? I would r a t h e r t a l k t o someone o l d e r . 31 19 12 7 11 5 6 2 I would r a t h e r share my ideas w i t h someone my own age. 50 25 25 6 15 5 14 11 6 . Whom do you f i n d i t e a s i e r to t a l k about t h i n g s w i t h , boys or g i r l s ? I f i n d i t e a s i e r t o t a l k t o boys, g i r l s ) members o f my own sex) 66 34 32 11 21 9 17 9 I f i n d i t e a s i e r t o t a l k t o ( g i r l s , boys) (members o f the o p p o s i t e sex) 11 7 4 2 5 1 2 1 Note: The a l t e r n a t i v e r e p l i e s to t h i s q u e s t i o n were a c t u a l l y worded: (1) I f i n d i t e a s i e r to t a l k to boys (2) I f i n d i t e a s i e r to t a l k to g i r l s H 03 00 ON o H OJ <a to H H H 1—1 +» U • • . o O •H U u E H PQ e> cb Ci3 CtJ cb 51 31 20 10 12 12 8 27 11 16 13 8 85 H 03 CO ON O H CM 05 CQ H H rH H -P >> U O O - H u U U U U 6 W ti c£> ci> ci> c£s c5 Do you l i k e b e t t e r s p e a k i n g when y o u a r e w i t h j u s t one p e r s o n , o r w i t h a gang o f t h r e e o r f o u r ? -I would r a t h e r speak t o j u s t one p e r s o n . 48 26 22 9 15 8 11 4 I would r a t h e r speak when t h e r e a r e t h r e e o r f o u r o t h e r s a r o u n d. 35 19 16 4 10 2 10 9 Do you l i k e t o g i v e a t a l k t o a whole group o f p e o p l e when you have something i n t e r e s t i n g t o t a l k about? Y e s , I l i k e t o speak t o a group when I have an i n t e r e s t i n g t o p i c . 36 23 13 6 12 5 5 8 No, I don't l i k e t o speak t o a whole group a t any time • 46 22 24 7 13 5 16 5 Do you t h i n k you a r e good a t s p e a k i n g t o a group o f p e o p l e ? Y e s , when I'm w e l l p r e p a r e d I t h i n k I can do i t q u i t e w e l l . 26 13 13 6 4 3 8 7 No , I don't t h i n k I'm v e r y good a t i t . 56 31 25 7 20 7 13 6 186 H CO <x> O N O H CM cd CO H H H H +=> fH o O • H m EH pq tt> t 5 Do you t h i n k s c h o o l s s h o u l d g i v e more p r a c t i c e a t t a l k i n g t o groups o f p e o p l e ? Y e s , I t h i n k t h a t s c h o o l s s h o u l d g i v e more p r a c t i c e a t s p e a k i n g i n f r o n t o f g r o u p s . 71 41 30 12 22 • 7 17 ' 13 No, I don't t h i n k s c h o o l s s h o u l d g i v e t h i s k i n d o f p r a c t i c e . 12 4 8 1 4 3 4 0 Do you speak any language b e s i d e s E n g l i s h ? Y e s , I speak a n o t h e r l a n g u a g e . 46 23 23 4 18 7 9 8 No, I j u s t speak E n g l i s h . 35 20 15 9 8 3 12 3 I n y o u r own v i l l a g e , do your p a r e n t s ( o r g u a r d i a n s ) u s u a l l y speak E n g l i s h i n th e home? Ye s , t h e y u s u a l l y speak E n g l i s h . 41 26 15 6 16 4 10 6 No, t h e y u s u a l l y speak a n o t h e r language. 36 15 21 7 10 6 10 4 :87. Do y o u f i n d i t e a s i e r t o t a l k t o p e o p l e a t t h e s c h o o l w h e r e y o u a r e n o w , o r a t t h e s c h o o l b a c k h o m e ? T'otal Boys Girls 00 • cb ON • Cb Gr.10 Gr.ll CM H • u cb I f i n d i t e a s i e r t o t a l k t o p e o p l e h e r e . 50 28 2 2 1 0 1 0 4' 16 111 I f o u n d i t e a s i e r t o t a l k t o p e o p l e a t t h e s c h o o l b a c k h o m e . 31 16 15 3 16 6 4 1 Do y o u t h i n k p e o p l e " s o u n d d i f f e r e n t " h e r e t h a n t h e y d i d b a c k h o m e ? Y e s , t h e y s o u n d a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . 54 2 7 2 7 1 0 1 2 8 1 4 6 N o , t h e y s o u n d a b o u t t h e s a m e . 2 4 1 4 1 0 3 1 2 2 6 4 W h i c h w a y do y o u t h i n k s o u n d s b e t t e r ? T h e r e ' s r e a l l y n o . d i f f e r e n c e . 55 30 25 9 2 0 **, 1 1 8 I t h i n k t h e y s o u n d b e t t e r h e r e . 1 8 9 9 2 3 3 8 3 I t h i n k t h e y s o u n d e d b e t t e r b a c k h o m e . 8 4 4 1 3 3 2 0 88 H CO 00 O N O H CM crj CO H r H H H •P U • • • • m o o • r l r l EH PQ cis tis CD ci) 16. W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g do y o u t h i n k i s t h e h e s t r e a s o n f o r l e a r n i n g t o s p e a k w e l l ? S o y o u c a n g e t a b e t t e r j o b w h e n y o u g r o w u p . 3 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 So y o u ' r e a b l e t o e x p l a i n w h a t y o u m e a n t o p e o p l e . 19 1 0 9 5 6 ! 4 4 * 2 So y o u a r e a b l e t o e x p l a i n h o w y o u f e e l t o o t h e r p e o p l e . 16 7 9 2 5 1 5 2 So y o u h a v e m o r e c o n f i d e n c e i n y o u r s e l f . 4 3 2 4 1 9 4 1 4 5 1 2 9 T h e f o r e g o i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e a t t i t u d e s o f a g r o u p o f I n d i a n y o u n g p e o p l e t o w a r d c e r t a i n s p e a k i n g s i t u a t i o n s . T h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w e r e l i m i t e d b y t h e l a c k o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t o o t h e r I n d i a n g r o u p s , a n d b y t h e f a c t t h a t n o n - I n d i a n s w e r e n o t u s e d f o r p u r p o s e s o f c o m p a r i s o n ! P r o p o s a l f o r a S t u d y C o m p a r i n g S p e e c h A t t i t u d e s o f I n d i a n  Y o u n g P e o p l e W i t h N o n - I n d i a n Y o u n g P e o p l e I t i s a i r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t h a t a s t u d y h e u n d e r t a k e n t o i n v e s t i g a t e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d o r a l c o m m u n i -c a t i o n o f y o u n g p e o p l e f r o m a n I n d i a n c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d c o m p a r e d w i t h y o u n g p e o p l e f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Two g r o u p s o f a t t i t u d e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e i s r e l a t e d t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d s e l f -c o n c e p t ( s e e C h a p t e r I I ) . T h e s e c o n d i s t h e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h o n e h o l d s t o w a r d s p e e c h f a c i l i t y a n d s p e a k i n g s i t u a t i o n s ' . 1 ) S e l f - C o n c e p t M e a s u r e m e n t I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e m o s t s a t i s f a c t o r y w a y t o g a i n a n i d e a o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t o f I n d i a n y o u n g p e o p l e a s a g r o u p i s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f some a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d a n d s t a n d a r d i z e d s c a l e o f m e a s u r e m e n t w h i c h w o u l d c o m p a r e t h e m w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a ( w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e t e s t t o a c o n t r o l g r o u p ) . T h e C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y 1 i s a c o m -p a r a t i v e l y t h o r o u g h i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f p e r s o n a l i t y . E i g h t e e n s u b - s c a l e s i d e n t i f y a n d m e a s u r e c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n c h o s e n f o r i n c l u s i o n 1 T h e C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y , C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , I n c . , P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a , r e v i s e d 1 9 6 4 . 90 i n t h e i n v e n t o r y . There a r e 480 i t e m s ( i n the f o r m o f T r u e - F a l s e s t a t e m e n t s ) i n the t e s t b o o k l e t . W h i l e most o f the s c a l e s t h a t emerge a f t e r s c o r i n g the t e s t have o n l y a m i n i m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the k i n d o f " s e l f - c o n c e p t " i n w h i c h we a r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d ; n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e f i r s t s i x sub-s c a l e s (grouped under C l a s s I : "Measures of P o i s e , Ascendancy, and S e l f - A s s u r a n c e " ) seem t o have q u i t e a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon t h e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h we a r e c o n s i d e r i n g . S c a l e s 3, 4, and 5 (namely t h o s e o f S o c i a b i l i t y , S o c i a l P r e s e n c e , and S e l f -A c c e p t a n c e ) appear t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t . S c a l e I I (Good I m p r e s s i o n ) might be o f some i n t e r e s t as w e l l ' . The a d m i n i s t e r i n g o f t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y , and a s t u d y o f th e s c o r e s on the s c a l e s r e f e r r e d t o above, s h o u l d p r o v i d e some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n as t o how I n d i a n young p e o p l e compare i n s e l f - c o n c e p t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . 2) A t t i t u d e Toward Speech F a c i l i t y A q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h proposes t o a s s e s s a t t i t u d e toward f a c i l i t y i n speech i s s u b m i t t e d below. I t i s a n t i -c i p a t e d t h a t the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s would t e n d t o g i v e a p o s i t i v e answer t o most o f the q u e s t i o n s . A f i v e -p o i n t s c a l e t o r e c o r d t h e r e s p o n s e s i s t h e r e f o r e i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s w i l l p e r m i t a d i f f e r e n c e i n degree o f p o s i t i v e response t o be i n d i c a t e d . F o r t y - f o u r o f t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e worded p o s i t i v e l y , w h i l e t w e n t y - f i v e o f them are worded n e g a t i v e l y . I n s c o r i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s , a w e i g h t o f f i v e p o i n t s i s a s s i g n e d t o " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " f o r p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s and " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " f o r n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . P o u r , two, t h r e e , and one p o i n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e a s s i g n e d t o o t h e r t y p e s o f r e s p o n s e s as one moves to w a r d t h e o p p o s i t e end o f the s c a l e , ( e . g . " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " r a t e s o n l y one p o i n t i n r esponse t o a p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t , e t c . ) N o t e : Items marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k a r e worded n e g a t i v e l y , and t h e s c o r i n g s h o u l d he r e v e r s e d on t h e s e . The use o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t would n ot he o f g r e a t v a l u e u n t i l one has been a h l e t o e s t a b l i s h something about i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y might be e s t a b -l i s h e d t h r o u g h use o f t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method. The Kuder-R i c h a r d s o n f o r m u l a f o r e s t i m a t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y (K-R 20) c o u l d 2 a l s o be u s e d . Por d e t e r m i n g v a l i d i t y , one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g methods might be employed: ( i ) Comparing t h e r e s u l t s o f two random samples o f t h e same p o p u l a t i o n , ( i i ) The o p i n i o n o f e x p e r t s — b o t h t h o s e q u a l i f i e d i n t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement and t h o s e w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n , ( i i i ) Comparison, w i t h o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s o r a s i m i l a r s t u d y ( i f a v a i l a b l e ) 2 M.E. Shaw and J.M. W r i g h t , S c a l e s f o r the "Measurement o f A t t i t u d e , Hew Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l .BOOK TJoT,~T?6y, p.±t>. ( i v ) E l i m i n a t i o n o f some i t e m s based on t h e r e s u l t s o f an a c t u a l p i l o t r u n . On c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s , and t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a v i n g been r e f i n e d t o meet w i t h t h e s e s t a n d a r d s , i t would be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o matched groups o f I n d i a n and non-I n d i a n young p e o p l e . The s c o r e s would be used t o i n v e s t i -g ate d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e i n t h e two g r o u p s . 93 QTJES T10 M A IRE ON ATTITUDE TOWARD SPEECH FACILITY We would l i k e t o know j u s t how you f e e l about t h e s t a t e m e n t s shown below. Some you w i l l agree w i t h , some y o u w i l l n o t agree w i t h . O t h e r s you may f e e l are p a r t l y t r u e , o r perhaps y o u can't q u i t e d e c i d e how t o r e a c t t o i t . Some you w i l l f e e l more s t r o n g l y about t h a n o t h e r s . There are no " c o r r e c t " o r " i n c o r r e c t " ways t o r e a c t . I t i s a m a t t e r o f your own p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s . A f t e r you have r e a d each s t a t e m e n t , d e c i d e how you f e e l about i t , t hen p u t a check mark i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e column t o t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d e o f each s t a t e m e n t . A f t e r t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s w i t h w h i c h y o u agree s t r o n g l y , you w i l l p l a c e a check mark i n t h e v e r y l e f t - h a n d column (as shown i n t he f i r s t example g i v e n ) . I f y o u agree on t h e whole, b u t n o t so s t r o n g l y , t h e second from t h e l e f t would be the p r o p e r one t o mark (as shown i n t h e second example g i v e n ) . I f y ou f e e l t h e statement has some t r u t h i n i t , b u t i n a way i s n ' t t r u e , y o u would i n d i c a t e n e u t r a l and mark t h e mi d d l e column. The f o u r t h and f i f t h columns would show i f y o u d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t , o r s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . Examples The weather i s warmer i n summer t h a n i n w i n t e r The weather i s warmer i n summer t h a n i n l a t e s p r i n g P r o c e e d now t o p l a c e check marks a f t e r 1. l e a r n i n g t o speak w e l l g i v e s p e o p l e s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . 2. When p e o p l e t a k e p a r t i n a d i s c u s s i o n , t h e y become s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and w o r r i e d about what o t h e r s w i l l t h i n k o f them. 3. E x p e r i e n c e i n d i s c u s s i o n h e l p s t o dev e l o p p e o p l e i n t o l e a d e r s . 4. To hecome a good s p e a k e r makes a pe r s o n a b e t t e r c i t i z e n . 5 . P e o p l e who speak w e l l a re o f t e n t r y i n g t o "show o f f " . 6. T a k i n g p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s when a l o t o f p e o p l e a r e around tends t o upset me f o r a l o n g t i m e ! C D C D u < >> H H W ) 0 3 a C D U 0 C D • P u U - p C D CO <3 ft each s t a t e m e n t . 7. P e o p l e who speak w e l l a r e more l i k e l y t o h e l p i n t h e i r community. * 8. P e o p l e who are good a t s p e a k i n g want t o put t h e i r own o p i n i o n s a c r o s s — j u s t t o l o o k good t o t h e m s e l v e s . 9 . T a k i n g p a r t i n a d i s c u s s i o n t e a c h e s you t o r e s p e c t t h e vie w s o f o t h e r p e o p l e . 10. We need t o he good s p e a k e r s i n almo s t e v e r y job we do. ;: * 1 1 . P e o p l e who a r e good a t s p e a k i n g a re h i d i n g what t h e y r e a l l y t h i n k . 12. Most s u c c e s s f u l p e o p l e a re good s p e a k e r s . 13. T a k i n g p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s h e l p s t o make you l e s s shy w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . Ik, B e i n g a b l e t o speak w e l l h e l p s t o make your l i f e h a p p i e r . * 1 5 . P e o p l e who a r e s k i l l e d i n s p e a k i n g a r e c o v e r i n g up f o r something t h a t ' s b o t h e r i n g them. 96 CD CO JH CO W) co cd U co W) -H . . <3 P i >5 CD >i H rH CD r-i ' • bo cd fn W) fi co h bD fi o co +» cd o U U 2 <Q u -P M CO -H -P 1 6 . . A p e r s o n who e x p r e s s e s h i m s e l f w <! s R to w e l l i s o f t e n v e r y t h o u g h t f u l t o o . _ _ _ _ _ * 17» . P e o p l e who a r e . s k i l l e d i n s p e a k i n g t r y t o make y o u t h i n k t h e way t h e y do 1 8 . " P e o p l e who t a l k a l o t do so b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s u r e o f t h e m s e l v e s . _ _ _ _ _ * 1 9 • P e o p l e who a r e g o o d a t s p e a k i n g d o n ' t mean what t h e y s a y . _ _ _ _ _ 2 0 . P e o p l e who- t a l k w e l l a r e more f u n t o be w i t h . _ _ _ _ _ 2 1 . T a k i n g p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s t e a c h e s p e o p l e how t o b e h a v e i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . _ _ _ _ _ * 2 2 . I t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r . i f y o u s a y t h i n g s w e l l a s l o n g a s y o u u n d e r s t a n d y o u r s e l f w hat y o u mean. _ _ _ _ _ * 2 3 . A p e r s o n c a n g e t t o know more b y r e a d i n g t h a n t a k i n g p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s . _ _ . 2 4 . B e i n g a b l e t o s t a t e y o u r own v i e w s on s o m e t h i n g g i v e s y o u s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e 97 CO CO IH W> <JJ >> H W) fl o 25. Most p e o p l e who speak w e l l a r e £ co h a p p i e r and b e t t e r a d j u s t e d t h a n t h o s e who don't. 26. H a v i n g l o t s o f e x p e r i e n c e t a l k i n g t o p e o p l e h e l p s y o u t o be a b l e t o t a k e c r i t i c i s m w i t h o u t l e t t i n g i t b o t h e r you.__ * 27. What you do i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n what you s a y . * 28. G e t t i n g i n v o l v e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s g i v e s p e o p l e a f e e l i n g o f i n f e r i o r i t y . 29- T a k i n g p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s h e l p s t o improve your a b i l i t y t o speak w e l l . _ 30. A good speaker i s more l i k e l y t o get ahead i n l i f e . 31. T a k i n g p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s h e l p s you t o t h i n k more c l e a r l y . 32. P r a c t i c e i n s p e a k i n g h e l p s t o make y o u f e e l a t ease i n p u b l i c . _ * 33* We s h o u l d n o t waste time i n l e a r n i n g t o speak w e l l u n t i l we have l e a r n e d t o w r i t e w e l l . CO CO r l as cd CQ • r l P CO > s H CO H cd u to CO IH so CO i f cd O u CQ U CO •H •P < ft fi CO 34. Everyone s h o u l d have some t r a i n i n g i n s p e a k i n g . 35• P r a c t i c e i n s p e a k i n g w e l l doesn't h e l p much l a t e r i n l i f e . 36. I f you speak w e l l y o u can g e t t o know p e o p l e b e t t e r . 37. A good speaker i s someone we can a l l a d m i r e . 38. B e i n g a b l e t o speak w e l l doesn't r e a l l y h e l p y o u w i t h y o u r own p r o b l e m s . 39* Doing a l o t o f s p e a k i n g h e l p s p e o p l e t o g e t over t h e i r s h y n e s s . 40. B e i n g a b l e t o speak w e l l i s n o t g o i n g t o h e l p you i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r 30b t h a t you a r e g o i n g t o do. 41. World problems a r e more l i k e l y t o be s o l v e d i f we t a l k more t o one a n o t h e r . 42. I f we a l l spoke out more,. t h i n g s would get done f a s t e r . 43. G e t t i n g i n t o a l i v e l y c o n v e r s a t i o n i s more e n j o y a b l e t h a n g o i n g f o r a d r i v e • 99 * 44. The s i l e n t t y p e o f man makes a good l e a d e r . 45. B e i n g a b l e t o speak w e l l can h e l p y o u t o he a b e t t e r s t u d e n t . 46 . T a k i n g p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s h e l p s you t o a c c e p t the views o f t h e m a j o r i t y . * 47 . You o n l y have t o be a good t a l k e r i f yo u r job c a l l s f o r i t . 48 . I f I were a b e t t e r s p e a k e r , p e o p l e would be more l i k e l y t o l i s t e n t o my o p i n i o n . 49. T a k i n g p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s h e l p s t o make you l e s s shy o f o t h e r p e o p l e . 50. P e o p l e who speak w e l l a r e a good i n f l u e n c e on o t h e r p e o p l e 1 s l i v e s . * 51• I t i s more i m p o r t a n t t o be a good a t h l e t e t h a n a good s p e a k e r . 52. I f I c o u l d e x p l a i n m y s e l f b e t t e r , my f r i e n d s would l i k e me more. 53. A p e r s o n who speaks, w e l l i s more l i k e l y t o r u n h i s a f f a i r s w e l l t h a n one who d o e s n ' t . CO CO FH CO bD CO cd FH CO bD • r l < P t CO H H CO H bD cd u bD fi CO FH bD fi O CO - P 0 3 O FH FH CQ U +* w CO •H +=> cq P i CO 100 * 5 4 . P e o p l e who use "big words do so i n o r d e r t o make o t h e r p e o p l e l o o k u n i m p o r t a n t . 55• I f you l e a r n t o speak w e l l when you are young, y o u are more l i k e l y t o he good a t i t when you a r e o l d e r . 56. B e i n g a h l e t o speak w e l l h e l p s p e o p l e t o make new f r i e n d s . * 57 . P e o p l e who a r e good t a l k e r s o f t e n get c r i t i c i s e d . 5 8 . P e o p l e who speak w e l l a r e l o o k e d up t o by e v e r y o n e . 59» P e o p l e who a r e a h l e t o put t h e i r t h o u g h t s i n t o words are more l i k e l y t o get a l o n g w e l l w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . * 6 0 . I t i s b e t t e r t o be good l o o k i n g t h a n a good s p e a k e r . * 6 l . We would be b e t t e r o f f i f everyone spoke l e s s . 6 2 . L e a r n i n g t o speak w e l l i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n g e t t i n g h i g h marks i n s c h o o l . CO CO u CO CO cd u CO bO •H < P CD >> H H CD H cd JH ba s CO u ttO fi 0 CD iS cd 0 u CQ •p W CO •H •p CO <3 ft P CO 101 co CO CO bD CO cd u to H bD o FH 63. To "be f l u e n t i n speech i s n e c e s s a r y to i n our s o c i e t y . _ 64. I f you speak w e l l , p e o p l e a r e more l i k e l y t o do t h i n g s f o r y o u . _ 65. P e o p l e who a r e a b l e t o put t h e i r t h o u g h t s i n t o words are more l i k e l y t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . _ * 66. P e o p l e who don't speak w e l l s t i l l g e t a l o n g a l l r i g h t i n l i f e . 67. I f we a r e a b l e t o e x p l a i n how we f e e l , p e o p l e won't m i s u n d e r s t a n d u s . _ * 68. I t i s b e t t e r n o t t o t a l k because p e o p l e 1 don't sympathize w i t h y o u anyway. __ 69. To speak w e l l h e l p s us t o t h i n k w e l l . CO H CO H Cd FH bO CO U bD fl CO •P cd O r l CQ FH bD CO •H - P fi to APPENDIX B INTERVIEWS WITH INDIAN STUDENTS AT MISSION, B.C. AND WITH ADULTS WHO HAVE WORKED WITH INDIAN STUDENTS I n t e r v i e w s W i t h S t u d e n t s These were conducted as a f o l l o w - u p t o t h e ques-t i o n n a i r e d e s c r i b e d on pages 8 1 - 8 8 . The s t u d e n t s concerned — a t S t . Mary's I n d i a n S t u d e n t R e s i d e n c e a t M i s s i o n , B.C. — had a l l answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s about s i x weeks e a r l i e r . F i v e boys were i n t e r v i e w e d and e i g h t g i r l s . The boys were no t a v a i l a b l e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d a f t e r supper i n t h e e v e n i n g , so i t was n e c e s s a r y t o crowd them i n r a t h e r h a s t i l y b e f o r e t h e i r e v e n i n g meal. I t was p o s s i b l e t o speak t o o n l y f i v e o f them i n t h e ti m e a v a i l a b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , p a r t l y because time was p r e s s i n g and p a r t l y t o a v o i d d i s t r a c t i n g them o r making them s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , no n o t a t i o n s were made w h i l e t h e y were p r e s e n t . As a r e s u l t , t h e i r -answers have n o t been r e c o r d e d as f a i t h f u l l y o r c o m p l e t e l y as would o t h e r -w i s e have been p o s s i b l e . I n the case o f the g i r l s , on the o t h e r hand, n o t e s were made e i t h e r d u r i n g o r i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r each i n t e r v i e w , and t h e s e a r e t h e r e f o r e much more co m p l e t e . Each s t u d e n t was asked e x a c t l y the same q u e s t i o n s , w i t h no change i n the w o r d i n g o r t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e y were a s k e d . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages the q u e s t i o n s are l i s t e d , and t h e r e s p o n s e s o f the s t u d e n t s are summarized. Q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d t o each s t u d e n t : 1. A number o f the s t u d e n t s who answered t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s a i d t h a t t h e y sometimes f i n d i t h a r d t o f i n d words t o say what t h e y t h i n k o r f e e l . I f y ou were one o f t h o s e , i s t h i s because you don't know o f words t o say t o e x p r e s s what you want? Or i s i t t h a t you know t h e words may be wrong o r t h a t you may be c r i t i -c i z e d i f y ou say them? 2. Sometimes p e o p l e don't seem i n t e r e s t e d i n what you a r e s a y i n g . Why do y o u t h i n k t h i s might be so? 3* Do y o u l i k e g e t t i n g up t o speak i n f r o n t o f a group ( f o r i n s t a n c e g i v i n g c l a s s r o o m s p e e c h e s ) ? 4. How do you f e e l about my t a l k i n g t o you r i g h t now? Are y o u j u s t p u z z l e d by i t (wondering what t h i s i s a l l a b o u t ) ? Do you f e e l shy? Do you f e e l b o t h e r e d ? Do you f e e l good about i t ? 5. S u p p o s i n g you had a chance t o do what you r e a l l y wanted i n l i f e , t a k e whatever t r a i n i n g you wanted ( d i d n ' t have t o w o r r y about how l o n g i t t o o k , o r the expense o r a n y t h i n g ) , what do you t h i n k you'd l i k e t o do o r l i k e t o be when you grow o l d e r ? 104 R e p l i e s t o i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s : 1) The hoys (summarized) On t h e whole t h e y were d i v i d e d between t h e i r c h o i c e o f t h e two r e a s o n s suggested i n the f i r s t q u e s t i o n . Two o f them s a i d , "A l i t t l e b i t o f b o t h . " To the second q u e s t i o n , some made answers s u c h a s , " J u s t a b i t b u s y , " "May be p r e o c c u p i e d , " " T r y i n g t o p u t you o f f , " o t h e r s s a i d , "Guess I'm n o t v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g , " " I don't know. Don't t h i n k o f t h e r i g h t words, I g u e s s . " To t h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n , t h e answers were a l l o f t h i s n a t u r e , "Yes, I l i k e t o speak t o a g r o u p , i f the s u b j e c t i s p r e p a r e d , " o r " I t ' s a l l r i g h t i f you've got something t o t a l k a b out." To the f o u r t h q u e s t i o n , one a d m i t t e d he was somewhat p u z z l e d , the r e s t s a i d g e n e r a l l y t h a t t h e y f e l t " a l l r i g h t " o r f e l t "good", "not shy". To t h e f i f t h q u e s t i o n , on v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s , one s a i d , "Be a d o c t o r , " ( t h e n added,"But I'm not s u r e about i t " ) , two s a i d , "work i n some k i n d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , " one s a i d he d i d n ' t know, and t h e f i f t h was not r e c o r d e d . 2) The g i r l s (Answers quoted f o r each i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t ) Respondent A: . 1. "Can't t h i n k up words" " 2. Pound i t d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d t h e words but her meaning was t h a t perhaps she l a c k e d v i t a l i t y and i n t e r e s t , " k i n d o f b o r i n g . " 105 Respondent B : 3. Y e s , i f t o p i c p r e p a r e d . 4 . F e e l okay "because I know what i t ' s a b o u t . Not shy." 5. " L i k e t o be a r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e . Don't know i f I can do i t b u t t h i n k I can." 1 . "Shy, might be c r i t i c i z e d . " 2. " I don't know." 3. "Yes, i t ' s okay, but peop l e might c r i t i -c i z e i f y o u don't do w e l l . " 4 . " I j u s t don't know why." ( a b i t p u z z l e d , p e r h a p s ? ) 5. "Be a r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e . " N o t e : When as k e d why t h i s would be h e r c h o i c e she s a i d , " I l i k e l i t t l e c h i l d r e n . " Respondent;.. C: Respondent D: Respondent E: Respondent F: 1 . "Shy, I gu e s s . " 2. " I don't know. J u s t don't e x p r e s s m y s e l f w e l l , I g u e s s . " 3. "No, I d o n ' t . A f r a i d I ' l l be c r i t i c i z e d . " 4 . "A b i t wondering what i t ' s a l l a bout." 5. " R e g i s t e r e d n u r s e . " (when asked why, she r e p l i e d , " I don't know") 1 . "Shy, I gu e s s . " 2. " I don't know. Not i n t e r e s t i n g , I g u e s s . " 3. No. " A f r a i d I won't be a b l e t o t h i n k o f what t o s a y . " 4 . (She was unable t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n ) 5. A i r l i n e s t e w a r d e s s . (When asked why she s a i d so t h a t she c o u l d meet p e o p l e . ) 1 . "Can't t h i n k o f words." 2. " J u s t f i n d i t h a r d t o e x p r e s s m y s e l f . " 3. "No. I'm n o t used t o t h a t . " 4 . " F e e l a l l r i g h t , but j u s t a l i t t l e p u z z l e d . " 5. "A c h e f . " (When asked why, she s a i d t h a t she l i k e d c o o k i n g ) 1 . " J u s t can't t h i n k o f t h e words." 2. " I don't know. J u s t n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n what I have t o s a y . " 3. "No, I n e v e r c o u l d g e t used t o t h a t . (Always g e t s h a k y ) . " 4 . " F e e l a l i t t l e uneasy, I g u e s s . " 5. "Be a n u r s e ' s a i d e i n a h o s p i t a l . " (Why?) " I l i k e h e l p i n g p e o p l e i n a h o s p i t a l . " Respondent G: 1. 2. 3 . 4 . 5 . " I don't know." " I don't know." (She l a t e r b l u r t e d o u t , " S i s t e r had t o push me i n h e r e . I d i d n ' t want t o come." (At f i r s t no answer) Then s a i d * "No, I've been d o i n g i t . D i d i t i n Grade Seven and now i n Grade E i g h t . " (Then, as she warmed t o the s u b j e c t ) " A l l r i g h t i f yo u r s u b j e c t i s p r e p a r e d . " " I don't know, I'm shy, I g u e s s . " "A t e a c h e r . " When asked f o r h e r r e a s o n she answered, " I l i k e l i t t l e c h i l d r e n . " Respondent H; 1. 2. I: " I guess I can't t h i n k o f t h e words." She went i n t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n about h er g i r l f r i e n d and how t h e y f r e q u e n t l y " d i s c u s s e d t h e i r p r o b l e m s , " but she d i d n ' t t h i n k t h e y were r e a l l y l i s t e n i n g t o one a n o t h e r . Each was b a s i c a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h e r own problem and was u s i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s i t u a t i o n as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o g e t i t o f f h e r c h e s t . No deep concern f o r t h e o t h e r . Note: A l t h o u g h t h i s g i r l ' s language and v o c a b u l a r y was n o t o v e r - e l a b o r a t e I f e l t t h a t she showed r e a l i n s i g h t and f e e l i n g . "No. Makes me n e r v o u s . " " I guess I'm shy." "Want t o be i n t h e Navy." (She has a l r e a d y made f o r m a l i n q u i r i e s about t h i s ) . 107 O t h e r I n t e r v i e w s Three o t h e r i n t e r v i e w s are r e p o r t e d — a l l o f them w i t h p e r s o n s h a v i n g a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n . One o f t h e s e i s employed as a c o u n s e l l o r by t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s a t S t . Mary's I n d i a n Student R e s i d e n c e ( r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r ) . A n other ( a l s o s e r v i n g I n d i a n A f f a i r s ) , i s a c o u n s e l l o r concerned w i t h the o v e r a l l w e l -f a r e and ad j u s t m e n t ( s c h o l a s t i c and o t h e r w i s e ) o f I n d i a n s t u d e n t s l i v i n g away from t h e i r home r e s e r v e s . The t h i r d i s a p r o f e s s o r o f e d u c a t i o n a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l w i t h a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n I n d i a n s f rom t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f o r a l communication. 1) S i s t e r Anne Hanley S i s t e r Anne Hanley was a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d i n o r d e r t o ge t a few p e r s o n a l i m p r e s s i o n s from someone who was c o n s t a n t l y i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e s e s t u d e n t s . The i n t e r v i e w r e c o r d e d as f o l l o w s : Q u e s t i o n : Do you f i n d t h a t t h e s e p u p i l s a r e r e t i c i e n t , by and l a r g e ? Answer: "Very d e f i n i t e l y . " Q u e s t i o n : Do you f i n d t h a t t h e y have d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g words t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s . I n o t h e r words, do th e y l a c k f l u e n c y ? . Answer: " G e n e r a l l y , t h e y l a c k f l u e n c y . " ( S i s t e r Anne the n went on t o d e s c r i b e t h e f e e l i n g s o f p r i d e 1 0 8 w h i c h she e x p e r i e n c e d when she had the op-p o r t u n i t y t o h e a r c e r t a i n e x - p u p i l s o f h e r s who have now become so a r t i c u l a t e i n e x p r e s s -i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n p u b l i c . (She mentioned, among o t h e r s , the names o f l e n Marchand and Don Moses.) Q u e s t i o n : Do t h e s e s t u d e n t s have o r a l language as p a r t o f t h e i r E n g l i s h program, and i f s o , how would you e v a l u a t e t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n t h i s ? Answer: "Some c l a s s e s have c l a s s r o o m speeches, o f c o u r s e . R e m e d i a l E n g l i s h i s t a u g h t i n s e c -ondary s c h o o l to t h o s e who r e q u i r e i t . Q u e s t i o n : Do you f i n d t h e y appear t o e x p e r i e n c e vocab-u l a r y and comprehension d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r E n g l i s h program? Answer: "The m a j o r i t y o f the p u p i l s here a r e weak i n E n g l i s h a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . " S i s t e r Anne th e n went on t o e l a b o r a t e a l i t t l e f u r t h e r on some o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e s e s t u d e n t s . She mentioned t h a t she had asked some o f the g i r l s why t h e y don't e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s more i n c l a s s . An answer t h a t was g i v e n was, "They make us f e e l i n f e r i o r . " One g i r l had once s a i d , "We r e a l l y a r e i n f e r i o r , a r e n ' t we?" Upon b e i n g a s s u r e d t h a t t h i s i m p r e s s i o n was q u i t e u n j u s t i -f i e d , and t h e n b e i n g asked what prompted her t o make such 109 a remark, t h e g i r l e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e y had been d r a m a t i z i n g a s e l e c t i o n i n c l a s s and everyone h u t she was g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o do a p a r t . We can no doubt assume t h a t the t e a c h e r i n t h i s case had no i n t e n t i o n o f s l i g h t i n g t h i s n a t i v e g i r l . I f t h e r e was any a t t i t u d e o f s u p e r i o r i t y , i t may w e l l have been an u n c o n s c i o u s one. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t b e h i n d t h e f a c a d e o f i n a r t i c u l a t e n e s s t h e r e l i e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f s e n s i t i v i t y , and t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y may w e l l be a r e i n f o r c i n g f a c t o r i n t h e r e t i c e n c e o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s . The Hawthorn R e p o r t comments upon t h i s k i n d o f s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s way: I t has been p o s i t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e o f n o n - I n d i a n s toward I n d i a n s d e t e r m i n e s i n a c r u c i a l way t h e a t t i t u d e s o f I n d i a n s toward them-s e l v e s , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s u c c e s s o f f the r e s e r v e and t h e i r - j ^ g e n e r a l s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e w i d e r community/ The p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r and p u p i l , and t h e f e e l i n g o f w o r t h w h i c h th e t e a c h e r i s a b l e t o engender i n t h e p u p i l s , are p r o f o u n d l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h o s e f e e l i n g s o f mutual t r u s t and r e s p e c t w h i c h are so i m p o r t a n t t o f r e e communication. A c c o r d i n g t o 0 s h o r n , I t i s a c e r t a i n t y t h a t i f t h e I n d i a n s t u d e n t i s a b l e t o develop and grow i n an atmosphere o f mutual t r u s t and r e s p e c t where h i s dreams a r e encouraged, h i s o p i n i o n s welcomed, and h i s m i s t a k e s 11 Hawthorn, o p . c i t . p.143. 1 1 0 f o r g i v e n , h e w i l l h a v e a t l e a s t a r u n n i n g s t a r t t o w a r d b e c o m i n g a n a u t o n o m o u s i n d i -v i d u a l c a p a b l e o f f u n c t i o n i n g p r o d u c t i v e l y i n t o d a y ' s w o r l d . ^ 2 2 ) B.W. B a n n e r Some o f t h e s e p o i n t s w e r e f o l l o w e d u p f u r t h e r i n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h M r . B.W. B a n n e r , C h i e f C o u n s e l l o r i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d a r e a f o r s t u d e n t s w h o s e h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . He w a s a s k e d w h a t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h whom h e i s a s s o c i a t e d h e e s t i m a t e d a s b e i n g w e a k i n t h e i r f a c i l i t y i n o r a l E n g l i s h , i n h i s j u d g m e n t i t i s v e r y d i f -f i c u l t t o m a k e s u c h a n e s t i m a t e , t h e n h e w e n t o n t o make a p e r t i n e n t o b s e r v a t i o n . He h a d n o t e d , h e s a i d , t h a t some s t u d e n t s c o u l d b e a m a z i n g l y a r t i c u l a t e w h e n e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r p r o b l e m s t o a c o u n s e l l o r . Y e t some o f t h e s e s ame s t u d e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d b y t h e i r t e a c h e r s o r b o a r d i n g - h o u s e " p a r e n t s " i n t h i s w a y : " T h e y n e v e r t a l k a t a l l . " T h e r e s e e m s t o b e a p r o b l e m s o m e t i m e s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r i g h t r a p p o r t . M r . B a n n e r w a s t h e n a s k e d w h a t p r o p o r t i o n h e w o u l d e s t i m a t e a s b e i n g m o r e t h a n u s u a l l y " w i t h d r a w n " i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e . He s a i d t h a t i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r a w a y f r o m t h e r e s e r v e ( t h a t i s , w h e n t h e y a r e t a k i n g G r a d e E i g h t ) t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m a r e q u i t e " c a u t i o u s o f r e b u f f " a n d c o n s e -1 2 L y n n O s b o r n , " S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t , " T h e S p e e c h T e a c h e r , V o l . X V I I , N o . 1 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 8 , p . 4 0 . I l l q u e n t l y t e n d t o show withdrawn t e n d e n c i e s . I f , d u r i n g t h i s r a t h e r c r i t i c a l p e r i o d , a s i t u a t i o n comes up e i t h e r i n t h e s c h o o l , t h e h o a r d i n g home, o r elsewhere w h i c h s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b s o r t h r e a t e n s them, t h e y may v e r y w e l l he l o s t f o r -e v e r so f a r as i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y i s con-c e r n e d . T h i s , however, i s a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h u s u a l l y a r i s e s d u r i n g t h e i r f i r s t y e a r away from home. As time goes by t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o become much b e t t e r a d j u s t e d . When asked whether he would say t h a t most o f them a r e more a t ease w i t h j u s t a few c l o s e f r i e n d s t h a n w i t h a l a r g e r g r o u p , he a g r e e d t h a t t h e y would t e n d t o be more a t ease w i t h j u s t a few c l o s e f r i e n d s . What p r o p o r t i o n would he e s t i m a t e as h a v i n g c o n s i -d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g t o a " w h i t e " urban e n v i r o n -ment? He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t about one i n e v e r y t e n would have r e a l d i f f i c u l t y i n " s e t t l i n g i n . " The e f f e c t o f t h i s would u s u a l l y be t h a t t h e y would e v e n t u a l l y e i t h e r have t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a new s c h o o l , a new b o a r d i n g home, o r drop o u t o f the e d u c a t i o n a l system e n t i r e l y . Mr. Banner was t h e n asked what ev i d e n c e he had ( i f any) t h a t t h e s e n a t i v e s t u d e n t s f e e l i n f e r i o r o r a r e made to f e e l i n f e r i o r . He a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e p r o b a b l y were communities o r s c h o o l s where t h e y c o u l d be t a u g h t t o f e e l t h i s way. He has not p e r s o n a l l y had e x p e r i e n c e o f i t . A t 112 Carson Graham S c h o o l , f o r example, where t h e y o f t e n e x c e l , t h e y d e f i n i t e l y do n o t f e e l i n f e r i o r , i n h i s o p i n i o n . A s i t u a t i o n w h e r e i n t h i s k i n d o f p r e j u d i c e e x i s t e d c o u l d more l i k e l y o c c u r where whole w h i t e and I n d i a n communities e x i s t i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y . 3) Dr. P. Read Camphell A s h o r t e x p e r i m e n t a l " p i l o t " course i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l I n d i a n young p e o p l e (most of them s t u d e n t s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia) was u n d e r t a k e n by P. Read Ca m p b e l l , o f t h e Speech and Drama Department, F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C, d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1968-69. Dr. Campbell was asked f o r some o f h e r i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h i s c o u r s e . She s a i d t h a t I n d i a n young peop l e responded b e s t when t h e y were not "pushed", and t h a t t h i s approach o f l e t t i n g them t a k e t h e i r own pace was most h e l p f u l i n m a i n t a i n i n g a sense o f r a p p o r t . As w i t h any o t h e r s t u d e n t s , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g i n g w i t h o u t b e i n g p a t r o n i z i n g . Assessments o f work done s h o u l d be h o n e s t : unearned marks a r e s c o r n e d by most I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . Openness and s i n c e r i t y i s a must. These remarks would appear t o b e a r out the f i n d i n g s o f t h e Hawthorn R e p o r t , r e f e r r e d t o b r i e f l y above, i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f the a t t i t u d e o f t h e t e a c h e r toward h e r p u p i l s . An o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n g a i n e d from a l l o f the i n t e r -113 v i e w s d e s c r i b e d above was t h a t p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s ( a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , e t c . ) p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e communicative f a c i l i t y o f I n d i a n young p e o p l e ( a l t h o u g h i t i s , a t t h e same t i m e , q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t l a c k o f l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y i s s t i l l a major f a c t o r ) . APPENDIX C CURRICULUM GUIDE POR A PILOT PROGRAM AIMED AT DEVELOPING SPEECH COMMUNICATION SKILLS AMONG CANADIAN INDIANS AT APPROXIMATELY JUNIOR MATRICULATION LEVEL O b j e c t i v e s G e n e r a l : To c r e a t e h a p p i e r , more e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n s t h r o u g h awareness o f and c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r o c e s s o f speech communication. S p e c i f i c : 1 ) To d e v e l o p more ease and p o i s e i n s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n s by: (a) g i v i n g p r a c t i c e i n d i r e c t e d c o n v e r -s a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n , and i n f o r m a l p u b l i c s p e a k i n g . (b) c r e a t i n g an awareness o f t h e r e a c t i o n  o f t h e l i s t e n e r and i t s f u n c t i o n i n th e communication s i t u a t i o n . (e) becoming so absorbed i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f what t h e y have t o say t h a t s u b j e c t i v e t e n s i o n s a r e t e m p o r a r i l y f o r g o t t e n . 2) To b u i l d up the concept o f s e l f , p r i n c i -p a l l y b y means o f d e v e l o p i n g g r e a t e r p r i d e and i n t e r e s t i n one's own r a c e , as w e l l as by g a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e bases o f c u l t u r e . 115 Note: The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e i s p r e s e n t e d , g e n e r a l l y , i n a t o p i c a l way, t o i n c l u d e the v a r i o u s s k i l l s w h i c h might he d e v e l o p e d . W h i l e , t o some degree, t h e y may he h a n d l e d as u n i t s and d e a l t w i t h i n sequence, i t may he f o u n d t h a t some o f the t o p i c s can he s p l i t up and r e f e r r e d t o from t i m e t o t i m e . F o r example, the d i s c u s s i o n - g r o u p t e c h n i q u e can he used i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e program. The t o p i c on "The C u l t u r a l B a s i s o f S o c i e t y " can s u p p l y much m a t e r i a l w h i c h can he u t i l i z e d i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . D r i l l on s p e a k i n g s k i l l s would he c a r r i e d out f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d on each day t h r o u g h o u t t h e course'. The Program I . I n t r o d u c t i o n The communicative a c t — what p r e c i s e l y i s i t ? The elements t h a t make up a speech communication s i t u a t i o n . The r e c e i v e r o f a message and the s e n d e r . How t h e " f i e l d s o f e x p e r i e n c e " o f each — t h e i r e m o t i o n s , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , e t c . a f f e c t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e message• Note: M e r e l y s p e a k i n g words does not c o n s t i t u t e communication. ( F i n d v a r i o u s ways o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h i s f a c t ) . U n l e s s the a u d i e n c e i s r e c e p t i v e , no communication t a k e s p l a c e . I n t r o d u c e t h e im p o r t a n c e o f l i s t e n i n g i n t h e communi-c a t i v e a c t . 116 D r i l l on t h e Mechanics o f S p e a k i n g Importance o f p r o p e r b r e a t h i n g , r e s o n a n c e , a r t i c u l a t i o n . E x e r c i s e s i n "breathing t o d e v e l o p a f u l l , w e l l -s u s t a i n e d t o n e . — I n h a l e s l o w l y , e x h a l e s l o w l y ( k e e p i n g hands on l o w e r r i b s and d i a p h r a g m ) . I n h a l e f o r f i v e s econds, e x h a l e f o r t e n seconds. I n h a l e q u i c k l y , e x h a l e f o r f i f t e e n s e c o n d s . — Count s l o w l y up t o t e n on one b r e a t h . Then up t o t w e n t y . — P r a c t i c e s a y i n g a whole v e r s e s t a n z a on one b r e a t h . A r t i c u l a t i o n — i m p o r t a n c e o f c l e a r , w e l l - f o r m e d sounds. E x e r c i s e s on i n d i v i d u a l v owels and consonants by r e p e a t i n g i n u n i s o n s e n t e n c e s , v e r s e s , e t c . t h a t emplxy t h e s e sounds f r e q u e n t l y . V a r i e t y i n p i t c h o f v o i c e and pace o f v o i c e . Importance o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i n g i v i n g meaning t o s p e e c h . E x e r c i s e s f o r v a r i e t y i n p i t c h . — Count t o t e n u s i n g s u c c e s s i v e l y h i g h e r p i t c h w i t h each number. — Count t o t e n a l t e r n a t i n g between h i g h e s t and l o w e s t p i t c h . — R e c i t e a s e n t e n c e u s i n g v a r i o u s p i t c h p a t t e r n s and n o t e change i n e f f e c t . Exercises for va r i e t y i n pace and tempo. — Counting exercises grouping numbers according to variations i n tempo. Note: In order to make them of maximum effectiveness, these d r i l l s or exercises should he carried out on a regular basis throughout the course. Even i f time does not permit any extensive work on the tec h n i c a l development of vocal and a r t i -eulative fluency, nevertheless even a modest e f f o r t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n w i l l pay dividends. It i s suggested that perhaps f i v e to ten minutes of every period be devoted to exercises of t h i s nature. The frequency and re g u l a r i t y of such d r i l l i s more important than the t o t a l amount of time expended. It can be carried on as a p a r a l l e l a c t i v i t y with whatever else i s being studied at the time. Perhaps the opening few minutes of each period might be the most suitable time to do t h i s . References: Elton Abernathy, Fundamentals of Speech, Dubuque, Iowa, Wm. C. Brown "Go"., 1959. V i r g i l A. Anderson, Training the Speaking Voice, Hew York, Oxrord University ±Tess, 1942. Jon Eisenson, Basic Speech, New York, The MacMillan Co., 1950, C h a p t s . 2 , 3 , 7 . I I I . Enriching the Vocabulary Importance of an adequate vocabulary. Methods of enlarging one's vocabulary (keeping a vocabulary notebook, etc.) P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f words. How t o use a d i c t i o n a r y ( e s p e c i a l l y f o r p r o n u n c i a t i o n ) Suggested A c t i v i t i e s : O r a l l y q u i z them on synonyms f r o m time t o t i m e . H o t e : Time may n o t p e r m i t d e v o t i n g more th a n one o r two p e r i o d s to t h i s i m p o r t a n t s k i l l as s u c h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e can he made th r o u g h o u t the course t o v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f use and misuse o f l a n g u a g e . I V . D e v e l o p i n g C o n v e r s a t i o n S k i l l  P r i n c i p l e s : A t t i t u d e t oward o n e s e l f — t o f e e l a sense o f w o r t h w h i l e - n e s s . To he s e n s i t i v e and aware o f one's environment and he w i l l i n g t o share one's i d e a s w i t h o t h e r s . A t t i t u d e toward o t h e r p e r s o n s — t o r e s p e c t t h e i r f e e l i n g s and t h e i r p o i n t s o f v i e w . To he w i l l i n g t o r e c e i v e and c o n s i d e r what t h e y have t o o f f e r . Hence, t o he a h l e to a l l o w f o r d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n . Importance o f a n i m a t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t i o n , c l a r i t y , s i n c e r i t y o f a t t i t u d e . D i s c u s s i o n o f g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f good c o n v e r -s a t i o n , and r e l a t i o n t o communication g e n e r a l l y . Suggested A c t i v i t i e s A s s i g n t o p i c s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n and d i r e c t them t o c a r r y on on t h e i r own. A f t e r s e v e r a l minutes 11'9 o f t h i s , one member o f each p a i r o f c o n v e r s a n t s r e p o r t s on t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n — the s u b s t a n c e o f i t , whether t h e r e was agreement, whether any con-c l u s i o n s were a r r i v e d a t ; o r even s i m p l y a b r i e f summary o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . S h o r t c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n on d e s i r a b l e ways o f c a r r y -i n g on a c o n v e r s a t i o n . N o t e : E x c e p t f o r t h i n k i n g , t h i s i s the most e l e m e n t a l com-m u n i c a t i o n s i t u a t i o n . One must a s k o n e s e l f , "How do I want t h e p e r s o n I am s p e a k i n g t o t o r e s pond t o t h i s ? How w i l l my remarks a f f e c t him o r h e r ? " A l s o , one must l i s t e n w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o t h e remarks made by the o t h e r p e r s o n and c a r e f u l l y a s s e s s what was h i s o r h e r p r o b a b l e i n t e n t i n making them. V. D e v e l o p i n g S k i l l and D e s i r a b l e A t t i t u d e s f o r D i s c u s s i o n Importance o f " d i s c u s s i o n " t o our d e m o c r a t i c way o f l i f e . P r i n c i p l e s o f d i s c u s s i o n : p r e s e n t i n g arguments c l e a r l y , a l l o w i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n , a d h e r i n g t o t h e t o p i c and t o f a c t s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t ; c a r e f u l and c o u r t e o u s l i s t e n i n g , e t c . Two main t y p e s o f d i s c u s s i o n groups ( s h o u l d be h a n d l e d as s e p a r a t e " u n i t s " ) ( i ) S m a l l g r o u p s : Much the same k i n d o f p r o c e d u r e as i n " C o n v e r s a t i o n s k i l l " t o p i c . T h i s i s r e a l l y 120 an e x t e n s i o n o f c o n v e r s a t i o n t o i n c l u d e more than two p e o p l e . S m a l l groups c o u l d he made up o f about f o u r p e o p l e t o a g r o u p . Concern s h o u l d be shown f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t y o u r i d e a s a r e r e c e i v e d and u n d e r s t o o d ; and t h a t y o u l i s t e n t o and c o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y t h e o p i n i o n s and i d e a s o f o t h e r s . Any t o p i c t h a t evokes c o n t r a s t i n g o p i n i o n s may be us e d . E v e r y group need n ot d i s c u s s the same t o p i c . T o p i c s such as "What i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t we s t u d y i n s c h o o l ? Why?", "What q u a l i t i e s do you admire most i n your f r i e n d s ? Why?" e t c . might be s u i t a b l e . Suggested A c t i v i t y : B r e a k up i n t o groups o f f o u r o r f i v e and d i s c u s s the t o p i c f o r s e v e r a l m i n u t e s . I n s t r u c t o r might c i r c u l a t e among t h e groups as u n o b t r u s i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . One member o f each group r e p o r t s on how t h e d i s c u s s i o n went and whether any c o n c l u s i o n s were r e a c h e d . A c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n might ensue as t o how t h e y f e e l about s u c h a group d i s c u s s i o n and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s , ( i i ) P a l l c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n : The t o p i c might be i n t r o d u c e d by the showing o f a f i l m on t h e s u b j e c t . Some d i s c u s s i o n i 2 i should he h e l d to determine the o b j e c t i v e s o f group d i s c u s s i o n . M a t e r i a l s  F i l m s : L e t ' s D i s c u s s I t , 27 min. b l a c k & white, N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Catalogue Number ( i n 1969 NFB Catalogue) 106B OI56 007-How to Conduct a D i s c u s s i o n , 24 min., b&w, E n c y c l . B r i t a n n i c a .Films, Cat. No. i n NFB Catalogue 106B 0153 030. ( o r one o f the other f i l m s mentioned l a t e r i n t h i s Guide) Tape Recordings: Many of the t o p i c s d e a l t w i t h on the program "Indian Magazine" would be s u i t a b l e . I n q u i r y should be made through the CBC P u b l i c A f f a i r s Dept., 35^ J a r v i s S t . , Toronto. Reference: E l t o n Abernathy, Fundamentals of Speech, Dubuque, Iowa, Wm. C. Brown Co., 1959» Chapter 15• Suggested A c t i v i t i e s ; The i n s t r u c t o r may l e a d the group, e s p e c i a l l y on the f i r s t o c c a s i o n , but remain seated to one s i d e , thus keeping the atmosphere as i n f o r m a l as p o s s i b l e (a gr a d u a l broadening out from the small-group d i s c u s s i o n s ) . Note: The d i s c u s s i o n group form can be used to d e a l w i t h o t h e r t o p i c s i n t h i s program, and may be u t i l i z e d from time to time. V I . The C u l t u r a l B a s i s o f S o c i e t y T h i s u n i t i s i n t r o d u c e d i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e a r i c h source o f m a t e r i a l f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out i n the program. In a d d i t i o n , i t should help i n p r o v i d i n g a sense of i d e n t i t y f o r a l l i n the c l a s s . I t c o n s t i t u t e s a kind of i n t r o d u c t i o n to b a s i c s o c i a l anthropology. Perhaps i t can b e s t be d e a l t w i t h by posing a number of q u e s t i o n s : Why has man formed h i m s e l f i n t o s o c i a l groups? What are man's b a s i c needs, and how does a s o c i a l group h e l p to p r o v i d e f o r these needs? How do customs a r i s e i n a s o c i e t y ? Why do s o c i e t i e s develop manners and mores? Why do they vary from one s o c i e t y to another? Can we always be sure t h a t our own manners and customs are n e c e s s a r i l y " r i g h t " and are the b e s t ones? The o b j e c t i v e i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g these questions i s to t r y to break out of the e t h n o c e n t r i c mold i n which most of us f i n d o u r s e l v e s . What customs d i d Indian s o c i e t y have i n the o l d days t h a t d i f -f e r e d from European s o c i e t y a t the time? What are the manners and customs of Indian s o c i e t y now? References Books H. D r i v e r (ed.) The Americas on the Eye of  D i s c o v e r y , Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e -H a l l Inc., 1964. ( a l s o put out as Spectrum Book S -93 - paperback) .1'23 Books (continued) A l v i n M. Joseph. The P a t r i o t C h i e f s , London, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1962 (a c h r o n i c l e o f famous Indian l e a d e r s ) Walter Goldschmidt (ed.) Ways of Mankind, Boston, Beacon P r e s s , 195^ ( d r a m a t i z a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s s o c i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s ) F i l m s ( N a t i o n a l F i l m Board) Four F a m i l i e s , 58"s min., b&w, Catalogue No. —(T969 N E B Catalogue) 1 0 6 B 0159 0 3 0 . The Head Men, 28 min., b&w, 106B O I 6 3 055 Three Grandmothers, 28 min., b&w, 106B 0 1 6 3 055 Tne m i l a n apeagsT 40 min., c o l o u r , 105C OI67 025 Note: The f i r s t three f i l m s l i s t e d are comparative s t u d i e s of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f l i f e i n s e l e c t e d c o u n t r i e s . For example, the way i n which u p b r i n g i n g o f c h i l d r e n c o n t r i b u t e s t o a d i s t i n c t i v e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i n India:,. France, Japan, and Canada i s examined. S t u d i e s o f l e a d e r s h i p , as w e l l as the p l a c e i n s o c i e t y o f a grandmother, i s compared i n N i g e r i a , B r a z i l , and Canada. The l a s t f i l m l i s t e d shows Indians i n many p a r t s o f Canada who are concerned about p r e s e r v i n g what i s l e f t o f t h e i r c u l t u r e and r e s t o r i n g what i s gone. Recordings LP r e c o r d i n g s o f the dramatized r a d i o s e r i e s "The Ways of Mankind" ( r e f e r r e d to under books above) might be ob t a i n e d by e n q u i r i n g through the U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s at Urbana, 111. 1 2 4 Note: I f any ex t e n s i v e amount of time i s devoted to t h i s u n i t , The Americas on the Eve o f D i s c o v e r y might he used as a textbook. I t c o n t a i n s some very good d e s c r i p t i o n s o f v a r i o u s a b o r i g i n a l t r i b a l groups as they were seen by the white men who f i r s t came i n t o contact w i t h them. The f i n a l chapters d i s c u s s I n d i a n r e c e p t i o n o f and r e s i s t a n c e to Europeans and Indian c o n t r i b u t i o n s to modern l i f e . Suggested A c t i v i t i e s : T h i s t o p i c might be approached i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. P r o b a b l y some l e c t u r i n g and question-and-answer d i s -c u s s i o n w i l l be r e q u i r e d to i n t r o d u c e i t . The v i e w i n g of f i l m s might w e l l s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n , as w i l l s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s . A group d i s c u s s i o n on prominent Indian people i n h i s t o r y might be conducted ( P o n t i a c , Tecumseh, Joseph Brant, Crazy Horse, C h i e f Joseph, e t c . ) What motivated these l e a d e r s ? What motivated white people to a c t as they d i d toward Indians? ( i s i t enough to simply say, "Because they were c r u e l and h e a r t l e s s ? " Does t h i s r e a l l y t e l l us about m o t i -v a t i o n ? ) I n d i v i d u a l c l a s s members should be en-couraged to stand up and express t h e i r views on these matters. I t might be one way to b r i n g them out of themselves — be concerned about i d e a s and i s s u e s , r a t h e r than themselves. 125 V I I . C h o r a l Speaking Might he i n t r o d u c e d by d i s c u s s i n g the use of v o i c e i n g i v i n g meaning and e f f e c t to a prose or p o e t r y s e l e c t i o n , ( v a r i a t i o n i n i n f l e c t i o n , pace, e t c . ) T h i s might be demonstrated by r e a d i n g a s e l e c t i o n i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. Bote: Choral Speech i s an a c t i v i t y w i t h v e r y r e a l a r t i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n i t s own r i g h t . I t may v e r y w e l l he t h a t time does not permit i t to be g i v e n the a t t e n t i o n i t deserves i n t h i s k i n d o f course. The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i n i n t r o d u c i n g i t i n t o t h i s program i s to i n v o l v e r e t i c e n t people i n o r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n a g r a d u a l way. M a t e r i a l s : C h o r a l Speaking Arrangements f o r the J u n i o r High, by Louise Abney, Boston, The E x p r e s s i o n Co., 1939. C h o r a l Speaking Arrangements f o r the Upper Grades. by Louise Abney, Boston, The E x p r e s s i o n Co., 1937 ( f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e elementary) Suggested A c t i v i t i e s : R e c i t e b o t h prose and p o e t i c s e l e c t i o n s i n unison'. The members o f the c l a s s might a l s o break up i n t o s m a l l e r groups and work on d i f f e r e n t s e l e c t i o n s , w i t h one of t h e i r own members a c t i n g as group l e a d e r . V I I I . O r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Purpose — to p r o j e c t the meaning and e f f e c t of a p i e c e of w r i t i n g through the use of the v o i c e (and, to some degree, g e s t u r e , p o s t u r e , and 1-26" f a c i a l e x pression) P r e p a r a t i o n — a n a l y z i n g the meaning and s p i r i t o f a s e l e c t i o n . Performance — the use of emotion, v a r i a t i o n o f p i t c h , of pace. Use of pauses. A l l of these to g a i n the e f f e c t d e s i r e d . M a t e r i a l s : Communicative Reading, by O t i s J . Aggert and E l b e r t H. Bowen. New York, The MacMillan Co., 1963. A b o r i g i n a l American O r a t o r y , by L o u i s T. Jones. Los Angeles, Southwest Museum, 1965. A c t i v i t y : Each i n d i v i d u a l student should read a t l e a s t one s e l e c t i o n a l o u d . Indian o r a t o r s might be d i s -cussed, and the p l a c e of p u b l i c speaking i n I n d i a n communities both i n former times and today. I f they d e s i r e , the c l a s s might b r i e f l y d i s c u s s the ideas and content of any o f the r e a d i n g s , but not the performance of them. . C r e a t i v e Drama T h i s might be i n t r o d u c e d as a u n i t because i t i s one of the most e f f e c t i v e ways to s t i m u l a t e the imagin-a t i o n and i n s p i r e the student to g i v e v i s i b l e ex-p r e s s i o n to h i s f e e l i n g s . The emphasis i s on the i n d i v i d u a l responding to h i s own f e e l i n g s . 127.' Suggested A c t i v i t i e s ; Students work i n p a i r s or i n sm a l l groups dram-a t i z i n g scenes to show enjoyment, f e a r , apprehension, e t c . They should do t h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y — they are not p r e p a r i n g i t f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to an audience. Job i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n s can he dramatized (a k i n d of r o l e - p l a y i n g s i t u a t i o n ) . Those t a k i n g p a r t may wish to analyze and d i s c u s s t h e i r own f e e l i n g s a f t e r w a r d . L o c a l T r i b a l H i s t o r y , and C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f Indian A r t  and C u l t u r e Today. T h i s i s an o p t i o n a l u n i t . The l e n g t h of time devoted to i t w i l l depend on how much i s known o f l o c a l f o l k - l o r e , e t c . , and what the knowledge i s of n a t i v e a r t s and c r a f t s . I t can w e l l be an e x t e n s i o n o f T o p i c VI (The C u l t u r a l B a s i s o f S o c i e t y ) . M a t e r i a l s ; Any hooks, p i c t u r e s , e t c . t h a t are r e l a t e d i n any way to the n a t i v e c u l t u r e of the l o c a l i t y would be u s e f u l . Some o f the f i l m s l i s t e d a t the end of t h i s appendix might be r e l e v a n t . L o c a l handiwork might be put on d i s p l a y . Suggested A c t i v i t i e s ; An e x p l a n a t o r y o r demonstration t a l k c o u l d be g i v e n by some o f the c l a s s members concerning some l o c a l a r t or c r a f t . 1285 X I . A d d r e s s i n g a Group  Purpose: E v e r y t a l k i s g i v e n f o r some reason (to inform, to persuade, to e n t e r t a i n , e t c . ) . The r e a c t i o n a speaker wishes t o o b t a i n from h i s l i s t e n e r s i s a l l important. Apply the same p r i n c i p l e s as i n small-group c o n v e r s a t i o n — c o n s i d e r i n g the a t t i -tudes of the l i s t e n e r . Importance o f s i n c e r i t y . Importance o f animation. P r e p a r a t i o n : P i n d out a l l you can about the t o p i c - through t a l k i n g w i t h those who have some knowledge o f the s u b j e c t and through r e a d i n g . Make an o u t l i n e — d e c i d i n g on the most e f f e c t i v e arrangement of the p o i n t s you want brought o u t . P r a c t i c e g i v i n g the t a l k . A c t i v i t y : Each member of the c l a s s g i v e s a t a l k on a s u b j e c t of h i s or her c h o i c e , (notes may be used, but the speech i s not to be read.) Note: C r i t i c i s m s o f any speaking performances d u r i n g the course should be given by the i n s t r u c t o r p r i v a t e l y to the speaker concerned. I f time does not permit d i s c u s s i n g t h i s w i t h him o r a l l y , the comments co u l d be g i v e n to him i n w r i t i n g . They should be worded as c o n s t r u c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e , emphasizing the s t r o n g p o i n t s and s u g g e s t i n g areas f o r improvement r a t h e r than simply drawing a t t e n t i o n to flaws and f a i l u r e s . 129 Supplementary L i s t o f M a t e r i a l s  Books; Indians of the Americas, by John C o l l i e r , New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 194? - a k i n d of h i s t o r y o f some o f the o u t s t a n d i n g Indian c i v i l i z a t i o n s and . t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to our own c i v i l i z a t i o n . Round the C o u n c i l F i r e s , by Mary Weekes, Toronto, Ryerson .Press, ±yj5 -- d i s c u s s e s the h i s t o r i c a l importance of some o f our more noted Indian c h i e f s a c t i v e i n Canada. The Red Man's Las t Stand, by P.E. Byrne, — h i s t o r y of events around the time of the Custer massacre. No T u r n i n g Back, by P o l i n g a y s i Quoyawayma ( E l i z a b e t h Q. White) — experiences of a Hopi Indian woman who became a m i s s i o n a r y and teacher among her own people, Albuquerque, U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico P r e s s , 1964. The Arapaho Way. (Memoir of an Indian boyhood) by A l t h e a Boss, New York, C l a r k s o n N. P o t t e r , 1966. Indians of North America, by H a r o l d D r i v e r , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1961. (comparative d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l N orth American Indian c u l t u r e s ) The N a t i v e T r i b e s o f Canada, by Douglas Leechman, Toronto, W.J. Gage & Co., 1956. The Totem P o l e I n d i a n s , by Joseph H. Wherry, New York, W i l f r e d Funk Inc., 1964. Yakutat South-Indian A r t of the Northwest Coast, The A r t I n s t , of Chicago, 1964. F i l m s ; ("Catalogue numbers quoted are i n N a t i o n a l F i l m Board 1969 Catalogue) C i r c l e o f the Sun, 29 min., c o l o r , 105C 0l6l Q35 (one o f the l a s t g a t h e r i n g s o f the Blood Indians of A l b e r t a — i n c l u d e s the Sun Dance, e t c . ) Indian Memento, 18 min., c o l o r , 106c 0367 058 (scenes from the I n d i a n P a v i l i o n at Expo '67) 130 F i l m s : The Longer T r a i l . 2 9 i min., b&w, 106B OI56 043 ("a young A l b e r t a I n d i a n , an ex - T B v i c t i m and the problems he f i n d s i n the world o f white men) No Longer V a n i s h i n g , 2 7 i m i n . , c o l o r , 105C OI55 012 (the p r e s e n t s t a t u s of Canada's Indians, t h e i r awakening sense o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ) The People at Dipper, 8£ min., c o l o r , 106c 0166 084 CChippewyan Indians i n n o r t h e r n Saskatchewan — l i v i n g somewhat as i n olden times) T h e T r a n s i t i o n , 17i min., b&w, 106B 0164 012 X"a f i l m to acquaint young Indians w i t h the k i n d o f l i f e they may expect to l i v e i n the c i t y ) I n dian R e l o c a t i o n : E l l i o t t Lake — A Report 106B 0167 075 ( v o c a t i o n a l and academic t r a i n i n g o f Indians to prepare them f o r c i t y l i f e ) I n d i a n D i a l o g u e , 28 min., b&w, 106B 0167 074 (I n d i a n s d i s c u s s many problems t h a t cause them concern — p a r t i c u l a r l y the t h r e a t to t h e i r own c u l t u r e by white s o c i e t y ) Pow Wow a t Duck Lake, 14^ min., b&w, 106B 0167 0?6 ( d i s c u s s i o n of Indian-Metis problems i n Sask.) P i l a n g i k u m , 9 i min., b&w, 105B 0167 077 (a young Toronto a r t i s t d e s c r i b e s scenes he sees on a r e s e r v e i n n o r t h e r n O n t a r i o ) Haida Carver, 12 min., c o l o r , 106 0164 079 ( a r g i l l i t e c a r v i n g . A young l a d i s l e a r n i n g the c r a f t from h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ) 

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