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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of slang and informal usage in the newspaper Kenwood, Christopher Michael 1969

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A STUDY OP SLANG; AND INFORMAL USAGE IN THE NEWSPAPER by CHRISTOPHER MICHAEL KENWOOD B. A . | U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE, REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE; UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May,T969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of L i n g u i s t i c s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date May 30,1969 ABSTRACT 32*** The VANCOUVER SUN: Mon., Mar. 10, 1969 P E A N U T S HERE'S THE W0RLD-FAMOUS A5TR0NAI/T TAKIW6 OFF FOR THEM00N„. "2P" ALL SYSTEMS ARE 60 i A-OK'. HOti) CO VOU READ? LOUP AW CLEAR} ' U)E HAVE LIFT OFF.'THERRD IS &6INNIHG TO MOYE—. U)£ HAVE A LOT OF \ 'IN" EXPRESSIONS! J Yes,we do have a l o t of " i n " expressions;they a r e , i n f a c t , t h e motive f o r t h i s t h e s i s , w h i c h d i s c u s s e s slang and i n f o r m a l usage i n the major Vancouver newspapers( The Vancouver Sun and The Vancouver P r o v i n c e ) . The c r e a t i o n of these non—standard usage groups i n language arose through the concept of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n * I n the seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s l e x i c o g r a p h e r s and grammarians, e s p e c i a l l y men l i k e Dr a Samuel Johnson.proposed t h a t the E n g l i s h language should be p u r i f i e d and 11 f i x e d ; " t h a t , i n f a c t , i t should be s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r a l l time.But on l y dead languages remain l i f e l e s s ; l i v e languages branch i n f i n i t e l y i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . Thus, these Renaissance pursuers of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n language i r o n i c a l l y created,through t h e i r e f f o r t s , t h e sub-standard - the s l a n g , i n f o r m a l and other areas not r e l e g a t e d to the "cleansed" v e r s i o n . l t was hoped t h a t these v u l g a r i t i e s would thereby drop from use and cease t o i n f i l t r a t e the standard l e v e l of language.However,they d i d not,and they remain to add much to the l i f e of the E n g l i s h language today. I t was f e l t t h a t any examination of how e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e r -twined "slanguage" was w i t h t h a t body of E n g l i s h c a l l e d standard, would be b e s t r e a l i z e d through the study of mewspapers. Newspapers occupy a s p e c i a l p l a c e i n the realm of the w r i t t e n word,a p l a c e not f a r , I b e l i e v e , f r o m the spoken word.They r e v e a l the d a i l y s t o r y of a community i n a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n , p r e s e n t i n g the d i s c o n t i n u o u s v a r i e t y and i n c o n g r u i t y of o r d i n a r y l i f e . Newspapers r e f l e c t on a r a p i d , d a i l y b a s i s the m u l t i p l i c i t y of s o c i a l sub-groups,the mark of immediacy i n t r a n s m i s s i o n , and the p e r m i s s i v e q u a l i t y i n our approach to language today. For purposes of examination the newspapers were arranged i n t o c a t e g o r i e s f o l l o w i n g the p a t t e r n i n which the papers are u s u a l l y presented,Thus,the General category,the E d i t o r i a l s e c t i o n , t h e entertainment pages,the Sports page,the Comics and the F i n a n c i a l a r e a s . Slang and i n f o r m a l samples were c u l l e d and made up the l e x i c o n contained w i t h i n the body of t h i s t h e s i s . Examination of t h i s corpus of words i n d i c a t e s t h a t the newspaper i s v e r y much what M a r s h a l l McLuhan terms a group c o n f e s s i o n a l form or communal mosaic.Through t h e i r s l a n g and i n f o r m a l language numerous sub-groups are c l e a r l y i n e v i d e n c e . l t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e vocabulary changes c o n t i n u o u s l y and r a p i d l y , r a r e l y remaining " f i x e d " as the e i g h t e e n t h century a u t h o r i t a r i a n s would have wished. L i k e the a u t h o r i t a r i a n s i n t h e i r age,we i n ours are exper-i e n c i n g a marked i n c r e a s e i n the awareness of language. We now seem to know enough to enjoy observing how the language of a s u b - c u l t u r e may e n r i c h the mainstream of language and by o b s e r v a t i o n "slanguage" gains d a i l y on standard language. Yes,Snoopy.we do have a l o t of " i n " e x p r e s s i o n s . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i i Acknowledgement v Text:Pure or Standard Language 1 a) Development of the concept of standard 1 b) D e f i n i t i o n 1 c) B*exicographical t r a d i t i o n 2 d) C r e a t i o n of the sub-normal areas 4 Slang and Informalisms 5 a) D e f i n i t i o n 5 b) Origin:Human f a c t o r s 5 c) O r i g i n : T e c h n i c a l f a c t o r s 7 R a t i onale 10 a) Source m a t e r i a l s 10 b) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o c a t e g o r i e s 11 c) S e l e c t i o n 1.1 Word Corpus 13 ai)Words with g l o s s , coding, o r i g i n where p o s s i b l e 13 and p e r t i n e n t comment Summary and Conclusions 110 a) Nespapers as o r a l t r a d i t i o n 110 b) Evidence i n each category 111 c) Language as s u b j e c t to f a s h i o n 113 d) Summary 114 Footnotes 115 B i b l i ography 116> ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I t i s w i t h s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t h a t I wish t o express my thanks t o Dr« Robert J© Gfregg.my f a c u l t y a d v i s o r , with out whom my i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the f i e l d of L i n g u i s t i c s may not have occurredoHe gave me i n s p i r a t i o n t o begin,enthusiasm to proceed and encouragement a t a l l timesoWithout h i s guidance,from the fo r m u l a t i o n of the problem to the f i n a l accomplishment of the p r o j e c t , t h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e * 1 PURE OR STANDARD LANGUAGE The major i n t e n t of t h i s t h e s i s i s the examination of slang and i n f o r m a l i s m s as they occur i n the medium of the Vancouver news-papers. To r e a l i z e t h i s i n t e n t most e f f e c t i v e l y , p e r h a p s i t would be u s e f u l t o c o n s i d e r what may be c a l l e d the motive or u n d e r l y i n g i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the t h e s i s , s t a n d a r d language. To understand what i s meant by a standard language we must f i r s t go back to the seventeenth century whose Renaissance t r a d i t i o n i n i t i a l l y n u r t u r e d the concept. While the r e b i r t h of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and s c i e n c e s was an important aspect of the Renaissance,the era d i d not r e s t r i c t i t s e l f to development i n these areas o n l y . T h i s age a l s o promoted languages,mainly through the formation of l i t e r a r y s o c i e t i e s or Academies.Although Academies were formed everywhere i n Europe w i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d I t a l y was perhaps the source and model of the movement.In I t a l y alone n e a r l y seven hundred Academies were formed,probably the most famous of which,and the one which concerns us the most,was the Accademia d e l l a Crusca. For the most p a r t these i n s t i t u t i o n s were s t i m u l a t e d by the d e s i r e s of r u l e r s and expanding educated c l a s s e s to s t a b i l i z e and e x p l i c a t e the n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e s . l t was w i t h i n the framework of the Accademia d e l l a Crusca.however.that the i d e a of s t a n d a r d i z i n g a n a t i o n a l language f i r s t arose.A prime purpose of t h i s Academy was to cr e a t e a d i c t i o n a r y as w e l l as to e s t a b l i s h a reasoned l i t e r a r y t a s t e , b o t h of which were expected to a c t as p u r i f y i n g agents upon the I t a l i a n language. In 1612 i t s by now h i s t o r i c a l l y famous V o c a b o l a r i o d e l l a Crusca was p u b l i s h e d to s t a b i l i z e the I t a l i a n l i t e r a r y language on the b a s i s of Tuscan speech.This was perhaps the f i r s t important beginning of the l e x i c o g r a p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n which was to be adapted and embellished f o r the E n g l i s h language by Dr. Samuel Johnson more than a century l a t e x . 2 Before Johnson,however,came the Academie F r a n c a i s e . a l s o important i n the e v o l u t i o n of a l e x i c o g r a p h i c i d e a l . L i k e the Italians,who took i t upon themselves t o s i f t the language and p u b l i s h the accepted residue i n t h e i r V o c a b o l a r i o mentioned above, the French a l s o produced a d i c t i o n a r y , t h e assembling of which represented the l a b o r of many academicians f o r many years. During t h i s p e r i o d of l e x i c o g r a p h i c expansion the E n g l i s h were not unaware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c o n t i n e n t a l trend.In f a c t , i t was w i t h M u l c a s t e r t h a t we note the e a r l i e s t request f o r some form of o f f i c i a l r e g u l a t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y v i a a d i c t i o n a r y of the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . C e r t a i n l y , i n the seventeenth century the i n f l u e n c e of the French and I t a l i a n Academies began to make i t s e l f f e l t and the demand f o r an a u t h o r i t a t i v e d i c t i o n a r y became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n s i s t e n t . T h r o u g h the endorsement of a n t i q u a r i a n s , etymologists,important men of l e t t e r s and the Royal S o c i e t y i t s e l f , the pressure f o r a d i c t i o n a r y i n t e n s i f i e d u n t i l i n the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y the S o c i e t y e s t a b l i s h e d a committee f o r improving the E n g l i s h language. Thus,we can c l e a r l y understand t h a t by the time Johnson began work on h i s d i c t i o n a r y there was a s o l i d background of s o c i a l p r e ssure f o r the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g world t o r e a l i z e the l e x i c o g r a p h i c i d e a l f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d on the continent-an i d e a l which Johnson l a r g e l y shared and,to a n t i c i p a t e , l a r g e l y r e a l i z e d . In 1746,then,Johnson began work on h i s d i c t i o n a r y and w i t h i n e i g h t years p u b l i s h e d the complete work which i n c l u d e d as w e l l as the l e x i c o n i t s e l f , a P r e f a c e , a Grammar and a H i s t o r y of the language.By the time the d i c t i o n a r y reached a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n Johnson was aware t h a t i t was probably impossible to " f i x " a language as the c o n t i n e n t a l Academies had t r i e d to do. In h i s pr e f a c e he s t a t e s : Those who have been persuaded to t h i n k w e l l of my de s i g n , r e q u i r e t h a t i t should f i x our language,and put a stop to those a l t e r a t i o n s which time and chance have h i t h e r t o been s u f f e r e d to make i n i t without opposition.With t h i s consequence I w i l l c onfess t h a t I f l a t t e r e d myself f o r awhile;but now begin to f e a r t h a t I have indu l g e d e x p e c t a t i o n which n e i t h e r reason nor experience can j u s t i f y . When we see men grow o l d and d i e a t a c e r t a i n time one a f t e r another,from century to century,we laugh at the e l i x i r t h a t promises to pr o l o n g l i f e to a 3 thousand years;and w i t h equal j u s t i c e may the l e x i c o g r a p h e r be derided,who being able t o produce no example of a n a t i o n t h a t has preserved t h e i r words and phrases from m u t a b i l i t y , s h a l l imagine t h a t h i s d i c t i o n a r y can embalm h i s language,and secure i t from c o r r u p t i o n and decay,that i t i s i n h i s power to change sublunary nature,or c l e a r the w o r l d a t once from f o l l y , v a n i t y and a f f e c t a t i o n . While he c o u l d understand the t r a n s i t o r y and a r b i t r a r y q u a l i t i e s of language i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r him to deny the concept of " f i x i n g " e n t i r e l y : In hope of g i v i n g l o n g e v i t y to t h a t which i t s own nature f o r b i d s to be immortal,I have devoted t h i s book..•. 2 In commenting upon Johnson's c o n f l i c t i n g f e e l i n g s on t h i s p o i n t , James Sledd concludes t h a t : Johnson sees the s i t u a t i o n as one i n which reason i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t the n a t u r a l i n a b i l i t y of man, a t once the c r e a t o r of language and i t s corrupter.-* Johnson saw an i d e a l i z e d v i s i o n of language t h a t i n c l u d e d s t a b i l i t y , r e g u l a r i t y and a s l o w , c o n t r o l l e d process of l i n g u i s t i c change.Indeed,his d i c t i o n a r y was e x a c t l y what i t s age had demanded f o r so l o n g . I t was a standard and a s t a n d a r d i z i n g e d i t i o n which i n c l u d e d a h i s t o r y of the language,a grammar,and an extensive l e x i c o n c r i t i c a l l y s e l e c t e d , e x p l a i n e d by d i v i d e d and c l a s s i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n s and i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h quotations from a u t h o r i t i e s r e g a r d i n g usage*It was,in f a c t , i n s p i r e d by a thoroughly p r e s c r i p t i v e approach to language,and u n t i l a t l e a s t the t h i r d decade of the n i n e t e e n t h century was w i d e l y accepted as a standard i n both method and c o n t e n t . l t was not u n t i l the v e r y n o t i o n of the standard and s t a n d a r d i z i n g d i c t i o n a r y was c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n , some three q u a r t e r s of a century l a t e r , t h a t Johnson's a u t h o r i t y began to give way to the demand f o r an i m p a r t i a l r e c o r d i n g of words. We are now convinced,of course,that the seventeenth and e i g h t -t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s had a completely mistaken conception of language.Men of l e a r n i n g and the educated c l a s s e s i n general had come to b e l i e v e t h a t the language of t h e i r time had reached an 4 i d e a l p e r f e c t i o n and o n l y r e q u i r e d a l i t t l e p r uning and p u r i f y i n g a t the hands of the l e x i c o g r a p h e r i n order to become permanent and unchanging.It has l o n g s i n c e been evident t h a t the main duty of the l e x i c o g r a p h e r i s to r e c o r d and not to c r i t i c a l l y s e l e c t . The important c o n t r i b u t i o n to be gleaned from the p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach of the educated c l a s s e s of the time(of which Johnson was the a c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) i s the concept of the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the E n g l i s h language,which was a t once an e x t e n s i o n of the c o n t i n e n t a l l e x i c o g r a p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n and the primary o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n of t h a t t r a d i t i o n i n the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g world. By d e f i n i t i o n , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n a u t o m a t i c a l l y excluded anything o u t s i d e of t h i s r a t h e r r i g i d concept and f o r c e d i t to remain on the f r i n g e s of the approved l e x i c o n under assumed l a b e l s or c a t e g o r i e s . I n Johnson's time,they termed such items v u l g a r i t i e s , c o r r u p t i o n s , s e c r e t and f a l s e words.Today,we c a l l them more s p e c i f i c a l l y s l a n g , i n f o r m a l i s m s , j a r g o n and argot words.These substandard elements have kept and do keep t h e i r l a b e l s u n t i l , through extended use and general s o c i a l approval,they are e l e v a t e d i n t o the corpus of standard usage.Thus,it i s reasonable to say t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of these sub-areas of the E n g l i s h language i s perhaps u l t i m a t e l y due to the e f f o r t s of Samuel Johnson.With due r e s p e c t f o r the i r o n y i n v o l v e d we w i l l examine two of these major sub-areas - s l a n g and informalisms - t h a t add so much to the l i f e of our language today. 5 SLANG AND INFORMALISMS I t has been s t a t e d above t h a t because the v e r y concept of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n language was proposed and accepted,extra l e v e l s of language or vocabulary have thereby been c r e a t e d , G e n e r a l l y speaking,the two most important and comprehensive e x t r a l e v e l s are what we term slang and informalisms. Standard u s a g e , i t has been n o t e d , i s the l e v e l of vocabulary most wi d e l y accepted by the general populace and i s t h a t l e v e l c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n any number of standard d i c t i o n a r i e s . S l a n g and i n f o r m a l usage,on the other hand,is t h a t l e v e l of vocabulary, which while used f r e q u e n t l y by the general p u b l i c , i s not c o n s i d e r e d as f a l l i n g w i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n of good,formal usage. N e i t h e r does i t appear v e r y o f t e n i n the normal d i c t i o n a r y , s i n c e i t i s by i t s v e r y nature more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the spoken than the w r i t t e n record,as w e l l as o f t e n being h i g h l y t r a n s i t o r y i n use.For the most p a r t , s l a n g enjoys a temporary p o p u l a r i t y and q u i c k l y fades from use,but some items become,through extended use i n time and space,accepted as standard usage and are thereby e l e v a t e d from the e x t r a l e v e l to the primary l e v e l . Slang o r i g i n a t e s from the tendency of any l a r g e mass of people to form s m a l l , d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i a l groups.These may be groups t h a t work or p l a y together or others who may be grouped together f o r any p a r t i c u l a r reasons.In each of these smaller groupings new and unique concepts w i l l be formed and these w i l l r e q u i r e a response on the p a r t of language,mostly i n the form of slan g expressions. I t i s assumed,of course,that these s o c i a l groupings are s u b s t a n t i a l enough i n s i z e to be of some s i g n i f i c a n c e and t h a t they are a c t i v e members of the p r i n c i p a l c u l t u r e i n other f a c e t s of l i f e , b o t h of these f a c t o r s being necessary f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n of a group's s l a n g formations to the dominant c u l t u r e . P i c t o r i a l l y , a s shown below,slang may be seen as the more popular p o r t i o n of the cant,jargon and argot,taken from some of the many sub-groups of s o c i e t y . A n a t u r a l o v e r l a p p i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by the shaded areas.^ 5a 6 C h a r l t o n L a i r d draws an apt analogy i n h i s book.The M i r a c l e of  Language: An amoeba i s a formless t h i n g which takes many shapes.It moves by t h r u s t i n g an arm,and f l o w i n g i n t o the arm.It m u l t i p l i e s by p u l l i n g i t s e l f i n two,without permanently d i m i n i s h i n g the o r i g i n a l . So w i t h words.A meaning may develop on the p e r i p h e r y of the body of meanings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a word,and s h o r t l y t h i s tentacle-meaning has grown to such p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t i t dwarfs a l l other meanings....At the same time,however, while one meaning segment i n a word i s growing, another meaning-tentacle may wither away.This meaning f a l l s out of use because the o b j e c t t h a t i t i m p l i e d i s a l s o out of use;or because there were two words f o r the object,and one seemed to be enough;or because the word became v u l g a r , o r became unpopular a t the expense of another;or f o r any combination of a l l s o r t s of other reasons. As l o n g as human vocabulary r e s t s upon human nature,we must continue i g n o r a n t of many of the reasons f o r the r i s e and d e c l i n e of the p o p u l a r i t y of c e r t a i n words - at l e a s t u n t i l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have l e a r n e d much more than they know about why we behave l i k e human beings.5 Leonard B l o o m f i e l d , i n Language.goes on to explore some of these p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s by n o t i n g t h a t slang; r e p r e s e n t s f l u c t u a t i o n i n language to a great extent and t h a t : General e f f e c t i v e n e s s , i n the shape of v i o l e n c e or w i t , i s a powerful f a c t o r i n f l u c t u a t i o n . l t leads to the sudden r i s e or f a l l of sla n g expressions. The r i s e of s l a n g i s due,apparently,to t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n producing a response from the hearer.At f i r s t they owe t h i s to t h e i r n o v e l t y and apt y e t v i o l e n t t r a n s f e r e n c e of meaning;later the hearer responds because he has heard them i n f a v o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n s and from a t t r a c t i v e people. A l l these f a v o r a b l e f a c t o r s disappear from sheer r e p e t i t i o n ; t h e n o v e l t y wears o f f , t h e v i o l e n t metaphor l a p s e s when the t r a n s f e r r e d meaning becomes more f a m i l i a r than the c e n t r a l meaning; the average of the s i t u a t i o n s and speakers a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the form becomes i n d i f f e r e n t . Thereupon the s l a n g form d i e s out..•.The most powerful f o r c e of a l l i n f l u c t u a t i o n works q u i t e o u t s i d e the l i n g u i s t ' s reach:the speakers f a v o r the forms which he has heard from c e r t a i n other speakers who,for some reason of p r e s t i g e , i n f l u e n c e h i s h a b i t s of speech.° C l e a r l y t h e n , s l a n g , l i k e much e l s e i n l i f e , r e f l e c t s the k i n d of people who p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t s u s e . I t c l a s s i f i e s us according t o the groups to which we belong and a d d i t i o n a l l y i n d i c a t e s : •••our b i o g r a p h i c a l , m e n t a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l background;*..our so c i a l , e c o n o m i c , g e o g r a p h i c a l , n a t i o n a l , r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , e d u c a t i o n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l and group interests,memberships and p a t r i o t i s m s . 7 T h i s i s so because there i s a great element of p e r s o n a l choice i n v o l v e d i n the use of slang.Standard usage,on the other hand, repr e s e n t s use d e r i v e d from t e a c h i n g and h a b i t - more a c a r r y o v e r from the p r e s c r i p t i v e approach i n l a n g u a g e ; t r a i n i n g we have r e c e i v e d a l l our liv e s . B e c a u s e we choose slang words which we f i n d p e r s o n a l l y a t t r a c t i v e and i n t r i g u i n g we r e v e a l a good d e a l about our p s y c h o l o g i c a l makeup. While c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the human f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the c r e a t i o n of s l a n g i s both necessary and v i t a l , i t i s e q u a l l y important to examine the l i n g u i s t i c or t e c h n i c a l means by which sl a n g words may be formed. Slang i s formed by normal l i n g u i s t i c processes found i n a l l l i v i n g languages,some of which w i l l be b r i e f l y e nlarged upon here.Processes such as changes i n form by compounding d e r i v a t i o n s , portmanteau words,and a b b r e v i a t i o n s through f r o n t - c l i p p i n g s , b a c k - c l i p p i n g s and acronyms;changes i n meaning by g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , c o n c a t e n a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and metaphor;changes i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n ; i n p a r t s of speech;borrowing from d i a l e c t s and f o r e i g n languages; as "well as onom a t o p o e t i c , r e d u p l i c a t i v e and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . (A)Form-changing:a)In compounding,two words belonging t o any p a r t of speech are combined to form one word or a hyphenated u n i t ( e . g . k i c k o f f , s k i n d i v e r , c r a c k d o w n , h o t s h o t , l a u g h - i n ) b ) l n l e n g t h e n i n g , s u f f i x e s and s u f f i x words, p r e f i x e s and p r e f i x words are a f f i x e d to roo t words(e.g. r e c l a i m , l u n c h e t e r i a , b o n voyage p a r t y , d e s e n s i t i z e ) . H e r e words and word elements are added and have the e f f e c t of changing tense o r denoting a circumstance of condition;whereas i n compounding two words aire j o i n e d together on an equal b a s i s to form a new word. 8 c)Portmanteau words are formed by compressing two word elements i n t o one word(e.g.motorist+hoteI=motel,smoke*  fog=smog) &)Ab Deviations through b a c k - c l i p p i n g i s done by c l i p p i n g a s y l l a b l e or s y l l a b l e s o f f the end of a word (e.g.psych/ology/,photo/graphy/,trig/onometry/) e) F r o n t - c l i p p i n g i s the reverse - c l i p p i n g a s y l l a b l e or s y l l a b l e s from the beginning of a word(e.g./tele/gram, /earth/quake,/para/chute) f ) Acronyms are made up from the i n i t i a l s of the words of a phrase which may be run together to form,and be pronounced as,a new word(e.g.awol - absent without leave,CARE. -Co-operative f o r American remittances to Europe,VIP - v e r y  important person) (B)Meaning change;Perhaps the l a r g e s t source of f r e s h words i s the changing of meaning of standard words.Por example,we a) G e n e r a l i z e the meaning of a word so t h a t i t comes to rep r e s e n t s e v e r a l meanings(e.g.hand:to mean a s s i s t a n c e -g i v e me a hand,a person employed as a l a b o r e r — h i r e d hand,the hand of cards i n a game,to give or pass something)but each v a r i a t i o n i n meaning i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the standard word. b) Concatenation allows an o l d word to take on a s e r i e s of new meanings,each not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the b a s i c concept as above,but r e l a t e d i n s t e a d to a previous new meaning (e.g. c a r d i n a l : o r i g i n a l l y from L a t i n and French meaning hinge,to meaning of b a s i c or prime i m p o r t a n c e - c a r d i n a l number,to a person of c h i e f importance-a c a r d i n a l of the Roman C a t h o l i c church,to the c o l o r a s s o c i a t e d with the robe of a c a r d i n a l - y e l l o w , t o the b i r d of t h i s c o l o r ) c ) S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s the reverse whereby a word l o s e s some of i t s i n c l u s i v e meanings t o become i d e n t i f i e d w i t h one c o n n o t a t i o n on l y ( e . g . gay meaning queer,the c h a i r meaning the e l e c t r o c u t i o n c h a i r , l i q u o r which once meant any l i q u i d but now r e f e r s to a l c o h o l only) d)The formation or extension of meaning by metaphor or f i g u r a t i v e use(e.g.a s t u f f e d s h i r t , a c l o s e d book, he got p i c k l e d ) 9 (C) P r o n u n c i a t i o n changes:He re.new words are u s u a l l y formed by making changes i n s t r e s s , c o r r u p t i n g an o l d e r word or adding an i n f i x between the s y l l a b l e s of an o l d e r word(e.g.no s i i i v e l v . h i p .  k e e - r e c t f o r correct.razzamatazz) (D) P a r t s of s p e e c h : A l t e r i n g the use of a word from i t s u s u a l grammatical c a p a c i t y t o a d i f f e r e n t p a r t of speech i s termed f u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . T h e r e f o r e , f u n c t i o n a l s h i f t changes or extends the grammatical use of words.Almost any noun,verb,adjective,adverb or combination of these can undergo t h i s f u n c t i o n a l s h i f t ( e . g . d i t c h as a noun to d i t c h as a verb,a a t t a c h - t o stomach,break as a cut i n something to break as l u c k ; a l s o crackdown,hotshot) (E) Borrowing:Loans from d i a l e c t s or f o r e i g n languages cre a t e new words or word elements i n E n g l i s h . E n g l i s h usage often,but not n e c e s s a r i l y , c h a n g e s t h e i r c o n n o t a t i o n , p r o n u n c i a t i o n and s p e l l i n g (vamoose,cinch,schmo,yen,hooch,pow-wow,-burger a l l being borrowed from Spanish,south west S t a t e s Spanish,Yiddish,Chinese,North American I n d i a n and German r e s p e c t i v e l y ) (F) Onomatopoetic or E c h o i c processes :Pleasant sounds seem to be a b a s i s on which a d d i t i o n a l new words are formed.In a) onomatopoeia we i m i t a t e a n a t u r a l sound(e.g. buzz,bow-wow,putt-putt,choo-choo,boo-hoo) b) r e d u p l i c a t i o n forms a new word through the r e p e t i t i o n of a r a d i c a l element i n an o l d e r word(e.g.ding-dong. hanky-panky,buddy-buddy,yum-yum)8 In a d d i t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the s l a n g l e v e l of usage may be made by i n d i v i d u a l coinages,rhyming s l a n g , s y n t h e t i c s l a n g and others,but whatever the source: Communication,which i s the v e r y o b j e c t of speech, i s s u c c e s s f u l l y e f f e c t e d o n l y when the hearer's a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n s are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the a p p r o p r i a t e and intended flow of imagery and thought or both combined.9 10 RATIONALE As ve have seen a b o v e , v i t h i n the d i s c u s s i o n of Standard Language,language symbolizes the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i e t y . Because i t helped s o l i d i f y t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , t h e r i s i n g middle sancttoTifdL c l a s s e s A t h e d i c t i o n a r i e s and grammars i n r e t u r n f o r the s o - c a l l e d " c o r r e c t usage" r u l e s . S i n c e t h a t period,the i d e a of examining and l a b e l l i n g as acceptable^,language as i t i s a c t u a l l y used i n c u r r e n t speech,has gained g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r momentum.Thus,it i s the primary i n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s to i n d i c a t e the i n c r e a s i n g s p l i t betveen p r e s c r i p t i v e usage and "observed usage." As r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of "observed usage" I have chosen to use d a i l y newspapers s i n c e , p e r h a p s , t h i s medium can be s a i d to be most w i d e l y read and accepted by the l a r g e s t c r o s s - s e c t i o n of today's s o c i a l g r o u p s . G e n e r a l l y , i t i s a l s o the major medium i n which slang and i n f o r m a l language w i l l be p r i n t e d - thereby c r e a t i n g ah !'observed" r e c o r d - s i n c e s l a n g and informalisms are found mainly on the spoken l e v e l of language and not always on the w r i t t e n l e v e l . F or source m a t e r i a l s both the major l o c a l newspapers were used: The Vancouver Sun and The Vancouver P r o v i n c e . Since the c h a r a c t e r of "slanguage" i s by nature o f t e n t r a n s i t i o n a l and sometimes r e g i o n a l , i t should be noted t h a t samples c o l l e c t e d are f o r the p e r i o d noted below and are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Vancouver, Canada,during t h a t p e r i o d . The items were s e l e c t e d from both papers although not every word or phrase can be s a i d to have been c u l l e d . T h i s i s due,not so much to the sheer volume of a r t i c l e s over the sampling p e r i o d as i t i s to the n a t u r a l element of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n choice,whereby one must recognize h i s personal involvement w i t h s l a n g . Since the m a j o r i t y of word and phrase samples found f e l l under the d e f i n i t i o n s of slang and informalisms no e f f o r t was made to c l a s s i f y any f u r t h e r i n t o the smaller but e q u a l l y v a l i d sub-areas of neologisms,archaisms,portmanteau words,loan words and so on. Instead,words and phrases belonging more p r o p e r l y to areas o u t s i d e those of slang and informalisms are noted as such at the p l a c e where t h a t p a r t i c u l a r item i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n a l l other cases the u n i t s are to be considered as f a l l i n g w i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n of slang and i n f o r m a l i s m s . E x t e n s i v e c a t e g o r i z i n g d i d occur,however,within the subject areas of the papers themselves.That i s , e a c h item c o l l e c t e d was coded as to i t s s p e c i f i c source a r e a : E n t e r t a i n m e n t , E d i t o r i a l s , S p o r t s , C o m i c s , Finance,General Areas and so on.This was done t o determine whether or not c o n t r i b u t o r s to and readers of p a r t i c u l a r news areas may enforce upon themselves a gr e a t e r or l e s s e r degree of "observed usage" over " c o r r e c t usage"whether each area has developed and i s developing i t s own i n f o r m a l terms,and whether,in f a c t , t h e r e i s any degree of c r o s s o v e r i n f l u e n c e between t o p i c a r e a s * I t should a l s o be remarked t h a t as w e l l as being c a t e g o r i z e d as t o subject area a l l u n i t s are arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y w i t h i n each category* F i n a l l y , i t was found t h a t the q u a n t i t y of word and phrase items accumulated a v a s t corpus numbering i n the thousands.Thus,the f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of forms presented represent a f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d sampling through the posing of such questions as:How e s t a b l i s h e d are they i n a c t u a l use?How f r e q u e n t l y do they appear?How r e p r e s e n t a t i v e are they of the most recent slang?In many cases c h o i c e s were made under the guidance of such experts i n the f i e l d as Harold Wentworth,Stuart B. F l e x n e r and E r i c P a r t r i d g e . F o r the documentation of the s e l e c t e d items I r e l i e d s t r o n g l y upon the D i c t i o n a r y of American Slang by Wentworth and F l e x n e r , The Shorter Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . W e b s t e r 1 s New I n t e r n a t i o n a l  D i c t i o n a r y - t h i r d e d i t i o n , E r i c P a r t r i d g e ' s D i c t i o n a r y of Slang as w e l l as the D i c t i o n a r y of Underworld Lingo by Hyman Go1din, Frank O'Leary and M o r r i s L i p s i u s . 12 ABBREVIATIONS (A)Avis et a l . D i c t i o n a r y of Canadian English). a d j . a d j e c t i v e , a t t r i b u t i v e adjiective. adv. adverb. B r i t . B r i t i s h , B r i t o n . c. c i r c a , a b o u t . Cf . Compare,confer. Co. Company. d e r i v . d e r i v a t i v e , d e r i v e d , d i a l , d i a l e c t , - a l . e. g. f o r example, esp. e s p e c i a l l y . f . from. F February. f i g . f i g u r a t i v e l y . F r . French. Ger. German. (GOL)Goldin e t a l . A D i c t i o n a r y of American Underworld Lingo. J January. l i t . l i t e r a l l y . M March. n. noun. N.B. Note. (OED) The Shorter Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . 3 r d ed. o r i g . o r i g i n a l , - l y . P Province newspaper, perh. perhaps, phr. phrase, p i . p l u r a l , poss. p o s s i b l y , pp. p a s t p a r t i c i p l e , prob. probably, r e f . r e f e r e n c e ; spec, s p e c i f i c a l l y . S Sun newspaper usu. u s u a l l y vb. verb. (WF)Wentworth and F l e x n e r . D i c t i o n a r y of American Slang. WYI World War I WWII World War II 1 t o 31 dates of newspaper e d i t i o n . + and;combined with,added t o . # number. WORD CORPUS ( i ) GENERAL AREAS 1. A c i d /asad / n, P 12 M LSD(WF) A b b r e v i a t i o n through f r o n t and back-clipping,see#173.595. 2. A i r l i f t / e r l x f t / n. S 29 J the c a r r y i n g of goods by a i r p l a n e t r a n s p o r t to an area otherwise cut o f f from a c c e s s i b i l i t y . P robably WW I I o r i g i n w i t h the advent of the B e r l i n a i r l i f t and now used w i t h the same connotation f o r modern day " B e r l i n s . " Compound formed by a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : t o l i f t (something)by air,becomes to a i r l i f t ( v e r b ) , t h e n a i r l i f t ( n o u n ) 3. A11-Time / ol-taym / a d j . S 29 J understood t o r e f e r to being the best person or t h i n g w i t h i n a d e f i n e d category thus f a r i n recorded h i s t o r y , as ini'At the end of the f o r t i e s he was c o n s i d e r e d to be the a l l - t i m e great of the b a s k e t b a l l c e n t e r s . " A compound formed by a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l process:Champion of a l l - t i m e becomes a l l - t i m e champion. A l s o by analogy to f o r m s : a l l - o u t , a l l - o v e r , e t c . 4. Aquanaut / akwenot / n. S 17 F a man who deep sea d i v e s f o r a p r o f e s s i o n or who n a v i g a t e s the sea depths i n a submarine or r e s e a r c h globe. Compound made up of two bound morphemes:aqua- + -naut Compare models: argonaut,astronaut(stars-USA),cosmonaut(uni-verse-USSR); see #519. 5. Ass / as / n, P 6 F a f o o l ; a s t u p i d or f o o l i s h person. C o l l o q u i a l . A meaning change. 6. Back up or shut up / bak Xp or sAt Ap / vb. S 1 F show support f o r your statements or be s i l e n t from now on. -up s u f f i x has a v a r i e t y of u s e s , r e t a i n s much o f i t s standard meaning and i s commonly added to verbs or nouns to form phrases = t o f i l l or be f i l l e d w i t h something(beer_ji£. to o b t a i n or c o l l e c t or to come together f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose(write up)• an a g i t a t e d or confused s t a t e ( e . g . f o u l u p ) . 7. B a f f l e g a b / bafelgab / n. P 12 F the ambiguous,verbose t a l k or w r i t i n g o f t e n done by b u r e a u c r a t s ; o f f i c i a l e s e . O r i g . used by M.A. Smith of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce i n 1952. f . b a f f l e ( c o n f u s e ) + g a b ( t a l k ) . Cf.Gobbledygook #108. 8. Bag / bag / n. S 13 F one's s p e c i a l or c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t , o b s e s s i o n , t a l e n t , enthusiasm or l i k i n g ; a s i n : " T h a t s not my bag ?man." O r i g . j a z z use;now beat,student,teenage and j a z z use. Cf. c u r r e n t use of " t h i n g " #506. 9. Band / band / n. P 17 F a group of r e s e r v a t i o n Indians recognized by the f e d e r a l government as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . ( A ) A Canadianism. 10. Bandwagon / bandwagdn / n. S 29 J to jump on the bandwagon means to j o i n the m a j o r i t y or most popular f a c t i o n a f t e r w i t h o l d i n g one's o p i n i o n o r vote u n t i l the m a j o r i t y or r e l a t i v e p o p u l a r i t y i s known-so as to be sure of being w i t h the winning p a r t y or candidate.(WF) O r i g . f . bandwagon,meaning:A r a i l r o a d pay c a r . 11. Beat out / b i y t £wt / vb. S 30 J to win something over another person;to achieve the go a l or p r i z e before someone e l s e . C o l l o q u i a l since d 8 9 0 . -out s u f f i x word i s common i n sl a n g formations and r e t a i n s much of i t s standard meaning:away from or beyond the l i m i t 12. Beefcake / b l y f k e y k / n. S 8 F a muscleboyja musclebound man,spec, a photograph of a man wearing l i t t l e c l o t h i n g . Developed by analogy t o the female Cheesecake. 13.Beefeater / b i y f i y t e r / n. S 30 J an Englishman;a strong muscular person. O r i g . f . guard corps a t the Tover of London(a corps of strong.powerful men). Compound. 14 Beer up / b i y r >Lp / n. S 7 F a s i t u a t i o n or o c c a s i o n on which one d r i n k s a l o t of beer; a l s o used as a verb. C o l l o q u i a l . -up s u f f i x , s e e #6 15. Best-heeled / b e s t - h i y l d / a d j . S 29 J wealthy;equipped w i t h much money. Since d 9 3 0 . C o l l o q u i a l . O r i g . meant armed or equipped w i t h a weapon and by analogy the i d e a of "weapon" was r e p l a c e d by "money." Compound. 16. B i k i n i / b e k i y n i y / n. S 27 J any s h o r t , r e v e a l i n g men's or Women's bat h i n g s u i t , s h o r t s or other sports clothes.(WF) Since c1950. O r i g . f . the B i k i n i a t o l l where an atomic bomb was exploded scanty swimsuit has f i g u r a t i v e l y the same impact as the atomic e x p l o s i o n . 17. B i l l y g o a t e d / bxliygowtad / vb. S 28 J f o r c e d i n t o doing something or pushed i n t o i t ; a s i n : "The MLA was b i l l y g o a t e d i n t o pushing through a tax r e d u c t i o n by the o p p o s i t i o n . " f . analogy to the animal ' b i l l y g o a t ' who b u t t s h i s way through l i f e . -ed pp. s u f f i x added to weak vb. stems;pp. f r e q u e n t l y used as an a d j . 18. B i l k i n g / b i l k i n / vb. S 28 J d e c e i v i n g ; c h e a t i n g ; d e f r a u d i n g ; f a i l i n g t o pay;eluding.(P) Since c1750. 19. Blacks / b l a k s / n . p l . S 31 J negroes C u r r e n t l y g a i n i n g more p r e s t i g e as the term f o r A f r o -Americans through the recent c i v i l s t r i f e . 20. B l a s t e d / b l a s t a d / vb. S 30 J c r i t i c i z e d publically;damned.(WF) -ed s u f f i x , s e e #17 21. Blue-nosed / bluw-nowzd / a d j . S 17 F having s t r o n g l y p u r i t a n i c a l moral c o n v i c t i o n s { u l t r a -c o n s e r v a t i v e . O r i g . i n c o l o n i a l times meaning:an a r i s t o c r a t . 22. B o f f i n / b o f i n / n. P 25 F an expert a t something. O r i g . f . vartime s l a n g used t o mean a bomb d i s p o s a l e x p e r t , o r other t e c h n i c a l expert.(e.g.on r a d a r , e t c . ) 23. Booby t r a p / buwbiy t r a p / n. S 4 M a p r a c t i c a l j o k e j a dangerous s u r p r i s e ; a t r a p t o cat c h s t u p i d people.(P) Since d 8 5 0 . C o l l o q u i a l . Prob. f . booby(a F o o l ) + t r a p . I n WW I I a bomb l e f t behind to c a t c h the unwary. - t r a p s u f f i x word meaning:a p l a c e where one may be trapped or endangered.(e.g. a t o u r i s t t r a p ) 24. Booked o f f / bukt o'f / vb. S 30 J signed out of a s i t u a t i o n by having signed a book which i n d i c a t e s your departure;as in:"He booked o f f s i c k from work." O r i g . prob. f . analogy t o p o l i c e jargon of booking a p r i s o n e r or s u s p e c t , s o - c a l l e d because they enter h i s name i n a r e c o r d book. 25. Brainwashed / breynwast / a d j . S 29 J the s t a t e of having induced an a t t i t u d i n a l change i n a p e r s o n , u s u a l l y a cap t i v e , b y means of psychoeducational methods,sometimes supplemented by drugs and p h y s i c a l coercion.(WF) T h i s form of c o n d i t i o n i n g developed i n the USSR based upon the work of Pavlov w i t h the c o n d i t i o n e d r e f l e x e s of dogs, -ed s u f f i x , s e e #17. 17 26. Brass / bras / n. S 4 F An o f f i c i a l ; i n f l u e n t i a l people;persons i n a u t h o r i t y ; e x e c u t i v e s j a s in:"The top brass are here." O r i g . m i l i t a r y use;common d u r i n g WWII - from the o f f i c e r ' s brass i n s i g n i a . 27. Break / bireyk / n. S 29 J l u c k ; o p p o r t u n i t y ; a stroke of f a t e ; e i t h e r good or bad. C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e C1925. A f u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . Most famous usage i s W.C. F i e l d s g i v i n g h i s u s u a l a d v i c e to a l o v e d one,"Never give a sucker an even break!" 28. Breakaway / breykewey / a d j . S 27 J p e r t a i n i n g t o an o b j e c t made to c o l l a p s e e a s i l y a t the p u l l of a s t r i n g or the like.(WF) W r i t t e n both hyphenated and unhyphenated;more common without thus i n d i c a t i n g a s o l i d acceptance of t h i s compound. 29. Bucket shops / bXkat sops / n./'S 4 M o f f i c e s where i l l e g a l , w o r t h l e s s or h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e stocks are s o l d by u s i n g m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b o r d e r i n g on sw i n d l i n g . F i n a n c i a l jargon. 30. Bug / bXg; / vb. S 20 F co n c e a l i n g a microphone or other r e c o r d i n g device i n order to r e c o r d a c o n v e r s a t i o n without the speaker's knowledge. Meaning change.Poss. o r i g . from the small r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e ' s resemblance to a bug or small i n s e c t . Other uses of bu g : i n s e c t ; t o annoy;an enthusiast;any d e f e c t i n plan,equipment,etc;an a6utmobile,esp. a small one. 31. B u l l y - b o y / b u l i y - b o y / a d j . S 30 J a male given to f o r c i n g others i n t o s i t u a t i o n s through h i s aggr e s s i v e nature;hence a p p l i e d to methods used to a t t a i n e n t r y t o a s i t u a t i o n , e t c ; a s in:"He used b u l l y - b o y t a c t i c s to have the d i r e c t o r s pass h i s r e s o l u t i o n . " Prob. by analogy to the animal B u l l : a strong aggressive animal. -v. s u f f i x , n o u n f o r m i n g , i n t h i s case forming a nickname; can a l s o be an a d j . forming s u f f i x . 18 32. Bummer / bAmdr / n. S 24 P a bad p e r i o d of time f o r someone;a bad experience; an o c c a s i o n when someone i s not "with i t . " ( P ) a s in:"¥hen we were n i g h t - c l u b b i n g l a s t night,he was on a r e a l bummer." Poss. r e l a t e d t o the German Bummler:an i d l e r or tramp;or from bum a d j . ( a s i n a bum nap.a bum s t e e r . a bum r i d e ) + - e r d e s c r i b e d below. - e r s u f f i x , n o u n forming,meaning a person or t h i n g a s s o c i a t e d with;a person or t h i n g ; a person or t h i n g doing something; or i t simply adds l e n g t h to convey a more s l a n g y , c o l l o q u i a l , or f l i p p a n t e f f e c t . 33. Bums / bXmz / n. p i . S 29 J a bum i s g e n e r a l l y any j o b l e s s man or youth having l i t t l e or no income;a p o o r , p o o r l y dressed and unkempt fre q u e n t e r of saloons;without p r o f e s s i o n a l occupation,goal i n l i f e , or s o c i a l prestige.(WF)(P) Common si n c e c1880.However,the word has degenerated.Orig. a vagabond or hobo,by 1900 had taken on a connotation of b e g g a r ; l a t e r , a m o n e y l e s s , p r i d e l e s s , f i l t h y hopeless d e r e l i c t and h a b i t u a l drunkard. See #32 34. Bung up / hAn A$ / vb. S 25 F to r u i n or s p o i l a p l a n or the s u c c e s s f u l completion of a task;esp. by blundering.(WF)(P) Cf. Gum up.#112 Prob. f . boxing j a r g o n meaning,to c l o s e up the eyes w i t h a blow- C1900. -up s u f f i x , s e e #6. 35. bu t t i n / h i t xn / vb. S 7 M t o i n t e r u p t unasked;to make an unwanted i n t r u s i o n . Poss. by analogy to a b i l l y g o a t ' s a c t i o n . 36. Can't hack i t / kant hak i t / vb. S 13 F "he can't hack i t " means t h a t he i s unable to cope with a s i t u a t i o n or predicament. Note t h a t i t here has no antecedent. A f i g . use of hack(cut.hew) modelled on the e a r l i e r phrase "He can't take t t . " 37. Carpetbagger / karpetbaygar / rt. S 29 J one who t r i e s to make a f a v o r a b l e impression on a s u p e r i o r ; a brown-noser.(WF)(P) Since d875.A compound, - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 38. C h e s t e r f i e l d / c e ' s t a r f x y l d / n. F 21 F a couch;a long a r t i c l e of f u r n i t u r e capable of s e a t i n g s e v e r a l people.(A) A f t e r a n i n e t e e n t h century E a r l of C h e s t e r f i e l d . A Canadianism. 39. Chomp / comp / vb. P 24 F to bite;chew;eat. Cf. chompers #40. O r i g . champ becoming chomp;f. vowel models: stiimp/stomp. tramp/tromp. 40. Chompers / compdrz / n. S 14 F teeth,spec, a set of t e e t h . O r i g . champ becoming chomp + - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32,39. 41. Chowline / cawlayn / n. S 19 F a l i n e , a s of s o l d i e r s , s t u d e n t s , e t c . , w a i t i n g to be admitted to an e a t i n g p l a c e or w a i t i n g t o be s e r v e d ( c a f e t e r i a s t y l e ) . (¥F)(P) A compound.Common WWI AND WWII usage. O r i g . poss. f . Chinese r a i l r o a d workers i n the West where the Chinese f o r food was chow:also poss. i n f l u e n c e d by d i al.chow(chew). 42. C i t y - s l i c k e r / s i t i y - s l i k S r / n. S 31 J a c i t y dweller.spec, a s h r e w d , w o r l d l y , s t y l i s h l y dressed one, regarded by r u r a l people as a swindler.(WF) - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 43. Clam up / klam JLp / vb. S 3 F to r e f r a i n from t a l k i n g or to stop t a l k i n g ; t o refuse to d i s c l o s e information,esp. to the p o l i c e or judge.(GOL) Since c1900. -up s u f f i x , s e e #6. 20) 44. C l o t s / k l o t s / n. S 25 F i d i o t s ; i m b e c i l e s . O r i g . B r i t i s h WWII sl a n g esp. i n the a l l i t e r a t i v e phrase: c l u e l e s s c l o t . c l u m s y c l o t . R e l a t e d t o clod,whence clodhopper,derog. f o r country d w e l l e r . C f . H i l l b i l l y #127,Rube # 244. 45. Cob / kob / n. P 28 P a corncob p i p e . O r i g . prob. f . cob.meaning a farmer or small town l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t : c o r n c o b s . f r o m which eob pipes were made. A b b r e v i a t i o n through f r o n t - c l i p p i n g : /corn/cob. 46. Gold snap / kowld snap / n. S 1 F a sudden drop i n the temperature causing a short p e r i o d of c o l d weather. Compound. A fijg* use of snap. 47. C o l l o g r a p h / koI©graf / n. S 30 J a p r i n t which i s taken from a c o l l a g e s u r f a c e ( e . g . a c o l l a g e whose su r f a c e i s inked,paper a p p l i e d and removed,leaving an impression of the c o l l a g e s u r f a c e . ) Neologism and Portmanteau compound:coll(age) + ( l i t h ) o g r a p h . 48. Con A r t i s t / kon a r t i s t / n. S 30 J one who t r i c k s , f o o l s or persuades another to do something not i n h i s best interests.(WF) B a c k - c l i p p i n g from the word £on(fidence),hence the connection w i t h the underworld;hence a l s o the verb con: " He conned me i n t o l e n d i n g him my car f o r the weekend." 49. Con £ame / kon geym / n. S 7 F a confidence game,a swindle;any way of earning easy money; u n e t h i c a l procedure.(WF) ©rig. underworld s l a n g use. B a c k - c l i p p i n g of c_on(f idence) + game. 50. Con job / kon job / n. S 26 F a swindle;anything u n e t h i c a l or i l l e g a l . O r i g . underworld s l a n g use. B a c k - c l i p p i n g of con(fidence) + - j o b su f f i x : - . j o b suggests any a c t i v i t y and o f t e n takes the p l a c e of - i n g to form nouns from verbs. 51•Conk out / konk awt / vb, S 30 J to break down and stop running;to t i r e suddenly;to become exhausted.(¥F)(P) C o l l o q u i a l since C1918. -out s u f f i x word,see #11. 52. Cook your goose / kuk y©r guws / vb. S 1 F to put y o u r s e l f i n an unpleasant s i t u a t i o n through your own a c t i o n s or words;to s p o i l your chances f o r anything. O r i g . poss. by l i t . analogy. 53. C o o l i t / kuwl i t / vb. S 8 F to remain calm,unpreturbed,relaxed;aloof to a s i t u a t i o n . Usu. s a i d to someone who i s g e t t i n g e x c i t e d , a s i n : " C o o l i t j J o h n . " For use of i t without antecedent see #36. 54. Copper-outers / koper-awt©rz / n. S 7 F those who bow out of a s i t u a t i o n ; p e r s o n s abandonning a p l a n or event. Cf. cop-out,#389. - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 55. Cops / kops / n . p l . P 18 F the police.(GOL) Poss. f . the copper buttons once used on p o l i c e uniforms, r e i n f o r c e d by the Italo-American "coppo."(WF) Underworld s l a n g . 56. Cough up / kof .Ap / vb. S 29 J to pay,pay up or pay over money;to come f o r t h w i t h or present,as a c o n f e s s i o n of g u i l t •(WF)(P) Since c 1400. -up suffix,see#6. 57. Cover / k X v d r / n. S 27 J a f a l s e concealment of one t h i n g by another so t h a t the t r u e s i t u a t i o n may escape d e t e c t i o n or punishment.(WF) as in:"He blew h i s c o v e r . " ( s a i d of a spy). Since 61810. F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . 58. Crackdown / krakdawn / n. S 30 J a s i t u a t i o n i n which one takes admonitory or p u n i t i v e a c t i o n a g a i n s t someone;to censure.(FF) Compound. -down s u f f i x word,noun forming and verb forming,meaning: a c o n t e s t of stamina,knowledge or courage,or to put,drop or plunk down. 59. C r i s i s - p r o n e / kraysds-provn / a d j . S 13 M more l i a b l e to experience c r i s e s than normal people are. Compound. -prone i s now becoming a p r o d u c t i v e word element.Cf. accident-prone. 60. Cross / k r o s / vb. S 31 J to cheat;to do something a g a i n s t someone's wishes.(WF)(GOL) Cf. doublecross #74. Underworld slang.A meaning change. 61. Crumby / krAmiy / a d j . S 20 F d i r t y ; c o n t e m p t i b l e ; r e p u l s i v e ; d i s g u s t i n g . ( W F ) ( P ) Common use since c1840. The s p e l l i n g crummy i s more common,prob. j u s t a phonetic s p e l l i n g f o r crumby, -y suffix,see#31. 62oCrummy / kr-imiy / a d j . S 7 F of poor q u a l i t y ; u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . From crumby.see #61,a v a r i a n t . 63. Dead giveaway / ded gxyawey / n. P 8 F a t o t a l , u n w i t t i n g b e t r a y a l or r e v e l a t i o n of something s e c r e t . F i g . and emphatic use of dead;Cf. the phrase "dead ce n t e r " 64. Deadline / dedlayn / n. S 1 F a s p e c i f i c time by which an e f f o r t towards a goal must be completed. Compound. O r i g . newspaper j a r g o n . 65. D i c k e r / d i k a r / vb. S 18 F to b a r g a i n or do a,deal f o r something or w i t h someone; to haggle. Poss. - e r s u f f i x here,see #32. 23 6 6 * D i r t / d a r t / n, S 28 J r e f e r s to g o s s i p , o b s c e n i t y or scandal c i r c u l a t e d about a person or other entity.(WF) C o l l o q u i a l . F i g , use. 67. D i r t y <Jrack / d a r t i y krak / n. P 25 F a s h o r t , o f t e n humorous c r i t i c i s m ; a n audacious remark; a statement,esp. one t h a t i s uncomplimentary but c l e v e r . C o l l o q u i a l . F. by d i r t + -y. s u f f i x + crack, -y. s u f f i x , see #31 • For crack Cf. "wise crack " as w e l l as d i a l , use meaning c o n v e r s a t i o n , g o s s i p , e t c . ( S c o t s and B r i t i s h North Country) 68. D i s h / d i ! / n. P 19 F a woman or g i r l , u s u . a b e a u t i f u l or s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e one.(WF) F i g . u s e , l i n k i n g sex and a d i s h of food w e l l l a i d out. 69. Doggone i t / dogon i t / a d j . S 30 J dar&c1 i t . A euphemism which i s comparatively p l e a s a n t and s u b s t i t u t e d f o r taboo or unpleasant words;in t h i s case; " God damn i t ! " Here g o l darn i s a Deckwort f o r god damn which by tr a n s f o r m a t i o n becomes damn god and having a Deckwort of doggone. 70. Do-gooder / duw-gudar / n. S 26 F a s i n c e r e but s e l f - r i g h t e o u s worker f o r the welfare of others.(WF) Compound. The phrase do-good i s t r e a t e d as a u n i t t o which the - e r s u f f i x i s added.(see #32) 71. D o l l a r - s h o p / d o l a r sop / n. S 4 F a bank. F a c e t i o u s or nonce usage. 72. Doodled / duwdeid / vb. S 13 F to doodle means t o draw meaningless f i g u r e s or p a t t e r n s as a nervous gesture or i d l e h a b i t while doing something e l s e , -ed s u f f i x , s e e #17. 73*Bottle / d b t a l / n. P 28 P slime;drool;saliva* Orig* poss* from the dottle i n a pipe* 74. Double cross / dJCblkros / n* S 6 M a betrayal or cheating by one's associates,esp* among; criminals. Orig* underworld slang usage.Cf* #60. 75*Dove / dXv / n. S 1 P one who advocates peace* adj. dovish;Cf. contrary:Hawk #122* N Meaning change by analogy to the bird's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( d o c i l i t y ) , a s well as being part of c h r i s t i a n symbolism* Both opposing terms are used i n r e f e r r i n g to attitudes towards the U. S. war i n Vietnam. 76. Dovn-and-outers / dawn and awtarz / n. P 31 J a tramp,homeless and jobless.or l i v i n g i n poverty,and who w i l l not probably be able to improve his way of l i f e , ( V P ) -er suffix,see#32; -out suffix,see #11. 77. Draft-dodger / draft-doj©r / n. S 1 F a young male American who has f l e d the U.S.A. to avoid being inducted into the armed services* Compound* Draft + dodge(to evade) + -er suffix(see #32)* 78.Drag / drag / n, S 20 F a person,thing or event that i s int e l l e c t u a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y or a e s t h e t i c a l l y boring,tedious,tiring or colorless.(WF)(P) Orig* jazz use c1946,now common with teenagers.students* From vb* drag. 79*Drag race / drag reys / n* P 24 M a race between two or more cars,usu. hot rods,to determine which can accelerate the faster.(WF) Hot rod use since c1945. Term apparently comes from the need to "drag" or stay i n low gears as long as possible* 80.Drum up / drAJJfcjp / vb. S 27 J to t r y to get people enthusiastic over a product or cause; to obtain customers or trade.(WF)(P) Fig* use of drum. -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 81. Expo / ekspow/ n. S 26 F E x p o s i t i o n , An a b b r e v i a t i o n by b a e k - c l i p p i n g : e x p o / s i t i o n / The r e f e r e n c e i s to the E x p o s i t i o n 1967 h e l d a t Montreal. 82. F a i l s a f e / f e y a l s e y f / a d j . S 8 F safe from the p o s s i b i l i t y of any mistakes o c c u r r i n g . Neologism and portmanteau eompound:fai1(ure) + s a f e . C f . model of b u r g l a r p r o o f . 83. Fakement / feykmant / n. S 4 M a f o r g e r y ; a dishonest p r a c t i c e , a s i n any t r a d e , a c t i o n , t h i n g or contrivance.(P) Since C1850. From f a k e ( a sham,deception) + -ment. 84. Farm out / farm Ovt / vb. S 7 M to l e t out t o someone,usu. s a i d of a c o n t r a c t or a r t i c l e which i s rented to someone f o r a f e e . G e n e r a l i z i n g of meaning by analogy to the o r i g . meaning, farming acreage outside of your own,by r e n t i n g i t . -out s u f f i x , s e e #11. 85. Fat cat / f a t kat / n . p l . P 29 J a person who has fame,wealth and l u x u r i e s ; a w e l l - o f f person i n modern s o c i a l terms.(WF) Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 86. Feds / fedz / n. S 27 F persons having s t r o n g support f o r the people who form the n a t i o n a l government. A b b r e v i a t i o n through b a c k - c l i p p i n g : f e d e r a l i s t s / 87. Fed up / f e d A p / a d j . S 4 F bored;sated;disgusted(WF)(P) From B r i t i s h s l a n g , o r i g . a v e r s i o n of the French j'en a i soupe -up s u f f i x , s e e #6. 88. Feedback / fiydbak / n. P 20 F i n f o r m a t i o n response to i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y given or a s i t u a t i o n a l r e a d y c r e a t e d . Poirtmanteau compound: feed (ing) + back( wards), f o r model Cf. phrase,"to.make a comeback" or "kickback." 89. Feed-forward / fiyd-forw®rd / n. S 30 J past i n f o r m a t i o n being taken advantage of,as i n i T h e r e i s not enough feed-forward i n c i t y management today," Formed by analogy t o feedback,see # 88, 90. F i n k s / f i n k s / n . p l . S 8 F a contemptible person;an undesirable,unwanted or unpleasant person. Common since d 9 2 5 . O r i g . a s t r i k e b r e a k e r or scab:f. the Y i d d i s h f i n k . l i t , f i n c h . 91. Fogey / f q g i y / n. S 17 F an o l d e r , c o n s e r v a t i v e , m o r a l type of person;a d u l l a r d . ( F ) Since c1780. -v. s u f f i x , see #31. 92. Foul-up / fawl-Ap / n. S 13 M a mix-up; a mess,esp. due to a blunder. Compound. For -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 93. Flower c h i l d r e n / f l a w a r c i l d r a n / n. P 24 M those members of o f f b e a t s o c i e t y who a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h the q u a l i t i e s of flowers:back to nature,sweet,loving, and s e r e n e . T h u s , l i t . the c h i l d r e n of the f l o w e r s . 94. Funnymoney / fXniyminiy / n© S 27 F c o u n t e r f e i t money;piaymoney or something s u b s t i t u t e d f o r r e a l currency. Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 95. Fuzz / fAz / n. P 18 F the p o l i c e ; a detective.(WF) Underworld,hobo and c a r n i v a l use.(GOL) O r i g . poss. through Damon Runyon,a syndicated newspaper columnist who used i t i n 1946. 96. Gang up on / ganXp on / vb. S 7 F to u n i t e a g a i n s t someone,as i n a f i g h t or the like.(WF) C o l l o q u i a l . -up s u f f i x word,see #6 on means,to the disadvantage o f . 97. Gas / gas / n. S 20 F a gas i s anything exc e p t i o n a l , e x t r e m e l y s a t i s f y i n g or s u c c e s s f u l , s u c h as a pie c e of music,a person,a p a r t y or any experience.(WF) Since c1945. O r i g . a Harlem negro term,nov i n common use i n " c o o l " c i r c l e s . 98. Generation gap / jenareysdn gap / n. S 29 J l i t . meaning the p e r i o d i n years between two generations but f i g * r e f e r r i n g to the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n communication of thoughts,feelings,etc.,between two succe s s i v e generations* F i g . use of gap. 99. Get a handle on / get Q hands1 on / vb* S 7 M to get a g r i p on a s i t u a t i o n or event;to understand something;to grasp how something f u n c t i o n s . F i g . use of handle. 100.Get o f f the pot / g e t of & p o t / vb© S 20 F to q u i t f o o l i n g around;to stop p r o c r a s t i n a t i n g and become a c t i v e l y engaged i n the assignment. Poss. drug a d d i c t jargon. 101 A. Get out from under / get avt fiSmXnder / vb© S 30 J to e x t r a c t o n e s e l f from an embarrassing or unpleasant s i t u a t i o n , e n t e r p r i s e , j o b or r e l a t i o n s h i p . Concatenation of the p r e p o s i t i o n a l adverbs. 101B.Giggle Water / g ^ a l wot®r / n. S 7 F Champagne or l i q u o r g e n e r a l l y . F i g . spkg. f . how i t a f f e c t s a person d r i n k i n g i t * 102. Gimmicks / gimiks / n* S 3 F a gimmick i s p a r t of a p l a n or adventure t h a t can mean success or f a i l u r e ; o n e ' s angle or sub-motive;a gadget; subterfuge.(WF) O r i g . w i t h c i r c u s , c a r n i v a l and gambler usage. 103. Give-away / giv-awey / n. S 29 J anything t h a t b e t r a y s or r e v e a l s unwittingly.(WF)(P) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e C1880. Cf. # 63. 104. Give the nod / g i v %d nod / vb. S 29 J to s i g n i f y i n i t i a l l y , w i t h a nod of the head,that i t i s s u i t a b l e to proceed upon some course of a c t i o n or another.(P) P i g . use of nod. 105. G l o b e t r o t t e r s / glowbtrodSrz / n. p i . P 7 F persons who t r a v e l around the world. Poss. o r i g . from an analogy to the Harlem G l o b e t r o t t e r s b a s k e t b a l l team who t r a v e l world wide t o p l a y . 106. Glue s n i f f i n g / gluw s n i f i n / n. S 31 J the a c t of s n i f f i n g the fumes from a tube of glue when the glue i s emptied i n t o a bag7in order t o o b t a i n a momentary mind—expanding s e n s a t i o n . Neologism. Formed by a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l process$ to s n i f f glue, becomes t o glue s n i f f , t h e n glue s n i f f i n g . 107. Gobbledygook / gobldiyguwk / n. S 14 F nonsense;gibberish. Onomatopoetic formation,pern, f . gobble.the n o i s e made by a t u r k e y . C f b a f f l e g a b #7. 108. Go-get / gow-get*/ n. P 14 M ve r v e ; v i t a l i t y ; a m b i t i o n ; i n s p i r a t i on. A b b r e v i a t i o n through b a c k - c l i p p i n g : g o - g e t / t e r / . 109. Goodies / gudiyz / n . p l . P 13 M sweets or small g i f t s ; a n y a d u l t f o o d s , d r i n k s , c l o t h i n g o r o b j e c t s , a r t i s t i c or c u l t u r a l , t h a t i n s p i r e c h i l d i s h enthusiasm. Since d 9 4 8 . - i e ( - y ) s u f f i x , s e e #31. 110. Grab-bag / grab-bag / n. S 4 M a l u c k y bag;a s i t u a t i o n which i s made up of odds and ends;a mixed bag. Compound.Since c1900. 111. Great white hope / g r e y t hwayt howp / n. S 4 F anyone,esp. a p o l i t i c i a n , a t h l e t e or entertainer,whose accomplishments may b r i n g fame or re s p e c t t o h i s n a t i v e town,country,school,etc. (WF) O r i g . i n p r i z e - f i g h t e r use i n ref© to a white boxer able to beat negro Jack Johnson. 112. Gum up / g i m ^ p / vb, S 15 F to r u i n or s p o i l a p l a n or the s u c c e s s f u l completion of a task,esp. by blundering.(WF) C.f, bung up.#34. 113, Gun f o r h i s job / gAn f o r h i z job / vb, S 30 J t o be a f t e r a person's j o b , u s i n g devious and o p p o r t u n i s t t a c t i c s i n doing so. O r i g . poss, f , model of:gun f o r someone.meaningspursue w i t h i n t e n t t o murder, 114, Guru / guwruw / n. P 13 M a s p i r i t u a l i s t : a m e t a p h y s i c a l i s t ; a teacher of t r a n s c e d e n t a l meditation.(WF) From the Hindi,meaning:venerable o n e , s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r or teacher, 115. Gutlessness / g X t l a s n d s / n. S 14 F the q u a l i t y of having no courage.(P) From guts(courage) + l e s s + ness. 116. Hand-out / hand-awt / n. S 12 M something given f o r f r e e , w i t h o u t any q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Compound. 117, Hanky-panky / henkiy-penkiy / n, S 15 F deception;anything crooked or u n e t h i c a l ; f u n n y business.(F) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c 1840. Poss, formed on model hokey-pokey. Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 118Happening / hapdning / n. P 14 M a happening i s any s i t u a t i o n i n which something happens; i n i t i a l l y l i m i t e d t o the o f f b e a t segment of s o c i e t y and t h e i r s o c i a l occurrences c a l l e d "happenings>"Now i n general use. O r i g . i n j a z z s l a n g . 119 Hard-core / hard-kor / a d j . S 28 F b a s i c ; e s s e n t i a l ; h a v i n g the s o l i d core a f t e r a l l the f r i l l s have been taken away;as in:"The hard-core p o l i c y of the U.S.A. was ...." 120. H a r d - l i n e / hard-layn / a d j . S 6 F c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a tough,firm p o s i t i o n on any s i t u a t i o n ; as in:"He made a h a r d - l i n e statement on the Red China developments," 121. Hatchet-job / hacat-job / n. S 31 J a p r o f e s s i o n a l job done by a h i r e d a s s o c i a t e to d e s t r o y the r e p u t a t i o n of o t h e r s f a n u n e t h i c a l a t t a c k made by a p a i d colleague t o a member of another p o l i t i c a l party.(WF) Since c 1925, For s u f f i x -job,see #51, 122. Hawk / hak / n. S 1 F one who advocates war, ad j , hawkish. Cf© dove.#75.for background, 123. Headshrinkers / h e d s r i g k d r z / n . p l , S 18 F p r o f e s s i o n a l psychologists{psychoanalysts,(WF) O r i g . a gruesome r e f e r e n c e t o the p r a c t i c e of S. American head s h r i n k i n g t r i b e s , s u c h as the J i v a r o Indians. Now f r e q u e n t l y c o n t r a c t e d to s h r i n k . 124. TO heck w i t h / tehek wid / a d j . S 1 F i n d i c a t e s t h a t the speaker wants to give up doing some-t h i n g ; an e x p r e s s i o n of hopeless abandonment. A euphemism f o r " t o h e l l withtt("heck" being a Deckwort f o r " h e l l " ) 125. H e i s t / hayst / n. S 11 F a s u c c e s s f u l holdup,robbery or t h e f t ; u s u . an armed robbery by p r o f e s s i o n a l thieves.(WF)(GOL) From " h o i s t " i n underworld use meaning,to s t e a l an expensive item. 126. H e l l t o pay / h e i te pey / n. P 12 M a severe punishment;a severe p e n a l t y or bawling out.(WF)(P) Since d 8 9 0 . 127. H i l l b i l l y / h x l b i l i y / n. S 15 F an uneducated,unworldly r u s t i c , s u c h as one who l i v e s i n the southern h i l l s or the Ozark r e g i o n . R e d u p l i c a t i o n and p a r t i a l rhyming;Cf. c l o t s #44,rube #244. 128. H i p p i e / h i p i y / n, S 27 J a member of the beat g e n e r a t i o n ; i n the extreme,one who has removed h i m s e l f from c o m m e r c i a l , m a t e r i a l . p o l i t i c a l and a l l p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l r e a l i t y , i n t e n s e l y b e l i e v i n g i n and p r o t e c t i n g o n l y the true,nonemotional, nonsocial,amoral i d e n t i t y he has.(WF) O r i g . j a z z s l a n g The c1929 form "hep" became l a t e r " h i p " by a vowel change whence came " h i p p i e " , " h i p s t e r , " e t c . - i e ( - y ) s u f f i x , s e e #31. 129. H i t c h / h i i c / n. S 7 M a cat c h ; a p o i n t of conte n t i o n ; a snag or d i f f i c u l t y . ( O E D ) F i g . f . c1948. 130. Hoedown / howdawn / n. S 13 F a p a r t y or dance,esp. a l i v e l y one. Compound: hoe + down.in r e f e r e n c e to the time of c e l e b r a t i o n when a g r i c u l t u r a l work(with the hoe)was f i n i s h e d . 131. Hokum / howkdm / n. S 8 M insin c e r i t y ; n o n s e n s e ; b u n k . C o l l o q u i a l use. O r i g . t h e a t e r use;Cf. models l i k e hocuspocus.hokey-pokey 132. Hootch / huwc / n. S 11 M l i q u o r , e s p . i n f e r i o r homemade or cheap whisky.(WF) O r i g . a Canadianism,f. Indian term hootchinoo.an Indian people of south A l a s k a and T l i n g i t t r i b e ' s hutsnuwu,lit. g r i z z l y bear f o r t . B a c k - c l i p p i n g of hootchinoo. 133. H o t l i n e / h o t l a y n / n. S 19 F a telephone to a r a d i o s t a t i o n or important p o l i t i c a l c a n t a c t which i s kept open a t a l l times f o r questions and d i s c u s s i o n s of an urgent or c o n t r o v e r s i a l nature. Compound. 32 1 34.Hotrodder / hotrodar / n. S 12 F one who has an i n t e r e s t i n and d r i v e s a stock car t h a t h as had i t s engine r e b u i l t or m o d i f i e d so t h a t the car i s f a s t e r and more powerful than the o r i g i n a l design.(WF) Since d950,wide teenage and student use. - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 135. Hotseat / h o t s i y t / n. S 18 F o r i g i n a l l y the e l e c t r i c c h a i r or witness stand i n a c o u r t -room;now any uncomfortable s i t u a t i o n , u s u . i n which one i s being questioned. Compound. 136. Hotshot / hotsoH / n. S 20 F an i m p o r t a n t , a c t i v e , s u c c e s s f u l person;a s k i l l f u l person who takes r i s k s to succeed and does succeed to become i m p o r t a n t , s e l f - a s s u r e d and proud.(WF)(P) From hot-shot.one who shoots e a g e r l y or s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h a f i r e a r m . Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 137. H o v e r c r a f t / hjCvarkraft / n. S 24 F a water v e h i c l e which a c t u a l l y c r u i s e s s l i g h t l y above the water on a s e l f - c r e a t e d a i r cushion. Neologism.Compound by analogy with p a t t e r n s l i k e : a i r c r a f t , s p a c e c r a f t , e t c . 138. H y d r o f o i l / h a y d r a f o y l / n. S 20 F a water v e h i c l e which c r u i s e s s l i g h t l y above the water on an a i r cushion. A compound of word element hydro- + f o i l . Neologism.Cf. h o v e r c r a f t , s e e #137. 139.In hock / i n hok / vb. S 13 F to be i n hock means to be indebted to someone m a t e r i a l l y or i m m a t e r i a l l y . O r i g . hock:pawnshop. 140.In the b l a c k / i n blak / n. S 26 F o p e r a t i n g a business a t a p r o f i t ; m a k i n g money. From the dark or b l a c k c o l o r e d i n k bookkeepers use on the c r e d i t side of the l e d g e r . Cf. i n the red,#142. 33 141.In the hole / i n &3 howl / n. P 12 F i n debt.(P) Since C1760. 142.In the r e d / i n fc© r e d / n. S 26 F o p e r a t i n g a business at a d e f i c i t j l o s i n g money. From the red i n k t h a t bookkeepers use on the d e f i c i t s i d e of the l e d g e r . Cf. i n the b l a c k , #140. 143.Iron-on / ayern-on / a d j . S U M a f f i x e d w i t h a hot i r o n , u s u . patches on p a n t s , e t c . 144. Jack-hammer / jak-hamdr / vb. 8 30 J to f o r c e an i s s u e t o c o n c l u s i o n , a s in:"He j a c k -hammered a b i l l through the House today." O r i g . i n c o n s t r u c t i o n workers jargon. F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . 145. J e r k / jXrk / n. S 19 F an i n e f f e c t u a l , f o o l i s h or unknowingly d u l l youth or man. Poss. o r i g . with r a i l r o a d use where i t meant a short branch r a i l w a y l i n e . A l s o , j e r k w a t e r stops,prob. r e i n f o r c e d by the number of j o l t s and j e r k s t r a i n e make on such a r a i l w a y l i n e ; o r i g . j erkwater,to take on water while i n motion by scooping i t from a t t r o u g h between the r a i l s . 146. J e r r y b u i l t / j e r i y b i l t / a d j . S 20 F u n s u b s t a n t i a l l y b u i l t ; p o o r l y constructed.(P) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e cl880. Poss. o r i g . f . a c o r r u p t i o n of j u r y . a s i n .jury-mast.leg.etc. 147. J e t l i n e r / j e t l a y a d r /n. S 20 F an aeroplane w i t h j e t engines. Prob. formed on model of passenger l i n e r . r a i l l i n e r . e t c . and r e l a t i n g to a i r l i n e r . 148. Johns / jonz / n. S 4 F a t o i l e t . e s p . a p u b l i c t o i l e t f o r males.(WF) 149. K e t t l e of f i s h / k e t S l &v f i s / n. S 7 F a predicament or s i t u a t i o n , e s p . a confused one.(P) Poss. f . S c o t t i s h . k e t t l e of fish.meaning a p i c n i c . 1 50.Keyholery / k i y h o w l S r i y / n, P 19 H i n v e s t i g a t i n g ; f i g . , as by p e e r i n g through key h o l e s . Cf. rubber checkery #242. - e r y s u f f i x , u s u . forming nouns f . nouns or vbs. to mean: a p l a c e where something i s served;or a p l a c e t h a t i s a s s -o c i a t e d w i t h something(dancery);also,the s t a t e or c o n d i t i o n o f , o r the q u a l i t i e s or a c t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h a t denoted by the r o o t word(keyholery). 151 . K i d / k i d / vb. S 29 J to j o s h a person;to deceive;to make fun of a person i n h i s presence. F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t , f . k i d : c h i l d . 152. K i d d i e s / k i d i y z / n . p l . P 12 F c h i l d r e n . Meaning s h i f t , C f . k i d s #151. - i e s u f f i x , s e e #31. 153. K i n g p i n / k i n p i n / n. S 29 J the h i g h e s t ranking person i n a group;the l e a d e r ; usu. has an underworld connotation.(WFJ(P) O r i g . poss. f . game of n i n e p i n s . 154. Knock / nok / vb. S 4 F to f i n d f a u l t w i t h ; t o give bad p u b l i c i t y to.(WF) F i g . u s e , f u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . 155. Land grab / l a n d grab / n. S 31 J a sudden a c q u i s i t i o n of land,usu. near some area of new development. Compound. 156. Lark i t up / l a r k i t £p / vb. S 7 F to have a good time.(F) By analogy to the b i r d , f o r ±Jb , see #36; f o r up, see #6. 157. Lead-pipe c i n c h / l e d payp sine / n. S 12 F something easy;anything or anyone c e r t a i n of success. C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1875;f. the c i n c h of a saddle which secures i t , o r i g . of le a d - p i p e u n c e r t a i n . 158. L i p p y / l i p i y / a d j . S 20 F i n s o l e n t ; i m p e r t i n e n t ; t a l k a t i v e • ( W F ) From l i p i n f i g . sense:cheek,insolence, -y. s u f f i x , s e e #32. 159. L o c k - i n / l o k - i n / n. S 4 M a s i t u a t i o n where a group of demonstrators l o c k them-s e l v e s i n s i d e a b u i l d i n g they wish to occupy as a p r o t e s t . - i n s u f f i x p a t t e r n a f t e r model of s i t - i n . s e e #271• 160. Locos / lowkowz / n . p l . P 27 F locomotives. A b b r e v i a t i o n through b a c k - c l i p p i n g : l o c o / m o t i v e s / . 161. Look-in / l u k - i n / n. S 13 F a b r i e f v i s i t on a casual temporary b a s i s where you c u r s o r y a t t e n t i o n t o the a t t r a c t i o n . Modelled on p a t t e r n of s i t - i n . s e e #271. 162. Looksee / l u k s i y / n. S 4 F a l o o k ; a v i s u a l inspection,whether c u r s o r y or p r o t r a c t e d . C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1925. Poss. o r i g . i n p i d g i n E n g l i s h . 163. Loner / lownar / n. S 1 F a man who p r e f e r s to l i v e , w o r k , d r i n k , e t c . , by h i m s e l f , without t a k i n g others i n t o h i s confidence. Both a derogatory and a complimentary use. ^ -ed s u f f i x , s e e #32. 164. Longha i r s / lonhe r z / n. S 7 F i n t e l l e c t u a l s ; p e o p l e who l i k e s e r i o u s books,music,theater etc.Now a more general a p p l i c a t i o n to the modern day h a i r c u t s w i t h hippy i m p l i c a t i o n s . l65«Loot / luwt / n. S 27 J money,esp. a l a r g e sum of money;also a vb. Common since d945,used as j a z z slang. From H i n d i l u t . b u t i n f l u e n c e d by l o o t i e . a n a t i v e i r r e g u l a r of India,hence a b a n d i t . 166. Lose your c o o l / luwz y o r k u v l / vb.phr. S 1 P i o l o s e composure;t» l o s e t h a t s t a t e of mind charac-t e r i z e d by detachment,disdain f o r emotional involvement and a d i s t a n t and r e s e r v e d r a t h e r than e n t h u s i a s t i c a t t i -tude towards persons and i d e a s . F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t ; C f . c o o l it.#53. Used by" c o o l " groups t h a t f l o u r i s h e d i n the mid-1950 fs. 167. L o s s - l e a d e r / l o s - l i y d 9 r /n. S 26 F an a r t i c l e s o l d by a store a t l e s s than c o s t so as to a t t r a c t customers who,it i s hoped,will a l s o buy other items a t normal p r i c e s . Compound. 168. L o t on the b a l l / l o t on b o l / n. S 6 F to have a l o t on the b a l l means to be a l e r t and have v i t a l i t y and a b i l i t y ; t o be i n the know;to be hep.(YF) F i r s t pop. a s s o c i a t e d with bfep and c o o l use,student use s i n c e c1935. Prob. d e r i v e d f . b a s e b a l l . 169. Lousy / l a w s i y / a d j . S 12 F b a d ; h o r r i b l e ; w o r t h l e s s ; e x t r e m e l y i n f e r i o r . ( P ) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e d 8 6 0 . From louse + -v, s u f f i x ( s e e #31 )• 170. LP / e l p i y / n. P 11 F long p l a y r e c o r d s . An acronym where the f i r s t two l e t t e r s of each word a c t as an a b b r e v i a t i o n which now stands as a word. A c t u a l l y a p a t t e r n e d trademark of the C a p i t o l Recording Co 171. LSD / e l e s d l y / n. S 20 F l i s e r g i c a c i d d i e t h y l a m i d e potent but n o n - a d d i c t i v e h a l l u c i n o g e n i c drug. An a c r o n y m : i n i t i a l s are taken from the o r i g . Ger. name-l y s e r g - saure-diaethylamid. Cf. a c i d #1. Common since d 9 6 2 ; s t u d e n t and a d d i c t use. same s h i f t of meaning. 172. Megapolitan / megepoWtan / a d j . S 13 F r e f e r r i n g t o a m i l l i o n person p o p u l a t i o n of the metro-p o l i t a n area of a c i t y , e t c . Portmanteau word f . mega(prefix denoting,a m i l l i o n times) + ( m e t r o ) p o l i t a n . 173. Mickey / mikiy / n. S 8 P a 13 oz. b o t t l e of l i q u o r , s m a l l enough t o c a r r y i n a pocket. Prob. d e r i v a t i o n f . mickeyian Irishman;a potato;a potato brew-f. an Irishman's r e p u t a t i o n f o r d r i n k i n g or always being w i t h l i q u o r . -l74.Milked / rnilkt / vb. S 28 J to m i l k means to o b t a i n p o s s e s s i o n of by t r i c k e r y and a r t i f i c e ; t o take advantage of some one through d e c e i t f u l means.(P) By analogy to m i l k i n g a cow. 175. M i n d - b l a s t i n g / maynd-blastin( ;; / a d j . S 1 P pushing your mind or concious l e v e l of experience i n t o the e x t r a - c o n c i o u s l e v e l of experience. Prob. a n a t u r a l d e r i v a t i v e f . mind-blowing and mind-exp- anding, which through repeated use and extended a p p l i c a t i o n have l o s t t h e i r d e s c r i p t i v e power;all are based upon or t r a n s l a t e d from p s y c h e d e l i c ( a neologism). 176. Mindsudsed / mayndsAdzd / a d j . S 12 P „ . i , / < ^ i J i u j / A l l are f a c e t i o u s synonyms Ego-scrubbed / lygo-skrAbd / J J T ... . , / T - . ^ ,^ > \. i f o r brainwashed,see#25. L i b i d o - r i n s e d ^ / lebaydo-rinset / ' 177. Mish-mash / mis-ma*s / n. P 14 F a hodgepodge;a mixture composed of many i n g r e d i e n t s , e s p . a p o o r l y i n t e g r a t e d mixture. Near rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n , w i t h vowel v a r i a t i o n . O r i g . mash. 178. Moccasin t e l e g r a p h / mokdsin t e l e g r a f / n. S J 30 the means by which i n f o r m a t i o n c i r c u l a t e s amongst Indians; ( o r i g . Indians wore moccasins and sent important i n f o r m a t i o n by runner). 179/Mod / mod/ a d j . S 19 F modem;up to date;usu. a p p l i e d to fashions,has connotation of an Edwardian or fancy way of d r e s s i n g . O r i g . f . mod s t y l e f i r s t worn by the mods of the mods and r o c k e r s group i n England duri n g the 1950's. 180. Moonship / muwnsip / n. S 8 1 the v e h i c l e used t o l a n d on the moon(lunar module). Neologism,modelled on the p a t t e r n of a i r s h i p . s p a c e s h i p . e t c . 181. The most / $e mowst / n. S 7 F the best;the most e x c i t i n g ; t h e most up to date person or t h i n g . Far out,beat and c o o l use. 182. Mudslinging / m A d s l i ^ i n / n. S 30 J the a c t of spreading m a l i c i o u s , d e r o g a t o r y statements about another,whether such statements are true or not.(WF) Synonym f o r the o l d e r muckraking f o r which Cf. Bunyan*s "man wit h the muckrake." M a i n l y p o l i t i c a l use since C1890. 183. M u l t i v e r s i t y / m u l t i y v ^ r s S t i y / a d j . P 14 M a u n i v e r s i t y which has s e v e r a l c o l l e g e s or separate schools w h i c h , n e v e r t h e l e s s , f a l l g e n e r a l l y under the name of one i n s t i t u t i o n . Portmanteau word from m u l t i + ( u n i ) v e r s i t v . 184. Nigger / n i g a r / n. S 13 F negro;Afro-American.(P) 185. N i t t y - g r i t t y / n i t i y - g r l t i y / n. S 13 F the b a s i c s or e s s e n t i a l s of any sit u a t i o n , p r e d i c a m e n t , a c t i o n , e t c . ; t h e hard,unvarnished f a c t s . Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 186. N O b i g sweat / no b i g swet / S 1 F no t h i n g t o be concerned a b o u t ; e a s i l y accomplished. F i g . o r i g . f . the i d e a of working hard p h y s i c a l l y and p e r s p i r i n g versus no sweat. 187. N O go / now gow / n. P 7 F t h a t moment i n any s i t u a t i o n when the o p e r a t i o n i s cancelled.(¥F)(P) Used i n aerospace jargon when they i n d i c a t e d t h a t a m i s s i l e l a u n c h i n g was c a n c e l l e d . Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 188. Northpaw / nor6po* / a d j . P 22 F a right-handed person. Formed by analogy t o southpaw.see #734. 189.Oddball / odbol / n. P 8 F an e c c e n t r i c , q u e e r or odd person:a nonconformist.(WF) A compound from odd + b a l l t C f . s c r e w b a l l . 190.Off-the-cuff / df-^e-kXf / a d j . S 20 F informally;extemporaneouslyjunrehersed. O r i g . poss. f . the h a b i t of w r i t i n g b r i e f notes on the s h i r t c u f f s . 191.Okayed / owkeyd / pp. S 4 F judged as s a t i s f a c t o r y ; a p p r o v e d . From the standard O.K. 192.Ombudsman / omhAdzmdn /n. P 21 F the o f f i c i a l who r e c e i v e s and deal s w i t h p u b l i c complaints of a general or s p e c i f i c nature,usu. l a i d a g a i n s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and bodies of a hig h e r , unapproachable order,such as governments. From Swedish,via New Zealand E n g l i s h . 193.One-upmanship / wJlin Xpmdnsip / n. S 10 F being one step ahead of your f e l l o w being i n any f a c e t of l i f e ; h a v i n g an advantage over your f e l l o w being. O r i g . a coinage by Stephen P o t t e r . 194.On the stump / on cte stXmp / S 24 F on the campaign c i r c u i t . ( P ) O r i g . f . p o l i t i c a l days where a candidate l i t . used to climb up on t r e e stumps t o t a l k t o the people as he t r a v e l l e d around the country. 195.Operation cleanup / opareys»n kliynvtp / n. P 7 F an organized p l a n t o c l e a n or t i d y up a p l a c e , a r e a or s i t u a t i o n . Modelled on wartime expressions such as " o p e r a t i o n overload." For -up s u f f i x see #6. 196,Ornery / o r n a r i y / vb, P 18 F stu b b o r n ; d i f f i c u l t ; i m m o v e a b l e on an o p i n i o n . p r i n c i p l e . e t c . North American d i a l , f . o r d i n a r y . 197.Outage / aVta j / n. S 12 F f a i l u r e ; t e m p o r a r y i n t e r r u p t i o n , a s in:"An e l e c t r i c i t y outage." T e c h n i c a l neologism from out(the power i s o u t . i . e . o f f ) + 198.Out of whack or k i l t e r / awt a v hwak o r k i l t a r / vb. S 19 F out of order;not f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y . C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e C1899. K i l t e r i s a v a r i a t i o n of kelter.meaning good c o n d i t i o n or order. 199.Out of your mind / awt a v yor maynd / S 29 J e c s t a t i c about something,so e c s t a t i c t h a t i t f i g . borders on i n s a n i t y . Cf. m i n d - b l a s t i n g #175. 200.Over-provocation / owvar-provdkeysSn / n. S 12 M an overabundance of annoyance or i r r i t a t i o n . P r e f i x -over has become a p r o d u c t i v e p r e f i x g i v i n g such terms as:over-eat.over-sleep.and over-step;Cf.over-r e a c t i o n #201. 201.Over-reaction / owvar-riyaksan / n. S 13 M a response t o something more e n e r g e t i c than normally c a l l e d f o r . P r e f i x -over.see #200. 202.Paper t i g e r / peypar taygar / n. S 27 J a d e c e p t i v e l y strong,powerful or i n f l u e n t i a l person who i has a l l the a c t i o n s of a f o r c e f u l p e r s o n a l i t y but turns out to be i n e f f e c t i v e . T h i s p a t t e r n of paper + i s now commonly a p p l i e d i n other s i t u a t i o n s to imply i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . ( e . g . p a p e r mayor.) 203. Pass the buck / pas & 3 bAk / v b . S 31 J t o pass onto someone e l s e a problem,a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , or a person having a problem r e q u i r i n g attention.(WF) C o l l o q u i a l since c1900. 204. Payload / peylowd / n. S 6 F any d e s i r e d r e s u l t such as money,the c o r r e c t answer, the s o l u t i o n t o a problem or the l i k e . O r i g . f . the l i t . a p p l i c a t i o n i n mining:to d i g down u n t i l p a y d i r t or the mother lode was h i t ;hence pavload. 205. P e e l / p i y l / vb. S 27 F to undress,esp. to do a s t r i p t e a s e on the stage.(P) By analogy to the p e e l i n g of f r u i t ; c o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1800. 206. P i c t u r e / pxkcOr / n. S 27 J a comprehensive understanding or view;a p r e s e n t a t i o n of a l l the e s s e n t i a l f a c t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s p e r t a i n i n g t o the subject a t hand. (WF) (P)as i n the question:' 1 Get the p i c t u r e ? " Meaning s h i f t . C o l l o q u i a l . 207. P i d d l i n g / p i d l i n / a d j . S 31 J s m a l l ; t r i v i a l ; i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . From p i d d l e . c h i l d ' s word foi? u r i n a t e . 208. P i g s / p i g z / n. S 22 F the p o l i c e . Since c1848,criminal use. 209oPipedream / paypdriym / n. S 4 F any plan,scheme,goal i d e a or i d e a l t h a t i s as u n r e a l i s t i c as the dreams of an opium a d d i c t a f t e r smoking an opium pipe.(WF) O r i g . w i t h opium s m o k e r s ; c o l l o q u i a l . 210. P l a s t e r / p l a s t e r / vb. S 1 F to abuse someone ph y s i c a l l y . ( W F ) Prob. o r i g . f . plaster,meaning to shoot w i t h a gun;in the m i l i t a r y sense to s h e l l h e a v i l y . C o l l o q u i a l . 211. Plonks / plonks / n. S 22 F the doldrums;in a s t a t e of m i l d d e p r e s s i o n . Onomatopoetic formation. 42 212. PM / piyem / n. S 7 M Prime M i n i s t e r . an acronym;the f i r s t l e t t e r i n each vord. 213. Pop c u l t u r e / pop k A l c a r / n. S 20 P p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . A b b r e v i a t i o n through back-clipping:jgop/ular/ +• c u l t u r e . Cf. models of pop music.pop singers.pop f a s h i o n s . 2l4*>Pommy b a s t a r d / pomiy bastard / S 1 M A u s t r a l i a n s l a n g nickname foi? an Englishman. Cf. n o r t h American t e r m s : b l i m e y . k i p p e r . b r i t . 215. Poppycock / popiykok / n. S 30 J nonsense. A euphemism. 216. P o s t i e s / powstiyz / n . p l . S 7 F postmen;mailmen.(P) By analogy to model of g o a l i e f o r goalkeeper.etc. A b b r v i a t i o n through back-clipping:Post/man/ + - i e s u f f i x . F o r - i e s u f f i x see #31. 217. Pound the sidewalk / pawnd &8 saydwok / vb. S 1 F to walk the s t r e e t s i n search of a job or i n order to beg from p a s s e r s by.(WF) 218. P r a n k s t e r s / pra*}kstarz / n . p l . P 24 F p r a c t i c a l j o k e r s . From prank + - s t e r . s u f f i x , a p r o d u c t i v e s u f f i x of agency j o i n e d to nouns and o f t e n g i v i n g a derogatory connotation. Cf. punster #227. 219. Pre-fabbed / p r i y - f a b d / a d j . S 26 F custom cut and ready to assemble. Abbrevi a t i o n : f a b / r i c aft/ed. -ed i s a pp. or an a d j . forming s u f f i x . 220. P r e x i e s / p r e k f s i y z / n . p l . P 21 F u n i v e r s i t y or business p r e s i d e n t s . A b b r e v i a t i o n f o r p r e s i d e n t s , - i e s u f f i x see #31• 221. Pro / prow / n. S 29 J a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n any l i n e of work. A b b r e v i a t i o n : p r o / f e s s i o n a l / . 222, Psyche out / sayk awt / vb, S 12 F to l o s e c o n t r o l through f e a r j t o l o s e one's nerve; t o understand another's deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l motivations and to cause him to f a l t e r or l o s e c o n t r o l . -out s u f f i x see #11, 223, P u l l the cork on / pul4f2fe kork on / vb, S 29 J to i n t e n t i o n a l l y cause s e c r e t i n f o r m a t i o n about a person or s i t u a t i o n t o become general knowledge. F i g . , b y analogy to corks i n b o t t l e s - t o prevent leakage, 224, P u l l o u t / puloVt / n. S 6 F a departure;a complete v i t h d r a ^ L from a s i t u a t i o n , ( P ) Compound;colloquial since C1880, -out s u f f i x see #11, 225. Punch out / pine awt / vb. S 14 F to f i g h t someone and s u c c e s s f u l l y beat them up;to win a f i g h t . O r i g . f . an o f f i c e or factory;workers punching a time c a r d as he begins or leaves work, -out s u f f i x see #11. 226. Punch through / pAnc ©ruw / vb. S 30 J . to put something through w i t h a connotation of f o r c e or strength,as in:"They wanted to punch through an access route to the highway." O r i g . f . c o n s t r u c t i o n workers jargon;Cf. jack-hammer #144. 227. Punster / pAnstar / n. P 29 M a person who t e l l s puns.(WF) - s t e r s u f f i x see #218. 228. Push on / pus on / vb. P 7 M to move on to other t o p i c s or areas f o r a c t i o n ; t o proceed to other p o i n t s w a i t i n g f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F i g . use of push. 229. Put on / put on / n. S 28 J a p u r p o s e f u l d e c e p t i o n , o f t e n done i n an a f f e c t e d manner. 230. Put one over on / put WJLBL owvar on / vb, S 29 J to tease or make a f o o l of someone;to misrepresent something t o someone;to convonce them t h a t something fake i s real.(VP)' O r i g . j a z z , s t u d e n t and svi n g e r u s e ; c o l l o q u i a l s i n c e d 9 5 6 . 231. Put on i c e / put on ays / vb. S 3 P to postpone (WF) F i g . use. 232. Quack / kwak / n. S 24 F an u n e t h i c a l person p a s s i n g h i m s e l f o f f as a know-ledgeable doctor.(P) Since C1660. 233. Quake / kweyk / n. P 25 F an earthquake. A b b r e v i a t i o n through f r o n t - c l i p p i n g : / e a r t h / q u a k e . 234. Ransom ra c k e t / ransara rakdt / n. S 27 J any shady or di s h o n e s t business or occupation;a swindle; here spec, r e f e r r i n g to the i l l e g a l h o l d i n g of a person to be returned f o r a sum of money.(WF$ R e d u p l i c a t i o n ; a l l i t e r a t i o n . 235. R a t t i n g on / r a t i n on / vb. S 6 M in f o r m i n g or s q u e a l i n g on. O r i g . the r a t t h a t l e a v e s a s i n k i n g s h i p i s a symbol of t r e a c h e r y . 236. Redeye / redjfcy / n. S 30 J i n f e r i o r or raw whisky,spec, b o o t l e g whisky;cheap l i q u o r . Since d 8 2 0 . A l s o used i n Canada(Alberta) t o r e f e r to beer l a c e d w i t h tomato j u i c e S C a l g a r y redeye',' 237. Regulars / regy©l©rz / n. S 1 F those persons who frequent a p l a c e on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Cf. h a b i t u e s ( F r e n c h ) . F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . 238. Ring / r i n / n. S 29 J a group of persons usu. formed f o r some i l l e g a l purpose, as i n : "The dope r i n g i s o p e r a t i n g i n the east end of Vancouver." 239. Rocketeer / r o k a t i y r / n. S 18 F a person who i s a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the science of rockets,usu. a young i n i t i a t e i n t h e science* S u f f i x -eer.by analogy w i t h model l i k e r a c k e t e e r . 240. Roughing i t / rX f i n i t / n. S 24 F doing something i n a d i f f i c u l t manner;it i s i m p l i e d t h a t there i s an e a s i e r way to do the task but one chooses t o take t h i s more d i f f i c u l t r o u t e . For use of i t without antecedent,see #36. 241 .Roughneck / riffnek /n. S 13 F an ill-mannered,uncouth,rough person,esp. i f burly.(WF)(P) O r i g . c i r c u s u s e ; c o l l o q u i a l . 242. Rubber checkery / rXber c e k a r i y / n. P 12 F the w r i t i n g of checks t h a t are returned t o the w r i t e r because there i s not enough money i n h i s account to cover i t s value.(WF)" O r i g . rubber + check + - e r y s u f f i x , a s i n : t h i e v e r y . r o g u e r y . F i g . use of rubber i n r e f e r e n c e to the s l a n g e x p r e s s i o n used f o r such checks:e.g. they are s a i d t o "bounce." Note the American s p e l l i n g : c h e c k f o r cheque, - e r y s u f f i x see #150. 243. Rubby-dub / rAbiy -dXb / n. P 15 M a bum;a worthless tramp;a down and o u t e r , o f t e n with a co n n o t a t i o n of a drunkard. A b b r v i a t i o n f . rub/bing/ a l c o h o l . R e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h p a r t i a l rhyme, -y. s u f f i x see #31. 244. Rube /ruwb / n. S 29 J an u n w o r l d l y , n a i v e . u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d country youth or man; a newcomer;an outsider,hence anyone easy to victimize.(WF) From Reuben.a t r a d i t i o n a l r u r a l name;Cf. c l o t s #44, h i l l b i l l y #127. 245.Sawy / s a v i y / n. P 15 M unde r standing;knowle dge;wo rldline s s. O r i g . i n p i d g i n E n g l i s h , f . the Portuguese saver.to know. C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e d 8 6 5 . 246.Saved-off / sod-of / a d j . S 11 F annoyed or d i s g u s t e d ( w i t h someone or something). Cf. b rowned-off.cheesed-off.brassed-off.etc. - o f f s u f f i x word w i t h connotation of ending an a c t i o n or r e l a t i o n ; C f . f i n i s h o f f . s i g n o f f . e t c . 247.Seepage / siypejf / n. P 27 P any substance t h a t has seeped or leaked from some enclosure or c o n t a i n e r . D i a l , and c o l l o q u i a l usage. From seep = -age s u f f i x ; C f . outage #197. 2 4 8 . S e l l down the r i v e r / s e i dawn cfe r i v e r /vb. S 4 F to betray. Prob. o r i g . w i t h the slave trade i n the southern S t a t e s when s l a v e s were t r a n s p o r t e d down the r i v e r t o p l a n t a t i o n owners.(Mark 1wain use i n Huckleberry F i n n ) . 2 4 9 . S e l l out / s e i awt / vb. S 29 J to become a t r a i t o r ; t o compromise one's i d e a l s or b e l i e f s because of f e a r or f o r other reasons;to renounce one's p r i n c i p l e s f o r the sake of moetary g a i n , -out s u f f i x see #11. 250.Set-to / set-tuw / n. S 4 M an arguement;an a t t a c k ; a heated disagreement with or without v i o l e n c e . ( P ) By analogy w i t h model s i t - i n . s e e #271* 251.Shacktown / saktawn / n. S 8 F any p a r t of a settlement,town or c i t y , t h a t i s run-down shoddy or slummy i n appearance. O r i g . prob. f . the shack or caboose of a f r e i g h t t r a i n ; or hobo use of the term to meah a meeting p l a c e . Cf. use of -town s u f f i x word i n refere n c e t o a c i t y d i s t r i c t i n words likeiChinatown.Gastown(e.g.old Vancouver) 252.Sh»ckyo/vi»iiy / adj P 27 F rundown;dilapidated.(WF) Formed by shack + -y s u f f i x (see #31). 253.Shake-up / seyk-Ap / n. S 30 J a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of personnel or work methods.(P) Since d 8 8 5 ; c o l l o q u i a l . -up s u f f i x word see #6. 254.Shamuses / seymdsdx / n . p l . P 19 M i n v e s t i g a t o r s ; d e t e c t i v e s . From I r i s h g a e l i c : Seamus,meaning James. 255.Shanty town / s a n t i y tawn / n. P 27 F a town of shacks;a group of shacks and makeshift d w e l l i n g s on t h t o u t s k i r t s of a city.(WF) Cf. shacktown #251. Shanty from Cdn. F r . c h a n t i e r or I r i s h sean t i g h / s a n t (an o l d house). 256. Shape up / s'eyp Ap /vb S 1 K to p u l l o n e s e l f t o g e t h e r ; t o organize o n e s e l f and begin working p r o p e r l y . -up s u f f i x wors,see #6. 257.Sharks / sarks / n . p l . S 4 M u n e t h i c a l operators i n the money l e n d i n g f i e l d who charge a h i g h r a t e of i n t e r e s t , t h e exact amount of which i s o f t e n hidden from the borrower.(P) F i g . u s e ; a l s o l o a n sharks. 258.Shear-in / s i y r - i n / n. S 3 M a g a t h e r i n g of h i p p i e s and l o n g h a i r s g e n e r a l l y f o r a h a i r c u t t i n g spree. - i n s u f f i x , p a t t e r n e d a f t e r s i t - i n , s e e #27t. 259.Shinny up / siniy.Xp / vb. S 7 M t o climb. From s h i n + -y, s u f f i x ( s e e #31). -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 260.Ship-shape / sip- s e y p / a d j . P 25 M f i n e ; r e a d y f o r u s e ; i n p e r f e c t c o n d i t i o n . R e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h vowel change. O r i g . prob. re s h i p being r e a d i e d f o r c a s t - o f f or the beginning of the season. 261,Shoo / suv / vb, S 31 J to chase avay. From shoo!(used v i t h imperative f o r c e . ) 262,Shoot o f f your mouth / suvt of yor maw© / #b. S 13 F to t a l k , e s p , to t a l k too much and with t o o l i t t l e r egard f o r p r o p r i e t y ; t o d i s c l o s e a confidence,(P) G r i g , perh. f . Dorothy Savers(Murder Must A d v e r t i s e ) and H. Wade (Constable Guard T h y s e l f ). 263.Shoot-out / suwt-iwt / n, S 20 F a gun d u e l ; a l s o a p p l i e d to a heated arguement or d i s c u s s i o n , Cf. #264; -out s u f f i x word,see #11. 264. Shoot up / suwtA-p / n. S 1 F a gun duel,Cf.#263. Prob. o r i g . f . gambling-dice p l a y e r use. -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 265.Short end of the s t i c k / s o r t end © v %9 s t i k / % S 31 J the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e l o t ; t h e worst of a t r a n s a c t i o n ; a n i n s t a n c e of being cheated,ignored,taken advantage of or r e c e i v i n g unfavorable treatment.(WF) Although the image i s t h a t of the short end as opposed to the l a r g e r q u a n t i t y or the l a r g e end of a s t i c k , w h i c h can be wielded,the etymology i s more v u l g a r : f i g . , t h e short end i s the end of a s t i c k poked up another's rectum by the one i n command of the situation,who h o l d s the other end. 2 6 6 . S h o t s , c a l l the / s o t s , k a l vb. S 29 J to c a l l the shots means to have the p r i v i l e g e of i n d i c a t i n g what should happen or take p l a c e , a s in:"He p a i d f o r the gate fee,so he should c a l l the shots." Prob. o r i g . d u r i n g p r o h i b i t i o n ( e . g . the n i c k e l shots of whiskey). 267.Showbiz / sowbiz / n. S 8 M showbusiness. A b b r e v i a t i o n by back-clipping:showbus/iness/sthen -us sequence changed to phonetic s p e l l i n g and p r o n u n c i a t i o n . 268. Shut up / sjttjLp / vb. S 1 P to cease t a l k i n g or making noise of any kind.(P) -up s u f f i x word,see #6, 2 6 9 . S i d e - e f f e c t / s a y d f i y f e k t / n. S 11 M a r e s u l t of any event other than the main e f f e c t or r e s u l t . Compound. 270. S i d e s t e p / saydstep / S 1 P to d e v i a t e from meeting a s i t u a t i o n head on;to i g n o r e a s i t u a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r , a s i n :"To s i d e s t e p an i s s u e . . . " 2 7 1 . S i t - i n / s i t - i n /n. S 28 J an a c t of p r o t e s t i n which demonstrators enter or remain i n a p l a c e i n a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n , t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t some law,custom or o f f i c i a l p o l i c y or to g a i n support and p u b l i c i t y f o r c i v i l r i g h t s , p a c i f i s m , e t c . T h i s i s an important formation w i t h - i n as a s u f f i x word,which has become popular s i n c e d960,when c i v i l r i g h t s p r o t e s t s began to g a i n n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n . S i t - i n was the f i r s t such word to gain currency and many others have been formed by analogy w i t h i t . Now the use of - i n has expanded to i n c l u d e any p r o t e s t or demonstration f o r most anything and not always i n connection w i t h segregation as was the o r i g . connotation'/ See #311,316,317,398,441,487,497,503 and 731. Cf. a l s o the term s i t - i n s t r i k e i n r e f . to popular f r o n t p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n France d u r i n g the 1930's. 272.Skidroad / skxdrowd / n. S 12 F a s t r e e t or d i s t r i c t of a town c o n t a i n i n g cheap businesses gambling rooms,brothels and the like.(WF) O r i g . logger use f . the s k i d road i n the bush;hobo and underworld use s i n c e c1915. 273.Skindiver / skindayv3r /n. S 26 F a man who deep sea d i v e s without the a i d of rubber wet-s u i t s , e t c . as a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t the coldjmore of an amateur connotation here. Cf. aquanaut #4. 274.Skookum / skuwkem / a d j . S 12 F heavy;large;overwhelming,as i n : "A p r e t t y skookum p r i c e . A borrowing f . Chinook ja r g o n wordjCf. skookum chuck ( r a p i d s - chuck means water i n the j a r g o n ) . 275.Skullduggery / skAldXgariy / n. S 14 F r a s c a l l y conduct;scheming or p l o t t i n g . From s k u l l . a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p i r a t e s whose f l a g , t h e j o l l y rodger,bears a s k u l l and crossbones. For s u f f i x - e r y see #150,242. 276.Skyjacker / skayoakar / n. S 13 F a person who h i j a c k s an a i r p l a n e while i t i s en route somewhere. Neologism;portmanteau w o r d : s k y ( h i ) i a c k e r . w i t h rhyme of h i - / s k y . 277.Sky-pirates / skay-payrats / n . p l . S 3 F those persons who h i j a c k a i r l i n e r s while on f l i g h t and f o r c e them to f l y t o another d e s t i n a t i o n . Neologism.Cf. skyjacker #276.Again note rhyme of s k y / p i -278.Skyride / skayrayd / n. S 20 F a mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o n n e c t e d w i t h the ground,which c a r r i e s one through the a i r . Compound.Note the rhyme: s k y / r i - . 279.Skyscrapers / skayskreyparz / n . p l . P 30 J a skyscraper i s a v e r y t a l l b u i l d i n g ; f i g . , o n e so t a l l t h a t i t scrapes the sky.(WF) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1920. 280.Slam-bam-thank-you-maam /slam-bam-©a^-yuw-mam / S 12 F a p r e t t y rough thank you t o a woman!an a b r u p t , r a p i d way of thanking someone. Rhyming formation. 281.Slide-prone / slayd-prown / a d j . S 13 M more l i a b l e to the s l i d i n g down of rock or other substance than normal,as i n : " T h i s area i s more s l i d e -prone because of the shale mountains." Compound;Cf. accident-prone• 282.Slog i t out / s l o g i t awt / vb. S 31 J to sueceed i n doing something but not without hardships and d i f f i c u l t y . ( P ) For use of i t without antecedent see #36. -out s u f f i x see #11. 283*Smear Campaign / smiyr kampeyn / n. P 29 M a p l a n or campaign which attempts to destroy the good r e p u t a t i o n of another,esp. by making f a l s e or exaggerated accusations;to degrade or slander.(WF) From the Y i d d i s h schmear. 284.Smoker / smovkar / n. S 28 J a much debated subject which continues under d i s c u s s i o n over a long period,thus smouldering l i k e a f i r e , a s i n ; " This problem of whether to recognize Bed China i s a r e a l smoker." Poss. o r i g . i n r a i l r o a d jargon r e f e r r i n g t o a locomotive-f . the days of wood and c o a l burning locomotives. 285.Snowmobile / snowmowbiyl / n. S 12 F a v e h i c l e running on s k i - l i k e t r a c k s which c a r r i e s people over the snow. Cf. skidoo. Portmanteau word^snow/auto/mobile;note rhyme;snow/mo-/. 286.S.0.B.'s / es.ow.biyz. /n. P 12 M S.O.B. stands f o r son of a b i t c h . An acronym. 287.Spacecraft / speyskraft / n. S 30 J the v e h i c l e used by and c a r r y i n g explorers i n t o outer space i n modern day research programs. By analogy to other compounds w i t h the - c r a f t formation. Cf. h o v e r c r a f t #137. 288.Spaceship / speyssip / n. S 3 F a v e h i c l e which c a r r i e s astronauts i n t o outer space on aerospace launchings. By analogy t o other - s h i p formations;Cf. moonship #180. 289.Spacewalking / speysvokig. / n. S 6 M l e a v i n g a s p a c e c r a f t and l i t . f l o a t i n g i n outer space. F i g . use of walking. Neologism. 290.Speak garbage / spiyk garbdj /vb. P 12 M to t a l k nonsense. 291 .Spice up / spays J t p /vb. S 7 M to glamorize a p e r s o n , s i t u a t i o n or occasion;to make more a t t r a c t i v e and e n t i c i n g . ( P ) F i g . from s p i c e + -up s u f f i x word(see #6). 292 . S p i l l a g e / s p i l a j / n. P 27 F any substance which has s p i l l e d over the boundaries or l i m i t s of a c o n t a i n e r . From s p i l l + -age s u f f i x , C f . #197,247. Neologism. 293.Spivs / s p i v z / n . p l . S 7 F a s t r e e t vendor o f t e n s e l l i n g s t o l e n o r ( d u r i n g WWII) bl a c k market goods. B r i t i s h wartime s l a n g . 294.Squatters / skwotarz /n. S 30 J persons who move onto l a n d they do not own and set up housekeeping.Der*ogatory. From squat + - e r s u f f i x ( s e e #32). 295.SRO / esarow / P11 F s o l d r i g h t out. An acronym.Tradesmen's ja r g o n . 296.Stacked / s t a k t / a d j . P 1 F having a s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e body,usu. s a i d of a g i r l or woman.(WF) 297.Standpatism / standpatism / n. S 13 F the p o l i c y of keeping a f i r m , f i x e d p o s i t i o n , o p i n i o n or b e l i e f . (WF,)(P) Poss. o r i g . f . gambling:to keep a good hand of cards; a l s o , t o s e l l f . a s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n ( s t a n d pad), formed from vb. phr. to stand pat + -ism s u f f i x . 298,Sticky s i t u a t i o n / s t i k i y sxeyuweysan / n. S 1 F a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n ; a s i t u a t i o n where one must proceed w i t h care and diplomacy,(P) Prob, o r i g , w i t h the B r i t i c i s m s t i c k y w i c k e t . i n r e f , t o the game of c r i c k e t , 299,Stinker / s t i n k e r /n, S 4 F a contemptible person,(P) From s t i n k + - e r s u f f i x ( s e e # 3 2 ) . 300.Stooge / stuwj / n, S 27 J an u n d e r l i n g , e s p , one who a c t s as a puppet f o r another, saying and doing what he does without q u e s t i o n because he i s t o l d to.(WF) Orig,prob, f . t h e a t e r and stage use;Cf. f a l l guy #546, s i d e k i c k #673. 3 0 l . S t o o l i e / stuwlxy /n. P 29 J a person s e r v i n g as a decoy;an informer;a s t o o l pigeon. From the f a c t t h a t pigeons were o f t e n t i e d t o a s t o o l as a decoy f o r other pigeons. Portmanteau word: s t o o l ( p i g e o n ) + - i e s u f f i x . ( s e e #32). 302.Stromgarm / stroiiarm / n, P 1 M a2person employed to c a r r y out a c t s of v i o l e n c e , t o o b t a i n money,information,etc.;a hoodlum or thug v&o uses p h y s i c a l violence.(WF) Compound,Since c 1830. 303.Sucked-in / sXkt-in / vb. S 7 F d e c e i v e d by f a l s e promises.(WF)(P) From s u c k - i n : t o engulf i n a w h i r l p o o l . 304.Superbowl / suwpdrbowl / n, S 15 F a l a r g e r - t h a n - e v e r — b e f o r e stadium f o r s p o r t s . P r e f i x super- c u r r e n t l y a v e r y p r o d u c t i v e p a t t e r n . Cf. #305,309. 305.Superliner / suwpdrlayndr / n. S 14 F a passenger s h i p l a r g e r than any other known before. p r e f i x super- see#304-309. 306.Superport / suwpsrport / n. S 30 J a p o r t much l a r g e r and more grandiose than anything y e t e x i s t i n g * P r ^ i x super-, see #304-09. 307*Superpower / suwparpawar / n* S 25 P a country whose e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y power i s g r e a t e r than most others i n the world* P r e f i x super-.see #304-09. 308.Supersavior / suwpsrseyvyar /n. S 8 M a person w i t h the power and d e s i r e to save other persons from u n d e s i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n s , p e o p l e , e t c . P r f i x super-.see #304-09. 309.Supertax / suwDerta^ks /n. S 29 J above the normal tax l o a d ; e x t r a ; o u t of p r o p o r t i o n t o the c u r r e n t tax s i t u a t i o n i n other areas. P r e f i x super-.see# 304-08. 310. S u r f s up / alrfsXp / P 1M you*re i n t r o u b l e now;now you're i n f o r i t , a s i n : " S u r f s up., John." E x p r e s s i o n type. From s u r f e r ' s c a l l which f i g . denotes:"now you have to show us what you can do." -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 311.Swim-in / swim-in / n. S 22 F an i n t e n t i o n a l g a t h e r i n g of people f o r the purpose of swimming-as a s o c i a l event or otherwise. - i n s u f f i x , s e e #271. 312.Swinging / swinin / a d j . S 4 F h i p ; i n rapport w i t h modern a t t i t u d e s ; s a t i s f y i n g , e x c i t i n g , or p l e a s i n g to a modern,hip person. O r i g . swing use c1935-c1942,now general j a z z and esp. c o o l use;Cf. phr. swinging London. 313. Swipe / swayp / vb. P 7 F to s t e a l a small object,usu. one t h a t can be e a s i l y concealed;to a p p r o p r i a t e another's p o s s e s s i o n s , i d e a s , g i r l , e t c . , w i t h o u t asking permission,(WF) F i g . use of tswipe ( to h i t , s t r i k e ) . 314. Take a stab at / teyk 0 stab a t / vb. S 1 F to t r y to do something;to take a chance.(WF)(P) F i g . use of stab. 315. Take-off-athon / teyk-of-eeoh /n. S 27 F a competition t o see who can l o s e the g r e a t e s t number of pounds i n a d e f i n e d p e r i o d of time, -athon s u f f i x , p o p u l a r p a t t e r n denoting endurance and l a r g e n e s s i n concept;Cf.(marathon.walkathon.danceathon.) 316. T a l k - i n / t o k - i n / n. S 1 F a meeting,usu. connected w i t h p r o t e s t , i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s gather i n a p l a c e f o r the purposes of h o l d i n g l e n g t h y , d e f i n i t i v e d i s c u s s i o n on one or more s u b j e c t s . - i n s u f f i x , s e e #271. 3l7Teach-in / t i y c - i n / n. S 3 F a s i t u a t i o n i n which p r o f e s s o r s or teachers gather o u t s i d e of r e g u l a r c l a s s hours to give c o n c e t r a t e d t e a c h i n g guidance t o d i s c u s s i o n s , u s u . over a lengthy p e r i o n of time, - i n s u f f i x , s e e #271. 318. Tear-sheet / t x y r - s i y t / n. P 21 F a kleenex;a handkerchief used t o wipe away t e a r s . Compound. 319. Teenology / t i y n o i a j i y / n. S 27 F the study of teenagers or teenage years. Formed by analogy w i t h : a s t r o l o g y . c a r d i o l o g y . p s y c h o l o g y ; the - o l o g y element denoting study of. 320. Teeny-boppers / t i y n i y - b o p 6 r z / n . p l . S 20 F a teeny-bopper i s a stereotyped teenage g i r l rock and r o l l e n t h u s i a s t ; a teenage g i r l c o n s idered as annoying, i n s i g n i f i c a n t , u n d e s i r a b l e and a b o r i n g burden. O r i g . negro use. - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 321. T e f l o n / t e f l o n / n. P 17 F the c o a t i n g f o r cookware instruments and the l i k e which e l i m i n a t e s the need f o r a grease and i s s t r o n g l y heat-re s i s t e n t . A trade name. Neologism. 56 322. Think-tank / ©igk-tank /n. S 22 F a group of experts i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d assembling t o undergo concentrated thought and d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e i r f i e l d . Compound.Note the r e p e t i t i o n of /-nk/. 323. Thumbs-down / OAmbz-dawn / a d j . S 27 F a vote or s i g n of non-confidence;a negative endorsement Q L i t . , t u r n i n g the thumb downwards,from the s i g n a l of Roman emperors concerning a defeated g l a d i a t o r , -down s u f f i x word,see #58. 324. Togs / togz / n . p l . S 29 J c l o t h i n g . B r i t i s h s l a n g ; f . l a t i n toga. 325. Tokenism / tokanizm / n. P 18 F any minor c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a d i s p u t e , e t c . , a s i n : "They claimed t h a t our c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the settlement of t h i s d i s p u t e were j u s t mere tokenism." From token + -ism s u f f i x . 326. Trendy / t r e n d i y / a d j . S 11 F f o l l o w i n g the c u r r e n t trends i n fashions,customs,etc. From t r e n d + -y s u f f i x ( s e e #31 )• P o p u l a r i z e d w i t h c T r e n d y Trudeau*application^which i s a l s o a l l i t e r a t i v e . 327. Turn-on / tAxn-on / S 10 M to arouse someone's i n t e r e s t or c u r i o s i t y i n some-t h i n g ; t o become ent h u s e d , a l e r t to,happy,etc. O r i g . a d d i c t , j a z z and student use,now g e n e r a l . Very common si n c e c1960. 328. Two-bit / tuw-bit / a d j . P 19 F c h e a p ; i n f e r i o r ; i n s i g n i f i c a n t ; s m a l l - t i m e ; t i n h o r n . ( W F ) l i t . , w o r t h 25 cents,e.g. a q u a r t e r or two b i t s of o l d c o i n s known as p i e c e s of e i g h t . 329. UF0 / yuw e f ow / n. S 7 F u n i d e n t i f i e d f l y i n g o b j e c t . An acronym. 330. Uncle Tomism /.Ankdl tomizdm / n. S 24 F. a negro who a c t s i n a s u b s e r v i e n t , s o l i c i t o u s manner to any white man. Negro use.From H.B. Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. 331 .Unhorsed / ^ n h o r s t / a d j . S 1 F having no power.influence or a u t h o r i t y . O r i g . r e f . to a r i d e r , s p e c , a s o l d i e r , t h r o w n from h i s horse and hence hors de combat. 3 32. Up swing / jtpswing / n. S 30 J a movement upwards as a g a i n s t downwards,positive as a g a i n s t negative,as i n : "The economy i s on the upswing." 333. V a f f l i n g / woflitt / a d j . S 20 F vague and meaningless,as i n : " W a f f l i n g statements about my involvement w i t h . . . . " 334. W a l k i e - t a l k i e / wdkiy-tokiy / n. S 6 F a p o r t a b l e telephone run on b a t t e r i e s , u s e d i n m i l i t a r y manoeuvers,etc. Prob. o r i g . as WWII slang. R e d u p l i c a t i o n and rhyming f o r m a t i o n . 335. Walk-in / wok-in / n. S 1 F an a c t i o n whereby the p a r t i c i p a n t s walk i n and occupy a p l a c e . - i n s u f f i x , s e e #271. 336. Walkout / wokawt / n. S 30 J a s t r i k e by union employees a g a i n s t an employer. T e c h n i c a l jargon. -out s u f f i x word,see #11. 337. Wet behind the ears / wet behtfcynd cfe i y r z / n. S 6 F i n n o c e n t , i n e x p e r i e n c e d , u n i n i t i a t e d , u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d . ( W F ) Prob.by analogy t o new-born animals or human beings not y e t a l t o g e t h e r dry. 338. Wherewithal / hwerwiGol / n. S 30 J the money wit h which to buy something.(WF)(P) C o l l o q u i a l u s e s i n c e e l 910. 339. White c o l l a r crooks / hwayt k d l e r kruks / n . p l . P 1 M i n f l u e n t i a l , r e s p e c t e d businessmen who use t h e i r power and p o s i t i o n f o r i l l e g a l p u r p o s e s ; s o p h i s t i c a t e d c r i m i n a l By d i r e c t analogy to white c o l l a r workers. 340. Whitewashing / waytwosin / vb. S 15 P c o v e r i n g up or g l o s s i n g over a misdeed;esp. used i n p o l i t i c s to r e f e r t o an o p i n i o n , r e p o r t or p u b l i c statement i ntended to excuse a misdeed or exonerate an u n e t h i c a l person. By analogy to whitewashing or co v e r i n g up a fence. 341. Whitey / waytiy / n. S 13 P a white person;the white r a c e . Now the most common urban negro slang word f o r white man. Formed by white * -y s u f f i x ( s e e #31). 342. Whizbang / hvizban / a d j . S 28 J anything remarkable or outstanding.(WF)(P) O r i g . WWII u s e , B r i t i s h army slang,from w h i z z i n g sound of s h e l l s d u r i n g f l i g h t , f o i l o w e d by an immediate explosion-bang! Onomatopoetic formation. 343. Wide blue yonder / wayd bluw yonder / n. S 31 J i n f i n i t e space;nothingness. Phr. quoted from a popular song. 344. Wipe out / wayp awt / vb. S 29 J O r i g . meant having l o s t c o n t r o l of one's s u r f b o a r d while r i d i n g a wave and f a l l i n g i n t o the water.Then i t was t r a n s f e r r e d t o the sport of s k i i n g , u s e d i n the same sense and f i n a l l y has come t o r e f e r g e n e r a l l y to someone who i s a c o n f o r m i s t , d u l l or square.(WF) -out s u f f i x word,see #11. 345. Wise-cracking / wayz-krakin /vb. S 6 M making b r i g h t , w i t t y or s a r c a s t i c r e m a r k s or jokes,esp. emphasizing another's shortcomings.(WF)(P) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1920. 346. Wop / wop / n. P 18 F an I t a l i a n or person,usu. male,of I t a l i a n descent. Derogatory use. Became common du r i n g the 1920's when i t i m p l i e d an i l l i t e r a t e I t a l i a n immigrant working as a day l a b o r e r . 347. Worked over / werkt owver / vb. S 1 F beaten up,usu. i n order to g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n or i n r e t a l i a t i o n ; r o u g h e d up. 348. Work-to-rule / wark-ta-ruvl / a d j . S 30 J usu. a union employee use a g a i n s t h i s employer i n which he chooses to work s t r i c t l y as h i s job framework i n d i c a t e r a t h e r than s k i p p i n g unnecessary d e r a i l s , e t c . as i s usu. done.Resuit i s the slowing down of s e r v i c e t o the p u b l i c by the company concerned. 349. Teggs / yeygz / n . p l . S 10 M any t h i e f , e s p . one who t r a v e l s as a hobo u s i n g the f r e i g h t s ; a safeblower. S a i d t o be from John Y e g g , t r a d i t i o n a l l y the f i r s t s a f e - c r a c k e r t o use n i t r o g l y c e r i n e . Hobo and underworld use,now common. 350. Yo yo /yow yow / n. S 14 F a s t u p i d , incompetent or u n d e s i r a b l e person. (WF) .From theeplajrthing known as the yo-yo. R e d u p l i c a t i o n . 351. Zany / z e y n i y / n. S 4 F c r a z y ; i d i o t i c ; u s e d i n j o c u l a r r e f . , r a t h e r than i n d i s a p p r o v a l . 352. Zapped / zapt / vb. S 8 M k i l l e d . 353. Zippy / z i p i y / a d j . S 4 F peppy;snappy.(WF)(P) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e C1945. Formed by z i p + -y, s u f f i x ( s e e #31). ( i i ) EDITORIALS 354. Across the board / d k r o s bord / adj.phr. S 29 J i n c l u s i v e ; p e r t a i n i n g i n the same r a t i o t o a l l members of a group,as i n : " An across the board r a i s e . " Labor union and p o l i t i c a l j a r g on. 355. Bad b i n d / bad baynd / n, S 29 J a predicament,as caused by c o n f l i c t i n g o b l i g a t i o n s , a n over-f u l l work schedule or the l i k e ; a t i g h t spot;a jam. Note a l l i t e r a t i o n * 356. Bad-mouthing / bad-maw^i^ / vb* S 15 F s a y i n g bad or n a s t y things,usu* of another person* Cf. mudslinging #184,muckraking #584. Compound. 357. Bagman / bagmen / n. S 29 J one vho i s assigned to c o l l e c t b r i b e , e x t o r t i o n or kidnap money.(WF)(GGL) Underworld use. 358*Baksheesh / baksiyg / »• S 19 F a t i p ; a g r a t u i t y ; a b r i b e . Near e a s t e r n and Anglo-Indian l o a n word p o p u l a r i z e d by the B r i t i s h army i n I n d i a and Ejfgypt. Cf. #390,509. 35 9 * B e a u t i f u l person / byuwtafal p^rsan / n* P 7 F one who has the c a p a c i t y t o r e l a t e openly and warmly wit h others;does not have a p h y s i c a l c onnotation here. Meaning change. 360. Beauts / byuwts / n. p i . S 29 J an u n u s u a l l y b e a u t i f u l or remarkable person,thing or plan.(WF)(P) o r i g . used i r o n i c a l l y . A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : b e a u t / y / . 361. Beefed up / biyfdXp / a d j . S 15 F added s t r e n g t h j i n c r e a s e d power and stamina,as i n : "The 450 i s a beefed up v e r s i o n of the 325." Poss. o r i g . from r u r a l use where i t meant l i t . , " t o s t o r e up on beef by s l a u g h t e r i n g a cow." 362. B i g g i e s / b i g i y z / n . p l . S 7 M i m p o r t a n t , i n f l u e n t i a l people,events or t h i n g s , - i e s u f f i x , s e e #31. 362a.Black power / blak pawdr /n« S 15 F the i n f l u e n c e or power of those people w i t h black s k i n c o l o r i n g , s p e c * the negroes. P i g . use of b l a c k . Cf. brown power #369* 363. Blackwash / blakwas / n. S 18 P the c o v e r i n g up or g l o s s i n g over of a misdeed performed by a member of the Afro-American group. Formed by d i r e c t analogy t o whitewash see #340. 364. Blow the g a f f / blow gaf / vb. S 24 F to r e v e a l the t r i c k or s e c r e t which made something run;seem l e g i t i m a t e or the like.(WF)(P) O r i g . c a r n i v a l and pitchman use. Gaff means gimmick(a concealed device or stratagem 365. Bljblra^ottKV..eoo'io/v:blow^yorrkuvl /vb. P 12 F t o become a g i t a t e d , e m o t i o n a l l y u p s et,tense,etc. over a s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r than remaining calm,detached and unemotional,which i s c o o l . Cf. #166. 366. Blue t a l k / bluw tok / n. S 29 J swearing;talk i n v o l v i n g a h i g h content of taboo words. Compound. 367. Boggle /bogl / vb S 31 J to h e s i t a t e , s t a l l , b e r e l u c t a n t t o do something,as i n : " HE boggled a t the s i g h t of her." 368. Boondocks / buwndoks /n. S 3 F an i s o l a t e d forest,swamp,mountain or j u n g l e reg i o n ; u n c i v i l i z e d c o u n t r y , w i l d terrain.(WF) O r i g . f . WWII u s e ; f . the Tagalog bundok meaning mountain. 369. Brown power / brawn pawar / n. S 15 F the i n f l u e n c e or power of those people w i t h brown s k i n c o l o r i n g , e s p . the Hawiian people,as i n : "Brown power i s on the r i s e i n the Hawiian I s l a n d s . " Prob. formed by analogy to b l a c k power,# 362a. 370. Brusb.off / brAsdf / n. S 11 F the a c t of brushing o f f , i g n o r i n g or r e j e c t i n g a person or thing.(WF)(P) Compound;by analogy to aet of brushing c l o t h e s , e t c . - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246. 371. Bubbly / bXbl iy / n. S 7 F champagne. f i g . , a f t e r the e f f e r v e s c e n c e of champagne. Cf. #101. 372. Bugaboos / lUgebuwz / n. S 29 J a nemesis;a r e a l or imagined o b s t a c l e t h a t cannot be overcome;something t h a t always causes f a i l u r e or bad luck.(WF) 373. Bugs you /toulgz yuw / vb. S 29 J makes you angry,bothers or i r r i t a t e s you. Meaning change;Cf. #30. 374. Bum d e a l / him d i y l / n. S 6 M a d e a l which has turned out t o be i n f e r i o r , u n s a t i s f a c t o r y or not to b e / s e r v i n g an intended purpose. Cf. #32. 375. Canned / kand / vb. S 5 M f i r e d or d i s m i s s e d from one's job. Poss. o r i g . f . f i g . analogy to music or t a l k being canned, meaning r e c o r d e d ( t h e a t e r and t e l e v i s i o n u s e ) . 376. Carry the b a l l / k e r i y fc© bol / vb. S 4 F to do most of the work;to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s u c c e s s f u l accomplishment of a s p e c i f i c task.(WF) L i t . , t o c a r r y the b a l l ( o r be the most r e s p o n s i b l e team member)in a b a l l game. 377. Cheek / c i y k / n, S 1 M impudence;audacity;nerve. C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e cl830. 378. C h i l l e r s / c i l 0 r z / n . p l . S 3 F s p i n e - t i n g l i n g ; f r i g h t e n i n g , e e r i e movies or the l i k e . F i g . f . anything e x c i t i n g which i s s a i d t o send c h i l l s through the body;hence c h i l l + - e r s u f f i x ( s e e #32). 379. C l a p - t r a p / k l a p - t r a p / n. S 4 F no n s e n s e ; l i e s jexaggerated t a l k ; b u l l . Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 380. Clean sweep / k l i y n swiyp / n. S 11 F the a c t of accomplishing something without f a l t e r i n g on any aspect of i t . ( F F ) F i g . use of sweep. 381. Climb-down / klaym-dawn / n. S 10 F abandonment of a p o s i t i o n , s t a n d , a s s e r t i o n or boast p r e v i o u s l y taken. C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c!880. F i g . use of compound. 382. C l i n c h e r / k l i n c a r /n. S 29 F a d e c i d i n g f a c t o r ; t h e crux of an arguemeht.(FF) F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t , - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 383. Come o f f i t / kim of i t / VB. S 3 F to stop doing or saying what one i s doing or saying,esp. because one's a c t i o n s or words are meaningless or offensive.(WF) Emphatic u s e ; f o r use of i t without antecedent,see #36. 384. Cop-out / kop-awt / vb. S 29 J to renege or withdraw from involvement i n some a c t i o n , p l a n , t a s k , e t c ; t o cease t o be a c t i v e l y engaged i n an endeavour.(FF) Cf. #54. 385. Cram-course /kram-kors /n. S 19 F a course f o r which one packs i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o one's mind,esp. i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r an examination to be h e l d soon.(FF)(P) Compound.Common c o l l e g e student use. 386. Crank / krank / n. P 29 J a nut;an o d d b a l l ; c r a z y ; a n insane person. 387. C r e d i b i l i t y £ap / k r e d i b i l i t i y gap / n. S 31 J room f o r d i s b e l i e f ; a n area i n any s i t u a t i o n , p o l i c y , or t h e e l i k e which i s unsupported by f a c t s and thus l e a v e s an u n q u a l i f i e d gap i n i n f o r m a t i o n whose c r e d i b i l i t y i s t h e r e f o r e open to q u e s t i o n . Cf. g e n e r a t i o n gap #98. 388. Crud touch / k r x d t i c / n. S 27 J anything i n f e r i o r , w o r t h l e s s , u g l y or disgusting;hence anything w i t h these q u a l i t i e s . 389. Crunch area / krXac e r i y s / n. S 18 P an area i n any b i l l , p o l i c y , e v e n t or the l i k e where there are i n e v i t a b l y going t o be d i f f i c u l t i e s , d i s -agreement or even v i o l e n c e , a s i n : " W i t h i n t h i s c o n t r a c t as i t s set up ,part 5 i s going to be the crunch area." F i g . use of crunch. 390Cumshaw / kjunso / n. S 19 F a t i p ; a g r a t u i t y . Cf.3e*>t#478,5l7. 3 9 t . C u r e - a l l / k y u r - o l / n. S 1 M something which has a wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y f o r f i x i n g f a u l t y areas,usu. a medical a p p l i c a t i o n , a s i n : " T r y t h i s c u r e - a l l of mine f o r t h a t n a s t y cough." 392. Damn a l l / dam o l / n. S 7 F l i t t l e or n o t h i n g . C o l l o q u i a l since c1915. A b o w d l e r i z a t i o n of fuck a l l . 393. D i n g - a - l i n g / d i ^ - d - l i ^ / n. S 1 M a person who a c t s q u e e r l y or s t u p i d l y ; a n i d i o t ; u s u . a j o c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n . Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 394. Dim-witted / dim-wftdd / a d j . S 4 F dumb;dense-headed;dull;stupids F i g . use of dim. 395©Discotheque / d i s k a t e k / n. S 1 F a n i g h t c l u b f o r teenagers or young people vhere one can hear rock music,dance to i t and watch the p s y c h e d e l i c g y r a t i o n s . Loanword from F r . : a compound made up of d i s c - f • disque (phonograph record) and the second element of b i b l i / o t h e q u e . 396. Do a Diefenbaker / duw Q diyf&nbeykdr / vb. S 7 M to groan,moan and otherwise i n d i c a t e one has been hard done by,usu. i m p l y i n g t h a t i t i s u n j u s t i f i e d and t o t a l l y unwarranted. A Canadianism. 397. Down the d r a i n / dawn cTe dreyn / a d j . S 29 J l o s t ; l o s t through wastefulness or c a r e l e s s n e s s . F i g . use of d r a i n . 398„Drop-in / drop-xn / n. S 30 J an o c c a s i o n on which people c a s u a l l y a r r i v e a t a predetermined piaffe without any great f u s s and stay f o r a s h o r t while and subsequently leave w i t h an equal l a c k o f f u s s . - i n s u f f i x , s e e #271. 399. Dumb bunny / dxm bAniy / n. P 29 J a person who i s bewildered*confused or h a b i t u a l l y perplexed,(WF) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1925. A p p l i c a t i o n i s usu. more i n a f f e c t i o n and sympathy than c r i t i c i s m . 400. Dumbell / dJlmbel / n. S 24 F a s t u p i d person. O r i g . a t t r i b u t e d t o c a r t o o n i s t , T A. Dor gan. 401. Eat a h e l p i n g of crow / i y t e h e l p i i p v kr6w / vb. S 25 F t o f i n d out t h a t you are wrong about something and t o be j u s t l y embarrassed and admit your mistake. Crow here being about the lowest of e d i b l e s ! 402. Egg-he ad / eyg-hed / n. S 1 M an i n t e l l e c t u a l ; a person deeply i n t e r e s t e d i n c u l t u r a l or s c i e n t i f i c a f f a i r s . Prob. o r i g . through popular image of an academician. Became popular d u r i n g the p r e s i d e n t i a l campaign f o r A d l a i Stevenson,when i t had a p o l i t i c a l c o n n otation. 403. Egg on my face / eyg on may f e y s / vb. S 6 M to have s u f f e r e d a d i s g r a c e , a h u m i l i t y or embarrassment through one's Own mistake or f a u l t , i n t e n d e d or otherwise. 404. Euromart / yurowmart / n. S 18 P European common market. Portmanteau word: Euro/pean common mark/et/. 405. Fade-outs / n . p l . S 18 F /feyd-awts / those people who are p h y s i c a l l y u n f i t and because of i t have l i t t l e or no endurance a n d l i t . fade out soon through p h y s i c a l exhaustion, -out s u f f i x word, see #;11 • 406 0Fl!|pdoodling / f l a p d u w d l i y / n. S 3 F t a l k i n g or a c t i n g n o n s e n s i c a l l y or f o o l i s h l y ; b a l o n e y . Since c1830. 407. F l a s h f i r e / f l a s f a y e r / n. P 27 F a sudden f i r e ; a f i r e t h a t comes w i t h no warning,fast and s e n s a t i o n a l . Prob. r e i n f o r c e d by the e x p r e s s i o n . f l a s h i n the pan. C f 0 ,#408. 408. F l a s h f l o o d / f l a s fl£d / n. P 27 F a sudden flood,coming without warning. Cf. f l a s h f i r e #407. 409. F l u bug / fluw t u g / no S 1 F the v i r u s or contagious aspect of the f l u t h a t t r a v e l s from person t o person thus i n f e c t i n g l a r g e groups*(WF) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1840. A b b r e v i a t i o n of F l u by back and f r o n t - c l i p p i n g : i n / f l u / e n z a Bug,in t h i s case,means i n s e c t i n general and here means germ or v i r u s . 410. F o l k s y / fowksiy / a d j . P 27 F having a down-to—earth homey q u a l i t y ; h a v i n g an appeal to the f o l k s or good common p e o p l e , u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d and unem t b e l l i s h e d . S l i g h t l y derogatory. Formed from f o l k s ( p i . ) + -y s u f f i x ( s e e #31 )• 411. Foul-up / fawl -Xp / n. S 3 F a mess made of t h i n g s ; a blunder;a mix-up.(WF) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e WWII, -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 412. Gaga / gaga / a d j . S 7 F c r a z y , s i l l y , i r r a t i o n a l ; h a v i n g l o s t one's o b j e c t i v i t y and perspective.(WF) From the French. R e d u p l i c a t i o n . 413. Gloom / gluwm / vb. S 22 F to go about being p e s s i m i s t i c over something;to be sad or downcast;depressed. F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t f . noun to verb,extending i t s use. 414. Glue-blown / gluw-blown / a d j . S 4 F usu. i n r e f . to someone's mind or consciousness which i s f i g . blown beyond the normal boundaries by the s n i f f i n g of glue fumes from a paper bag. 41 5.Goon / guwn / n. S 4 F a strong,stupid,unimaginative man;used both d i s p a r a g i n g l y and humorously. Poss. o r i g . f . Goon,the name given to a V i r g i n I s l a n d negro. 416. Green l i g h t / grxyn l a y t / n. S 27 J approval;permission to proceed;a go—ahead s i g n . From the t r a f f i c s i g n a l . 417. G r i l l e d / g r i l d / vb. S 29 J questioned,usu. over a long p e r i o d of t i m e , i n a r a p i d and rough m a n n e r ; f o r c e f u l l y i n t e r r o g a t e d . F i g . f . the i d e a of cooking over a hot g r i l l , -ed s u f f i x , s e e #25. 418. Gut i s s u e / gAt isyuw / n. S 11 P the s o l i d s u b s t a n c e ; f o r c e f u l or meaty contents of any i s s u e a f t e r a l l the f r i l l s or ornaments are removed.(WF) Der i v e d f . guts.Cf. #115. 419. Hacks / haks / n . p l . P 7 M a hack i s a t a x i c a b . C o l l o q u i a l . O r i g . f . a horse-drawn hackney coach used f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n years ago. A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : hackney 420. Hammer out / hamdr »wt / vb. S 27 J to formulate an i d e a , p o l i c y or procedure, -out s u f f i x , s e e #11. 421. Hangover / ha^owvar / n. S 10 F the unpleasant p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o c c u r r i n g a f t e r d r i n k i n g too much of an a l c o h o l i c beverage •(WF) Common si n c e C1920. 422. Haywire / heywayar / a d j . S 24 F broken;flimsy;po©rly c o n s t r u c t e d or equipped;jumbled or confused.(WF) O r i g . prob. f . farmer,rancher and logger u s e , f . the use of b a l i n g wire t o mend v a r i o u s implements,thus causing an a s s o c i a t i o n between haywire and d i l a p i d a t e d or jumbled t h i n g s . 423. H e l l u v a / heiav9/ a d j . S 7 F e x c e p t i o n a l l y or exce e d i n g l y thorough or severe;anything r e m a r k a b l e , i n s u l t i n g , a u d a c i o u s or bold,as i n : "One h e l l u v a time." C o n t r a c t i o n of h e l l of a s u b s t i t u t i n g sound e q u i v a l e n t s f o r the ort h o g r a p h i c . 424. Hide- away / hayd-awey / n. S 3 F a r e t r e a t ; a p l a c e t o go to t h a t i s out of the way and known to no one or v e r y few but y o u r s e l f , -away s u f f i x word,see #63. 425. Hogwash / hogwos / n. S 15 F i n s i n c e r e t a l k or w r i t i n g ; e x a g g e r a t i o n s ; l i e s , e t c . A euphemism;colloquial use. 426.Hog w i l d / hog wayld / a d j . P 7 M to be w i l d l y e x c i t e d : t e m p o r a r i l y i r r a t i o n a l owing to excitement,anger or happiness* 427*Holed up / howld Xp / vb. S 22 F hidden away somewhere,usu. f o r purposes of secrecy. -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 428. Honkies / honkiys / n . p l . S 18 F cheap saloons f e a t u r i n g gambling games and dancing: cheap small town t h e a t e r s or b r o t h e l s . O r i g . pjps0 f . honky-tonk; a l s o onomatopoetic o r i g . - i e s u f f i x , s e e #31• 429. Horse and buggy o p e r a t i o n / hors and hXgiy opareysan / n. S24F an o l d - f a s h i o n e d o p e r a t i o n or business.(WF) F i g . e x p r e s s i o n c o n t r a s t i n g the o l d mode of t r a n s p o r t a g a i n s t the c u r r e n t motorized form. 430. Horse f e a t h e r s / hors reefers / n. S 27 J bunk;baloney;nonsense. A euphemism. 431 .How does t h a t grab you? / haw daz <5at grab yuw? / S 27 J how do you l i k e t h a t ? whats your response to that? O r i g . j a z z and beat use,now general student and popular use. F i g . use of grab. 432.Hucksters / bXkstarz / n . p l . S 27 J a h u c k s t e r i s a r e t a i l e r of small goods i n a small shop or booth at a s t a l l ; a p e d l a r ; a hawker.(OED) From hawks to hucks;now has a connotation of a dishonest t r a d e r . - s t e r s u f f i x , s e e #227. 4 3 3 o I d e n t i k i t s / a y d e n t i y k i t s / n. S 7 M k i t s f o r " p u t t i n g on" your i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or t r a i t s , f o r c r e a t i n g one's image. Formed by analogy t o make-up k i t s which have the same connotation of a p p l y i n g an image other than your r e a l s e l f . Portmanteau word: i d e n t i / f y i n g / + k i t s . Neologism. 434.Image-vise / imaj-vayz / adv. S 29 J as f a r as (your) image goes;e.g 9 the image of a person or the image t h a t others have of him, Neologism, - v i se,an adv. forming s u f f i x meaning,in such and such a manner,vay or r e s p e c t ( t h e e q u i v a l e n t of - l y ; l i k e ) , i s c u r r e n t l y a v e r y p r o d u c t i v e v o r d g i v i n g terms such as : c a r - v i s e . l i q u o r - v i s e . a n i m a l - v i s e . e t c . ; e n d l e s s poss« a p p l i c a t i o n s . 435.In / i n / a d j . S 29 J fa s h i o n a b l e ; p o p u l a r . Contrary:out;Cf. in-group.out-group. 436. Jackpot / aakpot / n. S 24 F success;money;vinnings,as i n : " I h i t the jackpot." S a r c a s t i c usage a l s o . 437. K i t and caboodle / k i t and kabuvdal / n. P 12 F the whole l o t ; e v e r y t h i n g ; t h e vorks.(P) O r i g . prob. f . the E n g l i s h k i t s a s e t , a c o l l e c t i o n of t h i n g s and U.S. boodle:a c r o v d ( i t s e l f f . Portuguese cabedal) v i t h the k i t and being s l u r r e d t o ca,hence caboodle.a r e t e n t i o n of k i t . 438. K i t e - f l o v n / kayt-flown / a d j . S 11 F the p a s t form f , to f l v a k i t e meaning,to put out a f e e l e r , t o a i r an o p i n i o n or the l i k e i n order t o t e s t i t out:hence.kit-f1own means t h a t a p o l i c y , o p i n i o n , e t c , , has been t e s t e d and i s sound, 439. Laugh-in / l a f - x n / n. S 29 J a g a t h e r i n g or event at v h i c h the purpose i s to laugh or enjoy o n e s e l f . O r i g . f . the t e l e v i s i o n program Laugh-In. - i n s u f f i x pattern,see#271• 440. Lay one's cards on the t a b l e / l e y wAnz kardz on ^ teyD!L / vb.phr. S 4 F to d i s c l o s e one's plans.(P) From card game or gambling j a r g o n . 441 . L i v e - i n / l i v - i n / n. S 25 F ga t h e r i n g a t a pl a c e f o r the purposes of l i v i n g i n or on the premises,usu. t o demonstrate againstvsomething, although now can be used g e n e r a l l y i o mean " l i v e - i n " a i one's own house , e t c . - i n s u f f i x , s e e #271 o 442. Lose o u i oh / luwz awi on / vb. S 29 J to l o s e the chance or o p p o r t u n i t y f o r something; i o miss something,as i n : "She l o s t out on her chance i o get the p r i z e . " 443. Mace / meys / n. P 24 F an a n i i - r i o i gas s i m i l a r i o t e a r gas which,through i t s i l l n e s s - p r o d u c i n g e f f e c t s , c a u s e s crowds t o d i s p e r s e . A tradename. Poss. f . mace meaning,a b l a c k j a c k , a c l u b . 444. Mags / magz / n . p l . S 17 F magazines. A b b r v i a i i o n through b a c r c l i p p i n : magazines. 445. Medicare / mediyker / n. S 17 F a program,introduced by the government,which takes care of the people's medical expenses f o r a small annual f e e . Portmanteau word: medi/cal/ care . 446. Moneybags / mAniybags / n. S 7 F a wealthy person.(WF)(P) F i g . u s e ; c o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1915/ 447. Muffed / mXft / vb. S I M i o muff means to f a i l i o take advantage of an opportunity; i o bungle;io fumble.(WF)(P) O r i g . f . muff.an echoic word r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n a r t i c u l a t e sound.(OED) 448. Mumbo-jumbo / mjCmbow-jAmbow / n. S 19 F meaningless jargon.(P) Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 449. N i t - p i c k i n g / n i t - p i k i y / vb, S 1 F l o o k i n g f o r and f i n d i n g minor errors.(WF) 450. No-no / now-now / n. S 1 M a t h i n g t h a t should not have been done;abad mistake. R e d u p l i c a t i o n formation. 451. No-shows / now-sowz / n . p l . S 3 F a no-show i s a person who f a i l s t o claim,use or c a n c e l h i s r e s e r v a t i o n f o r theater or the like.(WF) O r i g . commercial a i r l i n e u s e { c o l l o q u i a l since c1950. 452. Now generation / new genSreysdn / n. S 3 F the young generation that is most hep w i t h modern times.the most aware of modem music,fashions.art, dance,etc. O r i g . w i t h beat or jazz use. F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . 453. Numb-thumbs / nXm-eXaz / n. S 1 M one who i s clumsy w i t h h i s hands;a b u t t e r - f i n g e r s . Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 454.Old codger / owld k o j d r / n. S 29 J an o l d man,with a connotationof a "character." C o l l o q u i a l since c1756. o l d - p r e f i x word which l o o s e l y means friend.suggests f a m i l i a r i t y , i n t i m a c y or sympathy. 455.On the up and up / on5a X p a n d X p / a d j . S 3 F ho n e s t { t r u s t w o r t h y ; f a i r - d e a l i n g or fair-minded; l e g i t i m a t e ; o n the level.(WF) 456. Opt out / oVfc awt / vb. S 30 J t o choose t o withdraw from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any pl a n , o c c a s i o n , j o b , e t c Cf. cop-out,#384. -out s u f f i x word,see #11. 457.O u t f a l l / a w t f o l / n. S 7 F the waste or runoff from any a c t i v i t y - or production, as in : "The o u t f a l l from the smelter is up ten percent. Formed w i t h out- p r e f i x + f a l l . 458. Out i n the weeds / awt i n wiydz / vb. P 7 M i n an i s o l a t e d , b u s h y , u n c i v i l i z e d region.(WF) Cf. boondocks,#368. 459. Par f o r the course / par f o r ko r s / S 3 F about what one c o u l d e x p e c t j a p r e d i c t a b l e average. From the game of g o l f . Meaning s h i f t . 460. P a y o l a / peyowld/n. S 29 J g r a f t ; b l a c k m a i l or e x t o r t i o n money.(WF) - o l a s u f f i x of I t a l i a n o r i g . ; a noun-forming s u f f i x usu. o n l y a d e c o r a t i v e lengthener g i v i n g f l i p p a n t connotations. 461. Peach on / p i y c on / vb. S 11 F to inform;to blab;squeal on or t e l l on.(P) Meaning and f u n c t i o n a l s h i f t ; C f . # 471A. C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1860. 462. Peachy / p i y c i y / a d j . S 15 F anything p l e a s i n g , e x c e l l e n t or admirable;wonderful.(WF)(P) Frequent i r o n i c use. -y s u f f i x , s e e #31. 463. Pip-squeak / pip-skwiyk / n. S 22 F an i n s i g n i f i c a n t person or object.(P) Poss. echoic o r i g . f . the n o i s e made by a small Ger. s h e l l of high v e l o c i t y d u r i n g WWII. 464. P l a y down / p l e y dawn / vb. S 29 J to underemphasize something or someone;to underrate, -down s u f f i x word,see #63. 465. P l a y i t c o o l / p l e y i t kuwl / vb. S 31 J to remain relaxed,calm,aloof and unemotional i n any s i t u a t i o n ; h i p , b u t having a q u i e t , o b j e c t i v e , a l o o f a t t i t u d e . O r i g . w i t h co o l j a z z p l a y e r s who were white musicians w i t h u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g and a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d knowledge of musical techniques.As a r e s u l t , t h e c o o l movement has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the i n t e l l e c t u a l approach t o l i f e i n gen e r a l . Since c1948. 466.Play up / p l e y ^ t p / vb. P 24 F to emphasize or glamorize anything or anyone,as i n : "He p l a y e d up her housekeeping t a l e n t s to the p o t e n t i a l husband." -up s u f f i x wors,see #6. 467«Pooh-pooh / puw-puw / S 4 P t o pass something o f f as nonsense;to d i s b e l i e v e . ( P ) Reduplication;onomatopoetic formation. 468. Poppings-off / p o p i n s - o f / n. S 7 P s i t u a t i o n s i n which one c r i t i c i z e s , c o m p l a i n s , b r a g s , r a n t s or s t a t e s opinions l o u d l y and e m o t i o n a l l y , w i t h or without cause.(WF) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1930. - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246. 469. Pourboire / puwrbwar / n. S 19 F a t i p ; a g r a t u i t y . Cf. cumshaw #390. O r i g . f . French. 470. Punks / pAttks / n . p l . S 13 F a punk i s a p e t t y hoodlum;one who t h i n k s he wants to be a hoodlum but l a c k s r e a l toughness or experience. Poss. o r i g . f . H i n d u s t a n i v i a B r i t i s h army use where i t meant.bread. 471. Pussyfoot / p u s i y f u t / vb. S 18 F to t r e a d d e l i c a t e l y or s o f t l y on a s e n s i t i v e area; to be v e r y q u i e t while moving about an area or p l a c e . Analogy to the way a cat walks. 472. Put up f o r grabs / put grabz / S 29 J to open something f o r bids or o f f e r s from everyone, as in:"He decided to put the c o n t r a c t up f o r grabs." 473. Raise hob / reyz hob / vb. P 24 F t o c e l e b r a t e w i l d l y or to c r i t i c i z e or c a s t i g a t e t horoughly and i n anger.(WF) 474. Red power / red pawdr / n. S 6 M the power or i n f l u e n c e t h a t the communists("reds") have i n any sphere of a c t i v i t y . Formed by analogy to black power,see #362a. Cf. brown power #369. 475. Bethresh t h e i r s t r a v / r i y d r e s &er straw / vb. S 27 J to go oyer t h e i r t h i n k i n g on a s i t u a t i o n or task again. F i g . use here. 476. B i b - t i c k l e r / r i b - t i k l a r /n. S 29 J a joke;something t h a t i s amusing.(WF) Since c 1850 • -e r s u f f i x . s e e #32. 477.Schmo / smow / n. S 5 M a f o o l i s h * i d l e person;one e a s i l y deceived;a naive person;a goof.(WF) From the Y i d d i s h . sen- suggests d i s l i k e , d i s h o n e s t y . d i s i n t e r e s t . m o c k e r y or i s an attempt t o d e f l a t e pomposity;a v o c a l way of shrugging one's shoulders, 478.Screwball / skruvb^l / n. S 7 F an e c c e n t r i c person;one w i t h unusual ideas or b e l i e f s ; a nut;a crackpot;a goofy person, O r i g . prob. f . baseball.which c a l l e d a b a l l t h a t moved i n any unexpected way,a s c r e w b a l l . 479.Scorn / slum / n. P 29 J low;contemptible,trashy type of people,(WF) F i g . use. 480.Shebang / sdba£ / n. S 3 F a c o l l e c t i o n of a l l one's possessions;a c o l l e c t i o n of anything;an e n t i r e s e r i e s of actions,as i n : " THe whole shebang." C o l l o q u i a l since c1870. 481.Slash / s l a s / n. P 27 F the waste or stubble m a t e r i a l l e f t over a f t e r a l a n d -c l e a r i n g p r o j e c t has been completed;usu. i t i s burned, thus.slash-burning. Meaning and f u n c t i o n a l change f. vb. t o s l a s h or cut something. 482,Smackdab / smakdab / adv. S 4 F d i r e c t l y ; p r e c i s e l y ; o n the mark,as in:"Smackdab i n the middle of t h i n g s , " Onomatopoetic formation. 483.Smart-aleck / smart-alak / n. S 7 F a k n o w - i t - a l l ; a wise-guy;a wiseacre.(WF)(P) O r i g . C1870 i n U S A ; C o l l o q u i a l . 484.Smidgeon / smijen / n. P 19 M a small amount.(WF) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1845. 485.Smokescreens / smowkskriynz / n . p l . S 25 F > cover-ups or d i v e r t e r s of a t t e n t i o n , u s u . away from the important i s s u e which i s presumably f a u l t y i n some r e s p e c t . T h u s , d i v e r s i o n a r y t a c t i c s ( s m o k e s c r e e n s ) a r e employed t o focus the a t t e n t i o n elsewhere. O r i g . prob. by analogy to the hazy smoke which a f i r e c r e a t e s . 486.Spiel / s p x y l / n. P 19 M a b o n s p i e l . A b b r e v i a t i o n through f r o n t - c l i p p i n g : / b o n / s p i e l . From the German. 487.Snafu-in / snafuw-in / n. S 1 M s i t u a t i o n normal a l l fucked up - i n ; t h u s meaning an event i n which there i s a preponderence of bungling. O r i g . WWII army use. An acronym combined wi t h the - i n s u f f i x p a t t e r n ( s e e #271). 488.Snappish / snapis / a d j . S 22 F nas t y ; q u i c k to r e t o r t i n an unpleasant and u n c a l l e d f o r manner. - i s h s u f f i x added t o an a d j . snappy ,gives the meaning of r a t h e r or somewhat. 489.Snappy / snapiy / a d j . S 24 P q u i c k l y ; s m a r t l y ; n e a t l y , a s i n :"Make i t snappy!" C o l l o q u i a l use. -y s u f f i x , s e e #31. 490.Snowball / snowbol / vb. P 20 F t o grow or i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y . F i g . , w i t h r e f • t o how a snowball b u i l d s up i n s i z e as i t s r o l l e d down a slope i n w e t , c l i n g i n g snow. 491 .Snowed under / snovdjCndar / vb, S 24 P burdened by an excess of work or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . F i g . use. 492„Spitters / spitarz / n. S 22 F bad times;bad luck,as i n : "Last year was one f u l l of s p i t t e r s for me." Prob. adapted f. the saying," a spi t i n your eye." -er suffix,see #32. 493.Square / skwer / n. S 29 J a person scorned because he i s not i n the know or esp. not aware of modern interests,activities,groups,fashions or fads which the speaker considers v i t a l . Orig. used by bop and cool groups,now widely accepted; evolution f. such expressions as:square John.square-,head.etc. 494.Starchy^/astarciy / a d j . S 29 J s t i f f l a n d unbending i n one's attitudes,opinions,etc. f i g . , f . starched white c o l l a r s and cuffs. -y suffix,see #31. 495. Stumble bum / stA-mblbXm / n. S 11 F an unemployed,homeless street beggar(esp. i f alcoholic) who i s usually i n a dazed condition.(WF) Now jocular application. 496.Stumping / stXmpin / vb. S 29 J campaigning for a p o l i t i c a l election. From stump speech meaning,political speech. Since d850. 497.Suckered-in / sJkSrd-in / vb. S 13 F deceived;fooled or tric k e d by fal s e promises.(WF) - i n s u f f i x formation,see #271. 498,Superjet /suwparjet / n. S 10 F a j e t airplane much larger and capable of carrying larger loads than normal j e t airplanes existing today. Super-prefix.see #304-09. 499.Supersonic / suwpdrsonik / a d j . S 1 M above the sound b a r r i e r . Super- p r e f i x , s e e #304-09. 500.Supertanker / suwpartaaxkar / n. S 10 F a tanker l a r g e r than most normal ships;one capable of c a r r y i n g enormous l o a d s . Super- p r e f i x , s e e #304-09. 501. Taps / taps / vb. S 27 J to tap means t o broach;to draw from,as i n :"The Community Chest taps a new source of funds i n the s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s department of the government. 1 1 O r i g . prob. f . tap meaning,to open up or penetrate something so as to e x t r a c t something from i t , a s i n to tap  a cask of l i q u o r and draw o f f the l i q u i d from i t . 502. Thing / Oin / n. P 7 M what p l e a s e s one most;what i s more n a t u r a l to one,as i n : "Do your own thing ?man." Cf. bag #8. 503. T h i n k - i n / O i n k - i n / n. S 17 F a g a t h e r i n g f o r the purposes of p o o l i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s to s o l v e or d i s c u s s c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s or problems. Cf. t h i n k - t a n k #322. - i n s u f f i x , s e e #271. 504. Throw the book a t / Orow buk a t / vb. S 4 F to p enalize,punish,reprimand or c r i t i c i z e a person severely.(VF)(G0L) O r i g . underworld u s e , f . the image of a judge sentencing a c r i m i n a l to every p e n a l t y i n the book of law. 505. Thug / eXg / n. S 4 F a hoodlum;a s t r o n g man a c t i n g or employed as a body guard or to commit a c t s of v i o l e n c e or intimidation.(WF) From H i n d i thag meaning,cheat or s w i n d l e r ; a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l robbers and murderers i n I n d i a who s t r a n g l e d t h e i r v i c t i m s . 79 506. Tiekey-tackey / t i k i y - t a k i y / a d j . S 17 P messy;touchy;sensitive;unpleasant. R e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h vowel change. 507. T i c k i n g o f f / tikiij of / n. S 3 F a t e l l i n g o f f ; a n u p b r a i d i n g ; a reproach;a reprimanding. From the t i c k i n g o f f of a person's name on a l i s t . P a r t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the phr. to t e l l o f f , - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246, 508. Tosh / t o s / n. S 4 F n o n s e n s e ; r u b b i s h ; r i d i c u l o u s . ( P ) P o s s . f . d i a l , t oshy meaning,over-dressed or tawdry. Since d 8 9 0 . 509. T r i n k g e l d / t r x n k g e l d / n. S 19 F a t i p ; a g r a t u i t y . Cf. cumshaw #390. 510. Troubleshooters / t r X b l suwtarz / n. S 3 F persons employed t o seek out areas of d i f f i c u l t y i n any s i t u a t i o n , w i t h the purpose of d e a l i n g w i t h any t r o u b l e s before they become s e r i o u s , - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 511. U p p i t y /Xpetiy / a d j . S 3 F snobbish;aloof;having a s u p e r i o r manner;presumptuous.(WF) From up + - i t y s u f f i x . O r i g . f . the sense of having a l o t of money(cl680). C o l l o q u i a l . 512. Wash-trading / vos t r e y d i ^ / n. S 12 F quick stock market manipulation. F i n a n c i a l jargon. 513. Wasp / wosp / n. S 27 F white anglo .sax on p r o t e s t a n t , d e s i g n a t i n g the general middle c l a s s American*also waspish,adj. An acronym. M a i n l y hippy and c i v i l r i g h t s use. - i s h suffix,seex#488. 514. Where i t s a t / hwer i t s at / S 4 F the p l a c e or time where a l l the best,most modern or h i p t h i n g s are happening. 515. Wised up / wayzd Jlp / vb. S 13 F informed;able to see the p o i n t of something,to r e a l i z e the r e a l i t i e s of a situation,(WF) -up s u f f i x word,see #6, 516. Z i l l i o n / z i l y e n / n. E 17 F an e x c e e d i n g l y l a r g e indeterminate number. Note the rhyme wit h the m o d e l s : m i l l i o n . b i l l i o n . ( i i i ) HEADLINES 517. A l l f i r e d up / o l f a y r d A p / vb. S 30 J angry or annoyed;all enthused or worked up and ready to do something.(WF) -up s u f f i x , s e e #6. 518. A p r e s - s k i / a p r e y - s k i y / a d j . S 29 J a f t e r - s k i , i n r e f . to c l o t h e s , b o o t s , f a s h i o n s , e t c . A French l o a n word. 519. Astronaut / a s t r e n o t / n. S 30 J a person who mans the spaceships on f l i g h t s t o outer space or i n t e r s t e l l a r e x p l o r a t i o n s . L i t . a n a v i g a t o r of the s t a r s . Compound f . word elements a s t r o - ( s t a r ) + -naut ( s a i l o r , n a v i g a t o r ) . Cf. aquanaut #4. 520. A-sub / ey-sAb / n. S 31 J atomic submarine. Portmanteau word: a/tomic/-sub/marine/. O r i g . WWII use. 521. Axed / a k s t / vb. S 31 J s e v e r e d ; c a n c e l l e d ; c u t o f f ; u s u . w i t h some connotation of f o r c e , r e t a l i a t i o n , u n p l e a s a n t n e s s , e t c . By analogy to chopping w i t h an axe. 522. B e l l y - l a u g h / b e l i y - l a f / a deep,loud,long u n i n h i b i t e d l a u g h - s a i d to be coming from the belly.(WF) C o l l o q u i a l . 523. B i t of a bi n d / b i t 3 v 9 baynd / a d j . S 29 J a predicament,as caused by c o n f l i c t i n g o b l i g a t i o n s ; a t i g h t spot;a jam.(WF) 524. B i t of a choker / b i t a v a cowk0r / a d j . S 29 J O r i g . any b i g , s o l i d a r t i c l e of food which l i t . would choke one when swallowed;now s a r c a s t i c , i n the sense t h a t any event causes mock choking or heartbreak, sadness and the like.(WF) 525. Blow one's top / blow wAnz top / vb. S 7 F t o l o s e one's temper;to become v i o l e n t l y angry;to have a tantrum as a r e s u l t of u n c o n t r o l l a b l e rage. C o l l o q u i a l use. Cf. the phr. blow one's s t a c k . 526. Blow-up / blow-Jtp /n. S 31 J an explosion;an uproar;a q u a r r e l ; a f i g h t . -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 527. Bonanza of b e n e f i t s / bananzasv b e n e f i t s / n. P 4 F a f o r t u n e , o r w i n d f a l l of b e n e f i t s . ( P ) From the Spanish bonanza meaning p r o s p e r i t y . 528. Boost / buwst / vb. S 29 J to increase;advance;etc. 529. B r a i n d r a i n / breyn-dreyn / n. S 29 J the l o s s of i n t e l l e c t u a l s ( o r l i t . t h e i r b r a i n s ) t o another p l a c e or company. Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 530. Breakthrough / breykdruw / n. S 28 J an important or c r i t i c a l advance toward completion or the success of a p r o j e c t or endeavour. O r i g . f ; the fr q u e n t WWII m i l i t a r y aim of breaking through the enemy's defense l i n e s . Compound. 531 .Brunch-time / brAnc-taym / n« S 29 J a combined b r e a k f a s t and luncheon,usu. because i t s eaten mid-way between the normal times f o r b r e a k f a s t and l u n c h . Portmanteau word: b r / e a k f a s t / +/l/unch. 532. B u f f s / W s / n . p l . S 30 J devotees;fans who have a p a s s i o n f o r c o l l e c t i n g t h i n g s , going to spec, events or a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h spec, o c c u p a t i o n a l groups*WF) 533. Bushwhacked / bushwakt / vb. P 13 P a t t a c k e d by s u r p r i s e ; f i g * , f . the i d e a of someone jumping out from behind bushes i n a s u r p r i s e attack* O r i g * western j a r g o n . 534. Bust / bXst / a d j . S 8 F br o k e ; p e n n i l e s s . F i g . use. 535«'Cash cache / kas kas / n. P 6 F a s e c r e t e d sum of cash. Punning r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 536. Chew out / cuw awt / vb. S 5 F to reprimand a person s e v e r e l y ; t o bawl out.(WF) O r i g . to chew or b i t e someone's e a r , n o s e , f i n g e r , e t c . i n a f r o n t i e r fight;hence,angry enough to chew him up. -out s u f f i x word,see #11. 537. Conglom / kongldm / n. P 6 F a conglomerate. A b b r e v i a t i o n through b a c k - c l i p p i n g : conglom/erate/. 538. Cops *n cheetah chase / kops dn cxyt ceys / n. P 1 F the chasing of a wanted man by the p o l i c e who a l s o have a cheetah. A l l i t e r a t i o n . 539. Countdown / kawntdawn / n. P 29 J the a c t of counting down from a given number t o zero a t equal i n t e r v a l s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the launching of an event,a spaceship or the l i k e . Compound of count -f-down. -down s u f f i x word,see #63. 540. Becorama / dekorame / n. S 4 F a l o n g , e x p e n s i v e , s p e c t a c u l a r commercial entertainment or show,having to do wi t h i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i n g . (WF), -ama.a recent noun-forming s u f f i x ( c 1 9 5 0 ) f . panorama.which r e f e r r e d t o an occasion i n movies where an e x c e p t i o n a l l y wide screen i s used. 541. Der tag / dar tag / n. P 8 F the day... Ger. l o a n w o r d j H i t l e r ' s supporters used rumors of der t a g (the day) as a means of t e r r o r i z i n g p o t e n t i a l v i c t i m s of the Nazis . 542. D e v i l - b e a t e r s / deval-bxytarz / n . p l . S 12 F those persons who s e i z e upon some s i n , s c a n d a l or problem and b r i n g i t up over and over again i n order t o get good"mileage" out of i t f o r t h e i r own p r o f i t or a t t e n t i o n . a s i n : "The NDP are nothi n g but a l o t of d e v i l -b e a t e r s over t h i s Commonwealth i s s u e . " M a i n l y p o l i t i c a l use;metaphorical. 543. DMZ / d i y em zed / n. S 4 F d e m i l i t a r i z e d zone. An acronym. 544. E u r o d o l l a r / yurowdoter / a d j . S 10 F European d o l l a r market. Portmanteau word: Euro/pean/ d o l l a r . 545. Eye / ay / vb. S 31 J t o examine;to look at,as i n : "He eyes the new Block 42 c o n t r a c t . " F i g . use;part of speech change. 546. F a l l guy / f o i gay / n. S 6 F an easy v i c t i m ; a l o s e r ; a scapegoat(¥F) O r i g . t h e a t e r and stage use. Cf. stooge #300. 547. F a l l o u t / folawt / n. S 29 J r a d i o a c t i v e p a r t i c l e s d i s t r i b u t e d by an a e r i a l n u c l e a r e x p l o s i o n , f a l l i n g from or f l o a t i n g i n the atmosphere. Colloquial;now more general a p p l i c a t i o n t o other types of p a r t i c l e d i s t r i b u t i o n , -out s u f f i x word,see #11. 548. F i n d our f r e e z e a. breeze / faynd awr f r i y z © brxyz / S 14 F to f i n d the c o l d weather s p e l l easy t o adapt t o . ...a breeze from phr. to breeze through. Rhyming and a l l i t e r a t i o n . 549. F l a c k / f l a k / n. S 29 J a p r o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c i t y man or press agent. O r i g . t h e a t e r and Madison ave. use. M e t a p h o r i c a l formation. 550. F l a y s / f l e y z / vb. S 1 F c r i t i c i z e s ; l a m b a s t e s ; r a k e s oyer the c o a l s ; c a u s e s to s u f f e r p u b l i c a l l y . a s i n : "Dovding f l a y s government over...." F i g . usage. 551. Free-wheeling / f r x y - h w x y l i n / a d j . S 8 F spending money liberally:independent^unrestricted.(¥F) Metaphor,f. c a r s . 552. F r i n g e b e n e f i t s / f r i n j b e n e f i t s . / n . p l . P 7 M e x t r a a t t r a c t i o n s and b e n e f i t s added to any j o b , o f f e r , or event i n order to make i t more appealing;usu. i n connection w i t h employment. 553. Go-ahead / gow-ahed / n. S 29 J the green l i g h t j t h e s i g n t o advance or proceed. From the t r a f f i c l i g h t j C f . #553. 554. Gotta / god© /vb, S 31 J got t o . Note the t e l e s c o p i n g of the two words and the weakening of the f i n a l vowel to a schwa,together w i t h the r e d u c t i o n of the i n t e r v o c a l i c double / t / to a /d/. 555. Gunnappers / gAnnaparz / n . p l . P 4 F those persons who s t e a l guns;to s e i z e and take away guns. Formed by analogy to kidnappers, - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 556. Hardware / hardwer / n. P 2 F weapons,guns,etc. O r i g . i m p l i e d r i f l e s and k n i v e s which c o u l d be bought i n hardware s t o r e s . 557. Hassle / hasdl / n. P 18 F a:disagreement,dispute,quarrel or arguement;a s t r u g g l e or fight.(WF) 558. Hedge / he 3 / vb. P 5 F to be i n d e c i s i v e or a c t i n d e c i s i v e l y , ( W F ) F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t , 559. H i j a c k e r / hayjakar / n, S 28 J one vho f o r c e s , c o e r c e s or s t e a l s ; o n e who h o l d s up or robs,esp, of goods being t r a n s p o r t e d i n q u a n t i t y , o f t e n i l l i c i t l y ; a s one who h i j a c k s a t r u c k , p l a n e , e t c . - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 560. Hike / hayk / vb S 27 J to i n c r e a s e the amount of something.(WF);to r a i s e wages or p r i c e s . 561. H i t s / h i t s / vb. S 29 J to h i t means to a r r i v e at or reach;to a t t a i n , a s i n : "The death t o l l h i t s 500." or "A storm h i t s Vancouver." Meaning change;fig. usage. 562.ID cards / ay d i y kardz / n. S 30 J i d e n t i f i c a t i o n cards. An a b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k — c l i p p i n g : i d / e n t i f i c a t i o n / cards. 563. Kickback / kikbak / n. S 29 J money returned u n e t h i c a l l y to a f i r m , p u r c h a s i n g agent, manager or buyer by a s e l l e r i n order to i n c r e a s e s a l e s or g a i n favors.(WF) O r i g . underworld use. 564. K i c k o f f / k l k o f / n. S 30 J the beginning of anything,as a meeting,campaign or game. From the f o o t b a l l term, - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246. 565. Kidnapping / k i d n a p i ^ / vb. S 27 J s e i z i n g people f o r the purposes of e x t o r t i o n . Formed from k i d ( c h i l d ) + nap(prob. f . nab) + - i n g . 566. L a t c h on to / l a c on tuw / vb. S 27 J to get ahold of. something or someone. 567. Late f l a s h e s / l e y t f l a s a z / n. p i . S 30 J news items of i n t e r e s t , a s i n : " L a t e f l a s h e s from the pentagon r e p o r t . . . . " 568. Laundromat / londrOmat / n. S 8 F a p u b l i c washing p l a c e f o r c l o t h e s ; a washouse c o n t a i n i n g c o i n - o p e r a t e d washers and d r y e r s . Portmanteau word;laund/ry//aut/omat/ic/. A l s o , b y analogy w i t h other -omat words:drinkomat. e t c. 569. L i n e up / l a y n i p / vb. S 27 J to arrange f o r ; t o organize something or someone,as i n : "He l i n e d up a de a l w i t h U n i t e d S t e e l * " -up s u f f i x , s e e #6. 570. L0wdown / lodawn / a d j . S 30 J unfa i r ; u n e t h i c a l ; d e g r a d e d ; v i l e ; l o w . ( W F ) ( P ) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1900, -down s u f f i x word,see #63. 571. Maxi / maksiy / a d j . P 7 F maximum. A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : maxi/mum/. Formed by analogy to mini,see #573. 572. Micro / maykrow / a d j . P 7 F mic r o s c o p i c . A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : m i c r o / s c o p i c / . 573. M i n i / miniy / a d j . P 7 F minimum. A b b r v i a t i o n by back-clipping:^ mini /mum/. 574. M i n i - m i n i s / miniy-miniyz / n. p i . P 18 F e x t r a short dresses which are a l r e a d y v e r y s h o r t . R e d u p l i c a t i o n . 575. Move i n on / muwv i n on / vb. S 29 J to take over;to push o u t , e i t h e r w i t h or without v i o l e n c e . 576. Muckraker / mAkreykSr / n. S 12 F one who searches out and broadcasts scandals,esp. i n order to r u i n another's r e p u t a t i o n . C o l l o q u i a l j p r o b . coined by Teddy Roosevelt. Cf. mudslinging #182. 577.Nab / nab / vb. S 27 J to c a t c h or s e i z e i n a r r e s t ; t o s e i z e suddenly,as i n : "The p o l i c e nabbed the suspect." C o l l o q u i a l since C1685. 578.Okay / ow key / S 28 J assent or approval(P) Cf. okayed #191. 579.One-two punch / wAn-tuw pAnc / n. S 3 F two blows i n r a p i d succession.(P) From boxing jargon. F i g . use to mean two setbacks i n any plan,etc.,one a f t e r the other. 580.Ouster / awstSr / n. S 31 J a r e j e c t i o n ; a f o r c e f u l purge of someone,as in:"Jones can expect an ouster from h i s job as chairman i f he doesn't shape up." - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 58l.Outdraw / awtdro / vb. S 29 J to g a i n s u p e r i o r i t y i n a t t r a c t i n g numbers of people or t h i n g s , as i n :"This year's PNE w i l l out draw l a s t y e a r ' s . " o u t - p r f i x word,see #457. 582.Overbought / owvdrbot / vb. S 29 J purchased more than necessary of anything. 583.Over-the-counter / mar-^&-kawntar / a d j . S 29 J stock market term r e f . to cheap,unregistered stock of a h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e c h a r a c t e r . O r i g . prob, f . produce s o l d over the counter which were cheaper and of more d o u b t f u l q u a l i t y than those on s p e c i a l order. 584.Paper l e a d e r / peyp0r l i y d a r / n. P 12 F a f a l s e l e a d e r ; s u p e r f i c i a l boss;not the t r u e , e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r but appearing to be so. Formed by analogy to paper tiger.#202. 585. Perma-plates / parma-pleyts / n. P 1 M l i c e n c e p l a t e s which stay permanently on the car,adding on l y a small y e a r - t a g s t i c k e r to the p l a t e each year. Portmanteau word: perma/nent/ p l a t e s . 586. Pollutimatum / paluwtimeytam / n. S 19 F an ultimatum handed down on the t o p i c of p o l l u t i o n i n the atmosphere. Portmanteau word: p o l l u / t i o n / /ul/timatum. 587. Pot / pot / n. S 29 J marijuana. O r i g . j a z z use,now general student and beat use. Cf. LSD #171. 588. Pop a r t / pop a r t / n. S 30 J pop u l a r a r t . A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : pop/ular/ a r t . Cf. #213. 589. P s s t / p s t / n. S 14 F an a t t e n t i o n g e t t i n g sound meaning excuse me,hey, come her e , e t c . Onomatopoetic formation. 590. Punch l i n e / pXnc' l a y n / n. S 3 F the l a s t l i n e , s e n t e n c e or p a r t of a joke t h a t g i v e s i t s meaning and humor.(YF) L i t . the l i n e which packs the punch;now used i n a wide number of s i t u a t i o n s , n o t a l l jokes. 591. Pushers / pusarz / n . p l . S 6 F t h a t party,group or o r g a n i z a t i o n which s e l l s drugs to u s e r s f o r a p r o f i t . ( P ) - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 59laPut something on i c e / put semGin on ays /vb. S 6 F t o postpone or p r o c r a s t i n a t e an ev e n t , p l a n , e t c . F i g usage. 592. Put something on the l i n e / put sdmOin on <fe l a y n /vb. S 6 F to r i s k job,reputation,money or the l i k e i n order to back up or show s e r i o u s support f o r your c o n t e n t i o n s , e t c . 89 593. Quiz / kwiz / n. S 29 J a sho r t examination,or set of questions. C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e C1860, 594. Quizzed / kwizd / pp. S 29 J t o be questionned l e n g t h i l y ; t o be examined. C o l l o q u i a l . 595. Raps / raps / vb. P 18 F rebukes or reprimands;blames;criticizes.(WF) F i g . usage. 596. Ring / r i t t / vb. S 27 J to c i r c l e about;to e n c i r c l e something or someone. 597. Road jam / rowd jjfcm / n. P 7 M a crowd or c o l l e c t i o n of c a r s on the road,the sheer number of which s t a l l s a l l t r a f f i c causing d e l a y s , c o n f u s i o n and the like.(WF)(P) Since c1900 w i t h the buggies. 598. Rookie / r u k i y / n. S 30 J a beginner;an apprentice;one who i s inexperienced; a r e c r u i t . Usu. used i n r e f . t o policemen,athletes or army r e c r u i t s , - i e s u f f i x , s e e #31• 599.See-saw / s l y - s o / a d j . S 1 F up and down;fluctuating,as i n : "See-^aw p r i c e s h i t the stock market today." A l l i t e r a t i o n w i t h vowel change. By analogy to c h i l d r e n ' s see-saw i n a playground. 600.Shysters / s a y s t d r z / n . p l . S 30 J a s h y s t e r i s a crooked,conniving,small-time money l e n d e r or lawyer;one who i s not v e r y p a r t i c u l a r on how hw conducts h i s business.(WF)(P) Since d 8 8 0 . - s t e r s u f f i x , s e e #218. 601.Ski bum / s k i y bAra / n. P 17 F a s k i e n t h u s i a s t who changes h i s job l o c a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y i n order to be near the s k i s l o p e s . 602,Slams /slamz / vb S 1 P c r i t i c i z e s ; s e v e r e l y reprimands;accuses,as i n :"Berger slams the government over Commonwealth f i a s c o . " Cf. raps #595. F i g . use. 603.Smash / smas / n. S 31 J a popular s u c c e s s j a h i t ; u s u t a p p l i e d to a play,movie or the l i k e . Loanword from B r i t i s h s l a ng. 604. Smash-up / smaS-Jlp / n. S 8 F an a c c i d e n t ; a crash,as i n an automobile c r a s h where both c a r s are smashed or h e a v i l y damaged. -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 605.Sneak preview / s n i y k priyvyuw / n. S 31 J a preview of an event,show,play or the l i k e , b e f o r e anyone e l s e and on the q u i e t , s o no one knows about i t ; some connotation of e x c l u s i v e n e s s . 606.Soft-pedal / s o f t - p e d d l / n. S 28 J de-emphasization of an o p i n i o n or i d e a t h a t w i l l evoke an unfavorable response.(WF) O r i g . f« the s o f t pedal on a piano. 607.Spaceball / speysbol / n. S 11 F a game of b a s e b a l l played i n outer space. Portmanteau word: space / b a s e / b a l l . Note the rhyme:space-/base-/-ball. 608. Spy j a c k / spayja^t / n. S 8 F a h i j a c k e r , u s u . of a plane,who i s thought to be a spy g e t t i n g h i s way t o a f o r e i g n power wi t h i n f o r m a t i o n gathered. Portmanteau word: spy / h i / j a c k / e r / . C f . #276. 609.Squeeze / skwlyz / n. S 29 J e x t o r t i o n ; g r a f t . F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . 6 1 0 . S t i f f / s t i f / a d j . S 27 J tough;unbending;allowing no exceptions,as i n : " S t i f f l i q u o r laws." 611oSuperblock / suvpSrbloTc / n. S 27 J an apartment b l o c k or a block i n a c i t y , w h i c h i s l a r g e r i n f a c t and i n concept than any other. Super- p r e f i x , s e e #304-09. 612.Super-consumers / suwp9r-konsyuwm©rz / n. P 18 F consumers of a wide v a r i e t y of goods,with the emphasis on wide. Super- p r e f i x , s e e #304-09. 6l3yTab / tab / n. S 29 J a b i l l ; a n amount of money owed on an unpaid b i l l . ( Y F ) C o l l o q u i a l ; C f . phr. to p i c k up the t a b . 614. Take a powder / teyk a pawder / vb. P 2 P to d e p art;to run away.(VP) From the e a r l i e r . t a k e a run-out powder. 615. Take o f f / teyk of / vb. S 30 J t o leave or depart r a t h e r h a s t i l y , - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246. 616©Takes tumble / t e y k s x t i m b a i / vb.phr. S 3 F f a l l s r a p i d l y i n value;usu. s a i d of s t o c k s , r e a l e s t a t e or the l i k e . ( P ) From the l i t . sense of f a l l t o the ground. F i n a n c i a l jargon. 617. T e l l y / t e l i y / n. P 8 F t e l e v i s i o n . A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : t e l / e v i s i o n / . 4 - - l y . O r i g . B r i t i s h s l a n g . 618. T i e - i n / t a y - i n /n. S 27 J a connection,a r e l a t i o n s h i p . ( W F ) - i n s u f f i x , s e e #271. 619. T i z z y / tiziy / n. S 4 F a f i t or p e r i o d of nervousness,anxiety or c o n f u s i o n . D i a l e c t a l . 620. T r a n s p l a n t s / t r a n s p l a n t s / n. S 27 J t r a n s f e r s of human organs from one person t o another. By analogy t o the gardening p r o c e s s . 621. Tvo-gun / tuw-gSn / a d j . S 29 J s a i d of a town w i t h few and small defenses,usu. denoting i n f e r i o r i t y and impotency. 622. UFO / yuw ef ow / n. P 7 F u n i d e n t i f i e d f l y i n g o b j e c t s . An acronym. 623. ¥hipping-boy / hwipin-boy / n. S 29 J a person i n any group or o r g a n i z a t i o n g e n e r a l l y used as the one t o take the brunt of any c r i t i c i s m aimed a t the group from without or w i t h i n . M a i n l y p o l i t i c a l use. 624. ¥ind-drinker / wind-drxtik9r / n, S 4 F one who i s always behind the others i n competitions or the l i k e . L i t . , o n e who d r i n k s the wind of another i n f r o n t of him- s p o r t s use. - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 625©Wiped out / vaypt-Qwt / vb. S t F e r a d i c a t e d ; o b l i t e r a t e d ; c l e a n e d out of a l l p o s s e s s i o n s . -out s u f f i x word,see #1t. Cf. #344. 626.Witchhunt / wiVhAnt / n. S 15 F a seeking out of wrong-doers,usu. i n p o l i t i c s . ( W F ) 627*Write-up / wrayt-Ap / n. S 31 J a w r i t t e n account or a r t i c l e , a s i n a newspaper,esp. a w r i t t e n review of a p r o d u c t , c e l e b r i t y . e n t e r t a i n m e n t , e t c -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 62:8.Zap / zap/ vb. P 27 F t o d e f e a t d e c i s i v e l y . ( W F ) ( i v ) ENTERTAINMENT.SOCIAL and WOMEN'S 629.Backroom butcher / bakruwm bucdr / n. S 27 J an i l l e g a l , u n t r a i n e d a b o r t i o n i s t . , By gruesome analogy to a butcher c u t t i n g meat. 630. Bang-up / ba^-ip / a d j . S 27 J e x c e l l e n t ; f i r s t - r a t e ; e x c i t i n g , e t c . ( s a i d of people or t h i n g s ) . (VP) (.F) ^ Since C1810. -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 631. Behind the e i g h t b a l l / behaynd & a e y t b o l yVfcS 31 j t o be i n t r o u b l e or i n a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . ( V F ) O r i g . f . a popular pocket b i l l i a r d s game i n which one l o s e s i f the no. 8 b a l l i s h i t i n t o a pocket. 632. B l o c k b u s t e r / blokh A s t e r / n. S 5 F a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n or problem. From the name g i v e n to the l a r g e s t h i g h - e x p l o s i v e bombs dropped by the Western a l l i e s towards the end of WWII.One such bomb was capable of demolishing a c i t y b l o c k . 633. Boob-tube / buwb-tyuwb / n. S 14 F t e l e v i s i o n . T h i s term i m p l i e s t h a t only i d i o t s waste time watching t e l e v i s i o n . Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . Cf. #660. 634. B r a i n t e a s e r / b r e y n t i y z a r / n. S 27 J some chore or job t h a t teases the i n t e l l e c t u a l powers or s t i m u l a t e s them, - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 635. Broad / brod / n. S 27 J a g i r l ; a woman. By or from the chest area of a female where they are broad i n measurement. 636. Camp / kamp / a d j . P 24 F Orig.,having spec. r e f . t o p i c t u r e s which p o r t r a y common everyday objects,now g e n e r a l l y to anything so made up. From a p i c t u r e by the Pop a r t i s t ~ A n d y Warhol,on which a Campbell's soup can appears i n such a way th a t only the f i r s t f o u r l e t t e r s of the name Campbell's are v i s i b l e . 94 637<»Childrenese / c i l d i e n i y z / n. P 24 P c h i l d r e n s t a l k : c h i l d r e n ' s vocabulary.(¥F) -ese,noun-forming s u f f i x denoting the voc a b u l a r y p e c u l i a r t o an o c c u p a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l , e t c . Cf. j o u r n a l e s e , , o f f i c i a l e s e . 638,Chipper / c i p a r / a d j . S 31 J w e l l ; f i t ; l i v e l y . ( P ) C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e C1880. 639oClincher / H i n t e r / n. S 27 J the c o n c l u s i v e statement,event,fact or arguement.(P) From vb.phr. t o c l i n c h a bargain.a d e a l . e t c . — e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. C o l l o q u i a l since d 8 0 4 . 640. Combo / kombow / n. S 5 F a combination of people or instruments making up a small j a z z band.(WF) A b b r e v i a t i o n by back-clipping:comb/ination/ t+ -o s u f f i x , g i v i n g the word a f a m i l i a r , s l a n g y connotation. Pop and c o o l use since c1945. 641. Come-on / kAm-on / n. S 19 M an i n v i t a t i o n ; t h e a c t of e n t i c i n g someone t o enter i n t o a s i t u a t i o n i n which he w i l l be v i c t i m i z e d , u s u . f i n a n c i a l l y . ( W F ) O r i g . f . t h e a t e r and r a d i o u s e ; c o o l use since c1950. 642. Creepies / k r i y p i z / n. S 3 F s h e l l f i s h of any k i n d . From the i d e a t h a t they crawl or creep a l o n g the bottom of the sea. - i e s u f f i x , s e e #31. 643. F l u b / f lXb / vb. P 1 F to bungle;to blunder;to make a mistake,esp. an embarrassing one;to make a faux pas.(WF) 644. Foot—stomping / fut-stdmpin / adv. S 4 F enough t o make one stamp one's f o o t , u s u . i n excitement,as i n a dance or approval,as i n : "Foot-stomping good." Compound;Note the a l t e r n a t i o n stamp/stomp. Cf. #39. 645oGet wi t h i t / get wi6 i t / vb.phr. S 3 F to get on the b a l l ; t o get going;to get busy.(WF) Cf, c u r r e n t phr. w i t h i t i n e x p r e s s i o n l i k e "He's not w i t h i t . " 646. Goof o f f / guwf of / vb. P 1 F t o make a mistake,blunder or faux pas;(VF);to i d l e away time;to dodge work. - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246. 647. Goof / guwf / n. S 15 M a person t h a t i s s i l l y , s o f t or stupid.(P) From d i a l , g o o f . g o f f meaning,a f o o l . Since C1920. 648. Grass / gras / n. P 18 F marijuana. Cf. pot #587 and s i m i l a r s u b s t i t u t e words used by drug a d d i c t s , o r i g . as p a r t of a s e c r e t in-group language. Now w i d e l y known and used esp. by s t u d e n t s , h i p p i e s , e t c . 649. Guffaws / gefoz / n. p i . S 27 J l o u d , d e r i s i v e l a u g h t e r . Onomatopoetic formation. 650. Half-baked / haf-beykt / a d j . S 7 F l a c k i n g i n i n t e l l i g e n c e ; s i l l y ; h a l f - w i t t e d ; a l s o with connotation of a l a c k i n g i n c u l t u r e . ( P ) as i n ; " T h a t was a h a l f - b a k e d i d e a . " O r i g . poss. f . B r i t i s h proverb(Cornwall)"He i s only half-baked;put i n w i t h the bread and taken out with the cakes." 651. Hangups / ha^ips / n . p l . P 19 F mental b l o c k s ; s p e c i a l enthusiasms or i n t e r e s t s , o r f i g . , t h a t a person i s obsessed by. -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 652. Hard edge / hard e j / a d j . S 31 J c l e a r l y separated,as i n hard edge painting,meaning a canvas with c l e a n , c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n s of c o l o r s , a r e a s , e t c . N e o l o g i s m ; t e c h n i c a l jargon of a r t i s t s . 653»Hard-r©ck / hard-rok / n. S 20 M a tough guy;a sneery,unemotional man who has l i t t l e concern f o r others* ^ F i g * use of rock. 654.Heart-tugging / h a r t - t i g i n / a d j * S 3 F sad;e m o t i o n a l l y up s e t t i n g ; h e a r t - b r e a k i n g . F i g . , t o tug the s t r i n g s of one's h e a r t . 655*Hydro / haydrow / n© P 24 F the e l e c t r i c i t y and gas company;hence,electricity or gas.(A) A fianadianismthvdro-electric power:Niagara F a l l s p r o v i d e s hydro f o r many f a c t o r i e s ; h e n c e , a company or commission, producing or d i s t r i b u t i n g e l e c t r i c i t y as a u t i l i t y . From Greek hydro meaning water* 656*Hydroplane / haydrapleyn / n* S 1 F a s p e c i a l type of boat t h a t moves so f a s t over the water i t almost f l i e s . Portmanteau compound of word elements: hydro and / a i r / p l a n e 657*Kick / k i k / n. P 18 F a t h r i l l , e x c i t e m e n t or s a t i s f a c t i o n . ( W F ) 658*Kick the h a b i t / k i k he h a b i t / vb*phr. P 12 F to drop or stop the h a b i t of doing something,presumably bad or w o r t h l e s s ; t o f o r c e o n e s e l f t o stop. O r i g * drug a d d i c t jargon* 659. Louse up / laws Xp / vb* S 17 M to s p o i l , r u i n , b o t c h or mess up something.(WF) F i g . f . louse as a word of abuse;Cf. #169. —up s u f f i x word,see #6. 660. Magic tube / magik tuwb / n. S 27 J t e l e v i s i o n . Fig*,magic i n the sense t h a t i t br i n g s other p a r t s of the world and even outer space t o our homes. Cf.boob tube #633 f o r a negative a t t i t u d e . 661. Markdowns / markdawnz / n . p l . S 15 F a r t i c l e s i n a s t o r e t h a t have been marked down i n p r i c e . Trade jargon, -down s u f f i x word,see #63. 662•Minimal a r t / minimal a r t / n. S 31 J a r t which uses the minimum of components t o express i t s message* A r t i s t s jargon* 663. Mock-up / mok-Ap / n. S 27 J a model;a mock v e r s i o n of a r e a l thing,usu* f o r the purposes of s t u d y , d i s p l a y , e t c . as i n : "He u n v e i l e d the mock-up of the new Block 42 center." -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 664. Needle / n f y d a l / vb. S 31 J t o i r r i t a t e ; a n n o y . ( P ) P i g . use of needle* 665. N.G. / en j i y / a d j * S 27 J no good . An acronym. 666. N i f t y - l o o k i n g / h x f t i y - l u k i i i / a d j . P 19 P s t y l i s h ; s m a r t ; a t t r a c t i v e ; e t c . Common since c1930. 667. Purchalease / p d r c a l i y s / n© S 20 F l e a s i n g something w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of purchasing i t i n the end;the p l a n to do t h i s - spec. ,a car. Portmanteau word: purcha/se/ l e a s e . 668. Q u i c k i e s / k w i k i y z / n . p l . S 27 J anything done or made quickly.(WF) - i e s u f f i x , s e e #31. 669.S.A. / es ey / n. S 27 J sex appeal. An acronym. 670.Scratch / skrac / n. P 24 M money;available cash.(WF) l i t . t h a t which has to be scr a t c h e d f o r , l i k e a chicken s c r a t c h e s f o r food. Since c1915. 671 .Scratchy c l a t t e r / s k r a c i y k l a t B r / n. P 21 F a r a s p i n g v o i c e ; c h a t t e r i n an i r r i t a t i n g v o i c e . 672.Shot down i n flames / sot dawn i n fleymz / pp.adjo S 5 F beaten i n an arguement.(P) O r i g . a i r f o r c e s l a n g from WYI. 673.Si d e k i c k / saydkik / n. S 5 M a c l o s e companion;a mate. Prom t h e a t e r and stage use;Cf. stooge #300 and f a l l guy #546. Canadianism s i n c e c1915. 674.Slashed t o / slasfc tuw / vb. S 5 F cut down to;reduced t o ( a s i n p r i c e s of a r t i c l e s i n a st o r e . ) Trade j a r g o n ; f i g . use. 675.Sopwith-skimmer / sopwiO - skimSr / n. S 31 J ' a snow skidoo(humorous a p p l i c a t i o n ) . Prob. a f t e r Snoopy's(Peanuts comic s t r i p ) a i r p l a n e , which was i t s e l f named a f t e r the Sopwith a i r p l a n e i n WWII. Cf. snowmobile #285. 676.Soulmate / sowlmeyt / n. S 30 J a companion,lover or p a r t n e r who i s attuned t o your s o u l as you are t o h i s or hers. Cool and j a z z use. S o u l - . a d j . prefix,now usu. p e r t a i n s t o Negroes or t h i n g s b a s i c a l l y Negro;since c1962 i t has a l s o expanded t o i n d i c a t e a u t h e n t i c s e n s i b i l i t y , e m o t i o n a l s i n c e r i t y , honesty,etc.,esp. as r e l a t i n g to cool and beat people. Cf. s o u l food.soul musicYsoul b r o t h e r . e t c . 677.Sound o f f / sawnd of / vb. P 12 M to t a l k , e s p . t o complain or expostulate a t l e n g t h ; to l i s t one's complaints or o p i n i o n s verbally.(WF) O r i g . army use. - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246. 678.Spin-off / spxn-of / n. S 6 F an e x t r a i d e a o r t h i n g r e s u l t i n g from a major i d e a or t h i n g ( a s a by-product);as i n : " l o u r i d e a f o r the p r o d u c t i o n waste i s a s p i n - o f f from our main product market o r i e n t a t i o n . " - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246. Business j a r g o n . 679.Stag; / s t a g / a d j . P 12 M a s i t u a t i o n or event meant onl y f o r men without female companions.(VP)as i n : s t a g p a r t y . F i g . use. 680.Store t e e t h / s t o r t i y O / n© S 31 J f a l s e teeth;not n a t u r a l but bought,as i n a s t o r e . Prob. by analogy t o store c l o t h e s . s t o r e bought(general a p p l i c a t i o n ) , a n d so on© 681.Staightman / streytman / n. S 27 J a comedian's accomplice who a c t s as h i s f o i l j a stooge. Theater and stage use. Cf. stooge # 3 0 0 , f a l l guy #546 and s i d e k i c k #673. 682.Stuff / s t A f / n. S 30 J i m p l i e s vagueness i n the speaker's mind or ignorance of the p r e c i s e term or name{generally used as the name f o r anything through l a z i n e s s t o use the proper name,etc. C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e C1860. 683.Stung / stA» / vb. S 8 F cheated,esp. by a merchant;overcharged.(VF)(P) F i g . use of stung. 684.Supermarket / suwpdrmarket / n© S 27 J a l a r g e s e l f - s e r v i c e s t o r e s e l l i n g groceries,produce and o f t e n household a r t i c l e s . Super- p r e f i x , s e e #304-09© 685.Swingles / swingelz, / n. S 30 J swinging s i n g l e people. Portmanteau word:swing/ing/ / s i n g / l e s . Neologism. 686.Tatty / t a t i y / a d j . S 8 F worn {threadbare, unkempt and d i r t y , a s i n : "'Tatty c l o t h e s . " Cf. B r i t i s h dial© t a t meaning,tangle. 687©Telethon / teiaOon / n. S 27 J a long,continuous s o c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n c a r r i e d out by the telephone. Portmanteau word: tele/phone/ /mara/thon. 688. Textbooky / t e k s t b u k i y / a d j . P 8 P resembling a textbook;having the same approach and s t y l e as a textbook;derogatory a p p l i c a t i o n , -y. s u f f i x , see #31 o 689. Tops / tops / a d j . S 27 J the best of a n y t h i n g , e i t h e r people or t h i n g s ; r a t e d highest;vonderful,as i n : "She's tops!" 690. Tube / tyuwb / a, S 27 J t e l e v i s i o n . From t e l e v i s i o n tube. Gf. #633 and #660. 691. U p t i g h t / Aptayt / adj. P 18 P c onventi o n a l ; s e t i n one•s ways;square;tense;hung-up; upset and f r u s t r a t e d over something. M a i n l y student use. 692. Vocaldom / vokdldam / n. P 24 M the realm of speech;wherever the v o i c e i s heard, -dom suffix,noun-forming means f i g . , t h e realm or e r a or time o f . 693. Zesty / z e s t i y / a d j . S 27 J v i t a l i t y ; a n i m a t i o n ; e n e r g y ; e t c . , s a i d of people or food, -y s u f f i x , see #31 • 694. Zing / / n. P 27 P v i t a l i t y ; z e s t ; a n i m a t i o n . . . w . (v) SPORTS 695. B a n k r o l l / bankrcjl / vb. S 19 P to s u b s i d i z e , s u p p o r t or pay f o r an ev e n t , e t c . P u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . 696. Blades / bleydz / n . p l . S 28 J i c e skates. Synecdoche. 697. B l i t z e d / b l i t s t / vb. S 30 J t o have f o r c e d one's way through r a p i d l y . Prom b l i t z / k r i e g / m e a n i n g . l i g h t n i n g ( w a r ) . a massive, devastating,overpowering attack.Now used i n E n g l i s h as vb. 698. Blower / blowar / n. S 4 M a telephone. O r i g . prob. f . bJLower,meaning a t a l k a t i v e person. 699. Blubber-boy / bUbar-boy / n. S 4 F a f a t man. From blubber.the f a t of a whale(a gross a n i m a l ) . 700. Buddies / bAdiyz / n . p l . S 31 J c l o s e friends;pals;companions. 701. Champ /gamp/ n. S 4 F champion. A b b r e v i a t i o n by back-clipping:champ/ion/. 702. Clobbered / k l o b e r d / vb. S 31 J beaten thoroughly. 703. Coastwise / kowstwayz / S 4 F f o r the coast;as f a r as the c o a s t goes,as i n : "Speaking coastwise,the Vancouver Canucks w i l l host P o r t l a n d . . . . " (the Coast here i m p l y i n g the B.C. coast.) -wise s u f f i x word,see #434. 704. D o l l o p / dolap / n. S 28 F a lump;a sum; the l o t ; a p o r t i o n of something.(P) D i a l . poss. f . Norwegian dolp meaning,a lump. 705. Donnybrook / doniybruk / n. S 29 J a l o u d n o i s y arguement,fight,brawl,riot,etc.(WF) From Donnybrook f a i r , h e l d a n n u a l l y i n the Republic of Ireland.The 1855 f a i r was suppressed because of w i l d D r a w ^ 706. Doubieheader / dAblhedar / n. S 1 F two games p l a y e d on the same day,one immediately a f t e r the other. 707. Dumb-dumb / dXm-dAm / n. P 4 M a v e r y s t u p i d or f o o l i s h person. Dumb i n the sense of s t u p i d shows the i n f l u e n c e of Ger. dumm(stupid) and of s i m i l a r words i n other Ger. languages. Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 708. Dumped / dAmpt / vb. S 27 J to be thoroughly beaten,as i n a sport or game;won h a n d i l y o v e r ; l e f t way behind i n p o i n t s . 709. F a c e o f f / feyso*f / n. S 27 J a s i t u a t i o n i n which two members of a team stand face to face t o h i t the b a l l ( b a s k e t b a l l ) or puck(hockey)to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e teams,when i t s to be the d e c i d i n g p o i n t i n the game, - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246, 710. Floormanship / flormansxp / n, S 13 P a b i l i t y while on the f l o o r p l a y i n g i n a b a s k e t b a l l game, Prob, formed by analogy to - s h i p p a t t e r n o r i g i n a t e d by Stephen Potter,(e,g,brinkmanship,one—upmanship,) 711 .Greased the s k i d s f o r win / g r i y s t s k i d z f o r wxn / vb,phr, made smart and s u c c e s s f u l p r e p a r a t i o n s i n advance S 27 P which secure a f a v o r a b l e set-up when i t s time to win,(P) O r i g , n a v a l c o l l o q u i a l i s m c1880. 712. Hoop / huwp / n, S 13 F i n b a s k e t b a l l , t h e metal c i r c l e from which the net hangs and through which the b a l l i s thrown to score. 713. K.0. / k e y ow / n. S 1 F a knockout. Boxing jargon. An acronym:knock out,now used as a word. 714. Kooks / kuwks / a d j . S 30 J c r a z y ; n u t t y ; s t u p i d people. Poss. f . cuckoo. 715. Laugh i t up / l a f i t Ap /vb.phr. P 7 M to take events l a u g h i n g l y , w i t h a nonchalant a t t i t u d e . For use of i t without antecedent,see #36. -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 716. Meat-grinder / miyt-graynder / n. S 22 F tough,rough a c t i o n , a s i n : " T h a t game was a r e a l meat-g r i n d e r . " By analogy to the a c t i o n of a meat-grinder. 717. Mooch / muwc / vb. S 30 J to beg food,money or the l i k e ; t o borrow,esp. a small amount without i n t e n d i n g t o repay it.(WF) 718.Old-hat / owld-hat / a d j . S 28 J well-known;routine;easy.(P) o l d - p r e f i x word,see #454. 719.Oodles / uwdalz / n. S 4 M many;great q u a n t i t i e s , a s in:"Oodles of money." 720.Oomph / uwmf / n. S 30 J sex appeal;power;excitement;enthusiasm.(WP) . Onomatopoetic formation. 721.Out of one's h a i r / a v t a v wAnz; her / vb.phr. S 29 J to keep out of one's h a i r means to stop annoying or i r r i t a t i n g him;to keep out of h i s way.(VP) 722. Bee-wee / pxy-wiy / n. S 4 F usu. s a i d of s p o r t s p l a y e d by young boys,as in:"Pee-wee b a s e b a l l league." Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 723. P r a t f a l l / p r a t f o l / n. P 14 F a d e f e a t ; a p i t f a l l ; f i g . , f r o m f a l l i n g on the backside. From e a r l i e r p r a t ( b u t t o c k s ) and f a l l . 724. P u l l f o r / p u l f o r / vb. S 29 J to r o o t f o r ; t o hope f o r the best f o r ; t o support. 725. Push-over / pus-owvar / n. S 27 F any person,group or team e a s i l y defeated i n a contest.(VF) 726.Scattergat / skatargat /n. S 4 M shotguns;the type of gun t h a t s c a t t e r s shot p e l l e t s . From s c a t t e r and gat(gun).an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r G a t l i n g gun. 727.Shaded / seyd d / vb. S 27 J won(a game)by a v e r y small margin.(P) 728.Shamateur / samabar / n. S 10 F a phoney amateur;a person who r e t a i n s amateur s t a t u s but p l a y s p r o f e s s i o n a l or accepts money. Portmanteau word: sh/am/amateur. 729.Shocker / sokar / n. S 31 J an e v e n t , r e s u l t or circumstance t h a t r e a l l y s u r p r i s e s one. - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 730,Shutout / sAtawt / n, S 29 J a game i n which one team i s completely excluded from s c o r i n g , a s i n : 11 I t was a complete shutout*" -out s u f f i x word,see #11* 731*Socked-in / s d k t - f n / vb* S 4 F kept i n or s t a t i o n a r y ; s t o p p e d from proceeding w i t h p l a n s , usu. because of f o u l weather or the l i k e . (.WF) From WWII a i r f o r c e s l a n g i n r e f . to an a i r f i r e l d unusable because of f o g . - i n s u f f i x , s e e #271. 732*Southpaw / sawOpo / n. S 13 F a l e f t - h a n d e d person. O r i g . f . b a s e b a l l or boxing j a r g o n where i t meant a l e f t -handed p l a y e r or boxer. Cf. northpaw #188. 733*Subbed f o r / sAbd f o r / vb. S 19 F s u b s t i t u t e d f o r . A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : s u b / s t i t u t e d / . -ed an a d j . forming s u f f i x . 734*Trimmed / t r i m d / vb* S 27 J i n games,means beat e a s i l y . 7 3 5 * T r i v i e r a / t r i v i y e r e / n* S 11 M the realm of t r i v i a ; t h e spot or area g i v e n over to the d i s c u s s i o n of minor t h i n g s . Formed by analogy to model R i v i e r a . Portmanteau word: t r i y / i a / + / r i v / i e r a . 736*Under the t a b l e d e a l s / XnABr ^ © t e y b e l d i y i z / n . p l . P 12 F d e a l s or arrangements made s e c r e t l y and o f t e n i l l e g a l l y , r e g a r d i n g the outcome of a game,a p l a y e r ' s moves,etc. 737*Whomp / hwomp / vb, S 26 F to beat soundly or thoroughly* 738*Wrap-up / wrap-.AP / a d j . S 28 F the concluding,completing or f i n i s h i n g u n i t i n any event or s e r i e s of events. -up s u f f i x word,see #6* ( v i ) COMICS 739. Bobbles / bobalz / vb. S 20 F to bobble means to fumble;to mess up;to ruin(something)• 740. Bow out / baw awt / vb. S 12 F t o l e a v e ; t o break o f f a s i t u a t i o n or r e l a t i o n s h i p by d e p a r t i n g , -out s u f f i x word,see #11. 741. Buck / h£k / n. S 11 M a d o l l a r . Poss. f . the animal buck;wide c o l l o q u i a l use since d 8 5 0 . 742. Cop / kop/ vb. S 28 F to win;to c a r r y o f f catch or capture(a p r i z e ) as i n : "Cop the money 7John." Cf. #54,55,384. 743. Creep / k r i y p / n. S 11 M a person who g i v e s one the "creeps";an odd,loathsome or o b j e c t i o n a b l e person.(WF) 744. C r u i s e r s / kruwzarz / n . p l . S 5 M taxicabs,which c r u i s e t h e e s t r e e t s i n search of f a r e s . Meaning change, - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32. 745»Demo / demow / n. S 22 F a demonstrator model(of a c a r , e t c . ) A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : demo/nstrator/. 746. D o l l / d o l / n. P 17 F a p r e t t y g i r l or woman,esp. one who simply graces the scene r a t h e r than make an a c t i v e contribution,(WF) By d i r e c t analogy to t o y d o l l . 747. Don*t hand me t h a t / downt hand miy Sot / S 22 F don't give me that;don't t e l l me such l i e s ; d o n ' t t r y to con me with e l a b o r a t e s t o r i e s . 748. F l o o r e d / f i o r d / vb. S 1.8 F shocked or s u r p r i s e d ( t o the p o i n t where one almost t a i n t s and f a l l s on the floor).(WF) 106 749. Flunkeroo / f U n k a r u v / n. S 15 F a bad f a i l u r e . -eroo s u f f i x o r i g . f . the Spanish -ero and i n d i c a t e s hyperbole i n E n g l i s h . 750. Go jump i n the l a k e / gov jJLmp i n c f e l e y k / S 3 M an e x p r e s s i o n meaning:go to h e l l ; t a k e o f f . A euphemism. 751. Go nuts / gov nXts / vb.phr. S 7 M to go c r a z y ; t o go out of one's mind due to an i n t o l e r a b l e s i t u a t i o n . From the " t a l k i e s " cl929. 752. Groovy / g r u w i y / a d j . S 12 F e x c e l l e n t ; s a t i s f y i n g ; i n keeping v i t h one's d e s i r e s . O r i g . c1935 s v i n g use by musicians and devotees.Some co o l and f a r - o u t use since c1955. From i n the groove.vhen a phonograph p l a y s i t s needle i s i n the groove of the r e c o r d . In the g r o o v e . p r e p o s i t i o n a l phr. g i v e s : Groovy a d j . . a groove n., and to groove vb. 753.Idiot c a r d . / i d i y e t k a r d / n. S 20 F a prompter card.usu. used i n enttertainment(TV ,etc.) to t e l l the m.c. vhat to say n e x t ; h e n c e , t r e a t i n g him as i f he vas an i d i o t . 754. K i d / k i d / n. S 17 F a c h i l d , e s p . a young c h i l d . ( P ) From the young of a goat.Cf. #152. 755. L e v e l v i t h someone / l e v e l v i 8 sAjnvcvn / vb. S 5 F to be honest v i t h someone;to give the f a c t s to someone.(P) 756. L i v e i t up / l i v i t Xp / S 17 F to have a good time;to r e a l l y enjoy l i v i n g up to the h i l t a t any p a r t i c u l a r time, -up s u f f i x vord,see #6. 757. Make a p l a y f o r / meyk 6 p l e y f o r / vb. S 30 J t o use one's charms to impress one of the opposite sex; t o shov a romantic i n t e r e s t i n one of the opposite sex.(VF) 758.Out / a w t / a d j . S 7 M unconscious.(P) Meaning change. 759. Pussycat / pusiykaVt / n. S 1 M a g i r l ; a n endearing name f o r a g i r l f r i e n d . 760. Rat on / r a t oh / vb. S 27 F to i n f o r m on;to t e l l on. Cf. # 764,235. 761.Sharpy / s a r p i y / n. S 11 M a per s o n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y a l e r t ; a shrewd,alert person.(WF) -y suffix,see#31. 762.Smashing / smasin / a d j . S 22 P good;great;marvel1ous;excellent. Prom B r i t i s h s l a n g . Cf. a smash h i t . t h e U.S. v e r s i o n , a b a c k - c l i p p e d form. 763.Sock i t t o me / sok i t tuw miy / S 1 P d e l i v e r i t t o me;give i t to me w i t h z e s t , a s in:"Sock i t to me baby!"requested of any go o d , e x c i t i n g o r impressive t h i n g . Prom sock meaning,a hard blow with the f i s t ; h e n c e , f i g . use. 764.Squeal on / skwiyl on / vb. S 25 P to i nform on;to t e l l s e c r e t t h i n g s about someone.(P) Cf. #760. 765.Stoke up / stok Ap / vb. S 26 F to e a t ; n o u r i s h o n e s e l f ; f i l l up on food. From s t o k i n g an engine. -up s u f f i x word,see #6. 766.Sudden case of the smarts / sXdan keys aV &e smarts / S 22 F a sudden r e a l i z a t i o n of the t r u t h about a s i t u a t i o n or person;a w i s i n g up to something. 767. T h i r d degree / eard d i y g r l y / n. S 27 F prolonged q u e s t i o n i n g and/or rough h a n d l i n g of a person as by the p o l i c e , i n order to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n or f o r c e a c o n f e s s i o n of guilt.(WF) 768. T h i s one's on you / Sis wAnz on yuw / S 11 M t h i s i s your t r e a t ; t h i s o r d e r ( o f d r i n k s , f o o d , e t c . ) you w i l l pay f o r ; i t s your t u r n to pay. 769. T i p o f f / t i p of / vb. S 28 F to give p r i v a t e informationabout;to supply i n s i d e i n f o r m a t i o n to someone.(P) C o l l o q u i a l since C1890. - o f f s u f f i x word,see #246. 770. Topside / topsayd / n. S 19 F on top of;above. t o p - p r e f i x word means,in command of or i n c o n t r o l . ( v i i ) FINANCE 771. B e a r i s h / b e r i s / a d j . P 14 F tending to f a v o r low values of s t o c k s ; s p e c u l a t i o n f o r a f a l l • f i n a n c i a l j a r g on. O r i g . phr. was prob. " s e l l the bear skin',' such b a r g a i n e r s being c a l l e d b e a r - s k i n j o b b e r s . i n r e f . t o the proverb: "to s e l l the bear's s k i n before one has caught the bear." H e n c e , s e l l a bear,to s e l l what one does not possess.(P) - i s h s u f f i x , s e e #773;an a d j . forming s u f f i x meaning,like. 772. B r a i n c h i l d / b r e y n c a y l d / n. S 20 F any product of one's i n t e l l e c t or imagination,as a p l a n , invention,work of a r t or t h e e l i k e . C o l l o q u i a l . 773. B u l l i s h / b u l i s / a d j . S 18 F tending to f a v o r h i g h v a l u e s and p r i c e s of corporate s t o c k s ; a strong market t r e n d ; p o s i t i v e s p e c u l a t i o n f o r a r i s e i n p r i c e s . ( P ) F i n a n c i a l j a r g o n . Prob. formed by b u l l . a strong beast. - i s h s u f f i x , s e e #771. 774. Catch / kac / n, S 14 F a problem;a d i f f i c u l t y ; a f law or the p a r t of an otherwise good p l a n or easy task t h a t causes d i f f i c u l t y . F u n c t i o n a l s h i f t . 775. Deadbeats / dedbxyts / n. S 31 J worthless i d l e r s , e s p , i f spongers. C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e C1875. 776. Freeze / f r i y z / n. S 5 F a h o l d i n g f a s t or remaining s t a t i o n a r y ; remaining a t one l e v e l . a s i n : "They put a f r e e z e o n p r i c e s . " C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e C1880. 777. Peppy / p e p i y / a d j . S 14 F e n e r g e t i c ; s p i r i t e d . ( P ) -y s u f f i x , see #31 • 778.Soft market / s o f t markat / n. S 3 F weak;unreliable market wi t h p r i c e s poor and f l u c t u a t i n g . F i n a n c i a l or stock market j a r g o n . 779. Takeover / teykowvar / n. S 5 F the t a k i n g of c o n t r o l of something by t r a n s f e r from or i n s u c c e s s i o n to another. 780. Up-powered / Xp-paword / n. S 1 2 F beefed-up;increased i n power. Prob. formed by analogy to model up-tempo. CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY The concept of pure or standard language i s by d e f i n i t i o n based upon a p r e s c r i p t i v e approach d e r i v i n g i t s potency l a r g e l y from the w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n * T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s s t a n d a r d i z i n g concept simultaneously created the non-standard,the slang,and assigned i t c h i e f l y to vocaldom. Newspapers,of course,are pre-eminently users of the w r i t t e n word,but they are,I believe,occupants of a s p e c i a l place i n the realm of the w r i t t e n word - a place not f a r from the spoken word* Th e i r predecessor,the book,while a l s o the w r i t t e n word,was and i s , w i t h regard to l e x i c o n , c h i e f l y e x c l u s i v e rather than i n c l u s i v e * That i s , a s M a r s h a l l McLuhan p o i n t s o u t , 1 0 t h e book i s a p r i v a t e c o n f e s s i o n a l form that provides a p o i n t of view f o r the author and reader alike.The newspaper,on the other hand,is a group c o n f e s s i o n a l form t h a t promotes communal participation*McLuhan terms the press a communal mosaic o f f e r i n g corporate images of s o c i e t y i n a c t i o n i n which the reader becomes very i n v o l v e d i n the making of meanings f o r the corporate image.The format reveals the i n s i d e s t o r y of a community i n a c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n , p r e s e n t i n g the discontinuous v a r i e t y and i n c o n g r u i t y of o r d i n a r y l i f e . A l l i s u n i f i e d by a d a t e l i n e . l t i s , i n contemporary terms,a hot medium. While the approach of the newspaper has always been l a r g e l y t h i s way,its appeal i s complementary to the r e l a t i v e l y recent phenomenon of television,whose low v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n and high involvement are apparent.Next to the t e l e v i s i o n , t h e newspaper i s t the f a s t e s t gatherer and disseminator of news and as such i s , ...not merely a r e p e t i t i o n of occurrences and r e p o r t s but a d i r e c t cause of events.11 I t i s through the medium of the newspaper that our experience i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a new medium whereby ve receive a playback of e a r l i e r awareness. 12 The news i s a near approximation t o the grapevine...• having an i n t e n s e l y graphic and base character. With t h i s i n mind,it seems reasonable to s t a t e t h a t d a i l y news-papers a r e , i n f a c t , b o r d e r i n g c l o s e l y upon the o r a l t r a d i t i o n of dissemination,based as they are upon the immediate experience. We a l s o know t h a t s l a n g , i n great p a r t , i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y based upon immediate experience and i s perhaps,as S. I. Hayakawa termed i t , " t h e p o e t r y of everyday l i f e . " We must recognize t h a t s l a n g i s t h e r e f o r e an i n g r e d i e n t e s s e n t i a l to the news media for m a t . I t i s a l s o important because the newspaper i s t a k i n g the s o c i a l sub-groupings t h a t make up the mosaic of everyday s o c i e t y and by d i r e c t t r a n s p o s i t i o n making them i n t o McLuhan's newspaper mosaic on a d a i l y b a s i s . Por t h i s reason c a t e g o r i z a t i o n was c a r r i e d out(see page eleven) as e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r , w i t h i n the l e x i c o n above i n order to examine more c l o s e l y the evidence f o r slang i n each area. I n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n proves the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the s l a n g usage found i n each category i n d i c a t e s at l e a s t a b a s i c attempt at developing an " i n " j a r g o n . T h i s supports one of the o r i g i n a l reasons f o r the e v o l u t i o n of slang.Even when the p o p u l a r i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r group's slang terms i n c r e a s e s u n t i l a l a r g e segment of the p u b l i c a t l a r g e comprehend them,evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t s t i l l remains f u l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e o n l y to t h a t group's members. Much of t h i s sub-group usage a p p a r e n t l y has a conscious element of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n b u i l t i n t o it,whereby i f you are i n the entertainment b u s i n e s s , f o r example,you must use the " i n " jargon to be considered " i n " y o u r s e l f . S i m i l a r l y f o r people i n Sports, Business and so on.There i s a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l pressure,both group and s e l f imposed. While each group or category does have i t s own p e c u l i a r s l a n g t h e r e i s i n e v i t a b l y a good deal of c r o s s o v e r i n f l u e n c e between these speech communities.This has occurred,of course,because of the v a s t m o b i l i t y of s o c i e t y a t l a r g e and through the i n t e r m i n g l i n g of i n d i v i d u a l group members.Overlapping terms tend to be those w i t h a wide f i e l d of a p p l i c a t i o n , s u c h as bag.bandwagon.blasted. c rackdown.gut s and bum. The major f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the choice of slang items i n any of the d i v i s i o n s examined were b r e v i t y and impact:brevity,because of the v e r y s p a t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the newspaper format as w e l l as of i t s being a s p e c i a l q u a l i t y of slang;impact,because of i t s e y e - c a t c h i n g appeal so necessary i n the crowded j u x t a p o s i t i o n s of the newspaper. Thus,in H e a d l i n e s , b r e v i t y and impact are of c r u c i a l importance-we must be able to scan them q u i c k l y and they must "grab** our a t t e n t i o n . O t h e r devices are o f t e n used,such as r h y m e , a l l i t e r a t i o n and p u r p o s e f u l but i n t e r e s t i n g confusion,but c h i e f l y the headline needs to stand out. In Sports,a dramatic q u a l i t y i n usage i s i m p o r t a n t , r e l a t i n g to the f r e n z y i n the game or c o n t e s t . F i n a n c i a l usage,while not dramatic,does lean d i s t i n c t i v e l y more towards a d e f i n i t e " i n " j a r g o n which i s much l e s s g e n e r a l l y or w i d e l y known. Quite s u r p r i s i n g l y , E d i t o r i a l s prove to have a h i g h content of s l a n g and i n f o r m a l usage and are o f t e n of an o v e r a l l c o l l o q u i a l c h a r a c t e r and tone. Entertainment and s o c i a l pages are e s p e c i a l l y laden with more unusual terminology,due perhaps to t h e i r broad coverage of a l l the pure and a p p l i e d a r t s . G e n e r a l l y speaking,these areas represent the segment of l i f e t h a t has wide t o l e r a n c e s f o r the unusual,and t h i s i s n a t u r a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r s l a n g . Comics c o n t a i n a b a s i c and q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l of slang, perhaps because i t i s such a h i g h l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l form of e x p r e s s i o n , l e a v i n g wide l i m i t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Of a d d i t i o n a l importance i s the f a c t t h a t comic s t r i p s are o f t e n syndicated,thus w i d e l y read,and t h e r e f o r e themselves a source of slang.Through p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n one experiences l a u g h t e r by language i n f o l l o w i n g the s i t u a t i o n responses of comic s t r i p c h a r a c t e r s , a s w e l l as c h a r a c t e r by language through C a r i c a t u r e s and so on.(e.g.the comic s t r i p Peanuts by Charles S c h u l t z i s a prime example) The most p r o d u c t i v e d i v i s i o n comes,of course,from the general areas vhere there i s the g r e a t e s t overlap between sub-group usage. L i k e almost anything e l s e d evised and used by human beings, languages are s u b j e c t to the whims of f a s h i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of s l a n g and i n f o r m a l usage,where formation p a t t e r n s are c l e a r l y discernable.Compound f o r m a t i o n s , f o r example,are an extremely p r e v a l e n t means of forming new words.Productive formations w i t h - i n as a s u f f i x word have become v e r y popular s i n c e about 1960 when c i v i l r i g h t s p r o t e s t s began t o g a i n n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n . S i t - i n was the f i r s t word t o g a i n currency and many others have s i n c e been formed by analogy to it.Hence, b e - i n . l a u g h - i n . l o v e - i n and swim-in t o name some.Other p r e p o s i t i o n s have a l s o f o l l o w e d the same p a t t e r n formation g i v i n g :psfch|-out. come-on.freak-out.camp-up and o t h e r s . - s t e r has r e c e n t l y become a n o t a b l y popular s u f f i x , f o r m i n g such terms as:punster and p r a n k s t e r . A recent and i n c r e a s i n g l y frequent p r o d u c t i v e p r e f i x i s super-; thus.superbowl.superport and superblock.al1 d e r i v i n g u l t i m a t e l y from the model of superman. As w e l l as the r e l a t i v e p o p u l a r i t y of compound formations i n s l a n g usage,an important t r e n d worth n o t i n g i s t h a t s l a n g i s g e n e r a l l y r e c e p t i v e to monosyllabic words more than p o l y s y l l a b i c , not o n l y because of the f a c t o r of conciseness but a l s o because i t i s t h a t v e r y b r e v i t y t h a t makes i t e f f e c t i v e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , w o r d s beginning w i t h a f r i c a t i v e or e x p l o s i v e were by f a r the most popul a r i n a l l divisions.Thus,words beginning with p,b.c.f,_s, and h gave c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r counts than a l l o t h e r s . F i n a l l y , v i v i d metaphor was found to be a frequent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of slang,perhaps due to slang's tendency to base new formations on o l d content(e.g.to p u l l the cork on). In the i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraphs of t h i s t h e s i s i t was noted t h a t the Renaissance saw a marked i n c r e a s e i n the awareness of language. S i m i l a r l y today,our age seems to have a d i s t i n c t i v e consciousness r e g a r d i n g language.However,whereas the seventeenth and eighteenth century l e x i c o g r a p h e r s and grammarians adopted an a u t h o r i t a r i a n approach,todays movement i n d i c a t e s a general permissiveness i n language. 114 Nov ve seem to know enough to enjoy p e r c e i v i n g how the language of a s u b - c u l t u r e may e n r i c h the mainstream of language,In p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s important t o r e a l i z e t h a t news media-tied to world s y n d i c a t i o n as they are-now help to disseminate these s u b - c u l t u r e v a r i a n t s immediately.The adoption of slang and i n f o r m a l usage i n the newspapers s t u d i e d r e f l e c t s the m u l t i p l i c i t y of s o c i a l sub-groups, the mark of immediacy i n t r a n s m i s s i o n and the pe r m i s s i v e q u a l i t y i n our approach to language today. Perhaps t h i s permissiveness i n language i s another aspect of the f a r more i n c l u s i v e phenomenon c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of our age; namely,the doubt t h a t any one t h i n g i s i n i t s e l f b e t t e r than another,Many s o c i o l o g i s t s seem to a s s e r t t h a t what men ought t o do i s merely what they can be shown t h a t they do d o ; t h e n , f e a s i b l y , by extension,what men do say or w r i t e i s what they should say or write.Thereby "observed usage" gains d a i l y on standard usage. FOOTNOTES 1 James Sl e d d and Wilma E b b i t t . D i c t i o n a r i e s and That D i c t i o n a r y (Chicago:Scott,Foresman and Co s ,1962Lp.28. 2 S l e d d and E b b i t t , p . 3 0 . 3 James Sledd and G. Kolb.Dr. Johnson's D i c t i o n a r y ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press,1955),p.36. 4 H a r o l d Wentworth and S t u a r t Berg F l e x n e r , , , P r e f a c e , M D i c t i o n a r y  of American Slang(New York:Thomas Y. 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