UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of slang and informal usage in the newspaper Kenwood, Christopher Michael 1969

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A STUDY OP SLANG; AND INFORMAL USAGE IN THE NEWSPAPER  by CHRISTOPHER MICHAEL KENWOOD B.A.|University  of British  Columbia,1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE, REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  t h e Department of Linguistics  We a c c e p t to  this  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  standard  THE; UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May,T969  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  the  Library  I further for  shall  make i t f r e e l y  agree that  permission  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  his representatives.  of  this  written  thesis  It i s understood gain  Linguistics  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  for extensive  May  30,1969  Columbia  shall  that  that  Study.  copying of this  be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my  for financial  I agree  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  permission.  Department of  Columbia,  thesis  Department o r  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  32*** The P E A N U T  VANCOUVER SUN: Mon., Mar. 10, 1969 HERE'S THE W0RLDFAMOUS A5TR0NAI/T TAKIW6 OFF FOR THEM00N„.  ALL SYSTEMS ARE 60 i A-OK'. HOti) CO VOU READ? LOUP AW CLEAR} '  U)E HAVE LIFT OFF.'THERRD  U)£ HAVE A LOT OF \ 'IN" EXPRESSIONS! J  IS &6INNIHG TO MOYE—.  "2P"  S  Yes,we do  have a l o t o f " i n " e x p r e s s i o n s ; t h e y  motive f o r t h i s t h e s i s , w h i c h in  the  discusses  m a j o r V a n c o u v e r n e w s p a p e r s ( The  are,in fact,the  s l a n g and  i n f o r m a l usage  V a n c o u v e r Sun  and  The  Vancouver P r o v i n c e ) . The  c r e a t i o n of these  arose and  t h r o u g h the  eighteenth  be  like  should  be  standardized  lifeless;live Thus, t h e s e  concept of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n * I n the  centuries lexicographers  e s p e c i a l l y men language  n o n — s t a n d a r d usage g r o u p s i n l a n g u a g e  Dr  a  p u r i f i e d and  11  fixed;"that,in  f o r a l l time.But  to  the  standard to  add It  level  of  s l a n g , i n f o r m a l and v e r s i o n . l t was  d r o p f r o m use  felt  and  life  t h a t any  o f the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e e x a m i n a t i o n o f how through the  realized  word,a p l a c e n o t  life.  vulgarities the  far,I  study i n the  believe,from  the  discontinuous  v a r i e t y and  remain  today.  effectively  interstandard,  o f mewspapers. realm  o f the  written  s p o k e n word.They r e v e a l  s t o r y o f a community i n a c t i o n and the  relegated  t h a t body o f E n g l i s h c a l l e d  Newspapers o c c u p y a s p e c i a l p l a c e  presenting  not  cease t o i n f i l t r a t e  w o u l d be  daily  areas  hoped t h a t these  with  the  t h e i r e f f o r t s , t h e subother  t w i n e d " s l a n g u a g e " was best  standardization i n  of language.However,they d i d not,and they  much t o the  was  remain  languages branch i n f i n i t e l y i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s .  "cleansed"  would thereby  English  f a c t , i t should  o n l y dead l a n g u a g e s  Renaissance pursuers  - the  grammarians,  Samuel J o h n s o n . p r o p o s e d t h a t the  language i r o n i c a l l y c r e a t e d , t h r o u g h standard  and  seventeenth  interaction,  i n c o n g r u i t y of  ordinary  Newspapers r e f l e c t of s o c i a l  on a r a p i d , d a i l y b a s i s t h e  sub-groups,the  multiplicity  mark o f immediacy i n t r a n s m i s s i o n ,  and t h e p e r m i s s i v e q u a l i t y i n o u r a p p r o a c h t o l a n g u a g e For purposes  today.  o f e x a m i n a t i o n t h e n e w s p a p e r s were a r r a n g e d  c a t e g o r i e s f o l l o w i n g the p a t t e r n i n which  into  the papers are  u s u a l l y presented,Thus,the General category,the E d i t o r i a l section,the  entertainment pages,the  Sports page,the  Comics  and t h e F i n a n c i a l a r e a s . S l a n g and i n f o r m a l samples were c u l l e d and made up lexicon  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e body o f t h i s  Examination of t h i s  the  thesis.  c o r p u s o f words i n d i c a t e s t h a t  the  newspaper i s v e r y much what M a r s h a l l McLuhan t e r m s a c o n f e s s i o n a l f o r m o r communal m o s a i c . T h r o u g h and i n f o r m a l evidence.lt changes  language i s also  numerous s u b - g r o u p s  their  group  slang  are c l e a r l y i n  clear that t h e i r productive vocabulary  c o n t i n u o u s l y and r a p i d l y , r a r e l y r e m a i n i n g  "fixed"  a s t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a u t h o r i t a r i a n s w o u l d have  wished.  L i k e t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n s i n t h e i r age,we i n o u r s a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g a marked i n c r e a s e i n t h e awareness o f l a n g u a g e . We  now  seem t o know enough t o e n j o y o b s e r v i n g how  o f a s u b - c u l t u r e may  e n r i c h the mainstream  observation "slanguage" gains d a i l y  the  language  o f l a n g u a g e and  on s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e .  Yes,Snoopy.we do have a l o t o f " i n " e x p r e s s i o n s .  by  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i i  Acknowledgement  v  Text:Pure  1  o r S t a n d a r d Language  a) D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t  of standard  b) D e f i n i t i o n  1 1  c) B * e x i c o g r a p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n  2  d) C r e a t i o n o f t h e s u b - n o r m a l a r e a s  4  S l a n g and I n f o r m a l i s m s  5  a) D e f i n i t i o n  5  b) O r i g i n : H u m a n f a c t o r s  5  c) O r i g i n : T e c h n i c a l  7  factors  R a t i onale  10  a) S o u r c e m a t e r i a l s  10  b) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  11  into categories  c) S e l e c t i o n  1.1  Word C o r p u s  13  ai)Words w i t h g l o s s , c o d i n g , o r i g i n where p o s s i b l e and p e r t i n e n t  13  comment  Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  110  a) N e s p a p e r s a s o r a l  110  b) E v i d e n c e  i n each  tradition category  111  c) Language a s s u b j e c t t o f a s h i o n  113  d) Summary  114  Footnotes  115  B i b l i ography  116>  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It  i s with sincere  gratitude that  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my  t h a n k s t o Dr« R o b e r t J© Gfregg.my f a c u l t y a d v i s o r , w i t h out my i n i t i a t i o n occurredoHe  into  the f i e l d  of L i n g u i s t i c s  whom  may n o t have  gave me i n s p i r a t i o n t o b e g i n , e n t h u s i a s m t o p r o c e e d  a n d encouragement a t a l l t i m e s o W i t h o u t h i s g u i d a n c e , f r o m t h e formulation  o f t h e problem  project, this thesis  to the f i n a l  w o u l d n o t have b e e n  accomplishment possible*  of the  1  PURE OR The  STANDARD LANGUAGE  major i n t e n t  of t h i s  t h e s i s i s the examination of slang  i n f o r m a l i s m s as t h e y o c c u r i n t h e medium o f t h e V a n c o u v e r p a p e r s . To  realize  be c a l l e d  f o r the t h e s i s , s t a n d a r d  the motive  or u n d e r l y i n g  language.  To u n d e r s t a n d what i s meant by a s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e first  go b a c k t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y whose  tradition While  initially  n u r t u r e d the  the r e b i r t h  of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e  t o development  we  must  Renaissance  concept.  important aspect of the Renaissance,the itself  news-  t h i s i n t e n t most e f f e c t i v e l y , p e r h a p s i t w o u l d  be u s e f u l t o c o n s i d e r what may inspiration  and  s c i e n c e s was  an  era d i d not r e s t r i c t  i n t h e s e a r e a s o n l y . T h i s age  also  promoted  languages,mainly through the formation of l i t e r a r y s o c i e t i e s Academies.Although  A c a d e m i e s were f o r m e d  w i t h i n t h i s p e r i o d I t a l y was  perhaps  everywhere  For  and e x p a n d i n g  e x p l i c a t e the n a t i o n a l  was  language  l a n g u a g e s . l t was  first  were s t i m u l a t e d by  educated  Accademia d e l l a Crusca.however.that  a national  A c a d e m i e s were  arose.A prime  was  1612  i t s b y now  the i d e a of purpose  standardizing  of t h i s  purifying  language.  h i s t o r i c a l l y famous V o c a b o l a r i o d e l l a  s p e e c h . T h i s was  b e g i n n i n g of the l e x i c o g r a p h i c a l adapted and Johnson  Academy  reasoned  p u b l i s h e d t o s t a b i l i z e the I t a l i a n l i t e r a r y language  b a s i s of Tuscan  and  w i t h i n t h e framework o f  l i t e r a r y t a s t e , b o t h o f w h i c h were e x p e c t e d t o a c t as  In  the  classes to s t a b i l i z e  t o c r e a t e a d i c t i o n a r y as w e l l as t o e s t a b l i s h a  a g e n t s upon t h e I t a l i a n  concerns  Crusca.  t h e most p a r t t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s  d e s i r e s of r u l e r s the  i n Europe  t h e most famous o f w h i c h , a n d t h e one w h i c h  u s t h e most,was t h e A c c a d e m i a d e l l a  or  t h e s o u r c e and model o f t h e  movement.In I t a l y a l o n e n e a r l y seven h u n d r e d formed,probably  and  perhaps  the f i r s t  more t h a n a c e n t u r y l a t e x .  the  important  t r a d i t i o n w h i c h was  e m b e l l i s h e d f o r the E n g l i s h language  on  Crusca  t o be  by Dr.  Samuel  2  B e f o r e Johnson,however,came t h e Academie  Francaise.also  important i n the evolution o f a lexicographic Italians,who  t o o k i t upon t h e m s e l v e s t o s i f t t h e l a n g u a g e a n d  p u b l i s h the accepted residue the  the labor  During t h i s period it  i n t h e i r Vocabolario  French a l s o produced a d i c t i o n a r y , t h e  represented  not  i d e a l . L i k e the  assembling  o f many a c a d e m i c i a n s f o r many of lexicographic  was w i t h M u l c a s t e r t h a t we n o t e t h e e a r l i e s t  itself  trend.In  request  fact,  f o r some  the seventeenth century the  o f t h e F r e n c h a n d I t a l i a n A c a d e m i e s began t o make  felt  a n d t h e demand f o r an a u t h o r i t a t i v e d i c t i o n a r y became  increasingly insistent.Through etymologists,important the  years.  r e g u l a t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y v i a a d i c t i o n a r y of the  English language.Certainly,in influence  of which  e x p a n s i o n t h e E n g l i s h were  unaware o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l  form of o f f i c i a l  m e n t i o n e d above,  pressure  eighteenth  t h e endorsement o f a n t i q u a r i a n s ,  men o f l e t t e r s  and the R o y a l S o c i e t y  f o ra dictionary intensified u n t i l  century  the S o c i e t y  improving the E n g l i s h  itself,  i n the e a r l y  e s t a b l i s h e d a committee f o r  language.  Thus,we c a n c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d t h a t b y t h e t i m e J o h n s o n b e g a n work on h i s d i c t i o n a r y t h e r e pressure  was a s o l i d b a c k g r o u n d o f s o c i a l  f o rthe English-speaking  lexicographic  ideal  first  world t o r e a l i z e the  introduced  on t h e c o n t i n e n t - a n  ideal  which Johnson l a r g e l y shared and,to a n t i c i p a t e , l a r g e l y r e a l i z e d . I n 1 7 4 6 , t h e n , J o h n s o n began work on h i s d i c t i o n a r y a n d w i t h i n eight years published the  lexicon i t s e l f , a  t h e c o m p l e t e work w h i c h i n c l u d e d Preface,a  Grammar a n d a H i s t o r y o f t h e  language.By t h e time the d i c t i o n a r y reached a c t u a l J o h n s o n was aware t h a t  i t was p r o b a b l y i m p o s s i b l e  language as t h e c o n t i n e n t a l Academies had t r i e d In h i s preface  as w e l l as  production to " f i x " a  t o do.  he s t a t e s :  Those who have been p e r s u a d e d t o t h i n k w e l l o f my d e s i g n , r e q u i r e t h a t i t should f i x our language,and put a stop t o those a l t e r a t i o n s which time and chance have h i t h e r t o been s u f f e r e d t o make i n i t w i t h o u t o p p o s i t i o n . W i t h t h i s consequence I w i l l c o n f e s s t h a t I f l a t t e r e d m y s e l f f o r a w h i l e ; b u t now b e g i n t o f e a r t h a t I have i n d u l g e d expectation which n e i t h e r reason n o r experience can j u s t i f y . When we see men grow o l d and d i e a t a c e r t a i n t i m e one a f t e r a n o t h e r , f r o m c e n t u r y t o c e n t u r y , w e l a u g h at t h e e l i x i r t h a t promises t o p r o l o n g l i f e t o a  3  t h o u s a n d y e a r s ; a n d w i t h e q u a l j u s t i c e may the l e x i c o g r a p h e r be d e r i d e d , w h o b e i n g a b l e t o p r o d u c e no example o f a n a t i o n t h a t has p r e s e r v e d their words and p h r a s e s f r o m m u t a b i l i t y , s h a l l i m a g i n e t h a t h i s d i c t i o n a r y can embalm h i s l a n g u a g e , a n d s e c u r e i t f r o m c o r r u p t i o n and d e c a y , t h a t i t i s i n h i s power t o change s u b l u n a r y n a t u r e , o r c l e a r t h e w o r l d a t once f r o m f o l l y , v a n i t y and a f f e c t a t i o n . W h i l e he  c o u l d understand the  o f l a n g u a g e i t was "fixing"  difficult  t r a n s i t o r y and f o r him  arbitrary qualities  t o deny t h e  concept  of  entirely: I n hope o f g i v i n g l o n g e v i t y t o t h a t w h i c h i t s own n a t u r e f o r b i d s t o be i m m o r t a l , I have d e v o t e d t h i s book..•. 2  In  commenting upon J o h n s o n ' s c o n f l i c t i n g  James S l e d d  concludes  f e e l i n g s on  this  point,  that:  J o h n s o n s e e s t h e s i t u a t i o n as one i n w h i c h r e a s o n i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t the n a t u r a l i n a b i l i t y of man, a t once t h e c r e a t o r o f l a n g u a g e and i t s c o r r u p t e r . - * J o h n s o n saw  an  i d e a l i z e d v i s i o n of language t h a t  s t a b i l i t y , r e g u l a r i t y and  a slow,controlled  c h a n g e . I n d e e d , h i s d i c t i o n a r y was for  so l o n g . I t was  included  a standard  a h i s t o r y of the  lexicon c r i t i c a l l y d e f i n i t i o n s and regarding  e x a c t l y what i t s age a standardizing by  b o t h method and and  some t h r e e  c o n t e n t . l t was  standardizing  quarters  b e g a n t o g i v e way  extensive classified  thoroughly a t l e a s t the  third  w i d e l y a c c e p t e d as a  not  until  d i c t i o n a r y was  of a c e n t u r y  to the  was  demanded  from a u t h o r i t i e s a  approach to language,and u n t i l century  had  d i v i d e d and  i l l u s t r a t e d with quotations  linguistic  e d i t i o n which  l a n g u a g e , a grammar,and an  selected,explained  decade of the n i n e t e e n t h standard  process of  u s a g e * I t w a s , i n f a c t , i n s p i r e d by  prescriptive in  and  included  the  notion  of  into  question,  l a t e r , t h a t Johnson's  authority  demand f o r an  called  very  standard  impartial recording  the  of  words. We  a r e now  teenth  convinced,of course,that  c e n t u r i e s had  the  s e v e n t e e n t h and  a completely mistaken conception  l a n g u a g e . M e n o f l e a r n i n g and come t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e  the  eight-  of  educated c l a s s e s i n general  l a n g u a g e o f t h e i r t i m e had  reached  had an  4  i d e a l p e r f e c t i o n and at  the  and  hands o f t h e  only  lexicographer  u n c h a n g i n g . I t has  of the The  lexicographer important  approach of the the  required a l i t t l e  long  i n order  i s t o r e c o r d and  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o be  not  t h a t the  time(of  concept of the  o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , w h i c h was  a t once an  lexicographical tradition  and  which Johnson  definition,standardization automatically  outside on  the  of t h i s  rather  f r i n g e s of the  categories.In  primary  c o n c e p t and  the  official anything  forced i t to  remain  a p p r o v e d l e x i c o n u n d e r assumed l a b e l s  and  f a l s e words.Today,we c a l l  slang,informalisms,jargon  s u b s t a n d a r d e l e m e n t s have k e p t and t h r o u g h e x t e n d e d use  of  world.  excluded  Johnson's t i m e , t h e y termed such items  corruptions,secret specifically  rigid  and  general  and  argot  or  vulgarities,  them more words.These  do k e e p t h e i r l a b e l s  social  was  standardization  extension  the  select.  philosophical  r e c o g n i t i o n of t h a t t r a d i t i o n i n the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g By  main d u t y  to c r i t i c a l l y  gleaned from the  educated c l a s s e s of the  purifying  t o become permanent  s i n c e been e v i d e n t  a c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) i s the  continental  p r u n i n g and  until,  a p p r o v a l , t h e y are  elevated  into  the  corpus of  standard  usage.Thus,it i s reasonable to  that  the  existence  of t h e s e  sub-areas of the E n g l i s h language i s  p e r h a p s u l t i m a t e l y due respect  f o r the  sub-areas of  our  efforts  i r o n y i n v o l v e d we  slang  language  to the  and  today.  informalisms  will  say  o f Samuel J o h n s o n . W i t h examine two  - t h a t add  due  of t h e s e m a j o r  so much t o t h e  life  5  SLANG AND  INFORMALISMS  I t has been s t a t e d above t h a t b e c a u s e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n language o f language  proposed  of  and a c c e p t e d , e x t r a l e v e l s  o r v o c a b u l a r y have t h e r e b y been c r e a t e d , G e n e r a l l y  speaking,the a r e what we  was  the v e r y concept  two term  most i m p o r t a n t and  comprehensive  extra  levels  s l a n g and i n f o r m a l i s m s .  S t a n d a r d u s a g e , i t has been n o t e d , i s t h e l e v e l most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d by t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a c e  of v o c a b u l a r y  and  i s that  level  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n any number o f s t a n d a r d d i c t i o n a r i e s . S l a n g i n f o r m a l usage,on the o t h e r hand,is t h a t which while used  level  N e i t h e r does i t a p p e a r it  v e r y o f t e n i n the normal  record,as well  not  of good,formal  i s b y i t s v e r y n a t u r e more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  the w r i t t e n  of vocabulary,  f r e q u e n t l y by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , i s  c o n s i d e r e d as f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n  and  usage.  dictionary,since  of the spoken than  as o f t e n b e i n g h i g h l y t r a n s i t o r y i n  u s e . F o r t h e most p a r t , s l a n g  enjoys a temporary  popularity  and  q u i c k l y fades from use,but  some i t e m s b e c o m e , t h r o u g h e x t e n d e d  in  as s t a n d a r d u s a g e and  t i m e and  space,accepted  e l e v a t e d from the e x t r a l e v e l  to the primary  S l a n g o r i g i n a t e s from the tendency t o form  small,distinctive  unique It  reasons.In each of these  concepts w i l l  on t h e p a r t  may  be  formed  of language,mostly t o be  l a r g e mass o f may  be  be g r o u p e d  and t h e s e w i l l  groups  culture  s l a n g f o r m a t i o n s t o t h e dominant  portion  groupings are  i n other facets  shaded  shown b e l o w , s l a n g  of s o c i e t y . A n a t u r a l  areas.^  response substantial  they are  active  of l i f e , b o t h  of  group's  culture. may  be  seen a s t h e more p o p u l a r  o f t h e c a n t , j a r g o n and a r g o t , t a k e n f r o m  sub-groups  and  i n the form of s l a n g e x p r e s s i o n s .  t h e s e f a c t o r s b e i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n of a  Pictorially,as  that  together f o r  require a  o f some s i g n i f i c a n c e and t h a t  members o f t h e p r i n c i p a l  people  s m a l l e r g r o u p i n g s new  i s assumed,of c o u r s e , t h a t t h e s e s o c i a l  enough i n s i z e  thereby  level.  s o c i a l groups.These  work o r p l a y t o g e t h e r o r o t h e r s who any p a r t i c u l a r  o f any  are  use  some o f t h e many  o v e r l a p p i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by  the  5a  6  C h a r l t o n L a i r d draws an a p t a n a l o g y i n h i s book.The M i r a c l e  of  Language: An amoeba i s a f o r m l e s s t h i n g w h i c h t a k e s many s h a p e s . I t moves by t h r u s t i n g an arm,and f l o w i n g i n t o the arm.It m u l t i p l i e s by p u l l i n g i t s e l f i n two,without permanently d i m i n i s h i n g the o r i g i n a l . So w i t h words.A meaning may d e v e l o p on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e b o d y o f meanings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a word,and s h o r t l y t h i s t e n t a c l e - m e a n i n g h a s grown t o s u c h p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t i t d w a r f s a l l o t h e r m e a n i n g s . . . . A t t h e same t i m e , h o w e v e r , w h i l e one meaning segment i n a word i s g r o w i n g , a n o t h e r m e a n i n g - t e n t a c l e may w i t h e r a w a y . T h i s meaning f a l l s out o f u s e b e c a u s e t h e o b j e c t t h a t i t i m p l i e d i s a l s o o u t o f u s e ; o r b e c a u s e t h e r e were two words f o r t h e o b j e c t , a n d one seemed t o be enough;or b e c a u s e t h e word became v u l g a r , o r became u n p o p u l a r a t t h e expense o f a n o t h e r ; o r f o r any c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l s o r t s o f o t h e r r e a s o n s . As l o n g as human v o c a b u l a r y r e s t s upon human n a t u r e , w e must c o n t i n u e i g n o r a n t o f many o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e r i s e and d e c l i n e o f t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f c e r t a i n words - a t l e a s t u n t i l p s y c h o l o g i s t s have l e a r n e d much more t h a n t h e y know a b o u t why we behave l i k e human b e i n g s . 5 Leonard  B l o o m f i e l d , i n L a n g u a g e . g o e s on t o e x p l o r e some o f t h e s e  psychological  i m p l i c a t i o n s by n o t i n g t h a t  f l u c t u a t i o n i n language  slang; r e p r e s e n t s  t o a g r e a t e x t e n t and  that:  G e n e r a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , i n t h e shape o f v i o l e n c e or w i t , i s a p o w e r f u l f a c t o r i n f l u c t u a t i o n . l t l e a d s t o t h e sudden r i s e o r f a l l o f s l a n g e x p r e s s i o n s . The r i s e o f s l a n g i s d u e , a p p a r e n t l y , t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r o d u c i n g a response from the h e a r e r . A t f i r s t t h e y owe t h i s t o t h e i r n o v e l t y and apt y e t v i o l e n t t r a n s f e r e n c e o f m e a n i n g ; l a t e r t h e h e a r e r r e s p o n d s b e c a u s e he has h e a r d them i n f a v o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n s and f r o m a t t r a c t i v e p e o p l e . A l l these f a v o r a b l e f a c t o r s d i s a p p e a r from sheer r e p e t i t i o n ; t h e n o v e l t y wears o f f , t h e v i o l e n t metaphor l a p s e s when t h e t r a n s f e r r e d meaning becomes more f a m i l i a r t h a n t h e c e n t r a l meaning; t h e a v e r a g e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s and s p e a k e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f o r m becomes i n d i f f e r e n t . T h e r e u p o n t h e s l a n g f o r m d i e s out..•.The most p o w e r f u l f o r c e of a l l i n f l u c t u a t i o n works q u i t e o u t s i d e the l i n g u i s t ' s reach:the speakers f a v o r the f o r m s w h i c h he h a s h e a r d f r o m c e r t a i n o t h e r s p e a k e r s w h o , f o r some r e a s o n o f p r e s t i g e , i n f l u e n c e h i s h a b i t s of speech.°  C l e a r l y t h e n , s l a n g , l i k e much e l s e i n l i f e , r e f l e c t s people  who p a r t i c i p a t e  i n i t s use.It  g r o u p s t o w h i c h we b e l o n g  the k i n d of  c l a s s i f i e s us according t o the  and a d d i t i o n a l l y  indicates:  •••our b i o g r a p h i c a l , m e n t a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l background;*..our social,economic,geographical, national,racial,religious,educational,occupational and g r o u p i n t e r e s t s , m e m b e r s h i p s and p a t r i o t i s m s . 7 T h i s i s so b e c a u s e t h e r e  i s a great  element o f p e r s o n a l  involved i n the use of slang.Standard  choice  usage,on t h e other  hand,  r e p r e s e n t s u s e d e r i v e d f r o m t e a c h i n g a n d h a b i t - more a c a r r y o v e r from the p r e s c r i p t i v e  a p p r o a c h i n l a n g u a g e ; t r a i n i n g we have  r e c e i v e d a l l o u r l i v e s . B e c a u s e we c h o o s e s l a n g words w h i c h we p e r s o n a l l y a t t r a c t i v e a n d i n t r i g u i n g we r e v e a l a g o o d d e a l  find  about  o u r p s y c h o l o g i c a l makeup. W h i l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e human f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e creation  of slang i s both necessary  important  t o examine t h e l i n g u i s t i c  and v i t a l , i t  i s equally  o r t e c h n i c a l means b y w h i c h  s l a n g words may be f o r m e d . Slang living  i s formed by normal l i n g u i s t i c languages,some o f which w i l l  here.Processes  processes  found  be b r i e f l y e n l a r g e d  in a l l upon  s u c h a s c h a n g e s i n f o r m b y compounding d e r i v a t i o n s ,  portmanteau words,and a b b r e v i a t i o n s t h r o u g h  front-clippings,  b a c k - c l i p p i n g s and a c r o n y m s ; c h a n g e s i n meaning b y g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , c o n c a t e n a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and metaphor;changes i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n ; i n p a r t s o f s p e e c h ; b o r r o w i n g f r o m d i a l e c t s and f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s ; a s "well a s o n o m a t o p o e t i c , r e d u p l i c a t i v e  and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  processes. ( A ) F o r m - c h a n g i n g : a ) I n compounding,two words b e l o n g i n g part  t o any  o f s p e e c h a r e combined t o f o r m one word o r a h y p h e n a t e d  unit(e.g.kickoff,skindiver,crackdown,hotshot,laugh-in) b)ln  l e n g t h e n i n g , s u f f i x e s and s u f f i x words,  p r e f i x e s a n d p r e f i x words a r e a f f i x e d t o r o o t w o r d s ( e . g . r e c l a i m , l u n c h e t e r i a , b o n v o y a g e p a r t y , d e s e n s i t i z e ) . H e r e words a n d word e l e m e n t s a r e a d d e d and have t h e e f f e c t denoting  a circumstance  of changing tense o r  of condition;whereas  words aire j o i n e d t o g e t h e r  on an e q u a l  i n compounding two  b a s i s t o f o r m a new word.  8  c ) P o r t m a n t e a u words a r e f o r m e d b y c o m p r e s s i n g two  word e l e m e n t s i n t o  fog=smog)  one  Deviations t h r o u g h b a c k - c l i p p i n g i s done  &)Ab  by c l i p p i n g a s y l l a b l e  word(e.g.motorist+hoteI=motel,smoke*  o r s y l l a b l e s o f f t h e e n d o f a word  (e.g.psych/ology/,photo/graphy/,trig/onometry/) e) F r o n t - c l i p p i n g i s t h e r e v e r s e - c l i p p i n g a syllable  o r s y l l a b l e s from the b e g i n n i n g of a  word(e.g./tele/gram,  /earth/quake,/para/chute) f ) Acronyms a r e made up f r o m t h e i n i t i a l s words o f a p h r a s e w h i c h may be r u n t o g e t h e r t o f o r m , a n d pronounced  be  a s , a new w o r d ( e . g . a w o l - a b s e n t w i t h o u t leave,CARE. -  C o - o p e r a t i v e f o r American important  of the  r e m i t t a n c e s t o Europe,VIP  - very  person)  (B)Meaning  change;Perhaps  the l a r g e s t  s o u r c e o f f r e s h words i s  t h e c h a n g i n g o f meaning o f s t a n d a r d w o r d s . P o r  example,we  a) G e n e r a l i z e t h e meaning o f a word so t h a t i t comes t o r e p r e s e n t s e v e r a l m e a n i n g s ( e . g . h a n d : t o g i v e me a h a n d , a p e r s o n employed o f c a r d s i n a game,to g i v e  assistance-  a s a l a b o r e r — h i r e d hand,the  or pass  meaning i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d  mean  something)but  hand  each v a r i a t i o n i n  t o t h e s t a n d a r d word.  b) C o n c a t e n a t i o n a l l o w s an o l d word t o t a k e on a s e r i e s o f new m e a n i n g s , e a c h concept as above,but  related  not d i r e c t l y  of c h i e f  o r prime  t o the basic  i n s t e a d t o a p r e v i o u s new meaning  (e.g. c a r d i n a l : o r i g i n a l l y from L a t i n meaning o f b a s i c  related  a n d F r e n c h meaning h i n g e , t o  i m p o r t a n c e - c a r d i n a l number,to a p e r s o n  importance-a c a r d i n a l  o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c  church,to the  c o l o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e robe o f a c a r d i n a l - y e l l o w , t o t h e b i r d o f this  color)  loses one  c)Specialization  some o f i t s i n c l u s i v e  i s t h e r e v e r s e whereby a word  meanings t o become i d e n t i f i e d w i t h  c o n n o t a t i o n o n l y ( e . g . g a y meaning q u e e r , t h e  e l e c t r o c u t i o n c h a i r , l i q u o r which refers to alcohol  once  meant any l i q u i d  f o r m a t i o n o r e x t e n s i o n o f meaning b y  metaphor o r f i g u r a t i v e u s e ( e . g . a s t u f f e d got pickled)  b u t now  only) d)The  he  c h a i r meaning t h e  shirt,a  closed  book,  9 (C) P r o n u n c i a t i o n changes:He re.new words a r e u s u a l l y f o r m e d b y making  c h a n g e s i n s t r e s s , c o r r u p t i n g an o l d e r w o r d  i n f i x between  the s y l l a b l e s  o r a d d i n g an  o f an o l d e r word(e.g.no s i i i v e l v . h i p .  kee-rect f o r correct.razzamatazz) (D) P a r t s o f s p e e c h : A l t e r i n g t h e u s e o f a word f r o m i t s u s u a l grammatical functional  capacity to a different part shift.Therefore,functional  of speech i s termed  shift  changes o r extends t h e  g r a m m a t i c a l u s e o f w o r d s . A l m o s t any n o u n , v e r b , a d j e c t i v e , a d v e r b o r combination o f these can undergo t h i s  functional  shift(e.g.ditch  a s a noun t o d i t c h a s a v e r b , a a t t a c h - t o s t o m a c h , b r e a k a s a c u t i n something t o break as l u c k ; a l s o crackdown,hotshot) (E) B o r r o w i n g : L o a n s f r o m d i a l e c t s o r f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s c r e a t e new  words o r word  elements i n E n g l i s h . E n g l i s h usage  necessarily,changes their  c o n n o t a t i o n , p r o n u n c i a t i o n and  (vamoose,cinch,schmo,yen,hooch,pow-wow,-burger f r o m S p a n i s h , s o u t h west S t a t e s A m e r i c a n I n d i a n a n d German  often,but not  all  spelling  b e i n g borrowed  Spanish,Yiddish,Chinese,North  respectively)  (F) Onomatopoetic o r E c h o i c p r o c e s s e s : P l e a s a n t a b a s i s on w h i c h a d d i t i o n a l new  sounds seem t o be  words a r e f o r m e d . I n  a) o n o m a t o p o e i a we  imitate a natural  sound(e.g.  buzz,bow-wow,putt-putt,choo-choo,boo-hoo) b) r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r m s a new r e p e t i t i o n of a r a d i c a l  word t h r o u g h t h e  e l e m e n t i n an o l d e r w o r d ( e . g . d i n g - d o n g .  hanky-panky,buddy-buddy,yum-yum)8 I n a d d i t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e s l a n g l e v e l o f u s a g e may made b y i n d i v i d u a l  coinages,rhyming slang,synthetic  be  s l a n g and  others,but whatever the source: Communication,which i s the v e r y o b j e c t of speech, i s s u c c e s s f u l l y e f f e c t e d o n l y when t h e h e a r e r ' s a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n s are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the a p p r o p r i a t e a n d i n t e n d e d f l o w o f i m a g e r y and t h o u g h t o r b o t h combined.9  10  RATIONALE As ve have seen a b o v e , v i t h i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f Language,language  Standard  symbolizes the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of  Because i t h e l p e d s o l i d i f y t h e i r sancttoTifdL c l a s s e s A t h e d i c t i o n a r i e s and  social  society.  position,the  rising  grammars i n r e t u r n f o r t h e  middle  so-called  " c o r r e c t usage" r u l e s . S i n c e t h a t p e r i o d , t h e i d e a of examining labelling speech,has  as a c c e p t a b l e ^ , l a n g u a g e as i t i s a c t u a l l y u s e d g a i n e d g r e a t e r and  primary i n t e n t i o n of t h i s betveen As  g r e a t e r momentum.Thus,it i s t h e  p r e s c r i p t i v e u s a g e and  "observed  n e w s p a p e r s s i n c e , p e r h a p s , t h i s medium c a n be r e a d and a c c e p t e d by t h e l a r g e s t  record - since spoken l e v e l For The  will  o f language  c r o s s - s e c t i o n of today's  and The  on t h e w r i t t e n  the  level.  that  i s by n a t u r e o f t e n  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  a r e f o r t h e p e r i o d n o t e d b e l o w and Canada,during  c a n be  element  over the  o f s l a n g and  further into  the  so much  s a m p l i n g p e r i o d as i t i s one  samples f o u n d f e l l e f f o r t was  smaller but e q u a l l y v a l i d words,loan  words and  under  made t o sub-areas so  on.  and p h r a s e s b e l o n g i n g more p r o p e r l y t o a r e a s  o u t s i d e t h o s e o f s l a n g and p l a c e where t h a t p a r t i c u l a r  i n f o r m a l i s m s a r e n o t e d as such a t the item i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n a l l  o t h e r c a s e s t h e u n i t s a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d as f a l l i n g w i t h i n definition  must  slang.  i n f o r m a l i s m s no  of neologisms,archaisms,portmanteau Instead,words  a l t h o u g h n o t e v e r y word  of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n choice,whereby  S i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f word and p h r a s e c l a s s i f y any  Vancouver,  s a i d t o have been c u l l e d . T h i s i s d u e , n o t  recognize h i s personal involvement with the d e f i n i t i o n s  collected  period.  s h e e r volume o f a r t i c l e s  to the n a t u r a l  samples  transitional  are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  i t e m s were s e l e c t e d f r o m b o t h p a p e r s  or phrase  used:  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  sometimes r e g i o n a l , i t  t o the  !  s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s b o t h t h e major l o c a l n e w s p a p e r s were  V a n c o u v e r Sun  The  and  ah 'observed"  i n f o r m a l i s m s a r e f o u n d m a i n l y on and n o t a l w a y s  daily  social  t h e m a j o r medium i n w h i c h s l a n g  Since the c h a r a c t e r of "slanguage" and  t o use  s a i d t o be most w i d e l y  be p r i n t e d - t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g  s l a n g and  split  usage."  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f " o b s e r v e d u s a g e " I have c h o s e n  i n f o r m a l language  i n current  t h e s i s t o i n d i c a t e the i n c r e a s i n g  groups.Generally,it i s also  and  o f s l a n g and i n f o r m a l i s m s .  the  Extensive  c a t e g o r i z i n g d i d occur,however,within  of  the papers themselves.That  to  i t s specific  source  Finance,General  the subject  i s , e a c h i t e m c o l l e c t e d was c o d e d a s  area:Entertainment,Editorials,Sports,Comics,  A r e a s a n d so o n . T h i s  o r n o t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o and r e a d e r s  was done t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r  o f p a r t i c u l a r news a r e a s  e n f o r c e upon t h e m s e l v e s a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r d e g r e e o f usage" over developing  i t s own i n f o r m a l t e r m s , a n d w h e t h e r , i n  remarked t h a t as w e l l as b e i n g  all  u n i t s are arranged  Finally,it  was f o u n d  selection sampling  a r e a s * I t should a l s o  c a t e g o r i z e d as t o s u b j e c t  the posing  are they  items  numbering i n t h e thousands.Thus,the  final  represent a further r e s t r i c t e d o f s u c h q u e s t i o n s as:How e s t a b l i s h e d  a r e t h e y i n a c t u a l use?How f r e q u e n t l y do t h e y representative  area  category*  t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y o f word a n d p h r a s e  o f forms p r e s e n t e d through  and i s  f a c t , t h e r e i s any  a l p h a b e t i c a l l y w i t h i n each  accumulated a v a s t corpus  may  "observed  " c o r r e c t usage"whether each a r e a has developed  d e g r e e o f c r o s s o v e r i n f l u e n c e between t o p i c be  areas  appear?How  o f t h e most r e c e n t s l a n g ? I n many  c h o i c e s were made u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e  o f such e x p e r t s  cases  i n the f i e l d  a s H a r o l d W e n t w o r t h , S t u a r t B. F l e x n e r a n d E r i c P a r t r i d g e . F o r the documentation o f the s e l e c t e d items upon t h e D i c t i o n a r y o f A m e r i c a n S l a n g b y The  Shorter Oxford  Dictionary - third  I relied  strongly  Wentworth a n d F l e x n e r ,  English Dictionary.Webster s 1  New I n t e r n a t i o n a l  e d i t i o n , E r i c P a r t r i d g e ' s D i c t i o n a r y of Slang  as w e l l as t h e D i c t i o n a r y o f Underworld L i n g o Frank O'Leary and M o r r i s  Lipsius.  b y Hyman G o 1 d i n ,  12  ABBREVIATIONS  (A)Avis e t a l . D i c t i o n a r y of Canadian adj.  adjective,attributive  adv.  adverb.  Brit.  English).  adjiective.  British,Briton.  c. c i r c a , a b o u t . Cf.  Compare,confer.  Co.  Company.  deriv. dial,  derivative,derived, dialect,-al.  e. g. f o r example, esp. f. F  especially.  from. February.  fig. Fr.  figuratively. French.  Ger.  German.  (GOL)Goldin e t a l . A D i c t i o n a r y o f American J  Underworld  Lingo.  January.  lit.  literally.  M March. n . noun. N.B. N o t e . (OED) The S h o r t e r O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . 3 r d e d . orig.  original,-ly.  P P r o v i n c e newspaper, perh. phr. pi.  perhaps, phrase,  plural,  poss.  possibly,  pp. p a s t  participle,  prob. probably, ref. spec,  reference; specifically.  S Sun n e w s p a p e r usu. vb.  usually verb.  (WF)Wentworth and F l e x n e r . D i c t i o n a r y o f American WYI W o r l d WWII W o r l d 1  Slang.  War I War I I  t o 31 d a t e s o f newspaper  edition. + and;combined w i t h , a d d e d t o . # number.  WORD CORPUS  (i)  GENERAL AREAS  1. A c i d / a s a d / n , P 12  M  LSD(WF) A b b r e v i a t i o n t h r o u g h f r o n t and 2. A i r l i f t  / e r l x f t / n.  the c a r r y i n g  S 29  airlift day  J  o f goods b y a i r p l a n e  otherwise c u t o f f from P r o b a b l y WW  back-clipping,see#173.595. t r a n s p o r t t o an  accessibility.  I I o r i g i n w i t h the advent  and now  area  used w i t h the  of the  Berlin  same c o n n o t a t i o n f o r modern  "Berlins."  Compound f o r m e d (something)by  by a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : t o  air,becomes  to a i r l i f t ( v e r b ) , t h e n  3. A11-Time / o l - t a y m / a d j . S 29 understood  a d e f i n e d category thus f a r i n recorded all-time  o f t h e f o r t i e s he was  within  history, c o n s i d e r e d t o be  the  by a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : C h a m p i o n  a l l - t i m e becomes a l l - t i m e A l s o by a n a l o g y t o  champion.  S 17  F  deep s e a d i v e s f o r a p r o f e s s i o n o r who  the sea depths  navigates  i n a submarine or r e s e a r c h g l o b e .  Compound made up Compare m o d e l s : verse-USSR);  of  forms:all-out,all-over,etc.  4. A q u a n a u t / akwenot / n . who  or t h i n g  g r e a t of the b a s k e t b a l l c e n t e r s . "  A compound formed  a man  airlift(noun)  J  t o r e f e r to being the best person  as i n i ' A t t h e end  lift  o f two  bound morphemes:aqua- +  -naut  argonaut,astronaut(stars-USA),cosmonaut(uni-  see  #519.  5. A s s / a s / n , P 6 F a fool;a  s t u p i d or f o o l i s h  C o l l o q u i a l . A meaning 6. Back up  -up  s u f f i x has  o r sAt Ap  statements  / vb. S 1 F  o r be  silent  f r o m now  a v a r i e t y o f u s e s , r e t a i n s much  s t a n d a r d meaning and to  change.  o r s h u t up / bak Xp  show s u p p o r t f o r y o u r  person.  on.  ofits  i s commonly added t o v e r b s o r nouns  form phrases = t o f i l l  o r be  filled  with  something(beer_ji£.  to  obtain  or c o l l e c t  o r t o come t o g e t h e r f o r a  specific  purpose(write up)• an  agitated  7. B a f f l e g a b the  or confused s t a t e ( e . g . f o u l u p ) .  / b a f e l g a b / n. P 12 F  ambiguous,verbose t a l k or w r i t i n g o f t e n  done b y  bureaucrats;officialese. O r i g . u s e d b y M.A. in  S m i t h o f t h e U.S. Chamber o f Commerce  1952.  f. baffle(confuse)  + gab(talk).  C f . G o b b l e d y g o o k #108.  8. Bag / bag / n . S 13 F one's s p e c i a l o r c u r r e n t  interest,obsession,talent,  enthusiasm or l i k i n g ; a s in:"Thats Orig.jazz Cf.  n o t my  bag man." ?  use;now b e a t , s t u d e n t , t e e n a g e and j a z z u s e .  current  use o f " t h i n g "  #506.  9. Band / band / n . P 17 F a group o f r e s e r v a t i o n  Indians recognized  government a s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  by the f e d e r a l  unit.(A)  A Canadianism. 10. Bandwagon / bandwagdn / n . S 29 J t o jump on t h e bandwagon means t o j o i n t h e m a j o r i t y  or  most p o p u l a r f a c t i o n a f t e r w i t h o l d i n g  or  vote u n t i l  the m a j o r i t y  one's o p i n i o n  or r e l a t i v e p o p u l a r i t y  i s known-  so a s t o be s u r e o f b e i n g w i t h t h e w i n n i n g p a r t y o r candidate.(WF) Orig.  f . bandwagon,meaning:A r a i l r o a d p a y c a r .  11. B e a t o u t / b i y t £ w t / v b . S 30 J t o win something over another person;to a c h i e v e the g o a l or p r i z e before Colloquial -out  since  someone  else.  d890.  s u f f i x word i s common i n s l a n g  f o r m a t i o n s and r e t a i n s  much o f i t s s t a n d a r d meaning:away f r o m o r b e y o n d t h e l i m i t 12. B e e f c a k e / b l y f k e y k  / n. S 8 F  a m u s c l e b o y j a m u s c l e b o u n d man,spec, a p h o t o g r a p h o f a man wearing l i t t l e  clothing.  Developed by a n a l o g y t o the female  Cheesecake.  1 3 . B e e f e a t e r / b i y f i y t e r / n . S 30 J an E n g l i s h m a n ; a Orig.  s t r o n g muscular  person.  f . guard corps a t the Tover of London(a  corps of  s t r o n g . p o w e r f u l men). Compound. 14 B e e r up / b i y r >Lp / n . S 7 F a situation  o r o c c a s i o n on w h i c h  one d r i n k s a l o t o f b e e r ;  a l s o used as a v e r b . Colloquial. -up  suffix,see  #6  15. B e s t - h e e l e d / b e s t - h i y l d / a d j . S 29 J wealthy;equipped  w i t h much money.  Since d 9 3 0 . C o l l o q u i a l . O r i g . meant armed o r e q u i p p e d w i t h a weapon and by a n a l o g y the  i d e a o f "weapon" was r e p l a c e d b y "money."  Compound. 16. B i k i n i any or  / b e k i y n i y / n . S 27 J s h o r t , r e v e a l i n g men's o r Women's b a t h i n g  other sports  Since  suit,shorts  clothes.(WF)  c1950.  Orig. f . the B i k i n i  a t o l l where an a t o m i c bomb was  exploded  s c a n t y s w i m s u i t h a s f i g u r a t i v e l y t h e same i m p a c t a s t h e atomic  explosion.  17. B i l l y g o a t e d / b x l i y g o w t a d / v b . S 28 J f o r c e d i n t o d o i n g something "The  o r pushed  into  it;as i n :  MLA was b i l l y g o a t e d i n t o p u s h i n g t h r o u g h a t a x  r e d u c t i o n by the o p p o s i t i o n . " f.  analogy t o the animal  through  ' b i l l y g o a t ' who b u t t s h i s way  life.  - e d p p . s u f f i x added t o weak v b . stems;pp. f r e q u e n t l y  used  as an a d j . 18. B i l k i n g / b i l k i n / v b . S 28 J deceiving;cheating;defrauding;failing to pay;eluding.(P) Since  c1750.  19. B l a c k s / b l a k s / n . p l . S 31 J negroes C u r r e n t l y g a i n i n g more p r e s t i g e a s t h e t e r m f o r A f r o Americans  through the recent c i v i l  strife.  20. B l a s t e d / b l a s t a d / v b . S 30 J criticized -ed  publically;damned.(WF)  suffix,see  #17  21. B l u e - n o s e d / bluw-nowzd / a d j . S 17 F h a v i n g s t r o n g l y p u r i t a n i c a l moral  convictions{ultra-  conservative. Orig. i n colonial  t i m e s meaning:an  aristocrat.  22. B o f f i n / b o f i n / n . P 25 F an e x p e r t a t s o m e t h i n g . O r i g . f . v a r t i m e s l a n g u s e d t o mean a bomb expert,or other technical  disposal  expert.(e.g.on radar,etc.)  23. Booby t r a p / buwbiy t r a p / n . S 4 M a practical stupid Since  j o k e j a dangerous  surprise;a trap to catch  people.(P) d850.Colloquial.  P r o b . f . b o o b y ( a F o o l ) + t r a p . I n WW  I I a bomb l e f t  behind  t o c a t c h t h e unwary. -trap  s u f f i x word meaning:a p l a c e where one may be t r a p p e d  or endangered.(e.g.  a tourist  trap)  24. Booked o f f / b u k t o'f / v b . S 30 J signed  o u t o f a s i t u a t i o n b y h a v i n g s i g n e d a book w h i c h  i n d i c a t e s y o u r d e p a r t u r e ; a s i n : " H e booked  o f fsick  from  work." Orig. prob. f . analogy t o p o l i c e prisoner  o r s u s p e c t , s o - c a l l e d because  in a record  t h e y e n t e r h i s name  book.  25. B r a i n w a s h e d / b r e y n w a s t the s t a t e  jargon o f booking a  / a d j . S 29 J  o f h a v i n g induced an a t t i t u d i n a l  change i n a  p e r s o n , u s u a l l y a c a p t i v e , b y means o f p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l methods,sometimes s u p p l e m e n t e d  by drugs and p h y s i c a l  coercion.(WF) T h i s f o r m o f c o n d i t i o n i n g d e v e l o p e d i n t h e USSR b a s e d upon t h e work o f P a v l o v w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n e d r e f l e x e s o f d o g s , - e d s u f f i x , s e e #17.  17  26. B r a s s An  / bras / n. S 4 F official;influential  people;persons i n authority;  e x e c u t i v e s j a s in:"The t o p brass  are here."  O r i g . m i l i t a r y use;common d u r i n g WWII - f r o m t h e o f f i c e r ' s brass  insignia.  27. B r e a k / bireyk / n . S 29 J luck;opportunity;a Colloquial  stroke  o f f a t e ; e i t h e r good o r b a d .  s i n c e C1925.  A functional shift. Most famous u s a g e i s W.C. F i e l d s to a loved  giving h i s usual  one,"Never g i v e a sucker  advice  an even break!"  28. Breakaway / b r e y k e w e y / a d j . S 27 J p e r t a i n i n g t o an o b j e c t made t o c o l l a p s e e a s i l y a t t h e pull  of a string  Written  or the like.(WF)  b o t h h y p h e n a t e d a n d unhyphenated;more common  thus i n d i c a t i n g a s o l i d 29. B u c k e t  shops /  bXkat  acceptance of t h i s  without  compound.  s o p s / n./'S 4 M  o f f i c e s where i l l e g a l , w o r t h l e s s o r h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e are  s o l d by u s i n g m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  Financial 30. Bug  /  bordering  stocks  on s w i n d l i n g .  jargon.  bXg; / v b . S 20 F  concealing  a microphone o r o t h e r  to record a conversation without  recording device  i n order  t h e speaker's knowledge.  Meaning change.Poss. o r i g . from t h e small  recording  device's  resemblance t o a bug o r s m a l l i n s e c t . Other uses o f b u g : i n s e c t ; t o  annoy;an e n t h u s i a s t ; a n y  defect  i n p l a n , e q u i p m e n t , e t c ; a n a 6 u t m o b i l e , e s p . a s m a l l one. 31. B u l l y - b o y  / b u l i y - b o y / a d j . S 30 J  a male g i v e n aggressive  to forcing  others  into  s i t u a t i o n s through h i s  n a t u r e ; h e n c e a p p l i e d t o methods u s e d t o a t t a i n  e n t r y t o a s i t u a t i o n , e t c ; a s in:"He used b u l l y - b o y  tactics  t o have t h e d i r e c t o r s p a s s h i s r e s o l u t i o n . " Prob. by analogy t o the animal B u l l : a s t r o n g  aggressive  animal. -v. s u f f i x , n o u n f o r m i n g , i n can  this  a l s o be an a d j . f o r m i n g  case forming  suffix.  a nickname;  18 32. Bummer / bAmdr / n . S 24  P  a bad p e r i o d o f t i m e f o r someone;a bad  e x p e r i e n c e ; an  o c c a s i o n when someone i s n o t " w i t h i t . " ( P ) a s were n i g h t - c l u b b i n g l a s t n i g h t , h e was Poss.  a d j . ( a s i n a bum  described -er  on a r e a l  r e l a t e d t o t h e German Bummler:an i d l e r  f r o m bum  n a p . a bum  in:"¥hen or  s t e e r . a bum  tramp;or ride)+ - e r  a person or t h i n g  with;a person or t h i n g ; a person or thing doing or  i t s i m p l y adds l e n g t h t o convey  or  flippant  bXmz  bummer."  below.  s u f f i x , n o u n forming,meaning  33. Bums /  we  a more  associated  something;  slangy,colloquial,  effect.  /  n . p i . S 29  J  a bum  i s g e n e r a l l y any j o b l e s s man  or youth having  or  no  i n c o m e ; a p o o r , p o o r l y d r e s s e d and unkempt f r e q u e n t e r  of  saloons;without professional  or  social  occupation,goal i n  c1880.However,the word has d e g e n e r a t e d . O r i g . a  v a g a b o n d o r hobo,by 1900  had t a k e n on a c o n n o t a t i o n o f  beggar;later,a moneyless,prideless,filthy hopeless and h a b i t u a l #32  ruin Gum  / vb.  or s p o i l  t a s k ; e s p . by Cf.  S 25  F  a p l a n or the s u c c e s s f u l  completion of a  blundering.(WF)(P)  up.#112  Prob.  f . b o x i n g j a r g o n m e a n i n g , t o c l o s e up  blow-  C1900.  -up  derelict  drunkard.  34. Bung up / hAn A$ to  life,  prestige.(WF)(P)  Common s i n c e  See  little  suffix,see  the eyes w i t h a  #6.  35. b u t t i n / h i t xn / v b . S 7 M to  i n t e r u p t unasked;to  make an unwanted  P o s s . by analogy t o a b i l l y g o a t ' s 36. C a n ' t "he  h a c k i t / k a n t hak c a n ' t hack i t "  a situation Note t h a t  or  i t / vb.  means t h a t he  intrusion.  action.  S 13  F  i s u n a b l e t o cope w i t h  predicament.  i t h e r e has no  antecedent.  A fig.  use  o f h a c k ( c u t . h e w ) m o d e l l e d on t h e  phrase  "He  can't take t t . "  earlier  37. C a r p e t b a g g e r / k a r p e t b a y g a r one  who  / rt. S 29  J  t r i e s t o make a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n  on a s u p e r i o r ;  a brown-noser.(WF)(P) Since -er  d875.A  compound,  suffix,see  #32.  38. C h e s t e r f i e l d / c e ' s t a r f x y l d / n . F 21 a couch;a long a r t i c l e several  of f u r n i t u r e  capable  of s e a t i n g  people.(A)  A f t e r a nineteenth century E a r l A  F  of  Chesterfield.  Canadianism.  39. Chomp / comp / v b . P 24 to  F  bite;chew;eat.  C f . chompers  #40.  O r i g . champ becoming chomp;f. v o w e l m o d e l s : stiimp/stomp. tramp/tromp. 40. Chompers / compdrz / n . teeth,spec,  S 14  F  a set of t e e t h .  O r i g . champ b e c o m i n g chomp + - e r s u f f i x , s e e #32,39. 41. C h o w l i n e / c a w l a y n / n . a line,as t o an  S 19  F  o f s o l d i e r s , s t u d e n t s , e t c . , w a i t i n g t o be  e a t i n g p l a c e o r w a i t i n g t o be  admitted  served(cafeteria style).  (¥F)(P) A compound.Common WWI Orig. poss. where t h e  AND  f . Chinese  Chinese  WWII u s a g e .  r a i l r o a d w o r k e r s i n t h e West  f o r f o o d was  chow:also p o s s . i n f l u e n c e d  by d i al.chow(chew). 42. C i t y - s l i c k e r / s i t i y - s l i k S r / n . a c i t y dweller.spec, regarded -er  disclose Since -up  as a  swindler.(WF)  #32.  43. Clam up / k l a m JLp / v b . to r e f r a i n  J  a shrewd,worldly,stylishly dressed  by r u r a l p e o p l e  suffix,see  S 31  S 3 F  from t a l k i n g  or to stop t a l k i n g ; t o refuse to  information,esp. to the p o l i c e  c1900.  suffix,see  #6.  or  judge.(GOL)  one,  20)  44. C l o t s / k l o t s / n . S 25  F  idiots;imbeciles. O r i g . B r i t i s h WWII s l a n g e s p . i n t h e a l l i t e r a t i v e clueless  phrase:  clot.clumsy clot.  R e l a t e d t o clod,whence  clodhopper,derog. f o r country  d w e l l e r . C f . H i l l b i l l y #127,Rube # 45. Cob / k o b / n . P 28 a corncob  244.  P  pipe.  O r i g . p r o b . f . cob.meaning a f a r m e r o r s m a l l town inhabitant: corncobs .from which  eob p i p e s were made.  Abbreviation through f r o n t - c l i p p i n g : 46. G o l d snap / k o w l d a sudden of  cold  /corn/cob.  snap / n . S 1 F  drop i n the temperature  causing a short  47. C o l l o g r a p h / k o I © g r a f a p r i n t which  of  snap.  / n . S 30  J  i s t a k e n from a c o l l a g e  surface(e.g. a  whose s u r f a c e i s i n k e d , p a p e r a p p l i e d and impression Neologism 48. Con A r t i s t not  period  weather.  Compound. A f i j g * u s e  one who  local  collage  removed,leaving  an  of the c o l l a g e s u r f a c e . ) and P o r t m a n t e a u  / kon  compound:coll(age)  a r t i s t / n . S 30  tricks,fools  +  (lith)ograph.  J  o r p e r s u a d e s a n o t h e r t o do  something  i n h i s best interests.(WF)  B a c k - c l i p p i n g f r o m t h e word £ o n ( f i d e n c e ) , h e n c e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the underworld;hence " He  conned  49. Con £ a m e  me  / kon  i n t o l e n d i n g him my  a l s o the verb  con:  c a r f o r t h e weekend."  geym / n . S 7 F  a c o n f i d e n c e game,a s w i n d l e ; a n y way unethical  the  o f e a r n i n g e a s y money;  procedure.(WF)  ©rig. u n d e r w o r l d  slang  use.  B a c k - c l i p p i n g o f c_on(f i d e n c e ) + game. 50. Con  j o b / kon  j o b / n . S 26  F  a swindle;anything unethical Orig. underworld  slang  or  illegal.  use.  B a c k - c l i p p i n g of c o n ( f i d e n c e ) + - j o b suffix:-.job any a c t i v i t y and from v e r b s .  o f t e n takes the p l a c e  suggests  o f - i n g t o f o r m nouns  51•Conk o u t / k o n k awt / v b , S 30 to break  down and  J  stop running;to t i r e  s u d d e n l y ; t o become  exhausted.(¥F)(P) Colloquial -out  since  C1918.  s u f f i x word,see  52. Cook y o u r goose / kuk to put y o u r s e l f own  #11. y©r  guws / v b . S 1 F  i n an u n p l e a s a n t  a c t i o n s or words;to  O r i g . p o s s . by l i t .  Usu.  s p o i l your  chances  your  f o r anything.  analogy.  53. C o o l i t / kuwl i t / v b . to remain  s i t u a t i o n through  S 8 F  calm,unpreturbed,relaxed;aloof to a  s a i d t o someone who  i s getting  situation.  excited,as in:"Cool  itjJohn." F o r use  of i t without antecedent  54. C o p p e r - o u t e r s t h o s e who plan  or  #36.  / koper-awt©rz / n. S 7 F  bow  out of a s i t u a t i o n ; p e r s o n s abandonning  a  event.  Cf.  cop-out,#389.  -er  suffix,see  #32.  55. Cops / k o p s / n . p l . P the  see  18  F  police.(GOL)  Poss.  f . the copper  b u t t o n s once u s e d  on p o l i c e  uniforms,  r e i n f o r c e d by t h e I t a l o - A m e r i c a n "coppo."(WF) Underworld  slang.  56. Cough up / k o f .Ap t o p a y , p a y up  / v b . S 29  or pay  J  o v e r money;to come f o r t h w i t h  present,as a c o n f e s s i o n of g u i l t Since c -up  or  •(WF)(P)  1400.  suffix,see#6.  57. C o v e r / k X v d r / n . S 27 a false true  concealment  s i t u a t i o n may  as in:"He Since  o f one escape  t h i n g by a n o t h e r  shift.  so t h a t  the  d e t e c t i o n o r punishment.(WF)  blew h i s c o v e r . " ( s a i d  61810.  Functional  J  of a spy).  58. Crackdown / krakdawn / n .  S 30  a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h one  J  takes admonitory  a c t i o n a g a i n s t someone;to  or  punitive  censure.(FF)  Compound. -down s u f f i x word,noun f o r m i n g and v e r b  forming,meaning:  a c o n t e s t of stamina,knowledge o r courage,or or plunk  to  put,drop  down.  59. C r i s i s - p r o n e / k r a y s d s - p r o v n / a d j . S 13 more l i a b l e  M  to experience c r i s e s than normal people  are.  Compound. - p r o n e i s now  b e c o m i n g a p r o d u c t i v e word  element.Cf.  accident-prone. 60. C r o s s / k r o s / v b . t o c h e a t ; t o do  S 31  something  Cf. doublecross Underworld  J a g a i n s t someone's w i s h e s . ( W F ) ( G O L )  #74.  s l a n g . A meaning  61. Crumby / k r A m i y / a d j . S 20  change. F  dirty;contemptible;repulsive;disgusting.(WF)(P) Common u s e The  spelling  spelling -y  since  c1840.  crummy i s more common,prob. j u s t a p h o n e t i c  f o r crumby,  suffix,see#31.  62oCrummy / kr-imiy / a d j . S 7 F of poor  quality;unsatisfactory.  From crumby.see #61,a 63. Dead g i v e a w a y / ded  variant.  gxyawey / n . P 8 F  a total,unwitting betrayal Fig.  and  emphatic  use  64. D e a d l i n e / d e d l a y n / n . a be  specific  time  or r e v e l a t i o n  o f something  of dead;Cf. the phrase  "dead c e n t e r "  S 1 F  b y w h i c h an e f f o r t  t o w a r d s a g o a l must  completed.  Compound. O r i g . newspaper j a r g o n . 65. D i c k e r / d i k a r / v b . t o b a r g a i n o r do to  S 18  F  a , d e a l f o r something  haggle.  Poss. - e r s u f f i x here,see  #32.  or w i t h  secret.  someone;  23 6 6 * D i r t / d a r t / n , S 28 J refers to gossip,obscenity or scandal c i r c u l a t e d  about  a person or other entity.(WF) C o l l o q u i a l . F i g , use. 67. D i r t y <Jrack / d a r t i y k r a k / n . P 25 F a s h o r t , o f t e n humorous c r i t i c i s m ; a n  audacious  a s t a t e m e n t , e s p . one t h a t i s u n c o m p l i m e n t a r y  remark; but clever.  Colloquial. F. b y d i r t + -y. s u f f i x + c r a c k , -y. s u f f i x , see #31 • F o r c r a c k C f . "wise c r a c k " as w e l l  as d i a l ,  u s e meaning  c o n v e r s a t i o n , g o s s i p , e t c . ( S c o t s and B r i t i s h N o r t h  Country)  68. D i s h / d i ! / n . P 19 F a woman o r g i r l , u s u .  a beautiful  or sexually  attractive  one.(WF) Fig. use,linking  sex and a d i s h o f f o o d w e l l  l a i d out.  69. Doggone i t / dogon i t / a d j . S 30 J dar&c1 i t . A euphemism w h i c h i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y p l e a s a n t a n d s u b s t i t u t e d f o r taboo or u n p l e a s a n t words;in t h i s " God damn Here  it!"  g o l d a r n i s a Deckwort  f o r god damn w h i c h b y  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n becomes damn g o d a n d h a v i n g a of  case;  Deckwort  doggone.  70. Do-gooder / duw-gudar / n . S 26 F a s i n c e r e but s e l f - r i g h t e o u s worker  f o r the welfare of  others.(WF) Compound. The p h r a s e d o - g o o d i s t r e a t e d a s a u n i t t o w h i c h t h e - e r s u f f i x i s added.(see  #32)  71. D o l l a r - s h o p / d o l a r sop / n . S 4 F a bank. F a c e t i o u s o r nonce  usage.  72. D o o d l e d / duwdeid / v b . S 13 F t o d o o d l e means t o draw m e a n i n g l e s s f i g u r e s o r p a t t e r n s a s a nervous gesture or i d l e - e d s u f f i x , s e e #17.  h a b i t w h i l e d o i n g something  else,  7 3 * B o t t l e / d b t a l / n. P 28 P slime;drool;saliva* O r i g * poss* from the d o t t l e i n a pipe* 74. Double c r o s s / dJCblkros / n* S 6 M a b e t r a y a l or c h e a t i n g by one's a s s o c i a t e s , e s p * among; criminals. Orig* underworld s l a n g usage.Cf* 75*Dove / dXv one who  / n.  #60.  S 1 P  advocates  peace*  a d j . d o v i s h ; C f . contrary:Hawk #122* N  Meaning change by analogy t o the b i r d ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( d o c i l i t y ) , a s w e l l as being p a r t of c h r i s t i a n  symbolism*  Both opposing terms are used i n r e f e r r i n g t o a t t i t u d e s towards the U. S. war i n Vietnam. 76. Dovn-and-outers / dawn and  awtarz / n. P 31 J  a tramp,homeless and j o b l e s s . o r l i v i n g i n poverty,and w i l l not probably be able t o improve h i s way - e r suffix,see#32; -out s u f f i x , s e e  who  of l i f e , ( V P )  #11.  77. Draft-dodger / draft-doj©r / n. S 1 F a young male American who  has f l e d the U.S.A. to a v o i d  being i n d u c t e d i n t o the armed s e r v i c e s * Compound* D r a f t + dodge(to evade) + - e r s u f f i x ( s e e #32)* 78.Drag / drag / n,  S 20 F  a p e r s o n , t h i n g or event t h a t i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y or a e s t h e t i c a l l y b o r i n g , t e d i o u s , t i r i n g or c o l o r l e s s . ( W F ) ( P ) Orig* j a z z use c1946,now common w i t h teenagers.students* From vb*  drag.  79*Drag race / drag r e y s / n* P 24 M a race between two  or more c a r s , u s u . hot r o d s , t o determine  which can a c c e l e r a t e the faster.(WF) Hot r o d use since c1945. Term a p p a r e n t l y comes from the need t o "drag" or s t a y i n low gears as l o n g as p o s s i b l e * 80.Drum up / drAJJfcjp / vb. S 27 J t o t r y t o get people e n t h u s i a s t i c over a product or cause; t o o b t a i n customers  or  F i g * use of drum. -up s u f f i x word,see  #6.  trade.(WF)(P)  81. Expo / ekspow/ n .  S 26  F  Exposition, An  a b b r e v i a t i o n by  The  reference  baek-clipping:expo/sition/  i s to the  E x p o s i t i o n 1967  82. F a i l s a f e / f e y a l s e y f / a d j . S 8 safe from the p o s s i b i l i t y N e o l o g i s m and  S 4  a forgery;a dishonest  Since  C1850.  o f any  mistakes  M  p r a c t i c e , a s i n any  sham,deception) +  84. Farm o u t / f a r m O v t  which i s rented Generalizing  85. F a t  / vb.  to  S 7  M  acreage  outside  article  fee.  a n a l o g y t o the  orig.  meaning,  o f y o u r own,by r e n t i n g i t .  #11.  f a t k a t / n . p l . P 29  a p e r s o n who  of a c o n t r a c t or  someone f o r a  o f meaning by  suffix,see  cat /  trade,action,  -ment.  t o l e t o u t t o someone,usu. s a i d  -out  safe.  contrivance.(P)  From f a k e ( a  farming  occurring.  proof.  83. Fakement / f e y k m a n t / n .  or  Montreal.  F  portmanteau eompound:fai1(ure) +  C f . model o f b u r g l a r  thing  held at  has  J  f a m e , w e a l t h and  p e r s o n i n modern s o c i a l  luxuries;a well-off  terms.(WF)  Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 86. F e d s / f e d z / n .  S 27  persons having national  strong  support  f o r t h e p e o p l e who  form  the  government.  Abbreviation 87. F e d up  F  through b a c k - c l i p p i n g : f e d e r a l i s t s /  / fedAp  / adj. S 4  F  bored;sated;disgusted(WF)(P) From B r i t i s h -up  s l a n g , o r i g . a v e r s i o n of the  suffix,see  a i soupe  #6.  88. F e e d b a c k / f i y d b a k / n . information  French j'en  P 20  F  response to i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y given  situation already  or  a  created.  Poirtmanteau compound: f e e d ( i n g ) + back( w a r d s ) , f o r m o d e l C f . p h r a s e , " t o . m a k e a comeback" o r  "kickback."  89. F e e d - f o r w a r d / f i y d - f o r w ® r d / n . S 30  J  p a s t i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g taken advantage  of,as iniThere i s  n o t enough f e e d - f o r w a r d i n c i t y management Formed b y a n a l o g y t o  feedback,see #  today,"  88,  90. F i n k s / f i n k s / n . p l . S 8 F a contemptible person;an undesirable,unwanted unpleasant  person.  Common s i n c e  d925.Orig.  Yiddish f i n k . l i t ,  a strikebreaker or scab:f. the  finch.  9 1 . F o g e y / f q g i y / n . S 17  F  an o l d e r , c o n s e r v a t i v e , m o r a l t y p e o f p e r s o n ; a Since  or  dullard.(F)  c1780.  -v. s u f f i x , see  #31.  92. F o u l - u p / f a w l - A p / n . S 13  M  a mix-up; a mess,esp. due  to a blunder.  Compound. F o r -up 93. F l o w e r  s u f f i x word,see  c h i l d r e n / f l a w a r c i l d r a n / n . P 24  t h o s e members o f o f f b e a t with the q u a l i t i e s and  #6.  s o c i e t y who  associate  fXniyminiy  / n©  S 27  of the f l o w e r s .  F  c o u n t e r f e i t money;piaymoney o r s o m e t h i n g real  themselves  of flowers:back to nature,sweet,loving,  s e r e n e . T h u s , l i t . the c h i l d r e n  94. Funnymoney /  M  substituted for  currency.  Rhyming  reduplication.  9 5 . F u z z / f A z / n . P 18 the p o l i c e ; a  F  detective.(WF)  U n d e r w o r l d , h o b o and  carnival  use.(GOL)  O r i g . p o s s . t h r o u g h Damon Runyon,a s y n d i c a t e d newspaper c o l u m n i s t who 96. Gang up  on /  used  ganXp  to u n i t e against  i t in  1946.  on / v b .  S 7 F  someone,as i n a f i g h t  Colloquial. -up  s u f f i x word,see  #6  on means,to t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f .  or the  like.(WF)  9 7 . Gas / g a s / n . S 20 F a gas i s a n y t h i n g e x c e p t i o n a l , e x t r e m e l y s a t i s f y i n g o r s u c c e s s f u l , s u c h as a piece  of music,a p e r s o n , a p a r t y o r any  experience.(WF) Since Orig.  c1945. a H a r l e m n e g r o term,nov  i n common u s e i n " c o o l "  circles. 98. G e n e r a t i o n gap / j e n a r e y s d n gap / n . S 29 J lit. but  meaning t h e p e r i o d i n y e a r s between two g e n e r a t i o n s fig*  referring  to the d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n communication o f  t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , e t c . , b e t w e e n two s u c c e s s i v e Fig.  generations*  u s e o f gap.  99. Get a h a n d l e on / g e t Q hands1 o n / vb* S 7 M to  get a grip  on a s i t u a t i o n  or event;to understand  s o m e t h i n g ; t o g r a s p how s o m e t h i n g Fig.  use of handle.  100.Get o f f t h e p o t / g e t o f & p o t to  functions.  quit  fooling  / vb© S 20 F  around;to s t o p p r o c r a s t i n a t i n g and  become a c t i v e l y engaged Poss. drug a d d i c t  i n the assignment.  jargon.  101 A. G e t o u t f r o m u n d e r / g e t a v t f i S m X n d e r / vb© S 30 J to  extract  o n e s e l f from an embarrassing o r u n p l e a s a n t  situation,enterprise,job  or relationship.  Concatenation of the p r e p o s i t i o n a l  adverbs.  1 0 1 B . G i g g l e Water / g ^ a l w o t ® r / n . S 7 F Champagne o r l i q u o r Fig.  generally.  s p k g . f . how i t a f f e c t s  a person d r i n k i n g i t *  102. Gimmicks / g i m i k s / n* S 3 F a gimmick i s p a r t  o f a p l a n o r adventure t h a t  success o r f a i l u r e ; o n e ' s angle o r sub-motive;a  c a n mean gadget;  subterfuge.(WF) Orig. with circus,carnival  a n d gambler  usage.  103. G i v e - a w a y / g i v - a w e y / n . S 29 J anything that betrays or reveals unwittingly.(WF)(P) Colloquial  since  C1880. C f . # 63.  104. G i v e t h e n o d / g i v %d nod /  v b . S 29 J  to s i g n i f y i n i t i a l l y , w i t h a nod of the head,that i t i s s u i t a b l e t o p r o c e e d upon some c o u r s e o f a c t i o n o r another.(P) P i g . use of nod. 105. G l o b e t r o t t e r s / g l o w b t r o d S r z / n . p i . P 7 F p e r s o n s who t r a v e l  around the world.  P o s s . o r i g . f r o m an a n a l o g y t o t h e H a r l e m  Globetrotters  b a s k e t b a l l team who t r a v e l w o r l d wide t o p l a y . 106. G l u e  s n i f f i n g / gluw s n i f i n / n . S 31 J  the a c t of s n i f f i n g  t h e fumes f r o m a tube o f g l u e when  the g l u e i s emptied  i n t o a bag7in order t o o b t a i n a  momentary m i n d — e x p a n d i n g  sensation.  Neologism. Formed b y a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l p r o c e s s $ t o s n i f f becomes t o g l u e s n i f f , t h e n 107. G o b b l e d y g o o k  glue  glue,  sniffing.  / g o b l d i y g u w k / n . S 14 F  nonsense;gibberish. Onomatopoetic by a t u r k e y . 108. Go-get  f o r m a t i o n , p e r n , f . g o b b l e . t h e n o i s e made C f  b a f f l e g a b #7.  / gow-get*/ n . P 14 M  ve r v e ; v i t a l i t y ; a m b i t i o n ; i n s p i r a t i on. Abbreviation through  back-clipping:go-get/ter/.  109. G o o d i e s / g u d i y z / n . p l . P 13 M sweets  or small g i f t s ; a n y adult f o o d s , d r i n k s , c l o t h i n g o r  objects,artistic  or cultural,that  inspire  childish  enthusiasm. Since  d948.  -ie(-y) 110. Grab-bag  s u f f i x , s e e #31. / grab-bag / n . S 4 M  a l u c k y bag;a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h  i s made up o f odds a n d  ends;a mixed bag. Compound.Since  c1900.  111. G r e a t w h i t e hope / g r e y t hwayt howp / n . S 4 F anyone,esp.  a politician,athlete  accomplishments  or entertainer,whose  may b r i n g fame o r r e s p e c t t o h i s n a t i v e  t o w n , c o u n t r y , s c h o o l , e t c . (WF) O r i g . i n p r i z e - f i g h t e r u s e i n ref© to beat negro Jack Johnson.  t o a white boxer a b l e  112. Gum  up  / g i m ^ p / vb,  to ruin  or s p o i l  t a s k , e s p . by  S 15  F  a p l a n or the s u c c e s s f u l completion of a  blundering.(WF)  C.f, bung up.#34. 113, Gun  f o r h i s j o b / gAn  f o r h i z j o b / vb,  S 30  J  t o be a f t e r a p e r s o n ' s j o b , u s i n g d e v i o u s and o p p o r t u n i s t tactics  i n doing  so.  O r i g . p o s s , f , model o f : g u n f o r someone.meaningspursue w i t h i n t e n t t o murder, 114, G u r u / guwruw / n . P 13  M  a s p i r i t u a l i s t : a m e t a p h y s i c a l i s t ; a teacher of  transcedental  meditation.(WF) From t h e H i n d i , m e a n i n g : v e n e r a b l e  one,spiritual  leader  or  teacher, 115. G u t l e s s n e s s / g X t l a s n d s / n . S 14 t h e q u a l i t y o f h a v i n g no  courage.(P)  From g u t s ( c o u r a g e ) + l e s s + 116. Hand-out / hand-awt / n . S 12 something  F  ness. M  g i v e n f o r f r e e , w i t h o u t any  qualifications.  Compound. 117, Hanky-panky / h e n k i y - p e n k i y / n ,  S 15  F  deception;anything crooked or u n e t h i c a l ; f u n n y business.(F) Colloquial  since c  P o s s , formed Rhyming  on model h o k e y - p o k e y .  reduplication.  118Happening / h a p d n i n g a happening initially their  1840.  i s any  limited  social  / n . P 14  M  situation  i n which  t o the o f f b e a t  occurrences c a l l e d  something  happens;  segment o f s o c i e t y  and  "happenings>"Now i n g e n e r a l  use. Orig.  i n jazz  119 H a r d - c o r e  slang.  / h a r d - k o r / a d j . S 28  F  b a s i c ; e s s e n t i a l ; h a v i n g the s o l i d frills  core a f t e r a l l the  have been t a k e n away;as i n : " T h e h a r d - c o r e  o f t h e U.S.A. was  ...."  policy  120. H a r d - l i n e / h a r d - l a y n / a d j . S 6 F c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a t o u g h , f i r m p o s i t i o n on a n y s i t u a t i o n ; as in:"He  made a h a r d - l i n e s t a t e m e n t  on t h e Red C h i n a  developments," 121. H a t c h e t - j o b / h a c a t - j o b / n . S 31 J a professional  j o b done b y a h i r e d a s s o c i a t e t o d e s t r o y  t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f o t h e r s f a n u n e t h i c a l a t t a c k made b y a paid  c o l l e a g u e t o a member o f a n o t h e r p o l i t i c a l  party.(WF)  S i n c e c 1925, For  s u f f i x - j o b , s e e #51,  122. Hawk / h a k / n . S 1 F one who a d v o c a t e s war, adj, Cf©  hawkish. dove.#75.for background,  123. H e a d s h r i n k e r s professional  / h e d s r i g k d r z / n . p l , S 18 F psychologists{psychoanalysts,(WF)  O r i g . a gruesome r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r a c t i c e headshrinking t r i b e s , s u c h as the J i v a r o  o f S. A m e r i c a n  Indians.  Now f r e q u e n t l y c o n t r a c t e d t o s h r i n k . 124. TO h e c k w i t h / t e h e k w i d / a d j . S 1 F indicates that  t h e s p e a k e r w a n t s t o g i v e up d o i n g  t h i n g ; an e x p r e s s i o n o f h o p e l e s s  some-  abandonment.  A euphemism f o r " t o h e l l w i t h t t ( " h e c k " b e i n g a Deckwort f o r "hell") 125. H e i s t / h a y s t / n . S 11 F a successful holdup,robbery robbery by p r o f e s s i o n a l From " h o i s t " expensive 126. H e l l  o r t h e f t ; u s u . an armed  thieves.(WF)(GOL)  i n underworld  u s e m e a n i n g , t o s t e a l an  item.  t o p a y / h e i t e p e y / n . P 12 M  a severe punishment;a severe p e n a l t y o r bawling Since  d890.  127. H i l l b i l l y  / h x l b i l i y / n . S 15 F  an u n e d u c a t e d , u n w o r l d l y the  out.(WF)(P)  southern h i l l s  r u s t i c , s u c h a s one who l i v e s i n  o r t h e Ozark r e g i o n .  R e d u p l i c a t i o n and p a r t i a l  rhyming;Cf.  c l o t s #44,rube #244.  128. H i p p i e / h i p i y / n , S 27 J a member o f t h e b e a t g e n e r a t i o n ; i n t h e extreme,one who has  removed h i m s e l f f r o m  and  a l l physical  believing  The  jazz  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  i n and p r o t e c t i n g  nonsocial,amoral Orig.  commercial,material.political reality,intensely  only the true,nonemotional,  i d e n t i t y he has.(WF)  slang  c1929 f o r m "hep" became l a t e r  " h i p " b y a vowel  change  whence came " h i p p i e " , " h i p s t e r , " e t c . -ie(-y)  s u f f i x , s e e #31.  129. H i t c h / h i i c / n . S 7 M a catch;a point Fig. 130.  o f c o n t e n t i o n ; a snag  or d i f f i c u l t y . ( O E D )  f . c1948.  Hoedown / howdawn / n . S 13 F a p a r t y o r dance,esp.  a l i v e l y one.  Compound: hoe + down.in r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t i m e o f c e l e b r a t i o n when a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k ( w i t h  t h e hoe)was  finished. 131.  Hokum / howkdm / n . S 8 M insincerity;nonsense;bunk. C o l l o q u i a l use. Orig. theater use;Cf.  132. H o o t c h  models l i k e  hocuspocus.hokey-pokey  / huwc / n . S 11 M  liquor,esp. inferior  homemade o r cheap whisky.(WF)  O r i g . a Canadianism,f. people  I n d i a n term hootchinoo.an  o f s o u t h A l a s k a and T l i n g i t  g r i z z l y bear Back-clipping  Indian  t r i b e ' s hutsnuwu,lit.  fort. of hootchinoo.  133. H o t l i n e / h o t l a y n / n . S 19 F a telephone to a radio  station  or important  political  c a n t a c t w h i c h i s k e p t open a t a l l t i m e s f o r q u e s t i o n s a n d d i s c u s s i o n s of an u r g e n t o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e . Compound.  32  1 34.Hotrodder / hotrodar has  one  who  had  i t s engine r e b u i l t  f a s t e r and Since -er  an  / n.  interest  than the  o r i g i n a l l y the being  car that h  so t h a t t h e original  student  car i s  design.(WF)  use.  S 18  electric  F  c h a i r or witness  uncomfortable  stand  in a  s i t u a t i o n , u s u . i n which  courtone  questioned.  Compound. 136. H o t s h o t / h o t s o H / n. an  S 20  F  important,active,successful person;a s k i l l f u l  who  takes  risks  to  s u c c e e d and  important,self-assured From h o t - s h o t . o n e who with  a  and  person  does s u c c e e d t o become  proud.(WF)(P)  shoots e a g e r l y or s u c c e s s f u l l y  firearm.  Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 137. H o v e r c r a f t  /  hjCvarkraft / n . S 24 F  a water v e h i c l e which a c t u a l l y c r u i s e s s l i g h t l y t h e w a t e r on  a self-created a i r  Neologism.Compound by  above  cushion.  analogy with patterns  like:  aircraft,spacecraft,etc. 138. H y d r o f o i l / h a y d r a f o y l  / n.  S 20  F  a w a t e r v e h i c l e w h i c h c r u i s e s s l i g h t l y above the on  an  air  A compound of word e l e m e n t h y d r o - + Neologism.Cf. hovercraft,see t o be or  / vb.  S 13  i n hock means t o be  foil.  #137.  F indebted  t o someone m a t e r i a l l y  immaterially.  Orig. 140.In t h e  hock:pawnshop. black / i n  operating From t h e credit Cf.  water  cushion.  1 3 9 . I n h o c k / i n hok  b l a k / n.  a business  S 26  F  at a profit;making  money.  dark or b l a c k c o l o r e d i n k bookkeepers use  side of the  i n the  as  #32.  / h o t s i y t / n.  room;now any  drives a stock  or m o d i f i e d  more p o w e r f u l  suffix,see  F  i n and  d 9 5 0 , w i d e t e e n a g e and  135. H o t s e a t  is  S 12  ledger.  red,#142.  on  the  33  1 4 1 . I n t h e h o l e / i n &3 in  howl / n . P 12  F  debt.(P)  Since  C1760.  1 4 2 . I n t h e r e d / i n fc© r e d / n .  S 26  F  operating a business at a d e f i c i t j l o s i n g From t h e r e d i n k t h a t b o o k k e e p e r s use side  money.  on t h e  deficit  of the l e d g e r .  Cf. i n the b l a c k , 143.Iron-on / ayern-on  #140. / adj.  S U M  a f f i x e d with a hot iron,usu. patches 8  144. Jack-hammer / j a k - h a m d r / v b . t o f o r c e an i s s u e hammered a b i l l Orig.  30  on p a n t s , e t c .  J  t o c o n c l u s i o n , a s in:"He  through  t h e House  jack-  today."  i n c o n s t r u c t i o n workers j a r g o n .  Functional  shift.  jXrk / n . S 19 F  145. J e r k /  an i n e f f e c t u a l , f o o l i s h Poss.  or unknowingly d u l l  o r i g . w i t h r a i l r o a d use  branch  railway line;orig. by  and  146. J e r r y b u i l t / j e r i y  jerks traine  j e r k w a t e r , t o take  s c o o p i n g i t from bilt  Colloquial Poss.  since  orig.  man.  reinforced  make on s u c h  / a d j . S 20  a  on w a t e r w h i l e i n  a t t r o u g h between t h e  unsubstantially built;poorly  or  where i t meant a s h o r t  r a i l w a y l i n e . A l s o , j e r k w a t e r stops,prob.  by t h e number o f j o l t s  motion  youth  rails.  F  constructed.(P)  cl880.  f . a c o r r u p t i o n of j u r y . a s i n .jury-mast.leg.etc.  147. J e t l i n e r / j e t l a y a d r / n . S 20  F  an a e r o p l a n e w i t h j e t e n g i n e s . Prob. and  f o r m e d on model o f p a s s e n g e r  relating  to  148. J o h n s / j o n z / n . a toilet.esp. 149. K e t t l e  Poss.  airliner. S 4  F  a public t o i l e t  o f f i s h / k e t S l &v  a predicament  liner.railliner.etc.  f o r males.(WF)  f i s / n. S 7 F  or s i t u a t i o n , e s p . a confused  f. Scottish.kettle  of fish.meaning  a  one.(P) picnic.  1 50.Keyholery  / k i y h o w l S r i y / n , P 19 H  i n v e s t i g a t i n g ; f i g . , as b y p e e r i n g t h r o u g h k e y h o l e s . C f . r u b b e r c h e c k e r y #242. -ery  suffix,usu.  f o r m i n g nouns f . nouns o r v b s . t o mean:  a p l a c e where s o m e t h i n g  i s served;or a place that i s ass-  ociated with something(dancery);also,the state or condition of t h a t  of,or the q u a l i t i e s  denoted  by the r o o t  or acts  characteristic  word(keyholery).  151 . K i d / k i d / v b . S 29 J t o j o s h a p e r s o n ; t o d e c e i v e ; t o make f u n o f a p e r s o n i n his  presence.  Functional  shift,f.  kid:child.  152. K i d d i e s / k i d i y z / n . p l . P 12 F children. M e a n i n g s h i f t , C f . k i d s #151. -ie  s u f f i x , s e e #31.  153. K i n g p i n / k i n p i n / n . S 29 J the h i g h e s t r a n k i n g person i n a group;the u s u . h a s an u n d e r w o r l d  leader;  connotation.(WFJ(P)  O r i g . p o s s . f . game o f n i n e p i n s . 154. Knock / n o k / v b . S 4 F to f i n d  f a u l t w i t h ; t o give bad p u b l i c i t y  Fig. use,functional 155. L a n d  to.(WF)  shift.  g r a b / l a n d g r a b / n . S 31 J  a sudden a c q u i s i t i o n  of land,usu. near  some a r e a o f  new d e v e l o p m e n t . Compound. i t £p  156. L a r k i t up / l a r k t o have a good  / vb. S 7 F  time.(F)  By a n a l o g y t o t h e b i r d , for  ±Jb , see #36; f o r up, see  157. L e a d - p i p e  #6.  c i n c h / l e d payp s i n e / n . S 12 F  something Colloquial  e a s y ; a n y t h i n g o r anyone c e r t a i n since  secures i t , o r i g .  c1875;f.  of success.  the c i n c h o f a saddle which  of lead-pipe uncertain.  158. L i p p y ins  / l i p i y / a d j . S 20 F olent;impertinent;talkative•(WF)  From l i p i n f i g .  sense:cheek,insolence,  -y. s u f f i x , s e e #32. 159. L o c k - i n a  / l o k - i n / n. S 4 M  s i t u a t i o n where a group o f d e m o n s t r a t o r s l o c k  them-  s e l v e s i n s i d e a b u i l d i n g they wish t o occupy as a protest. -in  suffix pattern  a f t e r model o f s i t - i n . s e e #271•  160. L o c o s / lowkowz / n . p l . P 27 F locomotives. Abbreviation 161. L o o k - i n  through  back-clipping:loco/motives/.  / l u k - i n / n . S 13 F  a brief visit cursory  on a c a s u a l  t e m p o r a r y b a s i s where y o u  a t t e n t i o n t o the a t t r a c t i o n .  M o d e l l e d on p a t t e r n  of s i t - i n . s e e  #271.  162. L o o k s e e / l u k s i y / n . S 4 F a look;a  visual  Colloquial  inspection,whether  since  Poss. o r i g .  cursory  or protracted.  c1925.  i n pidgin English.  163. L o n e r / l o w n a r / n . S 1 F a man who p r e f e r s t o l i v e , w o r k , d r i n k , e t c . , without taking others Both a derogatory ^  by h i m s e l f ,  i n t o h i s confidence.  and a c o m p l i m e n t a r y u s e .  - e d s u f f i x , s e e #32.  164. L o n g h a i r s / l o n h e r z  / n. S 7 F  i n t e l l e c t u a l s ; p e o p l e who etc.Now a more haircuts with  general  like  serious  books,music,theater  a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e modern d a y  hippy implications.  l 6 5 « L o o t / l u w t / n . S 27 J money,esp. a l a r g e  sum o f m o n e y ; a l s o a v b .  Common s i n c e d 9 4 5 , u s e d a s j a z z  slang.  From H i n d i l u t . b u t i n f l u e n c e d b y l o o t i e . a irregular  of India,hence a  bandit.  native  166. L o s e y o u r c o o l / l u w z y o r k u v l io  lose  composure;t» l o s e t h a t  t e r i z e d by and  a d i s t a n t and  Functional  reserved  shift;Cf.  Used b y " c o o l " 167. L o s s - l e a d e r attract  s t a t e o f mind  rather  involvement  than e n t h u s i a s t i c  cool  atti-  it.#53.  groups t h a t f l o u r i s h e d i n the  s o l d by  charac-  ideas.  / l o s - l i y d 9 r /n.  article  P  detachment,disdain f o r emotional  t u d e t o w a r d s p e r s o n s and  an  / vb.phr. S 1  S 26  mid-1950 s. f  F  a store at l e s s than cost  customers who,it i s hoped,will  so as  a l s o buy  to  other  items a t normal p r i c e s . Compound. 168. L o t  on  the  b a l l / l o t on  t o have a l o t on vitality  and  First  pop.  since  c1935.  the  b o l / n.  b a l l means t o be  ability;to  associated  Prob. derived  f.  S 6  be  F alert  i n t h e know;to be  w i t h bfep and  cool use,student  since  From l o u s e  + -v, s u f f i x ( s e e #31 )•  d860.  same s h i f t  An  11  an  records. first  /  e l e s d l y / n.  lisergic  Cf.  S 20  acid  o f e a c h word  s t a n d s as  C a p i t o l Recording  F p o t e n t but  non-addictive  are  t a k e n from the  o r i g . Ger.  saure-diaethylamid. #1.  Common s i n c e  a word.  drug.  acronym:initials  l y serg-  letters  trademark of the  acid diethylamide  hallucinogenic An  two  a b b r e v i a t i o n w h i c h now  A c t u a l l y a patterned 171. LSD  o f meaning.  F  acronym where t h e  a c t as  use  inferior.(P)  Colloquial  play  hep.(YF)  F  bad;horrible;worthless;extremely  long  have  baseball.  169. L o u s y / l a w s i y / a d j . S 12  170. LP / e l p i y / n . P  and  d 9 6 2 ; s t u d e n t and  addict  use.  name-  Co  megepoWtan /  172. M e g a p o l i t a n /  a d j . S 13  F  r e f e r r i n g t o a m i l l i o n person p o p u l a t i o n of the p o l i t a n a r e a of a  metro-  city,etc.  P o r t m a n t e a u word f . m e g a ( p r e f i x  denoting,a m i l l i o n  times)  + (metro)politan. 173. M i c k e y a 13  / m i k i y / n. oz. b o t t l e  S 8 P  o f l i q u o r , s m a l l enough t o c a r r y i n a  pocket. Prob.  d e r i v a t i o n f . mickeyian  b r e w - f . an I r i s h m a n ' s being with -l74.Milked /  Irishman;a  potato;a potato  reputation for drinking  or always  liquor.  rnilkt  / vb.  S 28  J  t o m i l k means t o o b t a i n p o s s e s s i o n o f by t r i c k e r y artifice;to  t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f some one  through  and  deceitful  means.(P) By  analogy to m i l k i n g a  cow.  175. M i n d - b l a s t i n g / maynd-blastin( ; / a d j . S 1 P ;  pushing  y o u r mind o r c o n c i o u s l e v e l  the e x t r a - c o n c i o u s l e v e l Prob.  a natural  derivative  anding, which through have l o s t  of  into  experience. f . m i n d - b l o w i n g and  r e p e a t e d use  their descriptive  translated  of experience  and  extended  mind-expapplication  p o w e r ; a l l a r e b a s e d upon  or  from p s y c h e d e l i c ( a n e o l o g i s m ) .  176. M i n d s u d s e d / mayndsAdzd / a d j . S 12 P „ . i, / < ^ i Jiuj / A l l a r e f a c e t i o u s synonyms Ego-scrubbed / lygo-skrAbd / J J ... . , / T - . ^ ,^ > \. i f o r b r a i n w a s h e d , s e e # 2 5 . L i b i d o - r i n s e d ^ / lebaydo-rinset / ' T  177. Mish-mash / mis-ma*s / n . P 14 a hodgepodge;a m i x t u r e a poorly integrated  F  composed o f many i n g r e d i e n t s , e s p .  mixture.  N e a r r h y m i n g r e d u p l i c a t i o n , w i t h vowel Orig. 178. M o c c a s i n  variation.  mash. t e l e g r a p h / mokdsin t e l e g r a f / n.  t h e means by w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n c i r c u l a t e s (orig.  I n d i a n s wore m o c c a s i n s  i n f o r m a t i o n by  runner).  and  sent  S J  30  amongst I n d i a n s ;  important  179/Mod / m o d / modem;up  a d j . S 19 F t o date;usu. a p p l i e d t o fashions,has  connotation  o f a n E d w a r d i a n o r f a n c y way o f d r e s s i n g . Orig. and  f . mod s t y l e  rockers  f i r s t worn b y t h e mods o f t h e mods  group i n England d u r i n g  t h e 1950's.  180. M o o n s h i p / muwnsip / n . S 8 1 the  v e h i c l e used t o land  on t h e m o o n ( l u n a r m o d u l e ) .  N e o l o g i s m , m o d e l l e d on t h e p a t t e r n 181. The  of a i r s h i p . s p a c e s h i p . e t c .  most / $e mowst / n . S 7 F  the or  best;the  most e x c i t i n g ; t h e most up t o d a t e  person  thing.  Far  o u t , b e a t and c o o l u s e .  182. M u d s l i n g i n g / m A d s l i ^ i n the  a c t of spreading  / n . S 30 J malicious,derogatory  statements  about another,whether such statements a r e t r u e  o r not.(WF)  Synonym f o r t h e o l d e r m u c k r a k i n g f o r w h i c h C f . Bunyan*s "man w i t h t h e muckrake." Mainly p o l i t i c a l  use since  C1890.  183. M u l t i v e r s i t y / m u l t i y v ^ r s S t i y / a d j . P 14 M a u n i v e r s i t y which has s e v e r a l schools  c o l l e g e s o r separate  which,nevertheless,fall  g e n e r a l l y under the  name o f one i n s t i t u t i o n . Portmanteau word from m u l t i + ( u n i ) v e r s i t v . 184. N i g g e r / n i g a r / n . S 13 F negro;Afro-American.(P) 185. N i t t y - g r i t t y / n i t i y - g r l t i y the  basics  / n . S 13 F  or e s s e n t i a l s of any  action,etc.;the  hard,unvarnished  situation,predicament, facts.  Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 186. N O b i g sweat / no b i g swet / nothing Fig.  S 1 F  t o be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t ; e a s i l y  orig.  accomplished.  f . t h e i d e a o f w o r k i n g h a r d p h y s i c a l l y and  p e r s p i r i n g v e r s u s no sweat.  187. N O  go / now gow / n . P 7 F t h a t moment i n a n y s i t u a t i o n when t h e o p e r a t i o n i s cancelled.(¥F)(P) Used i n aerospace  j a r g o n when t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t a  missile  l a u n c h i n g was c a n c e l l e d .  Rhyming  reduplication.  188. N o r t h p a w / n o r 6 p o * / a d j . P 22 F a right-handed  person.  Formed b y a n a l o g y 189.Oddball  t o southpaw.see #734.  / odbol / n. P 8 F  an e c c e n t r i c , q u e e r o r odd p e r s o n : a A compound f r o m  odd + b a l l t C f .  nonconformist.(WF)  screwball.  df-^e-kXf / a d j . S 20 F  190.Off-the-cuff /  informally;extemporaneouslyjunrehersed. O r i g . poss. shirt  f . the habit of w r i t i n g b r i e f notes  on t h e  cuffs.  191.Okayed / owkeyd / p p . S 4 F judged  as satisfactory;approved.  From t h e s t a n d a r d  O.K.  192.Ombudsman / omhAdzmdn /n. the  P 21 F  o f f i c i a l who r e c e i v e s a n d d e a l s w i t h  complaints against  of a general or s p e c i f i c nature,usu.  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and b o d i e s  unapproachable 193.One-upmanship /  New Z e a l a n d  of a higher,  English.  wJlin Xpmdnsip / n.  b e i n g one s t e p a h e a d o f y o u r  S 10 F  f e l l o w b e i n g i n any f a c e t  l i f e ; h a v i n g an a d v a n t a g e o v e r y o u r  O r i g . a coinage on t h e campaign  f e l l o w being.  by Stephen P o t t e r .  194.On t h e stump / on cte stXmp /  Orig.  S 24 F  circuit.(P)  f. political  d a y s where a c a n d i d a t e  l i t . used t o  c l i m b up on t r e e stumps t o t a l k t o t h e p e o p l e travelled 195.Operation an  laid  o r d e r , s u c h as governments.  From S w e d i s h , v i a  of  public  a s he  around the country.  cleanup  /  opareys»n kliynvtp  / n.  P 7 F  o r g a n i z e d p l a n t o c l e a n o r t i d y up a p l a c e , a r e a o r  situation. Modelled  on w a r t i m e e x p r e s s i o n s s u c h a s " o p e r a t i o n o v e r l o a d . "  F o r -up s u f f i x  see #6.  1 9 6 , O r n e r y / o r n a r i y / v b , P 18 F stubborn;difficult;immoveable N o r t h American d i a l ,  on an o p i n i o n . p r i n c i p l e . e t c .  f . ordinary.  197.Outage / a V t a j / n . S 12 F failure;temporary i n t e r r u p t i o n , a s in:"An  electricity  outage." Technical neologism  from  o u t ( t h e power i s o u t . i . e . o f f ) +  198.Out o f whack o r k i l t e r / awt a v hwak o r k i l t a r / v b . S 19 F out of order;not f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y . Colloquial Kilter or  s i n c e C1899.  i s a variation  of kelter.meaning  good  condition  order.  199.Out o f y o u r mind / awt a v y o r maynd / ecstatic borders  about  S 29 J  something,so e c s t a t i c  that  i t fig.  on i n s a n i t y .  C f . m i n d - b l a s t i n g #175. 200.Over-provocation an  / o w v a r - p r o v d k e y s S n / n . S 12 M  o v e r a b u n d a n c e o f annoyance o r i r r i t a t i o n .  P r e f i x - o v e r h a s become a p r o d u c t i v e p r e f i x terms a s : o v e r - e a t . o v e r - s l e e p . a n d reaction  giving  such  over-step;Cf.over-  #201.  201.Over-reaction / owvar-riyaksan a response  t o something  / n . S 13 M  more e n e r g e t i c t h a n  normally  called for. P r e f i x -over.see  #200.  202.Paper t i g e r / peypar  t a y g a r / n . S 27 J  a d e c e p t i v e l y strong,powerful  or i n f l u e n t i a l  person  who  i has  a l l the a c t i o n s of a f o r c e f u l p e r s o n a l i t y but turns  o u t t o be  ineffective.  T h i s p a t t e r n of paper in  +  i s now commonly a p p l i e d  other s i t u a t i o n s to imply ineffectiveness.(e.g.paper  mayor.)  203. P a s s  t h e buck / p a s & 3 bAk /  to pass  onto  vb.  J  someone e l s e a p r o b l e m , a  or a person having a problem Colloquial  S 31  since  responsibility,  requiring  attention.(WF)  c1900.  204. P a y l o a d / p e y l o w d / n . S 6 F any  desired result  the  s o l u t i o n t o a problem  Orig.  f . the l i t .  paydirt  or the  application  to undress,esp.  S 27  h i t ;hence p a v l o a d .  t o do a s t r i p t e a s e  206. P i c t u r e / p x k c O r / n . S 27  on t h e  stage.(P)  of f r u i t ; c o l l o q u i a l  since  c1800.  J  u n d e r s t a n d i n g or view;a p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f a l l t h e e s s e n t i a l f a c t s and t o the  like.  F  analogy to the p e e l i n g  a comprehensive  answer,  i n m i n i n g : t o d i g down u n t i l  o r t h e mother l o d e was  205. P e e l / p i y l / v b . By  s u c h as money,the c o r r e c t  relationships  pertaining  s u b j e c t a t hand. (WF) ( P ) a s i n t h e q u e s t i o n : ' Get 1  the  picture?" Meaning  shift.Colloquial.  207. P i d d l i n g / p i d l i n / a d j . S 31  J  small;trivial;inconsequential. From p i d d l e . c h i l d ' s word foi? u r i n a t e . 208. P i g s / p i g z / n . S 22 the  F  police.  Since c1848,criminal use. 209oPipedream / paypdriym  / n. S 4  any p l a n , s c h e m e , g o a l  F  i d e a or i d e a l  that  a s t h e dreams o f an opium a d d i c t a f t e r  i s as  unrealistic  smoking an  opium  pipe.(WF) O r i g . w i t h opium s m o k e r s ; c o l l o q u i a l . 210. P l a s t e r / p l a s t e r / v b .  S 1 F  t o abuse someone p h y s i c a l l y . ( W F ) Prob.  orig.  military  f . p l a s t e r , m e a n i n g t o shoot w i t h a gun;in  sense  to s h e l l  heavily.  Colloquial. 211. P l o n k s / p l o n k s / n .  S 22  the doldrums;in a state Onomatopoetic f o r m a t i o n .  F of m i l d d e p r e s s i o n .  the  42  212. PM  / piyem / n.  S 7  M  Prime M i n i s t e r . an 213. Pop  acronym;the f i r s t c u l t u r e / pop  popular  l e t t e r i n each  k A l c a r / n.  S 20  vord.  P  culture.  Abbreviation  t h r o u g h b a c k - c l i p p i n g : j g o p / u l a r / +• c u l t u r e .  C f . m o d e l s o f pop  music.pop s i n g e r s . p o p  2l4*>Pommy b a s t a r d / p o m i y b a s t a r d  /  fashions.  S 1 M  A u s t r a l i a n s l a n g nickname foi? an E n g l i s h m a n . Cf. north  American  terms:blimey.kipper.brit.  215. P o p p y c o c k / p o p i y k o k / n.  S 30  J  216. P o s t i e s / p o w s t i y z / n . p l . S 7  F  nonsense. A  euphemism.  postmen;mailmen.(P) By  a n a l o g y t o model o f g o a l i e f o r  Abbrviation  through back-clipping:Post/man/ + - i e  For - i e s u f f i x 217. Pound t h e  see  218. P r a n k s t e r s  of a j o b  / n . p l . P 24  219. P r e - f a b b e d / p r i y - f a b d / a d j . S 26 c u s t o m c u t and  ready to  F  assemble.  A b b r e v i a t i o n : f a b / r i c aft/ed. i s a pp.  o r an  adj. forming  / p r e k f s i y z / n . p l . P 21  u n i v e r s i t y or business Abbreviation 221. P r o  suffix  for  see  / prow / n.  suffix. F  presidents.  presidents,  #31• S 29  suffix  often g i v i n g a derogatory  C f . p u n s t e r #227.  -ie  to  jokers.  j o i n e d t o nouns and  220. P r e x i e s  or i n order  F  From p r a n k + - s t e r . s u f f i x , a p r o d u c t i v e  -ed  S 1 F  by.(WF)  / pra*}kstarz  practical  saydwok / v b .  s t r e e t s i n search  from passers  suffix.  #31.  s i d e w a l k / pawnd &8  t o walk the beg  goalkeeper.etc.  J  a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n any  line  o f work.  Abbreviation:pro/fessional/.  of  agency  connotation.  222, P s y c h e o u t / s a y k awt to lose  control  to understand and  223, P u l l  through  another's  t o c a u s e him  -out  suffix  the  / vb,  see  S 12  F  fearjto  lose  one's  nerve;  deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l motivations  to f a l t e r  or lose  control.  #11,  c o r k on / pul4f2fe k o r k  to i n t e n t i o n a l l y  on / vb,  S 29  J  cause s e c r e t i n f o r m a t i o n about a  person  o r s i t u a t i o n t o become g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e . F i g . , b y analogy  to corks i n b o t t l e s - t o prevent  puloVt / n . S 6 F  224, P u l l o u t /  a departure;a  complete v i t h d r a ^ L from  Compound;colloquial -out  suffix  see  to f i g h t  a situation,(P)  s i n c e C1880,  #11,  225. P u n c h o u t / p i n e awt  a  leakage,  / vb.  someone and  S 14  F  s u c c e s s f u l l y beat  them u p ; t o  fight.  Orig.  f . an o f f i c e  c a r d a s he  begins  -out  see  suffix  226. P u n c h t h r o u g h to put  or factory;workers punching  a  access Orig.  #11.  / pAnc © r u w / v b .  S 30  J.  something through w i t h a c o n n o t a t i o n of f o r c e  route to the  an  highway."  f . c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s j a r g o n ; C f . jack-hammer  227. P u n s t e r / p A n s t a r / n . P 29 a p e r s o n who  tells  -ster  see  suffix  228. P u s h on / pus  #144.  M  puns.(WF) #218.  on / v b . P 7  M  t o move on t o o t h e r t o p i c s  or areas f o r a c t i o n ; t o proceed  other points w a i t i n g f o r consideration.  F i g . use 229. P u t  time  o r l e a v e s work,  o r s t r e n g t h , a s i n : " T h e y wanted t o p u n c h t h r o u g h  to  win  of push.  on / p u t  on / n .  S 28  J  a p u r p o s e f u l d e c e p t i o n , o f t e n done i n an a f f e c t e d  manner.  230. P u t  one o v e r on / p u t WJLBL owvar on / v b , S 29 J  to  tease  o r make a f o o l  o f someone;to  misrepresent  s o m e t h i n g t o someone;to c o n v o n c e them t h a t fake  i s real.(VP)'  Orig. 231. P u t  something  jazz,student  and s v i n g e r u s e ; c o l l o q u i a l s i n c e  d956.  on i c e / p u t on a y s / v b . S 3 P  to  postpone  Fig.  (WF)  use.  232. Quack / kwak / n . S 24 F an  u n e t h i c a l person passing  ledgeable  himself  o f f a s a know-  doctor.(P)  C1660.  Since  233. Quake / kweyk / n . P 25 F an  earthquake.  Abbreviation  through  front-clipping:/earth/quake.  234. Ransom r a c k e t / ransara r a k d t / n . S 27 J any  shady o r d i s h o n e s t  here to  spec, r e f e r r i n g  be r e t u r n e d  business  or occupation;a  to the i l l e g a l  holding  swindle;  of a person  f o r a sum o f money.(WF$  Reduplication;alliteration. 235. R a t t i n g on / r a t i n informing Orig.  on / v b . S 6 M  o r s q u e a l i n g on.  the r a t that leaves  a s i n k i n g s h i p i s a symbol o f  treachery. 236. Redeye / redjfcy / n . S 30 J inferior Since  o r raw w h i s k y , s p e c , b o o t l e g w h i s k y ; c h e a p  d 8 2 0 . A l s o used i n Canada(Alberta) t o r e f e r t o beer  laced with 237. R e g u l a r s those Cf.  tomato j u i c e S C a l g a r y redeye','  / regy©l©rz / n . S 1 F p e r s o n s who f r e q u e n t  a place  on a r e g u l a r b a s i s .  habitues(French).  Functional 238. R i n g  shift.  / r i n / n . S 29 J  a g r o u p o f p e r s o n s u s u . f o r m e d f o r some i l l e g a l as  liquor.  i n : "The dope r i n g  Vancouver."  i s operating  purpose,  i n t h e e a s t end o f  239. R o c k e t e e r / r o k a t i y r / n. is  a p e r s o n who  S 18  F  a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the science of  r o c k e t s , u s u . a young i n i t i a t e  inthe  science*  S u f f i x - e e r . b y a n a l o g y w i t h model l i k e r a c k e t e e r .  rXfin  240. R o u g h i n g i t /  i t /  doing  something  there  i s an e a s i e r way  n.  S 24  in a difficult  of  manner;it  i s implied  t o do t h e t a s k b u t one  t o t a k e t h i s more d i f f i c u l t F o r use  F  #36.  F  an i l l - m a n n e r e d , u n c o u t h , r o u g h p e r s o n , e s p . Orig.  circus  because  i f burly.(WF)(P)  use;colloquial.  242. Rubber c h e c k e r y / the w r i t i n g  chooses  route.  i t without antecedent,see  241 .Roughneck / r i f f n e k / n . S 13  that  rXber  cekariy /  n.  P 12  F  of checks t h a t are r e t u r n e d t o the  writer  t h e r e i s n o t enough money i n h i s a c c o u n t t o  cover i t s value.(WF)" Orig.  rubber + check + - e r y s u f f i x , a s  F i g . use used  in:thievery.roguery.  of rubber i n reference to the slang e x p r e s s i o n  f o r s u c h c h e c k s : e . g . t h e y a r e s a i d t o "bounce."  Note the American -ery suffix  see  s p e l l i n g : c h e c k f o r cheque, #150.  243. Rubby-dub / r A b i y - d X b /  n.  P 15 M  a bum;a w o r t h l e s s tramp;a down and connotation of a  outer,often with a  drunkard.  Abbrviation f . rub/bing/ alcohol. Reduplication with p a r t i a l -y. s u f f i x  see  244. Rube /ruwb / n.  rhyme,  #31. S 29  J  an u n w o r l d l y , n a i v e . u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o u n t r y y o u t h o r  man;  a newcomer;an o u t s i d e r , h e n c e anyone e a s y t o v i c t i m i z e . ( W F ) From Reuben.a t r a d i t i o n a l hillbilly 245.Sawy /  r u r a l name;Cf. c l o t s  #44,  #127.  s a v i y / n.  P 15  M  unde r s t a n d i n g ; k n o w l e d g e ; w o r l d l i n e s s. O r i g . i n p i d g i n E n g l i s h , f . the Portuguese Colloquial  since  d865.  s a v e r . t o know.  246.Saved-off  / s o d - o f / a d j . S 11  annoyed  F  o r d i s g u s t e d ( w i t h someone o r s o m e t h i n g ) .  Cf. browned-off.cheesed-off.brassed-off.etc. -off or  s u f f i x word w i t h c o n n o t a t i o n o f e n d i n g an  relation;Cf.  finish  off.sign  247.Seepage / s i y p e j f / n . P 27 any  substance t h a t has  action  off.etc.  P  seeped  o r l e a k e d f r o m some  enclosure or c o n t a i n e r . Dial,  and c o l l o q u i a l  From seep = -age  usage.  suffix;Cf.  outage  #197.  2 4 8 . S e l l down t h e r i v e r / s e i dawn cfe r i v e r / v b . S 4 F to betray. Prob.  o r i g . w i t h the slave trade i n the southern S t a t e s  when s l a v e s were t r a n s p o r t e d down t h e r i v e r t o p l a n t a t i o n owners.(Mark 1 w a i n u s e i n H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n ) . 2 4 9 . S e l l o u t / s e i awt / v b . S 29 to  become a t r a i t o r ; t o  beliefs  because  renounce -out  compromise one's i d e a l s  see  or  of f e a r or f o r other reasons;to  one's p r i n c i p l e s  suffix  J  f o r t h e sake  of moetary  gain,  #11.  250.Set-to / set-tuw / n. S 4 M an arguement;an a t t a c k ; a h e a t e d d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h o r without  violence.(P)  By a n a l o g y w i t h model s i t - i n . s e e  #271*  251.Shacktown / saktawn / n . S 8 F any p a r t shoddy  of a settlement,town or c i t y , t h a t  o r slummy i n a p p e a r a n c e .  O r i g . p r o b . f . t h e shack o r caboose or Cf.  i s run-down  of a f r e i g h t  hobo u s e o f t h e t e r m t o meah a m e e t i n g use  district  train;  place.  o f -town s u f f i x word i n r e f e r e n c e t o a  city  i n words l i k e i C h i n a t o w n . G a s t o w n ( e . g . o l d V a n c o u v e r )  2 5 2 . S h » c k y o / v i » i i y / a d j P 27  F  rundown;dilapidated.(WF) Formed by shack + - y s u f f i x  (see  #31).  253.Shake-up / seyk-Ap / n .  S 30  J  a reorganization of personnel Since -up  o r work methods.(P)  d885;colloquial.  s u f f i x word see  #6.  254.Shamuses / seymdsdx / n . p l . P 19  M  investigators;detectives. From I r i s h g a e l i c : Seamus,meaning James. 2 5 5 . S h a n t y town /  s a n t i y tawn / n. P 27  a town o f s h a c k s ; a group o f dwellings Cf.  F r . c h a n t i e r or I r i s h  / s'eyp Ap oneself  working  properly.  together;to  s u f f i x wors,see  257.Sharks /  operators  charge a high  organize  i n the  money l e n d i n g  r a t e of i n t e r e s t , t h e exact loan  a gathering haircutting  S 3  amount  who of  borrower.(P)  M  o f h i p p i e s and  longhairs generally for a  spree.  suffix,patterned after  2 5 9 . S h i n n y up  field  sharks.  2 5 8 . S h e a r - i n / s i y r - i n / n.  / siniy.Xp / vb.  s i t - i n , s e e #27t.  S 7  M  climb.  From s h i n + -y, s u f f i x ( s e e -up  t  begin  M  which i s o f t e n hidden from the F i g . use;also  o n e s e l f and  #6.  sarks / n . p l . S 4  unethical  to  sean t i g h / s a n  S 1 K  /vb  to p u l l  -in  city.(WF)  o l d house).  256. Shape up  -up  makeshift  #251.  S h a n t y f r o m Cdn. (an  s h a c k s and  on t h t o u t s k i r t s o f a  shacktown  F  s u f f i x word,see  260.Ship-shape / s i p - s e y p  #31).  #6. / adj. P  fine;ready for use;in perfect Reduplication with  vowel  O r i g . prob. re s h i p being beginning  of the  season.  25  M  condition.  change. readied  f o r c a s t - o f f or  the  261,Shoo / to  suv / v b ,  chase  S 31  J  avay.  From s h o o ! ( u s e d  vith  imperative  force.)  2 6 2 , S h o o t o f f y o u r mouth / s u v t o f y o r m a w © / #b. to for  F  t a l k , e s p , t o t a l k t o o much and w i t h t o o l i t t l e propriety;to disclose  Grig, H.  S 13  perh.  a  regard  confidence,(P)  f . Dorothy Savers(Murder  Must A d v e r t i s e )  and  Wade ( C o n s t a b l e G u a r d T h y s e l f ) .  2 6 3 . S h o o t - o u t / s u w t - i w t / n, S 20 a gun  F  d u e l ; a l s o a p p l i e d to a heated  arguement  or  discussion, Cf.  #264; - o u t  264. Shoot up /  s u f f i x word,see  suwtA-p / n . S 1  a gun  duel,Cf.#263.  Prob.  orig.  -up  2 6 5 . S h o r t end  of the  the l e a s t instance  stick / sort  d e s i r a b l e l o t ; t h e worst  rectum  i s the  by the  other  one  advantage of  call  or  s h o r t end  as  opposed  of a s t i c k , w h i c h  e t y m o l o g y i s more v u l g a r : f i g . , t h e  end  o f a s t i c k poked up  i n command o f t h e  another's  situation,who  holds  end.  2 6 6 . S h o t s , c a l l the / to  J  of a t r a n s a c t i o n ; a n  l a r g e r q u a n t i t y o r t h e l a r g e end  s h o r t end  S 31  treatment.(WF)  t h e image i s t h a t o f t h e  can be w i e l d e d , t h e  the  %9 s t i k / %  end © v  of being cheated,ignored,taken  Although the  p l a y e r use.  #6.  receiving unfavorable  to  F  f . gambling-dice  s u f f i x word,see  #11.  the  sots,kal  vb.  S 29  J  s h o t s means t o have t h e p r i v i l e g e  of  i n d i c a t i n g what s h o u l d happen o r t a k e p l a c e , a s i n : " H e p a i d for  the gate  Prob. of  orig.  f e e , s o he  should c a l l  the  shots."  d u r i n g p r o h i b i t i o n ( e . g . the n i c k e l  shots  whiskey).  267.Showbiz /  sowbiz / n .  S 8  M  showbusiness. A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : s h o w b u s / i n e s s / s t h e n sequence changed t o p h o n e t i c  -us  s p e l l i n g and p r o n u n c i a t i o n .  268. S h u t up to  / sjttjLp / vb.  cease  -up  talking  S 1 P  o r making n o i s e o f any  s u f f i x word,see  #6,  2 6 9 . S i d e - e f f e c t / s a y d f i y f e k t / n. a result  o f any  kind.(P)  event  S 11  M  o t h e r t h a n t h e main e f f e c t  or  result. Compound. 270.  Sidestep / saydstep to  / S 1 P  d e v i a t e from meeting a s i t u a t i o n head on;to  a s i t u a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r , a s i n :"To 271.Sit-in /  s i t - i n /n.  S 28  s i d e s t e p an  issue..."  J  an a c t o f p r o t e s t i n w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t o r s in  ignore  enter or remain  a p l a c e i n a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n , t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t some  law,custom or o f f i c i a l publicity for c i v i l T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t w o r d , w h i c h has  policy  or to g a i n support  rights,pacifism,etc. formation with - i n  become p o p u l a r  the  first  as a  suffix  s i n c e d960,when  r i g h t s p r o t e s t s began t o g a i n n a t i o n a l S i t - i n was  and  civil  attention.  s u c h word t o g a i n c u r r e n c y  and  many o t h e r s have been f o r m e d by a n a l o g y w i t h i t . Now  the use  or  o f - i n has  demonstration  connection with  expanded t o i n c l u d e any p r o t e s t  f o r most a n y t h i n g and n o t s e g r e g a t i o n as was  the  orig.  See  #311,316,317,398,441,487,497,503 and  Cf.  a l s o the term  front p o l i t i c a l 272.Skidroad a  /  street  gambling Orig.  or d i s t r i c t  l o g g e r use  273.Skindiver / who  suits,etc.  f . the  d u r i n g the  and  1930's.  F  the  skid  s k i n d a y v 3 r / n . S 26  businesses  like.(WF)  r o a d i n t h e bush;hobo  and  F  deep s e a d i v e s w i t h o u t  the a i d of rubber  as a p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e  aquanaut  popular  s i n c e c1915.  amateur c o n n o t a t i o n Cf.  S 12  731.  i n r e f . to  i n France  connotation'/  o f a town c o n t a i n i n g cheap  rooms,brothels use  strike  activities  skxdrowd / n.  underworld  a man  sit-in  always i n  #4.  here.  coldjmore  of  wetan  274.Skookum / skuwkem / a d j . S 12 F heavy;large;overwhelming,as A borrowing  i n : "A p r e t t y  f . Chinook j a r g o n wordjCf.  skookum p r i c e .  skookum chuck  ( r a p i d s - c h u c k means w a t e r i n t h e j a r g o n ) . 275.Skullduggery  / s k A l d X g a r i y / n . S 14 F  r a s c a l l y conduct;scheming  or p l o t t i n g .  From s k u l l . a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p i r a t e s whose f l a g , t h e rodger,bears For  a skull  jolly  and c r o s s b o n e s .  s u f f i x - e r y see #150,242.  276.Skyjacker  / skayoakar  / n . S 13 F  a p e r s o n who h i j a c k s an a i r p l a n e w h i l e  i t i s en r o u t e  somewhere. N e o l o g i s m ; p o r t m a n t e a u w o r d : s k y ( h i ) i a c k e r . w i t h rhyme o f hi-/sky. 277.Sky-pirates  / skay-payrats / n . p l . S 3 F  those  p e r s o n s who h i j a c k a i r l i n e r s w h i l e  force  them t o f l y t o a n o t h e r  Neologism.Cf. 278.Skyride  on f l i g h t and  destination.  s k y j a c k e r #276.Again note  rhyme o f s k y / p i -  / s k a y r a y d / n . S 20 F  a mode o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e g r o u n d , w h i c h carries  one t h r o u g h  Compound.Note 279.Skyscrapers  the a i r .  t h e rhyme:  sky/ri-.  / s k a y s k r e y p a r z / n . p l . P 30 J  a skyscraper i s a very t a l l that  building;fig.,one  so t a l l  i t s c r a p e s t h e sky.(WF)  Colloquial  s i n c e c1920.  280.Slam-bam-thank-you-maam a p r e t t y rough way o f t h a n k i n g  / s l a m - b a m - © a ^ - y u w - m a m / S 12 F  t h a n k y o u t o a woman!an a b r u p t , r a p i d someone.  Rhyming f o r m a t i o n . 281.Slide-prone  / slayd-prown  more l i a b l e substance  / a d j . S 13 M  t o t h e s l i d i n g down o f r o c k o r o t h e r  t h a n n o r m a l , a s i n : " T h i s a r e a i s more  prone because o f t h e s h a l e mountains." Compound;Cf. a c c i d e n t - p r o n e •  slide-  282.Slog  i t out / s l o g i t awt / vb. S 31 J  t o sueceed i n d o i n g something but n o t w i t h o u t h a r d s h i p s and d i f f i c u l t y . ( P ) F o r use o f i t w i t h o u t antecedent  see  #36.  - o u t s u f f i x see #11. 283*Smear Campaign / s m i y r kampeyn / n. P 29 M a p l a n o r campaign which attempts t o d e s t r o y the good r e p u t a t i o n of another,esp. by making f a l s e o r a c c u s a t i o n s ; t o degrade o r slander.(WF)  exaggerated  From the Y i d d i s h schmear. 284.Smoker / smovkar / n. S 28 J a much debated s u b j e c t w h i c h c o n t i n u e s under d i s c u s s i o n over a l o n g p e r i o d , t h u s smouldering l i k e a f i r e , a s i n ; " T h i s problem o f whether t o r e c o g n i z e Bed China i s a r e a l smoker." Poss. o r i g . i n r a i l r o a d jargon r e f e r r i n g t o a locomotivef . the days of wood and c o a l b u r n i n g l o c o m o t i v e s . 285.Snowmobile / snowmowbiyl / n. S 12 F a v e h i c l e r u n n i n g on s k i - l i k e t r a c k s w h i c h c a r r i e s p e o p l e over the snow. Cf. skidoo. Portmanteau word^snow/auto/mobile;note rhyme;snow/mo-/. 286.S.0.B.'s / es.ow.biyz. /n. P 12 M S.O.B. stands f o r son of a b i t c h . An acronym. 2 8 7 . S p a c e c r a f t / s p e y s k r a f t / n. S 30 J the v e h i c l e used by and c a r r y i n g e x p l o r e r s i n t o o u t e r space i n modern day r e s e a r c h programs. By a n a l o g y t o o t h e r compounds w i t h the - c r a f t f o r m a t i o n . C f . h o v e r c r a f t #137. 288.Spaceship / s p e y s s i p / n. S 3 F a v e h i c l e which c a r r i e s a s t r o n a u t s i n t o o u t e r space on aerospace l a u n c h i n g s . By a n a l o g y t o o t h e r - s h i p f o r m a t i o n s ; C f . moonship  #180.  / speysvokig. / n . S 6 M  289.Spacewalking  l e a v i n g a s p a c e c r a f t and l i t . f l o a t i n g Fig.  i n outer space.  use of w a l k i n g .  Neologism. 290.Speak g a r b a g e to  talk  / s p i y k g a r b d j / v b . P 12 M  nonsense.  291 . S p i c e up / s p a y s J t p / v b . S 7 M to  glamorize a person,situation  attractive Fig.  o r o c c a s i o n ; t o make more  and e n t i c i n g . ( P )  f r o m s p i c e + -up s u f f i x w o r d ( s e e # 6 ) .  2 9 2 . S p i l l a g e / s p i l a j / n . P 27 F any  substance which has s p i l l e d  limits  over the boundaries o r  of a container.  From s p i l l + -age s u f f i x , C f .  #197,247.  Neologism. 293.Spivs / spivz / n . p l . S 7 F a s t r e e t vendor b l a c k market  often  selling  stolen  o r ( d u r i n g WWII)  goods.  B r i t i s h wartime  slang.  2 9 4 . S q u a t t e r s / s k w o t a r z / n . S 30 J p e r s o n s who move o n t o l a n d t h e y do n o t own a n d s e t up housekeeping.Der*ogatory. From s q u a t + - e r s u f f i x ( s e e # 3 2 ) . 295.SRO / esarow / sold  P11 F  r i g h t out.  An acronym.Tradesmen's 296.Stacked  jargon.  / stakt / adj. P 1 F  having a sexually attractive or  or  said  of a  girl  woman.(WF)  297.Standpatism the  body,usu.  / s t a n d p a t i s m / n . S 13 F  p o l i c y of keeping a f i r m , f i x e d  position,opinion  b e l i e f . (WF,)(P)  Poss. o r i g . also,to formed  sell  f . g a m b l i n g : t o k e e p a good hand o f c a r d s ; f . a stationary position(stand pad),  from vb. p h r . t o s t a n d p a t + - i s m s u f f i x .  298,Sticky  situation /  a difficult  sxeyuweysan / n .  t o t h e game o f  proceed  sticky wicket.in ref,  cricket,  s t i n k e r /n,  a contemptible  must  diplomacy,(P)  o r i g , w i t h the B r i t i c i s m  299,Stinker /  S 1 F  s i t u a t i o n ; a s i t u a t i o n where one  w i t h c a r e and Prob,  stikiy  S 4  F  person,(P)  From s t i n k + - e r s u f f i x ( s e e # 3 2 ) . 300.Stooge /  s t u w j / n,  S 27  J  an u n d e r l i n g , e s p , one who  a c t s as a p u p p e t f o r  s a y i n g and  d o i n g what he d o e s w i t h o u t  he  to.(WF)  i s told  Orig,prob,  f . t h e a t e r and  another,  q u e s t i o n because  stage use;Cf.  fall  guy #546,  s i d e k i c k #673. 30l.Stoolie /  s t u w l x y / n . P 29  a person  J  s e r v i n g as a decoy;an i n f o r m e r ; a  From t h e f a c t t h a t p i g e o n s were o f t e n t i e d a decoy f o r other  stool  pigeon.  to a stool  pigeons.  P o r t m a n t e a u word: s t o o l ( p i g e o n ) + - i e s u f f i x . ( s e e 302.Stromgarm /  #32).  s t r o i i a r m / n, P 1 M  a 2 p e r s o n employed t o c a r r y o u t a c t s o f v i o l e n c e , t o obtain money,information,etc.;a uses p h y s i c a l 303.Sucked-in /  hoodlum o r t h u g  v&o  violence.(WF)  Compound,Since c  1830.  sXkt-in /  d e c e i v e d by f a l s e  vb.  S 7  F  promises.(WF)(P)  From s u c k - i n : t o e n g u l f i n a w h i r l p o o l . 304.Superbowl / suwpdrbowl / n ,  S 15  F  a l a r g e r - t h a n - e v e r — b e f o r e stadium Prefix  for sports.  super- c u r r e n t l y a v e r y productive p a t t e r n .  C f . #305,309. 3 0 5 . S u p e r l i n e r / suwpdrlayndr a passenger prefix  / n.  S 14  s h i p l a r g e r t h a n any  super-  as  see#304-309.  F o t h e r known b e f o r e .  306.Superport /  s u w p s r p o r t / n . S 30  J  a p o r t much l a r g e r and more g r a n d i o s e  than anything  yet  existing* Pr^ix  s u p e r - , see  307*Superpower /  #304-09.  suwparpawar / n*  S 25  P  a c o u n t r y whose e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and is  g r e a t e r t h a n most o t h e r s i n t h e  Prefix  super-.see  308.Supersavior a person  m i l i t a r y power  world*  #304-09.  / suwpsrseyvyar /n. w i t h t h e power and  S 8 M  d e s i r e t o save o t h e r  persons  from u n d e s i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n s , p e o p l e , e t c . Prfix  super-.see  309.Supertax /  #304-09.  suwDerta^ks / n .  S 29  J  above t h e n o r m a l t a x l o a d ; e x t r a ; o u t the  current tax s i t u a t i o n i n other  Prefix  of p r o p o r t i o n t o areas.  s u p e r - . s e e # 304-08.  310. S u r f s up /  alrfsXp  /  P  1M  y o u * r e i n t r o u b l e now;now y o u ' r e i n f o r i t , a s i n : " S u r f s up., J o h n . " Expression  type.  From s u r f e r ' s c a l l w h i c h f i g . denotes:"now you have show us what you -up  can  s u f f i x word,see  311.Swim-in /  do." #6.  swim-in / n .  an i n t e n t i o n a l suffix,see  S 22  F  g a t h e r i n g of people  swimming-as a s o c i a l -in  event  or  h i p ; i n r a p p o r t w i t h modern  cool use;Cf. 313. Swipe /  attitudes;satisfying,exciting, person.  phr.  swinging F  one  t h a t c a n be  appropriate another's  o f tswipe  ( to  easily  possessions,ideas,  g i r l , e t c . , w i t h o u t asking permission,(WF) F i g . use  esp.  London.  a small object,usu.  concealed;to  otherwise.  c1935-c1942,now g e n e r a l j a z z and  swayp / v b . P 7  to steal  of  F  o r p l e a s i n g t o a modern,hip s w i n g use  f o r the purpose  #271.  312.Swinging / swinin / a d j . S 4  Orig.  to  hit,strike).  314. Take a s t a b a t / t e y k 0 to  stab a t / vb. S 1 F  t r y t o do s o m e t h i n g ; t o t a k e  Fig.  a chance.(WF)(P)  use of stab.  315. T a k e - o f f - a t h o n  / teyk-of-eeoh  / n . S 27 F  a c o m p e t i t i o n t o see who c a n l o s e t h e g r e a t e s t number of  pounds i n a d e f i n e d p e r i o d o f t i m e ,  -athon s u f f i x , p o p u l a r pattern denoting  e n d u r a n c e and  l a r g e n e s s i n concept;Cf.(marathon.walkathon.danceathon.) 316. T a l k - i n / t o k - i n / n . S 1 F a meeting,usu. connected p a r t i c i p a n t s gather  with protest,in  which  i n a place f o r the purposes of  h o l d i n g l e n g t h y , d e f i n i t i v e d i s c u s s i o n on one o r more subjects. -in  suffix,see  #271.  3l7Teach-in / t i y c - i n / n. S 3 F a s i t u a t i o n i n which p r o f e s s o r s or teachers outside  of r e g u l a r c l a s s hours t o give  t e a c h i n g guidance perion -in  gather  concetrated  t o d i s c u s s i o n s , u s u . over a l e n g t h y  of time,  suffix,see  318. T e a r - s h e e t  #271.  / t x y r - s i y t / n . P 21 F  a kleenex;a  handkerchief  u s e d t o wipe away t e a r s .  Compound. 319. T e e n o l o g y / t i y n o i a j i y / n. S 27 F the  study  of teenagers  Formed b y a n a l o g y  or teenage  years.  with:astrology.cardiology.psychology;  the - o l o g y element d e n o t i n g  study o f .  320. T e e n y - b o p p e r s / t i y n i y - b o p 6 r z / n . p l . S 20 F a teeny-bopper i s a s t e r e o t y p e d teenage g i r l roll  e n t h u s i a s t ; a teenage g i r l  insignificant,undesirable  c o n s i d e r e d as  r o c k and annoying,  and a b o r i n g burden.  O r i g . negro use. -er  suffix,see  #32.  321. T e f l o n / t e f l o n / n . P 17 F the  c o a t i n g f o r cookware i n s t r u m e n t s  e l i m i n a t e s the need f o r a grease  and t h e l i k e  which  and i s s t r o n g l y h e a t -  r e s i s t e n t . A t r a d e name. N e o l o g i s m .  56 322. T h i n k - t a n k  / © i g k - t a n k / n . S 22  F  a group of e x p e r t s i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d undergo c o n c e n t r a t e d thought  and  Compound.Note t h e  o f /-nk/.  repetition  or s i g n of non-confidence;a  field.  F negative  L i t . , t u r n i n g t h e thumb downwards,from t h e Roman emperors c o n c e r n i n g a d e f e a t e d -down s u f f i x word,see  to  discussion i n their  323. Thumbs-down / OAmbz-dawn / a d j . S 27 a vote  assembling  endorsement  signal  of  gladiator,  #58.  324. Togs / t o g z / n . p l . S 29  J  clothing. British  slang;f. l a t i n  325. T o k e n i s m / t o k a n i z m any  toga.  / n . P 18  F  m i n o r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a d i s p u t e , e t c . , a s i n : "They  c l a i m e d t h a t our c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the this  d i s p u t e were j u s t mere  From t o k e n + - i s m  F  Trudeau*application^which  c  t o arouse  M  someone's i n t e r e s t  o r c u r i o s i t y i n some-  t h i n g ; t o become e n t h u s e d , a l e r t O r i g . a d d i c t , j a z z and  328. T w o - b i t  is  alliterative.  327. T u r n - o n / t A x n - o n / S 10  Very  fashions,customs,etc.  s u f f i x ( s e e #31 ) •  Popularized with Trendy also  tokenism."  current trends i n  From t r e n d + - y  of  suffix.  326. T r e n d y / t r e n d i y / a d j . S 11 f o l l o w i n g the  settlement  to,happy,etc.  s t u d e n t use,now g e n e r a l .  common s i n c e c1960. / t u w - b i t / a d j . P 19  F  cheap;inferior;insignificant;small-time;tinhorn.(WF) l i t . , w o r t h 25  c e n t s , e . g . a q u a r t e r o r two  bits  of o l d  c o i n s known a s p i e c e s o f e i g h t . 329. UF0  / yuw  e f ow / n .  unidentified An  flying  S 7 F object.  acronym.  330. U n c l e Tomism / . A n k d l a n e g r o who any w h i t e  tomizdm / n .  S 24  F.  a c t s i n a s u b s e r v i e n t , s o l i c i t o u s manner t o man.  N e g r o use.From H.B.  Stowe's n o v e l U n c l e  Tom's C a b i n .  Q  331 . U n h o r s e d / ^ n h o r s t / a d j . S 1 F h a v i n g no p o w e r . i n f l u e n c e  or  authority.  Orig.  r e f . t o a r i d e r , s p e c , a s o l d i e r , t h r o w n from h i s  horse  and hence h o r s de  combat.  3 32. Up s w i n g / j t p s w i n g / n . S 30  J  a movement upwards as a g a i n s t d o w n w a r d s , p o s i t i v e a g a i n s t n e g a t i v e , a s i n : "The 333. V a f f l i n g / w o f l i t t / a d j . S 20 vague and m e a n i n g l e s s , a s about  my  as  economy i s on t h e u p s w i n g . " F  i n : " W a f f l i n g statements  involvement with...."  334. W a l k i e - t a l k i e / w d k i y - t o k i y / n .  S 6 F  a p o r t a b l e t e l e p h o n e r u n on b a t t e r i e s , u s e d i n m i l i t a r y manoeuvers,etc. Prob.  orig.  as WWII s l a n g .  R e d u p l i c a t i o n and  rhyming  formation.  335. W a l k - i n / w o k - i n / n . S 1 F an a c t i o n w h e r e b y t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w a l k i n and  occupy  a place. -in  suffix,see  #271.  336. W a l k o u t / wokawt / n . a strike  S 30  J  by u n i o n employees a g a i n s t an  employer.  Technical jargon. -out 337. Wet  s u f f i x word,see  #11.  b e h i n d t h e e a r s / wet  behtfcynd cfe i y r z / n . S 6 F  innocent,inexperienced,uninitiated,unsophisticated.(WF) P r o b . b y a n a l o g y t o new-born a n i m a l s yet  o r human b e i n g s n o t  altogether dry.  338. W h e r e w i t h a l  / h w e r w i G o l / n . S 30  t h e money w i t h w h i c h t o buy Colloquialuse 339. W h i t e c o l l a r  J  something.(WF)(P)  s i n c e e l 910.  c r o o k s / hwayt k d l e r k r u k s / n . p l . P 1 M  i n f l u e n t i a l , r e s p e c t e d businessmen and p o s i t i o n f o r i l l e g a l By d i r e c t  who  use  t h e i r power  purposes;sophisticated criminal  analogy t o white  collar  workers.  340. W h i t e w a s h i n g  / waytwosin  / v b . S 15  P  c o v e r i n g up o r g l o s s i n g o v e r a m i s d e e d ; e s p . politics  t o r e f e r t o an o p i n i o n , r e p o r t  statement i n t e n d e d t o excuse a misdeed  used i n  or p u b l i c o r e x o n e r a t e an  unethical person. By a n a l o g y t o w h i t e w a s h i n g 341. W h i t e y / w a y t i y / n . S 13  P  a white person;the white Now  o r c o v e r i n g up a f e n c e .  race.  t h e most common u r b a n n e g r o  s l a n g word f o r w h i t e  Formed b y w h i t e * - y s u f f i x ( s e e 342. Whizbang / h v i z b a n / a d j . S 28 a n y t h i n g remarkable  man.  #31).  J  or outstanding.(WF)(P)  O r i g . WWII u s e , B r i t i s h army s l a n g , f r o m w h i z z i n g sound o f s h e l l s d u r i n g f l i g h t , f o i l o w e d by an  immediate  explosion-bang! Onomatopoetic f o r m a t i o n . 343. Wide b l u e y o n d e r / wayd bluw y o n d e r / n . S 31  J  i n f i n i t e space;nothingness. P h r . quoted from a p o p u l a r song. 344. Wipe o u t / wayp awt / v b . S 29 O r i g . meant h a v i n g l o s t  J  control  r i d i n g a wave and f a l l i n g  o f one's  surfboard while  i n t o the water.Then  i t was  t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e s p o r t o f s k i i n g , u s e d i n t h e same s e n s e and f i n a l l y has come t o r e f e r g e n e r a l l y t o someone who -out  i s a conformist,dull s u f f i x word,see  o r square.(WF)  #11.  345. W i s e - c r a c k i n g / w a y z - k r a k i n / v b .  S 6 M  making b r i g h t , w i t t y or s a r c a s t i c r e m a r k s or j o k e s , e s p . emphasizing another's Colloquial 346. Wop  / wop  since  c1920.  / n. P 18  an I t a l i a n  shortcomings.(WF)(P)  F  or person,usu. male,of I t a l i a n descent.  Derogatory use. Became common d u r i n g t h e 1920's when i t i m p l i e d illiterate  Italian  i m m i g r a n t w o r k i n g a s a day  an  laborer.  347. Worked o v e r / w e r k t  owver / v b .  S 1 F  beaten up,usu. i n order t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n or i n retaliation;roughed 348. W o r k - t o - r u l e usu. he  up.  / w a r k - t a - r u v l / a d j . S 30  a u n i o n employee use  chooses  a g a i n s t h i s employer  done.Resuit  public  d e r a i l s , e t c . as i s  concerned.  / n . p l . S 10  t h i e f , e s p . one who  freights;a  M  t r a v e l s a s a hobo u s i n g t h e  safeblower.  S a i d t o be f r o m J o h n Y e g g , t r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e s a f e - c r a c k e r t o use  nitroglycerine.  Hobo and u n d e r w o r l d  use,now common.  350. Yo y o /yow  indicate  i s t h e s l o w i n g down o f s e r v i c e t o t h e  by t h e company  349. Teggs / y e y g z any  i n which  t o work s t r i c t l y a s h i s j o b framework  r a t h e r than s k i p p i n g unnecessary usu.  J  yow  / n . S 14  a s t u p i d , incompetent  first  F  o r u n d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n . (WF)  .From t h e e p l a j r t h i n g known as t h e  yo-yo.  Reduplication. 351. Zany / z e y n i y / n . S 4  F  c r a z y ; i d i o t i c ; u s e d i n j o c u l a r r e f . , r a t h e r than i n disapproval. 352. Zapped / z a p t / v b . S 8 M killed. 353. Z i p p y / z i p i y / a d j . S 4 F peppy;snappy.(WF)(P) Colloquial  since  C1945.  Formed by z i p + -y, s u f f i x ( s e e (ii)  #31).  EDITORIALS  354. A c r o s s t h e b o a r d / d k r o s  b o r d / a d j . p h r . S 29  i n c l u s i v e ; p e r t a i n i n g i n the of  a group,as  i n : " An  same r a t i o  across the board  L a b o r u n i o n and p o l i t i c a l  jargon.  J  t o a l l members raise."  355. B a d  b i n d / b a d baynd / n , S 29  a predicament,as  J  c a u s e d by c o n f l i c t i n g  full  work s c h e d u l e  Note  alliteration*  or the l i k e ; a t i g h t  356. B a d - m o u t h i n g / bad-maw^i^ / vb* s a y i n g bad Cf.  S 15  obligations,an spot;a  over-  jam.  F  or n a s t y things,usu* of another  person*  m u d s l i n g i n g #184,muckraking #584.  Compound. 357. Bagman / bagmen / n . one  vho  kidnap  S 29  J  i s assigned to c o l l e c t  bribe,extortion  or  money.(WF)(GGL)  Underworld  use.  3 5 8 * B a k s h e e s h / b a k s i y g / »• a tip;a  gratuity;a  S 19  F  bribe.  N e a r e a s t e r n and A n g l o - I n d i a n l o a n word p o p u l a r i z e d by the B r i t i s h Cf.  army i n I n d i a and  #390,509.  359*Beautiful person / one who  byuwtafal  Ejfgypt.  p ^ r s a n / n* P 7 F  has t h e c a p a c i t y t o r e l a t e  o p e n l y and  w i t h o t h e r s ; d o e s n o t have a p h y s i c a l  warmly  connotation here.  M e a n i n g change. 360. B e a u t s  / byuwts / n . p i . S 29  an u n u s u a l l y b e a u t i f u l  J  or remarkable  person,thing or  plan.(WF)(P) o r i g . used  ironically.  A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : b e a u t / y / . 361. B e e f e d up /  biyfdXp  / a d j . S 15  F  a d d e d s t r e n g t h j i n c r e a s e d power and "The  450  Poss. up  stamina,as i n :  i s a b e e f e d up v e r s i o n o f t h e  orig.  325."  f r o m r u r a l use where i t meant l i t . , " t o  on b e e f by  slaughtering a  cow."  362. B i g g i e s / b i g i y z / n . p l . S 7 M i m p o r t a n t , i n f l u e n t i a l people,events -ie  suffix,see  #31.  or t h i n g s ,  store  362a.Black  power / b l a k pawdr /n«  the i n f l u e n c e  F  o r power o f t h o s e p e o p l e w i t h b l a c k s k i n  coloring,spec* P i g . use  S 15  the  negroes.  of b l a c k .  C f . brown power #369* 363. B l a c k w a s h  / b l a k w a s / n . S 18  t h e c o v e r i n g up  P  or g l o s s i n g over of a misdeed  b y a member of t h e A f r o - A m e r i c a n  performed  group.  Formed by d i r e c t a n a l o g y t o w h i t e w a s h see #340. 364. Blow t h e g a f f / blow  g a f / v b . S 24  F  t o r e v e a l the t r i c k  o r s e c r e t w h i c h made  run;seem l e g i t i m a t e  or the like.(WF)(P)  Orig. carnival  and p i t c h m a n  G a f f means g i m m i c k ( a  something  use.  concealed device or  365. Bljblra^ottKV..eoo'io/v:blow^yorrkuvl / v b . P 12  stratagem  F  t o become a g i t a t e d , e m o t i o n a l l y u p s e t , t e n s e , e t c . o v e r a s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r than remaining calm,detached unemotional,which Cf.  and  i s cool.  #166.  366. B l u e t a l k / bluw t o k / n . S 29  J  s w e a r i n g ; t a l k i n v o l v i n g a h i g h c o n t e n t o f taboo words. Compound. 367. B o g g l e  / b o g l / vb  S 31  to h e s i t a t e , s t a l l , b e " HE  J r e l u c t a n t t o do s o m e t h i n g , a s i n :  boggled a t the s i g h t  of her."  368. Boondocks / buwndoks / n . S 3 F an i s o l a t e d f o r e s t , s w a m p , m o u n t a i n uncivilized  or j u n g l e region;  country,wild terrain.(WF)  O r i g . f . WWII u s e ; f . t h e T a g a l o g bundok meaning mountain. 369. Brown power / brawn pawar / n . S 15 the i n f l u e n c e  F  o r power o f t h o s e p e o p l e w i t h brown  skin  c o l o r i n g , e s p . t h e H a w i i a n p e o p l e , a s i n : "Brown power is  on t h e r i s e  P r o b . formed  i n the Hawiian  Islands."  by a n a l o g y t o b l a c k power,# 362a.  370. Brusb.off / b r A s d f / n . S 11  F  the a c t of b r u s h i n g o f f , i g n o r i n g person or  or r e j e c t i n g  a  thing.(WF)(P)  Compound;by a n a l o g y t o a e t o f b r u s h i n g c l o t h e s , e t c . -off  s u f f i x word,see #246.  bXbliy  371. B u b b l y /  / n. S 7 F  champagne. f i g . , a f t e r the e f f e r v e s c e n c e Cf.  o f champagne.  #101.  372. Bugaboos / lUgebuwz / n . S 29 a nemesis;a  real  J  or imagined o b s t a c l e t h a t  overcome;something  t h a t always  cannot  causes f a i l u r e  be  o r bad  luck.(WF) 373. Bugs y o u /toulgz yuw  / vb. S 29  J  makes y o u a n g r y , b o t h e r s o r i r r i t a t e s Meaning change;Cf. 374. Bum  d e a l / him d i y l  a d e a l w h i c h has  you.  #30. / n. S 6 M  t u r n e d o u t t o be  inferior,unsatisfactory  o r n o t t o b e / s e r v i n g an i n t e n d e d p u r p o s e . Cf.  #32.  375. Canned / k a n d / v b . S 5 M fired  o r d i s m i s s e d f r o m one's j o b .  Poss.  orig.  f. fig.  a n a l o g y t o music  or t a l k being  canned,  meaning r e c o r d e d ( t h e a t e r and t e l e v i s i o n u s e ) . 376. C a r r y t h e b a l l / k e r i y fc© b o l / v b . S 4 F t o do most o f t h e w o r k ; t o  be r e s p o n s i b l e  s u c c e s s f u l accomplishment  of a s p e c i f i c  Lit.,to  f o r the task.(WF)  c a r r y t h e b a l l ( o r be t h e most r e s p o n s i b l e  member)in a b a l l  team  game.  377. Cheek / c i y k / n, S 1 M impudence;audacity;nerve. Colloquial  since cl830.  378. C h i l l e r s / c i l 0 r z / n . p l . S 3 F s p i n e - t i n g l i n g ; f r i g h t e n i n g , e e r i e movies Fig.  f . a n y t h i n g e x c i t i n g which  t h r o u g h t h e body;hence c h i l l  or the  like.  i s s a i d t o send  + -er suffix(see  chills  #32).  379. C l a p - t r a p / k l a p - t r a p / n . S 4 F nonsense;lies jexaggerated Rhyming  talk;bull.  reduplication.  380. C l e a n sweep / k l i y n  swiyp / n . S 11 F  the a c t o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g something any  w i t h o u t f a l t e r i n g on  aspect of i t . ( F F )  F i g . u s e o f sweep. 381. Climb-down / klaym-dawn / n . S 10 F abandonment o f a p o s i t i o n , s t a n d , a s s e r t i o n o r b o a s t previously  taken.  Colloquial  since  Fig.  c!880.  u s e o f compound.  382. C l i n c h e r / k l i n c a r / n . S 29 F a deciding factor;the Functional -er  crux of an arguemeht.(FF)  shift,  s u f f i x , s e e #32.  383. Come o f f i t / k i m o f i t / VB. S 3 F to  s t o p d o i n g o r s a y i n g what one i s d o i n g o r s a y i n g , e s p .  because  one's a c t i o n s o r words a r e m e a n i n g l e s s o r  offensive.(WF) Emphatic  u s e ; f o r use o f i t without antecedent,see  #36.  384. Cop-out / kop-awt / v b . S 29 J t o renege  o r withdraw from involvement  plan,task,etc;to  i n some a c t i o n ,  c e a s e t o be a c t i v e l y engaged i n a n  endeavour.(FF) C f . #54. 385. C r a m - c o u r s e / k r a m - k o r s / n . S 19 F a c o u r s e f o r w h i c h one p a c k s  information into  mind,esp. i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r an examination soon.(FF)(P) Compound.Common c o l l e g e  student use.  386. C r a n k / k r a n k / n . P 29 J a nut;an  oddball;crazy;an insane  person.  one's t o be h e l d  387. C r e d i b i l i t y £ a p  / kredibilitiy  gap  / n.  room f o r d i s b e l i e f ; a n a r e a i n any or t h e e l i k e which i s unsupported l e a v e s an u n q u a l i f i e d  gap  S 31  J  situation,policy, by f a c t s and  thus  i n i n f o r m a t i o n whose  c r e d i b i l i t y i s t h e r e f o r e open t o q u e s t i o n . C f . g e n e r a t i o n gap 388. C r u d  #98.  t o u c h / k r x d t i c / n. S 27  J  a n y t h i n g i n f e r i o r , w o r t h l e s s , u g l y or anything w i t h these  krXac  389. C r u n c h a r e a /  an a r e a i n any  disgusting;hence  qualities.  e r i y s / n.  S 18  bill,policy,event  P or the  t h e r e a r e i n e v i t a b l y g o i n g t o be  like  where  difficulties,dis-  agreement o r e v e n v i o l e n c e , a s i n : " W i t h i n t h i s c o n t r a c t a s i t s s e t up F i g . use  of  , p a r t 5 i s g o i n g t o be t h e  area."  crunch.  390Cumshaw / kjunso / n . a tip;a  crunch  S 19  F  gratuity.  Cf.3e*> #478,5l7. t  3 9 t . C u r e - a l l / k y u r - o l / n. S 1 something which has f a u l t y areas,usu. "Try t h i s  cure-all  392. Damn a l l / dam little  M  a wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y f o r f i x i n g  a medical  application,as i n :  o f mine f o r t h a t n a s t y  o l / n.  cough."  S 7 F  or n o t h i n g .  Colloquial  s i n c e c1915.  A b o w d l e r i z a t i o n of fuck  all.  393. D i n g - a - l i n g / d i ^ - d - l i ^ / n. a p e r s o n who  a c t s q u e e r l y or s t u p i d l y ; a n i d i o t ; u s u .  jocular  application.  Rhyming  reduplication.  394. D i m - w i t t e d  S 1 M  / dim-wftdd / a d j . S 4  dumb;dense-headed;dull;stupids F i g . use  of  dim.  F  a  395©Discotheque / d i s k a t e k / n. S 1 F a n i g h t c l u b f o r t e e n a g e r s o r young p e o p l e v h e r e hear  one  can  r o c k m u s i c , d a n c e t o i t and w a t c h t h e p s y c h e d e l i c  gyrations. L o a n w o r d f r o m F r . : a compound made up (phonograph  r e c o r d ) and t h e  of d i s c - f • disque  second element  of  bibli/otheque. 396. Do  a D i e f e n b a k e r / duw t o groan,moan and done b y , u s u .  Q  diyf&nbeykdr / vb.  otherwise i n d i c a t e  implying that  one  S 7 M has  i t i s unjustified  been h a r d and  totally  unwarranted. A  Canadianism.  397. Down t h e d r a i n / dawn cTe d r e y n / a d j . S 29 lost;lost F i g . use  J  through wastefulness or c a r e l e s s n e s s . of  drain.  398„Drop-in / drop-xn  / n . S 30  J  an o c c a s i o n on w h i c h p e o p l e  casually arrive  p r e d e t e r m i n e d p i a f f e w i t h o u t any a s h o r t w h i l e and  at a  g r e a t f u s s and  stay f o r  s u b s e q u e n t l y l e a v e w i t h an e q u a l  lack  offuss. -in  suffix,see  399. Dumb bunny / dxm a p e r s o n who  #271. b A n i y / n . P 29  J  i s bewildered*confused or  habitually  perplexed,(WF) Colloquial Application  since  c1925.  i s u s u . more i n a f f e c t i o n and  sympathy  than  criticism. 400. D u m b e l l / dJlmbel / n . S 24 a  stupid  F  person.  Orig. attributed  t o c a r t o o n i s t , T A. Dor gan.  401. E a t a h e l p i n g o f crow / i y t e to f i n d t o be  out t h a t you  a r e wrong a b o u t  j u s t l y embarrassed  Crow h e r e b e i n g a b o u t  h e l p i i p v kr6w / v b . S 25  and  admit  the lowest of  something  your  and  mistake.  edibles!  F  402. Egg-he a d / e y g - h e d / n . S 1 M an i n t e l l e c t u a l ; a p e r s o n d e e p l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c u l t u r a l or s c i e n t i f i c Prob.  orig.  affairs.  t h r o u g h p o p u l a r image o f an a c a d e m i c i a n .  Became p o p u l a r d u r i n g t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l Adlai 403. E g g  campaign f o r  Stevenson,when i t h a d a p o l i t i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n .  on my f a c e / e y g on may f e y s / v b . S 6 M  t o have s u f f e r e d a d i s g r a c e , a h u m i l i t y o r embarrassment through 404. E u r o m a r t  one's Own m i s t a k e  or fault,intended  or otherwise.  / yurowmart / n . S 18 P  European  common m a r k e t .  Portmanteau 405. F a d e - o u t s  word: Euro/pean  / n . p l . S 18 F  common m a r k / e t / .  /feyd-awts  /  t h o s e p e o p l e who a r e p h y s i c a l l y u n f i t have l i t t l e  o r n o endurance  a  nd lit.  a n d because  of i t  fade out soon  through p h y s i c a l exhaustion, -out  s u f f i x word, see #;11 •  406 Fl!|pdoodling / f l a p d u w d l i y / n. S 3 F 0  talking Since  or a c t i n g n o n s e n s i c a l l y o r f o o l i s h l y ; b a l o n e y .  c1830.  407. F l a s h f i r e  / flas  f a y e r / n . P 27 F  a sudden f i r e ; a and  0  that  comes w i t h no w a r n i n g , f a s t  sensational.  Prob. Cf  fire  r e i n f o r c e d by the e x p r e s s i o n . f l a s h  i n the pan.  ,#408.  408. F l a s h f l o o d / f l a s  fl£d / n . P 27 F  a sudden f l o o d , c o m i n g w i t h o u t Cf. f l a s h  fire  warning.  #407.  409. F l u b u g / f l u w t u g / no S 1 F the v i r u s  or contagious aspect of the f l u that  from person t o person thus i n f e c t i n g Colloquial  since  Abbreviation Bug,in t h i s  large  travels  groups*(WF)  c1840.  o f F l u by back and f r o n t - c l i p p i n g : i n / f l u / e n z a case,means i n s e c t  germ o r v i r u s .  i n g e n e r a l a n d h e r e means  410. F o l k s y / f o w k s i y / a d j . P 27 h a v i n g a down-to—earth to the f o l k s  F  homey q u a l i t y ; h a v i n g an  appeal  o r good common p e o p l e , u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d and  unemtbellished.Slightly derogatory. Formed f r o m f o l k s ( p i . ) + -y  s u f f i x ( s e e #31 ) •  411. F o u l - u p / f a w l - X p / n . S 3 F a mess made o f t h i n g s ; a b l u n d e r ; a mix-up.(WF) Colloquial -up  s i n c e WWII,  s u f f i x word,see  #6.  412. Gaga / g a g a / a d j . S 7 F crazy,silly,irrational;having and  lost  one's  objectivity  perspective.(WF)  From t h e F r e n c h . Reduplication. 413. Gloom / gluwm / v b . t o go a b o u t sad or  414. G l u e - b l o w n is  F  being pessimistic  over something;to  be  downcast;depressed.  Functional  usu.  S 22  shift  f . noun t o v e r b , e x t e n d i n g i t s u s e .  / gluw-blown / a d j . S 4  F  i n r e f . t o someone's mind o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h  fig.  sniffing  blown b e y o n d t h e n o r m a l  b o u n d a r i e s by  o f g l u e fumes f r o m a p a p e r  the  bag.  41 5.Goon / guwn / n . S 4 F a s t r o n g , s t u p i d , u n i m a g i n a t i v e man;used b o t h and  disparagingly  humorously.  Poss.  orig.  f . Goon,the name g i v e n t o a V i r g i n  Island  negro. 416. G r e e n  l i g h t / g r x y n l a y t / n . S 27  J  a p p r o v a l ; p e r m i s s i o n t o p r o c e e d ; a go—ahead From t h e t r a f f i c  sign.  signal.  417. G r i l l e d / g r i l d / v b . S 29  J  questioned,usu. over a long p e r i o d of t i m e , i n a and Fig. -ed  rough m a n n e r ; f o r c e f u l l y i n t e r r o g a t e d . f . the i d e a of cooking over a hot suffix,see  #25.  grill,  rapid  418. Gut  i s s u e / g A t i s y u w / n . S 11 P  the  solid  issue  substance;forceful  a f t e r a l l the f r i l l s  o r meaty c o n t e n t s o f a n y o r ornaments a r e removed.(WF)  D e r i v e d f . g u t s . C f . #115. 419. H a c k s / h a k s / n . p l . P 7 M a hack i s a t a x i c a b . Colloquial. Orig.  f . a horse-drawn hackney coach used f o r p u b l i c  transportation Abbreviation  y e a r s ago.  by b a c k - c l i p p i n g :  hackney  420. Hammer o u t / hamdr » w t / v b . S 27 J to  formulate an i d e a , p o l i c y o r procedure,  -out  s u f f i x , s e e #11.  421. H a n g o v e r / ha^owvar / n . S 10 F the  unpleasant p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s occurring  drinking  after  t o o much o f a n a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e •(WF)  Common s i n c e  C1920.  422. H a y w i r e / heywayar / a d j . S 24 F broken;flimsy;po©rly c o n s t r u c t e d or  o r equipped;jumbled  confused.(WF)  O r i g . p r o b . f . f a r m e r , r a n c h e r and l o g g e r o f b a l i n g w i r e t o mend v a r i o u s an  use,f.  implements,thus  the use causing  a s s o c i a t i o n between h a y w i r e a n d d i l a p i d a t e d o r  jumbled 423. H e l l u v a  things.  / heiav9/ adj. S 7 F  exceptionally  or exceedingly thorough or severe;anything  r e m a r k a b l e , i n s u l t i n g , a u d a c i o u s o r b o l d , a s i n : "One h e l l u v a time." Contraction for  the  of h e l l  o f a s u b s t i t u t i n g sound  equivalents  orthographic.  424. H i d e - w a y / hayd-awey / n . S 3 F a  a retreat;a place and  t o go t o t h a t  i s o u t o f t h e way  known t o no one o r v e r y few b u t y o u r s e l f ,  -away s u f f i x word,see #63. 425. Hogwash / hogwos / n . S 15 F insincere talk or writing;exaggerations;lies,etc. A euphemism;colloquial use.  426.Hog w i l d / hog t o be  wayld / a d j . P 7  M  wildly excited:temporarily irrational  excitement,anger or / howld Xp  4 2 7 * H o l e d up  happiness*  / vb.  S 22  F  h i d d e n away somewhere,usu. f o r p u r p o s e s o f -up  s u f f i x word,see  pjps  -ie  an  suffix,see  or b r o t h e l s .  #31•  and hXgiy  buggy o p e r a t i o n / h o r s  old-fashioned  Fig.  dancing:  f . honky-tonk; a l s o onomatopoetic  0  429. H o r s e and  F  f e a t u r i n g g a m b l i n g games and  cheap s m a l l town t h e a t e r s Orig.  secrecy.  #6.  428. H o n k i e s / h o n k i y s / n . p l . S 18 cheap s a l o o n s  owing t o  expression  a g a i n s t the  operation  or  opareysan / n.  S24F  business.(WF)  c o n t r a s t i n g the  current motorized  orig.  o l d mode o f  transport  form.  430. H o r s e f e a t h e r s / h o r s reefers / n .  J  S 27  bunk;baloney;nonsense. A euphemism. 431 .How  d o e s t h a t g r a b you? / haw how  do  Orig.  you  like  j a z z and  d a z <5at g r a b yuw? / S 27  t h a t ? whats y o u r r e s p o n s e t o b e a t use,now g e n e r a l  student  J  that? and  popular  use. F i g . use  of  432.Hucksters /  grab.  bXkstarz  a huckster  / n . p l . S 27  is a retailer  J  o f s m a l l goods i n a  shop o r b o o t h a t a s t a l l ; a p e d l a r ; a From hawks t o hucks;now has  small  hawker.(OED)  a connotation  of a  dishonest  trader. -ster  s u f f i x , s e e #227.  4 3 3 o I d e n t i k i t s / a y d e n t i y k i t s / n. kits  f o r " p u t t i n g on"  or t r a i t s , f o r  S 7  M  your i d e n t i f y i n g  characteristics  c r e a t i n g one's image.  Formed by a n a l o g y t o make-up k i t s w h i c h have t h e connotation  o f a p p l y i n g an  image o t h e r  Portmanteau word: i d e n t i / f y i n g / + Neologism.  kits.  same  than your r e a l  self.  434.Image-vise  / i m a j - v a y z / a d v . S 29 J  a s f a r a s ( y o u r ) image g o e s ; e . g o r t h e image t h a t  9  t h e image o f a p e r s o n  o t h e r s have o f him,  Neologism, - v i se,an adv. f o r m i n g s u f f i x meaning,in manner,vay o r r e s p e c t ( t h e  equivalent  such and such a  of - l y ; l i k e ) , i s  c u r r e n t l y a v e r y p r o d u c t i v e v o r d g i v i n g terms  such as :  car-vise.liquor-vise.animal-vise.etc.;endless  poss«  applications. 435.In  / i n / a d j . S 29 J fashionable;popular. Contrary:out;Cf.  in-group.out-group.  436. J a c k p o t / a a k p o t / n . S 24 F success;money;vinnings,as S a r c a s t i c usage 437. K i t  i n : " I h i t the jackpot."  also.  a n d c a b o o d l e / k i t and  k a b u v d a l / n . P 12 F  t h e whole l o t ; e v e r y t h i n g ; t h e  vorks.(P)  Orig. prob. f . the E n g l i s h k i t s a and U.S. b o o d l e : a c r o v d ( i t s e l f vith  set,a c o l l e c t i o n  f . Portuguese  t h e k i t a n d b e i n g s l u r r e d t o ca,hence  retention  of things  cabedal)  caboodle.a  of k i t .  438. K i t e - f l o v n / k a y t - f l o w n / a d j . S 11 F the p a s t form f , t o f l v a k i t e feeler,to it has  meaning,to  a i r an o p i n i o n o r t h e l i k e  out:hence.kit-f1own been t e s t e d  p u t out a  i n order t o t e s t  means t h a t a p o l i c y , o p i n i o n , e t c , ,  a n d i s sound,  439. L a u g h - i n / l a f - x n / n . S 29 J a g a t h e r i n g o r event a t v h i c h the purpose enjoy  oneself.  O r i g . f . the t e l e v i s i o n program -in  i s to laugh or  suffix  Laugh-In.  pattern,see#271•  440. L a y one's c a r d s on t h e t a b l e / l e y wAnz k a r d z on ^ vb.phr. S 4 F to disclose  one's p l a n s . ( P )  From c a r d game o r g a m b l i n g  jargon.  teyD!L /  441 . L i v e - i n / l i v - i n / n . S 25 F gathering a t a place f o r the purposes of l i v i n g i n or  on t h e p r e m i s e s , u s u . t o d e m o n s t r a t e a g a i n s t v s o m e t h i n g ,  a l t h o u g h now c a n be u s e d g e n e r a l l y i o mean " l i v e - i n " a i one's  s u f f i x , s e e #271 o  -in 442. L o s e  own house , e t c .  o u i oh / l u w z a w i on / v b . S 29 J  to  l o s e t h e chance o r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r something;  io  m i s s s o m e t h i n g , a s i n : "She l o s t  io  get the p r i z e . "  o u t on h e r chance  443. Mace / meys / n . P 24 F an a n i i - r i o i gas s i m i l a r i o t e a r g a s w h i c h , t h r o u g h its A  i l l n e s s - p r o d u c i n g e f f e c t s , c a u s e s crowds t o d i s p e r s e .  tradename.  P o s s . f . mace meaning,a  blackjack,a  club.  444. Mags / magz / n . p l . S 17 F magazines. Abbrviaiion through b a c c l i p p i n : r  magazines.  445. M e d i c a r e / m e d i y k e r / n . S 17 F a p r o g r a m , i n t r o d u c e d by t h e government,which  takes  care o f the p e o p l e ' s m e d i c a l expenses f o r a small annual f e e . P o r t m a n t e a u word: m e d i / c a l /  care.  446. Moneybags / mAniybags / n . S 7 F a w e a l t h y person.(WF)(P) Fig.  use;colloquial  since  c1915/  447. M u f f e d / mXft / v b . S I M io  muff means t o f a i l  io  bungle;io  Orig.  i o take advantage  o f an o p p o r t u n i t y ;  fumble.(WF)(P)  f . m u f f . a n e c h o i c word r e p r e s e n t i n g a n i n a r t i c u l a t e  sound.(OED)  448. Mumbo-jumbo / mjCmbow-jAmbow / n . S 19 F meaningless jargon.(P) Rhyming  reduplication.  449. N i t - p i c k i n g / n i t - p i k i y / v b , S 1 F l o o k i n g f o r and f i n d i n g minor errors.(WF) 450. No-no / now-now / n . S 1 M a t h i n g t h a t s h o u l d n o t have been done;abad m i s t a k e . Reduplication formation. 451. No-shows / now-sowz / n . p l . S 3 F a no-show i s a p e r s o n who f a i l s t o c l a i m , u s e o r c n c e l h i s r e s e r v a t i o n f o r t h e a t e r o r the l i k e . ( W F ) a  O r i g . commercial a i r l i n e u s e { c o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1950. 452. Now g e n e r a t i o n / new genSreysdn / n . S 3 F the young g e n e r a t i o n t h a t is most hep w i t h modern t i m e s . t h e most aware o f modem m u s i c , f a s h i o n s . a r t , dance,etc.  O r i g . w i t h beat o r jazz u s e . Functional s h i f t . 453. Numb-thumbs / nXm-eXaz / n. S 1 M one who i s clumsy w i t h h i s hands;a b u t t e r - f i n g e r s . Rhyming r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 454.Old codger / owld k o j d r / n . S 29 J an o l d man,with a c o n n o t a t i o n o f a " c h a r a c t e r . " C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1756. o l d - p r e f i x word w h i c h l o o s e l y means f r i e n d . s u g g e s t s f a m i l i a r i t y , i n t i m a c y o r sympathy. 455.On t h e up and up / on5a X p a n d X p / a d j . S 3 F honest{trustworthy;fair-dealing or fair-minded; l e g i t i m a t e ; o n the l e v e l . ( W F )  456. Opt out / oVfc awt / vb. S 30 J t o choose t o w i t h d r a w from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any plan,occasion,job,etc C f . cop-out,#384. -out s u f f i x word,see #11. 4 5 7 . O u t f a l l / a w t f o l / n. S 7 F the waste o r r u n o f f from any a c t i v i t y - o r p r o d u c t i o n , as i n : "The o u t f a l l from t h e s m e l t e r is up t e n p e r c e n t . Formed w i t h o u t - p r e f i x + f a l l .  458. Out  i n t h e weeds / awt i n  in  an i s o l a t e d , b u s h y , u n c i v i l i z e d  Cf. 459. P a r  wiydz / vb. P 7 M region.(WF)  boondocks,#368.  f o r the course / p a r f o r  a b o u t what one c o u l d  kors /  expectja  S 3 F  predictable  average.  From t h e game o f g o l f . Meaning  shift.  460. P a y o l a / p e y o w l d / n . S 29 J graft;blackmail  or extortion  money.(WF)  -ola  s u f f i x of I t a l i a n  o r i g . ; a noun-forming  usu.  only  lengthener giving f l i p p a n t  a decorative  suffix  connotations. 461. P e a c h on / p i y c to  on / v b . S 11 F  inform;to blab;squeal  on o r t e l l  on.(P)  M e a n i n g and f u n c t i o n a l s h i f t ; C f . # 471A. Colloquial  since  c1860.  462. P e a c h y / p i y c i y / a d j .  S 15 F  anything pleasing,excellent  o r admirable;wonderful.(WF)(P)  Frequent i r o n i c use. -y  s u f f i x , s e e #31.  463. P i p - s q u e a k / p i p - s k w i y k / n . S 22 F an  insignificant  Poss. echoic shell 464. P l a y  person or object.(P)  o r i g . f . the noise  of high  v e l o c i t y during  down / p l e y  made b y a s m a l l G e r .  WWII.  dawn / v b . S 29 J  t o u n d e r e m p h a s i z e s o m e t h i n g o r someone;to u n d e r r a t e , -down s u f f i x word,see #63. 465. P l a y  i t cool / pley  i t kuwl / v b . S 31 J  t o remain r e l a x e d , c a l m , a l o o f and u n e m o t i o n a l i n any situation;hip,but Orig. with cool  having a quiet,objective,aloof  jazz players  who were w h i t e  w i t h u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g and a h i g h l y  musicians  sophisticated  knowledge o f m u s i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e movement h a s been c h a r a c t e r i z e d approach t o l i f e Since  c1948.  i n general.  attitude.  cool  by t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  466.Play  up  / p l e y ^ t p / v b . P 24  t o emphasize "He  or glamorize  p l a y e d up  F a n y t h i n g or anyone,as i n :  her housekeeping  t a l e n t s t o the  potential  husband." -up  s u f f i x wors,see  #6.  4 6 7 « P o o h - p o o h / puw-puw / t o pass  S 4  P  s o m e t h i n g o f f as n o n s e n s e ; t o d i s b e l i e v e . ( P )  Reduplication;onomatopoetic 468. P o p p i n g s - o f f / p o p i n s - o f / n . s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h one  formation. S 7  criticizes,complains,brags,rants  o r s t a t e s o p i n i o n s l o u d l y and without  e m o t i o n a l l y , w i t h or  cause.(WF)  Colloquial -off  P  s i n c e c1930.  s u f f i x word,see #246.  469. P o u r b o i r e / puwrbwar / n . a tip;a  S 19  F  gratuity.  C f . cumshaw #390. Orig.  f.  French.  470. Punks / pAttks / n . p l . S 13  F  a punk i s a p e t t y hoodlum;one who t o be  a hoodlum b u t  Poss.  orig.  it  t h i n k s he  wants  l a c k s r e a l toughness or  f. Hindustani v i a B r i t i s h  experience.  army use  where  meant.bread.  471. P u s s y f o o t / p u s i y f u t / v b .  S 18  F  to t r e a d d e l i c a t e l y or s o f t l y  on a s e n s i t i v e  area;  t o be v e r y q u i e t w h i l e moving a b o u t an a r e a o r p l a c e . Analogy 472. P u t up  t o t h e way  a cat  walks.  f o r grabs / put  g r a b z / S 29  t o open s o m e t h i n g f o r b i d s o r o f f e r s f r o m as in:"He d e c i d e d t o put the 473. R a i s e hob  / r e y z hob  / v b . P 24  to celebrate w i l d l y t h o r o u g h l y and 474. Red  c o n t r a c t up  everyone, for  grabs."  F  or t o c r i t i c i z e  or  castigate  i n anger.(WF)  power / r e d pawdr / n. S 6  M  t h e power o r i n f l u e n c e t h a t t h e have i n a n y  J  sphere  Formed by a n a l o g y  of  communists("reds")  activity.  t o b l a c k power,see #362a.  C f . brown power #369.  475. B e t h r e s h t h e i r s t r a v / r i y d r e s & e r s t r a w / vb. S 27 J t o go oyer t h e i r t h i n k i n g on a s i t u a t i o n o r t a s k again. Fig.  use h e r e .  476. B i b - t i c k l e r / r i b - t i k l a r / n . S 29 J a joke;something t h a t i s amusing.(WF) S i n c e c 1850 • -er  suffix.see  #32.  477.Schmo / smow / n. S 5 M a f o o l i s h * i d l e person;one  e a s i l y deceived;a naive  person;a goof.(WF) From the Y i d d i s h . sen- suggests d i s l i k e , d i s h o n e s t y . d i s i n t e r e s t . m o c k e r y or i s an attempt t o d e f l a t e pomposity;a v o c a l way  of  s h r u g g i n g one's s h o u l d e r s , 4 7 8 . S c r e w b a l l / s k r u v b ^ l / n. S 7 F an e c c e n t r i c person;one w i t h unusual i d e a s o r b e l i e f s ; a n u t ; a c r a c k p o t ; a goofy p e r s o n , O r i g . prob. f . b a s e b a l l . w h i c h c a l l e d a b a l l t h a t moved i n any unexpected way,a s c r e w b a l l . 479.Scorn / slum / n. P 29 J l o w ; c o n t e m p t i b l e , t r a s h y type of people,(WF) Fig.  use.  480.Shebang / sdba£ / n. S 3 F a c o l l e c t i o n of a l l one's p o s s e s s i o n s ; a c o l l e c t i o n of a n y t h i n g ; a n e n t i r e s e r i e s of a c t i o n s , a s i n : " THe whole shebang." C o l l o q u i a l s i n c e c1870. 4 8 1 . S l a s h / s l a s / n. P 27 F t h e waste o r s t u b b l e m a t e r i a l l e f t over a f t e r a l a n d c l e a r i n g p r o j e c t has been completed;usu.  i t i s burned,  thus.slash-burning. Meaning and f u n c t i o n a l change f . vb. t o s l a s h o r c u t something. 482,Smackdab / smakdab / adv. S 4 F d i r e c t l y ; p r e c i s e l y ; o n the mark,as in:"Smackdab i n the middle of t h i n g s , " Onomatopoetic  formation.  483.Smart-aleck / smart-alak / n. S 7 F a k n o w - i t - a l l ; a wise-guy;a wiseacre.(WF)(P) Orig.  C1870 i n U S A ; C o l l o q u i a l .  484.Smidgeon / s m i j e n a  small  / n . P 19 M  amount.(WF)  Colloquial  since  c1845.  4 8 5 . S m o k e s c r e e n s / s m o w k s k r i y n z / n . p l . S 25 F > cover-ups or d i v e r t e r s of attention,usu. important  away f r o m t h e  i s s u e w h i c h i s p r e s u m a b l y f a u l t y i n some  respect.Thus,diversionary employed t o f o c u s  tactics(smokescreens)are  the a t t e n t i o n elsewhere.  O r i g . p r o b . by a n a l o g y t o t h e h a z y smoke w h i c h a  fire  creates. 486.Spiel a  / s p x y l / n . P 19 M  bonspiel.  Abbreviation  through f r o n t - c l i p p i n g :  /bon/spiel.  From t h e German. 487.Snafu-in / snafuw-in / n. S 1 M s i t u a t i o n normal a l l fucked event i n which there  up - i n ; t h u s meaning an  i s a preponderence of bungling.  O r i g . WWII army u s e . An  acronym combined w i t h t h e - i n s u f f i x p a t t e r n ( s e e  #271).  4 8 8 . S n a p p i s h / s n a p i s / a d j . S 22 F nasty;quick  to retort  i n an u n p l e a s a n t  and u n c a l l e d f o r  manner. -  i s h s u f f i x added t o a n a d j . s n a p p y , g i v e s t h e meaning o f rather  o r somewhat.  489.Snappy / s n a p i y / a d j . S 24 P quickly;smartly;neatly,as  i n :"Make i t snappy!"  C o l l o q u i a l use. -y  s u f f i x , s e e #31.  4 9 0 . S n o w b a l l / snowbol / v b . P 20 F t o grow o r i n c r e a s e F i g . , with as  ref•  i t s rolled  rapidly.  t o how a s n o w b a l l b u i l d s up i n s i z e  down a s l o p e  i n wet,clinging  snow.  491 .Snowed under /  snovdjCndar  / vb, S 24 P  burdened by an excess of work or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Fig.  use.  492„Spitters  / s p i t a r z / n. S 22 F  bad times;bad l u c k , a s i n : "Last year was spitters for  one f u l l  of  me."  Prob. adapted f . the saying," a s p i t i n your eye." -er  suffix,see  #32.  493.Square / skwer / n. S 29  J  a person scorned because he i s not i n the know or esp. not  aware of modern i n t e r e s t s , a c t i v i t i e s , g r o u p s , f a s h i o n s  or f a d s which the speaker c o n s i d e r s v i t a l . O r i g . used by bop and cool groups,now w i d e l y accepted; e v o l u t i o n f . such e x p r e s s i o n s as:square John.square,head.etc. 4 9 4 . S t a r c h y ^ / a s t a r c i y / a d j . S 29  J  s t i f f l a n d unbending i n one's a t t i t u d e s , o p i n i o n s , e t c . fig.,  f . starched white c o l l a r s and c u f f s .  -y s u f f i x , s e e  #31.  495. Stumble bum / stA-mblbXm / n. S 11 F an unemployed,homeless s t r e e t beggar(esp. i f a l c o h o l i c ) who  i s u s u a l l y i n a dazed condition.(WF)  Now  jocular application.  496.Stumping / stXmpin / vb. S 29  J  campaigning f o r a p o l i t i c a l e l e c t i o n . From stump speech m e a n i n g , p o l i t i c a l speech. Since  d850.  497.Suckered-in / s J k S r d - i n / vb. S 13 F d e c e i v e d ; f o o l e d or t r i c k e d by f a l s e promises.(WF) - i n s u f f i x formation,see  #271.  498,Superjet /suwparjet / n. S 10 F a j e t a i r p l a n e much l a r g e r and capable of c a r r y i n g l a r g e r loads than normal j e t a i r p l a n e s e x i s t i n g today. Super-prefix.see #304-09.  499.Supersonic  /  above t h e  suwpdrsonik / a d j . S 1 M sound  barrier.  S u p e r - p r e f i x , s e e #304-09. 5 0 0 . S u p e r t a n k e r / suwpartaaxkar / n .  S 10  F  a t a n k e r l a r g e r t h a n most n o r m a l s h i p s ; o n e  capable  of  c a r r y i n g enormous l o a d s . S u p e r - p r e f i x , s e e #304-09. 501. Taps / t a p s / v b . to  S 27  J  t a p means t o b r o a c h ; t o  Community C h e s t special  draw f r o m , a s i n  t a p s a new  source  s e r v i c e s department o f the  O r i g . prob.  :"The  of funds  government.  f . t a p m e a n i n g , t o open up  or  o f l i q u o r and  502. T h i n g / O i n / n . P 7 what p l e a s e s one "Do  your  Cf.  bag  own  draw o f f t h e l i q u i d  11  penetrate  s o m e t h i n g so as t o e x t r a c t s o m e t h i n g f r o m a cask  i n the  i t , a s i n to  tap  from i t .  M  most;what i s more n a t u r a l t o one,as i n :  thing man." ?  #8.  503. T h i n k - i n / O i n k - i n / n.  S 17  F  a g a t h e r i n g f o r the purposes abilities  of p o o l i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l  to solve or d i s c u s s c e r t a i n  s u b j e c t s or  problems. Cf.  t h i n k - t a n k #322.  -in  suffix,see  #271.  504. Throw t h e book a t / Orow to  buk  penalize,punish,reprimand  a t / vb.  S 4  or c r i t i c i z e  F a  person  severely.(VF)(G0L) O r i g . underworld a criminal 505. Thug / eXg  u s e , f . the  t o e v e r y p e n a l t y i n t h e book o f  / n.  S 4  sentencing  law.  F  a hoodlum;a s t r o n g man guard  image o f a j u d g e  acting  o r employed as a body  o r t o commit a c t s o f v i o l e n c e o r  intimidation.(WF)  From H i n d i t h a g m e a n i n g , c h e a t o r s w i n d l e r ; a l s o a s s o c i a t e d with professional strangled their  robbers  victims.  and  murderers i n I n d i a  who  79  506. T i e k e y - t a c k e y / t i k i y - t a k i y / a d j . S 17  P  messy;touchy;sensitive;unpleasant. R e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h vowel 507. T i c k i n g  off /  a telling  tikiij  change.  of / n.  S 3 F  o f f ; a n upbraiding;a reproach;a  From t h e t i c k i n g  o f f of a person's  P a r t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p h r . -off  reprimanding.  name on a  list.  to t e l l o f f ,  s u f f i x word,see #246,  508. T o s h / t o s / n .  S 4  F  nonsense;rubbish;ridiculous.(P) Poss.f. d i a l , Since  t o s h y meaning,over-dressed  d890.  509. T r i n k g e l d / t r x n k g e l d / n . S 19 a tip;a Cf.  or tawdry.  F  gratuity.  cumshaw #390.  510. T r o u b l e s h o o t e r s / t r X b l persons any  suwtarz / n. S 3 F  employed t o seek o u t a r e a s  of d i f f i c u l t y i n  s i t u a t i o n , w i t h the purpose of d e a l i n g w i t h  any  t r o u b l e s b e f o r e t h e y become s e r i o u s , -er  suffix,see  /Xpetiy  511. U p p i t y  #32. /adj. S 3 F  s n o b b i s h ; a l o o f ; h a v i n g a s u p e r i o r manner;presumptuous.(WF) From u p + - i t y s u f f i x . O r i g . f . the  sense  of having  a l o t of money(cl680).  Colloquial. 512. W a s h - t r a d i n g / v o s quick  s t o c k market  Financial  middle An  F  a n g l o .sax on p r o t e s t a n t , d e s i g n a t i n g t h e c l a s s American*also  general  waspish,adj.  acronym. civil  rights  use.  suffix,seex#488.  514. Where i t s a t / hwer i t s a t / S 4 the p l a c e or time hip  F  manipulation.  S 27  M a i n l y h i p p y and -ish  S 12  jargon.  513. Wasp / wosp / n . white  t r e y d i ^ / n.  t h i n g s are  F  where a l l t h e b e s t , m o s t modern o r  happening.  515. W i s e d up / wayzd Jlp / v b . informed;able  F  t o see t h e p o i n t o f s o m e t h i n g , t o  the  r e a l i t i e s of a  -up  s u f f i x word,see  516. Z i l l i o n  S 13  / zilyen  situation,(WF) #6,  / n . E 17  F  an e x c e e d i n g l y l a r g e i n d e t e r m i n a t e N o t e t h e rhyme w i t h t h e  (iii)  realize  number.  models:million.billion.  HEADLINES  517. A l l f i r e d up / o l f a y r d A p  / vb.  angry  or annoyed;all enthused  to  something.(WF)  do  -up  suffix,see  S 30  o r worked up  A French  J  l o a n word.  a p e r s o n who Lit.  ready  r e f . to clothes,boots,fashions,etc.  519. A s t r o n a u t / a s t r e n o t / n . space  and  #6.  518. A p r e s - s k i / a p r e y - s k i y / a d j . S 29 after-ski,in  J  mans t h e  S 30  J  spaceships  on f l i g h t s t o  outer  or i n t e r s t e l l a r e x p l o r a t i o n s . a n a v i g a t o r of the  stars.  Compound f . word e l e m e n t s a s t r o - ( s t a r ) + - n a u t  (sailor,  navigator). Cf.  aquanaut  #4.  520. A - s u b / ey-sAb / n . atomic  S 31  J  submarine.  P o r t m a n t e a u word: a / t o m i c / - s u b / m a r i n e / . O r i g . WWII u s e . 521. A x e d / a k s t / vb.  S 31  J  severed;cancelled;cut  off;usu. with  some c o n n o t a t i o n  of  force,retaliation,unpleasantness,etc.  By  analogy  t o chopping  522. B e l l y - l a u g h / b e l i y - l a f a deep,loud,long from  the  axe.  /  u n i n h i b i t e d l a u g h - s a i d t o be  belly.(WF)  Colloquial.  w i t h an  coming  523. B i t  o f a b i n d / b i t 3 v 9 baynd / a d j . S 29 J  a predicament,as a tight 524. B i t  caused  by c o n f l i c t i n g  obligations;  s p o t ; a jam.(WF)  o f a c h o k e r / b i t a v a cowk0r / a d j . S 29 J  O r i g . any b i g , s o l i d a r t i c l e  of food which l i t .  choke one when swallowed;now s a r c a s t i c , i n that  any event  sadness  t h e sense  c a u s e s mock c h o k i n g o r h e a r t b r e a k ,  and t h e l i k e . ( W F )  525. Blow one's t o p / blow to lose  would  wAnz t o p / v b . S 7 F  one's t e m p e r ; t o  a tantrum  as a r e s u l t  become v i o l e n t l y a n g r y ; t o have  of uncontrollable  rage.  Colloquial use. C f . t h e p h r . blow one's s t a c k . 526. Blow-up /  blow-Jtp / n . S 31 J  an e x p l o s i o n ; a n u p r o a r ; a q u a r r e l ; a -up  s u f f i x word,see  fight.  #6.  527. B o n a n z a o f b e n e f i t s / b a n a n z a s v b e n e f i t s / n . P 4 F a fortune,or windfall  of b e n e f i t s . ( P )  From t h e S p a n i s h b o n a n z a meaning  prosperity.  528. B o o s t / buwst / v b . S 29 J to increase;advance;etc. 529. B r a i n d r a i n / b r e y n - d r e y n / n . S 29 J the l o s s  of i n t e l l e c t u a l s ( o r  lit.  their brains) to  a n o t h e r p l a c e o r company. Rhyming  reduplication.  530. B r e a k t h r o u g h  / b r e y k d r u w / n . S 28 J  an i m p o r t a n t o r c r i t i c a l the  success of  Orig. the  a  project  advance t o w a r d  completion or  o r endeavour.  f ; t h e f r q u e n t WWII m i l i t a r y a i m o f b r e a k i n g  enemy's d e f e n s e  through  lines.  Compound. 531 . B r u n c h - t i m e  / b r A n c - t a y m / n« S 29 J  a combined b r e a k f a s t and l u n c h e o n , u s u . e a t e n mid-way between t h e n o r m a l and  because i t s  times f o r b r e a k f a s t  lunch.  Portmanteau word: b r / e a k f a s t / +/l/unch.  532. B u f f s / W s  / n . p l . S 30 J  devotees;fans going  who  have a p a s s i o n  for collecting  t o spec, events or a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h  spec,  things, occupational  groups*WF) 533. Bushwhacked / bushwakt / v b . P 13 P attacked  by s u r p r i s e ; f i g * , f .  jumping out from behind Orig* western 534. B u s t /  bXst  t h e i d e a o f someone  bushes i n a s u r p r i s e attack*  jargon.  /adj. S 8 F  broke;penniless. F i g . use. 535«'Cash cache / k a s k a s / n . P 6 F a  secreted  sum  of  cash.  Punning r e d u p l i c a t i o n . 536. Chew o u t / cuw awt / v b . S 5 F t o r e p r i m a n d a p e r s o n s e v e r e l y ; t o bawl O r i g . t o chew o r b i t e in  a frontier  -out  someone's  fight;hence,angry  s u f f i x word,see  out.(WF)  ear,nose,finger,etc. enough t o chew him u p .  #11.  537. Conglom / kongldm / n . P 6 F a  conglomerate.  Abbreviation 538. Cops the  through b a c k - c l i p p i n g : conglom/erate/.  *n c h e e t a h c h a s e / k o p s d n c x y t chasing  o f a wanted man  ceys / n. P 1 F  b y t h e p o l i c e who  also  have a c h e e t a h . Alliteration. 539. Countdown the  / kawntdawn / n . P 29 J  a c t of counting  at equal  down f r o m a g i v e n number t o z e r o  intervals i n preparation  an e v e n t , a s p a c e s h i p  o r the  f o r the launching  of  like.  Compound o f c o u n t -f-down. -down s u f f i x word,see  #63.  540. Becorama / dekorame / n . S 4 F a long,expensive,spectacular o r s h o w , h a v i n g t o do w i t h  commercial  entertainment  i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i n g . (WF),  -ama.a r e c e n t n o u n - f o r m i n g s u f f i x ( c 1 9 5 0 ) f . panorama.which r e f e r r e d t o an o c c a s i o n wide s c r e e n  i s used.  i n m o v i e s where  an e x c e p t i o n a l l y  541. Der  t a g / dar t a g / n. P 8 F  the  day...  Ger.  l o a n w o r d j H i t l e r ' s s u p p o r t e r s u s e d rumors o f d e r t a g  ( t h e day) a s a means o f t e r r o r i z i n g p o t e n t i a l  victims  of the Nazis. 542. D e v i l - b e a t e r s / d e v a l - b x y t a r z / n . p l . S 12 F those and  persons  who  s e i z e upon some s i n , s c a n d a l o r p r o b l e m  b r i n g i t up o v e r  and o v e r  again i n order t o get  good"mileage" out of i t f o r t h e i r  own p r o f i t o r  a t t e n t i o n . a s i n : "The NDP a r e n o t h i n g b u t a l o t o f d e v i l beaters  over t h i s  Mainly p o l i t i c a l  Commonwealth i s s u e . " use;metaphorical.  543. DMZ / d i y em z e d / n . S 4 F demilitarized An  zone.  acronym.  544. E u r o d o l l a r / y u r o w d o t e r / a d j . S 10 F European d o l l a r  market.  Portmanteau word: Euro/pean/ 545. Eye  dollar.  / a y / v b . S 31 J  t o e x a m i n e ; t o l o o k a t , a s i n : "He e y e s t h e new B l o c k  42  contract." F i g . use;part 546. F a l l  o f s p e e c h change.  guy / f o i g a y / n . S 6 F  an e a s y v i c t i m ; a l o s e r ; a  scapegoat(¥F)  O r i g . t h e a t e r and s t a g e u s e . C f . stooge  #300.  547. F a l l o u t / f o l a w t / n . S 29 J r a d i o a c t i v e p a r t i c l e s d i s t r i b u t e d b y an a e r i a l explosion,falling Colloquial;now particle -out  from o r f l o a t i n g i n t h e atmosphere.  more g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n  t o other types of  distribution,  s u f f i x word,see #11.  548. F i n d o u r f r e e z e a. b r e e z e to f i n d ...a  nuclear  / f a y n d awr f r i y z ©  the c o l d weather s p e l l  breeze  from p h r . t o breeze  Rhyming a n d a l l i t e r a t i o n .  b r x y z / S 14 F  easy t o adapt t o . through.  549. F l a c k / f l a k / n .  S 29  J  a p r o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c i t y man Orig.  or press  t h e a t e r and M a d i s o n a v e .  Metaphorical  agent.  use.  formation.  550. F l a y s / f l e y z / v b .  S 1  F  criticizes;lambastes;rakes  oyer the c o l s ; c a u s e s t o a  s u f f e r p u b l i c a l l y . a s i n : "Dovding f l a y s  government  over...." Fig.  usage.  551. F r e e - w h e e l i n g spending  / frxy-hwxylin / adj. S 8  F  money l i b e r a l l y : i n d e p e n d e n t ^ u n r e s t r i c t e d . ( ¥ F )  Metaphor,f. c a r s . 552. F r i n g e b e n e f i t s / f r i n j  benefits./ n.pl. P 7  e x t r a a t t r a c t i o n s and or  event  554. G o t t a / god© /vb,  S 29  n.  lightjthe  From t h e t r a f f i c  got  in  J  s i g n t o advance o r  S 31  proceed.  #553.  lightjCf. J  to.  N o t e t h e t e l e s c o p i n g o f t h e two of  job,offer,  employment.  553. Go-ahead / gow-ahed / green  b e n e f i t s added t o any  i n o r d e r t o make i t more a p p e a l i n g ; u s u .  connection with  the  M  the  final  words and  the weakening  vowel t o a schwa,together w i t h  r e d u c t i o n of the  intervocalic  double  555. Gunnappers / gAnnaparz / n . p l . P 4 those persons  who  steal  guns;to  the  / t / to a  /d/.  F s e i z e and  take  away  guns. Formed by a n a l o g y -er  suffix,see  to  kidnappers,  #32.  556. Hardware / hardwer / n . P 2  F  weapons,guns,etc. Orig. implied r i f l e s b o u g h t i n hardware  and k n i v e s w h i c h c o u l d  stores.  557. H a s s l e / h a s d l / n . P 18  F  a:disagreement,dispute,quarrel or  fight.(WF)  be  or arguement;a s t r u g g l e  558. Hedge / he 3 / v b . to  be  P  indecisive  Functional  5 F or act  shift,  559. H i j a c k e r / h a y j a k a r one  vho  / n,  suffix,see  one  S 27  i n c r e a s e the  wages o r  who  hijacks a  J  S 29  J  h i t means t o a r r i v e death t o l l  hits  at or reach;to  500."  o r "A  identification  attain,as i n :  storm h i t s  Vancouver."  usage.  562.ID c a r d s / ay d i y k a r d z / n .  S 30  J  cards.  a b b r e v i a t i o n by  563. K i c k b a c k  raise  prices.  Meaning c h a n g e ; f i g .  An  / kikbak  back—clipping:id/entification/  / n.  S 29  manager o r b u y e r by a s e l l e r i n o r d e r t o or g a i n  -off  increase  use.  564. K i c k o f f / k l k o f / n . beginning  From t h e  S 30  J  of anything,as  football  a m e e t i n g , c a m p a i g n o r game.  term,  s u f f i x word,see #246.  565. K i d n a p p i n g  / k i d n a p i ^ / vb.  s e i z i n g people  S 27  J  f o r the purposes of e x t o r t i o n .  Formed f r o m k i d ( c h i l d ) + n a p ( p r o b . f . nab) 566. L a t c h to 567. L a t e  agent,  favors.(WF)  Orig. underworld  the  cards.  J  money r e t u r n e d u n e t h i c a l l y t o a f i r m , p u r c h a s i n g sales  or  truck,plane,etc.  amount o f s o m e t h i n g . ( W F ) ; t o  561. H i t s / h i t s / v b . "The  h o l d s up  #32.  560. H i k e / hayk / vb  to  J  o f goods b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d i n q u a n t i t y ,  often i l l i c i t l y ; a s  to  S 28  f o r c e s , c o e r c e s o r s t e a l s ; o n e who  robs,esp, -er  indecisively,(WF)  on t o / l a c on tuw get  ahold  of. s o m e t h i n g o r  flashes / leyt  news i t e m s  / vb.  S 27  + -ing.  J  someone.  f l a s a z / n . p i . S 30  J  of i n t e r e s t , a s i n : " L a t e f l a s h e s from  pentagon r e p o r t . . . . "  the  568. L a u n d r o m a t / l o n d r O m a t / n . S 8 F a p u b l i c w a s h i n g p l a c e f o r c l o t h e s ; a washouse c o n t a i n i n g c o i n - o p e r a t e d w a s h e r s and d r y e r s . Portmanteau Also,by  word;laund/ry//aut/omat/ic/.  analogy  with  o t h e r -omat w o r d s : d r i n k o m a t . e t c.  569. L i n e up / l a y n i p / v b . S 27 J to arrange  for;to  organize  s o m e t h i n g o r someone,as i n :  "He  l i n e d up a d e a l w i t h U n i t e d  -up  s u f f i x , s e e #6.  Steel*"  570. L0wdown / lodawn / a d j . S 30 J unfair;unethical;degraded;vile;low.(WF)(P) Colloquial  s i n c e c1900,  -down s u f f i x word,see #63. 571. M a x i / m a k s i y / a d j . P 7 F maximum. A b b r e v i a t i o n b y b a c k - c l i p p i n g : maxi/mum/. Formed b y a n a l o g y  t o mini,see  #573.  572. M i c r o / maykrow / a d j . P 7 F microscopic. A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : m i c r o / s c o p i c / . 573. M i n i / m i n i y / a d j . P 7 F minimum. A b b r v i a t i o n b y b a c k - c l i p p i n g : ^ m i n i /mum/. 574. M i n i - m i n i s / m i n i y - m i n i y z extra  / n . p i . P 18 F  short dresses which are a l r e a d y v e r y  short.  Reduplication. 575. Move i n on / muwv i n on / v b . S 29 J to take  over;to push o u t , e i t h e r w i t h  or without  violence. 576. M u c k r a k e r / mAkreykSr / n . S 12 F one in  who s e a r c h e s order t o r u i n  Colloquialjprob. Cf. mudslinging  o u t and b r o a d c a s t s another's  reputation.  c o i n e d by Teddy #182.  scandals,esp.  Roosevelt.  577.Nab / nab to  S 27  / vb.  c a t c h or s e i z e  "The  i n arrest;to  p o l i c e nabbed the  Colloquial  assent  or  seize  suspect."  S 28  J  approval(P)  okayed  #191. S 3 F  579.One-two p u n c h / wAn-tuw pAnc / n. two  suddenly,as i n :  C1685.  since  578.Okay / ow k e y /  Cf.  J  blows i n r a p i d  succession.(P)  From b o x i n g j a r g o n . Fig.  use  after 580.Ouster  t o mean two  the  s e t b a c k s i n any  other.  / awstSr  S 31  / n.  a rejection;a forceful e x p e c t an shape -er  J purge  o f someone,as i n : " J o n e s  o u s t e r from h i s j o b as  chairman  i f he  can  doesn't  up."  suffix,see  #32.  58l.Outdraw / awtdro / vb. to  plan,etc.,one  S 29  J  g a i n s u p e r i o r i t y i n a t t r a c t i n g numbers o f p e o p l e  o r t h i n g s , as i n : " T h i s year's PNE  will  o u t draw  last  year's." o u t - p r f i x word,see #457. 5 8 2 . O v e r b o u g h t / owvdrbot / v b . purchased  S 29  J  more t h a n n e c e s s a r y o f a n y t h i n g .  5 8 3 . O v e r - t h e - c o u n t e r / m a r - ^ & - k a w n t a r / a d j . S 29 J s t o c k market term a highly  r e f . t o cheap,unregistered stock of  speculative character.  Orig. prob,  f . produce  cheaper  and  o f more d o u b t f u l q u a l i t y t h a n t h o s e  special  order.  584.Paper l e a d e r / p e y p 0 r a false  sold  o v e r t h e c o u n t e r w h i c h were  l i y d a r / n . P 12  leader;superficial  boss;not  on  F the  l e a d e r b u t a p p e a r i n g t o be  so.  Formed by a n a l o g y t o p a p e r  tiger.#202.  true,effective  585. P e r m a - p l a t e s / p a r m a - p l e y t s / n . P 1 M l i c e n c e p l a t e s which  s t a y p e r m a n e n t l y on t h e c a r , a d d i n g  only a small year-tag Portmanteau  s t i c k e r t o the p l a t e  w o r d : perma/nent/  586. P o l l u t i m a t u m / p a l u w t i m e y t a m an u l t i m a t u m handed i n the  each y e a r .  plates.  / n . S 19  F  down on t h e t o p i c  of p o l l u t i o n  atmosphere.  Portmanteau  word: p o l l u / t i o n /  587. P o t / p o t / n . S 29  /ul/timatum.  J  marijuana. Orig. Cf. 588. Pop  j a z z use,now g e n e r a l  LSD  s t u d e n t and b e a t u s e .  #171.  a r t / pop  a r t / n. S 30  J  popular a r t . A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : p o p / u l a r / a r t . Cf.  #213.  589. P s s t / p s t / n . S 14  F  an a t t e n t i o n g e t t i n g  sound meaning e x c u s e me,hey,  come h e r e , e t c . Onomatopoetic 590. P u n c h l i n e  /  formation.  pXnc' l a y n / n . S 3 F  the  last  its  meaning and  Lit.  line,sentence  or p a r t  of a joke t h a t  gives  humor.(YF)  t h e l i n e w h i c h p a c k s t h e punch;now u s e d i n a w i d e  number o f s i t u a t i o n s , n o t a l l j o k e s . 591. P u s h e r s / p u s a r z / n . p l . S 6 F t h a t p a r t y , g r o u p or o r g a n i z a t i o n which  s e l l s drugs t o  users f o r a profit.(P) -er 59laPut  suffix,see  something  to Fig  postpone  on i c e / p u t semGin on a y s / v b . S 6 F o r p r o c r a s t i n a t e an  event,plan,etc.  usage.  592. P u t s o m e t h i n g to  #32.  on t h e l i n e  / p u t sdmOin on <fe l a y n / v b . S 6 F  risk  job,reputation,money or the l i k e  i n order to  b a c k up  o r show s e r i o u s s u p p o r t f o r y o u r  contentions,etc.  89  593. Q u i z / k w i z / n . a  S 29  J  short examination,or  Colloquial  C1860,  since  594. Q u i z z e d / k w i z d / p p . t o be  Fig.  J  F  usage.  circle  S 27  J  about;to e n c i r c l e  597. Road jam / rowd jjfcm / n . P 7 a crowd o r c o l l e c t i o n  the  Since 598. R o o k i e  something M  a l l traffic  c1900 w i t h t h e / r u k i y / n.  causing delays,confusion  buggies.  S 30  J i s inexperienced;  recruit.  Usu. -ie  used  up  i n r e f . t o p o l i c e m e n , a t h l e t e s o r army  suffix,see  599.See-saw / and  #31•  sly-so / a d j . S 1  F  analogy to c h i l d r e n ' s  600.Shysters  /  change. see-saw i n a  s a y s t d r z / n . p l . S 30  s h y s t e r i s a c r o o k e d , c o n n i v i n g , s m a l l - t i m e money or lawyer;one  who  how  conducts  business.(WF)(P)  hw  Since  d880.  -ster  suffix,see  in  playground.  J  lender  a  stock  today."  A l l i t e r a t i o n w i t h vowel By  recruits,  d o w n ; f l u c t u a t i n g , a s i n : "See-^aw p r i c e s h i t t h e  market  601.Ski  sheer  like.(WF)(P)  a b e g i n n e r ; a n a p p r e n t i c e ; o n e who  a  o r someone.  o f c a r s on t h e r o a d , t h e  number o f w h i c h s t a l l s  a  examined.  or r e p r i m a n d s ; b l a m e s ; c r i t i c i z e s . ( W F )  596. R i n g / r i t t / v b .  and  be  .  r a p s / v b . P 18  rebukes  to  S 29  questionned l e n g t h i l y ; t o  Colloquial 595. Raps /  set of q u e s t i o n s .  bum  /  his  i s not very p a r t i c u l a r  on  #218.  s k i y bAra / n . P 17  s k i e n t h u s i a s t who  F  changes h i s j o b l o c a t i o n  o r d e r t o be n e a r t h e  s k i slopes.  frequently  602,Slams / s l a m z / vb  S 1 P  c r i t i c i z e s ; s e v e r e l y reprimands;accuses,as slams Cf.  t h e government o v e r Commonwealth  fiasco."  r a p s #595.  Fig.  use.  603.Smash /  smas / n. S 31  J  a popular successja hit;usu or  i n :"Berger  the  applied to a  t  play,movie  like.  Loanword from B r i t i s h  slang.  604. Smash-up / smaS-Jlp / n . S 8 F an a c c i d e n t ; a c r a s h , a s i n an a u t o m o b i l e  c r a s h where  both  c a r s a r e smashed o r h e a v i l y damaged. -up  s u f f i x word,see  #6.  605.Sneak p r e v i e w / s n i y k p r i y v y u w / n . S 31 a preview else  and  o f an e v e n t , s h o w , p l a y on t h e q u i e t , s o no  J  or the l i k e , b e f o r e  one knows a b o u t  anyone  i t ; some  connotation of e x c l u s i v e n e s s . 6 0 6 . S o f t - p e d a l / s o f t - p e d d l / n . S 28 de-emphasization  J  o f an o p i n i o n o r i d e a t h a t w i l l  evoke  an u n f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e . ( W F ) O r i g . f« t h e s o f t p e d a l on a p i a n o . 6 0 7 . S p a c e b a l l / s p e y s b o l / n . S 11  F  a game o f b a s e b a l l p l a y e d i n o u t e r s p a c e . Portmanteau Note the  word: space  /base/ball.  rhyme:space-/base-/-ball.  608. Spy j a c k / spayja^t / n. S 8 F a hijacker,usu.  o f a plane,who i s t h o u g h t t o be a  spy  g e t t i n g h i s way  t o a f o r e i g n power w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n  gathered. Portmanteau Cf.  word: spy  /hi/jack/er/.  #276.  609.Squeeze /  s k w l y z / n . S 29  J  extortion;graft. Functional  shift.  6 1 0 . S t i f f / s t i f / a d j . S 27  J  t o u g h ; u n b e n d i n g ; a l l o w i n g no liquor  laws."  exceptions,as i n : " S t i f f  611oSuperblock  / suvpSrbloTc / n . S 27  an a p a r t m e n t in  J  b l o c k or a b l o c k i n a c i t y , w h i c h i s l a r g e r  f a c t and i n c o n c e p t t h a n any  Super- p r e f i x , s e e  other.  #304-09.  6 1 2 . S u p e r - c o n s u m e r s / suwp9r-konsyuwm©rz / n . P 18 consumers o f a w i d e v a r i e t y o f g o o d s , w i t h  F  the  e m p h a s i s on w i d e . S u p e r - p r e f i x , s e e #304-09. 6 l 3 y T a b / t a b / n. S 29 a bill;an  J  amount o f money owed on an u n p a i d  C o l l o q u i a l ; C f . p h r . t o p i c k up  bill.(YF)  the t a b .  614. Take a powder / t e y k a pawder / v b . P 2 P to  d e p a r t ; t o r u n away.(VP)  From t h e e a r l i e r . t a k e  a run-out  615. Take o f f / t e y k o f / v b . S 30 to  powder.  J  leave or depart r a t h e r h a s t i l y ,  -off  s u f f i x word,see #246.  6 1 6 © T a k e s tumble / t e y k s x t i m b a i / v b . p h r . falls or  the  S 3 F  r a p i d l y i n v a l u e ; u s u . s a i d of s t o c k s , r e a l e s t a t e like.(P)  From t h e l i t . s e n s e Financial  of f a l l  t o the  ground.  jargon.  617. T e l l y / t e l i y / n. P 8 F television. A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : t e l / e v i s i o n / . 4 - - l y . Orig. B r i t i s h slang. 618. T i e - i n / t a y - i n / n . S 27  J  a connection,a relationship.(WF) -in  suffix,see  619. T i z z y / tiziy  / n.  a f i t or p e r i o d  #271. S 4 F of nervousness,anxiety or c o n f u s i o n .  Dialectal. 620. T r a n s p l a n t s / t r a n s p l a n t s / n . S 27 t r a n s f e r s o f human o r g a n s  from  J  one p e r s o n t o  By a n a l o g y t o t h e g a r d e n i n g p r o c e s s .  another.  621. Tvo-gun /  tuw-gSn  / a d j . S 29  J  s a i d o f a town w i t h few a n d s m a l l  defenses,usu.  d e n o t i n g i n f e r i o r i t y and impotency. 622. UFO / yuw e f ow / n . P 7 F unidentified flying An  objects.  acronym.  623. ¥ h i p p i n g - b o y / h w i p i n - b o y / n. S 29 J a person  i n any group o r o r g a n i z a t i o n g e n e r a l l y used  a s t h e one t o t a k e  the brunt  a t t h e group from w i t h o u t  o f any c r i t i c i s m  aimed  or w i t h i n .  Mainly p o l i t i c a l use. 624. ¥ i n d - d r i n k e r / w i n d - d r x t i k 9 r / n , S 4 F one  who i s a l w a y s b e h i n d t h e o t h e r s i n c o m p e t i t i o n s  or the l i k e . L i t . , o n e who d r i n k s t h e w i n d o f a n o t h e r him-er  sports use. suffix,see  #32.  625©Wiped o u t / vaypt-Qwt / vb. S t  F  eradicated;obliterated;cleaned -out Cf.  i n front of  out of a l l p o s s e s s i o n s .  s u f f i x word,see #1t. #344.  6 2 6 . W i t c h h u n t / wiVhAnt / n . S 15 F a s e e k i n g out o f wrong-doers,usu. i n p o l i t i c s . ( W F ) 6 2 7 * W r i t e - u p / w r a y t - A p / n . S 31 J a w r i t t e n account w r i t t e n review -up  or a r t i c l e , a s  i n a newspaper,esp. a  of a product,celebrity.entertainment,etc  s u f f i x word,see  #6.  62:8.Zap / z a p / v b . P 27 F to defeat  decisively.(WF)  ( i v ) ENTERTAINMENT.SOCIAL a n d WOMEN'S 629.Backroom b u t c h e r / bakruwm b u c d r / n . S 27 J an  illegal,untrained  By  gruesome a n a l o g y  abortionist., to a butcher  c u t t i n g meat.  630. Bang-up / b a ^ - i p / a d j . S 27 J excellent;first-rate;exciting,etc.(said o r t h i n g s ) . (VP) (.F) Since -up  of people  ^  C1810.  s u f f i x word,see #6. / behaynd & a e y t b o l yVfcS 31  631. B e h i n d t h e e i g h t b a l l t o be i n t r o u b l e Orig.  or i n a d i f f i c u l t  f . a popular pocket b i l l i a r d s  l o s e s i f the no. 8 b a l l  j  situation.(VF) game i n w h i c h one  i s h i t into a pocket.  632. B l o c k b u s t e r / b l o k h A s t e r / n . S 5 F a difficult  situation  or problem.  From t h e name g i v e n t o t h e l a r g e s t h i g h - e x p l o s i v e bombs d r o p p e d o f WWII.One  by t h e Western a l l i e s  towards  the end  s u c h bomb was c a p a b l e o f d e m o l i s h i n g a  c i t y block. 633. Boob-tube / buwb-tyuwb / n . S 14 F television. T h i s term i m p l i e s t h a t watching Rhyming  o n l y i d i o t s waste  time  television. reduplication.  C f . #660. 634. B r a i n t e a s e r / b r e y n t i y z a r / n . S 27 J some c h o r e o r j o b t h a t t e a s e s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l or s t i m u l a t e s -er  powers  them,  s u f f i x , s e e #32.  635. B r o a d / b r o d / n . S 27 J a girl;a  woman.  By  o r f r o m t h e c h e s t a r e a o f a f e m a l e where t h e y a r e b r o a d  in  measurement.  636. Camp / kamp / a d j . P 24 F Orig.,having  spec. r e f . t o p i c t u r e s which  everyday objects,now From a p i c t u r e Campbell's first  portray  common  g e n e r a l l y t o a n y t h i n g so made u p .  b y t h e Pop a r t i s t ~ A n d y W a r h o l , o n w h i c h  soup c a n a p p e a r s  four l e t t e r s  i n s u c h a way t h a t  o f t h e name C a m p b e l l ' s  a  only the  are v i s i b l e .  94  637<»Childrenese / c i l d i e n i y z / n . P 24 P childrens talk:children's  vocabulary.(¥F)  -ese,noun-forming s u f f i x denoting the vocabulary peculiar Cf.  t o an o c c u p a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l , e t c .  journalese,,officialese.  638,Chipper / c i p a r / a d j .  S 31 J  well;fit;lively.(P) Colloquial  s i n c e C1880.  6 3 9 o C l i n c h e r / H i n t e r / n . S 27 J the  conclusive statement,event,fact  o r arguement.(P)  From v b . p h r . t o c l i n c h a b a r g a i n . a d e a l . e t c . —er  s u f f i x , s e e #32.  Colloquial  since  d804.  640. Combo / kombow / n . S 5 F a combination  of people  or instruments  making up a  s m a l l j a z z band.(WF) A b b r e v i a t i o n by b a c k - c l i p p i n g : c o m b / i n a t i o n / +  -o s u f f i x ,  t  giving Pop  t h e word a f a m i l i a r , s l a n g y  connotation.  a n d c o o l u s e s i n c e c1945.  641. Come-on / kAm-on / n . S 19 M an i n v i t a t i o n ; t h e into  a situation  a c t of e n t i c i n g i n w h i c h he w i l l  someone t o e n t e r be v i c t i m i z e d , u s u .  financially.(WF) Orig.  f.  t h e a t e r a n d r a d i o u s e ; c o o l u s e s i n c e c1950.  642. C r e e p i e s / k r i y p i z / n . S 3 F shellfish  o f any k i n d .  From t h e i d e a t h a t t h e y c r a w l  o r creep  a  l o n g the  bottom o f the s e a . -ie 643. F l u b /  s u f f i x , s e e #31.  flXb  / vb. P 1 F  to bungle;to  b l u n d e r ; t o make a m i s t a k e , e s p .  embarrassing  o n e ; t o make a f a u x pas.(WF)  644. F o o t — s t o m p i n g  an  / fut-stdmpin / adv. S 4 F  enough t o make one stamp one's f o o t , u s u . i n e x c i t e m e n t , a s i n a dance  or approval,as  i n : "Foot-stomping  Compound;Note t h e a l t e r n a t i o n C f . #39.  stamp/stomp.  good."  645oGet w i t h i t / g e t w i 6  i t / vb.phr. S 3 F  t o g e t on t h e b a l l ; t o  g e t g o i n g ; t o g e t busy.(WF)  Cf, current phr. with i t i n expression l i k e with  "He's  not  it."  646. Goof o f f / guwf o f / v b . P 1 F t o make a m i s t a k e , b l u n d e r  or faux pas;(VF);to i d l e  away  t i m e ; t o dodge work. -off  s u f f i x word,see #246.  647. G o o f / guwf / n . S 15 a person that From d i a l , Since  M  is silly,soft  or stupid.(P)  g o o f . g o f f meaning,a  fool.  C1920.  648. G r a s s / g r a s / n . P  18  F  marijuana. C f . p o t #587 and  similar  a d d i c t s , o r i g . as p a r t Now  s u b s t i t u t e words u s e d by  of a s e c r e t in-group  drug  language.  w i d e l y known and u s e d e s p . by s t u d e n t s , h i p p i e s , e t c .  649. G u f f a w s / g e f o z / n. p i . S 27  J  loud,derisive laughter. Onomatopoetic f o r m a t i o n . 650. H a l f - b a k e d / h a f - b e y k t / a d j . S 7 lacking  F  in intelligence;silly;half-witted;also  with  connotation of a l a c k i n g i n c u l t u r e . ( P ) a s i n ; " T h a t was  a half-baked idea."  Orig. poss. f . B r i t i s h proverb(Cornwall)"He  i s only  h a l f - b a k e d ; p u t i n w i t h t h e b r e a d and t a k e n o u t w i t h the  cakes."  651. Hangups / h a ^ i p s / n . p l . P 19  F  mental b l o c k s ; s p e c i a l enthusiasms or i n t e r e s t s , o r t h a t a person i s obsessed -up 652.  s u f f i x word,see  fig.,  by.  #6.  Hard edge / h a r d e j / a d j . S 31 J clearly  s e p a r a t e d , a s i n h a r d edge p a i n t i n g , m e a n i n g  canvas w i t h c l e a n , c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n s of N e o l o g i s m ; t e c h n i c a l jargon of  artists.  a  colors,areas,etc.  653»Hard-r©ck a  / h a r d - r o k / n . S 20  t o u g h guy;a  M  s n e e r y , u n e m o t i o n a l man  who  has  little  concern f o r others* ^  Fig*  use o f r o c k .  654.Heart-tugging / h a r t - t i g i n / adj*  S 3 F  sad;e m o t i o n a l l y up s e t t i n g ; h e a r t - b r e a k i n g . Fig.,  t o tug the s t r i n g s  o f one's  heart.  655*Hydro / haydrow / n© P 24 F the  electricity  or  and gas  company;hence,electricity  gas.(A)  A  fianadianismthvdro-electric  power:Niagara  Falls  p r o v i d e s h y d r o f o r many f a c t o r i e s ; h e n c e , a company o r commission, p r o d u c i n g o r d i s t r i b u t i n g e l e c t r i c i t y a s a utility. From G r e e k h y d r o meaning 656*Hydroplane a  / h a y d r a p l e y n / n*  S 1 F  s p e c i a l t y p e o f b o a t t h a t moves so f a s t  water i t almost Portmanteau  compound o f word e l e m e n t s : h y d r o and or  satisfaction.(WF)  6 5 8 * K i c k t h e h a b i t / k i k he h a b i t / v b * p h r . P 12 drop or stop the h a b i t  bad o r w o r t h l e s s ; t o f o r c e Orig*  drug a d d i c t  659. L o u s e up / l a w s X p to Fig. —up  /air/plane  F  thrill,excitement  to  over the  flies.  6 5 7 * K i c k / k i k / n . P 18 a  water*  of doing  F  something,presumably  oneself to stop.  jargon* / vb* S 17  M  s p o i l , r u i n , b o t c h o r mess up  something.(WF)  f . l o u s e a s a word o f a b u s e ; C f . s u f f i x word,see  #169.  #6.  660. M a g i c t u b e / magik tuwb / n . S 27 J television. Fig*,magic  i n the sense t h a t  i t brings other parts  of the  w o r l d and e v e n o u t e r space t o o u r homes. C f . b o o b t u b e #633 f o r a n e g a t i v e  attitude.  661. Markdowns / markdawnz / n . p l . S 15 F a r t i c l e s i n a s t o r e t h a t have  been marked down i n p r i c e .  T r a d e j a r g o n , -down s u f f i x word,see  #63.  6 6 2 • M i n i m a l a r t / m i n i m a l a r t / n . S 31 J a r t w h i c h u s e s t h e minimum o f components t o e x p r e s s its  message*  Artists  jargon*  663. Mock-up / mok-Ap / n . S 27 J a m o d e l ; a mock v e r s i o n  of a real  purposes of study,display,etc. mock-up o f t h e new B l o c k 42 -up  thing,usu*  f o r the  a s i n : "He u n v e i l e d t h e  center."  s u f f i x word,see #6.  664. N e e d l e / n f y d a l / v b . S 31 J to  irritate;annoy.(P)  Pig.  665. N.G.  use o f needle*  / en j i y / a d j *  no  good .  An  acronym.  S 27 J  666. N i f t y - l o o k i n g / h x f t i y - l u k i i i / a d j . P 19 P s t y l i sh;smart;attractive;etc. Common s i n c e  c1930.  667. P u r c h a l e a s e / p d r c a l i y s / n© S 20 F leasing it  something w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of p u r c h a s i n g  i n the end;the p l a n  t o do t h i s - s p e c . , a c a r .  P o r t m a n t e a u word: p u r c h a / s e / 668. Q u i c k i e s  / k w i k i y z / n . p l . S 27 J  anything -ie  lease.  done o r made q u i c k l y . ( W F )  s u f f i x , s e e #31.  669.S.A. / e s e y / n. S 27 J sex An  appeal. acronym.  670.Scratch / skrac  / n . P 24 M  money;available lit.  cash.(WF)  t h a t w h i c h h a s t o be s c r a t c h e d  scratches Since 671 . S c r a t c h y  for,like a  f o r food.  c1915. c l a t t e r / s k r a c i y k l a t B r / n . P 21 F  a rasping voice;chatter  i n an i r r i t a t i n g v o i c e .  chicken  672.Shot down i n f l a m e s / s o t dawn i n f l e y m z / p p . a d j o  S 5 F  beaten i n an arguement.(P) Orig. airforce  s l a n g from  WYI.  6 7 3 . S i d e k i c k / saydkik / n. S 5 M a close  companion;a mate.  Prom t h e a t e r a n d s t a g e u s e ; C f . s t o o g e #300 a n d f a l l  guy  #546. Canadianism  since  c1915.  6 7 4 . S l a s h e d t o / s l a s f c tuw / v b . S 5 F cut  down t o ; r e d u c e d t o ( a s i n p r i c e s  of a r t i c l e s i n a  store.) Trade  jargon;fig. use.  675.Sopwith-skimmer / sopwiO - s k i m S r / n . S 31 J ' a snow s k i d o o ( h u m o r o u s  application).  Prob. a f t e r Snoopy's(Peanuts  comic  strip)airplane,  w h i c h was i t s e l f named a f t e r t h e S o p w i t h a i r p l a n e Cf.  i n WWII.  snowmobile #285.  676.Soulmate / sowlmeyt / n . S 30 J a companion,lover  o r p a r t n e r who i s a t t u n e d t o y o u r  soul  as y o u a r e t o h i s o r h e r s . C o o l and j a z z u s e . S o u l - . a d j . prefix,now u s u . p e r t a i n s t o N e g r o e s  or things  b a s i c a l l y N e g r o ; s i n c e c1962 i t h a s a l s o expanded t o indicate  authentic  sensibility,emotional  sincerity,  honesty,etc.,esp. as r e l a t i n g  t o c o o l and b e a t p e o p l e .  Cf.  brother.etc.  soul food.soul musicYsoul  677.Sound o f f / sawnd o f / v b . P 12 M to  t a l k , e s p . t o complain or expostulate a t length;  to  list  one's c o m p l a i n t s o r o p i n i o n s v e r b a l l y . ( W F )  O r i g . army u s e . -off  s u f f i x word,see #246.  678.Spin-off / spxn-of / n. S 6 F an e x t r a i d e a o r t h i n g r e s u l t i n g  from a major  idea or  thing(as a by-product);as i n : " l o u r idea f o r the p r o d u c t i o n waste i s a s p i n - o f f market -off  orientation."  s u f f i x word,see #246.  Business  jargon.  f r o m o u r main p r o d u c t  679.Stag; / s t a g / a d j . P 12 M a  s i t u a t i o n o r e v e n t meant o n l y  companions.(VP)as  in:stag  f o r men w i t h o u t  female  party.  Fig. use. 680.Store  t e e t h / s t o r t i y O / n© S 31 J  false  t e e t h ; n o t n a t u r a l but bought,as i n a s t o r e .  Prob.  by analogy t o store  application),and  clothes.store  bought(general  so on©  6 8 1 . S t a i g h t m a n / s t r e y t m a n / n . S 27 J a c o m e d i a n ' s a c c o m p l i c e who a c t s a s h i s f o i l j a  stooge.  T h e a t e r and stage u s e . Cf.  s t o o g e # 3 0 0 , f a l l guy #546 a n d s i d e k i c k #673.  6 8 2 . S t u f f / s t A f / n . S 30 J i m p l i e s v a g u e n e s s i n t h e s p e a k e r ' s mind o r i g n o r a n c e of t h e p r e c i s e for  term  or name{generally  anything through  Colloquial  since  used  a s t h e name  l a z i n e s s t o u s e t h e p r o p e r name,etc.  C1860.  6 8 3 . S t u n g / stA» / v b . S 8 F cheated,esp.  by a  merchant;overcharged.(VF)(P)  F i g . use of stung. 6 8 4 . S u p e r m a r k e t / suwpdrmarket / n© S 27 J a large and  s e l f - s e r v i c e store  often household  Super685.Swingles  prefix,see  s e l l i n g groceries,produce  articles.  #304-09©  / swingelz, / n . S 30 J  swinging  single people.  Portmanteau word:swing/ing/  /sing/les.  Neologism. 686.Tatty / t a t i y / a d j . S 8 F worn { t h r e a d b a r e , unkempt a n d d i r t y , a s i n : "'Tatty Cf.  British  dial©  clothes."  t a t meaning,tangle.  6 8 7 © T e l e t h o n / t e i a O o n / n . S 27 J a long,continuous s o c i a l the  t r a n s a c t i o n c a r r i e d out by  telephone.  P o r t m a n t e a u word: t e l e / p h o n e / /mara/ thon.  688. T e x t b o o k y / t e k s t b u k i y / a d j . P 8 P resembling a textbook;having as a t e x t b o o k ; d e r o g a t o r y  t h e same a p p r o a c h  and s t y l e  application,  -y. s u f f i x , see #31 o 689. Tops / t o p s / a d j . S 27 J the b e s t of a n y t h i n g , e i t h e r people highest;vonderful,as  or t h i n g s ; r a t e d  i n : "She's t o p s ! "  690. Tube / tyuwb / a , S 27 J television. From t e l e v i s i o n  tube.  G f . #633 a n d #660. 691. U p t i g h t /  Aptayt / adj.  P 18 P  c o n v e n t i o n a l ; s e t i n one•s w a y s ; s q u a r e ; t e n s e ; h u n g - u p ; upset  and f r u s t r a t e d  over  something.  Mainly student use. 692. V o c a l d o m / v o k d l d a m / n . P 24 M the realm  o f speech;wherever the v o i c e i s heard,  -dom s u f f i x , n o u n - f o r m i n g means f i g . , t h e  realm  or e r a  or time o f . 693. Z e s t y / z e s t i y / a d j . S 27 J vitality;animation;energy;etc.,said -y  of people  or food,  s u f f i x , see #31 •  694. Z i n g /  / n . P 27 P  vitality;zest;animation. w .  . . ( v ) SPORTS  695. B a n k r o l l / b a n k r c j l / v b . S 19 P t o s u b s i d i z e , s u p p o r t or pay f o r an e v e n t , e t c . Punctional  shift.  696. B l a d e s / b l e y d z / n . p l . S 28 J ice  skates.  Synecdoche. 697. B l i t z e d / b l i t s t  / v b . S 30 J  t o have f o r c e d one's way t h r o u g h  rapidly.  Prom b l i t z / k r i e g / m e a n i n g . l i g h t n i n g ( w a r ) . a devastating,overpowering  attack.Now used  massive, i n E n g l i s h a s vb.  698. B l o w e r / b l o w a r a  / n. S 4 M  telephone.  Orig. prob. 699. B l u b b e r - b o y  f . bJLower,meaning a t a l k a t i v e  person.  / b U b a r - b o y / n. S 4 F  a f a t man. From b l u b b e r . t h e 700. B u d d i e s  f a t of a whale(a  gross animal).  / b A d i y z / n . p l . S 31 J  close  friends;pals;companions.  701. Champ /gamp/ n . S 4 F champion. A b b r e v i a t i o n by  back-clipping:champ/ion/.  702. C l o b b e r e d / k l o b e r d / v b . S 31 J beaten 703. C o a s t w i s e for  thoroughly. / kowstwayz / S 4 F  t h e c o a s t ; a s f a r as the c o s t goes,as i n : "Speaking a  c o a s t w i s e , t h e V a n c o u v e r Canucks w i l l (the  Coast here  -wise  host Portland...."  i m p l y i n g t h e B.C. c o a s t . )  s u f f i x word,see #434.  704. D o l l o p / d o l a p / n . S 28 F a lump;a sum; t h e l o t ; a p o r t i o n D i a l . poss.  of something.(P)  f . N o r w e g i a n d o l p meaning,a  lump.  705. Donnybrook / d o n i y b r u k / n . S 29 J a loud noisy  arguement,fight,brawl,riot,etc.(WF)  From Donnybrook f a i r , h e l d a n n u a l l y i n t h e R e p u b l i c o f I r e l a n d . T h e 1855 f a i r was s u p p r e s s e d 706. D o u b i e h e a d e r / d A b l h e d a r two  because of w i l d  D  r  a  w  ^  / n. S 1 F  games p l a y e d on t h e same day,one i m m e d i a t e l y  a f t e r the  other. 707. Dumb-dumb /  dXm-dAm  / n. P 4 M  a very stupid or foolish Dumb i n t h e s e n s e  person.  of stupid  shows t h e i n f l u e n c e  of Ger.  dumm(stupid) a n d o f s i m i l a r words i n o t h e r G e r . l a n g u a g e s . Rhyming  reduplication.  708. Dumped / dAmpt / v b . S 27 J to  be t h o r o u g h l y b e a t e n , a s  i n a s p o r t o r game;won  h a n d i l y o v e r ; l e f t way b e h i n d  i n points.  709. F a c e o f f / feyso*f / n . S 27 a s i t u a t i o n i n which to  face  their  J  two  members o f a team s t a n d f a c e  t o h i t the b a l l ( b a s k e t b a l l ) or puck(hockey)to  respective  teams,when i t s t o be t h e d e c i d i n g  point  i n t h e game, -off  s u f f i x word,see #246,  710. F l o o r m a n s h i p / f l o r m a n s x p / n,  S 13  P  a b i l i t y w h i l e on t h e f l o o r p l a y i n g i n a b a s k e t b a l l Prob,  formed  Stephen  by a n a l o g y t o - s h i p p a t t e r n o r i g i n a t e d  made smart and  secure a favorable  712. Hoop / huwp / n ,  S 13  and t h r o u g h w h i c h a  /  vb,phr, S 27  s e t - u p when i t s t i m e t o w i n , ( P ) c1880.  F  i n b a s k e t b a l l , t h e metal /key  s k i d z f o r wxn  s u c c e s s f u l p r e p a r a t i o n s i n advance  Orig, naval colloquialism  713. K.0.  by  Potter,(e,g,brinkmanship,one—upmanship,)  711 . G r e a s e d t h e s k i d s f o r w i n / g r i y s t which  game,  circle  the b a l l  from which  t h e n e t hangs  i s thrown t o s c o r e .  ow / n . S 1 F  knockout.  Boxing jargon. An acronym:knock out,now u s e d a s a word. 714. K o o k s / kuwks / a d j . S 30  J  crazy;nutty;stupid people. Poss. f .  cuckoo.  715. L a u g h i t up / l a f i t Ap to  /vb.phr.  P 7 M  take events l a u g h i n g l y , w i t h a nonchalant  For  use  of i t without antecedent,see  -up  s u f f i x word,see  #36.  #6.  716. M e a t - g r i n d e r / m i y t - g r a y n d e r / n . S 22 tough,rough  attitude.  F  a c t i o n , a s i n : " T h a t game was  a real  meat-  grinder." By a n a l o g y t o t h e a c t i o n o f a m e a t - g r i n d e r . 717. Mooch / muwc / v b . S 30 to  beg  J  food,money o r t h e l i k e ; t o  amount w i t h o u t i n t e n d i n g t o r e p a y  borrow,esp. it.(WF)  a small  P  7 1 8 . O l d - h a t / o w l d - h a t / a d j . S 28 J well-known;routine;easy.(P) o l d - p r e f i x word,see  #454.  719.Oodles / uwdalz / n. S 4 M many;great  quantities,as in:"Oodles  o f money."  720.Oomph / uwmf / n . S 30 J sex  appeal;power;excitement;enthusiasm.(WP)  . Onomatopoetic 721.Out  formation.  o f one's h a i r / a v t a v  to  keep  wAnz; h e r / v b . p h r . S 29 J  o u t o f one's h a i r means t o s t o p a n n o y i n g  irritating  or  h i m ; t o k e e p o u t o f h i s way.(VP)  722. Bee-wee / p x y - w i y / n . S 4 F usu.  said  baseball Rhyming 723. P r a t f a l l  o f s p o r t s p l a y e d b y young b o y s , a s league."  reduplication. / pratfol  / n . P 14 F  a defeat;a p i t f a l l ; f i g . , f r o m From 724. P u l l to  in:"Pee-wee  falling  on t h e b a c k s i d e .  e a r l i e r p r a t ( b u t t o c k s ) and f a l l .  f o r / p u l f o r / v b . S 29 J r o o t f o r ; t o hope f o r t h e b e s t f o r ; t o  725. P u s h - o v e r / pus-owvar  support.  / n . S 27 F  a n y p e r s o n , g r o u p o r team e a s i l y d e f e a t e d i n a 726.Scattergat  / skatargat /n. S 4 M  shotguns;the From 727.Shaded  contest.(VF)  type  o f gun t h a t s c a t t e r s  s c a t t e r and g a t ( g u n ) . a n  shot  pellets.  a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r G a t l i n g gun.  / s e y d d / v b . S 27 J  won(a game)by a v e r y s m a l l m a r g i n . ( P ) 728.Shamateur  / samabar  / n . S 10 F  a p h o n e y a m a t e u r ; a p e r s o n who r e t a i n s amateur plays professional P o r t m a n t e a u word:  status but  o r a c c e p t s money. sh/am/amateur.  7 2 9 . S h o c k e r / s o k a r / n . S 31 J an e v e n t , r e s u l t o r circumstance -er  s u f f i x , s e e #32.  that r e a l l y  s u r p r i s e s one.  730,Shutout /  sAtawt / n,  S 29  a game i n w h i c h one scoring,as i n : -out  team i s c o m p l e t e l y e x c l u d e d  I t was  11  s u f f i x word,see  731*Socked-in /  J  a complete  from  shutout*"  #11*  s d k t - f n / vb*  S 4  F  kept  i n or s t a t i o n a r y ; s t o p p e d from p r o c e e d i n g w i t h p l a n s ,  usu.  because of f o u l weather or the l i k e .  From WWII a i r f o r c e  (.WF)  s l a n g i n r e f . t o an a i r f i r e l d  unusable  because of f o g . -in  suffix,see  #271.  732*Southpaw / sawOpo / n .  S 13  F  a left-handed person. Orig.  f . b a s e b a l l or boxing  handed p l a y e r o r Cf.  northpaw  j a r g o n where i t meant a  left-  boxer.  #188.  733*Subbed f o r / sAbd f o r / vb.  S 19  F  substituted for. A b b r e v i a t i o n by -ed  back-clipping:sub/stituted/.  an a d j . f o r m i n g  suffix.  734*Trimmed / t r i m d / vb* in  S 27  games,means b e a t  easily.  7 3 5 * T r i v i e r a / t r i v i y e r e / n* the  realm  J  S 11  of t r i v i a ; t h e  M  spot or a r e a g i v e n over t o  the  d i s c u s s i o n of minor t h i n g s . Formed by a n a l o g y  t o model  Riviera.  Portmanteau word: t r i y / i a / + 736*Under t h e deals  t a b l e d e a l s / XnABr ^ © t e y b e l d i y i z / n . p l . P 12  o r a r r a n g e m e n t s made s e c r e t l y and  r e g a r d i n g the beat  soundly  S 26  or  or  thoroughly*  -up  concluding,completing series  of  illegally,  F  738*Wrap-up / wrap-.AP / a d j . S 28 the  often  outcome o f a game,a p l a y e r ' s m o v e s , e t c .  737*Whomp / hwomp / v b , to  /riv/iera.  events.  s u f f i x word,see  #6*  F  or f i n i s h i n g u n i t  i n any  event  F  (vi)  COMICS  739. B o b b l e s / b o b a l z / v b . t o b o b b l e means t o 740. Bow  out  / baw  awt  to leave;to  S 20  F  f u m b l e ; t o mess u p ; t o  / vb.  S 12  ruin(something)•  F  b r e a k o f f a s i t u a t i o n o r r e l a t i o n s h i p by  departing, -out  s u f f i x word,see  741. Buck / h£k a  / n.  M  dollar.  P o s s . f . the 742. Cop  S 11  #11.  / kop/  a n i m a l buck;wide c o l l o q u i a l use  vb.  S 28  the  d850.  F  to win;to carry o f f catch "Cop  since  or  capture(a  p r i z e ) as i n :  money John." 7  C f . #54,55,384. 743. C r e e p / k r i y p / n. a p e r s o n who  S 11  gives  objectionable  M  one  the  " c r e e p s " ; a n odd,loathsome  person.(WF)  744. C r u i s e r s / k r u w z a r z / n . p l . S 5  M  taxicabs,which cruise theestreets Meaning -er  suffix,see  Abbreviation  S 22  by  F  a pretty girl  car,etc.)  back-clipping:  746. D o l l / d o l / n . P 17  o r woman,esp. one  d i r e c t analogy to toy  747. Don*t h a n d me  that;don't  with elaborate  / f i o r d / vb.  active  S 1.8  falls  on  the  simply  graces  the  contribution,(WF)  doll. tell  me  /  S 22  F  such l i e s ; d o n ' t t r y  stories. F  shocked or s u r p r i s e d ( t o the t a i n t s and  who  t h a t / downt hand miy Sot  d o n ' t g i v e me me  demo/nstrator/.  F  s c e n e r a t h e r t h a n make an  748. F l o o r e d  fares.  #32.  a demonstrator model(of a  t o con  of  change,  7 4 5 » D e m o / demow / n.  By  i n search  p o i n t where one  floor).(WF)  almost  or  106  749. F l u n k e r o o / f U n k a r u v a bad  failure.  -eroo  suffix orig.  hyperbole 750. Go  / n . S 15  F  f . the S p a n i s h - e r o and  indicates  i n English.  jJLmp i n c f e l e y k /  jump i n t h e l a k e / gov  S 3  M  an e x p r e s s i o n meaning:go t o h e l l ; t a k e o f f . A euphemism. 751. Go n u t s / gov t o go  nXts / v b . p h r . S 7 M  c r a z y ; t o go  o u t o f o n e ' s mind due  t o an  intolerable  situation. From t h e " t a l k i e s " 752. G r o o v y / g r u w i y  cl929.  / a d j . S 12  F  e x c e l l e n t ; s a t i s f y i n g ; i n keeping v i t h O r i g . c1935 s v i n g use cool  and  f a r - o u t use  one's  by m u s i c i a n s and  desires.  devotees.Some  s i n c e c1955.  From i n t h e g r o o v e . v h e n a p h o n o g r a p h p l a y s i t s n e e d l e is  i n t h e groove  In the  of the r e c o r d .  groove.prepositional phr. gives:  Groovy a d j . . a groove 753.Idiot  n.,  and  t o groove  c a r d . / i d i y e t k a r d / n . S 20  a prompter card.usu. used to t e l l  t h e m.c.  a s i f he v a s  an  i n enttertainment(TV  F child.(P)  From t h e young o f a g o a t . C f .  #152.  someone / l e v e l v i 8 sAjnvcvn / v b .  t o be h o n e s t v i t h i t up  S 5  someone;to g i v e t h e f a c t s t o  / l i v i t Xp  / S 17  -up  a t any p a r t i c u l a r s u f f i x vord,see  to  t o the  time, p l e y f o r / vb.  one's charms t o i m p r e s s  shov a r o m a n t i c  someone.(P)  #6.  757. Make a p l a y f o r / meyk 6 t o use  F  F  t o have a good t i m e ; t o r e a l l y e n j o y l i v i n g up hilt  ,etc.)  idiot.  a c h i l d , e s p . a young  756. L i v e  F  v h a t t o s a y n e x t ; h e n c e , t r e a t i n g him  754. K i d / k i d / n. S 17  755. L e v e l v i t h  vb.  interest  S 30  J  one  of the  opposite  sex;  i n one  of the  opposite  sex.(VF)  758.Out / a w t / a d j . S 7 M unconscious.(P) Meaning 759. P u s s y c a t  change. / pusiykaVt / n . S 1 M  a g i r l ; a n endearing 760. R a t  name f o r a g i r l f r i e n d .  on / r a t oh / v b . S 27 F  to  i n f o r m on;to t e l l on.  C f . # 764,235. 7 6 1 . S h a r p y / s a r p i y / n . S 11 M a person -y  self-consciously alert;a  shrewd,alert  person.(WF)  suffix,see#31.  762.Smashing / s m a s i n / a d j . S 22 P good;great;marvel1ous;excellent. Prom B r i t i s h  slang.  C f . a smash h i t . t h e U.S. v e r s i o n , a b a c k - c l i p p e d f o r m . 763.Sock i t t o me / s o k i t tuw m i y / S 1 P deliver to  i t t o me;give i t t o me w i t h z e s t , a s i n : " S o c k i t  me b a b y ! " r e q u e s t e d  o f any g o o d , e x c i t i n g o r i m p r e s s i v e  thing. Prom s o c k meaning,a h a r d  blow w i t h t h e f i s t ; h e n c e , f i g . u s e .  7 6 4 . S q u e a l on / s k w i y l on / v b . S 25 P to  inform  on;to t e l l  s e c r e t t h i n g s about  someone.(P)  C f . #760. 7 6 5 . S t o k e up / s t o k A p / v b . S 26 F to  e a t ; n o u r i s h o n e s e l f ; f i l l up on f o o d .  From s t o k i n g a n e n g i n e . -up  s u f f i x word,see #6.  766.Sudden c a s e a  o f the smarts /  sudden r e a l i z a t i o n  person;a  aV & e smarts /  S 22 F  o f t h e t r u t h about a s i t u a t i o n o r  w i s i n g up t o s o m e t h i n g .  767. T h i r d d e g r e e / prolonged  sXdan k e y s  eard d i y g r l y / n . S 27 F  q u e s t i o n i n g and/or rough h a n d l i n g o f a p e r s o n  as by t h e p o l i c e , i n  order t o obtain information or force  a confession of guilt.(WF) 768. T h i s one's on y o u / Sis  wAnz o n yuw /  S 11 M  t h i s i s your t r e a t ; t h i s o r d e r ( o f drinks,food,etc.) you w i l l p a y f o r ; i t s y o u r t u r n t o p a y .  769. T i p o f f / t i p o f / v b . to  S 28  F  give p r i v a t e informationabout;to  information to Colloquial -off  supply  inside  someone.(P) C1890.  since  s u f f i x w o r d , s e e #246.  770. T o p s i d e  /  on t o p  topsayd  / n.  S 19  F  of;above.  t o p - p r e f i x word m e a n s , i n command o f o r i n c o n t r o l .  (vii)  FINANCE  771. B e a r i s h / b e r i s / a d j . P tending  t o f a v o r low  a fall•fi  n  a  n  Orig. phr. being "to  ial  was  sell  the  of  stocks;speculation for  jargon.  prob. " s e l l  the  b e a r skin',' s u c h  j o b b e r s . i n r e f . t o the  bear's s k i n before  a bear,to  sell  one  what one  has  product  of  / n.  S 20  one's i n t e l l e c t  bargainers proverb:  caught the  does n o t  s u f f i x , s e e #773;an a d j . f o r m i n g  772. B r a i n c h i l d / b r e y n c a y l d any  F  values  called bear-skin  Hence,sell -ish  c  14  bear."  possess.(P)  suffix  meaning,like.  F or imagination,as  a plan,  invention,work of a r t or t h e e l i k e . Colloquial. 773. B u l l i s h / b u l i s / a d j . S 18 tending  to favor high values  stocks;a a rise  and  p r i c e s of  corporate  s t r o n g market t r e n d ; p o s i t i v e s p e c u l a t i o n f o r  i n prices.(P)  Financial  jargon.  P r o b . f o r m e d by -ish  F  bull.a  suffix,see  774. C a t c h / k a c  / n,  strong  #771. S 14  F  a problem;a d i f f i c u l t y ; a otherwise Functional  good p l a n  Colloquial  flaw  or the  part  of  or easy task t h a t causes  shift.  775. D e a d b e a t s / d e d b x y t s / n . worthless  beast.  S 31  J  i d l e r s , e s p , i f spongers. s i n c e C1875.  an difficulty.  776. F r e e z e / f r i y z / n . S 5 F a holding fast  or remaining  s t a t i o n a r y ; remaining a t  one  l e v e l . a s i n : "They p u t a f r e e z e o n p r i c e s . " Colloquial  s i n c e C1880.  777. P e p p y / p e p i y / a d j . S 14  F  energetic;spirited.(P) -y 778.Soft  s u f f i x , see #31 • market / s o f t markat / n. S 3 F  weak;unreliable Financial 779. T a k e o v e r  market w i t h p r i c e s p o o r  and  o r s t o c k market j a r g o n .  / teykowvar / n. S 5 F  the t a k i n g of c o n t r o l or i n s u c c e s s i o n t o  of something  by t r a n s f e r  another.  780. Up-powered / Xp-paword / n. S 1 2 F beefed-up;increased Prob.  fluctuating.  i n power.  f o r m e d by a n a l o g y t o model up-tempo.  from  CONCLUSIONS AND  SUMMARY  The concept of pure o r s t a n d a r d language  i s by d e f i n i t i o n based  upon a p r e s c r i p t i v e approach d e r i v i n g i t s potency l a r g e l y from t h e w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n * T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s s t a n d a r d i z i n g concept s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c r e a t e d t h e non-standard,the  slang,and a s s i g n e d i t  c h i e f l y t o vocaldom. Newspapers,of c o u r s e , a r e p r e - e m i n e n t l y u s e r s o f t h e w r i t t e n word,but t h e y a r e , I b e l i e v e , o c c u p a n t s of a s p e c i a l p l a c e i n the r e a l m of the w r i t t e n word - a p l a c e n o t f a r from the spoken word* T h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r , t h e book,while a l s o t h e w r i t t e n word,was and i s , w i t h regard to l e x i c o n , c h i e f l y e x c l u s i v e rather than i n c l u s i v e * That i s , a s M a r s h a l l McLuhan p o i n t s o u t , t h e book i s a p r i v a t e 1 0  c o n f e s s i o n a l form t h a t p r o v i d e s a p o i n t o f view f o r the author  and  r e a d e r a l i k e . T h e newspaper,on the o t h e r h a n d , i s a group c o n f e s s i o n a l form t h a t promotes communal p a r t i c i p a t i o n * M c L u h a n terms t h e p r e s s a communal mosaic o f f e r i n g c o r p o r a t e images o f s o c i e t y i n a c t i o n i n which the r e a d e r becomes v e r y i n v o l v e d i n t h e making of meanings f o r t h e c o r p o r a t e image.The format r e v e a l s the i n s i d e s t o r y o f a community i n a c t i o n and  interaction,presenting  t h e d i s c o n t i n u o u s v a r i e t y and i n c o n g r u i t y of o r d i n a r y l i f e . A l l i s u n i f i e d by a d a t e l i n e . l t i s , i n contemporary terms,a hot medium. W h i l e the approach of t h e newspaper has always been l a r g e l y t h i s w a y , i t s a p p e a l i s complementary t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t phenomenon of t e l e v i s i o n , w h o s e low v i s u a l o r i e n t a t i o n and h i g h involvement are apparent.Next  t o the t e l e v i s i o n , t h e newspaper i s t  t h e f a s t e s t g a t h e r e r and d i s s e m i n a t o r of news and as such i s , ...not merely a r e p e t i t i o n of o c c u r r e n c e s and r e p o r t s but a d i r e c t cause of events.11 I t i s t h r o u g h the medium o f the newspaper t h a t our e x p e r i e n c e i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a new medium whereby ve r e c e i v e a p l a y b a c k of e a r l i e r awareness. The news i s a near a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o the g r a p e v i n e . . . • h a v i n g an i n t e n s e l y g r a p h i c and base c h a r a c t e r .  12  With t h i s  i n mind,it  seems r e a s o n a b l e t o  papers are,in fact,bordering d i s s e m i n a t i o n , b a s e d as We  a l s o know t h a t  c l o s e l y upon t h e  t h e y are  upon t h e  slang,in great  slang  poetry  i s therefore  format.It  an  oral tradition  immediate  p a r t , i s also  b a s e d upon immediate e x p e r i e n c e and termed i t , " t h e  s t a t e t h a t d a i l y news-  ingredient  experience.  characteristically  i s p e r h a p s , a s S.  of everyday l i f e . "  We  that  news media  newspaper i s t a k i n g  s u b - g r o u p i n g s t h a t make up  and  d i r e c t t r a n s p o s i t i o n making them i n t o McLuhan's newspaper  m o s a i c on Por as  this  a daily  e a r l i e r , w i t h i n the  more c l o s e l y t h e Initial  l e x i c o n above i n o r d e r  evidence f o r slang  observation  c a r r i e d o u t ( s e e page  p r o v e s the  i n each  contention  an  " i n " jargon.This  r e a s o n s f o r the particular of the still  public at large remains f u l l y  social  of  t h a t the  intelligible  stratification  B u s i n e s s and g r o u p and  usage at  original  p o p u l a r i t y of  a large  a  segment  built  has  g r o u p ' s members. a conscious  i n t o i t , w h e r e b y i f you  example,you must use  the  on.There i s a d i s t i n c t  social  are  "in"  element in  the  jargon  Sports,  pressure,both  imposed.  W h i l e e a c h g r o u p o r c a t e g o r y does have i t s own there  i s i n e v i t a b l y a good d e a l  these  s p e e c h c o m m u n i t i e s . T h i s has  vast  slang  " i n " y o u r s e l f . S i m i l a r l y f o r people i n  so  self  until  only to that  sub-group usage a p p a r e n t l y  considered  examine  comprehend t h e m , e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t  entertainment business,for t o be  to  attempt  of the  s l a n g . E v e n when t h e  group's s l a n g terms i n c r e a s e s  Much o f t h i s of  evolution  s u p p o r t s one  eleven)  area.  found i n each category i n d i c a t e s at l e a s t a b a s i c developing  society  basis.  r e a s o n c a t e g o r i z a t i o n was  explained  mosaic of everyday  the  social by  the  I . Hayakawa  must r e c o g n i z e  e s s e n t i a l to the  i s a l s o important because the  of  m o b i l i t y of  of c r o s s o v e r occurred,of  s o c i e t y a t l a r g e and  peculiar  influence  between  course,because of  through the  intermingling  o f i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p m e m b e r s . O v e r l a p p i n g t e r m s t e n d t o be w i t h a wide f i e l d c r a c k d o w n . g u t s and  of a p p l i c a t i o n , s u c h bum.  as  slang  those  bag.bandwagon.blasted.  the  The  major f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the  choice  of the  d i v i s i o n s examined were b r e v i t y and  of the  very  of  spatial  i t s being  a s p e c i a l q u a l i t y of  eye-catching the  l i m i t a t i o n s of the  appeal  slang  items i n  any  impact:brevity,because  newspaper f o r m a t as w e l l  as  slang;impact,because of i t s  so n e c e s s a r y i n t h e  crowded j u x t a p o s i t i o n s  of  newspaper.  Thus,in Headlines,brevity we  of  must be  able  to  attention.Other and  but  needs t o stand In S p o r t s , a the  impact are  s c a n them q u i c k l y and  devices  purposeful  and  are  of c r u c i a l  importance-  t h e y must "grab**  o f t e n u s e d , s u c h as  i n t e r e s t i n g confusion,but  our  rhyme,alliteration  c h i e f l y the  headline  out. dramatic  f r e n z y i n the  q u a l i t y i n usage i s i m p o r t a n t , r e l a t i n g  game o r  to  contest.  F i n a n c i a l usage,while not  d r a m a t i c , d o e s l e a n d i s t i n c t i v e l y more  t o w a r d s a d e f i n i t e " i n " j a r g o n w h i c h i s much l e s s g e n e r a l l y  or  w i d e l y known. Quite slang  s u r p r i s i n g l y , E d i t o r i a l s p r o v e t o have a h i g h  and  character  informal and  u s a g e and  are  often  o f an  content  of  overall colloquial  tone.  E n t e r t a i n m e n t and  s o c i a l pages are  e s p e c i a l l y laden  w i t h more  unusual terminology,due perhaps to t h e i r broad coverage of a l l the  p u r e and  the  segment o f l i f e  this  applied arts.Generally t h a t has  speaking,these areas  wide t o l e r a n c e s  i s naturally reflected in their  Comics c o n t a i n  a basic  and  quite  f o r the  represent  unusual,and  slang.  consistent  level  of  slang,  perhaps because i t i s such a h i g h l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l form expression,leaving Of  wide l i m i t s  a d d i t i o n a l importance  i s the  for individual interpretation. fact  that  syndicated,thus w i d e l y read,and t h e r e f o r e  comic  comic  by  strip  Caricatures Schultz  language i n f o l l o w i n g the characters,as and  so  i s a prime  well  as  example)  often  by  of  experiences  s i t u a t i o n responses  character  o n . ( e . g . t h e comic  s t r i p s are  themselves a source  s l a n g . T h r o u g h p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n one laughter  of  language  s t r i p P e a n u t s by  of  through  Charles  The  most p r o d u c t i v e d i v i s i o n comes,of c o u r s e , f r o m  areas vhere Like true  are  a n y t h i n g e l s e d e v i s e d and u s e d  by human b e i n g s ,  s u b j e c t t o t h e whims o f f a s h i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  o f s l a n g and  i n f o r m a l usage,where f o r m a t i o n p a t t e r n s a r e  c l e a r l y discernable.Compound f o r m a t i o n s , f o r example,are extremely  p r e v a l e n t means o f f o r m i n g new  s i n c e a b o u t 1960 and  when c i v i l  the f i r s t  word t o g a i n  many o t h e r s have s i n c e been f o r m e d by a n a l o g y  have a l s o f o l l o w e d t h e  A r e c e n t and  and  others. s u f f i x , f o r m i n g such  prankster.  i n c r e a s i n g l y frequent productive p r e f i x i s  thus.superbowl.superport from  t h e model o f  As w e l l as t h e  and  superblock.al1 deriving  ultimately  r e l a t i v e p o p u l a r i t y o f compound f o r m a t i o n s  in  t r e n d worth n o t i n g i s t h a t s l a n g i s  g e n e r a l l y r e c e p t i v e t o m o n o s y l l a b i c words more t h a n is  super-;  superman.  s l a n g usage,an important not  it.Hence,  same p a t t e r n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g :psfch|-out.  r e c e n t l y become a n o t a b l y p o p u l a r  terms as:punster  to  currency  swim-in t o name some.Other p r e p o s i t i o n s  come-on.freak-out.camp-up and - s t e r has  popular  r i g h t s p r o t e s t s began t o g a i n  a t t e n t i o n . S i t - i n was  b e - i n . l a u g h - i n . l o v e - i n and  an  words.Productive  f o r m a t i o n s w i t h - i n as a s u f f i x word have become v e r y national  general  t h e r e i s t h e g r e a t e s t o v e r l a p between sub-group u s a g e .  almost  languages  the  o n l y because of the f a c t o r  of c o n c i s e n e s s but  polysyllabic,  a l s o because i t  t h a t v e r y b r e v i t y t h a t makes i t e f f e c t i v e . A d d i t i o n a l l y , w o r d s  beginning with a f r i c a t i v e popular  o r e x p l o s i v e were by f a r t h e most  i n a l l divisions.Thus,words  h gave c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r c o u n t s F i n a l l y , v i v i d metaphor was of  slang,perhaps  old In  due  S i m i l a r l y today,our regarding  the  cork  characteristic  t o base new  formations  o f t h i s t h e s i s i t was  noted  a marked i n c r e a s e i n t h e a w a r e n e s s o f age  seems t o have a d i s t i n c t i v e  c e n t u r y l e x i c o g r a p h e r s and language.  a frequent  on  on).  language.However,whereas t h e  approach,todays  a l l others.  f o u n d t o be  the i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraphs saw  than  t o slang's tendency  content(e.g.to p u l l  the Renaissance  b e g i n n i n g w i t h p , b . c . f , _ s , and  seventeenth  grammarians a d o p t e d  an  that  language.  consciousness and  eighteenth  authoritarian  movement i n d i c a t e s a g e n e r a l p e r m i s s i v e n e s s  in  114  Nov v e seem t o know enough t o e n j o y p e r c e i v i n g how t h e  language  o f a s u b - c u l t u r e may e n r i c h t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f l a n g u a g e , I n it  i s important  to realize  t h a t news m e d i a - t i e d t o w o r l d s y n d i c a t i o n  a s t h e y are-now h e l p t o d i s s e m i n a t e t h e s e immediately.The  sub-culture variants  a d o p t i o n o f s l a n g and i n f o r m a l usage i n the  newspapers s t u d i e d r e f l e c t s  the m u l t i p l i c i t y of s o c i a l  sub-groups,  t h e mark o f immediacy i n t r a n s m i s s i o n a n d t h e p e r m i s s i v e in  our approach  t o language  t h e f a r more i n c l u s i v e phenomenon  i s another  characteristic  n a m e l y , t h e d o u b t t h a t a n y one t h i n g another,Many s o c i o l o g i s t s  quality  today.  Perhaps t h i s p e r m i s s i v e n e s s i n language  is  particular,  i s in itself  seem t o a s s e r t  aspect of  o f o u r age; better  t h a t what men  than ought t o do  m e r e l y what t h e y c a n be shown t h a t t h e y do d o ; t h e n , f e a s i b l y ,  by extension,what or write.Thereby  men do s a y o r w r i t e i s what t h e y s h o u l d s a y " o b s e r v e d u s a g e " g a i n s d a i l y on s t a n d a r d u s a g e .  FOOTNOTES  1 James S l e d d and Wilma E b b i t t . D i c t i o n a r i e s and ( C h i c a g o : S c o t t , F o r e s m a n and C o ,1962Lp.28.  That D i c t i o n a r y  s  2  S l e d d and  Ebbitt,p.30.  3 James S l e d d and G. K o l b . D r . J o h n s o n ' s D i c t i o n a r y ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press,1955),p.36. 4 of  H a r o l d Wentworth and S t u a r t B e r g F l e x n e r , P r e f a c e , D i c t i o n a r y A m e r i c a n Slang(New York:Thomas Y. C r o w e l l Co.,1967),p.vii. , ,  M  5 C h a r l t o n L a i r d . T h e M i r a c l e o f Language(Greenwich.Corau.: Fawcett P u b l i c a t i o n s Inc.,1963),p.68. 6 Leonard Bloomfield.Language(New York:Holt,Rinehart 1961),pp.402-403. 7  Wentworth and  and  Winston,  Flexner,p.xi.  8 T h i s o u t l i n e of the l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n o f s l a n g r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon Wentworth and F l e x n e r , p . 5 9 6 . 9 Edward S a p i r . L a n g u a g e ( N e w Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e 1949),p.18.  and  World  10 M a r s h a l l M c L u h a n . U n d e r s t a n d i n g M e d i a: T h e E x t e n s i o n s (New Y o r k : S i g n e t B o o k s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 1 8 3 . 11  McLuhan,p.190.  12  McLuhan,p.189.  of  Inc., Man  116  A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l l e n , H a r o l d B. R e a d i n g s i n A p p l i e d E n g l i s h L i n g u i s t i c s . N e w Y o r k , Appleto-Century-Crofts.1964.Especially the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s : The P e r s i s t e n c e o f T r a d i t i o n i n Grammar b y C h a r l e s V. H a r t u n g D a r e S c h o o l s S e t a S t a n d a r d i n E n g l i s h Usage? b y R o b e r t Poo'ley D i c t i o n a r i e s and L i n g u i s t i c s b y H a r r y R. V a r f e l A P o i n t o f L e x i c o g r a p h i c a l Method b y D a n i e l Cook Bach.Edmond.An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammars.New Y o r k , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . 1 9 6 4 . B a i l e y , D . W . I n t r o d u c t o r y Language Essays.New York,W.W. N o r t o n and C o . , I n c . 1 9 6 5 . E s p e c i a l l y the f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s : The C o n s e r v a t i v e and A l t e r n a t i v e F o r c e s i n Language b y W.D. Whitney V a r i o u s S o u r c e s by O t t o J e s p e r s e n A m e r i c a n S l a n g b y H.L. 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