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Identity, disguise and satire in three comedies of John Marston Pegg, Barry Malcolm 1969

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IDENTITY, DISGUISE AND  SATIRE IN THREE  COMEDIES OF JOHN MARSTON  by  BARRY MALCOLM B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  PEGG  of Keele,  1963  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF  in  ARTS  t h e Department of English  We a c c e p t required,  THE  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY ,OF BB.2T.I SH COLUMBIA July,  1969  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  by  thesis  advanced degree at Library  I further for  this  shall  the  of t h i s r written  agree that  University  of  permission  representatives. thesis  f u l f i l m e n t of  make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may his  in p a r t i a l  be  available for for extensive  g r a n t e d by  the  It i s understood  for financial  gain  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  British  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and c o p y i n g of  that  not  the  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  c o p y i n g or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e use o f the c o n v e n t i o n s o f d i s g u i s e and d e c e p t i o n ( 1 5 7 6 - 1 6 3 4 ) — W h a t  Courtesan—in  i n t h r e e comedies o f J o h n M a r s t o n  You W i l l . The M a l c o n t e n t . and The Dutch  order  t o examine h i s h a n d l i n g  of a convention  f o r thematic purposes. The  frequency of d i s g u i s e i n the theatre of the period  may be e x p l a i n e d  by i t s a p p e a l on more t h a n one l e v e l .  I t s d i r e c t v i s u a l d i s p l a y o f t h e a t r i c a l i n g e n u i t y was an immediate s o u r c e o f c o m p e l l i n g  interest f o r a l l spectators,  w h e t h e r i n comedy o r t r a g e d y .  On a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l ,  the m e t a p h y s i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c y pearance and r e a l i t y were  explored  t h e m a t i c a l l y by t h e more  t h o u g h t f u l o f the p u b l i c - t h e a t r e p l a y w r i g h t s , s a t i r i c playwrights  between ap-  as w e l l as the  o f t h e p r i v a t e t h e a t r e s , both o f c o u r s e  making f u l l use o f t h e p u r e l y t h e a t r i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s to t h i s l a s t category The  that Marston belongs.  I n t r o d u c t i o n o u t l i n e s the reasons f o r the choice  of p l a y s , e x p l a i n s t h e v e r y wide meaning a l l o w e d t o t h e term ' d i s g u i s e , ' and makes t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between 'anonymity,' t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  type o f d i s g u i s e where a  c h a r a c t e r makes a temporary change o f i d e n t i t y by a l t e r i n g h i s p h y s i c a l appearance, and 'cosmetic d i s g u i s e , ' where i d e n t i t y i s m a i n t a i n e d , but t h e b l e m i s h e s a r e h i d d e n and goodness usurped by propaganda o r adornment. I n the three c e n t r a l chapters,  each devoted t o one o f  the t h r e e p l a y s , an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e m o r a l s e t t i n g of t h e p l a y I s f o l l o w e d by d i s c u s s i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s who a r e n o t what they seem, i n terms o f t h e t h e m a t i c r e l e v a n c e o f t h e d i s g u i s e s they  adopt.  C h a p t e r V s e t s f o r t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s which c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  t h e p l a y s has l e d t o . M a r s t o n  i s a m o r a l i s t concerned  w i t h t h e r e j e c t i o n o f f a l s e systems o f o r d e r i n an a a b i g u c u s universe.  I n The M a l c o n t e n t ,  k i n g s h i p and obedience a t i o n of appearance.  the c o n v e n t i o n a l order o f  i s shown d e f e a t i n g c y n i c a l  manipul-  I n What You W i l l , a l l approaches t o  r e a l i t y e x c e p t t h e most u n c o m p r o m i s i n g l y  objectiveare  r e j e c t e d a s empty " o p p i n i o n . " The D u t c h C o u r t e s a n  achieves  a b a l a n c e between t h e two, a d v o c a t i n g i n t h e p e r s o n o f F r e e v i l l a good-humoured r e a d i n e s s t o n a v i g a t e t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e w a t e r s o f s o c i e t y as i t i s , r e l y i n g on e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r than ou dogma. Through them a l l runs t h e h i n t o f an o r d e r i n which d e c e p t i o n i s a n i m p o s s i b i l i t y — e i t h e r untamed n a t u r e o r o r d a i n e d d i s c i p l i n e . Thus M a r s t o n , i n h i s b e s t work, t a k e s h i s p l a c e among h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s as a d r a m a t i s t c a p a b l e o f u s i n g a c o n v e n t i o n as an element i n a thematic u n i t y .  •  A. A v i o l e n t o r d e r i s d i s o r d e r ; and B. A g r e a t d i s o r d e r i s a n o r d e r . T h e s e Two t h i n g s a r e one. ( P a g e s o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s . ) —Wallace  Stevens,  "Connoisseur o f C h a o s "  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter  I.  II.  III. IV. V.  Page  INTRODUCTION .. .  .  1 6  WHAT YOU WILL  THE MALCONTENT  45  THE DUTCH COURTESAN  93  CONCLUSIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY  . ,  .  133  1-+3  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Disguise that  in literature  i s to say  when a  at  l e a s t as  play expresses  disguise  i s as  presents  the  o l d as  o l d as  the  tions  of  of  sulphur  the  Fall.  d u p l i c i t y of  the  i n the  latter  mediaeval Vice;  or  the  one  between t h e  appearance put  and  really  The  i n t e r e s t i n the  the  purely  what he  disbelief, disguise,  is.  furthered  by  a c c o u n t s f o r the  of  comedy I n a d i s g u i s e - p l a y  m e a n i n g a n o t h e r i s m a t c h e d by being  This generally  examples  (1)  are the  someone  thesis  of  can  the  the  by  of  themes o f  i n one  personality  a  incarna-  evil  can to  character  suspension  the  method a s the  of  i t — s a y i n g one  a p p e a r i n g as  one  of  well  literary  i s e n h a n c e d by  stage disguise  comedies of John M a r s t o n  o f their e x p r e s s i o n disguised  up  be  the  thing  theatrand  person  while  else.  investigates  i n three  Firstly,  who  appearance,  There  In addition,  metaphor which accompanies  really  drama,  t h e a t r i c a l mechanisms  popularity  i t s didactic effectiveness.  ical  and  presence of  distinguish  irony  the  in visual  or both.  " p r a c t i c e " of  itself,  around t h e most human c h a r a c t e r a s he a t t e m p t s  be f e l t  as  In  c o n f l i c t "between r e a l i t y  t e r m s , w h e t h e r human, s u p e r n a t u r a l , a whiff  deception  and  deception  (1576-163^).  e a c h p l a y are i d e n t i f i e d given;  way  then  those  or another are  beneath the  disguise;  and  characters  analysed (2)  the  for motive  2 for  and  (3)  and  (5)  what t h e d i s g u i s e a n d  the  disguised  p e r s o n a g e and  e a c h c h a p t e r shows how the  the  t o the questions,  exposure  exposure have r e v e a l e d  those deceived  by h i m .  the v a r i o u s d i s g u i s e s  theme o f e a c h p l a y .  sought  {k)  the n a t u r e of the d i s g u i s e ;  I n the f i n a l "What s o r t  express with h i s d i s g u i s e - p l o t s ? "  Then,  contribute  chapter,  answers  o f themes d o e s  and  to are  Marston  "Does M a r s t o n  from h i s contemporaries i n the purpose  about  differ  o r manner o f h i s  disguises?" The by  three plays  the c h i l d  1602;  1  play  ( i t was  its  actors  c h o s e n a r e What You W i l l , o f S t . P a u l ' s song s c h o o l  T h e M a l c o n t e n t (1602 a l s o presumably  i t was  a n d The D u t c h (and  M a l c o n t e n t was of was  only  of the Chapel a t the and  comedy w r i t t e n i t i s one  'duke i n d i s g u i s e '  chosen because o f two  'city'  i t o f f e r s an  elements:  i n 1604); play  on h i s own).  of the best  plot.  Black-  performed  other a d d i t i o n s a t the Globe  chosen because  a renaissance  bination  for after  C o u r t e s a n (1605). a n o t h e r B l a c k f r i a r s  Marston's  or  best-known  h i s most s u c c e s s f u l ,  t a k e n o v e r by t h e K i n g ' s Men  w i t h an I n d u c t i o n and  performed  i n 1601  o r 1603), M a r s t o n ' s  p e r f o r m a n c e by t h e C h i l d r e n  friars  first  The  examples  Dutch Courtesan  i n t e r e s t i n g and w i t t y  a disguise-plot  The  i n which  com-  the  Dates of Marston's p l a y s a r e those g i v e n as d a t e s of f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e i n A n t h o n y C a p u t l , J o h n 'Marston, S a t i r i s t ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961). D a t e s f o r t h e f i r s t performance of other p l a y s are those given i n A l f r e d H a r b a g e , r e v . Samuel Schoenbaum, A n n a l s o f E n g l i s h Drama, 975-1700 ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a Press,  196k).  3 disguise  of the p r o t a g o n i s t , Malheureux,  than p h y s i c a l  and  adopted;  a subplot involving a "witty  and  whose p r o t e a n  unconscious  is spiritual  r a t h e r than  changes o f appearance  deliberately city  world  b e i n g a b s t r a c t and  i m p e r f e c t shadows,  the r e a l religious cured  dogma) s t a n d s  and  (1604).  I n both, guised  Will  physical  ( i n this  f o r t h e d e l u s i o n s w h i c h must among h i s  fellows.  p l a y Is to  d e n o u n c e s them a t t h e e n d .  of  m e t a p h y s i c a l debate  unique  offers  on  p l a y s and  t h e theme o f a p p e a r a n c e s .  interesting  I t s simple, even  theme o f t h e r e u n i o n o f a s u p p o s e d l y  lost  wife  by  i s complicated both  which almost The  plot  theme,  succeed  i s an  by p l o t  and  f a c e by a d o u b l e ,  own  identity  but begins  when t h o s e who  reason extremely is variations  hackneyed  thematic  ingenious version  i n which the p r o t a g o n i s t i s not  dis-  husband w i t h h i s  i n achieving firm dramatic  extremely  his  Malcontent.  For this  complex romantic-comedy p l o t and among M a r s t o n ' s  The  The  I t s mixture  case  be  a f f e c t a t i o n are revealed to a  i s discussed instead.  of  tangible represent  I t p r e s e n t s many s i m i l a r i t i e s  duke who  What Y o u  the  other important d i s g u i s e - p l o t  h y p o c r i s y and  i n the  Instead  the a b s t r a c t  before the s u b j e c t i s f i t t o l i v e Marston's  Fawn  e t e r n a l and  the v i s i b l e and  i n a l l i t s variety,  jester"  e x e m p l i f y how  whole p l a y the u s u a l c o n v e n t i o n i s r e v e r s e d . the v e r i t i e s  rather  elements coherence.  of the  Amphitruo  only challenged to  t o have doubts  s h o u l d know him  about  t a k e him  his f o r an  impostor.  In t h i s way,  and by the s e l e c t i o n of a g a l l e r y  of sycophantic and foppish minor characters, Involvement of i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y with opinion i s thematically demonstrated, and so (as a corollary) i s the need to l i m i t oneself to the physical r e a l i t i e s — " S t o n e s , trees and beasts i n love s t i l l firmer proove,/Then man," i n the f i n a l tableau.  i s the sententla pronounced  This could almost stand as motto to  Marston's work as a whole i f "love" i s taken i n i t s widest cosmic sense. In t h i s thesis, any and every form of deception self-deception i s treated summarily as 'disguise.'  or This  seemed necessary where the theme of each play came under consideration, f o r often a device which i s not disguise i n the s t r i c t sense of a change of physical appearance to avoid recognition, makes the same contribution to the theme as the commonly understood form.  In The Dutch Courtesan, f o r example,  the same r i g i d i t y of mind i s attacked by F r e e v l l l as he shams dead i n order to expose Malheureux to the charms of Franceschina, as i s broken down by the disguises with which Cocledemoy "wrings the withers" of the miserable  Mulligrub.  I t i s i n t h i s wider sense, then, that the disguise i n the three comedies i s investigated.  Certain general types  are recognised, necessitating some explanation of the terms used to d i s t i n g u i s h them.  To begin with, the d i s t i n c t i o n  should be drawn between 'anonymity' and  'cosmetic disguise.'  In the f i r s t , the disguised character i s not recognised  by  5 t h o s e who  m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o know h i m — i n o t h e r words he  e x h i b i t s d i s g u i s e as g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d of a p h y s i c a l , material kind.  I n the second, the o r i g i n a l i d e n t i t y i s  r e t a i n e d but the f a u l t s h i d d e n and Improved f o r s o c i a l r e a s o n s .  good p o i n t s added o r  These d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e made  i r r e s p e c t i v e of the good o r bad m o t i v e s of the  disguised  c h a r a c t e r , whether he i s p l o t t e r o r v i c t i m , o r whether he i s even c o n s c i o u s of b e i n g i n d i s g u i s e o r n o t .  In  theory,  b o t h t y p e s of d i s g u i s e c o u l d be used f o r good o r e v i l ends, but w h i l e , i n the t h r e e p l a y s d i s c u s s e d ,  anonymity i s used  i n the s e r v i c e o f I d e a l s j u s t i f i e d i n the outcome as w e l l as f o r e v i l ends, c o s m e t i c d i s g u i s e seems t o be the a t i v e of c h a r a c t e r s who  are f i n a l l y punished.  prerog-  Albano,  while  n o t c h a n g i n g h i s appearance n o r a f f e c t i n g any more f o r c e character  t h a n he p o s s e s s e s a l r e a d y ,  becomes a  of  disguised  c h a r a c t e r by r e a s o n of ' a p p e a r i n g ' a t a l l when he i s supposed t o have been drowned, and as e f f e c t i v e as any  s u f f e r i n g a f a i l u r e of r e c o g n i t i o n  concealment.  Malheureux' d i s g u i s e i s  l i k e w i s e u n c o n s c i o u s , but none the l e s s must be s t r i p p e d o f f j u s t l i k e a s t o l e n c l o a k p r o t e c t i n g the r e a l Malheureux from t h e n a t u r a l consequences of  life.  By d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s on s u c h l i n e s of one handling temporary  playwright's  of d i s g u i s e , some l i g h t can be thrown on the convention.  con-  CHAPTER I I WHAT YOU WILL  What Y o u W i l l the P a u l ' s Boys. plays written  was f i r s t  performed  I t was p r o b a b l y  f o rthis  the l a s t  mistaken-identity 'types'  plot  loosely  common i n d r a m a t i c  1603  of an ingenious  i n v o l v i n g a c o l l e c t i o n of  s a t i r e — L a v e r d u r e the fop, railer,  Simpllcius Faber  a p o w e r f u l V e n e t i a n merchant,  h a v e b e e n drowned a t s e a .  H i s wife Celia,  among h e r many s u i t o r s , p r e f e r s  elevation  m e r c a n t i l e i n d u s t r y and chooses  knight Laverdure  the g u l l ,  b r o t h e r s Andrea  and R a n d o l f o ,  to  has been r e j e c t e d  the perfumer  F r a n c i s c o Soranza  becomes common k n o w l e d g e .  first,  fiddler  He j o i n s w i t h  as Albano.  plot  be s e t up a s a s e c o n d it.  Celia»s  t o put a stop i n disguising  Laverdure's  b e i n g a r r a y e d and the  Laverdure  b u t does n o t h i n g about  French  The envious  by t h e Duke,  page B i d e t w a t c h e s t h e i m p o s t o r  from  to the n o b i l i t y  whose p e t i t i o n  spry  disguised  i n choosing  o v e r t h e m e r c h a n t Jacomo. t o wreck t h e match.  the marriage  i s thought t o  the d a n d i f i e d  Jacomo a t t e m p t s  the  or  others. Albanp,  to  by  of Marston's  i n 1602  I t takes t h e form  Lampatho D o r i a t h e e n v i o u s and  o r 1602  company b e f o r e he b e g a n h i s a s s o c i a -  t i o n with the C h i l d r e n of the Chapel w i t h The' M a l c o n t e n t .  i n 1601  suggests  impostor  that a  to discredit  I t i s at this  point  7 that Albano Laverdure utterly  returns,  t o be d e n o u n c e d a s a n i m p o s t o r by  a n d h i s f r i e n d s a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y welcomed a s  c o n v i n c i n g by Jacomo a n d t h e two b r o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y  when he e x h i b i t s  his distinctive  Husband a n d i m p o s t o r a p p e a r so f a r f r o m usually  resolving  do, A l b a n o  with Laverdure s 1  has  the matter,  effect,  h i s w i f e and h e r f r i e n d s .  at  court,  a  as such  suggestion, i nspite  by  when A l b a n o  separating main p l o t Celia's a  household,  sprightly  the  t h a t he unrecognised  is finally  resolved  uses  night  i nport.  There i s  the schoolboy-turned-page widow, t o d e c e i v e  expectations of a profitable i n theprocess.  marriage, The  e n l i v e n e d by t h e w i t a n d r a i l l e r y o f  where h e r s i s t e r  c y n i c i s m , and Quadratus  Crispinella  displays  shows up Lampatho  Doria,  e x - s c h o l a r who h a s f o r s a k e n t h e " c r o s s e d o p i n i o n s " o f  books and  of denials  The matter  from h i s purse  i s further  i n accordance  d i s p l a y s a birthmark and o f f e r s t o  Bidet  into  the g u l l  confrontations  remains  Holofernes Pippo, d i s g u i s e d as a c i t y Simplicius Faber  house, and  and A l b a n o  C e l i a ' s words on h i s l a s t  s u b p l o t i n which  stutter.  together a t Celia's  i s taken f o r an impostor  put theplan into  recount  infuriated  (11.257.28) f o r t h e d i c t a t e s  of fashion,  as querulous  unimaginative. Of  You W i l l  the three plays considered i n this i s the l e a s t  d i d a c t i c moral Theatre  sense  successful  by t h e d r a m a t i c i s abundantly  thesis,  What  i nputting across i t s  interplay  of i t s characters.  p r e s e n t , h o w e v e r — t h e added  twist  8 of h a v i n g  the l o n g - l o s t  the presence ingenious of  i n any  s e r v e r w i t h no C o u r t e s a n and  play involving largely  function The  actions,  their  of  lines,  conduct  Malcontent  kind  any  i s i n She  he  expressed  the p o r t r a i t s Doria play On  c a n be  between " o p p i n i o n "  t h e one  frivolous and  of  the  moral  Stoops  i s not  To  and  1  i n The  have d i s a p p e a r e d ; a n d that  i n The  of F r e e v i l l ,  their  imagery  to  the  i n What You but  and  Will,  the of  Lampatho i n the  (III.269.24).  "unbeleefe" rules  of p l a i n  the o t h e r  drawn  nature  found  Malcontent,  finds  everyday w o r l d a b e t t e r b a s i s  In  the s a t i r i c a l  on  Dutch  immediately  Conquer;  and  ob-  Malheureux  S i m p l i c i u s Faber,  (I.237.19)  didacticism  a cynical  attitudes  w o r l d where a l l t h e o l d v i r t u e s  like  the  thematic  of the o p p o s i t i o n  hand o p i n i o n , a s  constancy  cynicism,  reader  by Q u a d r a t u s  seen as p a r t  But  M a q u e r e l l e , maintain  of dramatic debate  of Laverdure,  o f t h e most  whereas  the  in  one  characters like  and  The  impostor  by Q u a d r a t u s ,  a d i a l o g u e of opposing  to look f o r t h i s  opinions  disguise.  f u n c t i o n s i n the p l o t ,  o f human l i f e .  more t h a n  i s surely  i n the p l o t ,  Cocledemoy, A l t o f r o n t  their  taken f o r an  of h i s impersonator  the p l a y i s c a r r i e d  and  husband  a  dealing  genial  the p r a c t i c a l  than metaphysics  realit&s for  decisions.  •^•References t o What You W i l l a r e t o H. H a r v e y Wood, e d . , P l a y s o f J o h n M a r s t o n ( E d i n b u r g h & L o n d o n : O l i v e r & Boyd, 1938), I I , 227-295. I n t h i s t e x t e a c h a c t c o n s i s t s o f a s i n g l e scene. C i t a t i o n s g i v e a c t , page, and l i n e number.  The  9 At Albano's f i r s t appearance on shore i n Act I I I , S l i p , his page, comments on the eagerness of widows f o r remarriage: "custome i s a second nature" (III.262.37). Albano takes up this theme, amplifying i t into a general loss of constancy: one ten pound oddes In promls'd joynture makes the hard palm'd s i r e Inforce h i s daughters tender lippes to s t a r t At the sharpe touch of some loath'd stubbed beard. The f i r s t pure time, the golden age, i s f l e d ! Heaven knowes I l i e , t l s now the age of gold, For i t a l l marreth and even v i r t u e s sold. (III.263.19-25) "Custome" i n the shape of money seems to have replaced "sound a f f e c t i o n "  (III.263.12).  A motif given even greater weight than money In the play i s that of clothes.  Dress and ornamentation j o i n  money on the side of "opplnion" against "unbeleefe". Albano's brothers remember the 'drowned man f o r h i s clothes as much 1  as anything else (1,241.24-28), and they suspect C e l i a of choosing among her suitors purely on the basis of dress (1.242.22-23). announced  Laverdure*s f i r s t thought when v i s i t o r s are  i s f o r t h e i r clothing: " l i e not see him now on  my soule, hee's i n h i s old Perpetuana sute" (II.245.7-8)— and when he decides to l e t them i n , his clothes must be displayed to the best advantage: "set my r i c h e s t Gloves, Garters, Hatts, just i n the way of t h e i r eyes" (11.245.21-22). To Quadratus, this "waving gallantry" ( I I . 2 5 0 . 5 ) of Laverdure's i s mere exuberance  and not dissembling, and  10 so i t earns his approval. Slmplicius' courtship of the imaginary c i t i z e n ' s widow "Mlstresse Perpetuana" (V.287.11) i s another example of the way clothes s i g n i f y f r i v o l i t y i n the  play.  According to Bidet,who i s the mastermind behind  the  deception, Slmplicius needs the a l l i a n c e with this  wholesome and hardwearing material i n order to "redeeme his  peach collour satten sute from pawne" (III.272.34-35)•  Indeed h i s f i r s t and only thoughts i n his few hours as a bridegroom are of a whole wardrobe of ostentation  (V.285-286).  A t h i r d element i n the "oppinion" of What You W i l l i s rhetoric.  I t i s pursued i n many places throughout the play,  appearing f i r s t i n the Induction  where Philomuse evades  Doricus' attempt to f i t the play into a nomenclature: DORIGUS: 1st Commedy. Tragedy. P a s t o r a l l . Morall, Nocturnal or Historie? PHYLOMUSE: F a i t h p e r f e c t l y neither, but even What You W i l l . (Ind.233.23-24). Lampatho Doria's affected "protest"ing in.Act II earns Quadratus' scorn: Hee's a Hyena, and with C i v l t t scent of perfum'd words, drawes to make a prey For laughter of thy c r e d i t . (11.247.10-12) In  fact, Lampatho stands for rhetoric, useless learning,  and sycophancy i n much the same way as Laverdure does f o r dressiness, only without t h a t "Phantastickenesse" which  11 would make i t harmless i n Quadratus* eyes.  Lampatho,  there-  f o r e , comes i n f o r a good d e a l of censure from him. H i s sonnet has t o be soaked i n wine before Quadratus can agree to  i t s sweetness (IV.278.17-20); and when ( a f t e r much prompting)  he addresses h i s s u i t to M e l e t z a , arouses Q u a d r a t u s  1  scorn  h i s Euphuistic  flowerlness  again:  Gods my h e a r t s o b j e c t , what a plague i s t h i s ! C"JMy s o u l ' s l n t r a u n c ' d , C " 3 f u t c o u l d s t not c l i p and K i s s e ?  (IV.281.7-8)  F i n a l l y , when the q u i c k - t h i n k i n g Quadratus p r e s e n t s  a play  of h i s own t o r e p l a c e Lampatho's " m o r r a l l p l a y " (V.290.28), r e j e c t e d by the duke, i t s s u b j e c t matter i s the s t a l e one abandoned a l r e a d y by Lampatho—namely, "an s i t anlma" (II.258.6) or "the s o u l e s e t e r n i t y " (V.291.26).  It is  i n t e r r u p t e d i n no u n c e r t a i n manner by the i n t r u s i o n of a more p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m — t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f the r e a l Albano from the i m i t a t i o n , a problem which " U l l s s e s dog" (III.268.26) would be b e t t e r equipped t o s o l v e . to  stand  T h i s c r e a t u r e seems  f o r the brute animal l i f e mentioned s e v e r a l times  i n the p l a y , and i s brought i n t o d i r e c t c o n t r a s t  with  r h e t o r i c i n S i m p l i c i u s * c o u r t s h i p e a r l i e r i n the a c t , when it  forms the a c t u a l s u b j e c t matter of h i s a b o r t i v e speech-  making (V.288.7-9) . Money, c l o t h e s , and r h e t o r i c , however, a r e only the c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s of the g r e a t e r e v i l of " o p p i n i o n " , which dominates the V e n i c e of the p l a y as much as i t does  12 the Genoese p a l a c e  i n The M a l c o n t e n t ,  by J a c o m o s l o v e s i c k 1  of  state  t o complain  Quadratus  i s moved  a t the very  beginning  the action:  Takes v a l u a t i o n  from  a l l that exsists, oppinion,  (I.237.18-19) and  a f t e r Albano  ideas  has been t w i c e t a k e n f o r a n i m p o s t o r h i s  on t h e s t a t e  similar  o f t h e w o r l d he h a s r e t u r n e d t o t a k e a  turn:  No, n o ! l i e b e l e e v e n o t h i n g , n o ! The d i s a d v a n t a g e o f a l l honest h e a r t s Is q u i c k c r e d u l i t y , p e r f e c t s t a t e p o l l e c y Can c r o s s e - b i t e e v e n s e n c e , t h e w o r l d s t u r n ' d J u g g l e r , C a s t e s mystes b e f o r e our eyes. Haygh p a s s e r e p a s s e I D o t h n o t O p i n i o n stamp t h e c u r r a n t p a s s e . Of e a c h mans v a l e w , v e r t u e , q u a l i t y ?  (111.269.12-16,20-21).  This  theme i s s o u n d e d a g a i n a n d a g a i n t h r o u g h o u t  L a m p a t h o D o r i a i s made by Q u a d r a t u s a poor  source  required  of practical  i s a conniving  t o see t h a t  the play. books a r e  k n o w l e d g e , a n d t h a t what i s  worldly-wisdom:  the l a d d e r t o account I s s l i e d i s s e m b l a n c e , he t h a t meanes t o mount, Must l y e a l l l e v e l l i n t h e p r o s p e c t i v e Of e a g e r s i g h t e d g r e a t n e s s e : t h o u w o u l d s t t h r i v e , The V e n i c e s t a t e i s young, l o o s e , a n d u n k n i t , Can r e l l i s h n a u g h t , b u t l u s h i o u s v a n i t i e s . Goe f i t h i s t o o t h , 0 g l a v e r i n g flatterie,...  (III.259.20-26)  The  catch-phrase which g i v e s the p l a y i t s t i t l e  various  o c c a s i o n s , sometimes w i t h t h e d e f e r e n c e  i s u s e d on of a  suitor  1 3  or p e t i t i o n e r (as by Lampatho i n I V . 2 8 0 . 2 2 , 2 7 and Albano In  V . 2 9 2 . 1 3 ) ,  sometimes i n mockery (Albano i n  and sometimes i n sardonic rage (Albano i n 238.IO),  III.264.3),  I V . 2 8 2 . 2 9 - 3 0 ,  to represent the submission to "oppinion" which  i s one side of the play's theme.  I t i s Quadratus who represents  the other side most  f o r c i b l y by standing out against "oppinion" manifestations.  ina l l its  Like Malevole, he refuses to f l a t t e r his  prince: I am f a t and therefore f a i t h f u l l , I w i l l do that which few of thy subjects do, love thee; but I w i l l never do, that which a l l they subjects do, f l a t t e r thee; ( V . 2 9 0 . 3 1 - 3 3 )  he r e j e c t s "oppinion"  i n another way by scorning the use  of stage-properties: DUKE: Thou want'st a beard ^to' play Cato], QUADRATUS:Tush a beard nere made Cato, though many mens Cato hang onely on t h e i r chin. ( V . 2 9 1 . 2 0 - 2 2 )  The p o s i t i v e side of Quadratus• opposition to "oppinion" shows i t s e l f In an appreciation of those things, physical and s p i r i t u a l ,  which man can enjoy as an i n d i v i d u a l rather  than as part of a s o c i a l structure governed by i t o  He  expresses t h i s a t t i t u d e i n his advice to the conventionally lovesick Jacomo:  1 4  L o v e o n e l y h a t e , a f f e c t no h i g h e r Then p r a i s e o f heaven, wine, a f i r e . (1.239.H-12)  Nor  i s he a g a i n s t  independent Of  crossd  slavish for  harmless  spirit.  frivolity  i n an  Though i m p a t i e n t o f t h e " q u o t a t i o n s /  oppinions"  ( I I . 2 5 7 . 2 7 - 2 8 ) • o f s c h o l a r s and o f t h e  " a d m i r a t i o n and a p p l a u s e "  Lampatho D o r i a ,  exuberance  when f o u n d  (11.246.23)  he i s q u i c k t o d e f e n d  of dress against  of Slmplicius  the f o p Laverdure's  t h e envy o f Lampatho:  Phantasticknesse. T h a t which t h e n a t u r a l l S o p h y s t e r s tearme P h a n t u s i a incomplexa, i s a f u n c t i o n E v e n o f t h e b r i g h t i m m o r t a l p a r t o f man. I t i s t h e common p a s s e , t h e s a c r e d d o r e , U n t o t h e p r i v e chamber o f t h e s o u l e : T h a t b a r j r p d : nought p a s s e t h p a s t the b a s e r C o u r t Of o u t w a r d s c e n c e : by i t t h ' i n a m o r a t e M o s t l i v e l y t h i n k e s he s e e s t h e a b s e n t b e a u t i e s Of h i s l o v ' d m i s t r e s . By i t we s h a p e a new c r e a t i o n . Of t h i n g s a s y e t u n b o r n e , by i t wee f e e d e O u r r a v e n o u s memory, o u r i n t e n t i o n f e a s t : S l i d he t h a t s n o t P a n t a s t i c a l l ' s a b e a s t . (11.250.14-27) For  Quadratus,  basis  only the tangible  f o ractions:  (II.252.3i);  "naughtes  mental  activity  r a t h e r than p r e s c r i p t i v e The observe  disguises  knowne b u t by e x t e r i o r s h o u l d be h a r m l e s s  sence"  play  moralizing.  t h e human a n i m a l a s he makes t h e c h o i c e between  slavish  Albano  c a n be u s e d a s a  i n the play provide opportunity t o  conducting h i s l i f e In  world  obedience  i n "the baser Court/Of  outward  scence,"  t o " o p p i n i o n , " and the "unbeleefe"  apostrophises i n a c t I I I :  which  15  0 deere unbeleefe, How w e a l t h y d o s t t h o u make t h y owners w i t ? T h o u t r a i n e o f k n o w l e d g e , what a p r i v i l e d g e T h o u g l v ' s t t o t h y p o s s e s s o r : a n c h o r s t him, From f l o t i n g w i t h the t i d e of v u l g e r f a i t h : F r o m b e i n g dain'd w i t h m u l t i t u d e s C ; l d e e r e u n b e l e e f e [j 3 (III.269.24-29) Some o f t h e satiric Faber,  targets Laverdure, i n h a b i t more o r l e s s  "oppinion" page,  c h a r a c t e r s o f What You  i s king;  exploit  the  contentedly a world  Meletza  stand  untrustworthy  world.  Albano,  "Opinion"  i s the  w h i c h he,  he  d i s c o v e r s how  by  having  I t i s this  different  Instead  of being a  disguise,  of Albano the  another  he  i s the  from  f o r the  overcome  i t by  will  of Albano's  c h a r a c t e r who  the  (III.269.20); deception  evidence  first.  d i s g u i s e makes defined. through  character  h i s involvement  dynamic;  action.  of  discussed  strictly  of imposture  characteristic  of that  Though the  plot,  r a t h e r than  prevalence  be  i n an  by  c o n t r o l s the a c t i o n  becomes a v i c t i m .  theme i s e x e m p l a r y  evidence  truth-teller  taken as  'anonymity' as  c e n t r e of  credited}  i s habituated to  c h a r a c t e r who  witty  truth-tellers  Quadratus, despises  u n i n t e n t i o n a l nature  it.very  his  few  h i s very palpable presence  imposture.  The  f o r the  much t h e w o r l d  i n which  t o be  comically unwilling victim like  the  Bidet, Laverdure's  f o r appearances  Q u a d r a t u s and  inclination,  notably  Lampatho D o r i a , and S i m p l i c i u s  others, l i k e  tendency  Will,  but  he  with  furnishes  does  not  T h i s perhaps  i s the  16 main weakness of the play;  the protagonist does not  contain the theme i n his own personality i n the manner of Oedipus or Pentheus. to  I t would make l i t t l e difference  the outcome whether Albano's personality was  or repulsive, since he would be unrecognised  attractive  just the same.  Thematic relevance of a sort i s provided by giving him the character of a p l a i n dealer l i k e Quadratus or Meletza,, and by f u r t h e r implying opposition to a world "turn'd Juggler" by contrasting him with the luxury trades of a perfumer and a f i d d l e r . Albano i s established, somewhat sketchily, as a capable, sanguine i n d i v i d u a l .  "Thrice was he made,/In dangerous armes  Venice provldetore" (1.241.10-11).  He scorned the " s u l l e n  habit/Of precise black" f o r merchants, and asserted his " j o l l y presence.../Round the R i a l t o " i n clothes of some flamboyance (1.241.18-31). himself.  The  He also knows how  to look a f t e r  impostors f e e l that h i s escape w i l l be r e a d i l y  believed because " ' t i s knowne he swome most strangely" ( I . 2 4 4 „ 2 0 ) — a p r e d i c t i o n which,turns out truer than they know. his  Once his proof of i d e n t i t y has been f i n a l l y  goodnatured forgiveness i s f o r t h r i g h t and  accepted,  immediate:  S h a l l I be brave, s h a l l I be my s e l f e now? Love, give me thy love, brothers give me your breasts, French knight reach me thy hand, perfumer thy f i s t . Duke I Invite thee, love I forgive thee: Frenchman I hug thee, l i e know a l l , l i e pardon a l l , and l i e laugh at a l l (V.293-3^-38) 0  17 Albano*s he  only  physical defect  i s v e h e m e n t l y mov'd"  enriching fault  the confusion  which tends  nature;  given  arises but  III.260.24-261.2).  deception,  didactic  like  beauty,  enhanced  of Francisco  (1.244.8-18,  were no d e c e p t i o n  He embodies  by t h e m i s been  i s mocked by t h e i n t e n d e d  that  which  i s the  victims  people.  perfumer F r a n c i s c o o f the d e c e p t i o n  Soranza (who  by t h e e a v e s d r o p p i n g page B i d e t ) , a n d  by t h e w o u l d - b e d e c e i v e r s .  Francisco,  apparent.  the l e s s o n  i s i n t h e eye o f t h e b e h o l d e r , a n d  he i s t a k e n f o r t h e d i s g u i s e d  fact  brothers)  i s s u c c e s s i v e l y m i s t a k e n f o r two d i f f e r e n t  congratulated  the  (as of  similarity  of the condemnation of "oppinion"  have been f o r e w a r n e d  with  what i s more, t h e m i s t a k e  of o t h e r s — t h e  I f there  being  theme o f t h e p l a y .  Albano  and  but i n v o l v e s  o f a chance resemblance  recognisable.  i s part  First,  (II.259.25).  z e a l o f A n d r e a and R a n d o l f o , A l b a n o would have  immediately  this  vanities"  i s n o t one o f a n o n y m i t y f o r t h e p u r -  mistaken f o r another;  the d u p l i c i t y  and e n e r g e t i c  t h e r h e t o r i c and s o p h i s t r y o f  t o A l b a n o has been a r t i f i c i a l l y  guided  d e t a i l ) i s a good  or harmless mischief,  n o t as a r e s u l t  from  by a c o n v i n c i n g  over t o "lushious  pose o f o b s e r v a t i o n  when  (1.244.16), and t h i s ( a s w e l l a s  with  Albano's disguise  innocently  he"stuttes  t o emphasise h i s i m p a t i e n t  i t contrasts  a world  i s that  Later,  he a p p e a r s  once a t C e l i a ' s h o u s e a n d once a t c o u r t , and  t h a t he i s n o t , a t a n y r a t e , F r a n c i s c o ,  becomes  A t C e l i a ' s i t i s assumed, f o l l o w i n g a c h a n c e  18 remark of Laverdure's: "wert not a pleasing jeast f o r me •to cloath/Another r a s c a l l l i k e Albano...?" (IV . 280.15-16), that he i s a f i d d l e r hired to discountenance the e a r l i e r impersonation by making i t look as i f the real Albano i s back;  at court, Francisco's i n a b i l i t y to browbeat the real  Albano any longer (V.292.9-10) combines with Laverdure's confession (V.293-^-6) and Albano's proof of his i d e n t i t y (V.293.H-22) to reveal the truth at l a s t .  The birthmark  and private conversation by which he establishes i t are common devices of the contemporary stage. What i s more important i s the effect of the mistaken i d e n t i t y on himself and on the various p l o t t e r s .  At f i r s t Albano i s merely  puzzled: "What perfumer? what Iacomo?"  (Ill.266.36).  After  the encounter with Slmplicius Faber, who raises h i s hopes? "Some body knowes me yet " ( I I I . 2 6 ? . 1 8 ) , only to dash them with "I know you are Francisco Soranza the Perfumer" (III.267.21-22), puzzlement turns to fury as he begins to stutter: Francisco Soranza and perfumer and mus-cat, and gutter maister hay, hay, hay, go, go, gods f, f, f, f u t ; l i e to the Duke and l i e so t i , t i , t i t i c l e them. (III.267.33-35) Albano i s so shaken that he f e e l s he i s not himself: ALBANO: .. .'boy who am I? SLIP: My Lord Albano. ALBANO: By this breast you l i e . . . • I am a Perfumer, I, Thinkst thou my bloud. My brothers know not right Albano yet? Away t i s f a l t h l e s s e , i f Albanos name  19 Were l i a b l e to scence, that I could tast or touch Or see, or feele i t , I t might t i c e beleefe, But since t i s voice, and ayre, come to the Muscat boy, Francisco, that's my name. CHI.269.6-8,30-36) He has l e a r n t how one's name—even I d e n t i t y — i s not part of the trustworthy corporeal world but i s at the mercy of capricious "oppinion."  At C e l i a ' s house Albano i s i n a,  rage almost at once as Francisco i n f u r i a t i n g l y mimics everything he says: ALBANO: C e l l a open, open C e l l a , I would enter, open Celia! FRANCISCO: C e l l a . open, open C e l l a . I would enter open Celia! ALBANO: What C e l i a l e t i n thys husband Albano. what Cella? FRANCISCO: What C e l i a l e t i n thy husband Albano. what Cella? ALBANO:--Uds f, f, f, f u t l e t Albano enter. FRANCISCO: Uds f, f, f, f u t l e t Albano enter.  (IV. 281.11-16*1  and i n t h i s scene again there i s a moment when Albano i s l e t to believe that someone i s prepared to acknowledge the return of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Ulysses: IACOMO: No s i r pray you pardon us, we confesse you are not Francisco nor a Perfumer, but e v e n — ALBANO: But even Albano. IACOMO: But even a f i d d l e r , a miniken t i c k l e r , a pum, pum. (IV.282.20-23) and the redoubtable Albano again becomes p a t h e t i c a l l y unsure that he i s himself:  20 ...I p r a y y o u use my w i f e w e l l , good f a i t h s h e e was a k i n d e s o u l e and a n h o n e s t woman once, I was h e r h u s b a n d and was c a l l ' d A l b a n o b e f o r e I was drown'd, b u t now a f t e r my r e s u r r e c t i o n I am I know n o t what i n d e e d e b r o t h e r s , and i n d e e d e s i s t e r s and i n d e e d w i f e I am: What Y o u W i l l .  (IV.283.5-10)  By  the  time Albano  he  has  become s o c o n d i t i o n e d by  nitions  arrives  that Laverdure's  at court to v i n d i c a t e himself, these  c o n f e s s i o n , coming as  p o i n t when t h e Duke seems c o n v i n c e d in  tantalising  c o u n t e r d i s g u i s e , o n l y makes him  that Albano  near-recog-  i t does a t a is a  fiddler  suspicious:  .LAVERDURE:Worthy s i r p a r d o n , and p e r m i t me f i r s t t o .'confess y o u r s e l f e , y o u r d e p u t a t i o n d e a d h a t h made my l o v e l i v e , to o f f e n d you. .ALBANO: I , mock on, s k o f f e on, f l o u t on, do, do, do. LAVERDURE: T r o t h s i r . i n s e r i o u s —  It  is significant  that at this  p o i n t he  the  characteristic  intimacy  (V.293.11-22), l o o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n g Q u a d r a t u s '  rather  sence"  and  ...The c y c l e w h i c h A l b a n o  this  much one's  p r e f e r e n c e of p r a c t i c a l  learning  being i n l i n e  by Q u a d r a t u s .  with  Implicit,  physical dual  respectively,  assurances, which  have  rhetoric.  has  to h i s professed d i s t a s t e  k n o w l e d g e o f how  remembered  "Phantastlcknesse"  than b e l i e v i n g Laverdure's  the sound o f p r e c i o u s c o u r t l y  added  "mark" and  to  physical  themes o f " e x t e r i o r  of the  resorts  gone t h r o u g h  f o r dissimuLatiao. a  identity  though  practical  d e p e n d s on o p i n i o n ;  knowledge the  seems t o h a v e  o v e r dogma and  theme o f t h e p l a y a s not  expressed,  in  bookexpressed  Albano's  21  mind,is a more Indulgent view of human deception, a c e r t a i n awe at the need most people seem to have f o r i t , and an increased respect f o r Quadratus  1  (perhaps)  r i g i d r e s t r i c t i o n of  knowledge to what can be d i r e c t l y experienced.  The kind of  "unbeleefe" advocated by Quadratus, that i s cynicism about a l l but palpable impressions, i s what would have enabled Albano to be recognised: "Ullsses dog/Had quicker scence then.my dul Countrimen,/Why none had knowne me"  (III.268.26-28).  Laverdure, Jacomo, Andrea, and Randolfo, f o r t h e i r part, are made to r e a l i s e t h e i r own s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to deception, r h e t o r i c , and show.  Albano unwittingly serves them i n the  same way Malevole serves B i l i o s o i n The Malcontent, encouraging deception to reveal i t s e l f .  Albano's kinsmen Andrea and Randolfo j o i n with C e l i a ' s disappointed s u i t o r Jacomo as i n i t i a t o r s of the whole mistakenidentity situation.  In the part of the plot concerned with  the wanderer's return, they are misguided rather than e v i l , meriting ridlcul©  rather than punishment,  In an attempt  to f r i g h t e n Laverdure into c a l l i n g o f f his marriage to C e l i a , the  three pay Francisco, who  bears a resemblance  to impersonate the supposedly drowned husband. may  to Albano, Their motives  seem to be i n harmony with Albano's but they are not  j u s t i f i e d by the conclusion of the play as h i s are; t h e i r hypocrisy, envy and fraud prevent t h i s .  I t i s a p i t y that  t h e i r envious m o t i v e s — o f Laverdure by Jacomo and of C e l i a  22 by  the b r o t h e r s — a r e not s u f f i c i e n t l y  make them c o n v i n c i n g a s about  his  targets.  well developed  J u s t as A l b a n o  to  i s concerned  patrimony:  Now were I d e a d . Me t h i n k e s I s e e a h u f f - c a p s w a g g e r i n g s i r P a w n i n g my p l a t e , my J e w e l l s , m o r g a g e — N a y , S e l l i n g o u t r i g h t t h e p u r c h a c e o f my browes, W h i l s t my p o o r e f a t h e r l e s s e l e a n e t o t t e r d sonne, My g e n t r i e s r e l i q u e s , my h o u s e s o n e l y p r o p , I s saw'd a s u n d e r , l y e s f o r l o r n e , a l l b l e a k e , Unto the g r i e f e s of sharpe N e c e s s i t i e s ,  (III.263.29-36) s o h i s b r o t h e r s show  concern f o r the f a m i l y  fortune:  My R i o t o u s s i r B e g i n n e s t o c r a c k G e s t e s on h i s L a d i e s f r o n t , T o u c h e s h e r new s t a m p t g e n t r y , t a k e s a g l u t , K e e p e s o u t e , a b a n d o n s home, and s p e n d s and s p e n d s T i l l s t o c k be m e l t e d , t h e n s i r t a k e s up h e e r e , T a k e s up t h e r e , t i l l no where o u g h t i s l e f t .  (1.242.32-37)  Albano.'.s s i g n i f i c a n t taste and  stutter  on t h e p l o t t e r s  his distaste  the c o n s p i c u o u s  1  part  i s echoed for courtly  f o r show f o r i t s own consumption  by a l a u d a b l e d i s -  which  s p e e c h and  sake  titles;  by t h e i r h a t e  goes w i t h  of  courtliness:  IACOMO:... now and t h e n ... The t r o u p e of I b e s e e c h a n d p r o t e s t ! And b e l e e v e i t s w e e t e , i s m i x ' d w i t h two o r t h r e e H o p e f u l l , w e l l stockt, neat clothed C y t i z e n s . . . . RANDOLFO: T h e n must my p r e t t y p e a t e be F a n ' d and Coach d. IACOMO: M u f f d Mask'd and L a d i e d , w i t h £"] my more t h e n most s w e e t e Madam. (1.242.8-11,28-30) 1  The to  only d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r e g a i n C e l i a and  between the e f f o r t s  those of the p l o t t e r s  of  C"J  Albano  on h i s b e h a l f i s  23 the  u s e by t h e l a t t e r  "oppinion," for  their  very fifty  years  probably  and i t i s t h i s ,  failure.  slight  of deception  In t h e i r  i n the p l a y as read  today,  characters  but three  There are signs  a r e meant t o be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t h e k i n d  seem  h u n d r e d and  o f costume a n d g e s t u r e  h a v e r e i n f o r c e d them.  ness found  to manipulate  we must assume, w h i c h a c c o u n t s  Differences  ago c o n v e n t i o n s  i n an attempt  would  that  of envious  i n the s e l f - r i g h t e o u s merchants of C i t y  they strait-  Comedy  (Jacomo s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the merchants' c l o t h e s as " p r e c i s e 1  b l a c k " Cl.241.191 may and  social,  be a c l u e  o f the p l o t t e r s ) .  Jacomo l o o k more l i k e M a l v o l i o  to the d i s p o s i t i o n , r e l i g i o u s This  than the conventional  of t h e w a i l i n g h a i r - t e a r i n g k i n d " met w i t h already the  a s he d e s p e r a t e l y "out-stripped"  b a c k g r o u n d w o u l d make  tries  s e e n by C a p u t i . to resuscitate a  (1.239.20), he p r e s e n t s  incongruous c i t i z e n  lover, very  plotters'  details had  gossipy  still  d e s c r i p t i o n of Albano's  seems t o h a v e a c e r t a i n envy  broken f r e e from  conventions  First suit  a p i c t u r e of  unsure of h i s r o l e :  0 God! T h a t I were b u t a P o e t now't e x p r e s s e my Or a M u s i t i a n b u t t o s i n g my t h o u g h t s , Or a n y t h i n g b u t what I am. (1.240.9-12) The  "amorist  thoughts,  sartorial  i n i t , as i f Albano  they  t h e m s e l v e s were  subject to:  2 Anthony C a p u t i , John Marston. C o r n e l l U.P., 1 9 6 1 ) , p . l 6 6 .  Satirist  (Ithaca,  N.Y.:  24 IACOMO: 0 I s h a l l nere f o r g e t how he went c l o a t h ' d He would m a i n t a i n e ' t a base i l l us'd f a s h i o n To bind a Marchant to the s u l l e n h a b i t Of p r e c i s e black, c h e e f l y i n V e n i c e s t a t e Where Marchants g u i l t the top. And t h e r e f o r e should you have him passe the b r i d g e . . . RANDOLFO: In a b l a c k bever f e l t , a s h - c o l o u r p l a i n e , A F l o r e n t i n e c l o t h of s i l v e r J e r k i n , s l e e v e s White s a t t e n cut on t i n s e l l , then l o n g s t o c k e , - IACOMO: F r e n c h paines imbroder'd, G o l d smithes worke, 0 God! (1.241.16-21,24-28) The  brothers  are quick  F r e n c h i f i e d wastrel  to condemn what they see as  h a b i t s of Laverdure, and  the  i n so d o i n g  they i n a d v e r t e n t l y r e v e a l t h e i r i d e a of a s u i t a b l e second husband f o r C e l i a :  one  of the m i n o r i t y  of " h o p e f u l l , w e l l  s t o c k t , neat c l o t h e d C y t l z e n s " among the s u i t o r s they imagine. only  They are s e t . a p a r t  temporarily  self-doubt  from the magnanimous Albano, who  reduced t o s t u t t e r i n g i n d i g n a t i o n and  ( h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s ) ,  " p r e c i s e " narrowmindedness and noble concern t o guard the " r o u t of erased sodderd up  by  fortunes  f a m i l y name and  fortune  their  ostensibly  from  whose c r a k t states/Gape to  the r i c h masse/Of the deceased C'sl  even  by  envy, expressed i n an  the  be  labores"  ( 1 . 2 4 2 . 6 - 8 ) — a phenomenon of some frequency i n Jacobean times. one, by  Their  and,  ' d i s g u i s e ' i s then a cosmetic, or  as one  i t s motivation  hypocritical,  would expect, i s doomed t o f a i l u r e and  by  the p h y s i c a l d i s s e m b l i n g  both  used  to  further i t .  Francisco  Soranza, perfumer of the  "signe  is  of the Mus-cat"  25 (111.267.24-25), i s t h e f r i v o l o u s , misguided He,  family  above a l l ,  "oppinion" in  this  zeal  both i n h i s d a i l y story.  p a i r i n g with Albano the  whole p o i n t  and  falsehood  the  similarities will  of the  standing f o r  o c c u p a t i o n and i n h i s f u n c t i o n  i n the t h i r d  and f i f t h  comic  a c t s w h i c h makes  predicament;  are indistinguisable  protests  truth  when  i t i s inevitable  triumph so long as "oppinion" truth  where  ( o r even perhaps  are not very close),  scene which  agent  I t I s h i s p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l  of Albano's  while discredited .The  1  o f A d r i a n o , R a n d o l f o , a n d Jacomo.  hinders Albano's return,  particular  falsehood  'cosmetic  that  recognises i t ,  i n vain.  opens A c t I I I , where t h e t h r e e  plotters  clothe F r a n c i s c o l i k e Albano while the concealed Bidet watches,  reveals  the brothers'  growne a God" ( I I I . 2 6 0 . 1 3 )  hypocrisy  in-action.  "Apparail'  s a y s Jacomo a s t h e a c o l y t e s  array  the  image i n " h a t t e and f e a t h e r , . . . d o u b l e t and band,....cloake  and  staffe"  dressing-up. the  (III.260.s.d.),  thinking  Francisco himself  t o combat i t w i t h  echoes  this  further  distaste f o r  success o f appearances:  What! I know a number By t h e s o l e w a r r a n t o f a L a p y - b e a r d , A r a i n e b e a t e plume, a n d good chop f i l l i n g o t h , W i t h a n odde F r e n c h s h r u g g e , a n d by t h e L o r d o r s o , Ha l e a p t i n t o s w e e t e C a p t a i n e w i t h s u c h e a s e , A s y o u w o u l d — ...  (III.261.2-7) The  earnestness o f the p l o t t e r s  ness theft  t o go b e y o n d  anonymity  of another's i d e n t i t y .  i s belied  by t h e i r  willing-  f o r o b s e r v a t i o n purposes Francisco  i s a tool  into  In this  26 theft,  to a l a r g e extent  of h i s a c t i o n s . paralleled identity,  by  The  not  responsible  f o r the  morality  shock to Albano's s e l f - p o s s e s s i o n i s  some u n c e r t a i n t y  j o c u l a r t h o u g h he  in Francisco's  may  mind  of  his  be:  FRANCISCO: F o r G o d - s a k e remember t o t a k e s p e c i a l l m a r k e s o f me, o r you w i l l n e r e be a b l e t o know me. ANDREA: Why man? FRANCISCO:Why g o o d f a i t h I s c a r c e know my s e l f e a l r e a d y me t h i n k s I s h o u l d remember t o f o r g e t my s e l f e , now I am s o s h i n i n g b r a v e .  (III.260.1-6)  Francisco of  w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y be  s i l v e r J e r k i n " mentioned  distinctive often the  part  physical  stage  instance, less  Will,  the  a  by R a n d o l f o a t 1.241.25 a s  and  know my  selfe"  clothes,  and  Albano's  finery.  The  presumptuous F r a n c i s c o  confident  his discomfiture,  "Last  h o p e s ; a l l knowne!"  Albano the  thinks)  expression  frivolity  as by  o f what i s  on  In  this  only  to a  of the  of C e l i a  and  the  (IV.281.33), F r a n c i s c o being  opposed  fiddler.  e r r o r and her  (as  e n t o u r a g e , who  of  of fine  same  excitement.  deceit  with  i s forced  everyone  Thus F r a n c i s c o  duplicity  is  of wearing  i s a l l nervous up  so  made more  s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i n the  when Jacomo g i v e s  deception,  a  s p o k e n by F r a n c i s c o  c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n h i s way  After  the  way,  statement about the a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e  than the  continue  in this  comparisons  identity  to  and  l a n g u a g e w h i c h b a c k s them up.  "I s c a r c e  explicit  "Florentine cloth  dramatic points are  Juxtapositions  t h a n by  wearing the  of Albano's a t t i r e ,  i n What You  ^  is  except again  others—of  the  a l l too r e a d i l y  27 believe that Laverdure has carried out his deception ( i n spite of his denials); and of the over-eagerness of the brothers to "support the jest" once discovered (IV.282.1). Poor Albano i s as always the Innocent victim. Francisco makes one more attempt to f u l f i l l his agreement.  A n t i c i p a t i n g Albano's a r r i v a l at court, he enters  with "My leidge, my r o y a l l leidge, heare, heare my sute" (V.292.5). but he i s immediately recognised by Quadratus* eye of "unbeleefe" and denounced.  When the Duke picks the  wrong Albano, Francisco has to admit the truth: DUKE: Is not this Albano bur some times Courtier? : ?RANCISCO: No troth but Francisco your alwaies perfumer. (V.292.9-10)  In the almost e n t i r e l y f r i v o l o u s household of Celia, where attention i s next to be directed, Lampatho Doria stands out as one of the more undesirable of the hangers-on loosely associated with Laverdure.  He i s brought by Quad-  ratus on a v i s i t to Laverdure i n Act I I , and at once f a l l s into a most extravagantly affected anxiety to make Laverdure's acquaintance: LAMPATHO: S i r I protest I not onely take d i s t i n c t notice of your deere r a r i t i e s of exterior presence, but also I protest I am most vehemently inamor'd, and very passionately doate on your inward adornments and h a b i l i t i e s of s p i r i t , I protest I s h a l l be proud to doe you most obsequious vassalage, (11.246.13-17)  28 displaying an apparent a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h between appearance and r e a l i t y which he does not a c t u a l l y possess. Quadratus  1  denunciation of these "mouldy customes of hoary  eld" (11.246.25) i s accompanied  by the suspicion that  Lampatho "drawes to make a prey/For laughter of thy credit " (II.247*11-12).  Sure enough, Lampatho reveals h i s true  nature as he makes the proposition i n an aside to Quadratus: Quadratus, harke, harke, a most compleat phantasma, a most ridiculous humor, pree-thee shoote him through and through with a jest, make him lye by the lee, thou B a s i l i s c o of witte. (II.247.3^-37) Quadratus finds the envy thus revealed more insupportable than Lampatho's e a r l i e r sycophancy; he denounces the "envystarved Curre" (11.248.28) to the imperturbable Laverdure and p r e c i p i t a t e s i n Lampatho the rage of the impostor whose mask has been snatched o f f : So Phoebus warme my braine, l i e rime thee dead, Looke f o r the Satyre, If a l l the sower juice Of a t a r t braine can sowse thy estimate, l i e pickle thee. (11.248.18-21) The scholar's l i f e which Lampatho has renounced f o r his role of s o c i a l b u t t e r f l y i s one i n which i n t e l l e c t u a l excitement and independence have turned to quarrelsomeness and l o n e l i n e s s .  He wants to exchange "lamp-oyle, watch  Candles, Rug-gownes & small juice,/Thin commons, foure a clock r i s i n g " (IV.278.32-34) and "crossed oppinlons boute the soule of man"  (11.257.28) f o r aping Laverdure's " S i l v e r  ' 2 9 hose" and "Prim-rose Sattin Doublet"  (11.247.23-24), f o r  "protest"-ing and h i s "Muse" (IV.278.21), and f o r an attempt  to enter the dazzling world of riches and wit pre-  sented to him i n the person of Meletza.  But i t i s made quite  clear In the successive unmaskings of Lampatho by Quadratus that these a c t i v i t i e s are mere r i t u a l s designed to conceal the absence of genuine human a f f e c t i o n .  Lampatho i s not  r e a l l y interested i n Meletza, or i n emulating Laverdure i n finery.  The f a i l u r e of his s u i t to the one and the ease  with which he can be persuaded  to leave the "fopperies" of  the other (11.251.23) show t h i s .  For instance, he i s w i l l i n g  to assume whatever Identity Meletza pleases: MELETZA: How would i t please you I should respect yee. LAMPATHO: As any thing, What You W i l l , as nothing. (IV.280.21-22) Lampatho i s prepared to accept s o c i a l appearance as being i d e n t i c a l with the r e a l thing.  His studies have taught him  no more than "I know, I know naught, but I naught do know" (II.258.30).  Now,  too l a t e , he rushes to the other extreme  and enviously attempts  to join i n the fun he f e e l s he has  been missing when his studies and his temperament both make him u n f i t f o r i t , and i t i s this unfitness of Lampatho f o r normal s o c i a l intercourse that Quadratus  demonstrates.  Lampatho's attempt to "make a prey" of Laverdure by Quadratus before i t can begin;  Is f o i l e d  he Is warned off his  fashionable r a i l i n g by Quadratus' mock encouragement ("Hang  30 on  thy  his he  t o u n g s end,  come on  extravagant protestations pours  out  dismissed and  as  soon as  subject  he  court  goes  m a t t e r and  whole:  the  reality, play,  failures  the  Quadratus  ("Tls tells  dowry o f  "Ten  Lampatho  Is the  and  shares  i n much t h e  the  style:  of  sonnet,  artifice  the  to  scene, but  i n money t o o  IV.281.9).  the  the  object  to f i n i s h  o f Lampatho D o r i a ' s  t o come c l o s e  to  same t i m e she  is  whether t a k i n g stock  own  airily  use  my  servants,"  the  a b s u r d Lampatho, one  world;  the  affections,  very  much o f h e r  at  playing shuttlecock  IV.276.1) o r p l a y i n g she  appears  play  began i t .  o n l y member o f C e l i a ' s e n t o u r a g e  t o be  (Meletza's  his fellows a  he  in  men."  but  of her)  also  Will,  same s t a t e o f m i n d a s  while  the  c h i e f s a t i r i c t a r g e t o f What You tendency  as  reflect  sharing Quadratus' opinions,  suitors  play  i n common b a s e o f and  itch  A l l these  flattery),  11.250.39),  too  "The  t h e m a i n theme o f t h e  t o runne  at  t h e Duke as  courtship  are  (IV.280.37,281.1),  t h o u s a n d D u c k e t s , " V.294.28, a l s o  with  Meletza, is  hell him  scence"  o f s y s t e m and  the  which  seem t o work,  (V.290.28).  i n r h e t o r i c (the  railing,  dressiness  play!"  III.266.10);  to Meletza,  old-fashioned  suggest  failure  chiefly  "past  i s r e j e c t e d by  on T e m p e r a n c e y o u r m o r r a l l successive  of l o v e  when d i f f i d e n c e d o e s n o t  his play at  serious  a  p r e e - t h e e doe,"  (from  ("just  of  her  t h u s do  cat-and-mouse what l i t t l e  we  whose d i s t a s t e f o r a f f e c t a t i o n and  I  with see show  31 derive less from s t o i c a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y than from boredom with the gilded l i f e she leads, mixed with anxiety at her fate i n the marriage market—she vows never to marry t i l l I meane to be a foole* a slave, starch cambrick ruffes, and make candells. (•IV.275-27-28) Though adept i n the ways of the world, she does however a f f e c t to despise them. of Laverdure's  knighthood  The way  she introduces the subject  i s scarcely respectful:  Why he i s not a plaine foole, nor f a i r e , nor f a t , nor r i c h , r i c h foole. But he i s a knight, his honour w i l l give the passado i n the presence to-morrow night, I hope he w i l l deserve, (IV.274.12-15) and she stresses repeatedly the estrangement of riches and honesty, f o r example: " i f hee bee poore I assure my soule hee i s chaste and honest"  (IV.280.10-11).  Though perhaps not as a t t r a c t i v e a character as she might be, Meletza has the kind of cynicism which i d e a l l y s u i t s her to administer a rebuke to the flowery nothings of the "inkie s c h o l l e r " (IV.281.3) Lampatho.  In her pre-  ference of Quadratus' rough-and-ready appreciation of the world over abstraction and idealism she aligns herself against "oppinion" and on the side of "unbeleefe."  The two groups of Albano and his sympathisers  on one  side, and the worldly and f r i v o l o u s but r e a l i s t i c c i r c l e of C e l i a on the other, meet (as i s customary) before the  32 local As  representative of divine  we w o u l d e x p e c t  i n a p l a y where s t a g e p r e s e n c e a n d  positioning  0  statement,  t h e Duke's n a t u r e  his  often carries  a c t i o n s than  p o w e r — t h e V e n e t i a n Duke.  t h e theme r a t h e r t h a n  explicit  i s revealed i n i t i a l l y  more by  by h i s w o r d s :  E n t e r t h e Duke c o p p l e d w i t h a L a d y . two c o o p l e s more w i t h them, t h e men h a v i n g t o b a c c o p i p e s i n t h e i r h a n d s , t h e woemen s i t t . t h e y d a u n c e a r o u n d . The P e t i t i o n i s d e l i v e r e d up by R a u d p l f o , t h e Duke l i g h t e s h i s t o b a c c o p i p e w i t h i t a n d goes o u t d a u n c l n g . (I.244.s.d.) He  too i s i n a sort  he  i s an i n a p p r o p r i a t e person  Francisco, his lack  of disguise.  t o occupy h i s r o b e s .  h i spreoccupation with  court—in  this  of fitness  case,  L i k e the impostor F r a n c i s c o ,  t h e outward  Like  trappings of  the e n t e r t a i n m e n t — c o n c e a l s the  f o rthe role  he p l a y s .  S t i l l t h e s e same b a u l i n g p i p e s , s o u n d s o f t e r s t r a i n e s , Slumber o u r scence, t u t these a r e v u l g a r s t r a i n e s , Cannot y o u r t r e m b l i n g w i e r s throw a chaine Of p o w e r f u l l r a p t u r e b o u t o u r mazed s c e n c e ? Why i s o u r c h a i r e t h u s c u s h i o n ' d t a p i s t r y ? Whys i s o u r b e d t i r e d w i t h w a n t o n s p o r t e s ? Why a r e we c l o a t h ' d i n g l i s t r i n g a t t i e r s , I f common b l o u d e s c a n h e a r e , c a n f e e l e , Can s i t a s s o f t , l i e a s l a s c i v i o u s , S t u t a l l as r i c h as the g r e a t e s t Potentate? S o u l e , a n d y o u c a n n o t f e a s t my t h r i s t i n g e a r e s W i t h a u g h t b u t what t h e l i p o f common b e r t h c a n t a s t , T a k e a l l away: y o u r l a b o u r s i d l y w a s t .  (V.290.11-23)  The  Duke's c o n c e r n  rather  than  i s with keeping  h i m s e l f above h i s s u b j e c t s  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r needs.  This rather fine  33 speech  epitomises  t h e Duke's w e a r y a n d  Presumably h i s d e l i b e r a t e l y c l u e as  casual destruction  petition  is a  t o why  to enjoy  the e x e r c i s e of a r b i t r a r y  t h e Duke t a k e s  p l a c e a t the  still  same way,  as  wags t h e  f a r as  he  end  and  has  f o r Albano  and  thus  dilletantism. of the b r o t h e r s '  'disguised' h i m s e l f —  power.  No  exposure  t h e Duke r e p r e s e n t s t h e He  sums up  the  him  world  "oppinion" that Albano d i s c o v e r s :  the t r u t h  The  world  preoccupation  is effectively  obscured  by  the  you-see-it-now-you-don't m a n i p u l a t i o n of the world Juggler."  of  of the p l a y because the  the p l a y i s concerned.  with f r i v o l i t y  perverse  Duke's q u e s t  into a failure  f o r entertainment  to observe  light  and  found  blasphemous:3  the  now"turn'd  even l e a d s  ordained succession of  darkness, which an E l i z a b e t h a n audience  would have  ("The C o r n e t s sound; a f l o r l s h . H a r k e ! L o r e n z o C e l s o t h e l o o s e V e n i c e Duke, I s g o i n g t o bed, t i s now a f o r w a r d morne F o r e he t a k e r e s t . 0 strange transformed sight, When p r i n c e s make n i g h t day, t h e day t h e r e n i g h t ,  (1.243.28-31) grumbles  Jacomo.  Significantly,  t h e Duke's power, s u c h a s  a b e y a n c e d u r i n g most o f t h e a c t i o n .  He  and  rouses  Jacomo's p l o t  g e t s u n d e r way  and  i t I s , Is i n  retires  as  Andrea  himself i n  ^See t h e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e s i m i l a r e f f e c t o f F a u s t u s ' attempt t o h a l t the p r o g r e s s o f the n i g h t In F.P.Wilson, E l i z a b e t h a n and J a c o b e a n ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1945)  p.14.  34 the  evening:  S e a c e t h e Duke a p p r o a c h e t h t i s a l m o s t n i g h t , F o r t h e Dukes up, now b e g i n s h i s d a y .  (V.290.8-9) He a p p e a r s  i n A c t V, o s t e n t a t i o u s l y  a s you can" (V.290.s,d.),  Pages w i t h T o r c h e s of entertainment;  any j u s t i c e  a c c i d e n t a l and a r b i t r a r y , h i s never-ending have  identified  readiness  attended  quest  he d i s p e n s e s  seems t o be  f o rpleasure.  the r e a l Albano  When t h e p r i n c i p a l s  i n spite  o f t h e Duke's  t o b e l i e v e that both a r e impostors,  indifference:  "'Tis well,  ' t i s well,  he a c c e p t s  with  how s h a l l  considerable we s p e n d  (yet convivial)  embodied  Quadratus;  acceptance  i n a l l i t s irresponsibility,  imperturbable  selfishness  t h e Duke, l i k e  i n t h e Duke, the world,  b r o t h e r s ' meddling  and Albano's  both  i s unjudged.  fail  t o cope,  of the world  quality  of "unbeleefe"  to save  him from  called  the c r e d u l i t y  as i t  f r i v o l i t y , and  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by with which the  old-fashioned forthrightness  Q u a d r a t u s r e p r e s e n t s , a s has been mentioned,  befits  this  (V.294.32).  Stoical is,  i n search  a n d v e r y much s u b o r d i n a t e d t o  the d e c i s i o n and t h e subsequent espousals  night?"  by " a s many  that  on u n s u c c e s s f u l l y by A l b a n o of others.  Quadratus, as  a t h i n k i n g man, h a s h i s own word f o r i t :  "Antypathy,/  35 A  n a t i v e hate  unto the  (II.249.5-6). "oppinion,"  curse  represented  Consonant w i t h of  "oppinion,"  on  the  and  in this  "scence"  crops  a g a i n and  truth  recognised  that in  as  a  relying The  invariably  as u n e r r i n g l y as a dog  when he  be  enable  recognises  wearing,  returned  the  just  as  t o h i s kingdom  beggar. i n the  " n a u g h t e s knowne b u t  by  e x t e r i o r sence."  the a n i m a l s  f u r n i s h exempla. him  almost  on  play  of  i n his discourse  In a set-piece early  the  manifestations  of h i s senses.  again  m a s t e r ' s s c e n t w h a t e v e r he may  disguised  of  S e n s e l e f t u n c l u t t e r e d by  of "oppinion" w i l l  Argus recognised Ulysses  to  "antypathy."  to a l l the  evidence  impedimenta  his  servitude"  satire  i s strongly i n favour  reliable up  the  i s expressing his  p l a y as a whole.  t o be  s p e e c h by  h i s "antypathy"  Quadratus  t a n g i b l e and  i n the  bare-pated  P r e s u m a b l y Q u a d r a t u s means s e r v i t u d e  Lampatho t o w h i c h Q u a d r a t u s  word  o f man,  who  live  Albano wishes  t h e welcome s o f a r d e n i e d  under Quadratus'  by  play, Quadratus  i t are  of canine  dog"  Lampatho, a s  i n f l u e n c e , renounces the  i n a memorable a n e c d o t e  called  for "Ullsses  him.  and  maintains  often upon to  to  give  he  comes  scholarly  world  common-sense:  Nay marke l i s t , D e l i g h t . D e l i g h t my s p a n i e l l s l e p t , w h i l s t I b a u s d l e a v e s , T o s s d o r e t h e d u n c e s , p o r ' d on t h e o l d p r i n t Of t i t l e d w o r d e s , a n d s t i l l my s p a n i e l l s l e p t . W h i l s t I w a s t e d l a m p o i l e , b a t e d my f l e s h , S h r u n k up my v e l n e s , a n d s t i l l my s p a n i e l s l e p t .  36 And s t i l l I h e l d c o n v e r s e w i t h Z a b a r e l l . A q u i n a s . S c o t u s . a n d t h e m u s t y sawe Of a n t i c k D o n a t e , s t i l l my s p a n i e l l s l e p t : S t i l l went on went CsicZT I , f i r s t a n s i t a n l m a . T h e n a n d i t were m o r t a l l , 0 h o l d ! h o l d ! A t t h a t t h e y a r e a t b r a l n e b u f f e t s f e l l by t h e e a r e s , A m a i n e p e l l m e l l t o g i t h e r — s t i l l my s p a n i e l l s l e p t . T h e n whether twere C o r p o r e a l l , L o c a l , f i x t , Extraduce, but whether't had f r e e w i l l Or no, h o ! P h i l o s o p h e r s Stood banding f a c t i o n s a l l so s t r o n g l y propt, I s t a g g e r d , knew n o t w h i c h was f i r m e r p a r t . But t h o u g h t , quoted, reade, o b s e r v ' d and p r i e d , S t u f f t n o t i n g b o o k e s , a n d s t i l l my s p a n i e l l s l e p t . A t l e n g t h he wakt a n d yawned, a n d b y y o n s k y , F o r a u g h t I know he knew a s much a s I .  (II.257.33-258.18)  Lampatho, beas.tes" their  i n this  scene,  (11.257.10) a b o v e man. He e n v i e s  lack  of regret  Quadratus' defence in  animals  Not  a l l beasts  mentioned.  taught  human  twice  b e c a u s e he h i m s e l f  i n What Y o u W i l l  with p r a t t l i n g ,  speech  t o extremes as u s u a l ,  c a n hope f o r t h e b l i s s f u l  Lampatho, however;  f o r the f u t u r e .  puts t h i s  which Quadratus recognises  t a m i n a t e d by c o n t a c t are  Lampatho, g o i n g only  t h e ox a n d h o r s e  or anxiety  of "phantasticknesse"  t o man  "phantasticknesse"  by  f o r the past  i t s proper l i g h t ;  prefers  e v e n g o e s s o f a r a s t o p u t "manly  l a c k s the  a s man's state  eulogised  creatures  self-opinionated  Lampatho compares S i m p l i c i u s  to a  speech:  l i e make a p a r r a t now, As good a man a s hee i n f o u r e t e e n e n i g h t s . I n e v e r h e a r d him v e n t a s i l l a b l e Of h i s owne c r e a t i n g s i n c e I knew t h e u s e Of e y e s a n d e a r e s ,  (II.257.15-19)  glory.  con-  man  parrot  37 and  the poor  snobbery  "fore-horse" i s cited  i n " t h e common s e n c e  as a paradigm  of fashion"  o f human  by Jacomo:  Me t h l n k e s now, i n t h e common s e n c e o f f a s h i o n , T h o u s h o u l d s t grow p r o u d , a n d l i k e a f o r e - h o r s e , v i e w None b u t b e f o r e - h a n d g a l l a n t s , a s f o r s i d e s And t h o s e t h a t r a n k e i n e q u a l l f i l e w i t h t h e e , Studdy a f a i n t s a l u t e , g i v e a s t r a n g e eye, B u t a s t o t h o s e I n r e r e - w a r d 0 be b l i n d , T h e w o r l d wants e y e s , i t c a n n o t s e e b e h i n d .  (III.261.9-15) As  the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the point  author wishes the  and  i n the p l a y , Quadratus  assists at  victims,  such a s S i m p l i c i u s Faber,  Andrea,  Randolfo,  J a c o m o . He f o l l o w s w i t h sympathy a n d a p p r o v a l t h e  collapse  into  incoherence  outface the world's  his  action  i n the p l a y i s spent  Quadratus' "all  of Albano's  duplicity;  L a m p a t h o D o r i a , a s we have  is  which the  c l i m a c t i c moments i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s  satiric  to  to justify  o f view  initial  headstrong  and t h e l a r g e s t  part of  on t h e r e - e d u c a t i o n o f  seen.  diagnosis of the state  t h a t exsists, /Takes v a l u a t i o n  e x p a n d e d a s he d e s c a n t s  attempt  from  of the world:  oppinion"  on Jacomo's u n s e e m l y  (1.237.18-19), loveslckness:  IACOMO: 0 L o v e ! QUADRATUS: L o v e ? h a n g l o v e , I t i s the a b j e c t o u t - c a s t of the world, H a t e a l l t h i n g s , h a t e t h e w o r l d , t h y s e l f e , a l l men, H a t e k n o w l e d g e , s t r i v e n o t t o be o v e r - w i s e , " I t drew d i s t r u c t i o n i n t o P a r a d i s e " H a t e Honor, V e r t u e , t h e y a r e b a i t e s T h a t t i c e mens h o p e s t o s a d d e r f a t e s ; Hate b e a u t i e , e v e r y ballad-monger Can c r y h i s i d l e f o p p i s h humoro 0  38 Hate r i c h e s , wealthes a f l a t t e r i n g Jacke, A d o r s t o f a c e , mewes h i n d t h y b a c k e . He t h a t i s p o o r e i s f i r m e l y s p e d , He n e v e r s h a l l be f l a t t e r e d , A l l t h i n g e s a r e e r r o r , d u r t and n o t h i n g , Or p a n t w i t h want o r g o r g ' d t o l o t h l n g .  (I.238.33-239.10).  Quadratus all  these  "Love,"  the extravagant and metaphysical i s ridiculed  o f Lampatho.  oppinions" and  "Honor" a n d " v e r t u e , " l i k e  tampering.  "Beautie"  page"  the a f f e c t e d  to Laverdure's expression pliclus,  protestations.  and v e r y  susceptible to  gulling  a n d i s most s t r o n g l y  elude All  cosmetic able  Pippo  by h i s expressed i n  o f Lampatho a n d S i m p l i c l u s a s o p p o s e d  exuberance.  As f o r " r i c h e s , "  t h e most  good o p i n i o n , t h e y d e l u d e  t o a c h i e v e Jacomo's w i s h e s ,  postpone  homecoming b e c a u s e o f h i s b r o t h e r s ' o v e r - z e a l o u s and  of "crossd  C a s s i o ' s " r e p u t a t i o n , " a r e shown  t o an expensive  of the world's  fail  i n Lampatho's  i n t h e shape o f H o l o f e r n e s  (11.257.32) finery  i n wine i n  t h e yawn o f D e l i g h t t h e s p a n i e l ,  i n themselves  Simpliclus Faber  "prity  o f the  "Knowledge," a mere c a t a l o g u e  i t s hollowness  t o be u n t r u s t w o r t h y  esteem  i n Jacomo a n d d u n k e d  i s dismissed with  shown i n . a l l  leads  with  e x p r e s s i o n s o f " o p p i n i o n " . i n Lampatho a n d o t h e r s .  sonneteers, front  comes t o g r i p s d u r i n g t h e p l a y ' s a c t i o n  common  SimAlbano's  stewardship,  Lampatho. these m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f " o p p i n i o n " a r e forms o f disguise—flesh  on t h e s k u l l  t o hide  t r u t h a n d p u t a good f a c e on m o r t a l i t y ,  the uncomfortand a l lo f  39 them are revealed by or i n the presence of the "square chub" (IV.277.9) Quadratus.  The sub-plot involving Slmplicius Faber, Holofernes Pippo, and Bidet, presents a moral exactly p a r a l l e l to that of the main plot, but with l i t t l e d i r e c t connection with i t . Pippo and Bidet are provided with circumstantial l i n k s to the main p l o t by t h e i r connections with the pedant who i s to perform the marriage and the wouH-be groom respectively, but Slmplicius i s introduced merely as Lampatho's hanger-on. Apart from this rather tenuous connection with the main p l o t (a connection, i n f a c t , a good deal l e s s so than i n many plays of the period), the sub-plot exhibits the d i d a c t i c themes of the play (money, clothes, and rhetoric) very neatly.  Avarice, innocent of g u i l e though i t i s , i s  what sends Slmplicius i n search of a "Cytizens wife" (III.272.35) to shore up his squandered fortune.  Rhetoric  i s present i n the schoolroom, where we may assume future sonneteers are being made, and i n the Euphuistic "coppy of phrase" (V.288.1) with which Slmplicius confounds his chances.  Slmplicius  1  world revolves round clothes, and i n  the sub-plot, we are treated to the spectacle of him parting with hat and rapier to Bidet i n order to marry a "Mistresse Perpetuana"  (V.287.11) whose money w i l l enable him to  redeem his "blush-colour Satten sute from pawn" (V.287.29-30).  4o The  themes o f t h e  parallel  to those  sub-plot are not  o f the main p l o t .  Carmelldon Honorlflcacuminos its  mock pomp, t a k e s  (Lorenzo and by  Celso,  we  place  Bidet's s i t t i n g  like  Albano,  against  the  Albano's  The  Bydet"  ducal  w o u l d be r e i n f o r c e d  of Venice,  dry  only  a parallel Also,  Simpliclus' He  i s the  makes t h e is  ability  and  g u l l who  he  t o see  t o come  the m o t i f  and  t r a n s p a r e n t as  has  succeeded.  through t o the  i s the He  extent  i s very  reality  of  the  Simpliclus.  w i s h e s t o have t h e  so h i l a r i o u s  up  judicious city  himself. status i n  a p p e a r a n c e o f a man-about-town.  character  convinced  both Laverdure  d i s g u i s e i s as  country  money, t i t l e  by  Simpliclus,  w h i c h makes  d o w n - a t - h e e l s d a n d y s a v i n g h i s w a r d r o b e by a i s presented  revels),  chair of s t a t e .  i n n o c e n c e more a p p a r e n t .  marriage  of"Bosphoros  i s r e s t i n g between  t h i n k s h i m s e l f home a n d duplicity  court  but  (III.273.12), w i t h a l l  the a n a l o g y  i n the  similar  i n the absence of d u c a l a u t h o r i t y  remember,  presumably a t Paul's  only  What  to which  proud  he  of h i s  i n his a p p r a i s a l of  Lampatho: M o u n s l e u r L a v e r d u r e , do y o u see t h a t G e n t l e m a n ? hee g o e s b u t i n b l a c k S a t t i n a s y o u s e e , b u t by H e l l l c o n hee' h a t h a c l o t h o f T i s s u e w i t ,  (II.246.4-6)  and  shows s i m i l a r  s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n when he  confronts  Albano:  as  0 God S i r , y o u l y e a s open t o my understanding a C u r t i z a n , . . . I ha p a i d e f o r my k n o w i n g o f men  4l and women t o o i n my d a y e s , Soranza the Perfumer.  I know y o u a r e F r a n c i s c o  (III.267.17-23) This self of  capacity  f o r b e i n g wrong w h i l e c o n g r a t u l a t i n g  on b e i n g r i g h t  A c t V, s u r e l y  comedy.  i s especially  one o f t h e f u n n i e s t  Simplicius  the advantages  God  boy good S i n i o r , 'tis!"  when B i d e t speculate  of h i s course of a c t i o n : what a f o o l e  (V.287.1-2). tells  scenes  This  Simplicius  'tis!  sagacity,  scene  i n English  enters d e c r y i n g Quadratus'  see  Asse  obvious i n the f i r s t  him-  failure to  "Ha, h a , h a ,  h a , h a , what an however,  i s exposed  t h e r e a s o n why he may have t o  i n order t o accumulate:  You may go i n b e a t e n p r e t i o u s S t o n e s e v e r y d a y , m a r r y I must a c q u a i n t y o u w i t h some o b s e r v a n c e s w h i c h y o u must p e r s u e most r e l i g i o u s l y , s h e h a s a f o o l e , a n a t u r a l l f o o l e w a i g h t s on h e r , t h a t i s i n d e e d h e r p a n d e r ; t o h i m a t t h e f i r s t y o u must be b o u n t e o u s , what-so-ere hee c r a v e s , bee i t y o u r H a t t e , C l o a k e , R a p i e r , P u r s e , or such t r i f l e , g i v ' t , g i v ' t , t h e n i g h t w i l l pay a l l : and t o draw a l l s u s p e c t , f r o m p e r s u i n g h e r l o v e f o r base g a l n e sake.  (V.287.19-26)  Simplicius crisy  answers w i t h a p a t h e t i c attempt  followed  by a s t a t e m e n t  a t knowing  o f what i s r e a l l y  hypo-  on h i s  mind: G i v ' t ? by t h i s l i g h t , l i e g i v ' t , w e r t — g a i n e ? I care n o t f o r h e r Chaine of P e a r l e , onely h e r l o v e ; g a i n e ? t h e f i r s t t h i n g h e r b o u n t y s h a l f e t c h i s my b l u s h - c o l o u r S a t t e n s u t e f r o m pawn: g a i n e ?  (V.287.27-30)  The  working-over  that  he g e t s f r o m B i d e t  strips  Simplicius  42 of a l l t h e f u r n i t u r e o f "oppinion" body a n d m i n d . of d i s c o u r s e " face  with  Rhetoric fails  which has i n v e s t e d h i s  i s the f i r s t  t o go;  h i s"variety  h i m a s s o o n a s he h a s t o come f a c e t o  the formidable  'lady':  SIMPLICIUS: I s h a l l s o r a v i s h h e r w i t h my c o u r t - s h i p , I h a v e s u c h v a r i e t y o f d i s c o u r s e , s u c h coppy o f phrase t o begin, as t h i s ; s w e e t e L a d y U l i s s e s Dog a f t e r h i s M a i s t e r s t e n yeares t r a v e l l , I s h a l l so t i d e her, o r thus, Pure beauty there i s a stone — S L I P : Two s t o n e s man. S I M P L I C I U S : C a l l e d — ' t i s n o m a t t e r what; I h a t h e e l o q u e n c e , I am n o t t o s e e k e I w a r r a n t y o u . The C o r n e t i s w i n d e d , E n t e r P l p p o , B y d e t , P l p p o a t t i r e d l i k e a M e r c h a n t s w i f e , and Bydet l i k e a F o a l e . Sweete L a d y U l i s s e s d o g , t h e r e ' s a s t o n e c a l l e d — 0 L o r d what s h a l l I s a y ? S L I P : I s a l l y o u r e l o q u e n c e come t o t h i s ?  (V.287.36-288.8)  W e a l t h a n d f i n e r y a r e removed a t one s t r o k e (V.288.14-22). emblematic he  next  a sniff  instalment  Midsomer q u a r t e r " might  audience.  the lean  of his  remember t h a t  perfect  Bidet,  " I may go s t a r v e  t h e cause o f t h i s  blest,/Because  I t i s not very  whose r e a d y w i t a n d c a p a c i t y  exits, before  till  spectator  d e s t i t u t i o n has been likely  that  Simpliclus  As Lampatho s a y s , " h e ' s  a p e r f e c t beast"  L a v e r d u r e ' s page,  Renaissance dramatists  As S i m p l i c l u s  and a r e f l e c t i v e  c h a n g e h i s ways, however.  appear  t i m e he must e n d u r e  income:  (V.289.32),  Plppo's pretty face. will  costume w o u l d n o d o u b t  t o an Elizabethan  laments with  the  His Fool's  by B i d e t  (11.257.19-20).  i s one o f t h o s e V i c e - f i g u r e s for disguise  an expression  constitutedf o r  of the  untrustworthiness  *3 o f a p p e a r a n c e s , and a l l o w e d and  hypocrisy  and  a l l devices  fool  folly,  t o be p u n i s h e d .  a n d d i s g u i s e s c a n be u s e d when t h e r e precisian  lose  for  i t : "fortunes  fortune,  Accordingly either  t o be  t o be c a u g h t a d u l t e r a t i n g t h e w i n e .  l u m p k i n who d o e s n o t know how t o l o o k to  rectitude,  F o r such a c h a r a c t e r , any  t o be g u l l e d , a p o k e r - f a c e d  or a h y p o c r i t e  unimaginative  are ordain'd  to play with Bidet  Any  f o r f o o l e s , as f o o l e s are  can adopt a t w i l l  mock-monarch, c r e a t u r e  ridiculed,  a f t e r h i s money d e s e r v e s  a l l not to use"  f a c e t of h i s nature;  Is a  (III.272.9-11).  and w i t h o u t  the r e a l - l i f e  rogue  a qualm or the  of "oppinion":  As I am B o s p h o r o s C a r m e l i d o n Honorificacuminos B y d e t I am i m p e r i o u s : h o n o r s p a r c k l e s i n mine e y e s ; b u t a s I am C r a c k I w i l l c o n v a y c r o s b i t e a n d c h e a t upon S l m p l i c i u s .  (III.273.11-1*0  Not  o n l y does B i d e t  this the  t i t l e s and trappings  False  they  refer  of the court  emblem w i t h  roguery  he a l s o  celebrates  h i s kingdom has a l l l t mimics,  but the  t o o f f e r a comic c o n t r a s t t o t h e i d e a l .  d i c e and a " p a n t o f l e "  proclamation  its  role,  d u a l i t y i n ambiguity and i r o n y ;  things  an  have a d u a l  (III.270.s.d.) a r e adopted as  a l l the f l o u r i s h  concludes  with  of heraldry.  Bidet's  a r e v e a l i n g example o f t h e  which can I r o n i c a l l y manipulate appearances f o r  own e n d s :  Honorlficacuminos B i d e t Emperor o f Crackes, P r i n c e o f P a g e s , M a r q u e s o f Mumchance, a n d s o l e r e g e n t o v e r  44 a b a l e of f a l s e d i c e , to a l l h i s under M i n i s t e r s h e a l t h , Crovmes, S a c k , T o b a c c o , and s t o c k i n g s u n c r a k t a b o v e the shooe.  (III.270.6-9)  C a u g h t b e t w e e n B i d e t and of g u i l e f e e d i n g the  instrument  of F r a n c i s c o stupid the  as  he  i n the  i n the main p l o t .  has  b o u g h t me  I can  garbles  s a y As  is, like  Simpliclus  and  i n p r e s e n t l now,"  has,  considerably  possession  of  exchanges  adornment  a H a t t e and  was  as  w e l l as  supposed  the  significant of the  at  W i l l ' s theme, t h e  His  ingenious  both confessed,  t h a t he  loot—Pippo  is finds  admits  (V.289.3).  distinction by  of  only  excuse B i d e t  times debate r a t h e r  i s a p t l y worked o u t  in a highly  fact  the  to  emerges  Holofernes' The  a  II.259.15-16),  Bidet  richer,  "square D i c e "  Though resembling  characters  and  i s to return to school.  reality,  t h o u g h he  i s as  h a l f - w a y between those  commandeering P i p p o ' s s h a r e  What You  he  (II.259.11-14 & 255.7-14).  o f a l l he  is  manner  guile;  i s sent  Grammar he  his guilt,  r e d e e m a b l e i s shown by  to the  fact,  no  He  B i d e t ; where S i m p l i c l u s i s g u l l e d by  cheated  u n p u n i s h e d , and  and  In  has  i n the  a f i n e d a g g e r , and  i n school  punishment  punishment  He  t h e m e s s a g e s on w h i c h he  have memorised  p a g e s and  subplot  microcosm  Plppo.  of r h e t o r i c f o r the v a c u i t y of  L a t i n mnemonics f r o m L i l y ' s  for  i s Holofernes  Simpliclus himself.  ha,  Feather,  stupidity  of d e c e p t i o n  ambivalence  ("Ha,  on  Simpliclus in this  between a p p e a r a n c e  extremely  plot.  t h a n drama,  amusing  CHAPTER I I I THE The of  Malcontent  was  MALCONTENT  first  performed  the Queen's R e v e l s a t B l a c k f r i a r s ,  by t h e  i n 1602  and  subsequently  i n a n augmented v e r s i o n by  Men  a t the Globe  i n 1604,  three quartos. taining title  the  page  The  last  t h e f o r m e r was  We  I n d u c t i o n - as  simply  to explain  are  the a c t i o n  hegemony has  the  1  King's  shall  i s t h e o n l y one  " a d d i t i o n s " mentioned  i t stands  t o be  i t s role  duke G i o v a n n i A l t o f r o n t a n d  on i t s  by  for a Black-  seems t o The  be  additions  Marston.  of the p l a y begins,  been extended  con-  p r o b a b l y n e v e r know w h e t h e r  t h e change o f company.  generally accepted Before  of these  an a d d i t i o n o r a replacement  friars  o r 1603,  the year of p u b l i c a t i o n of a l l  "INDVCTION" and (p.7)^.  Children  t o G e n o a by installing  Florentine  overthrowing t h e weak P i e t r o  as  T h i s i s the c o n j e c t u r e of Anthony C a p u t i i n John M a r s t o n . S a t i r i s t ( I t h a c a , N.Y.: C o r n e l l U.P., 1961), p.266, and M.L.Wine i n h i s e d i t i o n o f The M a l c o n t e n t ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a P r e s s , 1964), p . x v i . I t a c c o u n t s f o r t h e t r a n s f e r b e t w e e n c o m p a n i e s by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e p l a y was a B l a c k f r i a r s s u c c e s s b e f o r e t h e p l a g u e o f May 1 6 0 3 - A p r i l 1604 and was u s e d by t h e K i n g ' s Men a s p a r t o f t h e i r r e o p e n i n g r e p e r t o i r e . An e a r l y d a t e o f c . l 6 0 0 has b e e n a r g u e d by S t o l l ( " T h e D a t e of The M a l c o n t e n t : A R e j o i n d e r , " RES, XI [l935l . 42-50), a n d r e c e n t l y s u p p o r t e d by G. C r o s s ( " T h e D a t e o f The M a l c o n t e n t once more," P&,XXXIX D-960], 104-113). x  ^ R e f e r e n c e s t o The M a l c o n t e n t a r e t o t h e e d i t i o n M.L.Wine. T h i s e d i t i o n g i v e s t h e f u l l e r G l o b e t e x t .  of  46 duke, m o n i t o r e d Florentine" palace"  "by h i s d u c h e s s  (I.iv.19).  a disguise at  hears  of h i s wife's  a p a r t y t o the o r i g i n a l  news i s b r o u g h t  by t h e d i s a f f e c t e d  adopted  revenge,  by A l t o f r o n t  usurpation.  to return  a misunderstanding  causes A u r e l i a  t h e duke  the duchess  his  r e a l aim i s t o win the duchess'  i n exposing  her lover,  and r e i g n  is  supreme.  i s discredited effect.  by s u b o r n i n g  Pietro. disguise,  and k i l l i n g  Pietro  While  word  stage  disguise  t o h i s own d e a t h ,  his next  stage,  he i s t h w a r t e d  o f Mendoza's dishonour  t o take h i s plans  Malcontent  to  eliminate  while remaining i n  t o w i n t h e duke o v e r t o h i s s i d e He a r r a n g e s  Mendoza,  of A u r e l i a ' s  attempts  the supposed  to banish  believes  and t h e f i r s t  T h i s enables A l t o f r o n t ,  the murder p l o t .  Ferneze;  f a v o u r by s e e m i n g t o  and f i n a l l y  s e n t t o F l o r e n c e , Mendoza  further  pretends t o  t h e n t o m u r d e r t h e duke, who h a s  f o o l i s h l y made h i m h i s h e i r ,  plan put into  t o power.  to transfer  aid  "Malevole"  "Malevole,  t h e i n e f f e c t u a l duke c a n be s p u r r e d t o  T h e s l i g h t e d Mendoza  Aurelia  This  t o e n a b l e him t o r e m a i n  her favours to Ferneze.  protect  of the  infidelity  but t o l e r a t e d  c o u r t and await a p r o p l t o u s time By t h e t i m e  "daughter  T h e p l a y opens i n t h e " l a s c i v i o u s  o f Genoa.as P i e t r o  w i t h Mendoza,  Aurelia,  f o rPietro  by  revealing  to testify i n  whereupon Mendoza moves on t o  the banishment o f A u r e l i a . by h i s s u p p o s e d  tool  Here a g a i n  " M a l e v o l e " . Mendoza's  4? statecraft "hermit"  has  arranged  (Pietro)  t o p o i s o n one  also  evaporates  sees  the now-penitent  and  this,  f o r the  when t h e  two  Aurelia  an  and  enlists  followers:  that Altofront He  Altofront*s  and  He  has  Ferneze,  w i t h the  proposes  duchess Maria,  her  and  has  by last  to reign  is  who  has  the  reveal  the  appoints "Malevole"  Pietro  loyal  from  themselves  having  deposed, A l t o f r o n t  the  as  still  unaware  Altofront's  h i s go-between. demonstrate  t o watch i n d i s g u i s e marriage.  when he  been poisoned,  final  of  y a r d below h i s  with  of enforced  i s deceived and  prepares  masque w h i c h Mendoza  appear as  in a fine  to  Mendoza mean-  c o u r t t o c e l e b r a t e h i s a c c e s s i o n as  f o u r avengers  court),  s u r v i v e d Mendoza's  a dynastic marriage  In the  reinstate-  of the  s t e p of h i s p l o t ,  has  Pietro  to h i s nucleus  remained  i s o u t w e i g h e d by  securely.  i m p o s e s on  and  him  c o n s i s t e n t l y d e l v e d one  that Malevole  plan  then r e v e a l s himself to  i s a l l o w e d a moment o f t r i u m p h  thinking  heir,  the r e s t  "Malevole".  her s u f f e r i n g s a t the thought  into  the  banishment,  s a t i s f a c t i o n a t s e e i n g h i s duchess  constancy  Mendoza  from  h i s a i d , adding  been c o n c e a l e d  proceeds  mines.  throne.  C e l s o , who  regime,  s w o r d and while  to  opportunity of persuading  h i s usurped  previous  this  but  t o g e t h e r w i t h F l o r e n c e ' demand f o r t h e  affords Altofront  two  another,  b e i n g l e d on  (kept secret  Pietro  and  d i s g u i s e d dukes c o n f e r .  ment o f A l t o f r o n t  abdicate  "malcontent"  bygone G e n o e s e  c o u p de  Pietro's  dukes,  theatre. Mendoza  reunited with Maria,  and  punishments  48 or admonitions dealt Throughout  o u t t o t h e more o f f e n s i v e  The M a l c o n t e n t , a t o n e o f n e r v o u s  i s m a i n t a i n e d , n o t o n l y by wit, of  bawdry, a n d  slapstick,  perhaps  b u t a l s o by  real  are secretly  so l o n g as  of the F l o r e n t i n e  Adultery  sabotaged  the l o s s  of p u b l i c  " g r e a t duke"  Pietro's  come t o t e r m s w i t h a n  by  and  that  the  Mendoza  duke, whose power, has  been  shaken  i s condoned  rule  confidence following  (IV.v.78) w o u l d  element  o f them, and  i n high places  i t i s concealed;  satiric  Mendoza's  t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y by A u r e l i a ,  by h e r e x p o s u r e .  the  that  even an  i s s u e d e p e n d s n o t s o much on A l t o f r o n t  represented  by  the f a c t  i n step with h i s a c t i v a t i o n  a s on the d e c i s i o n  comedy  the embellishments of  i n performance  Machiavellian activities Malevole  coutiers.  presumably  independent A l t o f r o n t  would  be  only  weakened  the event,  and  r a t h e r have t o than r e l y  on  an u n s t a b l e P i e t r o . The  theme o f t h e p l a y  o f P i e t r o and Mendoza. disguise;  or incompetence  In addition,  where a p p e a r a n c e s and  T h e i r u s u r p a t i o n s a r e a form  t h e y t r y t o pass themselves o f f as dukes  by r e a s o n o f e v i l task.  the c o u r t  and  the r i g h t f u l  duke's  they are not f i t  This  overthrow  adopting a disguise  o f Mendoza and  rule  of when  f o r the  o f G e n o a i s shown a s a  o p i n i o n c o u n t f o r more t h a n  a c t u a l moral worth.  confidence  i s t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e bad  place  reality  i s a c h i e v e d by which w i l l  thus enable A l t o f r o n t  to  win  the  49 mitigate until  the worst  the r i g h t  effects  of h i s t r e a c h e r y , t r e a d i n g  i s again apparent  t o h i s p e o p l e and  water  to  Florence. The  conflict  i n The  Malcontent  domestic  intrigue  nor of p o l i t i c a l  an a b s o r b i n g (and e x t r e m e l y funny) overthrow  o f c o r r u p t and  by d i s i n t e r e s t e d , moral the  lesson  God-ordained  i s indicated  characters;  with p o l i t i c a l  t h e y go intrigue,  purely domestic, p u b l i c and  usurped  by  one  didacticism; tragicomedy  power and  rule.  The  the spectrum  of  sphere  i n s u c h a way  as  less,  Altofront  the  play,  and  the  i t must be  h i s moment o f t r i u m p h qualifications  whose u l t i m a t e  on  which e n t e r s the p l a y as  rather  alludes  social  as  f o r t h e G e n o a dukedom i s c a r r i e d  the  At  together  that  integrity.  u n d e r l y i n g assumption  i s almost i n both  These are k n i t t e d  t o l e a v e no d o u b t  of  concerned  others involved  political  background  this  of i n t e r e s t s  i s s e e n a s d e p e n d e n t on p r i v a t e a s w e l l  a g a i n s t a cosmic  of  t o M a q u e r e l l e , whose r o l e  w i t h B i l i o s o and  struggle  the  i t s replacement  stability  The  o f mere  i t is  f r o m Mendoza, p r i m a r i l y  private a c t i v i t i e s .  in,the plot  i s neither  than a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e .  an None  t o i t a t i m p o r t a n t moments i n  taken as f i r m l y  setting  the  tone.  o v e r Mendoza, A l t o f r o n t d e s c r i b e s  o f a good r u l e r and  t r i u m p h has  thereby the  been the s u b j e c t  " b i r t h d o t h n e ' e r e n r o l l / A man  of the  'mong m o n a r c h s , b u t  standards play: a  50 (V.vi.130-13D•  glorious  soul"  claim  to  the  guise  to Mendoza, he  dukedom, the  (III.Iii.63-64), his  best  virtue  claim,  of a  reflective  and  "may  fact be  that,  the  i s dismissed  moments t h e  he  of  some duke"  son  i n favour  hints  in  of  the  When i n one  of  moral several that  survived Mendoza s attack, 1  t r u e A l t o f r o n t shows t h r o u g h  the  frantic  dis-  constitutes  h i g h - m i n d e d duke f i n d s  unexpectedly  legal  as  w h i c h i n worldly e y e s  "glorious soul."  F e r n e z e has  Here A l t o f r o n t ' s  the  disguise:  Thy shame more t h a n t h y wounds do g r i e v e me f a r ; T h y wounds b u t l e a v e upon t h y f l e s h some s c a r , B u t fame n e ' e r h e a l s , s t i l l r a n k l e s w o r s e and w o r s e ; Such Is o f u n c o n t r o l l e d l u s t the c u r s e .  (II.v.144-147) Here, as front  represents  mortal  values  disguise of  i n a l l h i s s p e e c h e s when t h e mask i s o f f , A l t o -  the  and  a viewpoint s e t s up  c o n s i s t s of an  t r a n s i t o r y world  humour t o be assumptions  which lowers merely p h y s i c a l ,  spiritual,  e t e r n a l ones.  intensification  of  t o a p o i n t where  treated with  this  no  Here i s a pander jewel'd; i n s h i f t o f s a t i n t h i s day t h a t s h i r t t'other night.  distrust  i t becomes a  amused t o l e r a n c e ,  " M a l e v o l e " makes a r e  His  but  l e s s those  the of A l t o f r o n t :  there i s a f e l l o w could not s h i f t a  (I.iii.50-52)  The  closeness  Altofront  of the  account  cosmic viewpoints  f o r the  difficulty  of  "Malevole"  of a s s i g n i n g  the  and  51 utterances  of "Malevole"  unequivocally  t o one o r t h e o t h e r .  saw " M a l e v o l e "  reason  of h i s s a t i r i c a l  rather  frantic  railing  vindicated the in  that  T h i s view  i s made d i f f i c u l t t o  i t i s not "Malevole"  who i s  by t h e e n d o f t h e p l a y , b u t A l t o f r o n t .  c h a r a c t e r ' A l t o f r o n t / M a l e v o l e * c r e a t e s more theories of personality  coherence,  Altofront  that  ( i f anyone),  exposure  and r e f o r m a t i o n .  contempt  call  problems  i t solves i n dramatic to turn t o the other  and r e g a r d i n g " M a l e v o l e "  adopted  i s well  To  of a t t r i b u t i n g Marston's viewpoint t o  disguise  attitudes  than  a n d s o i t seems l o g i c a l  alternative,  of  and a t t r i b u t e d the  t o what he saw a s t h e " d i s t r e s s e d  2 4  by t h e f a c t  a s " M a r s t o n ' s spokesman"-^ by  speeches,  s p i r i t " " of the author. accept  Schoenbaum  by him t o p r e c i p i t a t e  seen  as a  the cycle of  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f t h e two  i n " M a l e v o l e ' s " u s e o f t h e theme  f o r the world  t o persuade  Pietro  to abdicate:  Come, be n o t c o n f o u n d e d ; thou a r t but i n danger t o l o s e a dukedom. Think t h i s : t h i s earth i s the o n l y grave and Golgotha wherein a l l t h i n g s t h a t l i v e must r o t ; ' t i s but the draught wherein the heavenly b o d i e s d i s c h a r g e t h e i r c o r r u p t i o n ; t h e v e r y muck h i l l on w h i c h t h e s u b l u n a r y o r b s c a s t t h e i r e x c r e m e n t s . Man i s t h e s l i m e o f t h i s dung p i t , a n d p r i n c e s a r e t h e g o v e r n o r s o f t h e s e men; f o r , f o r our souls, they a r e a s f r e e a s e m p e r o r s , a l l o f one p i e c e ; there  ^Samuel Schoenbaum, "The P r e c a r i o u s B a l a n c e M a r s t o n , " PMLA. L X V I I (1952), 1069. ^Ibid.,  p.1078.  o f John  52 g o e s b u t a p a i r o f s h e a r s b e t w i x t a n emperor a n d t h e son o f a b a g p i p e r - o n l y the dyeing, dressing, p r e s s i n g , g l o s s i n g makes t h e d i f f e r e n c e . Now what a r t thou l i k e t o lose? A j a i l e r ' s o f f i c e t o k e e p men i n bonds, W h i l s t t o i l a n d t r e a s o n a l l l i f e ' s good  confounds.  (IV.v.105-118) The  l a n g u a g e may be, a s J . D . P e t e r p o i n t s  of a Malcontent but  the ideas  mortal end. only the  i n the mediaeval t r a d i t i o n  a r e consistent with  world declared  over the "slime"  stresses  of a Ptolemaic  "dung-pit"  of unaided mortal  above him" ( V . i v . 8 8 - 8 9 ) i  the divine  persona,  "no d i s a s t r o u s  c h a n c e c a n e v e r move h i m / T h a t l e a v e t h n o t h i n g  to  nature  o f h u m i l i t y and submission t o t h e  a s t h e o n l y way f o r a p r i n c e :  distinguishes  i s part of  Elsewhere, A l t o f r o n t , i n p r o p r i a  the necessity  divine w i l l  A l t o f r o n t a t the  the a u t h o r i t y o f r u l e r s extends  recognition of the I n a b i l i t y glory.  o f "Complaint,"  t h e contempt f o r t h e  by t h e u n d i s g u i s e d  The knowledge t h a t  to achieve  out,-* t h e r a i l i n g  and i n t h e l a s t  good f r o m b a d r u l e  b u t a God  s c e n e he a g a i n  i n terms o f t h e i r  relation  order:  Y e t t h u s much l e t t h e g r e a t o n e s s t i l l conceive: When t h e y o b s e r v e n o t h e a v e n ' s impos'd c o n d i t i o n s , T h e y a r e no k i n g s , b u t f o r f e i t t h e i r c o m m i s s i o n s . (V.vi.l42-l44) The includes,  cosmic framework w i t h i n which t h e p l a y  takes  i n a d d i t i o n t o God a s s o u r c e o f t h e d i v i n e  place order,  -^Complaint a n d S a t i r e i n E a r l y E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e ( O x f o r d ; C l a r e n d o n Press,1956), p.241.  53 and the r u l e r s who maintain that order  i n the temporal  world, those at the base of the pyramid who  are ruled by  it. The l e v e l l i n g remarks made by A l t o f r o n t i n his disguise as "Malevole" are what one would expect of a melancholy, d i s a f f e c t e d Malcontent, but they also f i t i n with the character of A l t o f r o n t as i t i s revealed at various i n the play.  points  A l t o f r o n t thinks a "glorious soul" i s more  Important than mere " b i r t h , " and "Malevole," i n reply to Mendoza's epithet "baseborn" (I.v.5)t  gives a n . i n t e n s i f i e d ,  •antic' version of the l e s s p o s i t i v e , 'Complaint' element of the idea: "we  are a l l the sons of heaven, though a t r i p e -  wife were our mother" (I.v.6-7); l a t e r , he repeats the idea when he reminds P i e t r o that we are a l l cut from the same c l o t h and "only the dyeing, dressing, glossing makes the difference."  pressing,  The possession of a  "glorious soul" gives a prince the o b l i g a t i o n to "keep men  i n bonds"— a function looked on by the good r u l e r as  protective rather than r e s t r i c t i v e .  In The Malcontent  the people are represented as a "beast with many heads" (III.iii.4),  too ignorant  to know what i s good f o r them.  Their fortunes are affected by the outcome of the p l o t — indeed the only r e a l physical hardship i n the play i s that suffered by the victims of B i l i o s o ' s r a c k r e n t i n g — and  though they are not represented on stage they are  the  54 good r u l e r ' s raison d'etre.  Altofront r e c a l l s how h i s  Just rule began to be considered too austere: ... the crowd, S t i l l lickerous of untried novelties, Impatient with severer government, Made strong with Florence, banish'd A l t o f r o n t . (I.iv.14-17). and at the conclusion of the play he r e i t e r a t e s how they prefer "outward shows" over t h e i r r u l e r s ' "virtues" (V.vl.140,141).  Celso recounts how t h i s led them into a  s i t u a t i o n they r e a l i s e d too l a t e was f a r from i d e a l : Though thorough great men's envy, most men's malice, Their much intemperate heat hath banish'd you, Yet now they f i n d envy and malice ne'er Produce f a i n t reformation. (III.iii.6-9) What they had done i n fact was to l a y themselves open to e x p l o i t a t i o n by such as the stupid and greedy B i l i o s o , or rather by such of t h e i r own number with s u f f i c i e n t cunning to raise themselves to positions of control over the B i l i o s o s .  In the t h i r d act Bianca, who has " f o r  the most part of £ h e r 3 l i f e t i m e been a country body" (III.i.77-78), advises her old husband how to recoup the expenses of his embassage to Florence: you have the lease of two manors come out next Christmas; you may lay your tenants on the greater rack f o r i t . (III.1.36-38) Towards the end of the play, A l t o f r o n t ' s moment a r r i v e s  55 as soon as h i s support includes the people as well as "the great Leader of the just," the captain of the c i t a d e l , and the courtiers he has assembled around him (V.iv.85-87).  His speech i s Immediately  followed by the  masque at which the people's prayers are answered by the unmasking of t h e i r unjustly banished duke. of the story i s again made p l a i n ;  The moral  the good r u l e r has  the consent of the whole order, down through the temporal and m i l i t a r y power to the masses, and not, as the usurpers have, the support merely of a " f a c t i o n " (II.v.80). The play's c o n f l i c t takes place, however, not between supernatural agencies nor among the duke's subjects, but i n the court.  A l t o f r o n t o f f e r s enlightened Justice i n  humble submission to the divine w i l l and to the v i c i s s i t u d e s of Fortune, with no r e p e t i t i o n of the "suspectless" ( I . i v . l 4 ) peace of mind which cost him the dukedom before the beginning of the a c t i o n .  Mendoza, on the other hand,  denies j u s t i c e and attempts to circumvent Fortune i n an impious and s e l f - w i l l e d exercise of power.  Altofront  "leaveth nothing but a God above him" (V.lv.89); the implication i s that Mendoza allows something to come between— perhaps a w i l f u l projection of himself.  In f a c t i t i s of  the type of audacious, even impious, self-enhancement l i n e d e a r l i e r that h i s disguise consists.  out-  Altofront submits  to Providence, bides his time, and i s rewarded:  56 Who doubts of Providence, That sees t h i s change? A hearty f a i t h to a l l ! He needs must r i s e who can no lower f a l l : For s t i l l impetuous v i c i s s i t u d e Touseth the world: then l e t no maze Intrude Upon your s p i r i t s . Wonder not I r i s e , For who can sink that close can temporize? (IV.v.136-142); Mendoza attempts to bring Fortune's wheel to a s t a n d s t i l l by brute force: I ' l l trust no man; he that by t r i c k s get wreaths Keeps them with s t e e l ; no man securely breathes Out of deserved ranks; the crowd w i l l mutter, "Fool!" Who cannot bear with spite, he cannot r u l e . (V.iv. 74-77) The contrast i n the Genoese court between those are  who  f i t to rule and those who are not extends from state-  c r a f t into private l i f e . not only as an exemplary  A l t o f r o n t i s opposed to Mendoza r u l e r but as an  exemplary  husband, and Maria i s confronted d i r e c t l y with Maquerelle for  a few very tense moments i n Act V.  important i n both spheres;  Aurelia i s  she i s an u n f a i t h f u l wife as  well as the source of Florentine p o l i t i c a l power, and a c t i o n i n one role a f f e c t s her i n the other:  she i s  courted because powerful, but her adulterous intrigues are  the cause of Florence's disowning her at the news of  her dishonour.  Biancha, as Maquerelle's star pupil, i s  not only the most 4>viously u n f a i t h f u l wife (her husband being old, r i c h , and stupid), but also the brains behind Bilioso's p o l i t i c a l activities:  57 BIANCHA: See t h e u s e o f f l a t t e r y ; I d i d ever c o u n s e l you t o f l a t t e r g r e a t n e s s , and you have profited well.... B I L I O S O : T h o u a r t e v e r my p o l i t i c i a n .  (III.i.45-50) Competition in of lax no  private 1  life  f o r advancement i n p u b l i c and a d u l t e r y i n t h e Genoa p a l a c e r e s u l t s  cosmetic' disguise. rule  After  t w e l v e months o f P i e t r o ' s  t h e s i t u a t i o n has reached  longer possible  i n the adoption  to distinguish  a s t a g e where i t i s truth  from  The  n a t u r a l untrustworthiness of a world  and  mortality  i s made w o r s e by a t t e m p t s  illusion.  of mutability t o manipulate  further  t h e s e a l r e a d y m i s l e a d i n g appearances, and t h i s  results  i n an atmosphere  it  Is o f t e n hard  point  i s the scene  fabricated his  suit  dares  h e r own b l u f f . hands w i t h  she responds  buys a n  to help i n the  a t court  As Ferneze  t o disown the t r u t h  calling attention  an appearance  v i r t u e which a l l present  to  be f i c t i t i o u s ,  t r u t h about  speech"  o f i r o n i e s and  words a r e bought w h i l e o f moral  that  "privately  .jewels d u r i n g t h i s  with a s t r i n g  a m b i g u i t i e s which pretends  instantly  i s so secure  o f appearances  i n which  A case i n  from M a q u e r e l l e  Maquerelle  effectiveness  feeds Maquerelle's (I.vi.8-9),  w h i c h way i s u p .  account  to Aurelia.  call  weightlessness  i n which Ferneze  eyewitness  unassailable she  to tell  o f moral  to i t ,  that her maintains know  and i m p e r t u r b a b l y r e v e a l s t o us t h e  herself,  b l a n d l y assuming that  we, l i k e t h e  58 court, share her moral viewpoint: To speak f e e l i n g l y , more, more r i c h l y i n s o l i d sense than worthless words, give me those jewels of your ears to receive my enforced duty.... (I.vi.5-7) "feelingly"  (the " f e e l i n g "  being i n the palm of the hand),  " r i c h l y , " and "jewels" a l l draw attention to the transa c t i o n between her and Ferneze, while making, f o r Aurelia's amusement, a conventional denial of f r i v o l i t y ("more... s o l i d sense than worthless words").  From our point of  view, however, Maquerelle's words as we watch her "put up" ( I . v i . 7 - 8 ) Ferneze's bribes and respond with a stream of slander, give us the impression of a pathetic old woman who w i l l do anything f o r money and not the nimble-witted intriguer  she thinks she i s . "More r i c h l y i n s o l i d sense  than worthless words" i s intended to express to Aurelia, with conscious irony, a mock preference of meaningful language over r h e t o r i c ;  what i t r e a l l y shows us i s that  Maquerelle's idea of "sense" i s something " r i c h " and " s o l i d " — that she does i n f a c t prefer cash to any  language  at a l l . This, the f i r s t speech that Maquerelle makes, puts us i n a moral vacuum of bewildering double irony that would not be out of place beside Swift's A Tale of a Tub.  .59 The  deities  t h a n a god tone w i t h  of t h i s world  of s t a b i l i t y some a d v i c e  and  change and  order.  to her  But, f o r your b e q u e a t h two h o u r s  are  decay r a t h e r  Maquerelle  sets  the  charges:  b e a u t y , l e t i t be y o u r s a i n t ; to i t every morning i n your c l o s e t ,  (II.iv.35-37) and  the a c t i v i t i e s  o f the whole c o u r t a r e  w h a t e v e r i s m o r t a l and Malevole  and  dissociated of f i t n e s s i s most  Bilioso from  into  mutable.  shows how  their  real  the s e r v i c e  A  revealing  words a n d  uses  concerned  and  with  exchange  things too  are  p r e s s e d w i t h no  of whatever f l a t t e r y  between  or  sense bribery  advantageous:  MALEVOLE:...What t h o u g h I c a l l ' d t h e e o l d ox, e g r e g i o u s w i t t o l , b r o k e n - b e l l i e d coward, r o t t e n mummy? Y e t , s i n c e I am i n f a v o u r BILIOSO: Words, o f c o u r s e , t e r m s o f d i s p o r t . H i s g r a c e p r e s e n t s y o u by me a c h a i n , a s h i s g r a t e f u l rememb r a n c e f o r - I am i g n o r a n t f o r what; m a r r y , y e may impart.  (I.iv.57-63) U n d e r Mendoza, M a q u e r e l l e , is  engaged  i n attempts  ends w i t h no  and  Bilioso,  to manipulate  reference to moral  the whole c o u r t  appearances  absolutes.  "Honesty  a n a r t t o seem s o "  i s Maquerelle's  and  her " a r t s " to simulate honesty  V.ill.12),  formidable. for  and  She  the v i s i t a n t "  tually  slogan  i n v e n t e d "woolen shoes f o r f e a r (I.viii.38-39),  soundproofed  h i n g e s , and  repeated  a l l the  with  and  "villainous  for  the p a l a c e  selfish Is  (II.iv.24  are  indeed  of c r e a k i n g is vir-  curtains,...oil'd  tongue-tied lascivious  but  witnesses  of  60 great creatures' wantonness" (I.vii.39-41).  Maquerelle  provides a thumbnail sketch of herself usurping the functions of Fortune: I have two court dogs, the most fawning curs, the one c a l l e d Watch, th'other Catch. Now I, l i k e Lady Fortune, sometimes love t h i s dog, sometimes raise that dog, sometimes favor Watch, most commonly fancy Catch. (V.ii.45-49). Maquerelle a l s o t r i e s to forecast events by astrology i f she cannot control them by weighting Fortune's wheel. Her astrology i s a perversion of A l t o f r o n t ' s "God above him  J court any woman i n the r i g h t sign, you s h a l l not miss.... when the sign i s i n Pisces, a f i s h monger's wife i s very sociable; i n Cancer, a Precis lan's wife i s very f l e x i b l e ; i n Capricorn, a merchant's wife hardly holds out; in Libra, a lawyer's wife i s very tractable, e s p e c i a l l y i f her husband be at the term. (V.il.62-67) The successful courtier, according  to Mendoza, needs  to be i n control of mutability i n a d i f f e r e n t way;  i f he  cannot play a t "Lady Fortune" himself, and so much submit himself to her caprices, then he needs to be a chimafira of assorted q u a l i t i e s i n order to cope with a l l the p o l i t i c a l and amorous intrigues he may meet: He that attempts a princess' lawless love Must have broad hands, close heart, with Argus' eyes, And back of Hercules, or else he dies. (II.v.6-8)  61 A good d e a l derives  from  the fact  influence Fortune certainties  o f t h e comedy o f T h e M a l c o n t e n t t h a t many o f t h e s e a t t e m p t s t o  or to protect  misfire.  oneself against  M a l e v o l e u n d e r m i n e s Mendoza's p l a n s  while pretending to carry  them o u t ; B i l i o s o ,  accommodating h i m s e l f t o M a l e v o l e ' s s t a t u s i n accordance and  oppress  Malevole's he  with h i s policy  the least" reminders  changed h i s mind.  even  I t s un-  of " f l a t t e r  (IV.v.102), s t i l l  o f remarks which  while  in,the  court  the greatest has t o endure  he made b e f o r e  A n a d u l t e r o u s c o u r t i e r may be d e c e i v e d  i n h i s embraces, a n d t h e a f f a i r may have unfoi>eseen  consequences: centaurs"  "The f o o l  (II.1.4).  with the p o s s i b i l i t y  grasps c l o u d s , a n d s h a l l  Malevole tortures o f even worse  beget  the hapless  Pietro  consequences:  M a r k i Mendoza o f h i s w i f e b e g e t s p e r c h a n c e a daughter; Mendoza d i e s ; h i s son marries t h i s daughter. S a y you? Nay, ' t i s f r e q u e n t , n o t o n l y p r o b a b l e , b u t no q u e s t i o n o f t e n a c t e d w h i l s t i g n o r a n c e , f e a r l e s s i g n o r a n c e , c l a s p s h i s own s e e d .  (I.iii.131-135) There impiety  i s ample r e m i n d e r  i n The M a l c o n t e n t  o f a t t e m p t i n g t o circumvent providence i n such  but perhaps  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  ducal  i n A c t IV.  token  action,  of the  the prominent  of potency,  The p o i n t  transfer  and e s p e c i a l l y  a c t i n g a s go-between,  i s the f a i l u r e  ways,  o f Mendoza's  I s d r i v e n home by p h y s i c a l  o f the r i n g as an o b j e c t  by t h e r e m a r k o f " M a l e v o l e " ,  on h i s r e t u r n .  The l a t t e r  i s delivered  62 in his jocular railing  style,  m e a n i n g o f " v i r t u e " ('power ceals Altofront*s "Your  1  but h i s use as well as  play  echoes  composite  "cross-capers"  (IV.iv.13),  manipulation of appearances. courtship  Frenchman's l e g s " echoed  straddle  and  "World-tricks"  contribute to a  intrigue furthered  " I do d e s c r y as  who  also  f a r asunder as a  lives  i n and  detachment,  by  the  cross-points;  (II.v.135-137), s a y s M a l e v o l e .  by P a s s a r e l l o ,  maintains a self-deprecating  let  t h e more a b s u r d b e h a v i o u r p a s s unmocked, b u t  true He  by t h e  but  to put things  disguise:  ( I V . i l l . 108).  of the court.  impression of worldly  h o n e s t y and  con-  with i n t e r j e c t i o n s of horror  amazement a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s  (IV.v.122),  double  'virtue')  c r y o f t r i u m p h f r o m "behind t h e  d e v i l s h i p ' i s r i n g h a s no v i r t u e " The  of the  is  court,  refusing  to  powerless  right:  Nay, I s h a l l t a l k when my t o n g u e i s a - g o i n g o n c e ; ' t i s l i k e a c i t i z e n on h o r s e b a c k , e v e r m o r e i n a false tfallop.  (I.viii.29-3D "Malevole"  o f f e r s , as  of A l t o f r o n t ' s as  to avoid  i s h i s wont, a f a n t a s t i c a l v e r s i o n  feelings, telling  the t r u t h i n such a  way  trouble:  PIETRO:...I h e a r t h o u n e v e r s l e e p ' s t . MALEVOLE: 0, no, b u t dream t h e most f a n t a s t i c a l ! 0 heaven! 0 fubbery, f u b b e r y ! PIETRO: Dream! what d r e a m ' s t ? MALEVOLE: Why m e t h i n k s I s e e t h a t s i g n i o r pawn h i s f o o t c l o t h , that metreza her p l a t e ; t h i s madam  63 t a k e s p h y s i c t h a t t ' o t h e r m o n s i e u r may m i n i s t e r t o her....Here a P a r i s supports that Helen; there's a l a d y G u i n e v e r e b e a r s up t h a t S i r L a n c e l o t , Dreams, dreams, v i s i o n s , f a n t a s i e s , c h i m e r a s , imaginations, tricks, conceits!  ( I . iii.44-55) This in  speech  the f i r s t  intrigue, of  i s part act.  of the performance I t shows how  deception,  throughout  the play  imagine "those antique Venery"  ideas  i s r e i n f o r c e d as a  until  painted  (I.Hi.24-26) being  a t t h e end we  jewellery,  "oil'd  In  play,  justice.  largely but by  of deception  hinges," aphrodisiacs,  the a c t i o n consists  The f a c t  sole  with  - cosmetics,  almanacs and a l l .  i n this,  that  Malheureux  t h e theme i s  reinstatement  the c o r r u p t i o n maintains  feature.  f o r c e and the t h r e a t  Courtesan.  of teaching  by t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a p p e a r a n c e s  by no means  their  i s not concerned with appearance i n  to d i s t r u s t appearances; of  can e a s i l y  and t a k i n g  t h e same f u n d a m e n t a l way a s The D u t c h  that  The  thematic  banished alongside  t r a n s i t o r y impedimenta  quite  objects  drabs,... F l a t t e r y , Pride,  them t h e i r  Malcontent  associates  sex w i t h b o t h .  human embodiments Mendoza a n d M a q u e r e l l e ,  The  gives  with the m a t e r i a l  t h e t r a n s i t o r y w o r l d , and i l l i c i t  unity  and  c l o s e l y he  and d i s g u i s e  a s s o c i a t i o n among t h e s e  "Malevole"  i s i t s central  I t maintains  of f o r c e .  itself  Itself  also  Mendoza's p r o p o s a l  to  k e e p A u r e l i a u n d e r s u r v e i l l a n c e has a p o l i c e - s t a t e s o u n d :  64 I h o n o u r you, s h a l l know h e r s o u l , y o u m i n e ; T h e n n a u g h t s h a l l she c o n t r i v e i n v e n g e a n c e (As women a r e most t h o u g h t f u l i n r e v e n g e ) Of h e r F e r n e z e , b u t you s h a l l s o o n e r know't T h a n she c a n t h i n k ' t .  (I.vii.64-68) The  symbols  for  by  the  IV.v;  and  spite  of  o f h i s a r b i t r a r y power a r e  the  stage d i r e c t i o n s at A u r e l i a ' s Mendoza's d e n u n c i a t i o n  our  foreknowledge  banishment  of Maria  o f Mendoza's  "halberds"  called in  is chilling  in  failure:  Thou o b s t i n a t e , thou s h a l t d i e . — C a p t a i n , t h a t l a d y ' s Is f o r f e i t e d to j u s t i c e . We h a v e e x a m i n e d h e r , And we do f i n d s h e h a t h e m p o i s o n e d The r e v e r e n d h e r m i t ; t h e r e f o r e , we command S e v e r e s t custody....A t y r a n t ' s peace i s b l o o d . ( V . v i . 32-37) M e n d o z a e v e n embodies h i s s t a t e c r a f t i n a  sinister  little  lyric: Who And  w o u l d f e a r t h a t may destroy? D e a t h h a t h no t e e t h o r t o n g u e ; he t h a t ' s g r e a t , t o him a r e s l a v e s Shame, m u r d e r , fame, and w r o n g .  (V.iv.43-46)  But in  The  is  linked  the  the  Malcontent i n the  various  considered bad  theme'of a p p e a r a n c e s than the  characters  f o r c e s make use  theme o f  injustice  p e r s o n o f Mendoza;  disguises are  i s p u r s u e d more  the  have t h e i r  types  i n the  and  play,  and  to which i t  i t i s here  function.  of d i s g u i s e  u s e d by  Next the  t o what e x t e n t  of d i f f e r e n t types  of  strongly  disguise.  to  that be  good  the  and  opposing  life  65 I n The Malcontent, disguise of  the formal  p r o v i d e no r e l i a b l e  the character  using  i t .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a  Indication  o f the moral  status  T o s e e a change o f name o r  a p p e a r a n c e a s t h e mark o f a n i n t r u i g i n g a v e n g e r c a s t s t h e net  t o o wide,  f o r such a d i s t i n c t i o n would add t o A l t o f r o n t  P i e t r o a n d Mendoza, who u s u r p t h e t i t l e Maquerelle,  whose p r o f e s s i o n a l  i s an important •of t h i s k i n d  thematic  characteristics. of  looking  of  good o r e v i l ,  and  concern with  element  f o r c e us t o look The p a t t e r n  on t h e p h y s i c a l  elsewhere  f o rthe d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  nature  of disguise  we d e d u c e m o r a l s t a t u s  from  i n which  a n o n y m i t y , a r e t r e a t f r o m who y o u r e a l l y recognition  to  further  For  i n which the o l d s e l f  opposite:  only  are,  an evasion  to e x i s t i n order  physical  opinion,  the user.  a promotion of y o u r s e l f a spurious  i n a more f a v o u r a b l e  changes which need  light.  disguise  .of a p p e a r a n c e ,  u s e d by Mendoza o r M a q u e r e l l e  someone y o u r e a l l y a r e n o t , self  features  o r speech which might betray  cosmetic disguise  old  l t i s expressed.  he makes u s e o f  ceases  i s sufficient  to o b l i t e r a t e a l l recognisable  the  motivation,  t h e i d e o l o g i c a l a n d d i d a c t i c ends o f t h e p l a y .  t h i s the prerequisite  gesture,  as an index  o f r e s t o r i n g r u l e by  monarch, becomes " M a l e v o l e , "  of  Inconsistencies  becomes c l e a r e r i f , i n s t e a d  When A l t o f r o n t , w i t h t h e p u r e m o t i v e rightful  face-painting  i n the play.  t h e n s e e t h e forms o f d i s g u i s e  the  o f duke, a n d  The involves into  improvement  on t h e  F o r t h i s purpose the  t o be made a r e t h o s e w h i c h c a n  66 increase his in  the prestige  identity.  improvement  must come i n f a s h i o n "  charges.  without  obscuring  I n some c a s e s c o s m e t i c s may be s u f f i c i e n t ,  others a spurious  "You  of the i n d i v i d u a l  Most f r e q u e n t l y ,  o f t h e s p o k e n word t h a t an attempt a t 'refeened  i n sartorial  (V.v.14), Maquerelle t e l l s h e r however,  i t Is i n the f i e l d  such d i s g u i s e 1  appearance.  speech l i k e  will  o p e r a t e , from  t h a t made s o d i s a s t r o u s l y  by G e r t r u d e i n E a s t w a r d Ho t o t h e unashamed f l a t t e r y o f Bilioso.  The h y p o c r i t i c a l  where, a s A l t o f r o n t fisj  n o t sham»d/To  situation  puts i t ,  i n t h e Genoese  "the black a c t of s i n i t s e l f  be t e r m ' d  (V.vi.135-136), i s  courtship"  one  i n which M a q u e r e l l e and h e r charges l i v e  and  terms  tinually motive  like  "honour,"  on t h e i r l i p s .  that  individual  the moral  court,  "maidenhead,"  "grace," a r e con-  I t i s on t h e b a s i c  traffic  ways o f e x p r e s s i n g  continuously,  d i s t i n c t i o n of  o f The M a l c o n t e n t depends; t h e that motive  i n disguise  f o l l o w from i t . What we may n o t i c e a s a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r s whom t h e e t h i c  tendency  of the play  justifies  to remain as they are, innocent of v e r b a l s e m b l a n c e , o r t o change t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e completely the  of the c i t a d e l ,  rock-like  loyalty  the play,  and s c o r n  Passarello,  brief  dis-  and u t t e r a n c e  f o r instance,  throughout t h e i r  either  or visual  i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e concealment.  captain  i s f o r the  M a r i a and  demonstrate  a  appearances i n  t h e use o f the s l i g h t e s t d e c e p t i o n .  t o o , c a n be r e l i e d  on t o p r o v i d e a n u n b i a s e d  67 view  of  fool. a  the  c o u r t i n t h e manner o f  These  protest  three maintain  or as a  those  like  final  masque, who  and  entire  to rights, has  Maria  and  so do  court,  Pietro  the  two  P i e t r o and  ..: T h e  forces  total  and  Ferneze  disguise, Pietro  compared front,  i n the of  things  protective disguise "Malevole"  is  f o r the the  him  i n the  final  masque,  the  corrupt world  of  the  o f whom Mendoza, M a q u e r e l l e ,  and  before t h e i r to exhibit  almost  conversion are  mainly  the  certainly  the  second  p r e s i d e s over  chief,  type  henpecked)  "honest"  man consists  (II.v.59);  the maintenance of  of  'cosmetic.  Mendoza's d i s g u i s e  of as  with a b a t t e r y of techniques  one  thick  and  appearances  of which " p a i n t i n g "  (II.iv.48)  with augmenting a r e c o g n i s a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y , part. with  When c o s m e t i c the  for  Ferneze.  h i m s e l f thought  Maquerelle  only  the  But  that m a n i p u l a t i o n of o p i n i o n designated  having  as  c a p t a i n r e f u s e d a l l compromise  h i m s e l f o f f as a duke;  concerned  either  the regime.  t h i s as  a p o s t a t e s from  i s a weak (and  passing  i s no  f o r the g r e a t e r p a r t of  the  of e v i l ,  seem i n most c a s e s  the  into  done  C e l s o , who  like  on  who  h i s three co-avengers  some d a n g e r t o h i m s e l f , j o i n s  and  in  and  fool  integrity  comment  must d e s c e n d  Altofront  action;  .drama h a s at  Altofront  put matters  necessary.  satiric  their  the  disguise  of t h i s  kind i s  c h a n g e s o f a p p e a r a n c e u n d e r g o n e by  made t o a c h i e v e a  seeming ambivalence  temporary  e v a s i o n of  of p h y s i c a l d i s g u i s e  is  Alto-  recognition, ceases  to  1  6 8  obscure the d i s t i n c t i o n . A b r i e f examination of the characters i n three groupsf i r s t , Mendoza and h i s courtiers, employing cosmetic d i s guise; then those l i k e Aurelia, P i e t r o and Ferneze progress from t h i s to Join the t h i r d group: and  who  finally  the t h i r d group, Altofront and Celso, who employ anonymity to expose and reform the f i r s t — m a y help to show how the play's didacticism Is expressed i n the characters and the disguises they adopt.  Mendoza, as has been noted, represents an impious attempt to impose human w i l l on Fortune i n the most fundamental way—usurpation  of the throne.  His a c t i o n i s not  only the expression of h i s 'disguise'—attempting to become something he i s n o t — b u t also the reason why is unfit for rule.  he  Like that of Milton's Satan, Mendoza's  doomed r e b e l l i o n indicates a state of mind which i s of i t s e l f a d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n from a place i n the divine order. Mendoza's masks of honesty, j u s t i c e , sexual f i d e l i t y , and l o y a l t y , which he maintains by that most e f f i c i e n t of •cosmetic' disguises, propaganda delivered with an a i r of authority, conceal a nature which belies them a l l . Occasionally the real crafty ambition, oppression, lecherousness, or betrayal show i n a soliloquy or i n an action whose true nature i s known to the audience.  He counters  69 the Indignant Pietro's accusations with a touching show of mock-innocence: "here's my bare heart to thee"  (I.vii.6);  and when A u r e l i a suspects him of I n f i d e l i t y to herself h i s performance reaches bravura proportions: 0 God, 0 God! How we d u l l honest souls, Heavy-brain'd men, are swallowed In the bogs Of a d e c e i t f u l ground, whilst nimble bloods, L i g h t - j o i n t e d s p i r i t s , pent, cut good men's throats And scapei Alas, I am too honest f o r t h i s age, Too f u l l of phlegm and heavy steadiness; Stood s t i l l whilst t h i s slave cast a noose about me. (II.v.59-65) The r e a l i t y i s revealed by h i s smug self-congratulation a f t e r he has won A u r e l i a ' s confidence: " 0 Heaven!/I see God made honest f o o l s to maintain crafty knaves" (II.v.97-98); and l a t e r on i n the play he congratulates himself on the success of h i s confidence t r i c k : Now i s my treachery secure, nor can we f a l l . Mischief that prospers, men do v i r t u e c a l l . (V.iv.72-73) Mendoz&'s acts of ' j u s t i c e ' need no soliloquy or other unguarded moment to reveal t h e i r true nature.  His a r r e s t  of Maria and his proposal to spy on the dishonoured A u r e l i a are both acts of oppression j u s t i f i e d as being i n the i n t e r e s t s of keeping the peace. Mendoza professes, as part of his cosmetic disguise, a defence of conventional sexual morality.  His punishment  of A u r e l i a i s an act of d i s l o y a l t y and oppression disguised as one of moral cleansing:  70 Woman o f shame, We b a n i s h t h e e f o r e v e r . . . n o r p e r m i t , On d e a t h , u n t o t h e body a n y o r n a m e n t .  (IV.ill.58-61)  The  reference  strengthens  t o "ornament"  t h e thematic  a t i o n and immorality. the  impression  out  links  i n the play  between  When Mendoza w i s h e s t o g i v e  ornament Pietro  t h a t he i s a c t i n g i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f  public morality again  i s especially significant; i t  i n exposing  the cosmetic  f o r pretended  apparatus  A u r e l i a and Ferneze, of the court  i t is  t h a t he s i n g l e s  condemnation:  Hearti I h a t e a l l women f o r ' t : sweet s h e e t s , wax l i g h t s , a n t i q u e b e d p o s t s , c a m b r i c smocks, v i l l a i n o u s c u r t a i n s , a r r a s p i c t u r e s , o i l ' d hinges, and a l l the tongue-tied l a s c i v i o u s witnesses of great creatures wantonness! (I.vii.38-41) !  This the  list, evil  a citation  o f things misused  by man t o c o n c e a l  a n d g i v e a f a l s e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e good,  of  t h e most memorable i n t h e p l a y  of  inanimate  ("tongue-tied  objects  to the status  i n i t s comic e l e v a t i o n o f mute  lascivious witnesses").  p h y s i c a l and t h e moral  i s one  characters  I t a l s o u n i t e s the  i n a n a l m o s t s u r r e a l way  ("villain-  ous c u r t a i n s " ) . What makes Mendoza's c o n d e m n a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l world  ironic  a s w e l l a s comic i s t h e f a c t  stays  i n power by m a n i p u l a t i o n s  of this  t h a t he h i m s e l f  kind  i n both p u b l i c  71 and  p r i v a t e spheres.  match l l n k ' d  I t was Mendoza who "made/The  Genoa w i t h F l o r e n c e "  (I.iv.35-36)  cursed  and t h e  profession  o f d i p l o m a c y h a s b e e n shown up i n t h e c h a r a c t e r  of  Bilioso  t o be a m a t t e r o f s a r t o r i a l  In  t h e p r i v a t e s p h e r e Mendoza  sheets,...oll'd is  hinges"  with  i s well acquainted  and t h e r e s t .  shown i n h i s s o l i l o q u y  and other  appearances. with  H i s obvious  "sweet  lechery  on t h e way t o h i s a s s i g n a t i o n  Aurelia:  0, how f u l l o f r a v i s h i n g a t t r a c t i o n i s y o u r p r e t t y , p e t u l a n t , l a n g u i s h i n g , l a s c i v i o u s l y composed c o u n t e n a n c e ! t h e s e amorous s m i l e s , t h o s e s o u l - w a r m i n g s p a r k l i n g g l a n c e s , ardent a s those flames t h a t s i n g ' d t h e w o r l d by h e e d l e s s P h a e t o n ! I n body how d e l i c a t e , i n s o u l how w i t t y , i n d i s c o u r s e how p r e g n a n t , i n l i f e how wary, i n f a v o u r s how j u d i c i o u s , i n d a y how s o c i a b l e , and i n n i g h t how — 0 p l e a s u r e u n u t t e r a b l e !  (I.v.40-47) When Mendoza f i n d s h i m s e l f reason in  he g o e s t o t h e o t h e r  a second,  contrasted,  summarily d i s m i s s e d extreme, r a i l i n g  parody  without  a g a i n s t women  o f Hamlet:  r a s h i n a s k i n g , desperate i n working, impatient i n s u f f e r i n g , extreme i n d e s i r i n g , s l a v e s unto a p p e t i t e , m i s t r e s s e s i n dissembling, only constant i n unconstancy, only p e r f e c t i n c o u n t e r f e i t i n g , . . .  (I.vi.85-88)  H e r e we have r a i l i n g  w h i c h seems a g e n u i n e c o u n t e r p a r t t o  that  Mendoza i s I n f a c t  of "Malevole".  b e t w e e n two k i n d s any  of evil.  r e s p e c t does n o t imply  Similarity  vaccillating  here  with Malevole i n  any k i n s h i p with  good;  "Malevole"  72 i s not a c h a r a c t e r but a d i s g u i s e , and what d i s t i n g u i s h e s A l t o f r o n t from b o t h o f them i s m a r i t a l s t a b i l i t y e a r t h l y r e l a t i o n s h i p dependent on h e a v e n l y Mendoza d i s p l a y s two e v i l extremes;  guidance.  either a disloyal  and a d u l t e r o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p m o t i v a t e d by l u s t and o r , i f t h i s i s d e n i e d him,  i n an  ambition,  contemptuous d i s m i s s a l I n the  manner o f M a l e v o l e . M a l e v o l e c a l l s Mendoza "Inhuman" ( I I . v . 1 3 3 ) , h i s inhumanity  and  i s most c l e a r l y shown i n h i s d i s l o y a l t y  t h o s e whose a l l i a n c e he has used. b e g i n s , he has e n g i n e e r e d  Even b e f o r e the p l a y  the d e p o s i t i o n o f h i s p r i n c e by  an a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e F l o r e n t i n e super-power. move.is t o b e t r a y the bed o f t h e new usurping h i s throne.  to  The duchess,  H i s next  duke as a s t e p towards  whose s u p p o r t he  has  e n l i s t e d , i s b e t r a y e d i n h e r t u r n as soon as h e r u s e f u l n e s s i s a t an end.  " M a l e v o l e " and t h e " h e r m i t " , s o l e w i t n e s s e s  t o P i e t r o ' s supposed d e a t h , a r e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r d e r e d p o i s o n one a n o t h e r .  to  As he a r r a n g e s t h i s , Mendoza u t t e r s  a maxim o f r e a l p o l l t i k , one o f many w h i c h r e v e a l t h e e x t e n t o f h i s a l i e n a t i o n from the d i v i n e l y - i n s p i r e d s o c i a l  order  which A l t o f r o n t r e p r e s e n t s : One s t i c k burns t ' o t h e r ; s t e e l c u t s s t e e l a l o n e . ' T i s good t r u s t few; but, 0 , ' t i s b e s t t r u s t none. (IV.iii.136-137) The  d u c a l "we"  which Mendoza had used somewhat p r e m a t u r e l y  73 i n conversation with Malevole while l a y i n g plans f o r the usurpation i n the t h i r d act, and p u b l i c l y at the announcement of P i e t r o s death i n Act IV, i s removed l i k e the 1  painted smile of a clown as A l t o f r o n t reveals himself: ALL: Duke A l t o f r o n t ! Duke A l t o f r o n t ! MENDOZA: Are we surprised? What strange delusions mock Our senses? Do I dream? or have I dreamt This two days* space? Where am I? (V.vi.111-114) In t h i s way  cosmetic disguise assumed as an impious act  of w i l l i s routed by i n t e g r i t y concealed f o r the purpose i n temporary  anonymity.  The private aspect of disguise over by Maquerelle.  i n the court i s presided  She h e r s e l f goes through a cycle of  disguise, exposure, and punishment.  To begin with, her  r e a l personality i s maimed l i k e Mendoza*s i n that It knows nothing of s a t i s f a c t o r y human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Where Mendoza  s a c r i f i c e s them to power, Maquerelle makes them the means of g r a t i f y i n g her avarice.  She covers up her avarice and  fleshmongering with a smokescreen of references to the a t t r i b u t e s she wishes others to think she possesses, swearing "upon my honour" ( I I . i v . 5 ) , "by my  fidelity"  (IV. 1.56-57), "o« my conscience" ( V . i l i . 6 2 ) , and even "by my maidenhead" (V.v.24).  This l a s t reveals how  nobody, not even Maquerelle herself, can take her absurd  74 pretence brilliant  seriously.  I t follows  immediately  speech u n i t i n g the ideas  Immorality  i n a string  upon a  o f f a s h i o n and  of l e e r i n g double-entendres:  And, by my t r o t h , b e a u t i e s , why d o y o u n o t put you i n t o the f a s h i o n ? T h i s i s a s t a l e c u t ; you must come i n f a s h i o n . L o o k y e , y o u must be a l l f e l t , f e l t and f e a t h e r , a f e l t upon y o u r bare h a i r . Look ye, t h e s e t i r i n g t h i n g s a r e j u s t l y o u t o f r e q u e s t now. And, do y e h e a r , y o u must wear f a l l i n g b a n d s , y o u must come i n t o t h e f a l l i n g f a s h i o n ; there i s s u c h a d e a l o p i n n i n g t h e s e r u f f s , when t h e f i n e c l e a n f a l l i s worth a l l ; and a g a i n , i f you should chance t o take a nap i n t h e a f t e r n o o n , your f a l l i n g band r e q u i r e s n o p o t i n g s t i c k t o r e c o v e r h i s f o r m . B e l i e v e me, no f a s h i o n t o t h e f a l l i n g , I s a y . 1  (V.v.13-22) In the  fact, final  i n s p i t e of being  judged a l o n g  scene, Maquerelle  wilfully-assumed  disguise  could  everyone a t court,  believed  paid  i n by n o b o d y .  take deep o f f e n s e " one  of i n f i d e l i t y  be s a i d t o have no  i s a legal  like  "when I h e a r d  sweetness,  victims. ironic  ([Mend-  I was e n f o r c e d  t o Mendoza's m i s t r e s s concept  o f decency  way a s a m o v i e g a n g s t e r ' s e u p h e m i s t i c 'healthy'  adopted  to  ( I . v i . 1 0 - 1 1 ) , where t h e q u e s t i o n i s  invokes a f a c t i t i o u s  is  fiction  The  continual l i p - s e r v i c e , but  A line  oza] wronged y o u r p r e c i o u s  Mendoza i n  on h e r own p a r t a t a l l .  "honour" which she p r o f e s s e s by  with  and n o t h i s w i f e , i n just  references  o r ' s m a r t ' b e h a v i o u r on t h e p a r t  t h e same t o what  ofh i s  Maquerelle's defence o f A u r e l i a i s d r a m a t i c a l l y  when we remember t h a t  the v i r t u e Maquerelle i s  <  75 defending  i s that  of adulterous  r e m i n d s us o f what i n f a c t undisguised hardly  motives  relevant  conscious  When we f i r s t response  lust  unsophisticated, Exposure Is  i n a c a s e where t h e o f f e n d e r adopted a pose  i s motivated  i s not  i n the f i r s t  simply  and s o l e l y  place. by a v a r i c e .  s e e h e r s h e i s b u s i l y s l a n d e r i n g Mendoza i n  to Ferneze's  Ferneze's  seem t o be  on M a q u e r e l l e ' s p a r t .  of having  Maquerelle  r e l a t i o n s h i p , and t h i s  lavish  i n a scene  bribes,  full  taking  toll  from  of irony:  MAQUERELLE: V i s i t h e r chamber, b u t c o n d i t i o n a l l y : Y o u s h a l l n o t o f f e n d h e r b e d , by t h i s d i a m o n d ! FERNEZE: By t h i s d i a m o n d . MAQUERELLE: N o r t a r r y a n y l o n g e r t h a n y o u p l e a s e , by t h i s ruby! FERNEZE: By t h i s r u b y . MAQUERELLE: A n d t h a t t h e d o o r s h a l l n o t c r e a k . FERNEZE: And t h a t t h e d o o r s h a l l n o t c r e a k . MAQUERELLE: Nay, b u t s w e a r . FERNEZE: By t h i s p u r s e . MAQUERELLE: Go t o , I ' l l keep y o u r oaths f o r y o u . Remember, v i s i t .  (I.vi.53-62)  She  will  posset in  only  part  with  the recipe  f o rher aphrodisiac  i n e x c h a n g e f o r more j e w e l l e r y , demanded  an i n d i r e c t  of course  way:  E M I L I A : . . . T h e composure, t h e r e c e i p t , how i s ' t ? MAQUERELLE: ' T i s ,-.a p r e t t y p e a r l ; [ p u t s i t on} by t h i s p e a r l (how d o e s ' t w i t h me?) t h u s i t l s i . . .  (II.lv.6-7) Her  living  slanders,  i s made f r o m what s h e c a n s e l l : cosmetics,  opportunity  f o r others  aphrodisiacs, to indulge  76 i n a d u l t e r y , and  one  o r two  very  concealing  l t ("woolen s h o e s "  example).  Her  snarling has  rage  resentment  ingenious  and  "oil'd  of Maria's  or s t u d i e d i n d i f f e r e n c e  been d i s c o v e r e d , b u t  whose l i v e l i h o o d  the  i s being  inventions for  hinges",  virtue  for  i s not  o f one  the  whose  deception  r i g h t e o u s i n d i g n a t i o n of  one  threatened:  She was a c o l d c r e a t u r e e v e r ; she h a t e d monk e y s , f o o l s , j e s t e r s , and g e n t l e m e n u s h e r s extremely; s h e had t h e v i l e t r i c k o n ' t , n o t o n l y t o be t r u l y m o d e s t l y h o n o u r a b l e i n h e r own c o n s c i e n c e , b u t she would a v o i d the l e a s t wanton c a r r i a g e t h a t might i n c u r s u s p e c t , a s , God b l e s s me, she had a l m o s t brought b e d - p r e s s i n g o u t o f f a s h i o n . J. c o u l d s c a r c e g e t a f i n e f o r t h e l e a s e o f a l a d y ' s f a v o r once i n a fortnight.  (V.ii.80-87) Maquerelle cealing  her  (though  like  direction the  own  the  activities  of "honor"), as of  case  demand a n d  of a  the  conscious  end  relevant nor  puts  an  virtue  personal  by  others. Opportunity"  reform p o s s i b l e palpable  deception  conventionally required.  of the  play  end  i s symbolic;  for i t .  Maquerelle  her  t h e moment when  t o the need  the  indeed  i s only meeting a  o f any  con-  o f t e n In  and  practised  of  " t h a t g r e a t bawd,  t h e means o f d e c e p t i o n a t  reinstatement  intriguer  nods f a i r l y instrument  i s not  b e y o n d what seems t o be  removes  the  c h a r a c t e r who  i s not  banishment a t  she  her as  Exposure  cunning  w i t h an appearance  the d e c e p t i o n s  personifies  (III.11.44). in  s o much a  everyone e l s e  embodiment  Malevole  i s not  Any  departur  Altofront'  77  reformation  will  take p l a c e not  Biancha and  Emilia.  Maquerelle  b e h a l f of her c l i e n t s and expression  i n her but In her has  only been a c t i n g on  could be s a i d to be merely  of t h e i r l u s t s and  t h e i r dissembling.  s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e to anyone who  will  pay  been p o i n t e d  cosmetic for  Her  although  talents,,are f o r  concealment and enhancement r a t h e r than anonymity  the purpose of As  out above, Maquerelle's  the  f o r them—  I n c l u d i n g presumably even the f o r c e s of r i g h t , as has  clients  observation.  b e f i t s a character described  i n terms of an attempt  to manipulate F o r t u n e and a t the same time t o b e n e f i t from i t s chances, M a q u e r e l l e ' s appearance and  change.  nature  According  i s l i n k e d w i t h themes of to her, an  improvement  i n an u g l y c o u r t i e r ' s appearance would more than make up f o r his  l a c k of h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s : I t h i n k he could h a r d l y draw U l y s s e s ' bow; but, by my f i d e l i t y , were h i s nose narrower, h i s eyes broader, h i s hands t h i n n e r , h i s l i p s t h i c k e r , h i s l e g s b i g g e r , h i s f e e t l e s s e r , h i s h a i r b l a c k e r , and h i s t e e t h whiter, he were a t o l e r a b l e sweet youth, i'faith.  (IV.i.56-60)  Her  counsel  of v a r i e t y i n b e d f e l l o w s :  as you do your smocks,  have many, use  o f t e n , f o r t h a t ' s most sweet and  "use one,  courtlike"  your and  servants change  (IV. 1 . 4 9 - 5 D t  i s not only an attempt to keep up the demand f o r her " i n v e n t i o n s " ; i t shows Maquerelle  a c t i n g as a k i n d of  78 surrogate Fortune. course, absurd; appearances  Any  her  attempt  immersion  to f i x t h e w h e e l i s , o f i n a world  o n l y emphasises her b e a s t - l i k e  noted  by " M a l e v o l e : "  thou  picture  "Ha,  I n the c l o s i n g  proper sphere  substance scene  she  o f b e i n g a b l e to p r o f i t  needs of o t h e r s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d she  knows t h a t p e o p l e  o f b e i n g " s p i t e d a t and  condition,  beasti"  i s banished  from  as  Maquerelle,  Her the  to  her  exit  from  cosmetic  In a grotesque  like  thrust  of a  (V.vi.156).  of the "suburbs"  her p o s i t i o n  shifting  thou a r t a melodious  o f a woman and  (V.ii.8-9).  Image:  of  and  pathetic  h e r s e l f are i n danger  to the w a l l s l i k e a p r i c o c k s "  (V.vi.147). Bilioso,  on h i s own,  of g r e a t p h y s i c a l "a  d o e s n o t amount t o much.  s t r e n g t h which,  to  carry  l a d y up a n d  and  " e a t s t e w ' d b r o t h as  he  He  claims, enables  down a t a r m s ' end  in a  i t comes s e e t h i n g o f f t h e  fire"  T h i s v a i n g l o r i o u s n e s s i s a complement  stupidity,  i s e v e n u n f o u n d e d , as M a l e v o l e n o t e s :  "strength consistjVJin h i s breath" indeed,  so s t u p i d  wife Biancha "thrice  two  that  attributes  i t cannot  be  (I.iv.45). concealed;  counters  to h i s his  He i s ,  h e r w i t to h a v i n g been a  months," B i l i o s o  him  platter"  (V.i.4-5,13) . and  boasts  when h i s courtier  ruefully:  So have I t h i s t w e n t y y e a r , a n d y e t t h e r e was a g e n t l e m a n u s h e r c a l l ' d me coxcomb t ' o t h e r day, a n d t o my f a c e too. (III.1.81-82)  79 He wants t o d r e s s h i s f o o l i n v e l v e t l i k e a gentleman. This leaves  him no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o have h i s v e l v e t  e m b r o i d e r e d t o " d i f f e r from the f o o l somewhat" ( I I I . 1 . 6 6 ) . To  the a u d i e n c e , the most n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between  B i l i o s o and  h i s f o o l i s t h a t P a s s a r e l l o i s much more  intelligent. the use  The  o n l y u s e f u l thing t h a t B i l i o s o knows i s  of f l a t t e r y t o g a i n power, and  from B i a n c h a . situation:  t h i s he has  P a s s a r e l l o has a shrewd a n a l y s i s  learnt  ofthe  "what a n a t u r a l f o o l i s he t h a t would be  p a i r of b o d i e s t o a woman's p e t t i c o a t , t o be t r u s s ' d pointed  and  t o them!" ( I l l . i . 1 3 9 - 1 4 0 ) .  B i l i o s o ' s t e c h n i q u e does not c o n s i s t of alone.  a  flattery  He makes the o c c a s i o n a l a t t e m p t t o i n f l u e n c e what  o t h e r s t h i n k of him when he f e e l s t h i s might be advantageous. He muses on how  t o make an i m p r e s s i o n as ambassador:  I ' l l s p i t frowns about me, have a s t r o n g perfume i n my j e r k i n , l e t my beard grow t o make me l o o k t e r r i b l e , s a l u t e no man beneath the f o u r t h b u t t o n ; and ' t w i l l do e x c e l l e n t . (III.i.105-108) Most o f the t i m e , however, he says what he t h i n k s p e o p l e want t o h e a r , and  i n the case of the F l o r e n t i n e  decision  t o r e i n s t a t e M a l e v o l e , s u p p r e s s e s what he knows w i l l down the  regime  from w h i c h he b e n e f i t s .  c a s e s , h i s s t u p i d i t y p r e v e n t s him  In nearly a l l  from b e i n g  convincing.  He a f f e c t s t o d e s p i s e outward show i n h i s c h o i c e c l o t h e s f o r the embassage:  bring  of  80 Why, d o s t t h i n k I c a n n o t mourn u n l e s s I wear hat i n c y p r e s s , l i k e an alderman'd heir?  my  (III.i.98-99) b u t what was through  i n t e n d e d t o convey  appearance,  that B i l i o s o  because  stupid.  relations and  to  M a q u e r e l l e and  Maquerelle  o n l y see  B e c a u s e he  value.  Three  Mendoza,  i s Incapable  i s incorrigible,  t i m e s he  t a u n t s him  and  lessness.  Bilioso's  malcontent  who  Malevole  the  has  i s forced  is  i s of  the s o c i a l and  appearance  encourages  Mendoza  o f power and  e v e n l e a d s him  unaccountably  immediately  by  incorrigible  o f s e e i n g human  exposure  to Malevole,  first  audience  sartorial aid.  them a s a s o u r c e  reverse his attitude  Malevole  without  shines  o t h e r t h a n as a s o u r c e o f revenue;  Bilioso  ment.  like  honesty  o n l y s e r v e s t o remind  can d i s s e m b l e  Bilioso,  that  each  on  advanceno  barometer time  in his  faith-  i s i n search of  become t h e d u k e ' s him  in his  the  favourite.  fawning:  B I L I O S O : I c a n t e l l y o u s t r a n g e news, b u t I am s u r e y o u know them a l r e a d y : t h e Duke s p e a k s much good o f you. MALEVOLE: Go to, then; and s h a l l y o u a n d I now enter into a s t r i c t friendship? B I L I O S O : S e c o n d one a n o t h e r ? MALEVOLE: Y e s . BILIOSO: Do one a n o t h e r good o f f i c e s ? MALEVOLE: J u s t .  (I.iv.50-57) The  conversation continues with Malevole  change  t o " t h e e " and  Pietro's  "thou"  (11.57 63).  confidence i s transferred  initiating Later,  from M a l e v o l e  when to  the  81 Mendoza, B i l i o s o him  s p u r n s M a l e v o l e , who i n t u r n  of h i s earlier  fulsome  reciprocal -perpetual kind leagued" a l l i a n c e  offers  of "a m u t u a l - f r i e n d l y -  of steady-unanimous-heartily-  (II.iii.28-29).  o u t a g a i n when M a l e v o l e  reminds  Bilioso  i s caught  comes b a c k i n t o f a v o u r a s  Mendoza's a c c o m p l i c e , and t h i s  time Malevole's  reminders  of h i s e a r l i e r remarks a r e pushed  to their  logical  c l u s i o n as Malevole leads B i l i o s o  on t o a n  outright  statement  con-  of h i s policy:  BILIOSO: M a l e v o l e MALEVOLE: "Hence, y e g r o s s - j a w ' d , p e a s a n t l y - o u t , go!" BILIOSO: Nay, s w e e t M a l e v o l e , s i n c e my r e t u r n I h e a r y o u a r e become t h e t h i n g I a l w a y s p r o p h e s i e d w o u l d be - a n a d v a n c e d v i r t u e , a w o r t h i l y - e m p l o y e d f a i t h f u l n e s s , a man o ' g r a c e , d e a r f r i e n d . Come; what! "S_l q u o t l e s p e c c a n t h o m i n e s " — i f a s o f t e n a s c o u r t i e r s p l a y t h e k n a v e s , h o n e s t men s h o u l d be a n g r y — why, l o o k y e , we must c o l l o g u e s o m e t i m e s , f o r s w e a r sometimes. MALEVOLE: Be damn'd s o m e t i m e s . B I L I O S O : R i g h t ! "Nemo omnibus h o r l s s a p l t " : No man c a n be h o n e s t a t a l l h o u r s ; n e c e s s i t y often depraves virtue. MALEVOLE: I w i l l commend t h e e t o t h e d u k e . B I L I O S O : Do l e t u s be f r i e n d s , man. MALEVOLE: And k n a v e s , man. B I L I O S O : R i g h t ! L e t us p r o s p e r a n d p u r c h a s e ; our l o r d s h i p s s h a l l l i v e , a n d o u r k n a v e r y be f o r g o t t e n . MALEVOLE: He t h a t by a n y ways g e t s r i c h e s , h i s means n e v e r shames h i m . BILIOSO: T r u e . MALEVOLE: F o r impudency a n d f a i t h l e s s n e s s a r e t h e m a i n stays to greatness. BILIOSO: By t h e l o r d , t h o u a r t a p r o f o u n d l a d .  (V.iii.68-90) In  the face of such entrenched r e l i a n c e  on  "means," " i m p u d e n c y , " a n d " f a i t h l e s s n e s s , "  "knavery," t h e o n l y method  82 i s to change the circumstances which enable or force people to think i n t h i s way.  Whether B i l i o s o ' s maxim "I  had rather stand with wrong than f a l l with r i g h t "  (IV.v.90)  i s an example of calculated cunning or of s t u p i d i t y makes no d i f f e r e n c e ;  when A l t o f r o n t ' s reinstatement brings back  a reign of plain-dealing, f l a t t e r y w i l l no longer be the currency of the court and B i l i o s o can be dismissed with a mixture of contempt and Indulgence: "Thou a r t a perfect old  knave" (V.vi.158).  P i e t r o and A u r e l l a form with Ferneze a t r a n s i t i o n a l group, whose conversion i s matched by a change i n the kind of disguise they employ.  Before the brawl at Aurelia's  bedroom door i n the second act, the f i r s t of these, Ferneze, i s an ambitious and l u s t f u l young man,  mercenary enough,  but by no means without a c e r t a i n trace of heroism: His love i s l i v e l e s s that f o r love fears breath The worst that's due to s i n , 0, would 'twere dea'thl (I.vi.49-50) The moment or two that Ferneze spends on Mendoza's swordpoint e s t a b l i s h him as Mendoza's opponent i n three ways: f i r s t , Mendoza i s revealed to Ferneze as h i s betrayer; then the shock of Ferneze's punishment combines with Malevole's exhortation to produce self-knowledge and reformation; and f i n a l l y Mendoza's f a i l u r e to despatch his v i c t i m  83 'preserves Ferneze exchanging  the  t o put  into  cosmetic d i s g u i s e  from M a q u e r e l l e  though  weak and  p o i n t s w h i c h make him Mendoza as is  of c h a s t i t y  of the  a usurper,  redeemable.  for flattery  final  i s able  to  world.  He  has  several  good  describes himself to (I.vii.30),  "a most p l a i n - b r e a s t e d man"  his distaste  revenge,  purchased  temporarily disguised,  in a hypocritical  Pietro,  his righteous  f o r t h e anonymous d i s g u i s e  masque, where i n t e g r i t y , intervene  effect  and i t  w h i c h makes him a p p r e c i a t e  Malevole:  I l i k e him; f a i t h , he g i v e s good i n t e l l i g e n c e t o my s p i r i t , makes me u n d e r s t a n d t h o s e w e a k n e s s e s which o t h e r s f l a t t e r y p a l l i a t e s . (I.il.26-28) 1  He  Is a l s o anxious  t o keep b l o o d s h e d  capture ,in the second in  the  case  M e n d o z a has is  blood"  temporary  grasped  and  Like Altofront,  critical  he  and  the p r i n c i p l e Pietro  one  and  suspect"  Aurelia  casts a plot"  has  that  then  peace might  plot  i s sure  the  t o be  but  in a  expected  (II.v.75).  From A l t o f r o n t ' s  of  state,/  hypoof  t o do away w i t h P i e t r o  with other.  old instruments  (I.iv.9-10),  that  weaknesses.  not  r e c l a i m e d by  Ferneze's  plain  "a t y r a n t ' s  neither right  P i e t r o wants " t h o s e  court "policy"  Mendoza a n d  i t i s made q u i t e  t h e p l a y shows h i s dukedom u s u r p e d  s u c c e s s by  Dissemblance  But  o f a u s u r p i n g duke t h e s e a r e m e r e l y  (V.vi.37);  on h i s s i d e ,  act.  t o a minimum a t  him.  "before  point  of  view.  84 no matter what P i e t r o ' s redeeming f e a t u r e s may be, u s u r p e r cannot  the  be a l l o w e d to remain i n peace so l o n g as  he remains i n power.  "Tut, a p i t i f u l surgeon makes a  dangerous sore,""Malevole" t e l l s him.  "I'll  t e n t thee t o  the ground....I am vowed t o be thy a f f l i c t i o n . . . b e c a u s e you a r e a u s u r p i n g duke" (IV.v.64-65, 71-72, 74). A u r e l i a ' s exposure removes P i e t r o ' s main that of Florence.  support—  The l o s s of h i s honour and with i t h i s  p o l i t i c a l power l e a v e s him a duke i n name o n l y .  When he goes  h u n t i n g i n the t h i r d a c t he i s s u f f e r i n g a l o s s of i l l u s i o n s which i s v e r y f a r from c o u r t l y c y n i c i s m : 0 , would I ne'er had known My own dishonour! Good God, t h a t men should D e s i r e t o s e a r c h out t h a t which, b e i n g found, k i l l s a l l T h e i r joy of l i f e ! To t a s t e the t r e e o f knowledge, And then be d r i v e n from out p a r a d i s e !  (III.i.13-18)  "Malevole" t r i p s over the melancholy  duke as he dozes on  the hunt, and wonders w i t h double meaning " t h a t f o o l s should stumble upon g r e a t n e s s "  (III.v.3-4).  p l o t i s r e v e a l e d , but n o t A l t o f r o n t ' s i d e n t i t y .  Mendoza'.s From t h i s  scene ( I I I . v . ) u n t i l the end o f the f o u r t h a c t P i e t r o remains i n an anomalous d i s g u i s e — h e i s hidden so t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n i s completely  i m p o s s i b l e , and h i s motive i s the  m o r a l l y good one o f the exposure of Mendoza; neath  the d i s g u i s e he s t i l l  but under-  b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f t o be duke .  A l t o f r o n t seems t o be a t pains not t o r e v e a l h i m s e l f u n t i l  8  Pietro  has  been f o r c e d  d u p l i c i t y and of a f f a i r s the  two  the  to r e a l i s e the  hopelessness  of  full  his  witnesses  of P i e t r o ' s  Aurelia  reinstate Altofront  case.  has  place  bringing  Two  This  'death' p o i s o n  i s banished,  and  the  been thus  induced  to  as  one  of  the  of  protective  the  characters  disguise  "renounce f o r e v e r  until regency"  Pietro  Malcontent  take  masquers  o f a p p e a r a n c e s and  o f The  f o r the  to  Not  protectively disguised  o r d e r back t o a w o r l d  have  another  command  and  courtly  state  to  one  i s brought from F l o r e n c e .  (IV.v.119) d o e s A l t o f r o n t r e v e a l h i m s e l f his  depth of  i s b r o u g h t a b o u t when Mendoza's p l a n  Is r e v e a l e d ,  Pietro  5  opinion.  remain  in  entire action—Altofront  and  Passarello. 'Disguise' since  he  "loose fool  i s perhaps the  makes no  he  same way  can  tell  the  and  as "Malevole."  has  no  In  the  a t any  for  fact his  Passarello,  mocks t h e  restraint.  i m p u n i t y and  backstairs  gossip  have  world's But  as  personality  i n much  the  irresponsibility  and  rate  Genoese c o u r t .  he The  which can In  shows no  be  t h i s he m e r c y on  "knightly  attacked i s on the  the  or  of  in  held  side  follies  complements"  a  access  c o n s t i t u t e a d i s g u i s e - l i k e anonymity  answerable f o r h i s a c t i o n s . truth;  without  truth with  politics  self-deprecation he  o f a n o n y m i t y and  vanities" (I.viii.53)  both to high  that  use  wrong word  a  of  of  86 carpet-knight, gilt  he  observes,  spurs, advancing  tobacco"  of " j i n g l i n g  of h i s  h i s b u s h - c o l o r e d b e a r d and  taking  (I.viii.27-29).  concealing adultery are (V.i.23) like in  consist  Maquerelle's complemented  which enhances the daytime  "Madam F l o r i a , "  suitably  wordly  inventions f o r  by  the  "painting"  appearance  of  ladies  whose t o i l e t t e P a s s a r e l l o d e s c r i b e s terms:  I found her r e p a i r i n g her f a c e today. The r e d u p o n t h e w h i t e showed a s i f h e r c h e e k s s h o u l d have b e e n s e r v e d i n f o r two d i s h e s o f b a r b e r r i e s i n s t e w ed b r o t h , and t h e f l e s h t o them a woodcock.  (III.i.133-136)  Passarello  includes Bilioso  w i t h h i s master, knave, is  he  among h i s t a r g e t s .  d e s p a i r s of e v e r becoming a  f o r I c a n f l a t t e r no man"  of course l o s t Malevole  on  speaks  that  rich,  (V.i.50), knavish  and  In  joking  "rich the  rebuke  flatterer.  with approval of Passarello's  critic  isms:  0 w o r l d m o s t v i l e , when t h y l o o s e v a n i t i e s , T a u g h t by t h i s f o o l , do make t h e f o o l seem w i s e !  (I.viii.53-5^) but A l t o f r o n t Passarello's  has  knowledgable  court,  i n w h i c h he  clowns  and  possibly  principles  which prevent h i s s h a r i n g  acceptance  t a k e s an a d e p t ' s  k n a v e s and  a l l s h a r e me;  be w i t h o u t me"  o f t h e ways o f pride: the  (I.viii.58-60).  "knights  court When  the and  cannot malcontent  87 confronts In  fool  In the f i f t h  pledging Altofront.  join Passarello's  act, Passarello  Malevole,  pledge  joins  Malevole  however, r e f u s e s t o  to Maquerelle,  and P a s s a r e l l o  remonstrates:  N o t p l e d g e Madam M a q u e r e l l e ! spew up y o u r l o r d a g a i n w i t h t h i s  (V.ii.28-29)  whereupon M a l e v o l e this  punctilious  complies.  foolery  i s necessary  j u s t a s some s u b m i s s i o n ^ t o a u t h o r i t y Altofront  the l i v e s  spared and B i l i o s o ,  on a t c o u r t .  that  some  f o r the tuler,  i s f o r the I r r e s p o n s i b l e  knows t h i s a n d t e m p e r s h i s j u s t i c e a t  the end o f t h e p l a y ; are  I  I f i t means a n y t h i n g a t a l l ,  c a n o n l y be a h i n t  compromise w i t h a p p e a r a n c e s  critic.  Why, t h e n , w i l l fool's finger.  of Maquerelle  apparently,  Passarello,  a n d Mendoza  i s even a l l o w e d  f o r h i spart,  necessary as c h e e r f u l l y as h i s master  to stay  c o m p r o m i s e s when Bilioso,  though  w i t h wry s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n :  PASSARELLO:... I ' l l d r i n k t o t h e h e a l t h o f Madam Maquerelle. MALEVOLE: Why, t h o u wast wont t o r a i l upon h e r . PASSARELLO: Ay, b u t s i n c e I b o r r o w ' d money o f h e r , I ' l l d r i n k t o h e r h e a l t h now, a s g e n t l e m e n v i s i t b r o k e r s , o r as k n i g h t s send v e n i s o n t o t h e c i t y , e i t h e r t o t a k e up more money o r t o p r o c u r e l o n g e r forbearance.  (V.ii.15-20)  88 "Why, natural  man, we a r e a l l p h i l o s o p h i c a l  fools,"  (I.iv.32-33)• Altofront  says A l t o f r o n t I f Passarello  i s surely  i n conference with Celso  I s a good example o f t h e s e c o n d ,  the f i r s t .  As a r e n a i s s a n c e  s o p h i c a l m o n a r c h , " he embodies t h e i d e a with  the d i v i n e w i l l ,  ment o f t h i s  will  monarchs/Or  of r u l e  "philoi n accordance  and t h e p l a y r e c o u n t s h i s r e - e s t a b l i s h -  i n the temporal  world  by t h e u s e o f i t s  own d e c e p t i v e n a t u r e — i n d i s g u i s e a s " M a l e v o l e . " the b e g i n n i n g of the a c t i o n A l t o f r o n t  i s w e l l aware  t h e weakness w h i c h h a s c o s t h i m h i s t h r o n e mindedness which f a i l s  Even a t that  i s a high-  t o t a k e human f r a i l t y  into  account.  I wanted t h o s e o l d i n s t r u m e n t s o f s t a t e , Dissemblance and s u s p e c t . I c o u l d n o t time i t , C e l s o ; My t h r o n e s t o o d l i k e a p o i n t i n m i d d e s t o f a c i r c l e , T o a l l o f e q u a l n e a r n e s s ; b o r e w i t h none; Reign'd a l l a l i k e ; so s l e p t i n f e a r l e s s v i r t u e , Suspectless, too suspectless. (I.iv.9-1*0 "Malevole"  i s already established  when t h e a c t i o n "dissemblance  begins; A l t o f r o n t  i n the Genoese c o u r t has adapted  a n d s u s p e c t , " a n d I s u s i n g them f o r h i s own  righteous purposes. by h a v i n g h i m l e a r n  Rather this  than reduce A l t o f r o n t ' s  lesson painfully  M a r s t o n shows h i m w a i t i n g w i t h d i g n i t y disguise brows"  f o r t h e moment when "we may  stature  over f i v e  behind  acts,  his frantic  once unmask o u r  (III.il.53).  That be  himself to  seen.  "Malevole" Pietro  i s not the r e a l A l t o f r o n t  tells  us t h a t  "Malevole*s"  may  easily  89 highest d e l i g h t i s t o procure o t h e r s v e x a t i o n , and t h e r e i n he t h i n k s he t r u l y s e r v e s heaven; f o r ' t i s h i s p o s i t i o n , whosoever i n t h i s e a r t h can be c o n t e n t e d i s a s l a v e and damn'd; t h e r e f o r e does he a f f l i c t a l l i n t h a t t o w h i c h they a r e most affected. (I.11.20-24) 1  T h i s cannot be the A l t o f r o n t whose n o b l e maxims r i n g w i t h i d e a s of o r d e r and  obedience:  "no d i s a s t r o u s chance can  e v e r move him/That l e a v e t h n o t h i n g but a heaven above  him"  ( V . i v . 8 8 - 8 9 ) , o r "When they observe n o t heaven's impos'd conditions,/They  a r e no k i n g s , but f o r f e i t t h e i r commissions"  (V.vi.143-1^4). "Malevole"  i s as i t were an e x p r e s s i o n o f  new-found need t o meet t h e  s h i f t y and s o r d i d  Altofront's  world  on i t s own  terms i n o r d e r t o r e i n s t a t e h i s own  righteous  rule.  " d i s c o r d " which i s " v e r y manna" t o  Malcontents  The  ( I . i v . 3 8 ) b e n e f i t s A l t o f r o n t because i t e n a b l e s him t o r i d e out t h e storm u n t i l he can r e g a i n h i s t h r o n e ;  but  he  endures i t , as he endures h i s d i s g u i s e , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e impatience.  A l t o f r o n t shows s i g n s of f i n d i n g the  pose a s t r a i n t o keep up. with Maquerelle aroused  He b r e a k s o f f a bout of  t o t u r n a s i d e and  express  "Malveole" raillery  the f e e l i n g s  by the s i g h t of M a r i a ' s s t e a d f a s t n e s s under o p p r e s s i o n :  0 God, how loathsome t h i s t o y i n g i s t o me! T h a t a duke s h o u l d be f o r c ' d t o f o o l i t ! W e l l , " S t u l t o r u m p l e n a sunt omnia": b e t t e r p l a y the f o o l l o r d t h a n be the f o o l l o r d . (V.iii.41-44) He s u s t a i n s h i m s e l f w i t h the knowledge t h a t "time w i l l  come/  90 When w o n d e r o f s e n s e , " as  he  the  court  his  original  thy  error w i l l  allows  once  himself  strike the  (II.ill.14-16),  dumb/Thy  satisfaction  and  with  the  so the  that top  disguise  puts  impetus  into practice his plan  which "to malcontents  his natural  i s very  superiority will  over the r u i n of  t h o s e who  "honest  f o o l s to maintain  of  plan  this  telling of  wretched'st disguise!  (I.iv.29-30)  "discord,"  of  plan:  Hope, hope, t h a t n e v e r f o r s a k ' s t t h e Y e t b i d d ' s t me l i v e and l u r k i n t h i s  His  bezzl'd  like  (I.lv.38),  him  to r i s e  to  Mendoza e x p l o i t  c r a f t y knaves"  i s to cause P i e t r o as  of f o s t e r i n g  manna"  allow  man,  (II.v.98).  much u n e a s i n e s s  Part as  possible:  The h e a r t ' s d i s q u i e t i s r e v e n g e m o s t d e e p : He t h a t g e t s b l o o d , t h e l i f e o f f l e s h b u t s p i l l s , B u t he t h a t b r e a k s h e a r t ' s p e a c e , t h e d e a r s o u l k i l l s .  (1.111,155-157) The  "free  him  is also  which w i l l  speech" the  (I.iii.l60)  b a i t to  which the  disguise  e n t i c e Mendoza i n t o a c t s  u l t i m a t e l y b r i n g him  allows of  "policy"  of A l t o f r o n t  allowing  appearing  help  down:  0 , my d i s g u i s e f o o l s him most p o w e r f u l l y ! F o r t h a t I seem a d e s p e r a t e m a l c o n t e n t . He f a i n w o u l d c l a s p w i t h me,  (III.iii.32-34)  and  the  unholy a l l i a n c e takes  Mendoza enough r o p e  the  form  t o hang h i m s e l f  by  to  91 his  plans,  that  while  front's a  box  of  letting  him  c o n t i n u i n g the appearance  final  step  supposed  in,this  True  he  disposed  has  he  demonstrates  of  ironic  The  Alto-  to contain a deadly  vapour—one  of the  of the  last  of t h e i r i t on  witness  own  "Malevole,"  "Malevole"  exit.  "poison'd of the  w i t h an  box  I n the  thinking In  the  few  words  (V.Iv.83). audience  o t h e r s t a g e p r o p e r t i e s which have been a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h Mendoza's regime d u r i n g the a c t i o n — t h e h a l b e r d s , "virtue"-less  ring,  Ferneze,  and  impious  emptiness.  The dead  sum  effect  i s delayed  revelation  and  t h e s w o r d w i t h w h i c h he  them a l l up  as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the  f o r t h e . f i n a l masque.  moment  by A l t o f r o n t  to p r e s i d e over  by M a r s t o n t o make a f u r t h e r  of t h e a t r i c a l  illusion.  The  as  the  last  few  "Genoan d u k e "  the  play's  of  (V.vi.55)  the  unmasks a t  a l l occuring  soloist.  the  the  the  moments o f t h e p l a y , seem t o be  a k i n d o f d i s g u i s e c a d e n z a by  the  of  comment on  f o u r stages  unmasking of M a l e v o l e / A l t o f r o n t / B u r b a g e , within  same  r e t u r n from  The  the  wounds  on Mendoza o f " M a l e v o l e ' s "  i s used  r e s o l u t i o n and nature  a  same moment  empty box!"  would remind  the  comes b a c k  t h e b a s i s o f Mendoza's power i n a  triumph:  army  through  of h i s crimes.  theatricality,  a f t e r Mendoza's g l o a t i n g  feeble trickery the  of c o - o p e r a t i o n . Mendoza  moment o f s t u p e n d o u s life  sabotaging  i s to o f f e r  t o t y p e , Mendoza u s e s  to  move, a n d  process  t h i n g s which march w i t h a l i f e  play.  of  r e v e a l the next  climax  As  designed  the  of the  dance,  92 Mendoza the  figure  who  (V.vl.108  him" "No!"  "Malevole!" "environs" s.d.).  (V.vi.109)  perhaps ring  calls  a s he removes  turning a cloak  o f Mendoza,  a c t o r as Burbage  h i m and  i n r e c o g n i t i o n of  "bends h i s p i s t o l  Then, A l t o f r o n t  w h i c h has n o t l o s t  judgment  (V.vl.108)  inside  the second  i t s "virtue."  forward  with  l a y e r of d i s g u i s e ,  out, or d i s p l a y i n g a  Maquerelle,  steps  c o r r e c t s him  on  Finally,  and B i l i o s o ,  ducal  after  duke  the  becomes  with:  •And a s f o r me, I h e r e assume my T o w h i c h I hope a l l ' s p l e a s e d .  right, To a l l ,  (V.vl.l6l-l62)  good  night.  CHAPTER IV THE DUTCH The  Dutch Courtesan, i n 1605,  published prefixed  a Blackfriars  concerns,  to i t t e l l s  o f snow" ( I I . i . 8 2 ) ,  friend  Freevill  Franceschina.  falls china, and  is  a s t h e F a b u l a e Argumentum  1  beauty,  f o r her part, plans  his friend  to confess  the p l o t  a duel  dead;  then  i n such  Frances-  w i t , and accomplishment, The s l i g h t e d  t o revenge h e r s e l f  a n d he Frances-  on F r e e v i l l  i n making the i n f a t u a t e d Malheureux of her favours.  Beatrice's ring  from  M a l h e u r e u x c o o l s down  to Freevill,  a way t h a t F r e e v i l l  he i s t o l e n d t h e r i n g  He  the dead sufficiently  however, a n d t h e two  conceive a plan to outwit Francheschina. stage  courtesan  i s not proof against  as the p r i c e  to bring Francheschina  man's f i n g e r a s t o k e n .  the love  self-professed  t o the dutch  passionately i n love with her.  to k i l l  betwixt  Malheureux, a  visit  His restraint  B e a t r i c e and succeeds  agree  and  accompanies h i s newly-betrothed  on a l a s t  china's unexpected  p l a y performed  us, "the d i f f e r e n c e  o f a c o u r t e s a n and a w i f e . " "man  COURTESAN  friends  They d e c i d e t o will  be p r e s u m e d  t o M a l h e u r e u x a n d go  "*"John M a r s t o n , T h e D u t c h C o u r t e s a n , e d . M. L . Wine ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a P r e s s , 1965), p.3« A l l r e f e r e n c e s t o The D u t c h C o u r t e s a n a r e t o t h i s e d i t i o n .  9k i n t o h i d i n g a t an agreed has  kept  rendezvous u n t i l  her s i d e of the bargain.  Unfortunately f o r  Malheureux, n e i t h e r the Dutch Courtesan lover a c t according to plan. self  as a r o i s t e r e r  initiation,  away " t o e a t a c a u d l e  n o r h e r one-time  While F r e e v i l l  i n order  Franceschina  Franceschina  d i s g u i s e s him-  to supervise h i s friend's  sends t h e expectant  of cock-stones"  Malheureux  ( I V . i i i . 3 1 ) a s she  makes o f f f o r B e a t r i c e ' s home, p i c k i n g up t h e d i s g u i s e d Freevill  f o r escort.  She d e n o u n c e s F r e e v i l l  showing as p r o o f B e a t r i c e ' s r i n g , Freevill's confess  and o f f e r s  as u n f a i t h f u l , to bring  m o u r n i n g f a t h e r where he c a n o v e r h e a r  t o t h e murder.  Freevill  Malheureux t o the gallows'  allows  foot before  events  c a r e e r , a n d h i s own u n e a s i n e s s Beatrice. critical  The s u b p l o t  Crispinella  t h e c h e a t i n g o f t h e hypo-  between B e a t r i c e ' s  many d i s g u i s e s i n T h e D u t c h C o u r t e s a n as f a l l i n g  of anonymity and cosmetic anonymity a r e achieved Renaissance  into  disguise.  is a  sister  t h e two m a i n c a t e g o r i e s Disappearances  drama—Cocledemoy and F r e e v i l l ,  while  can perhaps  into  by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l means o f  d i s g u i s e themselves with  clothing,  of the constant  and h e r a d m i r e r s .  b e s t be c o n s i d e r e d  both  Francheschina's  v i n t n e r M u l l i g r u b by C o c l e d e m o y , a n d t h e r e  g o o d d e a l Of w i t t y d i a l o g u e  The  a t the misery  concerns  to bring  i n t e r v e n i n g t o end  w i t h a s i n g l e r e v e l a t i o n Malheureux' danger, >  Malheureux  f o r instance,  changes o f a c c e n t  r e t a i n i n g a t a l l times  their  own  and o f personalities  95 and  motives.  use  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  a  Cocledemoy's d i s g u i s e s  pedlar's tray  involving one  properties  or basket.  any d i s g u i s e  utilized  such as b a r b e r ' s t o o l s and  A further  will  by F r e e v i l l  be s e e n  that  of planting  i n The Dutch  a r e made i n a c c o r d a n c e e t h o s w o u l d be f o u n d Cosmetic case  sense,  I s t h e common  the story  o f h i s own  i n disguise.  i n terms  range  from  kind  and  their  rationalisation  the main p l o t  o f anonymity.  throughout  and  f o r disguises  of exposure,  of this  censure, and reform.  i n t h e i r means,  be most u s e f u l l y  purposes,  surveyed  o n l y one c h a r a c t e r , F r e e v i l l ,  H i s c h a r a c t e r remains  the play;  the audience's  t h e reform o f Malheureux.  kind  to conscious-  through  exponents.  In  on  i s a tendency  and can perhaps  as i n the  nature, as In the case of  types of d i s g u i s e vary  effects,  use  There  evil  t o be made t h e s u b j e c t Both  of the play's  self-delusion,  through a c y n i c a l  o f a thoroughgoing  Franceschlna.  changes  good.  amounting t o h y p o c r i s y , as with the M u l l i g r u b s , ness  In general  Courtesan such  w i t h aims which  disguises  o f Malheureux,  convention, not  i n the physical  death as the prelude t o h i s return it  Involve the a d d i t i o n a l  of person F r e e v i l l purpose  fairly  Interest  stable  i s centred  I t may be o f v a l u e t o s e e what  i s b e f o r e we p r o c e e d  of h i s disguise.  makes  t o the nature  96 Previous occupy  criticism  h a s c o n c e n t r a t e d on m a k i n g h i m  one o r o t h e r end o f a s i m p l e m o r a l  scale,  with a  r a k e a t one e n d a n d a n i d e a l n a t u r a l man a t t h e o t h e r . Theodore Spencer pleasure,  i l l 193^  saw h i m a s " t h e c y n i c a l man o f  who f i n d i n g n o s t a n d a r d s  degrading world,  seeks  only a s e l f i s h  held  i n 1957,  T h i s view  was s t i l l  Marston's  o b s e s s i o n w i t h "moral  "resort  t o the expedient  i n t o a moral  dramatic  into  propriety"  found  h a d made h i m — o f a l l people—  A f u r t h e r attempt  t o see The Dutch  t o f i t the  1967,  C o u r t e s a n as an answer t o  o v e r s e n t i m e n t a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f human  o f D e k k e r ' s T h e H o n e s t Whore  ( P t . I.) made  Freevill  " a l i c e n t i o u s y o u n g man."** The  K.  when J o h n J . O ' C o n n o r  was made by H a r r y K e y l s h i a n i n  the " o v e r s i m p l i f i e d , nature"  2  p a t t e r n a t t h e expense o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s '  coherence  when e a g e r n e s s  satisfaction."  of having F r e e v i l l  teach Malheureux a l e s s o n . " ^ play  i n a c o r r u p t and  reformed  Presson  in  nature of F r e e v i l l  1956^  and Gustav  Cross  was p o i n t e d o u t by R o b e r t in  '"Reason and P a s s i o n i n Marston's C r i t e r i o n . X I I I (193*0. 586-59^. 3"The C h i e f S o u r c e  LIV(1957), 4  of Marston's  1960.^  The Dutch  Dutch  Freevill  Courtezan."  Courtezan."  SP.  51^.'  " D e k k e r ' s Whore a n d M a r s t o n ' s  (1967), 266.  Courtezan,"  ^"Marston's Dutch Courtezan: The Study i n A d a p t a t i o n , " JEGP. LV(1956), 406-413.  ELN. IV  of an A t t i t u d e  6"Marston, Montaigne, and M o r a l i t y : The Dutch R e c o n s i d e r e d , " ELH, X X X V I I ( i 9 6 0 ) , 30-43.  Courtezan  97 is  from  the  play's  "whose c h a s t e (II.i.3-5)  outset  eyes  and  completely  ... Have gag'd  who  makes him  see  committed  [his] s o u l to her his previous  "weak u n d e r b r a n c h e s / O f  b a s e a f f e c t i o n s and  heats"  f o r Francheschina,  lov'd  (I.li.6-7). her with  fection my  o f my  heart  is  until  body, and  modest B e a t r i c e "  Freevill in  my  As  no  my  the  efficacy  kind his  of Malheureux  i s the  experience.  t h a t i s wise pants  abstinence  The  result worldly  on a  not  be  contrasted with  the  at  u n s u s p e c t e d power o f h i s own  imper-  reformed,  he  enjoys  first-hand He  doubts  b e c a u s e he but  wisdom o f h i s  innocent  Now, shame f o r s a k e me, w h i t h e r A c r e a t u r e of a p u b l i c use!  is a  because  of a d e c i s i o n based  on a p r i v a t e b r e a s t "  should the  as  of a R e s t o r a t i o n r a k e h e l l ,  regular l i f e  practical  1  "I  on a l a w f u l l o v e ,  even though  i s based  says  the  c o o l e v a l u a t i o n of t h a t f r a i l t y .  of f o r e r u n n e r own  "He  a  Freevill  Such s u c c e s s  o v e r c o m i n g h i s human f r a i l t y  k n o w l e d g e and  But  as  unfruitful  affection  (I.ii.89-92).  enjoyings"  adventures  s o u l showed me  p l a c e d my  plaster saint.  to Beatrice,  on  remark,  (II.i.37)  Malheureux'  horror  passions:  am  I  fallen!  (II.1.83-84)  where i n t h e the  two  choice his one.  same s c e n e we  are  given  the  friends in a nutshell—Freevill of a  loss  " p r i v a t e " p a r t n e r and  of s e l f - c o n t r o l  in a  d i f f e r e n c e between secure  in his  Malheureux bewildered  relationship  in  with a " p u b l i c "  98 The The  plot  of F r e e v i l l ' s  episode of F r e e v i l l ' s  a 40-line disguise-plot with the  absence,  and  china,  by a r e t u r n ,  i s worst"  part  i n the a c t i o n ,  sure  i n the f i n a l Freevill's  dictated  by  first  Freevill  by  scene of the  purpose  "He  (I.ii.l6l)..  o f t h e same c y c l e  scene  time i n d i s g u i s e ,  to take  e v e n t u a l e x p o s u r e and  cen-  play.  i n this  had  of the p l a y  s c e n e has no d o u b t  on t h e s u b j e c t  put the q u e s t i o n how  of  story with Frances  been  t h e argument between h i m s e l f and Malheureux  a n d woman a r e good, bad?"  followed  confront  i s to present this  version  this  to  sententia.  disappearance t o h e l p Malheureux' followed  overture.  disguise),  the r e t u r n  the f i n a l  seem w i s e  theme i n a more d a n g e r o u s  events:  be  observation,  of  i s almost  (without physical  the remainder of the play F r e e v i l l  very  the  play  ' g a i n s t N a t u r e would  has a k i n d  eavesdropping i n I . i i  victim with his faults,  that In  supposed  disguise  "Since,  can the l o v e  in  of Franceschina.  then, beauty,  love,  o f a woman's b e a u t y  (1.1.133-13*0 . and e x p r e s s e d h i s i n t e n t i o n t o make  Malheureux Malheureux'  "repent" (I.i.139). g r u d g i n g and  The  scene  concluded with  self-righteous  W e l l , I ' l l go t o make h e r l o a t h e t h e shame s h e ' s i n . . The s i g h t o f v i c e augments t h e h a t e o f s i n .  (I.i.152-153) which F r e e v i l l perdy!"  echoed  (I.i.155).  w i t h the s c e p t i c a l  I t follows  that  comment " V e r y  the purpose  behind  fine,  99 F r e e v i l l ' s eavesdropping,  where he makes an exit and  then  re-enters and "seems to overhear Malheureux" (I.11.123), i s the common one of observation on the victim's true nature. This i s an example of anonymity being achieved by supposed absence rather than a change of c l o t h i n g . Revelation i s a simple matter of stepping out from his hiding place and showing that he has been eavesdropping victim's words.  by repeating the  F r e e v i l l chooses to demonstrate i n com-  pressed form Malheureux' progression from rectitude: "the sight of v i c e augments the hate of s i n " ( I . i . 1 5 3 & I.11.149), through c o n f l i c t : "Oh, shame or s i n ! " (I.11.136, 153)  154,  that to love should be or  to a recklessness which f a r  exceeds F r e e v i l l ' s e a r l i e r incontinence: "Let colder eld the strongest  objections move" ( I . i i . l 4 2 , 155)  and  "No  love's without some l u s t , no l i f e without some love" (I.11.143, 157).  This r e p e t i t i o n i s the equivalent of a  v i s u a l casting-off of disguise when the v i c t i m i s given to understand that his true nature has been overheard censurer.  The verbal demonstration  by his  of Malheureux' incon-  sistency makes his p l i g h t clear to him, but effects no cure. "I.do malign my creation that I am subject to passion," he t e l l s F r e e v i l l l a t e r as he warns him of Franceschina's intentions, "I must enjoy her " (III.i.241-242). t h i s f a i l u r e of mere verbal demonstration  .It i s  of Malheureux'  f a u l t s that prompts F r e e v i l l to i n i t i a t e the f u l l disguise plot.  He hatches the plot to "make show of f a l l i n g out"  100 (III.1.-245) , a l l o w h i m s e l f t o be t h o u g h t  dead, g i v e h i s r i n g  t o Malheureux, a l l i n order t o a l l o w Malheureux access t o Francheschina.  But as they p a r t , F r e e v i l l  What o l d t i m e s  says:  V i r t u e , l e t sleep thy passions; h e l d a s c r i m e s a r e now b u t f a s h i o n s , (III.i.258-259)  and  i t seems t h a t what b e g a n a s a mere d e v i c e  his  friend's  at  importunate  the growing f o l l i e s  lust  i s being affected  of the age. i n IV.i.,  helping  h a s become more o p e n l y  "I'll  Freevill's  by t h y f r i e n d , / B u t n o t t h y v i c e ' s " W i t h t h e new p u r p o s e o f r e f o r m  Freevill's  a  specific  leave The  thee  with  Franceschina's  pander.  didactic:  (IV.ii.32-33)•  Where mere  purpose.  "Close  "And  h i m s e l f d i s g u i s e d a s Don Dubon, H i s d i s g u i s e presumably c o n s i s t s of accent,  s i n c e he i s now a " s t r a n g e r , " b e a r i n g a F r e n c h  name.  His  i s d e s c r i b e d by M a r y F a u g h a t I V . i i i . 3 6 - 3 7 : "He  swears v a l i a n t l y ,  k i c k s a bawd r i g h t v i r t u o u s l y ,  t e s t s w i t h a n empty p o c k e t guise  I'll  (IV.ii.37""39) .  whore a n d k n a v e "  o f a change o f c l o a k o r h a t , and u n d o u b t e d l y  behaviour  disappear-  the departed Malheureux,  two f r i e n d s — a  "knave" i s F r e e v i l l  purpose of merely  b e f o r e , he now has t o a d o p t  disguise f o r a specific  w i t h d r a w , " he a p o s t r o p h i s e s  t o enact  added t o t h a t of a i d ,  method c h a n g e s a c c o r d i n g l y .  a n c e was a l l t h a t was n e c e s s a r y  by r e s e n t m e n t  When t h e t i m e  the d e c e p t i o n a r r i v e s , out h i s f r i e n d  t o accommodate  enables  Freevill  right  desperately."  t o watch the i n t r i g u e  and p r o This  closely,  disa  101 necessary  precaution  Malheureux s i n k and  he  will  into  been adopted  he  "the  have t o be  Freevill's  of the  since  on  i t i s h i s i n t e n t i o n to l e t vildest hand  d i s g u i s e as a  simply  t o save  him.  "stranger"  t o g e t him  (IV.il.35)i  of d a n g e r s "  seems t o h a v e  w i t h i n eavesdropping  i n t e r v i e w between F r a n c e s c h i n a  and  Malheureux.  i s h i r e d by M a r y F a u g h t o s q u i r e F r a n c e s c h i n a  seen opportunity action.  presents  I t i s impossible  of Franceschina's china  schemes.  I s r a g i n g and  itself  for a  to t e l l He  how  distance  closeness  an  unfor-  to  the  soon F r e e v i l l  i s "beneath" while  could quite conceivably  When  learns  Frances-  overhear  her  say  Now i c k s a i l r e v a n g e ! Hay, b e g a r ! me s a i l t a r t a r de whole g e n e r a t i o n ! Mine b r a i n vork i t . F r e e v i l l i s d e a d ; M a l h e u r e u x s a i l hang; and mine r i v a l , B e a t r i c e , i c k s a i l make r u n mad.  (IV.iii.28-30)  , But a  w h e t h e r he  few  out  l e a r n s of t h i s under F r a n c e s c h i n a s  seconds before  the  extent  he  i s h i r e d , o r w h e t h e r he  of Franceschina•s  To  i s t h a t he  i s caught  in a  situation  r e m a i n i n d i s g u i s e means t h a t he  china's  has  t o r t u r e of B e a t r i c e a t f i r s t  s e l f means l o s i n g lesson.  His  pathetic  "Freevill  (IV.iv.71)  the  scene,  o f h i s own t o watch  hand;  i s more t h a n decide  dead;  "I w i l l  go  the devising.  t o r e v e a l him-  s h a k e n by he  the  Frances-  chance of t e a c h i n g Malheureux  resolve i s sufficiently  t o make him  only f i n d s  viciousness during  i n t e r v i e w a t S i r Hubert Subboys' i n the next fact  window  1  is and  his  Beatrice's  unkind" reveal  myself"  102 (IV.iv.78); purpose. Jealous by  b u t he d e c i d e s  i n h i s primary  He manages t o a c c u s t o m h i m s e l f lover—a  t h e hope t h a t  reveals  to persevere  himself  very  to h i s r o l e of  common theme i n d i s g u i s e - p l o t  "grief  endears l o v e "  (IV.iv.79).  plays— Freevill  t o B e a t r i c e a s s o o n a s he c a n , r e m o r s e f u l (V.ii.44)  for  the "Indiscreet  trials"  to,  and c o n f e s s i n g ,  " O n l y I presum'd t o t r y y o u r f a i t h t o o  much,/For w h i c h I most am g r i e v e d " of  comfort f o rh i s conscience  that The by  " i t i s much j o y t o t h i n k necessity  f o r remaining  the lesson F r e e v i l l  him  from  his  i n f a t u a t i o n with  necessary point the  to allow  of f r u i t i o n ,  feigned,"  (V.ii.56-57)•  i s provided  i n disguise  Franceschina where o n l y  explains  A measure  (V.ii.65).  so long  i s dictated  Malheureux.  To force  ( V . i i i . 4 3 ) of utter loss  " t h i s damnation"  i t c a n be e x p o s e d . i n the l a s t  to the " I wrought  scene,  suffering this fair devil I n s h a p e o f woman t o make good h e r p l o t ; And, k n o w i n g t h a t t h e hook was d e e p l y f a s t , I g a v e h e r l i n e a t w i l l t i l l , w i t h h e r own v a i n See h e r e s h e ' s t i r e d . (V.iii.44-48) At  t h e moment o f r e v e l a t i o n , F r e e v i l l ' s  last  "Farewell!"  removal only  (V.iii.32)  of h i s disguise  of Franceschina,  he i s d i s p o s i n g  strivings,  echo o f Malheureux'  i s significant,  but also  through  (V.iii.40), i t i s  t o pursue her p l a n  Freevill  her  by t h e t h o u g h t  on s o r r o w s p a s t "  wants t o t e a c h  " t h e t r u e r danger"  he h a s s u b j e c t e d  f o r by t h e  a t one s t r o k e n o t  o f the o l d Malheureux  who  103 was  helpless  vill  himself,  learnt of  constancy from  who  just  like  Cocledemoy  goes  stage-properties,  of I I I . i l )  the main p l o t ,  t h r o u g h no l e s s  with appropriate  Cocledemoy basic hard  character  appears (one  to establish.  stub-bearded Freevill  that  Freehas  t h e power  (V.ii.63).?  has  one  character  the emphasis  of  distinguis-  the "French and  pedlar"  two  of  i n s o many m e t a m o r p h o s e s t h a t h i s  he  t o say  'if  i s "a t h i c k ,  any')  is  elderly,  (II. iii.101). Cocledemoy  a s " t h a t man  c o g g i n g Cocledemoy"  i s a professional  business but i s g i f t e d and a r e m a r k a b l e  t h e use  disguises  speech.  honesty, he  on  i s most  than f i v e  o f costume,  i s a l m o s t tempted  describes  In a l l l i k e l i h o o d  changes  In appearance  fellow"  some w i t , b u t l e s s  a l l involving  a l l (except perhaps  them i n v o l v i n g d i s g u i s e d  for  o f i n t r i g u e and  external aspects of name-disguise  the course of the play,  ing  into.  h i s p e r s o n a l i t y while undergoing name-disguise.  the p h y s i c a l ,  in  the dangers  i s In the c h a r a c t e r o f Cocledemoy  strong.  l e d him  "these strange d i s g u i s i n g s "  sub-plot,  retains  had  a s w e l l a s F r a n c e s c h i n a and M a l h e u r e u x ,  a l e s s o n about  The  It  i n the t r a p h i s l u s t  talent  relieving Mulligrub  thief  o f much money, (I.i.10-11).  who  means  w i t h a r e a d y w i t , a s e n s e o f humour, f o r mimicry.  Indeed,  his  justification  of h i s property,  ? I n V . i i . 1 2 6 - 1 3 6 T y s e f e w ' s s n o b b e r y i s r e v e a l e d by h i s r e f u s a l t o be s e e n i n t h e company o f t h e d i s g u i s e d F r e e v i l l .  104 t o wring the w i t h e r s of my gouty, barm'dj s p i g o t - f r i g g i n g jumbler of elements, M u l l i g r u b , I h o l d i t as l a w f u l as sheep-shearing, t a k i n g eggs from hens, caudles from a s s e s , or b u t t e r ' d shrimps from h o r s e s — they make no use of them, were n o t p r o v i d e d f o r them, (111.11.37-^2) i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same as t h a t of a n o t h e r t h i e f . Gay's F i l c h :  incorrigible  "Where i s the i n j u r y i n t a k i n g  from g  another, what he hath not the h e a r t t o make use o f ? " I n t h i s statement of purpose Cocledemoy r e v e a l s a f u n d a mental d i f f e r e n c e between h i s i n t e n t i o n s and  Freevill's.  Where e v e r y t h i n g F r e e v i l l does i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o the mary purpose  pri-  of making Malheureux see sense, Cocledemoy's  d i s g u i s e s do not i n v o l v e the s u c c e s s i v e t e s t i n g , punishment and reform of h i s v i c t i m s .  exposure,  Cocledemoy goes  s t r a i g h t t o the p o i n t , t r e a t s h i s dupes as a l r e a d y judged, and proceeds t o e n r i c h h i m s e l f and a d m i n i s t e r punishment a t the same time. Cocledemoy*s f i r s t d i s g u i s e i s t h a t of a b a r b e r . C l a i m i n g t o "have an odd  j e s t t o t r i m Master M u l l i g r u b  f o r a wager... n o t h i n g , f a i t h ,  but a j e s t , " he b r i b e s  Holifernes R e i n s c u r e t o l e n d him h i s b a r b e r ' s equipment, puts on a f a l s e beard and h i s b a r b e r ' s apron and, f o r f e a r h i s " s c u r v y tongue" w i l l d i s c o v e r him,  changes h i s  a c c e n t t o t h a t of a "Northern b a r b e r " ( I I . 1 . 2 0 3 ) .  When he  A l o h n Gay, The Beggar's Opera, ed. Benjamin W. G r i f f i t h , J r . (Great Neck, N.Y.: Barron's E d u c a t i o n a l S e r i e s , I n c . , 1962), I I . i . p . 9 1 .  105 e v e n t u a l l y appears a t the Mulligrubs',  (II.iii.16).  G u d g e o n h a s become "Andrew S h a r k " Mulligrub with set aside stolen  l a t h e r and gets  away w i t h  f o r r e p l a c i n g the nest  before  t h e p l a y began.  his original  a n o t h e r c h a n g e o f costume a n d o f a c c e n t , phor and soap as a " F r e n c h p e d l a r " direction).  from B u r n i s h himself His  that Mulligrub  an occasion  Burnish—and  deception  His third  intended  to give  he  he o f f e r s  r i c h e r by f i f t e e n has a l r e a d y  messenger.  t o have i t e n g r a v e d . dinner-party  He with  s t o r y , he  spectacular  the suspicious was  Mistress dry-shaved  Cocledemoy's a u d a c i t y i n  f o r one d i s g u i s e by r e f e r e n c e  the peaks o f h i s f o r m i d a b l e  to another  ingenuity.  This  pounds' worth o f s i l v e r  f o r the f i c t i t i o u s outlay,  i s one  episode  makes  cup f o r which  h a d t h e money, a n d by means o f a  manages t o r e c l a i m h i s c a p i t a l  too.  i s t o pass  o f t h e cup b y  " t h e same t o k e n t h a t he [ M u l l i g r u b ]  r e t u r n a n d a change o f p l a c e he  disguise  B u t h i s most  t h i s morning " ( I I I . i i i . 3 8 - 3 9 ) «  him  stage  the arrangements  credence t o t h i s  o f salmon.  Is the "token"  Mulligrub:  of  first  cup w h i c h M u l l i g r u b has bought  to d i s p l a y the c u p — a  i n order  brought a jowl  vouching  a n d c a r r y i n g cam-  (Ill.ii,  i s to relieve Mistress Mulligrub  pretending  has  the goldsmith.  Cocledemoy had  o f f t o Mrs. M u l l i g r u b as Master Burnish's  plan  invents  the standing  pounds  he a p p e a r s i n  I n t h i s , d i s g u i s e he o v e r h e a r s  made t o d e l i v e r  He b l i n d s  the f i f t e e n  of goblets  In I l l . i i  name o f  well-timed dinner-party,  the jowl  o f salmon,  106 E v e n when C o c l e d e m o y , a p p e a r i n g regular he  clothes,  makes a n  favour. left  in  the  grasp,  from M u l l i g r u b s 1  i n Mulligrub's  where he  grub put  by  the  hands.  i s unable look  watch,  of h i s cloak  (IV.v.24-25).  i s caught red-handed w i t h i n the  guise  stocks,  where he  of a Bellman  (IV.v.).  Cocledemoy promises proceeds to (IV.v.105). stage  inform  In  i s committed  buff  he  halberd,  ness from M u l l i g r u b  before  Mulligrub's  plea:  for  knows t h e  he  only  It  Mulligrub of  " I f he  is noticeable  involves  independent  Of  Mulli-  and  that  and  Cocledemoy  and  the  is a  is  in  watch,  "strong  and  final  come f o r t h  every  one  and  thief" the  forgive-  i n answer save  to me,  (V.iii.120-121).  of Cocledemoy's  l e a v i n g the  purse,  Sergeant's  he m i g h t  the wherefore"  the  disguise.  lantern for a  revealing himself  would  why  course,  e x t r a c t s c o n f e s s i o n and  his self-revelation, to await  knave  t o Newgate, and  i s s e t f o r Cocledemoy*s f i f t h cloak  Mulligrub,  return for Mulligrub's  them t h a t M u l l i g r u b  Exchanging h i s Bellman's  to  by "a f a l s e  to c l e a r Mulligrub with  Mulligrub  j e r k i n and  by  least  Cocledemoy,  Cocledemoy's c l o a k ,  is visited  has  is in a  to appear honest, a t  imputes a d i s g u i s e  of a v i n t n e r "  Cocledemoy  I f a knave  l i k e a knave.  t o have been robbed  habit  Mulligrub,  escaping  c a n make h i s a c c u s e r  claiming  p u r s u e d by  c l o t h i n g work i n h i s  corner  challenged  and  u n i n t e n t i o n a l t r a n s f e r of  his cloak  tight he  In  i s recognised  f o r once i n h i s  tricks  spluttering  the next  trick,  and  indeed  comic scenes  i s one  way  of  this  ensuring  succession  ,107 Cocledemoy's r e l a t i v e antics  i n the  of  Freevill-Malheureux  the  has  t o be  realm  harmlessness,  of  maintained  slip-knot  holding  comedy.  The  of keeping  cumulative  disguise plot,  t o the  the  and  movement  where t h e  s c a f f o l d ' s foot before  whole p l a y  together  can  be  by  the  in intensity.  a l s o has  grub' s f i n a n c i a l final  lesson,  a  certain rise  l o s s e s grow g r e a t e r and  like  Malheureux',  disguise the  unravelled,  makes C o c l e d e m o y ' s a n t i c s seem p e t t y sub-plot  Ms  comparison.  greater,  Is l e a r n t a t  the  Yet Mulli-  and  his  point  of  death. The  result  Mulligrub as  I would  of Cocledemoy's s e r i e s of d i s g u i s e s  i s twofold. be  confess,  I confess,  f o r g i v e n ! " says M u l l i g r u b  M s i n s and  iniquities"  logued  Cocledemoy:  by  "I  t o w h i c h he  and  on  I forgive  (V.iii.113).  Is c o n f e s s i n g  are  The cata-  You have been a b r o a c h e r o f p r o f a n e v e s s e l s ; y o u h a v e made us d r i n k o f t h e j u i c e o f t h e whore o f B a b y l o n . ...You h a ' b r o u g h t i n P o p i s h w i n e s , S p a n i s h w i n e s , F r e n c h w i n e s , tam M a r t i quam M e r c u r i o , b o t h m u s c a d i n e and malmsey, t o t h e s u b v e r s i o n , s t a g g e r i n g , and s o m e t i m e s o v e r t h r o w o f many a good Christian. You ha' been a g r e a t jumbler.  (V.iii.103-110)  — i n in  other  religion,  selling  a  sex,  "Popish  stimulants and  words, M u l l i g r u b and  t r a d e r who  business.  wines," a  f o r the  has  been g u i l t y He  f a m i l y man  has  been a  providing  " o v e r t h r o w o f many a good  has  been a  "great  of  jumbler."  hypocrisy puritan aphrodisiac  Christian"  108 The amnesty repetition  extracted  by C o c l e d e m o y  shows t h e same  o f t h e v i c t i m ' s words t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e  Freevill-Malheureyx  exchange  in I.ii.  M u l l i g r u b know t h a t he h a s o v e r h e a r d IV.v.11-14, t h a t C o c l e d e m o y  should  Cocledemoy  his threats at  be "hang'd  linen"  (V.Hi.124) and t h a t M u l l i g r u b would  grave"  (V.Hi.125) .  Cocledemoy's c l o s e r t o t h e way  lets  i n lousy  " p i s s on h i s  treatment of M i s t r e s s M u l l i g r u b i s Freevill  induces s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n i n  Malheureux than I t i s t o the s e r i e s of punishments of Mulligrub. to  Cocledemoy uses h i s d i s g u i s e of a  t r a p h e r i n t o an  constable  'arrangement' i n the l a s t a c t :  COCLEDEMOY: ... I p r a y y o u h e a r me i n p r i v a t e . I am a widower, a n d y o u a r e a l m o s t a widow; shall I be welcome t o y o u r h o u s e s , t o y o u r t a b l e s , a n d your other things? MISTRESS MULLIGRUB: I h a v e a p i e c e o f m u t t o n a n d a f e a t h e r b e d f o r you a t a l l times.  (V.iii.89-94) and  then r e v e a l s himself,  fiture:  t o h e r f r u s t r a t i o n and d i s c o m -  " I c o u l d weep, t o o , b u t God  knows f o r what!"  (V.iii.146). The tained  comic h a r m l e s s n e s s of Cocledemoy  by h i s a v o i d i n g  p u n i s h m e n t by p r u d e n t r e s t i t u t i o n  o f a l l t h a t he has s t o l e n . conclusion  i s f u r t h e r main  Knaves a r e punished a t the  o f a comedy, s o C o c l e d e m o y d e c l a r e s  himself  no k n a v e ; f o r , o b s e r v e , h o n e s t C o c l e d e m o y r e s t o r e s w h a t s o e v e r he has g o t , t o make y o u  109 know t h a t w h a t s o e ' e r he has done has euphoniae g r a t i a - ' - f o r wit's sake.  been  only  (V.iii.133-135) He  gains  in  the  all's  f u r t h e r comic  general well!"  immunity  f r o m p u n i s h m e n t by  m e r r i m e n t begun by  ( V . i i i . 1 4 4 ) and  S i r Hubert with  bidding  welcome t o y o u r m e r r y n u p t i a l s and ( V . i i i . 1 5 2 - 1 5 4 ) , where we enliven  the  proceedings  C o c l e d e m o y , who  may  be  seems t o be  downfall  untried  a  the  of appearances  l i k e Malheureux with  by,  who  the  which  to l i v e  the M u l l i g r u b s '  dishonesty  f l i c k e r i n g array  rely  on  to  h i s v i c t i m , but  trick  physical  objects  associated  with  who  him  of g o b l e t s ,  p o p s up  in a  he  rigid his  remain the  begins,  are  prevent  recognition (I.i.5-6). goblet  Franceschina•s where no  t o be  before  in I I I . i i i . , favours,  character around  in  a  corner  sense  A  a c t i o n of the well  enough"  Immediately a f t e r h i s attempts  using a  t o exchange  c a n t i n g nonsense  d i s g u i s e i s even n e c e s s a r y  of  i t seems,  same f o r l o n g . the  in an  every  him  Nothing,  "hammered o u t  he  hypocrisy  only appears  a l s o brings with  stolen* just  expected  a  impossibly  s t a t e of f l u x .  can  pretentious  Cocledemoy n o t  of d i s g u i s e s , l i k e  cartoon  the  telling  of those  animated  of  of  frustration  scourge of  systematic  nest  will  virtue.  As and  systems  heartily  that his wit  incapable  is  theoretical  "most  then,  considerably.  embodies t h a t d e c e p t i v e n e s s and  "Why  wanton j i g g a - j o g g l e s "  sure  truth, the  himself  joining  play to theft  i t for  language  (IV.ili.10-13).  He  uses  110 two in not  names where one I I . 1 . and with  expect,  iii.,  and  imaginary but with  w o u l d do while  f o r the shaving "dry-shaving"  of M u l l i g r u b  him  regales  b a c k s t a i r s c o u r t g o s s i p , as  one  him  would  imaginary  s e r p e n t s , w h i c h no s o o n e r were b e h e l d b u t t h e y t u r n ' d t o m a s t i f f s , which howl'd; those m a s t i f f s i n s t a n t l y t u r n ' d t o c o c k s , which crowed; t h o s e c o c k s i n a moment were c h a n g ' d t o b e a r s , w h i c h roar'd; w h i c h b e a r s a r e a t t h i s h o u r t o be y e t s e e n i n P a r i s G a r d e n , l i v i n g upon n o t h i n g b u t t o a s t e d c h e e s e and g r e e n o n i o n s .  (II.iii.47-52) It  seems t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f C o c l e d e m o y i s d e s i g n e d  to provide a f a r c i c a l  parallel  t o the  s l i g h t l y more s e r i o u s  preoccupation  of the main p l o t — t h e t e s t i n g  their ability  to withstand  the p h y s i c a l  The clusion  of the a c t i o n ,  same a s  The  effect  by  the m i s l e a d i n g appearances  of  world.  M a l h e u r e u x who  the  of i d e a l s  proclaims with r e l i e f " I am  myself"  t h e M a l h e u r e u x who of F r e e v i l l ' s  first  intrigue  a t the  (V.iii.6l) adopts  con-  i s not  his disguise.  on M a l h e u r e u x i s n o t  one  of r e v e a l i n g the h y p o c r i s y of a d e l i b e r a t e l y - a d o p t e d pose, but  r a t h e r o f m a k i n g him  the s o r d i d and t o t h e end and  this  Although  find  a basis f o r personality in  dangerous r e a l world.  From t h e  beginning  of the p l a y Malheureux' s e r i o u s n e s s i s  can  be assumed t o be a r e l i a b l e  a t the b e g i n n i n g  companlonably  o f t h e p l a y we  enough w i t h F r e e v i l l ,  guide  apparent,  to his  nature.  s e e him d r i n k i n g  T y s e f e w , and  Caqueteur,  Ill and  joining  i n t h e good-natured mockery o f M u l l i g r u b :  A d v a n c e t h y s n o u t ; do n o t s u f f e r t h y s o r r o w f u l n o s e t o d r o p on t h y S p a n i s h l e a t h e r j e r k i n , most hardly-honest Mulligrub, (1.1.2-3) •v  it was  i sleft  t o Malheureux t o ask the p r o s a i c q u e s t i o n ,  the plate l o s t ? "  like,  gives  (1.1.9),  preacher-  t h e company a g r a t u i t o u s r e m i n d e r o f h e l l - f i r e :  " L e t him have day t i l l wink w i t h  a n d i t i s he who,  "How  both  established  then  [the l a s t  day],  (I.1.24-25).  h i s eyes"  a n d he w i l l  The c h a r a c t e r i s  a s a r a t h e r h u m o u r l e s s one who c a n g o t h r o u g h  the motions o f j o c u l a r repartee, seriousness  beneath the s u r f a c e .  (II.i.107-108): Insufficient  "A k i n d  of f l a t  d u l l n e s s , s t a i n s my  but f a i l s  t o conceal the  A s he h i m s e l f ungracious 'haviour."  confesses  modesty,/An When he  announces h i s i n t e n t i o n o f a c t i n g a s F r e e v i l l ' s  watchdog  it  in his  i s hard  not to dismiss  the element o f l e v i t y  chiding:  N o t s o , t r u s t me, I must b r i n g my f r i e n d home: I d a r e n o t g i v e y o u up t o y o u r own company; I f e a r t h e warmth o f w i n e a n d y o u t h w i l l draw y o u t o some common h o u s e o f l a s c i v i o u s entertainment, (I.i.55-58) and  what r e m a i n s  built  i s misunderstanding  up i n t h e e n s u i n g  horrified himself  dialogue  and f e a r , which i s  until  i t reaches the  i n c r e d u l i t y with which Malheureux f i n a l l y  to utter Freevill's  brings  p r o p o s e d d e s t i n a t i o n : "Not t o  112 a  courtesan?"  Is  brought  apparent before, ceived  (1.1.78).  When I n t h e n e x t  scene  face to face with Franceschina,  t h a t he h a s n e v e r so i n c o n s i s t e n t  seen  i t becomes  an a t t r a c t i v e  Is the r e a l i t y  Malheureux  courtesan  with h i s precon-  ideas:  FREEVILL: See, s i r , t h i s i s s h e . MALHEUREUX: T h i s ? FREEVILL: T h i s . MALHEUREUX: A c o u r t e s a n ?  (I.ii.74-77) The  p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l and u n t r i e d  i d e a s on what a c o u r t e s a n absence  i n h i s professed  reality; reliance  and both  already  o f Malheureux*  i s a n example  of the  I d e a l s o f any g r o u n d i n g  i n everyday  t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e and t h e u n q u e s t i o n i n g  on s t r i c t n e s s  with a c e r t a i n  i s like  nature  a r e shown i n I I . i . a s b e i n g  stupidity.  Freevill  i n f a t u a t e d Malheureux  tries  connected  to explain to the  that  Incontinence w i l l force a continence; Heat wasteth heat, l i g h t d e f a c e t h l i g h t ; N o t h i n g i s s p o i l e d b u t by h i s p r o p e r m i g h t ,  (II.i.120-122) but to  realises  a t once t h a t paradox  the p r e j u d i c e d Malheureux:  weighty  f o r thy floor"  with Franceschina animal  of  life.  (II.1.123)  Freevill,  to restrain  to appeal  "This i s something t o o Malheureux'  shows two t h i n g s a b o u t h i m ;  passions l i k e  w h i c h he a t t e m p t s  i s not l i k e l y  contact t h a t he h a s  and t h a t t h e r e c t i t u d e them i s b a s e d  on  with  ignorance  H i s u p r i g h t d i s g u i s e g i v e s him t h e s e l f - e s t e e m  113 to  exist  i n society,  the  versatility,  his  friend,  to  be  moral  of  i t c u t s him  which  same t i m e a t t e m p t s it.  during  The  as  l t i s on  and  o f f from  free w i l l  'real*  he  p u t s up  life  protects  him  i s that from  shown and  of  by  he  needs  the d i s c u s s i o n which  o f an  apparent  the w o r l d and  to conceal h i s lack  sermon which M a l h e u r e u x  Franceschina  the d e n i a l  like.  d i s g u i s e which  stability  based  improvisation,  t a u g h t what i t I s The  the  but  at  o f knowledge  delivers  to  leads to h i s f i r s t  Freevill meeting  with  is a case i n p o i n t :  D e a r my l o v ' d f r i e n d , l e t me be f u l l w i t h y o u . Know, s i r , t h e s t r o n g e s t a r g u m e n t t h a t s p e a k s A g a i n s t the s o u l ' d e t e r n i t y i s l u s t , T h a t w i s e man's f o l l y a n d t h e f o o l ' s wisdom: B u t t o grow w i l d i n l o o s e l a s c l v i o u s n e s s . G i v e n up t o h e a t a n d s e n s u a l a p p e t i t e , Nay, t o e x p o s e y o u r h e a l t h a n d s t r e n g t h and name, Y o u r p r e c i o u s t i m e , a n d w i t h t h a t t i m e t h e hope O f due p r e f e r m e n t , a d v a n t a g e o u s means Of a n y w o r t h y end, t o t h e s t a l e u s e . T h e common bosom, o f a m o n e y - c r e a t u r e , One t h a t s e l l s human f l e s h , a m a n g o n i s t !  (I.i.80-91)  where no a r g u m e n t i s p r e s e n t e d , e x c e p t lust  i s a reminder  waste of time which  of mortality, could  ho  knowledge o f the w o r l d  of  invective  creature,/One Malheureux facade  replaces that  is folly,  be more p r o f i t a b l y i s p r e s e n t e d , and  of  cliches-  lust  spent;  human f l e s h ,  Is a where  where t h e power  t h e power o f p e r s u a s i o n : "...  sells  i s not even  lust  i n terms  a mangonist!"  conscious that h i s s t r i c t n e s s  a money That Is a  a t a l l i s shown by h i s c o n f i d e n c e t h a t F r a n c e s c h i n a '  Ilk wickedness can only chances  will  be  so o b v i o u s t o t h e s e n s e s t h a t  s t r e n g t h e n h i s r e s i s t a n c e and of her  even  the meeting  increase  the  conversion:  W e l l , I ' l l go t o make h e r l o a t h e t h e shame s h e ' s i n . T h e s i g h t o f v i c e augments t h e h a t e o f s i n .  (I.i.152-153)  and  he  i s quite  has  fallen  himself  sure,  even a f t e r  i n l o v e w i t h a strumpet,  from  s i n : "I would  Malheureux' based  deny; saw  a sweet  china;  and  Freevill  he a g a i n n a i v e l y "he  Malheureux p l a y where he  a  saw  restrain  (I.ii.132)  lets  i s concerned  Malheureux b e f o r e he met  s e t s him  his attitude  thee not t h a t  c a n s a y " I am  In the f i r s t ,  myself"  Freevill  left  "never Frances-  on t o m u r d e r to her  depend  (V.lii.6l),  by  o f the three  p l a c e s him i n  h i s t h e o r e t i c a l m o r a l i t y has n o t p r e p a r e d makes a n  i m p r e s s i o n on  him n o t o f v e n a l i t y and  corruption,  accomplishment, and  destroys h i s defence against  this  of brute d e s i r e .  consciously  to  thee" ( I I . ii,.106).  deliberately  f o r — m e e t i n g a c o u r t e s a n who  world  speak,  of h i s defences  i s b r o u g h t t o t h e p o i n t a t t h e end  s i t u a t i o n which  him  the p l a y  i n t h e s c e n e where she  on h e r b e a u t y :  stages.  which  t h i n g s a r e what t h e y seem. face v i c i o u s "  can  (II.1.102-103).  c o n f i d e n c e i n the e f f i c a c y  on a n a s s u m p t i o n  that  t h a t he  o f snow" ( I I . 1 . 8 2 ) ,  b u t embrace h e r , h e a r h e r  and a t t h e most but k i s s h e r "  is  he, a "man  but of w i t , beauty  I n the second, Malheureux  t r a p p e d i n h i s own  lust,  and  during  and  the  is  this  stage  H5 F r e e v i l l o f f e r s temporary easement, while l a y i n g plans f o r the t h i r d stage, that i s , the forming of Malheureux  1  character by exposure to the furthest and most deadly e f f e c t s that l u s t can have on a personality u n f o r t i f i e d by F r e e v i l l ' s type of common sense. Malheureux' s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y cracks as soon as F r e e v i l l confronts him with Franceschina.  His moral s t r i c t n e s s  becomes a cause f o r regret rather than a source of strength: "Oh,  that to love should be or shame or s i n ! " ( I . i i . 1 3 6 ) .  Later, F r e e v i l l reminds the infatuated Malheureux that a sense of impregnable v i r t u e i s bound to precede a lapse: "consider man him"  furnished with omnipotency, and you overthrow  (III.i.238-239) . Malheureux's imprisonment i n a l u s t which he consciously  knows to be morally d e b i l i t a t i n g — " s i n of cold blood,"  as  he c a l l s i t ( I I . i i . 2 2 ' 1 ) — f o l l o w s on the collapse of his defence against the r e a l world.  He describes  Franceschina  i n terms not inappropriate to his own lack of self-confidence: "I f i n d a mind courageously v i c i o u s may  put on a desperate  security, but can never be blessed with a firm enjoying and s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n " (III.1.215-217), and he i s conscious of the l o s s of what he had thought was a stable personality; he answers F r e e v i l l ' s query "You ha' vowed my death?" with "My  l u s t , not I, before my reason would" (III.1.233-234),  and when about to put F r e e v i l l ' s plan into practice he declares: "I am not now myself, no man"  (IV.ii.29)*  116 By Joining forces with F r e e v i l l i n the pretended quarrel  ( f o r which the masque i n IV.1. i s an appropriate  background) and i n the loan of the ring, Malheureux abandons himself completely  to a world of. appearances where his lack  of experience and l o s s of sustaining rectitude leave him t o t a l l y unable to look a f t e r himself.  Offered an apparently  foolproof deception which w i l l enable him to enjoy  Frances-  china without having to k i l l F r e e v i l l , he i n r e a l i t y remains a slave to Franceschina's  outward beauty and the v i c t i m of  the f u r t h e r deception by which F r e e v i l l works his p l o t on him. how  benevolent  Not u n t i l Malheureux has been brought to r e a l i z e  dangerous involvement on a purely animal l e v e l with  Franceschina can be, does he l e a r n that neither "cold blood" on one hand nor "inborn heat" l i k e that of the birds ( I I . i . 7 3 ) on the other are appropriate i n the everyday world,  and  comes to r e a l i s e what F r e e v i l l knew at the beginning of the play: "not he that's passionless, but he »bove passion's wise" ( I I . i i . 2 2 3 ) , and "philosophy and nature are a l l one" ( I I . i.114). Malheureux could be said to reverse the usual pattern of subjects of observation i n disguise i n that instead of being a worldly wise f i g u r e putting on a h y p o c r i t i c a l appearance of innocence,  he i s an innocent d i s g u i s i n g himself with a  mask of knowledge.  What i s more, the discoveries i n the  play are made p r i n c i p a l l y by the subject and not the d i s guised observer, and the discoveries Malheureux makes are about himself.  117 Franceschina s 1  Freevill she  casting  rages  revengefulness  her o f f .  i s the d i r e c t  When s h e h e a r s  of i ti n I I . i i .  "with h e r h a i r loose, chafing" ( f i r s t  d i r e c t i o n ) , and i s immediately  planning  r e s u l t of  stage-  revenge:  I c k s a i l be r e v e n g ' d ! Do t e n t o u s a n d h e l l damn me, i c k s a i l h a v e t h e r o g u e t r o a t c u t ; a n d his l o v e , and h i s f r i e n d , and a l l h i s a f f i n i t y s a i l smart, s a i l d i e , s a i l hang! Now l e g i o n o f d e v i l s e i z e h i m ! De g r a n pest, S t . Anthony's f i r e , a n d de h o t N e a p o l i t a n p o c r o t h i m ! 1  (II.ii.41-45) Her  d i s g u i s e i s put into  f o l l o w i n g h e r impassioned  o p e r a t i o n a t once; vow o f r e v e n g e ,  w i t h Malheureux and i s g r e e t e d  immediately Freevill  enters  with:  0 mine s e e t , d e a r ' s t , k i n d e s t , mine l o v i n g ! 0 mine tousand, t e n tousand, d e l i c a t e d , p e t t y s e e t a r t ! Ah, m i n e a d e r l i e v e s t a f f e c t i o n !  (II.ii.47-49) Her  affectionate  effective, ignorance  puts  mistress,  f o r not only i s F r e e v i l l of her intentions,  captivated she  and charming appearance  seems t o be  temporarily kept i n  but Malheureux  by i t . When F r a n c e s c h i n a  i s completely  i s alone with  Malheureux  on a s p e c i a l a c t o f t h e t r u e - h e a r t e d b u t abandoned whose f i n e r  feelings  have b e e n a b u s e d :  FRANCESCHINA: ... F a i t , me no more c a n l o v e . MALHEUREUX: No m a t t e r ; l e t me e n j o y y o u r b e d . FRANCESCHINA: 0 v i l e man, v a t do y o u t i n k on me? Do y o u t a k e me t o be a b e a s t , a c r e a t u r e t h a t f o r sense o n l y w i l l e n t e r t a i n l o v e , and n o t o n l y f o r love, love? 0 b r u t i s h abomination!  (II.il.124-128)  118 M a l h e u r e u x was Freevill,  who  courtesans:  merely  acting  on  the w o r l d l y a d v i c e  had  told  him  the g e n e r a l t r u t h  "they  sell  but  only flesh,  no  of  about  jot affection;  s o t h a t e v e n i n t h e e n j o y i n g , A b s e n t e m marmoreamque (II.i.137-139). appeal am  effect  i s t o make him  her  L a t e r she  the  t o dupe him  while  has  p l a n t o make a man  influence  o v e r him  b r i n g i n g him fatal  she  to k i l l  i s on h e r  almost  l e a r n e d of the p l o t ,  to prevail u n t i l to h i s death,  of F r e e v i l l * s  Freefor for  mission  has  Franceschina*s  succeeded  t e a c h i n g him  "'bove p a s s i o n . "  in the  The  un-  a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d i n t h e  disguise.  of motive  cosmetic than  showing a s i m i l a r  The  p l a y ends w i t h  "the  extremest  her  whip  myself"  self-doubt;  (V.iii.61),  s o bound up w i t h  d i s g u i s e shows much more  that of Malheureux.  Malheureux p r o g r e s s i n g from t o " I am  continues  (V.iii.55.59).  Franceschina's integrity  she  thus  c o n s i g n m e n t t o " s e v e r e s t p r i s o n " and  and j a i l "  he  o f M a l h e u r e u x by a l l o w i n g  consequences of not b e i n g  discussion  is  agree  a g a i n a s he w a i t s  in reality  m a s k i n g o f F r a n c e s c h i n a has  from  and  "I  Subboys*,  Once F r e e v i l l his  repeat h i s pledge:  f e e t s , mak-a m i n e body s o d e l i c a t e  (IV.ill.25)  h i s arm"  of Franceschina«s  (II.ii.i39),  i s able  t o " p e r f u m e my  on him  immediately  y o u r vowed s e r v a n t "  vill.  to  The  putes"  " I am  no  while  She  the p l a y  whit myself"  is far shows (II.ii.97)  Franceschina's self-confidence  the success  of her  schemes t h a t when  119 a l l I s l o s t a t the end o f the p l a y she can o n l y say "me  ha  1  l o s t my w i l l " ( V . i i i . 5 8 ) .  Of the m i n o r c h a r a c t e r s  i n the main p l o t , Caqueteur  and Tysefew, n o t much needs t o be s a i d beyond the f a c t t h a t they t o o a r e i n v o l v e d i n d i s g u i s e s i n one way Caqueteur, d e s c r i b e d  or another.  i n the D r a m a t i s Personae as "a p r a t t l i n g  g u l l ; " borrows a diamond r i n g from Tysefew t o a i d h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l c o u r t s h i p of C r i s p i n e l l a .  Tysefew f o r e w a r n s the company,  and C a q u e t e u r ' s e v a s i o n s and a t t e m p t s t o b r a z e n out the imp o s t u r e a r e b r o k e n down t o r e v e a l h i s r e a l i n e f f e c t u a l n a t u r e . " S i r , I ' l l no more o f y o u r s e r v i c e , " C r i s p i n e l l a t e l l s him, "You a r e a c h i l d ;  I ' l l g i v e you t o my n u r s e " ( I I I . i . 1 8 6 - 1 8 7 ) .  The b y p l a y w i t h t h e r i n g s f u r n i s h e s a romantic-comedy  para-  l l e l t o the main p l o t , r e p e a t i n g the theme of appearances on a l e s s s e r i o u s  level.  Tysefew,^ "a b l u n t g a l l a n t " i n the D r a m a t i s Personae, i s a much more s u i t a b l e mate f o r C r i s p i n e l l a t h a n Caqueteur. He matches h e r b r o a d s p e a k i n g by r a i l i n g a t h e r i n a  full-  b l o o d e d manner: "you proud ape, you" ( I V . 1 . 2 1 ) , and "what a t a r t monkey i s t h i s ! "  (IV.1.39).  But towards the end of  the p l a y he f i n d s t h a t the d i s g u i s e d F r e e v i l l i s t o b e 1  t h e i r g u i d e t o the e x e c u t i o n s ,  and h i s b l u f f f o r t h r i g h t n e s s  and z e s t y i n j u n c t i o n s t o " l i v e by the q u i c k "  (V.ii.78) at  once g i v e way t o a r a t h e r t e t c h y s e l f r i g h t e o u s n e s s : I am no companion  f o r panders!" ( V . i i . 1 2 8 ) .  "Zounds,  Beatrice  120 and in  Crispinella, fact  standing  and  r e b u k e him  not  a man  who  know t h a t F r e e v i l l  beside  them,  (V.ii.134-135).  as  the expected  w e l l as  Freevill tion  being  at  irony  using  M a l h e u r e u x and  want o f a n y  o f them. explicit  Comicall  Satyre  mere e n v y ,  an  the  b u t w h a t e v e r may  Ideals  disguise links  that  with  Mulligrub:  t o show how  unmasking  that Tysefew  we  he  assume  i s reformed;  scene.  of the s a t i r i s t s of  for truth-telling have  one;  i s the r e v e l a -  i n the l a s t  e c h o o r two  con-  suggested  i s revealed  the  being  h i s character with  character  revealed  by  t h e theme o f  play.  It so  i s a double  Cocledemoy  confession)  whose p a s s i o n  you  t h e same means  to Marston, the i n c i d e n t of h i s hypocrisy Freevill's  goodness  "turn  of the d i s g u i s e d  At F r e e v i l l ' s  a l l e v e n t s he w i n s C r i s p i n e l l a Tysefew provides  as  dramatic  o f the v i c t i m ' s p r o f e s s e d  f a l l i n g short  (for  the i r o n y  words  precepts:  ambiguously r e f e r r e d to, there  does w i t h  repetition is  So  of Tysefew's hypocrisy,  Freevill  o f h i s own  t o make a l l i l l / W h o s e  ceive not"  and  echo Tysefew's e a r l i e r  f o r f a l l i n g short  o f time,  i s "quick"  i s t o be  expected  l i v e l y a character  would  be  t h a t a comic s u b p l o t  as Cocledemoy  f o r i t s disguised  e q u a l l y happy i n the h y p o c r i t e s  of h i s a t t e n t i o n s . Cocledemoy;  The M u l l i g r u b s  containing  who  are the  hero object  are perfect f o i l s f o r  s i t t i n g down t o t h e s a l m o n w i t h  has b a i t e d h i s t r a p f o r M i s s t r e s s M u l l i g r u b ,  which her  Cocledemoy  husband  121 is  i n e c s t a s i e s a t h i s own  cleverness:  The m e s s e n g e r h a t h m i s t a k e n t h e h o u s e ; l e t ' s e a t i t up q u i c k l y b e f o r e i t be i n q u i r ' d f o r . . . . Oh, when a man f e e d s a t o t h e r men's c o s t !  (III.iii.71-75) and  Mistress Mulligrub, f o r her part,  the  events  ( b r i n g i n g h e r husband c l o s e r and c l o s e r t o  apoplexy) as evidence denying Mulligrub's "nay,  previous  doubt o f h e r r e l i a b i l i t y  Shark"  his wife  Mulligrub himself  replacement  cutting  of the c e l l a r "  i s only a matter of time: (II.iii.106-107).  (I.1.40),  to confess  of the  i s a d d r e s s e d a s "my  good  (I.i.l),  him a f t e r Cocledemoy's t h e f t  i n t h e term"  Mulligrub  the character  i n the opening speech o f the p l a y  reassures  with:  (Ill.iii.92-93).  i s n o t much d o u b t a b o u t  Mulligrubs.  that  o f h e r a s t u t e management o f t h e a f f a i r ,  and I bear n o t a b r a i n ! " There  host  o f f e r s her account of  and  o f t h e cup  " ' t i s b u t a week's  Mulligrub's  "sins  e n u m e r a t e d by C o c l e d e m o y a s he  i n the l a s t  scene,  have a l r e a d y  gets  been  quoted. In addition, Mistress Mulligrub whose m o r a l s a r e n o t a l l t h e y f o l l o w i n g Cocledemoy's t h e f t Mulligrub:  "I'll  might be.  In fact  a s a woman  I n t h e argument  o f t h e cup, s h e  threatens  make a n ox o f y o u " ( I I I . i i i . 1 4 3 ) a n d t h e  m i s c h i e v o u s C o c l e d e m o y amuses h i m s e l f " I knew y o u r w i f e  i s revealed  before  by t e l l i n g  she was m a r r i e d "  she I s n o t above a c c e p t i n g  Mulligrub  (IV.v.88-89)•  f r o m some o f h e r " v e r y  k n i g h t l y and c o u r t l y " customers "a p i e c e  o f f l e s h when  time  122 of year  serves"  resistance  (III.iii.22-24);  scaffold.  T h e i r motive seem h o n e s t  (III.iii.57-58) vengeance" and  a  i s a simple  n d the p a i r apply  (II.lii.13)  make a l i v i n g  close  one.  " A l l things with  t h a t c a n be p r o f i t a b l e "  "spigot-frigging."  during  little  t o Cocledemoy's p r o p o s a l a t t h e f o o t of  Mulligrub's  shall  and she o f f e r s  says M u l l i g r u b  themselves  to systematic false To a c e r t a i n  "with a  scoring,  extent  to the rind,  "cutting,"  t h e i r need t o  (and the c o n s i d e r a b l e l o s s e s they  t h e a c t i o n ) makes i t n e c e s s a r y  me  suffer  f o r them t o p a r e  a n d p e r h a p s e v e n a l l o w s them t o b e l i e v e  in  their  own . p i e t y a n d h o n e s t y ;  but Mistress Mulligrub  at  least  h a s a moment o f r a d i c a l s e l f - d o u b t :  T r u t h , husband, s u r e l y heaven i s n o t p l e a s ' d w i t h o u r v o c a t i o n . We do w i n k a t t h e s i n s o f o u r p e o p l e , o u r wines a r e P r o t e s t a n t s , and — I speak i t t o my g r i e f a n d t o t h e b u r d e n o f my c o n s c i e n c e — we f r y o u r f i s h w i t h s a l t b u t t e r . (II.iii.7-11) The that for  front  type  they  of piety,  reverence  to the world  f o reducation,  t h e r e w a r d s o f h a r d work a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  They a r e t e n u o u s l y Family  o f Love,  serious  people,  expected by  t r y to present  with  but whatever the t r u t h about i ti s plain  and r e s p e c t the P u r i t a n s .  the Dutch sect o f the those  that the B l a c k f r i a r s  f u n t o be made o f them a l o n g  t h e i r name.  'saints,'  connected  the l i n e s  Both p a r t n e r s use the language  especially  with  i s one o f  s t r a n g e r s and t h e i r  no d o u b t  audience suggested  of the own s e r v a n t s :  123 "sincerely" cally"  (III.iii.47-55),  examples.  They both  than  they  asks  after  all he  (III.iii.42),  the  are.  my  o f my  acquaintance" 'barber':  Cocledemoy r e p e a t s IV.v.83). her  b r o u g h t up sure  her  " I was  how  in a  "Thus  "I s h a l l  r e f e r e n c e t o the  be  w o r k s e v e n on  to prepare  sister's  piece  her  the  (Ill.ii.45  Common which and  satisfaction  and  she  No  shows h e r  own  to  be  makes q u i t e  upbringing:  example  i n the  whether  I n the midst visit  of  subterfuge  everybody  for gentility  with  (III.iii.52-53)•  side"  expected  and later  of b l u s t e r  i t i s questionable  house f o r the  same t i m e  and  o f the  t a v e r n f u r n i s h e s an  strangers.  Mistress Mulligrub calls at  one  r e m i n i s c i n g on h e r  t o e x p o s e them;  knows what t h e y a r e , a n d pretence  Cocledemoy,  good l a d i e s ,  (III.iii.16-17);  hear her  i s needed  by  better  ' t i s t o h a v e g o o d e d u c a t i o n and  tavern"  servants  1  (II.iii.33-34),  t h e M u l l i g r u b s g i v e t h e m s e l v e s away.  intrigue  and  a l l my  are  thought  'shaved  twice a t h i s expense  a g e n t l e w o m a n by my  The  t o be  M i s t r e s s M u l l i g r u b shows e v e r y  education:  "methodi-  (III.iii.150)  being  (II.iii.77-78)—a  shortly"  "ungodly,"  have p r e t e n s i o n s  good l o r d s and  confides i n his  Council  "synagogue"  Mulligrub, while  "all  rest  "profane,"  from her  play their  o f an  of the  or  attempt  Burnishes,  servants  b r i n g i n g up w i t h a  term  not a t a l l genteel: Spready, s p r e a d handsomely! — L o r d , t h e s e boys t h i n g s a r s y - v a r s y ! — You show y o u r b r i n g i n g up!  (III.iii.50-52)  do  124 Suspicions  are  c a s t on  the  p r o p r i e t y of the Family  L o v e a s M i s t r e s s M u l l i g r u b muses a l o u d servants'  benefit)  on  the  sources  of  (presumably  of her  for  the  vocabulary:  M e t h o d i c a l l y ! I wonder where I g o t t h a t w o r d . Oh! S i r Aminadab R u t h bade me k i s s him m e t h o d i c a l l y ! I h a d i t somewhere, a n d I had i t i n d e e d .  III.iii.53-56) Mulligrub's  p i e t y i s b e l i e d by  thought a f t e r consult with his  being  robbed  "some w i s e man"  w h i c h he  had  his superstition.  of the n e s t  (I.i.?),  replaced  them  and  of goblets  after losing  (at twice  His  first  i s to the  cup  the normal o u t l a y ) ,  cry i s : I am h a u n t e d w i t h e v i l s p i r i t s ! H e a r me; do h e a r me! I f I h a v e n o t my g o b l e t a g a i n , h e a v e n ! I ' l l t o the d e v i l : I ' l l to a conjuror. L o o k t o my h o u s e ! I ' l l r a i s e a l l t h e w i s e men 1' t h e s t r e e t . (III.iii.101-104)  Since  the M u l l i g r u b s  are  continuously  r e v e l a t i o n by  s e l v e s , no  dramatic  necessary  t o expose t h e i r h y p o c r i s y ,  incorrigible,  ment-and-revelation particularly  For  these  and  reasons  s i n c e they  would the  the  mad"  he  cup  t o be  s a y s as  he  (III.ill.96);  put  i n the  are  continuous  c y c l e t o which Cocledemoy s u b j e c t s  appropriate.  begins  With each s u c c e s s i v e  but  stocks  on  to understand  is  i n t h i s way  M u l l i g r u b becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y more f r a n t i c : me  them-  disguised observer  i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t they  shamed i n t o r e f o r m .  is  the  unmasking  "Do  t h a t he  a f t e r Cocledemoy has s u s p i c i o n of having  be  punishthem  realisation not has  caused  make lost him  stolen his  \ •  r  125 cloak,  Mulligrub  "Zounds,  shall  begins  i n earnest  I r u n mad,  answer  to Mulligrub*s  (V.iii.120-121), hopes The as  of execution.  heartfelt  allowed Disaster  Cocledemoy i n  " i f he w o u l d come  forth  b u t t h e same a p p e a r a n c e d e s t r o y s  a c t i o n of the sub-plot t o celebrate the fact  satirlsable  and,  f o r he o n l y knows t h e why a n d t h e w h e r e f o r e "  t h a t Cocledemoy w i l l  cuckold,  by b e i n g  by t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e r e a l  he m i g h t s a v e me,  a  be r e c l a i m e d  come w i t h i n a h a i r ' s - b r e a d t h  Is a v e r t e d  (IV.v.60-6l)  l o s e my w i t s ! "  l i k e Malheureux, can only to  t o f e a r f o r h i s reason:  citizens;  "look  to  Cher]  has s e r v e d  that  h i s wife's  payment"  (V.iii.98).  n o t s o much t o r e v e a l  the M u l l i g r u b s  M u l l i g r u b as a cheat  are  eminently  and p o s s i b l y  and M i s t r e s s M u l l i g r u b as p r e t e n t i o u s  and l a s c i -  vious. A l t h o u g h Cocledemoy's allows  Mulligrub  rapacity  t r i c k with  o f salmon  to display his rapacity i n I I I . i i i . , h i s  i s n o t made t h e d i r e c t  Cocledemoy  the jowl  has o n l y  cause o f the cup's  used i t as a s t a g e - p r o p e r t y  loss;  to lend  plausibility  t o t h e s t o r y he t e l l s M i s t r e s s M u l l i g r u b .  episode  the general  plays  fits  of the t r i c k s  on t h e M u l l i g r u b s — i t i s a q u e s t i o n  ment, n o t r e v e l a t i o n . Cocledemoy's and  pattern  tricks  assault their  "cutting"  with  Though n o t t e s t i n g  glance  Cocledemoy  of simple  punish-  the M u l l i g r u b s ,  a t t h e i r a p p e t i t e s and p r e t e n t i o n s  "methodical"  a kind  This  hypocrisy  and  systematic  o f u n d i s c i p l i n e d and c h a o t i c c o m i c t r u t h .  126  The satiric  Dutch Courtesan  t h e a t r e of the Renaissance  discrepancy the if  i s a p l a y which shares  between the  i d e a l and  duke t o u r i n g h i s k i n g d o m the  ideals  w h i c h he  I n The  Dutch Courtesan,  approach apply see  t o an  in  the  live  of the lives  i t i s the  c h a r a c t e r s on  innocent, innocent  lead.  The  aim  themselves which are  whether or not  the  i s a corresponding  the  beliefs  Malheureux,  they  his ability  tried  and  to l i v e  I t i s another  about  town, and  consists thrusting he  had  not of  not  o f the the  thought  the  i s being put o t h e r way  himself  t o be  the  beliefs  test  but  Again,  world  an  claims  he  by  play pro-  the play  the  the but  against  the  professed  f e a t u r e of the  round.  proof.  a  t e s t e d , not  t o the  real  certain  i n the  f e i g n e d removal of r e s t r a i n t ,  subject into  in  i t is his  wanting  person.  innocent  to  tested characters  revealed,  t o the  distinguishing  as  to  questioned  emphasis  and  found up  deductive  s o much  f o r instance, i s not  w e a r i n g a mask o f k n o w l e d g e ;  the  see  p r o f e s s r a t h e r than  I t i s t h e dogma w h i c h i s b e i n g  here  of  preoccupation.  i s not  ideals  fesses.  that  tale to  of t h i s  now  whose a c t u a l d e p r a v i t y must be  than  the  practice  survives i t best.  t o knowledge which a r e rather  example  in  ( i f any)  t o them, t h e r e  they  i s an  followed  with  however, M a r s t o n c h a n g e s t h i s  p l a y r a t h e r than  up  The  most  t o the u n r e s t r a i n e d p h y s i c a l w o r l d ,  what d i s c i p l i n e Since  the a c t u a l .  i n d i s g u i s e i n order  i n d u c t i v e one.  discipline  a preoccupation  embodies a r e  d u r i n g h i s supposed absence  with  man  test a which  127 The  play  applies  the  opposition  the  first  learnt  that  only  experience  play  their  the world  covers  serve  between dogma a n d being  group,  s o u l s which  have  nature,  r u l e d by t h e f i r s t a n d  over t h i s  o p p o s i t i o n and f u r n i s h i n g a  c h o r i c comment on i t i s B e a t r i c e , dearest"  (II.1.10-27) discourses,  and Cocledemoy  by t h e s e c o n d .  Presiding  "betrothed  Paradoxically, the  a s s a u l t on t h e s e c o n d  t o l e a r n a proper balance  implied  the s t a b i l i t y  i n w a r d w h o l e n e s s , a n d t h e theme o f t h e  Malheureux and the M u l l i g r u b s  of  can provide  by F r e e v i l l  i s c a r r i e d on b y t h e i r  Franceschina  In  i t s p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous m u t a b i l i t y and t o  whose o u t w a r d harmony w i t h yet  of nature  i t t o t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y u s e .  emphasise  by means o f  f u r n i s h e s a n example o f one who h a s  outward d i s g u i s e s adopted to  to the i d e a l  o f i t s two m a i n g r o u p s o f c h a r a c t e r s .  group F r e e v i l l  to withstand put  the.actual  (II.i.3).  she d i s c a r d s  In pledging  "a m i s t r e s s  or nice a r t of wit,"  and  1  kind  Freevill's  herself to F r e e v i l l  compliment,/Forced concludes:  Oh, l e t n o t my s e c u r e simplicity B r e e d y o u r m l s l i k e , a s one q u i t e v o i d o f s k i l l ; ' T i s g r a c e enough i n us n o t t o be i l l . I c a n some good, a n d , f a i t h , I mean n o h u r t ; Do n o t , t h e n , s w e e t , wrong s o b e r i g n o r a n c e .  She  i n s p i r e s t h e same k i n d  becomes her. c h a m p i o n parts  with  of honesty  in Freevill,  i n the everyday world;  h e r r i n g and " t r i e s  LherJ  faith  who  a l t h o u g h he t o o much"  (V.ii.56),  128 he can s t i l l report "nor ever hath my love been f a l s e to you" ( V . i i . 5 5 ) . C r i s p i n e l l a , f o r whom "virtue i s a free, pleasant, buxom q u a l i t y " ( I I I . i . 4 8 ) , stands beside Beatrice as the scourge of pretence, rebuking not only the p a r t i c u l a r transgressions of Tysefew i n V . i i . and Caqueteur i n I I I . i l . , but a l o speaking out with considerable boldness against sexual hypocrisy: Let's ne'er be ashamed to speak what we be not asham'd to think. I dare as boldly speak venery as think venery....You s h a l l have an h y p o c r i t i c a l v e s t a l v i r g i n speak that with close teeth p u b l i c l y which she w i l l receive with open mouth privately. (III.i.25-27, 32-3^) Her d i s t r u s t of marriage i s based on the deceptive nature of  men: A husband generally i s a careless, domineering thing that grows l i k e coral, which as long as i t Is under water i s s o f t and tender, but as soon as i t has got h i s branch above the waves i s presently hard, s t i f f , not to be bowed but burst; so when your husband i s a s u i t o r and under your choice Lord, how supple he i s , how obsequious, how at your service, sweet lady! Once married, got up h i s head above, a s t i f f , crooked, knobby, i n f l e x i b l e , tyrannous creature he grows; then they turn l i k e water, more you would embrace, the less you hold. (III.1.69-78)  She herself indulges i n the mild deception of choplnes and a high wig, but beyond that i s content to abstain from d i c t a t i n g to nature: What I made or can mend myself I may blush at; but what nature put upon me, l e t her be ashamed for me, I ha' nothing to do with I t , (III.i.115-117)  129 and  e v e n t u a l l y a c h i e v e s a s u c c e s s f u l compromise  i n t h e no  man's l a n d b e t w e e n dogma a n d n a t u r e >in a m a r r i a g e  with  Tysefew.  The a s s a u l t is  carried  o f polymorphous a c t u a l i t y  on m a i n l y  on r i g i d  idealism  by t h e s u b j e c t i o n o f M a l h e u r e u x t o t h e  d e c e p t i v e a p p e a r a n c e s o f F r a n c e s c h i n a and o f M u l l i g r u b t o those to  o f Cocledemoy.  But the i d e a o f d i s g u i s e i s so  t h e p l a y ' s theme t h a t no s i m p l e  on t h e s i d e o f t r u t h w i t h F r e e v i l l  division  between  those  a n d C o c l e d e m o y and  on t h e s i d e o f t h e d e c e i v e d w i t h M a l h e u r e u x a n d t h e can  be made i n e v e r y  himself  case.  those  Mullgrubs  Thus C a q u e t e u r ' s attempt t o pass  o f f a s t h e owner o f a n o p u l e n t d i a m o n d r i n g i s  betrayed  by T y s e f e w , who  Freevill's  disguise.  made b y i n t r i g u e  On  i n t u r n i s shown up a s a s n o b by several occasions  characters are  t o appear as something they a r e n o t ;  l e d e m o y makes M u l l i g r u b l o o k l i k e a d i s g u i s e d t h i e f ; C h i n a makes M a l h e u r e u x l o o k l i k e  a man  to  look  satisfy The  of  central  h i s l u s t and F r e e v i l l  business  of the play  change and f l u x  murder  on a m i d a  welter  o f which Cocledemoy's a n t i c s a r e o n l y p a r t .  making  i t more d i f f i c u l t  selves  or  Beatrice  would  Frances-  unfaithful.  i s carried  C l o t h e s a n d a c c e s s o r i e s change hands  their  who  Coc-  owners.  i s t h e most  i n bewildering profusion  to recognise either The r i n g  important,  the.things  given to F r e e v i l l  by  but the s u b p l o t i n v o l v e s  them-  }  130 t r a n s f e r s o f g o b l e t s , a s i l v e r cup, a c l o a k , a head o f salmon, Malheureux' purse ( t o Cocledemoy  i n the g u i s e o f "the p o o r " ) ,  n o t t o mention M u l l i g r u b ' s "jumbling o f elements". the appearance o f a diamond r i n g it  Even  (Caqueteur's borrowing o f  from Tysefew p a r a l l e l s Malheureux' l o a n o f F r e e v i l l ' s f o r  a s i m i l a r purpose) evokes comments on t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f counterfeits: CAQUETEUR: I s i t a r i g h t stone? I t shows w e l l by candlelight. TYSEFEW: So do many t h i n g s t h a t a r e c o u n t e r f e i t , but I a s s u r e you t h i s i s a r i g h t diamond.  (I.i.44-46)  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that v i r t u a l l y  the only stage-property  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i t s owner which remains t h e p r o p ^ t y o f t h a t owner i s the death's-head r i n g o f Mary Faugh  (1.11.51)--  a p o t e n t warning a g a i n s t r e c k l e s s abandonment t o f l e s h l y pursuits. Another c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the atmosphere  o f f l u x generated  i n t h e p l a y i s made by t h e echoes used t o j o g c h a r a c t e r s out o f a t t i t u d e s o f complacency o r h y p o c r i s y .  Freevill  s c o r n f u l l y echoes Malheureux' e x p r e s s i o n o f r e s o l v e  before  they v i s i t F r a n c e s c h i n a , and h i s attempts a t s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n a f t e r he has f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h h e r .  Cocledemoy  echoes  M u l l i g r u b ' s p r e t e n t i o u s remarks w h i l e s h a v i n g him and l a t e r uses h i s h u m i l i a t e d v i c t i m ' s e a r l i e r t h r e a t s t o e x t r a c t an amnesty  from him, making sure t h a t n o t h i n g has been f o r g o t t e n .  As F r a n c e s c h i n a i s b e i n g l e d o f f i n the l a s t scene, F r e e v i l l t u r n s t o Malheureux and asks: " F r o l i c , how i s i t ,  sir?"  131 (V.iii.6o), song  alluding  to her idiosyncratic  of t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f The Dutch guised  as a barber,  the casual conversation  C o u r t e s a n . Cocledemoy,  chats about  imaginary monster;  dis-  t h e f o r m i d a b l e changes o f  T y s e f e w hopes t o f i n d  a mate who c a n be " s i l e n t and  of the  she s i n g s a t I I . i i . 5 4 - 6 0 . Change seems t o i n t r u d e e v e n i n t o  an  version  i n Crispinella  i n my h o u s e , m o d e s t a t my  table,  w a n t o n I n my b e d " ( I V . i . 7 7 - 7 8 ) ; a n d C o c l e d e m o y ' s  dictum  d e p e n d s on what we a r e t a k e n f o r  rather  on how o u r i d e n t i t y  t h a n what we t h i n k we a r e i s e x p r e s s e d  i na series  o f comic  metamorphoses:  a b e g g a r when he i s l o u s i n g o f h i m s e l f l o o k s l i k e a p h i l o s o p h e r , a h a r d - b o u n d p h i l o s o p h e r when he i s o n t h e s t o o l l o o k s l i k e a t y r a n t , a n d a w i s e man when he i s i n h i s b e l l y - a c t l o o k s l i k e a fool.  (I.ii.68-71) "Silver for  without a l l o y / I s  use" says F r e e v i l l  a l l t o o eager  (IV.ii.42-43),  t o be w r o u g h t  and proves  t r a n s p l a n t i n g Malheureux from  the realm  t o t h e d e c e p t i o n s and dangers  of the s t r e e t s .  parallel  t o t h e main p l o t ,  shows t h e l i t e r a l grub' s s i l v e r w a r e ,  truth  from  the e v e r - p r a c t i c a l  symbol  of h i s i l l - g o t t e n purity,  and then  t h e c u r r e n c y o f t h e same w o r l d .  exposure  of the v i c t i m  the ideal  of abstraction In a witty Cocledemoy  o f t h e m e t a p h o r by s t e a l i n g  success and h y p o c r i t i c a l into  i t by  Mulli-  financial  transmuting i t  I n both  cases the  i s involved with the t r a n s i t i o n  to the actual,  and i s expressed  either  132 by  stage-properties  intrigue  o r by i m a g e r y .  This  a n d i m a g e r y w i t h i n a theme I n t i m a t e l y  w i t h d i s g u i s e i s what makes The D u t c h fine  coherence of  comedy.  connected  Courtesan such a  CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS  As victory  has  b e e n shown,  of true,  unforced desires  s p u r i o u s d e s i r e s which in  rule daily  the play a c t i n accordance  thoughts the  the theme o f what You  of others.  life.  and  triumphs  individualism. i n Quadratus'  The  perhaps t h i s and  victory  or  i t is a ritualised  p a t h e t i c magic t h a t is and  g o i n g t o be t h e few  a t t h e end  of ape  on  of the  play  robust cynicism:  dramatic v i c t o r y ,  c h a n g e d by  rent,  a p i e c e o f sym-  l e a v e s us u n c o n v i n c e d the stubbornness  of "oppinion" appears  that  the world  of  Quadratus  Faber.  the p l a y the f i n e  i n one  and  Lampatho D o r i a p r e s e n t s a l l t h e unpleasant personage.  clothes  of Laverdure  a l s o woos M e l e t z a a s a p r i z e  riches  i n the c h a r a c t e r of  so t h a t  Lampatho s u t e s h i m - s e l f e i n s u c h a hose" he  are  of h i s kind.  the s e r v i c e  Simplicius  supposed  insist  Reckless d e v o t i o n to dress, ornamentation, in  people  Meletza,  G u l p e R h e n i s h Wine my H e d g e , l e t o u r p a u n c h Suck merry G e l l y e s , p r e v i e w but n o t p r e v e n t No m o r t a l l c a n t h e m i s e r i e s o f l i f e , (V.294.33-35) but  of  Most o f the  with the thoughts  Quadratus,  i s the  over the network  o n l y ones t o s t a n d out a g a i n s t  genuine  Will  rather  Not  vices  o n l y does  "theile  say/  (II.247.28-29),  than as a  person,  he  134 and  does so  with  first  fulsome  the h e a r t . appointed  praise, The  suitor  f o r t u n e and  both  from  the  schoolroom  b r o t h e r s A n d r e a and Iacomo a c t o u t  I n d i f f e r e n c e and rather  Randolfo  of concern a way  and  for  when he  of the k i n d of g u i l e l e s s  U l y s s e s ' dog The  Argus from  being deceived  non-welcome g i v e n A l b a n o  concern  with  the  "unbeleefe"  own  sub-  does  appear.  thinks.  His  wine, a f i r e " considers In embodied front who  (1.239.12)  Malcontent,  the  sub  irksome  specie  "glorious  s o j o u r n i n the  on h i s t h r o n e  for  sake  the  is  of r u l e .  soul"  a b o v e him"  ' g a i n s t h i s f a t e / R e p i n e s and  himself  who  aeternltatis.  "the  Alto-  (V.vi.131)  (V.iv.89)  shifty  t o the p o i n t of insomnia:  goodman t e l l - c l o c k ! "  opposed  same e t e r n a l v i e w p o i n t  " l e a v e t h n o t h i n g b u t a God  world  and  what h i s f e l l o w -  i n a more c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m — t h a t  h i s enforced  engrossing  i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f one  t h e human a n i m a l  The  prevented  o f h i m s e l f t o " p r a i s e o f Heaven,  i s the monarch w i t h the  so f i n d s  that  limiting  w i t h an  world,  Quadratus' Olympian detachment from  man  which  of  by a b e g g a r ' s d i s g u i s e .  i s equated  t h i n g s of the s o c i a l  dis-  Albano's  that their  them r e c o g n i s i n g him  then than  the  these d i s g u i s e s conceal a l a c k of p e r s o n a l i t y ,  heart,  to  sophisticated  r e p u t a t i o n i n such  terfuge prevents All  with  and  temporal malcontent,  quarrels, alas,  he's  (Ill.ii.11-12). Altofront re-establishes by  returning to court  o f p e r s o n a l s a f e t y ) where he  (in disguise  can d e s t r o y  the  135 regime  existing by  stirring  of  sustaining opinion  falls,  A u r e l i a i n order  their  e f f e c t i v e n e s s a s he d o e s s o ; t h e impure  Bilioso  i n flattery  filling  play, tist  this  i t s structure  by t h e p r a c t i c e between P i e t r o  t o weaken t h e u s u r p e r ' s power;  Mendoza on t o e v e r d a r k e r  against  first,  l e a v i n g only the  He w i d e n s t h e d i s t r u s t  leads  as  so t h a t  A l t o f r o n t i n power; a n d s e c o n d ,  stool-pigeonry.  and  i n the court  up c o n f u s i o n  of mutually upright  by two methods a t t h e same t i m e :  elements  acts  practical  of policy, neutralizing a n d he b u i l d s up a c a s e  i n the court  and joking with  by v y i n g  Maquerelle.  f u n c t i o n i n the i n t r i g u e o f the  of v o i c i n g acid-tongued  of v i c e and h y p o c r i s y  with As w e l l  A l t o f r o n t ' s disguise as "Malevole" a f f o r d s the opportunity  he  the drama-  disapproval  a s a s he d e m o n s t r a t e s how t h e y  defeat  themselves. The valence evil.  physical materials of function.  Further,  they  I n The M a l c o n t e n t , two  innocent.  c a n be u s e d  the d i f f i c u l t y  out of things  Dress,  wantonness"  Maquerelle's disguises  f o r good o r e v i l of choosing  perversion  purposes.  between t h e  m o t i v e s d e l i b e r a t e l y make conventionally  accepted  f u r n i t u r e , a n d whole s y s t e m s  become " t h e t o n g u e - t i e d creatures'  have a n ambi-  T h e y may be i n t h e m s e l v e s good o r  i s made w o r s e when e v i l  ments o f e v i l  of everyday l i f e  l a s c i v i o u s witnesses (I.vii.40-41).  instru-  as  of behaviour  of great  Mendoza's a n d  o f the p h y s i c a l world  into  their  o f j u s t i c e a n d p u r i t y a r e made by A l t o f r o n t ' s  136 disguised  activities  fulness.  The  and  to reveal  equilibrium  i n t r i g u e can s u s t a i n  their self-defeating  In which an itself  will  t h e moment someone a n n o u n c e s t h a t clothes.  "Malevole"  throughout  t h a t Mendoza i s n o t and  by a c c l a m a t i o n r a t h e r  t h a n by f o r c e  of  Malcontent  truth  and  i n The  religious hypocrisy.  truth  that  world  The  disguise  ately-assumed could  be.  The  of Malheureux  difference to c l a r i f y .  "defensed"  the  triumph  sphere.  Courtesan,  in  contrast  of sexual r e l a t i o n s  i s not  truth  s o much t h e  of the  ambivalent  i s j u s t a s much a  change o f p h y s i c a l  i s that  the facade  Malheureux, believes  much l i k e  r e g a r d s "reason" as  deliber-  appearance  i s assumed  so f a r from that  Ignis  not  con-  h i s "modest  on w h i c h he  Rochester "an  triumph  o f mere dogma.  ( I I . i . 1 1 8 ) matches the w o r l d  i t . Freevill,  years l a t e r ,  success  o f arms.  triumph  illusory  assuming a d i s g u i s e ,  continence" imposes  the  the  f a c a d e a s any  to d e c e i v e but sciously  what i s p r e s e n t e d  over  no  What i s more, t h e e m p h a s i s i s  o v e r d u p l i c i t y as  material  fragments  takeover i s effected  Dutch  i s i n the p e r s o n a l spheres  so  into  r e p r e s e n t s i n cohesive form  truth presented  this,  altered of  Altofront"s  o v e r d u p l i c i t y i n the p o l i t i c a l  The to  dissolve  t h e e m p e r o r has  (V.vi.125) a t t h e end  The  e d i f i c e of d e c e p t i o n  has done t h i s w i t h s u c h  the a c t i o n  wil-  super-  seventy-five f a t u u s i n the  1 3 7  mind"-*- a n d p r o c e e d s before to  t h e eyes  in  lust  ( I I . i . 7 0 )  to uphold.  Malheureux d i s g u i s e s she of  heat"  spots  by e x p o s i n g h i m  Malheureux  both  sees  ( I I . 1 . 7 3 )  w o r l d a n d I s l e d by b o t h  restraints"  strives  world  F r a n c e s c h i n a embodies  same u n r e s t r a i n e d " I n b o r n  "politic he  time.  a n d human d e c e p t i o n .  the n a t u r a l  that Malheureux'  do n o t f i t t h e r e a l  I t f o r the f i r s t  animal the  t o demonstrate  i n her  that  he  sees  to regret the  o f the s o c i e t y  Her a f f e c t i o n a t e  whose  behaviour  h e r mercenary and l o v e l e s s  morals  towards  nature;  i s o n l y u s i n g Malherueux as an i n s t r u m e n t f o r the murder Freevill,  the source  her f o r the i n s i p i d i t y whose m a i n raves  topic  of steady  income who  of legitimate  love.  has abandoned In a dialogue  i s l o v e a s a commodity, F r a n c e s c h i n a  t o h e r bawd:  "Mine body must  turn Turk  f o r twopence"  (II.1.40). Experience basis and as  f o r moral  just  nightingales  directs  decisions,  as i n that  the only l i f e  the area  of the r e a l  j u s t a s i t i s i n What Y o u of nature  devoid of a f f e c t a t i o n  o f A c t I I , however,  our a t t e n t i o n with  I s shown a s t h e o n l y  play, the world  of the n a t u r a l  "furnished  world  world  i s man  omnipotency"  figure  i s shown  or opinion. only  The  briefly;  t o which The Dutch  Courtesan  h i m s e l f , n a t u r a l man, n o t ( I I I . 1 . 2 3 9 ) ,  a term  Freevill  " A S a t y r a g a i n s t R e a s o n a n d M a n k i n d , " 12, T h e C o m p l e t e Poems o f J o h n W l l m o t , E a r l o f R o c h e s t e r , e d . D a v i d M. V l e t h (New H a v e n a n d L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p.95. i  Will;  138 uses  to. p r e d i c t M a l h e u r e u x *  message o f t h i s  play,  "philosophy  reality  of the s t r a i t - l a c e d  M a l h e u r e u x and  hypocritical Mulligrub. The  and  three  plays  discussed,  The D u t c h C o u r t e s a n ,  well  suited  (1599),  Melllda  e s p e c i a l l y The M a l c o n t e n t together  themes a n d  Previously,  as a p l o t device  was n o t d r a m a t u r g i c a l l y and  bring  t o one a n o t h e r .  to use d i s g u i s e  in  i n plays  connected with  f o r example,  s p i t e of the tyrant Piero,  corruption  cosmetic disguise,  the In  i s not thematically  villain  the sequel  (1600  or  revengers mination used  i t .  In Antonio  the lovers are united  this  happy c o n c l u s i o n  shown a s b e i n g  himself  gloat  the concluding  maintained  by b o t h s i d e s .  masque  Entertainment  i s plenty  (1600)  Revenge  i n which the d i s g u i s e d  oppressor  of every kind  There  allow  a s i n The M a l c o n t e n t .  over the vanquished  of a pot-pourri  being  but the court  t o A n t o n i o and M e l l l d a , A n t o n i o ' s  1601),  J a c k e Drum's  whose m a i n theme  n o r does t h e hero's d i s g u i s e  to incriminate  disguises  M a r s t o n had tended  b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e h e r o ' s shamming d e a d ,  by  descended t o  f r o m h e a v e n , a n d I t i s a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e e x p o s u r e  to deceptive the  The  a n d n a t u r e a r e a l l one"  CeoewToV"^ t h a t  "yvG&i  ( I I . 1 . 1 1 4 ) i s t h e same Juvenal  i n e v i t a b l e "overthrow."  of  i s the c u l -  deception,  of foolishness i n  but the deception  J u v e n a l a n d P e r s l u s , e d . & t r . G.G.Ramsay M a s s . : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950), X I , 27.  in i t  (Cambridge,  139 cures humours and punishes inconstancy i n a way which has only token thematic connection with the deceptions which separate and reunite the l o v e r s . I t i s i n the l a t e r plays that coherence between d i s guise and -fhjimtls  mainly found, not only i n the three plays  discussed, but a l s o i n The Fawn ( c . l 6 0 4 ) .  In i t Duke  Hercules, i n protective disguise, experiences and exposes f l a t t e r y , while the j u s t i f i a b l e deception of Dulcimel defeats the b l u s t e r i n g opposition of her wordy father to her lover. Sophonisba  (1606),  too, pursues l i s themes of love and  violence with deception and intrigue on both sides, most memorably i n the spectacular impersonation of the heroine by the enchantress Erictho, teaching the l u s t f u l Syphax •that i t i s not "within the grasp of Heaven or Hell/To inforce love"  (V.i.7-8).  3  I n the v a r i e t y of h i s handling of disguise,  Marston  exhibits a l l the f a u l t s and a l l the g l o r i e s of the t r a d i t i o n he worked i n . As mere elaboration of melodramatic  plot,  the deceptions of Jacke Drum s Entertainment i n v i t e compar1  ison with those of The Shoemakers' Holiday (1599).  Anto-  nio's Revenge attempts the same outcry against a world of dissemblance and intrigue as The Revenger's Tragedy (1606). But i n the plays of 1601  to 1605  Marston achieves  a balance between didacticism and entertainment i n which  3The Plays of John Marston. ed. H. Harvey Wood (Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1938), I I , 51.  140  some o f the d e b i l i t a t i n g o b s e s s i o n s t o which mankind i s prone, expressed f o r the most p a r t i n cosmetic are  s e t a g a i n s t a n a t u r a l world  Impossible.  I n What You W i l l ,  disguises,  i n which d e c e p t i o n i s the envy o f Lampatho i s made  t o l o o k p e t t y by the imperturbable s t o i c i s m of Quadratus; the n a t u r a l o r d e r r e p r e s e n t e d by A l t o f r o n t  i s threatened  by t h e s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d m a n i p u l a t i o n o f Mendoza and Maquerelle  i n The Malcontent;  and the dogma and f l a t t e r y o f  Malheureux and the U r b i n o c o u r t a r e the r e s p e c t i v e t a r g e t s of The Dutch Courtesan and The Fawn. A l l these v i c e s — e n v y , s e l f - i n t e r e s t , dogma, arid f l a t t e r y — m a k e t h e i r v i c t i m s u n f i t f o r the c o m p l i c a t e d w e l t e r of s m a l l and g r e a t d e c i s i o n s which make up d a i l y l i f e . and  I n a s i t u a t i o n where the problem  the c r i t e r i a f o r i t s s o l u t i o n a r e both  ever-changing,  what I s needed i s f l e x i b i l i t y and e q u i l i b r i u m r a t h e r than lde'es f i x e s .  Only a s t o i c i s m which takes i n t o account the  p a l p a b l e r e a l i t i e s o f n a t u r e and the way man can m i s i n t e r p r e t and abuse them, i s capable o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m . Quadratus and F r e e v i l l learn i t .  embody i t ;  A l t o f r o n t and H e r c u l e s  The n a t u r a l background o f a l l the p l a y s , w i t h  which the p r o t a g o n i s t s make t h e i r peace and from which the f o o l s and v i l l a i n s a r e a l i e n a t e d , of The Dutch Courtesan,  outcrops i n the n i g h t i n g a l e s  i n the " g e n i t a l . . . h e a t s " ( V . i . 5 - 6 ) ^  ^ed. M.L.Wine ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska P r e s s ,  1965).  141 apostrophised  by H e r c u l e s i n The "above him"  Fawn, i n t h e "God"  which  i n The  (V.iv.89),  the  good r u l e r keeps  and  i n the "stones £with the customary  T r e e s and b e a s t s " o f What You Marston the  theatre  and was  in transition  the M o r a l i t i e s  of  M a n n e r s , and  of  i t s drama. battle  and  their  That  and  when  between the  ' i d e a s on  wheels'  perhaps  accounts  Themes o f c o s m i c  humour.  revealing prevalence.  sees  Marston's  by  shifty  especially f a l s e h o o d , were  satire,  human  the p o i n t  p e t t i n e s s and  superlative intrigue  of view  futility  of  in spite  This viewpoint i n expressed a t i t s Vendice:  that e t e r n a l l t h r o u g h f l e s h and a l l .  (I.iii.65-66)  satiric  the n a t u r a l  f o r the g r e a t n e s s  characters with  I n comedy a n d  their  o f t h e Comedy  importance,  t r u t h and  through b e l i e v a b l e  most p e s s i m i s t i c  In  i n a n age  f a l s e h o o d were a s s e s s e d f r o m  eternity, of  this  wrote  t h e empty i n g e n u i t i e s  between s t a b l e  articulated p o e t r y and  and  double-entendre],  (V.294.24).  h i s contemporaries  of  the  Will  Malcontent  world  comedies,  5  however,  (which w i l l  l o n g a f t e r man's mopt&L visicm  eye  the  infinite  both continue to  has  C y r i l T o u r n e r , The R e v e n g e r ' s Foakes (London: Methuen, 1966).  ceased  \-Jorld  exist  t o r e g a r d them),  Tragedy,  ed.  R.A.  142  more good-humouredly overcome p e t t i s h human e f f o r t s to achieve spurious and f i n i t e power, wealth, wit, wisdom, and  beauty.  A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , M o r s e S. 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