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Residential areas and civil aviation airport location criteria. Lewis, Kingsley Raymond 1970

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RESIDENTIAL AREAS AND C I V I L AVIATION AIRPORT LOCATION CRITERIA by  KINGSLEY RAYMOND LEWIS B.A., S a i n t Mary's U n i v e r s i t y , 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS . i n the S c h o o l of "  . Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g . t o the required  standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1970  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements fo  an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree tha  permission for extensive copying of this thesis  for scholarly purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my Department or It is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  ABSTRACT  A major concern of community planning i s with the s o c i a l implications for people of the integration of the uses of space. of  One  the implications of this i s the examination of the impact of the  various uses of space on r e s i d e n t i a l communities.  In the past seventy  years, c i v i l a v i a t i o n has grown to where airports require large amounts of ive  space.  As a major f a c i l i t y ,  the a i r p o r t has a d e f i n i t e and d i s t i n c t -  impact on proximate r e s i d e n t i a l  communities.  • A i r p o r t l o c a t i o n as dictated by two basic kinds of factors, those of physical ground and airspace requirements and the r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e s i d e n t i a l areas were examined.  The solution to the second problem  i s currently to avoid these areas.  This, however, neglects the problem  of  the impact of the a i r p o r t on e x i s t i n g proximate r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  To put the problem i n perspective the basic physical and space requirements were examined. following hypothesis was  air-  To examine the second problem the  developed:-  The proximity of a c i v i l aviation a i r p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y lowers the environmental quality of a r e s i d e n t i a l area.  There are two components to the hypothesis, that of the subjective view which residents take of the a i r p o r t , and an examination of the f a c i l i t y from a r e s i d e n t i a l point of view.  The term "environmental  q u a l i t y " which i s normative was operationalized i n terms of f i v e i i  characteristics  of  Each of its  the  airport.  1)  Aircraft  2)  Air pollution  3)  Non-occupant a i r c r a f t c r a s h h a z a r d s .  4)  L o c a t i o n of airport.  5)  Ground v e h i c l e  a r e s i d e n t i a l area.  residents attitudes  Airport  to each of  socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  in  the  industry attracted  was  the of  examined to determine what  questions directed  t h i s an  attitude  to  undertaken to determine Data on  r e s i d e n t s of B e r k e v i l l e  the  survey  immediately a d j a c e n t  five characteristics. the  the  traffic.  Following  was  by  was  reasons f o r moving to and  to  the the also staying  area.  Using  the m u l t i v a r i a t e  c o n t i n g e n c y t a b u l a t i o n s program (MVTAB)  socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s each  from a i r c r a f t .  a r e s i d e n t i a l community l o c a t e d  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l  g a t h e r e d , and  Noise.  these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  impact i s on  of B e r k e v i l l e ,  the  were c o r r e l a t e d  w i t h the  attitudes  to  characteristic.  The  major c o n c l u s i o n s o f  the  1)  The  airport results  p r o x i m i t y of  the  environmental q u a l i t y function  thesis  of B e r k e v i l l e .  of a i r c r a f t n o i s e and  characteristics  are  that:in a decline  in  This i s largely  air pollution.  These  the a two  c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r an a r e a i n c o n s t a n t  transition.  iii  O c c u p a t i o n , age, and l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e were the most important and c o n s i s t e n t  indicators  f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but that cases generalized The  the  The  a r e i n many characteristics.  a s m a l l r i s k to the r e s i d e n t s ,  can be traced  to  t u r n o v e r , a s i t u a t i o n which i s  to a i r c r a f t n o i s e and a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n .  residents  traffic The  to the  to non-occupant c r a s h h a z a r d s , which  areas'high population  linked  the a t t i t u d e s  r e g a r d l e s s of socio-economic  negative attitudes  constitute  of a t t i t u d e s  perceived quite  c l e a r l y that  problem had decreased over  the ground  time.  a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a ( e x c l u d i n g ground t r a f f i c ) had l  little  n e g a t i v e impact on B e r k e v i l l e .  A t t e n u a t i o n of the a i r c r a f t n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n problems a t the source i s the o n l y long-term s o l u t i o n In  the i n t e r i m ,  to the problem.  r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and a i r p o r t s  should be  separated.  ,  A t t e n u a t i o n of these two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t the source, the maintenance of p r e s e n t a i r p o r t z o n i n g , traffic,  and c e n t r a l  sult i n compatibility  location  of a i r p o r t  s e p a r a t i o n of ground industry  would r e -  of the a i r p o r t and r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS •  - Page  ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  v i i  LIST OF TABLES  viii  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  x i i  Chapter I  THE  PROBLEM: INTRODUCTION AND  PERSPECTIVE  I  The E a r l y Stage of A i r p o r t Development Changes i n A i r T r a f f i c Volume Trends i n U r b a n i z a t i o n ;Changes i n Technology The C o s t s o f A i r p o r t C o n s t r u c t i o n The R o l e of the Department of T r a n s p o r t R e l a t i o n s h i p of the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments i n A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g T h e s i s O b j e c t i v e s , H y p o t h e s i s and O r g a n i z a t i o n II  PHYSICAL GROUNDSPACE AND  AIRSPACE REQUIREMENTS  18  Definitions The Volume o f T r a f f i c A i r c r a f t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n s Runway S u r f a c e and G r a d i e n t A i r c r a f t Loads and Weights Runway C o n f i g u r a t i o n s The T o t a l A i r p o r t C l e a r Zones Atmospheric C o n d i t i o n s A i r Traffic Control A i r c r a f t Mix Ground A c c e s s Problems III  THE AIRPORT AND  ITS RELATIONSHIP TO RESIDENTIAL AREAS  I n t r o d u t i o n and Restatement of the H y p o t h e s i s O v e r a l l Methodology A i r c r a f t Noise N o i s e : Some G e n e r a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s E f f e c t s of N o i s e A i r c r a f t N o i s e and the Community N o i s e S u p r e s s i o n a t the Source Community R e a c t i o n t o A i r c r a f t N o i s e  v  42  Chapter  Page Non-Occupant Crash Hazards Airport Generated Ground Traffic Aircraft Air Pollution Air Pollution: Some General Considerations Airports and Air Pollution Air Pollution Characteristics of Aircraft Control of Jet Aircraft Emmissions Trends Aircraft Air Pollution in the Lower Mainland Industrial Location The Airport as Attractor Residential Property Values  IV  COMMUNITY REACTION TO THE AIRPORT, A CASE STUDY: THE VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT  92  Introduction Description of the Area 1969 Air Traffic at Vancouver International Airport Survey Methodology and Limitations Results of the Survey Reactions to the Five Airport Characteristics Aircraft Noise Aircraft Air Pollution Non-Occupant Crash Hazards Location of Airport Industry Airport Ground Traffic Residents Desire to Move Differences Between Reasons for Moving and Staying Home Ownership or Occupancy Being Close to Work Friendship or Family Ties and Area Familiarity V CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LOCATION CRITERIA. Generalized Nature of the Problem Aircraft Noise Implication for Location Criteria Aircraft Air Pollution Implication for Location Criteria Non-Occupaat Crash Hazards Implication for Location Criteria Industry Attracted by the Airport Implication for Location Criteria Airport Ground Traffic Implication for Location Criteria Relative Order of the Characteristics Towards a Solution to the Problem Areas for Further Study Airports and Community Planning BIBLIOGRAPHY vi  177  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish  to e x p r e s s my  thanks  the b e n e f i t of h i s i n s i g h t  to my into  a d v i s o r , D r . Robert W.  the problems which were  d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n and w r i t i n g of t h i s which he My  spent i n d i s c u s s i o n , e d i t i n g and  thanks a r e a l s o extended  t h e s i s , and  Collier for encountered  f o r the many hours  commenting on the m a t e r i a l .  to Dr. V. S e t t y Pendakur who  a d v i s o r , and whose s u g g e s t i o n s f o r c l a r i f y i n g d a t a and  a c t e d as my  second  c o n c l u s i o n s were  helpful.  I n a d d i t i o n , a number of persons  not d i r e c t l y connected w i t h the S c h o o l  of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g were h e l p f u l These persons  i n making data  available.  i n c l u d e Mr. R o b i n H e i l i g e r , R e g i o n a l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of A i r w a y s ,  Department of T r a n s p o r t , Mr.  F. H o l l e y , C i v i l A v i a t i o n Branch,  Dpeartment  of T r a n s p o r t , Mr. W i l l i a m I n g H i s , Manager, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , M e s s r s . A. Sharpe and G. Westover, O p e r a t i o n s S e c t i o n , Vancouver  International  A i r p o r t , Mr. W i l l i a m B l a c k l o c k , R e a l E s t a t e Manager, Department of T r a n s p o r t , Mr. W i l l i a m K e r r , D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g , M u n i c i p a l i t y h i s s t a f f , and Mr.  Donald  of Richmond and members of  Dobson, Engine D e s i g n E n g i n e e r , Canadian  A i r l i n e s . T h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s are g r a t e f u l l y  vii  acknowledged.  Pacific  L I S T OF TABLES Table  page  1.1  E x p e n d i t u r e s on C a p i t a l C o n s t r u c t i o n f o r A v i a t i o n i n Canada, by Y e a r , t o March 1966  6  1.2  C o s t of A i r p o r t C o n s t r u c t i o n i n Canada  7  2.1  S t a n d a r d Atmosphere  19  2.2  Pressure A l t i t u d e  19  3.1  Recommended S a f e L e v e l o f N o i s e Exposure  50  3.2  Noise Levels i n Factory S i t u a t i o n s  51  3.3  Speech Communication C r i t e r i a  52  3.4  NNI C o n t o u r s and I n h a b i t a n t s Responses  54  3.5  Acceptable E x t e r i o r Noise Levels f o r Various A c t i v i t i e s Based on A v e r a g e N o i s e R e d u c t i o n by B u i l d i n g  57  3.6  C h a r t f o r E s t i m a t i n g Responses of R e s i d e n t i a l Communities From Composite N o i s e R a t i n g s  61  3.7  D i s t r i b u t i o n of A i r p o r t P o p u l a t i o n by Purpose  '  .  66  3.8 Average Emmission o f A i r C o n t a m i n a n t s from A i r c r a f t Operated W i t h i n Los A n g e l e s County, i n 1964, i n Tons p e r day.  73  3.9  74  Average Number of F l i g h t s per Day i n Los A n g e l e s County, by Type of Power Used, i n 1964  3.10 Average r a t e o f Emmission o f A i r C o n t a m i n a n t s from A i r c r a f t by Power P l a n t , per F l i g h t , From A i r c r a f t o p e r a t e d w i t h i n the B o u n d a r i e s of L o s A n g e l e s County, i n 1964, (pounds per f l i g h t )  75  3.IT Comparisons o f D a i l y Average Contaminant Emmissions from the Combustion o f F u e l s by Motor V e h i c l e s , Power P l a n t s and J e t A i r c r a f t i n L o s A n g e l e s County, 1964  77  3.12 Average R a t e of Contaminant Emmissions per Average a F l i g h t over L o s A n g e l e s County from V a r i o u s F o u r E n g i n e d Gas T u r b i n e E n g i n e d A i r c r a f t U s i n g V a r i o u s P r a t t and Whitney E n g i n e s , i n Pounds per F l i g h t , 1969  79  3.13 E s t i m a t e d T o t a l A i r c r a f t Movements by Type o f Power P l a n t , 1968  84  viii  Table  Page  3.14  E s t i m a t e d A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n i n a P a r t o f the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n t o n s , 1968  86  4.1  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , D a i l y D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A i r c r a f t Movements, 1969  99  4.2  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , D a i l y D i s t r i b u t i o n of A i r c r a f t Movements, Novemeber, 1969  100  4.3  Sex o f Respondent  111  4.4  F a m i l y Income of Respondent  112  4.5  Type o f Tenure o f Respondent  113  4.6  Type o f D w e l l i n g U n i t o f Respondent  114  4.7  Age o f Respondent  115  4.8  L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c e of Respondent  116  4.9  Respondents Reasons f o r Moving t o B e r k e v i l l e  117  4.10  Respondents Reasons f o r S t a y i n g i n B e r k e v i l l e  118  4.11  O c c u p a t i o n o f Respondents  119  4.12  Wage E a r n i n g O c c u p a t i o n s of Respondents  4.13  Respondents A t t i t u d e s  4.14  Attitudes  t o A i r c r a f t N o i s e by Sex  125  4.15  Attitudes  t o A i r c r a f t N o i s e by A n n u a l F a m i l y Income  126  4.16  Attitudes  t o A i r c r a f t N o i s e by Type o f Tenure  127  4.17  Attitudes  t o A i r c r a f t N o i s e by L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c e  128  4.18  Attitudes  t o A i r c r a f t N o i s e by O c c u p a t i o n  129  4.19  Attitudes  t o A i r c r a f t N o i s e by Age  130  4.20  A n n u a l F a m i l y Incomes o f A i r p o r t Workers and the B a l a n c e o f Berkeville  131  4.21  Attitudes  t o A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n by Sex  134  4.22  Attitudes  t o A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n by A n n u a l F a m i l y Income  135  4.23  Attitudes  t o A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n By Type o f Tenure  136  to A i r p o r t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  ix  .  120 124  Jage_  Table 4.24  A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n by L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c e  137  4.25  A t t i t u d e s to A . i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n by O c c u p a t i o n  138  4.26  A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n  139  4.27  A t t i t u d e s t o Non-Occupant C r a s h Hazards by Sex  142  4.28  A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant C r a s h Hazards by A n n u a l F a m i l y Income  143  4.29  A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant C r a s h Hazards by Type of Tenure  144  4.30  A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant C r a s h Hazards by L e n g t h of Residence  145  4.31  A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant C r a s h Hazards By O c c u p a t i o n  146  4.32  A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant C r a s h Hazards by Age  147  4.33  A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t I n d u s t r y by Sex  4.34  A t t i t u d e s t o A i r p o r t I n d u s t r y by A n n u a l F a m i l y Income  151  4.35  A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t I n d u s t r y by Type of Tenure  152  4.36  A t t i t u d e s t o A i r p o r t I n d u s t r y by L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c e  153  4.37  A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t I n d u s t r y by O c c u p a t i o n  154  4.38  A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t I n d u s t r y y by Age  155  4.39  A t t i t u d e s t o A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by Sex  158  4.40  A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by A n n u a l F a m i l y Income  159  4.41  A t t i t u d e s t o A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by Type of Tenure  160  4.42  A t t i t u d e s t o A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c e  161  4.43  A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by O c c u p a t i o n  162  4.44  A t t i t u d e s t o A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by Age  163  by Age  '  150  4.45 A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Sex  167  4.46 A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by A n n u a l F a m i l y Income  168  4.47  A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Type o f Tenure  169  4.48  A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c e  170  4.49  A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by O c c u p a t i o n  171  4.50  A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Age  172  x  Table  Page  4.51  Attitudes  towards Moving by Reasons f o r Moving t o the A r e a  4.52  D i f f e r e n t i a l Reasons f o r Moving t o the A r e a and S t a y i n g i n the Area  4.53  Summary o f V a r i a t i o n s From Average R e a c t i o n t o A i r p o r t C h a r a c t e r - 1 7 6 i s t i c s by S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  5.1'  A i r c r a f t Movements a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t ( P e r c e n t a g e ) , 1964-69  xi  173 175  181  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure  Page  2.1  S i n g l e Runway L a y o u t  29  2.2  Hub and D i v e r g e n t Runway L a y o u t s  29  2.3  P a r a l l e l Runway L a y o u t s  29  2.4  C i r c u l a r Runway L a y o u t s  2.5  A i r p o r t Z o n i n g Arrangement  34  3.1  R e l a t i v e O v e r a l l Sound P r e s s u r e L e v e l Zones f o r a T y p i c a l J e t E n g i n e a t 100% Power  58  3.2  R e l a t i o n Between Community Responses and Composite N o i s e Rating  63  4.1  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  104  4.2  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C o d i n g Guide  105  «  29  Map 3.1  L o s A n g e l e s County Superimposed B r i t i s h Columbia  on the Lower M a i n l a n d of  6.1  Richmond M u n i c i p a l i t y and Sea I s l a n d  95  4.2  B e r k e v i l l e Community  97  xii  83  CHAPTER  I  THE PROBLEM: INTRODUCTION AND PERSPECTIVE  The E a r l y Stage o f A i r p o r t  Development  A v i a t i o n and a i r p o r t development, i n the e a r l y decades of the 20th c e n t u r y , were n o t t a k e n s e r i o u s l y by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , b e i n g r e g a r d e d l a r g e l y as an a d v e n t u r e o r f e a t u r e , much l i k e the s i d e show a t a l o c a l celebration.  Beyond t h i s , i t was n o t r e g a r d e d as a p r a c t i c a l way f o r  s e n s i b l e p e o p l e t o t r a v e l or even t o send goods.  F o r example, J . R. M a i n  r e p o r t s t h a t i n 1920 " t h i r t y f i r m s were engaged i n o p e r a t i n g a i r c r a f t and these had f l o w n over 5200 h o u r s  F i f t e e n thousand, t h r e e hundred  p a s s e n g e r s and 6700 pounds o f f r e i g h t were c a r r i e d .  Organized a i r -  p o r t s o f t h a t e r a were r e l a t i v e l y few and t h e i r l o c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s were s i m p l e and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . days behemoths,  The p l a n e s were, i n c o m p a r i s o n t o some o f t o -  s c a r c e l y h e a v i e r than a i r w i t h g r e a t g l i d i n g a b i l i t y , and  they had a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y f o r p a s s e n g e r s and f r e i g h t .  Because t h e r e were  fewer t r a f f i c problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v i a t i o n , b o t h on the ground and i n the a i r , the o n l y b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t was an open s t r e t c h o f r e a s o n a b l y s o l i d ground, o r an u n o b s t r u c t e d s t r e t c h of open w a t e r .  Hence, w h i l e i n  2  1920 t h e r e were o n l y f i f t y - f o u r o r g a n i z e d "aerodromes", i n a n o t h e r sense i t m i g h t be s a i d t h a t t h e r e were l i t e r a l l y p o r t s w h i c h c o u l d be u t i l i z e d  thousands o f "emergency"  air-  i f and when c i r c u m s t a n c e s demanded i t .  (1)  M a i n , J.R.K., Voyageurs o f the A i r , (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1967)  (2)  i b i d , Pg. 27  Pg. 27 I  2  Changes i n A i r T r a f f i c Volume A l l a s p e c t s of a v i a t i o n have changed e a r l y days.  I t has become a f u l l  modal t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  tremendously s i n c e those  f l e d g e d member of the modern m u l t i -  T r a f f i c has i n c r e a s e d , f o r example,  t o the  p o i n t where c o n g e s t i o n , b o t h on the ground and i n the a i r have become major p r o b l e m s . the  The  l o c a t i o n of the a i r p o r t i s of importance because  of  i n e x o r a b l y i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of the v a r i o u s l i n k s i n the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. t h e , a i r p o r t t o those who  B u t even more i m p o r t a n t i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of are i n contact with i t .  T h i s involvement i n -  c r e a s e s as does the volume, b o t h f o r u s e r s and nearby r e s i d e n t s , and  the  volume i s growing a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e , b o t h i n terms of p a s s e n g e r s and air  freight.  As the Department of T r a n s p o r t has put i t , " i t has been  e s t i m a t e d t h a t w i t h i n the n e x t decade, every major c i t y i n the w o r l d w i l l (3)  r e q u i r e a new  a i r p o r t or e q u i v a l e n t e x p a n s i o n .  "  Trends i n U r b a n i z a t i o n A f u r t h e r p r o b l e m i s the t r e n d t o u r b a n i z a t i o n i n Canada. Economic C o u n c i l of Canada has p r e d i c t e d t h a t by 1980  The  the t o t a l urban popu-  l a t i o n w i l l r i s e by a l m o s t 5.8 m i l l i o n p e r s o n s t o r e a c h over 20 m i l l i o n , a r i s e of a l m o s t 40 per c e n t over 1966. to  The  i n c r e a s e by somewhat l e s s a t 26 per c e n t . ^ ' '  and Vancouver  i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t "by 1980  t h i r d of the e n t i r e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n w i l l complexes. (3) (4)  (5)  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s expected For Toronto, Montreal,  i t i s probable that almost  one  l i v e i n one of these g i a n t  F u r t h e r , t h e r e w i l l be a second o r d e r of s i x l a r g e  cities  Department of T r a n s p o r t , A i r T r a n s p o r t F a c i l i t i e s P l a n n i n g i n Canada, (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1969) Page 4. Economic C o u n c i l of Canada, F o u r t h Annual Review, the Canadian Economy From the 1960's to the 1970's. (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 7 ) Page 187-88. i b i d , Page 190  '3  w i t h i n the 500,000 t o 1,000,000 p o p u l a t i o n 3.6  m i l l i o n p e o p l e , and  and  500,000 p o p u l a t i o n  range c o m p r i s i n g a t o t a l  a t h i r d o r d e r of about 20 c i t i e s between 100,000 c o m p r i s i n g about 3.5  m i l l i o n population  Canada, c l e a r l y , w i l l be h i g h l y u r b a n i z e d by 1980 accurate.  As ing  t h i s occurs,  importance.  growth.The that, while  1980.  i f these p r e d i c t i o n s  the p r o b l e m of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l be of  are  increas-  Because of the i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of a i r t r a v e l , the problem increase at a greater  r a t e than the r a t e of urban  dilemma i s t h a t the i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n r a t e means  the l o c a t i o n of the f a c i l i t i e s  those who  a t e them.  by  •  of a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n w i l l  all  of  w i l l be a f f e c t e d by  Competition for choice  i t , there  i s i n c r e a s i n g l y important for i s l e s s room i n w h i c h t o l o c -  s i t e s i s i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e the  physical  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a i r p o r t s are somewhat the same as f o r i n d u s t r i a l  and  residential location.  A f u r t h e r p r o b l e m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u r b a n i z a t i o n and i s that while ing  airport location  t h e r e w i l l be an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r f a c i l i t i e s , many e x i s t -  facilities  are b e i n g e i t h e r r e n d e r e d l e s s e f f e c t i v e by community  p r e s s u r e s o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , the communities are e x p e r i e n c i n g dysfunctions  as a r e s u l t of the i n c r e a s i n g impact of the f a c i l i t y .  t r e n d , more pronounced i n the U n i t e d the U.S.  (6) (7)  (8)  increased  F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Agency.  S t a t e s has  been w e l l documented  I f the p o p u l a t i o n  predictions  This by of  ibid For examples of t r a f f i c f o r e c a s t s i n Canada see: Department of T r a n s p o r t , Canadian G e n e r a l A v i a t i o n 1967-1980, (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1969) and Department of T r a n s p o r t , M o n t r e a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1968). See U.S. F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Agency, G e n e r a l A v i a t i o n and i t s R e l a t i o n t o I n d u s t r y and the Community, (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , A p r i l 1964) Page 19.  4  the Economic C o u n c i l a r e a c c e p t e d ,  then the A m e r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e may be  t r e a t e d as a h a r b i n g e r .  The  f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d h e r e , c o u p l e d w i t h the knowledge t h a t  are d e f i n i t e r e s i d e n t i a l disadvantages  there  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a i r p o r t s con-  f r o n t s us w i t h a need t o p l a n the l o c a t i o n o f these f a c i l i t i e s  so t h a t  the community w i l l r e a p the maximum b e n e f i t s w i t h the l e a s t c o s t b o t h i n economic and s o c i a l  terms.  Changes i n Technology I t i s n o t proposed h e r e t o examine the t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes w h i c h have a f f e c t e d a i r t r a v e l .  I t does however, compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h  other  modes i n passenger c o m f o r t and e n j o y s a tremendous advantage i n the timedistance r a t i o .  Three major problems t h a t e x i s t and w h i c h a r e u n l i k e l y  to be overcome i n the near f u t u r e a r e ; the problem o f a i r c r a f t n o i s e , w h i c h , o f a l l the problems o f r e s i d e n t i a l community d y s f u n c t i o n s remains the most s e r i o u s , the p r o b l e m o f a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n , and c o n g e s t i o n i n the a i r l a n e s w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m the r e q u i r e m e n t o f s e p a r a t i o n o f the aircraft.  The C o s t s o f A i r p o r t C o n s t r u c t i o n I n a d d i t i o n t o the problems a l r e a d y c i t e d t h e r e a r e o t h e r s w h i c h may be o u t l i n e d i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the r a t i o n a l e f o r p l a n n i n g o f a i r port l o c a t i o n s .  The f i r s t o f these i s t h a t the c o s t o f b o t h b u i l d i n g and  m a i n t a i n i n g these f a c i l i t i e s  i s very high.  1 9 5 0 ' s , the F e d e r a l Department o f T r a n s p o r t  F o r example, i n the e a r l y embarked on a $ 1 0 0 m i l l i o n  program o f a i r p o r t and a i r t e r m i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n .  T h a t program was com-  p l e t e d i n 1 9 6 8 w i t h the opening o f the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t t e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g a t a c o s t of $ 3 2 m i l l i o n .  T a b l e 1 . 1 shows the expend-  5  i t u r e s on c a p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n by year the C a n a d i a n government spent $100 amount, $44.6 m i l l i o n was  T a b l e 1.2  In  m i l l i o n on a i r s e r v i c e s .  1967, Of  this  spent on o p e r a t i o n and maintenance and  m i l l i o n on the a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d and ies.  to March 31, 1966.  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new  $33.1  facilit-  shows the magnitude of the c o s t s of b u i l d i n g new  facil-  ities .  I n a d d i t i o n to the c o s t s of the f a c i l i t i e s  i t s h o u l d be borne  i n mind t h a t they must, of n e c e s s i t y , be i n o p e r a t i o n f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h of t i m e .  I t i s estimated,  f o r example, t h a t the new  Montreal a i r (Q\  p o r t a t S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e w i l l n o t be f u l l y Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t was of T r a n s p o r t ' s 1985.  c o n s t r u c t e d u n t i l 1985.  opened i n 1931  l o n g range p l a n s f o r t h i s f a c i l i t y  and  '  the Department  p r e s e n t l y extend to  Hence, i f the l o c a t i o n i s wrong, the r e s u l t i s a tremendous  waste of p u b l i c money and  s e r i o u s s o c i a l consequences w h i c h a r e of l o n g  term s i g n i f i c a n c e . The R o l e of the Department of  Transport  C i v i l a v i a t i o n i n c l u d e s a l l movements and o p e r a t i o n s of a i r c r a f t , b o t h scheduled nature.  and u n s c h e d u l e d e x c l u d i n g those  I n Canada, the Department of T r a n s p o r t  the l o c a t i o n and  t h a t a r e of a m i l i t a r y p l a y s the major r o l e i n  o p e r a t i o n of c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s .  The  a u t h o r i t y of  the F e d e r a l Government comes i n t u r n from the " r e s i d u a l powers" c l a u s e  (9)  I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t Committee f o r the M o n t r e a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , Economic Impact of A l t e r n a t i v e S i t e s f o r the Proposed New M o n t r e a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , (Ottawa: Mimeo, January 1969) Pg. 3 (10) I n t e r v i e w w i t h Wm. I n g l i s , A i r p o r t Manager, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , January 23, 1970.  6  TABLE  1.1  EXPENDITURES ON CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FOR AVIATION IN CANADA BY YEAR TO MARCH 31, 1966 (THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS)  Airport Construction  Period Prior 1952 1959 1960 1961 1962 1964 1965 -  Radio Aids Construction  Meterological Construction  to 60 61 62 63 65 66  Total  SOURCE:  252,477 171,776 52,443 52,907 57,612 48,748 27,709  17,901 44,584 10,863 9,335 14,712 8,937 9,277  711,339  146,277  1,340 5,156 1,249 1,178 1,209 1,835 2,140 . 18,294  Lane, D. A., A i r p o r t s i n Canada, Paper p r e s e n t e d t o the U.P.A.D.I. I X Congress i n M e x i c o C i t y , M e x i c o , October 23 - 29, 1966, (Mimeograph, 1966) Page 18  7  TABLE 1.2 COST OF AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION IN CANADA (1967 DOLLARS)  LOCATION  COST (MILLIONS)  Calgary Halifax Vancouver Winnipeg Edmonton Toronto (Maiton) Montreal (Dorval) Montreal (St. S c h o l a s t i q u e ) *  9 15 59 30 35 70 82 291  T h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s o n l y the o u t l a y f o r the i n i t i a l s t a g e . By 1984 i t i s e s t i m a t e d t o c o s t a p p r o x i m a t e l y $644 m i l l i o n .  SOURCE:  P r e p a r e d from f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d i n S m i t h , M a r g a r e t A i l e e n , The E v a l u a t i o n o f A l t e r n a t i v e A i r p o r t P l a n s , (Vancouver, B. C : Unpublished Master of Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n T h e s i s , , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968), and Department of T r a n s p o r t , P r e s s R e l e a s e , March 27, 1969.  8  ( S e c t i o n 132) l y and  of the B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t of 1867  s p e c i f i c a l l y from the 1927  T h i s A c t was  Aeronautics  c h a l l e n g e d i n 1948  and more r e c e n t -  Act.  by the M u n i c i p a l i t y of West S t .  P a u l , M a n i t o b a , w i t h the p a s s i n g of a bylaw r e g u l a t i n g the of a i r p o r t s w i t h the purpose of c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r l o c a t i o n . C o u r t of A p p e a l s u p h e l d  establishment The  Manitoba  the v a l i d i t y of the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s bylaw.  d e c i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t was  appealed  The  and g r a n t e d by the Supreme  C o u r t of Canada w h i c h r u l e d t h a t : -  " . . . t h e s u b j e c t of a e r i a l n a v i g a t i o n and f u l f i l l ment of C a n a d i a n o b l i g a t i o n s under S e c t i o n 132 o f the B.N.A. A c t a r e m a t t e r s of n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and i m p o r t a n c e and t h a t a e r i a l n a v i g a t i o n i s a c l a s s of s u b j e c t w h i c h has a t t a i n e d such d i m e n s i o n s as t o a f f e c t the body p i i t i c of the Dominion. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s " s o l e and e x c l u s i v e " j u r i s d i c t i o n must l o g i c a l l y i n c l u d e the l o c a t i o n and c o n t i n u a n c e of a i r p o r t s s i n c e t h i s p l a y s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t i n any scheme of a e r o n a u t i c s . ( 1 1 ) "  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s r u l i n g and a l s o because a i r p o r t  operations  have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been u n p r o f i t a b l e , the p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of a i r p o r t s has been l a r g e l y l e f t Department of T r a n s p o r t .  The  t o t a l v a l u e of the i n v e s t m e n t  F e d e r a l Government i n a v i a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s $750 m i l l i o n .  This excludes  i n 1964  was  the  approximately  of b e t t e r than $600 m i l l i o n .  There  n i n e i n t e r n a t i o n a l , 15 t r u n k and 81 f e e d e r a i r p o r t s i n the main-  l i n e system of Canada, of w h i c h the Department of T r a n s p o r t  (11)  by  the  the M o n t r e a l S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e a i r p o r t w h i c h ,  by i t s e l f , r e p r e s e n t s an i n v e s t m e n t a r e now  t o , and assumed by,  operates  60.  As quoted i n P e l l e t i e r , G.A., C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a Proposed P o l i c y Framework t o P r o t e c t and Enhance A i r p o r t Development,(Ottawa: Mimeograph, October 1967) Page 8.  I n Canada, c i v i l a i r p o r t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t c l a s s e s as follows: 1)  Mainline  " a r e those which a r e served by a r e g u l a r  c o m m e r c i a l a i r l i n e s e r v i c e c a r r y i n g p a s s e n g e r s and goods on a f r e q u e n c y o f a t l e a s t 50 a r r i v a l s per annum i n a r e a s w i t h o u t r e l i a b l e s u r f a c e and  transportation  a t l e a s t 150 a r r i v a l s p e r annum e l s e w h e r e and  where such s e r v i c e has been i n c o n t i n u o u s  operation  (12) f o r a t l e a s t two y e a r s . 2)  "  A u x i l i a r y a r e those " r e q u i r e d  t o augment the n a t i o n a l  a i r p o r t system, i n s u p p o r t o f commercial a i r s e r v i c e s i n Canada. ( 3)  1 3  )"  .  • .  S a t e l l i t e " a r e those r e q u i r e d  i n the i n t e r e s t o f s a f e t y  to r e l i e v e c o n g e s t i o n a t m a i n l i n e  airports resulting  from the i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f a i r c r a f t h a v i n g w i d e l y  diver-  gent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( ^ ) " 4)  L o c a l " a r e those w h i c h p r i m a r i l y s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s of an a r e a o r o f a s i n g l e community, n o t o t h e r w i s e s e r v e d by a r e g u l a r commercial a i r s e r v i c e w i t h the frequency p r e s c r i b e d airport. (  (12)  (13) (14) (15)  1 5  f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a m a i n l i n e  )"  Department o f T r a n s p o r t , A i r S e r v i c e s , P o l i c y G o v e r n i n g Development, O p e r a t i o n and M a i n t e n a n c e o f P u b l i c A i r p o r t s i n Canada, (Ottawa: D.O.T. March 1969) Page 3. i b i d Page 4 i b i d Page 5 i b i d Page 6  10  5)  Development " a r e those f o r w h i c h s c h e d u l e d s e r v i c e s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o r s e e n , b u t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of w h i c h would c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y or be  essential  t o the e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . ( ^ ) " i  6)  Remote " a r e those r e q u i r e d t o r e l i e v e  isolation  i n communities or s e t t l e m e n t s n o t s e r v e d by r e l i a b l e methods of s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on a y e a r round basis. 7)  ( 1 7  ^"  S e a p l a n e s a r e those t h a t " r e f e r t o d o c k s , f l o a t s  '  or buoys p r o v i d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e the s a f e mooring or d o c k i n g of f l o a t - e q u i p p e d a i r c r a f t and  includes  where n e c e s s a r y b r e a k w a t e r s and d r e d g i n g of s h e l t e r ed a r e a s t o p r o v i d e an adequate b a s i s on w h i c h t o manoeuvre and moor a i r c r a f t .  (18)ti  8) H e l i p o r t r e f e r s t o "an a r e a of l a n d or water  licensed  as an a i r p o r t i n t e n d e d s o l e l y f o r the use of h e l i c o p t e r s . (19),,  ; -  '  •;  I n g e n e r a l , a s i n g l e a i r p o r t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o take c a r e of the need of most c o m m u n i t i e s .  However, i n major c e n t r e s such as  Vancouver,  t h e r e a r e a number of c l a s s e s of a i r p o r t s i n the a r e a .  (16) (17) (18) (19)  M a i n , Voyageurs of the A i r , op c i t , Page 350 Department of T r a n s p o r t , P o l i c y G o v e r n i n g Development O p e r a t i o n and Maintenance of P u b l i c A i r p o r t s i n Canada, op c i t , Page 8 i b i d Page 10 i b i d Page 11  11  The Department o f T r a n s p o r t operations  p u b l i s h e s s t a t i s t i c s on a i r c r a f t  through i t s A v i a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s C e n t r e , most of w h i c h a r e  p u b l i s h e d or a r e a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t from the Department. emphasis i n the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n f i e l d cause .of t h i s , the scheduled  i s on the l a r g e r a i r p o r t s .  a i r c r a f t operations  l i n e s ) are e a s i e s t to f o r e c a s t .  The major Be-  ( i . e . l a r g e l y the a i r -  D a t a on the o p e r a t i o n s o f the s m a l l e r  g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n f i e l d , because much o f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n i s from s m a l l e r f i e l d s , a r e much s k e t c h i e r and as a r e s u l t t r e n d s and f o r e c a s t a r e much more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e a c c u r a t e l y .  With regard  t o a i r p o r t p l a n n i n g , the Department o f T r a n s p o r t  main-  t a i n s a rough " f i v e y e a r p l a n " w h i c h i s adhered t o u n l e s s new f a c i l i t i e s or improvements a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u e s t e d  by the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s  through m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o r by the a i r l i n e s as they expand s e r v i c e s or i n t r o d u c e new a i r c r a f t .  The Department o f T r a n s p o r t  d i v i d e s - t h e country  into s i x regions  ( M a r i t i m e , Quebec, O n t a r i o , C e n t r a l , M o u n t a i n , and P a c i f i c ) and p r e l i m i n ary f e a s i b i l i t y  s t u d i e s a r e made by the a p p r o p r i a t e R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f  A i r S e r v i c e s and h i s s t a f f .  H i s department does t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s i t e  s e l e c t i o n and economic f e a s i b i l i t y a n a l y s i s o f a g i v e n The  p l a n n i n g o f the f a c i l i t y  and F i e l d O p e r a t i o n s p o i n t on.  proposal.  i s then turned over t o t h e A i r c r a f t  B r a n c h i n Ottawa w h i c h o v e r s e e s the p r o j e c t from t h i s  S p e c i f i c major p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s a r e then u n d e r t a k e n by:1)  The C i v i l A e r o n a u t i c s B r a n c h w h i c h technical information.  provides  12 2)  The E n g i n e e r i n g B r a n c h w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e s the c o s t of the f a c i l i t y .  3)  •>  The A i r Economics B r a n c h w h i c h does the f i n a l economic assessment and recommends a c c e p t a n c e  or r e j e c t i o n of  the p r o p o s a l based on the economic growth p o s s i b i l i t i e s , economic s t r u c t u r e of the a r e a , a b e n e f i t - c o s t study of the f a c i l i t y The  and  f o r e c a s t s f o r the proposed  facility.  f i n a l s t e p s i n the a n a l y s i s a r e to q u e s t i o n the a i r l i n e s  about t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s traffic  traffic  f o r the proposed f a c i l i t y  and  the  expected  as they e s t i m a t e i t .  From these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s the A i r p o r t s and F i e l d B r a n c h s e t s out space r e q u i r e m e n t s  Operations  f o r the proposed f a c i l i t y based on  the recommendations of the C i v i l A e r o n a u t i c s B r a n c h .  These  requirements  are then t u r n e d over t o the A r c h i t e c t u r e and E n g i n e e r i n g Departments, and,  i f the f a c i l i t y  i s s m a l l , these Departments draw up the p l a n s .  For  l a r g e a i r p o r t s , c o n s u l t a n t s , u s u a l l y l o c a l , a r e engaged t o do the work and the r o l e o f the A r c h i t e c t u r e and E n g i n e e r i n g Departments becomes t h a t of overseer.  In  the case o f the S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e a i r p o r t n o r t h of M o n t r e a l , a  s p e c i a l team was facility  formed f o r the p l a n n i n g of the f a c i l i t y .  Since  i s Canada's l a r g e s t and most r e c e n t l a r g e a i r p o r t , i t may  this be  assumed t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s the most advanced t h i n k i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o location c r i t e r i a for c i v i l aviation airports. p o r t r e p o r t e d e i g h t major c r i t e r i a  t o be met  The Department of T r a n s -  i n the s e l e c t i o n of the  site  13 f o r the new  facility.  . The  (20)  c r i t e r i a were as 1)  Air traffic  follows:-  s e c u r i t y w i t h regard  to:-  a)  I n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the a c t i v i t y of a n o t h e r major a i r p o r t .  b)  O b s t a c l e s , b o t h n a t u r a l and man  c)  made.  Meterology.  2)  No encroachment on urban zones.  3)  A c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r the m a j o r i t y of the  4)  Good a c c e s s  5)  Good a c c e s s i b i l i t y  6)  Convenience w i t h r e s p e c t to f u t u r e h o u s i n g i n d u s t r i a l areas.  7)  Economic p r o m o t i o n o f the r e g i o n of  8)  Cost-benefit  users.  roads.  . . to Dorval  Airport. and  Montreal.  ratio.  These c r i t e r i a r e p r e s e n t  the w i d e s t and most i n c l u s i v e  efforts  to date on the l o c a t i o n o f c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s i n Canada.  The  major p r o b l e m remains what the e f f e c t s of such a f a c i l i t y a r e on ential  areas.  The  c h o i c e of the S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e  i o n t h a t the f a c i l i t y  s i t e operates  on the assumpt-  s h o u l d be l o c a t e d away from u r b a n a r e a s so t h a t  t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of e n c o u n t e r i n g a c o n f l i c t between the a i r p o r t and  (20)  resid-  the problems t h a t may  the urban r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a .  a r i s e from It is  Department of T r a n s p o r t , P r e s s R e l e a s e , The F e d e r a l Government S e t s F o r t h E i g h t C r i t e r i a f o r the L o c a t i o n , (Ottawa: D.o.T. March 27, 1969) Pages 1-3.  14  still are  l e g i t i m a t e t o e n q u i r e , hoxv-ever, about the e f f e c t on those  p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d near a i r p o r t s ,  s i n c e the whole q u e s t i o n of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a i r p o r t and i t s n e i g h b o r s i s s t i l l by the approach w h i c h was m a t t e r of c o n v e n i e n c e justified.  who  unanswered  t a k e n a t S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e . I f i t was more a  than o f n e c e s s i t y , then perhaps  the c r i t e r i o n  B u t i f the r e a s o n s a l t e r n a t i v e l y d e a l w i t h s e r i o u s  on p e o p l e then the f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e s t i l l  was  effects  a g r e a t many p e o p l e l i v i n g  near a i r p o r t s becomes more i m p o r t a n t .  R e l a t i o n s h i p of the F e d e r a l and M u n i c i p a l Governments i n A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g . One  of the major problems w i t h i n Canada over the p a s t c e n t u r y has  been r e l a t i o n s between the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments.  I n the  case of a i r p o r t p l a n n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Department of T r a n s p o r t as the agent of the F e d e r a l Government, and M u n i c i p a l Governments as a g e n t s , b o t h f o r the P r o v i n c e s and f o r t h e m s e l v e s , has been l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the p l a n n i n g of a i r p o r t e n v i r o n s . Department of T r a n s p o r t has s t a t e d  G. A. P e l l e t i e r , of the  that:-  " . . . i n n e i t h e r the U.S. n o r Canada has a • s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p been a c h i e v e d between a i r p o r t p l a n n e r s and community p l a n n e r s c a p a b l e o f assuming the n e c e s s a r y l e v e l o f p r o t e c t i v e c o m p a t i b l e l a n d use p l a n n i n g i n the v i c i n i t y of an a i r p o r t . ( 2 1 ) »  Pelletier he  o u t l i n e s t h r e e p o s s i b l e approaches  t o the problem  which  terms:1)  A Department of T r a n s p o r t "go i t a l o n e " approach w h i c h i s r e j e c t e d " e x c e p t as a l a s t r e s o r t when  (21)  P e l l e t i e r , C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a Proposed P o l i c y Framework t o P r o t e c t and Enhance A i r p o r t Development, op c i t , Page 7.  15  new  a i r p o r t construction can no longer  be  delayed and e f f e c t i v e l o c a l authority co-operation  i s not forthcoming to ensure  compatible land development around the airport. 2)  (  2 2  )"  An " a i r p o r t as community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " approach which would consist " i n the Department of Transport,  while continuing  to license a i r -  ports, abandoning to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s the resp o n s i b i l i t y for planning, building and  operati  ing a l l metropolitan  and urban area a i r p o r t s . ( 3 ) n 2  This approach i s also rejected on the basis of the American experience that the " l o c a l community by i t s e l f i s generally unable to respond s a t i s factorily •3)  .... ( 4 ) " for f i n a n c i a l reasons. 2  A "Department of Transport  and l o c a l authority  planning and programming approach" which i s "based on the continuation of the Department i n planning, building and operating a i r p o r t s , but unlike a l t e r native No.  1 i t i s based on the premise that the  basic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for ensuring compatible land use around a i r p o r t s w i l l be assumed by the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . . . . ( -^ 2  (22) (23) (24) (25)  ibid ibid ibid ibid  Page Page Page Page  15 15 18 18  u  This i s the approach that i s  16  recommended i n the report for adoption as policy by the Department of Transport. Thesis Objectives, Hypothesis and Organization The objective of the thesis i s to determine and/or develop l o c a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a f o r c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s from the point of view of i t s e f f e c t s on urban r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  Thus, except i n a broad sense,  the economic aspects of the location are not considered. f a c i l i t y i s being considered  But because the  from i t s physical point of view, that i s ,  the impact which i s the r e s u l t of i t s physical location i n a given  area,  and because the objective i s to determine location c r i t e r i a i n physical terms, the physical requirements are necessarily The working hypothesis,  considered.  based on Vancouver International A i r p o r t  as a case study i s stated as follows:The proximity of a c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y lowers the environmental quality of a r e s i d e n t i a l area. There are two components to this problem, that of the subjective view which people take to the a i r p o r t , and that of a more objective examination of the dysfunctional aspects of an a i r p o r t from a r e s i d e n t i a l point of view.  Each i s examined here.  The term "environmental q u a l i t y "  which i s a normative concept, i s operationalized by defining i t i n terms of f i v e c r i t e r i a . 1)  A i r c r a f t noise.  2)  A i r p o l l u t i o n from a i r c r a f t .  3)  Non-occupant a i r c r a f t crash hazards.  4)  Location of industry attracted by the a i r p o r t .  5)  Ground v e h i c l e t r a f f i c .  17  By  " p r o x i m i t y " i s meant the a r e a t h a t i s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d  a t l e a s t one  The physical area. are  of  the  five c r i t e r i a  listed  major assumption i n v o l v e d  i n the h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t any  given  that  the  major  surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l s o c i a l environment  o t h e r , and  t h a t both  variables  examined.  With r e s p e c t  to the  organization  Chapter I I I d e a l s w i t h the r e l e v a n t point  the  p h y s i c a l and  complementary, t h a t each a f f e c t s the  must be  above.  f a c i l i t y can have a s o c i a l impact on  I t i s taken as  by  of  physical  the b a l a n c e of  introduces  a case study. criteria  land use  ground and  implications.  the problems of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w i t h r e s p e c t  l o c a t i o n , and  I n Chapter V c o n c l u s i o n s of  and•implications  the p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and  areas for further  study are  outlined.  the  airspace Chapter  11  to a i r p o r t  Chapter IV examines the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t  in light  a r e made and  thesis,  l o c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s from  of view of ground c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p h y s i c a l  r e q u i r e m e n t s , a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l , and  the  for  location  s o c i a l consequences  as  CHAPTER I I PHYSICAL GROUNDSPACE AND AIRSPACE REQUIREMENTS  R e g a r d l e s s o f any o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a i r p o r t s have two o v e r r i d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , one f o r l a n d a r e a and one f o r a i r s p a c e . Each o f these i s d e t e r m i n e d by a v a r i e t y o f i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s . purpose  o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o r e v i e w these w i t h o u t e x a m i n i n g ,  t a n g e n t i a l l y , the impact o f t h e f a c i l i t y  except  on the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a w h i c h  i s the s u b j e c t o f the r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s . l i k e the f i r s t  I t i s the  This chapter,  i s d e s i g n e d t o p l a c e t h e problem o f community impact o f  the a i r p o r t i n p e r s p e c t i v e . An a p p r e c i a t i o n o f problems c r e a t e d f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l community cannot be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h o u t f i r s t s e e i n g what, i n a sense, i s t h e a i r p o r t s i d e of the s t o r y , t h a t i s , t h e i r  require-  ments .  Definitions B e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g on t o examine these r e q u i r e m e n t s , a number o f b a s i c , b u t somewhat uncommon terms muct be d e f i n e d . 1)  The s t a n d a r d atmosphere r e p r e s e n t s t h e average  atmos-  pheric c o n d i t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r geographical r e g i o n . S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f s t a n d a r d atmosphere a r e i n use, t h e most common o f which i s t h a t proposed by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l A v i a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n (ICAO) w h i c h i s as f o l l o w s  (1)  H o r o n j e f f , R o b e r t , The P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n o f A i r p o r t s , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1962) Page 102 18  (Toronto:  19  a)  A sea l e v e l p r e s s u r e o f 760 MM (29.92 i n c h e s ) o f mercury.  b)  The a i r i s a p e r f e c t l y d r y g a s .  c)  The temperature  d)  The temperature g r a d i e n t from sea l e v e l t o the a l t i t u d e a t w h i c h the temperature becomes -69. 7°F i s -3.5 x lO'^op per f o o t and z e r o above.  a t sea l e v e l i s 59°F (15°C).  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s , s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s o r a s t a n d a r d day v a r y according to  the e l e v a t i o n a t w h i c h  the a i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d as shown  f o r example i n T a b l e 2.1. /  TABLE 2.1 Condition A B 2)  Elevation 0 ft. 5000 f t .  Pressure A l t i t u d e . corresponds  Std. Press. 29.92 i n . 24.91 i n .  Std.  Temp.  Hg Hg  59°F (15°C) 41.2°F (5.1°C)  T h i s i s d e f i n e d as t h a t a l t i t u d e  which  t o the p r e s s u r e o f the s t a n d a r d atmosphere.  T h i s i s o f p a r t i c u l a r importance  i n determining the takeoff  d i s t a n c e o f a i r c r a f t s i n c e the l i f t o f an a i r f o i l  i s depend-  e n t on the d e n s i t y o f t h e a i r o f w h i c h p r e s s u r e a l t i t u d e i s a measure.  T h i s term i s n o t t o be confused w i t h g e o g r a p h i c a l  a l t i t u d e as i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g T a b l e 2.2.  TABLE 2.2 PRESSURE ALTITUDE  Condition  Pressure Altitude  Geographical Altitude  Atmospheric Pressure  A B  0 ft. 1800 f t .  0ft. 0ft.  29.92 i n . Hg 28.00 i n . Hg  20  3)  Speed. to  Groundspeed i s the speed of the a i r c r a f t  the ground.  A i r s p e e d i s the speed o f the  r e l a t i v e to the a i r . True a i r s p e e d (TAS)  relative  aircraft  i s the a i r s p e e d  of the a i r c r a f t c o n s i d e r i n g the e f f e c t o f a l t i t u d e on a i r d e n s i t y , w h i l e i n d i c a t e d a i r s p e e d (IAS) does n o t this factor.  consider  Hence, i n d i c a t e d a i r s p e e d i s l e s s than  true  a i r s p e e d f o r a g i v e n a l t i t u d e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the two b e i n g r o u g h l y 27_ per 1000  feet elevation.  Aircraft  speed i s o f t e n g i v e n i n k n o t s where one k n o t i s d e f i n e d as one n a u t i c a l m i l e per h o u r , or a p p r o x i m a t e l y miles.  I t may  The  one  speed of sound v a r i e s w i t h  the d i f f e r e n t i a l b e i n g two f e e t per second per  degree c e n t i g r a d e change i n temperature. c e n t i g r a d e Mach 1 i s 1090  The  land  a l s o be g i v e n i n terms of a Mach where  Mach i s the speed o f sound. temperature,  1.15  f e e t per  A t z e r o degrees  second.  Volume of T r a f f i c The  i n i t i a l s t e p i n the e v a l u a t i o n of ground and a i r s p a c e r e q u i r e -  ments i s t o f o r e c a s t the t r a f f i c future.  Two  The  t y p i c a l techniques  volume w h i c h w i l l be g e n e r a t e d o u t l i n e d by H o r o n j e f f  i n the  a r e as f o l l o w s :  f i r s t i s t o take the a r e a p e r c e n t a g e of n a t i o n a l l y enplaned  p a s s e n g e r s and a d j u s t i t t o r e f l e c t the p r o b a b l e p e r c e n t a g e of n a t i o n a l l y enplaned p a s s e n g e r s . o f enplaned  (2)  Then/apply t h i s p e r c e n t a g e to a n a t i o n a l f o r e c a s t  passengers.  H o r o n j e f f , The  P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n of A i r p o r t s , op c i t , Pg.  110-115.  21  A second method i s to compare the a r e a s h i s t o r i c a l of enplaned p a s s e n g e r s per Adjust  thousand p o p u l a t i o n  proportion  to the n a t i o n a l  t h i s r a t i o t o r e f l e c t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c changes i n the  y e a r and  then m u l t i p l y i t by  forecast  the n a t i o n a l i n d i c e s f o r the f o r e c a s t  T h i s y i e l d s the a r e a i n q u e s t i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n , f o r e c a s t f o r the  level.  i n d e x w h i c h i s then a p p l i e d to  years. the  area.  These same t e c h n i q u e s have been used f o r f o r e c a s t i n g the amount of a i r f r e i g h t .  I n Canada, however, the f i g u r e s have t o be a d j u s t e d  to  compensate f o r a f u r t h e r f a c t o r , namely t h a t t h e r e i s an e a s t - w e s t b i a s f a v o r i n g the e a s t i n the h a u l a g e of a i r c a r g o .  B o t h of these methods  assume t h a t the a r e a ' s p r o p o r t i o n a l share i s n o t s h i f t s over s h o r t p e r i o d s  of  subject  to v i o l e n t  time.  T h i s p a r t of the f o r e c a s t however, i s o n l y a p a r t of the problem. A second s e t of volume f a c t o r s c o n c e r n i n g the number of a i r c r a f t i s required.  T h i s problem i s more complex, f o r a new  c a p a c i t y of the a i r c r a f t i s i n t r o d u c e d . w i t h the growth of the g e n e r a l field may  The  v a r i a b l e , t h a t of  problem becomes more complex  a v i a t i o n s e c t o r of the c i v i l a v i a t i o n  s i n c e because of the s m a l l e r c a p a c i t i e s of these a i r c r a f t ,  there  be a mounting volume of movements w i t h o u t a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e  passenger or c a r g o volume.  R e g a r d l e s s of whether the passenger and  go volumes i n c r e a s e , each a i r c r a f t movement takes a c o n s i d e r a b l e of time and w h i l e space and  the former two volumes have a b e a r i n g  on  in car-  amount  terminal  runway l e n g t h r e q u i r e m e n t s , i t i s the number of movements t h a t  i s the more s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n runway s.  the  of the number o f  22  One list  method of d e t e r m i n i n g  the number of a i r c r a f t i s t o  the n a t i o n a l t r e n d w i t h r e s p e c t  movement. adjusted  T h i s , compared t o the a r e a  estab-  to the number of p a s s e n g e r s per t r e n d s g i v e s a r a t i o w h i c h can  to b o t h the i n c r e a s e i n g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n movements and  of the commerical a i r l i n e s a i r c r a f t .  be  the s i z e  T h i s r a t i o i s then a p p l i e d to  the  n a t i o n a l passenger f o r e c a s t .  The  f i n a l problems i n a s s e s s i n g volume c o n c e r n s the peak hour  volumes, s i n c e i t i s t h i s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s the c a p a c i t y and of c o n g e s t i o n .  Demand, l i k e t h a t of highways i s n o t u n i f o r m .  k i n d s of peak hour f o r e c a s t s , (peak h o u r , peak day and necessary.  One  the degree  method of d e t e r m i n i n g  Three  peak month) are  these i s t o d e t e r m i n e the  proport-  i o n of a n n u a l volume i n each month, then w i t h i n each month to d e t e r m i n e the p r o p o r t i o n of volumes i n each day  and  f i n a l l y i n each h o u r .  This  i n f o r m a t i o n i s then p r o j e c t e d t o the y e a r s d e s i r e d and u s i n g the a n n u a l f o r e c a s t f i g u r e s as a b a s i s a d e s i g n hour volume can  then be  chosen. (3)  A i r c r a f t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  Physical  Conditions  T a k i n g the volume as g i v e n , the p r i m a r y v a r i a b l e i n the'amount of ground and  determining  a i r s p a c e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the a i r p o r t i s t h a t  of a i r c r a f t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l d e t e r m i n e  runway l e n g t h s , the r e q u i r e d c l e a r zones and  r e s t r i c t e d zones and,  the to a  more l i m i t e d d e g r e e , the t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s and runway c o n f i g u r a t i o n s .  Runway l e n g t h i s the p r i m a r y ground c o n s i d e r a t i o n and o b v i o u s one a f f e c t e d by a i r c r a f t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  (3)  Horonjeff,  The  the most  V/STOL a i r c r a f t ,  The P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n of A i r p o r t s , op c i t , Pages 114.  111-  when they a r e f u l l y  o p e r a t i o n a l w i l l r e q u i r e , by d e f i n i t i o n l e s s than  1000 f e e t f o r t a k e o f f s and l a n d i n g s ; the s m a l l e r g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n a i r - , c r a f t r e q u i r e anywhere from 500 t o 3000 f e e t t o a t t a i n a h e i g h t o f 50 f e e t ; commercial a i r c r a f t , n o t a b l y and  the SST when i t becomes o p e r a t i o n a l , r e q u i r e up t o 12,000 f e e t o f  runway.  The c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r i s t h a t t a k e o f f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e  v a r i a b l e according a l t i t u d e , (2) and  (1)  the " s t r e t c h e d " j e t s , jumbo j e t s ,  (5)  to l o c a l conditions.  These i n c l u d e :  (1)  pressure  t e m p e r a t u r e , (3) w i n d , (4) runway s u r f a c e and g r a d i e n t ,  l o a d or w e i g h t .  P r e s s u r e A l t i t u d e . As a g e n e r a l r u l e , as e l e v a t i o n i n c r e a s e s ' s o the runway l e n g t h .  does  T h i s i s because, a t the h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n the  l e s s dense a i r r e q u i r e s g r e a t e r v e l o c i t y t o produce the same l i f t on an a i r f o i l t h a t i s o b t a i n e d for  a t sea l e v e l .  t h i s i s g i v e n by H o r o n j e f f  However, G i l f i l l a n  The c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r  as 7%, per thousand f e e t .  found i n h i s study  that f o r small a i r c r a f t , i . e .  those w i t h a g r o s s w e i g h t o f l e s s than 12,500 pounds, t h a t the i n crease  i n runway l e n g t h r e q u i r e m e n t was as much as 30% a t 2000 f e e t  e l e v a t i o n , 85% a t 4000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , 140% a t 6000 f e e t , and up t o 220%  (2)  a t 8000 f e e t .  Temperature.  As w i t h p r e s s u r e  a l t i t u d e , the g e n e r a l r u l e i s t h a t as  temperature i n c r e a s e s so does the runway l e n g t h .  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  the case w i t h t u r b i n e e n g i n e d a i r c r a f t w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e  (4) (5)  power  reduct-  ibid G i l l f i l l a n , W a l t e r , A i r p l a n e Performance and t h e S m a l l A i r p o r t , R e p r i n t Number 93, J o u r n a l o f the A i r T r a n s p o r t D i v i s i o n , P r o c e e d i n g s o f the A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , 1961, Page 6.  24  ions up to 25%> with'a temperature r i s e from 40°F to 110°F.  To compen-  sate for t h i s , runway lengths increase from 5%, to 207» of that required at standard way  temperature.  For small a i r c r a f t G i l l f i l l a n found that run-  . length increases up to 20% for a temperature increase from 60oF to  100°F. (3) Surface Winds.  Wind has one of three e f f e c t s on the length of a  runway depending on i t s d i r e c t i o n r e l a t i v e to the runway and aircraft itself.  the  Headwinds reduce either the takeoff or landing d i s -  tance since they increase the speed of the a i r over the wing. winds have the opposite e f f e c t . winds s h i f t both in d i r e c t i o n and  Tail-  In the i n t e r e s t of safety, since in v e l o c i t y more rapidly than does  temperature, i t i s normal practice for the a i r c r a f t operator  to  e s t a b l i s h the length of takeoff runway on the basis of one h a l f the wind v e l o c i t y at 50 feet above ground l e v e l .  To estimate  the increase  in landing length required, the c a l c u l a t i o n i s based on a factor of 1.5  times the v e l o c i t y of the tailwind, also at a height of 50 feet.  The degree to which the runway length i s a c t u a l l y shortened by a headwind varies with the type of a i r c r a f t . 707-320 on a standard  For example, for a Boeing  day at sea l e v e l on a l e v e l runway and a gross  weight of 300,000 pounds, the reduction with a 20 knot headwind i s from 10,500 to  7500 f e e t . A DC-8 under the same conditions with a  gross weight of  250,000 pounds i s reduced from 8400 to 7650 f e e t .  For small a i r c r a f t the reductions are from 15 to headwind 30 to 40% wind .  with a 20 MPH,  257o with a 10 MPH  and 30 to 45% with a 30 MPH  head-  25 The  t h i r d k i n d of w i n d ,  the c r o s s w i n d has more e f f e c t on runway  c o n f i g u r a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n than on l e n g t h .  Normally  the c h i e f r u n - •  ways a r e i n the d i r e c t i o n of the p r e v a i l i n g wind so t h a t the o v e r a l l u s a b i l i t y r a t i n g , ( d e f i n e d as the "percentage one of the runways of an a i r p o r t may a i r p o r t i s i n t e n d e d to s e r v e ^ ^ " ) ,  The  1952 U.S.  of time f o r which a t l e a s t  be used by the a i r c r a f t which i s n o t l e s s than  P r e s i d e n t s A i r p o r t Commission  t h a t too much emphasis was  the  95.  however, found  b e i n g p l a c e d on t h i s component and  that,  w i t h the development of h e a v i e r a i r c r a f t w i t h compensating l a n d i n g g e a r , a c r o s s w i n d of 20-30 MPH or.  s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t no decrease  i n the s a f e t y f a c t -  The Department of T r a n s p o r t , f o r d e s i g n purposes  has s t i p u l a t e d t h a t  i t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d , under n o r m a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h a t t a k e o f f s and l a n d i n g s a r e p r e c l u d e d when.the c r o s s w i n d component exceeds 20  knots  (23 MPH)for d e s i g n a i r c r a f t from A t o G (A b e i n g the l a r g e s t ) , 13 k n o t s (15 MPH)  f o r d e s i g n a i r c r a f t H and 10 k n o t s (115 MPH)  Runway S u r f a c e and In  f o r group J .  Gradient  the e a r l y days, because of the r i g i d u n d e r c a r r i a g e s on the a i r -  c r a f t of t h a t e r a , runway s u r f a c e s were g r a s s e d . f r a g i l i t y on the o t h e r hand was, the system worked f a i r l y w e l l .  Weight was no  problem;  and because the l a n d i n g speeds were low Today, s m a l l a i r c r a f t a r e s t i l l q u i t e  c a p a b l e of l a n d i n g s on g r a s s e d s u r f a c e s and i n f a c t s t i l l do so.  But t o -  days l a r g e a i r c r a f t w i t h g r o s s w e i g h t s of up t o 700,000 pounds a r e p r e c l u d e d from l a n d i n g s on s u r f a c e s which a r e n o t c a p a b l e of s u p p o r t i n g (6)  (7)  Department of T r a n s p o r t , A i r S e r v i c e s B r a n c h , Pavement D e s i g n and C o n s t r u c t i o n M a n u a l , S e c t i o n 13, G e o m e t r i c a l C r i t e r i a f o r A i r p o r t Pavements, (Ottawa: The Department, March 1968) Pg. 8. U.S. P r e s i d e n t s A i r p o r t Commission, The A i r p o r t and i t s N e i g h b o r s , (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1952)  26 tremendous l o a d s .  As  f a r as a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , then  s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y bearing  c a p a c i t y and  drainage,  the are  of.  importance.  Gradients  a r e e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e and G = Rise Run  In general, 1%% if  f o r any  x  are computed as:  100  f o r s a f e t y r e a s o n s , a b r u p t changes of g r e a t e r  l a r g e a i r p o r t s and  27o f o r secondary ones are a v o i d e d  since  they a r e n o t , g r a v i t y e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g i n premature t a k e o f f and  ings, porpoising  poor v i s i b i l i t y a r e the r e s u l t .  Trunk Department of T r a n s p o r t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , l a s t quarters  of the runway are n o t a l l o w e d  A i r c r a f t Loads and W e i g h t s The  land-  ( t h e b o u n c i n g of the a i r c r a f t between the f r o n t and  l a n d i n g g e a r ) , and  and  than  main  For I n t e r n a t i o n a l and  the s l o p e of the to exceed  first  0.87o.  ,  f i n a l component d e s c r i b e d  here w i t h r e s p e c t  i s t h a t of l o a d s and w e i g h t s of the a i r c r a f t .  t o runway  length  There are t h r e e components  of a i r c r a f t g r o s s w e i g h t :  Of  1)  The dry o p e r a t i n g w e i g h t of the " a i r c r a f t , w h i c h i s a constant.  2)  The  3)  The c a r g o l o a d ( p a s s e n g e r s and is a variable.  fuel  supply w h i c h i s v a r i a b l e . goods) w h i c h  the t h r e e p o s s i b l e c a s e s , normal l a n d i n g , normal t a k e o f f  engine f a i l u r e  t a k e o f f and  l a n d i n g , the most demanding one  t h a t of e n g i n e f a i l u r e d u r i n g mines runway l e n g t h .  t a k e o f f and  therefore  and  i s usually  i s the one which d e t e r -  I n t h i s c a s e , a l l o w a n c e i s made f o r the  aircraft  t o be s e t down, and come t o a h a l t , t h i s d i s t a n c e b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o as the a c c e l e r a t e - s t o p  Runway  capacity)  c a p a c i t y of a i r p o r t runways, ( n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h a i r p o r t i s described  i n terms of movements per p e r i o d of time w i t h due  t o s a f e t y and c o n v e n i e n c e .  Capacity  i s a f f e c t e d , ( i n a d d i t i o n to  the a i r c r a f t type) by the p r e v a i l i n g o p e r a t i n g are  field".  Configurations The  regard  d i s t a n c e and l e a d i n g t o a " b a l a n c e d  c o n d i t i o n s of w h i c h  there  two p o s s i b i l i t i e s , V i s u a l F l i g h t R u l e s (VFR)and I n s t r u m e n t F l i g h t  Rules  (IFR).  There a r e a v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e runway c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w h i c h may be c o n s i d e r e d .  The f i r s t o f these i s the S i n g l e Runway, o r i e n t e d i n the  d i r e c t i o n of the p r e v a i l i n g w i n d .  I t has a c a p a c i t y o f between 45 and  60 movements p e r hour under VFR c o n d i t i o n s and 20 t o 40 per hour under IFR c o n d i t i o n s , depending on a i r c r a f t m i x .  The one  '  second c o n f i g u r a t i o n c a t e g o r y i s the Hub and D i v e r g e n t Runway  as i l l u s t r a t e d  i n F i g u r e 2.2.  These may be e i t h e r i n t e r s e c t i n g as i n (a) or (b) or n o n - i n t e r s e c t i n g as i n ( c ) .  C a p a c i t i e s depend on the number o f runways, the  o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and the wind c o n d i t i o n s , w h i c h can reduce the system t o t h a t o f a s i n g l e runway..  The  t h i r d t y p e , P a r a l l e l Runway l a y o u t s , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e  2.3 may be e i t h e r u n s t a g g e r e d , as i n ( a ) or s t a g g e r e d as i n ( b ) .  The  c h i e f advantage o f the s t a g g e r e d arrangement l i e s w i t h s h o r t e n e d  taxi  distances  sytem  t o and from the t e r m i n a l a r e a .  The c a p a c i t i e s o f t h i s  depend on the d i s t a n c e between the c e n t r e l i n e s of the runways, l a r g e l y ,  28  and lacking c e r t a i n technical devices such as radar, can revert to v i r t u a l l y that of the single runway.  The l a s t type considered here i s the C i r c u l a r layout.  As  the  demand for larger runways increases, and with the increases i n land costs, the prospect of a c i r c u l a r system as shown in Figure 2.4 larger.  looms  The immediate advantage of this layout i s that i t provides an  i n f i n i t e l y long runway without  the same requirement for land area, and  with less concern about wind d i r e c t i o n .  I t presents, however, much  more serious problems with increased r e s t r i c t e d and clear-zone requirements.  '  The Total A i r p o r t In addition to the runways, there are land requirements of the other components of the a i r p o r t .  This includes such things as the term-  i n a l buildings, maintenance f a c i l i t i e s ,  car,parks, and c e r t a i n industries  associated with the a i r p o r t .  The l o c a t i o n of the terminal buildings (both passenger and cargo) are determined by two p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i a . 1)  Loading and unloading of passengers and cargo quickly and conveniently.  2)  Short taxi distances for the a i r c r a f t .  For comparison purposes, Schriever and S e i f e r t considered basic types of a i r p o r t layouts.  The  f i r s t was  two  the:-  "... contemporary r a d i a l layout with a l l a c t i v i t i e s centered in a "hub" .... Taxiways emanate from the hub area to the runway area. .. . are generally c e n t r a l i z e d . Active support a c t i v i t i e s such as maintenance are usually decentralized.(8)» (8)  Schriever, Bernard A., and S e i f e r t , William A., A i r Transportation 1975 and Beyond, A Problems Approach, Report of the Transportation Workshop, (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1968) Page 388-89.  29  Figure 2.1 S i n g l e Runway Layout  Figure 2.2 Hub and Divergent Runway Layouts  Figure 2.3 P a r a l l e l Runway Layout Z3  (b)  Figure 2.4 C i r c u l a r Runway Layout  30  "The second b a s i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s the l i n e a r . o r p a r a l l e l o f f s e t d e s i g n . Here the b a s i c emphasis i s on a p r o c e s s t h a t moves the payl o a d from s u r f a c e to a i r i n the s i m p l e s t f a s h ion a l o n g the r o u t e w i t h minimum r e c i r c u l a t i o n or b a c k t r a c k i n g . ( 9 ) "  The  major problem w i t h  t a x i l e n g t h s of up  to seven times  problem i s t h a t one and  this,  parallel  the r a d i a l l a y o u t i s t h a t i t r e q u i r e s the l e n g t h of the runways.  of the runways i s u s u a l l y d e s i g n a t e d  i n p r a c t i c e , determines  the IFR  the c a p a c i t y of the a i r p o r t .  one The  o f f s e t d e s i g n l e s s e n s the problem of t a x i - l a n e l e n g t h s w i t h  the r e s u l t i n g decrease  i n ground  time.  the c e n t r e l i n e s of the runways must be sent)  A further  to comply w i t h  the IFR  Properly designed,  safety  One  i s however, t h a t  f a r enough a p a r t (5000' a t p r e -  requirements.  t h i s system a l l o w s f o r r e l a t i v e l y u n i n t e r r u p t e d  flow from the runway to the t e r m i n a l a r e a . a i r p o r t s a r e square,  limitation  round or t r i a n g u l a r .  T e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g s a t most By  employing the  parallel  o f f s e t d e s i g n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n can be g i v e n to a long narrow t e r m i n a l area l a y o u t which has and  the advantage of b e i n g a b l e to l o c a t e c a r p a r k s ,  l o a d i n g storage f a c i l i t i e s  a t more c o n v e n i e n t  check-in  points.  C l e a r Zones All ing of  a i r p o r t s have a r e q u i r e m e n t  the f a c i l i t y , Transport.  over which c o n t r o l may  T h i s , i n Canada, takes  c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h i s concept  (9)  ibid  Page  f o r a s p a t i a l c l e a r zone  389.  be e x e r c i s e d by  surround-  the Department  the form of a i r p o r t z o n i n g .  One  of " a i r p o r t z o n i n g " should be made.  The  31  term " z o n i n g " i s u s u a l l y thought o f as r e l a t i n g t o p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s and i s covered  by S e c t i o n 92 o f the B.N.A. A c t .  As such, i t  i s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e s and n o t the F e d e r a l Government. Although  each o f the p r o v i n c e s has e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r z o n i n g  t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e g u l a t ions.  Z o n i n g , i n i t s o r d i n a r y o r " m u n i c i p a l " sense i s n o t r e t r o a c t i v e  s i n c e , i f i t were, the q u e s t i o n would be r a i s e d as to whether o r n o t the ordinance  c o n s t i t u t e s a t a k i n g o f p r o p e r t y , i n w h i c h case the owner o f  the p r o p e r t y would be e n t i t l e d t o compensation f o r the l o s s o f use o f the l a n d and s u r r o u n d i n g  airspace.  T h i s has i n t r o d u c e d an u n u s u a l prob-  lem o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the A e r o n a u t i c s A c t w h i c h , i n S e c t i o n 4, e n t i t l e s the M i n i s t e r t o make r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g  the h e i g h t , use and l o c a t i o n  of b u i l d i n g s , s t r u c t u r e s and o b j e c t s i n the a r e a around the a i r p o r t . But  the A c t a l s o a u t h o r i z e s the M i n i s t e r t o make compensation f o r the  necessary  infringement.  I n Canada, the a i r p o r t z o n i n g way  surfaces are defined i n a s i m i l a r  t o the U.S. F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Transport  The Department o f  d e f i n e s them as f o l l o w s : "4.2.1 I n n e r H o r i z o n t a l S u r f a c e . The  i n n e r h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e l i e s on the h o r i z o n t a l  plane  150 f e e t above the a i r p o r t s e l e v a t i o n .  The  h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e i s c i r c u l a r i n shape w i t h a r a d i u s o f 13,000 f e e t and c e n t r e l o c a t e d above the a i r p o r t reference 4.2.2 C o n i c a l The  point.  Surface  c o n i c a l s u r f a c e r i s e s upward and outward w i t h  32  a s l o p e o f 5% to the h o r i z o n t a l from the c i r c u m f e r e n c e of the h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e . 4.2.3 T a k e o f f  Surface  The t a k e o f f s u r f a c e i s ... s y m m e t r i c a l  with  to t h e extended c e n t r e l i n e of the runway.  respect The  t a k e o f f s u r f a c e o r i g i n a t e s on the g r o u n d , a t the end of the graded a r e a , and r i s e s w i t h a s l o p e n o t t o exceed t h a t s p e c i f i e d  ... .  a t the o r i g i n s p e c i f i e d  From the i n i t i a l  width  ... the t a k e o f f s u r f a c e d i v e r -  ges a t 12%7P u n t i l i t a t t a i n s a w i d t h o f 4000 f e e t and  t h e r e a f t e r remains a t t h a t w i d t h .  The  total  h o r i z o n t a l l e n g t h o f the t a k e o f f s u r f a c e i s 50,000 f e e t f o r main runways and 40,000 f e e t f o r o t h e r  run-  ways. 4.2.4 Approach  Surfaces  The approach s u r f a c e s , l i k e the t a k e o f f  surface  b e g i n s a t the end o f the graded a r e a and r i s e s a t a r a t e n o t g r e a t e r than t h a t s p e c i f i e d  ... .  The  h o r i z o n t a l l e n g t h of the approach s u r f a c e i s 50,000 f e e t f o r instrument other approaches.  approaches and 10,000 f e e t f o r For instrument  a p p r o a c h e s , the  s l o p e of t h e approach s u r f a c e may be i n c r e a s e d  until  i t r e a c h e s a h e i g h t the g r e a t e r of (a) 500 f e e t above the t h r e s h o l d e l e v a t i o n , o r (b) the h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e passing  t h r o u g h the top o f any o b j e c t t h a t governs  the f i n a l approach minimum a l t i t u d e ; a t w h i c h p o i n t  33  the approach s u r f a c e l e v e l s out and becomes horizontal. 4.2.5 The  T r a n s i t i o n a l Surface t r a n s i t i o n a l s u r f a c e b e g i n s a l o n g the edge  of the approach s u r f a c e and a l o n g the l i n e  join-  i n g the ends of the approach s u r f a c e a t each r u n way  and r i s e s w i t h a s l o p e of 14.3%  horizontal until surface.  (  1 0  (7:1)  t o the  i t meets the i n n e r h o r i z o n t a l  )"  A t y p i c a l a i r p o r t z o n i n g arrangement i s shown i n F i g u r e  2.5.  Atmospheric Conditions F o g j smog, smoke and haze a l l r e s t r i c t v i s i b i l i t y and tend t o d e c r e a s e a i r p o r t c a p a c i t y . a r e a s where t h e r e i s l e s s w i n d . e x t e n t by  therefore  These phenomena tend t o s e t t l e i n  Wind i s , i n t u r n , a f f e c t e d to some  the shape o f the l o c a l topography.  Thus i n s p i t e of  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an a r e a i n g e n e r a l , c e r t a i n t o p o g r a p h i c a l combinati o n s can c r e a t e u n i q u e m i c r o c l i m a t e s .  As  the atmosphere around urban a r e a s becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y ' p o l l u t e d ,  v i s i o n f o r a i r c r a f t on VFR  decreases.  a c c i d e n t h a z a r d s occur on t a k e o f f s and the a i r p o r t . est.  These o p e r a t i o n s  Increased  I t i s known t h a t the  greatest  l a n d i n g s , and w h i l e s t a c k e d above  take p l a c e where a i r p o l l u t i o n i s g r e a t -  s e p a r a t i o n , (one  s h o r t term s o l u t i o n ) however, means t h a t  a i r p o r t c a p a c i t y i s f u r t h e r r e d u c e d , perhaps even c l o s e d t o some c l a s s e s of a i r c r a f t . (10)  I f t h i s s t e p i s t a k e n , then more s t a c k i n g time i s  generated,  Department of T r a n s p o r t , A i r S e r v i c e s , Pavement D e s i g n and C o n s t u c t i o n M a n u a l , S e c t i o n 13, G e o m e t r i c a l C r i t e r i a f o r A i r p o r t Pavements, op c i t , Page 11-12.  ZONING  SOURCE:  SURFACES  FOR  A  MAIN  RUNWAY.  F i g u r e 2.5  Department o f T r a n s p o r t , A i r S e r v i c e s , Pavement D e s i g n and C o n s t r u c t i o n M a n u a l , S e c t i o n 13 G e o m e t r i c a l C r i t e r i a f o r A i r p o r t Pavement (Ottaxoa: DOT, March 1968) Page 26.  35 and more space i s needed. The  T h i s i n t u r n adds to the p o l l u t i o n problem.  r e s u l t i s a c i r c u l a r process  i n w h i c h the s h o r t term r e s u l t i s  i n c r e a s i n g r i s k i n a i r t r a v e l , i n c r e a s i n g a i r t r a v e l time and term p r o s p e c t  i s the i n c r e a s i n g l y p o l l u t e d atmosphere w h i c h we  a f f o r d i n the community.  Air  .  long  cannot  '  Traffic Control The  terminal t r a f f i c  c o n t r o l a r e a i s d e f i n e d by I.A.T.A. as:'  "The a i r s p a c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an aerodrome or s e r i e s of aerodromes s e r v i n g a community w h e r e i n i t i s n e c e s s a r y to c o n t r o l the f l o w of a i r t r a f f i c w i t h s u f f i c i e n t p r e c i s i o n as to p e r m i t the u t i l i z a t i o n of aerodromes to their useful capacity. ( H ) "  ;  Considered  from a f a c i l i t y l o c a t i o n p o i n t of v i e w , the c o n c e r n  i s p r i m a r i l y w i t h the e f f e c t s of a g i v e n l o c a t i o n on traffic  flows.  The  p r o b l e m i s one  facilitating  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of an  or proposed l o c a t i o n to those e x t e r n a l uses and it.  the  existing  f a c i l i t i e s which a f f e c t  These a r e : 1. )  P r o x i m i t y t o o t h e r a i r p o r t s and  2. )  O b s t r u c t i o n s and communications problems.  . To a p p r e c i a t e i n a normal IFR  airways.  t h i s f i r s t p r o b l e m , c o n s i d e r the s t e p s i n v o l v e d  approach.  The b a s i c s t e p s f o r l a n d i n g a r e : . 1 )  The 2)  a i r c r a f t a r r i v e s a t the t e r m i n a l a r e a .  A i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d i r e c t s the a i r c r a f t to a h o l d i n g f i x where i t f l i e s i n a h o l d i n g pattern.  (11) I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r T r a f f i c A s s o c i a t i o n ( I A T A ) , T e r m i n a l A r e a , A Condensed r e c o r d of d i s c u s s i o n o f problems i n the t e r m i n a l a r e a h e l d d u r i n g the 6th A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e of IATA ( P u e r t o R i c o : A p r i l 1953) G e n e r a l Document #1356, Pg. 27.  36  The  A i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d i r e c t s the to proceed t o the g a t e .  aircraft  4)  The a i r c r a f t then proceeds down the common g l i d e p a t h and l a n d s .  important p o i n t i s t h a t t h i s takes both a c o n s i d e r a b l e  of. time and aircraft.  3)  space, b e a r i n g  amount  i n mind the s e p a r a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  Thus, the l o c a t i o n of the f a c i l i t y has  to be  such t h a t  i s no i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h o t h e r a i r p o r t s f i n a l approaches or w i t h  the there  exist-  ing a i r lanes.  A further consideration with respect  to a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l  conI  cerns e l e c t r i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e .  T h i s i s a t i t s most c r i t i c a l stage when  a i r c r a f t a r e o p e r a t i n g under IFR.  Such a c t i v i t i e s as the t e s t i n g of  e l e c t r i c a l equipment are g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as n o t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h  the  a i r p o r t s i n c e t h e r e i s the r i s k of i n t e r f e r e n c e between the a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l l e r and Aircraft  the a i r c r a f t .  „•  Mix  C a p t a i n Ross C l a r k e , i n s p e a k i n g t o a m e e t i n g of the C a n a d i a n Owners and  P i l o t s A s s o c i a t i o n (COPA) i n Vancouver, s t a t e d  that:-  "The d i f f e r e n c e between commercial and p r i v a t e p l a n e s a r e becoming g r e a t e r and c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s becoming l e s s and l e s s . ( 1 2 ) "  I n c a l l i n g f o r s p e c i a l purpose g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s , the problems c i t e d were:1)  (12)  S m a l l e r p l a n e s d e c r e a s e the l a n d i n g r a t e s i n c e the l a r g e j e t s must slow down to' p r e v e n t e x c e s s i v e a i r t u r b u l e n c e w h i c h can o v e r t u r n s m a l l  As quoted i n the Vancouver Sun,  December 4,  1969.  37 p l a n e s as much as 12 minutes a f t e r a j e t has p a s s e d . 2)  C o n g e s t i o n o f the a i r l a n e s and o t h e r s a f e t y h a z a r d s caused by s m a l l a i r c r a f t f l y i n g w i t h out f i l i n g f l i g h t p l a n s .  3)  T a k e o f f d e l a y s caused by c o n g e s t i o n due t o the p r e s e n c e o f s m a l l a i r c r a f t i n the a r e a .  A v i e w such as t h i s heavily c r i t i c i z e d The Department  i s quite typical.  G e n e r a l a v i a t i o n has been  as a major s o u r c e o f problems a t l a r g e a i r p o r t s .  of T r a n s p o r t s answer t o the problem has been t o e s t a b -  l i s h m e n t of a system of " s a t e l l i t e " a i r p o r t s where c o n g e s t i o n becomes too  great.  Such f a c i l i t i e s a r e i n use a t P i t t Meadows, near  Vancouver,  S t . Andrews, near W i n n i p e g , T o r o n t o I s l a n d , near T o r o n t o , S t . H u b e r t , near M o n t r e a l , and t h i s y e a r C a l g a r y w i l l have a s a t e l l i t e .  I n the  U n i t e d S t a t e s , the F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n has c r e a t e d a c a t e g o r y r o u g h l y analogous t o t h e s a t e l l i t e known as a " r e l i e v e r " .  There have been a number of o t h e r s o l u t i o n s t r i e d i n the U. S.  or suggested  One method has been t o a t t e m p t b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n  o f the  e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s through measures w h i c h spread the t r a f f i c f l o w over a g r e a t e r p e r i o d of t i m e .  The P o r t of New Y o r k A u t h o r i t y , i n August 1968  i n c r e a s e d the minimum f l i g h t f e e s a t Kennedy I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , L a G u a r d i a , and Newark d u r i n g the peak hours i n an e f f o r t t o speed the flow.  T h i s new minimum f e e o f $25 p e r movement a p p l i e s t o a i r c r a f t  with  a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y o f l e s s than 25 p a s s e n g e r s o p e r a t i n g d u r i n g the p e r i o d s between 8:00 AM and 10:00 AM Monday through F r i d a y and 3:00 PM t o 8:00 PM e v e r y day.  38  The  g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n s e c t o r has i t s e l f r e c o g n i z e d the e x i s t e n c e  of the problem a t major a i r p o r t s and acknowledged t h a t p a r t of the p r o b l e m has been due t o the o p e r a t i o n o f g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n Among the p r o p o s a l s suggested  Ground A c c e s s  aircraft.  by them have been:-  1)  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s h o r t e r p a r a l l e l runways at e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t s f o r exclusive general a v i a t i o n use.  2)  Separate  3)  The improvement o f e x i s t i n g s a t e l l i t e to p e r m i t a l l weather o p e r a t i o n s .  approach and d e p a r t u r e r o u t e s . airports  Problems  Landrum and Brown, i n the U. S. found  that: -  "... a i r p o r t a c c e s s i b i l i t y has a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on the r e a l i z a t i o n o f a i r passenger p o t e n t i a l . When s c h e d u l e s a r e a v a i l a b l e o n l y a t l e s s a c c e s s i b l e a i r p o r t s , fewer passengers w i l l be developed than when s c h e d u l e s a r e o f f e r e d a t a more a c c e s s ible airport. (13)• , . They a l s o found  that " a i r p o r t a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s roughly  times as i m p o r t a n t t o r e s i d e n t s as n o n - r e s i d e n t s . ( 1 4 ) " ibility  three  A i r p o r t access-  i s " e s s e n t i a l t o r e a l i z a t i o n o f the r e g i o n s a i r commerce p o t e n t -  i a l and t o the development o f s u f f i c i e n t t r a f f i c t o make any a i r p o r t f e a s i b l e . 0-5) H  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t r a v e l time a r e b e s t made from door t o door, s i n c e t h i s i s o f more c o n c e r n time may be c o n s i d e r e d . (13)  (14) (15)  than a i r t i m e .  There a r e two ways i n w h i c h  There i s , f i r s t l y , a b s o l u t e t i m e , t h a t i s , i n  Landrum and Brown, " E f f e c t o f A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f T r a f f i c " i n P o r t o f New Y o r k A u t h o r i t y , A R e p o r t on A i r p o r t Requirements and S i t e s i n the New Jersey-New Y o r k R e g i o n , (N.Y.: The A u t h o r i t y , 1 9 6 1 ) P g . 7 9 ibid ibid  39  hours and m i n u t e s .  However, a more m e a n i n g f u l approach f o r l o c a t i o n  purposes i s t o c o n s i d e r ground t r a v e l time i n terms of p r o p o r t i o n t r a v e l time.  Thus, from the u s e r s p o i n t of view an e s t i m a t e  of  of  the  t o t a l t r a v e l time i s p o s s i b l e .  There are a number of o t h e r a c c e s s to the a i r p o r t . traffic.  The  i n p u t s i n t o the q u e s t i o n of ground  f i r s t of these i s the volume and  type of  T h i s w i l l r u l e i n or out c e r t a i n k i n d s of a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h  r e s p e c t to mode.  There are  a c c e s s to the a i r p o r t :  t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s of p e r s o n s who  employees, t r a v e l l e r s and  v i s i t o r s and  require  sighti  seers. A second i n p u t i s the l o c a l o r i g i n s and of the f a c i l i t y .  A i r p o r t employees w i l l  d e s t i n a t i o n s of the  i n many cases base t h e i r  users resid-  e n t i a l a r e a s e l e c t i o n p a r t l y on the ease of a c c e s s to the f a c i l i t y . l e s s the p r e s e n t  Un-  t r e n d changes, t h i s means t h a t t h e r e must be p r o v i s i o n  of adequate r o a d s f o r the heavy peak hour t r a f f i c  t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m the  two d a i l y t r i p s t h a t the a i r p o r t employees make.  A i r p o r t passengers pre-  s e n t a more complex problem.  I t has been shown t h a t the m a j o r i t y of  group have no common o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n . i s the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s ity.  V i s i t o r s and  district,  but  The  single largest  this  category  t h i s does n o t c o n s t i t u t e the major-  s i g h t s e e r s f o r the most p a r t , use p r i v a t e c a r s  and  a r e u s u a l l y lumped i n w i t h employees i n c o n s i d e r i n g a c c e s s r e q u i r e m e n t s . ( 1 ^ )  The  following  a c c e s s to the (16)  a r e the major a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e as means of  airport.  See S c h r i e v e r & S e i f e r t , C h a p t e r 6.  A i r Transportation  1975  and Beyond, op c i t  40  Private Transportation,  p r i m a r i l y automobiles and t r u c k s i s the  c u r r e n t means of a c c e s s  to most a i r p o r t s both f o r people and goods.  The  advantages a r e wide d i s p e r s i o n , s c h e d u l i n g  iarity  and c o m f o r t .  convenience, f a m i l -  The major drawbacks a r e c o n g e s t i o n  and land  r e q u i r e m e n t s both f o r movement and s t o r a g e .  Public Transportation:  T a x i and scheduled  limousine  been the u s u a l method o f p r o v i d i n g , p u b l i c t r a n s i t airport. and  t o and from the  T h e i r p r i n c i p a l advantages a r e f l e x i b i l i t y  routing  s e r v i c e have  i n scheduling  to meet"changing demands and the avoidance o f p a r k i n g  f e e s f o r the p a s s e n g e r .  Buses w i t h  their greater  advantage o f c o s t over t a x i and l i m o u s i n e advantage w i t h  regard  c a p a c i t y , have the  service.  They have l e s s  to frequency o f s e r v i c e and convenience of  routing.  ' •  R a i l S e r v i c e , on the assumption t h a t i t would use c o n v e n t i a l  railway  equipment has the advantage o f g r e a t e r  off-peak  capacity.  hours i t l o s e s t h i s advantage w i t h o u t b e i n g costs. its  A f u r t h e r problem w i t h  own r i g h t - o f - w a y , l a n d  rail  able  But during  to appreciably c u t  service i s that since i t u t i l i z e s  a c q u i s i t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s a r e  p r o h i b i t i v e and once l o c a t e d i t i s i n f l e x i b l e o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s change a p p r e c i a b l y  i n routing.  Hence i f  or i f they a r e s c a t t e r e d ,  there a r e no means of adjustment s h o r t o f adding new trackage and facilities.  I t i s however, more r e l i a b l e  need n o t c o n s i d e r  other v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c .  i n scheduling Mono-rails  of r a p i d t r a n s i t have been used i n some c i t i e s London and C l e v e l a n d .  since i t and o t h e r  such as B r u s s e l s ,  forms  41  H e l i c o p t e r s , and o t h e r forms o f v e r t i c a l  t a k e o f f and l a n d i n g a i r -  c r a f t , when s u i t a b l y developed,may o f f e r a new d i m e n s i o n t o the s o l u t i o n o f ground a c c e s s problem.. I t has n o t y e t , however, i t s expected  role.  I n the U.S. o n l y New Y o r k , L o s A n g e l e s ,  F r a n c i s c o have u t i l i z e d being considered.  fulfilled and San  t h i s means, w i t h Washington and B a l t i m o r e  I n most c a s e s , the s e l e c t i o n o f h e l i p o r t  i s much l i k e t h a t o f a i r p o r t s i t e s e l e c t i o n .  sites  However, t h e r e a r e some  u n i q u e o p e r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or these a i r c r a f t i n an u r b a n a r e a which r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  The major problem i s the c r e a t -  i o n and maintenance o f the r e q u i r e d c l e a r zone i n the h e a r t o f a congested; u r b a n a r e a .  O b s t r u c t i o n s would be c l o s e r and the e f f e c t s o f  a i r p o l l u t i o n , a i r b l a s t and n o i s e a r e much more s e v e r e .  CHAPTER I I I THE AIRPORT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO RESIDENTIAL AREAS  I n t r o d u c t i o n and R e s t a t e m e n t o f the H y p o t h e s i s I n the p r e c e d i n g  chapter,  the major r e q u i r e m e n t s i n space and l a n d  f o r a c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t were c o n s i d e r e d  and o u t l i n e d .  I t s purpose,  a l o n g w i t h C h a p t e r I was t o p u t the problem i n t o i t s p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e , t h a t i s the r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t a r e p a r t and p a r c e l o f h a v i n g  this  facility  a t the d i s p o s a l o f the r e s i d e n t s and commerical i n t e r e s t s o f the a r e a which i t serves.  However, the c r i t e r i a f o r l o c a t i n g t h i s f a c i l i t y these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  The a i r p o r t has c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h i t i n h e r e n t l y w h i c h m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  I n order already  do n o t stop w i t h  '  .  d y s f u n c t i o n a l to proximate '  t o examine t h i s a s p e c t ,  the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s , as  s t a t e d , was d e v e l o p e d : The p r o x i m i t y o f a c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r s the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y of a r e s i d e n t i a l area.  O v e r a l l Methodology The  remainder of t h i s chapter  i s concerned w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f  the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h d e a l s w i t h the f i v e c r i t e r i a  (aircraft  n o i s e , a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n and i n d u s t r i e s t h a t a r e d i r e c t l y  associated  w i t h a v i a t i o n such as maintenance t e s t b e d s , non occupant c r a s h h a z a r d s , 42  43  ground  t r a f f i c and the p r o x i m i t y of i n d u s t r y whose l o c a t i o n i s i n f l u -  enced p o s i t i v e l y by the a i r p o r t ) o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I . I t s purpose i s to examine these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  I t i s a s k e d , f o r example,  or n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t c r a s h h a z a r d e x i s t s f o r those l i v i n g and approach l a n e to an a i r p o r t .  whether  under or near  To stop a t t h i s p o i n t however, would  be t o n e g l e c t the most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of the problem, namely the subj e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s of the r e s i d e n t s who predicted  are a f f e c t e d .  W h i l e i t may  be  t h a t t h e r e w i l l be some e f f e c t s from a i r p o l l u t i o n f o r a l l  groups r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r c u l t u r e , the work of Edward T. H a l l  and  o t h e r s l e a d s to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t one can r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t the a t t i t ude  to i t to v a r y w i t h the group s i n c e they may  perceive their  s h i p to t h i s a s p e c t of the a i r p o r t i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t way. n o t be aware, f o r example, or  relation-  They might  t h a t t h e r e i s an a i r p o l l u t i o n problem a t a l l ,  i f they a r e , they might r a n k t h i s lower on t h e i r s c a l e of v a l u e s than  some d e s i r a b l e a s p e c t of t h e i r environment  t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e f o r them  o n l y near the a i r p o r t . AIRCRAFT NOISE In lems.  the e a r l y development  of a v i a t i o n , t h e r e were few n o i s e prob-  Those who were s u b j e c t to i t seldom complained because  i t was  i n f r e q u e n t and n o t v e r y l o u d . "As a m a t t e r of f a c t , the a u d i b l e e v i d e n c e o f the a r r i v a l and d e p a r t u r e of m a i l and passenger p l a n e s was o f t e n a s o u r c e of l o c a l p r i d e . ( 2 ) "  T h i s i s no l o n g e r the case i n todays urban a r e a s where l a r g e numbers (1)  (2)  See f o r i n s t a n c e , H a l l , Edward T., The S i l e n t Language, (Greenwich, Conn.: F a w c e t t P r e m i e r , 1959) and H a l l , Edward T., The Hidden D i m e n s i o n , (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969) U.S. P r e s i d e n t s A i r p o r t Commission, The A i r p o r t and I t s Neighbors., op c i t , Page 34.  44 of people are affected by the noise o£ a i r c r a f t passing overhead.  A i r c r a f t noise i s the most c l e a r l y recognized of a l l the characte r i s t i c s which are associated with the a i r p o r t .  This i s because i t i s  a unique noise i n the urban context and for those residents who l i v e near a f l i g h t path, one which pervades and invades v i r t u a l l y regardless of the ambient or background noise l e v e l . it,  For those who are subject to  there i s no escape and the control and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of privacy i s  an i l l u s i o n .  Piston engined a i r c r a f t are noisy, but compared to the sleek, newer and i n f i n i t e l y more powerful and faster j e t a i r c r a f t , they present r e l a t i v e l y few noise problems.  The ultimate problem i s now about to con-  front us i n the form of the supersonic a i r c r a f t such as the Concorde and the SST which w i l l create, as a byproduct  of their increased speed, the  constant sonic boom commonly referred to as "breaking :  the sound b a r r i e r " .  The noise problem of a i r c r a f t i s a r e s u l t of a great deal of advancement in c e r t a i n areas of a i r c r a f t technology which has not been paralled i n other areas.  As a r e s u l t of t h i s , much of the advantage of the SST w i l l  be l o s t u n t i l other areas of development catch up.  The problem of the e f f e c t s of a i r c r a f t noise on r e s i d e n t i a l communi t i e s has been subject to investigation since the Second World War. The r e s u l t s of these investigations, as one might expect i n a contentious issue, are not always clear cut and i n some cases are c o n f l i c t i n g .  How-  ever, a body of generally accepted data and conclusions has been b u i l t up.  45 N o i s e : Sonne G e n e r a l  Considerations  P h y s i c a l l y , n o i s e has been d e f i n e d as a complex sound w i t h or no p e r i o d i c i t y .  But as Rodda has  pointed  out, "the  little  l i m i t a t i o n s of  t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l or a s o c i a l sense a r e a p p a r e n t .  (^)u  I n these senses n o i s e , to q u a l i f y as such, must have a s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y . T h e r e f o r e ,  i t i s b e s t d e f i n e d , f o r the purposes of  t h i s a n a l y s i s , as unwanted or a n n o y i n g sound. of disharmony being  with a c t i v i t y ,  c l a s s i f i e d by  may  the p e r c e p t u a l  "increase  D i s s o n a n c e , or the q u a l i t y the p r o b a b i l i t y of a sound  system as n o i s e .  (4)n  T t  Q  O  e  s  n  t ,  o  however, c o n s t i t u t e n o i s e .  Sound v a r i e s i n t h r e e b a s i c p h y s i c a l d i m e n s i o n s : i n t e n s i t y and  duration.  Frequency i s measured i n terms of the number  of times t h a t a sound wave ( w h i c h i s p e r i o d i c ) r e p e a t s i n t e r v a l of time and ( c / s or c p s ) .  square The  itself in a  i s u s u a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n terms of c y c l e s per  given  second  I n t e n s i t y i s e x p r e s s e d as the r a t i o of the power of a  g i v e n sound t o the power a t some a r b i t r a r y l e v e l and per  frequency,  i s measured i n dynes  centimeter. human ear  i s s e n s i t i v e t o a wide range of sound p r e s s u r e  Because of t h i s , a l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e i s used to compress t h i s r a t i o 1 x lO^  2  to 1 t o a s c a l e of 140  d e c i b e l (dB) .  i n c r e a s e of lOdB.  (4)  of the sound p r e s s u r e The  human ear  Rodda, M i c h a e l , N o i s e and Page 2. i b i d Page 3.  of  the u n i t of w h i c h i s c a l l e d the  Because i t i s a l o g a r m i t h i c r a t h e r than a  r a t i o , a doubling  (3)  t o 1,  levels.  arithemetic  l e v e l ( i n t e n s i t y ) r e s u l t s i n an  i s normally  c a p a b l e of d i s c e r n i n g  S o c i e t y , ( E d i n b u r g h : O l i v e r and Boyd,  1967)  46  levels between 0 and 130 dB and frequencies of 20 to 20,000 cycles per second.  Because the decibel is a measure of intensity rather than loud-  ness, two independent and different sources of noise may have the same decibel rating.  If one of these has a predominantly higher frequency  range i t may be subjectively more annoying.  This fact is of importance  because jet aircraft, which are now predominant in large aircraft, tend to develop their sound at higher frequencies than piston driven engines. Hence the two are not directly comparable using only their intensity rating. Although when expressing psychological reactions or assessments i t is usual to equate frequency with, "pitch" and intensity with "loudness" this is, strictly speaking, an error.  As Rodda points out:  "Although generally speaking pitch increases with increasing frequency, and loudness increases with increased intensity they do so in a different manner. (5)" The "phon" which is defined as the intensity (in dB) of sound at a frequency of 1000 cycles per second is the true measure of loudness. At this frequency,intensity and loudness are equal but at a l l others they are not.  Because the phon scale is ordinal (for instance 100 phons is  more than twice as loud as 50 phons) the "sone" scale which is interval was developed.  For a l l practical purposes,  the variation of pitch with  intensity can be ignored since i t is much less than the variation of loudness with frequency.  (5)  ibid Page 4.  47  I n i t i a l l y , sound was measured by three instruments, component by a frequency and duration by any  the  frequency  analyzer, intensity by a sound l e v e l meter,  system of temporal recording.  l y , sound analyzing machines which take frequency  However, more recentinto account and which  weight intensity for v a r i a t i o n s i n frequency have been developed present a better basis for measuring loudness  than previously.  and Even with  this improvement however, the sound analyzer tends to underestimate  im-  pulsive noises with a rapid r i s e and f a l l of i n t e n s i t y . This i s of importance for a i r c r a f t noises since, with the exception of ground runup noise, the time span of a i r c r a f t noise i s r e l a t i v e l y short.  E f f e c t s of Noise The e f f e c t s of noise on humans may  be c l a s s i f i e d into three  categories:1)  I t may have a damaging e f f e c t on hearing i f i t is loud enough or long enough.  2)  I t may  i n t e r f e r e with speech communication.  3)  I t may  be a source of annoyance to the perceiver.  Michael Rettinger has c l a s s i f i e d the damaging e f f e c t s into four categories:(1)  Physical " i n the sense that a persons hearing becomes damaged when he i s prolongedly exposed to sounds of high intensity (6)«. are e s s e n t i a l l y two possible e f f e c t s here.  There  The f i r s t , a temporary  threshold s h i f t (TTS) i s defined as a "temporary loss of hearing acuity r e s u l t i n g from p r i o r exposure to noise ( 7 ) " , (6) (7)  and varies  Rettinger, Michael, Acoustics, (New York: Chemical Publishing Co. 1968) Page 137. Rodda, Noise and Society, op c i t , Page 100.  48  from 0 t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y  10 dB l a s t i n g f o r a p e r i o d anywhere from  a few m i n u t e s to s e v e r a l h o u r s .  This i s often experienced  by  p e o p l e a f t e r exposure t o a h i g h steady sound p r e s s u r e l e v e l a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l h o u r s .  The  over  second i s the permanent compensat-  i n g h e a r i n g l o s s w h i c h i s , i n f a c t , a form of p a r t i a l deafness  in  t h a t the c a p a c i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l to hear the normal range of sound l e v e l s and f r e q u e n c i e s i s permanently  reduced.  There i s a good d e a l of v a r i a t i o n i n o t h e r p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n s of u a l s to h i g h n o i s e l e v e l s but there i s evidence t h a t some persons  a r e a l l e r g i c t o n o i s e and  individ  t o s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i  i n i t s presence  exhibit  dil-  a t e d l o c a l b l o o d v e s s e l s , muscle spasms, f a t i g u e , slowed r e a c t i o n t i m e , i m p a i r e d v i s i o n and even l a c k of b o d i l y b a l a n c e (8)". (2)  P h y s i o l o g i c a l whereby sound produces a change i n b o d i l y a c t i v i t y , i t has been shown t h a t the p e r i s t a l t i c m o t i o n s of the  intestines  ( s u c c e s s i v e waves of i n v o l u n t a r y c o n t r a c t i o n s p a s s i n g a l o n g w a l l s o f the i n t e s t i n e ) have been reduced l e v e l s no h i g h e r than 80 dBC.  by up t o 3TL by n o i s e  The r e s u l t s of t h i s have noted  i n d i g e s t i o n , s l e e p l e s s n e s s , n e r v o u s n e s s and nausea. l i n e has been suggested from the n a r r o w i n g  as  A further  between c a r d i o v a s c u l a r d i s o r d e r s r e s u l t i n g  of the lumen i n the b l o o d v e s s e l s w h i c h d i m i n -  ishes cardiac output.  There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e  i o n s h i p between h i g h a d r e n o - c o r t i c a l a c t i v i t y by h i g h sound l e v e l s ) and h e a r t d i s e a s e .  (8)  the  R e t t i n g e r , A c o u s t i c s , op c i t , Page  100  to i n d i c a t e a r e l a t (which may  be  induced  49  (3)  Emotional  d i s t u r b a n c e s have so f a r p r o v e n t o be i m p o s s i b l e to  measure s i n c e no a c c u r a t e s c a l e e x i s t s to measure i r r i t a t i o n . There i s however, no doubt t h a t i r r i t a t i o n i s l i n k e d b o t h n o i s e (by d e f i n i t i o n ) and  (4)  to emotional  to  disturbances.  O p e r a t i o n a l i n e f f i c i e n c y and n o i s e have been w i d e l y s t u d i e d i n industrial situations. a)  The  b a s i c f i n d i n g s are t h a t : -  i n p r a c t i c e d t a s k s a r e more a f f e c t e d than f a m i l i a r ones, but even p r a c t i c e d t a s k s a r e i n t e r r u p t e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of sudden and u n f a m i l i a r sounds.  b)  d i s c o n t i n u o u s and h i g h f r e q u e n c y  sounds produce more marked  inefficiency. c)  i n r e a d i n g , the number of pages read may  increase i n a given  p e r i o d of time b u t the amount of comprehended m a t e r i a l i s l e s s . In  1963,  f o r example, the W i l s o n Committee on n o i s e recommended  the sound p r e s s u r e l e v e l s f o r v a r y i n g f r e q u e n c i e s , shown i n T a b l e for  steady c o n t i n u o u s  n o i s e s to be c o n t i n u e d  3.1,  f o r more than f i v e h o u r s per  day. These l e v e l s , h i g h though they may in certain industrial situations. n o i s e l e v e l s , and  3.3  Table  be, a r e q u i t e o f t e n exceeded 3.2  shows a range of  i n d i c a t e s t y p i c a l speech communication  industrial criteria.  I n c o n s i d e r i n g human r e a c t i o n s t o n o i s e t h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s w h i c h come i n t o p l a y .  S i n c e , as has a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d o u t , the  d e c i b e l r a t i n g , even when w e i g h t e d , aspect i n i t s proper  light,  straight  does not c o n s i d e r the s u b j e c t i v e  attempts  f a c t o r s i n t o n o i s e l e v e l measurement.  have been made t o i n t r o d u c e Three such i n d i c e s a r e : -  these  50  TABLE 3.1 RECOMMENDED SAFE LEVEL OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE  Mid  frequency  63  125  200  500  1000  2000  4000  8000  103  96  91  87  85  85  81  79  i n c/s o f Octave Band Sound P r e s s u r e L e v e l , 9dB) Approximate  SOURCE:  W i l s o n , S i r A l a n , Committee on the Problem o f N o i s e : F i n a l R e p o r t , (London: HMSO, 1963) Page 125.  51  TABLE 3.2 NOISE LEVELS IN FACTORY SITUATIONS  Situation  Sound L e v e l Sound L e v e l Loudness ("C" w e i g h t i n g ) ("A" w e i g h t i n gl) Level (dB) (Phons) (dB)  B o i l e r Works  118  118  127  M e t a l Powder Works  115  114  125  M e t a l Saw  110  110  125  99  86  109  108  108  . 119  P r i n t i n g Works Wood P l a n i n g Machine  SOURCE:  Rodda, M i c h a e l , N o i s e and S o c i e t y , ( E d i n b u r g h : Boyd, 1967) Page 25.  O l i v e r and  52  TABLE 3 . 3 SPEECH COMMUNICATION CRITERIA  R e l a t i o n between speech communication c r i t e r i a expressed by speech i n t e r f e r e n c e l e v e l s and the communication c o n d i t i o n s f o r a degree o f i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y t h a t i s m a r g i n a l w i t h c o n v e n t i a l and good w i t h s e l e c t e d vocabulary.  SPEECH INTERFERENCE LEVEL IN DECIBELS *  VOICE LEVEL  NATURE OF POSSIBLE COMMUNICATION  45  Normal v o i c e a t 10 f e e t  Relaxed conversation ( p r i v a t e o f f i c e s , conf e r e n c e rooms)  55  Normal v o i c e a t 3 feet Raised voice a t 6 feet Very l o u d v o i c e a t 12 f e e t  Continuous communication i n working a r e a s , (business, s e c r e t a r i a l )  65  Raised voice a t 2 feet Very loud v o i c e at 4 f e e t Shouting a t 8 feet  Intermittant ation  75  Very loud v o i c e at 1 foot S h o u t i n g a t 2-3 feet  Minimum communication (danger s i g n a l s , prearranged v o c a b u l a r y desirable)  communic-  * The S I L of a n o i s e i s the average i n d e c i b e l s o f the sound p r e s s u r e l e v e l s of the n o i s e i n the three octave bands o f frequency 600-1200, 1200-2400, 2400-4800 c y c l e s p e r second.  SOURCE:  P i e t r a s a n t a , Adone C , and R i c h a r d H. B o l t , ( B o l t , Beranek and Newman Inc.) B a s i c F a c t s About Noise as R e l a t e d to A v i a t i o n , (Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f . : B o l t , Beranek and Newman, March 3, 1954) Page 16.  53  1)  The n o i s e and number i n d e x .  (NNl)  2)  The p e r c e i v e d n o i s e l e v e l i n  3)  The  composite n o i s e r a t i n g .  decibels.(PNdB) (CNR)  The n o i s e and number i n d e x i s a composite number i n t r o d u c e d by B r i t a i n s W i l s o n Committee on N o i s e . the f r e q u e n c y  T h i s number makes a l l o w a n c e f o r  of i n t e r r u p t i o n and peak n o i s e l e v e l s and  i s measured on  a s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m 0 ( z e r o ) , r e f e r r i n g to no n u i s a n c e and 50 to 60, r e f e r r i n g to a v e r y h i g h n u i s a n c e member of the W i l s o n Committee Report,  i t was  n u i s a n c e due  level.  P r o f e s s o r E. J . R i c h a r d s , a  r e p o r t s t h a t , " I n the W i l s o n Committee  shown t h a t the NNI must be below 35 i n o r d e r to keep the •(•0"  to n o i s e l e s s than o t h e r annoyance.  T a b l e 3.4  i n d i c a t e s the a r e a s i n c l u d e d by v a r i o u s NNI  and a l s o the p e r c e n t a g e  of r e p o n d e n t s d e c l a r i n g the a r e a "poor"  a f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d of a c c l i m i t i z a t i o n .  The  contours even  -""  p e r c e i v e d n o i s e d e c i b e l l e v e l (PNdb) measures the a c c e p t a b i l i t y  or n o i s i n e s s of a i r c r a f t sounds.  I t i s a q u a n t i t y " c a l c u l a t e d from  measured n o i s e l e v e l s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s v a r i o u s k i n d s of a i r c r a f t n o i s e s .  C n  w e l l w i t h s u b j e c t i v e responses ^  s  a  r  u  i  e  c  to  f thumb, when d e a l -  i n g w i t h PNdB a d o u b l i n g or h a l v i n g of the sound l e v e l r e s u l t s i n a t e n PNdB d i f f e r e n c e i n the n o i s e l e v e l .  An example of the use of t h i s u n i t  i s the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t engine n o i s e a t Heathrow A i r p o r t near London, England, (9)  " s h a l l n o t even under optimum c o n d i t i o n s exceed 110 PNdB. (•*-!)"  R i c h a r d s , E . J . , N o i s e A s p e c t s o f the Problem" i n S t r a t f o r d , A l a n and A s s o c i a t e s , (ed's) S t u d i e s of the S i t e f o r a T h i r d London A i r p o r t , (Maidenhead, B e r k s h i r e , E n g l a n d : S t r a t f o r d , J u l y 1966)Pg.l05 (10) B o l t , Beranek and Newman, I n c . A Study: I n s u l a t i n g Houses from A i r c r a f t N o i s e , (Los A n g e l e s : November 1966) Page 16. (11) Rodda, N o i s e and S o c i e t y , op c i t , Page 20.  54  TABLE 3.4 NNI CONTOURS AND INHABITANTS RESPONSES  NNI Contour  Area Enclosed  7o I n h a b i t a n t s D e c l a r i n g A r e a Poor"  25  184 s q . m i l e s  35  35  117 s q . m i l e s  50  45  67 s q . m i l e s  63  55  35 s q . m i l e s  * T h i s h o l d s even a f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d of a c c l i m i t i z a t i o n .  SOURCE:  R i c h a r d , E. J . " N o i s e A s p e c t s o f the Problem", A l a n S t r a t f o r d and A s s o c i a t e s ( e d ' s ) , S t u d i e s o f the S i t e f o r a T h i r d London A i r p o r t , (Maidenhead, B e r k s h i r e , E n g l a n d : S t r a t f o r d , J u l y 1966) Page 106.  55 T h i s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l to 96 dBA, "A"  w e i g h t i n g s c a l e o f a sound l e v e l  t h a t i s , 96 dB measured on the  meter.  The c o m p o s i t e n o i s e r a t i n g (CNR)  i s a calculated quantity  scale  o b t a i n e d by a d d i n g a l g e b r a i c a l l y the t o t a l of the PNdB and c e r t a i n c o r r e c t i o n s w h i c h take i n t o a c c o u n t o t h e r f a c t o r s such as the number of movements, the time of day, and runway u t i l i z a t i o n .  A i r c r a f t N o i s e and the Community The impact of a i r c r a f t n o i s e on the community can be c o n s i d e r e d in  terms of t h r e e components:-  1)  The s o u r c e , w h i c h i n t h i s case i s l a r g e l y the p r o p e l l o r and/or engine n o i s e .  2)  The t r a n s m i t t e r or medium w h i c h i s a i r i n t h i s c a s e .  3)  The r e c e p t o r , w h i c h i s the human e a r i n t h i s c a s e .  The s o u r c e has a number of v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g the type of e n g i n e , m e c h a n i c a l n o i s e s u p p r e s s i o n d e v i c e s , p i l o t t e c h n i q u e , and e n g i n e power. The medium v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e , t u r b u l e n c e , a i r v e l o c i t y , o b s t a c l e s , topography and d i s t a n c e .  The r e c e p t o r , f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l pur-  poses can be s t a n d a r d i z e d , s i n c e i t i s the human ear i n t h i s c a s e .  In the  a s s e s s i n g the e f f e c t s of n o i s e emanating from a g i v e n l o c a t i o n  b e g i n n i n g p o i n t i s the e v a l u a t i o n of the varicus a i r c r a f t t y p e s w h i c h  w i l l be u s i n g the f a c i l i t y ,  and then a p p l y i n g a s e t o f n o i s e c o n t o u r  maps w h i c h have been c o r r e c t e d f o r the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . superimposed on a l a n d use map w i l l various noise levels.  T h i s , when  i n d i c a t e the a r e a s a f f e c t e d by the  56  T a b l e 3.5 i n d i c a t e s recommended n o i s e l e v e l s f o r v a r i o u s l a n d uses.  These l e v e l s , however, s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d as maximum n o i s e  l e v e l s t h a t w i l l be t o l e r a t e d .  They do n o t r e p r e s e n t l e v e l s a t w h i c h  a c t i v i t i e s are i n t e r f e r r e d with. 90 PNdB (which c o r r e s p o n d s level.  F o r example, T a b l e 3.5  suggests  t o 80 dBA) as an a c c e p t a b l e e x t e r i o r n o i s e  T h i s however, i s w e l l above the maximum speech i n t e r f e r e n c e  l e v e l s suggested  i n T a b l e 3.3.  The a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h i s l e v e l  w i t h the v a r i a b l e s d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s  decreases  chapter.  N o i s e S u p r e s s i o n a t the Source A good d e a l o f r e s e a r c h has been done by a i r c r a f t in  this f i e l d .  be reduced  I t has been found  manufacturers  t h a t maximum o v e r a l l sound l e v e l s c a n  t o some e x t e n t , g e n e r a l l y l e s s than 20 dB w i t h the use o f  suppressors.  The maximum o v e r a l l sound l e v e l s o f a s i n g l e JT 3C-4 engine  w i t h s u p p r e s s o r s remains h i g h a t 126 dB measured a t maximum RPM, a t 200 f e e t d i s t a n c e , and a t the maximum sound p r e s s u r e a n g l e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40°  from the j e t e x h a u s t a x i s .  Four engined  turbojet a i r c r a f t are s t i l l  i n the o r d e r o f 110 t o 120 dB a t 1000 f e e t d i s t a n c e a t the maximum a n g l e of n o i s e .  F i g u r e 3.1 shows g r a p h i c a l l y how the r e l a t i v e sound l e v e l s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f the r e c e p t o r t o the exhaust  axis.  I t i s n o t expected, t h a t i n the n e a r f u t u r e s u p p r e s s i o n a t the source be a major f a c t o r i n n o i s e r e d u c t i o n a t a i r p o r t s .  will  Nor c a n we e x p e c t ,  on the s t r e n g t h o f R i c h a r d s f i n d i n g s , t h a t the community w i l l a c c l i m a t ize will  t o the n o i s e t o any d e g r e e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e occur t o a s m a l l degree.  soundproofing  or s e p a r a t i o n .  Therefore  that this  the r e m a i n i n g c h o i c e s a r e e i t h e r  57  TABLE 3.5 ACCEPTABLE EXTERIOR NOISE LEVELS FOR VARIOUS ACTIVITIES BASED ON AVERAGE NOISE REDUCTION BY BUILDING Acceptable Interior Noise Level (PNdB) *  Activity  Industrial . Apparel Printing Food Processing Metal Working  Acceptable Exterior Noise Level (Without Modification)  Acceptable Exterior CNR** with 10 dB extra Noise reduction  85 80 80 90  115 110 110 120  125 120 120 130  50  80  90  50  85  95  60  90  100  60  95  105  Hotel  60  90  100  School  55  85  95  Store  70  100  110  Residence  60  90  100  Special Uses Concert H a l l Theatre Church . Hospital Arena  40 50 45 50 70  Offices Private, one floor Private m u l t i floor General one floor General multi floor  *  **  Noise l e v e l i n PNdB obtained from converting noise l e v e l s from dB to PNdB. CNR = Composite Noise Rating.  SOURCE:  Arde Inc. and Town and C i t y Inc., A Study of the Optimum Use of Land Exposed to A i r c r a f t Landing and Takeoff Noise, (Springf i e l d , Va.: Nasa Contractor Report Nas 1-3697, March, 1966) Page 77.  58  FIGURE 3.1  RELATIVE OVERALL SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL ZONES FOR A TYPICAL JET ENGINE AT 100% POWER .  SOURCE:  P e t e r s o n , John E . , A i r p o r t s f o r J e t s , ( C h i c a g o : B l a k e l y - O s w a l d P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1959) Page 28.  59  Community R e a c t i o n  to A i r c r a f t  Noise  What happens when an a i r p o r t community?  1)  There a r e a number of f a c t o r s to be  considered.  They a r e : -  The  spectrum c h a r a c t e r of the n o i s e , which i n c l u d e s the  all  loudness  level  i n PNdB and  can be e i t h e r m a g n i f i e d and n o i s e b a f f l e s  2)  i s l o c a t e d too c l o s e to a r e s i d e n t i a l  over-  resonance or v i b r a t i o n which  or l e s s e n e d a c c o r d i n g  to the medium  such as b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Peak f a c t o r s , which takes  i n t o account whether the n o i s e i s  i m p u l s i v e or c o n t i n u o u s .  I n g e n e r a l , continuous  noises  are  more o b j e c t i o n a b l e .  3)  R e p e t i t i v e c h a r a c t e r of the n o i s e . s i t u a t i o n s which o c c u r .  Firstly,  There a r e two  basic noise  there i s a i r c r a f t f l y o v e r  noise.  The  n o i s e l e v e l changes q u i t e q u i c k l y w i t h  reaches  a peak which i s s u s t a i n e d f o r only a s h o r t  time  and  time.  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d d i s s i p a t i o n of the n o i s e . The  sound waves s t r i k e b u i l d i n g s and  so on from  different  directions.  Secondly,  there  ground runups.  i s the s i t u a t i o n which i s encountered I n t h i s case  to the b u i l d i n g and  the sound waves s t r i k e  c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s only. The  the a i r c r a f t  i s fixed  during  in relation  the b u i l d i n g from  Other p a r t s are p r o t e c t e d or s h i e l d e d .  e f f e c t s of topography a r e a l s o f a r more pronounced.  noise levels w i l l  vary with  the t h r u s t s e t t i n g s and  are  g e n e r a l l y of l o n g e r d u r a t i o n than w i t h f l y o v e r n o i s e .  The  60 4)  L e v e l of the background or ambient n o i s e and activity.  As has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d , i t i s i m p o r t a n t  n o t e the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n n o i s e s . type of a c t i v i t y  5) The  the type of  time of day  to  T h i s w i l l depend on  to which a given area i s being  i s a l s o of i m p o r t a n c e .  the  devoted.  I n g e n e r a l the n o i s e  l e v e l w h i c h i s a c c e p t a b l e d u r i n g the d a y l i g h t hours i s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than t h a t d u r i n g the n i g h t when r e s i d e n t s are s l e e p i n g .  6) Community a t t i t u d e toward  the a i r p o r t .  I f those a f f e c t e d  by the n o i s e a r e a i r c r a f t or a i r p o r t employees, t h e r e i s a tendency towards l e s s e x p r e s s e d u n f a v o r a b l e r e a c t i o n . c a s e s where the community i s o r i e n t e d t o o t h e r  In  industries  such as d a i r y p r o d u c t s or mink r a n c h i n g , t h e r e i s l i a b l e be a g r e a t e r n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n t o the n o i s e  to  levels.  7) / P i l o t t e c h n i q u e , known as n o i s e abatement p r o c e d u r e s  have a  good d e a l t o do w i t h n o i s e l e v e l s d u r i n g t a k e o f f s and l a n d i n g s . O b v i o u s l y , a l o n g slow d e s c e n t or a s c e n t w i l l produce o b j e c t i o n a b l e n o i s e over a l a r g e r a r e a . t h r u s t s e t t i n g s and  i n the case of the SST  of the a i r c r a f t t o s u b - s o n i c  In  Other t e c h n i q u e s i n c l u d e a d j u s t i n g t h e speed  levels.  s p i t e of the number of v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b e d h e r e , t h e r e a r e  some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w h i c h have been made w i t h r e g a r d to a c c e p t a b l e n o i s e levels i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  T a b l e 3.6  to v a r i o u s Composite N o i s e R a t i n g s . The  i n d i c a t e s the p r o b a b l e  responses  t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t runups of  61  TABLE CHART FOR  3.6  ESTIMATING RESPONSES OF RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES FROM COMPOSITE NOISE RATINGS.  Zone  Composite N o i s e R a t i n g Takeoffs Runups & Landings  D e s c r i p t i o n of E x p e c t e d Response  L e s s than 100  L e s s than 80  E s s e n t i a l l y no c o m p l a i n t s would be e x p e c t e d . The n o i s e may however, i n t e r f e r e o c c a s ionally with certain a c t i v i t i e s  100-115  80-95  I n d i v i d u a l s may c o m p l a i n , perhaps v i g o r o u s l y . Concerted group a c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e .  G r e a t e r than 115  Greater 95  SOURCE:  than  I n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n s would l i k e l y include repeated v i g o r ous c o m p l a i n t s . C o n c e r t e d group a c t i o n might be e x p e c t e d .  B o l t , Beranek, and Newman, I n c . , A Study: I n s u l a t i n g Houses A g a i n s t A i r c r a f t N o i s e , Developed Under the t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s program of the Department of H o u s i n g and Urban Development, (Los A n g e l e s : F e d e r a l H o u s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , November, 1966) Page 28.  62  l e s s than 80 and t a k e o f f l a n d i n g l e v e l s o f l e s s than 100 CNR s h o u l d p r e s e n t no p r o b l e m s .  The same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these l e v e l s as sugg-  ested e a r l i e r a p p l i e s .  The U. S. A i r F o r c e found the r e l a t i o n  i n F i g u r e 3.2 between community response and CNR.  indicated  The d i f f e r e n c e s a r e  e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by the f a c t t h a t the l a t t e r r e l a t e t o c o n t i n u o u s sound l e v e l s , r a t h e r than s p o r a d i c ones.  I t i s suggested t h a t these l e v e l s  a r e more r e a l i s t i c as the bases o f s t a n d a r d s than those o f T a b l e s 3.6 and 3.5.  NON-OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS The e x i s t e n c e o f non-occupant a i r c r a f t c r a s h h a z a r d s t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s has been the s u b j e c t o f c o n c e r n a t v a r i o u s times i n the p a s t twenty y e a r s . U. S..  The major a c t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d has been t a k e n i n the  Gottman s t a t e s  that:-  " I n 1952 ... t h e r e was a s e r i e s o f t r a g i c a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g a i r p l a n e s t h a t had t a k e n o f f from Neward A i r p o r t and severe p r o p e r t y damage and s e v e r a l deaths r e s u l t e d i n the surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l area, e s p e c i a l l y i n the a d j a c e n t c i t y o f E l i z a b e t h , N. J . The i n h a b i t a n t s o f the a r e a , f e e l i n g t h e i r s a f e t y j e o p a r d i z e d , asked t h a t the a i r p o r t be c l o s e d , and f o r a w h i l e t h i s had t o be done. ( 1 2 ) "  P a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h i s , a temporary  t h r e e man U. S. P r e s i d -  e n t s Commission, c h a i r e d by James A. D o o l i t t l e , was formed  to deal with  the whole problem o f a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n and the mutual p r o t e c t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l and a i r p o r t a r e a s . t h a t the "immediate  The r e p o r t o f the Commission s t r e s s e d  problem i s t o f i n d a way t o p r o t e c t p r e s e n t a i r p o r t s  and the people r e s i d i n g near them by a p p l y i n g some means o f c o n t r o l o f (12)  Gottman, J e a n , M e g a l o p o l i s : The U r b a n i z e d N o r t h e a s t e r n Seaboard of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , (Cambridge, Mass. M.I.T. P r e s s , ) P g . 756  63  FIGURE  3.2  RELATION BETWEEN COMMUNITY RESPONSE AND  COMPOSITE NOISE RATING  E q u i v a l e n t c o n t i n u o u s sound p r e s s u r e l e v e l s i n 300-600 C y c l e s per Second Octave p l u s C o r r e c t i o n  (dB)  Vigorous. . , Community Action Threats of, Community Action Wide- .... spread Complaints Sporadic.. , Complaint No observed Reaction Noise L e v e l  Range of r e s p o n s e s t h a t can be expected from exposed to n o i s e s of i n c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y . C e n t r e c u r v e i n d i c a t e s average SOURCE:  communities  response.  U. S. Department of the A i r F o r c e , " A i r c r a f t N o i s e D i s t u r b a n c e s " , A i r Base M a s t e r P l a n n i n g Manual AFM 86-6, (Washingt o n : Dept. of the A i r F o r c e , F e b r u a r y 10, 1959).  64 (13^ ground use  i n approach zones.  As a r e s u l t , i n 1961,  v  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the  new  a i r p o r t f o r New  and  a l s o away from o t h e r e x i s t i n g t r a f f i c r o u t e s .  applied  York required  coverage g i v e n to a i r c r a s h e s , and  areas  same c r i t e r i a  Montreal International A i r p o r t .  p u b l i c w i t h r e s p e c t to a i r c r a f t h a z a r d s has  reported  The  c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the g e n e r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s of  no m a t t e r how  the  t h a t i t be away from i n h a b i t e d  to the l o c a t i o n of the new  One  s i t e of  h i s t o r i c a l l y been the wide  indeed to a l m o s t any  small, involving a i r c r a f t .  the  For  k i n d of mishap,  example, the Vancouver  Sun  that:"A W a r d a i r B o e i n g 707, on a c h a r t e r f l i g h t to E n g l a n d became s t u c k i n the mud a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t on Monday n i g h t , and was d e l a y e d f o r f i v e h o u r s and f i f t e e n m i n u t e s ... (14).-  The  q u e s t i o n t h a t s h o u l d be answered h e r e however, i s t h a t of  g r e a t the h a z a r d i s f o r the r e s i d e n t s  l i v i n g i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t to  ports.  W h i l e t h e r e a r e no  se that  d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n to t h i s , i t i s known t h a t i n the U.S.  :  t h e r e were 5196  air-  f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e f o r Canada or the U.S.  general a v i a t i o n accidents  i n v o l v i n g 1029  how  per  in  1965  fatalities.  W h i l e i t i s acknowledged t h a t t h i s i s an a l a r m i n g number, i t s h o u l d  be  n o t e d t h a t most of those who  air-  craft. 1493 (13) (14)  l o s t t h e i r l i v e s were o c c u p a n t s of the  I n the same y e a r t h e r e were 49,163 deaths i n v o l v i n g motor v e h i c l e s ,  i n v o l v i n g water t r a n s p o r t , and U.S.  962  involving railways  during  the  P r e s i d e n t s A i r p o r t Commission, The A i r p o r t and I t s N e i g h b o r s , op c i t , page 7. As r e p o r t e d i n the Vancouver Sun, December 4, 1969.  65 same p e r i o d . (•^-')  I n the t e n y e a r p e r i o d from 1959-69 l e s s than one p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l number o f non-occupant involved a i r c r a f t .  f a t a l i t i e s i n the U.S.  (115,248)  A u t o m o b i l e s and t a x i s accounted f o r 867,, r a i l r o a d  passenger t r a i n s f o r 97, and buses f o r 47o. (16)  AIRPORT GENERATED GROUND TRAFFIC As the volumes o f a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , b o t h p e o p l e and goods, i n c r e a s e s , i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e i s p u t on the ground a c c e s s system i n g the a i r p o r t .  Although data with respect  link-  to t r a f f i c generation i s  l i m i t e d , some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made.  S c h r i e v e r and S e i f e r t r e p o r t e d  a study o f t e r m i n a l p o p u l a t i o n a t  C h i c a g o ' s O'Hare and Midway, D a l l a s / F o r t Worth, N a s h v i l l e and the New Y o r k A i r p o r t s i n w h i c h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n was as f o l l o w s A i r p a s s e n g e r s 33-567», employees ll-167o, v i s i t o r s , s i g h t s e e r s and shoppe  31-427o, and s e r v i c e s u p p l i e r s 3-77». The T e c h n i c a l Committee on Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  based on a study  of 13 major U. S. a i r p o r t s , found t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the a i r p o r t p o p u l a t i o n was a s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 3.7.  I t was found t h a t the number  of d a i l y a c c e s s t r i p s was d i f f e r e n t from the p o p u l a t i o n however, s i n c e many p e r s o n s u s e l i m o u s i n e  s e r v i c e , share t a x i s and so on.  number o f d a i l y t r i p s i s 507» g r e a t e r (15)  (16) (17)  The t o t a l  than the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n  (rather  U.S. F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Agency, F.A.A. S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook of A v i a t i o n , (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , November 1967) Page 228. ibid S c h r i e v e r and S e i f e r t , A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1975 and Beyond, op c i t Page 450.  66  TABLE  3.7  DISTRIBUTION OF AIRPORT POPULATION BY PURPOSE - 1968  . TYPE A i r l i n e passengers  50  Visitors  30  A i r p o r t employees  20  Total  SOURCE:  . PERCENT  '  100  Based on d a t a i n Committee on T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o and From A i r p o r t s of the T e c h n i c a l Committee on Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n "Survey of Ground A c c e s s Problems a t A i r p o r t s " , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , P r o c e e d i n g s o f the A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y of C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , Volume 95, No. T E I , F e b r u a r y 1969, Pages 115-142.  67 than t w i c e as much).  Viewed i n t h i s c o n t e x t , a i r l i n e passengers  account  f o r o n l y 25% o f the t r i p s , employees f o r 25%, and v i s i t o r s f o r 50%. major e x i s t e n t problem a t the same t i m e . transit.  While  be i n Canada.  The  o c c u r s when employee-passenger peak l o a d s o c c u r  One means of a l l e v i a t i n g t h i s i s to r e l y on mass  t h i s t r e n d i s i n c r e a s i n g i n the U.S.,  i t does n o t seem t o  F o r example a t the new M o n t r e a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t a t  St.- S c h o l a s t i q u e i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t by 1985  o n l y 30% of the 38,000  employees and 10% of the 25,000 d a i l y passengers  w i l l use r a i l w a y s .  The  r e s t of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s p r o j e c t e d to be by highway as has been the past trend. •  /  From the p o i n t of view o f the r e s i d e n t i a l community t h e r e are a number of e f f e c t s w h i c h a r e c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c volumes i n their area.  '  There i s , f i r s t of a l l , of u r b a n n o i s e , B e l l found  a r i s e i n the n o i s e l e v e l .  .  I n h i s study  t h a t , based on the d a t a c o l l e c t e d by  the  W i l s o n Committee on N o i s e , the most common source of annoyance from u r b a n n o i s e to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c (as opposed to those l i v i n g near the a i r p o r t ) was  that of road t r a f f i c .  • when a t home, and 20% reported that " t r a f f i c annoyance ...  Of those q u e s t i o n e d , 36%  when out o f d o o r s .  r e p o r t e d annoyance  The W i l s o n Committee  itself  i s a t the p r e s e n t , t i m e the predominant source of  ( t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ) ... and no o t h e r s i n g l e source of  n o i s e i s of comparable  importance. (20) Buchanan c o n c l u d e d  that " t r a f f i c  n o i s e i s s t e a d i l y d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a major n u i s a n c e . ^ ' ' " ) " (18) Department of T r a n s p o r t , P r e s s R e l e a s e I I , March 27, 1969. Page 3. (19) B e l l , A., N o i s e and O c c u p a t i o n a l Hazard and a P u b l i c N u i s a n c e , (Geneva: World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1966) Page 102. (20) W i l s o n , Committee on the Problem of N o i s e : F i n a l R e p o r t , op c i t , Pg. 112. (21) Buchanan, C o l i n , T r a f f i c i n Towns. The S p e c i a l l y Shortened E d i t i o n of the Buchanan R e p o r t , (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : Penguin Books, 1963) Page 26.  68  B a r f o r d , i n h i s s t u d y of t r a f f i c n o i s e , found t h a t f o r a busy arterial  s t r e e t , n o i s e l e v e l s v a r i e d from 62 t o 65 dBA measured a t c u r b -  s i d e d u r i n g peak h o u r s . per  Peak hour volumes ranged from a low of 849  hour on Thursday between 2:00  and 3:00  FM t o a h i g h of 1144 between  (2?} 4:00  and 5:00  PM on S a t u r d a y .  v  '  I t has been found i n B r i t a i n  that  n o i s e l e v e l s tend t o become c o n s t a n t a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 72 dBA when 30 (23") MPH  r o a d t r a f f i c exceeds a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1200 v e h i c l e s per h o u r .  T h i s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o be s l i g h t l y  v  ' .  lower i n Canada due t o d i f f e r e n c e s  i n the v e h i c l e s themselves. S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s i n c r e a s e d danger as a r e s u l t of the i n c r e a s e s in t r a f f i c .  T h i s a p p l i e s e s p e c i a l l y t o c h i l d r e n who have t o c r o s s  s t r e e t s t o g e t t o s c h o o l , s i n c e they make t h i s t r i p near peak h o u r s , i n the  morning and a t noon.  "As the main roads become c o n g e s t e d w i t h  traff-  i c , d r i v e r s have sought a l t e r n a t e r o u t e s u s i n g s t r e e t s u n s u i t a b l e f o r the  purpose of i n v a d i n g a r e a s w h i c h by any s t a n d a r d s h o u l d have a measure  of peace and  quiet.  A t h i r d e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c i n o r even near r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i s an i n c r e a s e i n a i r p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s . t e r n a l combusion e n g i n e v a r y from 4-7%  Fumes e m i t t e d by the i n -  of the f u e l consumed.  The emm-  i s s i o n s c o n t a i n c a r b o n monoxide, a l e t h a l c o l o r l e s s , o d o r l e s s and  taste-  l e s s gas and p o l y c y c l i c h y d r o c a r b o n s w h i c h a r e p r o b a b l y , a l t h o u g h the e v i d e n c e i s n o t c o n c l u s i v e , c o n n e c t e d w i t h c e r t a i n forms of c a n c e r .  In  sunny weather the o x i d e s o f n i t r o g e n emmitted from the v e h i c l e s c o n t r i b ute (22)  (23) (24)  t o the smog problem, w h i c h i n a d d i t i o n t o r e d u c i n g v i s i b i l i t y can B a r f o r d , Jeromy, E n v i r o n m e n t a l T r a f f i c S t a n d a r d s , ( V a n c o u v e r : Unp u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , May 1968) Page 71-73. G r e a t e r London C o u n c i l , T r a f f i c N o i s e , (London: The C o u n c i l , 1966) Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, op c i t , Page 25.  69  d e v e l o p as an eye and r e s p i r a t o r y i r r i t a n t .  AIRCRAFT  Air Pollution:  Some G e n e r a l  AIR  POLLUTION  Considerations  Community a i r p o l l u t i o n may be d e f i n e d as a c o n d i t i o n o f t h e ambient atmosphere t h a t i s due t o t h e p r e s e n c e of s u b s t a n c e s l i b e r a t e d i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s l a r g e enough t o i n t e r f e r e d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y the c o m f o r t ,  s a f e t y or h e a l t h of l i v i n g organisms.  with  I t i s , as H. C.  Wohler has p o i n t e d o u t , " t h e r e s u l t o f the excess use o f the atmosphere f o r waste d i s p o s a l purposes combined w i t h c e r t a i n p r e d i s p o s i n g and c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s p r o v i d e d by n a t u r e .  (25)ti  As a l i v i n g c r e a t u r e , mans c o n t i n u e d amongst o t h e r  e x i s t e n c e on e a r t h depends,  t h i n g s on t h e maintenance o f t h e atmosphere i n a r e a s o n -  able state or p u r i t y .  Historically  t h e r e has always been a s m a l l degree  of n a t u r a l a i r p o l l u t i o n a r i s i n g from v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t y , d u s t  storms,  f o r e s t f i r e s and so on b u t t h i s has never c r e a t e d a l a r g e s c a l e problem. Man-made a i r p o l l u t i o n , as a s o c i a l problem, has i t s r o o t s i n the 1 4 t h c e n t u r y w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o a l as a source  of heat.  The b e g i n n i n g s  of i t s i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n d a t e t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n .  The major c o n c e r n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i s w i t h the lower phere o f t h e e a r t h w h i c h extends up some 40,000 f e e t .  atmos-  T h i s band may be  d i v i d e d f o r purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i n t o two zones, one up t o 3500 f e e t below w h i c h s e t t l e m e n t  o c c u r s q u i t e q u i c k l y and a second o f 3500 t o  40,000 f e e t i n w h i c h t h i s o c c u r s p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s and d i s p e r s i o n i s g r e a t e r . (25)  Wohler, H.C., A i r P o l l u t a n t s and T h e i r E f f e c t s , ( P a l o A l t o , S t a n f o r d R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , Undated) Page 1.  Calif.  70  There are two broad classes of a i r p o l l u t a n t s .  The f i r s t i s p a r t i c u l a t e  matter consisting of s o l i d and l i q u i d p a r t i c l e s ranging i n size from large p a r t i c l e s greater than 100 microns i n diameter to suspended  parti-  cles of less than 20 microns and aerosols from 1 to 0 . 0 1 microns i n diameter.  The large p a r t i c l e s tend to gravitate f a i r l y quickly to the earth  and constitute the bulk of the material collected as f a l l o u t .  Secondly,  there are gases and vapors including the permanent gases and those substances that have b o i l i n g points of less than 200°C.  Mans contribution to a i r p o l l u t i o n i s h i s a c t i v i t y that r e s u l t s in t h e emmission  into the a i r of smoke, spot, f l y ash, cinders, dust,  gases, vapors, droplets, fumes and odors.  Natures contribution to the  processes are c e r t a i n conditions, the major ones of which are topography which hinders wind, fog, humidity, excessive or inadequate wind, sunl i g h t which catalyzes contaminants, and temperature inversions which prevent the a e r i a l escape of contaminants.  The e f f e c t s of a i r p o l l u t i o n may be categorized as:1)  Reduction i n v i s i b i l i t y caused mainly by small (less than 1 micron) p a r t i c l e s which scatter l i g h t or combine with moisture to produce haze, fog and photochemical smog (which i s the end product of the reaction between sunlight and c e r t a i n organic materials, dxides of nitrogen and ozone.)  2)  S o i l i n g caused largely by smoke p a r t i c l e s which remain i n the a i r from 1 to 2 days are not e a s i l y washed away by r a i n , and are swept over large areas.by wind.  71  3)  H e a l t h h a z a r d s w h i c h a r e d e f i n e d as "measurable impairment of b o d i l y f u n c t i o n , the p r o d u c t i o n of symptoms of a d e m o n s t r a b l e e f f e c t on m o r b i d i t y or m o r t a l i t y r a t e s . ( ^ ) " 2  good d e a l of c o n t r o v e r s e y  There remains a  over whether t h e r e a r e  l i n k s between a i r p o l l u t i o n and h e a l t h h a z a r d s . i n g l y the e v i d e n c e i s t h a t t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e  significant However, i n c r e a s -  connection.  The U. S. Government S t u d i e s C e n t r e , u s i n g m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c s found t h a t : " S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been found between measured c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . of i d e n t i f i e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h e m i c a l s and m o r t a l i t y r a t e s f o r major c a t e g o r i e s of c a n c e r , cardio-vascular diseases, vascular diseases of the c e n t r a l n e r v o u s system ( s t r o k e ) and congenital malformation ( b i r t h defects) i n 38 communities of v a r y i n g s i z e . ( 2 7 ) "  A i r p o r t s and A i r P o l l u t i o n  _  There a r e t h r e e major s o u r c e s  •  of a i r p o l l u t i o n a t a i r p o r t s :  the  i n d u s t r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a c i l i t y w h i c h i n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t because of type of ground t r a f f i c , and • with  the a i r c r a f t t h e m s e l v e s .  i o n has been the U.S. p o l l u t i o n i n general.  (27)  Only the t h i r d i s d e a l t  here.  A major source  (26)  industries,  of i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t Senate I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the problems of a i r One  of the f i n d i n g s of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s was  L e g i s l a t i v e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of the Commonwealth of M a s s e c h u s e t t s , A i r P o l l u t i o n i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n B o s t o n A r e a , ( B o s t o n , Mass.: Mimeo, F e b r u a r y 5, 1960) Page 30. U. S. Government S t u d i e s C e n t r e , FELS I n s t i t u t e of l o c a l and S t a t e Government, U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a , A i r P o l l u t i o n Survey R e p o r t , ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa.: Government S t u d i e s C e n t r e , June, 1968) Page 94.  72  t h a t " i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t one c o m m e r c i a l j e t a i r l i n e . , under, f u l l emits p o l l u t a n t s a t a r a t e e q u i v a l e n t to that of s e v e r a l passenger  load  thousand  cars.(^)"  A i r P o l l u t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A i r c r a f t D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t a l l a i r c r a f t e m i t p o l l u t a n t s i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s d u r i n g c e r t a i n p e r i o d s of o p e r a t i o n , t h e r e a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between the two b a s i c t y p e s of p o w e r p l a n t s u s e d , namely p i s t o n d r i v e n and j e t e n g i n e s .  F o r the same power o u t p u t , the j e t engine i s  g e n e r a l l y " c l e a n e r " w i t h r e s p e c t to o v e r a l l p o l l u t a n t l e v e l s .  F o r example  a j e t powered. B o e i n g 727 e m i t s about an e i g t h the amount of h y d r o c a r b o n s o f a p i s t o n d r i v e r DC-6.  T a b l e 3.8  i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e amounts of  c o n t a m i n a n t s from a i r c r a f t o p e r a t e d i n Los A n g e l e s County i n 1964.  This  i s based on an average of 7692 f l i g h t s per day broken down as shown i n T a b l e 3.9.  T a b l e 3.10  i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o n t a m i n a n t s by  power p l a n t per f l i g h t w h i c h i s , f o r the p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s , more s i g n i f icant.  The e a r l y d e f i n i t i v e work on j e t a i r c r a f t emmissions was R. E. George and P. E. B u r k i n (^9)_ movements of the day, t h e r e was  (28)  (29)  t h a t of  They c o n c l u d e d t h a t , based on the  l i t t l e danger from j e t s .  A more r e c e n t  U . S. Government, "Statement o f Vernon G. M a c K e n z i e , C h i e f , D i v i s i o n of A i r P o l l u t i o n , P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , Department of H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , " C l e a n A i r , H e a r i n g s B e f o r e a S p e c i a l Subcommittee on A i r and Water, P o l l u t i o n of the Committee on Publ i c Works, U.S. S e n a t e , 8 8 t h C o n g r e s s , Second S e s s i o n , P a r t 2, (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1964) Page 1142 George, R. E. and B u r k i n , P.E. " A i r P o l l u t i o n from Commercial J e t A i r c r a f t i n Los A n g e l e s County", (Los A n g e l e s : Los A n g e l e s County A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l D i s t r i c t , A p r i l 1960)  73  TABLE 3.8  AVERAGE EMMISSION OF CONTAMINANTS FROM AIRCRAFT OPERATED WITHIN LOS ANGELES COUNTY, I N 1964, I N TONS PER DAY  O r g a n i c Gases A e r o s o l s Hydro Carbons A  Source  3  3  Piston powered  26  29  Totals (rounded)  30  30  J e t Powered  SOURCE:  I n o r g a n i c Gases Oxides Oxides Carbon of of MonoxNitrogen Sulphur ide A A J A  Other  n  Totals  10  11  5  6  n  n  11  12  30  33  1  1  7  8  n  n 141  157  175  195  11  12  12  14  n  n 150  170  205  225  n  J =  Values.for  July  A =  Values f o r August  n =  Negligible  U. S. Government, " A i r P o l l u t i o n from A i r c r a f t i n L o s A n g e l e s County - A R e p o r t o f the E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n December, 1965", H e a r i n g s B e f o r e the Subcommittee on A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n , of the Committee on P u b l i c . Works, U. S. S e n a t e , 9 0 t h C o n g r e s s , F i r s t S e s s i o n , on problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the C o n t r o l of A u t o m o t i v e E x h a u s t E m m i s s i o n s , P a r t I , (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1967) Page 248.  74  TABLE 3.9 AVERAGE NUMBER OF FLIGHTS PER DAY IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY BY TYPE OF POWER USED, I N 1964  Number o f F l i g h t s p e r Day by Type of Power Used  4 engine  362  SOURCE:  P i s t o n Powered 2 engine 1 engine h e l i c o p t e r  918  5260  414  Jet  Total  J e t Powered Turbo J e t  474 .  264  7692  U. S. Government, " A i r P o l l u t i o n from A i r c r a f t i n L o s A n g e l e s County - A R e p o r t o f t h e E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n " , H e a r i n g s B e f o r e t h e Subcommittee on A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n o f the Committee on P u b l i c Works, U. S. S e n a t e , 9 0 t h C o n g r e s s , F i r s t S e s s i o n , On problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n t r o l o f a u t o m o b i l e E x h a u s t E m m i s s i o n s , P a r t I , (Washington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1967) Page 248.  75  TABLE 3.10 AVERAGE RATE OF EMMISSIONS OF AIR CONTAMINANTS FROM AIRCRAFT BY POWER PLANT PER FLIGHT FROM AIRCRAFT OPERATED WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY I N 1964 (POUNDS PER FLIGHT)  Type o f Aircraft By Source o f Power  O r g a n i c Gases Hydro Carbons Other  Aerosols  Oxides . Carbon N i t r o g e n Monoxide  Piston 4 Engine  59.9  1.1  1.4  15.4  Piston 2 Engine  24.6  0.4  0.6  TOTAL  326.3  404.1  6.3  133.9  165,  Piston 1 Engine  1.84  0.03  0.04  0.48  10.04  12.48  Helicopter  9 .22  0.16  0.22  2.38  50.2  62.18  J e t Engine  7.3  2.9  15.6.  32.1  88.6  SOURCE:  30.9  U. S. Government, " A i r P o l l u t i o n from A i r c r a f t i n L o s A n g e l e s County - A r e p o r t of the E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n , December 1965" H e a r i n g s B e f o r e the Subcommittee on A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n of the Committee on P u b l i c Works, U. S. Senate 9 0 t h C o n g r e s s , F i r s t S e s s i o n , on Problems A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the C o n t r o l o f A u t o m o b i l e E x h a u s t Emmissions, P a r t I , (Washington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1967) Page 248.  76  study  i n w h i c h R. E. George was i n v o l v e d has r e v e a l e d t h a t j e t a i r c r a f t  emmissions have more than t r i p l e d i n the i n t e r v e n i n g decade. (^ )  ^  u  i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 3.11 motor v e h i c l e s a r e s t i l l  g  the major source o f  p o l l u t a n t s b u t j e t a i r c r a f t emmissions i n the forms of p a r t i c u l a t e s , c a r b o n monoxide and h y d r o c a r b o n s a r e many times h i g h e r than those power p l a n t s d u r i n g the w i n t e r months.  F u r t h e r , as the a u t h o r s  from  have  pointed out:" P o t e n t i a l emmission r a t e s f o r any time i n t e r v a l can be much g r e a t e r than the q u a n t i t i e s r e f l e c t e d i n the d a i l y a v e r a g e s . Peak emmission r a t e s a r e o f t e n more than t w i c e the average d a i l y r a t e . A v e r a g e d a i l y emmission r a t e s a l s o do n o t r e f l e c t s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s n o r do they a c c o u n t f o r d i u r n a l v a r i a t i o n s which give values a p p r e c i a b l y higher than the a v e r a g e . (31)» But "MacDonald r e p o r t e d i n the September 1962 i s s u e o f the J o u r n a l of Applied Meterology  ... ( t h a t ) ... p a r t i c u l a t e l o a d i n g s r e p o r t e d  during  t a k e o f f s may be too low by a f a c t o r o f f i v e . (32).. M u l t i p l y i n g the r e s u l t s of Tables one  3.8 and 3.11 by a f a c t o r o f f i v e r a i s e s the problem t o  o f c o n s i d e r a b l y more s e r i o u s n e s s . The most v i s i b l e s i g n o f a i r p o l l u t i o n from j e t a i r c r a f t i s the  p r o d u c t i o n o f a v a p o r or smoke t r a i l . pheric pressure,  temperature, humidity,  This t r a i l ,  i n f l u e n c e d by atmos-  combustor d e s i g n , power  output,  f u e l and the use o f w a t e r i n j e c t i o n , i s more n o t i c e a b l e d u r i n g t a k e o f f s and (30) l a George, n d i n g s when, R.W., under V e r s s efnu,l l J ut lh ir eo nt t A. l e , and theChass, f u e l f Rl o bw e rits L., so h i" gJhe t t hA ai tr -the c r a f t : A Growing P o l l u t i o n S o u r c e " , J o u r n a l of the A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n , 19:11, November 1969, Page 849. (31) ibid (32) U.S. Government, " S t a t e m e n t o f Vernon G. M a c K e n z i e , C h i e f , D i v i s i o n o f A i r P o l l u t i o n , P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e " , C l e a n A i r , op c i t , Page 1143.  77  TABLE  3.11  COMPARISONS OF AVERAGE DAILY CONTAMINANT EMMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF FUELS BY MOTOR VEHICLES, POWER PLANTS, AND JET AIRCRAFT IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY, I N 1969.  Emmission Type  Particulates  Average D a i l y Emmissions, Tons/Day Motor Power P l a n t s (a) Jet Vehicles R u l e 62 R u l e 62.1 Aircraft Period Period  43  Carbon monoxide  9282  N i t r o g e n Oxides as N 0  624  11  1 neg  neg  24  135  145  7  1677  4  6  61  31  30  115  3  11657  170  272  106  2  Hydrocarbons Sulphur Oxides as S 0 2  Totals  (a)  R u l e 62 p e r i o d encompasses seven month c a l e n d a r p e r i o d from A p r i l 15 t o November 15. R u l e 62.1 p e r i o d encompasses remainder of the same c a l e n d a r y e a r ( " w i n t e r " m o n t h s ) .  SOURCE:  George, R. E., V e r s s e n J u l i e n A., and Chass, R o b e r t L. " J e t A i r c r a f t : A Growing P o l l u t i o n S o u r c e " , J o u r n a l o f A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n 19:11, November 1969 Page 849.  78  combustor cannot p r o v i d e complete combustion of the f u e l .  However,  even under t h i s c o n d i t i o n the combustor e f f i c i e n c y i s above 987,. After  l e v e l l i n g o f f the e f f i c i e n c y  the p r o b l e m i s n o t l a r g e l y  improves to v i r t u a l l y 1007,.  Thus  t h a t of i m p r o v i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of the  power p l a n t combustor, b u t r a t h e r i t i s an i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the e n g i n e t h a t i s the major problem. a l t i t u d e s under 3500 f e e t .  F u r t h e r , the main c o n c e r n i s w i t h  T h i s a l t i t u d e i s used as a parameter f o r  the m i x i n g h e i g h t below w h i c h the a t m o s p h e r i c d i s p e r s i o n of p o l l u t i o n i s inadequate.  C o n t r o l of J e t A i r c r a f t Emmissions I n J a n u a r y o f 1970, because of l e g a l a c t i o n s f o r p r o p e r t y damages and v i s i b i l i t y problems a t the a i r p o r t s , the U.S.  F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Admin-  i s t r a t i o n took s t e p s t o f o r c e the a i r l i n e s t o c l e a n up the smoke problem i n j e t e n g i n e s .  I n Canada the major a i r l i n e s have s t a t e d a w i l l i n g (33)  ness t o c o n v e r t t h e i r f l e e t t o " s m o k e l e s s " e n g i n e s by There a r e t h r e e b a s i c s t e p s w h i c h may emmissions i n g e n e r a l from j e t a i r c r a f t . demonstrated i n T a b l e 3.12. Cl-2  here.  be t a k e n t o reduce the  The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t of each i s  The e f f e c t of f u e l a d d i t i v e s such as the  one i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y n e g l i g i b l e .  method i s the use of a new  1972.  A more e f f e c t i v e  type o f f u e l such as JP-4 w h i c h i s i l l u s t r a t e d  The n e t r e s u l t i s a 58.57, d e c r e a s e i n t o t a l emmissions.  The  most e f f e c t i v e o v e r a l l emmission r e d u c i n g method i s t h a t of the " c l e a n " burner can.  (33)  U s i n g t h i s method the o v e r a l l emmissions a r e reduced  I n t e r v i e w w i t h W i l l i a m I n g l e s , A i r p o r t Manager, Vancouver n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , J a n u a r y 23, 1970.  75.27,,  Inter-  79  TABLE  3.12  AVERAGE RATES OF CONTAMINANT EMMISSION PER AVERAGE FLIGHT OVER LOS ANGELES COUNTRY FROM FOUR ENGINED GAS TURBINE AIRCRAFT USING VARIOUS PRATT AND WHITNEY ENGINES IN POUNDS PER FLIGHT - 1969 P r a t t and Whitney E n g i n e Type  A i r Contaminant Emmissions i n Pounds/Average Flight / P a r t i c u l a t e Carbon Oxides Hydro Oxides Total Matter Monoxide of Carbons of Rounded N i t r o g e n and Sulphur as NO2 O r g a n i c as Gases S0 o  1) JT3D-3B Turbofan w i t h t u r b i n e "A" Fuel  14.6  50.2  11.3  32.2  4.0  112  2) JT3D-3B Turbofan w i t h t u r b i n e "A" fuel + Cl-a additive  14.5  50.2  10.9  32.2  4.0  112  7, D i f f e r e n c e  -0.69  -0.40  -3.54  +0.31  3) JT8D-1 Turbofan using t u r b i n e "A" f u e l  19.3  , 26.3  12.4  172.8  4.0  234  4) JT8D-1 Turbofan using JP-4 f u e l  12.3  31.9  12.9  37.0  2.8  97  7o D i f f e r e n c e  -36.3  +20.9  -78.6  -30.0  5) JT8D-1 Turbofan using t u r b i n e "A" f u e l + new s t y l e " c l e a n " burner cans.  14.9  20.4  17.1  1.1  % Difference Between 3 and 5  -22.8  -22.4  +37.9  -99.3  SOURCE:  +4.0  0  4.0  0  •  0  -58.5 58  -75.2  Compiled from f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d i n George, R. E., V e r s s e n , J u l i e n A., and Chass, R o b e r t L., " J e t A i r c r a f t : A Growing P o l l u t i o n P r o b l e m " , J o u r n a l of t h e A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n , 19:11, November 1969, pages 854-55.  80  when the o l d e r t u r b i n e "A"  f u e l i s used.  However t h i s f i g u r e i s g i v e n  i n pounds per average f l i g h t over Los A n g e l e s County.  What the  u t i o n i s f o r the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the f l i g h t o p e r a t i o n i s n o t  distrib-  given.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to n o t e however, t h a t the major r e d u c t i o n i s i n h y d r o carbons and  o r g a n i c g a s e s , and as a r e s u l t t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e -  d u c t i o n i n the v i s i b i l i t y i n a t i o n of T a b l e 3.12  of the p o l l u t i o n .  On  r e v e a l s t h a t the p a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r and  monoxide emmissions a r e reduced l e s s than 25%; reduced and 40%.  the o t h e r hand, an examcarbon  o x i d e s of s u l p h u r a r e  not  the p r o d u c t i o n of o x i d e s of n i t r o g e n i s i n c r e a s e d by n e a r l y  Thus the use of t h i s new  d e v i c e w h i l e i t w i l l be b e n e f i c i a l i n r e -  moving a major p a r t of the p r o b l e m , namely t h a t p a r t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h y d r o c a r b o n s and  o r g a n i c gases and w i l l  tend to d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n away  from the p r o b l e m s i n c e i t w i l l no l o n g e r be as v i s i b l e , has n o t  solved  the problem to the degree t h a t i s a t f i r s t a p p a r e n t .  Trends The engines.  t r e n d i n l a r g e r a i r c r a f t has been t o the use of the j e t T h i s by i t s e l f means t h a t t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e  i n the emmissions of h y d r o c a r b o n s and c a r b o n monoxide w i t h an accompanying  increase i n aerosols. However, t h i s by i t s e l f ,  Firstly,  i s s l i g h t l y m i s l e a d i n g f o r two  reasons.  t h e r e i s the i n c r e a s e i n the number of g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n a i r -  c r a f t movements, the f l e e t o f w h i c h i s made up l a r g e l y of s i n g l e and t w i n engined p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t . i n Canada, 5261 (34)  a r e p i s t o n d r i v e n and  (34)  Of the 5306 p r i v a t e a i r c r a f t  45 a r e j e t or t u r b o j e t d r i v e n .  Department of T r a n s p o r t , G e n e r a l A v i a t i o n 1967-1980, op c i t T a b l e 15, Page 27.  81  The number of g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n a i r c r a f t has i n c r e a s e d 12% from t o 1967  (35). ^ t  e  n u m  1961  b e r of hours f l o w n has i n c r e a s e d 62% d u r i n g the  same p e r i o d ; and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  the number of i t i n e r a n t movements  ( t h o s e w h i c h l e a v e the c o n t r o l of the tower) by p i s t o n d r i v e n i n c r e a s e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 907> from 1961-67. (36)  aircraft  -£ a d d i t i o n , n  local  movements ( t h o s e w h i c h n e v e r l e a v e the c o n t r o l tower a r e a ) exceeded i t i n e r a n t movements c o n s i s t e n t l y d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , by a c o n s i d e r a b l e f 37%  amount.  v  '  The Department  of T r a n s p o r t has a l s o f o r e c a s t t h a t the  total c i v i l aviation fleet w i l l  i n c r e a s e by 927, between 1967 and  1980  and t h a t the p r i v a t e a v i a t i o n f l e e t w i l l i n c r e a s e by 1087, between the same p e r i•o dA. (38) ' S e c o n d l y , as has a l r e a d y been seen, the a l t i t u d e s of most conc e r n , c u r r e n t l y , a r e those under 3500 f e e t .  T h i s means t h a t a l l move-  ments a r e o f c o n c e r n to r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s near the a i r p o r t .  A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n i n the Lower M a i n l a n d There i s an o b v i o u s need f o r some e s t i m a t e of the amount of a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i n the major u r b a n c e n t r e s of Canada, b u t because of the l a c k of a v a i l a b l e d a t a t h i s has n o t been done, and u n t i l a c c u r a t e d a t a i s c o l l e c t e d , r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e s cannot be made. are two-fold.  Firstly,  the o n l y p u b l i s h e d d a t a on emmission r a t e s seems  t o be t h a t i n c l u d e d h e r e i n T a b l e s 3.9 and 3.12. average f l i g h t over L o s A n g e l e s County. (35) (36) (37) (38)  The d a t a problems  These r a t e s a r e per  Knowing the a r e a of the county  i b i d , T a b l e 4, Page 11. Department of T r a n s p o r t , A i r c r a f t Movement S t a t i s t i c s , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1968, (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1969) Page i x i b i d Page x. Department of T r a n s p o r t , G e n e r a l A v i a t i o n 1967-80, (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1969) Page 44-45.  82  does n o t however, e n a b l e one t o e s t a b l i s h a r a t e per square u n i t because of the. l a r g e d i f f e r e n t i a l i n emmission r a t e s t h a t e x i s t s f o r v a r i o u s p a r t s o f each f l i g h t .  Thus we a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o e s t i m a t i n g  the p o l l u t -  i o n l e v e l s f o r an a r e a t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e s L o s A n g e l e s County i n shape as w e l l as s i z e .  The a p p r o x i m a t e b o u n d a r i e s of L o s A n g e l e s County super-  imposed on the Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h L o s A n g e l e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t superimposed a p p r o x i m a t e l y where Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d on Sea I s l a n d i s shown i n Map 3.1.  The second d a t a p r o b l e m i n v o l v e d was t h a t of o b t a i n i n g the number of movements f o r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and P i t t Meadows a i r p o r t s by various  types of e n g i n e power.  d i s t i n g u i s h i n published  The Department of T r a n s p o r t does n o t  s t a t i s t i c s between the v a r i o u s  driven a i r c r a f t with respect  types o f p i s t o n  t o t h e i r number of e n g i n e s .  They  however, t h a t the number of f o u r e n g i n e p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t  estimate operating  i s n e g l i g i b l e , and t h a t the s p l i t between s i n g l e and t w i n e n g i n e p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t i s about 40% and 60%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . i t i s estimated  F o r P i t t Meadows  t h a t the s p l i t between s i n g l e and t w i n engined p i s t o n  d r i v e n a i r c r a f t i s about 20%, and 80%, i n f a v o r o f s i n g l e s . f i g u r e s i t was p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h p r o p o r t i o n a l e s t i m a t e s of emmissions based on the number o f movements as r e p o r t e d ment of  G i v e n these of t h e amount by the D e p a r t -  Transport.  T a b l e 3.13 shows the number o f movements a t the two a i r p o r t s i n 1968,  by type o f power.  Each f i g u r e i s w e i g h t e d , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l  (39)  These e s t i m a t e s a r e based on i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f the Department o f T r a n s p o r t a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , F e b r u a r y 24, 1970.  Ounster'  83  Cro/dcn SI:  Winjoam.•'Stan ley h '"s,',< r  "Ulkllciio" Keithleyli ' Creek ••.Qticsnel f '-Foiks ;  $Kcrsley\  1 6  l.-Plikcly  ^Alexandria '  ./t /...a.v.il  v  ' ., 'vV,\  Ma,  .. Castle nR o c k e r . Anahim  i  k Chezacut  E  "Hydraulic" ue,lte  Macalister  " M w ,  .i-i-s-J' Belt.13 ""V Coolfc V-  Creek V"'  Riske \ ijanceville  v  Tatlayoko Lake  I ^iiVSrVfe,  WELLS GRAY  Gilpin„  isetjy^  '^Ji\  PROVINCIAL  is/i  Springhousel  (alia  7.  Ho  Miocene  Ha£fnsborff  *&^AIe<ispeek  "'"'  J3eaver Lake  Lac ia'H'ach?!  'Alkali Lake  Big C r e e k i f & T j  loo' I  it  f ^ R o e Lake  Vi^Chu Chua.-  k*--«'Y, North > % Bonaparte.10 MiieiJ House Vidette ,  .'.  ...-"Big BarjCreeju£,  -  y- Chinook. Cove  Clinton,  Louis Creek ^ 1  t  ° Kingcome - - I n t e l J Smoom Sound ' .o  tiliivan Bay  -' iPoa  B a y  / ' Glendalo Cove  _ .  McNeil v i " le  Iiacioffo^  a  "JGold Bridge Bralorn^ Tioneer Lake<: Mine  , Loughborough  Jackson  ^°Hat C,eekJj P  Kelsey B a ^ ' - C  Owen \ o  „  S U ) a  Pembt 'Ion V MeacowsH 1 ifCreekside • Pe|nbertonrt- « - " \ . ^  | d  J  oReddnda'Bay  V'oGranite"\ s  . ^ ' - i t " "  i XJ  i",i'-rel  1*1 .  oFoch  J< Alta  Cove  l^rrf-'  'GARIBALDI  Lund ^ P o w e l l Rive,  •Queens Cove^ji  X  Approximate boundaries o f L o s A n g e l e s County  '. *•.  Garibaldif S  M  e  i  B°r,° Brookniele »V^P™  y  8  iv^Bay  ichatlit2j  *  >-Lodge  0  Neville 6  o -f. * •• *%  Pinesv>|r"'- V t  J pRayteigh Mounr  P o ( t  10/Birken »  Zeballos o - o  A  Criss Creek'" ^ y Mc Lyre Black "\Hctflcy Creek^[  Cache Creek  0  Wilton • —•  ,  ^ ' ^ - o ^.oLgmonl gmont  _  -"V-5, . '' ^  < A p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n o f Vancouver ; and L o s A n g e l e s a i r p o r t s  E a  Cove  n  Brackendale Woodfibrer Mc Nab  •Orrri?* 3  See city map on reverse' side for more detail  y  LAKr Coalmont>  Tulam'een^^  ••Great-.Centra^-: , jLaidlaw Chearn , View .^Rosedale  fctonctll Ktldonan  ilHaple falls (  - TC-.OV  Clo-oose •  OIIVMPIC  (\P^>  r^H" V  Kalaloch  L  ' K \ >,c  j£«ro .i.r««j  NATIONAL I  .f' _f  N 0  c4  T H  WASHINGTON  '  I — • i PARK  ' .£. Ni  2  JI'HJL  Porf I Port -Angeles rr°^r^y'< ' W n b a n k  'WATtONAL  ; j,  Caws:: ^  S i m i 1  Winthrop  Burlington iMt. Vernon  :  Oka  . rW -.' hd iHarbor^ Uey J>  ^Fork}'-"'  PARK  Frida/b .  /@ " ' " " ' V l C :tina  Clallam B a j * ^ . . . .  »  ,r?,L<.-,r~> ...lileT' »,  ~. Keremecs'  * V/ickersham  FSooke ° See city map y o a k on reverse side for more detail >  Beaver^ la Pushc  P  ^Hedlev  Newhalei  :swa.u'Ba°.V 3ellingh„„  .<,..jt^^<\V-m&~: . Port Renfrew  SeMit.  Grov'  fo^Alienby  v pe7T°"  'STATES  JCADESJ  iFulford Har. -  Bamfield  '  Summerl  ^J^/  s  »,, , . „ UNITED  .Sait-Spr  Neah B a y « ^ S _  West , *  c  .mountain \ :v o  fiwack  Cassidyji  n  [,"/«.  ye  "Arlington MethoTj ^Marysville  MAP 3 : i The shaded a r e a c o r r e s p o n d s t o the a p p r o x i m a t e a r e a o f L o s A n g e l e s County, the a r e a f o r w h i c h t h e estimated a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i s made.  84  TABLE 3.13  ESTIMATED TOTAL AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS BY TYPE OF POWER PLANT 1968  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l P i t t Meadows Itinerant Local Total Itinerant Local  Total  Grand Total  Piston 1 Engine  34564  5260  40724  44799  80000  124749  165523  Piston 2 Engine  53195  7870  61065  11200  20000  31200  92265  J e t and Turbojet  39154  5790  44944  16  29  45  44989  2201  436  779  Helicopter  SOURCE:  1917  284  1215  Compiled and e s t i m a t e d from v a r i o u s Department o f T r a n s p o r t figures.  3416  85  by 14.8% and P i t t Meadows by 177.5%, t o a l l o w f o r the a d d i t i o n a l l o c a l movements.  The  n e x t s t e p i n the a n a l y s i s was t o take these e s t i m a t e s and  m u l t i p l y them by George e t a l ' s f i g u r e s i n T a b l e s 3.9 and 3.12. 3.14 i n d i c a t e s the e s t i m a t e s  Table  o f a i r c r a f t emmissions f o r the a r e a out-  l i n e d i n Map 3.1.  I t i s t o be emphasized h e r e t h a t t h i s i s an u n r e f i n e d of the p o l l u t i o n t h a t o r i g i n a t e s from the a i r c r a f t .  estimate  The f i g u r e s w i l l  change w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the " c l e a n " b u r n e r cans on the j e t f l e e t of the major commercial a i r l i n e s .  However, i t i s e v i d e n t  c o n t r i b u t o r to a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i s s t i l l craft.  t h a t the major  the p i s t o n d r i v e n  air-  The c o n c l u s i o n drawn i s t h a t , w i t h the r e s e r v a t i o n s a l r e a d y  noted  e a r l i e r about the " c l e a n " b u r n e r c a n s , and the f a c t t h a t the p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t w i l l r e m a i n untouched, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t the p r o b l e m w i l l n o t be s o l v e d .  This,coupled  w i t h the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t we a r e j u s t  on the edge o f a v e r y l a r g e e x p a n s i o n o f a i r t r a v e l i n a l l s e c t o r s i n d i c a t e s a f a r more s e r i o u s p r o b l e m than had been a n t i c i p a t e d .  INDUSTRIAL LOCATION The A i r p o r t as A t t r a c t o r I n c r e a s i n g l y the a i r p o r t i s usurping  the p o s i t i o n w h i c h the r a i l -  way s t a t i o n h e l d i n a f f e c t i n g the f o r m o f the s u r r o u n d i n g  area.  It is  a major t r a f f i c g e n e r a t o r and i t a t t r a c t s c e r t a i n types of a c t i v i t i e s . I t h a s , t h e r e f o r e , l a r g e s c a l e , l o n g term l a n d use i m p l i c a t i o n s .  As a  r e s u l t o f i t s a t t r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and where p r o p e r c o n t r o l s have been l a c k i n g , t h e r e has been a r i b b o n i n g e f f e c t i n w h i c h i n d u s t r i a l and  86  TABLE 3.14 ESTIMATED AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION I N A PART OF THE LOWER MAINLAND OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, IN TONS, IN 1968  Emmission Type Carbon P a r t i c u l a t e s Monoxide  Oxides of Nitrogen as NQ2  Hydro Carbons O x i d e s & Organic of Total Gases S u l p h u r (R'ded)  Piston 1 engine  18  831  40  155  -  1038  Piston 2 engine  28  6170  291  .1152  -  7604  J e t and Turbojet  434  592  279  3855  9.0  5185  .8  86  7.2  16  482  7679  617  5206  Helicopter Totals  SOURCE:  90  E s t i m a t e d by a p p l y i n g the f o r m u l a : Tons o f P o l l u t a n t = Pounds p e r A v e r a g e F l i g h t over L o s A n g e l e s County x No. o f F l i g h t s from Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and P i t t Meadows i n 1968 / 2000.  110 13987  87  commercial  f i r m s a r e p l a c e d a d j a c e n t t o a c c e s s roads t o the  facility.  As would be e x p e c t e d , those e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t a r e connected w i t h a v i a t i o n d i r e c t l y a r e those t h a t have the s t r o n g e s t tendency to the a i r p o r t .  to l o c a t e a d j a c e n t  However, these a r e n o t the o n l y ones a t t r a c t e d .  i n h i s study of the Vancouver  Northey,  m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a found the f o l l o w i n g w i t h  r e g a r d t o the l o c a t i o n of n o n - a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y . "i)  w h o l e s a l e d i s t r i b u t o r s of auto p a r t s ,  textiles  and i n d u s t r i a l m a c h i n e r y , and d i s t r i b u t i o n were the most f a v o r a b l e to a i r p o r t  firms  location.  M a n u f a c t u r e r s were g e n e r a l l y u n f a v o r a b l e , ii)  Warehouses would comprise the predominant  type of  of i n d u s t r i a l use i n a development i n p r o x i m i t y to an a i r p o r t . iii)  L a r g e f i r m s of n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  scope  were the most f a v o r a b l e t o the h y p o t h e s i s , iv)  F i r m s w h i c h i m p o r t e d c l o s e to 100% of t h e i r s t o c k tended t o be most f a v o r a b l e ,  v)  There  i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s e n t  r e g u l a r use of a i r f r e i g h t and a n t i c i p a t e d  future  r e g u l a r use w i t h d i s p o s i t i o n t o l o c a t e a t or near the a i r p o r t .  C o r p o r a t e a i r t r a v e l , though of  c o n c e r n i s n o t a d e f i n i t i v e i n c e n t i v e f o r such location.  (40)  (  4  0  )"  N o r t h e y , John L a i r d , The I n f l u e n c e of A i r p o r t s on the L o c a t i o n of N o n - A v i a t i o n I n d u s t r y , A Case Study: The Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a , Vancouver, B.C., (Vancouver: U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1963) Page i v - v .  88  Northeys  f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the impact o f the i n d u s t r i a l  encroachment on r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s would be g r e a t and should be c l o s e l y controlled.  I n d u s t r i a l uses such as d i s t r i b u t i o n and warehousing a r e  g e n e r a l l y " c l e a n " and a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a because of t h e t r a f f i c a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them, r a t h e r than the n a t u r e of the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g s themselves. car r e n t a l s ,  Other i n d u s t r i e s ,  such as  and a i r l i n e s o f f i c e s a r e g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n the  a i r p o r t complex i t s e l f and p r e s e n t few problems, f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l  There a r e e s s e n t i a l l y compatibility 1)  area.  f i v e c r i t e r i a w h i c h have been advanced f o r  o f i n d u s t r i a l u s e s , r e s i d e n t i a l uses and the a i r p o r t .  The p r o p o r t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h take p l a c e i n s i d e  the b u i l d i n g s  s h o u l d be h i g h . 2)  The number o f p e r s o n s  3)  The e x i s t i n g background n o i s e may be h i g h .  4)  The f e a s i b i l i t y of e x t e n s i v e s o u n d p r o o f i n g  5)  The a c t i v i t i e s may be d i r e c t l y a l l i e d  i n v o l v e d i n the use s h o u l d be low.  s h o u l d be h i g h .  t o the a i r p o r t .  But how c o m p a t i b l e a r e these uses w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l ones?  If  the p r o p o r t i o n s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n s i d e a r e h i g h t h i s does n o t negate the problem o f t r a f f i c i n c r e a s e s .  I f the number o f persons  i n d u s t r y i s low then t h i s p r o b l e m may be l e s s e n e d .  i n v o l v e d i n the  I f the e x i s t i n g  background n o i s e l e v e l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n d u s t r y i s h i g h , then i t i s . imcompatible  with r e s i d e n t i a l use.  There a p p e a r s t o be two l o g i c a l c h o i c e s : e i t h e r a r e a may be d i s c o u r a g e d a r e a may be d i s c o u r a g e d .  the r e s i d e n t i a l  from the a i r p o r t e n v i r o n s o r the i n d u s t r i a l T h i s problem i s returned to l a t e r .  89  R e s i d e n t i a l Property  Values  W a l t h e r , i n h i s study o f r e s i d e n t i a l r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s and a i r p o r t s , s t a t e d t h a t the p r e s e n c e o f an a i r p o r t does n o t a d v e r s e l y v i c i n a l real estate values.  affect  H i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based on s u p p o r t i n g  evidence that:1)  M a r k e t b e h a v i o r , based on 400 market t r a n s a c t i o n s was the same i n a i r p o r t as n o n - a i r p o r t  areas.  2)  Many r e s i d e n c e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n a i r p o r t  3)  The number o f houses f o r s a l e was n o t h i g h e r i n a i r p o r t a r e a s than i n n o n - a i r p o r t  -. 4)  areas.  L o c a l r e a l e s t a t e d e a l e r s f e l t t h a t an a i r p o r t was n o t a v a l u e  6)  areas.  P r i c e s d i d not decrease s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l i g h t path  5)  areas.  depressant.  M a i n t e n a n c e l e v e l and p r i d e of ownership d i d n o t v a r y from o t h e r comparable a r e a s .  (^1)  A study by F. W. Osgood on the o t h e r hand r e v e a l e d t h a t : 1)  High p r i c e d housing  ( $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 - $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 ) w i l l have  i t s market v a l u e d e p r e c i a t e d up t o 807o i n some c a s e s . 2)  Medium p r i c e d h o u s i n g  ( $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 - $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 ) may o r may  n o t be d e p r e c i a t e d depending on the i n t e n s i t y o f use o f the a i r p o r t and the n o i s e l e v e l s e n c o u n t e r e d .  ( 4 1 ) W a l t h e r , H.O., "The E f f e c t o f an A i r p o r t on R e a l E s t a t e V a l u e s " , P o r t o f New Y o r k A u t h o r i t y , A R e p o r t on A i r p o r t Requirements i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n New J e r s e y , New Y o r k A r e a , (New Y o r k : The A u t h o r i t y , 1961)  90  3)  Low  p r i c e d h o u s i n g ($8,000 - $12,000) w i l l  p r o b a b l y be d e p r e c i a t e d  as a r e s u l t of prox-  i m i t y t o the a i r p o r t i f the n o i s e l e v e l s are very  high.  Other f a c t o r s c i t e d by Osgood.as i n f l u e n c i n g the v a l u e s were c o n n e c t i o n  w i t h the a i r p o r t by  property  the r e s i d e n t s and  the amount  of h o u s i n g on the m a r k e t . (42) No The  such study appears to have been done f o r a C a n a d i a n c i t y .  r e s u l t s of W a l t h e r s study a r e  t h a t the a i r p o r t i s a v a l u e couver, f o r i n s t a n c e , ported  s u r p r i s i n g since i t i s generally  depressant, for r e s i d e n t i a l uses.  the Department of T r a n s p o r t ,  felt  I n Van-  i n an i n t e r v i e w , r e -  t h a t they o c c a s i o n a l l y r e c e i v e e n q u i r i e s from p r o s p e c t i v e  house  p u r c h a s e r s as t o the l o c a l f l i g h t p a t h s over Vancouver e s p e c i a l l y i n the v i c i n i t y of Sea located.  I s l a n d , where the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s  C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n  r e g u l a t i o n s f o r N.H.A.  mortgages d i s a l l o w l o a n s f o r r e a l e s t a t e l o c a t e d i n a i r p o r t zoned Local r e a l estate dealers  areas.  i n Richmond M u n i c i p a l i t y f e e l s u b j e c t i v e l y  t h a t the v a l u e of homes i n the B e r k e v i l l e a r e a , l o c a t e d  immediately  a d j a d e n t t o the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , are lower than they would be o t h e r w i s e .  Finally,  the r e s i d e n t s of the a r e a f e e l t h a t  the major e x p a n s i o n of the a i r p o r t i n 1963,  the v a l u e  since  of t h e i r homes, as  a r e s u l t of a i r p o r t p r o x i m i t y , has n o t gone up as q u i c k l y as i n s u r r o u n d -  (42) Osgood, F r a n k W i l l i a m , C o n t r o l and P r o t e c t i o n of Land Uses i n the v i c i n i t y of A i r p o r t s , U n p u b l i s h e d M.C.P. T h e s i s , ( G e o r g i a I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y ) , as r e p o r t e d i n McKeever, J . R o s s , ( e d ) , The Community B u i l d e r s Handbook, (Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1968) Page 58.  91 ing areas.  This evidence, however, fragmentary and s u b j e c t i v e seems  to cast some doubt on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Walthers f i n d i n g s to the Vancouver area.  CHAPTER IV COMMUNITY REACTION TO THE AIRPORT. A CASE STUDY: VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT  Introduction The istics  purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s to examine the f i v e  outlined  i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r from the p o i n t o f view o f  those who a r e most a f f e c t e d by them. able  Because the d a t a were n o t a v a i l -  elsewhere, an a t t i t u d e survey of a group of r e s i d e n t s  adjacent  living  to the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t was undertaken.  objective facility  character-  of t h i s survey was to examine the s u b j e c t i v e  The  impact of the  on those who a r e a f f e c t e d d i r e c t l y by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Description  o f the A r e a  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s . l o c a t e d on Sea I s l a n d , a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t m i l e s from downtown Vancouver. given  as n i n e f e e t above sea l e v e l and has an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  4000 a c r e s . long (1).  Its elevation i s  I t contains  (designated  two 200 f o o t wide runways, one 11,500 f e e t  08-26) and the o t h e r 7300 f e e t long  I t has ranked  third  (designated  12-30),  i n Canada i n terms of i t i n e r a n t movements  (2) s i n c e 1964, considering (1) (2)  (3)  '  and i n 1968 was the t w e l f t h b u s i e s t a i r p o r t i n Canada  a l l types o f movements (3)_  Department o f T r a n s p o r t , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n , (Vancouver: Mimeo, undated) Page 1. Department of T r a n s p o r t , A i r c r a f t Movement S t a t i s t i c s , A i r p o r t s w i t h A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Towers, 1968 Annual R e p o r t , (Ottawa: Mimeo, 1968) Page v . i b i d Page 5. 92  93  The a i r p o r t ,  f o r m a l l y opened i n 1931, c o n s i s t e d i n i t i a l l y of  a s i n g l e runway  of 2400 f e e t , a s m a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g and  small hangars.  Between  runways were b u i l t .  1936 and 1938 two hard  D u r i n g World War  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g was d e s t r o y e d temporary s t r u c t u r e i n 1950. 1952.  s u r f a c e d , 3000 f e e t ,  I I runway e x t e n s i o n s ,  hangars and other b u i l d i n g s were b u i l t .  two  In 1949  the i n i t i a l  additional airport  b}' f i r e and was r e p l a c e d by a  An a d d i t i o n to t h i s b u i l d i n g was made i n  I n 1953 runway 08-26 was b u i l t  to r e p l a c e the o l d main runway and  was equipped w i t h ILS on the west a p p r o a c h .  I n 1956 the passenger term-  i n a l was a g a i n expanded and i n the summer of 1957  the west t e r m i n a l i  b u i l d i n g was  opened.  I n 1963 a new  crosswind  and A i r Canada's maintenance c e n t r e was the passenger t e r m i n a l was the p r e s e n t  carried  opened.  out i n 1963.  t e r m i n a l complex and MacConachie Way  1969 runway 08-26 was  lengthened  l e n g t h of 11,500 f e e t  ^ ,  tenance c e n t r e was Until  runway  (12-30) was  opened  F u r t h e r expansion I n the f a l l  of 1968  were o p e n e d . .  and the new Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s main-  opened.  1962, e x c e p t i n g  the p e r i o d from August 1940 to October the f a c i l i t y was under the  c o n t r o l of the F e d e r a l Government, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t a d m i n i s t e r e d by the c i t y  o f Vancouver.  T r a n s p o r t a c q u i r e d the c i t y ' s  (5)  In  500 f e e t pn the e a s t to i t s p r e s e n t  1947 when because of the Second World War,  (4)  of  was  In 1962, the Department of  i n t e r e s t i n the f a c i l i t y  f o r $2.75 m i l l i o n  Department of T r a n s p o r t , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , General I n f o r m a t i o n , op c i t , Page 2. I n t e r v i e w w i t h W i l l i a m I n g l i s , A i r p o r t Manager, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , January 23, 1970.  94  and  took over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Sea I s l a n d , w i t h an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4500 a c r e s , i s the  second  l a r g e s t o f the i s l a n d s t h a t make up the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f  Richmond. and  I t l i e s immediately  i s surrounded  t o t h e south o f the C i t y o f Vancouver  on the n o r t h by the N o r t h Arm o f the F r a s e r R i v e r  and on the south by the M i d d l e Arm o f the F r a s e r .  Access  L u l u I s l a n d i s by two F e d e r a l Government b u i l t b r i d g e s .  to adjacent The Morey  Channel B r i d g e i s a swing f a c i l i t y and i s c l o s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 times p e r month. hours  (6)  m  By l o c a l agreement t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y a t o f f peak  The new Dinsmore B r i d g e t o the south i s n o t a swing  i t y s i n c e l a r g e m a r i n e t r a f f i c does n o t use t h i s  The  facil-  channel.  l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f Sea I s l a n d (see Map 4.1) i s owned by  the F e d e r a l Government and i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Department o f T r a n s port.  T h i s a r e a i s bounded by Lands End i n the s o u t h , Ferguson  Road,  MacDonald S t r e e t and Grauer Road i n the n o r t h and by M i l l e r Road and a n o r t h - s o u t h l i n e s e p a r a t i n g the C a n a d i a n F o r c e s M a r r i e d Q u a r t e r s the b a l a n c e o f the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i n the e a s t .  from  I n the n o r t h e r n h a l f  of the I s l a n d t h e r e i s a s m a l l I n d i a n r e s e r v e d e s i g n a t e d I.R.3.  The  b a l a n c e o f the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f the I s l a n d i s zoned as " s m a l l h o l d i n g s " by the M u n i c i p a l i t y and i n c l u d e s a m i x t u r e o f r e s i d e n t i a l and s m a l l farms.  The Department o f T r a n s p o r t i s p r e s e n t l y b u y i n g o u t these h o l d -  i n g s as they come on the open market s i n c e t h e r e a r e p l a n s f o r the e x p a n s i o n o f the a i r p o r t (6) (7)  .  ibid I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. W. B l a c k l o c k , R e a l E s t a t e Manager, Department of T r a n s p o r t , October 23, 1969.  98  l o c a t e d a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of M i l l e r and A i r p o r t Roads. i s s l a t e d f o r d e m o l i t i o n to make way ing  This area  f o r a c c e s s t o a new b r i d g e connect-  the I s l a n d w i t h G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i n Vancouver.  1969 A i r T r a f f i c  a t Vancouver  International Airport  There was a t o t a l of 169,545 a i r c r a f t movements a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i n 1969 merits.  Vancouver  i n c l u d i n g 41,466 s c h e d u l e d a i r l i n e move-  No breakdown o f these l a t t e r movements by type of power or  w e i g h t c l a s s was a v a i l a b l e b u t Department of T r a n s p o r t o f f i c i a l s t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l of these were made by l a r g e j e t a i r c r a f t ( 9 ) T a b l e 4.1  i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n  stated  t  of movements by time of day.  Total  movements between the h o u r s of m i d n i g h t and 7 AM accounted f o r an a v e r age of 12.7  per day or 2.7%  of the d a i l y  movements d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d averaged 5.9 totals.  B e g i n n i n g a t 7 AM  totals.  Scheduled  airline  per day or 2.7%, of the  the number of t o t a l movements i n c r e a s e d r e -  v e a l i n g a peak number of 37.1 movements between 4 and. 5 PM and subsiding u n t i l midnight. was  l e s s steady.  F o r s c h e d u l e d a i r l i n e movements the p a t t e r n  5 and 6 PM and 9 and 10  er  A s i n d i c a t e d , November averaged  fewer t o t a l movements than the y e a r l y average b u t o n l y 6.2%, few-  s c h e d u l e d a i r l i n e movements per day.  ments was reached an hour e a r l i e r  (9)  PM.  shows the same breakdowns f o r November 196.9, the month  d u r i n g w h i c h the survey was done. 29.4%  gradually  The peak hour was between 12 noon and I PM w i t h lower  peaks between 7 and 8 AM,  T a b l e 4.2  daily  The peak hour f o r t o t a l move-  than the average f o r the y e a r .  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. A. Sharpe, O p e r a t i o n s S e c t i o n , Vancouver n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , March 24, 1970.  The  Inter-  TABLE 4.1 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL  AIRPORT  DAILY DISTRIBUTION OF AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS - 1969 TYPE OF MOVEMENTS  Time o f Day  .12 - 1 AM 1-2 2-3 3 - 4 4-5 5 - 6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10 - 11 11 - 12 Noon 12-1 1-2 2-3 3 - 4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7 - 8 8-9 9-10 10 - 11 11 - 12 Total  SOURCE:  T o t a l Movements No. No. P e r Day %  Scheduled A i r l i n e Movements No. No. P e r Day %  1392 716 280 128 168 480 1407 6251 9461 10067 10183 11699 12615 12241 13332 12920 13564 11832 9606 7980 7434 6360 5716 3708  0.8 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.8 3.7 5.6 5.9 6.0 6.9 7.4 7.2 7.9 7.6 8.0 7.0 5.6 4.7 4.4 3.7 3.4 2.2  3.8 2.0 0.8 0.4 0.5 1.3 3.9 17.2 25.9 27.8 27.8 32.1 34.6 33.6 36.5 35.4 37.1 32.4 26.0 21.8 20.4 17.4 15.7 10.2  708 227 84 56 101 291 688 3186 2729 2353 1458 2689 3637 2505 1948 1470 2449 2917 2230 1485 1869 2549 2218 1919  0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.7 .7.9 6.8 5.9 3.6 6.8 8.9 6.2 4.9 3.8 6.4 7.3 5.6 3.7 4.8 6.4 5.5 4.8  169,545  100.0  464  41,466  100.0  1.9 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.8 1.9 8.7 7.5 6.4 4.0 7.4 10.0 6.9 5.3 4.0 6.7' 8.0 6.1 4.1 5.1 7.0 6.1 5.3 113  Compiled from: Department o f T r a n s p o r t , M o n t h l y R e p o r t on A i r c r a f t Movements, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , J a n u a r y - December 1969, (Ottawa: A v i a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s C e n t r e , Mimeo, M o n t h l y ) .  100  TABLE 4.2 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT DAILY DISTRIBUTION OF AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS NOVEMBER 1969  TYPE OF MOVEMENTS  Time o f Day  12 - 1 AM 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5 - 6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10 - 11 11 - 12 Noon 12-1 PM 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10 - 11 11 - 12 Total  SOURCE:  T o t a l Movements No_. % No-Per Day 55 19 4 24 5 33 . 49 366 587 590 646 865 831 863 868 906 866 624 357 320 230 276 235 156 9775  Compiled Aircraft November November  0.6 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.5 3.7 6.0 6.0 6.6 8.9 8.5 8.8 8.9 9.3 8.8 6.4 3.7 3.3 2.4 2.8 2.4 1.6 100.0  1.8 0.6 0.1 0.8 0.2 1.1 1.6 12.2 19.6 19.7 21.6 28.8 27.8 , 28.8 29.0 30.2 28.9 20.8 11.9 10.7 7.7 9.2 7.8 5.2 326  Scheduled A i r l i n e Movements No. % No. Per Day 50 12 2 7 , 5 31 36 247 193 152 143 285 241 188 137 76 153 262 140 142 147 206 195 132 3182  1.6 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.0 1.1 7.8 6.1 4.8 4.4 9.0 ,7.6 5.9 4.3 2.4 4.8 8.2 4.4 4.5 4.6 6.5 6.1 4.1 100.0  from Department o f T r a n s p o r t , M o n t h l y R e p o r t on Movements, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , 1969, (Ottawa: A v i a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s C e n t r e , 1969. )  1.7 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.0 1.2 8.3 6.4 5.1 4.8 9.5 8.0 6.3 4.6 2.5 5.1 8.8 4.7 4.7 4.9 6.9 6.5 4.4 106  101  same i s t r u e f o r the s c h e d u l e d . a i r l i n e movements. f o r scheduled  The  o t h e r peaks  a i r l i n e movements a r e s i m i l a r a l t h o u g h s l i g h t l y  lower.  Survey Methodology and L i m i t a t i o n s  '  The  c h o i c e of B e r k e v i l l e as the a r e a i n w h i c h to conduct the  survey was  based on the f a c t t h a t , of a l l the a r e a s i n the v i c i n i t y  the a i r p o r t , i t was  the one  t h a t was most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by  of  the  m a j o r i t y of the f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s i d e r e d .  The n o i s e l e v e l s a r e  v e r y h i g h w i t h PNdB l e v e l s r a n g i n g between 95 and  115 f o r commercial  jet aircraft.  To the west of the a r e a t h e r e i s a l s o an open t e s t bed  w h i c h meant t h a t the a r e a was frequent i n t e r v a l s .  s u b j e c t to both types of a i r c r a f t n o i s e a t  A i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i n B e r k e v i l l e i s h i g h but  the impact of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c decreased  somewhat by the e x i s t e n c e  of the i n d u s t r i a l a r e a i n M a r p o l e j u s t to the n o r t h w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of v i s i b l e p o l l u t i o n .  Crash hazards  n e g l i g i b l e ) a r e as h i g h as any a r e a around the a i r p o r t .  (although The  location  o f a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y a d j a c e n t t o B e r k e v i l l e i s n o t a p r o b l e m because the Department of T r a n s p o r t and  the M u n i c i p a l i t y have pursued  a policy  n o t a l l o w i n g i n d u s t r y to l o c a t e on the i s l a n d e x c e p t where they d i r e c t l y a l l i e d w i t h the a i r p o r t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n s noted  of  are  earlier,of  the s m a l l a r e a b e s i d e the Morey C h a n n e l B r i d g e and a c h a i n saw f a c t o r y i n the a i r p o r t complex.  Those a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i e s t h a t a r e l o c a t e d on  Sea I s l a n d a r e grouped r e l a t i v e l y f a r away from the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a .  With  the opening  of MacConachie Way  and  the new  t e r m i n a l there  i s l e s s t r a f f i c on A i r p o r t Road w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y s e r v e d the a i r p o r t .  102  T h i s new  a c c e s s road  i s l o c a t e d so t h a t t r a f f i c g o i n g  t o the  a r e a does not pass through B e r k e v i l l e as i t d i d p r e v i o u s l y . ing  of the new  Dinsmore B r i d g e c o n n e c t i n g  has  f u r t h e r reduced t r a f f i c  Sea  terminal The  open-  I s l a n d and L u l u I s l a n d  f o r B e r k e v i l l e . However, A i r p o r t Road  i s s t i l l used by many of the more than 6000 employees a t the a i r p o r t for  a c c e s s to the i n d u s t r i a l a r e a v i a the Morey Channel B r i d g e ,  a t peak h o u r s the t r a f f i c to o b t a i n t r a f f i c  data.  i s s t i l l heavy. The  use  I t was  and  not p o s s i b l e , however,  of B e r k e v i l l e ' s i n t e r i o r s t r e e t s as  a s h o r t - c u t between A i r p o r t Roa.d and MacConachie Way  has been stopped  by r e s t r i c t i n g l e f t hand t u r n s a t peak h o u r s .  /  The most s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n , w i t h r e s p e c t to the c h o i c e  of  B e r k e v i l l e as the study a r e a i s t h a t t h e r e i s no a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i a l problem.  However i t was  f e l t t h a t i f the r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e d  i t would be of i n t e r e s t i n e v a l u a t i n g the c o n s i s t e n c y t o the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . t h a t they would p e r c e i v e  felt  The  s i t u a t i o n i n B e r k e v i l l e . On b a l a n c e to be  the b e s t one  t h a t of an a d m i n i s t e r e d  a  same c o n s i d e r a t the  f o r examining the a t t i t u d e s  of the r e s i d e n t s towards the f i v e a i r p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . od of t e s t i n g was  conclusion  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y t o be  t o the t r a f f i c  B e r k e v i l l e a r e a was  fact,  of t h e i r r e s p o n s e s  T h i s would n o t l e a d t o the  problem i f i t were i n t r o d u c e d a t some l a t e r d a t e . ions apply  this  questionnaire.  The  meth-  T h i s method  i n i t s e l f has a l i m i t a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the t e s t i n g of a t t i t u d e s i n t h a t i t may  become d i f f i c u l t  i n some cases f o r the i n t e r v i e w e r  spot " s t o c k " r e s p o n s e s where the i n t e r v i e w e e be  t h a t w h i c h he f e e l s i s e x p e c t e d of him.  method has  s t a t e s h i s a t t i t u d e to On  the o t h e r hand, t h i s  the advantage of s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e c o r d i n g the r e s p o n s e s  of c o n t r o l l i n g the c o n t e x t  to  i n which the i n t e r v i e w takes  place.  and  103  A further limitation,  t h a t of the a v a i l a b l e time, d i c t a t e d t h a t  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e be r e l a t i v e l y and  s h o r t , both to a v o i d  so t h a t a l a r g e r sample .'might be  a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e d f o r e g o i n g any  The  obtained.  The  to l i m i t  the number of q u e s t i o n s  ing  t h a t were to be  the q u e s t i o n s  i b l e not  c o r r e l a t e d with  questions  of the purposes of the  initial  questions  survey  t h i s was  and  not f e l t  characteristics.  some minor r e v i s i o n s , were made.  and  coding  of the  guide are  Limitimposs-  interview.  explanation  to be a s e r i o u s problem.  pretested during  the f i r s t week A copy of  shown i n F i g u r e s 4.1  the  and  asked were:-  1)  Sex  .  2)  Age  group - i f the person was  the i n t e r v i e w was  t h a t only  sons more than 15 y e a r s  Statistics classifications. s e p a r a t e l y by  of  age  out,  s i n c e i t has  been  those  a t t i t u d e s of  per-  of age  O c c u p a t i o n group a c c o r d i n g  noted  under 15 y e a r s  not c a r r i e d  p r e v i o u s l y decided  3)  socio-economic  preceded by a g e n e r a l  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  f i n a l questionnaire The  those  near the b e g i n n i n g  However, because each i n t e r v i e w was  of November, 1969  these  one  to the a t t i t u d e s t o -  to b a s i c data however, meant t h a t i t would be  to ask p e r s o n a l  The  limitation  undertaken w i t h  wards the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n and variables  time  fatigue  c a l l - b a c k procedure.  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  o b j e c t i v e being  interviewee  would be  solicited.  to the Dominion Bureau of A i r p o r t employees were  the a d d i t i o n of an  "A".  4.2.  104 FIGURE 4.1  Date Location Person Number  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT QUESTIONAIRRE Sex  Age Group  Occup. Income Type o f Group Group Tenure  Residence Length  Dwelling Type  What were y o u r r e a s o n s f o r i n i t i a l l y moving i n t o t h e a r e a ? ( 1 ) . V/hat a r e y o u r e a s o n s f o r s t a y i n g ? (2) Home o w n e r s h i p / o c c u p a n c y • C l o s e t o work — — f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h area Family t i e s — — Frienship ties — C l o s e t o community f a c i l i t i e s Other ( s p e c i f y )  Li-  ~2~  :  u r no Anger/ I m p o r t a n c e Annoyance Aircraft : noise  ?h  i i i j  n.  Fear/ Worry  LOe'Sh V Apply. 1  Other  b 6  ; i.  i! • II •  2.  i ' i A3Jr P o l l u t i o n . from a i r c r a f t  h b 1  C i .'ash h a z a r d s  3  k b 6  1  . J • 1 1  2 3  11 ^Location o f ' j I industry j 1 nearby !  -  h b b  .  1  Airport Traffic  •  1  - W b 6  Would ypu prefer to l i v e i n another area which i s s i m i l a r , but f u r t h e r h 6 1 2 away fccm the a i r p o r t ? 3 yes no  T—' • '' • " •;  ;j  :  105  ).-  . FIGURE 4.2  Coding Guide Socio-economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Sex •  Age Group  Female.2  1 5 - 1 9 . . .1 20-2^...2  Male...1'  55-6V...6 65-69... 7 70*H. . . . . 8  Occupational Group Income group Managerial. ..........1 ' .0-2999... « l Professional/technical.. .. .2 3 0 0 0 - 5 9 9 9 * . .2 Clerical; 3 6 0 0 0 - 9 9 9 9 - .3* Sales.. '..........'+ , 1 0 0 0 0 + . . . . . .k Service/recreation 5 Transportation/communication.. .6 " •. . " v  Craftsmen. ...Labourer...... .. Housewife.. ... Student/pupal. Retired....... Unemployed.....  »«»•«*»« »8 oo•« ©• V •o9  '  • o • »  Tenure' Type Residence Length Dwelling Type ' • < . Reaction Types Owned.... .1 0 - 1 year........1; Single family detached.. 1 :Strong .1 Rented.. ..2 1 - 6 years...... .2 Duplex, t r i p l e x e t c . . . . .2 Moderate.... .2 •. •• •< 6 + years........3 Apartment ....3 .1 . ;  106 Income group a c c o r d i n g t o the Dominion Bureau of Statistics  classifications.  Tenure type s i n c e i t was f e l t those who own t h e i r houses m i g h t be more committed t o the a r e a  either  by d e s i g n o r by d e f a u l t than those who r e n t . Length  of r e s i d e n c e s i n c e t h i s was a c e n t r a l  w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c c l i m i t i z a t i o n t o the a r e a .  issue, This  q u e s t i o n was broken down i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . a)  L e s s than one y e a r .  b)  Between one and s i x y e a r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t they would have moved t h e r e a f t e r the l a s t major e x p a n s i o n of the a i r p o r t i n 1963.  c)  G r e a t e r than s i x y e a r s i n d i c a t e s the group that predate  Dwelling  the 1963 e x p a n s i o n of t h e a i r p o r t .  type.  The r e a s o n s f o r i n i t i a l l y moving i n t o t h e a r e a and the r e a s o n s f o r s t a y i n g i n the a r e a .  T h i s was s u b d i v i d e d  i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s . a)  Home ownership  or occupancy.  b)  C l o s e t o work.  c)  F a m i l y o r f r i e n d s h i p t i e s , or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the a r e a .  R e a c t i o n s t o the f i v e a i r p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . p e r s o n was asked  Each  t o e v a l u a t e h i s own p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s  w i t h r e s p e c t t o each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and then t o i n d i c a t e w h i c h o f the f o l l o w i n g was the b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a t t i t u d e .  107  a)  I t does n o t a p p l y  b)  T t i s of no  c)  Anger or annoyance.  d)  F e a r , worrj' or a n x i e t y .  e)  Other  importance.  A c o m b i n a t i o n of c and lives  here.  d would i n d i c a t e t h a t the  of the r e s p o n d e n t s were a good d e a l more s t r a i n e d  by l i v i n g near t o the a i r p o r t . not  T h i s h o l d s whether or  t h i s i s the case from the p o i n t of view of  not l i v i n g  10)  daily  The  i n the  others  area.  f i n a l q u e s t i o n asked was  whether or not  r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d , on b a l a n c e ,  the  p r e f e r to l i v e  in  a n o t h e r a r e a w h i c h would be i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t f o r the absence of the a i r p o r t .  '  .'  I n t e r v i e w s u s i n g the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c a r r i e d out during  the p e r i o d from November 13-16.  I n an e f f o r t t o a v o i d the b i a s  of q u e s t i o n n a i r i n g d u r i n g the daytime o n l y when c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l and age  groups would be o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d ,  the i n t e r v i e w i n g was  u l e d so t h a t a l l times of the day between 9:00 m e a l t i m e s ) would be c o v e r e d . e v e n i n g p e r i o d s and possibilities  Two  a weekend was  AM  and 9:30  PM  (except  i n t e r v i e w e r s were used d u r i n g d e l i b e r a t e l y chosen so t h a t  This  the f a c t t h a t a weekend meant t h a t some  e n t i r e f a m i l i e s would l i k e l y be away.  S i n c e i t was  f e l t t h a t no  lems of p e r i o d i c i t y e x i s t e d i n the a r e a , a s y s t e m a t i c chosen.  the  the  of g e t t i n g whole f a m i l y groups would be i n c r e a s e d .  i s o f f s e t to some e x t e n t by  method was  sched-  prob-  random s a m p l i n g  108  The sample was of  the a r e a , s e l e c t i n g a number between one and t h r e e and b e g i n n i n g  w i t h that household. hold. up. In  s e l e c t e d by a r b i t r a r i l y b e g i n n i n g a t one c o r n e r  The p r o c e d u r e was  t o go to each t h i r d  I f t h e r e was no r e s p o n s e then the household was  house-  s i m p l y passed  No a t t e m p t was made to c a l l back because of time l i m i t a t i o n s . t h i s way  79 completed h o u s e h o l d i n t e r v i e w s were done, two were r e -  f u s e d , and 18 were n o t home, making a t o t a l of 99 h o u s e h o l d s .  In this  79 h o u s e h o l d s , 140 p e r s o n s were i n t e r v i e w e d and the a n a l y s i s i s based on t h i s number.  The complete a d d r e s s of each a d d r e s s was n o t c o l l e c t e d s i n c e i t was  f e l t t h a t t h i s would h e l p to impress on the r e s p o n d e n t s the f a c t  t h a t the i n t e r v i e w s were anonymous, the t h e o r y b e i n g t h a t they would t h e r e f o r e be more i n c l i n e d  to be h o n e s t l y c a n d i d i n t h e i r v i e w s .  was a l s o f e l t t h a t the e x a c t l o c a t i o n would be of l i t t l e s i n c e the a r e a was q u i t e s m a l l .  However, i t was  It  importance  f e l t t h a t a rough  a p p r o x i m a t i o n of the l o c a t i o n m i g h t f o r some r e a s o n be u s e f u l i n the a n a l y s i s and so the s t r e e t l o c a t i o n was r e c o r d e d and the p a t h f o l l o w e d d u r i n g the  i n t e r v i e w s was n o t e d .  I n t h i s way  a rough a p p r o x i m a t i o n of the r e s -  pondents r e s i d e n c e c o u l d be made.  The i n t e r v i e w i n g t e c h n i q u e was  to go t o the door, e x p l a i n the  purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and emphasize  t h a t the response would  be  a b s o l u t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , and t h a t i t was f o r an M.A.  T h e s i s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , a t the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia.  The o b j e c t h e r e was  to g e t around a problem w h i c h  came t o l i g h t d u r i n g the p r e t e s t , namely t h a t the i n t e r v i e w s were b e i n g  109  c a r r i e d out by agency. and  the Department of T r a n s p o r t or some o t h e r  government  Emphasis of these p o i n t s l e d away from the e a r l i e r  i t was  f e l t , t o more r e l a x e d  confusion,  interviews.  R e s u l t s of the Survey T a b l e s 4.3  t o 4.52  i n d i c a t e the r e s u l t s of the s u r v e y .  i n a t i o n of these t a b l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t B e r k e v i l l e , can be c o n s i d e r e d 140  With regard  As  shown i n T a b l e 4.4  between $6000 and r e l a t i v e l y few  eight declined  over $10,000 (9.29%,).  The  ( T a b l e 4.6) majority  and  The  a r e a was  of the p o p u l a t i o n  34 y e a r s and  be e x p l a i n e d  m o b i l e l a t e r on.  by  about one  ( T a b l e 4.7)  t h i r d was  The  Whether t h i s was  between years.  tend t o become  because of the a i r p o r t i n f l u e n c e or remains to be  more than 55 y e a r s of age were those  t h a t became e s t a b l i s h e d i n the a r e a b e f o r e a i r p o r t and  was  more than 55  a house w h i c h i s w i t h i n t h e i r means but  group t h a t was  distrib-  the f a c t t h a t younger p e o p l e move to  r a t h e r a f u n c t i o n of c h a n g i n g economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s , dealt with.  owner o c c u p i e d  f e l l i n t o two age  the ages of 15 and  the a r e a to buy  this  95%, s i n g l e f a m i l y  about t h r e e q u a r t e r s  A b o u t h a l f of the p o p u l a t i o n  s p l i t may  to give  4.3)  about h a l f the f a m i l y incomes were  ution categories.  This  the  $9000 per y e a r w i t h a few under $3000 (4.29%) and  detached d w e l l i n g s ( T a b l e 4.5).  Of  s l i g h t l y more than h a l f were female (Table  to f a m i l y income, about one  information.  socio-economically  to be a f a i r l y average m i d d l e c l a s s a r e a .  residents interviewed  An exam-  the 1963  e x p a n s i o n of  the  are n o t as m o b i l e .  T h i s i s r e i n f o r c e d by  the f i n d i n g of the survey t h a t about h a l f  of the r e s i d e n t s have been i n the a r e a l e s s than s i x y e a r s (Table  4.8).  110  The s t r o n g importance o f home ownership i s shown i n T a b l e 4.9 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t about two t h i r d s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s (63.577,) home ownership as a r e a s o n f o r moving t o the a r e a .  indicated  This f a c t o r ranks  above a l l o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g c l o s e n e s s t o work (56.857,) and f r i e n d s h i p o r f a m i l y t i e s and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the a r e a (33.577.). the r e a s o n s why they have remained  When asked t o s t a t e  i n the a r e a ( T a b l e 4.10) o n l y about  h a l f o f the r e s p o n d e n t s (57.867>) s t a t e d t h a t home ownership was the reason.  B e i n g c l o s e t o work remained  t h e same and f r i e n d s h i p ,  family  and f a m i l i a r i t y r o s e t o (57.867,) an i n c r e a s e o f n e a r l y 257,.  T a b l e 4.11 shows t h e o c c u p a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sample. About one e i g h t h (12.87,) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were a i r p o r t w o r k e r s . Those i n t h e same o c c u p a t i o n groups b u t n o t employed about h a l f o f the p o p u l a t i o n . a t 37.27, o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  Housewives  a t the a i r p o r t r e p r e s e n t  are s l i g h t l y overrepresehted  I f h o u s e w i v e s , s t u d e n t s , unemployed, and  r e t i r e d persons a r e removed from the o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s the wage e a r n i n g l a b o r f o r c e i s b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d . As i n d i c a t e d by T a b l e 4.12 about one t h i r d o f t h i s group a r e a i r p o r t w o r k e r s .  Reactions t o the F i v e A i r p o r t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the a n a l y s i s o f t h e a t t i t u d e s t o t h e f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e f o l l o w i n g n o t a t i o n has been adopted:  1)  "does n o t a p p l y " means t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t s a t t i t u d e was t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o Berkeville.  Ill TABLE 4.3  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  SEX OF RESPONDENTS  No.  Male  65  46.43  Female  75  53.57  140  100.00  Total  SOURCE:  %__  ORIGINAL SURVEY  112  TABLE 4 . 4  VANCOUVER  INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  FAMILY INCOME OF RESPONDENTS (ANNUAL)  No response L e s s than $3000 $3000 - $5999 $6000 - $9999  .  More than $10,000 Total  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  No.  %  17  12.14  6  4.29  32  22.86  72  51.43  13  9.29  140  100.00  113 TABLE 4.5  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  TYPE OF TENURE OF RESPONDENTS  No.  Owned Rented Total  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  %  108  77.14  32  22.86  140  100.00  114 TABLE 4.6  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  TYPE OF DWELLING UNIT OF RESPONDENTS  No.  %  133  95.00  Duplex  7  5.00  Total.  140  100.00  S i n g l e F a m i l y detached  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  115 TABLE  4.7  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  AGE OF RESPONDENTS  No.  %  15 - 19  13  9.29  20-24  9  6.43  25-34  44  31.43  35 - 44  16  11.43  45 - 54  16  11.43  55-64  21  15.00  65-69  7  5.00  14  10.00  140  100.00  70+ Total  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  116  TABLE 4.8  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  LENGTH OF RESIDENCE OF RESPONDENTS  No.  %  L e s s than 1 y e a r  32  22.86  1-6  years  44  31.43  More than 6 y e a r s  64  45.71  140  100.00  Total  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  117 TABLE  4.9  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  RESPONDENTS REASONS FOR MOVING TO BERKEVILLE  Yes  7o  No  %  Total Total %  Home ownership or occupancy  89  63.57  51  36.43  140  100.00  Close  79  56.43  61  43.57  140  100.00  47  33.57  93  66.43  140  100.00  to work  F a m i l y and f r i e n d s h i p t i e s or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the area  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  118 TABLE  4.10  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  RESPONDENTS REASONS FOR STAYING IN BERKEVILLE  Yes  %  No  Home ownership or occupancy  81  57.86  59  42.12  140  100.00  Close  81  57.86  59  42.14  140  100.00  81  57.86  59  42.14  140  100.00  t o work  F a m i l y or f r i e n d s h i p t i e s or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h area  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  %  Total  7,  119 TABLE  4.11  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS  No.  A i r p o r t Employees *  18  12.84  S i m i l a r occupations,not employed a t a i r p o r t  39  27.83  Housewives  52  37.18  A l l O t h e r s **  •31  22.14  140  100.00  Total  *  I n c l u d e s A i r p o r t I n d u s t r i a l a r e a employees.  **  I n c l u d e s s t u d e n t s , r e t i r e d , unemployed, m a n a g e r i a l , and c r a f t s m e n .  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  120  TABLE 4.12  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  WAGE EARNING OCCUPATIONS OF RESPONDENTS  No.  %_  A i r p o r t Employees *  18  30.00  N o n - a i r p o r t Employees **  42  70.00  Total  60  100.00  *  I n c l u d e s a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a employees.  **  I n c l u d e s a l l o t h e r s , excludes housewives, students, unemployed and r e t i r e d .  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  121  2)  "no  importance" means t h a t  indicated  the respondents  t h a t they d i d n o t f e e l  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  to be i m p o r t a n t to them. 3)  "annoyance" means t h a t the respondent anger  4)  or annoyance.  " f e a r " means t h a t the respondent worry  5)  indicated  indicated  fear,  or a n x i e t y .  No persons f e l l  i n t o the " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y .  AIRCRAFT NOISE Table 4 . 1 3  shows the r e s p o n s e s of the B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s to  the f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . respondents  With r e s p e c t to n o i s e , about h a l f of the  i n d i c a t e d "annoyance".  Slightly  t h a t a i r c r a f t n o i s e was  two r e a c t i o n s ,  those of " f e a r " and "does n o t a p p l y " accounted f o r l e s s  When sex was more females  family  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h n o i s e i t was  than males r e p o r t e d "annoyance".  other  factor  found  147o  t h a t about  C o n v e r s e l y , 147, more  to be of "no  importance",  "Annoyance" r e a c t i o n s were found to v a r y i n v e r s e l y w i t h  income ( T a b l e 4 . 1 5 )  r a n g i n g from a h i g h of more than f o u r  f o r the lowest income group, income group  The  response.  males than females r e p o r t e d t h i s (Table 4 . 1 4 ) .  importance".  indicated  t h a t they f e l t  than 37c, of the t o t a l  of "no  l e s s than h a l f  fifths  to a low of about 407, f o r those i n the  of more than $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 per y e a r .  Those r e p o r t i n g  "no  importance" r e a c t i o n v a r i e d d i r e c t l y w i t h income r e a c h i n g a h i g h i n the $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 category of 61.547 . 0  erably l e s s .  Those who  The v a r i a t i o n by tenure type was  consid-  owned t h e i r homes were about 97, h i g h e r i n the  "annoyance" c a t e g o r y a t 52.787, than those who  rented (Table 4 . 1 6 ) .  122  The v a r i a t i o n by r e s i d e n c e l e n g t h i s even l e s s  significant.  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t l o n g term r e s i d e n t s ( i . e . those  who  had been i n the a r e a more than s i x y e a r s ) e x p r e s s e d "annoyance", about 87, l e s s than those who had been i n the a r e a f o r l e s s than year (Table 4 . 1 7 ) . with occupation.  Table 4.18 The  one  shows the v a r i a t i o n of n o i s e r e a c t i o n  i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s of t h i s t a b u l a t i o n are  that  a i r p o r t workers r e p o r t e d "no i m p o r t a n c e " 78.87> of the time as opposed to 38.47, of n o n - a i r p o r t w o r k e r s The "annoyance" r e a c t i o n was  i n the same o c c u p a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s .  e x p r e s s e d most o f t e n by housewives  (63.57=,),  n e x t by n o n - a i r p o r t workers whose j o b s were i n the same c a t e g o r i e s as a i r p o r t workers  (56.47.) and l o w e s t by the a i r p o r t w o r k e r s .  Age g e n e r a l l y r e v e a l s l i t t l e w i t h r e s p e c t to d i f f e r e n t i a l r e a c t i o n s to n o i s e ( T a b l e 4 . 1 9 ) . 15-19  I t was  found t h a t the age group of  y e a r s had the l e a s t number of ."annoyance" r e s p o n s e s .  The o n l y  o t h e r age group t h a t d i v e r g e s from the average p a t t e r n was  the 6 5 - 6 9  one i n w h i c h 85.717, r e p o r t e d "annoyance" and none r e p o r t e d i t t o be of "no i m p o r t a n c e " .  However, no c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d i s i n d i c a t e d .  The r e a c t i o n of B e r k e v i l l e to n o i s e i s v i r t u a l l y s p l i t between "no i m p o r t a n c e " and "annoyance". occupation.  As was  "annoyed" group  The key t o t h i s seems to l i e i n  e x p e c t e d , the a i r p o r t workers were the l e a s t  in Berkeville.  The f i n d i n g t h a t "annoyance" d e c r e a s e d  w i t h i n c r e a s i n g income i s e x p l a i n e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , by the f a c t the a i r p o r t workers have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f a m i l y incomes.  Table  that  4.20  shows the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s of the f a m i l y incomes of a i r p o r t w o r k e r s from B e r k e v i l l e as a whole.  They a r e o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the  t h i r d and f o u r t h groups by 217o and 127, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t -  123 ed  i n the two l o w e s t groups by 47, and 17% r e s p e c t i v e l y .  This  d i f f e r e n t i a l , c o u p l e d w i t h the a i r p o r t w o r k e r s s t r o n g tendency to u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the "annoyance" "annoyance"  c a t e g o r y e x p l a i n the income  finding.  The f i n d i n g t h a t f e m a l e s were o n l y 97, h i g h e r i n the c a t e g o r y i s n o t e x p l a i n a b l e by the a i r p o r t w o r k e r s .  "annoyance"  I f i t were, then  i t would be e x p e c t e d t h a t housewives c o n s i d e r e d as a group ( T a b l e would be lower than f e m a l e s c o n s i d e r e d as a group ( T a b l e 4.14)  4.18)  since  the i n f l u e n c e by a i r p o r t w o r k e r s on the w i v e s would be more i n e v i d e n c e i n t h i s group r a t h e r than the female group as a whole. c a s e ; 57.33% of f e m a l e s e x p r e s s e d "annoyance"  T h i s i s n o t the  and 63.507, of housewives  e x p r e s s e d the same, an i n c r e a s e of 6.17%.  The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t must be drawn then i s t h a t i t i s o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h i s the l a r g e s t i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n a t t i t u d e s towards n o i s e . The .remainder of the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be r a n k e d i n o r d e r o f d e c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g a t t i t u d e s towards n o i s e . 1.  Occupation  2.  Income  3.  Sex  4.  Age  5.  Tenure  6.  L e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e  124 TABLE 4.13  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  RESPONDENTS ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT CHARACTERISTICS  Airport Characteristic  Attitude Does No Not A p p l y Importance No % No %  Annoyance No %  Fear No  %  A i r c r a f t Noise  3  2.14  65  46.43  71  50.71  1  0.71  Aircraft air pollution  1  0.71  99  70.71  23  16.43  17  12.14  Non-occupant crash hazard  2  1.43  103  73.57  0  0.00  35  25.00  A i r p o r t industry  4  2.86  119  85.00  15  10.71  2  1.43  Airport traffic  86  61.43  28  20.00  21  15.00  5  • 3.57  Yes No. Like  to move  SOURCE:  41  ORIGINAL SURVEY  No 7o  29.29  No. 99  Total % 70.71  No. 140  7„ 100  TABLE  4.14  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY . (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969.  ATTITUDE TO AIRCRAFT NOISE BY SEX  SEX  Does n o t A p p l y No %  No Importance No 7o  Annoyance No %  No  %  Total  Fear No  • %  Male  2  3.08  35  53.85  28  43.08  0  0 .00  65  46.43  Female  1  1.33.  30  40.00  43  57.33  1  1 .33  75  54.57  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  TABLE 4.15 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT NOISE BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME  INCOME  Does not Apply No  No Importance No 7.  Annoy ance No 7.  Fear No  %  Total No  %  No response <.  0  0  6  35.29  11  64.71  0  0  17  100  L e s s than $3000  0  0  1  16.67  5  83.33  0  0  6  100  $3000 - $5999  0  . 0  14  43.75  18  56.25  0  0  32  100  $6000 - $9999  3  4.17  36  50.00  32 '  44.44  1  1.39  72  100  $10,000 +  0  8  61.54  5  38.46  0  0  13  100  ;  SOURCE :  ORIGINAL.. SURVEY  0  •  TABLE 4.16 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT NOISE BY TYPE OF TENURE  TYPF. OF TENURE  Does not Apply No 7o  No Importance No %  Annoyance No %  Fear No •  %  Owned  2  1.85  48  44.44  57  52.78  1  0.93  Rented  1  3.13  17  53.13  14  43.75  0  0  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  Total No •  7.  108  100  32  100  TABLE  4.17  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT NOISE BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE  LENGTH  OF RF.STDF.NP.F.  Does n o t A p p l y No 7,  L e s s than 1 y e a r  1  1-6  years  0  0  More than 6 y e a r s  2  3.13  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL ..SURVEY  No Importance No %  3.13  Annoyance No •%  Total  Fear No  %  No  %  43.75  17  53.13  0  0  32  100  19  43.18  25  56.82  0  0  44  100  32  50.00  29  . 45.31  1  64-  100  1.56  TABLE  4.18  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDE TO AIRCRAFT NOISE BY OCCUPATION  No OCCUPATION  Does n o t A p p l y No  Im p o r t a n c e  No  % .  Annoyance No  Total  Fear No  No  A i r p o r t Employees  0  0  14  77.8  4  72.2  0  0  18  100  Same group, n o t employed a t a i r - • port  2  5.2  15  38.4  22  56.4  0  0  39  100  Housewives  1  1.9  17  32.7  33  63.5  .1  1.9  52  100  All  0  0  19  61.2 .  12  38.8  0  0  31  100  SOURCE:  others  ORIGINAL SURVEY  TABLE VANCOUVER  4.20  INTERNATIONAL  AIRPORT  SURVEY  (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER  ATTITUDE  TO A I R C R A F T  Does not Apply No %  AGF.  1969  NOISE  BY A G E  No Importance No 7.  Annoyance No %  Fear No  %  No  Total ' %  - 19  0  0  9  69.23  4  30.77  0  0  13  100  20 - 24  0  0  4  44.44  5  55.56  0  0  9  100  25 - 34  1  19  43.18  24  59.55  0  0  44  100  35 - 44  0  0  8  50.00  8  50.00  0  0  16  100  45 - 54  0  0  7  43.75  9  56.25  o •  0  16  100  10  47.62  9  42.86  0  0  21  100  7  100  14  100  55 - 64  .  2  2.27  9.52  65 - 69  0  0  0  0  6  85.71  1  14.29  +  0  0  8  57.14  6  42.86  0  0  70  SOURCE:  O R I G I N A L ..SURVEY  131  TABLE  4.20  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ANNUAL FAMILY INCOMES OF AIRPORT WORKERS AND THE BALANCE OF BERKEVILLE (PER CENT)  Income Group  A i r p o r t Workers  Balance of B e r k e v i l l e  No response  0  12.24  Under $3000  0  4.29  $3000-5900  5.56  22.86  $6000-9999  72.23  51.43  $10,000 +  22.21  9.29  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  132  AIRCRAFT AIR  T a b l e 4.13  POLLUTION  shows the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s of B e r k e v i l l e  aircraft air pollution.  As  shown i n T a b l e 4.21  towards  the a t t i t u d e does n o t  v a r y w i t h sex.  As w i t h the r e a c t i o n to n o i s e the r e l a t i o n between  "annoyance" and  a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h income.  ( T a b l e 4.22).  However t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p does n o t h o l d w i t h the " f e a r "  reaction.  Renters  was  importance"  o f "no  g e n e r a l l y f e l t more o f t e n t h a t a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n  ( 5 . 5 % ) , ( T a b l e 4.23).  than homeowners, but On  the o t h e r hand, n e a r l y one  the owners were "annoyed" w h i l e about one r e a c t e d w i t h "annoyance".  t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s not  There was  fifth  great,  (18.52%) of  t e n t h (9.38%.) of the r e n t e r s  no d i f f e r e n c e by  tenure w i t h  respect  t o the " f e a r " c a t e g o r y .  When a t t i t u d e s t o a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n were s t r a t i f i e d by of r e s i d e n c e , "no  importance"  and  "annoyance" c a t e g o r i e s were found to  v a r y d i r e c t l y as l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e .  " F e a r " r e a c t i o n s were found t o v a r y  i n v e r s e l y w i t h r e s i d e n c e l e n g t h , ( T a b l e 4.24). between those who who  The most pronounced d i v i s i o n  had been i n B e r k e v i l l e f o r l e s s than one y e a r and  had been t h e r e between one  length  and  s i x y e a r s , i . e . new  more " f e a r " of a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n and tended t o answer l e s s o f t e n t h a t i t was  residents indicated  l e s s "annoyance".  o f "no  those  They a l s o  importance".  A t t i t u d e s towards a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n when s t r a t i f i e d by  occup-  a t i o n showed a much l e s s marked r e l a t i o n s h i p than i n the case o f n o i s e , ( T a b l e 4.25).  However, a i r p o r t w o r k e r s a g a i n showed a s t r o n g tendency t o -  wards a r e a c t i o n of "no  importance"  (77.8%,).  was  133  Those i n the  same o c c u p a t i o n s b u t not employed a t the  showed the l o w e s t tendency towards t h i s r e a c t i o n , attitudes was  to t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c by age  c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e s t i n the age  ( T a b l e 4.26)  and  54 y e a r s .  tendency towards the "no  groups a r e between 45 and  Comparing  groups showed t h a t "annoyance"  groups between 45 and  i n the y o u n g e s t group. " F e a r " r e a c t i o n s  b r a c k e t between 20 and greatest  (66.7%).  airport  70  years,  were a l l i n  the  Those over 70 y e a r s of age  showed  importance" a t t i t u d e .  most concerned  54 y e a r s w h i c h had  The  the  43.75%, s p l i t between " f e a r "  and"annoyance".  The  attitudes  towards a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n were l e s s c l e a r  than those towards n o i s e .  The  influence  pronounced than w i t h n o i s e w h i l e age pronounced d i f f e r e n c e s . indicators.  The  Tenure and  of o c c u p a t i o n and  and sex  length  income i s l e s s  of r e s i d e n c e show more  seem to be  the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t  r a n k i n g of the v a r i a b l e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i f f e r e n c e s  the mean f o r a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i s as Occupation.  2)  L e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e .  3)  Income.  5) 6)  from  follows:-  1)  4)  cut  Age. Tenure. Sex.  NON-OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS There has national Airport  (9)  n e v e r been a non-occupant f a t a l i t y a t Vancouver I n t e r , and  compared w i t h o t h e r types of h a z a r d s , a i r c r a f t  I n t e r v i e w w i t h W i l l i a m I n g l i s , A i r p o r t Manager, Vancouver a l A i r p o r t , J a n u a r y 23, 1970.  Internation-  TABLE 4.21 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY SEX  SF.X  <  Does not Apply No %  No Importance No 7,  Annoyance No. %  Fear No  7o  Total No  7  Male  1  1.54  46  70.77  10  15.38  8  12.31  65  100  Female  0  0  53  70.67  13  17.33  9  12.00  75  100  br OJ 4>  1  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL .SURVEY  TABLE  4.22  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME  TNnOMF.  Does n o t ApplyNo 7=  No Importance No 7,  Annoyance No 7.  Fear No •  Total . 7o  No response  0  0  14  82.35  2  11.76  1  5.88  L e s s than $3000  0  0  4  66.67  2  33.33  0  0  $3000 - $5999  0  0  20  62.50  9  28.13  3  $6000 - $999  1  1.39  52  72.22  8  11.11  11  $10,000 +  0  0  9  69.23  2  15.38  2  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  %  No  17  100  6  100  9.38  32  100  15.28  72  100  15.38 .  13  100  TABLE  4.23  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  SURVEY  ATTITUDES TO A I R C R A F T A I R POLLUTION BY TYPE OF TENURE  TYPE OF TF.NTTKF.  Does n o t Apply No  Owned  0  Rented  1  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL  SURVEY  0 3.13  No Importance No  Annoyance No  7o  75  69.44  20  18.52  13  12.04  108  100  24  75.00  3  9.38  4  12.50  32  100  Total  Fear No  No  TABLE  4.24  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE  LENGTH OF BF.fi TTW.Nf.F.  Does no^t A p p l y . No %  L e s s than 1 y e a r  1  1 - 6 years  0  More than 6 y e a r s  0  SOURCE :  ORIGINAL.. SURVEY  No Importance No %  Annoyance No .%  Fear No  %  Total No  %  19  59.38  2  6.25  10  31 .25  32  100  0  31  70.45  8  18.18  5  11 .36  44  100  0  49  76.56  13  20.31  2  3 .13  64 •  100  3.13  TABLE 4.25 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY . (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY  OCCUPATION  r Does n o t A p p l y No 7.  No Importance No  OCCUPATION  Annoyance No 7.  Fear • No  7o  Total No  7.'  A i r p o r t employees  0  0  14  77.8  2  11.1  2  11.1  18  100  Same group n o t employed a t a i r port  1  2.6  26  66.7  5  12.8  7  17.9  39  100  Housewives  0  0  36  69.2  9  17.3  7  13.5  52  100  A l l others  . 0  0  23  74.2  7  22.6  1  3.2  31  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL .SURVEY  TABLE  4.26  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (3ERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY AGE  • AfiF.  Does not Apply No %  No Importance No %  Annoyance No %  Fear No  15 - 19  0  0  10  76.92  3  23.08  0  20 - 24  0  0  6  66.67  1  11.11  2  25-34  1  29  65.91  5  11.36  9  35-44  0  0  11  68.75  2  12.50  3  45 - 54  0  0  9  56.25  4  25.00  5.5 - 64  0  0  16  76.19  5  65"- 69  0  0  5  71.43  70 +  0  0  3  92.86  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  2.27  Total % 0  No  %_  13  100  9  100  44  100  18.75  16  100  3  18.75  16  100  23.81  0  0  21  100  2  28.57  0  0  7  '. 100  1  7.14  0  0  14  100  22.22 20.45  140  hazards are s m a l l .  Y e t about one q u a r t e r of the B e r k e v i l l e  e x p r e s s e d " f e a r " of c r a s h h a z a r d s , ( T a b l e 4 . 1 3 ) . ing  t o sex, ( T a b l e 4 . 2 7 )  i t was  residents  When s t r a t i f i e d  found t h a t females tended  accord-  t o answer " f e a r "  about 97, more o f t e n than m a l e s . . R e a c t i o n s t o c r a s h h a z a r d s by  income  showed t h a t those w i t h the h i g h e s t f a m i l y incomes ( $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 + per y e a r ) , were the l e a s t l i k e l y  t o r e p l y "no  i m p o r t a n c e " (38.467o) and  the most l i k e -  l y t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r a t t i t u d e as " f e a r " , ( 6 1 . 5 4 7 , ) . ( T a b l e 4 . 2 8 ) .  Those  w i t h f a m i l y incomes of $ 3 , 0 0 0 t o $ 6 , 0 0 0 per y e a r showed the l e a s t to  i n d i c a t e " f e a r " of c r a s h h a z a r d s .  Those i n the l o w e s t income group  ( l e s s than $ 3 , 0 0 0 ) were the o n l y group who not a p p l y " to B e r k e v i l l e ,  s t a t e d t h a t c r a s h h a z a r d s ,"does  (16.677,).  Homeowners, ( T a b l e 4 . 2 9 )  showed a marked tendency  i m p o r t a n c e " r e a c t i o n and r e n t e r s towards  towards  the  the " f e a r " c a t e g o r y ( 4 3 . 7 5 7 . )  V a r i a t i o n w i t h l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e showed a f a i r l y "no  tendency  s t r o n g tendency  "no .  towards  i m p o r t a n c e " a t t i t u d e s as l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n c r e a s e d , ( T a b l e 4 . 3 0 ) .  As i n the p r e v i o u s two c a s e s , the a i r p o r t workers were h i g h e s t i n the  "no  i m p o r t a n c e " c a t e g o r y , (88.97») ( T a b l e 4 . 3 1 ) , w h i l e those i n the same occupa t i o n s b u t n o t employed a t the a i r p o r t were the l o w e s t a t 64.07,. f l u e n c e of o c c u p a t i o n on a t t i t u d e was  The i n -  once a g a i n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e .  Housewives, the group t h a t spend the most time i n B e r k e v i l l e , showed the second h i g h e s t " f e a r " a t t i t u d e a t 30.87,.  Two  age groups had about h a l f of the r e s p o n d e n t s  r e a c t i o n s , (Table 4 . 3 2 ) . (55.567,) and  indicating  Those between the ages of 20 and 24  years  those between the ages of 25 and 34 y e a r s ( 4 3 . 7 5 7 , ) .  g e n e r a l t r e n d was  t o an a t t i t u d e of "no  "fear"  The  i m p o r t a n c e " as age i n c r e a s e d .  141  U n l i k e the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s covered i n the survey., r e a c t i o n s to c r a s h h a z a r d s showed most of the socio-economic v a r i a b l e s to be of importance  in attitude correlations.  rank them.  T h e r e f o r e i t i s more d i f f i c u l t  to  However, on b a l a n c e the a p p r o p r i a t e r a n k i n g i n r e g a r d s to  c r a s h h a z a r d s appears  t o be as  follows:-  1)  Occupation.  2)  L e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e .  3)  Income.  4)  Tenure.  5)  Age.  6)  . (  Sex.  LOCATION OF AIRPORT INDUSTRY As has a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d o u t , B e r k e v i l l e has n o t s u f f e r e d  any  encroachment by a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y because of the p o l i c y of the Department of T r a n s p o r t .  I n the case of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t these i n -  d u s t r i e s are l o c a t e d i n a group to the south of the new  terminal.  I t woul  be p r e d i c t e d t h e r e f o r e t h a t the a t t i t u d e s t o t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h o u l d f a l l l a r g e l y i n the "no i m p o r t a n c e " c a t e g o r y . prediction.  T a b l e 4.13  b e a r s out  this  S u r p r i s i n g l y , however, a t e n t h of the r e s i d e n t s e x p r e s s e d  "annoyance" a t h a v i n g these i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t e d where they were.  Sex, as shown i n T a b l e 4.33 erences..  was  o f no s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a t t i t u d e  diff  The h i g h e s t and l o w e s t income groups were unanimous i n t h e i r  a t t i t u d e of "no i m p o r t a n c e " .  The h i g h e s t "annoyance" a t t i t u d e  response  came from the income group between $6,000 and $9,999, ( T a b l e 4.34). S t r a t i f i c a t i o n by t e n u r e , ( T a b l e 4.35) w i t h r e s p e c t t o a t t i t u d e s towards  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  the l o c a t i o n of a i r p o r t  industry.  TABLE 4.27 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDE TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARD BY SEX  SEX  Does n o t A p p l y No 7,  No Importance No 7»  Annoyance No 7,  Fear No  Total  %  No  %  Male  1  1.54  '51  78.46  0  0  13  20 .00  65  100  Female  1  1.33  52  69.33  0  0  22  29 .33  75  100  V  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  TABLE  4.28  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) . NOVEMBER 1969.  ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME  INCOMF.  Does not Apply No %  No Imp or tance No %  Annoy ance No • %  No  Total  Fear 7,  No  •%  No response  0  0  14  82.35  0  0  3  17.65  17  100  L e s s than $3000  1  16.67 .  4  66.67  0  0  1  16.67  6  100  $3000 - $5999  0  0  28  87.50  0  0  4  12.50  32  100  $6000 - $9999  1  52  72.22  0  0  19  76.39  72  100  $10,000 +  0  5  38.40  0  0  61.54  13  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  1^39 0  8 :  TABLE 4.29 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY . (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS BY TYPE OF TENURE  TYPE OF TFNTTRF.  Does n o t A p p l y No 7o  Owned  0  Rented  2  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  0 6.25 .  • . No Importance No %  Annoyance No 7,  Total  Fear No  7  Nb  7,  87  80.56  0  0  21  19 .44  108  100  16  50.00  0  0  14  43 .75  32  100  TABLE 4.30 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (3ERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE  LENGTH OF RF.fi TTIF. WPP  Does n o t A p p l y No %  L e s s than 1 y e a r  2  1-6  years  0  More than 6 y e a r s  0  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  No Importance No %  Annoy ance No %  Fear No  Total  %  No  .% •  16  50.00  0  0  14  43 .75  32  100  0  32  72.73  0  0  12  27 .27  44  100  0  55  85.94  0  0  9  14 .06  64  100  6.25  TA3LE 4.31 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS BY OCCUPATION  OCCUPATION  Does n o t A p p l y No %  No Importance No %  Annoyance • No  Fear No  Total  %  No  %  A i r p o r t employees  0  0  16  88.9  0  0  2  11.1  18  100  Same group n o t employed at a i r p o r t  1  2.7  25  64.0  0 .  0  13  33.0  39  100  Housewives  1  1.9  35  67.3  0  0  16  30.8  52  100  A l l others  0  0  27  87.3  0  0  4  12.7  31  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  1  TABLE  4.32  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARD BY AGE  Does n o t A p p l y No 7,  ACE  15-19  0  0  20 - 24  0  0  25-34  2  35 - 44  0  45-54  No Importance No 7=  Annoyance No 7,  Total  Fear No  No  •  %  '.9  69.23  0  0  4  30.77  13  100  4  44.44  0  0  5  55.56  9  100  30  68.18  0  0  12  27 .27  44  100  0  9  56.25  0  0  7  43.75  16  100  0  0  13  81.25  0  0  3  18.75  16  100  55 - 64  0  0  18  85.71  0  0  3  14.29  21  100  65-69  0  0  6  85.71  0  0  1  14.29  7  100  70 +  0  0  14  100  0  0  0  0  . 4  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  4.55  .  148  L e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e ( T a b l e 4 . 3 6 ) itude.  Those who  showed some d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t -  had been i n B e r k e v i l l e l e s s than one y e a r showed the  s t r o n g e s t tendency  towards "annoyance", (21.887>) . Those who had  lived 1963)  t h e r e more than s i x y e a r s , ( s i n c e the e x p a n s i o n of the a i r p o r t i n were n e a r l y unanimous i n the a t t i t u d e of "no  Because of the predominance of "no  importance".  importance" a t t i t u d e s ,  occupat-  i o n does n o t show the u s u a l d i f f e r e n c e of a i r p o r t workers from o t h e r occupational c a t e g o r i e s , (Table 4 . 3 7 ) . represented at 83.47c  under-  Those i n the same c a t e g o r i e s , but n o t employed a t  the a i r p o r t showed the h i g h e s t tendency a i r p o r t workers  They a r e , i n f a c t , s l i g h t l y  second a t 1 1 . 1 %  towards "annoyance", (18.07>) w i t h t h i r d a t 9.67>.  and housewives  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of "annoyance" a t t i t u d e s by age  (Table  4.38)  shows two groups h i g h e r than 207°, those between the ages of 20 and y e a r s ( 2 2 . 2 2 % ) and those i n the 25 t o 34 age groups. s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d e was  t h a t of "no i m p o r t a n c e " .  24  The o t h e r i m p o r t a n t  Four age groups  showed  more than 907» of t h e i r r e s p o n s e to a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y to be i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , the youngest  (15  - 19 y e a r s ) , the o l d e s t (70+  y e a r s ) and  the two  groups  between 35 and 54 y e a r s .  The  survey f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y tend t o  s t r e n g t h e n the o v e r a l l c o n s i s t e n c y of the a t t i t u d e s . however, i t was  F o r the f i r s t  time,  found t h a t o c c u p a t i o n was n o t t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e ;  in differences in attitude.  The r a n k i n g of the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s i n r e g a r d s t o the l o c a t i o n of i n d u s t r y a t the a i r p o r t i s as f o l l o w s : 1) 2)  Length of r e s i d e n c e . Age.  149  3)  Occupation.  4)  Income.  5)  Tenure.  6)  Sex.  AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC In  r e c e n t y e a r s , B e r k e v i l l e has had a d e c l i n i n g t r a f f i c  problem  stremming from the a i r p o r t u s e . T h i s has been due t o t h r e e main f a c t o r s , firstly  the opening o f the new t e r m i n a l i n 1968 changed a c c e s s from the  a i r p o r t t o the new four,! l a n e G r a n t MacConachie Way. pass through  T h i s road does n o t  the community, as does the A i r p o r t Road.  opening o f the new Dinsmore B r i d g e , much o f the t r a f f i c  Secondly,  w i t h the  t h a t has the i n -  d u s t r i a l a r e a as i t s o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n i s now d i v e r t e d a c r o s s  this  new f a c i l i t y and no l o n g e r uses the p a r t o f the A i r p o r t Road t h a t passes through B e r k e v i l l e .  T h i r d l y , the e x c l u s i o n of l e f t - h a n d t u r n s on the  A i r p o r t Road d u r i n g peak h o u r s has ended the problem of u s i n g B e r k e v i l l e s t r e e t s as a s h o r t - c u t between the A i r p o r t Road and G r a n t MacConachie Way.  As a r e s u l t o f these t h r e e f a c t o r s i t would be p r e d i c t e d t h a t the major p o r t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e s would be i n the "does n o t a p p l y " The  category.  f a c t t h a t o n l y about two t h i r d s of them do so i s e x p l a i n e d by the  f a c t t h a t the A i r p o r t Road s t i l l has heavy t r a f f i c ( T a b l e 4.13).  Perhaps most s u r p r i s i n g i s the e x p r e s s i o n t h a t o n l y 3.577,  of the r e s i d e n t s e x p r e s s e d expressed  f l o w s a t peak h o u r s  " f e a r " t o the t r a f f i c  s i t u a t i o n w h i l e 15.007,  "annoyance".  T a b l e 4.39 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s by s e x . There a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . D i s t r i b u t i o n by income groups showed t h a t the h i g h e s t income group ($10,000+ per y e a r ) and the l o w e s t group  TABLE 4.33 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY SEX  SEX  Does n o t A p p l y No °L  No Importance No 7o  Annoyance No 7,  Total  Fear %  No  No  7o  Male  2  3.08  55  84.62  7  10.77  1  1.54  65  100  Female  2  2.67.  64  85.33  8  10.67  1  1.33  75  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  TA3LE  4.34  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME  INCOME  Does n o t A p p l y No %  No response  0  0  L e s s than $3000  0  0 .  $3000 - $5999  2  $6000 - $9999  2  $10,000 +  0  SOURCE:. ORIGINAL SURVEY  No Imp o r t a n c e No 7.  Annoyance No 7.  • Total No  Fear No  7,  15  88.24  2  11.76  0  0  17 .  100  6  100.00  0  0  0  0  6.  100  6.25  27  84.38  3  9.38  0  .0  32  100  2.78  58  80.56  10  13.89  .2  2.78  72  100  13  100.00  0  0  0  13  100  0  0  •y  UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS  \mmmi  sMii|lilipIi]iiii|rp«P C i t y o f Vancouver L_I. Course >\Slli£S!jU&  Ill  'Golf  Conn  EjISJBS^jdLf--.  IB""" A  Berkeville  'I !  AI  rans/ormcn  N"'D"  ess  V a n c o wvc^v International  L  s  % Radio  .°°<a> °o 0  "IP*"  O^O OTotecrs  1*  w  32 .A  « i .  y  36  i  r—I k.  /'  1  [ p Ricfi!inq5ifj|!  (S-.jf-rfc  1  JC. :LJ:.Js i: -j  • i :lih-  PiI  Race Track \ Abandoned),,,  1  1  .— i --  D  J  Lit M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Richmond  l\VouchvaTits'  \j  \l.  •-f|  :|'Vj ;],..•; 3 | . p ^ . « B ^  MAP 4.1 L o c a t i o n o f Sea I s l a n d •'GarryI[ •:.:::;.:j:.,.V.7.-ii:c.«ni.™»s ^ >  Scale i • s n . n n n  ,0 RuJio 0 4C4'  96 There a r e two o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s on Sea I s l a n d , b o t h l o c a t e d on the e a s t e r n end of the I s l a n d .  The  f i r s t c u r r e n t l y being  phased out i s the Canadian F o r c e s M a r r i e d Q u a r t e r s which about 75  s i n g l e detached and d u p l e x r e s i d e n c e s .  comprises  A f t e r p h a s i n g out i t  w i l l go t o the, Department of T r a n s p o r t f o r e x p a n s i o n of the a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i a l a r e a sometime i n the f u t u r e s t u d y ) i s known l o c a l l y as B e r k e v i l l e (Map u n i t s , l a r g e l y s i n g l e f a m i l y houses.  #  ^he 4.2)  s e c o n d ( a r e a of the and c o n s i s t s of  These houses were b u i l t by  301 the  F e d e r a l Government i n 1941-42 to p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r a i r c r a f t  workers  employed i n the nearby B o e i n g a i r c r a f t assembly  houses,  plant.  These  i n i t i a l l y b u i l t as f i v e y e a r " t e m p o r a r y " h o u s i n g were o f f e r e d f o r s a l e to the occupants a f t e r the  war.  To the e a s t o f t h i s a r e a and  t o the s o u t h of the Morey  Channel  B r i d g e , t h e r e i s a s m a l l d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l a r e a c o n s i s t i n g of a c h e m i c a l company, a d r e d g i n g company and a marina  area.  The Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t t e r m i n a l i s l o c a t e d i n the c e n t r e of the i s l a n d and i s s e r v e d by G r a n t MacConachie Way, lane l i m i t e d access road.  a new  four  To the s o u t h o f t h i s a r e a i s the main a i r p o r t  i n d u s t r i a l and s e r v i c e a r e a , o f f i c e s , warehousing  and maintenance a r e a s .  A c c e s s to t h i s a r e a i s by A i r p o r t Road which p a s s e s through the c e n t r e of B e r k e v i l l e .  The community f a c i l i t i e s of the a r e a i n c l u d e the Sea  Island  S c h o o l , a Community C e n t r e , f i r e department and a s m a l l commercial (8)  ibid  area  TABLE 4.35 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (3ERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY TYPE OF TENURE  TYPE OF tf.ntttjf  Does n o t A p p l y No Yo  No Importance No . %  Annoyance No %  Fear No •  Owned  3  2.78  93  86.11  12  11.11  0  Rented  1  3.13.  26  81.25  3  9.38  2  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  Total %  0 6.25  No  t  108  100  32  100  . TABLE 4.36 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE  LENGTH OF RESIDENCE  Does n o t A p p l y No 7.  No Importance No • 7.  Annoyance No 7,  Fear No  Total  7.  No  7.  L e s s than 1 y e a r  1  3.13  23  71.88  7  21.88  1  3.13  32  100  1-6  years  1  2.27  37  84.09  5  11.36  1  2.27  44  100  More than 6 years'  2  3.13  59  72.19  3  4.69  0  0  64  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL ..SURVEY  TABLE  4.37  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY OCCUPATION  OCCUPATION  Does n o t A p p l y No %  No Importance No %  Annoyance No %  Fear No  Total  %  No  %  A i r p o r t employees  1  .5.5  15  83.4  2  11.1  0  0  18  100  Same group n o t employed a t airport  1  2.5  29  74.4  7  18.0  2  5.1  39  100  Housewives  2  3.9  45  86.5  5'  9.6  0  0  52  100  A l l other  0  0  30  96.8  1  3.2  0  0  31  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  TABLE  4.38  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY AGE  Does n o t A p p l y No 7.  AGE  No Imp o r t a n c e No 7.  Annoy ance No 7,  Total  Fear No  7.  No  7.  15-19  0  0  12  92.31  1  7.69  0  0  13  100  20 - 24  0  0  7  77.78  2  22.22  0  0  9  100  25 - 34  1  2.27  32  72.73  9  20.45  .2  4.55  44  100  35-44  1  6.25  15  93.75  0  0  0  0  16  100  45 - 54  0  16  100.00  0  0  0  0  12  100  55-64  2  17  80.95  2  9.52  0  0  21  65-69  0  0  6  85.71  1  14.29  0  0  7  100  70 +  0  0  14  100.00  0  0  0  . 14  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  0 9.52  0  100  156  ( l e s s than $3,000 p e r y e a r ) were the most "annoyed" a t 23.08% and 33.33% r e s p e c t i v e l y , ( T a b l e 4.40).  Those w i t h the l o w e s t  incomes were a l s o the  group 'with the l e a s t p r o p o r t i o n o f "does n o t a p p l y " r e s p o n s e s There i s n o t , however, any c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d w i t h r e g a r d of tenure  ( T a b l e 4.41) r e v e a l e d  (33.33%).  t o income.  Type  t h a t r e n t e r s a r e more prone t o "annoyance"  (21.88%,) and "no i m p o r t a n c e " (28.13%,) r e a c t i o n s than owners.  With respect  t o l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e ,  i t seems i m p l i c i t t h a t those  who had been i n the a r e a f o r more than s i x y e a r s should be the group t h a t most c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d  t h a t the t r a f f i c  s i t u a t i o n had n o t degenerated over j  time.  T h i s i s borne o u t by T a b l e 4.42 a t 71.88%.  residence  Those w i t h l e n g t h of  o f l e s s than one y e a r were the l e a s t concerned about t r a f f i c  the a i r p o r t e x p r e s s i n g  "no i m p o r t a n c e " about a t h i r d of the time  from  (34.38%).  Those who had l i v e d t h e r e between one and s i x y e a r s were the most "annoyed" group e x p r e s s i n g  t h i s a t t i t u d e 31.82%, o f the time.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s w i t h o c c u p a t i o n  ( T a b l e 4.43)  shows  the u s u a l a i r p o r t employee tendency towards "no i m p o r t a n c e " r e a c t i o n s . The r e a c t i o n o f the same o c c u p a t i o n a l groups b u t n o t employed a t the a i r p o r t , shows much more d i s p o s i t i o n t o "annoyance" a t t i t u d e s (30.8%,) than the a i r p o r t employees (5.6%,).  E q u a l l y s t r i k i n g was the f a c t t h a t housewives  are under-represented w i t h respect  t o "annoyance" r e a c t i o n s , ( 7 . 7 % ) .  There was no h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of age d i s t r i b u t i o n and a t t i t u d e s t o ground t r a f f i c g e n e r a t i o n ,  ( T a b l e 4.44).  The group r e p l y i n g  "does n o t a p p l y " most o f t e n was t h a t between 20 and 24 y e a r s .  The young-  e s t age group (15 t o 19 y e a r s ) had the h i g h e s t "annoyance" response (23.08%) and a l s o the h i g h e s t " f e a r " r e s p o n s e ( 1 5 . 3 8 % ) .  Those p e r s o n s  157  over 65 years were high with respect to the "no  importance" attitude  (42.867>)and 35.717, respectively) and lowest i n the "annoyance" category (zero for both groups.)  Of the f i v e a i r p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s examined here, this was that conformed as predicted best. Considering  There i s however, one exception  the  one  to t h i s .  that a number of c h i l d r e n must cross the a i r p o r t road to go  to the Sea Island school, i t was  somewhat surprising that the housewives  as a group did not show a higher  incidence of "fear" or "annoyance" a t t i t -  udes.  Ranking the socio-economic variables according  to the importance  of a i r p o r t generated t r a f f i c with respect to v a r i a t i o n s from the average y i e l d s the following:1)  Length of  residence.  2)  Age.  3)  Occupation.  4)  Tenure.  5)  Income.  6)  Sex.  RESIDENTS DESIRE TO MOVE The  f i n a l question asked i n each interview was  one i n which the  respondents, on balance of a l l the factors c i t e d , would l i k e to move from B e r k e v i l l e , i f a l l other things were held constant. i s hypothetical and  Because the  question  speculative, i t cannot be inferred that the residents  would express the same a t t i t u d e i f a c t u a l l y approached with an offer to relocate.  I t s value l i e s i n that i t requires a personal  subjective summation  TABLE 4.39 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY SEX  REX  Does n o t A p p l y No 7.  No Importance No %  Annoyance No %  Total  Fear No  7.  No  7o  Male  41  63.08  12  18.46  9  13.85  3  4.62  65  100  Female  45  60.00  16 . 21.33  12  16.00  2  2.67  75  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  TABLE  4.40  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME  TNCOME  No response  Does not Apply No • %  No Imp or tance No %  Annoyance No %  No  Total  Fear  No  10  58.82  3  17.65  3  17.65  1  5.88  2  33.33  1  16.67  2  33.33  1  $3000 - $5999  24  75.00  3  9.38  3  9.31  $6000 - $9999  44  61.11  17  23.61  10  6  46.15  4  30.77  3  Less than $3000  $10,0.00 +  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  %  17  100  16.67  6  100  2  6.25  32  100  13.89  1  1.39  72  100  23.08  0  0  13  100  TABLE  4.41  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY TYPE OF TENURE  TYPE OF TENURE  Does n o t A p p l y No %  No Importance No %  Annoyance No %  Total  Fear No  7.  No  %.  Owned  71  65.74  19  17.59  19  12.96  9  3.70  108  100  Rented ;  15  46.88  9  28.13  7  21.88  1  3.13  32  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  TABLE  4.42  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE LENGTH OF •RF.fi TTTRNriF.  Does n o t A p p l y No 7.  No Importance No • 7.  Annoyance No %  Fear No  • 7,  Total ' No-  •  %•  L e s s than 1 y e a r  18  56.25  11  34.38  2  6,25  1  3 .13  32  100  1 - 6 years  22  50.00  6  13.64  14  31.82  2  4 .55  44  100  More than 6 y e a r s  46  71.88  11  17.19  5  7.81  2  3 .13  64  100 ON  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  TABLE 4.43 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY OCCUPATION  OCCTIPATTON  Does not No  No Inroortance No %  Apply 7.  Annoyance No  Total  Fear 7,  No  No  7=  12  66.6  5  27.8  1  5.6  0  0  18  100  Same group not employed at a i r p o r t  20  51.3  7  17.9  12  30.8  0  0  39  100  Housewives  34  65.4  12  23.0  4  2  3.9  52  100  All  20  64.5  4  12.9  4  3  9.7  31  100  Airport  employees  others  v  r SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  7.7 12.9  TABLE  4.44  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES  TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY AGE  Does n o t A p p l y No %  AGF.  No Importance No %  Annoyance No %  Fear No  Total  %  No  %  15 - 19  6  46.15  2  15.38  3  23.08  2  15.38  13  100  20 - 24  8  88.89  0  0  1  11.11  0  0  9  100  25 - 34  24  54.55  7  15.91  10  72.73  3  6.82  44  100  35 - 44  8  50.00'  6  37.50  2  12.50  0  0  16  100  45 - 54  13  8i.25  2  12.50  1  6.25  0  0  16  100  55 - 64  14  66.67  3  14.29  4  19.05  0  0  21  100  65 - 69  4  57.14  3 .  42.86  0  0  0  0  7  100  70 +  9  64.29  5  35.71  0  0  0  0  14  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  ;  .  •  164  of a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were d i s c u s s e d  i n the i n t e r v i e w , and  hence i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the o v e r a l l a t t i t u d e towards the a i r p o r t and the p o s i t i o n t h a t i t s e f f e c t o c c u p i e s i n t h e i r o v e r a l l s c a l e o f v a l u e s . On o v e r a l l assessment a p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d (29.29%,) o f the B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t they would p r e f e r , w i t h a l l o t h e r held constant,  t o move from t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n , (Table 4 . 1 3 ) .  f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r e v i o u s  things This  f i n d i n g that approximately h a l f  of the p e o p l e had been i n the a r e a from two t o s i x y e a r s and t h a t about a q u a r t e r had been i n the a r e a f o r l e s s than one y e a r . V a r i a t i o n w i t h the sex ( T a b l e 4 . 4 5 ) o f the r e s p o n d e n t showed t h a t no  significant differences existed.  A t t i t u d e s d i s t r i b u t e d according to  income groups i n d i c a t e d t h a t the l o w e s t income group w h i c h , because o f t h e i r f i n a n c i a l circumstances,  were the l e a s t m o b i l e one, showed the  h i g h e s t d e s i r e t o move f r o m B e r k e v i l l e (43.757o), ( T a b l e  4.46).  V a r i a t i o n s w i t h tenure type were n o t found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 4 . 4 7 ) .  V a r i a t i o n s w i t h length of residence  (Table 4 . 4 8 ) i n d i c a t e d  t h a t the group t h a t e x p r e s s e d the l e a s t d e s i r e t o move was t h a t group which p r e d a t e d the 1963 e x p a n s i o n o f the a i r p o r t , ( 1 5 . 6 3 7 , ) .  Those who had been  t h e r e between one and s i x y e a r s i n d i c a t e d a much s t r o n g e r a t 43.187o.  Those who had been t h e r e  the l e a s t time,  d e s i r e t o move,  l e s s than one y e a r ,  e x p r e s s e d s l i g h t l y l e s s a t 37.507,. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n by o c c u p a t i o n  groups of the r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e t o  move ( T a b l e 4 . 4 9 ) showed a i r p o r t employees t o be l o w e s t ( 1 6 . 7 % ) and housewives t o be h i g h e s t  (36.6%).  V a r i a t i o n s by age groups (Table 4 . 5 0 )  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m i d d l e y e a r s between 45 t o 54 and 55 t o 64 were most  165 committed t o the a r e a and showed the l e a s t d e s i r e t o move (18.75%, and 9.52%  respectively).  Those w i t h the h i g h e s t d e s i r e t o move were the age.  groups o f 25 t o 34 y e a r s (43.18%) and 65 t o 69 ( 4 2 . 8 6 % ) . seems t o be no c o n s i s t e n t  Again  there  trend.  Home o w n e r s h i p , was n o t found t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e w i t h regard  t o a t t i t u d e s towards moving ( T a b l e 4.51).  This f i n d i n g i s consis-  t e n t s i n c e t h e q u e s t i o n was phrased such t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t would e x p e c t no d i f f e r e n c e i n h i s  tenure.  There was c o n s i d e r a b l y  l e s s s t r e n g t h when the a t t i t u d e s t o moving  were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the a t t i t u d e o f the importance o f b e i n g as a r e a s o n f o r moving t o the a r e a .  About h a l f o f the r e s i d e n t s (56.43%,)  i n d i c a t e d t h i s as a r e a s o n f o r moving t o B e r k e v i l l e . t h a t those who s t a t e d t h i s r e a s o n were 20%, h i g h e r gory.  c l o s e t o work,  T a b l e 4.51 i n d i c a t e s  i n the "no move" c a t e -  The r e s p o n s e s a r e , however, s t i l l c o n s i s t e n t s i n c e the q u e s t i o n as  i t was framed would l e a v e doubt as to whether.they m i g h t be f u r t h e r away from work.  The  f a c t t h a t about a t h i r d o f the r e s i d e n t s o f B e r k e v i l l e e x p r e s s e d  a d e s i r e t o move from the a i r p o r t e n v i r o n s question  i s significant.  on the b a s i s o f a h y p o t h e t i c a l  The a r e a appears g e n e r a l l y t o be i n t r a n s i t i o n  d a t i n g from the a i r p o r t e x p a n s i o n o f 1963, and the coming o f the l a r g e j e t s t o Vancouver.  Only about a t h i r d  (33.57%) o f the r e s i d e n t s  stated  t h a t f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s h i p t i e s or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e a r e a were r e a s o n s f o r moving t h e r e .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s r e s p o n s e by a t t i t u d e s t o mov-  i n g (Table 4.51) i n d i c a t e d t h a t o f those who d i d s t a t e t h a t f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s h i p o r a r e a f a m i l i a r i t y were r e a s o n s f o r moving t o the a r e a , 42.55%,  166  s t a t e d a d e s i r e t o move,  T h i s i s about 137o h i g h e r than the a v e r a g e .  Of  the two t h i r d s who s a i d "no" t o t h i s r e a s o n , about t h r e e q u a r t e r s (72.737,) s a i d t h a t they would n o t l i k e t o move.  The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h i s r e a s o n  i s t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t o f t h e t h r e e groups.  . W i t h r e g a r d t o a t t i t u d e s t o moving, the r e l a t i v e importance o f the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h r e s p e c t t o v a r i a t i o n s i n a t t i t u d e s t o moving a r e as f o l l o w s : 1)  Length of r e s i d e n c e .  2)  Age.  . 3)  Occupation.  4)  Income.  5)  Tenure.  6)  Sex.  • DIFFERENCES BETWEEN REASONS FOR MOVING AND STAYING Home Ownership o r Occupancy About two t h i r d s (63.577.) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s l i s t e d home ownership or  occupancy  a s a r e a s o n f o r moving t o B e r k e v i l l e , and more than h a l f  gave t h i s as a r e a s o n f o r s t a y i n g (57.857o), ( T a b l e 4 . 1 0 ) .  Table 4.52  i n d i c a t e s a h i g h r a t e o f c o n s i s t e n c y between those who s t a t e d home owners h i p o r occupancy area.  as b o t h a r e a s o n f o r moving and a l s o f o r s t a y i n g i n t h e  T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s f a c t o r over t i m e .  There i s  l e s s c o n s i s t e n c y between those who s a i d t h a t they moved t o B e r k e v i l l e f o r r e a s o n s o f ownership/occupancy  and those who s a i d moved t o B e r k e v i l l e f o r  t h i s r e a s o n and s t a y e d because o f b e i n g c l o s e t o work o r f o r r e a s o n s o f f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s h i p t i e s o r because they were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a r e a .  167  TABLE 4.45  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOVING - BY SEX  DESIRE TO MOVE  ^_o___Z.™,_J!22,AIi  YES SEX  No  % "  No  %  No  " " %  Male  19  29.23  46  70.77  65  100  Female  22  29.33  53  7.67  75  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  168  TABLE  VANCOUVER  4.46  INTERNATIONAL  AIRPORT  SURVEY  (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER  ATTITUDES  TOWARDS  1969  MOVING BY ANNUAL  FAMILY  INCOME  DESIRE  YES ^C£ME__.__„  _JJ2  T O MOVE  NO__ 1  _1_  TOIAkN2_ I %  No response  3  17.65  14  82.35  17  100  L e s s than $3000  2  33.33  4  66.67  6  100  $3000-5999  14  43.75  18  56.25  32  100  $6000-9999  18  25.00  54  75.00 , 72  100  4  ""30.77  9  69.23  100  $10,000 +  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL  SURVEY  13  169  TABLE 4 . 4 7  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOVING BY TYPE OF TENURE  JLYPE. OF TEMIBJL  No  YES  %  DESIRE TO MOVE NO TOTAL No % No " "%  Owned  31  28.70  77  71.30  108  100  Rented  10  31.25  22  68.75  32  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  170  TABLE 4.48  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO MOVING BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE  LENGTH  •  OF RESIDENCE  DESIRE TO MOVE NO___  YES J_°.  °L  No  7.  IJ-P  l^AL. NO  %_  L e s s than 1 y e a r  12  37.50  20  62.50  32  100  1-6  years  19  43.18  25  56.82  44  100  More than 6 y e a r s  10  15.63  54  84.38  64  100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  171  TABLE  VANCOUVER  4.49  INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO MOVING BY OCCUPATION  YES OCCUPATION  A i r p o r t Employees  No  %  DESIRE TO MOVE NO TOTAL No % , No  %_  3  16.7  15  83.3  18  100  Same group n o t employed at a i r p o r t  11  28.2  28  71.8  39  100  Housewives  19  36.6  33  63.4  52  100  8  25.8  23  74.2  31  100  All  others  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  172  TABLE 4.50  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  ATTITUDES TO MOVING BY AGE  DESIRE TO MOVE NO  YES No  AP,F.  %  15-19  3  23.08  20 - 24  2  22.22  25 - 34  19  35 - 44  No  %  _ TOTAL No  %_  10  76.92  13  100  7  77.78  9  100  43.18  25  56.82  44  100  5  31.25  11  68.75  16  100  55-64  2  9.52  19  - 90.48  21  100  65 - 69  3  42.86  4  57.14  7  100  4  28.57  10  71.43  14  100  70 +  SOURCE:  >  ORIGINAL SURVEY  •  173  TABLE  4.51  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) • NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO MOVING BY REASONS FOR MOVING TO THE AREA  DESIRE TO MOVE REASONS FOR MOVING JTX>_JIiELAB_EA  JQ?_ No  %_  _™__J_9_ No  %  _TPT.^k _No  Home ownership Occupancy  YES NO  26 15  29.21 29.41  63 36  70.79 70.59  89 51  100 100  C l o s e t o Work  YES NO  18 23  22.78 37.70  61 38  77.22 62.30  79 61  100 100  F a m i l y or F r i e n d s h i p t i e s or area f a m i l i a r i t y  YES NO  20 21  42.55 22.58  27 72  57.45 77.42  47 . 93  100 100  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  174  B e i n g C l o s e to Work There i s a h i g h degree of c o n s i s t e n c y between those who as a r e a s o n f o r b o t h moving to the a r e a and  gave t h i s  s t a y i n g i n the a r e a , (86.087o)  (Table 4 . 5 2 ) .  F r i e n d s h i p or F a m i l y T i e s and A r e a  Familiarity  Only about a t h i r d of the r e s i d e n t s gave t h i s as a r e a s o n f o r moving to B e r k e v i l l e .  Those a n s w e r i n g  moving to the a r e a and  p o s i t i v e l y to the q u e s t i o n b o t h f o r  s t a y i n g i n the a r e a numbered 78.72%,.  The  strongest  i n d i c a t o r of what m i g h t be termed a sense of community i n B e r k e v i l l e , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s of the a r e a as one i n which  t h e r e i s a l a r g e degree of f l u x , i s t h a t of those who  stated that  f a m i l y or f r i e n d s h i p t i e s or b e i n g f a m i l i a r w i t h the a r e a was n o t a r e a s o n f o r moving t o B e r k e v i l l e , about h a l f ( 4 7 . 3 1 % ) s t a t e d i t to be a r e a s o n f o r s t a y i n g , (Table 4 . 5 2 ) . / •  f  Table 4.53  i n d i c a t e s a summary of the r e l a t i v e importance  economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r each a t t i t u d e . sex and  t e n u r e was  found t o be m i n i m a l  of s o c i o -  I n g e n e r a l the importance  i n most c a s e s .  Occupation  of  and  l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n the a r e a were c l e a r l y the most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s b u t the importance  o f age as an i n d i c a t o r was  f u r t h e r i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g was  l e s s than e x p e c t e d .  A  the g e n e r a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the r e s p o n s e s  t h a t the B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s i n most c a s e s , tended e c t s of the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n much the same  t o p e r c e i v e the way.  in  eff-  175  TABLE  4.52  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969  DIFFERENTIAL REASONS FOR MOVING TO THE AREA AND STAYING IN THE AREA  REASONS FOR STAYING IN AREA Home Ownership/ C l o s e t o F a m i l y or f r i e n d s h i p Occupancy Work t i e s or area f a m i l iarities No Yes Yes No Yes No  REASONS FOR MOVING TO THE AREA Home ownership/ occupancy  No  75  7o  84.27 6  No NO  Close to. Work  14  57  32  55  34  YES  %  11.76  No  52  7o  65.82  No  29  7o  47.54  No  22  %  46.81  No  59  15.73 45 88.24  27  64.04 24 47.06  68  35.96 27 52.94  11  61.80 26 50.98  54  38.20 25 49.02  24  YES  NO  Family or Friendship t i e s or area familiarity  34.18  f  32 52.46 25  86.08  13.92  13  48  68.35 27  21.31  78.69  44.26  24  23  37  31.65 34 55.74  10  YES 53.19 34  51.06  48 .94  78.72  57  36  44  61.29  38.71  47.31  21.28 49  NO 63.44  SOURCE:  ORIGINAL SURVEY  36.56  52.69  176  TABLE 4.53 SUMMARY OF VARIATIONS FROM AVERAGE REACTION TO AIRPORT CHARACTERISTICS BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS  Desire to Move  Aircraft Noise  Aircraft Air Pollution  Crash Hazards  Airport Industry  Occupation  Occupation  Occupation  Length of Residence  Length of Residence  Length of Residence  Income  Length of Residence  Length of Residence  Age  Age  Age  Sex  Income  Income  Occupation  Occupation  Occupation  Age  Age  Tenure  Income  Tenure  Income  Tenure  Tenure  Age  Tenure  Income  Tenure  Length of Residence  Sex  Sex  Sex  Sex  Sex  Note:  Airport Traffic  V a r i a t i o n decreases as the p o s i t i o n from the top, but not necessarily uniformly.  SOURCE:  O r i g i n a l Survey Data.  CHAPTER V  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LOCATION CRITERIA  Generalized The  N a t u r e o f the P r o b l e m r e s u l t s o f t h e survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t two o f the s o c i o -  economic v a r i a b l e s , sex and t e n u r e , were o f l i t t l e  s i g n i f i c a n c e as  i n d i c a t o r s o f a t t i t u d e s towards the f i v e a i r p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . the e x c e p t i o n s instances  of occupation  and l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e  With  (and even i n these  the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t always s t r i k i n g ) , the i n i t i a l  conclusion  t h a t i s drawn i s t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s a r e g e n e r a l i z e d , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n when s t r a t i f i e d by t h e v a r i o u s istics.  socio-economic  little  character-  T h i s does n o t however, i n d i c a t e t h a t no problem e x i s t s , b u t r a t h e r  t h a t the p r o b l e m i s g e n e r a l i z e d .  Each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c must be examined  separately.  •  A i r c r a f t Noise N o i s e , as was found e l s e w h e r e and was t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t e d , i s c l e a r l y the s t r o n g e s t c o n t r i b u t o r t o a d e c l i n e i n the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y of B e r k e v i l l e .  I t s most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i s t h a t o f o c c u p a t i o n .  importance o f s u b j e c t i v e p e r s o n a l  The  a t t i t u d e s towards t h e a i r p o r t i s most  c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d by e x a m i n i n g the d i f f e r e n t i a l a t t i t u d e s o r a i r p o r t w o r k e r s whose l i v e l i h o o d i s dependent on t h e f a c i l i t y and who, as a r e s u l t , v i e w a i r c r a f t noise  i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t than o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l  g r o u p s , and  the group o f B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s who a r e i n s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l but n o t employed a t the a i r p o r t .  177  groups  178  Attitudes were not found to vary.with length of residence.  The  conclusion drawn from this supports the e a r l i e r finding that people do not a c c l i m i t i z e to any s i g n i f i c a n t degree over  time.  Because the noise l e v e l s are so high i n B e r k e v i l l e , i t was surp r i s i n g that no concerted group action has yet been organized against the noise.  This may be explained by three factors.  F i r s t l y , B e r k e v i l l e i s an  area i n constant f l u x as borne out by the high proportion of persons with short length of residence i n the area.  Stemming from this i s that, while  the perceived noise l e v e l s have r i s e n over time, the a i r p o r t preceded the establishment of the community.  B e r k e v i l l e was established at a time when,  because of the pressures of the Second World War, short term goals were of greater importance.  A f t e r the war, and up to the present, B e r k e v i l l e  residents moved to the area with the knowledge that the noise l e v e l s would be high, rather than having the a i r p o r t imposed on them after they had moved there.  r  Secondly, concerted group action might mean that the solution would be to force the residents to move.  As has already been pointed out, many  do not wish to do so even i f they were guaranteed accomodation.  the same standard of  The importance of an inexpensive house i s quite c l e a r l y  worth the inconvenience and d i s r u p t i o n at least on a short term b a s i s . I f and when they are able to afford i t , area.  they tend to move to a d i f f e r e n t  In the meantime they are aware of the a c t i v i t i e s of the Department  of Transport i n buying out the northern h a l f of the Island, and i n acquiring land i n B e r k e v i l l e i t s e l f for access to the proposed bridge between Sea Island and G r a n v i l l e Street i n Vancouver.  179  The  t h i r d f a c t o r t h a t may  be i d e n t i f i e d i s the awareness of the  g e n e r a l p o l i c y of the Department of T r a n s p o r t of k e e p i n g to a minimum d u r i n g normal s l e e p i n g h o u r s .  the n o i s e  When t h i s i s n o t  levels  achieved,  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h n i g h t - t i m e r u n u p s , t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n the number of c o m p l a i n t s , b u t i n g e n e r a l the r e s i d e n t s f e e l t h a t the Department has done i t s b e s t and  that f u r t h e r a t t e n u a t i o n i s not  feasible.  Implication for Location Criteria. S i n c e i t i s n o t c u r r e n t l y expected n o i s e w i l l be s o l v e d a t the source reasons,  f o r both  the s o l u t i o n f o r the p r e s e n t l i e s  the n o i s e i s t r a n s m i t t e d .  One  t h a t the p r o b l e m of a i r c r a f t t e c h n o l o g i c a l and  i n the medium through  such s o l u t i o n c u r r e n t l y b e i n g  i s the i n s u l a t i o n of houses ^ ) .  economic which  implemented  T h i s s o l u t i o n , w h i l e o f f e r i n g one  valid  approach i n a r e a s where i t i s n o t f e a s i b l e to move e i t h e r the p o p u l a t i o n or the f a c i l i t y  can o n l y be r e g a r d e d  as m i n i m a l .  Even i f such i n s u l a t i o n  i s extended t o a l l b u i l d i n g s such a s ' s c h o o l s and r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s , t h e r e is s t i l l  the wide range o f a c t i v i t i e s which n o r m a l l y  take p l a c e o u t s i d e  of b u i l d i n g s .  The ion  o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e i n a c t i n g on the medium i s s p a t i a l  of the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a from the a i r p o r t e n v i r o n s .  separat-  However, to keep  the n o i s e l e v e l s down to the b a r e l y a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of 80 PNdB, a much l a r g e r r e s t r i c t e d zone than i s p r e s e n t l y employed by the Department of Transport jet (1)  i s implied.  The  a r e a c o v e r e d by a s i n g l e 80 PNdB c o n t o u r , f o r  t a k e o f f s , i s approximately See,  25,000 a c r e s .  W i t h the e x p a n s i o n  of  the  f o r example, B o l t , Beranek and Newman I n c . , A Study: I n s u l a t i n g Houses A g a i n s t A i r c r a f t N o i s e , op c i t .  180  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i n the mid to the e x i s t i n g main runway ( 0 8 - 2 6 ) , s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r a r e a would be  and  1970's by a new  runway p a r a l l e l  5000 f e e t to the n o r t h , a sub-  i n c l u d e d under the 80 PNdB c o n t o u r .  In  a l l , t h e amount of l a n d r e s t r i c t e d from r e s i d e n t i a l development would approximately  60,000 a c r e s or about 90 square m i l e s .  The  area  be  to be  zoned f o r r e s t r i c t e d use around the T o r o n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t ( M a l t o n )  (2) i s approximately  51,500 a c r e s , a l i t t l e b e t t e r than 80 square m i l e s .  v  '.  Because Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d so c l o s e to the C i t y of Vancouver and  i s adjacent  s i o n i n Richmond, S u r r e y ,  and D e l t a , t h i s p l a c e s a s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e i n the  way  to the a r e a s of m e t r o p o l i t a n  of r e s i d e n t i a l development a t a time when the p r e s s u r e s  expan-  f o r expansion  a r e g r e a t enough t h a t development has a l r e a d y proceeded i n t o the 95 PNdB contour.  There i s a l s o the chance t h a t a i r c r a f t n o i s e w i l l c o n t i n u e i n c r e a s e as the "mass" a i r c r a f t such as the B o e i n g 747 If  t h i s trend continues,  to  are developed.  then the s e p a r a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t w i l l  increase  at  an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e .  The increases.  p r o b l e m w i l l be f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t e d as the number of movements I n 1969  a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t t h e r e were 169,545  a i r c r a f t movements, an i n c r e a s e of 10% over 1968. ments i n c r e a s e d 8.8% crease (2)  in traffic  d u r i n g the same p e r i o d .  over the p a s t  s i x years.  Scheduled a i r l i n e move-  T a b l e 5.1 As  i n d i c a t e s the i n -  the movements, e s p e c i a l l y  O n t a r i o Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Statement by the H o n o r a b l e W. Darcy McKeough, M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s R e g a r d i n g A i r c r a f t N o i s e a t T o r o n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , ( T o r o n t o : Mimeo October 1969) Page 11.  181  TABLE  5.1  GROWTH OF AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS AT VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (PERCENT), 1964-69.  Increase i n T o t a l Movements  Year  I n c r e a s e i n Scheduled A i r l i n e Movements  1968-69  10.0  8.8  1967-68 *  -3.8  7.7  1966-67  16.4  16.6  1965-66  .25.1  10.3.  1964-65  12.5  10.4  *  The drop can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of g e n e r a l a v i a t i o n t o P i t t Meadows A i r p o r t .  SOURCE:  Department of T r a n s p o r t , A i r c r a f t Movement S t a t i s t i c s A i r p o r t s w i t h A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Towers, A n n u a l R e p o r t , (Ottawa: A v i a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s C e n t r e , 1968) 1969 f i g u r e s o b t a i n e d from M o n t h l y R e p o r t s .  182  those by  s c h e d u l e d a i r l i n e s i n c r e a s e , so does the annoyance l e v e l ,  when the a i r p o r t becomes c o n g e s t e d enough t h a t the i z e d 24  h o u r s per  Aircraft Air The  day  and  f a c i l i t y must be  util-  the n o i s e l e v e l w i l l become i n t o l e r a b l e .  Pollution r e a c t i o n s of "annoyance" and  to a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n magnitude to be responded i n one  " f e a r " were lower w i t h r e g a r d  than n o i s e but  they were s t i l l  of s u f f i c i e n t  of c o n c e r n s i n c e about a t h i r d of B e r k e v i l l e of these two  ways.  As  outlined  e a r l i e r , the amount of  a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i s g r e a t e r than i s g e n e r a l l y e s t i n those a r e a s w h i c h are  closest  residents  u n d e r s t o o d , and  to the a i r p o r t and  a l o n g the  i s greatairlanes  where the a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g under 3500 f e e t .  To public The fleet  d a t e , a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n has  attention  but  i n c o m p a r i s o n to i n d u s t r i a l and  r e c e n t move to v o l u n t a r i l y i n s t a l l of j e t a i r c r a f t , and  l e s s " by d e s i g n does not  (as  the  represent a solution  i s a s t e p i n the r i g h t  to the  age.  As  u a l l i v e s p r o x i m a t e to the a i r p o r t ,  r e s u l t of the a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n  "fear" attitudes  "smokedirection  vary d i r e c t l y  l o n g e r t h a t an  the more l i k e l y he  the means to do  imate to the a i r p o r t i s n e c e s s a r i l y  (3)  existing  problem.  a r e s u l t the  the g r e a t e r the r e s u l t i n g  he can move, i f he has  the  f a c t t h a t the l a t e s t j e t e n g i n e s are  i n the B o e i n g 747)  w i t h l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e and  automobile p o l l u t i o n .  " c l e a n " b u r n e r cans on  U n l i k e n o i s e , the "annoyance" and  a t t i t u d e , and  received r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e  individ-  i s to have t h i s  individual stress.  Alternatively  so, w h i c h means t h a t the a r e a prox-  i n p e r p e t u a l t r a n s i t i o n p a r t i a l l y as factor.  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Donald Dobson, A i r c r a f t E n g i n e D e s i g n E n g i n e e r , C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s , Vancouver, F e b r u a r y 6, 1970.  a  183  As p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n f o c u s e s on a i r p o l l u t i o n , i t may t h a t , as i n the case of the U n i t e d action against  justifiable  i n the case w i t h a i r c r a f t n o i s e , t h e r e are  receptor  three p o t e n t i a l receptor.  (human b e i n g s ) can be e l i m i n a t e d because of the l i n k s w h i c h  e x i s t between the c o n t a m i n a n t s and a t the s o u r c e , the i n i t i a l devices  aircraft.  Criteria  s o l u t i o n s to the problem, through the s o u r c e , the medium or the The  expected  the c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g a i r p o l l u t i o n from the  Implication for Location As  S t a t e s , t h e r e w i l l be  be  public health.  s t e p has  With regard  been taken, but  to s o l u t i o n s  i t i s not expected  that  t o r e d u c e the o t h e r p o l l u t a n t s w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g i n the near  future.  As a r e s u l t the a l t e r n a t i v e l e f t i s , as i n the case of n o i s e , t h a t of s e p a r a t i o n .  T h i s s o l u t i o n i s however, a t b e s t a temporary  and  p a r t i a l one because of the wide d i s p e r s i o n of the p o l l u t a n t s e s p e c i a l l y i n the lower r e a c h e s of the atmosphere.^ I t i s m e r e l y b e t t e r than no  action  at a l l . Non-Occupant C r a s h H a z a r d s C r a s h h a z a r d s appeared l e a s t to those who airport.  The  general  l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e  trend to decreasing  would n o r m a l l y  were connected w i t h  " f e a r " r e a c t i o n s w i t h age  have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the r e s i d e n t s  B e r k e v i l l e would g e n e r a l l y tend to overcome t h e i r a n x i e t y . quarter able  of the r e s i d e n t s s t i l l e x p r e s s e d t h i s a t t i t u d e .  to the f a c t t h a t B e r k e v i l l e has  the  and of  Y e t , about a  This i s a t t r i b u t -  a h i g h r a t e of r e s i d e n t  turnover.  Because of t h i s , i t cannot be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e w i l l change over time.  Even w i t h the low p r o b a b i l i t y of non-occupant f a t a l i t i e s as a r e s u l t  184  of an a i r c r a f t c r a s h , the a i r c r a f t n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n f a c t o r s have created c o n d i t i o n s which c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s turnover individuals. and  T h i s means t h a t the a t t e n u a t i n g f a c t o r s o f i n c r e a s i n g age  length of residence  to date.  and s t r e s s f o r  a r e u n l i k e l y t o come i n t o p l a y more than they have  As the environment c o n t i n u e s  t o d e t e r i o r a t e due t o i n c r e a s e s i n  the degree of n o i s e and the amount o f a i r p o l l u t i o n , the p h y s i c a l f a b r i c of the a r e a w i l l n o t be r e p l a c e d by the p r o c e s s of r e b u i l d i n g as i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n leave, the area w i l l established w i l l  The  area.-  I n c r e a s i n g l y , those who a r e m o b i l e  will  d e c l i n e a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e , and the c y c l e a l r e a d y  continue  t o be s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g .  c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t w h i l e t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c would c o n t r i b u t e  l e s s by i t s e l f ,  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the o t h e r s a l r e a d y c i t e d , i t i s s t i l l  a c o n t r i b u t o r t o the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y o f B e r k e ville. Implication f o rLocation  Criteria  There i s no d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a i m p l i e d i n the p r e v i o u s present  zoning  that i s not  two f a c t o r s , t h a t i s , s e p a r a t i o n as l o n g as the  i s maintained.  I n d u s t r y A t t r a c t e d by the A i r p o r t The  r e a c t i o n t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y , e x c l u d i n g a i r c r a f t main-  tenance o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e runups and a r e i n c l u d e d under  air-  c r a f t n o i s e , evoked, as e x p e c t e d , few a t t i t u d e s o f " f e a r " o r "annoyance". Because the Department of T r a n s p o r t  p o l i c y has been t o r e s t r i c t the i n -  d u s t r i e s t o those t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y t o the a i r p o r t or have a n a t u r a l affinity  f o r an a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n , and because of the types o f i n d u s t r y t h a t  a r e themselves a t t r a c t e d t o a l o c a t i o n near the a i r p o r t , t h e r e has been  185 r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e problems w i t h i n d u s t r i a l a i r p o l l u t i o n and n o i s e  prob-  lems.  I t cannot be c o n c l u d e d h e r e however, t h a t a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y does not c o n t r i b u t e to environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n , but r a t h e r that  provided  t h a t the i n d u s t r y i s n o t l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a appears t o be l i t t l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y d e c l i n e i n the a r e a a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h i s f a c t o r .  T r a f f i c induced by  there  residential  these i n d u s t r i e s ,  however, i s a s e p a r a t e m a t t e r .  Implication for Location C r i t e r i a  (  A i r p o r t i n d u s t r y seems to p l a c e no c o n s t r a i n t on the l o c a t i o n of the f a c i l i t y i t s e l f beyond the l a n d r e q u i r e d  to s i t e the i n d u s t r i e s , i f  the Department of T r a n s p o r t p o l i c y of r e s t r i c t i n g i n d u s t r i e s i s f o l l o w e d , as i n the case of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t .  • A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c The a i r p o r t was  strongest negative  r e a c t i o n t o ground t r a f f i c produced by  t h a t of "annoyance".  As was  the case w i t h c r a s h h a z a r d s , t h i s  a t t i t u d e d e c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e . the g e n e r a l  This  indicated  r e c o g n i t i o n by B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s of the d e c r e a s i n g  t r a f f i c p r o b l e m on the i n t e r i o r s t r e e t s of the a r e a , inal-bound  traffic  to MacConachie Way  the  and  i n d u s t r i a l area-bound t r a f f i c over the new  ground  the d i v e r s i o n of term-  the d i v e r s i o n of a p a r t of Dinsmore B r i d g e .  The  the  f a c t that  the "annoyance" a t t i t u d e s were as h i g h as they were i n d i c a t e d t h a t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r those t h a t l i v e a d j a c e n t t o A i r p o r t Road, t h e r e was a d e c r e a s e i n the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y as a r e s u l t of i n d u s t r i a l bound t r a f f i c .  I f t h i s were d i v e r t e d from the a r e a ,  still area-  the impact of ground  186 traffic  g e n e r a t e d by  the a i r p o r t would be n i l and  the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  i o r a t i o n from t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c would be e l i m i n a t e d . a c c e s s r o a d to the new  bridge  l i n k i n g Sea  The  proposed major  I s l a n d to. G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i n  Vancouver w i l l r u n j u s t to the s o u t h of B e r k e v i l l e and w i l l remove l o t s from the n o r t h end  deter-  of C a t a l i n a C r e s c e n t .  The  eleven  probable environmental  d e t e r i o r a t i o n from t h i s r o a d c a n n o t however, be a t t r i b u t e d to the a i r p o r t . There r e m a i n s , however, the problems of n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n from motor vehicles.  The  considerations  a i r c r a f t n o i s e and the l o n g term one  air pollution.  s h o r t term measure i s s e p a r a t i o n ;  Criteria  i m p l i c a t i o n f o r l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a i s t h a t the f a c i l i t y must  be l o c a t e d such t h a t t r a f f i c The  The  i s attenuation.  Implication for Location The  i n these cases are analogous t o those of  can be d i v e r t e d away from r e s i d e n t i a l  e x p e r i e n c e a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t and  the r e s u l t i n g a t t i t -  udes of the B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they q u i t e c l e a r l y n i z e d t h a t the s i t u a t i o n had i c on A i r p o r t Road had  recog-  improved i n g e n e r a l , a l t h o u g h peak hour  remained h i g h .  p o l l u t i o n have been c o n s i d e r a b l y  The  traff-  problems of n o i s e and a i r  reduced a l t h o u g h n o t e l i m i n a t e d .  problems a r e , however, p a r t of the l a r g e r more g e n e r a l ly  areas.  problem t h a t  These present-  exists.  R e l a t i v e Order of the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s From the p o i n t of v i e w of B e r k e v i l l e as a case s t u d y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r a n k the f i v e a i r p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on an o r d i n a l s c a l e  as  to t h e i r r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a d e c l i n e i n the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y of B e r k e v i l l e .  The  rank order  i s as f o l l o w s : -  187 1)  Aircraft  noise.  2)  Aircraft air pollution.  3)  Non-occupant c r a s h h a z a r d s .  4)  A i r p o r t ground  5)  I n d u s t r y a t t r a c t e d by  traffic. the  airport.  Towards a S o l u t i o n to the P r o b l e m An e x a m i n a t i o n of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the two, w h i c h are the most s e r i o u s , a r e g e n e r a t e d by selves.  Attenuation  first  the a i r c r a f t them-  of the e n g i n e n o i s e problem a t the source would  e l i m i n a t e any need f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t from a r e s i d e n t i a l p o i n t of view.  The  amount of sound produced by  the f u s e l a g e , t a i l and wings of  the a i r c r a f t a c c o u n t s f o r o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the sound l e v e l , subsonic  speeds.  Present a i r p o r t zoning which deals w i t h  at  obstructions  would be adequate t o h a n d l e t h i s a s p e c t of the problem.  The by  second problem, t h a t of a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n , i s n o t  separation, although  t h i s a p p r o a c h o f f e r s some a t t e n u a t i o n .  On  solved the  o t h e r hand, the r e l e a s e of the emmissions i n t o the atmosphere below 3500 f e e t means t h a t i t w i l l become a p a r t of the normal atmosphere. 3500 f e e t some of the emmissions r e m a i n i n s u s p e n s i o n .  Above  As we have found  w i t h water p o l l u t i o n , the s o l u t i o n i s n o t d i l u t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y the problem  of l a r g e s c a l e r e l e a s e of p o l l u t a n t s i n t o the upper r e a c h e s of  the lower atmosphere and beyond w i l l no l o n g e r be  ignorable.  For  these  reasons, attenuation i s d i c t a t e d .  With regard  t o c r a s h h a z a r d s , the s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem i s  dependent upon the s o l u t i o n of the p r e v i o u s  two.  T h i s does n o t  guarantee  188 t h a t B e r k e v i l l e would become a s t a b l e m a t u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , b u t r a t h e r t h a t i t c o u l d be.  Until  the problems of a i r c r a f t n o i s e and a i r  p o l l u t i o n a r e s o l v e d the a t t i t u d e s towards c r a s h h a z a r d s a r e u n l i k e l y t o change.  With regard  to a i r p o r t ground t r a f f i c ,  the s o l u t i o n i s t w o f o l d .  The f i r s t p a r t i s a t t e n u a t i o n o f the n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n problems a t the s o u r c e .  The second p a r t i n v o l v e s the s e p a r a t i o n o f the t r a f f i c  from the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a .  The s t e p s taken a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l  A i r p o r t , and the r e s u l t i n g a t t i t u d e s a r e i n d i c a t i v e of the success o f s e p a r a t i o n by a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l d i s t a n c e .  The f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can be drawn i s t h a t the c r u c i a l problems a r e those o f n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n a t t e n u a t i o n a t the s o u r c e .  The  s o l u t i o n o f these problems would mean t h a t the a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y would be compatible  w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , up t o the l i m i t s o f p r e s e n t  U n t i l these problems a r e s o l v e d i t must be concluded a major c o n t r i b u t o r t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l e n t i a l areas.  zoning.  t h a t the a i r p o r t i s  q u a l i t y d e c l i n e of proximate r e s i d -  The i n t e r i m s o l u t i o n t o the problem, w h i l e n o t h i g h l y s a t i s -  f a c t o r y , i s the s e p a r a t i o n o f the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s by p h y s i c a l space d i c t a t e d u l t i m a t e l y by the n o i s e l e v e l s o f the a i r c r a f t .  An  examination  of the p h y s i c a l ground and a i r space r e q u i r e m e n t s of a i r p o r t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l communities and normal r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h the o p e r a t i o n of the a i r p o r t .  A r e a s f o r F u r t h e r Study The survey u n d e r t a k e n h e r e has p r o v i d e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the impact of the a i r p o r t on B e r k e v i l l e as expressed  by the r e s i d e n t s of the  189  area.  The l o g i c a l expansion of this work would be to go beyond the  attitudes expressed by the residents and into the area of how the a c t i v i t i e s expressed by the residents are affected by the a i r p o r t .  How, f o r  instance, do their recreation patterns d i f f e r from other similar areas? Such a study could be undertaken by a combination of observation and a c t i v i t y patterns questionnairing methods and i d e a l l y would require the use of a control group.  I t has been pointed out that a large amount of-land should be r e s t r i c t e d from r e s i d e n t i a l development u n t i l the problems of a i r c r a f t noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n are solved.  The prime arguments advanced by a i r -  c r a f t manufacturers and the a i r l i n e s with regard to abatement are those of technological and cost problems.  An area for further study would be to  investigate the cost to the metropolitan area of being forced to r e s t r i c t r e s i d e n t i a l development over such a large area a t a time when land i n the suburban areas i s under strong pressure for development with the r e s u l t i n g r i s e i n the cost of land over the past few years.  Another area f o r further study i s the f i e l d of l e g a l controls . in the area of technological development. ahead rapidly i n many areas i n the past. i t has not kept pace.  A i r c r a f t technology has gone However, i n many other areas  The question to be answered concerns the types of  controls that are both f e a s i b l e and necessary to ensure that the interrelationships of changes i n various areas of a i r c r a f t and a i r p o r t design and not overlooked.  An extension of this area would be to examine the  problems that are suggested by the fact that a i r p o r t requirements are dictated by the a i r c r a f t rather than vice-versa, as i n the case of the Boeing 747.  190 The b u l k of the work i n a i r c r a f t n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n problems has been d i r e c t e d  towards  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d s t h a t r e f l e c t  the  maximum e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n t h a t can be t o l e r a t e d by the community, b e f o r e v i s i b l e t o x i c r e s u l t s a r e e v i d e n t or b e f o r e group a c t i o n i s t a k e n . An a r e a f o r f u r t h e r study would be the development o f a more p o s i t i v e approach  to t h i s  problem.  A i r p o r t s and Community P l a n n i n g A major c o n c e r n o f community p l a n n i n g i s w i t h the s o c i a l a t i o n f o r p e o p l e o f the i n t e g r a t i o n of the uses of space. u s a b l e space i n the community i s a f i n i t e r e s o u r c e and as such.  implic-  F o r the p r e s e n t ,  s h o u l d be  treated  I n o r d e r t o p r e d i c t what the e f f e c t s of the v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s  of the uses of space w i l l be on p e o p l e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to examine each element and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s .  A i r p o r t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n community p l a n n i n g because of b o t h the amount of t r a f f i c and  the amount of space which  they consume.  They a r e b o t h a d i s c r e t e e n t i t y and a p a r t of the t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s tem of the community and, as such, they must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  total  Even more i m p o r t a n t l y they have an impact on a  v a r i e t y of groups of p e o p l e i n the community.  How  and why  t h i s occurs i s  of c o n c e r n to the p l a n n e r . The l o c a t i o n of the a i r p o r t i s d i c t a t e d by two b a s i c k i n d s o f f a c t o r s ; the p h y s i c a l space r e q u i r e m e n t s and  the s o c i a l and economic im-  p a c t on the r e s i d e n t s of the community.  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r community  The  p l a n n i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and a i r p o r t s are t h r e e .  Firstly,  f o r the p r e s e n t , u n t i l abatement t e c h n o l o g y c a t c h e s up w i t h the r e s t of  191  a i r c r a f t design, the planner must be aware of the effects on the r e s i d e n t i a l community, and the means of minimizing environmental quality decline.  Secondly, when this aspect of technology does catch up with the  r e s t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a i r p o r t and r e s i d e n t i a l area w i l l change drastically.  Land adjacent to a i r p o r t s w i l l become prime r e s i d e n t i a l land  i f i t has not been spoiled by other kinds of development.  This i s some-  thing for planners to consider when considering interim uses of the land. L a s t l y , the increasing  importance  of a i r travel and hence of airports i n  transportation  should be recognized and i t s impact on other parts of the  transportation  system should be taken into account.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books  A s h l e y , C. 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" E k i s t i c s , Volume 25:146, January 1968, Pages 42-44. H e m p h i l l , E. J . , "D.O.T. H u s t l e s t o Meet J e t Age R e q u i r e m e n t s . " A v i a t i o n , 34:12-17, J a n u a r y , 1961.  Canadian  Ingram, W i l l i a m T., and McCabe, L o u i s C , "The E f f e c t s of A i r P o l l u t i o n on Airport V i s i b i l i t y . " J o u r n a l of the S a n i t a r y E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n , A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y of C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , P r o c e e d i n g Paper No. 1543, Volume 84, No. S A I , F e b r u a r y 1958, P a r t 1, Pages 1543-1 t o 1543-18. J a c k s o n , B., " M y s t e r i o u s T h u n d e r i n g S u p e r s o n i c 56:29-30, March 10, 1962. .  Jet Era."  Financial  , " D e c i b e l s D e c i d e S a n i t y i n Raucous M e t r o p o l i s . " P o s t , 56:10-11, September 29, 1962. , "Your W o r l d i s G e t t i n g N o i s i e r E v e r y Day." 61:23, May 27, 1967.  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