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Residential areas and civil aviation airport location criteria. Lewis, Kingsley Raymond 1970

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RESIDENTIAL AREAS AND CIVIL AVIATION AIRPORT LOCATION CRITERIA by KINGSLEY RAYMOND LEWIS B.A., S a i n t Mary's U n i v e r s i t y , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS . i n the School of " . Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming.to the re q u i r e d standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1970 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements fo an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree tha permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT A major concern of community planning is with the social implications for people of the integration of the uses of space. One of the implications of this is the examination of the impact of the various uses of space on residential communities. In the past seventy years, c i v i l aviation has grown to where airports require large amounts of space. As a major f a c i l i t y , the airport has a definite and distinct-ive impact on proximate residential communities. • Airport location as dictated by two basic kinds of factors, those of physical ground and airspace requirements and the relationship to residential areas were examined. The solution to the second problem is currently to avoid these areas. This, however, neglects the problem of the impact of the airport on existing proximate residential areas. To put the problem in perspective the basic physical and air -space requirements were examined. To examine the second problem the following hypothesis was developed:-The proximity of a c i v i l aviation airport significantly lowers the environmental quality of a resid-ential area. There are two components to the hypothesis, that of the subject-ive view which residents take of the airport, and an examination of the f a c i l i t y from a residential point of view. The term "environmental quality" which is normative was operationalized in terms of five i i c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a i r p o r t . 1) A i r c r a f t Noise. 2) A i r p o l l u t i o n from a i r c r a f t . 3) Non-occupant a i r c r a f t crash hazards. 4) Location of industry a t t r a c t e d by the a i r p o r t . 5) Ground vehic l e t r a f f i c . Each of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was examined to determine what i t s impact i s on a r e s i d e n t i a l area. Following t h i s an a t t i t u d e survey of B e r k e v i l l e , a r e s i d e n t i a l community located immediately adjacent to the Vancouver In t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t was undertaken to determine the residents a t t i t u d e s to each of the f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Data on the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the residents of B e r k e v i l l e was also gathered, and questions d i r e c t e d to the reasons for moving to and staying i n the area. Using the m u l t i v a r i a t e contingency tabulations program (MVTAB) socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were correlated with the a t t i t u d e s to each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The major conclusions of the thesis are that:-1) The proximity of the a i r p o r t r e s u l t s i n a decline i n the environmental q u a l i t y of B e r k e v i l l e . This i s l a r g e l y a function of a i r c r a f t noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n . These two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s create conditions for an area in constant t r a n s i t i o n . i i i Occupation, age, and length of residence were the most important and consistent i n d i c a t o r s of a t t i t u d e s to the f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but that the a t t i t u d e s are i n many cases generalized regardless of socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The negative a t t i t u d e s to non-occupant crash hazards, which co n s t i t u t e a small r i s k to the residents, can be traced to the areas'high population turnover, a s i t u a t i o n which i s linked to a i r c r a f t noise and a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n . The residents perceived quite c l e a r l y that the ground t r a f f i c problem had decreased over time. The a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i a l area (excluding ground t r a f f i c ) had l l i t t l e negative impact on B e r k e v i l l e . Attenuation of the a i r c r a f t noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n problems at the source i s the only long-term s o l u t i o n to the problem. In the interim, r e s i d e n t i a l areas and a i r p o r t s should be separated. , Attenuation of these two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the source, the maintenance of present a i r p o r t zoning, separation of ground t r a f f i c , and c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n of a i r p o r t industry would re-s u l t i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the a i r p o r t and r e s i d e n t i a l uses. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS • - Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS x i i Chapter I THE PROBLEM: INTRODUCTION AND PERSPECTIVE I The E a r l y Stage of A i r p o r t Development Changes i n A i r T r a f f i c Volume Trends i n U r b a n i z a t i o n ;Changes i n Technology The Costs of A i r p o r t C o n s t r u c t i o n The Role of the Department of Transport R e l a t i o n s h i p of the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments i n A i r p o r t Planning Thesis O b j e c t i v e s , Hypothesis and O r g a n i z a t i o n I I PHYSICAL GROUNDSPACE AND AIRSPACE REQUIREMENTS 18 D e f i n i t i o n s The Volume of T r a f f i c A i r c r a f t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n s Runway Surface and G r a d i e n t A i r c r a f t Loads and Weights Runway C o n f i g u r a t i o n s The T o t a l A i r p o r t C l e a r Zones Atmospheric C o n d i t i o n s A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l A i r c r a f t Mix Ground Access Problems I I I THE AIRPORT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO RESIDENTIAL AREAS 42 I n t r o d u t i o n and Restatement of the Hypothesis O v e r a l l Methodology A i r c r a f t Noise Noise: Some General C o n s i d e r a t i o n s E f f e c t s of Noise A i r c r a f t Noise and the Community Noise Supression a t the Source Community R e a c t i o n to A i r c r a f t Noise v Chapter Page Non-Occupant Crash Hazards Airport Generated Ground Traffic Aircraft Air Pollution Air Pollution: Some General Considerations Airports and Air Pollution Air Pollution Characteristics of Aircraft Control of Jet Aircraft Emmissions Trends Aircraft Air Pollution in the Lower Mainland Industrial Location The Airport as Attractor Residential Property Values IV COMMUNITY REACTION TO THE AIRPORT, A CASE STUDY: THE VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 92 Introduction Description of the Area 1969 Air Traffic at Vancouver International Airport Survey Methodology and Limitations Results of the Survey Reactions to the Five Airport Characteristics Aircraft Noise Aircraft Air Pollution Non-Occupant Crash Hazards Location of Airport Industry Airport Ground Traffic Residents Desire to Move Differences Between Reasons for Moving and Staying Home Ownership or Occupancy Being Close to Work Friendship or Family Ties and Area Familiarity V CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LOCATION CRITERIA. 177 Generalized Nature of the Problem Aircraft Noise Implication for Location Criteria Aircraft Air Pollution Implication for Location Criteria Non-Occupaat Crash Hazards Implication for Location Criteria Industry Attracted by the Airport Implication for Location Criteria Airport Ground Traffic Implication for Location Criteria Relative Order of the Characteristics Towards a Solution to the Problem Areas for Further Study Airports and Community Planning BIBLIOGRAPHY v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my thanks to my advisor, Dr. Robert W. C o l l i e r for the b e n e f i t of h i s i n s i g h t i n t o the problems which were encountered during the preparation and w r i t i n g of t h i s thesis, and for the many hours which he spent i n di s c u s s i o n , e d i t i n g and commenting on the m a t e r i a l . My thanks are also extended to Dr. V. Setty Pendakur who acted as my second advisor, and whose suggestions for c l a r i f y i n g data and conclusions were h e l p f u l . In a d d i t i o n , a number of persons not d i r e c t l y connected with the School of Community and Regional Planning were h e l p f u l i n making data a v a i l a b l e . These persons include Mr. Robin H e i l i g e r , Regional Superintendent of Airways, Department of Transport, Mr. F. Holley, C i v i l A v i a t i o n Branch, Dpeartment of Transport, Mr. William IngHis, Manager, Vancouver International A i r p o r t , Messrs. A. Sharpe and G. Westover, Operations Section, Vancouver International A i r p o r t , Mr. William Blacklock, Real Estate Manager, Department of Transport, Mr. William Kerr, D i r e c t o r of Planning, M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond and members of h i s s t a f f , and Mr. Donald Dobson, Engine Design Engineer, Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s . Their contributions are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. v i i LIST OF TABLES Table page 1.1 Expenditures on C a p i t a l C o n s t r u c t i o n f o r A v i a t i o n i n 6 Canada, by Year, to March 1966 1.2 Cost of A i r p o r t C o n s t r u c t i o n i n Canada 7 2.1 Standard Atmosphere 19 2.2 Pressure A l t i t u d e 19 3.1 Recommended Safe L e v e l of Noise Exposure 50 3.2 Noise L e v e l s i n Fa c t o r y S i t u a t i o n s 51 3.3 Speech Communication C r i t e r i a 52 3.4 NNI Contours and I n h a b i t a n t s Responses 54 3.5 Acceptable E x t e r i o r Noise L e v e l s f o r Various A c t i v i t i e s 57 Based on Average Noise Reduction by B u i l d i n g 3.6 Chart f o r E s t i m a t i n g Responses of R e s i d e n t i a l Communities 61 From Composite Noise Ratings 3.7 D i s t r i b u t i o n of A i r p o r t P o p u l a t i o n by Purpose ' . 66 3.8 Average Emmission of A i r Contaminants from A i r c r a f t 73 Operated W i t h i n Los Angeles County, i n 1964, i n Tons per day. 3.9 Average Number of F l i g h t s per Day i n Los Angeles County, by 74 Type of Power Used, i n 1964 3.10 Average r a t e of Emmission of A i r Contaminants from A i r c r a f t 75 by Power P l a n t , per F l i g h t , From A i r c r a f t operated w i t h i n the Boundaries of Los Angeles County, i n 1964, (pounds per f l i g h t ) 3.IT Comparisons of D a i l y Average Contaminant Emmissions from the 77 Combustion of F u e l s by Motor V e h i c l e s , Power P l a n t s and J e t A i r c r a f t i n Los Angeles County, 1964 3.12 Average Rate of Contaminant Emmissions per Average a F l i g h t 79 over Los Angeles County from Various Four Engined Gas Turbine Engined A i r c r a f t Using Various P r a t t and Whitney Engines, i n Pounds per F l i g h t , 1969 3.13 Estimated T o t a l A i r c r a f t Movements by Type of Power P l a n t , 1968 84 v i i i Table Page 3.14 Estimated A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n i n a Pa r t of the Lower 86 Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n tons, 1968 4.1 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , D a i l y D i s t r i b u t i o n of 99 A i r c r a f t Movements, 1969 4.2 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , D a i l y D i s t r i b u t i o n of 100 A i r c r a f t Movements, Novemeber, 1969 4.3 Sex of Respondent 111 4.4 Family Income of Respondent 112 4.5 Type of Tenure of Respondent 113 4.6 Type of D w e l l i n g U n i t of Respondent 114 4.7 Age of Respondent 115 4.8 Length of Residence of Respondent 116 4.9 Respondents Reasons f o r Moving to B e r k e v i l l e 117 4.10 Respondents Reasons f o r S t a y i n g i n B e r k e v i l l e 118 4.11 Occupation of Respondents 119 4.12 Wage Earning Occupations of Respondents . 120 4.13 Respondents A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 124 4.14 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t Noise by Sex 125 4.15 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t Noise by Annual Family Income 126 4.16 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t Noise by Type of Tenure 127 4.17 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t Noise by Length of Residence 128 4.18 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t Noise by Occupation 129 4.19 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t Noise by Age 130 4.20 Annual Family Incomes of A i r p o r t Workers and the Balance of 131 B e r k e v i l l e 4.21 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n by Sex 134 4.22 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n by Annual Family Income 135 4.23 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n By Type of Tenure 136 i x Table Jage_ 4.24 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n by Length of Residence 137 4.25 A t t i t u d e s to A . i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n by Occupation 138 4.26 A t t i t u d e s to A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n by Age 139 4.27 A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant Crash Hazards by Sex 142 4.28 A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant Crash Hazards by Annual Family Income 143 4.29 A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant Crash Hazards by Type of Tenure 144 4.30 A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant Crash Hazards by Length of 145 Residence 4.31 A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant Crash Hazards By Occupation 146 4.32 A t t i t u d e s to Non-Occupant Crash Hazards by Age 147 4.33 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Industry by Sex ' 150 4.34 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Industry by Annual Family Income 151 4.35 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Industry by Type of Tenure 152 4.36 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Industry by Length of Residence 153 4.37 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Industry by Occupation 154 4.38 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Industryy by Age 155 4.39 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by Sex 158 4.40 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by Annual Family Income 159 4.41 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by Type of Tenure 160 4.42 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by Length of Residence 161 4.43 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by Occupation 162 4.44 A t t i t u d e s to A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c by Age 163 4.45 A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Sex 167 4.46 A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Annual Family Income 168 4.47 A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Type of Tenure 169 4.48 A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Length of Residence 170 4.49 A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Occupation 171 4.50 A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Age 172 x Table Page 4.51 A t t i t u d e s towards Moving by Reasons f o r Moving to the Area 173 4.52 D i f f e r e n t i a l Reasons f o r Moving to the Area and S t a y i n g i n the 175 Area 4.53 Summary of V a r i a t i o n s From Average Rea c t i o n to A i r p o r t Character-176 i s t i c s by Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 5.1' A i r c r a f t Movements a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t 181 (Percentage), 1964-69 x i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 2.1 S i n g l e Runway Layout 29 2.2 Hub and Divergent Runway Layouts 29 2.3 P a r a l l e l Runway Layouts 29 2.4 C i r c u l a r Runway Layouts « 29 2.5 A i r p o r t Zoning Arrangement 34 3.1 R e l a t i v e O v e r a l l Sound Pressure L e v e l Zones f o r a T y p i c a l 58 J e t Engine a t 100% Power 3.2 R e l a t i o n Between Community Responses and Composite Noise 63 R a t i n g 4.1 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Survey Questionnaire 104 4.2 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Survey Questionnaire Coding 105 Guide Map 3.1 Los Angeles County Superimposed on the Lower Mainland of 83 B r i t i s h Columbia 6.1 Richmond M u n i c i p a l i t y and Sea I s l a n d 95 4.2 B e r k e v i l l e Community 97 x i i CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM: INTRODUCTION AND PERSPECTIVE The E a r l y Stage of A i r p o r t Development A v i a t i o n and a i r p o r t development, i n the e a r l y decades of the 20th century, were not taken s e r i o u s l y by the general p u b l i c , being regarded l a r g e l y as an adventure or f e a t u r e , much l i k e the side show at a l o c a l c e l e b r a t i o n . Beyond t h i s , i t was not regarded as a p r a c t i c a l way f o r s e n s i b l e people to t r a v e l or even to send goods. For example, J . R. Main r e p o r t s that i n 1920 " t h i r t y f i r m s were engaged i n operating a i r c r a f t and these had flown over 5200 hours F i f t e e n thousand, three hundred passengers and 6700 pounds of f r e i g h t were c a r r i e d . Organized a i r -p o r t s of that era were r e l a t i v e l y few and t h e i r l o c a t i o n requirements were simple and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . The planes were, i n comparison to some of to-days behemoths, s c a r c e l y h e a v i e r than a i r w i t h great g l i d i n g a b i l i t y , and they had a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y f o r passengers and f r e i g h t . Because there were fewer t r a f f i c problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v i a t i o n , both on the ground and i n the a i r , the only b a s i c requirement was an open s t r e t c h of reasonably s o l i d ground, or an unobstructed s t r e t c h of open water. Hence, w h i l e i n 2 1920 there were only f i f t y - f o u r organized "aerodromes", i n another sense i t might be s a i d that there were l i t e r a l l y thousands of "emergency" a i r -p o r t s which could be u t i l i z e d i f and when circumstances demanded i t . (1) Main, J.R.K., Voyageurs of the A i r , (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1967) Pg. 27 (2) i b i d , Pg. 27 I 2 Changes i n A i r T r a f f i c Volume A l l aspects of a v i a t i o n have changed tremendously since those e a r l y days. I t has become a f u l l fledged member of the modern m u l t i -modal t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. T r a f f i c has increased, f o r example, to the p o i n t where congestion, both on the ground and i n the a i r have become major problems. The l o c a t i o n of the a i r p o r t i s of importance because of the i n e x o r a b l y i n c r e a s i n g interdependence of the v a r i o u s l i n k s i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. But even more important i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e , a i r p o r t to those who are i n contact w i t h i t . T h is involvement i n -creases as does the volume, both f o r users and nearby r e s i d e n t s , and the volume i s growing at an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e , both i n terms of passengers and a i r f r e i g h t . As the Department of Transport has put i t , " i t has been estimated that w i t h i n the next decade, every major c i t y i n the world w i l l (3) r e q u i r e a new a i r p o r t or e q u i v a l e n t expansion. " Trends i n U r b a n i z a t i o n A f u r t h e r problem i s the trend to u r b a n i z a t i o n i n Canada. The Economic C o u n c i l of Canada has p r e d i c t e d that by 1980 the t o t a l urban popu-l a t i o n w i l l r i s e by almost 5.8 m i l l i o n persons to reach over 20 m i l l i o n , a r i s e of almost 40 per cent over 1966. The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s expected to increase by somewhat l e s s a t 26 per cent.^'' For Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver i t i s p r e d i c t e d that "by 1980 i t i s probable that almost one t h i r d of the e n t i r e Canadian p o p u l a t i o n w i l l l i v e i n one of these g i a n t complexes. F u r t h e r , there w i l l be a second order of s i x l a r g e c i t i e s (3) Department of Transport, A i r Transport F a c i l i t i e s Planning i n Canada, (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1969) Page 4. (4) Economic C o u n c i l of Canada, Fourth Annual Review, the Canadian Econ-omy From the 1960's to the 1970's. (Ottawa: Queens Printer,1967) Page 187-88. (5) i b i d , Page 190 '3 w i t h i n the 500,000 to 1,000,000 po p u l a t i o n range comprising a t o t a l of 3.6 m i l l i o n people, and a t h i r d order of about 20 c i t i e s between 100,000 and 500,000 p o p u l a t i o n comprising about 3.5 m i l l i o n p o p u l a t i o n by 1980. Canada, c l e a r l y , w i l l be h i g h l y urbanized by 1980 i f these p r e d i c t i o n s are accurate. • As t h i s occurs, the problem of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l be of i n c r e a s -ing importance. Because of the i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of a i r t r a v e l , the problem of a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n w i l l i ncrease a t a greater r a t e than the r a t e of urban g r o w t h . T h e dilemma i s that the i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n r a t e means th a t , w h i l e the l o c a t i o n of the f a c i l i t i e s i s i n c r e a s i n g l y important f o r a l l those who w i l l be a f f e c t e d by i t , there i s l e s s room i n which to l o c -ate them. Competition f o r choice s i t e s i s i n c r e a s i n g since the p h y s i c a l requirements f o r a i r p o r t s are somewhat the same as f o r i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . A f u r t h e r problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u r b a n i z a t i o n and a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n i s that w h i l e there w i l l be an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r f a c i l i t i e s , many e x i s t -ing f a c i l i t i e s are being e i t h e r rendered l e s s e f f e c t i v e by community pressures or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , the communities are e x p e r i e n c i n g increased d y s f u n c t i o n s as a r e s u l t of the i n c r e a s i n g impact of the f a c i l i t y . T his trend, more pronounced i n the United S t a t e s has been w e l l documented by the U.S. F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Agency. I f the p o p u l a t i o n p r e d i c t i o n s of (6) i b i d (7) For examples of t r a f f i c f o r e c a s t s i n Canada see: Department of Trans-p o r t , Canadian General A v i a t i o n 1967-1980, (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1969) and Department of Transport, Montreal I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1968). (8) See U.S. F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Agency, General A v i a t i o n and i t s R e l a t i o n  to Industry and the Community, (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , A p r i l 1964) Page 19. 4 the Economic C o u n c i l are accepted, then the American experience may be treat e d as a harbinger. The f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d here, coupled w i t h the knowledge that there are d e f i n i t e r e s i d e n t i a l disadvantages a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a i r p o r t s con-f r o n t s us w i t h a need to plan the l o c a t i o n of these f a c i l i t i e s so that the community w i l l reap the maximum b e n e f i t s w i t h the l e a s t c o s t both i n economic and s o c i a l terms. Changes i n Technology I t i s not proposed here to examine the t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes which have a f f e c t e d a i r t r a v e l . I t does however, compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h other modes i n passenger comfort and enjoys a tremendous advantage i n the time-d i s t a n c e r a t i o . Three major problems that e x i s t and which are u n l i k e l y to be overcome i n the near f u t u r e are; the problem of a i r c r a f t n o i s e , which, of a l l the problems of r e s i d e n t i a l community dysfunc t i o n s remains the most s e r i o u s , the problem of a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n , and congestion i n the a i r l a n e s which r e s u l t s from the requirement of sep a r a t i o n of the a i r c r a f t . The Costs of A i r p o r t C o n s t r u c t i o n I n a d d i t i o n to the problems already c i t e d there are others which may be o u t l i n e d i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r a t i o n a l e f o r planning of a i r -p o r t l o c a t i o n s . The f i r s t of these i s that the co s t of both b u i l d i n g and ma i n t a i n i n g these f a c i l i t i e s i s very h i g h . For example, i n the e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s , the F e d e r a l Department of Transport embarked on a $ 1 0 0 m i l l i o n program of a i r p o r t and a i r t e r m i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . That program was com-p l e t e d i n 1 9 6 8 w i t h the opening of the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t t e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g a t a c o s t of $ 3 2 m i l l i o n . Table 1.1 shows the expend-5 i t u r e s on c a p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n by year to March 31, 1966. In 1967, the Canadian government spent $100 m i l l i o n on a i r s e r v i c e s . Of t h i s amount, $44.6 m i l l i o n was spent on operation and maintenance and $33.1 m i l l i o n on the a c q u i s i t i o n of land and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new f a c i l i t -i e s . Table 1.2 shows the magnitude of the costs of b u i l d i n g new f a c i l -i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n to the c o s t s of the f a c i l i t i e s i t should be borne i n mind that they must, of n e c e s s i t y , be i n operation f o r a considerable length of time. I t i s estimated, f o r example, that the new Montreal a i r -(Q\ p o r t at S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e w i l l not be f u l l y constructed u n t i l 1985. ' Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t was opened i n 1931 and the Department of Transport's long range plans f o r t h i s f a c i l i t y p r e s e n t l y extend to 1985. Hence, i f the l o c a t i o n i s wrong, the r e s u l t i s a tremendous waste of p u b l i c money and s e r i o u s s o c i a l consequences which are of long term s i g n i f i c a n c e . The Role of the Department of Transport C i v i l a v i a t i o n i n c l u d e s a l l movements and operations of a i r c r a f t , both scheduled and unscheduled e x c l u d i n g those that are of a m i l i t a r y nature. I n Canada, the Department of Transport plays the major r o l e i n the l o c a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s . The a u t h o r i t y of the F e d e r a l Government comes i n turn from the " r e s i d u a l powers" clause (9) Intergovernment Committee f o r the Montreal I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , Economic Impact of A l t e r n a t i v e S i t e s f o r the Proposed New Montreal  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , (Ottawa: Mimeo, January 1969) Pg. 3 (10) Interview w i t h Wm. I n g l i s , A i r p o r t Manager, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , January 23, 1970. 6 TABLE 1.1 EXPENDITURES ON CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FOR AVIATION IN CANADA BY YEAR TO MARCH 31, 1966 (THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS) A i r p o r t Radio Aids M e t e r o l o g i c a l P e r i o d C o n s t r u c t i o n C o n s t r u c t i o n C o n s t r u c t i o n P r i o r to 1952 252,477 17,901 1,340 1959 - 60 171,776 44,584 5,156 1960 - 61 52,443 10,863 1,249 1961 - 62 52,907 9,335 1,178 1962 - 63 57,612 14,712 1,209 1964 - 65 48,748 8,937 1,835 1965 - 66 27,709 9,277 2,140 T o t a l 711,339 146,277 . 18,294 SOURCE: Lane, D. A., A i r p o r t s i n Canada, Paper presented to the U.P.A.D.I. IX Congress i n Mexico C i t y , Mexico, October 23 - 29, 1966, (Mimeograph, 1966) Page 18 7 TABLE 1.2 COST OF AIRPORT CONSTRUCTION IN CANADA (1967 DOLLARS) LOCATION COST (MILLIONS) Calgary 9 H a l i f a x 15 Vancouver 59 Winnipeg 30 Edmonton 35 Toronto (Maiton) 70 Montreal (Dorval) 82 Montreal ( S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e ) * 291 This f i g u r e represents only the outlay f o r the i n i t i a l stage. By 1984 i t i s estimated to c o s t approximately $644 m i l l i o n . SOURCE: Prepared from f i g u r e s supplied i n Smith, Margaret A i l e e n , The E v a l u a t i o n of A l t e r n a t i v e  A i r p o r t P l a n s , (Vancouver, B. C : Unpublished Master of Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n T h e s i s , , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968), and Department of Transport, Press Release, March 27, 1969. 8 ( S e c t i o n 132) of the B r i t i s h North America Act of 1867 and more recent-l y and s p e c i f i c a l l y from the 1927 Aeronautics A c t . This Act was challenged i n 1948 by the M u n i c i p a l i t y of West S t . P a u l , Manitoba, with the passing of a bylaw r e g u l a t i n g the establishment of a i r p o r t s w i t h the purpose of c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r l o c a t i o n . The Manitoba Court of Appeals upheld the v a l i d i t y of the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s bylaw. The d e c i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l Court was appealed and granted by the Supreme Court of Canada which r u l e d t h a t : -"...the subject of a e r i a l n a v i g a t i o n and f u l f i l l -ment of Canadian o b l i g a t i o n s under S e c t i o n 132 of the B.N.A. Act are matters of n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and importance and t h a t a e r i a l n a v i g a t i o n i s a c l a s s of s u b j e c t which has a t t a i n e d such dimensions as to a f f e c t the body p i i t i c of the Dominion. Furthermore, t h i s " s o l e and e x c l u s i v e " j u r i s d i c t i o n must l o g i c a l l y i n c l u d e the l o c a t i o n and continuance of a i r p o r t s since t h i s plays an e s s e n t i a l p a r t i n any scheme of a e r o n a u t i c s . (11)" As a r e s u l t of t h i s r u l i n g and a l s o because a i r p o r t operations have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been u n p r o f i t a b l e , the p l a n n i n g , design, c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of a i r p o r t s has been l a r g e l y l e f t t o , and assumed by, the Department of Transport. The t o t a l value of the investment by the F e d e r a l Government i n a v i a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n 1964 was approximately $750 m i l l i o n . T his excludes the Montreal S t . Scholastique a i r p o r t which, by i t s e l f , represents an investment of b e t t e r than $600 m i l l i o n . There are now nine i n t e r n a t i o n a l , 15 trunk and 81 feeder a i r p o r t s i n the main-l i n e system of Canada, of which the Department of Transport operates 60. (11) As quoted i n P e l l e t i e r , G.A., C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a Proposed P o l i c y  Framework to P r o t e c t and Enhance A i r p o r t Development,(Ottawa: Mimeograph, October 1967) Page 8. In Canada, c i v i l a i r p o r t s are d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t c l a s s e s as f o l l o w s : 1) M a i n l i n e "are those which are served by a r e g u l a r commercial a i r l i n e s e r v i c e c a r r y i n g passengers and goods on a frequency of a t l e a s t 50 a r r i v a l s per annum i n areas without r e l i a b l e surface t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and a t l e a s t 150 a r r i v a l s per annum elsewhere and where such s e r v i c e has been i n continuous operation (12) f o r a t l e a s t two yea r s . " 2) A u x i l i a r y are those " r e q u i r e d to augment the n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t system, i n support of commercial a i r s e r v i c e s i n Canada. ( 1 3 ) " . • . 3) S a t e l l i t e "are those r e q u i r e d i n the i n t e r e s t of saf e t y to r e l i e v e congestion a t mai n l i n e a i r p o r t s r e s u l t i n g from the i n t e r m i n g l i n g of a i r c r a f t having widely d i v e r -gent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ( ^ ) " 4) L o c a l "are those which p r i m a r i l y serve the i n t e r e s t s of an area or of a s i n g l e community, not otherwise served by a r e g u l a r commercial a i r s e r v i c e w i t h the frequency p r e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a ma i n l i n e a i r p o r t . ( 1 5 ) " (12) Department of Transport, A i r S e r v i c e s , P o l i c y Governing Develop-ment, Operation and Maintenance of P u b l i c A i r p o r t s i n  Canada, (Ottawa: D.O.T. March 1969) Page 3. (13) i b i d Page 4 (14) i b i d Page 5 (15) i b i d Page 6 10 5) Development "are those f o r which scheduled s e r v i c e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y forseen, but the establishment of which would c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y or be e s s e n t i a l to the e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l resources. ( i ^ ) " 6) Remote "are those r e q u i r e d to r e l i e v e i s o l a t i o n i n communities or settlements not served by r e l i a b l e methods of surface t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on a year round b a s i s . ( 1 7 ^ " 7) Seaplanes are those that " r e f e r to docks, f l o a t s ' or buoys provided to f a c i l i t a t e the safe mooring or docking of f l o a t - e q u i p p e d a i r c r a f t and i n c l u d e s where necessary breakwaters and dredging of s h e l t e r -ed areas to provide an adequate b a s i s on which to manoeuvre and moor a i r c r a f t . (18) t i 8) H e l i p o r t r e f e r s to "an area of land or water l i c e n s e d as an a i r p o r t intended s o l e l y f o r the use of h e l i c o p -t e r s . (19),, ; - ' • ; I n g e n e r a l , a s i n g l e a i r p o r t i s s u f f i c i e n t to take care of the need of most communities. However, i n major centres such as Vancouver, there are a number of c l a s s e s of a i r p o r t s i n the area. (16) Main, Voyageurs of the A i r , op c i t , Page 350 (17) Department of Transport, P o l i c y Governing Development Operation and Maintenance of P u b l i c A i r p o r t s i n Canada, op c i t , Page 8 (18) i b i d Page 10 (19) i b i d Page 11 11 The Department of Transport p u b l i s h e s s t a t i s t i c s on a i r c r a f t operations through i t s A v i a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s Centre, most of which are published or are a v a i l a b l e on request from the Department. The major emphasis i n the data c o l l e c t i o n f i e l d i s on the l a r g e r a i r p o r t s . Be-cause .of t h i s , the scheduled a i r c r a f t operations ( i . e . l a r g e l y the a i r -l i n e s ) are e a s i e s t to f o r e c a s t . Data on the operations of the smaller general a v i a t i o n f i e l d , because much of t h e i r o p e ration i s from smaller f i e l d s , are much s k e t c h i e r and as a r e s u l t trends and f o r e c a s t are much more d i f f i c u l t to determine a c c u r a t e l y . With regard to a i r p o r t p l a n n i n g , the Department of Transport main-t a i n s a rough " f i v e year p l a n " which i s adhered to unless new f a c i l i t i e s or improvements are s p e c i f i c a l l y requested by the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s through m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or by the a i r l i n e s as they expand s e r v i c e s or i n -troduce new a i r c r a f t . The Department of Transport d i v i d e s - t h e country i n t o s i x regions (Maritime, Quebec, O n t a r i o , C e n t r a l , Mountain, and P a c i f i c ) and p r e l i m i n -ary f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s are made by the appr o p r i a t e Regional D i r e c t o r of A i r S e r v i c e s and h i s s t a f f . H i s department does the p r e l i m i n a r y s i t e s e l e c t i o n and economic f e a s i b i l i t y a n a l y s i s of a given p r o p o s a l . The planning of the f a c i l i t y i s then turned over to the A i r c r a f t and F i e l d Operations Branch i n Ottawa which oversees the p r o j e c t from t h i s p o i n t on. S p e c i f i c major planning f u n c t i o n s are then undertaken by:-1) The C i v i l A e r o n a u t i c s Branch which provides t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . 12 2) The Engineering Branch which e s t a b l i s h e s the c o s t of the f a c i l i t y . •> 3) The A i r Economics Branch which does the f i n a l economic assessment and recommends acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of the proposal based on the economic growth p o s s i b i l i t i e s , economic s t r u c t u r e of the area, a b e n e f i t - c o s t study of the f a c i l i t y and t r a f f i c f o r e c a s t s f o r the proposed f a c i l i t y . The f i n a l steps i n the a n a l y s i s are to question the a i r l i n e s about t h e i r requirements f o r the proposed f a c i l i t y and the expected t r a f f i c as they estimate i t . From these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s the A i r p o r t s and F i e l d Operations Branch sets out space requirements f o r the proposed f a c i l i t y based on the recommendations of the C i v i l A e r onautics Branch. These requirements are then turned over to the A r c h i t e c t u r e and Engineering Departments, and, i f the f a c i l i t y i s s m a l l , these Departments draw up the p l a n s . For l a r g e a i r p o r t s , c o n s u l t a n t s , u s u a l l y l o c a l , are engaged to do the work and the r o l e of the A r c h i t e c t u r e and Engineering Departments becomes that of overseer. I n the case of the S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e a i r p o r t north of Montreal, a s p e c i a l team was formed f o r the planning of the f a c i l i t y . Since t h i s f a c i l i t y i s Canada's l a r g e s t and most recent l a r g e a i r p o r t , i t may be assumed that i t represents the most advanced t h i n k i n g w i t h respect to l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s . The Department of Trans-p o r t reported e i g h t major c r i t e r i a to be met i n the s e l e c t i o n of the s i t e 13 f o r the new f a c i l i t y . (20) . The c r i t e r i a were as f o l l o w s : -1) A i r t r a f f i c s e c u r i t y w i t h regard to:-a) I n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the a c t i v i t y of another major a i r p o r t . b) Obstacles, both n a t u r a l and man made. c) Meterology. 2) No encroachment on urban zones. 3) A c c e s s i b i l i t y f o r the m a j o r i t y of the u s e r s . 4) Good access roads. . . 5) Good a c c e s s i b i l i t y to Dorval A i r p o r t . 6) Convenience w i t h respect to f u t u r e housing and i n d u s t r i a l areas. 7) Economic promotion of the r e g i o n of Montreal. 8) C o s t - b e n e f i t r a t i o . These c r i t e r i a r e present the widest and most i n c l u s i v e e f f o r t s to date on the l o c a t i o n of c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s i n Canada. The major problem remains what the e f f e c t s of such a f a c i l i t y are on r e s i d -e n t i a l areas. The choice of the S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e s i t e operates on the assumpt-io n that the f a c i l i t y should be l o c a t e d away from urban areas so that there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of encountering the problems that may a r i s e from a c o n f l i c t between the a i r p o r t and the urban r e s i d e n t i a l area. I t i s (20) Department of Transport, Press Release, The F e d e r a l Government  Sets F o r t h E i g h t C r i t e r i a f o r the L o c a t i o n , (Ottawa: D.o.T. March 27, 1969) Pages 1-3. 14 s t i l l l e g i t i m a t e to enquire, hoxv-ever, about the e f f e c t on those who are p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d near a i r p o r t s , since the whole question of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a i r p o r t and i t s neighbors i s s t i l l unanswered by the approach which was taken a t S t . S c h o l a s t i q u e . I f i t was more a matter of convenience than of n e c e s s i t y , then perhaps the c r i t e r i o n was j u s t i f i e d . But i f the reasons a l t e r n a t i v e l y deal w i t h serious e f f e c t s on people then the f a c t that there are s t i l l a great many people l i v i n g near a i r p o r t s becomes more important. R e l a t i o n s h i p of the F e d e r a l and M u n i c i p a l Governments i n A i r p o r t Planning. One of the major problems w i t h i n Canada over the past century has been r e l a t i o n s between the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments. In the case of a i r p o r t p lanning the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Department of Transport as the agent of the F e d e r a l Government, and M u n i c i p a l Governments as agents, both f o r the Provinces and f o r themselves, has been l e s s than sat-i s f a c t o r y i n the planning of a i r p o r t e n v irons. G. A. P e l l e t i e r , of the Department of Transport has s t a t e d t h a t : -" . . . i n n e i t h e r the U.S. nor Canada has a • s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p been achieved between a i r p o r t planners and community planners capable of assuming the necessary l e v e l of p r o t e c t i v e compatible land use planning i n the v i c i n i t y of an a i r p o r t . ( 2 1 ) » P e l l e t i e r o u t l i n e s three p o s s i b l e approaches to the problem which he terms:-1) A Department of Transport "go i t alone" approach which i s r e j e c t e d "except as a l a s t r e s o r t when (21) P e l l e t i e r , C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a Proposed P o l i c y Framework to P r o t e c t and Enhance A i r p o r t Development, op c i t , Page 7. 15 new airport construction can no longer be delayed and effective local authority co-operation is not forthcoming to ensure compatible land development around the airport. ( 2 2 ) " 2) An "airport as community responsibility" approach which would consist "in the Department of Transport, while continuing to license ai r -ports, abandoning to local authorities the res-ponsibility for planning, building and operat-i ing a l l metropolitan and urban area airports. ( 23)n This approach is also rejected on the basis of the American experience that the "local community by i t s e l f is generally unable to respond satis-factorily .... ( 2 4 ) " for financial reasons. •3) A "Department of Transport and local authority planning and programming approach" which is "based on the continuation of the Department in planning, building and operating airports, but unlike alter-native No. 1 i t is based on the premise that the basic responsibility for ensuring compatible land use around airports w i l l be assumed by the local authorities.... ( 2-^ u This is the approach that is (22) ibid Page 15 (23) ibid Page 15 (24) ibid Page 18 (25) ibid Page 18 16 recommended in the report for adoption as policy by the Department of Transport. Thesis Objectives, Hypothesis and Organization The objective of the thesis is to determine and/or develop locational c r i t e r i a for c i v i l aviation airports from the point of view of i t s effects on urban residential areas. Thus, except in a broad sense, the economic aspects of the location are not considered. But because the f a c i l i t y is being considered from i t s physical point of view, that i s , the impact which is the result of i t s physical location in a given area, and because the objective is to determine location c r i t e r i a in physical terms, the physical requirements are necessarily considered. The working hypothesis, based on Vancouver International Airport as a case study is stated as follows:-The proximity of a c i v i l aviation airport significantly lowers the environmental quality of a residential area. There are two components to this problem, that of the subjective view which people take to the airport, and that of a more objective exam-ination of the dysfunctional aspects of an airport from a residential point of view. Each is examined here. The term "environmental quality" which is a normative concept, is operationalized by defining i t in terms of five c r i t e r i a . 1) Aircraft noise. 2) Air pollution from a i r c r a f t . 3) Non-occupant aircraft crash hazards. 4) Location of industry attracted by the airport. 5) Ground vehicle t r a f f i c . 17 By "proximity" i s meant the area that i s d i r e c t l y affected by at l e a s t one of the f i v e c r i t e r i a l i s t e d above. The major assumption involved in the hypothesis i s that any major physi c a l f a c i l i t y can have a s o c i a l impact on the surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l area. I t i s taken as given that the physical and s o c i a l environment are complementary, that each a f f e c t s the other, and that both v a r i a b l e s must be examined. With respect to the organization of the balance of the thesis, Chapter I I I deals with the relevant p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n requirements from the point of view of ground c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , physical ground and airspace requirements, a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l , and land use i m p l i c a t i o n s . Chapter 11 introduces the problems of r e s i d e n t i a l areas with respect to a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n , and Chapter IV examines the Vancouver International A i r p o r t as a case study. In Chapter V conclusions and•implications for l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a i n l i g h t of the p h y s i c a l requirements and s o c i a l consequences are made and areas for further study are outlined. CHAPTER I I PHYSICAL GROUNDSPACE AND AIRSPACE REQUIREMENTS Regardless of any other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a i r p o r t s have two over-r i d i n g requirements, one f o r land area and one f o r a i r s p a c e . Each of these i s determined by a v a r i e t y of i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s . I t i s the purpose of t h i s chapter to review these without examining, except t a n g e n t i a l l y , the impact of the f a c i l i t y on the surrounding area which i s the subject of the remaining chapters of t h i s t h e s i s . This chapter, l i k e the f i r s t i s designed to place the problem of community impact of the a i r p o r t i n p e r s p e c t i v e . An a p p r e c i a t i o n of problems created f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l community cannot be undertaken without f i r s t seeing what, i n a sense, i s the a i r p o r t side of the s t o r y , that i s , t h e i r r e q u i r e -ments . D e f i n i t i o n s Before c o n t i n u i n g on to examine these requirements, a number of b a s i c , but somewhat uncommon terms muct be de f i n e d . 1) The standard atmosphere represents the average atmos-p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r geographical r e g i o n . S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of standard atmosphere are i n use, the most common of which i s that proposed by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l A v i a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n (ICAO) which i s as f o l l o w s (1) H o r o n j e f f , Robert, The Planning and Design of A i r p o r t s , (Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1962) Page 102 18 19 a) A sea l e v e l pressure of 760 MM (29.92 inches) of mercury. b) The a i r i s a p e r f e c t l y dry gas. c) The temperature a t sea l e v e l i s 59°F (15°C). d) The temperature g r a d i e n t from sea l e v e l to the a l t i t u d e a t which the temperature becomes -69. 7°F i s -3.5 x lO'^op per f o o t and zero above. As a r e s u l t of t h i s , standard c o n d i t i o n s or a standard day vary according to the e l e v a t i o n a t which the a i r p o r t i s lo c a t e d as shown f o r example i n Table 2.1. / TABLE 2.1 C o n d i t i o n E l e v a t i o n S td. Press. S td. Temp.  A 0 f t . 29.92 i n . Hg 59°F (15°C) B 5000 f t . 24.91 i n . Hg 41.2°F (5.1°C) 2) Pressure A l t i t u d e . This i s defined as that a l t i t u d e which corresponds to the pressure of the standard atmosphere. This i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n determining the takeoff d i s t a n c e of a i r c r a f t s ince the l i f t of an a i r f o i l i s depend-ent on the d e n s i t y of the a i r of which pressure a l t i t u d e i s a measure. This term i s not to be confused w i t h geographical a l t i t u d e as i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g Table 2.2. TABLE 2.2 PRESSURE ALTITUDE Pressure Geographical Atmospheric C o n d i t i o n A l t i t u d e A l t i t u d e Pressure A B 0 f t . 1800 f t . 0 f t . 0 f t . 29.92 i n . Hg 28.00 i n . Hg 20 3) Speed. Groundspeed i s the speed of the a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e to the ground. Airspeed i s the speed of the a i r c r a f t r e l a t i v e to the a i r . True airspeed (TAS) i s the airspeed of the a i r c r a f t c o n s i d e r i n g the e f f e c t of a l t i t u d e on a i r d e n s i t y , w h i l e i n d i c a t e d airspeed (IAS) does not consider t h i s f a c t o r . Hence, i n d i c a t e d airspeed i s l e s s than true a i r s p e e d f o r a given a l t i t u d e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the two being roughly 27_ per 1000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n . A i r c r a f t speed i s o f t e n given i n knots where one knot i s defined as one n a u t i c a l m i l e per hour, or approximately 1.15 land m i l e s . I t may a l s o be given i n terms of a Mach where one Mach i s the speed of sound. The speed of sound v a r i e s w i t h temperature, the d i f f e r e n t i a l being two f e e t per second per degree centigrade change i n temperature. At zero degrees centigrade Mach 1 i s 1090 f e e t per second. The Volume of T r a f f i c The i n i t i a l step i n the e v a l u a t i o n of ground and a i r s p a c e r e q u i r e -ments i s to f o r e c a s t the t r a f f i c volume which w i l l be generated i n the f u t u r e . Two t y p i c a l techniques o u t l i n e d by Horonjeff are as f o l l o w s : The f i r s t i s to take the area percentage of n a t i o n a l l y enplaned passengers and a d j u s t i t to r e f l e c t the probable percentage of n a t i o n a l l y enplaned passengers. Then/apply t h i s percentage to a n a t i o n a l f o r e c a s t of enplaned passengers. (2) H o r o n j e f f , The Planning and Design of A i r p o r t s , op c i t , Pg. 110-115. 21 A second method i s to compare the areas h i s t o r i c a l p r o p o r t i o n of enplaned passengers per thousand p o p u l a t i o n to the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . A d j u s t t h i s r a t i o to r e f l e c t socio-economic changes i n the f o r e c a s t year and then m u l t i p l y i t by the n a t i o n a l i n d i c e s f o r the f o r e c a s t years. This y i e l d s the area i n question's index which i s then a p p l i e d to the population, f o r e c a s t f o r the area. These same techniques have been used f o r f o r e c a s t i n g the amount of a i r f r e i g h t . In Canada, however, the f i g u r e s have to be adjusted to compensate f o r a f u r t h e r f a c t o r , namely that there i s an east-west b i a s f a v o r i n g the east i n the haulage of a i r cargo. Both of these methods assume that the area's p r o p o r t i o n a l share i s not subject to v i o l e n t s h i f t s over short periods of time. This p a r t of the f o r e c a s t however, i s only a p a r t of the problem. A second set of volume f a c t o r s concerning the number of a i r c r a f t i s r e q u i r e d . This problem i s more complex, f o r a new v a r i a b l e , that of the c a p a c i t y of the a i r c r a f t i s introduced. The problem becomes more complex w i t h the growth of the general a v i a t i o n sector of the c i v i l a v i a t i o n f i e l d since because of the smaller c a p a c i t i e s of these a i r c r a f t , there may be a mounting volume of movements without a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n passenger or cargo volume. Regardless of whether the passenger and car-go volumes i n c r e a s e , each a i r c r a f t movement takes a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of time and w h i l e the former two volumes have a bearing on t e r m i n a l space and runway le n g t h requirements, i t i s the number of movements that i s the more s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the determination of the number of runway s. 22 One method of determining the number of a i r c r a f t i s to estab-l i s t the n a t i o n a l trend w i t h r e s p e c t to the number of passengers per movement. T h i s , compared to the area trends gives a r a t i o which can be adjusted to both the increase i n general a v i a t i o n movements and the s i z e of the commerical a i r l i n e s a i r c r a f t . This r a t i o i s then a p p l i e d to the n a t i o n a l passenger f o r e c a s t . The f i n a l problems i n a s s e s s i n g volume concerns the peak hour volumes, since i t i s t h i s which determines the c a p a c i t y and the degree of congestion. Demand, l i k e that of highways i s not uniform. Three kinds of peak hour f o r e c a s t s , (peak hour, peak day and peak month) are necessary. One method of determining these i s to determine the proport-ion of annual volume i n each month, then w i t h i n each month to determine the p r o p o r t i o n of volumes i n each day and f i n a l l y i n each hour. This i n f o r m a t i o n i s then p r o j e c t e d to the years d e s i r e d and u s i n g the annual f o r e c a s t f i g u r e s as a b a s i s a design hour volume can then be chosen. (3) A i r c r a f t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and P h y s i c a l Conditions Taking the volume as g i v e n , the primary v a r i a b l e i n determining the'amount of ground and a i r s p a c e requirements f o r the a i r p o r t i s that of a i r c r a f t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l determine the runway le n g t h s , the r e q u i r e d c l e a r zones and r e s t r i c t e d zones and, to a more l i m i t e d degree, the t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s and runway c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Runway length i s the primary ground c o n s i d e r a t i o n and the most obvious one a f f e c t e d by a i r c r a f t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The V/STOL a i r c r a f t , (3) H o r o n j e f f , The Planning and Design of A i r p o r t s , op c i t , Pages 111-114. when they are f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l w i l l r e q u i r e , by d e f i n i t i o n l e s s than 1000 f e e t f o r t a k e o f f s and l a n d i n g s ; the smaller general a v i a t i o n a i r - , c r a f t r e q u i r e anywhere from 500 to 3000 f e e t to a t t a i n a height of 50 f e e t ; commercial a i r c r a f t , n otably the " s t r e t c h e d " j e t s , jumbo j e t s , and the SST when i t becomes o p e r a t i o n a l , r e q u i r e up to 12,000 f e e t of runway. The c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r i s that takeoff c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are v a r i a b l e according to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . These i n c l u d e : (1) pressure a l t i t u d e , (2) temperature, (3) wind, (4) runway surface and g r a d i e n t , and (5) load or weight. (1) Pressure A l t i t u d e . As a general r u l e , as e l e v a t i o n increases'so does the runway l e n g t h . This i s because, a t the higher e l e v a t i o n the l e s s dense a i r r e q u i r e s greater v e l o c i t y to produce the same l i f t on an a i r f o i l t hat i s obtained a t sea l e v e l . The c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r f o r t h i s i s given by H o r o n j e f f as 7%, per thousand f e e t . However, G i l f i l l a n found i n h i s study that f o r small a i r c r a f t , i . e . those w i t h a gross weight of l e s s than 12,500 pounds, that the i n -crease i n runway le n g t h requirement was as much as 30% a t 2000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , 85% a t 4000 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , 140% a t 6000 f e e t , and up to 220% a t 8000 f e e t . (2) Temperature. As w i t h pressure a l t i t u d e , the general r u l e i s that as temperature increases so does the runway l e n g t h . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case w i t h t u r b i n e engined a i r c r a f t which experience power reduct-(4) i b i d (5) G i l l f i l l a n , Walter, A i r p l a n e Performance and the Small A i r p o r t , R e p r i n t Number 93, J o u r n a l of the A i r Transport D i v i s i o n , Proceedings of the American S o c i e t y of C i v i l Engineers, 1961, Page 6. 24 ions up to 25%> with'a temperature rise from 40°F to 110°F. To compen-sate for this, runway lengths increase from 5%, to 207» of that required at standard temperature. For small aircraft G i l l f i l l a n found that run-way . length increases up to 20% for a temperature increase from 60oF to 100°F. (3) Surface Winds. Wind has one of three effects on the length of a runway depending on i t s direction relative to the runway and the aircraft i t s e l f . Headwinds reduce either the takeoff or landing dis-tance since they increase the speed of the air over the wing. T a i l -winds have the opposite effect. In the interest of safety, since winds shift both in direction and in velocity more rapidly than does temperature, i t is normal practice for the airc r a f t operator to establish the length of takeoff runway on the basis of one half the wind velocity at 50 feet above ground level. To estimate the increase in landing length required, the calculation is based on a factor of 1.5 times the velocity of the tailwind, also at a height of 50 feet. The degree to which the runway length is actually shortened by a head-wind varies with the type of a i r c r a f t . For example, for a Boeing 707-320 on a standard day at sea level on a level runway and a gross weight of 300,000 pounds, the reduction with a 20 knot headwind is from 10,500 to 7500 feet. A DC-8 under the same conditions with a gross weight of 250,000 pounds is reduced from 8400 to 7650 feet. For small airc r a f t the reductions are from 15 to 257o with a 10 MPH headwind 30 to 40% with a 20 MPH, and 30 to 45% with a 30 MPH head-wind . 25 The t h i r d k i n d of wind, the crosswind has more e f f e c t on runway c o n f i g u r a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n than on l e n g t h . Normally the c h i e f run- • ways are i n the d i r e c t i o n of the p r e v a i l i n g wind so that the o v e r a l l u s a b i l i t y r a t i n g , ( d e f ined as the "percentage of time f o r which at l e a s t one of the runways of an a i r p o r t may be used by the a i r c r a f t which the a i r p o r t i s intended to serve ^ ^ " ) , i s not l e s s than 95. The 1952 U.S. P r e s i d e n t s A i r p o r t Commission however, found that too much emphasis was being placed on t h i s component and t h a t , w i t h the development of h e a v i e r a i r c r a f t w i t h compensating landing gear, a crosswind of 20-30 MPH should represent no decrease i n the s a f e t y f a c t -or. The Department of Transport, f o r design purposes has s t i p u l a t e d that i t should be considered, under normal circumstances, that t a k e o f f s and landings are precluded when.the crosswind component exceeds 20 knots (23 MPH)for design a i r c r a f t from A to G (A being the l a r g e s t ) , 13 knots (15 MPH) f o r design a i r c r a f t H and 10 knots (115 MPH) f o r group J . Runway Surface and Gradient In the e a r l y days, because of the r i g i d undercarriages on the a i r -c r a f t of that e r a , runway surfaces were grassed. Weight was no problem; f r a g i l i t y on the other hand was, and because the l a n d i n g speeds were low the system worked f a i r l y w e l l . Today, small a i r c r a f t are s t i l l q u i t e capable of landings on grassed surfaces and i n f a c t s t i l l do so. But to-days l a r g e a i r c r a f t w i t h gross weights of up to 700,000 pounds are pre-cluded from landings on surfaces which are not capable of supporting (6) Department of Transport, A i r S e r v i c e s Branch, Pavement Design and C o n s t r u c t i o n Manual, S e c t i o n 13, Geometrical C r i t e r i a f o r A i r - p o r t Pavements, (Ottawa: The Department, March 1968) Pg. 8. (7) U.S. P r e s i d e n t s A i r p o r t Commission, The A i r p o r t and i t s Neighbors, (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1952) 26 tremendous loads. As f a r as a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n i s concerned, then the s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y bearing c a p a c i t y and drainage, are of. importance. Gradients are expressed as a percentage and are computed as: G = R i s e x 100 Run In g e n e r a l , f o r s a f e t y reasons, abrupt changes of greater than 1%% f o r any l a r g e a i r p o r t s and 27o f o r secondary ones are avoided since i f they are not, g r a v i t y e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g i n premature takeoff and land-i n g s , p o r p o i s i n g (the bouncing of the a i r c r a f t between the f r o n t and main lan d i n g gear), and poor v i s i b i l i t y are the r e s u l t . For I n t e r n a t i o n a l and Trunk Department of Transport c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , the slope of the f i r s t and l a s t quarters of the runway are not allowed to exceed 0.87o. A i r c r a f t Loads and Weights , The f i n a l component described here w i t h r e s p e c t to runway length i s that of loads and weights of the a i r c r a f t . There are three components of a i r c r a f t gross weight: 1) The dry operating weight of the " a i r c r a f t , which i s a constant. 2) The f u e l supply which i s v a r i a b l e . 3) The cargo load (passengers and goods) which i s a v a r i a b l e . Of the three p o s s i b l e cases, normal l a n d i n g , normal ta k e o f f and engine f a i l u r e t a k e o f f and l a n d i n g , the most demanding one i s u s u a l l y that of engine f a i l u r e during t a k e o f f and therefore i s the one which deter-mines runway l e n g t h . I n t h i s case, allowance i s made f o r the a i r c r a f t to be set down, and come to a h a l t , t h i s distance being r e f e r r e d to as the a c c e l e r a t e - s t o p d i s t a n c e and le a d i n g to a "balanced f i e l d " . Runway C o n f i g u r a t i o n s The c a p a c i t y of a i r p o r t runways, (not to be confused w i t h a i r p o r t c a p a c i t y ) i s described i n terms of movements per period of time w i t h due regard to saf e t y and convenience. Capacity i s a f f e c t e d , ( i n a d d i t i o n to the a i r c r a f t type) by the p r e v a i l i n g operating c o n d i t i o n s of which there are two p o s s i b i l i t i e s , V i s u a l F l i g h t Rules (VFR)and Instrument F l i g h t Rules (IF R ) . There are a v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e runway c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which may be considered. The f i r s t of these i s the S i n g l e Runway, o r i e n t e d i n the d i r e c t i o n of the p r e v a i l i n g wind. I t has a c a p a c i t y of between 45 and 60 movements per hour under VFR c o n d i t i o n s and 20 to 40 per hour under IFR c o n d i t i o n s , depending on a i r c r a f t mix. ' The second c o n f i g u r a t i o n category i s the Hub and Divergent Runway one as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2.2. These may be e i t h e r i n t e r s e c t i n g as i n (a) or (b) or no n - i n t e r -s e c t i n g as i n ( c ) . C a p a c i t i e s depend on the number of runways, the oper a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and the wind c o n d i t i o n s , which can reduce the system to that of a s i n g l e runway.. The t h i r d type, P a r a l l e l Runway l a y o u t s , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2.3 may be e i t h e r unstaggered, as i n (a) or staggered as i n ( b ) . The c h i e f advantage of the staggered arrangement l i e s w i t h shortened t a x i d i s t a n c e s to and from the t e r m i n a l area. The c a p a c i t i e s of t h i s sytem depend on the d i s t a n c e between the c e n t r e l i n e s of the runways, l a r g e l y , 28 and lacking certain technical devices such as radar, can revert to virtu a l l y that of the single runway. The last type considered here is the Circular layout. As the demand for larger runways increases, and with the increases in land costs, the prospect of a circular system as shown in Figure 2.4 looms larger. The immediate advantage of this layout is that i t provides an i n f i n i t e l y long runway without the same requirement for land area, and with less concern about wind direction. It presents, however, much more serious problems with increased restricted and clear-zone require-ments. ' The Total Airport In addition to the runways, there are land requirements of the other components of the airport. This includes such things as the term-inal buildings, maintenance f a c i l i t i e s , car,parks, and certain industries associated with the airport. The location of the terminal buildings (both passenger and cargo) are determined by two principal c r i t e r i a . 1) Loading and unloading of passengers and cargo quickly and conveniently. 2) Short taxi distances for the a i r c r a f t . For comparison purposes, Schriever and Seifert considered two basic types of airport layouts. The f i r s t was the:-"... contemporary radial layout with a l l ac t i v i t i e s centered in a "hub" .... Taxiways emanate from the hub area to the runway area. .. . are generally centralized. Active support a c t i v i t i e s such as maintenance are usually decentralized.(8)» (8) Schriever, Bernard A., and Seifert, William A., Air Transportation 1975 and Beyond, A Problems Approach, Report of the Transportation  Workshop, (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1968) Page 388-89. 29 Figure 2.1  Single Runway Layout Figure 2.2  Hub and Divergent Runway Layouts Figure 2.3 P a r a l l e l Runway Layout Z3 (b) Figure 2.4  Cir c u l a r Runway Layout 30 "The second basic configuration i s the l i n e a r . o r p a r a l l e l o f f s e t design. Here the basic emphasis i s on a process that moves the pay-load from surface to a i r i n the simplest fash-ion along the route with minimum r e c i r c u l a t i o n or backtracking. ( 9 ) " The major problem with the r a d i a l layout i s that i t requires t a x i lengths of up to seven times the length of the runways. A further problem i s that one of the runways i s usually designated the IFR one and t h i s , i n p r a c t i c e , determines the capacity of the a i r p o r t . The p a r a l l e l o f f s e t design lessens the problem of taxi-lane lengths with the r e s u l t i n g decrease i n ground time. One l i m i t a t i o n i s however, that the c e n t r e l i n e s of the runways must be far enough apart (5000' at pre-sent) to comply with the IFR safety requirements. Properly designed, t h i s system allows for r e l a t i v e l y uninterrupted flow from the runway to the terminal area. Terminal b u i l d i n g s at most a i r p o r t s are square, round or t r i a n g u l a r . By employing the p a r a l l e l o f f s e t design, consideration can be given to a long narrow terminal area layout which has the advantage of being able to locate car parks, check-in and loading storage f a c i l i t i e s at more convenient points. Clear Zones A l l a i r p o r t s have a requirement for a s p a t i a l c l e a r zone surround-ing the f a c i l i t y , over which c o n t r o l may be exercised by the Department of Transport. This, i n Canada, takes the form of a i r p o r t zoning. One c l a r i f i c a t i o n of t h i s concept of " a i r p o r t zoning" should be made. The (9) ibid Page 389. 31 term "zoning" i s u s u a l l y thought of as r e l a t i n g to property and c i v i l r i g h t s and i s covered by S e c t i o n 92 of the B.N.A. A c t . As such, i t i s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the provinces and not the Fe d e r a l Government. Although each of the provinces has enabling l e g i s l a t i o n f o r zoning there i s consi d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e g u l a t -i o n s . Zoning, i n i t s o r d i n a r y or " m u n i c i p a l " sense i s not r e t r o a c t i v e s i n c e , i f i t were, the question would be r a i s e d as to whether or not the ordinance c o n s t i t u t e s a t a k i n g of property, i n which case the owner of the property would be e n t i t l e d to compensation f o r the l o s s of use of the land and surrounding a i r s p a c e . This has introduced an unusual prob-lem of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the Aero n a u t i c s A c t which, i n S e c t i o n 4, e n t i t l e s the M i n i s t e r to make r e g u l a t i o n s regarding the h e i g h t , use and l o c a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s , s t r u c t u r e s and o b j e c t s i n the area around the a i r p o r t . But the A c t a l s o a u t h o r i z e s the M i n i s t e r to make compensation f o r the necessary infringement. I n Canada, the a i r p o r t zoning surfaces are defined i n a s i m i l a r way to the U.S. Fe d e r a l A v i a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Department of Transport d e f i n e s them as f o l l o w s : -"4.2.1 Inner H o r i z o n t a l Surface. The inner h o r i z o n t a l surface l i e s on the h o r i z o n t a l plane 150 f e e t above the a i r p o r t s e l e v a t i o n . The h o r i z o n t a l surface i s c i r c u l a r i n shape w i t h a r a d i u s of 13,000 f e e t and centre l o c a t e d above the a i r p o r t reference p o i n t . 4.2.2 C o n i c a l Surface The c o n i c a l surface r i s e s upward and outward w i t h 32 a slope of 5% to the h o r i z o n t a l from the circum-ference of the h o r i z o n t a l surface. 4.2.3 Takeoff Surface The ta k e o f f surface i s ... symmetrical w i t h respect to the extended c e n t r e l i n e of the runway. The ta k e o f f surface o r i g i n a t e s on the ground,at the end of the graded area, and r i s e s w i t h a slope not to exceed that s p e c i f i e d ... . From the i n i t i a l width at the o r i g i n s p e c i f i e d ... the takeoff surface d i v e r -ges a t 12%7P u n t i l i t a t t a i n s a width of 4000 f e e t and t h e r e a f t e r remains a t that width. The t o t a l h o r i z o n t a l l e n g t h of the ta k e o f f surface i s 50,000 f e e t f o r main runways and 40,000 f e e t f o r other run-ways. 4.2.4 Approach Surfaces The approach s u r f a c e s , l i k e the takeoff surface begins a t the end of the graded area and r i s e s a t a r a t e not gre a t e r than that s p e c i f i e d ... . The h o r i z o n t a l length of the approach surface i s 50,000 f e e t f o r instrument approaches and 10,000 f e e t f o r other approaches. For instrument approaches, the slope of the approach surface may be increased u n t i l i t reaches a h e i g h t the greater of (a) 500 f e e t above the t h r e s h o l d e l e v a t i o n , or (b) the h o r i z o n t a l plane passing through the top of any o b j e c t that governs the f i n a l approach minimum a l t i t u d e ; a t which p o i n t 33 the approach surface l e v e l s out and becomes h o r i z o n t a l . 4.2.5 T r a n s i t i o n a l Surface The t r a n s i t i o n a l surface begins along the edge of the approach surface and along the l i n e j o i n -ing the ends of the approach surface a t each run-way and r i s e s w i t h a slope of 14.3% (7:1) to the h o r i z o n t a l u n t i l i t meets the inner h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e . ( 1 0 ) " A t y p i c a l a i r p o r t zoning arrangement i s shown i n F i g u r e 2.5. Atmospheric C o n d i t i o n s Fogj smog, smoke and haze a l l r e s t r i c t v i s i b i l i t y and therefore tend to decrease a i r p o r t c a p a c i t y . These phenomena tend to s e t t l e i n areas where there i s l e s s wind. Wind i s , i n t u r n , a f f e c t e d to some extent by the shape of the l o c a l topography. Thus i n s p i t e of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an area i n g e n e r a l , c e r t a i n topographical combinat-ions can create unique m i c r o c l i m a t e s . As the atmosphere around urban areas becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y ' p o l l u t e d , v i s i o n f o r a i r c r a f t on VFR decreases. I t i s known that the g r e a t e s t a c c i d e n t hazards occur on t a k e o f f s and l a n d i n g s , and w h i l e stacked above the a i r p o r t . These operations take place where a i r p o l l u t i o n i s great-e s t . Increased s e p a r a t i o n , (one short term s o l u t i o n ) however, means that a i r p o r t c a p a c i t y i s f u r t h e r reduced, perhaps even closed to some c l a s s e s of a i r c r a f t . I f t h i s step i s taken, then more s t a c k i n g time i s generated, (10) Department of Transport, A i r S e r v i c e s , Pavement Design and Constuct- i o n Manual, S e c t i o n 13, Geometrical C r i t e r i a f o r A i r p o r t  Pavements, op c i t , Page 11-12. ZON ING S U R F A C E S F O R A MAIN R U N W A Y . F i g u r e 2.5 SOURCE: Department of Transport, A i r S e r v i c e s , Pavement Design and C o n s t r u c t i o n Manual, S e c t i o n 13  Geometrical C r i t e r i a f o r A i r p o r t Pavement (Ottaxoa: DOT, March 1968) Page 26. 35 and more space i s needed. This i n turn adds to the p o l l u t i o n problem. The r e s u l t i s a c i r c u l a r process i n which the short term r e s u l t i s i n c r e a s i n g r i s k i n a i r t r a v e l , i n c r e a s i n g a i r t r a v e l time and the long term prospect i s the i n c r e a s i n g l y p o l l u t e d atmosphere which we cannot a f f o r d i n the community. . ' A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l The t e r m i n a l t r a f f i c c o n t r o l area i s defined by I.A.T.A. as:' "The a i r s p a c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an aerodrome or s e r i e s of aerodromes s e r v i n g a community wherein i t i s necessary to c o n t r o l the flow of a i r t r a f f i c w i t h s u f f i c i e n t p r e c i s i o n as to permit the u t i l i z a t i o n of aerodromes to ; t h e i r u s e f u l c a p a c i t y . ( H ) " Considered from a f a c i l i t y l o c a t i o n p o i n t of view, the concern i s p r i m a r i l y w i t h the e f f e c t s of a given l o c a t i o n on f a c i l i t a t i n g t r a f f i c f l o w s . The problem i s one of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of an e x i s t i n g or proposed l o c a t i o n to those e x t e r n a l uses and f a c i l i t i e s which a f f e c t i t . These are:-1. ) P r o x i m i t y to other a i r p o r t s and airways. 2. ) O b s t r u c t i o n s and communications problems. . To a p p r e c i a t e t h i s f i r s t problem, consider the steps i n v o l v e d i n a normal IFR approach. The b a s i c steps f o r l a n d i n g are:-. 1 ) The a i r c r a f t a r r i v e s a t the terminal area. 2) A i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d i r e c t s the a i r c r a f t to a h o l d i n g f i x where i t f l i e s i n a h o l d i n g p a t t e r n . (11) I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r T r a f f i c A s s o c i a t i o n (IATA), Terminal Area, A Condensed record of d i s c u s s i o n of problems i n the t e r m i n a l area h e l d during the 6th Annual Conference of IATA (Puerto R i c o : A p r i l 1953) General Document #1356, Pg. 27. 36 3) A i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d i r e c t s the a i r c r a f t to proceed to the gate. 4) The a i r c r a f t then proceeds down the common g l i d e path and lands. The important p o i n t i s t h a t t h i s takes both a considerable amount of. time and space, bearing i n mind the separation requirements f o r the a i r c r a f t . Thus, the l o c a t i o n of the f a c i l i t y has to be such that there i s no i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h other a i r p o r t s f i n a l approaches or w i t h e x i s t -ing a i r lanes. A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l con-I cerns e l e c t r i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e . This i s a t i t s most c r i t i c a l stage when a i r c r a f t are operating under IFR. Such a c t i v i t i e s as the t e s t i n g of e l e c t r i c a l equipment are g e n e r a l l y regarded as not compatible w i t h the a i r p o r t since there i s the r i s k of i n t e r f e r e n c e between the a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l l e r and the a i r c r a f t . „• A i r c r a f t Mix Captain Ross C l a r k e , i n speaking to a meeting of the Canadian Owners and P i l o t s A s s o c i a t i o n (COPA) i n Vancouver, sta t e d t h a t : -"The d i f f e r e n c e between commercial and p r i v a t e planes are becoming greater and c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s becoming l e s s and l e s s . (12)" I n c a l l i n g f o r s p e c i a l purpose general a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s , the problems c i t e d were:-1) Smaller planes decrease the l a n d i n g r a t e since the l a r g e j e t s must slow down to' prevent excess-i v e a i r turbulence which can overturn small (12) As quoted i n the Vancouver Sun, December 4, 1969. 37 planes as much as 12 minutes a f t e r a j e t has passed. 2) Congestion of the a i r lanes and other safety hazards caused by small a i r c r a f t f l y i n g w i t h -out f i l i n g f l i g h t p l a n s . 3) Takeoff delays caused by congestion due to the presence of small a i r c r a f t i n the area. A view such as t h i s i s q u i t e t y p i c a l . General a v i a t i o n has been h e a v i l y c r i t i c i z e d as a major source of problems a t l a r g e a i r p o r t s . The Department of Transports answer to the problem has been to estab-lishment of a system of " s a t e l l i t e " a i r p o r t s where congestion becomes too g r e at. Such f a c i l i t i e s are i n use a t P i t t Meadows, near Vancouver, S t . Andrews, near Winnipeg, Toronto I s l a n d , near Toronto, S t . Hubert, near Montreal, and t h i s year Calgary w i l l have a s a t e l l i t e . In the United S t a t e s , the F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n has created a category roughly analogous to the s a t e l l i t e known as a " r e l i e v e r " . There have been a number of other s o l u t i o n s t r i e d or suggested i n the U. S. One method has been to attempt b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s through measures which spread the t r a f f i c flow over a greater p e r i o d of time. The Po r t of New York A u t h o r i t y , i n August 1968 increased the minimum f l i g h t fees a t Kennedy I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , LaGuardia, and Newark during the peak hours i n an e f f o r t to speed the flow. This new minimum fee of $25 per movement a p p l i e s to a i r c r a f t w i t h a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y of l e s s than 25 passengers operating during the per-iods between 8:00 AM and 10:00 AM Monday through F r i d a y and 3:00 PM to 8:00 PM every day. 38 The general a v i a t i o n sector has i t s e l f recognized the existence of the problem a t major a i r p o r t s and acknowledged that p a r t of the problem has been due to the ope r a t i o n of general a v i a t i o n a i r c r a f t . Among the proposals suggested by them have been:-1) The c o n s t r u c t i o n of shorter p a r a l l e l runways a t e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t s f o r e x c l u s i v e general a v i a t i o n use. 2) Separate approach and departure r o u t e s . 3) The improvement of e x i s t i n g s a t e l l i t e a i r p o r t s to permit a l l weather o p e r a t i o n s . Ground Access Problems Landrum and Brown, i n the U. S. found that: -"... a i r p o r t a c c e s s i b i l i t y has a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on the r e a l i z a t i o n of a i r passenger p o t e n t i a l . When schedules are a v a i l a b l e only a t l e s s access-i b l e a i r p o r t s , fewer passengers w i l l be developed than when schedules are o f f e r e d a t a more access-i b l e a i r p o r t . (13)- • , . They a l s o found that " a i r p o r t a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s roughly three times as important to r e s i d e n t s as non-residents. (14)" A i r p o r t access-i b i l i t y i s " e s s e n t i a l to r e a l i z a t i o n of the regions a i r commerce potent-i a l and to the development of s u f f i c i e n t t r a f f i c to make any a i r p o r t f e a s i b l e . 0-5) H C o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t r a v e l time are best made from door to door, since t h i s i s of more concern than a i r time. There are two ways i n which time may be considered. There i s , f i r s t l y , absolute time, that i s , i n (13) Landrum and Brown, " E f f e c t of A c c e s s i b i l i t y of T r a f f i c " i n Port of New York A u t h o r i t y , A Report on A i r p o r t Requirements and S i t e s i n the New Jersey-New York Region, (N.Y.: The Authority,1961)Pg.79 (14) i b i d (15) i b i d 39 hours and minutes. However, a more meaningful approach f o r l o c a t i o n purposes i s to consider ground t r a v e l time i n terms of p r o p o r t i o n of t r a v e l time. Thus, from the users p o i n t of view an estimate of the t o t a l t r a v e l time i s p o s s i b l e . There are a number of other inputs i n t o the question of ground access to the a i r p o r t . The f i r s t of these i s the volume and type of t r a f f i c . This w i l l r u l e i n or out c e r t a i n kinds of a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h r e s p e c t to mode. There are three main c a t e g o r i e s of persons who r e q u i r e access to the a i r p o r t : employees, t r a v e l l e r s and v i s i t o r s and s i g h t -i seers. A second input i s the l o c a l o r i g i n s and d e s t i n a t i o n s of the users of the f a c i l i t y . A i r p o r t employees w i l l i n many cases base t h e i r r e s i d -e n t i a l area s e l e c t i o n p a r t l y on the ease of access to the f a c i l i t y . Un-l e s s the present trend changes, t h i s means that there must be p r o v i s i o n of adequate roads f o r the heavy peak hour t r a f f i c t hat r e s u l t s from the two d a i l y t r i p s that the a i r p o r t employees make. A i r p o r t passengers pre-sent a more complex problem. I t has been shown that the m a j o r i t y of t h i s group have no common o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n . The s i n g l e l a r g e s t category i s the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , but t h i s does not c o n s t i t u t e the major-i t y . V i s i t o r s and s i g h t s e e r s f o r the most p a r t , use p r i v a t e cars and are u s u a l l y lumped i n w i t h employees i n c o n s i d e r i n g access requirements.(1^) The f o l l o w i n g are the major a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e as means of access to the a i r p o r t . (16) See S c h r i e v e r & S e i f e r t , A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1975 and Beyond, op c i t Chapter 6. 40 Private Transportation, p r i m a r i l y automobiles and trucks i s the current means of access to most a i r p o r t s both for people and goods. The advantages are wide di s p e r s i o n , scheduling convenience, f a m i l -i a r i t y and comfort. The major drawbacks are congestion and land requirements both f o r movement and storage. Public Transportation: Taxi and scheduled limousine service have been the usual method of providing, public t r a n s i t to and from the a i r p o r t . Their p r i n c i p a l advantages are f l e x i b i l i t y i n scheduling and routing to meet"changing demands and the avoidance of parking fees f o r the passenger. Buses with t h e i r greater capacity, have the advantage of cost over t a x i and limousine s e r v i c e . They have le s s advantage with regard to frequency of service and convenience of routing. ' • R a i l Service, on the assumption that i t would use convential railway equipment has the advantage of greater capacity. But during off-peak hours i t loses t h i s advantage without being able to appreciably cut costs. A further problem with r a i l service i s that since i t u t i l i z e s i t s own right-of-way,land a c q u i s i t i o n and construction costs are p r o h i b i t i v e and once located i t i s i n f l e x i b l e i n routing. Hence i f or i g i n s and destinations change appreciably or i f they are scattered, there are no means of adjustment short of adding new trackage and f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s however, more r e l i a b l e i n scheduling since i t need not consider other vehicular t r a f f i c . Mono-rails and other forms of rapid t r a n s i t have been used i n some c i t i e s such as Brussels, London and Cleveland. 41 H e l i c o p t e r s , and other forms of v e r t i c a l takeoff and landing a i r -c r a f t , when s u i t a b l y developed,may o f f e r a new dimension to the s o l u t i o n of ground access problem.. I t has not y e t , however, f u l f i l l e d i t s expected r o l e . In the U.S. only New York, Los Angeles, and San F r a n c i s c o have u t i l i z e d t h i s means, w i t h Washington and Baltimore being considered. In most cases, the s e l e c t i o n of h e l i p o r t s i t e s i s much l i k e t h a t of a i r p o r t s i t e s e l e c t i o n . However, there are some unique operating c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or these a i r c r a f t i n an urban area which r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The major problem i s the c r e a t -i o n and maintenance of the r e q u i r e d c l e a r zone i n the he a r t of a con-gested; urban area. O b s t r u c t i o n s would be c l o s e r and the e f f e c t s of a i r p o l l u t i o n , a i r b l a s t and noise are much more severe. CHAPTER I I I THE AIRPORT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO RESIDENTIAL AREAS I n t r o d u c t i o n and Restatement of the Hypothesis In the preceding chapter, the major requirements i n space and land f o r a c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t were considered and o u t l i n e d . I t s purpose, along w i t h Chapter I was to put the problem i n t o i t s proper p e r s p e c t i v e , that i s the requirements that are p a r t and p a r c e l of having t h i s f a c i l i t y a t the d i s p o s a l of the r e s i d e n t s and commerical i n t e r e s t s of the area which i t serves. However, the c r i t e r i a f o r l o c a t i n g t h i s f a c i l i t y do not stop w i t h these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The a i r p o r t has c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t i n h e r e n t l y which might be considered d y s f u n c t i o n a l to proximate r e s i d e n t i a l areas. ' . ' In order to examine t h i s aspect, the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis, as already s t a t e d , was developed: The p r o x i m i t y of a c i v i l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t l y lowers the environmental q u a l i t y of a r e s i d e n t i a l area. O v e r a l l Methodology The remainder of t h i s chapter i s concerned w i t h an examination of the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e which deals w i t h the f i v e c r i t e r i a ( a i r c r a f t n o i s e , a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n and i n d u s t r i e s that are d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v i a t i o n such as maintenance testbeds, non occupant crash hazards, 42 43 ground t r a f f i c and the p r o x i m i t y of i n d u s t r y whose l o c a t i o n i s i n f l u -enced p o s i t i v e l y by the a i r p o r t ) o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I . I t s purpose i s to examine these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s asked, f o r example, whether or not a s i g n i f i c a n t crash hazard e x i s t s f o r those l i v i n g under or near and approach lane to an a i r p o r t . To stop at t h i s p o i n t however, would be to n e g l e c t the most important aspect of the problem, namely the sub-j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s of the r e s i d e n t s who are a f f e c t e d . While i t may be p r e d i c t e d that there w i l l be some e f f e c t s from a i r p o l l u t i o n f o r a l l groups r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r c u l t u r e , the work of Edward T. H a l l and others leads to the c o n c l u s i o n that one can reasonably expect the a t t i t -ude to i t to vary w i t h the group since they may perceive t h e i r r e l a t i o n -ship to t h i s aspect of the a i r p o r t i n a very d i f f e r e n t way. They might not be aware, f o r example, that there i s an a i r p o l l u t i o n problem at a l l , or i f they are, they might rank t h i s lower on t h e i r s c a l e of values than some d e s i r a b l e aspect of t h e i r environment that i s a v a i l a b l e f o r them only near the a i r p o r t . AIRCRAFT NOISE In the e a r l y development of a v i a t i o n , there were few noise prob-lems. Those who were sub j e c t to i t seldom complained because i t was i n f r e q u e n t and not very lou d . "As a matter of f a c t , the a u d i b l e evidence of the a r r i v a l and departure of m a i l and passenger planes was o f t e n a source of l o c a l p r i d e . ( 2 ) " T his i s no longer the case i n todays urban areas where l a r g e numbers (1) See f o r i n s t a n c e , H a l l , Edward T., The S i l e n t Language, (Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Premier, 1959) and H a l l , Edward T., The Hidden  Dimension, (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969) (2) U.S. P r e s i d e n t s A i r p o r t Commission, The A i r p o r t and I t s Neighbors., op c i t , Page 34. 44 of people are affected by the noise o£ aircraft passing overhead. Aircraft noise is the most clearly recognized of a l l the charact-e r i s t i c s which are associated with the airport. This is because i t is a unique noise in the urban context and for those residents who live near a f l i g h t path, one which pervades and invades virtually regardless of the ambient or background noise level. For those who are subject to i t , there is no escape and the control and accessibility of privacy is an i l l u s i o n . Piston engined aircr a f t are noisy, but compared to the sleek, newer and i n f i n i t e l y more powerful and faster jet aircraft, they present relatively few noise problems. The ultimate problem is now about to con-front us in the form of the supersonic aircraft such as the Concorde and the SST which w i l l create, as a byproduct of their increased speed, the constant sonic boom commonly referred to as :"breaking the sound barrier". The noise problem of air c r a f t is a result of a great deal of advancement in certain areas of aircra f t technology which has not been paralled in other areas. As a result of this, much of the advantage of the SST w i l l be lost u n t i l other areas of development catch up. The problem of the effects of aircra f t noise on residential commun-it i e s has been subject to investigation since the Second World War. The results of these investigations, as one might expect in a contentious issue, are not always clear cut and in some cases are conflicting. How-ever, a body of generally accepted data and conclusions has been bu i l t up. 45 Noise: Sonne General C o n s i d e r a t i o n s P h y s i c a l l y , noise has been defined as a complex sound w i t h l i t t l e or no p e r i o d i c i t y . But as Rodda has pointed out, "the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l or a s o c i a l sense are apparent. (^)u I n these senses n o i s e , to q u a l i f y as such, must have a s u b j e c t i v e aspect of u n d e s i r a b i l i t y . Therefore, i t i s best d e f i n e d , f o r the purposes of t h i s a n a l y s i s , as unwanted or annoying sound. Dissonance, or the q u a l i t y of disharmony w i t h a c t i v i t y , may " i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y of a sound being c l a s s i f i e d by the p e r c e p t u a l system as n o i s e . (4)n T t Q O e s n o t , however, c o n s t i t u t e n o i s e . Sound v a r i e s i n three b a s i c p h y s i c a l dimensions: frequency, i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n . Frequency i s measured i n terms of the number of times that a sound wave (which i s p e r i o d i c ) repeats i t s e l f i n a given i n t e r v a l of time and i s u s u a l l y expressed i n terms of c y c l e s per second (c/s or c p s ) . I n t e n s i t y i s expressed as the r a t i o of the power of a given sound to the power a t some a r b i t r a r y l e v e l and i s measured i n dynes per square centimeter. The human ear i s s e n s i t i v e to a wide range of sound pressure l e v e l s . Because of t h i s , a l o g a r i t h m i c s c a l e i s used to compress t h i s r a t i o of 1 x l O ^ 2 to 1 to a s c a l e of 140 to 1, the u n i t of which i s c a l l e d the d e c i b e l (dB) . Because i t i s a l o g a r m i t h i c r a t h e r than a a r i t h e m e t i c r a t i o , a doubling of the sound pressure l e v e l ( i n t e n s i t y ) r e s u l t s i n an increase of lOdB. The human ear i s normally capable of d i s c e r n i n g (3) Rodda, M i c h a e l , Noise and S o c i e t y , (Edinburgh: O l i v e r and Boyd, 1967) Page 2. (4) i b i d Page 3. 46 levels between 0 and 130 dB and frequencies of 20 to 20,000 cycles per second. Because the decibel is a measure of intensity rather than loud-ness, two independent and different sources of noise may have the same decibel rating. If one of these has a predominantly higher frequency range i t may be subjectively more annoying. This fact is of importance because jet aircraft, which are now predominant in large aircraft, tend to develop their sound at higher frequencies than piston driven engines. Hence the two are not directly comparable using only their intensity rat-ing. Although when expressing psychological reactions or assessments i t is usual to equate frequency with, "pitch" and intensity with "loudness" this is, strictly speaking, an error. As Rodda points out: "Although generally speaking pitch increases with increasing frequency, and loudness increases with increased intensity they do so in a different manner. (5)" The "phon" which is defined as the intensity (in dB) of sound at a frequency of 1000 cycles per second is the true measure of loudness. At this frequency,intensity and loudness are equal but at a l l others they are not. Because the phon scale is ordinal (for instance 100 phons is more than twice as loud as 50 phons) the "sone" scale which is interval was developed. For a l l practical purposes, the variation of pitch with intensity can be ignored since i t is much less than the variation of loudness with frequency. (5) ibid Page 4. 47 I n i t i a l l y , sound was measured by three instruments, the frequency component by a frequency analyzer, intensity by a sound level meter, and duration by any system of temporal recording. However, more recent-ly, sound analyzing machines which take frequency into account and which weight intensity for variations in frequency have been developed and present a better basis for measuring loudness than previously. Even with this improvement however, the sound analyzer tends to underestimate im-pulsive noises with a rapid rise and f a l l of intensity. This is of import-ance for a i r c r a f t noises since, with the exception of ground runup noise, the time span of aircr a f t noise is relatively short. Effects of Noise The effects of noise on humans may be classified into three categories:-1) It may have a damaging effect on hearing i f i t is loud enough or long enough. 2) It may interfere with speech communication. 3) I t may be a source of annoyance to the perceiver. Michael Rettinger has classified the damaging effects into four categories:-(1) Physical " i n the sense that a persons hearing becomes damaged when he is prolongedly exposed to sounds of high intensity (6)«. There are essentially two possible effects here. The f i r s t , a temporary threshold shift (TTS) is defined as a "temporary loss of hearing acuity resulting from prior exposure to noise (7 ) " , and varies (6) Rettinger, Michael, Acoustics, (New York: Chemical Publishing Co. 1968) Page 137. (7) Rodda, Noise and Society, op c i t , Page 100. 48 from 0 to approximately 10 dB l a s t i n g f o r a period anywhere from a few minutes to s e v e r a l hours. This i s o f t e n experienced by people a f t e r exposure to a h i g h steady sound pressure l e v e l over a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l hours. The second i s the permanent compensat-ing hearing l o s s which i s , i n f a c t , a form of p a r t i a l deafness i n t h a t the c a p a c i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l to hear the normal range of sound l e v e l s and frequencies i s permanently reduced. There i s a good deal of v a r i a t i o n i n other p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s to high noise l e v e l s but there i s evidence to support the hypothesi that some persons are a l l e r g i c to noise and i n i t s presence e x h i b i t d i l -ated l o c a l blood v e s s e l s , muscle spasms, f a t i g u e , slowed r e a c t i o n time, impaired v i s i o n and even l a c k of b o d i l y balance ( 8 ) " . (2) P h y s i o l o g i c a l whereby sound produces a change i n b o d i l y a c t i v i t y , i t has been shown that the p e r i s t a l t i c motions of the i n t e s t i n e s ( s u c c e s s i v e waves of i n v o l u n t a r y c o n t r a c t i o n s passing along the w a l l s of the i n t e s t i n e ) have been reduced by up to 3TL by noise l e v e l s no higher than 80 dBC. The r e s u l t s of t h i s have noted as i n d i g e s t i o n , s l e e p l e s s n e s s , nervousness and nausea. A f u r t h e r l i n e has been suggested between c a r d i o v a s c u l a r d i s o r d e r s r e s u l t i n g from the narrowing of the lumen i n the blood v e s s e l s which dimin-ishes c a r d i a c output. There i s a l s o evidence to i n d i c a t e a r e l a t -i o n s h i p between high a d r e n o - c o r t i c a l a c t i v i t y (which may be induced by h i g h sound l e v e l s ) and h e a r t d i s e a s e . (8) R e t t i n g e r , A c o u s t i c s , op c i t , Page 100 49 (3) Emotional disturbances have so f a r proven to be impossible to measure since no accurate s c a l e e x i s t s to measure i r r i t a t i o n . There i s however, no doubt that i r r i t a t i o n i s l i n k e d both to noise (by d e f i n i t i o n ) and to emotional d i s t u r b a n c e s . (4) O p e r a t i o n a l i n e f f i c i e n c y and noise have been widely studied i n i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n s . The b a s i c f i n d i n g s are t h a t : -a) i n p r a c t i c e d tasks are more a f f e c t e d than f a m i l i a r ones, but even p r a c t i c e d tasks are i n t e r r u p t e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of sudden and u n f a m i l i a r sounds. b) discontinuous and h i g h frequency sounds produce more marked i n e f f i c i e n c y . c) i n r e a d i n g , the number of pages read may increase i n a given p e r i o d of time but the amount of comprehended m a t e r i a l i s l e s s . In 1963, f o r example, the Wilson Committee on noise recommended the sound pressure l e v e l s f o r v a r y i n g f r e q u e n c i e s , shown i n Table 3.1, f o r steady continuous n o i s e s to be continued f o r more than f i v e hours per day. These l e v e l s , h i g h though they may be, are q u i t e o f t e n exceeded i n c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n s . Table 3.2 shows a range of i n d u s t r i a l noise l e v e l s , and 3.3 i n d i c a t e s t y p i c a l speech communication c r i t e r i a . In c o n s i d e r i n g human r e a c t i o n s to noise there are many f a c t o r s which come i n t o p l a y . S i n c e , as has already been pointed out, the s t r a i g h t d e c i b e l r a t i n g , even when weighted, does not consider the s u b j e c t i v e aspect i n i t s proper l i g h t , attempts have been made to introduce these f a c t o r s i n t o n o i s e l e v e l measurement. Three such i n d i c e s are:-50 TABLE 3.1 RECOMMENDED SAFE LEVEL OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE Mid frequency 63 125 200 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 i n c/s of Octave Band Sound Pressure 103 96 91 87 85 85 81 79 L e v e l , 9dB) Approximate SOURCE: Wilson, S i r A l a n , Committee on the Problem of Noise: F i n a l  Report, (London: HMSO, 1963) Page 125. 51 TABLE 3.2 NOISE LEVELS IN FACTORY SITUATIONS S i t u a t i o n Sound L e v e l ("C" weighting) (dB) Sound L e v e l ("A" weighting (dB) Loudness l) L e v e l (Phons) B o i l e r Works 118 118 127 Metal Powder Works 115 114 125 Metal Saw 110 110 125 P r i n t i n g Works 99 86 109 Wood Pl a n i n g Machine 108 108 . 119 SOURCE: Rodda, M i c h a e l , Noise and S o c i e t y , (Edinburgh: O l i v e r and Boyd, 1967) Page 25. 52 TABLE 3.3 SPEECH COMMUNICATION CRITERIA Re l a t i o n between speech communication c r i t e r i a expressed by speech interference l e v e l s and the communication conditions for a degree of i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y that i s marginal with convential and good with selected vocabulary. SPEECH INTERFERENCE LEVEL IN DECIBELS * VOICE LEVEL NATURE OF POSSIBLE COMMUNICATION 45 55 Normal voice at 10 f e e t Normal voice at 3 f e e t Raised voice at 6 feet Very loud voice at 12 feet Relaxed conversation (private o f f i c e s , con-ference rooms) Continuous communication i n working areas, (business, s e c r e t a r i a l ) 65 Raised voice at 2 feet Very loud voice at 4 f e e t Shouting at 8 feet Intermittant communic-at i o n 75 Very loud voice at 1 foot Shouting at 2-3 feet Minimum communication (danger s i g n a l s , pre-arranged vocabulary desirable) * The SIL of a noise i s the average i n decibels of the sound pressure l e v e l s of the noise i n the three octave bands of frequency 600-1200, 1200-2400, 2400-4800 cycles per second. SOURCE: Pietrasanta, Adone C , and Richard H. B o l t , (Bolt, Beranek and Newman Inc.) Basic Facts About Noise as Related to Av i a t i o n , (Los Angeles, C a l i f . : B o l t , Beranek and Newman, March 3, 1954) Page 16. 53 1) The noise and number index. (NNl) 2) The perceived n o i s e l e v e l i n decibels.(PNdB) 3) The composite noise r a t i n g . (CNR) The noise and number index i s a composite number introduced by B r i t a i n s Wilson Committee on Noise. This number makes allowance f o r the frequency of i n t e r r u p t i o n and peak noise l e v e l s and i s measured on a s c a l e ranging from 0 ( z e r o ) , r e f e r r i n g to no nuisance and 50 to 60, r e f e r r i n g to a very h i g h nuisance l e v e l . P r o f e s s o r E. J . R i c h a r d s , a member of the Wilson Committee r e p o r t s t h a t , "In the Wilson Committee Report, i t was shown that the NNI must be below 35 i n order to keep the nuisance due to noise l e s s than other annoyance. •(•0" Table 3.4 i n d i c a t e s the areas included by v a r i o u s NNI contours and a l s o the percentage of repondents d e c l a r i n g the area "poor" even a f t e r a long p e r i o d of a c c l i m i t i z a t i o n . -"" The perceived noise d e c i b e l l e v e l (PNdb) measures the a c c e p t a b i l i t y or n o i s i n e s s of a i r c r a f t sounds. I t i s a q u a n t i t y " c a l c u l a t e d from measured noise l e v e l s that corresponds w e l l w i t h s u b j e c t i v e responses to v a r i o u s kinds of a i r c r a f t n o i s e s . C n ^ s a r u i e c f thumb, when d e a l -ing w i t h PNdB a doubling or h a l v i n g of the sound l e v e l r e s u l t s i n a ten PNdB d i f f e r e n c e i n the noise l e v e l . An example of the use of t h i s u n i t i s the s t i p u l a t i o n that engine n o i s e a t Heathrow A i r p o r t near London, England, " s h a l l not even under optimum c o n d i t i o n s exceed 110 PNdB. (•*-!)" (9) R i c h a r d s , E.J., Noise Aspects of the Problem" i n S t r a t f o r d , A l a n and A s s o c i a t e s , (ed's) Studies of the S i t e f o r a T h i r d London A i r -p o r t , (Maidenhead, B e r k s h i r e , England: S t r a t f o r d , J u l y 1966)Pg.l05 (10) B o l t , Beranek and Newman, In c . A Study: I n s u l a t i n g Houses from A i r -c r a f t Noise, (Los Angeles: November 1966) Page 16. (11) Rodda, Noise and S o c i e t y , op c i t , Page 20. 54 TABLE 3.4 NNI CONTOURS AND INHABITANTS RESPONSES 7o I n h a b i t a n t s D e c l a r i n g NNI Contour Area Enclosed Area Poor" 25 184 sq. m i l e s 35 35 117 sq. m i l e s 50 45 67 sq. m i l e s 63 55 35 sq. m i l e s * This holds even a f t e r a long p e r i o d of a c c l i m i t i z a t i o n . SOURCE: R i c h a r d , E. J . "Noise Aspects of the Problem", A l a n S t r a t f o r d and A s s o c i a t e s ( e d ' s ) , Studies of the S i t e f o r a T h i r d London  A i r p o r t , (Maidenhead, B e r k s h i r e , England: S t r a t f o r d , J u l y 1966) Page 106. 55 This i s approximately equal to 96 dBA, that i s , 96 dB measured on the "A" weighting s c a l e of a sound l e v e l meter. The composite noise r a t i n g (CNR) i s a c a l c u l a t e d q u a n t i t y s c a l e obtained by adding a l g e b r a i c a l l y the t o t a l of the PNdB and c e r t a i n c o r r -e c t i o n s which take i n t o account other f a c t o r s such as the number of movements, the time of day, and runway u t i l i z a t i o n . A i r c r a f t Noise and the Community The impact of a i r c r a f t noise on the community can be considered i n terms of three components:-1) The source, which i n t h i s case i s l a r g e l y the p r o p e l l o r and/or engine n o i s e . 2) The t r a n s m i t t e r or medium which i s a i r i n t h i s case. 3) The r e c e p t o r , which i s the human ear i n t h i s case. The source has a number of v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g the type of engine, mechanical n oise suppression d e v i c e s , p i l o t technique, and engine power. The medium v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e a i r temperature, turbulence, a i r v e l o c i t y , o b s t a c l e s , topography and d i s t a n c e . The r e c e p t o r , f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l pur-poses can be standardized, since i t i s the human ear i n t h i s case. In a s s e s s i n g the e f f e c t s of noise emanating from a given l o c a t i o n the beginning p o i n t i s the e v a l u a t i o n of the varicus a i r c r a f t types which w i l l be using the f a c i l i t y , and then a p p l y i n g a set of noise contour maps which have been c o r r e c t e d f o r the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . T h i s , when superimposed on a land use map w i l l i n d i c a t e the areas a f f e c t e d by the v a r i o u s noise l e v e l s . 56 Table 3.5 i n d i c a t e s recommended noise l e v e l s f o r v a r i o u s land uses. These l e v e l s , however, should be recognized as maximum noise l e v e l s that w i l l be t o l e r a t e d . They do not represent l e v e l s a t which a c t i v i t i e s are i n t e r f e r r e d w i t h . For example, Table 3.5 suggests 90 PNdB (which corresponds to 80 dBA) as an acceptable e x t e r i o r noise l e v e l . This however, i s w e l l above the maximum speech i n t e r f e r e n c e l e v e l s suggested i n Table 3.3. The a c c e p t a b i l i t y of t h i s l e v e l decreases w i t h the v a r i a b l e s discussed i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. Noise Supression a t the Source A good deal of research has been done by a i r c r a f t manufacturers i n t h i s f i e l d . I t has been found that maximum o v e r a l l sound l e v e l s can be reduced to some extent, g e n e r a l l y l e s s than 20 dB w i t h the use of suppressors. The maximum o v e r a l l sound l e v e l s of a s i n g l e JT 3C-4 engine w i t h suppressors remains high a t 126 dB measured a t maximum RPM, a t 200 f e e t d i s t a n c e , and a t the maximum sound pressure angle of approximately 40° from the j e t exhaust a x i s . Four engined t u r b o j e t a i r c r a f t are s t i l l i n the order of 110 to 120 dB a t 1000 f e e t d i s t a n c e a t the maximum angle of n o i s e . F i g u r e 3.1 shows g r a p h i c a l l y how the r e l a t i v e sound l e v e l s vary according to the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the receptor to the exhaust a x i s . I t i s not expected, that i n the near f u t u r e suppression a t the source w i l l be a major f a c t o r i n noise r e d u c t i o n a t a i r p o r t s . Nor can we expect, on the strength of Richards f i n d i n g s , that the community w i l l a c c l i m a t -i z e to the noise to any degree, although there i s some evidence that t h i s w i l l occur to a small degree. Therefore the remaining choices are e i t h e r soundproofing or s e p a r a t i o n . 57 TABLE 3.5 ACCEPTABLE EXTERIOR NOISE LEVELS FOR VARIOUS ACTIVITIES BASED ON AVERAGE NOISE REDUCTION BY BUILDING Activity Acceptable Interior Noise Level (PNdB) * Acceptable Exterior Noise Level (Without Modification) Acceptable Exterior CNR** with 10 dB extra Noise reduction Industrial . Apparel Printing Food Processing Metal Working Offices Private, one floor Private multi floor General one floor General multi floor 85 80 80 90 50 50 60 60 115 110 110 120 80 85 90 95 125 120 120 130 90 95 100 105 Hotel School Store Residence 60 55 70 60 90 85 100 90 100 95 110 100 Special Uses Concert Hall Theatre Church . Hospital Arena 40 50 45 50 70 * Noise level in PNdB obtained from converting noise levels from dB to PNdB. ** CNR = Composite Noise Rating. SOURCE: Arde Inc. and Town and City Inc., A Study of the Optimum Use of Land Exposed to Aircraft Landing and Takeoff Noise, (Spring-f i e l d , Va.: Nasa Contractor Report Nas 1-3697, March, 1966) Page 77. 58 FIGURE 3.1 RELATIVE OVERALL SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL ZONES FOR A TYPICAL JET ENGINE AT 100% POWER . SOURCE: Peterson, John E., A i r p o r t s for Je t s , (Chicago: Blakely-Oswald Publishing Co., 1959) Page 28. 59 Community Reaction to A i r c r a f t Noise What happens when an a i r p o r t i s located too close to a r e s i d e n t i a l community? There are a number of factors to be considered. They are:-1) The spectrum character of the noise, which includes the over-a l l loudness l e v e l i n PNdB and resonance or v i b r a t i o n which can be e i t h e r magnified or lessened according to the medium and noise b a f f l e s such as b u i l d i n g construction. 2) Peak f a c t o r s , which takes into account whether the noise i s impulsive or continuous. In general, continuous noises are more objectionable. 3) R e p e t i t i v e character of the noise. There are two basic noise s i t u a t i o n s which occur. F i r s t l y , there i s a i r c r a f t f l y over noise. The noise l e v e l changes quite quickly with time and reaches a peak which i s sustained for only a short time. This i s followed by r e l a t i v e l y rapid d i s s i p a t i o n of the noise. The sound waves s t r i k e b u i l d i n g s and so on from d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . Secondly, there i s the s i t u a t i o n which i s encountered during ground runups. In t h i s case the a i r c r a f t i s f i x e d i n r e l a t i o n to the b u i l d i n g and the sound waves s t r i k e the b u i l d i n g from c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s only. Other parts are protected or shielded. The e f f e c t s of topography are also far more pronounced. The noise l e v e l s w i l l vary with the thrust settings and are generally of longer duration than with f l y o v e r noise. 60 4) L e v e l of the background or ambient noise and the type of a c t i v i t y . As has already been s t a t e d , i t i s important to note the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n n o i s e s . This w i l l depend on the type of a c t i v i t y to which a given area i s being devoted. 5) The time of day i s a l s o of importance. In general the noise l e v e l which i s acceptable during the d a y l i g h t hours i s s l i g h t l y higher than that during the n i g h t when r e s i d e n t s are s l e e p i n g . 6) Community a t t i t u d e toward the a i r p o r t . I f those a f f e c t e d by the noise are a i r c r a f t or a i r p o r t employees, there i s a tendency towards l e s s expressed unfavorable r e a c t i o n . In cases where the community i s o r i e n t e d to other i n d u s t r i e s such as d a i r y products or mink ranching, there i s l i a b l e to be a g r e a t e r negative r e a c t i o n to the noise l e v e l s . 7) / P i l o t technique, known as noise abatement procedures have a good d e a l to do w i t h noise l e v e l s during t a k e o f f s and l a n d i n g s . Obviously, a long slow descent or ascent w i l l produce o b j e c t -i o n a b l e noise over a l a r g e r area. Other techniques i n c l u d e t h r u s t s e t t i n g s and i n the case of the SST a d j u s t i n g the speed of the a i r c r a f t to sub-sonic l e v e l s . In s p i t e of the number of v a r i a b l e s described here, there are some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which have been made w i t h regard to acceptable noise l e v e l s i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Table 3.6 i n d i c a t e s the probable responses to v a r i o u s Composite Noise R a t i n g s . The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s that runups of 61 TABLE 3.6 CHART FOR ESTIMATING RESPONSES OF RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES FROM COMPOSITE NOISE RATINGS. Composite Noise R a t i n g Takeoffs Runups & Landings  Zone D e s c r i p t i o n of Expected Response Less than 100 100-115 Greater than 115 Less than 80 80-95 Greater than 95 E s s e n t i a l l y no complaints would be expected. The noise may however, i n t e r f e r e occas-i o n a l l y w i t h c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s I n d i v i d u a l s may complain, perhaps v i g o r o u s l y . Concerted group a c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . I n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n s would l i k e l y i n c l u d e repeated v i g o r -ous complaints. Concerted group a c t i o n might be expected. SOURCE: B o l t , Beranek, and Newman, In c . , A Study: I n s u l a t i n g Houses A g a i n s t A i r c r a f t Noise, Developed Under the t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s program of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, (Los Angeles: F e d e r a l Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , November, 1966) Page 28. 62 l e s s than 80 and tak e o f f l a n d i n g l e v e l s of l e s s than 100 CNR should present no problems. The same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these l e v e l s as sugg-ested e a r l i e r a p p l i e s . The U. S. A i r Force found the r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 3.2 between community response and CNR. The d i f f e r e n c e s are explained i n p a r t by the f a c t that the l a t t e r r e l a t e to continuous sound l e v e l s , r a t h e r than sporadic ones. I t i s suggested that these l e v e l s are more r e a l i s t i c as the bases of standards than those of Tables 3.6 and 3.5. NON-OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS The e x i s t e n c e of non-occupant a i r c r a f t crash hazards to r e s i d e n t -i a l areas has been the subj e c t of concern a t v a r i o u s times i n the past twenty y e a r s . The major a c t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d has been taken i n the U. S.. Gottman s t a t e s t h a t : -" I n 1952 ... there was a s e r i e s of t r a g i c a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g a i r p l a n e s that had taken o f f from Neward A i r p o r t and severe property damage and s e v e r a l deaths r e s u l t e d i n the surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l area, e s p e c i a l l y i n the adjacent c i t y of E l i z a b e t h , N. J . The i n h a b i t a n t s of the area, f e e l i n g t h e i r s a f e t y j e o p a r d i z e d , asked that the a i r p o r t be c l o s e d , and f o r a w h i l e t h i s had to be done. (12)" P a r t l y as a r e s u l t of t h i s , a temporary three man U. S. P r e s i d -ents Commission, c h a i r e d by James A. D o o l i t t l e , was formed to deal w i t h the whole problem of a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n and the mutual p r o t e c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l and a i r p o r t areas. The r e p o r t of the Commission str e s s e d that the "immediate problem i s to f i n d a way to p r o t e c t present a i r p o r t s and the people r e s i d i n g near them by a p p l y i n g some means of c o n t r o l of (12) Gottman, Jean, M e g a l o p o l i s : The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United S t a t e s , (Cambridge, Mass. M.I.T. Press,)Pg. 756 63 FIGURE 3.2 RELATION BETWEEN COMMUNITY RESPONSE AND COMPOSITE NOISE RATING E q u i v a l e n t continuous sound pressure l e v e l s i n 300-600 Cycles per Second Octave plus C o r r e c t i o n (dB) Vigorous. . , Community A c t i o n Threats of, Community A c t i o n Wide- .... spread Complaints S p o r a d i c . . , Complaint No observed R e a c t i o n Noise L e v e l Range of responses that can be expected from communities exposed to n o i s e s of i n c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y . Centre curve i n d i c a t e s average response. SOURCE: U. S. Department of the A i r Force, " A i r c r a f t Noise D i s t u r b -ances", A i r Base Master Planning Manual AFM 86-6, (Washing-ton: Dept. of the A i r Force, February 10, 1959). 64 (13^ ground use i n approach zones. v As a r e s u l t , i n 1961, the requirements f o r the s i t e of the new a i r p o r t f o r New York r e q u i r e d that i t be away from i n h a b i t e d areas and a l s o away from other e x i s t i n g t r a f f i c r o u t e s . The same c r i t e r i a a p p l i e d to the l o c a t i o n of the new Montreal I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . One c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the general consciousness of the p u b l i c w i t h r espect to a i r c r a f t hazards has h i s t o r i c a l l y been the wide coverage given to a i r crashes, and indeed to almost any k i n d of mishap, no matter how s m a l l , i n v o l v i n g a i r c r a f t . For example, the Vancouver Sun reported t h a t : -"A Wardair Boeing 707, on a c h a r t e r f l i g h t to England became stuck i n the mud a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t on Monday n i g h t , and was delayed f o r f i v e hours and f i f t e e n minutes ... (14).-The q u e stion that should be answered here however, i s that of how great the hazard i s f o r the r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g i n areas adjacent to a i r -p o r t s . While there are no f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e f o r Canada or the U.S. per s e : t h a t d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n to t h i s , i t i s known that i n the U.S. i n 1965 there were 5196 general a v i a t i o n a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g 1029 f a t a l i t i e s . While i t i s acknowledged that t h i s i s an alarming number, i t should be noted that most of those who l o s t t h e i r l i v e s were occupants of the a i r -c r a f t . I n the same year there were 49,163 deaths i n v o l v i n g motor v e h i c l e s , 1493 i n v o l v i n g water t r a n s p o r t , and 962 i n v o l v i n g r a i l w a y s during the (13) U.S. P r e s i d e n t s A i r p o r t Commission, The A i r p o r t and I t s Neighbors, op c i t , page 7. (14) As reported i n the Vancouver Sun, December 4, 1969. 65 same p e r i o d . (•^-') In the ten year p e r i o d from 1959-69 l e s s than one percent of the t o t a l number of non-occupant f a t a l i t i e s i n the U.S. (115,248) i n v o l v e d a i r c r a f t . Automobiles and t a x i s accounted f o r 867,, r a i l r o a d passenger t r a i n s f o r 97, and buses f o r 47o. (16) AIRPORT GENERATED GROUND TRAFFIC As the volumes of a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , both people and goods, i n c r e a s e s , i n c r e a s i n g pressure i s put on the ground access system l i n k -i ng the a i r p o r t . Although data w i t h respect to t r a f f i c generation i s l i m i t e d , some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made. Sc h r i e v e r and S e i f e r t reported a study of ter m i n a l p o p u l a t i o n a t Chicago's O'Hare and Midway, D a l l a s / F o r t Worth, N a s h v i l l e and the New York A i r p o r t s i n which the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n was as f o l l o w s A i r passengers 33-567», employees ll-167o, v i s i t o r s , s i g h t s e e r s and shoppe 31-427o, and s e r v i c e s u p p l i e r s 3-77». The T e c h n i c a l Committee on Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , based on a study of 13 major U. S. a i r p o r t s , found that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the a i r p o r t p o p u l a t i o n was as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 3.7. I t was found that the number of d a i l y access t r i p s was d i f f e r e n t from the p o p u l a t i o n however, since many persons use limousine s e r v i c e , share t a x i s and so on. The t o t a l number of d a i l y t r i p s i s 507» g r e a t e r than the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ( r a t h e r (15) U.S. Fe d e r a l A v i a t i o n Agency, F.A.A. S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook of A v i a t i o n , (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , November 1967) Page 228. (16) i b i d (17) S c h r i e v e r and S e i f e r t , A i r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1975 and Beyond, op c i t Page 450. 66 TABLE 3.7 DISTRIBUTION OF AIRPORT POPULATION BY PURPOSE - 1968 . TYPE . PERCENT A i r l i n e passengers 50 V i s i t o r s 30 A i r p o r t employees 20 T o t a l ' 100 SOURCE: Based on data i n Committee on T r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and From A i r p o r t s of the T e c h n i c a l Committee on Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n "Survey of Ground Access Problems at A i r p o r t s " , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Engineering J o u r n a l , Proceedings of the American S o c i e t y of C i v i l Engineers, Volume 95, No. TEI, February 1969, Pages 115-142. 67 than twice as much). Viewed i n t h i s context, a i r l i n e passengers account f o r only 25% of the t r i p s , employees f o r 25%, and v i s i t o r s f o r 50%. The major e x i s t e n t problem occurs when employee-passenger peak loads occur a t the same time. One means of a l l e v i a t i n g t h i s i s to r e l y on mass t r a n s i t . While t h i s trend i s i n c r e a s i n g i n the U.S., i t does not seem to be i n Canada. For example a t the new Montreal I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t a t St.- S c h o l a s t i q u e i t i s estimated that by 1985 only 30% of the 38,000 employees and 10% of the 25,000 d a i l y passengers w i l l use r a i l w a y s . The r e s t of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s p r o j e c t e d to be by highway as has been the past trend. • / From the p o i n t of view of the r e s i d e n t i a l community there are a number of e f f e c t s which are concomitant w i t h increased t r a f f i c volumes i n t h e i r area. ' . There i s , f i r s t of a l l , a r i s e i n the noise l e v e l . In h i s study of urban n o i s e , B e l l found t h a t , based on the data c o l l e c t e d by the Wilson Committee on Noise, the most common source of annoyance from urban noise to the general p u b l i c (as opposed to those l i v i n g near the a i r p o r t ) was that of road t r a f f i c . Of those questioned, 36% reported annoyance • when a t home, and 20% when out of doors. The Wilson Committee i t s e l f r eported that " t r a f f i c i s a t the present,time the predominant source of annoyance ... ( t o the general p u b l i c ) ... and no other s i n g l e source of noise i s of comparable importance. (20) Buchanan concluded that " t r a f f i c n o i s e i s s t e a d i l y developing i n t o a major nuisance.^''")" (18) Department of Transport, Press Release I I , March 27, 1969. Page 3 . (19) B e l l , A., Noise and Occupational Hazard and a P u b l i c Nuisance, (Geneva: World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1966) Page 102. (20) Wilson, Committee on the Problem of Noise: F i n a l Report, op c i t , Pg. 112. (21) Buchanan, C o l i n , T r a f f i c i n Towns. The S p e c i a l l y Shortened E d i t i o n of the Buchanan Report, (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1963) Page 26 . 68 B a r f o r d , i n h i s study of t r a f f i c n o i s e , found that f o r a busy a r t e r i a l s t r e e t , n o i s e l e v e l s v a r i e d from 62 to 65 dBA measured a t curb-side during peak hours. Peak hour volumes ranged from a low of 849 per hour on Thursday between 2:00 and 3:00 FM to a high of 1144 between (2?} 4:00 and 5:00 PM on Saturday. v ' I t has been found i n B r i t a i n that noise l e v e l s tend to become constant a t approximately 72 dBA when 30 (23") MPH road t r a f f i c exceeds approximately 1200 v e h i c l e s per hour. v ' . This might be expected to be s l i g h t l y lower i n Canada due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n the v e h i c l e s themselves. Secondly, there i s increased danger as a r e s u l t of the increases i n t r a f f i c . T h is a p p l i e s e s p e c i a l l y to c h i l d r e n who have to cross s t r e e t s to get to s c h o o l , since they make t h i s t r i p near peak hours, i n the morning and at noon. "As the main roads become congested w i t h t r a f f -i c , d r i v e r s have sought a l t e r n a t e routes using s t r e e t s u n s u i t a b l e f o r the purpose of invading areas which by any standard should have a measure of peace and q u i e t . A t h i r d e f f e c t of increased t r a f f i c i n or even near r e s i d e n t i a l areas i s an increase i n a i r p o l l u t i o n l e v e l s . Fumes emitted by the i n -t e r n a l combusion engine vary from 4-7% of the f u e l consumed. The emm-i s s i o n s c o n t a i n carbon monoxide, a l e t h a l c o l o r l e s s , odorless and t a s t e -l e s s gas and p o l y c y c l i c hydrocarbons which are probably, although the evidence i s not c o n c l u s i v e , connected w i t h c e r t a i n forms of cancer. In sunny weather the oxides of n i t r o g e n emmitted from the v e h i c l e s c o n t r i b -ute to the smog problem, which i n a d d i t i o n to reducing v i s i b i l i t y can (22) B a r f o r d , Jeromy, Environmental T r a f f i c Standards,(Vancouver: Un-published M.A. Thesis i n Community and Regional Planning, May 1968) Page 71-73. (23) Greater London C o u n c i l , T r a f f i c Noise, (London: The C o u n c i l , 1966) (24) Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, op c i t , Page 25. 69 develop as an eye and r e s p i r a t o r y i r r i t a n t . A I R C R A F T A I R P O L L U T I O N A i r P o l l u t i o n : Some General C o n s i d e r a t i o n s Community a i r p o l l u t i o n may be defined as a c o n d i t i o n of the ambient atmosphere that i s due to the presence of substances l i b e r a t e d i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s l a r g e enough to i n t e r f e r e d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y w i t h the comfort, s a f e t y or h e a l t h of l i v i n g organisms. I t i s , as H. C. Wohler has pointed out, "the r e s u l t of the excess use of the atmosphere f o r waste d i s p o s a l purposes combined w i t h c e r t a i n p r e d i s p o s i n g and c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s provided by nature. ( 2 5 ) t i As a l i v i n g c r e a t u r e , mans continued e x i s t e n c e on e a r t h depends, amongst other things on the maintenance of the atmosphere i n a reason-able s t a t e or p u r i t y . H i s t o r i c a l l y there has always been a small degree of n a t u r a l a i r p o l l u t i o n a r i s i n g from v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t y , dust storms, f o r e s t f i r e s and so on but t h i s has never created a l a r g e s c a l e problem. Man-made a i r p o l l u t i o n , as a s o c i a l problem, has i t s r o o t s i n the 14th century w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o a l as a source of heat. The beginnings of i t s i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n date to the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . The major concern f o r r e s i d e n t i a l areas i s w i t h the lower atmos-phere of the ea r t h which extends up some 40,000 f e e t . This band may be d i v i d e d f o r purposes of t h i s a n a l y s i s i n t o two zones, one up to 3500 f e e t below which settlement occurs q u i t e q u i c k l y and a second of 3500 to 40,000 f e e t i n which t h i s occurs p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s and d i s p e r s i o n i s g r e a t e r . (25) Wohler, H.C., A i r P o l l u t a n t s and Their E f f e c t s , (Palo A l t o , C a l i f . S t anford Research I n s t i t u t e , Undated) Page 1. 70 There are two broad classes of air pollutants. The f i r s t is particulate matter consisting of solid and liquid particles ranging in size from large particles greater than 100 microns in diameter to suspended parti-cles of less than 20 microns and aerosols from 1 to 0.01 microns in dia-meter. The large particles tend to gravitate f a i r l y quickly to the earth and constitute the bulk of the material collected as fallout. Secondly, there are gases and vapors including the permanent gases and those sub-stances that have boiling points of less than 200°C. Mans contribution to air pollution is his activity that results in t h e emmission into the air of smoke, spot, f l y ash, cinders, dust, gases, vapors, droplets, fumes and odors. Natures contribution to the processes are certain conditions, the major ones of which are topography which hinders wind, fog, humidity, excessive or inadequate wind, sun-light which catalyzes contaminants, and temperature inversions which pre-vent the aerial escape of contaminants. The effects of air pollution may be categorized as:-1) Reduction in v i s i b i l i t y caused mainly by small (less than 1 micron) particles which scatter light or combine with moisture to produce haze, fog and photochemical smog (which is the end product of the reaction between sunlight and certain organic materials, dxides of nitrogen and ozone.) 2) Soiling caused largely by smoke particles which remain in the air from 1 to 2 days are not easily washed away by rain, and are swept over large areas.by wind. 71 3) H e a l t h hazards which are defined as "measurable impairment of b o d i l y f u n c t i o n , the p r o d u c t i o n of symptoms of a demonstrable e f f e c t on m o r b i d i t y or m o r t a l i t y r a t e s . ( 2 ^ ) " There remains a good deal of controversey over whether there are s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k s between a i r p o l l u t i o n and h e a l t h hazards. However, i n c r e a s -i n g l y the evidence i s that there i s a d e f i n i t e connection. The U. S. Government Studies Centre, using m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s -t i c s found t h a t : -" S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been found between measured concentrations . of i d e n t i f i e d environmental chemicals and m o r t a l i t y r a t e s f o r major c a t e g o r i e s of cancer, c a r d i o - v a s c u l a r d i s e a s e s , v a s c u l a r diseases of the c e n t r a l nervous system (strok e ) and c o n g e n i t a l malformation ( b i r t h d e f e c ts) i n 38 communities of v a r y i n g s i z e . (27)" A i r p o r t s and A i r P o l l u t i o n _ • There are three major sources of a i r p o l l u t i o n a t a i r p o r t s : the i n d u s t r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f a c i l i t y which i n comparison to other i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t because of type of i n d u s t r i e s , ground t r a f f i c , and the a i r c r a f t themselves. Only the t h i r d i s d e a l t • w i t h here. A major source of i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h respect to a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t -i o n has been the U.S. Senate I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the problems of a i r p o l l u t i o n i n g e n e r a l . One of the f i n d i n g s of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s was (26) L e g i s l a t i v e Research C o u n c i l of the Commonwealth of Massechusetts, A i r P o l l u t i o n i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Boston Area, (Boston, Mass.: Mimeo, February 5, 1960) Page 30. (27) U. S. Government St u d i e s Centre, FELS I n s t i t u t e of l o c a l and State Government, U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, A i r P o l l u t i o n Survey  Report, ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa.: Government St u d i e s Centre, June, 1968) Page 94. 72 t h a t " i t i s estimated that one commercial j e t a i r l i n e . , under, f u l l load emits p o l l u t a n t s a t a r a t e e q u i v a l e n t to that of s e v e r a l thousand passenger c a r s . ( ^ ) " A i r P o l l u t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A i r c r a f t D e spite the f a c t that a l l a i r c r a f t emit p o l l u t a n t s i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s during c e r t a i n periods of o p e r a t i o n , there are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between the two b a s i c types of powerplants used, namely p i s t o n d r i v e n and j e t engines. For the same power output, the j e t engine i s g e n e r a l l y " c l e a n e r " w i t h r e s p e c t to o v e r a l l p o l l u t a n t l e v e l s . For example a j e t powered. Boeing 727 emits about an e i g t h the amount of hydrocarbons of a p i s t o n d r i v e r DC-6. Table 3.8 i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e amounts of contaminants from a i r c r a f t operated i n Los Angeles County i n 1964. This i s based on an average of 7692 f l i g h t s per day broken down as shown i n Table 3.9. Table 3.10 i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of contaminants by power p l a n t per f l i g h t which i s , f o r the present purposes, more s i g n i f -i c a n t . The e a r l y d e f i n i t i v e work on j e t a i r c r a f t emmissions was that of R. E. George and P. E. B u r k i n (^9)_ They concluded t h a t , based on the movements of the day, there was l i t t l e danger from j e t s . A more recent (28) U . S. Government, "Statement of Vernon G. MacKenzie, C h i e f , D i v i s -i on of A i r P o l l u t i o n , P u b l i c H e alth S e r v i c e , Department of H e a l t h Education and Welfare, "Clean A i r , Hearings Before a S p e c i a l Sub-committee on A i r and Water, P o l l u t i o n of the Committee on Pub-l i c Works, U.S. Senate, 88th Congress, Second Session, P a r t 2, (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1964) Page 1142 (29) George, R. E. and B u r k i n , P.E. " A i r P o l l u t i o n from Commercial J e t A i r c r a f t i n Los Angeles County", (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l D i s t r i c t , A p r i l 1960) 73 TABLE 3.8 AVERAGE EMMISSION OF CONTAMINANTS FROM AIRCRAFT OPERATED WITHIN LOS ANGELES COUNTY, IN 1964, IN TONS PER DAY Source Organic Gases A e r o s o l s Inorganic Gases Oxides Oxides Carbon Hydro of of Monox- T o t a l s Carbons Other Nitrogen Sulphur ide A A A J A J e t Powered P i s t o n powered T o t a l s (rounded) 3 3 26 29 30 30 n n 10 1 11 11 5 6 n n 11 12 30 33 1 7 8 n n 141 157 175 195 12 12 14 n n 150 170 205 225 J = V a l u e s . f o r J u l y A = Values f o r August n = N e g l i g i b l e SOURCE: U. S. Government, " A i r P o l l u t i o n from A i r c r a f t i n Los Angeles County - A Report of the Engineering D i v i s i o n December, 1965", Hearings Before the Subcommittee on  A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n , of the Committee on P u b l i c . Works, U. S. Senate, 90th Congress, F i r s t S e s s i o n , on problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the C o n t r o l of Automotive Exhaust Emmissions, P a r t I , (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1967) Page 248. 74 TABLE 3.9 AVERAGE NUMBER OF FLIGHTS PER DAY IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY BY TYPE OF POWER USED, IN 1964 Number of F l i g h t s per Day by Type of Power Used T o t a l P i s t o n Powered J e t Powered 4 engine 2 engine 1 engine h e l i c o p t e r J e t Turbo J e t 362 918 5260 414 474 . 264 7692 SOURCE: U. S. Government, " A i r P o l l u t i o n from A i r c r a f t i n Los Angeles County - A Report of the Engineering D i v i s i o n " , Hearings  Before the Subcommittee on A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n of the  Committee on P u b l i c Works, U. S. Senate, 90th Congress, F i r s t S e s s i o n , On problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n t r o l of auto-mobile Exhaust Emmissions, P a r t I , (Washington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1967) Page 248. 75 TABLE 3.10 AVERAGE RATE OF EMMISSIONS OF AIR CONTAMINANTS FROM AIRCRAFT BY POWER PLANT PER FLIGHT FROM AIRCRAFT OPERATED WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF LOS ANGELES COUNTY IN 1964 (POUNDS PER FLIGHT) Type of A i r c r a f t By Source of Power Organic Gases Oxides . Carbon Hydro A e r o s o l s Nitrogen Monoxide TOTAL Carbons Other P i s t o n 4 Engine P i s t o n 2 Engine P i s t o n 1 Engine H e l i c o p t e r J e t Engine 59.9 24.6 1.84 9 .22 7.3 1.1 0.4 0.03 1.4 0.6 0.04 0.16 0.22 2.9 30.9 15.4 6.3 326.3 404.1 133.9 165, 0.48 10.04 12.48 2.38 50.2 62.18 15.6. 32.1 88.6 SOURCE: U. S. Government, " A i r P o l l u t i o n from A i r c r a f t i n Los Angeles County - A r e p o r t of the Engineering D i v i s i o n , December 1965" Hearings Before the Subcommittee on A i r and Water P o l l u t i o n  of the Committee on P u b l i c Works, U. S. Senate 90th Congress, F i r s t S e s s i o n , on Problems A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the C o n t r o l of Automobile Exhaust Emmissions, P a r t I , (Washington: U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1967) Page 248. 76 study i n which R. E. George was involved has revealed that j e t a i r c r a f t emmissions have more than t r i p l e d i n the i n t e r v e n i n g decade. (^u) ^ g i n d i c a t e d i n Table 3.11 motor v e h i c l e s are s t i l l the major source of p o l l u t a n t s but j e t a i r c r a f t emmissions i n the forms of p a r t i c u l a t e s , carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are many times higher than those from power p l a n t s during the wi n t e r months. F u r t h e r , as the authors have pointed out:-" P o t e n t i a l emmission r a t e s f o r any time i n t e r v a l can be much grea t e r than the q u a n t i t i e s r e f l e c t e d i n the d a i l y averages. Peak emmission r a t e s are o f t e n more than twice the average d a i l y r a t e . Average d a i l y emmission r a t e s a l s o do not r e f l e c t seasonal v a r i a t i o n s nor do they account f o r d i u r n a l v a r i a t i o n s which give values a p p r e c i a b l y higher than the average. (31)» But "MacDonald reported i n the September 1962 issue of the J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Meterology ... ( t h a t ) ... p a r t i c u l a t e loadings reported during t a k e o f f s may be too low by a f a c t o r of f i v e . (32).. M u l t i p l y i n g the r e -s u l t s of Tables 3.8 and 3.11 by a f a c t o r of f i v e r a i s e s the problem to one of co n s i d e r a b l y more se r i o u s n e s s . The most v i s i b l e s i g n of a i r p o l l u t i o n from j e t a i r c r a f t i s the production of a vapor or smoke t r a i l . This t r a i l , i n f l u e n c e d by atmos-p h e r i c pressure, temperature, humidity, combustor design, power output, f u e l and the use of water i n j e c t i o n , i s more n o t i c e a b l e during t a k e o f f s and landings when, under f u l l t h r o t t l e , the f u e l flow i s so high that the (30) Geor e, R.W. Verssen, J u l i e n A. and Chass, R bert L., " J e t A i r -c r a f t : A Growing P o l l u t i o n Source", J o u r n a l of the A i r P o l l u t -i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n , 19:11, November 1969, Page 849. (31) i b i d (32) U.S. Government, "Statement of Vernon G. MacKenzie, C h i e f , D i v i s -io n of A i r P o l l u t i o n , P u b l i c Health S e r v i c e , Department of He a l t h , Education and Welfare", Clean A i r , op c i t , Page 1143. 77 TABLE 3.11 COMPARISONS OF AVERAGE DAILY CONTAMINANT EMMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF FUELS BY MOTOR VEHICLES, POWER PLANTS, AND JET AIRCRAFT IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY, IN 1969. Emmission Type Average D a i l y Emmissions, Tons/Day  Motor Power P l a n t s (a) J e t V e h i c l e s Rule 62 Rule 62.1 A i r c r a f t P e r i o d P e r i o d P a r t i c u l a t e s Carbon monoxide Nitrogen Oxides as N0 2 Hydrocarbons Sulphur Oxides as S 0 2 43 9282 624 1677 31 1 neg 135 4 30 neg 145 6 115 11 24 7 61 3 T o t a l s 11657 170 272 106 (a) Rule 62 pe r i o d encompasses seven month calendar p e r i o d from A p r i l 15 to November 15. Rule 62.1 period encompasses remainder of the same calendar year ("winter" months). SOURCE: George, R. E., Verssen J u l i e n A., and Chass, Robert L. " J e t A i r c r a f t : A Growing P o l l u t i o n Source", J o u r n a l of  A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n 19:11, November 1969 Page 849. 78 combustor cannot provide complete combustion of the f u e l . However, even under t h i s c o n d i t i o n the combustor e f f i c i e n c y i s above 987,. A f t e r l e v e l l i n g o f f the e f f i c i e n c y improves to v i r t u a l l y 1007,. Thus the problem i s not l a r g e l y that of improving the e f f i c i e n c y of the power p l a n t combustor, but r a t h e r i t i s an inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the engine that i s the major problem. F u r t h e r , the main concern i s w i t h a l t i t u d e s under 3500 f e e t . This a l t i t u d e i s used as a parameter f o r the mixing h e i g h t below which the atmospheric d i s p e r s i o n of p o l l u t i o n i s inadequate. C o n t r o l of J e t A i r c r a f t Emmissions In January of 1970, because of l e g a l a c t i o n s f o r property damages and v i s i b i l i t y problems a t the a i r p o r t s , the U.S. F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Admin-i s t r a t i o n took steps to f o r c e the a i r l i n e s to c l e a n up the smoke prob-lem i n j e t engines. I n Canada the major a i r l i n e s have stat e d a w i l l i n g -(33) ness to convert t h e i r f l e e t to "smokeless" engines by 1972. There are three b a s i c steps which may be taken to reduce the emmissions i n general from j e t a i r c r a f t . The r e l a t i v e e f f e c t of each i s demonstrated i n Table 3.12. The e f f e c t of f u e l a d d i t i v e s such as the Cl-2 one i l l u s t r a t e d here i s v i r t u a l l y n e g l i g i b l e . A more e f f e c t i v e method i s the use of a new type of f u e l such as JP-4 which i s i l l u s t r a t e d here. The net r e s u l t i s a 58.57, decrease i n t o t a l emmissions. The most e f f e c t i v e o v e r a l l emmission reducing method i s that of the " c l e a n " burner can. Using t h i s method the o v e r a l l emmissions are reduced 75.27,, (33) I n t e r v i e w w i t h W i l l i a m I n g l e s , A i r p o r t Manager, Vancouver I n t e r -n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , January 23, 1970. 79 TABLE 3.12 AVERAGE RATES OF CONTAMINANT EMMISSION PER AVERAGE FLIGHT OVER LOS ANGELES COUNTRY FROM FOUR ENGINED GAS TURBINE AIRCRAFT USING VARIOUS PRATT AND WHITNEY ENGINES IN POUNDS PER FLIGHT - 1969 P r a t t and Whitney A i r Contaminant Emmissions i n Pounds/Average Engine Type F l i g h t / P a r t i c u l a t e Carbon Oxides Hydro Oxides T o t a l Matter Monoxide of Carbons of Rounded Nitrogen and Sulphur as NO2 Organic as Gases S0 o 1) JT3D-3B Turbofan w i t h turbine "A" Fue l 2) JT3D-3B Turbofan w i t h turbine "A" f u e l + C l - a a d d i t i v e 7, D i f f e r e n c e 3) JT8D-1 Turbofan us i n g turbine "A" f u e l 4) JT8D-1 Turbofan using JP-4 f u e l 7o D i f f e r e n c e 5) JT8D-1 Turbofan using t u r b i n e "A" f u e l + new s t y l e " c l e a n " burner cans. % D i f f e r e n c e Between 3 and 5 14.6 50.2 11.3 14.5 50.2 10.9 -0.69 -0.40 -3.54 19.3 , 26.3 12.4 12.3 31.9 12.9 -36.3 +20.9 +4.0 14.9 20.4 17.1 -22.8 -22.4 +37.9 32.2 4.0 112 32.2 4.0 112 +0.31 0 • 0 172.8 4.0 234 37.0 2.8 97 -78.6 -30.0 -58.5 1.1 4.0 58 -99.3 0 -75.2 SOURCE: Compiled from f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d i n George, R. E., Verssen, J u l i e n A., and Chass, Robert L., " J e t A i r c r a f t : A Growing P o l l u t i o n Problem", J o u r n a l of the A i r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c i a t i o n , 19:11, November 1969, pages 854-55. 80 when the o l d e r t u r b i n e "A" f u e l i s used. However t h i s f i g u r e i s given i n pounds per average f l i g h t over Los Angeles County. What the d i s t r i b -u t i o n i s f o r the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the f l i g h t o p e r ation i s not given. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note however, that the major r e d u c t i o n i s i n hydro-carbons and organic gases, and as a r e s u l t there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e -d u c t i o n i n the v i s i b i l i t y of the p o l l u t i o n . On the other hand, an exam-i n a t i o n of Table 3.12 r e v e a l s that the p a r t i c u l a t e matter and carbon monoxide emmissions are reduced l e s s than 25%; oxides of sulphur are not reduced and the production of oxides of n i t r o g e n i s increased by n e a r l y 40%. Thus the use of t h i s new device while i t w i l l be b e n e f i c i a l i n r e -moving a major p a r t of the problem, namely that p a r t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h hydrocarbons and organic gases and w i l l tend to d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n away from the problem since i t w i l l no longer be as v i s i b l e , has not solved the problem to the degree that i s a t f i r s t apparent. Trends The trend i n l a r g e r a i r c r a f t has been to the use of the j e t engines. This by i t s e l f means that there would be a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n the emmissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide w i t h an accompany-ing increase i n a e r o s o l s . However, t h i s by i t s e l f , i s s l i g h t l y m i s l e a d i n g f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , there i s the increase i n the number of general a v i a t i o n a i r -c r a f t movements, the f l e e t of which i s made up l a r g e l y of s i n g l e and twin engined p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t . (34) Of the 5306 p r i v a t e a i r c r a f t i n Canada, 5261 are p i s t o n d r i v e n and 45 are j e t or t u r b o j e t d r i v e n . (34) Department of Transport, General A v i a t i o n 1967-1980, op c i t Table 15, Page 27. 81 The number of general a v i a t i o n a i r c r a f t has increased 12% from 1961 to 1967 (35). t ^ e n u m b e r of hours flown has increased 62% during the same p e r i o d ; and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the number of i t i n e r a n t movements (those which leave the c o n t r o l of the tower) by p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t increased by approximately 907> from 1961-67. (36) -£n a d d i t i o n , l o c a l movements (those which never leave the c o n t r o l tower area) exceeded i t i n e r a n t movements c o n s i s t e n t l y d u r ing that p e r i o d , by a considerable f 37% amount. v ' The Department of Transport has a l s o f o r e c a s t that the t o t a l c i v i l a v i a t i o n f l e e t w i l l i ncrease by 927, between 1967 and 1980 and that the p r i v a t e a v i a t i o n f l e e t w i l l increase by 1087, between the • A (38) same p e r i o d . ' Secondly, as has already been seen, the a l t i t u d e s of most con-cern, c u r r e n t l y , are those under 3500 f e e t . This means that a l l move-ments are of concern to r e s i d e n t i a l areas near the a i r p o r t . A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n i n the Lower Mainland There i s an obvious need f o r some estimate of the amount of a i r -c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i n the major urban centres of Canada, but because of the l a c k of a v a i l a b l e data t h i s has not been done, and u n t i l accurate data i s c o l l e c t e d , r e l i a b l e estimates cannot be made. The data problems are t w o - f o l d . F i r s t l y , the only published data on emmission r a t e s seems to be that i n c l u d e d here i n Tables 3.9 and 3.12. These r a t e s are per average f l i g h t over Los Angeles County. Knowing the area of the county (35) i b i d , Table 4, Page 11. (36) Department of Transport, A i r c r a f t Movement S t a t i s t i c s , Annual Report, 1968, (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1969) Page i x (37) i b i d Page x. (38) Department of Transport, General A v i a t i o n 1967-80, (Ottawa: Queens P r i n t e r , 1969) Page 44-45. 82 does not however, enable one to e s t a b l i s h a r a t e per square u n i t because of the. la r g e d i f f e r e n t i a l i n emmission r a t e s that e x i s t s f o r v a r i o u s p a r t s of each f l i g h t . Thus we are r e s t r i c t e d to e s t i m a t i n g the p o l l u t -i on l e v e l s f o r an area that approximates Los Angeles County i n shape as w e l l as s i z e . The approximate boundaries of Los Angeles County super-imposed on the Lower Mainland area of B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h Los Angeles I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t superimposed approximately where Vancouver I n t e r -n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d on Sea I s l a n d i s shown i n Map 3.1. The second data problem i n v o l v e d was that of o b t a i n i n g the number of movements f o r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and P i t t Meadows a i r p o r t s by va r i o u s types of engine power. The Department of Transport does not d i s t i n g u i s h i n published s t a t i s t i c s between the v a r i o u s types of p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t w i t h respect to t h e i r number of engines. They estimate however, that the number of four engine p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t o p erating i s n e g l i g i b l e , and that the s p l i t between s i n g l e and twin engine p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t i s about 40% and 60%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . For P i t t Meadows i t i s estimated that the s p l i t between s i n g l e and twin engined p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t i s about 20%, and 80%, i n favor of s i n g l e s . Given these f i g u r e s i t was p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h p r o p o r t i o n a l estimates of the amount of emmissions based on the number of movements as reported by the Depart-ment of Transport. Table 3.13 shows the number of movements a t the two a i r p o r t s i n 1968, by type of power. Each f i g u r e i s weighted, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l (39) These estimates are based on i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o f f i c i a l s of the Department of Transport a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , February 24, 1970. / . . . a . v . i l v i .i-i-s-J' Belt. ""V Coolfc V-tiliivan Bay iPoa _ . McNeil v ile" "Ulkllciio" ./t 13 Ha£fnsborff Zeballos o - o o -f. * • • * % •Queens Cove^ji Anahim ° Kingcome 0 - - I n t e l Wilton J Smoom Sound • —-' .o • a -' B a y / ' Glendalo Cove , Loughborough Iiacioffo^ P o ( t Neville Jackson Kelsey B a ^ ' - C Owen \ o S U ) a „ | d V'oGranite"\ oReddnda'Bay . ^ ' - i t " si",i'-rel " i XJ Cove 83 k Chezacut 7. (alia Tatlayoko Lake *&^AIe< ispeek v \ ijanceville i t Big Creeki f&Tj $Kcrsley\ Winjoam.•'Stan ley h '"s,'r,< Keithleyli ' Creek ••.Qticsnel f '-Foiks ; 1 6 Ounster' Cro/dcn SI: ^Alexandria ' ' ., n 'vV,\M a ,Eu e , l t e .. Castle Rocker . Macalister " M w , Creek V"' H o'^Ji\ l.-Plikcly "Hydraulic" J3eaver Lake isetjy^ Miocene Riske I ^iiVSrVfe, i s / i Springhousel 'Alkali Lake Lac ia'H'ach?! loo' I "'"' Gilpin„ WELLS GRAY PROVINCIAL f ^ R o e Lake .'. ...-"Big BarjCreeju£, ,k*--«'Y, - North > % Bonaparte.-10 MiieiJ Clinton, Vi^ Chu Chua.-Pembt 'Ion V MeacowsH "JGold Bridge B r a l o r n ^ Tioneer Lake<: Mine  House Cache Creek Vidette y- Chinook. , Cove Louis Creek1^  t A Criss Creek'" ^ y Mc Lyre Black Pinesv>|r"'- V t "\Hctflcy Creek^[ J pRayteigh Mounr 0>-Lodge 10/Birken 6» ^°Hat P C , e e k J j 1 ifCreekside • Pe|nbertonrt-J« - " \ . ^ 1*1 . X oFoch Lund ^ P o w e l l Rive, S M e i y iv^Bay ichatlit2j _ ^ ' ^ - o ^ g m o n t * < Approximate l o c a t i o n of Vancouver -"V-5,E.a''Cove ; and Los Angeles a i r p o r t s ^ .oLgmonl Brackendale Approximate boundaries of Los Angeles County J< Alta l^rrf-' '. *•. 'GARIBALDI Garibaldif 8B°r,°n Brookniele »V^P™ ••Great - . -Centra^-: Ktldonann Woodfibrer Mc Nab See city map on reverse' side for more detail Bamfield Clo-oose • Neah fctonctll Cassidyji , jLaidlaw Chearn , View .^Rosedale fiwack »,, , . „ UNITED 'STATES ilHaple falls ; N 0 j , T H •Orrri3?* [,"/«. c West , * LAKr > ye Summerlanj T u l a m ' e e n ^ ^ J^^/ Grov' ^Hedlev Coalmont .Sait-Spr iFulford Har. (-- TC-.OV :swa.u'Ba°.V 3ellingh„„ .<,..jt^^<\V-m&~: (\P^> 2 . Port Renfrew r^H" Frida/b L. JI'HJL B a y « ^ S _ F S o o k e > ° V " ' " " ' V l C ' Clallam B a j * ^ . . . . y fo^Alienby v P p e 7 T ° " .mountain \ ~. : v o Keremecs' ,r?,L<.-,r~> s Caws:: . . . l i l e T ' », S i m i 1 ^ c4 WASHINGTON ' N i .£ . JCADESJ Newhalei * V/ickersham SeMit. Beaver^  See city map on reverse side for more detail Porf :tina /@ y o a k Harbor^ . r'-.WhidUey J> I Port ' K \ >,c Burlington iMt. Vernon -Angeles rr°^r^y'< ' W n b a n k la Pushc OIIVMPIC » 'WATtONAL F^ork}'-"' "Arlington ^Marysvil le MAP 3:i :Winthrop O k a MethoTj j£«r.oi.r««j NATIONAL I PARK Kalaloch .f' ' _ f I — • i PARK The shaded area corresponds to the approximate area of Los Angeles County, the area f o r which the estimated a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i s made. 84 TABLE 3.13 ESTIMATED TOTAL AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS BY TYPE OF POWER PLANT 1968 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l P i t t Meadows Grand I t i n e r a n t L o c a l T o t a l I t i n e r a n t L o c a l T o t a l T o t a l P i s t o n 1 Engine 34564 5260 40724 44799 80000 124749 165523 P i s t o n 2 Engine 53195 7870 61065 11200 20000 31200 92265 J e t and Turbojet 39154 5790 44944 16 29 45 44989 H e l i c o p t e r 1917 284 2201 436 779 1215 3416 SOURCE: Compiled f i g u r e s . and estimated from v a r i o u s Department of Transport 85 by 14.8% and P i t t Meadows by 177.5%, to a l l o w f o r the a d d i t i o n a l l o c a l movements. The next step i n the a n a l y s i s was to take these estimates and m u l t i p l y them by George et a l ' s f i g u r e s i n Tables 3.9 and 3.12. Table 3.14 i n d i c a t e s the estimates of a i r c r a f t emmissions f o r the area out-l i n e d i n Map 3.1. I t i s to be emphasized here that t h i s i s an unr e f i n e d estimate of the p o l l u t i o n that o r i g i n a t e s from the a i r c r a f t . The f i g u r e s w i l l change w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the " c l e a n " burner cans on the j e t f l e e t of the major commercial a i r l i n e s . However, i t i s evident that the major c o n t r i b u t o r to a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i s s t i l l the p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r -c r a f t . The c o n c l u s i o n drawn i s t h a t , w i t h the r e s e r v a t i o n s already noted e a r l i e r about the " c l e a n " burner cans, and the f a c t that the p i s t o n d r i v e n a i r c r a f t w i l l remain untouched, i t i s apparent that the problem w i l l not be solved. This,coupled w i t h the p r o b a b i l i t y that we are j u s t on the edge of a very l a r g e expansion of a i r t r a v e l i n a l l s e c t o r s i n -d i c a t e s a f a r more s e r i o u s problem than had been a n t i c i p a t e d . INDUSTRIAL LOCATION The A i r p o r t as A t t r a c t o r I n c r e a s i n g l y the a i r p o r t i s usurping the p o s i t i o n which the r a i l -way s t a t i o n h e l d i n a f f e c t i n g the form of the surrounding area. I t i s a major t r a f f i c generator and i t a t t r a c t s c e r t a i n types of a c t i v i t i e s . I t has, t h e r e f o r e , l a r g e s c a l e , long term land use i m p l i c a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of i t s a t t r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and where proper c o n t r o l s have been l a c k i n g , there has been a r i b b o n i n g e f f e c t i n which i n d u s t r i a l and 86 TABLE 3.14 ESTIMATED AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION IN A PART OF THE LOWER MAINLAND OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, IN TONS, IN 1968 Emmission Type Carbon P a r t i c u l a t e s Monoxide Oxides Hydro of Carbons Oxides Nitrogen & Organic of T o t a l as NQ2 Gases Sulphur (R'ded) P i s t o n 1 engine P i s t o n 2 engine J e t and Turbojet H e l i c o p t e r T o t a l s 18 28 434 .8 482 831 6170 592 86 7679 40 155 - 1038 291 .1152 - 7604 279 3855 9.0 5185 7.2 16 - 110 617 5206 90 13987 SOURCE: Estimated by ap p l y i n g the formula: Tons of P o l l u t a n t = Pounds per Average F l i g h t over Los Angeles County x No. of F l i g h t s from Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and P i t t Meadows i n 1968 / 2000. 87 commercial f i r m s are placed adjacent to access roads to the f a c i l i t y . As would be expected, those e n t e r p r i s e s that are connected w i t h a v i a t i o n d i r e c t l y are those that have the strongest tendency to l o c a t e adjacent to the a i r p o r t . However, these are not the only ones a t t r a c t e d . Northey, i n h i s study of the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n area found the f o l l o w i n g w i t h regard to the l o c a t i o n of n o n - a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y . " i ) wholesale d i s t r i b u t o r s of auto p a r t s , t e x t i l e s and i n d u s t r i a l machinery, and d i s t r i b u t i o n f i r m s were the most f a v o r a b l e to a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n . Manufacturers were g e n e r a l l y unfavorable, i i ) Warehouses would comprise the predominant type of of i n d u s t r i a l use i n a development i n p r o x i m i t y to an a i r p o r t . i i i ) Large f i r m s of n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l scope were the most f a v o r a b l e to the h y p o t h e s i s , i v ) Firms which imported c l o s e to 100% of t h e i r stock tended to be most f a v o r a b l e , v) There i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between present r e g u l a r use of a i r f r e i g h t and a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e r e g u l a r use w i t h d i s p o s i t i o n to l o c a t e at or near the a i r p o r t . Corporate a i r t r a v e l , though of concern i s not a d e f i n i t i v e i n c e n t i v e f o r such l o c a t i o n . ( 4 0 ) " (40) Northey, John L a i r d , The I n f l u e n c e of A i r p o r t s on the L o c a t i o n  of Non-Aviation I n d u s t r y , A Case Study: The Vancouver  M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, Vancouver, B.C., (Vancouver: Unpublished M.A. Thesis i n Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1963) Page i v - v . 8 8 Northeys f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that the impact of the i n d u s t r i a l encroachment on r e s i d e n t i a l areas would be great and should be c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d . I n d u s t r i a l uses such as d i s t r i b u t i o n and warehousing are g e n e r a l l y " c l e a n " and are incompatible w i t h a r e s i d e n t i a l area because of the t r a f f i c a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them, r a t h e r than the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g s themselves. Other i n d u s t r i e s , such as car r e n t a l s , and a i r l i n e s o f f i c e s are g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n the a i r p o r t complex i t s e l f and present few problems, f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l area. There are e s s e n t i a l l y f i v e c r i t e r i a which have been advanced f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y of i n d u s t r i a l uses, r e s i d e n t i a l uses and the a i r p o r t . 1) The p r o p o r t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s which take place i n s i d e the b u i l d i n g s should be h i g h . 2 ) The number of persons i n v o l v e d i n the use should be low. 3) The e x i s t i n g background noise may be h i g h . 4) The f e a s i b i l i t y of ext e n s i v e soundproofing should be h i g h . 5) The a c t i v i t i e s may be d i r e c t l y a l l i e d to the a i r p o r t . But how compatible are these uses w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l ones? I f the p r o p o r t i o n s of a c t i v i t i e s i n s i d e are high t h i s does not negate the problem of t r a f f i c i n c r e a s e s . I f the number of persons i n v o l v e d i n the i n d u s t r y i s low then t h i s problem may be lessened. I f the e x i s t i n g background noise l e v e l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n d u s t r y i s h i g h , then i t i s . imcompatible w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l use. There appears to be two l o g i c a l c h o i c e s : e i t h e r the r e s i d e n t i a l area may be discouraged from the a i r p o r t environs or the i n d u s t r i a l area may be discouraged. T h i s problem i s returned to l a t e r . 89 R e s i d e n t i a l Property Values Walther, i n h i s study of r e s i d e n t i a l r e a l e s t a t e values and a i r -p o r t s , s t a t e d that the presence of an a i r p o r t does not adversely a f f e c t v i c i n a l r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s . H i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based on supporting evidence t h a t : -1) Market behavior, based on 400 market t r a n s a c t i o n s was the same i n a i r p o r t as n o n - a i r p o r t areas. 2) Many residences are constructed i n a i r p o r t areas. 3) The number of houses f o r sale was not higher i n a i r p o r t areas than i n n o n - a i r p o r t areas. -. 4) P r i c e s d i d not decrease s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l i g h t path areas. 5) L o c a l r e a l e s t a t e dealers f e l t that an a i r p o r t was not a value depressant. 6) Maintenance l e v e l and p r i d e of ownership d i d not vary from other comparable areas. (^1) A study by F. W. Osgood on the other hand revealed t h a t : -1) High p r i c e d housing ( $25 ,000 - $50 ,000 ) w i l l have i t s market value depreciated up to 807o i n some cases. 2) Medium p r i c e d housing ( $12 ,000 - $25 ,000 ) may or may not be depreciated depending on the i n t e n s i t y of use of the a i r p o r t and the noise l e v e l s encountered. (41) Walther, H.O., "The E f f e c t of an A i r p o r t on Real E s t a t e Values", P o r t of New York A u t h o r i t y , A Report on A i r p o r t Requirements  i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n New Jersey, New York Area, (New York: The A u t h o r i t y , 1961) 90 3) Low p r i c e d housing ($8,000 - $12,000) w i l l probably be depreciated as a r e s u l t of prox-i m i t y to the a i r p o r t i f the noise l e v e l s are very h i g h . Other f a c t o r s c i t e d by Osgood.as i n f l u e n c i n g the property values were connection w i t h the a i r p o r t by the r e s i d e n t s and the amount of housing on the market. (42) No such study appears to have been done f o r a Canadian c i t y . The r e s u l t s of Walthers study are s u r p r i s i n g since i t i s g e n e r a l l y f e l t that the a i r p o r t i s a value depressant, f o r r e s i d e n t i a l uses. In Van-couver, f o r i n s t a n c e , the Department of Transport, i n an i n t e r v i e w , r e -ported that they o c c a s i o n a l l y r e c e i v e e n q u i r i e s from p r o s p e c t i v e house purchasers as to the l o c a l f l i g h t paths over Vancouver e s p e c i a l l y i n the v i c i n i t y of Sea I s l a n d , where the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d . C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Co r p o r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s f o r N.H.A. mortgages d i s a l l o w loans f o r r e a l e s t a t e l o c a t e d i n a i r p o r t zoned areas. L o c a l r e a l e s t a t e d e a l e r s i n Richmond M u n i c i p a l i t y f e e l s u b j e c t i v e l y that the value of homes i n the B e r k e v i l l e area, l o c a t e d immediately adjadent to the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , are lower than they would be otherwise. F i n a l l y , the r e s i d e n t s of the area f e e l that since the major expansion of the a i r p o r t i n 1963, the value of t h e i r homes, as a r e s u l t of a i r p o r t p r o x i m i t y , has not gone up as q u i c k l y as i n surround-(42) Osgood, Frank W i l l i a m , C o n t r o l and P r o t e c t i o n of Land Uses i n the v i c i n i t y of A i r p o r t s , Unpublished M.C.P. The s i s , (Georgia I n s t i t u t e of Technology), as reported i n McKeever, J . Ross, (ed), The Community B u i l d e r s Handbook, (Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1968) Page 58. 91 ing areas. This evidence, however, fragmentary and subjective seems to cast some doubt on the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Walthers findings to the Vancouver area. CHAPTER IV COMMUNITY REACTION TO THE AIRPORT. A CASE STUDY: VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Introduction The purpose of th i s chapter i s to examine the f i v e character-i s t i c s outlined i n the previous chapter from the point of view of those who are most af f e c t e d by them. Because the data were not a v a i l -able elsewhere, an a t t i t u d e survey of a group of residents l i v i n g adjacent to the Vancouver In t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t was undertaken. The objective of th i s survey was to examine the subjective impact of the f a c i l i t y on those who are af f e c t e d d i r e c t l y by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D e s c r i p t i o n of the Area Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s . l o c a t e d on Sea Island, approximately eight miles from downtown Vancouver. I t s elevation i s given as nine f e e t above sea l e v e l and has an area of approximately 4000 acres. I t contains two 200 foot wide runways, one 11,500 feet long (designated 08-26) and the other 7300 feet long (designated 12-30), (1). I t has ranked t h i r d i n Canada i n terms of i t i n e r a n t movements (2) since 1964, ' and i n 1968 was the twelfth busiest a i r p o r t i n Canada considering a l l types of movements (3)_ (1) Department of Transport, Vancouver International A i r p o r t , General Information, (Vancouver: Mimeo, undated) Page 1. (2) Department of Transport, A i r c r a f t Movement S t a t i s t i c s , A i r p o r t s with A i r T r a f f i c Control Towers, 1968 Annual Report, (Ottawa: Mimeo, 1968) Page v. (3) i b i d Page 5. 92 93 The a i r p o r t , formally opened i n 1931, consisted i n i t i a l l y of a single runway of 2400 f e e t , a small administration b u i l d i n g and two small hangars. Between 1936 and 1938 two hard surfaced, 3000 feet, runways were b u i l t . During World War I I runway extensions, a d d i t i o n a l hangars and other b u i l d i n g s were b u i l t . In 1949 the i n i t i a l a i r p o r t administration b u i l d i n g was destroyed b}' f i r e and was replaced by a temporary structure i n 1950. An add i t i o n to t h i s b u i l d i n g was made in 1952. In 1953 runway 08-26 was b u i l t to replace the old main runway and was equipped with ILS on the west approach. In 1956 the passenger term-i n a l was again expanded and i n the summer of 1957 the west terminal i b u i l d i n g was opened. In 1963 a new crosswind runway (12-30) was opened and A i r Canada's maintenance centre was opened. Further expansion of the passenger terminal was c a r r i e d out i n 1963. In the f a l l of 1968 the present terminal complex and MacConachie Way were o p e n e d . . In 1969 runway 08-26 was lengthened 500 f e e t pn the east to i t s present length of 11,500 fee t ^ , and the new Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s main-tenance centre was opened. U n t i l 1962, excepting the period from August 1940 to October 1947 when because of the Second World War, the f a c i l i t y was under the cont r o l of the Federal Government, Vancouver International A i r p o r t was administered by the c i t y of Vancouver. In 1962, the Department of Transport acquired the c i t y ' s i n t e r e s t i n the f a c i l i t y for $2.75 m i l l i o n (4) Department of Transport, Vancouver International A i r p o r t , General Information, op c i t , Page 2. (5) Interview with William I n g l i s , A i r p o r t Manager, Vancouver Inter-nation a l A i r p o r t , January 23, 1970. 94 and took over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Sea I s l a n d , w i t h an area of approximately 4500 ac r e s , i s the second l a r g e s t of the i s l a n d s that make up the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond. I t l i e s immediately to the south of the C i t y of Vancouver and i s surrounded on the nor t h by the North Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r and on the south by the Middle Arm of the F r a s e r . Access to adjacent L u l u I s l a n d i s by two F e d e r a l Government b u i l t b r i d g e s . The Morey Channel Bridge i s a swing f a c i l i t y and i s closed approximately 30 times per month. By l o c a l agreement t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y a t o f f peak hours ( 6 ) m The new Dinsmore Bridge to the south i s not a swing f a c i l -i t y since l a r g e marine t r a f f i c does not use t h i s channel. The l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of Sea I s l a n d (see Map 4.1) i s owned by the F e d e r a l Government and i s administered by the Department of Trans-p o r t . This area i s bounded by Lands End i n the south, Ferguson Road, MacDonald S t r e e t and Grauer Road i n the nor t h and by M i l l e r Road and a north-south l i n e s e p a r a t i n g the Canadian Forces Married Quarters from the balance of the r e s i d e n t i a l area i n the east . In the northern h a l f of the I s l a n d there i s a small Indian reserve designated I.R.3. The balance of the northern p a r t of the I s l a n d i s zoned as " s m a l l h o l d i n g s " by the M u n i c i p a l i t y and i n c l u d e s a mixture of r e s i d e n t i a l and small farms. The Department of Transport i s p r e s e n t l y buying out these h o l d -ings as they come on the open market since there are plans f o r the expansion of the a i r p o r t . (6) i b i d (7) I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. W. B l a c k l o c k , Real E s t a t e Manager, Department of Transport, October 23, 1969. 98 l o c a t e d at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of M i l l e r and A i r p o r t Roads. This area i s s l a t e d f o r d e m o l i t i o n to make way f o r access to a new bridge connect-ing the I s l a n d w i t h G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i n Vancouver. 1969 A i r T r a f f i c a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t There was a t o t a l of 169,545 a i r c r a f t movements at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i n 1969 i n c l u d i n g 41,466 scheduled a i r l i n e move-merits. No breakdown of these l a t t e r movements by type of power or weight c l a s s was a v a i l a b l e but Department of Transport o f f i c i a l s stated that v i r t u a l l y a l l of these were made by large j e t a i r c r a f t ( 9 ) t Table 4.1 i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of movements by time of day. T o t a l movements between the hours of midnight and 7 AM accounted f o r an aver-age of 12.7 per day or 2.7% of the d a i l y t o t a l s . Scheduled a i r l i n e movements during t h i s p e r i o d averaged 5.9 per day or 2.7%, of the d a i l y t o t a l s . Beginning a t 7 AM the number of t o t a l movements increased r e -v e a l i n g a peak number of 37.1 movements between 4 and. 5 PM and g r a d u a l l y s u b s i d i n g u n t i l midnight. For scheduled a i r l i n e movements the p a t t e r n was l e s s steady. The peak hour was between 12 noon and I PM w i t h lower peaks between 7 and 8 AM, 5 and 6 PM and 9 and 10 PM. Table 4.2 shows the same breakdowns f o r November 196.9, the month during which the survey was done. As i n d i c a t e d , November averaged 29.4% fewer t o t a l movements than the y e a r l y average but only 6.2%, few-er scheduled a i r l i n e movements per day. The peak hour f o r t o t a l move-ments was reached an hour e a r l i e r than the average f o r the year. The (9) I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. A. Sharpe, Operations S e c t i o n , Vancouver I n t e r -n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , March 24, 1970. TABLE 4.1 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT DAILY DISTRIBUTION OF AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS - 1969 TYPE OF MOVEMENTS Scheduled Time of Day T o t a l Movements A i r l i n e Movements No. % No. Per Day No. % No. Per Day .12 - 1 AM 1392 0.8 3.8 708 0.2 1.9 1 - 2 716 0.4 2.0 227 0.1 0.6 2 - 3 280 0.2 0.8 84 0.0 0.2 3 - 4 128 0.1 0.4 56 0.0 0.2 4 - 5 168 0.1 0.5 101 0.0 0.3 5 - 6 480 0.3 1.3 291 0.7 0.8 6 - 7 1407 0.8 3.9 688 1.7 1.9 7 - 8 6251 3.7 17.2 3186 .7.9 8.7 8 - 9 9461 5.6 25.9 2729 6.8 7.5 9 - 1 0 10067 5.9 27.8 2353 5.9 6.4 10 - 11 10183 6.0 27.8 1458 3.6 4.0 11 - 12 Noon 11699 6.9 32.1 2689 6.8 7.4 1 2 - 1 12615 7.4 34.6 3637 8.9 10.0 1 - 2 12241 7.2 33.6 2505 6.2 6.9 2 - 3 13332 7.9 36.5 1948 4.9 5.3 3 - 4 12920 7.6 35.4 1470 3.8 4.0 4 - 5 13564 8.0 37.1 2449 6.4 6.7' 5 - 6 11832 7.0 32.4 2917 7.3 8.0 6 - 7 9606 5.6 26.0 2230 5.6 6.1 7 - 8 7980 4.7 21.8 1485 3.7 4.1 8 - 9 7434 4.4 20.4 1869 4.8 5.1 9 - 1 0 6360 3.7 17.4 2549 6.4 7.0 10 - 11 5716 3.4 15.7 2218 5.5 6.1 11 - 12 3708 2.2 10.2 1919 4.8 5.3 T o t a l 169,545 100.0 464 41,466 100.0 113 SOURCE: Compiled from: Department of Transport, Monthly Report on  A i r c r a f t Movements, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , January - December 1969, (Ottawa: A v i a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s Centre, Mimeo, Monthly). 100 TABLE 4.2 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT DAILY DISTRIBUTION OF AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS NOVEMBER 1969 TYPE OF MOVEMENTS Scheduled Time of Day T o t a l Movements A i r l i n e Movements  No_. % No-Per Day No. % No. Per Day 12 - 1 AM 55 0.6 1.8 50 1.6 1.7 1 - 2 19 0.2 0.6 12 0.4 0.4 2 - 3 4 0.0 0.1 2 0.1 0.1 3 - 4 24 0.2 0.8 7 , 0.2 0.2 4 - 5 5 0.1 0.2 5 0.2 0.2 5 - 6 33 0.3 1.1 31 1.0 1.0 6 - 7 . 49 0.5 1.6 36 1.1 1.2 7 - 8 366 3.7 12.2 247 7.8 8.3 8 - 9 587 6.0 19.6 193 6.1 6.4 9 - 1 0 590 6.0 19.7 152 4.8 5.1 10 - 11 646 6.6 21.6 143 4.4 4.8 11 - 12 Noon 865 8.9 28.8 285 9.0 9.5 1 2 - 1 PM 831 8.5 27.8 , 241 ,7.6 8.0 1 - 2 863 8.8 28.8 188 5.9 6.3 2 - 3 868 8.9 29.0 137 4.3 4.6 3 - 4 906 9.3 30.2 76 2.4 2.5 4 - 5 866 8.8 28.9 153 4.8 5.1 5 - 6 624 6.4 20.8 262 8.2 8.8 6 - 7 357 3.7 11.9 140 4.4 4.7 7 - 8 320 3.3 10.7 142 4.5 4.7 8 - 9 230 2.4 7.7 147 4.6 4.9 9 - 1 0 276 2.8 9.2 206 6.5 6.9 10 - 11 235 2.4 7.8 195 6.1 6.5 11 - 12 156 1.6 5.2 132 4.1 4.4 T o t a l 9775 100.0 326 3182 100.0 106 SOURCE: Compiled from Department of Transport, Monthly Report on  A i r c r a f t Movements, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , November 1969, (Ottawa: A v i a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s Centre, November 1969. ) 101 same i s true f o r the s c h e d u l e d . a i r l i n e movements. The other peaks f o r scheduled a i r l i n e movements are s i m i l a r although s l i g h t l y lower. Survey Methodology and L i m i t a t i o n s ' The choice of B e r k e v i l l e as the area i n which to conduct the survey was based on the f a c t t h a t , of a l l the areas i n the v i c i n i t y of the a i r p o r t , i t was the one that was most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the m a j o r i t y of the f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s considered. The noise l e v e l s are very high w i t h PNdB l e v e l s ranging between 95 and 115 f o r commercial j e t a i r c r a f t . To the west of the area there i s a l s o an open t e s t bed which meant that the area was s u b j e c t to both types of a i r c r a f t n o i s e at frequent i n t e r v a l s . A i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i n B e r k e v i l l e i s h i g h but the impact of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c decreased somewhat by the e x i s t e n c e of the i n d u s t r i a l area i n Marpole j u s t to the n o r t h which c o n t r i b u t e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of v i s i b l e p o l l u t i o n . Crash hazards (although n e g l i g i b l e ) are as h i g h as any area around the a i r p o r t . The l o c a t i o n of a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y adjacent to B e r k e v i l l e i s not a problem because the Department of Transport and the M u n i c i p a l i t y have pursued a p o l i c y of not a l l o w i n g i n d u s t r y to l o c a t e on the i s l a n d except where they are d i r e c t l y a l l i e d w i t h the a i r p o r t , w i t h the exceptions noted e a r l i e r , o f the small area beside the Morey Channel Bridge and a chain saw f a c t o r y i n the a i r p o r t complex. Those a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i e s that are l o c a t e d on Sea I s l a n d are grouped r e l a t i v e l y f a r away from the r e s i d e n t i a l area. With the opening of MacConachie Way and the new t e r m i n a l there i s l e s s t r a f f i c on A i r p o r t Road which had p r e v i o u s l y served the a i r p o r t . 102 This new access road i s l o c a t e d so that t r a f f i c going to the t e r m i n a l area does not pass through B e r k e v i l l e as i t d i d p r e v i o u s l y . The open-ing of the new Dinsmore Bridge connecting Sea I s l a n d and L u l u I s l a n d has f u r t h e r reduced t r a f f i c f o r B e r k e v i l l e . However, A i r p o r t Road i s s t i l l used by many of the more than 6000 employees at the a i r p o r t f o r access to the i n d u s t r i a l area v i a the Morey Channel B r i d g e , and at peak hours the t r a f f i c i s s t i l l heavy. I t was not p o s s i b l e , however, to o b t a i n t r a f f i c data. The use of B e r k e v i l l e ' s i n t e r i o r s t r e e t s as a s h o r t - c u t between A i r p o r t Roa.d and MacConachie Way has been stopped by r e s t r i c t i n g l e f t hand turns a t peak hours. / The most se r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n , w i t h respect to the choice of B e r k e v i l l e as the study area i s that there i s no a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i a l prob-lem. However i t was f e l t t hat i f the r e s i d e n t s perceived t h i s f a c t , i t would be of i n t e r e s t i n e v a l u a t i n g the consistency of t h e i r responses to the other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This would not lead to the c o n c l u s i o n that they would per c e i v e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y to be a problem i f i t were introduced a t some l a t e r date. The same c o n s i d e r a t -ions apply to the t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n i n B e r k e v i l l e . On balance the B e r k e v i l l e area was f e l t to be the best one f o r examining the a t t i t u d e s of the r e s i d e n t s towards the f i v e a i r p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The meth-od of t e s t i n g was that of an administered q u e s t i o n n a i r e . This method i n i t s e l f has a l i m i t a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the t e s t i n g of a t t i t u d e s i n that i t may become d i f f i c u l t i n some cases f o r the i n t e r v i e w e r to spot " s t o c k " responses where the interviewee s t a t e s h i s a t t i t u d e to be that which he f e e l s i s expected of him. On the other hand, t h i s method has the advantage of s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e c o r d i n g the responses and of c o n t r o l l i n g the context i n which the i n t e r v i e w takes p l a c e . 103 A further l i m i t a t i o n , that of the a v a i l a b l e time, dictated that the questionnaire be r e l a t i v e l y short, both to avoid interviewee fatigue and so that a larger sample .'might be obtained. The time l i m i t a t i o n a l s o necessitated foregoing any call-back procedure. The construction of the questionnaire was undertaken with one objective being to l i m i t the number of questions to the a t t i t u d e s to-wards the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under consideration and those socio-economic v a r i a b l e s that were to be c o r r e l a t e d with these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . L i m i t -ing the questions to basic data however, meant that i t would be imposs-i b l e not to ask personal questions near the beginning of the interview. However, because each interview was preceded by a general explanation of the purposes of the survey t h i s was not f e l t to be a serious problem. The i n i t i a l questionnaire was pretested during the f i r s t week of November, 1969 and some minor revisions, were made. A copy of the f i n a l questionnaire and coding guide are shown in Figures 4.1 and 4.2. The questions asked were:-1) Sex . 2) Age group - i f the person was under 15 years of age the interview was not c a r r i e d out, since i t has been previously decided that only those a t t i t u d e s of per-sons more than 15 years of age would be s o l i c i t e d . 3) Occupation group according to the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . A i r p o r t employees were noted separately by the addition of an "A". Date L o c a t i o n 104 FIGURE 4.1 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT QUESTIONAIRRE Person Number Li-Sex Age Group Occup. Group Income Group Type of Tenure Residence Length D w e l l i n g Type What were your reasons f o r i n i t i a l l y moving i n t o the area? (1). V/hat are you reasons f o r s t a y i n g ? (2) Home ownership/occupancy• Close t o work — — f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h area Fa m i l y t i e s — — F r i e n s h i p t i e s — : Close t o community f a c i l i t i e s Other ( s p e c i f y ) ~2~ ur no Importance Anger/ Annoyance Fear/ Worry LOe'Sh1V Apply. Other A i r c r a f t : n o i s e ; i. i i ? h b 6 i j n. i ! • II • 2. A3 i ' i Jr P o l l u t i o n . h from a i r c r a f t b C i 1 .'ash hazards 1 3 k b 6 . J 11 ^Location of ' j I i n d u s t r y j 1 nearby • 1 1 2 -3 h b b ! . 1 • 1 A i r p o r t T r a f f i c - W b 6 Would ypu prefer to l i v e in another area which i s similar, but further away fccm the airport? 1 2 3 h 6 yes no T — ' • ;j : 105 ).-'' • " •; . FIGURE 4.2 Coding Guide Socio-economic Characteristics Sex • Male...1' Female.2 Age Group 1 5 - 1 9 . . .1 20 - 2 ^ . . . 2 55-6V...6 6 5 - 6 9 . . . 7 70*H. . . . . 8 Occupational Group Income group Managerial. ..........1 ' . 0 - 2 9 9 9 . . . v « l Professional/technical.. .. .2 3 0 0 0 - 5 9 9 9 * . .2 Clerical; 3 6 0 0 0 - 9 9 9 9 - .3* Sales.. '..........'+ ,10000+..... .k Service/recreation 5 Transportation/communication.. .6 " •. . " » « » • « * » « »8 o o • « © • V • o 9 ' Craftsmen. ...Labourer...... .. Housewife.. ... Student/pupal. Retired....... Unemployed..... • o • » Tenure' Type Residence Length Dwelling Type '•< . Reaction Types Owned.... .1 0-1 year........1; Single family detached.. 1 :Strong .1 Rented..;..2 1-6 years...... .2 Duplex, tripl e x etc.... .2 Moderate.... .2 •. • •< 6+ years........3 Apartment ....3 .1 . 106 Income group according to the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . Tenure type since i t was f e l t those who own t h e i r houses might be more committed to the area e i t h e r by design or by d e f a u l t than those who r e n t . Length of residence since t h i s was a c e n t r a l i s s u e , w i t h respect to a c c l i m i t i z a t i o n to the area. This question was broken down i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s . a) Less than one year. b) Between one and s i x years i n d i c a t e s that they would have moved there a f t e r the l a s t major expansion of the a i r p o r t i n 1963. c) Greater than s i x years i n d i c a t e s the group that predate the 1963 expansion of the a i r p o r t . D w e l l i n g type. The reasons f o r i n i t i a l l y moving i n t o the area and the reasons f o r s t a y i n g i n the area. This was subdivided i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s . a) Home ownership or occupancy. b) Close to work. c) Family or f r i e n d s h i p t i e s , or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the area. Reactions to the f i v e a i r p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Each person was asked to evaluate h i s own personal f e e l i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t to each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and then to i n d i c -ate which of the f o l l o w i n g was the best d e s c r i p t i o n of the a t t i t u d e . 107 a) I t does not apply here. b) T t i s of no importance. c) Anger or annoyance. d) Fear, worrj' or a n x i e t y . e) Other A combination of c and d would i n d i c a t e that the d a i l y l i v e s of the respondents were a good deal more s t r a i n e d by l i v i n g near to the a i r p o r t . This holds whether or not t h i s i s the case from the p o i n t of view of others not l i v i n g i n the area. 10) The f i n a l q u e s tion asked was whether or not the respondents would, on balance, p r e f e r to l i v e i n another area which would be i d e n t i c a l except f o r the absence of the a i r p o r t . ' . ' Interviews u s i n g the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c a r r i e d out dur-ing the p e r i o d from November 13-16. In an e f f o r t to avoid the b i a s of q u e s t i o n n a i r i n g during the daytime only when c e r t a i n occupational and age groups would be over-represented, the i n t e r v i e w i n g was sched-uled so that a l l times of the day between 9:00 AM and 9:30 PM (except mealtimes) would be covered. Two i n t e r v i e w e r s were used during the evening periods and a weekend was d e l i b e r a t e l y chosen so that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of g e t t i n g whole f a m i l y groups would be i n c r e a s e d . This i s o f f s e t to some extent by the f a c t that a weekend meant that some e n t i r e f a m i l i e s would l i k e l y be away. Since i t was f e l t that no prob-lems of p e r i o d i c i t y e x i s t e d i n the area, a systematic random sampling method was chosen. 108 The sample was s e l e c t e d by a r b i t r a r i l y beginning a t one corner of the area, s e l e c t i n g a number between one and three and beginning w i t h that household. The procedure was to go to each t h i r d house-h o l d . I f there was no response then the household was simply passed up. No attempt was made to c a l l back because of time l i m i t a t i o n s . In t h i s way 79 completed household i n t e r v i e w s were done, two were r e -fused, and 18 were not home, making a t o t a l of 99 households. In t h i s 79 households, 140 persons were interviewed and the a n a l y s i s i s based on t h i s number. The complete address of each address was not c o l l e c t e d since i t was f e l t that t h i s would help to impress on the respondents the f a c t that the i n t e r v i e w s were anonymous, the theory being that they would therefore be more i n c l i n e d to be honestly candid i n t h e i r views. I t was a l s o f e l t t hat the exact l o c a t i o n would be of l i t t l e importance since the area was q u i t e s m a l l . However, i t was f e l t t hat a rough approximation of the l o c a t i o n might f o r some reason be u s e f u l i n the analy-s i s and so the s t r e e t l o c a t i o n was recorded and the path followed during the i n t e r v i e w s was noted. I n t h i s way a rough approximation of the r e s -pondents residence could be made. The i n t e r v i e w i n g technique was to go to the door, e x p l a i n the purpose of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and emphasize that the response would be a b s o l u t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , and that i t was f o r an M.A. Thesis i n Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The o b j e c t here was to get around a problem which came to l i g h t during the p r e t e s t , namely that the i n t e r v i e w s were being 109 c a r r i e d out by the Department of Transport or some other government agency. Emphasis of these p o i n t s l e d away from the e a r l i e r c o n f u s i o n , and i t was f e l t , t o more re l a x e d i n t e r v i e w s . R e s u l t s of the Survey Tables 4.3 to 4.52 i n d i c a t e the r e s u l t s of the survey. An exam-i n a t i o n of these t a b l e s i n d i c a t e d that B e r k e v i l l e , socio-economically can be considered to be a f a i r l y average middle c l a s s area. Of the 140 r e s i d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d s l i g h t l y more than h a l f were female (Table 4.3) With regard to f a m i l y income, about one e i g h t d e c l i n e d to give t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . As shown i n Table 4.4 about h a l f the f a m i l y incomes were between $6000 and $9000 per year w i t h a few under $3000 (4.29%) and r e l a t i v e l y few over $10,000 (9.29%,). The area was 95%, s i n g l e f a m i l y detached d w e l l i n g s (Table 4.6) and about three quarters owner occupied (Table 4.5). The m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n f e l l i n t o two age d i s t r i b -u t i o n c a t e g o r i e s . About h a l f of the p o p u l a t i o n (Table 4.7) was between the ages of 15 and 34 years and about one t h i r d was more than 55 years. This s p l i t may be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t that younger people move to the area to buy a house which i s w i t h i n t h e i r means but tend to become mobile l a t e r on. Whether t h i s was because of the a i r p o r t i n f l u e n c e or r a t h e r a f u n c t i o n of changing economic circumstances, remains to be d e a l t w i t h . The group that was more than 55 years of age were those that became e s t a b l i s h e d i n the area before the 1963 expansion of the a i r p o r t and are not as mobile. This i s r e i n f o r c e d by the f i n d i n g of the survey that about h a l f of the r e s i d e n t s have been i n the area l e s s than s i x years (Table 4.8). 110 The strong importance of home ownership i s shown i n Table 4.9 which i n d i c a t e s that about two t h i r d s of the respondents (63.577,) i n d i c a t e d home ownership as a reason f o r moving to the area. This f a c t o r ranks above a l l others i n c l u d i n g closeness to work (56.857,) and f r i e n d s h i p or fa m i l y t i e s and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the area (33.577.). When asked to s t a t e the reasons why they have remained i n the area (Table 4.10) only about h a l f of the respondents (57.867>) stat e d that home ownership was the reason. Being c l o s e to work remained the same and f r i e n d s h i p , f a m i l y and f a m i l i a r i t y rose to (57.867,) an increase of n e a r l y 257,. Table 4.11 shows the occupation d i s t r i b u t i o n of the sample. About one e i g h t h (12.87,) of the respondents were a i r p o r t workers. Those i n the same occupation groups but not employed a t the a i r p o r t represent about h a l f of the p o p u l a t i o n . Housewives are s l i g h t l y overrepresehted a t 37.27, of the p o p u l a t i o n . I f housewives, students, unemployed, and r e t i r e d persons are removed from the occupational c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s the wage earning labor f o r c e i s b e t t e r represented. As i n d i c a t e d by Table 4.12 about one t h i r d of t h i s group are a i r p o r t workers. Reactions to the F i v e A i r p o r t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n order to f a c i l i t a t e the a n a l y s i s of the a t t i t u d e s to the f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the f o l l o w i n g n o t a t i o n has been adopted: 1) "does not apply" means that the respondents a t t i t u d e was that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was not a p p l i c a b l e to B e r k e v i l l e . I l l TABLE 4.3 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 SEX OF RESPONDENTS No. %__ Male 65 46.43 Female 75 53.57 T o t a l 140 100.00 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 112 TABLE 4 . 4 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 FAMILY INCOME OF RESPONDENTS (ANNUAL) No. % No response 17 12.14 Less than $3000 6 4.29 $3000 - $5999 32 22.86 $6000 - $9999 . 72 51.43 More than $10,000 13 9.29 T o t a l 140 100.00 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 113 TABLE 4.5 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 TYPE OF TENURE OF RESPONDENTS No. % Owned 108 77.14 Rented 32 22.86 Total 140 100.00 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 114 TABLE 4.6 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 TYPE OF DWELLING UNIT OF RESPONDENTS No. % S i n g l e Family detached 133 95.00 Duplex 7 5.00 T o t a l . 140 100.00 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 115 TABLE 4.7 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 AGE OF RESPONDENTS No. % 15 - 19 13 9.29 2 0 - 2 4 9 6.43 2 5 - 3 4 44 31.43 35 - 44 16 11.43 45 - 54 16 11.43 5 5 - 6 4 21 15.00 6 5 - 6 9 7 5.00 70+ 14 10.00 Total 140 100.00 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 116 TABLE 4.8 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 LENGTH OF RESIDENCE OF RESPONDENTS No. % Less than 1 year 32 22.86 1 - 6 years 44 31.43 More than 6 years 64 45.71 T o t a l 140 100.00 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 117 TABLE 4.9 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 RESPONDENTS REASONS FOR MOVING TO BERKEVILLE Yes 7o No % T o t a l T o t a l % Home ownership or occupancy 89 63.57 51 36.43 140 100.00 Close to work 79 56.43 61 43.57 140 100.00 Family and f r i e n d s h i p t i e s 47 33.57 93 66.43 140 100.00 or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the area SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 118 TABLE 4.10 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 RESPONDENTS REASONS FOR STAYING IN BERKEVILLE Yes % No % T o t a l 7, Home ownership or 81 57.86 59 42.12 140 100.00 occupancy Close to work 81 57.86 59 42.14 140 100.00 Family or f r i e n d s h i p t i e s 81 57.86 59 42.14 140 100.00 or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h area SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 119 TABLE 4.11 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS No. A i r p o r t Employees * S i m i l a r occupations,not employed a t a i r p o r t Housewives A l l Others ** 18 39 52 •31 12.84 27.83 37.18 22.14 T o t a l 140 100.00 * Includes A i r p o r t I n d u s t r i a l area employees. ** Includes students, r e t i r e d , unemployed, managerial, and craftsmen. SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 120 TABLE 4.12 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 WAGE EARNING OCCUPATIONS OF RESPONDENTS No. % _ A i r p o r t Employees * 18 30.00 Non-airport Employees ** 42 70.00 T o t a l 60 100.00 * Includes a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i a l area employees. ** Includes a l l o t h e r s , excludes housewives, students, unemployed and r e t i r e d . SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 121 2) "no importance" means that the respondents indicated that they did not f e e l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to be important to them. 3) "annoyance" means that the respondent indicated anger or annoyance. 4) " f e a r " means that the respondent indicated fear, worry or anxiety. 5) No persons f e l l i nto the "other" category. AIRCRAFT NOISE Table 4 . 1 3 shows the responses of the B e r k e v i l l e residents to the f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . With respect to noise, about h a l f of the respondents indicated "annoyance". S l i g h t l y l e s s than h a l f indicated that they f e l t that a i r c r a f t noise was of "no importance". The other two reactions, those of " f e a r " and "does not apply" accounted for le s s than 37c, of the t o t a l response. When sex was co r r e l a t e d with noise i t was found that about 147o more females than males reported "annoyance". Conversely, 147, more males than females reported t h i s factor to be of "no importance", (Table 4 . 1 4 ) . "Annoyance" reactions were found to vary inversely with family income (Table 4 . 1 5 ) ranging from a high of more than four f i f t h s for the lowest income group, to a low of about 407, for those i n the income group of more than $10 ,000 per year. Those reporting "no importance" re a c t i o n varied d i r e c t l y with income reaching a high i n the $10 ,000 category of 61.547 0 . The v a r i a t i o n by tenure type was consid-erably l e s s . Those who owned the i r homes were about 97, higher i n the "annoyance" category at 52.787, than those who rented (Table 4 . 1 6 ) . 122 The v a r i a t i o n by residence l e n g t h i s even l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t . The only d i f f e r e n c e being that long term r e s i d e n t s ( i . e . those who had been i n the area more than s i x years) expressed "annoyance", about 87, l e s s than those who had been i n the area f o r l e s s than one year (Table 4 . 1 7 ) . Table 4 .18 shows the v a r i a t i o n of noise r e a c t i o n w i t h occupation. The important f i n d i n g s of t h i s t a b u l a t i o n are that a i r p o r t workers r e p o r t e d "no importance" 78.87> of the time as opposed to 38.47, of n o n - a i r p o r t workers i n the same occupation c a t e g o r i e s . The "annoyance" r e a c t i o n was expressed most o f t e n by housewives (63.57=,), next by n o n - a i r p o r t workers whose jobs were i n the same c a t e g o r i e s as a i r p o r t workers (56.47.) and lowest by the a i r p o r t workers. Age g e n e r a l l y r e v e a l s l i t t l e w i t h respect to d i f f e r e n t i a l r e a c t i o n s to n oise (Table 4 . 1 9 ) . I t was found that the age group of 15-19 years had the l e a s t number of ."annoyance" responses. The only other age group that diverges from the average p a t t e r n was the 65-69 one i n which 85.717, r e p o r t e d "annoyance" and none reported i t to be of "no importance". However, no c o n s i s t e n t trend i s i n d i c a t e d . The r e a c t i o n of B e r k e v i l l e to n oise i s v i r t u a l l y s p l i t between "no importance" and "annoyance". The key to t h i s seems to l i e i n occupation. As was expected, the a i r p o r t workers were the l e a s t "annoyed" group i n B e r k e v i l l e . The f i n d i n g that "annoyance" decreased w i t h i n c r e a s i n g income i s e x p l a i n e d , at l e a s t i n p a r t , by the f a c t that the a i r p o r t workers have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f a m i l y incomes. Table 4 .20 shows the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s of the f a m i l y incomes of a i r p o r t workers from B e r k e v i l l e as a whole. They are over-represented i n the t h i r d and f o u r t h groups by 217o and 127, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and under-represent-123 ed i n the two lowest groups by 47, and 17% r e s p e c t i v e l y . This d i f f e r e n t i a l , coupled w i t h the a i r p o r t workers strong tendency to und e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the "annoyance" category e x p l a i n the income "annoyance" f i n d i n g . The f i n d i n g t h a t females were only 97, higher i n the "annoyance" category i s not e x p l a i n a b l e by the a i r p o r t workers. I f i t were, then i t would be expected that housewives considered as a group (Table 4.18) would be lower than females considered as a group (Table 4.14) since the i n f l u e n c e by a i r p o r t workers on the wives would be more i n evidence i n t h i s group r a t h e r than the female group as a whole. This i s not the case; 57.33% of females expressed "annoyance" and 63.507, of housewives expressed the same, an increase of 6.17%. The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t must be drawn then i s that i t i s occupation which i s the l a r g e s t i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n a t t i t u d e s towards n o i s e . The .remainder of the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be ranked i n order of decreasing importance i n determining a t t i t u d e s towards n o i s e . 1. Occupation 2. Income 3. Sex 4. Age 5. Tenure 6. Length of residence 124 TABLE 4.13 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 RESPONDENTS ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT CHARACTERISTICS A t t i t u d e A i r p o r t Does No C h a r a c t e r i s - Not Apply Importance Annoyance Fear t i c No % No % No % No % A i r c r a f t Noise 3 2.14 65 46.43 71 50.71 1 0.71 A i r c r a f t a i r 1 0.71 99 70.71 23 16.43 17 12.14 p o l l u t i o n Non-occupant 2 1.43 103 73.57 0 0.00 35 25.00 crash hazard A i r p o r t indust- 4 2.86 119 85.00 15 10.71 2 1.43 ry A i r p o r t t r a f f i c 86 61.43 28 20.00 21 15.00 5 • 3.57 Yes No T o t a l No. 7o No. % No. 7„ L i k e to move 41 29.29 99 70.71 140 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.14 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY . (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969. ATTITUDE TO AIRCRAFT NOISE BY SEX SEX Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No % No 7o No % No % No • % Male 2 3.08 35 53.85 28 43.08 0 0 .00 65 46.43 Female 1 1.33. 30 40.00 43 57.33 1 1 .33 75 54.57 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.15 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT NOISE BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME INCOME Does not Apply No Importance Annoy ance Fear Total No No 7. No 7. No % No % • No response <.; 0 0 6 35.29 11 64.71 0 0 17 100 Less than $3000 0 0 1 16.67 5 83.33 0 0 6 100 $3000 - $5999 0 . 0 14 43.75 18 56.25 0 0 32 100 $6000 - $9999 3 4.17 36 50.00 32 ' 44.44 1 1.39 72 100 $10,000 + 0 0 8 61.54 5 38.46 0 0 13 100 SOURCE : ORIGINAL.. SURVEY TABLE 4.16 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT NOISE BY TYPE OF TENURE TYPF. OF TENURE Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear Total No 7o No % No % No • % No • 7. Owned 2 1.85 48 44.44 57 52.78 1 0.93 108 100 Rented 1 3.13 17 53.13 14 43.75 0 0 32 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.17 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT NOISE BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE LENGTH OF RF.STDF.NP.F. Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7, No % No •% No % No % Less than 1 year 1 3.13 43.75 17 53.13 0 0 32 100 1 - 6 years 0 0 19 43.18 25 56.82 0 0 44 100 More than 6 years 2 3.13 32 50.00 29 . 45.31 1 1.56 64- 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL ..SURVEY TABLE 4.18 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDE TO AIRCRAFT NOISE BY OCCUPATION OCCUPATION Does not Apply Im No portance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No No % . No No No A i r p o r t Employees 0 0 14 77.8 4 72.2 0 0 18 100 Same group, not employed a t a i r - • p o r t 2 5.2 15 38.4 22 56.4 0 0 39 100 Housewives 1 1.9 17 32.7 33 63.5 .1 1.9 52 100 A l l others 0 0 19 61.2 . 12 38.8 0 0 31 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY T A B L E 4.20 V A N C O U V E R I N T E R N A T I O N A L A I R P O R T S U R V E Y ( B E R K E V I L L E ) NOVEMBER 1969 A T T I T U D E T O A I R C R A F T N O I S E B Y A G E AGF. Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear Total No % No 7. No % No % No ' % - 19 0 0 9 69.23 4 30.77 0 0 13 100 20 - 24 0 0 4 44.44 5 55.56 0 0 9 100 25 - 34 1 2.27 19 43.18 24 59.55 0 0 44 100 35 - 44 0 0 8 50.00 8 50.00 0 0 16 100 45 - 54 0 0 7 43.75 9 56.25 o • 0 16 100 55 - 64 . 2 9.52 10 47.62 9 42.86 0 0 21 100 65 - 69 0 0 0 0 6 85.71 1 14.29 7 100 70 + 0 0 8 57.14 6 42.86 0 0 14 100 S O U R C E : O R I G I N A L . . SURVEY 131 TABLE 4.20 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ANNUAL FAMILY INCOMES OF AIRPORT WORKERS AND THE BALANCE OF BERKEVILLE (PER CENT) Income Group A i r p o r t Workers Balance of B e r k e v i l l e No response Under $3000 $3000-5900 $6000-9999 $10,000 + 0 0 5.56 72.23 22.21 12.24 4.29 22.86 51.43 9.29 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 132 AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION Table 4.13 shows the general a t t i t u d e s of B e r k e v i l l e towards a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n . As shown i n Table 4.21 the a t t i t u d e does not vary w i t h sex. As w i t h the r e a c t i o n to noise the r e l a t i o n between "annoyance" and a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y w i t h income. (Table 4.22). However t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p does not hold w i t h the " f e a r " r e a c t i o n . Renters g e n e r a l l y f e l t more o f t e n that a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n was of "no importance" than homeowners, but t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s not great, (5.5%), (Table 4.23). On the other hand, n e a r l y one f i f t h (18.52%) of the owners were "annoyed" w h i l e about one tenth (9.38%.) of the r e n t e r s reacted w i t h "annoyance". There was no d i f f e r e n c e by tenure w i t h respect to the " f e a r " category. When a t t i t u d e s to a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n were s t r a t i f i e d by l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e , "no importance" and "annoyance" c a t e g o r i e s were found to vary d i r e c t l y as l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e . "Fear" r e a c t i o n s were found to vary i n v e r s e l y w i t h residence l e n g t h , (Table 4.24). The most pronounced d i v i s i o n was between those who had been i n B e r k e v i l l e f o r l e s s than one year and those who had been there between one and s i x years, i . e . new r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t e d more " f e a r " of a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n and l e s s "annoyance". They a l s o tended to answer l e s s o f t e n that i t was of "no importance". A t t i t u d e s towards a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n when s t r a t i f i e d by occup-a t i o n showed a much l e s s marked r e l a t i o n s h i p than i n the case of n o i s e , (Table 4.25). However, a i r p o r t workers again showed a strong tendency to-wards a r e a c t i o n of "no importance" (77.8%,). 133 Those i n the same occupations but not employed a t the a i r p o r t showed the lowest tendency towards t h i s r e a c t i o n , (66.7%). Comparing a t t i t u d e s to t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c by age groups showed that "annoyance" was c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e s t i n the age groups between 45 and 70 years, (Table 4.26) and i n the youngest group. "Fear" r e a c t i o n s were a l l i n the bracket between 20 and 54 y e a r s . Those over 70 years of age showed the g r e a t e s t tendency towards the "no importance" a t t i t u d e . The most concerned groups are between 45 and 54 years which had 43.75%, s p l i t between " f e a r " and"annoyance". The a t t i t u d e s towards a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n were l e s s c l e a r cut than those towards n o i s e . The i n f l u e n c e of occupation and income i s l e s s pronounced than w i t h noise w h i l e age and length of residence show more pronounced d i f f e r e n c e s . Tenure and sex seem to be the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t o r s . The r a n k i n g of the v a r i a b l e s w i t h r espect to d i f f e r e n c e s from the mean f o r a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : -1) Occupation. 2) Length of r e s i d e n c e . 3) Income. 4) Age. 5) Tenure. 6) Sex. NON-OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS There has never been a non-occupant f a t a l i t y a t Vancouver I n t e r -n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , and compared w i t h other types of hazards, a i r c r a f t (9) I n t erview w i t h W i l l i a m I n g l i s , A i r p o r t Manager, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n -a l A i r p o r t , January 23, 1970. TABLE 4.21 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY SEX SF.X Does < not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear Total No % No 7, No. % No 7o No 7 Male 1 1.54 46 70.77 10 15.38 8 12.31 65 100 Female 0 0 53 70.67 13 17.33 9 12.00 75 100 br1 OJ 4> SOURCE: ORIGINAL .SURVEY TABLE 4.22 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME TNnOMF. Does not Apply-No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7= No 7 , No 7 . No • . 7o No % No response 0 0 14 82.35 2 11.76 1 5.88 17 100 Less than $3000 0 0 4 66.67 2 33.33 0 0 6 100 $3000 - $5999 0 0 20 62.50 9 28.13 3 9.38 32 100 $6000 - $999 1 1.39 52 72.22 8 11.11 11 15.28 72 100 $10,000 + 0 0 9 69.23 2 15.38 2 15.38 . 13 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4 . 2 3 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY ( B E R K E V I L L E ) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT A I R POLLUTION BY TYPE OF TENURE TYPE OF TF.NTTKF. Does n o t Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No No No 7o No No Owned R e n t e d 0 0 75 6 9 . 4 4 20 1 8 . 5 2 13 1 3 . 1 3 24 7 5 . 0 0 3 9 . 3 8 4 1 2 . 0 4 108 100 1 2 . 5 0 32 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.24 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE LENGTH OF BF.fi TTW.Nf.F. Does no^t Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l . No % No % No . % No % No % Less than 1 year 1 3.13 19 59.38 2 6.25 10 31 .25 32 100 1 - 6 years 0 0 31 70.45 8 18.18 5 11 .36 44 100 More than 6 years 0 0 49 76.56 13 20.31 2 3 .13 64 • 100 SOURCE : ORIGINAL.. SURVEY TABLE 4.25 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY . (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY OCCUPATION OCCUPATION Does r not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7. No No 7. • No 7o No 7.' A i r p o r t employees 0 0 14 77.8 2 11.1 2 11.1 18 100 Same group not employed at a i r -p o r t 1 2.6 26 66.7 5 12.8 7 17.9 39 100 Housewives 0 0 36 69.2 9 17.3 7 13.5 52 100 A l l others . 0 0 23 74.2 7 22.6 1 3.2 31 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL .SURVEY TABLE 4.26 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (3ERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRCRAFT AIR POLLUTION BY AGE • No AfiF. Does not Apply Importance Annoyance Fear Total No % No % No % No % No %_ 15 - 19 0 0 10 76.92 3 23.08 0 0 13 100 20 - 24 0 0 6 66.67 1 11.11 2 22.22 9 100 2 5 - 3 4 1 2.27 29 65.91 5 11.36 9 20.45 44 100 3 5 - 4 4 0 0 11 68.75 2 12.50 3 18.75 16 100 45 - 54 0 0 9 56.25 4 25.00 3 18.75 16 100 5.5 - 64 0 0 16 76.19 5 23.81 0 0 21 100 65"- 69 0 0 5 71.43 2 28.57 0 0 7 '. 100 70 + 0 0 3 92.86 1 7.14 0 0 14 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 140 hazards are s m a l l . Yet about one quarter of the B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s expressed " f e a r " of crash hazards, (Table 4 . 1 3 ) . When s t r a t i f i e d accord-ing to sex, (Table 4 . 27 ) i t was found that females tended to answer " f e a r " about 97, more o f t e n than males. . Reactions to crash hazards by income showed that those w i t h the h i g h e s t f a m i l y incomes ($10,000+ per y e a r ) , were the l e a s t l i k e l y to r e p l y "no importance" (38.467o) and the most l i k e -l y to describe t h e i r a t t i t u d e as " f e a r " , (61.547,) . (Table 4 . 2 8 ) . Those w i t h f a m i l y incomes of $ 3 ,000 to $6 ,000 per year showed the l e a s t tendency to i n d i c a t e " f e a r " of crash hazards. Those i n the lowest income group ( l e s s than $3 ,000 ) were the only group who stated that crash hazards ,"does not apply" to B e r k e v i l l e , (16.677, ) . Homeowners, (Table 4 . 29 ) showed a marked tendency towards the "no importance" r e a c t i o n and r e n t e r s towards the " f e a r " category (43 .757 . ) . V a r i a t i o n w i t h l e n g t h of residence showed a f a i r l y strong tendency towards "no importance" a t t i t u d e s as l e n g t h of residence i n c r e a s e d , (Table 4 . 3 0 ) . As i n the previous two cases, the a i r p o r t workers were h i g h e s t i n the "no importance" category, (88.97») (Table 4 . 3 1 ) , while those i n the same occup-a t i o n s but not employed at the a i r p o r t were the lowest a t 64.07,. The i n -fluence of occupation on a t t i t u d e was once again of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance. Housewives, the group that spend the most time i n B e r k e v i l l e , showed the second h i g h e s t " f e a r " a t t i t u d e a t 30.87,. Two age groups had about h a l f of the respondents i n d i c a t i n g " f e a r " r e a c t i o n s , (Table 4 . 3 2 ) . Those between the ages of 20 and 24 years (55.567,) and those between the ages of 25 and 34 years (43.757, ) . The general trend was to an a t t i t u d e of "no importance" as age i n c r e a s e d . 141 U n l i k e the other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s covered i n the survey., r e a c t i o n s to crash hazards showed most of the socio-economic v a r i a b l e s to be of importance i n a t t i t u d e c o r r e l a t i o n s . Therefore i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to rank them. However, on balance the appropriate ranking i n regards to crash hazards appears to be as f o l l o w s : -1) Occupation. 2) Length of r e s i d e n c e . 3) Income. 4) Tenure. . 5) Age. ( 6) Sex. LOCATION OF AIRPORT INDUSTRY As has already been pointed out, B e r k e v i l l e has not s u f f e r e d any encroachment by a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y because of the p o l i c y of the Department of Transport. I n the case of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t these i n -d u s t r i e s are l o c a t e d i n a group to the south of the new t e r m i n a l . I t woul be p r e d i c t e d t h e r e f o r e that the a t t i t u d e s to t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c should f a l l l a r g e l y i n the "no importance" category. Table 4.13 bears out t h i s p r e d i c t i o n . S u r p r i s i n g l y , however, a tenth of the r e s i d e n t s expressed "annoyance" a t having these i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t e d where they were. Sex, as shown i n Table 4.33 was of no s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a t t i t u d e d i f f erences.. The h i g h e s t and lowest income groups were unanimous i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e of "no importance". The h i g h e s t "annoyance" a t t i t u d e response came from the income group between $6,000 and $9,999, (Table 4.34). S t r a t i f i c a t i o n by tenure, (Table 4.35) showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h respect to a t t i t u d e s towards the l o c a t i o n of a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y . TABLE 4.27 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDE TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARD BY SEX SEX Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7, No 7» No 7, No % No % Male 1 1.54 '51 78.46 0 0 13 20 .00 65 100 Female 1 1.33 52 69.33 0 0 22 29 .33 75 100 V SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.28 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) . NOVEMBER 1969. ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME INCOMF. Does not Apply No Imp or tance Annoy ance Fear Total No % No % No • % No 7, No •% No response 0 0 14 82.35 0 0 3 17.65 17 100 Less than $3000 1 16.67 . 4 66.67 0 0 1 16.67 6 100 $3000 - $5999 0 0 28 87.50 0 0 4 12.50 32 100 $6000 - $9999 1 1^39 52 72.22 0 0 19 76.39 72 100 $10,000 + 0 0 5 38.40 0 0 8 : 61.54 13 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.29 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY . (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS BY TYPE OF TENURE TYPE OF TFNTTRF. Does not Apply • . No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7o No % No 7 , No 7 Nb 7 , Owned 0 0 87 80.56 0 0 21 19 .44 108 100 Rented 2 6.25 . 16 50.00 0 0 14 43 .75 32 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.30 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (3ERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE LENGTH OF RF.fi TTIF. WPP Does not Apply No Importance Annoy ance Fear T o t a l No % No % No % No % No .% • Less than 1 year 2 6.25 16 50.00 0 0 14 43 .75 32 100 1 - 6 years 0 0 32 72.73 0 0 12 27 .27 44 100 More than 6 years 0 0 55 85.94 0 0 9 14 .06 64 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TA3LE 4.31 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARDS BY OCCUPATION OCCUPATION Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance • Fear T o t a l No % No % No No % No % A i r p o r t employees 0 0 16 88.9 0 0 2 11.1 18 100 Same group not employed at a i r p o r t 1 2.7 25 64.0 0 . 0 13 33.0 39 100 Housewives 1 1.9 35 67.3 0 0 16 30.8 52 100 1 A l l others 0 0 27 87.3 0 0 4 12.7 31 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.32 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO NON OCCUPANT CRASH HAZARD BY AGE ACE Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7, No 7= No 7, No No • % 1 5 - 1 9 0 0 '.9 69.23 0 0 4 30.77 13 100 20 - 24 0 0 . 4 44.44 0 0 5 55.56 9 100 2 5 - 3 4 2 4.55 30 68.18 0 0 12 27 .27 44 100 35 - 44 0 0 9 56.25 0 0 7 43.75 16 100 4 5 - 5 4 0 0 13 81.25 0 0 3 18.75 16 100 55 - 64 0 0 18 85.71 0 0 3 14.29 21 100 6 5 - 6 9 0 0 6 85.71 0 0 1 14.29 7 100 70 + 0 0 14 100 0 0 0 0 . 4 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 148 Length of residence (Table 4 . 36 ) showed some d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t -i t u d e . Those who had been i n B e r k e v i l l e l e s s than one year showed the strongest tendency towards "annoyance", (21.887>) . Those who had l i v e d there more than s i x years, ( s i n c e the expansion of the a i r p o r t i n 1963) were n e a r l y unanimous i n the a t t i t u d e of "no importance". Because of the predominance of "no importance" a t t i t u d e s , occupat-ion does not show the u s u a l d i f f e r e n c e of a i r p o r t workers from other oc c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , (Table 4 . 3 7 ) . They are, i n f a c t , s l i g h t l y under-represented a t 83 .47c Those i n the same c a t e g o r i e s , but not employed a t the a i r p o r t showed the h i g h e s t tendency towards "annoyance", (18.07>) w i t h a i r p o r t workers second a t 1 1 . 1 % and housewives t h i r d a t 9.67>. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of "annoyance" a t t i t u d e s by age (Table 4 . 38 ) shows two groups higher than 207°, those between the ages of 20 and 24 years ( 22 .22%) and those i n the 25 to 34 age groups. The other important s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d e was that of "no importance". Four age groups showed more than 907» of t h e i r response to a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y to be i n t h i s category, the youngest (15 - 19 y e a r s ) , the o l d e s t (70+ years) and the two groups between 35 and 54 y e a r s . The survey f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t to a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y tend to strengthen the o v e r a l l c o n s i s t e n c y of the a t t i t u d e s . For the f i r s t time, however, i t was found that occupation was n o t ; t h e most important v a r i a b l e i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e . The ranking of the socio-economic character-i s t i c s i n regards to the l o c a t i o n of i n d u s t r y a t the a i r p o r t i s as f o l l o w s : 1) Length of r e s i d e n c e . 2) Age. 149 3) Occupation. 4) Income. 5) Tenure. 6) Sex. AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC In r ecent y e a r s , B e r k e v i l l e has had a d e c l i n i n g t r a f f i c problem stremming from the a i r p o r t use. This has been due to three main f a c t o r s , f i r s t l y the opening of the new t e r m i n a l i n 1968 changed access from the a i r p o r t to the new four,! lane Grant MacConachie Way. This road does not pass through the community, as does the A i r p o r t Road. Secondly, w i t h the opening of the new Dinsmore B r i d g e , much of the t r a f f i c that has the i n -d u s t r i a l area as i t s o r i g i n or d e s t i n a t i o n i s now d i v e r t e d across t h i s new f a c i l i t y and no longer uses the p a r t of the A i r p o r t Road that passes through B e r k e v i l l e . T h i r d l y , the e x c l u s i o n of l e f t - h a n d turns on the A i r p o r t Road during peak hours has ended the problem of using B e r k e v i l l e s t r e e t s as a s h o r t - c u t between the A i r p o r t Road and Grant MacConachie Way. As a r e s u l t of these three f a c t o r s i t would be p r e d i c t e d that the major p o r t i o n of the a t t i t u d e s would be i n the "does not apply" category. The f a c t that only about two t h i r d s of them do so i s explained by the f a c t that the A i r p o r t Road s t i l l has heavy t r a f f i c flows a t peak hours (Table 4.13). Perhaps most s u r p r i s i n g i s the expression that only 3.577, of the r e s i d e n t s expressed " f e a r " to the t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n w h i l e 15.007, expressed "annoyance". Table 4.39 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a t t i t u d e s by sex. There are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . D i s t r i b u t i o n by income groups showed that the h i g h e s t income group ($10,000+ per year) and the lowest group TABLE 4.33 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY -BY SEX SEX Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No °L No 7o No 7, No % No 7o Male 2 3.08 55 84.62 7 10.77 1 1.54 65 100 Female 2 2.67. 64 85.33 8 10.67 1 1.33 75 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TA3LE 4.34 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME INCOME Does not Apply Imp No ortance Annoyance Fear • T o t a l No % No 7. No 7. No No 7, No response 0 0 15 88.24 2 11.76 0 0 17 . 100 Less than $3000 0 0 . 6 100.00 0 0 0 0 6. 100 $3000 - $5999 2 6.25 27 84.38 3 9.38 0 .0 32 100 $6000 - $9999 2 2.78 58 80.56 10 13.89 .2 2.78 72 100 $10,000 + 0 0 13 100.00 0 0 0 0 13 100 SOURCE:. ORIGINAL SURVEY •y UNIVERSITY E N D O W M E N T LANDS \mmmi s M i i | l i l i p I i ] i i i i | r p « P C i t y of Vancouver EjISJBS^ jdLf--. L_I. Ill Course >\Slli£S!jU& A 'I ! I B " " " A I N"'D" B e r k e v i l l e Vanco wvc^v International 'Golf Conn 1* 32 .A « i w r—I 1 k. i . 1 • i y 1 I 1 D Pi . — i - -36 /' Race Track \ Abandoned),,, rans/ormcn ess s % Radio .°0°<a> ° o O^O OTotecrs L "IP*" •'Garry [ I •:.:::;.:j:.,.V.7.-ii:c.«ni.™»s>^ [ p Ricfi!inq5ifj|! (S-.jf-rfc JC. :LJ:.Js i: -j : l i h - J Lit M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond \ j l\VouchvaTits' \l. • - f | :|'Vj ;],..•; 3 | . p ^ . « B ^ ,0 RuJio 0 4C4' MAP 4.1 L o c a t i o n of Sea I s l a n d Scale i • s n . n n n 96 There are two other r e s i d e n t i a l areas on Sea I s l a n d , both l o c a t e d on the e a s t e r n end of the I s l a n d . The f i r s t c u r r e n t l y being phased out i s the Canadian Forces Married Quarters which comprises about 75 s i n g l e detached and duplex r e s i d e n c e s . A f t e r phasing out i t w i l l go to the, Department of Transport f o r expansion of the a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i a l area sometime i n the f u t u r e # ^he second(area of the s t u d y ) i s known l o c a l l y as B e r k e v i l l e (Map 4 .2) and c o n s i s t s of 301 u n i t s , l a r g e l y s i n g l e f a m i l y houses. These houses were b u i l t by the F e d e r a l Government i n 1941-42 to provide housing f o r a i r c r a f t workers employed i n the nearby Boeing a i r c r a f t assembly p l a n t . These houses, i n i t i a l l y b u i l t as f i v e year "temporary" housing were o f f e r e d f o r s a l e to the occupants a f t e r the war. To the east of t h i s area and to the south of the Morey Channel B r i d g e , there i s a small d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l area c o n s i s t i n g of a chemical company, a dredging company and a marina area. The Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t t e rminal i s l o c a t e d i n the centre of the i s l a n d and i s served by Grant MacConachie Way, a new four lane l i m i t e d access road. To the south of t h i s area i s the main a i r p o r t i n d u s t r i a l and s e r v i c e area, o f f i c e s , warehousing and maintenance areas. Access to t h i s area i s by A i r p o r t Road which passes through the centre of B e r k e v i l l e . The community f a c i l i t i e s of the area i n c l u d e the Sea I s l a n d School, a Community Centre, f i r e department and a small commercial area (8) i b i d TABLE 4.35 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (3ERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY TYPE OF TENURE TYPE OF t f .nt t t j f Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No Yo No . % No % No • % No t Owned 3 2.78 93 86.11 12 11.11 0 0 108 100 Rented 1 3.13. 26 81.25 3 9.38 2 6.25 32 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY . TABLE 4.36 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE LENGTH OF RESIDENCE Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7. No • 7. No 7, No 7. No 7. Less than 1 year 1 3.13 23 71.88 7 21.88 1 3.13 32 100 1 - 6 years 1 2.27 37 84.09 5 11.36 1 2.27 44 100 More than 6 years' 2 3.13 59 72.19 3 4.69 0 0 64 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL ..SURVEY TABLE 4.37 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY OCCUPATION OCCUPATION Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No % No % No % No % No % A i r p o r t employees 1 .5.5 15 83.4 2 11.1 0 0 18 100 Same group not employed a t a i r p o r t 1 2.5 29 74.4 7 18.0 2 5.1 39 100 Housewives 2 3.9 45 86.5 5 ' 9.6 0 0 52 100 A l l other 0 0 30 96.8 1 3.2 0 0 31 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.38 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT INDUSTRY BY AGE AGE Does not Apply Imp No ortance Annoy ance Fear T o t a l No 7. No 7. No 7, No 7. No 7. 1 5 - 1 9 0 0 12 92.31 1 7.69 0 0 13 100 20 - 24 0 0 7 77.78 2 22.22 0 0 9 100 25 - 34 1 2.27 32 72.73 9 20.45 .2 4.55 44 100 3 5 - 4 4 1 6.25 15 93.75 0 0 0 0 16 100 45 - 54 0 0 16 100.00 0 0 0 0 12 100 5 5 - 6 4 2 9.52 17 80.95 2 9.52 0 0 21 100 6 5 - 6 9 0 0 6 85.71 1 14.29 0 0 7 100 70 + 0 0 14 100.00 0 0 0 0 . 14 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 156 ( l e s s than $3,000 per year) were the most "annoyed" a t 23.08% and 33.33% r e s p e c t i v e l y , (Table 4.40). Those w i t h the lowest incomes were a l s o the group 'with the l e a s t p r o p o r t i o n of "does not apply" responses (33.33%). There i s not, however, any c o n s i s t e n t trend w i t h regard to income. Type of tenure (Table 4.41) revealed that r e n t e r s are more prone to "annoyance" (21.88%,) and "no importance" (28.13%,) r e a c t i o n s than owners. With respect to le n g t h of r e s i d e n c e , i t seems i m p l i c i t that those who had been i n the area f o r more than s i x years should be the group that most c l e a r l y perceived that the t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n had not degenerated over j time. This i s borne out by Table 4.42 a t 71.88%. Those w i t h length of residence of l e s s than one year were the l e a s t concerned about t r a f f i c from the a i r p o r t expressing "no importance" about a t h i r d of the time (34.38%). Those who had l i v e d there between one and s i x years were the most "annoyed" group expressing t h i s a t t i t u d e 31.82%, of the time. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses w i t h occupation (Table 4.43) shows the u s u a l a i r p o r t employee tendency towards "no importance" r e a c t i o n s . The r e a c t i o n of the same oc c u p a t i o n a l groups but not employed a t the a i r p o r t , shows much more d i s p o s i t i o n to "annoyance" a t t i t u d e s (30.8%,) than the a i r p o r t employees (5.6%,). E q u a l l y s t r i k i n g was the f a c t that housewives are under-represented w i t h r e s p e c t to "annoyance" r e a c t i o n s , (7.7%). There was no h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of age d i s t r i b u t i o n and a t t i t u d e s to ground t r a f f i c g e n e r a t i o n , (Table 4.44). The group r e p l y i n g "does not apply" most o f t e n was that between 20 and 24 ye a r s . The young-e s t age group (15 to 19 years) had the h i g h e s t "annoyance" response (23.08%) and a l s o the h i g h e s t " f e a r " response (15.38%). Those persons 157 over 65 years were high with respect to the "no importance" attitude (42.867>)and 35.717, respectively) and lowest in the "annoyance" category (zero for both groups.) Of the five airport characteristics examined here, this was the one that conformed as predicted best. There is however, one exception to this. Considering that a number of children must cross the airport road to go to the Sea Island school, i t was somewhat surprising that the housewives as a group did not show a higher incidence of "fear" or "annoyance" a t t i t -udes. Ranking the socio-economic variables according to the importance of airport generated t r a f f i c with respect to variations from the average yields the following:-1) Length of residence. 2) Age. 3) Occupation. 4) Tenure. 5) Income. 6) Sex. RESIDENTS DESIRE TO MOVE The f i n a l question asked in each interview was one in which the respondents, on balance of a l l the factors cited, would like to move from Berkeville, i f a l l other things were held constant. Because the question is hypothetical and speculative, i t cannot be inferred that the residents would express the same attitude i f actually approached with an offer to relocate. Its value l i e s in that i t requires a personal subjective summation TABLE 4.39 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY SEX REX Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7 . No % No % No 7 . No 7o Male 41 63.08 12 18.46 9 13.85 3 4.62 65 100 Female 45 60.00 16 . 21.33 12 16.00 2 2.67 75 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.40 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME TNCOME Does not Apply No Imp or tance Annoyance Fear Total No • % No % No % No No % No response 10 58.82 3 17.65 3 17.65 1 5.88 17 100 Less than $3000 2 33.33 1 16.67 2 33.33 1 16.67 6 100 $3000 - $5999 24 75.00 3 9.38 3 9.31 2 6.25 32 100 $6000 - $9999 44 61.11 17 23.61 10 13.89 1 1.39 72 100 $10,0.00 + 6 46.15 4 30.77 3 23.08 0 0 13 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.41 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY TYPE OF TENURE TYPE OF TENURE Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No % No % No % No 7. No %. Owned 71 65.74 19 17.59 19 12.96 9 3.70 108 100 Rented ; 15 46.88 9 28.13 7 21.88 1 3.13 32 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.42 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE LENGTH OF •RF.fi TTTRNriF. Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7. No • 7. No % No • 7, ' No- • %• Less than 1 year 18 56.25 11 34.38 2 6,25 1 3 .13 32 100 1 - 6 years 22 50.00 6 13.64 14 31.82 2 4 .55 44 100 More than 6 years 46 71.88 11 17.19 5 7.81 2 3 .13 64 100 ON SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.43 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY OCCUPATION OCCTIPATTON Does not Apply No Inroortance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No 7. No % No No 7, No 7= A i r p o r t employees 12 66.6 5 27.8 1 5.6 0 0 18 100 Same group not employed at a i r p o r t 20 51.3 7 17.9 12 30.8 0 0 39 100 Housewives 34 v65.4 12 23.0 4 7.7 2 3.9 52 100 A l l others 20 64.5 4 12.9 4 12.9 3 9.7 31 100 r SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY TABLE 4.44 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO AIRPORT GROUND TRAFFIC BY AGE AGF. Does not Apply No Importance Annoyance Fear T o t a l No % No % No % No % No % • 15 - 19 6 46.15 2 15.38 3 23.08 2 15.38 13 100 20 - 24 8 88.89 0 0 1 11.11 0 0 9 100 25 - 34 24 54.55 7 15.91 10 72.73 3 6.82 44 100 35 - 44 8 ; 50.00' 6 37.50 2 12.50 0 0 . 16 100 45 - 54 13 8i.25 2 12.50 1 6.25 0 0 16 100 55 - 64 14 66.67 3 14.29 4 19.05 0 0 21 100 65 - 69 4 57.14 3 . 42.86 0 0 0 0 7 100 70 + 9 64.29 5 35.71 0 0 0 0 14 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 164 of a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t were discussed i n the i n t e r v i e w , and hence i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the o v e r a l l a t t i t u d e towards the a i r p o r t and the p o s i t i o n that i t s e f f e c t occupies i n t h e i r o v e r a l l s c a l e of v a l u e s . On o v e r a l l assessment approximately one t h i r d (29.29%,) of the B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s s t a t e d that they would p r e f e r , w i t h a l l other things h e l d constant, to move from t h e i r present l o c a t i o n , (Table 4 . 1 3 ) . This f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the previous f i n d i n g that approximately h a l f of the people had been i n the area from two to s i x years and that about a quarter had been i n the area f o r l e s s than one year. V a r i a t i o n w i t h the sex (Table 4 . 45 ) of the respondent showed that no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d . A t t i t u d e s d i s t r i b u t e d according to income groups i n d i c a t e d that the lowest income group which, because of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l circumstances, were the l e a s t mobile one, showed the hi g h e s t d e s i r e to move from B e r k e v i l l e (43.757o), (Table 4 . 4 6 ) . V a r i a t i o n s w i t h tenure type were not found to be s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 4 . 4 7 ) . V a r i a t i o n s w i t h length of residence (Table 4 . 48 ) i n d i c a t e d that the group that expressed the l e a s t d e s i r e to move was that group which predated the 1963 expansion of the a i r p o r t , (15.637, ) . Those who had been there between one and s i x years i n d i c a t e d a much stronger d e s i r e to move, at 43.187o. Those who had been there the l e a s t time, l e s s than one year, expressed s l i g h t l y l e s s a t 37.507,. The d i s t r i b u t i o n by occupation groups of the r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e to move (Table 4 . 4 9 ) showed a i r p o r t employees to be lowest ( 16 .7%) and housewives to be h i g h e s t ( 3 6 . 6 % ) . V a r i a t i o n s by age groups (Table 4 . 50 ) i n d i c a t e d that the middle years between 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 were most 165 committed to the area and showed the l e a s t d e s i r e to move (18.75%, and 9.52% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Those w i t h the hig h e s t d e s i r e to move were the age. groups of 25 to 34 years (43.18%) and 65 to 69 (42.86%). Again there seems to be no c o n s i s t e n t trend. Home ownership, was not found to be a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e w i t h regard to a t t i t u d e s towards moving (Table 4.51). This f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s -tent since the question was phrased such that the respondent would expect no d i f f e r e n c e i n h i s tenure. There was co n s i d e r a b l y l e s s strength when the a t t i t u d e s to moving were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the a t t i t u d e of the importance of being c l o s e to work, as a reason f o r moving to the area. About h a l f of the r e s i d e n t s (56.43%,) i n d i c a t e d t h i s as a reason f o r moving to B e r k e v i l l e . Table 4.51 i n d i c a t e s that those who stat e d t h i s reason were 20%, higher i n the "no move" cate-gory. The responses are, however, s t i l l c o n s i s t e n t since the question as i t was framed would leave doubt as to whether.they might be f u r t h e r away from work. The f a c t that about a t h i r d of the r e s i d e n t s of B e r k e v i l l e expressed a d e s i r e to move from the a i r p o r t environs on the b a s i s of a h y p o t h e t i c a l question i s s i g n i f i c a n t . The area appears g e n e r a l l y to be i n t r a n s i t i o n d a t i n g from the a i r p o r t expansion of 1963, and the coming of the l a r g e j e t s to Vancouver. Only about a t h i r d (33.57%) of the r e s i d e n t s stated that f a m i l y or f r i e n d s h i p t i e s or f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the area were reasons f o r moving there. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s response by a t t i t u d e s to mov-ing (Table 4.51) i n d i c a t e d that of those who d i d s t a t e that f a m i l y or f r i e n d s h i p or area f a m i l i a r i t y were reasons f o r moving to the area, 42.55%, 166 s t a t e d a d e s i r e to move, This i s about 137o higher than the average. Of the two t h i r d s who s a i d "no" to t h i s reason, about three quarters (72.737,) s a i d that they would not l i k e to move. The c o n c l u s i o n i s that t h i s reason i s the l e a s t important of the three groups. . With regard to a t t i t u d e s to moving, the r e l a t i v e importance of the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h respect to v a r i a t i o n s i n a t t i t u d e s to moving are as f o l l o w s : -1) Length of re s i d e n c e . 2) Age. . 3) Occupation. 4) Income. 5) Tenure. 6) Sex. • DIFFERENCES BETWEEN REASONS FOR MOVING AND STAYING  Home Ownership or Occupancy About two t h i r d s (63.577.) of the respondents l i s t e d home ownership or occupancy as a reason f o r moving to B e r k e v i l l e , and more than h a l f gave t h i s as a reason f o r s t a y i n g (57.857o), (Table 4 . 1 0 ) . Table 4 .52 i n d i c a t e s a high r a t e of consistency between those who stat e d home owner-ship or occupancy as both a reason f o r moving and a l s o f o r s t a y i n g i n the area. This r e f l e c t s the importance of t h i s f a c t o r over time. There i s l e s s c o n sistency between those who sai d that they moved to B e r k e v i l l e f o r reasons of ownership/occupancy and those who sai d moved to B e r k e v i l l e f o r t h i s reason and stayed because of being c l o s e to work or f o r reasons of fa m i l y or f r i e n d s h i p t i e s or because they were f a m i l i a r w i t h the area. 167 TABLE 4.45 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOVING - BY SEX DESIRE TO MOVE YES _^o___Z.™,_J!22,AIi SEX No % " No % No " " % Male 19 29.23 46 70.77 65 100 Female 22 29.33 53 7.67 75 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 168 T A B L E 4.46 V A N C O U V E R I N T E R N A T I O N A L A I R P O R T S U R V E Y ( B E R K E V I L L E ) N O V E M B E R 1969 A T T I T U D E S TOWARDS M O V I N G B Y A N N U A L F A M I L Y INCOME D E S I R E TO MOVE  Y E S N O _ _ TOIAk-^C£ME__.__„ _JJ2 _ 1 _ 1 N2_ I % No response 3 17.65 14 82.35 17 100 Less than $3000 2 33.33 4 66.67 6 100 $3000-5999 14 43.75 18 56.25 32 100 $6000-9999 18 25.00 54 75.00 , 72 100 $10,000 + 4 ""30.77 9 69.23 13 100 S O U R C E : O R I G I N A L S U R V E Y 169 TABLE 4 . 4 7 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOVING BY TYPE OF TENURE DESIRE TO MOVE JLYPE. OF TEMIBJL YES NO TOTAL No % No % No " " % Owned 31 28.70 77 71.30 108 100 Rented 10 31.25 22 68.75 32 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 170 TABLE 4.48 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO MOVING BY LENGTH OF RESIDENCE DESIRE TO MOVE LENGTH • YES NO___ l ^ A L . OF RESIDENCE J_°. °L No 7. I J - PNO %_ Less than 1 year 12 37.50 20 62.50 32 100 1 - 6 years 19 43.18 25 56.82 44 100 More than 6 years 10 15.63 54 84.38 64 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 171 TABLE 4.49 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO MOVING BY OCCUPATION DESIRE TO MOVE YES NO TOTAL OCCUPATION No % No % , No %_ A i r p o r t Employees 3 16.7 15 83.3 18 100 Same group not employed 11 28.2 28 71.8 39 100 at a i r p o r t Housewives 19 36.6 33 63.4 52 100 A l l others 8 25.8 23 74.2 31 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 172 TABLE 4.50 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO MOVING BY AGE DESIRE TO MOVE YES NO _ TOTAL AP,F. No % No % No %_ 1 5 - 1 9 3 23.08 10 76.92 13 100 20 - 24 2 22.22 • 7 77.78 9 100 25 - 34 19 43.18 25 56.82 44 100 35 - 44 5 31.25 11 68.75 16 100 5 5 - 6 4 2 9.52 19 - 90.48 21 100 65 - 69 3 42.86 4 57.14 7 100 70 + > 4 28.57 10 71.43 14 100 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 173 TABLE 4.51 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) • NOVEMBER 1969 ATTITUDES TO MOVING BY REASONS FOR MOVING TO THE AREA DESIRE TO MOVE REASONS FOR MOVING JQ?_ _™__J_9_ _TPT.^k JTX>_JIiELAB_EA No %_ No % _No Home ownership YES 26 29.21 63 70.79 89 100 Occupancy NO 15 29.41 36 70.59 51 100 Close to Work YES 18 22.78 61 77.22 79 100 NO 23 37.70 38 62.30 61 100 Family or F r i e n d - YES 20 42.55 27 57.45 47 100 ship t i e s or NO 21 22.58 72 77.42 . 93 100 area f a m i l i a r i t y SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 174 Being Close to Work There i s a high degree of consistency between those who gave t h i s as a reason f o r both moving to the area and s t a y i n g i n the area, (86.087o) (Table 4 . 5 2 ) . F r i e n d s h i p or Family T i e s and Area F a m i l i a r i t y Only about a t h i r d of the r e s i d e n t s gave t h i s as a reason f o r mov-ing to B e r k e v i l l e . Those answering p o s i t i v e l y to the question both f o r moving to the area and s t a y i n g i n the area numbered 78.72%,. The strongest i n d i c a t o r of what might be termed a sense of community i n B e r k e v i l l e , i n s p i t e of the f a c t that there are strong i n d i c a t i o n s of the area as one i n which there i s a l a r g e degree of f l u x , i s that of those who stated that f a m i l y or f r i e n d s h i p t i e s or being f a m i l i a r w i t h the area was not a reason f o r moving to B e r k e v i l l e , about h a l f (47 .31%) stated i t to be a reason f o r s t a y i n g , (Table 4 . 5 2 ) . / • f Table 4 . 53 i n d i c a t e s a summary of the r e l a t i v e importance of s o c i o -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r each a t t i t u d e . In general the importance of sex and tenure was found to be minimal i n most cases. Occupation and length of residence i n the area were c l e a r l y the most important v a r i a b l e s but the importance of age as an i n d i c a t o r was l e s s than expected. A f u r t h e r important f i n d i n g was the general consistency of the responses i n that the B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s i n most cases, tended to perceive the e f f -e c t s of the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n much the same way. 175 TABLE 4.52 VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT SURVEY (BERKEVILLE) NOVEMBER 1969 DIFFERENTIAL REASONS FOR MOVING TO THE AREA AND STAYING IN THE AREA REASONS FOR STAYING IN AREA REASONS FOR MOV-ING TO THE AREA Home Ownership/ Occupancy Close to Family or f r i e n d s h i p Work t i e s or area f a m i l -i a r i t i e s Yes No Yes No Yes No Home owner-s h i p / occupancy YES NO No 7o No % 75 84.27 6 11.76 14 15.73 45 88.24 57 64.04 24 47.06 32 35.96 27 52.94 55 61.80 26 50.98 34 38.20 25 49.02 Close to. Work YES NO No 7o No 7o 52 65.82 29 47.54 27 34.18 f 32 52.46 68 86.08 13 21.31 11 13.92 48 78.69 54 68.35 27 44.26 24 31.65 34 55.74 Family or No F r i e n d s h i p YES t i e s or % area f a m i l i a r i t y No NO 22 46.81 59 63.44 25 53.19 34 36.56 24 51.06 57 61.29 23 48 .94 36 38.71 37 78.72 44 47.31 10 21.28 49 52.69 SOURCE: ORIGINAL SURVEY 176 TABLE 4.53 SUMMARY OF VARIATIONS FROM AVERAGE REACTION TO AIRPORT CHARACTERISTICS BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS Aircraft Noise Aircraft Air Pollution Crash Hazards Airport Industry Desire Airport to Traffic Move Occupation Occupation Occupat- Length of Length Length of ion Residence of Residence Residence Income Length of Residence Length of Residence Age Age Age Sex Income Income Occupation Occupat- Occupation ion Age Tenure Length of Residence Age Tenure Sex Tenure Age Sex Income Tenure Sex Tenure Income Sex Income Tenure Sex Note: Variation decreases as the position from the top, but not necessarily uniformly. SOURCE: Original Survey Data. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LOCATION CRITERIA Generalized Nature of the Problem The r e s u l t s of the survey i n d i c a t e d that two of the so c i o -economic v a r i a b l e s , sex and tenure, were of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e as i n d i c a t o r s of a t t i t u d e s towards the f i v e a i r p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . With the exceptions of occupation and len g t h of residence (and even i n these instances the d i f f e r e n c e s are not always s t r i k i n g ) , the i n i t i a l c o n c l u s i o n that i s drawn i s that the a t t i t u d e s are g e n e r a l i z e d , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n when s t r a t i f i e d by the va r i o u s socio-economic character-i s t i c s . This does not however, i n d i c a t e that no problem e x i s t s , but r a t h e r that the problem i s g e n e r a l i z e d . Each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c must be examined s e p a r a t e l y . • A i r c r a f t Noise Noise, as was found elsewhere and was there f o r e expected, i s c l e a r l y the strongest c o n t r i b u t o r to a d e c l i n e i n the environmental q u a l i t y of B e r k e v i l l e . I t s most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i s that of occupation. The importance of s u b j e c t i v e personal a t t i t u d e s towards the a i r p o r t i s most c l e a r l y revealed by examining the d i f f e r e n t i a l a t t i t u d e s or a i r p o r t workers whose l i v e l i h o o d i s dependent on the f a c i l i t y and who, as a r e s u l t , view a i r c r a f t n o i s e i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t than other o c c u p a t i o n a l groups, and the group of B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s who are i n s i m i l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l groups but not employed a t the a i r p o r t . 177 178 Attitudes were not found to vary.with length of residence. The conclusion drawn from this supports the earlier finding that people do not acclimitize to any significant degree over time. Because the noise levels are so high in Berkeville, i t was sur-prising that no concerted group action has yet been organized against the noise. This may be explained by three factors. F i r s t l y , Berkeville is an area in constant flux as borne out by the high proportion of persons with short length of residence in the area. Stemming from this is that, while the perceived noise levels have risen over time, the airport preceded the establishment of the community. Berkeville was established at a time when, because of the pressures of the Second World War, short term goals were of greater importance. After the war, and up to the present, Berkeville residents moved to the area with the knowledge that the noise levels would be high, rather than having the airport imposed on them after they had moved there. r Secondly, concerted group action might mean that the solution would be to force the residents to move. As has already been pointed out, many do not wish to do so even i f they were guaranteed the same standard of accomodation. The importance of an inexpensive house is quite clearly worth the inconvenience and disruption at least on a short term basis. If and when they are able to afford i t , they tend to move to a different area. In the meantime they are aware of the act i v i t i e s of the Department of Transport in buying out the northern half of the Island, and in acquir-ing land in Berkeville i t s e l f for access to the proposed bridge between Sea Island and Granville Street in Vancouver. 179 The t h i r d f a c t o r that may be i d e n t i f i e d i s the awareness of the general p o l i c y of the Department of Transport of keeping the noise l e v e l s to a minimum during normal s l e e p i n g hours. When t h i s i s not achieved, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h n i g h t - t i m e runups, there i s an increase i n the number of complaints, but i n general the r e s i d e n t s f e e l that the Department has done i t s best and that f u r t h e r a t t e n u a t i o n i s not f e a s i b l e . I m p l i c a t i o n f o r L o c a t i o n C r i t e r i a . Since i t i s not c u r r e n t l y expected that the problem of a i r c r a f t n o i s e w i l l be solved a t the source f o r both t e c h n o l o g i c a l and economic reasons, the s o l u t i o n f o r the present l i e s i n the medium through which the noise i s t r a n s m i t t e d . One such s o l u t i o n c u r r e n t l y being implemented i s the i n s u l a t i o n of houses ^ ) . This s o l u t i o n , w h i l e o f f e r i n g one v a l i d approach i n areas where i t i s not f e a s i b l e to move e i t h e r the p o p u l a t i o n or the f a c i l i t y can only be regarded as minimal. Even i f such i n s u l a t i o n i s extended to a l l b u i l d i n g s such as'schools and r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s , there i s s t i l l the wide range of a c t i v i t i e s which normally take place outside of b u i l d i n g s . The other a l t e r n a t i v e i n a c t i n g on the medium i s s p a t i a l separat-io n of the r e s i d e n t i a l area from the a i r p o r t e n virons. However, to keep the noise l e v e l s down to the b a r e l y acceptable l e v e l of 80 PNdB, a much l a r g e r r e s t r i c t e d zone than i s p r e s e n t l y employed by the Department of Transport i s i m p l i e d . The area covered by a s i n g l e 80 PNdB contour, f o r j e t t a k e o f f s , i s approximately 25,000 ac r e s . With the expansion of the (1) See, f o r example, B o l t , Beranek and Newman In c . , A Study: I n s u l a t i n g  Houses A g a i n s t A i r c r a f t Noise, op c i t . 180 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i n the mid 1970's by a new runway p a r a l l e l to the e x i s t i n g main runway (08-26), and 5000 f e e t to the n o r t h , a sub-s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r area would be included under the 80 PNdB contour. In a l l , t h e amount of land r e s t r i c t e d from r e s i d e n t i a l development would be approximately 60,000 acres or about 90 square m i l e s . The area to be zoned f o r r e s t r i c t e d use around the Toronto I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t (Malton) (2) i s approximately 51,500 a c r e s , a l i t t l e b e t t e r than 80 square m i l e s . v ' . Because Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d so c l o s e to the C i t y of Vancouver and i s adjacent to the areas of m e t r o p o l i t a n expan-s i o n i n Richmond, Surrey, and D e l t a , t h i s places a serious o b s t a c l e i n the way of r e s i d e n t i a l development a t a time when the pressures f o r expansion are great enough that development has already proceeded i n t o the 95 PNdB contour. There i s a l s o the chance that a i r c r a f t noise w i l l continue to increase as the "mass" a i r c r a f t such as the Boeing 747 are developed. I f t h i s trend continues, then the separation requirement w i l l increase at an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e . The problem w i l l be f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t e d as the number of movements in c r e a s e s . I n 1969 a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t there were 169,545 a i r c r a f t movements, an increase of 10% over 1968. Scheduled a i r l i n e move-ments increased 8.8% during the same p e r i o d . Table 5.1 i n d i c a t e s the i n -crease i n t r a f f i c over the past s i x years. As the movements, e s p e c i a l l y (2) Ontario Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Statement by the Honorable  W. Darcy McKeough, M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Regarding A i r - c r a f t Noise a t Toronto I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , ( T o r o n t o : Mimeo October 1969) Page 11. 181 TABLE 5.1 GROWTH OF AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS AT VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (PERCENT), 1964-69. Increase i n Increase i n Scheduled Year T o t a l Movements A i r l i n e Movements 1968-69 10.0 8.8 1967-68 * -3.8 7.7 1966-67 16.4 16.6 1965-66 .25.1 10.3. 1964-65 12.5 10.4 * The drop can be explained i n terms of the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of general a v i a t i o n to P i t t Meadows A i r p o r t . SOURCE: Department of Transport, A i r c r a f t Movement S t a t i s t i c s  A i r p o r t s w i t h A i r T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Towers, Annual  Report, (Ottawa: A v i a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s Centre, 1968) 1969 f i g u r e s obtained from Monthly Reports. 182 those by scheduled a i r l i n e s i n c r e a s e , so does the annoyance l e v e l , and when the a i r p o r t becomes congested enough that the f a c i l i t y must be u t i l -i z e d 24 hours per day the noise l e v e l w i l l become i n t o l e r a b l e . A i r c r a f t A i r P o l l u t i o n The r e a c t i o n s of "annoyance" and " f e a r " were lower w i t h regard to a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n than noise but they were s t i l l of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to be of concern since about a t h i r d of B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s responded i n one of these two ways. As o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , the amount of a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n i s g r e a t e r than i s g e n e r a l l y understood, and i s great-e s t i n those areas which are c l o s e s t to the a i r p o r t and along the a i r l a n e s where the a i r c r a f t i s f l y i n g under 3500 f e e t . To date, a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n has r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n comparison to i n d u s t r i a l and automobile p o l l u t i o n . The r ecent move to v o l u n t a r i l y i n s t a l l " c l e a n " burner cans on the e x i s t i n g fleet of j e t a i r c r a f t , and the f a c t that the l a t e s t j e t engines are "smoke-l e s s " by design (as i n the Boeing 747) i s a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n but does not represent a s o l u t i o n to the problem. U n l i k e n o i s e , the "annoyance" and " f e a r " a t t i t u d e s vary d i r e c t l y w i t h length of residence and age. As a r e s u l t the longer that an i n d i v i d -u a l l i v e s proximate to the a i r p o r t , the more l i k e l y he i s to have t h i s a t t i t u d e , and the g r e a t e r the r e s u l t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t r e s s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y he can move, i f he has the means to do so, which means that the area prox-imate to the a i r p o r t i s n e c e s s a r i l y i n perpetual t r a n s i t i o n p a r t i a l l y as a r e s u l t of the a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n f a c t o r . (3) Interview w i t h Donald Dobson, A i r c r a f t Engine Design Engineer, Canadian P a c i f i c A i r l i n e s , Vancouver, February 6, 1970. 183 As p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n focuses on a i r p o l l u t i o n , i t may be expected t h a t , as i n the case of the United S t a t e s , there w i l l be j u s t i f i a b l e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g a i r p o l l u t i o n from the a i r c r a f t . I m p l i c a t i o n f o r L o c a t i o n C r i t e r i a As i n the case w i t h a i r c r a f t n o i s e , there are three p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s to the problem, through the source, the medium or the r e c e p t o r . The receptor (human beings) can be e l i m i n a t e d because of the l i n k s which e x i s t between the contaminants and p u b l i c h e a l t h . With regard to s o l u t i o n s a t the source, the i n i t i a l step has been taken, but i t i s not expected that devices to reduce the other p o l l u t a n t s w i l l be forthcoming i n the near f u t u r e . As a r e s u l t the a l t e r n a t i v e l e f t i s , as i n the case of n o i s e , that of s e p a r a t i o n . This s o l u t i o n i s however, a t best a temporary and p a r t i a l one because of the wide d i s p e r s i o n of the p o l l u t a n t s e s p e c i a l l y i n the lower reaches of the atmosphere.^ I t i s merely b e t t e r than no a c t i o n a t a l l . Non-Occupant Crash Hazards Crash hazards appeared l e a s t to those who were connected w i t h the a i r p o r t . The general trend to decreasing " f e a r " r e a c t i o n s w i t h age and l e n g t h of residence would normally have i n d i c a t e d that the r e s i d e n t s of B e r k e v i l l e would g e n e r a l l y tend to overcome t h e i r a n x i e t y . Yet, about a quarter of the r e s i d e n t s s t i l l expressed t h i s a t t i t u d e . This i s a t t r i b u t -able to the f a c t that B e r k e v i l l e has a h i g h r a t e of r e s i d e n t turnover. Because of t h i s , i t cannot be expected that t h i s a t t i t u d e w i l l change over time. Even w i t h the low p r o b a b i l i t y of non-occupant f a t a l i t i e s as a r e s u l t 184 of an a i r c r a f t c r a s h , the a i r c r a f t n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n f a c t o r s have created c o n d i t i o n s which c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s turnover and s t r e s s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . This means that the a t t e n u a t i n g f a c t o r s of i n c r e a s i n g age and l e n g t h of residence are u n l i k e l y to come i n t o play more than they have to date. As the environment continues to d e t e r i o r a t e due to increases i n the degree of noise and the amount of a i r p o l l u t i o n , the p h y s i c a l f a b r i c of the area w i l l not be repl a c e d by the process of r e b u i l d i n g as i n other p a r t s of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area.- I n c r e a s i n g l y , those who are mobile w i l l l eave, the area w i l l d e c l i n e a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e , and the c y c l e already e s t a b l i s h e d w i l l continue to be s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g . The c o n c l u s i o n i s that w h i l e t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c would c o n t r i b u t e l e s s by i t s e l f , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the others already c i t e d , i t i s s t i l l a c o n t r i b u t o r to the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the environmental q u a l i t y of Berke-v i l l e . I m p l i c a t i o n f o r L o c a t i o n C r i t e r i a There i s no d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a t h a t i s not i m p l i e d i n the previous two f a c t o r s , that i s , separation as long as the present zoning i s maintained. Industry A t t r a c t e d by the A i r p o r t The r e a c t i o n to the l o c a t i o n of i n d u s t r y , e x c l u d i n g a i r c r a f t main-tenance operations which n e c e s s i t a t e runups and are included under a i r -c r a f t n o i s e , evoked, as expected, few a t t i t u d e s of " f e a r " or "annoyance". Because the Department of Transport p o l i c y has been to r e s t r i c t the i n -d u s t r i e s to those that are necessary to the a i r p o r t or have a n a t u r a l a f f i n i t y f o r an a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n , and because of the types of i n d u s t r y that are themselves a t t r a c t e d to a l o c a t i o n near the a i r p o r t , there has been 185 l i t t l e problems w i t h i n d u s t r i a l a i r p o l l u t i o n and noise prob-I t cannot be concluded here however, that a i r p o r t i n d u s t r y does not c o n t r i b u t e to environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n , but r a t h e r that provided that the i n d u s t r y i s not l o c a t e d adjacent to the r e s i d e n t i a l area there appears to be l i t t l e environmental q u a l i t y d e c l i n e i n the r e s i d e n t i a l area a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h i s f a c t o r . T r a f f i c induced by these i n d u s t r i e s , however, i s a separate matter. I m p l i c a t i o n f o r L o c a t i o n C r i t e r i a ( A i r p o r t i n d u s t r y seems to place no c o n s t r a i n t on the l o c a t i o n of the f a c i l i t y i t s e l f beyond the land r e q u i r e d to s i t e the i n d u s t r i e s , i f the Department of Transport p o l i c y of r e s t r i c t i n g i n d u s t r i e s i s f o l l o w e d , as i n the case of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . • A i r p o r t Ground T r a f f i c The strongest negative r e a c t i o n to ground t r a f f i c produced by the a i r p o r t was t h a t of "annoyance". As was the case w i t h crash hazards, t h i s a t t i t u d e decreased w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e . This i n d i c a t e d the general r e c o g n i t i o n by B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s of the decreasing ground t r a f f i c problem on the i n t e r i o r s t r e e t s of the area, the d i v e r s i o n of term-inal-bound t r a f f i c to MacConachie Way and the d i v e r s i o n of a p a r t of the i n d u s t r i a l area-bound t r a f f i c over the new Dinsmore B r i d g e . The f a c t that the "annoyance" a t t i t u d e s were as h i g h as they were i n d i c a t e d t h a t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r those that l i v e adjacent to A i r p o r t Road, there was s t i l l a decrease i n the environmental q u a l i t y as a r e s u l t of i n d u s t r i a l area-bound t r a f f i c . I f t h i s were d i v e r t e d from the area, the impact of ground r e l a t i v e l y lems. 186 t r a f f i c generated by the a i r p o r t would be n i l and the environmental deter-i o r a t i o n from t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c would be e l i m i n a t e d . The proposed major access road to the new b r i d g e l i n k i n g Sea I s l a n d to. G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i n Vancouver w i l l run j u s t to the south of B e r k e v i l l e and w i l l remove eleven l o t s from the north end of C a t a l i n a Crescent. The probable environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n from t h i s road cannot however, be a t t r i b u t e d to the a i r p o r t . There remains, however, the problems of noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n from motor v e h i c l e s . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n these cases are analogous to those of a i r c r a f t noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n . The short term measure i s s e p a r a t i o n ; the long term one i s a t t e n u a t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n f o r L o c a t i o n C r i t e r i a The i m p l i c a t i o n f o r l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a i s that the f a c i l i t y must be l o c a t e d such that t r a f f i c can be d i v e r t e d away from r e s i d e n t i a l areas. The experience a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t and the r e s u l t i n g a t t i t -udes of the B e r k e v i l l e r e s i d e n t s i n d i c a t e d that they q u i t e c l e a r l y recog-n i z e d that the s i t u a t i o n had improved i n g e n e r a l , although peak hour t r a f f -i c on A i r p o r t Road had remained h i g h . The problems of noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n have been c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced although not e l i m i n a t e d . These problems are, however, p a r t of the l a r g e r more general problem that present-l y e x i s t s . R e l a t i v e Order of the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s From the p o i n t of view of B e r k e v i l l e as a case study, i t i s p o s s i b l e to rank the f i v e a i r p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on an o r d i n a l s c a l e as to t h e i r r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to a d e c l i n e i n the environmental q u a l i t y of B e r k e v i l l e . The rank order i s as f o l l o w s : -187 1) A i r c r a f t n o i s e . 2) A i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n . 3) Non-occupant crash hazards. 4) A i r p o r t ground t r a f f i c . 5) Industry a t t r a c t e d by the a i r p o r t . Towards a S o l u t i o n to the Problem An examination of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t e s that the f i r s t two, which are the most s e r i o u s , are generated by the a i r c r a f t them-s e l v e s . A t t e n u a t i o n of the engine noise problem a t the source would e l i m i n a t e any need f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t from a r e s i d e n t i a l p o i n t of view. The amount of sound produced by the f u s e l a g e , t a i l and wings of the a i r c r a f t accounts f o r only a small p r o p o r t i o n of the sound l e v e l , a t subsonic speeds. Present a i r p o r t zoning which deals w i t h o b s t r u c t i o n s would be adequate to handle t h i s aspect of the problem. The second problem, that of a i r c r a f t a i r p o l l u t i o n , i s not solved by s e p a r a t i o n , although t h i s approach o f f e r s some a t t e n u a t i o n . On the other hand, the r e l e a s e of the emmissions i n t o the atmosphere below 3500 f e e t means that i t w i l l become a p a r t of the normal atmosphere. Above 3500 f e e t some of the emmissions remain i n suspension. As we have found w i t h water p o l l u t i o n , the s o l u t i o n i s not d i l u t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y the problem of l a r g e s c a l e r e l e a s e of p o l l u t a n t s i n t o the upper reaches of the lower atmosphere and beyond w i l l no longer be i g n o r a b l e . For these reasons, a t t e n u a t i o n i s d i c t a t e d . With regard to crash hazards, the s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem i s dependent upon the s o l u t i o n of the previous two. This does not guarantee 188 that B e r k e v i l l e would become a s t a b l e maturing r e s i d e n t i a l area, but r a t h e r that i t could be. U n t i l the problems of a i r c r a f t noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n are solved the a t t i t u d e s towards crash hazards are u n l i k e l y to change. With regard to a i r p o r t ground t r a f f i c , the s o l u t i o n i s twofold. The f i r s t p a r t i s a t t e n u a t i o n of the noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n problems at the source. The second p a r t i n v o l v e s the separation of the t r a f f i c from the r e s i d e n t i a l area. The steps taken a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , and the r e s u l t i n g a t t i t u d e s are i n d i c a t i v e of the success of sep a r a t i o n by a r e l a t i v e l y small d i s t a n c e . The f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can be drawn i s that the c r u c i a l prob-lems are those of noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n a t t e n u a t i o n a t the source. The s o l u t i o n of these problems would mean that the a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y would be compatible w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l areas, up to the l i m i t s of present zoning. U n t i l these problems are solved i t must be concluded that the a i r p o r t i s a major c o n t r i b u t o r to environmental q u a l i t y d e c l i n e of proximate r e s i d -e n t i a l areas. The i n t e r i m s o l u t i o n to the problem, w h i l e not h i g h l y s a t i s -f a c t o r y , i s the s e p a r a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l areas by p h y s i c a l space d i c t a t e d u l t i m a t e l y by the noise l e v e l s of the a i r c r a f t . An examination of the p h y s i c a l ground and a i r space requirements of a i r p o r t s i n d i c a t e d that r e s i d e n t i a l communities and normal r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s should not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the op e r a t i o n of the a i r p o r t . Areas f o r Fur t h e r Study The survey undertaken here has provided an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the impact of the a i r p o r t on B e r k e v i l l e as expressed by the r e s i d e n t s of the 189 area. The logical expansion of this work would be to go beyond the attitudes expressed by the residents and into the area of how the activ-i t i e s expressed by the residents are affected by the airport. How, for instance, do their recreation patterns differ from other similar areas? Such a study could be undertaken by a combination of observation and activity patterns questionnairing methods and ideally would require the use of a control group. It has been pointed out that a large amount of-land should be restricted from residential development unt i l the problems of aircra f t noise and air pollution are solved. The prime arguments advanced by ai r -craft manufacturers and the airlines with regard to abatement are those of technological and cost problems. An area for further study would be to investigate the cost to the metropolitan area of being forced to re s t r i c t residential development over such a large area at a time when land in the suburban areas is under strong pressure for development with the resulting rise in the cost of land over the past few years. Another area for further study is the f i e l d of legal controls . in the area of technological development. Aircraft technology has gone ahead rapidly in many areas in the past. However, in many other areas i t has not kept pace. The question to be answered concerns the types of controls that are both feasible and necessary to ensure that the inter-relationships of changes in various areas of aircraft and airport design and not overlooked. An extension of this area would be to examine the problems that are suggested by the fact that airport requirements are dic-tated by the air c r a f t rather than vice-versa, as in the case of the Boeing 747. 190 The bulk of the work i n a i r c r a f t noise and a i r p o l l u t i o n problems has been d i r e c t e d towards the determination of standards that r e f l e c t the maximum environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n that can be t o l e r a t e d by the community, before v i s i b l e t o x i c r e s u l t s are evident or before group a c t i o n i s taken. An area f o r f u r t h e r study would be the development of a more p o s i t i v e approach to t h i s problem. A i r p o r t s and Community Pl a n n i n g A major concern of community planning i s with the s o c i a l i m p l i c -a t i o n f o r people of the i n t e g r a t i o n of the uses of space. For the present, usable space i n the community i s a f i n i t e resource and should be tr e a t e d as such. I n order to p r e d i c t what the e f f e c t s of the v a r i o u s combinations of the uses of space w i l l be on people, i t i s necessary to examine each element and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s . A i r p o r t s are i n c r e a s i n g l y important i n community planning because of both the amount of t r a f f i c and the amount of space which they consume. They are both a d i s c r e t e e n t i t y and a p a r t of the t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n sys-tem of the community and, as such, they must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the t o t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. Even more importantly they have an impact on a v a r i e t y of groups of people i n the community. How and why t h i s occurs i s of concern to the planner. The l o c a t i o n of the a i r p o r t i s d i c t a t e d by two b a s i c kinds of f a c t o r s ; the p h y s i c a l space requirements and the s o c i a l and economic im-pact on the r e s i d e n t s of the community. The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r community planning w i t h r e s p e c t to r e s i d e n t i a l areas and a i r p o r t s are three. F i r s t l y , f o r the present, u n t i l abatement technology catches up w i t h the r e s t of 191 a i r c r a f t design, the planner must be aware of the effects on the resid-ential community, and the means of minimizing environmental quality de-cline. Secondly, when this aspect of technology does catch up with the rest, the relationship of airport and residential area w i l l change drastically. Land adjacent to airports w i l l become prime residential land i f i t has not been spoiled by other kinds of development. This is some-thing for planners to consider when considering interim uses of the land. Lastly, the increasing importance of air travel and hence of airports in transportation should be recognized and i t s impact on other parts of the transportation system should be taken into account. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Ashley, C. A., The F i r s t Twenty-Five Years: A Study of Trans-Canada  A i r l i n e s , (Toronto: M a c M i l l a n , 1963.) B a r t l e t t , F. C , The Problem of Noise, (Cambridge, England: U n i v e r s i t y of Cambridge Press, 1934.) Beales, P h i l i p H., Noise, Hearing and Deafness, (London, M. 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