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UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The social and political thought of Simon Nicolas Henri Linguet Nichol, Alexander Earl 1970

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T H E S O C I A L A N D P O L I T I C A L T H O U G H T O F S I M O N N I C O L A S H E N R I L I N G U E T b y A L E X A N D E R E A R L N I C H O L B . A . ( H o n o u r s ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , 1 9 6 7 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H I S T O R Y W e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M a y , 1 9 7 0 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y , I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f m y D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . A l e x a n d e r E a r l N i c h o l D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y , U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M a y , 1 9 7 0 ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s a r e a s s e s s m ent of Simon N i c o l a s H e n r i L i n q u e t , a t h i n k e r of o r i g i n a l i t y and a t r e n c h a n t c r i t i c of the aneien regime of e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y F r a n c e . I t p u r p o r t s to show a u n i t y w i t h i n L i n q u e t ' s thought obscured by p r e v i o u s c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which p o r t r a y L i n q u e t v a r i o u s l y aS a c o n s e r v a t i v e and an a p o l o g i s t of a b s o l u t e monarchy, a r e a c t i o n a r y and advocate of s l a v e r y and d e s p o t i s m , or a s t r i d e n t and p e r s p i c a c i o u s c r i t i c of F r e n c h s o c i e t y whose i n s i g h t s have earned f o r him a p l a c e i n the s o c i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . I n the b e l i e f t h a t t h i s d i s a g r e e m e n t as to L i n q u e t ' s p l a c e i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y France had a r i s e n from a tendency to a b s t r a c t h i s thought from i t s c o n t e x t , I have examined i t as a response to the i n a d e q u a c i e s of F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e (of which h i s t r a i n i n g as a b a r r i s t e r made him aware), to the a m b i t i o n s of the p a r l e m e n t s of F r a n c e , to the p h y s i o c r a t i c program of economic r e f o r m , to the p h i l o s o p h y of the e n l i g h t e n m e n t and the a c t i v i t i e s of i t s p r o s e l y t i z e r s . Moreover, i n thus weaving Linquet's thought back i n t o the s o c i a l p o l i t i c a l , and i n t e l l e c t u a l f a b r i c of e i g h t e e n t h cen-t u r y F rance I have addressed m y s e l f , i n p a r t i c u l a r , to t h a t body of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which has p o r t r a y e d L i n q u e t as a p r e -c u r s o r of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i a l i s m . From t h i s s t u d y I have c o n c l u d e d t h a t s o c i a l c o n c e r n i s not the e x c l u s i v e p r e s e r v e of i d e o l o g i e s which assume the e x i s t e n c e of i n a l i e n -a b l e human r i g h t s . Those elements of L i n q u e t ' s thought which have prompted o t h e r s to i n c l u d e him i n the s o c i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a re c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of a b s o l u t e monarchy• D E D I C A T I O N To my parents and room mates - Dave> Larry and Gary for t h e i r concern3 patience and encouragement. A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I a m e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o D r . H a r v e y M i t c h e l l , f r o m w h o m I h a v e l e a r n e d m u c h i n o u r s i x y e a r a s s o c i a t i o n a s p r o f e s s o r a n d s t u d e n t , a n d t o w h o s e s u g g e s t i o n s a n d c r i t i c i s m t h i s s t u d y o w e s m u c h . T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S C h a p t e r P a g e I N T R O D U C T I O N v i i I . L I N G U E T A S A C R I T I C O F T H E J U D I C I A L S Y S T E M O F F R A N C E 1 I I . L I N G U E T A N D M O N T E S Q U I E U 3 9 I I I . L I N G U E T A N D T H E P H Y S I O C R A T S 9 1 I V . L I N G U E T A N D T H E P H I L O S O P H E S 1 4 2 V . C O N C L U S I O N 1 9 0 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 1 9 8 A P P E N D I X 2 0 5 I N T R O D U C T I O N S i m o n N i c o l a s H e n r i L i n g u e t , i n h i s o w n l i f e t i m e a b a r r i s t e r , j o u r n a l i s t , a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s t o f g r e a t r e p u t e , d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o h i s t o r i c a l o b l i v i o n s o o n a f t e r h i s d e a t h i n 1 7 9 4 o n l y t o r e a p p e a r i n t e r m i t t e n t l y a n d t h e n o f t e n o n l y i n p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s . D e s p i t e t h e g e n e r a l l y m e d i o c r e l i t e r a r y q u a l i t y o f h i s w r i t i n g , h i s d e f e n s e o f a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y , a n d h i s c r i t i c i s m o f F r e n c h s o c i e t y , i n g e n e r a l , a n d o f t h e l o t o f t h e p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n r u r a l m a s s e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w h i l e n o t u n i q u e i n i t s c o n t e n t , w a s e x p r e s s e d i n s u c h a f a s h i o n t h a t h i s t o r i a n s i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n s i d e r e d L i n g u e t a f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e s o c i a l i s m o f t h e i r t i m e . L i n g u e t ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a n d h i s t o r i a n s o f t h e t w e n -t i e t h c e n t u r y w e r e m o r e d i v i d e d i n t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t . I n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , L i n g u e t w a s r e v i l e d b y u l i b e r a l s ^ a s a s u p p o r t e r o f s l a v e r y a n d d e s p o t i s m y e t m i s t r u s t e d b y f e l l o w c o n s e r v a t i v e s a s a n u n t r u s t w o r t h y a l l y . T h i s a m b i g u i t y , a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a p r o c l i v i t y f o r e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f p a r a d o x -i c a l l y a n d a t e n d a n c y t o e m p l o y t h e s h i b b o l e t h s o f e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y l i b e r a l s t o e x p r e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e v i e w s , " ' ' h a s l e d H . V y v e r b e r g , H i s t o r i c a l p e s s i m i s m i n t h e F r e n c h  E n l i g h t e n m e n t , ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 2 0 7 . h i s t o r i a n s o f t h i s c e n t u r y t o t h i n k o f h i m a s a s o c i a l i s t , 2 a c o m m u n i s t o r . a s a c o n s e r v a t i v e . T h i s a m b i g u i t y w a s a l s o i n d i c a t i v e o f a l i f e o f m u l t i -f a r i o u s p u r s u i t s . A s a . y o u n g m a n i n h i s t w e n t i e s L i n g u f t t e n t e r e d u p o n a l i t e r a r y c a r e e r w h i c h s h o w e d s i g n s o f g r e a t p r o m i s e . W i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s t r e a t i s e , T h e o i r e d e s  l o i s c i v i l e s , w h i c h r e p u d i a t e d t h e n e w p h i l o s o p h y a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s o f t h e F r e n c h p a r l e m e n t s , t h e i n i t i a l i n t e r e s t s h o w n t o w a r d t h i s y o u n g w r i t e r b y t h e l i t e r a r y c o m m u n -i t y w a s s o o n r e p l a c e d , f o r i d e o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s , b y h o s t i l i t y . T h e l i t t e r a t e u r s t o o k t h e i r r e v e n g e t h r o u g h d ' A l e m b e r t , w h o \ r e f u s e d L i n g u e t ' s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e A c a d e m i e  F r a n c a i s e . W i t h t h i s a c t o f r e j e c t i o n , L i n g u e t b e g a n h i s l i f e - l o n g c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t t h e p h i l o s o p h e s a n d t h e i r b e l i e f s T h e o c c a s i o n f o r t h i s r i f t w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h e s , T h e o r i e d e s l o i s c i v i l e s , w a s t h e p r o d u c t o f a n o t h e r i n v o l v e -m e n t . L i n g u e t a t t w e n t y - e i g h t , h a d e n t e r e d t h e O r d r e d e s  A v o c a t s o f t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s a s a s t a g i a i r e o r n o v i c e . T h e d e c a d e s p e n t b y h i m i n t h e l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n p r o d u c e d a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e w h i c h h e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a m b i t i o n s o f t h e p a r l e m e n t a i r e s . L i n g u e t ' s e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s i n 1 7 7 4 l e d S e e K i n g s l e y M a r t i n , F r e n c h L i b e r a l T h o u g h t i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y , ( N e w Y o r k , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 2 2 3 , 2 3 6 , 2 5 3 - 6 , 2 5 8 ; A l f r e d C o b b a n , T h e S o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h  R e v o l u t i o n ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 1 4 8 - 1 4 9 . i x i m m e d i a t e l y t o a c a r e e r i n j o u r n a l i s m . B e t w e e n 1 7 7 4 a n d 1 7 9 2 h e u s e d h i s e d i t o r s h i p o f t h e J o u r n a l d e p o l i t i q u e e t d e  l i t t e r a t u r e ( 1 7 7 4 - 1 7 7 6 ) a n d t h e A n n a l e s p o l i t i q u e ^ c i v i l e s , e t v l i t t e r a i r & S d u X V . I I I 6 s i e c l e ( 1 7 7 7 - 1 7 9 2 ) a s a p l a t f o r m f o r h i s c o n d e m n a t i o n o f s o c i a l , j u d i c i a l , a n d p o l i t i c a l a b u s e s , a n d h i s a t t a c k s u p o n t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e , t h e p h i l o s o p h e s a n d p h y s i o c r a t s . O f t e n v e h e m e n c e g o t t h e b e t t e r p a r t o f d i s -c r e t i o n w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t L i n g u e t b e c a m e t h e v i c t i m o f t h a t m i n i s t e r i a l d e s p o t i s m w h i c h h e h a d d e n o u n c e d . M a u r e p a s 3 s u p p r e s s e d h i s J o u r n a l d e p o l i t i q u e e t d e L i t t e r a t u r e . c t^d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a f e l l o w m i n i s t e r , t h e d u e d ' A i g u i l l o n , h a d L i n g u e t i n c a r c e r a t e d i n t h e B a s t i l l e f r o m 1 7 8 0 u n t i l 4 1 7 8 2 . D e s p i t e h i s t r e a t m e n t a t t h e h a n d s o f t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e k i n g , L i n g u e t r e m a i n e d a s t a u n c h s u p p o r t e r o f t h e m o n a r c h y o r r a t h e r t h a t i d e a l o f a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y f r o m w h i c h , h e f e l t , t h e F r e n c h C r o w n h a d s t r a y e d i n h i s o w n t i m e . L i n g u e t c o n c e i v e d o f t h e m o n a r c h y a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a n o r g a n i c w h o l e w h i c h e m b r a c e d a r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l ^ s o c i a l o r d e r , t h e c h u r c h a n d t h e s t a t e . T h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e L . G . M i c h a u d , B i o g r a p h i e U n i v e r s e l l e a n c i e n e t m o d e r n e ( P a r i s , 4 5 v o l s . , 1 8 5 4 - 1 8 6 5 ) , X X I V , 5 6 6 . 4 S e e A n n a l e s p o l i t i q u e * ; c i v i l e s , e t l i t t e r a i r e s d u  X V I I I 6 s i e c l e [ H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s A n n a l e s ] , X I I , M e m o i r e a u  r o i , c o n t e n a n t s a r e c l a m a t i o n a c t u e l l e m e n t p e n d a n t e a u  p a r l e m e n t d e P a r i s ( L o n d o n , 1 7 8 6 ) , p a s s i m ; m e m o i r e s s u r l a  B a s t i l l e e t l a d e t e n t i o n d e l ' a u t e u r d a n s c e c h a t e a u r o y a l e v d e p u i s l e 2 7 s e p t e m b r e 1 7 8 0 j u s q u ' a u 1 9 m a i 1 7 8 2 ( L o n d o n , 1 7 8 3 ) , p . 4 2 . X m o n a r c h " s e l o n d i e u " w a s s u p p o r t e d a n d i t s s o v e r e i g n t y l i m i t e d b y i t s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c h u r c h a n d b y t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s o f t h e r e a l m , t h e s a n c t i t y o f w h i c h w a s d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d o r i g i n s o f s o c i e t y . A n a p o l o g y o n b e h a l f o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y , h o w e v e r , i n v o l v e d m o r e t h a n t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e o f f i c e a n d t h e p e r s o n o f t h e r e i g n i n g m o n a r c h a g a i n s t t h e p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s o f t h e p a r l e m e n t s o r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c h u r c h f r o m t h e c o r r o s i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e n e w p h i l o s o p h y . T h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p h i l o s o p h e s a n d t h e p a r l e m e n t a i r e s b o t h e n c o u r a g e d a n d w e r e i n d i c a t i v e o f a m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l t h r e a t t o t h e m o n a r c h i c a l i d e a l : t h e p r o -g r e s s i v e c o n f u s i o n a n d d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a n d c l a s s . b o u n d a r i e s o f a o n c e r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l o r d e r . T h i s t r e n d t o w a r d h i e r a r c h i c a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n h a d p r o d u c e d a w o r s e n i n g o f t h e l o t o f t h e p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e k i n g ' s s u b j e c t s . T h e f u r t h e r e x a g g e r a t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c d i s l o c a t i o n a n d g e n e r a l d e p r i v a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t r y w o u l d u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o o v e r t c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n d w o u l d , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r f o r c e s o f s o c i a l , i d e o l o g i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , p r o d u c e r e v o l u t i o n a n d t h e c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h a t s o c i a l o r d e r w h i c h a l o n e w a s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y . T h e r e w a s t h e r e f o r e a u n i t y o f p u r p o s e b e h i n d L i n g u e t ' s w i d e -r a n g i n g p o l e m i c s — t h e d e f e n c e o f t h i s c o n c e p t o f a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y . T h i s u n i t y h a s h i t h e r t o b e e n o b s c u r e d b y t h e t e n d e n c y o n t h e p a r t o f h i s t o r i a n s t o p l a c e L i n g u e t i n t h e i r o w n c o n t e x t r a t h e r t h a n i n t h a t o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t i s i n t h e h o p e o f c o r r e c t i n g t h i s d i s t o r t i o n t h a t L i n g u e t ' s t h o u g h t i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a s a r e s p o n s e t o s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s a s w e l l a s t o g r o u p i n t e r e s t s a n d b e l i e f s . L i n g u e t ' s c r i t i q u e o f F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e a n d h i s c r i t i q u e o f M o n t e s q u i e u ' s E s p r i t d e s l o i s a s a r a t i o n a l e f o r p a r l e m e n t a r y a m b i t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d f i r s t i n a n e x p l i c a t i o n o f L i n g u e t ' s t r e a t i s e , T h e o r i e d e s l o i s c i v i l e s w h i c h b e c a m e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r h i s p o l e m i c s a g a i n s t t h e m a g i s t r a -t u r e , t h e p h y s i o c r a t s a n d t h e p h i l o s o p h e s . T h i s t r e a t i s e i s v i e w e d a s a p r o d u c t o f L i n g u e t ' s b r i e f c a r e e r a s a n a v o c a t d u r i n g w h i c h h e a c q u i r e d a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e w i t h w h i c h h e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d t h e a m b i t i o n o f t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e . M o r e g e n e r a l l y , h o w e v e r , L i n g u e t ' s t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e a s a n a v o c a t w a s p r o d u c t i v e o f a l e g a l i s t i c t u r n o f m i n d w h i c h m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n t h e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f c o n c e p t s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n a n d p r o p e r t y , b o t h i n t h e T h e o r i e d e s l o i s c i v i l e s a n d i n h i s o t h e r a t t a c k s o n t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e , t h e p h y s i o c r a t s a n d t h e p h i l o s o p h e s . T h e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s o n L i n g u e t ' s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e p h y s i o c r a t s a n d t h e p h i l o s o p h e s r e l a t e t h e T h e o r i e d e s l o i s  c i v i l e s t o L i n g u e t ' s c o n c e r n f o r t h e l o t o f t h e p o v e r t y -s t n d ' k e n p e a s a n t r y , h i s a p o l o g i a f o r t h e s o c i a l u t i l i t y o f t h c h u r c h a n d h i s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m a n d t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Enlightenment . B y t h u s w e a v i n g L i n g u e t ' s t h o u g h t b a c k i n t o t h e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l f a b r i c o f e i g h -t e e n t h c e n t u r y F r a n c e , i t i s h o p e d t h a t t h e u n i t y o f L i n g u e t ' s t h o u g h t w i l l b e c o m e e v i d e n t t o t h e r e a d e r . F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d , t h a t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e u n i t y o f L i n g u e t ' s t h o u g h t , t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f i n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t L i n g u e t w a s a p r e c u r s o r o f s o c i a l i s m . T o m y k n o w l e d g e , t h i s n o t i o n f i r s t m a d e i t s a p p e a r a n c e i n 1 8 6 5 w h e n K a r l M a r x l i k e n e d L i n g u e t t o P r o u d h o n . " * I t d i d n o t a p p e a r a g a i n u n t i l t h e l a s t d e c a d e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a t w h i c h t i m e i t b e c a m e a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d m y t h . I n 1 8 9 5 A n d r e L i c h t e n b e r g e r p u b l i s h e d a t h e s i s e n t i t l e d L e s o c i a l i s m e a u X V I I I s i e c l e , e t u d e s u r l e s  e c r i v a i n s f r a n c a i s d u X V I I I s i e c l e a v a n t l a R e v o l u t i o n w h i c h h e h a d a n t i c i p a t e d t w o y e a r s e a r l i e r w i t h a n a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d , " L i n g u e t s o c i a l i s t e , " ^ i n w h i c h L i n g u e t i s d e c l a r e d a s o c i a l -i s t o n t h e b a s i s o f h i s s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m . ^ F . A . A u l a r d , K a r l M a r x , F r e d r i c k E n g e l s , S e l e c t e d W o r k s , I ( M o s c o w , 1 9 5 5 ) , 3 9 6 . " P r o u d h o n h a s o f t e n b e e n c o m p a r e d t o R o u s s e a u . N o t h i n g c o u l d b e m o r e m i s t a k e n . H e i s m o r e l i k e N i c . L i n g u e t , w h o s e T h e o r y o f C i v i l L a w , b y t h e w a y , i s a v e r y b r i l l i a n t b o o k . " ^ A n d r e L i c h t e n b e r g e r , " L i n g u e t s o c i a l i s t e , " L a R e v o -l u t i o n f r a n c a i s e , 2 5 ( 1 8 9 3 ) , 9 7 - 1 2 5 . ^ l b i d . , p . 1 2 4 . " C ' e s t u n i q u e m e n t p a r l e c o t e n e g a t i f q u ' i l e s t d e l ' e c o l e s o c i a l i s t e . C o m m e e l l e i l m o n t r e 1 ' i n -j u s t i c e d e l a p r o p r i e t e p r i v e e , l e s v i c e s d e l a s o c i e t e m o d e r n e , l ' h o r r e u r d u s o r t d u q u a t r i e m e E t a t . " x i i i o n e o f t h e e x a m i n e r s a t L i c h t e n b e r g e r s o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s t h e s i s , w a s o f a m i n d t o e x t e n d t h e t e r m s o c i a l i s m t o i n c l u d e n o t o n l y t h o s e d i s p a r a t e a n d i s o l a t e d e x p r e s s i o n s o f s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m a n d o f s o c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s b u t t h e a c t i v e a s s a u l t u p o n t h e o l d r e g i m e ' s f e u d a l s y s t e m o f p r o p e r t y g — r i g h t s . A b i o g r a p h e r o f L i n g u e t , J e a n C r u p p i , c r e d i t e d L i n g u e t w i t h h a v i n g p r e d i c t e d a s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n a n d f o r m -u l a t e d t h e " i r o n l a w o f w a g e s . " L i n g u e t h a s n o w b e c o m e t h e 9 p r e c u r s o r o f M a r x a n d L a s s a l l e . E v e n t h e e m i n e n t s o c i o -l o g i s t , E m i l e D u r k h e i m , l a b e l l e d L i n g u e t a s o c i a l i s t , u p o n t h e b a s i s o f h i s p o r t r a y a l o f t h e d a y l a b o r e r a s t h e " h e i r o f t h e s l a v e o f a n t i q u i t y a n d o f t h e s e r f o f t h e m i d d l e a g e s " . ^ T h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f L i n g u e t a s a s o c i a l i s t a n d t h e m o r e g e n e r a l e n t h u s i a s m f o r d i s c o v e r i n g t h e p r o o f s o f s o c i a l i s m i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e f l e c t e d a n e n t h u s i a s m w i t h i n t h e b u r g e o n i n g F r e n c h s o c i a l i s t m o v e m e n t t o w o r k f o r s o c i a l c h a n g e t h r o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e T h i r d R e p u b l i c w h i c h i n v o l v e d t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t , t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , t h e g o a l s o f s o c i a l i s m w e r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e s p i r i t b e h i n d t h e s e i n s t i t u -t i o n s . O n e o f t h e m o s t f o r t h r i g h t e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h i s p o s i t i o n F . A . A u l a r d , B . B . " C h r o n i q u e B i b l i o g r a p h i e , " L a  R e v o l u t i o n f r a n c a i s e , 2 9 ( J u i l l e t , 1 8 9 5 ) , 9 0 . 9 J e a n C r u p p i , L i n g u e t : u n a v o c a t j o u r n a l i s t e a u  X V I I I s i e c l e ( P a r i s , 1 8 9 5 ) , 1 6 5 . ^ E m i l e D u r k h e i m , S o c i a l i s m , e d . i n t r o d u c t i o n , A l v i n W . G o u l d n e r , t r a n s . C h a r l o t t e L a t t l e r ( N e w Y o r k , 1 9 5 8 ) , 2 9 4 -2 9 7 . x i v w a s t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f J e a n J a u r e s , t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l i s m h a d b e e n p r e s e n t i n t h e " r e p u b l i c a n i d e a " s i n c e t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . ^ O n e c a n a g r e e w i t h J a u r e s ' a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l i s m a s a n e x t e n s i o n o f r e p u b l i c a n i d e a l s i n s o f a r a s t h e r e i s , i n t h e s o c i a l i s t a i m o f i m p r o v i n g t h e l o t o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a n , a n i m p l i c i t a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e right o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a c e r t a i n m i n i m u m l e v e l o f w e l l b e i n g . S o c i a l i s m i n t h i s r e s p e c t e x t e n d s t h e t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l r i g h t s i n t o t h e e c o n o m i c s p h e r e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c r i t e r i o n , L i n g u e t ' s s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m , d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , e v i d e n c e e v e n v a g u e s o c i a l i s t i c a s p i r a t i o n s . R a t h e r , h i s i n d i g n a t i o n a t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e r u r a l d a y l a b o u r e r i n F r a n c e w a s a l o g i c a l o u t g r o w t h o f a f i r m b e l i e f i n t h e p o l i t i c a l m y t h o l o g y s u p p o r t i n g a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y c e n t r a l t o w h i c h w a s t h e i m a g e o f t h e k i n g a s t h e b e n e v o l e n t f a t h e r o f h i s p e o p l e . T h o s e w h o h a v e c h o s e n t o p o r t r a y L i n g u e t a s a p r e -c u r s o r o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i a l i s m h a v e , h o w e v e r , p e r f o r m e d a r e a l s e r v i c e . T h e y h a v e f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n o n a t h i n k e r w h o b r o u g h t a h i g h l y o r i g i n a l m i n d t o h i s t r e n c h a n t a n d p e r -s p i c a c i o u s c r i t i c i s m o f F r e n c h s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r m o r e i n d o i n g s o t h e y h a v e e m p h a s i z e d t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f h i s t h o u g h t w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e b o t h h i s o r i g i n a l i t y a n d h i s a c u m e n . I n d o i n g J e a n J a u r e s , O e u v r e s : e t u d e s s o c i a l i s t e s I ( 1 8 8 8 - 1 8 9 7 ) ( P a r i s , 1 9 3 1 ) , 4 8 . XV so L i n g u e t f o r e s a w o n e o f t h e m a j o r e v i l s o f t h e f r e e m a r k e t e c o n o m y a t a t i m e w h e n s u c h a n e c o n o m y w a s o n l y b e g i n n i n g • t o i n t r u d e u p o n t h e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e a n c i e n  r e g i m e , L i n g u e t p e r c e i v e d t h e c l a s s c o n f l i c t l a t e n t i n F r e n c h s o c i e t y i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w h i c h w o u l d e v e n -t u a l l y e r u p t d u r i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h h e h a d f o r e s e e n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , L i n g u e t w a s c r e d i t e d w i t h h a v i n g g r a s p e d , a l -t h o u g h i n c o m p l e t e l y , w h a t M a r x i s t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d s o c i a l d y n a m i c s . F o r L i n g u e t , h o w e v e r , n e i t h e r t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e a s a p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l c h a n g e n o r t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y w e r e d i c t a t e d b y h i s t o r i c a l n e c e s s i t y . O n t h e c o n t r a r y i t w a s L i n g u e t s ' c o n v i c t i o n t h a t c l a s s a n t a g o n i s m s c o u l d b e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i r l a t e n c y a n d t h e i r i n t e n s i t y m i n i m a l i z e d i n a p r o p e r l y c o n s t i t u t e d s o c i e t y . S u c h a s o c i e t y w o u l d n o t b e a U t o p i a c o n s t r u c t e d o n t h e r u i n s o f t h e a n c i e n r e g i m e b u t t h e a n c i e n r e g i m e p u r i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e a c c r e t i o n s w h i c h w e r e f o r e i g n t o i t s n a t u r e , t h a t i s , t h r o u g h a r e t u r n t o t h e p a s t . I t w o u l d s e e m , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e i n -s i g h t s h a v e b e e n g r a s p e d t h e s p i r i t w h i c h l a y b e h i n d t h e m a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r p r e c i s e n a t u r e h a v e b e e n m i s u n d e r s t o o d . I t i s t o w a r d t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f t h i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d . C H A P T E R I L I N G U E T A S A C R I T I C O F T H E J U D I C I A L S Y S T E M O F F R A N C E . . . i l n ' y e n a p a s u n s e u l ( n a t i o n ) q u i a i t d e s l o i s f a i t e s a v e c r e f l e x i o n e . t p o u r l u i ; p a s u n q u i a i t m e m e p e n s e a s e r e n d r e c o m p t e d e s c o n d i t i o n s s o u s l e s q u e l l e s i l d o i t e x i s t e r , c o n t r a c t e r , t e s t e r , s e m a r i e r ; p a s u n q u i s ' e s t i m e a s s e z p o u r s e c r o i r e e n e t a t d e c o n c i l i e r d a n s u n C o d e , l a R a i s o n e t l ' H u m a n i t e . D e s c o u t u m e s g r o s s i e r e s , f o n d l e s s u r l e s c a p r i c e s d e l ' i g n o r a n c e e t d e l a s t u p i d i t e , d a n s l a n u i t d e l ' a n a r -c h i e f e o d a l e , i n c o m p a t i b l e s a v e c l e s c h a n g e m e n s s u r v e n u s d a n s t o u s l e s g e n r e s , v o i l a n o s l o i s n a t i o n a l e s . L e u r b i z a r r e r i e e t l e u r m u l t i p l i c i t e l e s m e t t e n t a c h a q u e i n s t a n t e n c o n t r a d i c t i o n l e s u n e s a v e e l e s a u t r e s , e t p l u s e n c o r e a v e c l e s e n s - c o m m u n . L ' e m b a r r a s a u g m e n t e t o u s l e s j o u r s p a r l e s O r d o n n a n c e s j o u r n a l i e r e s , p a r l e s d e c i s i o n s d e s T r i b u n a u x , q u i , n e l e s a b o l i s s a n t j a m a i s , e t y d e r o g e a n t s o u v e n t , f o u r -n i s s e n t u n a m p l e c h a m p a u x s u b t e r f u g e s d e l a c h i c a n e ; e t e n f i n l e D r o i t R o m a i n , o u p l u t o t l a c o m p i l a t i o n e x t r a v a g a n t e , f a i t e s o u s , c e n o m , p a r u n J u r i s c o n s u l t e p e r v e r s , e t u n E m p e r e u r i m b e c i l e a v a n t c o n s e r v e , e n q u e l q u e p a y s , l ' a u t o r i t e d ' u n e l o i , e t e t a n t c i t e d a n s t o u s p a r l e s P r a t i c i e n s , q u i l u i d o n n e n t , a v e c u n e j u s t e s s e d i g n e d ' e u x , l e n o m d e R a i s o n E c r i t e , a c h e v e d e r e n d r e l e d e s o r d r e a u s s i e f f r a y a n t q u ' i n c u r a b l e . 1 I n c r i t i c i z i n g t h e F r e n c h j u d i c i a l s y s t e m a n d m a g i s -t r a t u r e , L i n g u e t w a s b y n o m e a n s a v o i c e c r y i n g i n t h e w i l d e r -n e s s . F r e n c h j u r i s t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a d m a i n t a i n e d a s a l o n g t e r m o b j e c t i v e t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f s o m e o f " ^ S i m o n H . N . L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s p o l i t i q u e s , c i v i l e s e t  l i t t e r a i r e s d u X V I I I s i e c l e , I , N o . 1 ( 1 7 7 7 ) , 1 8 . 2 t h e m o r e b a r b a r o u s a n d c o n f u s e d a s p e c t s o f e x i s t i n g l a w w i t h a v i e w t o c r e a t i n g a s i n g l e w e l l - o r d e r e d l e g a l c o d e . V e r y l i t t l e p r o g r e s s w a s m a d e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , h o w e v e r , 2 u n t i l t h e l a s t g e n e r a t i o . i i b e f o r e t h e R e v o l u t i o n w h e n a v o c a t s w i t h a b r o a d e r o u t l o o k t h a n t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s b e g a n t o a g i t a t e f o r r e f o r m , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a r e a s o f c r i m i n a l l a w 3 a n d p r o c e d u r e . F o r L i n g u e t , h o w e v e r , t h e i n e q u i t i e s o f F r e n c h j u s t i c e d i d n o t a r i s e s o l e l y o u t o f t h e c h a o s o f F r e n c h l a w , b u t w e r e r a t h e r s u s t a i n e d a n d a g g r a v a t e d b y t h e T h e r e w e r e t h r e e o f f i c e s i n t h e l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n b e l o w t h e r a n k o f m a g i s t r a t e : t h e a v o c a t , t h e n o t a r y a n d t h e p r o c t o r . T h e a v o c a t , b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l l y a n d s o c i a l l y , o u t -r a n k e d t h e n o t a r y a n d p r o c t o r . I t w a s t h e a d v o c a t e w h o w a s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e l e g a l s y s t e m a s a w h o l e , a n d w a s p a r t i c -u l a r l y e x p e r t i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e l a w . I t w a s t h e t a s k o f t h e a d v o c a t e t o b r i n g t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e j u d g e t h e r e l e -v a n t l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s o f a c a s e , a s d e r i v e d f r o m R o m a n l a w , i n w r i t t e n b r i e f s o r m e m o i r e s . P r o c t o r s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s e r v e d a s d e f e n s e a t t o r n e y s i n c r i m i n a l c a s e s , p r e s e n t i n g t h e f a c t s o f a c a s e t o t h e c o u r t r a t h e r t h a n t h e l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s . I n c i v i l c a s e s t h e p r o c t o r ' s f u n c t i o n w a s t h e s a m e a s t h e n o t a r y ' s , t h a t i s , t o a c t a s c l e r c , r e c o r d i n g l e g a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , w i t n e s s i n g s i g n a t u r e s a n d d r a f t i n g d o c u m e n t s t o b e c e r t i f i e d . S e e P h i l i p D a w s o n , " T h e B o u r g e o i s i e d e R o b e i n 1 7 8 9 , " F r e n c h  H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s , I V ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 5 ) , 2 - 6 . W . F . C h u r c h , " T h e D e c l i n e o f t h e F r e n c h J u r i s t s a s P o l i t i c a l T h e o r i s t s , 1 6 6 0 - 1 7 8 9 , " F r e n c h H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s , V ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 7 ) , 2 8 . S e e a l s o L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , V I I I ( 1 7 8 0 ) , 2 3 5 . 3 F r e n c h m a g i s t r a t u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , g i v e n t h e p o l i t i c a l a m b i -t i o n s o f t h e n o b l e s s e d e r o b e , t h e p r o b l e m o f i n j u s t i c e w a s a p o l i t i c a l a s w e l l a s a j u d i c i a l o n e . F r e n c h l a w w a s a p a t r i m o n y w h i c h t h e p a r l e m e n t s w e r e m o v e d t o u p h o l d a g a i n s t a l l r e v i s i o n , o u t o f a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i r o w n v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s i n t h a t p a t r i m o n y a n d o u t o f a n e s p r i t d e c o r p s w h i c h v i e w e d a l l a t t e m p t s t o r e p e a l a l a w o r a p p e a l a d e c i s i o n h a n d e d d o w n b y t h e m a s v e r y m u c h a k i n t o l e s e - m a j e s t e / T h e r e f o r e , w o u l d n o t t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r p o w e r i n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l r e a l m i n t r o d u c e a n e w d i m e n s i o n o f o p p r e s s i o n a n d i n j u s t i c e i n t o F r e n c h s o c i e t y ? T h i s b r i e f l y i s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n L i n g u e t m a d e b e t w e e n j u d i c i a l a b u s e s a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s o f t h e p a r l e m e n t s , t h e i r t h e o r e t i c i a n , M o n t e s q u i e u , a n d h i s E s p r i t d e s l o i s , a n d , m o r e g e n e r a l l y t h e t h e s e n o b i l i a i r e . E v i l s I n h e r e n t I n T h e J u d i c i a l S y s t e m A l t h o u g h L i n g u e t i s n a t u r a l l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e e f f e c t w h i c h t h e b a r b a r i s m s o f F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e h a d o n F r e n c h s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e , h i s p r i m a r y f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e i s t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s i n F r a n c e : L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I ( 1 7 7 7 ) , 2 7 . 4 E n f i n c hez nous l e s p a u v r e s s o n t t r a i t e s avec une i n d i f f e r e n c e , un d e d a i n , e t s o u v e n t s a c r i f i e s a vec une b a r b a r ' i e q u i r e v o l t e n t des c o e u r s s e n s i b l e s . Le M a n o u v r i e r , l e D o m e s t i q u e , e t en g e n e r a l ' 1 ' I n f e r i e u r , ' o nt t o u j o u r s t o r t dans l e p r e m i e r moment. C ' e s t s u r ce p r e j u g e d e f a v o r a b l e q u ' e s t d i r i g e 1'examen q u i s u i t l a p l a i n t e , e t s o u v e n t i l n'y a pas d'examen du t o u t . La l o i a u t o r i s e ce d e n i de j u s t i c e , en recommandant a s e s agens d' o b s e r v e r de g r a n d e s d i s t i n c t i o n s dans l e s r i g u e u r s p r e l i m i n a i r e s de l e u r s p o u r s u i t e s . I l s d e c r e t t e n t e t d o i v e n t , d ' a p r e s l e t e x t e des o r d o n n a n c e s , d e c r e t t e r de p r i s e de c o r p s , un P a y s a n , pour l e meme f a i t , q u i v o u d r a a p e i n e une a s s i g n a t i o n a un B o u r g e o i s . 5 L i n q u e t p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e a r e s p e c i a l c o u r t s c a l l e d " P r e -v o t e s " f o r j u d g i n g "a m o r t " / p r o m p t l y and w i t h o u t a p p e a l , m e n d i c a n t s and o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s d e s i g n a t e d u n d e r t h e law as "gens sans a v e u . " I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e s m a l l t r i b u n a l s , p r e s i d e d o v e r by p r o c u r e u r s , " c o u r s de c o n s c i e n c e " o r " c o u r s des r e q u e t e s " t o d e a l w i t h m i n o r c r i m e s o r w i t h d o m e s t i c q u a r r e l s and the l i k e . The outcome of c a s e s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e s e c o u r t s i n v a r i a b l y f a v o r t h e m a s t e r or t h e man o f p r o p e r t y . I t w i l l be shown i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r t h a t L i n g u e t m a i n -t a i n e d t h e w e l f a r e of t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s as h i s p r i m a r y frame of r e f e r e n c e i n h i s d i s p u t e w i t h t h e P h y s i o c r a t s . L i n g u e t , | o c . c i t . , p.33. mort r e f e r s to t h e p a s s i n g of a s e n t e n c e of d e a t h on a l l t h o s e who a r e p r o v e n by t h e c o u r t to be i n t h e c a t e g o r y of "gens sans, a v e u . " 5 Le p r o p o s l e p l u s o r d i n a i r e du P r a t i c i e n metamor-phose en J u g e , c ' e s t , q u ' i l s ' a g i t de s i peu de chose', e t en e n c l i n a n t a i n s i l a b a l a n c e au p r e j u d i c e de l a p a r t i e l e p l u s en e t a t de p a y e r , l e c o n s c i e n t i e u x p r o c u r e u r n ' o u b l i e pas d e s ' a s s u r e r s e s e p i c e s ( l e g a l f e e s , see pp. 7 - 8 ) . L e s f r a i s y s o n t a s s e z c o n s i d e r a b l e s , e t n ' o n t a u c u n S p r o p o r t i o n a v e c l e s o b j e t s de l a compet-a n c e de c e t e t r a n g e t r i b u n a l . 7 S i m i l a r l y s e i g n e u r i a l j u s t i c e , w i t h i t s d i s t i n c t i o n between " h a u t e " "moyenne" and " b a s s e " j u s t i c e , p r o d u c e s i n e q u i t i e s by a r b i t r a r i l y d i c t a t i n g a t w h i c h l e v e l of c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s t h e g a c c u s e d w i l l be t r i e d . L i n g u e t s e e s i n F r e n c h c o u r t p r o c e d u r e a n o t h e r s o u r c e of i n e q u i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h o s e a t t h e l o w e r end of the s o c i a l s c a l e . R a t h e r t h a n b e i n g j u d g e d by one's p e e r s as i s t h e c a s e i n t h e B r i t i s h j u r y s y s t e m , a Frenchman has t h e m i s -f o r t u n e o f b e i n g j u d g e d by t h o s e whose p r o f e s s i o n i t i s to j u d g e o t h e r s and who , c o n s e q u e n t l y , become h a r d e n e d t o t h e 9 i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e j u d g e m e n t s t h e y p a s s . L i n g u e t c o n t r a s t s t h e m e r i t s of t h e B r i t i s h j u r y s y s t e m w i t h i t s a b s e n c e i n c r i m i n a l p r o c e d u r e o f F r a n c e : C ' e s t i c i q u ' i l e s t b i e n p e r m i s de r e g r e t t e r l ' u s a g e a d m i r a b l e de l a p r o c e d u r e A n g l a i s e , q u i n ' e s t , a ce q u i j e c r o i s , c o n s e r v e qu'en A n g l e t e r r e , e t q u i s u f f i r a i t s e u l p o u r a s s u r e r a 1 ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n de c e t t e f i e un r a n g d i s t i n g u e dans l ' e s t i m e du g e n r e humaine. T o u t 1 ' i n s t r u c t i o n se f a i t en p u b l i c ; l e s s p e c t a t e u r s I b i d . , pp. 34-35. g Simon L i n g u e t , La F r a n c e p l u s q u ' a n g l a i s ( B r u s s e l s , 1 7 8 8 ) , pp. 136-137. 9 T h i s would e s p e c i a l l y be t r u e i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g j o u r n a l i e r s and p o o r t e n a n t f a r m e r s s i n c e t h e m a g i s t r a t e s were s e i g n e u r s and n o b l e s . See Simon L i n g u e t , E n t r e t i e n de M.  L i n g u e t e t de M. B e r g a s s e ( B r u s s e l s , 1 7 8 8 ) , p. 41. See a l s o , L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I , 28. 6 a d m i s a c e c o m b a t d e p r e u v e s e t d e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s , q u i v a e n l e v e r o u r e n d r e u n h o m m e a l a S o c i e t e , j u g -e n t e t l e s t e m o i n s e t l ' a c c u s e , e t l e s J u g e s e u x -m e r n e s . . . . 1 0 W h i l e h e d o e s n o t a p p r o v e o f t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c r i m e s , b o t h m i n o r a n d m a j o r , a s c a p i t a l o f f e n s e s , L i n g u e t , h o w e v e r , c a n n o t h e l p b u t a d m i r e w h a t h e s e e s a s t h e s c r u p u l o u s n a t u r e w i t h w h i c h j u d i c i a l p r o c e e d i n g s a r e c o n d u c t e d . B o t h t h e c r o w n a n d t h e d e f e n s e h a v e t o p r e s e n t t h e i r e v i d e n c e i n t h e p r e s e n c e " d ' u n a u d i t o i r e n o m b r e u x e t i m p a r t i a l e q u i l e s a p p r e c i e . T o t h i s h e o p p o s e s t h e " c l a n d e s t i n i t e q u i f l e t r i t e n F r a n c e e t a i l l e u r s , l a p r o c e d u r e c r i m i n e l l e , e t d o n n e a u x 1 2 a r r e t s l e s p l u s e q u i t a b l e s l a f o r m e d ' u n a s s a s s i n a t . " I n F r a n c e j u d g e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o m a k e p u b l i c t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c r i m e u p o n w h i c h t h e y h a v e p a s s e d s e n t e n c e , T h e s a f e g u a r d i n g o f j u s t i c e i s o n l y i l l u s o r y s i n c e t h e e v i d e n c e u p o n w h i c h j u d g e m e n t i s h a n d e d d o w n n e e d n o t b e p u b l i s h e d . T h e p u b l i c n a t u r e o f j u d i c i a l p r o c e e d i n g s i s f u r t h e r e n h a n c e d i n B r i t a i n b y t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s e n j o y e d i n t h a t i s l a n d . W h i l e i n B r i t a i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e v i d e n c e a n d j u d g e m e n t a r e p u b l i s h e d i n n e w s p a p e r s , i n F r a n c e , a l l t h e p u b l i c h a s t o g o o n a r e a c o n f u s i n g a r r a y o f m e m o i r e s , o r l e g a l b r i e f s , e a c h o n e s e e k i n g t o d i s p r o v e i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . W i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l f a c t s o f a c a s e c o n f u s e d a n d d i s t o r t e d b y ^ L i n q u e t , A n n a l e s , I , 1 7 7 . 13 1 2 i X I b i d . X Z I b i d t h e p o l e m i c s o f t h e m e m o i r e s , i t i s m a d e e a s i e r f o r t h e p a r l e m e n t t o s u p p r e s s a n i s o l a t e d p l e a o n b e h a l f o f a n i n d i v i d -1 3 u a l c o m d e m n e d b y t h a t b o d y . I n s u m m a r y , L e s G r e c s r e p r e s e n t a i e n t l a j u s t i c e a v e c u n b a n d e a u : e n F r a n c e e l l e e n a b i e n u n a u s s i ; m a i s c ' e s t s u r l e s y e u x d e s s p e c t a t e u r s q u ' e l l e 1 ' a p p l i q u e . 1 4 F r e n c h j u s t i c e i s a l s o b l i n d t o t h e s e v e r e f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n i t p l a c e s u p o n t h o s e w h o c o m e b e f o r e i t ; e s p e c i a l l y i t i s h a r d o n t h e p o o r . I n F r a n c e , u n l i k e i n E n g l a n d , t r i b u n a l s a r e i m m o b i l e a n d t h e r e f o r e t r i a l s c a n b e e x t r e m e l y e x p e n s i v e f o r t h o s e w h o h a v e t o c o m e a g r e a t d i s t a n c e t o t h e s e a t o f t h e c o u r t . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t h e c a s e i n t h e j u r i s -d i c t i o n o f t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s w h i c h i s s o l a r g e t h a t p e o p l e c o u l d b e d r a w n t o i t f r o m a s f a r a w a y a s L a R o c h e l l e a n d L y o n . " ' " " ' T o m a k e t h e s i t u a t i o n e v e n m o r e a b s u r d t h e p a r 1 e m e n t s e v e n d e a l w i t h p e t t y c r i m e s a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e c a s e s w h i c h h a d b e e n a p p e a l e d , s o t h a t " U n s i m p l e a p p e l e t a i t d a n s l e s p r o v i n c e s u n e e s p e c e d e l e t t r e d ' e x i l p o u r l e s d e u x p l a i d e u r s q u ' i l c o m m e t t a i t e n s e m b l e d e n o u v e a u . . . • . " ^ I n t h e c a s e o f d e c i s i o n s b e i n g a p p e a l e d t o a h i g h e r c o u r t , t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f h a v i n g t o t r a v e l t o t h e s e a t o f 1 3 I b i d . , 1 7 8 - 1 7 9 . 1 4 I b i d . , 1 7 8 1 5 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I , 3 0 . 1 6 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , X I V ( 1 7 8 8 ) , 1 7 6 . 8 t h e a p p e l l a t e c o u r t i s o n l y o n e o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s a s p e c t o f F r e n c h j u s t i c e . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s p e e d w i t h w h i c h c r i m i n a l c a s e s a r e c o n c l u d e d a n d t h e v i c t i m d i s -p a t c h e d , i s t h e p l o d d i n g a n d c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e d u r e o f c i v i l c a s e s : M a i s c o m m e t o u t c h a n g e , q u a n d c ' e s t u n i n n o c e n t q u i p o u r s u i t l a r e p a r a t i o n d ' u n e i n j u s t i c e . D ' a b o r d s a r e c l a m a t i o n e x i g e u n e x a m e n : i l f a u t i n s t r u i r e , i l f a u t d i s c u t e r , p e s e r d e n o u v e a u d e s p r e u v e s d e j a a d m i s e s . N o t r e t e r r i b l e p r o c e d u r e a p p o r t e , a c e t t e r e v i s i o n , d e s o b s t a c l e s s a n s n o m b r e . L e p r e j u g e , l e p o u v o i r , s o n t s u r l e u r s g a r d e s : p o u r v a i n c r e l ' u n , p o u r d e s a r m e r 1 ' a u t r e , i l f a u t d e s d e p e n s e s e f f r a y a n t e s , e t u n t e r n s p r o d i g i e u x : o r , l a p a t i e n c e e t l a g e n e r o s i t e n e v o n t p a s t o u j o u r s a v e c l e c r e d i t . 1 7 T h e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e l i t i g a n t a r e s t r a i n e d n o t o n l y b y t h e i n v o l v e d n a t u r e o f a c i v i l c a s e b u t a l s o b y t h e e x c e s s i v e n u m b e r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l f e e s f o r w h i c h t h e l i t i -g a n t , i f s u c c e s s f u l , w a s r e s p o n s i b l e . L e g a l f e e s h a d t o b e p a i d n o t o n l y t o t h e a v o c a t a n d t h e p r o c u r e u r b u t t o t h e m a g i s t r a t e a n d t h e s e c r e t a i r e s , a s w e l l . n o t h i n g s i n c e t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e w a s p a i d b y t h e K i n g . I n t h e r e i g n o f C h a r l e s V I I , h o w e v e r , t h i s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t w a s w i t h d r a w n a n d s u c c e e d i n g m o n a r c h s w e r e o n l y t o o g l a d t o s t a n d b y t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t . B e f o r e C h a r l e s V I I , i t h a d b e e n t h e O r i g i n a l l y , j u d g e m e n t s c o s t t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d S i m o n L i n g u t u r e , I I I ( 1 7 7 5 ) , 4 9 1 e t , J o u r n a l d e p o l i t i q u e e t d e l i t t e r a -• [ H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s J o u r n a l ] , 9 custom f o r the winning p a r t y i n a c i v i l s u i t to present the m a g i s t r a t e s with a s m a l l g i f t of s p i c e s , not as a t r i b u t e , but as a mark of r e s p e c t . . F o l l o w i n g the r e i g n of C h a r l e s V I I , however, " l e s e p i c e s " became transformed i n t o a monetary t r i b u t e paid by the winning p a r t y . There were no l i m i t s placed on t h i s tax, nor any s c a l e worked out f o r the d i f f e r e n t types of proceedings with the r e s u l t that by the e i g h t e e n t h century these l e v i e s had become e x h o r b i t a n t . Furthermore, s i n c e the a r r e t of the s u c c e s s f u l l i t i g a n t was not d e l i v e r e d i n t o h i s hands u n t i l a f t e r he had paid the l e v y , t h i s custom o f t e n came to s p e l l r u i n a t i o n f o r t h i s i n d i v i d u a l , or, i n the case of non-payment of the f e e , an unresolved c a s e , ^ L i k e the m a g i s t r a t e s , the s e c r e t a i r e s too had o r i g i n -a l l y been i n the employ of the government. P r e v i o u s l y c a l l e d c l e r c s , t h e i r o f f i c e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n order to a s s i s t the judges i n s t u d y i n g the deluge of memoires and r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l s presented by the avocats and procureurs i n a case. As s e c r e t a i r e s , however, they ceased to be merely the employees of the m a g i s t r a t e s and became the c o l l a b o r a t o r s of those who wrote up the r e p o r t submitted to the magistrate; thus becoming judges i n t h e i r own r i g h t . L i k e the m a g i s t r a t e s , they too ceased being paid by the government and i n s t e a d r e c e i v e d t h e i r fees from those who came before the c o u r t . L i n g u e t , Annales, V I I I (1780), 232-233. I b i d . , pp. 234-235 . 1 0 T h e r e f o r e , i f e i t h e r p a r t y i n a c i v i l c a s e e n t e r t a i n e d a n y h o p e o f s u c c e s s , h e f o u n d h e h a d t o p a y t h e s e c r e t a i r e s , w h o 1 9 t h u s a c t e d a s t h e i r p a t r o n s b e f o r e t h e c o u r t . W h i l e c i v i l j u r i s p r u d e n c e , f o r L i n g u e t , i s c h a o t i c , p l o d d i n g a n d e x p e n s i v e , c r i m i n a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e i s b a r b a r o u s a n d d e g r a d i n g . C o u r t p r o c e d u r e d e g r a d e s t h e d e f e n d a n t b y r e q u i r i n g h i m t o s i t b e f o r e h i s j u d g e s o n a s m a l l t h r e e - l e g g e d s t o o l r e f e r r e d t o a s " l a s e l l e t t e . " T o t h i s i n d i g n i t y i s a d d e d t h e e x c r u c i a t i n g a n g u i s h o f e x e c u t i o n , w h e t h e r o n t h e 2 0 g i b e t , t h e w h e e l o r t h e s t a k e . A l t h o u g h b a r b a r o u s i n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m , c a p i t a l p u n i s h -m e n t p e r s e s h o u l d n o t b e a b o l i s h e d , h o w e v e r . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g p r i s o n e r s w h o o t h e r w i s e w o u l d h a v e b e e n e x e c u t e d , L i n g u e t f e l t , w o u l d b e p l a c i n g a n 2 1 u n n e c e s s a r y b u r d e n o n F r e n c h s o c i e t y . M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , h o w e v e r , t h e a b o l i t i o n o f c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t w o u l d o p e n t h e w a y t o a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w h e r e t h e w e a l t h y a n d t h e n o b l e c o u l d c o m m i t a n y c r i m e w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n h i g h p l a c e s w o u l d s e c u r e t h e a n n u l m e n t o f a n y s e n t e n c e t h a t m i g h t b e b r o u g h t d o w n u p o n t h e m . E x e c u t i o n o f t h e c o n d e m n e d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g j u d g e m e n t w o u l d e l i m i n a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y 2 0 L i n g u e t , L a F r a n c e p l u s q u ' a n g l a i s , p . 5 7 . S i n c e L i n g u e t m a d e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c r i t i c i s m o f c r i m i n a l l a w i n 1 7 7 8 , n o m e n t i o n i s m a d e o f t h e q u e s t i o n p r e p a r a t o i r e , t o r t u r e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e x t r a c t i n g a c o n f e s s i o n , w h i c h w a s a b o l i s h e d i n 1 7 8 0 . N o r i s m e n t i o n m a d e o f t h e q u e s t i o n p r e a l a b l e , t h e r o u -t i n e t o r t u r e o f t h e c o n d e m n e d w i t h a v i e w t o o b t a i n i n g t h e n a m e s o f a c c o m p l i c e s , w h i c h , i n t u r n , w a s a b o l i s h e d i n 1 7 8 8 . S e e A l f r e d C o b b a n , A H i s t o r y o f M o d e r n F r a n c e ( 2 n d e d i t i o n , m i d d l e s e x , 1 9 6 1 ) , I , 1 1 0 . 2 2 o f s u c h i n f l u e n c e b e i n g b r o u g h t t o b e a r o n a c a s e . W h a t i s m o r e , L i n g u e t p o i n t s o u t i r o n i c a l l y t h a t t h e a b o l i t i o n o f c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t w o u l d b e a n i m p o s i t i o n o n t h e p o o r : " C e s o n t l e s p a u v r e s q u ' i l f a u d r a i t f o r c e r d e v i v r e , p o u r l e s p u n i r ; c e s o n t l e s r i c h e s d o n t i l f a u d r a i t p r o s c r i r e l a t e t e , q u a n d i l s s e s e r a i e n t e x p o s e s y. 2 3 a u c h a t i m e n t . " A g a i n , j u s t i c e i s a m a r k e t a b l e c o m m o d i t y w h i c h f a v o r s t h o s e w h o c a n p a y f o r i t : N o u s a v o n s , d a n s n o s I n s t i t u t i o n s p o l i t i q u e s u n e m u l t i t u d e d e d e l i t s g r a v e s , d o n t o n s e r a c h e t t e p a r u n e c o n t r i b u t i o n p e c u n i a i r e . L a m o r t n ' y e s t q u e 1 ' e q u i v a l e n t d ' u n e a m e n d e : l a J u s t i c e n e b o i t l e s a n g q u e d u m a l h e u r e u x q u i n e p e u t t r o m p e r s a s o i f p a r l ' a r g e n t . V o i l a , M o n s i e u r , u n g e n r e d e l a l o i c o n t r e l e q u e l l ' h u m a n i t e e t l a p o l i t i q u e d o i v e n t e g a l e m e n t t o n n e r . 2 4 T h e M a g i s t r a t u r e F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e , w i t h i t s m a n y a b u s e s , h a s f o r L i n g u e t , o n e o v e r l y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c — a c o n t e m p t f o r t h o s e p o s s e s s i n g n e i t h e r n o b l e s t a t u s n o r w e a l t h . T h i s i s o n l y t o L i n g u e t , J o u r n a l , • I I I , 2 2 I b i d . , p . 4 8 8 . 2 3 I b i d . , p . 4 8 9 . 2 4 I b i d . , p . 4 9 0 . 1 2 2 5 b e e x p e c t e d g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f F r e n c h s o c i e t y a n d o f t h e c u s t o d i a n s o f t h e l a w , t h e p a r l e m e n t s o f F r a n c e . I t i s t h e l a t t e r , m o t i v a t e d b y a d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r v e s t e d i n t e r -e s t s a n d b y a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d e s p r i t d e c o r p s , w h i c h t h w a r t a t t e m p t s a t l e g a l r e f o r m a n d c o m p o u n d t h e a b u s e s o f F r e n c h l a w . I f w e a c c e p t L i n g u e t ' s p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t F r e n c h j u r i s -p r u d e n c e f a v o r e d n o b i l i t y a n d w e a l t h , t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e d i d , i n d e e d , h a v e a l a r g e s t a k e i n t h e e x i s t i n g b o d y o f l a w . T h e m a g i s t r a t u r e h a d e m e r g e d f r o m t h e r e i g n o f L o u i s X I V a p o w e r f u l i n s t i t u t i o n , t h o r o u g h l y e n t r e n c h e d i n i t s p r i v i l e g e s . A n e d i c t o f 1 6 4 4 h a d c o n f e r r e d p e r f e c t n o b i l i t y ( i m m e d i a t e a s s u m p t i o n o f n o b l e s t a t u s ) o n a l l p r e s i d e n t s , c o n s e i l l e u r s , g e n s d u r o i , a n d g r e f f i e r s - e n - c h e f , o f t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s . S u b s e q u e n t e d i c t s e x t e n d e d t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s t o t h e o t h e r s o v e r e i g n c o u r t s 2 6 o f F r a n c e . A s a r e s u l t 8 1 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e F r e n c h m a g i s -2 7 t r a t u r e w a s c l a s s i f i e d a s b e i n g n o b l e i n 1 7 1 5 . A l t h o u g h t h e i r c l a i m t o e q u a l n o b i l i t y w a s b e y o n d q u e s t i o n , t h e p a r l e m e n t a i r e s h a d , h o w e v e r , b y n o m e a n s b e e n f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d s o c i a l l y i n t o t h e n o b i l i t y . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g 2 5 L i n g u e t ' s t h e o r y o n t h e o r i g i n a n d n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 2 6 F r a n k l i n L . F o r d , R o b e a n d S w o r d : t h e R e g r o u p i n g o f  t h e F r e n c h A r i s t o c r a c y a f t e r L o u i s X I V , ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1 9 5 3 ) P a p e r b a c k e d i t i o n , 1 9 6 5 , p p . 5 9 - 6 3 . 2 7 F r a n c o i s B l u c h e , L e s M a g i s t r a t s d u p a r l e m e n t d e P a r i s  a u X V I I I 6 s i e c l e ( 1 7 1 5 - 1 7 7 1 ) ( P a r i s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 8 2 . 1 3 o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e y w e r e l o o k e d u p o n b y t h e n o b l e s s e d ' e p e e a s b e i n g r o t u r i e r s , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , s t i l l v e r y m u c h s o c i a l l y 2 8 i n f e r i o r . W h i l e t h i s a s s e r t i o n h a d a n o b v i o u s b a s i s i n f a c t d u r i n g t h e R e g e n c y , b y m i d - c e n t u r y a s u f f i c i e n t t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n h a d t a k e n p l a c e w i t h i n t h e r o b e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e r o b e a n d s w o r d t o a p p e a r m u c h l e s s o b v i o u s . I n d e e d , t h e n o b l e d e r o b e , i n h i s m a n n e r s a n d a t t i t u d e s , w a s a l m o s t i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m h i s b r o t h e r o f t h e s w o r d ; t h e o l d b o u r g e o i s - - J a n s e n i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a u s t e r i t y , i n d u s t r y a n d t h r i f t h a d l a r g e l y b e e n s u p e r s e d e d b y t h o s e o f " e l e g a n c e , 2 9 s o c i a l h a u t e u r a n d a f e u d a l i z e d c o n c e p t i o n o f p r i v i l e g e . " T h i s i s n o t t o s a y , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e R o b e w a s c o m -p l e t e l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e n o b l e s s e d 1 e p e e : L e r a p p r o c h e m e n t n e v a p a s j u s q u ' a l ' i n t i m i t e , n i m e m e j u s q u ' a l a m u t u e l l e e s t i m e . L e s g e n s d e r o b e n ' e s t i m e p a s l e s g e n s d e c o u r , e t l e s d a m e s d e l a n o b l e s s e d ' e p e e r e p r o c h e n t a u x d a m e s d e l a m a g i s t r a t u r e d e n ' a v o i r p a s l ' u s a g e d u m o n d e . L e s m a g i s t r a t s v i v e n t s u r t o u t e n t r ' e u x e t l e u r c o m m e r c e e n t r e t i e n t l e u r o r g u e i l . 3 0 T h u s , t h e n o b l e s s e d e r o b e n e v e r f e l t e n t i r e l y s e c u r e i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e i r n o b l e s t a t u s , d e s p i t e t h e s e n s e o f u n i t y w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e d t h e w h o l e o f t h e s e c o n d e s t a t e i n t h e 2 8 I b i d . , p p . 1 3 6 - 1 3 8 . S e e a l s o F o r d , o p . c i t . , p . 7 2 2 9 F o r d , o p . c i t . , p . 7 5 . T h i s p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n h a d b e e n a c h i e v e d a ) b y t h e r o b e ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a s a l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y ; b ) b y i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e t o p e c h e l o n s o f t h e a r m y c ) t h r o u g h c o m m o n m e m b e r s h i p ' i n t h e a c a d e m i e s a n d s a l o n s t h r o u g h o u t F r a n c e ; d ) t h r o u g h i n t e r m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n r o b e a n d s w o r d . F o r e x a m p l e s , s e e B l u c h e , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 3 0 , 2 1 6 , 3 1 9 a n d F o r d , o p . c i t . , p p . 6 8 , 2 0 4 . 1 4 l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y . A s p a r v e n u s t h e y w e r e o v e r a n x i o u s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r o n e n e s s w i t h t h e n o b l e s s e d ' e p e e . T h i s o f t e n l e d t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f a n e x c e s s i v e l y h a r d h e a r t e d a t t i t u d e b y m a g i s t r a t e s t o w a r d t h o s e b e n e a t h t h e m s o c i a l l y : E n g e n e r a l , n o s v i e u x S e r r a t e u r s s o n t d e u x , d ' u n d ' a b o r d d i f f i c i l e ; i l s r e b u t e n t l e s p a u v r e s e t l e s m a l h e u r e u x p a r u n a i r d e h a u t e u r e t d ' i m p o r -t a n c e , q u i , s o u v e n t m e m e , e s t e l o i g n ! d u c a r a c t e r e . ^ F o r L i n g u e t , h o w e v e r , t h i s h a u g h t y d e m e a n o u r w a s e n t i r e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t w h i c h t h e n o b l e s s e d e  r o b e m e t e d o u t t o t h e i r s o c i a l i n f e r i o r s . T h e p a r l e m e n t a i r e s w e r e s t a u n c h s u p p o r t e r s o f a s o c i a l a n d j u d i c i a l o r d e r w h i c h r e i n f o r c e d a n d a f f i r m e d t h e i r h i g h s o c i a l r a n k a n d t h e o w n e r s h i p o f o f f i c e s w h e r e i n t h i s r a n k r e s i d e d . L i n g u e t , f o r e x a m p l e , p o i n t s o u t t h a t s e i g n e u r i a l j u s t i c e i s u p h e l d b y t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e a s " . . . u n p a t r i m o i n e f o n c i e r , c o m m e u n e p r o p r i e t e s a c r e e ; e t e l l e n ' a p a s t o r t , p u i s q u e c e s o n t t o u t c e s s e r i e s d e j u r i s d i c t i o n s e n c h e v e t r e e s 3 2 l e s u n e s d a n s l e s a u t r e s , q u i s o n t s a f o r c e . " S i n c e t h e H . C a r r e a n d P . S a g n a c , L e r e g n e d e L o u i s X V I ( 1 7 7 4 -1 7 8 9 ) . T o m e I X , H i s t o i r e d e l a F r a n c e , e d . E . L a v i s s e , ( P a r i s , 1 9 1 1 ) , 1 8 7 . 3 1 v M o l i v a s S a i n t - A y r , T a b l e a u d u s i e c l e , p . 3 5 , c i t e d i n B l u c h e , o p . c i t . , p . 3 0 9 . 3 2 L i n g u e t , L a F r a n c e p l u s q u ' a n g l a i s , p . 1 3 8 . 1 5 3 3 c o s t o f j u d i c i a l o f f i c e s i s s o p r o h i b i t i v e , t h e m a g i s t r a -3 4 t u r e a r e i n c l i n e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e r e t u r n s f r o m t h e i r o f f i c e s . V e n a l i t y o f j u d i c i a l o f f i c e s a l s o e n c o u r a g e s t h e r e t e n t i o n o f o f f i c e s a n d t r i b u n a l s w h i c h h a v e c e a s e d t o s e r v e 3 5 a n y u s e f u l f u n c t i o n . T h i s s u p e r f l u i t y e n c o u r a g e s o e j i o r b i t a n t p r o f e s s i o n a l f e e s a n d c o u r t c o s t s a n d p r o m o t e s t h o s e j u r i s -d i c t i o n a l j e a l o u s i e s a r i s i n g o u t o f b o t h f u n c t i o n a n d a r e a , w h i c h v i c t i m i z e t h o s e w h o c o m e b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s . L i n g u e t p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n F r a n c e a p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t l i k e t h e C o n s e i l  P r o v i n c i a l o f A r t o i s c a n p a s s j u d g e m e n t o n a c r i m i n a l c a s e , a s a s o v e r e i g n c o u r t , w i t h n o a p p e a l , w h i l e a l l i t s j u d g e m e n t s i n c i v i l c a s e s c a n b e a p p e a l e d t o P a r i s . S i n c e t h e s e c o u r t s f i n d t h e r e v i e w o f t h e i r d e c i s i o n s d i s t a s t e f u l , t h e y n a t u r a l l y a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h a t l e g a l p r o v i s i o n w h i c h l e a v e s i t t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l t r i b u n a l s t o d e c i d e o n a f o r m u l a f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c a s e s a s e i t h e r c i v i l o r c r i m i n a l . . e t c o m m e c ' e s t a l a s e v e r i t e q u ' e s t a t t a c h e e p o u r e l l e s 1 ' i n d e p e n d a n c e , i l d o i t s ' y f o r m e r p e u a p e u u n e s p r i t d e c o r p s , q u i a y a n t c o m m e n c e p a r l a r i g u e u r , p e u t d e v e n i r d e l a c r u a u t e e t e n f i n d e l ' i n j u s t i c e . . . . 3 6 3 3 /\ L i n g u e t , O b s e r v a t i o n s s u r l e n o u v e l a r r e t e d u p a r l e -m e n t d e P a r i s , e n d a t e d u 5 d e c e m b r e , 1 7 8 8 , ( 1 7 8 9 ) , p~T 2 1 . T h e c o s t o f j u d i c i a l o f f i c e e v e n , t h e n w a s o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e e x p e n s e i n v o l v e d i n b e c o m i n g a m a g i s t r a t e . F r o m t h e d a y o n e e n t e r e d l a w s c h o o l t o t h e d a y o n e a s s u m e d j u d i c i a l o f f i c e , e a c h s m a l l p r o g r e s s i o n w a s a c h i e v e d o n l y a f t e r p a y m e n t o f a f e e t o s o m e o f f i c i a l . 3 4 S e e a b o v e p p . 7 - 8 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l f e e s o f t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e . 1 6 T h e p a r l e m e n t s a l s o w o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e a n y a l t e r a t i o n 3 7 o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e i r a r e a s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h i s a t t i t u d e g r e w , i n p a r t , o u t o f a c e r t a i n p a r o c h i a l i s m : L e R o y a u m e d e F r a n c e e s t c o m p o s e , c o m m e s e s v o i s i n s , d e p i e c e s r a p p o r t e e s , d e p r o v i n c e s s o u d e e s l e s u n s a p r e s l e s a u t r e s a c e g r a n d C o r p s . P l u s i e u r s d ' e n -. t r ' e l l e s , a u m o m e n t d e l ' u n i o n , o n t s t i p u l e s o i g n e u s e m e n t l a c o n s e r v a t i o n d e l e u r s v i e u x u s a g e s , d e l e u r s v i e i l l e s l o i x , c ' e s t - a - d i r e , d e l e u r s v i e u x a b u s , e t l e d r o i t f u n e s t e d e r e s i s t e r a d e s r e f o r m e s u t i l e s . 3 8 T h e F r e n c h j u d i c i a r y o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a s m a d e u p o f a n a g g l o m e r a t i o n o f t h i r t y - o n e s o v e r e i g n c o u r t s ( i n a d d i -t i o n t o t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f s m a l l l o c a l c o u r t s r e f e r r e d t o v a r i o u s l y a s b a i l l i a g e s o r s e n e c h a u s e e s ) w h o s e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l 3 5 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , X I V , 1 7 4 . " L a c r e a t i o n d e s T r i b u n a u x n ' a y a n t e t e j u s q u ' i c i e n F r a n c e , a l a h o n t e d u G o u v e r n e m e n t , q u ' u n e s p e c u l a t i o n f i s c a l e , o u l e d r o i t d e j u g e r s e v e n d a i t , e t s ' a c q u e r a i t p o u r d e l ' a r g e n t , e t l e d e s i r d e f a c i l i t e r l e d e b i t d e c e t t e e t r a n g e m a r c h a n d i s e a y a n t f a i t a t t a c h e r a s a p o s s e s s i o n d e s e m o l u m e n s a v e c d e s h o n n e u r s , p r o p o r t i o n n e s n o n p a s a l a f a t i g u e , o u a 1 ' i m p o r t a n c e d e s f u n c t i o n s , m a i s a u p r i x d e b o u r s e p o u r e n a c q u e r i r l e t i t r e , l e s T r i b u n a u x v r a i m e n t u t i l e s , c h a r g e s d ' u n M i n i s t e r e l a b o r i e u x e t a i e n t r a r e s , e t l ' o n a v a i t a c c u m u l e a v e c u n e i n d i s c r e t i o n p o u s s e e j u s q u ' a u r i d i c u l e c e u x d o n t l a m u l t i p l i c i t y r u i n e u s e a u x p e u p l e s , e m b a r r a s s a n t e p o u r l e G o v e r n m e n t , e t a i t a - l a - f o i s l ' o p p r o b r e e t l e f l e a u d e l e N a t i o n , l e l i t d e j u s t i c e d u 8 m a i c o m m e n c e a r e m e d i e r a c e t a b u s . 3 6 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I , 3 2 - 3 3 . 3 7 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I V ( 1 7 7 8 ) , 3 2 6 . 3 8 I b i d . , p . 3 3 5 . 1 7 i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n o n l y b e d e s c r i b e d a s c h a o t i c . T h e s e s o v e r e i g n c o u r t s i n n o w a y c o n s t i t u t e d a r a t i o n a l l y - o r g a n i z e d s y s t e m . T h e y r e p r e s e n t e d r a t h e r t h e r a n d o m d e l e g a t i o n s o f r o y a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s . J u r i s d i c t i o n a l o b s c u r i t y a n d d u p l i c a t i o n w a s t h e r u l e r a t h e r t h a n e x c e p t i o n , w h i l e i n m a n y i n s t a n c e s , c o u r t s o r i g i n a l l y p o s s e s s i n g e x t e n -s i v e p o w e r s h a d s u f f e r e d t h e r a v a g e s o f t i m e a n d t h e r e d e l e -g a t i o n o f r o y a l a u t h o r i t y u n t i l l i t t l e m o r e w a s l e f t o f t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n t h a n t h e d r i e d o u t t h e o r e t i c a l h u s k d i v e s t e d o f 3 9 m o s t o f i t s m e a n i n g . S i n c e t h e y h a d a l l o r i g i n a l l y b e e n p u r c h a s e d , s u c h j u r i s d i c t i o n s w e r e s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d w o r t h 4 0 u p h o l d i n g , m u c h t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c l a r i t y . T h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l w r a n g l i n g w a s a l s o m o t i v a t e d , t o a v e r y l a r g e e x t e n t , b y t h e e s p r i t d e c o r p s w h i c h h a d d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s s o v e r e i g n c o u r t s . F o r L i n g u e t t h i s e s p r i t d e  c o r p s i s t h e p a r a m o u n t s h o r t c o m i n g o f t h e p a r l e m e n t s o f F r a n c e . I t i s a n e s p r i t d e c o r p s w h i c h i n v o l v e s a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e J u d i c i a r y a s . u n e e s p £ c e d e s a c e r d o c e , d o n t c e r t a i n e s c o m -p a g n i e s s o n t r e v e ' t u s p a r l e S o u v e r a i n : i l f a u t d e s p r o v i s i o n s , d e s p a t e n t e s e n f o r m e , p o u r l ' e x e r c e r . C ' e s t u n m i n i s t r e e x c l u s i f , a u q u e l o n n e p e u t p a s p a r t i c i p e r , - s a n s a v o i r r e c u c e t t e c o n s e c r a t i o n . T o u t h o m m e q u i o s e r o i t l ' u s u r p e r s a n s c e p r e 1 i m i n a i r e , d e -v i e n d r o i t l u i - m e m e c o u p a b l e d ' u n e e s p e c e d e c r i m e d e L e z e - M a j e s t e . 4 1 3 9 F o r d , o p . c i t , p p . 5 1 - 5 2 . 4 0 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , X I V , 1 7 5 . T h e s e t h i r t y - o n e s o v e r -e i g n c o u r t s i n c l u d e d f i f t e e n p a r l e m e n t s , t h r e e o f w h i c h w e r e a c t u a l l y p r o v i n c i a l c o u n c i l s , n i n e c h a m b r e s d e s c o m p t e s , f o u r c o u r s d e s a i d e s , t w o c o u r s d e s m o n n a i e s a n d t h e G r a n d C o n s e i l . S e e F o r d , o p . c i t . , p p . 3 7 - 4 4 . T h e r e i s i n t h i s a t t i t u d e t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e l a w s d o n o t h a v e a n e x i s t e n c e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e . A s a r e s u l t , t h e p a r l e m e n t s r e s i s t v e r y p o o r l y t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f a r b i t r a r y p o w e r : c o n s e i l l e p ' S s q u i t e r e a d i l y r a t i o n a l i z e t h a t p a s s i n g j u d g e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x a c t l e t t e r o f t h e l a w i s t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f s u b a l t e r n j u d g e s a n d t h a t t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t h e 4 2 p a r l e m e n t i s t o j u d g e a c c o r d i n g t o c o n s c i e n c e . I t i s t h i s s a m e e s p r i t d e c o r p s w h i c h b r i n g s t h e p a r l e m e n t s i n f l e x i b l y t o u p h o l d a n y d e c i s i o n p a s s e d d o w n b y t h e m , n o m a t t e r h o w ' 4 3 a r b i t r a r y , e v e n i f i t o v e r r u l e d b y t h e k i n g . T h e y d o t h i s i n o r d e r t o - m a i n t a i n t h e f i c t i o n o f t h e i r i n f a l l i b i l i t y a n d t o p r e v e n t t h e i r p r e r o g a t i v e s f r o m b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d : ^ L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I , 2 7 . 4 2 L i n g u e t , E n t r e t i e n d e M . L i n g u e t e t d e M . B e r g a s s e ( B r u s s e l s , 1 7 8 8 ) , p . 2 3 . ^ L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I V , 3 3 6 . A c l a s s i c c a s e o f t h i s r e f u s a l o f t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e t o a l l o w p r e v i o u s j u d g e m e n t s t o b e q u e s t i o n e d a n d o n e i n w h i c h L i n g u e t t o o k a l i v e l y i n t e r e s t , w a s t h e L a l l y - T o l l e n d a l A f f a i r . I n 1 7 6 6 L a l l y - T o l l e n d a l h a d b e e n e x e c u t e d f o r t r e a s o n . I n 1 7 7 7 h i s s o n a p p r o a c h e d t h e C o n s e i l d u R o i w i t h a r e q u e s t t o h a v e h i s f a t h e r r e h a b i l i t a t e d . T h e p a r l e m e n t s o f R o u e n a n d P a r i s i n t h e e n d s u c c e e d e d i n h a v i n g t h e o r i g i n a l j u d g e m e n t u p h e l d . M a n y o f L i n g u e t ' s c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e w e r e m a d e a s p a r t o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c a s e i n t h e A n n a l e s . F o r d e t a i l s o f t h e A f f a i r s e e A n n a l e s , V I I I , 1 6 3 - 1 8 5 , 3 4 4 - 3 5 2 , 4 9 2 - 4 9 8 , 4 9 8 - 5 0 2 . S e e a l s o H . C a r r e  a n d P . S a g n a c . , o p . c i t . , 1 9 3 - 1 9 4 . 1 9 L a r o b e n ' a p e u t - e t r e p a s l a c r u e l l e v e r t u d e l a c h e m i s e d e N e s s u s ; e l l e n ' e n f l a m m e p a s l e s p a s s i o n s , m a i s e l l e n e l e s e t e i n t p a s n o n p l u s . O r , u n e d e s p l u s f u r i e u s e s , d e s p l u s i n t r a i t a b l e s , d a n s t o u t c e q u i s ' a p p e l l e c o m -p a g n i e , c ' e s t l e d e s i r d e m a i n t e n i r l e u r s p r e r o g a t i v e s e t d e n e p a s v o i r e d e t r u i r e l e u r o u v r a g e . . . . L e s J u g e s s ' i n d i g n e n t c o n t r e u n e d e m a n d e q u i s e m b l e l e s a c c u s e r d e f a i b l e s s e o u d e c o r r u p t i o n . I l s a p p e l e n t r e v o l t e l e c r i p l a i n t i f q u e p o u s s e l e u r v i c t i m e , d u f o n d s d u g o u f f r e o u i l s l ' o n t p l o n g e e : i l s v o i e n t e n e l l e u n d e n o n c i a t e u r q u i c h e r c h e a l e s f l e t r i r , e t q u ' i l f a u t p e r d r e p o u r s ' e p a r g n e r d e l a h o n t e o u d e s r e m o r d s : l e s p l u s v e r t u e u x m e m e n e s o n t p a s a l ' a b r i d e c e t t e e f f r a y a n t e s u r p r i s e d e 1 ' e s p r i t d e c o r p s : i t s s o n t s o u v e n t i n f l e x i b l e s , e n r a i s o n d e c e q u e l e u r s i n t e n t i o n s o n t e t e p l u s d r o i t e s : i t s n e p e u v e n t s o u t e n i r l ' i d e e q u ' o n l e s c r o i r a c a p a b l e s d e n e s ' e t r e p a s d e f i e s d ' u n e e r r e u r , o u d ' a v o i r c o n c o u r u a u n e i n i q u i t e ; i l s t r a v a i l l e n t a e n a s s u r e r l e t r i o m p h e p o u r s ' e p a r g n e r l e d e s a g r e m e n t d e l a v o i r r e t r a c t e e ; l ' e x p e r i e n c e n e f o u r n i t a c e t e g a r d q u e d e t r o p a f f r e u s e s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . 4 4 I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r n o b l e s t a t u s , w e a l t h a n d e s p r i t d e c o r p s , t h e u n i q u e r e l a t i o n t h e r o y a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n s p t h e s e p r e t e n s i o n s o f j u d i c i a l s h i p o f t h e p a r l e m e n t a i r e s t o i r e s t o m a k e a m o c k e r y o u t o f i n f a l l i b i l i t y . T h e m a g i s t r a t e i n F r a n c e , u n l i k e h i s c o u n t e r p a r t i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , d o e s n o t c o m p l e t e l y a s s o c i a t e h i s s t a t u s a n d t h e r e f o r e h i s s e l f -e s t e e m w i t h h i s j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , . u n m a g i s t r a t e n e f a i t p r e c i s e m e n t c e q u ' i l e s t : s a c l a s s e e s t u n e p e p i n i e r e q u i f o u r n i t d e s s u j e c t p r e s q u e a t o u t e s l e s a u t r e s . I I n ' y a p o i n t d e ' L i c e n c i e e s L o i x ' , u n p e u r i c h e , q u i d e s q u ' i l s ' e s t h a r n a c h e d ' u n e r o b e d a n s u n e C o u r S o u v e r a i n e , n e v i s e a d e v e n i r M e . d e s R e q u e t e s , I n t e n d a n t , C o n t r o l e u r - G e n e r a l , M i n i s t r e , e t c . S o n a m b i t i o n e s t j u s t i f i e e p a r d e s e x e m p l e s j o u r n a l i e r s . . . . 4 5 L i n g u e t , J o u r n a l , I I I , 4 9 1 - 4 9 2 . " L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , V I I I , 4 9 4 . 2 0 T h i s s i t u a t i o n had developed as a r e s u l t of the t e r r i b l y slow p r o c e s s of advancement i n the parlement s and e s p e c i a l l y i n the p arlement of P a r i s . L i k e baroque a r c h i t e c t u r e , the h i e r a r c h y of the parlement of P a r i s was i m p o s i n g i n i t s i n t r i c a c y . D i r e c t -l y below the k i n g , the c h a n c e l l o r and the garde des sceaux, who were h o n o r i f i c heads of the p a r l e m e n t , was the f i r s t p r e s i d e n t who p r e s i d e d over the Grand'Chambre, the h i g h e s t c o u r t w i t h i n the p a r l e m e n t . D i r e c t l y below him and a c t i n g as h i s a s s i s t a n t s were the n i n e p r e s i d e n t s a m o r t i e r . Below t h e s e , i n t u r n , were the group of t h i r t y - t h r e e c o u n c i l l o r s (twenty-one l a i c s and t w e l v e c l e r i c s ) who c o n s t i t u t e d the d e l i b e r a t i v e element i n c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s . Going beyond the Grand'Chambre t h e r e were the p r e s i d e n t s of the chambres des enquetes and r e q u e t e s , numbering t h r e e to each c o u r t . These p r e s i d e n t s , i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , were of i n f e r i o r rank to the p r e s i d e n t s a m o r t i e r of the Grand'Chamb r e . Under these t h r e e p r e s i d e n t s i n each c o u r t were c o u n c i l l o r s , numbering t h i r t y - t w o f o r each chambre des enquetes and from t e n to t w e l v e f o r each chambre des r e q u e t e s . A t t a c h e d to the p a r l e m e n t , b u t , t h e o r e t i c a l l y not an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h a t company were the gens du r o i ( o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as the p a r q u e t ) c o n s i s t i n g of a p r o c u r e u r - g e n e r a l and from two to f o u r a v o c a t s - g e n e r a u x . I t was t h e i r t a s k to r e p r e s e n t the k i n g ' s i n t e r e s t s to p a r l e m e n t . As the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y wore on, however, those h o l d i n g these o f f i c e s were l e s s o f t e n a p p o i n t e e s of the k i n g , s i n c e these o f f i c e s became the p r i v a t e p r e s e r v e o f t h e g r e a t d y n a s t i e s o f t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e . I n t e r m s o f p a r l e m e n t a r y r a n k , t h e g e n s d u r o i w e r e d i r e c t l y b e n e a t h t h e p r e s i d e n t s a m o r t x e r . A y o u n g m a g i s t r a t e m i g h t e n t e r o n e o f t h e l o w e r c o u r t s i n t h e P a l a i s d e J u s t i c e a s a c o n s e i l l e r , w h e r e h e w o u l d h a v e t o w a i t u p t o t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e e n t e r i n g t h e G r a n d ' C h a m -4 7 b r e . A f t e r t e n y e a r s o f s e r v i c e i n t h e l o w e r c o u r t s , h e w o u l d b e e l i g i b l e f o r t h e p o s i t i o n o f p r e s i d e n t d e s e n q u e t e s o r r e q u e t e s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e c o n s e i l l e r o f t h e G r a n d ' C h a m b r e h a d t o s e r v e t e n y e a r s b e f o r e b e c o m i n g e l i g i b l e f o r t h e p o s i t i o n o f p r e s i d e n t a m o r t i e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , a n o f f i c e r i n o n e o f t h e l o w e r c o u r t s i n p a r l e m e n t , o n c e h a v i n g s e r v e d t h e r e q u i r e d p e r i o d , w o u I d h a v e t o w a i t h i s t u r n a s v a c a n c i e s i n t h e G r a n d ' C h a m b r e 4 8 w e r e f i l l e d i n o r d e r o f s e n i o r i t y o f o f f i c e . T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e t h e r e w a s o n e c a t e g o r y o f m a g i s t r a t e w h o w a s s u s t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s b y " l ' a m o u r d e s o n e t a t " , t h e r e w a s t h a t o t h e r c a t e g o r y w h i c h s a w t h e p a r l e m e n t a s a p l a c e f r o m w h i c h t o l a u n c h 4 9 a c a r e e r i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A n d , a s L i n g u e t p o i n t e d o u t i t w a s q u i t e c o m m o n f o r a y o u n g r o b i n t o s e e k t h e p o s i t i o n o f m a i t r e d e s r e q u e t e s o n t h e C o n s e i l d e s P a r t i e s ( p a r t o f t h e S e e B l u c h e , o p . c i t . , p . 4 9 ; a n d J e a n E g r e t , " L ' A r i s t o c r a t i e p a r l e m e n t a i r e f r a n c a i s e a l a f i n d e l ' a n c i e n r e g i m e , " R e v u e H i s t o r i q u e , C C V I I ( j u i l l e t - s e p t e r a b r e , 1 9 5 2 ) , 4 . 4 7 T h e s e w a i t i n g p e r i o d s c o u l d b e a n d w e r e s h o r t e n e d b y t h e g r a c e o f t h e k i n g . S e e B l u c h e , o p . c i t . , p . 6 5 . ^ I b i d . , p p . 6 4 - 6 5 . 4 9 I b i d . , p . 6 2 . C o n s e i l d ' E t a t ) a n d r i s e t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f i n t e n d a n t a n d , e v e n t u a l l y , o f c o u n s e i l l e u r d ' e t a t — a p r o c e s s t a k i n g , o n t h e a v e r a g e , t w e n t y y e a r s . ^ T h i s i n v o l v e m e n t o f m a g i s t r a t e s b e y o n d t h e c o n f i n e s o f p a r l e m e n t a n d t h e i r s t r i c t j u d i c i a l r o l e r e n d e r s i t i m p o s s i b l e , f o r L i n g u e t ^ t h a t o b j e c t i v i t y a n d p e r s o n a l d e t a c h m e n t w h i c h i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e e q u i t a b l e d i s p e n s a t i o n o f j u s t i c e . A j u d g e m e n t i s b a s e d o n m o r e t h a n j u s t t h e e v i d e n c e i n a g i v e n c a s e . I n j u d i c i a l p r o c e e d i n g s o u t s i d e o f F r a n c e , t h e j u d g e i s i n s t r u c t e d b y b o t h p a r t i e s , h a n d s d o w n a v e r d i c t a n d t h e p u b l i c a c c e p t s t h i s v e r d i c t w i t h o u t d e f i a n c e . I n F r a n c e , h o w e v e r , i t i s n o t t h e j u d g e s w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s o f a g i v e n c a s e s e e k t o p e r s u a d e , i t i s t h e p u b l i c : . l e s J u g e s o n n e c h e r c h e q u ' a. l e s s e d u i r e : c ' e s t p a r d e s m a n o e u v r e s q u ' o n l e s a p p r o c h e : c ' e s t p a r d e s i m p o r t u n i t e s , p a r d e s a r t i f i c e s , q u e l q u e f o i s p a r d e s m o y e n s e n c o r e p l u s c r i m i n e l s q u ' o n l e s g a g n e : t a n d i s q u ' o n p l a i d e a v e c d e g r o s m e m o i r e s a u t r i b u n a l d e s l e c t u r s , q u i d e v i e n n e n t e n s u i t e a u s s i b a v a r d e q u e l e s A v o c a t s , o n c a b a l e a v e c d e s f e m m e s , d e s d i r e c t e u r s , d e s c o n f r e r e s , a u p r e s d e s M a g i s t r a t s q u i n e l i s e n t p o i n t , m a i s ' q u i j u g e n t : o n r e m u e l e s c a b i n e t s , a u s e r e d i g e d a n s l e s t e n e b r e s d ' a r r e t q u i d o i t s e p r o c l a r r j e r a l ' A u d i e n c e a v e c s o l e n n i t e . . . . 5 2 : A g a i n , j u s t i c e g o e s t o t h o s e w h o h a v e i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h w e a l t h a n d s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . " ^ L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , V I I I , 4 9 4 . " ^ B l u c h e , o p . c i t . , p p . 6 5 - 6 7 . 5 2 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , V I I I , 4 9 2 - 4 9 3 . 2 3 The P a l a i s de J u s t i c e : the Context of L i n g u e t ' s  C r i t i q u e of French J u r i s p r u d e n c e Although Linguet c r i t i c i z e d the p a r l e m e n t a i r e s ' abuse of t h e i r j u d i c i a l r o l e on s e v e r a l p o i n t s , i t was h i s c r i t i c i s m of the e s p r i t de corps of the parlements which he s t r e s s e d most p e r s i s t e n t l y . Indeed i t i s a theme which pervades the l a r g e r p a r t of L i n g u e t ' s w r i t i n g s : the e s p r i t de corps of the parlements i s put f o r t h as an argument a g a i n s t the these  n o b i l i a i r e and Montesquieu's theory of t h e ' s e p a r a t i o n of powers; i t i s used a l s o to c a s t i g a t e the p h i l o s o p h e s . That i t was con-s i d e r e d by Linguet to be such a fundamental shortcoming of the French j u d i c i a l system was due, i n p a r t , to the f a c t that i t was that j u d i c i a l e v i l which had had the most d e c i s i v e e f f e c t on L i n g u e t ' s p e r s o n a l l i f e . I t was the e s p r i t de corps of the Ordre des Av o c a t s of the parlement of P a r i s that Linguet had observed and r e s i s t e d f o r eleven years, and which he held as 5 3 c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s e x p u l s i o n from that Order. L i k e that of the parlements, the e s p r i t de corps of the Ordre des Avocats was very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to i t s members' s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s , t h e i r s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l 5 3 The Ordre des Avocats of the parlement of P a r i s numbered s i x hundred members who were evenly d i s t r i b u t e d between twelve bancs or benches. At the head of each bench was one of the e l d e r and r e s p e c t e d members of the bar, whose d u t i e s i n -cluded the s u p e r v i s i o n of the s tag i a i r e s , or a p p r e n t i c i n g advo-c a t e s . The d i r e c t o r and head of the Ordre was the b a t o n n i e r , a m a g i s t r a t e and robe noble, whose task i t was to r e p r e s e n t the c o r p o r a t e w i l l of the Ordre before the m a g i s t r a t u r e of the parlement, u s u a l l y at the head of a d e l e g a t i o n made up of the a m b i t i o n s , and to the r o l e w h i c h t h i s membership a s c r i b e d to i t s e l f . In s h o r t , t h i s e s p r i t de c o r p s was a f u n c t i o n of t h e image the grou p had of i t s e l f . T h i s image had d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e r o l e and s t a t u s of t h e a v o c a t b o t h i n p a r l e m e n t and i n s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . By the time L i n g u e t j o i n e d t h e b a r , a v o c a t s g e n e r a l l y o c c u p i e d one of t h e h i g h e s t s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s i n t h e t h i r d e s t a t e . W i t h i n the h i e r a r c h y of the j u d i c i a r y , a t b o t h the l e v e l o f t h e p a r l e m e n t and t h e b a i l l i a g e , o n l y t h e m a g i s -t r a t e o u t r a n k e d him. In the p a r l e m e n t of P a r i s , t h e p o s i t i o n 54 o f a v o c a t n e i t h e r c o n f e r r e d nor e x c l u d e d n o b i l i t y . The h i g h s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s a t t a i n e d by th e a v o c a t s r e f l e c t e d the c h a n g e s w h i c h had been t a k i n g p l a c e s i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n t h e a v o c a t s ' p o s i t i o n i n t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e , and, more g e n e r a l l y , i n t h e a v o c a t ' s r o l e i n s o c i e t y . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g of the c e n t u r y , r i g i d c l a s s d i v i s i o n s s e p a r a t e d t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e f r o m t h e a v o c a t s who were o n l y " . . . r o t u r i e r s , des hommes du T i e r s - E t a t , s a n s f o r t u n e , e x e r c a n t une p r o f e s s i o n q u i n y mene q u e r e . L a t e r i n t h e c e n t u r y , c l o s e r p r o f e s s i o n a l and b u s i n e s s t i e s and even 5 3 ( c o n t i n u e d ) O r d e r ' s s e n i o r members. See J e a n C r u p p i , Un A v o c a t j o u r n a l i s t e au X V I I I s i e c l e ; L i n g u e t ( P a r i s , 1 8 9 5 ) , p. 52; and B a r o n F r a n c i s D e l b e k e , L ' a c t i o n p o l i t i q u e e t s o c i a l e des a v o c a t s au X V I I I s i e c l e : L e u r p a r t dans l a p r e p a r a t i o n de l a R e v o l u t i o n f r a n c a i s e . ( L o u v a i n , 1 9 2 7 ) , pp. 68-82. 54 I b i d . , p. 109. see a l s o P h i l i p Dawson, op. c i t . , p . 11 . 55 D e l b e k e , op. c i t . , p. 92 bonds of f r i e n d s h i p and m a r r i a g e e x i s t e d between m a g i s t r a t e and a d v o c a t e . T h i s change can be a t t r i b u t e d to the emergence of two t r e n d s by t h e t h i r d d ecade of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w h i c h would c o n t i n u e to d e v e l o p d u r i n g the r e s t of t h e anc i e n r e g i m e : . a) a l e s s s u b m i s s i v e and more i n d e p e n d e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s the m a g i s t r a t u r e on the p a r t of the a v o c a t s ; b) the emergence of a v o c a t s as p u b l i c f i g u r e s as a r e s u l t of the g r o w i n g i m p o r -t a n c e of p u b l i c o p i n i o n and of t h e men of l e t t e r s who i n f l u e n c e d 57 t h i s o p i n i o n . T h i s e s p e c i a l l y became the c a s e t o w a r d s th e m i d d l e of t h e c e n t u r y when i t became a l a mode i n t h e s a l o n s and a c a d e m i e s t o d i s c u s s p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r s of a g r i c u l t u r e , 5 8 f i n a n c e , t h e laws and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h a t i s , i n a r e a s where the a d v o c a t e s ' l e g a l e x p e r t i s e and b r o a d p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k -g r o u n d w o u l d p r o v e most h e l p f u l . W h i l e a v o c a t s may have e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s a l o n c u l t u r e of F r a n c e , s e r i o u s i n v o l v e m e n t i n the w o r l d of l e t t e r s was f r o w n e d upon. An a v o c a t of the p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s m i g h t seek, d i v e r s i o n i n the w o r l d of l e t t e r s o r draw upon c o n t e m p o r a r y c u r r e n t s o f t h o u g h t i n l i t e r a t u r e i n the p r a c t i c e of h i s p r o f e s s i o n , b u t he c o u l d n o t s e r i o u s l y c u l t i -5 6 I b i d . , p. 122. 7 l b i d . , pp. 96-104. See a l s o L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s I I , 174-176. 5 8 V o l t a i r e , D i c t i o n n a i r e p h i l o s o p h i q u e , I I , 11; o r X V I I I of O e u v r e s c o m p l e t e s ( P a r i s , 1878) 11. v a t e h i s l i t e r a r y t a l e n t s w i t h o u t r u n n i n g a f o u l o f t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s , s i n c e t h e O r d r e s t a u n c h l y m a i n t a i n e d t h e i n c o m p a t -5 9 a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f a v o c a t w i t h a n y o t h e r . T h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s i m p o s e d , t h e r e f o r e , a v e r y s t r i c t -l y c o n f i n e d a n d c o n s e r v a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e a v o c a t ' s r o l e o n i t s m e m b e r s h i p . T h i s r o l e , m o r e o v e r , w a s s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f t h e b o d y , r e n d e r e d c o n s e r v a t i v e b y t h e t r a i n i n g o f i t s p e r s o n n e l a n d b y i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . T h e F a c u l t e d e D r o i t d e P a r i s a n d s i m i l a r s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t F r a n c e s t i l l p l a c e d p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s o n t h e s t u d y o f R o m a n l a w w i t h o u t c o n c e r n i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n a n y w a y w i t h t h e c u r r e n t p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t u r a l r i g h t ^ ^ ( w h i c h w a s e s s e n t i a l l y a p h i l o s -6 1 o p h y o f r e f o r m a n d c h a n g e ) . H a v i n g s e c u r e d a L i c e n c e e e s L o i s , a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s o f s t u d y , t h e a s p i r a n t e n t e r e d t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s a s a s t a g i a i r e a n d f o r t h e n e x t f o u r y e a r s s e r v e d a n a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . S u c c e s s a t t h e b a r r e q u i r e d t h a t t h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p b e s e r v e d u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f o n e o f i t s p r o m i n e n t a n d r e s p e c t e d n u m b e r s , a l t h o u g h i t w o u l d s e e m 6 2 t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e h a d n o t y e t b e e n f o r m a l i z e d . B y a t t a c h -5 9 D e l b e k e , o p . c i t . , p . 8 6 . S e e a l s o L i n g u e t , A p p e l  a l a p o s t e r i t e , o u r e c u e i l d e s m e m o i r e s e t p l a i d o v e r s d e  M . L i n g u e t , p o u r l u i - m e m e , c o n t r e l a c o m m u n a u t e d e s a v o c a t s  d u p a r l e m e n t d e P a r i s ( n . p . ) ( 1 7 7 9 ) , p p . 1 2 4 - 1 2 5 . ^ W . F . C h u r c h , o p . c i t . , p . 3 3 . ^ I t i s a p h i l o s o p h y o f c h a n g e b y v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t p o s i t s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i n g c e r t a i n r i g h t s , b e y o n d t h e c o n f i n e s o f s o c i e t y . T h e s e r i g h t s b e c a m e e x t e r n a l s t a n d a r d s t o b e a p p l i e d t o s o c i e t y . T h e s e s t a n d a r d s s e r v e a s g o a l s a s w e l l s i n c e s o c i e t y m u s t b e b r o u g h t i n t o c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e m . L i n g u e t w a s n o p a r t i s a n o f n a t u r a l r i g h t s , S e e C h a p t e r I I , p . 3 . . 2 7 i n g h i m s e l f t o t h e e s c u t c h e o n o f o n e o f t h e s e v e n e r a b l e s , a n a v o c a t w o u l d , a c c o r d i n g t o L i n g u e t , d e v o t e t h e t a l e n t a n d e n e r g y o f h i s y o u t h t o b o l s t e r t h e f a d i n g i m a g e o f t h e o l d e r 6 3 p a t r o n . O n e o f t h e p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s o f t h i s e d u c a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e w e r e t h e c o n f e r e n c e s d e d o c t r i n e d u r i n g w h i c h y o u n g a v o c a t s w e r e e x a m i n e d b y t h e h e a d o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b a n c s . A " c e r t i f i c a t e d ' a s s i d u i t e " h a d t o b e s e c u r e d f r o m t h e l e a d e r o f e a c h b a n c , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s t a g i a i r e h a d p e r f o r m e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a t t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s b e f o r e b e w o u l d b e 6 4 a d m i t t e d t o t h e b a r . A d m i t t a n c e t o t h e b a r d i d n o t m e a n a n e n d t o t h e t y r a n n y e x e r c i s e d b y t h e s e n i o r a d v o c a t e s . T h e y e x e r t e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r c o n f r e r e s b y m e a n s o f t h e r i g h t o f r a d i a t i o n d u t a b l e a u . T h e l e a d i n g - a v o c a t s w e r e t h u s a b l e t o i m p o s e u n i t y w i t h i n t h e O r d e r b y h a v i n g a d i s s e n t i n g o r r e c a l c i t r a n t m e m b e r e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e b a r . A s m a l l g r o u p o f t h e l e a d i n g a v o c a t s c o u l d a c h i e v e t h i s w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g t h e m e m b e r s h i p a t l a r g e b y c o n s t i t u t i n g i t s e l f a " c o m m u n a u t e " — a s t a t u s w h i c h g a v e i t t h e r i g h t a s a l e g a l b o d y t o p a s s a n a r r e t o f e x p u l s i o n . ^ 6 2 D e l b e k e , o p . c i t . , p p . 7 3 - 7 4 . S e e a l s o L i n g u e t , A p p e l a l a p o s t e r i t e , p . 1 7 2 . 6 3 I b i d . , p . 1 7 2 . 6 4 D e l b e k e , o p . c i t . , p p . 7 4 - 7 5 . T h e w h o l e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s , t h e r e f o r e , e n c o u r a g e d t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e o u t l o o k o f i t s s e n i o r t r i b u n e s - - a n o u t l o o k r e n d e r e d c o n s e r v a t i v e b y t h e i r s t a t i o n i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n a n d s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . O f w e l l - t o - d o b o u r g e o i s b a c k g r o u n d , t h e s u c c e s s f u l a v o c a t w a s l e s s m o v e d t h a n o t h e r s t o u r g e t h o r o u g h g o i n g p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l c h a n g e a s l o n g a s h i s s t a n d i n g w i t h i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n r e m a i n e d s e c u r e a n d c l a s s l i n e s r e m a i n e d f l e x i b l e e n o u g h t o a l l o w h i m t o l i v e n o b l y a n d t o f o r m a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e n o b l e s s e d e r o b e . B e c a u s e o f t h i s o u t l o o k , t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s ( d o m i n a t e d b y i t s s e n i o r m e m b e r s , ) w h i l e h a v i n g a m o r e i n d e -p e n d e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e , s t i l l c o n c e i v e d o f i t s e x i s t e n c e a s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s . T h e O r d r e w a s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t a b o u t t o c h a l l e n g e s e r i o u s l y t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e n o b l e s s e d e r o b e o n t h e m a t t e r o f l e g a l r e f o r m s . T h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e s e n i o r m e m b e r s o f t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s t o c o n c e i v e o f a r o l e f o r t h e m s e l v e s w h i c h d i d n o t i n c l u d e t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e o f , t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s w a s m a d e q u i t e c l e a r i n 1 7 7 1 w h e n c h a n c e l l o r M a u p e o u e x i l e d t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e o f t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s t o t h e p r o v i n c e s a n d d i v i d e d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e p a r l e m e n t b e t w e e n s i x n e w l y f o r m e d c o u r t s a p p o i n t e d b y t h e k i n g . * ^ A t t h i s t i m e t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s s p l i t i n t o t w o c a m p s : o v e r f i v e h u n d r e d 6 7 o f t h e O r d e r ' s m e m b e r s h i p , t h e a v o c a t s " s o u i l l e s " , a c c e p t e d 6 6 T h e s e c o u r t s w e r e s u b s i d i z e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e r e f o r e d i s p e n s e d j u s t i c e w i t h o u t c h a r g e . 6 7 I b i d . , p . 1 7 7 . t h e M a u p e o u r e g i m e a n d t o o k u p p o s i t i o n s i n t h e n e w c o u r t f o r t h e P a r i s r e g i o n , w h i l e t h e a v o c a t s " v i e r g e s " o r " r o m a i n e s " s t o o d b e h i n d t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e o f t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s a n d 6 8 r e f u s e d t o t a k e a p l a c e i n t h e n e w t r i b u n a l . T h i s s p l i t i n t h e O r d r e , o n t h e o n e h a n d , c a n b e s e e n a s a n a t u r a l o u t c o m e o f t h a t g r o w i n g s p i r i t o f i n d e p e n d e n c e w i t h i n t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s . I t m u s t b e r e m e m b e r e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e " c o u p M a u p e o u " w a s m o r e t h a n s i m p l y a d e c i s i v e m o v e i n t h e p o w e r s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n r o b e a n d c r o w n ; i t r e p r e s e n t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t j u d i c a l r e f o r m . I t m e a n t t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f v e n a l m a g i s t r a t u ' r i a l o f f i c e s a b o v e t h e l e v e l o f t h e b a i l l i a g e , i n a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r e a e n c o m p o s i n g o n e - t h i r d o f t h e r e a l m . I t a l s o m e a n t t h e e n d o f t h o s e i n e q u i t i e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e h i g h c o s t o f c o u r t f e e s a n d f r o m i n c o n v e n i e n c e s i m p o s e d b y a n e x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r e a . I t w o u l d n o t b e u n r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a m o n g t h e f i v e h u n d r e d - o d d a v o c a t s " s o u i l l e s , " t h e r e w e r e t h o s e w h o s e d e c i s -i o n t o s u p p o r t t h e M a u p e o u r e g i m e i n v o l v e d m o r e t h a n a m e r e p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . C e r t a i n l y . t h o s e y o u n g a v o c a t s w h o e n t e r e d t h e G r a n d ' C h a m b r e a f t e r 1 7 7 1 d i d n o t a c c e p t t h e s e j u d i c i a l a b u s e s w h i c h r e a p p e a r e d f o l l o w i n g t h e r e s t i t u t i o n o f t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s i n 1 7 7 4 . C o n s e q u e n t l y , H . C a r r e a n d P . S a g n a c , o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 . 3 0 c o n s i d e r a b l e f r i c t i o n d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n t h e s e y o u n g e r a d v o c a t e s a n d t h e m o r e s e n i o r m e m b e r s o f t h e O r d e r w h o a c c e p t e d t h e g o o d 6 9 o l d w a y s . I t w a s t h i s g r o u p o f y o u n g a d v o c a t e s w h o w o u l d v i g o r o u s l y a g i t a t e f o r t h o s e j u d i c i a l r e f o r m s w h i c h h a d h i t h e r -t o b e e n s u g g e s t e d w i t h s o l i t t l e f o r c e b y j u r i s c o n s u l t a n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s n e w b r e e d o f a d v o c a t e w a s m o r e c r i t i c a l o f t h e e x i s t i n g j u d i c i a l o r d e r n o t s i m p l y b y v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r f o r m a t i v e y e a r s i n t h e P a l a i s d e J u s t i c e h a d c o i n c i d e d w i t h M a u p e o u ' s n e w j u d i c i a l r e g i m e . T h e y f e l t m o r e a t l i b e r t y t o c r i t i c i z e t h e j u d i c i a l o r d e r s i n c e t h e y h a d a m u c h b r o a d e r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e , a s w e l l a s a m b i t i o n s w h i c h t r a n s -c e n d e d t h e n a r r o w c o n f i n e s o f t h e l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n . ^ T h e y h a d , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , b e e n a t t r a c t e d t o t h e v o c a t i o n o f a v o c a t , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , b e c a u s e t h e y c o n c e i v e d o f t h e a v o c a t ' s 6 9 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , V I I I , 2 3 5 . ^ ^ C . M o n s e l e t , L e s o u b l i e e s e t l e s d e d a i g n e e s : f i g u r e s  d e l a f i n d u X V I I I 6 s i e c l e ( P a r i s , 1 8 7 6 ) , p . 1 . " I I y a v i s i b l e -m e n t ; d a n s l e s e c o n d m o i t i e d u d i x - h u i t i e m e s i e c l e , u n e b a n d e d ' h o m m e s a u x q u e l l e s V o l t a i r e s e m b l e a v o i r o u v e r t l e c h e m i n d e 1 ' u n i v e r s a l i t e ; h o m m e s b o n s a t o u t f a i r e e t a t o u t d i r e , a v e n -t u r i e r s d e s l e t t r e s , d e s s c i e n c e s , d e l a p o l i t i q u e , e t d e 1 ' i n d u s t r i e , g e n s a q u i l e h a s a r d o u l e s c i r c o n s t a n c e s i m p r o v i s e n t d e s v o c a t i o n s . S i g n a l e z c e t t e b a n d a c t i v e e t e x t r a o r d i n a i r e -m e n t i n t e l l i g e n t , c ' e s t n o m m e r L i n g u e t , B e a u m a r c h a i s , M e r c i e r , B r i s s o t - - q u e l q u e s a u t r e s e n c o r e , m a i s b e a u c o u p p l u s b a s p l a c e s . L e b r u i t q u e f o n t c e s h o m m e s a u x a p p r o c h e s d e l a R e v o l u t i o n s ' e t e n d d e t o u t s p a r t s , e t l e u r i n f l u e n c e s u r l e s e v e n e m e n t s e s t d ' a u t a n t p l u s c o n s i d e r a b l e q u ' e l l e n ' e x e r c e s o u s l a p r e s s i o n d e s c e n s e u r s , d u f o n d d e l ' e x i l , a u m e m e d e r r i e r e l e s p o r t e s d e s p r i s o n s d ' E t a t . . . " 3 1 r o l e a s a m u l t i p u r p o s e o n e , e m b r a c i n g l i t e r a t u r e a n d p o l i t i c s a s w e l l a s j u r i s p r u d e n c e . T h e r i s e o f l e a d i n g a v o c a t s t o p u b l i c p r o m i n e n c e a n d t h e i n c r e a s i n g a c t i v i t y o f t h e l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n i n t h e s a l o n c u l t u r e o f F r a n c e i n t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w o u l d h a v e t e n d e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h i s b e l i e f . F o r t h e a s p i r i n g m a n o f l e t t e r s , m i g h t n o t t h e w a y t o p u b l i c a c c l a i m s e e m m o r e c e r t a i n b y w a y o f w e l l - w r i t t e n m e m o i r e a n d t h e P a l a i s d e J u s t i c e t h a n t h e E l o g e a n d t h e a c a d e m i e f r a n c a i s e ? W i t h s u c h a m b i t i o n s , t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n m u s t h a v e s e e m e d o v e r l y - c o n s t r i c t i n g f o r t h i s n e w g e n e r a t i o n o f a v o c a t s o f w h o m L i n g u e t w a s i n t h e f o r e f r o n t . T h i s n a r r o w p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m a n d c o n s e r v a t i v e o u t l o o k w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s h a d b e e n c h a l l e n g e d p r i o r t o t h e " c o u p M a u p e o u " , h o w e v e r . I n d e e d , o n e o f t h e c h a r g e s l a i d a g a i n s t L i n g u e t i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s l e a d i n g t o h i s i n i t i a l e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e O r d r e i n F e b r u a r y o f 1 7 7 4 w a s t h a t h e h a d t u r n e d t h e b a r i n t o a g l a d a t o r i a l a r e n a . L i n g u e t , h o w e v e r , d e n i e d t h a t h e h a d c h a n g e d t h e t o n e o f t h e b a r , o b s e r v i n g t h a t i t h a d a l r e a d y b e e n i n a n u p r o a r w h e n h e b e c a m e a m e m b e r . 7 " ' ' N e v e r t h e l e s s , L i n g u e t d i d s t a n d o u t a s a d i s -r u p t i v e e l e m e n t i n t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s . H i s i m p e t u o s i t y a n d h i s a m b i t i o n t o c a r v e o u t a s u b s t a n t i a l r e p u t a t i o n f o r L i n g u e t , A p p e l a l a p o s t e r i t e , p p . 2 0 5 - 2 0 6 . 3 2 h i m s e l f n e i t h e r r e n d e r e d h i m p a r t i c u l a r l y a d a p t a b l e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l w a y s o f t h e b a r n o r e n d e a r e d h i m t o t h e b a r ' s 7 2 f o r e m o s t t r i b u n e s . B y p a s s i n g t h a t p e r i o d o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p w h i c h h a d a l l b u t b e e n m a d e m a n d a t o r y b y t r a d i t i o n , L i n g u e t p r o c e e d e d t o b u i l d - u p a t r u l y p r o d i g i o u s r e c o r d o f c o u r t -7 3 r o o m v i c t o r i e s i n t h e s p a c e o f a v e r y f e w y e a r s . I n d e e d , a s a r e l a t i v e n e w c o m e r t o t h e b a r , L i n g u e t w e n t s o f a r a s t o p i t h i m s e l f , p r o f e s s i o n a l l y , a g a i n s t G e r b i e r , o n e o f t h e m o s t r e s p e c t e d a n d i n f l u e n t i a l a d v o c a t e s a t t h e 7 4 7 5 b a r , i n t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e c o m t e s s e d e B e t h u n e . I t w a s 7 2 I b i d . , p . 4 7 1 . L i n g u e t c i t e s t h e O r d r e ' s f o r m a l a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t h i s f l a m b o y a n t a p p r o a c h t o t h e d u t i e s o f t h e a v o c a t : " Q u a n d o n s e c o n n a i t u n e i m a g i n a t i o n t r o p f a c i l e a s ' e n f l a m m e r ; e t a e p r o u v e r , d e s p a s s i o n s e t r a n g e r e s , n e d o i t -o n p a s s ' o b s t e n i r , d e s f o n c t i o n s d ' u n e t a t q u i e x i g e u n e c i r c o n s p e c t i o n s e v e r e . . . . " 7 3 L i n g u e t , J o u r n a l , I ( 1 7 7 5 ) , 1 0 9 . D u r i n g t h e p r o -c e e d i n g s l e a d i n g t o h i s f i n a l e x p u l s i o n o f 1 7 7 5 , L i n g u e t , w i t h m u c h p r i d e b u t l i t t l e d i s c r e t i o n , p o i n t e d o u t t h a t o u t o f m o r e t h a n o n e h u n d r e d c o u r t c a s e s i n w h i c h h e w a s i n v o l v e d h e h a d l o s t o n l y n i n e . ^ L i n g u e t , A p p e l a l a p o s t e r i t e , p . 3 0 4 . ^ L i n g u e t d o e s n o t e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e c a s e i n A p p e l a l a p o s t e r i t e . A s f a r a s I c a n s u r m i s e , t h e c o m t e s s e d e B e t h u n e w a s a w i d o w w i t h a f a m i l y w h o s e r i g h t t o h e r h u s b a n d ' s e s t a t e w a s b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d i n c o u r t b y o n e o f h e r i n - l a w s . T h e p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e i n i t i a t e d i n 1 7 7 3 a n d c o n t i n u e d i n t o 1 7 7 4 . 3 3 7 6 G e r b i e r , i n c o n d u c t i o n w i t h t w e l v e o t h e r l e a d i n g a v o c a t s , w h o w e r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h a v i n g L i n g u e t d e f i n i t i v e l y e x p e l l e d 7 7 f r o m t h e O r d r e d e s A y o c a t s . L i n g u e t ' s e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s w a s r e p r e s e n t e d a s a d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n r e q u i r e d t o p r e s e r v e t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e O r d r e : L i n g u e t w a s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a v i n g i n t r o d u c e d d e m a g o g u e r y i n t o c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s , f o r h a v i n g u n d e r m i n e d t h a t " c i r c o n s p e c t i o n s e v e r e " r e q u i r e d f o r t h e e q u i t a b l e d i s p e n s a t i o n o f j u s t i c e . T o a l a r g e d e g r e e , h o w -e v e r , L i n g u e t ' s s i n h a d b e e n t o a r o u s e a g a i n s t h i m s e l f t h e n a r r o w p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e j u d i c e s o f t h e O r d r e . L i n g u e t w a s m a d e t o p a y f o r h a v i n g a c h i e v e d s u c c e s s a t t h e b a r b y i g n o r i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e O r d r e . H e w a s m a d e t o p a y , a s w e l l , f o r h a v i n g f a i l e d t o a d o p t t h e s t y l e o f t h e b a r , t h a t i s , f o r h a v i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p u r s u e d a l i t e r a r y a n d a l e g a l c a r e e r a s e v i d e n c e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g e x e r p t f r o m t h e O r d r e ' s i n d i t e -m e n t a g a i n s t h i m : ^ ^ L i n g u e t , o p . c i t . , p . 2 4 . S e e a l s o J e a n C r u p p i , o p . c i t . , p p 3 4 1 - 3 4 3 . ^ L i n g u e t w a s i n i t i a l l y e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e O r d r e o n F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 7 7 4 . L i n g u e t , i n h i s d e f e n c e , l a u n c h e d a s e r i e s o f a p p e a l s b e f o r e t h e n o w r e c o n v e n e d p a r i e m e n t o f P a r i s a n d t h e c o n s e i l d e s d e p e c h e s . T h e O r d r e , h o w e v e r r e j e c t e d t h o s e a r r e t s w h i c h a n n u l l e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n a n d , i n t h e e n d , s u c c e e d e d i n h a v i n g L i n g u e t d e f i n i t i v e l y e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s o n M a r c h 2 7 , 1 7 7 5 . A r e l a t i v e l y c o n c i s e a c c o u n t o f t h e s e p r o c e e d i n g s i s L i n g u e t ' s R e q u e t e a u c o n s e i l d u r o i c o n t r e l e s a r r e t s d u p a r l e m e n t d e P a r i s d e s 29 m a r s a n d 4 f e v r i e r 1 7 7 5 ( A m s t e r d a m , 1 7 7 6 ) . 3 4 O n v o i t r a r e m e n t e c h o u e r a c e t e c u e i l c e u x q u i e t a n t e n t r e a u B a r r e a u d e s l e u r p r e m i e r e j e u n e s s e , s e s o n t p e n e t r e s d e b o n n e h e u r e d e s e s p r i n c i p e s , e t o n t c o m m e n c e p a r n o u r r i r * l e u r e s p r i t d ' e t u d e s e t d e r e f l e x i o n s s o l i d e s . L e d e f a u t d o n t n o u s p a r l o n s i c i e s t s o u v e n t l e p a r t a g e d e c e u x q u i , a p r e s a v o i r c o n s a c r e l e u r s p r e m i e r e s a n n e e s a d e s o c c u p a -t i o n s f r i v o 1 e s , e t a u x j e u x d e b e l - e s p r i t , s e d e t e r -m i n e n t p a r u n e v o c a t i o n t a r d i v e a p r e n d r e p l a c e a u B a r r e a u , e t a p p O r e n t d a n s d e s t r a v a u x s e r ^ f i - L t ^ l e u r s p r e m i e r s g o u t s e t l e u r p r e m i e r s p e n c h a n s . 7 8 L i n g u e t s t o o d a s a t r a n s g r e s s o r a g a i n s t o n e o f t h e O r d r e ' s c a r d i n a l r u l e s : t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f a v o c a t w i t h a n y o t h e r . T h a t h e s h o u l d h a v e s e r i o u s l y p u r s u e d a l i t e r a r y c a r e e r w h i l e a m e m b e r o f t h e B a r w a s b a d e n o u g h . T h a t h e s h o u l d h a v e w r i t t e n a w o r k s u c h a s T h e o r i e  d e s l o i s c i v i l e s ( 1 7 6 7 ) w h i c h a t t a c k e d t h e p a r l e m e n t a r y t h e o r e t i c a n , M o n t e s q u i e u , a n d d e f e n d e d s l a v e r y a n d d e s p o t i s m w a s s c a n d a l o u s . L i n g u e t w a s o b v i o u s l y m u c h t o o i n d e p e n d e n t a s p i r i t t o h a v e f i t t e d p r o p e r l y i n t o t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s : . e n g e n e r a l , j e n ' a i p o i n t c o n f r a t e r n i s e , j e l ' a v o u e : m a i s a u t r e q u e l e s o r a g e s q u e m ' o n t a c c U S i l l e ( c o n c e r n i n g t h e T h e o r i e d e s L o i x C i v i l e s ) a u p r e m i e r p a s q u e ^ ' a i f a i t d a n s c e t t e c a r r i e r e , n ' e t a i e n t p a s p r o p r e s a m ' i n s p i r e r u n d e s i r b i e n v i f d ' y f o r m e r d e s l i a i s o n s ; m e s o c c u p a t i o n s e t m o n g e n r e d e v i e m ' e n e l o i g n a i e n t e n c o r e d a v a n t a g e . 8 0 L i n g u e t , A p p e l a l a p o s t e r i t e , p p . 4 7 2 - 4 7 3 . 7 9 I b i d . , p . 1 7 9 . " T o u s l e s p r e j u g e s o c c a s i o n n e e s p a r l a T h e o r i e d e s L o i x , f u r e n t r e n o u v e l l e s e t c o n f i r m e s p a r l e s s u c c e s d e s o n a u t e u r d a n s u n e c a r r i e r e o u i l s e m b l a i t n e e t r e j e t t e q u e p a r u n e s u i t e d e s e s p r i n c i p e s . " 8 ° I b i d . , p . 3 9 3 . L i n g u e t , i t w o u l d s e e m , n e i t h e r i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f n o r h i s c a r e e r v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s . H i s a m b i t i o n s a n d i n t e r e s t s , l i k e m a n y o f t h o s e w h o e n t e r e d t h e P a l a i s d e J u s t i c e a f t e r 1 7 7 1 , t r a n s c e n d e d t h e n a r r o w p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m a n d e s p r i t d e c o r p s o f t h e O r d r e . G i v e n h i s f e e l i n g o f d e t a c h m e n t f r o m t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s , L i n g u e t f r o m h i s f i r s t d a y s a s a s t a g i a i r e o n w a r d , w a s p r o b a b l y m o r e a w a r e t h a n m o s t o f h i s c o n f r e r e s o f t h i s e s p r i t d e c o r p s . I t s e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e , h o w e v e r , w a s m o s t f o r c e f u l l y i m p r e s s e d u p o n L i n g u e t a t t h e t i m e o f h i s e x p u l s i o n . D e s p i t e L i n g u e t ' s a t t e m p t s t o h a v e t h e d e c i s i o n o f F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 7 7 4 r e v e r s e d , t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s s u c c e e d e d i n u p h o l d i n g i t s p o s i t i o n t h a t s u c h d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n , l y i n g b e y o n d t h e 8 1 b o u n d s o f a n y o t h e r t r i b u n a l , w a s n o t s u b j e c t t o r e p e a l . L i n g u e t t o o k t h i s a s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e O r d r e d e s A v o c a t s c o n -s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s " a c c o u n t a b l e t o n o o n e w h i l e d e m a n d i n g c o m p l e t e a c q u i e s e n c e o n t h e p a r t o f i t s m e m b e r s . T h i s " d e s p o t i s m e c l a u s t r a l " h e f o u n d t y p i c a l , n o t o n l y o f t h e O r d r e 8 1 I b i d . , p . 4 2 8 . 8 2 L i n g u e t , A p p e l a l a p q s t e r i t e , p p . 3 6 4 - 3 6 5 . " S ' i l e x i s t a i t d a n s u n e R o y a u m e p o l i c e u n e c o m p a g n i e q u i p r e t e n d i t e t r e i n d e p e n d a n t e d e t o u t e e s p e c e d e p o u v o i r ; o u l ' o n n e p u t a c q u e r i r l a q u a l i t e d ' a g g r e g e q u ' e n p e r d a n t c e l l e d e c i t o y e n ; o u l e C o r p s c r u t n e r i e n d e v o i r a u x m e m b r e s , t a n d i s q u e l e s m e m b r e s d e v r o i e n t t o u t a u C o r p s ; s ' i l e x i s t a i t u n e a s s o c i a t i o n q u i p u t i n t e r r o m p r e l e c o u r s d e l a J u s t i c e , q u a n d l a J u s t i c e r e f u s e r a i t d e c o n s a c r e r s e s c a p r i c e s . . . , i l f a u d r o i t b i e n s e g a r d e r d e l u i d o n n e r l e n o m d ' O r d r e p a r e x c e l l e n c e ; c ' e s t c e l u i d e d e s o r d r e q u ' i l f a u d r o i t l u i a p p r o p r i e r . " 3 6 d e s A v o c a t s , b u t o f a l l c l a s s e s a n d g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l 8 3 h i e r a r c h y . T h i s e s p r i t d e c o r p s s u b v e r t e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e n s e o f w h a t w a s j u s t a n d e l i m i n a t e d t h e f e a r o f r e t r i b u t i o n f o r i n j u s t i c e s c o m m i t t e d . F o r a g r o u p p o s s e s s e d o f t h i s s p i r i t , L e s r e m o r d s n ' y f o n t a u c u n e i m p r e s s i o n , p a r c e q u e c h a c u n s ' e t o u r d i t s u r c e u x q u ' i l e p r o u v e , e n s u p p o s a n t q u e c ' e s t u n e e r r e u r , u n e f a i b l e s s e d e s o n c o e u r , p u i s q u e s e s v o i s i n s n e p a r o i s s e n t p a s e n r e s s e n t i r d e p a r e i l s : e n f i n l a h o n t e e t l a c r a i n t e n e s o n t p a s d e s m o t i f s q u i p u i s s e l a t o u c h e r , p a r c e q u e c h a c u n n ' e t a n t q u e p o u r u n e p o r t i o n i n f i n i m e n t p e t i t e d a n s l e d a n g e r , o u d a n s l ' o p p r o b r e , c h a c u n a y a n t l a r e s s o u r c e d e d i r e q u ' i l n ' a p a s t r e m p e d a n s l a r e s o l u t i o n c r i m i n e l l e o u d e s h o n n o r a n t e , o u p r o c e d e a v e c l e s a n g - f r o i d l e p l u s f l e g m a t i q u e , a d e s a t t e n t a t s q u i f e r a i e n t f r e m i r o u t r e m b l e r c h a c u n d e c e u x q u i l a c o m p o s e n t , s ' i l e t a i t i s o l e . 8 4 I t w a s t h r o u g h t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e t h a t t h i s s p i r i t w o r k e d i t s m o s t e v i l e f f e c t s f o r -A r m e e d ' u n p o u v o i r a c t i f [ t h e r i g h t o f r e m o n s t r a n c e ] , a u t o r i s e e , p a r u n a b u s d e s m o t s , a s e d i r e p r o p r i e -t a i r e d e s d r o i t s q u i l u i s o n t c o n f i e s ; r e g a r d a n t l e t r o n e c o m m e u n e e m a n a t i o n d e s a s u b s t a n c e o u d u m o i n s s e c r o y a n t u n e o r i g i n e , e t u n e n a t u r e c o m m u n e , a v e c l u i ; d e f e n d u e d e l a p u d e u r , p a r s a p r o p r i e t e d e n ' o p e r e r q u ' e n " T r o u p e " , d e l a p i t i e p a r l ' h a b i t u d e , e t l a p e r s u a s i o n q u e l ' o r g a n e d e l a l o i n ' e n d o i t p a s e t r e s u s c e p t i b l e ; d u s c r u p u l e p a r l e g e n r e p r o f a n e d e s e s o c c u p a t i o n s ; d u r e m o r d s p a r l e s f o r m e s q u i p r e c e d e n t t o u j o u r s s e s e c a r t s l e s p l u s i r r e g u l i e r s , e l l e n e c o n n a i t n i b o r n e s d a n s s e s e m p o r t e m e n s , n i m o d i f i c a t i o n d a n s s e s v e n g e a n c e s . 8 5 8 3 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , V ( 1 7 7 9 ) , 4 2 4 . ^ L i n g u e t , A p p e l a l a p o s t e r i t e , p . 3 6 7 Q C L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I I ( 1 7 7 7 ) , 1 1 2 . T h e m a g i s t r a t u r e 1 s c o m p l e t e l a c k o f a s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o w a r d a n y g r o u p o r p o w e r b e y o n d i t s e l f w a s r e i n f o r c e d b y t h e p a r l e m e n t a i r e s ' p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y w h i c h r e s e r v e d f o r t h e p a r l e m e n t s t h e c o l l e c t i v e r o l e o f d e p o s i t o r y o f t h e l a w s a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e n a t i o n b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r u n i q u e q u a l i f i -8 6 c a t i o n s a n d t r a d i t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , w i t h p a r l e m e n t a r y p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s a r m e d w i t h t h e r i g h t o f r e m o n s t r a n c e , t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e w a s c a p a b l e o f p e r p e t u a t i n g i n j u s t i c e s b e y o n d t h e r e a l m o f j u r i s p r u d e n c e a n d i n t o t h e r e a l m o f p o l i t i c s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , L i n g u e t ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e t h e s e n o b i l i a i r e a n d t h e t h e s e r o y a l e w a s v e r y m u c h i n f l u e n c e d b y h i s y e a r s i n t h e P a l a i s d e J u s t i c e : D a n s l e p e t i t n o m b r e d ' a n n e e s q u e j ' a i h a b i t e l e p a l a i s , j ' a i e t e t e m o i n d e s d e n i e s d e j u s t i c e l e s p l u s c r e a n t s , e t d e l a v i o l a t i o n l a p l u s a u d a c i e u s e -d e s l o i x . Q u i n e s a i t q u ' i l y a d e s p r o c e s q u i t r a i n -e n t d e p u i s d e s s i e c l e s , e t q u e l e s p a r l e m e n t s e l u d e n t t o u j o u r s d e j u g e r , p a r c e q u ' i l s n ' o n t , n i a s s e z d ' i m p a r t i a l i t e p o u r c o n d a m n e r l ' u n e d e s p a r t i e s , n i a s s e z d ' e f f r o n t e r i e p o u r c o n d a m n e r l ' a u t r e , e h b i e n , d e t a n t d ' o p p r i m e s , e t d e v i c t i m e s d u p o u v o i r a r b i t r a i r e d e s c o u r s , s o i t e n j u g e a n t s o i t e n n e j u g e a n t p a s , n u l n ' a j a m a i s o s e d e m a n d e r l a p r i s e a p a r t i e . J ' a i f a i t s o u v e n t c e t t e a c c a b l a n t e r e f l e x -i o n . A l o r s , j e l ' a v o u e j ' a i e t e q u e l q u e f o i s t e n t e r d e d e m a n d e r a u c i e l u n d e s p o t e , d e v a n t q u i t o u s s o i e n t e g a u x , p o u r v u q u e c o m m e c h e z l ' e m p e r e u r d e l a C h i n e , i l y a i t u n t a m b o u r a l a p o r t e d u p a l a i s , e t q u e l e p r i n c e s a i t t e n u d e d e s c e n d r e , d e s q u e l e m o i n d r e d e s e s s u j e t s a f r a p p e s u r l e t a m b o u r , e t q u e l e s i g n a l l ' o p p r e s s i o n a r e t e n t . 8 7 8 6 A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t h e s e  n o b i l i a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r I I . 8 7 L i n g u e t , E n t r e t i e n , p . 3 7 . 38 T h e r e w a s a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n i n L i n g u e t ' s m i n d b e t w e e n t h e p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s a n d t h e j u d i c i a l a b u s e s p e r p e t r a t e d b y t h e p a r l e m e n t s o f F r a n c e . T h e f o r m e r , i f r e a l i z e d , w o u l d e x t e n d i n j u s t i c e f r o m t h e j u d i c i a l i n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l r e a l m b e c a u s e b o t h a s p e c t s o f t h e p a r l e m e n t s o f F r a n c e w e r e i n s e p -a r a b l e , b o t h b e i n g p r o d u c t s o f a c o m m o n e v i l , t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f u s i o n o f F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e . T h e l a t t e r , w i t h t h e p a r l e m e n t s a s i t s a g e n t s , w a s a l s o t a k e n t o t a s k b y L i n g u e t f o r t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h i t m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t t h e p o o r . T h e e v i l s o f F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e w e r e p r o d u c t i v e , t h e r e f o r e , o f j u d i c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s w h i c h , i n L i n g u e t ' s m i n d , s h a r e d t h i s i n c o m m o n : t h e y w e r e a l l d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h a t r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l o r d e r c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w h i c h ( a s w i l l b e d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s ) w a s h i s p r i m e c o n c e r n . C H A P T E R I I L I N G U E T A N D M O N T E S Q U I E U T h e o r i e d e s l o i x c i v i l e s w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 1 7 6 7 . W r i t t e n d u r i n g L i n g u e t ' s f i r s t y e a r s a t t h e b a r , i t r e p r e s e n t s b o t h a n e x t e n s i o n o f h i s e a r l i e r c r i t i c i s m o f F r e n c h j u r i s -p r u d e n c e a n d h i s o n e m a j o r e s s a y i n p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y . T h e s e t w o a s p e c t s o f t h e T h e o r i e l o i x c i v i l e s a r e n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o n e a n o t h e r , f o r , a s t h e c o n c l u d i n g c i t a t i o n i n t h e p r e v -i o u s c h a p t e r i l l u s t r a t e d , L i n g u e t c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d j u d i c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l a b u s e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i n L i n g u e t ' s e y e s , w a s a l o g i c a l o n e i n v i e w o f t h e p a r l e m e n t a r y o n s l a u g h t u p o n t h e w a v e r i n g a u t h o r i t y o f t h e F r e n c h c r o w n d u r i n g i n t h e r e i g n s o f L o u i s X V a n d L o u i s X V I . O f e v e n g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c -a n c e , i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n c r o w n a n d r o b e , i s t h a t t h e T h e o r i e d e s l o i s . c i v i l e s i s p r i m a r i l y a r e f u t a t i o n o f t h e r o b e ' s p r i n c i p a l i d e o l o g i c a l s o u r c e — M o n t e s q u i e u a n d h i s E s p r i t d e s l o i s . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o e x a m i n e t h e T h e o r i e d e s l o i x c i v i l e s w i t h a v i e w t o ( a ) d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h i s i n t e r - r e 1 a t i o n s h i p w h i c h L i n g u e t f i n d s b e t w e e n j u d i c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l a b u s e s a n d , ( b ) p o r t r a y i n g t h e T h e o r i e d e s l o i x c i v i l e s a s a c o n -t r i b u t i o n t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e b a t e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e a n d t h e r o y a l a u t h o r i t y . F o r L i n g u e t , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f l e g a l r e f o r m i n F r a n c e w a s t h e b a s i s o f h i s a t t a c k s o n t h e p o l i t i c a l r o l e o f t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e . S i m p l i c i t y a n d u n i f o r m i t y a r e r e q u i r e d i n j u r i s p r u d e n c e a n d i n t h e F r e n c h b o d y p o l i t i c . ' ' ' A s c o r o l l o r -i e s t o t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n , L i n g u e t a s s e r t s , f i r s t , t h a t a n a t i o n b e c o m e s d e c a d e n t a n d a p p r o a c h e s r e v o l u t i o n i n p r o p o r -2 t i o n t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f i t s l e g a l s y s t e m . S e c o n d l y , t h i s c o m p l e x i t y i s d u e t o t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l o r o r i g i n a l l a w s o f t h e n a t i o n a n d t h o s e l e g a l a c c r e t i o n s w h i c h , a c q u i r e d b y t h e s t a t e d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t , 3 a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t i n p r i n c i p l e w i t h t h e f o r m e r . T h e r e f o r e r e f o r m , f o r L i n g u e t , i s l e s s a m a t t e r o f c r e a t i n g n e w l a w s t h a n e l i m i n a t i n g t h o s e l a w s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f u n d a m e n t a l 4 l a w s o f t h e r e a l m . T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e p r e s e n t e d e x p l i c i t l y i n T h e o r i e d e s L o i x C i v i l e s a s f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s : T h e o r i e d e s l o i x c i v i l e s , ( 2 v o l s . , L o n d o n , 1 7 6 7 ) , I , 2 . [ H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s T h e o r i e ] . 2 l b i d . , I , p . 1 3 . 3 L i n g u e t m a k e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s a n d t h o s e l a w s w h i c h a r e b u i l t u p o n t h e s e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s . I b i d . , I , 3 6 - 3 7 . 4 I b i d . , I , 3 2 . 4 1 ( a ) l a w s p r o t e c t i n g a n d r e g u l a t i n g p r o p e r t y ; ( b ) t h e m a r r i a g e c o n t r a c t w h i c h i s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ; ( c ) l a w s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i n t e r n a l o r d e r o f f a m i l i e s w h i c h i n c l u d e t h o s e l a w s g o v e r n i n g t h e t r a n s -m i s s i o n o f g o o d s b y s u c c e s s i o n o r b y t e s t a m e n t . ( T h e l a t t e r , a g a i n , a r e a n e x t e n s i o n a n d b u t t r e s s o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . ) N o t e x p l i c i t l y p r e s e n t e d a s f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s b u t r e v e a l e d a s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s a r e t h e f o 1 1 o w i n g : ( a ) t h e r i g h t o f t h e m o n a r c h t o c h o o s e h i s o w n s u c c e s s o r w h i c h e m a n a t e s f r o m t h e l a w s g o v e r n i n g t h e t r a n s -m i s s i o n o f p r o p e r t y o f t e s t a m e n t ; ( b ) t h e a b s o l u t e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e F r e n c h m o n a r c h . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , o f s o c i e t y i s t o p r o t e c t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r o p e r t y t h r o u g h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p u b l i c o r d e r . C o n v e r s e l y , i t i s n o t t h e p u r p o s e o f s o c i e t y t o p r o t e c t w h a t s o m e c o n s i d e r t o b e t h e n a t u r a l r i g h t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h a t i s , r i g h t s e m a n a t i n g n o t f r o m m e m b e r s h i p i n s o c i e t y b u t f r o m n a t u r a l l a w s w h i c h a n t e d a t e s o c i e t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e T h e o r i e  d e s l o i x c i v i l e s i s a r e f u t a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f n a t u r a l r i g h t a n d t h e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t . L i n g u e t h o w e v e r a t t a c k s t h e s e c o n c e p t s p r i m a r i l y w i t h a v i e w t o r e f u t i n g M o n t e s q u i e u ' s d o c t r i n e o f t e m p e r e d m o n a r c h y a n d o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f p o w e r s , a n d , m o r e g e n e r a l l y , t h e n o t i o n t h a t p a r l e m e n t s t h r o u g h t h e i r r e r o o n s t f e n c e s w e r e t h e g u a r d i a n s o f t h e f u n d a m e n -t a l l a w s a n d h e n c e o f t h e ' g e n e r a l w i l l ' o f t h e n a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e T h e o r i e d e s l o i x c i v i l e s i s a n a p o l o g y f o r a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y . L i n g u e t a r g u e s t h a t a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y p o s s e s s e s t h r e e a t t r i b u t e s . F i r s t , i t i s f u n d a m e n t a l t o F r e n c h s o c i e t y ; s e c o n d l y , i t i s t h a t f o r m o f p o l i l T y w h i c h i s a b l e t o m a i n t a i n p u b l i c o r d e r m o s t e f f i c a c i o u s l y , t h a t i s , w i t h a m i n i m u m o f f o r c e ; a n d , f i n a l l y , i t i s t h a t r e g i m e m o s t a m e n a b l e t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e . M o n t e s q u i e u a n d t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T h e s e N o b i l i a i r e T h e o r i e d e s l o i x c i v i l e s w a s w r i t t e n d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f m a x i m u m c o n f r o n t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p a r l e m e n t s o f F r a n c e a n d t h e c r o w n . R e d u c e d t o p o l i t i c a l i m p o t e n c e d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f L o u i s X I V , t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s , a r m e d w i t h t h e r i g h t o f r e m o n s t r a n c e , ^ c o n t i n u a l l y c h a l l e n g e d t h e c r o w n o n m a t t e r s o f f i n a n c i a l r e f o r m a n d r e l i g i o n . B y m i d - c e n t u r y t h e r o b e ^ T h e m a g i s t r a t u r e s ' m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e o f p o w e r a n d i n f l u e n c e l a y i n t h e r i g h t t o r e m o n s t r a t e p r i o r t o t h e e n a c t m e n t o f l e g i s l a t i o n . I n 1 6 7 3 L o u i s X I V h a d d e n i e d t h e p a r l e m e n t s t h i s r i g h t , a l l o w i n g t h e m t o r e m o n s t r a t e o n l y a f t e r l e g i s l a t i o n h a d b e e n p a s s e d . I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h o f L o u i s X I V , t h i s r i g h t w a s r e s t o r e d b y t h e r e g e n t . S e e A l f r e d C o b b a n , A H i s t o r y o f M o d e r n F r a n c e ( 2 n d e d i t i o n , H a r m o n d s w o r t h , M i d d l e s e x , 1 9 6 1 ) , I , 6 1 - 6 2 , 8 8 - 8 9 . h a d s c o r e d d e c i s i v e l y a g a i n s t t h e c r o w n i n b o t h a r e a s o f d i s -p u t e a n d h a d t h o r o u g h l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f a s a p o w e r i n t h e l a n d . T h e v i n g t i e m e , i n s t i t u t e d b y M a c h a u l t i n 1 7 4 9 a n d s t r o n g l y e n d o r s e d b y t h e P o m p a d o u r , w a s r e l u c t a n t l y s u s -p e n d e d i n 1 7 5 1 . ^ S i m i l a r l y , t h e s o - c a l l e d J e s u i t - J a n s e n i s t c o n t r o v e r s y , i n v o l v i n g a p a r l e m e n t a r y o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t t h e J e s u i t s a n d t h e c r o w n ( w h i c h h a d c h o s e n t o s t a n d b e h i n d t h e O r d e r ) c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e P a r i s p a r l e m e n t ' s a b o l i t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y o f J e s u s i n 1 7 6 2 a n d L o u i s X V e n d o r s i n g t h i s b y r o y a l d e c r e e . 7 A n e r a o f i n t e n s i f i e d r i v a l r y b e t w e e n r o b e a n d t h r o n e w a s t o f o l l o w t h a t s a w t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r l e m e n t s j o i n i n t h e s t r u g g l e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y . 8 T h e m o s t p r o l o n g e d a n d s e r i o u s o f t h e s e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p a r l e m e n t s a n d t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e k i n g p r i o r t o t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c r e v o l u t i o n o f 1 7 8 8 w a s t h e " a f f a i r e d e B r e t a g n e . " T h e c a s u s b e l l i p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f i n t h e f o r m o f t h e r o y a l c o r v e e i m p o s e d b y t h e d u e d ' A i g u i l l o n , t h e m i l i t a r y c o m m a n d a n t o f B r i t t a n y , f o r r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e S e v e n Y e a r s ' W a r . A t r a n s g r e s s i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s w a s c l a i m e d T h i s w a s t h e f i r s t d e c i s i v e b l o w i n w h a t w a s t o b e a g e n e r a l p a r l e m e n t a r y o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t s u b s e q u e n t C o n t r o l e r -G e n e r a l s a n d I n t e n d a n t s . 7 S e e A l f r e d C o b b a n , A H i s t o r y o f M o d e r n F r a n c e ( 3 v o l s . , L o n d o n , 1 9 5 7 - 1 9 6 5 ) , I , 6 1 - 6 2 , 8 8 - 8 9 . g B i c k a r t , o p . c i t . , p . 5 . 44 b y t h e e s t a t e s o f B r i t t a n y a n d t h e p a r l e m e n t o f R e n n e s , a n d , i n s h o r t o r d e r , b y p a r i e m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t F r a n c e . P r o v i n c i a l a n d p a r l e m e n t a r y r i g h t s w e r e s o s t r i d e n t l y a s s e r t e d a n d c a m e s o c l o s e t o d e n y i n g t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e K i n g t h a t L o u i s X V r e a c t e d b y i s s u i n g a s c a t h i n g d e n u n c i a t i o n o f p a r l e m e n t a r y p r e t e n t i o n s i n a l i t d e j u s t i c e o f 1 7 6 6 , w h i c h h a s c o m e t o b e * 9 r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " s e a n c e d e f l a g e l l a t i o n . " T h e p a r l e m e n t s , h o w e v e r , c o n t i n u e d t o c h a l l e n g e t h e r o y a l a u t h o r i t y u n t i l M a u p e o u , i n J a n u a r y o f 1 7 7 1 , e x i l e d t h e m a g i s t r a t e s o f t h e p a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s t o t h e p r o v i n c e s . ^ T h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e c r o w n h a d e n c o u r a g e d t h a t g r o w i n g s e n s e o f u n i t y w h i c h h a d b e e n d e v e l o p i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b o t h w i t h i n t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e a n d b e t w e e n t h e n o b i l i t y o f t h e r o b e a n d t h e s w o r d . W h a t h a d b e e n i n 1 7 1 5 a d i s p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f s o v e r -e i g n c o u r t s c o n s t a n t l y q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r o v e r m a t t e r s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n h a d b e c o m e a u n i t e d f r o n t a g a i n s t t h e c r o w n b y m i d - c e n t u r y . ^ S i m i l a r l y , t h e h i g h r o b e h a d b e c o m e a t i g h t l y - k n i t p r o f e s s i o n a l c a s t e w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r c o n f i n e s o f t h e F r e n c h a r i s t o c r a c y . 9 S e e J . F l a m m e r o n t a n d M . T o u r n e u x , R e m o n t r a n c e s d u £ * __________________________________ p a r l e m e n t d e P a r i s a u X V I I I s i e c l e ( 3 v o l s . ) , I , 5 5 6 - 5 5 8 . " ^ C o b b a n , o p . c i t . , I , p p . 9 3 - 9 6 . " ' " ' ' " F r a n k l i n L . F o r d , R o b e a n d S w o r d : t h e r e g r o u p i n g o f  t h e F r e n c h a r i s t o c r a c y a f t e r L o u i s X I V ( p a p e r b a c k e d i t i o n , N e w Y o r k , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 5 1 - 5 2 . 1 2 I b i d . , p . 1 1 5 . S e e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e i n c h a p t e r o n e , a b o v e , p p . 1 0 - 1 2 . T h i s g r o w i n g u n i t y w i t h i n t h e F r e n c h a r i s t o c r a c y w a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a r i s t o c r a t i c - 1 3 p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s , t h e t h e s e n o b i l i a i r e . O r i g i n a l l y , t h e r o b e h a d e n v i s a g e d t h e F r e n c h c r o w n a s h e i r o f t h e R o m a n 1 4 E m p e r o r a n d h i s s e n a t e . B y t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h o w e v e r , b o t h t h e r o b e a n d t h e s w o r d s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e G e r m a n t h e o r y w h i c h t r a c e d t h e o r i g i n o f m o n a r c h i c a l a u t h o r i t y t o t h e a n n u a l a s s e m b l y o f F r a n k i s h w a r r i o r s a n d t o t h a t b o d y o f w a r r i o r -c o u n c i l l o r s t o w h o m t h e F r a n k i s h k i n g s w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e . F r o m t h a t b o d y o f w a r r i o r - c o u n c i l l o r s h a d d e v e l o p e d t h e c u r i a r e g i s o f P e p i n a n d e v e n t u a l l y t h e E s t a t e s - G e n e r a l w h o s e r o l e a s ' c o r p s i n t e r m e d i a i r e ' w a s c l a i m e d i n t h a t b o d y ' s a b s e n c e b y t h e F r e n c h p a r l e m e n t s . ^ T h i s p e n c h a n t f o r f i n d i n g t h e e s s e n c e o f s o m e t h i n g i n i t s o r i g i n s w a s t r a n s f o r m e d b y t h a t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t u r a l r i g h t w h i c h w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c o f t h e F r e n c h E n l i g h t e n m e n t i n t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s t h e o r y w a s e s s e n t i a l l y a h i s t o r i c a l 1 3 v T h e t h e s e n o b i l i a i r e p r i o r t o M o n t e s q u i e u h a d b e e n p r i m a r i l y h i s t o r i c a l , t h e a s s u m p t i o n b e i n g t h a t t o k n o w t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e F r e n c h m o n a r c h y w a s t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e . 1 4 T h i s p o s i t i o n , k n o w n a s t h e R o m a n t h e o r y , w a s h a r d l y a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e c o n c e p t o f . a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y . I b i d . , p . 2 2 8 . 4 6 s i n c e i t w a s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t m a n p o s s e s s e d c e r t a i n i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s w h i c h a n t e d a t e d o r g a n i z e d h u m a n s o c i e t y a n d h a d a n e x i s t e n c e i n d e p e n d e n t o f i t . M a n ' s e n t r y i n t o s o c i e t y i n v o l v e d a c o n t r a c t w h e r e i n t h e s e r i g h t s w e r e e i t h e r g u a r a n t e e d i n v i o l a t e o r , w e r e r e l i n q u i s h e d i n p a r t o r i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y f o r o t h e r b e n e f i t s o f f e r e d b y s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e n a t u r e o f t h i s c o n t r a c t w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e m o t i v e s w h i c h b r o u g h t m a n t o e n t e r i n t o t h i s c o n t r a c t , o r , t o p u t i t a n o t h e r w a y , h u m a n n a t u r e d e t e r m i n e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t . T h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t u r a l r i g h t , t h e r e f o r e , w a s a h i s t o r i c a l a n d c o s m o p o l i t a n : w h i l e n a t i o n a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s w e r e n o t d e n i e d ( w i t n e s s M o n t e s q u i e u ) , h u m a n s o c i e t i e s w e r e b a s e d o n t h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h w e r e d i c t a t e d b y h u m a n n a t u r e a n d c o n s e c r a t e d i n a s o c i a l c o n t r a c t . P r i o r t o t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , t h e p a r l e m e n t a r y t h e o r i s t s d e f i n e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s o f t h e r e a l m , t h e i r o w n r o l e ' a s t h e c u s t o d i a n s o f t h e s e l a w s , a n d t h e c o n t r a c t u a l t h e o r y o f s t a t e i n h i s t o r i c a l t e r m s . I t w a s s u f f i c i e n t t h a t c e r t a i n l a w s b e c o n s e c r a t e d b y t r a d i t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y b e c o n s i d e r e d f u n d a m e n t a l . T h e c o n t r a c t u a l t h e o r y o f s t a t e , w h i c h h a d a c e r t a i n v o g u e i n F r a n c e s i n c e t h e W a r s o f R e l i g i o n 1 6 i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h a d o r i g i n a l l y b e e n c l o t h e d i n 1 r» J . H . S h e r m a n , " T h e P a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s , " H i s t o r y  T o d a y , N o . 1 0 ( M a y , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 3 4 3 . 4 7 f e u d a l c o n c e p t s a n d b i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n s . ' ' " ' ' N o w , h o w e v e r , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s a n d t h e i d e a o f a c o n t r a c t b e t w e e n t h e k i n g a n d t h e p e o p l e w e r e t r a c e d , n o t t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e F r e n c h m o n a r c h y o r t o b i b l i c a l t i m e s , b u t t o t h e o r i g i n o f s o c i e t y — a n a b s t r a c t i o n i n t h e d i s t a n t p a s t . T h e c o n t r a c t u a l t h e o r y o f t h e s t a t e h a d a l s o b e c o m e t h e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t o f L o c k e a n d R o u s s e a u . I t s p o p u l a r i t y d u r i n g t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e q u i r e d t h a t i t b e c e n t r a l t o 1 8 p a r l e m e n t a r y t h e o r y . I n t h i s s h i f t t o a l e s s h i s t o r i c a l a n d m o r e . t h e o r e t i c a l e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e t h e s e n o b i l i a i r e , M o n t e s q u i e u ' s E s p r i t d e s  l o i s , w r i t t e n i n 1 7 4 8 , s t a n d s a s a w a t e r s h e d . A p r e s i d e n t a  m o r t i e r o f t h e p a r l e m e n t o f B o r d e a u x , M o n t e s q u i e u i n h i s E s p r i t  d e s l o i s g a v e e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e g r o u p i n t e r e s t s o f t h e r o b e a n d s t r e s s e d t h e s y n t h e s i s o f t h e t w o t r a d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e t h e s e n o b i l i a i r e . M o n t e s q u i e u i s a k e y f i g u r e i n t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n c r o w n a n d r o b e , n o t s o m u c h b e c a u s e h e w a s t h e f i r s t t o e l a b o r a t e t h i s s y n t h e s i s , b u t b e c a u s e h e r e s t a t e d p a r l e m e n t a r y a s p i r a t i o n s i n t h e n e w s p i r i t a n d v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e F r e n c h E n l i g h t e n m e n t . M o n t e s q u i e u t o o k t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e p a r l e m e n t s w e r e t h e c u s t o d i a n s o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s o f t h e r e a l m w h i c h h a d p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a 1 7 A l f r e d C o b b a n , " T h e P a r l e m e n t s o f F r a n c e i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y , " H i s t o r y , X X X V ( F e b u a r y - J u n e , 1 9 5 0 ) , 7 3 . 1 8 ^ J . L o u g h , " E n c y c l o p e d i c a n d t h e r e m o n s t r a n c e s o f t h e P a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s , " M o d e r n L a n g u a g e R e v i e w , ( J u l y , 1 9 6 1 ) , 3 9 3 - 3 9 5 . S e e a l s o F l a m m e r o n t a n d T o u r n e u x , o p . c i t . , I , p . 5 2 2 s t a t e m e n t o f h i s t o r i c a l f a c t a n d e l e v a t e d i t i n t o a g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e : m o n a r c h y , a s a f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t , i n o r d e r t o f u n c t i o n e f f i c a c i o u s l y o r e v e n t o s u r v i v e , r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e j u d i c i a r y s e r v e a s a n i n t e r m e d i a r y b o d y a n d a d e p o s i t o r y o f t h e l a w s w i t h i n t h e b o d y p o l i t i c : I n m o n a r c h i e s , p o l i c y e f f e c t s g r e a t t h i n g s w i t h a s l i t t l e v i r t u e a s p o s s i b l e . T h u s i n t h e n i c e s t m a c h i n e s , a r t h a s r e d u c e d t h e n u m b e r o f m o v e m e n t s , s p r i n g s a n d w h e e l s . T h e s t a t e s u b s i s t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e l o v e o f o u r c o u n t r y , o f t h e t h i r s t o f t r u e g l o r y , o f s e l f - d e n i a l , o f a l l t h e h e r o i c v i r t u e s w h i c h w e a d m i r e i n t h e a n c i e n t s , a n d t o u s a r e k n o w n o n l y b y t r a d i t i o n . T h e l a w s s u p p l y h e r e t h e p l a c e o f t h o s e v i r t u e s ; t h e y a r e b y n o m e a n s w a n t e d , a n d t h e s t a t e d i s p e n s e s w i t h t h e m : a n a c t i o n p e r f o r m e d h e r e i n s e c r e t i s i n s o m e m e a s u r e o f n o c o n s e q u e n c e . 1 9 T h e k e y t o t h i s f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t a l p e r f e c t i o n w a s t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e l a w s . I t w a s t h u s a s c u s t o d i a n s o f t h e s e l a w s t h a t t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e m i g h t c l a i m i t s r o l e a s ' c o r p s i n t e r m e d i a i r e ' a n d a s ' d e p o s i t a i r e d e s l o i s ' : I t i s n o t e n o u g h t o h a v e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o w e r s i n a m o n a r c h y ; t h e r e m u s t b e a l s o a d e p o s i t o r y o f t h e l a w s . T h i s d e p o s i t o r y c a n o n l y b e t h e j u d g e s o f t h e s u p r e m e c o u r t s o f j u s t i c e , w h o p r o m u l g a t e t h e n e w l a w s , a n d . r e v i v e t h e o b s o l e t e . T h e n a t u r a l i g n o r a n c e o f t h e n o b i l i t y , t h e i r i n d o l e n c e a n d c o n t e m p t o f c i v i l g o v e r n m e n t , r e q u i r e t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e a b o d y i n v e s t e d w i t h t h e p o w e r o f r e -v i v i n g a n d e x e c u t i n g t h e l a w s , w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r -w i s e b e b u r i e d i n o b l i v i o n . T h e p r i n c e ' s c o u n c i l s a r e n o t a p r o p e r d e p o s i t o r y o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s . T h e y a r e n a t u r a l l y t h e d e p o s i t o r y o f t h e m o m e n t a r y w i l l o f t h e p p r i n c e . B e s i d e s , t h e p r i n c e ' s c o u n c i l M o n t e s q u i e u , T h e S p i r i t o f t h e L a w s , t r a n s . T h o m a s N u g e n t , ( N e w Y o r k , 1 9 4 9 ) , V o l . I , B o o k 1 1 1 , 2 3 . 49 i s c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g ; i t i s n e i t h e r p e r m a n e n t n o r n u m e r o u s ; n e i t h e r h a s i t a s u f f i c i e n t s h a r e o f t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e p e o p l e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y i t i s i n c a p a b l e o f s e t t i n g t h e m r i g h t i n d i f f i c u l t c o n j u n c t u r e s , o r o f r e d u c i n g t h e m t o p r o p e r o b e d i e n c e . 2 0 I n t h e s e t w o s t a t e m e n t s o n e h a s a t h o r o u g h l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e r o b e ' s a t t i t u d e s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s : t h e c o n -t e m p t f o r t h e n o b l e s s d ' e p e e o f a h i g h l y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s m a g i s t r a t e , w h o d e s p i t e h i s o w n i m p e c c a b l e l i n e a g e , w a s u n a f r a i d t o a t t a c k t h e n o b l e s s e d e r a c e a t i t s w e a k e s t p o i n t ; o p p o s i t i o n t o a n y a t t e m p t b y t h e m o n a r c h y t h r o u g h i t s m i n i s t e r s t o i n s t i t u t e r e f o r m , f i n a n c i a l o r o t h e r w i s e , w h i c h e n d a n g e r e d t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s a s n o b i l i t y ; t h e p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s o f t h e r o b e . T h i s c o n c e r n o f t h e r o b e o v e r t h e r e f o r m i n g m i n i s t e r s o f L o u i s X V e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f t h r o u g h M o n t e s q u i e u i n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n a m o n a r c h i c a l g o v e r n m e n t , o p e r a t i n g o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f h o n o u r , a n d t h e d e s p o t i c g o v e r n m e n t , o p e r a t -i n g o n t h e b a s i s o f f e a r . F o r M o n t e s q u i e u , d e s p o t i s m i s a c o r r u p t i o n o f m o n a r c h y : M o n a r c h y i s d e s t r o y e d w h e n a p r i n c e t h i n k s h e s h o w s a g r e a t e r e x e r t i o n o f p o w e r i n c h a n g i n g t h a n i n c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e o r d e r o f t h i n g s ; w h e n h e d e p r i v e s s o m e o f h i s s u b j e c t s o f t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y e m p l o y m e n t s t o b e s t o w t h e m a r b i t r a r i l y u p o n o t h e r s , a n d w h e n h e i s f o n d e r o f b e i n g g u i d e d b y f a n c y t h e n j u d g e m e n t . 2 1 2 ° I b i d . , p . 1 7 . 2 1 I b i d . , V o l . 1 , B o o k V I I I , p . 1 1 3 . T h i s , i n c i d e n t -a l l y i s a l s o L i n g u e t ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f d e s p o t i s m , a s w i l l b e s h o w n l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r . T h e m e a n i n g b e h i n d t h i s p a s s a g e b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t w h e n o n e r e a d s " t h e k i n g ' s m i n i s t e r s a n d t h e c o u r t " f o r ' o t h e r s ' a n d ' f a n c y ' . S i n c e t h e p a r l e m e n t s a l w a y s p r o t e s t e d t h e i r a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e m o n a r c h y , ( e v e n d u r i n g t h e r e v o l t e n o b i l -i a i r e ) , ' d e s p o t i s m ' c a m e t o r e p r e s e n t ' m i n i s t e r i a l d e s p o t i s m ' . I n t h e y e a r s a f t e r 1 7 4 8 , t h i s q u e s t i o n o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n d e s p o t i s m a n d l e g i t i m a t e m o n a r c h y w o u l d b e c o m e a 2 2 m a t t e r o f w i d e c o n c e r n . A s I h a v e s a i d b e f o r e , h o w e v e r , M o n t e s q u i e u ' s i m p o r -t a n c e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n r o b e a n d c r o w n l a y n o t s o m u c h i n h i s s y n t h e s i s o f p a r l e m e n t a r y t r a d i t i o n s b u t i n h i s r e s t a t i n g o f t h o s e t r a d i t i o n s i n a n e w s p i r i t a n d a n e w v o c a b u l a r y . F o r i n s t a n c e , h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m o n a r c h y t e m p e r e d b y t h e p r i n c i p l e o f h o n o u r i s n o t o r g a n i c b u t m e c h a n i s t i c : m o n a r c h y r e p r e s e n t s t h e ' n i c e s t ' o f ' m a c h i n e s ' i n w h i c h " a r t h a s r e d u c e d t h e n u m b e r o f m o v e m e n t s , 2 3 s p r i n g s , a n d w h e e l s . " S i m i l a r l y , i t w a s t h e c h e c k s a n d b a l a n c e s o f t h e E n g l i s h s y s t e m , a s h e s a w i t , w i t h i t s d i v i s -i o n o f t h e e x e c u t i v e , l e g i s l a t i v e a n d j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s t h a t M o n t e s q u i e u a d m i r e d . ^ 2 2 v E . C a r c a s s o n e , M o n t e s q u i e u e t l e p r o b l e m e d e l a c o n s t i t u t i o n f r a n c a i s e a u X V I I I s i e c l e ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 7 ) , p p . 4 0 4 - 4 0 6 . 2 3 S e e a b o v e , p . 8 . 2 4 M o n t e s q u i e u , o p . c i t . , I , B o o k X I , c h . 1 - 7 . I t w a s t h i s n e w s p i r i t t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e n a t u r a l l a w s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t w h i c h w o u l d m a k e M o n t e s q u i e u u s e f u l t o t h e r o b e i n i t s s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e C r o w n . A f t e r 1 7 5 0 s u c h t e r m s a s ' d r o i t ' , ' n a t i o n ' , ' c o n t r a t ' , ' v o l o n t e g e n e r a l e ' , ' c o r p s i n t e r m e d i a i r e ' a n d ' d e p o s i t a i r e d e s l o i s ' t o o k t h e i r p l a c e n e x t t o s u c h e x p r e s s i o n s a s ' m o n -a r c h i e l e g i t i m e ' a n d ' l o i s f o n d a m e n t a l e s ' i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e p a r l e m e n t a i r e s i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o i n f l u e n c e a n d w i n 2 5 t h e s u p p o r t o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n . B a s i c a l l y t h e p a r l e m e n t a r y a r g u m e n t e l a b o r a t e d b e t w e e n 1 7 5 0 a n d t h e R e v o l u t i o n w a s a s f o l l o w s : ( a ) T h e m o n a r c h i c a l g o v e r n m e n t o f F r a n c e w a s ' l e g i t i m e ' , t h a t i s , b a s e d o n l a w s . A d e s p o t i c g o v e r n m e n t w a s n o t b a s e d o n l a w s ; ( b ) C e r t a i n o f t h e s e l a w s w e r e 1 f o n d a m e n t a l e s 1 a n d t h e r e f o r e u n a l t e r a b l e i n p r i n c i p l e . T h e y h a d b e e n p a s s e d o n f r o m g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n b y c u s t o m a n d t r a d i t i o n a n d t o g e t h e r m a d e u p t h e F r e n c h c o n -s t i t u t i o n w h i c h w a s u n w r i t t e n ; ( c ) T h e s e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s w e r e t h e o u t c o m e o f a f r e e c o n t r a c t b e t w e e n t h e k i n g a n d t h e n a t i o n , i n v o l v -i n g r e c i p r o c a l p r i v i l e g e s a n d d u t i e s ; ( d ) T h e c o n s t i t u t i o n m i g h t n o t , t h e r e f o r e b e a l t e r e d w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e n a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e k i n g w a s s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e l a w s o f w h i c h t h e j u d i c i a r y w a s t h e g u a r d i a n . 5 2 E v e n w i t h i n t h e n e w r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f p a r l e m e n t a r y t h i n k i n g , h o w e v e r , t h e h i s t o r i c a l a r g u m e n t w a s s t i l l p r e s e n t : ( a ) T h e p a r l e m e n t s w e r e a s a n c i e n t a s t h e m o n a r c h y . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e m o n a r c h y ' s o r i g i n a n ' a s s e m b l e e g e n e r a l e ' h a d t o c o n s e n t t o l e g i s l a t i o n b e f o r e i t c o u l d b e d i g n i f i e d a s l a w ; ( b ) W h i l e i t w a s t h e E s t a t e s - G e n e r a l w h i c h n o r m a l l y w a s h e i r t o t h i s a s s e m b l y ' s f u n c t i o n s , i t s a b s e n c e s i n c e 1 6 1 4 m a d e p a r l e m e n t t h e h e i r o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n . I n t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h i s p r e r o g a t i v e — s e r v i n g b o t h a s ' c o r p s i n t e r m e d i a i r e ' a n d a s ' d e p o s i t s * t r e s d e s l o i s ' , t h e p a r l e m e n t h a d t h e r i g h t t o c o n s i d e r 2 6 i t s e l f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e w i l l o f t h e n a t i o n . O f k e y i m p o r t a n c e f o r a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h r e a t w h i c h t h i s p a r l e m e n t a r y a r g u m e n t p o s e d f o r t h e F r e n c h m o n a r c h y i s t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s - h a d n e v e r b e e n s t r i c t l y d e f i n e d , w h i l e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r s u m t o t a l , w a s a b l a n k s h e e t u p o n w h i c h t h e p a r l e m e n t s w r o t e w h a t e v e r t h e y w i s h e d . T h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s , r e a s o n e d t h e p a r l e m e n t a i r e s , w e r e b a s e d o n t h e c o n t r a c t c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n t h e k i n g a n d h i s p e o p l e . T h e k i n g , t h e r e f o r e w a s 2 5 C a r c a s s o n n e , o p . c i t . , p . 2 9 1 . 2 6 B i c k a r t , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 - 2 . s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e s e l a w s . T h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s w e r e a l s o t h e b a s i s o f t h e o r d i n a r y l a w s o f t h e r e a l m . T h u s t h e s e o r d i n a r y l a w s b e c a m e a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l c o n t r a c t 2 7 a n d t h e k i n g w a s s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e m a s w e l l . T h e c o n t r a c t t h e o r y w a s e q u a l l y c a p a b l e o f e x p a n s i o n s i n c e i t h a d c o r o l l a r i e s w h i c h t h e p a r l e m e n t s t h o r o u g h l y e x p l o i t e d . F i r s t , t h e c o n t r a c t b e t w e e n t h e k i n g a n d t h e n a t i o n c o u l d n o t b e m o d i f i e d w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e n a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , i f t h e k i n g d i d n o t f u l f i l l h i s o b l i g a -t i o n s a s s e t f o r t h i n t h e c o n t r a c t , t h e n a t i o n w a s f r e e t o d i s r e g a r d i t s o b l i g a t i o n s a n d t h e c o n t r a c t w a s b r o k e n , t h a t 2 8 i s , s o v e r e i g n t y n o l o n g e r r e s i d e d w i t h t h e m o n a r c h . T h i s t a k e s o n a d d i t i o n a l m e a n i n g w h e n t h e p a r l e m e n t a r y c o n c e p t i o n o f i t s r o l e o f ' c o r p s i n t e r m e d i a i r e ' i s u n d e r s t o o d . T h e p a r l e m e n t a i r e s a d a p t e d t h i s c o n c e p t t o t h e d o c t r i n e o f n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y b y e q u a t i n g i t w i t h t h a t o f r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e o f t h e n a t i o n . L e g i s l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d a n e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l w i l l o f t h e n a t i o n . T h e p a r l e m e n t s a s s i g n e d t o t h i s g e n e r a l w i l l a p a s s i v e f u n c t i o n i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e s s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , b e f o r e l e g i s l a t i o n a s s u m e d t h e s t a t u s o f l e g a l i t y , - i t r e q u i r e d t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e n a t i o n . S i n c e t h e s i z e o f t h e n a t i o n m a d e t h e d i r e c t a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h i s c o n s e n t d i f f i c u l t , t h e n a t i o n m u s t n e e d s f u l f i l l i t s 2 7 I b i d . , p . 5 5 . 2 8 I b i d . , p p . 6 6 - 6 7 5 4 2 9 r o l e i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e s s t h r o u g h i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I n i t s c a p a c i t y a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e n a t i o n , t h e p a r l e m e n t w o u l d n o l o n g e r b e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e r o l e o f a d v i s o r t o t h e k i n g , b u t , w i t h a m a n d a t e f r o m t h e p e o p l e , w o u l d b e a b l e t o a c c e p t o r r e j e c t l e g i s l a t i o n a s b e i n g e i t h e r w i t h i n o r b e y o n d t h e b o u n d s s e t b y t h e c o n t r a c t - b e t w e e n k i n g a n d 3 0 n a t i o n . T h e B a s i s o f L i n g u e t ' s A r g u m e n t A g a i n s t M o n t e s q u i e u L i n g u e t c l e a r l y s a w t h e n o t i o n o f n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y f o r w h a t i t w a s — a r a t i o n a l e f o r p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n : E t a b l i r a - t - o n q u e l a p l u r a l i t e s u f f i t p o u r e n a u t o r i s e r l e d e s i r . M a i s c ' e s t o u v r i r l a p o r t e a u x r e b e l l i o n s : a q u o i l a r e c o n n a i t r a - t - o n c e t t e p l u r a l i t e ? C h a c u n n e p r e t e n d r a - t - i l p a s l ' a v o i r d e s o n c o t e ? C e u x m e m e q u i n e l ' a u r o n t p a s d i r o n t q u e l a m u l t i t u d e e s t s e d u i t e . I l s s o u t i e n d r o n t q u ' i l f a u t c o m p t e r l e s r a i s o n s , p l u s q u e l e s h o m m e s , e t q u ' u n p e t i t n o m b r e d ' e s p r i t s e c l a i r e e s t p r e -f e r a b l e a u n e f o u l e d ' a v e u g l e s i g n o r a n s . 3 1 A s a r e s u l t , T o u t a t t r o u p e m e n t s e d i t i e u x s e d i r a i t l ' E t a t . L a s o c i e t e s e r a i t p e r p e t u e 1 1 e m e n t t r o u b l e e . 3 2 2 9 I b i d . , p . 8 6 . 3 ° I b i d . , p p . 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 3 1 L i n g u e t , o p . c i t . , I , 6 9 - 7 0 . 3 2 I b i d . , 1 , 7 0 . I n t h e e n s u i n g p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e i t w o u l d b e t h e c o m m o n m a n t h a t w o u l d s u f f e r m o s t : I l s p e r i r a i e n t e n t r e l e u r s d e f e n s e u r s e t l e u r s e n n e m i s , c o m m e u n e b r e b i s q u ' u n d o g u e v e u t a r r a c h e r a u l o u p q u i l ' e m p o r t e , s e s e n t m e t t r e e n p i e c e s , t a n d i s q u e c h a c u n d e s d e u x l a t i r e p a r l e c o t e q u ' i l a s a i s i . 3 3 L i n g u e t r e a l i z e d , a s w e l l , t h a t t h e p a r l e m e n t a r y t h e s i s w a s a n e x t e n s i o n a n d a v u l g a r i z a t i o n o f M o n t e s q u i e u ' s E s p r i t d e s l o i s : E n g e n e r a l l e s g r a n d s g e n i e s p a r v i e n n e n t t o t o u t a r d a f a i r e d e s e n t h o u s i a s t e s , m e m e p a r m i l e s e n n e m i s c r u e l s q u i l e s d e c h i r e n t . I l s r e s s - S m b l e n t a c e s c o n q u e r a n s q u i r e c r u t e n t l e u r s t r o u p e s d a n s l e s p a y s o u i t s f o n t l a - g u e r r e . I I n e f a u t q u ' u n e p o r t i o n e c h a u f f e p o u r e n f a i r e n a i t r e u n e f o u l e d ' a u t r e s . O n a i m e a s ' a t t a c h e r a l e u r f o r t u n e , a m e s u r e q u ' e l l e p a r a i t p l u s a f f e r m i e : e t t e l o u v r a g e n ' a e s s u y e d ' a b o r d q u e d e s c r i t i q u e s , q u i n ' a p l u s q u e d e s a d m i r -a t e u r s , d e s q u ' i l a t r o u v e u n p a n e g y r i s t e . 3 4 F u r t h e r m o r e , i n L i n g u e t ' s e y e s , M o n t e s q u i e u h a d f a i l e d t o f r e e h i m s e l f f r o m t h e p r e j u d i c e s a n d g r o u p i n t e r e s t s o f t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e t r i a l . L i n g u e t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t M o n t e s q u i e u h a d b e e n o p p o s e d t o t h o s e p r o j e c t s o f l e g a l r e f o r m w h i c h h a d b e e n s u g g e s t e d b y j u r i s c o n s u 1 t a n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d w h i c h L i n g u e t t a k e s a s t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r h i s T h e o r i e d e s l o i s c i v i l e s : I b i d . , I , 7 1 . I b i d . , I , 1 3 0 . 5 6 ( a ) t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s i m p l i c i t y a n d u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e l a w s ( t h e r e b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h a t o v e r -c o m p l e x i t y a n d c o n f u s i o n w h i c h b r e e d s c h i c a n e r y ) ; ( b ) a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e v a r i e t y o f t r i b u n a l s w i t h a v i e w t o e l i m i n a t i n g t h a t w a r r i n g o f j u r i d i c a l f a c t i o n s w h i c h a r i s e s f r o m t h e o v e r l a p p i n g o f j u r i s d i c t i o n s ; ( c ) t h e c r e a t i o n o f m o r e t r i b u n a l s ( a s o p p o s e d t o c l a s s e s o r v a r i e t i e s o f t r i b u n a l s ) i n o r d e r t h e m o r e p r o p e r l y t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p u n c t u a l e x e c u t i o n o f j u s t i c e . M o n t e s q u i e u , L i n g u e t m a i n t a i n e d , o p p o s e d a s i m p l e a n d u n i f o r m 3 6 l e g a l s t r u c t u r e a s a n i n s t r u m e n t o f d e s p o t i s m . U s u r p e r s , 3 7 w e a r e t o l d , a l l w o r k e d f o r t h e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l a w . L i n g u e t a r g u e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t l e s C e s a r s , l e s C r o m w e l l s , e t c . s e n t a i e n t l e b e s o i n d e r e s s u s c i t e r , p a r l a s i m p l i c i t e d e s L o i x , l e s E t a t s q u e l a c o m p l i c a t i o n d e c e s L o i x a v a i t t u e s . 3 8 H e r e , a s e l s e w h e r e i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , L i n g u e t i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t i n g j u r i d i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . I n d e e d , h e c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e n o d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n ' l e d r o i t c i v i l e ' a n d ' l e d r o i t p o l i t i q u e ' a n d t h a t t h e l a t t e r s h o u l d s u p p o r t a n d b e i n h a r m o n y w i t h t h e f o r m e r s i n c e 3 5 I b i d . , I , 9 7 - 9 9 . 3 6 I b i d . , I , 9 9 - 1 0 0 . 3 7 I b i d . , I , 1 0 1 - 1 0 2 . 3 8 I b i d . , I , 1 0 2 . 5 7 t o u s l e s d r o i t s , e t s u r t o u t c e s d e u x - l a r e d u i s e n t a e t r e j u s t e , a r e n d r e a c h a c u n c e q u i l u i a p p a r t i e n t , p o u r c o n s e r v e r l e s i e n p r o p r e . 3 9 I t i s t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e j u r i d i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e a n d , i n d e e d , o f s o c i e t y , g e n e r a l l y , t o m a i n t a i n a n d p r o t e c t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r o p e r t y . T a k i n g t h i s a s h i s b a s i c c r i t e r i o n , L i n g u e t m a i n t a i n s t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s w i l l s t a n d o r f a l l a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y c a n p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y f o r t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e i r p e o p l e s : L e p o u v o i r d e s R o i s n ' e s t a s s u r e q u ' a u t a n t q u e l e s p o s s e s s i o n s d e l e u r s s u j e t s s o n t s o l i d e m e n t a f f e r m i e s ; e t l a r a i s o n e n e s t b i e n s i m p l e ; c ' e s t q u ' i l s p o s s e d e n t t o u s a u m e m e t i t r e . L e s R o y a u m e s a p p a r t i e n n e n t a l e u r s M a i t r e s , c o m m e u n e f e r m e e s t a m o i . 4 0 S o c i e t y i s f o u n d e d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p r o p r i e t o r s h i p . T h e r e -f o r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y a n d n a t u r a l t h a t t h i s p r i n c i p l e s h o u l d b e e m b o d i e d i n t h e s t a t e w h i c h g o v e r n s s o c i e t y . v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t t h a t p r o p r i e t o r s h i p , b y i t s v e r y n a t u r e , k n o w s n o e x t e n u a t i o n s . I n d e e d , a s w i l l b e s h o w n l a t e r i n t h e c h a p t e r , L i n g u e t ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f p r o p e r t y p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e s t h e r i g h t t o e x e r c i s e a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h a t w h i c h i s p o s s e s s e d . T h e r e f o r e , t o q u e s t i o n o r t o p l a c e l i m i t s o n t h e s o v e r e i g n t y ( o r p r o p r i e t o r s h i p ) o f t h e k i n g , a s M o n t e s q u i e u d o e s i s t o u n d e r m i n e t h e b a s i s o f s o c i e t y a n d T h e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p o f t h e m o n a r c h i s a b s o l u t e b y 3 9 I b i d . , I , 8 9 . 4 0 I b i d I , 6 5 . 5 8 4 1 i n i t i a t e a l l m a n n e r o f d i s o r d e r s . S i n c e t h e M o n a r c h i s t h e p r o p r i e t o r o f h i s r e a l m , h i s i n t e r e s t s a n d t h o s e o f h i s s u b j e c t s a r e i n d i s s o l u b l y t i e d . A m o n a r c h ' s p o s i t i o n i s s e c u r e o n l y a s l o n g a s h e a d e q u a t e l y p r o v i d e s f o r t h e s e c u r i t y o f h i s s u b j e c t s a n d t h e i r p r o p e r t y : U n t y r a n e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i v e m e n t a 1 ' a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n d e l a j u s t i c e d i s t r i b u t i v e , q u e l q u e c r u e l q u ' i l s o i t , p e u t e t r e s u r d e m o u r i r t r a n q u i l l e : a u c o n t r a i r e u n R o i d o n t l e s c a p r i c e s t r o u b l e n t l ' o r d i r e d e s p o s s e s s i o n s c i v i l e s , r e g n e r a r e m e n t a v e c s e c u r i t e , q u e l q u e s v e r t u s q u ' i l p o s s e d e d ' a i l l e u r s . 4 2 T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n p l a c e d u p o n t h e k i n g b y t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e a u t h o r i t y w h i c h r e s i d e s i n h i m i s m u c h m o r e e f f i c a c i o u s , e v e n i n i t s i m p l i c i t n e s s , t h a n s o m e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t w h i c h i s n o m o r e 4 3 t h a n a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e c o n c e p t o f t h e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t i s t h e w o r k o f m e t a p h y s i c i a n s s i n c e i t a s s u m e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f n a t u r a l r i g h t s w h i c h a n t e d a t e s o c i e t y a n d s i n c e i t a s s u m e s t h a t h u m a n s o c i e t y i s b a s e d o n t h e l a w s o f n a t u r e w h e r e i n t h e s e r i g h t s r e s i d e . B o t h t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e m i s t a k e n a n d u n d e s i r a b l e . B a s e d o n t h e s e t w o a s s u m p t i o n s a n d e q u a l l y m i s t a k e n a n d h a r m f u l t o t h e t r a n q u i l l i t y o f t h e r e a l m , L i n g u e t t e l l s u s , M o n t e s q u i e u ' s c o n c e p t O f a m o n a r c h y t e m p e r e d b y a ' c o r p s 4 1 I b i d . , I , 6 5 . 4 2 I b i d . , I , 7 9 . 4 3 I b i d . , 9 0 . i n t e r m e d i a i r e ' c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e p a r l e m e n t s , a r i s t o c r a c y , t h e c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d s o o n , t h e k e y s t o n e o f w h i c h i s t h e j u d i c i a r y w h i c h s e r v e d a s ' d e p o s i t a i r e d e s l o i s ' , o r g u a r d i a n s 4 4 o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s o f t h e r e a l m . R a t h e r . . . l e s S o u v e r a i n s j o u i s s e n t , p a r c e q u ' i l s j o u i s s e n t . L ' e x e r c i c e m e m e d e l e u r p u i s s a n c e e n e s t l e t i t r e . S ' i l s e n a b u s e n t , m a l h e u r a e u x s a n s d o u t e . M a i s e n f i n i l s n e s o n t j u s t i c i a b l e s d ' a u c u n e s o r t e d e t r i b u n a l . 4 5 T h e j u d i c i a r y s h o u l d n o t b e s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e e x e c u t i v e . I n d e e d , t h e m o n a r c h s h o u l d b e t h e f i r s t m a g i s t r a t e o f t h e 4 4 r e a l m . A n d t h i s i s a s i t s h o u l d b e , f o r t h e k i n g ' s r i g h t t o a d m i n i s t e r j u s t i c e e q u i t a b l y i s t h e s u r e s t m e a n s o f e n s u r -4 6 i n g t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f h i s r e i g n . T h e r e f o r e , w h e n t h e k i n g a s s i g n s t h e d u t i e s o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g j u s t i c e i n t o o t h e r h a n d s i t i s i n h i s o w n a n d h i s s u b j e c t s ' b e s t i n t e r e s t s f o r 4 7 h i m p e r s o n a l l y t o w a t c h o y e r i t s e x e c u t i o n . T h a t i s , t h r o u g h c l o s e s u r v e i l l a n c e o f h i s m i n i s t e r s a n d h i s m a g i s t r a -t u r e , t h e k i n g m u s t e n s u r e t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s o f t h e k i n g d o m a r e n o t t r a n s g r e s s e d , e i t h e r i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f n e w l a w s o r i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e o l d . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t a l l s o c i e t i e s o w e t h e i r o r i g i n s t o v i o l e n c e a n d c o n q u e s t a n d t h a t t h e f i r s t d e c r e e s i s s u e d 4 4 M o n t e s q u i e u , o p . c i t . , X X I V . ^ ~ * L i n g u e t , o p . c i t . , I , 7 3 . 4 6 4 7 I b i d . , I , 9 1 . I b i d . , I , 9 1 60 b y t h e i r f i r s t l e g i s l a t o r s h a v e a s t h e i r s o l e o b j e c t t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t y w r e s t e d f r o m t h e v a n q u i s h e d , t h e s e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s .iavs w i l l b e t h e b a s i s o f a j u s t s o c i a l o r d e r o n c o n d i t i o n t h a t a l l s u b s e q u e n t g e n e r a l l a w s a r e c o n -4 8 s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m . A l l t o o f t e n , h o w e v e r , t h e r e e x i s t s t h i s e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o c a t e g o r i e s o f l a w : A u l i e u d e s e d i r i g e r d a n s l e s U n e s , c o m m e d a n s l e s a u t r e s , p a r d e s v u e s g e n e r a l e s , e t e n d u e s , q u i l e s r e n d i s s e n t p r o p r e s a g o u v e r n e r u n e s o c i e t e d a n s t o u t e s s e s p e r i o d e s , o n n ' y s u r v i t d a n s c e l l e s q u i n o u s s o n t p r o p r e s q u ' u n p l a n r e t r e c i ; m e s q u i n , q u i s u b o r d o n n a i t t o u j o u r s l ' i n t e r e t p u b l i c a u p a r t i c u l i e r ; e t q u i f a v o r i s a i t l a t y r a n n i e , b i e n p l u s q u e l a p r o p r i e t e . C ' e s t c e p l a n a l t e r e e n c o r e , d e n a t u r e p a r l e t e r n s s u r c h a r g e d e j e n e s a i s q u e l s a c c o m p a g n e m e n s g o t i q u e s , q u e j e d i s q u ' i l f a u t r e f o r m e r . 4 9 I t i s a m o n a r c h y u n f e t t e r e d b y ' i n t e r m e d i a r y b o d i e s ' t h a t w i l l b e m o s t c a p a b l e o f t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e e s p r i t d e c o r p s a n d n a r r o w g r o u p i n t e r e s t s s o p r e v a l e n t i n t h e l a t t e r . T h e ' d e p o s i t a i r e d e s l o i s ' , t h e r e f o r e i s t h e m o n a r c h w i t h a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y , f o r i t i s h e a n d n o t t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e w h o i s m o s t c a p a b l e o f r e s t o r i n g t h a t c o n s i s t e n c y b e t w e e n f u n d a m e n t a l a n d g e n e r a l l a w s w h i c h i s t h e b a s i s o f a j u s t s o c i e t y . 4 8 I b i d . , I , 3 4 - 3 7 4 9 I b i d . , I , 3 7 - 3 8 6 1 L i n g u e t o n t h e N a t u r e o f t h e L a w s a n d o f S o c i e t y T h e T h e o r i e d e s l o i x c i v i l e s , a s I m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , i s m o r e t h a n s i m p l y a r e f u t a t i o n o f M o n t e s q u i e u ' s c o n c e p t o f m o n a r c h y t e m p e r e d b y a c o r p s i n t e r m e d i a i r e . R a t h e r , L i n g u e t ' s c r i t i q u e o f M o n t e s q u i e u ' s E s p r i t d e s l o i s i s a v e h i c l e f o r h i s a t t a c k o n p a r l e m e n t a r y p o l i t i c a l p r e t e n t i o n s . I n o r d e r t o d i s c r e d i t t h e m a g i s t r a t u r e s ' p o s t u r e a s t h e g u a r d i a n o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s a n d / o r p r o t e c t o r o f t h e r i g h t s a n d l i b e r t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t t h e i n c u r s i o n s o f d e s p o t i s m , m o r e w a s r e q u i r e d t h a n s i m p l y a r e f u t a t i o n o f M o n t e s q u i e u ' s o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f m o n a r c h y w a t c h e d o v e r b y a ' d e p o s i t a i r e d e s l o i s ' . I t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y d i d n o t p o s s e s s n a t u r a l r i g h t s ( t h a t i s r i g h t s w h i c h w e r e n o t c o n t i n g e n t u p o n m e m b e r s h i p i n s o c i e t y ) . L i n g u e t ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h i s p r o b l e m w a s t o p r o v e t h a t t h e l a w s o f n a t u r e w e r e n o t t h o s e o f s o c i e t y . P o s i t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l e q u a l i t y o f m e n i n a s t a t e o f n a t u r e a s b a s i c t o t h e l a w s o f n a t u r e , L i n g u e t s e t o u t t o p r o v e t h a t m e n i n s o c i e t y w e r e u n e q u a l a n d t h a t s o c i e t y w a s i n h e r e n t l y h i e r -a r c h i c a l . I n t h i s w a y h e s o u g h t t o d i s p e l t h e n o t i o n t h a t m e n i n s o c i e t y w e r e e q u a l b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r h o l d i n g c e r t a i n n a t u r a l r i g h t s i n c o m m o n . M e n i n a s t a t e o f n a t u r e , a s s e r t e d L i n g u e t , w e r e e q u a l , s i n c e t h e y w e r e e q u a l l y e q u i p p e d p h y s i c a l l y t o c o p e w i t h t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a n d w e r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f e a c h o t h e r . M a n ' s f o r c e d e n t r y i n t o s o c i e t y , h o w e v e r , r e v e r s e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n . W i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e , t h i s f o r c e d i n t e r -d e p e n d e n c e , t h r o u g h h a b i t , b e c a m e a v o l u n t a r y a t t a c h m e n t T h o s e w h o r e s p o n d e d t o t h e i r y e a r n i n g f o r t h a t b y g o n e s t a t e o f f r e e d o m a n d i n n o c e n c e b y p l a c i n g t h e m s e l v e s o u t s i d e o f s o c i e t y f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s e a s y p r e y t o a l l m a n n e r o f e n e m i e s . 5 2 M e n , t h e r e f o r e , r e s i g n e d t h e m s e l v e s t o l i v i n g i n s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , s o c i e t y b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y f o r m a n ' s s u r v i v a l i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e h a r d s h i p i t i m p o s e s o n h i m : 5 3 . . . t o u t e l a n a t u r e c a p t i v e a c e s s e " d ' o f f r i r a s e s e n f a n s d e s r e s s o u r c e s f a c i l e s p o u r l e s o u t i e n d e l e u r v i e . I I f a u t p a y e r s e s b i e n f a i t s p a r d e s f a t i g u e s a s s i d u e s , e t s e s p r e s e n s p a r d e s t r a v a u x o p i n i a ^ t r e s . L e r i c h e q u i 1 ' e n e s t a t t r i b u e l a p o s s e s s i o n e x c l u s i v e , n e c o n s e n t q u ' a c e p r i x a! e n r e m e t t r e e n c o m m u n l a p l u s p e t i t e p o r t i o n . P o u r e ^ t r e a d m i s st p a r t a g e r s e s t r e s o r s , i l f a u t s ' e m p l o y e r a; l e s a u g m e n t e r . S e s s o u p c o n s t o u j o u r s d i r i g e c o n t r e l e p a u v r e q u ' i l d d * p o u i l l e l u i f o n t r e g a r d e r 1 ' i n d e p e n d a n c e c o m m e u n a t t e n t a t , e t l a l i b e r t e c o m m e u n e r e v o l t e . I I d i t h a u t e m e n t q u e l e d r o i t d e p e n s e r n ' a p p a r t i e n t q u ' a' l u i . I I s ' a p p l i q u e a e c r a s e r c o n t i n u e l 1 e m e n t l ' i n d i g e n c e , d e p e u r q u ' e n s e r e l e v a n t e l l e n e s o i t t e n t e ' e d e f a i r e d e s e s f o r c e s u n a u t r e u s a g e q u e c e l u i q u ' i l e n e x i g e . I I i m i t e e n v e r s e l l e l a p o l i t i q u e d e s E g y p t i e n s a v e c l e s e n f a n s d e J a c o b . I I l a s u r c h a r g e d e t r a v a u x , p o u r l u i o ^ t e r me"me l e t e r n s d e s o n g e r a s o n i n f o r t u n e . 5 4 5 0 I b i d . , I , 1 8 1 - 1 8 2 . 5 1 I b i d . , I , 1 8 4 . 5 2 I b i d . , I , 1 8 5 . 5 3 I b i d . , I , 1 8 7 . 5 4 I b i d . , I , 1 8 9 . 63 I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h b r i n g s w i t h i t a n e q u a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e n e e d s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h c a n o n l y b e m e t b y u n d e r m i n i n g t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y . S i n c e t h o s e r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h p r o t e c t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ( w h i c h i s i n t h e h a n d s o f a s m a l l m i n o r i t y ) p l a c e s t r i c t l i m i t s o n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s e n e e d s , t h e t e m p t a t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h o s e o u t s i d e t h i s s m a l l m i n o r i t y t o s a t i s f y t h e s e n e e d s b y v i o l a t i n g t h e l a w s i n c r e a s e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y . S o c i e t y , t h e r e f o r e , t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e m a n ' s i n e q u a l i t i e s , t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g t h e t w i n p r o b l e m s o f p o v e r t y a n d t h e f t . S o c i e t y h a s r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s g r o w i n g t h r e a t t o p r o p e r t y n o t b y a l l e v i a t i n g t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e m a s s e s b u t b y r e n d e r -i n g t h e l a w i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n i t s s c o p e a n d t h e p e n a l t i e s i t i m p o s e s i n c r e a s i n g l y s e v e r e . A n e v e n w o r s e e v i l f o l l o w s i n t h e w a k e o f e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y a n d t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f t h e l a w s p r o t e c t i n g p r o p e r t y ~ i n d u l g e n c e i n l u x u r y b y t h e r i c h m i n o r i t y . A l t h o u g h t h i s m u l t i p l i c i t y o f l e g i s l a t i o n h a s n o t b e e n i n -s t i t u t e d w i t h t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f l u x u r y i n m i n d , i t h a s m a d e t h i s e v i l p o s s i b l e b y c o n f i r m i n g t h i s r i c h m i n o r i t y i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f i t s p r o p e r t y . T h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e a s s e t s o f t h e m e m b e r s o f t h i s p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s ( m a d e p o s s i b l e b y t h e e v e r - g r o w i n g e c o n o m i c i n e q u a l i t y e x i s t i n g i n s o c i e t y ) I b i d . , I , 2 1 1 . 64 h a s m a d e i t p o s s i b l e f o r g r e a t e r s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f w h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e s t a t u s - b e a r i n g 5 6 s u p e r f l u i t i e s . B y s t r i v i n g t o ' l i v e n o b l y ' t h r o u g h a n o s t e n t a t i o u s d i s p l a y o f o p u l e n c e t h e m a n o f p r o p e r t y a c t s " . . . a u x d e p e n s e t s o u s l e s y e u x d e t o u s l e s m a l h e u r e u x 57 d o n t i l d e v o r e l e t r a v a i l . ' 1 B y p u r s u i n g a l i f e o f l u x u r y , t h e p r o p e r t i e d m i n o r i t y i s d e p r i v i n g t h e m a s s o f t h e p e o p l e o f o n e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l 5 8 b e n e f i t s w h i c h s o c i e t y o f f e r s t h e m : O n a p o u r t a n t , i l e s t v r a i , t r o u v e u n p a l l i a t i f a c e t t e o p p r e s s i o n a p p a r e n t e . E l l e e s t a d o u c i e p a r l a n e c e s s i t e o u s o n t l e s p o s s e s s e u r s d e t o u t , d e l o u e r l e s b r a s d e c e u x q u i n ' o n t r i e n . . . . L ' e n v i e d e j o u i r s u r m o n t e l ' a v a r i c e ^ e t p a r u n e c o m b i n a i s o n a u s s i u t i l e q u e s i n g u l i e r e , c e q u ' u n e p a s s i o n a e n t a s s e u n e a u t r e p a s s i o n l e d i s p e n s e . 5 9 5 6 I b i d . , I , 2 1 5 - 2 1 6 . 5 7 I b i d . , I , 2 1 6 . 5 8 L i n g u e t l i s t s o t h e r m i s f o r t u n e s w h i c h a r i s e f r o m s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s . 1 ) W a r -w h i c h i s a p r o d u c t o f t h e l a w s o f p r o p e r t y a n d p r o p e r t y i s f o u n d e d o n t h e l a w s . 2 ) P e s t i l e n c e a n d f a m i n e a r i s e f r o m p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h a n d s u b s e q u e n t o v e r c r o w d i n g w h i c h a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f s o c i e t y . 5 9 I b i d . , I , 1 9 7 . 6 5 T h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e o f t h e l e i s u r e c l a s s t o w a r d s t h e c o m m o n p e o p l e a r i s e s o u t o f t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t s e c o n o m i c w e l l - b e i n g a n d , t h e r e f o r e , i t s s t a t u s a s a l e i s u r e c l a s s a r e s t r i c t l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c o m m o n 6 0 p e o p l e . T h e l e i s u r e c l a s s s h o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c o m m o n p e o p l e t h a t i t w i l l r e a p t h e m a x i m u m b e n e f i t s f r o m i t s p r o p e r t y . I t s h o u l d a l s o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h i s p r o p e r t y r e q u i r e s p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e b e -t w e e n i t s e l f a n d t h e c o m m o n p e o p l e . ^ I n d e e d , l e b u t d e s l o i s e s t d o n e d ' e n t r e t e n i r l a p a i x d a n s l a s o c i e t e , d ' e m p e c h e r o u a u m o i n s d ' a p p r a i s e r l e s d e b a t s q u e l e s p a s s i o n s n e s a u r a i e n t m a r q u e r d ' y p r o d u i r e . L e m o y e n l e p l u s s u r p o u r y r e u s s i r e t a i t d e f i x e r l e s p r o p r i e t e s , e t c ' e s t c e q u ' e l l e s o n t f a i t . 6 2 P u b l i c o r d e r a n d t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f s o c i e t y i t s e l f d e p e n d o n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e l a w s b e c a u s e , l e s v u e s p a r t i c u l i e r e s c h a n g a n t t o u j o u r s , o u l e p l u s s o u v e n t l e s v u e s g e n e r a l e s ; c h a c u n p a r l e d r o i t n a t u r e l e t a n t a u t o r i s e a n e p e n s e r q u ' a s o i , a s a c r i f i e r a s o n b i e n - e t r e c e l u i d e s a u t r e s ; l a f o r c e e t a n t l a s e u l e r a i s o n s u f f i s a n t e p o u r a p p u y e r l e s d e m a n d e s , e t l a f a i b l e s s e l a s e u l e i n c a p a b l e d e j u s t i f i e r d e s r u f u s , u n e g u e r r e e t e r n e l l e , o u u n e e n t i e r e i n d i f f e r e n c e a u r a i t e t e l e p a r t a g e d u g e n r e h u m a i n e . 6 3 6 0 T h e c r a v i n g f o r l u x u r y o v e r p o w e r s t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e c o m m o n p e o p l e a r e l e f t t o f e n d f o r t h e i r o w n a n d c a n e x p e c t l i t t l e i n t h e w a y o f m a t e r i a l a i d i n t i m e s o f h a r d s h i p . T h i s p r o b l e m w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h m o r e t h o r o u g h l y w h e n I d i s c u s s L i n g u e t ' s e s p o u s a l o f s l a v e r y . 6 1 I b i d . , I , 1 9 6 . 6 2 I b i d . , I , 1 9 2 . 66 A l t h o u g h t h e s e l a w s e n f o r c e t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y a n d o f t e n r e s u l t i n d i r e c t l y i n h a r d s h i p s f o r t h e u n p r o p e r t i e d , t h e y d o p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y , f o r b o t h p r o p e r t i e d a n d c o m m o n e r a l i k e , f r o m t h e e v e n g r e a t e r h a r d s h i p s w h i c h a r i s e f r o m s o c i a l d i s o r d e r a n d a n a r c h y . T h e C o n c e p t o f t h e S o c i a l C o n t r a c t i s F a l l a c i o u s L i n g u e t ' s d e n i a l o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s o c i a l c o n t r a c t i s a n e l a b o r a t i o n o f h i s r e f u t a t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t u r a l r i g h t . T h i s p h i l o s o p h y a s s u m e s t h a t , b e c a u s e m a n p o s s e s s e s r i g h t s w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s o c i e t y , s o c i e t y e x i s t s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t , a s p a r t o f t h i s b o d y o f d o c t r i n e , m a k e s t h e f u r t h e r a s s u m p t i o n t h a t m a n i s g o v e r n e d b y r e a s o n . T h r o u g h h i s p o w e r s o f r e a s o n m a n b e c o m e s a w a r e o f t h e s e n a t u r a l r i g h t s . T h r o u g h t h e p o w e r s o f r e a s o n , h e a l s o c o m e s t o a r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o r t h e b e n e f i t s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . A s a r e s u l t , m e n e n t e r i n t o a c o n t r a c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r v o l u n t a r i l y , w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e s t a t e i s c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y o f g o v e r n i n g s o c i e t y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l a w s o f n a t u r e c e n t r a l , t o w h i c h a r e t h o s e n a t u r a l r i g h t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y 6 3 I b i d . , I , 1 9 3 - 1 9 4 67 t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e s t a t e i s c o n d i t i o n a l u p o n t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e s e n a t u r a l r i g h t s . A s f a r a s L i n g u e t i s c o n c e r n e d , h o w e v e r , s o c i e t y w a s n o t c r e a t e d w i t h t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e t o t a l i t y o f i t s m e m b e r s i n m i n d , s i n c e i t i s t h e s p i r i t o f t h e l a w s t o c o n s e c r a t e t h e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s o f a m i n o r i t y w i t h i n s o c i e t y . S i n c e t h i s m i n o r i t y w o u l d h a r d l y h a v e c r e a t e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s l e g i t i m i z i n g i t s p r o p e r t y b e f o r e c o m i n g t o a f u l l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e b e n e f i t s f o r t h c o m i n g f r o m t h i s n e w s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , p r o p e r t y m u s t h a v e b e e n t h e a n t e c e d e n t o f t h e l a w s . F u r t h e r -m o r e , p r o p e r t y r e q u i r e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o r i g i n s o f s o c i e t y o n e h a s t o d e l v e b a c k b e y o n d t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s . I t w a s c o m m o n t o l o o k t o h u m a n n a t u r e f o r a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f w h a t b r o u g h t m e n t o g e t h e r t o f o r m s o c i e t y . M o n t e s q u i e u m a i n t a i n e d t h a t m e n i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s t a t e l i v e d i n h a r m o n y , n o t because; a n a b s e n c e o f d e s i r e s , n o r a t r a n q u i l l i t y o f s o u l , b u t b e c a u s e o f a p e r p e t u a l f e a r b a s e d o n a s e n s e o f t h e i r w e a k n e s s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f o r c e s o f n a t u r e . L i n g u e t d i s c o u n t e d t h i s t h e o r y , o b s e r v i n g t h a t i t w a s m o r e p r o b a b l e t h a t n a t u r a l m a n h a d a s e n s e o f h i s o w n s t r e n g t h s i n c e f e a r w a s l e s s n a t u r a l t h a n b o l d n e s s w h i l e c u r i o s i t y w a s t h e f i r s t a n d a l m o s t o n l y p a s s i o n o f i g n o r a n c e . ^ F u r t h e r m o r e , i f a l l 6 4 I b i d . , I , 2 3 5 . 6 5 I b i d . , I , 2 3 8 - 2 4 0 m e n i n t h i s n a t u r a l s t a t e w e r e f e a r f u l a n d o v e r w h e l m e d b y a s e n s e o f t h e i r o w n i n f e r i o r i t y , t h e y w o u l d h a v e a v o i d e d 6 6 e a c h o t h e r , t h e r e b y p r e v e n t i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . M o n t e s q u i e u a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a t t r a c t i o n b e t w e e n m a l e a n d f e m a l e c r e a t e d a b o n d w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r h u m a n s o c i e t y . ^ L i n g u e t c o u n t e r s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s a t t r a c t i o n i s a n e x c l u s i v e t h i n g ; t h e b o n d t h a t t i e d t w o p e o p l e t h u s 6 8 d o e s n o t l e n d i t s e l f b y e x t e n s i o n t o o t h e r s . T h e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t t h e o r i s t s ' , h o w e v e r , c h o o s e t o s e e t h i s s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d e l e m e n t o f h u m a n n a t u r e a s a p r u d e n t c i r c u m s p e c t i o n , w h i c h d o e s n o t e x c l u d e c o u r a g e , b u t w h i c h s e e s s o c i e t y a s u s e f u l . H o w e v e r , t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , a n d m o r e g e n e r a l l y t h e w h o l e c o n c e p t o f t h e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t , p r e s u p p o s e s a l e v e l o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n u n k n o w n t o p r i m i t i v e 6 9 m a n . 6 6 I b i d • , I , 2 4 1 . 6 7 I t w i l l b e s h o w n l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r h o w L i n g u e t u s e d t h i s i d e a o f t h e m a r r i a g e b o n d a s t h e b a s i s o f s o c i e t y t o j u s t i f y a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y a s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f u n d a -m e n t a l l a w s o f s o c i e t y . 6 8 L i n g u e t , o p . c i t . , I , 2 4 2 - 2 4 3 . I b i d . , I , 2 5 7 - 2 5 9 . 6 9 R i e n e n s e r a i t s i j u s t e e t s i b e a u q u e c e t t e o p e r a t i o n [ s o c i a l c o n t r a c t ] s i e l l e e t a i t p o s s i b l e . M a i s i l f a u d r a i t p o u r l a r e n d r e p r o b a b l e , s u p p o s e r t a n t d e l u m i e r e s d a n s l e s i n v e n t e u r s , t a n t d e t r a n q u i l l i t e d a n s l e u r s p a s s i o n s , t a n t d e c o n c e r t d a n s l e u r s d e m a r c h e s , q u ' o n e s t f o r c e " d ' e n a b a n d o n n e r l ' i d e e , a l ' i n s t a n t o u l ' o n s ' a t t a c h e a l a d i s c u t e r . . . D e s £ t r e s c a p a b l e s d e m e t t r e t a n t d e r e f l e x i o n s d a n s l e u r s p r o c e d e s s e r a i e n t d e s i n t e l l i g e n c e s c e l e s t e s , e t n o n p a s d e s h o m m e s , t e l s s u r t o u t , q u e d u r e n t £ t r e l e s p r e m i e r s i n s t i t u t e u r s d e s s o c i e t e s . 7 0 F u r t h e r m o r e , n a n o t h a v e s o e a s t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t w a s n o t a r a t i o n a l d e s i r e t o c r e a t e a m o r e e f f i c a c i o u s m e t h o d o f s e l f - d e f e n c e w h i c h l e d m a n t o 7 2 c r e a t e s o c i e t y . O t h e r w r i t e r s , w i s h i n g t o c o m p l e t e l y d i s a s s o c i a t e v i o l e n c e f r o m t h e o r i g i n o f s o c i e t y , p u t f o r t h a g r i c u l t u r e a s t h e b a s i s o f s o c i e t y . L i n g u e t , h o w e v e r , p o i n t s t o t h e s l o w d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r i c u l t u r e a n d a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y . T h e d o m e s -t i c a t i o n o f a n i m a l s a n d t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h o s e p l a n t s w h i c h 7 3 w e r e a m e n a b l e t o a g r i c u l t u r e u n d o u b t e d l y t o o k a l o n g t i m e . M o r e o v e r , t u r a l m a n ' s l o v e o f f r e e d o m a n d e q u a l i t y w o u l d i l y b e e n a b a n d o n e d . 7 " ' ' L i n g u e t c o n c l u d e d , L e s p r e m i e ' r e s f a m i l i e s q u i r e u s s i r e n t d a n s l e u r s r e c h e r c h e e n l ' u n d e c e s d e u x g e n r e s , d u r e n t , s a n s d o u t e s , . s o n g e r a e n r e c u e i l l l ; r l e f r u i t e x c l u s i v e -m e n t . P l u s l e u r s t r a v a u x e t a i e n t p e n i b l e s , p l u s i l e t a i t n a t u r e l q u ' e l l e s v o u l u s s e n t e n p r o f i t e r s e u l e s . P l u s l ' a b o n d a n c e q u i ' l e s s u i v a i t e * t a i t d o u c e , p l u s e l l e s d e v a i e n t s e p r o p o s e r d e l a c o n c e n t r e r a u t o u r d ' e l l e s . 7 4 7 0 7 2 I b i d . , I , 2 3 2 . I b i d . , 1 , 2 6 2 . 7 1 7 3 I b i d . , I , 2 5 9 . I b i d . , I , 2 6 3 - 2 7 0 7 0 T h e p u r s u a n c e o f a g r i c u l t u r e , a c c o r d i n g t o L i n g u e t , p r o d u c e s a d e s i r e f o r s o l i t u d e . A m o n g h u n t i n g p e o p l e s t h e r e e x i s t s a n i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i m p o s e d b y t r a p p i n g a n d k i l l i n g o f g a m e , w h i c h i s p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . S i n c e h u n t e r s r e l y o n e a c h o t h e r f o r a s s i s t a n c e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l h u n t e r d o e s n o t t h i n k o f a v o i d i n g t h e d i v i s i o n o f h i s k i l l a m o n g h i s f e l l o w s s i n c e h e k n o w s t h a t h e w i l l s o o n b e c a l l e d t o a i d i n t h e k i l l i n g ( a n d , ' 7 5 t h e r e f o r e , r e c e i v i n g a p o r t i o n ) o f s o m e o n e e l s e ' s g a m e . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s n e i t h e r f e a r n o r r e f l e x i o n w h i c h c a u s e s m e n t o b a n d t o g e t h e r . R a t h e r , i t i s n e e d , " . . . c e t e c l a i r d e r a i s o n q u i , d a n s l e c o e u r d u v r a i s a u v a g e , a v a n t q u e d ' a v o i r e t e d e v e l o p p e p a r l a s o c i e t e , n e d o i t e t r e s u p e r i e u r a 7 6 l ' i n s t i n c t d e s a n i m a u x e t e n t i e n t l a p l a c e . " T h i s b a n d i n g t o g e t h e r o f t h e h u n t e r s e n t a i l s n e i t h e r f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n n o r s u b m i s s i o n . I t i m p o s e s o n l y m o m e n t a r y o b l i g a t i o n s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e r e f o r e , i s n o t s o c i e t y b u t r a t h e r i t s 7 7 p r e c u r s o r . I n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e h u n t e r s t h e r e i s o n e b i g o b s t a c l e t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f s o c i e t y — a l o v e o f l i b e r t y . 7 5 I b i d . , I , 2 8 0 - 2 8 1 . 7 6 I b i d . , I , 2 8 3 . 7 7 I b i d . , I , 2 8 3 - 2 8 4 . 7 1 I I e s t d e l a n a t u r e d e l a s o c i e t e , a q u e l q u e m o m e n t q u ' o n l a p r e n n e , d ' e x i g e r d e s d e f e r e n c e s e t d e s d i s t i M c t i o n s . E l l e f i x e d e s r a n g s a o b t e n i r , d e s e g a r d s a r e n d r e . E l l e v e u t a b s o l u m e n t q u e , p a r m i c e u x q u i l a c o m p o s e n t , l e s u n s c o n s o m m e n t s a n s i n q u i e t u d e , t a n d i s q u e l e s a u t r e s s e l i v r e n t a d e s t r a v a u x p e n i b l e s . . . . 7 8 S i n c e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y e n t a i l s d e s t r o y i n g m a n ' s 7 9 n a t u r a l e q u a l i t y , i t c a n o n l y b e a c h i e v e d b y v i o l e n t m e a n s . L i n g u e t , t h e r e f o r e , c o n c e i v e d o f t h e o r i g i n o f s o c i e t y i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n q u e s t o f a n a g r i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e b y h u n t e r s . H a v i n g p r e y e d u p o n t h e f l o c k s o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e h a p h a z a r d l y , t h e h u n t e r s c a m e t o d e s i r e t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e s e f l o c k s , t h e r e b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e d a n g e r s a n d f a t i g u e o f t h e i r m o d e o f l i f e . T h e y , t h e r e f o r e , c l a i m e d t h e l a n d a n d l i v e s t o c k o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e a s t h e i r o w n , w h i l e a l l o w i n g t h e f o r m e r p r o p r i e t o r s t o c o n t i n u e t o w o r k t h e l a n d a n d t o t e n d t h e l i v e s t o c k . I n r e t u r n t h e n e w p r o p r i e t o r s w o u l d a l l o w t h e f o r m e r t o r e t a i n w h a t e v e r p r o d u c e t h e y r e -q u i r e d . S o c i e t y , t h e r e f o r e , i s b a s e d o n a m a s t e r - s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . H a v i n g f o u n d e d s o c i e t y , i t w a s t h e n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e h u n t e r s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r i g h t s o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . I n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s a n d t o m a i n t a i n 7 8 I b i d . , I , 2 8 5 . 7 9 I b i d . , I , 2 8 5 - 2 8 6 . 8 ° I b i d . , I , 2 8 9 - 2 9 2 . t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e i n a s t a t e o f s e r v i t u d e , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e h u n t e r s t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e n e w l y - a c q u i r e d l a n d a n d l i v e s t o c k a m o n g s t t h e i r o w n n u m b e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o a s s u r e t h e s e c u r i t y o f e a c h h u n t e r i n t h e 8 1 p o s s e s s i o n o f h i s p r o p e r t y a n d c h a t t e l s b y c r e a t i n g l a w s . T h e s e l a w s , t h e n , c o n s e c r a t e d t h i s f i r s t v i o l e n t u s u r p a t i o n w h i l e f o r b i d d i n g a l l f u t u r e s e i z u r e s u n l e s s u n d e r t a k e n b y 8 2 s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . T h e r e a f t e r , o n l y s o c i e t y , a s a 8 3 w h o l e , h a s h a d t h e r i g h t t o c l a i m a l l p r o p e r t y a s i t s o w n . B y w a y o f j u s t i f y i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s a n d t h e v i o l e n t u s u r p a t i o n u p o n w h i c h t h e y a r e b a s e d , L i n g u e t r e a s o n e d 8 4 t h a t t h e y w e r e t h e p r o d u c t o f d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n . W h i l e Q "I I b i d . , 1 , 2 9 6 . 8 2 T h i s p r o v i s i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i r s t s e i z u r e s i n c e i t w a s u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e h u n t e r s a s a g r o u p a n d n o t a s i n d i v i d u a l s . 8 3 L i n g u e t , o p . c i t . , I , 2 9 8 . 8 4 I b i d . , I , 3 0 0 . T h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s w e r e d e s i g n e d t o k e e p t h e v a n q u i s h e d i n a s t a t e o f s e r v i l i t y i n a s m u c h a s w h o s o e v e r , h a v i n g h a d h i s l a n d s a n d p r o p e r t y c l a i m e d i n t h e f i r s t u s u r p a t i o n a n d w h o t o o k a c t i o n t o h a v e t h i s p r o p e r t y r e i n s t a t e d , w o u l d b e d e f y -i n g t h e l a w s a n d w o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e c o m e a p u b l i c e n e m y . 7 3 s o c i e t y ' s l a w s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f a n i n j u s t i c e , t h e i r i n t e n t , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r d i v i n e o r i g i n , m u s t b e t h e . u l t i m a t e a c h i e v e -m e n t o f j u s t i c e . G o d c h o s e t o i n s t i t u t e s o c i e t y t h r o u g h v i o l e n t m e a n s s i n c e " l a f o r c e e t l a v i o l e n c e p o u v a i e n t s e u l e s a r r a c h e r l e s h o m m e s a 1 ' a b a t a r d i s s e m e n t o u i l s e t a i e n t t o m b e s " . C e r t a i n l y , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s , i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a m a s t e r -s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p p l a c e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f s o c i e t y ' s m e m b e r s u n d e r t h e h e a v y w e i g h t o f o p p r e s s i o n . W i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e , h o w e v e r , t h e r i g o r o f t h i s m a s t e r - s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p c a m e t o b e m i t i g a t e d . T h e p e r s o n a l a u t h o r i t y o f t h e m a s t e r , o n c e l i m i t l e s s , b e c a m e s t r i c t l y d e f i n e d b y l a w . A s a r e s u l t t h e m a s t e r h a d b e c o m e " l e b i e n f a i t e u r d e s h o m m e s q u e s o n p r e -d e c e s s e u r a v a i t o p p r i m e s . S i n c e s o c i e t y ' s l a w s a r e d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d , t h e 8 7 p h i l o s o p h e s ( i n c l u d i n g M o n t e s q u i e u ) a r e w r o n g i n d i s c o u n t -8 5 S i n c e L i n g u e t d o e s n o t o p e n l y q u e s t i o n t h e t e n e t s o f t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c f a i t h , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t t h i s " a b a t a r d i s s e m e n t " w a s t h e r e s u l t , o f o r i g i n a l s i n a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t F a l l o f M a n . M o r e o v e r , h i s d i s c u s s i o n o n t h e o r i g i n o f s o c i e t y b e l i e s a c o n v i c t i o n ( w h i c h h e s h a r e s w i t h H o b b e s ) t h a t m a n i s b a s i c a l l y a n t i s o c i a l . H e a d m i t s t h a t h e a n d H o b b e s h a v e m u c h i n c o m m o n b u t h e c a u t i o n s h i s r e a d e r s " . . . d e n e p a s c r o i r e q u e t o u s l e s E c r i v a i n s q u i s o u t i e n n e n t u n m e m e p r i n c i p e , s o i e n t e g a l e m e n t d ' a c c o r d p o u r e n t i r e r l e s m e m e s c o n s e q u e n c e s . " I b i d . , 3 0 2 . L i n g u e t ' s f u n d a m e n t a l d i s a g r e e -m e n t w i t h H o b b e s i s d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t H o b b e s f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e c i v i l o r d e r i s t h e a b s o l u t e r e v e r s a l o f t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r : t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r b e i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s ; t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e c i v i l o r d e r b e i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y . L i n g u e t , o p . c i t . , I I , 7 8 - 7 9 . L i n g u e t r e f e r s t h e r e a d e r t o H o b b e s , d e C i v e , C h . 9 , N o . 3 - 5 . S e e a p p e n d e x d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s s i m i l a r i t y . i n g s a l i t h e m a s a m e r e l y h u m a n _ • -i • 8 8 t y o r i m m u t a b i l i t y . c r e a t i o n w i t h o u t c l a i m t o u n i v e r N o t o n l y a r e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s i m m u t a b l e b u t t h e y a r e , b y d i v i n e p u r p o s e , t h e d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e l a w s o f n a t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , L e p r e t e n d u d r o i t n a t u r e l q u i s u b s i s t e p a r m i n o u s , e s t u n e p r o d u c t i o n f a c t i c e " , a b s o l u m e n t e t r a n g e r e a l a n a t u r e , e t d u e t o u t e e n t i e r e a l ' a r t q u i l u i a d o n n e l a n a i s s a n c e . . . . I I n ' e n e x i s t e p a s l e m o i n d r e v e s t i g e d a n s l a s o c i e t e . I I e s t m e m e i n c o m p a t i b l e a v e c e l l e , e t l ' u n e m p o r t e n e c e s s a i r e -m e n t l a d e s t r u c t i o n d e l ' a u t r e . L ' e s s e n c e d u d r o i t n a t u r e l e s t u n e l i b e r t e i n d e f i n i e . C e l l e d u d r o i t s o c i a l , e s t l a p r i v a t i o n e n t i e r e d e c e t t e p r e m i e r e l i b e r t e . S ' i l e n s u b s i s t a i t e n c o r e l a m o i n d r e p a r t i e a p r e s l a f o r m a t i o n d e s s o c i e t e , q u e l p o u v o i r a u r a i e n t l e s l o i x s u r c e t t e p a r t i e q u i n e l e u r s e r -a i t p o i n t s o u m i s ? 8 9 T h e p h i l o s o p h y o f n a t u r a l r i g h t , b e s i d e s b e i n g e r r o n e o u s , i s a s o c i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e . N a t u r a l r i g h t s b e c o m e s t a n d a r d s b y w h i c h t o j u d g e s o c i e t y i m p e r f e c t a n d b a n n e r s b e h i n d w h i c h t o p r o m o t e c h a n g e . S u c h c h a n g e i s d a n g e r o u s , h o w e v e r , i n t h a t i t i s b a s e d o n c r i t e r i a w h i c h i g n o r e t h e b a s i c n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y . L i n g u e t , o p . c i t . , I , 3 0 2 . I b i d . , I , 3 4 8 - 3 4 9 . > A b s o l u t e Monarchy I s C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the S p i r i t of  the Fundamental Laws of S o c i e t y Having estab 1ished the n a t u r e of s o c i e t y and the fundamental l a w s , L i n g u e t proceeded to r e v e a l a b s o l u t e monarchy as e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g purpose of these laws — the p r e s e r v a t i o n of p r o p e r t y through the maintenance of p u b l i c o r d e r . A b s o l u t e monarchy i s shown as an e x t e n s i o n of the t h r e e fundamental laws w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the ownership of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y : the r i g h t s of husbands over w i v e s ; the r i g h t s of f a t h e r s over t h e i r o f f -s p r i n g ; the r i g h t to d i s p o s e of one's p r o p e r t y as one wishes . A l l t h r e e of these fundamental laws are c l o s e l y a s s o c i -a t e d w i t h the v i o l e n t o r i g i n s of s o c i e t y . Having usurped the p r o p e r t y of the a g r i c u l t u r a l people and h a v i n g begun to r a i s e c h i l d r e n , the h u n t e r s were d i s q u i e t e d by the thought t h a t , once grown up, t h e i r o f f s p r i n g might prove a t h r e a t to t h e i r newly a c q u i r e d p r o p e r t y . Remembering t h a t t h e i r v i o l e n t u s u r p a t i o n was the b a s i s of t h e i r own p r o p e r t y r i g h t s they f e a r e d t h a t h i s t o r y might r e p e a t i t s e l f t h r o ugh t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . In o r d e r to p r e v e n t t h i s from happening, the h u n t e r s extended L i n g u e t , op. c i t . , I I , 4 9 - 5 4 . 76 the m a s t e r - s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between themselves and the a g r i c u l t u r a l p eople to the i n s t i t u t i o n of m a r r i a g e . With, the w i f e as p a r t of the husband's' p r o p e r t y , i t f o l l o w e d t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n r e s u l t i n g from t h i s u n i o n would be the p r o p e r t y of the f a t h e r , who had the r i g h t to k i l l them, s e l l them i n t o 9 1 c a p t i v i t y , d i s i n h e r i t them a n d j r e f u s e them food and s h e l t e r . A g r i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e , of n e c e s s i t y , adapted t h i s m a s t e r -s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r f a m i l i e s as w e l l . The problem of s e c u r i n g the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e produced f i e r c e c o m p e t i t i o n between the members of each f a m i l y . An a b s o l u t e a r b i t e r t h e r e f o r e was needed to keep peace. The w i f e and c h i l d r e n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e s u b m i t t e d themselves to t h i s new regime knowing t h a t the o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e would be to put 9 2 themselves d i r e c t l y a t the mercy of the c o n q u e r o r s . L i n g u e t j u s t i f i e d t h i s a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y over w i f e and c h i l d r e n b o th i n terms of l o g i c and s o c i a l u t i l i t y . S i n c e the law makes the f a t h e r a b s o l u t e owner of h i s l a n d i t i s o n l y l o g i c a l t h a t h i s a b s o l u t e r u l e s h o u l d extend over a l l those who p a r t a k e of the f r u i t s of t h i s l a n d , s i n c e , by d o i n g so, they are an e x t e n s i o n (as a r e s u l t of t h e i r own 9 3 s u s t e n a n c e ) of these f r u i t s . T h i s m a s t e r - s l a v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p i s s o c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l , as w e l l . Women may be o b l i g e d 9 1 I b i d . , I I , 6. 9 2 I b i d . , I I , 64. 9 3 I b i d . , I I , 55-58 J 77 to y i e l d up t h e i r l i b e r t y to t h e i r spouses, but i n d o i n g so they g a i n the s e c u r i t y of an i n t e r e s t e d d e f e n d e r . Moreover, i t i s upon t h i s m a s t e r - s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between husband 94 and w i f e t h a t the p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y of men i s based. The e m a n c i p a t i o n of women promotes the i n s t i t u t i o n of g a l l a n t r y as a s o c i a l custom. Not o n l y i s t h i s custom ephemeral ( i n t h a t i t d i s c o u r a g e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s o l i d r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) but i t i s a l s o b a s i c a l l y f a c t i t i o u s and p r o d u c t i v e of l i b e r t i n a g e : A l o r s l e s corp s ::S'&Hervent, l e s ames s ' a v i l i s s e n t , l e s l o i x se d e t r u i s e n t . Les femmes regnent par l e l u x e ; et l e despotisme s ' e t a b l i t par l e l u x e et par e l l e s . 95 S i m i l a r l y , a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y over one's o f f s p r i n g , w h i l e u n n a t u r a l i s , a g a i n , one of the g r e a t b e n e f i t s of s o c i e t y . I t e s t a b l i s h e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p m u t u a l l y f e l i c i t o u s 94 T h i s statement i s made as a r e f u t a t i o n of Montesquieu who r e g a r d s the do m e s t i c s u b j u g a t i o n of women as an appanage of d e s p o t i s m . E s p r i t des l o i s , Book V I I , Ch. 9, 15: Book XVI, Ch. 9, 11 c i t e d i n T h e o r i e des l o i s , 368. What i s i n v o l v e d here as w e l l (as w i l l be shown l a t e r ) i s the broader q u e s t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between m o n a r c h i c a l government and d e s p o t i sm. 95 L i n g u e t , op. c i t . , I , 370-371. I t w i l l be shown l a t e r i n the c h a p t e r how L i n g u e t tended to d e f i n e d e s p o t i s m i n terms of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of unwarranted s o c i a l and p o l i t -i c a l change which runs c o u n t e r to the s p i r i t of the fundamental laws of s o c i e t y . I t s h o u l d a l s o be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s c i t a t i o n i s a d i r e c t commentary upon the contemporary s i t u a t i o n i n F r a nce and i n Europe; f o r L i n g u e t s t a t e d t h a t i t i s t h i s p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y of the f a t h e r over h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n , w h i c h , of a l l the fundamental l a w s , has s u f f e r e d most the ravages of time i n Europe. C i v i l i z a t i o n i s i n decay, and the danger of r e v o l u t i o n i s imminent. L i n g u e t , op. c i t . , I I , 175. t o p a r e n t s a n d o f f s p r i n g f r o m w h i c h s t a b i l i t y r e s u l t s : t h e c h i l d ' s ' r e s p e c t f o r t h e p a r e n t s i s c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e o b l i g a t i o n s i m p o s e d b y c h i l d - r e a r i n g , a s w e l l a s a c o n s o l a -t i o n i n o l d a g e ; t h e c h i l d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e c e i v e s s u s t e n a n c e , p r o t e c t i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g h i s u p b r i n g i n g , 9 6 - a n d t h e r i g h t o f s u c c e s s i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , " C e c o m m e r c e r e c i p r o q u e d e s e c o u r s e t d ' a f f e c t i o n f a i t s e r v i r s u c c e s s i v e -9 7 m e n t u n a g e d e s o u t i e n a 1 ' a u t r e . " T h i s r i g h t o f s u c c e s s i o n , f o r L i n g u e t , i s t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s . I t i s " . . . J . e r e m -p a r t d e l a p r o p r i e t e a l a q u e l l e o n s u b o r d o n n a i t t o u t . 9 8 . . " i t i s t h e r i g h t o f s u c c e s s i o n w h i c h p l a c e s a b s o l u t f p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y o n a s e c u r e f o o t i n g , t h e r e b y e n s u r i n g 9 9 -t h e s t a b i l i t y o f s o c i e t y . I t d o e s s o b y p r o v i d i n g t h e p r o p r i e t o r ' s w i f e a n d o f f s p r i n g w i t h a m o t i v e , o t h e r t h a n r e s p e c t a n d a f f e c t i o n , f o r o b e y i n g h i s w i l l : 9 6 l b i d ." , I I , 4 6 , 9 5 9 7 I b i d . , I I , 4 6 . 9 8 I b i d . , I I , 1 0 0 " i b i d . , I I , 1 5 5 , 1 7 5 . 79 D e s - l o r s l e c h e f d e f a m i l l e p u t e n v i s a g e r l a m u l t i p l i c a t i o n d e s e n f a n t s c o m m e 1 ' a c c a i s s e m e n t d e s o n b i e n : i l l e u r e n c o n f i a l a d e f e n s e , e t 1 ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , q u i c o m m e n c e a l e s i n t e r e s s e r , p u i s q u e l a p r o p r i e t e d e v a i t l e u r e n r e v e n i r u n j o u r . I I v i t s a n s i n q u i e t u d e a u g m e n t e r l e n o m b r e d e c e s g a r d i e n s , q u i e x i s t a n t p a r l u i , n e p o u v a i e n t p l u s d e s o r m a i s e x i s t e r q u e p o u r l u i . S e s s o i n s p o u r e u x e n f u r e n t p l u s t e n d r e s , e t s o n a t t a c h e m e n t s ' a c c r O i " t d a n s l a m e m e p r o p o r t i o n q u e l a - t r a n q u i l l i t e d e s o n d o m a i n e . 1 0 0 F i n a l l y , t h e r i g h t t o d i s p o s e o f o n e ' s g o o d s e m b o d i e d t h e s p i r i t o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y t a k e n t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , T h r o u g h t h e l a s t w i l l a n d t e s t a m e n t , t h e p r o p r i e t o r a s s e r t s t h e i m m o r t a l i t y o f h i s p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . B y e x t e n d i n g h i s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d i s p o s a l o f h i s p r o p e r t y h e i s e x t e n d i n g h i s p r o p e r t y r i g h t s , i n h i s o w n m i n d , b e y o n d t h e g r a v e . ^ ^ T h i s , h o w e v e r , i s a n i l l u s i o n , s i n c e t h e p r o p r i e t o r i s m e r e l y t h e 1 0 2 t e n a n t o f h i s p r o p e r t y f o r t h e p e r i o d o f h i s l i f e t i m e . T o w h o m d o e s t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l u l t i m a t e l y b e l o n g t h e r e f o r e ? I t w i l l b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t i t i s t h e p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s a s a w h o l e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t o s o c i e t y a s a 1 0 3 w h o l e , t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y b e l o n g s . B y e x t e n s i o n t h i s p r o p e r t y b e l o n g s t o h e w h o m t h e p r o p e r t y - h o l d e r s o f s o c i e t y h a v e c h o s e n t o b e t h e i r l e a d e r . S i n c e o w n e r s h i p o f p r o p e r t y i s i o o T , , . I b i d . , I I , 1 0 1 I b i d . , I I , 1 0 2 I b i d . , I I , 1 0 3 T h i s i s t h e l e i s u r e c l a s s a r e t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e l e i s u r e c l a s s 8 0 n e c e s s a r i l y a b s o l u t e , t h e f o r m o f l e a d e r s h i p m o s t i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f p r o p e r t y a n d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s i s a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e t h e m o n a r c h y i s t h e a p o t h e o s i s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p r o p r i e t o r s h i p , t h e m o n a r c h i s e n t i t l e d t o t h e s a m e r i g h t s a s t h e i n d i v i d u a l , n o n - r e g a l p r o p r i e t o r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r i g h t t o d i s p o s e o f o n e r s p r o p e r t y a s o n e w i s h e s , e n t i t l e s t h e M o n a r c h t o c h o o s e h i s s u c c e s s o r ( s i n c e h i s r e a l m i s h i s p r o p e r t y ) . T h e M o n a r c h y , b e c a u s e i t i s a b s o l u t e , m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y b e h e r e d i t a r y . F o r L i n g u e t , t h e r e f o r e , t h e f a m i l y a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e f a t h e r , i s t h e m o d e l f o r s o c i a l 1 0 4 o r g a n i z a t i o n . A b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y — " . . . c e t t e 1 0 5 . . . . h e u r e u s e e s p e c e d e m a g i s t r a t u r e q u i t r a v a i l l e p o u r e u x , s a n s m e m e q u ' i l s l e s a c h e n t " — i s t h e o n l y t y p e o f m a g i s t r a t u r e w h i c h d o e s n o t b e c o m e d a n g e r o u s t h r o u g h t h e a w a k e n i n g o f • • i . . 1 0 6 g r o u p i n t e r e s t s , a m b i t i o n s a n d e s p r i t d e c o r p s . T h e r e f o r e , i n a w e l 1 - c o n s t i t u t e d m o n a r c h y , b a s e d o n t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f 1 0 4 L i n g u e t , o p . c i t . , I I , 1 8 9 . ^ ^ " M a g i s t r a t u r e " i n t h e a b o v e c a s e s h o u l d n o t b e t a k e n t o m e a n s i m p l y t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e s o v e r e i g n c o u r t s o f F r a n c e . S i n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o L i n g u e t , t h e k i n g i s a b s o l u t e s o v e r e i g n a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o p r i e t o r o f t h e r e a l m , i t b e h o o v e s h i m t o a s s u r e t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h i s p r o p e r t y b y u p h o l d i n g t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s o f s o c i e t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s o n l y r i g h t t h a t t h e k i n g s h o u l d b e t h e f i r s t m a g i s t r a t e o f t h e r e a l m , i n b o t h t h e j u d i c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l s e n s e s . ' ' ^ L i n g u e t , o p . c i t . , I I , 2 2 6 . 8 1 a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y , I I n ' y a n i j a l o u s i e n i r i v a l i t e e n t r e l e s p u i s s a n c e s q u i l e s c o m p o s e n t , p a r c e q u ' e l l e s r a p p o r t e n t t o u t e s l e u r o r i g i n e a l a m e m e s o u r c e . E l l e s s o n t e t a b l i s p o u r l e b i e n c o m m u n , e l l e s n ' o n t p o i n t d ' a u t r e v u e q u e d e t r a v a i l l e r , a l e p r o c u r e r , e t d ' a u t r e g l o i r e q u e d ' y r e u s s i r . 1 0 7 M o r e o v e r , a b s o l u t e m o n a r c h y i s t h e m o s t e f f i c a i o u s a n d s o c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l o f a l l f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t h a t i t p e r m i t s t h e 1 0 8 m o n a r c h t o r u l e w i t h a m i n i m u m o f p h y s i c a l f o r c e : " E l l e n ' a b e s o i n n i d ' a s s i s t a n c e p o u r f a i r e r e s p e c t e r s e s o r d r e s n i ^ 1 0 9 d e f o r m a l i t e s p o u r l e s t r a n s m e t t r e . " R e s p e c t f o r t h e m o n a r c h a s a p a t r i a r c h o b v i a t e s t h e n e e d f o r i n t e r m e d i a r y p o w e r s o r o f a m a g i s t r a t u r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f h i s a u t h o r i t y . T h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , , b e c o n s i d e r e d d e s p o t i c b y M o n t e s q u i e u , ^""^ s i n c e i t a l l o w s l b i d . , I I , 1 8 9 - 1 9 0 . 1 0 8 T ^ -A l b i d . , I I , 2 2 3 - 2 2 5 . l b i d . , I I , 2 2 3 . E s p r i t d e s L o i s , I , " I n d e s p o t i c s t a t e s , t h e n a t u r e o f g o v e r n m e n t r e q u i r e s t h e m o s t p a s s i v e o b e d i e n c e ; a n d w h e n o n c e t h e p r i n c e ' s w i l l i s m a d e k n o w n , i t o u g h t i n f a l l i b l y t o p r o d u c e i t s e f f e c t . H e r e t h e y h a v e n o l i m i t a t i o n s o r r e s t r i c t i o n s , n o m e d i u m s , t e r m s , e q u i v a l e n t s , o r r e m o n s t r a n c e s ; n o c h a n g e t o p r o p o s e ; m a n i s a c r e a t u r e t h a t b i n d l y s u b m i t s t o t h e a b s o l u t e w i l l o f t h e s o v e r e i g n " . S e e a l s o T . T . B k . I I , C h 4 , 5 ; B k . I l l , C h . 7 - 9 ; B k . V I I I , C h . 6 - 8 . 82 f o r "no l i m i t a t i o n s or r e s t r i c t i o n s " and s i n c e i t a l l o w s f o r no changes i n the s o c i a l o r d e r . For L i n g u e t , however, a d e s i r e f o r i n d i s c r i m i n a t e change i s e s s e n t i a l to the n a t u r e o f t h e d e s p o t : I I ne d e v i e n t c r u e l que pa r c e qu'on l u i r e s i s t e : on ne l u i r e s i s t e que parce q u ' i l v e u t d e t r u i r e : et i l ne veut d e t r u i r e que parce que l'amour de changement e s t dans sa n a t u r e . I I ne s e r a i t pas d e s p o t e , s ' i l l a i s s a i t s u b s i s t e r ce q u i e s t e t a b l i . Les i n n o v a -t i o n s sont i n s e p a r a b l e s de son e x i s t e n c e , et l e s s e u l s v r a i s gouvernement d e s p o t i q u e s sont ceux ou l e s l o i x eprouvent des r e v o l u t i o n s . I l l The despot s t r i v e s f o r change, w h i l e p r o v i d i n g f o r the s e c u r i t y of h i s r u l e , by promoting d i v i s i o n and d i s c o r d w i t h i n s o c i e t y . S i n c e the b a s i s of the s o c i a l o r d e r i s the f a m i l y , the despot seeks to undermine s o c i e t y by d e s t r o y i n g the i n n e r t r a n q u i l l i t y of the f a m i l y u n i t by e n c o u r a g i n g the w i f e and c h i l d r e n to c h a l l e n g e the f a t h e r ' s a u t h o r i t y . The f a t h e r ' s a u t h o r i t y (and w i t h i t the f a m i l y u n i t ) h a v i n g been d e s t r o y e d , 112 the despot becomes the s o l e a u t h o r i t y i n s o c i e t y . The despot c o n s i d e r s such t o t a l r u l e n e c e s s a r y s i n c e " I I veu t a v o i r l e d r o i t de changer d'un moment a l ' a u t r e l a c o n s t i -113 t u t i o n d'un Empire." An e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of d e s p o t i s m , t h e r e f o r e , i s the w i l l to t r a n g r e s s the fundamental laws of the r e a l m . T h i s p r e s e r v a t i o n of these laws can o n l y be a s s u r e d through the i n s t i t u t i o n of t h a t form of government ^L i n g e u t , op . c i t . , I I , 200. 1 I 2 I b i d . , I I , 196-198. 113 I b i d . , I I , 199. 8 3 most r e l i a n t on t h e i r maintenance. That form of government i s a b s o l u t e monarchy. The Fundamental Laws P r o v i d e f o r the  S e c u r i t y of the L a b o r i n g C l a s s L i n g u e t ' s f i n a l argument i n f a v o r of a b s o l u t e monarchy i s t h a t the i n t e r e s t s of the l a b o r i n g c l a s s can b e s t be se r v e d by a monarch w i e l d i n g a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y over h i s s u b j e c t s . Having demonstrated t h a t a b s o l u t e monarchy i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s p i r i t of the fundamental l a w s , t h e r e remained f o r L i n g u e t to prove t h a t these fundamental laws b e n e f i t the l a b o r i n g c l a s s . The purpose of the fundamental laws i s to p r o t e c t the i n s t i t u t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , as has been shown, i s based on a maste r -s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . L i n g u e t ' s t a s k , t h e r e f o r e , i s to argue on b e h a l f of s l a v e r y . I n d o i n g so he i s a d d r e s s i n g h i m s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y to the p h i l o s o p h e r : I l s d i s e n t hautement que l e d r o i t d ' e s c l a v a g e e s t en g e n e r a l un d r o i t i n j u s t e : i l y a p l u s , i l s l e prouvent : a c e t egard j e pense comme eux, j e l ' a i d e j a d i t . Mais e n t r e eux et moi i l y a c e t t e d i f f e r e n c e , q u ' i l s c r o i e n t c e t t e i n j u s t i c e n u i s i b l e , et q u i j e l a c r o i s n e c e s s a i r e : q u ' i l s l a r e p r o u v e n t comme 1'ennemie de tous l e s d r o i t s , et que j e l a c o n s i d e r e comme l e fondement de t o u s : q u ' i l s p l a i g -nent l e genre humain de l ' a v o i r adoptee, et q u ' i l s en r e g a r d e n t l a d e s t r u c t i o n comme l e pr e m i e r pas v e r s l e bonheur commun de l a s o c i e t e , au- l i e u que moi en l e p l a i g n a n t a u s s i d ' a v o i r commis c e t t e imprudence j e s u i s f o r t e m e n t c o n v a i n c u q u ' i l ne s a u r o i t l a r e p a r e r , sans a n e a n t i r c e t t e meme s o c i e t e q u i l u i d o i t l ' e x i s t e n c e . 114 Not o n l y i s s l a v e r y n e c e s s a r y , but i n i t s o r i g i n a l form, i t i s a f a i r l y m i l d i n s t i t u t i o n . The conquered a g r i c u l t u r a l p e o p l e f o r f e i t e d t h e i r l a n d , l i v e s t o c k and p e r s o n a l freedom to the h u n t e r . The l a t t e r , i n t u r n , a l l o w e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l people remain on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p l o t s of l a n d where they c o n t i n u e d to r a i s e l i v e s t o c k and grow c r o p s w i t h o u t a g r e a t d e a l of i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e i r r e s p e c -t i v e m a s t e r s . When, however, the masters abandoned a l i f e of s i m p l i c i t y f o r one of l u x u r y and o s t e n t a t i o u s l i v i n g , the s l a v e s became more and more c l o s e l y a t t a c h e d to the master i n o r d e r t h a t they might a t t e n d to h i s new and a r t i f i c i a l needs. I t was a t t h i s s tage t h a t the s l a v e s ' l o t became h u m i l i a t i n g and o p p r e s s i v e . ^ Not o n l y i s s l a v e r y , (uncon-t a m i n a t e d by l u x u r y ) , u n o p p r e s s i v e , i t i s a l s o b o t h n e c e s s a r y and b e n e f i c i a l to the s l a v e . S i n c e s o c i e t y i s based upon p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , one must e i t h e r own p r o p e r t y or c o n s t i t u t e p r o p e r t y i n o r d e r to be a p a r t of s o c i e t y . To be the f r e e son of a s l a v e , f o r example, i s to be a s o c i a l o u t c a s t . As s u c h , one would be u n a b le to p r o v i d e s u s t e n a n c e f o r o n e s e l f e i t h e r by w o r k i n g the l a n d or a t t e n d i n g to the needs of a m aster. To g i v e a s l a v e freedom, t h e r e f o r e , i s to sentence him to a l i n g e r i n g death by s t a r v a t i o n or to f o r c e him i n t o becoming a medicant or a brigand.''""''^ There i s i n s l a v e r y , 1 1 4 l b i d . , I I , 280-281. 1 1 5 I b i d . , I I , 257-261 1 1 6 I b i d . , I I , 268-27 7. at l e a s t , the b e n e f i t of economic s e c u r i t y s i n c e i t i s i n the m aster's b e s t i n t e r e s t s to m a i n t a i n h i s p r o p e r t y i n good c o n d i t i o n . On the s u r f a c e , t h i s whole d i s c u s s i o n about s l a v e r y seems v e r y t h e o r e t i c a l w i t h l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e to the problems which L i n g u e t was most concerned w i t h i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r a n c e . The purpose of L i n g u e t ' s t h e o r i z i n g on the m a s t e r - s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes d i s c e r n i b l e as s o c i a l commentary, however, when one u n d e r s t a n d s h i s con-c e p t i o n of p r o p e r t y . F i r s t , i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t L i n g u e t i n t h e o r i z i n g upon the o r i g i n s of s o c i e t y , s t a t e d t h a t at the time of the c o n q u e s t , a l l p r o p e r t y was h e l d i n common by the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s as a whole. I t was then p a r c e l l e d out to i n d i v i d u a l s , w i t h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a l l p r o p e r t y u l t i m a t e l y belonged to s o c i e t y as a whole.^'' E l s e w h e r e , L i n g u e t p o i n t s out t h a t ownership does n o t , i n r e a l i t y , extend beyond the l i f e s p a n of the owner. For L i n g u e t t h e r e -f o r e , the i n d i v i d u a l p r o p r i e t o r i s n o t h i n g more than a c u s t o d i a n of h i s p o s s e s s i o n s . The fundamental l a w s , however are d e s i g n e d to ensure the i n v i o l a b i l i t y of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . That which i s i n v i o l a b l e and a b s o l u t e , t h e r e f o r e , i s not the ownership of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y but the r i g h t of the p r o p r i e t o r c u s t o d i a n to e x e r c i s e a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y over the S i n c e those not of the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s were p r o p e r t y , i t f o l l o w s t h a t the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s and i t s p o s s e s s i o n s c o n s t i t u t e s o c i e t y . i t s 86 employment and d i s p o s a l of h i s p r o p e r t y . The model f o r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s a f a m i l y u n i t w i t h i n which the a u t h o r i t y of husband and f a t h e r (as p r o p r i e t o r ) i s a b s o l u t e . The h i g h e s t e x p r e s s i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i s the Monarch e x e r c i s i n g a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y over h i s s u b j e c t s . C o n c l u s i o n In c o n c l u d i n g t h i s c h a p t e r I w i s h to s t r e s s the tone of urgency which u n d e r l i e s the T h e o r i e des l o i x c i v i l e s . I t i s not j u s t the F r e n c h Monarchy which i s i n a s t a t e of d e c l i n e . Because a b s o l u t e monarchy i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of What i s i n v o l v e d here i s a f e u d a l c o n c e p t i o n of p r o p e r t y which A.Soboul d e s c r i b e s as f o l l o w s : "When speak-i n g of landed p r o p e r t y and s o c i a l antagonisms under the o l d regime we f o r g e t too o f t e n t h a t i t was not a t o t a l a b s o l u t e p r o p e r t y such as t h a t which the c o n s t i t u t i o n makers of 1789 i n c l u d e d , among the i m p r e s c r i p t i b l e R i g h t s of Man. The l o r d e x e r c i s e d a r i g h t of o v e r l o r d s h i p ( p r o p r i e t e eminente, a l s o c a l l e d l a d i r e c t e ) over the l a n d s of h i s f i e f , and e s p e c i a l l y over peasant t e n u r e s . By t h i s r i g h t l a n d was s u b j e c t to those s e i g n e u r i a l r i g h t s which were the badge of s u b j e c t i o n . The peasant c o u l d indeed f r e e l y d i s p o s e of h i s l a n d , s e l l i t or g i v e i t i n i n h e r i t a n c e , but he d i d not own i t i n t h e o r y p o s s e s s i n g o n l y what the j u r i s t s c a l l e d domaine u t i l e . Payment to the l o r d of an a n n u a l cens marked the dependence of the n o n - a r i s t o c r a t i c t e n u r e s of l a n d ( t e n u r e s r o t u r i e r e s or cens i v e s ) . The s t r u c t u r e of l a n d e d p r o p e r t y thus remained f e u d a l . " French c u l t u r e , i t s demise i s i n d i c a t i v e of a decay which has penetrated to the core of French s o c i e t y : the laws and t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are i n a s t a t e of c o r r u p t i o n ; the f a m i l y u n i t , and with i t the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e as a whole, i s d i s i n t e g r a t i n g . If those i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y do not heed L i n g u e t ' s warning and act upon i t promptly, r e v o l u t i o n and the r u i n a t i o n of French s o c i e t y w i l l be i n e v i t a b l e . One of the foremost engines of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l d e s t r u c t i o n i s the m a g i s t r a t u r e . I t i s the m a g i s t r a t e s who are undermining the b e l i e f s upon which the monarchy and French s o c i e t y are based by promoting t h e i r s e l f i s h group i n t e r e s t s under the guise of a s u p e r f i c i a l l y b e n e f i c e n t body of p o l i t i c a l d o c t r i n e . Having d e c r i e d a b s o l u t e monarchy as d e s p o t i c , t h e i r success w i l l p l a c e France under the yoke of the worst of a l l p o s s i b l e forms of despotism--120 the a r i s t o c r a t i c o l i g a r c h y . Where the a b s o l u t e monarch i d e n t i f i e d h i s i n t e r e s t s with the w e l f a r e of the people, t h i s o l i g a r c h y w i l l act s o l e l y upon t h e i r e s p r i t de corps , and t h e i r group i n t e r e s t s . For these reasons, T h e o r i e des  l o i x c i v i l e s i s p r i m a r i l y an a t t a c k upon the these n o b i l i a i r e and i t s t h e o r e t i c a l fountainhead-Montesquieu. 119 L i n g u e t , op. c i t . , I, 39 120 I b i d . , I I , 189. 88 The m a g i s t r a t u r e , mor e o v e r , must s h a r e w i t h p a s t l e g i s l a t o r s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h a v i n g u n d e r m i n e d a n o t h e r b u l w a r k of F r e n c h s o c i e t y — i t s j u r i s p r u d e n c e . The j u x t a -p o s i t i o n of the f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s , t h o s e laws c o n s i s t e n t w i t h them and t h o s e laws c o n t r a r y t o t h e s p i r i t of the f u n d a m e n t a l laws has p r o d u c e d a chaos w i t h i n w h i c h j u r i s d i c t i o n a l w r a n g l i n g , c h i c a n e r y and the a g g r a n d i z e m e n t of grou p i n t e r e s t s has f r e e r e i n . The e q u i t a b l e d i s p e n s a t i o n o f j u s t i c e , upon w h i c h t h e s e c u r i t y o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y (and t h e r e f o r e s o c i e t y ) d e p e n d s , has t h e r e b y been c o m p r o m i s e d . to work t h e i r way i n t o the l e g a l s t r u c t u r e i s i n e v i t a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , P our peu qu'on y r e f l e c h i s s e on v e r r a b i e n que c e t t e n e c e s s i t e de r e n d r e aux L o i x , a de c e r t a i n s i n t e r v a l l e s , l a s p l e n d e u r q u ' e l l e s o n t p e r d u e s , de l e s n e t t o y e r , pour a i n s i d i r e , comme une machine o r d i n a i r e , e s t en E u r o p e une s u i t e i n e v i t -a b l e de l a n a t u r e memes des p e u p l e s q u i l ' h a b i t e n t , e t des changemens c o n t i n u e l s q u i y a r r i v e n t dans l a c o n f o r m a t i o n des c o r p s p o l i t i q u e s . 121 F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e , however, i s a l m o s t beyond r e s t i t u t i o n s i n c e " . . . peu a peu l e terns a r r i v e , ou c e t t e o p e r a t i o n l e g e r e se t r o u v e i n s u f f i c a n t e . Ce n ' e s t b i e n t o t p l u s une t o i l e q u ' i l f a u t n e t t o y e r : c ' e s t un nouveau t i s s u q u ' i l * • n 1 2 2 f a u t e r e f a i r e . T h i s t e n d e n c y f o r c o m p l e x i t i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s 121 L i n g u e t , op. c i t . , I , 39-40 . 122 I b i d . , I , 44 . This subversion of the fundamental laws has not only undermined the paternal authority of the monarch; i t has p r a c t i c a l l y destroyed absolute paternal authority as a viable p r i n c i p l e for s o c i a l organization, i n general. The basis of a l l s o c i a l organization, the family, has been seriously weakened by the growing independence of women. This weakening of the p r i n c i p l e of proprietorship within the family unit can only r e s u l t i n the eventual destruction of a l l c i v i l l i b e r t i e s and the i n s t i t u t i o n of some form of despotic government. J The decline of absolute paternal authority i n the family unit has necessarily led to i t s decline as a p r i n c i p l e i n s o c i a l relationships generally, and especially between the l e i s u r e and labouring classes. The l e i s u r e class no longer i d e n t i f i e s i t s interests with the welfare of the labouring c l a s s . The mutually antagonistic interests of the l e i s u r e and labouring classes have destroyed the economic security which the l a t t e r can only enjoy i n a state of s o c i a l harmony. Consequently high prices, food shortages and an ever growing incidence of poverty and mendicity have become a l l too prevalent i n contemporary French society. There i s a great danger, however, i n believing that these s o c i a l i l l s can be completely eliminated, since they I b i d . , I , 369. "Le despotisme ne peut naitre que de l a corruption; mais ce l l e - - c ' e s t toujours accompagnee, et peut-£tre meme occasionnee par l a rupture des liens que les moeurs donnaient aux femmes. Tout qu'une d i s c i p l i n e exact les contient dans l a r e t r a i t e , on v o i t f l o u r i r dans une nation l e courage et l a vertu." 124 a r e an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of s o c i e t y . I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, to keep them w e l l w i t h i n t h e bounds o f e n d u r a n c e by a d h e r i n g s t r i c t l y to t h e s p i r i t o f the f u n d a m e n t a l laws o f t h e r e a l m . I t has been t h e f a i l u r e to do so and the u n r e l e n t i n g c r i t i c i s m o f F r e n c h p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t has b r o u g h t a b o u t t h a t g e n e r a l d i s i n t e g r a -t i o n w h i c h has s e r v e d o n l y to a g g r a v a t e t h e i n j u s t i c e s of s o c i e t y . R a t h e r we s h o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t , Chaque s i e c l e a, pour a i n s i — d i r e , s e s a b c e s , q u ' i l f a u t se g a r d e r de p e r c e r , a v a n t q u ' i l s s o i e n t mdrs . R e s p e c t o n s done ceux de n o t r e , e t l a i s s o n s a l a p o s t e r i t e l e s o i n de l e s c i c a t r i s e r , quand i l s se s e r o n t o u v e r t s d'eux-memes. 125 12 4 L i n g u e t , op. c i t . , I I , 282. " C ' e s t l a pauvrete* q u i a p r o d u i t l a r i c h e s s e : mais c ' e s t l ' e s c l a v a g e q u i a p r o d u i t l a p a u v r e t e : e t ce n ' e s t qu ' a l a s u i t e de c e t t e f i l i a t i o n f f u n e s t e qu'a p a r u l a l o i c i v i l e . II 125 L i n g u e t , op . c i t . , I , 6. What L i n g u e t i s s a y i n g , a l t h o u g h e x t r a v a g a n t l y and w i t h a p a r a d o x i c a l t w i s t , i s t h a t a r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y , c e n t r a l to w h i c h i s the p r i n c i p l e o f a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y or p r o p r i e t o r s h i p , r e q u i r e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t he e i t h e r e x e r c i s e a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y ( p r o p r i e t o r s h i p ) w i t h i n a d e s i g n a t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n or be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n s u c h a j u r i s d i c t i o n ( t h a t i t , c o n s t i t u t e p r o p e r t y ) i n o r d e r to be a p a r t y o f s o c i e t y and e n j o y t h e s e c u r i t y p r o v i d e d by the l a w s . T h i s s e c u r i t y , a l t h o u g h v e r y r e a l , i s r e n d e r e d m i n i m a l , f o r the m a j o r i t y of s o c i e t y ' s members by t h e g r e a t economic and s o c i a l d i s p a r i t y w h i c h s u c h a r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i m p o s e s . C H A P T E R I I I L I N G U E T A N D T H E P H Y S I O C R A T S V e r s l ' a n 1 7 5 0 , l a n a t i o n r a s s a s i e e d e v e r s d e t r a g e d i e s , d e c o m e d i e s , d e o p e r a s , d e r o m a n s , d ' h i s t o i r e s r o m a n e s q u e s , d e r e f l e x i o n s m o r a l e s p l u s r o m a n e s q u e s e n c o r e , d e d i s p u t e s t h e o l o g i q u e s , s e m i t e n f i n a r a i s o n n e r s u r l e s b l e s . O n o u b l i a m e m e d e s v i g n e s p o u r n e p a r l e r q u e d u f r o m e n t e t d u s e i g l e . O n e c r i v i t d e s c h o s e s u t i l e s s u r 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e ; t o u t l e m o n d e l e s l u t , e x c e p t e l e s l a b o u r e u r s . 1 P r o b a b l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s s u d d e n w i d e s p r e a d p o p u l a r i n t e r e s t i n a g r o n o m y w e r e t h e w r i t i n g s a n d a c t i v i t i e s o f a g r o u p o f p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m i s t s k n o w n a s t h e p h y s i o c r a t s . C o m i n g i n t o i t s o w n i n t h e 1 7 5 0 ' s , p h y s i o c r a c y b e c a m e i n c r e a s i n g l y a f o r c e t o b e r e c k o n e d w i t h i n l i t e r a r y a n d g o v e r n m e n t c i r c l e s , r e a c h i n g t h e a p o g e e o f i t s p o w e r a n d i n f l u e n c e u n d e r t h e C o n t r o l l e r -2 G e n e r a l s h i p o f T u r g o t . A f t e r 1 7 7 6 , h o w e v e r , i t s i n f l u e n c e d e c l i n e d d u e t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f w h i c h w a s t h e w i d e s p r e a d u n p o p u l a r i t y o f " ' " V o l t a i r e , D i c t i o n n a i r e p h i l o s o p h i q u e , I I , I I o r X V I I I o f O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s ( P a r i s , 1 8 7 8 ) , 1 1 . 2 T u r g o t , a l t h o u g h n o t a p h y s i o c r a t , w a s a f e l l o w t r a v e l l e r a l o n g t h e p a t h o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l e c o n o m i c t h i n k i n g , w h o w a s v e r y m u c h i n f a v o u r o f f r e e t r a d e 92 T u r g o t ' s r e f o r m s , l e a d i n g to h i s d i s m i s s a l i n t h a t y e a r . I t s h a l l be our purpose to demonstrate t h a t L i n g u e t ' s p o s i t i o n i n h i s debate w i t h the p h y s i o c r a t s was an e x p r e s s i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n of t h a t p o l i t i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e w o r l d view c r y s t a l l i z e d d u r i n g h i s y e a r s a t the P a l a i s de  Jus t i c e and g i v e n t h e o r e t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n i n T h e o r i e des l o i s c i v i l e s . The P h y s i o c r a t i c S c h o o l of P o l i t i c a l Economy There has been some di s a g r e e m e n t as to the t r u e n a t u r e of p h y s i o c r a c y . Some m a i n t a i n , as does Norman J . Ware, t h a t the p h y s i o c r a t s "were not p r o f e s s i o n a l e conomists but o f f i c i a l s ... emerging from the F r e n c h b u r e a u c r a c y and c l i m b i n g i n t o the 4 land-owning and even i n t o the n o b l e c l a s s e s . " T h i s r i s i n g c l a s s of o f f i c i a l s , n o b l e and non-noble a l i k e , w h i l e adopt-i n g an a r i s t o c r a t i c o u t l o o k and s t y l e of l i f e , at the same time m a i n t a i n e d the e s s e n t i a l l y b o u r g e o i s a t t i t u d e t h a t i t 3 Henry H i g g s , The P h y s i o c r a t s , (London, 1 8 9 7 ) , pp. 58-59. I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t p h y s i o c r a t s such as Dupont de Nemours and the Abbe Baudeau were to con-t i n u e to expound p h y s i o c r a t i c d o c t r i n e , a l t h o u g h , as the y e a r s p a s s e d , l e s s and l e s s emphasis would be p l a c e d on the d o c t r i n e t h a t the l a n d was the s o l e source of w e a l t h and more on the g e n e r a l " c a p i t a l i s t i c " ( p r o d u c t i o n on a l a r g e s c a l e , i n v o l v i n g a d i v i s i o n of l a b o r , which i s geared to a f r e e market economy) approach to p r o d u c t i o n which they f e l t needed to be t a k e n . See Ronald Meek, The Economics of P h y s i o c r a c y : e s s a y s and t r a n s l a t i o n s (London, 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 347. was not s u f f i c i e n t f o r an e s t a t e to s e r v e as a sou r c e of l i v e l i h o o d or as a mark of n o b l e s t a t u s — i t must y i e l d a p r o f i t i n the manner of a w e l l - r u n business."* Ronald Meek, on the o t h e r hand, m a i n t a i n s t h a t the p h y s i o c r a t s c o n s t i t u t e d a s c h o o l of p o l i t i c a l economy and t h a t p h y s i o c r a c y r e p r e s e n t e d an attempt to surmount the economic or s o c i a l problems of the a n c i e n regime i n F r a n c e . The i n t e r e s t s of the c l a s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s would have c o i n c i d e d w i t h those of the p h y s i o c r a t s o n l y i n -s o f a r as the former se r v e d to a l l e v i a t e the problem of low a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y which the p h y s i o c r a t s c o n s i d e r e d the b a s i s of F r a n c e ' s economic and s o c i a l i l l s . 7 P h y s i o c r a t i c d o c t r i n e , to be s u r e , r e f l e c t e d a c e r t a i n t r e n d i n F r e n c h p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t r e p r e s e n t e d to a degree a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Norman J . Ware, "The P h y s i o c r a t s : A Study of Economic R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , " The American Economic Review, X X I , No. 4 (December, 1931), 608. A s i m i l a r o p i n i o n i s h e l d by Raymond S. F r a n k l i n who contends t h a t the P h y s i o c r a t s spoke f o r the w e a l t h y p e a s a n t s and " h y b r i d a g r a r i a n c a p i t a l i s t s " w h ich he r e f e r s to c o l l e c t i v e l y as " a g r a r i a n e n t r e p r e n e u r s or c a p i t a l i s t s . " See Raymond S. F r a n k l i n , "The Fr e n c h S p c i o -economic Environment i n the E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y and I t s R e l a t i o n to the P h y s i o c r a t s , " American J o u r n a l of Economics and  S o c i o l o g y , X X I , No. 3 ( J u l y , 1962), 299. 5Ware, op. c i t . , 608-609. Meek, op. c i t . , pp. 7 I b i d . , pp. 392-393. 368-369. t h e m e r c h a n t i l i s t p o l i c i e s o f C o l b e r t a n d t h e f i n a n c i a l s c h e m e s o f J o h n L a w a s w e l l a s a n o s t a l g i a f o r a n i d e a l i z e d f e u d a l p a s t — t h e g o l d e n a g e o f F r a n c e d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f g H e n r y I V a n d h i s m i n i s t e r , S u l l y . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p h y s i o c r a t i c s c h o o l r e f l e c t e d , t o a d e g r e e , t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h i s e m e r g i n g g r o u p o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s , i n a s m u c h a s t h e s c h o o l c o u n t e d a m o n g i t s m e m b e r s a n u m b e r o f l a n d o w n e r s w h o s t o o d t o b e , n , a f i t s u b s t a n -t i a l l y f r o m a n i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i v i t y t h r o u g h l a r g e - s c a l e 9 a g r i c u l t u r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s t h e g e n e r a l l y t h e o r e t i c a l a n d a b s t r a c t s t y l e o f t h e i r w r i t i n g s w i l l b e a r o u t , t h e P h y s i o c r a t s w e r e a b o v e a l l a c a d e m i c i a n s a p p r o a c h i n g t h e e c o -n o m i c a n d s o c i a l i l l s o f t h e a n c i e n r e g i m e i n F r a n c e a s a p r o b l e m i n p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m y f o r w h i c h t h e y p r o p o s e d a d o c -t r i n a i r e , t h e o r e t i c a l a n d s y s t e m a t i c s o l u t i o n — i n v o l v i n g l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e , f r e e t r a d e i n g r a i n a n d t a x a t i o n r e f o r m . F r a n c e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y o f f e r e d t h e s p e c t a c l e o f p r o s p e r i t y e x i s t i n g s i d e b y s i d e w i t h g r i n d i n g p o v e r t y , a g r i c u l t u r a l u n d e r p r o d u c t i o n a n d a g o v e r n m e n t l a b o u r i n g u n d e r a d e f i c i t o f g i g a n t i c p r o p o r t i o n s . F r e n c h c o m m e r c e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x p a n d e d r a p i d l y , p r i c e s g r a d u a l l y r o s e a n d t h e c u r r e n c y b e c a m e s t a b i l i z e d . H a n d i n h a n d w i t h I b i d . , p p . 3 6 8 - 3 6 9 . W a r e , o p . c i t . , 6 1 4 - 6 1 5 . 9 5 t h i s commercial e x p a n s i o n went the r a p i d growth of French c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those which were s e a p o r t s . ^ R u r a l F r a n c e , however, p r e s e n t e d q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e . B r i e f l y the problem f a c i n g i t was one of o v e r -p o p u l a t i o n and u n d e r p r o d u c t i o n . F r a n c e ' s r a p i d l y growing p o p u l a t i o n numbered between t w e n t y - t h r e e and t w e n t y - f o u r m i l l i o n s i n the decade b e f o r e the R e v o l u t i o n , of which o n l y two m i l l i o n r e s i d e d i n the cities."'""'' F r e n c h a g r i c u l t u r e f a c e d w i t h the t a s k of f e e d i n g t h i s growing p o p u l a t i o n was . . . . . . . 12 not m a x i m i z i n g i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y . " ^ A l f r e d Cobban, A H i s t o r y of Modern France (2nd e d i t i o n , Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , 1961), I , 39-41,48. 11 e H e n r i See, La France economique et s o c i a l e au X V I I I s i e c l e ( P a r i s , 1925), pp. 14-15. 12 ,. M i c h e l M o r i n e a u , " Y - a - t - i l eu une r e v o l u t i o n a g r i c o l e en France au X V I I I s i e c l e ? , " Revue H i s t o r i q u e CXXXIX ( A p r i l -J u l y , 1968), 299-326. M o r i n e a u , c i t e s f i g u r e s of J.C. T o u t a i n and B.H. S l i c h e r van B a t h : 1700-1750: A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y grew a t a r a t e of .3% 1750-1780: A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y grew a t a r a t e of 1.4% (See M o r i n e a u , 309). M o r i n e a u , however, r e a c h e s the f o l l o w -i n g c o n c l u s i o n : "La c o n s t a n c e v e r i f i e e des r e s u l t a t s d e p u i s l a p r e m i e r e m o i t i e du X V I I I s i e c l e , e t , p a r f o i s , d e p u i s l e debut du X V I I e ou d e p u i s l e Moyen Age j u s q u ' e n 1840 e s t f r a p p a n t e et a peu pres g e n e r a l e . I I semble done que l a " r e v o l u t i o n a g r i c o l e " n ' a i t pas eu l i e u en France a l'epoque o r d i n a i r e m e n t c o n s i d e r e e comme c e l l e du demarrage; mieux, que l ' h i s t o i r e des c e r e a l e s a i t ete dominee par l a r e c u r r e n c e de rendements normaux (commun au moyens) i d e n t i q u e s sur t r o i s , q u a t r e ou c i n q c e n t u r i e s , ce q u i n ' e x c l u t pas, d ' a i l l e u r s , des f l u c t u a t i o n s p e r i o d i q u e s a c o u r t et moyen terme . " See Mor i n e a u , 3 2 6 . ( 96 In the f i r s t p l a c e , c u l t i v a t i o n was conducted l a r g e l y by the s m a l l peasant p r o p r i e t o r , the s m a l l f e r m i e r (a t e n a n t .- 13 farmer p a y i n g a cash r e n t ) , the metayer (a t e n a n t farmer p a y i n g up to o n e - h a l f and sometimes more of h i s crop as r e n t ) and those who combined the s t a t u s of t e n a n t ( e i t h e r metayer or f e r m i e r ) and p r o p r i e t o r . These p e a s a n t s f o r the most p a r t worked o n l y s m a l l p a r c e l s of l a n d which were o f t e n not l a r g e enough to s u p p o r t themselves or t h e i r f a m i l i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , they t u r n e d to the " 1 a b o u r e u r s " , t h a t s m a l l number of w e l l to do peasant p r o p r i e t o r s 'the coqs du v i l l a g e ' f o r advances of money, seed and bread g r a i n , and the 14 l o a n of draught a n i m a l s . Thus the s m a l l p e a s a n t s i n c u r r e d o b l i g a t i o n s toward the l a r g e ones, and might soon become t h e i r wage-l a b o u r e r s . The c r i s e s of the o l d a g r i c u l t u r a l system thus widened the gap between a m i n o r i t y of the l a b o u r e u r s . and a s w o l l e n mass of dwarf p e a s a n t s and l a b o u r e r s , and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c o n t r i b u t e d to the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . 15 The s m a l l p e a s a n t s i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y were s w e l l i n g the r a n k s of the l o w e s t c l a s s i n the peasant h i e r a r c h y , the 13 The metayers were the most numerous of the s m a l l • p r o p r i e t o r s , t e n a n t - p r o p r i e t o r s , and t e n a n t f a r m e r s . M e t a i r i e s accounted f o r from t w o - t h i r d s to t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the l a n d i n F r a n c e . See A l b e r t S o b o u l , La France a l a  y e i l l e de l a R e v o l u t i o n : I , a s p e c t s economiques et s o c i a u x (Par 1960) , p . 114 . 14 For a thorough breakdown and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the F r e n c h r u r a l community. See I b i d . , p. 112. 97 r u r a l d a y l a b o u r e r s , t h e j o u r n a l i e r s , m a n o u v r i e r s , o r B r a s s i e r s , o n l y a s m a l l n u m b e r o f w h i c h w e r e f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h t o h a v e a s m a l l h u t a n d a p l o t o f l a n d , *\ . . l e s p l u s 1 6 n o m b r e u s e s n e p o s s e d a n t p o u r v i v r e q u e l e u r s b r a s . " C l i n g i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r a l m e t h o d s w h i c h h a d n ' t c h a n g e d s i n c e t h e m i d d l e a g e s , t h e p e a s a n t r y o b s t i n a t e l y r e s i s t e d a t t e m p t s t o i m p r o v e a g r i c u l t u r a l m e t h o d s w h i c h w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e e n c l o s u r e o f t h e c o m m o n p a s t u r e a r e a s u p o n w h i c h t h e y p a r t i c u l a r l y d e p e n d e d f o r t h e g r a z i n g o f t h e i r l i v e s t o c k . T h e F r e n c h p e a s a n t r y a p p e a r e d t o b e c a u g h t i n a v i c e : e n c l o s u r e w o u l d f o r c e m a n y t o a b a n d o n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e f o r t h e t o w n s a n d c i t i e s i n s e a r c h o f w o r k , w h i l e , f o r t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m o f a g r i c u l t u r e p r o v i d e d o n l y a m a r g i n a l e x i s t e n c e . A l b e r t S o b o u l , " T h e F r e n c h R u r a l C o m m u n i t y i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h a n d N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s " , P a s t a n d P r e s e n t , s e c o n d s e r i e s , 1 0 ( N o v e m b e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , 8 6 - 8 7 . S o b o u l , L a F r a n c e a l a v e i l l e d e l a R e v o l u t i o n , p . 1 1 2 . F o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t h i e r a r c h y , s e e I b i d . , p p . 1 1 2 - 1 1 7 ; S o b e u l , " T h e F r e n c h R u r a l C o m m u n i t y i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h a n d N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s " ; H e n r i S e e , o p . c i t . , p . 1 2 . 9 8 O n l y t h e w e l l - t o - d o l a b o u r e u r , o r t h e f e r m i e r w h o c o u l d r e n t a f a i r - s i z e d f a r m , c o u l d r e a l l y l i v e o n t h e p r o d u c t o f h i s l a n d . T h e m a j o r i t y h a d t o e k e o u t a l i v i n g b y w o r k i n g o n t h e l a n d s o f o t h e r s , e n g a g i n g i n d o m e s t i c i n d u s t r y , m i g r a t i n g s e a s o n a l l y i n t o t h e t o w n s , s c r a p i n g a b a r e l i v i n g o f f t h e c o m m o n s a n d w a s t e o r e l s e s t a r v e . 1 7 T h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e p e a s a n t o f m o d e s t m e a n s ) w a s a l s o a g g r a v a t e d b y a t a x s t r u c t u r e w h i c h c a m e t o r e f l e c t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r e F r a n c e , f r o m a s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y b a s e d o n b i r t h t o o n e b a s e d o n w e a l t h . " T o u t n o b l e a l a v e r i t e n ' e s t p a s r i c h e m a i s 1 8 t o u t e r i c h e e s t n o b l e . " S i m i l a r l y , t h o s e w h o b e n e f i t t e d m o s t f r o m t h e t a x s t r u c t u r e w e r e ' l e s G r a n d s J t h e w e a l t h i e s t a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l p e o p l e i n F r a n c e , w h o s e w e a l t h m a d e t h e m i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o a g o v e r n m e n t s o r e l i a n t 1 9 o n i t s f i n a n e i e r - c r e d i t o r s . T h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d e s t a t e s a n d a l a r g e s e g m e n t o f t h e t h i r d e s t a t e , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e w h o r e s i d e d i n t h e " v i l l e s f r a n c h e s " ( t h o s e c i t i e s w h i c h h a d n e g o c i a t e d c h a r t e r s f r o m t h e C r o w n i n v o l v i n g c e r t a i n c o l l e c -t i v e p r i v i l e g e s ) w e r e l e g a l l y e x e m p t f r o m t h e s e r v i l e 1 7 C o b b a n , o p . c i t . , I , 4 9 - 5 0 . 1 8 B e t t y B e h r e n s , " N o b l e s , P r i v i l e g e s a n d T a x e s i n F r a n c e a t t h e E n d o f t h e A n c i e n R e g i m e , " E c o n o m i c H i s t o r y  R e v i e w , S e c o n d S e r i e s , X V , N o . 3 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 4 5 6 - 4 5 7 . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s a t t r i b u t e d t o M a l s h e r b e s . 1 9 * " L e s G r a n d s " i n c l u d e d t h e F e r m i e r s G e n e r a u x w h o a d m i n i s t e r e d a l l i n d i r e c t t a x e s , t h e l e a d i n g c h u r c h m e n , n o b l e s o f t h e s w o r d a n d t h e r o b e a n d t h e P r i n c e s o f t h e B l o o d . A l t h o u g h m a n y w i t h i n t h i s g r o u p w e r e o f h i g h n o b l e r a n k , t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f " l e s G r a n d s " w a s w e a l t h w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e l i f e s t y l e e x p e c t e d o f t h e m w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o s s i b l e . S e e I b i d . , 4 5 6 . 99 2 0 .» o b l i g a t i o n s of the t a i l l e , the c o r v e e and m i l i t i a s e r v i c e . In the case of f i s c a l e x e m ptions, not l e g a l l y p r o v i d e d f o r , but e x t o r t e d from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h rough s t r i n g - p u l l i n g , b r i b e r y and i n t i m i d a t i o n , those w i t h i n f l u e n c e (and t h e r e -f o r e w e a l t h ) drew the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the tax burden weighed down most h e a v i l y upon those l e a s t a b l e to s u p p o r t i t — t h e p o orer elements of the n o b i l i t y and t h i r d e s t a t e , among whom the p e a s a n t r y were the most numerous. E q u a l l y i n a d e q u a t e i n t h i s r e g a r d , were the customs d u t i e s and e x c i s e t a x e s (the a i d e s , t r a i t e s and the g a b e l l e ) C o l b e r t had a t t e m p t e d through h i s t a r i f f s of 1664 and 1667 to r e f o r m what was a d i s p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n of custom d u t i e s 21 and e x c i s e t a x e s i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d system. R a t h e r than 20 A l t h o u g h l e g a l l y exempt from p a y i n g the t a i l l e , the n o b i l i t y , i n r e a l i t y , shared t h i s burden w i t h the t h i r d e s t a t e , to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t : "The n o b l e l a n d l o r d ' s l e g a l i m m u n i t i e s were thus broken through by the f a c t of economics. Sometimes he p a i d the t a i l l e , or a p a r t of i t , out of h i s own p o c k e t ; sometimes i t reduced h i s r e n t , and a l l t h i s a p a r t from the f a c t t h a t when . . . the p e a s a n t s , f a i l e d to t r a n s -f e r the burden, the more i t i m p o v e r i s h e d them, the s m a l l e r the l a n d l o r d ' s p r o f i t s . " See I b i d . , 459. 21 J . F . Bosher, The S i n g l e Duty P r o j e c t : a study of the movement f o r a F r e n c h customs u n i o n i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y (London, 1964), pp. 5-6. The t a r i f f of 18 September 1664 sought to c r e a t e a s i n g l e customs u n i o n t h r o u g h o u t France but was a c c e p t e d o n l y by most of n o r t h F r a n c e . I t was a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r customs purpose by an amalgamated company of t a x f a r m e r s known as the C i n q G r o s s e s Fermes. Those p r o v i n c e s which r e j e c t e d the customs u n i o n p r o p o s a l and which thus l a y o u t s i d e the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the C i n q  G r o s s e s Fermes were known as " p r o v i n c e s r e p u t e e s e t r a n g e r e s . " The t a r i f f of A p r i l 1667 imposed a s p e c i a l t a r i f f a l o n g the f r o n t i e r s of the kingdom. A l t h o u g h these t a r i f f s were u n i f o r m i n the sense t h a t t h e i r r a t e s d i d not change, they n e v e r t h e l e s s were not imposed u n i f o r m l y a l o n g the f r o n t i e r . A reas l y i n g on the o u t s i d e of these custom b a r r i e r s were r e f e r r e d to as " p r o v i n c e s t r a i t e e s a l ' i n s t a r de l ' e t r a n g e r e f f e c t i f . " s u p p l a n t i n g t h e m , a l l h e s u c c e e d e d i n d o i n g w a s t o s u p e r -i m p o s e t h i s n e w s y s t e m o f d u t i e s o n t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g o n e s . C o l b e r t , w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e s e i n d i r e c t t a x e s , h a d a l s o f o r m e d t h e m o n o p o l i s t i c c o m p a n y o f t h e G e n e r a l F a r m i n 1 6 8 1 . W h i l e b y t h e m i d d l e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h i s c o m p a n y h a d i n d e e d b e c o m e v e r y e f f i c i e n t i n i t s m e t h o d o f c o l l e c t i o n , t h e d u t i e s i m p o s e d h a d n o t b e e n r a t i o n a l i z e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a n e v e r i n c r e a s i n g b u r d e n w a s b e i n g p l a c e d o n i n t e r n a l 2 2 a n d e x t e r n a l F r e n c h t r a d e , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , o n t h e p e a s a n t r y a s c o n s u m e r s . F o r t h e p h y s i o c r a t s , t h e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s o f a n u n d e r - d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y l i k e F r a n c e c o u l d o n l y b e s o l v e d t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a g r i c u l -2 3 t u r e . M e e k c o n t e n d s t h a t F r a n c e ' s u n d e r - d e v e l o p m e n t , a ) r e l a t i v e t o i t s o w n p o s i t i o n i n t h e p a s t , b ) r e l a t i v e t o i t s p o t e n t i a l a t t h a t t i m e , a n d c ) r e l a t i v e t o i t s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s a t t h a t t i m e , w a s f a i r l y o b v i o u s b y t h e t i m e o f t h e p h y s i o c r a t s : 2 2 B o s h e r , o p . c i t . , p p . 9 - 1 3 2 3 M e e k , o p . c i t . , p . 3 1 8 . 101 The degree of impoverishment caused by a l o n g s u c c e s s i o n of wars was such as to encourage the b e l i e f t h a t t h i n g s must have been b e t t e r at some time i n the p a s t . The r e l a t i v e p r o s p e r i t y of c e r t a i n n o r t h e r n p r o v i n c e s where a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s had been p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e was such as to l e a d to s p e c u l a t i o n s about the p o s s i b i l i t y of e x t e n d i n g the new methods over the whole of the c o u n t r y . And the r e l a t i v e p r o s p e r i t y of B r i t a i n , where the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n had proceeded much f u r t h e r than i n F r a n c e , was such as to a f f o r d a s o l i d b a s i s f o r these s p e c u l a t i o n s . Not o n l y was F r a n c e ' s under-development a f a c t , but escape from i t s under-development was a l s o b e g i n n i n g to appear as a p r a c t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n . 24 That the p h y s i o c r a t s s h o u l d have seen i n a l a r g e - s c a l e , e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l approach to a g r i c u l t u r e the p r i n c i p a l means of a c h i e v i n g optimum n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , was, a g a i n , a r e f l e c t i o n of the t i m e s . In the f i r s t p l a c e , s i n c e France of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y was b a s i c a l l y a r u r a l , p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ( i t w i l l be remembered t h a t the urban p o p u l a t i o n was o n l y two m i l l i o n of t w e n t y - f o u r m i l l i o n s ) , a s o l u t i o n to the problem of i n s u f f i c i e n t n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y would n e c e s s a r -i l y have to be sought i n the c o u n t r y - s i d e , t h a t i s , t h rough a g r i c u l t u r e . S e c o n d l y , a m a r k e t - o r i e n t e d (as opposed to a s u b s i s t e n c e ) approach to f a r m i n g had been u n d e r t a k e n w i t h i n c r e a s i n g f r e q u e n c y a f t e r 1760, m a i n l y i n a r e a s c u l t i v a t e d under the system of fermage ( p r i m a r i l y on the f e r t i l e p l a i n s of n o r t h e r n F r a n c e — i n P i c a r d i e , e a s t e r n Normandie, B r i e , and Beauce) by e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l "grands f e r m i e r s " who i n t e g r a t e d " fermes" l e a s e d from a number of p r o p r i e t o r s i n t o a t h o r o u g h l y Meek, op. c i t . , p. 369. r a t i o n a l i z e d , l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s a p p l y i n g u p - t o - d a t e m e t h o d s o f a g r o n o m y , w h o s e l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y w a s c o n s p i c u o u s l y h i g h e r t h a n e q u i v a l e n t a r e a s o f l a n d 2 5 f a r m e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l w a y s . T h e b a s i c p r e m i s e o f t h e p h y s i o c r a t i c d o c t r i n e t h a t " . . . l a t e r r e e s t l ' u n i q u e s o u r c e d e s r i c h e s s e s e t c ' e s t 2 6 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e q u i l e s m u l t i p l i e . . . . " w a s , t h e r e f o r e , l e s s a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f a n o s t a l g i a f o r t h e p a s t b u t w a s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , a n o b s e r v a b l e f a c t i f w e a c c e p t M e e k ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f " w e a l t h " a s d i s p o s a b l e s u r p l u s , a n d 2 7 " p r o d u c t i v i t y " a s t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e t h i s s u r p l u s . I t w a s f r o m t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t h a t t h e p h y s i o c r a t i c d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n " p r o d u c t i v e " a n d n o n - p r o d u c t i v e o r " s t e r i l e " c l a s s e s w a s d e r i v e d . I n c l u d e d i n t h e f o r m e r g r o u p w e r e a l l t h o s e w h o w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , m i n i n g 2 5 I b i d . , p p . 3 8 0 - 3 8 2 . S e e a l s o A l b e r t S o b o u l , L a  F r a n c e a l a v e i l l e d e l a R e v o l u t i o n : I a s p e c t s e c o n o m i q u e s e t  s o c i a u x , p . 1 1 3 . S o b o u l i n d i c a t e s i n a s e p a r a t e a r t i c l e t h a t t h e " f e r m i e r s g e n e r a u x " w e r e s i m i l a r l y c o n c e n t r a t i n g l a b o r l a n d a n d c a p i t a l i n s h a r e - c r o p p i n g r e g i o n s . H e d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e h o w w i d e s p r e a d a p h e n o m e n o n t h e " f e r m i e r g e n e r a l w a s i n t h e " p a y s d e m e t a y a g e , " h o w e v e r . S e e A . S o b o u l , " T h e F r e n c h R u r a l C o m m u n i t y i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s " , P a s t a n d P r e s e n t , 2 n d s e r i e s , 1 0 ( N o v e m b e r , 1 9 5 6 ) 8 6 - 8 7 . 2 6 A u g u s t O n c k e n , e d . , O e u v r e s e c o n o m i q u e s e t p h i l o s o -p h i q u e s d e F a n c o i s Q u e s n a y ( D a r m s t a d t , 1 9 6 5 ) , p~I 3 3 7 . M e e k , o p . c i t . , p . 3 7 9 . 103 and f i s h i n g . Of t h e s e , the f i r s t two h e l d the most importance i n p h y s i o c r a t i c d o c t r i n e . A l l those not i n v o l v e d i n these p u r s u i t s belonged to l a c l a s s e s t e r i l e and would i n c l u d e c r a f t s m e n , a r t i s a n s , m a n u f a c t u r e r s , s h o p k e e p ers, and merchants. The abbe Baudeau, i n h i s E x p l i c a t i o n du  Tabl e a u Economique, u n d e r l i n e s the b a s i s f o r t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n f a i r l y s u c c i n c t l y i n s a y i n g t h a t Le p r o p r i e t a i r e et l e C u l t i v a t e u r sont payes immediatement par l e s b i e n f a i t s de l a n a t u r e , par l a f e c o n d i t e de l a t e r r e , par l a p o r t i o n que s u r a j o u t e l a r e c o l t e au d e l a des semences. La c l a s s e s t e r i l e t o u t e n t i e r e , meme quant a l a p o r t i o n d ' O u v r i e r s q u i t r a v a i l l e n t aux i n s t r u m e n s o r a t a i r e s , en e s t payee mediatement, c ' e s t - a - D i r e par l e C u l t i v a t e u r ou P r o p r i e t a i r e . C'est avec l u i q u ' e l l e compte, c ' e s t s ur l u i q u ' e l l e p r o f i t e ; non avec l a n a t u r e et sur l a f e r t i l i t e de l a t e r r e . 29 The abbe Baudeau i s c a r e f u l to p o i n t o u t , however, t h a t . l e nom de c l a s s e s t e r i l e ne s i g n i f i e p o i n t c l a s s e i n u t i l e , encore moins c l a s s e n u i s i b l e , comme l ' o n t c r u l e s e s p r i t s a r d e n t s et s u p e r f i c -i e l s ; i l s i g n i f i e seulement c l a s s e non p r o d u c t i v e , c ' e s t - a - d i r e c l a s s e q u i ne t r a v a i l l e pas immediate-ment a m u l t i p l i e r l e s p r o d u c t i o n s n a t u r e l l e s , c l a s s e s q u i ne f a i t pas a ses f r a i s l e s avances de 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e . 30 2 8 Georges W e u l e r s s e , La p h y s i o c r a t i e a l a f i n du  regne de L o u i s XV (1770-1774) ( P a r i s , 1959), pp. 14-15. 2 9 * L'abbe Baudeau, E x p l i c a t i o n du Tableau Economique  a Madame ***: e x t r a i t des Ephemerides de 176 7 & 1768 ( P a r i s , 1776), p. 101. 3 0 L'abbe Baudeau, " E x p l i c a t i o n sur l e V r a i Sens du Mot S t e r i l e , a p p l i q u e a 1 ' I n d u s t r i e , " Phy s i o c r a t e s , I I , C o l l e c t i o n s des P r i n c i p a u x E c o n o m i s t e s , I I I , ed . Eugene D a i r e . ( P a r i s , 1846), p. 868. I n t h e a b o v e c i t a t i o n a d i s t i n c t i o n i s m a d e w i t h i n t h e c l a s s e p r o d u c t i v e b e t w e e n t h e p r o p r i e t a i r e s a n d t h e c u l t i v a t e u r s , o r t h e p r o d u c e r c l a s s . T h e p r o d u c e r c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s t h e a c t u a l c u l t i v a t o r s o f t h e s o i l , t h a t i s , t e n a n t f a r m e r s a n d d a y l a b o u r e r s . T h e w e a l t h p r o d u c e d b y t h i s c l a s s w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e b e e n o f t w o k i n d s : t h a t w h i c h c o v e r e d t h e c o s t o f t h e p r o d u c e r ' s l a b o u r a n d e x p e n s e s ( a v a n c e s a n n u e l l e s ) , a n d t h a t w h i c h w a s p a i d a s r e n t t o t h e p r o p r i e t o r s . T h i s p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s " c o m p r e n d l e s o u v e r a i n , 3 1 l e s p o s s e s s e u r s d e s t e r r e s e t l e s d e c i m a t e u r s . " A l t h o u g h t h i s i s s o m e w h a t v a g u e , i t c a n , I f e e l , b e t a k e n t o i n c l u d e 3 2 k i n g , c l e r g y a n d n o b i l i t y . T h i s p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s w a s j u s t i f i e d a s p r o d u c t i v e b y v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s t h i s c l a s s w h i c h m a d e t h e o r i g i n a l c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t o n t h e l a n d , t h e a v a n c e s  f o n e i e r e s o r p r i m i t i v e s . I t h a d b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a v i n g t h e l a n d c l e a r e d a n d m a k i n g i t s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n , f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e b u i l d i n g s , l i v e s t o c k a n d e q u i p m e n t . I t w a s t h i s c l a s s a n d t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l " c u l t i v a t e u r s e n c h e f o f t h e c l a s s e p r o d u c t i v e t h a t w e r e t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e 3 1 O n c k e n , o p . c i t . , p . 3 0 8 . L ' a b b e B a u d e a u , i n h i s P r e m i e r e I n t r o d u c t i o n a l a P h i l o s o p h i e E c o n o m i q u e a u A n a l y s e d e s E t a t s P o l i c e s , m a k e s r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e t o " l a c l a s s e n o b l e o u p r o p r i e t a i r e . " H e a l s o m a k e s t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n : " L a p r o p r i e t e f o n c i e r e e s t d o n e l e c a r a c t e r e g e n e r a l e t d i s t i n c t i f d e l a n o b l e s s e d a n s l e s E t a t s p o l i c e s . E n c e s e n s , t o u s l e s n o b l e s s o n t e c j a u x e n t r e e u x , e t l a r i c h e s s e f a i t l a s e u l e d i f f e r e n c e . " S e e D a i r e , o p . c i t . , p . 6 9 1 , a n d C h . 1 1 1 . 1 0 5 p h y s i o c r a t i c d o c t r i n e a n d i t i s t h r o u g h t h e m t h a t t h e r e g i m e o f l a r g e - s c a l e c a p i t a l i s t i c a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s w a s 3 3 t o b e r e a l i z e d . T h e r e n t p a i d t o t h e p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s , o r t h e p r o d u i t  n e t , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e n a t i o n a l i n c o m e f o r a n y g i v e n y e a r . T h e m e r c h a n t s a n d t h e a r t i s a n s w h i c h m a d e u p l a c l a s s e  s t e r i l e d i d n o t i n a n y w a y a u g m e n t t h e n a t i o n a l w e a l t h ; r a t h e r t h e y m e r e l y t r a n s f o r m e d i t : L e s t r a v a u x d e c e t t e c l a s s e n e s o n t p a s p r o d u c -t i f s d e r i c h e s s e s , m a i s l e p l u p a r t e n s o n t c o n s e r v a t e u r s I I n ' y a p a s p l u s d e p r o d u c t i o n a f a i r e u n e m a i s o n a v e c d u b o i s e t d e s p i e r r e s q u e d u p a i n a v e c d e l a f a r i n e d o n n e e . O n r e t r o u v e d a n s l ' u n e e t d a n s l ' a u t r e d e s f o r m e s n o u v e l l e s , q u i n e v o i e n t q u e c e q u ' e l l e s o n t c o u t e e t l e p a i n m e m e , d o n t l a c o n s o m m a t i o n e s t s u b i t e , e s t d ' u n e n a t u r e d e r i c h e s s e p r e f e r a b l e a c e l l e d e l a m a i s o n . 3 4 3 3 L ' a b b e B a u d e a u i n d i c a t e s t h e t y p e o f l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n c e r n w h i c h t h e p h y s i o c r a t s s e e a s t h e k e y t o i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c u 1 1 i v a t e u r  e n c h e f a s : . c e l u i q u i f a i t a s e s d e p e n s , a s e s r i s q u e s , p e r i l s e t f o r t u n e s , l e s a v a n c e s d e c e s p r e p a r a t i f s e t d e c e s p r o c e d e s ; q u i e n d i r i g e p a r s o n s a v o i r t o u s l e s t r a v a u x j o u r n a l i e r s , q u i d i s p o s e d e s i n s t r u m e n t s , d e s a n i m a u x e t d e s h o m m e s , d e l e u r f o r c e s ; q u i c o n d u i t e n f i n , p o u r s o n p r o p r e c o m p t e , t o u t 1 1 e n s e m b l e d e 1 ' e x p l o i t a t i o n . ( I b i d . , p . 6 9 7 ) T h i s w a s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f a n e x i s t i n g f a c t , s i n c e t h i s c a p i t a l i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o a g r i c u l t u r e h a d b e e n u n d e r t a k e n t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t i n t h e n o r t h o f F r a n c e , w i t h t h e u s e o f j u s t s u c h a n i n t e r m e d i a r y , s i n c e 1 7 6 0 . S e e M . L a b r o u s s e , L e  p a y s a n f r a n c a i s d e s p h y s i o c r a t e s a n o s j o u r s ( P a r i s , 1 9 6 3 ) p . 7 0 . I t w a s a l s o a h o p e f u l p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n . 3 4 W e u l e r s s e , o p . c i t . , p . 2 9 . 106 F o r p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e t a s k s , t h e y d e d u c t e d t h a t a m o u n t r e q u i r e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s s u b s i s t e n c e a n d f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i r c a p i t a l g o o d s . 3 5 T h e y d i d t h i s , h o w e v e r , o n l y a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s . I n s o m e c a s e s , t h i s e x p e n s e w a s n e c e s s a r y , a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e m e r c h a n t w h o t h r o u g h i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , s a t i s f i e d t h e n e e d s o f t h e " c l a s s e p r o d u c t i v e " t h r o u g h l o c a l p u r c h a s i n g . T h e p r o p r i e t o r , i n t h i s c a s e , w a s p a y i n g f o r u s e f u l s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d . T h e r e w e r e , h o w e v e r , o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f t h e s t e r i l e c l a s s , s u c h a s t h o s e m e r c h a n t s d e a l i n g i n l u x u r y i t e m s a n d t h o s e t r a d e s p e o p l e m a k i n g l u x u r y i t e m s w h o s e b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s , i f o v e r l y s u c c e s s f u l , w o u l d , i t w a s f e l t , h a v e a n i n j u r i o u s e f f e c t o n t h e c o m m u n i t y , s i n c e t h e i r i n c o m e s w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e n o t h i n g t o t h e n a t i o n a l w e a l t h a n d w o u l d , i n f a c t , r e p r e s e n t t h a t p a r t o f t h e i n c o m e o f t h e p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s w h i c h w a s d r a w n a w a y f r o m r e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e l a n d . 3 ^ M e e k , o p . c i t . , p . 2 9 . 3 6 L ' a b b e B a u d e a u d e f i n e s l u x u r y a s f o l l o w s : C e t t e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n e x c e s s i v e d e s t r a v a u x o u d e " p e n s e s p u r e m e n t s t e " r i l e s , q u i s e f a i t a u x d e p e n s d e s t r a v a u x u t i l e s e t n e " c e s s a i r e s & l ' e n t r e t i e n d e l a p r o d u c t i o n , e s t p r e " c i s e " m e n t c e q u ' o n d o i t a p p e l e r l u x e , d a n s l e s g o u v e r n e m e n t s o u d a n s l e s p e r s o n n e s p r i v i e s — c a r l u x e v e u t d i r e e x c e s d e d e p e n s e s s t e " r i l e s . Q u i d i t e x c e s , s u p p o s e u n e r e g i e , u n e m e s u r e . e t e n v o i c i : t o u t c e q u i e s t n e c e s s a i r e a l ' e n t r e t i e n d e s a v a n c e s s o u v e r -a i n e s d e l ' E t a t , a c e l u i d e s a v a n c e s f o n c i e r e s d e t o u t h e r i t a g e , a c e l u i d e s a v a n c e s p r i m i t i v e s o u a n n u e l l e s d e t o u t e x p l o i t a t i o n p r o d u c t i v e , n ' e s t p a s d i s p o n s i b l e , c ' e s t - a - d i r e n e p e u t n i d o i t e t i r e c o n s a c r e p a r q u i q u e c e s o i t a d e s j o u i s s a n c e p u r e m e n t s t e r i l e s ; i l a s o n 107 The p h y s i o c r a t i c d o c t r i n e w i t h i t s emphasis on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y ^ as opposed to an i n c r e a s e d produc-t i v i t y i n m a n u f a c t u r e s ^ b e l i e d a d e s i r e f o r r e f o r m tempered by a r e l u c t a n c e to c o m p l e t e l y abandon the o l d f e u d a l o r d e r . As Meek pu t s i t . The s o c i e t y which the P h y s i o c r a t s v i s u a l i z e d , i n s h o r t , was indeed a ' c a p i t a l i s t ' s o c i e t y i n the broad sense, but a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y i n which the landowning c l a s s e s by accommodating them-s e l v e s to the new c o n d i t i o n s , would be a b l e to r e t a i n t h e i r o l d p o s i t i o n of predominance. 37 The I s s u e s There were f o u r i s s u e s over which the p h y s i o c r a t s were taken to t a s k by L i n g u e t : the e f f i c a c y of l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e , f r e e t r a d e i n g r a i n , t a x a t i o n r e f o r m and the problem of m e n d i c i t y . The d i f f e r e n c e s which a r o s e between L i n g u e t and the p h y s i o c r a t s were not j u s t on m a t t e r s of d e t a i l but grew, r a t h e r , out of the two d i f f e r e n t frames of r e f e r e n c e from which the i s s u e s were approached. The 3 6 ( c o n t i n u e d ) e m p l o i marque, son usage i n d i s p e n s i b 1 e . Le d e t o u r n e r de sa d e s t i n a t i o n , c ' e s t exceder l a mesure du revenue d i s p o n s i b l e . T e l l e e s t l a v e r i t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n du l u x e . L'abbe Baudeau, I n t r o d u c t i o n a l a P h i l o s o p h i e Economique, pp. 735-736. 3 7 Meek, op. c i t . , p. 395. See f o o t n o t e 32 s u p r a . p h y s i o c r a t s ' p r i m a r y c o n c e r n was t h a t of i n c r e a s i n g n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , w h i l e t h a t of L i n g u e t was the w e l f a r e of the poor t e n a n t - f a r m e r and the r u r a l day l a b o u r e r s i n c e t h e i r economic s e c u r i t y was n e c e s s a r y f o r the maintenance of s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . G i v e n the p h y s i o c r a t i c d i c t u m t h a t l a n d was the s o l e s o u r c e of w e a l t h , i n c r e a s e d n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y n e c e s s a r i l y meant g r e a t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l o u t p u t . The s u r e s t means of a c h i e v i n g t h i s g o a l , i t was f e l t , was t h r ough the i n s t i t u t i o n of l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s t hroughout F r a n c e . These who would be p l a y i n g the key r o l e , i n t h i s r e g a r d , would be " l a c l a s s e n o b l e ou p r o p r i e t a i r e " as a s s i s t e d by the " c u l t i -v a t e u r s en c h e f " . For the p h y s i o c r a t s , t h e r e f o r e , the prime frame of r e f e r e n c e was the w e l f a r e of the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s whose b e s t i n t e r e s t s were synonymous w i t h those of the n a t i o n as a whole, f o r i t was the p r o d u i t net of the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s which c o n s t i t u t e d the w e a l t h of the n a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y f r e e t r a d e i n g r a i n and the s i n g l e tax on l a n d were advocated as measures which would h e l p a c h i e v e optimum a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . T h i s programme, however, was based on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the laws of n a t u r e p r o p e r l y a p p l i e d to s o c i e t y would n e c e s s a r i l y produce a s t a t e of s o c i a l harmony. In such a ' c a p i t a l i s t ' society ym9t-i t)u\J e4 \>y r e j f - i n f er~Q st in a ~fVee — H-i a vhe f economy w e n W $cf- jutbe £><?$f in lereur 2nc\e\~f . For L i n g u e t , s o c i a l harmony w i l l r e s u l t o n l y from a r e t u r n to an u n q u a l i f i e d a c c e p t a n c e of t h a t r i g i d s o c i a l 1 0 9 h i ^ a r c h y w h i c h i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s o f t h e r e a l m . T h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f a p r o g r a m m e o f w h i c h t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s l a r g e l y d e n y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c -t u r e o f F r e n c h s o c i e t y w i l l o n l y f u r t h e r s u b v e r t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l a w s , t h e e c o n o m i c s e c u r i t y o f t h e s m a l l f a r m e r ( w h o , i n a r u r a l s o c i e t y s u c h a s t h a t o f F r a n c e , a c c o u n t s f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ) a n d , t h e r e f o r e , s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . L a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e , f r e e t r a d e i n g r a i n , a n d t h e i m p o t u n i q u e w i l l b e n e f i t o n l y t h e p r o p r i e t o r s a n d t h e m e r c h a n t s , w h i l e c o m p o u n d i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f p o v e r t y a n d m e n d i c i t y a m o n g s t t h e f a r m e r s a n d d a y l a b o u r e r s . T h e E f f i c a c y o f L a r g e - S c a l e A g r i c u l t u r e T h e p h y s i o c r a t i c a d v o c a c y o f l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e a n d , s i m i l a r l y , L i n g u e t ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o g r a m m e w e r e n o t a c a d e m i c . B o t h w e r e a r e s p o n s e t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n a n d i t s a t t e n d a n t s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s — a r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h M a r c B l o c h d e f i n e s i n t e r m s o f i t s t w o p r i m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : t h e g r a d u a l e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t s a n d o b l i g a t i o n s o f c o m m o n h u s b a n d r y a n d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f n e w a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s . T h e p h y s i o c r a t s w e r e p a r t o f a 3 8 t r a d i t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l r e f o r m w h i c h w e n t b a c k t o t h e 3 8 M a r c B l o c h , L e s c a r a c t e r e s o r i g i n a u x d e l ' h i s t o i r e  r u r a l e f r a n c a i s e ( P a r i s , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 2 0 1 . 1 1 0 f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h , f o r the most p a r t , 3 9 had i n v o l v e d the encroachment by s e i g n e u r s on the r i g h t s of v a i n e p a t u r e ( t h e r i g h t of the common herd of the s e i g n e u r i e to g r a z e on a l l l a n d s i n summer f a l l o w ) and t h e i r a t t e m p t s to e n c l o s e the common l a n d s . In both these cases the g o a l of the s e i g n e u r was g r e a t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y t h r o u g h more e f f i c i e n t use of the l a n d , which u n t i l the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n v o l v e d a s i m p l e b i e n n i a l or t r i e n n i a l 4 0 system of crop r o t a t i o n . E f f o r t s at a g r i c u l t u r a l r e f o r m were more v i g o r o u s and more s u c c e s s f u l i n the e i g h t e e n t h cen-t u r y as a r e s u l t of t h r e e f a c t o r s : a g r a d u a l p o l a r i z a t i o n i n the s t r u c t u r e of the p e a s a n t r y i n many p a r t s of F r a n c e , 4 1 i n i t i a t e d by the h a r d s h i p s of the Fronde; a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n the p r i c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l p roduce, accompanied by _ _• 4 2 an even g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n r e n t i n the pays de fermages; the impact of t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances i n a g r i c u l t u r e i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The d e c i m a t i o n v i s i t e d upon the p e a s a n t r y by the Fronde undermined the a l r e a d y p r e c a r i o u s economic s i t u a t i o n of the p e a s a n t r y of modest means who, from t h a t time u n t i l the R e v o l u t i o n were to s w e l l the ranks of r u r a l day l a b o u r e r s , upon which the l a b o u r e u r s came to r e l y more and more 4 3 f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l h i r e d l a b o r . D u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , 3 9 4 0 I b i d . , p p . 2 0 2 - 2 1 7 . I b i d . , p p . 2 1 2 - 2 1 7 ; 3 0 - 3 4 . 4 1 P i e r r e G o u b e r t , " T h e F r e n c h P e a s a n t r y o f t h e S e v e n -t e e n t h C e n t u r y : a r e g i o n a l e x a m p l e " , P a s t a n d P r e s e n t , s e c o n d s e r i e s , 1 0 ( N o v e m b e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , 7 4 . 4 2 v A . S o b o u l , F r a n c e a l a v e i l l e d e l a R e v o l u t i o n , p . 1 1 3 4 3 S o b o u l , " T h e F r e n c h R u r a l C o m m u n i t y i n t h e E i g h t e e n t h a n d N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s , " 8 7 - 8 8 . o f c o u r s e , a n e w d i m e n s i o n w a s a d d e d t o t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n i n t h e p e a s a n t c o m m u n i t y , w i t h t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e f e r m i e r s g e n e r a u x a n d g r a n d s f e r m i e r s . T h e y w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o e s t a b l i s h l a r g e - s c a l e , p r o f i t m a k i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s b y t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r i c e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e d u r i n g t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w h i l e t h e g r a n d 4 4 f e r m i e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , s t r o v e f o r g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a g r i c u l t u r e i n o r d e r t o r e a l i z e a p r o f i t i n a n e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e r i s e i n t h e p r i c e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e h a d b e e n v e r y m u c h o u t s t r i p p e d b y t h e 4 5 i n c r e a s e i n r e n t . F i n a l l y , t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l m e t h o d s t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e s u b s i s t e n c e o f t h e F r e n c h p e o p l e , m u c h l e s s p r o v i d e a s u r p l u s , w a s m a d e s t a r k l y a p p a r e n t b y t h e d e m o g r a p h i c r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , w h i l e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s i n a g r i c u l t u r e h e l d o u t t h e p r o m i s e o f e l i m i n a t i n g t h e g a p b e t w e e n t h e s u b s i s t e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d 4 6 a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . H o w e v e r , t h e . s e t e c h n i q u e s , i n o r d e r t o b e e f f e c t i v e , r e q u i r e d t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e b e u n d e r -t a k e n a s a l a r g e - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n . 4 4 ' T h i s i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r i c e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e b e g a n g r a d u a l l y i n t h e t h i r d d e c a d e o f t h e c e n t u r y , r o s e s h a r p l y b e t w e e n 1 7 6 4 a n d 1 7 7 0 a n d c o n t i n u e d t o r i s e ( w i t h w i d e f l u c t u a t i o n ) u n t i l 1 8 1 7 . S e e C . E . L a b r o u s s e , L e P a y s a n f r a n c a i s d e s p h y s i o c r a t e s a n o s j o u r s ( P a r i s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 1 1 3 . 4 5 T h e r i s e i n l a n d r e n t s o n l y o v e r t o o k t h e r i s e i n t h e p r i c e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l g o o d s i n t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s o f t h e m o n a r c h y . I n t h a t t i m e , h o w e v e r , t h e i n c r e a s e i n r e n t s w a s 6 0 % a s o p p o s e d t o a 3 0 % i n c r e a s e i n p r i c e s . S e e S o b o u l , F r a n c e a l a v e i l l e d e l a R e v o l u t i o n , p . 1 1 3 . T h e p h y s i o c r a t s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s t r a d i t i o n l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y m a d e l a r g e - s c a l e f a r m i n g t h e s i n e q u a  n o n o f w h a t w a s a t o n c e a n i n t e g r a t e d a n d s y s t e m a t i c p r o g r a m m e o f r e f o r m a n d a t h e o r y o f p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m y w h i c h w a s b a s e d o n a f i r m r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c i l l s o f r u r a l F r a n c e : L e s p a y s a n s n e t o m b e n t d a n s l a m i s e r e e t n ' a b a n d -o n n e n t l a p r o v i n c e q u e q u a n d i l s s o n t t r o p i n q u i e t e s p a r l e s v e x a t i o n s a u x q u e l l e s i l s s o n t e x p o s e s , o u q u a n d i l n ' y a p a s d e f e r m i e r s q u i l e u r p r o c u r e n t d u t r a v a i l e t q u e l a c a m p a g n e e s t c u l t i v e e p a r d e p a u v r e s m e t a y e r s b o r n e s a u n e p e t i t e c u l t u r e , q u ' i l s e x e c u t e n t e u x - m e m e s f o r t i m p a r f a i t e m e n t . L a p o r t i o n q u e c e s m e t a y e r s r e t i r e n t d e l e u r p e t i t e r e c o l t e , q u i e s t p a r t a g e e a v e c l e p r o p r i e t a i r e , n e p e u t s u f f i r e q u e p o u r l e u r s p r o p r e s b e s o i n s ; i l s n e p e u v e n t r e p a r e r n i a m e l i o r e r l e s b i e n s . C e s p a u v r e s c u l t i v a t e u r s , s i p e u u t i l e s a l ' E t a t , n e r e p r e s e n t p o i n t l e v r a i l a b o u r e u r , l e r i c h e f e r m i e r — q u i c u l t i v e e n g r a n d , q u i g o u v e r n e , q u i c o m m a n d e , q u i m u l t i p l i e l e s d e p e n s e s p o u r a u g m e n t e r l e s p r o f i t s ; q u i , n e n e g l i g e a n t a u c u n m o y e n , a u c u n a v a n t a g e p a r t i c u l i e r , f a i t l e b i e n g e n e r a l ; q u i e m p l o i e u t i l e m e n t l e s h a b i t a n t s d e l a c a m p a g n e ; q u i p e u t c h o i s i r e t a t t e n d r e l e s t e m p s f a v o r a b l e s p o u r l e d e b i t d e s e s g r a i n s , p o u r l ' a c h a t e t p o u r l a v e n t e d e s e s b e s t i a u x . C e s o n t l e s r i c h e s s e s d e s f e r m i e r s q u i f e r t i l i s e n t l e s t e r r e s , q u i m u l t i p l i e n t l e s b e s t i a u x , q u i a t t i r e n t , q u i f i x e n t l e s . h a b i t a n t s d e s c a m p a g n e s e t q u i f o n t l a f o r c e e t l a p r o s p e r i t e d e l a n a t i o n . 4 7 P e a s a n t s w e r e a b a n d o n i n g t h e c o u n t r y s i d e f o r t h e t o w n s a n d t h o s e w h o s t a y e d l i v e d i n i g n o r a n c e a n d s q u a l o u r , e k i n g o u t a b a r e s u b s i s t e n c e b y w o r k i n g t h e l a n d o n t h e b a s i s o f p r i m i t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l m e t h o d s . T h e r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s 4 7 O n c k e n , o p . c i t . , p . 1 8 9 . s i t u a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y r e q u i r e d t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e be r e s t o r e d to i t s d i g n i t y . No l o n g e r s h o u l d i t be c o n s i d e r e d the most arduous, the l e a s t r e w a r d i n g and 48 the most l o w l y of o c c u p a t i o n s . I n s t e a d a g r i c u l t u r e s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the r i c h f e r m i e r who, r a t h e r than w o r k i n g the l a n d h i m s e l f , s e r v e d i n the c a p a c i t y of an e n t r e p r e n e u r making of a g r i c u l t u r e a p r o f i t a b l e e n t e r p r i s e w i t h h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and h i s w e a l t h (and t h a t of h i s • , ^ 4 9 p r o p r i e t o r ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was o n l y through l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l -t u r e t h a t n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y c o u l d be maximized. Metayage i t was f e l t , had proven i t s e l f i n a d e q u a t e . The metayer was b a r e l y a b l e to produce enough f o r h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y ' s s u b s i s t e n c e , l e t a l o n e produce a p r o f i t that, amounted to a n y t h i n g . F i r s t , he c o u l d not a f f o r d the c a p i t a l goods r e q u i r e d f o r new a g r i c u l t u r a l methods. S e c o n d l y , he d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t l a n d to abandon the w a s t e f u l system of summer f a l l o w i n g f o r one of crop r o t a t i o n . - . The e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c u l t i v a t e u r en c h e f , however, would have the c a p i t a l and l a n d at h i s d i s p o s a l r e q u i r e d by more e f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l method s. I b i d . , p . 188 . 49 Oncken, op. c i t . , p. 219. I t sh o u l d be remembered the abbe Baudeau e n v i s a g e s the c o o p e r a t i o n between " l a c l a s s e n o b l e ou p r o p r i e t a i r e " and the " c u l t i v a t e u r en c h e f " (the former p r o v i d i n g the c a p i t a l , the l a t t e r p r o v i d i n g the management) as the key to g r e a t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . See f o o t n o t e s 32 and 33 s u p r a . T h e s e m e t h o d s w o u l d i n v o l v e g r e a t e r m e c h a n i z a t i o n a n d , t h e r e f o r e , w o u l d r e q u i r e a s m a l l e r l a b o u r f o r c e . T h e i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y a n d r e d u c e d l a b o u r c o s t s w h i c h w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m t h i s m e c h a n i z a t i o n w o u l d b e b e n e f i c i a l f o r a l l . " ^ T h o s e w h o w o u l d f i n d t h e m s e l v e s u n e m p l o y e d c o u l d b e m o r e p r o f i t a b l y p u t t o u s e i n s o m e o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e f a r m i n g c o m p l e x o r c o u l d s e e k o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e t o w n s . ^ " ^ T h e s e d i s p l a c e d p e a s a n t s w o u l d b e b e t t e r o f f i n t h e l o n g r u n s i n c e t h e y w o u l d s t a n d t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h a t i n c r e a s e d n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y w h i c h w o u l d b e a t t a i n e d u n d e r a r e g i m e o f l a r g e -s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s . T h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e p h y s i o c r a t i c a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m m e w o u l d s e t i n m o t i o n a c y c l e w h i c h w o u l d l e a d t o t h e m a x i m i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e , o f p o p u l a t i o n , a n d g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g : i n c r e a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d s t i m u l a t a n i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h , i n t u r n , w o u l d r e s u l t i n a n i n c r e a s e i n c o n s u m p t i o n , w h i c h w o u l d , a g a i n , s t i m u l a t e i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y . L i n g u e t ' s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e p h y s i o c r a t s c e r t a i n l y w e r e n o t b a s e d o n a n y P a n g l o s s i a n b e l i e f i n t h e s u p e r i o r v i r t u e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i m e i n F r a n c e . L i k e t h e p h y s i o c r a t s , h e w a s f u l l y a w a r e o f t h e s a d s t a t e i n t o w h i c h t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n h a d f a l l e n : " ^ L ' a b b e B a u d e a u , I n t r o d u c t i o n a l a p h i l o s o p h i e  e c o n o m i q u e , p p . 6 9 4 - 6 9 6 . 5 1 5 2 I b i d . , p . 7 0 5 . O n c k e n , o p . c i t . , p . 1 8 6 . 115 La p l u s nombreuse p o r t i o n de l a s o c i e t e s ' e s t t r o u v e e , d e ce moment, non pas r e n d u e a e l l e -meme, mais l i v r e e e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t a l a m i s e r e , au b e s o i n d e v o r a n t , a l a ne'cessite du t r a v a i l l e p l u s dur et l e moins i n t e r r o m p u . L ' i n d e p e n -dance de nos m a n o u v r i e r s n'a e t e qu'un s u r c r o i ' t de c h a r g e s . L e u r p r e t e n d u e l i b e r t e l e s a soumis aux imp o t s , aux c o r v e e s p e r s o n n e l l e s , aux v e x a t i o n s de t o u t e espece, d e g u i s e e s sous tous l e s noms p o s s i b l e s ^ La s u p e r s t i t i o n , 1' i n d u s t r i e , l a c r a i n t e , se sont e t a b l i sur eux des revenus q u i ab s o r b e n t l a p l u s grande p a r t i e du s a l a i r e i n f i n i m e n t modique, au q u e l i l s ont d r o i t de p r e t e n d r e . . . . Pour s u b v e n i r a t a n t de depenses, i l s n'ont eu d ' a u t r e s r e s s o u r c e s que l a s o l d e j o u r n a l i e r e de l e u r t r a v a i l ; s o l d e a m o i n d r i encore par des j o u r s de f e t e s sans nombre, par des n o n - v a l e u r s r e i t e r e e s , par l e s v a r i a t i o n s des s a i s o n s , par l e s r e v o l u t i o n s de l u x e , par tous l e s i n c i d e n t s q u i t r o u b l e n t et derangent l a s o c i e t e . D e s - l o r s l e u r e x i s t e n c e n'a p l u s e t e que p r e c a i r e . 53 Wh i l e the s i t u a t i o n of the s m a l l t e n a n t - f a r m e r was c o n s i d e r e d p r e c a r i o u s , n e i t h e r i t s m i t i g a t i o n nor i n c r e a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y was l i k e l y to f o l l o w as a r e s u l t of l a r g e - s c a l e f a r m i n g . The o n l y way t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d was through the employment not by employing fewer men, as I t was t r u e t h a t t h i s " H e r c u l e a g r i c u l t u r e " would make a l a r g e p r o f i t , but i t would be a p r o f i t s e c u r e d s o l e l y by employing fewer men, h o r s e s and workers of a l l s o r t s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t r e p r e n e u r ' s crop would amount to l e s s than the sum t o t a l of the h a r v e s t s of a l a r g e r l a b o u r f o r c e and 54 the p h y s i o c r a t s s u g g e s t e d . 5 3 Simon L i n g u e t , Du P a i n et du b l e d ( P a r i s , 1774), pp. 209-210 54 I b i d . , p. 175. i f t h e l a n d w a s s t i l l d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l p a r c e l s a m o n g s t t h e m e t a y e r s , b u t h i s e x p e n s e s w o u l d h a v e b e e n c u t e v e n m o r e . ^ F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e l a r g e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n c e r n w o u l d p r o c e e d t o u n d e r s e l l t h e s m a l l p r o p r i e t o r o n t h e g r a i n m a r k e t . I n t h e e n d , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t r e p r e n e u r w o u l d h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d a t h r o u g h g o i n g m o n o p o l y u p o n t h e f i n a n c i a l r u i n a t i o n o f t h e s m a l l p r o p r i e t o r a n d m e t a y e r , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e f o r m e r w o u l d b e a b l e t o d i c t a t e t h e p r i c e o f g r a i n o n t h e m a r k e t 5 6 a n d t h e p r i c e o f l a b o u r t o h i s o w n d o m a i n e s . S i m i l a r l y , L i n g u e t d i d n o t s u b s c r i b e t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r e w o u l d s e t i n m o t i o n a c y c l e o f e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , o f c o u r s e , t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s w o u l d n o t , h e r e a s o n e d , i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y . S e c o n d l y , e v e n i f L i n g u e t m o m e n t a r i l y c o n c e d e s f o r t h e s a k e o f a r g u m e n t t h a t a n i n c r e a s e i n p r o -d u c t i v i t y w e r e t o o c c u r , i t w o u l d n o t l e a d t o a l i k e i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , n e i t h e r a n i n c r e a s e i n c o n s u m p t i o n 5 7 n o r a s u b s e q u e n t i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d f o l l o w . A l t h o u g h t h e l o t o f t h e p e a s a n t w a s n o t e a s y , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m o f m e t a i r i e s w a s s t i l l p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e l b i d . , p . 2 5 4 . 5 6 I b i d . , p p . 2 5 0 , 2 5 6 ^ lt> i d . , p . 4 1 . 1 1 7 p h y s i o c r a t i c p r o g r a m m e . M e t a i r e s w e r e c u l t i v a t e d w i t h m o r e 5 8 c a r e a n d t h e r e w a s l e s s r u i n i n g o f t h e s o i l . I n a d d i t i o n , • t h e y p r o v i d e d w o r k f o r a g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f p e a s a n t s . T h e p r o p r i e t o r s t o o d t o g a i n , t o o , s i n c e , i n s o f a r a s t h e r e n t a c c r u i n g t o h i m w a s p a i d i n k i n d , h e n e e d n o t f e a r b a n k r u p t c y a s a r e s u l t o f i n f l a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i n c r e a s e d n u m b e r o f h a n d s r e q u i r e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h i s k i n d o f a g r i c u l t u r e w o u l d t e n d t o e n c o u r a g e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h ( a n d t h e r e f o r e c o n s u m p -5 9 t i o n ) d u e t o e m p l o y m e n t s e c u r i t y . L a s t l y , w i t h t h e s y s t e m o f m e t a i r i e s , s e c u r i t y f o r t h e p e a s a n t - a s - c o n s u m e r w a s m a d e m o r e l i k e l y s i n c e , w i t h a l a r g e n u m b e r o f m e t a i r i e s , h i g h w h e a t p r i c e s w e r e a v o i d a b l e . H i g h w h e a t p r i c e s w e r e t h e r e s u l t o f a r t i f i c i a l s h o r t a g e s c a u s e d b y h o a r d i n g . T h e s m a l l m e t a y e r w a s i n n o p o s i t i o n t o h o a r d g r a i n s i n c e h i s l a c k o f s u r p l u s f u n d s n e c e s s i t a t e d r e g u l a r s a l e s o f g r a i n i n t h e i . -i 6 0 m a r k e t p l a c e . T h e b a s i s o f L i n g u e t ' s a r g u m e n t w a s t h a t a s y s t e m o f l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s w o u l d f a i l t o r e a l i z e t h e p h y s i o c r a t i c g o a l o f g r e a t e r m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g f o r t h e n a t i o n a s a w h o l e t h r o u g h t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f o p t i m u m a g r i c u l -5 8 L i n g u e t i s w r o n g i n h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s m a l l m e t a i r i e s w e r e c u l t i v a t e d w i t h m o r e c a r e i f w e a r e t o b e l i e v e H e n r i S e e w h o i n f o r m s u s t h a t : L e s p a y s a n s , m e n e s p a r l ' e s p r i t d e r o u t i n e e t d i s p o s a n t d e p e u d e c a p i t a u x , n ' a p p o r t e n t p a s g r a n d s o i n a l a c u l t u r e ; i l s n e l a b o u r e n t p a s a s s e z p r o f o n d -e m e n t , i l s s a r c l e n t l e s b l e s a v e c n e g l i g e n c e , f o n t d e s s e m a i l l e s t r o p t a r d i v e s e t u s e n t d e m a u v a i s e s e m e n c e . S e e H e n r i S e e , o p . c i t . , p p . 3 1 - 3 2 . 5 9 L i n g u e t , D u P a i n e t d u b l e d , p p . 2 4 7 - 2 4 8 . t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . H i s p o s i t i o n was not t h a t of a s e r i o u s s t u d e n t of agronomy. He was unaware, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t a l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v i t y beyond t h a t a c h i e v e d by t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l methods was even p o s s i b l e . Rather h i s v i e w p o i n t was t h a t of a j u r i s c o n s u l t a n t whose o b j e c t i o n s a g a i n s t the p h y s i o c r a t i c programme belonged more i n the re a l m of p o t i t i c a l t h e o r y than i n economics. L i n g u e t judged the p h y s i o c r a t i c programme of l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s not on the b a s i s of e f f i c i e n c y but r a t h e r i n terms of i t s e f f e c t on s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p h y s i o c r a t s ' b a s i c premise t h a t the i n t e r e s t s of the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l p r o p r i e t o r and the p e a s a n t r y must n e c e s s a r i l y be i n t e r d e p e n d e n t r e s t e d on the b e l i e f t h a t a r e - o r d e r i n g of s o c i e t y i n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h the laws of n a t u r e would y i e l d a s t a t e of s o c i a l harmony. As p o i n t e d out b e f o r e , L i n g u e t was of the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t s o c i a l harmony (which was s t r i c t l y dependent upon a r i g i d l y h i e r -a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y i n which bonds of a u t h o r i t y a t a l l l e v e l s were a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t q u a l i f i c a t i o n ) had been l a r g e l y d e s t r o y e d w i t h i n F r e n c h s o c i e t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e was no r e a s o n to expect the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s to a c t i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of te n a n t farmer and day l a b o u r e r . Large a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r -p r i s e s run by men whose o n l y c r i t e r i a were maximum e f f i c i e n c y and (as L i n g u e t saw i t ) maximum p r o f i t s would o n l y s e r v e to I b i d . , pp. 259-260. 119 undermine what l i t t l e remained of the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l bonds between p r o p r i e t o r , t e n a n t and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r . In e v e r y a s p e c t of h i s debate w i t h the p h y s i o c r a t s , L i n g u e t t a k e s as h i s p r i m a r y frame of r e f e r e n c e the w e l l -b e i n g of the Fr e n c h p e a s a n t r y . In t a k i n g t h i s p o s i t i o n , L i n g u e t ' s o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n i s the a t t a i n m e n t and m a i n t e n -ance of j u s t i c e and p u b l i c o r d e r . These can o n l y be a t t a i n e d , he b e l i e v e d , i n a s i t u a t i o n of s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . Because the p e a s a n t r y comprise the b u l k of F r e n c h s o c i e t y , a worsen-i n g of the a l r e a d y l a m e n t a b l e s i t u a t i o n i n t o which they have f a l l e n (as a r e s u l t of the p r o g r e s s i v e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y ) would undermine s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y and t h e r e f o r e make p u b l i c o r d e r even more u n a t t a i n a b l e . Free Trade i n G r a i n La q u e s t i o n de l a l i b e r t e du commerce des g r a i n s e s t une de c e l l e s q u i e s t l a p l u s p a s s i o n n e e a l a f i n du X V I I I s i e c l e . Dans l e s s a l o n s i l f u t de mode, s e l o n l e mot de V o l t a i r e , de " r a i s o n n e r " sur l e s b l e s . Une f o u l e d ' e c r i t s v i t l e j o u r q u i d e f e n d a i e n t ou a t t a q u a i e n t l a l i b e r t e ; l e p u b l i c , l a cour elle-meme, p r i r e n t p a r t i . Tour a to u r des i n f l u e n c e s c o n t r a i r e s se f i r e n t s e n t i r sur l e s d i f f e r e n t s c o n t r o l e u r s generaux, q u i d e t e r m i n e r e n t a p l u s i e u r s r e p r i s e s des changements dans l a l e g i s l a t i o n . 62 61 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I , 345. The immanence of revo-l u t i o n . 62 Rene G i r a r d , L'abbe T e r r a y et l a l i b e r t e du commerce  des g r a i n s , 1679-1774 ( P a r i s , 1924), p. 1. 1 2 0 T h e p o l i c y o f f r e e t r a d e i n g r a i n f i r s t b e c a m e a n i s s u e w i t h t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f 1 7 6 3 a n d t h e e d i c t o f 1 7 6 4 , t h e h a n d i w o r k o f C o h i t r o l l e r - G e n e r a l B e r t i n a n d L a v e r d y r e s p e c t i v e l y 6 3 — b o t h o f w h o m w e r e f o l l o w e r s o f t h e p h y s i o c r a t i c c i r c l e . T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d f r e e t r a d e i n g r a i n i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f F r a n c e w h i l e t h e s e c o n d p r o v i d e d f o r a l i m i t e d f r e e d o m t o e x p o r t g r a i n . T h e p o l i c y o f f r e e t r a d e i n g r a i n g o t o f f t o a r a t h e r i n a u s p i c i o u s b e g i n n i n g . C o m m e n c i n g i n 1 7 6 4 t h e h a r v e s t s w e r e f i r s t m e d i o c r e a n d t h e n b a d . G r a i n s c a r c i t y b e c a m e a c u t e a n d g r a i n p r i c e s s h o t t o c a l a m . i t o u s h e i g h t s . W h i l e w h e a t s o l d f o r t e n t o t w e l v e 1 i v r e s a_ s e p t i e r i n 1 7 6 3 , t h e s a m e 6 4 a m o u n t o f w h e a t i n 1 7 6 8 s o l d f o r a s h i g h a s f o r t y - t w o l i v r e s . W h a t h a d b e e n f o r m a n y a g r u d g i n g o r q u a l i f i e d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e n e w p o l i c y w a s n o w t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o o p e n h o s t i l i t y . I t w a s f e l t t h a t t h e n e w l e g i s l a t i o n e n c o u r a g e d g r a i n h o a r d i n g b y s p e c u l a t o r s , w h o , i t w a s a l s o c h a r g e d , w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e l l i n g g r a i n t o t h e f o r e i g n e r w h e n t h e c o u n t r y w a s f a c e d w i t h s t a r v a t i o n . A l l p r o v i s i o n i n g o p e r a t i o n s e n t r u s t e d t o m e r c h a n t s b y t h e l a w o f 1 7 6 3 w e r e s e e n a s a m e a n s o f a l l o w i n g m e r c h a n t s t o s p e c u l a t e i n g r a i n l e g a l l y a n d t o e s t a b l i s h a m o n o p o l y o v e r t h e g r a i n t r a d e . B y 1 7 6 8 t h e d e b a t e o v e r f r e e ^ I b i d . , p . 3 6 4 I b i d . , p . 9 121 t r a d e was out i n the open and was b e i n g waged f i e r c e l y Nos t e n d r e s Economistes des annees d e r n i e r e s , ces a f f e c t u e u x amis du Pauvre p e u p l e , a v a i e n t imagine un moyen beaucoup p l u s c o u r t e n c o r e ; c ' e t a i t de r e n c h e r i r du d o u b l e , du t r i p l e l e P a i n , s e u l e n o u r r i t u r e a l a q u e l l e t a n t d'hommes ont l ' a u d a c e de p r e t e n d r e : et i l s r j - a i s o n a i e n t a i n s i : "Quand l e p a i n s e r a t r e s c h e r , ceux q u i en vendent s e r o n t t r e s r i c h e s ; quand i t s s e r o n t t r e s r i c h e s , i l s ne p o u r r o n t j o u i r de l e u r o pulence qu'en f a i s a n t beaucoup t r a v a i l l e r . Quand l e t r a v a i l s e r a commun, l e s o u v r i e r s s e r o n t r e c h e r c h e s , et l e u r s a l a i r e d e v i e n d r a p l u s c o n s i d e r a b l e : i l n'aura done p l u s de P a u v r e s , n i de Mendians et t o u t l e monde s e r a heureux sur ce g l o b e . " En a t t e n d a n t l a f i n de ce c i r c l e , i l s a v a i e n t commence par r e n d r e l e p a i n t r e s c h e r , et pour peu que l e s choses eu r e n t dure, tous l e s pauvres s e r a i e n t morts de f a i m avant l'epoque g l o r i e u s e de l a f e l i c i t e p u b l i q u e . 6 6 65 What L i n g u e t i s d e s c r i b i n g and c r i t i c i z i n g i n t h i s c i t a t i o n i s the f r e e market economy which the p h y s i o c r a t s e n v i s a g e d as a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of the "royaume a g r i c o l e " - -t h a t i s F r a n c e , t r a n s f o r m e d i n a ccordance w i t h the laws of n a t u r e , where harmony w i t h i n s o c i e t y would be a c h i e v e d t h r ough s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e d etermined by the e n l i g h t e n e d s e l f -i n t e r e s t of each i n d i v i d u a l . However, i n o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d the d i f f e r e n c e s between L i n g u e t and the p h y s i o c r a t s beyond the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l c l e a v a g e over the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l harmony, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to examine i n d e t a i l the p h y s i o c r a t i c c o n c e p t i o n of the f r e e m a r k e t economy. p . 17 . L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I , 80. F i r s t of a l l , i t must be remembered t h a t the n a t i o n a l w e a l t h was c o n s i d e r e d to have been g i v e n by the p r o d u c e r s to the p r o p r i e t o r s as r e n t . Assuming, as the p h y s i o c r a t s d i d , t h a t the i n t e r e s t s of the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s would be the guide and e x p r e s s i o n of a l a r g e r , u n i v e r s a l i d e n t i t y of i n t e r e s t s , the g r e a t e s t good would be a c h i e v e d f o r a l l i f the p r i c e of g r a i n were a l l o w e d to r i s e to the maximum a l l o w a b l e by the o r d r e n a t u r e l . The maximum p r i c e would be " l e bon p r i x " , or t h a t p e r m i t t e d by the o r d r e n a t u r e l or "exchange economy" which the p h y s i o c r a t s came to e n v i s a g e as A k i n d of g i g a n t i c machine, whose motive f o r c e was the d e s i r e of men to maximize t h e i r r e c e i p t s and m i n i m i z e t h e i r c o s t s , and whose b e l t s and l e v e r s were the a c t i v i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l economic s u b j e c t s who i n e f f e c t worked f o r one another by p r o d u c i n g p r o d u c t s which they exchanged on a market. S i n c e the p r i c e s of the p r o d u c t s so exchanged were governed by causes 'independent of men's w i l l s ' , the b e h a v i o u r of the machine was not a r b i t r a r y but i n some s i g n i f i c a n t sense ' s u b j e c t to law'. 67 The r e t u r n s from the p r o d u i t net s o l d a t " l e bon p r i x would r e p r e s e n t the t r u e e x t e n t of the w e a l t h of the n a t i o n . Any attempt to s e l l the p r o d u i t net below l e bon p r i x would be c o n t r a r y to the o r d r e n a t u r e l and would r e p r e s e n t an u n n a t u r a l d i m i n u t i o n of the n a t i o n a l w e a l t h . The p r o p r i e t o r s , h a v i n g r e c e i v e d l e s s from the p r o d u i t net than they s h o u l d , would be a b l e to ch a n n e l o n l y a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s m a l l e r Meek, op. c i t . , p. 372. amount back i n t o a g r i c u l t u r e . Not o n l y would the p r o p r i e t o r s , but the p r o d u c e r s and the s t e r i l e c l a s s , as w e l l , would s u f f e r from wage c u t s and p r i c e i n c r e a s e s . C o n v e r s e l y , an attempt to push the p r i c e of g r a i n or o t h e r produce beyond " l e bon p r i x " would be e q u a l l y d i s a s t r o u s . The merchants and a r t i s a n s of the s t e r i l e c l a s s would c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y charge more f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s , thus c u t t i n g i n t o the p r o d u i t net more than was n e c e s s a r y . T h i s , i n t u r n , would mean t h a t t h e r e would be l e s s c a p i t a l to put back i n t o the l a n d the f o l l o w i n g year and, a g a i n , a g r i c u l t u r e would s u f f e r . U l t i m a t e l y the n a t i o n would g a i n n o t h i n g and, i n f a c t , would be the p o o r e r because of t h i s a r t i f i c i a l r i s e i n p r i c e . F ree t r a d e was n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the n a t u r a l w e a l t h of the n a t i o n i n y e t a n other way. I t would maximize the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the c l a s s e s t e r i l e (and p a r t i c -u l a r l y the merchant) toward n a t i o n a l p r o s p e r i t y w h i l e m i n i m i z -i n g i t s r e t u r n s . T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s i t y g i v e n the premise t h a t the purpose of t r a d e was the s a t i s f a c t i o n of m u tual needs and not to i n c r e a s e the w e a l t h of the n a t i o n , ^ C o n s e q u e n t l y , a merchant might e i t h e r be a p e r s o n p e r f o r m i n g a u s e f u l s o c i a l t a s k — t h a t of s e c u r i n g , t h rough f r e e t r a d e , those s u b s i s t e n c e goods which were i n s h o r t s u p p l y o r , by c o n t r a s t , a d e a l e r i n l u x u r y items whose commerce, by g o i n g Oncken, op. c i t . , p. 386. 1 2 4 beyond the s a t i s f a c t i o n of these b a s i c needs, p l a c e d an u n n e c e s s a r y burden on the w e a l t h of the n a t i o n . . The f o r m e r , w h i l e a burden on the economy, was at l e a s t p e r f o r m i n g a use-f u l s e r v i c e . I t s h o u l d a l s o be remembered t h a t the merchant, l i k e the a r t i s a n , or m a n u f a c t u r e r , was not p r o d u c i n g but merely t r a n s f o r m i n g w e a l t h . H i s wage f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d has to come from somewhere. T h i s wage or f a u x - f r a i s as i t was c a l l e d would be s e c u r e d by b u y i n g the p r o d u i t net from the p r o d u c e r below the j u s t p r i c e or by s e l l i n g t h i s p r o d u i t net to the consumer above the j u s t p r i c e . G i v e n the n e c e s s i t y of m a i n t a i n i n g an e q u i l i b r i u m i n commerce through c l o s e adherence to " l e bon p r i x " , i t was c o n s i d e r e d of the utmost im p o r t a n c e t h a t the r e m u n e r a t i o n of the merchant be kept 69 as low as p o s s i b l e . The most n a t u r a l and e f f i c a c i o u s means of a c h i e v i n g t h i s would be through f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n . ^ T h i s c o n c l u s i o n , however, assumes the e x i s t e n c e of a harmony of i n t e r e s t s between a l l those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a f r e e market economy—a c o n c l u s i o n w i t h which L i n g u e t was i n fundamental d i s a g r e e m e n t . To b e g i n w i t h , L i n g u e t ' s d e f i n i t i o n of w e a l t h was more i m e r c a n t i l i s t than p h y s i o c r a t i c : I b i d . , p . 669. I b i d . , p . 670. 125 La r i c h e s s e d'une n a t i o n c o n s i s t e a a v o i r beaucoup de p r o d u c t i o n s d'une n a t u r e p r o p r e a l u i p r o c u r e r par echange, ou par une v e n t e d i r e c t e , une g r o s s e masse des p r o p r i e t e s des a u t r e s n a t i o n s . P l u s qu' e l l e en accumule, p l u s e l l e s e r a o p u l e n t e ; i l en e s t de meme des p a r t i c u l i e r s . En deux mots, l a r i c h e s s e n'est que l e s u p e r f l u qu'un i n d i v i d u e n t a s s e a u t o u r de l u i ; et ce s u p e r f l u , comme j e l ' a i d i t , ne pouvant r e s u l t e r que de l a r e u n i o n de beaucoup de p e t i t e s p a r t s e n l e v e e s a tous l e s a u t r e s , i l e s t c l a i r que l e s e c r e t d'augmenter l e s r i c h e s s e s d'un peuple n ' e s t que c e l u i d'augmenter l e nombre des malheureux. L ' a r t de m u l t i p l i e r l e s j o u i s s a n c e s e s t a u s s i c e l u i de n e c e s s i t e r l e s s a c r i f i c e s . 71 N e i t h e r d i d L i n g u e t a c c e p t the d i s t i n c t i o n made by the p h y s i o -c r a t s between the p r o d u c t i v e and s t e r i l e c l a s s e s ; b oth ra n r i s k s and produced w e a l t h , whether i t be produce, r e n t or 7 2 i n t e r e s t . E q u a l l y absurd f o r L i n g u e t was the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the n a t i o n ' s w e a l t h was e q u i v a l e n t to the r e n t r e c e i v e d by the p r o p r i e t o r and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , h i s i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d the i n t e r e s t s of the s t a t e . R a t h e r , the i n t e r e s t s of the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s and the t e n a n t f a r m e r s and day l a b o u r e r s were m u t u a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c . For L i n g u e t t h i s antagonism a r o s e from the n a t u r e of F rench a g r i c u l t u r e . The s t a p l e food of most of the p o p u l a t i o n b e i n g b r e a d , a g r i c u l t u r e c o n c e n t r a t e d l a r g e l y on the growing of g r a i n . I t s growing and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o bread r e q u i r e d a c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t which p l a c e d the poor te n a n t farmer and L i n g u e t , Du P a i n et du b l e d , pp. 268-269. I t can r e a d i l y be seen how t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of w e a l t h i s v e r y much i n k e e p i n g w i t h L i n g u e t ' s t h e o r y of the o r i g i n s of s o c i e t y — p r o p e r t y i s a c q u i r e d a t the expense of o t h e r s . 7 2 L i n g u e t , L'lmpot t e r r i t o r i a l ou l a dixme r o i a l e  avec tous ses avantages (London, 1787). p. 71. day l a b o u r e r i n complete economic dependence both as p r o d u c e r and consumer, on the p r o p r i e t o r and the towns peop l e ( i n t h i s 7 3 c a s e , the m i l l e r and the b a k e r ) . G i v e n the decadence 7 4 i n t o which p r o p r i e t o r s h i p had f a l l e n i n F r a n c e , t h i s f r e e -dom of s o c i a l and economic i n t e r c o u r s e which s u p p o s e d l y would have been a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of the "royaume a g r i c o l e " was n o t h i n g but the freedom of the p r o p r i e t o r to e x p l o i t the 7 5 t e n a n t farmer and the a g r i c u l t u r a l day l a b o u r e r . J u s t as L i n g u e t was u n a b l e to a c c e p t the p h y s i o c r a t i c d e f i n i t i o n of w e a l t h , so a l s o was he Undble to s u b s c r i b e to t h e i r j u s t i f i c a t i o n of " l e bon p r i x " . S e l l i n g g r a i n at h i g h p r i c e s d i d not mean t h a t the t r u e magnitude of the w e a l t h of the n a t i o n as a whole would stand to b e n e f i t . R a t h e r , i t was the p r o p r i e t o r and the merchant who g a i n e d . G i v e n a market f r e e of p r i c e c o n t r o l s , the p r o p r i e t o r would s t r i v e f o r the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e g r a i n p r i c e s i n o r d e r to maximize h i s r e t u r n s from h i s r e n t - i n - k i n d w h i l e the merchant would m a i n t a i n h i g h p r i c e s i n o r d e r to cover a l l f o r e s e e n and u n f o r e seen expenses and y e t s t i l l make a p r o f i t . The t e n a n t farmer and day l a b o u r e r , t h e r e f o r e , would be e x p l o i t e d b oth as p r o d u c e r s and as consumers. The b e n e f i t s of f r e e t r a d e i n g r a i n were an i l l u s i o n f o r the lower c l a s s e s of r u r a l F r a n c e f o r y e t another r e a s o n . W h i l e a sharp r i s e i n the p r i c e of bread c o u l d be weathered 7 3 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , V , 4 4 4 - 4 4 5 . 7 4 S e e t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " T h e F u n d a m e n t a l L a w s P r o v i d e f o r t h e S e c u r i t y o f t h e L a b o u r i n g C l a s s . " 7 5 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , V I I ( 1 7 7 9 ) , 2 0 8 . 127 by the p r o p r i e t o r s w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e ease, i t i n f l i c t e d g r e a t s u f f e r i n g on the tena n t farmer and day l a b o u r e r : Les gens aise*s ont des p r o v i s i o n s , ou i l s r e c u e i l l e n t du b l e d ; et quand ce q u ' i l s con-somment a c q u i e r t passagerement p l u s de v a l e u r , i l ne l e u r en coute pas davantage; ou i l s n'en r e c u e i l l e n t pas, mais a l o r s i l s c h o i s s i s s e n t l e moment f a v o r a b l e pour a c h e t e r ce q u ' i l l e u r en f a u t . La consommation de l a maison e s t t o u j o u r s p r e t e d'avance dans l e g r e n i e r et l ' o n brave avec c e t t e r e s s o u r c e l e s augmentations ephemeres. Le pauvre ne l ' a p o i n t ce p r e s e r v a t i f u t i l e . Le p r i x du moment e s t t o u j o u r s l e s i e n . O b l i g e d ' a c h e t e r a cheque marche, i l se sent de t o u t e s l e s v a r i a t i o n s q u i s'y s u c c e d e n t . 76 T h i s c o m p a r a t i v e immunity from market f l u c t u a t i o n s enabled the p r o p r i e t o r to s p e c u l a t e i n g r a i n to i n c r e a s e h i s p r o f i t s , w h i l e the merchant f o r the same re a s o n c o u l d a f f o r d the attempt to e s t a b l i s h a monopoly. Free t r a d e then l e a d s to famxne. T a x a t i o n Reform I t i s o n l y too w e l l known how the e x t r a v a g a n c e s of L o u i s XIV i n the b a t t l e f i e l d and a t c o u r t proved a f a t a l l e g a c y to h i s s u c c e s s o r s . The problem of how to e l i m i n a t e a n a t i o n a l d e f i c i t (which was growing at a s t a g g e r i n g r a t e as the c e n t u r y p r o g r e s s e d ) and yet not c r u s h the peopl e under the l o a d of i n c r e a s e d t a x a t i o n was g r a p p l e d w i t h but 7 6 I b i d . , 209-210. 7 7 I b i d . , 204. not s o l v e d . The p h y s i o c r a t i c s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem was the impo t u n i q u e , a s i n g l e tax which was to be l e v i e d upon the r e n t of the p r o p r i e t o r . That proposed by L i n g u e t was the dime r o y a l e , a tax f i r s t proposed by L o u i s XIV's f o r t r e s s -b u i l d e r , Vauban. The s t a r t i n g p o i n t of the p h y s i o c r a t i c r a t i o n a l e of the s i n g l e t a x on l a n d was, a g a i n , t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of w e a l t h . S i n c e the l a n d was the sou r c e of a l l w e a l t h and the p r o p r i e t o r s i t s c u s t o d i a n s , i t was c o n s i d e r e d o n l y r i g h t t h a t the p r o p r i e t o r s , and not the p r o d u c e r s nor the s t e r i l e c l a s s , 7 8 s h o u l d c a r r y the tax l o a d . To tax the s t e r i l e c l a s s would g a i n n o t h i n g . The f i r s t and most o b v i o u s r e a s o n f o r t h i s was t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to c r e a t e w e a l t h . S e c o n d l y , and most i m p o r t a n t , was the e f f e c t t h a t t a x a t i o n of the s t e r i l e c l a s s would have had upon the f a u x - f r a i s . The merchant or a r t i s a n , i f t a x e d , would s i m p l y have c o n s i d e r e d the i m p o s i t i o n as an a d d i t i o n to h i s expenses which would have been d e f r a y e d by r a i s i n g the p r i c e of h i s goods or h i s s e r v i c e s . In a c t u a l i t y t h i s would have r e p r e s e n t e d a r e a l a l t h o u g h i n d i r e c t t a x on 7 9 the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s . T a x i n g the t e n a n t f a r m e r s and day l a b o u r e r s would, however, have had a more s e r i o u s e f f e c t i n t h a t the s t r a i n p l a c e d on them by the t a x would have re n d e r e d them l e s s c a p a b l e of s e c u r i n g each s u c c e s s i v e y e a r ' s fund of w e a l t h from the s o i l . T h i s , i n t u r n , would r e s u l t i n a 7 8 Oncken, op. c i t . , pp. 337-338. 7 9 W e u l e r s s e , op. c i t . , p. 72. 129 s m a l l e r p r o d u i t net f o r t h a t y e a r . Above a l l , the s i n g l e tax on the p r o d u i t net was proposed by the p h y s i o c r a t s due to t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t such an i m p o s i t i o n would not c o n s t i t u t e a p e r s o n a l income tax a t a l l . R a t h e r , i t would be a l e v y on the l a n d which a l o n e had the c a p a c i t y to y i e l d a s u r p l u s over and above c o s t s . The p r o p r i e t a i r e s m erely drew a s a l a r y i n r e t u r n f o r p r o v i d i n g 8 0 the avances p r i m i t i v e s and p a r t of the avances a n n u e l l e s . S i m i l a r l y such a t a x was to be c o n s i d e r e d a c o n t r i b u t i o n to n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e d the n e c e s s a r y funds f o r p u b l i c programmes such as road and c a n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance and f o r the' g e n e r a l c o s t s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h o u t which both p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g would be made v e r y d i f f i c u l t . The tax would impose no p e r s o n a l h a r d s h i p on any i n d i v i d u a l and y e t would s e r v e the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of a l l . I t was because of t h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t o n l y the p r o d u i t net be taxed t h a t the p h y s i o c r a t s were so adamant i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of the dime r o y a l e which L i n g u e t s u p p o r t e d . The dime r o y a l was e n v i s a g e d as a s i n g l e n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e tax which would be c o l l e c t e d from a l l s u b j e c t s of the re a l m and which would r e p l a c e a l l o t h e r d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t t a x e s . The t a x a t i o n of the tena n t farmer or day l a b o r e r s : ; would not Oncken, op. c i t . , p. 332. 129 s m a l l e r p r o d u i t net f o r t h a t y e a r . t Above a l l , the s i n g l e tax on the p r o d u i t net was proposed by the p h y s i o c r a t s due to t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t such an i m p o s i t i o n would not c o n s t i t u t e a p e r s o n a l income tax a t a l l . R a t h e r , i t would be a l e v y on the l a n d which a l o n e had the c a p a c i t y to y i e l d a s u r p l u s over and above c o s t s . The p r o p r i e t a i r e s m erely drew a s a l a r y i n r e t u r n f o r p r o v i d i n g 8 0 the avances p r i m i t i v e s and p a r t of the avances a n n u e l l e s . S i m i l a r l y such a tax was to be c o n s i d e r e d a c o n t r i b u t i o n to n a t i o n a l pro dd C t i v i t y i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e d the n e c e s s a r y funds f o r p u b l i c programmes such as road and c a n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance and f o r the g e n e r a l c o s t s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h o u t which both p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g would be made v e r y d i f f i c u l t . The tax would impose no p e r s o n a l h a r d s h i p on any i n d i v i d u a l and y e t would s e r v e the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of a l l . I t was because of t h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t o n l y the p r o d u i t net be taxed t h a t the p h y s i o c r a t s were so adamant i n t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of the dime r o y a l e which L i n g u e t s u p p o r t e d . The dime r o y a l was e n v i s a g e d as a s i n g l e n o n - p r o g r e s s i v e tax which would be c o l l e c t e d from a l l s u b j e c t s of the r ealm and which would r e p l a c e a l l o t h e r d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t t a x e s . The t a x a t i o n ' of the t e n a n t farmer or day l a b o r e r s - ; would not Oncken, op. c i t . , p. 332. l e a d to t h e i r e n e r v a t i o n nor to the d i s s i p a t i o n of the r e s t of the c a p i t a l of the p r o p r i e t o r nor would i t l e a d to a d e c l i n e i n a g r i c u l t u r e . For L i n g u e t t h e r e were o n l y two ways i n which the r e t u r n s from a h a r v e s t would f a i l to c o v e r the o r i g i n a l c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t : crop d e s t r u c t i o n due to a n a t u r a l c a l a m i t y (as f o r i n s t a n c e a h a i l s t o r m ) , or poor r e s u l t s from a g r i c u l t u r e attempted on m a r g i n a l l a n d . In the case of the f i r s t e v e n t u a l i t y the dime r o y a l e would not compound the damage done. Ra t h e r an i n s p e c t i o n of the damage by a l o c a l o f f i c i a l would s u f f i c e to i n s u r e exemption from 81 the t a x . The i n d i v i d u a l f i n d i n g h i m s e l f i n the second dilemma would not be g r i e v o u s l y i n f l i c t e d upon by the t a x s i n c e the dime would be l e v i e d on the b a s i s of a f i x e d 8 2 p e r c e n t a g e of the h a r v e s t . The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between L i n g u e t and the p h y s i o c r a t s on t h i s i s s u e , as w i t h o t h e r s , was t h a t L i n g u e t d i d not b e l i e v e , as d i d the p h y s i o c r a t s , t h a t a harmony of p e o p l e s i n t e r e s t s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d i n a f r e e market economy. While a p h y s i o c r a t would argue t h a t to impose a ta x on the p r o d u c e r would be to levy, an even more g r i e v o u s i m p o s i t i o n i n terms of a d i m i n u t i o n of the p r o p r i e t o r ' s r e n t or produ i t n e t , L i n g u e t would c o u n t e r t h a t the i n t e r e s t s of the day l a b o u r e r and the t e n a n t farmer and those of the p r o p r i e t o r were m u t u a l l y 81 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , V I I I , 88. o p I b i d . , 3 3-36. 131 a n t a g o n i s t i c r a t h e r than i n t e r r e l a t e d . Why then s h o u l d L i n g u e t s u p p o r t a tax a p p l i c a b l e to a l l ? A f t e r a l l , what i s a burden upon the p r o p r i e t o r s , must needs be a weight o f f the s h o u l d e r s of the r u r a l l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s . L i n g u e t e x p l a i n s h i m s e l f , however: En r e d u i s a n t l ' i m p o t unique a une l e g e r e p o r t i o n des g a i n s du p r o p r i e t a i r e , l e s e conomistes ont i a u t o r i s e l e s Gouvernements a r e g a r d e r l e u r s promesses comme des chimeres . . . L'Assemblee de V e r s a i l l e s de c e t t e annee 17 87 a c o n f i r m ! s o l o h i n e l l e m e n t ce que j 1 a v a i s p r o g n o s t i q u e en 1778 , a ce s u j e t . . . . I l s ont t r e s bi&n vu que l a dixme l e v e e uniquement sur l e p r o d u i t n e t , et a s s o c i e e a t o u t e s l e s a u t r e s mangeries q u i extenuent d e j a en t a n t de f a c o n s ce p r o d u i t , ne s e r a i t qu'une source d ' i n c e r t i t u d e s , des d e b a t s , de c h i c a n e r s , de v e x a t i o n s n o u v e l l e s ; que ce ne s e r a i t qu'une s u r c h a r g e i l l i m i t e e , quant a ses mauvais e f f e t s , quoique i n f i n i m e n t bdrnee dans son r a p p o r t . 83 S i n c e b o t h the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the tax burden and an i n c r e a s e 84 i n the t a x y i e l d seemed u n l i k e l y the government would i n the end have found i t n e c e s s a r y a a a i t l ; , t o r e s o r t to the c i r c u i t -L i n g u e t , L'impot t e r r i t o r i a l e , p. 66. Here, L i n g u e t i s o b v i o u s l y r e f e r r i n g to the u n f a v o r a b l e r e a c t i o n of the Assembly of N o t a b l e s to C a l o n n e ' s s y s t e m a t i c program of r e f o r m which among ot h e r t h i n g s i n v o l v e d a graduated tax on l a n d r e n t s to be l e v i e d i n k i n d i n l i e u of the v i n g t ieme which would be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a system of p a r o c h i a l , d i s t r i c t and p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s of r u r a l landowners. B a s i c a l l y L i n g u e t i s s a y i n g t h a t any attempt to s h i f t a g r e a t e r p a r t of the burden of t a x a t i o n on to the l a r g e n o b l e landowner would be f u t i l e g i v e n the p r e v i o u s l y demonstrated adeptness of the l a r g e p r o p r i e t o r at tax e v a s i o n . 84 Calonne hoped t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n t e r r i t o r i a l e would y i e l d t w i c e the amount which had been f o r t h c o m i n g from the v i n g t i e m e . A, Goodwin, "Calonne, The Assembly of French N o t a b l e s and the ' R e v o l t e N o b i l i a i r e ' " E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l  Review, VXI (May, 1946), 212. ous means of a c q u i r i n g revenue which c o u l d not but bear down 8 5 even more upon the day l a b o u r e r and the t e n a n t - f a r m e r . L i n g u e t a l s o noted t h a t t h i s need to r e s o r t to round about methods of s e c u r i n g revenue had a r i s e n due to the d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s from t r a d i t i o n a l t a x e s l e v i e d i n s p e c i e because of i n f l a t i o n . With the dime r o y a l e t h i s problem 8 6 would be e l i m i n a t e d s i n c e the t a x would be l e v i e d i n k i n d . To p r e v e n t s p e c u l a t i o n the government need not s e l l t h e i r t a x e s - i n - k i n d , i m m e d i a t e l y , s i n c e t h i s would f l o o d the market R a t h e r , s a l e s c o u l d be made more g r a d u a l l y w i t h the g o v e r n -ment making up the funds needed i m m e d i a t e l y f o r i t s b u s i n e s s 8 7 t h r ough c r e d i t . L i n g u e t was not h e l d back from p r o p o s i n g t h a t the " s t e r i l e c l a s s e s " be taxed as w e l l . The problem of the f aux  f r a i s was m e a n i n g l e s s f o r someone who d i d not b e l i e v e i n a u n i v e r s a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of i n t e r e s t s i n a f r e e market economy. In l e v y i n g a p r o p e r t y tax upon the " c i t a d i n " to be p a i d i n s p e c i e , a c o n s i d e r a b l e l o a d would have been l i f t e d from the c o u n t r y s i d e . T h i s t a x would have been s e t a t a f i x e d r a t e w h i l e the amount p a i d would have been d e t e r m i n e d by a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on the s i z e of each b u i l d i n g , i t s 8 5 I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t L i n g u e t i s r e f e r r i n g to e x c i s e t a x e s and i n t e r n a l customs d u t i e s . 8 6 L i n g u e t , L'impot t e r r i t o r i a l e , pp. 24-25. 8 7 I b i d . , p . 37 . 133 8 8 f u n c t i o n and i t s u t i l i t y . L i n g u e t f e l t t h a t a tax on the c i t y - d w e l l e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y j u s t i f i a b l e , f o r i n t h i s way, . l e commercant i n u t i l e , l e f a i s e u r de b a g a t e l l e s s u p e r f l u e s , qu'on a p p e l l e a r t i s t e ; l e vendeur, souvent t r e s a v i d e , de c o u n s e i l s r u i n e u x q u i s ' i n t i t u l e A vocat n o b l e et l i b r e ; l e d i s t r i b u t e u r , presque t o u j o u r s a v e u g l e , de r e c e t t e s et d ' Ordonnances, q u i se f a i t nommer Docteur ou Medecin; e n f i n tous ceux q u i n'ont d ' a u t r e s fonds que de p r e t e n d u s a r t s et des t a l e n t s souvent s u s p e c t s . . . . 89 would be made to c o n t r i b u t e to the g e n e r a l w e l f a r e . L i n g u e t , i t seems, shared Quesnay's d i s t a s t e f o r the c i t y and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . L i n g u e t , f o r i n s t a n c e , h o l d s out the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t such a tax l e v i e d on the c i t a d i n might s e t i n motion a r e t u r n to the c o u n t r y s i d e . Et quand meme i l s e r a i t v r a i que c e t t e o p e r a t i o n put d i m i n u e r l e nombre des batimens dans l e s v i l l e s , j e demande s i ce s e r a i t un mal? Ou i r a i e n t l o g e r ces h a b i t a n s q u i q u i t t e r a i e n t P a r i s ? A l a campagne sans doute. Mais dans un v i l l a g e on ne v i t que d'une i n d u s t r i e u t i l e . Le c h a r r u e , l a beche, l e r a t e a u sont l e s s e u l e s r e s s o u r c e s que l e t r a v a i l y p r e s e n t e aux hommes. Quel bonheur s i l a m i s e r e , q u i a u j o u r d ' h u i f a i t r e f l u e r ' l e s h a b i t a n s des champs! C'est a l o r s que 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e p o u r r a i t se f l a t t e r de l ' e m p o r t e r b i e n t o t sur l ' o r g u e i l de l u x e , et sur l e f a s t e . 90 Such a r e t u r n to the c o u n t r y s i d e would undermine the l u x u r -i o u s l i f e s t y l e of the r i c h or n o b l e p r o p r i e t o r l i v i n g i n P • P • P • 30 . 31 . 36 . 134 the c i t y , by removing those whose t a s k i t was to a t t e n d to the demands of t h i s l i f e - s t y l e . I t has been l u x u r y which has, to such a l a r g e degree, undermined the t r a d i t i o n a l 91 r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r o p r i e t o r and the p e a s a n t r y . L u x u r y ' s demise may s e r v e to promote a r e t u r n to the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of France and t h e r e f o r e to s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . Mend i c i t y La M e n d i c i t e e s t a u j o u r d ' h u i un des p l u s r e d o u t a b l e f l e a u x q u i tourmentent 1 'Europe, et sa p r o p a g a t i o n n'a pas de p r i n c i p e , p l u s a c t i v e que l a Gu e r r e . Les ravages q u ' e l l e p r o d u i t , l e s impots q u ' e l l e n e c e s s i t e , l e r f ^ l e n t i s s e m e n t de l a c i r c u l a t i o n et du commerce, l e c e s s a t i o n des t r a v a u x , 1 'augmen-t a t i o n du p r i x des denrees q u i en sont l ' e f f e t t i n d i s p e n s a b l e , se sont s e n t i r sur t o u t aux c l a s s e s i n d i g e n t e s : deux cens m i l l e s hommes se p r e s s e n t sur un s e u l p o i n t pour s'y d e c h i r e r avec f u r e u r ; . . . . 92 M e n d i c i t y , which had been a s e r i o u s problem i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , grew to even g r a v e r p r o p o r t i o n s i n the 9 3 l a s t c e n t u r y of the o l d regime. In the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the response to m e n d i c i t y had l e d to the f o u n d i n g 91 P u r s u i t of l u x u r y and the d e s i r e to l i v e n o b l y had drawn both the p r o p r i e t o r and those f e u d a l dues he r e c e i v e d from the p e a s a n t r y away from the c o u n t r y s i d e : "Toute l e mouvement economique de 1 ' e p o q u e e t a i t au s e r v i c e de l a Cour, de l a n o b l e s s e , des p r e l a t s de l a grande B o u r g e o i s i e , o l i g a r -c h i c f o n c i e r e , p a r t i e p r e n ante e s s e n t i e l l e de l ' a n c i e n r egime: I t r a n g e r e a t o u t e a c t i v i t e p r o d u c t r i c e , e l l e v i v a i t en p a r a s i t e sur l e cor p s s o c i a l , l e monde paysan . . . . L ' a g r i c u l t u r e ne r e c o i t pas en i n v e s t i s s e m e n t s ce q u ' e l l e donne 135 of numerous " g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l s " t h r o u g h o u t France U n i t i n g the f u n c t i o n s of p o l i c e and c h a r i t y , these i n s t i t u t i o n s were d e v i s e d to r a t i o n a l i z e a l m s g i v i n g and to d i s c i p l i n e the poor through a regimen of work and r e l i g i o u s o bservance f o r i n m a t e s , and, f o r the v a s t m a j o r i t y r e m a i n i n g at l a r g e , t h rough the d e t e r r e n t e f f e c t of such i n c a r c e r a t i o n s . 94 O r i g i n a l l y " . . . a c o n g e r i e of m i l d and somnolent i n s t i -t u t i o n s . . .", the " g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l s " were t r a n s f o r m e d by the r o y a l decree of May 4, 1656, i n t o a t h o r o u g h l y r a t i o n a l i z e d system of workhouses at the hub of which was the H o p i t a l ^ 9 5 G e n e r a l des Pauvres i n P a r i s . T h i s system, however, was unable to cope w i t h the v i r u l e n t growth of m e n d i c i t y i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S i n c e the means of r e l i e f were t r i f l i n g a g a i n s t these seas of d e s t i t u t i o n , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c h a r i t y became, l i k e t h a t of a l l p r i v i l e g e s under the o l d r e g i m e , l a x and c o r r u p t . In the G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l of P a r i s , a l t h o u g h a m o n a s t i c s c h e d u l e of p r a y e r s , masses, and c a t e c h i s m s were s t i l l e n f o r c e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the workshops f e l l i n t o desuetude . . . . The G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l thus r e v e r t e d to a c o n f u s i o n of i n d o l e n t r e f u g e s , s c h o o l s , p r i s o n s , i n f o r m a r i e s , orphanages and a s y l u m s , which r e t a i n e d n o n e t h e l e s s a h a r s h p e n a l r e p u t a t i o n . 9 6 91 ( c o n t i n u e d ) l e p r o d u i t a g r i c o l e e s t f i n a l e m e n t g a s p i l l e * en d ome s t i c i t e*s t r o p nombreuses, en consommation de p a r a d e , en depenses s t e r i l e s . Les b e n e f i c i a i r e s , en consommant au l i e u d ' i n v e s t i r f a i s a i e n t o b s t a c l e a l a c r o i s s a n c e econom-i q u e . " A l b e r t S o b o u l , "La R e v o l u t i o n f r a n c a i s e et l a f e o d a l i t e " , Revue H i s t o r i q u e , CCXL ( j u i l l e t - s e p t e m b r e , 1968), 56. 9 2 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I I , 338. 9 3 Emanuel C h i l l , " R e l i g i o n and M e n d i c i t y i n S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y F r a n c e , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review of S o c i a l H i s t o r y , V I I (1962), 419. The e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, w i t n e s s e d the appearance of the depots de m e n d i c i t e . I n s p i r e d by the p h y s i o c r a t s , they were d e s i g n e d not so much to m a i n t a i n p u b l i c o r d e r through i n c a r c e r a t i o n and the i n c u l c a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s p i e t y , but to c o n t r i b u t e towards the . e x p a n s i o n of F r a n c e ' s p r o d u c t i v i t y by t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e i r inmates i n t o 9 7 u s e f u l members of the l a b o u r f o r c e . The e x p e c t a t i o n s w hich the p h y s i o c r a t s , p l a c e d i n the depots de m e n d i c i t e d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e , however, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t these i n s t i t u t i o n s became l i t t l e more than workhouses i n the 9 8 t r a d i t i o n of the " h o p i t a u x g e n e r a l e s " . L i n g u e t was w e l l aware of the f a i l u r e of t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to s o l v e the problem of m e n d i c i t y : 9 4 I b i d . , 4 0 3 . 9 5 I b i d . , 4 1 4 . 9 6 I b i d . , 4 1 9 - 4 2 0 . 9 7 I b i d . , 4 2 0 . The c r e a t i o n of these depots d e m e n d i c i t e were o r d e r e d by the e d i c t s of 1 7 6 4 and 1 7 6 7 . P r i o r to t h a t , e d i c t s handed down i n 1 7 2 4 and 1 7 5 0 " had comman-ded mendicants c a p a b l e of w o r k i n g to f i n d work or to r e t u r n to t h e i r p l a c e of o r i g i n w i t h i n a month, a f t e r which time they would be d e t a i n e d i n a u t h o r i z e d " h o p i t a u x " . See J . Kaplow, "Sur l a p o p u l a t i o n f l o t t a n t e de P a r i s a l a f i n du l ' a n c i e n regime," A n n a l e s H i s t o r i q u e s de l a R e v o l u t i o n F r a n c a i s e , XXXIX ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 8 . C h i l l , op. c i t . , 4 2 0 . I I n'y a pas d ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n q u i n ' a i t e t e , q u i ne s o i t e n c o r e , s u j e t t e a c e t t e m a l a d i e d e v o r a n t e , connue sous l e nom de m e n d i c i t e : i l n'y en a p o i n t q u i n ' a i t m u l t i p l i e l e s e f f o r t s pour s ' en g u e r i r , et i l n'y en a pas q u i a i e n t r e u s s i . Les unes ont p r i s l e p a r t i d'imposer l e s r i c h e s , de l e s f o r c e r a des c o n t r i b u t i o n s c o n s i d e r a b l e s , d e s t i n e e s au soulagement des malheureux: on a s u r c h a r g e l e s v i l l e s d ' h o p i t a u x de f o n d a t i o n s de t o u t e espece; e t a b l i s s e m e n s u t i l e s , sans d o u t e , pour des i n f o r t u n e s q u i n'ont pas d ' a u t r e r e s s o u r c e ; mais t r o p souvent f l e t r i s par 1 ' h u m i l i a t i o n , d e n a t u r e s par l e d e s p o t i s m e , empoisonnes par l ' a v i d i t e . 99 T h i s f a i l u r e was due p r i m a r i l y , L i n g u e t m a i n t a i n e d , to a l a c k of p r e c i s i o n i n e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n d e s i g n e d to curb m e n d i c i t y . I t was r e q u i r e d by law t h a t each p a r i s h be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s own mendicant p o p u l a t i o n . The law, h o w e v e r , ; f a i l e d to d e f i n e w i t h p r e c i s i o n whether t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h o u l d be assumed by a mendicant's p l a c e of o r i g i n or h i s l a s t p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e , a l e g a l s h o r t c o m i n g w h i c h , because of the r e l u c t a n c e of p a r o c h i a l c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s to r e c o g n i z e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s toward the c a r e of m e n d i c a n t s , had r e s u l t e d i n the d i s s i -p a t i o n of a t h i r d of the alms d e s t i n e d f o r the poor i n f r u i t l e s s w r a n g l i n g . The depots de m e n d i c i t e were h a r d l y an improvement upon the e f f o r t s of the t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s 9 9 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I , 79. 100 T, ., I b i d . , 81. and t h i s a g a i n , because of a l a c k of p r e c i s i o n i n e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . Because the law had p r o v i d e d no p r e c i s e d i s t i n c t i o n between those reduced to m e n d i c i t y by a d v e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and those, who were mendicants out of an un-w i l l i n g n e s s to work, the depots de m e n d i c i t e had become . des e n c e i n t e s , ou l ' o n e n t a s s a i t , sans c h o i x e t sans d i s t i n c t i o n , tous l e s malheureux que l e s s u r v e i l l a n s de l a t r a n q u i l l i t e p u b l i q u e r e c o n -t r a i e n t sur l e s chemins, ou dans l e s r u e s , sans a v o i r , ou des c a u t i o n s de l e u r a i s a n c e , ou de l ' a r g e n q u i en t i n t l i e u . 101 The depots de m e n d i c i t e , however, r e p r e s e n t e d a r e t r o g r a d e s t e p s i n c e t h e i r t r e a t m e n t of mendicants was e x t r e m e l y har sh: L ' i n t e n t i o n e t a i t bonne, sans doute: mais 1' e t a b l i s s e m e n t de ces r e c e p t a c l e s d'hommes dont souvent l a m i s e r e n ' e t a i t que l e moindre mal, n'ayant ete precede d'aucun s o i n pour en a s s u r e r l ' e n t r e t i e n ; l ' a c c e s en e t a i t i n t e r d i t a l a c h a r i t e , q u i , en g e n e r a l , aime, non sans r a i s o n , a v e i l l e r par elle-meme a l i ' e m p l o i de ses b i e n -f a i t s , i l s e t a i e n t devenus des t h e a t r e s e f f r a y a n s de t o u t e s l e s c a l a m i t e s humaines, l e s i e g e des m a l a d i e s l e s p l u s d e g o u t a n t e s , du d e s e s p o i r et de l a m o r t a l i t e . Comme par malheur l e u r e t a b l i s s e -ment a concouru avec l e triomphe momentane du systeme economique, l a s o c i e t e n'en a pas e t e s o u l a g e e . Chaque j o u r e n f a n t a i t p l u s de mendians que ces depots n'en p o u v a i e n t d e v o r e r . 102 1 0 L , . , fll I b i d . , 81. 102 I b i d . , 81. 139 In c r i t i c i z i n g the depots de m e n d i c i t e , L i n g u e t as u s u a l , however, d i d not propose any s o r t of a new regime which would d i s s i p a t e t h i s problem. Rather he sup p o r t e d those s m a l l - s c a l e attempts' a t p r a c t i c a l r e f o r m which he found a p p e a l i n g . He f e l t , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t much p o s i t i v e good might s t i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d through the t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r i t y of the ch u r c h as a d m i n i s t e r e d through the p a r i s h 103 p r i e s t . M e n d i c i t y would be l e s s of a problem i f the p r o p r i e t o r s would a i d the c h u r c h i n i t s c h a r i t a b l e work. T h i s , however, seemed u n l i k e l y f o r L i n g u e t : Je s u i s c o n v a i n c u q u ' i l e s t p o s s i b l e , non pas d ' e n r i c h i r t o u t l e monde; non pas de r e n d r e l a socie"te e n t i e r e heureuse comme l e pr o m e t t e n t l e s c h a r l a t a n s de l a p h i l o s o p h i e , mais d ' a d o u c i r l e s maux de ceux des membres de c e t t e s o c i e t e , que sa n a t u r e condamne a n ' a v o i r r i e n , t a n d i s que d ' a u t r e s ont t o u t ; j e s u i s persuade q u ' i l y a un temperament a pr e n d r e e n t r e l e p a r t i d a s s a s s i n e r l e s p a u v r e s , comme l e f a i s a i e n t l e s A t h e n i e n s , malgre 1 Areopage et 1 Academie, et c e l u i de l e s c o n f o n d r e , dans l e s c a c h o t s avec l e s s c e l e r a t s , q u i a s p i r e n t moins a a v o i r du p a i n , qu ' a l e r a v i r , e n f i n c e l u i de l e s e n c o u r a g e r , comme en Espagne, en I t a l i e , et meme en A n g l e t e r r e , par des d i s t r i b u -t i o n s p l u s p r o p r e s a n o u r r i r l a f a i n e a n t i s e , qu 'a s o u l a g e r l a m i s e r e . 104 103 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I I , 263-264 " ^ ^ L i n g u e t , Annale s, I I , 87. 1 4 0 C o n c l u s i o n Linguet's d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the p h y s i o c r a t s a r o s e , f i r s t , from h i s c o n c e r n f o r the w e l f a r e of the p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n p e a s a n t r y and, s e c o n d l y , from the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t , g i v e n the s t a t e i n t o which the F r e n c h r u r a l community had f a l l e n i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h those of the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s . H i s championship of the poor t e n a n t farmer and day l a b o r e r was based on the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t , r e p r e s e n t i n g the l a r g e s t group i n F r e n c h s o c i e t y , the s t a b i l i t y of t h a t s o c i e t y .depended v e r y much on t h e i r a c c e p t -i n g t h e i r l o t . The d i s r u p t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and the economic d i s l o c a t i o n which f e l l upon the F r e n c h r u r a l community i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y encouraged c l a s s antagonisms and c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n which begged the peasant to q u e s t i o n h i s s o c i a l and economic s i t u a t i o n . L i n g u e t ' s c e n t r a l frame of r e f e r e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , i n h i s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the p h y s i o c r a t s was t h a t i d e a l of the r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y i n which a l l l e v e l s of a u t h o r i t y were s t r i c t l y d e l i n e a t e d and yet i n t e r r e l a t e d by v i r t u e of t h e i r common s o u r c e : the monarch by the Grace of God, f a t h e r of h i s p e o p l e . The r e a l i z a t i o n of the p h y s i o c r a t i c program of a g r i c u l t u r a l r e f o r m , i n s t e a d of u s h e r i n g i n an e r a of s o c i a l harmony, would have l e d F r e n c h s o c i e t y even f u r t h e r a s t r a y from t h a t i d e a l of s o c i e t y which a l o n e was c a p a b l e of y i e l d i n g s o c i a l 1 4 1 harmony. The r e s u l t i n g s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n would a r i s e not o n l y from the economic d i s l o c a t i o n of the l i v e s of the p e a s a n t r y but a l s o from the p e a s a n t s ' i n t e l l e c t u a l detachment from h i s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e (and, t h e r e f o r e s t a t u s ) i n s o c i e t y : Qui l a b o u r e r a son champ, t a n d i s q u ' i l e t u d i e r a une m e i l l e u r e maniere de l a b o u r e r ? Les b ras sont v i g o r e u x et d o c i l e s qu'en r a i s o n de ce que sa t e t e e s t v i d e et son ame dans l ' i n a c t i o n . Le prone de son cure l u i s u f f i t . Toute espece de l u m i e r e q u i e x c e d e r a c e t t e mesure s e r a pour l u i un germe de decouragement et pour l a s o c i e t e un commencement de t r o u b l e s . 106 10 6 L i n g u e t , Reponse aux d o c t e u r s modernes , I I , 40 , 42 , c i t e d i n W e u l e r s s e , op . c i t . , p. 119. CHAPTER IV LINGUET AND THE PHILOSOPHES L i n g u e t ' s debate w i t h the p h i l o s o p h e s , l i k e h i s o p p o s i t i o n to the p o l i t i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s of the p a r l e m e n t s and to the p h y s i o c r a t i c program of r e f o r m , can o n l y be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d i n the l i g h t of h i s b e l i e f t h a t s o c i e t y , because of the v e r y n a t u r e of i t s o r i g i n s , ought to be s t r i c t l y h i e r a r c h i c a l , and t h a t F r e n c h s o c i e t y , i n d e v i a t i n g from t h a t norm, was moving p r o g r e s s i v e l y toward complete s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , t h a t i s , towards 1 r e v o l u t i o n . A nnale s , I , 3 4 5 . The f o l l o w i n g i s a c l e a r cut statement of L i n g u e t ' s b e l i e f t h a t r e v o l u t i o n was imminent. "Jamais l e s p r i v a t i o n s n'ont e t e p l u s u n i v e r s e l l e s , p l u s m e u r t r i e r e s pour l a c l a s s e q u i y e s t condamnee; j a m a i s p e u t -e t r e , au m i l i e u de sa p r o s p e r i t e a p p a r e n t e , 1'Europe n'a ete p l u s pres d'une s u b v e r s i o n t o t a l e , d'autant p l u s t e r r i b l e que l e d e s e s p o i r e n s e r a l a cause, ou d'une d e p o p u l a t i o n d' a u t a n t plus, e f f r a y a n t e que nous n'aurons p l u s pour l a r e p a r e r l e s r e s s o u r c e s qu'ont eues nos a n c e t r e s dans des cas a peu pres p a r e i l s . Nous sommes a r r i v e s par Un chemin d i r e c t e m e n t oppose', p r e c i s e m e n t au p o i n t ou se t r o u v e n t l ' l t a l i e quand l a g u e r r e des e s c l a v e s l ' i n o n d a de sang et p o r t a l a carnage et l ' i n c e n d i e aux p o r t e s de l a m a i t r e s s e du monde." A l t h o u g h , i n t h i s passage, the economic c a u s a t i o n of t h i s f o r t h c o m i n g c a t a s t r o p h e i s i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t , L i n g u e t ' s f r e q u e n t emphasis els e w h e r e of the decadence of s o c i e t y , w i t h r e f e r e n c e to p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , l i t e r a t u r e , and j u s i s p r u d e n c e would seem to suggest t h a t L i n g u e t was t h i n k i n g t h a t t o t a l c o r r u p t i o n would l e a d to v i o l e n t change. (a) (b) The p h i l o sophes were condemned as both m a n i f e s t a t i o n s and as a c t i v e agents of t h i s decay. T h e i r l i t e r a r y output r e p r e s e n t e d a d e c l i n e i n F r e n c h l e t t e r s which m i r r o r e d the more g e n e r a l d e c l i n e of F r e n c h and i n d e e d , European, c i v i l -i z a t i o n . By m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t the way to a b e t t e r s o c i e t y was through the e n l i g h t e n m e n t of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n and the d e s t r u c t i o n of the Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h as an i n s t i t u t i o n committed to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of i g n o r a n c e , s u p e r s t i t i o n and f a n a t i c i s m amongst the p e o p l e , the p h i l o s o p h had not o n l y shown themselves to be more i n t o l e r a n t than the c h u r c h which they sought to d e s t r o y , but by s t r i v i n g to undermine i t s a u t h o r i t y , they were a t t a c k i n g one of the most e f f i c a c i o u s f o r c e s of s o c i a l c o h e s i o n i n F r a n c e , at a time when t h i s f o r c e was most needed. F i n a l l y t h e i r i l l - f o u n d e d e n t h u s i a s m f o r the E n g l i s h form of government c o u l d o n l y s e r v e to r e i n f o r c e the p a r l e m e n t a r y o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t t h a t u l t i m a t e s o u r c e of p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y and k e y s t o n e of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , the F r e n c h crown. L i n g u e t ' s Views on the S t a t e of F r e n c h L e t t e r s D'Alembert i s r e p u t e d to have remarked t h a t the w o r l d of F r e n c h l e t t e r s p o s s e s s e d "many t h i s t l e s , a few f l o w e r s 2 and l i t t l e f r u i t " . For reaso n s both s u b j e c t i v e and p h i l -2 R o n a l d G r i m s l e y , Jean d'Alembert (1717-1783) ( O x f o r d , 1963), p. 105 o s o p h i c a l , Linguet shared t h i s o p i n i o n . His d e p r e c a t i o n of French l e t t e r s i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, to be sure, was s t r o n g l y c o l o r e d by h i s i n a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i o n f o r h i m s e l f i n that l i t e r a r y firmament. Having c u l t i v a t e d h i s l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s from e a r l y manhood, he had been embraced e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y by l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s as a w r i t e r 3 of great promise. This o r i g i n a l e x p r e s s i o n of g o o d w i l l was soon r e p l a c e d by one of concern and o u t r i g h t h o s t i l i t y when Linguet c o n f r o n t e d t h i s community with a more e x p l i c i t e x p r e s s i o n of h i s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l views i n h i s Theorie  des l o i s c i v i l e s , (1767). Henceforth branded as an a p o l o g i s t of s l a v e r y and despotism, L i n g u e t ' s attempts to f u r t h e r h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r were f r u s t r a t e d , most n o t a b l y i n the i n s t a n c e of the r e j e c t i o n of h i s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r member-ship i n the Academie F r a n c a i s e by the new permanent 4 d'Alembert --one suspects f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l reasons "See l e t t e r s 12, 264, and 12, 544, N i c o l a s T h i e r i o t to V o l t a i r e , dated 1766 , Voltaire's Correspondence, Theodore Besterman e d i t o r , 60, 62 (Geneva, 1961). T h i e r r o t d e s c r i b e s Linguet as a, " . . . jeune homme p l e i n de Genie, i m a g i n a t i o n et de s a v o i r et j e s e r a i , b i e n etonne s i vouS n'en concevez pas de grandes esperances." 12, 544 ( J u l y , 1766, V o l . 62), 44. 4 D ' A l emb er t's 5 r e j e c t i o n of L i n g u e t ' s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r membership took p l a c e , as near as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , at some time between d'Alembert's appointment as permanent s e c r e t a r y of the Academie i n 177 2 and L i n g u e t ' s e x p u l s i o n from the Ordre des Avocats i n 1774-1775. s e c r e t a r y , 5 R. Grimsley, op. c i t . , p. 105. B i o g r a p h i e U n i v e r s e l l e a n c i e n et moderne, 1854-1865) , V o l .24 , 565. L.G. Michaud , ( P a r i s , 45 v o l s . 145 Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e r e f o r e , much of L i n g u e t ' s c r i t i c i s m of the p h i l o s o p h e s was p u r e l y an e x p r e s s i o n of v i n d i c t i v e n e s s : the i s s u e s of both h i s j o u r n a l s abound w i t h v i r u l e n t p e r s o n a l a t t a c k s a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l p h i l o s o p h e s and, most e s p e c i a l l y , a g a i n s t d'Alembert. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e emerges i n L i n g u e t ' s w r i t i n g s a body of c r i t i c i s m of the p h i l o s o p h e s which cannot be d i s m i s s e d as mer e l y the p r o -duct of p e r s o n a l p i q u e . I t i s a p o l e m i c which c l e a r l y emanates from t h a t w o r l d v i e w g i v e n t h e o r e t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n i n the T h e o r i e des l o i s c i v i l e s , a w o r l d v i e w which can by no means be c o n s i d e r e d e x c l u s i v e l y a response to the c h a l l e n g e posed by the p h i l o s o p h e s . L i n g u e t d e p l o r e d the " g r o s s i e r e t e l i c e n c i e u s e " of contemporary l i t e r a t u r e and h e l d the p h i l o s o p h e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what he c o n s i d e r e d the s h a l l o w n e s s and the p e d a n t r y of the E n c y c l o p e d i e , the e l o g e s academiques, and the romans p h i l o s o p h i q u e s . L i n g u e t chose to see the r o o t cause of Fr e n c h l i t e r a t u r e ' s demise i n the growing l a x n e s s of the t r a d i t i o n a l l y r i g i d s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between the n o b i l t i y and the b o u r g e o i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and man of l e t t e r s . A c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a r i s t o c r a t and the b o u r g e o i s man of l e t t e r s had indeed d e v e l o p e d . 7 I t had been made p o s s i b l e , 6 A n n a l e s , I , 168-170. "Of a l l the b o u r g e o i s , o n l y the i n t e l l e c t u a l s and the f i n a n c i e r s had v e r y c l o s e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the n o b i l i t y " . E l i n o r G. B a r b e r , The B o u r g o i s i e i n 18th Cent u r y France ( P r i n c e t o n , 1955), p. 21. f i r s t , by the unprecedented degree of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r a n c e , and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , by the g r e a t p r e s t i g e bestowed upon the i n t e l l e c t u a l , a p r e s t i g e commensurate w i t h the importance a t t a c h e d to h i s r o l e by F r e n c h s o c i e t y at a time when i n t e r e s t i n the n a t u r a l and p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s and the i d e o l o g i c a l ferment c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a q u e s t i o n i n g of the t r a d i t i o n a l cosmology and s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y were w i d e s p r e a d . For L i n g u e t , t h e r e f o r e , the decay i n t o which F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e had sunk was symtomatic of t h a t more g e n e r a l p r o c e s s of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d i s i n -t e g r a t i o n which i t was h i s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n to combat. For L i n g u e t the p o s i t i o n of the man of l e t t e r s i n the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y had been much d i f f e r e n t , and i n f i n -i t e l y s u p e r i o r . W h i l e an a u t h o r at t h i s t i m e , a p p e a l e d to and r e f l e c t e d the e l e g a n c e of t a s t e of the c o u r t i s a n , he d i d not presume to b r i d g e the s o c i a l gap s e p a r a t i n g them. As a r e s u l t , the b e s t q u a l i t i e s of both were encouraged: the c o u r t i e r c onversed w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l i n o r d e r to a c q u i r e r a p i d l y the knowledge which o t h e r w i s e would have been u n a t t a i n a b l e due to the a l l - c o n s u m i n g n a t u r e of the i n t r i g u e and g e n e r a l d i s s i p a t i o n of c o u r t l i f e : the savant on the o t h e r hand, a c q u i r e d through the c o u r t i e r , t h a t p o l i and e l e g a n c e of t a s t e which was the v i r t u e of the c o u r t i e r w i t h o u t a c q u i r i n g the l a t t e r ' s p r o c l i v i t y f o r i n t r i g u e and g h a b i t s of d i s s i p a t i o n . 8 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , IV, 276-277. L i n g u e t f e l t t h a t i n . h i s own t i m e t h i s b e n e f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between b o u r g e o i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and n o b l e was b e i n g c o r r u p t e d w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the c o u r t n o b i l i t y and t h e s a v a n t b r o u g h t to e a c h o t h e r t h e i r w o r s t q u a l i t i e s : L e s L i t t e r a t e u r s s o n t d e v e n u s b a s , f a u x , h y p o c r i t e s , a m b i t i e u x , a r d e n s a s u p p l e e r p a r l ' i n t r i g u e au t a l e n t , e nnemis de 1 'etude e t du t r a v a i l : d es gens du monde ou t p r i s l e s p r e t e n t i o n s , l a s u s c e p t i b i 1 i t e , l ' e n v i e de d o m i n e r s u r l e s e s p r i t s , l e t o n tinp; er i e u x d o n t l e u r commerce ^ o e r i s s a i t a u t r e f o i s l e s hommes d ' e t u d e ; e n f i n l e s v i c e s de l a Cour o n t p a s s e dans l a L i t t e r a t u r e , e t l e p e d a n t i s m e l i t t e r a i r e dans l a bonne c o m p a g n i e . 9 I t was e s p e c i a l l y t h e s a v a n t s' a c q u i r e d p r o c l i v i t y f o r i n t r i g u e was t h e most ominous r e s u l t o f t h i s c h ange i n r o l e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e w o r l d o f l e t t e r s had become em-b r o i l e d i n f a c t i o n a l s t r u g g l e s w h i c h was s e r v i n g t o b e s t o w r e c o g n i t i o n n o t on t h e g r e a t and i n d e p e n d e n t mind who r e m a i n e d a l o o f f r o m s u c h p r o c e e d i n g s , b u t upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l g r a c e d n o t w i t h any s i g n i f i c a n t l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y , b u t m o t i v a t e d by a t a l e n t f o r i n t r i g u e and an a b i l i t y t o g a t h e r a r o u n d h i m -s e l f a g r o u p of f o l l o w e r s . T h e s e s e c t a r i a n s were b e s t o w i n g t h e i r u n s w e r v i n g l o y a l t y upon and s o l i c i t e d p u b l i c a p p r o b -a t i o n f o r , t h e i r g r o u p and l e a d e r i n t h e hope t h a t s u c h L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , IV, 277-278. 148 r e s p e c t might be t r a n s f e r r e d ' to t h e m s e l v e s . Moreover, from t h i s e s p r i t de corps"'"''" was emanating an i n t o l e r a n c e of w hich the p h i l o s o p h e s had been f a r more g u i l t y than the c h u r c h which they had abused. P o u r q u o i , dans l e s f a u s s e s R e l i g i o n s , l e s P r e t r e s s o n t - i l s s i ardens p r e d i c a t e u r s de l e u r s i d o l e s , et en apparence s i f a n a t i q u e s de l e u r dogmes: C'est que l a v e n e r a t i o n q u ' i n s p i r e l e fantome s'etend j u s q u ' a ses m i n i s t r e s ; i l s s ' a s s o c i e n t aux honneurs qu'on rend a l e u r s d i e u x . 12 ""^Annales, V I , 147 E s p r i t de c o r p s , a r o s e i n s i t u a t i o n s where the j u r i s d i c t i o n , s t a t u s and r o l e of a g i v e n group were not s t r i c t l y d e f i n e d . T h i s s i t u a t i o n , i n t u r n , rendered f l e x -i b l e the s t a t u s of i t s members and aroused i n them a d e s i r e to enhance t h e i r s t a t u s by expanding the group's r o l e , s t a t u s and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . The e s p r i t de c o r p s of the m a g i s t r a t u r e i n v o l v e d an attempt to extend a l l t h r e e of t h e s e . In the case of the p h i l o s o p h e s and p h y s i o c r a t s , i t i n v o l v e d e f f o r t s to i n c r e a s e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e by s p r e a d i n g t h e i r i d e a s , t h e r e b y enhancing t h e i r s t a t u s and r o l e . F i n a l l y e s p r i t de c o r p s was not a phenomenon c o n f i n e d to c o r p o r a t i o n s or any o t h e r body whose j u r i s d i c t i o n had at one time been l e g a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . S i n c e e s p r i t went hand i n hand w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n c e r t a i n t y , i t was o n l y n a t u r a l to e x pect i t s o c c u r r e n c e i n groups whose e x i s t e n c e and j u s i s -d i c t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s had not been e s t a b l i s h e d by law, f o r example, s c h o o l s of thought such as t h a t of the p h y s i o c r a t s or a community of w r i t e r s , such as the ph i l o s ophe s , h e l d t o g e t h e r by a common w o r l d v i e w . A n n a l e s , VI (1779), 147. 149 T h i s e s p r i t de corps had not o n l y d i s c o u r a g e d l i t e r a r y q u a l i t y and made i m p o s s i b l e t h a t p r o g r e s s i v e e n l i g h t e n m e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n which the p h i l o s o p h e s had c l a i m e d as t h e i r g o a l , but to a l a r g e degree through the su c c e s s of two 13 s e c t s w i t h i n i t s p o s s e s s i o n , t h i s s p i r i t t h r e a t e n e d to undermine the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of F r a n c e . The "e c o n o m i s t e s " and the e n c y c l o p e d i s t e s , between them had succeeded i n c o m p l e t e l y d o m i n a t i n g the w o r l d s of l i t e r a t u r e and j o u r n a l i s m , the government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the m a g i s t r a t u r e w h i l e even the c l e r g y had, to a degree, come 14 under t h e i r i n f l u e n c e : C'est une s i n g u l a r i t e unique dans l ' H i s t o i r e ... q u ' a l o r s 1 ' A d m i n i s t r a t i o n e n t i e r e d'un grand Royaume, t o u t e s ses f o r c e s , ses r e s s o u r c e s , a i e n t e t e l i v r e e s sans r e s e r v e a une p e t i t e A r i s t o c r a t i e p h i l o s o p h i q u e , composee s u r -t o u t de Femmes s e d u i t e s , et de Beaux pedans; . . . . q u ' e n f i n ce que P l a t o n avec son El o q u e n c e , C o n f u c i u s avec sa sa g e s s e , J u l i e n avec t o u t e s ses f o r c e s de l ' E m p i r e , n'ont pu e x e c u t e r , quelques s e c t a i r e s o b s c u r s , avec de l ' i n t r i g u e et du f a n a t i s m e , a i e n t ete a l a v e t - l i e de l e r e a l i s e r ; c ' e s t-a-d i r e , d'operer un changemen a b s o l u dans l a c o n s t i t u t i o n d'un grand Royaume, une s u b v e r s i o n t o t a l e dans son Gouvernement. 15 13 • " E n f i n l ' e s p r i t de Corps ces me p r i s e s de c o n f r a t e r -n i t e , ces li_ques dont on se t r o u v e f a i r e p a r t i e , sans l e v o u l o i r , sans s'en d o u t e r sont a u t a n t dob s t a c l e s aux p r o g r e s de l ' e s p r i t : i l ne marche qu'autant q u ' i l e s t i n d e p e n d a n t : J o u r n a l de l a moindre c h a i n e l e r e d u i t a l ' i n a c t i o n P o l i t i q u e et de L i t t e r a t u r e , I, 466. See a l s o A n n a l e s , I , (1777), 62. 14 A n n a l e s , V I , 386-387; I , 64 A n n a l e s , I , 62-63. 150 There was o n l y one body which had not been c o r r u p t e d and which c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , oppose the p h i l o s o p h e s from a p o s i t i o n of s t r e n g t h : the c l e r g y , w h i c h , d e s p i t e the d e f e c t i o n of members of the upper c l e r g y , " s e d u i t s par l ' a m b i t i o n du b e l e s p r i t " , s t o o d as a p o w e r f u l c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h a l o n g t r a d i t i o n and a g r e a t e r degree of u n i t y w i t h i n i t s ranks than enjoyed by t h e i r r i v a l s . In a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n than these s e c t a r i a n s to e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e upon l i t e r a t u r e , the c h u r c h had, however, squandered i t s advantage by a t t a c k i n g i t s a d v e r s a r i e s ' p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n w h i l e f a i l i n g to q u e s t i o n the p h i l o s o p h e s ' l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y the c l e r g y had been making i t s t a s k a l l t h a t much more d i f f i c u l t . ^ E c r a s e z - L ' I n f a m e " E c r a s e z - 1 ' I n f a m e " , V o l t a i r e ' s b a t t l e c r y i n h i s war w i t h the c h u r c h , brought t o g e t h e r i n one phrase the u n d e r l y i n g purpose b e h i n d the p h i l o sophes many s i d e d a c t i v i t i e s . In i t s narrow sense, " l ' i m f a m e " was taken to r e p r e s e n t the s p i r i t of p e r s e c u t i o n m a n i f e s t e d by a c h u r c h bent on p r o t e c t i n g b a r b a r i s m , i g n o r a n c e and s u p e r s t i t i o n from the s t r i c t s c r u t i n y of r e a s o n . A l t h o u g h the church's i n t o l e r a n c e was a f a v o r i t e theme of the p h i l o s o p h e s and e s p e c i a l l y of V o l t a i r e , m a r t y r s 1 6 A n n a l e s , V I , 387-388. 151 at the hands of the c h u r c h were few In the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y : o n l y the names of C a l a s and La B a r r e come r e a d i l y to mind. T h i s was o n l y to be expected i n the c o n t e x t of e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y F r ance which was as P e t e r Gay s u c c i n c t l y put i t , " . . . a C h r i s t i a n c u l t u r e t h a t was r a p i d l y l o s i n g i t s C h r i s t i a n v o c a t i o n w i t h o u t b e i n g f u l l y aware of i t . " ^ 7 A l t h o u g h s t i l l b a s i c a l l y a r e l i g i o u s age, the E n l i g h t e n m e n t w i t n e s s e d the slow d i s p l a c e m e n t of r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and r e l i g i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of events from the c e n t r e to the p e r i p h e r y of Fre n c h l i f e . W i t h i n the ch u r c h i t s e l f , the c r u s a d i n g z e a l of the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y had been d i s p l a c e d by a tendency towards " . . . a b l a n d p i e t y , a s e l f - s a t i s f i e d and p r o s p e r o u s r e a s o n a b l e n e s s , the honest c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the c h u r c h must, 19 a f t e r a l l , move w i t h the t i m e s " . And, the thought of the t i m e s , p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e d by Newtonian s c i e n c e and i t s f i n d i n g s , was abandoning the t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n w o r l d v i e w , dominated by the image of h i e r a r c h y : s c i e n c e had demonstrated the f a l l a c y of the h i e r a r c h i c a l c o n c e p t i o n of n a t u r e and had th e r e b y sown doubt i n l a y minds about i t s v a l i d i t y i n e x p l a n a t i o n s of the s u p e r n a t u r a l , s o c i e t y and 20 i t s l a w s , and the c h u r c h as an i n s t i t u t i o n . Moreover, 17 P e t e r Gay, The P a r t y of Humanity, (New York, 1964) p.120 18 P e t e r Gay, The E n l i g h t e n m e n t : the r i s e of modern  paganism, V i n t a g e Book E d i t i o n (New York, 1968), p. 338. 19 I b i d . , p. 343. 152 Newtonian s c i e n c e , as p o p u l a r l y c o n c e i v e d i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , assumed a r a t i o n a l o r d e r u n d e r l y i n g the w o r l d of 21 n a t u r e . I t was but a step to p o s i t the e x i s t e n c e of a r a t i o n a l o r d e r by which contemporary s o c i e t y c o u l d be j u d g e d . What c o n f r o n t e d those who sought to a p p l y the s t a n d a r d s of a r a t i o n a l o r d e r to s o c i e t y was a chaos i n which new l a w s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , j u r i s d i c t i o n s and b e l i e f s had been superimposed 2 2 upon the v e s t i g i a l . T h i s chaos was the b a r b a r i s m , the i g n o r a n c e and the s u p e r s t i t i o n w hich the p h i l o s o p h e s f e l t the c h u r c h was s e r v i n g to p e r p e t u a t e and upon which they were t r y i n g to impose r e a s o n and o r d e r . T h i s wa s **1 ' i n f ame" i n i t s b r o a d e s t sense. Of these two dimensions of 1'infame", t h a t of the c h u r c h ' s i n t o l e r a n c e , was the more c o n c r e t e and t h e r e f o r e , the more obvi o u s t a r g e t a g a i n s t which p u b l i c o p i n i o n c o u l d be m o b i l i z e d . L i n g u e t , chose to defend the c h u r c h by d o i n g b a t t l e w i t h the p h i l o s o p h e s p r i m a r i l y over the q u e s t i o n of t o l e r -a t i o n . To b e g i n w i t h , L i n g u e t observed t h a t r e l i g i o u s p e r -20 P e t e r Gay, P a r t y of Humanity, p. 120. 21 Henry G u e r l a c , "Where the S t a t u e Stood: d i v e r g e n t l o y a l t i e s to Newton i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y " , Aspec t s of  the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , ed., E a r l R. Wasserman ( B a l t i m o r e : 1965), 333. 2 2 R.R. Palmer, C a t h o l i c s and U n b e l i e v e r s i n E i g h t e e n t h  Century France (New York, 1961), p. 3. 153 s e c u t i o n was not consonant w i t h the temper of the age En g e n e r a l , l a f u r e u r de do g m a t i s e r e s t e t e i n t chez l e s p a r t i c u 1 i e r s . C e l l e de p u n i r des mepris s p i r i t u e l l e s par l e f e r et par l e f e u , n ' a g i t e p l u s l e s hommes P u i s s a n s . . . . 23 H i s i n t i m a t e i n v o l v e m e n t i n the La B a r r e a f f a i r had taught L i n g u e t t h a t n o n - r e l i g i o u s m o t i v e s l a y behind o s t e n s i b l e a c t s of r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n . [La B a r r e ] n ' e t a i t pas c o u p a b l du C h r i s t d ' A b b e v i l l e : i l n'a t e l . Sa condgmnation, comme j d e t a i l de c e t h o r r i b l e p r o c e s d'une pique e n t r e deux hommes r e s s e n t i m e n s p a r t i c u l i e r s q u i • j u g e s , et de l ' a r t avec l e q u e l d e c i d e r l e s secondes, l ' a l a r m e p a r t i s a n s de l a R e l i g i o n par 1 q u ' i l l u i v o y o i e n t p o r t e r , par formee pour l a d e t r u i r e . e de l a m u t i l a t i o n pas meme ete p u n i comme e l e f e r a i v o i r dans l e . f u t l e r e s u l t a t de r o b e , de quelques d i r i g e r e n t l e s p r e m i e r s on f i t v a l o i r , pour g e n e r a l e i n s p i r e e aux es a t t e i n t e s r e d o u b l e e s l ' e s p e c e de c o n j u r a t i o n . " 25 Moreover, the " p i q u e " between these two "hommes de ro b e " i n -v o l v e d a r i v a l r y c e n t e r i n g around the r e t e n t i o n of the o f f i c e of mayeur of d ' A b b e v i l l e . The L'Q. B a r r e a f f a i r and L i n g u e t ' s 23 L i n g u e t , Annale s I , 54 24 In the p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t La B a r r e and h i s t h r e e c o - d e f e n d a n t s , L i n g u e t s e r v e d as de f e n s e a t t o r n e y . Having a t one time l i v e d i n A b b e v i l l e and h a v i n g s e r v e d as a t u t o r to a group of youths which i n c l u d e d the young La B a r r e , L i n g u e t was w e l l aware of the i n t r i g u e which formed the background of t h i s t r i a l . See Jean C r u p p i : L i n g u e t , un avoc a t j o u r n a l i s t e  au X V I I I s i e c l e ( P a r i s , 1895), pp. 32-37; 69-154. 25 L i n g u e t , Annale s, IV, 197 d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the Ordre des A v o c a t s were p r o b a b l y r e s p o n -s i b l e , to a l a r g e degree, f o r b r i n g i n g L i n g u e t to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t (a) i t was not the church but the l a i t y t h a t was g u i l t y of i n t o l e r a n c e and (b) t h a t the l a t t e r were m o t i v a t e d not by r e l i g i o u s z e a l but out of l o y a l t y to • - A 2 6 an e s p r i t de c o r p s . L i n g u e t a l s o s e t out to c l e a r the c l e r g y of any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p a s t a c t s of r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n - - t h e I n q u i s i t i o n , the S a i n t Bartholomew Day M a s s a c r e , and the R e v o c a t i o n of the E d i c t of N a n t e s — o n e presumes f o r the good r e a s o n t h a t the p h i l o s o p h e s had added these to t h e i r a r s e n a l as examples of "1' infame". The I n q u i s i t i o n i n i t i a t e d and e s t a b l i s h e d by the l a i t y a t t a i n e d a h i g h degree of c r u e l t y and f e r o c i t y which was m i t i g a t e d a f t e r i t had been taken 2 7 over by the c h u r c h . The S a i n t Bartholemew's Day Massacre was not i n s t i g a t e d by the c l e r g y but by such people as the dukes de G u i s e , d'Angouleme, d'Aumale and de M o n t p e n s i e r , by the Swiss and F r e n c h c o l o n e l s and by the m a g i s t r a t u r e of 2 8 a l l r a n k s . At t h i s j u n c t u r e L i n g u e t was c a r e f u l to p o i n t out t h a t " . . . Au m i l i e u de c e t t e c o m p l i c a t i o n de b a s s e s s e et de b a r b a r i t e c ' e s t t o u j o u r s par des M a g i s t r a t s que vous 2 8 entendez ordonnez, ou r a t i f i e r l e s m e u r t r e s . . . ." He d i d so to c h a l l e n g e the p h i l o s o p h e s ' c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the 2 6 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I I , 108. 2 7 0 P, I b i d . , 103. I b i d . , 105 1 5 5 robe as " l a p l u s sure s a u v e — g a r d e des p e u p l e s , c o n t r e l e s v e x a t i o n s du c l e r g e . " F i n a l l y , i n the case of the R e v o c a t i o n of the E d i c t of Nantes, L i n g u e t demonstrated t h a t i t was not an u n n e c e s s a r y and c a p r i c i o u s a c t i n s p i r e d by the J e s u i t s , but r a t h e r a n e c e s s a r y s u r g e r y performed upon the F r e n c h s t a t e which was a t t e n d e d by shameful e x c e s s e s . I t was n e c e s s a r y by v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t m i n o r i t y as p r o t e c t e d by the E d i c t r e p r e s e n t e d . un f o y e r t o u j o u r s p r e t a s'enflammer de s e d i t i o n s , de d e f i a n c e s s . et de s c a n d a l e s . C 1 e t a i t une R e p u b l i q u e conservee dans l a s e i n d'une M o n a r c h i e : c ' e t a i e n t des s u j e t s reconnus independans, et exposes a l a t e n t a t i o n de se f a i r e j u s t i c e eux-memes, chaque f o i s q u ' i l s se c r o i r i i e n t . l e z e s , p u i s q u ' i l s a v o i e n t des a s s e m b l i e s des Synodes, ou en v e i l l a n t aux d ^ s o r d r e s s p i r i t u e l s , i l £tait i m p o s s i b l e qu'on ne s'occupat des I n t e r e t s t e m p o r e l s . 3 0 L i n g u e t condemned the e x p u l s i o n of P r o t e s t a n t s and the 31 t y r a n n y of f o r c e d c o n v e r s i o n s . L o u i s XIV and h i s m i n i s t e r s c a r r i e d out an o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r i n g p o l i t i c a l a s t u t e n e s s w i t h " l a rigueOT, l e d e s p o t i s m e , l a f u r e u r , q u i accompagnent l a 3 2 g u e r r e , et l a s u p e r s t i t i o n , " I n s t e a d the r e v o c a t i o n of the E d i c t s h o u l d have i n v o l v e d the e l i m i n a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g p r i v i l e g e s : the P r o t e s t a n t ' s r i g h t to a p l a c e of p u b l i c 2 9 I b i d . , 106-107 . 3 0 L i n g u e t , Anna 1e s, I I , 119 3 1 I b i d . , 12 2. 3 2 I b i d . , 122-123. 1 5 6 w o r s h i p ( a l t h o u g h w o r s h i p i n p r i v a t e s h o u l d have been p e r -m i t t e d ) , the r i g h t of t h e i r c l e r g y to wear c l e r i c a l g a r b , and t h e i r r i g h t to assume p u b l i c o f f i c e . T h e i r c i v i l r i g h t s s h o u l d , however, have been g u a r a n t e e d , among them the r i g h t to a c i v i l m a r r i a g e , and the r i g h t s of p r o p e r t y and 3 3 s u c c e s s i o n . What emerges h e r e , t h e n , i s a d e f i n i t i o n of t o l e r a t i o n which has as i t s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e the assu m p t i o n t h a t p u b l i c o r d e r can o n l y be i n s u r e d by an u n d i v i d e d t e m p o r a l a u t h o r i t y . I t i s a l e g a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n of t o l e r a t i o n : p u b l i c o r d e r can o n l y be a s s u r e d i f the laws of the r e a l m are u n i v e r s a l i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n and d e r i v e t h e i r a u t h o r i t y s o l e l y from the P r i n c e . A law which i s not u n i v e r s a l i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n v i t e s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s c o r d : i f a law i s h e l d to be onerous t h e r e w i l l be a s t r u g g l e amongst peop l e to p l a c e themselves o u t s i d e i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n ; i f a law i s h e l d to be benef i i C i e n t t h e r e w i l l be a c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t r u g g l e amongst peopl e to p l a c e themselves w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y i f the a u t h o r i t y of a g i v e n law does not emanate from a s i n g l e t e m p o r a l s o u r c e w i t h i n the a r e a of t h a t law's j u r i s -d i c t i o n , the r e s o l u t i o n of any debate a r i s i n g from t h a t law e i t h e r through r e f o r m or through the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of i t s terms w i l l not be p o s s i b l e . Thus, the u n i v e r s a l i t y of a 3 3 I b i d . , 1 2 3 i 157 law r e q u i r e s t h a t the sour c e of a u t h o r i t y cannot be q u e s t i o n e d In p u r e l y t e m p o r a l a f f a i r s and i n p r o p e r l y c o n s t i t u t e d s t a t e s , t h i s s o u r c e i s the monarch, God's te m p o r a l agent. In m a t t e r s of r e l i g i o n , however, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e and h a r m f u l , to assume the u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y of God i n m a t t e r s under d i s -pute when t h e r e are a number of c o n t e s t i n g s e c t s , each of which c l a i m s God's a u t h o r i t y as i t s own, and each b e l i e v i n g 34 i t s e l f to be the t r u e v e h i c l e of God's word. For t h i s r e a s o n t h e r e must be o n l y one c h u r c h w i t h i n the re a l m which may c l a i m to be the v e h i c l e of God's w i l l ; t h e r e may be o n l y one o f f i c i a l r e l i g i o n . T o l e r a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i n v o l v e s g r a n t i n g the r e l i g i o u s n o n - c o n f o r m i s t the f u l l enjoyment of h i s c i v i l l i b e r t i e s w h i l e w i t h h o l d i n g the r i g h t to h o l d any o f f i c e to which the K i n g has d e l e g a t e d a p o r t i o n of h i s 35 a u t h o r i t y . S t a t e d a l i t t l e more b r o a d l y , La tole"rance se borne a ne p o i n t gener l e s o p i n i o n s i n t e r i e u r e s , n i memes l e s a c t i o n s e x t e r i e u r e s , a u t a n t q u ' e l l e s n ' i n t e r e s s e n t pas l ' o r d r e p u b l i c , a l a i s s e r chacun, dans ce q u i l e concerne p e r s o n n e l l e m e n t , s u i v r e sa c o n s c i e n c e et sa v o l o n t e , mais non pas a l u i p e r m e t t r e de t r a v a i l l e r a changer, a m a i t r i s e r c e l l e s des a u t r e s . 36 An a c t of i n t o l e r a n c e , t h e r e f o r e , i s bo t h an unwarranted encroachment upon the c i v i l r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l and 3 4 I b i d . , pp . 111-112 . 3 5 I b i d . , 113. 3 6 L i n g u e t , Examen r a i s o n n e des oeuvres de m. de V o l t a i r e , c o n s i d e r ! comme poete, p r o s a t e u r et p h i l o s o p h e ( P a r i s , 1817), p. 224. 1 5 8 d i s r u p t i o n o f p u b l i c o r d e r . T hese two a s p e c t s o f L i n g u e t ' s d e f i n i t i o n of i n t o l e r a n c e a r e i n s e p a r a b l e : a c t s w h i c h d i s -t u r b the p u b l i c o r d e r i n v o l v e an e n c r o a c h m e n t upon the c i v i l l i b e r t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l and v i c e v e r s a . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n can be more c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d i f we t r a n s l a t e " c i v i l r i g h t s " i n t o terms more a p p r o p r i a t e t o L i n g u e t ' s t h o u g h t . F i r s t , i t must be remembered t h a t f o r L i n g u e t the b a s i c c o n s t i t u e n t i n s o c i e t y was n o t the i n d i v i d u a l b u t the f a m i l y , w h i c h was s o c i e t y i n m i c r o c o s m . S e c o n d l y , i t must be remembered as w e l l , t h a t t h e r e was an e q u a t i o n i n L i n g u e t ' s mind between p r o p e r t y and a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l i s t i c a u t h o r i t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , c i v i l r i g h t s c o u l d more a p p r o p r i a t e l y be e x p r e s s e d as t h e p r o t e c t i o n by c i v i l law o f the f a t h e r ' s a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n h i s own a r e a of j u s i s d i c t i o n , t h a t i s , w i t h i n h i s f a m i l y and o v e r a n y t h i n g e l s e w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d h i s p r o p e r t y . C i v i l law i n o r d e r to f u l f i l l i t s f u n c t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t r e q u i r e d the p r e s e n c e of the a b s o l u t e , p a t e r n a l i s t i c a u t h o r i t y o f the M o n a r c h . B e c a u s e the m o n a r c h i c a l a u t h o r i t y must be a b s o l u t e and i n d i v i s i b l e , t h e r e must a l s o e x i s t f o r t h e r e a s o n s t a t e d a b o ve, o n l y one o f f i c i a l c h u r c h , i n t h i s c a s e the Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . L i n g u e t e n v i s a g e d the e x i s t e n c e of an u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e u n i t i n g s o c i e t y , t h a t of a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y , o r , i f you w i l l , p r o p r i e t o r s h i p . Any a c t w h i c h v i o l a t e d t h i s p r i n c i p l e by e n c r o a c h i n g upon the r i g h t s of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y 159 ( u n d e r s t o o d i n i t s b r o a d e s t sense to i n c l u d e a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y ) , whether i t be a t r a n s g r e s s i o n upon the p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t of an i n d i v i d u a l , an i n f r i n g e m e n t upon the j u r i s d i c t i o n of a communaute or c o r p o r a t i o n , or a q u e s t i o n i n g of the a u t h o r i t y of the c h u r c h or the Monarchy, j e o p a r d i z e d p u b l i c o r d e r and was c o n s e q u e n t l y an a c t of i n t o l e r a n c e . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s s t a n d a r d t h e r e f o r e , i t was the l a i c s who were g u i l t y of i n t o l e r a n c e and f a n a t a c i s m : I I n'y a p o i n t de s o c i e t e r e l i g i e u s e q u i a i t j a m a i s e n s e i g n e que l ' o n put egorger un h e r e t i q u e en s u r e t e de c o n s c i e n c e . Ce sont des l a i q u e s , ne nous l a s s o n s pas de l a r e p e t e r , q u i o n f donne au monde 1'exemple de ce f a n a t i s a t r o c e . Ce sont l e s P a r l e m e n t s de P a r i s , de Touleuse en F r a n c e , q u i ont ordonne, par ARRET, de m a s s a c r e r , l e s P r o t e s t a n t s , sans forme de p r o c e s . 3 7 In t h i s i n s t a n c e the parlement s were a c t i n g a g a i n s t the p u b l i c o r d e r by v i o l a t i n g the s a n c t i t y of the l i v e s and p r o p e r t y of these P r o t e s t a n t v i c t i m s . In more r e c e n t times the p a r l e m e n t s 3 8 had v i o l a t e d the p u b l i c o r d e r by- a t t a c k i n g the c h u r c h . 3 7 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I , 178. 3 8 L i n g u e t , Annales, I , 55. L i n g u e t i s p r o b a b l y r e -f e r i n g to the pariemen t s' p a r t i n the J e s u i t - J a n s e n i s t d i s -pute over the B u l l U n i g e n i t u s which plagued F r e n c h p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s l i f e f o r almost h a l f a c e n t u r y . In the c o u r s e of the d i s p u t e the o r i g i n a l i s s u e between J e s u i t and J a n s e n i s t became mer e l y the f r o n t f o r what was e s s e n t i a l l y a s t r u g g l e between G a l l i c a n i s m and the f o r c e s of U l t r a m o n t a n i s m as r e p r e -s e n t e d by the J e s u i t . The a s s o c i a t i o n of t h i s r e l i g i o u s d i s p u t e w i t h the q u e s t i o n of p u b l i c o r d e r by L i n g u e t i s e n t i r e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , s i n c e the government, by t r y i n g to p r o t e c t the J e s u i t s , came under a t t a c k from the pariemen t s, who i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p h i l o s o p h e s , p r e s s u r e d L o u i s XV i n t o h a v i n g the J e s u i t o r d e r e x p e l l e d from France i n 1762. See A l f r e d Cobban, A H i s t o r y of Modern France I , 8 8-90; G e r a l d R. Cragg, The Church and the Age of Reason (1648-1789) (New Y o r k , 1961), pp. 195-199. 160 They d i d so, L i n g u e t seems to be s a y i n g , i n p u r s u i t of g a i n s i n terms of j u r i s d i c t i o n , w e a l t h and power. I t i s i m p l i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : La Robe et l e C l e r g e sont deux e t a t s u t i l e s , quand i l s sont contenus chacun dans l e u r s l i m i t e s , et q u ' i l s se b o rnent a l e u r s f o n c t i o n s . . . . 39 He i s more e x p l i c i t , however, when he p r e s e n t s these p a r l e m e n t a r y a m b i t i o n s as p a r t of a more g e n e r a l a s s a u l t upon the c h u r c h : L ' e s p r i t g e n e r a l du . s i e c l e e s t d ' a t t a q u e r l e s r i c h e s s e s de ce Corps c e l e b r e , [ t h e Roman C a t h o l i c Church] q u i a c o n s e r v e dans l e s pays C a t h o l i q u e s t a n t d ' i n f l u e n c e sur 1 ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . La j a l o u s i e a n c i enne des Compagnies de M a g i s t r a t u r e q u i , au f o n d s , n'ont j a m a i s combattu l a t i r a n n i e s a c e r d o t a l e , que pour f a i r e p r e * v a l o i r l a l e u r ; l ' a v i d i t e des C o u r t i s a n s ; l e s B e s o i n s re*els et sans cesse r e n a i s s a n s des Gouvernemens , sont a u t a n t d'ennemis achar^ne's et i n f a t i g a b l e q u i menacent l e t e m p o r e l de l ' E g l i s e . La P h i l o s o p h e moderne l e u r a f o u r n i des armes , par des r e f l e x i o n s et des arguments q u i a u r a i e n t l a me^ me f o r c e c o n t r e t o u t e espece de p o s s e s s i o n , c o n t r e t o u t e n a t u r e d ' a u t o r i t e . Les memes p e t i t s E s p r i t s , que l a s u p e r s t i t i o n r e n d o i t a u t r e f o i s f u r i e u x et q u i f a i s a i e n t ge"mir l a R e l i g i o n de l e u r e x c e s , en c r o y a n t l a s e r v i r , sont a u j o u r d ' h u i f a n t i q u e s de l a p r e -t e n d u e g l o i r e de l a r e n v e r s e r . 40 I t would seem, th e n , t h a t f o r L i n g u e t the i n t o l e r a n c e of the p a r l e m e n t s had i t s r o o t cause i n t h a t j u r i s d i c t i o n a l f l u i d i t y and o v e r l a p p i n g which accompanied a weakening of 3 9 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I I , 3. 4 0 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I , 55. 161 t h a t p r i n c i p l e of a b s o l u t e , p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y or p r o p r i e t o r -41 s h i p upon which s o c i e t y was based. A r i s i n g from and, i n t u r n , a g g r a v a t i n g t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l chaos was t h a t e s p r i t de c o r p s which L i n g u e t saw as the immediate cause of 42 i n t o l e r a n c e . The p h i l o sophes were a l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s a s s a u l t upon the c h u r c h "par des r e f l e x i o n s et des argumens q u i a u r o i e n t l a meme f o r c e c o n t r e t o u t e esp'ece de p o s s e s s i o n , c o n t r e t o u t e n a t u r e d ' a u t o r i t e . " L i n g u e t , t h e r e f o r e , made a c o n n e c t i o n between the a u t h o r i t y of the Church and the p r i n c i p l e of p r o p r i e t o r s h i p ( a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y ) which bound s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r . By p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s a s s a u l t upon the c h u r c h , the p h i l o s o p h e s were a c t i n g i n a manner p r e j u d i c i a l to the p u b l i c o r d e r and were c o n s e q u e n t l y g u i l t y of i n t o l e r a n c e . For L i n g u e t t h i s i n t o l e r a n c e m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n the p h i l o s o p h e s ' program of t o l e r a t i o n and i n t h e i r Deism. T h e i r program of t o l e r a t i o n t h r e a t e n e d the s t a t u s of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church as the e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h by c a l l i n g f o r the s u p p r e s s i o n of any d i s t i n c t i o n between c u l t s and f o r the e x t e n s i o n of e l i g i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e to 43 members of r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t i e s . By a t t a c k i n g the C a t h o l i c 41 In Chapter I I i t was mentioned t h a t L i n g u e t was c o n v i n c e d t h a t s o c i e t y became decadent i n p r o p o r t i o n to the degree of c o m p l e x i t y and c o n t r a d i c t i o n p r e s e n t i n i t s l a w s . And i t i s the laws which e s t a b l i s h the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l l i m i t s of the f a m i l y , c ommunau t e s, and c o r p o r a t i o n s and t h e i r p l a c e i n the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y ) . See L i n g u e t , T h e o r i e des l o i s  c i v i l e s , I , 13. 42 43 See Ch. I , pp. 16-18. L i n g u e t , A n n ales , I I , 115 162 Church as an i n s t i t u t i o n , by r i d i c u l i n g many of i t s d o c t r i n e s and by p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e i n Deism, the p h i l o s o p h e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y V o l t a i r e were d e s t r o y i n g o t h e r p e o p l e s ' 44 r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and t h e r e b y d i s t u r b i n g p u b l i c o r d e r . As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , t h i s a s s a u l t upon the ch u r c h and i t s a u t h o r i t y was i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h a r e j e c t i o n of t h a t s o c i a l o r d e r of which t h a t c h u r c h was an i n t e g r a l p a r t . Embodied i n t h a t s o c i a l o r d e r was t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n and h i e r a r c h i c a l c o n c e p t i o n of n a t u r e and law which the p h i l o s o p h e s had r e j e c t e d i n f a v o r of a p h i l o s o p h y c e n t r a l to which was the t h e o r y of n a t u r a l r i g h t s . The 45 campaign f i r s t f o r t o l e r a t i o n and then d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , on the one hand, and the e s p o u s a l of deism or a t h e i s m on the o t h e r hand, both f o l l o w e d from and were e s s e n t i a l to t h i s t h e o r y of n a t u r a l r i g h t s : Two o b s t a c l e s had to be overcome and two mighty enemies d e f e a t e d i f t h i s f u n d amental t h e s i s of n a t u r a l law was to g a i n a c c e p t a n c e . On the one hand, law had to a s s e r t i t s o r i g i n a l i t y and i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n -dependence of t h e o l o g y ; on the o t h e r , the pure sphere of law had to be c l e a r l y d e t e r m i n e d and s e p a r a t e d from the sphere of the s t a t e , and i t s unique n a t u r e and s p e c i f i c v a l u e had to be p r o t e c t e d from s t a t e a b s o l u -t ism. 4 6 44 L i n g u e t , Examen de V o l t a i r e , pp. 224-225. ^ " i n 1715, when L o u i s XIV d i e d , the most i m a g i n a t i v e F r e n c h a n t i c 1 e r i c a l s c o n f i n e d themselves to p r i v a t e i m p i e t y and c a l l s f o r re f o r m s w i t h i n the Church: t h e i r i d e a l was a k i n g of A n g l i c a n i s m — a f & d o n s a b l e , r e s p e c t a b l e e s t a b l i s h e d church w i t h l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l power, no p a s s i o n f o r r e p r e s s i n g the f r e e commerce of i d e a s , and no r e l i g i o u s f e r v o r . In 1788, when L o u i s XVI convoked the E s t a t e s G e n e r a l , the s u r v i v i n g p h i l o -sophes were a s k i n g f o r complete d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , a l a i c s t a t e . " P e t e r Gay, The E n l i g h t e n m e n t , p. 371. 163 The aim of the p h i l o s o p h e s , t h e r e f o r e , was to e s t a b l i s h an a u t h o r i t y f o r law and e t h i c s ( the two b e i n g i n s e p a r a b l e ) which both t r a n s c e n d e d s o c i e t y and made the i n d i v i d u a l i t s p r i m a r y c e n t r e of r e f e r e n c e . Because of the F r e n c h c h u r c h ' s i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the s t a t e and i t s i n t e g r a l p a r t i n Fr e n c h s o c i e t y , i t s defense r e q u i r e d L i n g u e t to address h i m s e l f to the b a s i c t e n e t s of the new p h i l o s o p h y . But the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of L i n g u e t ' s d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the p h i l o s o p h e s , can be g a i n e d o n l y by l o o k i n g at the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l l y C h r i s t i a n h i e r a r c h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and r e l a t i n g them to the new p h i l o s o p h y . To b e g i n w i t h , t h i s h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l o o k was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a concept of n a t u r e which i n v o l v e d the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of God. God r e i g n e d a b s o l u t e l y over a c e l e s t i a l and n a t u r a l o r d e r which was s t r u c t u r e d h i e r a r c h i c a l l y . God e x e r c i s e d t h i s dominion through the b e s t o w a l of g r a c e , the i n i t i a t i o n of m i r a c l e s , and the i s s u a n c e of r e v e l a t i o n t h r ough the Church. Opposed to t h i s c o n c e p t i o n of n a t u r e was t h a t of the p h i l o s o p h e s which c o n f i n e d God's r o l e to b e i n g t h a t of a c r e a t o r . God d i d not a c t i v e l y r e i g n over t h i s n a t u r a l o r d e r . R a t h e r , i t was governed by the laws of n a t u r e w h i c h , beyond the a c t of c r e a t i o n , e x i s t e d i n d e p e n -d e n t l y of God's w i l l . Moreover, t h e r e e x i s t e d a non-The P h i l o s o p h y of the E n l i g h t e n -K o e l l n ; James P. P e t t i g r o v e , ( P r i n c e -46 E r n s t C a s s x r e r , ment, t r a n s . F r i t z C.A. t o n , 1951), p. 238. 1 6 4 h i e r a r c h i c a l , g e o m e t r i c r e l a t e d n e s s between phenomenon i n 4 7 t h i s n a t u r a l o r d e r . A c o n c o m i t a n t of both the t r a d i t i o n a l and the e n l i g h t -enment c o n c e p t i o n s of n a t u r e was the concept of Reason. The C h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t i o n of r e a s o n denoted God's s t r u c t u r i n g of the u n i v e r s e , t h a t i s , the w i l l t h a t c o n c e i v e d t h i s s t r u c t u r e and which e x i s t e d w i t h i n i t as an a c t i v e agent. The f a c t t h a t r e a s o n i n d i c a t e d God's w i l l would seem to i m p l y a purpose or g o a l toward which t h i s w i l l was u l t i m a t e l y d i r e c t e d . Because the C h r i s t i a n view of h i s t o r y , i n i t i a t e d by the F a l l of Man, p u n c t u a t e d by the advent of C h r i s t and completed by the Second Coming, e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s g o a l as 4 8 b e i n g the s a l v a t i o n of the r i g h t e o u s , God's w i l l or 4 7 E r n s t C a s s i r e r , op. c i t . , p. 1 6 . As the e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y p r o g r e s s e d t h i s g e o m e t r i c c o n c e p t i o n of r e l a t e d n e s s gave way to a d e v e l o p m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between phenomena.!! which n e v e r t h e l e s s d i d not a g a i n i n v o l v e the concept of h i e r a r c h y . I b i d . , pp. 3 4 , 7 7 - 7 8 , 8 6 . 4 8 K a r l L o w i t h , Meaning i n H i s t o r y ( 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 1 8 3 - 1 8 4 ; See a l s o I b i d , pp. 1 1 2 - 1 1 3 . I am making the assumption t h a t , d e s p i t e v a r i a t i o n s and developments i n C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e , a c c o r d i n g to time and p l a c e , t h e r e are c e r t a i n c e n t r a l elements of t h i s d o c t r i n e which are c o n s t a n t , even i f they e x i s t o n l y as u n o b t r u s i v e a s s u m p t i o n s . One of t h e s e , I f e e l , i s the C h r i s t i a n view of h i s t o r y which K a r l L o w i t h c h a r a c t e r i z e s as f o l l o w s : "The t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e which d e t e r m i n e s t h i s f o r m a l scheme of the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s as a h i s t o r y of s a l v a t i o n i s man's s i n a g a i n s t God's w i l l and God's w i l l i n g n e s s to redeem h i s f a l l e n c r e a t i o n . I n t h i s t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e the p a t t e r n of h i s t o r y i s a move-ment p r o g r e s s i n g , and at the same time r e t u r n i n g , from a l i e n a t i o n to r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , one g r e a t d e t o u r t c re a c h i n the end the b e g i n n i n g through ever r e p e a t e d a c t s of r e b e l l i o n and s e l f - s u r r e n d e r . Man's s i n and God's s a v i n g p u r p o s e — t h e y alone r e q u i r e and j u s t i f y h i s t o r y as such, and h i s t o r i c a l t ime. Without o r i g i n a l s i n and f i n a l r e -demption the h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r i m would be u n n e c e s s a r y and u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . " r e a s o n ( i f you w i l l ) was seen as an e t h i c a l or m o r a l con-49 c e p t . Understood as a human f a c u l t y , i t r e f e r r e d to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n n a t e m o r a l knowledge or h i s c o n s c i e n c e . T h i s f a c u l t y of r e a s o n d i d not a l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l to grasp the p r i n c i p l e s which l a y b e h i n d the i n t e r - r e l a t e d -ness of n a t u r a l phenomenon. Such p r i n c i p l e s were of the w i l l of God and t h e r e f o r e i n s c r u t a b l e . Only through r e v e l a t i o n and grace c o u l d one a c h i e v e a more i n t i m a t e knowledge of God and h i s w i l l . " ^ For the ph i l o s ophes , however, " r e a s o n " e x p r e s s e d the g e o m e t r i c a l r e l a t e d n e s s of phenomena and the b e l i e f t h a t human i n t e l l i g e n c e e x i s t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h a t o r d e r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , " r e a s o n " as a human f a c u l t y was man's a b i l i t y to d i s c o v e r the laws of n a t u r e through em-p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . T h i s concept of r e a s o n , a l t h o u g h i t grew out of p h e n o m e n a l i s t p s y c h o l o g y , went one s t a g e beyond i t : where Locke d i s t i n g u i s h e d two phases i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , s e n s a t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n , the p h i l o s o p h e s combined 5 2 these i n t o one. To have a knowledge of n a t u r a l phenomena (of which man was a p a r t ) was to comprehend the ways of n a t u r e . T h i s was the meaning of e n l i g h t e n m e n t 49 R.R. Palmer, op. c i t . , p. 207. .P. D ' E n t r e v e s , N a t u r a l Law: an h i s t o r i c a l s u r v ey (New York, Torchback E d i t i o n , 1965), pp. 40-41, 45. 51 C a s s i r e r , op . c i t . , pp. v i i i , 55, 65-67. 5 2 I b i d . , pp. 14-15 , 17 . 166 The e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s concept of r e a s o n were i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the d i s a g r e e m e n t on whether the s a l v a t i o n or temporal p e r f e c t i o n of man was the purpose u n d e r l y i n g h i s t o r y . The c h u r c h h e l d as a c C O r o l l a r y of i t s d o c t r i n e of o r i g i n a l s i n t h a t man c o u l d not a t t a i n s a l v a t i o n except through the grace of God. D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the C a t h o l i c Church and e s p e c i a l l y the J e s u i t s , had, i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , been moving s t e a d i l y toward a M o l i n i s t p o i n t of view which maximized the area i n which 5 3 the f r e e w i l l of man was o p e r a t i v e , the Church c o u l d not abandon t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . To do so would be to deny the Church's r o l e as a v e h i c l e of God's r e v e l a t i o n and g r a c e , 54 t h a t i s , to deny i t s a u t h o r i t y . T h i s a u t h o r i t y was d e n i e d by the p h i l o s o p h e s 1 b e l i e f i n the p e r f e c t a b i l i t y of man t h rough e n l i g h t e n m e n t . The c h u r c h a t t r i b u t e d to man an i n n a t e knowledge of C h r i s t i a n m o r a l s w h i l e p l a c i n g s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n s upon h i s unaided a b i l i t y to comprehend the laws of n a t u r e , t h a t i s , the w i l l of God, or to g a i n a more i n t i m a t e knowledge of God. The p h i l o s o p h e s , on the o t h e r hand, tended to d i s m i s s the e x i s t e n c e of any such i n n a t e knowledge w h i l e at the same time b e l i e v i n g i n man's i n f i n i t e c a p a c i t y f o r g a i n i n g 53 54 R.R. Palmer, op . c i t . , pp. 31-39 I b i d . , p. 221 . knowledge c o n c e r n i n g n a t u r a l phenomena (of which knowledge of s e l f was c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t s i n c e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y man was c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e g r a l p a r t of n a t u r e . ) ^ G i v e n phenomenon i s t p s y c h o l o g y , to have knowledge of n a t u r a l phenomena was to have a knowl Ige of the p r i n c i p l e s b ehind t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s . ^ To the C h r i s t i a n concept of s a l v a t i o n the p h i l o s o p h e s opposed t h a t of human p e r f e c t -i b i l i t y . There was another d i m e n s i o n i n t h i s c o n f l i c t between the c o n c e p t s of the s a l v a t i o n and the p e r f e c t i b i l i t y of man i n which more was at s t a k e than the a u t h o r i t y of the c h u r c h . The i d e a of s a l v a t i o n d i d not r e q u i r e the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of man's environment s i n c e i t made the r e l a t i o n s h i p between God and the i n d i v i d u a l paramount and a l l o t h e r s s e c o n d a r y . ^ In t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p the i n d i v i d u a l was a b s t r a c t e d from h i s e n v ironment. The b e l i e f i n the p e r f e c t i b i l i t y of man, however, was based on the assumption t h a t man e x i s t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of n a t u r e : human and s o c i a l p e r f e c t -i b i l i t y went hand i n hand. The b e l i e f i n the p e r f e c t -i b i l i t y of man posed a t h r e a t to the a n c i e n regime by p r o -v i d i n g an ethos f o r both an e t h i c a l and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The purpose which l a y behind t h i s g e n e r a l r e o r i e n t a -t i o n of t h i n k i n g was two f o l d : (a) the e s t a b l i s h m e n t 55 C a s s i r e r , op. c i t . , p. 25. ^ H e n r y G u e r l a c , op. c i t . , p. 333 ; C a s s i r e r , op . c i t . , pp. 21-22, 65. 168 of a system of e t h i c s which was not a r b i t r a r y but based r a t h e r on the f a c t s of human n a t u r e ; (b) the c r e a t i o n of an awareness" of an a l t e r n a t i v e to the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r , one i n which the laws g o v e r n i n g i t would no l o n g e r be a r b i t r a r y but which would a g a i n be based upon the f a c t s of 5 8 human n a t u r e and more g e n e r a l l y upon the laws of n a t u r e . What e s t a b l i s h e d the p r e v a i l i n g system of e t h i c s and s o c i a l o r d e r as a r b i t r a r y was the f a c t t h a t t h e i r purpose d i d not p r o v i d e f o r the w e l f a r e and the s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the c h u r c h has a s c r i b e d to man an i n n a t e sense of what was m o r a l l y r i g h t and had extended the bounds w i t h i n which f r e e w i l l was o p e r a t i v e , the d o c t r i n e of o r i g i n a l s i n , w i t h i t s c o n c e p t i o n of human n a t u r e as b a s i c a l l y c o r r u p t , remained. Human n a t u r e was a t be s t a f a c t to be accept e d and d e a l t w i t h i n the i n t e r e s t of a t t a i n i n g s a l v a t i o n f o r the s o u l through the Grace of God; i t was c e r t a i n l y not the b a s i s upon which to b u i l d a system of e t h i c s . S a l v a t i o n i n v o l v e d n e i t h e r the t e m p o r a l s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n of nor the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the s o c i a l o r d e r but r a t h e r the i n d i v i d u a l s o u l ' s t r a n s c e n d e n c e (and t h e r e f o r e r e -j e c t i o n ) of a c o r r u p t e d human n a t u r e and the human c o n d i t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , a s o c i a l o r d e r i n which v e s t i g i a l and modern i n s t i t u t i o n s w e l t e r e d i n j u r i s d i c t i o n a l chaos, where f e u d a l p r i v i l e g e s had o u t l i v e d the s o c i e t y which had g i v e n "* 7In C h r i s t i a n i t y the h i s t o r y of s a l v a t i o n i s r e l a t e d to the s a l v a t i o n of each s i n g l e s o u l , r e g a r d l e s s of r a c i a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s . . . ." K a r l L o w i t h , op . c i t . , p. 195. 5 8 J ? e t e r Gay, The P a r t y of Humanity, pp. 19, 124, 129, 135 . b i r t h to them, where these privileges were enjoyed by a minority at the expense of the majority of the population, was not unjustly considered a r b i t r a r y and having no basis i n reason. The s o c i a l hierarchy embracing as i t did so many contradictions and inconsist-encies and which bore no r e l a t i o n to the needs or potential of the in d i v i d u a l stood as a sharp denial of what had been concluded from the discoveries of the sciences and from the phenomenalist psychology of the eighteenth century.^ 9 This iniquitous s o c i a l order was upheld against change by the t r a d i t i o n a l Christian world view i n which this order necessarily had to be r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l , s t a t i c , and s o c i a l l y rather than i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d , since i t was bound together by a chain of authority leading ultimately to God. The Monarch, as God's temporal agent, was bound to uphold and carry out God's w i l l made i t s e l f known was, aside from being a r e l i g i o u s authority, also an indispensable bulwark of, and participant i n , the monarch's authority. From this source a l l authority emanated. Delegated authority was secure only i f that of the church, the monarchy and ultimately that of God was accepted on f a i t h . On the other hand a f a i l u r e to respect the absolute nature of the authority Cassirer, op. c i t . , p. 26. e x e r c i s e d w i t h i n the f a m i l y , the communau te or the c o r p o r -a t i o n would have i t s r e p e r c u s s i o n s on the a u t h o r i t y of crown, c h u r c h and God. To q u e s t i o n or to c o n t r a v e n e any of these l e v e l s of a u t h o r i t y was to j e o p a r d i z e the s o c i a l o r d e r . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l t o u c h s t o n e s of the e n l i g h t e n m e n t c h a l l e n g e d not o n l y the a u t h o r i t y of the c h u r c h but the v a l i d i t y of what was h e l d to be an a r b i t r a r y e t h i c a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . A defense of the churc h and the e t h i c a l , and s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l environment of which i t was a p a r t r e q u i r e d a r e f u t a t i o n of the t h e o r y of n a t u r a l r i g h t and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t c o n c e p t i o n of n a t u r e , r e a s o n , and human p e r f e c t -i b i l i t y . One of the c a r d i n a l p o i n t s L i n g u e t s e t out to make i n h i s T h e o r i e des l o i s c i v i l e . ? i s the f a c t t h a t the laws of s o c i e t y bear no r e l a t i o n to n a t u r a l l a w . ^ In t h i s i n s t a n c e , L i n g u e t d i d not employ the term n a t u r a l law to mean a body of law emanating from and i n no way and a t no time e n j o y i n g a d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e from God. Rather he was r e f e r r i n g to the e n l i g h t e n m e n t t h e o r y of n a t u r a l r i g h t s , the a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l which were based upon and drew t h e i r a u t h o r i t y from the laws of n a t u r e . These r i g h t s were an i n t e g r a l p a r t of n a t u r a l law by the v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t man was h i m s e l f an i n t e g r a l p a r t of n a t u r e . The c e n t r a l l i n k i n the c h a i n of r e a s o n i n g which proceeded from the above assumption to the b e l i e f i n the ^ S e e Chapter I I , pp. 20-24. p e r f e c t i b i l i t y of man was t h a t t e n e t of the phenomena1ist p s y c h o l o g y of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y which m a i n t a i n e d t h a t to p e r c e i v e was to comprehend. E n l i g h t e n m e n t l e d to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s e l f , of n a t u r e and, t h e r e f o r e , to a harmon i z a t i o n between one's p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f , one's m o r a l s and one's a c t i o n s w i t h the laws of n a t u r e . To q u e s t i o n t h i s e p i s t g m o l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was to s t r i k e a t the h e a r t of the a s p i r a t i o n s of e n l i g h t e t l m e i t p h i l o s o p h y • T h i s L i n g u e t d i d : Que c o n n a i s s o n s nous de l a n a t u r e , e t dans l a n a t u r e ? Des e f f e t s , et encore y en a - t - i l b i e n peu q u i ne p u s s e n t o c c a s i o n e r des d i s p u t e s . Le s e u l b a t o n q u i nous a i t e t e donne pour nous con-d u i r e dans ces t e n e b r e s , 1 ' e x p e r i e n c e , engendre encore des q u e r r e l e s . I I n'y a p o i n t d ' i m p o s t u r e q u i ne l ' a i t eue pour s o i , p o i n t d ' e r r e u r q u ' e l l e n ' a i t j u s t i f i e e d'abord. Ce qu'on a p p e l l e l e p r o g r e s des l u m i e r e s , n ' e s t souvent qu'une v a r i a -t i o n de p r e j u g e s . Les d e r n i e r s c i t e n t des f a i t s , comme ceux q u ' i l s d e t r u i s e n t ; et malgre c e t t e p i e r r e de t o u c h e , s i s u r e en a p p a r e n c e , i l f a u t presque en t o u t en r e v e n i r au fameux q u e - s a i s - j e ? 61 Not o n l y does man's r e a s o n have s t r i c t q u a l i t a t i v e l i m i t a -t i o n s , but i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s l i m i t e d . . . . p a r c e que des tous l e s a c t e s de l ' e s p r i t humain l a r e f l e x i o n e s t p e u t - e t r e l e p l u s r a r e , ou du m o i n S l e p l u s subordonne a l ' h a b i t u d e . 62 61 A nnale s, V, 157 62 A n n a l e s , I I I , 114. More i m p o r t a n t , however, are the dangers i n h e r e n t i n the use of the human i n t e l l e c t : Mais l ' o r g a n e l e p l u s n e c e s s a i r e et l e p l u s p r e c i e u x , c e l u i q u i donne a l'homme" un des d r o i t s de l a d i v i n i t e , e s t a u s s i p r e c i s e m e n t c e l u i dont l ' u s a g e , meme modere, peut amener l e p l u s de r e g r e t et de remords. I I ne f a u t qu'un i n s t a n t pour empoisonner l a v i e l a p l u s r e g l e e . 63 L i n g u e t c o n s i d e r e d t h i s b e l i e f i n e n l i g h t e n m e n t as a v e h i c l e f o r the r e g e n e r a t i o n of s o c i e t y on the assum p t i o n t h a t such a p r o c e s s would i n v o l v e a w e l l o r g a n i z e d , s e n s i b l e c i t i z e n r y . . L i n g u e t doubted whether . . l e p e u p l e , ce peuple que vous c r o y e z e s s e n t i e l d ' e c l a i r e r , et q u ' i l e s t au moins t r e s i m p o r t a n t de c o n t e n i r , ce peuple pour q u i t o u t e s t t e n t a t i o n , parceque dans sa v i e t o u t e s t p r i v a t i o n ; ce peuple q u i n'a pas une minute sans b e s o i n s , et un mouvement sans, c o n t r a i n t e , s e r a - t - i l c a p a b l e des memes r e f l e x -i o n s et des memes managements 64 65 as the i d e a l type of c i t i z e n r y e n v i s a g e d by the p h i l o s o p h e s . The a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge which God d i d not i n t e n d them to have would c r e a t e g r e a t d i s c o n t e n t and t h r e a t e n the s o c i a l o r d e r s i n c e such knowledge would r e v e a l the a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y . T h i s a r b i t r a r i n e s s of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y was based 6 3 L i n g u e t , La Cacamonade, h i s t o i r e p o l i t i q u e et m o r a l e , t r a d u i t e de allemande . du d o c t e u r P a n g l o s s , par l e d o c t e u r  lui-meme d e p u i s son r e t o u r de C o n s t a n t i n o p l e (Cologne, 1766), p . 21 . 64 L i n g u e t , Examen de V o l t a i r e , p. 235. ^Cacomonade, pp. 22-23. on the assumption t h a t i t was incumbent upon s o c i e t y to up-h o l d the n a t u r a l r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t ceased to be a r b i t r a r y i f i t c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d to the w i l l of God. For t h i s r e a s o n the Church, at once the v e h i c l e of the w i l l of God and an ' i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h i s s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , by b r i n g -i n g the p e o p l e to a c c e p t i t s a u t h o r i t y through r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , was the most e f f i c a c i o u s means of r e c o n c i l i n g the people to t h e i r l o t i n s o c i e t y . The C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n f u l f i l l e d a s o c i a l purpose which was at l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t as i t s e x c l u s i v e l y r e l i g i o u s one: J ' a i t o u j o u r s c r u et d i t q u ' i l a e t a i t permis aux. P r e t r e s de p a r l e r aux c o n s c i e n c e s que pour l e s r a p p e l l e r a l a p a i x , a l a r e s i g n a t i o n ! V o i l a uniquement p o u r q u o i e l l e a fe'te' c r e e . 66 I t was f o r t h i s r e a s o n and not out of any genuine r e l i g i o u s attachment to the Church i n France t h a t L i n g u e t came to i t s d e f e n s e . A l t h o u g h L i n g u e t was d o u b t l e s s w i t h i n the p a l e of C a t h o l i c o r t h o d o x y , the i n t e n s i t y of h i s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s was, a t the most, moderate. Nowhere d i d L i n g u e t defend c h u r c h d o c t r i n e , e x c l u s i v e l y as r e l i g i o u s t r u t h : i t was always d e a l t w i t h as a f u n c t i o n of the church's a u t h o r i t y , t h a t i s , of the church's s o c i a l u t i l i t y . M oreover, L i n g u e t was c e r t a i n l y not an u n e q u i v o c a l f r i e n d of the c l e r g y : he had n o t h i n g but contempt f o r the m o n a s t i c o r d e r s ; ^ he 6 6 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , X V I I I (1791), 360 ^ L i n g u e t , Anna 1 e s , I I , 406. 174 d e s p i s e d the upper c l e r g y f o r b e i n g p a r a s i t i c a l and, worse, 6 8 f o r b e i n g the most p o w e r f u l a u x i l i a r i e s of the p h i l o s o p h e s . Only f o r the cures " . . . p a r t a g e a n t a l o r s l a b a s s e s s e de l a p a r t i e du peuple aupres de l a q u e l l e i l s e t a i e n t l e 6 9 p l u s employes . . . ." d i d he have any r e g a r d . I t was through the v i l l a g e cure t h a t the c h u r c h was f u l f i l l i n g i t s r o l e i n s o c i e t y , a r o l e which was more one of p o l i c e than of r e l i g i o n . The c u r e s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the i m p o v e r i s h e d masses to t h e i r l o t i n s o c i e t y , f i r s t , by t e a c h i n g a c c e p t a n c e of the h a r d s h i p s of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e as a n s w e r i n g the w i l l of God, and s e c o n d l y , by o f f e r i n g them the hope of e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n . ^ The r o l e of the c l e r g y was e s p e c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y because of the l a t e n t antagonism i n s o c i e t y between the p r o p r i e t o r c l a s s and t h a t c l a s s which had o n l y i t s l a b o u r upon which to r e l y : P a r t o u t se d e p l o y e , sans t r o p s de m y s t e r e , l a grande q u e r e l l e , 1 ' i n t a r i s s a b l e q u e r e l l e de ceux q u i ' n ' o n t r i e n , c o n t r e ceux q u i ont quelque chose: ce denue-ment d'un c o t e , c e t t e abondance de l ' a u t r e , e s t un f r u i t n e c e s s a i r e de 1 ' e t a t s o c i a l . I I n'y a p o i n t de s o c i e t e s i l a s u b s i s t a n c e de l a p l u s nombreuse p o r t i o n des i n d i v i d u s q u i l a composent, ne depend pas d'un t r a v a i l j o u r n a l i e r . Ce p r i n c i p e e s t v r a i , i l es t i n c o n t e s t a b l e : i l en r e s u l t e dan tous l e s c o e u r s dont i l semble e t e r n i s e r l a dependance, un fond i n e x t i n g u i. rbl.e. 1 e de r e s s en t <\ men t , dont l e s e u l but des l o i x e s t de c o n t e n i r sans c e s s e 1 ' e x p l o s i o n . 71 6 8 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , IX, (1780), 121; XVII (1790), 406 69 L i n g u e t , Anna1e s, I X , 121. 7 ^ I b i d . , 120; L i n g u e t , Examen de V o l t a i r e , 2 3 9. 175 T h i s concept of the l a t e n t c l a s s s t r u g g l e was a n a t u r a l o u t -growth of L i n g u e t ' s t h e o r y of the o r i g i n s of s o c i e t y as set down i n T h e o r i e des l o i s c i v i l e s . S o c i e t y was the pr o d u c t of an. a c t of conquest as o r d a i n e d by God. A r i s i n g out of t h i s a c t of co n q u e s t , the i n s t i t u t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y was the b a s i s of the s o c i a l o r d e r . The a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n and the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y of which 7 2 i t formed the b a s i s had to be c o n c e a l e d from the masses. T h i s t a s k was most ef f icAc\OUsly and b e n i g n l y a c h i e v e d by the ch u r c h w o r k i n g through the c u r e . Because a l l forms of a u t h o r i t y i n s o c i e t y were i n t e r -7 3 r e l a t e d , the c h u r c h , by t e a c h i n g s u b m i s s i o n to the w i l l of God, and the ac c e p t a n c e of i t s a u t h o r i t y as the s o l e v e h i c l e f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s w i l l , was a b l e to s e c u r e the adherence of the masses to a l l l e v e l s of a u t h o r i t y . By thus imbuing the masses w i t h a prop e r r e s p e c t f o r the "moeurs" of s o c i e t y , the ch u r c h p r o v i d e d a means f o r e n s u r i n g t h e i r observance at a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y : 7 1 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , XVI (1790), 529. 7 2 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , X V I I I , 484. 7 3 L i n g u e t , Examen de V o l t a i r e , p. 233. 176 La R e l i g i o n , malgre sa decadence, malgre ses o u t -rages dont l ' a c c a b l e une p h i l o s o p h i e peu r e f l e c h i e , rend encore aux moeurs un s e r v i c e que c e t t e p h i l o s o p h i e ne l e u r r e n d r o i t pas; e l l e l e s s o u t i e n t : e l l e n o u r r i t l e p r e j u g e des p e t i t s q u i s e r t de f r e i n aux gran d s ; c a r , q u o i q u ' i l s o i t v r a i de d i r e que l a c o r r u p t i o n passe des seconds aux p r e m i e r s , i l ne l ' e s t pas moins quS- l a censure de ceux — c i e s t un o b s t a c l e q u i r e t a r d e l a d e p r a v a t i o n des a u t r e s . 74. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the "moeurs" of s o c i e t y , the fundamental laws of the r e a l m , as the e x p r e s s i o n of God's w i l l , a c t e d as a r e s t r a i n t not o n l y upon the masses but upon a l l l e v e l s of the s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y , i n c l u d i n g the K i n g h i m s e l f . Indeed i t was e s s e n t i a l f o r monarchs to r e c o g n i z e God as a power s u p e r -i o r to themselves and to whom they were r e s p o n s i b l e . Only i n t h i s way might k i n g s be moved to observe the l i m i t s e s t a b l i s h e d by the fundamental laws of the re a l m upon t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . ^ T h e r e f o r e , by s e r v i n g as the agent f o r God's w i l l w i t h i n the s o c i a l o r d e r , the ch u r c h a c t e d as a second m a g i s t r a t u r e , one i n f a c t , w h i c h was more e f f a c i o u s and 7 6 b e n i g n than i t s c o u n t e r p a r t of the "Robe". A n n a l e s , I , 75. L i n g u e t i s coming v e r y c l o s e here to the T h o m i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n of the r i g h t of r e s i s t a n c e : Man i s bound to obey s e c u l a r r u l e r s to the e x t e n t t h a t the or d e r of j u s t i c e r e q u i r e s . For t h i s r e a s o n i f such r u l e r s have no j u s t t i t l e to power, but have usurped i t , or i f they command t h i n g s to be done which are u n j u s t , t h e i r s u b j e c t s are not o b l i g e d to obey them, except perhaps i n c e r t a i n s p e c i a l c a s e s , when i t i s a mat t e r of a v o i d i n g s c a n d a l or some p a r t i c u l a r danger. Summa Th e o l e g i Cet: , l a 2ae, 95, 2. C i t e d i n A.P. D'En t r e v e s , N a t u r a l Law: an h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y , p. 43. L i n g u e t , L i n g u e t , Examen de V o l t a i r e , 226. A n n a l e s , I X , 124; X V I I I , 359 . 177 The church's r o l e as m a g i s t r a t u r e was based on the assumption t h a t a l l forms of a u t h o r i t y were i n t e r r e l a t e d . T h i s i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s e x i s t e d because of t h a t u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e u n i t i n g s o c i e t y , p r o p r i e t o r s h i p , o r , as L i n g u e t saw i t , a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y , which was the b a s i s of the f u ndamental and p o s i t i v e laws of the r e a l m . T h i s con-c e p t i o n of s o c i e t y , a l t h o u g h e x p r e s s e d by L i n g u e t i n a r a t h e r o r i g i n a l f a s h i o n , was an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n p o s i t i o n w hich u n d e r s t o o d e v e r y t h i n g i n terms of h i e r a r c h y ; and i t was the w a n i n g 7 7 of both the c o n c e p t i o n and r e a l i t y of a r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t y which l e n t such urgency to L i n g u e t ' s d i s p u t e s w i t h not o n l y the p h i l o s o p h e s , but w i t h the phy s i o c r a t s and the p a r l e m e n t a i r e s . L i n g u e t ' s condemnation of the ph i l o s o phe s and p a r l e m e n t a i r e s f o r i n t o l e r a n c e , a term he equates w i t h the d i s r u p t i o n of p u b l i c o r d e r , s h o u l d be seen as more than an i n g e n i o u s , a l t h o u g h e x t r a v a g a n t , e x e r c i s e i n s e m a n t i c s . For L i n g u e t , the anc i e n regime, l a b o r i n g under l i t e r a r y , m o r a l and p o l i t i c a l decadence, and l i v i n g i n the shadow of the imminent e r u p t i o n " . . . what T r o e l t s c h has c a l l e d the 'church d i r e c t e d c i v i l i z a t i o n ' was c r u m b l i n g . C h r i s t i a n s l i v e d by the image of h i e r a r c h y : as God, h i s a n g e l s , and h i s c r e a t u r e s were arr a n g e d i n an o r d e r of r a n k , so by ana l o g y the s k i e s , the f a m i l y , the law, s o c i e t y and the c h u r c h were n a t u r a l l y h i e r -a r c h i c a l . Now as n a t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s demonstrated t h a t the h i e r a r c h i e s of t e r r e s t r i a l and c e l e s t i a l m o t i o n , or the spheres of the heavens were a b s u r d , o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s were e x p o s i n g the a b s u r d i t y of o t h e r h i e r a r c h i e s . " P e t e r Gay, P a r t y of  Human i t y, p. 120. 178 78 of h i t h e r t o l a t e n t c l a s s a n t a g o n i s m s , was v e r y v u l n e r a b l e to any f o r c e , whether i n t e l l e c t u a l , p o l i t i c a l or economic, which was f o r e i g n to i t s n a t u r e . I t was because of t h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t h a t L i n g u e t chose to defend the a u t h o r i t y of a c h u r c h toward which he d i d not seem to have any g r e a t r e l i g i o u s attachment but which stood as a bulwark of s o c i a l 79 o r d e r a g a i n s t anarchy and d e s p o t i s m . E n t h u s i a s m f o r E n g l i s h I n s t i t u t i o n s  And P a r l e m e n t a r y A m b i t i o n s That which belongs e s s e n t i a l l y and u n i q u e l y to r e a s o n and which c o n s e q u e n t l y i s u n i f o r m among a l l p e o p l e s i s our duty toward our own kind . C o n s c i o u s -ness of t h i s duty i s what one c a l l s m o r a l i t y . . . . Few s c i e n c e s have a more e x t e n s i v e o b j e c t and p r i n -c i p l e s more s u s c e p t i b l e of c o n v i n c i n g p r o o f s . A l l these p r i n c i p l e s meet i n a common p o i n t , c o n c e r n i n g which i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d e l u d e o u r s e l v e s ; they tend to p r o c u r e f o r us the s u r e s t means of b e i n g happy by showing us the i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n between our t r u e i n t e r e s t and the performance of our duty S o c i e t i e s owe t h e i r b i r t h to p u r e l y human m o t i v e s ; r e l i g i o n had no p a r t i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l f o r m a t i o n . . . . The p h i l o s o p h e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y f o r p l a c i n g man i n s o c i e t y and l e a d i n g him t h e r e ; i t i s the m i s s i o n a r y ' s t a s k then to b r i n g him to the f o o t of the a l t a r . 80 7 8 L i n g u e t , Anna1e s, I , 102, 345. 7 9 •* "Vous v o u l e z d e t r u i r e l e s a c e r d o c e ! Vous ne v o u l e z que des m a g i s t r a t s et de s o l d a t s . " L i n g u e t , Examen de  V o l t a i r e , p. 225. 8 0 D'Alembert, Elements de P h i l o s o p h i e , s e c t . v i i , Melanges de L i t t e r a t u r e , v o l . i v , p.. 79. C i t e d i n E r n s t C a s s i r e r , The P h i l o s o p h y of the E n l i g h t e n m e n t , p. 248. 1 7 9 As t h i s c i t a t i o n i m p l i e s , t h e r e i s a hope t h a t a new system of e t h i c s and a r e n o v a t e d s o c i a l o r d e r w i l l produce a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between two h i t h e r t o d i v e r g e n t demands, t h a t on b e h a l f of human freedom and t h a t on b e h a l f of p u b l i c o r d e r . Man's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y can be a c h i e v e d w i t h -out p l a c i n g e x t e r n a l r e s t r a i n t s upon him i f the s o c i a l o r d e r i s i n harmony w i t h the laws of n a t u r e , t h a t i s , i f t h i s o r d e r r e f l e c t s the laws t h a t govern human n a t u r e . The a t t a i n m e n t of t h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s o n l y p o s s i b l e through the p r o c e s s of e n l i g h t e n m e n t . A n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n of t h i s p r o c e s s 8 1 i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t r u e freedom of th o u g h t , which embraces freedom of speech (or freedom to i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s ) and freedom of r e l i g i o n . As a r e s u l t of t h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , the laws w i l l s e r v e not as e x t e r n a l r e s t r a i n t s upon the w i l l of the i n d i v i d u a l : they w i l l r e a f f i r m t h i s i d e n t i t y Of i n t e r e s t s between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . T h i s can o n l y be so i f the laws are based upon and e n s h r i n e c e r t a i n n a t u r a l and i n a l i e n a b l e human r i g h t s : those of p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y , p r o p e r t y , e q u a l i t y b e f o r e the law, and the r i g h t of eve r y 8 2 c i t i z e n to h o l d governmental o f f i c e . a r o s e from the f a c t t h a t the p h i l o s o p h e s h e l d England up as an example of a s t a t e whose s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d freedom The c o n n e c t i o n between Angloman i a and t h i s program 8 1 E r n s t C a s s i r e r , op. c i t . 2 5 2 . » P • - 8 2 I b i d . 2 5 2 . , P • 180 as the p h i l o s o p h e s d e f i n e d i t . There were, however, two s c h o o l s of thought amongst the p h i l o sophes. One, which i n -c l u d e d V o l t a i r e , H e l v e t i u s and C o n d o r c e t , w h i l e not w h o l l y u n a p p r e c i a t i v e of the B r i t i s h system of government, p l a c e d p r i m a r y emphasis upon E n g l i s h c i v i l l i b e r t i e s — freedom of speech, freedom of w o r s h i p and s e c u r i t y from a r b i t r a r y a r r e s t , t r i a l and imprisonment as guaranteed by B r i t i s h law and by 8 3 the B r i t i s h j u r y system. A second body of o p i n i o n , whose c h i e f spokesman was M o n t e s q u i e u , showed p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n the B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n as the embodiment of the p r i n -c i p l e of the s e p a r a t i o n of powers, as the g u a r a n t o r of the p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t y of E n g l i s h m e n . For both s c h o o l s , l i b e r t y i n v o l v e d the p r o t e c t i o n of man's r i g h t s ; i t was o n l y over the means of g u a r a n t e e i n g these r i g h t s t h a t they d i f f e r e d . For b o t h , however, freedom r e q u i r e d an e m a n c i p a t i o n from t h a t form of s t a t e a b s o l u t i s m whose a u t h o r i t y was i n e x t r i c a b l y 84 dependent upon the a u t h o r i t y of the c h u r c h . C o n s e r v a t i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , were o b l i g e d to defend the t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l o r d e r by a t t a c k i n g the p h i l o s o p h e s on two f r o n t s , q u e s t i o n i n g the r e a l i t y of both the p o l i t i c a l and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s of the E n g l i s h . L i n g u e t waged h i s war a g a i n s t A nglomania, c h i e f l y , by a t t a c k i n g 8 3 D. W i l l i a m s , "French O p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g the E n g l i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n i n the 18th C e n t u r y " , Economies, X (1930), 297. 84 See A. Cobban, D i c t a t o r s h i p : I t s H i s t o r y and Theory (New York, 1939), pp. 35, 41; C a s s i r e r , op. c i t . , p. 238. 181 the second body of o p i n i o n , t h a t which endorsed the s e p a r a -t i o n of powers as s e t down by Montesquieu i n h i s E s p r i t des l o i s , because i t p r o v i d e d a r a t i o n a l e f o r the p a r l e m e n t a r y 8 5 a s s a u l t upon the a u t h o r i t y of the crown. Because of the i n c r e a s i n g l y v o c i f e r o u s n a t u r e of t h i s a s s a u l t upon the crown which s t o o d , i n L i n g u e t ' s mind, as the paramount te m p o r a l embodiment of t h a t p r i n c i p l e of a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y which bound s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r and because of L i n g u e t ' s i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the parlement s, the a m b i t i o n s of the m a g i s t r a t u r e must have appeared to him as b e i n g the most c o n c r e t e and imminent t h r e a t to the a n c i e n , . 86 reg ime. L i n g u e t ' s c r i t i q u e of the s e p a r a t i o n of powers t h e s i s sprang from the g e n e r a l c o n s e r v a t i v e view t h a t the B r i t i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n was much more c o m p l i c a t e d i n r e a l i t y than i n t h e o r y . T h i s body of o p i n i o n h e l d t h a t the b a l a n c e of powers i n the B r i t i s h body p o l i t i c was always p r e c a r i o u s : i t might e a s i l y be i n c l i n e d towards the crown, p r o d u c i n g r o y a l des-8 5 ^ - * ». -„(Montesquieu) a p r e f e r e a e t a b l i r e n t r ' eux ( t h e e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e powers) une i n c o m p a t i b i l i t e , a f i n q u ' i l en r e s t a t au moins un a sa chere Robe . . . ." L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , XVI, 312. 86 T h i s urgency i s , born out by the f o l l o w i n g comment by L i n g u e t upon the a m b i t i o n s of the p a r l e m e n t s : " . . . c e t t e a p t i t u d e a d e n a t u r e r l e s f o n c t i o n s des O f f i c e s , c e t t e f a c i l i t e a c o n f o n d r e l e s t i t r e s , c e t t e h a r d i e s s e a u s u r p e r des d r o i t s sont assurement un des p l u s grands abus et un des p l u s grands dangers de 1 ' e x i s t e n c e a c t u e l l e de l a M a g i s -t r a t u r e en F r a n c e . C'est un de ceux q u i e x i g e r a i e n t l a p l u s p r o m p t e e t l a p l u s a c t i v e r e f o r m e . " L i n g u e t , La France p l u s  q u ' a n g l a i s e . , p . 8 7. 182 p o t i s m , or i t might be i n c l i n e d to f a v o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e s p o t i s m , — t h e l a t t e r b e i n g by f a r the worse e v e n t u a l i t y s i n c e i t was assumed t h a t the t y r a n n y of 8 7 many was worse than t h a t of a few. T h i s i n s t a b i l i t y a c counted f o r the f a c t i o u s n e s s and c o r r u p t i o n of B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l l i f e . 8 8 L i n g u e t shared the c o n s e r v a t i v e d i s t a s t e f o r the f a c t i o u s n e s s and d e s p o t i c p r o c l i v i t i e s of the B r i t i s h system 89 of government. He c o n s i d e r e d such t e n d e n c i e s as b e i n g p r e s e n t i n B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l l i f e not as a r e s u l t of any s e p a r a t i o n of powers, however. Rather the B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t c o n s t i t u t e d a s i n g l e c o r p o r a t i o n ( c o r p s ) c o m p r i s i n g t h r e e p a r t s — the K i n g , the House of Lords and the House of 90 Commons, which were d i s t i n c t and y e t i n s e p a r a b l e . S i n c e i t was p a r l i a m e n t w i t h i n which s o v e r e i g n t y r e s i d e d and not w i t h i n any one of i t s c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s , t h e r e was a c o n s t a n t c o n t e s t among the l a t t e r f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h i s s o v e r e i g n t y 91 through c o n t r o l of p a r l i a m e n t . 8 7 Fra n c e s Acomb, A n g l o p h o b i a i n F r a n c e , 1763-1789;  an essay i n the h i s t o r y of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m and n a t i o n a l i s m (Durham, 1950), pp. 22-23. 8 8 I b i d . , p. 76; W i l l i a m s , op. c i t . , 301-302. 8 9 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I , 294, 369-370. 9 0 L i n g u e t , Anna1es , I , 369-370 ; La France p l u s qu' a n g l a i s , p. 131. 91 L i n g u e t , Annale s, I , 369-370. Of the t h r e e p a r t s t h a t shared t h i s s o v e r e i g n t y , i t was the crown w h i c h , i f not the most p o w e r f u l , was, i n f a c t , p o t e n t i a l l y so by v i r t u e of the powers a t t r i b u t e d to i t by the c o n s t i t u t i o n . Whereas n e i t h e r the House of L o r d s nor the House of Commons had the r i g h t to depose ( l e d e s t i t u e r ) the k i n g , the k i n g had the r i g h t to d i s s o l v e b o t h houses of p a r l i a m e n t a t h i s p l e a s u r e , a r i g h t which L i n g u e t f e l t gave 92 the crown both l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e powers. The k i n g was, a c c o r d i n g to the law, i n f a l l i b l e ; o n l y h i s m i n i s t e r s 93 were c o n s i d e r e d c u l p a b l e or c o u l d be impeached. A c c o r d i n g to c r i m i n a l law most c r i m e s were f e l o n i e s , t h a t i s c r i m e s a g a i n s t the crown; " . . . non seulement l e monarque, aux yeux de l a l o i , e s t un Dieu par 1 ' i n f a i l 1 i b i 1 i t e ; mais i l l ' e s t encore par l a g r a n d e u r : c ' e s t un c o n t r e l e q u e l i l 94 n'ya pas de p e t i t e o f f e n s e . " F u r t h e r m o r e , the K i n g had a t h i s d i s p o s a l "tous l e s moyens de corrompre et de s u b j u g u e r " he was commander of the armed f o r c e s ; he had the s o l e r i g h t to d e c l a r e war and make peace; he might a r b i t r a r i l y d i s p o s e of a l l o f f i c e s and s i n e c u r e s ( l e s b e n e f i c e s ) ; he had the r i g h t , n o t , to be s u r e , to impose new t a x e s w i t h o u t p a r l i a m e n t c o n s e n t , but to r e q u i r e t h a t a l l e x i s t i n g t a x e s be c o l l e c t e d ; i t was to him and not to p a r l i a m e n t t h a t h i s m i n i s t e r s were 9 2 L i n g u e t , Anna1e s, XVI, 312 9 3 Annale s, I , 296. 9 4 A n n a l e s , I , 297. 184 r e s p o n s i b l e . That form of government e n s h r i n e d by the B r i t i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n was r o y a l d e s p o t i s m . I f B r i t i s h monarchs s i n c e the time of the Tudors had not always r u l e d d e s p o t i c a l l y over p a r l i a m e n t and the n a t i o n , i t was o n l y because they had f a i l e d to a v a i l themselves of t h e i r p r e r o g a t i v e s to the b e s t p o s s i b l e advantage, e i t h e r because of weakness of c h a r a c t e r , poor r a p p o r t between themselves and t h e i r s u b j e c t s to whom they were f o r e i g n e r s , or of more c o m p e l l i n g commitments and i n t e r e s t s i u 9 5 elsewher e . What rendered the B r i t i s h system of government p o t e n -t i a l l y d e s p o t i c was not s i m p l y these e x t e n s i v e r o y a l p r e o g -a t i v e s , however, but t h e i r c o e x i s t e n c e w i t h s o v e r e i g n t y , the a b s o l u t e n a t u r e of which was not dependent upon the d e l e g a t i o n and s t r i c t d e l i n e a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y amongst i n c o r p o r a t e d b o d i e s . S o v e r e i g n t y i n the B r i t i s h system of government l a c k e d the l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the s o v e r e i g n t y e x e r c i s e d by a t r u l y m o n a r c h i c a l regime which re n d e r e d i t a b s o l u t e : the a b s o l u t e s o v e r e i g n t y e x e r c i s e d by a t r u e monarch was an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a c h a i n of a u t h o r i t y which bound s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r and which u l t i m a t e l y emanated from God. I t was a b s o l u t e monarchy's i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the churc h which 9 6 r e n d e r e d i t s s o v e r e i g n t y a b s o l u t e . Because the s o v e r e i g n t y of the k i n g of England emanated not from God but from par1iamen t . 95 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I , 295-296. 96 For a s u c c i n c t e x p o s i t i o n of a b s o l u t e monarchy which emphasizes t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p see A. S o b o u l , P r e c i s d ' h i s t o i r e  de l a R e v o l u t i o n F r a n c a i s e , ( P a r i s , 1962), p. 62. 185 . l e R o i n'est qu'un M a g i s t r a t e charge de 1' e x e c u t i o n des o r d r e s de l'Assemblee N a t i o n a l e : ce n' e s t pas p r e c i s e m e n t du f a s t e dont i l e s t e n v i r o n n e , au c o n t r a i r e , r i e n de s i s i m p l e que sa v i e o r d i n a i r e . Cependant, des q u ' i l p a r a i t en p u b l i c , c ' e s t moins l e r e s p e c t que l a t e r r e u r dont on cherche a l u i p r o c u r e l e t r i b u t . I I ne marche qu'au b r u i t du canon; des mousquitons l e v e s l e p r e c e d e n t meme a l a campagne: i l n ' est s e r v i qu'a genoux . . . . 97 The e x e r c i s e of power w i t h o u t such a r e l i g i o u s v a l i -d a t i o n had a J a n u s - l i k e a s p e c t : t h e r e were no c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s which might be p l a c e d b e f o r e i t s e x t e n s i o n ; t h e r e were no means c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , of p r e v e n t i n g i t s u s u r p a t i o n . Both a s p e c t s encouraged d e s p o t i s m . On the one hand, the p o s s i b i l i t y of e x t e n d i n g the powers of the k i n g encouraged m i n i s t e r i a l d e s p o t i s m : J ' a i vu que p a r t o u t l e s Grands e t a i e n t d e s p o t e s dans l a coeur; q u ' i l s t e n d o i e n t , par l e voeu commun, a ' 1 ' a r i s t o c r a t i e ' , parce que ne pouvant tous e t r e R o i s , l e u r a m b i t i o n se c o n s o l e ou s'amuse de l ' e s p e c e de dependance ou i t s t i e n n e n t l a Royaute; et que par l e voeu p a r t i c u l i e r , i|:s sont p r e t s a t o u t f a i r e pour 1 ' a f f r a n c h i s s e m e n t du t r o n e , parce qu ' i l l e u r f a u t un Monarque t o u t p u i s s a n t , pour en r e c e v o i r l e p r i x q u ' i l s m e t t e n t a l e u r s s e r v i c e s . 98 M i n i s t e r i a l d e s p o t i s m as i m p l i e d by the above c i t a t i o n was a l s o , i n a sense, a u s u r p a t i o n of the power of the monarch the m i n i s t e r s e x e r c i s e d r e a l power behind the facade of r o y a l a u t h o r i t y . The power of the k i n g might a l s o be usurped 97 L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I I , 26 98 L i n g u e t , Anna1e s, I , 304 186 by those not p a r t a k i n g of the k i n g ' s a u t h o r i t y . Here, L i n g u e t had i n mind the example of m i n i s t e r i a l and p a r l i a m e n -t a r y d e s p o t i s m i n h i s own c o u n t r y as much as i n B r i t a i n . L i n g u e t ' s a n a l y s i s of the B r i t i s h system of government t e l l s us a g r e a t d e a l about h i s own c o n c e p t i o n of monarchy and" of h i s a t t i t u d e toward the problems f a c i n g the F r e n c h monarchy under L o u i s XVI. F i r s t i t i s c l e a r from h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the B r i t i s h parliament as an i n s e p a r a b l e t r i n i t y w i t h i n which the power of the k i n g p r e d o m i n a t e d , t h a t L i n g u e t c o u l d not c o n c e i v e of s o v e r e i g n t y i n g e n e r a l , and t r u e m o n a r c h i c a l a u t h o r i t y , i n p a r t i c u l a r , as c o n s t i t u t i o n -a l l y d i v i s i b l e . A u t h o r i t y c o u l d o n l y be d e l e g a t e d and then o n l y to an i n c o r p o r a t e d body. N e i t h e r the B r i t i s h n o b i l i t y , c l e r g y , nor m a g i s t r a t u r e c o u l d c l a i m to c o n s t i t u t e such a 99 body. I t was the d e l e g a t i o n to and the s t r i c t j u r i s d i c -t i o n a l d e l i n e a t i o n of power between such b o d i e s which d i s t i n g u i s h e d m o n a r c h i c a l from d e s p o t i c r u l e . T h i s d i s t i n -g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of monarchy was o n l y p o s s i b l e i f s o v e r e i g n t y was seen as u l t i m a t e l y emanating from God. D e s p o t i s m , on the o t h e r hand, i n v o l v e d a d e p a r t u r e from such a regime and was a t t e n d e d and encouraged by the development of e s p r i t de  c o r p s w i t h i n and f a c t i o n a l s t r u g g l e s between i n c o r p o r a t e d (and u n i n c o r p o r a t e d ) b o d i e s . The r e s u l t was a l a c k of s t a b i l i t y i n the body p o l i t i c which was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of 9 9 L i n g u e t , La France p l u s q u ' a n g l a i s , pp. 131-135. 187 the B r i t i s h system of government and, i n d e e d , of d e s p o t i s m , , 100 i n g e n e r a l . L i n g u e t ' s c o n c e p t i o n of monarchy was not based on the F r e n c h monarchy as i t e x i s t e d under L o u i s XVI. The Fre n c h t h r o n e at t h i s time was s u s c e p t i b l e to m i n i s t e r i a l despotism^''' and s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t the f o r c e s of p a r l e m e n t a r y d e s p o t i s m . .The l a t t e r m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f not o n l y i n the p a r l e m e n t a r y a s s a u l t upon the crown but i n the u n f e t t e r e d a b i l i t y of the m a g i s t r a t u r e to p e r p e t r a t e i n j u s t i c e s upon i n d i v i d u a l s : the " h u m i l i a t i o n of the t h r o n e " had r e s u l t e d i n " . . . l ' a f f a i s s e -ment a b s o l u de t o u t e s l e s d i g u e s a u t r e f o i s e l e v e e s c o n t r e 10 2 l ' i n j u s t i c e armee des formes P a r l e m e n t a i r e s " . The d e s p o t i s m of the parlement s t h e n , i n v o l v e d the i m p o s i t i o n of i n j u s t i c e , d i r e c t l y upon the i n d i v i d u a l , and i n d i r e c t l y t h r ough i t s a s s a u l t upon the monarchy. I t was the p r e s e r v a t i o n of j u s t i c e , l i b e r t y and p u b l i c o r d e r to which s o c i e t y and the monarchy had to be d e d i c a t e d . L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , I , 300. ^ ' ' L i n g u e t f e l t t h a t h i s i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n the B a s t i l l e from 1780-1782 was the work of d ' A i g u i l l o n and Maurepas, both r o y a l m i n i s t e r s . L i n g u e t , Memoires sur l a b a s t i l l e , (London, 1783), pp.116-117; A n n a l e s , X I I , 55. L i n g u e t , La France p l u s q u ' a n g l a i s e , p. 148. 188 Dans son v e r i t a b l e sens, j u s t i c e et l i b e r t e sont synonymes, p u i s - q u e l a l i b e r t e q u i n'est '-as j u s t i c e , e s t l i c e n s e . I I y a t o u j o u r s dans une n;v Lon un p e t i t nombre d'hommes q u i ne l u i p a r l e n t que de sa grandeur pour q u ' e l l e ne v o i e pas l e u r a m b i t i o n , et l ' e f f o r c e n t de c o u v r i r l e u r i n t e r e t p a r t i c u l i e r des apparences de 1 1 i n t e r e t g e n e r a l ; mais 1 ' i n t e r e t g e n e r a l e s t l a j u s t i c e . La j u s t i c e e s t l a p l u s grand b i e n f a i t de l a s o c i e t e . C'est e l l e q u i a f a i t l e s c i t e s . Sans e l l e , d i s p e r s e s et p a r e i l s e n t r ' e u x aux d i f f e r e n t e s especes d'animaux, l e s hommes f e r a i e n t sans cesse l a p r o i e du p l u s f o r t . C'est e l l e q u i a f a i t l e s m o n a r c h i e s , et chez tous l e s peuples comme chez l e s j u i f s , l e s r o i s ont succede aux j u g e s . C'est e l l e q u i p r o t e g e l e berceau de l ' e n f a n c e , defend 1 ' h e r i t a g e du r i c h e , v e i l l e au s a l a i r e du pauvre, e s t l ' a p p u i de f a i b l e et l e pre m i e r b e s o i n r du t o u s . 103 Not o n l y were j u s t i c e and l i b e r t y synonymous, they were a l s o consonant w i t h p u b l i c o r d e r which r e q u i r e d t h a t . . "dans l a s o c i e t e chacun a son r o l e , a u q u e l i l d o i t e x e l u s i v e m e n t s ' a t t a c h e r . "^^ 4 T h i s , i n t u r n , r e q u i r e d t h a t the a u t h o r i t y to which each p e r s o n was e n t i t l e d by v i r t u e of h i s p a r t i c u l a r r o l e be p r o t e c t e d , and y e t be kept w i t h i n i t s p r o p e r bounds. I t was t h i s purpose to which the g e n e r a l l a w s , and the fundamental laws (upon which the former are based) were d e d i c a t e d . S i n c e t h i s , c h a i n of a u t h o r i t y emanat-i n g u l t i m a t e l y from God was e n s h r i n e d by these l a w s , the s o v e r e i g n t y of the monarch, b e i n g an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h i s c h a i n , was o,f n e c e s s i t y l i m i t e d both by the fundamental laws and by i t s i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the c h u r c h . The 103 L i n g u e t , E n t r e t i e n , (1788), pp. 17-18 104 L i n g u e t , Du P a i n et du b l e d , p. 300. 189 e x e r c i s e of s o v e r e i g n t y r e n d e r e d a b s o l u t e by these l i m i t a t i o n s must n e c e s s a r i l y be j u s t . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n of the F r e n c h monarchy was an i d e a l w h i c h , f o r L i n g u e t , had i t s b a s i s i n a h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y from which the monarchy, i n i t s decadence had d e p a r t e d . A b s o l u t e monarchy had a t r a d i t i o n w hich f a r preceded t h a t form of r o y a l a b s o l u t i s m n u r t u r e d by R i c h e l i e u and consummated by L o u i s X I V . T h e r e f o r e the F r e n c h monarchy as he con-c e i v e d i t was an i n t e g r a l p a r t of F r e n c h s o c i e t y . To under-mine the a u t h o r i t y of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , even i n i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e , would be to i n v i t e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n . The p h i l o s o p h e s , c o n s e q u e n t l y , were agents of s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n (and, t h e r e f o r e , of d e s p o t i s m ) i n a t h r e e - f o l d manner: they were un d e r m i n i n g the a u t h o r i t y of the monarchy, the c h i e f s u p p o r t of which was the i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n between i t s e l f and the c h u r c h ; a g a i n i n d i r e c t l y , they e n d o r s e d , through t h e i r angloma.nia, the p r e t e n t i o n s of the parlemen t s of F rance w h i c h , i f r e a l i z e d , would r e s u l t i n the r u l e of " l ' a r i s t o c r a t i e l a p l u s d e s p o t i q u e , l a p l u s i n j u s t e . Le. R o i a p p e l l e l e p r e m i e r c i t o y e n de 1 ' e t a t , n ' a u r a i t pas meme l e s p r i v i l e g e s de l a c i t e . L i n g u e t argues t h a t B odin's d o c t r i n e of the p r e -dominance of the throne i n the l i t de j u s t i c e was not a p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l statement but was a r e c o g n i t i o n of a l o n g -s t a n d i n g f a c t . L i n g u e t , A n n a l e s , XV, 163. ' ' ^ L i n g u e t , A n nales , XVI, 313. C H A P T E R V C O N C L U S I O N L i n g u e t has been v a r i o u s l y p o r t r a y e d as an a p o l o g i s t of r o y a l a b s o l u t i s m , a s o c i a l c r i t i c whose s o c i a l c o n c e r n f o r the l o t of the poor a n t i c i p a t e d n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o c i a l i s m , and a t h e o r i s t whose concept of the o r i g i n s of s o c i e t y was s i m i l a r to t h a t of E n g e l s , and who was p u r p o r t e d to have p o s t u l a t e d the i r o n law of wages. In t h i s s t u d y L i n g u e t has been r e v e a l e d as a c r i t i c of F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e and an opponent of the p h y s i o c r a t i c program of economic r e -form, the i d e o l o g y and program of the e n l i g h t e n m e n t and the p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s of the parlement s of F r a n c e . Behind t h i s d i v e r s i t y t h e r e e x i s t s a u n i f y i n g c o n c e p t i o n , t h a t of a b s o l u t e , monarchy, to which L i n g u e t devoted h i s e n e r g i e s as a l a w y e r , a man of l e t t e r s and as a j o u r n a l i s t . A l t h o u g h e x p r e s s e d i n an o r i g i n a l f a s h i o n , L i n g u e t ' s c o n c e p t i o n of a b s o l u t e monarchy, i n i t s g e n e r a l c o n t e n t , was no d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which had s e r v e d as the p o l i t i c a l mythology of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n d u r i n g i t s development from the l a t e m i d d l e ages u n t i l i t s d e c l i n e i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t was a c o n c e p t i o n of monarchy which s e r v e d not o n l y to b o l s t e r the a u t h o r i t y of the throne but to judge the works of i t s o c cup an t s . C e n t r a l to t h i s c o n c e p t i o n of a b s o l u t e monarchy was the image of the k i n g as f a t h e r of h i s people."'" T h i s image was dependent on the assumption t h a t the f a m i l y u n i t was the s o c i a l o r d e r i n microcosm. A f a m i l y may be d e f i n e d as the r i g h t o r d e r i n g of a group of persons owing obedience to a head of a h o u s e h o l d , and of those i n t e r e s t s which are h i s p roper c o n c e r n . . . the f a m i l y i s not o n l y the t r u e s o u r c e and o r i g i n of the common w e a l t h , but a l s o i t s p r i n c i p a l c o n s t i t u e n t . . . . Thus the w e l l - o r d e r e d f a m i l y i s a t r u e image of the commonwealth, and d omestic comparable w i t h s o v e r e i g n a u t h o r i t y . I t f o l l o w s t h a t the household i s the model of r i g h t o r d e r i n the commonwealth. And j u s t as the whole body e n j o y s h e a l t h when every p a r t i c u l a r member p e r -forms i t s p r o p e r f u n c t i o n s , so a l l w i l l be w e l l w i t h the commonwealth when f a m i l i e s are p r o p e r l y r e g u l a t e d B i n d i n g the f a m i l y t o g e t h e r are the f a m i l i a l a f f e c t i o n s of i t s members and the a u t h o r i t y ' of the f a t h e r . The a u t h o r i t y of the f a t h e r emanates from h i s p o s i t i o n as head of the G. Behrens, " N o b l e s , P r i v i l e g e s and Taxes i n France at the end of the A n c i e n Regime," Economic H i s t o r y Review, 2nd s e r i e s , XV, No. 3 ( 1 963), 466. "For the a b s o l u t e monarc was seen as the f a t h e r of h i s p e o p l e w i t h the powers and d u t i e s of a f a t h e r . He a l o n e had the r i g h t to make p o s i t i v e law and t h i s c a r r i e d w i t h i t the r i g h t to except i n d i v i d u a l s and groups from i t s o p e r a t i o n . On the o t h e r hand i t was h e l d t h a t he was bound by 'fundamental law', which i n e f f e c t meant t h a t he was bound to r e s p e c t the r i g h t s which he and h i s a n c e s t o r s had g r a n t e d or r e c o g n i z e d Jean B o d i n , The S i x Books of the Commonwealth, a b r i d g e d and t r a n s . M.J. T o o l e y ( O x f o r d , n . d . ) , pp. 6-7 192 h o u s e h o l d , a p o s i t i o n which i n v o l v e s s t r i c t l y d e f i n e d p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s : The p r o p e r o r g a n i z a t i o n of the hou s e h o l d r e q u i r e s the s e p a r a t i o n and d i s t i n c t i o n of the goods, the women, the c h i l d r e n , and s e r v a n t s , of one f a m i l y from a n o t h e r , and t h a t which p e r t a i n s to each from t h a t which i s common to a l l , or i n o t h e r words p e r t a i n s to the p u b l i c good . . . . 3 The a u t h o r i t y of the head of the household (the a b s o l u t e n a t u r e of which i s based on the e l e m e n t a r y d i s t f n c t i o n between h i s a r e a of a u t h o r i t y and t h a t of h i s n e i g h b o u r ) i s the p r i n c i p l e of o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the s o c i a l o r d e r and the body p o l i t i c . • The government of a l l commonwealths, c o l l e g e s , c o r p o r -a t e b o d i e s or hous e h o l d s w h a t s o e v e r , r e s t s on the r i g h t to command on one s i d e , and•the o b l i g a t i o n to obey on the o t h e r , which a r i s e s when n a t u r a l l i b e r t y which each man,has to l i v e as he chooses, i s e x e r c i s e d s u b j e c t to the power of a n o t h e r . 4 Upon t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s based a c o n c e p t i o n of s o v e r e i g n t y w hich i n v o l v e s (a) the d e l e g a t i o n but n o n - a l i e n a t i o n of s o v e r e i g n a u t h o r i t y and (b) the mutual o b l i g a t i o n between s o v e r e i g n and s u b j e c t . The f i r s t i s based on the s t r i c t l y p r o p r i e t a r y a s p e c t of the f a t h e r ' s p o s i t i o n as head of the hous e h o l d and may be ex p r e s s e d i n terms of the l l S g e l o r d ' s r i g h t of s u b i n f e u d a t i o n : 3 I b i d . , p. 9. 4 I b i d . , p. 9 193 The t r u e s o v e r e i g n remains always s e i z e d of h i s power, j u s t as a f e u d a l l o r d who g r a n t s l a n d s to another r e t a i n s h i s eminent domain ever them, so the r u l e r who d e l e g a t e s a u t h o r i t y to judge and command, whether i t be f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d , or d u r i n g p l e a s u r e , remains s e i z e d of those r i g h t s of j u r i s d i c t i o n a c t u a l l y e x e r c i s e d by a n other i n the form of a r e v o c a b l e g r a n t , or p r e c a r i o u s t enancy. 5 S o v e r e i g n t y thus c o n s t i t u t e d p l a c e s an o b l i g a t i o n upon the s u b j e c t to r e n d e r " f a i t h and o b e d i e n c e " to the monarch as one would to one's 14 2ge l o r d . The monarch, as the l e i g e l o r d , "must do j u s t i c e and g i v e c o u n s e l , a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement, and p r o t e c t i o n to the s u b j e c t . " I t i s t h i s m u t ual o b l i g a t i o n between h i m s e l f and the s o v e r e i g n , and not "the r i g h t and p r i v i l e g e s which he e n j o y s which makes a man a c i t i z e n " . S i m i l a r l y , an i n t e g r a l a s p e c t of the e x e r c i s e of s o v e r e i g n t y i s an a c t i v e c o n c e r n f o r the w e l f a r e of ones s u b j e c t s . T h i s concept of s o v e r e i g n t y i s consonant w i t h the f e u d a l c o n c e p t i o n of p r o p r i e t o r s h i p which i n v o l v e d the r i g h t to e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y but which a l s o i n v o l v e d the l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s same a u t h o r i t y by the f a c t of i t s dependency f o r i t s own v a l i d i t y on o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y . In the case of the monarch's a u t h o r i t y t h i s dependency i s upon God. 5 I b i d . , p . 25. 6 I b i d . , p. 21. 194 The a u t h o r i t y e x e r c i s e d by a l l o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t s of the s o c i a l order,however, i s e x c l u s i v e l y dependent f o r i t s v a l i d i t y ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the church) upon t h a t of the k i n g s i n c e i t i s a u t h o r i t y d e l e g a t e d by the k i n g . I t i s t h i s i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y of a u t h o r i t y which b i n d s f a m i l i e s , communautes, c o r p o r a t i o n s , the c h u r c h and the s t a t e t o g e t h e r i n t o an o r g a n i c u n i t y . I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t L i n g u e t ' s e q u a t i o n of a b s o l u t e p a t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y and p r o p r i e t o r s h i p as w e l l as those c e n t r a l assumptions based on t h i s e q u a t i o n must be u n d e r s t o o d . By a s s e r t i n g t h a t " L ' e s p r i t des i n s t i t u t i o n s s o c i a l e s , . . . e s t beaucoup moins l a c o n s e r v a t i o n des personnes que c e l l e de l a p r o p r i e t e des b i e n s , " 7 by v i r t u e of the f a c t t h a t "Toutesles p r o p r i e t e s ensembles d e p u i s c e l l e du s o u v e r a i n j u s q u ' a c e l l e du p l u s v i i de ses v assaux /** 8 forment l a c h a i n e q u i l e compose ( l e l i e n de l ' e t a t ) " L i n g u e t i s , i n f a c t , r e s t a t i n g the assumption t h a t the t r a n q u i l l i t y of the s o c i a l o r d e r and the s t a t e are s t r i c t l y dependent upon the maintenance of t h a t c h a i n of a u t h o r i t y which emanates u l t i m a t e l y from God through the crown and the c h u r c h . The r i g i d l y h i e r a r c h i c a l n a t u r e of the s o c i a l o r d e r r e q u i r e s the s t r i c t d e l i n e a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y between areas of j u r i s d i c t i o n . ^ L i n g u e t , T h e o r i e des l o i s , I I , 367. g L i n g u e t , op. c i t . , I , 81. The France of L i n g u e t ' s time had d e p a r t e d from the i d e a l of monarchy and of the s o c i a l o r d e r which these assum-p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s d e c l i n e was b e i n g encouraged a c c o r d i n g to L i n g u e t , by the c h a o t i c s t a t e of F r e n c h j u r i s -p r udence, the economic and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s l o c a t i o n engendered by the phy s i o e r a t s and p h i l o s o p h e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , and by the p a r l e m e n t a r y a s s a u l t upon the crown. For f i g h t i n g what he c o n s i d e r e d to be the f o r c e s of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l d i s i n t e -g r a t i o n L i n g u e t was seen by c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and by h i s t o r i a n s as e i t h e r an a p o l o g i s t of a b s o l u