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Characterization in the Aquilana by Bartolome de Torres Naharro Nankivell, Simon F. 1970

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CHARACTERIZATION IN THE AQUILANA BY BARTOLOME DE TORRES N A H A R R O by Simon F. Nankivell B.A.-, University of Victoria, 1Q65 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS ail the Department of Hispanic and Italian Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1970 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Hispanic & I t a l i a n Studies T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e 5 June. 1Q70 i • ABSTRACT The Aquilana i s the l a s t of the eight known plays by Bartolome de Torres Naharro, a Spanish playwright resident i n I t a l y between 1510 and 1520. The characterization i n the Aquilana represents the most advanced part of his work and brings to the stage for the f i r s t time the f u l l range of his own created society, from the king to the gardener. I t i s possible to examine t h i s range from an i n t e r n a l view and compare the Aquilana's strengths and weaknesses with the products of other Spanish playwrights l i v i n g between 1^ 90 and 1560. The texts selected have been the plays edited'by J.E. G i l l e t , the e a r l i e r ' e d i t i o n by M. Menendez y Pelayo and the extant undated suelta of the Aquilana. The characters i n the Aquilana have been examined with reference to the plays by Torres Naharro, to the society amid which they were written and to t h e i r l i t e r a r y counterparts» by other authors. This allows some scope for the evaluation of Torres Naharro as a comic writer and for the influence of his collected works, 'the Propalladia, on other writers up to the time of the Golden Age.. While not d i r e c t l y borrowing from Torres Naharro, l a t e r playwrights such as Lope de Vega and Tirso de Molina employed very similar- characters and dialogue as w e l l as si m i l a r situations. While tempting, i t has not been possible to go further than to compare certain features of the Aquilana with corresponding ones i n a few of the best-known of the Golden Age such as EI Burlador de S e v i l l a and Fuente Ovejuna. What emerges from a comparison of his plays with those of his contemporaries and those of the Golden Age i s that a f t e r 1525 no comic playwright u n t i l the time of Lope de Rueda managed to surpass the dramatic achievements of Torres Naharro. i i . Outline Page (1) a The Aquilana as the f i n a l product of Torres Naharro's career. 1 b The r e l a t i o n of the play to the Proemio of the Propalladia. h £ The Aquilana i n r e l a t i o n to Torres Naharro's other seven Comedias. h — ^ e Aquilana i n r e l a t i o n to the Comedia of the Golden Age. 6 (2) a The Cast of the Aquilana. 13 b The Royal Class. 16 Bermudo • Aquilano F e l i c i n a c The Professional Class. 2k Esculapio Galieno and Polidario d The Servant Class. 2 8 Faceto D i l e t a Dandario and Galterio The Introyto Speaker (3) a I n t e l l e c t u a l Conventions and Characteristics. ^ 8 b The Royal Class. ^ 8 c The Professional Class. 56 d The Servant Class. 59 (4) a Comedy and Tragedy i n the Aquilana. 76 b The Use of C o n f l i c t i n the Aquilana. 8 7 (5) a The Characters and Their Audience. ai+ i i i . (6) a Variations i n Tests as They A f f e c t (7) a Summary. (8) a Bibliography. the Characters of the Aquilana. 99 1 0 6 i l l i v . I wish to express my thanks to Dr. K. Kobbervig and Professor H.V. Livermore of the Department of Hispanic afid I t a l i a n Studies at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for t h e i r suggestions and advice during the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s . I should also l i k e to thank my wife, Wendy, f o r her assistance i n reducing some of my more peculiar sentences to the Queen's English. 1. (1) A . T h e A q u i l a n a a s t h e F i n a l P r o d u c t , o f T o r r e s N a h a r r o ' s C a r e e r . . T h e A q u i l a n a i s p r o b a b l y t h e l a s t o f t h e k n o w n e i g h t p l a y s w r i t t e n b y T o r r e s N a h a r r o a n d w h a t e v i d e n c e e x i s t s p o i n t s t o i t h a v i n g b e e n f i r s t p r i n t e d i n N a p l e s i n 1524. 1. w h e n i t w a s w r i t t e n i s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e s i n c e b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e a u t h o r i s v e r y s c a n t a t a n y p e r i o d o f h i s l i f e t i m e a n d e s p e c i a l l y s o a t t h e e n d o f h i s e c a - r e e r . 2. Two t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s m a y b e m a d e f r o m t h e e x i s t i n g e v i d e n c e ; A . T h e c o m e d i a w a s w r i t t e n i n S p a i n , p e r h a p s n e a r S e v i l l e o r n e a r b y i n A n d a l u s i a . T h i s m a y h a v e b e e n a r e w o r k i n g o f t h e p l a y f r o m a n e a r l i e r f o r m . B . T h e p l a y w a s f i r s t p r i n t e d i n I t a l y a n d w a s i n c l u d e d i n a n e w v e r s i o n o f T o r r e s N a h a r r o ' s c o l l e c t e d w o r k s , t h e P r o p a l l a d i a . T o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e t h e e v i d e n c e i n t h e p l a y i t s e l f . L i n e 503 o f J o r n a d a I I I i n t h e u n d a t e d s u e l t a , w h i c h m a y a n t e d a t e t h e l a t e r p r i n t e d v e r s i o n , r e a d s , y a l a v i r g e n d e l l o r i t q . . . A l l l a t e r v e r s i o n s o f t h e p l a y h a v e s u b s t i t u t e d t h e l i n e , y a l a g l o r i a d e S a n P i t o . . . T h e f i r s t v e r s i o n r e f e r s t o t h e V i r g e n d e L o r e t o w h o s e s a n c t u a r y a t A n c o n a w a s w e l l k n o w n , p e r h a p s e q u a l l y s o t o T o r r e s N a h a r r o b e c a u s e o f h i s l o n g r e s i d e n c e i n t h e a r e a . 3« T h i s r e f e r e n c e i s d e f i n i t e l y I t a l i a n t h o u g h a n d c o n t r a s t s s t r o n g l y w i t h t h e l a t e r o n e o f S a n P i t o . T h e l a t t e r w a s a p o p u l a r S p a n i s h t r a d i t i o n o f a f i c t i t i o u s s a i n t f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o b y p e a s a n t s o f t h a t p e r i o d . T h e a c t u a l m e a n i n g o f " P i t o " i s o b s c u r e b u t i t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t r e f e r s t o S a n P e d r o o r p e r h a p s t o p i c o o r b o c a w i t h t h e i n f e r e n c e o f e a t i n g a n d t h e m o u t h , 4. I t s a p p e a r a n c e i s f r e q u e n t i n t h e 2. works of Cervantes, Baltasar Diaz, Palau and Alonso de la Vega. 5» References to Andalusia and Castile appear in the Aquilana in four places, suggesting that Naharro, returned from his long absence in Italy, had now settled down in the south of Spain or perhaps in his native Extremadura. Evidence for this appears in the following lines; que anduuo noches y dias la mita(d) d'este condado, hin a las Andaluzias... 6. and, mi cuidado eri ensanchar estos reynos de Castilla... 7. and, que has de ser rey de Castilla despues que muera Bermudo... 8. and, porque diz que el otro dia la quemaron en Toledo... 9 • These references to Spain suggest a knowledge of Spanish affairs and Torres Naharro's willingness to employ a Spanish theme for this play rather than adapt an Italian theme and set of characters and use them in a plot based on Italian soil. The abaence of Italian references in favour of Spanish ones suggests that the play was probably revised i f not originally written in Spain and that i f earlier versions of i t existed in manuscript form these never survived to reach the hands of the printer. The form of the play used for its inclusion in the Propalladia appears in the edition of 1524, the third Naples edition of that work. 10. Whether the undated suelta in existence antedates or postdates that edition 3. c a n n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d w i t h a n y c e r t a i n t y . W h a t i s c e r t a i n i s t h a t t h e P r o p a l l a d i a h a d a l r e a d y u n d e r g o n e t w o p r i n t i n g s , t h e f i r s t i n 1517 i n N a p l e s a n d t h e s e c o n d i n S e v i l l e i n 1520. T h e s e c o n d e d i t i o n c o n t a i n s t h e f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e C a l a m i t a , a n d t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e A q u i l a n a f r o m t h a t e d i t i o n m i g h t e i t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p l a y h a d n o t b e e n w r i t t e n o r p e r h a p s t h a t i t w a s n o t y e t i n i t s f i n a l f o r m . T h e t h i r d p r i n t i n g , i n c l u d i n g t h e A q u i l a n a , w a s c a r r i e d o u t i n N a p l e s , a s s t a t e d , b u t i t i s c u r i o u s t h a t T o r r e s N a h a r r o w a s p r o b a b l y n o t r e s i d i n g i n I t a l y a t t h a t t i m e a n d p r o b a b l y s e n t t h e m a n u s c r i p t s t o I t a l y b y m a i l . 11. W h y t h e r e w a s n o t a S e v i l l e e d i t i o n o f 1524 i n s t e a d o f a n I t a l i a n o n e r e m a i n s a m y s t e r y s i n c e r e f e r e n c e s t o T o r r e s N a h a r r o ' s e n t r y i n S e v i l l i a n p o e t r y c o n t e s t s a p p e a r i n 1525• U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e r e i s a t o t a l a b s e n c e o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n T o r r e s N a h a r r o a n d t h e p r i n t e r s . I f o n e c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e u n d a t e d s u e l t a , w h i c h d o e s s h o w s o m e I t a l i a n t r a c e s , a n t e d a t e s t h e f i r s t N a p l e s e d i t i o n t h e n a t e n t a t i v e d a t e f o r t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e p l a y m i g h t b e s e t a t 1 5 2 1 o r p e r h a p s d u r i n g t h e s u c c e e d i n g t w o y e a r s . 12. A p a r t f r o m m a n y m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s , t h e u n d a t e d s u e l t a g i v e s v a r i a n t r e a d i n g s f r o m t h e N a p l e s e d i t i o n a s t a b u l a t e d b e l o w : A . I n t r o y t o l i n e s 79-89 B . J o r n a d a I L l i n e s 124-159 G ' l©«J6^ n a d a I I I .:" • l i n e s 94-98, 304-314, 334-344, 369-379 D . J o r n a d a I V l i n e s 209 - 2 1 4 , 349-354 V a r i a t i o n s i n c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t c a u s e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e l i n e s w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d , a t t h e e n d o f t h i s s t u d y . . . T h e m a i n s t u d y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s w i l l b e m a d e o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e N a p l e s e d i t i o n o f 1524. , k. (1) B. The Relation of the Play to the Proemio of the Propalladia -* The f i r s t edition of the Propalladia contained?a remarkable statement, the Proemio, which was preserved in a l l later editions. This is a concise statement of Torres Naharro's dramatic theory. The portion of this statement which relates to his use of characters is as follows, Y digo ansi, que comedia no es otra cosa sino un artificio ingenioso de notables y finalmente alegres acontecimientos, por personas disputados. La diuision d'ella en cinco actos, no solamante me paresce buena, pero mucho necessaria; aunque yo les llamo jornadas, porque mas me parescen descansaderos que otra cosa. De donde la comedia queda entendida y rescitada. El nuraero de las personas que se han de introduzir, es mi voto que no deuen ser tan pocas que parexca la fiesta sorda, ni que engendren confusion. ... el onesto numero me paresce que sea de VI hasta XII personas. 13. Torres Naharro follows this formula very closely in the Aquilana since, having announced in the Introito that i t is a wedding play, he has Aquilano conceal his true identity until the end of the play, following which he allows the play to end happily. He divides the play into the five Jornadas which he described as "resting places" and introduces them by an Introyto, a form of shepherd monologue with which he is credited as being the fi r s t consistent user in a l l his plays. He restricts the number of persons appearing to ten, thereby avoiding the confusion of characters in "the Tinellaria where twenty-two appear speaking a multitude of languages. However, within these ten characters he introduces three social levels and presents parallel roles for several of them. (1) C. The Aquilana in Relation to Torres Naharro's Other Seven Comedias. To assess the relationship between the Aquilana and the other seven 5 . comedias i t i s best to return to the Proemio and review Torres Naharro's intentions. He i s no great tragedian and does not say so at any time. His prime interest i s i n comedy and fantasy. He divides his dramatic interest into two areas, Quanto a los generos de comedia, a mi paresce que bastarian dos para en nuestra lengua castellana: comedia a noticia y comedia a fantasia. A noticia s'entiende de cosa nota a vista en realidad de verdad, como son Soldadesca y Tinellaria; a fantasia, de cbsa fantastiga o fingida, que tenga color de verdad aunque no lo sea, como son Seraphina, Ymenea, etc. 14. This division satisfies the descriptions of the f i r s t seven plays but i t ...does not make any great allowance for the Aquilana. At no point does Torres Naharro make any amendment to his statements to include or categorize the Aquilana. The reason for this may be because i t i s his last play and, having had the experience of writing the f i r s t seven i n satisfaction of his theory of drama, he decided to integrate the two forms of comedy i n the Aquilana. Evidence for the presence of real i t y and true-to-life reporting i s present in the behaviour and speech of the gardeners and the relationship of the servants and the masters or mistresses. The fantastic or supposedly-truthful element i s present i n the stylized courtship of Aquilano and Felicina as well as i n the medical diagnosis made by Esculapio. The advance signalled by the integration of these two dramatic elements i s perhaps the basis of the reasoning advanced by c r i t i c s that the Calamita and the Aquilana represent not only the best of Torres Naharro's work but also a decided advance i n the theatre, an advance which was not to be exceeded for another f i f t y years u n t i l the coming of Lope de Rueda. In relation to the Spanish drama which preceded these plays there could be l i t t l e comparison. 6. L a s c o m e d i a s A q u i l a n a y C a l a m i t a ; d e a c c i o n m a s c o j i i p l e j a y n o v e l e s c a q u e l a s a n t e r i o r e s , y q u e s e n a l a n u n p r o g r e s o u n d u d a b l e e n s u c o n c e p c i o n d e l d r a m a . . . 15• M e n e n d e z y P e l a y o ' s o p i n i o n o f t h e s e p l a y s i s a n e c h o i n t h i s c a s e o f a n e a r l i e r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e m m a d e b y J u a n d e V a l d e s i n 1535• W h i l e n o t p r a i s i n g t h e m i n s u c h t e r m s , J u a n d e V a l d e s s t i l l c o m p l i m e n t s t h e m t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e , E l e s t i l o q u e t i e n e T o r r e s N a h a r r o e n s u , P r o p a l a d i a , a u n q u e p e c a a l g o e n l a s e o m e d i a s , n o g u a r d a n d o b i e n e l d e c o r o d e l a s p e r s o n a s , me s a t i s f a z e m u c h o , p o r q u e e s m u y l l a n o y s i n a f e c t a c i o n n i n g u n a , m a y o r m e n t e e n l a s c o m e d i a s d e C a l a m i t a y A q u i l a n a . . . 16. T h i s p r a i s e i s h o w e v e r r e l a t i v e , f o r n o m a t t e r h o w m u c h o n e a t t e m p t s t o r e a d i n t o t h e c o m e d i a s , t h e y a r e n o t s t a g e m a s t e r p i e c e s a n d t h e i r p l o t c o m p l e x i t y i s n o t v e r y g r e a t . T h e c h a r a c t e r s , e v e n i n t h e b e s t o f h i s p l a y s , s u c h a s t h e A q u i l a n a , a r e s h a l l o w t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e a s w e l l a s s t o c k o n m a n y o c c a s i o n s . H e d i s p l a y s t h e b e s t o f h i s d r a m a t i c t a l e n t s b u t , t h e t h e a t r e a s T o r r e s N a h a r r o k n e w i t w a s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y a n d , r e l i a n t t o a l a r g e d e g r e e o n c l u m s y e x p e r i m e n t a n d c o a r s e h u m o u r t o g a i n a n a u d i e n c e f o r i t s e l f . (1) D . T h e A q u i l a n a i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e C o m e d i a o f t h e G o l d e n A g e . A f t e r T o r r e s N a h a r r o c e a s e d w r i t i n g , a g a p a p p e a r s i n t h e S p a n i s h t h e a t r e w h i c h i s n o t f i l l e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y u n t i l 1585 a n d t h e a r r i v a l o f t r a v e l l i n g t h e a t r e t r o u p e s . T h e r e w e r e a s s u r e d l y p l a y w r i g h t s p r o d u c i n g w o r k s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1530 a n d 1585» b u t n o n e s e e m t o h a v e t a k e n u p a n d i m p r o v e d u p o n t h e a d v a n c e s m a d e b y J u a n d e l E n z i n a , G i l V i c e n t e a n d T o r r e s N a h a r r o . T o r r e s N a h a r r o u n d o u b t e d l y h a d f o l l o w e r s who e m u l a t e d h i s w o r k s i n t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f s u c h e l e m e n t s a s h i s I n t r o y t o s . F r a n c i s c o de las Natas ih"the Tidea produces an Introyto but a.very lacklustre one indeed and dependent upon Torres Naharro's phraseology to a large degree. The vigorous greeting of "Dios mantenga y remantenga" of the Soldadesca has become reduced to a mechanical "Dios mantenga, buena gente...". 17. This uninspired copying of his drama suggests that Torres Naharro lacked any followers who possessed his talents or inventiveness. On the surface the temptation to state that Torres Naharro i s the progenitor of the Golden Age Comedia i s very tempting but evidence i s lacking that Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina or Ruiz de Alarcon ever availed themselves of his works or were influenced i n any notable way by them. Certain elements are common to them however and can be compared, to a certain degree. The Aquilana has been described as, ...una comedia heroica de ruido y de teatro, a e s t i l o de las de Lope de Vega, con infantes enamorizadas y principes disfrazados. 18. In t h i s respect the Aquilana i s perhaps quite advanced for i t s time but what i s not clear from such a statement i s that the lovers and disguised prince are not placed within nearly such a complex plot as Lope de Vega would contrive for his characters. This lack of complexity i s mirrored by the r e l a t i v e l y shallow characterization which i s true of a great many.of the plays of the Golden Age as w e l l as those of Torres Naharro. The characters are active rather than profound i n both cases. Es decir, en e l teatro espanol l a vida humana es captada con un maximo de intensidad y un minimo de profundidad. Sus personajes se agitan -eso s i - admirablemente - en l a superficie de l a vida humana, pero rara vez descienden a sus abismaticas honduras. 19. This lightness i n characterization i s suggested by Torres Naharro's remark 8. i n t h e P r o e m i o t h a t t h e e v e n t s s h a l l b e " n o t a b l e s y f i n a l m e n t e a l e g r e s " . 20. N o n o t i o n o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f s u c h a c h a r a c t e r a s P e r i b a n e z i s g i v e n a t a l l b y t h e s e w o r d s . I t m i g h t b e a r g u e d - s o m e w h a t , i m p l a u s i b l y t h a t B e r m u d o s u f f e r s t o a d ; e g r e e b y n o t h a v i n g a s o n a n d t h a t h e m u s t k i l l A q u i l a n o t o s a t i s f y h i s h o n o u r b u t t h i s i s r a t h e r m o r e a c a r d b o a r d r o l e t h a n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c h a r a c t e r o f g r e a t d e p t h . S i m i l a r l y , A q u i l a n o i s u p s e t a t h i s r e j e c t i o n a t t h e h a n d s o f F e l i c i n a b u t h e c a n n o t i n a n y w a y b e c o m p a r e d t o D o n J u a n , d r i v e n u n c o n t r o l l a b l y t o h i s c o n q u e s t s . A n e l e m e n t o f t h e A q u i l a n a w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h e t h e a t r e o f t h e G o l d e n A g e i s i t s r a n g e o f c h a r a c t e r s . L o s p e r s o n a j e s r e f l e j a n , e s q u e m a t i c a m e n t e , t o d a l a v a r i a d a g a m a d e i d e a s , c r e e n c i a s , s e n t i m i e n t o s , v o l i c i o n e s p r o p i a d e s u s o c i e d a d c o n t e m p o r a n e a . D o t a d o s d e e x t r a o r d i n a r i a v i t a l i d a d , s e p r o y e c t a n v i o l e n t a m e n t e h a c i a f u e r a d e s i m i s m o s , , c o n s i s t i e r i d o . e s e ' s i m i s m o s ' e n u n a a p r e t a d a g a v i l l a d e h a c e r e s . S o n l o q u e h a c e n y l o q u e d i c e n . .21. W h a t i s n o t s o t r u e o f T o r r e s N a h a r r o ' s c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e A q u i l a n a i s t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e i r v i t a l i t y . A p p l i e d t o t h e s e r v a n t s , t h i s i s t r u e ; a p p l i e d t o t h e u p p e r c l a s s i t i s l e s s s o . T o s o m e d e g r e e T o r r e s N a h a r r o d e s c r i b e s t h i s i d e a o f t h e r a n g e o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n t h e P r o e m i o . E s d e c o r o u n a j u s t a y d e c e n t e c o n t i n u a c i o n d e l a m a t e r i a , c o n u i e n e a s a b e r : d a n d o a c a d a u n o l o s u y o , e u i t a r l a s c o s a s i n p r o p r i a s , v s a r d e t o d a s l a s l e g i t i m a s d e m a n e r a q u ' e l s i e r v o n o d i g a n i h a g a a c t o s d e l s e n o r , e t e c o n v e r s e 22. W h i l e i t i s t r u e t o s a y t h a t T o r r e s N a h a r r o a t t e m p t s t o k e e p h i s c h a r a c t e r s ' r o l e s w e l l s e p a r a t e d a n d s u c c e e d s f a i r l y w e l l , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s a y t h a t h e i s e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l i n b r i n g i n g t h e m a l l t o l i f e . O n t h e w h o l e , h e i s m o r e s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s c r e a t i o n o f s e r v a n t s a n d r u s t i c s t h a n h e i s w i t h o t h e r m e m b e r s o f s o c i e t y . H i s l a n g u a g e u s a g e e n s u r e s t h i s b y l e n d i n g r i c h e r l a n g u a g e , t o t h e s e r v a n t s a n d m o r e s t u l t i f i e d s p e e c h t o h i s r o y a l t y . A n i n t e r e s t i n g e l e m e n t o f t h e G o l d e n A g e d r a m a i s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e m a s k a n d t h e m a n b e n e a t h i t . T h e p r o b l e m o f a p p e a r -a n c e s h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d b y R u i z R a m o n a s f o l l o w s , E n c a d a u n o d e l o s p e r s o n a j e s d e l d r a m a e s p a n o l me p a r e c e v e r s i e m p r e u n ' d e n t r o ' y u n ' f u e r a ' , a m a n e r a d e u n r o s t r o y s u m a s c a r a . 2 3 . T h i s c o n t r o l o f c h a r a c t e r s a n d t h e n e e d t o r e s t r a i n t h e m f r o m r e v e a l i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e a u d i e n c e p r e m a t u r e l y i s a n t i c i p a t e d b y t h e P r o e m i o i n a r a t h e r v a g u e f a s h i o n . E l d e c o r o e n l a s c o m e d i a s e s c o m o e l g o u e r n a l l e e n l a n a o , e l q u a l e n b u e n c o m i c o s i e m p r e d e u e t r a e r a n t e l o s o j p s . 2 4 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , T o r r e s N a h a r r o i s n o t a l w a y s c a p a b l e o f f o l l o w i n g h i s o w n a d v i c e . A n e x a m p l e i n t h e A q u i l a n a i s h i s f a i l u r e t o s e p a r a t e c o m e d y a n d s u s p e n s e i n a r e a s o n a b l e f a s h i o n a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e F e l i c i n a i s a t t e m p t i n g t o c o m m i t s u i c i d e . W h e r e a s t h e s c e n e c o u l d p r o c e e d w i t h f i r s t a m e a s u r e o f s u s p e n s e f o l l o w e d b y t h e r e l i e f o f A q u i l a n o ' s s a f e a r r i v a l a n d t h e i r b e t r o t h a l , T o r r e s N a h a r r o a l l o w s t h e s c e n e t o b e c o m e p o o r c o m e d y b y h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a c a t a l o g u e o f u n s u c c e s s f u l s u i c i d e i n s t r u m e n t s . O n t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e , h e p r e s e n t s D i l e t a a s a c h a r a c t e r h a v i n g a g o o d s e n s e o f h u m o u r a t a l l t i m e s b u t o n e w h i c h i s b r o u g h t t o a c l i m a x b y h e r w i t h o l d i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m F e l i c i n a n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p l a y . D i l e t a ' s c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p s a s d e s c r i b e d b y t h e P r o e m i o s t a t e m e n t o f i n t e n t i o n . T h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m a s k a n d t h e b e a r e r o f i t i s p r e s e n t e d r a t h e r w e l l i n t h e e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n o f F a c e t o , e a s i l y o n e o f t h e m o s t l i v e l y c h a r a c t e r s i n N a h a r r o ' s - - e i g h t p l a y s . T h i n k i n g a l o u d t o t h e a u d i e n c e , h e r e a s o n s o f D i l e t a t h a t , 10. N o e s h e r m o s a p e r o b a s t a q u e e s g r a c i o s a y a u n g e n t i l p a r a l a c a m a ; p u e d e t e n e r , o t r a c o s a , m e j o r c u e r p o q u e s u a m a . 2 5 . T h i s m i g h t b e c l a s s i f i e d a s a s t a t e m e n t f r o m t h e " r e a l " F a c e t o , t h e s e r v a n t who i s p l a n n i n g t h e s e d u c t i o n o f t h e u n s u s p e c t i n g D i l e t a . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t , t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e c o i n i s s h o w n a s h e a d d r e s s e s h e r . L o s a m o r e s q u a n d o t r a e n m a s d o l o r e s n o s d e x a n m a s s a t i s f e c h o s ; q u e l o s v e r o s a m a d o r e s n o b u s c a n e s s o s p r o u e c h b s . 2 6 . T h i s i s F a c e t o ' s m a s k , p u t o n d e l i b e r a t e l y f o r t h e a u d i e n c e ' s e n j o y m e n t a n d p e r h a p s f o r t h e d e l i g h t o f h i s o w n a g i l e m i n d . 11. Footnotes - Section 1. (.1) J.P.W. Crawford, Spanish Drama before Lope de Vega, (Philadelphia, 1937), p. 94.• (2) J . G i l l e t , Propalladia and other works of Bartolome de Torres Naharro, (Pennsylvania, 1946), IV, pp. 477-8. ' : ~~ (3) G i l l e t , I I I , pp. 778-80. (4) G i l l e t , I I I , pp. 701-2. (5) G i l l e t , I I I , p. 702. .(6) G i l l e t , I I , p. 563,'11. 262-264. (7) G i l l e t , I I , p. 540, 11. 476^477. (8) G i l l e t , I I , p. 521, 11. 528-529. (9) G i l l e t , I I , p. 516, 11. 368-369. (10) G i l l e t , IV, p. 478. (11) G i l l e t , I I I , p. 83. (12) G i l l e t , IV, p. 477. (13) G i l l e t , I , p. 142. (14) G i l l e t , I , p. 142. (15) M. Menendez y Pelayo, Propaladia de Bartolome de Torres Naharro, (Madrid, 1900), I I , p.lxv. (16) Juan de Valdes, Dialogo de l a Lengua, (Madrid, 1928), pp. 159-60. (17) Urban Cronan, ed. Teatro Espanol d e l Siglo XVI,CI, p. 2, 1,1. (18) Menendez y Pelayo, I I , p. c x l . (19) Francisco Ruiz Ramon, H i s t o r i a d e l Teatro Espanol, (Madrid, 1967), p. 165. (20) . G i l l e t , I, p. 142. „. ' ' (21) Ruiz Ramon, p. l65 l T (22) G i l l e t , I , p. 142. (23) Ruiz'-Ramon, p. 166. 12 . (24) G i l l e t , (25) G i l l e t , (26) G i l l e t , I, p. 142. I I , p. 475, I I , P. 502, 11 . 215-220. 11. 470-474. 13. (2) A. The Cast of the Aquilana Torres Naharro employs ten characters i n the Aquilana, staying within the numerical bounds established i n the Proemio* This compares with nine characters i n the Seraphina and twelve in the Trophea. Additional to this cast and not included i n i t for reasons to be discussed later i s the Introyto speaker, an invention of Naharro's and a role which i t i s conceivable that the author may himself have taken at times. Meredith feels that the Introyto to the Tinellaria was probably spoken by Naharro himself during the f i r s t presentation of the play and bases his conclusion on the prologue of the Himenea. 1. What i s of note about this cast i s that Torres Naharro manages to include in i t representatives from three levels of society and various occupations within those levels. Unlike the large-cast in the Tinellaria which i s composed mainly of servants, squires and kitchen staff, the Aquilana presents a good balance. For easier reference, the cast may be categorized as follows: 1. The king Bermudo 2. The lovers Felicina Aquilano 3» The doctors Esculapio Galieno Polidario 4. The gracioso Faceto 5 . The graciosa Dileta 6. The rustics ' Dandario Galterio 1 4 . A good feature of this balance is that the presence of two characters of similar type such as Dileta and Faceto allows for parallel roles and contrasts to be set up during the progress of the play. Also, redundancy is avoided, a feature which mars the Tinellaria and causes BabyIonic confusion amid eight servants and three squires. This representation of such diverse characters on stage was not without its own pitfalls since the combination of a king and a gardener in a conversation presented problems which Torres Naharro was not always capable of mastering. Too often, Bermudo would be present as a character without adequate depth, leaving the whole scene stolen by a clown like Dandario or Galterio. The addition of Bermudo to the cast is a remarkable feature of Torres Naharro's theatre and one which deserves further comment. Although i t is true that Torres Naharro listed the king of Portugal in the Trophea amid the cast, yet he did not give him an active role to play. Presumably, in the acting of the play a character was dressed as a king and treated as such by the balance of the cast but, apart from movement, did not take any further part at a l l . 2 . The development in the Aquilana^ is that Bermudo has an active role in the play and largely determines its outcome. Joseph Gillet has claimed that he is, . ,. King Bermudo, perhaps the fi r s t king to appear on a comic stage.... 3» This appearance of kings or rulers is frequent in plays after this period, an example being the Arabic ruler Almanzor used as one of the central characters in Los Siete'Infantes de Lara by Juan de la Cueva. The addition of this character, king Bermudo, to his last play by Torres Naharro does not however, imply that the creation is a successful one. On the contrary, 15, B e r m u d o i s r e m a r k a b l e f o r h i s p r e s e n c e b u t , f r o m a d r a m a t i c s t a n d p o i n t , f o r n o o t h e r r e a s o n , s i n c e h e d i s p l a y s a s t e r i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r w h i c h i s a l s o c o m m o n t o b o t h A q u i l a n o a n d F e l i c i n a . O n t h e o t h e r e n d o f t h e s o c i a l s c a l e , i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t , s i n c e t h e I n t r o y t o i n t h e A q u i l a n a d o e s n o t s h o w c l a s s i c a l i n f l u e n c e , o n e o f t h e r u s t i c s m a y h a v e t a k e n t h e s p e a k i n g p a r t o f t h e I n t r o y t o s p e a k e r a n d l a t e r r e a p p e a r e d a s e i t h e r D a n d a r i o o r G a l t e r i o . E q u a l l y , F a c e t o o r o n e o f t h e d o c t o r s m i g h t h a v e b e e n c h a r g e d w i t h t h e s p e e c h o r i t i s e v e n r e a s o n a b l e t h a t s o m e o n e who w a s n o t t o b e l a t e r c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p l a y a t a l l s i m p l y s t e p p e d u p a n d d e l i v e r e d t h i s a d d r e s s . S i n c e n e i t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e A q u i l a n a s u g g e s t s a n y n a m e f o r t h e I n t r o v t o s p e a k e r a n d n o o t h e r p l a y o f T o r r e s * N a h a r r o n a m e s t h e I n t r o y t o s p e a k e r , t-M i s t6fea? l a r g p d e g r e e ? r e m $ v e d ; ? f r o m ? t : h e p l a y i t s e l f a n d m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d a s a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e g i r l r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e I n t r o y t o i s n a m e d L u z i a a n d t h a t t h e g i r l l a t e r r e f e r r e d t o b y t h e g a r d e n e r s d u r i n g t h e r e c o u n t i n g o f t h e i r p a s t l i v e s i s a l s o c a l l e d L u z i a i s n o t a d e q u a t e e v i d e n c e t o p r o v e , t h a t t h e T n - t v m y + . n s p e a k e r i s a c t u a l l y D a n d a r i o o r G a l t e r i o a n d t h a t T o r r e s N a h a r r o h a s o m i t t e d t o m e n t i o n i t . T h e w h o l e r a n g e o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e A q u i l a n a s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e a u t h o r m a y h a v e h a d s o m e t y p e o f h i e r a r c h y i n m i n d d u r i n g h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p l a y a n d t o a d e g r e e t h i s g r a d a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d a b i l i t y c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h r e e s o c i a l c l a s s e s . H o w e v e r , i t c o r r e s p o n d s i n a n i n v e r s e w a y , f o r t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e s e r v a n t c l a s s s h o w c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e a b i l i t y a n d a p p l i e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n d o t h e d o c t o r s . A l s o , t h e d o c t o r s a r e f a r l e s s r i g i d a n d u n i m a g i n a t i v e i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g t h a n a r e t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e r o y a l c l a s s . T h e l a t t e r a r e b o u n d b y c o n v e n t i o n s w h i l e t h e s e r v a n t s a r e a t a l l t i m e s f l e x i b l e 16. and adaptive to~unforeseen situations. B. 1. The Royal Class Bermudo The audience is conditioned to think well of Bermudo by the introduction accorded him by the Introyto speaker. He is, Bermudo, rey, llega ayna, D' Espana rey tan querido.... 4. His f i r s t words to the audience are, however, a revelation of a weak character and his complaint that Fortune has done hardly by him does not suggest that he will be either a remarkable character or even a particularly human one. Rather than place blame upon himself, Torres Naharro has him curse Fortune for what he considers to be severe treatment on her part. • • • Ningun bien me heziste, Antes, porque era tan bueno, hijo propio no me diste, mas que quitas el ageno. 5« , 9 ^ This complaining attitude contrasts poorly with the character of Almanzor sketched by Juan de la Cueva. Rather than be steered by Fortune, he has changed his fate to suit his own will. Con duro freno y con pavor terrible toda Vandalia tengo ya sujeta obedeciendo el brazo mio invencible, que la domena y la cerviz le aprieta. No hallo cosa que me sea imposible; todo cuanto el sol mira me respeta:.... 6. What can be spoken to Bermudo's credit is that he is concerned in his weak way with the welfare of his country and he is charitable to Aquilano, a stranger to him, when he discovers him to be i l l and apparently dying. Rather more like an concerned grandparent than a ruler he offers aid, Pues, veras, Yo quiero, s i tu querras, que te suban a mi lecho. 7• His un-kingly nature is accompanied by a lack of humour to a major extent. To 17. G a l t e r i o ' s humorous suggestion that a mule-curer would be a good person to summon i n order to cure Aquilano rather than drag a doctor to the scene, Bermudo glumly r e p l i e s , Tiempo fuera que holgara y me r i e r a de tus cosas y de t i ; . . . 8. Torres Naharro succeeds to a c e r t a i n degree i n giving some semblance of strength of character to Bermudo when he places him i n the p o s i t i o n of having to make a judgment which w i l l r e s u l t i n Aquilano's death. The effectiveness of t h i s technique i s aided by Bermudo's ^arla)er lament over Aquilano. S i yo veo que a l presente l a muerte no te perdona yo prometo encontinente de renunciar mi corona::. 9-The strength of t h i s statement i s soon t r i e d by Aquilano since i t i s the suspicion of dishonour which w i l l immediately cause the sentence of death and with i t the accompanying l o s s of prestige and t r u s t which Bermudo has achieved i n h i s kingdom. At t h i s point, when Bermudo begins to lament the outcome of t h i s unhappy event, even a f t e r Aquilano's crime has been c l a r i f i e d , h i s character breaks down again. Torres Naharro cannot maintain h i s character as a great one and i n the lament over the future of the kingdom the same weakness which characterized h i s opening words i s again apparent. Mi reynar, mi cuidado en ensanchar estos reynos de C a s t i l l a todo fue nadar, nadar, y ahogarme en l a o r i l l a . I @ue diran? ^Que estima de mi haran? i o . This r e l i a n c e on others and the need f o r t h e i r esteem as a prop f o r h i s own l a c k l u s t r e p ersonality i s a poor comparison to king Enrique of Peribariez who commands and l e t s nobody think otherwise. He i s d e c i s i v e where Bermudo 1 8 . i s c o l o r l e s s . L i b r e p i e n s o d e j a r l a A n d a l u c i a , s i e l e j e r c i t o n u e s t r o s e p r e v i e n e , a n t e s q u e e l d u r o i n v i e r n o c o n s u y e l o c u b r a l o s c a m p o s y e n t e r n e z c a e l s u e l o , . . . T i e m b l e e n G r a n a d a e l a t r e v i d o m o r o d e l a r o j a s b a n d e r a s y p e n d o n e s ; c o n v i e r t a s u a l e g r i a e n t r i s t e l l o r o . 1 1 . W i t h s u c h a c h a r a c t e r a s k i n g , i t i s e n t i r e l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h T o r r e s N a h a r r o ' s d r a w i n g o f c h a r a c t e r t h a t i t i s a s e r v a n t who m u s t s a v e B e r m u d o ' s h o n o u r , s h o u t d o w n t h e k i n g , a n d s a v e A q u i l a n o ' s l i f e i n t o t h e b a r g a i n . W h i l e i t ' w o u l d a p p e a r o n t h e s u r f a c e t h a t B e r m u d o ' s r o l e c a l l s f o r s u f f e r i n g , p u b l i c h u m i l i a t i o n a n d p o s s i b l e f u t u r e s c o r n , i n r e a l i t y t h e w h o l e c h a r a c t e r w h i c h r e s u l t s i s l a r g e l y a c a r d b o a r d o n e , m o u t h i n g l a m e n t s o f a s t o c k f o r m a g a i n s t F o r t u n e a n d c o m p l e t e l y u n a b l e t o s u r p a s s i n e i t h e r v i t a l i t y o r w i t b o t h t h e g a r d e n e r s a n d t h e g r a c i o s o . T h o u g h t h e a t t e m p t t o i n t r o d u c e B e r m u d o t o t h e s t a g e i s a g o o d i d e a a n d o n e t o b e e m p l o y e d t o g r e a t e f f e c t i n t h e l a t e r G o l d e n A g e t h e a t r e , T o r r e s N a h a r r o ' s a c t u a l r e s u l t s a r e l a r g e l y a d i s a p p o i n t -m e n t a n d B e r m u d o i s a m o s t u n m e m o r a b l e c h a r a c t e r * A q u j l a n o I n A q u i l a n o , T o r r e s N a h a r r o c r e a t e s a c h a r a c t e r who i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y a r t i f i c i a l . A q u i l a n o l a c k s a n y r e a l s e m b l a n c e o f h u m a n i t y o r s i n c e r i t y , being at t i m e s a l m o s t a c a r i c a t u r e o f t h e c o u r t i e r a n d h i s l a n g u a g e . H i s i n i t i a l a p p e a r a n c e o n t h e s t a g e i s p e r h a p s h i s m o s t i m p r e s s i v e o n e b e c a u s e o f t h e w i t d i s p l a y e d i n t h e t e x t o f t h e g a r b l e d l e t t e r . A l b e i t t h e i d e a i s c e r t a i n l y t i o t a u n i q u e o n e a s a p p e a r s i n t h e T e s o r i n a b y J a y m e d e G u e t e . I n t h i s c a s e t h e a c t u a l l e t t e r h a s b e e n l o s t a n d i t s r e m e m b e r e d m e s s a g e i s a b o u t t o b e g a r b l e d . 19. Tesorino: Yo quiero que aqui se vea, he, d i como empecariais; d i , pues, hora. Pinedos Muy reuerenda senora, u deuota en Jesu C h r i s t i : con tus ojos de traydora... . ,12. The substitution of such words as prenada for penada, ri-ego f o r ruego, culidad f o r calidad and such phrases as ten perro por do sorrabes f o r te espero por donde sabes makes the f i r s t act a most amusing one, thanks largely to the efforts of the gracioso, Faceto. After t h i s point, however, the character presented by Aquilano i s progressively weaker as the standard array of c l a s s i c a l references and the rhetoric of courtiers i n love pours f o r t h . Following a stock formula he r e c i t e s , Dende l a cuna de Ninos hasta e l sepulcro de Apolo sin parar, l a Fama tenga que dar sus m i l oydos que oyr, sus m i l ojos que mirar, sus mi(l) lenguas que decir de Aquilano, mas que de Paris troyano... 13• This speech suggests less that Torres Naharro was capable of giving his char-acters r e a l words to say than that he was able to follow stock formulae when the occasion required. The following excerpt from the Tesorina, delivered under s i m i l a r circumstances, could be substituted f o r AquilanoAs speech with very l i t t l e trouble and the o v e r a l l effect and meaning would remain quite unchanged as would the course of the play i t s e l f . Qual Sanson por D a l i l a , o qual Amon por Thamar, hermano i n f i e l , tobo tan ciega passion, o qual Jacob por Rachel; qual Tereo, qual Poliphemo y Orpheo, qual Yphis-desesperado..., 14. 20. A s w e l l m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d , t h e f o r m u l a f o r h i s r e c e p t i o n b y F e l i c i n a r e q u i r e s t h a t s h e w i l l r e b u f f h i m a n d w i l l n o t h e a r h i s p l e a o f l o v e . I n t h i s s h e t o o i s a c t i n g a c c o r d i n g t o a r i t u a l o f t h e s t a g e a n d t o s o m e e x t e n t o f a c t u a l l i f e . H i s s o r r o w a t h e r r e f u s a l i s a s s t y l i z e d a s i s V i d r i a n o ' s i n t h e V i d r i a n a b y J a y m e d e G u e t e . A g a i n , a n e x c h a n g e of. t e x t s w o u l d n o t a f f e c t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n a n y m a j o r w a y . A q u i l a n o : D o n d e e l a m o r me f a l t o , l a v i d a me f a l t a a g o r a . j A y , a y , a y , q u e m u e r t o s o ( y ) ! " ' S o c o r r e m e t u , s e n o r a . 15. a n d : V i d r i a n o : H a z d e m l l o q u e q u e r r a s , Q u e n o s e e x c u s a m i m u e r t e , j0 i n h u m a n a ! J O c r u e z a s o b e r a n a l j o d u r e z d e s c o m u n a l ! J O p i e d a d c a d u c a u v a n a l , B odi,i, q u a l D i o s t e f o r m o t a l ? 16. T h i s c o u r t l y l a n g u a g e i s p r e s e n t e v e n w h e n A q u i l a n o i s f a c e d w i t h e x p l a i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f h i s i l l n e s s t o B e r m u d o . <!He c o n s i d e r s t h a t h i s w o u n d i s " u n a h e r i d a m o r t a l " a n d t h a t i t d o e s n o t p e r m i t h i m t o s p e a k b e c a u s e o f i t s s e v e r i t y . U p t o t h i s p o i n t T o r r e s N a h a r r o h a s s u c c e e d e d o n l y i n p r o v i d i n g a b r i e f i n t e r l u d e o f h u m o u r a t A q u i l a n o ' s e x p e n s e i n J o r n a d a I a n d i n c r e a t i n g a s t o c k c o u r t i e r i n v o l v e d i n a c o u r t l y l o v e a f f a i r . B u t w h e n t h e a c t u a l m o m e n t o f c h o o s i n g d e a t h r a t h e r t h a n d i s h o n o u r c o m e s A q u i l a n o c o m e s A q u i l a n o c o m e s b r i e f l y t o l i f e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a n d b e c o m e s n o t o n l y s i n c e r e b u t b e l i e v a b l e . T o r r e s N a h a r r o t h e n s t r i p s h i m o f h i s r h e t o r i c a n d m a k e s h i m a d d r e s s B e r m u d o v e r y s i m p l y a n d h u m b l y . M a t a r m e p u e d e s a q u i , m a s n o e s p e r e s q u e t e m i e n t a , q u e e n v e r d a d , 21. s i a m a n d o , l a v o l u n t a d t e o f e n d i o , p o r m i p e c c a d o o t r a n i n g u n a m a l d a d p o r m i s m a n o s n o h a p a s s a d o . 17. I n t h e s a m e v e i n , h e a s s e r t s h i s l o y a l t y , t o B e r m u d o a n d h i s d e s i r e t o r e l i e v e t h e k i n g o f a n y s o r r o w o r m i s f o r t u n e c a u s e d b y h i s , A q u i l a n o ' s , f o o l i s h n e s s i n l o v i n g F e l i c i n a . A s s u r i n g B e r m u d o t h a t F e l i c i n a i s c h a s t e a n d u n h u r t i n a n y w a y , h e m o v e s o n t o w h a t i s h i s s t r o n g e s t m o m e n t , h i ' S r e f u s a l t o i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f a n d t h e r e b y b e a c q u i t t e d o f t h e c r i m e a n d s p a r e d f r o m d e a t h . H e i n s i s t s t h a t h e i s " u n e s t r a n j e r o " , p r o t e c t i n g b o t h t h e h o n o u r o f h i s f a m i l y a n d t h a t o f n o b i l i t y i n g e n e r a l b y s a y i n g t h i s . T h i s a c t i o n w a s n o t a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e s t o r y s i n c e F e l i c i n a d o e s n o t k n o w o f h i s i d e n t i t y u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e p l a y . P r o b a b l y t h e s t r o n g e s t s i d e o f A q u i l a n o ' s f r i e f s h o w i n g o f h i s o w n c h a r a c t e r i s t h a t b y s o d o i n g h e r e v e a l s t h a t h e m a y i n d e e d b e s t r o n g w h e r e B e r m u d o i s w e a k a n d t h a t , i n a n y c a s e , h e w o u l d n o t b e a p o o r e r k i n g o f C a s t i l e s h o u l d h e s o m e h o w g a i n t h e c r o w n . H i s o f f e r i n g o f t h e k n i f e t o B e r m u d o f o r t h e e x e c u t i o n i s s o m e e v i d e n c e t h a t h e w i l l b e h i s o w n m a s t e r a n d w i l l n o t r e l y o n F o r t u n e a s B e r m u d o s e e m s t o . F e l i c i n a T h e c h a r a c t e r o f F e l i c i n a d o e s n o t e m e r g e a s r e m a r k a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y i n t h e s a m e w a y t h a t B e r m u d o ' s d o e s n o t . I t c a n b e ; s t a t e d t h a t h e r c h a r a c t e r d e c l i n e s a f t e r t h e f i r s t J o r n a d a a n d b e c o m e s f a r c i c a l b y t h e l a s t J o r n a d a . H e r n a m e a n d n a t u r e " F e l i c i n a " h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s " t r a n s p a r e n t l y s y m b o l i c " l g a n d a t m o s t s t a g e s s h e i s j u s t t h a t , a s y m b o l o f a l o v e o b j e c t w i t h l i t t l e a t t a c h e d h u m a n i t y e x c e p t w h e n s h e i f f c o n f r o n t e d b y a g r a c i o s o . g r a c i o s a , o r a g a r d e n e r . A t s u c h a m o m e n t s h e a c q u i r e s a l i t t l e o f t h e s p a r k l e w h i c h t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e , a s i f b y a p r o c e s s o f o s m o s i s . 2 2 . T o A q u i l a n o ' s a t t e m p t s t o c o u r t h e r s h e i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y u n r e s p o n s i v e a n d q u i t e u n s y m p a t h e t i c . H e i s b e l o w h e r a n d m u s t w o r s h i p a t h e r p e d e s t a l a s c u s t o m r e q u i r e s a n d s o s h e i s f o l l o w i n g a . f o r m u l a w h e n s h e a d d r e s s e s h i m t h u s , P u e s n o l l o r e s , p u s ( i ) l a n i m o e n a m o r e s ; o , q u e a v n q u e n o me l o a g r a d e s c e s , e l m e n o r d e m i s f a v o r e s © t e p a g a m a s q u e m e r e c e s . 1 8 . S h e r e g a r d s h e r s e l f a s a f o r t r e s s w h i c h i s i m p r e g n a b l e i n b o t h s e n s e s o f t h e w o r d . I 0 p e n s a u a s q u e s i l a v i l l a t o m a u a s , l a f o r t a l e z a t e n i a s ? 2 0 . T h i s a t t i t u d e o f c o l d n e s s i s s i m i l a r t o L e r i a n a ' s t o w a r d s V i d r i a n o a n d t h e r e s u l t s a r e t h e s a m e . A f t e r a c o l d a n d c y n i c a l r e c e p t i o n a t f i r s t , t h e r e i s a n a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s t a t u s o f a l o v e a f f a i r . T h e a g r e e m e n t i s a l m o s t a b u s i n e s s o n e , l a c k i n g a n y o f t h e t e n d e r n e s s w h i c h o n e m i g h t e x p e c t f r o m h u m a n b e i n g s i n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T o r r e s N a h a r r o m i g h t e a s i l y h a v e w r i t t e n t h e r e f u s a l f o r L e r i a n a a s s h e i n i t i a l l y s p u r n s V i d r i a n o . S i a l a l l a g a q u e v u e s t r a b u r l a d e s t r a g a , t u b i e r a y o a p u n t a m i e n t o , -m u y p e o r f u e r a l a p a g a , -q u e f u e v u e s t r o . a t r e u i m i e n t o . 2 1 . F e l i c i n a r e q u i r e s o f A q u i l a n o t h a t h e r e t u r n o n t h e m o r r o w , b e i n g c a r e f u l t h a t h e s h o u l d n o t b e d i s c o v e r e d b y t h e g a r d e n e r s , a l l t h e w h i l e i n s i s t i n g t h a t s h e d o e s n o t t r u s t h i s i n t e n t i o n s a n d t h a t s h e h a s u p p e r m o s t i n h e r m i n d t h e l e g e n d o f T h e s e u s a n d P h i l o m e n a . A l l t h i s i c y r e j e c t i o n o f a l o v e r d o e s n o t a m o u n t t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r . f o r F e l i c i n a . W h e n s h e i s w i t h A q u i l a n o t h e a u d i e n c e i s f o r c e d t o w a t c h a t s e r i e s o f e x c h a n g e s o f f o r m u l a e w h i c h a r e i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e m s e l v e s 23-b u t n o t i n d i c a t i v e o f a b i l i t y - a t c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t . O n l y w h e n s h e i s a t e a s e w i t h D i l e t a a n d c a n c o m m u n i c a t e i n t i m a t e l y w i t h h e r d o e s F e l i c i n a a s s u m e h u m a n d i m e n s i o n s f o r a f e w b r i e f m o m e n t s . W i t h D i l e t a t h e r e i s l i t t l e p r e t e n s e a n d F e l i c i n a d o e s n o t a s s u m e a n y f o r h e r o w n p a r t . S h e i s p e r f e c t l y o p e n y . w i t h D i l e t a w h e n s h e c o n f e s s e s t h a t , P o r q u e d e s p u e s q u e me v i h e r i d a d e a q u e s t e m a l , n o r e y n a p l a z e r e n m i n i c o s a d e s u m e t a l . 22. T h i s c l o s e n e s s a n d g o o d r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s e r v a n t a n d m i s t r e s s i s s i m i l a r l y w e l l r e v e a l e d b y F e l i c i n a , t h e m a i d , a n d E l i o d o r a , t h e l a d y , i n E l I n f a m a d o r . B e s e t b y L e u c i n o , t h e p a i r s e e k s o m e r e s t f r o m h i s p r e s e n c e a n d i n c e s s a n t p l o t t i n g t o g a i n a u d i e n c e w i t h E l i o d o r a . T o F e l i c i n a " s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a w a l k i n t h e m e a d o w s w i l l b e a g o o d t h o u g h t , E l i o d o r a r e p l i e s , T u p a r e c e r me c o n t e n t a , s i g u e e s e e s t r e c h o c a m i n o , p o r d o n d e B e t i s d i v i n o , d e l a v i s t a n o s e a u s e n t a . 23. • , < C o m p a r i n g t h e s e p l a y s , t h e h a u g h t i n e s s w h i c h b o t h w o m e n d i s p l a y t o w a r d s t h e i r l o v e r s i s r e p l a c e d b y c a l m f r i e n d l i n e s s w i t h t h e i r s e r v a n t s . T o r r e s N a h a r r o d o e s n o t m a n a g e t o p r o v i d e F e l i c i n a w i t h a n y m o m e n t o f g r e a t n e s s a s h e d o e s B e r m u d o a n d A q u i l a n o . W h e n t h e p o t e n t i a l m o m e n t f o r i t c o m e s , t h a t o f F e l i c i n a ' s s u i c i d e , h e a l l o w s h i s a b i l i t y a t b u r l e s q u e t o g e t t h e b e t t e r o f h i m . A l t h o u g h F e l i c i n a m a k e s d r a m a t i c s o u n d s , p e r h a p s b o r r o w e d b y t h e a u t h o r f r o m t h e C e l e s t i n a , t h e r e s u l t s ? a r e l u d i c r o u s . D i r e c t i n g h e r s e l f t o w a r d s t h e w i n d o w , F e l i c i n a s t a t e s , Como y r i a t a n d e g a n a , . p o r m o r i r t o d a f i e l , 24. a echarme de vna ventana, que cayesse encima d'el. 24. This comes to nothing as does her attempt at hanging since she cannot t i e knots. Her attempts to cut open her veins r e s u l t i n a f o o l i s h episode i n which Dandario supplies a l l manner of useless instruments. I f t h i s were not enough, Torres Naharro ensures that the joke w i l l be stretched to i t s furthest by Dileta's comic extraction of favours before l e t t i n g F e l i c i n a know that Aquilano i s a l i v e and i d e n t i f y i n g him to her. By t h i s point, however, the character of F e l i c i n a i s v i r t u a l l y that of a clown and t o t a l l y removed from any serious dramatic significance. The sum of Felicina's' character i s that she i s without dimension most of the time and an inconsequential buffoon f o r the balance of i t . To actually i d e n t i f y a strong point i n her character would be exceedingly d i f f i c u l t . S The members of the Royal class, taken on the whole, are a great disappointment. Where they could be great they are not, and where they have moments of good character exposition these moments do not endure. From Bermudo to F e l i c i n a there i s a progressive decay i n character development and an increasing reliance on colourless, stockv language to be the v e h i c l e 1 o f dimensionless characters. C. (2) The Professional Class Esculapio Of the three members of the Professional class, the doctors, Esculapio i f by f a r the best developed and the most i n t e r e s t i n g . Without a doubt, he i s the only character i n the Aquilana who demonstrates l o g i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , though t h i s i s accompanied by the dour humourlessness cha r a c t e r i s t i c of the Royal class. When his colleagues cannot discern the 25. n a t u r e o f t h e i l l n e s s , E s c u l a p i o d e t e r m i n e s . . q u i t e r i g h t l y t h a t A q u i l a n o i f d e p r e s s e d , " s u m a y o r m a l e s t r i s t e z a " , 25. a n d t h a t t h i s i s s y m p t o m a t i c o f s o m e o t h e r p r o b l e m . H i s d e c i s i o n t o u s e a g r e a t n u m b e r o f y o u n g w o m e n a n d i n c l u d e t h e s u s p e c t e d o n e a m o n g t h e m t o s e e t o w h o m A q u i l a n o r e a c t s i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g o n e b u t n o t i n d i c a t i v e o f o r i g i n a l i t y o n T o r r e s N a h a r r o ' s p a r t . A c c o r d i n g t o G i l l e t , T o r r e s N a h a r r o c o v i l d . h a v e b o r r o w e d i t f r o m V a l e r i u s M a x i m u s , P l u t a r c h ' s l i f e o f D e m e t r i u s , P e t r a r c h , B r u n i , B a n d e l l i , o f C a m o e s . 26. T h e t a l e w a s c o m m o n p r o p e r t y a n d d o e s n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r o f E s c u l a p i u s a s a w i s e m a n b u t n e i t h e r d o e s i t a d d n o v e l t y t o t h e a c c o u n t . T h e a u r a o f k n o w l e d g e i s n o t e n h a n c e d b y h i s u s e o f c l a s s i c a l m e d i c a l r e f e r e n c e s p s i n c e h i s u s a g e o f t h e m p a r a l l e l s A q u i l a n o ' s a n d F e l i c i n a ' s q u o t a t i o n o f m y t h o l o g i c a l h e r o e s , g o d s a n d d e m o n s . S e r a , b u e n o V n e m p l a s t r o p a r a e l s e n o d o n d e m a s s i e n t e l a p e n a , s e g u n m a n d a G a l i e n o , A u e n r r o y z u A u i c e n a . 27. S o f a r , E s c u l a p i o i s s e e n t o b e s h r e w d a n d a b l e t o g i v e r e a s o n a b l e a n s w e r s w h e n t h e s e a r e d e m a n d e d o f h i m . " H i s c h a r a c t e r © m e r g e s m o r e s t r o n g l y w h e n h e f i n d s h i m s e l f i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o a d v i s e B e r m u d o o f t h e t r u e c a u s e f o r A q u i l a n o ' s c o n d i t i o n . C u n n i n g l y , h e s h i f t s t h e c a u s e s l i g h t l y , H a s d e o y r , p u e s n o t e d e u o e n c u b r i r l o q u e e n f i n h a s d e s a b e r , q u e e l e s t a p a r a m o r i r d e a m o r e s d e m i m u g e r . 28. S i n c e h e i s o f f e r e d i m m e d i a t e p a y m e n t b y B e r m u d o f o r h i s " a c c u r a t e " j u d g m e n t i t w o u l d b e e a s y f o r h i m t o a c c e p t t h e m o n e y a n d g o a t o n c e . He i s more shrewd than that for the deceit would have to emerge sometime. Consequently he refuses payment claiming that, que yo no vendo e l honor, n i l a muger, n i l a f e . 29. This appeal to honour i s a timely one and w i l l save him from the c r i t i c i s m that he i s avaricious. He i s just lucky enough for Bermudo to offer him an avenue of escape by stating that i t would not matter i f i t were Esculapio*s wife or his own with whom Aquilano i s i n love. At t h i s moment Esculapio can then catch the king o f f guard and confess that F e l i c i n a i s the one with whom the matter r e s t s . Immediately excusing himself, he sees that his suppression of the facts has not been noticed by the unhappy king. He i s uniformly, sharp i n his thinking and remains so since he manipulates the king into a position of having to hear Faceto's confession as to who his master i s , thereby making himself, Esculapio, look l i k e the hero of the piece rather than someone who possessed information and witheld i t from those e n t i t l e d to know i t . When he says, .... que Faceto sabe d'esto bien su parte.... 30. he might w e l l be tal k i n g about himself and his own complicity i n the a f f a i r . f , = . • • ' Esculapio is, something of an enigma i n the plays of Torres Naharro since only the Aquilana includes doctors at a l l and his two colleagues are not t r u l y equal to the s k i l l and cunning of Esculapio. As for his position i n the play, Esculpio may represent certain elements of Torres Naharro himself for the author does not c r i t i c i z e him for his shrewdness 27. and nei ther does he present hime,as a weak character. I t i s h is s k i l l upon which the outcome of the play depends, apart from the roya l sanction of Bermudo. As a character i n h i s s o c i a l h ierarchy, Esculapio i s the highest member who i s reasonably w e l l developed. Apart from the copied diagnosis, the balance of Esculapio*s words are s u f f i c i e n t l y o r i g i n a l to ind ica te something more than merely a s lav i sh fo l lowing of formula and custom. Galieno and Po l idar io In contrast to Esculapio, the characters of Galieno and Po l idar io are a minor disappointment. Lacking h is shrewdness they are prone to farce and low comedy wi th the bystanders. The unfortunate part of t h i s i s that they enter as one type, the learned phys ic ian, and they ex i t upon another, the credulous buffoon. They are redundant:, i n that the audience^ learns l i t t l e of value about e i ther one, espec ia l l y Galieno who has very few l i nes i n the p lay . Galieno i s unable to diagnose Aqui lano's ailment and seems to lose a l l i n te res t in . the matter as a r e s u l t . Turning to the gardeners he reverts «t° h is more natura l ro le of comic and asks about the crowd of quacks and healers they propose to br ing to the scene. Immediately r e a l i z i n g that he i s the butt of t he i r jokes, he becomes scornfu l and re to r t s , jGran letrado que en Salamanca ha estudiado y en otras t i e r r a s agenas y en Par is fue graduado y en Bolona y en AthenasS 31• Pol ida r io adds very l i t t l e more than does Galieno to the play and exact ly mirrors the l a t t e r ' s a b i l i t y . t o be made the butt of a $oke by the gardeners. He takes every jes t wi th seriousness and even f a i l s to 28. recognize that the r u s t i c s are punning when they refer to Averroyz and Avicena. Torres Naharro adds only one feature, to character which i s not already done f o r Galieno and that i s ' to have him show a l i t t l e wit i n an attempt to give the gardeners an "Indian G i f t " i n the form of a dinner. From a point of view of the construction of the play Torres Naharro could have improved the t r i a d of doctors by reducing i t to Esculapio and combining the others into one personality. The resulting balance between the shrewdness of Esculapio and the naivety of the combination personage? would have established a better balance and eliminated the redundancy of characterization. Together, Polidario and Galieno hardly amount to one adequate character and separately:.-" they are quite unimpressive. D. (3) The Servant Class In the servant class there i s much more wit and variety. Torres Naharro, apparently at home with t h i s group as a whole, produces two excellent examples of the gracioso and graciosa.as well,as two very l i v e l y and amusing clowns i n the gardeners. In the Himenea,si,T-orases Naharro had already experimented successfully with both gracioso and graciosa but Boreas and Doresta of the Himenea are not nearly as successful as are Faceto and D i l e t a of the Aquilana. The two gardeners do not depart greatly, from the stock froms of humour but „they are so l i v e l y and quick thinking that they provide what are perhaps two #$> the best examples of the comic r u s t i c of the pre-Lope de Rueda theatre. The colourful language of the T i n e l l a r i a indicates that Torres Naharro was both f a m i l i a r and sympathetic to the l i f e of servants i n r i c h households, probably because his own existence was very l i t t l e removed from being as precarious as t h e i r s . 2 9 . The strength of the characters Faceto, D i l e t a , Dandario and Galterio i s that they represent a condensation of the servants of the previous seven plays by Torres Naharro and are both adequate and f u l l y developed while not i n excessive numbers as are the doctors. Faceto From the very of f s e t i t i s apparent that Faceto i s on close terms with h i s master and therefore i s t y p i c a l of the servant l o y a l to a r i c h man. Aquilano addresses him i n conventional terms as, .. .dime t u ^ qui en te fuera ta(n) buen amigo? and receives a correspondingly warm answer, Dime tu,-senor, tambien, s i en e l l o pierdes comigo? 3 2 This use of tu and suggestion of closeness i s s i m i l a r l y reflected i n the Tidea by Francisco de las Natas, though i n less l i v e l y dialogue. The relationship i s a standard one of which either comedia may be taken as an example for i l l u s t r a t i o n . Tideo: Veramente, vn mi criado prudente me paresce muy arteros bueno sera de presente darle cuenta por entero; que es sabido, bien discreto y recogido, y aun accepto s e r u i c i a l ; yo l e tengo conoscido que me sirve muy l e a l . 3 3 This attitude of friendship i s not without i t s hazards as Aquilano i s to discover when Faceto proceeds to read a hopelessly and most "amusingly garbled version of a l e t t e r from F e l i c i n a to Aquilano. 30. S t a r t i n g w i t h a w r y c o m m e n t t h a t t h e h a n d w r i t i n g r e s e m b l e s b e e t l e t r a c k s , h e a n n o y s h i s m a s t e r b y m a k i n g p h r a s e s o f l o v e i n t o o b s c e n e j o k e s . T o r r e s N a h a r r o d o e s n o t a l l o w t h e s i t u a t i o n t o b e c o m e o n e o f v i o l e n c e a n d n a m e - c a l l i n g a s i s d o n e i s s u c h a w o r k a s t h e a n o n y m o u s f a r c e o f F e r n a n d o D i a z o f 1554. T o e m u l a t e t h e c o a r s e n e s s o f J u a n C a s a d o a n d A n t o n B o d i g o w o u l d h a v e c o s t F a c e t o m u c h o f h i s s t r e n g t h w h i c h h e e s t a b l i s h e s t o t h e a u d i e n c e a f t e r h i s m a s t e r ' s d e p a r t u r e . H a l f s e r i o u s l y , h e r e m a r k s t h a t h e h a s n o t w a n t e d h i s m a s t e r t o g o c r a z y w i t h l o v e , b u t h e i n t i m a t e s t o t h e a u d i e n c e t h a t a l t h o u g h i t i s h o p e l e s s t o a d v i s e h i s m a s t e r i n s u c h m a t t e r s y e t t h e p r e s e n c e o f D i l e t a a n d h i s o w n p r e s e n c e m i g h t p r o v e t o b e w e l l w o r t h s o m e c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n . H i s a m u s e d f r u s t r a t i o n i s e x a c t l y t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e m o r e u s u a l s i t u a t i o n e x e m p l i f i e d b y T i d e o ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f P r u d e n t e ' s a d v i c e . T o r r e s N a h a r r o l a u n c h e s F a c e t o i n t o a n a f f a i r w i t h D i l e t a w h i c h s e r v e s t o p a r a l l e l t h a t o f A q u i l a n o a n d F e l i c i n a a n d d o e s s o o n a m u c h m o r e h u m a n p l a n e . T h i s c o m i c v e i n , i s i m m e d i a t e l y e x p l o r e d b y T o r r e s N a h a r r o s i n c e F a c e t o ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h D i l e t a i n v o l v e s m u c h o f t h e s a m e l a n g u a g e a n d t h e i n i t i a l l y c o l d r e c e p t i o n o n D i l e t a ' s p a r t w h i c h i s . c o u r t l y c u s t o m f o r A q u i l a n o a n d F e l i c i n a . H a d A q u i l a n o a d d r e s s e d F e l i c i n a i n t h e s e t e r m s t h e s i t u a t i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n a c o n v e n t i o n a l l y s t r a i n e d a d d r e s s ; w h e n F a c e t o u s e s t h e m t o D i l e t a t h e j o k e i s i m m e d i a t e l y -.' a p p a r e n t . Q u e l o s m u e r t o s p o r a m a r v e n c i d o s e n e s t a g u e r r a , e s t a m o s p o r e n t e r r a r p o r n o c o ( n ) s e n t i r l a t i e r r a . 34 31. D i l e t a ' s r e j e c t i o n o f h i s t e r m s a s a c o v e r f o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i s i n i t i a l l y s e r i o u s b u t s h e s o o n c a t c h e s t h e c o m i c s p i r i t o f t h e m o m e n t a n d p a r o d i e s T i d e o ' s f e r v e n t " Y o p r i m e r o q u e d a r e , / q u e me a p a r t e y o d e t i . " b y h e r o w n l u d i c r o u s f a r e w e l l t o F a c e t o , a n d h i s e q u a l l y a m u s i n g r e p l y , D i l e t a : V e c o n D i o s , q u e s i h a r e . F a c e e o : M a s v o y c o n t i g o y s i n m i . 35 T h i s v i e w o f F a c e t o i s b u t a b e g i n n i n g , f o r T o r r e s N a h a r r o e m p l o y s h i m i n w h a t i s p e r h a p s t h e m o s t c o m i c e p i s o d e i n t h e w h o l e p l a y w h i l e a t t h e s a m e t i m e p e r h a p s t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t o n e t o c o n t r o l . W h e n h e i s c o n f r o n t e d b y B e r m u d o a n d r e q u e s t e d t o s p e a k a n d m o s t q u i c k l y a b o u t h i m s e l f a n d A q u i l a n o , h e p u t s o n t h e c o m i c r o l e o f a d e l a y e r a n d p l a y s i t t o t h e h i l t . B e r m u d o i s a w e a k c h a r a c t e r a t b e s t b u t h e i s f l a t t e n e d b y F a c e t o w h e n h e m u s t m a t c h w i t s w i t h h i m . S e n s i n g t h a t B e r m u d o l a c k s a v e i n o f h u m o u r , h e i n s i s t s t h a t h e m u s t n o t b e h u r t s i n c e i t i s r e q u i s i t e t h a t h e r e t u r n t o h i s m o t h e r s a f e a n d s o u n d . F a l l e n i n t o t h e t r a p , B e r m u d o t h e n i s d o o m e d , P o r m i c o r o n a t e j u r o q u e n i n g u n m a i s e t e s i g a . 36 T h i n k i n g t h a t h e i s r e c e i v i n g t h e s e c r e t i n f o r m a t i o n o n a p a p e r , B e r m u d o s n a t c h e s i t a n d r e a d s a f e a r f u l a t t e m p t a t l o v e p o e t r y i n s t e a d . W i t h t h e a u d i e n c e w a t c h i n g i n d e l i g h t , T o r r e s N a h a r r o h a s h i s F a c e t o a s s u r e t h e k i n g t h a t h e h a s f o r g o t t e n b o t h t h e n a m e o f h i s m a s t e r a n d a l s o t h a t t h i s i s a l i t t l e s o n g c o m p o s e d t h e d a y b e f o r e . P u r s u i n g t h e j o k e , h e e x t r a c t s p a y m e n t f r o m B e r m u d o i n t h e f o r m o f t h e k i n g ' s c a p e a n d t h e n p r o c e e d s t o t r y i t o n . A t t h e c o s t o f d e s t r o y i n g a n y l a s t 32. elements of Bermudo's dignity, Torres Naharro has Faceto t r i c k Bermudo perfectly while bringing his own character to a climax. This scene i s without p a r a l l e l i n any of Torres Naharro's works and i s equally unsurpassed by any of his followers. The f i n a l r e s u l t i s that Faceto emerges as the strongest male character i n the play. D i l e t a In an orthodox fashion, D i l e t a i s on very close terms with her mistress and resembles Oripesta's trusted position with Leriana i n the Tesorina. Whereas Leriana addresses Oripesta as " Oripesta, hermana mia ^ n e Introyto speaker makes a s i m i l a r introduction of D i l e t a as, Camarera muy secreta y a F e l i c i n a muy junta. 38 This closeness extends to such an extent tJhat she feels a l i t t l e above the gardeners and addresses them as "A, ortelano" rather than by t h e i r own names. Di l e t a i s as l i v e l y and as prone to comedy as i s Faceto. While clo to her, she does not hesitate to o f f e r moral judgments to F e l i c i n a , a ch a r a c t e r i s t i c which Torres Naharro borrows from contemporary plays and uses to good e f f e c t . In a f a r more l i v e l y way than Oripesta, D i l e t a advides F e l i c i n a that, mas con rauia, ^que no muerde? con amor, ^quien tiene rienda? Nunca v i lena tan verde que en e l fuego no se encienda. 39 This tone of admonishment from an experienced woman to an inexperienced one i s received by F e l i c i n a i n a fashion s i m i l a r to Leriana's reception of Oripesta's advice. The responses would appear to be 33. stock ones although Dileta*s advice i s presented i n a more s t r i k i n g fashion. F e l i c i n a : Pues, hermana, no me culpes de l i u i a n a l o que no hago por vici:o; que siendo muger humana, l a came haze su o f f i c i o . 40 Leriana: Ay, hermanaI no me culpes de l i u i a n a , que me sacaras de quicio; que avnque re s i s t o de gana, e l cuerpo haze su o f f i c i o . 4 l Where Torres Naharro succeeds i n being more o r i g i n a l i s i n his portrayal of the comic courtship of D i l e t a by Faceto, mentioned above. Though the s i t u a t i o n i s again not completely o r i g i n a l , since a p a r a l l e l can be found i n the Vidriana, Carmeno and Cetina simply lack the v i t a l i t y and humour which Torres Naharro gives to his Gracioso and graciosa. Cetina lamely refuses Carmento, asserting, Lo que con e l o jo veo, con e l dedo l o adeuino. 42 Di l e t a i s far more assertive and v i v i d i n her ref u s a l , Pues de mi, to te prometo que no me mamo los dedos; n i ay razon, s i n s a l i r yo de un rincon. 43 Cetina i s s i m i l a r l y weaker i n her ref u s a l to hear Carmento's reasons and p l a i n t of love. Speaking of men, she echoes the conventional d i s t r u s t of t h e i r intentions. En vosotros veo yo cada dia tales tratos; y en despues quetenes vuestro interes, volbes luego las espaldas, y antes que nada tenes, ysnos royendo las haldas. 44 3 4 . Dileta, in her characteristically forthright fashion, puts into words precisely what Faceto has in mind, Tu querrxas con essas chocarrerias que yo te abriesse a tu guisa, y despues ensayarias de buscarme la camisa. 4 5 Dileta, despite her occasionally brusque replies, is amused when Felicina asks her opinion as to how to proceed with the love affair with Aquilano and this amused friendiliness is maintained by Torres Naharro as part of Dileta's character right to the end of the play. When advising on love, the best approach is, Cierra los ojos, y traga como quien beue xaropes. and she promptly advises Felicina that her advice is probably very bad indeedI Mas te digo si te consejas comigo: que te hazes mala fiesta en ser auara contigo de lo que poco te cuesta. 4 6 Dileta's last appearance in the Aquilana is Torres Naharro's realization of the f u l l potential for comedy in Dileta. Seeing that her mistress in hes? typically humourless fashion is fretting over Aquilano, she wryly asks the cause, analyses the situation and tests to see i f Felicina can see any humour in the matter. jQuan rica quedas agora, quan buena suerte tuuiste, quan bendita fue la hora que Aquilano conociste! 4 7 Seeing then that the joke can be extended, she has Felicina assume the 35. r o l e of maid while she pretends to be queen. While F e l i c i n a may see less humour i n t h i s , Torees Naharro, borrowing the idea from a scene i n Plautus' Asinaria, saw the comic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i t and has D i l e t a 48 bring them out. Acting the r o l e of the crusty dowager, D i l e t a requests, Besa. j Quan humilde estal Dios te haga buena h i j a . 49 and then she asks her what salary she would l i k e to earn. Only when Di l e t a sees that F e l i c i n a has t i r e d of the joke does she relent and give her the good news. This whole scene has no equivalents i n Torres Naharro's other works and neither does i t appear i n those of his C a s t i l i a n contemporaries. Although Torres Naharro has been described as " a n t i - c l a s s i c a l " by G i l l e t i t seems that he was f a m i l i a r with Plautus to t h i s degree. Despite the fact that i t i s not his invention, the adaptation of t h i s scene adds to the q u a l i t y of characterization which Torres Naharro gives to the servants. Dandario and Galterio Galterio and Dandario are not complex characters but they are two of the most comical r u s t i c s i n Torres Naharro's plays. They serve to deflate the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the royalty and bring some elements of l i f e to the doctors. Their speech i s r u s t i c , coarse and very v i v i d . Their purpose i n the play i s , i n a sense, much the same as that of the Introyto speaker. Meredith describes i t thus, I t i s a manifestation of the strong- s a t i r i c o - r e a l i s t i c bias of the Spanish mind which opposes and balances a mystico-romantic bias no less t y p i c a l . ... hhe pastor of Naharro i s , i n a modest way, a forerunner of Sancho, just as Lucia and Marenilla are of Dulcinea, and Ruiz's serranas of them a l l . They represent a reaction against the a r t i f i c i a l conception of love that began with the troubadors and reached i t s apogee i n Spain, with the Diana. More d i r e c t l y , Naharro was parodying the lovelorn swains of contemporary pastoral l y r i c and drama, and the romantic lover of his own comedies. 50 3 6 . That thereis some truth to this statement i s suggested by the appearance of the gardeners immediately following Aquilano's impassioned declaration of love to Felicina for the f i r s t time. Hearing the amorous plaint, Dandario promptly states, Mai peccado, deue ser algun alma que anda en pena. Por San Pego, Porne l a mano en vn fuego y a mi saluo jurarxa que es e l alma d'aquel crego que se ahorco e l otro dla. 51 This promptly punctures the solemnity of the previous moment but Torres Naharro does not lose an instant before having the character proceed to the next comic situation. This i s his best move since i t ' avoids the weakness of the situation produced i n the Vidriana where Carmento and Secreto hear their master holding forth about his love and question each other about i t . Carmentot Ola, hermanol quieh esta con este vabo, toda l a manana hablando? Secreto: Llebantose muy temprano; no entres, questa rezando. 52 The matter i s dropped then1'- and no comic use i s made of i t . Given the same situation, Torres Naharro capitalizes on i t by immediately employing the common feature of a burlesque church service with garbled prayers. The same feature used to poorer effect i s present i n the Tesorina where the Andalusian priest alternates prayers modified by ceceo with questions on food thefts directed to the altar boy. Torres Naharro goes further, having his rustics perform a f u l l exorcism and invocation of spi r i t s , including those of wolves, lizards, pure wine and serpents. 37. The climax i s reached by a solemn r e c i t a t i o n of the Lord's prayer, Crialeyson d e l paternostra qui ex i n c e l i s l o dinos tentaciones b i t a nostra. 53 In t h i s fashion Torres Naharro not only manages to exploit the comic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the scene, but also includes elements of the c o n f l i c t between r u s t i c and c i t y dweller, a matter to be discussed l a t e r . Galterio i s doubly useful as a comic figure since he has been an acolyte and has subsequently abandoned the church. Much of what he says then comes to have a double meaning, applying to both church and comedy. An element which Torres Naharro omits i n his r u s t i c s i s that of overdone grossness and epithets. In t h i s he avoids the violence of Fernando Diaz' Farsa of 155^ i n which Juan Casado and Anton Bodigo proceed from an exchange of pullas to stringed i n s u l t s , t y p i f i e d by ' the l a t t e r * s r e t o r t , Anda, modorro, necio, baboso, no te arrebatel 5^ to which he receives a description of himself as "burro, c e u i l , h i de v i e j a , " e t c . The Tesorina s i m i l a r l y breaks down i n such places where C i t e r i a and Gilyracho exchange endless series of i n s u l t s and epithets. Torres Naharro avoids t h i s by having actions such as gardening, medical examinations, or minor crises occur at the same time so that Galterio and Dandario do not simply face each other and r e c i t e i n s u l t s . The strongest feature of Torres Naharro's r u s t i c s i s that they are active i n the play and are not merely introduced to give comic e f f e c t . This a c t i v i t y i s t y p i f i e d by Galterio*s remaining with Aquilano while 38. the l a t t e r spouts f o r t h a most complicated w i l l and testament. Galterio cannot understand i t and instead f a l l s asleep while awaiting Dandario's return with doctors. His previous comment on Aquilano and his class i s t y p i c a l of the gracioso element, i n Tore.es Naharro's r u s t i c s . Los grosseros, estos grandes caualleros •' " que por llamarse sabidos van gastandosus dineros, despues no son entendidos. • 55 . . . The extreme v i t a l i t y of the gardeners i s most prominent during the examination of the stricken Aquilano by the doctors, serving at t h i s point to highlight the feebleness of Bermudo and the forced effect of Aquilano's f a i n t i n g s p e l l . Torres Naharro has Dandario inform the physicians about Luzia, the f l a x - s p l i t t e r , and another maiden who i s expert at ploughing. As i f t h i s were not enough, he has them demolish the erudite geography of the doctors by a r e c i t a t i o n of ludicrous v i l l a g e names, mostly f i c t i t i o u s . This exuberance completely n u l l i f i e s the dramatic effect of king and attendants a l i k e . In t h i s scene, Torres Naharro recreates the s p i r i t e d argument which appears i n the T i n e l l a r i a i n which the servants argue over geography and God. • Portugues: Nan zumbes, que Iudas f o i cordoves, e muyto ben se os proua; e Deus f o i portogues de meo da Rua Noua. Miquel: j Cap de t a l l Tots serem a l a cabal, puig que veig t a l a esperiencia, que n ' i a f o i l s en Portogal com orats n ' i ha en Valencia. 56 The f i n a l point at which the r u s t i c s s t e a l the show from royalty occurs when F e l i c i n a i s purportedly trying to commit suicide. Torres 39 . Naharro creates a wholly comic scene from t h i s , admittedly at-the cost of F e l i c i n a * s potential moment of greatness i n the play, by having Dandario offer help. As usual, the gardener i s the one who makes the scene successful by offering advice. iQuieres, senora, vn caniuete chiquito de escriuanla? 57 - ' v '• Since neither t h i s nor Galterio*s plumb-weight w i l l be of much use, although he suggests the rude knife and a pruning hook should, r e a l need ar i s e , the scene degenerates into comedy and at the same time i s . a t e l l i n g r e f l e c t i o n of the i n e f f e c t u a l l y of the royal c l a s s . Torres Naharro does not introduce great novelty into his r u s t i c characters; they are e s s e n t i a l l y stock ones who behave as do many others i n s i m i l a r plays. What i s unique about them i s the enormous zest with which he endows them. The burlesque mass, the comic arguments, the c r i t i c i s m of higher society, a l l are normal to the r u s t i c s , but Torres Naharro manages to creat extremely good examples of t h i s type of stage character. The Introyto Speaker In the s t r i c t e s t sense, the Introyto speaker i s not actually a character of the Aquilana. He would be better described as a stock introductory feature of a l l of Torres Naharro*s plays. Torres Naharro uses an Introyto speaker consistently i n his eight plays and the Dialogo. Meredith considers that Torres Naharro should be credited with the development of t h i s feature, a f a i r l y common one i n l a t e r comedies up to the time of Lope de Rueda. The c l s e s t approximation to such a device p r i o r to Torres Naharro appears i n the Egloga o Farsa d e l Nascimiento 40. of Lucas Fernandez. This farsa includes an address by a r u s t i c who complains of the i n i q u i t i e s of the world and assures his audience that he w i l l henceforth give himself over to the pleasures of food and l e i s u r e . He then proceeds to introduce and awaken his companion, much i n the same fashion as that by which Dandario awakens Galterio i n the Aquilana. This opening scene i s f o r the audience's benefit- and amusement and serves to bring two of the p r i n c i p a l characters on stage. Lacking any narrative concerning bouts with shepherdesses, the playwright confines himself to r u s t i c vocabulary, complaints and simple humour. C e r t i i n elements of address to an audience also appear i n the Auto P a s t o r i l Castellano of G i l Vicente. G i l speaks b r i e f l y i n much the same st y l e as the shepherd speakers of Torres Naharro's introytos. G i l s Yo aqux estoy abrigado del tempero de Fortuna. Anublada esta l a luna f i mal pecadol 58 He then mentions a r e j o i c i n g or f e s t i v a l to take place asis true i n the Aquilana where a wedding i s hinted at. Despite these scattered beginnings, Torres Naharro i s the f i r s t dramatist to combine a variety of r u s t i c c haracteristics and develop a stock address as a p r e f i x to each play. The reasons for his use of the Introyto speaker are: a. To a t t r a c t the audience's attention.. b. -To set the general mood of the play. . c. To provide an occasion f o r the r e l a t i o n of jokes and erotic t a l e s . d. To outline the plot and characters to the audience. This set of requirements caused the developeent of a formula to which each Introyto speaker adheres more or less f a i t h f u l l y . 41. Weddings and f e s t i v a l s are frequent i n these plays either d i r e c t l y discussed or merely referred to. The Introyto of the Jacinta provides ah example of the l a t t e r . Prr diego, d'otra manera m'acuntio 'n e l desposario, quando cante con Grigorio ' J u a n i l l a l a pelotera'. 59 A more d i r e c t reference to weddings i s provided bythe Aquilana i n which the Introyto speaker wishes wine and wheat to the grandfather, a l i f e of 'mil anos y vn cacho' to his mother-in-law and remembers his a f f a i r with Luzia whom he met at a wedding f e s t i v a l . A s i m i l a r reference to weddings i s made by the prologue speaker of the Dialogo d e l Nascimiento. G i l l e t sees the Aquilana as a wedding play but t h i s i s rather doubtful since a si m i l a r view would then have to be taken of both the Jacinta and the 60 Dialogo d e l Nascimiento. The fact "tihat F e l i c i n a and Aquilano are to be married at the play's end i s hardly evidence to warrant the suggestion either, since the Vidriana terminates i n Vidriano's marriage to Leriana and G i l Vicente's Comedia de l Viudo terminates i n a double wedding. Neither of these are wedding plays or make any pretense to be such. What i s more probable i s that Torres Naharro availed himself of a f e s t i v a l as an excuse for humour and some erotic jokes as a prelude to each play. To say p o s i t i v e l y that the Aquilana i s a wedding play i s unwarranted, when weddings are frequent i n plays of the period. A number of Spanish plays of the f i r s t half of the sixteenth century contain as prominent elements the pedigree of a bride and bridegroom, a l i s t of the bride's dower and of the groom's g i f t s , a marriage ceremony which i s usually performed with burlesque features and close with a wedding song. 61 hz. Though the Aquilana does not close with a y i l l a n c i c o , the Jacinta does with marriage as i t s theme. In t h i s l i g h t , the l i s t i n g of foods and wines and wishes f o r the parents are then'part of a general stage formula which serves to begin the Introyto speaker's address. The shepherds who speak the Intryytos usually relate tales of escapades with l o c a l g i r l s which frequently .involve an attempted rape or some more or less e r o t i c games. The Aquilana's Introyto speaker describes his attack on Luzia b y whom he has been worsted. F i t t i n g the convention, although he loses the b a t t l e , he i s evidently s t i l l amused by i t as he r e c a l l s the event. La maligna m'engarrafa l a sopina; ... yo g r i t S ' s " j M i s e r i c o r d i a l j Dexame o r a l " no queria l a traydora. 62 A s i m i l a r attack i s described i n the Trofea where Marenilla i s the w i l l i n g v i c t i m . Y e l l a vaseme a meter tras vn seto; yo l a veo, y arremeto; voy, aqui toma, a l i i toma. jLobado malo me coma s i no os l a puse en aprietp! 63 This process of attack i s followed i n several cases by the death of the g i r l from natural causes and the burlesque sorrow of the Introyto speaker as he r e f l e c t s upon i t . Marenilla dies i n c h i l d b i r t h , provoking an outburst from the shepherd, while Luzia dies of some disease. The sorrow of the speakers i s expressed'in much the same terms. Aquilana speaker: i Que bragones, que pezachos, pernejones, 43. bocacho de oreja a oreja, los ojos dos barrenones, l a nariz como vna t e j a ! 64 Trophea speaker: Ma r n i l l a , tetas de suero. jAy, perr.aza, que me muerol jAy, eoytadal . jAy, boquita mallograda, dentezitos de ca(u)alloJ 65 Following t h i s expresiion of sorrow, the Introyto speaker i s frequently at a loss f o r words, a method by wftich Torres Naharro manages to bridge the gap between the shepherd's account of his amorous adventures and the summary of pl o t and characters to come. This mock i n a b i l i t y to f i n d adequate words i s expressed by the Aquilana's Introyto speaker by stuttering and fumbling. Vna co... (jO mal bocabro 1) Vna comer, o cometa... comedia, doyla al . diabro; que e l auctor no hallo otro embaxador.... 66 This apparent i n a b i l i t y with words and reference to the author as the person responsible f o r t h i s unwanted task i s s i m i l a r l y present i n the Calamita where the speaker confidentally t e l l s his audience that, Todo aquesto os he contado porque sepays mi saber y que han sabido escoger los que aca m'an embiado, 67 With such a bridging device as t h i s , the Introyto speaker then enumerates the characters i n order of appearance and adds short descriptive comments about each. This done, he departs and does not reappear as i s so i n the Trophea and the Aquilana. His departure i s made with a minor admonition to his audience which may be short, as i n the Aquilana, 4 4 . . y atendays, os suplicamos, y e l hombre se r e c o q u i l l a . 68 or i t may be longer and more pointed as i s so i n the Jacinta. Escuchadla toda entera, pues que tan breue s a l i o ; s i no, hazei de manera que seals hombres de pro. Nenguno diga de no, sopena de maldicion: qu'el Papa n i e l papilon no l o asueluan, sino yo. '69 The Introyto speaker i s then following a set formula i n each of these plays, a formula which Torres Naharro seems to have elaborated and have been s a t i s f i e d with to the extent that he does not make any great divergences from i t i n any of the plays.- After t h i s period, Jayme de Guete and Francisco de las Natas continued to employ the form with a few changes but neither succeeded i n recreating the l i v e l i n e s s of Torres Naharro' Introytos. I t i s however an added feature to each play and i s not completely integrated with i t . Whether the person speaking the part reappeared i n the play as a r u s t i c or servant i s of l i t t l e consequence because of t h i s feature. 45. Footnotes - Section 2. (1) Joseph A. Meredith, "Introito and Loa i n the Spanish Drama of the l6th Century", Pennsylvania University Series In Romance Languages a n d  Literatures, No. 16, p. 26. (2) G i l l e t , I I , pp. 113 - 20. (3) G i l l e t , IV, p. 542. (4) G i l l e t , I I , pp. 466 - 7, 11. 232 - 233. (5) G i l l e t , I I , pp. 525 - 6, 11. 2 6 - 2 9 . (6) Juan de l a Cueva, Obras, (Madrid, 194l), p. 98, 11. 220 -225. (7) G i l l e t , I I , p. 526, 11. 55 - 57. (8) ' G i l l e t , I I , p. 527, 11. 75 - 77. (9) G i l l e t , I I , p. 528 - 9, 11. 121 - 124. G i l l e t , II,pp. 540 - 1, 11. 475 - 481. (10 ( U (12 (13 (14 (15 (16 (17 (18. (19 (20 (21 . (22 (23 (24 John M. H i l l and Mabel M. Harlan, eds., Cuatro Comedias, (New York, 1941), pp. I l l - 2, 11. 2912 - 2966. Cronan, p. 93, 11. 332 - 337. G i l l e t , I I , p. 477, 11. 248 - 256. Cronan, p. 107, 11. 74l - 748. G i l l e t , I I , p. 512, 11. 266 - 269. Cronan, pp. 225 - 6, 11. 1709 - 1715. G i l l e t , I I , p. 541, 11. 503 - 509. G i l l e t , IV, p. 538. G i l l e t , I I , p. 480, 11. 365 - 369. G i l l e t , I I , p. 481, 11. 385 - 387. Cronan, p. 225, 11. 1701 - 1705. G i l l e t , I I , p. 504, 11. 6 - 9 . Juan de l a Cueva, p. 13, 11. 347 - 350. G i l l e t , I I , p. 551, 11. 41 - 44. 46. (25) G i l l e t , I I . P« 530, 1.159. (26) G i l l e t , IV, P. 542. (27) G i l l e t , H i p. 532, 11 . 215 - 219. (28) G i l l e t , H i PP . 537 - 8, 11 . 380 - 384. (29) GilLet, I I , P« 539, 11.'418 - 419. (30) G i l l e t , I I , 545, 11 . 623 - 6 2 9 . (3D G i l l e t , I I , P« 533, 11. 245 - 249. • (32) G i l l e t , I I , P« 469, 11. 16 - 19. (33) Cronan, P « 10, 11 . 267 - 277. (34) G i l l e t , I I , p. 502, 11 . 4 4 6 - 4 4 9 . r " (35) . G i l l e t , I I , p. 503, 11 . 499 - 500. (36) G i l l e t , I I , p. 546, 11 . 648 - 649. (37) Cronan, P« 204, 1. : L023. (38) G i l l e t , I I , P« 466, 11. 206 - 2 0 7 . (39) G i l l e t , I I , P« 508, 11. 131 - 134. (40) G i l l e t , I I , P« 506, 11. 80-84. (41) Cronan, P» 207, 11 . 1127 - 1131. (42) Cronan, P« 19?, 11 . 810 - 811. (43) G i l l e t , £ 1 , p. 501, 11.433 - 4 3 6 . (44) Cronan, P« 203, 11 . 1000 - 1006. (45) G i l l e t , I I , P« 503, 11 . 475 - 4 7 9 . (46) G i l l e t , I I , P« 509, 11 . 158 - 164. (47) G i l l e t , I I , P« 556, 11 . 206 - 2 0 9 . (48) G i l l e t , IV, P» 548. (49) G i l l e t , I I , P ' 560, 11 . 313 - 314. (50) Meredith, p . 3 4 . 47. (51) G i l l e t , I I , p. 488, 11. 43 - 44. • (52) Cronan, p. 179, 11. 224 - 228. (53) G i l l e t , I I , p. 517, 11. 377 - 379. (54) Cronan, p. 322, 11. 67m- 68, (55) G i l l e t , I I , p. 523, 11. 595 - 599. (56) G i l l e t , I I , p. 213, 11. 110 - 119. (57) G i l l e t , I I , p. 554, 11. 143 - 144. (58) G i l Vicente, Obras Dramaticas Castellanas, (Madrid, 1962), p. 7, 11. 5 - 8. (59) G i l l e t , I I , p. 325, 11. 1 3 - 1 6 . (60) G i l l e t , IV, p. 548. (61) Meredith, p. 38. (62) G i l l e t , I I , p. 461, 11. 7 0 - 7 6 . (63) G i l l e t , I I , p. 84, 11. 59 - 64. (64) G i l l e t , I I , p. 462, 11. 110 - 114. (65) G i l l e t , I I , pp. 85 - 6, 11. 94 - 98. (66) G i l l e t , I I , p. 465, 11. 172 - 176. (67) G i l l e t , I I , p. 371, 11. 85 - 89. (68) G i l l e t , I I , p. 468, 11. 273 - 274, (69) G i l l e t , I I , p. 329, 11. 137 - 144. 48. (3) A. I n t e l l e c t u a l Conventions and Characteristics Torres Naharro does not present any novel philosophies or unique thoughts i n his plays but he does present, and especially so i n the Aquilana, some i n t e l l e c t u a l conventions prevalent i n sixteenth century Spanish theatre. Although i t could be said that he writes plays according to formulae he includes these conventions within the play and has his characters present them i n the normal fashion. Rather more of these conventions apply to the royal class and the servants but several are present which apply to the r e l a t i v e l y few members of the professional class who appear i n the Propalladia. (B) The Royal Class A central c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the royal class i s t h e i r appearance and t h e i r concern with i t . By appearance t h i s i s taken to mean not only t h e i r physical appearance but also t h e i r adherence to courtly customs which do not correspond to r e a l i t y . The physical element i s present i n the Aquilana as the r e s u l t of the disguise" which Aquilano uses. G i l l e t suggests that t h i s theme of the disguised prince i s one which antedates Torres Naharro by some centuries, appearing i n the Libro Segundo de 1 Palmerin de Oliva. Contemporary with the Aquilana i s G i l Vicente's Don Duardos. The l a t t e r goes to great lengths to achieve a suitable disguise, Olimba:...cumpleos mudar l a vida y e l nombre y e l estado y e l yestido. D. Duardos: j Y aun e l anima mia mudare de mis entranas a l i n f i e r n o ! Olimba:Si amais por essa v i a , 49. hareis las duras montanas plado tierno. Iros hes a su hortelano, vestido de panos v i l e s , con paciencia, de principe hecho v i l l a n o . . . 2 Torres Naharro follows the p r i n c i p l e of having the disguised prince carry on his courtship with the princess and i t i s only at the end of the play that his i d e n t i t y i s revealed by Faceto. • Y en efecto, solos yo y e l , de secreto, partimos, como se haze. 3 In Torres Naharro's works only the Aquilana uses t h i s device. G i l Vicente employs i t to f u l l effect i n his Comedia del Viudo where he disguises a prince as a household servant and equips him with Sayagues speech to f i t his r o l e . Aquilano does not affect any other mode of speechwhile disguised. The view taken of love by the members of the royal class i s the t r a d i t i o n a l courtly one where the woman i s worshipped and compared to c l a s s i c a l images and references, a p l a i n t of feared death i s uttered by the lover and, i n the case of the Aquilana, Torres Naharro appears to have taken the process one step further by having Aquilano actually feign i l l n e s s . This development i s s t i l l less than that employed by Juan deX Enzina i n one of his pastoral eclogues, Egloga de Fileno (1509), where he has Fileno actually die through unrequited love, describing his end. thus, Haz presto, mano, e l ultimo o f i c i o . Saca aquesta alma de tanta f a t i g a , Y haras que reciba aqueste servicio Aquella que siempre te ha sido enemiga. 4 In keeping with the plan f o r the Aquilana as a comedy and not a tragedy 50. Aquilano i s a temporary vi c t i m . His expressions used to F e l i c i n a are r h e t o r i c a l rather than, actual as i n Juan d e l Enzina's eclogue. He expects the opposite when he says the following, S i querras, mi coracon sacaras con las vnas de tus manos, con mi sangre regaras essos pechos tan hufanos. Ven, traydora, haz de mi j u s t i c i a agora, no me niegues tu sentencia. 5 His expressions are stock ones and i t would ..be easy to transpose the same sentiments uttered by Vidriano to Leriana and place them i n Aquilano's mouth. No ay mas; que se que me acabaras s i me tratas dessa suerte; haz de mi l o que querras, que no se excusa mi muerte. 6 The courtly formula requires that the lady i n i t i a l l y refuse the lover's proposals and instead set the date and the time fo r the next t r y s t . F e l i c i n a follows t h i s custom to the l e t t e r by i n s i s t i n g that Aquilano return l a t e r , a l l the while considering that love isno enjoyable matter i n a l l i t s aspects. Y a mi ver, pues qu'el penar y e l querer cosa comun ser parece, harto haze l a muger que quiere do ze merece. 7 In t h i s sense F e l i c i n a echoes on a more polished plane the attitude towards love expressed by the Introyto speaker, e l melon y l a muger a quien no los suela vsar son malos de conocer y buenos de brasfemar. 8 5 1 . This view of love as a b a t t l e of the sexes which i s inescapable and yet desirable i s such that love and death are placed as alternates. Where one f a i l s the other may not. F e l i c i n a expresses t h i s succinctly during her examination of Aquilano's character and s i n c e r i t y . que s i veniesse l a muerte seria l a bien venida, 9 The Egloga de Cr i s t i n o y. Febra sums up the si t u a t i o n of romantic love as an inescapable suffering. Con e l desseo amoroso, Con l a pena s i n reposo Mil'congojas l e dare. E l tormento y e l cuidado Muy penado Entrara. por otra parte E l amor con mana e arte Le dara. por otro lado. 10 Despite a l l t h i s verbal discussion' of the subject, i n Torres Naharro*s theatre the process of courtly love i s an emotionless business, conducted according to l i t e r a r y custom and l a r g e l y devoid of much depth or s i n c e r i t y . What i s consistently true of i t i s that i t i s more of a s p i r i t u a l force than a physical one. In t h i s way i t i s quite the reverse of the love discussed by the servants and r u s t i c s . For t h i s reason i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Aquilano should only at the l a s t moment assure Bermudo that F e l i c i n a "queda de mi/ salua y limpia..." when Bermudo has not even mentioned t h i s aspect of the love a f f a i r up to that moment. The language employed by the royalty i n the' Aquilana i s t y p i c a l of the strained, unnatural s t y l e which i s used to depict the speech of the n o b i l i t y , but not always the clergy, i n the sixteenth century theatre. I t could be l a v i s h l y poetic, as exemplified by Aquilano's pastoral address 52. to the night and his love, ^Sientes t u d'este vergel ningun arbol raenear? Quantas yeruas ay en e l todas estan a escuchar, pues las fuentes detuuierrm sus corrientes porque pudiessen oyrme las aues que son presentes no cantan por no impedirme. 11 At i t s worst i t could be dead and monotonous, with frequent repetitions of such words asjAy! M i l . . . , or Y...f . Juan d e l Enzina provides an example of t h i s s t y l e at i t s lowest ebb i n the Egloga de Fileno. jOh montes, oh v a l l e s , oh s i e r r a s , oh llanos, Oh bosques, oh prados, oh fuentes, oh r i o s , Oh eerbas, oh f l o r e s , oh frescos rocios, Oh casas, oh cuevas, oh ninfas, oh faunos, Oh f i e r a s rabiosas, oh cuerpos humanos... ! 12 This example v i r t u a l l y provides a catalogue of the terms used i n such address. Torres Naharro i s generally successful i n maintaining poetic appeal i n such passages but he does occasionally lapse into conventional a r t i f i c i a l i t y as Aquilano demonstrates i n describing his love as, Y vna fiebre que no sana, y vna dolencia incurable; y vn tormento con e l qual peno contento y (a)vn moriria pagado y vn cortes conocimiento y vn virtuoso cuydado. 13 In i t s purest form, the ecstatic outpouring of love i s best shown i n Don Duardos where the soli l o q u i e s are deliberately spaced and delivered with an introductory note given i n the o r i g i n a l text. As such, they represent . v i r t u a l l y separate poems within the-* body of the play. Don Duardos probably presents better examples of t h i s exalted langu-age than does the Aquilana because of t h i s element of separation. In the Primer Soliloquio, F l e r i d a i s described as, Yo adoro, diosa mia, 53 . mas que a los dioses sagrados, tu alteza, que eres dios de mi a l e g r i a , criador de mis cuitados y t r i s t e z a . A tx adoro, causadora de este v i i o f i c i o t r i s t e que escogi. 14 What does succeed w e l l f o r G i l Vicente i s that such addresses, while highly romantic, are s t i l l f a r enough removed from the t a i n t of s t y l i z a t i o n which affects many si m i l a r ones i n Torres Naharro*s plays. What i s noticeable by i t s absence i n the speech of the royalty i s the stream of refranes and jokes which lends l i f e to the servants' speech. This r e l a t i v e l i f e l e s s n e s s of speech, coupled with the lack of development, contributes to the f a i l u r e of Torres Naharro to create memorable courtiers and ladies i n his plays. Torres Naharro's royalty demonstrates a general lack of interest in-material things and an increased reliance on abstract q u a l i t i e s such as honour. Connected with t h i s form of idealism i s the convention of courtly love i n which a l l the menb ers of the royal class i n the Aquilana participate to a greater or lesser degree. Both the Aquilana and the Himenea show a considerable number of references to honor and honra although most of Torres Naharro's plays mention i t . In the Trophea, Ptholomeo employs the word i n the same fashion as does F e l i c i n a although the l a t t e r ' s use of the word i s more f a r reaching i n terms of empire and chastity. The sense i n each case i s referring to a personal code of honour. Ptholomeo: £ Como, y quitaisme e l honor que mi trabajo meresce? Fama: Y a quien l o do <L No os paresce que l e conuiene mejor? I Qual honrra pierda, senor, conseguir e l que no sabe dezir quanto vn otro sabe obrar, 54. • 1 como este supo ganar mas que no vos escreuir? 15 Felicina i s more worried about honour i n relation to that of the family and, i n a secondary sense, that iof the kingdom. ' Felicina: Puws, traydor, s i tu no teenes amor a mi honrra, que es l a tuya, tuuiesseslo a tu senor en hohrrar l a hija suya. 16 The servants in Torres Naharro's plays do not involve themselves i n matters of honour although Esculapio mentions i t as a means of circumlocution to avoid being revealed as an informer at a bad time. Interestingly enough, Bermudo i s sufficiently sensitive that he i s taken aback when he hears someone in other than the royal class mentioning honour. To Esculapio he retorts-, Tu eres necio} Que avnque en a l seas Boecio, poco d'esto se te entiende. 17 Torres Naharro i s conventional i n his application of the notion of honour as normal for 'royalty and gentry rather than for servants since the latter do not display concern for honour in plays contemporary with Torres Naharro. This remains so until'the Golden Age where i t i s s t i l l somewhat unusual and provokes Don Juan i n E l Burlador de Sevilaa to say of Batricio and peasants in general, Con e l honor le vencl, porque siempre los villanos tienen su honor en las manos, y siempre miran por s i . 18 This i s i n agreement with Bermudo's offer.of his cape to Faceto i n return for information which may provide an honourable outcome for Aquilano. 5 5 . Faceto has seen the opportunity to play a joke and p r o f i t by the king's discomfort and r e a l i z e s that Bermudo i s serious then he says, No se, par Dios, que me diga; toma, s i quieres, l a capa. 19 Where honour i s involved, Torres Naharro's followers employ i t as an important feature which may save a member of the gentry from violence when his l i f e i s i n some question. Confronted with her father's rage, Leriana counteracts his outburst with the. one feature which he can neither deny nor ignore i n Vidriano. Lerianaj Cesse ya, padre, senor, tu clamor, que Dios.te ha oydol que siendo hombre tan de honor, yo l e quiero por marido. 20 . , Honour i s s i m i l a r l y at stake where matters of judgment are involved since Bermudo does not hesitate to sentence Aquilano to death f o r having, as he believes, caused dishonour to the royal name by loving F e l i c i n a . Aquilano accepts t h i s judgment since he i s bound to preserve a sense of honour before Bermudo and to suddenly b l u r t out that he i s t r u l y a prince might be construed by the bystanders as a plea f o r compassion on s o c i a l grounds. This point i s debatable though, since i t i s equally l i k e l y that a desire f o r comedy and not honour impelled the author to have Faceto and not Aquilano reveal the truth of t h e i r mission to C a s t i l e . Honour i s maintained by a l l the members of the royal class as a form of human defense against Fortune(fate) which w i l l deal with them on Earth although God has been the creator of t h e i r souls. By holding consistently to a code of honour they are morally i n the clear although they cannot evade whatever Fortune judges to be t h e i r outcome. 56. ( C ) T h e P r o f e s s i o n a l C l a s s T o r r e s N a h a r r o i n t r o d u c e s a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f t h e p e r s i s t e n t q u a r r e l b e t w e e n r u s t i c s a n d c i t y d w e l l e r s , p e a s a n t s a n d e d u c a t e d p e r s o n s i n t h e A q u i l a n a . T h i s t r a d i t i o n i s m o r e o f t e n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s s q u a b b l e s b e t w e e n -s c h o l a r s o r s t u d e n t s a n d s h e p h e r d s a s i s s h o w n i n t h e A u c t o d e l R e p e l o n . J u a n d e l E n z i n a e m p l o y s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a i r o f s h e p h e r d s w i t h a g r u d g e t o p a y a g a i n s t s t u d e n t s o f a n e a r b y t o w n b e c a u s e o f a r e c e n t b r a w l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , h e h a s a f i g h t e r u p t f r o m t h e m o s t t r i v i a l o f q u e s t i o n s , t h a t o f t h e v i l l a g e f r o m w h i c h t h e s h e p h e r d s c o m e . T h e r e s u l t i n g d i a l o g u e i s t h e n s i m i l a r t o t h e f i g h t b e t w e e n t h e d o c t o r s a n d t h e r u s t i c s i n t h e A q u i l a n a . S t u d i t j H i d e p u t a , b o b a r o n l iy os o s a y s a m e n a c a r ? P i e r n i : j O l d o y a l d i a b r o l l a z a r . S t u d i : A p a r t a a l i a , m o d o r o n , g r a n d e y m a l o b a h a r o n , n ' o s h a g o y o y r n o r a m a l a . 2 1 T o r r e s N a h a r r o ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e h u m o u r p r e s e n t a n d i t i s n o t a n e s e e n t i a l l y s t a t i c s i t u a t i o n a s i s s o i n t h e A u c t o d e l R e p e l o n . R e b u k i n g G a l t e r i o f o r h i s j o k e s o n E s c u l a p i o ' s c l a s s i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , P o l i d a r i o p r o v o k e s a s i m i l a r a r g u m e n t w i t h b o t h r u s t i c s . P o l i d a r i o s 0 b e s t i a l , i n o m i r a s q u e e n t i e n d e s m a l ? P o r m i f e q u ' e s t a s d o n o s o ; q u e d e l o s t r e s , c a d a q u a l e r a v n m e d i c o f a m o s o . G a l t e r i o : C o n c l u y r : s e ( q u e ) p o r p h i s i c o s h a d ' i r q u e s a n e n s i n l e v a r n a d a . . . . 2 2 T h i s p r o c e s s o f a r g u m e n t i s p r e s e n t i n o t h e r s a m o n g T o r r e s N a h a r r o ' s p l a y s , i n c l u d i n g t h e S o l d a d e s c a w h e r e r u s t i c s a r e q u a r r e l i n g w i t h 57. professional s o l d i e r s . His use of t h i s seems to have been for Torres Naharro a normal form of comedy where he could confront one l e v e l of society with another and have an opportunity f o r some rapid wordplay • with a fundamentally humorous si t u a t i o n present. Despite i t s apparent seriousness, • the scene i n the Soldadesca i s actually a comic one. Cola: Deh, poltrone, 'sassin, gagliofo, coglionei Lassa l'arme, che t'amago. Tu non hai piu presuncione? Parla vn poco, marranaco. Juan: Labrador, dexame, haras mejor. No me tomes l a pancera, qu'es d e l Rrey, nuestro senor-; no pienses que es de qulenquiera. 23 This quarrel between r u s t i c and academic appears i n the Aquilana i n Galterio's comments on Aquilano's l a s t w i l l and testament. Seeing Aquilano as having experienced something of the same general education as he sees i t , he uses t h i s to explain to himself why he cannot understand what Aquilano i s saying. Although no priests enter the Aquilana i t i s interesting to note that Torres Naharro does not introduce serious or noble members of the priesthood. His attitude i s expressed by Dandario's comment that Torres Naharro was not wholly i n sympathy wuth churchmen and.was not hesitant to say so despite the p o s s i b i l i t y that c l e r i c s might be present i n his audiences. In the Soldadesca he uses Liano, a f r i a r several minutes previously, to suggest a nonclerical attitude on the part of p r i e s t s . To Atambor's question as to what to do, Liano r e p l i e s . Que mis abitos tomemos segun vsanca moderna, 58. • y a l i i rremataremos en vna sancta tauerna. 2k S i m i l a r l y , Torres Naharro presents Gomecio i n the Seraphina as a L a t i n -spouting mutt who has oome i n c l i n a t i o n s to become a c l e r i c and i s u t t e r l y f o o l i s h i n his use of L a t i n and l i t u r g i c a l expressions i n his conversations. When prompted, he exclaims, Maneo solus i n boscorum sicut mulus sine albarda; mortis mea no se tarda propter meus peccatorum. Da nobis g r a t i a deorum ad habendum nocte et dia nostris l e c t i s Dorosaa i n secula seculorum. 25 This view of scholars and priests as being of less weight and importance than t h e i r names and i n i t i a l appearances might intimate i s consistent i n Torres Naharro's plays• For t h i s reason they are frequently i n c o n f l i c t with the r u s t i c s who usually possess shrewd s o c i a l insight i n place of education. In the Aquilana he gives the i n i t i a l advantage to the gardeners while the f i n a l silencing of them by the doctors i s perhaps due to a desire to proceed with the play and the examination of Aquilana. Torres Naharro i s most charitable towards the whole group i n his treatment of Esculapio although he cannot r e f r a i n from planting some of Gomecio's peculiar La t i n i n his mouth at times. (dentro estas.) No se gaste tiempo mas, qu'es periculum i n mora. 26 This i s not carried to any great extent i n the Aquilana however, for the doctors are most conservative i n t h e i r language, evading Latinisms, most c l a s s i c a l references, mythology or references to honour codes and national prestige. As a r e s u l t , t h e i r language i s freed from some of the courtly 59. a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the royalty but i t i s s t i l l i n f e r i o r when they are faced with verbal duels with the servants and r u s t i c s . (D) The Servant Class The members of the servant class display, as do t h e i r counterparts i n a l l of Torres Naharro's plays*, a great deal more f l e x i b i l i t y and humanity in ; t h e i r behaviour than do the other classes. Responsible for nobody and at the lower end of the s o c i a l ladder, they do not show any great concern fo r such concepts as honour, chastity or courtly r e s t r a i n t . For them, l i f e i s a pragmatic process i n which they must survive by t h e i r wits and accept what comes, regardless of what i t may mean f o r t h e i r future. Since what biographical evidence exists concerning the author suggests that his own l i f e was to a certain extent i n si m i l a r s t r a i t s as a resident writer i n the households of G i u l i o de Medici and Cardinal Carvajal i t i s conceivable that he sympathized with the p l i g h t of servants and even may have gone to the extent of placing personal feelings of his own i n t h e i r mouths at times. In the Epistola he may also be expressing his own fe e l i n g when he says, humxlleme a tu bondad, pensando hazerme bien; mas dizen que l a humildad a vezes causa desden. 28 This unhappiness with service to r i c h members of society appears i n several of his plays, including the Aquilana, where he has the r u s t i c s speak at some length on the subject of riches. In the Jacinta, Jacinto describes service as, S i con vn denor entrais, m i l s e r u i c i o s . l e hareis, mas todos los perdereis por W$y&S>§o que hagais. 29 60. The Aquilana presents an indictment of the r i c h man and the p e r i l s which may b e f a l l him through Dandario's and Galterio*s assertion that they .would not wish to be i n his shoes for a variety of reasons. Nunca yo tema en mis dias perder las naos cargadas de grandes mercaderias, .... n i temo que mis ganados se me mueran cada rato ... n i temo que mis siruientes me hurten l a plata y oro f • • n i que los mis ganados hagan salas de mi lana. 30 That the ru s t i c s make t h i s statement at t h i s point i n the Aquilana i s unusual from the standpoint of dramatic unity f o r there i s no apparent reason that they should devote any time at a l l to the subject since they are provided for after a fashion by the royal household. Perhaps speaking for Torres Naharro, Dandario assures Galterio that, que los bienes d'este mundo son recuerdos d e l i n f ( i ) e r n o . 31 Although this' f e e l i n g may also characterize Torres Naharro's feelings he i s not the f i r s t to employ, i t with reference to the fact that a l l men are equal at death. E a r l i e r than the Aquilana works such as the non-dramatic Danza de l a Muerte had dealt with the subject i n Mediaeval Spanish l i t e r a t u r e . Pedro de Urrea also states t h i s view i n his f i r s t Eclogue i n 15l6. E l dia f i n a l sera l a j u s t i c i a , que agora cada uno anda a su viento. 32 What Torres Naharro has his servants imply i n t h e i r denunciations of the r i c h and the powerful i s that idea l a t e r phrased by Ruiz de Alarcon 61. i n speaking of the gracioso as a character. Su esencia no consiste... sino en lograr que veamos l a . realidad de nuestra propia bajeza o r i g i n a l , 33 The r u s t i c s of the Aquilana are then i n agreement with Prabos- and Pascual of Lucas Fernandez Farsa o Cuasi-Comedia i n t h e i r scorn for the l i f e of the professional soldier qnd the l o c a l crego. On the other hand, whether they l i k e or d i s l i k e t h e i r master does not mean that they are ignorant of what w i l l b e f a l l them should they f a i l to render good service. Both Dandario and Galterio are taken aback when they discover evidence that a stranger has been i n the garden overnight. Galterio: Peccador, no l o pagues tu. me jor s i nuestro senor l o sabe. Dandario: Mxa fe, non l o tengo temor; ve, d i l e que me sorrabe. 34 Torres Naharro endows his servants with a strong measure of opportunism. When they can gain some favour or g i f t over and above what they might o r d i n a r i l y expect they do not hesitate to take i t . Faceto does not refuse the offer of Bermudo's cape although he i s embroiled i n what he knows the be agood joke. S i m i l a r l y , D i l e t a does not refuse the chance to enjoy her mistress' apparent anxiety f o r a few minutes' before assuring her that Aquilano i s safe. She suggests that payment for her services would be only f a i r , being reasonably sure that she may gain something from the bargain. ^Que me daras en a l b r i c i a s ? ^Esta saya? .«• Qualquier cosa tomare de vna reyna tan dichosa. 35 The same type of s i t u a t i o n i s employed by G i l Lanudo i n the Vidriana although 62. there i s no process of forced extraction present. Cetina i s accosted by G i l Lanudo, Cetina: Y como vienes a s s i , tan de priessa y tan manana? G i l Lan: Pese a sanl vengo por vino y por pan. Cetina: Y ya no llebaste ayer? G i l Lan: Pues, plagas de san M i l l a n , oy no habemos de comer? 36 The servants show a certain measure of inconsistency i n the desire for material things f o r , although they condemn material assets as being a source of unhappiness and perdition, t h e i r thinking i s oriented towards things, perhaps as symbolic of everything that the servants cannot hope to become. Osorio r e f l e c t s t h i s sentiment i n the T i n e l l a r i a , Si, que ya me a requerido con que, s i quiero vna capa, y aun s i quiero otro partido, me asentara. con e l Papa* 37 Faceto echoes t h i s statement i n the Aquilana although the s i t u a t i o n i s a more comic one. Bermudo: toma, s i quieres, l a capa. Faceto: A l a fe, voto a l amiga qu'estoy ora como vn Papa. 38 To t h e i r opportunism and desire f o r extra a l b r i c i a s there i s always a l i m i t of which the servants are w e l l aware. They cannot push t h e i r masters' too f a r not can they question t h e i r actions and orders beyond a certain extent. Galterio halts Dandario's plans f o r a l i b i s to Brrmudo with, Bouarron, icon e l Rey buscas question? Perdido tienes e l t i n o . 39 What they do have resort to i n a large extent i s humour and a desire f o r 63, natural things free of the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of court l i f e . The Aquilana's Introyto l i s t bacon and firewood as desirable items f o r the parents of the newly-wedded couple. Torres Naharro r e f l e c t s t h i s interest i n a pastoral form of existence when Galterio describes his l i f e as he would prefer i t to be. por los caminos cantando si n temor de los iadrones, dos m i l solazes tomando con mis yguales garcones, por v i l l a r e s hallando nidos a pares, comiendo migas tostadas, dormiendo en buenos pajares. 40 Juan de l Enzina, i n the Pastoral de Amores, presents a further elaboration of the story- by having a squire become a shepherd i n order to f u l l y merit the love of a shepherdess. She adds her affecti o n to the benefits which the squire w i l l supposedly enjoy as a r u s t i c , free from palace companions. Pascuala: Escudero, mi senor, s i os quereis tornar pastor, mucho mas os quiero a vos. Escudero: Soy contento y muy pagado de ser pastor o vaquerb; pues me quieres y te quiero, quiero cumplir tu mandado. 4 l Juan de l Enzina returns to the same process used l a t e r by Torres Naharro i n l i s t i n g appetizing foods which might be enjoyed by r u s t i c s . In the Egloga de Juan y Miguellejo the l i s t i s extensive and serves to emphasize the r e l a t i v e l y r i c h d i e t which a r u s t i c might enjoy. Anton: Yo l e ll e v a r e un cabrito. Juan: Yo un quesito. Rodrigacho: Yo natas e mantequillas. Miguellejo: Yo tres o" cuatro morcillas. Anton: E yo, mia fe, un xerguerito. 42 ... Rodrigacho: Yo l e dare muchos huevos. 42 This i s the same process of enumeration carried out by the Introyto speaker 64. when he describes "buen bino, mucho tocino, t r i g o harto" i n the Aquilana. Food i s also the subject of the Introyto speaker of the Ymenea when he discusses pleasures of di f f e r e n t kinds. Vengan prazeres a cargas y regozijos a pares; qu'el plazer mas engorda qu'el comer. 43 Torres Naharro's servant class not only considers material things and the essentials of r u s t i c l i f e but perhaps i t s strongest i n c l i n a t i o n i s towards comedy. In t h i s area the author i s at his best with the re s u l t that humour i s present i n many forms, especially when r u s t i c s are present. Most frequent are pullas, sometimes used i n address or i r i opening statements. Galterio f i r s t appears shouting, jHaol collaco, dormilon,'., apana tus arrapiegos, que su padre de Feton va ya por essos cabecos. 44 That Torres Naharro i s most apt i n his dialogues of comic r u s t i c s i s seen by the fact that t h e i r noisy arguments and exchanges of i n s u l t s continue unabated for the f i r s t 335 l i n e s of the second Jornada. Crawford has discussed t h i s form of contest i n which one person wished a l l sorts of misfortunes, ' 45 f o r the most part obscene, upon another who repl i e d i n a si m i l a r s t r a i n . As a contest, Torres Naharro mentions i t i n the Trophea where Juan Tomillo describes i t as, La v e g i l l a de Sa(n) Bras los zagales te arrojen pullas mortales, hasta que quedes vencido y te vayas, de corrido, por essos handurriales. 46 In the same play, the Introyto speaker also makes reference to the subject 65. of pullas and his v i c t o r y over one G i l Grancones. que 1'eche mas repullones que dias ay en a l ano. . M i l l pullas os 1'embarano 'n aquel d i a ; froquele quantas sabia hin a veinte abecedarios, porque se sus calendarios mijor q u ' e l l Abe Maria, 47 The l a t t e r part of his reference to pullas, that dealing with calendars and prayers i s picked up and used afresh i n the Aquilana by the gardeners. They attempt with l i t t l e success to read a calendar of saints to discover i f the day i s actually a holiday f o r them and i n so doing make reference to the gulf between scholar and shepherd as w e l l as stretching t h e i r metaphors, an effect which i s normal practice f o r Torres Naharro's r u s t i c s . Galterio*. mas en cosas de leer no se mas que vna borrica, s i no me das a entender en que anda l a dominica d'este mes. Dandario: Deue de andar en sus pies mientras no va caualgando.48 Another d i r e c t i o n which t h e i r humour takes i s that of parodies of re l i g i o u s services. Galterio has apparantly been an acolyte and i s somewhat fa m i l i a r with church texts. Torres Naharro seizes the opportunity to make a s a t i r i c a l p o r t r a i t of baptism. Dandario: mas con esta agua bendita te baptizo e l ahijado. Galterio: Mataviejas, abarrancote las cejas y encomiendote a l diablo. 49 This ceremony, carried out with a watering can , i s sim i l a r i n i t s mockery of church r i t e to the burlesque rendition of a sacred oath carried out by Mingo Oveja as a sign of good f a i t h to Fama i n the Trophea. 66. Que te juro a Santaren de bolar vn poco a l t i l l o : Nomeli Pa t r i s en F i l l o Del Esprito sancto, amen. 50 This parody of church r i t u a l i s not an o r i g i n a l invention of Torres Naharro since an interesting mockery of the prayers f o r the defunct i s employed i n 1513 i n the Egloga de Placida y Vitoriano by Juan del Enzina. I t i s possible that Torres Naharro may .have had t h i s form of r e l i g i o u s burlesque i n mind when he has the gardeners perform t h e i r parody of the ceremony of exorcism following t h e i r overhearing of Aquilano's p l a i n t of love. Juan del Enzina does not have r u s t i c s d e l i v e r the burlesqued prayer but instead Vitoriano himself speaks i t . Circumdederunt me Dolores de amor y f e ; j AyI circumdederunt me Venire, los que os doleis De mi dolor desigual, Para que sepais mi mai. Porque mi muerte vereis Yo os ruego que n'os taddeis. Dolores de amor y fe jAyI circumdederunt me. 51 What i s not present i n Enzina but i s char a c t e r i s t i c of Torres Naharro i s that the s a t i r e i s f a r more open and less involved with the process of courtly love. His followers apparently availed themselves of the technique though to a lesserdegree. The Vidriana involves a more subdued joke concerning the clergy i n ah exchange of pullas between Carmeno and Secreto, with a play on the two meanings of the word cardenal. Secreto: De buen grado te dara vn cardenalado con vn palo de nogal. Carmento:Hermano, yo con t a l dado no quiero ser cardenal. 52 67. Yet Jayme de Guete comes quite close to emulating the vigor of Torres Naharro's r u s t i c s and t h e i r mockery of the church i n the Tesorina where he employs the shepherds Gilyracho, and Pe r o g r i l l o i n a garbled version of several prayers. Gilyracho: Virga mea, quando cuius tuus se pea, queste aguardando ala puerta, et i n postea que a s s i sea, tu persona quede muertal* 53 Though Galterio i s capable of burlesquing the prayers, i t remains to the Introyto speaker of the Serafina to assert that he i s himself an expert on r e l i g i o u s matters as he explains, ya se de l a confession mas que vn gordo sacristan. se sacodir e l l a l t a r y engarrotar e l l cruzero, reboluer e l pistolero y e l l i b r o d e l b a t i z a r . Se gronir y solfear, y se, con otros saberes, dar l a paz a las mugeres. 5^ Meredith states that the claim made by the Introyto speaker of the Trophea that he can sing r e l i g i o u s music i s also a borrowed feature which Torres Naharro may have taken from the Egloga o Farsa d e l Nascimiento where Bonifacio states that, Y hasta l a g he aprendido... 55 When his r u s t i c s are not exchanging pullas or parodying church services they are quite l i a b l e to be exchanging versions of refranes of which there i s an abundance of examples i n the plays by Torres Naharro. Galterio makes reference to "migas tostadas" on several occasions and would appear to be providing a variant of the proverb,"migas cochas con gorrones no las , 5 6 comen. todos hombres". The sense i s the same i n both cases. Some refranes 68. are worked carefully into the text i n a f a i r l y complete form. Galterio •sates, -. . . . . . es mala pieca y que no me maravillo, s i l e come en l a cabeca, porque se rasque e l t o u i l l o . 57 In this instance the or iginal form of the proverb i s "rascarse donde le come" with the double insinuation of both disease and immorality. At times, a conventional proverb may i t s e l f be parodied as happens to "Dios mantenga y'mas que venga" witch i s modified to "Dios mantenga y 58 remantenga" although this i s also used as stock introduction i n the Introyto i n place of the stock "Dios salve". The Trophea begins typical ly with, j(D)ios mantenga de rondSnl 59 whioe the'Soldadesca echoes the parody i n the Aquilana by commencing, (D)ios mantenga y rremantenga... 60 The Aquilana i s representative of the extent to which refranes are used i n Torres Naharro's plays. Seventy - four are used and by their appearance lend much authenticity to the languaige spoken by the characters and especially the rustics and servants. The rustics but not the gracioso and graciosa employ a stock form of rustic language, Sayagues. The employment of special forms of language for set purposes.was not Torres Naharro's sole property although he was capahle of using i t to good effect as shown i n his parodie use of Latin i n prayers. The use of special language by pastors appears f i r s t i n Juan del Enzina. Lopez Morales describes the reason for the development of a specialized language as follows, 69. Sus eglogas, dramatica ingenua, casi dialogos simplemente, pero teatro en f i n , se desarrolla'ran entre pastores; pero estos pastores van a l i g a r s e en accion dramatica con escuderos, angeles y personajes b i b l i c o s o mitologicos. Estan presentes dos naturalezas, y en sus-.dialogos, e l autor va a enfrentar a dos mundos. 6l. Juan del Enzina uses t h i s language f o r his r u s t i c s but the intention i s not always a comic one, unlike Torres Naharro's r u s t i c s who are usually comic figures. The Aucto d e l Repelon shows the two languages i n contrast i n a s i t u a t i o n which i s rather more of a dialogue culminating i n a h a i r - p u l l i n g f i g h t and lacks the wit o£ Galterio's and Dandario's exchanges. Studi: Ni por mal f n i por halago? Piernis Pues yo do l a fe, mira que on e l diabro os traxo aca a sacar por punticones. 62 Lopez Morales goes further and states that this. Sayaguis d i a l e c t was cha r a c t e r i s t i c of LeSn and constituted a sermo rusticus which mated Leonese with popular C a s t i l i a n as a base. He suggests that the Salamancan d i a l e c t was s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r removed from Leonese f o r the l a t t e r to acquire a 63 decorative and functional nature which accorded w e l l with comic w r i t i n g . . A serious flaw i n t h i s argument i s that very l i t t l e of Torres Naharro's l i t e r a r y l i f e was carried on i n Spain, the early part being done i n I t a l y . Torres Naharro appears to have spent some of his early l i f e i n Extremadura and does not appear to have l i v e d for very long i n Salamanca or even to have been especially f a m i l i a r with Leonese. G i l l e t places his birthplace at La Torre de Miguel Sexmero i n the province and diocese of Badajoz, 64-t h i r t y kiometres southwest of that c i t y . Alvarez de l a V i l l a presents a more plausible explanation of t h i s language used by Torres Naharro and other dramatists of the period. 70. H e e x p l a i n s t h a t a d e s i r e f o r r e a l i s m o f d i a l o g u e g a v e r i s e t o t h e u s e o f r u s t i c l a n g u a g e . D e s d e l a s e g u n d a raitad d e l s i g l o X V , l a m a y o r p a r t e d e n u e s t r o s p o e t a s u s a r o n d e l d i a l e c t o s a y a g u e s e n s u s c o m p o s i c i o n e s p a s t o r i l e s , y a i m i t a c i o n s u y a h a s e g u i d o e m p l e a n d o s e d i c h o d i a l e c t o h a s t a n u e s t r o s d i a s . . . . 65 L i h a n i d e s c r i b e s S a y a g u e s a s a d i a l e c t o r c o r r u p t e d f o r m o f C a s t i l i a n u s e d b y p l a y w r i g h t s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h u m o u r b u t h e a s s e r t s t h a t n o t e n o u g h • i n f o r m a t i o n i s y e t p r e s e n t t o a l l o w f o r a d e q u a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A u t h o r s t e n d t o b e i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r u s e o f S a y a g u S s , h a v i n g l i t t l e m o r e i n t e r e s t i n - i t " t h a n a s a n o t h e r v e h i c l e f o r c o m i c s c e n e s . L i h a n i c o n s i d e r s t h a t c h a r r o , a S a l m a n t i n e d i a l e c t o r i g i n a l l y s e r v e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r S a y a g u e s , t h e l a t t e r n a m e f o r i t b e i n g a n i n c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e t o w n o f S a y a g o i n Z a m o r a . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a c o n f u s i o n a p p e a r s t o h a v e l e a d t o t h e a d o p t i o n o f S a y a g u e s a s a g e n e r a l t e r m o f r e f e r e n c e . T h e m e a n i n g t h e n s p r e a d w i t h t h e t h e a t r e s o t h a t , B y t h e e n d o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ' a n d t h e f i r s t p a r y o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h , s a y a g u e s w a s s 3 m o n y m o u s w i t h r u s t i c o , g r o s e r o , l a b r a d o r , s a l m a n t i n o . I t c e a s e d t o a p p l y s o l e l y t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f S a y a g o , b u t a p p l i e d a l s o t o t h e r u s t i c s o f a n y p a r t o f L e o n a n d t h e t w o C a s t i l e s . T h e t e r m w a s t h e n e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e a n y f o r m o f s p e e c h w h i c h s e e m e d t o b e r u s t i c , b a r b a r o u s , o r c o a r s e , n a m e l y t h a t c o r r u p t i o n o f C a s t i l i a n f o u n d p r i n c i p a l l y i n G o l d e n A g e d r a m a a n d i n s o m e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o e t r y . 66 S i n c e b o t h a u t h o r a n d a u d i e n c e a t s u c h l a t e r t i m e s a s t h o s e o f T o r r e s • N a h a r r o w e r e n o t a w a r e o f d i a l e c t a l l a w s , t h e y c o n s i d e r e d a s s i m p l e b a r b a r i s m s s u c h w o r d s a s c a m e f r o m d i a l e c t a l u s e ' a n d , i f u n a w a r e o f t h e i r e x a c t m e a n i n g , c o n s i d e r e d t h e m a s a r c h a i s m s w h i c h w o u l d o n l y b e e m p l o y e d b y s o m e p e r s o n l i v i n g f a r f r o m c i v i l i z a t i o n . B y t h e t i m e T o r r e s N a h a r r o c a m e t o u s e S a y a g u e s h e w a s f o l l o w i n g a l i t e r a r y f o r m a n d n o t a s p o k e n 71. language which he was d a i l y hearing. By the use of Sayagues for Dandario, Galterio and the Introyto , the character speaking i t was taken generally ; 67 to be b r u t a l , coarse and ignorant. In t h i s connection, Sanco Panza contrasts Sayagues and Toledan Spanish as thr two extremes of culture i n 68 language. Not only Sayagues but also Andalusian ceceo was employed to y i e l d comic effects. In one case, the comic effect of one d i a l e c t i s mocked by the speaker of the other. The Andalusian maid i n the Tesorina has d i f f i c u l t y making herself understood at most times, especially to Gilyracho. Gilyrachos...y vn p e l i t o me tocais, que os me trague en vn bocado; dona puerca, babeais ' porque veis que estoy atadol MargaritajDale, xuxl te yuro por exte crux, qui yo te quibraxe e l dente. Gilyracho:Que quebrareyx box, marfux? mala postema os rebiente. 69 G i l Vicente takes advantage of d i a l e c t to present gypsies speaking a strange language i n the Auto de las Gitanas. He emphasizes a d i f f e r e n t aspect of the language, the sound/©/ i n place of /s/. Martina; Mantenga, cinuraz y rozas y r i c a z l De Grecia cumuz, hidalgaz por Diuz, Nuzta ventura, que fue cuntra nuz, por t i e r r a s estranas nuz tienen perdidaz. 70 Torres Naharro uses language and d i a l e c t to i t s widest extent i n the T i n e l l a r i a where Basque, Valencian, I t a l i a n , French, German, Portuguese and Spanish appear. In l i g h t of t h i s , G i l l e t speculates that Torres Naharro may even have thought of Sayagues as something of a foreign language i n i t s e l f and may have viewed d i a l e c t performances i n I t a l y by the Rozzi of Sienna as w e l l as having remembered thr presence of both L a t i n and French 72. 71 i n Alione's farces. His comment by the Introyto speaker i n the Aquilana intimates that the audience's reaction to his language w i l l be amusement. Mas non quiero, que me ternan por grossero s i por zagal(e)s me r i j o , son habrar como escudero pues que s'usa en regozijo. 72 Though the Aquilana i s not the best example of Torres Naharro's a b i l i t y at d i a l e c t and language on a wide scale, the Sayagues spoken by the r u s t i c s i s a very good example of his a b i l i t y to create a language which was as a r t i f i c i a l i n i t s own was f o r them as the strained language created f o r and spoken by the courtiers. In the Aquilana both language forms represent a parody of a custom of speech. 73. Footnotes - Section 3* (1) G i l l e t , IV, p. 5^7. (2) G i l Vicente, p. 175, 11. 475 - 487. (3) G i l l e t , I I , p. 548, 11. 705 - 707. (4) Juan d e l Enzina, E l Aucto d e l Repelon,A. Alvarez de l a V i l l a , ed. (Paris, 1910). p. 191. (5) G i l l e t , I I , p. 4?8, 11. 280 - 287. (6) Cronan, pp. 225 - 6, 11. 1706 - 1710. (7) G i l l e t , I I , pp. 506..- 7, 11. 90 - 94. (8) G i l l e t , I I , p. 462, 11. 96 - 99. (9) G i l l e t , I I , p. 504, 11. 23 - 24. (10) Juan d e l Enzina, p. 230. (11) G i l l e t , I I , p, 479, 11. 331 - 339. (12) Juan d e l Enzina, p. I87. (13) G i l l e t , I I , p. 519, 11. 463 - 469. (14) G i l e Vicente, p. 187, 11. 838 - 846. (15) G i l l e t , I I , pp. 94 - 5, 11. 97 - 106. (16) G i l l e t , I I , p. 481, 11. 400 - 404. (17) G i l l e t , I I , p. 539, 11. 420 - 422. (18) H i l l , p. 395, 11. 1895 - I898. (19) G i l l e t , I I , p. 547, 11. 676 - 677. (20) Cronan, p. 264, 11. 2925 - 2928. (21) Juan d e l Enzina, p. 271, 11. 377 - 382. (22) G i l l e t , I I , p. 532, 11. 225 - 232. (23) G i l l e t , ' I I , p.181, 11. 30 - 39. (24) G i l l e t , I I , pp. 161 - 2, 11. 236 - 239* 74, G i l l e t , II, p. 14,11. 105 - 112. G i l l e t , II, p. 539, 11. 445 - 447. G i l l e t , IV, p. 406. .Gillet, IV, p. 408. G i l l e t , II, p. 331, 11. 4 9 - 5 2 . G i l l e t , p. 494, 11. 197 - 212, G i l l e t , II, p, 492, 11- 146 - 147, Ruiz Ramon, p, 58, 11* 69 - 70. Joaquin Casalduero, Estudios sobre e l teatro Espanol, (Madrid, 1962), p. 132. G i l l e t , II, p. 491, 11. 120 - 124. G i l l e t , II, p. 556, 11. 194 - 204. Cronan, p. 193, 11.676 - 682. G i l l e t , II, p. 222, 11. 4l6 - 419. G i l l e t , II, p. 547, 11. 677 - 6?9. G i l l e t , II, p. 492, 11. 130 - 132. G i l l e t , II, p. 494, 11. 216 - 223. R, Benitez Claros, Antologia del Teatro Medieval, (Mendoza, 1951), p. 131. Juan del Enzina, pp. 184 - 5» G i l l e t , II, p. 2?1, 11. 9-12. G i l l e t , II, p. 487, 11. 1 - 4 . Meredith, p. 40. G i l l e t , II, p. 105, 11. 119 - 124. G i l l e t , II, p. 86, 11. 105 - 112. G i l l e t , II, p. 487, 11. 1 6 - 2 2 . 75. G i l l e t , I I , p. 488, 11. 43 - 47. G i l l e t , I I , p. 135. 11. 217 - 220, Juan d e l Enzina, p. 219. Cronan, p. 181, 11. 294 - 298. Cronan, p. 125, 11. 1280 - 1284. G i l l e t , I I , p. 6, 11. I l l - 119. Meredith, p. 43. Gonzalo Correas, Vocabulario de Refranes y Frases Proverbiales, (Madrid,.1924), p. 313. G i l l e t , I I , p. 496, 11. 276 - 279. G i l l e t , I I , p. 497, 1. 307. G i l l e t , I I , p. 83, 1, 1. G i l l e t , I I , p. 141, 1. 1, Bartolome de Torres Naharro, Tres Comedias, H. Lopez Morales, ed. (New York, 1965), p. 51. Juan d e l Enzina, p. 269. 11. 339 - 342. Torres Naharro, Tres Comedias,p. 51* G i l l e t , IV, p. 402. Juan d e l Enzina, p. 300. J. Lihani, "Some Notes on Sayagues", Hispahia.XLI, (1958), pp. 165 Juan d e l Enzina, pp. 304 - 5« Juan del Enzina, p. 306. Cronan, p. I67, 11. 2538- 2546. G i l Vicente, p. 231, 11. 57 - 60. G i l l e t , IV, p. 515. G i l l e t , I I , p. 459, 11. 5 - 9 . ?6. ' , 4 A Comedy and Tragedy i n the Aquilana . Although there are graces of tragedy i n the Aquilana there i s l i t t l e o v e r a l l i n d i c a t i o n that Torres Naharro was either especially interested i n i t or was greatly influenced by Greek tragedies i n t r a n s l a t i o n . In t h i s he was following a trend f o r Spanish playwrights which Crawford summarizes by saying, The Spanish translations of Greek tragedies i n the sixteenth century seem to have had no influence upon the development of the drama. 1 He goes further by stating that so l i t t l e i n t e r e st was shown by the Spanish i n Roman history that from t h i s area only two plays survive today which 2 deal with that period. What i s also s i g n i f i c a n t i s that thejjse) plays to which he i s r e f e r r i n g , Alexandra and Marco Antonio y Cleopatra ,are i n themselves among the most unknown of the Spanish tragedies of the period. Torres Naharro does not i n any of his plays attempt to give dramatic form to any legendary figure of Spanish history and only i n the Trophea does he go so far, as to introduce a king of Portugal and make reference to his accomplishments. Bermudo i s a f i c t i o n a l character as i s Aquilano, neither apparently being modelled on r e a l persons. I t would be possible to a gue that Bermudo's proposed execution of Aquilano and Fel i c i n a * s bungled attempt at suicide have within them the seeds of tragedy but the argument would be a weak one, ,made a l l the weaker by the t o t a l absence of any tragic' flaw i n the character development of any of the three. In f a c t , none of the three r e a l l y shows enough evidence to warrant the statement that an actual character has r e a l l y , been created who i s quite d i s t i n c t from stock characters of plays of the period. 77. The chief intention i n the Aquilana i s comedy as i s that of the play from which the concept of the Aquilana i s derived. En l a comedia Aquilana introdujo, a moda de episodio, aquella sabida anecdota sel rey Seleuco y de su hijo Antioco enamorado de Stratonica su madrastra: pasion que descubre e l medico Eristrato por lo alterado del pulso del principe cuando entro l a Reina. 3 Based upon this, Menendez Pidal could well say that Torres Naharro shows visible traces of study of both Latin and Italian theatre i n the Propalladia. It would also appear that Plautus was a source for much of his characterization. What i s interesting i s that i f one subtracts the anecdote mentioned above from the Aquilana one i s l e f t with precisely the characters who are Torres Naharro's best ones and the ones who are most appealing to his audience; the rustics, the gracioso and graciosa and the Introyto speaker with his formula of address. That Torres Naharro was less interested i n other characters than in these could be inferred from his remark i n the Proemio concerning his reading of classic plays. Comedia, segun los antiguos, es ceuilis priuatque fortune, sine periculo vite, comprehensio; a differentia de tragedia, que es heroice fortune i n aduersis comprehensio...Todo lo cual me paresce mas largo de contar que necessario de oyr. 5 This anti-classicism may be in part the reason for his failure to include many doctors, priests or well - developed members of the nobility among the sixty five characters i n his plays. The fact that many such as Ptholomeo, Boreas, Esculapio, Galieno and Polidario have classical names does not mean that their characters are well developed. Perhaps the single moment at which Torres Naharro introduces a tragic choice i n the Aquilana i s at that moment when Aquilano must choose between remaining anonymous and dying or confessing his identity and l i v i n g . 78, Since he is actually innocent of any crime the fact that he will face death or dishonour regardless of his choice is very unfortunate. If he chooses l i f e and confession, Bermudo will be forced to make an exception in the code of behaviour to make l i c i t relations between princesses and. disguised princes, a decision which may cost both parties some public favour. However good this opportunity may seem, Torres Naharro does not develop i t or return to i t nor does he seem to be particularly interested in i t for neither party makes any great discussion of i t either then or later. By comparison, much more time is devoted to the discussiom of riches and the benefits of rural l i f e by the gardeners. Chaytor suggests a reason for this choice of interests as follows, Spanish audiences expected the same kind of entertainment from the stake that the chivalresque and the picaresque novels provided; they wanted a story with action and a denouement; the portrayal of character was a matter of secondary importance and i t is improbable that psychological drama would have exerted any attraction whatever. 6 Based on this reasoning, the absence of discussion on the business of tragic choice is not surprising in the Aquilana. His interest in comedy and inability to x-jrite tragedy did not escape Torres Naharro*s contemporaries. Juan de Valdes was aware of this failing in the Dialago de la Lengua. ..,y tampoco quiero que me negueis vos a mi que, assi como escrivia bien aquellas cosas baxas y plebeyas que . passavan entre gentes con quien el mas ordinariamente tratava, assi se pierde quando quiere scrivir lo que passa entre gente noble y principal, lo qual se vee largamente * en la comedia Aquilana... . 7 Similarly, Moratin criticised his inability to use history as a base for his comedies, perhaps suspecting that the lack of respect shown towards the classics in the Proemio was in part responsible for the shallow 79. characterization of royalty. Falto e l autor e l respeto que se debe a l a h i s t o r i a , suponiendo un prancipe Aquilano de Hungria yerno de un rey Bermudo de Leon y heredero de su corona: las libertades poeticas no permiten tanto. 8 Turning to the comic aspects of his work, the f i r s t persons to appear i are the gardeners who are among Torres Naharro's best creations. His reason for introducing them was a standard one, that of contrast with royalty. They represented courtly t r a d i t i o n s , and when r u s t i c scenes were introduced, i t only served to contrast the delicate s e n s i b i l i t i e s and polished speech of gentlefolk with the ignorance and rude language of shepherds. 9 This process of contrast i s demonstrated by t h e i r sudden appearance following Aquilano's putpouring of romantic rhetoric to F e l i c i n a . With the words amor, traydor, muerto and amador s t i l l echoing i n t h e i r ears, the audience i s treated to a very sudden change of s t y l e when the gardeners appear. . . ^Grjl^eria'^Que., diabros,/quaeres ya? •Dandario: Yergue, yergue, bouarron, no te arrepint(a)s quissa, Galterio: Bozinero; madrugada de herreo me parece esta manana. 10 Torres Naharro*ftagain uses t h i s contrast when Aquilano delivers a most complicated w i l l to Galterio i n which he asks that, Y a s s i quiero que lleue Dios, l o primero, e l l alma, como es Razon, y l a t i e r r a e l cuerpo f i e r o , y e l l a e l t r i s t e coracon. 11 A l l t h i s i s most incomprehensible to Galterio who has.not yet fathomed why Aquilano appears to be sick i n the f i r s t place and his entreaties fo r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , bring even more complicated explanations u n t i l he gives up. 80. ^Traquear?... Tu no me quieres hablar, Dandario tarda en venir, Dome a Dios de descansar y echarme vn rato a dormir. 11 When faced with the doctors, the r u s t i c s are i n an excellent position to provide t h e i r audience with amusing contrasts. Since a sick lover and a sick donkey seem to them to have a l o t i n common, they at once recommend G i l , e l herrador, whose results with Anthon Manchado's female donkey have been good. When Esculapio c a l l s f o r slender maidens they at once suggest the weaver^s daughter who can number ploughing among her accomplishments. To the need for elaborate balms they offer a simpler recipe of wool and candle drippings. Their f i n a l v i c t o r y comes when they suggest some places which any educated person should know of, Par diego, s(e) La Ratera, y a Hollales y a G r i l l e j o , y a Tres Casas y a Perrera, y a T i n t i n y a l V i l l a r e j o . 12 In the l a t t e r case t h e i r joke may have been more reaching than they could imagine. G i l l e t c a r e f u l l y explains that, Madoz, Diccionario geografico, (Madrid, 1945 ~ 1850), actually recorded a hamlet called Trescasas (with 34 houses'.) i n the province of Segovia, one c a l l e d Perera (19 casas pobres y viejas) i n the province of Soria, and more than two dozen called. V i l l a r e j o . 13 In his creation of the gracioso and graciosa, Torres Naharro was working with a more subtle idea, Described by Ruiz Ramon as the "figura de mayor complejidad a r t i s t i c a " , the purpose of the gracioso i s that, Introduce en l a comedia e l sentimiento comico de l a existencia, que no es necesiariamente divertido, sino que tiene.lasmas de las veces, sentido corrective y c r i t i c o . 14 • 81. In the Aquilana t h i s i s done by such comments as Faceto's upon his master's wooing, Mas, senor, consejarte vn seruidor es echar seso en l a c a l l e . 15 Sim i l a r l y , he assesses the f u t i l e shouting and threats of Bermudo after he has received the promised cape, Con esta voy glori'oso s i n que mas nada me den; con loco y menesteroso siempre e l hombre compra bien. 16 Only a gracioso i s capable of handling another one as Jacinto and Divina discover with Pagano i n the Jacinta. Invited to be quiet i n order not to receive a beating, he re t o r t s , Mas pagadme mi soldada, dexad de mi castigar. . 17 Only a short time before he has rebuked his master for s o c i a l prejudice, Pues no te buries, hazino, que muchos y. muy vfanos dizen mal de los marranos, y e l l o s no comen tocinq. 18 Torres Naharro manages to mix irony, sarcasm and humour i n his gracioso and graciosa very successfully, D i l e t a shows fi n e scorn when she hears Faceto out and r e p l i e s , Pues de mi, yo•te prometo que no me mamo los dedos; 19 Andres Prado i s perhaps borrowing t h i s element of the graciosa when he has Benito i n the Farsa Llamada Cornelia impudently answer the squire, Antonillo Piensase este r u f i a n z i l l o que nos chupamos e l dedo pues no he sido monacillo. 20 82, Both the gracioso and graciosa have a f i n e s e n s i t i v i t y as to what i s a r t i f i c e and what i s r e a l - For them a good joke at someone else's expense and an unexpected g i f t are much more interesting than worries over honour and courtly love appearances. In t h i s fashion, Torres Naharro i s able to .create p a r a l l e l roles within the Aquilana using the servants as f o i l s to t h e i r masters and mistresses. Torres Naharro anticipates an element of the Golden Age comedia by his use of Faceto and Dileta's love a f f a i r as a p a r a l l e l to that of Aquilano and F e l i c i n a . This i s made easier to follow by amiable relations between master and servant. On the whole, Diileta and F e l i c i n a ane good friends and although D i l e t a claims during the l a s t Jornada that she has the mark of Felicina's. chapin on her s k u l l from l a s t week, she i s probably intending t h i s i n j e s t . I t i s u n l i k e l y that Torres Naharro would have intended t h i s remark as a.serious reprimand or plea against violence since the same remark concerning the chapin occurs i n the Vidriana, the Tesorina, the Tidea and the Farsa Lalmada Ardamisa. In a l l , the sense i s humorous as exemplified by Ardamisa's s l i g h t l y vexed attempt to send Rufian away and stop his amorous entreaties. • •Ay, Jesus I dexame estar f que s i con vos no conuengo, vos no hos haueys de ygualar con e l chapin yue yo tengo. 21 This may be compared with Dileta's remark to F e l i c i n a , F e l i c i n a : Di,'' bestial,-Iquando yo te f i z e mai n i desguisado tamano? Di l e t a : Pues aqui tengo de l senal de l chapinazo de antano. 22 In remains Felicina's prerogative to ask D i l e t a to stop talking i f the conversation become too unbridled but she never indicates permanent displeasure 8 3 . when she does so. The easiness with which they can converse even after such a p r a c t i c a l joke as that played by D i l e t a on F e l i c i n a i s indicated by the l a t t e r ' s amused admission that Faceto has been involved i n the plot as w e l l . Te prometo que deues oy a Faceto quantas mercedes te pida, que e l descubrio este secreto y ha dado a todos l a vida. ' 2 3 This complicity of Faceto's i n the love a f f a i r reminds the audience of his determination to have an a f f a i r with D i l e t a at the beginning of the play. Their love w i l l be more p r a c t i c a l , r e f l e c t i n a minor sense that of t h e i r masters by parodying i t a t times, and w i l l c e r t a i n l y be accompanined by less a r t i f i c i a l i t y and strained sentiment. At no time w i l l Faceto entertain any notions of death for honour's sake; honour i s rather a foreign concept to him. What both he and D i l e t a apparently hope for i s that when t h e i r masters are married and happy that they w i l l simultaneously enjoy part of the f e s t i v i t y and perhaps gain some unexpected a l b r i c i a s into the bargain. This i n fact occurs, culminating i n marriage on two s o c i a l l e v e l s Torres Naharro introduces Faceto's and Dileta's a f f a i r i n much the same way that Lope de Vega does a similar one between Pedro and Clara i n La Dama Boba. Their language and behaviour are very much the same. Pedros Con e l , como os digo, vengo tan muerto por vuestro amor, que aquesta ocasion busque. C l a r a Q u e es amor, que no l o se? 2k Faceto's address i s longer but on the same l i n e s . 8 4 , Faceto: Se contar que l (o )s muertos por amar, vencidos en esta guerra, estamos por enterrar , » . • por no consentir l a t i e r r a . • • • M. D i l e t a : Ora siento que buscas buen monumento; no pensaua que eras d 'essos . 25 Finea 's presentat ion of Clara to Pedro at the p l ay ' s end i s pa ra l le led by Faceto's c los ing remark to the audience concerning h is own fu ture . Buena gente, d i z que a l i a secretamente seran las .bodas manana. 26 I t i s of i n te res t that the Aquilana i s the only one of Toisres Naharro's plays which car r ies ahead a love a f f a i r between servants which culminates i n a marriage at the same time as t he i r masters' a f f a i r . In th i s respect the Aquilana shows a dramatic advance over h is e a r l i e r plays which, l i k e the Seraphina, include servants but do not employ them i n a manner" which r e f l e c t s the act ions of t h e i r super iors . A second point of i n te res t i s Torres Naharro i s an t ic ipa t ing the Golden Age comedia's use of servant i n t r igue by a considerable time and, though i t i s h is f i r s t play to experiment wi th the idea, yet i t i s qui te successfu l and i s not markedly improved upon by l a t e r playwrights u n t i l Lope de Vega's a r r i v a l . A second p a r a l l e l of which Torres Naharro makes good use i n the Aquilana i s h is choice of two gardeners. This i s espec ia l l y a f fec t i ve when he i s parodying church services since Dandario can ape the ro le of p r ies t and Ga l te r io can funct ion as a l t a r boy and intone the responses. So successfu l i s Torres Naharro at manipulating them that Galieno f i n a l l y , i n u t te r exasperation, bursts out wi th , 8 5 . j Gran letrado que en Salamanca ha estudiado y en otras t i e r r a s agenas, y en Paris fue graduado, * « • # 27 Later, Diego de Neguerela uses the same response for the f r i a r of the Farsa Llamada Ardamisa., A mi llaman fray Artendo, maestro en sacra theologia, gran•letrado, qu'en Paris fuey graduado. 28 When Torres Naharro wishes to have his characters involve themselves i n a display of verbal wit as happens i n the presence of the doctors, two i s : the best combination since one can t e l l t a l l stories about "Juan Burro, mi cunado" while the other can insure that no moment of silence i n the harangue need e x i s t . This balance i n the Aquilana avoids the confusion of argument and brawling present i n the second Jornada of the T i n e l l a r i a where twelve servants are involved, resulting i n what Menendez y Pelayo has described as a scene best f i t t e d f o r presentation i n the Tower of Babel. 29 A strong point of the comic characters i s that Torres Naharro has them behave consistently throughout. They enter as clowns or as gracioso and graciosa and they e x i t i n the same fashion. The same i s not true for the physicians; Galieno and Polidario enter as sages and e x i t both discredited and ins u b s t a n t i a l . F e l i c i n a -enters as a stock court maiden and exits as the buffoon, made the butt of a joke by the servants. Of the royal class only Aquilano tends to gain any strength and t h i s i s only so so during his impending death. However, Faceto and D i l e t a and the . gardeners are always' i n character and never cease to be l i v e l y . 86. The consistency of the l a t t e r group i s perhaps due i n part to the constant reminder to Torres Naharro of the hardship of t h e i r l i f e . His p a r t i a l destruction of the characters of the n o b i l i t y i s explicable i n the l i g h t of his devastating poem on I t a l i a n court l i f e , the Satyra. Reminiscent of Dandario's comments on the r i c h , the Satyra states, Y huyen d'un saneto gran predicador, y siguen de grado tras vn hechizero. Su g l o r i a es e l mundo, su dios e l dineroi tras este envegecen los hombres en Roma. 30 His scorn f o r the church, shown by the gardener's burlesque exorcism and baptism ceremonies i s qqually clear i n the Satyra. Despues que entre raanos cobdicia los toma, destientan diez anos tras un beneficio: despues que l o tienen, ternan por o f i c i o perder otros tantos tras un Cardinal. 31 Possibly, as a r e s u l t of his bitterness i n the Satyra, the weakness of character of the n o b i l i t y i n the Iquilana may be pa r t l y die to a lack of suitable models from which he could fashion characters f o r his plays. What i s consistently true of Bermudo, Aquilano and F e l i c i n a i s that they display t r a i t s sfich as honour, f i d e l i t y , self-dedication and t r u s t without ever making these characteristics come a l i v e on stage. They remain as theories lacking humanity. An irony of his career for Torres Naharro was that he required the approval of the church which he c r i t i c i z e d so b i t t e r l y for the printing of the Propalladia. I t i s l i k e l y that, faced with the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of eulogizing the n o b i l i t y as had Juan del Enzina i n the Egloga de l a Natividad de Nuestro Senor or c r i t i c i z i n g them by means of his characters and having printing permission refused, he chose instead to ignore the n o b i l i t y to a large degree and contented himself with r e t i r i n g from t h e i r presence to Naples. In his rev i s i o n of the Aquilana he did not 87. devote any time to amending the dialogue of the r o y a l c l a s s . B The Use of C o n f l i c t i n the Aquilana Since there i s not very great depth to the characters i n the Aquilana and because the p l o t i s very simple on a si n g l e s e t t i n g , Torres Naharro was faced with the problem of how to enable hhe play to run i t s f u l l length while remaining conventional i n most of i t s aspects and yet a t t r a c t an audience's a t t e n t i o n . The p l o t of having a disguised prince and sev e r a l comedians could sustain a shorter farce but would be an u n l i k e l y base f o r a play of f i v e .jornadas. As one means of s o l u t i o n he introduces some conventional and quite simple c o n f l i c t s of various types to d i v e r t h i s watcher's. The most noticeable c o n f l i c t i s that of honour and how to maintain i t . This i s a matter to be s e t t l e d between Bermudo and Aquilano and i t s presence i n the Aquilana i s r e f l e c t e d not only by the other plays of the Propalladia but also by the Golden Age dramatists. Lope de Vega summarizes i t s audience appeal by saying, Los casos de l a honra son mejores, porque mueven con fuerza a toda gente, con e l l o s l a s acciones virtuousas, que l a v i r t u d es dondequiera amada. 32 Limited to the n o b i l i t y , the appeal to j u s t i c e and the f a i r n e s s of judgment provides Aquilano with h i s strongest moments. His honour rather than h i s death i s at stake and only h i s contemporaries such as F e l i c i n a and Bermudo can grant him tha t . Bermudo i s the more important source of the two because of h i s p o s i t i o n . I t s ultimate source i n a s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y i s reputedly God; more d i r e c t l y , the king or the noble patron. The f i f t e e n t h -century 8 8 . medieval proverb recognized that 'Honor non est i n honorato sed i n honorante 1. 33 What i s absent i n Torres Naharro's plays i s actual cause f o r dishonour such as adultery, public i n s u l t or treachery. I t i s possible that his orientation towards comedy and a general d i s i n t e r e s t i n death, something lacking i n a l l his plays, i s responsible f o r t h i s . Neither does he provide i n the Aquilana a marriage s i t u a t i o n by which the honour of a wife or husband might be compromised. Bermudo's fear of loss of honour and Aquilano's maintenance of i t leaves the matter i n a latent, undeveloped state, much as i t i s i n the Ymenea where i t i s frequently mentioned but not allowed to develop into a major motivational factor i n the p l o t . Boreas: Dios aya de t i memoria y acresciente tu b i u i r con honrra y f.ama s i n par, y te de tanta v i t o r i a que no tengas que pedir, pues no te f a l t a que dar. .3*4 That i t i s a f r a g i l e matter i s apparent by Bermudo's remark as he prepares to k i l l Aquilano. , F e l i c i n a , .'. , • jFuesses muerta mas ayna; pues no se h a l l a en e l suelo n i a desonra medicina n i a l a muerte consuelb.I 35 What i s lacking i s that personal honour be put i n a c r i t i c a l position regardless of consequence. Torres Naharro does not arrange the events so that Aquilano i s t r u l y faced with a great choice which only honour' can bring to a clear conclusion. The preceding comedy of the gardeners and the somewhat ridiculous medical examination have simply not established a mood i n the play under which honour can be anything more than a surface 89. adornment, a word mentioned in passing. Absent is the pressing need for justice and decent judgment present in Fuente Ove.juna where the Master of Calatrava must answer for the future of the village. Maestre: Que puesto que tenga culpa en casos de gravedad, en todo mi poca edad viene a ser quien me disculpa. Con verguenza voy; mas es honor quien puede obligarme, e importa no descuidarme en tan honrado interes. 36 It is interesting to note in the'Aquilana that the moment of best development for both Aquilano and Bermudo occurs at the same time that the process of honour becomes of importance in the play and that the dropping of this topic is accompanied by a total decline in the characters of the royal class. It is not even mentioned in the last Jornada, suggesting that the concept of honour may not have had a great meaning for Torres Naharro in his plays, remaining only a handy peg upon which to hang some stock exchanges-- between nobles. Of secondary importance and confused with comedy is the internal conflict which Felicina feels over the possibility of losing Aquilano and later being forced to marry someone whom she does not love. Any tension resulting from ambivalence in her feelings is swallowed up by the episode of her attempted suicide. Indeed Torres Naharro develops the whole scene into a parody on the subject of a lover's suicide. When he has Felicina say, j Ay, hermanal Como yrxa tan de gana, por morir toda f i e l , a echarme de vna ventana, que cayesse encima d'el. 37 90. he i s more l i k e l y to be selecting a well-known incident from the Celestina and presenting i t i n a ludicrous context f o r the enjoyment of his audience who are already informed of the safety of Aquilano and the outcome of the plo t . When the effects of a bungled suicide, a p r a c t i c a l joke by the graciosa and the cheerful foolishmess of the gardener are summed up, i t i s quite u n l i k e l y that t h i s reference to leaping froma tower shoudd be considered as anything more than another portion of a Jornada which i s devoted to making fun of the i d e a l of a l i f e s a c r i f i c e d f o r love. .Coupled with t h i s i s the use of comic c o n f l i c t between the gardeners as a good means, of delivering humorous arguments to the audience. Their good-natured rows and threats of violence to one another are a rougher way of presenting the same clowning as Di l e t a and F e l i c i n a provide. This form of comic c o n f l i c t i s common to other plays of the period; the Farsa Sobre el•Matrxmonib by Sanchez de Badajoz includes just such a comic squabble between husband and wife. E l : Ven y besarte he l a mano que yo te quiero eervir. E l l a : Pues hincate de. r o d i l l a s . E l : Ves aqui perdon perdon. E l l a : Sufriras un bofeton s i que en f i n . a mx te humillas. 38 S l i g h t l y expanded, D i l e t a and F e l i c i n a act out the same scene. F e l i c i n a : Di,- que perdon te demando. Di l e t a : Pues hincate de r o d i l l a s . F e l i c i n a ^ Y entiendo que estas burlando? D i l e t a : ^Como que? Palabra no te dir e s i aqueste plazer no gano, F e l i c i n a : Heme aqui, pues que peque. D i l e t a : Ora besame l a mano . 3 9 The squabbles over calendars and. what part of the grounds s h a l l be cultivated i n xtfhich Dandario and Galberio are constantly involved are present i n the same form i n the Farsa Lalmada Cornelia where Andres Prado 91. presents the maiden Cornelia in a situation where she is prime witness to a prolonged squabble by both rustics and a squire. The battle, as in the Aquilana, is a verbal one and does not culminate in violence. Benito: No dexes migaja deloos antonillo. Escudero: Que alborotas pastorcillo. Anton* Que tengo de alborotar. que aunque vengays polidillo repolido enhoradillo alia no teneys de entrar. Escudero: Calla hermano muestrame tu. aca. la mano mira que me afrehtaran. Benito: Todo es esso hablar en vano. kO The latter comment, setting aside the diverting qualities of these arguments for the audience, has more than a grain of truth in i t , escpcially in Torres Naharro's plays. The arguments are always amusing but are not specifically designed to reval unsuspected depth of character or psychological insight. 92. Footnotes - Section 4. (1) Crawford, Spanish Drama before Lope de Vega, p. 160. (2) Crawford, p. 159. (3) Menendez y Pelayo, I I , p. x c i i i . (4) Menendez y Pelayo, I I , p. x c i i i . (5) G i l l e t , I, p. 142. • (6) H.J. Chaytor, Dramatic Theory i n Spain, (Cambridge, England, 1925), p. x i . (7) Juan de Valdes, pp. 160 - 1. (8) Menendez y Pelayo, I I , p. c x l . (9) Crawford, p. 67. (10) G i l l e t , I I , p. 513, 11. 287 - 292. (11) G i l l e t , I I , p. 524, 11. 620 - 624. (12) G i l l e t , I I , p. 533, 11. 256 - 259. (13) G i l l e t , I I I , p. 792. (14) Ruiz Ramon, p. 172. (15) G i l l e t , I I , p. 472, 11. 110 - 112. (16) G i l l e t , I I , p. 547, 11. 681 - 684. (17) G i l l e t , I I , p. 362, 11. 215 - 216. (18) G i l l e t , I I , p. 359, 11. 105 - 108. (19) G i l l e t , I I , p. 501, 11. 433 - 434. (20 (21 (22 (23 (24 (25 ) D. Cristobal Perez Pastor, La Imprenta en Medina del Campo, (Madrid, 1895), PP. 335 - 6. Diego de Neguerela, Farsa Llamada Ardamisa, p. 29, 11. 631 - 634. G i l l e t , I I , p. 559, 11. 285 - 289. G i l l e t , I I , p. 561, 11. 365 - 369. Lope de Vega, La Dama Boba, (New York, 1964), p. 156, 11. 808 - 811. G i l l e t , I I , p. 502, 11.. 445 - 457. 93-G i l l e t , I I , p. 564, 11. 435 - 439. G i l l e t , I I , p. 533, 11. 245 - 248. Neguerela, p. 46, 11. 985 - 988. Menendez y Pelayo, p. cxiv. G i l l e t , I, p. 157, 11. 71 - 74. ' G i l l e t , I, p. 157, 11. 75 - 78. Lope de Vega, Obras Escogidas; Poesia y Prosa, F.C. Sainz de Robles, ed (Madrid, 1953), I I , p. 890. G i l l e t , IV, p. 194. G i l l e t , I I , p. 293, 11. 200 - 205. G i l l e t , I I , p. 543, 11- 550 - 554. Lope de Vega, Fuente Ovejuna,(New York, 1964), p. 108, 11. 2154 - 2 l 6 l . G i l l e t , I I , p. 551, 11. 40 - 44. Perez Pastor, pp. 344 - 345. G i l l e t , p, 559, 11. 292 - 299. Perez Pastor, p. 335• 94. 5 A The Characters and t h e i r Audience The r e l a t i v e absence of depth or development i n the characters of the Aquilana i s not e n t i r e l y due to an i n a b i l i t y on the author's part to create more than simple comedy and portray the existence of servants. I f the char a c t e r i z a t i o n i s not highly advanced i t i s equally true to say that the theatre was i t s e l f i n i t s infancy at that period. The developing state of the theatre i s perhaps part of the reason f o r the development and use of the Introyto formula i n a l l of Torres Naharro's plays. He was f a m i l i a r with Plautus and Terence. Evidence f o r the former i s present i n the Introyto to the T i n e l l a r i a . Pues, mis amos, l a comedia intitulamos a t i n e l o , T i n e l l a r i a , como de Plauto notamos que de asno dixo A s i n a r i a . 1 His knowledge of Plautus was not s o l e l y confined to a l i t e r a r y study since Plautus' Amphitruo was performed as early as 1491 at the wedding of Alfonso of Ferrara to Anna Sforza. Included i n t h i s was a burlesque 2 peasant scene i n the intermezzo. I t i s l i k e l y that Torres Naharro was present at one or more performances of Plautus' comedies during, h i s l i f e t i m e and had an opportunity to observe the characters i n a c t i o n . His use of an Introyto speaker as a separate preliminary to the play has been described by Menendez y Pelayo as follows, Este personaje que no vuelve a i n t e r v e n i r en l a accion no pertenece a l a comedia l i t e r a r i a : es e l stupidus de l a s antiguas farsas i t a l i c a s . 3 In the same way as i n Plautus' thatre, the Introyto speaker serves p r i m a r i l y as a comedian and d i s t r a c t o r f o r the audience u n t i l a l l had arr i v e d and had found a place to s i t . 4. 95. The need to quiet down and prepare the audience was i n i t s e l f a separate process, for Torres Naharro did not enjoy the benefit of a theatre or of an audience conditioned to appreciate and understand theatre performances. In t h i s respect, the Spanish comedians of the Golden Age enjoyed a considerable advantage. The audience and location f o r Torres Naharro's plays may be described thus; Como sabemos, las primeras representaciones de Juan d e l Enzina y de Torres Naharro, tuvieron lugar, no en l a plaza publica, n i en teatros ad hoc, que no existian, sino en salones de magnates y principes, eclesiasticos o seculares... Observese, ademas que e l publico del siglo XVI no podia ser e l mismo que e l de las siguientes centurias: l a cultura era mucho menor y no estaban en condiciones de gustar de una obra dramatica, por imperfecta que fuese su estructura, sino aquellos para quienes las comedias elegiacas se escribieron, es decir, los c l e r i g o s . . . . 5 Given t h i s audience and surroundings , what i s unusual at f i r s t sight i s that Torres Naharro would have employed Spanish themes and language throughout a l l of his plays. He was fa m i l i a r with I t a l i a n to a great extent as Mazzei suggests, Piu s t r e t t a relazione che non co i Suppositi, quanto all'argomento l'Aquilana ha con una farsa senese, composta pocq prima e probabilmente r e c i t a t a a Roma nel 1519 - 20, S i t r a t t a d e l l a farsa i n t i t o l a t a Pieta d'amore a cu i gia abbiamo accennato altrove e che e identica per l'argomento a l l 'Aquilana. 6 While Mazzei's arguments concerning the derivation of the Aquilana from the Pieta d'amore or perhaps i Suppositi are not altogether convincing, the suggested f a m i l i a r i t y of the author of the Propalladia with I t a l i a n as both a spoken and l i t e r a r y tongue i s so. As proof, Fabio speaks I t a l i a n throughout the T i n e l l a r i a , opening with, 'it ha dito a l Maestro d i s t a l l a que tu l i t obasti i l feno. 7 96. However, Torres Naharro, unlike G i l Vicente, does not divide his dramatic production into two languages but instead uses Spanish and caters to contemporary taste. Y esto, en verdad, nada tiene de extrano, pues segun t e s t i f i c a un documento de princ i p i o s del s i g l o XVI, e l espanol era l a lengua f a v o t i t a de los senores y damas de l a aristocracfa i t a l i a n a y con mas razon en Napoles, en donde dominaron las armas espanolas. 8 The actual time f o r the staging of the plays might w e l l be as Shergold has described f o r the T i n e l l a r i a . A banquet h a l l would be convenient and a window might be required as i n the Ymenea. Rather than the audience's migrating to see the play the reverse would, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , occur. I t seems a reasonable guess, therefore, that i f the play was., given as an after-dinner entertainment, the guests remained seated at the tables at which they had eaten the meal, and that at one end of the h a l l a space was cleared so that t h i s other table, f o r the play, could be set up. A door also seems required, and t h i s was probably the door of the h a l l , as i n Encina's Eclogue. The effectiveness of the s a t i r e would be much greater i f the actual servants who are s a t i r i z e d were standing round and watching, behind the chairs of t h e i r master and his guests, whom they had just served at t h e i r meal. 9 Apart from the s i m p l i c i t y of the staging and the lack of sophistication of the audience, the lack of powerful characterization i n the Propalladia-as a whole i s somewhat of a r e f l e c t i o n of the character of the author. Undistinguished s o c i a l l y , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l y or m i l i t a r i l y , he i s described by a contemporary as, Torre, gente Naharro, v i s u a f f a b i l e , persona grandi, g r a c i l i et modesto corpore, incessu g r a u i o r i , verbis parous, et non n i s i premeditata et que statera ponderata habentur, verba e m i t t i t . Is demum ab omni genere viciorum se abstinere, virtu t i s q u e omnes sumopere amplecti non d e s i n i t . 10 There i s throughout t h i s short description a sense of the presence of a virtuous man but not a p a r t i c u l a r l y active or highly v i t a l character. In a 97. sense, Bermudo may w e l l be something of a r e f l e c t i o n of the reserve and virtuous r e s t r a i n t of the playwright. Neither character i s s t r i k i n g . 98. Footnotes - Section 5 (1) G i l l e t , I I , p. 191, 11. 9 0 - 9 4 . (2) G i l l e t , IV, p. 501. (3) Menendez y Pelayo, I I , p. x c v i . (4) Raymond L. Grismer, Influence of Plautus i n Spain, (Lancaster, Perm. 1944), p. 145. (5) Adolfo B o n i l l a y San Martin, Las Bacantes, (Madrid, 1921 ), pp. 56 - 7. (6) P. Mazzei, Contributo a l i o studio d e l l e rffonti, specialmente I t a l i a n e  d e l teatro de Juan de l Encina e Torres Naharro, (Lucca, 1922), pp. 117 (7) G i l l e t , I I , p. 210, 11. 28 - 29. (8) A.F. Schack, H i s t o r i a de l a Literatura y del Arte Dramatico en Espana, (Madrid, 1886), I, p. 318. : ' (9) N.D. Shergold, A History of the Spanish Stage, (Oxford, 1967), p. 147. (10) G i l l e t , I, p. 144. 99. 6 A Variations i n texts as they affect the Characters of the Aquilana I t was assumed e a r l i e r that the undated suelta of the Aquilana containing I t a l i a n references antedates the version printed i n the Naples edition of the Propalladia of 1524. A great number of minor differences exist between the two versions but these are l a r g e l y a matter of word changes, apparent typesetting errors and punctuation. However, f i v e portions of the undated suelta vary quite considerably from the Naples version. What i s peculiar about these major variations i s that they affect those characters who are Torres Naharro's most o r i g i n a l creations i n the Aquilana. None of the characters of the royal class are affected; Esculapio and Polidario are not affected. Those concerned are the gardeners, Galieno and the Introyto speaker's address. Oddly enough, neither D i l e t a nor Faceto i s affected perhaps suggesting that Torres Naharro was s a t i s f i e d with these l a t e s t experiments and decided not to revise them. As stated e a r l i e r , the Introyto speaker does not constitute a member of the cast of the play and hence changes i n his address are of l i t t l e relevance to the actual play i t s e l f . B a s i c a l l y , the changes made to the Aquilana's Introyto bring i t into closer agreement with that of the Trophea. The assault on Marenilla, the m i l l e r ' s daughter, results i n her death during c h i l d b i r t h which i s mockingly bewailed by the speaker. Following a b r i e f and insincere eulogy of her charms, he immediately proceeds to describe a v i c t o r y over another r u s t i c i n a p u l l a contest. By comparison, the Aquilana' s Introyto speaker gives a f u l l account of his attack on Luzia'e and then, having described how she asked pardon for i n j u r i n g him during the attack, he states that she too i s dead and laments her loss i n the same tone 100. as does the speaker of the Trbphea. The tone i s the key to the change i n the Aquilana's text. Quiso Dios que l a quistion d'entre nos 'n aqueste medio acabose; l a boua tomo y muriosse. jMallogradal 1 This scorn f o r Luzia would, have been incongruous with the omitted portion which reads, de cansada l a cara toda sudada desmeleuada l a grena. dixe habrame cudiabrada e l l a dixo no as uerguena dixo yo no e l l a mia fe se Rio yo que u i quese r e i a e l zagal os l a abrago y dixe perdona l u z i a . 2 This note of apparent affect i o n does not f i t into the usual formula adopted by Torres Naharro i n which the Introyto speaker uses his women for h is own ends but does not love them. I t i s possible that Torres Naharro may have thought i t best to reserve the demonstration of love or affe c t i o n f o r members of the n o b i l i t y , relegating the shepherds to sexual encounters f o r the amusement of the audience. The Introyto speaker of the Ymenea i s t y p i c a l of t h i s attitude as he describes his adventure with Juana. Mia fe, yo no me doy nada, sino que a l cuerpo de mi dexom' i r encima d ' e l l a , tomo a l a h i j a d e l puto y a(b)ajele e l ventrijon, que l a hize, enconerusion, regoldar por e l canuto. 3 The Aquilana's substitution of the l i n e s i n the undated suelta by the coarser comment of the following then brings the Aquilana's Introyto much 101. more closely into accord with the established formula f o r t h i s address. J O perraca, papitos de g a l l i n a z a ! No llogres esse velete, que me has fecho l a mostaza rebentar por e l ojete, 4 Torres Naharro eliminated a large section upon the problems of ju s t i c e and what l i t t l e of i t servants might expect to f i n d at the hands of the law or t h e i r masters. Several reasons can be advanced for i t s elimination of which the most l i k e l y i s that i t c o n f l i c t s with the character of Bermudo as an honest, just king. According to Galterio he may not be so, Galterio: y aunque e l Rey sepa quien es Dandario: me terna enla cagamarcha con cadenas alos pies y aun bien gordas Galterio: presentalle un par de tordas. 5 The suggestion that Bermudo may accept bribes i s accompanied by the fear that he may employ torture to gain information. The crux of t h i s complaint against the law i s stated by Galterio, mas uale salto de mata que no ruego de congejo. 6 Despite the fact that Torres Naharro may w e l l have f e l t that f l i g h t from the law was the safest defence against justice he would probably have caused an i n t e r n a l discrepancy i n the Aquilana by leaving i t i n the Naples edi t i o n . Bermudo i s not a strong enough character i n any case that he can afford to be described i n c o n f l i c t i n g terms. The second reason for the removal of t h i s seirtion may be that since Dandario and Galterio d e l i v e r the major part of the Jornada, the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s debate on j u s t i c e , to be followed by a longer one on the subject 102. of riches, was l i k e l y to s a c r i f i c e the comic element of the play and reduce i t to a series of philosophies and complaints. Since the discussion of riches i s i n i t s e l f a new topic i n Torres Naharro's plays and the comedy team of the gardeners i s also new, the author may w e l l have f e l t that the two experiments should be restrained i n i t i a l l y regardless of how i n v i t i n g they might be as topics for discussion i n l a t e r plays. A portion the removal of which i s more d i f f i c u l t to explain i s the elaboration of the procedures of witchcraft which Galterio explains, Pues luego no es imposible sino que es l a candelera que va de noche inuesible. ? to which the undated suelta adds, no se nada l a noche de l a uelada se que estaua de r o d i l l a s en aquesta encruzijada con mas de m i l c a n d e l l i l l a s m i l unguentes m i l hechizos diferentes tiene en su casa sobrados yua quitando los dientes de noche alos ahorcados. 8 This image of the candelera, the woman of the black ar t s , i s common 9 to many early Spanish works. The reference to the stolen teeth may be 10 another borrowing from the Celestina i n which the same reference i s made. Why Torres Naharro should have deleted t h i s section i s hard to determine sinee he i s not hesitant to employ elements of necromancy. For example, Ptholomeo i n the Tropheai states, <rNo ves que puedo dexar este cuerpo que tome? • Pues e l alma, sabes que donde quiera puede estar. 11 S i m i l a r l y , Pagano i n the Jacinta lays claim to a knowledge of the black a r t s . 103. y tambien, s i es menester, se tornar d e l agua vino, y aun hezeros trasponer en vn ora gran camino; muchas cosas adeuino . descubro qualquiera hurto, se mas que supo Basurto aunque era astrologo f i n o . 12 G i l l e t states that the burlesque invocation given by the gardeners when they overhear Aquilano may be taken on other than a comic plane. Speaking of the host of items mentioned i n the address, he says, Evoked by Dandario i n overwhelming numbers before a public s t i l l aware of a l l t h e i r connotations, they recalled and revived a whole world of primeval l o r e . The conjuration i n i t s e l f implies a b e l i e f i n a supernatural world and forms a part of a long '. t r a d i t i o n , i n w]jich, however, as a p a r t l y burlesque incantation, i t occupies a special place. 13 Some s l i g h t clue as to.the passage's removal may be present i n these words and would point to the reason f o r t h i s excision being the same as the one for the removal of the complaints about j u s t i c e . I f taken seriously by the audience, the comic nature of the gardeners might be overshadowed to some extent by t h e i r description of magic. In a play designed to be a parody of romantic love and comic at most points, these serious statements would not be consistent with the general trend. As i t i s , Torres Naharro contents himself with mentioning the burning of Juana Garcia at Toledo though he deletes the s p e c i f i c mention of her a c t i v i t i e s which follows. y es sabido que doe uezes a uenido por espantar los uezinos ( y a muchos aparecido de noche por los caminos y a l jurado yendo con pan a l ganado a cauallo en su machuelo sele espanto de un collado que l o tendio en aquel suelo. 14 The removal of t h i s second portion concerning witchcraft i s probably also 104. due i n part to i t s more serious nature and the resulting effect on the mood of the play. Discrepancy with what l i t t l e character has been previously established for him i s probably the reason f o r the removal of the f i f t h section which i s deleted from Galieno's l i n e s . The c o n f l i c t between the brusqueness of the f i r s t two l i n e s and the g e n t i l i t y of the omitted f i v e l i n e s would be d i f f i c u l t to understand unless they are directed to two di f f e r e n t l a d i e s . I f t h i s i s so, no evidence i s present to support i t . Together the l i n e s read, Ea, vos andad, senora, pues venis a contadero. uos senora pues que sois merecedora pase uuestra hermosura uos mas l i n d a quel aurora pasa con g e n t i l mesura. 15 However, the inclusion of the l i n e s would s t i l l mean very l i t t l e as f a r as Galieno's character i s concerned since he has no importance i n the play. The number of excisions and t h e i r extent i n the text of the Aquilana are unusual since only the T i n e l l a r i a shows any remarkable changes among the other plays and' these are not nearly as extensive. Although d i f f i c u l t to prove, i t might be surmised that Torres Naharro took rather more care i n the composition of the Aquilana and was more attentive to i t s improvement before consigning i t to his p r i n t e r . In a l l cases, the removal of l i n e s has not been accompanied by the substitution of longer passages. The t o t a l text i s therefore shorter and more compact, especially i n the t h i r d .Jornada where most of the changes..occur. 105. Section 6 - Footnotes. (1) G i l l e t , I I , P' 462, 11. 100 - 104. (2) G i l l e t , I I , P« 46l, footnote to l i n e 79, 11. 1 -• 10. (3) G i l l e t , I I , P' 274. 11. 100 - 106. (4) G i l l e t , I I , P« 462, 11. 80 - 84. (5) G i l l e t , . I I , Pi 491, footnote to l i n e 124, 11. 8 - 12. (6) G i l l e t , I I , P« 491, • 11. 1 9 - 2 0 . (7) G i l l e t , I I , P« 513, 11. 302 - 304. (8) G i l l e t , I I , P» 513, footnote to l i n e 304, 11. l - 10. (9) G i l l e t , I I I , P . 6l6, note 96. (10) G i l l e t , I I I , P • 753, note 304, (var. 1), 1. 9. (11) G i l l e t , I I , P' 100, 11. 295 - 298. (12) G i l l e t , •II, P« 360, 11. 149 - 156. (13) G i l l e t , IV, P. 33. (14) G i l l e t , I I , P« 516, footnote to l i n e 269, 11. 1 - 10. (15) G i l l e t , I I , 348 - 349. p. 536, footnote to l i n e 349, 11. 1 - 5 and 106. 7 A Summary Of Torres Naharro's plays the Aquilana represents not only his l a s t work but i n many ways his best. I t cannot be described as an unqualified success but neither does i t deserve the type of c r i t i c i s m which has been made of the Trophea. G i l l e t , i n speaking of t h i s work, summarizes i t s dramatic q u a l i t i e s thus, •• A l l t h i s does not add up to a play - there i s no plot even though there i s a theme - but rather a spectacle with comic r e l i e f , a spectacle evoking a s t i r r i n g a c t u a l i t y , s t i l l only partl y r e a l i z e d and gropingly approached i n terms of mythology and humanistic t r a d i t i o n . 1 Unlike the Trophea, the Aquilana does have a simple plot, granted not an o r i g i n a l one, a product of the author's imagination, but s t i l l a coherent plot with characters who, f o r the most part, present i t w e l l . Torres Naharro attempts to include a wider range of s o c i a l classes i n the Aquilana than he does i n his other plays but he i s not equally suceessful i n h is creations. BErmudo, a king on the comic stage, i s a good development but the success ends with his introduction as a new element i n the Spanish comic theatre. The doctors and especially Esculapio are a f i r s t attempt f o r Torres Naharro butonly Esculapio can be considered a success i n any way during the b r i e f period i n which he appears. The gracioso and graciosa are perhaps the most remarkable achievement of Torres Naharro's work and the one element for which the Golden AVge theatre might be most indebted to him. The comic pair of gardeners are w e l l presented but are not unique and would have limited value i n a more complex play. S i m i l a r l y , the Introyto speaker's .address i s suited to Torres Naharro's theatre but would be an extraneous element i n the more developed theatre of the Golden Age. 107. Apart from G i l l e t ' s thorough four volume edition of the plays and poems with accompanying notes and study, the amount of c r i t i c a l material dealing with Torres Naharro i s not very extensive. Studies dealing with the Aquilana are proportionately fewer. Although very b r i e f , both Moratin and Juan de Valdes make v a l i d comments upon the Aquilana and Torres.Naharro's a b i l i t i e s . On the other hand, Mazzei's'study of Torres Naharro and especially the Aquilana i s both questionable i n i t s attempts to place the sources of the Aquilana i n the I t a l i a n theatre and erroneous i n that i t misquotes speeches and confuses characters. Meredith's study of the Introyto as a separate element of Torres Naharro's theatre i s both accurate and thorough. By coincidence, both Manuel Canete and G i l l e t , both of whom might have cast much additional l i g h t on Torres Naharro's plays, died.before committing much of t h e i r knowledge to w r i t i n g . As a r e s u l t , •• Menendez y Pelayo's introduction to Torres Naharro's work lacks the depth which Canete's knowledge would have lent i t . I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to say p o s i t i v e l y whether or not the Aquilana was acted i n Spain but i t s s u r v i v a l as a l i t e r a r y creation i s w e l l documented. Plays such as the Tidea, the Tesorina and the Vidriana show much influence of the Propalladia even to the point of wholescale borrowing of speeches, phrases and situations. This imitative nature was to have a weakness because by imitating plays such as the Aquilana Jayme de Guete and Francisco de las -Natas f a i l e d to surpass i t . What i s equally noticeable i s that by 1550 such plays as the Farsa Llamada  Ardamisa were considerably weaker since the situations created by Torres Naharro were now greatly overworked without benefiting from his sense of comedy. In t h i s sense, the Farsa Llamada Cornelia represents a 108. sad spectacle i n which parody and burlesque'has given way to violence and t o t a l l y stereotyped characters. The Propalladia was not only copied by playwrights interested i n the comedia but also by some such as Juan Cyrne who were writing tragedies. Apparently using a copy of the Propalladia which included the Aquilana, Cyrne included i n his Tragedia de los Amoresde Eneas y de l a Reyna Dido approximately 170 l i n e s from the Aquilana, either d i r e c t l y copied or s l i g h t l y modified'', as w e l l as s i x t y l i n e s from others of Torres Naharro's plays and poems. Despite the fact that the characters are not si m i l a r i n ' a l l cases and that situations vary considerably i n the play's from which the l i n e s are taken, Juan Cyrne includes them and trims them to f i t the circumstances. What i s evident i s that the l i n e s and phrases must have-en joyed considerable popularity to be copied i n such numbers. 3 The l i t e r a r y career of the Aquilana was bright one evidenced by the repeated Spanish editions up to the beginning of the Golden Age. I t s popularity was not l i m i t e d to Spain since editions of the Propalladia were produced i n I t a l y after 1524 and i n the Auto de Guiomar do Porto the A l c o v i t e i r a l i s t s i t as one of her favourite works with special mention of the Aquilana, • e mais S i l v e s t r e e Amador e dos autos Aquilano Dom Duardos com sus f l o r e s . 2 The popularity of his plays among readers and the extensive imitation of them b j r.less g i f t e d playwrights i s p a r t i a l l y explicable with reference to Torres Naharro's lack of pre-judgment or moral heaviness i n his plays. G i l l e t describes t h i s as, 109, Torres Naharro presents, he does not analyze or explain; just as Lope de Vega presents, leaving the analysis and the explanation to Racine. The secret of giving dynamic form to the fused materia of the Middle Ages... was s t i l l locked i n A r i s t o t l e . Torres Naharro guessed that secret and v i c t o r i o u s l y applied i t , while I t a l y and the rest of Europe were s t i l l groping. His doctrine of the comedia a fantasia, with i t s vindication of the free exercise of the imagination, was a challenge and a cry f o r freedom. With t h i s as an objective, Torres Naharro did not hesitate to mix Sayagues and courtly dialogues, a king and a gracioso, or a gardener and a nobleman i f the results appeared to be i n t e r e s t i n g . His own best c r i t i c , he says of his characters that they are, No tan buenas como malas, en verdad, conpuestas en ciega edad, no cojidas con sazon, avnque de mi voluntad; escriptas con humilidad, inpressas s i n presuncion. 5 l i o . Section 7 - Footnotes* (1) . G i l l e t , IV, pp, 492 - 3* (2) J.E. G i l l e t , "Torres Naharro and the Spanish Drama of the Sixteenth Century", Hispanic Review,IV, (1937), P- 199- note 25-(3) J.E. G i l l e t and Edwin B. Williams, "Tragedia de los Amores de Eneas y de l a Reyna Dido", Modern Langr-ugie Association of America Publications, v o l . 46, (1931), PP- 358 - 359, (4) G i l l e t , IV, p. 564. (5) G i l l e t , I I , p. 565, 11. 13 - 19. 111. Bibliography. Albprg, Juan Luis. H i s t o r i a de l a Literatura Espanola. .editorial Gredos,. Madrid, 1966. Ariosto, Lodovico. Supposes and Jocasta. John W. Cunliffe ed., D.C. Heath Company, Boston, 1906. Tutte l e opere d i Ludovico Ariosto. Kondadori, Milano, 1964. Benitez Claros, R. Antologia del Teatro Medieval. Universidad Nacional de _;._Guyd, Kendoza, 1951' Berthelot, A. "La Propaladia du Mans", B u l l e t i n Hispanlque, LVI, (1954), pp. 167 - 174. B o n i l l a y San Martin, Adolfo, Las Bacantes. L i b r e r i a y E d i t o r i a l Rivadeneyra, Madrid,. 1921. Bouterwek, Frederick. Spanish and Portuguese Literature. 2 vols. Thomasina Ross, trans., Boosey and Sons, London, 1823. Brenan, Gerald. The Literature of the Spanish People. 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