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"The Revenger's Tragedy" : a record and analysis of a production Veverka, Jana Mila 1970

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THE REVENGER'S TRAGEDY A Record and A n a l y s i s of a P r o d u c t i o n by JANA M . VEVERKA B . A . , B i s h o p ' s U n i v e r s i t y , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of THEATRE We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH A P R I L , 1970 COLUMBIA In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a 7 ABSTRACT The Revenger's Tragedy, a Jacobean revenge t r a g e d y by C y r i l T o u r n e u r , was produced and d i r e c t e d by J a n a V e v e r k a , i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a M a s t e r o f A r t s degree i n t h e Department o f T h e a t r e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a t t h e D orothy Somerset S t u d i o T h e a t r e , from O c t o b e r 1 5 t h t o 1 8 t h , 1969. The f o l l o w i n g is a d e t a i l e d r e c o r d o f t h a t p r o d u c t i o n , a l o n g w i t h t h e d i r e c t o r ' s a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s c r i p t . The Revenger's Tragedy was p e r f o r m e d by a p r e d o m i n a n t l y s t u d e n t c a s t , i n costumes and s e t t i n g by M i c h e l l e B j o r n s o n , w i t h m u s i c a r r a n g e d and p l a y e d by J i m C o l b y . T h i s r e c o r d i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t i s an e s s a y i n t h r e e p a r t s , c o n s i s t i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y o f a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l b ackground o f t h e p l a y i n c l u d i n g a b r i e f b i o g r a p h i c a l n ote on t h e a u t h o r , a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e p l a y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e and w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e genre o f Revenge Tragedy, and c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t o r i a l c o n c e p t adopted f o r t h i s p r o d u c t i o n . The e s s a y i s f o l l o w e d by a s h o r t b i b l i o g r a p h y w h i c h i s n o t i n t e n d e d as a complete l i s t o f t h e works on o r by T o u r n e u r , bu t g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h o s e w h i c h were t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s p r o d u c t i o n . The second s e c t i o n is made up o f t h e prompt s c r i p t o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n , showing c u t s , b l o c k i n g , s i g n i f i c a n t d i v i s i o n s of the play into units, and i n d i c a t i o n and l i g h t and music cues. The s c r i p t i s followed by a u n i t by unit analysis of each scene, b r i e f l y discussing the d i r e c t o r i a l approach taken i n terms of purpose, action, motivation, dominant emotions, character dominance and p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s involved. The t h i r d section i s made up of various tables, records and i l l u s t r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y to the. production. Included are l i s t s of l i g h t cues, set changes, property and costume l i s t s . Also included are t r a n s c r i p t s of the music arranged for t h i s production, samples of the programme and copies of the press reviews. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s include colour photographs of the production, renderings of the sets, costumes and f i n a l l y blue-prints of the f l o o r plan and working drawings. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I n t r o d u c t o r y Essay . . 1 Notes . . 39 B i b l i o g r a p h y , 40 Prompt S c r i p t 41 U n i t A n a l y s i s 88 D e t a i l s of P r o d u c t i o n ,130 Appendix 137 Music Sheets 137 Programme 139 Reviews 141 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 145 V . LIST OF TABLES Page Music Cues 130 L i g h t P l o t , 131 P r o p e r t y L i s t , , 133 Costume P l o t 135 v i . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Production Photographs ...... 145 Set 150 Costume Drawings: V i n d i c e 151 The Duke 152 The Duchess 153 Luss u r i o s o 154 Ambitioso 155 C a s t i z a 156 Working Drawings . 157 INTRODUCTORY ESSAY I On October 7th, 1607, George E l d : Entred for his copies under the handes of S i r George Buck and the wardens. Twoo pl a i e s the one c a l l e d the revengers tragedie th other. A t r i c k to catche the old one . ...^ i n the Register of the Stationer's Company, the copybook of London publishers. No other contemporary a l l u s i o n to the play or reference to i t s early stage h i s t o r y i s known to survive, apart from t h i s unusual double entry, and i t provides the only r e l i a b l e means of dating the play. Since the play depends heavily on Marston's s a t i r i c comedies, The Malcontent (1602 or 1603), The Fawn (1604 or 1606) and also has echoes of King Lear (1605) and i s influenced by Jonson's Volpone (1606) i t may be presumed that i t was written somewhere among these dates, probably between the spring of 1606 and i t s entry i n 1607. The Revenger's Tragedy i s the most important play of the surviving Elizabethan repertory to have i t s authorship i n dispute. However, i t i s not within the scope of t h i s thesis to attempt to determine i t s authorship or i t s precise date. Let i t s u f f i c e to state that various scholars have, by both i n t e r n a l and external evidence, a t t r i b u t e d the play concurrently to Marston, Webster, Middleton (the l a t t e r being the most important although he p r i n c i p a l l y wrote c i t y comedies rather than revenge dramas) and, of course, to C y r i l Tourneur. This exasperating argument has not yet been concluded. For most students of the play, i t i s easier to reconcile the differences 2. between The A t h e i s t ' s Tragedy, T o u r n e u r ' s o n l y u n c o n t e s t e d p l a y , and The Revenger's Tragedy, t h a n t o c r e d i t t h e l a t t e r t o a n o t h e r a u t h o r . I n d e f e r e n c e t o modern p u b l i s h i n g t r a d i t i o n , T o u r n e u r ' s name appears on t h e t i t l e page o f t h e p l a y , and t h i s w r i t e r a c c e p t s t h a t t r a d i t i o n f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s p a p e r . C y r i l T o u r n e u r , t h e n , was p r o b a b l y b o r n between 1570 and 1580; i t i s n o t known where he was e d u c a t e d , b u t h i s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d work was The T r a n s f o r m e d Metamorphosis w h i c h appeared i n 1600, a s a t i r i c poem showing t h e i n f l u e n c e o f John M a r s t o n . ^ E x c e p t f o r a s m a l l pamphlet, n o t h i n g i s known o f h i s w r i t i n g u n t i l The Revenger's Tragedy. I n 1609 A F u n e r a l Poem Upon t h e  Death o f t h e most Worthy and True S o l d i e r S i r F r a n c i s V e r e was p u b l i s h e d . I n 1611 The A t h e i s t ' s Tragedy appeared. The  Nobleman was p u b l i s h e d soon a f t e r and was a l s o soon l o s t . S e v e r a l more poems and pamphlets appeared, none o f much n o t e b e f o r e t h e a u t h o r ' s d e a t h i n O c t o b e r , 1625. The s o u r c e s f o r t h e p l a y a r e wide and v a r i e d . They range from H e l i o d o r u s ' A e t h i o p i a n H i s t o r y ( t r a n s l a t e d by Under-downe, 1587)^ from w h i c h can be t r a c e d t h e scene where L u s s u r i o s o f o r c e s h i s way i n t o t h e D u c a l bedchamber, and G u i c c i a r d i n i ' s H i s t o r y o f I t a l y ^ where t h e p l o t f o r A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo t o o v e r t a k e t h e dukedom may have o r i g i n a t e d . Whatever h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l Tourneur u s e d , he h a n d l e d v e r y f r e e l y . The I t a l i a n s e t t i n g Tourneur employed, more b r i l l i a n t l y p erhaps t h a n t h a t o f any o t h e r p l a y i n t h e revenge g e n r e , was a l m o s t a c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y s t a g e . The I 3. " I t a l y " o f The Revenger's Tragedy i s t h e m y t h i c a l decadent " I t a l y " w h i c h f a s c i n a t e d t h e E l i z a b e t h a n i m a g i n a t i o n and was as Ross s a y s , "The a l r e a d y s y m b o l i c ' I t a l y ' o f p e r v e r t e d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and m o r a l c o r r u p t i o n , o f a e s t h e t i c d e p r a v i t y , p o e t i c t r e a c h e r y , abandoned s e n s u a l i t y , v i o l e n c e and v e n d e t t a . " The c o m p l e x i t y o f T o u r n e u r 1 s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s e v i l w o r l d i s so complete t h a t we a c c e p t t h e consequences o f e n t e r i n g i n t o a " C i t y o f D r e a d f u l N i g h t " and f i n d a w o r l d v i b r a n t w i t h i m a g i n a t i v e h o r r o r . T ourneur i s most i n d e b t e d t o t h e e a r l i e r p l a y s o f t h e E n g l i s h d r a m a t i c t r a d i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e w h i c h , l i k e M a r s t o n , used th e K y dian-Senecan revenge m o t i f woven w i t h t h e c o r r u p t s a t i r i c i n t e n s i t y o f t h e I t a l i a n a t e s e t t i n g . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on T o u r n e u r ' s w r i t i n g was e x e r t e d by Ben J o n s o n , and h i s c r e a t i o n o f a dramaturgy based on h i s t h e o r y o f humours. The names Tourneur uses f o r h i s c h a r a c t e r s -L u s s u r i o s o , V i n d i c e , A m b i t i o s o , Supervacuo, e t c . - c l e a r l y d e f i n e them as b e i n g dominated by a p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y , much i n t h e way t h a t Jonson's humour c h a r a c t e r s a r e p o s s e s s e d by an e x c e s s o f one o r o t h e r "humour". T h i s a l s o a c c o u n t s f o r some o f t h e comic, even s a t i r i c a s p e c t s o f T o u r n e u r ' s c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s p l a y - t h e y have become so o b s e s s e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y , w i t h A m b i t i o n , w i t h Vengeance, o r o t h e r w i s e , t h a t t h e y become a b s u r d , and Tourneur c l e a r l y i n t e n d s us t o l a u g h , as d i d J o n s o n , a t such l u d i c r o u s r i g i d i t y . 4. A f i n a l s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on T o u r n e u r was t h a t o f t he m e d i a e v a l M o r a l i t y P l a y t r a d i t i o n . As S a l i n g e r p o i n t s o u t : The R e v e n g e r ' s T r a g e d y i s t h e l a s t as w e l l as t h e mos t b r i l l i a n t a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t t h e e m o t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s o f R e n a i s s a n c e s o c i e t y w i t h i n t h e f ramework o f m o r a l a l l e g o r y . c and t h e p l a y r e v e a l s t h i s c o n n e c t i o n on e v e r y l e v e l : i n t h e a b s t r a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , i n t h e names he c h o o s e s - V i n d i c e ( V e n g e a n c e ) , C a s t i z a ( C h a s t i t y ) and so o n ; i n t h e a l l e g o r i c a c t i o n t h a t i s e v i d e n t when C h a s t i t y , t h e d a u g h t e r o f G r a c e , i s t h r e a t e n e d , i n t h e Dance o f D e a t h , i n t h e u s e o f V i n d i c e as m o r a l i z e r on t h e a c t i o n , and so o n . T h a t T o u r n e u r ' s r o o t s went d e e p l y i n t o t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p a s t c a n l i t t l e be d o u b t e d . T o u r n e u r l i v e d i n a t i m e where c o n d i t i o n s were u n s t e a d y and t h e s o c i a l and economic as w e l l as p h i l o s o p h i c i d e a l s we re i n a s t a t e o f f l u x . Una E l l i s - F e r m o r c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e mood o f t h e drama d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n t o t h r e e p h a s e s r o u g h l y c o v e r i n g t h e p e r i o d s f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f E l i z a b e t h a n drama t o 1 5 9 8 , f r o m abou t 1598 t o 1610 and f r o m 1610 t o n e a r t h e end o f t h e r e i g n o f James I. B r i e f l y , t h e f i r s t mood i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s f a i t h i n m a n k i n d , and by i t s v i t a l i t y c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i r e c t l y t o t h e r i s i n g o f a p r o s p e r o u s s o c i e t y . The p l a y s o f t h i s p e r i o d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e e a r l y S h a k e s p e a r e , i n G r e e n e and P e e l e , and o f c o u r s e Kyd and t h e e a r l y M a r l o w e . The s e c o n d mood i s a p e r i o d o f despondency o r a n x i e t y , r e s u l t i n g p a r t i a l l y f r o m t h e i n f l u e n c e o f M a c h i a v e l l i a n c y n i c i s m , and 5. p a r t i a l l y from t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n s and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t t h a t s p r e a d t h r o u g h t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f E l i z a b e t h and t h e i n s t a b i l i t y o f James 1 f i r s t few y e a r s on the t h r o n e . The t h i r d phase i s one o f i n c r e a s i n g e q u i l i b r i u m , marked by the r e s o l u t i o n i n Shakespeare's l a t e r p l a y s . There i s a note o f s e r e n i t y as w e l l as i n d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p l a y s o f t h i s p e r i o d , r e v e a l i n g an age t h a t has l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h c a t a s t r o p h e . Thus we can see t h a t The Revenger's  Tragedy b e l o n g s t o t h e m i d d l e genre and r e f l e c t s t h e mood o f d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t so e v i d e n t i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e t i m e . The q u a l i t y w h i c h removes Tourneur from h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i s h i s t o t a l d i s i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l themes and p r o b l e m s . The R e v e n g e r 1 s Tragedy l a c k s even t h e shadowy p o l i t i c a l background w h i c h p r o v i d e s a framework o f g r e a t e v e n t s f o r t h e s e n s a t i o n a l i s m o f The S p a n i s h Tragedy and The Jew of M a l t a . L i k e Chapman's he r o e s and Jonson's C i c e r o , V i n d i c e i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t a decadent s o c i e t y , b u t one t h a t i s c o r r u p t e d by p e r v e r t e d s e n s u a l a p p e t i t e s , n o t by p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s m o r t y r a n n y ; i t s v i l l a i n s a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , a m b i t i o u s o n l y i n t h e i r l u s t s . V i n d i c e , l i k e Bussy d'Ambois, i s an e x i l e from s o c i e t y who i n s i s t s on v i r t u o u s a c t i o n i n an e v i l m i l i e u , and he must compromise h i s a c t i o n s t o g a i n t h e revenge uppermost i n h i s mind. I n t h i s p l a y , T o u r n e u r ' s m o r a l argument and h i s p l o t a r e one. T h i s s t a t e m e n t can be e x p l a i n e d by l o o k i n g a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f Tourneur and some o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . 6. I t i s f a i r l y s a f e t o say t h a t t h e y were i n t e r e s t e d more i n an o v e r a l l m o r a l s t a t e m e n t t h a n i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r s . U s u a l l y o n l y w i t h p l a y w r i g h t s l i k e S h a k e s p e a r e , and o c c a s i o n a l l y Webster and M i d d l e t o n , i s a m o r a l v i s i o n e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f c h a r a c t e r s who m i g h t be r e a l p e o p l e i n s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h we can u n d e r s t a n d and i d e n t i f y w i t h , and we c annot hope t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e h o r r o r s o f Tourneur w h i l e w a t c h i n g o r s t u d y i n g h i s p l a y s as r e a l i s t i c a c c o u n t s o f l i f e . The extreme h o r r o r i s s i m p l y t o o r i c h l y p o r t r a y e d and c r e a t e s an a e s t h e t i c d i s t a n c e o f i t s own. A l t h o u g h t h e most i m p o r t a n t w r i t e r o f t r a g e d y d u r i n g t h i s e r a , was u n d o u b t e d l y W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e , h i s v i e w o f t h e w o r l d was n o t t h a t o f t h e e a r l y 1 7 t h c e n t u r y d r a m a t i s t s . The Jacobeans found i t d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e p t w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n t h e v i e w of man's p o s i t i o n i n t h e u n i v e r s e w h i c h g i v e s S h akespeare's t r a g e d i e s t h e i r most s i g n i f i c a n t form. Shakespeare o v e r a l l seems t o e x e m p l i f y t h e o p t i m i s t i c C h r i s t i a n humanism o f t h e e a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e , w h i c h s t r e s s e d t h e d i g n i t y o f man and t h e p r o v i d e n c e o f God and r e s u l t e d always i n some s o r t o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the f o r c e s o f good and e v i l . T h i s a t t i t u d e , however, q u i c k l y d e v e l o p e d i n t o a p e r i o d o f d oubt, c o n f u s i o n and p r o f o u n d p e s s i m i s m . The J a c o b e a n d r a m a t i s t s do n o t r e f l e c t t h e new s c i e n t i f i c o p t i m i s m o f Bacon, b u t more g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f an age no l o n g e r a b l e t o b e l i e v e t h e o l d i d e a l s , s e a r c h i n g a l m o s t f r a n t i c a l l y f o r new ones t o r e p l a c e them. 8. v a r i o u s ways t o d i s c o v e r some meaning i n human s u f f e r i n g , some k i n d o f a f f i r m a t i o n w h i c h can make l i f e p o s s i b l e i n a w o r l d w h i c h seems t o g i v e r e a s o n o n l y f o r d e s p a i r . D. C. A l l e n has w r i t t e n t h a t whereas human s u f f e r i n g i n t h e M i d d l e Ages c o u l d be a c c e p t e d as t h e r o a d t o heaven, t h e Jacobean e r a had no such c e r t a i n t y . T h e i r m e d i a e v a l f o r e b e a r s had, t h r o u g h t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f A q u i n a s , a s a t i s f y i n g s y n t h e s i s o f t h e s e c o n f l i c t i n g modes o f t h o u g h t . The f a i l u r e o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p h i l o s o p h e r s t o c r e a t e such a s y n t h e s i s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p e s s i m i s m o f t h e age.g T h i s f a i l u r e o f a s y n t h e s i s c r e a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h our t i m e , and g i v e s J acobean drama t h e p e c u l i a r sense o f immediacy i t has t o d a y . I t was t h u s p a r t l y why t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e Jacobean p e r i o d t e n d e d t o f a l l back upon t h e m e d i a e v a l m o t i f s . T o u r n e u r ' s p l a y s a r e w i t n e s s e s t o t h i s f a c t , and he employs t h e weapons d e v e l o p e d by m e d i a e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e s a t i r i s t s , b ased upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f a d e c a y i n g u n i v e r s e and a c o r r u p t and d e g e n e r a t e humanity. He uses t h e symbols t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e d i a e v a l a s c e t i c i s m : t h e human s k u l l , t h e c h a r n e l house, t h e seven d e a d l y s i n s p a r a d i n g a c r o s s t h e s t a g e , t h e denouncement o f l u s t and g l u t t o n y and so on. He c r e a t e d i n f a c t a w o r l d whose e v i l s a r e drawn w i t h b r u t a l e x a g g e r a t i o n . T ourneur i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s h a p i n g o f h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y so t h a t i t s p a r t s w i l l g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o a m o r a l s t a t e m e n t , and by making c h a r a c t e r s s t a n d f o r p a r t i c u l a r m o r a l p o s i t i o n s , he c r e a t e s a c o n f l i c t w h i c h may be r e s o l v e d . 7. The m a j o r body o f drama i n t h e E l i z a b e t h a n e r a was n o t u n i v e r s a l l y o r t h o d o x i n i t s m o r a l o u t l o o k . C h r i s t o p h e r Marlowe, the most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s c e p t i c s , had a l r e a d y q u e s t i o n e d the o r d e r and p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e , and even i n F a u s t u s t h e p r i c e o f knowledge i s damnation. Una E l l i s - F e r m o r has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e M a r l o v i a n t y p e o f drama comes t o dominate t h e Jacobean e r a , w i t h i t s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g sense o f human l i m i t a t i o n s and i t s tone o f human d e f e a t . She has seen t h i s "mood o f s p i r i t u a l d e s p a i r " as t h e p r o d u c t o f Marlowe's c o n t i n u i n g e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l system o f N i c c o l o M a c h i a v e l l i . ^ The i m p a c t o f h i s system on t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s came i n d i r e c t l y and i m p e r f e c t l y , and t h e r i d i c u l o u s s t a g e f i g u r e o f t h e M a c h i a v e l l i a n v i l l a i n was a d i s t o r t i o n i n v a l u e s o f any o f M a c h i a v e l l i ' s t h o u g h t s o r i d e a s . The s p r e a d i n g o f M a c h i a v e l l i a n m a t e r i a l i s m , emphasized by Marlowe's t r a g i c t h o u g h t added t o t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t e n t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h d e a t h and c r e a t e d t h e macabre h e r i t a g e o f Jacobean drama. The g r e a t e s t p l a y s o f t h e y e a r s 1600 t o 1612 form a group r e f l e c t i n g t h i s mood i n one form o r a n o t h e r . T r o i l u s  and C r e s s i d a , Hamlet, The M a l c o n t e n t , Measure f o r Measure, V o l p o n e L e a r , Macbeth, Timon o f A t h e n s , The Revenger's Tragedy, The A l c h e m i s t , and The White D e v i l , t o m e n t i o n a few. The f e a r o f doom impending upon a once g r e a t c i v i l i z a t i o n , a f e a r s i m i l a r t o o u r s , caused t h e Jac o b e a n w r i t e r s t o seek i n t h e i r 9. The A t h e i s t ' s Tragedy c a r r i e s t h i s i d e a t o extreme. I n t h e f a r s u p e r i o r The Revenger's Tragedy t h e m o r a l s u b s t a n c e o f t h e p l a y i s more p e r f e c t l y conveyed i n t h e t o t a l d r a m a t i c s t r u c t u r e . Tourneur r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon h i s p o e t i c imagery t o emphasize h i s themes and t o e s t a b l i s h t h e tone o f h i s p l a y s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p l a y i s a m a s t e r p i e c e o f mood and atmosphere c r e a t i n g a h y p n o t i c f u s i o n o f h o r r o r and b l a c k humour. The Revenger's Tragedy i s one o f a number o f p l a y s w r i t t e n i n the J acobean e r a w h i c h came t o be known as t h e " t r a g e d y o f b l o o d " . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t beTongs t o t h a t p e c u l i a r E l i z a b e t h a n - J a c o b e a n genre o f p l a y s c a l l e d Revenge Tragedy. The whole mood and atmosphere o f t h e s e p l a y s a r e a p t l y d e s c r i b e d by H o r a t i o a t t h e end o f Hamlet w h i l e he l o o k s a t the b l o o d y mess about him: so s h a l l you hear Of c a r n a l b l o o d y and u n n a t u r a l a c t s Of a c c i d e n t a l judgments, c a s u a l s l a u g h t e r s , Of d e a t h s p u t on by c u n n i n g and f o r c e d cause And i n t h i s u p s h o t , p u r p o s e s m i s t o o k F a l l ' n on t h e i n v e n t o r ' s head. g The Revenger's Tragedy w i t h i t s a p p r o p r i a t e name f a l l s w e l l i n t o t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , even i n s o f a r as t h e "hero" i s l e d o f f s t a g e a t t h e end t o h i s own d e a t h . The p l a y , n e e d l e s s t o s a y , c e n t r e s around revenge. V i n d i c i wants revenge p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e murder o f h i s m i s t r e s s , G l o r i a n a , and s e c o n d l y , and o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y , ( s i n c e he m e n t i o n s i t once i n an a s i d e t o h i s m o t h e r ) , f o r t h e s o c i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t o f h i s f a t h e r and h i s d e a t h o f t h e 'nobleman's c o n s u m p t i o n 1 . H i p p o l i t o somehow appears t o be m o r a l l y o b l i g a t e d t o h e l p V i n d i c e b u t r a r e l y s t a t e s h i s f e e l i n g s . The Duchess p a s s i o n a t e l y d e s i r e s revenge a g a i n s t t h e Duke f o r n o t s e t t i n g h e r y o u n g e s t son f r e e f r om h i s t r i a l f o r t h e r a p e o f A n t o n i o ' s w i f e . A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo want some k i n d o f s e c u r e p o s i t i o n a t t h e C o u r t , and p l o t t o g e t r i d o f t h o s e s t a n d i n g i n t h e i r way. B o t h t h e Duke and L u s s u r i o s o cannot be c o n t r o l l e d i n t h e i r l u s t and d e s t r o y t h o s e who g i v e i n and t h o s e who do n o t . S p u r i o , t h e b a s t a r d son, h a t e s everyone and would k i l l them a l l i f he c o u l d . T h i s revenge m o t i f w h i c h f i g u r e s i n a l m o s t e v e r y p a r t o f t h e p l o t w o r k s , i r o n i c a l l y enough, a g a i n s t V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o . The vengeance o f V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o u l t i m a t e l y means no more and l a s t s no l o n g e r t h a n t h e p e t t y vengeances o f t h e s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r s . I t i s h a r d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e i r "minute" o f vengeance, and t h e " b e w i t c h i n g m i n u t e " o f v i r t u e ' s r a v i s h m e n t o r t h e momentary r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e v e r a l would-be dukes o f becoming "dukes i n a m i n u t e " . Each o f t h e s e t r a n s i t o r y moments o f t r i u m p h become moments i n w h i c h "honest s a l v a t i o n i s b e t r a y ' d t o s i n " . T o u r n e u r ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e revenge theme i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f the t i m e . The age l i v e d i n a t e n s i o n between two c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s c e n t r e d on t h e n o t i o n o f r e v e n g e . The most o b v i o u s c o n f l i c t r e s u l t e d f r om t h e c l a s h between t h e m o r a l i s t s who j n a i n t a i n e d t h a t p r i v a t e r e v e n g e was u n l a w f u l and u n - C h r i s t i a n , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l who f e l t he had t o r e d r e s s a wrong done t o him. B l o o d revenge f o r murder e s p e c i a l l y was n o t i n i t s e l f condemned by t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s and J a c o b e a n s , f o r unrevenged murder was t h e u l t i m a t e r e f l e c t i o n on one's honour. The revenge theme was c o m p l i c a t e d however, and e n r i c h e d by a n o t h e r s t r a n d o f i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s , m a i n l y d e r i v i n g from t h e p o p u l a r m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about I t a l y . B u t t h i s has a l r e a d y been d e a l t w i t h e a r l i e r i n t h e s e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g th e M a c h i a v e l l i a n f i g u r e i n J acobean drama. P a r t o f t h e f a s c i n a t i o n seems t o have stemmed from t h e s h e e r mechanics o f t h e means by w h i c h v i o l e n t c r i m e s a r e committed. And t h e a u d i e n c e s , used t o b e a r p i t s as w e l l as t h e t h e a t r e s , were even l e s s squeamish about the Grand G u i g n o l e f f e c t s t h a n we a r e t o d a y . The o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e revenge m o t i f w h i c h p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v i o l e n t d i s p l a y o f a c t i o n and t h e w o r l d o f t h e v i e w e r s . The v i o l e n c e was used as an end i n i t s e l f , c r e a t i n g a m i l d form o f e s c a p i s m . I n The Revenger's Tragedy the v i o l e n c e s e r v e s some purpose o u t s i d e i t s e l f , i t s d r a m a t i c i n t e r e s t b e i n g i t s e f f e c t on the m o r a l s t a t u r e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d . The main a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y i s as f o l l o w s . V i n d i c e , w i t h t h e h e l p o f H i p p o l i t o , goes i n t o t h e s e r v i c e o f L u s s u r i o s o , and s t i l l i n h i s d i s g u i s e as ' P i a t o ' p e r s u a d e s h i s mother t o b r i n g t h e d a u g h t e r t o C o u r t . The Duchess's younger son, has i n t h e meantime been on t h e t r i a l f o r t h e ra p e o f L o r d A n t o n i o ' s w i f e . The Duke m e r e l y postpones t h e v e r d i c t , and th e Duchess, eager t o avenge t h e Duke's r e f u s a l t o s e t h e r son f r e e , b e g i n s t o make advances t o S p u r i o , t h e Duke's b a s t a r d son, whom she has always d e s i r e d . S p u r i o , a l t h o u g h d i s l i k i n g h i s ste p m o t h e r , c o m p l i e s w i t h h e r d e s i r e s , i n o r d e r t o repa y h i s f a t h e r f o r h i s f a l s e b i r t h . The Duchess's two sons r e a l i z e what i s happening and d e c i d e t o s t o p t h i s i n c e s t u o u s a f f a i r . They a l s o p l o t t o r e l e a s e t h e i r b r o t h e r and i n t h e p r o c e s s t o k i l l L u s s u r i o s o , t h e n e x t h e i r t o t h e t h r o n e . I n t h e i r h a s t e , however, t h e p l a n s g e t c o n f u s e d and t h e y o r d e r t h e i r own b r o t h e r ' s d e a t h . E v e n t u a l l y , i n a b i t t e r and c y n i c a l s cene, V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o murder t h e Duke. V i n d i c e t a k e s on a new d i s g u i s e , i s o r d e r e d by L u s s u r i o s o t o k i l l P i a t o ( i n f a c t h i m s e l f ) , manages t o save h i s s i s t e r ' s honour, and s u p e r f i c i a l l y h i s mother's, and i n a grand f i n a l e , succeeds i n k i l l i n g o f f t h e r e s t o f t h e C o u r t i n a t e r r i b l e c o u r t masque. As V i n d i c e i s b e i n g l e d o u t a t t h e end, h i s f i n a l words r e v e a l t h e t o t a l commitment he has g i v e n t o h i s revenge; h i s l i f e i s o v e r and he i s a l m o s t f l i p p a n t i n h i s f i n a l speech t o t h e r e m a i n i n g few on s t a g e : We have enough I ' f a i t h we're w e l l : o u r mother t u r n ' d , our s i s t e r t r u e We d i e a f t e r a n e s t o f dukes - a d i e u . . .. .. ( V . 1 1 1 ) S t r u c t u r a l l y , t h e p l a y i s made up o f t h e main p l o t , t h a t o f V i n d i c e i n v a r i o u s d i s g u i s e s a c t i n g o u t h i s revenge, and t h e s u b - p l o t s w h i c h r e v o l v e around t h e i n t r i g u e s a t C o u r t . Throughout t h e p l a y , H i p p o l i t o a c t s as a go-between f o r V i n d i c e theme and mood of the play i n his character and t h i s mercuric q u a l i t y seen i n both i s part of the f a s c i n a t i o n he has f o r us. As the play opens, Vindice acts as s a t i r i c master of ceremonies presenting the dumb show of the royal family led by t o r c h l i g h t . In short harsh epigrams, 1 Vindice etches t h e i r characters, and then on t h e i r e x i t , f a l l s into a s o l i l o q u y . The moods he goes through i n t h i s f i r s t speech already indicate that he has a tendency to sudden s h i f t s i n emotion. After the opening harangue on the vice f i g u r e s , Vindice subsides into a b i t t e r meditation on his l o s t love. As he gets more and more involved with the thought of her, the idea of revenge takes over, and he becomes almost gay, as he sharply v i s u a l i z e s "Revenge" leading his enemies into a cauldron of h e l l - f i r e . T h e a t r i c a l l y the scene i s e f f e c t i v e as well - Vindice darkly dressed, alone on stage l i t by t o r c h l i g h t , t a l k i n g to the s k u l l of his dead love. While Vindice i s s t i l l i n t h i s g l e e f u l mood, he i s joined by his brother and t h e i r conversation proceeds at a brisk pace: Hi p p o l i t o : S t i l l sighing o'er death's vizard? Vindice: Brother, welcome! What comfort bring'st thou? How go things at Court? H i p p o l i t o : In s i l k and s i l v e r brother: never braver. Vindice: Puhl Thou play'st upon my meaning Are we happy yet? Thy wrongs and mine are f o r one scabbard f i t . and t h e C o u r t , becoming a p a r t o f b o t h w o r l d s and a c t i n g as a l i n k . Through the use o f i r o n i c r e v e r s a l s o f i n t e n t and c o n s e q u e n t l y o f e x p e c t a t i o n , t h e p l o t becomes e x t r e m e l y complex. Tourneur uses p a r a l l e l scenes c o n s e q u e n t l y t o r e - i t e r a t e and comment on t h e c e n t r a l r e v e n g e r s ' drama. T h i s i s b e s t p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e scene between A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo i n which, t h e y f e i g n p l e a d i n g f o r L u s s u r i o s o ' s l i f e and t h e r e s u l t s a r e d i s a s t r o u s e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o t h e i r b r o t h e r ' s d e a t h . A n o t h e r b r i e f scene i n w h i c h t h e y r e s o l v e t o end t h e i r mother's i n c e s t u o u s a d u l t e r y i s j u x t a p o s e d w i t h V i n d i c e ' s and H i p p o l i t o ' s e n f o r c e d c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e i r mother t u r n e d bawd. The f i n a l and most t h e a t r i c a l p a r a l l e l o c c u r s w i t h t h e two s e t s o f murderous masques a t t h e end o f t h e p l a y - one m o t i v a t e d by r e v e n g e , one by a m b i t i o n . When we t u r n t o t h e p l a y i t s e l f , we c a nnot h e l p b u t be s t r u c k by the a l t e r n a t i n g changes o f mood and p a ce, between e n e r g e t i c h i g h - s p i r i t e d a c t i o n and b r o o d i n g s l o w paced scenes o f m e d i t a t i o n on d e a t h , revenge and e v i l . T h i s d i s t u r b i n g q u a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l images o f g r i n n i n g s k u l l and c a p e r i n g s k e l e t o n . T h i s d ichotomy o f rhythm i s a l s o seen i n V i n d i c e h i m s e l f , now t h e h i g h - s p i r i t e d w i t t y d e v i s e r o f schemes, now t h e m e l a n c h o l y mourner " s t i l l s i g h i n g o'er d e a t h ' s v i z a r d " . H i s r a p i d s h i f t s from w i t t y f o p t o r u s t i c s c h o l a r , from o b s e r v e r t o p a r t i c i p a t o r and i n s t i g a t o r , i n d i c a t e h i s change o f r o l e s from s a t i r i s t t o t r a g e d i a n . He embodies t h e H i p p o l i t o : I t may p r o v e h a p p i n e s s . V i n d i c e : What i s ' t may pr o v e ? G i v e me t o t a s t e . H i p p o l i t o : G i v e me your h e a r i n g t h e n t l . i ) and as t h e y p l o t t h e n e x t few l i n e s , we g e t t h e f e e l i n g o f c o n s p i r a c y w h i c h b e g i n s t o permeate t h e whole p l a y . The mother and s i s t e r e n t e r and t h e two b r o t h e r s i m m e d i a t e l y adopt a pose: V i n d i c e : We must c o i n . Women a r e a p t , you know, t o t a k e f a l s e money. ( I . i ) V i n d i c e ' s c y n i c i s m i s o p e n l y e v i d e n t i n t h i s l i t t l e scene w i t h h i s mother. He d o e s n ' t t r u s t h e r , he mocks her w i t h h i s s a t i r i c w i t and a c t u a l l y appears t o speak a s i d e when c o n v e r s i n g w i t h h e r . H i s need t o p r o v e t h e o n l y two t r u e c r e a t u r e s i n th e p l a y f a l s e , r e v e a l s h i s g r e a t need t o be a b s o l u t e i n h i s r i g h t n e s s and t o e l e v a t e h i s own sense o f j u s t i c e . The scene i s a smooth one, b u t n o t a v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e one, f o r we b e g i n t o g e t an i n d i c a t i o n o f what i s i n s t o r e . I n f a c t , t h e whole scene i s shaped by Tourneur t o shed l i g h t on t h e r e s t o f t h e p l a y . The v e r y rhythm o f t h e scene i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t . I t b e g i n s i n m e d i t a t i v e s t i l l n e s s t h e n as a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r e n t e r s the i n t r i g u e b e g i n s and w i t h t h e e n t r a n c e o f more and more c h a r a c t e r s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y mounts t o g r e a t e r c o m p l e x i t y and speed. The c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i n the p l a y i s o f c o u r s e V i n d i c e . H i s r o l e , however, i s n o t t h a t o f t h e " h e r o " , h i s sympathy comes o n l y from th e f a c t t h a t he i s t h e l e a s t e v i l i n t h e p l a y , o r p o s s i b l y t h e most u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , s i n c e from the s t a r t we a r e asked t o s h a r e h i s i n d i g n a t i o n p r o v o k e d by t h e wrongs a g a i n s t him, t h u s he has our sympathy. V i n d i c e i s however n o t a H a m l e t - l i k e f i g u r e , a l t h o u g h t h e o p e n i n g scene w i t h t h e s k u l l r e c a l l s t h e g r a v e y a r d scene o f Hamlet. I n Hamlet, as i n o t h e r p l a y s o f t h e t ime where s k u l l scenes were used t o " s p i c e up" t h e a c t i o n , t h e scenes a r e used as r e l i e f , t h e y a r e n e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y nor c l i m a c t i c t o t h e a c t i o n . I n The Revenger's Tragedy, however, t h e s k u l l appears a t t h e s t a r t as a v i t a l p i e c e o f i magery, r e m i n i s c e n t o f deeds t o come and deeds p a s t , and s e r v e s as t h e c l i m a x o f t h e a c t i o n i n a l a t e r scene. Nor does V i n d i c e w ind t h r o u g h t h e H a m l e t - l i k e a rabesques o f m e l a n c h o l y t h o u g h t ; r a t h e r he i s d i r e c t l y v i n d i c t i v e (hence h i s name) and h i s mind i s f u l l o f a c t i o n , formed from an i n s a n e and f i e n d i s h p u r p o s e . One e x c e l l e n t example o f h i s manner o f d o i n g t h i n g s i s t h e scene where V i n d i c e b r i n g s t h e " l a d y " f o r t h e Duke who i s t o meet him i n the h u n t i n g l o d g e : ( E n t e r V i n d i c e w i t h t h e masked s k u l l o f h i s l o v e d r e s s e d i n T i r e s ) V i n d i c e : Madam, h i s g r a c e w i l l n o t be a b s e n t l o n g . S e c r e t ? Ne'er doubt us madam; ' t w i l l be w o r t h Three v e l v e t gowns t o y o u r l a d y s h i p . Known? Few l a d i e s r e s p e c t t h a t d i s g r a c e , a poor t h i n s h e l l ' T i s t h e b e s t g r a c e you have t o do i t w e l l ; I ' l l save y o u r hand t h a t l a b o u r , I ' l l unmask you. ( I I I . v . ) A speech f u l l o f i n s i n u a t i o n s and s e x u a l o v e r t o n e s , b u t b e s i d e s t h i s i t i s a l s o v e r y b i t t e r . F o r w h i l e V i n d i c e has t h i s speech i n w h i c h he mocks women's v i r t u e , he i s h o l d i n g t h e s k u l l o f h i s b e t r o t h e d whom th e o l d Duke p o i s o n e d . The scene, w h i l e t h e a t r i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e , i s a l s o v e r y g h o u l i s h . V i n d i c e ' s revenge on t h e Duke c o n s i s t s o f u s i n g G l o r i a n a ' s s k u l l t o seduce t h e Duke t o h i s d e a t h - t h e " r o y a l l e c h e r " i s cau g h t i n h i s own t r a p . I n c a r r y i n g o u t h i s d e m o n i c a l l y f i t t i n g vengeance, making a p o i s o n e r / r a p i s t Duke e n a c t h i s embracing o f d e a t h t h r o u g h l u s t , V i n d i c e t u r n s h i s l a d y f rom c h a s t e v i c t i m i n t o whore and mu r d e r e s s . He does from t h e o n s e t m a n i p u l a t e p l o t and c o u n t e r - p l o t ; h i s v e r y d i s g u i s e s e n f o r c i n g t h e symbolism o f impermanence and change w h i c h i n f u s e t h e p l a y , l e a d i n g t o a g r a d u a l decay o f e v e r y t h i n g i n V i n d i c e ' s w o r l d . The theme o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s r e l e v a n t t o a l l t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e p l a y . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n A c t I , Scene I I I : V i n d i c e : What b r o t h e r , am I f a r enough from m y s e l f ? a s k s V i n d i c e , t h e new P i a t o i n d i s g u i s e . L a t e r , H i p p o l i t o d e s c r i b e d him t o L u s s u r i o s o i n terms r e f l e c t i n g t h e s u p e r f i c i a l changes i n V i n d i c e : H i p p o l i t o : . . and i f Time Had so much h a i r , I s h o u l d t a k e him f o r Time, He i s so near k i n t o t h i s p r e s e n t m i n u t e . ( I . i i i ) V i n d i c e becomes the c a t a l o g u e r o f Time n o t i n g i t s s u r f a c e d e v a s t a t i o n s : V i n d i c e : I have been w i t n e s s To t h e s u r r e n d e r s o f a t h o u sand v i r g i n s , And n o t so l i t t l e ; I have seen p a t r i m o n i e s washed a p i e c e s , F r u i t - f i e l d s t u r n e d i n t o b a s t a r d s , And i n a w o r l d o f a c r e s , Not so much d u s t due t o t h e h e i r 'twas l e f t t o As would w e l l g r a v e l a p e t i t i o n . ( I . i i i ) H i s r a p i d changes o f d i s g u i s e keep pace w i t h t h e r a p i d tempo o f t h e p l a y , and i n t h e q u i c k e c o n o m i c a l v e r s e Tourneur u s e s . T. S. E l i o t has n o t e d t h i s r a p i d i t y o f movement. " H i s p h r a s e s seem t o c o n t r a c t t h e images i n h i s e f f o r t t o say e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e l e a s t s p a c e , t h e s h o r t e s t t i m e " . . ^ Not o n l y i s V i n d i c e adept a t f o o l i n g t h e C o u r t -he a l s o d e l u d e s h i s mother, and c o n v i n c e s h e r t o become a bawd t o h e r own d a u g h t e r . The w a v e r i n g o f G r a t i a n a i n t o a n o t h e r , more u n n a t u r a l mother, r e - e m p h a s i z e s th e change m o t i f C a s t i z a p o i n t s t h i s up i n h e r l i n e s : The w o r l d ' s so changed, one shape i n t o a n o t h e r I t i s a w i s e c h i l d now t h a t knows he r mother. ( I I . i ) A l m o s t as i f he d i d n o t b e l i e v e any v i r t u e e x i s t e d , V i n d i c e i s d r i v e n t o p r o v e th e c o r r u p t i b i l i t y o f h i s mother and s i s t e r The f a l l i n g o f t h e mother a l m o s t p r o v e s t o him t h a t women's f r a i l t y i s i n d e e d a c r u m b l i n g s c a f f o l d r e a d y t o t o p p l e a t the s l i g h t e s t v i b r a t i o n . Y e t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t V i n d i c e ' s p u rpose n e v e r changes, nor does h i s i n n e r c h a r a c t e r , b o t h become s t r o n g e r and more d i r e c t i o n a l as t h e p l a y p r o g r e s s e s I t i s C a s t i z a who p r o v i d e s t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e m o r a l argument o f t h e p l a y . S e v e r a l c r i t i c s , such as I r v i n g R i b n e r ^ have o v e r e m p h a s i z e d C a s t i z a as t h e exponent o f t r u e goodness and p u r i t y i n t h e p l a y . To see C a s t i z a as "a r a r e P h o e n i x " and t o say "by h e r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e w o r l d , C a s t i z a s t a n d s f o r heaven, and i t i s t h e r e a l i t y o f heaven w h i c h makes m e a n i n g f u l t h e s c o r n f o r t h e w o r l d w h i c h t h e p l a y e s p o u s e s " i s t o o v e r s i m p l i f y t h e p l a y and t o t a k e away from t h e r i c h a m b i v a l e n c e i n m o r a l s t a t u r e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s -whether anyone i s r e a l l y unambiguously 'good' o r 'bad' i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e atmosphere and f e e l i n g o f t h e p l a y as a whole, and t o T o u r n e u r ' s p u r p o s e . R i b n e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e a d s t h e l i n e s o f C a s t i z a : How h a r d l y s h a l l t h a t maiden be b e s e t Whose o n l y f o r t u n e s a r e h e r c o n s t a n t t h o u g h t s , That has no o t h e r c h i l d ' s - p a r t b u t h e r honour, That keeps her low and empty i n e s t a t e . ( I I . i ) as e q u a t i n g w i t h t h e m e d i a e v a l n o t i o n o f " h o l y p o v e r t y " and thus making h o n e s t y always poor as w e l l as r a r e . I n t h i s p l a y i t i s . However, t o make C a s t i z a i n t o a s o l i t a r y f i g u r e o f l i g h t i n t h e p l a y , and t o make h e r a l l good i s t o deny a l s o s e e i n g t h a t p o v e r t y sometimes wages war w i t h t h e m o r a l v i s i o n g o v e r n i n g i t . I n the case o f C a s t i z a i t i s t o m i s s t h a t s i d e o f h e r c h a r a c t e r w i t h w h i c h we b e s t i d e n t i f y - t h a t b i t of c y n i c i s m w h i c h g i v e s h e r a s o u r n e s s and i n d e e d a s t r i c t n e s s w h i c h t a k e s h e r a s t e p f u r t h e r t h a n t h e o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l a l l e g o r i c a l f i t u r e , w h i c h R i b n e r seems w i l l i n g t o impose on h e r . Her v e r y r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i n t h e l i n e s c r e a t e s an a l m o s t d e f e n c e -l i k e speech as though she were l o o k i n g f o r an e x c u s e : C a s t i z a : M a i d s and t h e i r honours a r e l i k e poor b e g i n n e r s , Were n o t s i n r i c h t h e r e would be fewer s i n n e r s ; Why had n o t v i r t u e a revenue? W e l l I know t h e c a u s e , 'twould have i m p o v e r i s h e d h e l l . ( I I . i ) Her tone i s c e r t a i n l y a t t i m e s somewhat s e l f - r i g h t e o u s . R e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , h e r u n f l i n c h i n g c h a r a c t e r does p r o v i d e s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o a l l t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n t h e p l a y . The c h a r a c t e r t h a t c o n t r a s t s w i t h C a s t i z a most i n terms o f c o n s t a n c y i s o f c o u r s e h e r mother. G r a t i a n a must s u r e l y be one o f t h e more d i s t a s t e f u l mothers i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h t h e a t r e . As she becomes more and more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e p l e a s u r e s o f t h e p a l a c e , h e r arguments a g a i n s t h e r d a u g h t e r ' s c h a s t i t y become more and more pronounced. The passages i n w h i c h V i n d i c e d e s c r i b e s t h e p a l a c e have a f a n t a s t i c u n d e r w o r l d q u a l i t y t o them, s p e e d i n g up t h e rhythm towards t h e c o r r u p t C o u r t : 21. V i n d i c e : 0 t h i n k upon t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e p a l a c e , S e c u r e d ease and s t a t e , t h e s t i r r i n g meats Ready t o move o u t o f t h e d i s h e s That e'en now q u i c k e n when t h e y ' r e e a t e n ! Banquets abroad by t o r c h - l i g h t , m u s i c , s p o r t s , Bare-headed v a s s a l s , t h a t had ne'er t h e f o r t u n e To keep on t h e i r own h a t s , b u t l e t h o r n s wear 'em! N i n e coaches w a i t i n g - h u r r y , h u r r y , h u r r y . ( I I . i ) The mother has one f o o t i n t h e C o u r t a l r e a d y and she w i l l n o t be b r o u g h t back from t h e p l e a s u r e s t h e r e by t h e o b s t i n a c y o f h e r d a u g h t e r . I t i s n o t u n t i l she i s f a c e d w i t h h e r sons' daggers a t h e r b r e a s t t h a t she changes h e r mind. She i s adamant o n l y t h a t V i n d i c e h i m s e l f c o u l d have c o n v i n c e d h e r and t e l l s him t h a t she w i l l n o t be tempted a g a i n . Most c r i t i c s t e n d t o p o i n t o u t t h e t r u e r e p e n t a n c e o f G r a t i a n a as t h e r e t u r n o f good i n t h e c o u n t r y p a r a l l e l i n g t h e t a k e - o v e r o f A n t o n i o . I f e e l t h a t t h i s i s an o p t i m i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . What we have seen o f G r a t i a n a ' s c h a r a c t e r does n o t p e r m i t us t o b e l i e v e t h a t she i s e i t h e r t r u t h f u l o r p a r t i c u l a r l y h o n e s t . I n t h e f i r s t s c e n e , she appears as a g o s s i p , w a n t i n g t h e news from C o u r t and g e t t i n g from H i p p o l i t o t h e most s e n s a t i o n a l t i d b i t . G r a t i a n a : What news from C o u r t , son C a r l o ? H i p p o l i t o : F a i t h , mother ' T i s w h i s p e r e d t h e r e t h e Duchess' y o u n g e s t son Has p l a y e d a rape on L o r d A n t o n i o ' s w i f e . ( I . i ) She i s e a s i l y seduced by V i n d i c e ' s p e r s u a s i o n s l a t e r on and by th e money and j e w e l s he b r i n g s . He t e l l s h e r : 22 V i n d i c e : ' T i s no shame t o be bad, because ' t i s common. ( I I . i ) And she r e p l i e s : G r a t i a n a : Ay, t h a t ' s t h e c o m f o r t o n ' t . C l l . i l V i n d i c e has i n d e e d s e t " g o l d e n s p u r s " on h i s mother and " s e t her t o a g a l l o p i n a t h r i c e " . When he l a t e r c o n f r o n t s h e r w i t h h i s deed, she must o f c o u r s e r e c a n t and she does so w i t t i l y enough, s a y i n g "no tongue b u t y o u r s c o u l d have b e w i t c h e d me s o " . And so i t o n l y r e m a i n s f o r t h e mother t o c o n v i n c e h e r d a u g h t e r t h a t she was wrong. The p l o t g e t s more c o m p l i c a t e d however, because i n t h e meantime C a s t i z a has d e c i d e d t o say t h a t she w i l l go t o g i v e h e r mother one more chance t o redeem h e r s e l f . The p o i n t t h a t I am making i s t h a t i n no way can t h e r e c a n t a t i o n o f G r a t i a n a be c omplete w i t h o u t making h e r c h a r a c t e r u n b e l i e v a b l e and e i t h e r o n l y a l l e g o r i c a l o r melo-d r a m a t i c o r b o t h . She r e c a n t s s i m p l y t o save h e r neck. W i t h t h e b a r e b l a d e a t h e r t h r o a t and w i t h V i n d i c e c o n f r o n t i n g her, w i t h h e r f o u l . d e e d , she w i l l say a n y t h i n g , and she does. I f she r e g r e t s a n y t h i n g , i t must be t h a t i t was V i n d i c e and n o t a r e a l ' P i a t o ' who came from t h e C o u r t . By the same t o k e n , A n t o n i o ' s a s c e n t o r t a k e - o v e r a t t h e end i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y i n d i c a t i v e o f a new o r d e r imposed on t h e k i n g d o m . T h i s i s seen s i m p l y from h i s l i n e s : A n t o n i o : .... Away with'em! Such an o l d man as he! You t h a t would murder him would murder me. ( V . i i i ) V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o s h o u l d j u s t i f i a b l y be s e n t e n c e d . I t i s i r o n i c , however, t h a t A n t o n i o ' s s e n t e n c e s come r i g h t a f t e r he has c a l l e d t h e murders a c t s o f heaven ( a f t e r a l l , i t i s t h e s e " a c t s " w h i c h p u t him i n t h e p o s i t i o n he i s i n now). But t h e l i n e s p o i n t o u t h i s f e a r f o r h i s l i f e , w h i c h can now be l i k e n e d t o the o l d Duke's. The p a t t e r n o f r e t r i b u t i o n w h i c h has been r e p e a t e d t h r o u g h o u t th e p l a y i s once more p r e s e n t e d a t t h e end c r e a t i n g a s o r t o f d r a m a t i c i r o n y o r v i c i o u s c i r c l e . T h i s b r i n g s us t o a r e l a t e d p r o b l e m i n t h e p l a y . Some c r i t i c s have argued t h a t i n t h e second h a l f o f The Revenger's  Tragedy t h e r e i s a r e s t o r a t i o n o f m o r a l i t y i n t h e w o r l d o f t h e p l a y , w h i c h I f i n d h a r d t o a c c e p t . The s o - c a l l e d ' r e f o r m a t i o n ' o f G r a t i a n a m e n t i o n e d i s as I see i t a c l e v e r escape from d e a t h on h e r p a r t f o r t h e r e a s o n s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r . N e i t h e r V i n d i c e nor H i p p o l i t o f a c e t h e i r d e a t h w i l l i n g l y , n o r do t h e y a c c e p t t h e i r wrong a c t s as w o r t h y o f r e t r i b u t i o n - t h e y pay t h e i r p e n a l t y s i m p l y because t h e y have no c h o i c e . H a v i n g c r e a t e d t h e i r own j u s t i c e d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p l a y t h e y cannot see what t h e y have done wrong. There i s i n t h e p l a y an emphasis upon t i m e and change as the d e s t r o y e r s o f l i f e w h i c h u n i t e s t h e v a r i o u s f r u s t r a t i o n s and i r o n i c r e v e r s a l s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e a c t i o n . I t c r e a t e s a t o t a l i m p r e s s i o n o f impermanence and t h e f u t i l i t y o f e a r t h l y e x i s t e n c e . A m b i t i o s o : I see now t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g s u r e i n m o r t a l i t y b u t m o r t a l i t y . . . . ( I I I . v i ) The l a s t scene o f t h e p l a y i r o n i c a l l y p o i n t s up t h i s s t a t e m e n t when t h e r e i s a l m o s t no-one l e f t a l i v e . T h i s f e e l i n g i s so s t r o n g t h a t i t overcomes any hope o f A n t o n i o ' s a b i l i t y t o r e s t o r e m o r a l i t y t o t h e chaos on s t a g e . Each o f t h e p l a y ' s s u b - p l o t s i n v o l v e s an i r o n i c r e v e r s a l w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f u t i l i t y o f w o r l d l y p l a n s . There i s a f e e l i n g o f f u r i o u s h a s t e as J u n i o r i s l e d . t o h i s e x e c u t i o n and i n s h o r t q u i c k scenes t h e s i t u a t i o n i s s e t up and i s c o m p l e t e d . "There's no d e l a y i n g t i m e " s a ys t h e o f f i c e r , r e p e a t i n g a major theme. I t i s i m p l i c i t i n th e i r o n i c p r e d i c a m e n t t o V i n d i c e when he i s commissioned t o k i l l h i m s e l f , f o r t o l i v e i s t o k i l l o n e s e l f w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t i m e . V i n d i c e : Now n i n e y e a r s ' vengeance crowd i n t o a m i n u t e . ( I I I . v . ) c r i e s V i n d i c e , as he p r e p a r e s t o k i l l t h e Duke. The l e s s e r i r o n i e s o f t h e p l a y , S p u r i o ' s a f f a i r w i t h t h e Duchess and L u s s u r i o s o ' s a t t e m p t t o t h w a r t i t , t h e c o u n t e r - p l o t o f A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo w i t h t h e r e s u l t i n g d e a t h o f J u n i o r , a l l r e f l e c t t he same m o t i f s o f time and impermanence. S p u r i o , t h e b a s t a r d s o n , who has no p o s i t i o n a t C o u r t , and d e s p e r a t e l y wants one, c o n s e n t s t o h i s st e p m o t h e r ' s p a s s i o n . Y e t , even w h i l e k i s s i n g h e r , h i s mind i s w o r k i n g a g a i n s t h e r : S p u r i o : Stepmother, I c o n s e n t t o t h y d e s i r e s ; I l o v e t h y m i s c h i e f w e l l , b u t I h a t e t h e e . ( I . i i ) He t a k e s h i s b i t t e r n e s s o u t a g a i n s t h i s f a t h e r f o r h a v i n g made him a b a s t a r d and so he c o n s e n t s t o c u c k o l d him. He p l a n s t o g e t r i d o f t h e Duchess's s o n s , and t h e n : S p u r i o : As f o r my b r o t h e r , I ' l l l o o s e my days upon him, h a t e a l l I , ( I , i i ) Indeed n o t o n l y S p u r i o b u t everybody e l s e i n t h e p l a y seems a l s o t o "hate a l l " . The e v i l i n t h e p l a y i s c e n t r e d around a few major v i c e s ; g r e e d , j e a l o u s y and l u s t , and o f c o u r s e t h e ambiguous v i c e - r e v e n g e . Sometimes t h e s e a r e combined t o c r e a t e a t r u l y g r o t e s q u e c h a r a c t e r , as i n t h e c a s e o f t h e Duke. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o agree w i t h T. S. E l i o t , who i n s i s t s t h a t t h e p l a y w r i g h t e x p r e s s e s " c y n i c i s m , t h e l o a t h i n g and d i s g u s t o f humanity", and i s t h e r e s u l t o f an a d o l e s c e n t ' s " i n n e r w o r l d o f n i g h t m a r e , some h o r r o r beyond words". C e r t a i n l y t h i s i s a r o m a n t i c p o i n t o f v i e w t o t a k e and i t would be n i c e t o t h i n k o f Tourneur r e c r e a t i n g h i s n i g h t m a r e s and f a n t a s i e s f o r us i n t h e w o r l d o f h i s p l a y . But t h a t i s r e a l l y t o o f a r f e t c h e d . F o r one t h i n g he was no a d o l e s c e n t when t h e p l a y was p u b l i s h e d F o r a n o t h e r , from what we know o f h i s l i f e ^ he was a s o l d i e r and r o y a l messenger-cum-spy. The s e t t i n g o f t h e p l a y f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a t y p i c a l example o f t h e I t a l i a n a t e c o n v e n t i o n 26. i n revenge t r a g e d i e s o f t h e p e r i o d . There i s no " i n n e r w o r l d o f n i g h t m a r e " h e r e . I n a sense Tourneur has f o l l o w e d a p r e - s e t f o r m u l a f o r the p l a y and w i t h v a r i a t i o n s and c o m b i n a t i o n s has c r e a t e d a p l a y s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t t o be o f h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t y e t s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r t o o t h e r s t o be p a r t o f t h e genre o f revenge drama. C e r t a i n l y t h e w o r l d he c r e a t e d was more i n t e n s e , more loathsome p o s s i b l y t h a n some o f t h e more famous ones such as Hamlet, and y e t o t h e r examples o f t h e genre such as Webster's White D e v i l exceed T o u r n e u r ' s p l a y i n h o r r o r and g r o t e s q u e r i e . Thus I f e e l t h a t we can a t t r i b u t e T o u r n e u r ' s w o r l d i n The Revenger's Tragedy t o h i s i m a g i n a t i o n and p l a y w r i t i n g a b i l i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n t o h i s a d o l e s c e n t o u t p o u r i n g s . B e s i d e s , t h e humour o f t h e p l a y i s f a r t o o i m p o r t a n t t o i g n o r e and i s o b v i o u s l y d e l i b e r a t e . T ourneur o f t e n b u i l d s up a scene j u s t t o u n d e r c u t i t by a s i n g l e remark. One such example i s t h e scene i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e Duke has been d i s c o v e r e d dead, and t h e C o u r t g a t h e r s i n f e i g n e d h o r r o r a t t h e c r y . S p u r i o t h e n w a l k s on, n o t i c e s t h e c o r p s e o f h i s f a t h e r and s a y s : S p u r i o : O l d Dad dead? ... (V. i ) S i m i l a r l y , the f i r s t scene between ' P i a t o ' and L u s s u r i o s o i s a humorous one, i n t h a t V i n d i c e s e t s up the scene, b r i l l i a n t l y p l a y i n g i n t o L u s s u r i o s o ' s hands, the l a t t e r t h i n k i n g t h a t he i s i n c o n t r o l , and the scene ending w i t h a b i t t e r i n v e c t i v e by V i n d i c e on the Court scenes he has witnessed; L u s s u r i o s o : What has been? Of what p r o f e s s i o n ? V i n d i c e : A b o n e - s e t t e r . L u s s u r i o s o : A b o n e - s e t t e r ? V i n d i c e : A bawd ray l o r d , One t h a t s e t s bones t o g e t h e r . ( I . i i i ) T h i s scene and o t h e r s l i k e i t i s f u l l o f s a t i r i c comedy. D e s p i t e the view t h a t Tourneur had of the world, h i s approach was not unique f o r the Jacobean audience; they were used t o dramatized i n c e s t , murder and o t h e r s e n s a t i o n a l happenings. We must not f o r g e t t h a t Tourneur was w r i t i n g at the peak of the e r a of Jacobean decadence, nor was he unaware of the e f f e c t t h a t such d e v i c e s would have on h i s audience. Without doubt, however, he c r e a t e d a p l a y whose world i s f i l l e d w i t h g r o t e s q u e r i e y e t unique i n i t s f a s c i n a t i o n and undercut by an almost c y n i c a l sense of humour throughout. I l l Tax f r o m b e i n g a pure t r a g e d y , The Revenger's Tragedy does c o n t a i n some elements o f t h e " t r a g i c " i n t h e c l a s s i c sense. Tourneur has c r e a t e d i n c h a r a c t e r s an o b s e s s i v e i n t e n s i t y u n e q u a l l e d i n t h e E l i z a b e t h a n drama. T h i s i n t e n s i t y , t h i s d e t e r m i n e d p a s s i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s c r e a t e s t h e i r t r a g i c f l a w s , b u t a t t h e same t i m e t a k e s them o u t o f t h e r e a l m o f t h e t r a g i c . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t a b l e i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f V i n d i c e . The t r a d i t i o n a l t r a g i c h e r o , g e n e r a l l y i s o l a t e d f rom t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y f o r some r e a s o n , i s p u l l e d down a t th e end l i k e a s t a g by w o l v e s . He may be i n n o c e n t and courageous and b r o u g h t down by f a t e , o r h i s enemies, o r b r o u g h t down by h i s h y b r i s and h a r m a t i a . Y e t i n t h e case o f V i n d i c e , h i s p a s s i o n so r u l e s him t h a t he cannot r e m a i n i s o l a t e d and i t f o r c e s him t o a c t as c r u e l l y as t h e o t h e r s i n t h e p l a y , y e t always f o r r e a s o n s o f " j u s t i c e " . He i s o b l i v i o u s t o t h e change t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n him and c o n s e q u e n t l y he has a b s o l u t e l y no s t r u g g l e w i t h h i s c o n s c i e n c e . What i s more, he a c c e p t s h i s s e n t e n c e a t the end w i t h no r e a l i z a t i o n on h i s p a r t o f why he i s b e i n g i m p r i s o n e d ; he has j u s t i f i e d h i s l i f e and h i s a c t i o n s . The t r a g e d y t h e r e f o r e , i f we can c a l l i t t h a t , i s our own r e a l i z a t i o n o f V i n d i c e ' s s u b m i s s i o n t o h i s d e s i r e s and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o see h i m s e l f as he r e a l l y i s . The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e p l a y v a r y i n c o m p l e x i t y and p l a u s i b i l i t y . They joay be d i s t o r t i o n s , g r o t e s q u e s , and a t t i m e s a l m o s t s i m p l e c a r i c a t u r e s o f humanity, b u t t h e y a r e a l l d i s t o r t e d t o s c a l e . Hence the e n t i r e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y w h i c h i s "no common a c t i o n " has i t s own s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t r e a l i I n o t h e r words, Tourneur has c r e a t e d a t o t a l w o r l d o f h i s own w i t h i n t h e p l a y . When we f i r s t see V i n d i c e , we see a man e m b i t t e r e d by t h e s o c i e t y around him. He has many r e a s o n s t o be b i t t e r , p r i m a r i l y because o f h i s l o s t l o v e ; however, when we r e a l i z e t h a t he has w a i t e d n i n e y e a r s t o t a k e h i s revenge on t h e o l d Duke, i t must be seen t h a t he i s n o t a s i m p l e h o t - b l o o d e d r e v e n g e r , b u t one f o r whom revenge i s a way o f l i f e . The a c t i v i t y around w h i c h much o f t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y c e n t r e s i s t h a t o f w a i t i n g . The Duke and L u s s u r i o s o w a i t f o r t h e i r v i r g i n s , S p u r i o w a i t s t o k i l l t h e Duke, A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo w a i t f o r some k i n d of chance t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s a t C o u r t , t h e Duchess w a i t s t o c u c k o l d t h e Duke, and so on. A l l t h e d e s i r e s a r e s m a l l however, when compared t o t h o s e o f V i n d i c e . They can be overcome i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t space o f t i m e , b u t t h o s e o f V i n d i c e t a k e n i n e y e a r s t o f i n a l i z e . D u r i n g t h o s e n i n e y e a r s he has had a l o t o f t i m e t o t h i n k and p l a n , and t o become o b s e s s e d w i t h h i s i d e a s . I n e v i t a b l y , t h e s e i d e a s must have t a k e n on new shapes and forms. A t f i r s t , when G l o r i a n a was murdered, V i n d i c e must have been as h o t b l o o d e d as most y o u t h s and eager f o r i n s t a n t r e v enge. T h i s would have made an e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g b u t d i f f e r e n t p l a y . T o u r n e u r , however, chose t o make h i s he r o w a i t n i n e y e a r s b e f o r e a c t i n g . What has he g a i n e d ? I n t h e i n t e r i m , V i n d i c e has changed h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . The prime m o t i v e f o r revenge i s s t i l l h i s m i s t r e s s , she t r i g g e r s o f f t h e i n i t i a l r e s p o n s e w i t h i n him, y e t he now has a n o t h e r r e a s o n t o p u r s u e h i s g o a l . That i s , he w i s h e s t o r e s t o r e m o r a l i t y and j u s t i c e t o a w o r l d w h i c h he f e e l s no l o n g e r can c l a i m t o have t h e s e v i r t u e s . I t i s e v i d e n t from t h e v e r y o p e n i n g scene t h a t V i n d i c e has n o t been a mourning, m e l a n c h o l y f i g u r e i n s e c l u s i o n , q u i t e t h e c o n t r a r y . He has been t o t a l l y aware o f what t h e C o u r t has been up t o and has been w a i t i n g f o r a t i m e t o make h i s move. Even a t t h e s t a r t he s p i e s on t h e p r o c e s s i o n and h i s l i n e s i n d i c a t e t h a t he i s q u i t e aware o f each o f t h e i r v i c e s . Because V i n d i c e has had t h e s e n i n e y e a r s i n w h i c h t o t h i n k about t h e e v i l s o f s o c i e t y , he can t h i n k o f l i t t l e e l s e . A l t h o u g h he b e l i e v e s h i s mother and s i s t e r t o be c h a s t e , he i s n o t c o n t e n t u n t i l he has t e s t e d t h e i r v i r t u e , and when h i s mother succumbs t o h i s f l a t t e r y , i t i s as though he e x p e c t e d i t . V i n d i c e f e e l s t h a t he knows t h e w o r l d and has t h e r e f o r e a p p o i n t e d h i m s e l f s a v i o u r . H i s a b s o l u t e r i g h t n e s s p r e c l u d e s any i n s e c u r i t y on h i s p a r t , and i t i s perhaps t h i s q u a l i t y o r s t r e n g t h w h i c h H i p p o l i t o f o l l o w s . V i n d i c e ' s s h o r t c o m i n g s t h e r e f o r e stem d i r e c t l y from t h i s awareness o f t h e c o r r u p t i o n around him, because a l t h o u g h he i s aware o f h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s , he i s b l i n d t o h i m s e l f . H i p p o l i t o sees t h i s b u t i t i s t o o l a t e . These n i n e y e a r s , t h e n , w h i c h f i g u r e so p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n t h e p l a y , a r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e development o f V i n d i c e ' s c h a r a c t e r , f o r t h e y show him t o be n o t a mere b l o o d r e v e n g e r , b u t r a t h e r a man who f e e l s he has t h e w e i g h t o f j u s t i c e on h i s s h o u l d e r s and f e e l s he has t o d i s p e r s e i t a c c o r d i n g l y . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t h e base on w h i c h t h e p l a y s t a n d s . By t h e end o f t h e t h i r d act,we b e g i n t o r e a l i z e t h e d e d i c a t i o n w i t h w h i c h V i n d i c e i s a p p r o a c h i n g h i s s e l f - a p p o i n t e d m i s s i o n . H a v i n g r i d t h e C o u r t o f one e v i l e l e m e n t , th e Duke, he f e e l s he must n o t s t o p u n t i l he has c l e a r e d away t h e r e s t o f t h e e v i l c h a r a c t e r s . H i s revenge t h e r e f o r e t a k e s on a v e r y d i f f e r e n t form. A t t h e s t a r t , he was a v e n g i n g h i s m i s t r e s s as w e l l as t h e l a c k o f j u s t i c e shown towards h e r murder. By t h e end o f t h e t h i r d a c t he has d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e h i s c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . There i s v e r y l i t t l e way we can now f u l l y s y m p a t h i z e w i t h V i n d i c e , f o r he b e g i n s t o g e t c a r r i e d away w i t h h i s p a s s i o n f o r j u s t i c e . Thus, a l m o s t i n v e r t i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y p l a y scheme, v i r t u e p a r a d e s around as v i c e and f i n a l l y t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the two. V i n d i c e r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n e v i t a b l e f a t e o f man who t a k e s i t upon h i m s e l f t o p e r f o r m t h e j u s t i c e o f God and embraces e v i l i n a v a i n a t t e m p t t o d e s t r o y e v i l . V i n d i c e i s a l m o s t t h e t r a g i c h e r o o f t h e p l a y . He b e l i e v e s so s t r o n g l y i n h i s own sense o f j u s t i c e and i n h i s a b i l i t y t o r e s t o r e m o r a l i t y t o t h e s o c i e t y , t h a t he i s caught i n h i s own web and murders i n o r d e r t o f u l f i l h i s g o a l . By t h e end o f t h e p l a y , when he i s l e d o f f t o be k i l l e d , he must be c o m p l e t e l y s u r p r i s e d a t t h e outcome, s i n c e he has i n h i s own e y e s , succeeded i n h i s a t t e m p t . H i s n a i v e t y about h i s f i n a l c o n f e s s i o n r e v e a l s t h i s a t t i t u d e and perhaps g i v e s us a c l u e as t o why he i s so f l i p p a n t a t t h e end. U n l i k e H i p p o l i t o , who has f o u n d an o c c u p a t i o n , a l b e i t an u n p l e a s a n t one, V i n d i c e does a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g b e f o r e t h e p l a y b e g i n s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two i s a s t r a n g e one H i p p o l i t o s h a r e s h i s b r o t h e r ' s c o n f i d e n c e , and h e l p s him i n e v e r y t h i n g , yet. r a r e l y i n i t i a t e s an a c t i o n . H i s speeches show him t o be an a c c o m p l i s h e d C o u r t gentleman, r e a d y t o p l e a s e h i s l o r d , b u t how much he d e l i b e r a t e s h i s a c t i o n s i s a m a t t e r f o r d e b a t e . Indeed, one t e n d s t o f o r g e t about him when d i s c u s s i n g t h e p l a y , y e t w i t h o u t him i t i s d o u b t f u l whether V i n d i c e would have a c c o m p l i s h e d so much so w e l l . I t must be seen t h a t H i p p o l i t o i s c o m p l e t e l y aware o f what i s happening i n V i n d i c e ' s ' mind. We can see t h i s by e x a m i n i n g some o f h i s e a r l i e r speeche I n t h e f i r s t s c ene, where he f i r s t meets w i t h V i n d i c e , he t e a s e s V i n d i c e f o r a number o f l i n e s , b e f o r e he t e l l s him t h e news. L a t e r , i n t h e same scene, i n much the same manner, V i n d i c e s e t s t h e scene w i t h L u s s u r i o s o l a t e r on. A g a i n , H i p p o l i t o i n t i m a t e s t o V i n d i c e t h a t L u s s u r i o s o would l i k e a "base c o i n ' d pander" and V i n d i c e t a k e s up t h e i d e a and a g r e e s t o p l a y t h e r o l e . A g a i n , l a t e r i n t h e p l a y , i t i s H i p p o l i t o who t e l l s V i n d i c e o f t h e a f f a i r between S p u r i o and t h e Duchess and t h u s 33. m o t i v a t e s the a c t i o n t h a t ensues. H i p p o l i t o t on a m i n o r s c a l e , i s a spy a t t h e C o u r t . He s k u l k s around t h e c o r r i d o r s , l i s t e n s b e h i n d p i l l a r s and t a k e s advantage o f any s i t u a t i o n . He has made h i m s e l f i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o L u s s u r i o s o and i s i n e f f e c t a dangerous man t o have around. Throughout t h e p l a y , no-one e v e r s u s p e c t s him o f f o u l p l a y . But he i s t h e a c t i v a t i n g agent o f many of t h e e v e n t s and a c t i o n s i n t h e p l a y . Two b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s were made i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two b r o t h e r s , t h e main one b e i n g t h a t t h e r e was an i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e between t h e two and a m u t u a l f a i t h and t r u s t , and t h e o t h e r t h a t V i n d i c e b e i n g t h e s t r o n g e s t and c o n v i n c e d o f h i s u l t i m a t e r i g h t n e s s , c o u l d p ersuade H i p p o l i t o t h a t h i s way was t h e r i g h t one. W i t h h i s b l i n d p a s s i o n , he c o u l d e a s i l y c o n v i n c e H i p p o l i t o t o a c c e p t h i s p l a n s . H i p p o l i t o ' s l a s t l i n e p o i n t s t h i s up as w e l l , when he s a y s : H i p p o l i t o : ' S f o o t b r o t h e r , you begun. ( V . i i i ) The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e C o u r t who make up t h e decadent s o c i a l w o r l d o f t h e p l a y form a p y r a m i d o f c o r r u p t i o n . The Duke and Duchess as l e a d e r s o r r u l e r s o f t h e s o c i e t y a r e t h e most c o r r u p t . I n t h e second scene o f t h e p l a y , t h e h i e r a r c h y o f t h i s p y r a m i d i s r e v e a l e d t o u s . The Duke i s h o l d i n g t r i a l f o r t h e Duchess's y o u n g e s t s o n , who has committed a c r i m e o f w h i c h t h e Duke has been g u i l t y many t i m e s - t h a t o f r a p e . The Duchess i r o n i c a l l y f e e l s t h a t because o f h e r son's p o s i t i o n he s h o u l d be above blame. The t e n s e n e s s o f t h e C o u r t scene r e v e a l s t h e d i s c o m f o r t o f the C o u r t c h a r a c t e r s i n each o t h e r ' s p r e s e n c e . Each c h a r a c t e r seems t o have some i n f l u e n c e o r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h e a c h o f t h e o t h e r s - a l l a r e i n t e r c o n n e c t e d i n a web o f power and c o r r u p t i o n w h i c h c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e Duke. A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y , t h e Duke i s i n c o n t r o l and t h e p y r a m i d o f c o r r u p t i o n i s s o l i d . But as we see i n t h i s s cene, each c h a r a c t e r i s w a i t i n g and w a t c h i n g f o r h i s chance t o s t r i k e , t o u p s e t t h e b a l a n c e and s e i z e a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n i n t h e p y r a m i d . One g e t s t h e f e e l i n g t h e y would a l l be h a p p i e r h i d i n g i n c o r n e r s and s p y i n g on each o t h e r . T h i s i s t h e f l a v o u r w h i c h p e r v a d e s th e p l a y , t h e c omplete and u t t e r d i s t r u s t o f each c h a r a c t e r i n t h e p l a y f o r everyone e l s e . A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo as b e f i t s t h e i r names a r e a m b i t i o u s and vacuous i n t h e extreme. A l t h o u g h seldom o u t o f each o t h e r ' s company f o r l o n g , t h e y p l o t even a g a i n s t each o t h e r d u r i n g t h e i r a s i d e s , r e v e a l i n g t h e i r l u s t f o r power. T h e i r c r a v i n g f o r t h e t h r o n e i s outmatched o n l y by S p u r i o ' s , whose c l a i m i s even more tenuous t h a n t h e i r s . I t i s t h e u l t i m a t e i r o n y o f t h e p l a y , however, t h a t no-one i s s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r a t t e m p t a t revenge o r t h e t h r o n e . S p u r i o f a i l s i n h i s a t t e m p t t o k i l l L u s s u r i o s o . A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo have t h e i r b r o t h e r k i l l e d by m i s t a k e . L u s s u r i o s o does n o t g e t C a s t i z a and a l m o s t k i l l s h i s f a t h e r . G r a t i a n a n e v e r g e t s t o C o u r t and a l m o s t g e t s k i l l e d by her sons. J u n i o r g e t s e x e c u t e d by m i s t a k e , and an i n n o c e n t l o r d g e t s p u t t o d e a t h f o r t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h . I n t h e f i n a l scene where t h e y a l l p l a n t o t a k e f i n a l r e v enge, t h e y a l l g e t k i l l e d . I t i s o n l y V i n d i c e , who, i n h i s own e y e s , emerges s u c c e s s f u l . He f e e l s he has done away w i t h t h e c o r r u p t C o u r t and t h u s w i l l i n g l y d i e s s i n c e i t i s done. A l l a r e d e s t r o y e d i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l t h e p y r a m i d o f c o r r u p t i o n . Nobody w i n s . The c h a r a c t e r s o f G r a z i a n a and C a s t i z a have a l r e a d y been d e a l t w i t h s u f f i c i e n t l y t o show t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h i s w o r l d o f c o r r u p t i o n . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e c o l d n e s s and b i t t e r n e s s o f C a s t i z a , she s t i l l s t a n d s o u t as t h e c l e a n e s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h e p l a y . Her v i r t u e i s h e r own, and a l t h o u g h she d e v e l o p s i n t o a c o l d f i g u r e , Tourneur seems t o p r e f e r i t t o t h e c o r r u p t p a s s i o n o f t h e C o u r t . I n f a c t , h e r i c i n e s s c r e a t e s a c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e decay and p u t r e f a c t i o n one a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the Duke and h i s C o u r t . J u n i o r , t h e y o u n g e s t son, appears y o u t h f u l and s y m p a t h e t i c a t f i r s t , b u t as t h e p l a y p r o g r e s s e s he i s seen t o be as much a p a r t o f t h e c o r r u p t C o u r t w o r l d as anyone e l s e . H a v i n g committed a rape on L o r d A n t o n i o ' s w i f e , he i s s t i l l n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n c o c k s u r e and b r a s h , a t h i s t r i a l . A weak, s n i v e l l i n g b r a t on t h e i n s i d e , he i s b r a z e n and a b u l l y on t h e o u t s i d e . I n h i s f i n a l s c e n e , when he i s f a c e d w i t h d e a t h , he becomes f r a n t i c and b r e a k s down. V o i d o f honour o r c o u r a g e , he cannot a c c e p t h i s d e a t h u n t i l he has c u r s e d h i s b r o t h e r s . The c h a r a c t e r o f L u s s u r i o s o i s perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f the C o u r t . A l t h o u g h t h e Duke remains as t h e u l t i m a t e symbol o f decay, we see l i t t l e o f him. L u s s u r i o s o appears as a younger v e r s i o n o f t h e same c h a r a c t e r . The o l d D u k e 1 s w o r s t deeds have been committed b e f o r e t h e p l a y b e g i n s , b u t we see L u s s u r i o s o i n t h e m i d s t o f h i s s i n s . L u s s u r i o s o d e s i r e s t h e young v i r g i n s i s t e r o f H i p p o l i t o and V i n d i c e and w i l l s t o p a t n o t h i n g t o g e t h e r . H i s l u s t i s overwhelming and he i s n o t above b r i b e r y o r murder t o g e t h i s w i l l . I n h i s f i r s t scene w i t h ' P i a t o ' when t h e y a r e f e e l i n g each o t h e r o u t , t h e c i r c u m l o c u t i o n s around t h e s u b j e c t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e way L u s s u r i o s o approaches t h i n g s . I n h i s scene w i t h V i n d i c e as a s c h o l a r e m b i t t e r e d by p o v e r t y , h i s t r u e h y p o c r i t i c a l n a t u r e comes o u t when V i n d i c e d e s c r i b e s t h e p i c t u r e he s e e s : V i n d i c e : "A u s u r i n g F a t h e r t o be b o i l i n g i n h e l l , and h i s Son and h e i r w i t h a Whore d a n c i n g o v e r him." (IV. i i ) There i s n o t any l o v e l o s t between t h e members o f t h i s f a m i l y as we have seen e a r l i e r . The r o y a l b r o t h e r s would g l a d l y k i l l one a n o t h e r t o g e t more power. T h i s i s t r u e f o r t h e f a t h e r and son. The o l d Duke pardons L u s s u r i o s o when A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo p r e t e n d t o p l e a d f o r h i s l i f e , s i n c e he r e a l i z e s t h e i r u l t i m a t e i n t e n t i o n s . But t h e r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y no scene o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between them. And when t h e o l d Duke i s murdered, L u s s u r i o s o i s not the most unhappy p e r s o n a t C o u r t . I n h i s a s i d e s , he r e v e a l s h i s j o y a t being, t h e Duke and p r e p a r e s t o l i q u i d a t e t h e r e s t o f h i s f a m i l y i n a f e s t i v e masque. There i s no sympathy o r n a t u r a l f e e l i n g f o r anyone i n t h e p l a y . Even V i n d i c e n e v e r speaks o f a f f e c t i o n , o n l y o f r e v e n g e . V i n d i c e ' s f i n a l c o n f e s s i o n r e v e a l s much about h i s c h a r a c t e r and about t h e p l a y as a whole: V i n d i c e : May n o t we s e t as w e l l as t h e Duke's son? Thou h a s t n o c o n s c i e n c e - a r e we n o t revenged? I s t h e r e one enemy l e f t a l i v e amongst t h o s e ? ' T i s t i m e t o d i e when we a r e o u r s e l v e s our f o e s (V. i i i ) As I have m e n t i o n e d , i t has been h a r d f o r us t o s y m p a t h i z e w i t h V i n d i c e f o r t h e p r e v i o u s two a c t s . He has a c t e d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , w i t h o u t any t h o u g h t o r meaning b e h i n d h i s a c t i o n s . H i s e u p h o r i c e x i t s and e n t r a n c e s have g i v e n a s o r t o f i r o n y t o t h e scenes and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e v i o l e n t and h o r r i b l e a c t i o n s w h i c h have o c c u r r e d w i t h i n them. We a r e a l m o s t p r e p a r e d t o c a l l him mad u n t i l t h i s f i n a l s c e n e . Here, f o r no a p p a r e n t r e a s o n , he c o n f e s s e s h i s c r i m e s and t e l l s a l l . H i p p o l i t o t r i e s t o s t o p him when he r e a l i z e s what V i n d i c e w i l l do, b u t t o no a v a i l , f o r V i n d i c e i s an i n n o c e n t , even t o t h e end. As he c o n f e s s e s we b e g i n f i n a l l y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e d r i v i n g power t h a t was i n s i d e t h e man, t h i s need t o c l e a n t h e s o c i e t y o f e v i l and t o c r e a t e a j u s t i c e f o r a l l . He knows he has done r i g h t , b u t c a nnot see t h a t t h e way he d i d i t was as c o r r u p t as t h o s e he d e s t r o y e d . H i s f i n a l l i n e s come as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f what 38. he has done, n o t as a d e f e n c e : V i n d i c e : We have enough I ' f a i t h , we're w e l l , our mother t u r n e d , o u r s i s t e r t r u e , We d i e a f t e r a n e s t o f dukes. - A d i e u . (V. i i i ) N O T E S Edward Arber, ed., A Transcript of the Registers  of the Company of Stationers of London, III (London, 1876), p.360 Brian Gibbons, ed., Introduction to The Revenger's  Tragedy, (Ernest Penn Ltd., London, 1967) . G. K. Hunter, A Source for the Revenger's Tragedy (Review of English Studies X, 1959) p. 181, 182. The Revenger's Tragedy - Some Possible Sources (Modern Language Review LX #1, January 1965) p . l l , 12. L. J . Ross, ed., Introduction to The Revenger's  Tragedy (University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1966) p. x i x . Brian Ford, ed., Tourneur and The Tragedy of Revenge (The Age of Shakespeare, Penguin Books, 1955) p.348. Una Ellis-Fermor, The Jacobean Drama (Methuen & Co. Ltd., London 1958) p.2. D. C. A l l e n , The Regeneration of Man and Renaiss-ance Pessimism (Studies i n Philology, Volume XXXV, 1938) Harrison, ed., Compleat Works of William  Shakespeare, (Harcourt Brace World Inc., Burling-hame, New York, 1952)(Hamlet, Act V., Scene I I , Line 391 on,)p. 934. T. S. E l i o t , Selected Essays (Faber & Faber Ltd. London, 1963) p.191. Irving Ribner, Jacobean Tragedy,(Methuen & Co. Ltd., London 1962) (p.72 to 96) 40. B I B L I O G R A P H Y A r b e r , Edward. A T r a n s c r i p t o f trie R e g i s t e r s o f t h e Company  o f S t a t i o n e r s o f London, I I I , London, 1876 John Webster and C y r i l T ourneur (Four P l a y s ) , Gen. ed. E r i c B e n t l e y . H i l l & Wang, I n c . New Y o r k , 1956. E l i o t , T. S. E l i z a b e t h a n D r a m a t i s t s - E s s a y s , F a b e r & F a b e r L t d . , London 1963. E l l i s - F e r m o r , Una. The Jacobean Drama, Methuen & Co. L t d . London 1958. The Age o f S h a k e s p e a r e , ed. B r i a n F o r d , P e n g u i n Books, 1955 H u n t e r , G. K. A Source f o r t h e Revenger's Tragedy, Review o f E n g l i s h S t u d i e s X, 1959. E l i z a b e t h a n Drama - Modern E s s a y s i n C r i t i c i s m ed., R. J . Kaufmann, New Y o r k , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. The Revenger's Tragedy - Some P o s s i b l e S o u r c e s (Modern Language Review LX #1, J a n u a r y 1965) O r n s t e i n , R o b e r t The M o r a l V i s i o n o f Jacobean Tragedy U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , M a d i s o n , 1960. R i b n e r , I r v i n g J acobean Tragedy, Methuen & Co. L t d . , London, 19 62. T o u r n e u r , C y r i l The Revenger's Tragedy, ed. B r i a n G i b b o n s , E r n e s t Benn L i m i t e d , London 1967. T o u r n e u r , C y r i l The Revenger's Tragedy, ed. Lawrence J . Ross U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a P r e s s , L i n c o l n 1966. - , Three Jacobean T r a g e d i e s , ed. Gamini S a l g a d o P e n g u i n Books, G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1965. . / ' THE REVENGER'S TRAGEDY BY CYRIL TOURNEUR T h i s S e c t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s has been b r o k e n down i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. F i r s t l y , t h e s c r i p t has been d i v i d e d i n t o s c e n e s , w i t h each scene b e i n g d i v i d e d i n t o i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s . S e c o n d l y , b l o c k i n g , sound and l i g h t cues have been r e c o r d e d on i t , and t h i r d l y , each scene has been a n a l y z e d i n terms o f t h e s e p a r a t e u n i t s . I* V Ci) (3, ^ U ' ^ O °^ Ki ' u H ^ \^ \<v\ HVASVC <VVy^ l i - i O ^ i , £*Yf ^\<V\ ^ g y / of- ^ 6 \-WXAc, • . DRAMATIS PERSONAE D U K E L U S S U R I O S O , the D u k e ' s Son. S P U R I O , his Bastard Son. A M B I T I O S O , the Duchess ' eldest Son. S U P E R V A C U O , the Duchess' second Son. J U N I O R , the youngest Son o f the Duchess. D O N D O L O , Servant to Castiza. N o b l e s , Gent lemen, Judges, Officers, Servants. D U C H E S S C A S T I Z A , Sister to V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o . G R A T I A N A , her M o t h e r . V I N D I C E (Piato) H i F P O L i T o ' ( C a r l o ) . Brothers, Sons of Gratiana. The Action takes place in Italy, in and around the Duke's "Palace. .^fifa_fij-i-g^ s4-^t'M^u- L-'ICJW- c u e I A C T O N E i -J> O UM\i> C u g : A 1 • SCENE ONE ^ * i Enter VINDICE {carrying a skull) ///J«DUKE,DUCHESS, v - ^ LUSSURIOSO her Son, SPURIO the Bastard, with a train, .Ox£ 7 pass over the Stage with Torch-light. VitoX UL "l« STAIRS VINDICE: Duke, royal lecher! Go, grey-haired adultery, And thou his son, as impious steeped as he: And thou his bastard, true-begot in, evil :• , And thou his Duchess, that will dcj^withu5evil, 'bO'ij.^ 'O C VA 6 A2" Fout ex'lent characters - O, that marrowless age Would sturFthe hollow bones with damn'd desires, And 'stead of heat kindle infernal fires Within the spendthrift veins of a dry Duke, \&,Vi"\ GVA£ ? A parched and.juiceless luxur. O God! One i That has scarce blood enough to live upon, i o And he to riot it like a son and heir ? O the thought of that ; Turns my abused heart-strings into fret. [Addressing Skull.] / bCwJlO C&-S\t\ Thou sallow picture of my poisoned love, My study's ornament, thou shell of death, Once the bright face of my betrothed lady, When life and beauty naturally filled out '• These ragged imperfections; When two heaven-pointed diamonds were set In those unsightly rings; - then 'twas a face 20 So. far beyond the artificial shine Of any woman's bought complexion ; That the uprightest man, (if such there be, ! That sin but seven times a day) broke custom ! And made up eight with looking after her. Melt ftlHHs^atrimonyJiua-gkias^-. 13. Fret: broken music. 45 T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y T o hawconoumed j - ftr>d^yetahis-s»it4>€efl»«eld; jo B u j o h accursed palace! * "to C-£ A E C H Thee, when thou wert apparelled in thy flesh, The o ld D u k e poisoned, Because thy purer part wou ld not consent Un to his palsy-lust, for o ld men lust-ful l D o show l ike young men angry, eager-violent, Ou t -b id l ike their l imited performances. ^Qt/'ware an o ld man hot, and v ic ious ! ' A g e as i n go ld , in lust is covetous. ' c  Vengeance, thou Murder 's quit-rent, and whereby )( C - ^ ' 4 Q T h o u show'st thyself tenant to Tragedy, O h keep thy day, hour, minute, I beseech; lodj-tf c^t p o r those thou hast determined: hum, whoe'er knew 4-. - M u r d e r unpaid ? Fa i th , g ive Revenge her due 'i'^xyjx) k, , Sh'as kept touch hitherto - be merry, merry vJ \ ^ % f\cx ^° ^^tk.• Advance thee, O thou terror to fat fo lks, £W?.s W L vJ Kict+Wf: ^ ° ^ a v e their costly three-piled flesh wo rn off A s bare as this - for banquets, ease and laughter C a n make great men as greatness goes by clay, Bu t wise men litt le are more great than they. 5° HIPPOLITO : St i l l s ighing o'er death's v izard. y- j - 0 ^ £ £ 1 " £ VINDICE: CTW^NS. I^MC'I^ W) Brother, welcome, What comfort br ing'st thou ? H o w go things at Court ? HIPPOLITO : In silk and silver brother: never braver. VINDICE : P u h , T h o u play'st upon my meaning, prithee say Hast that bald madam, Oppor tun i ty , Y e t thought upon's ? Speak, are we happy yet ? T h y wrongs and mine are for one scabbard fit. HIPPOLITO : It may prove happiness. VINDICE: What is't may prove ? G i v e me to taste. 39. Quit-rent: rent paid i n lieu o f service by free-holding tenant. 46. Three-piled: finest-quality velvet. 46 ACT ONE, SCENE ONE HIPPOLITO: G i v e m e y o u r h e a r i n g t h e n . Y o u k n o w m y p l a c e a t c o u r t . VINDICE: A y , t h e D u k e ' s C h a m b e r , B u t ' t i s a m a r v e l t h o u ' r t n o t t u r n e d o u t y e t ! 60 HIPPOLITO: F a i t h , I h a v e b e e n s h o v e d a t , b u t ' t w a s s t i l l m y h a p T o h o l d b y t h ' D u c h e s s ' s k i r t , y o u g u e s s a t t h a t , W h o m s u c h a c o a t k e e p s u p c a n n e ' e r f a l l f l a t , B u t t o t h e p u r p o s e : L a s t e v e n i n g , p r e d e c e s s o r u n t o t h i s , T h e D u k e ' s s p n ^ w a r i l y e n q u i r e d f o r m e , ( w E o s e ^ l e T s u r e I a t t e n d e e h e b o g n n B ^ ^ p e l i e ^ t e ^ p e n ' a n d - u a m i s k - r n e A 4 w T O t " t h e - t i f H « - f t f l d - ^ Q g M » o n - a : u t n a u t : Bttc I h u d • ! W i » H » c h - w i t t o - k - e e p - m y - t h m i g l v t s 70 t J p 4 f l - t r ^ i ^ w l t 4 ^ « s ^ y ~ y e t - a f f o r d e d - h i m A r r i d l e - s a t i s f a c t i e n - w i t h o u t - d a n g e r ; B « t t h e w h o l e a i m a n d s c o p e o f h i s i n t e n t E n d e d i n t h i s , c o n j u r i n g m e i n p r i v a t e T o s e e k s o m e s t r a n g e - d i g e s t e d f e l l o w f o r t h , O f i l l - c o n t e n t e d n a t u r e , e i t h e r d i s g r a c e d I n f o r m e r t i m e s , o r b y n e w g r o o m s d i s p l a c e d S i n c e h i s s t e p m o t h e r ' s n u p t i a l s , s u c h a b l o o d , A m a n t h a t w e r e f o r e v i l o n l y g o o d ; T o g i v e y o u t h e t r u e w o r d , s o m e b a s e - c o i n ' d p a n -d e r . 80 VINDICE: I r e a c h y o u , for I k n o w h i s h e a t j s _ s u c h , V J L _ W e r e t h e r e a s m a n y c o n c u b i n e s a s l a d i e s H e w o u l d n o t b e c o n t a i n e d , h e m u s t fly o u t : I w o n d e r h o w i l l - f e a t u r e d , v i l e - p r o p o r t i o n e d T h a t o n e s h o u l d b e , i f s h e w e r e m a d e f o r w o m a n , • W h o m , a t t h e i n s u r r e c t i o n o f h i s l u s t H e w o u l d r e f u s e f o r o n c e ; h e a r t , I t h i n k n o n e ; N e x t t o a s k u l l , t h o ' m o r e u n s o u n d t h a n o n e E a c h f a c e h e m e e t s h e s t r o n g l y d o t e s u p o n . HIPPOLITO: B r o t h e r , y ' a v e t r u l y s p o k e h i m . x "h>- VUvi 9° H e k n o w s n o t y o u , b u t I ' l l s w e a r y o u k n o w h i m . 47 v1 1 THE REVENGERS TRAGEDY , VINDICE: A r i d t h e r e j ^ r ^ I ' l l p u t o n t h a t k n a v e f o r o n c e , ' A n d b e a r i g h t m a n t h e n , a m a n o ' t h t i m e , . F o r t o b e h o n e s t i s n o t t o b e i ' t h ' w o r l d , B r o t h e r , I ' l l b e t h a t s t r a n g e - c o m p o s e d f e l l o w . H i p i ' o u i g o f A n d ' F l l y r e f e r - y t w r b i m l i e i 1 . VINDICE: G o t o t h e f t , • P h e h i n a l l ' s ' f a d v a u u g c f k l i t n y w i e f r g e d n i u i . J t - m a y - p o i n t * o u t r o c e a s 4 o n j - i f - I ' m e e t - h « * , i ' l l h o l d h e r b y t h e . f o i ^ - t o p f n a t e n o u g h , -Gt l i k e t h e P r c r T r i r m o l e 4 r e < w e ' « p 4 i a i i M m < U t l J ^ I h a v e a h a b i t t h a t w i l l fit i t q u a i n t l y . . ' [Enter GRATIANA WCASTIZA.] ^ ( O U ^ H \T H e r e c o m e s o u r m o t h e r . r t v & ^ S . i f v J \ V \ ^'i^o^rt HIPPOLITO: ( A n d s i s t e r . - f o t X r f VINDICE: W e m u s t c o i n . W o m e n a r e a p t , y o u k n o w , t o t a k e f a l s e m o n e y , B w f e J ^ a t ^ ^ t a J ^ e o a j i k ^ u L f Q r . t h e . s e . . t a c y t e a t o e e s O n l y CACVIBC € M e e p t e d ^ b a £ . t h f . y ' l l . s \ v a l l n w . • GRATIANA: W h a t n e w s f r o m C o u r t , s o n C a r l o ? HIPPOLITO: F a i t h , m o t h e r " T i s w h i s p e r e d t h e r e t h e D u c h e s s ' y o u n g e s t s o n H a s p l a y e d a r a p e o n L o r d A n t o n i o ' s w i f e . GRATIANA: O n t h a t r e l i g i o u s l a d y ! CASTIZA: R o y a l b l o o d ! M o n s t e r , h e d e s e r v e s t o d i e I f I t a l y h a d n o m o r e h o p e s b u t h e . - • VINDICE: S i s t e r , y ' a v e s e n t e n c e d m o s t d i r e c t a n d t r u e , T h e L a w ' s a w o m a n , a n d w o u l d s h e w e r e y o u . M o t h e r , I m u s t t a k e l e a v e o f y o u . G R A T i A N A : L e a v e f o r w h a t ? VINDICE: I i n t e n d s p e e d y t r a v e l . HIPPOLITO: T h a t h e d o e s , M a d a m . GRATIANA: S p e e d y i n d e e d ! VINDICE: F o r s i n c e m y w o r t h y f a t h e r ' s f u n e r a l M y l i f e ' s u n n a t u r a l t o m e , e ' e n c o m p e l l e d , 92. P11I on: assume the guise of. 99. Fore-lop: forelock. 100. French mote: head tumour. 102, Coin: feign. 4 8 x ^ c. - H-e,. y).te V i ACT ONE, SCENE ONE A s i f I l i v e d n o w w h e n I s h o u l d b e d e a d . 120 GRATIANA: I n d e e d h e w a s a w o r t h y g e n t l e m a n H a d h i s e s t a t e b e e n f e l l o w t o h i s m i n d . V I N D I C E : T h e D u k e d i d m u c h dej&it h i m . GRATIANA: f i e o j \ e c + M u c h ! V I N D I C E : T o o m u c h . A n d t h r o u g h d i s g r a c e o f t s m o t h e r e d i n h i s s p i r i t W h e n i t w o u l d m o u n t ; s u r e l y I t h i n k h e d i e d O f d i s c o n t e n t , t h e n o b l e m a n ' s c o n s u m p t i o n . GRATIANA: M o s t s u r e h e d i d . V I N D I C E : D i d h e ? ' L a c k - y o u k n o w a l l , • Y o u w e r e h i s m i d n i g h t s e c r e t a r y . • G R A T I A N A : NO. H e w a s t o o w i s e t o t r u s t m e w i t h h i s t h o u g h t s . V I N D I C E [aside]: I ' f a i t h t h e n , f a t h e r , t h o u w a s t w i s e i n d e e d 130 ' W i v e s a r e b u t m a d e t o g o t o b e d a n d f e e d . ' C o m e m o t h e r , s i s t e r : y o u ' l l b r i n g m e o n w a r d , b r o t h e r ? HIPPOLITO: I w i l l . V I N D I C E : I ' l l q u i c k l y t u r n i n t o a n o t h e r . ( '/ -r \ExewiL] y [ S C E N E T W O ] yh^ Enter the old DUKE, LUSSURIOSOZ'/J'J'O/;, /^DUCHESS [SPURIO] the Bastard, the Duchess' two sons AMBITIOSO and SUPERVACUO, the third her youngest [JUNIOR] brought ottt-H'itb-Qffictrs for the Rape: 4m Judges. DUKE: D u c h e s s , i t i s y o u r y o u n g e s t s o n , w e ' r e s o r r y . H i s v i o l e n t a c t h a s e ' e n d r a w n b l o o d o f h o n o u r A n d s t a i n e d o u r h o n o u r s , T h r o w n i n k u p o n t h e f o r e h e a d o f o u r s t a t e W h i c h e n v i o u s s p i r i t s w i l l d i p t h e i r p e n s i n t o A f t e r o u r d e a t h , a n d b l o t u s i n o u r t o m b s . F o r t h a t w h i c h w o u l d s e e m t r e a s o n i n o u r l i v e s 123. Deject: br ing d o w n ; show no favours to. ' 4 9 T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y I s l a u g h t e r w h e n w e ' r e d e a d ; w h o d a r e s n o w w h i s p e r T h a t d a r e s n o t t h e n s p e a k o u t , a n d e ' e n p r o c l a i m W i t h l o u d w o r d s a n d b r o a d p e n s o u r c l o s e s t s h a m e . F I R S T J U D G E : Y o u r G r a c e h a t h s p o k e l i k e t o y o u r s i l v e r _____ ^ f o ~ T ) v , k £ y e a r s F u l l o f c o n f i r m e d g r a v i t y ; f o r w h a t i s i t t o h a v e " f ' . l ^ f j ^ f V . \ C T o \t A f l a t t e r i n g f a l s e i n s c u l p t i o n o n a t o m b , A n d i n m e n ' s h e a r t s r e p r o a c h ? T h e b o w e l l e d c o r p s M a y b e s e a r e d i n , b u t w i t h f r e e t o n g u e I s p e a k , ' T h e f a u l t s o f g r e a t m e n t h r o u g h t h e i r s e a r c l o t h e s b r e a k . ' D U K E : T h e y d o , w e ' r e s o r r y f o r ' t , i t i s o u r f a t e T o l i v e i n f e a r a n d d i e t o l i v e i n h a t e . I l e a v e h i m t o y o u r s e n t e n c e ; d o o m h i m , l o r d s -T h e f a c t i s g r e a t - w h i l s t I s i t b y a n d s i g h . U'^ YU _\_ D U C H E S S [kneeling]: M y g r a c i o u s l o r d . I p r a y b e m e r c i f u l . ; f \ 0 ^ £ S f { X * \ ^Xyi A l t h o u g h h i s t r e s p a s s f a r e x c e e d h i s y e a r s , ^ f ^ , ^ 0$ X A M b i : T h i n k h i m t o b e y o u r o w n , a s I a m y o u r s . C a l l h i m n o t s o n i n l a w : t h e l a w I f e a r W i l l f a l l t o o s o o n u p o n h i s n a m e a n d h i m : T e m p e r h i s f a u l t w i t h p i t y ! L U S S U R I O S O : G o o d m y l o r d , ;; V 6 l\^l> ^ a 1 ^ T h e n ' t w i l l n o t t a s t e s o b i t t e r a n d u n p l e a s a n t 'C>-.-> U p o n t h e j u d g e s ' p a l a t e , f o r o f f e n c e s ' ^ " i , V G i l t o ' e r w i t h m e r c y s h o w l i k e f a i r e s t w o m e n , "TAN.^^ I^1'*1^ ' G o o d o n l y f o r t h e i r b e a u t i e s , w h i c h w a s h e d o f f , " ^ s S k " < c ^ " i v Y ' . > ~ ^ < N o s i n i s u g l i e r . ~%t\<&-\* o<t ' t f A M B I T I O S O : I b e s e e c h y o u r G r a c e , . arf\^i\c> '•"Otv^UD B e s o f t a n d m i l d , l e t n o t r e l e n t l e s s l a w ' L o o k w i t h a n i r o n f o r e h e a d o n o u r b r o t h e r . S P U R I O [aside]: H e y i e l d s s m a l l c o m f o r t y e t , h o p e h e s h a l l , d i e , A n d i f a b a s t a r d ' s w i s h m i g h t s t a n d i n f o r c e , W o u l d a l l t h e c o u r t w e r e t u r n e d i n t o a c o r s e . 14. hovelled: disembowelled (for embalming). 15. Seared in: embalmed and coffined. 20. Fact: deed (i.e. the crime). 5° 45. ACT ONE, SCENE TWO D U C H E S S : N o p i t y y e t ? M u s t I r i s e f r u i t l e s s t h e n ? . , A w o n d e r i n a w o m a n . A r e m y k n e e s O f s u c h l o w m e t a l , t h a t w i t h o u t r e s p e c t - 'j-j-) v, jj^  F I R S T J U D G E : L e t t h e o f f e n d e r s t a n d f o r t h : ... 40 T>V\"DV :^5 f - o e . ^ A f - \ j ' T i s t h e D u k e ' s p l e a s u r e t h a t i m p a r t i a l d o o m C j . „ . , > _ -~ , , . ^ > , S h a l l t a k e f i r s t h o l d o f h i s u n c l e a n a t t e m p t ; 1 A r a p e ! W h y , ' t i s t h e v e r y c o r e o f l u s t , D o u b l e a d u l t e r y . _ . ... . • _ . \q "t>\A\C,$ J U N I O R : SO s i r . S E C O N D J U D G E : A n d w h i c h w a s w o r s e C o m m i t t e d o n t h e l o r d A n t o n i o ' s w i f e , T h a t g e n e r a l h o n e s t l a d y ; c o n f e s s m y l o r d W h a t m o v e d y o u t o ' t ? J U N I O R : W h y f l e s h a n d b l o o d , m y l o r d . ^ _ W h a t s h o u l d m o v e m e n u n t o a w o m a n e l s e ? ^ L U S S U R I O S O : O h d o n o t j e s t t h y d o o m , t r u s t n o t a n a x e ^ , ,. ^ J O r s w o r d t o o f a r ; t h e l a w i s a w i s e s e r p e n t 50 V i w i ^ " ' l ^ f ° A n d q u i c k l y c a n b e g u i l e t h e e o f t h y l i f e ; 0 b ^ " ^ > f t t V i -T h o u g h m a r r i a g e o n l y h a s m a d e t h e e m y b r o t h e r I l o v e t h e e s o f a r , p l a y n o t w i t h t h y d e a t h . J U N I O R : I t h a n k y o u t r o t h , g o o d a d m o n i t i o n s , ' f a i t h , I f I ' d t h e g r a c e n o w t o m a k e u s e o f t h e m . i F I R S T J U D G E : T h a t l a d y ' s n a m e h a s s p r e a d s u c h a f a i r w i n g j O v e r a l l I t a l y , t h a t i f o u r t o n g u e s ! W e r e s p a r i n g t o w a r d t h e f a c t , j u d g e m e n t i t s e l f W o u l d b e c o n d e m n e d a n d s u f f e r i n m e n ' s t h o u g h t s . J U N I O R : W e l l t h e n ' t i s d o n e , a n d i t w o u l d p l e a s e m e w e l l 60 W e r e i t t o d o a g a i n : s u r e s h e ' s a g o d d e s s , F o r I ' d n o p o w e r t o s e e h e r a n d t o l i v e . I t f a l l s o u t t r u e i n t h i s , f o r I m u s t d i e ; H e r b e a u t y w a s o r d a i n e d t o b e m y s c a f f o l d , A n d y e t m e t h i n k s I m i g h t b e e a s i e r c e a s t , M y f a u l t b e i n g s p o r t , l e t m e b u t d i e i n j e s t . F I R S T J U D G E : T h i s b e t h e s e n t e n c e - V M ^ O U - S 4\\<c X)^tl^ D U C H E S S : O k e e p ' t u p o n y o u r t o n g u e , l e t i t n o t s l i p ! -n. , , 1 r J . . . T^V.^AYks t , 0 " A « 65. Ceast.• stopped (i.e. prevented from indulging in lechery). . 5 I ^ \ THE REVENGER'S TRAGEDY Death too soon steals out of a lawyer's lip. Be not so cruel-wise! 70 FIRST JUDGE: Your Grace must pardon us, ^ • ^ovjSS ¥r£&.<V 'Tis b u t the justice of the law. ' * DUCHESS: The law Is grown more subtle than a woman should be. SPURIO [aside]: Now, now he dies, rid 'em away. DUCHESS [aside]: O what it is to have an old-cool Duke, I i\ ^ C,^ -To be as slack in tongue as in performance. ' ^ \ ^, FIRST JUDGE: Confirmed; this be the doom irrevocable. " . ^ >° sXr'/- \ DUCHESS: Oh!_ ^WUVj, FIRST JUDGE: Tomorrow early-DUCHESS: Pray hp aherl my lord " ^ \ W b \ -> "\>>j FIRST JUDGE: Your Grace m u c h wrongs yourself. AMBITIOSO: No,'tis that tongue,——— S'Tf-TS 'fco^V < ° Your too much right does do us too much wrong. FIRST JUDGE: Let that offender-80 DUCHESS: Live and be in health. , "^ vwiS- " ^ S N j u ' . . FIRST JUDGE: Be on a scaffold - ^ \ a DUKE: Hold, hold my lord. SPURIO [aside]: P-os.ort't, ^-X\HJl''-' Wba^ makes^ m^y-dadagpeak now ? V\V HJtZ~~*^ DUKE: We will defer the judgement till next sitting; . In the meantime let him be kept close prisoner: " v UAS^a-VS'O Guatd_bear him hence._(:au,HoOfeS \ n \ « - ^M*&£> H ^voa^t?- " AMBITIOSO [/<? JUNIOR] : Brother, this makes for thee, J( Ac . J ^ vltfVi Fear not, we'll have a trick to set thee free. ~ , . ^  ,, JUNIOR: Brother, I will expect it from you both, ~>^-And in that h o p e I rest. — C.r&S. o f f ^Vtw&.V SUPERVACUO: Farewell, be merry. . / . , , .-. Exit [JUNIon]-with sCttsrd; . ^ % • 1 '' P SPURIO: Delayed, deferred! Nay then, if judgement have 90 Cold b l o o d , flattery and bribes will kill it. — — . . — \^ ^  j^^ty-l EH>KE: Abeut-it-thenrmydordSj-with-yQur-best-powets. o - j ^ ^ Mere-serieus-business-callsupon-our-heurs;* Pffo^3 Exeunt. \>yCHiiS$.nv//i7iiLS. O/^ vMfc.fc U&!LI_-3_: DUCHESS: Was't ever k n o w n step-Duchess was so mild 52 A C T O N E , S C E N E T W O A n d c a l m a s I ? _ S o m e n o w w o u l d p l o t h i s d e a t h HOk}&'; ~^ C W i t h e a s y d o c t o r s , t h o s e l o o s e - l i v i n g m e n , ' A n d m a k e h i s w i t h e r e d G r a c e f a l l t o h i s g r a v e ^\H^ fe.\0$:> l\ti \ z A n d k e e p c h u r c h b e t t e r . ^ ^ w M M < 5 ^ S o m e s e c o n d w i f e w o u l d d o t h i s , a n d d i s p a t c h H e r d o u b l e - l o a t h e d l o r d a t m e a t , a n d s l e e p . l O j , \Ol\ I n d e e d ' t i s t r u e a n o l d m a n ' s t w i c e a c h i l d ; 100 M i n e c a n n o t s p e a k , o n e o f h i s s i n g l e w o r d s W o u l d q u i t e h a v e f r e e d m y y o u n g e s t d e a r e s t s o n F r o m d e a t h o r d u r a n c e , a n d h a v e m a d e h i m w a l k W i t h a b o l d f o o t u p o n t h e t h o r n y l a w W h o s e p r i c k l e s s h o u l d b o w u n d e r h i m ; b u t ' t i s n o t , A n d t h e r e f o r e w e d l o c k f a i t h s h a l l b e f o r g o t ; I ' l l k i l l h i m i n h i s f o r e h e a d , h a t e t h e r e f e e d , T h a t w o u n d i s d e e p e s t , t h o ' i t n e v e r b l e e d . , i O . p . c < \ A-[Enter.svjJV.xo.] . _.UlwJ.:>._. \ \ A n d h e r e c o m e s h e w h o m m y h e a r t p o i n t s u n t o , f { \ ( K d ^ O n 4^ H i s b a s t a r d s o n , b u t m y l o v e ' s t r u e - b e g o t ; n o ^ M a n y a w e a l t h y l e t t e r h a v e I s e n t h i m -; - ^ ^ f e V t A N t s " \ V ( j S w e l l e d u p w i t h j e w e l s , a n d t h e t i m o r o u s m a n VY'i£(L. I s y e t b u t c o l d l y k i n d ; . . : - -\0 ^ f / v . v s \lv^ - T l a S T h a t j e w e l ' s m i n e t h a t q u i v e r s i n h i s e a r / , " ^  •' ' M o c k i n g h i s m a s t e r ' s c h i l l n e s s a n d v a i n f e a r . . V ° MUO\o »..^ K, H ' a s s p i e d m e n o w . _ : "X^.OAV^ / i u j . , ^ y\\A SPURIO: M a d a m ? Y o u r G r a c e s o p r i v a t e ? . "^o^S V-^<j&t, \A-itA M y d u t y o n y o u r h a n d . ' DUCHESS: U p o n m y h a n d s i r ? T r o t h , I t h i n k y o u ' d f e a r T o k i s s m y h a n d t o o i f m y l i p s t o o d t h e r e . SPURIO: W i t n e s s I w o u l d n o t , m a d a m . _ . ' ) ( T O , [Kisses ber.] l i l S S & A DUCHESS: ' T i s a w o n d e r , 120 F o r c e r e m o n y h a s m a d e m a n y f o o l s . . W£- ' t U t M s ^ ' o <\o , S'f 0i's I t i s a s e a s y w a y u n t o a D u c h e s s DM UrO&S A s t o a l i a t ' t e j ' c t a m e - i f h e r l o v e a n s w e r -B u t t h a t b y t i m o r o u s h o n o u r s , p a l e r e s p e c t s , t / ^ I d l e d e g r e e s o f f e a r , m e n m a k e t h e i r w a y s !~ " ^ ^ 123. Hatted dame: l o w - c l a s s w o m a n . ( N o b l e l a d i e s w o r e n o h a t s . ) Y- V*^\ 53 THE REVENGER'S TRAGEDY H a r d o f t h e m s e l v e s . W h a t h a v e y o u t h o u g h t o f m e r i U V ^ S Q.VMCV .V.A SPURIO: M a d a m I e v e r t h i n k o f y o u , i n d u t y 2 ' „ . , \ R e g a r d a n d - ~ & O ^ S Y I. < < / , v ^ . ^ DUCHESS: P u h , u p o n m y l o v e I m e a n . ^ ' / - . u j ) SPURIO: I w o u l d ' t w e r e l o v e , b u t ' t i s a f o u l e r n a m e T h a n l u s t ; y o u a r e m y f a t h e r ' s w i f e , y o u r G r a c e m a y K o M f a \ 0 g u e s s n o w W h a t I c o u l d c a l l i t . DUCHESS: W h y , t h ' a r t h i s s o n b u t f a l s e l y , ^ f\l , \ £ S 'V 'Cc? " w ' T i s a h a r d q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r h e b e g o t t h e e . ^ o u , £ > v O SPURIO: I ' f a i t h ' t i s t r u e t o o ; I ' m a n u n c e r t a j r i . r o a n , . ^ O f m o r e u n c e r t a i n w o m a n ; m a y b e h i s g r o o m l ^ t j ^ i , ^ j . i - " - > A ' t h ' s t a b l e b e g o t m e - y o u k n o w I k n o w n o t - /^h\uW> • • l ^ ' ^ V "£>c* H e c o u l d r i d e a h o r s e w e l l , a - o h r o w d o u 6 p i c k > « y * f t f t M : y , H e - J i ¥ « s - w © n d r o u s - 4 ; a U : ^ i e 4 w d - y F r r r ^ e ^ p i f l g - ^ w r ~ h a 4 f - ^ i t t 4 t o l i d a y w i n d o w s , M o n w o u l d d e w r « 4 A « - ^ g h t ; . w h e a A e ^ w a s - a f e e t , I ^ j M a d e - a . . g Q C > d l ^ h m ^ u a d £ t w f w p e « t h o H S € , A n d w h e « A e ^ y y 4 i i s ^ h a ^ w < i > u l d - c - h e c k » t h e - s i g f t s DUCHESS: N « ^ - s e t - ^ j w - a 4 ^ « e € b f l ^ * - e » c e , Y e H ^ l f t e i e t - l i g b t - o f f . SPURIO: I n d e e d , I a m a b e g g a r . E D U C H E S S ^ - S ^ t i s ^ M Q i x a - t h t i - ^ i g n t h o u a r t g r e a t -B u t t o o u r l o v e : L e t i t s t a n d f i r m b o t h i n t h o u g h t a n d m i n d _ —Vtov&s 'To '-T^'^O T h a t t h e D u k e w a s t h y f a t h e r , a s n o d o u b t t h e n H e b i d f a i r ; f o r ' t , t h y i n j u r y i s . t h e m o r e , . , ^  T t e u - h a d s t ^ e e J W ^ x t - s e ^ i ^ i ^ M k e d o i ^ V i i n g W h e t v b i ^ w e « a - ^ f 4 t k ^ - A g € ^ e ^ ^ k ¥ e W h a t w r o n g c a n e q u a l t h i s ? C a n s t t h o u b e t a m e A n d t h i n k u p o n ' t ? SPURIO: N o , m a d a n d t h i n k u p o n ' t _ ' W j i S e ^ c A t y tvWvt 140. Penthouse: hanging eaves. 152. Collet: where stone is set i n a r ing. 5 4 \ fo c f ® A C T O N E , S C E N E T W O D U C H E S S : Who would not be revenged of such a father _ E'en in the worst way? I would thank that sin That could most injure him, and be in league with it. O h what a grief 'tis, that a man should live But once i'th'world, and then to live a bastard, The curse o'the womb, the thief of Nature, 160 Begot against the seventh commandment, Half-damned in the conception, by the justice O f that unbribed everlasting law. S P U R I O : O h I'd a hot-backed devil to my father! D U C H E S S : Would not this mad e'en patience, make blood rough ? Who but an eunuch would not sin, his bed By one false minute disinherited? S P U R I O : Ay, there's the vengeance that my birth was wrapt in. I'll be revenged for all; now hate, begin, I'll call foul incest but a venial sin. 170 D U C H E S S : Cold still? In vain then must a D.uchess_wqq?_ S P U R I O : Madam, I blush to say what I will do. D U C H E S S : Thence flew sweet comfort; - earnest, and fare-well. [Kisses bit//.] snwmmi O h one incectwowc liico picho open hell. D U C H E S S : Faith now old duke, my vengeance shall reach high, X L c ( '3 I'll arm thy brow with woman's heraldry. .- Exit. . \ b S P U R I O : Duke, thou didst do me wrong, and by thy~acl Adultery is my nature; Faith, if the truth were known, I was begot After some gluttonous dinner, some stirring dish Was my first father; when deep healths went round, A n d ladies' cheeks were painted red with wine, Their tongues as short and nimble as their heels, 173. Earnest: pledge of future favours. 176. Woman's heraldry: cuckold's horns. JJ 180 J A THE REVENGER S TRAGEDY 190 U t t e r i n g w o r d s s w e e t a n d t h i c k ; a n d w h e n t h e y r o s e W e r e m e r r i l y d i s p o s e d t o f a l l a g a i n -I n s u c h a w h i s p e r i n g a n d w i t h d r a w i n g h o u r , W h e n b a s e m a l e b a w d s k e p t s e n t i n e l a t s t a i r h e a d , W a s I s t o l ' n s o f t l y ; o h - d a m n a t i o n m e t T h e s i n o f f e a s t s , d r u n k e n a d u l t e r y . I f e e l i t s w e l l m e ; m y r e v e n g e i s j u s t , I w a s b e g o t i n i m p u d e n t w i n e a n d l u s t . S t e p m o t h e r , I c o n s e n t t o t h y d e s i r e s ; -X T 5 ^ 5 \ Q G X I l o v e t h y m i s c h i e f w e l l , b u t I h a t e t h e e , A n d t h o s e t h r e e c u b s t h y s o n s , w i s h i n g c o n f u s i o n D e a t h a n d d i s g r a c e m a y b e t h e i r e p i t a p h s ; A s f o r m y b r o t h e r , t h e d u k e ' s o n l y s o n W h o s e b i r t h i s m o r e b e h o l d i n g t o r e p o r t T h a n m i n e , a n d y e t p e r h a p s a s f a l s e l y s o w n , • ( S ^ r i r e n ^ ^ n u s t - a o t J a e - t e u s t e d awn), I ' l l l o o s e m y d a y s u p o n h i m , h a t e a l l I , D u k e , o n t h y b r o w I ' l l d r a w . j n y . b a s t a r d y . . F o r i n d e e d a b a s t a r d b y n a t u r e s h o u l d m a k e c u c k o l d s , B e c a u s e h e i s t h e s o n o f a c u c k o l d - m a k e r . r Exit. ' " ' ^ [SCENE THREE] Enter V I N D I C E and HIPPOLITO, V I N D I C E in disguise to attend LUSSURIOSO the Duke's son. VINDICE: W h a t b r o t h e r , a m I f a r e n o u g h f r o m m y s e l f ? HIPPOLITO: AS i f a n o t h e r m a n h a d b e e n s e n t w h o l e I n t o t h e w o r l d , a n d n o n e w i s t h o w h e c a m e . V I N D I C E H t t - w i l l - e o n f i r m - m e b o l d : - t h e c l i i l d - o ^ - t h e c o u r t ; L e t - b l u s h e s d w e l l i ' t h ' c o u n t r y . I m p u d e n c e I T h o u - g o d d e s s o f t h e p a l a c e s - m i s t r e s s o f m i s t r e s s e s , T o ' w h o m - t h e c o s t l y p e r f u m e d p e o p l e p r a y , S t r i k e - t h o u m y f o r e h e a d i n t o d a u n d e s s m a r b l e , M i n c - e y e s - t o s t e a d y - s a p p h i r e s : * t u r n - m y ~ v i s a g e , 200. Loose my days: spend my time (in w o r k i n g his ruin). 56 w - x u c 48. ACT ONE, SCENE THREE A f t d - i f - I - m u s t - ^ e e d s g l o w s l e t - a ^ b l » s h - k t w f t t d io T & a * - 4 4 r i s 4 m m © d e s £ . s e a s o r i - m ^ T 4 « t ' 6 c b o l a r - i n - m y c h e e k s , - f o o L b a s h f u l n e s s . T 4 t a t - m a i d - i n - - t h e - o l d - t i m e ^ \ \ d i a s e - f l ^ i - W o u l d n e v e r s u f f e r - h e t - t e - g e t - g o e d - e k ) t k e s . 0 u * - m f t k l s-a-re-wM&iva n d - f l r e - l e s s - a & h f l m e d < S f t v e - G r a € e - t h e - b a - \ v d ; - I - 6 e l d o m " h e r e ' g i a e e ' n a m o d ! H - t - p y Q i ^ r o : - N a y b ^ t h e r y ^ o u - ^ a e h - o u t - e k h - v e g g e - n o w - • [Enter LUSSURIOSO attuukd.] M^vf \ — \ ^ ' t P \ J . f e s H f\ ' S f o o t , t h e D u k e ' s s o n , s e t t l e y o u r l o o k s . , . N CS 0<~ v I N DICE: P r a y l e t m e n o t b e d o u b t e d . ^ U U O s V D 1 ^ 1 ° --A-> \ J HIPPOLITO: M y L o r d - ~\£o\^ c. LUSSURIOSO: H i p p o l i t o ? - B » a b s c n V l e a v e n a . 20 HIPPOLITO: M y l o r d , a f t e r l o n g s e a r c h , w a r y i n q u i r i e s y{ \h^\o L i A n d p o l i t i c s i f t i n g s , I m a d e c h o i c e o f y o n f e l l o w , — ' W h o m I g u e s s r a r e f o r m a n y d e e p e m p l o y m e n t s ; T h i s o u r a g e s w i m s w i t h i n h i m ; a n d i f T i m e ' \| \ ^ *\ u d i O S A k . O u , - - W H a d s o m u c h h a i r , I s h o u l d t a k e h i m f o r T i m e , " ~ / < Q K l ' V ^ ' - ^ H e i s s o n e a r k i n t o t h i s p r e s e n t m i n u t e . L U S S U R I O S O : ' T i s e n o u g h , . _. , v O A * f c . - t ! i ? S ' i • W e t h a n k t h e e : y e t w o r d s a r e b u t g r e a t m e n ' s b l a n k s , G o l d , t h o ' i t b e d u m b d o e s u t t e r t h e b e s t t h a n k s . [Gives him money.]- ^ \ - . V-O0S C o l O < 0 l - ^ f tf>VfriOucf 'iftUsOfe, G ' l 'gS, o f r V -HIPPOLITO: Y o u r p l e n t e o u s h o n o u r - a n e x ' l e n t f e l l o w m y L o r d . 30 LUSSURIOSO: S o , g i v e u s l e a v e - . ] \ , . ( y . y p c / f / ' : . C : . W e l c o m e , b e n o t f a r o f f , W e m u s t b e b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d . P u s h , b e b o l d W i t h u s - t h y h a n d . , VINDICE: W i t h a l l m y h e a r t i ' f a i t h ! . y \ \j$\0 V - M b S C W - 6 H o w d o s t , s w e e t m u s k - c a t - w h e n s h a l l w e l i e t o -g e t h e r ? j ' V £ > f V ^ S CA.Q..LXMOO yrvv\ 17. Verge: l imit o f royal court {virga = rod); wi th possible quibble / on 'beyond virginity ' . 22. Politic: cunning. 28. Blanks: written assurances o f payment. 5 7 T H E REVENGER'S T R A G E D Y Qj LUSSURIOSO [aside]: W o n d r o u s k n a v e I . _™, X i > C- S L A i ^ G a t h e r h i m i n t o b o l d n e s s ? ' S f o o t , t h e s l a v e ' s A l r e a d y a s f a m i l i a r a s a n a g u e A n d s n a k e s m e a t h i s p l e a s u r e . [To V I N D I C E ] F r i e n d , I „.___ 'UAVJS TJ»rV t. c a n ~ , ,, , F o r g e t m y s e l f i n p r i v a t e , b u t e l s e w h e r e • n , C £ - - • ^ v ~ v . \ 4 0 I p r a y d o y o u r e m e m b e r m e . VINDICE: O h v e r y w e l l s i r -1 c o n s t e r m y s e l f s a u c y . , LUSSURIOSO: W h a t h a s t b e e n , r . . ; ' VoVj'.'ol.v; S O f w h a t p r o f e s s i o n ? VINDICE: A b o n e - s e t t e r . LUSSURIOSO: A b o n e - s e t t e r ? VINDICE: A b a w d m y l o r d , O n e t h a t s e t s b o n e s t o g e t h e r . LUSSURIOSO: N o t a b l e b l u n t n e s s ! < ; ^ O \ - W K ~ £ L-f* p;>, fit for me, p.'pn trained .up JrL.rnyJwid. 1 T h o u h a s t b e e n s c r i v e n e r t o m u c h k n a v e r y t h e n ^ - ^ f i . ^ / ~ VINDICE: F o o l t o a b u n d a n c e s i r ; I h a v e b e e n w i t n e s s X \ ? C V\J T o t h e s u r r e n d e r s o f a t h o u s a n d v i r g i n s , 5 0 A n d n o t s o l i t t l e ; \£>I\\X ^ ^ V ^ ^ \ ) I h a v e s e e n p a t r i m o n i e s w a s h e d a p i e c e s , F r u i t - f i e l d s t u r n e d i n t o b a s t a r d s , A n d i n a w o r l d o f a c r e s , ^ V ^ f \ u • N o t s o m u c h d u s t d u e t o t h e h e i r ' t w a s l e f t t o A s w o u l d w e l l g r a v e l a p e t i t i o n . * r « * s - H - i ( w < > ^ ~ { ( ? W i f } i — " F i n e ^ v i l l a i n - ! — T r o t h , — ' I - 4 i k e ~ h i m , w e n d r o w s l y - , \ I H - ( W ) H e ^ - o ^ - ^ a p e d - f o f - r r r y ^ p t i f p o s e r [To V I N D I C E ] T h e n , . f o ^ i LCOV •'.V-t h o u k n o w ' s t v I ' t h ' w o r l d s t r a n g e l u s t ? H Y VINDICE: O D u t c h l u s t ! F u l s o m e l u s t ! D r u n k e n p r o c r e a t i o n , w h i c h b e g e t s s o m a n y d r u n k a r d s ;  ($j S o m e f a t h e r s d r e a d n o t - g o n e t o b e d i n w i n e - t o s l i d e ____ ^ V a A V ^ A'SOO 6 0 f r o m t h e m o t h e r A n d c l i n g t h e d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w ; "5^£f\f \\y\sY\fv^j 4 1 . Cornier: construe. 4 7 . Scrivener: notary. 5 5 . Gravel: to dry i n k w i t h sand. 5 8 49. A C T O N E , S C E N E T H R E E -iome uncles are adulterous with their nieces, ; . Brothers with brothers'wives, O hour of incest! (3, ^ ^Y^"^ Liii'l"'! , '^N-5-Any kin now next to the r i m o'th'sister ^ / _ Is man s meat in these days; and in the morning, ; 1 1 1 * * • When they are up and dressed, and their mask on, ( Who can perceive this ? Save that eternal eye ' That sees through flesh and all? Well, if any thing be \ damned •! It will be twelve o'clock at night; that twelve • Will never 'scape, 70 i It is the Judas of the hours, wherein j Honest salvation is betrayed to sin. LUSSURIOSO: fo-troth-it-is-t©%-b«tJ&t-tiws-talk-gHde, It is ou4--bleQd-to-err-;-tho'"hell»gaped-^ wi^ e. • tadie^ 4«Kaw-fcu€i£^ feU7-y€t-6tilI-a*e. proud. j Now sir; wert thou as secret as thou art subde ! ' And deeply fathomed into all estates, j I would embrace thee for a near employment, j And thou shouldst swell in money, and be able To make lame beggars crouch to thee. VINDICE: M y lord? 80 Secret ? I ne'er h a d that disease o'th'mother I praise my father: why are men made close B u t to keep thoughts in best ? I grant you this, Tell b u t some woman a secret over night, Your doctor may find it in the urinal i'th'morning. But m y lord -LUSSURIOSO: S o , thou'rt confirmed in me, ; And thus I enter thee. ! [Gives him gold.] • \ v - ^ VINDICE: This Indian devil ' v -^ J ~ " ^ Will quickly enter any man but a usurer; He prevents t h a t by ent'ring the devil f i r s t . Ur4\K ~2 L U S S U R I O S O : ATtencTme;<Jlim_past my depth irTlust 9 0 J \j V M S S -A n d I must swim or drown. All my desires Are levelled at a virgin, n o t f a r from court i 87. Indian devil: gold from the Indies. 59 1 L T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y T o w h o m I h a v e c o n v e y e d b y m e s s e n g e r 1 ~ \ A S S OfiC'-'S M a n y w a x e d l i n e s , f u l l o f m y n e a t e s t s p i r i t , / A n d j e w e l s t h a t w e r e a b l e t o r a v i s h h e r • n U O \ v -W i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f m a n ; a l l w h j c h j a n d r n o r e ^ 0 c S h e , f o o l i s h c h a s t e , s e n t b a c k , t h e m e s s e n g e r s R e c e i v i n g f r o w n s f o r a n s w e r s . VINDICE: P o s s i b l e ? ' T i s a r a r e p h o e n i x w h o e ' e r s h e b e ; I f y o u r d e s i r e s b e s u c h , s h e s o r e p u g n a n t I n t r o t h m y l o r d , I ' d b e r e v e n g e d a n d m a r r y h e r . . ' _ . ^ \ 'To L ' - ^ - v - . LUSSURIOSO: P u s h ! T h e d o w r y o f h e r b l o o d a n d o f h e r ' ^ f o r t u n e s " A r e b o t h t o o m e a n - g o o d e n o u g h t o b e b a d w i t h a l . I ' m o n e o f t h a t n u m b e r c a n d e f e n d _^ Vfap M a r r i a g e i s g o o d : y e t r a t h e r k e e p a f r i e n d ; Q i v e ^ e ^ b e d > y „ s . t ^ ^ C£>fi3'y\V&l<0} , 1 W h a t b r e e d s a l o a t h i n g i n ' t , b u t n i g h t b y n i g h t ? ^ ' / ~ ' V I N D I C E : A v e r y f i n e r e l i g i o n ! \K5>0\C-^ LUSSURIOSO: T h e r e f o r e t h u s , „ „ " t > C _ I ' l l t r u s t t h e e i n t h e b u s i n e s s o f m y h e a r t B e c a u s e I s e e t h e e w e l l e x p e r i e n c e d I n t h i s l u x u r i o u s d a y w h e r e i n w e b r e a t h e . G o t h o u , a n d w i t h a s m o o t h e n c h a n t i n g t o n g u e B e w i t c h h e r e a r s , a n d c o z e n h e r o f a l l g r a c e . E n t e r u p o n t h e p o r t i o n o f h e r s o u l , H e r h o n o u r , w h i c h s h e c a l l s h e r c h a s t i t y A n d b r i n g i t i n t o e x p e n s e , f o r h o n e s t y I s l i k e a s t o c k o f m o n e y l a i d t o s l e e p , W h i c h n e ' e r s o l i t t l e b r o k e , d o e s n e v e r k e e p . VINDICE: YOU h a v e g i ' n ' t t h e t a n g i ' f a i t h , m y l o r d . M a k e k n o w n t h e l a d y t o m e , a n d m y b r a i n S h a l l s w e l l w i t h s t r a n g e i n v e n t i o n : I w i l l m o v e i t T i l l I e x p i r e w i t h s p e a k i n g , a n d d r o p d o w n W i t h o u t a w o r d t o s a v e m e ; - b u t I ' l l w o r k -94. Waxed: scaled. Nea/es/: undiluted. 105. Friend: mistress. 113. Cozen: cheat. 114. Portion: inheritance. 116. Expense: use. 6 0 50. ACT ONE, SCENE THREE h e r n a m e . L U S S U R I O S O : W e t h a n k t h e e , a n d w i l l r a i s e t h e e : r e c e i v e _ ' c ^ V ^ S V). ^ K y A v i I t i s t h e o n l y d a u g h t e r t o M a d a m •_. •_ • i C L C k t O G r a t i a n a , t h e l a t e w i d o w . •• \X^.^C3> ^ T i , fQ'V»X\i-£> (1> V I N D I C E [aside]: O h , m y s i s t e r , m y s i s t e r ! • • f ^ i i . W ^  0 -^•V-'iL-, . - i f t - y L U S S U R I O S O : W h y d o s t w a l k a s i d e ? V I N D I C E : M y l o r d , I w a s t h i n k i n g h o w I m i g h t b e g i n , A s t h u s : ' O h L a d y ! ' - o r t w e n t y h u n d r e d d e v i c e s ; _• (z> ^ Q . H e r v e r y b o d k i n w i l l p u t a m a n i n . I J O L U S S U R I O S O : A y , o r t h e w a g g i n g o f h e r h a i r . • ' , V I N D I C E : N o , t h a t s h a l l p u t y o u i n , m y l o r d . L U S S U R I O S O : S h a l l ' t ? W h y , c o n t e n t . D o s t k n o w t h e d a u g h t e r t h e n ? V I N D I C E : O e x ' l e n t w e l l b y s i g h t . L U S S U R I O S O : T h a t w a s h e r b r o t h e r X p €s, \3 ' T h a t d i d p r e f e r t h e e t o u s . j V I N D I C E : M y l o r d , I t h i n k s o y _ __„,___ VAQ0<?'> k'iuy U I k n e w I h a d s e e n h i m s o m e w h e r e . L U S S U R I O S O : A n d t h e r e f o r e , p r i t h e e l e t t h y h e a r t t o h i m / - T o \ J \\j B e a s a v i r g i n c l o s e . • " ~ ~ V I N D I C E : O h m e g o o d L o r d ! • ; L U S S U R I O S O : W e m a y l a u g h a t t h a t s i m p l e a g e w i t h i n h i m ; -V I N D I C E : H a , h a , h a . 1 4 0 ; L U S S U R I O S O : H i m s e l f b e i n g m a d e t h e s u b t l e i n s t r u m e n t ' • — /• C T o w i n d u p a g o o d f e l l o w . V I N D I C E : T h a t ' s I m y l o r d . '. ^ t : > ^ ^ J L ^ L -L U S S U R I O S O : T h a t ' s t h o u j T o e n t i c e a n d w o r k h i s s i s t e r . ! V I N D I C E : A p u r e n o v i c e ! L U S S U R I O S O : ' T w a s f i n e l y m a n a g e d . V I N D I C E : G a l l a n t l y c a r r i e d ; A p r e t t y - p e r f u m e d v i l l a i n . (Vv^ vf 4~ I " T U S S U R Y O S O : I ' * v e ~ D e t h " o u g h t m e . )( X>d. I f s h e p r o v e c h a s t e s t i l l a n d i m m o v a b l e , V e n t u r e u p o n t h e m o t h e r , a n d w i t h g i f t s 1 3 0 . Put a wan in: provide an opening. 61 THE REVENGER'S TRAGEDY 150 A s I w i l l furnish thee begin w i t h her. V I N D I C E : O fie, fie, that's the w r o n g end my lord . _ ,_»_.,..__«___, V ^-i (" ? 'T is mere impossible that a mother by any gifts ^ ^ K . ~ Should become a bawd to her o w n daughter! LUSSURIOSO : N a y then, I see thou'rt but a puny , / t lA C'jO*'-. ?^ ' Y D ^ I n the subtle mystery o f a w o m a n : -Wh}', 'tis held n o w no dainty d i s h : the name Is so i n league w i t h age that nowadays It does eclipse three quarters o f a mother. V I N D I C E : Does ' t so m y l o r d ? 160 L e t me alone then, to eclipse the fourth. LUSSURIOSO : W h y wel l said, come, I ' l l furnish thee; but _ ___ ^ \_\ (__ o"hjear to be true i n al l . V I N D I C E : T r u e ! __._TO___»»™»_»1-». ^ l__ v-.=>5 . L t ^ s u R i o s o : N a y but swear! V T I V D I C E : Swear? I hope your honour little doubts m y faith. LUSSURIOSO : Y e t for m y humour's sake, 'cause I love swearing. V I N D I C E : 'Cause you love swearing, - ' s lud I w i l l . LUSSURIOSO : W h y enough, ~\$!iS<*~> V - T J ^ E r e l o n g l o o k to be made of better stuff. ". " ™-".~™»- v \ . ' V I N D I C E : That w i l l do w e l l indeed my l o r d . WO'T^ v \ i O ' L - T O S H - R - W Q [rm//i>V(g AtUiidiMti~\\ A t t e n d m e ! W'tyOK} ; . Mt, V I N D I C E : O h -170 N o w let me burst, I 've eaten noble poison, „ . X "\_> C W e are made strange fellows, brother, innocent vi l lains, ~* W i l t not be angry when thou hear'st on't , think'st thou ? I 'faith, thou shalt. Swear me to f o u l my sister! S w o r d , I durst make a promise of h i m to thee, ______ "\>V-A '••.-i T h o u shalt dis-heir h i m , it shall be thine h o n o u r ; <•.__ ^ y v i A n d yet, n o w angry froth is d o w n i n me, 154. Puny: mere beginner. 157. So in league with age: so much i n tune with the times. , 165. 'Slud: abbreviation of ' G o d ' s b lood ' . ( 62 c SI. » A C T O N E , S C E N E T H R E E It w o u l d not prove t h e meanest pol icy I n this disguise to try the faith o f b o t h ; A w t l ^ ~ m i g h t 4 i a v ; e . h a { i - t h e - s c l f * s a m 180 -Seme-slave,- t h « t - w e * ^ 4 r a ; v e - w r 0 u g-bt-effeGtually, ^ ^ ^ d -perhaps - o J e r - w r G u g h t « ; e n i t » t h e r e f o r e 4 , •f ieing-thought-travelled^-will-apply-iTi)»s€lf X ^ t ^ h e - s e i f ^ m e - f e r m r ^ As4f-no-pa rt-about-me-were-k-i n-to-^em, 8©Mr©tK;h^my^'tho ;--I--d«rst>almost-fef»good Vefttwre-^my-lands-Tin-heaveri-upon-their-blood. i —. [ S C E N E F O U R ] 1 Enier the discontented Lord ANTONIO, whose wife the Duchess* jounger son ravished; he discovering the body of her dead to certain Lords: [PIERO] and HIPPOLITO. ANTONIO : D r a w nearer lords, and be sad witnesses O f a fair comely b u i l d i n g newly fa l l 'n , B e i n g falsely undermined: violent rape Has played a glorious act; behold m y lords A sight that strikes man out o f me. U\pp m E R C H That virtuous lady! A W P W W : —P-recedent-for-wivesH UIBJ?o.L-1 T-O^~T-l*e-blu sls~of~-many—women, -whose-chaste presence W^mkl-e'«n-^all>shameHap"to-thek-cheek^^fld-make Eale-wanton-sinners. l iave.goodxolours. -ANTONIO : D e a d ! H e r ~ h o n o u r ~ f i r s t - d r u n k p o i s o n r a n d-her4i£ e , Being-fellows i n one.house, d i d pledge.her.honour. p tE.R-0 uO -grie&of-ma«y! AN-T-ow-to: I mark^d-^ot^hi&Jaefbre -A^ra_^:-book-, '"the-pil low-"t0-her~eheel64 Thw-'was-her-rich 'confection-j-and- another™ 186. Touch: test. 4. Glorious: audacious, boastful. 63 o T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y 5° 4 0 P k e e d 4 r ^ h e r ~ r i g h t 4 i a n d ^ P o i n t i n g to-these-woKJs: MeliusvirMe worii-quatH^per-dedeats-vivere. T-rue and effectual i t - i s indeed. HIPPOLITO : M y l o r d , since you invite us to your sorrows,-: - )( ' f D A> K>^O Let's truly taste 'em, that w i t h equal comfort A s to ourselves we may relieve your w r o n g s ; W e have grief too, that yet walks without tongue -•Gmvn leves'loquuntHr-r-tHajores-stupent. ANTONIO : Yew-deal wrth-t^Hth-my^owl. JLxnd^e4?ut-yo«r-atteationo, and I ' l l cut L o n g grief into short w o r d s : loot revcHing-aight, ^ h e n torchlight made- an-artificial-noon A b o u t the court, some courtiers in the mask, Put t ing o n better faces than their o w n , B e i n g lsull o f fraud and flattery: amongst w h o m T h e Duchess ' youngest son - that m o t h to honour -F i l l e d up a \ o o m ; and w i t h l o n g lust to eat Into my wearing, amongst all the ladies Singled out that-dear f o r m , w h o ever l ived A s cold i n lust as she is n o w in death, - W h i c h that step-duchess-monster knew too w e l l -A n d therefore in the height o f all the revels, W h e n music was heard loudest, courtiers busiest, A n d ladies great w i t h laughter - O vicious minute! Unfi t but for relation to be spoke[n] of, T h e n w i t h a face more i m p u d e n t than his v izard H e harried her amidst a throng o f fianders T h a t l ive u p o n damnation o f both kih^s, A n d fed the ravenous vulture o f his lust^ - O death to think o n ' t ! - She, herTionour forced, Deemed it a nobler d o w r y for her name T o die w i t h poison than to l ive w i t h shame. HIPPOLITO : A wondrous lady, o f rare fire compact; Sh'as made her name an empress by that act. jo PIERO : M y l o r d , what judgement fol lows the offender? ANTONIO : Fa i th none, my l o r d , it cools and is deferred. 6 4 A C T O N E , S C E N E F O U R PIERO : Delay the d o o m for rape? ANTONIO : O you must note w h o ' t i s should die, ._ . X \> ^ o < ' T h e D u c h e s s ' s o n ; she'll look to be a saver, ' "~ ^ !-'Judgement i n this age is near k i n to favour. ' fev... w p^OLiT-Oi - N a y . t h e r ^ ^ t a p i c a t l v t b o i i hrihflcs.s.officet.; ^\[Dram sword.'] I b i n d you al l i n steel to b i n d you surely. H e r e l e t ^ o u r oaths meet, to be kept and paid, W h i c h else-vWill stick l ike rust and shame the blade: Strengthen n t y v o w , that i f at the next sitt ing, 60 Judgement s p e a K a l l i n g o l d , and spare the b l o o d O f such a serpent, d*en before their seats T o let his soul out, wfeich l o n g since was found ', G u i l t y i n heaven. N. A L L : W e swear h\and w i l l act it. ( ANTONIO : K i n d gentlemen, I thankyyou i n mine ire, j HIPPOLITO : ' T w e r e pity T h e ruins o f so fair a monument i S4rau^d-1lot4)e•dipped••in..the.defac£t'^bloo ,  r\l]7? IUERO : H e r funeral shall be wealthy, f o r her name.. ' . ^ j Mer i ts a tomb o f pear l ; m y l o r d A n t o n i o , 70 ' ; F o r this time wipe your lady f r o m your eyes, N o doubt our grief and yours may one day court i t , W h e n we are more familiar w i t h Revenge. • ANTONIO : That is m y comfort gendemen, and I joy i I n this one happiness above the rest. . W h i c h w i l l b^^ftlled-^mifacje-afrjast, I Tfea^-bemg-anH3ld-man r-Iid»a"Wife.so-diaste. . Exeunt. _ J A (O'f \ 54. Saver: a term derived from various games. . o /-v-ro-f. A C T T W O * X C E N E - O N E Enter C A S T I Z A , the sister, M ^QV'GW A ?.LH \ , C A S T I Z A : H O W h a r d l y s h a l l t h a t m a i d e n b e _ h £ S £ t . _ ^\'t.S At-oV; W h o s e o n l y f o r t u n e s a r e h e r c o n s t a n t t h o u g h t s , vjs^'f £ r > - f i T h a t h a s n o o t h e r c h i l d ' s - p a r t b u t h e r h o n o u r , "\N> \v> T h a t k e e p s h e r l o w a n d e m p t y i n e s t a t e . M a i d s a n d t h e i r h o n o u r s a r e l i k e p o o r b e g i n n e r s , W e r e n o t s i n r i c h t h e r e w o u l d b e f e w e r s i n n e r s ; W h y h a d n o t v i r t u e a r e v e n u e ? W e l l I k n o w t h e c a u s e , ' t w o u l d h a v e i m p o v e r i s h e d h e l l . [Enter D O N D O L O .] >^  . t O ^ i . K s ^ ' ; j \ ^ _j _ H o w n o w , D o n d o l o ? D O N D O L O : M a d o n a , t h e r e i s o n e , a s t h e y s a y a t h i n g o f f l e s h a n d b l o o d , a m a n I t a k e h i m b y h i s b e a r d , t h a t w o u l d v e r y d e s i r o u s l y m o u t h t o m o u t h w i t h y o u . C A S T I Z A : W h a t ' s t h a t ? D O N D O L O : S h o w h i s t e e t h i n y o u r c o m p a n y . C A S T I Z A : I u n d e r s t a n d t h e e n o t . D O N D O L O : W h y , s p e a k w i t h y o u , m a d o n a ! C A S T I Z A : W_h.YjL.gayso, m a d m a n , a n d c u t o f f a g r e a t d e a l SrfMtoO* O f d i r t y w a y ; h a d i t n o t b e e n b e t t e r s p o k e I n o r d i n a r y w o r d s , t h a t o n e w o u l d s p e a k w i t h me ? , D O N D O L O : H a , h a , t h a t ' s a s o r d i n a r y a s t w o s h i l l i n g s , I w o u l d s t r i v e a l i t t l e t o s h o w m y s e l f i n m y p l a c e , a g e n t l e m a n - u s h e r s c o r n s t o u s e t h e p h r a s e a n d f a n c y o f a s e r v i n g m a n . C A S T I Z A : Y o u r s b e y o u r o w n s i r ; g o d i r e c t h i m h i t h e r . ^ ^ V " r N - > , . g c I £<"'<'" [Exit D O N D O L O . ] " • I -' -• 4 - h o p e - 6 0 i n e - h a p p y t i d i n g s faot*M»y-brother T h a t - l a t e l y - t r a v e l l e d s - w h o m m y o o u l n f i c e t s . H e r e - h e - c o n a e s . /,.. \ . . . Enter V I N D I C E , her brother disguised. \\\^ f t 7"""*"" • A'5*'1 3. Child's-part: inheritance. 26. Affects: loves. ~~ 6 6 53. A C T T W O , S C E N E O N E VINDICE: L a d y , t h e b e s t o f w i s h e s t o y o u r s e x ; . F a i r s k i n s a n d n e w g o w n s . CASTIZA: O h t h e y s h a l l t h a n k y o u , s i r . . W h e n c e t h i s ? VINDICE: O h f r o m a d e a r a n d w o r t h y f r i e n d , M i g h t y ! CASTIZA: F r o m w h o m ? VINDICE: T h e D u k e ' s s o n ! CASTIZA: R e c e i v e t h a t ! I s w o r e I ' d p u t a n g e r i n m y h a n d A n d p a s s t h e v i r g i n l i m i t s o f m y s e l f T o h i m t h a t n e x t a p p e a r e d i n t h a t b a s e office T o b e h i s s i n s ' a t t o r n e y . B e a r t o h i m T h a t f i g u r e o f m y h a t e u p o n t h y c h e e k W h i l s t ' t i s y e t h o t , a n d I ' l l r e w a r d t h e e f o r ' t ; T e l l h i m m y h o n o u r s h a l l h a v e a r i c h n a m e W h e n s e v e r a l h a r l o t s s h a l l s h a r e h i s w i t h s h a m e . F a r e w e l l , c o m m e n d m e t o h i m i n m y h a t e ! * - . . . . A a . H - J 50 40 VINDICE: I t i s t h e s w e e t e s t b o x t h a t e ' e r m y n o s e c _ m i e _ n i g h , ~ T h e f i n e s t d r a w n - w o r k c u f f t h a t e ' e r w a s w o r n ; I ' l l l o v e t h i s b l o w f o r e v e r , a n d t h i s c h e e k S h a l l s t i l l h e n c e f o r w a r d t a k e t h e w a l l o f t h i s . O h I ' m a b o v e m y t o n g u e ! M o s t c o n s t a n t s i s t e r , I n t h i s t h o u h a s t r i g h t h o n o u r a b l e s h o w n ; M a n y a r e c a l l e d b y t h e i r h o n o u r t h a t h a v e n o n e , T h o u a r t a p p r o v e d f o r e v e r i n m y t h o u g h t s . I t i s n o t i n t h e p o w e r o f w o r d s t o t a i n t t h e e , A n d y e t f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n o f m y o a t h , • 1 X L ioUxSl. av-<uc.tOS 50 A s m y r e s o l v e i n t h a t p o i n t , I w i l l l a y H a r d s i e g e u n t o m y m o t h e r , t h o ' I k n o w A s i r e n ' s t o n g u e c o u l d n o t b e w i t c h h e r s o . 35. Virgin limits: see note to I. i i i . 17. 46. Take the wall: have precedence over. 50. Approved: proved. 6 7 V m T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y [Enter G R A T I A N A . ] /\ | . \V-DxW^ L c y i \ M a s s , f i t l y h e r e s h e c o m e s . T h a n k s , m y d i s g u i s e , il • . .> £ M a d a m , g o o d a f t e r n o o n , ^ . r ^ c , ' G R A T I A N A : Y ' a r e w e l c o m e s i r . V I N D I C E : T h e n e x t o f I t a l y c o m m e n d s h i m t o y o u , O u r m i g h t y e x p e c t a t i o n , t h e D u k e ' s s o n . 60 G R A T I A N A : I t h i n k m y s e l f m u c h h o n o u r e d , t h a t h e p l e a s e s — T o r a n k m e i n h i s t h o u g h t s . V I N D I C E : S o m a y y o u l a d y : O n e t h a t i s l i k e t o b e o u r s u d d e n d u k e -T h e c r o w n g a p e s f o r h i m e v e r y t i d e - a n d t h e n C o m m a n d e r o ' e r u s a l l , d p b u t t h i n k o n h i m , H o w b l e s t w e r e t h e y n o w t h a t c o u l d p l e a s u r e T i T m T E ' e n w i t h a n y t h i n g a l m o s t . G R A T I A N A : A y , s a v e t h e i r h o n o u r . . . . 70 V I N D I C E : T u t , o n e w o u l d l e t a l i t t l e o f t h a t g o t o o A n d n e ' e r b e s e e n i n ' t : n e ' e r b e s e e n i n ' t , m a r k y o u . I ' d w i n k a n d l e t i t g o . G R A T I A N A : M a r r y b u t I w o u l d n o t . 80 V I N D I C E : M a r r y b u t I w o u l d I h o p e , I k n o w y o u w o u l d t o o , I f y o u ' d t h a t b l o o d n o w w h i c h y o u g a v e y o u r d a u g h t e r ; T o h e r i n d e e d ' t i s , t h i s w h e e l c o m e s a b o u t ; ' & T h a t m a n t h a t m u s t b e a l l t h i s , p e r h a p s e r e m o r n i n g - F o r h i s w h i t e f a t h e r d o e s b u t m o u l d a w a y -H a s l o n g d e s i r e d y o u r d a u g h t e r . G R A T I A N A : D e s i r e d ? ' V I N D I C E : N a y b u t h e a r m e , H e d e s i r e s n o w t h a t w i l l c o m m a n d h e r e a f t e r , T h e r e f o r e b e w i s e , I s p e a k a s m o r e a f r i e n d T o y o u t h a n h i m ; M a d a m , I k n o w y o u ' r e p o o r , A n d ' l a c k t h e d a y , t h e r e a r e t o o m a n y p o o r l a d i e s a l r e a d y W h y s h o u l d y o u v e x t h e m e m b e r ? ' T i s d e s p i s e d ; L i v e w e a l t h y , r i g h t l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r l d A n d c h i d e a w a y t h a t f o o l i s h c o u n t r y g i r l K e e p s c o m p a n y w i t h y o u r d a u g h t e r , C h a s t i t y . 58. The next: i n line o f succession. 68 1 A C T T W O , S C E N E O N E GRATIANA: O h fie, fie, the riches o f the w o r l d cannot hire . A mother to such a most unnatural task. VINDICE: NO, but a thousand angels can, M e n have no power, angels must w o r k y o u to't. T h e w o r l d descends into such base-born evils That forty angels can make fourscore devi ls ; There w i l l be fools st i l l I perceive, st i l l foolfs]. W o u l d I be poor, dejected, scorned o f greatness, Swept f r o m the palace, and see other daughters Spr ing w i t h the dew o ' th 'Court , having mine o w n So m u c h desired and loved - by the Duke 's son ?  90 N o , I w o u l d raise my state u p o n her breast A n d call her eyes my tenants, I w o u l d count M y yearly maintenance u p o n her cheeks: Take coach u p o n her l i p , and al l her parts Should keep men after men, and I w o u l d ride In pleasure u p o n pleasure. Y o u took great pains for her, once when it was, L e t her requite it n o w , tho ' it be but some; Y o u brought her forth, she may wel l b r i n g you home. GRATIANA: O heavens! This overcomes me! ^ ^ w - e f t ^ t ^ ^ o ' y U i o p e r a Irea dy ? GRATIANA [aside]: It is too strong for me, men k n o w that k n o w us W e are so weak their words can overthrow us. H e touched me near-ly, made my virtues 'bate, W h e n his tongue struck u p o n m y poor estate. VINDICE [tfWf]-:-I-«^-^uake^o^roc«ed, , ^y-spirit ' tums «l4ge !-•tfeAr-me-she's-unmerther^y-y^t-J^U-A^ntute, '^Chat.woman-is'all-male-whonvnone-eHnrenter-' -What think y o u n o w lady, speak, are y o u wiser ? What said advancement to you? T h u s it said: The daughter's fall lifts up the mother's head! D i d it not madam? B u t I ' l l swear it does 88-90. Angels: gold coins, worth about ten shillings. 6 9 - T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y , In many places: tut, this age fears no man, " T i s no shame to be bad, because 'tis c o m m o n ' . / G R A T I A N A : A y , that's the comfort on't . ^lo \| 2 0 V I N D I C E [(7jwfe_-: T-he.<omforfcM>a l^ -I keep the best for last; can these persuade you [Showing her gold.] T o forget heaven and -G R A T I A N A : A y , these are they -V I N D I C E : O h ! - , - = = = ^ w , "t>?j55 < G R A T I A N A : That enchant our sex; 0 ^ ^ These are the means that govern our affections — that . 1 w o m a n ^ \ W . y( t>rs. W i l l not be troubled w i t h the mother l o n g >( / o'-oo L That sees the comfortable shine o f y o u ; , ' ' , . I b lush to think what for your sakes I ' l l d o ! 4 T V I N D I C E \taide]: • O •• suffering-J^awftj-witiv^y-MVWsible fing«r E ^ - a M i i s - i n s t a n t - - t i i r n - 4 l w - ^ r e € i e « 6 - « i d e 3 0 Of-ttoth-mine eyebflUs-iflwa-rdy-not to gee myself. G R A T I A N A : L o o k you sir. . V I N D I C E : H o l l a . - : , j u i . O > § / G R A T I A N A : L e t this thank your pains. , ' V I N D I C E : O you're a k i n d madam. c\)^t-<b. \\\\\ u.'O^vssA G R A T I A N A : I ' l l see h o w I can move. ' V I N D I C E : Y o u r words w i l l st ing y fx G R A T I A N A : I f she be sti l l chaste, I ' l l never cal l her mine. VWBI-GB [tfj^g]:^pQlceJruer.diaji-yoii,nifaatiif. G R A T I A N A : Daughter Castiza. „..,..•• •. X Ko Pi (LL>i \ [Enter C A S T I Z A . ] VkNV-ljb C A S T I Z A : M a d a m ? V I N D I C E : O she's yonder. Meet her. [Aside] T^©ops-^f-^ele«tial--soldiers-gu««Wier heart, Yo«-da«*4Mis-<levils-«nough-t©-ta44«4»er -part. 125. The mother: punning on sense o f ' h y s t e r i a ' . Cf. line 239. 128. Suffering: permitting. 7 0 v. 140 150 A C T T W O , S C E N E O N E C A S T I Z A : M a d a m , what makes yon evil-officed man In presence o f you ? G R A T I A N A : W h y ? C A S T I Z A : H e latelyJbrought Immodest w r i t i n g sent f r o m the D u k e ' s son T o tempt me to dishonourable act. G R A T I A N A : Dishonourable act? G o o d honourable foo l , That wouldst be honest cause thou wouldst be so, P r o d u c i n g no one reason but thy w i l l ; And ' t ' as a g o o d report, prettily commended B u t pray by w h o m ? M e a n people, ignorant people, T h e better sort I ' m sure cannot abide it , A n d by what rule shouldst we square out our lives, B u t by our betters' actions ? O h i f thou knew'st W h a t 'twere to lose it , thou w o u l d never keep' i t : B u t there's a co ld curse la id u p o n all maids, W h i l e other[s] cl ip the sun they clasp the shades! V i r g i n i t y is paradise, locked up. Y o u cannot come by yourselves wi thout fee. A n d 'twas decreed that man should keep the key. D e n y advancement, treasure, the D u k e ' s son! C A S T I Z A : I cry you mercy. L a d y , 1'mistook you. Pray d i d y o u see my mother ? W h i c h way went you ? Pray G o d I have not lost her. VWBME[aside]'. Prettilyput-4vy. 160 G R A T I A N A : A r e you as p r o u d to me as coy to h i m ? D o y o u not k n o w me n o w ? ' C A S T I Z A : W h y , are you she? T h e wor ld ' s so changed, one shape into another It is a wise chi ld n o w that knows her mother. V I N D I C E : M o s t right, i ' faith. G R A T I A N A : I owe your cheek m y hand F o r that presumption n o w , but I ' l l forget it. Come, you shall leave these chi ldish 'haviours A n d understand your time. Fortunes flow to you, What , w i l l you be a g i r l ? \A.\UO">) 17° 147. Mean: lower-class. 153. Clip: embrace. 71 •x ^ T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y L?< -M -all faftfed-d^v^iflg-tha^^y^vM^cs-asbiare, G o l d wot i ld-grow-t ich and -all the-merchants-poor. C A S T I Z A : It is a pretty saying o f a wicked one, B u t methinks n o w , it does not show so w e l l O u t o f your m o u t h , - better i n his. Were I-in-earnest-,-as-Ml-seeiv»-n»4e»>s. -I wonder lady, yciur_ownmother's ..words Cannot be taken, n o r stand i n f u l l force. 180 'T is honesty y o u urge; what's honesty? 'T is but heaven's beggar, and what w o m a n is So foolish to keep honesty A n d be not able to keep herself? N o , Times are g r o w n wiser and w i l l keep less charge. A maid that has small p o r t i o n n o w intends T o break up house and l ive u p o n her friends. H o w blest are you , you have happiness alone! Others must fal l to thousands, you to one Sufficient i n himself to make your forehead 1 9 0 Dazz le the w o r l d w i t h jewels, and petitionary people Start at your presence. G R A T I A N A : O h . i f I were young, I should be ravish 'd! C A S T I Z A : A y , to lose your honour. V I N D I C E : ' S l i d , h o w can you lose your honour T o deal w i t h m y lord's Grace ? H e ' l l add more honour to it by his title. Y o u r mother w i l l tell y o u h o w . G R A T I A N A : _ That I w i l l . .. V I N D I C E : O think u p o n the pleasure o f the palace, Secured ease and state, the st irr ing meats Ready to move out of the dishes That e'en n o w quicken w h e n they're eaten! Banquets abroad by torch-l ight, music, sports, Bare-headed vassals, that had ne'er the fortune T o keep o n their o w n hats, but let horns wear ' e m ! 180. Honesty: chastity. 1 9 0 . Petitionary people: p e o p l e s e e k i n g f a v o u r s . 7* — >( U L ^ \ W X UL. — X C L 56 . A C T T W O , S C E N E O N E N i n e coaches wai t ing - hurry, hurry, hurry. ^ ^ O l ^ A C - ' S S C A S T I Z A : A y , t o t h e d e v i l . • • • • • X ^ X L OPf^  v^ (2.'A'C V I N D I C E [iwWg] i Ay-, to the devi l . - T o the D u k e , by my . ' faith. G R A T I A N A : A y , to the D u k e : daughter, you 'd scorn to , y y ( -think r x U K ^ X " ' J O ' t h ' d e v i l , an y o u were there once. i ^ ^ J i : I M e . _ f o r „ m o s t . t h e r e « a r e - a * . p * © u d 210 i.s he for his heart, i ' faith. -( h o ' d sit at home i n a neglected r o o m , D e a l i n g her short-lived beauty to the pictures T h a \ a r e as useless as o l d men, when those P o o r e \ i n face and fortune than herself W a l k w i t h a hundred acres o n their backs, F a i r meadows cut into green fore-parts ? O h ! It was the greatest blessing ever happened to w o m e n W h e n farmers',, sons agreed and met again T o wash their hands and come up gentlemen. 220 T h e commonwealth has flourished ever since: -Lands that were meat by the r o d - that labour's spared -Tailors ride d o w n arid measure ' c m by the yard. F a i r trees, those comely foretops of the field, A r e cut to maintain head-tires - m u c h unto ld . , A l l thrives but Chastity, she lies a-cold. N a y , shall I come nearer to y o u ? M a r k but this: W h y are there so few honest w o m e n , but Because 'tis the poorer profession ? ; That's accounted best that's best f o l l o w e d ; 230 Least i n trade, least i n fashion, \ ;. A n d that's not honesty, believe i t ; arid do B u t note the l o w and dejected price of i t : 'Lose but a pearl, we search and cannot b r o o k i t , ' B u t that once gone, w h o is so mad to look\it ?' 0 -R-ATiA 'N'A-!-Troth;"rie"Says-true;—~' ' •• •'• \ 209. An: if. 220. Come up: to L o n d o n . 222. Meal: measured. 225. Head-tires: head-dresses. Untold: uncounted. 7 J '1 T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y C A S T I Z A : F a l s e ! I d e f y y o u b o t h l I h a v e e n d u r e d y o u w i t h a n e a r o f f i r e , Y o u r t o n g u e s h a v e s t r u c k h o t i r o n s o n m y f a c e . M o t h e r , c o m e f r o m t h a t p o i s o n o u s w o m a n t h e r e . 2 4 0 G R A T I A N A : W h e r e ? C A S T I Z A : D o y o u n o t s e e h e r ? S h e ' s t o o i n w a r d t h e n . S l a v e , p e r i s h i n t h y o f f i c e ! Y o u h e a v e n s , p l e a s e H e n c e f o r t h t o m a k e t h e m o t h e r a d i s e a s e W h i c h f i r s t b e g i n s w i t h m e ; y e t I ' v e o u t g o n e y o u . . Exit. - Ps^cvv.  \ _ UO\'(- U . VINJH.CE [aside]: O a n g e l s , < J a p - y o u i - w i n g s - 4 i p o n , t h e u s k i e s • A n d - g i v e - t h i s v : i r g i n - G t y * t a I - p l a « 4 i t i e s ! G R A T I A N A : j P e e v i s h , c o y , f o o l i s h ! - B u t r e t u r n t h i s a n s w e r ; M y l o r d s h a l l b e m o s t w e l c o m e , w h e n h i s p l e a s u r e C o n d u c t s h i m t h i s w a y . I w i l l s w a y m i n e o w n , 2 5 0 W o m e n w i t h w o m e n c a n w o r k b e s t a l o n e , . v . Exit. _ ; : __ %&\\ r V I N D I C E : I n d e e d I ' l l t e l l h i m s o . O m o r e u n c i v i l , m o r e u n n a t u r a l _ 2 6 0 T h a n t h o s e b a s e - t i t l e d c r e a t u r e s t h a t l o o k d o w n w a r d ! W h y - d o e s - n o t - h e a v e n - t u r n - b l a c - k y - o r - J i v i t h . a f r o w n U n d o - t h e - w o r l d ? - - W h y - d o e s - n o t - e a x t L ^ t a r L u p A n d s t r i k e t h e s i n s - t h a t - t r e a d - u p o » i t r ? - - © h , W e r e ^ t - n o t - • f o r - g o l d - a n d - w o m e n 5 - t h e r e - w o u l d b e - n o d a m n a t i o i v — H e l l - w o u l d l o o k l i k e - a l o r d - ' s - g r e a t - . k i t c h e n - A v i t i i o u t - f i i x i n - ' t . B u t ' t w a s d e c r e e d b e f o r e t h e w o r l d b e g a n , T h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e t h e h o o k s t o c a t c h a t m a n . B x i L 'n!.*OVA£>.\i 'h\it\\ V 2 5 2 . Uncivil: barbarous. Y K. 57. ACT TWO, SCENE TWO [SCENE TWO] Enter L U S S U R I O S O with H I P P O L I T O , V I N D I C E ' / brother. "Dc^Vx. ^AYYXI'-S L U S S U R I O S O : I m u c h a p p l a u d _ T h y j u d g e m e n t . T h o u a r t w e l l r e a d i n a f e l l o w , A n d ' t i s t h e d e e p e s t a r t t o s t u d y m a n . I k n o w t h i s , w h i c h I n e v e r l e a r n t i n s c h o o l s , • T h e w o r l d ' s d i v i d e d i n t o k n a v e s a n d f o o l s . H I P P O L I T o { t w / V / . g ] : J < n a v e 4 n - y o u r - f a c e , - m y - l e r d — b e h i n d y o u r b a c k , -L U S S U R I O S O : A n d I m u c h t h a n k t h e e , t h a t t h o u h a s t p r e f e r r e d A f e l l o w o f d i s c o u r s e w e l l m i n g l e d , A n d w h o s e b r a i n t i m e h a t h s e a s o n e d . - T f u e 7 - m y - 4 © « d , m - P P O L i T O : W e - - - s h a l l ' £ n d - s e a s o n . < > n c e y J - h o p e ^ T o . m a k e s u c h . a n . u n n a t u r a h s l a v e o f - m e , — b u t — j [Enter V I N D I C E disguised.] 'lftf.'._o.'*vU \\V.S\ 2, : L U S S U R I O S O : M a s s , h e r e h e c o m e s . ; H - i - p p O L i T - o ~ [ r t j , / V f e ] : - - A n d - n o w - s h a l l - I - - h a v e - - f r e c l e a v e t o j d e p a r t ' L U S S U R I O S O : Y o u r a b s e n c e - l e a v e u s . ' ! im>~p-0iii¥O-{(tsiek]-i-» — A - r e - n e t - m y ~ t l i 0 u g l i t s 4 « « € ? I - m u s t r e m o v e ; - b u t - b r Q t i e i ^ o » w n a y - - s t a ^ - y — i H c n t t . - w e - a r e b o t h m a d e b a w d s - a - n e w - f o u n d - w a y . y. 1 Exit..... .. . ,........ ,UU\\J....... L U S S U R I O S O : NOW w e ' r e a n e v e n n u m b e r , a t h i r d m a n ' s d a n g e r o u s , E s p e c i a l l y h e r b r o t h e r ; s a y , b e f r e e , H a v e I a p l e a s u r e t o w a r d ? — V I N D I C E : O h m y l o r d ! L U S S U R I O S O : R a v i s h m e i n t h i n e a n s w e r ; a r t t h o u r a r e ? 20 H a s t t h o u b e g u i l e d h e r o f s a l v a t i o n '• A n d r u b b e d h e l l o ' e r w i t h h o n e y ? I s s h e a w o m a n ? V I N D I C E : I n a l l b u t i n d e s i r e . V c d < - s A a \v A-r> v0\^0 7 5 T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y LUSSURIOSO: T h e n shj^sjin n o t h i n g . Y , « fv\>\\\\) I 'bate i n courage now. "~! \ ~- ' v \ ) VINDICE: T h e words I brought M i g h t w e l l have made indifferent honest naught. A r ight g o o d w o m a n i n these days is changed Into white money w i t h less labour far; <" M a n y a maid has turned to Mahomet W i t h easier w o r k i n g ; I durst undertake 30 U p o n the pawn and forfeit o f my life * W i t h half those words to flat a Puritan's wife. B u t she is close and g o o d ; yet 'tis a doubt : / . :. ,. / ^ \ ) . > ^ B y this time. O h the mother, the mother! . ^ \Q LUSSURIOSO: I never thought their sex had been a (Uiv< C-tOAc »N wonder U n t i l this minute; what fruit f r o m the mother.?___. _ ' ^ f o V o c f VINDICE [aside] .•-Now-must I bhster»my-soul,--be-f<M6W©«k ' *" ' Gx^hame-the:Woman:that.received:rni^_fitat. I-will-be-true;-thou l iv 's t not-to-proelawa; Spoke-to a dying-man; shame- has-no-shame. -My-lor-4-LTTSSURIOSO: Who's-that-? 40 V - I - N D I C E : - -~—Here's-none-but~Iy-my-l©*d-. - • LI>S s-u-R 1 o s o :-What-would-thy-haste-uttGr ? V - I - N D L C E : - - - Gomfoftr LUSSURIOSO: Welcome. VINDICE: T h e maid being d u l l , having no m i n d j o t r a v e l A\y^ 1 Into u n k n o w n lands, what d i d me I straight * \ B u t set spurs to the mother; golden spurs "-^p .• •'. (> W i l l put her to a false gallop i n a trice. LUSSURIOSO: Is't possible that i n this T h e mother should be damned before the daughter ? VINDICE: O h that's g o o d manners, my l o r d ; the mother for H e r age must go foremost, y o u k n o w . LUSSURIOSO: Thou's t spoke that true, but where comes i n 50 this comfort? 24. Courage: spirits. 25. Naught: naughty, bad. 7 6 58. A C T T W O , S C E N E T W O VINDICE : I n a fine place, m y l o r d , - the unnatural mother D i d w i t h her tongue so hard beset her honour That the p o o r foo l was struck to silent wonder ; U \M , T £ Wascold-and-c-haste;' save -that- •her-.motheris-b«<jath l5id b l o w fire o n her cheeks. T h e g i r l departed BuVthe g o o d ancient madam, half mad, threw me These promis ing words, w h i c h I took deeply note of: ' M y l d r d shall be most welcome - ' LUSSURIOSO: T a i t h , I thank her. VINDICE : v - W h e n his pleasure conducts h i m this way. ' 60 LUSSURIOSO; That shall be soon, i ' faith. VINDICE: \ ' I w i l l sway mine o w n . ' LUSSURIOSO: She does the wiser, I commend her for't . VINDICE : ' W o m e r i w i t h w o m e n can w o r k best alone.' LUSSURIOSO: B y this l ight and so they can! G i v e 'em T h e i r due, men are^not comparable to 'em. VINDICE: NO, that's true, for y o u shall have one woman K n i t more i n an hour x than any man Can ravel again i n sevcta and twenty year. LUSSURIOSO: N o w m y desires are happy; I ' l l make 'em free-men n o w . \ T h o u art a precious fe l low, ' ' fa i th I love thee; Be wise and make it thy revenue. B e g , leg! What office couldst thou be ambitious for? VINDICE : Office, m y l o r d ! \ M a r r y , i f I might have my w i s h , L w o u l d H a v e one that was never begged yet. LUSSURIOSO: N a y , then thou canst have none. VINDICE: \ Yes , my l o r d , I could pick out another office yet. \ N a y , and keep a horse and drab upon't . \^  LUSSURIOSO: Prithee, g o o d bluntness, tell nie. VINDICE : W h y , I w o u l d desire but this, my l o r d ; T o have a l l the fees behind the arras, and all \^  71. Beg, kg!: kneel d o w n to ask a favour. 78. Drab: whore. 77 70 80 1 A J _MtvO I, T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y • ^ f i e " f a r t h i n g a l e s t h a t f a l l p l u m p a b o u t t w e l v e o ' c l o c k A t n i g h t u p b " n t h e ^ r u s h e s . L U S S U R I O S O : T h o u ' r t j f T T i a d ^ a p p r e h e n s i v e k n a v e ; D o s t t h i n k t o m a k e a n y g r e a f p t r K i y i s e o f t h a t ? V I N D I C E : O h ' t i s a n u n k n o w n t h i n g m y l o r < i ^ I _ V ' O n d e r ' T ' a s b e e n m i s s e d s o l o n g ! L U S S U R I O S O : W e l l , t h i s n i g h t I ' l l v i s i t h e r , a n d ' t i s t i l l t h e n A y e a r i n m y d e s i r e s . F a r e w e l l , a t t e n d ; T r u s t m e w i t h t h y p r e f e r m e n t . Exit. AUemWi h%* 2. 90 V I N D I C E : M y l o v e d l o r d . -_ O h , s h a l l I k i l l h i m o ' t h ' w r o n g - s i d e n o w ? N o ! S w o r d , t h o u w a s t n e v e r a b a c k - b i t e r y e t . I ' l l p i e r c e h i m t o h i s f a c e ; h e s h a l l d i e l o o k i n g u p o n m e ; T h y v e i n s a r e s w e l l e d w i t h l u s t , t h i s s h a l l u n f i l l ' e m ; G r e a t m e n w e r e g o d s , i f b e g g a r s c o u l d n o t k i l l ' e m . F o r g i v e m e , h e a v e n , t o c a l l m y m o t h e r w i c k e d ; O h l e s s e n n o t m y d a y s u p o n t h e e a r t h , I c a n n o t h o n o u r h e r . - © y - t W - s r i - f e a * - H i e J r f c x ' t o n g u e 4 i a s H : u r n e d - - m y - s i s t e r - - i n t e - « s e . 100 I w a s a v i i i a i n n o t t o b e f o r s w o r n , T o t h i s o u r l e c h e r o u s h o p e , t h e D u k e ' s s o n ; F o r l a w y e r s , m e r c h a n t s j - s o m e d i v i n e s , a n d a l l C o u n t b e n e f i c i a l p e r j u r y a s i n ' s m a l l . I t s h a l l g o h a r d y e t , b u t I ' l l g u a r d I i e r - i j o n o u r Aed- k e e p - t f a e - ' p o r - t e - e u r e . Enter H I P P O L I T O . ""SX>£> ^ 9^ rw*-.^ . H I P P O L I T O : B r o t h e r , h o w g o e s t h e w o r l d ? I w o u l d k n o w n e w s O f y o u , b u t I h a v e n e w s t o t e l l y o u . V I N D I C E : W h a t , i n t h e n a m e o f k n a v e r y ? H I P P O L I T O : K n a v e r y , ' f a i t h ; T h i s v i c i o u s o l d d u k e ' s w o r t h i l y a b u s e d ; 110 T h e p e n o f h i s b a s t a r d w r i t e s h i m c u c k o l d ! 84. Apprehensive: quick-witted. 105. Ports: gates. 109. Abused: deceived. 7 8 "BOVJ-X. Sy^iO A C T T W O , S C E N E T W O V I N D I C E : H i s bastard? H I P P O L I T O : Pray believe i t ; he and the duchess B y night meet i n their l i n e n ; they have been seen B y stair-foot panders. V I N D I C E : O h sin f o u l and deep! Great faute f See, see, here comes the Spurio_/ [Enter S P U R I O with two servants!] -»H>-p-©i«:-0-; : - M o n s t r o u s - l u x u r ! w^_«e-»r-Unbracedn-t\w>-of"his-^ Oy-there's-a-wicked-whisper,—hell-is~in-his»ear. 6t!iy,-iet!s-TDbserve-hiS'pa&6age. y [They withdraw^ \ ( I t O ^ O S f c b <~\0 S P U R I O : O h , but are you sure o n ' t ? o a v j \ o f SC& S E R V A N T : M y l o r d , most sure on't , f o r ' t w a s spoke by one 120 | That is most i n w a r d w i t h the D u k e ' s son's lust That he intends w i t h i n this h o u r to steal U n t o H i p p o l i t o ' s sister, whose chaste life T h e mother has corrupted for his use. ! S P U R I O : Sweet w o r d , sweet occas ion! 'Fa i th then, brother, I ' l l disinherit y o u i n as short time A s I was when I was begot i n haste, I ' l l damn you at your pleasure - precious deed! ; After your lust, oh ' t w i l l be fine to bleed. Come, let our passing out be soft and wary. 1 jo Exeunt. ___,_„ U ^ . l < . V I N D I C E : Mark_r--thefei^lierev-^at~-step—new, to the D. . ..V. nnr. • TlHS-thei*-second-meeriag~w,rite^ W4th-Hew-additions,. hishorns=newly- rev ived: N i g h t ! T h o u that look'st l ike funeral heralds' fees y , , T o r n d o w n betimes i ' th 'morning, thou hang'st fitly ?_ To grace those sins that have no grace at all . N o w ' t i s fu l l sea a-bed over the w o r l d , ACOv.^O QK_C_> £•*_,'<_. There's juggl ing of al l sides; some that were maids ' 116. Unbraced: without doublet; in his shirt, j 134. Fees: 'phcaze', hangings. 7 9 T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y r 7 •• E ' e n at sunset are n o w perhaps i 'th'toll-boolc. 140 This woman-in immodest-thin-appa*el Lets in- her-friend-by-water;.liere-a-dame C u n n i n g nails leather hinges-to-a-d-oer T o - a v o i d , proclamation. Now-cuckolds_are a^cpining, apace, apace, apace, apace! A n d careful sisters spin that thread i ' th 'night That does maintain them and their bawds i 'th'day. H I P P O L I T O : Y o u flow wel l , brother! V I N D I C E : P u h , I ' m shallow yet, Teo-sparing-and-too- modest ;~shall-I-tell-t-rie'e ? I f every-trick were.told that's-dealt -by-night, 150 There-are few-here that-would not blush-outright. HIPM>-LI-T-O:-I am-of-that-belief too. W h o ' s this-comes? [Enter L U S S U R I O S O . ] ^\VV^DJJ&>\ j\tt\\ "2. V I N D I C E : T h e D u k e ' s son u p so late? Brother, fal l back ARd^ou~6feall-4earn-^me-4»is^i€f. [ H I P P O L I T O with-draws^ - M y g o o d l o r d . L U S S U R I O S O : Piato, why, the man I wished for! Come, _ I do embrace this season for the fittest T o taste o f that y o u n g lady, v H J J M C E . [ d J « f e ] j — — — — — —— H e a r t - a n d - h e t t ! n*woiii90-[aside] :~Damned--viUftin! ~ V - u u a i . C E . [aside] :-I-ha',.no-way-Jio w-to~cf oss4t-,-but-to-kill ' hirrr. L U S S U R I O S O : Come, only thou and I. V I N D I C E : M y l o r d , my l o r d . 1 6 0 L U S S U R I O S O : W h y dost thou start us? V I N D I C E : I ' d almost forgot - the bastard! L U S S U R I O S O : What o f h i m ? V I N D I C E : T h i s night, this hour - this minute, n o w -L U S S U R I O S O : W h a t ? W h a t ? V I N D I C E : Shadows the duchess - . _.. L U S S U R I O S O : H o r r i b l e w o r d ! V I N D I C E : A n d l ike strong poison eats Into the duke your father's forehead. 139. Toll-book: list o f horses o n sale at a fair. 80 X X o .Uf\<L \ t O D . X u t - P - X t u b s t r- r ' 60. A C T T W O , S C E N E T W O L U S S U R I O S O : O h l V I N D I C E : H e makes h o r n royal . L U S S U R I O S O : M o s t ignoble slave! V I N D I C E : This is the fruit o f two beds. L U S S U R I O S O : I am mad. V I N D I C E : That passage he t r o d wari ly. L U S S U R I O S O : H e d i d ? V I N D I C E : A n d hushed his vil lains every step he took. L U S S U R I O S O : H i s v i l la ins? I ' l l confound them. V I N D I C E : Take 'em finely, finely now. L U S S U R I O S O : T h e duchess' chamber-door shall not con-t r o l me. m-p P Oi-iT<>:~€©odr-happy,"-swift^ ^ t h ' c o u r t r Wildf ire at-midnight ;~in- this •heedless.fury He-may-show-violence to cross himself. I'41- follow- the-event. Exit. \l AV-VAP'C '\)$ S ' x f Y & S 170 -— ^ o e - s J^X> <y^js^ [ S C E N E T H R E E ] [ni^-B-aud-nxjJZ&nss-discovered-iK-bedr] Enter again [ L U S S U R I O S O and V I N D I C E ] . A"oV-l£>^J> &\ y\vPT> L U S S U R I O S O : Where is that v i l l a i n ? • ' V I N D I C E : Softly m y l o r d , and y o u may take 'em twisted. ; L U S S U R I O S O : I care not h o w ! ( V I N D I C E : O h , ' t w i l l be glorious > T o k i l l 'em doubled, when they're heaped; be soft, m y l o r d . ! L U S S U R I O S O : A w a y , my spleen is not so lazy; thus and j thus j I ' l l shake their eyelids ope, and w i t h my sword j Shut 'em again for ever. - • [ [Approaching bed.] . I V i l l a i n ! Strumpet! j AW- •ni' < 14-\) l / L u . T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y D U K E : YO U upper guard, defend us! / D U C H E S S : Treason, treason! D U K E : O h take me not i n sleep! i o I have great sins; I must have days, N a y , months dear son, w i t h penitential heaves, T o lift 'em out, and not to die unclear. O , thou wi l t k i l l me both i n heaven and here. L U S S U R I O S O : I am amazed to death! " ~ D U K E : N a y , v i l l a i n traitor, Worse than the foulest epithet, n o w I ' l l grip~th.ee ~ E ' e n w i t h the nerves o f wrath, and throw thy head VVJ.M'O. A m o n g s t the lawyers! G u a r d ! —~~~T"~] Enter N O B L E S and Sons [vi/li H L D P O L I T O ] . _\I.C,V. 2. | F I R S T N O B L E : H o w comes the quiet o f your grace dis- • turbed? D U K E : T h i s boy, that should be myself after me, 20. W o u l d be myself before me, and i n heat O f that ambit ion, b loodi ly rushed i n , Intending to depose me i n my bed. S E C O N D N O B L E : D u t y and natural loyalty forfend! L U D U C H E S S : H e called his father v i l l a i n , and me strumpet, A w o r d that I abhor to 'file my lips w i t h . A M B I T I O S O : That was not so w e l l done, brother. L U S S U R I O S O : I am abused -I k n o w there's no excuse can do me good. V H*D-I-&E--[i*«Vfr70-H-IP*^ b_~iom_iig_t; 30 His_Yicious . .pnrposeto.our.sister-s-hene«r Is-erossed-beyond-our-thougkt. H I-P-P 0 M T O :~You .little-dreamt-his-father-slept-lieee. V I'N D I C E : • Oh-'twas -far'bey ond-me, But-s ince i t fe l l -sorwithout- fr ight- fu l l -wordfs] , W o u l d - h e - h a d - ~ k i l l e d - " h i m , 'twould••• have -eased*-our swocds. [WNDie -E-W -H- IPPOL- ITOTfer ] D U K E : Be comforted our duchess, he shall die. 25. 'File: defile. 82 DU.< o f 1vV5 '1^4 V\J,V-._. LOW- '• O v A Ao V ^ . f S I ^ W  C\A.A?,UCX . S^avJi,^ 61. I A C T T W O , S C E N E T H R E E L U S S U R I O S O : W h e r e ' s t h i s s l a v e - p a n d e r n o w ? O u t o f m i n e e y e ? G u i l t y o f t h i s a b u s e . Enter S P U R I O with his villains. SPURIO.: Y ' a r e v i l l a i n s , f a b l e r s , i Y o u h a v e k n a v e s ' c h i n s a n d h a r l o t s ' t o n g u e s , y o u l i e . 40 ' A r r d - l - w i l l - d a m n - 5 ' o u - w i t h - o n e - m e a l - - a - d * y . I ' F I R S T S E R V A N T - : - 0 • g o e d - m y - i e s d ! I 1 S P U R I O: • ' S b l o o d - ! ~ Y o u - s h a l l n e v e c - s u p . ' ' S E C O N D - S E R V A N T : - O I b e s e e c h - y x j u - s i r . ; • s P-W-R-I-O : — T o - l e t ~ n a y - s w o * d , j C a t d i - c o U ^ o J o n g ~ a n d j r i i s s = h i a i . • . ' FJ41ST—s E R - v A N T . : — „ ™ - ™ , w - ™ I r o t h , - - m y - J e « l , \ ' T w a s J i i s J n t e n t - t o ^ i e « t - * h € r i - L j • S P U R I O : H e a r t , h e ' s y o n d e r I H a , w b f t f r f t e w » 4 » e r e ? - I s t h e - d a y - o u t - o ' - t h ^ s o e k e t ; T J m W t i s - n o o n - a t a m d n i g J a t ? - t h e c o u r t u p ? j . H e w - c o 4 M G ^ h e - g u - a r d - s © - - s a u G y - w 4 * ^ I • L U S S U R I O S O : T h e b a s t a r d h e r e ? i N a y t h e n , t h e t r u t h o f m y i n t e n t s h a l l o u t . 5° ' y ~\\\y' v'-' j M y l o r d a n d f a t h e r , h e a r m e . ' ' ^ V ^ V - - -1 D U K E : ' B e a r h i m h e n c e . . 1 ,. ~ „ r / \ j L U S S U R I O S O : I c a n w i t h l o y a l t y e x c u s e " - j ^ w v i i S ^ Ao \AM£> • j D U K E : E x c u s e ? T o p r i s o n w i t h t h e v i l l a i n ! j j D e a t h s h a l l n o t l o n g l a g a f t e r h i m . i ! S M A H I O r ^ ^ ] : ^ o o d s U ' f a i t h , - t h e n - t i s - n o t ^ i i u G b - ^ i » i » s . • ' L U S S U R I O S O : B r o t h e r s , m y b e s t r e l e a s e l i e s o n y o u r ! A „ , , , ; t o n g u e s ; ' j A « b V> "WW* I p r a y , p e r s u a d e f o r m e . j X^'lf >, \fc Xvv'Ot'-S ; A M B I T I O S O : I t i s o u r d u t i e s ; m a k e y o u r s e l f s u r e o f u s . / y ~ S U P E R V A C U O : W e ' l l s w e a t i n p l e a d i n g . j ^° A^'t 4-. ^>(X\>. Hv.\gf2. .. L U S S U R l o s 0 : _ A n d I.mayjive.to t h a n k y o u . . 6 0 ' , Exeunt [ L U S S U R I O S O and guards]. ' . V-'i-O-i ' V'.'i l~\f \'i \ ! : A M B I T I O S O [aside]: N o , t h y d e a t h s h a l l t h a n k m e b e t t e r . SP-B-R-IO [aside] : - H e V g o n e ; I ' l l a f t e r h i m ' ' V - ' X V ' C ~ \ > v - 1 V \ fe S1^ : A - n d ~ k n o w 4 i i s - t r e s p a s s ; - s e e m . . t o - b e a r - - a - j 3 a « t . . , I n f l l l - h i s i l l s , b u t w i t h - a - P u r - i t a n - h e f t t t . 1 /\ V\ v D - > - P > v V Cj'"W\'C.t 1 8 3 j M ^ v \ . T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y 70 Exit [ S P U R I O and villains]. A M B I T I O S O [aside]: N o w b r o t h e r , l e t o u r h a t e a n d l o v e b e /• _ . / w o v e n . • . — 1 A V i f c t>fe>\\\^/l. S o s u b t l y t o g e t h e r , t h a t i n s p e a k i n g o n e • C _ c c C y £ & & W o r d f o r h i s l i f e , w e m a y m a k e t h r e e f o r h i s d e a t h ; 'T^Yu.LM - * T h e c r a f t i e s t p l e a d e r g e t s m o s t g o l d f o r b r e a t h . * S U P E R V A C U O : S e t o n , I ' l l n o t b e f a r b e h i n d y o u , b r o t h e r . D U K E : I s ' t p o s s i b l e a s o n _ , V f £ ? S - & O J _ t _ cX\ S h o u l d b e d i s o b e d i e n t a s f a r a s t h e s w o r d ? ^ y ~ I t i s t h e h i g h e s t , h e c a n g o n o f a r t h e r . V~6\J J - L \ o C ITN A M B I T I O S O : M y g r a c i o u s l o r d , t a k e p i t y - V > 1 A L - V' D U K E : P i t y , b o y s ? A M B I T I O S O : N a y , w e ' d b e l o a t h t o m o v e y o u r G r a c e t o o m u c h ; W e k n o w t h e t r e s p a s s i s u n p a r d o n a b l e , B l a c k , w i c k e d a n d u n n a t u r a l . S U P E R V A C U O : I n a s o n , o h m o n s t r o u s ! ; y, .--Q "YJVj\ v \ A M B I T I O S O : Y e t , m y l o r d , 1 A d u k e ' s s o f t h a n d s t r o k e s t h e r o u g h h e a d o f l a w A n d m a k e s i t l i e s m o o t h . D U K E : B u t m y h a n d s h a l l n ' e r d o ' t . \"> Cl A M B I T I O S O : T h a t , a s y o u p l e a s e , m y l o r d . ~ / / .-80 S U P E R V A C U O : W e m u s t n e e d s c o n f e s s >J>C/U* '-<• S o m e f a t h e r w o u l d h a v e e n t e r e d i n t o h a t e O ' i C i ' ^ f e - ' -S o d e a d l y p o i n t e d , t h a t b e f o r e h i s e y e s ^ V y - (•'~• •"'• \<t H e w o u l d h a v e s e e n t h e e x e c u t i o n s o u n d ^ J ^ y - ' s > W i t h o u t c o r r u p t e d f a v o u r . A M B I T I O S O : B u t m y l o r d , Y o u r G r a c e m a y l i v e t h e w o n d e r o f a l l t i m e s I n p a r d o n i n g t h a t o f f e n c e w h i c h n e v e r y e t H a d f a c e t o b e g a p a r d o n . D U K E : H o n e y , h o w ' s t h i s ? ( f t S v ^ ) A M B I T I O S O : F o r g i v e h i m g o o d m y l o r d , h e ' s y o u r o w n s o n , A n d I m u s t n e e d s s a y , ' t w a s t h e v i l e l i e r d o n e . S U P E R V A C U O : H e ' s t h e n e x t h e i r , y e t t h i s t r u e r e a s o n 90 g a t h e r s , 8 4 62. -V : r VYviOt . ' A C T T W O , S C E N E T H R E E | N o n e can possess that dispossess their fathers. Be merciful. -DB * * 4 f w A ] * - — H e r e y n o - s t e p m o t r r e i ' s wit ; I ' l l tr)' 'em-botb-upon-their-lo-ve-aftd-bate. A M B I T I O S O : Be merciful — altho' — / D U K E : Y o u have prevailed. — \v.V?-.\\V> ,Vi^> X VA , M y wrath l ike flaming wax hath spent itself; ' ' 5 f c / V * i . I k n o w 'twas but some peevish m o o n i n h i m . - • A . (& / • G o , let l u m be released. \ r V \ V ' i . V L - ) ArlVO ;sW&R-V-AG-Uo[as/de]+ ^ f b o t p h o w - f l o w , bi'other-?-I A M B I T I O S O : Y o u r G race doth please to speak beside your / ! spleen; " " \ > . V - . £ I w o u l d it were so happy. ^ ^ D U K E : W h y , go release h i m . S U P E R V A C U O : O my g o o d l o r d , I k n o w the fault's too - - ^ o U - A - ^ S / W i ' weighty • ioo A n d fu l l o f general loathing, too inhuman, Rather by al l men's voices, w o r t h y death. ; i D U K E : ' T i s true t o o ; here then, receive this signet: _ 1 ° b r l i 3 v , ' > ' c 'Vo * \ V ' D o o m shall pass, direct it to the judges: he shall die • 1 E r e many days. M a k e haste. : ^ V ^ S '^\A'>Y' ' ' \ c CJV-A M B I T I O S O : A l l speed that may be • ^ -T>V ., ,. ! W e c o u l d have wished his burden not so sore, ' Vv^'tf •  y^L'.:A i W e knew your Grace d i d but delay before. 4 o V i ^ t V i 4 v \ 6 r * \ U^\-f3 .: - H a w , ? / , fiaw 2. L^^^S) fc/tf D U K E : Here's E n v y w i t h a p o o r t h i n cover o ' e r ' t L i k e scarlet h i d i n l a w n , easily spied through. - \XC T h i s their ambit ion by the mother's side n o Is dangerous, .and for safety must be purged. I w i l l prevent their envies. Sure, it was B u t some mistaken fury i n our son W h i c h these aspiring boys w o u l d c l imb u p o n ; , , H e shall be released suddenly. . Enter N O B L E 8 . ^:i\hX--L »' * F I R S T N O B L E : G o o d m o r n i n g to your Grace. 96. Moon: lunatic notion. 109. Laii'n: fine white linen. • 8 5 i T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y D U K E : Welcome, my lords. [jEfey kneel\ N O B L E : O u r knees shall take away the office o f O u r feet for ever, Unless your Grace bestow a father's eye U p o n the clouded fortunes o f your son. A n d i n compassionate virtue grant h i m that W h i c h makes e'en mean men happy - liberty. per ICE [TfW^j-^-Hew-seriously-their loves and-honours-"woo T'ov th-a^wl^l>^-am^bout^te"pi-ay»them^d€). - Rise, my l o r d * , your knees sign his release: W e freely pardon h i m . F I R S T N O B L E : W e owe your Grace m u c h thanks, and he m u c h duty. Extfot. W ' b ' t A l ^ \J&<Y<-D U K E : It w e l l becomes that judge to n o d at crimes That does commit greater himself and lives. I may forgive a disobedient error, That expect pardon for adultery A n d i n my o l d days am a youth i n lust. M a n y a beauty have I turned to poison I n the denial, covetous o f all . A g e hot is l ike a monster to be seen: M y hairs are white, and yet my sins are green. 63. ACT THREE * [SCENE ONE] Enter A M B I T I O S O and S U P E R V A C U O . T ) O^ « c/fA'if2^ S U P E R V A C U O : Brother , let my o p i n i o n sway you once, ~ I speak it for the best, — to have h i m die Surest and soonest. I f the signet come U n t o the judges' hands, w h y then his d o o m W i l l be deferred t i l l sittings and court-days, j J u r i e s j m d furtherjfaiths are bought and sold, Oaths i n these days are but the sk in o f g o l d . A M B I T I O S O : I n troth, 'tis true too. S U P E R V A C U O : T h e n let's set by the judges A n d fall to the officers, 'tis but mistaking T h e duke our father's meaning, and where he named 1 i° ' E r e many days' , 'tis but forgetting that A n d have h i m die i ' th 'morning . A M B I T I O S O : Excel lent! T h e n am I heir - duke i n a minute. •S-UPE R W € U o [aside]:———•—>™~;Na$5_ A^-fee-were-Qnc€-puffed-Qat^-4iere-iB o 'pin ••-Sftoukl-quickly- pr ick -your .bladder. A M B I T I O S O : Blest occasionl H e being packed, w e ' l l have some tr ick and wile T o w i n d our younger brother out o f pr ison, That lies i n for the rape; the lady's dead A n d people's thoughts w i l l soon be buried. S U P E R V A C U O : W e may w i t h safety do't , and l ive and feed: 20 T h e duchess' sons are too p r o u d to bleed. A M B I T I O S O : W e are i ' faith, to say true. - Come, let's not l inger, I ' l l to the officers; go y o u before A n d set an edge u p o n the executioner. S U P E R V A C U O : L e t me alone to g r i n d h i m . ... Exit. 8 7 /fo VUvv£ ^ 1 THE REVENGER'S TRAGEDY A M B I T I O S O : M e e t ; farewell. I am next n o w , I rise just i n that place Where thou'rt cut off, u p o n thy neck, k i n d brother, T h e fal l ing o f one head lifts u p another. , , , E x i L : — : £/Xi< sC/Vui-S L [ S C E N E T W O ] Enter -with ttB N O B L E S , L U S S U R I O S O from prison. c . f y l ^ \< . L U S S U R I O S O : M y lords, I am so m u c h indebted to your ' / • . l o v e s V ti^WX, F o r this, - O this delivery, marsa? N O B L E : B u t our duties, my l o r d S ^ Q V I U n t o the hopes that g r o w i n you. ~ \ ' L U S S U R I O S O : I f e'er I l ive to be myself, I ' l l thank you. O Libertyythou-sweet-and~heavenly~dame! B^T^eyy»for-prison-is-<ooMiMld-ft-fla«ie. fc/lf (L£ tLtf Exeunt. j V S - L i A [ S C E N E T H R E E ] *Sc*bt£ c5<ktf>' Enter A M B I T I O S O and S U P E R V A C U O mtb&w&&&b&.s. ^ ^ ^>\h^( A M B I T I O S O : Officers, here's the Duke 's signet, your firm ^ ./ft K, i il warrant V\fr& \> JVM6 • Brings the command of present death along w i t h it •fy S V A P - -l-'^lIM A U n t o our brother, the D u k e ' s s o n ; we are sorry ^ . > ' That we are so unnaturally employed \ i f X \ - \ ^ I n such an u n k i n d office, fitter far F o r enemies than brothers. S U P E R V A C U O : B u t you k n o w T h e D u k e ' s command must be obeyed. # * R ^ T 2 ^ « € - E - R : It must and shall, my l o r d ; this m o r n i n g then, . - So suddenly? ' A M B I T I O S O : A y , alas, poor g o o d soul , H e must breakfast betimes, the executioner , / Stands ready to put forth his cowardly valour. ^ v ^ V n f O O 8 8 ViDdut 64. A C T T H R E E , S C E N E T H R E E s e e e N D - O F F i - G E 4 : A l r e a d y ? S U P E R V A C U O : Already i ' faith, - O sir, destruction hies, A n d that is least impudent, sootiest dies. -j-F w ^ i - o ' F M m : T r o t h , you say true, my l o r d ; we take k.©y& leaves. j Issir office shall be s o u n d ; w e ' l l not delay T h e th ird part o f a minute. A M B I T I O S O : There in you show Yourselves g o o d men and upright officers. • Pray, let h i m die as private as he may; D o h i m that favour, for the gaping people W i l l but trouble h i m at his prayers A n d make h i m curse and swear, and so die black. W i l l you be so far k i n d ? Fr^4V-©F-F-i-e*R: It shall be done, m y lord . . A M B I T I O S O : W h y , we do thank y o u ; i f we l ive to be, Y o u s h a l l have a better office. J^f^»^3F«-GS'R» Y o u r g o o d lordship. ^ R ^ A C J U O : C o m m e n d us to the scaffold i n our tears. a ^ k * ^ l ^ S i « E - R : W e ' l l weep and do your commenda-tions. A M B I T I O S O : F ine fools i n office! -S U P E R V A C U O : T h i n g s fa l l out so fit. A M B I T I O S O : So happily! Come brother, ere next clock H i s head w i l l be made serve a bigger block. Exeunt. X T * . -—• rx> SE-SU - J O . . [ S C E N E F O U R ] Mitter in prison J U N I O R . f ^ U ^ t , («_, ~2 J U N I O R : Keeper. K E E P E R : M y l o r d ? J U N I O R : N o news lately f r o m our brothers? A r e they u n m i n d f u l o f us ? 3 0 . Bigger block: quibble on hat-block. 8 9 T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y K E E P E R : M y l o r d , a messenger came newly i n A n d brought this f rom 'em. >• fHandr-hinrrrhrter.] ^\x^\OQ- C ^ ' i M S U 5 ' ^ t o J U N I O R : N o t h i n g but paper comforts? I looked for my delivery before this, • . H a d they been w o r t h their oaths. - Prithee, be from us. [Exit K E E P E R . ] • . - -N o w , what say y o u , forsooth; speak out, I pray: [Reads letter]: 'Brother , be o f g o o d cheer.' ' S l u d , it begins l ike a whore, w i t h g o o d cheer. ' T h o u shalt not be l o n g a prisoner. ' N o t five and thirty year, l ike a bankrupt, - I think so. ' W e have thought u p o n a device to get thee out by a tr ick. ' B y a t r i c k ? P o x o ' your tr ick, an it be so l o n g a-playing! ' A n d so rest comforted, be merry and expect it suddenly.' Be merry? H a n g merry, draw and quarter merry! I ' l l be mad. Is't not strange that a man Should lie i n a whole month for a w o m a n ? W e l l , we shall see h o w sudden our brothers W i l l be i n their promise; I must expect St i l l a trick. I shall not be l o n g a prisoner. [Enter K E E P E R . ] f>o\^ <C\ H o w n o w , what news? — — • K E E P E R : B a d news my l o r d ; I am discharged o f you. J U N I O R : Slave, call'st thou that badnews;J ' I t h a n k y o u , brothers. K E E P E R : M y l o r d , ' t w i l l prove so; l»ere-co»»e-the-©£SGers Into-whose hands J - must eomnik-yeu . [E>«£4L-EEP-E R-] j u^.i©R-:-Ha,^-offic£rsZ^-hat,=awivy ? £fiw*r-©i*F*e*-R-s-.] ^ FIRS^T O F F I C E R : YO U must pardon-ws^ my l o r d , Gfcnf office must be s o u n d ; here is-4«* warrant, T h e signet f r o m the D u k e ; you must straight suffer. J U N I O R : Suffer? I ' l l suffer you to be gone, I ' l l suffer you_ T o come no m o r e ; what w o u l d y o u have me suffer? 9 ° 65. A C T T H R E E , S C E N E F O U R S E C O N D O F F I C E R : M y l o r d , those words were better changed to prayers. T h e time's but brief w i t h you, prendre to cjie. , ^ \>Ci-OCv> ^0 J U N I O R : S u r e ' t i s not so. -y*va«S V f t H Y V o i v / ^ > ( T H I R D O F F I C E R : It is too true, my l o r d . u\\~ vi\^ \ ' J U N I O R : I tell y o u 'tis not, for the D u k e my father i f~ . . , Deferred me t i l l next sitting, and I look • .' E ' e n every minute, threescore times an hour F o r a release, a trick wrought by my brothers. F I R S T O F F I C E R : A trick my l o r d ? I f y o u expect such comfort , 40 Y o u r hope's as fruitless as a barren w o m a n : Y o u r brothers were the unhappy messengers That brought this powerful token for your death. J U N I O R : M y brothers? N o , no. - — • ^ \J .LSJC& S E C O N D O F F I C E R : 'T is most true, my l o r d . J U N I O R : M y brothers to b r i n g a warrant for my death? - t j ^ o >^jV<<-- W f r u o v (.t H o w strange this shows! . t . ... ,• T H I R D O F F I C E R : There's no delaying time. __ ^ i G ^ P ^ U ' V - - tfWA-fm-J U N I O R : Desire ' em hither, call 'em up, m y brothers I \ T h e y shall deny it to your faces. 1 £-V,,-*,. ^ _ \V%.... F I R S T O F F I C E R : M y l o r d , ' \->v.»^  •• v»' \ They're far enough by this, at least at court, i A n d this most strict command they left behind 'em 50 i W h e n grief s w u m i n their eyes, they showed l ike brothers, B r i m - f u l l o f heavy sorrow: but the D u k e M u s t have his pleasure. J U N I O R : H i s pleasure? F I R S T O F F I C E R : These were their last words w h i c h my m e m o r y bears ' C o m m e n d us to the scaffold i n our tears.' J U N I O R : P o x dry their tears, what should I do w i t h tears ? I hate 'em worse than any citizen's son Can hate salt water; here came a letter now, Yv&'&v.b ^ 0 ^ \ t A C * N e w bleeding f r o m their pens, scarce stinted yet, -W o u l d I ' d been t o r n i n pieces when I tore i t ; 60 %\ '\^ O'f \ . v A " \ v . 91 T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y L o o k , you officious whoresons, words o f comfort, — ' N o t l o n g a prisoner. ' F I R S T O F F I C E R : It says true i n that sir, for you must suffer presently. jh»*»e*«^A^llainous-'Duns^upon=--thfr^letter--"—-kflavish exposition-p--* ieok'.-you-'then-'here sir-:=-'-We'll get thee out by-a^trick' says-he. S««<W'©-'OFFi<SE-R-:-That- 'may-holdtoosir for-you -know ; A ^ i e k ^ i s - e o m m o n l y * f o u * i ^ a « k . ^ h ^ B ) ~ a s = . f o u r - = £ > f f i « e r 6 . J U N I O R : Worse and worse dealing. F I R S T O F F I C E R : T h e hour beckons us, T h e headsman waits, lift up your eyes to heavem J U N I O R : I thank you , ' fa i th; g o o d , pretty-wholesome counsel; I should l o o k up to heaven as you said, W h i l s t he behind me-cogens me o f my head, -A y , that's the trick. T H I R D O F F I C E R : YOU .de lay too l o n g , my lord J U N I O R : Stay,.good. Author i ty ' s bastards, since I must T h r o u g h brothers' perjury die, O let me venom Their souls w i t h curses. F I R S T O F F I C E R : Come, 'tis no time to curse, J U N I O R : M u s t I bleed then, without respect o f sign? W e l l -M y fault was sweet sport, w h i c h the w o r l d approves, I die for that w h i c h every w o m a n loves. Exeunt. [ S C E N E F I V E ] V I N D I C E : O sweet, delectable, rare, happy, ravishing! H I P P O L I T O : W h y what's the matter brother? V I N D I C E : O 'tis able 66 . A C T T H R E E , S C E N E F I V E T o make a man spring up and knock his forehead Against y o n silver cei l ing. H I P P O L I T O : Prithee tell me, W h y m a y not I partake w i t h y o u ? Y o u v o w e d once T o give me.share to every tragic thought. V I N D I C E : B y th'Mass, I think I d i d t o o ; — T h e n I ' l l divide it to thee.. - T h e .old D u k e T h i n k i n g n*y-<>u t wa r'd shape-ah cl- i n warcWkeart A*e»€ut~eut -of^ne-piece:^ict^^ io Wis-heart-stands-e^th^ewts+ele - hires me by price: T o greet h i m w i t h a lady In some fit place veiled f r o m the eyes o ' th 'Court , Some darkened blushless angle, that is gui l ty O t t i s 4 b r e f a t h e r s ' - l u s t s r a n d great- fo lks ' riots, T o w h i c h I easily - t o^Baintain - m y - s h a p ^ -Consented, a n d d i d w i s h his impudent grace T o meet her here i n this unsunntfel - l o d g e , Where in 'tis night at n o o n , a n d here the rather Because, unto the torturing o f his soul, 20 T h e ba£tord^nd_the duchess^aveappointed Their meeting too i n this luxurious circle, W h i c h most afflicting sight w i l l k i l l his eyes Before we k i l l the rest o f h i m . H I P P O L I T O : ' T w i l l i ' faith, most dreadfully digested!. I see n o t h o w y o u c o u l d have missed me, brother. V I N D I C E : True , b u t the violence o f my joy forgot it. H I P P O L I T O : A y , b u t where's that lady n o w ? V I N D I C E : O h , a t t h a t w o r d _ I ' m lost again! Y o u cannot f ind me yet, I ' m i n a throng of happy apprehensions. He's suited for a lady; I have took care F o r a delicious l i p , a sparkl ing eye, -', Y o u shall be witness, brother; Be ready, stand w i t h your hat off. Exit. -c-rVAvf-S U 4. Silver ceiling: the decorated stage canopy or 'heavens'. 25. Digested: contrived. 9 3 . tc i ^ l /ifu-v-30 X <o ^<h*S. I 1 T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y H I P P O L I T O : T r o t h , I wonder what lady it should be? ^\A?._:P> "p. Y e t 'tis no wonder, n o w I think again, T o have a lady stoop to a duke, that stoops unto his men. 'Tis c o m m o n to be c o m m o n through the w o r l d , A n d there's more private c o m m o n shadowing vices T h a n those w h o are k n o w n both by their names and prices. 'T^^p«t-<)f--myallegian€e-t<>-6tflnd-ba*e TTrtrre-Btrk^-«»€«ki«e - and here she comes. Enter V I N D I C E with the sktill of his love dressed up in Tires. /Vo\o ^ V t i A f ^ A \ « , W ? L l - S l + A o s i / M V I N D I C E : M a d a m , his grace w i l l not be absent l o n g . / Secret? N e ' e r doubt us madam; ' t w i l l be w o r t h Three velvet gowns to your ladyship. K n o w n ? F e w ladies respect that disgrace, a poor t h i n shell! 'T is the best grace you have to do it w e l l ; I ' l l save your hand that labour, I ' l l unmask you. V-0\^>_, KK^M'V. _\ [He reveals the skull.] .... ^ H I P T O L I T O : W h y brother, brother! S/f^TS "^f\(,VL. V I N D I C E : A r t thou beguiled n o w ? T u t , a lady can A t such - al l h i d - beguile a wiser man. H a v e I not fitted_the o l d surfeiter ; y . , W i t h a quaint piece of beauty? A g e and bare bone ' v & «'! K U'p A r e e'er allied i n act ion; here's an eye AtV^> |^o\t A b l e to tempt a great man - to serve G o d ; A pretty hanging l i p , that has forgot n o w to dissemble; Methinks this mouth should make a swearer tremble, A drunkard clasp his teeth and not undo 'em T o suffer wet damnation to r u n through 'em. Here's a cheek keeps her colour, let the w i n d go whistle. Spout, rain, we fear thee n o t ; be hot or cold, A l l ' s one w i t h us. A n d is not he absurd Whose fortunes are u p o n their faces set, That fear no other G o d but w i n d and wet? H I P P O L I T O : Brother, y'ave spoke that r ight; Is this the f o r m that l i v i n g shone so bright ? 42. S.D. Tires: head-dress. 9 4 I 67. A C T T H R E E , S C E N E F I V E V I N D I C E : The very same -A n d n o w methinks I c o u l d e'en chide myself F o r dot ing on her beauty, tho ' her death Shall be revenged after no c o m m o n action. 71 Does the s i l k - w o r m expend her yel low labours F o r thee ? F o r thee does she undo herself? A r e lordships sold to maintain ladyships F o r the poor benefit o f a bewitching minute? W h y does y o n fellow falsify h igh ways A n d put his life between the judge's lips T o refine such a th ing , keeps horse and men T o beat their valours for her? Surely, we're al l mad people, and they _ W h o m we think are, are not, - we mistake those; 'Tis we are mad i n sense, they but i n clothes. H I P P O L I T O : 'Fa i th , and i n clothes too we, - give us our due. V I N D I C E : Does every p r o u d and self-affecting dame I Camphor her face for this, and grieve her M a k e r I n sinful baths o f m i l k , - when-many an infant- star-ves For-her-superfluous outside, - all for this? Who-now-bids twenty pound-a-nighvpreparss M u s i c , perfumes, and sweetmeats ? A l l are hushed, T h o u may'st lie. chaste n o w ! It were fine, methinks T o have thee seen at revels, forgetful feasts A n d unclean brothels; sure ' t w o u l d fright the sinner A n d make h i m a g o o d cowarcL put a reveller O u t o f his antic amble, And-• cloy an~epieure -with^empt-y-dishee. Vit^y^2_ H e r e might a scornful and ambitious w o m a n L o o k through and t h r o u g h herself; see, ladies w i t h false ' "J" forms j - Y o u deceive men, but cannot deceive worms. - " f > A v ^ N o w to my tragic business. jLook you, brother, I have not fashioned this only for show A n d useless property; no, it shall bear a part 100. Properly: theatrical ' p r o p ' . 95 70 -_./(ov>£> CIO ft ^ ° 80 90 T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y E ' e n i n its o w n revenge. This very skul l , Whose mistress the Duke_poisoned_with this drug, T h e mortal curse o f the earth, shall be revenged I n the l ike strain, and kiss his lips to death. A s m u c h as the dumb thing can, he shall feel: What fails i n poison, w e ' l l supply i n steel. H I P P O L I T O : Brother, I do applaud thy constant vengeance, T h e quaintness o f thy malice, - above thought. V I N D I C E : SO - 'tis laid o n : n o w come, and welcome, D u k e , I have her for thee. I protesl. it , brother, M e t h i n k s she makes almost as fair a sign A s some o l d gentlewoman i n a per iwig . H i d e thy face n o w for shame; thou hadst need have a mask n o w . " 'Tis vain when beauty f lows; but when it fleets, T h i s w o u l d become graves better than the streets. H I P P O L I T O : Y O U have my voice i n that. [Noises within.] . H a r k , the D u k e ' s come, v WD-i-e^-Peaee^let^-obser-ve^vlrat-€ompfl«y-he brings, And-hovz-'he-does-absent-^emj-for-yoH-kr+ow H e ' l l wish-all-private.' Brother, f a l l y o u back.a-little W i t h the bony lady. H I P P O L I T O : That I w i l l . [He withdraws.] V I N D I C E : So, so; - n o w nine years' vengeance c r o w d into a minute. [Enter D U K E tf«7f^NTTEia^s;]^j3:jjsii(_;\i AICT" U D U K E : Y o u shall have leave to leave us, w i t h this charge U p o n your l ives: i f we be missed by the duchess O r any o f the nobles, to give out We're privately r i d forth. V W B K E [aside]: O h happiness-! ¥e^may-'Jianie-those"that-are-a\vay-froni'G0i«:t. 9 6 " i X ^ \ ( \ ^ A N i -' 'fey Uo& -ro A C T T H R E E , S C E N E F I V E G E N T L E M A N : Y o u r w i l l a n d p l e a s u r e s h a l l b e d o n e , m y l o r d . v [ExeJbfiJ G E N T L E M A N . ] (<H1.0VAM A . ^ V-JUSID i G E - [ r t i / V / e ] ^ - P r i v a t e l y - i : i d - f o r t 4 i ! ' H e - s t r i v e s - t o m a k e s u r e w o r k - o n - ^ t . Y o u r g o o d G r a c e ! — 1 3 0 D U K E : P i a t o , w e l l d o n e . H a s t b r o u g h t h e r ? W h a t l a d y i s ' t ? V I N D I C E : ' F a i t h , m y l o r d , A c o u n t r y l a d y , a . l i t t l e b a s h f u l a t f i r s t , A s m o s t o f t h e m a r e ; b u t a f t e r t h e f i r s t k i s s M y l o r d , t h e w o r s t i s p a s t w i t h t h e m ; y o u r G r a c e K n o w s n o w w h a t y o u h a v e t o d o ; . S h ' a s s o m e w h a t a g r a v e l o o k w i t h h e r , b u t -D U K E : I l o v e t h a t b e s t ; c o n d u c t h e r . _ _ _ V * N D I C E - f i w / A j r — > - — • - " • • — « ""Have-at~aUr D U K E : I n g r a v e s t l o o k s t h e g r e a t e s t f a u l t s s e e m l e s s ; G i v e m e t h a t s i n t h a t ' s r o b e d i n h o l i n e s s . 140 V i W D - r c - E [ a s i d e ] : - 4 3 a e k ^ v k 4 i H 4 i e - t o r e l » v ' f e o t h e r , — m i s e = t l « p e r f u m e r D U K E : H o w s w e e t c a n a d u k e b r e a t h e ? A g e h a s n o f a u l t . P l e a s u r e s h o u l d m e e t i n a p e r f u m e d m i s t . 1 L a d y , s w e e t l y e n c o u n t e r e d ; I c a m e f r o m c o u r t , I m u s t b e b o l d w i t h y o u . [Kisses skull.] • 1 ^  \ y ( < -i " • ~ ^ K W a T R K I s ? " O r r i • V I N D I C E : R o y a l v i l l a i n ! W h i t e d e v i l ! D U K E : O h ! ^"blo-vs s-feMO-"} v j L N J X L G J i ; - B i - Q t h e £ , ~ p I a c e ^ M a y _ £ t a r i J n t o , . t h o s e 4 M > l l o w * i D u k e , d o s t k n o w Y o n d r e a d f u l v i z a r d ? V i e w i t w e l l ; ' t i s t h e s k u l l ' O f G l o r i a n a , w h o m t h o u p o i s o n e d s t l a s t . 150 D U K E : O h , ' t ' a s p o i s o n e d m e ! -T V I N D I C E : D i d s t n o t k n o w t h a t t i l l n o w ? 138. Have at all: venture all . 146. White devil: hypocrite. 149. Vizard: visage. I 97 ' • T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y D U K E : What are y o u two ? V I N D I C E : V i l la ins - al l three! T h e very ragged bone Has been sufficiently revenged. D U K E : O h H i p p o l i t o , call treason! H I P T O L I T O : Y e s , m y good l o r d - treason! treason! treason! Stamping on him. D U K E : T h e n I ' m betrayed. V I N D I C E : A las , poor lecher! I n the hands of knaves, A slavish duke is baser than his slaves. D U K E : M y teeth are eaten out. V I N D I C E : Hadst any left? H I P P O L I T O : I th ink but few V I N D I C E : T h e n those that d i d eat are eaten. D U K E : O my tongue! V I N D I C E : Y o u r tongue? ' T w i l l teach y o u to kiss closer, N o t l ike a Clobbering D u t c h m a n . Y o u have eyes s t i l l : L o o k , monster, what a lady hast thou made me M y once betrothed wife! D U K E : Is it t h o u , v i l l a i n ? N a y then -V I N D I C E [Uking.4JLdisguise\-. ' T i s I , 'tis V i n d i c e , 'tis I ! H I P P O L I T O : A n d let this comfort thee: our l o r d and father •Afp io A-too V~vuJ Si-F e l l sick u p o n the infection o f thy frowns A n d died i n sadness; be that thy hope of life. D U K E : O h l V I N D I C E : H e had his tongue, yet grief made h i m die speechless. P u h , 'tis but early yet; now. I ' l l begin T o stick thy soul w i t h ulcers, I w i l l make T h y spirit grievous sore; it shall not rest, B u t l ike some pestilent man, toss i n thy breast. M a r k me, duke, T h o u ' r t a renowned, h i g h and mighty cuckold. D U K E : O h ! . V I N D I C E : T h y bastard, thy bastard rides a-hunting i n thy brow. 9 8 . f^ oU-a^s up - ^ / \ u , t Oft \OJb'£5 . . , p ^ O V a . < _ r ^ ; . y ; v . v 69. 180 A C T T H R E E , S C E N E F I V E D U K E : M i l l i o n s o f deaths! — V I N D I C E : N a y^o-^ff ikt - t l w e j a e r - e , H c s ^ i n»th i s4od ge^they - meet 4?or-^damned-^Jip s; Those 'eyes„shall see the incest of their l ips. D U K E : IS thereV-hell besides this, v i l la ins? V I N D I C E : V i l l a i n ? N a y , heaven is just, scoms^are the hires o f scorns: I ne'er knew yet adulterer witlibut_horns. H^po-M-y'er-Gnce-eife~t4rey-dic 'tits quitted. V I N D I C E : H a r k , the music; T h e i r banquet is prepared, they're coming. D U K E : O h , k i l l me not w i t h that sight! V I N D I C E : T h o u shalt not lose that sight for a l l thy dukedom. D U K E : Traitors , murderers! V I N D I C E : W h a t ! Is not thy tongue eaten out yet? 190 T h e n w e ' l l invent a silence. Btethefr«t-ifle the t&t-eh. D U K E : Treason, murder! V I N D I C E : N a y , ' faith, w e ' l l have y o u hushed n o w w i t h thy dagger. " Nail'dcwrr4i4s-tengwe^aRd-mine-sbali-lteep-posses&ion Afeout-his-hearty-if l ie but gasp he dies, W c dread not. death .to-quittance-Jxij.uxies„Brotlier, ' J f ie-bi i t^.wmk , j iotJ3rooking-_i ie4bul-object , L e i - o u r -fcwo-<Dther-hands tear-up»his4ids A*)d-make-his-eyes-likeeomets-shine through-b leed; W h e n the bad bleeds, then is the tragedy good. 200 H I P P O L I T O : Whist , brother, music's at our ear,; _they . .come. . . - . .AAKJ . \\A'\-V- U £ \VV-A YY o f f Enter the Bastard [ S P U R I O ] /meirtig the D U C H E S S . *f H^o^.fcii-S P U R I O : H a d not that kiss a taste o f sin, 'twere sweet. D U C H E S S : W h y , there's no pleasure sweet, but it is sin-fu l . S P U R I O : T r u e , such a bitter sweetness fate hath g iven, Best side to us is the worst side to heaven. 180. Clips: embraces. 197. Wink: shut his eyes. 9 9 183. Hires: wages. T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y D U C H E S S : Push, come: 'tis the o l d D u k e , thy doubtful father, T h e thought o f h i m rubs heaven i n thy way; B u t I protest by yonder waxen fire, Forget h i m , or I ' l l poison h i m . S P U R I O : M a d a m , you urge a thought w h i c h ne'er had life. So deadly do I loathe h i m for my bir th That i f he took me hasped w i t h i n his bed, I w o u l d add murder to adultery A n d w i t h my sword give up his years to death. D U C H E S S : W h y , n o w thou'rt sociable; let's i n and feast L o u d ' s t music s o u n d : pleasure is Banquet's guest. Exeunt. •/Tfttgiv^A (..fttyU'- j\\4.£ %9 D U K E : I cannot brook -• [Dies.] ' " ' ~ V I N D I C E : T h e brook is turned to b lood. H I P P O L I T O . Thanks to l o u d music. V I N D I C E : 'Twas our friend indeed. ' T i s state i n music for a duke to bleed. T h e d u k e d o m wants a head, tho ' yet u n k n o w n ; A s fast as they peep up, let's cut 'em d o w n . Exeunt. _ "v'°V \j<\\, I'f -7. . 1L_ [ S C E N E S I X ] Enter the D U C H E S S ' two sons, A M B I T I O S O ^ W S U P E R -V A C U O . T>Qw^*i "ttflfTS, U ? l - f A M B I T I O S O : Was not his execution rarely plotted? W e are the D u k e ' s sons now. S U P E R V A C U O : A y , y o u may thank m y policy for that. A M B I T I O S O : Y o u r policy for what? S U P E R V A C U O : W h y , was't not m y invent ion, brother, _ T o slip the judges ? A n d i n lesser compass, D i d not I draw the model o f his death, A d v i s i n g y o u to sudden officers A n d e'en extemporal execution ? 3. Policy: cunning. 100 S ' f i V c r k & C ^ C M ' \O X I A C U K o f / ^ G 70. ^ A C T T H R E E , S C E N E S I X A M B I T I O S O : Heart, 'twas a th ing I thought on too. io S U P E R V A C U O : YO U thought on't t o o ? 'Sfoot, slander not your thoughts W i t h glorious u n t r u t h ; I k n o w ' t w a s f r o m you. A M B I T I O S O : Sir, I say 'twas i n m y head. . S U P E R V A C U O : A y , l ike your brains then, :._ Ne 'er to come out as l o n g as you l ived . j A M B I T I O S O : Y o u ' d have the honour on't, forsooth, that your w i t L e d h i m to the scaffold. S U P E R V A C U O : . Since it is my due, I ' l l p u b l i s h ' t , but I ' l l ha ' 't i n spite o f you. I A M B I T I O S O : Methinks you're m u c h too b o l d ; y o u s h o u l d ' ; a little \ Remember us, brother, next to be honest D u k e . S i w * R ^ A K ^ . e ^ r f . « ^ ] 4^ y r 4 t ^ ! duke-- ("W W A S O 2 0 ; A s . t o i j e honest, .and-that^newr-^'faith.v. / I A M B I T I O S O : W e l l , co ld he is by this t ime, and because • ! We're b o t h ambitious, be it our amity I A n d let the glory be shared equally. j S U P E R V A C U O : I am content to that. ... A M B I T I O S O : This night our younger brother shall out o f p r i s o n ; |-I have a trick. j S U P E R V A C U O : A t r ick! Prithee, what is ' t? _ .... L A M B I T I O S O : W e ' l l get h i m out by a wi le . j S U P E R V A C U O : Prithee, what wi le? A M B I T I O S O : N o sir, you shall not k n o w it t i l l ' t be done; F o r then, y o u ' d swear't were yours. [Enter O F F I C E R , bearing a bend.'] ^jjjv\ \ S U P E R V A C U O : HO W n o w , what's he? A M B I T I O S O : O n e o f the officers. 3 0 S U P E R V A C U O : Desired news. A ^ A M B I T I O S O : J± © W n o w , mynfrieftd? O F F I C E R : M y lords, tinder your pardon, I am allotted 12... Glorious: boastful. 'Tiras from you: had not occurred to you. 101 - f o A M & . X 5(X T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y 40 5° T o that desertless office to present you W i t h the yet bleeding head. S U P E R V A C U O ^ ] : H a , ha, excellent. (,'|0 Al"\S) AM-BI-T-IOSO-[a.r«fe]:—All 's-sure-our o w n : brother . -caf»t weepy think 'st . thou? 'T j^u ld-gra^-^ur- f la t ter -y^riUGh^think -o f -some-dat t f te , ' T w i l l teach-thee-to-dissemblei' self: A M B I T I O S O : O u r sorrows are so fluent, O u r eyes o'erf low our tongues: words spoke in tears A r e l ike the murmurs o f the waters, the sound Is loudly heard, but cannot be dist inguished. S U P E R V A C U O : H o w died he, pray? O F F I C E R : O , fu l l o f rage and spleen. S U P E R V A C U O : H e d ied most valiantly then; we're glad to hear it. O F F I C E R : W e could not w o o h i m once to pray. A M B I T I O S O : H e showed himself a gentleman in that: G i v e h i m his_due. O F F I C E R : But i n the stead o f prayer H e drew for th oaths. S U P E R V A C U O : T h e n d id he pray, dear heart, A l t h o u g h you understood h i m not. .. - • '. O F F I C E R : M y lords, E 'en at his last, w i th pardon be it spoke, H e cursed you both. S U P E R V A C U O : H e cursed u s ? ' L a s , good soul . A M B I T I O S O : It was not in our powers, but the Duke 's pleasure. [^k£^]:Fmely..,dissembled.o'botl i-sideSy^sweet»firte i I-QJaap py-oppor famity! •— Enter, L U S S U R . I o s p . (±4 ALLH . • -L U S S U R I O S O : N o w my lords. B O T H : O h ! L U S S U R I O S O : W h y do you shun me, brothers? Y o u may come nearer n o w ; 102 • ) \=>-4o ^ 71. A C T T H R E E , S C E N E S I X T h e savour o f the pr ison has forsook me. , I thank such k i n d lords as yourselves, I ' m free. A M B I T I O S O : A l i v e ! — S U P E R V A C U O : I n health! A M B I T I O S O : Released! W e were both e'en amazed w i t h joy to see it. L U S S U R I O S O : I am m u c h to thank you. S U P E R V A C U O : ' F a i t h , we spared no tongue unto my l o r d the D u k e . A M B I T I O S O : I k n o w your delivery, brother, H a d not been half so sudden but for us. S U P E R V A C U O : O h o w we pleaded! L U S S U R I O S O : M o s t deserving brothers, _ I n my best studies I w i l l th ink o f i t „ ~ Exit L U S S U R I O S O . 'irU.OVNWA L&^1& J\^\\ • A M B I T I O S O : O death and vengeance!_ . .A 6o ((• D l U x d S ,<3 S U P E R V A C U O : H e l l and torments! A M B I T I O S O : Slave, cam'st thou to delude us? O F F I C E R : D e l u d e y o u m y lords? S U P E R V A C U O : A y , v i l l a i n , where's this head n o w ? O F F I C E R : W h y here, my l o r d ; 7 0 Just after his delivery, y o u b o t h came W i t h warrant f r o m the D u k e to behead your brother. A M B I T I O S O : A y , our brother, the Duke 's son. O F F I C E R : T h e D u k e ' s son, my l o r d , had his release before you came. A M B I T I O S O : Whose head's that then? O F F I C E R : H i s w h o m y o u left c o m m a n d for, your o w n brother's. „. ._ _ : A M B I T I O S O : O u r brother's_?jCifuriesJ S U P E R V A C U O : Plagues! A M B I T I O S O : S U P E R V A C U O A M B I T I O S O : S U P E R V A C U O A M B I T I O S O : «b1wps> o f f ... _J( 0\'V\\:cL Confusions! Darkness! D e v i l s ! F e l l it out so accursedly ? So damnedly? S U P E R V A C U O : V i l l a i n , I ' l l brain t h e e w i t h it . 103 o f £ T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y O F F I C E R : O my good l o r d ! [Exit O F F I C E R . ] ^w^Qvvi-,v\ A-i-U-Y \ S U P E R V A C U O : The devi l overtake thee. ~~ A M B I T I O S O : O fatal! S U P E R V A C U O : O prodigious to our bloods! _. . A M B I T I O S O : D i d we d i s s e m b l e -S U P E R V A C U O : D i d we make our tears w o m e n for thee_?_ A M B I T I O S O : L a u g h and rejoice for thee? S U P E R V A C U O : B r i n g warrant for thy death? A M B I T I O S O : M o c k off thy head? S U P E R V A C U O : Y O U had a trick, you had a wile , forsooth! A M B I T I O S O : A murrain meet ' em! There's none o f these wiles that ever come to g o o d : I see n o w there's nothing sure i n mortality but mortality. W e l l , no more words, - ' t shall be revenged i ' faith Come, throw off clouds now, brother; think o f ven-geance A n d deeper settled hate; sirrah, sit fast, W e ' l l p u l l d o w n al l , but thou shaft d o w n at last. Exemt. 4 , • • 'fo v\6A-x> UteY X < o rttrAO Su^  . Tf\0(-i> \\ VA^ > 72. - F l - i l l_ J L-H" A C T F O U R SCENE ONE Enter L U S S U R I O S O with H I P P O L I T O . T> a VA) NJ " E / i / ^ S S £, L U S S U R I O S O : H i p p o l i t o . - -H I P P O L I T O : M y l o r d - L  Has your g o o d lordship aught to command me i n ? L U S S U R I O S O : I prithee leave us.... H I P P O L I T O : H o w ' s this? - come, and leave us? (."pAu^E ) L U S S U R I O S O : H i p p o l i t o . ~ H I P P O L I T O : Y o u r honour, I stand ready for any duteous e m p l o y m e n t . ^ A v ' . f e ' : . S.'« fe ?) L U S S U R I O S O : Heart, what mak'st thou here? H I P P O L I T O [aside]: A pretty lordly h u m o u r ; He-bids me-to be presentto depart; So tnething- has • stu ng- hi s-hono u r. L U S S U R I O S O : Be nearer, draw nearer:^. ip Y o u are not so good, methinks, I ' m angry w i t h you. H I P P O L I T O : W i t h me, my l o r d ? I ' m angry w i t h myself for't . L U S S U R I O S O : Y O U d i d prefer a goodly fellow to me, ' 'Twas wit t i ly elected, ' twas; I thought ' H a d been a v i l l a i n , and he proves a knave -T o me a knave. H I P P O L I T O : I chose h i m for the best, my l o r d , ' T i s m u c h my sorrow i f neglect i n h i m Breed discontent i n y o u . L U S S U R I O S O : Neglect? 'Twas will.(.judge of_it_-^  .20 F i r m l y to tell o f an incredible act, N o t to be thought, less to be spoken of, ' T w i x t my stepmother and the bastard, - o h ! Incestuous sweets between 'em. H I P P O L I T O : F i e my l o r d ! . . . . . . . . . . L U S S U R I O S O : I, i n k i n d loyalty to my father's forehead, M a d e this a desperate arm, and i n that fury 105 X 10 L£ '0 \ v-<^ - Y LA/iSS X A-o U ^ s v ^ fvVUfOt* 'r''f-\ Ml? T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y C o m m i t t e d t r e a s o n o n t h e l a w f u l b e d A n d w i t h m y s w o r d e ' e n r a z e d m y f a t h e r ' s b o s o m _-"%"> tAv*c>% F o r w h i c h I w a s w i t h i n a s t r o k e o f d e a t h . £ ^ v i O V - ' . - V i £. -' " j f H I P P O L I T O : A l a c k ! I ' m s o r r y . - [ * 4 j « f e ] — S f o o t - l - j o s t - u p e n tb««teofce |>/v^ M.i^ P - /\V\ iCO 'Ab.y',M^feU... u - , J a ^ i n - i n y - b r o t h e r ; ' t w i l l b e v i l l a i n o u s m u s i c . _ f t i ^ > '\U(i06> f c r ^ * * 1 Eitt*n*H<N-B*<*E. _ . L M ^ • A'f^E~-V I N D I C E : M y h o n o u r e d l o r d - • ' VtoW^J-K, V/t^O • 'fa « L U S S U R I O S O : A w a y , p r i t h e e f o r s a k e u s ! H e r e a f t e r w e ' l l n o t k n o w t h e e . 7\ v \ C A v M ' - i t V ^ ' x '" V I N D I C E : N o t k n o w m e , m y l o r d ! Y o u r l o r d s h i p c a n n o t c h o o s e . -L U S S U R I O S O : B e g o n e I s a y ; t h o u a r t a f a l s e k n a v e . V I N D I C E : W h y , t h e e a s i e r t o b e k n o w n , m y l o r d . L U S S U R I O S O : P u s h , I s h a l l p r o v e t o o b i t t e r w i t h a w o r d , _ _ _ '\ ^ jLWS AA^O S^ -owL\ M a k e t h e e a p e r p e t u a l p r i s o n e r KJ (\VCi \ o V l r r A o i ^ O o t . o A n d l a y t h i s i r o n a g e u p o n t h e e . ^ f i U - '$>ZS\-*A N> - F o r t - h e r e ; s - a - d o o f n ~ w o u l d m a k e - a - w o m f t n - t k H T r b . -. ^ l i s s i n g - t h e - - b a s t a r < l - n e x t - l i f e N o - w i t i s . . m y - b r o t h c r ' s - t u r n - t o . s t a y 5 - m i n e - t o - g o - o « t . Exit V I N D I C E . AAC-.1L4 — . L U S S U R I O S O : H ' ' a s g r e a t l y m o v e d m e . . _ X ~ H I P P O L I T O : M u c h t o b l a m e i ' f a i t h . L U S S U R I O S O : B u t I ' l l r e c e i v e r . t o M S - r u l o J ^ T w a s t o l d m e l a t e l y , - / ( o . t - W t "va \4i ^ I k n o w n o t w h e t h e r f a l s e l y - t h a t y o u ' d a b r o t h e r . H I P P O L I T O : W h o , I ? Y e s m y g o o d l o r d , I h a v e a b r o t h e r . , /;>ftk& fO A(> H c I t L U S S U R I O S O : HO W c h a n c e t h e c o u r t n e ' e r s a w h i m ? O f w h a t n a t u r e ? H o w d o e s h e a p p l y h i s h o u r s ? H I P P O L I T O : ' F a i t h , t o c u r s e f a t e s , \Q t&^'\L& W h o , a s h e t h i n k s , o r d a i n e d h i m t o b e p o o r , - X - . . x , v . . , > K e e p s a t h o m e , f u l l o f w a n t a n d d i s c o n t e n t . " A ITH-S s - u RTO s o - -[aside] ^ T h e r e ' s - h o p e - i n h i m , - f o r d i s c o n t e n t a n d - w a n t 32. Jars in: enters discordantly. 40. Ironage: fetters. 106 "~XV<S ^.O'-iV-O r\\A^\ A C T F O U R , S C E N E O N E I ^ h e - b e s t ^ * y ^ t © « R ^ u k t a > . v i l l a i r i . o f . -H i p p o l i t o , w i s h h i m r e p a i r t o u s ; I f t h e r e b e a u g h t i n h i m t o p l e a s e o u r b l o o d F o r t h y s a k e w e ' l l a d v a n c e h i m a n d b u i l d f a i r H i s m e a n e s t f o r t u n e s : f o r i t i s i n u s T o r e a r u p t o w e r s f r o m c o t t a g e s . H I P P O L I T O : I t i s s o , m y l o r d ; h e w i l l a t t e n d y o u r h o n o u r , 60 B u t h e ' s a m a n i n w h o m m u c h m e l a n c h o l y d w e l l s . L U S S U R I O S O : W h y , t h e b e t t e r : b r i n g h i m t o _ c o u r t . H I P P O L I T O : W i t h w i l l i n g n e s s a n d s p e e d . [ ^ 4 * w / # ] - » W h o m - h e - c a s t - o f f - e ' - e n - n o w ~ m u s t * n o w - s u e c e e d ; B r o t h e r , d i s g u i s e m u s t o f f , I o - t h i n e - o w n - s h a p e - n o w - l - ' l l - p r e f e r t h e e - t o - h i m : H e w - ' S t r a n g e l y d o e s • h i m s e l f - w o r k r t o a i n d c r r r r m r " * ' Exit. V J a . J A ' A _ _ L U S S U R I O S O : T h i s f e l l o w w i l l c o m e f i t l y ; he s h a l l k i l l T h a t o t h e r s l a v e t h a t d i d a b u s e m y s p l e e n A n d m a d e it s w e l l to t r e a s o n . I h a v e p u t M u c h o f m y h e a r t i n t o h i m , he m u s t die. H e - t h a t - k n o w s g r e a t m e n ' s - s e c r e t s - a n d - p r o v e s - s l i g h t , T f a a k - m a n ^ i e ' e r - l i v e s - t o - s e e - h i s - b e a x d . - t n r n w h i t e . A - y j s M i l s p e e d h i m : I ' l l - c m p l o y - t h e e j - b r - e t b e * ; S l a v e s > a r e » b u t n a i l s to d r i v e o u t o n e a n o t h e r , • H e r b e i n g - o f - b l a c k - c o n d i t i o n , - s u i t a b l e -T o a w a n t - a n d . i l l - c o n t e n t , - h o p e - o f - p r e f e r m e n t — -W i 4 i - g r i n d - h i m - t e - a n - e d g e . The NOBLES enters h\\S-W• *r \j-Pl4 4-* 7° F I R S T N O B L E : G o o d d a y s u n t o y o u r h o n o u r . L U S S U R I O S O : M y k i n d l o r d s , I d o r e t u r n t h e l i k e . S E C O N D N O B L E : S a w y o u m y l o r d t h e D u k e ? — L U S S U R I O S O : M y l o r d a n d f a t h e r - i s h e f r o m c o u r t ? F I R S T N O B L E : H e ' s s u r e f r o m c o u r t , B u t w h e r e , w h i c h w a y h i s p l e a s u r e t o o k w e k n o w n o t ; 72. Slight: unreliable. 76. Black condition: melancholy disposition. 82. From: away from. 107 80 X \AC T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y Exeunt. Nt>T-iCTTt '-wehesr-ori -'-t. [Ettfe r w&re-N o B-L&S. ] w^j^HW<3S-e^^ete^erfifr=tlT<ase^8Tiotild toll. Saw y o i r mylord-afitr-fatter ? »W-D-W*IE: N o t since two hours before n o o n , my l o r d , A n d then he privately r i d forth y | j ^. <: L U S S U R I O S O : O h , he's r i d forth. A O - " - ' ' F I R S T N O B L E : ' T w a s wondrous privately. OJ^Y&L. g^^^-N^j^-ett-M-^^iere^fl^e^^^^ ledge-on*; _ . • < o L U S S U R I O S O : H i s Grace is o l d and sudden; ' t is no treason V . " * / T o say the D u k e m y father has a h u m o u r • * ^ A ^ v -O r such a toy about h i m ; what i n us W o u l d appear l ight, i n h i m seems virtuous. *e-B***^is-6*aclej-my~l©£d. • • UtoifV _ . [ S C E N E T W O ] Enter V I N D I C E and H I P P O L I T O , V I N D I C E O / / / of his disguise. / W ^ b M A L c U \ • N^ppotri -TO : -So-so r al l 's-as- i t-should be,-y'are-yeu*-self. V I N D I C E : H o w that great v i l la in puts me to m y shifts! H I P P O L I T O : H e that did lately i n disguise reject thee Shall , now-thou art thy self, as much respect thee. V I N D I C E : ' T w i l l b e the quainter fallacy; but brother 'Sfoot, what use w i l l . h e put me to n o w , think'st thou? H I P P O L I T O : N a y y o u must pardon me i n that, I k n o w not: H ' 'as some employment for y o u , but what 'tis H e and his secretary the dev i l knows best. V I N D I C E : W e l l , I must suit my tongue to his desires, What colour so e'er they be, h o p i n g at last. T o pile up all my wishes on his breast. " \ HiBiu^LJa^o,:~Faith-brother,.he^himself-shows-the-wayr V I N D I C E : N o w the duke is dead, the realm is clad i n clayj y ^ vJ^vV \\) 1 0 8 ^£ucx>i 74. A C T F O U R , S C E N E T W O H i s death being not yet k n o w n , under his name T h e people st i l l are governed. Wcl!,.jthou_ his_son A r t not l o n g - l i v e d ; thou shalt not ' joy his death. T o k i l l thee then I should most honour thee; F o r ' t w o u l d stand firm i n every man's belief, T h o u ' s t a k i n d chi ld and only diedst w i t h grief. H I P P O L I T O : Y o u fetch about w e l l , but let's talk i n present; H o w w i l l you appear i n fashion different A s w e l l as i n apparel, to make a l l things possible; I f you be but once tripped, we fall for ever. It is not the least policy to be d o u b t f u l ; Y o u must change tongue - familiar was your first. V I N D I C E : W h y , I ' l l bear me i n some strain o f melancholy. A n d string myself w i t h heavy-sounding wire, L i k e such an instrument that speaks merry things sadly. H I P P O L I T O : T h e n ' t i s as I meant; I gave you out at first i n discontent. V I N D I C E : I ' l l turn myself, and then -H I P P O L I T O : 'Sfoot here he comes; hast thought upon ' t? V I N D I C E : Salute h i m , fear not me. - - - — -_[EnterLUSSURIoso.] ' P O ^ ^ "--A&'S 'f-, ^ y . ^ L U S S U R I O S O : H i p p o l i t o . H I P P O L I T O : Y o u r l o r d s h i p -L U S S U R I O S O : What 's he yonder? H I P P O L I T O : ' T i s V i n d i c e , my discontented brother, W h o m , ' cording to your w i l l I 've brought to court. L U S S U R I O S O : Is that thy brother? Beshrew me, a g o o d presence; I wonder h ' 'as been f r o m the court so long. Come nearer. • • _. H I P P O L I T O : Brother, L o r d Lussurioso, the Duke['s] son. L U S S U R I O S O : Be more near to us, welcome, nearer yet. V I N D I C E : H O W d o n y o u ? G o d you g o d den. Snatches off bis bat and makes legs to bim._ 20. Kind: natural. This usage is frequent throughout the play. 2 5 . Doubtful: hesitant. 43. God. . . den: God give you good day. 109 /Mo \-&( °< 3 0 A. V ) C , .4° J \ W o / ^ ^ ? s ! V ^ f c U ^ - C v v s S \ £ ^ T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y L U S S U R I O S O : W e thank thee. H o w strangely such a coarse-homely salute Shows i n the palace, w-here-we-greet-in-fire, N i m b l e and desperate tongues.-rShould'-weinamc 0 o d - i n - a - salutation,'-.-twould»^ne'er™be..stood"-on'-t -heaven! T e l l me what has made thee so melancholy. 50 V T N BTee^-Whyj-going<toJasy. , r r H^sURioso : - W h y , - w i l l - t h a t make a-man melancholy ? V I N I T L C E : Y e s , to l o o k l o n g u p o n i n k and black buckram. I went- me to law i n Anno Quadragesimo Secundo, and I waded out o f it i n Anno Sexlagesimo Tertio. L U S S U R I O S O : What , three and twenty years i n l a w ? V I N D I C E : I have k n o w n those that have been five and fifty, and al l about p u l l i n and pigs. L U S S U R I O S O : M a y it be possible such men should breathe T o vex the terms so m u c h ?N. 6 0 V I N D I C E : ' T i s food to some, my l o r d . There are o l d men at the present that are so poisoned w i t h the affectation of law-words - having had many suits canvassed - that their c o m m o n talk is nothing but Barbary L a t i n : they cannot so m u c h as pray but i n law, that their sins may be r e m o v e d ' w i t h a w r i t o f E r r o r , ' a n d their souls-fetched u p terrreaven"with-a-sasaram-~ L U S S U R I O S O : It seems most strange to me, \\-^pt>. \^ \>H-(OS Y e t al l the w o r l d meet? r o u n d i n the same bent: " Where the heart's set, there goes the tongue's consent. 70 H o w dost_apply thy studies, fe l low? _ ^—V-liW O t ^ V I N D I C E : Study ? W h y , to think h o w a great r ich man lies ^ W J L A ^ ,Vi£>\ \ a-dying, and a p o o r cobbler tolls the bel l for h im._How he cannot depart the w o r l d , and see the great chest stand A lA (L-before h i m ; w h e n he lies speechless, h o w he w i l l point 53-4. Anno Quadragesimo Secundo: forty-second year. Anno Sexla-gesimo Tertio: sixty-third year. 57. Pullin: poultry. 59. Terms: legal sessions. 63. Barbary Latin: barbarous Latin. 66. Sasarara: writ of certiorari. IIO 75. A C T F O U R , S C E N E T W O you readily to al l the boxes; and w h e n he is past a l l memory - as the gossips guess - then thinks he of for-feitures and obhgations; na_y,_when_tp_allmen's hearings X " t-^L-V--. he whirls and rattles i n the throat, he's busy threatening his p o o r tenants; and this w o u l d last me n o w some seven years' t h i n k i n g or thereabouts. B u t I have a conceit 8 0 a-coming i n picture u p o n this - I draw it myself - w h i c h i ' f a i th , la, I ' l l present to your h o n o u r ; y o u shall not choose but l ike i t , for your lordship shall give me n o t h i n g for i t . L U S S U R I O S O : N a y , you mistake me then, F o r I am published bounti ful enough. Let 's taste o f your conceit. i V I N D I C E : I n picture, my l o r d ? L U S S U R I O S O : A y , i n picture. 1 V I N D I C E : M a r r y , this i t i s l - ' A usuring Father to be , S l O ^ b D \ \ x ' ' b o i l i n g i n he l l , and his S o n and heir w i t h a W h o r e 9 0 ^\^<..c. j\y\i'i ^\\L&>*Yf< dancing over h i m . ' \ HTTPOLrro-fffJwfe] i-H-as-pared-him^-to-the-quklft ! L U S S U R I O S O : T h e conceit's pretty i ' faith, , B u t take't u p o n m y life ' t w i l l ne'er be. l iked . . . . . • S - i f t t W * ^ \ V I N D I C E : N o ? W h y , I ' m sure the whore w i l l be l i k e d w e l l enough. ! i«ppoLiTO '{aj«/i?]':~Ayj4f-6he»were-out-o^h^i6t»r-e4*#'d j l ike h e r then^himselfr V I N D I C E : A n d . as for the son and heir, he shall be a n ; c.^ A ^ c , A'CV '^V? eyesore t o n o young revellers, for he shall be drawn i n c loth-of -gold breeches. ; L U S S U R I O S O : A n thou hast put m y meaning i n the pockets 1 0 0 ' . A n d canst not draw that out, my thought was this, i T o see the picture o f a usuring father ; B o i l i n g i n hel l , our r ich men w o u l d ne'er l ike i t . / V I N D I C E : O true, I cry you heart'ly mercy. I k n o w the • <~/\C'f,5 reason, for some o f them had rather be damned indeed / .. , v /, \ <y^c than damned i n colours. • • V v J " ' v """ 8 0 . Conceit: conception. j I I I T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y L U S S U R I O S O 1 [aside]: A parlous melancholy! H'as wit • enough T o murder any man, and I ' l l give h i m means. -I th ink thou art i l l moneyed. : V I N D I C E : M o n e y , ho, h o ! no 'T 'as been my want so l o n g , 'tis n o w my scoff. I've e'en forgot what colour silver's of. L U S S U R I O S O [aside]: It hits as I could wish. V I N D I C E : I get g o o d clothes O f those that dread my humour , and for table-room I feed o n those that cannot be r i d of me. L U S S U R I O S O : Somewhat to set thee_up withal . [Gives him gold.] V I N D I C E : O mine eyes! L U S S U R I O S O : H o w n o w , man? V I N D I C E : A l m o s t struck b l i n d ; T h i s br ight unusual shine to me seems p r o u d , I dare not l o o k t i l l the sun be i n a c loud. L U S S U R I O S O fw^]-^I'think4-*feall-^^ -H o w are they now ? , 2 0 V I N D I C E : T h e better for your asking. L U S S U R I O S O : Y O U shall be better yet i f you but fasten _ T r u l y o n m y intent; n o w . j ' a r c j r o A present, n r  I w i l l unbrace such a close private v i l l a i n U n t o your vengeful swords, the l ike ne'er heard of, W h o hath disgraced y o u m u c h and injured us. H I P P O L I T O : Disgraced us, my l o r d ? . L U S S U R I O S O : A y , H i p p o l i t o . I kept it here t i l l n o w that b o t h your angers M i g h t meet h i m at once. V I N D I C E : I ' m covetous_ T o k n o w the v i l l a i n . L U S S U R I O S O : Y o u k n o w h i m , that slave pander JJO Piato, w h o m we threatened last W i t h irons i n perpetual prisonment. . VIMDIGE [aside^'All-this-k-l-. . ^ 1 1 9 . Affect: l i k e . 1 1 2 76 . A C T F O U R , S C E N E T W O Is't he my l o r d ? y o u first preferred h i m to H I P P O L I T O : L U S S U R I O S O : I ' l l tell you me. __• V I N D I C E : D i d y o u , b r o t h e r ? H I P P O L I T O : I d i d indeed. L U S S U R I O S O : A n d the ingrateful v i l l a i n , _.. T o quit that kindness, strongly wrought w i t h me, B e i n g - as you see - a l ikely man for pleasure, W i t h jewels to corrupt your v i r g i n sister. H I P P O L I T O : O v i l l a i n ! V I N D I C E : H e shall surely die that d i d it. L U S S U R I O S O : I , far f rom t h i n k i n g any v i r g i n harm, .140 Especial ly k n o w i n g her to be as chaste A s that part w h i c h scarce suffers to be touched -Th'eye - w o u l d not endure h i m . V I N D I C E : W o u l d y o u not, my l o r d ? ; 'Twas wondrous honourably done. L U S S U R I O S O : B u t w i t h some fine frowns kept h i m out. y»»wi-€'E-{i^/Vi ,i?jVQ<rtij s k i v e j L U S S U R I O S O : What d i d me he? B u t i n revenge o f that W e n t o f his o w n free w i l l to make inf irm Y o u r sister's honour , w h o m I honour w i t h my soul 150 ' F o r chaste respect, and not prevailing.there _ . . - A s 't\\^g4Hrt-Kles2>efate^)ly-to^ttempt-k, -In mere spleen, by the way, waylays your mother, Whose honour being coward - as i t seems -. Y i e l d e d by little f o r c e . V I N D I C E : C o w a r d indeed! L U S S U R I O S O : H e , p r o u d o f their advantage - as he t h o u g h t -B r o u g h t me these news for happy; but I - heaven forgive m e f o r ' t ! V I N D I C E : What d i d your H o n o u r ? L U S S U R I O S O : I n rage pushed h i m from me . . . . . . T r a m p l e d beneathhis throat, spurned h i m , and bruised: Indeed, I was too cruel , to say troth. -160 a i p p o L i T O : M o s t n o b l y m a n a g e d ! 1 1 3 V A - X "OU Atoo ' i t ' y. L c T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y v H w i c E [aside]: Has not heaven an ear ? Is.all die l ig l i tn ing ."wasted ? L U S S U R I O S O : I f I n o w were so impatient i n a modest \\\$> 4 , V i W D "j. cause, I . . , , '" ' What should you be? vv> & ^ V I N D I C E : F u l l m a d ; he shall not l ive T o see the moon change. ~ L U S S U R I O S O : He 's about the palace; H ippo l i t o , entice h im this way, that thy brother _ _ X ^ ' \-\ i M a y take fu l l mark of h im. I H I P P O L I T O : Hear t ! - That shall not need, my l o r d ; v i I can direct h im so far. X * ° "\&0 L U S S U R I O S O : Ye t , for my hate's sake, 170 G o w ind h im this way ; I'll see h im bleed myself. X T> ^ H I P P O L I T O [aside]: What now, brother? V I N D I C E [aside]: N a y , e'en what you w i l l ; y'are put to it, brother. I M - P P O L I T O [aside] :• A n impossible'taskyT'l l 'swear, Te^br ingh imhi ther - tha tVa l ready-here . , . / / . UC>vU>. . . J S V / V H U - R O H I O . . — t-M\ -IAKS L L U S S U R I O S O : T h y name? I have forgot it. _ „.____ A-.*>-, / \\ \ V I N D I C E : V ind ice , my lo rd . L U S S U R I O S O : ' T i s a good name, that; V I N D I C E : A y , a Revenger. L U S S U R I O S O : It does betoken courage; thou shouldst be valiant A n d k i l l thine enemies. V I N D I C E : That 's my hope, my lo rd . L U S S U R I O S O : Th is slave is one. V I N D I C E : I'll doom h im. !80 L U S S U R I O S O : Then I'll praise thee. D o thou observe me best, and I'll best raise thee. U£m 4~ JEntenyi 1 P . P Q L I T O . ^ „ _ . S I f a < & V I N D I C E : Indeed I thank you. ^ L U S S U R I O S O : NOW H ippo l i t o , where's the slave_pander? X C H I P P O L I T O : Y o u r good lordship 181. Observe: serve. 114 77. [-4 ) A C T F O U R , S C E N E T W O \ / ; W o u l d h a v e a l o a t h s o m e s i g h t o f h i m , m u c h o f f e n s i v e ; H e ' s n o t i n c a s e n o w t o b e s e e n , m y l o r d . .. . j T h e w o r s t o f a l l t h e d e a d l y s i n s i s i n h i m ; ' l i - j T h a t b e g g a r l y d a m n a t i o n , d r u n k e n n e s s . L U S S U R I O S O : T h e n h e ' s a d o u b l e s l a v e . 1 V i » M 4 j ± G £ ^ ^ ] : - T w a s A v e U - c o n v e y e d , - u p o n - a - s u d d e n - w ^ . 1 9 0 V ~T)L_ L U S S U R I O S O : W h a t , a r e y o u b o t h .: F i r m l y r e s o l v e d ? I ' l l s e e h i m d e a d m y s e l f . 1 V I N D I C E : O r e l s e l e t n o t u s l i v e . | L U S S U R I O S O : Y O U m a y d i r e c t y o u r b r o t h e r t o t a k e n o t e o f h i m . ': H I P P O L I T O : I s h a l l . i L U S S U R I O S O : R i s e b u t i n t h i s a n d y o u s h a l l n e v e r f a l l . V I N D I C E : Y o u r H o n o u r ' s v a s s a l s . 1— --LB-S -SURIOSO {aside]: T h i s w a s w i s e l y c a r r i e d ; . LAA^S, D e e p p o l i c y - i n u s m a k e s f o o l s - ' o f - s u e h - ' T h e t f r ^ m t s f c i - ^ l a v ^ ^ 2 0 0 y •/ ' - { y\ < / R w / T . , T g c „ i , T » ^ /(WioW^ C^P\>c.-V I N D I C E : O t h o u A l m i g h t y p a t i e n c e ! ' t i s m y w o n d e r i T h a t s u c h a f e l l o w , i m p u d e n t a n d w i c k e d , S h o u l d n o t b e c l o v e n a s h e s t o o d , ( ^ • • w i r t b - f t - e e G t e t - w i n d - b u r-st-epea-! > I s > * l ^ r ^ s M 9 = * h u n c l e r l e f t r o r - i s ' t - k € p t - u p i I n < ^ o e k - f b r - h e a v ± e r - v e n g e a n c e ? [ r / > » W » f t j - T - h e r c i t g o e o ! H I P P O L I T O : B r o t h e r , w e l o s e o u r s e l v e s . - . ;. / \ o V] \^J0 V I N D I C E : B u t I h a v e f o u n d i t , ' T w i l l h o l d , ' t i s s u r e ; t h a n k s , - t h a n k s t o a n y - s p i r i t j T h a t , m i n g l e d - i t - I m o n g s t - m y i n v e n t i o n s . H I P P O L I T O : W h a t i s ' t ? j V I N D I C E : ' T i s s o u n d a n d g o o d , t h o u s h a l t p a r t a k e i t : 2 1 0 I ' m h i r e d t o k i l l m y s e l f . H I P P O L I T O : T r u e . j V I N D I C E : P r i t h e e , m a r k i t : , V A n d t h e o l d D u k e b e i n g d e a d , b u t n o t c o n v e y e d , i F o r h e ' s a l r e a d y m i s s e d t o o , a n d - y o u k n o w , | M u r d e r . i v i l l . p e e p . o u t - . o f - t h e - c l o s e s t ' h u s k : . '• H I P P O L I T O : M e s t 4 * u e . j " 5 \ T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y V I N D I C E : What say you then to this device: - : -- ... '/\UW5> I f we dressed up the body of the D u k e -H I P P O L I T O : In that disguise of yours -V I N D I C E : Y ' a r e quick, y'ave reached it . T 1 H I P P O L I T O : I l ike it wondrously . V I N D I C E : A n d being i n dr ink , as you have published h i m , 2 2 0 T o lean h i m o n his e lbow, as i f sleep had caught h i m , \ v W h i c h claims most interest i n such sluggish men. H I P P O L I T O : G o o d , yet - but here's a doubt: ' ' W e , thought by the Duke 's son to k i l l that pander, Shall , when he is k n o w n , be thought to k i l l the D u k e . V I N D I C E : Neither , O thanks! It is substantial. ; . y ^ 0 \-h'.0 (L f F o r that disguise being on h i m w h i c h I wore, ^ It w i l l be thought I , w h i c h he calls * D i d k i l l the D u k e , and fled away i n his • ' ' A p p a r e l , leaving h i m so disguised T o avoid swift pursuit. H I P P O L I T O : F i r m e r and firmer. V I N D I C E : N a y doubt n o t , ' t i s i n grain, I warrant it 2 3 0 X, H o l d colour. H I P P O L I T O : Let 's about it. . }( \>vL, . \)v\0 0 V I N D I C E : B u t by the way too, n o w I think on't , brother, '{ c t L o i ^ Let 's conjure that base dev i l out o f our mother. v J l W O - W s T ' ^ U ^ " \ G>'-6 r i W W 1 U " [ S C E N E T H R E E ] . .» Enter tlte~v> U G H F,-s sarw+ in-arm-with-the—Bastard: he se^mth-lasciviously to< her;-affer-them,~enter-.SWER-•-Y I, . ft t s <•/,- -,. vtrGV^rmmwv-with-a-rapkr-;--hisbrother [A-M.D-in-e^o\ ' L i . 'fl- U £ cXo&^S |Ki ViWrt S P U R I O : M a d a m , unlock yourself; should it be.seen ~&%&r\t-$i A^ tfc r&d^jL'UM . Y\tr\^S- Y o u r arm w o u l d be suspected. ' : ' D U C H E S S : W h o is't that dates suspect or this or these? ' * x ' a , f " V V \ ^ $ S \Kissi„ghi>n]_ . ?&&\\.V;-.}o :Y\L.Lfk^ rito L ^ £ l _ M a y not we"~d"eal our favours where we please? IAOSS Of I & W W 78. A C T F O U R , S C E N E T H R E E S P U R I O : I ' m c o n f i d e n t you may. - ^ Exeunt. A M B I T I O S O : 'Sfoot brother, h o l d . S U P E R V A C U O : W o u l d let the bastard shame us? A M B I T I O S O : Hold J.lipJd,.brother!..There's_fitter time than n o w . S U P E R V A C U O : NOW , when I see it. A M B I T I O S O : ' ' T i s too m u c h seen already. S U P E R V A C U O : Seen and k n o w n . T h e nobler she's, the baser is she g r o w n . A M B I T I O S O : I f she were bent lasciviously - the fault O f mighty w o m e n that sleep soft, - O death, M u s t she needs choose such an unequal sinner, T o make al l worse ? S U P E R V A C U O : A bastard, the D u k e ' s bastard! Shame heaped on shame! A M B I T I O S O : O our disgrace! M o s t w o m e n have small waist the w o r l d throughout, B u t their desires are thousand miles about. S U P E R V A C U O : Come, stay not here, let's after and prevent, O r else they' l l sin faster than w e ' l l repent. Exeunt. ;  [ S C E N E F O U R ] Enter V I N D I C E anil H I P P O L I T O bringing out their Mother, one by one shoulder and the other by the other, with daggers in their hands. ~— -V I N D I C E : O thou for w h o m no name is bad enough! G R A T I A N A : What means my sons ? What , w i l l you murder me? V I N D I C E : W i c k e d , unnatural parent! H I P P O L I T O : F iend o f w o m e n ! G R A T I A N A : O h , are sons turned_nionsters?_Help! V I N D I C E : In vain. 117 7 T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y G R A T I A N A : A r e you so barbarous to set i r o n nipples U p o n the breast that gave you suck? V I N D I C E : oUi'wfc-^  That breast Is turned to .qiiarlea poison. G R A T I A N A : Cut not your days for ' t ; am not I your mother ? V I N D I C E : T h o u dost usurp that title n o w by fraud, F o r i n that shell o f mother breeds a bawd, _ G R A T I A N A : A bawd? O name far loathsomer than he l l ! H I P P O L I T O : It should be so, knew'st thou thy office wel l . G R A T I A N A : I hate it . V I N D I C E : A h , is't possible? Thou only - y o u powers o n h i g h , That w o m e n should dissemble when they die. G R A T I A N A : Dissemble? V I N D I C E : D i d not the duke's son direct A fellow o f the world 's condit ion hither, That d i d corrupt al l that was g o o d i n thee, M a d e thee unciv i l ly forget thyself A n d w o r k our sister to his lust? G R A T I A N A : W h o ? I ? That had been monstrous! I defy that man F o r any such intent; none lives so pure B u t shall be soiled w i t h slander. G o o d son, believe it not. V I N D I C E : O h , I ' m i n doubt Whether I ' m myself or n o ! Stay, let me l o o k again u p o n this face. W h o shall be saved when mothers have no grace ? H I P P O L I T O : ' T w o u l d make one half despair. V I N D I C E : I was the man. 3 0 Defy me n o w , let's see! D o ' t modestly. G R A T I A N A : O hell unto my soul! iVifc-T?' &S\0-fc; V I N D I C E : I n that disguise I, sent f r o m the Duke 's son, T r i e d you, and found you base metal, A s any vi l la in might have done. 8. Qtiarlid: curdled. 118 A<c L-&\\& V\€'k A t o o Af 79. A C T F O U R , S C E N E F O U R G R A T I A N A : O no, no tongue but yours could have bewitched me so. ~' V I N D I C E : O nimble i n damnation, quick i n tune! There is no devi l could strike fire so soon. -l a m confuted i n a w o r d . ^ \ \ A R ^ i -G R A T I A N A : O h sons, forgive me! T o my self I ' l l prove more true. Y o u that should honour me, I kneel to you. 40 [Kneels, weeping.] V I N D I C E : A mother to give aim to her o w n daughter! H I P P O L I T O : T r u e , brother; h o w far beyond nature 'tis, T h o ' many mothers do ' t ! V I N D I C E : N a y , an you draw tears once, go you to bed; W e w i l l make y o u blush and change to red. Brother , it rains; ' t w i l l spoi l your dagger, house it. H I P P O L I T O : ' T i s done. vrNoiCEvI ' f a i t h v ' t i s a sweet shower,-it does m u c h . g o o d : ! TheNfruitful grounds and meadows of her soul Has been l o n g d r y ; p o u r d o w n , thou blessed dew! 50 Rise, mother; troth, this shower has made y o u higher. G R A T I A N A I ^ D you heavens, take this infectious spot out o f : my soul ! \^ i I ' l l rinse it i n seven waters o f mine eyes. M a k e my tears salt enough to taste o f grace; ! T o weep is to our 'sex naturally given, B u t to weep truly, that's a gift f r o m heaven. V I N D I C E : N a y , I ' l l kiss you now. K i s s her, brother, Let 's marry her to our souls, wherein's no lust, A n d honourably love her. \ H I P P O L I T O : LetNt be. V I N D I C E : F o r honest w o m e n are so seld and rare 60 i ' T i s g o o d to cherish those p o o r few that are. i O h y o u o f easy wax! D o but imagine, N o w the disease has left you , h o w IeprOusly • That-office w o u l d have clinged unto youf\forehead. AU-fnothcrs-that-had-any-graceful Vxue 65. Graceful hue: touch of (divine) grace. I I 9 T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y A; t o * W*>uld have^worn.masks.to.hide.tliek,face.at.-yoAi. It w o u l d have g r o w n to this - at your foul name, Green-coloured maids wouldhave turned redwithshame. H I P P O L I T O : A n d then, our sister fu l l o f hire and baseness! 70 V I N D I C E : ' T h e r e had been b o i l i n g lead again. Duke 's son's great concubine! A drab o f state, a cloth o'silver slut, T o have her train borne up, and her soul trail i ' th 'dirt . H I P P O L I T O : Great, too miserably great! R i c h to be eternally wretched. V I N D I C E : O common'madness! A s k but the thriving'st harlot i n co ld b l o o d , She'd give the w o r l d to make her honour good. Perhaps y o u ' l l say: but only to the D u k e ' s son I n private. W h y , she first begins w i t h one 80 W h o afterward[s] to thousand proves a whore: 'Break ice i n one place, it w i l l crack i n more. ' G R A T I A N A : M o s t certainly applied. \ H I P P O L I T O : O h brother, y o u forget oux business. V I N D I C E : A n d w e l l remembered; joy's a^subtle elf; I think man's happiest when he forgets himself. Farewel l , once dried, n o w holy-watered mead, O u r hearts wear feathers, that before wore lead. G R A T I A N A : I ' l l give you this: that one I never knew Plead better for and 'gainst the devi l , than you. \ 90 v . i N D i C E J You.mak5jne_projud o i f t ^ ^ „„,„^«^X«. I H I P P O L I T O : C o m m e n d us i n al l virtue to our sister I H I P P O L I T O : t o m r a e n a us i n an virtue to our sister . t-n^- wv-^-K -> r ' / V f * ^Mw^-M - ' V I N D I C E : A y , for the love o f heaven, to that true maid. \ M * ' G R A T I A N A : W i t h my best words \ 3 W/> V I N D I C E : W h y , that was motherly said. <f y Exeunt. G R A T I A N A : I wonder n o w what fury d id transport me. I feel g o o d thoughts begin to settle i n me. O h , w i t h what forehead can I l o o k o n her Whose honour I've so impiously beset. - A n d here she c o m e s . . _ _ . . , ^ \ . \ M C £ , / V ^ ( \ ' ^ \Enter C A S T I Z A . ] ' ' * • / 120 8 0 . A C T F O U R , S C E N E F O U R C A S T I Z A : NO W , mother, you have wrought wi th me so strongly That what for my advancement, as to calm 100 The trouble o f your tongue, I am content. G R A T I A N A : Content to what? _ C A S T I Z A : TO do as you have wished me, T o prostitute my breast to the Duke ' s son A n d put myself to common usury. G R A T I A N A : I hope you w i l l not so. C A S T I Z A : H o p e you I w i l l no t? That 's not the hope you look to be saved in . G R A T I A N A : T ru th , but it is. C A S T I Z A : D o not deceive yourself. I am as you , e'en out o f marble wrought. Yt\<j&£ What w o u l d you now ? A r e you not pleased yet wi th me ? Y o u shall not w ish me to be more lascivious J I O Than I intend to be. G R A T I A N A : Strike not me cold. . C A S T I Z A : H o w often have you charged me on your blessing T o be a cursed woman? W h e n you knew Y o u r blessing had no force to make me lewd, Y o u la id your curse upon me. That d id more ; The mother's curse is heavy - where that fights, Sons set in s torm, and daughters lose their l ights. G R A T I A N A : G o o d ch i ld , dear maid, i f there be any spark O f heavenly intellectual fire w i th in thee, O let my breath revive it to a flame! 120 Put not al l out w i th woman's w i l fu l foll ies. l a m recovered o f that fou l disease That haunts too many mothers; k ind , forgive me. Make me not sick i n health. I f then M y words prevailed when they were wickedness, H o w much more now, when they are just and g o o d ! C A S T I Z A : I wonder what you mean. A r e not you she F o r whose infect persuasions I could scarce 123. Kind: kin. - X c / Xo CAST X ^ <o U-^< • T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y K n e e l out my prayers, and had m u c h ado 130 In three hours' reading, to untwist so m u c h O f the black serpent as y o u w o u n d about me ? G R A T I A N A : ' T i s unfruitful , held tedious, to repeat what's past; I ' m n o w your present mother. C A S T I Z A : P u s h , n o w 'tis too late. . / ( v \ t ^ S . JV^VVA G R A T I A N A : Bethink again, thou know'st not what thou 1. . , , „ . say st. C A S T I Z A : N o P D e n y advancement, treasure, theDuke's son? G R A T I A N A : O see, I spoke those words and n o w they poison me. • _X <o L&i^X'^-" W h a t w i l l the deed do then? Advancement ? T r u e , as h i g h as shame can pi tch. F o r treasure - whoe'er knew a harlot r ich , 140 O r could b u i l d by the purchase o f her sin A n hospital to keep their bastards i n ? T h e D u k e ' s son - b h , w h e n w o m e n are y o u n g courtiers, T h e y are sure to be o l d beggars. T o k n o w the miseries most harlots taste, T h o u ' d s t w i s h thy self u n b o r n when thou'rt unchaste. C A S T I Z A : O mother, let me twine about your neck ^ V / Q {^l i\\ , A n d kiss y o u t i l l m y soul melt on y o u r hps. U f c l A ; v _ 4 - _ _ J . d i d . b u t t h i s „ t o . t r y _ y . o u . &Ufc<Wtt G R A T I A N A : O speak truth. C A S T I Z A : Indeed, I d i d n o t ; for no tongue has force 150 T o alter me f r o m honest. I f maidens w o u l d , men's words c o u l d have n o p o w e r ; A v i r g i n h o n o u r is a crystal tower W h i c h , being weak, is guarded w i t h g o o d spirits; U n t i l she basely yields, no i l l inherits. G R A T I A N A : O happy c h i l d ! F a i t h and thy b i r t h hath saved me. ' M o n g s t thousand daughters, happiest o f al l others, Be thou a glass for maids, and I for mothers. Exeunt. 14 \-Oi.'«M A'\'-C'r> \ / s 154. Inherits: takes possession of. $ 81. _\W,\\< . [ACT FIVE] [ S C E N E O N E ] Enter V I N D I C E and H I P P O L I T O , [with the Duke's corpse.] "Oov&<<i S K A « & \ .C- \ -^ V I N D I C E : SO, SO, he leans w e l l ; take heed y o u wake h i m _. / \ \ \ ^ \_£^V> \>-Ki& l\t>\--not, brother. ' ~ " ^ H I P P O L I T O : 1 warrant y o u m y lire tor yours. V I N D I C E : That's a g o o d lay, for I must k i l l myself. Brother, that's I : [Uointing^io-corpse]. that».sits..for..-me: <do~you- mark i t . - A n d . I -must-stand, ready- here~to-make away myself yonder. I must sit to be k i l led, and stand to k i l l myself. I c o u l d vary it not so little as thrice over again; 't'as some eight returns, l ike Michaelmas T e r m ; H I P P O L I T O : That's enow, o'conscience. ! V I N D I C E : B u t sirrah, does the Duke 's son come single? io H I P P O L I T O : N o , there's the hel l on't . H i s faith's too feeble to go alone; he brings flesh-flies after h i m , that w i l l buzz against supper time and h u m for his coming out. v i N D i c E : A h , the fly-flop o f vengeance beat 'em to pieces! H e r e was the sweetest occasion, the fittest hour to have made m y revenge familiar w i t h h i m , - show h i m the body o f the D u k e his father, and h o w quaintly he died, l ike a pol i t ic ian, i n hugger-mugger, made no man acquainted w i t h it , - and i n catastrophe slain h i m over his father's breast! A n d oh, I ' m mad to lose such a sweet opportunity! ' 2 0 H I P P O L I T O : N a y , push, prithee be content. There's no r«medy-pres«nfo=May''not--hereafter times-open -in--as«fa%: feces as fhk ? v**n>i"eE - : -Theymay; ' i f theyxampaint-sw-well. H I P P O L I T O : Come n o w , to avoid all suspicion let's forsake /^C^-j x 'fo /Vli-H this room and be g o i n g to meet the Duke 's son. \ ^ / 18. Politician: intriguer. Hugger-mugger: secrecy. j 19. Catastrophe: conclusion and climax (of a play). , 123 ! T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y -A/ — <ir V I N D I C E : Content, I ' m for any weather. Heart, step close; here he comes. Enter L U S S U R I O S O . c/\l\\<^£. • H I P P O L I T O : M y honoured l o r d . f e o A S ^ L U S S U R I O S O : Qfrm e 1 Y o u both present? 30 V I N D I C E : E ' e n newly my l o r d , just as your lordships entered now. A b o u t this place we had notice g i v e n he should be, but i n some loathsome pl ight or other. H I P P O L I T O : Came your honour private? L U S S U R I O S O : Private enough for this: only a few A t t e n d my coming out. H i i i E j Q Laxo-[«J«&]i-Dcath^ot-t-ho8e«few. L U S S U R I O S O : Stay, yonder's the slave. •^HE*ta>fe-B: Mass, there's the slave indeed, my l o r d . ^4^^3-^^8-ft^eed-ehiklt he eajk his father-slaver-L U S S U R I O S O : A y , that's the v i l la in , the damned y i l la i j i ; 40 softly. Tread easy. V I N D I C E : Push, I warrant you , my l o r d W e ' l l stifle i n our breaths. 7 L U S S U R I O S O : That w i l l do wel l . Base rogue, thou sleepest thy last. [Aside] - 'Tis-policy Tfr^ave'him-kil led-in'^-sleepi. for. ithe-waked He- wcaild-betray_allJ:o_thein. "V'Av^ fe' V I N D I C E : B u t my l o r d - , L U S S U R I O S O : H a , - what say'st? '(vv?->s'; V I N D I C E : Shall we k i l l h i m n o w he's d r u n k ? L U S S U R I O S O : . A y , best o f all._ V I N D I C E : W h y , then he w i l l ne'er l ive to be sober. L U S S U R I O S O : N o matter, let h i m reel to hell . V I N D I C E : B u t being so f u l l of l iquor , I fear he w i l l put out 50 al l the fire. L U S S U R I O S O : T h o u art a mad beast. - — .. - - .— V I N D I C E : A n d leave none to w a r m your lordship's gols w i t h a l ; for he that dies drunk.fal ls into hell-fire l ike a bucket o 'water, qush, qush. 52. Gols: hands. 124 A C T F I V E , S C E N E O N E L U S S U R I O S O : Come, be ready; nake your swords, think o f your wrongs. This slave has injured you. V I N D I C E : T r o t h , so he has, and he has_paid w e l l for't . _ L . U S S . U H I Q S O : M e e t . w i t h h i m now. Y o u ' l l bear us out, my l o r d ? I a l o r d for n o t h i n g , think V I N D I C E : L U S S U R I O S O : P u h , : y o u ? Q u i c k l y n o w . V I N D I C E [stabbing Duke's corpse]: So, so, so! 60 /X v H T h u m p , there he lies. L U S S U R I O S O : N i m b l y done! H a ! O h vil lains, murderers! V>Jl£l~ ' T i s . t h e ^ o l d D u k e . m j f e t l w ^ , V I N D I C E : That's a jest A ''\ L U S S U R I O S O : What - stiff and cold already? O pardon me to call you f r o m your names -' T i s none o f your deed. That v i l la in Piato, W h o m y o u thought n o w to k i l l , has murdered h i m A n d left h i m thus disguised. H I P P O L I T O : A n d not unlikely. -— V I N D I C E : O rascal, was he not ashamed T o put the D u k e into a greasy doublet? L U S S U R I O S O : H e has been co ld and s t i f f - w h o knows h o w l o n g ? ( l - . G A S V,^ > ) v 1 >«*««4^"^' !^^* ,Tr*ri r a t*d^^ L U S S U R I O S O : N O words, I pray, o f any thing intended. V I N D I C E : O h my l o r d . H I P P O L I T O : I w o u l d fain have your lordship think that we H a v e small reason to prate. L U S S U R I O S O : 'Fa i th , thou sayest true. I ' l l forthwith send to court : F o r al l the nobles, bastard, duchess, al l -H o w here by miracle we found h i m dead A n d i n his raiment that f o u l v i l la in fled. V I N D I C E : That w i l l be the best way my l o r d , to clear / -> U s ' a l l ; let's cast about to be clear. _ 55. Nake: uhshcathT 125 _7C. 80 Avkxixfoii u^«-£ Mar T H E R E V E N G E R S T R A G E D Y L U S S U R I O S O : H O , N e n c i o , Sordido, and the rest! — - Enter all [his S E R V A N T S ] , F I R S T [ S E R V A N T ] : M y l o r d ? S E C O N D [ S E R V A N T ] : M y l o r d ? , L U S S U R I O S O : Be witnesses o f a strange spectacle. -Choosing for private conference that sad r o o m , W e found the D u k e m y fatherC/igealed i n b lood. F I R S T [ S E R V A N T ] : M y l o r d the D u k e ! Run-,—hie~*he& N e n c i o -90 §4a«tle»th€-€@m:t»by-<)ignifying-eO' ro^ch. \JBx&*l& N-G-I-©.] W N ^ I G & [^/^4 :~^h^ When-murder's knownj-to-bethe-clearest-flsan. We!re.faxthest Joff,.and withras.bold-an^ye Sutvey.-his body, as .the standers-by. L U S S U R I O S O : M y royal father, too basely let b l o o d -B y a malevolent slave! H - I M 0 H - T O -[asiek]-:-lla.tkr he. calls- thee-sla^e-ftgain. vi&Ln.i.CE.[aside]: :^,.T...^^^....,..^™^™---H'asdost^ he-4YMty. L U S S U R I O S O : O h sight! L o o k hither, see, his hps are gnawn W i t h poison. A \0 o V ; j -V I N D I C E : H O W ? - H i s l ips? B y th 'Mass, they_be O v i l l a i n ! O rogue! O slave! O rascal! H**PoLITO- [ a s i d e ] : - O - g o o d deceit,, he quits4i im^with4ike terms. [v*^fi^w*H-i-N] . :^Whor«:?>^hkh-w«^? [Enter A M B I T I O S O and S U P E R V A C U O , with Courtiers!] A\i^JMOSO^^v«r-what.*oo£hangs-thi^prodigrGus-coTrret <fo-deadly-<fire. L U S S U R I O S O : B e h o l d , behold, my lords! T h e D u k e my father's murdered by a vassal That owes this habit and here left disguised. [ E » / f r D U C H E S S W S P U R I O . ] / ( \ \ ttiVJ.ls.v-i CyAJ.'ft^ D U C H E S S : M y l o r d and husband! 86. Room: place. 102. Quits: pays back. 107. Owes: owns. Habit: garment. 126 V 11 IK ) 7 83. A C T F I V E , S C E N E O N E f i u a t ^ x - N J 3 J i i J ^ : Reverend-Majesty. [ S E C O N D N O B L E ] : I have seen these clothes often attend-i n g on h i m . V I N D I C E [aj^«]r-Thatnobleman has. been-i-tlv'GO»ntr-yrfer he-does=not4ie. s u stE.R.v-A.c.u o.[Ar/d?].:..Leaxn.ofour. mother,-4etVdisserfikk t O 0 . I^.m.glad.he's-vanished; so-I hopc-are-you. A M B I T I O S O [aside]: -Ayryou-may-=take~my--\vo«l*-fof2t. S P U R I O [aside]: O l d dad dead? 1^-one-of-his-cast sins^-will-send-the-fetes Most-hearty. commendations-by-his-ow.n-sen; I^M-tugMn-the-new-stream .till-strengthJjeaiQaje. L U S S U R I O S O : Where be-tkastfW© t h a t d i d affirm to us — M y l o r d the duke w a s privately r i d forth ? F I R S T [ N O B L E ] : O pardon us my lords, he gave that charge U p o n o u r l ives, i f h e w e r e missed at court T o answer so; h e rode not anywhere W e left h i m private w i t h that fel low here. V W - © * © E v-Gonfixmed. L U S S U R I O S O : O heavens, t h a t false charge w a s his death! Impudent beggars! D u r s t y o u to our face M a i n t a i n such a false answer? Bear h i m straight T o execution. F I R S T [ N O B L E ] : M y l o r d ! L U S S U R I O S O : Urge me no more. I n this the excuse m a y b e called half the murder. - v i A H a r i s f e ^ K o u i v c s e n t c n c e d . WGU. A w a y , see i t be done. [Exit FIRST UOBLE wider guard.] V t N D I cyejriside]?^i&alfi-y&& ft©t-st-iek-?-See-what-eenfes9ien d o t h -W h o - w o u l d - n o t lie-when-men-are-hanged-for-tr-Bth ? H I T P O L I T O [aside]: Brother, h o w happy-is-our-vengeanee! v m o iGH-[afide]: Why-p-it-h-its Pastthe-ftpprehension-of indifferent-wits. 127 9/fA-iOO . y X o U t f » s vhn o f f s/ffttA-U 130 T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y LUSSURIOSO: M y l o r d , let post-horse be sent Into al l places to entrap the v i l la in . . . v TWO i c E-[aside] r P o s t - h o r s e l - H a y h a ! NOBLE: M y l o r d , we're something b o u n d to,, k n o w our A-j-iO ^CAO v / duty: • c -^\1.3 . Y o u r father's accidentally departed; W . i ^ U - ° 140 T h e titles that were due to h i m meet you. LUSSURIOSO: Meet me? I ' m not at leisure my g o o d l o r d , I 've many griefs to dispatch out o'th'way. . X t> C [Aside] Welcome, sweet titles. - T a l k to me, my lords, ; O f sepulchres and mighty emperors' bones; That's thought for me. ViUX)iC£.,[asJde]~ SOj-one-may-see-b-y-this Jfew-foreign-markets -ge: Geu-rtiers have feet o'th'nines, and tongues o'-th'twelves, Thsy-flatter-dukes and dukes flatter themselves. NOBLE: M y l o r d , it is your shine must comfort us. 150 LUSSURIOSO: Alas , I shine i n tears, l ike the sun i n A p r i l . t / / NOBLE: Y o u ' r e n o w my lord's Grace. X ^ J LUSSURIOSO: M y lord's Grace! I perceive y o u ' l l have it so. NOBLE: 'T is but your o w n . LUSSURIOSO: T h e n heavens give me grace to be so. VINDICE [aside] :• H e prays w e l l for- himself. ' - — NOBLE [to DUCHESS]: M a d a m , a l l sorrows M u s t run their circles into joys; n o doubt B u t time w i l l make the murderer b r i n g forth himself. VINDICE [aside]: H e were amass then,-i'-faith. 160 NOBLE: I n the mean season, ... f \ 4 o j L ^ S l ' — AviS^ Let us bethink the latest funeral honours D u e to the Duke 's co ld body, - and withal L o u Cal l ing to memory our new happiness, , Spread i n his royal s o n ; - lords, gentlemen, •; • UtsLLi...?-- '.. Prepare for revels. 3*w&i&E,\aside\i Bevels,!. " • N &B L E : - T i me-hath-several-faHs; Griefs lift up joys, feasts put d o w n funerals. 146. Foreign markets: abandoned titles. . 128 T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y That flow i n too much m i l k and have faint livers, N o t daring to stab home their discontents. L e t our h i d flames break out, as fire, as l ightning, T o blast this vi l lainous d u k e d o m vexed w i t h s i n ; W i n d up your souls to their f u l l height again! P I E R O : H o w ? F I R S T [ L O R D ] : W h i c h way? [ S E C O N D L O R D ] : A n y w a y ; our wrongs are such W e cannot justly be revenged too much. V I N D I C E : Y o u shall have a l l enough: revels are toward, A n d those few nobles that have l o n g suppressed you A r e busied to the furnishing of a mask A n d do affect to make a pleasant tail on't. T h e masking suits are fashioning; n o w comes i n That w h i c h must glad us al l - we too take pattern O f al l those suits, the colour, t r i m m i n g , fashion, E ' e n to an undistinguished hair almost: T h e n , entering first, observing the true f o r m , W i t h i n a strain or two we shall find leisure T o steal our swords out handsomely, A n d when they think their pleasure sweet and good, I n midst o f al l their joys they shall sigh b lood. P I E R O : Weight i ly , effectually! T H I R D [ L O R D ] : Before the tother maskers come -V I N D I C E : We're gone, al l done and past. P I E R O : B u t h o w for the D u k e ' s guard? V I N D I C E : L e t that alone; B y one and one their strengths shall be drunk d o w n . H I P P O L I T O : There are five hundred gentlemen i n the action That w i l l apply themselves, and not stand idle. P I E R O : O h let us hug our bosoms! V I N D I C E : Come my lords, Prepare for deeds, let other times have words. Exeunt. 14. Affect: wish. 30. Hug our bosoms: be determined and keep our o w n counsel. /\:. "S>UY.k . l u 'dU^'l ^ ' A C T F I V E , S C E N E O N E LUSSURIOSO : Come then my lords, my favours to you all. _. [Aside] T h e duchess is suspected foul ly bent; I ' l l begin dukedom w i t h her banishment. E ^ ^ I l - u j J . u J l L ? _ L ° ] J 1 9 £ i E J 'Jl'd DUCHESS. HIPPOLITO [aside]: Revels! Vti>i\vt-E ; ^\^;L£. \ VINDICE [aside]: A y , that's the w o r d , we are firm yet; Strike one strain more, and then we c r o w n our wit . 170 O A SPURIO Exeunt Brothers. _ W e l l , have at the fairest mark, fX 1 So said the D u k e when he begot me; A n d i f I miss his heart or near about T h e n have at any - a bastard scorns to be out. [Exit.] t\uv\ 4~.._ Cija^vCG.) SUPERVACUO : N o t ' s t thou that Spurio, brother j L _ AMBITIOSO : Yes , I note h i m to our shame. SUPERVACUO : H e shall not l i v e ; his hair shall not g r o w m u c h longer. I n this time of revels, tricks may be set afoot. Seest thou y o n new m o o n ? It shall outl ive T h e new duke by m u c h ; this hand shall dispossess h i m , T h e n we're mighty. A mask is treason's licence, that b u i l d u p o n ; ' T i s murder's best face when a vizard's on. Exit SUPERVACUO . QLfc tO^ L& AMBITIOSO : Is't so? 'T is very good. A n d do y o u think to be D u k e then, k i n d brother? I ' l l see fair play; drop one, and there lies t'other. F.X it A M U T T I P S O . ft -iy t - V U ' J ^ _ 180 a l /\tO*v> v o / i [ S C E N E T W O ] 7 Enter VINDICE and HIPPOLITO with PIERO and other LORDS. VINDICE : M y lords, be all o f music! Strike o l d griefs into other countries 185. Vizard: mask. 129 85 3o A C T F I V E , S C E N E T H R E E [ S C E N E T H R E E ] In a dumb show, the possessing of the young Duke, with all his Nobles: then sounding music. A furnished table is brought forth: then enters the D U K E and his N O B L E S io the banquet. A blading star appcareih. • [ F I R S T ] N O B L E : M a n y harmonious hours and choicest pleasures ( ^ H & y <fo/\vf tf-'m ) F i l l up the royal numbers of your years. L U S S U R I O S O : M y lords, we're pleased to thank you, tho ' we k n o w ' T i s but your duty, n o w t o j v i s h it so. [ S E C O N D ] N O B L E : That shine makes us all happy. T H I R D N O B L E : H i s grace frowns. S E C O N D N O B L E : Y e t we must say he smiles. F I R S T N O B L E : I think we must. L U S S U R I O S O [aside]: That foul , incontinent duchess w e . have banished; T h e bastard shall not l ive : after these revels I ' l l begin strange ones; he and the stepsons Shall pay their lives for the first subsidies. W e must not f r o w n so soon, else't'ad been now. F I R S T N O B L E : M y gracious l o r d , please you prepare for pleasure, T h e mask is not far off. L U S S U R I O S O : W e are for pleasure. — Beshrew thee I What-art-thou -mad-'st-me-s-fcirt ? Thou-hast -committed treason. - A blazing stftt! F I R S T N O B L E : A blazing star! O where,-my-lord? L U S S U R I O S O : Spy-out, S E C O N D N O B L E : See, see, m y lords, a wondrous .dreadful ©ne! L U S S U R I O S O : ! am not pleased at that ill-knotted-frre, That bushing-flaring star: — am not I D u k e ? S.D. Possessing: coronation. Furnished: laid for banqueting. 131 ' C.C \0''V-iweii fate* X ^ o ^  h^>o r T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y Itjjshoukf-not quake me n o w ; had it-appeared Before i t , I might then have justly feared. B u t y*is^ , they say w h o m art and learning weds, W h e n stars wear locks, they threaten great men's heads. Is it so ? Y o u are read, my lords. FIRST NO ISLE':. M a y it please your Grace, It shows great\pger. LUSSURIOSO: \ That does not please our grace. SECOND NOBLE : YeKhere's the comfort, my l o r d ; many times, W h e n it seems most near\it threatens farthest off. LUSSURIOSO: ' F a i t h , and I think so too. FIRST NOBLE: "N^  Beside, my l o r d , Y o u ' r e gracefully established w i t h the loves O f a l l your subjects: and for natural death, I hope it w i l l be threescore years a-corning. LUSSURIOSO: True . - N o more but threescore years? FIRST NOBLE : Fourscore I hope, my l o r d ? V SECOND NOBLE: A n d fi THIRD NOBLE : B u t 'tis my hope, my l o r d , you : die. L u&s.u.ajtos.OAdGive. me -thy-4iand r-these-vothers-He-'that hopes-so-is-fittest-for a^du-kc. •> > ^3Et^;5lwJt;sit3iexJa§e. Take your places, lords, ] _ j\v\G>. SsU'v>« We're ready n o w for sports, let 'em set on. j / , x Ywi-thi^!-We-si\a4tforget-y«u-^)ite-fl«oft. \"h-\% ^\v&Jv\y\ c THIRD NOBLE : I h e a r ' e m coming, my l o r d . V^JPN Enter the Mask of Revengers, the two Brothers [VINDICE and HIPPOLITO] and £W'Lords more. XvV>?-.> .1 >\ >\ LUSSURIOSO: A h tis wel l . • [Aside.] Brothers, and bastard, you dance next i n hell . The Revengers dance. At the end, steal out their swords, and-these four kill the four at the table, in their chairs. iMbtmdons. / VINDICE : Mwk^-t-kundef! — \W£^ l ^ K f J U ^ D e s t know<thy-cue,-thou big-voiced.**!©*? Dukes'-groans.are thunder 's -watelvwoK -kr . 21. Before it: before he became duke. ^\\\i:\JC ^ f\ |\"ij\^ > 1 3 2 '~ \V \ L L r - ^ >-,;,>. <..?:•: 8 6 . ACT F I V E , S C E N E T H R E E F o l l o w , g o ! 5 ° H I P P O L I T O : S o , m y l o r d s , y o u h a v e e n o u g h . V I N D I C E : C o m e , l e t ' s a w a y - n o l i n g e r i n g H I P P O L I T O : Exeunt, [ V I N D I C E remains!] V I N D I C E : N O p o w e r i s a n g r y w h e n t h e l u s t f u l d i e : W h e n t h u n d e r c l a p s , h e a v e n l i k e s t h e t r a g e d y . Exit V I N D I C E . i\ Ujf\ \ L U S S U R I O S O : O h ! O h ! Enter the other Mask of intended murderers, Stepsons [ A M B I T I O S O and S U P E R V A C U O ] ; Bastard; anda fourth. -tfUMrCowing-in-danciHg; the Duke [ L U S S U R I O S O ] recovers a little in voice and groans - calls 'A guard, treason l'. At which they all start out of their measure, and turning towards the table, they find them all io be murdered. S P U R I O : W h o s e g r o a n w a s t h a t ? L U S S U R I O S O : T r e a s o n ! A g u a r d ! A M B I T I O S O : H O W n o w ? A l l m u r d e r e d ! S U P E R V A C U O : M u r d e r e d ! j i O X i . R T H . [ L Q R D ] - : A n d - t h o s e - h i s n o b l e s ? A M J 3 I T I O S O [ < a £ i & ] , : - H e r e ' s a . - l a b o u r - s a v s d ; I t h o u g h t - t o - h a v e s p e d . h i m . ' S b l o o d ! H o w c a m e - t h i s - ? S U P E R V A C U O : T h e n I p r o c l a i m m y s e l f ! N o w I a m D u k e . A M B I T I O S O : T h o u d u k e ! B r o t h e r , t h o u I i e s t ! ~ [Hi? slays S U P E R V A C U O . ] S P U R I O : S l a v e , s o d o s t t h o u ! [He slays A M B I T I O S O . ] .jfiOJUJ6L-x<H [ L O R D ] : B a s e v i l l a i n , h a s t t h o u s l a i n m y l o r d a n d m a s t e r ? 6 0 [He slays S P U R I O . ] EnteiLjJje.first,-Meu. [ V I N D I C E , H I P P O L I T O and ftx> U»#-jMMfcas-.] — V I N D I C E : P i s t o l s ! T r e a s o n ! M u r d e r ! H e l p , g u a r d m y l o r d t h e D u k e ! [Enter A N T O N I O and the Guard.] ^ W p i v A - y X c ^ ' ? . t f H I P P O L I T O : L a y h o l d u p o n t h i s t r a i t o r ! f V ( U , W [They sei^e v-oxsmi-a L O R D . ] fcx.\\, t>v.h\vv\V\ 0 f '< 5 1 . S.D. Measure: dance. \\\$. 1 3 3 X \ ^ " fcU-O^ S Wl v\ } M Kte iV\i-T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y L U S S U R I O S O : O h ! -V I N D I C E : A las , the D u k e is murdered! _ H I P P O L I T O : A n d the nobles. V * N - D « T E - ! — S u r g e o n s - , - - s u r g e o n s 4 ^ - . ^ ^ b r eathe so l o n g ? A N T O N I O : A p i t e o u s t r a g e d y ! A b l e to w a k e A n o l d man, 's eyes b l o o d s h o t . L U S S U R I O S O : O h ! - — V I N D I C E : L o o k to m y l o r d the D u k e . [^wV^]-.A-;y.engeance. t h r o t t l e h i m . — Confess, t h o u m u r d e r o u s and u n h a l l o w e d man, D i d s t-thou k i l l a l l - t h e s e ? F O U R T H [ L O R D ] : N o n e but the bastardy - I . 70 vitucu.CE : . .How .? .cmne4lK J)uke-:Slai&tJ3£& ? T ? p r m_ T H . [ L o R D ] :.<We-found-him-sor-r&s.s u R 1 o s o : O v i l l a i n ! V I N ^ I - Q E : H a r k ! L U S S U R i C f s o ^ : Those i n the m a s k d i d m u r d e r us. V - I - N D I C E : LaW<!.,You now^sir . O m a r b l e i m p u d e n c e ! W i l l y o u confess n o w ? F O U R T H [ L O R D ] : 'Sbioodj Tis a l l false. A N T O N I O : A w a y w i t h that f o u l m o n s t e r D i p p e d i n a p r i n c e ' s b l o o d . F O U R T H [ L O R D ] : Heart, tis a l ie! A N T O N I O : L e t h i m h a v e b i t t e r e x e c u t i o n . [Exit F O U R T H L O R D under guard. ] VI>iJiJ.r'-P.-.[//«Wg] •••.Mp-ra.j-narrnw-1 - . K ! n . T r a n n n r " ^ pressed. -H o w fares m y l o r d the D u k e ? 80 L U S S U R I O S O : Farewell to a l l : H e that c l i m b s h i g h e s t has the greatest fal l . —*M^ton.gueJSr=ouferOjLoffiea. V I N D I C E : A i r gentlemen, air! [Whispering/OLUSSURIOSO] N o w - t h o u ^ l t r r o t - p r a t e - e f ^ t -' t w a s V i n d i c e m u r d e r e d t h e e . L U S S U R I O S O : O h ! 79. Expressed: in the sense of squeezed out. 134 \ \ / ' A x Xo Wci> X fo U A S » . fc>'A< ^rt\c.r'v D\es 87. A C T F I V E , S C E N E T H R E E V I N D I C E : M u r d e r e d thy father. L U S S U R I O S O : O h ! — _ - — /1?-'^ i> f a U^ 'A^ > V I N D I C E : A n d I am he - tell nobody. [ L U S S U R I O S O dies.] v\<kjO Ar^O So, so, the Duke 's departed. A N T O N I O : It was a deadly hand that wounded h i m . X \> C- o(- ^ l\'h (-•• T h e rest, ambitious w h o should rule and sway go V v"'""' After his death, were so made al l away. \> _ . . , . • / c _ • 1 1 V I N D I C E : M y l o r d was unlikely. " rN?- ''v \ 3 --y-H I P P O L I T O : N o w the hope / . •> ^ , f. •. O f Italy lies i n your reverend years. _ _ . , ' ^ V I N D I C E : Y o u r hair w i l l make the silver age again, ^ u\j> v"\ |o J\-KV[ . W h e n there was fewer but more honest men. V v> ^ A S A N T O N I O : T h e burden's weighty and w i l l press age ^ *° -*'\('ov • d o w n ; W > * f c 0*0 C-l\r\\^') M a y I so rule that heaven may keep the c r o w n . V I N D I C E : T h e rape of your g o o d lady has been 'quited W i t h death o n death. A N T O N I O : Just is the law above^ 100 B u t o f al l things it puts me most to wonder H o w the o l d D u k e came murdered. V I N D I C E : O h m y l o r d . A N T O N I O : It was the strangeliest carried; I not heard of the l ike. H I P P O L I T O : 'Twas al l done for the best, my l o r d . 1 Y^rVs \ J > \- "• V I N D I C E : A l l for your Grace's good. W e may be b o l d to j - H v speak i t n o w . 'Twas somewhat wit ty carried, tho ' we say i t ; ' ' ^ /( I O'C? 'Twas we two murdered h i m . ' ~ " ' v ^ ' '"** A N T O N I O : Y o u t w o ? . — A\ V I N D I C E : N o n e else i ' faith, my l o r d . N a y , 'twas wel l managed. A N T O N I O : L a y hands u p o n those villains!_ V I N D I C E : *~ H o w f O n u s ? >.-vc-. A m ^ A N T O N I O : B e a r ' e m to speedy execution. n o * • V i f . i > > V I N D I C E : Heart, was't not for your good, my l o r d ? 92. Unlikely: unpromising. J 35 T H E R E V E N G E R ' S T R A G E D Y 0 130 A N T O N I O : M y good? A w a y wi th ' e m ! - Such an old man as he! Y o u that wou ld murder h im.wou ld murder me. V I N D I C E : Is't come about? ") " H I P P O L I T O : 'Sfoot brother, you begun. V I N D I C E : M a y not we set as wel l as the Duke 's son? T h o u hast no conscience - are we not revenged ? Is there one enemy left alive amongst those? 'T is time to die when we are ourselves our foes. When murd'rers shut deeds,close,^.this_ctttse-tloes-seaI 'ami—» If^aoneclisclose.'em,:.they.themselve6^i :ev«nl 'am. This murder might have slept in tongueless brass But for ourselves, and t h e wor ld died an ass. N o w I remember too, here was Piato Brought forth a knavish sentence once: -N o doubt, said he, but time W i l l make the murderer br ing for th himself. ' T i s we l l he d ied, he was a wi tch. A«d^ow~n^lord r since-.we . .are->ia . ! fot .eser -T^^w<5rkwasours , -whiGl^e lse-might4^ f tve-been sl ipped, A-rrd-i f 'wel ist, we could 'have-nobles^ l ipped A^^ago- i 'Qi . less.thaii .begga«s^.ba.t-we4iate d-so cowa-rdiy. W c have enough I'faith, we're we l l , our mother turned, our sister true, W e die after a nest of dukes. - A d i e u . Exeunt [ V I N D I C E and H I P P O L I T O under guard] A N T O N I O . H o w subtly was that murder closed. B e a * «Hp Tfaose tragic bodies. 'T is a heavy season; Pray heaven their b lood may wash away al l treason. [Exeunt O M N E S . ] . , \ , \ s, ^ UNIT ANALYSIS A c t One (Scene I) As the o p e n i n g s c e n e , and the most i m p o r t a n t , i t s e t s up the mood and atmosphere o f t h e p l a y . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s scene, we a r e g i v e n t h e f i r s t n o t i o n s o f t h e p l o t and the cause and e f f e c t s r u l i n g t h e a c t i o n . The main c h a r a c t e r i s seen g i v i n g a l o n g s o l i l o q u y , g o i n g t h r o u g h v a r i o u s changes o f mood, i n d i c a t i n g p a r t i a l l y t h e k i n d o f c h a r a c t e r we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h . V i n d i c e i s seen a l o n e on s t a g e w i t h the s k u l l o f G l o r i a n a , and our f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n i s one o f a m e l a n c h o l i c y o u t h . T h i s i s f a r from s o , and an immediate c o n t r a s t i s s e t up between the way V i n d i c e l o o k s and what he s a y s . The second purpose o f t h e scene i s t o i n t r o d u c e t h e v i c e s . D u r i n g t h e i r p r o c e s s i o n , a m e d i a e v a l m o r a l i t y s i t u a t i o n i s s e t up as V i n d i c e comments b i t t e r l y on t h e i r c h a r a c t e r and i n t r o d u c e s them f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e a u d i e n c e . By the end o f h i s s o l i l o q u y , we know c e r t a i n f a c t s and a r e g i v e n the b a s i c p l o t o u t l i n e . V i n d i c e w i l l revenge th e Duke f o r the d e a t h of h i s b e t r o t h e d , G l o r i a n a . T h i s Revenge m o t i f i s one t h a t r u n s t h r o u g h o u t th e p l a y . From t h i s o p e n i n g sequence, we a r e a l s o i n f o r m e d o f a n o t h e r major theme, t h a t o f j u s t i c e . V i n d i c e ' s r o l e i n t h e p l a y i s one o f s e l f - a p p o i n t e d j u d g e . He f e e l s t h a t he must r e s t o r e o r d e r t o t h e w o r l d o f t h e C o u r t and t o r i d i t o f e v i l and c o r r u p t i o n . Thus, we can see from the s t a r t t h a t t h e r e a r e two o p p o s i t e p o l e s o f j u s t i c e e s t a b l i s h e d i n the p l a y , one r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e Duke, and t h e o t h e r by V i n d i c e . H i p p o l i t o and l a t e r G r a t i a n a and C a s t i z a a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the scene, g i v i n g us a p i c t u r e o f the two w o r l d s r e v e a l e d i n t h e p l a y , t h e e v i l and p a i n t e d w o r l d o f t h e C o u r t , and t h e s u p p o s e d l y i n n o c e n t w o r l d o f V i n d i c e and h i s f a m i l y . V i n d i c e a l s o r e v e a l s h i s a t t i t u d e towards women i n t h e b r i e f scene w i t h h i s mother, and p r e p a r e s us f o r l a t e r s c e n e s . The shape of t h e f i r s t scene i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e r e s t o f the p l a y . There i s a sense o f T o u r n e u r 1 s g u i d i n g purpose i n t h e whole a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e s c e n e , c r e a t i n g a rhythm w h i c h p e r v a d e s the p l a y as a whole. The scene i s b u i l t on c o n t r a s t , each s e c t i o n o r u n i t h a v i n g a d i f f e r e n t pace from t h e p r e v i o u s one w i t h t h e o v e r - r i d i n g s e n s a t i o n o f s e c r e c y and f e a r as t h e main f a c t o r s . The main a c t i o n o f the scene c e n t r e s around V i n d i c e ' s d i a l o g u e w i t h H i p p o l i t o , d u r i n g w h i c h th e p l o t i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The p l a y b e g i n s i n b l a c k . • A b l u e s p o t comes on V i n d i c e c e n t r e s t a g e , h o l d i n g t h e s k u l l . The p r o c e s s i o n m u s i c b e g i n s s o f t l y i n t h e background and as i t g e t s l o u d e r V i n d i c e q u i c k l y f a d e s i n t o t h e background where he cannot be seen by the e n t e r i n g v i c e s . They e n t e r t h r o u g h t h e c e n t r e a r c h , c r o s s down s t a g e and e x i t a l o n g the c o r r i d o r . There i s l i t t l e l i g h t on s t a g e , save f o r t h e t o r c h e s , and t h e f e e l i n g s h o u l d be one o f a s a t a n i c p r o c e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e u n d e r w o r l d of shadows. The s t y l i z e d make-up and t h e l i g h t i n g h e l p t o c r e a t e t h i s mood. As the scene p r o g r e s s e s , more l i g h t s come on and the atmosphere i s l i g h t e n e d u n t i l t he f i n a l u n i t w i t h G r a t i a n a , w h i c h i s q u i t e mocking. U n i t I : The purpose of t h i s u n i t i s t w o f o l d , t o i n t r o d u c e the f i g u r e s o f t h e C o u r t , and t o i n t r o d u c e V i n d i c e . Because o f t h e d u a l p u r p o s e , we a r e j o l t e d i n t o an awareness o f what i s happening i m m e d i a t e l y . V i n d i c e q u i c k l y moves away from the p a t h o f the v i c e s so t h a t he w i l l n o t be s e e n , and i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f them, h i s h a t r e d i s e v i d e n t . The u n i t p r e s e n t s us w i t h t h e background i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d why V i n d i c e d e s i r e s h i s r e v e n g e , and i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e a u d i e n c e f e e l he i s j u s t i f i e d i n h i s a t t i t u d e . V i n d i c e ' s e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e i d e a o f revenge c r e a t e s t h e d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n i n t h e scene. Y e t a t t h e same t i m e t h i s i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t he has been b r o o d i n g about t h i s f o r n i n e y e a r s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y he i s a l s o somewhat o b j e c t i v e about th e f a c t . T h i s i s seen when he u t t e r s the r e l a x e d "hum" midway t h r o u g h h i s speech, and eases th e t e n s i o n c o m p l e t e l y . The i m p o r t a n t f a c t t h a t emerges from t h i s e p i s o d e i s t h a t he no l o n g e r d e s i r e s revenge i n a p a s s i o n a t e way t o avenge h i s l o v e , r a t h e r he w i s h e s t o r e s t o r e j u s t i c e t o t h e C o u r t . U n i t 2: The purpose of t h i s u n i t i s t o i n t r o d u c e H i p p o l i t o and t o s e t up the p l o t . H i p p o l i t o e n t e r s on t h e l a s t l i n e s o f . V i n d i c e ' s speech w h i l e he i s s l o w l y e x i t i n g . H i p p o l i t o ' s f i r s t l i n e i s more a s t a t e m e n t t h a n a q u e s t i o n , and i t causes V i n d i c e t o s p i n about q u i c k l y t o f i n d o u t who o v e r h e a r d h i s t h o u g h t s . F i n d i n g o u t i t i s h i s b r o t h e r he r e l a x e s a g a i n and t h e scene c o n t i n u e s . T h e i r i n t e r c h a n g e i s a f a s t one, c r e a t i n g a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t mood t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s one. T h e i r c o n v e r s i n g i s q u i c k and w i t t y . The a c t i o n o f t h e scene r e v o l v e s around th e f a c t t h a t a f t e r n i n e y e a r s o f w a i t i n g , V i n d i c e i s now ready t o a c t . The a t t i t u d e o f H i p p o l i t o i s somewhat ambiguous a t t h i s p o i n t , a l t h o u g h i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t he i s w i l l i n g t o h e l p h i s b r o t h e r c o m p l e t e l y and s h a r e s h i s f e e l i n g s towards th e C o u r t . U n i t 3: The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o i n t r o d u c e G r a t i a n a and C a s t i z a . As t h e y e n t e r , t h e scene t a k e s on a d i f f e r e n t f e e l i n g , b o t h b r o t h e r s p u t on masks and p r e t e n d t o be d e l i g h t e d t o see t h e i r mother. The remarks V i n d i c e makes about women's v i r t u e s e t s up the scene f o r h i s l a t e r a t t e m p t t o make h i s mother i n t o a bawd and h i s s i s t e r i n t o a whore. I n the few speeches i n t h i s u n i t , we a r e g i v e n a g l i m p s e o f t h e g o s s i p i n g G r a t i a n a and the p i o u s C a s t i z a , b u t V i n d i c e has l i t t l e t i m e f o r e i t h e r , and i n a few humorous l i n e s attempts to rush them o f f stage and get down to his work. The unit provides a short i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the p l o t and heightens the tension that was established i n the previous unit. A c t One (Scene 2): T h i s scene p r o v i d e s a marked c o n t r a s t t o the p r e v i o u s one. I n r e g a l s p l e n d o u r and c e r e m o n i a l pomp, t h e C o u r t f i g u r e s e n t e r t o h e a r t h e judgment on the Duchess's y o u n g e s t son, who has committed a r a p e . A p p r o p r i a t e l y enough, t h e Duke i s judge and j u r y . The scene i s p r i m a r i l y a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e e v i l i n the C o u r t , and l a c k o f t r u e j u s t i c e . The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e Duke i s f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d i n the t r i a l scene by h i s a t t i t u d e t o i t and i n the way t h e r e s t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s f l a t t e r and humour him. The Scene opens w i t h l o u d ' i m p e r i o u s m u s i c c a l l i n g the C o u r t t o s e s s i o n . As t h e c h a r a c t e r s e n t e r , s i n g l y and i n p a i r s , t h e y r e l a x s l i g h t l y w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r t h e Duke. As he e n t e r s , l a s t , o f c o u r s e , t h e y t e n s e and w a i t . He c o n t r o l s t h e scene c o m p l e t e l y , b o t h v i s u a l l y and d r a m a t i c a l l y . H i s r o b e s a r e most i m p r e s s i v e and he m a i n t a i n s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e scene. A l t h o u g h he says l i t t l e , t h e Duke's power i s f e l t t h r o u g h o u t the scene. I n the space o f a few m i n u t e s , a l l t h e main c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y have been i n t r o d u c e d , and we know something about them. The scene conveys a sense o f urgency everyone w a n t i n g t h e t r i a l t o be o v e r . The Duchess does t h e most p l e a d i n g , and S p u r i o the l e a s t - and t h e scene a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i The scene i s b u i l t up t o an e m o t i o n a l c l i m a x w h i c h the Duke u n d e r c u t s by d e l a y i n g t h e t r i a l . Then, w i t h the Duchess s t i l l n o t r e c o n c i l e d t o the outcome, Tourneur ends th e scene w i t h her p l a n n i n g t o c u c k o l d t h e Duke w i t h the h e l p o f S p u r i o . The arguments and p l e a s f o r i n c e s t u o u s l o v e make a s t r o n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e c o u r t scene r i t u a l . The r i t u a l i s s u p p l e and r i c h i n v a r i a t i o n . The C o u r t scene i s p l a y e d u s i n g t h e e n t i r e s t a g e i n c l u d i n g the c e n t r a l l e v e l where the Duke s i t s . The scene between S p u r i o and t h e Duchess i s p l a y e d down s t a g e . U n i t I : T h i s u n i t s e r v e s t o p r e s e n t t h e C o u r t i n i t s f o r m a l s t a t e . The d i a l o g u e between th e Judge and t h e Duke , i s d i g n i f i e d b u t d e c e p t i v e . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f what i s s a i d b e t r a y T o u r n e u r ' s c o n c e r n t o r e v e a l how t h e p e r v a s i v e c o r r u p t i o n d e s t r o y e d t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s o f j u s t i c e , l e a v i n g n o t h i n g b u t t h e empty v o c a b u l a r y o f j u s t i c e and m o r a l i t y . The i r o n i c r e v e r s a l o f v a l u e s i n t h e s e o p e n i n g speeches i s t h e key t o the whole s i t u a t i o n i n t h e scene and s h o u l d b e p l a y e d up. The s e n t e n t i o u s f l a t t e r y o f t h e Judge p o i n t s up t h i s a t t i t u d e o f the C o u r t . There i s a l s o a c e r t a i n suspense b u i l t up i n t h i s u n i t , as i t appears as though the Duke w i l l s e n t e n c e J u n i o r t o d e a t h . U n i t 2: The purpose o f t h i s scene i s t o r e v e a l t h e d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s o f t h e r e s t o f t h e C o u r t towards J u n i o r and h i s impending doom. The Duchess's f i r s t words r e v e a l h er i n s t i n c t s t o save her son. I t i s o b v i o u s from her f i r s t words i s t h a t h er v i s i o n o f h e r s e l f i s t h a t o f a young t e m p t r e s s and she t r i e s u s i n g h e r sex t o have t h e Duke save he r son. L u s s u r i o s o ' s a t t e m p t t o save J u n i o r i s a weak one, r e v e a l i n g h i s d i s l i k e o f t h e Duchess and her sons. A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo say l i t t l e , A m b i t i o s o h a v i n g a few l i n e s f o r b o t h o f them. S p u r i o speaks i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s i d e , r e v e a l i n g h i s h a t r e d f o r h i s f a t h e r i n making him a b a s t a r d . U n i t 3; T h i s u n i t c o m p r i s e s the a c t u a l t r i a l s c ene. The Judge, i n an a p p r o p r i a t e tone o f d i s g u s t and d i s t a s t e r e a d s J u n i o r ' s o f f e n c e . J u n i o r , who has u n t i l now been s t a n d i n g around on d i s p l a y , comes f o r t h and i n a tone o f contempt says he does n o t g i v e a damn, f o r he would do i t a l l a g a i n i f he c o u l d . T ourneur has s t r u c t u r e d t h i s u n i t m a s t e r f u l l y , h e i g h t e n i n g the suspense and l e a d i n g t o t h e c l i m a x , o r r a t h e r a n t i - c l i m a x . The l i n e s between the Duchess and Judge become more i n t e n s e , f a s t e r and l o u d e r i n volume u n t i l t h e Duke h a l t s the p r o c e e d i n g s . The c o n f l i c t o f o b j e c t i v e s i n the u n i t c r e a t e an i n t e r e s t i n g j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f v a l u e s . The f r e n z y o f t h e scene, t h e s h o r t r e j o i c i n g and pro m i s e o f freedom on t h e b r o t h e r s ' p a r t , and t h e s w i f t e x i t o f t h e C o u r t i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the empty stage and the Duchess l e f t alone f u l l o f h a t r e d and revenge. U n i t 4: The purpose of t h i s u n i t i s to e s t a b l i s h the Duchess as another revenge f i g u r e . Her long s o l i l o q u y g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of her f e e l i n g s towards the Duke. C o l d l y , she p l a n s to c u c k o l d him, knowing t h a t t h i s would be a more e f f e c t i v e way of h u r t i n g him and would g i v e her more s a t i s f a c t i o n than merely murdering him. Her d e s i r e f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n her revenge i s a theme t h a t r e - o c c u r s throughout the p l a y . I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l the revengers i n the p l a y t o d e s i r e more than j u s t the murder of t h e i r v i c t i m s , they a l s o wish to impose some t o r t u o u s a c t t h a t would make the v i c t i m s u f f e r even more. Unit, 5: With the entrance of S p u r i o the p r e v i o u s speech i s made c l e a r e r . That i s , the Duchess l o v e s , or l u s t s a f t e r S p u r i o , and means to have him, and i n c i d e n t a l l y to use him. H i s c a u t i o u s entrance, however, and h i s anxious attempts to e x i t , prove t h a t he i s not as eager as she f o r the mating. She proves s t r o n g e r than he, and e x i t s t r i u m p h a n t l y . U n i t 6: The purpose of t h i s f i n a l u n i t i s to conclude the scene w i t h a f u r t h e r promise of y e t another revenge. . In his soliloquy, Spurio reveals his own angry f r u s t r a t i o n s and his hatred of the Court. We have seen characters with t h e i r masks on and o f f and the scene which Spurio so graphically describes i n t h i s speech can now only too e a s i l y be v i s u a l i z e d . A c t One (Scene 3) : T h i s s c e n e t a k e s u s b a c k t o t h e end o f t h e f i r s t s c e n e , where V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o f i r s t come up w i t h t h e p l a n t o d i s g u i s e V i n d i c e . F r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s c e n e V i n d i c e i s a l r e a d y d r e s s e d as " P i a t o " w i t h m o u s t a c h e and a d i f f e r e n t h a i r s t y l e and c o s t u m e . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s c e n e i s s e e n as an a p p r a i s a l on b o t h L u s s u r i o s o ' s and V i n d i c e ' s p a r t , as t h e f o r m e r t r i e s t o f i n d o u t how r e l i a b l e , e x p e r i e n c e d and t r u s t w o r t h y " P i a t o " i s , and t h e l a t t e r t r i e s t o s e e how f a r he c a n p l a y t h e s c e n e . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e s c e n e d e a l s w i t h L u s s -u r i o s o 's d e s i r e f o r t h e v i r g i n and how " P i a t o " s h o u l d b r i n g h e r t o t h e C o u r t . The t h i r d p a r t o f t h e s c e n e d e a l s w i t h V i n d i c e ' s r e a c t i o n t o h e a r i n g t h a t i t i s h i s s i s t e r t h a t he must s e d u c e . T h i s l a s t p a r t i s t h e more d i f f i c u l t one t o p l a y , s i n c e t h e a c t o r must p l a y b o t h V i n d i c e ' s s u r p r i s e and P i a t o ' w i t i n c o v e r i n g up t h e s u r p r i s e . H i s f i n a l o u t b u r s t however i s t h e r e l e a s e d t e n s i o n o f t h e s c e n e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y a n o t h e r v i e w o f V i n d i c e ' s complex c h a r a c t e r . . V i n d i c e ' s s e c o n d s p e e c h was c u t b e c a u s e i t a d d e d u n n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n and t i m e t o t h e a c t i o n . The same was t r u e o f h i s l a s t s p e e c h . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e l a s t i m p r e s s i o n t h e a u d i e n c e has o f t h e s c e n e i s t h a t o f V i n d i c e w i l l i n g t o t r y t h e v i r t u e o f h i s s i s t e r and m o t h e r . U n i t I : T h i s u n i t i s t o i n t r o d u c e ' V i n d i c e as " P i a t o " b e f o r e L u s s u r i o s o s e e s him, and t o s e e what t y p e o f c h a r a c t e r he i s p l a y i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t V i n d i c e h as c o m p l e t e f a i t h i n h i s " r o l e " , w h e r e a s H i p p o l i t o i s s l i g h t l y l e s s s u r e . U n i t 2: The p u r p o s e o f t h i s u n i t i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n L u s s u r i o s o and " P i a t o " . T h i s i s done i n a b a t t l e o f w i t s b e t w e e n t h e two, w i t h V i n d i c e m a i n l y c o n t r o l l i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n . The i n t e r e s t o f t h e s c e n e l i e s i n t h e s t o r i e s w h i c h " P i a t o " r e l a t e s t o L u s s u r i o s o , i n c r e a s i n g t h e l a t t e r ' s d e s i r e s by d e s c r i b i n g t h e v a r i o u s s e x u a l p e r v e r s i o n s he has come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h . The s e c o n d f e a t u r e o f t h e u n i t i s H i p p o l i t o ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o L u s s u r i o s o . He i s o b v i o u s l y t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d by L u s s u r i o s o and n o t t h o u g h t i m p o r t a n t enough t o w o r r y a b o u t . T h i s i s i r o n i c , s i n c e i t i s H i p p o l i t o who a r r a n g e s most o f t h e a c t i o n o f t h e p l a y i n one way o r t h e o t h e r . U n i t 3: The p u r p o s e o f t h i s u n i t i s t o have L u s s u r i o s o r e v e a l h i s d e s i r e s t o " P i a t o " w i t h o u t l e t t i n g h i m know t h e o b j e c t o f h i s d e s i r e . As he g o e s on and on a b o u t t h e v i r g i n , t h e s u s p e n s e i s b u i l t up. U n i t 4: T h i s , u n i t i s the c l i m a x o f t h e scene. V i n d i c e i s t o t a l l y t a k e n aback a t the news t h a t he i s t o b r i n g h i s c h a s t e s i s t e r t o the l u s t y L u s s u r i o s o , and has a h a r d time c o v e r i n g up h i s s u r p r i s e . He r e c o v e r s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he can r e t u r n L u s s u r i o s o ' s j o k e s w i t h b i t t e r one l i n e i n v e c t i v e s . The scene i s e f f e c t i v e s i n c e t h e a u d i e n c e i s aware of V i n d i c e ' s e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s , and y e t L u s s u r i o s o i s n o t . U n i t 5: The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o t a k e t h e scene f u r t h e r i n the same d i r e c t i o n . Not b e i n g c o n t e n t w i t h m e r e l y c o r r u p t i n g the d a u g h t e r , L u s s u r i o s o t e l l s " P i a t o " t o t r y t h e mother and have h e r c o n v i n c e t h e d a u g h t e r , s i n c e mothers a r e more e a s i l y c o n v i n c e d . A t t h i s , V i n d i c e can h a r d l y c o n t a i n h i m s e l f and answers as h i m s e l f . L u s s u r i o s o does not n o t i c e and makes him swear l o y a l t y . By t h i s a c t , i t a l m o s t seems t h a t V i n d i c e i s t o t a l l y committed t o p l a y i n g the " r e v e n g e r " . U n i t 6: T h i s f i n a l u n i t g i v e s us a f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o V i n d i c e ' s c h a r a c t e r . H i s o u t b u r s t i s r e a l enough, b u t i t does n o t l a s t l o n g . I t i s seen t h a t he has come t o doubt h i s mother's and s i s t e r ' s v i r t u e , and must prove t h e i r goodness. 102. Act One, Scene 4; This scene was cut f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , i t i s a weak scene, the l i n e s being i r r e l e v a n t and r e p e t i t i o u s , adding l i t t l e to the main a c t i o n of the p l a y . Secondly, s i n c e i t i s mentioned e a r l i e r t h a t Lord Antonio's w i f e was raped, t h i s scene i s a step backwards in the a c t i o n , r a t h e r than a step forward. However, s i n c e i t i s important to i n t r o d u c e Antonio before the end of the p l a y , a short s e c t i o n of the scene was kept, i n which he mentions h i s hatred of the Court f o r t h e i r l a c k of j u s t i c e . In t h i s manner, he r e - i t e r a t e s a main theme and a l s o provides a reason f o r h i s revenge on the Court. A c t Two, Scene I ; I n t h i s f i r s t s c ene, th e a c t i o n o f t h e play-r e a l l y b e g i n s . H a v i n g s e t up a l l the s i t u a t i o n s and themes, and h a v i n g i n t r o d u c e d a l l the c h a r a c t e r s , Tourneur b e g i n s t h e a c t i o n i n e a r n e s t . From t h i s scene u n t i l t h e end, t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e l e t t i n g up o f the t e n s i o n t h a t w i l l be d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s c ene. The scene i s b u i l t up i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. F i r s t l y , we see C a s t i z a a l o n e on s t a g e , and d u r i n g her s o l i l o q u y c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e v e a l e d . S e c o n d l y , " P i a t o " e n t e r s and t r i e s t o persuade h e r t o go t o L u s s u r i o s o . T h i r d l y , he t r i e s t o c o n v i n c e t h e mother t o go t o C o u r t , and t o send h e r d a u g h t e r t o C o u r t , and he s u c c e e d s . F o u r t h l y , t h e mother t r i e s t o persuade t h e d a u g h t e r and f a i l s , and f i n a l l y p r o m i s e s " P i a t o " t h a t she w i l l have h e r d a u g h t e r go t o C o u r t i f i t i s t h e l a s t t h i n g she does. As i s u s u a l by now, V i n d i c e i s once more l e f t on s t a g e a l o n e t o g i v e r e l e a s e t o h i s a nger, w h i c h he has h e l d i m p r i s o n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e scene. Thus we can see how t h e t e n s i o n mounts and how V i n d i c e g e t s more and more i n v o l v e d w i t h what he i s d o i n g . U n i t I : The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o p r e s e n t C a s t i z a as t h e c o l d , c h a s t e v i r g i n t h a t she i s . She i s a l s o b i t t e r about her s i t u a t i o n , and p h i l o s o p h i z e s on t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y t h e r i c h can a f f o r d t o be u n c h a s t e . As i s seen l a t e r , she never wavers from t h i s p o s i t i o n , and remains unmoving f o r the r e s t of the p l a y . U n i t 2: With the announcement of " P i a t o ' s " presence and h i s e n t r a n c e , i t i s seen t h a t C a s t i z a has l i t t l e sense of humour. She a l s o does not r e c o g n i z e her b r o t h e r , and t h e r e f o r e he i s f r e e to c o n t i n u e w i t h h i s p l a y . U n i t 3: I t becomes obvious from the s t a r t t h a t C a s t i z a w i l l have none of " P i a t o ! s " fancy words or j e w e l s , and i n her c o l d , c a l c u l a t e d s l a p a l l her v i r g i n a l f r u s t r a t i o n s are c h a n n e l l e d . She knows what he w i l l say, s i n c e o t h e r s have come b e f o r e him, and w a i t s f o r him to say i t . V i n d i c e i s of course happy t h a t she slapped him and has kept her v i r t u e . C a s t i z a symbolizes G l o r i a n a who was a l s o p r o p o s i t i o n e d by one of the Court, and a l s o kept her c h a s t i t y . Yet, he s t i l l f i nds i t necessary to t e s t h i s mother's v i r t u e . U n i t 4: As G r a t i a n a e n t e r s , her whole g r a c i o u s manner i n d i c a t e s t h a t she i s p l e a s e d by the a t t e n t i o n the Court has bestowed on her house. The u n i t begins s l o w l y as they p l a y a c a t and mouse game. But i t p i c k s up immediately once " P i a t o " mentions money. W i t h i n a v e r y few l i n e s a f t e r t h i s , she i s c a l l i n g her daughter i n t o the room to reason wi t h her. I t i s an u g l y u n i t , i n s o f a r as a son i s t r y i n g , 105. and s u c c e e d s , i n c o n v i n c i n g h i s mother t o become a bawd. U n i t 5: T h i s u n i t i s the c e n t r a l one o f t h e scene. The t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s on s t a g e , mother, d a u g h t e r and son, a r e p r e s e n t e d i n an u n n a t u r a l s i t u a t i o n . The a c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f G r a t i a n a a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n v i n c e h er d a u g h t e r t h a t t h e l i f e a t C o u r t i s w o r t h g i v i n g a n y t h i n g up f o r , and n o t s u c c e e d i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t " P i a t o " who has c a r r i e d the scene up t o t h i s p o i n t , now s t a y s m o s t l y i n the background and l e t s the mother do h e r own f i l t h y b u s i n e s s . A t t h e end o f t h e u n i t , C a s t i z a r e - i t e r a t e s a main theme o f t h e p l a y , t h a t o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . She says she does not r e c o g n i z e h er mother, whereas i n f a c t i t i s a l s o h er b r o t h e r she d o e s n ' t r e c o g n i z e . U n i t 6: , The main a c t i o n o f t h i s u n i t i s G r a t i a n a ' s p r o m i s e t o " P i a t o " t h a t she w i l l c o n v i n c e h er d a u g h t e r t o go t o L u s s u r i o s o , and t h e r e b y r e v e a l s h e r s e l f t o be t h e w o r s t k i n d o f mother we can i m a g i n e . U n i t 7: The p urpose o f t h i s l a s t u n i t i s f o r V i n d i c e t o be h i m s e l f a g a i n and r e l e a s e h i s anger. Even though he f e e l s s t r o n g l y about t h e s i t u a t i o n , he s t i l l m a i n t a i n s an o b j e c t i v e v i e w p o i n t , and e x i t s on a c o u p l e t on t h e n a t u r e o f women. 106. A c t Two, Scene 2; T h i s scene b e g i n s i n a s l o w r e l a x e d way w i t h L u s s u r i o s o w a i t i n g f o r " P i a t o " and ends i n a f r e n z y w i t h L u s s u r i o s o ready t o go and k i l l h i s stepmother and S p u r i o . The scene was r e - a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n the q u i c k e n i n g p a c e, and not waste time w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e a u d i e n c e was a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r . The scene a l s o r e v o l v e s i n d i r e c t l y around H i p p o l i t o who i n f o r m s v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i n g s t h a t are happening and t h u s t r i g g e r s t h e a c t i o n . The scene works as an e s p i o n a g e sequence, w i t h t h r e e t h i n g s happening a t once, t h e atmosphere g e t t i n g moreand more i n t e n s e and the scene e n d i n g j u s t b e f o r e a c l i m a x . As t h e scene t a k e s p l a c e a t n i g h t , i t began i n a r e l a t i v e l y dim l i g h t , w h i c h went p r o g r e s s i v e l y d a r k e r u n t i l t h e f i n a l u n i t i n w h i c h L u s s u r i o s o and V i n d i c e s k u l k around t h e Duke's bedchamber i n t h e shadows. U n i t I : L u s s u r i o s o i s a n x i o u s l y w a i t i n g f o r " P i a t o ' s " news and i s w a i t i n g w i t h H i p p o l i t o u n t i l h i s e n t r a n c e . As soon as he e n t e r s , H i p p o l i t o must l e a v e . " P i a t o " t a n t a l i z e s L u s s u r i o s o w i t h t i d b i t s o f what t r a n s p i r e d e a r l i e r . By t h e end o f t h e u n i t , w h i c h was b r o k e n up w i t h a s h o r t scene between S p u r i o a n d t h e s e r v a n t , L u s s u r i o s o i s ready t o go t o C a s t i z a t h a t v e r y n i g h t . As L u s s u r i o s o e x i t s , V i n d i c e f o l l o w s ready t o k i l l him, b u t r e f r a i n s s i n c e he would n o t be e f f e c t i v e l y a c t i n g o u t h i s revenge by t h i s a c t . U n i t 2: The purpose o f t h i s s h o r t u n i t i s t o i n t r o d u c e a n o t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n i n t o t h e p l o t a t t h i s t i m e , and a l s o p r o v i d e a r e a d y s o l u t i o n t o an e a r l i e r c o m p l i c a t i o n . S p u r i o i s t o l d o f L u s s u r i o s o ' s p l a n s t o have C a s t i z a t h a t n i g h t , and he d e c i d e s t o k i l l L u s s u r i o s o i n t h e v e r y a c t . H i p p o l i t o , who has seen S p u r i o and the s e r v a n t c o n f e r , t h i n k s t h a t he i s g o i n g t o have a rendezvous w i t h t h e Duchess and t e l l s V i n d i c e so l a t e r on, i n t h e n e x t u n i t . U n i t 3: When L u s s u r i o s o comes back and i s r e a d y t o go t o C a s t i z a , V i n d i c e i s l o s t f o r words and does n o t know what t o do., H i p p o l i t o , who i s h i d d e n from L u s s u r i o s o , w h i s p e r s t o V i n d i c e about the b a s t a r d . V i n d i c e t e l l s L u s s u r i o s o , who g e t s i n c e n s e d , f o r g e t s about h i s l u s t , and d e c i d e s t o k i l l S p u r i o i n s t e a d . The scene ends w i t h t h e t h r e e o f them s n e a k i n g around th e s t a g e t o t h e bedchamber. A c t Two, Scene 3: T h i s scene b e g i n s where the p r e v i o u s one l e f t o f f and ends on a much q u i e t e r n o t e . The main a c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f the m i s t a k e n i d e n t i t y and w i t h L u s s u r i o s o b e i n g l e d o f f f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o murder h i s f a t h e r . The Duke i s r e v e a l e d as a weak, c o w a r d l y c h a r a c t e r , whose s t r e n g t h i s c e n t r e d around h i s r o b e s of o f f i c e and h i s t i t u l a r p o s i t i o n . Once the t h r e a t i s removed, he s l o w l y r e g a i n s h i s s t a t u r e and resumes h i s power. The end o f t h i s scene l e a d s i n t o t h e n e x t a c t , where A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo p l o t and p l o t and i n e v i t a b l y f a i l . U n i t 1: The u n i t b e g i n s w i t h e x c i t e m e n t and e x p e c t a t i o n . L u s s u r i o s o p l a n s t o k i l l S p u r i o , r e a l i z e s i t i s h i s f a t h e r and i s t o t a l l y p e r p l e x e d . The Duke's appearance i s comic r e l i e f , and as he e n t e r s the a u d i e n c e r e a l i z e s a l s o what a m i s t a k e L u s s u r i o s o has made, and t h e y can l a u g h . U n i t 2: As the r e s t o f t h e C o u r t e n t e r s , L u s s u r i o s o t r i e s t o e x p l a i n h i s i n n o c e n c e , b u t c a n n o t . S p u r i o e n t e r s , angry t h a t he d i d not c a t c h L u s s u r i o s o , sees t h a t he i s i n t r o u b l e anyway, and e x i t s h a p p i l y . The u n i t i s s h o r t , no one w a i t s around t o hear th e consequences and L u s s u r i o s o i s d e s p a t c h e d t o t h e dungeon. 109. U n i t 3; The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o r e v e a l t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo. They n o t o n l y t r y t o have L u s s u r i o s o hanged as soon as p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t making i t appear as though t h i s i s what t h e y want, t h e y a l s o t r y t o outdo each o t h e r f o r t h e Duke's f a v o u r . The scene i s humorous, f o r i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t he i s aware of t h e i r d e c e i t and p l a y s them o f f a g a i n s t each o t h e r . U n i t 4: The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o g i v e t h e Duke a f i n a l word on t h e s i t u a t i o n , and t o have h i s son r e l e a s e d w i t h o u t anyone e l s e b e i n g aware of i t . H i s f i n a l speech i s i m p o r t a n t , f o r i t shows him t o be t o t a l l y aware o f h i s own c o r r u p t i o n , and a t the same time r e a d y f o r more s e d u c t i o n s . He knows that he i s governed by h i s own l u s t , and i n t h i s knowledge l i e s h i s own d e a t h a few scenes l a t e r . 110. A c t T h r e e , S c e n e I : The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s c e n e i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e a c t i o n f o r t h e r e s t o f t h i s A c t , w h i c h e x c e p t f o r S c e n e 4, c o n c e r n s A m b i t i o s o and S u p e r v a c u o d i r e c t l y . T h e s e two a r e f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d as c o n s p i r i n g b u t u n s u c c e s s f u l r e v e n g e r s . The s c e n e a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s t h e r i v a l r y b e t w e e n them. The s c e n e b e g i n s w i t h them d e c i d i n g t h e q u i c k e s t and b e s t method o f r i d d i n g t h e m s e l v e s o f L u s s u r i o s o and v e r y s h o r t l y t h e y have a p l a n . I n t h e f i n a l moments o f t h e s c e n e , t h e i r a l r e a d y g r o w i n g d i s t r u s t o f e a c h o t h e r i s made c l e a r e r . A c t T h r e e , S c e n e Two: The r e l e a s e o f L u s s u r i o s o c r e a t e s an i r o n i c s i t u a t i o n w h i c h comes t o a h e a d i n a l a t e r s c e n e . A c t T h r e e , S c e n e 3: T h i s s c e n e i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e f i r s t s c e n e . W i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g t h a t L u s s u r i o s o h a s b e e n s e t f r e e , t h e b r o t h e r s c o n t i n u e t o p l o t h i s e x e c u t i o n . A m b i t i o s o b r i b e s t h e o f f i c e r i n an a t t e m p t t o g e t t h e d e e d done f a s t e r , and t o a p p e a r i n a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n t h a n he i s . W i t h t h e o f f i c e r ' s e x i t " , t h e b r o t h e r s l i t e r a l l y jump f o r j o y and b e g i n t o p l a n how t o g e t t h e i r b r o t h e r o u t o f p r i s o n . A c t T h r e e , S c e n e 4: The p u r p o s e o f - t h i s s c e n e i s t o i n t r o d u c e J u n i o r i n t h e p r i s o n , and t o show how t h e b r o t h e r s ' p l o t t i n g c a u s e s him t o l o s e h i s l i f e . The s c e n e o p e ns w i t h J u n i o r p a c i n g b a c k and f o r t h i n h i s c e l l , h i s c h a i n s c l a n g i n g and a b l u e l i g h t on t h e a r e a . The c o n f i n e m e n t i n t h e c e l l was i n d i c a t e d by-p l a y i n g the scene t o t a l l y i n s i d e t h e second a r c h , w i t h the o n l y means o f e n t r a n c e and e x i t b e i n g the s t a i r s l e a d i n g o f f l e f t . The scene r e v e a l s J u n i o r ' s c h a r a c t e r , and how he r e a c t s t o the news t h a t he has b u t a few moments l e f t t o l i v e . A t t h e s t a r t , he i s s t i l l an o b n o x i o u s b u l l y , demanding i n f o r m a t i o n from the guard and r e f u s i n g t o b e l i e v e what he h e a r s . As i t o c c u r s t o him t h a t h i s b r o t h e r s might have b e t r a y e d him, he b e g i n s t o b r e a k down and c r i e s . H i s s n i v e l l i n g i s so weak t h a t i t i s h a r d t o f e e l s o r r y f o r him, and he e x i t s a p a t h e t i c f i g u r e , a pawn o f t h e C o u r t . 112 . A c t T h r e e , Scene 5: T h i s scene i s one o f the most memorable i n the p l a y , f o r not o n l y does i t c o n t a i n some o f t h e most b e a u t i f u l p o e t r y , b u t a l s o some o f t h e most gruesome a c t i o n . The a c t i o n o f t h e scene r e v o l v e s around V i n d i c e ' s p l o t t o k i i l t h e o l d Duke, and t h e n h i s a c t u a l murder. I n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e scene, V i n d i c e spends a l o t o f t i m e p h i l o s o p h i z i n g on t h e n a t u r e ; o f women, a l l t h e w h i l e h o l d i n g t h e s k u l l o f h i s dead m i s t r e s s . The pace i s s l o w and c o n s t a n t , w i t h the t e n s i o n m o u n t i n g , w a i t i n g f o r t h e e n t r a n c e o f the Duke. V i n d i c e ' s r e l a x a t i o n i n t h a t scene i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f a c a t , easy b u t r e a d y t o s p r i n g a t t h e s l i g h t e s t p r o v o c a t i o n . W i t h th e e n t r a n c e o f t h e Duke, the tempo a c c e l e r a t e s , and t h e s t a g e i s a mad t u r m o i l o f b o d i e s . The appearance of S p u r i o and t h e Duchess c r e a t e s a s h o r t pause, b u t t h e n t h e a c t i o n p i c k s r i g h t up a g a i n and f i n a l l y the Duke d i e s . The scene was p l a y e d m a i n l y c e n t r e s t a g e , w i t h an e e r i e b l u e l i g h t c a s t i n g shadows f o r the r e v e n g e r s t o h i d e i n . U n i t I : The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o i n t r o d u c e t h e p l o t o f t h e f u t u r e a c t i o n , t h e murder o f t h e Duke. The s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s were s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d , as H i p p o l i t o e n t e r e d f i r s t . As he w a l k s on s t a g e , he appears t o be w a i t i n g f o r someone, and w i t h the e n t r a n c e o f V i n d i c e , i t i s seen t h a t H i p p o l i t o has been asked by V i n d i c e t o meet him he r e f o r some a p p a r e n t r e a s o n . As V i n d i c e r e l a t e s t h e p l o t t o H i p p o l i t o , we are amazed as the l a t t e r and the scene t a k e s on an a i r o f s e c r e c y . The c l i m a x o f t h e u n i t comes w i t h t h e e n t r a n c e of V i n d i c e w i t h t h e s k u l l d r e s s e d as a " l a d y " . U n i t 2; The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o p a r t i a l l y r e v e a l t h e use o f the s k u l l i n the murder o f t h e Duke. I t s complete f u n c t i o n i s n o t r e v e a l e d u n t i l l a t e r . I n h i s o b s e s s e d manner, V i n d i c e appears t o be a l m o s t mad. H o l d i n g t h e s k u l l o f h i s m i s t r e s s , he b e g i n s a b i t t e r r e f l e c t i o n on t h e n a t u r e o f women as though he had a l l the t i m e i n t h e w o r l d . The c o n t r a s t between what he i s s a y i n g t o t h e s k u l l now and what he s a i d i n h i s o p e n i n g s o l i l o q u y , i s one i n d i c a t i o n o f how he has changed d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h e p l a y . U n i t 3: The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o r e t u r n t o t h e p o i n t o f t h e scene, t h e murder. V i n d i c e t u r n s a b r u p t l y from h i s t h o u g h t s t o H i p p o l i t o , b r e a k i n g t h e q u i e t o f t h e p a s t speech and q u i c k l y t e l l s us o f h i s p l a n . Two t h i n g s i m m e d i a t e l y s t r i k e us - one t h a t he i s k i l l i n g t h e Duke i n a most g r o t e s q u e and a l m o s t u n n e c e s s a r y manner, and s e c o n d l y t h a t he i s d e f i l i n g the memory o f h i s l o v e by u s i n g t h e s k u l l f o r t h e p o i s o n i n g , making a whore out o f h i s m i s t r e s s . These t h o u g h t s c o n t r a s t w i t h the o b v i o u s p l e a s u r e V i n d i c e has. U n i t 4: T h i s s h o r t u n i t c o n s i s t s of. the e n t r a n c e o f t h e Duke and h i s d i s m i s s a l o f h i s l o r d w i t h an excuse t o g i v e i f he i s asked f o r . The whole a t t i t u d e o f t h e Duke i s one o f l u s t and i m p a t i e n c e . He wants h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n q u i c k l y , n o t w i l l i n g t o admit he i s an u g l y o l d man. As soon as " P i a t o " b r i n g s t h e Duke t o the l a d y , he f a l l s upon her and b e g i n s t o t a k e her r i g h t t h e r e . The scene i s g r o t e s q u e . U n i t 5: The d e a t h o f t h e Duke i s a l o n g a f f a i r and i s drawn out by t h e t o r t u r i n g remarks o f V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o . I t i s a l s o most t h e a t r i c a l . The Duke k i s s e s t h e s k u l l w i t h p a s s i o n and th e n screams w i t h agony as h i s f a c e b e g i n s t o r o t away. V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o r e v e a l t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e Duke and show t h e m s e l v e s t o be g u i l t y o f a n e e d l e s s c r u e l t y . The scene i s p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e and e x c i t i n g , l e a d i n g t o t h e e n t r a n c e o f the Duchess and S p u r i o . U n i t 6: The purpose of t h i s s h o r t i n t e r l u d e i s t o show v i s u a l l y t h e Duke t h a t he i s b e i n g c u c k o l d e d , and thus t o r t u r e him even more. The hot p a s s i o n o f t h e Duchess, t h e m u s i c , the h o t n i g h t , a l l c o n t r a s t w i t h the h i d d e n group o f r e v e n g e r s on s t a g e r i g h t . The s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d i s i r o n i c and c o n s e q u e n t l y c r e a t e s a t e n s i o n on s t a g e . U n i t 7: W i t h the d e a t h o f t h e Duke, p a r t o f V i n d i c e ' s revenge i s accomplished. The lightness of the two brothers at the end of the scene, underlies the nastiness that occurred throughout. This l a s t u n i t r e l i e v e s the tension that has been bui l d i n g , during the scene, and prepares us for the stupid s i t u a t i o n which follows. A c t T h r e e , Scene 6: T h i s l a s t scene o f the A c t c o m p l e t e s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e p l a y . The purpose o f t h e scene i s t o r e - i n t r o d u c e the two b r o t h e r s , A m b i t i o s o and Supervacuo, and show them f a i l i n g a t t h e i r p l o t t i n g . I n t h i s scene t h e y r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y have f a i l e d and once more b e g i n t o blame each o t h e r i n t h e i r c h i l d i s h f a s h i o n . T h e i r shock a t s e e i n g L u s s u r i o s o a l i v e i s c e r t a i n l y comic f o r t h e a u d i e n c e . When t h e o f f i c e r b r i n g s i n the head, t h e i r dismay a t f i n d i n g o u t i t i s t h e i r b r o t h e r ' s head, causes them t o f a l l a p a r t . T h e i r f a i l u r e i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s s e t o f b r o t h e r s ' s u c c e s s f u l r e v enge. The scene i s f u l l o f b l a c k humour, f o r even though what happens i s gruesome, t h e y a r e so s i l l y and u s e l e s s , t h a t we must l a u g h a t them. A c t F o u r , Scene I : T h i s scene b e g i n s a new p l o t l i n e i n t h e p l a y and i m p a r t s some i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . D u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h e scene we see a n o t h e r s i d e o f L u s s u r i o s o w h i c h we have never seen b e f o r e . He appears angry and o b v i o u s l y i m p a t i e n t . The scene b e g i n s w i t h L u s s u r i o s o r a i l i n g a g a i n s t ' P i a t o ' f o r h a v i n g made him a l m o s t k i l l h i s f a t h e r . Then ' P i a t o ' e n t e r s and we see i n f a c t how angry L u s s u r i o s o r e a l l y i s . The r e s t o f t h e scene c o n c e r n s L u s s u r i o s o ' s a t t e m p t t o f i n d a r e p l a c e -ment f o r ' P i a t o T and a l s o t o have him k i l l e d . He asks H i p p o l i t o i f he has a b r o t h e r , and f i n d i n g the a f f i r m a t i v e , o r d e r s him t o come t o C o u r t . The i r o n y o f the s i t u a t i o n r e v o l v e s around the f a c t t h a t ' P i a t o ' i s i n f a c t H i p p o l i t o ' s b r o t h e r . The scene ends w i t h L u s s u r i o s o c o n v e r s i n g w i t h a l o r d and f i n d i n g out t h a t h i s f a t h e r i s gone from C o u r t . T h i s t e l l s us t h a t no-one a t the C o u r t i s y e t aware o f h i s murder. U n i t I : The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o show L u s s u r i o s o ' s r e a c t i o n t o h i s r e c e n t p r e d i c a m e n t and h i s o b v i o u s d i s p l e a s u r e a t h a v i n g been m i s l e d by ' P i a t o 1 . H i p p o l i t o i s v e r y i n s e c u r e w i t h the l o r d ' s dishumour and does n o t know i f he i s coming o r g o i n g . He must of c o u r s e agree w i t h L u s s u r i o s o and when he sees h i s b r o t h e r e n t e r i n g , he p r e p a r e s f o r the w o r s t . U n i t 2; The purpose of t h i s u n i t i s m e r e l y t o show on s t a g e how angry L u s s u r i o s o r e a l l y i s . When ' P i a t o ' e n t e r s , L u s s u r i o s o i s a l m o s t r e a d y t o k i l l him and o n l y h i s f a s t escape saves V i n d i c e . U n i t 3; I n t h i s u n i t , L u s s u r i o s o a s k s H i p p o l i t o t o have h i s b r o t h e r come t o C o u r t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g because H i p p o l i t o i s n o t s u r e whether o r n o t L u s s u r i o s o i s aware of ' P i a t o ' s 1 i d e n t i t y , arid c o n s e q u e n t l y he i s r e a l l y c o n f u s e d d u r i n g t h i s s h o r t u n i t . U n i t 4: I n t h i s s h o r t s o l i l o q u y o f L u s s u r i o s o 1 s , i t i s r e v e a l e d t h a t he p l a n s t o have ' P i a t o ' murdered. H i s d e c i s i o n i n v o l v e s no m o r a l argument o r t h o u g h t . The s i m p l i c i t y w i t h w h i c h he d e c i d e s i n d i c a t e s h i s own l a c k o f m o r a l i t y o r sense o f j u s t i c e . The most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o him i s h i s own sense o f s e c u r i t y . U n i t 5: T h i s l a s t s h o r t u n i t i n c l u d e s s i m p l y a s h o r t c o n v e r s a t i o n L u s s u r i o s o has w i t h a n o b l e , i n d i c a t i n g h i s unawareness of t h e Duke's d e a t h . A c t F o u r , Scene 2: The purpose o f t h i s scene i s t o q u i c k l y i n v o l v e the a u d i e n c e i n the a c t i o n . There i s l i t t l e w a i t i n g f o r a c t i o n from now on. T h i s h a l f o f t h e p l a y moves q u i c k l y w i t h e v e r y scene i n v o l v i n g a major a c t i o n . Because of t h i s a c c e l e r a t i o n o f pace, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e scenes s t a r t r a p i d l y and n o t spend t i m e i n redundant e x p l a n a t i o n s . T here-f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s scene was c u t so t h a t i t s t a r t e d i t s momentum i m m e d i a t e l y . V i n d i c e appears on s t a g e d r e s s e d as he was i n t h e f i r s t scene and t a l k i n g i n a b r o a d a c c e n t . The scene p a r a l l e l an e a r l i e r one, i n w h i c h V i n d i c e meets L u s s u r i o s o d r e s s e d as ' P i a t o ' . The scene ends w i t h the b r o t h e r s t r y i n g t o d e c i d e how t o f i n d a n o t h e r ' P i a t o ' . U n i t I : The purpose o f t h i s u n i t i s t o i n f o r m t h e a u d i e n c e q u i c k l y o f V i n d i c e ' s d i s g u i s e and t o s e t up t h e scene between h i m s e l f and L u s s u r i o s o . T h i s u n i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t V i n d i c e i n t e n d s t o murder L u s s u r i o s o , t h a t he i s n o t c o n t e n t w i t h m e r e l y h a v i n g k i l l e d t h e Duke, but d e s i r e s more vengeance. U n i t 2; T h i s u n i t i s b a s i c a l l y a humorous one i n w h i c h V i n d i c e , s p e a k i n g i n a b r o a d d i a l e c t , a c t s the p a r t o f a poor c y n i c a l s c h o l a r w i l l i n g t o do a n y t h i n g f o r a few p e n n i e s . And as L u s s u r i o s o appears t o be b a f f l e d by t h e s p e e c h , he a l s o seems pe r t u r b e d by i t , f o r p a r t s of i t appear t o be mocking. N e v e r t h e l e s s he h i r e s V i n d i c e t o serve him. U n i t 3: The purpose of t h i s u n i t i s to i n t r o d u c e the reason f o r the meeting and t o f u r t h e r complicate the p l o t . L u s s u r i o s o ' s r e c o u n t i n g of the imagined scene between ' P i a t o ' and h i m s e l f i s comic i n c o n t r a s t t o what r e a l l y happened. Knowing L u s s u r i o s o t o be a c h a r a c t e r without s c r u p l e s or morals i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o see him t r y and apply good i n t e n t i o n s t o h i s motives. The main mood i n the u n i t i s one of mockery, both V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o p r e t e n d anger towards 'Piato'. and mock L u s s u r i o s o . U n i t 4: In t h i s s h o r t u n i t a completely new mood i s e s t a b l i s h e d . V i n d i c e and L u s s u r i o s o are l e f t alone on stage. L u s s u r i o s o t e l l s V i n d i c e t o k i l l h i s enemies and V i n d i c e swears to do so. Although L u s s u r i o s o i s not aware of the i m p l i c a t i o n s , the atmosphere i s heavy wi t h sudden i n t e n s i t y and he i s r e l i e v e d when H i p p o l i t o r e - e n t e r s . U n i t 5: T h i s s h o r t u n i t f u r t h e r s and comp l i c a t e s the p l o t . H i p p o l i t o says ha has found ' P i a t o ' drunk and w i l l show him to V i n d i c e . L u s s u r i o s o e x i t s happy i n the knowledge t h a t the b r o t h e r s w i l l do t h e i r j o b . The u n i t serves t o heighten the t e n s i o n and r a i s e the q u e s t i o n a g a i n as t o what they w i l l do t o f i n d a s u b s t i t u t e f o r ' P i a t o ' . U n i t 6; This u n i t serves two purposes. . F i r s t l y , i t solve the problem r a i s e d above, q u i t e i n g e n i o u s l y , by s u b s t i t u t i n g the Duke's body dressed as ' P i a t o ' f o r the l a t t e r . Secondly, i t suspends the sub-plot f o r a while and moves on to another, t h a t of the mother. V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o rush o f f stage eager to confront t h e i r mother w i t h her s i n . Act Four, Scene 3: Tourneur once again p a r a l l e l s the two se t s of b r o t h e r s , and as u s u a l Ambitioso and Supervacuo are i n e f f e c t u a l i n t h e i r a c t i o n s . In t h i s scene they are given proof of t h e i r mother's incestuous r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Spurio. Yet they do not act p o s i t i v e l y one way or the other. T h e i r f o l l o w i n g of the Duchess and her l o v e r foreshadows the next scene. The pervading mood i s one of treachery and hot pas s i o n . A c t F o u r , Seen e 4: T h i s i s one o f t h e most a c t i v e scenes i n t h e p l a y and t h e c l i m a x o f the A c t . The scene p o i n t s up G r a t i a n a ' s f o u l n e s s , C a s t i z a ' s s t r i c t n e s s and t h e b r o t h e r s ' c o m p l i c i t y i n the e v e n t s . I t i s s i n g u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e whole c h a i n o f e v e n t s o r i g i n a t e d w i t h V i n d i c e and w i t h o u t h i s p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h revenge and j u s t i c e , t h e s e t h i n g s would not have o c c u r r e d . The mother might o r m i g h t n o t have been c o r r u p t e d , b u t a t l e a s t t h e son would n o t have been a t f a u l t . U n i t I ; The u n i t b e g i n s r i g h t i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e a c t i o n . G r a t i a n a does n o t know what she i s b e i n g a c c u s e d of and when she f i n d s out she d e n i e s i t v ehemently. The tone of t h e u n i t i s f r e n z i e d . G r a t i a n a r u n s away from t h e drawn daggers and V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o c o r n e r her l i k e a t r a p p e d a n i m a l . U n i t 2: The moment V i n d i c e r e v e a l s h i m s e l f t o her she t o t a l l y c o l l a p s e s and c o n f e s s e s . The l o n g pause a f t e r he says " I was the man" i s f i l l e d w i t h h o r r o r and f e a r , b u t G r a t i a n a w i t t i l y g e t s o u t o f her p r e d i c a m e n t by s a y i n g t h a t no-one but him c o u l d have c o n v i n c e d her t o do what she d i d . A t t h i s V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o p u t away t h e i r daggers and l e a v e , w i t h G r a t i a n a ' s p r o m i s e t o r e m a i n good and speak w i t h C a s t i z a . 124. U n i t 3: I n t h i s s h o r t u n i t t h e r e i s a r e v e r s a l o f e x p e c t a t i o n . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t C a s t i z a w i l l once more r e f u s e t o go t o the C o u r t , b u t she says t h e o p p o s i t e . T h i s r e v e r s a l t o t a l l y s t u n s G r a t i a n a , and w i t h t h e memory o f c o l d s t e e l a t her t h r o a t she does her b e s t t o c o n v i n c e C a s t i z a t h a t her c h a s t i t y i s not w o r t h any s a c r i f i c e . U n i t 4: T h i s u n i t m e r e l y p r e s e n t s a l l t h e arguments w h i c h G r a t i a n a p r e v i o u s l y used a g a i n s t her now. C a s t i z a r e mains f i r m i n her d e c i s i o n however. As the s i t u a t i o n becomes more f r a n t i c on G r a t i a n a ' s p a r t , she argues more and more p e r s u a s i v e l y . F i n a l l y a t t h e h i g h p o i n t o f t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n , C a s t i z a g i v e s i n and t e l l s G r a t i a n a t h a t she was o n l y t e s t i n g h er mother's v i r t u e . The r e s u l t i s i n e v i t a b l e melodrama as mother and da u g h t e r embrace. U n i t 5: The main mood o f t h i s s h o r t f i n a l u n i t i s one of r e l i e f . B o th women have r e a s o n t o f e e l r e l i e v e d b u t G r a t i a n a ' s i s s t r o n g e r and more n o t i c e a b l e . I t i s more o b v i o u s t h a t she f e e l s she has saved h er neck r a t h e r t h a n h e r d a u g h t e r ' s v i r t u e . 125. A c t F i v e , Scene I : T h i s scene c o n c l u d e s t h e b u s i n e s s t h a t V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o t h o u g h t up e a r l i e r about s u b s t i t u t i n g the Duke's body f o r t h a t o f ' P i a t o ' . I t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s L u s s u r i o s o as the new Duke. Two i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s a r i s e from t h i s scene: one i s V i n d i c e ' s u n n e c e s s a r y v i o l e n c e when s t a b b i n g t h e dead Duke, and s e c o n d l y , t h e C o u r t ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h e news t h a t t h e Duke has been murdered. U n i t I : T h i s u n i t i s t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t h e b r o t h e r s t h o u g h t up e a r l i e r . They b e g i n the scene p l e a s e d and happy w i t h the way t h i n g s have been w o r k i n g o u t , and drop t h e body where t h e y a r e s u r e L u s s u r i o s o w i l l f i n d i t . As soon as L u s s u r i o s o e n t e r s , t h e y b e g i n t o l o o k f o r the body. N a t u r a l l y enough L u s s u r i o s o f i n d s i t , s i n c e the o t h e r two a r e l o o k i n g somewhere i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , and o r d e r s them t o k i l l ' P i a t o ' . S i n c e L u s s u r i o s o t r i e s t o l e a v e b e f o r e t h e y s t a b the body, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o watch V i n d i c e t r y and keep him t h e r e . T h i s was done by V i n d i c e ' s s e n s e l e s s q u e s t i o n i n g o f L u s s u r i o s o as t o whether o r n o t t h e y s h o u l d k i l l him w h i l e he was 'dead drunk'. L u s s u r i o s o , l o s i n g p a t i e n c e , o r d e r s them t o do i t i m m e d i a t e l y and t h e two b r o t h e r s r u s h t o t h e c o r p s e . And y e t a g a i n , V i n d i c e c r e a t e s an a n t i - c l i m a x by s t o p p i n g and a s k i n g L u s s u r i o s o a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n . By the time t h e y a c t u a l l y s t a b the c o r p s e , V i n d i c e does i t w i t h a q u i e t vengeance. He b r e a k s out i n a . q u i e t , nervous laugh which H i p p o l i t o shares, and which L u s s u r i o s o j o i n s a f t e r a moment. The t h r e e end the u n i t l a u g h i n g h e a r t i l y , a l l f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons, and c a u s i n g a r e l i e f from the t e n s i o n on stage. U n i t 2: The sudden r e c o g n i t i o n of the Duke 1s body causes L u s s u r i o s o to go through a v a r i e t y of r e a c t i o n , e s t a b l i s h i n g a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t mood from the p r e v i o u s one. L u s s u r i o s o i s most upset f o r o n l y a moment. The main worry on h i s mind i s t h a t he be mistaken f o r h i s f a t h e r ' s murderer, and has the two b r o t h e r s sworn to s e c r e c y . His obvious d i s t r a c t i o n adds to the joke which V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o are now e n j o y i n g . U n i t 3: The purpose of t h i s u n i t i s to show the r e a c t i o n of the r e s t of the Court to the news of the Duke's death. Although no-one seems saddened by the l o s s , t here i s an a i r of waiting," as they a l l look to see what L u s s u r i o s o w i l l do next. S i n c e he i s l e g i t i m a t e l y the new Duke, the power i s now h i s , and no-one wants to be the f i r s t t o t e s t i t . U n i t 4: The purpose of t h i s u n i t i s simply to e s t a b l i s h an o r d e r i n the scene by making L u s s u r i o s o the new Duke. L u s s u r i o s o i s more than p l e a s e d to have h i s new t i t l e , but t h e r e i s not a comment from the r e s t of the Court. The l o r d who brought up the s u b j e c t a l s o suggests t h a t c e l e b r a t i o n s might be i n o r d e r , and everyone e x i t s on a f a l s e note of g a i e U n i t 5: The purpose of t h i s s h o r t u n i t i s t o have L u s s u r i o s o b a n i s h the Duchess, t h u s g e t t i n g r i d o f her b e f o r e the f i n a l s c ene, and l e a v i n g no ends d a n g l i n g . U n i t 6: The purpose of t h i s u n i t i s f o r S p u r i o t o say what he r e a l l y f e e l s about t h e s i t u a t i o n and have t h e two s e t s o f b r o t h e r s o v e r h e a r . U n i t 7: The purpose of t h i s u n i t i s t o g i v e /Ambitioso and Supervacuo a new v i c t i m t o p u r s u e . They vow t o k i l l t h e new Duke, and t h e n i n an a s i d e A m b i t i o s o s a ys he s h a l l k i l l h i s b r o t h e r . U n i t 8: The l a s t i n the p l a y , the b r o t h e r s have seen e v e r y t h i n g t h a t has happened and now are r e a d y f o r t h e f i n a l e . They speak t h e i r l i n e s o v e r t h e body of the Duke wh i c h i s s t i l l l y i n g on t h e s t a g e , and t h e n e x i t c a r r y i n g i t . A c t F i v e , Scene 2; T h i s scene was c u t s i n c e i t was u n n e c e s s a r y t o t h e a c t i o n o f the p l a y . I a l s o f e l t i t was l o g i c a l t o go from the p r e v i o u s scene where t h e y m e n t i o n the r e v e l s t o t h e a c t u a l r e v e l s and i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e new Duke. 128. A c t F i v e , Scene 3; T h i s i s the f i n a l scene i n t h e p l a y and the grand c l i m a x o f t h e a c t i o n . None of the m a j o r c h a r a c t e r s a r e l e f t a l i v e a t t h e end, e x c e p t f o r V i n d i c e and H i p p o l i t o and t h e y a r e b e i n g p u t t o d e a t h . The f i g u r e who remains a t the end t o t a k e o v e r i s A n t o n i o , a m i n o r revenge f i g u r e . The scene i s v i s u a l l y the most e x c i t i n g and d r a m a t i c a l l y t h e h i g h p o i n t o f the a c t i o n . The s t a g e i s d a r k and a C o u r t p r o c e s s i o n w i t h music p r o c e e d s t h r o u g h the s i d e a r c h e s w h i c h a r e l i t i n r e d , p a r a l l e l l i n g t he o p e n i n g scene. Then t h e banquet b e g i n s as the t o a s t s a r e drunk. The atmosphere i s one o f f o r c e d j o v i a l i t y and good w i s h e s , w i t h the same k i n d o f d i s t r u s t e v i d e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y . W i t h the e n t r a n c e o f the masquers t h e c o n s p i r a c y b e g i n s and so does the b l o o d s h e d . By the end o f the ' r e v e l s ' a l l a r e l e f t dead on s t a g e , save f o r t he b r o t h e r s and A n t o n i o . A f t e r t h e a c t i o n o f the p r e c e d i n g e v e n t s , V i n d i c e ' s c o n f e s s i o n i s a n t i - c l i m a c t i c and somewhat i r o n i c . Y e t i t a l s o p r o v i d e s a q u i e t c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e chaos j u s t w i t n e s s e d . We f e e l l i t t l e sympathy f o r t h e man who took j u s t i c e i n t o h i s own hands and was b l i n d t o t h e r e s u l t s . We must however admire the f i g u r e t h a t s t a n d s a l o n e a t the end unaware o f a n y t h i n g e x c e p t t h a t he was r i g h t . Even H i p p o l i t o s t a t e s t h a t t h e a c t i o n came from V i n d i c e , he m e r e l y f o l l o w e d . V i n d i c e e x i t s . , knowing t h a t he has r e s t o r e d j u s t i c e t o the l a n d . 129. Antonio i s l e f t alone on stage, and i n h i s a p p r a i s a l of the bodies and h i s f i n a l words to V i n d i c e , we see the r e t u r n of the same s i t u a t i o n . In h i s l a s t l i n e s , Antonio u n d e r l i n e s the c o r r u p t i o n and e v i l t h a t pervaded throughout the p l a y . Blood cannot wash, blood away, but he i s not yet aware of t h i s , and t h e r e f o r e he sentences V i n d i c e to death. The c y c l e of power and c o r r u p t i o n i s ready to begin again. Nothing has been solved by the a c t i o n of the p l a y . DETAILS OF PRODUCTION MUSIC CUES F o l l o w i n g d i s c o v e r y o f V i n d i c e . L i g h t s up s l o w l y , and m u s i c s t a r t s low and f a d e s xip u n t i l a l l c h a r a c t e r s on s t a g e . F o l l o w i n g V i n d i c e 1 s l i n e , page 45: "Four e x ' l e n t c h a r a c t e r s " Fade sound s l o w l y F o l l o w i n g V i n d i c e 1 s l i n e , page 49 " I ' l l q u i c k l y t u r n i n t o a n o t h e r " F i v e second pause t h e n s t a r t s t r o n g w i t h e n t r a n c e m u s i c t w i c e . F o l l o w i n g V i n d i c e ' s l i n e , p.63 " I n t h i s d i s g u i s e t o t r y the f a i t h o f b o t h " F i v e second pause, t h e n s o f t m u s i c f o r d u r a t i o n o f scene. SSION F o l l o w i n g V i n d i c e ' s l i n e , p. 98 "Thy b a s t a r d , t h y b a s t a r d r i d e s a - h u n t i n g i n t h y brow" S t a r t low and f a d e up w i t h e n t r a n c e o f Duchess and S p u r i o . P r o c e s s i o n a l music t o be p l a y e d b e f o r e A c t 5, Scene 3 b e g i n s , w h i l e c h a r a c t e r s march t h r o u g h s i d e a r c h e s . Banquet music b e g i n s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r p r o c e s s i o n a l ends ; E n t e r C o u r t f i g u r e s , m usic up and remains u n t i l end o f masque and e n t r a n c e o f A n t o n i o , p.33, a f t e r V i n d i c e ' s l i n e : " P i s t o l s ! T r e a s o n ! Murder! H e l p guard my l o r d the Duke". 131. LIGHT PLOT Cue 1: Blackout, then slow up on centre, p i n spot blue l i g h t . Cue 2: Fade spot, then general n i g h t e x t e r i o r up, c e n t r a l arch and side arches. Cue 3: Cross fade arches down, c e n t r a l area up. Cue 4: General e x t e r i o r l i g h t s up f u l l . Cue 5: Blackout, then general Court i n t e r i o r up, w i t h s p e c i a l on c e n t r a l arch. Cue 6: Cross fade to centre only. Cue 7: Cross from general e x t e r i o r to c e n t r a l arch o n l y , bathed i n blue l i g h t . Cue 8: Blackout, then general garden e x t e r i o r up. Cue 9: Cross fade down garden e x t e r i o r and up general Court i n t e r i o r . Cue 10: Cross fade general i n t e r i o r down, Arch I s p e c i a l up. Cue 11: S p e c i a l stage up l e f t , then both s p e c i a l s cross fade to general Court i n t e r i o r . Cue 12: Slow fade of general i n t e r i o r , l e a v i n g only up centre dimly l i t . Cue 13: S p e c i a l blue " s i l h o u e t t e " l i g h t on c e n t r a l arch. Cue 14: Slow cross fade to general i n t e r i o r when Duke e n t e r s / up f u l l . S p e c i a l o f f . Cue 15: Blackout, then general Court i n t e r i o r up centre and l e f t . Cue 16: Cross fade to centre r i g h t then down r i g h t . Cue 17: Blackout, then j a i l s p e c i a l on on second arch. Cue 18: Cross fade to general n i g h t e x t e r i o r . Cue 19: Shaft of l i g h t on l e f t arch f o r Duke's entrance, then fade down. Cue 20: C e n t r a l arch n i g h t l i g h t up. Then o f f at e x i t of Duchess and Spurio. 132, Cue 21: Blackout, then general Court i n t e r i o r up. Cue 22: Slow dim to bl a c k o u t , f i v e to e i g h t seconds pause. House l i g h t s d u r i n g i n t e r m i s s i o n . Cue 23: Blackout, then general Court i n t e r i o r . Cue 24: Cross fade to upstage i n t e r i o r o n l y , s p e c i a l s on both f l i g h t s of s t a i r s . Cue 25: Blackout, then up general i n t e r i o r . Cue 26: Blackout, then sl o w l y fade up Court i n t e r i o r . Cue 27: Court i n t e r i o r up f u l l . Cue 28: Blackout, then fade up red s p e c i a l on r i g h t a i s l e through arches f o r p r o c e s s i o n . Cue 29: Cross fade t o general l i g h t i n g f o r Court i n t e r i o r very dim. Cue 30: S p e c i a l on c e n t r a l arch on f u l l . Cue 31: General Court i n t e r i o r up f u l l w i t h s p e c i a l red l i g h t s f o r masque. Cue 32: Cross fade of s p e c i a l l i g h t s to general Court i n t e r i o r . Cue 33: Dim slow l y to blackout during l a s t speech, l e a v i n g arch s p e c i a l s on. Then fade to blackout. PROPERTY LIST A c t I , Scene I S k u l l ( V i n d i c e ) Two (2) t o r c h e s (Noblemen) A c t I , Scene 2 B l a c k l e t t e r (Judge) D u c a l c h a i r (Duke) A c t I , Scene 4 C l o s e c u r t a i n s - c e n t r e a r c h A c t I I , Scene 1 S t o o l ( C a s t i z a ) D i a r y and pen ( C a s t i z a ) Money bag and j e w e l s ( V i n d i c e ) A c t I I , Scene 2 Sword ( V i n d i c e ) Sword ( L u s s u r i o s o ) A c t I I , Scene 3 S i g n e t r i n g (Duke) A c t I I I , Scene 1 J e w e l l e d dagger ( A m b i t i o s o ) A c t I I I , Scene 3 S i g n e t r i n g ( A m b i t i o s o ) Money ( A m b i t i o s o ) A c t I I I , Scene 4 M a n a c l e s ( J u n i o r ) . L e t t e r (Keeper) S i g n e t r i n g (Keeper) A c t I I I , Scene 5 S k u l l i n c l o a k . ( V i n d i c e ) T i n y b o t t l e w i t h p o i s o n ( V i n d i c e ) S m a l l j e w e l l e d dagger (Duke) Act I I I , Scene 6 Head i n bloody sack ( O f f i c e r ) Act IV, Scene 2 Money bag (Lussurioso) Act IV, Scene 3 Two swords (Ambitioso, Supervacuo) Act TV, Scene 4 Two swords ( V i n d i c e , H i p p o l i t o ) Act V, Scene I Two swords ( V i n d i c e , H i p p o l i t o ) Act V, Scene 3 Table T a b l e c l o t h Goblets Nine (9) swords S i x (6) masks Three (3) c h a i r s One v e l v e t cushion Blood capsules Sponges taped to underside of t a b l e • 135. COSTUME PLOT Duke: L u s s u r i o s o : S p u r i o : A m b i t i o s o : Supervacuo: J u n i o r : V i n d i c e : H i p p o l i t o : A n t o n i o N o b l e s : Dondolo: G o l d t i g h t s , b l a c k j a c k e t w i t h g o l d specked l a r g e p u f f y s l e e v e s , s i g n e t r i n g , b a l d w i g , l o n g .gold b rocade c l o a k w i t h medal o f o f f i c e , g o l d and b l a c k h a t C l , I I . i , i i . I l l , v . ) Red s a t i n n i g h t gown ( I I , i i i . ) V i n d i c e ' s j a c k e t and c l o a k ( V , i . ) B l a c k t i g h t s , g o l d s l i p p e r s , b l a c k bloomers w i t h g o l d d e t a i l , g o l d cod p i e c e and s k i r t , b l a c k j a c k e t , b l a c k v e l v e t and g o l d d e t a i l . B l a c k t i g h t s and shoes, b l a c k s a t i n j a c k e t w i t h r e d s l i t s t h r o u g h o u t . J e w e l l e d dagger. Ruby e a r r i n g i n l e f t e a r , bearded f a c e . S i l v e r t i g h t s and shoes, b l a c k s a t i n j a c k e t , s i l v e r and b l a c k l a c e s t i f f c o l l a r and c u f f s . T i g h t l y f i t t i n g . J e w e l l e d d agger, r e d and s i l v e r c h a i n around neck. P o i n t e d b e a r d and mustache. Same as above but w i t h f i n e d e t a i l . W i t h o u t c h a i n o f o f f i c e , no f a c i a l h a i r b u t p u t t y nose t o a c c e n t u a t e s i l l y f a c e . Same as A m b i t i o s o . L a r g e s i l v e r c o d p i e c e b u t no c h a i n o r dagger ( I , i i . ) W hite s h i r t and t i g h t s o n l y ( I I I , i i i . ) B l a c k j a c k e t and p a n t s , t i g h t s and shoes. White s h i r t trimmed w i t h r e d d e t a i l ( I , i . ) B l a c k t i g h t s , s h o r t b l a c k j a c k e t w i t h g o l d and r e d d e t a i l , l o n g b l a c k w i g and goatee ( I , i i i , i v ) ( I I , i , i i , i i i . , I I I . v , I V . i ) B l a c k t i g h t s and p a n t s , l o n g j a c k e t and l o n g c l o a k , no w i g ( I V . i i ) W i t h o u t c l o a k ( I V . i v ) B l a c k t i g h t s and shoes. S h o r t b l a c k j a c k e t , dagger, c h a i n o f o f f i c e . B l a c k v e l v e t j a c k e t w i t h w h i t e s h i r t and r u f f l e s . B l a c k t i g h t s and p a n t s , w h i t e w i g . Dark t i g h t s , j a c k e t s and s l i p p e r s . Brown j a c k e t and t i g h t s , hunchback and c r o o k e d nose. Duchess: Long heavy r e d d r e s s w i t h l a y e r s o f b l a c k S p a n i s h l a c e on t o p . T i g h t l y f i t t i n g w i t h low b o d i c e and many s t r i n g s o f r e d and s i l y e r and b l a c k beads. Long t i g h t l y f i t t i n g s i l v e r s l e e v e s w i t h wide heavy s l e e v e s on t o p , s l i t t o t h e s h o u l d e r s o f same m a t e r i a l as d r e s s . L a r g e s t i f f b l a c k and s i l v e r l a c e c o l l a r . H a i r drawn c o m p l e t e l y o f f f a c e under t i g h t cap w i t h v e i l h a n g i ng down b e h i n d . C l . i i , X I I . v , I V , i i i , V.i'I B l a c k and r e d l a c e nightgown ( I I . i i i ) C a s t i z a : Long w h i t e gown o f heavy s i l k . G o l d d e t a i l down f r o n t , t i g h t s l e e v e s w i t h l i t t l e d e t a i l , g o l d c r o s s around neck. G r a t i a n a : Long heavy g r e y d r e s s w i t h w h i t e d e t a i l around neck and s l e e v e s . B l a c k c o l l a r . White cap w i t h v e i l b e h i n d . F o r the l a s t s cene, t h e Revengers ( V i n d i c e , H i p p o l i t o , A m b i t i o s o , Supervacuo, S p u r i o and one n o b l e m a n ) a l l wear b l a c k masks, b l a c k c l o a k s l i n e d w i t h r e d and a l l c a r r y drawn swords. 137. 98 K E Y B O A R D C A N Z O N A 26. K e y b o a r d Canzona (early 17th c.) r 0<p S<^sC a n z o n a per Pepistola tfr, —1 —<? o==S=-•1 ••.. 1 . . . • * — r — r_ :— 1 »vj ~-<?-« I S . p T~rrr~T i l i s [f-I 1 • ! : Ci-r ti; • •... . r r - i ^ !0 ' - r - n - t ^ - F f t i 4 <! ,i ,J y . . . . P , R ^> • • — • 139. 140. THE REVENGER'S TRAGEDY by C y r i l Tourneur Directed by Jana Veverka Designed by Michelle Bjornson Music Arranged & Performed by Jim Colby CAST Duke Lussurioso... Spurio Ambitioso.... Supervacuo... Junior Vindice H i p p o l i t o Antonio Dondolo Judge, Keeper Duchess...... Ca s t i z a . . . . . . Gratiana Noble Lord. ..Wayne Robson .Jeremy Newson „..Jeremy Long ...Larry Foden .Da r r e l l Evans ...David MacKenzie ...Dermot Hennelly A l l a n L y s e l l Don Ford ....Garth J i c k l i n g .. „ James S a i t ......Rona Al t r o v s .Anne Louise Sauer .Anna-May McKeller Ron McEven The Scene: I t a l y , i n and around the Duke's Palace PRODUCTION Technical Director ..Rick Spencer A s s i s t a n t s to Di r e c t o r . .Mary Goodwin, David Yfelsh Stage Manager. Gordon Cavers L i g h t i n g Execution L e s l i e Payne Sound Execution. Ciska Veneraa Properties Joyce Marek P u b l i c i t y Jeremy Long, Larry Foden House Manager „ . .Brian Parker An M.A. Thesis Production presented by: The U.B.C. Department of Theatre Thesis Adviser Klaus Strassmann ACIQTO¥LSDGEMBHTS ALJEAN of Canada Ltd., N. Rothstein, M. Greenfield, Geraldine Richardson, Sherry Darcus, John Gray. There w i l l be one 10 minute Intermission 141. THE VANCOUVER SUN: THURSDAY, OCTOBER 16TH, 1969 /Drama t w e i BossiBie inciudea Virgins, virtue; love, lust and lechery; lies, intrigues and treacheries; chastities, ctickoldries, bawds, bastards and blood — it was like bench "W" in Alice's restaurant Wednesday n i g h t at the Dorothy. Somerset S t u d i o Theatre — there were mother stabbers and father stabbers and mother rapers and a glorious catalogue of sins, all played by a solemn faced, hollow-eyed passionately over-powering cast of characters involved In the most com-plicated story of double deal-ing since James Bond burst upon the world, all spitting, dripping, and hissing their' lovely, surprisingly modern words, in a setting of cloist-Iii •  this By JAMES BARBER ers, arches, hidden bedcham-bers and dark and dirty cor-ners. . It was indeed Jacobean theatre. The only thing miss-ing were the chickens running in the pit, the orange girls, the 60-minute intermissions and the good strong heady smell of sweat, beer and perfumed gentry. The play, "The Revenger's Tragedy, is at least 350 years old, written at a time when audiences really liked a good look at the sins of the upper classes, when they liked their blood in buckets M l and believed, even more strongly than Western movie fans, that virtue was its own reward, and that the bad guys always got it in the end. Just about everybody in the Revengers is a bad guy. At one time there were six corpses littered about the stage, but before that there had been lecherous old men poisoned by kissing corpses in au excess of lust, a head in a sack tossed about like a football, daggers slipping in and out as casually as keys in door locks, plots, disguises, seductions, the whole works —theatre hot and strong with' mustard, relish, salt, pepper, and vinegar. The production was an M.A. thesis production, directed by Jana Veverka and designed by Michelle Bjornson. For the.• first ten minutes the words got on top of the cast, they got lost in them, but it didn't really matter — there were all the other nice things hap-', pening, faces appearing in torchlight, W a y n e Robson looking at least 500 years old as the old duke, Derinot Jfen-: nelly laying melodramatic la-' bels on everybody in the cast and the atmosphere building up. It took the audience a. lit-; tie longer to realize that it could laugh, that' there was nothing wrong with treating; the whole thing as a Marx. Brothers romp, and from then on it was difficult not to be thoroughly entertained. And it was equally difficult' on the way home to accept'1 the play's age, to realize that the humor, the subtleties c f language and the movement' of the evening were all pretty/ much as they had originally' been written, and that they were capable, in that form, of.' being just as successful to-day as then. The production runs through October 18, with a matinee at 12:30 today, evenings per--; formances at 8:30. For a dollar and fifty cents I haven't had so much fun hr a long time. . 142. THE VANCOUVER SUN: THURSDAY/ OCTOBER 16TH, 1969 ft By CHRISTOPHER DAFOE Sun Drama Critic Cyril Tourneur, that Jacobean man of shadows, is said to have written three plays, of which two survive. It is also hinted that he worked for a time as a . sort of nark or spy for the Cecils, but ho fact of his life is known.for certain, apart from the date of his death which came in the year 1626. The Revenger's Tragedy is attributed•• to him. So is the earlier Atheist's Trag-edy. The manuscript of a third play, The Nobleman, is said to have been "de-stroyed by Warburton's cook." , "War-burton's cook," whoever he was, might easily have been an early drama critic. Critics, after all, have. sprung from stranger backgrounds. The Revenger's Tragedy, whether it was written by the mysterious Tourneur or not, is a play of blood and thunder in the tradition, if not the greatness, of Kyd's Spanish Tragedy, Webster's Duch-ess of Malfi and Marlowe's Tambur-. laine. When the play ends there are six bloody corpses on the stage and a . seventh lies seething in the wings. • Tourneur, as you might imagine,'was a man of his times and tended to give the people what they wanted. Poor Shakespeare! He had to strain every nerve to catch the attention of the crowd and make a merry noise at the box-office. Enthusiastic Performers Wednesday evening at the.Dorothy Somerset Studio at UBC we had a chance to see what poor William had to contend with when Jana Veverka pre-sented her M.A. thesis production of Tourncur's ancient warhorse. •'• It ill becomes us, of course, to make mock of things that pleased our forefath-ers and Miss Veverka and her company of enthusiastic performers are careful not to do this. They play the thing as if they believed in it. There is no visible attempt to be coy, no effort to draw lines' under what modern man might take to be Jacobean excess. The play is presented with all the earnestness it might have commanded in its own day. • We find it amusing, of course, but the kind of laughter that rang out in the Dorthothy Somerset studio wasn't the smug, self-satisfied laughter of those . who feel superior to those now dead. We laughed because the things that . . moved the men of the seventeenth cen-tury are not the things that move us. We do not call chastity a pearl. We are not taken in by supposed mistaken identity. • The bounds of our. belief snap when body piles upon body. All this may be to our disadvantage, but there it is. We laugh. We can't help it. . • Avenging a Murder The plot of The Revenger's Tragedy is far too convoluted to discuss here. Let me say only that a kind of bloody chain-reaction is set off when Vindice, " an impoverished gentleman, sets out to * avenge the death of his intended at the ' hands of a lustful old Duke. Let me whisper, too, that when the play opens Vindice is discovered with the skull of •• his dead beloved in his hands, like . Hamlet astride Yorick's grave. It goes on from there, ever, mor horrendous. The actors all handled themselves very well indeed, It might be said, of course, that some of the players tended ' to be a bit heavy-handed, but then I have ,.; a • feeling that the original cast was j 'probably a bit heavy-handed. It was the \ style of the times and the play seems to '••, cry out for such treatment. To be subtle , would be unthinkable. -It is essential, however, to know where . r to draw the line in these things, and the "\ actors, led by the versatile Dermot ; Hennelly as Vindice and Wayne Robson \ . as the wicked Duke, did so admirably. f The Revenger's Tragedy is a dramatic "j curiosity and as such it has an honorable'J place in a university theatre. I do not -< .hold with those who claim these things j are merely museum pieces and having i nothing to do with contemporary, thea-tre. In the library, in the text, they are museum exhibits. Placed on a stage with actors to speak the lines they live again. University theatres are museums only so long as the old plays linger on the library shelves or in the dusty minds of professors. In.the hands of actors the play can cease to be an artifact and become a living thing again. It is as if the curator of a museum put his hand on the dry bones of Brontisau-rus. and with a touch of magic restored flesh, claw and fire. The monster climbs down from - its glass case and walks again. For this reason I have a special spot in my heart for university theatres. The whole range of dramatic literature is open to them. They can look to the future and to the past. Their stage is a time-machine. Wednesday evening at U.B.C. we looked to the past It was a brief season of great pleasure. ; . — • — • A catacomb: the somber-lit crypt, I was suppssfegp-of some abandoned, now decaying church. A profusion of hooded corpses Litters the set, as divine Justice, always present, takes wrathful, vengence on a decaying world. The play ends. " 'Tis a heavy season."—an aged, lone survivor, takes the talisman of power. For an age of order which is gone. . . • • The tragedy of human revenge, the bloody chaos which ensues when sinful, secularized man takes justice-into this own hands was a favorite theme of Jacobean drama. The Rennaissance glorification of man was replacing the sacred order.of the Middle Ages; man came ' face to face with his own deceitful vileness. A n d much evil ensued. The "Dance of D e a t h " lurked threateningly within the blooming courtier. The turn of the sixteenth century saw a desparate concern with the vile, sneeky problem of good and evil. The Revenger's Tragedy, b y , C y r i l ' Tourneur-whic fr . .was written i n 1607-opened at the Dorothy Somerset Studio on Wednesday evening-the M . A . Thesis Production of Jana Veverka, with the set by Michelle Bjornson. . "An network of ironic illustrations of villany hoisted on its own petard, and of divine vengeance contrasted with h u m a n . " M a n , in his vileness, cannot judge, cannot govern himself. The black within, only turns outward and destroys. ' "I am hired to k i l l myself" , writes Toureur (as Vindice) with bloody irony dripping from his pen. The dramatist is fascinated with the macabre. His images are the h o o d , the flashing dagger, and centrally, the S k u l l . The skull which is the black inside, the skull who's poisoned, bony lips sleezily offer the kiss of death. Imagine any k i n d of s in- inc luding mother-rape and father-ki l l -andTourneur has put it i n . Imagine a world (tire satanic crypt) defined by its suspicion and distrust, where only the most deceitful wi l l survive-for a while. Were't not for gold and women, there would be no damnation. H e l l would look like a lord's great kitchen : , without fire i n ' t B u t ' t w a s decreed before the world began, That they should be the hooks to catch at man. Everyone, every character (all are basically figures of vice) in the play is damned deterministically from the beginning-the atmosphere drips with death. The power of this play—which is more tragic m e l o d r a m a t h a n t r a g e d y — l i e s in Tourneaur's compressed, heavily ironic language. " A n d the student, cast of Jana Veverka's production handled the heavy blank verse extremely well . The language of deceit: Dermot Hennely was terrific as the eel-like Vindice , and so was Jeremy Newson ,as the doomed Lussorioso. And Wayne Robson. " d o t h his age belie," as the eighty-year-old lecher Duke. "My hairs are grey, but yet my sins are green." A finely-controlled production, a fine set, and very fine lighting. The whole evening was beautifully macabre, and once in the rythm of the thing, one could laugh—laugh hard and blackly. - After al l , the theme, the moral, the whole mood, is not tremendously difficult to get into. In our times. The play continues tonight and Saturday at 8:30 p.m. ~ 143, THE UBYSSEY  THURSDAY OCTOBER 16TH 1969 By NORBERT RUEBSAAT j . - v v \ , * 4t t lief ' * * ' *. v' «* , tliilitl Larry Foden and Rona Altrows strike subtly . symbolic pose. 144. THE VANCOUVER SUN OCTOBER 18TH 196 9. Cyril Tourneur, nark and playwright, was a man who knew how to end a show with a bang. His The Revenger's Trag-edy, revived out at U B C this week, ends as rigor mortis slowly establishes itself in six bloody corpses scattered about the acting area. Several other bodies are already turning to dust in the wings. For those with seventeenth century tastes, The Revenger's Tragedy has everything. Lust, incest, rape, murder-and common violence contend with one another for attention. Severed heads are carried onstage in blood-soaked burlap bags, blood squirts from those who have been pricked with daggers; nothing whatever is * left to the imagination. It is revealing of the nature of man, however, that most of the love-making in the play — and there is a great/deal of it — goes on behind closed curtains.. Man was ever one to hide his good deeds. • Blood and thunder loomed large on the Elizabethan and Jacobean stages. The public liked violence and bloodshed and the. commercial theatre managers of the day, who enjoyed eating as much as the commercial theatre' managers of our own time, gave the public what it liked in full measure. The Violent Bard William Shakespeare, that sweet swan of Avon, was in the business to make money too and there were times when evert he had to cater.to the vulgar taste. He was up against such playwrights: as Thomas Kyd, author of The Spanish Tragedy, one of the major hits of the era. If-a play by Shakespeare or Jonson ' wasn't, drawing full houses, an astute manager would call for a revival of The Spanish Tragedy, in the'full knowledge that the public would eat it up. Who can forget the telling scene in which old Hieronimo, Marshal'of Spain; staggers out into the dark garden in his night-shirt and bumps into the twirling corpse of his son, Horatio? The Elizabe-thans loved it and called for more. Shakespeare obviously tried to rise above such things, but there were occa-sions when his ^company was hard pressed and he -threw caution to the winds.. , Poor old Gloucester in King Lear has his eyes plucked out and Titus Androni-' cus contains enough violence to make even Kyd uneasy. When Hamlet ends, there are quite as many bodies strewn about the stage as. there are in The Revenger's Tragedy; most of them sim-ply perish in a more dignified manner. We may shudder and fall back, but the first audiences thought nothing amiss. -Bloodshed and gore were a part of their . lives. . . - ' . ; . i . It was a common sight in those days to sec severed heads rotting in public places. A quiet drive in the country could easily produce the sight of a dead robber rotting in chains at a crossroads •"•^hanging in fetters from a'tree in s6ifrO>=, \ Picnic at a Scaffold "' The citizens of London went in their hundreds to Tyburn to witness execu-.' tions, many of them taking box lunches with them. When the punishment was for . treason, even larger crowds turned up to see the victim partially hanged, cut -down still living, disembowled, emascu-lated, quartered and then toasted ou a bonfire. The theatres were hard pressed to supply tempting offerings to lure the-crowd from such free amusements. . We need not be smug and say that we have changed so much that John Webs-ter, if he wrote today, would shrink from having a severed hand delivered as he did in his Duchess of Malfi. Just count the number done to death in television ' dramas every week." Public hanging wasn't discontinued out'-. of consideration • for the victims, but because those attending seemed to enjoy it so much. Anyone who has ever . watched a would-be suicide on the ledge-. of a building and listened to the com-ments of the crowd below, will know that a certain old savagery remains, Tour-neur and Webster lived only yesterday. . 1 " Maids and t h e i r honours are l i k e poor beginners, Were not sin r i c h there would be fewer sinners." II i " Here's Envy with a poor t h i n cover o'er't LiKe s c a r i e r hid in lawn, easily spied through" II i i i 146. " Oh, 'I'as p o i s o n e d me III V 1 4 7 . G r a t i a n a : ' T i s u n f r u i t f u l , h e l d t e d i o u s , I'm now your p r e s e n t mother-Cast i z a : Push, now t o r e p e a t w h a t ' s p a s t ' t i s t o o l a t e . IV i v " Nimblv done! Ha! Oh v i l l a i n s , m urderers! ' T i s the o l d Duke my father.' " V i Brothers, and Bastard, you dance next i n h e l l . " V i i i Then I proclaim myself.' Now an I Duke." V i l l 151. 152. 154. 155. II \ T \ I • ® «' i A - r u - i t f l ' 30.- * \ . xx 5'o" j — ^ ^ ' £ Q -J v RoT£,.«... / I L L coL-o^nb (ticePr -JL C C C R ^ •' , FL\T5> 5 ,f UffcrA/N F IAT* 4 ^ M" 'tt&IWlT OF fc'fe" FROM •' , •- A t i c U T OF I'o!' FMN ' .Mtfc 7,0'1 A T f i ! t( lrr^T f O i N » T OF P\RO.M P t o M \ * L ^ T - L . . O F " P L A T F O R M ( J N I T V .(To" Feott FLOOR, U = O & L I* A T A Hfei^HT O F RWf ruxR LB\)f.L Yw BP- MAt>^ HKV. TD I V 6*4 Wfc OfJ Sli Officer L T V ; ? TH?:. 3 C O u M N ^ Mil-i-V-; PK ; !'-' i r INJ • , V ( ' , J | ' w ' - L i ntf-it •. 1 j ' h ' i . , 1 ! i i it! n r £§> NOT - 32>fl£NSlOMftw* AT Htf-DS'^ •- ' .SCffecSET: &T4DI 0 ' vac- OCT' 15 DEN; 8 V DW(ii!(| Nt>.'.'."£• FEONT « U N N T I O ; ^ 

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