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Job satisfaction and other indices of "followers" and "non-followers" of vocational counselling. Johnson, Arthur Roads 1970

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JOB SATISFACTION AND OTHER "FOLLOWERS"  AND  INDICES OF  "NON-FOLLOWERS"  OF VOCATIONAL  COUNSELLING  by  ARTHUR B.A.,  ROADS JOHNSON  U n i v e r s i t y of  A THESIS SUBMITTED  British IN  Columbia,  PARTIAL  1953  FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER in  the F a c u l t y of (Adult  We a c c e p t t h i s required  OF ARTS Education  Education)  thesis  as  conforming to  standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  October,  1970  the  In  presenting  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  this  written  at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  financial  is  British for  for extensive by  gain  Department Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l 1 owed w i t h o u t  my  DEDICATION For on  their  writer's  graciously allowing way wife  of  life,  and  the  infringement  s i n c e r e thanks  three  daughters.  are  of  tendered  this to  paper the  ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y was who  conducted  followed plans developed  to determine  whether i n d i v i d u a l s  in c o l l a b o r a t i o n with vocational  c o u n s e l l o r s would l a t e r r e v e a l g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n w o u l d i n d i v i d u a l s who  d i d not a c t upon t h e s e p l a n s .  than  These  two  s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s G r o u p I and G r o u p I I , r e s pectively. A structured interview schedule, together with B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e Index  o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n , was  a r a n d o m s a m p l e o f 48 m a l e s who of  B r i t i s h Columbia  and who  the  administered  r e s i d e d i n the Lower  had,  i n 1964,  to  Mainland  received counselling  from the V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Of t h e 48 e x - c l i e n t s , 28 w e r e a l l o c a t e d t o G r o u p I by a p a n e l o f e x p e r t s , w h i l e 20 w e r e a l l o c a t e d t o G r o u p I I . I t was  hypothesized  that six years following c o u n s e l l i n g ,  Group I i n d i v i d u a l s would r e v e a l g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e i r j o b s t h a t would Group II i n d i v i d u a l s . hypothesized fewer  I t was  t h a t Group I i n d i v i d u a l s would have  also  experienced  p e r i o d s of unemployment, fewer changes of employers,  g r e a t e r number o f p r o m o t i o n s ,  and  h i g h e r i n c o m e s i n 1969,  t h a t these i n d i v i d u a l s would r a t e themselves  statistical  a and  more c a p a b l e i n  t h e i r work than would i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I I .  of  with  Non-parametric  t e c h n i q u e s were employed to a s s e s s the s i g n i f i c a n c e  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s i n G r o u p I and  Indivi-  d u a l s i n Group II with r e s p e c t to the s i x v a r i a b l e s r e f e r r e d  1v to above.  In no i n s t a n c e c o u l d t h e n u l l  a t t h e .05  level.  h y p o t h e s i s be r e j e c t e d  T h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i m p l y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who followed plans developed  i n c o n c e r t with c o u n s e l l o r s at the  V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e w e r e no more s a t i s f i e d  with  t h e i r j o b s s i x y e a r s f o l l o w i n g c o u n s e l l i n g than were d u a l s who  d i d not a c t upon t h e s e p l a n s .  had a c t e d u p o n p l a n s d e v e l o p e d  indivi-  Likewise, those  in c o l l a b o r a t i o n with  coun-  s e l l o r s had no g r e a t e r v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s , a s m e a s u r e d number o f c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s ,  who  number o f p r o m o t i o n s ,  by income,  and t h e i r s e l f - r a t i n g s o f a b i l i t y f o r t h e i r p r e s e n t j o b s had  i n d i v i d u a l s who  planned  had c h o s e n  c a r e e r s d i f f e r e n t from  in c o l l a b o r a t i o n with c o u n s e l l o r s .  i n d i v i d u a l s working  those  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  i n o c c u p a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those  i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s i n 1964  than  planned  experienced  fewer  p e r i o d s of unemployment than d i d i n d i v i d u a l s i n o c c u p a t i o n s d i f f e r e n t from those planned with c o u n s e l l o r s . The s t u d y o f f e r s l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g as c o n d u c t e d s e l l i n g S e r v i c e leads to improved Indeed, which  the evidence suggests  i n c o r p o r a t e sound  by t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n -  vocational  adjustment.  t h a t many m o r e f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s  r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y and  include a  job s a t i s f a c t i o n measure are r e q u i r e d before the worth  of  v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g c a n be a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s e d . Findings observed, hypotheses,  but not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the  are o u t l i n e d i n Appendix  C.  These i n c l u d e d a high  c o r r e l a t i o n between the r e l a t i v e l y long B r a y f 1 e l d - R o t h e and one m u l t i p l e - a n s w e r  Index  q u e s t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the i n t e r v i e w  V  schedule.  This observation suggested the f e a s i b i l i t y of  employing a short, but valid measure to assess job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Also, a moderate correlation between a question concerning occupational s a t i s f a c t i o n and scores on the Brayfield-Rothe Index was indicated.  This finding implied an additional  problem in evaluating the results of counselling, for i t  is  the general occupation, and not the particular job that the counsellor considers in "predicting" suitable vocations. Further, more individuals  in the sample indicated that they  would prefer some other job than would choose their present one i f they could start out over again in the world of work. F i n a l l y , correlation analysis was employed to  investigate  relationships between scores on the Brayfield-Rothe Index and seventeen variables including age, IQ, and marital status.  Of  these seventeen variables, three showed s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n ships with the Index.  Two of these (income and the obtaining  of promotions) were p o s i t i v e l y related to the job  satisfaction  scores, while the third (number of years with present employer) showed a negative r e l a t i o n s h i p .  vi T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  CHAPTER I.  PAGE  BACKGROUND Purpose Job  OF THE PROBLEM o f the Study  Testing  Framework  II.  DESIGN  3 o f the Study  Occupational  Satisfaction  .  4  Studies:  Success A  . .  8  OF THE STUDY  Design  21  of the Hypotheses  Classification  as Group  of the Research  Administration Statistical  A N A L Y S I S OF DATA Statistical  Methods  . . . . . .  I o r Group  21  II  24  Instruments  of the Research  Analysis  4  Review  the Literature  Statement  III .  3  as a Means f o r  Predicting  of  .  Satisfaction  Theoretical  Job  1  .  Instruments  25 . . . .  26 .  27 28 29  Hypothesis  No. 1  29  Hypothesis  No. 2  30  Hypothesis  No. 3  31  Hypothesis  No. 4  32  Hypothesis  No. 5  33  Hypothesis  No. 6  34  vii  CHAPTER IV.  PAGE  SUMMARY AND Summary  IMPLICATIONS . . .  36  . . . . . . . .  Testing  37  of the Hypotheses  Implications  37  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  . . . . . . . . .  A P P E N D I X A.  Background Service  APPENDIX  B.  Testing  APPENDIX  C.  Additional  .  of the V o c a t i o n a l for British  - A Brief  39 43  Counselling  Columbia  52  Overview  Information  from  62 Interview  Schedule APPENDIX  D.  Introductory  79 Letter  and I n t e r v i e w  Schedule  .  86  viii LIST  OF  TABLES  TABLE I.  PAGE Brayfield-Rothe for  II.  t h e Two  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  III.  Number in  IV.  VI.  1 965-69  Ratings  by  IX.  Their  X.  t h e Two  Groups  Groups  Present  Five  Years  Jobs  Job  Choose Back  Between  Posing  Asking Their  t o Age  34  to 35  Identical . . . . . .  81  Individuals Present  Jobs  18  82  Brayfield-Rothe  Showing  Brayfield-Rothe  Ability  . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .  Seventeen V a r i a b l e s  Three V a r i a b l e s  1969  Satisfaction  Studies  Go  During  of Their  Studies  Would  Could  Relationships  With  the Past  33  Concerning  They  and  Groups  Groups  t h e Two  They  Scores  by  32  A C o m p a r i s o n o f Two  If  Years  E m p l o y e r s o f t h e Two  A C o m p a r i s o n o f Two  Whether  Five  Unemploy-  31  E a r n e d by  Questions VIII.  the Past  of  .  t h e Two  Income  o r More  Groups  of D i f f e r e n t  Perform VII.  Over  Promotions Earned During by  V.  30  Periods  ment E x p e r i e n c e d Two  Scores  Groups  N u m b e r o f Two-Week  the  Index  Index  . . . . . . . . .  Significant Index Scores  84  Relationships . . . . . . . .  84  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The to  writer  Dr. John  wishes  Niemi  gave  ment.  Appreciation  u n s t i n t i n g l y of h i s time, i s also  carry  making  out this  executive British  study,  other  the co-operation  Friesen  committee.  w h i c h made  director of the Vocational  commit-  t o D r . J . D.  on t h e t h e s i s  a v a i l a b l e the data  appreciation  i n s i g h t , and e n c o u r a g e -  expressed  D r . S. S. L e e f o r s e r v i n g For  his sincere  who, i n s p i t e o f numerous  ments,  and  t o express  i tpossible to  o f Mr. Norman Counselling  C o l u m b i a , and members o f h i s s t a f f  Vaness,  Service f o r  i sgratefully  acknowledged. Grateful  recognition  Dr.  E. M a c P h e r s o n ,  Mr.  D. R u s n e l l ,  analysis  i s also  made o f t h e a s s i s t a n c e  D r . S. S. L e e , M r . J . L . G a s k i l l ,  who w e r e m o s t  helpful with  of the r e s u l t s of this  study.  and  the s t a t i s t i c a l  of  CHAPTER I.  BACKGROUND OF THE  That j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n general and  well  being  KuhTen's  I PROBLEM  i s an a l l - i m p o r t a n t  of the individual  factor  i s exemplified  i n the  by  Pressey  remarks:  L i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y work i s t h e c e n t e r o f l i f e . I t i s t h e prime c o n c e r n o f most p e o p l e t h r o u g h t h e i r best years. In these y e a r s , i t i s the major f a c t o r determining t h e i r income, t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s , t h e i r status i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , a n d t h e i r way o f l i f e . . . (67:216). In  the l i g h t  to  improve  force  its  essential they, As  defined  the National vocational  upon and p r o g r e s s made  between  counsel  guidance,  need  of society  to f i l l  people  this  as a  need,  to select  careers  satisfying. Guidance A s s o c i a t i o n  i t i s "the process  an o c c u p a t i o n ,  in i t . "  accomplished  (In this  "vocational  prepare  paper,  of  has  assisting  f o r i t , enter  no d i s t i n c t i o n i s  guidance"  and  "vocational  ling.") There  adequate entire for  Vocational  t h e terms  a real  find  c a n be  o f members o f t h e work  to assist  will  to choose  that  i s an a t t e m p t  being  themselves,  individual  to f i l l  guidance  function  anything  adjustment  be c o n s i d e r e d  Vocational  which  the  the vocational  could  whole.  of the foregoing,  vocational  province,  a modest  general  appear,  fee,  public.  h o w e v e r , t o be l i m i t e d guidance  there  in British  i s one s m a l l  a vocational This  agency  opportunities f o r  Columbia.  agency which  counselling  service  was e s t a b l i s h e d  In the provides, to the  by t h e V a n c o u v e r  2 Rotary  Club  i n 1947,  at  which  Counselling  Service."  society  re-named  the  Finally,  i n 1966,  and  Columbia." name, t h e  "Vocational  Columbia." which  That  will The  Service  In  1965  on  the  i t was  i t was  known a s  the  be  agency  Service  received  Service  used  the  incorporated  "Youth C o u n s e l l i n g  Counselling  Annual  states  1951,  name w i l l  focus  time  for  throughout  work  of  the  agency.^  Report  of  the  Vocational  "Rotary  as  a  for  its  British present  British this  study,  Counselling  that:  the V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e i s e f f e c t i v e l y meeting an u r g e n t and b a s i c n e e d . . . . I n t e r m s o f expenditure t h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t i m e a n d money a p p l i e d t o v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d of the l a t e teens and e a r l y t w e n t i e s c a n y i e l d f a r g r e a t e r b e n e f i t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d t o s o c i e t y , t h a n t i m e and m o n e y t h a t would otherwise be s p e n t f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n l a t e r years (4:2) There that to  the  the  sent  the  agency  client.  out  Service with  i s , however, l i t t l e  to and  the  change sellor,  A  that  have, But  concern one  by  i n the  whether of  that  to  that  follow-up  the  the  this  had  support  premise  is generally  Vocational  have  been  satisfaction  satisfaction the  beneficial  Counselling  indicated  counsellor,  been  the  questionnaires  main,  i s above average  in occupation i s not  service  counselees  returns  process.  a  number o f  former  solicitous  learning  provides  data  resulted  pleasure  in ability,  or  from  recommended  by  the  from  of a coun-  clear.  'A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f t h e i n 1964, and i t s c o u n s e l l i n g A p p e n d i x A.  a g e n c y and d e t a i l s procedures, appear  of i t s in  staff  3 II. The  PURPOSE OF THE  p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was  v i d u a l s who  STUDY  to d i s c o v e r whether  had f o l l o w e d p l a n s d e v e l o p e d  i n agreement with a  c o u n s e l l o r at the V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r Columbia, were, s i x years occupations  indi-  British  l a t e r , more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r  than were those  i n d i v i d u a l s who  had  not.  There-  f o r e , the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s were s e t : To a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n e v i d e n t i n two g r o u p s o f e x - c o u n s e l 1 e e s - - t h o s e who had f o l l o w e d a p r o p o s e d c o u r s e o f a c t i o n and t h o s e who had n o t . In a d d i t i o n , t o c o m p a r e t h e two g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a number o f v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g e m p l o y m e n t r e c o r d , s a l a r i e s e a r n e d , and s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t o f a b i l i t y f o r occupation i n which engaged. Job S a t i s f a c t i o n H u l i n ( 4 7 : 4 2 4 ) s t a t e s t h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n "must considered response  a s a f e e l i n g w h i c h has a r i s e n 1n t h e w o r k e r as a  t o t h e t o t a l j o b s i t u a t i o n , " and  K a t z e l l (50:342)  d e c l a r e s t h a t i t i s " t h e v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n o f an e v a l u a t i o n of his job." vidual  be  i s a b l e to e x p r e s s  incumbent's  T h i s paper assumes t h a t the a valid opinion concerning  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s p r e s e n t j o b ; a t t h e same t i m e , appreciated  indihis i t is  t h a t many u n k n o w n f a c t o r s - - b o t h i n s i d e and  out-  s i d e t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n - - a r e i n v o l v e d 1n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n  of  his opinion.  dis-  As Ewen ( 2 9 ) has s u m m a r i z e d , a w o r k e r may  l i k e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of his job but s t i l l acceptable  may  consider  o v e r - a l l b e c a u s e "as j o b s g o , t h i s i s n ' t so  T h i s p a p e r 1s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d ,  then, in determining  1t bad." whether  4  o r n o t I n d i v i d u a l s who  f o l l o w plans developed  in collabora-  t i o n w i t h a c o u n s e l l o r a r e more l i k e l y to s a y t h e i r " a r e n ' t so b a d " t h a n a r e i n d i v i d u a l s who  chose  jobs  plans of  a c t i o n d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o u t l i n e d by c o u n s e l l o r s . III.  T H E O R E T I C A L FRAMEWORK OF THE  T e s t s a s a Means f o r Predicting Occupational  STUDY  Success  F o r some s i x t y y e a r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p i n g t e s t s to p r e d i c t o c c u p a t i o n a l s u c c e s s . gave impetus  The F i r s t World  War  t o t h e t e s t i n g m o v e m e n t , as s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s  w e r e f i r s t u s e d en m a s s e t o a s s e s s t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e , a p t i t u d e s , and o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s o f t h o u s a n d s States.  A g a i n , i n World  personnel nized  (1).  Thorndike  War  of s o l d i e r s i n the United  I I , i n the placement  and d e f e n c e w o r k e r s ,  of m i l i t a r y  t h e v a l u e o f t e s t i n g was  The p e r i o d s i n c e 1945  recog-  has b e e n , a c c o r d i n g t o  and H a g e n ( 8 3 ) one o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e s t b a t t e r i e s  and t e s t i n g p r o g r a m s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and p e r s o n n e l The p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f a n y t e s t d e p e n d s , o f upon the degree  to which  course,  i t s e r v e s a s an i n d i c a t o r o f some  f u t u r e behaviour or performance. studies connected  use.  Typically, in validation  with a p t i t u d e t e s t s , the c r i t e r i o n i s job  s u c c e s s as m e a s u r e d by s u p e r v i s o r s ' r a t i n g s , g r a d e s  in  t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s , o u t p u t , number o f a c c i d e n t s , and so o n .  It  i s f e a s i b l e , h o w e v e r , f o r a w o r k e r t o be r a t e d h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t i n h i s j o b w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t o be u n h a p p y i n t h e t y p e o f work 1n w h i c h  extremely  he i s e n g a g e d .  Whether  5 or not a b i l i t y and s a t i s f a c t i o n  share a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  is  by no means c l e a r . That there 1s a connection between a b i l i t y and faction is  satis-  staunchly supported by Bingham ( 9 : v i 1 ) who f e e l s  that a p t i t u d e t e s t i n g  has become a " s t r i k i n g l y  significant  phase of t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y l i f e because p r o f i c i e n c y in one's work i s  "vital  to happiness and health of mind"; while  Strong  (79:183) goes so f a r as to imply that the r e a l o b j e c t i v e of vocational  guidance i s  not to a s s i s t people to f i n d the work  they can do b e s t , but to help them f i n d work they enjoy b e s t , for  "a s u c c e s s f u l  man i s one who i s doing the work he l i k e s  best and i s g e t t i n g  paid f o r  it."  According to B r a y f i e l d and C r o c k e t t (16), on v o c a t i o n a l  psychology  the l i t e r a t u r e  1s r e p l e t e with statements which  imply that those 1n the f i e l d share the b e l i e f that a c l o s e relationship exists  between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r o f i c i e n c y ;  t h e i r study of a t t i t u d e s of employees engaged i n many types of work, however, d i s c l o s e d no s i g n i f i c a n t job s a t i s f a c t i o n Kahn (49)  c o r r e l a t i o n between  and job performance. has summarized three I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r o f i c i e n c y , conducted over a period of s e v e r a l years by the Survey Research Center of the U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan.  The r e s u l t s d i s c l o s e d  that  job s a t i s f a c t i o n was r e l a t e d to p r o d u c t i v i t y , but none of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s was s i g n i f i c a n t .  Kahn was f o r c e d to c o n c l u d e ,  t h e r e f o r e , that " p r o d u c t i v i t y and job s a t i s f a c t i o n do not n e c e s s a r i l y go t o g e t h e r "  (p.275).  Ghei (35),  t o o , found  little  6 evidence  of  a  achievement responses age  and  to  a  eighteen  career  or  a medium  satisfaction single  and  a  completed  significant relationship  different  ciency  of  simple  relationship  ance.''  And  studying  satisfaction which and  and  between  It  would  abilities well  a  the  upon  high  then,  appropriate  o r may  interests  but  poor  aptitude  Although  of  of  an  that  that  do  tests value  to  he  or  of  to  is  job  upon between  is  complex  factors."  "should  but  those do  be  survives  both  will  no  perform-  other  enjoy  the  training work."  interests will  and  probably  with  suitable  badly. be  criteria  claimed are  vocational satisfaction. prone  to  do  unsuitable  i t cannot  performance  are  profi-  individual's  occupation  evidence, on  job  i s one,  person  while  studies found  "there  test  with  same  relationship  there  abilities  in predicting  counsellors evidently  "the  is likely  well;  validated  twenty  relationship  t h a t an  i_f t h e  the  (92:186)  absence  persons  foregoing  go  select  that  the  that  aptitude probably  the  back  you  interest  suitable  not  could  (35:516-520),  on  to a c e r t a i n  with  may  necessarily  Crites  stated  on  occupation,  interests  that  score  indicating  appear,  view  has  by  s a t i s f a c t i o n and  presence  (26:427)  i n i t ; those  In  job  them, i f indeed  the  only  Vroom  concluded  decided  as  enters  he  same v e i n ,  success  assessed  s a t i s f a c t i o n and  and  Cronbach  interpreted  job  findings  contingent  of  between  between  interests,  Upon r e v i e w i n g  accumulated  obtains  achieving  a g a i n , would  one?").  Therefore,  i n the  the  over  " I f you  last fifteen years,  correlation .14.  latter  question:  start  i n the  (the  among  suggest  that  7 ability  t o do a p a r t i c u l a r j o b i s a n e c e s s a r y  satisfaction  i n that  j o b , i t seems c l e a r  simply  o n e o f t h e many  (25).  A t any r a t e , few c o u n s e l l o r s  with  the following  "other  concomitant to  that  ability is  factors" alluded are l i k e l y  t o by C r i t e s to  disagree  opinion:  W i t h r e g a r d t o v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , i t has been shown, d e s p i t e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e a v a i l a b l e research data, that v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g can help i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o s e more s a t i s f y i n g o c c u p a t i o n s and t h a t i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s i n c r e a s e d when c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w s a r e combined w i t h the use o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y t e s t s (44:220-221). Vocational tion on  of course,  of a l t e r n a t i v e s to those  the basis  measures mind  counselling,  suggesting  possible  h i s past  responsibilities, need  as w e l l  t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  of success, to explore  feasi ble  test  the career  scores  subordinate,  the Vocational  Annual  the counsellor  ability  must bear i n The  background  and  and o t h e r  vari-  a knowledge  of the  and f r o m  to reach  i s able  avail-  lee, his physical  i n d i f f e r e n t occupations, required  ideal  a  an  satisfying  to encourage h i s  possibilities  that  appear  (9,81 ,88).  Thus,  at  family  considera-  appear  to c l i e n t s .  Then, from  of t h e a b i l i t i e s  the  and  counsellors  as h i s m o t i v a t i o n  understanding  times  Interest  experiences,  offered  client  alone.  careers  opportunities  level  which might  o f e m p l o y m e n t , t h e age o f t h e - c o u n s e l  attributes,  ables,  evidence  careers  a r e b u t two o f t h e f a c t o r s  when  ability  of test  involves  Report  role  would  play  in vocational  Counselling  would  likely  imply,  Service.  with  a u s e f u l , i f some-  counselling And  as  so t h e i r  i t s reference  practised 1964  to the  various  8 factors  considered  results  of the "extensive  designed  t o help  i n the counselling  clients  battery assess  process  i n c l u d i n g the  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  their  abilities  tests,  and  limita-  tions" (3). The  battery  included  the following:  Mental  Ability,  Board,  Bennett  Clerical in  o f t e s t s used  Test,  detail  Kuder  Progressive Mechanical  Preference  Matrices,  test.  B, w h i c h  also  i n 1964  Record, Otis  Minnesota  Comprehension  and a s p e l l i n g  i n Appendix  by t h e S e r v i c e  Test,  These  Paper  Test of Form  Minnesota  tests are described  contains  representative  reliability  and v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s , and a s s e s s m e n t s  authorities  of the usefulness  by  various  of t h e t e s t s .  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S t u d i e s : A Review of t h e L i t e r a t u r e In which  this  suggests  probability studies  that  of t h e l i t e r a t u r e , vocational  of s a t i s f a c t i o n  which  vocational Much  review  suggest  counselling  of the evidence,  returns  counselling  with  one's  following  however, type  i s based  1) 2) 3)  studies, stated  upon  f o r adequacy  that  a total  only  presented  A few between  are also  reviewed.  incomplete  of q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  a l l of the c r i t e r i a  important  employment.  no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s  ( 2 5 : 5 1 1 ) who, a f t e r r e v i e w i n g  satisfaction  is  can enhance t h e  and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  of the mailed-1n  incorporate Crites  that  evidence  and few  outlined  by  o f 3,000 j o b  "a h a n d f u l "  criteria:  Reported empirical f i n d i n g s ; Were m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y sound; and I n c l u d e d an a s s e s s m e n t measure o f j o b satisfaction.  met t h e  9 The a  Brayfield-Rothe  number o f  criterion, discussed  instruments and  as  i n some  Brayfield criteria to  as  provide 1)  an  and  Rothe  adequate  of  A  f o r one skill of  any  and  avoid  be  brief  Index  study  formulated of  an  the  third  i t will  be  following  attitude  job  scale  designed  satisfaction:  was  easily  purportedly  fulfils  group  of  While  i t is appreciated  (17).  instrument  office  Job  among  along  and  "experts"  should  a feeling  was  various the  relatively  a  attempt from  favourable-  who  in  evaluating  affirmed  satisfaction be  (77),  i n an  inferred  consistency  of  of  that  precautions  along  a feeling  a job  such  77  been  satisfaction"  satisfaction  A marked  above  has  employees  of  certain  expressed  expresses with  .87  i s "dependent upon  exercise  to jobs  of  the  large  apparent  dissatisfaction  scored.  coefficient  continuum.  statement  point  and  reliability  did  reactions  items  a  (17)  measure of  subjectivity.  unfavourable  such  in this  subjective definitions  originators  "This  t o meet C r i t e s '  of  I t should  arbitrary  the  used  i s one  7)  validity  verbal  was  Satisfaction  5) 6)  reported  to  purport  desirable attributes  requirements.  the  Index  Job  detail.  Brayfield-Rothe  levels  which  of  I t s h o u l d g i v e an i n d e x o f o v e r - a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t h e r than r e f e r to s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of the j o b situation. I t s h o u l d be a p p l i c a b l e t o a w i d e v a r i e t y o f j o b s . I t s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e t o v a r i a t i o n s in attitude. The i t e m s s h o u l d be o f s u c h a n a t u r e (interesting, r e a l i s t i c , and v a r i e d ) t h a t t h e s c a l e w o u l d e v o k e c o - o p e r a t i o n f r o m b o t h management and employees. I t should y i e l d r e l i a b l e scores. I t should y i e l d a v a l i d index.  2) 3) 4)  The  the  Index  placed  continuum"  at  (17).  that  or such As  and an  10 outside tered in  criterion  their  personnel  type  work  class  psychology.  o f one s o r t  while  personnel  non-personnel employed  evidence  e x a m p l e , was all  scores of  employed  satisfaction,  by S p i t z e r  on t h e I n d e x  in  which  raised  thus  would  of the Strong fairly  and t h e newly  some d o u b t s  some  of  over-  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  goal  a t t a i n m e n t , and between  i n h i s study  Vocational high  has  The I n d e x , f o r  i n s a l e s work;  (30) employed  those  supported.  a relationship  o l d e r Hoppock  Ewen  than  ( 7 7 ) a s "a m e a s u r e  the  while  individuals  studies provides  t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e and two o t h e r  Inventory;  of the  of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  for  Blank,  scores  expressed  i t i s held.  (52) noted  S c h l e t z e r (73) computed  a study  was  performance,  and s u c c e s s  value  their  employed i n  that those  i n a d o c t o r a l study  Kirchner  the predictive  Blank,  w i t h which  work  of  t h e mean  appropriate to their  i n a number o f r e c e n t  withdrawal;  than  reveal greater satisfaction  job satisfaction"  between job  The a s s u m p t i o n  of the regard  i n the evening  actually  higher  t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e Index  been u t i l i z e d  in office-  o f 7 0 . 4 a n d a n S.D. o f  i n inappropriate occupations  That  i n classes  employed  expression  a mean  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  would  were  o f t h e 40 p e r s o n s  group.  students  adminis-  Range o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  28-89, w i t h  i n occupations  interests employed  work.  and Rothe  and e n r o l m e n t  t o be a n o v e r t  t h e mean  work  A l lstudents  or another,  i n personnel  t h e s a m p l e was  13.2,  Brayfield  t o 91 a d u l t n i g h t s c h o o l  was c o n s i d e r e d  interest for  test  of v a l i d a t i o n ,  Interest  correlation  job satisfaction developed  tests,  Job Dimension  the Brayfield-Rothe regarding  figures  Index  the merit of  11 weighting job  components  of j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  to estimate  over-all  satisfaction. Objection  satisfaction tional  might  be made  as a c r i t e r i o n  guidance.  satisfaction  to the u t i l i z a t i o n  f o r assessing  Indeed, Strong  as a measure  of job  the worth  of  voca-  (79:12) c r i t i c i z e s j o b  because:  a ) . S a t i s f a c t i o n may be a n o v e r - a l l r e a c t i o n t o o n e ' s l i f e s i t u a t i o n and t h e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e may, t h e r e f o r e , be i m p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e ; b) t o o much s a t i s f a c t i o n i s u n d e s i r a b l e - - " m a l a d j u s t ment i s a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e " ; a n d c)  there  However, think  i n spite  over  The  a period  many  i n this  faction  have  of  hundreds  satisfaction  have  o f t h e above  three  o f "no b e t t e r c r i t e r i o n . . . t h a n  enduring  job  a r e no a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e s  attest  t o such  Guidance  Journal  devotes  the  research  i n this  category.  space  with  their  ranging  zero  t o 90 p e r c e n t  per cent  past area,  dissatisfied  decade  (69).  refers  indication methods  jobs  that  of  researchers  had t o t h a t  of  series  been  individuals reported,  d i s s a t i s f i e d ; t h e median o f constant  investigator  of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  of d i s c r e p a n c i e s that occur  and e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a  Personnel  of  time  e v i d e n t l y had h e l d  range  the  in this  percentages  Roe ( 7 0 ) , a l o n g - t i m e  to the wide  i n the area  to a y e a r l y review  The 23rd  dissatisfied  13  satisfaction  to the i n t e r e s t  an e x t e n t  t h a t 494 s t u d i e s c i t i n g  from  that of  could  of job s a t i s f a c t i o n / d i s s a t i s -  and  discloses  o b j e c t i o n s , Strong  of studies existing  Studies  blossomed  satisfaction.  time."  certainly  theme.  of  in this  scores  when d i f f e r e n t  a r e employed.  f o rthe  as an  research  Obviously  there  12 are  degrees  that of  of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  " i t i s conservatively  a l l employees  (24),  have j o b s  an a r b i t r a r y s c o r e  from  t h e "Yes-No"  measure. for  studies  "If  A review  were  job?"  per  with  type  well  they  over  the one-third  of questionnaire,  "mainly"  third  questionnaire, some  by H e r z b e r g  other  e t a l . (44)  dissatisfied  when  on t h e " A r e y o u s a t i s f i e d  with  of question,  was u s e d ,  one  figure i s derived  or from  13. t o 21 p e r c e n t  report  are dissatisfied"  on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e d  do i t a l l o v e r  question  authorities  that  which  of the l i t e r a t u r e  based  you could  job?"  but i n s t u d i e s again,  would  i n which the  y o u go i n t o t h e same  the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  f i g u r e was  54  cent. Many  nature, job  of the studies  ment The  conceptual (77);  list  study, that  (41);  been o f a h i g h l y t h e o r e t i c a l  weighting  i s almost  however,  to studies  versus  occupational  theoretical (28);  ( 3 0 ) ;needs  interminable.  i t appears  between  i n measurement  components  satisfaction.  investigations  empirical  problems  has i n v e s t i g a t e d  tional  have  involving a differentiation  satisfaction  (74);  is  type  example, d i s c l o s e d  your  estimated  i t i s not c l e a r whether  from  a n d when  the link  between  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  only  study  of the l o n g i t u d i n a l or follow-up of t h i s  sort  that  this  of  counselling  this  review  will  attain-  and so o n .  For the purpose  f e a s i b l e to review  aspects  goal  (11);  this  research and  voca-  relates to type, now  and i t be  directed. The immediate  relative  advantages  post-counselling  of follow-up  evaluations  and  studies  over  of the worth of  vocational  guidance  appreciates following notes  a  that  great  selling.  deal  plans  Gonyea  "does  meaningful That  not  outlined  evaluation  counselling  counselling  ation  are  can  of  criteria  be  of  plans  observes, appear  to  cited  e f f e c t s of  vocational  there  paucity  is a  of  has  been  Rothney  and  F a r w e l 1 , B r a y f i e l d and  for  a  of  number o f  example, Rothney  more a f t e r  measure  effectiveness by  post-  immediate  long-term  selling  noted  that  Gonyea  of  coun-  evalu-  enduring,  counseling."  to  1960,  the  or  he  immediately  immediate  a year  a valid  Although  in research,  therefore, be  (38).  obtained  value  attempt  In  Gonyea  d i s p a r i t y between  and  evaluate  by  and  studies  which  vocational  authors,  C r i t e s , and Farwell  coun-  including Vol sky  et  al .  noted:  O n l y t h r e e books e v a l u a t i n g g u i d a n c e s e r v i c e s have b e e n p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e 50 y e a r s s i n c e s u c h s e r v i c e s b e g a n , and one d e s c r i b i n g an extensive f o l l o w u p appeared during the p e r i o d under review (71). Brayfield  and  Crites  report  relevant  to  tuitous,  unsystematic"  penned  an  research of  the  such  vocational  area  literature  as  Super  contention  (15:317),  of  might  cites  "the  counseling  e n t i r e volume i n the  that  only  bulk  of  practice and  the  is sporadic,  Volsky  et  the  guidance  counselling.  well  be  three  concerned studies  to  for-  a l . (91)  illustrating and  research  inadequacies A  have of  reader  when an  authority  support  his  that:  v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g on t h e b a s i s o f psychological t e s t s r e s u l t s i n b e t t e r employment r e c o r d s . . . h i g h e r l e v e l s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . . . a n d t h o s e who carry o u t p l a n s made i n c o u n s e l i n g a r e m o r e s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h o s e who do n o t (80:111).  One  of these  third only  was p u b l i s h e d  (a French  study  i n the French  which  guidance.  tested  in  satisfaction  per  deemed  ance  i n promoting  The  authors  expressed although for  also  ever, (64)  have  correct  counsellors; also  work  than  in  the Revised  the  foregoing  "thevalue  i n work  that  greater  "similar"  Minnesota authors.  The  was  advice, criterion  defined,  f o r as P a t e r s o n  how-  et a l .  to r e s t r i c t  job suggestions  made by t h e  suggested  for"similarity" Rating  guid-  demonstrated."  loosely  t o t h e ones  87  correct,  job satisfaction  Occupational  similar  of vocational  be u n r e a l i s t i c  to the actual  A  had p r o v e d  are provided.  o u t , i t would  those  that  the counsellors'  studies,  years  more  (58).  [ h a d ] been  i s somewhat  (Criteria  expressed  d i d others  predictions  statistics  but jobs  men a n d women who h a d  ( 4 8 ) i n 1936 d i s c l o s e d  opinion,  and s i m i l a r  be i n c l u d e d .  evidently  who f o l l o w e d  predictions  correct  are reported,  prediction"  pointed  t o be  statistics  suitable  claim  no a c t u a l  i n this  predictions  no a c t u a l  ability  by t h o s e  "correct  of "vocationally  and t h r e e  of the counsellors'  i n the authors'  vocational  s i x months  and S c o t t  and,  of  follow-up  between  their  by J e n n i n g s  cent  the efficacy  o f a g r o u p o f 110 y o u n g  with  published  o f a number o f  reviews  i n 1933, reported  Although  occupations  study  illustrate  and a d v i s e d  previously.  i n 1955) e v i d e n t l y  are reports  One o f t h e e a r l i e s t  79 p e r c e n t  been  there  seemingly  advised"cases, for  completed  i n 1938, and t h e  language.  Nevertheless, studies  i n 1936, another  should  are outlined Scales  ( 2 0 ) by  A in  number  high  (54),  schools  and  studies  colleges  have  f o r example, conducted  school  s e n i o r s who  aptitude Neither  and  evidence)  test  been  undertaken tests  whose  carried  throughout  their  was  those  inappropriately placed.  in job satisfaction  I t should  scores  p r o g r a m s deemed  "Intensive  counseling"  resulted according Merinda  to the r e s u l t s  and  Rothney  between  students  later  job  and  Campbell, (22)  reports  students  1933  and 1)  1936.  Students  test  noted, not  however been  individ(94)  differ-  completion  students  Strong  has,  and  of  however,  attitudes,  follow-up  (79) found  scores  study  by  a moderate  of c o l l e g e  of Counseling;  task  of contacting and  25 731  Years  sought  768  non-counselled  conclusions  c o u n s e l l i n g were  Later  out of  the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota  i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s main who  aptitude  significant  behaviour  interest  were  by v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s .  p a i r s of counselled  attended The  years.  i n Wallace's  after  eight-year  Results  the herculean  had  27  satisfaction.  i n The  (384 matched  m a l e s ) who  adult  (60); while  (.30)  one y e a r  school  o f an  relationship  be  i s apparent  suitable  of high  i n more f a v o u r a b l e  (on  of these  I t d i s c l o s e d no  retraining  high  to  t e s t . i n f o r m a t i o n had  result  dropouts.  senior  were  i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g of any  ence  reason  who  used  of school  of  appropriate  f o r some u n s t a t e d  study  Latham  nor b e t t e r employer r a t i n g s  over  A further negative  out.  follow-up  that  uals.  counselled  a mammoth b a t t e r y o f  employment  results  of i n d i v i d u a l s  a one-year  satisfaction  by t h o s e  interest  had  interest  greater  achieved and  of f o l l o w - u p  between were:  "mildly"  16 d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e who d i d n o t . (The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s was n o t significant.) The c o u n s e l l e d w e r e m o r e s u c c e s s f u l i n a l l academic areas. The c o u n s e l l e d , 25 y e a r s l a t e r , w e r e b o t h s l i g h t l y more s u c c e s s f u l and, a c c o r d i n g t o C a m p b e l l , "uncomfortable." T w o - t h i r d s of the c o u n s e l l e e s remembered having been c o u n s e l l e d ; t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e s e t h o u g h t i t "had b e e n h e l p f u l " (22:105-106).  2) 3)  4)  The  date  ence  c o l l e c t e d , however, r e v e a l e d  in job  satisfaction  Contradictory rehabilitative program out  of  by  World  War  results jobs  II.  had  satisfied  per On  cent  60 on  were  other  involving  59  Veterans  one  that,74 to  per  tion  by  i n work  i s not  were  the  1n  that  i n the  connection, attempted at  were  holding  was  carried  the  Of  they  the had  close  with of  the the  f o r which  they  dissatisfied, been  of  veterans,  life;  jobs  of  largest  satisfied  civilian  area  the  rehabilitated  ( 6 6 ) - - a f t e r an  p a i r s of  a critical  500  army.  f o r which  Missouri  obtained  ever  cent  obtain  hand, P o r t e r  the  per  cent  leaving  matched  this  differ-  groups.  Administration  sample of  Individuals—concluded provided  In  significant  two  been  counselling  managed  men,  trained  the  In  indicated  they  were  counselling.  American  the  r e s u l t s have  vocational  the  between  no  trained  34 (51).  investigation  counsel 1ed-non-counsel1ed  "the  vocational  D i v i s i o n of  rehabilitation  'counselling'  Vocational service  Rehabilita-  in  terms  of  job  satisfaction." Tyler proof get  that  along  (86:273-275) t h o s e who  better  than  indicates l i t t l e  follow those  plans who  do  need  developed not.  for  with  However,  further  counsellors to  prove  her  17 contention apt  to  be  that more  not,  Tyler  tion  and  young  and  1930's;  only  type  people b)  a  1929  a  for  m o n t h s ; d)  only  16  counsellees differing  who  f) a  counselling That local  Norris  et  little  has  a  had  been  there  1s  on  a  been  published  from  125  the  and  results  e)  per  cent  claimed  concern-  i n the  1920's  75  out  Pennsylvania was  in  two  155  s i x to  for  in  existence  of  125  ex-  studies  (with  ex-university stu-  information  that  22  on,  months  to  at  found had  1942  after  evaluation  i s emphasized text.  Canadian  study  to  vocational  by  Webster  Psychological  Institute  a mailed  questionnaire  were  Results the  i n Cole's  two  plans with (23)  of  the  some s l i g h t  developed their study  with  jobs. of  100  in  obtained  to f i v e  disclosed that  guidance  followed  from  by  Obviously,  the  satisfaction  were o b t a i n e d  and  relates directly  individuals counselled  had  mailed-in  i n v o l v i n g 81  veterans  popula-  included  of  is a  follow-up.  respondents  llors  study  in a recently published  (62)  Responses  51  agency which  a l .  Montreal.  while  which  counselling resources  undertaken  of  an  of  to work  community  was  to  went  Viteles  do  psychologists  satisfaction  need  (95)  prior  British  who  type  number o f  are  completed.  example  of  a  and  those  i n both  questionnaires;  One  81  a)  than  U n i v e r s i t y of  1942  guidance. which  the  job  report  by  of  returned  r e s u l t s ) of  and  at  study  by  school  study  seen  1935  limited  namely:  left  c o u n s e l l i n g plans  successful  studies  1923-24; c)  of,  and  studies  of  who  counsellees  dents;  f o l l o w the  i n methodology;  ing  91  who  satisfied  cites  questionnaire  of  those  years  majority value, counse-  Similar boys  given  18  vocational not  guidance  receiving  that  only  this  a t a boys' guidance.  28 p e r c e n t  occupations,  while  club  and 100 b o y s  Five years  of the counselled  65 p e r c e n t  later  (also  members)  i t was  boys wished  evident  to change  of the non-counselled  wished  to  change. A f u r t h e r study ducted of  by L i p s e t t  clients  and W i l s o n  of the Rochester  selling  Center,  whether  individuals  range  o f most  reveal uals  more  Lipsett with  people  (56).  with  between review  that  t h e two a g e n c i e s of the Rochester The  Rochester  Vancouver  and a b i l i t i e s  determine  within the  their  would  jobs  As t h e r e and t h i s  concerned,  than are  would  individ-  apparent  one, as w e l l  a relatively  p r o j e c t appears  as  detailed  warranted.  e v i d e n t l y shares  f o rat  Coun-  occupation  study  centre  service,  of Technology's to  con-  study  in a particular  i n "unsuitable" vocations. between  was  follow-up  made a n e f f o r t  interests  employed  s e r v i c e agency  In t h e i r  Institute  and W i l s o n  satisfaction  similarities  the  o f a community  much  i n common  with  Rochester,  the main c a t e g o r i e s o f c l i e n t s a r e : high school s e n i o r s and a d u l t s s e e k i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e o n t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e ; p e r s o n s r e f e r r e d by i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r j o b s ; p e r s o n s r e f e r r e d by t h e New Y o r k S t a t e D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s f o r t e s t i n g and occupational suggestions. The C o u n s e l i n g C e n t e r i s c u r r e n t l y providing comprehensive aptitude t e s t i n g and c o u n s e l i n g p r o g r a m s f o r more t h a n 300 c l i e n t s per y e a r . Lipsett  and W i l s o n  who h a d c o m p l e t e d An  eventual  mailed  701 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  counselling at least  54 p e r c e n t  response  one y e a r  was a c h i e v e d ,  to clients  previously. although  a good  19 number o f t h e r e t u r n s Each  respondent  five-point employed, in  each  for 3)  was a s k e d  scale  Incomplete to rate  i n response  how d o y o u f e e l  about  y o u , 17 p e r c e n t ; 2 ) l i k e like  i tfairly  it,  strong  well,  like  i n one o r more  respects.  h i s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n on a  to the query:  of the f i v e categories  neither  your  " I f you a r e  job?"  were:  The  percentages  1) b e s t p o s s i b l e  job  i t v e r y m u c h , 34 p e r c e n t ;  28 p e r c e n t ; 4 ) i n d i f f e r e n t  nor d i s l i k e ,  to i t ,  13 p e r c e n t ; a n d 5 ) d i s l i k e  8 per cent. Of  204 c l i e n t s a n s w e r i n g  tion,  i t was  stated  their  both  possible  to find  and m e n t a l and W i l s o n  not a r e l a t i o n s h i p  measures  of interest  considered highest  for  then  were  between  with  In a s s e s s i n g  suitable  lists two  Wechsler-Bel1evue  i n the Minnesota  tests  test  and/or  were u s e d ,  score f e l l  within  j o b was  i f one o f h i s two Preference  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the level  of mental  rating  directly  Scales.  was c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e  the appropriate  ability  on t h e O t i s ,  was c o m p a r e d  Occupational Rating  level  whether  j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and  s c o r e s ) on t h e Kuder  Kuder's  also  measures of  to determine  to h i s interests  (percentile  had  The i n d i v i d u a l ' s  the occupation, the individual's  Wonderlic,  who  available.  attempted  and a b i l i t y .  corresponded  occupation.  108 i n d i v i d u a l s  ability  existed  appropriate  profiles  Schedule  t h e q u e s t i o n on j o b s a t i s f a c -  o c c u p a t i o n s a n d f o r whom a d e q u a t e  interests Libsett  or  were  range  with  (Where i f either  f o r the occupa-  tion.) Only to  their  25  ( 2 3 p e r c e n t ) o u t o f 108 r e s p o n d e n t s  o c c u p a t i o n s i n terms  of both  interests  and  were  suited  abilities,  20 in  s p i t e of  ability. ent  to  the  their  jobs  both 47  occupations, possible  which a is  standard quite  services selling  and  private,  ences  cannot able by  to  one  be  is a  to  assess  there  are  job  that  (barring  then,  within  particular,  obtained  of  whether  At  any  Counselling  from the  one  certain defined  as  armed  the  coun-  practised  coupled  same t i m e , over  a  in staff, This  counsellors can  lines.  of  lead  study reason-  period  of  policy,  or  plans at  differ-  counsellees  i t is  paper of  time  attempts action  agencies to  in  with  follow-up  following  Service  between  p a r t i c u l a r agency,  consistency. not  studies  incorporate  both  in motivation  changes  or  engaged.  universities,  diversity,  and  Moreover, i t  differences  finance  the  that  interest in,  counselling  and  in c o l l a b o r a t i o n with  along  in  results achieved  have a d e g r e e  were  individual is  which  This  major  jobs  therefore,  satisfaction.  and  evaluation,  the  the  schools,  agencies  training,  information  both  important  agencies.  of  to  and,  i n secondary public  their  their  h o w e v e r , f o r many m o r e  procedures  later  Vocational  adjustment  need,  universally applied.  determine,  the  related i n which  in counsellors  agency  developed to  other  assume  clientele) to  offered  that  individuals  r e s u l t s suggest,  occupation  i n methods  suggests  The  is directly  fee-paying  differences  cent)  them.  that  the  the  indiffer-  vocational  that  adequate  and  Of  or  indicated  per  instrument  counselling  jobs.  suit-  were  (44 for  likely  ability  or  s u i t a b l e to  evidently  embody  disliked  academic  their  determining  abilities  f o r , the  There  to  either  for  i n t e r e s t s and  satisfaction  ability  disclosed  "unsuitable"  displaying  job  lenient criteria  A l l i n d i v i d u a l s who  interests  best  rather  similar  vocational  CHAPTER D E S I G N OF A data  structured  from  II  THE  STUDY  interview schedule  i n d i v i d u a l s who,  i n 1964,  had  selling  procedures  at  the  British  Columbia.  In  a d d i t i o n , the  Job  Satisfaction  following  sections  teristics, Group  was  the  I I , the  Vocational  administered  o u t l i n e the  method design  of  and  the  Statement  the  Hypotheses  This derived while  study  partly  employed  as  research  who  experienced  ex-clients namely: loped had  of  the  ( I ) Those  the  regarding  In  provide  the  to  realistic  plan  techniques, assessment  of  the  of  The  sample  the  for  Index  respondent.  charac-  Group  I  or  research  data.  hypotheses  investigator's c o u n s e l l o r , as  which  were  observations  well  as  from  vocational  counselling.  Two  Counselling  i n d i v i d u a l s who  and  Service  of i n d i v i d u a l s  these  the  individual  which  test  coun-  circumstances  Vocational  through  the  gather  the  comparing  counselling,  to  i n d i v i d u a l s to  the  to  present  in collaboration with  not.  each  hypotheses,  a vocational  previous have  designed  from  Counselling  to  a n a l y s i s of  was  completed  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  instruments,  of  employed  Brayfield-Rothe  allocating  and  was  use  with  pertinent  Service  acted  c o u n s e l l o r s , and two of the  promising  include  had  groups,  groups were  upon  compared,  plans  ( I I ) those  i t i s assumed  a v a r i e t y of  of  devewho that  techniques,  does  self-understanding  necessary  courses  These  psychological  background  of  action.  tests,  information,  interviews, are  and  discussed  21A  at  length  i n Appendixes  A and  B.  Some e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e in  occupations  interests  and  satisfaction to  their  considered abilities  than  interests  Also,  a number o f  acted  upon  are  more  had  not  plans  acted  in  are  based  area.  based  not,  express Group  their  reveal  greater  ( f o r example,  jobs  developed  that  individuals  patterns  in occupations  in collaboration  their  plans  to  view  of  job  inappropriate 26,56,79,81).  that with  those  who  counsellors  than  are  individuals  who  with  counsellors (for  48,58,80,86,92).  suitability did  with  to  the  studies disclose  a few  studies provide  that counselling results  this  plans  likely  abilities  developed  ( f o r example,  paper  are  follow-up  upon  Although  ment  appropriate  individuals  and  satisfied  example,  thesis  do  supports  on  54,66,94), the  Therefore,  on  test  and  for certain  i t was greater  I I . • In  as  of  that  i t was  for  formulated  m a j o r i t y of  I individuals  evidence  satisfaction  addi t i on,  the  occupations,  hypothesized job  hypotheses  Group  other  support  the  in better vocational adjust-  the  results  little  which  and  Group  would  hypothesized  this  research  followed  suggested  individuals than  the  for  II  individuals  i n Group  individuals  I  would, in  that:  a)  G r o u p I i n d i v i d u a l s had s i n c e 1964 fewer p e r i o d s of unemployment than individuals.  experienced had G r o u p i i l l  b)  C h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s had b e e n e f f e c t e d m o r e f r e q u e n t l y by G r o u p I I i n d i v i d u a l s t h a n by Group I i n d i v i d u a l s .  c)  T h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f p r o m o t i o n s e a r n e d by indiv i d u a l s i n Group I e x c e e d e d t h e number e a r n e d by those i n Group I I .  22  d)  Average persons  e)  Those i n Group I r a t e i n t h e i r w o r k t h a n do  In that  those  preceding chapter, evidence  who  follow  the  than  those  other five  assumption  of  job  Roe  lists  and into may  there  to  w a g e s , and  workers';  instability  The  1964  the  589  cases.  As  no  control  was  a l l individuals  motivated  thus  i n the  to v o l u n t a r i l y  related  i n the  their  to relation-  causes  of  proficiency; of  lack  work,  of  job  of  dissatisfaction.  were  perhaps  f o r which  be  included  achieved  over  s t u d y were  they,  out  the  Institute  themselves, that  i n the  service  and  agency-  sample.  the m o t i v a t i o n  evidently  clients  intimidated  decided, therefore,  not  the  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l  they  service  seek  job  psychology  o f e m p l o y m e n t and  as  I t was  should  employment,  Vocational Counselling Service  such  of a  need.  individuals  are  approximately one-quarter  agencies  advantage  felt  of  of  of  to  the  d i s c u s s e s the  r e p o r t s of  three major  welfare departments,  taking have  by  files  satis-  In r e g a r d  to support  of a b i l i t y (92)  with  greater job  plans.  i s evidence  suggesting  labour turnover, promotional  as  social  later,  such  e x a m p l e , Vroom  opportunities  directed  -for  follow  self-rating  satisfaction  referred  measure  For  salaries,  promotional  were  not  presented  in collaboration  to r e v e a l ,  (70), a recognized authority  low  contain  do  i n c o m e , and  opportunities, and  who  was  p e r i o d s of unemployment, changes  satisfaction.  ship  developed  likely  hypotheses,  that  promotions, job  a r e more  plans  higher for i n Group I I .  t h e m s e l v e s more c a p a b l e the other i n d i v i d u a l s .  the  counsellors faction  y e a r l y i n c o m e s i n 1969 w e r e i n Group I than f o r persons  A factor-  sufficiently to  pay  f o ri t .  23 As  a c o r o l l a r y to the foregoing,  designed advice the  of  to i t s brochure)  and g u i d a n c e  jobs  these  (according  f o rwhich  i n planning they  In variables,  they  people  careers  suited"  a common  approached  to help  their  a r e best  i n d i v i d u a l s shared  vocational  since  an a g e n c y  "who  and i n  need  seeking  i t c a n be a s s u m e d  problem,  namely,  some  that  degree  dissatisfaction.  order  to control  the study  or r e s t r i c t  was d e s i g n e d  additional  to include  client  only:  a)  M a l e s , 18 y e a r s a n d o l d e r ( i n o r d e r t o i n c l u d e o n l y t h o s e who e i t h e r h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e i r schooling or were i n t h e i r l a s t y e a r a t a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ) .  b)  T h o s e f o r whom t h e v o c a t i o n s p r o p o s e d c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d between t h e l e v e l s " l e s s e r s k i l l e d " and " s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l , " i n c l u s i v e . The e f f e c t w o u l d be t o d i s p o s e o f t h e t w o e x t r e m e s o f t h e a b i l i t i e s continuum, namely, t h e " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " who w o u l d now b a r e l y h a v e c o m p l e t e d t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g h a d p l a n s made i n c o u n s e l l i n g been f o l l o w e d ; and t h e " u n s k i l l e d , " a s m a l l g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s whose a t y p i c a l d i s o r d e r s , h a n d i c a p s and g e n e r a l l a c k o f a b i l i t y would add l i t t l e t o the study.  c)  I n d i v i d u a l s now r e s i d e n t i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d area ( l i s t e d i n the Greater Vancouver Telephone D i r e c t o r y as being t o l l - f r e e from t h e C i t y o f Vancouver). T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n s e t up a d e g r e e o f control over a s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e ; that i s to say, the c o n f i n i n g of t h e population t o i n d i v i d u a l s r e s i d e n t w i t h i n commuting d i s t a n c e o f V a n c o u v e r i m p l i e s t h a t a l l o f them had a c c e s s t o the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g and employment t h a t t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a has t o o f f e r .  The  imposition  total  population  first  96 o f t h e s e  ^Reprint  o f t h e above  o f 151. selected  of l e t t e r  limitations resulted  Introductory by u t i l i z i n g  appears  letters  1  a table  i n Appendix  were  sent  o f random  D.  in a to the numbers ( 3 3 ) .  24  As  i t was  occur with  critical  between  to  this  t h o s e who  counsellors  and  were  those  of  i n d i v i d u a l s randomly  as  i t developed  close  for  married, viduals 31 XII  the  11  48  ranged  claimed  to  sample  were  selected  have  25  completed  division  in occupations  not,  i n the  two  no  3 divorced  from  equal  an  planned  a d d i t i o n a l 35  w e r e made a v a i l a b l e .  treatment,  as  the  to  groups  were  f u r t h e r cases  or  45,  with  sufficiently  were  at  included. 34  These  a mean o f  to  files  However,  interviewed,  separated.  schooling  British  considerable  Vancouver i n each  member o f  the  the  were d e s i g n a t e d Group I I .  which  were indi-  28.2,?and  l e a s t the  Grade  Vocational  as  In  The  belonging  the  the  in  10  were  Vocational  third,  the  a  a l l three  Group  counsellor  I, while  of  each  experts  the  that  coun-  majority  placement  instances  sought.  long-time  The  the  Counselling  a Manpower  r e s u l t was to  g r o u p s members o f  "experts"  Institute.  cases,  final  two  three  decided  38  while  the  another,  and  instance,  II  of  of  Columbia,  sample.  issue.  Group  d i r e c t o r of  classification;  decided  to  experience,  decision,  to  I or  opinions  executive  for  at  Group  determining  i s the  sellor  in  engaged  individuals eventually  i n age  belonged,  Service  as  who  a fairly  level.  In  of  that  now  numbers  s i n g l e , and  Classification  One  that  statistical  Of  study  two  28 20  in  agreed agreement  individuals were  placed  25 Design Of the Research  Instruments  In view of c r i t i c i s m s  levelled  a t job s a t i s f a c t i o n  s t u d i e s which do not i n c o r p o r a t e standardized assessment (25), care was e x e r c i s e d device.  scales  i n s e l e c t i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e measuring  A number of instruments were c o n s i d e r e d , i n c l u d i n g  the Hoppock Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  Blank, the Job Dimension  Inven-  t o r y , and the Tear B a l l o t f o r Industry, but a l l were d i s c a r d e d as being e i t h e r  too long or too s p e c i f i c  B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e Job S a t i s f a c t i o n  appeared of t h i s  The  Index d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I  i s d e s c r i b e d as a measure of o v e r - a l l number of authors  i n content.  job s a t i s f a c t i o n  by a  ( f o r example, 28,29,77), and upon review,  to be the most s u i t a b l e instrument f o r the purpose study. Some items on the i n t e r v i e w schedule were obtained from  a review of the e x i s t i n g developed  l i t e r a t u r e ; other items were  from the w r i t e r ' s own experience i n i n d u s t r y and  in v o c a t i o n a l  c o u n s e l l i n g , and from worthy suggestions made  by the chairman  of h i s a d v i s o r y committee.  A f t e r a number of  r e v i s i o n s , the i n t e r v i e w schedule was p r i n t e d formJ  The two i n d i v i d u a l s  involved  in i t s final  i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the  i n t e r v i e w schedule p r e - t e s t e d the instrument on a t o t a l of s i x persons--three j u n i o r c o u n s e l l o r s at the Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e , and three i n d i v i d u a l s employed r e s u l t , the i n t e r v i e w e r s were a l e r t e d  in industry"  to the n e c e s s i t y of  adding the category "Once" to Question 21.  ^Interview schedule reproduced  As a  Also,  after  i n Appendix D.  26 interviewing that  the f i r s t  the category  "Under  o f age  "Under 25" i n Q u e s t i o n  2 5 , i t was 1 should  obvious read,  26."  Administration During ductory view  respondent  letters  of the Research the f i r s t  Counselling  of time  Service  some d i f f i c u l t y  two weeks  were m a i l e d  of the lapse  had  Instruments of A p r i l ,  to the t o t a l since  been  contact  initiated  1970,  intro-  s a m p l e o f 96. with  Vocational  by t h e e x - c l i e n t s ,  i n l o c a t i n g m e m b e r s o f t h e s a m p l e was  pated.  Indeed, only  eight  request  to telephone  t h e w r i t e r , and  number  of the  However,  referring  to the Vancouver C i t y D i r e c t o r y ,  t h e Lower  to student  eventually  files  made w i t h  who  knew o f t h e i r  had  moved  viewed, since In  48  commencing 1970. plus  According  accident  in April  and  to pre-test  to complete.  these  Fraser covered,  contact  75  and  one  was persons  i n d i v i d u a l s , 13  u n w i l l i n g t o be  some t h r e e  had  years  inter-  been u n e m p l o y e d previously.  left.  interviews  the job s a t i s f a c t i o n  minutes  11 w e r e  i n d i v i d u a l s were  late  Of  f u l l - t i m e students,  Structured  by  75 m e m b e r s o f t h e s a m p l e o r w i t h  whereabouts.  industrial  short,  d i r e c t o r i e s of the area  at Vancouver C i t y College,  out of the area,  2 were  an  telephone  anticithe  Unknown."  Directory,  "Address  a large  with  were  and  returned  i n d i v i d u a l s complied  envelopes  Valley  In  were ending data,  index  However,  conducted  with  i n the f i r s t the interview  required  a l l 48, week  June,  schedule  approximately  few o f t h e a c t u a l  of  25  interviews  27  were  completed  were  i n general  i n less  than  inclined  45 m i n u t e s ,  as t h e  t o expand upon  their  respondents  work  experi-  ences .  Statistical  Analysis  To d e t e r m i n e scores  achieved  higher  than  testing  those  carried  hypothesis  variance  I and Group  periods  significantly  i n Group I I ,  I t was  proposed  that  two  the null  the t value, using the scores  o f t h e two  groups,  level. applied  to assess  The M a n n - W h i t n e y  the significance  earned  of  by members o f  U Test,  with  ties,  i n t e r - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s i n number  o f unemployment, number o f c h a n g e s o f  i n c o m e , and s e l f - r a t i n g  assessing  groups, was  I I .  employed to assess  yearly in  was  Index  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  in job satisfaction  square  I were  by i n d i v i d u a l s  d i f f e r e n c e i n number o f p r o m o t i o n s  Group  of  out.  a t t h e .05  Chi  was  achieved  i n Group  w o u l d be r e j e c t e d w e r e  significant  the  by i n d i v i d u a l s  f o r the significance  m e a n s was  pooled  whether or not B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e  of a b i l i t y .  A s was  the difference i n job satisfaction  one-tailed tests  were  employers,  o f t h e two  a p p l i e d and t h e n u l l  t o be r e j e c t e d a t t h e .05 l e v e l  of  t h e case,  hypothesis  significance.  CHAPTER I I I  A N A L Y S I S OF As that of  the  good  literature  vocational  factors  such  as  changes  of  jobs,  success  as  measured  salary was  earned  better  and  or  by  not  following two  plans developed  ( I I ) t h o s e who i n Chapter  hypotheses  are  these  repeated  purpose  showed by  number  infrequent job,  of  and the  study  plans  the  aforementioned questionnaire,  plans. (1)  those  hypotheses the  of a  significantly  satisfaction  in collaboration  For  assume  one's  following  measured  groups,  did not, II.  main  counsellors as  to  other c r i t e r i a ,  persons  a standardized job  the  toward  and The  not  adjustment,  comparing  upon  outlined six  and  persons  acted  promotions  whether  vocational  In  of adequacy  in concert with  variables, than  p e r i o d s of unemployment,  feelings by  i s a concomitant  (13,36,47,66,80).  to determine  developed  suggests, i t i s reasonable  adjustment  few  DATA  sake  individuals with  who  counsellors,  were f o r m u l a t e d of convenience,  as the  here:  1.  I n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I would r e v e a l g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n than would those i n Group I I .  2.  G r o u p I i n d i v i d u a l s had s i n c e fewer p e r i o d s of unemployment i ndividuals.  3.  C h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s had been e f f e c t e d more f r e q u e n t l y by G r o u p I I i n d i v i d u a l s t h a n by G r o u p individuals.  4.  1964 than  experienced had G r o u p I I  The a v e r a g e number o f p r o m o t i o n s e a r n e d by i n d i v i d u a l s i n G r o u p I e x c e e d e d t h e n u m b e r e a r n e d by those i n Group I I .  I  29  5.  A v e r a g e y e a r l y incomes i n 1969 were persons i n Group I than f o r persons  6.  T h o s e i n G r o u p I r a t e t h e m s e l v e s more c a p a b l e i n t h e i r w o r k t h a n do t h e o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s .  Statistical To  Methods  determine  substantiated, out, the  using  In  this  tests  In with  for  o f Group  for  Group  .05  o f Group  I  greater  o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f .05.  five  hypotheses,  one-tailed  II.  Chi square  U Test  differences  was a p p l i e d  i n Hypothesis  to test 5.  No. 1  listed  scores  developed  I ) and t h o s e  with  achieved  by i n d i v i d u a l s who  i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with  who d i d n o t ( G r o u p  i s the pertinent  computation  level,  of  the null  to test f o r significant  I and Group  on p l a n s  required,  scores  2 , 3 , 4, a n d 6, t h e M a n n - W h i t n e y  was u t i l i z e d  Brayfield-Rothe  (Group  that  t h e mean  II at a level  and t h e o t h e r  Hypotheses  Hypothesis  Also  I t was p r o p o s e d  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the difference  acted  be  applied.  ties,  between  No. 1 c o u l d  i n job satisfaction  be r e j e c t e d , w e r e  hypothesis  were  variance  I and I I .  would  t h e mean  or not Hypothesis  t e s t i n g f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t was c a r r i e d  two g r o u p s  than  whether  the pooled  hypothesis  higher f o r i n Group I I .  46 d e g r e e s  the resultant  I I ) a r e shown  statistical  of the t value.  information  As a t v a l u e  of freedom, t clearly  counsellors i n Table I. required  o f 1.68 i s  f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e at the  i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  30  TABLE  I  B R A Y F I E L D - R O T H E J O B S A T I S F A C T I O N INDEX SCORES FOR THE TWO GROUPS Group N  20  Mean  65.89  62.45  SD  11.72  11.9  S2  137.43  No.  times  the past  with  statistical  and  ment. fewer thus  five  P  >.05  individuals  hypothesis  i n Group  in their that  Group  more t h a n both  the  number  two  groups,  weeks  along  i n Table I I . I experienced  indicated  p e r i o d s of unemployment supported.  r e s p o n s e s of  The  test  Schedule concerned  unemployed f o r  d a t a , a r e shown  t h e two g r o u p s The  1.04  years  the Mann-Whitney  between  t  of the Interview  21  over  Fewer  138.38  r e s p o n d e n t s were  the  139.73  2  Question of  Group I I  28  Sp2  Hypothesis  I  RESULTS  a significant  over-all  unemployment, difference  p a t t e r n s of unemploy-  I individuals  than  any  had G r o u p  had  experienced  II individuals  is  31  TABLE I I NUMBER  OF TWO-WEEK P E R I O D S OR MORE OF UNEMPLOYMENT E X P E R I E N C E D OVER THE PAST F I V E YEARS BY THE TWO GROUPS  Group ff-Not  at a l l  I  Group N -  22  9  3  3  Once Two o r t h r e e  times  3  4  Four  or five  times  0  1  More  than  0  3  five U  -  £T  -  172.5 2570  z P  Hypothesis The  listed  i n Table  between  -  number o f d i f f e r e n t  I and I I had w o r k e d  result  2.64 .004  No. 3  Groups  The  II  20  during  I I I , together with  of t h e a n a l y s i s  t h e two  e m p l o y e r s f o r whom  groups.  reveals  1965-69,  members o f  inclusive, i s  t h e Mann-Whitney d a t a . no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  32 TABLE I I I NUMBER OF D I F F E R E N T  No.  of  EMPLOYERS OF THE TWO IN 1 9 6 5 - 6 9  Employers  Group I N 28 6  5  2  5  4  3  8  3  4  2  5  5  3  1  6  3  1  7  1  0  8  0  0  9  0  1  $T  All  respondents  a promotion,  responsibility alone. been of  -  290  -  313  z  -  .21  P  -  >.42  No. 4  or more p r o m o t i o n s as  Group I I N 20  1  U  Hypothesis  GROUPS  I n most  earned  were asked  during  t h e change additional instances,  the past f i v e in position to that  which  i t was c l e a r  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ;  subjectivity  whether  was r e q u i r e d  they  had o b t a i n e d one  years.  To  classify  had t o i n v o l v e would  accrue  whether  i n three or four  i n the writer's  by  seniority  a p r o m o t i o n had cases, a  assessment.  degree  33 Table question past two  IV  shows  "Have you  five  do  The  not  "Yes"  obtained  years?"  groups  the  and  any  "No"  job  chi-square  differ  promotions  value  in their  TABLE  responses  responses  to  "Np_" 28  Group  11  10  10  N  20  depicted  Analysis  In  during  in Table  i s not  view  co-operating  of  V,  to  1969. have  the  -  >.10  1969  along the  by  the  Mann-Whitney  over-all  reticence study,  have  II  two  groups  U Test  data.  d i f f e r e n c e between  as  shown shown  resulted  to  by by  11  the  earned  lower,  the  assume  in rejection  the  d i s c l o s e d d i f f e r e n c e between  .05  level  significance.  of the  than  of  the two  unwillingness  that  than  rather  inclusion  e x - c l i e n t s about  their  ("non-followers")  Therefore,  of  members o f  with  i t i s reasonable  i n Group  likely  2.40  significant.  i n the  interviewed, be  -  5  indicates that  groups  could  BY  N  Income e a r n e d  during  YEARS  16  2  the  question.  12  H y p o t h e s i s No.  more  this  I  P  likely  the  Group  X  be  during  IV  "Yes"  two  the  indicates that  PROMOTIONS EARNED DURING THE PAST F I V E THE TWO GROUPS  is  to  i n Group higher,  these  null  they  would I  more  and  incomes  11 i n d i v i d u a l s  hypothesis,  groups  to  for  approaches  the  34  TABLE V INCOME  EARNED BY THE TWO DURING 1 9 6 9 Group  N  Group  28  N  $ 5,000  2  7  $  5,001  «-  $ 7,000  15  6  $  7,001  •-  $  9,000  5  5  $  9,001  •-  $11,000  6  1  •-  $13,000  0  1  *T  .  P  940.5  to rate  statistical  >  .07 5  29 o f t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e  his ability  possible  responses  1.44  No. 6  Question  answers  2o  345.5  z  Hypothesis  II  -  •-  U  cant  I  $ 3,001  $11,001  dent  -  GROUPS  appear  of individuals data.  difference  f o r h i s present i n Table i n Group  t h e two  job.  The  the responfive  V I , together with the I and Group  The Mann-Whitney  between  asked  test  groups.  I I , and  indicates  no  signifi-  35  TABLE VI R A T I N G S BY THE TWO GROUPS OF T H E I R A B I L I T Y TO PERFORM T H E I R PRESENT J O B S Group  I  Group  II  N  28  N  20  Poor Slightly  below  average  Average Better Very  It  than  average  good U  -  316  T  -  1052  z  -  .80  P  -  >.21  i s e v i d e n t from  hypothesis  cannot  the analysis  be r e j e c t e d  for  Group  I individuals  did  Group  II individuals.  ence  fewer  incomes of  changes  than  ability  the  null  ment  than  0  0  0  8  8  1 1  7  9  5  of data  that  the null  1 , 3 , 4, 5, a n d  Neither d i d those more  i n Group  i n Group  promotions, I I .  I  II  6,  rejected  Further,  f o r Hypothesis  s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer individuals.  than  experi-  or higher self-ratings  d i d n o t d i f f e r f o r t h e two g r o u p s .  experienced  d i d Group  0  f o r Hypotheses  of employers,  h y p o t h e s i s was  individuals  -  r e v e a l e d no g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  did individuals  evidently  -  However,  2, a s G r o u p  I  p e r i o d s of unemploy-  CHAPTER SUMMARY AND In  evaluating  researchers sional  have  vocational aptitude  goal  IMPLICATIONS  the effectiveness  generally  counsellors,  IV  who  relied  on r a t i n g s  have j u d g e d  according  of vocational  to prove  studies  a c t u a l l y have  the worth  because they  have  a c t u a l l y happened.  mailed  questionnaires.  with  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s immediate Also,  interviewed  counselling have  been  attempt tion  job  some y e a r s  undertaken  (a) that  their  random  to f i l l  work,  this  on t h e b a s i s  feelings.  have  plans,  have  assessed the  of partial  States  returns  of  have  traced  s a m p l e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who  underwent  previously,  studies  i n Canada.  b u t no s i m i l a r  This  study  n e e d , and has p r o c e e d e d  i t i s desirable  and ( b ) t h a t  satisfaction  the studies  u n i v e r s i t y students,.and  A few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d and  t h e outcome  had l i m i t e d v a l u e ,  what  of counselling  Although  most  not  quality  of a  counselling,  evidence  involved  profes-  of vocational  test  largely  by  t o i n t e r e s t , i n t e l l i g e n c e , and  compared with  devised  the s u i t a b i l i t y  test results of the counsellees.  appears  counselling,  f o r people  reflect  an  on t h e assump-  t o be h a p p y i n  answers t o questions  accurately  represents  relating  the individual's  to true  37  I.  SUMMARY  A structured interview schedule, Rothe who  Index  of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n ,  had, i n 1964, experienced  Service f o r British  in  age f r o m  25 t o 4 5 , w i t h  in  t h e Lower  shared  sellors that  some  s i xyears  28 i n d i v i d u a l s  developed  Group  II.  The p u r p o s e  counsellors, Group  Testing  I , which  I I , which  determine  whether  respect 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  ranged  apparently  dissatisfied  sought  the a s s i s t a n c e of coun-  with were  living  of experts  had a c t e d  upon  with  determined the plans  counsellors, while referred study  t o as Group  was  to t r y to  had f o l l o w e d p l a n s a higher  degree  had n o t f o l l o w e d  their  developed  20 h a d n o t . I and determine with  of job s a t i s f a c t i o n  these  plans.  of the Hypotheses  Non-parametric  with  The s a m p l e  48 i n d i v i d u a l s  A panel  of t h i s  experienced  t o 48 m a l e s  either  i n the sample  two s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s  than  they  in collaboration  Group  These  ago.  These  whether  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  Columbia.  of being  w o r k , o r u n e m p l o y e d , when  the Brayfield-  a mean o f 2 8 . 2 ; a n d a l l w e r e  area.  the perplexity  with  counselling at the Vocational  Counselling  Mainland  along  statistical  techniques  o r n o t t h e two g r o u p s  to the f o l l o w i n g  were  differed  employed t o significantly  variables:  J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a s a s s e s s e d by t h e B r a y f i e l d Rothe Index. Number o f p e r i o d s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t . Number o f c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s . Number o f p r o m o t i o n s earned. Income i n 1969. S e l f - r a t i n g of a b i l i t y to perform t h e i r jobs.  38  The respect score  supposition  I was  T h e mean  Brayfield-Rothe  between score  I n d e x was  o f 231 e m p l o y e d The  these  of the total  i n Group  unemployment  period. between  office  This  since  had been  I and n i n e  1964; t h r e e unemployed  Group  unemployment  over  result  members  differs  little  and R o t h e ' s ( 1 7 )  ascertained.  more  than  were  Twenty-two  II reported  individuals  revealed  i n Group  five  times  no II stated  during  a significant  five  had e x p e r i e n c e d years  than  that  difference  t o number o f p e r i o d s  II individuals the past  o f the sample  i n Group  t h e two g r o u p s i n r e s p e c t  unemployment.  i s not  workers.  when  Moreover, analysis  I I was  s a m p l e on t h e  in Brayfield  f o r t w o w e e k s o r m o r e was  individuals  they  two m e a n s  with  T h e mean  t h e mean o f G r o u p  64.46.  number o f t i m e s  unemployed  of  not s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  t h e mean o f 6 3 . 8 d i s c l o s e d  study  that  was  65.89, w h i l e  The d i f f e r e n c e  significant.  from  t h e two g r o u p s w o u l d d i f f e r  to job s a t i s f a c t i o n  o f Group  62.45.  that  of  more  had G r o u p  periods I  individuals. Evidently, at  least  uals was both  twice  since  1964..  of individuals Changes  one t o e i g h t .  years  were  earned  I  II individuals,  individthe range  were  significantly.  claimed  t o have  by 22 o f t h e 48 e x - c l i e n t s . by members  difference  by G r o u p  T h e n u m b e r o f c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s made b y  groups d i d not d i f f e r  five  had c h a n g e d e m p l o y e r s  reported  r a n g e d f r o m one t o s i x ; f o r Group  Promotions  The  a majority  o f Group  i n number  between  been  earned  over  the past  Twelve of the promotions  I , and t e n by members t h e t w o g r o u p s was  o f Group I I .  not  significant.  39 Almost.-one-half ' (21) earnings  i n t h e $5,001  reported  were  est  Incomes  The l o w e s t  - $5,000 c a t e g o r y ,  by one i n d i v i d u a l ,  $13,000 c a t e g o r y .  earned  1969  incomes  while  the high-  was i n t h e $ 1 1 , 0 0 1  by t h e two g r o u p s  -  d i d not  significantly. All  average and  - $7,000 r a n g e .  i n t h e $3,001  income, earned  differ  o f t h e 48 i n d i v i d u a l s r e p o r t e d  members o f t h e s a m p l e i n their  five  ability  i n Group  rated  to perform  I I gave  T h e r e w a s no s i g n i f i c a n t  themselves  their  themselves difference  at least  jobs.  Nine  top ratings  i n Group I  ("Very .good").  i n the ratings  o f t h e two  groups. According difference  whether  Counselling While  satisfied neither rate  Service  with  more  acted  those  their  study  claims  of the value  disclosed  that  counselling  plans  plans,  i t made  formulated  experienced  changed  with  fewer  employers  nor s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  help  highly that  little  counsellors.  periods  higher  than  to i t s clients  of  of i t s services.  i twould  as were  incomes,  d i d the  and d i d  "non-followers". Counselling  i n annual Although  counselling  those  be i m p r u d e n t  earned  i n 1964; n e i t h e r  made b y t h e a g e n c y  unemployed  as o f t e n ,  the Vocational  e x - c l i e n t s who f o l l o w e d  so f r e q u e n t l y  study,  who d i d n o t , t h e " f o l l o w e r s " w e r e n o t m o r e  has n o t proved  brochures  not  plans  job ability  was o f l i t t l e  substantiate  upon  jobs,  promotions  their  The  it  Service  than  of this  or not e x - c l i e n t s of the Vocational  t h o s e who f o l l o w e d  unemployment  not  to the results  reports  does and  the evidence plans  were  who d i d n o t f o l l o w  to formulate  sweeping  40  generalizations conclusion in  the  on  the  might well  literature  basis be  of  that  should  be  Metzler  (61),  programs on  the  are  "operating  evidence,..."  that  guidance  h o p e and ture,  and  faith."  In  opinions  such  variance  with  relating  to  job  (13,76), perhaps personal with  less,  workers are  the  contact of  cannot  difficult  instruments  to  two  other  skepticism.  with  rather  than  who  feel  the  basis  of  of  represent this  agree  (71),  the a  study  litera-  minority  oppose expressed  ( 2 5 , 8 0 , 8 1 , 8 2 ) , and  by  are  follow-up  at  least five  with  jobs  their  i s not  the  than  Unfortunately, owing  to  for  at  studies  the  two  two  It  is  involved  (22,66)  groups  other  of  studies,  agree  are  groups  comparison  diversity  satisfaction  these  other  known.  which  are  of  the  populations  whether  in job  to  review  studies  determined  employed  of  counselling  long-term  data  study.  obtain,  and  questionnaires;  this  country.  degree  counselling,  that  pre-selected  be  made  (13:496,48,51,54,56,76,86:273-275).  with  satisfied this  by  obtaining  that  generalizations  Farwell  i n the  Crites  mentioned  of  significant  in  and  mailed-in  method  findings It  or  involved  main  l a r g e l y on  r e s u l t s of  satisfaction be  fact,  assumptions  and  e f f i c a c y of  Super  the  inclined  opinions  results disclosed  However, i t should studies  out  negative  the  as  be  "offered  the  a  guidance  Rothney  are  words,  regarding  that  pointed  these  other  authorities  with  As  might  p r i m a r i l y on  services  however,  view.  declares  with  In  IMPLICATIONS  f i n d i n g s , one who  paper.  pretentious  viewed  II. From  this  more, of  figures measuring  and  the  41 fact the  t h a t few s t u d i e s r e p o r t a c t u a l literature  of  workers  in  this  replication  of jobs  a r e by no m e a n s o f much  reports,  more c a r e  methodology,  As  about your scores  situations  where  their  prove  jobs  thus  f a r , with  sound  an  (25)  research  a job satisfaction  job?"  to the question  showed  assessment  a marked Index.  measure  For example,  of particular  i t would question  history  value  "How  do  correlation Therefore, i n  of employees'  i s r e q u i r e d , the use o f t h i s  correlation  attitudes  one  question  be f e a s i b l e  for a  coun-  as a r e g u l a r p a r t o f  form.  The d a t a  i n follow-up  (.51) b e t w e e n  and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  further difficulty  vicious  i s a need f o r  to adopt  C, a n s w e r s  present  a rapid  moderate  satisfaction  selling.  done  vocational  derived  studies of the  clients.  The  scores  group  represented  However, as C r i t e s  to develop  battery or personal  agency's  a  be t a k e n  service to include this  test  there  on t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e  seems w a r r a n t e d . selling  studies.  i n Appendix  (.~78) w i t h  could  to those  of  merit.  noted  feel  must  especially  recognized  clear,  of the research  on l o n g i t u d i n a l  its  similar  fora  the i n f l u e n c e of v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g  emphasis  toward  A search  study.  satisfaction  you  scores.  d i s c l o s e d no B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e s c o r e s  in a variety  Because  of  test  i n assessing  It is likely  reflect  that  indicated  i n Appendix  the worth  of vocational  i n some  dissatisfaction  occupational  with  C  suggests coun-  instances, job satisfaction certain  f o r e m a n , f o r e x a m p l e ) and n o t w i t h  aspects  o f t h e j o b (a  the occupation  itself.  42 Therefore, be  a  the  satisfying  extraneous  ply  able  to  the  case,  need  be  what  should  prove  s u b s t a n t i a t e d because  because  jobs  C  of  inadequacies  illustrates  than  r e v e r t t o age of  the  dissatisfaction  the  not  not  Appendix  different  a reflection  real is  VIII of  choose they  may  of  in  would 18.  this  counsel.  choose  are  employment  to  as  Roe  their or  not  greener"  i s not  question  For  t h a t more  Whether  "far fields  with  responses  f o r wise  itself  pointed  (such  as  influence  the  his  Of  job.  showed  ing  of  Of  the  degree the  of  years  Index.  of  promotions,  employer less  the  the  (70:31)  present  ones,  this  sim-  adage  known.  provide  showed  the  other  he  an  with  (level  I f the  positive  so of  than  the  status)  may  individual  the  the  he  longer  gains  receives  is likely one  with  to  the  from three  obtain-  while  one related  i s paid i n the be  with  remains  with  in this  study),  his  job  Index  negatively  more money one  encountered  satisfied  and  relationships;  e m p l o y e r ) was  satisfied  limits be  other  income  latter  stated:  Brayfield-Rothe  of  of  f u r t h e r proof has  marital  m o r e r e c o g n i t i o n he  hand,  i s to  and  is  or  variables investigated, only  present  more  the  factors  satisfaction  relationships  with  the  (within  likely  of  t h r e e , two  and  C,  intelligence,  E v i d e n t l y , then,  services,  On  in Appendix  seventeen  these  his  job.  age,  promotions)  (number to  out  significant  scores.  of  individuals  t h e r e i s no s i n g l e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i s p o t e n t i a l l y c a p a b l e o f g i v i n g some s a t i s f a c t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s b a s i c n e e d s as i s t h e o c c u p a t i o n . 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" R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between G e n e r a l and S p e c i f i c A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d s Work a n d O b j e c t i v e J o b Performance of Outdoor A d v e r t i s i n g Salesmen." J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 4 9 : 45.5-457, 1 9 6 5 .  of  48 53.  K u d e r , G. F r e d e r i c . A d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s Manual, Kuder Preference Record^ Chicago: Science Research A s s o c i a t e s , I n c . , 1964.  54.  L a t h a m , A. J . "Job A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s : A One-Year F o l l o w up o f H i g h S c h o o l G r a d u a t e s . " J o u r n a l of S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 34:55-68, 1951.  55.  L i k e r t , R e n s i s , a n d Q u a s h a , W i l l i a m H. M a n u a l , The R e v i s e d M i n n e s o t a P a p e r Form B o a r d T e s t . New York: The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1948.  56.  L i p s e t t , L a u r e n c e , a n d W i l s o n , J a m e s W. "Do 'Suitable* I n t e r e s t s and M e n t a l A b i l i t y Lead t o J o b S a t i s faction?" E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e ment, 14:373-380, 1954.  57.  McGowan, J o h n Readings Rinehart  58.  Macrae, Angus. "A T h i r d F o l l o w - u p o f V o c a t i o n a l l y Advised Cases." T h e Human F a c t o r , 7 : 4 1 - 5 0 , 1 9 3 3 .  59.  M a s o n , R o b e r t D. S t a t i s t i c a l T e c h n i q u e s i n B u s i n e s s and Economics. Homewood, I l l i n o i s : R i c h a r d D. Irwin, Inc., 1970.  60.  M e r e n d a , P e t e r F . , a n d R o t h n e y , J o h n W. M. "Evaluating the E f f e c t s of C o u n s e l i n g - - E i g h t Years A f t e r . " J o u r n a l of C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 5:163-168, 1968.  61.  M e t z l e r , J o h n H. Programs." 289, 1964.  62.  N o r r i s , W 1 l l a , Z e r a n , F r a n k l i n R., a n d H a t c h , R a y m o n d The I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e i n G u i d a n c e . Chicago: Rand M c N a l l y & Company, 1966.  N.  63.  Otis,  of  64.  P a t e r s o n , D o n a l d , G e r k e n , C. d'A., a n d H a h n , M i l t o n E. Revised Minnesota Occupational Rating Scales. Mi n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1953.  65.  P e p i n s k y , H. B. " C o u n s e l i n g Methods: Review of P s y c h o l o g y , 2:317-334,  F . , a n d S c h m i d t , L y l e D. Counseling: i n T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e . New Y o r k : Holt, and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1962.  " E v a l u a t i n g C o u n s e l i n g and G u i d a n c e V o c a t i o n a l Guidance Q u a r t e r l y , 12:285-  A r t h u r S. Manual, Otis S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g Mental A b i l i t y . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , Bruce W o r l d , I n c . , 1950.  Theory." 1951.  Test &  Annual  49 66.  P o r t e r , Thomas L e e . "The E f f e c t s o f C o u n s e l i n g i n t h e Vocational Rehabilitation Process." Dissertation A b s t r a c t s , 25:5748, 1965.  67.  P r e s s e y , S i d n e y L . , a n d K u h l e n , R a y m o n d 6. Psychologi cal Development Through the L i f e Span. New York: H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s , 1957.  68.  R a v e n , J . C. London:  69.  R o b i n s o n , H. A l a n , C o n n o r s , R a l p h P., a n d W h i t a c r e , G. H o l l y . "Job S a t i s f a c t i o n R e s e a r c h e s of 1964-65." P e r s o n n e l & G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l , 45:371-379, 1966.  70.  Roe,  71.  R o t h n e y , J o h n W. M., a n d F a r w e l l , G a i l F. "The t i o n o f G u i d a n c e and P e r s o n n e l S e r v i c e s . " E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 30:168-175, 1960.  72.  Samler, Joseph. "Occupational Exploration in Counseling: A Proposed R e o r i e n t a t i o n . " Man i n a W o r l d a t W o r k , ed. Henry Borow. Boston: H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1964, pp. 4 1 1 - 4 3 1 .  73.  S c h l e t z e r , V e r a M. "SVIB as a P r e d i c t o r o f tion." J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y ,  74.  S e d l a c e k , Wm. Edward. " E m p i r i c a l and T h e o r e t i c a l A s p e c t s of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n . " Dissertation Abstracts, 26:7480, 1966.  75.  S e l k i n , James. " V o c a t i o n a l A d j u s t m e n t and A S t u d y o f Some M e d i a t i n g V a r i a b l e s . " A b s t r a c t s , 23:2200, 1962.  76.  S e i t z , M. J . "A F o l l o w - u p S t u d y o f t h e U s e o f t h e G.A.T.B. o f t h e U.S. Employment S e r v i c e i n the Placement of High School S e n i o r s . " Unpublished M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Delaware, 1949.  77.  S p i t z e r , Morton Edward. "Goal A t t a i n m e n t , Job t i o n and B e h a v i o r . " Unpublished doctoral t i o n , New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1964.  78.  S t o n e , C. H., a n d S i m o s , I . "A F o l l o w - u p S t u d y o f P e r s o n a l C o u n s e l i n g v e r s u s C o u n s e l i n g by L e t t e r . " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 3 2 : 4 0 8 - 4 1 4 , 1948.  Guide H. K.  Anne. The John Wiley  to the Standard Progressive M a t r i c e s . L e w i s & Co. L t d . , 1960.  P s y c h o l o g y of O c c u p a t i o n s . & S o n s , I n c . , 1956.  New  York: EvaluaReview of  Job S a t i s f a c 50:5-8, 1966.  Personality: Dissertation  Satisfacdisserta-  50 79.  S t r o n g , E d w a r d K., J r . V o c a t i o n a l After College. Minneapolis: M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1955.  80.  S u p e r , D o n a l d E. The P s y c h o l o g y o f C a r e e r s . Harper & B r o t h e r s , 1957.  81.  S u p e r , D o n a l d E., and C r i t e s , Vocational Fitness. New  T96T:  I n t e r e s t s 18 Y e a r s U n i v e r s i t y of New  York:  J o h n 0. Appraising York: Harper & Row,  82.  S u p e r , D o n a l d E., and o t h e r s . Vocational Development: A Framework f o r R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : Teachers C o l l e g e Press, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1957.  83.  T h o r n d i k e , R o b e r t L., and H a g e n , E l i z a b e t h . Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons, I n c . , 1961.  84.  T r a x l e r , A r t h u r E. Techniques Harper & B r o t h e r s , 1957.  85.  T r u a x , C h a r l e s B., a n d R o b e r t R. C a r k h u f f . Toward E f f e c t i v e C o u n s e l i n g and P s y c h o t h e r a p y . Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1967.  86.  T y l e r , L e o n a E. The Work o f t h e C o u n s e l o r . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1961.  87.  T y l e r , L e o n a E. "Work a n d I n d i v i d u a l Differences." Man i n a W o r l d a t W o r k , e d . H e n r y B o r o w . Boston: H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1964, pp. 174-195.  88.  T y l e r , L e o n a E. T h e Work o f t h e C o u n s e l o r . Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969.  89.  V e r n o n , P h i l i p E. " O c c u p a t i o n a l Norms f o r t h e 2 0 Minute Progressive Matrices Test." Occupationa1 P s y c h o l o g y , 23:58-59, 1949.  90.  V o l l m e r , H o w a r d M., a n d E d u c a t i o n , and J o b 32:38-43, 1955.  91.  V o l s k y , T h e o d o r e , J r . , M a g o o n , T h o m a s M., N o r m a n , W a r r e n a n d H o y t , D o n a l d P. The Outcome o f C o u n s e l i n g and Psychotherapy. Minnesota: U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, 1965.  92.  V r o o m , V i c t o r H. Work and M o t i v a t i o n . J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I n c . , 1964.  of Guidance.  K i n n e y , J a c k A. Satisfaction."  New  New  New  York:  York:  York:  "Age, Personnel,  New  York:  T.,  51 93.  W a l k e r , J o h n L. " C o u n s e l o r s ' Judgments i n the P r e d i c t i o n o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l and E d u c a t i o n a l P e r f o r m a n c e of Former High School Students." J o u r n a l of Educat i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 49:82-91 , 1 955.  94.  Wallace, Gaylen Rayford. "An A n a l y s i s o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n o f E m p l o y e d Y o u t h I n v o l v e d i n an E x p e r i m e n t a l School Dropout R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Program." D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 27:4059, 1967.  95.  W e b s t e r , E d w a r d C. "A F o l l o w - u p on Journal of A p p l i e d Psychology,  V o c a t i o n a l Guidance." 26:285-295, 1942.  APPENDIX A  APPENDIX A I.  BACKGROUND  OF THE V O C A T I O N A L FOR  BRITISH  COUNSELLING  SERVICE  COLUMBIA  O r g a n i z a t i on Largely Vancouver British by  due t o t h e i n i t i a t i v e  Rotary  Club,  Columbia  the Burrard The  Rotary  and v e r y  to  capacity,  was  reported  had  completed  community value of  almost little  so t h a t that  tests  children's National  Affairs,  Employment  by t h e s e r v i c e .  three  an  interview  an  from  annual  working  interviewed  a n d 55 Other  to appreciate the the Department Board,  d e p a r t m e n t s , and t h e  referred  Within  adver-  was s o o n  S u n , Nov. 2 4 , 1 9 4 7 ) . quick  first  of i t s inception i t  had been  welfare  Service  was  no p a i d  t h e Workmen's C o m p e n s a t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l s f o r assess-  a few months, a w a i t i n g before  a client  could  period  arrange  a counsellor.  When t h e c o u n s e l l i n g grants  men  With  t h e agency  two months  w e e k s was n e c e s s a r y with  as t h e agency  s e r v i c e ; f o rexample,  aidsocieties,  of  Service,  evidently  of the counselling  donated  o f t h e Y.M.C.A.  (Vancouver were  Service f o r  i n 1947 i n p r e m i s e s  publicity,  within  of the  Counselling  instant acclaim.  146 young  agencies  Veterans'  ment  Branch  Counselling  t e r m e d , met w i t h tising  the Vocational  was e s t a b l i s h e d  Street  and g e n e r o s i t y  the Vancouver  s e r v i c e was s u p p o r t e d Rotary  budget o f $5,000 would  Club,  solely  i t was e s t i m a t e d  suffice.  However, t h e  by that  demand  for counselling  it  been  has  exceeded  proved  every year  the most obvious  message  since  was  the  greater  agency  financial  The  agency  Societies over  Act  since For  the  was  Counselling  i n 1951,  to  support received  at  Rotary  s i x men been  the  of  22  Club  both  until  the  both  period,  w i t h the  at  of  Prior year  from  every  2617 to  independent  sources  gradually  be  to  the  the  East  board  client  charge  decided  deemed  the  was  the  "Youth  after agency  financial  grants and  and  a  were  the  United  financial 1969.  In  that  that i t s  three-year  provincial  government  with  the  recom-  1965. made f o r c o u n s e l l i n g ,  to request  able  the  Broadway.  i n accordance of  of  board.  In 1970,  Services indicated  B a r c l a y Report no  the  address,  over  turned  board  known a s  continued until  expectation that  1954,  on  government  withdrawn  the  backgrounds;  In 1954,  provincial  under  p r o v i d e some  1955.  increase i t s contribution  mendations  report  formally  varying  Street  continued  the U n i t e d Community  that  Club  S e r v i c e s of G r e a t e r Vancouver,  would  Indeed,  annual  society  individuals  Pender  location  agency  support  would  a  Columbia."  from  and  i t u r g e n t l y needs  Service for British  the  assistance year,  i n every  i s that  inadequate,  first.  a g e n c y was  from  Community  be  y e a r s , the  Rotary  to  to the  o p e r a t i o n t o an  of  i t s present  The  when t h e  the  fifteen  some t w e l v e y e a r s moved  contained  i n c o r p o r a t e d as  t h e r e have  next  since  established  consisting  1962,  sum  support.  management o f  directors  this  to pay.  a fee of In  1962  five this  but  dollars fee  was  raised 1968, set  t o seven  to twenty-five at thirty-five In  to  dollars,  each  test  wished  was  summary  typewritten this  reports  report of  of the counsellor's  interpre-  suggestions.  the agency  had a l w a y s  and as t h e r e to avail  changed  and i n  i n 1970, the charge  a n d t h e f e e now i n c l u d e s  and a b r i e f  and  nature,  Early  1 9 6 9 , a d e c i s i o n was made t o i s s u e  scores  As  dollars.  dollars,  dollars.  counselee,  tations  i n 1965 t o f i f t e e n  been  w a s no u p p e r  themselves  age l i m i t  of i t s  i n 1966 t o " V o c a t i o n a l  primarily vocational i n f o r those  who  s e r v i c e s , t h e name was  Counselling  Service  for British  Columbia."  Staff  During  1964  Throughout  the f i r s t  constituted  the total  Counselling  Service--one  sellor. had  period,  tive  basis.  the s t a f f ,  grounds  of the Vocational and one c o u n -  executive  d i r e c t o r who  i n 1963 had n o t y e t been made). counsellor  In June, while  of experience  was e m p l o y e d  1964, a second  i n October  of the staff  t h e agency  staff  f o rthe acting  following  on a  During  brought  full-time  i n a part-time  counsellor an  execu-  capacity.  to the service varied professional  an h o n o u r s several  back-  qualifications.  graduate  years  this  one-evening-  o f t h e same y e a r  to serve  and d i v e r s e  psychometrist-secretary,  joined  o f 1 9 6 4 , two i n d i v i d u a l s  psychometrist-secretary  d i r e c t o r was a p p o i n t e d Members  The  late  a part-time  per-week joined  full-time  (A r e p l a c e m e n t  resigned  half  i n psychology,  of experience  in  clerical  and s e c r e t a r i a l  following receipt  a number o f y e a r s  of a bachelor's  internship Labour as  a guidance  variety  T h e new  on  a one-third  time  basis)  he s p e n t  four  years  he h a d h e l d  p r i o r t o becoming  director  a Civil  Service  a p o s i t i o n from  the part-time  degree  a n d some  experience  a counsellor  (appointed degree  in industrial Edward  a  a member initially  i n psychology.  a p o s i t i o n as  of B r i t i s h  Columbia;  appointment  which  counsellor,  a t the King  degree i n  w o r k , and had h e l d  a t the U n i v e r s i t y  Finally,  time  an  the Department of  i n d i v i d u a l held  1963.  that  and t h e  had c o m p l e t e d  a bachelor's  had a d o c t o r a l  this  and c o u n s e l l o r  and I m m i g r a t i o n ) ,  jobs  executive  a number o f y e a r s ,  ship  held  i n youth  and o t h e r  the s t a f f .  more r e c e n t l y  with  Wales, where  also  had been a c t i v e  of technical  lecturer  South  counsellor  of  For  i n psychology,  counselling  New  i n industry  officer.  junior  psychology,  The f u l l - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r ,  of experience  degree  i n vocational  and I n d u s t r y ,  The  capacities.  (Citizen-  he h a d r e t i r e d  with  a  in  master's  psychology, Continuing  was a t Education  Centre. II. Counsellors based  from  preliminary  by  the c l i e n t  Occupations"  COUNSELLING  at the Vocational  evidently both  THE  their  discussions and f i n a l  (a personal  PROCEDURE Counselling  upon  questionnaire),  information  interviews,  h i s t o r y form and from  Service  from  obtained  forms  completed  and an " I n t e r e s t i n a battery  of t e s t s .  In  57 fact, the  the  procedure  pattern  typical priate  described  vocational to  followed by  by  Samler  counselling  reproduce  his  the  agency  ( i n his  so  closely  description  agency) that  follows  of  i t seems  a  appro-  words:  The p r o c e d u r e i n t h e t y p i c a l v o c a t i o n a l counselling s e t t i n g s e e m s t o be a b o u t a s f o l l o w s . The client, h o w e v e r he d o e s i t a n d w i t h w h a t e v e r motivation, applies for counseling. P r o b a b l y he f i l l s o u t a personal h i s t o r y f o r m a n d has one o r m o r e i n t e r v i e w s . O b j e c t i v e t e s t i n g may be e x t e n s i v e and s o m e t i m e s c a r r y t h e e n t i r e t a s k o f p r o v i d i n g d a t a , o r i t may be l i m i t e d to s p e c i f i c purposes. In what i s a t p r e s e n t sound p r a c t i c e at t h e s e s t a g e s i n the p r o c e s s , the counsellor formulates hypotheses f o r his c l i e n t ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e l a t i v e to his probable f u n c t i o n i n g i n educational p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w o r k and i n w o r k i t s e l f (72:412). Simply vocational  guidance  i n t e r v i ews, and  using  personal  discussed  stated,  i t would Involves  data  history  appear  that  counselling  derived  forms.  from  Each  the  process  clients  i nstruments  of  these  of  many  of  in individual such  elements  as  tests  will  be  briefly.  C o u n s e l 1 i ng Today counsellors, --each  to  marriage  his  Vocational  description and  are  supposedly  peculiar the  there  of  S c h m i d t and 1)  own  counsellors counsellors,  trained  to  camp c o u n s e l l o r s ,  a s s i s t people  specialty.  sorts--investment  by  Counselling,  as  practised  very  closely  Service,  counselling  characteristics outlined  be  described,  so  therefore,  as  on  techniques  Counselling  might  related  using  and  by  by to  the  McGowan  follows:  I t i s a s o c i a l l e a r n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between two p e o p l e , r a n g i n g somewhat between s i m p l e a d v i s i n g and l o n g - t e r m p s y c h o l o g i c a l treatment.  2) 3) 4.) 5) 6) 7) 8)  The r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e s e r v i c e a r e g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d "clients." The c o n c e r n i s u s u a l l y w i t h n o r m a l r a t h e r t h a n w i t h abnormal i n d i v i d u a l s . C l i e n t s may be u p s e t o r f r u s t r a t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of c o u n s e l l i n g , but are not u s u a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s a b l e d or. d i s i n t e g r a t e d . A p r i m a r y aim i s t o h e l p c l i e n t s u n d e r s t a n d and a c c e p t w h a t t h e y a r e , and t o r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n tial . A l t h o u g h 1 i s t e n i n g and t a l k i n g a r e t h e p r i m a r y methods, p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , b i o g r a p h i c a l h i s t o r i e s and o u t s i d e r e s o u r c e s a r e u s u a l l y e m p l o y e d . A t t e n t i o n 1s p a i d t o e x t r a - c o u n s e l l i n g as w e l l as i n t r a - c o u n s e l 1 i n g e v e n t s and c h a n g e s . M o r e e m p h a s i s i s g i v e n t o t h e p o s i t i v e and o b v i o u s t h a n t o t h e n e g a t i v e and u n c o n s c i o u s i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g process (57:3-4).  In more t h e o r e t i c a l " t e r m s , c o u n s e l l i n g a t t h e Counselling  S e r v i c e m i g h t be s a i d t o be a m e l d i n g o f  the  " c o r r e l a t i o n a l " stream of psychology  with  as d e s c r i b e d  i s to say, not o n l y  has  the i n d i v i d u a l (comparing  him  by C r o n b a c h ( 2 6 ) .  That  the p r o c e d u r e been to a p p r a i s e with standardized his niche  reference  i n the world  t i o n a l " approach),  the  Vocational  "experimental"  groups) f o r the purpose of f i n d i n g  o f w o r k and  but r e g a r d  has  elsewhere (the " c o r r e l a been t a k e n  of  various  treatments  (courses  and  t h a t m i g h t l e a d t o more e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g  so on)  in vocational t r a i n i n g , remedial  the i n d i v i d u a l (the "experimental" has p o i n t e d  approach).  reading,  Goldman  out t h a t "the user of t e s t s i n c o u n s e l i n g  be a b l e t o b e n e f i t f r o m a c a r e f u l s y n t h e s i s o f elements from both  by  (37:13) should  selected  approaches."  Interviews Although techniques  i t i s obvious  t h a t i n t e r v i e w i n g methods  would v a r y somewhat w i t h i n any  and  a g e n c y , t h e r e i s no  59 evidence  to suggest  differed  significantly  ling,  or i n their  philosophy Report, would  that  i n their  ability  of t h e agency  a n d i t seems  agree  that  the counsellors  involved  philosophies  as c o u n s e l l o r s . clearly  likely  that  the interview  outlined  regarding  study  counsel-  In any e v e n t , t h e i n t h e 1964 A n n u a l  counsellors  should  i n this  employed  therein  be  . . . c o n d u c t e d a l o n g p e r m i s s i v e l i n e s , a n d no a t t e m p t ... made t o t e l l t h e c l i e n t w h a t he s h o u l d d o . R a t h e r i t i s an i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n , i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t i e s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n be o b j e c t i v e l y v i e w e d , and a s s e s s e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s between w h i c h he i s d e c i d i n g . During the i n t e r v i e w , the couns e l l o r i n t e r p r e t s t h e t e s t r e s u l t s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and o t h e r e v i d e n c e , p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e many types of occupations and t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , and a t t e m p t s t o h e l p t h e c l i e n t p l a n r e a l i s t i c and p r o m i s i n g courses of a c t i o n . S o m e t i m e s t h i s means e n c o u r a g i n g and m o t i v a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l towards c o n s i d e r i n g h i t h e r t o u n t h o u g h t o f o b j e c t i v e s , and g i v i n g t h e encouragement and i n c e n t i v e t h a t he h a s s e l d o m i f e v e r b e f o r e received. At other times, i t e n t a i l s h e l p i n g t h e c l i e n t t o view h i m s e l f and t h e w o r l d o f work more r e a l i s t i c a l l y , d i r e c t i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n t o w a r d s o b j e c t i v e s more r e a d i l y a t t a i n a b l e t h a n t h e g o a l s he h a s p r e v i o u s l y s e t f o r himself. Underlying these basic considerations are the p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , and emotional f a c t o r s which govern i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s , and a r e p a r t s o f t h e t o t a l situation. H e r e , i n t h e o b j e c t i v e b u t p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w , c l i e n t s f i n d thems e l v e s a b l e t o c l a r i f y many o f t h e h o p e s , a s p i r a t i o n s , d i f f i c u l t i e s and f e a r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e i r l i v e s , and a s a r e s u l t m o r e e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r own p r o b l e m s and f i n d s o l u t i o n s . Every interviews. and from the  client  o f t h e s e r v i c e was a c c o r d e d  The f i r s t  i t s primary  was u s u a l l y  p u r p o s e was t o a c q u i r e  the c l i e n t ,  determine  s e r v i c e , and m u t u a l l y  counselling  of one-half  could  help  h i s problem, determine  him.  hour's  background explain  whether  The s e c o n d  a minimum o f two duration,  information  the nature  of  t e s t i n g and  interview  usually  lasted  an  hour  stage  a n d , as p o i n t e d  presented  made p r a c t i c a l assisted  out above,  evidence  derived  suggestions,  the c l i e n t  the counsellor at this  from  testing  and o t h e r  sources,  and i n a n o n - d i r e c t i v e f a s h i o n  t o determine  an a p p r o p r i a t e  occupational  goal.  Instruments In Appendix  addition to the test B, e a c h  completed personal  history this  On P a g e address,  towns  made up o f f i v e form  t h e page,  is  seeking  remains  the client  most o f t h i s  service,  page  night  courses).  Information  work the  Service  (With  only  minor  i n use today). data  such  to l i s t  a s h i s name  other  and s t a t e whether  to outline  cities  and  he h a s  H e r e , and on t h e back  fully  the reasons  on P a g e  f o reducational  school, vocational training  and grades  employment  i fany, i s l i s t e d  i s reserved  (including  dislikes  Counselling  why he  guidance.  Military  preferences  pages.  psychological tests.  he i s a s k e d  at length i n  i n t e r v i e w and t e s t i n g ) a  i s requested  he h a s l i v e d ,  taken  of  initial  1, i n a d d i t i o n t o g i v i n g  i n which  previously  for  of the Vocational  ( a t home, b e t w e e n  revisions,  and  client  battery, described  regarding  questions  jobs, a self-rating  he h a s d o n e , p a y he c o n s i d e r s f u t u r e , occupations  contemplated  although  experience and  miscellaneous  i n school,  i s also requested.  background, with  i n previous  problems  2,  subject  Page 7 i s r e s e r v e d concerning  l i k e s and  of h i s c a p a c i t i e s f o r  adequate  a t present  i n the past  and i n  and a t p r e s e n t ,  61 and  careers On  t h a t may  P a g e 4,  spare-time  have  the  been  client  suggested  i s asked  habits, entertainment,  ties.  Page  he  On  personal  5,  i s asked  background,  interests,  occupations  status  living  and  of  arrangements.  for certain  p h y s i c a l and  At  client  home t h e  17  groups  such  The  client  was  Work," e t c .  occupation  occupation occupations either  was by  a  he  he  would  would  cross  or  occupations  a  would  the  some v a l u e ,  he  of  the  to  does  sample.  h o w e v e r , as  m o r e common  he  is  put  was  Occupations"  vocations  Trades," a cross  (0)  against  against  any  against a l l  asked  t o mark  to  to f o l l o w .  1964  and  thus  was  questionnaire  i t remains  "Transport  (x)  (-)  like  The  family  and  "Interest in  know e n o u g h  he  on  data.  zero  not  Also,  through  a  activi-  page,  f o l l o w ; a dash  and  most  to  his  his marital  this  "Practical  asked  like  dash.  he  health an  social  sisters,  to  sports,  occupations  A l s o , on  as  dislike;  part-way  a l l members o f of  some 200  about which  introduced  been  relating  information  and  completed  arranged  into  supply  brothers  naming  three  to  and  i . e . , parents'  questionnaire  any  people.  a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g c l u b membership, reading  asked  other  questions  religion,  and  by  in  list (This not  with  any form completed  evidently  use.)  has  APPENDIX  B  APPENDIX TESTING--A  ences Sir in  (1), interest in individual  and  measurement  gained  their  the  of  to  society  tional the  areas,  achievement  are  Test  a  i n the  has  changed  proved  to  both  the  includ-  useful the  choice,  of  man  in  individual  or  voca-  guidance  the  a  is  capabilities  i n d i v i d u a l and  society  (9,80,81,88).  an  a  This  i n d i v i d u a l does these measures  estimate  no  view  little  means  "richly that  from  future  informed  caution Bingham's  must  individcapacity  performby  e x a m p l e , makes infallible  an  his  p r o b a b i l i t y and  (9:264), for by  of  in certain  of  i s made r e g a r d i n g  statistical  are  The  from  inference  future.  Bingham  reins."  both  time,  systematically  in vocational  i n d i c a t e w h a t an  tests  have  utilization  that  results, therefore,  the  dently  wisest  laboratory  instruments,  important  is desired  the  course,  aptitude  tests  differ-  when  Galton's  is occupational  s i t u a t i o n s , and  i s , of  preting hold  of  scores  certainty.  that  What  performance,  perform  ance  which,  1882  traits  developed  These  a whole,  enriched  standardized  to  of  Since  psychological  i n d i v i d u a l i n order  thereby  ual's  one  guidance.  the  his  in  anthropometric  Museum, L o n d o n .  tests.  as  impetus  his  scientifically  psychological  and  established  to measure  aid  number o f  of  Galton  Kensington  sought  ing  OVERVIEW  to Anastasi  South  with  BRIEF  According  Francis  has  B  and,  no  means  i t clear in  inter-  common s e n s e  must  be  exercised  evi-  Thorndike  and  time.  Hagen  (83:13) d e c l a r e  information,  not  success  Crites use  very  "measurement at  judgment."  seems u n l i k e l y t h a t of  that  we  are  going  accurately  (81:8) a f f i r m  that  Tyler  by  provides  (88:109) s t a t e s  to  be  means o f  "the  best  able  to  that " i t  predict  t e s t s , " while  measuring  the  most a d e q u a t e l y measured  intelligence  and  vocational  i n t e r e s t are  traits still  we  such  not  degree  Super  instruments  even f o r  only  and  now as  completely  understood." While Ghiselli than  view  (36)  devices  blank,  an  feels such  evidently Blum  Traxler  that  as  references  including and  appreciating  the  from  they  have f a r more p r e d i c t i v e  previous by  Balinsky  (84).  integral part  tests  In of  h a v e many  employment  i s shared and  that  any  interview,  employers,  many o f (10),  event,  industrial  weaknesses,  and  the so  Ghiselli's  Cronbach  life,  as  application on.  This  contemporaries,  (26),  t e s t i n g seems  value  Goldman  to  Anastasi  have  (37),  become  (1:4)  indi-  cates: From the a s s e m b l y - l i n e o p e r a t o r or f i l i n g c l e r k to top management, t h e r e i s s c a r c e l y a t y p e of j o b f o r which some k i n d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t h a s n o t p r o v e d h e l p f u l i n s u c h m a t t e r s as h i r i n g , j o b a s s i g n m e n t , t r a n s f e r , promotion or termination. The  Test  Battery  The tional  battery  guidance  throughout 1) 2)  at  1964  the  Vocational  administered  from  the  included  to  Vocational the  Counselling  Service  i n d i v i d u a l s seeking Counselling  following  voca-  Service  tests:  The K u d e r P r e f e r e n c e R e c o r d ( V o c a t i o n a l ) . Otis S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g Test of Mental A b i l i t y ( e i t h e r the H i g h e r or I n t e r m e d i a t e f o r m , as appropriate).  3) P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 1956 R e v i s i o n . 4 ) .i R e v i s e d M i n n e s o t a P a p e r F o r m B o a r d ( F o r m M A ) . 5) Bennett Mechanical C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t (Form B B ) . 6) Minnesota C l e r i c a l Test. 7) An a g e n c y - d e v e l o p e d s p e l l i n g test. 8) The m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o c o m p l e t e d a personality test. T h i s was g e n e r a l l y e i t h e r t h e Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, M i n n e s o t a C o u n s e l i n g I n v e n t o r y , or Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. At clients  the d i s c r e t i o n completed  of the i n d i v i d u a l  additional  whom p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s Strong  I n t e r e s t Blank;  completed  the Meier  administered In  certain  some gence  seemed  i n d i c a t e d worked an i n t e r e s t  A r t Judgment T e s t ;  instances  "check  testing  through  the  in art  the Nelson-Denny  handicap  was s u g g e s t e d ,  testing"  was c a r r i e d  by m e a n s  certain  f o r example, those f o r  some e v i n c i n g  when a r e a d i n g  individual  tests;  counsellor,  was  and so o n .  o u t , and a l s o  of the Weehsler Adult  Intelli  Scale. As  the f i r s t  individuals  i n this  seven  tests  study,  w e r e w r i t t e n by a l l o f t h e  only  these  will  be d i s c u s s e d i n  detai1. Anastasi objective  standardized  predictive this  have tions  value  sample  related  form  been  (1:22) d e f i n e s  measure o f a sample  of the test  of behaviour  depends  serves  of a c t i v i t y .  subjected  a psychological  their  Kuder  on t h e d e g r e e  Most o f t h e t e s t s  t o a number o f v a l i d i t y  value  Preference  are outlined Record  as "an  of behavior."  as an i n d i c a t o r  o f t h e t e s t s , and t h e o p i n i o n s  regarding  test  o f some  The  to which  o f some  i n the battery studies.  Descrip-  authorities  below.  (Vocational).  Commonly  called  an  "interest test,"  which  might  the  Kuder  consists  of  sets  of  three  options  read: F i x a broken c l o c k . Keep a s e t o f a c c o u n t s . Paint a picture.  In  each  which like  set,  he to  the  would do.  individual is required  most  Raw  like  scores  illustrate  ratings  "Outdoor,"  "Mechanical,"  to are  i n each  "Artistic,"  Service,"  and  "Clerical."  males  and  females.  The  Kuder  scores  occupations this  believed  manual.(53) a  "Scientific"  and  tions  author,  gist,  and  to  the  converted of  10  one to  Separate  be  be  profile  suggestions  he  and  the  for  i d e n t i f y i n g the a  list  scores  in  suggests  physician,  "common-sense"  "Social  to  the  the  occupa-  surgeon,  however, that  two  of  Thus, according  highest  likely,  to  that  provided  r e f e r r i n g to  showing  appropriate  least  "Scientific,"  by  appropriate.  It is  would  percentiles  norms a r e  interpreted  editor, reporter,  to  which  one  i n t e r e s t c l u s t e r s ; namely,  "Literary" categories,  resort  i n d i c a t e the  "Literary," "Musical,"  profile  etymologist.  counsellors make  t e s t may i n the  and  "Computational,"  "Persuasive,"  highest  do  to  psycholomost  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and  then  individual's capacities  (80:192). As  revised  of  validity  at  the  way  contributed one  thing,  i n 1964,  studies, much o f by the  test  the  although  this  Kuder manual  some c r i t i c i s m  information  consumers.  conditions  summarizes  under  was  could  gathered;  There  is a  which  the  need  to  t e s t was  be  a  number  levied  i.e., know, given,  for as  it  is readily  (as might profile could  be  appreciated a  job  in order  vated  to  their  to  carried  and  out  number o f  such  the  research  results  the  lowest  areas  remained  i n the  of  example)  Record.  individuals  would  be  It is  self-moti-  honest  567  with  study,  constancy  Kuder  that  and  67  (81).  in  choosing  the  studies  interest  from  provides  results  sufficiently  Although derivation  and  Katz  year of  again  per  cent  cent  of  and  Bouton  the  the  .50  to  foregoing stable to manual  .90;  of  ages  that  the  points  out,  older  methods  Kuder  the 17  to  various  as  of  a  in a  of  used  the  report  while  be  (21)  interpretation  the  suggest  stability  highest  (83)  reviewed  f o r the  even g r e a t e r decries  three  a n a l y s i s of  (43)  .75  twelfth,  three  Hagen  about  school  the  the  the  Typical  i n the of  on  been  lists  high  and  r a t i n g s between  such  reveal  per  and  Studies  as  1965).  averaging  scales.  (and,  the  report  64  have  (21)  s t u d i e s , based  Herzberg  as  there  Yearbook  Thorndike  values  C o r r e l a t i o n s ranged  likely  to  ninth grade,  reliability  longitudinal  instrument  up  number o f  (And  Measurements  interest  testing,  of  Kuder.  disclosing  constant  number o f  single  would  for  Preference  that  motivated  salesman's  position,  i s a comprehensive  with  ling  ideal  summarize a  the  s t u d i e s as  tested  21.  Kuder  (81)  to  Mental  students  a  the  however,  Crites  relating  Sixth  on  a sales  v o c a t i o n a l guidance  many--The  had  the  suitably  responses. Super  of  fake  assume,  seek  subject  applicant after  to o b t a i n  successfully  reasonable  that a  a  Kuder  counselgroups  interests). involved in  scores,  other  the  reviewers  praise  the  favoring  test.  the  Kuder  construction  and  reports  "a  that  that  the  test  idity."  Brayfield blank  i s the  digest  i s one  Insofar  as  of  of  such  the  vocational  continues:  "In  the  purpose" school ing  and  large-scale of  and  study  i n d i v i d u a l s at  Ontario  revealed  Cronbach tests  majority ponding  of  the  persons  comprehensive  men  who  this  the  interests  of  adults."  study  scores." based  on  test  the  end  these  in general,  the as  of  Preference this use  engaged other  of  by  in  choices  (31:iii).  both  Strong  and  verify  that  to  occupation  Kuder  part World  of War  and  have Hagen  appropriate  and to  was  the the  corres(83)  review  profiles  of  Veterans  Adminis-  II.  The  showed the  2,797  results  substantial differences veterans  of  Kuder  studied" "the  a  Province  the  high  counsel-  hand,  occupational  Thorndike  the  disclosed  i n t e r e s t of  were,  i n an  Carter  extensive  i n the  val-  appropriate  for  the  sufficiently  successful  at  On  level  that  of  Kuder  those  and  schools  judgment  choose  the  p r e d i c t i v e value  studied  study  counselling  patterns  the  the  i s concerned,  by  13  in i t s  standpoint  justify  educational  "the  undertaken  doctoral  of  point  (19:738)  to  instrument  and  post-Grade  for  been  one  tration  of  interest test  had  values  (26:420) s t a t e s  have  leads the  "a  taken  Carter  judgment,  available  groups  low  from  activities  counselors,  that  disappointingly  Kuder  best  " i t s practical  representative  while  studies  reviewer's  most u s e f u l  teachers  that  a s s i s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to  and  i s the  states  extreme care  standardization,"  educational  Record  (18:663)  that  in  the  these  occupations  in  of  which the as  the individuals  were  f o r e g o i n g , l e n d some s u p p o r t a predictor  regarding  of later  and  interest  studies interest  b) a c o e f f i c i e n t  were  not  necessarily  the  1nstrument--for  somed  Otis test  consists ical,  with  o f 75 q u e s t i o n s  analogies,  logical  i n random  evidence  satisfaction  (79:115) r e p o r t of t h r e e o f .26 b e t w e e n o f women  scores  elementary  to pharmacists;  satisfaction  interest  of experience  series  between  and  and  interest  satisfaction  of the predictive p a t t e r n s may  i n t h e work  S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g Test  number  arranged  proof  common  i s administered  no  choice.  o f .30 i n r e g a r d  Interest  a time  of  have  blos-  itself.  o f Mental  limit  do  ability  Ability.  o f 30 m i n u t e s ,  made up o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l ,  completion,  as  o f t h e Kuder  c o n c u r r e n t l y , however, and r e s u l t s  provide  as a r e s u l t  that  measures  o f .30 b e t w e e n  assessed  s t u d i e s such  provide  a) a c o r r e l a t i o n  100 c l e r i c a l . w o r k e r s .  measures  with  by S t r o n g ' s  and s a t i s f a c t i o n  c) a c o e f f i c i e n t  they  of a relationship  disclosed:  scores  teachers; and  behaviour,  i s provided  which  Although  to the v a l i d i t y  subsequent s a t i s f a c t i o n  Some i n d i c a t i o n  of  engaged.  This and  arithmet-  recognition of opposites,  i n f e r e n c e s , and p r a c t i c a l sequence, although  judgment  i n order  of  items  increasing  difficulty. The  Otis  achievement  has been  and m i g h t ,  a test  of scholastic  Crites  (81:108) a l l o w  given  student's  validated  against  measures  t h e r e f o r e , be m o r e p r o p e r l y  aptitude.  In this  connection,  that " i t i s of value  prospects  of success  of academic designated Super and  i n estimating a  i n school  or college,"  while of  Kuder  school  with  and c o l l e g e  other Of  Otis of  measures  t h e many  following reports  (18:331) remarks  could  data  test.  those  success  rated  between  between  85-94).  tested  approximately  year  period  and computed  that a  averages  tion  o f .51 w i t h  noted with  h a l f way  that  academic  average  grades  The school  through  the Otis  Otis  grades  during  Super  and C r i t e s  to  .69.  A reliability  of those  with  IQ's  some who d i d  students  Freeman over  a  four-  grade (12) noted  o r i e n t a t i o n week r e s u l t e d i n  first  semester  grades,  resulted  f o r the semester. Test  while  in a correla-  And G a r r i s o n correlated  t r a i n e e s , a n d .59 w i t h  (34) .48 their  arts.  (63) reports  of around  i n college at  Bonk and Beamer  the semester  i n nursing  by  reported  test.  of nursing  manual  (72 per cent  in college.  Self-Administering  grades  that  1 ,000 c o l l e g e  (9)  had u n d e r t a k e n t h e  t o 42 p e r c e n t  .35 w i t h  grades  Bingham  i s obvious  clear  the Otis, the  a .56 c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n  t e s t i n g accomplished  testing  who  115-124 r e m a i n i n g  and t h e O t i s  c o r r e l a t i o n of only  concerning  some p r o g r e s s  (32)  point  trend  i t i s also  o n t h e t e s t made  favorably  ability."  freshmen  as opposed  of prediction  compare  representative.  the general  withlQ's  two y e a r s ,  tests  validation studies  on 562 c o l l e g e While  " f o r purposes  these  of general  be c o n s i d e r e d  least  poorly  that  the order  (81) report  correlations with o f .57, w h i l e  high  studies  c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging  cited  from  c o e f f i c i e n t o f .86 f o r a d u l t s i s  i n the t e s t manual.  Insofar  as c o r r e l a t i o n  with  .20  71 success been  on t h e j o b i s c o n c e r n e d , w i d e l y  achieved.  Some o f t h e r e a s o n s  (50:202-207). ity to  to score  I t i s reasonable, well  efficiency  level,  than  provide  mental  alertness.  To  levels;  ceiling  summarize,  between  Mental  and s u c c e s s  is  Ability  i s never  of real  other  practical  and c r i t e r i a f o r  does  not d i s c r i m i n a t e i ti s said to  adult  groups"  As w i t h  that  of  endeav-  a l l tests,  when c o n s i d e r e d  (1:215).  suggests  S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g Test  the Otis  i n concert  choose  missing.  from  make t h e p a t t e r n are involved.  recruits  and  consequent  the  principal  were lack test  1956 R e v i s i o n .  with  Progressive  made up o f 60 p a t t e r n s .  of progression  and t h e n  would  (1938),  test  has a p i e c e  the type  instructions gent  Matrices  i s an u n t i m e d  patterns  lished that  only  a r e more  data.  Matrices  mine  of purpose  on t h e j o b o r i n a c a d e m i c  value  abil-  relationship  the a v a i l a b l e evidence  the Otis  by S u p e r  i n assembly-line  nevertheless,  i n o r d i n a t e l y high.  Progressive  the  scores  have  at the professional  f o runselected  then,  correspondence  ours  Again,  as the t e s t  a t t h e upper  "adequate  little  d e x t e r i t y and s i n g l e n e s s  are negligible,  adequately  have  results  t o assume t h a t  For example,  c o r r e l a t i o n s between O t i s  success  are discussed  however,  would  i n certain jobs.  work where manual important  on t h e O t i s  differing  The e x a m i n e e must  or relationship that a given  complete.  To e n s u r e  that  not rejected of verbal  because  skills,  f o rmilitary  this  test  classification  t h e one  No p r i n t e d  normally  of poor  deter-  i s estab-  number o f p i e c e s  logically  Each o f  intelli-  education was a d o p t e d i n Great  as  72 Britain  during  This abstract  has  been  reasoning, of  that  of  innate  intelligence  appear to  War  test  reasoning, of  World  II. described  logical  test  e i t h e r classroom  reasoning,  intelligence,  (1:26,83).  this  v a r i o u s l y as  On  as  a  test  culture-free  abstract matter  everyday  of  non-verbal  i n s p e c t i o n , i t would  contains  or  and  of  a  experience,  certainly  largely  and,  as  test  foreign  Shipley  states: I t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t what i s b e i n g measured r e l a t e s more d i r e c t l y t o ' n a t i v e ' a b s t r a c t i n t e l l i g e n c e and l e s s to academic a c h i e v e m e n t , e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , or c u l t u r a l background than i s the case w i t h most t e s t s of general i n t e l l i g e n c e (18:338). The the  manual  Matrices  and  (19:419) r e p o r t s the  test  i s an  and  the  the  World  scores  research  tion  was  II  groups,  (87).  'g'  test  Several .58  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  intelligence;  to  are  i n the  with  a  .70) cited  Vernon's  by  candidates  naval  differences  i n much  the  populations  by  the  i n the  i n the  the  reveal  test  services  analysis  for  has  Army G e n e r a l  a  (26).  i n 1943.  norms  of  Matrices  British  (89)  same m a n n e r a s  suggests  loading  Cronbach  i s i n d i c a t e d by 89,764  Westby  Services  which  between by  and  small  studies  e x t e n s i v e l y used  disclosed large  f o r American Test  pure  intelligence  War  of  high  "factor analysis  (from  achieved  occupational cated  that  test  rather  tests  factor..."  individual  during  other  correlation  That  claims  almost  some p e r c e p t u a l sizable  (68)  of  His various  been  indi-  Classifica-  73 a)  c)  had s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s t h a n had c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r b a l intelligence tests; had a h i g h l o a d i n g o f .78 i n t h e g e n e r a l ability factor; had m o d e r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s c h o o l grades;  d)  had  b)  Westby test  i s "a  mass  testing  Bortner  a  reliability  coefficient  (19:418) d e c l a r e s  highly convenient of  i n the  rough  a d u l t s , " and most  tests  "These  screening  devices  f o r groups  It the is  test to  the a  appears mainly  say,  an  untimed  that as  the  Form  Board  Minnesota  test  individual's two  dimensions  the  upper  are  from  which the  minute  of  and  two  to  the  five  i n the Paper  a  Mental  be  for  the  by  Measurements  quite  validity of  than  of  Form  of  helpful levels  as of  on  test  Board,  f u r n i s h e s an  the  Service  the  a much  language  timed  to manipulate of  each  given  pieces.  The  of  the  forms.  problem,  or  used that  score  O t i s might  suggest inability  Form  MA  (MPFB).  indication  these 64 The  of  The  an  patterns  in  figures.  problems, task  In there  i s to a  i s administered  decide  composite with  a  limit.  unusually  large  number o f  on  situation.  figures represents test  Otis;  higher  discriminate geometrical  geometrical  other  The  Counselling  obtaining  mentally  five  individual  The  to  is reiterated  should  the  Matrices  left-hand corner  time  on  purportedly  ability  of  Matrices  instrument  where e s t i m a t e s  handicap,  function efficiently  Progressive  grading  Vocational  a check  reading  .87.  determined."  individual's  Revised  of  be  Progressive  pronounced  to  to  the  view  edition  (21:764):  need  this  recent  Yearbook  intelligence  that  of  studies  that  have  been  20-  conducted  with  t h e MPFB  "indicate that  valid  a v a i l a b l e instruments  alize  and m a n i p u l a t e  validation ratings,  objects  i n space"  records,  and a r t .  that  f o rmeasuring  performance  production  dentistry claim  include  i t i s one o f t h e most  i n shop  the a b i l i t y  (1:411).  Indeed, C l i f f o r d  Criteria for  courses,  and achievement  to visu-  supervisors'  i n such  and Jurgensen  areas  as  (18:762-763)  t h e MPFB i s :  a c l a s s i c i n measurement o f mechanical a p t i t u d e . I t has a l o n g h i s t o r y , h a s b e e n u s e d w i d e l y , a n d s t i l l w a r r a n t s h i g h r e s p e c t and f r e q u e n t u s e . . . . Numerous v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s have been made, and i t i s t h e e x c e p t i o n a l case where t h e t e s t i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l i d to warrant i t s use f o r s e l e c t i n g employees i n m e c h a n i c a l type j o b s such as d r a f t i n g , i n s p e c t i o n , l i n o t y p e o p e r a t i o n , machine o p e r a t i o n , p a c k i n g and the like. Reliability reported  coefficients  i n the manual, while  o f between Super  summary o f a number o f s t u d i e s is  "actually  vidual  tests.  i s perhaps  done  greater  promise  engineering  that  i n school than  the r e l i a b i l i t y  high-'.for"'indi-  that  the paper  shop  form  test,  courses  other  predicts the  with  an  efficiency  connection,  Minnesota  as a complete  with  b o a r d , when  And, i n this  "the Revised  as m e a s u r i n g  aptitude."  i n conjunction  assembly  chance.  n o t be r e g a r d e d  but rather  used  a mechanical  (18:713) s t a t e s should  best  (9) reports  with  o f work  per cent  Struit  and  MPFB  together  Board  that  i n t h e .80's and s u f f i c i e n t l y  Bingham  quality 23  suggests  Crites'.(81:294)  diagnosis." The  used  and  .85 a n d .92 a r e  index  Paper  Form  of mechanical  one c o m p o n e n t o f m e c h a n i c a l  I t i s e v i d e n t l y along  these  lines  that  the  t e s t was  Counselling  is  an  and  the  Test  untimed  test consisting  Mechanical  with  on  facts  likely  the  encountered  ground to  be  i n The  paucity  of  of  Bennett  personnel War  II.  for a And  be  studies  i n which  visors'  ratings  the  Bennett  for  developing  has  local  the  tool  on  (81)  the  The  around  use  are  three  decry  the  completed  that  i n the  measured  .50  with  with  authors the  the  those  guidance."  have r e v i e w e d as  be  a l l  this  type  selection  s p e c i a l t i e s during  job,  or  reviewer,  claimed  foregoing  norms f o r  and  e s p e c i a l l y to  most v a l i d  its  principles  Yearbook  vocational has  .30  questioned  u n l i k e l y to  studies  technical  correlated  Mechanical.  but  H o w e v e r , one  (1)  Crites  success  involve  experience,  and  the  test correlates  Mechanical  Measurements  a useful  among  and  engi-  training.  items  mechanical  number o f  Super  reported  the  in physics,  in educational  to  are  that  several  be  s e l e c t i o n of  in  .84  when v a l i d i t y  to  diagrams  to  More r e c e n t l y , A n a s t a s i proved  the  drawings,  .77  Mental  that  engaged  for  of  This  oriented  learned  prove  sets  BB.  similar technically  validation studies.  "should  test  Vocational  and  the  that  Third  (18:723) s t a t e s  60  claimed  of  i n everyday  reviews  of  the  in engineering-type  reviewers  value  of  i t is also  success  Early  persons  of  C o m p r e h e n s i o n , Form  designed  applicants  Reliabilities  manual, where .60  of  evidently  school  groups.  staff  Service.  questions,  test  by  Bennett  neering  to  viewed  a by  test  World  number  of  superscores  stress  Bennett  of  the  on need  Mechanical.  The in  policy  of the Vocational Counselling Service  agreement  test  with  i s based  cants  a t the Vancouver  Comparison."  believes  Test,  on h i s s p e e d ,  (MCT).  the pairs His score  although  This  as  indicated  accounting high, dict  by c l e r i c a l  on t h i s  test  a deduction  s t u d e n t s , and s t u d e n t s  of typing  typing  in clerical  b e t t e r than  correlations  do m e a s u r e s  between  test  intelligence than of  experience  between  test  .50  scores  business  that  the test  a n d .60  are reported  are correlated or ratings  with  such  i s satisfactorily test  scores  preand  The l o w experi-  of s c h o o l i n g , and something  by A n a s t a s i criteria  reliability  coefficients  .91 a r e r e p o r t e d  by t h e same  author.  other  coefficients ( 1 ) , when  as grades  teachers  Retest  On r e v i e w i n g  test  students,  Validity  by c o m m e r c i a l  of t h i s  of o f f i c e  measures  factors.  minus  degree.  ability.  years  he  depend  as a c c o u n t a n c y  and y e a r s  training,  and a c a d e m i c  courses  supervisors. and  suggest  such  of academic  score  e n c e , amount of c o m m e r c i a l  will  (rights  that clerical  fields  time  o f n u m b e r s a n d names  commercial  performance  of  a n d "Name  short  (21), the v a l i d i t y  indicates  appli-  consists  relatively  workers,  and t h e a u t h o r  course  test  wrongs) p e n a l i z e s i n a c c u r a c i e s t o a c e r t a i n t o t h e manual  f o rthe  Institute.  i s allowed  to indicate  According  used  s u b t e s t s , "Number C o m p a r i s o n "  t o be i d e n t i c a l .  primarily  data  by t e c h n i c a l  Vocational  The e x a m i n e e  i n which  as n o r m a t i v e  achieved  Clerical  s e p a r a t e l y timed  limits  view,  on s c o r e s  Minnesota two  this  i s evidently  or  in office  o f between  a number o f s t u d i e s o f t h e t e s t ,  Hunt  .85  (20:635) s t a t e s mended  as  that  a very  usable  workers,  or  clerical  training."  Buros'  although  a  published claims  the  is  as  tive  as  studies  "has  was,  work  be  the  Minnesota  These  used  are  i n the  agreement with that  cited  the  i n view  and  be  of  "the  still  students 1959  the  probably  of  foregoing, data also  should  be  studies  Minnesota  for  issue  (20:874)  manual  later  recom  clerical  validity  Super  i n the  reported  Clerical  has  no  Test  effec-  Vocational tional  ( 8 1 : 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 ) , upon r e v i e w i n g  test,  comment t h a t  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g those from  to  two  Crites  the  for  can  those  appraise Test of  and  the  who  do  who  not,"  clerical an  the  and  aptitude  intelligence  Service  Minnesota  in their  that  number  Clerical  have p r o m i s e  factors considered  Counselling  a  i f a  for battery  " i t should  t e s t such by  as  include the  counsellors  appraisal  of  Otis." at  the  voca-  fitness. The  job  reviewers  feels that  i t ever  and of  value  clerical  that  however, he  s e l e c t i o n of  inadequate.  studies  "can  s e l e c t i n g promising  suggests  is  Test  rival." Super  of  i n general  date;  Clerical  i n the  other  manual  literature, good  Two  validity to  test for  (Taylor)  i n the  up  Minnesota  guidance  are  third  that  brought in  f o r the  Yearbook  the  above-mentioned  illustrate  a  satisfaction.  clerical  aptitude  authors  decry  r e l a t i o n s h i p between In they  regard  to  the  MCT  the  absence  specific and  of  studies  aptitudes  other  tests  and of  say:  One o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g and s e l e c t i o n i s the a t t a i n m e n t of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n h i s  work  by t h e w o r k e r . T h i s being t h e c a s e , one would e x p e c t to f i n d s t u d i e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l e r i c a l a p t i t u d e and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . No s u c h s t u d i e s h a v e been l o c a t e d , h o w e v e r , t h e e m p h a s i s has s o f a r been e n t i r e l y on s u c c e s s ( 8 1 : 1 7 7 ) . Spelling the  Vocational  100  words,  is  allowed  that  Test.  Counselling  half  of which  t e n minutes  are misspelled.  the  norm  groups,  ing  completed. While  extract other  on  this  tion and  test  i n 1963.  are misspelled,  i n which Some  a test  so o n .  correctly  of s p e l l i n g from  ability,  an i n d i v i d u a l s 1  individual's  test  lists  t h e words  a n d 100 f e m a l e s  For example, r e s u l t s  an o l d e r  The form  as t o sex and y e a r s  non-support) f o r an i n t e l l i g e n c e regarding  by t h e s t a f f o f  and t h e i n d i v i d u a l  to rewrite  200 m a l e s  information  examination.  was d e v e l o p e d  Service  differentiated  obviously  to  (or  This  made up of school-  i ti s possible performance  can provide score,  interests,  give or  support informa-  retention,  APPENDIX C  APPENDIX Responses administered  on t h e I n t e r v i e w  to e x - c l i e n t s of the Vocational  vice  of B r i t i s h  that  discussed  discussed  to questions  C  Columbia  disclosed  i n this  Counselling  information  i n t h e body o f t h i s  paper.  Schedule Ser-  a d d i t i o n a l to  These  are  briefly  asks  the  respon-  section.  R e l a t i o n s h i p of Brayfield-Rothe Score to Question 25 Question dent  25 o f t h e I n t e r v i e w  t o i n d i c a t e how  possible  responses  Question  25 s e e k s  shorter Rothe  and more  Question  i n Table  to evaluate direct  h i s present  job.  V I I below.  than  The  In e f f e c t ,  job satisfaction,  route  revealed  is utilized  a product-moment  25 a n d t h e I n d e x  suggests  a much with  appear  about  although by t h e  then, by a  Brayfield-  Index. Analysis  ship  he f e e l s  Schedule  shorter  of .78.  the f e a s i b i l i t y , questionnaire  i t s 18 m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e  by  L i p s e t t and W i l s o n  to  rate job satisfaction  p.18). Wilson  A comparison with  this  studies. categories  The  total  are only  used  in their  i s depicted  This  of  was  cited  using  Index  question (see  by L i p s e t t a n d  i n Table V I I .  i n the results representing  one p e r c e n t a g e  of  earlier  obtained  relation-  accomplished  the f i v e - p o i n t  study  of the responses  percentages  degree  the Brayfield-Rothe  questions.  are evident  high  between  f o r c e r t a i n purposes,  than  ( 5 6 ) , who  study  Similarities  This  correlation  point  of these  two  the f i r s t  two  apart  (51 p e r  cent  versus  52  per c e n t ) , despite  Wilson  survey  involved only  the f a c t a 54  that the L i p s e t t  per cent  response  to  and mailed  questionnaires.  TABLE V I I A COMPARISON  OF TWO S T U D I E S POSING I D E N T I C A L CONCERNING JOB SATISFACTION  Answer  Lipsett  Best p o s s i b l e j o b f o r you L i k e i t v e r y much Like i t f a i r l y well Indifferent Dislike i t  QUESTIONS  & Wilson  This  17% 34 28 13 .  Study  8.3% 43.8 31.2 16.7 0  8  Job S a t i s f a c t i o n and Occupational Satisfaction It exist ular  has  been  between  argued  satisfaction  a significant  with  job within that occupation  currently  engaged  to  significant  obtain  occupational One  (22,65,75),  another  of the questions  (Question  occupation other  person  and  disliking  occupation  i n which  although  and  and  in this  Harmon  study  27) r e l a t e d  ( 4 1 ) was  (Question  his job assembling  recognize  of carpenter, cabinets  partic-  is unable  measure  independently.  related  not n e c e s s a r i l y h i s present  his occupation  to  specifically 25), while  to h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  questions  the  the individual  job satisfaction  of the i n d i v i d u a l  words, these  liking  one's  d i f f e r e n c e may  d i f f e r e n c e s i n her attempt  satisfaction  to. j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n  In  that  with his  j o b (Appendix  D).  the p o s s i b i 1 i t y , of a f o r example, but  i n a suburban  factory.  That  these  two  variables  moment c o r r e l a t i o n accounts tional  and  reasons tions,  The  f o r only job  26  .51 per  vice  cent  of  and  26  asks  responses  out  the the  replies  of  to  course,  product-  this  v a r i a n c e between respondents  highly  than  whether  figure  occupa-  apparently their  could  go  Question  they  back 26  of  5,000 i n d i v i d u a l s  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to Fortune  Table  the  respondents  comparison  and  the  Of  i n the  had  occupa-  Question  j o b s , i f they  Schedule  them.  j o b s more  same o r d i f f e r e n t of  i s evident  versa.  "Back-to-18" Question  their  related  between  satisfaction  for rating and  of  are  Magazine  would  t o age the  choose 18.  the  A  Interview  returning  mailed-  (70:281-282) appears  in  VIII.  TABLE  VIII  A COMPARISON OF TWO STUDIES ASKING INDIVIDUALS WHETHER THEY WOULD CHOOSE T H E I R PRESENT J O B S I F THEY COULD GO BACK TO AGE 18 Answer  It  Fortune  Magazine  This  Study  Same  39%  29.2%  Different  41  43.8  Uncertain  20  27.0  would  would  prefer  could  start  appear  t h a t more  different over  again.  jobs  than  individuals their  It i s also  i n both  present  ones  studies i f they  evident that ex-clients  the V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia  were  of  83  not  more  satisfied  counselling, survey  of  a  than  with were  their  jobs,  in  s p i t e of  individuals involved  non-counselled  in  vocational the  Fortune  population.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between B r a y f i eld-Rothe S c o r e s and S e v e n t e e n V a r i a b l e s ' U n d o u b t e d l y , many v a r i a b l e s the  job  itself  reveals  for  variable, on  the  test  his  average,  than  do  variables In  this  in  Table  For  the  example,  f e a s i b l e to  achieve  younger  higher  people.  number o f  suppose  that  ratings  on  with  roles  study,  seventeen  variables  IX.  Information  Counselling  was  correlation analysis  relationship  between  these  one  as  individual  at  age  a job  was  as  job  files  from  employed  variables  and  the  to  may,  satisfaction  e m p l o y e r , and  from  a  people  status, other  satisfaction.  were c o n s i d e r e d ,  well  as  marital  in determining  of  an  older  possibly  obtained  Service  components  in looking  Again,  years  from  satisfaction  important  schedule;  as of  shown the  interview  assess  the  Brayfield-Rothe  scores. In  values  reach  considering  for  higher,  the  46  since  a  degrees of  seventeen  t were c a l c u l a t e d  the  in Table  only  variables for  of  three X.  the  .05  freedom. variables  level The  of  .30  in Table  into  and  .30  to  (two-tailed)  significance  this  IX,  and  is required  probability  t values  falling  listed  c o e f f i c i e n t s of  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of  s i g n i f i c a n c e at  levels shown  to  play  Vocational  Index  job.  i t seems  intelligence,  with  contribute  apart  category  are  T A B L E IX R E L A T I O N S H I P S BETWEEN B R A Y F I E L D - R O T H E INDEX SCORES AND S E V E N T E E N V A R I A B L E S Variable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 . 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.  Corr.  Age IQ Single M a r r i ed Divorced/Separated I n d i v i d u a l s v/ith w o r k i n g wives Combined incomes (1969) o f i n d i v i d u a l s with working wives Number o f d e p e n d e n t s S c h o o l i ng Number o f y e a r s e m p l o y e d Number o f y e a r s w i t h p r e s e n t employer Income f o r 1969 Engaging i n p a r t - t i m e employment i n 1969 Number o f j o b s h e l d s i n c e 1964 Number o f t i m e s u n e m p l o y e d f o r t w o weeks o r more s i n c e 1964 Number o f p r o m o t i o n s earned R a t i n g o f own a b i l i t y f o r j o b  Coeff.  -.12 .11 -.09 .13 -.19 -.19 .01 .06 .07 -.08 -.30 .35 -.02 .26 .07 .36 .28  TABLE X THREE  V A R I A B L E S SHOWING S I G N I F I C A N T R E L A T I O N S H I P S WITH B R A Y F I E L D - R O T H E INDEX SCORES Probabil i ty  Variable 11.  Number o f y e a r s w i t h present employer  2.14  .05  12.  Income f o r 1969  2.52  .02  16.  Number o f earned  2.62  .02  promotions  The a v a i l a b l e as  measured  related tions;  The  whereas  other  little  indicates  by t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e  t o income  satisfaction  evidence  and t h e y e a r s  fourteen  association  Index,  and t o t h e o b t a i n i n g  a negative  job satisfaction,  is positively  o f one o r more  relationship exists one has s p e n t  variables with  that  investigated  job satisfaction.  with  promo-  between j o b one  employer.  evidently  share  APPENDIX D  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 1) I SHOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU A FEW QUESTIONS OF A GENERAL NATURE, YOUR ANSWERS, OF COURSE, WILL BE HELD STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL. 1.  Under 25 26-30  What i s your age?  ,36-40 .41-45 Over 45 2.  Date o f B i r t h  1 2  3 4 5  6  ;  day mo. year 3.  4.  What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ?  (IF MARRIED)  JSingle "Married "Divorced o r "Separated Widowed  I s your w i f e working?  5.  ( I F WIFE WORKING)  •6.  (IF MARRIED, AND WIFE WORKING) income f o r 1969?  ;  2  What i s your w i f e ' s present job?  What was your  combined  Less than § 3 , 0 0 0  Over $ 1 5 , 0 0 0  8.  3  k i  Yes No  $3,000 to $5,000 $5,000 to $7,000 §7,000 to $9,000 $9,000 to $11,000 $11.000 to $13,000 #13,000 t o $ 1 5 , 0 0 0  7.  1 2  How many dependents do you have?  None "Wife "1 C h i l d ~2 C h i l d r e n J3 C h i l d r e n 4 Children 3 o r More C h i l d r e n " l Other Dependent "2 o r More Other Dependent s  (IF A PARENT) a) How many o f your c h i l d r e n are not y e t of s c h o o l age? b) How many a r e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l ? c) How many have l e f t home?  1 2  3 4  6 7  g 1 2  3 4  i 1 9  89  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 2) 9.  How many years of schooling have you completed?.  ?  or l e s s 0-11 12 ,  ZZ13-15  16 or more  10.  Have you completed any academic courses since you v i s i t e d the Youth Counselling Service i n 1964? Yes No (If "Yes") What have you done?  11.  Have you undertaken any vocational t r a i n i n g since you wrote the aptitude t e s t s at the counselling service? (If "Yes", obtain the name of the course, the Yes place where taken, and the length of the course.) No  12.  Are you presently employed?  13.  The name of your employer i s ?  14.  Please b r i e f l y describe your present job. (If interviewee i s temporarily unemployed, t h i s and following questions should r e l a t e to the l a s t job he held for at least three months.)  15.  How long have you been working f o r the above employer?  16.  Temporarily unemployed?  1 2 3  4 5  1 2  1 2  1 2  ^  Less than 6 months 6 to 12 months to 2 years years years years Over 6 years  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  How long have you worked i n t h i s type of occupation? (This reply would, of course, include similar work with ex-employers.) Less than 6 months 6 t o 12 months 1 to 2 years 2 to 3 years 3 to 4 years 5 to 6 years Over 6 years  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 3)  17.  Would you t e l l me your approximate f o r the y e a r s :  1965  1966  1967  1963  s a l a r y per year,  1969  Less than 53,000 f3»000 t o §5,000 >5,000 t o $7,000 ^7,000 t o $9,000 59,000 t o | l l , 0 0 0 11,000 t o $13,000 $13,000 t o $15,000 Over $15,000  IS.  During 1969,  19.  ( I f answer to above q u e s t i o n "Yes".) Approximately many hours d i d you work p a r t time i n I969?  20.  Please g i v e me d e t a i l s of a l l the jobs you have h e l d f o r at l e a s t t h r e e months. S t a r t w i t h your present job and work backwards ( t o i 9 6 0 ) . ( F i l l out d e t a i l s below.) Occupation  21.  d i d you engage i n any p a r t - t i m e employment? Yes Jo  Dates Held  12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 1  2  how  Reason f o r Leaving  During the past f i v e y e a r s , how many times have you been unemployed f o r more than two weeks? (Do not i n c l u d e time spent f o r t r a i n i n g , and note respondent's reasons f o r any unemployment.) Not a t a l l Reasons..... Two or t h r e e times Four o r f i v e times More than f i v e Once  1 2 3 4  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 4) , 22. No ( I f "yes", o b t a i n d e t a i l s . )  23.  From what you can r e c a l l o f your i n t e r v i e w at t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e i n 1 9 6 4 , do you f e e l t h a t your present o c c u p a t i o n i s one t h a t was suggested by the c o u n s e l l o r ? s i m i l a r t o o c c u p a t i o n s mentioned by the c o u n s e l l o r ? __only s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d t o jobs mentioned by the c o u n s e l l o r ? q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from any occupation suggested by t h e counsellor? (Use t h i s space f o r any s i g n i f i c a n t  comments  ( I f i n d i v i d u a l cannot r e c a l l any o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n s suggested by the c o u n s e l l o r , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e . ) Remembers no "suggestions 24•  Even though you may l i k e your work, i s t h e r e some o t h e r type of job you would r a t h e r be doing? Yes Perhaps  No  Do not know  ( I f "Yes", determine f o r choosing i t . )  what type o f work and the reason  NOW, I AM GOING TO ASK YOU TO F I L L OUT THE NEXT TWO PAGES FOR YOURSELF. THE ITEMS RELATE TO YOUR JOB. DIRECTIONS ARE ON THE TOP OF EACH PAGE. ASK ANY QUESTIONS YOU WISH.  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 5) On t h i s page we are t r y i n g t o f i n d out how v e i l you l i k e the o f work you doo F o r each q u e s t i o n , mark an "X" a g a i n s t the a p p r o p r i a t e answer. 25.  I f you are employed, how present job?  type  do you f e e l about your  Best p o s s i b l e job f o r you. L i k e i t v e r y much, Like i t f a i r l y w e l l . Indifferent. Dislike i t . 26.  I f you c o u l d go back t o age l&Y and s t a r t over a g a i n , would you s e l e c t the same c a r e e r o r o c c u p a t i o n , o r a d i f f e r e n t one? Same .Different Uncertain  27«  .  Check the one of the f o l l o w i n g which best t e l l s you f e e l about changing your occupation (not n e c e s s a r i l y your present j o b )  how  0  I would q u i t t h i s occupation at once i f I c o u l d get i n t o almost any o t h e r type of work. I would e n t e r almost any o t h e r occupation where I c o u l d earn as much money. I am not eager t o change my type of work, but would do so i f I c o u l d get i n t o a b e t t e r o c c u p a t i o n . I would not exchange my occupation f o r any o t h e r t h a t I can t h i n k of.. 28".  Would you suggest t h a t young people w i t h the same a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s as yours enter your occupation?  • 29.  Yes, i n most c a s e s . _Probablv. I f he c o u l d not get a n y t h i n g b e t t e r . Not_in_most c a s e s . /__ . No. : ~ ~ • — Would you r a t e your own present job as:  a b i l i t y f o r your  JPoor. S l i g h t l y below average. Average. , B e t t e r than average. Very good.  -  93  INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 6) JOB QUESTIONNAIRE Some j o b s a r e more I n t e r e s t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g than o t h e r s . We want t o know how people f e e l about d i f f e r e n t j o b s . T h i s blank c o n t a i n s e i g h t e e n statements about j o b s . You a r e t o c r o s s out t h e phrase below each statement which b e s t d e s c r i b e s how you f e e l about your present j o b . There a r e no r i g h t o r wrong answers. We s h o u l d l i k e your honest o p i n i o n on each one o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s . Work out t h e sample i t e m numbered ( 0 ) .  0.  There a r e some c o n d i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g my j o b t h a t c o u l d be improved, STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STrtONGLY DISAGREE  1.  My j o b i s l i k e a hobby t o me. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED  2.  My j o b i s u s u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g enough t o keep me from g e t t i n g bored. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE  3.  I t seems t h a t my f r i e n d s a r e more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r j o b s . STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE  4-.  I c o n s i d e r my j o b r a t h e r u n p l e a s a n t . STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  5.  I enjoy my work more than my l e i s u r e t i m e . STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  6.  I am o f t e n bored w i t h my j o b . STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED  DISAGREE  ,TR0NGLY DIJAGnilE  7.  I f e e l f a i r l y w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h my j o b . STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  8.  Most o f t h e time I have t o f o r c e myself t o go t o work. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h my j o b f o r t h e time b e i n g . STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE  9.  DISAGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  10.  I f e e l t h a t my j o b i s no more i n t e r e s t i n g than o t h e r s I c o u l d g e t . STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE  11.  I d e f i n i t e l y d i s l i k e my work. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED  12.  I f e e l t h a t I am h a p p i e r i n my work than most o t h e r people. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE  13.  Most days I am e n t h u s i a s t i c about my work. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  14.  Each day o f work seems l i k e i t w i l l never end. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  15.  DISAGREE  I l i k e my j o b b e t t e r than t h e average worker  STRONGLY AGREE  AGREE  UNDECIDED  STRONGLY DISAGREE  DISAGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  My j o b i s p r e t t y u n i n t e r e s t i n g .  W.  I f i n d r e a l enjoyment i n my work.  18.  I am d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t I ever took t h i s j o b .  AGREE  UNDECIDED  does.  DISAGREE  16.  STRONGLY AGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  STRONGLY AGREE  AGREE  UNDECIDED  DISAGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  STRONGLY AGREE  AGREE  UNDECIDED  DISAGREE  STRONGLY DISAGREE  

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