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Job satisfaction and other indices of "followers" and "non-followers" of vocational counselling. Johnson, Arthur Roads 1970

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JOB SATISFACTION AND OTHER INDICES OF "FOLLOWERS" AND "NON-FOLLOWERS" OF VOCATIONAL COUNSELLING by ARTHUR ROADS JOHNSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1953 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the F a c u l t y of Educat ion (Adu l t Educat ion ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Oc tobe r , 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb i a , I a g ree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be al1 owed w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada DEDICATION F o r g r a c i o u s l y a l l o w i n g t h e i n f r i n g e m e n t o f t h i s p a p e r on t h e i r way o f l i f e , s i n c e r e t h a n k s a r e t e n d e r e d t o t h e w r i t e r ' s w i f e and t h r e e d a u g h t e r s . ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s who f o l l o w e d p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s w o u l d l a t e r r e v e a l g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n w o u l d i n d i v i d u a l s who d i d n o t a c t upon t h e s e p l a n s . T h e s e two s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s G r o u p I and G r o u p I I , r e s -p e c t i v e l y . A s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n , was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a random s a m p l e o f 48 m a l e s who r e s i d e d i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and who h a d , i n 1964, r e c e i v e d c o u n s e l l i n g f r o m t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Of t h e 48 e x - c l i e n t s , 28 were a l l o c a t e d t o G r o u p I by a p a n e l o f e x p e r t s , w h i l e 20 were a l l o c a t e d t o G r o u p I I . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s i x y e a r s f o l l o w i n g c o u n s e l l i n g , G r o u p I i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d r e v e a l g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r j o b s t h a t w o u l d G r o u p I I i n d i v i d u a l s . I t was a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t G r o u p I i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d have e x p e r i e n c e d f e w e r p e r i o d s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t , f e w e r c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s , a g r e a t e r number o f p r o m o t i o n s , and h i g h e r i n c o m e s i n 1969, and t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d r a t e t h e m s e l v e s more c a p a b l e i n t h e i r work t h a n w o u l d i n d i v i d u a l s i n G r o u p I I . N o n - p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s were e m p l o y e d t o a s s e s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s i n G r o u p I and I n d i v i -d u a l s i n G r o u p I I w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s i x v a r i a b l e s r e f e r r e d 1v t o a b o v e . In no i n s t a n c e c o u l d t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s be r e j e c t e d a t t h e .05 l e v e l . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i m p l y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who f o l l o w e d p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o n c e r t w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e were no more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s s i x y e a r s f o l l o w i n g c o u n s e l l i n g t h a n were i n d i v i -d u a l s who d i d n o t a c t upon t h e s e p l a n s . L i k e w i s e , t h o s e who had a c t e d upon p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n -s e l l o r s had no g r e a t e r v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s , as m e a s u r e d by number o f c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s , number o f p r o m o t i o n s , i n c o m e , and t h e i r s e l f - r a t i n g s o f a b i l i t y f o r t h e i r p r e s e n t j o b s t h a n had i n d i v i d u a l s who had c h o s e n c a r e e r s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e p l a n n e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g i n o c c u p a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e p l a n n e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s i n 1964 e x p e r i e n c e d f e w e r p e r i o d s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t t h a n d i d i n d i v i d u a l s i n o c c u p a t i o n s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e p l a n n e d w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s . The s t u d y o f f e r s l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g as c o n d u c t e d by t h e V o c a t i o n a l Coun-s e l l i n g S e r v i c e l e a d s t o i m p r o v e d v o c a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t . I n d e e d , t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t many more f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s o u n d r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y and i n c l u d e a j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n m e a s u r e a r e r e q u i r e d b e f o r e t h e w o r t h o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g c a n be a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s e d . F i n d i n g s o b s e r v e d , b u t n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s , a r e o u t l i n e d i n A p p e n d i x C. T h e s e i n c l u d e d a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o n g B r a y f 1 e l d - R o t h e I n d e x and one m u l t i p l e - a n s w e r q u e s t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w V schedule. This observation suggested the feas ib i l i t y of employing a short, but valid measure to assess job satisfaction. Also, a moderate correlation between a question concerning occupational satisfaction and scores on the Brayfield-Rothe Index was indicated. This finding implied an additional problem in evaluating the results of counselling, for i t is the general occupation, and not the particular job that the counsellor considers in "predicting" suitable vocations. Further, more individuals in the sample indicated that they would prefer some other job than would choose their present one i f they could start out over again in the world of work. Final ly, correlation analysis was employed to investigate relationships between scores on the Brayfield-Rothe Index and seventeen variables including age, IQ, and marital status. Of these seventeen variables, three showed significant relat ion-ships with the Index. Two of these (income and the obtaining of promotions) were positively related to the job satisfaction scores, while the third (number of years with present employer) showed a negative relationship. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM 1 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y . 3 J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n 3 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework o f t h e S t u d y . 4 T e s t i n g as a Means f o r P r e d i c t i n g O c c u p a t i o n a l S u c c e s s . . 4 J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n S t u d i e s : A R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 8 I I . DESIGN OF THE STUDY 21 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e H y p o t h e s e s . . . . . . 21 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n as Group I o r Group I I 24 D e s i g n o f t h e R e s e a r c h I n s t r u m e n t s 25 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e R e s e a r c h I n s t r u m e n t s . . . . 26 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s . . 27 I I I . ANALYSIS OF DATA 28 S t a t i s t i c a l M e t h o d s 29 H y p o t h e s i s No. 1 29 H y p o t h e s i s No. 2 30 H y p o t h e s i s No. 3 31 H y p o t h e s i s No. 4 32 H y p o t h e s i s No. 5 33 H y p o t h e s i s No. 6 34 v i i CHAPTER PAGE IV. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS . . . 36 Summary . . . . . . . . 37 T e s t i n g o f t h e H y p o t h e s e s 37 I m p l i c a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . 43 APPENDIX A. B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 52 APPENDIX B. T e s t i n g - A B r i e f O v e r v i e w 62 APPENDIX C. A d d i t i o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 79 APPENDIX D. I n t r o d u c t o r y L e t t e r and I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e . 86 v i i i L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x S c o r e s f o r t h e Two G r o u p s 30 I I . Number o f Two-Week P e r i o d s o r More o f Unemploy-ment E x p e r i e n c e d O v e r t h e P a s t F i v e Y e a r s by t h e Two G r o u p s 31 I I I . Number o f D i f f e r e n t E m p l o y e r s o f t h e Two G r o u p s i n 1 965-69 . 32 IV. P r o m o t i o n s E a r n e d D u r i n g t h e P a s t F i v e Y e a r s by t h e Two G r o u p s 33 V. Income E a r n e d by t h e Two G r o u p s D u r i n g 1969 . . . . 34 V I . R a t i n g s by t h e Two G r o u p s o f T h e i r A b i l i t y t o P e r f o r m T h e i r P r e s e n t J o b s . . . . . . . . . . . 35 V I I . A C o m p a r i s o n o f Two S t u d i e s P o s i n g I d e n t i c a l Q u e s t i o n s C o n c e r n i n g J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . . . . . . 81 V I I I . A C o m p a r i s o n o f Two S t u d i e s A s k i n g I n d i v i d u a l s W hether They Would Choose T h e i r P r e s e n t J o b s I f They C o u l d Go Back t o Age 18 82 I X . R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e Index S c o r e s and S e v e n t e e n V a r i a b l e s . . . . . . . . . 84 X. T h r e e V a r i a b l e s S howing S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s W i t h B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e Index S c o r e s . . . . . . . . 84 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . J o h n N i e m i who, i n s p i t e o f numerous o t h e r commit-m e n t s , gave u n s t i n t i n g l y o f h i s t i m e , i n s i g h t , and e n c o u r a g e -ment. A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d t o D r . J . D. F r i e s e n and D r . S. S. Lee f o r s e r v i n g on t h e t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e . F o r m a k i n g a v a i l a b l e t h e d a t a w h i c h made i t p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h i s s t u d y , t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f Mr. Norman V a n e s s , e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and members o f h i s s t a f f i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . G r a t e f u l r e c o g n i t i o n i s a l s o made o f t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f D r . E. M a c P h e r s o n , D r . S. S. L e e , Mr. J . L. G a s k i l l , and Mr. D. R u s n e l l , who were most h e l p f u l w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . CHAPTER I I . BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM T h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s an a l l - i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e g e n e r a l w e l l b e i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s e x e m p l i f i e d by P r e s s e y and KuhTen's r e m a r k s : L i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y work i s t h e c e n t e r o f l i f e . I t i s t h e p r i m e c o n c e r n o f most p e o p l e t h r o u g h t h e i r b e s t y e a r s . I n t h e s e y e a r s , i t i s t h e m a j o r f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r i n c o m e , t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s , t h e i r s t a t u s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , and t h e i r way o f l i f e . . . ( 6 7 : 2 1 6 ) . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e f o r e g o i n g , a n y t h i n g t h a t c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d t o i m p r o v e t h e v o c a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f members o f t h e work f o r c e c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o f i l l a r e a l need o f s o c i e t y as a w h o l e . V o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e i s an a t t e m p t t o f i l l t h i s n e e d , i t s e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n b e i n g t o a s s i s t p e o p l e t o s e l e c t c a r e e r s w h i c h t h e y , t h e m s e l v e s , w i l l f i n d s a t i s f y i n g . As t h e N a t i o n a l V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n has d e f i n e d v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , i t i s " t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i s t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o c h o o s e an o c c u p a t i o n , p r e p a r e f o r i t , e n t e r upon and p r o g r e s s i n i t . " ( I n t h i s p a p e r , no d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between t h e t e r m s " v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e " and " v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g . " ) T h e r e a p p e a r , h o w e v e r , t o be l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d e q u a t e v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e , t h e r e i s one s m a l l a g e n c y w h i c h p r o v i d e s , f o r a modest f e e , a v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h i s a g e n c y was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r 2 R o t a r y C l u b i n 1 9 4 7 , a t w h i c h t i m e i t was known as t h e " R o t a r y C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e . " I n 1 9 5 1 , i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a s o c i e t y and re-named t h e " Y o u t h C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " F i n a l l y , i n 1966, t h e a g e n c y r e c e i v e d i t s p r e s e n t name, t h e " V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " T h a t name w i l l be u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y , w h i c h w i l l f o c u s on t h e work o f t h e a g e n c y . ^ The 1965 A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s t a t e s t h a t : t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e i s e f f e c t i v e l y m e e t i n g an u r g e n t and b a s i c n e e d . . . . I n t e r m s o f e x p e n d i t u r e t h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t i m e and money a p p l i e d t o v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d o f t h e l a t e t e e n s and e a r l y t w e n t i e s c a n y i e l d f a r g r e a t e r b e n e f i t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t o s o c i e t y , t h a n t i m e and money t h a t w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be s p e n t f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n l a t e r y e a r s ( 4 : 2 ) T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , l i t t l e d a t a t o s u p p o r t t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e a g e n c y p r o v i d e s a s e r v i c e t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e c l i e n t . A number o f f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have been s e n t o u t t o f o r m e r c o u n s e l e e s by t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e and r e t u r n s h a v e , i n t h e m a i n , i n d i c a t e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o c e s s . B u t w h e t h e r t h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e s o l i c i t o u s c o n c e r n o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r , t h e p l e a s u r e o f l e a r n i n g t h a t one i s a b o v e a v e r a g e i n a b i l i t y , o r f r o m a c h a n g e i n o c c u p a t i o n t h a t had been recommended by t h e c o u n -s e l l o r , i s n o t c l e a r . 'A b r i e f h i s t o r y o f t h e a g e n c y and d e t a i l s o f i t s s t a f f i n 1964, and i t s c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e d u r e s , a p p e a r i n A p p e n d i x A. 3 I I . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r i n d i -v i d u a l s who had f o l l o w e d p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h a c o u n s e l l o r a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w e r e , s i x y e a r s l a t e r , more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n were t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who had n o t . T h e r e -f o r e , t h e f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s were s e t : To a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n e v i d e n t i n two g r o u p s o f e x - c o u n s e l 1 e e s - - t h o s e who had f o l l o w e d a p r o p o s e d c o u r s e o f a c t i o n and t h o s e who had n o t . In a d d i t i o n , t o compare t h e two g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a number o f v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g e m p l o y m e n t r e c o r d , s a l a r i e s e a r n e d , and s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t o f a b i l i t y f o r o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h e n g a g e d . J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n H u l i n ( 4 7 : 4 2 4 ) s t a t e s t h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n "must be c o n s i d e r e d a s a f e e l i n g w h i c h has a r i s e n 1n t h e w o r k e r as a r e s p o n s e t o t h e t o t a l j o b s i t u a t i o n , " and K a t z e l l ( 5 0 : 3 4 2 ) d e c l a r e s t h a t i t i s " t h e v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n o f an i n c u m b e n t ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s j o b . " T h i s p a p e r assumes t h a t t h e i n d i -v i d u a l i s a b l e t o e x p r e s s a v a l i d o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s p r e s e n t j o b ; a t t h e same t i m e , i t i s a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t many unknown f a c t o r s - - b o t h i n s i d e and o u t -s i d e t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n - - a r e i n v o l v e d 1n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f h i s o p i n i o n . As Ewen (29 ) has s u m m a r i z e d , a w o r k e r may d i s -l i k e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f h i s j o b b u t s t i l l may c o n s i d e r 1 t a c c e p t a b l e o v e r - a l l b e c a u s e "as j o b s g o , t h i s i s n ' t so b a d . " T h i s p a p e r 1s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d , t h e n , i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r 4 o r n o t I n d i v i d u a l s who f o l l o w p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a -t i o n w i t h a c o u n s e l l o r a r e more l i k e l y t o s a y t h e i r j o b s " a r e n ' t so b a d " t h a n a r e i n d i v i d u a l s who c h o s e p l a n s o f a c t i o n d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o u t l i n e d by c o u n s e l l o r s . I I I . THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY T e s t s a s a Means f o r  P r e d i c t i n g O c c u p a t i o n a l S u c c e s s F o r some s i x t y y e a r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s have been d e v e l o p i n g t e s t s t o p r e d i c t o c c u p a t i o n a l s u c c e s s . The F i r s t W o r l d War g a v e i m p e t u s t o t h e t e s t i n g movement, as s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s were f i r s t u s e d en masse t o a s s e s s t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e , a p t i t u d e s , and o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s o f t h o u s a n d s o f s o l d i e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A g a i n , i n W o r l d War I I , i n t h e p l a c e m e n t o f m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l and d e f e n c e w o r k e r s , t h e v a l u e o f t e s t i n g was r e c o g -n i z e d (1). The p e r i o d s i n c e 1945 has b e e n , a c c o r d i n g t o T h o r n d i k e and Hagen (8 3 ) one o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e s t b a t t e r i e s and t e s t i n g p r o g r a m s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and p e r s o n n e l u s e . The p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f a n y t e s t d e p e n d s , o f c o u r s e , upon t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h i t s e r v e s as an i n d i c a t o r o f some f u t u r e b e h a v i o u r o r p e r f o r m a n c e . T y p i c a l l y , i n v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h a p t i t u d e t e s t s , t h e c r i t e r i o n i s j o b s u c c e s s as m e a s u r e d by s u p e r v i s o r s ' r a t i n g s , g r a d e s i n t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s , o u t p u t , number o f a c c i d e n t s , and so o n . I t i s f e a s i b l e , h o w e v e r , f o r a w o r k e r t o be r a t e d h i g h l y e f f i -c i e n t i n h i s j o b w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t o be e x t r e m e l y u n h a p p y i n t h e t y p e o f work 1n w h i c h he i s e n g a g e d . Whether 5 or not a b i l i t y and s a t i s f a c t i on share a close re la t ionsh ip is by no means c l ea r . That there 1s a connection between a b i l i t y and s a t i s -fact ion is staunchly supported by Bingham (9:vi1) who fee l s that aptitude test ing has become a " s t r i k i n g l y s i gn i f i c an t phase of twentieth-century l i f e because prof ic iency in one's work is " v i t a l to happiness and health of mind"; while Strong (79:183) goes so far as to imply that the real object ive of vocational guidance is not to a s s i s t people to f ind the work they can do best, but to help them f ind work they enjoy best, for "a successful man is one who is doing the work he l ikes best and is gett ing paid for i t . " According to Brayf ie ld and Crockett (16), the l i t e r a t u r e on vocational psychology 1s replete with statements which imply that those 1n the f i e l d share the be l i e f that a close re la t ionsh ip exists between job s a t i s f ac t i on and pro f i c iency ; the i r study of at t i tudes of employees engaged in many types of work, however, d isc losed no s i gn i f i can t co r re l a t i on between job s a t i s f a c t i on and job performance. Kahn (49) has summarized three Investigations of the re l a t i onsh ip between sa t i s f ac t i on and pro f i c iency , conducted over a period of several years by the Survey Research Center of the Univers i ty of Michigan. The resu l t s d isc losed that job s a t i s f ac t i on was re lated to product i v i ty , but none of the re la t ionsh ips was s i g n i f i c a n t . Kahn was forced to conclude, therefore, that "product iv i ty and job s a t i s f ac t i on do not necessar i ly go together" (p.275). Ghei (35), too, found l i t t l e 6 e v i d e n c e o f a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p among i n t e r e s t s , a c h i e v e m e n t and s a t i s f a c t i o n ( t h e l a t t e r a s s e s s e d o n l y by r e s p o n s e s t o a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n : " I f you c o u l d go back t o age e i g h t e e n and s t a r t o v e r a g a i n , w o u l d you s e l e c t t h e same c a r e e r o r a d i f f e r e n t o n e ? " ) . Upon r e v i e w i n g t w e n t y s t u d i e s c o m p l e t e d i n t h e l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s , Vroom ( 9 2 : 1 8 6 ) f o u n d a medium c o r r e l a t i o n b etween j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and j o b p r o f i -c i e n c y o f .14. T h e r e f o r e , he c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e r e i s no s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and j o b p e r f o r m -ance.'' And i n t h e same v e i n , C r i t e s ( 3 5 : 5 1 6 - 5 2 0 ) , upon s t u d y i n g t h e a c c u m u l a t e d f i n d i n g s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s a t i s f a c t i o n and s u c c e s s d e c i d e d t h a t " t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h o b t a i n s b e t ween them, i f i n d e e d t h e r e i s o n e , i s c o m p l e x and c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f o t h e r f a c t o r s . " C r o n b a c h ( 2 6 : 4 2 7 ) has s t a t e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c h i e v i n g o f a h i g h s c o r e on an i n t e r e s t t e s t " s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i_f t h e p e r s o n s u r v i v e s t r a i n i n g and e n t e r s t h e o c c u p a t i o n , he i s l i k e l y t o e n j o y t h e w o r k . " I t w o u l d a p p e a r , t h e n , t h a t p e r s o n s w i t h b o t h i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o a c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y do w e l l i n i t ; t h o s e w i t h s u i t a b l e a b i l i t i e s b u t u n s u i t a b l e i n t e r e s t s may o r may n o t do w e l l ; w h i l e t h o s e w i t h s u i t a b l e i n t e r e s t s b u t p o o r a p t i t u d e p r o b a b l y w i l l do b a d l y . I n v i e w o f t h e f o r e g o i n g e v i d e n c e , i t c a n n o t be c l a i m e d t h a t a p t i t u d e t e s t s v a l i d a t e d on p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a a r e n e c e s s a r i l y o f v a l u e i n p r e d i c t i n g v o c a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h c o u n s e l l o r s e v i d e n t l y a r e p r o n e t o s u g g e s t t h a t 7 a b i l i t y t o do a p a r t i c u l a r j o b i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n c o m i t a n t t o s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h a t j o b , i t seems c l e a r t h a t a b i l i t y i s s i m p l y one o f t h e many " o t h e r f a c t o r s " a l l u d e d t o by C r i t e s ( 2 5 ) . A t any r a t e , few c o u n s e l l o r s a r e l i k e l y t o d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g o p i n i o n : W i t h r e g a r d t o v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , i t has been shown, d e s p i t e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h d a t a , t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g c a n h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o s e more s a t i s f y i n g o c c u p a t i o n s and t h a t i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s i n c r e a s e d when c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w s a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e use o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y t e s t s ( 4 4 : 2 2 0 - 2 2 1 ) . V o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , o f c o u r s e , i n v o l v e s t h e c o n s i d e r a -t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h o s e c a r e e r s w h i c h m i g h t a p p e a r i d e a l on t h e b a s i s o f t e s t e v i d e n c e a l o n e . I n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y m e a s u r e s a r e b u t two o f t h e f a c t o r s c o u n s e l l o r s must b e a r i n mind when s u g g e s t i n g p o s s i b l e c a r e e r s t o c l i e n t s . The a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f e m p l o y m e n t , t h e age o f t h e - c o u n s e l l e e , h i s p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s , h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , as w e l l as h i s m o t i v a t i o n and o t h e r v a r i -a b l e s , need t o be c o n s i d e r e d . T h e n , f r o m a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d i n d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s , and f r o m an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h a s a t i s f y i n g l e v e l o f s u c c e s s , t h e c o u n s e l l o r i s a b l e t o e n c o u r a g e h i s c l i e n t t o e x p l o r e t h e c a r e e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t a p p e a r f e a s i b l e (9,81 , 8 8 ) . T h u s , t e s t s c o r e s w o u l d l i k e l y p l a y a u s e f u l , i f some-t i m e s s u b o r d i n a t e , r o l e i n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g as p r a c t i s e d a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e . And so t h e i r 1964 A n n u a l R e p o r t w o u l d i m p l y , w i t h i t s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e v a r i o u s 8 f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s i n c l u d i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e " e x t e n s i v e b a t t e r y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , d e s i g n e d t o h e l p c l i e n t s a s s e s s t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and l i m i t a -t i o n s " ( 3 ) . The b a t t e r y o f t e s t s u s e d by t h e S e r v i c e i n 1964 i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : K uder P r e f e r e n c e R e c o r d , O t i s T e s t o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y , P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s , M i n n e s o t a P a p e r Form B o a r d , B e n n e t t M e c h a n i c a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t , M i n n e s o t a C l e r i c a l T e s t , and a s p e l l i n g t e s t . T h e s e t e s t s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n A p p e n d i x B, w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s , and a s s e s s m e n t s by v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e t e s t s . J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n S t u d i e s : A R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e I n t h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , e v i d e n c e i s p r e s e n t e d w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g c a n en h a n c e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h one's e m p l o y m e n t . A few s t u d i e s w h i c h s u g g e s t t h a t no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e a l s o r e v i e w e d . Much o f t h e e v i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , i s b a s e d upon i n c o m p l e t e r e t u r n s o f t h e m a i l e d - 1 n t y p e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and few i n c o r p o r a t e a l l o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r a d e q u a c y o u t l i n e d by C r i t e s ( 2 5 : 5 1 1 ) who, a f t e r r e v i e w i n g a t o t a l o f 3,000 j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d i e s , s t a t e d t h a t o n l y "a h a n d f u l " met t h e f o l l o w i n g i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a : 1) R e p o r t e d e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s ; 2) Were m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y s o u n d ; and 3) I n c l u d e d an a s s e s s m e n t m e a s u r e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . 9 The B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n i s one o f a number o f i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h p u r p o r t t o meet C r i t e s ' t h i r d c r i t e r i o n , and as t h e I n d e x was u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l . B r a y f i e l d and R o t h e ( 1 7 ) f o r m u l a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a as d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s o f an a t t i t u d e s c a l e d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e an a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n : 1) I t s h o u l d g i v e an i n d e x o f o v e r - a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n . 2) I t s h o u l d be a p p l i c a b l e t o a w i d e v a r i e t y o f j o b s . 3) I t s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e t o v a r i a t i o n s i n a t t i t u d e . 4) The i t e m s s h o u l d be o f s u c h a n a t u r e ( i n t e r e s t i n g , r e a l i s t i c , and v a r i e d ) t h a t t h e s c a l e w o u l d e v o k e c o - o p e r a t i o n f r o m b o t h management and e m p l o y e e s . 5) I t s h o u l d y i e l d r e l i a b l e s c o r e s . 6) I t s h o u l d y i e l d a v a l i d i n d e x . 7) I t s h o u l d be b r i e f and e a s i l y s c o r e d . The B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x p u r p o r t e d l y f u l f i l s t h e above r e q u i r e m e n t s . A r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .87 has been r e p o r t e d f o r one l a r g e g r o u p o f o f f i c e e m p l o y e e s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s k i l l ( 1 7 ) . W h i l e i t i s a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f any i n s t r u m e n t i s " d e p e n d e n t upon r e l a t i v e l y a r b i t r a r y and s u b j e c t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n " ( 7 7 ) , t h e o r i g i n a t o r s d i d e x e r c i s e c e r t a i n p r e c a u t i o n s i n an a t t e m p t t o a v o i d s u b j e c t i v i t y . J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was i n f e r r e d f r o m v e r b a l r e a c t i o n s t o j o b s e x p r e s s e d a l o n g a f a v o u r a b l e -u n f a v o u r a b l e c o n t i n u u m . A marked c o n s i s t e n c y i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e i t e m s was a p p a r e n t among 77 " e x p e r t s " who a f f i r m e d t h a t " T h i s s t a t e m e n t e x p r e s s e s a f e e l i n g o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a j o b and s h o u l d be p l a c e d a t s u c h and s u c h a p o i n t a l o n g s u c h a f e e l i n g c o n t i n u u m " ( 1 7 ) . As an 10 o u t s i d e c r i t e r i o n o f v a l i d a t i o n , B r a y f i e l d and R o t h e a d m i n i s -t e r e d t h e i r t e s t t o 91 a d u l t n i g h t s c h o o l s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s e s i n p e r s o n n e l p s y c h o l o g y . A l l s t u d e n t s were e m p l o y e d i n o f f i c e -t y p e work o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r , and e n r o l m e n t i n t h e e v e n i n g c l a s s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be an o v e r t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n p e r s o n n e l w o r k. Range o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s f o r t h e s a m p l e was 2 8 - 8 9 , w i t h a mean o f 70.4 and an S.D. o f 1 3 . 2 , w h i l e t h e mean o f t h e 40 p e r s o n s a c t u a l l y e m p l o y e d i n p e r s o n n e l work was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean o f t h e n o n - p e r s o n n e l g r o u p . The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s e m p l o y e d i n o c c u p a t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t s w o u l d r e v e a l g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n w o u l d t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n i n a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n s was t h u s s u p p o r t e d . T h a t t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n has been u t i l i z e d i n a number o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s p r o v i d e s some e v i d e n c e o f t h e r e g a r d w i t h w h i c h i t i s h e l d . The I n d e x , f o r e x a m p l e , was e m p l o y e d by S p i t z e r ( 7 7 ) as "a m e a s u r e o f o v e r -a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n " i n a d o c t o r a l s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tween s a t i s f a c t i o n , work p e r f o r m a n c e , g o a l a t t a i n m e n t , and j o b w i t h d r a w a l ; K i r c h n e r ( 5 2 ) n o t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween s c o r e s on t h e I n d e x and s u c c e s s i n s a l e s work; i n h i s s t u d y o f t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f t h e S t r o n g V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t B l a n k , S c h l e t z e r ( 7 3 ) computed f a i r l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e and two o t h e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t e s t s , t h e o l d e r Hoppock B l a n k , and t h e n e w l y d e v e l o p e d J o b D i m e n s i o n I n v e n t o r y ; w h i l e Ewen ( 3 0 ) e m p l o y e d t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x i n a s t u d y w h i c h r a i s e d some d o u b t s r e g a r d i n g t h e m e r i t o f 11 w e i g h t i n g c o m p o n e n t s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t o e s t i m a t e o v e r - a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . O b j e c t i o n m i g h t be made t o t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as a c r i t e r i o n f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e w o r t h o f v o c a -t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . I n d e e d , S t r o n g ( 7 9 : 1 2 ) c r i t i c i z e s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as a m e a s u r e b e c a u s e : a) . S a t i s f a c t i o n may be an o v e r - a l l r e a c t i o n t o one's l i f e s i t u a t i o n and t h e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e may, t h e r e f o r e , be i m p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e ; b) t o o much s a t i s f a c t i o n i s u n d e s i r a b l e - - " m a l a d j u s t -ment i s a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e " ; and c ) t h e r e a r e no a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . H o wever, i n s p i t e o f t h e above t h r e e o b j e c t i o n s , S t r o n g c o u l d t h i n k o f "no b e t t e r c r i t e r i o n . . . t h a n t h a t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n e n d u r i n g o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . " The many h u n d r e d s o f s t u d i e s e x i s t i n g i n t h e a r e a o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n c e r t a i n l y a t t e s t t o t h e i n t e r e s t r e s e a r c h e r s have i n t h i s theme. S t u d i e s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n / d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n have b l o s s o m e d t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t t h e P e r s o n n e l  and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l d e v o t e s s p a c e t o a y e a r l y r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . The 2 3 r d i n t h i s s e r i e s d i s c l o s e s t h a t 494 s t u d i e s c i t i n g p e r c e n t a g e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s had t o t h a t t i m e been r e p o r t e d , r a n g i n g f r o m z e r o t o 90 p e r c e n t d i s s a t i s f i e d ; t h e m e d i a n o f 13 p e r c e n t d i s s a t i s f i e d e v i d e n t l y had h e l d c o n s t a n t f o r t h e p a s t d e c a d e ( 6 9 ) . Roe ( 7 0 ) , a l o n g - t i m e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h i s a r e a , r e f e r s t o t h e w i d e r a n g e o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s t h a t o c c u r when d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h m ethods and e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a a r e e m p l o y e d . O b v i o u s l y t h e r e 12 a r e d e g r e e s o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and when a u t h o r i t i e s r e p o r t t h a t " i t i s c o n s e r v a t i v e l y e s t i m a t e d t h a t w e l l o v e r one t h i r d o f a l l e m p l o y e e s have j o b s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d " ( 2 4 ) , i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r t h e o n e - t h i r d f i g u r e i s d e r i v e d f r o m an a r b i t r a r y s c o r e on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , f r o m t h e "Yes-No" t y p e o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o r f r o m some o t h e r m e a s u r e . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e by H e r z b e r g e t a l . (44) f o r e x a m p l e , d i s c l o s e d 13. t o 21 p e r c e n t d i s s a t i s f i e d when s t u d i e s were b a s e d " m a i n l y " on t h e " A r e you s a t i s f i e d w i t h y o u r j o b ? " t y p e o f q u e s t i o n , b u t i n s t u d i e s i n w h i c h t h e " I f y ou c o u l d do i t a l l o v e r a g a i n , w o u l d you go i n t o t h e same j o b ? " q u e s t i o n was u s e d , t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n f i g u r e was 54 pe r c e n t . Many o f t h e s t u d i e s have been o f a h i g h l y t h e o r e t i c a l n a t u r e , i n v o l v i n g a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b etween o c c u p a t i o n a l and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( 4 1 ) ; e m p i r i c a l v e r s u s t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s ( 7 4 ) ; c o n c e p t u a l p r o b l e m s i n measurement ( 2 8 ) ; g o a l a t t a i n -ment ( 7 7 ) ; w e i g h t i n g c o mponents ( 3 0 ) ; needs ( 1 1 ) ; and so on. The l i s t i s a l m o s t i n t e r m i n a b l e . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , h o w e v e r , i t a p p e a r s f e a s i b l e t o r e v i e w o n l y r e s e a r c h t h a t has i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e l i n k b etween c o u n s e l l i n g and v o c a -t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s s t u d y r e l a t e s t o i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l o r f o l l o w - u p t y p e , and i t i s t o s t u d i e s o f t h i s s o r t t h a t t h i s r e v i e w w i l l now be d i r e c t e d . The r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s o f f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s o v e r i m m e d i a t e p o s t - c o u n s e l l i n g e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e w o r t h o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e a r e o u t l i n e d by Gonyea ( 3 8 ) . A l t h o u g h he a p p r e c i a t e s t h a t e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a o b t a i n e d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g c o u n s e l l i n g c a n be o f v a l u e i n r e s e a r c h , Gonyea n o t e s a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s p a r i t y between i m m e d i a t e p o s t -c o u n s e l l i n g p l a n s and p l a n s c i t e d a y e a r o r more a f t e r c o u n -s e l l i n g . Gonyea o b s e r v e s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i m m e d i a t e e v a l u -a t i o n "does n o t a p p e a r t o be a v a l i d measure o f e n d u r i n g , m e a n i n g f u l e f f e c t s o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g . " T h a t t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y o f l o n g - t e r m s t u d i e s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n -s e l l i n g has been n o t e d by a number o f a u t h o r s , i n c l u d i n g R o t h n e y and F a r w e l 1 , B r a y f i e l d and C r i t e s , and V o l s k y e t a l . In 1960, f o r e x a m p l e , R o t h n e y and F a r w e l l n o t e d : O n l y t h r e e books e v a l u a t i n g g u i d a n c e s e r v i c e s have been p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e 50 y e a r s s i n c e s u c h s e r v i c e s b e g a n , and one d e s c r i b i n g an e x t e n s i v e f o l l o w u p a p p e a r e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d u n d e r r e v i e w ( 7 1 ) . B r a y f i e l d and C r i t e s r e p o r t t h a t " t h e b u l k o f t h e r e s e a r c h r e l e v a n t t o v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g p r a c t i c e i s s p o r a d i c , f o r -t u i t o u s , u n s y s t e m a t i c " ( 1 5 : 3 1 7 ) , and V o l s k y e t a l . ( 9 1 ) have penned an e n t i r e v olume i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g . A r e a d e r o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e m i g h t w e l l be c o n c e r n e d when an a u t h o r i t y s u c h as S u p e r c i t e s o n l y t h r e e s t u d i e s t o s u p p o r t h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t : v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g on t h e b a s i s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s r e s u l t s i n b e t t e r employment r e c o r d s . . . h i g h e r l e v e l s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . . . a n d t h o s e who c a r r y o u t p l a n s made i n c o u n s e l i n g a r e more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h o s e who do n o t ( 8 0 : 1 1 1 ) . One o f t h e s e was p u b l i s h e d i n 1936, a n o t h e r i n 1938, and t h e t h i r d ( a F r e n c h s t u d y c o m p l e t e d i n 1955) e v i d e n t l y p u b l i s h e d o n l y i n t h e F r e n c h l a n g u a g e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e r e p o r t s o f a number o f f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s w h i c h s e e m i n g l y i l l u s t r a t e t h e e f f i c a c y o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t r e v i e w s o f " v o c a t i o n a l l y a d v i s e d " c a s e s , i n 1 9 3 3 , r e p o r t e d p r e d i c t i o n s t o be c o r r e c t f o r 79 p e r c e n t o f a g r o u p o f 110 y o u n g men and women who had been t e s t e d and a d v i s e d b e t ween s i x months and t h r e e y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . A l t h o u g h no a c t u a l s t a t i s t i c s a r e r e p o r t e d , t h o s e i n o c c u p a t i o n s deemed s u i t a b l e e v i d e n t l y e x p r e s s e d more s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r work t h a n d i d o t h e r s ( 5 8 ) . A s i m i l a r s t u d y by J e n n i n g s and S c o t t ( 4 8 ) i n 1936 d i s c l o s e d t h a t 87 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' p r e d i c t i o n s had p r o v e d c o r r e c t , a n d , i n t h e a u t h o r s ' o p i n i o n , " t h e v a l u e o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d -a n c e i n p r o m o t i n g a b i l i t y i n work [ h a d ] been d e m o n s t r a t e d . " The a u t h o r s a l s o c l a i m t h a t g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was e x p r e s s e d by t h o s e who f o l l o w e d t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' a d v i c e , a l t h o u g h no a c t u a l s t a t i s t i c s a r e p r o v i d e d . The c r i t e r i o n f o r " c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n " i s somewhat l o o s e l y d e f i n e d , how-e v e r , i n t h i s and s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , f o r as P a t e r s o n e t a l . (6 4 ) have p o i n t e d o u t , i t w o u l d be u n r e a l i s t i c t o r e s t r i c t c o r r e c t p r e d i c t i o n s t o t h e a c t u a l j o b s u g g e s t i o n s made by t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ; b u t j o b s " s i m i l a r " t o t h e ones s u g g e s t e d s h o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d . ( C r i t e r i a f o r " s i m i l a r i t y " a r e o u t l i n e d i n t h e R e v i s e d M i n n e s o t a O c c u p a t i o n a l R a t i n g S c a l e s ( 2 0 ) by t h e f o r e g o i n g a u t h o r s . A number o f f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o u n s e l l e d i n h i g h s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s have been c a r r i e d o u t . Latham ( 5 4 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , c o n d u c t e d a o n e - y e a r f o l l o w - u p o f h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s who had u n d e r t a k e n a mammoth b a t t e r y o f 27 a p t i t u d e and i n t e r e s t t e s t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r s e n i o r y e a r s . N e i t h e r g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n n o r b e t t e r e m p l o y e r r a t i n g s were a c h i e v e d by t h o s e whose employment was a p p r o p r i a t e t o a p t i t u d e and i n t e r e s t t e s t r e s u l t s o v e r t h o s e who were ( o n t e s t e v i d e n c e ) i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a c e d . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however t h a t f o r some u n s t a t e d r e a s o n t e s t . i n f o r m a t i o n had n o t been u s e d i n t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g o f any o f t h e s e i n d i v i d -u a l s . A f u r t h e r n e g a t i v e r e s u l t i s a p p a r e n t i n W a l l a c e ' s ( 9 4 ) s t u d y o f s c h o o l d r o p o u t s . I t d i s c l o s e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e nce i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s one y e a r a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f r e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s deemed s u i t a b l e by v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s . " I n t e n s i v e c o u n s e l i n g " o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s h a s , h o w e v e r , r e s u l t e d i n more f a v o u r a b l e a d u l t b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s o f an e i g h t - y e a r f o l l o w - u p s t u d y by M e r i n d a and R o t h n e y ( 6 0 ) ; w h i l e S t r o n g ( 7 9 ) f o u n d a m o d e r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p (.30) between i n t e r e s t s c o r e s o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and l a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . C a m p b e l l , i n The R e s u l t s o f C o u n s e l i n g ; 25 Y e a r s L a t e r ( 2 2 ) r e p o r t s t h e h e r c u l e a n t a s k o f c o n t a c t i n g 731 o u t o f 768 s t u d e n t s ( 3 8 4 m a t c h e d p a i r s o f c o u n s e l l e d and n o n - c o u n s e l l e d m a l e s ) who had a t t e n d e d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a between 1933 and 1936. The i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s m a i n c o n c l u s i o n s were: 1) S t u d e n t s who s o u g h t c o u n s e l l i n g were " m i l d l y " 16 d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e who d i d n o t . (The d i f f e r e n c e b etween t h e two g r o u p s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . ) 2) The c o u n s e l l e d were more s u c c e s s f u l i n a l l a c a d e m i c a r e a s . 3) The c o u n s e l l e d , 25 y e a r s l a t e r , were b o t h s l i g h t l y more s u c c e s s f u l a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o C a m p b e l l , " u n c o m f o r t a b l e . " 4) T w o - t h i r d s o f t h e c o u n s e l l e e s remembered h a v i n g been c o u n s e l l e d ; t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e s e t h o u g h t i t "had been h e l p f u l " ( 2 2 : 1 0 5 - 1 0 6 ) . The d a t e c o l l e c t e d , h o w e v e r , r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . C o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s have been o b t a i n e d i n t h e a r e a o f r e h a b i l i t a t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e l a r g e s t p r o g r a m o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g e v e r a t t e m p t e d was c a r r i e d o u t by t h e A m e r i c a n V e t e r a n s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t h e c l o s e o f W o r l d War I I . In one s a m p l e o f 500 r e h a b i l i t a t e d v e t e r a n s , r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , 7 4 p e r c e n t were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e j o b s t h e y had managed t o o b t a i n 1n c i v i l i a n l i f e ; o f t h e s a t i s f i e d men, 60 p e r c e n t were h o l d i n g j o b s f o r w h i c h t h e y w e r e t r a i n e d on l e a v i n g t h e army. Of t h e d i s s a t i s f i e d , 34 p e r c e n t were i n work f o r w h i c h t h e y had been t r a i n e d ( 5 1 ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , P o r t e r ( 6 6 ) - - a f t e r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n v o l v i n g 59 m a t c h e d p a i r s o f c o u n s e l 1 e d - n o n - c o u n s e l 1 e d I n d i v i d u a l s — c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e v o c a t i o n a l ' c o u n s e l l i n g ' p r o v i d e d by t h e M i s s o u r i D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a -t i o n i s n o t a c r i t i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e i n t e r m s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . " T y l e r ( 8 6 : 2 7 3 - 2 7 5 ) i n d i c a t e s l i t t l e need f o r f u r t h e r p r o o f t h a t t h o s e who f o l l o w p l a n s d e v e l o p e d w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s g e t a l o n g b e t t e r t h a n t h o s e who do n o t . However, t o p r o v e h e r 17 c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h o s e who f o l l o w t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p l a n s a r e a p t t o be more s a t i s f i e d and s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h o s e who do n o t , T y l e r c i t e s o n l y s t u d i e s l i m i t e d i n b o t h t y p e o f p o p u l a -t i o n and i n m e t h o d o l o g y ; n a m e l y : a) a number o f m a i l e d - i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e t y p e o f s t u d i e s by B r i t i s h p s y c h o l o g i s t s c o n c e r n -i n g y o u n g p e o p l e who l e f t s c h o o l and went t o work i n t h e 1920's and 1 9 3 0 ' s ; b) a 1929 s t u d y by V i t e l e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d 75 o u t o f 91 c o u n s e l l e e s s e e n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a i n 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 ; c ) a 1935 s t u d y o f an a g e n c y w h i c h was i n e x i s t e n c e f o r o n l y 16 m o n t h s ; d) a 1942 s t u d y i n v o l v i n g 81 o f 125 e x -c o u n s e l l e e s who r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; e) two s t u d i e s ( w i t h d i f f e r i n g r e s u l t s ) o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n o f e x - u n i v e r s i t y s t u -d e n t s ; and f ) a r e p o r t on 155 v e t e r a n s s i x t o 22 months a f t e r c o u n s e l l i n g had been c o m p l e t e d . T h a t t h e r e 1s a need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n , and e v a l u a t i o n o f , l o c a l c o m m u n i t y c o u n s e l l i n g r e s o u r c e s i s e m p h a s i z e d by N o r r i s e t a l . ( 6 2 ) i n a r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d t e x t . O b v i o u s l y , l i t t l e has been p u b l i s h e d t h a t r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . One e x a m p l e i s a 1942 C a n a d i a n s t u d y by W e b s t e r ( 9 5 ) w h i c h was u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e i n M o n t r e a l . R e s p o n s e s t o a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e were o b t a i n e d f r o m 81 o f 125 i n d i v i d u a l s c o u n s e l l e d f r o m two t o f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e f o l l o w - u p . R e s u l t s d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s had f o u n d t h e g u i d a n c e o f some s l i g h t v a l u e , w h i l e 51 p e r c e n t had f o l l o w e d p l a n s d e v e l o p e d w i t h c o u n s e -l l o r s and c l a i m e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r j o b s . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d i n C o l e ' s ( 2 3 ) s t u d y o f 100 boys g i v e n 18 v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e a t a b o y s ' c l u b and 100 boys ( a l s o members) n o t r e c e i v i n g t h i s g u i d a n c e . F i v e y e a r s l a t e r i t was e v i d e n t t h a t o n l y 28 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o u n s e l l e d boys w i s h e d t o c h a n g e o c c u p a t i o n s , w h i l e 65 p e r c e n t o f t h e n o n - c o u n s e l l e d w i s h e d t o c h a n g e . A f u r t h e r s t u d y o f a community s e r v i c e a g e n c y was c o n -d u c t e d by L i p s e t t and W i l s o n ( 5 6 ) . In t h e i r f o l l o w - u p s t u d y o f c l i e n t s o f t h e R o c h e s t e r I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y ' s Coun-s e l l i n g C e n t e r , L i p s e t t and W i l s o n made an e f f o r t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e r a n g e o f most p e o p l e e m p l o y e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n w o u l d r e v e a l more s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r j o b s t h a n w o u l d i n d i v i d -u a l s i n " u n s u i t a b l e " v o c a t i o n s . As t h e r e a r e a p p a r e n t s i m i l a r i t i e s b etween t h a t s t u d y and t h i s o n e , as w e l l as between t h e two a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d , a r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d r e v i e w o f t h e R o c h e s t e r p r o j e c t a p p e a r s w a r r a n t e d . The R o c h e s t e r c e n t r e e v i d e n t l y s h a r e s much i n common w i t h t h e V a n c o u v e r s e r v i c e , f o r a t R o c h e s t e r , t h e m a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f c l i e n t s a r e : h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s and a d u l t s s e e k i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e ; p e r s o n s r e f e r r e d by i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r j o b s ; p e r s o n s r e f e r r e d by t h e New Y o r k S t a t e D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l R e h a b i l i t a -t i o n and o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s f o r t e s t i n g and o c c u p a t i o n a l s u g g e s t i o n s . The C o u n s e l i n g C e n t e r i s c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p t i t u d e t e s t i n g and c o u n s e l i n g p r o g r a m s f o r more t h a n 300 c l i e n t s p e r y e a r . L i p s e t t and W i l s o n m a i l e d 701 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o c l i e n t s who had c o m p l e t e d c o u n s e l l i n g a t l e a s t one y e a r p r e v i o u s l y . An e v e n t u a l 54 p e r c e n t r e s p o n s e was a c h i e v e d , a l t h o u g h a good 19 number o f t h e r e t u r n s were I n c o m p l e t e i n one o r more r e s p e c t s . Each r e s p o n d e n t was a s k e d t o r a t e h i s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e r y : " I f you a r e e m p l o y e d , how do you f e e l a b o u t y o u r j o b ? " The p e r c e n t a g e s i n e a c h o f t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s w e r e : 1) b e s t p o s s i b l e j o b f o r y o u , 17 p e r c e n t ; 2) l i k e i t v e r y much, 34 p e r c e n t ; 3) l i k e i t f a i r l y w e l l , 28 p e r c e n t ; 4) i n d i f f e r e n t t o i t , n e i t h e r s t r o n g l i k e n o r d i s l i k e , 13 p e r c e n t ; and 5) d i s l i k e i t , 8 p e r c e n t . Of 204 c l i e n t s a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n on j o b s a t i s f a c -t i o n , i t was p o s s i b l e t o f i n d 108 i n d i v i d u a l s who had a l s o s t a t e d t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s and f o r whom a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e s o f b o t h i n t e r e s t s and m e n t a l a b i l i t y were a v a i l a b l e . L i b s e t t and W i l s o n t h e n a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d b etween j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and m e a s u r e s o f i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s j o b was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s i n t e r e s t s i f one o f h i s two h i g h e s t p r o f i l e s ( p e r c e n t i l e s c o r e s ) on t h e Ku d e r P r e f e r e n c e S c h e d u l e c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h K u d e r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n . I n a s s e s s i n g s u i t a b l e l e v e l o f m e n t a l a b i l i t y f o r t h e o c c u p a t i o n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r a t i n g on t h e O t i s , W o n d e r l i c , a n d / o r W e c h s l e r - B e l 1 e v u e was compared d i r e c t l y w i t h l i s t s i n t h e M i n n e s o t a O c c u p a t i o n a l R a t i n g S c a l e s . (Where two t e s t s were u s e d , l e v e l was c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e i f e i t h e r t e s t s c o r e f e l l w i t h i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r a n g e f o r t h e o c c u p a -t i o n . ) O n l y 25 (23 p e r c e n t ) o u t o f 108 r e s p o n d e n t s were s u i t e d t o t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s i n t e r m s o f b o t h i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s , 20 i n s p i t e o f t h e r a t h e r l e n i e n t c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s u i t -a b i l i t y . A l l i n d i v i d u a l s who e i t h e r d i s l i k e d o r were i n d i f f e r -e n t t o t h e i r j o b s d i s c l o s e d a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y o r v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s " u n s u i t a b l e " t o t h e i r j o b s . Of t h e i n d i v i d u a l s d i s p l a y i n g b o t h i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s , 47 ( 4 4 p e r c e n t ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r j o b s were t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e f o r them. The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o b o t h i n t e r e s t i n , and a b i l i t y f o r , t h e o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s e n g a g e d . T h e r e e v i d e n t l y i s a n e e d , h o w e v e r , f o r many more s t u d i e s w h i c h embody a d e q u a t e p r o c e d u r e s a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n c o r p o r a t e a s t a n d a r d i n s t r u m e n t t o a s s e s s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . M o r e o v e r , i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e a r e i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between c o u n s e l l i n g o f f e r e d i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , armed s e r v i c e s and o t h e r p u b l i c a g e n c i e s w h i c h f i n a n c e b o t h t h e c o u n -s e l l i n g and t h e l a t e r t r a i n i n g , and c o u n s e l l i n g as p r a c t i s e d i n p r i v a t e , f e e - p a y i n g a g e n c i e s . T h i s d i v e r s i t y , c o u p l e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h i n any p a r t i c u l a r a g e n c y , d i f f e r -e n c e s i n methods of e v a l u a t i o n , and i n m o t i v a t i o n o f c o u n s e l l e e s s u g g e s t s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m one f o l l o w - u p s t u d y c a n n o t be u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i e d . A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s r e a s o n -a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e by one a g e n c y ( b a r r i n g m a j o r c h a n g e s i n s t a f f , p o l i c y , o r c l i e n t e l e ) have a d e g r e e o f c o n s i s t e n c y . T h i s p a p e r a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e , t h e n , w h e t h e r o r n o t f o l l o w i n g p l a n s o f a c t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s a t a g e n c i e s s i m i l a r t o t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e c a n l e a d t o v o c a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t a l o n g c e r t a i n d e f i n e d l i n e s . CHAPTER I I DESIGN OF THE STUDY A s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was e m p l o y e d t o g a t h e r d a t a f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s who, i n 1964, had c o m p l e t e d t h e c o u n -s e l l i n g p r o c e d u r e s a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e a c h r e s p o n d e n t . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s o u t l i n e t h e h y p o t h e s e s , t h e s a m p l e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s , t h e method o f a l l o c a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o Group I o r G r oup I I , t h e d e s i g n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t s , and t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e H y p o t h e s e s T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h were d e r i v e d p a r t l y f r o m t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i l e e m p l o y e d as a v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r , as w e l l as f r o m p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who have e x p e r i e n c e d v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g . Two g r o u p s o f e x - c l i e n t s o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e were c o m p a r e d , n a m e l y : ( I ) T hose i n d i v i d u a l s who had a c t e d upon p l a n s d e v e -l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s , and ( I I ) t h o s e who had n o t . I n c o m p a r i n g t h e s e two g r o u p s , i t i s assumed t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g , t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s , does p r o v i d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h t h e s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g n e c e s s a r y t o p l a n r e a l i s t i c and p r o m i s i n g c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . T h e s e t e c h n i q u e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , i n t e r v i e w s , and a s s e s s m e n t o f p e r t i n e n t b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e d i s c u s s e d 21A a t l e n g t h i n A p p e n d i x e s A and B. Some e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n o c c u p a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s a r e l i k e l y t o r e v e a l g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n do i n d i v i d u a l s i n o c c u p a t i o n s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s ( f o r e x a m p l e , 2 6 , 5 6 , 7 9 , 8 1 ) . A l s o , a number o f f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s d i s c l o s e t h a t t h o s e who a c t e d upon p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s a r e more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s t h a n a r e i n d i v i d u a l s who had n o t a c t e d upon p l a n s d e v e l o p e d w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s ( f o r e x a m p l e , 4 8 , 5 8 , 8 0 , 8 6 , 9 2 ) . A l t h o u g h a few s t u d i e s p r o v i d e l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r t h e t h e s i s t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g r e s u l t s i n b e t t e r v o c a t i o n a l a d j u s t -ment ( f o r e x a m p l e , 5 4 , 6 6 , 9 4 ) , t h e h y p o t h e s e s f o r m u l a t e d f o r t h i s p a p e r a r e b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , as Group I i n d i v i d u a l s f o l l o w e d p l a n s b a s e d on t e s t and o t h e r e v i d e n c e w h i c h s u g g e s t e d s u i t a b i l i t y f o r c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s , and Group I I i n d i v i d u a l s d i d n o t , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I w o u l d , e x p r e s s g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n w o u l d i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I I . • I n a d d i t i o n , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t : a) Group I i n d i v i d u a l s had s i n c e 1964 e x p e r i e n c e d f e w e r p e r i o d s o f unemployment t h a n had G r o u p i i l l i n d i v i d u a l s . b) Changes o f e m p l o y e r s had been e f f e c t e d more f r e q u e n t l y by Group I I i n d i v i d u a l s t h a n by Group I i n d i v i d u a l s . c ) The a v e r a g e number o f p r o m o t i o n s e a r n e d by i n d i -v i d u a l s i n Group I e x c e e d e d t h e number e a r n e d by t h o s e i n Group I I . 22 d) A v e r a g e y e a r l y i n c o m e s i n 1969 were h i g h e r f o r p e r s o n s i n G roup I t h a n f o r p e r s o n s i n Group I I . e) T h o s e i n Group I r a t e t h e m s e l v e s more c a p a b l e i n t h e i r work t h a n do t h e o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s . In t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r , e v i d e n c e was p r e s e n t e d s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h o s e who f o l l o w p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s a r e more l i k e l y t o r e v e a l , l a t e r , g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s -f a c t i o n t h a n t h o s e who do n o t f o l l o w s u c h p l a n s . In r e g a r d t o t h e o t h e r f i v e h y p o t h e s e s , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p e r i o d s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t , c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y m e n t , p r o m o t i o n s , i n c o m e , and s e l f - r a t i n g o f a b i l i t y a r e r e l a t e d t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , Vroom ( 9 2 ) d i s c u s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t o l a b o u r t u r n o v e r , p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , w ages, and workers'; r e p o r t s o f t h e i r j o b p r o f i c i e n c y ; and Roe ( 7 0 ) , a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r i t y i n t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f w o r k , l i s t s l o w s a l a r i e s , i n s t a b i l i t y o f employment and l a c k o f p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s as t h r e e m a j o r c a u s e s o f j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The 1964 f i l e s o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e c o n t a i n 589 c a s e s . As a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e c l i e n t s w ere r e f e r r e d by a g e n c i e s s u c h as Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e and s o c i a l w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t s , t h e y were p e r h a p s i n t i m i d a t e d i n t o t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f a s e r v i c e f o r w h i c h t h e y , t h e m s e l v e s , may have f e l t no n e e d . I t was d e c i d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a g e n c y -d i r e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e . A m e a sure o f c o n t r o l was t h u s a c h i e v e d o v e r t h e m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r -- f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e s t u d y were e v i d e n t l y s u f f i c i e n t l y m o t i v a t e d t o v o l u n t a r i l y seek o u t t h e s e r v i c e and t o pay f o r i t . 23 As a c o r o l l a r y t o t h e f o r e g o i n g , s i n c e t h e y a p p r o a c h e d an a g e n c y d e s i g n e d ( a c c o r d i n g t o i t s b r o c h u r e ) t o h e l p p e o p l e "who need a d v i c e and g u i d a n c e i n p l a n n i n g t h e i r c a r e e r s and i n s e e k i n g t h e j o b s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e b e s t s u i t e d " i t c a n be assumed t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s s h a r e d a common p r o b l e m , n a m e l y , some d e g r e e o f v o c a t i o n a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . In o r d e r t o c o n t r o l o r r e s t r i c t a d d i t i o n a l c l i e n t v a r i a b l e s , t h e s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n c l u d e o n l y : a) M a l e s , 18 y e a r s and o l d e r ( i n o r d e r t o i n c l u d e o n l y t h o s e who e i t h e r had c o m p l e t e d t h e i r s c h o o l i n g o r were i n t h e i r l a s t y e a r a t a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ) . b) T h o s e f o r whom t h e v o c a t i o n s p r o p o s e d c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d b etween t h e l e v e l s " l e s s e r s k i l l e d " and " s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l , " i n c l u s i v e . The e f f e c t w o u l d be t o d i s p o s e o f t h e two e x t r e m e s o f t h e a b i l i t i e s c o n t i n u u m , n a m e l y , t h e " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " who w o u l d now b a r e l y have c o m p l e t e d t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g had p l a n s made i n c o u n s e l l i n g been f o l l o w e d ; and t h e " u n s k i l l e d , " a s m a l l g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s whose a t y p i c a l d i s o r d e r s , h a n d i c a p s and g e n e r a l l a c k o f a b i l i t y w o u l d add l i t t l e t o t h e s t u d y . c ) I n d i v i d u a l s now r e s i d e n t i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a ( l i s t e d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r T e l e p h o n e D i r e c t o r y as b e i n g t o l l - f r e e f r o m t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ) . T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n s e t up a d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l o v e r a s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e ; t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e c o n f i n i n g o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o i n d i -v i d u a l s r e s i d e n t w i t h i n commuting d i s t a n c e o f V a n c o u v e r i m p l i e s t h a t a l l o f them had a c c e s s t o t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g and employment t h a t t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a has t o o f f e r . The i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e above l i m i t a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 1 5 1 . I n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r s 1 were s e n t t o t h e f i r s t 96 o f t h e s e s e l e c t e d by u t i l i z i n g a t a b l e o f random numbers ( 3 3 ) . ^ R e p r i n t o f l e t t e r a p p e a r s i n A p p e n d i x D. 24 As i t was c r i t i c a l t o t h i s s t u d y t h a t a f a i r l y e q u a l d i v i s i o n o c c u r between t h o s e who were now engaged i n o c c u p a t i o n s p l a n n e d w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s and t h o s e who were n o t , an a d d i t i o n a l 35 f i l e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d were made a v a i l a b l e . However, as i t d e v e l o p e d t h a t numbers i n t h e two g r o u p s were s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e f o r s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t , no f u r t h e r c a s e s were i n c l u d e d . Of t h e 48 i n d i v i d u a l s e v e n t u a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d , 34 were m a r r i e d , 11 s i n g l e , and 3 d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d . T h e s e i n d i -v i d u a l s r a n g e d i n age f r o m 25 t o 4 5 , w i t h a mean o f 2 8 . 2 , ? a n d 31 c l a i m e d t o have c o m p l e t e d s c h o o l i n g t o a t l e a s t t h e G r a d e X I I l e v e l . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n as Group I o r Group I I In d e t e r m i n i n g t o w h i c h o f t h e two g r o u p s members o f t h e s a m p l e b e l o n g e d , t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h r e e " e x p e r t s " were s o u g h t . One i s t h e e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n o t h e r , a Manpower c o u n s e l l o r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e t h i r d , a l o n g - t i m e c o u n -s e l l o r a t V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . The m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n , i n e a c h i n s t a n c e , d e c i d e d t h e p l a c e m e n t o f e a c h member o f t h e s a m p l e . In 38 c a s e s , a l l t h r e e e x p e r t s a g r e e d as t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; w h i l e i n 10 i n s t a n c e s t h e two i n a g r e e m e n t d e c i d e d t h e i s s u e . The f i n a l r e s u l t was t h a t 28 i n d i v i d u a l s w ere d e s i g n a t e d as b e l o n g i n g t o Group I , w h i l e 20 were p l a c e d i n Group I I . 25 Design Of the Research Instruments In view of c r i t i c i s m s levelled at job s a t i s f a c t i o n studies which do not incorporate standardized assessment scales (25), care was exercised in selecting an appropriate measuring device. A number of instruments were considered, including the Hoppock Job Satisfaction Blank, the Job Dimension Inven-tory, and the Tear Ballot for Industry, but a l l were discarded as being either too long or too s p e c i f i c in content. The Brayfield-Rothe Job Satisfaction Index discussed in Chapter I is described as a measure of over-all job s a t i s f a c t i o n by a number of authors (for example, 28,29,77), and upon review, appeared to be the most suitable instrument for the purpose of this study. Some items on the interview schedule were obtained from a review of the existing l i t e r a t u r e ; other items were developed from the writer's own experience in industry and in vocational counselling, and from worthy suggestions made by the chairman of his advisory committee. After a number of revisions, the interview schedule was printed in i t s f i n a l formJ The two individuals involved in administering the interview schedule pre-tested the instrument on a total of six persons--three junior counsellors at the Vancouver City College, and three individuals employed in industry" As a re s u l t , the interviewers were alerted to the necessity of adding the category "Once" to Question 21. Also, after ^Interview schedule reproduced in Appendix D. 26 i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e f i r s t r e s p o n d e n t o f age 2 5 , i t was o b v i o u s t h a t t h e c a t e g o r y "Under 25" i n Q u e s t i o n 1 s h o u l d r e a d , "Under 26." A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e R e s e a r c h I n s t r u m e n t s D u r i n g t h e f i r s t two weeks o f A p r i l , 1 9 7 0 , i n t r o -d u c t o r y l e t t e r s were m a i l e d t o t h e t o t a l s a m p l e o f 96. I n v i e w o f t h e l a p s e o f t i m e s i n c e c o n t a c t w i t h V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e had been i n i t i a t e d by t h e e x - c l i e n t s , some d i f f i c u l t y i n l o c a t i n g members o f t h e s a m p l e was a n t i c i -p a t e d . I n d e e d , o n l y e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l s c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e r e q u e s t t o t e l e p h o n e t h e w r i t e r , and a l a r g e number o f t h e e n v e l o p e s were r e t u r n e d " A d d r e s s Unknown." However, by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y D i r e c t o r y , t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y D i r e c t o r y , t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r i e s o f t h e a r e a c o v e r e d , and t o s t u d e n t f i l e s a t V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o l l e g e , c o n t a c t was e v e n t u a l l y made w i t h 75 members o f t h e s a m p l e o r w i t h p e r s o n s who knew o f t h e i r w h e r e a b o u t s . Of t h e s e 75 i n d i v i d u a l s , 13 had moved o u t o f t h e a r e a , 11 were u n w i l l i n g t o be i n t e r -v i e w e d , 2 were f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s , and one had been u n e m p l o y e d s i n c e an i n d u s t r i a l a c c i d e n t some t h r e e y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . I n s h o r t , 48 i n d i v i d u a l s were l e f t . S t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h a l l 4 8 , commencing l a t e i n A p r i l and e n d i n g i n t h e f i r s t week o f J u n e , 1970. A c c o r d i n g t o p r e - t e s t d a t a , t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e p l u s t h e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i n d e x r e q u i r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e . However, few o f t h e a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w s 27 were c o m p l e t e d i n l e s s t h a n 45 m i n u t e s , as t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were i n g e n e r a l i n c l i n e d t o expand upon t h e i r work e x p e r i -e n c e s . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s To d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x s c o r e s a c h i e v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e a c h i e v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I I , t e s t i n g f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between two means was c a r r i e d o u t . I t was p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d be r e j e c t e d were t h e t v a l u e , u s i n g t h e p o o l e d v a r i a n c e i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s o f t h e two g r o u p s , s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . C h i s q u a r e was a p p l i e d t o a s s e s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n number o f p r o m o t i o n s e a r n e d by members o f Group I and Group I I . The Mann-Whitney U T e s t , w i t h t i e s , was e m p l o y e d t o a s s e s s i n t e r - g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s i n number o f p e r i o d s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t , number o f c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s , y e a r l y i n c o m e , and s e l f - r a t i n g o f a b i l i t y . As was t h e ca s e , i n a s s e s s i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e two g r o u p s , o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s were a p p l i e d and t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was t o be r e j e c t e d a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . CHAPTER I I I ANALYSIS OF DATA As t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t good v o c a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t i s a c o n c o m i t a n t o f a number o f f a c t o r s s u c h as few p e r i o d s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t , i n f r e q u e n t c h a n g e s o f j o b s , f e e l i n g s o f a d e q u a c y t o w a r d one's j o b , s u c c e s s as m e a s u r e d by p r o m o t i o n s and o t h e r c r i t e r i a , and s a l a r y e a r n e d ( 1 3 , 3 6 , 4 7 , 6 6 , 8 0 ) . The m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t p e r s o n s f o l l o w i n g p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o n c e r t w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r v o c a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , as m easured by t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d v a r i a b l e s , and by a s t a n d a r d i z e d j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h a n p e r s o n s n o t f o l l o w i n g t h e s e p l a n s . In c o m p a r i n g t h e two g r o u p s , (1) t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who a c t e d upon p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s , and ( I I ) t h o s e who d i d n o t , h y p o t h e s e s were f o r m u l a t e d as o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I . F o r t h e s a k e o f c o n v e n i e n c e , t h e s i x h y p o t h e s e s a r e r e p e a t e d h e r e : 1. I n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I w o u l d r e v e a l g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n w o u l d t h o s e i n Group I I . 2. Group I i n d i v i d u a l s had s i n c e 1964 e x p e r i e n c e d f e w e r p e r i o d s o f unemployment t h a n had Group I I i n d i v i d u a l s . 3. Changes o f e m p l o y e r s had been e f f e c t e d more f r e q u e n t l y by Group I I i n d i v i d u a l s t h a n by Group I i n d i v i d u a l s . 4. The a v e r a g e number o f p r o m o t i o n s e a r n e d by i n d i -v i d u a l s i n Group I e x c e e d e d t h e number e a r n e d by t h o s e i n G roup I I . 29 5. A v e r a g e y e a r l y i n c o m e s i n 1969 were h i g h e r f o r p e r s o n s i n Group I t h a n f o r p e r s o n s i n Group I I . 6. Those i n Group I r a t e t h e m s e l v e s more c a p a b l e i n t h e i r work t h a n do t h e o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s . S t a t i s t i c a l M ethods To d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t H y p o t h e s i s No. 1 c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a t e d , t e s t i n g f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t was c a r r i e d o u t , u s i n g t h e p o o l e d v a r i a n c e i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s o f t h e two g r o u p s I and I I . I t was p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d be r e j e c t e d , were t h e mean o f Group I g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean o f Group I I a t a l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f .05. In t h i s h y p o t h e s i s and t h e o t h e r f i v e h y p o t h e s e s , o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s were a p p l i e d . In H y p o t h e s e s 2, 3, 4, and 6, t h e Mann-Whitney U T e s t w i t h t i e s , was u t i l i z e d t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b etween Group I and Group I I . C h i s q u a r e was a p p l i e d t o t e s t f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n H y p o t h e s i s 5. H y p o t h e s i s No. 1 B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e s c o r e s a c h i e v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who a c t e d on p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s ( G r o u p I ) and t h o s e who d i d n o t ( G r o u p I I ) a r e shown i n T a b l e I . A l s o l i s t e d i s t h e p e r t i n e n t s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e t v a l u e . As a t v a l u e o f 1.68 i s r e q u i r e d , w i t h 46 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m , f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l , t h e r e s u l t a n t t c l e a r l y i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . 30 TABLE I BRAYFIELD-ROTHE JOB SATISFACTION INDEX RESULTS SCORES FOR THE TWO GROUPS Group I Group I I N 28 20 Mean 65.89 62.45 SD 11.72 11.9 S2 137.43 139.73 Sp2 138.38 t 1.04 P >.05 H y p o t h e s i s No. 2 Q u e s t i o n 21 o f t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e c o n c e r n e d t h e number o f t i m e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were u n e m p l o y e d f o r more t h a n two weeks o v e r t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s The r e s p o n s e s o f b o t h g r o u p s , a l o n g w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a , a r e shown i n T a b l e I I . Fewer i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I e x p e r i e n c e d any u n e m p l o y m e n t , and t h e M a n n - W h i t n e y t e s t i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s i n t h e i r o v e r - a l l p a t t e r n s o f u n e m p l o y -ment. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t Group I i n d i v i d u a l s had e x p e r i e n c e d f e w e r p e r i o d s o f unemployment t h a n had Group I I i n d i v i d u a l s i s t h u s s u p p o r t e d . 31 TABLE I I NUMBER OF TWO-WEEK PERIODS OR MORE OF UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCED OVER THE PAST F I V E YEARS BY THE TWO GROUPS Group f f - -I Group N -I I 20 Not a t a l l 22 9 Once 3 3 Two o r t h r e e t i m e s 3 4 F o u r o r f i v e t i m e s 0 1 More t h a n f i v e 0 3 U - 172.5 £T - 2570 z 2.64 P - .004 H y p o t h e s i s No. 3 The number o f d i f f e r e n t e m p l o y e r s f o r whom members o f G r o u p s I and I I had w o r k e d d u r i n g 1 9 6 5 - 6 9 , i n c l u s i v e , i s l i s t e d i n T a b l e I I I , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Mann-Whitney d a t a . The r e s u l t o f t h e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b etween t h e two g r o u p s . 32 TABLE I I I NUMBER OF DIFFERENT EMPLOYERS OF THE TWO GROUPS IN 1965-69 No. o f E m p l o y e r s Group I N - 28 Group I I N - 20 1 6 5 2 5 4 3 8 3 4 2 5 5 3 1 6 3 1 7 1 0 8 0 0 9 0 1 U - 290 $ T - 313 z - .21 P - >.42 H y p o t h e s i s No. 4 A l l r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y had o b t a i n e d one o r more p r o m o t i o n s d u r i n g t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s . To c l a s s i f y as a p r o m o t i o n , t h e c h a n g e i n p o s i t i o n had t o i n v o l v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a d d i t i o n a l t o t h a t w h i c h w o u l d a c c r u e by s e n i o r i t y a l o n e . I n most i n s t a n c e s , i t was c l e a r w h e t h e r a p r o m o t i o n had been e a r n e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; i n t h r e e o r f o u r c a s e s , a d e g r e e o f s u b j e c t i v i t y was r e q u i r e d i n t h e w r i t e r ' s a s s e s s m e n t . 33 T a b l e IV shows t h e " Y e s " and "No" r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n "Have you o b t a i n e d any j o b p r o m o t i o n s d u r i n g t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s ? " The c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e two g r o u p s do n o t d i f f e r i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . TABLE IV PROMOTIONS EARNED DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS BY THE TWO GROUPS Group I G r oup 11 X 2 - 2.40 P - >.10 H y p o t h e s i s No. 5 Income e a r n e d d u r i n g 1969 by members o f t h e two g r o u p s i s d e p i c t e d i n T a b l e V, a l o n g w i t h M a nn-Whitney U T e s t d a t a . A n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e o v e r - a l l d i f f e r e n c e b e t ween t h e two g r o u p s i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . In v i e w o f t h e r e t i c e n c e shown by 11 e x - c l i e n t s a b o u t c o - o p e r a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y , as shown by t h e i r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e y w o u l d more l i k e l y be i n Group I I ( " n o n - f o l l o w e r s " ) t h a n i n Group I and more l i k e l y t o have e a r n e d l o w e r , r a t h e r t h a n h i g h e r , i n c o m e s d u r i n g 1969. T h e r e f o r e , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e 11 i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , f o r t h e d i s c l o s e d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s a p p r o a c h e s t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . " Y e s " 12 10 "Np_" 16 10 N N 28 20 34 TABLE V INCOME EARNED BY THE TWO GROUPS DURING 1969 Group I N - 28 Group N -I I 2o $ 3,001 • - $ 5,000 2 7 $ 5,001 « - $ 7,000 15 6 $ 7,001 • - $ 9,000 5 5 $ 9,001 • - $11,000 6 1 $11,001 • - $13,000 0 1 U 345.5 *T . 940.5 z 1.44 P > .07 5 H y p o t h e s i s No. 6 Q u e s t i o n 29 o f t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e a s k e d t h e r e s p o n -d e n t t o r a t e h i s a b i l i t y f o r h i s p r e s e n t j o b . The f i v e a n s w e r s p o s s i b l e a p p e a r i n T a b l e V I , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I and Group I I , and s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a . The Mann-Whitney t e s t i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s . 35 TABLE VI RATINGS BY THE TWO GROUPS OF THEIR A B I L I T Y TO PERFORM THEIR PRESENT JOBS Group I Group I I N - 28 N - 20 P o o r 0 0 S l i g h t l y b e l o w a v e r a g e 0 0 A v e r a g e 8 8 B e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e 1 1 7 V e r y good 9 5 U - 316 T - 1052 z - .80 P - >.21 I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d f o r H y p o t h e s e s 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, f o r Group I i n d i v i d u a l s r e v e a l e d no g r e a t e r j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n d i d Group I I i n d i v i d u a l s . N e i t h e r d i d t h o s e i n Group I e x p e r i -e n ce f e w e r c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s , more p r o m o t i o n s , o r h i g h e r i n c o m e s t h a n d i d i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I I . F u r t h e r , s e l f - r a t i n g s of a b i l i t y e v i d e n t l y d i d n o t d i f f e r f o r t h e two g r o u p s . However, t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o r H y p o t h e s i s 2, as Group I i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f e w e r p e r i o d s o f une m p l o y -ment t h a n d i d Group I I i n d i v i d u a l s . CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS I n e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , r e s e a r c h e r s have g e n e r a l l y r e l i e d on r a t i n g s d e v i s e d by p r o f e s -s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s , who have j u d g e d t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a v o c a t i o n a l g o a l a c c o r d i n g t o i n t e r e s t , i n t e l l i g e n c e , and a p t i t u d e t e s t r e s u l t s o f t h e c o u n s e l l e e s . A l t h o u g h t h e outcome a p p e a r s t o p r o v e t h e w o r t h o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , most s t u d i e s a c t u a l l y have had l i m i t e d v a l u e , b e c a u s e t h e y have compared t e s t e v i d e n c e w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i m m e d i a t e p l a n s , n o t w i t h what a c t u a l l y h a p p e n e d . A l s o , t h e s t u d i e s have l a r g e l y i n v o l v e d u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , . a n d have a s s e s s e d t h e q u a l i t y o f c o u n s e l l i n g on t h e b a s i s o f p a r t i a l r e t u r n s o f m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have t r a c e d and i n t e r v i e w e d random s a m p l e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who u n d e r w e n t c o u n s e l l i n g some y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , b u t no s i m i l a r s t u d i e s have been u n d e r t a k e n i n C a n a d a . T h i s s t u d y r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t t o f i l l t h i s n e e d , and has p r o c e e d e d on t h e assump-t i o n ( a ) t h a t i t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r p e o p l e t o be happy i n t h e i r w o r k , and ( b ) t h a t a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r u e f e e l i n g s . 37 I . SUMMARY A s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e , a l o n g w i t h t h e B r a y f i e l d -R o t h e I n d e x o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n , was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 48 m a l e s who h a d , i n 1 9 6 4 , e x p e r i e n c e d c o u n s e l l i n g a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The s a m p l e r a n g e d i n age f r o m 25 t o 4 5 , w i t h a mean o f 2 8 . 2 ; and a l l were l i v i n g i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a . T h e s e 48 i n d i v i d u a l s a p p a r e n t l y s h a r e d t h e p e r p l e x i t y o f b e i n g e i t h e r d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r w o r k , o r u n e m p l o y e d , when t h e y s o u g h t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f c o u n -s e l l o r s some s i x y e a r s ago. A p a n e l o f e x p e r t s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t 28 i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e s a m p l e had a c t e d upon t h e p l a n s d e v e l o p e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s , w h i l e 20 had n o t . T h e s e two s u b - p o p u l a t i o n s were r e f e r r e d t o as Group I and Group I I . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o t r y t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r Group I , w h i c h had f o l l o w e d p l a n s d e v e l o p e d w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s , e x p e r i e n c e d a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n Group I I , w h i c h had n o t f o l l o w e d t h e s e p l a n s . T e s t i n g o f t h e H y p o t h e s e s N o n - p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s were e m p l o y e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e two g r o u p s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : 1. J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n as a s s e s s e d by t h e B r a y f i e l d -R o t h e I n d e x . 2. Number o f p e r i o d s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t . 3. Number o f c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s . 4. Number o f p r o m o t i o n s e a r n e d . 5. Income i n 1969. 6. S e l f - r a t i n g o f a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t h e i r j o b s . 38 The s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e two g r o u p s w o u l d d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e d . The mean s c o r e o f Group I was 6 5 . 8 9 , w h i l e t h e mean o f Group I I was 6 2 . 4 5 . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two means i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean s c o r e o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e on t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x was 64.46. T h i s r e s u l t d i f f e r s l i t t l e f r o m t h e mean o f 63.8 d i s c l o s e d i n B r a y f i e l d and R o t h e ' s ( 1 7 ) s t u d y o f 231 e m p l o y e d o f f i c e w o r k e r s . The number o f t i m e s when members o f t h e s a m p l e were u n e m p l o y e d f o r two weeks o r more was a s c e r t a i n e d . T w e n t y - t w o i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I and n i n e i n Group I I r e p o r t e d no unemployment s i n c e 1964; t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I I s t a t e d t h a t t h e y had been u n e m p l o y e d more t h a n f i v e t i m e s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . M o r e o v e r , a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b etween t h e two g r o u p s i n r e s p e c t t o number o f p e r i o d s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t . Group I I i n d i v i d u a l s had e x p e r i e n c e d more p e r i o d s o f unemployment o v e r t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s t h a n had Group I i n d i v i d u a l s . E v i d e n t l y , a m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s had c h a n g e d e m p l o y e r s a t l e a s t t w i c e s i n c e 1964.. Changes r e p o r t e d by Group I i n d i v i d -u a l s r a n g e d f r o m one t o s i x ; f o r Group I I i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e r a n g e was one t o e i g h t . The number o f c h a n g e s o f e m p l o y e r s made by b o t h g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . P r o m o t i o n s were c l a i m e d t o have been e a r n e d o v e r t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s by 22 o f t h e 48 e x - c l i e n t s . T w e l v e o f t h e p r o m o t i o n s were e a r n e d by members o f Group I , and t e n by members o f Group I I . The d i f f e r e n c e i n number between t h e two g r o u p s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . 39 A l m o s t . - o n e - h a l f ' ( 2 1 ) o f t h e 48 i n d i v i d u a l s r e p o r t e d 1969 e a r n i n g s i n t h e $5,001 - $7,000 r a n g e . The l o w e s t i n c o m e s r e p o r t e d were i n t h e $3,001 - $5,000 c a t e g o r y , w h i l e t h e h i g h -e s t i n c o m e , e a r n e d by one i n d i v i d u a l , was i n t h e $11,001 -$13,000 c a t e g o r y . Incomes e a r n e d by t h e two g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . A l l members o f t h e s a m p l e r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s a t l e a s t a v e r a g e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m t h e i r j o b s . N i n e i n Group I and f i v e i n Group I I gave t h e m s e l v e s t o p r a t i n g s ("Very .good"). T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a t i n g s o f t h e two g r o u p s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r o r n o t e x - c l i e n t s o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e a c t e d upon p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d w i t h c o u n s e l l o r s . W h i l e t h o s e who f o l l o w e d p l a n s e x p e r i e n c e d f e w e r p e r i o d s o f unemployment t h a n t h o s e who d i d n o t , t h e " f o l l o w e r s " were n o t more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s , c h a n g e d e m p l o y e r s as o f t e n , e a r n e d n e i t h e r more p r o m o t i o n s n o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n c o m e s , and d i d n o t r a t e t h e i r j o b a b i l i t y more h i g h l y t h a n d i d t h e " n o n - f o l l o w e r s " . The s t u d y has n o t p r o v e d t h a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e was o f l i t t l e h e l p t o i t s c l i e n t s i n 1964; n e i t h e r d o e s i t s u b s t a n t i a t e c l a i m s made by t h e a g e n c y i n a n n u a l r e p o r t s and b r o c h u r e s o f t h e v a l u e o f i t s s e r v i c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e e v i d e n c e d i s c l o s e d t h a t e x - c l i e n t s who f o l l o w e d c o u n s e l l i n g p l a n s were n o t so f r e q u e n t l y u n e m p l o y e d as were t h o s e who d i d n o t f o l l o w c o u n s e l l i n g p l a n s , i t w o u l d be i m p r u d e n t t o f o r m u l a t e s w e e p i n g 40 g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s p a p e r . In f a c t , t h e main c o n c l u s i o n m i g h t w e l l be t h a t p r e t e n t i o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s made i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s h o u l d be v i e w e d w i t h a d e g r e e o f s k e p t i c i s m . I I . IMPLICATIONS From t h e f i n d i n g s , one m i g h t be i n c l i n e d t o a g r e e w i t h M e t z l e r ( 6 1 ) , who d e c l a r e s t h a t g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m s a r e " o p e r a t i n g p r i m a r i l y on a s s u m p t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n on e v i d e n c e , . . . " and w i t h R o t h n e y and F a r w e l l ( 7 1 ) , who f e e l t h a t g u i d a n c e s e r v i c e s a r e " o f f e r e d l a r g e l y on t h e b a s i s o f hope and f a i t h . " As p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a -t u r e , h o w e v e r , t h e s e n e g a t i v e o p i n i o n s r e p r e s e n t a m i n o r i t y v i e w . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y o p p o s e o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f i c a c y o f c o u n s e l l i n g , e x p r e s s e d by a u t h o r i t i e s s u c h as S u p e r and C r i t e s ( 2 5 , 8 0 , 8 1 , 8 2 ) , and a r e a t v a r i a n c e w i t h r e s u l t s d i s c l o s e d by l o n g - t e r m f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( 1 3 : 4 9 6 , 4 8 , 5 1 , 5 4 , 5 6 , 7 6 , 8 6 : 2 7 3 - 2 7 5 ) . However, i t s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d t h a t a t l e a s t f i v e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d m a i l e d - i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; f o r t h e o t h e r two ( 1 3 , 7 6 ) , t h e method o f o b t a i n i n g d a t a i s n o t known. I t i s p e r h a p s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t two o t h e r s t u d i e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h p r e - s e l e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n s ( 2 2 , 6 6 ) a g r e e w i t h f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . I t c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d w h e t h e r t h e two g r o u p s a r e more, o r l e s s , s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s t h a n a r e o t h e r g r o u p s o f w o r k e r s i n t h i s c o u n t r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c o m p a r i s o n f i g u r e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n , o w i n g t o t h e d i v e r s i t y o f m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s e m p l o y e d i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d i e s , and t h e 41 f a c t t h a t f ew s t u d i e s r e p o r t a c t u a l t e s t s c o r e s . A s e a r c h o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d i s c l o s e d no B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e s c o r e s f o r a g r o u p o f w o r k e r s i n a v a r i e t y o f j o b s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . B e c a u s e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g v o c a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e by no means c l e a r , t h e r e i s a need f o r r e p l i c a t i o n o f much o f t h e r e s e a r c h done t h u s f a r , w i t h an e m p h a s i s on l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . However, as C r i t e s ( 2 5 ) r e p o r t s , more c a r e must be t a k e n t o a d o p t sound r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y , e s p e c i a l l y t o d e v e l o p a j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n m e a sure o f r e c o g n i z e d m e r i t . As n o t e d i n A p p e n d i x C, a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n "How do you f e e l a b o u t y o u r p r e s e n t j o b ? " showed a marked c o r r e l a t i o n (.~78) w i t h s c o r e s on t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x . T h e r e f o r e , i n s i t u a t i o n s where a r a p i d a s s e s s m e n t o f e m p l o y e e s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e i r j o b s i s r e q u i r e d , t h e use o f t h i s one q u e s t i o n seems w a r r a n t e d . F o r e x a m p l e , i t w o u l d be f e a s i b l e f o r a c o u n -s e l l i n g s e r v i c e t o i n c l u d e t h i s q u e s t i o n as a r e g u l a r p a r t o f i t s t e s t b a t t e r y o r p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y f o r m . The d a t a d e r i v e d c o u l d p r o v e o f p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e i n f o l l o w - u p s t u d i e s o f t h e a g e n c y ' s c l i e n t s . The m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n (.51) between o c c u p a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n A p p e n d i x C s u g g e s t s a f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s e s s i n g t h e w o r t h o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n -s e l l i n g . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t i n some i n s t a n c e s , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s r e f l e c t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e j o b (a v i c i o u s f o r e m a n , f o r e x a m p l e ) and n o t w i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n i t s e l f . 42 T h e r e f o r e , t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s " p r e d i c t i o n " o f what s h o u l d p r o v e t o be a s a t i s f y i n g o c c u p a t i o n may n o t be s u b s t a n t i a t e d b e c a u s e o f e x t r a n e o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , n o t b e c a u s e o f i n a d e q u a c i e s i n t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . T a b l e V I I I o f A p p e n d i x C i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t more i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d c h o o s e d i f f e r e n t j o b s t h a n w o u l d c h o o s e t h e i r p r e s e n t o n e s , were t h e y a b l e t o r e v e r t t o age 18. Whether o r n o t t h i s i s s i m -p l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e " f a r f i e l d s a r e g r e e n e r " adage o r o f r e a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h employment i s n o t known. I f t h e l a t t e r i s t h e c a s e , r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n p r o v i d e f u r t h e r p r o o f o f t h e need f o r w i s e c o u n s e l . F o r as Roe ( 7 0 : 3 1 ) has s t a t e d : t h e r e i s no s i n g l e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i s p o t e n t i a l l y so c a p a b l e o f g i v i n g some s a t i s f a c t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s o f b a s i c needs as i s t h e o c c u p a t i o n . As p o i n t e d o u t i n A p p e n d i x C, f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h e j o b i t s e l f ( s u c h as a g e , i n t e l l i g e n c e , and m a r i t a l s t a t u s ) may i n f l u e n c e t h e d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l g a i n s f r o m h i s j o b . Of t h e s e v e n t e e n v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d , o n l y t h r e e showed s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x s c o r e s . Of t h e s e t h r e e , two ( l e v e l o f income and t h e o b t a i n -i n g o f p r o m o t i o n s ) showed p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; w h i l e one (number o f y e a r s w i t h p r e s e n t e m p l o y e r ) was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e I n d e x . E v i d e n t l y , t h e n , t h e more money one i s p a i d f o r h i s s e r v i c e s , and t h e more r e c o g n i t i o n he r e c e i v e s i n t h e f o r m o f p r o m o t i o n s , t h e more s a t i s f i e d he i s l i k e l y t o be w i t h h i s j o b . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e l o n g e r one r e m a i n s w i t h an e m p l o y e r ( w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y ) , t h e l e s s l i k e l y he i s t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s e mployment. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A n a s t a s i , Anne. P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g . New Y o r k : The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1959. 2. A n d r e w , D o r o t h y M., and P a t e r s o n , D o n a l d G. M i n n e s o t a C l e r i c a l T e s t Manual . New Y o r k : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1959. 3. A n n u a l R e p o r t . V a n c o u v e r : The Y o u t h C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1964. 4. A n n u a l R e p o r t . V a n c o u v e r : The V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965. 5. A p o s t a l , R o b e r t , A. "Two M e t h o d s o f E v a l u a t i n g V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l i n g . " J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 7: 1 7 1 - 1 7 5 , 1 960" 6. B a r r y , R u t h , and W o l f , B e v e r l y . An E p i t a p h f o r V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1962. 7. B e n n e t t , G e o r g e K. T e s t o f M e c h a n i c a 1 C o m p r e h e n s i o n , • Form BB, M a n u a l " New Y o r k : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1947. 8. B e r d i e , R. F. 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" E m p i r i c a l and T h e o r e t i c a l A s p e c t s o f J ob S a t i s f a c t i o n . " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 2 6 : 7 4 8 0 , 1966. 75. S e l k i n , J a m e s . " V o c a t i o n a l A d j u s t m e n t and P e r s o n a l i t y : A S t u d y o f Some M e d i a t i n g V a r i a b l e s . " D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s , 2 3 : 2 2 0 0 , 1962. 76. S e i t z , M. J . "A F o l l o w - u p S t u d y o f t h e Use o f t h e G.A.T.B. o f t h e U.S. Employment S e r v i c e i n t h e P l a c e m e n t o f H i g h S c h o o l S e n i o r s . " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f D e l a w a r e , 1949. 77. S p i t z e r , M o r t o n Edward. " G o a l A t t a i n m e n t , J o b S a t i s f a c -t i o n and B e h a v i o r . " U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a -t i o n , New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1964. 78. S t o n e , C. H., and S i m o s , I . "A F o l l o w - u p S t u d y o f P e r s o n a l C o u n s e l i n g v e r s u s C o u n s e l i n g by L e t t e r . " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 3 2 : 4 0 8 - 4 1 4 , 1948. 50 79. S t r o n g , Edward K., J r . V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s 18 Y e a r s A f t e r C o l l e g e . M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1955. 8 0 . S u p e r , D o n a l d E. The P s y c h o l o g y o f C a r e e r s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s , 1957. 8 1 . S u p e r , D o n a l d E., and C r i t e s , J o h n 0. A p p r a i s i n g V o c a t i o n a l F i t n e s s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, T96T: 8 2 . S u p e r , D o n a l d E., and o t h e r s . V o c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t : A Framework f o r R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1957. 8 3 . T h o r n d i k e , R o b e r t L., and Hagen, E l i z a b e t h . M e a s u r e -ment and E v a l u a t i o n i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I n c . , 1961. 84. T r a x l e r , A r t h u r E. T e c h n i q u e s o f G u i d a n c e . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s , 1957. 8 5 . T r u a x , C h a r l e s B., and R o b e r t R. C a r k h u f f . Toward E f f e c t i v e C o u n s e l i n g and P s y c h o t h e r a p y . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1967. 8 6 . T y l e r , L e o n a E. The Work o f t h e C o u n s e l o r . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1961. 8 7 . T y l e r , L e o n a E. "Work and I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s . " Man i n a W o r l d a t Work, e d . Henry Borow. B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 1964, pp. 1 7 4 - 1 9 5 . 8 8 . T y l e r , L e o n a E. The Work o f t h e C o u n s e l o r . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1969. 8 9 . V e r n o n , P h i l i p E. " O c c u p a t i o n a l Norms f o r t h e 20-M i n u t e P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s T e s t . " O c c u p a t i o n a 1  P s y c h o l o g y , 2 3 : 5 8 - 5 9 , 1949. 90. V o l l m e r , Howard M., and K i n n e y , J a c k A. "Age, E d u c a t i o n , and J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . " P e r s o n n e l , 3 2 : 3 8 - 4 3 , 1955. 9 1 . V o l s k y , T h e o d o r e , J r . , Magoon, Thomas M., Norman, Warren T., and H o y t , D o n a l d P. The Outcome o f C o u n s e l i n g and  P s y c h o t h e r a p y . M i n n e s o t a : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1965. 92. Vroom, V i c t o r H. Work and M o t i v a t i o n . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I n c . , 1964. 51 93. W a l k e r , J o h n L. " C o u n s e l o r s ' J u d g m e n t s i n t h e P r e d i c t i o n o f t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l and E d u c a t i o n a l P e r f o r m a n c e o f F o r m e r H i g h S c h o o l S t u d e n t s . " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a -t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 49:82-91 , 1 955. 94. W a l l a c e , G a y l e n R a y f o r d . "An A n a l y s i s o f J o b S a t i s f a c -t i o n o f E m p l o y e d Y o u t h I n v o l v e d i n an E x p e r i m e n t a l S c h o o l D r o p o u t R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P r o g r a m . " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , 2 7 : 4 0 5 9 , 1967. 95. W e b s t e r , Edward C. "A F o l l o w - u p on V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e . " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 2 6 : 2 8 5 - 2 9 5 , 1942. APPENDIX A APPENDIX A I . BACKGROUND OF THE VOCATIONAL COUNSELLING SERVICE FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA O r g a n i z a t i on L a r g e l y due t o t h e i n i t i a t i v e and g e n e r o s i t y o f t h e V a n c o u v e r R o t a r y C l u b , t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1947 i n p r e m i s e s d o n a t e d by t h e B u r r a r d S t r e e t B r a n c h o f t h e Y.M.C.A. The R o t a r y C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e , as t h e a g e n c y was f i r s t t e r m e d , met w i t h a l m o s t i n s t a n t a c c l a i m . W i t h no p a i d a d v e r -t i s i n g and v e r y l i t t l e p u b l i c i t y , t h e a g e n c y was soon w o r k i n g t o c a p a c i t y , so t h a t w i t h i n two months o f i t s i n c e p t i o n i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t 146 young men had been i n t e r v i e w e d and 55 had c o m p l e t e d t e s t s ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , Nov. 24, 1 9 4 7 ) . O t h e r c o m m u n i t y a g e n c i e s were e v i d e n t l y q u i c k t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e ; f o r e x a m p l e , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f V e t e r a n s ' A f f a i r s , t h e Workmen's C o m p e n s a t i o n B o a r d , c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t s , and t h e N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e r e f e r r e d i n d i v i d u a l s f o r a s s e s s -ment by t h e s e r v i c e . W i t h i n a few m o n t h s , a w a i t i n g p e r i o d o f t h r e e weeks was n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e a c l i e n t c o u l d a r r a n g e an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a c o u n s e l l o r . When t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e was s u p p o r t e d s o l e l y by g r a n t s f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r R o t a r y C l u b , i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t an a n n u a l b u d g e t o f $5,000 w o u l d s u f f i c e . H o wever, t h e demand f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p r o v e d t h i s sum t o be i n a d e q u a t e , and i t has been e x c e e d e d e v e r y y e a r s i n c e t h e f i r s t . I n d e e d , t h e most o b v i o u s message c o n t a i n e d i n e v e r y a n n u a l r e p o r t s i n c e t h e a g e n c y was e s t a b l i s h e d i s t h a t i t u r g e n t l y needs g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . The a g e n c y was i n c o r p o r a t e d as a s o c i e t y u n d e r t h e S o c i e t i e s A c t i n 1 9 5 1 , when t h e R o t a r y C l u b f o r m a l l y t u r n e d o v e r management o f t h e o p e r a t i o n t o an i n d e p e n d e n t b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s c o n s i s t i n g o f s i x men o f v a r y i n g b a c k g r o u n d s ; s i n c e 1962, t h e r e have been 22 i n d i v i d u a l s on t h e b o a r d . F o r t h e n e x t f i f t e e n y e a r s , t h e a g e n c y was known as t h e " Y o u t h C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " I n 1 9 7 0 , a f t e r some t w e l v e y e a r s a t t h e P e n d e r S t r e e t a d d r e s s , t h e a g e n c y moved t o i t s p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n a t 2617 E a s t B r o a d w a y . The R o t a r y C l u b c o n t i n u e d t o p r o v i d e some f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o t h e a g e n c y u n t i l 1955. I n 1 9 5 4 , g r a n t s were r e c e i v e d f r o m b o t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t and t h e U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f r o m b o t h s o u r c e s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1969. I n t h a t y e a r , t h e U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t s s u p p o r t w o u l d g r a d u a l l y be w i t h d r a w n o v e r a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d , w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d i n c r e a s e i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e recom-m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e B a r c l a y R e p o r t o f 1965. P r i o r t o 1954, no c h a r g e was made f o r c o u n s e l l i n g , b u t t h a t y e a r t h e b o a r d d e c i d e d t o r e q u e s t a f e e o f f i v e d o l l a r s f r o m e v e r y c l i e n t deemed a b l e t o p a y . I n 1962 t h i s f e e was r a i s e d t o s e v e n d o l l a r s , i n 1965 t o f i f t e e n d o l l a r s , and i n 196 8 , t o t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s . E a r l y i n 1 9 7 0 , t h e c h a r g e was s e t a t t h i r t y - f i v e d o l l a r s . In 1 9 6 9 , a d e c i s i o n was made t o i s s u e t y p e w r i t t e n r e p o r t s t o e a c h c o u n s e l e e , and t h e f e e now i n c l u d e s t h i s r e p o r t o f t e s t s c o r e s and a b r i e f summary o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r ' s i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s . As t h e a g e n c y had a l w a y s been p r i m a r i l y v o c a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e , and as t h e r e was no u p p e r age l i m i t f o r t h o s e who w i s h e d t o a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f i t s s e r v i c e s , t h e name was c h a n g e d i n 1966 t o " V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " S t a f f D u r i n g 1964 T h r o u g h o u t t h e f i r s t h a l f o f 1 9 6 4 , two i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e t o t a l f u l l - t i m e s t a f f o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e - - o n e p s y c h o m e t r i s t - s e c r e t a r y and one c o u n -s e l l o r . (A r e p l a c e m e n t f o r t h e a c t i n g e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r who had r e s i g n e d l a t e i n 1963 had n o t y e t been made). D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , a p a r t - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r was e m p l o y e d on a o n e - e v e n i n g -p e r - w e e k b a s i s . In J u n e , 1964, a s e c o n d f u l l - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r j o i n e d t h e s t a f f , w h i l e i n O c t o b e r o f t h e same y e a r an e x e c u -t i v e d i r e c t o r was a p p o i n t e d t o s e r v e i n a p a r t - t i m e c a p a c i t y . Members o f t h e s t a f f b r o u g h t t o t h e s e r v i c e v a r i e d b a c k -g r o u n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e and d i v e r s e p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The p s y c h o m e t r i s t - s e c r e t a r y , an h o n o u r s g r a d u a t e i n p s y c h o l o g y , j o i n e d t h e a g e n c y f o l l o w i n g s e v e r a l y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l c a p a c i t i e s . The f u l l - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r , f o l l o w i n g a number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n i n d u s t r y and t h e r e c e i p t o f a b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e i n p s y c h o l o g y , had c o m p l e t e d an i n t e r n s h i p i n v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r and I n d u s t r y , New S o u t h W a l e s , where he s p e n t f o u r y e a r s as a g u i d a n c e o f f i c e r . The j u n i o r c o u n s e l l o r a l s o h e l d a b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e i n p s y c h o l o g y , had been a c t i v e i n y o u t h w o r k , and had h e l d a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i c a l and o t h e r j o b s p r i o r t o be c o m i n g a member o f t h e s t a f f . The new e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r ( a p p o i n t e d i n i t i a l l y on a o n e - t h i r d t i m e b a s i s ) had a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e i n p s y c h o l o g y . F o r a number o f y e a r s , t h i s i n d i v i d u a l h e l d a p o s i t i o n as l e c t u r e r and c o u n s e l l o r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; more r e c e n t l y he had h e l d a C i v i l S e r v i c e a p p o i n t m e n t ( C i t i z e n -s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n ) , a p o s i t i o n f r o m w h i c h he had r e t i r e d i n 1963 . F i n a l l y , t h e p a r t - t i m e c o u n s e l l o r , w i t h a m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e and some e x p e r i e n c e i n i n d u s t r i a l p s y c h o l o g y , was a t t h a t t i m e a c o u n s e l l o r a t t h e K i n g Edward C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e . I I . THE COUNSELLING PROCEDURE C o u n s e l l o r s a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e e v i d e n t l y b a s e d t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s upon i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m b o t h p r e l i m i n a r y and f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s , f r o m f o r m s c o m p l e t e d by t h e c l i e n t ( a p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y f o r m and an " I n t e r e s t i n O c c u p a t i o n s " q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) , and f r o m a b a t t e r y o f t e s t s . I n 57 f a c t , t h e p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d by t h e a g e n c y so c l o s e l y f o l l o w s t h e p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d by S a m l e r ( i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f a t y p i c a l v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g a g e n c y ) t h a t i t seems a p p r o -p r i a t e t o r e p r o d u c e h i s w o r d s : The p r o c e d u r e i n t h e t y p i c a l v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e t t i n g seems t o be a b o u t as f o l l o w s . The c l i e n t , h owever he does i t and w i t h w h a t e v e r m o t i v a t i o n , a p p l i e s f o r c o u n s e l i n g . P r o b a b l y he f i l l s o u t a p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y f o r m and has one o r more i n t e r v i e w s . O b j e c t i v e t e s t i n g may be e x t e n s i v e and s o m e t i m e s c a r r y t h e e n t i r e t a s k o f p r o v i d i n g d a t a , o r i t may be l i m i t e d t o s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e s . I n what i s a t p r e s e n t s ound p r a c t i c e a t t h e s e s t a g e s i n t h e p r o c e s s , t h e c o u n s e l l o r f o r m u l a t e s h y p o t h e s e s f o r h i s c l i e n t ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o h i s p r o b a b l e f u n c t i o n i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r work and i n work i t s e l f ( 7 2 : 4 1 2 ) . S i m p l y s t a t e d , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e I n v o l v e s c o u n s e l l i n g c l i e n t s i n i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i ews, u s i n g d a t a d e r i v e d f r o m i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h as t e s t s and p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y f o r m s . Each o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y . C o u n s e l 1 i ng Today t h e r e a r e c o u n s e l l o r s o f many s o r t s - - i n v e s t m e n t c o u n s e l l o r s , m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l o r s , camp c o u n s e l l o r s , and so on - - e a c h s u p p o s e d l y t r a i n e d t o a s s i s t p e o p l e by u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s p e c u l i a r t o h i s own s p e c i a l t y . C o u n s e l l i n g , as p r a c t i s e d by t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e , r e l a t e d v e r y c l o s e l y t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f c o u n s e l l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o u t l i n e d by McGowan and S c h m i d t and m i g h t be d e s c r i b e d , t h e r e f o r e , as f o l l o w s : 1) I t i s a s o c i a l l e a r n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n two p e o p l e , r a n g i n g somewhat between s i m p l e a d v i s i n g and l o n g - t e r m p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t . 2) The r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e s e r v i c e a r e g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d " c l i e n t s . " 3) The c o n c e r n i s u s u a l l y w i t h n o r m a l r a t h e r t h a n w i t h a b n o r m a l i n d i v i d u a l s . 4.) C l i e n t s may be u p s e t o r f r u s t r a t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f c o u n s e l l i n g , b u t a r e n o t u s u a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s a b l e d or. d i s i n t e g r a t e d . 5) A p r i m a r y aim i s t o h e l p c l i e n t s u n d e r s t a n d and a c c e p t what t h e y a r e , and t o r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n -t i a l . 6) A l t h o u g h 1 i s t e n i n g and t a l k i n g a r e t h e p r i m a r y m e t h o d s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s , b i o g r a p h i c a l h i s t o r i e s and o u t s i d e r e s o u r c e s a r e u s u a l l y e m p l o y e d . 7) A t t e n t i o n 1s p a i d t o e x t r a - c o u n s e l l i n g as w e l l as i n t r a - c o u n s e l 1 i n g e v e n t s and c h a n g e s . 8) More e m p h a s i s i s g i v e n t o t h e p o s i t i v e and o b v i o u s t h a n t o t h e n e g a t i v e and u n c o n s c i o u s i n t h e c o u n s e l -l i n g p r o c e s s ( 5 7 : 3 - 4 ) . In more t h e o r e t i c a l " t e r m s , c o u n s e l l i n g a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e m i g h t be s a i d t o be a m e l d i n g o f t h e " c o r r e l a t i o n a l " s t r e a m o f p s y c h o l o g y w i t h t h e " e x p e r i m e n t a l " as d e s c r i b e d by C r o n b a c h ( 2 6 ) . T h a t i s t o s a y , n o t o n l y has t h e p r o c e d u r e been t o a p p r a i s e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( c o m p a r i n g him w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d r e f e r e n c e g r o u p s ) f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f f i n d i n g h i s n i c h e i n t h e w o r l d o f work and e l s e w h e r e ( t h e " c o r r e l a -t i o n a l " a p p r o a c h ) , b u t r e g a r d has been t a k e n o f v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s ( c o u r s e s i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g , and so on) t h a t m i g h t l e a d t o more e f f e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( t h e " e x p e r i m e n t a l " a p p r o a c h ) . Goldman ( 3 7 : 1 3 ) has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t " t h e u s e r o f t e s t s i n c o u n s e l i n g s h o u l d be a b l e t o b e n e f i t f r o m a c a r e f u l s y n t h e s i s o f s e l e c t e d e l e m e n t s f r o m b o t h a p p r o a c h e s . " I n t e r v i e w s A l t h o u g h i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t i n t e r v i e w i n g m e t h o d s and t e c h n i q u e s w o u l d v a r y somewhat w i t h i n any a g e n c y , t h e r e i s no 59 e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s r e g a r d i n g c o u n s e l -l i n g , o r i n t h e i r a b i l i t y as c o u n s e l l o r s . In any e v e n t , t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e a g e n c y c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d i n t h e 1964 A n n u a l R e p o r t , and i t seems l i k e l y t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s e m p l o y e d t h e r e i n w o u l d a g r e e t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w s h o u l d be . . . c o n d u c t e d a l o n g p e r m i s s i v e l i n e s , and no a t t e m p t ... made t o t e l l t h e c l i e n t what he s h o u l d d o. R a t h e r i t i s an i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n , i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n be o b j e c t i v e l y v i e w e d , and a s s e s s e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s b e t ween w h i c h he i s d e c i d i n g . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e c o u n -s e l l o r i n t e r p r e t s t h e t e s t r e s u l t s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and o t h e r e v i d e n c e , p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e many t y p e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s and t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s , and a t t e m p t s t o h e l p t h e c l i e n t p l a n r e a l i s t i c and p r o m i s i n g c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n . Sometimes t h i s means e n c o u r a g i n g and m o t i v -a t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o w a r d s c o n s i d e r i n g h i t h e r t o u n t h o u g h t o f o b j e c t i v e s , and g i v i n g t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t and i n c e n t i v e t h a t he has s e l d o m i f e v e r b e f o r e r e c e i v e d . A t o t h e r t i m e s , i t e n t a i l s h e l p i n g t h e c l i e n t t o v i e w h i m s e l f and t h e w o r l d o f work more r e a l i s t i c a l l y , d i r e c t i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n t o w a r d s o b j e c t i v e s more r e a d i l y a t t a i n a b l e t h a n t h e g o a l s he has p r e v i o u s l y s e t f o r h i m s e l f . U n d e r l y i n g t h e s e b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e t h e p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , and e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h g o v e r n i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s , and a r e p a r t s o f t h e t o t a l s i t u a t i o n . H e r e , i n t h e o b j e c t i v e b u t p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v i e w , c l i e n t s f i n d them-s e l v e s a b l e t o c l a r i f y many o f t h e h o p e s , a s p i r a t i o n s , d i f f i c u l t i e s and f e a r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e i r l i v e s , and as a r e s u l t more e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r own p r o b l e m s and f i n d s o l u t i o n s . E v e r y c l i e n t o f t h e s e r v i c e was a c c o r d e d a minimum o f two i n t e r v i e w s . The f i r s t was u s u a l l y o f o n e - h a l f h o u r ' s d u r a t i o n , and i t s p r i m a r y p u r p o s e was t o a c q u i r e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e c l i e n t , d e t e r m i n e h i s p r o b l e m , e x p l a i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e r v i c e , and m u t u a l l y d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t e s t i n g and c o u n s e l l i n g c o u l d h e l p h i m . The s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w u s u a l l y l a s t e d an h o u r a n d , as p o i n t e d o u t a b o v e , t h e c o u n s e l l o r a t t h i s s t a g e p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e d e r i v e d f r o m t e s t i n g and o t h e r s o u r c e s , made p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s , and i n a n o n - d i r e c t i v e f a s h i o n a s s i s t e d t h e c l i e n t t o d e t e r m i n e an a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l . I n s t r u m e n t s In a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e s t b a t t e r y , d e s c r i b e d a t l e n g t h i n A p p e n d i x B, e a c h c l i e n t o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e c o m p l e t e d ( a t home, be t w e e n i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w and t e s t i n g ) a p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y made up o f f i v e p a g e s . ( W i t h o n l y m i n o r r e v i s i o n s , t h i s f o r m r e m a i n s i n u s e t o d a y ) . On Page 1, i n a d d i t i o n t o g i v i n g d a t a s u c h as h i s name and a d d r e s s , t h e c l i e n t i s r e q u e s t e d t o l i s t o t h e r c i t i e s and towns i n w h i c h he has l i v e d , and s t a t e w h e t h e r he has p r e v i o u s l y t a k e n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s . H e r e , and on t h e bac k o f t h e p a g e , he i s a s k e d t o o u t l i n e f u l l y t h e r e a s o n s why he i s s e e k i n g g u i d a n c e . M i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , i f a n y , i s l i s t e d on Page 2, a l t h o u g h most o f t h i s page i s r e s e r v e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ( i n c l u d i n g n i g h t s c h o o l , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and m i s c e l l a n e o u s c o u r s e s ) . I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p r o b l e m s i n s c h o o l , s u b j e c t p r e f e r e n c e s and g r a d e s i s a l s o r e q u e s t e d . Page 7 i s r e s e r v e d f o r employment b a c k g r o u n d , w i t h q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g l i k e s and d i s l i k e s i n p r e v i o u s j o b s , a s e l f - r a t i n g of h i s c a p a c i t i e s f o r work he has d o n e , pay he c o n s i d e r s a d e q u a t e a t p r e s e n t and i n t h e f u t u r e , o c c u p a t i o n s c o n t e m p l a t e d i n t h e p a s t and a t p r e s e n t , 61 and c a r e e r s t h a t may have been s u g g e s t e d by o t h e r p e o p l e . On Page 4, t h e c l i e n t i s a s k e d q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o h i s s p a r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g c l u b m e m b e r s h i p , s p o r t s , r e l i g i o n , r e a d i n g h a b i t s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t , and s o c i a l a c t i v i -t i e s . On Page 5, he i s a s k e d t o s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n on f a m i l y and p e r s o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , i . e . , p a r e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s , o c c u p a t i o n s o f b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , h i s m a r i t a l s t a t u s and l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s . A l s o , on t h i s p a g e , he i s a s k e d f o r c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h d a t a . A t home t h e c l i e n t c o m p l e t e d an " I n t e r e s t i n O c c u p a t i o n s " q u e s t i o n n a i r e naming some 200 o f t h e more common v o c a t i o n s a r r a n g e d i n t o 17 g r o u p s s u c h as " P r a c t i c a l T r a d e s , " " T r a n s p o r t Work," e t c . The c l i e n t was a s k e d t o p u t a c r o s s ( x ) a g a i n s t any o c c u p a t i o n he w o u l d l i k e t o f o l l o w ; a d a s h (-) a g a i n s t any o c c u p a t i o n he w o u l d d i s l i k e ; and a z e r o (0) a g a i n s t a l l o c c u p a t i o n s a b o u t w h i c h he does n o t know enough t o mark w i t h e i t h e r a c r o s s o r a d a s h . A l s o , he was a s k e d t o l i s t any t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n s he w o u l d most l i k e t o f o l l o w . ( T h i s f o r m was i n t r o d u c e d p a r t - w a y t h r o u g h 1964 and t h u s was n o t c o m p l e t e d by a l l members o f t h e s a m p l e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e e v i d e n t l y has been o f some v a l u e , h o w e v e r , as i t r e m a i n s i n u s e . ) APPENDIX B APPENDIX B TESTING--A BRIEF OVERVIEW A c c o r d i n g t o A n a s t a s i ( 1 ) , i n t e r e s t i n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r -e n c e s and t h e i r m easurement g a i n e d i m p e t u s i n 1882 when S i r F r a n c i s G a l t o n e s t a b l i s h e d h i s a n t h r o p o m e t r i c l a b o r a t o r y i n S o u t h K e n s i n g t o n Museum, L o n d o n . S i n c e G a l t o n ' s t i m e , man has s o u g h t t o m e a s u r e h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h t h e a i d o f s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d i n s t r u m e n t s , i n c l u d -i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s . T h e s e t e s t s have p r o v e d u s e f u l i n a number o f a r e a s , one o f w h i c h , i m p o r t a n t t o b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t o s o c i e t y as a w h o l e , i s o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , o r v o c a -t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . What i s d e s i r e d i n v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e i s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e w i s e s t u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n o r d e r t h a t b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y a r e t h e r e b y e n r i c h e d ( 9 , 8 0 , 8 1 , 8 8 ) . T e s t s c o r e s i n d i c a t e what an i n d i v i d u a l d o e s i n c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d i z e d s i t u a t i o n s , and f r o m t h e s e m e a s u r e s o f an i n d i v i d -u a l ' s p e r f o r m a n c e , an i n f e r e n c e i s made r e g a r d i n g h i s c a p a c i t y t o p e r f o r m i n t h e f u t u r e . T h i s e s t i m a t e o f f u t u r e p e r f o r m -a n c e i s , o f c o u r s e , a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y and by no means a c e r t a i n t y . Bingham ( 9 : 2 6 4 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , makes i t c l e a r t h a t a p t i t u d e t e s t s a r e by no means i n f a l l i b l e a n d , i n i n t e r -p r e t i n g r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , " r i c h l y i n f o r m e d common s e n s e must h o l d t h e r e i n s . " The v i e w t h a t c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d e v i -d e n t l y has c h a n g e d l i t t l e f r o m Bingham's t i m e . T h o r n d i k e and Hagen ( 8 3 : 1 3 ) d e c l a r e t h a t "measurement a t b e s t p r o v i d e s o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n , n o t j u d g m e n t . " T y l e r ( 8 8 : 1 0 9 ) s t a t e s t h a t " i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t we a r e g o i n g t o be a b l e t o p r e d i c t d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s v e r y a c c u r a t e l y by means o f t e s t s , " w h i l e S u p e r and C r i t e s ( 8 1 : 8 ) a f f i r m t h a t " t h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s we now u s e e v e n f o r t h e most a d e q u a t e l y m e a s u r e d t r a i t s s u c h as i n t e l l i g e n c e and v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a r e s t i l l n o t c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t o o d . " W h i l e a p p r e c i a t i n g t h a t t e s t s have many w e a k n e s s e s , G h i s e l l i ( 3 6 ) f e e l s t h a t t h e y have f a r more p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e t h a n d e v i c e s s u c h as t h e employment i n t e r v i e w , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n b l a n k , r e f e r e n c e s f r o m p r e v i o u s e m p l o y e r s , and so o n . T h i s v i e w e v i d e n t l y i s s h a r e d by many o f G h i s e l l i ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Blum and B a l i n s k y ( 1 0 ) , C r o n b a c h ( 2 6 ) , Goldman ( 3 7 ) , and T r a x l e r ( 8 4 ) . I n any e v e n t , t e s t i n g seems t o have become an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i n d u s t r i a l l i f e , as A n a s t a s i ( 1 : 4 ) i n d i -c a t e s : From t h e a s s e m b l y - l i n e o p e r a t o r o r f i l i n g c l e r k t o t o p management, t h e r e i s s c a r c e l y a t y p e o f j o b f o r w h i c h some k i n d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t has n o t p r o v e d h e l p f u l i n s u c h m a t t e r s as h i r i n g , j o b a s s i g n m e n t , t r a n s f e r , p r o m o t i o n o r t e r m i n a t i o n . The T e s t B a t t e r y a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e The b a t t e r y a d m i n i s t e r e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g v o c a -t i o n a l g u i d a n c e f r o m t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e t h r o u g h o u t 1964 i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g t e s t s : 1) The K u d e r P r e f e r e n c e R e c o r d ( V o c a t i o n a l ) . 2) O t i s S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g T e s t o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y ( e i t h e r t h e H i g h e r o r I n t e r m e d i a t e f o r m , as a p p r o p r i a t e ) . 3) P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 1956 R e v i s i o n . 4) .i R e v i s e d M i n n e s o t a P a p e r Form B o a r d (Form MA). 5) B e n n e t t M e c h a n i c a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t (Form B B ) . 6) M i n n e s o t a C l e r i c a l T e s t . 7) An a g e n c y - d e v e l o p e d s p e l l i n g t e s t . 8) The m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o c o m p l e t e d a p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t . T h i s was g e n e r a l l y e i t h e r t h e S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , M i n n e s o t a C o u n s e l i n g I n v e n t o r y , o r Edwards P e r s o n a l P r e f e r e n c e S c h e d u l e . A t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l o r , c e r t a i n c l i e n t s c o m p l e t e d a d d i t i o n a l t e s t s ; f o r e x a m p l e , t h o s e f o r whom p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s seemed i n d i c a t e d w o r k e d t h r o u g h t h e S t r o n g I n t e r e s t B l a n k ; some e v i n c i n g an i n t e r e s t i n a r t c o m p l e t e d t h e M e i e r A r t Judgment T e s t ; t h e N e l s o n - D e n n y was a d m i n i s t e r e d when a r e a d i n g h a n d i c a p was s u g g e s t e d , and so o n . In c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s " c h e c k t e s t i n g " was c a r r i e d o u t , and a l s o some i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g by means o f t h e W e e h s l e r A d u l t I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e . As t h e f i r s t s e v e n t e s t s were w r i t t e n by a l l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y , o n l y t h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i 1 . A n a s t a s i ( 1 : 2 2 ) d e f i n e s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t as "an o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d i z e d m e a s u r e o f a s a m p l e o f b e h a v i o r . " The p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f t h e t e s t depends on t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h i s s a m p l e o f b e h a v i o u r s e r v e s as an i n d i c a t o r o f some r e l a t e d f o r m o f a c t i v i t y . Most o f t h e t e s t s i n t h e b a t t e r y have been s u b j e c t e d t o a number o f v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s . D e s c r i p -t i o n s o f t h e t e s t s , and t h e o p i n i o n s o f some a u t h o r i t i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r v a l u e a r e o u t l i n e d b e l o w . Kuder P r e f e r e n c e R e c o r d ( V o c a t i o n a l ) . Commonly c a l l e d an " i n t e r e s t t e s t , " t h e K u d e r c o n s i s t s o f s e t s o f t h r e e o p t i o n s w h i c h m i g h t r e a d : F i x a b r o k e n c l o c k . Keep a s e t o f a c c o u n t s . P a i n t a p i c t u r e . In e a c h s e t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s r e q u i r e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e one w h i c h he w o u l d most l i k e t o do and t h e one w h i c h he w o u l d l e a s t l i k e t o do. Raw s c o r e s a r e c o n v e r t e d t o p e r c e n t i l e s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e r a t i n g s i n e a c h of 10 i n t e r e s t c l u s t e r s ; n a m e l y , " O u t d o o r , " " M e c h a n i c a l , " " C o m p u t a t i o n a l , " " S c i e n t i f i c , " " P e r s u a s i v e , " " A r t i s t i c , " " L i t e r a r y , " " M u s i c a l , " " S o c i a l S e r v i c e , " and " C l e r i c a l . " S e p a r a t e norms a r e p r o v i d e d f o r m a l e s and f e m a l e s . The K u d e r t e s t may be i n t e r p r e t e d by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e two h i g h e s t s c o r e s i n t h e p r o f i l e and r e f e r r i n g t o a l i s t o f o c c u p a t i o n s b e l i e v e d t o be a p p r o p r i a t e . T h u s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s m a n u a l . ( 5 3 ) a p r o f i l e s h o w i n g h i g h e s t s c o r e s i n t h e " S c i e n t i f i c " and " L i t e r a r y " c a t e g o r i e s , s u g g e s t s t h e o c c u p a -t i o n s a u t h o r , e d i t o r , r e p o r t e r , p h y s i c i a n , s u r g e o n , p s y c h o l o -g i s t , and e t y m o l o g i s t . I t i s l i k e l y , h o w e v e r , t h a t most c o u n s e l l o r s r e s o r t t o "common-sense" i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and t h e n make s u g g e s t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t i e s ( 8 0 : 1 9 2 ) . As r e v i s e d i n 1 9 6 4 , t h e K u d e r manual s u m m a r i z e s a number o f v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s , a l t h o u g h some c r i t i c i s m c o u l d be l e v i e d a t t h e way much o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d ; i . e . , c o n t r i b u t e d by t e s t c o n s u m e r s . T h e r e i s a need t o know, f o r one t h i n g , t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e t e s t was g i v e n , as i t i s r e a d i l y a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t a s u b j e c t s u i t a b l y m o t i v a t e d ( a s m i g h t be a j o b a p p l i c a n t a f t e r t h e i d e a l s a l e s m a n ' s p r o f i l e i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a s a l e s p o s i t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e ) c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y f a k e t h e K u d e r P r e f e r e n c e R e c o r d . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume, h o w e v e r , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s e l f - m o t i -v a t e d t o s e e k v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e w o u l d be h o n e s t i n c h o o s i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . S u p e r and C r i t e s ( 8 1 ) s u m m a r i z e a number o f t h e s t u d i e s c a r r i e d o u t r e l a t i n g t o t h e K u d e r . (And t h e r e have been many--The S i x t h M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k ( 2 1 ) l i s t s t h e number o f s u c h s t u d i e s as 567 up t o t h e y e a r 1 9 6 5 ) . T y p i c a l o f t h e r e s e a r c h i s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e p o r t o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t e s t e d i n t h e n i n t h g r a d e , and a g a i n i n t h e t w e l f t h , w i t h t h e r e s u l t s d i s c l o s i n g t h a t 64 p e r c e n t o f t h e t h r e e l o w e s t a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t and 67 p e r c e n t o f t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t had r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t ( 8 1 ) . T h o r n d i k e and Hagen (83 ) r e p o r t on a number o f r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s , b a s e d on a n a l y s i s o f a s i n g l e t e s t i n g , w i t h v a l u e s a v e r a g i n g a b o u t .90; w h i l e i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y , H e r z b e r g and B o u t o n (43 ) r e v i e w e d t h e c o n s t a n c y o f K u d e r i n t e r e s t r a t i n g s between t h e ages o f 17 t o 2 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d f r o m .50 t o .75 f o r t h e v a r i o u s s c a l e s . S t u d i e s s u c h as t h e f o r e g o i n g s u g g e s t t h a t t h e K uder p r o v i d e s r e s u l t s s u f f i c i e n t l y s t a b l e t o be u s e d as a c o u n s e l -l i n g i n s t r u m e n t ( a n d , as t h e manual p o i n t s o u t , o l d e r g r o u p s w o u l d l i k e l y r e v e a l e v e n g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y o f i n t e r e s t s ) . A l t h o u g h K a t z ( 2 1 ) d e c r i e s t h e methods i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e r i v a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f K uder s c o r e s , o t h e r r e v i e w e r s p r a i s e t h e t e s t . B r a y f i e l d ( 1 8 : 6 6 3 ) s t a t e s t h a t "a p o i n t f a v o r i n g t h e K u d e r b l a n k i s t h e e x t r e m e c a r e t a k e n i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , " w h i l e C a r t e r ( 1 9 : 7 3 8 ) r e p o r t s t h a t "a d i g e s t o f s u c h s t u d i e s l e a d s t o t h e j u d g m e n t t h a t t h e t e s t i s one o f t h e b e s t f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f v a l -i d i t y . " I n s o f a r as a s s i s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o c h o o s e a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s c o n c e r n e d , C a r t e r c o n t i n u e s : " I n t h e r e v i e w e r ' s j u d g m e n t , t h e K uder P r e f e r e n c e R e c o r d i s t h e most u s e f u l a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h i s p u r p o s e " and " i t s p r a c t i c a l v a l u e s j u s t i f y e x t e n s i v e use by h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l o r s , and by t h o s e engaged i n c o u n s e l -i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g r o u p s o f a d u l t s . " On t h e o t h e r h a n d , a l a r g e - s c a l e s t u d y of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h e p o s t - G r a d e 13 l e v e l i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o r e v e a l e d t h a t " t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f t h e K uder was d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y l o w f o r t h e s c h o o l s s t u d i e d " ( 3 1 : i i i ) . C r o n b a c h ( 2 6 : 4 2 0 ) s t a t e s t h a t b o t h " t h e S t r o n g and t h e K u d e r t e s t s have been s t u d i e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e r s o n s s u c c e s s f u l i n an o c c u p a t i o n have c o r r e s -p o n d i n g i n t e r e s t t e s t s c o r e s . " T h o r n d i k e and Hagen ( 8 3 ) r e v i e w one c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y b a s e d on t h e K uder p r o f i l e s o f 2,797 men who had u n d e r t a k e n t h e t e s t as p a r t o f V e t e r a n s A d m i n i s -t r a t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g a t t h e end o f W o r l d War I I . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s d o c t o r a l s t u d y d i s c l o s e d s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r e s t o f t h e s e v e t e r a n s and showed t h a t t h e s e i n t e r e s t s w e r e , i n g e n e r a l , a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e o c c u p a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s were e n g a g e d . A l t h o u g h s t u d i e s s u c h as t h e f o r e g o i n g , l e n d some s u p p o r t t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e Kuder as a p r e d i c t o r o f l a t e r b e h a v i o u r , t h e y p r o v i d e no e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g s u b s e q u e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h a t c h o i c e . Some i n d i c a t i o n o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween s a t i s f a c t i o n and i n t e r e s t i s p r o v i d e d by S t r o n g ' s ( 7 9 : 1 1 5 ) r e p o r t o f t h r e e s t u d i e s w h i c h d i s c l o s e d : a) a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .26 between i n t e r e s t s c o r e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n m e a s u r e s o f women e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s ; b) a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .30 i n r e g a r d t o p h a r m a c i s t s ; and c ) a c o e f f i c i e n t o f .30 between s a t i s f a c t i o n and i n t e r e s t o f 100 c l e r i c a l . w o r k e r s . I n t e r e s t s c o r e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n m e a s u r e s were a s s e s s e d c o n c u r r e n t l y , h o w e v e r , and r e s u l t s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r o v i d e p r o o f o f t h e p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y o f t h e 1 n s t r u m e n t - - f o r common i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n s may have b l o s -somed as a r e s u l t o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e work i t s e l f . O t i s S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g T e s t o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y . T h i s t e s t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h a t i m e l i m i t o f 30 m i n u t e s , and c o n s i s t s o f 75 q u e s t i o n s made up o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l , a r i t h m e t -i c a l , number s e r i e s c o m p l e t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s , a n a l o g i e s , l o g i c a l i n f e r e n c e s , and p r a c t i c a l j u d g m e n t i t e m s a r r a n g e d i n random s e q u e n c e , a l t h o u g h i n o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y . The O t i s has been v a l i d a t e d a g a i n s t m e a s u r e s o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t and m i g h t , t h e r e f o r e , be more p r o p e r l y d e s i g n a t e d a t e s t o f s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , S u p e r and C r i t e s ( 8 1 : 1 0 8 ) a l l o w t h a t " i t i s o f v a l u e i n e s t i m a t i n g a g i v e n s t u d e n t ' s p r o s p e c t s o f s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e , " w h i l e K u d e r ( 1 8 : 3 3 1 ) r e m a r k s t h a t " f o r p u r p o s e s o f p r e d i c t i o n o f s c h o o l and c o l l e g e s u c c e s s t h e s e t e s t s compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f g e n e r a l a b i l i t y . " Of t h e many v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e O t i s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Bingham ( 9 ) r e p o r t s d a t a on 562 c o l l e g e f r e s h m e n who had u n d e r t a k e n t h e O t i s t e s t . W h i l e t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d i s o b v i o u s (72 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w i t h l Q ' s between 115-124 r e m a i n i n g i n c o l l e g e a t l e a s t two y e a r s , as o p p o s e d t o 42 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w i t h IQ's r a t e d between 8 5 - 9 4 ) . i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t some who d i d p o o r l y on t h e t e s t made some p r o g r e s s i n c o l l e g e . Freeman (3 2 ) t e s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 ,000 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s o v e r a f o u r -y e a r p e r i o d and computed a .56 c o r r e l a t i o n between g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e s and t h e O t i s t e s t . Bonk and Beamer ( 1 2 ) n o t e d t h a t t e s t i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d d u r i n g o r i e n t a t i o n week r e s u l t e d i n a c o r r e l a t i o n o f o n l y .35 w i t h f i r s t s e m e s t e r g r a d e s , w h i l e t e s t i n g h a l f way t h r o u g h t h e s e m e s t e r r e s u l t e d i n a c o r r e l a -t i o n o f .51 w i t h g r a d e s f o r t h e s e m e s t e r . And G a r r i s o n (34) n o t e d t h a t t h e O t i s S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g T e s t c o r r e l a t e d .48 w i t h a c a d e m i c g r a d e s o f n u r s i n g t r a i n e e s , and .59 w i t h t h e i r a v e r a g e g r a d e s i n n u r s i n g a r t s . The O t i s manual ( 6 3 ) r e p o r t s c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s o f a r o u n d t h e o r d e r o f .57, w h i l e s t u d i e s c i t e d by S u p e r and C r i t e s ( 8 1 ) r e p o r t c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g f r o m .20 t o .69. A r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .86 f o r a d u l t s i s r e p o r t e d i n t h e t e s t m a n u a l . I n s o f a r as c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h 71 s u c c e s s on t h e j o b i s c o n c e r n e d , w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g r e s u l t s have been a c h i e v e d . Some o f t h e r e a s o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d by S u p e r ( 5 0 : 2 0 2 - 2 0 7 ) . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e , h o w e v e r , t o assume t h a t a b i l -i t y t o s c o r e w e l l on t h e O t i s w o u l d have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e f f i c i e n c y i n c e r t a i n j o b s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n a s s e m b l y - l i n e work where manual d e x t e r i t y and s i n g l e n e s s o f p u r p o s e a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n m e n t a l a l e r t n e s s . A g a i n , a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l , c o r r e l a t i o n s between O t i s s c o r e s and c r i t e r i a f o r s u c c e s s a r e n e g l i g i b l e , as t h e t e s t d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e a d e q u a t e l y a t t h e u p p e r l e v e l s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s s a i d t o p r o v i d e " a d e q u a t e c e i l i n g f o r u n s e l e c t e d a d u l t g r o u p s " ( 1 : 2 1 5 ) . To s u m m a r i z e , t h e n , t h e a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e O t i s S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g T e s t o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y and s u c c e s s on t h e j o b o r i n a c a d e m i c e n d e a v -o u r s i s n e v e r i n o r d i n a t e l y h i g h . As w i t h a l l t e s t s , t h e O t i s i s o f r e a l p r a c t i c a l v a l u e o n l y when c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n c e r t w i t h o t h e r d a t a . P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 1956 R e v i s i o n . P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s i s an u n t i m e d t e s t made up o f 60 p a t t e r n s . Each o f t h e p a t t e r n s has a p i e c e m i s s i n g . The e x a m i n e e must d e t e r -m i n e t h e t y p e o f p r o g r e s s i o n o r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s e s t a b -l i s h e d and t h e n c h o o s e f r o m a g i v e n number o f p i e c e s t h e one t h a t w o u l d make t h e p a t t e r n l o g i c a l l y c o m p l e t e . No p r i n t e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e i n v o l v e d . To e n s u r e t h a t n o r m a l l y i n t e l l i -g e n t r e c r u i t s were n o t r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e o f p o o r e d u c a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l a c k o f v e r b a l s k i l l s , t h i s t e s t was a d o p t e d as t h e p r i n c i p a l t e s t f o r m i l i t a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n G r e a t 72 B r i t a i n d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . T h i s t e s t has been d e s c r i b e d v a r i o u s l y as a t e s t o f a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g , o f l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g , o f n o n - v e r b a l r e a s o n i n g , o f i n n a t e i n t e l l i g e n c e , and as a c u l t u r e - f r e e t e s t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ( 1 : 2 6 , 8 3 ) . On i n s p e c t i o n , i t w o u l d c e r t a i n l y a p p e a r t h a t t h i s t e s t c o n t a i n s a b s t r a c t m a t t e r l a r g e l y f o r e i g n t o e i t h e r c l a s s r o o m o r e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e , a n d , as S h i p l e y s t a t e s : I t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t what i s b e i n g m e a s u r e d r e l a t e s more d i r e c t l y t o ' n a t i v e ' a b s t r a c t i n t e l l i g e n c e and l e s s t o a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , o r c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d t h a n i s t h e c a s e w i t h most t e s t s o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e ( 1 8 : 3 3 8 ) . The manual ( 6 8 ) c l a i m s r a t h e r h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e M a t r i c e s and o t h e r t e s t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e ; and Westby ( 1 9 : 4 1 9 ) r e p o r t s t h a t " f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n t h e S e r v i c e s s u g g e s t s t h e t e s t i s an a l m o s t p u r e 'g' t e s t w i t h a s m a l l l o a d i n g o f some p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r . . . " S e v e r a l s t u d i e s w h i c h r e v e a l a s i z a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n ( f r o m .58 t o .70) between t h e M a t r i c e s t e s t and i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e c i t e d by C r o n b a c h ( 2 6 ) . T h a t t h e t e s t was e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d i n t h e B r i t i s h s e r v i c e s d u r i n g W o r l d War I I i s i n d i c a t e d by V e r n o n ' s ( 8 9 ) a n a l y s i s o f t h e s c o r e s a c h i e v e d by 89,764 n a v a l c a n d i d a t e s i n 1943. H i s r e s e a r c h d i s c l o s e d l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e norms f o r v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , i n much t h e same manner as has been i n d i -c a t e d f o r A m e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n s by t h e Army G e n e r a l C l a s s i f i c a -t i o n T e s t ( 8 7 ) . 73 a) had s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s o c i o -e c o n o m i c s t a t u s t h a n had c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s ; b) had a h i g h l o a d i n g o f .78 i n t h e g e n e r a l a b i l i t y f a c t o r ; c ) had m o d e r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s c h o o l g r a d e s ; d) had a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .87. Westby ( 1 9 : 4 1 8 ) d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s t e s t i s "a h i g h l y c o n v e n i e n t r o u g h g r a d i n g i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e mass t e s t i n g o f a d u l t s , " and t h i s v i e w i s r e i t e r a t e d by B o r t n e r i n t h e most r e c e n t e d i t i o n o f The M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s  Y e a r b o o k ( 2 1 : 7 6 4 ) : "These t e s t s s h o u l d be q u i t e h e l p f u l as s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e s f o r g r o u p s where e s t i m a t e s o f l e v e l s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e need t o be d e t e r m i n e d . " I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e u s e d t h e t e s t m a i n l y as a c h e c k on t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e O t i s ; t h a t i s t o s a y , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o b t a i n i n g o f a much h i g h e r s c o r e on t h e u n t i m e d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s t h a n on t h e O t i s m i g h t s u g g e s t a p r o n o u n c e d r e a d i n g h a n d i c a p , a l a n g u a g e p r o b l e m , o r i n a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y i n t h e t i m e d t e s t s i t u a t i o n . R e v i s e d M i n n e s o t a P a p e r Form B o a r d , Form MA ( M P F B ) . The Form B o a r d t e s t p u r p o r t e d l y f u r n i s h e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e g e o m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n s i n two d i m e n s i o n s and m e n t a l l y t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e s e f i g u r e s . I n t h e u p p e r l e f t - h a n d c o r n e r o f e a c h o f t h e 64 p r o b l e m s , t h e r e a r e f r o m two t o f i v e g e o m e t r i c a l f o r m s . The t a s k i s t o d e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e f i v e o t h e r g i v e n f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p o s i t e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s . The t e s t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h a 20-m i n u t e t i m e l i m i t . The u n u s u a l l y l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s t h a t have been c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e MPFB " i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s one o f t h e most v a l i d a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o v i s u -a l i z e and m a n i p u l a t e o b j e c t s i n s p a c e " ( 1 : 4 1 1 ) . C r i t e r i a f o r v a l i d a t i o n i n c l u d e p e r f o r m a n c e i n shop c o u r s e s , s u p e r v i s o r s ' r a t i n g s , p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s , and a c h i e v e m e n t i n s u c h a r e a s as d e n t i s t r y and a r t . I n d e e d , C l i f f o r d and J u r g e n s e n ( 1 8 : 7 6 2 - 7 6 3 ) c l a i m t h a t t h e MPFB i s : a c l a s s i c i n measurement o f m e c h a n i c a l a p t i t u d e . I t has a l o n g h i s t o r y , has been u s e d w i d e l y , and s t i l l w a r r a n t s h i g h r e s p e c t and f r e q u e n t u s e . . . . Numerous v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s have been made, and i t i s t h e e x c e p -t i o n a l c a s e where t h e t e s t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y v a l i d t o w a r r a n t i t s u s e f o r s e l e c t i n g e m p l o y e e s i n m e c h a n i c a l t y p e j o b s s u c h as d r a f t i n g , i n s p e c t i o n , l i n o t y p e o p e r a t i o n , m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n , p a c k i n g and t h e l i k e . R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f between .85 and .92 a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e m a n u a l , w h i l e S u p e r and C r i t e s ' . ( 8 1 : 2 9 4 ) summary o f a number o f s t u d i e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y i s " a c t u a l l y i n t h e .80's and s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h - ' . f o r " ' i n d i -v i d u a l d i a g n o s i s . " The MPFB i s p e r h a p s b e s t u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r t e s t s . Bingham ( 9 ) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e p a p e r f o r m b o a r d , when u s e d t o g e t h e r w i t h a m e c h a n i c a l a s s e m b l y t e s t , p r e d i c t s t h e q u a l i t y o f work done i n s c h o o l shop c o u r s e s w i t h an e f f i c i e n c y 23 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r t h a n c h a n c e . A n d , i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , S t r u i t ( 1 8 : 7 1 3 ) s t a t e s t h a t " t h e R e v i s e d M i n n e s o t a P a p e r Form B o a r d s h o u l d n o t be r e g a r d e d as a c o m p l e t e i n d e x o f m e c h a n i c a l p r o m i s e b u t r a t h e r as m e a s u r i n g one component o f m e c h a n i c a l and e n g i n e e r i n g a p t i t u d e . " I t i s e v i d e n t l y a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s t h a t t h e t e s t was v i e w e d by t h e s t a f f o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e . B e n n e t t T e s t o f M e c h a n i c a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n , Form BB. T h i s i s an u n t i m e d t e s t c o n s i s t i n g o f 60 s e t s o f d r a w i n g s , d i a g r a m s and q u e s t i o n s , e v i d e n t l y d e s i g n e d f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f e n g i -n e e r i n g s c h o o l a p p l i c a n t s and s i m i l a r t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d g r o u p s . R e l i a b i l i t i e s o f .77 t o .84 a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e m a n u a l , where i t i s a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t t h e t e s t c o r r e l a t e s .30 t o .60 w i t h s u c c e s s i n e n g i n e e r i n g - t y p e t r a i n i n g . E a r l y r e v i e w e r s o f t h e B e n n e t t M e c h a n i c a l q u e s t i o n e d i t s v a l u e on t h e g r o u n d t h a t s e v e r a l i t e m s i n v o l v e p r i n c i p l e s o r f a c t s l i k e l y t o be l e a r n e d i n p h y s i c s , b u t u n l i k e l y t o be e n c o u n t e r e d i n e v e r y d a y m e c h a n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , and a l l t h r e e r e v i e w s i n The T h i r d M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k d e c r y t h e p a u c i t y of v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s . However, one r e v i e w e r , ( 1 8 : 7 2 3 ) s t a t e s t h a t when v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s a r e c o m p l e t e d t h e t e s t " s h o u l d p r o v e t o be a u s e f u l t o o l e s p e c i a l l y t o t h o s e p e r s o n s engaged i n e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . " More r e c e n t l y , A n a s t a s i ( 1 ) has c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s t y p e o f t e s t p r o v e d t o be among t h e most v a l i d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l f o r a number o f t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l t i e s d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . And S u p e r and C r i t e s ( 8 1 ) have r e v i e w e d a number o f s t u d i e s i n w h i c h s u c c e s s on t h e j o b , as m e a s u r e d by s u p e r -v i s o r s ' r a t i n g s has c o r r e l a t e d a r o u n d .50 w i t h t e s t s c o r e s on t h e B e n n e t t M e c h a n i c a l . The f o r e g o i n g a u t h o r s s t r e s s t h e need f o r d e v e l o p i n g l o c a l norms f o r use w i t h t h e B e n n e t t M e c h a n i c a l . The p o l i c y o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e i s e v i d e n t l y i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s v i e w , as n o r m a t i v e d a t a u s e d f o r t h e t e s t i s b a s e d on s c o r e s a c h i e v e d by t e c h n i c a l c o u r s e a p p l i -c a n t s a t t h e V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . M i n n e s o t a C l e r i c a l T e s t , (MCT). T h i s t e s t c o n s i s t s o f two s e p a r a t e l y t i m e d s u b t e s t s , "Number C o m p a r i s o n " and "Name C o m p a r i s o n . " The e x a m i n e e i s a l l o w e d r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e l i m i t s i n w h i c h t o i n d i c a t e t h e p a i r s o f numbers and names he b e l i e v e s t o be i d e n t i c a l . H i s s c o r e on t h i s t e s t w i l l depend p r i m a r i l y on h i s s p e e d , a l t h o u g h a d e d u c t i o n ( r i g h t s m i n u s w r o n g s ) p e n a l i z e s i n a c c u r a c i e s t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e manual ( 2 1 ) , t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s t e s t as i n d i c a t e d by c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , c o m m e r c i a l s t u d e n t s , a c c o u n t i n g s t u d e n t s , and s t u d e n t s o f t y p i n g i s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y h i g h , and t h e a u t h o r i n d i c a t e s t h a t c l e r i c a l t e s t s c o r e s p r e -d i c t p e r f o r m a n c e i n c l e r i c a l f i e l d s s u c h as a c c o u n t a n c y and t y p i n g b e t t e r t h a n do m e a s u r e s o f a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y . The low c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e s t s c o r e and y e a r s o f o f f i c e e x p e r i -e n c e , amount of c o m m e r c i a l t r a i n i n g , y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , and i n t e l l i g e n c e s u g g e s t t h a t t h e t e s t m e a s u r e s s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n e x p e r i e n c e and a c a d e m i c f a c t o r s . V a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f between .50 and .60 a r e r e p o r t e d by A n a s t a s i ( 1 ) , when t e s t s c o r e s a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s u c h c r i t e r i a as g r a d e s i n b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s o r r a t i n g s by c o m m e r c i a l t e a c h e r s o r o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r s . R e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f between .85 and .91 a r e r e p o r t e d by t h e same a u t h o r . On r e v i e w i n g a number o f s t u d i e s o f t h e t e s t , Hunt ( 2 0 : 6 3 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e M i n n e s o t a C l e r i c a l T e s t "can be recom mended as a v e r y u s a b l e t e s t f o r s e l e c t i n g p r o m i s i n g c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , o r f o r t h e g u i d a n c e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s f o r c l e r i c a l t r a i n i n g . " Two o t h e r r e v i e w e r s i n t h e 1959 i s s u e o f B u r o s ' Y e a r b o o k a r e i n g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e f o r e g o i n g , a l t h o u g h a t h i r d ( T a y l o r ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y d a t a p u b l i s h e d i n t h e manual i s i n a d e q u a t e . S u p e r ( 2 0 : 8 7 4 ) a l s o c l a i m s t h a t v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s c i t e d i n t h e manual s h o u l d be b r o u g h t up t o d a t e ; h o w e v e r , i n v i e w o f l a t e r s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , he f e e l s t h a t " t h e M i n n e s o t a C l e r i c a l T e s t i s as good as i t e v e r was, and s t i l l p r o b a b l y has no e f f e c -t i v e r i v a l . " S u p e r and C r i t e s ( 8 1 : 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 ) , upon r e v i e w i n g a number o f s t u d i e s o f t h e t e s t , comment t h a t t h e M i n n e s o t a C l e r i c a l "has v a l u e f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h o s e who have p r o m i s e f o r c l e r i c a l work f r o m t h o s e who do n o t , " and t h a t i f a b a t t e r y c a n be u s e d t o a p p r a i s e c l e r i c a l a p t i t u d e " i t s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e M i n n e s o t a T e s t and an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s u c h as t h e O t i s . " T h e s e a r e two o f t h e f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d by c o u n s e l l o r s a t t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e i n t h e i r a p p r a i s a l o f v o c a -t i o n a l f i t n e s s . The a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d a u t h o r s d e c r y t h e a b s e n c e o f s t u d i e s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e c i f i c a p t i t u d e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n r e g a r d t o t h e MCT and o t h e r t e s t s o f c l e r i c a l a p t i t u d e t h e y s a y : One o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l i n g and s e l e c t i o n i s t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i n h i s work by t h e w o r k e r . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e , one w o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d s t u d i e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween c l e r i c a l a p t i t u d e and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . No s u c h s t u d i e s have been l o c a t e d , h o w e v e r , t h e e m p h a s i s has so f a r been e n t i r e l y on s u c c e s s ( 8 1 : 1 7 7 ) . S p e l l i n g T e s t . T h i s t e s t was d e v e l o p e d by t h e s t a f f o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e i n 1963. The f o r m l i s t s 100 w o r d s , h a l f o f w h i c h a r e m i s s p e l l e d , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a l l o w e d t e n m i n u t e s i n w h i c h t o r e w r i t e c o r r e c t l y t h e words t h a t a r e m i s s p e l l e d . Some 200 m a l e s and 100 f e m a l e s made up t h e norm g r o u p s , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d as t o sex and y e a r s o f s c h o o l -i n g c o m p l e t e d . W h i l e o b v i o u s l y a t e s t o f s p e l l i n g a b i l i t y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a c t o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m an i n d i v i d u a l 1 s p e r f o r m a n c e on t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , r e s u l t s c a n p r o v i d e s u p p o r t ( o r n o n - s u p p o r t ) f o r an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e , g i v e i n f o r m a -t i o n r e g a r d i n g an o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r e s t s , o r r e t e n t i o n , and so o n . APPENDIX C APPENDIX C R e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s on t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e x - c l i e n t s o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r -v i c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d i s c l o s e d i n f o r m a t i o n a d d i t i o n a l t o t h a t d i s c u s s e d i n t h e body o f t h i s p a p e r . T h e s e a r e b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e  S c o r e t o Q u e s t i o n 25 Q u e s t i o n 25 o f t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e a s k s t h e r e s p o n -d e n t t o i n d i c a t e how he f e e l s a b o u t h i s p r e s e n t j o b . The p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s a p p e a r i n T a b l e V I I b e l o w . I n e f f e c t , t h e n , Q u e s t i o n 25 s e e k s t o e v a l u a t e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , a l t h o u g h by a s h o r t e r and more d i r e c t r o u t e t h a n i s u t i l i z e d by t h e B r a y f i e l d -R o t h e I n d e x . A n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n b etween Q u e s t i o n 25 and t h e I n d e x o f .78. T h i s h i g h d e g r e e o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p s u g g e s t s t h e f e a s i b i l i t y , f o r c e r t a i n p u r p o s e s , o f u s i n g a much s h o r t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a n t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x w i t h i t s 18 m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by L i p s e t t and W i l s o n ( 5 6 ) , who u s e d t h e f i v e - p o i n t q u e s t i o n t o r a t e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r s t u d y c i t e d e a r l i e r ( s e e p . 1 8 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d by L i p s e t t and W i l s o n w i t h t h i s s t u d y i s d e p i c t e d i n T a b l e V I I . S i m i l a r i t i e s a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e two s t u d i e s . The t o t a l p e r c e n t a g e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s a r e o n l y one p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t a p a r t (51 p e r c e n t v e r s u s 52 p e r c e n t ) , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e L i p s e t t and W i l s o n s u r v e y i n v o l v e d o n l y a 54 p e r c e n t r e s p o n s e t o m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . TABLE V I I A COMPARISON OF TWO STUDIES POSING IDENTICAL QUESTIONS CONCERNING JOB SATISFACTION Answer L i p s e t t & W i l s o n T h i s S t u d y B e s t p o s s i b l e j o b f o r you 17% 8.3% L i k e i t v e r y much 34 43.8 L i k e i t f a i r l y w e l l 28 31.2 I n d i f f e r e n t 13 16.7 D i s l i k e i t . 8 0 J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n and  O c c u p a t i o n a l S a t i s f a c t i o n I t has been a r g u e d t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e may e x i s t b etween s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h one's o c c u p a t i o n and t h e p a r t i c -u l a r j o b w i t h i n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s c u r r e n t l y engaged ( 2 2 , 6 5 , 7 5 ) , a l t h o u g h Harmon ( 4 1 ) was u n a b l e t o o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e r a t t e m p t t o m e a s u r e o c c u p a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y . One o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o . j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( Q u e s t i o n 2 5 ) , w h i l e a n o t h e r ( Q u e s t i o n 27) r e l a t e d t o h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s o c c u p a t i o n and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h i s p r e s e n t j o b ( A p p e n d i x D ) . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s r e c o g n i z e t h e p o s s i b i 1 i t y , o f a p e r s o n l i k i n g h i s o c c u p a t i o n o f c a r p e n t e r , f o r e x a m p l e , b u t d i s l i k i n g h i s j o b a s s e m b l i n g c a b i n e t s i n a s u b u r b a n f a c t o r y . T h a t t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s a r e r e l a t e d i s e v i d e n t i n t h e p r o d u c t -moment c o r r e l a t i o n o f .51 between them. Of c o u r s e , t h i s f i g u r e a c c o u n t s f o r o n l y 26 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e between o c c u p a -t i o n a l and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a p p a r e n t l y had r e a s o n s f o r r a t i n g t h e i r j o b s more h i g h l y t h a n t h e i r o c c u p a -t i o n s , and v i c e v e r s a . The " B a c k - t o - 1 8 " Q u e s t i o n Q u e s t i o n 26 a s k s r e s p o n d e n t s w h e t h e r t h e y w o u l d c h o o s e t h e same o r d i f f e r e n t j o b s , i f t h e y c o u l d go back t o age 18. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o Q u e s t i o n 26 o f t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e and t h e r e p l i e s o f 5,000 i n d i v i d u a l s r e t u r n i n g m a i l e d -o u t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o F o r t u n e M a g a z i n e ( 7 0 : 2 8 1 - 2 8 2 ) a p p e a r s i n T a b l e V I I I . TABLE V I I I A COMPARISON OF TWO STUDIES ASKING INDIVIDUALS WHETHER THEY WOULD CHOOSE THEIR PRESENT JOBS IF THEY COULD GO BACK TO AGE 18 A n swer F o r t u n e M a g a z i n e T h i s S t u d y Same 39% 29.2% D i f f e r e n t 41 43.8 U n c e r t a i n 20 27.0 I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t more i n d i v i d u a l s i n b o t h s t u d i e s w o u l d p r e f e r d i f f e r e n t j o b s t h a n t h e i r p r e s e n t ones i f t h e y c o u l d s t a r t o v e r a g a i n . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t e x - c l i e n t s o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were 83 n o t more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s , i n s p i t e o f v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , t h a n were i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e F o r t u n e s u r v e y of a n o n - c o u n s e l l e d p o p u l a t i o n . R e l a t i o n s h i p s B e t w een B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e  S c o r e s and S e v e n t e e n V a r i a b l e s ' U n d o u b t e d l y , many v a r i a b l e s a p a r t f r o m c omponents o f t h e j o b i t s e l f c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l r e v e a l s f o r h i s j o b . F o r e x a m p l e , i n l o o k i n g a t age as a v a r i a b l e , i t seems f e a s i b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e may, on t h e a v e r a g e , a c h i e v e h i g h e r r a t i n g s on a j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t e s t t h a n do y o u n g e r p e o p l e . A g a i n , p o s s i b l y m a r i t a l s t a t u s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , number o f y e a r s w i t h one e m p l o y e r , and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s p l a y i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y , s e v e n t e e n v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d , as shown i n T a b l e I X . I n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m f i l e s o f t h e V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e as w e l l as f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e ; c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s was e m p l o y e d t o a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s and B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x s c o r e s . In c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e v e n t e e n v a r i a b l e s l i s t e d i n T a b l e I X , v a l u e s f o r t were c a l c u l a t e d o n l y f o r c o e f f i c i e n t s o f .30 and h i g h e r , s i n c e a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f .30 i s r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y ( t w o - t a i l e d ) w i t h 46 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m . The t v a l u e s and s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s o f t h e t h r e e v a r i a b l e s f a l l i n g i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e shown i n T a b l e X. TABLE IX RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BRAYFIELD-ROTHE INDEX SCORES AND SEVENTEEN VARIABLES V a r i a b l e C o r r . C o e f f . 1. Age -.12 2. IQ .11 3. S i n g l e -.09 4. M a r r i ed .13 5. D i v o r c e d / S e p a r a t e d -.19 6. I n d i v i d u a l s v / i t h w o r k i n g w i v e s -.19 7. Combined i n c o m e s ( 1 9 6 9 ) o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h w o r k i n g w i v e s .01 8. Number o f d e p e n d e n t s .06 9. S c h o o l i ng .07 10. Number o f y e a r s e m p l o y e d -.08 11 . Number o f y e a r s w i t h p r e s e n t e m p l o y e r -.30 12. Income f o r 1969 .35 13. E n g a g i n g i n p a r t - t i m e employment i n 1969 -.02 14. Number o f j o b s h e l d s i n c e 1964 .26 15. Number o f t i m e s u n e m p l o y e d f o r two weeks o r more s i n c e 1964 .07 16. Number o f p r o m o t i o n s e a r n e d .36 17. R a t i n g o f own a b i l i t y f o r j o b .28 TABLE X THREE VARIABLES SHOWING SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS WITH BRAYFIELD-ROTHE INDEX SCORES V a r i a b l e 1 1 . Number o f y e a r s w i t h p r e s e n t e m p l o y e r 12. Income f o r 1969 16. Number o f p r o m o t i o n s e a r n e d 2.14 2.52 2.62 P r o b a b i l i t y .05 .02 .02 The a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , as m e a s u r e d by t h e B r a y f i e l d - R o t h e I n d e x , i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o income and t o t h e o b t a i n i n g o f one o r more promo-t i o n s ; w h e r e a s a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and t h e y e a r s one has s p e n t w i t h one e m p l o y e r . The o t h e r f o u r t e e n v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d e v i d e n t l y s h a r e l i t t l e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . APPENDIX D INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 1) I SHOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU A FEW QUESTIONS OF A GENERAL NATURE, YOUR ANSWERS, OF COURSE, WILL BE HELD STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL. 1. What i s your age? 2. Date of B i r t h ;  day mo. year 3 . What i s your marital status? Under 25 26-30 ,36-40 .41-45 Over 45 JSingle "Married "Divorced or "Separated Widowed 4 . (IF MARRIED) Is your wife working? ; 5. (IF WIFE WORKING) What i s your wife's present job? Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 k i 2 •6. (IF MARRIED, AND WIFE WORKING) income f o r 1969? What was your combined Less than §3,000 $ 3 , 0 0 0 to $ 5 , 0 0 0 $ 5 , 0 0 0 to $ 7 , 0 0 0 § 7 , 0 0 0 to $ 9 , 0 0 0 $ 9 , 0 0 0 to $11,000 $11.000 to $13,000 #13,000 to $15,000 Over $15,000 7. How many dependents do you have? None "Wife "1 C h i l d ~2 Children J3 Children 4 Children 3 or More Children " l Other Dependent "2 or More Other Dependent s 8. (IF A PARENT) a) How many of your children are not yet of school age? b) How many are attending school? c) How many have l e f t home? 1 2 3 4 6 7 g 1 2 3 4 i 1 9 89 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 2) 9. How many years of schooling have you completed?. ? or less 1 0-11 2 12 , 3 ZZ13-15 4 16 or more 5 10. Have you completed any academic courses since you visited the Youth Counselling Service in 1964? Yes No 1 2 (If "Yes") What have you done? 11. Have you undertaken any vocational training since you wrote the aptitude tests at the counselling service? (If "Yes", obtain the name of the course, the Yes 1 place where taken, and the length of the course.) No 2 12. Are you presently employed? Temporarily unemployed? 1 2 13. The name of your employer is? ^ 14. Please bri e f l y describe your present job. (If interviewee i s temporarily unemployed, this and following questions should relate to the last job he held for at least three months.) 15. How long have you been working for the above employer? Less than 6 months 1 6 to 12 months 2 to 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years 6 Over 6 years 7 16. How long have you worked in this type of occupation? (This reply would, of course, include similar work with ex-employers.) Less than 6 months 1 6 to 12 months 2 1 to 2 years 3 2 to 3 years 4 3 to 4 years 5 5 to 6 years 6 Over 6 years 7 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 3) 17. IS. 19. 20. Would you t e l l me your approximate salary per year, f o r the years: 1965 1966 1967 1963 1969 Less than 53,000 f3»000 to §5,000 >5,000 to $7,000 ^7,000 to $9,000 59,000 to | l l , 0 0 0 11,000 to $13,000 $13,000 to $15,000 Over $15,000 During 1969, did you engage i n any part-time employment? Yes Jo ( I f answer to above question "Yes".) Approximately how many hours did you work part time i n I969? Please give me d e t a i l s of a l l the jobs you have held f o r at least three months. Start with your present job and work backwards (to i 9 6 0 ) . ( F i l l out d e t a i l s below.) 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 12345 1 2 Occupation Dates Held Reason f o r Leaving 21. During the past f i v e years, how many times have you been unemployed f o r more than two weeks? (Do not include time spent f o r t r a i n i n g , and note respondent's reasons f o r any unemployment.) Not at a l l 1 Reasons..... Two or three times 2 Four or f i v e times 3 More than f i v e 4 Once INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 4) , 22. No (If "yes", obtain d e t a i l s . ) 23. From what you can r e c a l l of your interview at the counselling service i n 1964, do you f e e l that your present occupation i s one that was suggested by the counsellor? sim i l a r to occupations mentioned by the counsellor? __only s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d to jobs mentioned by the counsellor? quite d i f f e r e n t from any occupation suggested by the counsellor? (Use t h i s space f o r any s i g n i f i c a n t comments (If i n d i v i d u a l cannot r e c a l l any of the occupations suggested by the counsellor, please indicate.) 24• Even though you may l i k e your work, i s there some other type of job you would rather be doing? Remembers no "suggestions No Yes Perhaps Do not know (I f "Yes", determine what type of work f o r choosing i t . ) and the reason NOW, I AM GOING TO ASK YOU TO FILL OUT THE NEXT TWO PAGES FOR YOURSELF. THE ITEMS RELATE TO YOUR JOB. DIRECTIONS ARE ON THE TOP OF EACH PAGE. ASK ANY QUESTIONS YOU WISH. INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 5) On t h i s page we are t r y i n g to f i n d out how v e i l you l i k e the type of work you doo For each question, mark an "X" against the appropriate answer. 25. I f you are employed, how do you f e e l about your present job? Best possible job f o r you. Like i t very much, Like i t f a i r l y w e l l . I n d i f f e r e n t . D i s l i k e i t . 26. I f you could go back to age l&Y and s t a r t over again, would you select the same career or occupation, or a d i f f e r e n t one? Same .Different . Uncertain 27« Check the one of the following which best t e l l s how you f e e l about changing your occupation (not necessarily your present j o b ) 0 I would quit t h i s occupation at once i f I could get into almost any other type of work. I would enter almost any other occupation where I could earn as much money. I am not eager to change my type of work, but would do so i f I could get i n t o a better occupation. I would not exchange my occupation f o r any other that I can think of.. 28". Would you suggest that young people with the same a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s as yours enter your occupation? Yes, i n most cases. _Probablv. I f he could not get anything b e t t e r . Not_in_most cases. /__ . • No. : ~ ~ • — -29. Would you rate your own a b i l i t y f o r your present job as: JPoor. S l i g h t l y below average. Average. , Better than average. Very good. 93 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE (Sheet 6) JOB QUESTIONNAIRE Some jobs are more I n t e r e s t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g than others. We want to know how people f e e l about d i f f e r e n t jobs. This blank contains eighteen statements about j o b s . You are to cross out the phrase below each statement which best describes how you f e e l about your present job. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers. We should l i k e your honest opinion on each one of the statements. Work out the sample item numbered (0 ) . 0. 1. 2. 3. 4-. 5 . 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. W. 18. There are some conditions concerning my job that could be improved, STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STrtONGLY DISAGREE My job i s l i k e a hobby t o me. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE My job i s u s u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g enough to keep me from g e t t i n g bored. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE I t seems that my f r i e n d s are more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r j o bs. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE I consider my job rather unpleasant. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE I enjoy my work more than my l e i s u r e time. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE I am often bored with my job. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE I f e e l f a i r l y w e l l s a t i s f i e d with my job. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE ,TR0NGLY DIJAGnilE STRONGLY DISAGREE Most of the time I have to fo r c e myself to go to work. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h my job f o r the time being. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE I f e e l that my job i s no more i n t e r e s t i n g than others I could get. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE I d e f i n i t e l y d i s l i k e my work. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE I f e e l that I am happier i n my work than most other people. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE Most days I am e n t h u s i a s t i c about my work. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE Each day of work seems l i k e i t w i l l never end. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE I l i k e my job b e t t e r than the average worker does. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE My job i s p r e t t y u n i n t e r e s t i n g . STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE I f i n d r e a l enjoyment i n my work. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE I am disappointed that I ever took t h i s job. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE 

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