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Importance assigned to counselling functions by students in a public adult night school. Johnson, Edwin William Wagstaffe 1970

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THE IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED TO COUNSELLING FUNCTIONS BY STUDENTS IN A PUBLIC ADULT NIGHT SCHOOL by , EDWIN WILLIAM WAGSTAFFE.JOHNSON B. A., McMaster University, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED ESI PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of Education (Adult Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1970 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Adult Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date: April, 1970 ABSTRACT The purpose of thi s study was to determine whether adult students enrolled in credit courses in a public adult night school assigned the same degree of importance to various functions of an adult education counsellor.. A Q«sort of fifty items representing four categories of functions««educational counselling, occupational counselling, personal counselling, and the counsellor«adult relation-ships-was administered to a volunteer panel of one hundred adult students in the Surrey School District of British Columbia. The hypothesis postulated no signifi cant difference in the importance which adult students enrolled in credit courses in a public adult night school assign to various functions of an adult educa* tion counsellor. It was tested with regard to the total population and to a number of sub*groups established by sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation. In all instances the hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level, thus indicating that more importance was assigned to certain functions than to others. By multiple comparisons designed to examine the relative importance assigned to the different functions, it was found that in the total population and almost a l l sub»groups educational counselling was considered significantly more important at the .05 level than either personal counselling or the counselior*»adult relationship, and that the combination of educational and occupational counselling was considered significantly more important than the combination of personal counselling and the counsellor-adult relationship. In addition, the unemployed female group viewed occupational counselling as significantly more important than either personal counselling or the counsellor»adult relationship. Comparisons were made between pairs of sub«*groups by sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation to investigate possible differences in the importance which they assigned to the counselling functions. The following results were significant at the .05 level: the female group regarded occupational counselling as more important than did the male group; the employed female group viewed occupational counselling as more important than did the unemployed female group; the unemployed female group considered the counsellor»adult relationship as more important than did the employed female group. In the total population studied, the nine items considered most important reflected the adult student's desire for practical assistance in selecting courses, in establishing goals, and in better preparing himself for learning. The nine items considered least important indicated that the adult rejected the need for assistance in matters which he felt capable of handling on his own, and that he had little desire for counselling of a personal nature. In addition to pointing out the specific counselling needs felt by the adults involved, this study demonstrated the particular concerns of women and the necessity for more research in this area. The usefulness of the Q»sort technique in such a study was shown. i i i DEDICATION To my wife Margaret and our children Brent, Christie and Mark. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. John A. Niemi and Dr. Coolie Verner for the contribution of their insight and experience during the course of this study. Grateful acknowledgement is also made of the co»operation and encouragement of Mr. W.L. Day, Director of Adult Education for the Surrey School District, and Mr. E . Palleson, Academic Counsellor and Evening Principal of Queen Elizabeth Senior Secondary School. Lastly, the writer wishes to thank Mr. Ben Ganz and Dr. Walter Leirman for their assistance with the analysis of the data and Mrs. Sandra Queale for her expert typing of the thesis. v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ............................... 1 Purpose 3 Hypothesis ........................... 3 Procedure 4 Population Studied .... 4 Characteristics Studied ..'............' 5 Design of the Q-Sort ..............'..................... 5 Item Selection ... 6 Category Selection .'. ... . 6 Pre«Test of the Instrument ...................... 7 Collection of the Data 7 Statistical Analysis ... •... 8 Limitations 9 Definition of Terms .................................. 11 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................ 12 Literature on the Counselling of Adults ................. 13 Emphasis in Counselling ....................... 13 Techniques of Counselling 14 Counsellor Preparation ...'...................... 15 Vocational Counselling ......................... 16 Counselling of Women ............'. 16 Literature on Adult Sociology, Psychology, and Learning . 17 Adult Sociology ......'..'....'..'.................. 17 Adult Psychology .............................. 19 Adult Learning 19 Literature About the Q««Sort Technique ....'...........'.. 20 vi PAGE CHAPTER IH DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Distribution of Participants According to Socio-Economic Characteristics 22 Analysis to Determine Significant Differences in the Importance Assigned to Various Counsellor Functions . . . . 24 Total Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Sub-groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Age 25 Previous Counselling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . 27 Counsellor Functions Consideredfi Significantly More Important . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . ...i...'.'.'.'.. 28 Matrix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Matrix B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' 31 Matrix C .'.V...'....'. V......................... 33 •. Summary of Significant Results by Multiple Comparisons (Table VIII) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Significant Differences Between Pairs of Sub»groups With Regard to the Importance Assigned to Various Counsellor Functions 37 Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Previous Counselling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Occupation 39 The Nine Most Important and the Nine Least Important Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 The Nine Most Important Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 The Nine Least Important Items . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 ( vii PAGE CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ................'. 43 Summary 43 Testing of the Hypothesis ......................, 44 Relative Importance of Functions ................ 44 Testing of the Sub-Hypotheses .................. 45 Most Important and Least Important Items .....',. 45 Conclusions ......................................... 46 BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................. 49 APPENDIX A . V . V . V . V . . V . V . . V . V . V . V . . V . . V . V . ' i : . V . V . V . . ' . ' ; . ' . , . : . , . , . : 57 APPENDIX B .'................................... 62 APPENDIX C ................................................... 66 APPENDIX D ................................................. 71 viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Matrices for Multiple Comparisons .............. 10 n Distribution of Participants by Sex, Age, Previous Counselling, and Education ..................... 23 III Distribution of Participants by Age, Sex, and Occupation 24 IV Differences in the Importance Assigned to the Four Categories of Counsellor Functions .............. 26 V Relative Importance Assigned to the Four Categories of Functions, Matrix A ......................... 30 VI Relative Importance Assigned to the Four Categories of Functions, Matrix B ......................... 32 VII Relative Importance Assigned to the Four Categories of Functions, Matrix C ...'...................... 34 VIII Summary of Significant Results by Multiple Comparisons .................................. 36 IX Significant Differences Between Pairs of Sub-Groups With Regard to the Importance Assigned to Various Counsellor Functions C 38 X The Nine Most Important Items in Rank Order .... 41 XI The Nine Least Important Items in Rank Order .... 42 ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION It has been noted that "the current generation of mature adults now represents the firs t generation faced with managing a culture different in kind than the one originally transmitted to them" (40:iv). With the change from the traditional assumption that "an individual can acquire in his youth the bulk of the knowledge and skill required for him to live adequately the rest of his l i f e " (40:iv) has come the importance of the adult*s receiving a l l possible assistance in his continuing education. One person capable of offering such assistance is the adult counsellor. Unfortunately, although guidance and counselling in public school adult education is by no means unknown, nevertheless, with the considerable attention directed to elementary and secondary education in recent years, there has been insufficient recognition of the phenomenal growth of adult education and of the consequent need for adequate counselling. Westervelt (99:140*1) has stated: Because the idea that formal schooling ends with youth has deep roots in America, adults need encouragement to continue their education. Because adult education is widely diversified i n form and content, adults need help in choosing and using it to best advantage. The mere provision of a wealth of opportunities meets neither of these needs. 1 2 Thoughtful educators have long recognized that, whatever the place of counselling in the education of the young, it is central to the education of adults. The philosophy has, however, only recently begun to be translated into action in the field. Wrenn (103:11, 162) has observed that automation will cause many adults to seek.new occupations for which they have not been trained, and will cause changes for which they are not psychologically prepared. He has proposed that counselors be prepared whose specific function will be to assist adults in educational and vocational planning and personal adjustment as they resume formal education at different periods in their lifetime. Brunner (12:137) concluded that guidance of participants in adult education programs multiplied the positive effects and reduced the proportion of drop-outs. In Living  and Learning.(51:189), the report of the provincial committee on aims and objec« tives in the schools of Ontario, the importance of counselling in public school adult education was clearly stated in the recommendation: Wherever adult education exists under the jurisdiction of school boards, extend counselling services to adults. Despite such acceptance of the importance of counselling, considerations, largely financial, have restricted the amount of counselling actually performed in public adult night schools. Consequently, counsellors have had little opportunity to indulge in the luxury of research; yet it is just this which Kreitlow (47:244) con« sidered necessary when he asked: What are the role and function of guidance and counseling services for adults? What are the means and methods by which educational guidance and counseling can be provided to aid in the resolution of the continuing educational challenges of adulthood ? Just as adults have certain expectations of adult education, so it may be presumed that they also have certain expectations of the counsellor and his functions. Adults in continuing education normally extend over an age range of at least five decades. Numerous psychologists and sociologists have postulated 3 differing developmental processes and crises of adulthood (30,, 36, 37, 54, 55, 57, 59, 87). This would suggest similar differences in the demands various groups of adults would make both of adult education and of the counsellor. Con* sidering the scarcity of counselling available, it would seem desirable for the counsellor to be aware of the expressed needs of different groups of adults in order that his help might be more meaningfully directed. PURPOSE It was the purpose of this study to determine whether adult students enrolled in credit courses in a public adult night school assigned the same degree of importance to various functions of an adult education counsellor. HYPOTHESIS The central hypothesis of this study is There is no statistically significant difference in the importance which adult students enrolled in credit courses in a public adult night school assign to various functions of an adult education counsellor. The following sub-hypotheses are proposed to examine possible signifi-cant differences between various pairs of sub-groups: 1. There is no statistically significant difference by reason of sex in the importance which adult students assign to various functions of an adult education counsellor. 2. There is no statistically significant difference by reason of age in the importance which adult students assign to various functions of an adult education counsellor. 3. There is no statistically significant difference by reason of previous counselling in the importance which adult students assign to various functions of an adult education counsellor. 4 4. There is no statistically significant difference by reason of education in the importance which adult students assign to various functions of an adult education counsellor. 5. There is no statistically significant difference by reason of occupa* tion in the importance which adult students assign to various functions of an adult education counsellor. PROCEDURE Population Studied The Surrey School District is a rectangular-shaped area approximately fifteen by ten miles and lying to the southeast of the city of Vancouver between the Fraser River on the north and the United States border on the south; the Municipality of Delta on the west and the Municipality of Langley on the east (Appendix A). As the district serves mainly as a dormitory community for people who work in Vancouver, Burnaby, and New Westminster, the highest density of population is in the northwest section. For this reason the majority of adult education credit courses are held in this area at Queen Elizabeth Senior Secondary School (26). Two important reasons behind the choice of the Surrey School District for the present study were the size and centralized nature of its credit adult education program, and the known interest and co-operation of its school board and its director of adult education. . At the time of the study there were approximately 320 adults enrolled in credit courses at Queen Elizabeth Senior Secondary. In consideration of the voluntary nature of the adult student, it was decided to use a panel method for the study. Accordingly, participants were obtained through volunteers. In the early part of November the writer was permitted to address each class of adults suitable for the study. The purpose of the study was briefly explained, questions were invited, and those willing to participate were requested to complete a form to supply certain necessary information (Appendix A). The number of adults eviden-cing a desire to participate totalled 127. 5 Toward the end of November a letter was sent to each of these adults reminding him of the study and suggesting a time for his participation. Alternate times were provided for those for whom the suggested time was inconvenient. (Appendix A). In a l l , 102 adults participated in the study and 100 of the responses were used. Characteristics Studied Information was collected from the participants about five socio-economic characteristics: sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation. The participants were classified by age into two sub-groups—under thirty years of age and thirty years of age or over. Two sub-groups were formed with regard to previous counselling—some previous counselling and no previous counselling. There were two sub-groups formed in terms of education—ten years of school or less and eleven years of school or more. Occupations were classified according to the Pineo-Porter Socio-Economic Status classifications (68). The six occupational classifications into which the male participants f e l l , ranging from semi-professional to unskilled, were reduced to two sub-groups. Occupational Group I contained those males in the occupational classifications of semi-professional; proprietors, managers, and officials, small; and clerical and sales. Occupational Group II contained those males in the occupational classifications of skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled. Females were assigned to two sub-groups—employed and unemployed. DESIGN OF THE Q-SORT The Q-sort consisted of fifty statements concerning functions of a counsellor in adult education. Guided by his personal evaluation of the importance of each item, a participant was required to place the items in one of nine piles arranged along a rank-order continuum with the whole making up a forced-normal distribution. 6 Item Selection Items were selected from books and articles in professional journals as well as published and unpublished studies relating to the counselling of adults, the psychology and.sociology of adults, and adult learning. Each item was a positive statement of a counsellor function expressed from the position of the adult. All vocabulary employed conformed to Mitzel*s Functional Reading Word  List for Adults (61). From the sources indicated, a list of sixty«two items was obtained representing functions of the adult counsellor in relation to the adult student. Consistent with the emphasis on the adult*s viewpoint, a class of eighteen adults served as judges of the clarity of wording and general importance of the items. These adults were registered in credit evening courses at another centre in the Surrey School District, but were not part of the population employed in the study itself. As judges, they were requested to determine the clarity of wording of each item and the general importance of each item to them. In addition, they were asked to suggest other items. On the basis of majority decision, six items were deleted, two added, and a number of changes made in wording. The fifty»eight items remaining were further selected by the writer to reduce repetition. This resulted in the development of a final Q»sort of fifty items. Category Selection For statistical analysis the fifty items of the Q«sort were assigned to one of four categories of counsellor functions (Appendix B). These categories were Category 1 - Educational Counselling (23 items) These items concerned, in general, educational infor« mation and orientation, long-term educational planning, and educational adjustment services. Category 2 * Occupational Counselling (6 items) These items concerned occupational information and referral. 7 Category 3 » Personal Counselling (7 items) These items concerned personal adjustment, self understanding, and r e f e r r a l . Category 4 » Counsellor-Adult Relationship (14 items) These items denoted functions by which a climate of mutual trust, understanding, and help might be established between the counsellor and the adult student. . Pre-Test of the Instrument To ascertain the ability of adult students to comprehend the instructions and perform the Q-sort satisfactorily, a pre-test was held using a group of twenty-seven adult students enrolled in evening courses in another school district similar to the one under study. As a result of this pre-test a few minor changes were made in the wording of the instructions. C O L L E C T I O N OF T H E D A T A The Q-sort and the data sheet were administered to the participating adult students on eight consecutive school evenings during the first two weeks of December, 1969. As previously mentioned, each adult who indicated a willingness to participate was contacted by mail, and a time was suggested on an evening when he had a class. The reason for this procedure was to avoid inconvenience to the participant and to keep to manageable size the numbers to whom the Q-sort would be administered on any one evening. Provision was made for rescheduling those who could not attend at the designated time. Although the writer was present from an early hour each night, the majority of adults participated following their classes. The Q-sort was administered by the writer whenever an adult arrived. Generally a brief introduction was given indicating the purpose of the study, stressing that it was not a test, and urging that the adult consider the items as they concerned him personally. The adult was then permitted to proceed with completing 8 the data sheet and performing the Q-sort. For greater ease of performance the Q-sort employed a five step procedure.. Participants were encouraged to.ask for assistance concerning any problems of procedure or interpretation, but few experienced any difficulty. The time required to complete the Q-sort and data sheet ranged from 30 minutes to 80 minutes with an average of approximately 45 minutes (Appendix C). Reaction from the participants was almost wholly favourable and co-operation was high. The Q-sort was found interesting and challenging though some participants experienced difficulty with the forced choice procedure because of the need to distinguish among many functions which they considered important. . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Each.item was given an item value determined by the pile in which it was placed by each participant. Thus the single item in pile one (the most important item) was assigned a value of nine, each item in pile two was assigned a value of eight, and so on to pile nine in which the single item (the least important item) was assigned a value of one. This information and the coded responses to the data sheet were keypunched onto a separate computer card for each participant. Frequency tables were produced for the socio-economic characteristics of sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation. The IBM 360 Computer of the University of British Columbia was used to compute mean item scores for the total population and for each sub-group. In addition, category scores were computed by totalling the values assigned each item in a category. For each sub-group a mean category score was then computed for each of the four categories of functions. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks (81) was employed to test the central hypothesis that there is no statistically significant difference in the importance which adult students enrolled in credit courses in a public adult night school assign to various functions of an adult education counsellor. 9 Items in the total population and in each sub-group were ranked using their means. The sum of the ranks in each category was then found. The Kruskal-Wallis test determines whether the sums of ranks are so disparate that they are not likely to have come from samples which are all drawn from the same population.. There-fore, since the Kruskal-Wallis technique tests the null hypothesis that k independent samples come from the same population or from identical populations with respect to averages, an acceptance of the null hypothesis would indicate no significant differences in the importance assigned to the categories of functions. Conversely, a rejection of the null hypothesis would indicate significant differences in the importance assigned, and would suggest further investigation of the contributing factors. The technique of Multiple Comparisons using Rank Sums as found in Dunn (29) was employed on the total population and the sub-groups to determine those categories of functions contributing to any differences in importance as shown by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Through the use of three matrices various combinations were investigated (Table I). The sub-hypotheses concerning possible statistically significant differences between various pairs of sub-groups with regard to the importance which they assigned to various functions of an adult education counsellor were tested by t tests of the category scores. Where significance was suggested, the non-parametric Wilcoxon Matched*Pairs Signed-Ranks test (81) was employed to corroborate this. LIMITATIONS The following limitations were observed in the study: 1. The participants attended evening classes in School District Number 36, District of Surrey and City of White Rock, British Columbia, and were enrolled in classes for secondary school credit. 2. From volunteers a panel of one hundred adults was studied. 3. Counsellor functions used in the Q-sort were those which directly involved both the counsellor and the adult student. 10 T A B L E I MATRICES FOR M U L T I P L E COMPARISONS MATRIX A 1. Educational Counselling 2. Educational + Occupational Counselling 3. Personal Counselling vs. vs. vs. Occupational Counselling Personal Counselling + Counsellor*Adult Relationship Counsellor-Adult Relation-ship MATRIX B 1. Educational Counselling vs. Counsellor*.Adult Relation* ship 2. Occupational Counselling vs. Personal Counselling 3. Occupational + Personal Educational Counselling + Counselling vs. Counsellor-Adult Relationship MATRIX C 1. Educational Counselling vs. 2. Occupational Counselling vs. 3. Occupational Counselling + Counsellor-Adult Relation* vs. ship Personal Counselling Counsellor-Adult Relation* ship Educational + Personal Counselling 11 DEFINITION OF TERMS Though more comprehensive definitions can be found, the following were employed as being better understood by the adult participants. Counsellor. The person who, through direct personal contact with the adult student, has as his principal responsibility to assist the adult in educational and vocational planning and personal-social adjustment. Function. An action, duty, or responsibility of the adult counsellor. C H A P T E R II R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E Literature on the counselling of adults is l imited, and that with direct reference to public school adult education is even more l imited. Other than a minimal amount of research at the university level (97), studies on counsellor role or function have been confined largely to elementary and secondary schools, and even there the population consulted has normally consisted of administrators, teachers, parents, and counsellors themselves rather than students (5, 72, 76, 77, 79). In reviewing a number of these studies T y l e r (94) and Roeber (74) concluded that students at the college or university level attached most signifi-cance to the counse l lor s help with vocational choice, while high school students defined the counsellor's role pr imar i ly in terms of assistance with educational and vocational problems although the counsellors themselves preferred to deal with personal and social concerns. As no research could be found directly related to the present study, the literature reviewed below concerned the counselling of adults, and adult psychology, sociology, and learning. F r o m these sources were obtained most of the functions of the adult counsellor used in the Q « s o r t . In addition, this literature suggested variables to be considered in the study.. Mater ia l concerning the use of the Q « s o r t technique in s imi lar studies and in educational research has also been reviewed. 12 13 LITERATURE ON THE COUNSELLING OF ADULTS Emphasis in Counselling The areas of emphasis in counselling adults have been the subject of much divergent opinion. Warman (97), in an attitude survey of different campus groups at university, found that students ranked vocational choice help f i r s t , help about college routine second, and help with-adjustment to one*s self and others last. Ryska (75), in surveying filry-nine evening colleges, concluded that the counsellor needed great breadth and depth in the knowledge of educational and occupational information and of resource materials. Two surveys of public school adult guidance indicated the emphasis being given. One study of thirty public school adult guidance services carried out by Presgraves (70) showed that only fifteen had counselling services of which the major types were educational, vocational, and personal-social.. Stewart (85), in surveying guidance in Los Angeles city adult schools, found a predominance of educational over vocational counselling, limited data on the students, little atten-tion to the students* interests, aptitudes, preferences, personality, and work experience, a drain on the counsellors' time through clerical duties, lack of suitable training, and poor follow-uppprocedures. Ballin and Logie (4) described the success of a group guidance program which stressed vocational counselling, and the study of occupational information, while Plummer (69), as the result of a course concerned with the discussion and testing of interests, aptitudes, and personality, concluded that adults were more interested in improving themselves intellectually than in vocational improvement. Verner (95:61) suggested that the adult was less in need of vocational advice and more in need of educational and social guidance. For Kaback (91:27) the essence of counselling was the relationship, for she felt that rightly or wrongly the counsellor served as a model and represented education to the adult. Kidd (44: 222) contended that the emphasis not be on giving information or advice but on helping the adult learn how to come to terms with himself, accept his strengths and weaknesses, and begin to be self-managing. Novack and Weiant (65) expressed 14 a s imilar view. Awareness of the maturational process and life changes as a means to promoting individual growth and personal responsibility were urged by Vontress and Thomas (96). Campion (15) felt that adults* needs would be met through individual consultation for specific knowledge of educational and occupa-tional matters, group counselling for general assistance, and teacher guidance to aid with specific skil ls and knowledge. Cassel and Clark (17) described a comprehensive testing program as a means for increasing the effectiveness of educational, vocational, and personal guidance, while Peterson and Robinson (66) claimed the effectiveness of a clinic at which counsellors from various agencies united to counsel local adults regarding educational and vocational opportunities and community programs. Thatcher (89:120) viewed the primary purposes of public school adult education and, by implication, of counselling, as helping adults enter the best educational programs for them and helping them make those adjustments which would allow them to profit fully from their educational exper-iences. Noting the numerous functions which the counsellor already had, Collins (21) rejected the image of the counsellor as a cl inical psychologist and advocated that he be trained for the function of vocationaland educational counselling. Similar insistence that the counsellor avoid a psychotherapeutic role was voiced by Braund (10) and Aubrey (3). Techniques of Counselling There was a decided scarcity of literature on techniques of counselling adults, duties of adult counsellors, and the organization and administration of guidance services in adult education. Kle in and Moffitt (45) have written one of the few books with definite application to public school adult education. This was chiefly concerned with techniques and services and discussed the generally recognized areas of counsellor responsibility. . Also pertinent were the works of Thatcher (89) dealing with the characteristics of adult students and with principles for counsellors, De Gabriele (25) on counselling services and techniques and the needs of and psychological and physiological changes in adults, and Counseling  and Interviewing Adult Students, the handbook published by the National Association 15 of Public School Adult Education (62). Counselling techniques and the concerns, especially vocational, of various groups of adults were dealt with by Thoroman (92). Parts of works for college and university counsellors, such as Student  Personnel Services for Adults in Higher Education (31),had application to coun-selling, in public school adult education. Beyond these the adult counsellor is generally obliged to consult material specifically for elementary and secondary school counsellors. Counsellor Preparation While admitting the necessity of employing part-time counsellors, usually from elementary or secondary levels of education, many writers urged programs by which counsellors could acquire adequate preparation for dealing with a d u l t s — a task for which they felt specialized training was essential. Whiteley (100) regretted that the bulk of literature on counselling did not deal with what the counsellor was to accomplish and how he was to accomplish i t . Verner (95:61) contended that the ideal adult counsellor should be trained both as a clinical psychologist and an adult educator. As the result of his study, Dannenmaier (23) concluded that generalized training of counsellors was possible for a l l levels of education and that it was feasible to employ high school coun-sellors in counselling situations involving adults. The teacher was occasionally suggested of value for counselling in planning, evaluation, and problem solving in the subject area (9, 39, 62), but, in general, opinion was opposed to the professional counsellor having a teaching role. Westervelt (99:147-150), in an overview of counselling adults in continuing education, enumerated what she felt to be the needed competencies of the counsellor. These-were 1. supervised practice in counselling with the kinds of clients with whom the counsellor planned to work; 2. skill in acquiring and disseminating educational and occupational information; 3. some understanding of learning theory and adult learning character-istics; 16 4. some under standing of the sociological and psychological charac« teristics of adults; 5. understanding of the nature of the system or systems in or with which the counsellor would be working. Vocational Counselling Vocational counselling for adults and the assistance the counsellor could offer regarding the problems and needs of women, the seriously disabled, senior citizens, and other groups was dealt with by Thoroman (92). Williamson (102) criticized the use of untrained personnel in giving occupational information, the counsellors* lack of knowledge concerning testing, and the over dependence placed on the adult*s self-analysis in determining possible occupations. Westervelt (99: 146*147), while admitting similarities between vocational counselling and counselling, in continuing education, nevertheless stressed the greater emphasis which the latter had to place on educational counselling, the greater concern of adults in continuing education with their ability to learn, and the need for the counsellor in continuing education to work with and in educational systems, the majority of whose students and staff were part-time. Counselling of Women Many writers urged particular attention to the needs of women. Thoroman (92:95) indicated that in 1964 one person of every four in the American labour force was a woman. He viewed women's needs as not only economic, but also those of status, prestige, and social acceptance. Of particular concern were women entering full-time employment for the first time and older women and working widows. Westervelt (99:150) cited the lack of identity felt by those holding humble positions or, like the housewife, no position at all. Berry (6), in predicting changing roles for women in the 1980's, underscored the need for specialized training for counsellors of women. Dolan (28) found lack of self confidence and lack of information the two major problems experienced by women thirty-five to fifty-four years old. The need for expanded educational and vocational counselling for women returning to work was expressed by Lichtenstein and Block (49). 17 L I T E R A T U R E ON A D U L T SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY, AND LEARNING Adult Sociology Literature on the counselling of adults invariably alluded to the impor» tance of a developmental approach. Weidner (98:5) saw the need for "continuing guidance in relation to contmuing education; to related guidance to the need for lifelong learning in our changing society." Blocher (8:1) approached counselling from "the process of human development organized around life stages and elaborated in terms of social roles, developmental tasks, and coping behaviors." Emphasis was usually placed on the differences between adults and pre-adults, and between adults themselves. Thompson (90) noted five of the basic differences: 1. An adult has a different self-concept from the youth when he comes into a learning, situation; 2.. An adult comes into a learning situation with a body of experience; 3. An adult enters into a learning situation with a different set of developmental tasks. For the adult, developmental tasks can be broken down generally into three stages—early adult years (18-30); middle adult years (30-55); and later maturity (over 55); 4.. An adult enters into a learning situation for immediate use of the learning to solve immediate life problems; 5. An adult enters in the learning situation voluntarily. Westervelt (99:150) emphasized the wider age range of adults as compared with pre-adults and the fact that adults, having achieved some identity, did not need a replica of the services offered younger students, but help from a visible, acces-sible person in integrating education with the whole of their current activities and needs.. Adolph (1) found that with a selected group of adults in credit courses those under age twenty-one viewed adult education as a ticket to a better job, those age twenty-two to thirty-two saw it as a second chance for education and for its remedial aspects in relation to occupation, and those over age thirty-two saw it to keep up with progress. Though both sexes were highly favourable, he found women 18 more favourable to adult education than men. Chapman (19) was of the opinion that adults returned to education for leisure time sk i l l s , social sk i l l s , cultural-intellectual interests, economic advancement, and educational advancement, while Dobbs (27) reported self-perceived educational needs of adults to show that they put educational needs secondary to economic ones, thus leading him to strongly recommend greater consideration for the expressed needs of adults. Havighurst (36) made significant contributions in suggesting two ways of thinking about development during adulthood—developmental tasks and social roles. Adult education was necessary, he believed, for competence in work, as a means of mamtaining engagement with society, and as a means of expression. F o r those "interested in understanding the adult part of l i f e , and in developing programs of adult education and guidance" he suggested that there were eight dominant concerns governing the behaviour of a person during stages of his l i f e . These were 1.. 0 -' io Coming into independent existence 2. 10 -20 Becoming a person in one's life 3. 20 -30 Focussing one's life 4. 30 - 40 Collecting one's energies 5. 40 -i50 Exerting and asserting oneself 6. 50 « 60 Maintaining position and changing roles 7. 60 - 70 Deciding whether to disengage and how 8. 70 - 80 Making the most of disengagement From a vocational viewpoint, M i l l e r and Form (59) presented a socio-logical classification of life stages in work periods and types of career patterns. Noting the dearth of similar studies concerning women, Super (87) advanced a possible classification of women's career patterns. Berry (7) also suggested general career patterns among women. 19 . Adult Psychology In the field of psychology, Maslow (54) and Erikson (30) have formulated theories providing a framework for an understanding of the developmental processes and crises of adults. Westervelt (99:148), however, expressed con-cern that "no period of human life has been less studied from the point of view of normal psychology as opposed to psychopathology than has the period between twenty and sixty years of age." With adulthood Erikson associated the psycholo-gical tasks of the achievement of identity (late adolescence, and sometimes, early 20*s), intimacy (20's and 30*s), generativity (40's and 50's), and integrity (60's and 70*s). Maslow (55) noted two types of learning—extrinsic and intrinsic. He viewed intrinsic learning, by which adults become all that they are capable of becoming, as the ultimate goal of adult education and of counselling. The coun-sellor's job, he perceived, as helping them to become what they already are more perfectly and to realize what they potentially can be. Comments on changing concepts and values in the adult life span were expressed by many writers including McClusky (57), De Gabriele (25), and Thatcher (89). Thoroman (92) stressed the importance of ego status in the adult's goal selection. Neugarten (63), in her study of personality changes during the adult years, saw forty as a time of major redirection of the ego from outer'to inner concerns. . Adult Learning Literature on adult learning goes far toward dispelling the common fear of adults they they are too old to learn. Lorge (52) found that learning;ability, when not bound by stringent time limits, did not change significantly from age twenty to sixty years. Principles of adult learning and conditions which facilitate it were considered by Hendrickson (38), Pine and Home (67), and Miller (60). Zahn (104) provided a summary of many of the major concepts regarding adult learning. 20 L I T E R A T U R E ABOUT TH E Q-SORT TECHNIQUE Q methodology was a name assigned by William Stephenson (83) to a group of psychometric and statistical procedures which he developed. Q tech-nique related to the procedures employed in carrying, out Q methodology. Essen* tially this involved the sorting out of packs of cards called Q-sorts and the correlating of the responses of different individuals or different groups of individuals or factors. As a psychological measurement tool, Q-sort has been used by C a r l Rogers and his colleagues and students as a means of allowing clients to reveal their perceptions of themselves and others.. From the results of these studies inferences could be drawn about personality and the results of therapy (43:586-7). The worth of the Q-sort in educational research has been demonstrated by Kerlinger (42). Numerous studies of perceptions of the high school counsellor's role have employed this instrument (5, 35, 41, 76), but there was no suggestion in the literature that it has been used regarding the adult counsellor. Q methodology has been both praised and criticized. Kerlinger viewed it as a flexible and useful tool for the psychological and educational investigator. It could profitably be used for comparing the characteristics of groups of individuals with regard to their relations within the group. He felt that the novel approach of Q methodology made it interesting to most people (43:592-594). Cronbach saw value in the forced choice procedure of the Q-sort. In the Q-sort we have a variant of the forced choice procedure which has so many psychometric advantages. For one thing, this method of interrogation is much more penet-rating than the common questionnaire where the person can say "Yes" to all the favorable symptoms and "No" to all the unfavorable ones. The method is free from these ideosyncracies of response which cause some persons to respond "Cannot say" twice as often as others, and so make their scores noncom-parable. The forced choice requires every person to put himself on the measuring scale in much the same manner.. Since more statements are placed in the middle pile, the subject is freed from many difficult and rather unimportant discriminations he would have to make if he were forced to rank every statement. (22:378-379). 21 Among the disadvantages, Kerlinger cited the matter of sampling. Q was not a method well-suited to cross-sectional or large sample purposes. On the other hand, he pointed out that one should not wish to generalize to populations, but rather to test theories on small sets of individuals chosen for specific charac-teristics. With them it was possible to explore unknown areas and variables for their identity and interrelations. Regarding the forced nature of the Q-sort, Kerlinger believed that more criticism and dissatisfaction was inferred by those who opposed forced choices than was actually experienced by participants in such studies. He suggested that the advantage of forcing individuals to. make discrimi-nations that they often would not make unless required to do so outweighed any disadvantages (43:594-598). CHAPTER IE DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS The results of the study are presented in five sections. The first contains the distribution of the participating adult students according to the socio-economic characteristics under consideration. FoUowing this is the analysis of the Q-sorts to test the central hypothesis. The third section presents the analysis of data to determine the types of functions considered significantly more important by the total population and by each sub-group. The testing of the sub-hypotheses by the analysis of differences between pairs of sub-groups constitutes the fourth section. The last section contains an examination of the items selected most important and least important by the total population. DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS ACCORDING TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS As indicated in the preceding chapter, one hundred adult students constituted the panel used. All were enrolled in credit courses in the public adult night school program of the Surrey School District. 22 23 Of this total population, fifty were males and fifty were females. In the case of both males and females, twenty-five were under 30 years of age and twenty-five were 30 years of age or over. A total of forty-nine adults (twenty males and twenty-nine females) had received some previous counselling either in elementary school or secondary school, while the remaining fifty-one adults (thirty males and twenty-one females) had received no previous counselling. With respect to education, a total of forty adults (twenty-two males and eighteen females) had completed ten years of school or less, while the remaining sixty adults (twenty-eight males and thirty-two females) had completed eleven years of school or more (Table II). T A B L E II DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS BY SEX, AGE, PREVIOUS COUNSELLING, AND EDUCATION Total Males Females Socio-Economic Groups No. No. % No. % Under 30 years of age 50 25 50.0 25 50.0 30 years of age or over 50 25 50.0 25 50.0 Some previous counselling 49 20 40.8 29 59.2 No previous counselling 51 30 58.8 21 41.2 10 years of school or less 40 22 55.0 18 45.0 11 years of school or more 60 28 46.7 32 53.3 Of the fifty males involved in the study, nineteen (nine under 30 years of age and ten 30 years of age or over) were assigned to Occupational Group I constituting the Pineo-Porter Socio-Economic Status classifications of semi-professional; proprietors, managers, and officials, small; clerical and sales. The remaining thirty-one males (sixteen under 30 years of age and fifteen 30 years of age or over) were assigned to Occupational Group II constituting the 24 Pineo-Porter Socio-Economic Status classifications of skilled; semi-skilled; unskilled. Twenty-five of the fifty females were employed; twenty-five were unemployed (Table III). TABLE III DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICIPANTS BY AGE, SEX, AND OCCUPATION Sex and Occupational Status Total No. Under 30 Years of Age No, % 30 Years of Age or Over No. . % Males Group I 19 (semi-professional; proprietors, managers and officials, small; clerical and sales) Males Group II 31 (skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled) 47.4 16 51.6 10 52.6 15 48.4 Employed females Unemployed female s 25 25 16 64.0 9 36.0 9 36.0 16 64.0 ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN THE IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED TO VARIOUS COUNSELLOR FUNCTIONS It was contended in the central hypothesis that there would be no statis-tically significant differences among adults enrolled in credit courses in a public adult night school in the importance which they assigned to various functions of an adult education counsellor. To provide more meaningful comparisons than might occur with individual items, the categories of counsellor functions were investigated: educational counselling, occupational counselling, personal counselling, and the counsellor-25 adult relationship. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance by ranks was employed to determine whether there were significant differences in the impor-tance assigned to the four categories of functions. This technique tested the null hypothesis that there were no differences. Since the chosen level of significance was .05, the region of rejection consisted of any value of the statistic H which was so large that the probability associated with its occurrence was equal to or less than oL = .05. Total Population In the total population the H value was significant at the . 01 level thus calling for the rejection of the null hypothesis. It can be concluded that in the total population significantly more importance was assigned to certain functions of an adult education counsellor than to others (Table IV). Sub-groups The Kruskal-Wallis test was used with each sub-group to determine whether there were significant differences in the importance assigned to the four categories of counsellor functions as a result of sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation (Table IV). Sex Among those of either sex the H values were significant at the .01 level. Consequently the null hypothesis of no significant differences by reason of sex is rejected. Significantly more importance was assigned to certain functions of an adult education counsellor than to others regardless of sex. Age In the male groups of under 30 years of age and 30 years or over, the H values were significant at the .01 and .02 levels respectively. In the female groups of under 30 years of age and 30 years or over, the H values were signifi-cant at the .001 and .01 levels respectively. The null hypothesis of no significant 26 T A B L E IV DIFFERENCES IN T H E IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED TO T H E FOUR CATEGORIES OF COUNSELLOR FUNCTIONS KRUSKAL-WALLIS ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE BY RANKS Level of Total Population and Socio-Economic Sub-groups Statistical H* Significance Total Population 13.4657 .01 Males 12.583 .01 Females 15;64 .01 Males under 30 years of age 12.7232 .01 Males 30 years of age or over 10.6186 .02 Females under 30 years of age 18.4121 .001 Females 30 years of age or over 12.9676 .01 Population with some previous counselling 13.31 .01 Population with no previous counselling 13.689 .01 Population having completed 10 years of school or less 13.70 .01 Population having completed 11 years of school or more 14.2497 .01 Males in Occupational Group I 7.8657 .05 Males in Occupational Group II 16.4573 .001 Employed females 20.75 .001 Unemployed females 12.78 .01 * The statistic used in the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks. Level of significance = .05, d.f. = 3 An example of this test is found in Appendix D. 27 differences by reason of age is rejected. Thus it can be concluded that significantly more importance was assigned to certain functions of an adult education counsellor than to others with respect to age groups by sex. Previous Counselling In both the group with some previous counselling and the group with no previous counselling the H values were significant at the .01 level; consequently, the null hypothesis of no significant differences by reason of previous counselling is rejected. With respect to previous counselling significantly more importance was assigned to certain functions of an adult education counsellor than to others. Education In both the group having completed 10 years of school or less and the group having completed 11 years of school or more the H values were significant at the .01 level. The null hypothesis of no significant differences by reason of education is rejected. Significantly more importance was assigned to certain functions of an adult education counsellor than to others with respect to level of education. Occupation In the male Occupational Group I and the male Occupational Group II, the H values were significant at the .05 and .001 levels respectively. In both the employed and the unemployed female groups, the H values were significant at the .001 and .01 levels respectively. The null hypothesis of no significant differences by reason of occupation is rejected. Thus it can be concluded that with respect to occupation significantly more importance was assigned to certain functions of an adult education counsellor than to others. Summary In the total population and in each of the sub-groups H values of the Kruskal-Wallis test were significant at the chosen level of .05. This called for 28 the rejection of the null hypothesis in each case. Consequently, the central hypothesis was also rejected. It can be concluded that in the total population and in each of the sub-groups established by sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation, there were statistically significant differences in the importance assigned to various functions of an adult education counsellor. In the total population and in most of the sub-groups the significance level was at .01 indicating a pronounced preference for certain functions over others. In the female group under 30 years of age, the male Occupational Group II and the employed female group, significance was at the .001 level. Only the male Occupational Group I had a level of significance bordering on .05. COUNSELLOR FUNCTIONS CONSIDERED SIGNIFICANTLY MORE IMPORTANT By the Kruskal-Wallis test it was found that the population studied assigned significantly more importance to certain functions of an adult education counsellor than to others. To determine which functions were considered the more important ones, Dunn's method of multiple comparisons using rank sums was employed (29). By constructing three matrices it was possible to compare each category of functions with each of the other three (Table I). Because each matrix involved three comparisons, the significance level of each comparison in a matrix was equal to .05 or . 0083 in order to be in accordance with the overall ~2p~ significance level of .05. Thus, since the null hypothesis was tested, the region of rejection for each individual comparison consisted of any value which was so large that the probability associated with its occurrence was equal to or less than .0083. . Matrix A Matrix A provided comparisons between the following functions: 1. educational counselling versus occupational counselling; 29 2. educational and occupational counselling versus personal counselling and counsellor-adult relationship; 3. personal counselling versus counsellor-adult relationship (Table V). In the total population and in the sub-groups established by sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation, no significant differences were found in the importance assigned to educational counselling as compared with occupational counselling. In the total population the combination of educational and occupational counselling was found significantly more important at the . 0005 level than was the combination of personal counselling and the counsellor-adult relationship. With respect to sex the difference was significant in the male group at the .0048 level and in the female group at the . 0001 level. The difference by age was significant at the .0031 level in the male group under 30 years of age, but was not significant in the male group 30 years of age or over; the difference was significant in both the female group under 30 years of age at the .00005 level and the female group 30 years of age or over at the .00023 level. In terms of previous counselling the difference was significant in the group with previous counselling at the . 0005 level and in the group with no previous counselling at the .0025 level. On the basis of education there was a significant difference in the group having completed 10 years of school or less at the .0026 level and in the group having completed 11 years of school or more at the .00023 level.. The difference by occupation was not sig-nificant in the male Occupational Group I, but was significant in the male Occupational Group II at the .018 level. In the employed female group at the .00003 level and in the unemployed female group at the .0045 level, the difference was significant. In the total population and in the sub-groups established in terms of sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation, no significant differences were found in the importance assigned to personal counselling as compared with the counsellor-adult relationship. 30 T A B L E V R E L A T I V E IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED TO T H E FOUR CATEGORIES OF FUNCTIONS MULTIPLE COMPARISONS USING RANK SUMS (DUNN) MATRIX A* Educational Educational Personal counselling and occupa- counselling vs. occupa- tional v s. tional counselling counsellor-counselling vs. personal adult r e l a -Total Population and Socio- counselling & tionship Economic Sub-groups -counsellor-adult r e l a -tionship Total Population .1335 .0005 .1357 Males .0582 .0048 .1660 Females .2389 .0001 .1003 Males under 30 years of age .0764 .0031 .1515 Males 30 years of age or over .0749 .0084 .2061 Females under 30 years of age .1660 .00005 .1423 Females 30 years of age or over .3520 .00023 .0630 Population with some previous counselling .2061 .0005 .1562 Population with no previous counselling .0643 .0025 .1170 Population having completed 10 years of school or less .0668 .0026 .0869 Population having completed 11 years of school or more .2358 .00023 .1685 Males in Occupational Group I .1112 . .0188 .2946 Males in Occupational Group II .0329 .0018 .1314 Employed females .3632 .00003 .3156 Unemployed females .0808 .0045 .0336 The values in the cells indicate the exact probability under the null hypothesis. The values less than e<, = .05 are underlined in accordance with the chosen overall level of significance of .05. An example of this test i s found in Appendix D. 31 Matrix B Matrix B provided comparisons between the following functions: 1. educational counselling versus counsellor-adult relationship; 2. occupational counselling versus personal counselling; 3. occupational and personal counselling versus educational counselling and counsellor-adult relationship (Table VI). In the total population educational counselling was found significantly more important at the .0041 level than the counsellor-adult relationship. With respect to sex the difference was significant in the male group at the .0048 level and in the female group at the .003 level. The difference by age was significant at the .0048 level in the male group under 30 years of age and at the .0075 level in the male group 30 years of age or over; in the female group under 30 years of age the difference was significant at the .0007 level, but it was not significant in the female group 30 years of age or over. In relation to previous counselling the difference was significant in the group with previous counselling at the . 0037 level and the group with no previous counselling at the .0048 level. In terms of education a significant difference was found in the group having completed 10 years of school or less at the .0071 level and in the group having completed 11 years of school or more at the . 0024 level. The difference on the basis of occupa-tion was not significant in the male Occupational Group I, but was significant in the male Occupational Group II at the . 0016 level. In the employed female group, the difference was significant at the .00023 level, but it was not significant in the unemployed female group. Occupational counselling was found significantly more important than personal counselling in the employed female group at the .0023 level. The differ-ence was not significant in the total population or in the other sub-groups estab-lished in terms of sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation. In the total population and in the sub-groups established on the basis of sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation, no significant differences were found in the importance assigned to the combination of occupational 32 TABLE VI R E L A T I V E IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED T O T H E FOUR CATEGORIES OF FUNCTIONS MULTIPLE COMPARISONS USING RANK SUMS (DUNN) MATRIX B* Total Population and Socio* Economic Sub-groups Educational counselling vs. coun-sellor-adult relationship Occupational counselling vs. personal counselling Occupational & personal counselling vs, educational counselling & counsellor-adult relationship Total Population .0041 ,0537 .0582 Males .0048 .1379 .0351 Females .003 ..0158 .0778 Males under 30 years of age .0048 .1056 .0401 Males 30 years of age or over .0075 .1660 .0526 Females under 30 years of age . 0007 .0202 .0735 Females 30 years of age or over .0146 .0110 .0869 Population with some previous counselling .0037 .0367 .0951 Population with no previous counselling .0048 .0951 .0268 Population having completed 10 years of school or less .0071 .0823 .0207 Population having completed 11 years of school or more .0024 .0274 .1131 Males in Occupational Group I .0132 .2148 .1038 Males in Occupational Group II .0016 .1151 .0174 Employed females .00023 .0023 .4641 Unemployed females .0287 .0643 .0104 * The values in the cells indicate the exact probability under the null hypothesis. The values less than °^ = .05 are underlined in accordance 2p with the chosen overall level of significance of .05. An example of this test i s found in Appendix D. 33 and personal counselling as compared with the combination of educational counselling and the counsellor-adult relationship. Matrix C Matrix C provided comparisons between the following functions: 1. educational counselling versus personal counselling; 2. occupational counselling versus counseUor-adult relationship; 3. occupational counselling and counsellor-adult relationship versus educational and personal counselling (Table VII). In the total population educational counselling was found significantly more important than personal counselling at the .0007 level.. With respect to sex the difference was significant in the male group at the .0011 level and in the female group at the .00023 level. The difference by age was significant at the .0009 level in the male group under 30 years of age and at the .0026 level in the male group 30 years of age or over; in the female group under 30 years of age the difference was significant at the .00016 level and in the female group 30 years of age or over at the .0005 level. In terms of previous counselling the difference was significant i n the group with previous counselling at the .0007 level and the group with no previous counselling at the .0005 level. On the basis of education the difference was significant in the group having com-pleted 10 years of school or less at the .0003 level and in the group having com-pleted 11 years of school or more at the .0007 level. The difference by occupation was not significant in the male Occupational Group I, but was signifi-cant in the male Occupational Group II at the .00023 level. There was a significant difference found in both the employed and unemployed female groups at the .0005 and .0003 levels respectively. In the employed female group occupational counselling was found significantly more important at the .0027 level than the counsellor-adult relation-ship. The difference was not significant in the total population or in the other sub-groups by sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation. 34 TABLE VII RELATIVE IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED TO THE FOUR CATEGORIES OF FUNCTIONS MULTIPLE COMPARISONS USING RANK SUMS (DUNN) MATRIX C* Educational Occupational Occupational counselling counselling counselling & vs. personal vs. coun- counsellor-counselling sellor-adult relationship adult relation* ship vs. Total Population and Socio- educational & Economic Sub-groups personal counselling Total Population .0007 .2148 .50 Males .0011 .3707 .3192 Females .00023 .1056 .3228 Males under 30 years of age .0009 .3264 .3783 Males 30 years of age or over .0026 .3707 .3121 Females under 30 years of age .00016 .0918 .4681 Females 30 years of age or over .0005 .1230 . 1788 Population with some previous counselling . 0007 .1379 .4404 Population with no previous counselling .0005 .3557 .4013 Population having completed 10 years of school or less .0003 .3821 .4602 Population having completed 11 years of school or more .0007 .1003 .4207 Males in Occupational Group I .0102 .3483 .2946 Males in Occupational Group II .00023 .3783 .2843 Employed females .0005 .0027 .2546 Unemployed females .0003 .4840 .3632 * The values in the cells indicate the exact probability under the null hypothesis. The values less than c*C = .05 are underlined in accordance with the chosen ~2p overall level of significance of .05. An example of this test is found in Appendix D. 35 In the total population and in the sub-groups established in terms of sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation, no significant differ* ences were found in the importance assigned to the combination of occupational counselling and the counsellor*adult relationship as compared with the combina-tion of educational and personal counselling. Summary of Significant Results by Multiple Comparisons (Table VIII) In the total population and in the sub-groups established in terms of sex, previous counselling, and education, educational counselling was found significantly more important than either personal counselling or the counsellor-adult relationship, and the combination of educational and occupational counselling was considered significantly more important than the combination of personal counselling and the counsellor-adult relationship. By age, both the male group under 30 years of age and the female group under 30 years of age produced the same significant results as those found in the total population. In the male group 30 years of age or over only two results were significant: educational counselling was more important than either personal counselling or the counsellor-adult relationship. Only two results were significant in the female groupb30 years of age or over: educational counselling was more important than personal counselling and the combination of educational and occupational counselling was moire important than the combination of personal counselling and the counsellor-adult relationship. On the basis of occupation a more varied picture resulted. Comparisons in the male Occupational Group I produced no significant results, while the male Occupational Group II arrived at the same significant results as those found in the total population. The employed female group considered educational counselling significantly more important than either personal counselling or the counsellor-adult relationship, occupational counselling significantly more important than TABLE VIII SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT RESULTS BY MULTIPLE COMPARISONS* Matrix A Matrix B Matrix C Educational & Educational Occupational Educational Occupational Occupational counselling counselling counselling counselling vs. Total Population and Socio- Counselling vs. vs. counsellor* vs. personal vs. personal counsellor-Economic Sub-groups Personal adult relation- counselling counselling adult Counselling & ship relationship Counsellor-adult relatione ship Total Population .0005 .0041 .0007 Males .0048 .0048 .0011 Females .0001 .003 .00023 Males under 30 years of age .0031 .0048 .0009 Males 30 years of age or over .0075 .0026 Females under 30 years of age .00005 .0007 .00016 Females 30 years of age or over .00023 .0005 Population with some previous counselling .0005 .0037 .0007 Population with no previous counselling .0025 . 0048 .0005 Population having completed 10 years of school or less .0026 .0071 .0003 Population having completed 11 years of school or more .00023 .0024 .0007 Males in Occupational Group I Males in Occupational Group II .0018 .0016 .00023 Employed females . 00003 .00023 .0023 .0005 .0027 Unemployed females .0045 .0003 The values in the cells indicate the exact probability under Ho. Only significant values are given. 37 either personal counselling or the counseUor-adult relationship, and the com* binatLon of educational and occupational counselling significantly more important than the combination of personal counselling and the counsellor-adult relation-ship. In the unemployed female group only two results were significant: educational counselling was more important than personal counselling and the combination of educational and occupational counselling was more important than the combination of personal counselling and the counsellor^adult relationship. SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PAIRS OF SUB-GROUPS WITH REGARD TO T H E IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED TO VARIOUS COUNSELLOR FUNCTIONS A number of sub-hypotheses were proposed to compare pairs of sub-groups by sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation as to possible significant differences in the importance which they assigned to various functions of an adult education counsellor. Investigation concerned the four categories of counsellor functions: educational counselling, occupational coun-selling, personal counselling, and counsellor-adult relationship. Where significant differences were suggested by t tests, the Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks test was employed as a non-parametric test to corroborate the findings. This technique tested the null hypothesis that there were no significant differences between a pair of sub-groups in the importance which they assigned to the four categories of functions. Since the chosen level of significance was .05, the region of rejection consisted of any value of the statistic T which was so large that the probability associated with its occurrence was equal to or less than U = .05 (Table IX). 38 T A B LE IX SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PAIRS OF SUB-GROUPS WITH REGARD TO T H E IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED TO VARIOUS COUNSELLOR FUNCTIONS WILCOXON MATCHED-PAIRS SIGNED-RANK T E S T Pairs of Sub-groups Values of T* Educational Occupational Personal Counsellor* Counselling Counselling 1 Counsel- adult r e l a -ting tionship 2 Males vs. Females Employed females vs. unemployed females 0 0 14 * The statistic of the Wilcoxon test, denoting the smaller of the sums of like-signed ranks. Values shown are significant at the . 05 level. No significant differences were found between the pairs of sub-groups not listed. An example of this test is found in Appendix D. 1 N = 6 2 N = 14 Sex In the comparison between the male and. female groups the T value of 0 for occupational counselling was significant at the .05 level. No significant differences were found with regard to the other categories of functions. Therefore, it can be concluded that in the comparison by sex significantly more importance was assigned to occupational counselling by the female group than by the male group. Age In neither the comparison between the male group under 30 years of age and the male group 30 years of age or over nor that between the female group under 30 years of age and the female group 30 years of age or over were any significant differences found. 39 Therefore, it can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the pairs of sub-groups established on the basis of age in the importance which they assigned to various functions of an adult education counsellor. Previous Counselling The group with some previous counselling and the group with no previous counselling did not differ significantly in the importance which they assigned counsellor functions. Therefore, it can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the pair of sub-groups established in terms of previous counselling in the importance which they assigned to various functions of an adult education counsellor. . Education The comparison between the group with 10 years of school or less and the group with 11 years of school or more produced no significant differences. Therefore, it can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the pair of sub-groups established by education in the importance which they assigned to various functions of an adult education counsellor. Occupation In the comparison between the male Occupational Group I and the male Occupational Group n no significant differences were found. Therefore, it can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the pair of male occupational sub-groups in the importance which they assigned to various functions of an adult education counsellor. In the comparison between the employed female group and the unemployed female group, the T value of 0 for occupational counselling and the T value of 14 for counsellor-adult relationship were significant at the .05 level. No significant differences were found with regard to the other two categories of counsellor functions. Therefore, it can be concluded that the employed female group assigned 40 significantly more importance to occupational counselling than did the unemployed female group, and that the unemployed female group assigned significantly more importance to the counseUor-adult relationship than did the employed female group. T H E NINE MOST IMPORTANT AND THE NINE L E A S T IMPORTANT ITEMS The nine most important and the nine least important items as identified by the total population are listed i n Tables X and XI. 1 Because one of the chief advantages of the Q-sort technique is that it forces individuals to make discrimina-tions, the items placed in the extreme piles represent considered evaluations. The Nine Most Important Items Eight of the nine most important items were educational counselling functions; the ninth dealt with the counsellor-adult relationship (Table X). The items chosen reflected the adult student's desire for practical assistance in selecting courses, establishing goals, and in better preparing himself for the learning experience. The Nine Least Important Items Four of the nine least important items were personal counselling functions, three represented the counsellor-adult relationship, one was an occupational counselling function, and one an educational counselling function (Table XI). The items chosen indicated an independence on the part of the adult student. He was not interested in personal counselling. His relationship with the counsellor was viewed in the practical terms of seeking assistance in areas where he lacked infor-mation. 1 The nine most important and least important items in each of the sub-groups are found in Appendix D. TABLE X T H E NINE MOST IMPORTANT ITEMS IN RANK ORDER Rank of Number of Item Item Item Category 1 1 to help me think out my educational needs and the Educational course(s) most likely to satisfy those needs 2 27 to know and be able to explain the courses available Educational 3 12 to explain the requirements for entering and com- Educational pleting various programs of study 4 8 to give me tests to help me understand my interests Educational and ability and to discuss the results with me 5 4 to assist me in planning toward long-range Educational educational goals 6 13 to inform me about other educational agencies if they . Educational offer courses more likely to satisfy my needs 7 19 to discuss problems I have in learning and ways I Educational can help myself 8 15 to discuss how I can use my background and exper- Educational iences to help me in my education 9 48 to make his advice and information practical Counsellor-Adult Relation-ship TABLE XI TH E NINE L E A S T IMPORTANT ITEMS IN RANK ORDER Rank of Number of Item Item Item Category 42 to help me learn how I can take part in class without making a fool of myself Personal 44 to make me feel welcome and accepted Counsellor* Adult Relationship 43 to help make arrangements for those who wish to discuss common interests of concerns Personal 28 to pass on to teachers and administrators any suggestions which I have made Counsellor* Adult Relationship 45 to treat me as an adult Counsellor*' Adult Relationship to inform me about the school (for example, its rules, regulations, organization, services, etc.) Educational 7 8 30 41 36 to provide letters of reference to help me express myself without putting words in my mouth Occupational Personal to help me understand myself better Personal to CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The importance of counselling adults in their continuing education has been widely recognized, but the peripheral nature of this service has permitted little research into the needs to be met and the essentialfunctions to be per-formed. Differing emphases have been proposed, chiefly by adult educators or counsellors themselves, and psychological and sociological literature has pointed to changing needs at various life stages. The expressed needs of the adult student himself have seldom been sought, although knowing them would seem to offer an excellent way to utilize existing resources to fullest benefit and to suggest di r e c -tions for future improvement. SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to determine whether adult students enrolled in credit courses in a public night school assigned the same degree of importance to various functions of an adult education counsellor. A Q-sort of fifty items denoting counsellor functions was administered to a volunteer panel of one hundred students attending credit courses in the Surrey public adult night school 43 44 program. The items were classified into four categories "-educational coun-selling, occupational counselling, personal counselling, counsellor*adult relationship--for analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks. Testing of the Hypothesis The central hypothesis postulated no statistically significant differences in the importance assigned to various functions of an adult education counsellor. This hypothesis was investigated with regard to the total population and to sub* groups established on the socio-economic characteristics of sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation. In the total population and in each of the sub-groups the null hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level of significance, thus indicating that significantly more importance was assigned to some functions of an adult education counsellor than to others. Relative Importance of Functions Dunn's method of multiple comparisons using rank sums was performed to ascertain the relative degree of importance assigned to various counselling functions by the total population and by the sub-groups. The comparisons were made on three matrices with .05 as the chosen level of significance. In the total population and in all sub-groups with the exception of the male group 30 years of age or over and the male Occupational Group I, the combination of educational and occupational counselling was found significantly more important than the combination of personal counselling and the counsellor-adult relationship. In the total population and in a l l sub*groups with the exception of the female group 30 years of age or over, the unemployed female group, and the male Occupational Group I, educational counselling was found significantly more impor-tant than the counsellor-adult relationship. In the total population and in a l l sub-groups with the exception of the male Occupational Group I, educational counselling was found significantly more Impor-tant than;> personal counselling. 45 In the employed female group occupational counselling was found sig-nificantly more important than either personal counselling or the counsellor-adult relationship. . Only in the male Occupational Group I was no counsellor function found significantly more important than any other. Te sting of the Sub-Hypothe ses A number of sub-hypotheses were advanced to investigate differences between pairs of sub-groups regarding the importance which they assigned to various counsellor functions. These sub-hypotheses stated that there were no significant differences between pairs of sub-groups established by sex, age, previous counselling, education, and occupation in the importance which they assigned. The comparisons were performed by the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test with .05 as the chosen level of significance. It was found that the female group regarded occupational counselling as significantly more important than did the male group. The employed female group considered occupational counselling significantly more important than did the unemployed female group. The unemployed female group considered the counsellor-adult relationship significantly more important than did the employed female group. There were no significant differences between the pairs of sub-groups established with regard to age, previous counselling, or education. Most Important and Least Important Items In the total population, eight of the nine most important items were educational counselling functions; the ninth concerned the counsellor-adult relationship. These items reflected the adult student's desire for practical assis-tance in selecting courses, estabHshing goals, and in better preparing himself for learning. Of the nine least important items, four were personal counselling functions, three represented the counsellor-adult relationship, one was an occupational coun-selling function, and one an educational counselling function. These choices 46 illustrated the adult student's desire for independence, his rejection of personal counselling, and his concern in the counseUor-adult relationship chiefly for practical assistance. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study do not lend themselves to sweeping generali-zations; indeed, this objective is not the reason for such a study. Rather it is hoped that consideration of a specific and comparatively unexplored area can promote further research to support, refute, or more fully develop the findings obtained. It has been demonstrated that, with regard to the population of one hundred volunteer adult students, certain functions of an adult education coun-sellor are considered more important than others, and that some groups of adults differ significantly from others in the degree of importance which they assign to specific functions. Fromt this study it is clear that the adult has a decided preference for educational and occupational counselling over personal counselling and functions concerned with his relationship with the counsellor. This finding suggests that the counsellor should know thoroughly not only the offerings of his own institution but also those of other institutions and of related educational services, such as testing services. In addition, the counsellor's assistance should not be bound by narrow parochialism. If another institution can better serve the adult, he should be advised of i t . The demands of the adult illustrate the necessity of the counsellor's possessing a basic knowledge of adult psychology, sociology, and adult learning theory. The immediacy of many of the adult's needs and his general concern with assistance on an individual basis must be recognized. The advice and assistance which he seeks is largely of a practical nature; he expects this to be supplied by a counsellor who is regularly available and accessible. 47 It is evident that the adult expects his privacy to be respected. If he wishes help of a personal nature, he may request i t , but he does not appear to favour the counsellor's initiating such help or attempting to force it upon him. The least important items in the study indicated that the adult rejects any slighting of his intelligence through offers of assistance in areas that he feels are his own responsibility and no concern of the counsellor, such as his degree of participation in class, sense of acceptance, knowledge of rules, ability to express himself, and the like. In general, the adult views his relationship with the counsellor in terms of the practical assistance which the counsellor can offer, and shuns aspects which appear a r t i f i c i a l . The groups established with respect to occupation presented findings of value to the counsellor. The male group in the higher status occupations, although favouring educational and occupational counselling, was the only group not to show a significant preference for any one type of counsellor function^ It may be inferred that this group recognizes its educational and occupational needs to the extent that it can give more consideration to other forms of assistance that the counsellor can offer. The male group in the lower status occupations, on the other hand, is more concerned with educational and occupational advance-ment. The results of the study make it clear that more attention must be directed in the future to the peculiar needs of women.. Employed women, especially those of a younger age, express a significant desire for occupational counselling, which places the onus on the counsellor to acquire more specialized knowledge concerning the changing place of women in the labour force and the occupational information related to their needs. 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From various walks of life and for almost as many reasons, you and other adults are continuing at or resuming some form of study. In recent years educators have begun to direct to Adult Education some of the time and attention which has formerly been given to Elementary, Secondary, and Higher Education. In realizing the extent to which the adult student differs from the pre-adult, universities (the University of British Columbia being the firs t in Canada) have established Departments of Adult Education in order to educate men and women to guide the various programs for adults. This requires research to help adult educators learn what the adult himself feels he needs. As a graduate student in the Department of Adult Education at U.B.C.', I would like your help in exploring one important area • the counselling of adult students. A study concerning this is proposed for early in December at your school and on an evening when you attend a class. The total time involved should not exceed forty-five minutes. If you are willing to participate in this study, which has the full support of the Surrey School District, Adult Education Division, will you complete the attached sheet and return it to your subject teacher at:this time. Yours sincerely, Edwin W. Johnson, Department of Adult Education, U.B.C. CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN A STUDY OF ADULT COUNSELLING Mr. Mrs. NAME (Please print) Miss .......'..'..', ADDRESS ............................ TELEPHONE .............. AGE (Please circle the appropriate range) under 21 21 - 25 26 • 30 31 * 35 36 «• 40 41 « 45 OCCUPATION ......................... COURSE (S) WHICH YOU ARE CURRENTLY TAKING 46 « 50 51 - 55 56 - 60 61 * 65 over 65 EVENING (S) WHEN YOU ATTEND 61 Dear I have been very gratified with the interest in adult counselling which you and others have shown by your consent to participate in the study which I shall be conducting, h i a l l , there will be approximately one hundred and thirty adults involved. . As I indicated when I previously met you, it is my intention to conduct this study during the firs t two weeks of December. Although I shall be there each evening from 8:00 p.m. on, I expect that you will be free at the end of your regular class. In order to avoid an unwieldy number on any one night, I have circled below a night which, I hope, will be satisfactory for you. Monday, December 1 Monday, December 8 Tuesday, December 2 Tuesday, December 9 Wednesday, December 3 Wednesday, December 10 Thursday, December 4 Thursday, December 11 The place will be Room 308 at Queen Elizabeth School. If the time which I have suggested is not convenient, will you drop by this room to tell me. We can then arrange a night which is suitable. Thank you once again for your willingness to assist me. Yours truly, P.S. It may be helpful to put this letter with your notes where it w i l l serve as a reminder. 62 APPENDIX B 63 Q « S O R T ITEMS ARRANGED BY CATEGORIES A. Educational Counselling Functions 1. to help me think out my educational needs and the course(s) most likely to satisfy those needs 2. to help me transfer from one course to another in the school 3. to discuss with me any courses in which I am having difficulty 4. to assist me in planning toward long»range educational goals 5. to inform me about the school (for example, its rules, regulations, organization, services, etc.) 6. to know registration procedure and to help me register 7. to help me know my strengths and limitations 8. to give me tests to help me understand my interests and abilities and to discuss the results with me 9. to help me learn good study methods 10. to help me to set realistic goals for myself 12. to explain the requirements for entering.and completing various programs of study 13. to inform me about other educational agencies if they offer courses more likely to satisfy my needs t 14. to hold early registration and information sessions 15. to discuss how I can use my background and experiences to help me in my education 16. to provide information about colleges, universities, and other institutions 17. to provide information about scholarships, bursaries, or loans 18. to suggest appropriate remedial work or tutoring if I seem to need it 19. to discuss problems I have i n learning and ways I can help myself 64 21. to talk over possible solutions if the lack of finances is preventing me from getting the education I want 22. to explain requirements for entering or transferring to other educational institutions 23. to discuss with me the types of education I may need at different stages of my life 27. to know and be able to explain the courses available, 29. to explain terms which are unfamiliar to me, such as credit, unit, semester, prerequisite, etc. B. Occupational Counselling Functions 30. to provide letters of reference 31. to have a good supply of printed material describing different occupations and their requirements 32. to help me learn how to look into different occupations 33. to arrange for me to talk with people employed in occupations that interest me 34. to know where to direct me for occupational information not available in the school 35. to t e l l me about occupations that are growing and those that are fading out C. Personal Counselling Functions 11. to know enough about me to help me with my present decisions 36. to help me understand myself better 38. to direct me to other agencies or professional persons who can help me with personal problems 39. to give me the opportunity to talk about my problems and difficulties 41. to help me express myself without putting words in my mouth 42. to help me learn how I can take part in a class without making a fool of myself 65 43. to help make arrangements for those who wish to discuss common interests or concerns D. CounselloraAdult Relationship Functions 20. to check with me occasionally to see how I am progressing 24. to know the ways in which adult students differ from pre-adult students 25. to give only advice or information about which he is certain 26. to make certain that he and his services are known to me 28. to pass on to teachers and administrators any suggestions which I have made 37. to refer problems beyond his experience to those better qualified to help me 40. to keep in confidence what we say to one another 44. to make me feel welcome and accepted 45. to treat me as an adult 46. to give me support and encouragement 47. to provide a private and relatively quite place to meet with me 48. to make his advice and information practical 49. to be approachable and available when I need help 50. to recognize that it is my responsibility to make my own decisions 66 .i APPENDIX C 67 G E N E R A L INFORMATION The purpose of this study is to find out how you view the importance of the functions of an adult education counsellor. The Q«sort method is being used to obtain this information because it provides you with a good means of ranking the functions from those which you consider of high importance to those which you consider of low importance. There are no right or wrong answers. You will be indicating how you personally feel. DO NOT worry about how anyone else is answering or about how you think people expect you to answer. It is how you feel that is important. You have been given an envelope containing: 1) a sheet headed Data Sheet 2) 50 cards with a printed statement on each one 3) 9 yellow cards numbered i to 9 4) an instruction sheet Please take the instruction sheet at this time^; You will find it most helpful to follow this step by step. If you have any questions, please ask me. 68 INSTRUCTION S H E E T 1. Complete Part A of the Data Sheet - the part headed PersonaTData. 2. When you have completed Part A, place the sheet to one side and take the yellow cards numbered 1 to 9 and the 50 cards containing the printed statements. 3. Procedure for the •Q-Sort. STEP 1: Place the yellow cards across the top of your table: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 STEP 2: Now take the 50 cards with statements. (Please note that the numbers on these cards have no bearing on the way in which you arrange them.) 1. Sort these cards into three roughly equal piles: one containing the cards describing functions which you consider of high importance, one of medium importance, and one of low importance. 2. Place the high pile on your left, the low pile on your right, and the medium pile in the middle. STEP 3: Now take the high pile. 1.. Select the nine most important cards and place the rest in the medium pile. 2. Take the nine cards selected above and select the three most important. 3. Place the remaining six cards on yellow card #3. 4. Take the three cards selected above and select the one most important and place it on yellow card #1. 5. Place the two remaining cards on yellow card #2. STEP 4: Now take the low pile. 1. Select the nine least important cards and place the rest in the medium pile. 2. Take the nine cards selected above and select the three least important. 3. Place the remaining six cards on yellow card #7. 69 4. Take the three cards selected above and select the one least important and place it on yellow card #9. 5.. Place the two remaining cards on yellow card #8. STEP 5: Now take the medium pile » the remaining thirty«two cards. 1. '. Sort these cards into three piles *» ten of slightly greater than medium importance, twelve of medium importance, and ten of slightlyless than medium importance. 2. Place the ten slightly greater than medium cards on yellow card; #4. 3. Place the twelve medium cards on yellow card #5. 4. Place the ten slightlyless than medium cards on yellow card #6. RESULT: Number of Piles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Number of Gards 1 2 6 10 12 10 6 2 1 4. Now that you have completed the procedure for the study, once again take the sheet headed Data Sheet and complete Part B headed Raw Data as follows: STEP 1: Take the card from pile 1 and enter the number on the card in column #1 on the Raw Data sheet; take the cards from pile 2 and enter the numbers on each card in the spaces provided in column #2 on the Raw Data sheet; continue this procedure until a l l the cards are entered on the Raw Data sheet. STEP 2: Place the Data Sheet and all the cards in the envelope, seal the envelope, and return it to me. Thank you very much for your co-operation. Edwin W. Johnson 70 D A T A S H E E T PART A: PERSONAL D A T A Age: Sex: .......... Occupation: .................'...............................'. Years of School Completed ........................................... Did you receive counselling 1) when you attended elementary school? Yes .... No .... 2) when you attended secondary school? Yes .... No .... PART B: RAW D A T A 71 APPENDIX'D 72 KRUSKAL-WALLIS ONE-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE Formula where k Nj N Rj k L H = 12 N(N + 1) k L j=l Nj Rj" - 3 (N + 1) = number of samples .th = number of cases in j sample = ENj the number of cases in all samples combined = sum of ranks in j ^ sample (column) directs one to sum over the k samples (columns) Calculation for Total Population k H = 12 E Rj 2 3 (N + 1) N(N + 1) j=l nj = 12 [ (416)2 + (153)2 + (270)2 + (436)2 ] - 3 (50 + 1) 50(50 + 1) 23 6 7 14 = .0047 (7524.17 + 3901.5 + 10414.29 + 13578.29) - 153 = .134657 d.f. = k - 1 = 3 p < .01 73 MULTIPLE COMPARISONS USING RANK SUMS (DUNN) Formula A Let W p denote a particular linear contrast between two means or sets of means. Then a test for the difference among means is given by T = i ? p « E [<?p] N(0, l 2 ) / Var tp p A A Where: ty p is the linear contrast of interest, E [ ^ p ] is the expected value of that contrast which is zero under Ho A k Vartyp •= [N(N + 1) » S (t 3 » t) x [ 1 + 1 ] 12 j=l Enj E n j 1 12 (N-1) Where: N is the total sample size t denotes the number of ties at specific ranks nj designates the sample size of the first element of the linear contrast nj 1 designates the sample size of the second element of the linear contrast The resulting T is approximately equal to the standard normal deviate. The probability associated with T can then be derived from the standard normal deviate table. Calculation for Total Population Matrix B (Educational counselling vs. Counsellor-adult relationship) A ^ p = 18.0869 --31.1428 = -13.0559 V a r f p = [N(N + 1) - S (t 3 * t) x [ 1 . + 1 ] 12 12 (N-1) Snj "Lnj 1 = [50(51) - (2 3 - 2) x [_1_. + _1_ ] 12 12(49) 23 14 74 = (212.5 - .0102) x (.0434+ .0714) = 212.4898 x .1148 = 24.3938 T = y P « E [ ^ P ] / V a r ^ p = -13.0559 - 0 / 24.3938 = -13.0559 . = -2.6434 4.939 A T of 2.6434 allows the rejection of the null hypothesis at (X = .0041 75 WILCOXON MATCHED-PAIRS SIGNED-RANKS T E S T (SMALL GROUP) Calculation for Unemployed Female Group and Employed Female Group Regarding the Counsellor « Adult Relationship Pair Mean Scores Mean Scores for Rank with (Item) for unemployed employed female Rank of less female group group d d frequent sign 20 4.68 4.40 .28 6 24 4.44 4.24 .20 5 25 5.88 4.92 -.04 -1 1 26 5.32 4.92 .40 7.5 28 4.16 3.64 .52 11 37 5.96 5.56 .40 7.5 40 4.68 4.04 .64 12 44 3.60 3.72 -.12 -3 3 45 3.76 4.24 -.48 -10 10 46 4.56 4.40 .16 4 47 4.16 4.08 .08 2 48 5.80 5.08 .72 13 49 6.20 5.12 1.08 14 50 4.96 4.52 .44 9 T = 14 For N = 14 a T of 14 allows the rejection of the null hypothesis at(X = < .02 for a two-tailed test. T H E NINE MOST IMPORTANT Number of Item Item Category I »to help me think out my educational needs and the Educational course(s) most likely to satisfy those needs; 27 -to know and be able to explain the courses available; Educational 12 »to explain the requirements for entering and com- Educational pleting various programs of study; 8 -to give me tests to help me understand my interests Educational and ability-to discuss the results with me; 4 - to assist me in planning toward long-range educa« Educational tional goals; 13 -to inform me about other educational agencies if they Educational offer courses more likely to satisfy my needs; 19 -to discuss problems I have in learning and ways I can Educational help myself; 15 -to discuss how I can use my background and experiences Educational to help me in my education; 48 -to make his advice and information practical; Counsellor-Adult Relationship 49 -to be approachable and available when I need help; 3 -to discuss with me any courses in which I am having difficulty; 37 -to refer problems beyond his experience to those better qualified to help me; 16 -to provide information about colleges, universities, and other institutions; 10 -to help me set realistic goals for myself; 22 -to explain requirements for entering or transferring to other educational institutions; 34 -to know where to direct me for occupational infor-mation not available in the school; 25 -to give only advice or information about which he is certain; 35 •to tell me about occupations that are growing and those that are fading out Counsellor-Adult Relationship Educational Counsellor-Adult Relationship Educational Educational Educational Occupational Counsellor-Adult Relationship Occupational o ft CD W <-*• CD oo VO VO Os VO cn V O * 0 0 V O * 0 0 oo Os VO * oo vo * vo ON V O OS 0 0 cn ON va vo # oo co cn tO cn vo VO * V O * VO vo * * CO oo tfc. - j os cn 0 0 t— « Os CO CO to vo cn co to H -to vo oo co CO Os - J N3 rf^ 0 0 oo os w i - to vo Os cn *>- to co 0 0 CO 4*. "Os I—» to tO C n ON CO Os cn to co vo 4*. to cn oo s ] h-Cn Os to t—i co CO i — rf*. cn to •t^ to Males Females Males -30 Males 30+ Females -30 Females 30+ Some Previous Counselling No Previous Counselling Grade 10 or less Grade 11 or more Males Occupation I Males Occupation II Employed Females Unemployed Females to o l-h CD B % o CD H w CO CO C O O c 78 THE NINE L E A S T IMPORTANT Number of Item Item Category 42 to help me learn how I can take part in class without Personal making a fool of myself; . 44 to make me feel welcome and accepted; Counsellor-Adult Relationship 43 to help make arrangements for those who wish Personal to discuss common interests or concerns; 28 to pass on to teachers and administrators any Counsellor* suggestions which I have made; Adult Relationship 45 to treat me as an adult; Counsellor-Adult Relationship 5 to inform me about the school (for example, its Educational rules, regulations, organization, service, etc.) 30 to provide letters of reference; Occupational 41 to help me express myself without putting words in Personal my mouth; 36 to help me understand myself better; Personal 47 to provide a private and relatively quiet place to Counsellor-meet with me; Adult Relationship 24 to know the ways in which adult students differ from Counsellor-pre-adult students; Adult Relationship 46 to give me support and encouragement; Counsellor-Adult Relationship 40 to keep in confidence what we say to one another; Counsellor-Adult Relationship 38 to direct me to other agencies or professional Personal persons who can help me with personal problems VO VO * VO VO CO vO :• * VO : * vo * VO 00 vo ON * VO * 00 oo ON VO * oo 00 Co vo * VO * Co cn co to v4 CO ON 00 VO ; * oo ^ oo to ON Co cn vo CO 00 ON VO oo vo cn oo to cn ON cn N5 oo CO ON 1^ VO * CO co VO O N CO to to oo cn *>. ON Cn to CO tsJ <i to Co to * J CO <l cn to 0^ cn to Males Females Males -30 Males 30+ Females »30 Females 30+ Some Previous Counselling No previous Counselling Grade 10 of less Grade 11 or more Males Occupation I Males Occupation II Employed Females Unemployed Females fa o 3 E O 

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