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Toponyms and cultural regions : an examination of the place-names of the Chota Nagpur, India Mia, Essop 1970

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.  "TOPONYMS AND CULTURAL REGIONS: AN EXAMINATION OF THE PLACE-NAMES OF THE CHOTA NAGPUR, INDIA" fey ESSOP MIA  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n the Department of Asian Studies  We accept required  this  .-  t h e s i s as conforming t o the  standard  THE. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 197P  In  presenting  an  advanced  the  Library  I  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  tha  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  be  It  financial  for  gain  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  Columbia,  British  Columbia  for  extensive by  the  understood  permission.  Department  of  available  granted  is  fulfilment  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  ABSTRACT The between  s u b j e c t examined I n t h i s  thesis  i s the  contemporary place-names and c u l t u r a l  relationship  regions.  h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a r e l a t i o n s h i p  I t was  between  place-  names a n d c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , i f p l a c e - n a m e s , a s o r g a n i z e d t o p o n y m i c s y s t e m s , c o r r e l a t e d w i t h known c u l t u r a l the  inhabitants  into  b a s i s of s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l of  the  interdependence and  feature f o rcorrelation  s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l  distribution  s t u d y was  of t h e languages spoken  the study area.  N a g p u r was c o l l e c t e d into  t h e i r component e l e m e n t s .  F o l l o w i n g subsequent o r d e r i n g by  s e l e c t e d d e n o t a t i v e components,  to d i s t i n g u i s h  a particular  its attributes. tions  i n the Chota  f r o m 1 : 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 maps o f t h e a r e a , a n d d i v i d e d  c o m p u t e r , d i s t r i b u t i o n maps a n d s t a t i s t i c a l  t a b l e s w e r e d r a w n up  t h e e l e m e n t i n t h e name u s e d  space i n the environment i n terms o f  D a t a on t h e s p a t i a l a n d s t a t i s t i c a l  distribu-  o f t h e l a n g u a g e s s p o k e n i n t h e a r e a was o b t a i n e d  G.A, G r i e r s o n ' s L i n g u i s t i c I n d i a 1931.  1951  and  The r e s u l t s  from  S u r v e y o f I n d i a and t h e Census o f  1961. o b t a i n e d from a c o r r e l a t i o n  of the toponymic  systems w h i c h were i d e n t i f i e d and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n did  interaction  attributes.  i n this  A o n e - h a l f sample o f a l l t h e place-names  for  The o r -  t o p o n y m i c s y s t e m s was on t h e  s e l e c t e d terms d e n o t i n g spaces w i t h d i f f e r e n t  The known c u l t u r a l  in  features of  o f t h e Chota Nagpur r e g i o n o f I n d i a .  g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e place-names  into  support the hypothesis.  of languages  F i v e toponymic systems were  f i e d w i t h i n t h e study a r e a , and t h e i r  spatial  extents  identi-  corresponded t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n the  study area.  toponymic of  o f three o f the languages i n  The s e c t o r s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a w i t h i n w h i c h no  systems e x i s t e d a l s o corresponded t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  *fee two l a n g u a g e s .  This suggested that the p r i n c i p l e s  i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e environment d i f f e r between the  methodology  usefulness.  I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t p l a c e - n a m e s  lineate  c u l t u r e s , and that  p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f toponymic  systems has l i m i t e d  ship t o c u l t u r a l  used  d i d bear a r e l a t i o n -  r e g i o n s , a n d t h a t t h e y c o u l d be u s e d t o d e -  these c u l t u r a l  regions.  DEPARTMENT OF ASIAN STUDIES UNIVERSITY of BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER 3 , 8. C,  CANADA  i. TABLE OF  CONTENTS Page  One 1.1.  Theory and Method i n Place-Name S t u d y  1.2.  Languages  1.3.  Summary  1 29  o f t h e Chota Nagpur  36  Two •2.1.  D e n o t a t i v e Components i n t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y ' Place-Names  2,2.  38  o f t h e Chota Nagpur  43  The D e n o t a t i v e Components  Three 3.1.  Correlations  3.2.  Conclusions  76  Bibliography  78  Appendix  1.  <  72  86  Maps  Appendix 2.  Tables  105  Appendix  Tables  12 7  3.  y  /  ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure  1.  F o r t r a n Coding Sheet  F i g u r e 2.  Phonetic  F i g u r e 3.  Suffix  F i g u r e 4.  T o t a l Number o f H a b i t a t i o n S i t e in  F i g u r e 5.  Tables  List  each Sample  Square  The Number o f Compound H a b i t a t i o n Names i n e a c h S a m p l e  F i g u r e 6.  Names  Site  Square  L o c a t i o n ^ D e n o t a t i v e Components o f t h e P a r t i a l Toponymic  Systems  ill. MAPS Page Map  86  1  North-east I n d i a  2  The Study Areat  3  The Study A r e a  4  Indo-Aryan Languages!  87  Relief  88 Chattisgarhl  88 89  5  "  "  "  Bengali  6  "  "  "  Orlya  89  7  "  "  "  Bihari  90  8  D r a v i d i a n Languages  90  9  A u s t r o - a s i a t i c Languages  91  10  Nadi  91  11  J o r . Garo. Khal and N a l a  92  12  Mountain Names w i t h o u t a G e n e r i c S u f f i x  92  13  Pahar  93  14  Buru  15  Parbat  94  16  Dongar and Dongrl  9^  17  Tungar  95  18  Pur  95  19  Dih  20  Gaon  21  Tol  22  Gara  98  23  Dag  98  24  Tanr  25  J o r ( i n H a b i t a t i o n S i t e Names)  93  \  '  96  , - \--  96 ,  i  , 97  99 99  iv. Page Map  26  Kel  100  27  Pani  28  Pall  101  29  Munda  101  30  Pa~ra  102  31  Mr  102  32  Sai  33  Hatu  103  34  Gutu  104  35  Pos  104  •  100  « 103  \  V. TABLES Page A.  Numerical Occurence o f the D e n o t a t i v e Components i n each Sample Square.  Table I  Nadi  1  5  0  II  Mountain names w i t h o u t a G e n e r i c S u f f i x  106  III  PahSr  IV  Buru  V  Pur  VI  Dih  VII  Gaon  1  1  1  VIII  Tol  1  1  2  IX  Gara  X  Dag  XI  Tanr  XII  J o r ( i n H a b i t a t i o n S i t e Names)  XIII'  Kel  XIV  Panl  XV  Pali  XVI  Munda  XVII  Para  XVIII  Ber  XIX  Sal  XX  Hatu  XXI  Gutu  XXII  Pos  '  1  0  7  1  0  8  1°9 .  1  1  13  0  -3  '  11^  -5  1 ]  \  "~~  116  .  1]  -7  1  1  8  119 . 1 2 0 ' ' '  121  v  1  ^  '  '•, \  2  123  / *  2  .  '  •  ^12^ 125  '  ' '  vi. Page B.  Percentage occurence o f the D e n o t a t i v e Components i m . i. ii,.  Table XXIII  the T o t a l Watercourse Terms p e r Sample Square  Tables XXIV-XXVT  the T o t a l Mountain Names p e r Sample Square  Tables XXVII-XLIV  the T o t a l Compound H a b i t a t i o n S i t e Names p e r Sample Square  iii.  Table XXIII  Nadl  127  XXIV  Mountain Names Without a G e n e r i c S u f f i x  128  XXV  Pahar  129  XXVI  Buru  130  XXVII  Pur  . 131  XXVIII Dih XXIX  Gaon  XXX  Tol  XXXI  . Gara  XXXII  Dag  .  132 133  \  . ,  134  _  135 136  XXXIII Tanr  137  XXXIV  J o r ( i n Habitation  XXXV  Kel  XXXVI  Pani  XXXVII P a l i  S i t e Names)  138 139  r  '  ,  - \" ;  \  140  ,  141  XXXVIII Munda  , •  •  /  XXXIX  Para  XL  Ber  XLI  Sai  1  XLII XLIII XLIV  Hatu Gutu Pos  S  142  '  \  143 144 145 '•  1  146 147 148  One. 1.1.  Theory and Method i n Place-Name Study T h i s study of the place-names of the Chota Nagpur, a  h i g h l a n d r e g i o n i n n o r t h e a s t e r n I n d i a , i s an attempt  t o extend  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of place-names i n t o the contemporary and  realm,  t o p r o v i d e an a n c i l l a r y a i d i n the study of the c u l t u r e s  of complex s o c i e t i e s .  To r e i t e r a t e a statement made o f t e n ,  I n d i a i s a c o u n t r y of s u b s t a n t i a l c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y .  In  a d d i t i o n t o the e x i s t e n c e of the d i s t i n c t l y separate Hindu and non-Hindu c u l t u r e s , there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e s u b - c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n each c u l t u r e .  The l a t t e r v a r i a t i o n s may be con-  c e i v e d of as h a v i n g r e s t r i c t e d  spatial distributions,  ranging  from the l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c r e g i o n s to p u r e l y l o c a l ones. I t i s the demarcation be accomplished  of these l o c a l c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s which may  through  the use of place-names, thus d e f i n i n g  a ' u n i t f o r c u l t u r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h i n which there i s a h i g h degree  of s i m i l a r i t y i n c u l t u r a l forms.  areas may a l s o be demarcated through s o c i a l o r economic. method proposed  These l o c a l  cultural  the use of o t h e r f a c t o r s ,  However, i f any advantages e x i s t i n the  i n t h i s study, they a r e i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  raw d a t a , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the s c h o l a r not based  i n India.  Place-  name data i s r e l a t i v e l y more a c c e s s i b l e than data on dominant c a s t e marriage  o r market networks, on the d e t a i l e d s c a l e  neces-  s a r y to demarcate these l o c a l s u b - c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s . I n o r d e r to demarcate these s u b - c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , through  the examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p l a c e -  names and other a s p e c t s of the c u l t u r e s of the i n h a b i t a n t s of the Chota Nagpur, i t i s assumed t h a t toponyms a r e symbols i n  2  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the environment.  when s u i t a b l y a n a l y z e d , may  demarcate  Therefore,  place-names,  these c u l t u r a l and sub-  c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , f o r there i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between environmental o r g a n i z a t i o n and c u l t u r e .  Place-names  a r i s e from,  and are. i n f l u e n c e d by . . . the language and speech h a b i t s of people (Wainwright 1 9 6 2 « 1 0 ) . t i v e and s t y l i s t i c  As each c u l t u r e has i t s d i s t i n c -  p a t t e r n s (Kroeber  1963)1  naming should v a r y  from c u l t u r e to c u l t u r e , and w i t h i n a c u l t u r e , where r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n results i n sub-cultural patterns. P e r c e i v i n g place-names  as symbols i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n  of  the environment i s not unique to t h i s study, but the attempt,  to  extend the a n a l y s i s of place-names  Into the contemporary  realm i s . The i n t e r p r e t i v e s t u d i e s conducted on thus f a r have been l i m i t e d to the h i s t o r i c a l ,  place-names  f o r they have been  conducted on the premise t h a t toponyms are the f o s s i l s geography  (Dauzat i 9 6 0 ) .  place-names  of human  A l t e r i n g the premise to c o n c e i v e of  as symbols i n environmental o r g a n i z a t i o n , a concep-  t i o n i m p l i c i t i n v i e w i n g toponyms as f o s s i l s , has a l l o w e d us to conduct the a n a l y s i s on o n l y the contemporary forms of p l a c e names. T h i s has made n e c e s s a r y a reassessment and a d a p t a t i o n of for  the methodologies developed h i t h e r t o i n place-names  study,  there i s a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the nature of the /  data and the methods of a n a l y s i s . of  Where the data was  the v a r i o u s forms of a place-name  composed  which occured over an ex-  tended p e r i o d of time, i t was p o s s i b l e to e t y m o l o g l c a l l y d e t e r i  mine the o r i g i n a l meanings of the ^elements of the name b e f o r e  3 any attempts  at interpretation.  But a d i f f e r e n t mode of  a n a l y s i s i s necessary where the data i s composed o f a l a r g e number of names i n a s i n g l e form of occurence.  The method we  have used i s s t a t i s t i c a l and systemic a n a l y s i s , through  examina-  t i o n of u n i t s l a r g e r than the i n d i v i d u a l place-names. B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i cal  and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  an extended  study,  review of the work done t o date i n place-name study  i s i n order, f o r i t i s the source of the theory and methodology of  the p r e s e n t study.  T h i s p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h Into place-names  may be c h a r a c t e r i s e d as h a v i n g three d i s t i n c t , but overlapping,, stages.  The f i r s t has a pronounced survey n a t u r e , the second a  l a r g e l y p h i l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and the t h i r d i s an i n t e r p r e t i v e stage. The  survey nature o f the f i r s t  stage i s e v i d e n t i n the  works of Isaac T a y l o r ^ George Stewart and S.K. C h a t t e r j i . purpose  The  of the former study (Ryan 1964i2), p u b l i s h e d as Words  and P l a c e s i n 1863.  was t o survey the t o p i c i n the w i d e s t  p o s s i b l e f a s h i o n by d i s c u s s i n g the problems of toponomy and h i s t o r y , ethnology and geography on the b a s i s o f an etymological study o f s e l e c t e d European place-names.  Stewart  (1958), almost  a c e n t u r y l a t e r , s e t s out t o " p r e s e n t the p r o c e s s of naming" (Stewart 1958i387)»  the h i s t o r i c a l ^ development o f the p r e s e n t -  day name cover of the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America,  and p r o v i d e s  an i n t e r e s t i n g , i f g e n e r a l , i n t r o d u c t i o n i n n a r r a t i v e f a s h i o n to  the l i n g u i s t i c s t r a t a p r e s e n t i n the place-names of t h a t  country.  C h a t t e r j i , i n h i s monumental O r i g i n and Development  4-  of the B e n g a l i Language, has a v e r y b r i e f glance a t some of the place-names of Bengal, i n o r d e r t o i n t r o d u c e the languages i n v o l v e d i n the development of modern B e n g a l i place-names. T a y l o r ' s p i o n e e r i n g work may be regarded as the source of the methodology t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the second  stage of r e s e a r c h , one  which has, v a r i o u s l y , a i d e d and hampered place-name study i n a l l countries. second  The s t r o n g l y m e t h o d o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the  stage may be a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o the d i s c i p l i n e which  has taken the l e a d i n place-name study.  I t has become the do-  main of the p h i l o l o g i s t who l i m i t e d the aims of study t o the reasoned  e x p l a n a t i o n s of the meanings o f place-names, v i e w i n g  h i s work as a c c e s s o r y t o t h a t of h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , and  s u p p r e s s i n g t h e o r e t i c a l concerns i n f a v o u r o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  r i g o u r (Cameron 1 9 6 l t 3 2 Z e l i n s k y 1 9 5 5 * 3 1 9 ) . That t h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r i g o u r has reached a.;high l e v e l of achievement i n England i s u n d e n i a b l e , and i s r e f l e c t e d i n the work o f the E n g l i s h Place-Name S o c i e t y .  I t has s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  covered, -to date, the place-names of n i n e t e e n c o u n t i e s o f England,  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s b e i n g p a t t e r n e d upon the p r i n c i p l e s  l a i d down by v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s i n the f i r s t volume of t h i s survey,  e d i t e d by Mawer and Stenton (EPNS I , i ; 1 9 2 4 ) .  T h i s volume,  w i t h the a d d i t i o n of the works o f Mawer ( 1 9 2 9 ) , Dauzat  (i960),  Cameron ( 1 9 6 1 ) and Reaney ( i 9 6 0 ) , p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to /  the methodology of t h i s form o f place-name study. I n t h i s approach, which has been used i n I n d i a as w e l l as i n Europe,  and, to some extent,] i n North America, i  place-names  a r e regarded as f o s s i l s o f human geography, and energy i s  5 d i r e c t e d towards p e e l i n g a s i d e the superimposed h i s t o r i c (Dauzat  i960).  strata  Each name i s examined i n d i v i d u a l l y , a f t e r as  wide as p o s s i b l e a c o l l e c t i o n of the e a r l i e r forms of the name a r e made, w i t h a thorough the languages The  knowledge of the p h o n e t i c h i s t o r y o f  i n v o l v e d (Reaney I 9 6 0 : 1 7 - 1 8 ) .  sources used  i n the c o l l e c t i o n of these e a r l y  and  modern forms of the place-name a r e h i s t o r i c a l documents of v a r i o u s t y p e s , f o r the former, and a f i e l d s p e l l i n g s and p r o n o u n c i a t i o n s . of  survey f o r the modern  The a v a i l a b i l i t y and  reliability  the l i t e r a r y sources v a r i e s from c o u n t r y to c o u n t r y .  In  I n d i a the primary h i s t o r i c a l sources a r e d y n a s t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s . of  the d o n a t i v e v a r i e t y , d e a l i n g w i t h g r a n t s of lands  villages.  and  Less u s e f u l a r e l i t e r a r y works of a d i d a c t i c  nature,  the prime examples b e i n g the Mahabharata and Ramayana, which d e a l w i t h place-names o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y . a f f e c t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y  The major f a c t o r  o f these documents as sources f o r  place-names i s the o c c a s i o n a l tendency  i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s  to  S a n s k r i t i z e the name, u s u a l l y where the i n s c r i p t i o n i s i n the c o u r t l y language,  S a n s k r i t , r a t h e r than i n the languages  sumably spoken by the masses, the P r a k r i t s . p r o n o u n c i a t i o n of the place-name may attempt  to render i t i n a "purer"  pre-  Thus, the a c t u a l  be d i s t o r t e d i n the  form.  E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s have been much more f o r t u n a t e w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r I n d i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s , h a v i n g an e x t e n s i v e corpus  of a v a i l a b l e sources from which t o a s c e r t a i n the h i s -  t o r i c a l forms of place-names  E n g l i s h s e t t l e m e n t r e c o r d s , such  as the Domesday Book and Land Surveys, h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s ,  6  such as the Anglo-Saxon C h r o n i c l e s and  o f f i c i a l records,  such  as the Pipe R o l l s , C h a r t e r R o l l s and Close R o l l s , a l l p r o v i d e an e x t e n s i v e number of place-names.  But erroneous  r e c o r d i n g of  the names i s a problem f o r the E n g l i s h s c h o l a r as w e l l , because of  simple s p e l l i n g e r r o r s , and  of s c r i b e s and  others  altering  some elements of names to correspond p h o n e t i c a l l y with language they were most f a m i l i a r with; e.g. Barcovere B i r c h o v e r i n the Domesday Book. The  the for  (Cameron 1 9 6 l « 2 1 ) .  components of the p h i l o l o g i c a l stage, subsequent to  t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l and modern forms of the p l a c e names, b e g i n w i t h e t y m o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of each i n d i v i d u a l name.. The procedure  f o r this i s straightforward.  name c o l l e c t e d i s arranged should immediately  1  E v e r y form of the  i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence.  This  i n d i c a t e the extent and d i r e c t i o n of the  changes i n p r o n o u n c i a t l o n of the name (e.g. Reaney  i960t25).  A l t e r e d p r o n o u n c i a t l o n c o u l d I n d i c a t e i n f l u e n c e of  another  l i n g u i s t i c group upon the name, f o r sounds are not i d e n t i c a l i n all  languages.  Where a p a r t i c u l a r sound does not e x i s t i n a  language,, another a p p r o p r i a t e to i t i n t h a t language i s substituted.  An  example of t h i s i s i n the Old E n g l i s h / c / , pro-  nounced [ c h ] when o c c u r i n g i n i t i a l l y b e f o r e /e/ or / i / , was in  a l t e r e d to [ k ] by the Scandinavians  i n England,  It  [k] being  the same p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r language as [ c h ] i n E n g l i s h .  (Cameron I 9 6 I 1 8 2 ) .  The  same sound, n o n - e x i s t e n t i n French,  was  pronounced as [,ts] by t h i s l i n g u i s t i c group, but w r i t t e n as / c / . The p r o n o u n c i a t l o n of [ t s ] , i n normal p h o n e t i c change w i t h i n a language, was  simplified  to [ s ] , and was  a t times so w r i t t e n  7 as w e l l (Reaney I 9 6 0 : 1 9 9 ) .  The S a n s k r i t i z a t i o n of indigeneous  names by the Aryans i s a prominent f e a t u r e i n the names of :  G u j e r a t ; e.g. Bharukaccha>Bhrgukaccha  ( S a n k a l i a 1949:164).  A l t e r e d p r o n o u n c i a t i o n c o u l d a l s o be a r e s u l t of normal phonetic change w i t h i n a language., The a n a l y t i c a l t o o l f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of changes of t h i s nature a r e the r u l e s of p h o n e t i c change i n the p e r t i n e n t language.  These i n c l u d e  stress-accent  change, l o s s and a d d i t i o n of consonants, and l e n g t h e n i n g and s h o r t e n i n g of vowels (EPNS I , 1:7-9; S a n k a l i a 1949:167).  There  i s a l s o " p o p u l a r etymology," where changes a r e caused by erroneous a n a l o g i e s w i t h known words. The e x t e n s i o n s of t h i s stage, f o l l o w i n g  etymological  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , have been l a r g e l y towards improving methodological r i g o u r , as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y .  To t h i s end place-names have  been typed, s p e c i f i c a l l y a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c  content,  and more g e n e r a l l y , a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r meanings. Sedgefield  (EPNS I , i ) has d i s t i n g u i s h e d three forms of  E n g l i s h place-names, the d e s c r i p t i v e , the proper and an i n t e r mediary form.  The l a t t e r form i s composed  of two o r more e l e -  ments, a compound i n which the s u f f i x i s most o f t e n a word w i t h a modern meaning, whereas the meaning of the other element(s) has f a l l e n i n t o o b s c u r i t y .  The d e s c r i p t i v e form of a p l a c e -  name, compound o r simple, i s of words s t i l l  i n common,use and,  thus, m e a n i n g f u l . A p r o p e r name, on the o t h e r hand, i s one t h a t has no p r e s e n t meaning, h a v i n g l o s t i t d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of historical  change.  The l a r g e m a j o r i t y of E n g l i s h place-names a r e of a  8 compound c h a r a c t e r , t h e two e l e m e n t s o f w h i c h , s t a n c e s , stand i n a case  relationship.  i n certain i n -  The compounds a r e o f  noun-noun, a d j e c t i v e - n o u n , o r p r e p o s i t i o n - n o u n forms. 1961i28).  When t h e f i r s t  (Cameron  element i s a p e r s o n a l o r t r i b a l  name,  a p r o p e r noun, i t i s a g e n e t l v e  s i n g u l a r , e.g. K i n g s t o n , a n d i n  a few c a s e s , a g e n e t l v e p l u r a l ,  e.g. C a l v e r t o n .  I n the prepo-  s i t i o n - n o u n form o f place-names t h e noun i s i n t h e d a t i v e singular or plural. in  The p r e p o s i t i o n i s p r e s e r v e d ,  p a r t , I n many m o d e r n names.  case,  i n whole o r  The n o r m a l u s a g e o f names i n a n  a d v e r b i a l c o n t e x t , s i g n i f i e d by the p r e p o s i t i o n a l p r e f i x , Important  f e a t u r e o f E n g l i s h place-name f o r m a t i o n , e.g.  Aet Bearwe>Barrow. weak f o r m s ,  A d j e c t i v e s i n compounds g e n e r a l l y a p p e a r i n  e.g. Nlwatun>Newton. w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f combina-  tions with the s u f f i x e.g.  i s an  :ham, when t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y u n i n f l e c t e d ,  NTwanham)Nuneham. According  t o t h e i r m e a n i n g s , t h e two m a i n t y p e s o f  E n g l i s h place-name f o r m a t i o n s a r e h a b i t a t i v e and t o p o g r a p h i c a l (Cameron 1 9 6 l i 2 7 ) . since the f i r s t  The f o r m e r  type denotes i n h a b i t e d places  naming, w i t h t h e f i r s t  element as e i t h e r a des-  c r i p t i v e w o r d , o r a p e r s o n a l o r t r i b a l name, a n d t h e s e c o n d cribing  the type of h a b i t a t i o n .  Topographical  names w e r e  ginally  d e s c r i p t i v e o f some p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e , a r t i f i c i a l o r  des-  ori-  n a t u r a l , a n d w e r e a d o p t e d a s names o f n e a r b y s e t t l e m e n t s . In has  I n d i a , the l a t t e r p o r t i o n of the p h i l o l o g i c a l  been almost  entirely  of a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y  nature.  stage  Place-  names h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e name, in  seven c a t e g o r i e s , designed  to facilitate  interpretation.  The  9  names are grouped as to named a f t e r an event, a person, customs and s u p e r s t i t i o n s , g e o g r a p h i c a l and p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , fruit  flowers,  t r e e s and c r o p s , a n i m a l s , b i r d s and r e p t i l e s and named  a f t e r e x i s t i n g p l a c e s . ( S a n k a l i a 1949:47).  Classification  a c c o r d i n g to the l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n of the names has been i n three c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h s u b d i v i s i o n s ( S a n k a l i a 1 9 4 9 : 1 6 8 ) . first  The  takes i n t o account words i n h e r i t e d from Old and M i d d l e  Indo-Aryan by a New  Indo-Aryan language.  Names which have been  i n h e r i t e d and have r e t a i n e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l forms a r e tatsamas, those h a v i n g undergone tadbhavas.  normal p h o n e t i c change b e i n g knows as  Semi-tatsamas  and semi-tadbhavas. i d e n t i c a l , a r e  those words the s e p a r a t e elements of which have been or loaned a t d i f f e r e n t stages of development  of the NIA language,  and, as such, w i l l show v a r y i n g p h o n e t i c changes. c a t e g o r y i s that of l o a n words from OIA and MIA, of l o a n words from o t h e r language  The  second  and the t h i r d  families.  There had been, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , l i t t l e America and A u s t r a l i a to develop a methodology t h a t i n Europe.  inherited  e f f o r t i n North independent of  A v a s t m a j o r i t y of the e a r l y work i n these  c o u n t r i e s has been l i m i t e d t o e t y m o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of placenames a c c o r d i n g to the European methodology  and the c o m p i l a t i o n  of g a z e t t e e r - t y p e surveys (Gudde I 9 6 O 5 Barnes 1 9 3 5 ? Gannett 1 9 4 7 ; Kenny 1 9 4 5 $ McArthur 1 9 4 4 j Meaney 1 9 2 3 ;  Anderson 1 9 4 2 ;  Reed 1 9 5 2 ) ,  and a r t i c l e s on problems i n such i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the names of a s p e c i f i c a r e a (Whitback  1911).  From these e a r l i e r u n c o o r d i n a t e d works a corpus of i m a t e r i a l has emerged, which was r e v i s e d by l a t e r s c h o l a r s u s i n g  10 a more s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d o l o g y .  I t has i n v o l v e d  as a p r i m a r y s t e p , a s s e t o u t b y Rudnyckyj  classification  (Sahlgren et a l  1954.453-^57) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f C a n a d i a n p l a c e - n a m e s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based  on onomastic p r i n c i p l e s , and p l a c e s t h e  names i n one o f t h e t h r e e f o l l o w i n g a.  Autochthonous (Winnipeg,  b.  Imported i. ii,  c.  categories:  ( a b o r i g i n a l ) names Yeerongpilly)  place-names  trans/placed names ( L o n d o n , B e r l i n ) t r a n s f e r r e d names ( V a n c o u v e r , S a n Francisco)  Toponymic n e o l o g i s m s ( P o r t a g e l a p r a i r i e , Sandy  These were t h e m e c h a n i c s  Creek) f o r name-giving i n the c o l o n i z e d  c o u n t r i e s , and thus accounts f o r a l l  t h e names f o u n d i n t h e s e  countries. The  o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n from European  forms o f  place-name s t u d y i n N o r t h America has been t h e study b y Z e l i n s k y  (1955).  The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n h e r e i s t o e x a m i n e i m -  p o r t e d place-names  i n larger u n i t s , , t h a t presented by the d i s -  t r i b u t i o n maps o f s e l e c t e d g e n e r i c  terms.  This involves  plot-  t i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f terms such a s c r e e k , brook, r u n , v i l l e e t c . , u p o n a s c a l e map, a n d p r o v i d e s v i s u a l p a t t e r n s f o r s u b s e q u e n t interpretation. The is  third  stage of place-name s t u d y , t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e ,  one w h i c h h a s , u n t i l  r e c e n t l y , been t h e e x c l u s i v e domain o f  the h i s t o r i a n and a r c h a e o l o g i s t  ( S t e n t o n 1940;  1941; S m i t h 1956).  Where i t h a s o v e r l a p p e d w i t h t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p h a s e  i t has:  11  "been because the h i s t o r i a n or a r c h a e o l o g i s t has conducted place-name study as w e l l as i n t e r p r e t i n g the evidence names ( S a n k a l i a 1 9 ^ 9 ;  Ryan 1 9 6 4 ;  Allchin 1963).  The  the  of the exceptions  to t h i s are the i n t r o d u c t i o n s to the county volumes of the EPNS, surveys i n the h i s t o r i c a l geography of the c o u n t i e s , and cent g e n e r a l surveys  two  of E n g l i s h place-names (Cameron I 9 6 I 5  re-  Reaney  I960).  The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the evidence p r o v i d e d by  thevety-  m o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of place-names has g e n e r a l l y l a c k e d range b e i n g l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to h i s t o r i c a l geography and c a t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s  (Allchin 1963).  the  The  identifi-  former i n -  c l u d e s the s t u d i e s by S a n k a l i a ( 1 9 ^ 9 ) and h i s students 1960;  L e l e 1962;  1965)  f o r d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s of I n d i a , and  and  Mathur 1 9 6 3 ? Muley 1 9 5 ^ ;  Stenton ( 1 9 4 0 ; 1941;)  i n England.  1  Se Shardi 1 9 6 3 ;  Suresh  the work by Smith ( 1 9 5 6 )  The  E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s i s an- example of t h i s .  (Gokhale  technique of  The  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  key s u f f i x e s has made i t p o s s i b l e to p l o t p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and movements d i a c h r o n i c a l l y . and  t o f t f o r the S c a n d i n a v i a n  (Cameron 1 9 6 l t 8 0 ^  and  These s u f f i x e s , such as bj£  l i n g u i s t i c groups i n England  tun, ham  and i n g . i n a l l i t s v a r i a t i o n s ,  f o r the Anglo-Saxons (Smith 1 9 5 6 1 6 7 - 8 8 ) , are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the naming p a t t e r n s of s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l groups. as i l l u s t r a t e d by Smith ( 1 9 5 6 ) , t e r i s t i c of naming behaviour  these s u f f i x e s may  Furthermore, be .charac-  d u r i n g c e r t a i n p e r i o d s and  i n s e t t l e m e n t , and p a t t e r n s may  be i n f e r r e d from them.  phases The  t e n t of s e t t l e m e n t i n these p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s may, ever, not be determined  from v i l l a g e names o n l y .  exhow-  The number of  12 f i e l d names g i v e n by a c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l group i n an a r e a p r o v i d e c o n v i n c i n g evidence  of e x t e n s i v e s e t t l e m e n t .  may  Thus the  i n t e n s i t y of s e t t l e m e n t of c u l t u r a l groups should be based, f o r one,  upon the evidence  of a comparison between the numbers of  f i e l d and v i l l a g e names b e l o n g i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r group (Stenton  cultural  1941»1-22).  Beyond t h i s o n l y sporadic'attempts  have been made a t  examining the s o c i a l customs, b e l i e f p a t t e r n s and t h a t may  be i n f e r r e d from  l e g a l customs  the evidence p r o v i d e d by place-names  (Cameron 196l«119-141j S a n k a l i a 1 9 4 9 » 4 7 ) .  Stenton  (1943),  the p l a c e of women i n Anglo-Saxon h i s t o r y , D i c k i n s  (1933)?  on  Cameron ( I 9 6 I 1 1 1 9 - 1 4 1 ) and Ryan ( 1 9 6 4 1 2 4 - 5 2 ) , on the s o c i a l r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s of place-names, are the b e s t of these.  and  Al-  though i t has been r e c o g n i s e d t h a t place-names can a i d i n the examination  of the movements of the a g r i c u l t u r a l  tEkwall 1936»5; of  Stenton 1 9 4 l i 8 ) ,  frontier  t h a t an a n a l y s i s of the  names c o u l d p r o v i d e an i d e a as to the f l o r a and  content  fauna of a  r e g i o n , the crops grown and perhaps even the type of a g r i c u l t u r e p r a c t i c e d i n the r e g i o n , no work has been done on t h i s a s p e c t of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of place-names. t i v e to the p h i l o l o g i c a l ,  is still  The  i n t e r p r e t i v e stage  rela-  i n i t s i n f a n c y , and much work  remains to be done i n t h i s a r e a . All  these s t u d i e s have been conducted  i n what, may  now  be regarded as a t r a d i t i o n a l mode of a n a l y s i s , where a . " l e g i t i ;  mate, but e x c e s s i v e , concern w i t h the d i a c h r o n i c has c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n of place-name study w i t h etymology.  l e d to a The  t h a t place-names a r e the f o s s i l s of human geography (Dauzat  view i960)  13 has  i n l a r g e p a r t c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s emphasis of d i a c h r o n i c  linguistic  study of the names.  mere f o s s i l s .  They a r e the symbolic  i d e n t i f y and organize and  Yet the names a r e more than means whereby  the space surrounding  peoples  them ( M o r r i s o n MSS),  thus can be as much the s y s t e m i z a t i o n of space by l i v i n g .  c u l t u r e s as the accumulated d e p o s i t s of p r e v i o u s i n h a b i t a n t s of an a r e a .  Place-names i n t h e i r e x i s t i n g forms a r e , i n Dauzat's  terms, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the contemporary stratum  of human geo-  graphy. The purpose of the e t y m o l o g i c a l study o f place-names, as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , has been t o p r o v i d e reasoned  explana-  t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l meanings o f the names, to a i d i n the subsequent r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the h i s t o r y o f n a t i o n s .  But where the  study of the names i s s y n c h r o n i c , e t y m o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the names i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p r e c o n d i t i o n . a v o i d a b l e i f , and only'' i f , 1  I t would be un-  the names i n t h e i r p r e s e n t forms a r e  meaningless, t h a t i s , without  any semantic  content.  However, n o t every form of place-name i s meaningless. Sedgewick's (above, p. 7 ) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f E n g l i s h p l a c e names i n t h r e e forms, proper names, d e s c r i p t i v e names and an i n t e r m e d i a r y form, may be a p p l i e d , e q u a l l y t o I n d i a n place-names. The  l a t t e r forms, h a v i n g meaning, i f o n l y i n one element of the  name, a r e amenable t o l i m i t e d types of s y n c h r o n i c a n a l y s i s w i t h out p r i o r d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l meanings ( c f Z e l i n s k y 1955).  The proper name, however, d e f i n e d by G a r d i n e r  (1954«73)  as "a word o r group o f words which i s r e c o g n i s e d as h a v i n g t i f i c a t i o n as i t s s p e c i f i c purpose,^and which a c h i e v e s  iden-  . . . that  14 purpose by means of i t s d i s t i n c t i v e sound alone;," and i s thus meaningless, r e q u i r e s e t y m o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s p r i o r to i n t e r p r e tation. On t h i s b a s i s the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s f o r t e s t i n g , i n accordance with  was  formulated  the g e n e r a l aims of t h i s  study.  I t i s t h a t there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between place-names and c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , i f a c o r r e l a t i o n i s e x h i b i t e d between toponymic systems and known c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the study a r e a .  Toponymic systems, as we s h a l l d e f i n e them below  (p. 16 ), a r e s p a t i a l l y l i m i t e d groups of toponyms w i t h i n which terms, used t o denote what may be c o n s i d e r e d  to be spaces with  d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s , bear some r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each other.  The  known c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e f o r t h i s study w i l l be t h a t most r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , the s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the l a n guages spoken by the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the study a r e a . In an a n a l y s i s of place-names as symbols i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the environment, the component i n the name of g r e a t e s t importance i s the d e n o t a t i v e .  T h i s component i n the l i n g u i s t i c  s t r u c t u r e o f the name i s most o f t e n the s u f f i x .  I t serves to  d i s t i n g u i s h p a r t i c u l a r spaces from others w i t h i n the e n v i r o n ment of a p o p u l a t i o n , functions.  i n terms o f t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s and c u l t u r a l  As such, i t a l s o serves as an index to the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s of spaces w i t h i n the environment of the c u l t u r a l group /  ( M o r r i s o n MSS). Any obtained  evidence,  other  than the p u r e l y l i n g u i s t i c , may be  from these d e n o t a t i v e  components o n l y by i m p l i c a t i o n ,  never d i r e c t l y (Wainwright 1 9 6 2 i l 0 ) .  I n a synchronic  study, un-  15 like  the d i a c h r o n i c , the  meaningless.  The  meanings and allows  study  nature  o f i n d i v i d u a l names i s  of the  evidence,  linguistic affiliations  t h a t i s , the  f o r l i t t l e more t h a n e d u c a t e d g u e s s e s a t t h e o f t h e name, t h e  aspects  of the naming p o p u l a t i o n embodied w i t h i n the  overcome by  conducting  this  i n f o r m a t i o n on  "microscopic"  wise hidden c u l t u r a l information. study  An  be  "macroscopic" r e v e a l the  other-  e x c e l l e n t model i s  by  the  the  spatial distributions  s e l e c t e d place-name elements, the "macroscopic" Using  groupings f o r t h i s  study are  patterns,".are meaning and  These u n i t s ,  anal-  by  the  the  "toponymic  c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the v a r i a b l e s of p o s s i b l e  linguistic  e l e m e n t s , and  the u n i t s p r e s e n t e d  o f de.notati.ve c o m p o n e n t s f o u n d i n  place-names of the Chota Nagpur.  of  scale.  t h e m e t h o d s u g g e s t e d b y Z e l i n s k y ' s work,, t h e  spatial distributions  I n the  place-name.  by Z e l i n s k y (1955), where the a n a l y s i s i s c o n d u c t e d upon  the b a s i s of the u n i t s p r o v i d e d  ytical  cultural  m e t h o d o l o g y may  t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n on a  scale, using a n a l y t i c a l categories that w i l l  names,  extra-lin-  characteristics  l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by  possible  of elements i n the  guistic  The  relatively  provides  a f f i l i a t i o n and  immediate v i s u a l and  f o r m o f a d i s t r i b u t i o n map  o f o c c u r e n c e and  s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of  regions  of a p a r t i c u l a r element.  The  statistical benefits.  the p a t t e r n d e f i n e s the  o f g r e a t and patterns  low  d e n s i t y of  area  occurence  of a s e l e c t e d group  elements, i n conjunction, define a p a r t i a l  the  of  toponymic system i n  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o each o t h e r , p a r t i a l i n t h a t i t does  not  encompass a l l t h e  area.  The  elements found i n the place-names of the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  toponymic p a t t e r n s  i n t o what  may  16 be p o s t u l a t e d as a p a r t i a l toponymic  system i s on the b a s i s of  the t h e o r e t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of any g i v e n system.  These a r e t h a t  a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s be d e f i n e d and be f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e r d e p e n dent and i n t e r a c t i n g (De Vos and Wagatsuma 1968:81).  1966128?;  Buckley  These a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s f o r the toponyms a r e  those of the toponymic p a t t e r n s , and t h e i r interdependence and i n t e r a c t i o n occur i n the f u n c t i o n of t h e i r component elements as symbols i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the environment.  Spaces w i t h i n  the environment of a c u l t u r a l group p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g s i m i l a r a t t r i b u t e s being i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r l y ,  the cooccurence i n d i s -  t r i b u t i o n of the s i m i l a r l a b e l s of two o r more types of spaces, and t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l preponderance over l a b e l s of spaces w i t h the same a t t r i b u t e s w i t h i n t h i s a r e a of cooccurence, demarcate toponymic  systems.  The component elements of the toponymic p a t t e r n s were d e f i n e d f o l l o w i n g c o l l e c t i o n of the names.  The names were ob-  t a i n e d from the S e r i e s U 5 0 2 , E d i t i o n 1-AMS  maps of the U n i t e d  S t a t e s army, on a s c a l e of 1 : 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 , Ranchi (NF 4 5 - 1 ) , P u r u l i a Jamshedpur (NF 4 5 - 6 ) ,  (NF 4 5 - 2 ) ,  f o r Gaya (NG Sundargarh  (NF  45-13), 45-5),  Champa (NF 4 4 - 8 ) and Ra.igarh (NF  44-12).  As these maps c o n t a i n the names of v i r t u a l l y every hamlet i n the Chota Nagpur, i t was  d e c i d e d t h a t the sample  of o n e - h a l f of the  names, an e s t i m a t e d nine thousand, would be l a r g e and .accurate enough f o r the purposes of t h i s study.  The s i z e of the  sample,  and the method of c o l l e c t i o n of the names, from each a l t e r n a t e 15*  l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e square (Map 3 ) , would i n a l a r g e i  measure overcome d i s t o r t i o n i n the s t a t i s t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s of  17 the d e n o t a t i v e , components s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e n s i v e Upon c o l l e c t i o n coding  o r d e r i n g by cal  ( F i g . 1),  sheets  The  The  w i e l d y code, and Thus, the  l o c a t i o n o f t h e name and  R a n c h ! - map  one;  the n o r t h - s o u t h  i t was  Column s i x c o n t a i n e d  110.  Columns f o u r and  t h e number u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e  of a r i v e r  one  or census l i s t s , The  was,  vacant.  or hamlet w i t h (6),  a mountain and  100,000 (2)  o r one  (3), with  (1). office  f a c t o r s of p o s s i b l e d i s t o r t i o n of  the  m o s t common p r o b l e m i s i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n  t h e name i n t o E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y .  A l a c k of d i a c r i t i c a l  e v i d e n t i n t h e maps u s e d makes i t v i r t u a l l y  determine the a c t u a l p r o n o u n c i a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e but  ,  character  When t h e names a r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m maps, p o s t  name a r i s e .  un-  w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n between 10,000 a n d ' 2 5 , 0 0 0  a p o p u l a t i o n o v e r 100,000  a s was  zero.  a c i t y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n between 5,000  w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n b e t w e e n 2 5 , 0 0 0 and  lists  num-  f i v e were  a p o p u l a t i o n b e l o w 5»000 p e r s o n s (5)>  one  two,  s i m p l i f i e d f o r the purposes of r e p o r t i n g .  of a v i l l a g e  10,000 (4),  were,  G a y a - map  from seven to  o f t h e name, t h a t i s w h e t h e r , i t was  (8),  the  to three  s a m p l e s q u a r e r e p o r t e d a s G 6 i n C h a p t e r Two  a lake  numeri-  of the computer n e c e s s i t a t e d t h i s r a t h e r  on t h e F o r t r a n s h e e t s ,  (7),  a  t h e w e s t - e a s t s q u a r e s on e a c h map  t o s i x and  requirements  subsequent  s i x columns c o n t a i n e d  numbers i n c o l u m n s one  number, e.g.  s q u a r e number, w i t h  b e r e d f r o m one The  first  code i n d i c a t i n g the g e o g r a p h i c  r e s p e c t i v e l y , map and  t h e names w e r e t r a n s c r i b e d on t o F o r t r a n f o r the purposes of t h e i r  computer.  "space" i t l a b e l l e d .  examination.  marks,  impossible  o f t h e name, a n d  f o r e d u c a t e d g u e s s e s as  of  leaves  t o some o f t h e  no  names;  to  18 e.g.  i s p a n i , the form of the s u f f i x p r o v i d e d by the map, p a n i ,  pan!  o r pani7  compilers  Another of the problems i s the p r a c t i c e of the  of the maps o r l i s t s  t o g i v e the names a S a n s k r l t i c  look, e.g. Banlap;ano>Banigram; Bhatpaira> B h a t t a p a l l l 19^3»21;  23).  (Goswami  Each name thus has to be t r e a t e d w i t h c a u t i o n ,  as the o n l y way i n which to determine the a c t u a l p r o n o u n c i a t l o n of  the name i s through a thorough f i e l d  survey.  9 ro 00 ro  P; ro ro  -<  ro  53  <  -<  ro  •< •2  1  ^  O  -p  a c-j  CD  -4  l-<  CO  V-  w  x: bO • H  ro rvj  Tj O  C-J  a  s  as (H  •P  00  U  o  CO UO  U —1  Ui  z <  a: tQL  O  l<  V-  00  <  <  <  >-  wn  z  3  -< cr>  U O Z h  IL)  bO  t-4  O O  m  0  CNI  «—*  I —  «<t •3: u>  Q «S rv-  <i  to  20 During the t r a n s c r i p t i o n  of the names care was  taken  to i n c l u d e a l l the d i a c r i t i c a l marks i n d i c a t e d upon the maps. T h i s was d e c i d e d upon as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p , although  the prob-  lem of i n a c c u r a t e r e c o r d i n g o f p r o n o u n c i a t i o n s was r e c o g n i s e d . Of a l l the phonemes i n the languages found i n the study a r e a , as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g . 2, d i a c r i t i c a l marks were I n d i c a t e d by the map makers on o n l y the vowels and dipthongs, between the s h o r t forms / a / , / i / , p e c t i v e l o n g forms / a / , /I/,  differentiating  /o/, / u / and / e / and the r e s -  /au/, / u / and / a i / , e.g. para,  pahar, hatu. The d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the forms of the names upon the maps and those p r o v i d e d by d i c t i o n a r i e s and  (see B i b l i o g r a p h y ) ,  t h e i r simulated p r o n o u n c i a t i o n s , g i v e s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n  that  the r e c o r d i n g by the map makers was made from a w r i t t e n , and n o t o r a l , source.  An example o f t h i s i s i n the element t r a n s l i t e r a -  ted as t a n r . . The t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of the w r i t t e n forms i s , / t j [ d / or / t a r / and / t a d / o r / t a r / , w i t h a d i s t i n c t n a z a l i z a t i o n i n the p r o n o u n c i a t i o n of the former.  The a n g l i c i z a t i o n  form has omitted the two important  o f the o r a l  d i a c r i t i c a l marks d i s t i n -  g u i s h i n g between the d e n t a l and r e t r o f l e x  forms of the stops  / t / and / d / (/r/ i s an a l t e r n a t e means o f t r a n s l i t e r a t i n g the retroflex  stop / d / ) , and t r a n s l i t e r a t e d  the phoneme of n a z a l i z a -  t i o n /•"/ as a d i s t o r t i n g d e n t a l stop /n/. However, as the conc e r n o f t h i s study i s n o t l i n g u i s t i c , t h i s phonetic What i s important  distortion  i s of l i t t l e  importance.  be d i s t o r t e d  i d e n t i c a l l y i n a l l cases, f o r the purposes o f  a c c o u n t i n g f o r every occurence  i s t h a t the element  o f i t i n the same form.  F i g u r e 2j  Phonetic  Tables  Hindit Retroflex.  Dental  Labial  Velar  Palatal  STOPS Unvoiced: Unaspirated  k  c  t  t  p  Aspirated  kh  ch  th  th  ph  Voiced: Unaspirated  S  d  d  b  Aspirated  gh  dh  dh  bh  Nasals  n  n  n  n  m  y  r  1  v  s  s  s  i  r ~~  Semivowels (Voiced) Siblants (Unvoiced) Aspiration (Unvoiced) VOWELS (Voiced)  \ a a  1  *  •  u —  u  e  au o  /  Bengali; Velar  Palatal  STOPS Unvoicedj Unaspirated  k  c  t  Aspirated  kh  ch  Voicedi Unaspirated  S  Aspirated  gh  jh  Nasals  n  Semivowels (Voiced) Siblants  Retroflex  •  Labial  t  p  th  th  ph  d  d  b  dh  dh  bh  n  n  n  m  y  r  1  s  s  s  9  o  •  0  *  (Unvoiced) Aspiration (Unvoiced) VOWELS (Voiced)  Dental  a a  i  \* e oi  r  u u  • '  0  0  ou  Orlyat Velar  Palatal  STOPS Unvoicedi Inaspirated  k  c  t  Aspirated  kh  ch  th  Voicedi Unaspirated  S  3  d  d  b  Aspirated  gh  jh  dh  dh  bh  Nasals  gnua  gnia  ana  n  m w  t . th  Labial  p P  h  •  m  y  r  1  s  s •  s  i  ru r• u  (Unvoiced) Aspiration (Unvoiced) a  Dental  •  •  Semivowels (Voiced) Siblants  VOWELS (Voiced)  Retroflex  lu  e 51  u u o au  /  24 Austro-asiatlc t Velar  Palatal  Unaspirated  k  c  Checked  k'  Unaspirated  g  j  Checked  g°  j  n  n  Retroflex  Dental  Labial  STOPS t  ' o'..  y  1  t»  t t*  p p»  d  d  b  d'  d"  b'  n  n  m  r  r  w  1 VOWELS a  I  u  a  1  u o  Kurukh: Velar  Palatal  Retroflex  Dental  Labial  Unaspirated  k  c  t  t  p  Aspirated  kh  Unaspirated  g  j  d  d  b  Nasals  n  fi  n  n  m  Semivowels  y  r  1  v  STOPS  r Siblant  s  Aspiration VOWELS a  i  a  I  u •  u  * e  o  e  6  /  26 F o l l o w i n g r e c o r d i n g ' o f the. names on t h e F o r t r a n c o d e s h e e t s a n i n i t i a l s u r v e y was made t o i d e n t i f y e l e m e n t s ing  finally,  as s u f f i x e s .  The p r o b l e m s  were n o t w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r with  encountered  s u f f i x e s used i n t h i s  occur-  i n this study, as,  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f o n e , Pos., t h e y w e r e a l l i n i d e n t i f i a b l e  forms.  The s u f f i x e s  that provided p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y i n  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w e r e t h o s e t h a t w e r e c o n t a i n e d i n p r o p e r names, w h e r e p h o n e t i c c h a n g e h a d r e n d e r e d them m e a n i n g l e s s . only a f t e r  this  s t e p had been completed,  I t was  and the separate  elements  o f t h e names r e c o r d e d , i n r e v e r s e o r d e r , i n c o l u m n s  25  on t h e c o d i n g s h e e t s ( F i g . 1 ) ,  t o 43  procedure  f o r t h i s was d e t e r m i n e d .  that a-less laborious  I t entails  alphabetical  ordering of the entire  sample i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e c o l -  l e c t i o n o f t h e names.  T h i s would  i d e n t i f y the elements the "minimal p a i r "  enable the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o  i n t h e name b y a p r o c e d u r e a n a l o g o u s t o  o f m o r p h s mode, t h e a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r i n g  bringing together i d e n t i c a l f i r s t  elements  from  throughout the  sample (See F i g . 1 ) . The preceeded  d i v i s i o n o f t h e names i n t o t h e i r component  t h e i r o r d e r i n g by computer, t o f a c i l i t a t e  s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . categories, hypothesis. all  The f i r s t  accordance  subsequent  T h i s o r d e r i n g was i n s i x to the requirements  of the  p r i n t - o u t was a n a l p h a b e t i c a l i n d e x o f  t h e names c o l l e c t e d ,  names o n l y .  The  specifically directed  elements  f o l l o w e d b y one o f a l l t h e s i m p l e  The m u l t i - e l e m e n t names were, t h e n p r i n t e d o u t , i n w i t h a l i s t o f t h e s u f f i x e s i n t h e names ( F i g . 3 ) .  r e s i d u a l names, t h o s e w i t h s u f f i x e s o t h e r t h a n  those  27  i d e n t i f i e d on t h e s u f f i x l i s t ,  were a l s o c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s  p r i n t - o u t , as a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y .  The  names o f r i v e r s  and  mountains, a l t h o u g h c o n t a i n e d i n the o t h e r p r i n t - o u t s , collected  s e p a r a t e l y , to enable  e a s i e r access  t o them f o r t h e  l a t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n of the toponymic p a t t e r n s . o u t was tical in  final  print-  statis-  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f e a c h t y p e o f name, s i m p l e o r compound,  each sample  the f i r s t  limited  one.  square.  computer, the use  of which  to our knowledge, proved  i n this  names, i t was  e f f i c i e n t means o f o r d e r i n g t h e s a m p l e .  and  t h a t of the s t a t i s t i c a l a s p e c t s  o n l y ones w h e r e I t was  of t h i s  p o s s i b l e t o use  a  more a l i m i t a t i o n I m p o s e d b y s t u d y , t h a n one  integral  the most  But  this  rapid  function,  s t u d y , were  the  the computer w i t h o u t  o v e r w h e l m i n g amount o f p r e p a r a t o r y m a n u a l  this  study  a u s e f u l t o o l , but  and  t h i s was  type of  B e a r i n g I n m i n d t h e s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e , a s men-  t i o n e d b e f o r e some n i n e t h o u s a n d  of  The  a c o m p i l a t i o n of histogrammes, I n d i c a t i n g the  The is  were  labour.  However,  the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e  i n computer usage.  an  28 Figure  3»  Suffix  ara abad tanr dih diha tol tola toll bar bara gar a band bandh banda dag war war a mar mara pur pura purla sai da hat hata hatu Pi •. pos posi sol sola jor jora jori par para pari gaon pani kel kela  List unga ghat ghata ghatu munda bahar bahal dar dara jhor jhora jhori dand ker• kera sar sara jhar jharia jharan jar har pali wan . wani nagar loi ber bera berya ' wai guru sanr gari danr garh pat saru ' \ • > ganj gain tani diri • '  I \  Loya buru gora bani bhata sera wa mu la tu sa we ba  -  29 1.2.  Languages of the Chota Nagpur. The  second v a r i a b l e i n the h y p o t h e s i s ,  known c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the i n h a b i t a n t s  of the  i s , as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the s p a t i a l and tribution  the  study  area,  s t a t i s t i c a l dis-  of the languages spoken i n the Chota Nagpur.  The study was  t h a t of  demarcation of the p a r t i c u l a r  made on the b a s i s of a l l - I n d i a n  regional characteristics. t u r a l c r i t e r i a , and boundaries (Map  1),  area  selected for  as w e l l as  purely  Paramount i n the former are  i n the l a t t e r g e o g r a p h i c a l .  The  cul-  specific  however, were not d e l i n e a t e d by any  t u r a l or e c o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a , but by t a t i o n s of source and  the a v a i l a b i l i t y and  limi-  material.  The Chota Nagpur p l a t e a u w i t h i n the study a r e a ,  cul-  region,  i s an a r e a  (Subbarao 1 9 5 8 ) , w i t h r e s p e c t  largely  of c u l t u r a l  to the r e s t  contained  isolation  of I n d i a .  These  areas are a l s o v a r i o u s l y termed " t r i b a l I n d i a " or " A d i b a s i " regions,  similtaneously connotative  of t h e i r c u l t u r a l  relative  to the Great T r a d i t i o n s of I n d i a , and  status  d e s c r i p t i v e of  the predominant form of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the m a j o r i t y their inhabitants.  These areas are the backwaters of  of  civili-  z a t i o n , where o l d e r and/or more s t a t i c c u l t u r e s have sought refuge from the advance of the great  traditions  i n remote  areas u n c o n g e n i a l to c i v i l i z a t i o n s based on advanced t u r a l economy (Haimendorf 1 9 ^ 8 ) . all  the i n h a b i t a n t s  But  t h i s i s not  agricul-  to i n f e r  of these refuge areas have e x i s t e d i n t o t a l  i s o l a t i o n from the c i v i l i z a t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g them.  Those i n -  i  habitants  that  of the p o r t i o n s  of these  1,  refuge zones are more  30 c o n g e n i a l t o the forms o f a g r i c u l t u r e p r a c t i c e d by sentatives latter and  social  e x t e n d e d p e r i o d of t i m e , and  l i n k s have, d e v e l o p e d of p r o f e s s i o n a l c a s t e s  zones are  today  though s t i l l  r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d and  very  that allowed  economic the i n -  These  geographical  not w h o l l y  refuge  contained  civilization. characteristics  of t h i s  i t t o f u n c t i o n h i s t o r i c a l l y as an a r e a  i s o l a t i o n are  the r e g i o n a l c r i t e r i a  s u i t a b l e u n i t f o r study. immediately  ( E l w i n 1951).  the  p a r t of the l a r g e r . I n d i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , a l -  w i t h i n the mainstream of t h a t The  strong  b e t w e e n them t h r o u g h  stitution  area  of  that distinguish  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e Gangetic  cultural  i t as  a  plain  to the n o r t h of i t , the Chota Nagpur i s a  region  t o p o g r a p h i c a l uneveness, c o n s i s t i n g of a s u c c e s s i o n  of plateaux, h i l l s  and  the Hazaribagh  Ranchi  and  repre-  of the c i v i l i z a t i o n s have been i n c o n t a c t w i t h  over an  marked by  the  and  2).  v a l l e y s (Map  The  plateaux, are  c e n t r a l m a r g i n s o f t h e a r e a , and  major  plateaux,  s i t u a t e d i n the  they,  t h i r d p l a t e a u i n t h e w e s t , t h e P a t s , and  <  north  together with  the r o l l i n g  a  terrain  ••'of t h e e a s t e r n m a r g i n s , c o m p r i s e t h e m a j o r e x t e n t o f o p e n l a n d in  the a r e a .  The  n o r t h e a s t e r n and  a r e m o u n t a i n o u s and  densely  southern  f o r e s t e d , and  the a l t e r n a t i n g f e a t u r e s of h i g h h i l l s  and  a d d i t i o n to. the numerous s m a l l s t r e a m s , the area are  the North  reaches of the  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by steep v a l l e y s .  In  the major r i v e r s  Koel, f l o w i n g northwest i n t o  the  of Son,  the Suvarnarekha, South K o e l , Sankh, S a n j a i , K h a r k a i , l b , Mahanadi and  Hasdo, a l l f l o w i n g south  Damodar, d r a i n i n g t h e a r e a  eastward.  area  or southeast,  and  the  31  The Chota Nagpur d i f f e r s from those areas surrounding i t c l i m a t i c a l l y as w e l l . a b l y throughout  vary consider-  the year, but are c o n s i s t e n t l y lower  those encountered  33-35).  The mean temperatures  than  1958i  on the Gangetic p l a i n of B i h a r (Diwakar  The March mean maximum of ?5°P r i s e s to 85°F i n May,  the warmest month, and drops to 60°F i n December, the c o l d e s t . Mean minimum temperatures v a r y from the lowest of 47°F i n December to 70°F i n May.  The annual mean temperature  on the  p l a t e a u i s 65°F. The average r a i n f a l l on the p l a t e a u d u r i n g the year i s over 50 i n c h e s , h i g h e r than the p l a i n s r e g i o n s (Diwakar 35).  1958«  The w e t t e s t months of the year are the monsoon months,  June t o October, when 80-90$ of the annual r a i n f a l l i s r e ceived.  The remainder  of the r a i n f a l l i s l a r g e l y r e c e i v e d  d u r i n g the hot season, between March and  May.  The d e l i m i t a t i o n of the boundaries of the study a r e a was  i n g e n e r a l accordance w i t h t h i s r e g i o n a l g e o g r a p h i c a l  criteria,  although the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the maps used as  the b a s i c source m a t e r i a l (see B i b l i o g r a p h y ) f o r c e d  exclusion  of minor p o r t i o n s of t h i s h i g h l a n d r e g i o n i n the west and and the major p a r t of the Rajmahal H i l l s  south,  i n the N o r t h e a s t .  The  e a s t e r n , and the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the n o r t h e r n , boundaries were i n t e n t i o n a l l y demarcated, the l a t t e r to exclude any of  part  the p l a i n s r e g i o n s of the Gaya a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t .  the e a s t no p o r t i o n of West Bengal, e x c l u d i n g the P u r u l l a d i s t r i c t , was  i n c l u d e d , as t h i s a r e a i s the focus of another  study b e i n g conducted by Dr. B a r r l e M o r r i s o n .  The  remaining  On  32 administrative d i s t r i c t s 3),  or p a r t (Map  i n c l u d e d i n the study a r e a , i n whole  a r e , i n B i h a r , Hazaribagh, the S a n t a l  P arganas, Ranchi, Palamau, Dhanbad and Singhbhum, i n O r i s s a , v  Mayurbhanj,  Keonjhar, Sundargarh  and Sambalpur, and i n Madhya  Pradesh, B i l a s p u r , Surguja, R a i p u r and R a i g a r h . The a p p r o x i m a t e l y nine m i l l i o n people i n h a b i t i n g the 3 0 - 3 5 . 0 0 0 square m i l e Chota Nagpur r e g i o n s a r e s c a t t e r e d throughout some f i f t e e n  thousand h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s ,  a low  d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n f o r the o v e r a l l a r e a which i s borne by the i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s f o r each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e The o n l y d i s t r i c t which for  exceeds  out  district.  the? average p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y  the Gangetic p l a i n s r e g i o n immediately to the n o r t h and  east of the study a r e a ( 8 0 0 - 1 0 0 0 persons per square m i l e ) i s Dhanbad, w i t h a d e n s i t y of 104-5 per square m i l e . ing  The  remain-  d i s t r i c t s have d e n s i t i e s f a r below t h i s f i g u r e , r a n g i n g  from 5t>5 i n P u r u l i a to' 153  i n the Madhya P r a d e s h i d i s t r i c t s .  Of the remainder of the study a r e a , the d i s t r i c t s  i n Orissa  have a g e n e r a l l y lower d e n s i t y than those i n B i h a r .  Among the  former Mayurbhanj has the h i g h e s t d e n s i t y , 299 p e r square m i l e , Keonjhar has 2 3 1 ,  Sambalpur 223 and Sundargarh  200.3.  The  S a n t a l Parganas has the h i g h e s t d e n s i t y of the d i s t r i c t s i n B i h a r o t h e r than Dhanbad, 4 8 7 p e r square m i l e . 398,  Singhbhum has  Hazaribagh 3^3 and Ranchi 3 0 4 persons per square m i l e . These  i n h a b i t a t n s of the Chota Nagpur speak  languages  b e l o n g i n g to three language f a m i l i e s , the Indo-Aryan, D r a v i d i a n and A u s t r o a s i a t i c .  T h i s t e r m i n o l o g y f o r the languages::-is t h a t  used by G r i e r s o n ( 1 9 2 7 ) ,  i n h i s L i n g u i s t i c Survey of I n d i a ,  33  and has been g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d by the major sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s e c t i o n (Diwakar 1 9 5 8 ; Census Census of I n d i a 1 9 6 1 ;  of I n d i a 1 9 3 1 ;  D i s t r i c t G a z e t t e e r s ; Sachchidananda 1965')'.  W i t h i n the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language f a m i l y G r i e r s o n d i s t i n g u i s h e s two sub-branches, the l u n e r and Outer, on the b a s i s of d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n phonology and s y n t a x , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p r o n o u n c i a t i o n of s i b l a n t s , i n d e c l e n s i o n and i n c o n j u g a t i o n ( G r i e r s o n 1 9 2 7 »  I;  117-119).  Between these sub-branches, i n the e a s t , i s a Mediate subbranch, which c o n t a i n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of both sub-branches  and a c t s as a t r a n s i t i o n a l language group.  The  languages  c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n our study a r e a belong to the Mediate subbranch and the E a s t e r n group of the Outer sub-branch.  The  Mediate group i s composed of three d i a l e c t s , not languages, C h a t t i s g a r h i , B a g h e l i and Awadhi.  I t i s o n l y the f i r s t men-  t i o n e d which i s found *' i n the Chota Nagpur. 1  The o t h e r Indo-  Aryan languages found i n the Chota Nagpur belong to the E a s t e r n group of the Outer sub-branch, a l l d i r e c t l y descendent from the o l d Magadha Apabhramsa. l e c t s , B h o j p u r i and Magahl,  Two  of the three B i h a r i  dia-  the t h i r d b e i n g M a i t h i l i , are p r e -  sent i n the study a r e a , as a r e B e n g a l i and O r i y a .  The  fourth  language of the E a s t e r n group, Assamese, does not occur i n the area. Quite u n l i k e Grierson's d e t a i l e d  differentiation  be-  tween the C h a t t i s g a r h i d i a l e c t of E a s t e r n H i n d i and B h o j p u r i and Magahl, p r e s e n t i n t h e i r d i a l e c t i c a l forms of Nagpuria B h o j p u r i and Panch P a r g a n i a Magahi' as w e l l as t h e i r pure forms,  34  o t h e r s o u r c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the D i s t r i c t G a z e t t e e r s Diwakar ( 1 9 5 8 ) , r e f e r t o these languages Hindi.  The  and  collectively  as  e f f e c t s of t h i s a r e f e l t i n the d a t a p r o v i d e d on  numbers of s p e a k e r s .  Grierson's f i g u r e s , besides being dated,  a r e g i v e n on the b a s i s of t o t a l numbers of speakers and  pro-  v i d e no a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n as t o s t a t i s t i c s f o r speakers i n limited regions.  The Census and D i s t r i c t G a z e t t e e r i n f o r m a -  t i o n can s i m i l a r l y be o n l y used on a g e n e r a l i z e d l e v e l , numbers of " H i n d i , " o r "Indo-Aryan Oriya" speakers.  as  o t h e r than B e n g a l i and  However, u s a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s f o r  each language spoken i n the a r e a have been compiled,-as centage  per-  e s t i m a t e s based on G r i e r s o n ' s f i g u r e s , the Census of  I n d i a 1901, and the Census o f I n d i a 1 9 6 l . Of the Indo-Aryan  languages  present i n the study a r e a ,  the major one, i n terms of the number of s p e a k e r s , i s C h a t t i s garhi.  T h i s language, which  i s l i m i t e d almost e n t i r e l y t o the  Madhya P r a d e s h i d i s t r i c t s of B i i a s p u r , S u r g u j a , R a i p u r and R a i g a r h (Map  4),  i s the mother tongue of 21.7%  t a n t s of the s t u d y a r e a ,  The  speakers of the B i h a r i  of N a g p u r i a B h o j p u r i , Panch P a r g a n i a Magahi and Magahi rank a s t a t i s t i c a l second  dialects  Standard  to C h a t t i s g a r h i , w i t h  o f the p o p u l a t i o n c l a i m i n g these languages tongue.  of the i n h a b i -  21.4$  as t h e i r mother  S t a n d a r d Magahi and Panch P a r g a n i a Magahi (Map  found o c c u r i n g i n H a z a r i b a g h  d i s t r i c t and i n e a s t e r n Ranch!,  a r e the m a j o r d i a l e c t s ^ b e i n g spoken by 14.2$ l a t i o n of the s t u d y a r e a .  7.),  of the t o t a l popu-  N a g p u r i a B h o j p u r i i s spoken by  of the p o p u l a t i o n , l a r g e l y i n Ranchi and Palamau.  7.2$  Bengali,  35  r e t u r n e d by 18.9^ of the p o p u l a t i o n as t h e i r mother tongue, i s found o c c u r i n g i n the easternmost p o r t i o n o f the study a r e a , in  the S a n t a l Parganas, P u r u l i a , Dhanbad and e a s t e r n Singhbhum  (Map 5 ) . ing  O r i y a , the remaining Indo-aryan language found occur-  i n the study a r e a , i n southwestern Singhbhum, Mayurbhanj,  Keonjhar, Sundargarh and Sambalpur lb,9%  (Map 6 ) , has as i t s speakers  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the study a r e a . The D r a v i d i a n , the c o n v e n t i a l name f o r the f a m i l y of  South I n d i a n languages, i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Chota Nagpur by the  Kurukh  language.  T h i s language, spoken by the members of  the  Oraon t r i b e , i s the mother tongue of 5.5% of the p o p u l a t i o n  of  the study a r e a .  I t i s found o c c u r i n g i n the western p o r t i o n  of  the study a r e a (Map 8 ) , i n southern Palamau, western Ranchi,  Sundargarh, R a i g a r h , e a s t e r n S u r g u j a and e a s t e r n The A u s t r o a s i a t i c  Sambalpur.  s u b - f a m i l y of languages, p a r t of the  Austroasiatic-Vietname se-Muong f a m i l y of languages ( Z i d e v  1966),  i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Chota Nagpur by the S a n t a l i , Mundari, Bhumij, B i r h o r , Ho, A s u r i and Korwa d i a l e c t s of the Kherwarl language and the K h a r i a language.  T h i s group o f languages was  i n i t i a l l y c l a s s e d by Hodgson (1848) as b e l o n g i n g t o the D r a v i d i a n f a m i l y of languages, r e f e r r i n g t o them as d i a l e c t s o f the of  K o l language.  The f i r s t  t o c l a s s them as a separate f a m i l y  languages was Max M u l l e r , who c a l l e d them Munda languages, /  and i n d i c a t e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the languages of the Malay p e n i n s u l a and the P o l y n e s i a n a r c h i p e l a g o .  Grierson  (1927)  f o l l o w s him i n r e f e r r i n g to them as the Munda languages, but as i  t h i s term i s too c l o s e t o the name o f one o f the d i a l e c t s ,  36 Mundari,  and a l i k e l y source of c o n f u s i o n , we  them, f o l l o w i n g Z i d e ( 1 9 6 6 ) ,  s h a l l r e f e r to  as A u s t r o a s i a t l c  languages.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the A u s t r o a s l a t i c languages  gener-  a l l y complements t h a t of Kurukh w i t h i n the study a r e a , the c e p t i o n b e i n g i n western Ranchi  ( c f . Maps 8 & 9 ) .  t i c a l l y major d i a l e c t of the Kherwari  language,  The  ex-  statis-  Santali,  spoken by 7 . 1 $ of the p o p u l a t i o n of the study a r e a , i s found l a r g e l y i n the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of the study a r e a , i n Dhanbad, P u r u l i a , Mayurbhanj, Singhbhum and the S a n t a l Parganas.  Ho,  another of the d i a l e c t s of Kherwari, i s spoken by 4 . 1 $ of the p o p u l a t i o n , and has a much more r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n Santali.  than  I t i s found o c c u r i n g l a r g e l y i n western Singhbhum,  and i n the immediately a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s of Mayurbhanj, and Sundargarh.  Keonjhar  The t h i r d r e l a t i v e l y w i d e l y spoken d i a l e c t of  Kherwari, Mundari,  spoken by 4 . 3 $ of the p o p u l a t i o n , has i t s  speakers c o n c e n t r a t e d l a r g e l y i n e a s t e r n Ranchi, w i t h s m a l l numbers b e i n g found i n Sundargarh of the p o p u l a t i o n ) and A s u r i  and Sambalpur,  (0.05$),  Korwa  (0.17$  are two minor d i a l e c t s  found i n the western p o r t i o n of the study a r e a , i n western Ranchi, Palamau and R a i g a r h , and Bhumij ( 0 . 0 8 $ ) e a s t , i n Singhbhum and P u r u l i a ,  occurs i n the  The o t h e r A u s t r o a s i a t i c  lan-  guage found i n the study a r e a , K h a r i % has a l l i t s speakers, 0 . 8 $ of the p o p u l a t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h i n a v e r y s m a l l a r e a /  i n southwestern 1.3.  Ranchi,  Summary The aim of t h i s study i s to p r o v i d e an a n c i l l a r y a i d  i n the study of c u l t u r e ,  i n d e v e l o p i n g a methodology  contemporary place-names  may be u s e d t o d e m a r c a t e  homogenous c u l t u r a l investigation.  To t h i s  xtfhich e x a m i n e s place-names  tribution  societies  end a h y p o t h e s i s  the c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s  may be u s e d to. d e m a r c a t e  the c o r r e l a t i o n place-names,  r e g i o n s i n complex  has been  study that cultural  whereby  relatively f o r further presented, contemporary  regions  through  of. t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n , o f d e n o t a t i v e e l e m e n t s i n  as organized i n t o  o f a known c u l t u r a l  spoken i n t h e study  area.  t o p o n y m i c • systems,. a n d t h e d i s f e a t u r e , t h a t of the languages  38 Two. 2.1.  D e n o t a t i v e Components i n the Contemporary Place-names of the Chota Nagpur. I n the examination o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  place-  names and c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , the elements i n the toponyms which are of i n t e g r a l importance, as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , a r e the d e n o t a t i v e components.  These elements, as symbols i n e n v i r o n -  mental o r g a n i z a t i o n , may r e v e a l toponymic systems i n t h e i r p a t t e r n s o f interdependence and i n t e r a c t i o n , where t h e i r r e l a t e d usage i s l i m i t e d to p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l groups. D e n o t a t i v e components i n place-name  studies.  have been made use o f p r e v i o u s l y  Some of these a r e Z e l i n s k y  (1955)»  S t e n t o n ( 1 9 ^ 0 ) , Smith ( 1 9 5 6 ) and Cbllingwood and Myres  (1936).  However, i t i s o n l y i n Z e l i n s k y * s study where the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s s o l e l y and e x t e n s i v e l y i n t o the d e n o t a t i v e components o f place-names.  I n the works o f the E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s the use o f  these components only.  has been l i m i t e d and f o r i n t e r p r e t i v e purposes  They have been used to e s t a b l i s h h i s t o r i c a l areas o f  s e t t l e m e n t and i n f l u e n c e o f . c u l t u r a l groups, w i t h whom c e r t a i n d e n o t a t i v e components mological  have been a s s o c i a t e d through p r e v i o u s e t y -  investigation.  The d e n o t a t i v e components  used i n t h i s study f a l l  three broad c a t e g o r i e s , a c c o r d i n g to usage.  into  F i v e of these,  n a d i . j h o r , gara, k h a i and n S l a . a r e terms d e n o t i n g w a t e r c o u r s e s , and f i v e , pahar  P  parbat  f  buru,. dongar and tungar. mountains.  I n a d d i t i o n t o these f i v e terms f o r mountains, "another" was examined, m<nuntain names which c o n t a i n e d no g e n e r i c  suffix,  39  i.e.  no d e n o t a t i v e c o m p o n e n t .  tlnr,  The r e m a i n i n g e i g h t e e n c o m p o n e n t s ,  munda, p a n ! . l o r , b e r . p a l i .  h a t u . d i h . t o l . gaon, g a r a s a i  v  ;  with habitation The  k e l , dag, gutu, pos, p u r .  a n d p a r a , were t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d  sites.  c h o i c e o f t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t s was b a s e d o n  statistical  criteria.  The g e n e r i c - s u f f i x l e s s m o u n t a i n  names  w e r e r e t a i n e d i n t h e s a m p l e , a s i t was n o t i c e d d u r i n g c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e names t h a t t h i s " t e r m " composed a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 7 $ of  a l l themountain  names c o l l e c t e d .  I n t h e case o f the o t h e r  watercourse and mountain  terms, a l l the occurences of a l l the  terms w i t h i n t h e i n i t i a l  c o l l e c t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n t h e sample.  T h u s , n a d l composed 9 2 $ o f a l l w a t e r c o u r s e t e r m s , .jhor 5 . 7 $ , . g a r o 1 . 7 $ a n d khai a n d n a l a 0 . 3 $ e a c h . formed  o f a l l the mountain  32.5$  The o c c u r e n c e s o f p a h a r  t e r m s , b u r u 31.4$, p a r b a t 2 . 3 % .  d o n g a r 4.35$ a n d t u n g a r 2 . 1 $ . The  statistical  c r i t e r i o n used i n the s e l e c t i o n o f t h e  t e r m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s was t h a t a n y l i n g u i s t i cally identified  term w i t h a p e r c e n t a g e o c c u r e n c e o f 0.5$  ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y o c c u r e n c e s ) a n d a b o v e o f a l l t h e compound names i n t h e i n i t i a l  c o l l e c t i o n w o u l d be i n c l u d e d .  Among t h e  g e n e r i c terms t o l h a d t h e h i g h e s t o c c u r e n c e , 9.8$, f o l l o w e d by dih reara  (8.8$),  £ur ( 6 . 7 $ ) , g a o n ( 1 . 9 $ ) , p a r a (1.4$), k e l ( 1 . 2 $ ) ,  (0.73$),  dSg (0.69$), hStu (0.67$), and s a l , gutu and pos  ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.5$ e a c h ) . the  The s t a t i s t i c a l  n o n - g e n e r i c terms were p a l l 4.8$,  o c c u r e n c e s among  p a n i 1.4$, b e r 1 . 3 $  munda 1 . 2 $ , i o r 0 . 9 9 $ a n d t f f n r 0.64$. All  t h e d e n o t a t i v e components i n c l u d e d i n t h i s  study,  40 watercourse,  mountain and h a b i t a t i o n  s i t e , a r e contained i n  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 36.3$ o f a l l t h e names c o l l e c t e d i n i t i a l l y , a. c o l l e c t i o n t h a t composed a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n the study a r e a . l  Therefore, this  upon 3,2?4 o f t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  o n e - h a l f o f t h e names  study i s being  conducted  1 8 , 0 0 0 names i n t h e s t u d y a r e a ,  on a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18.3% o f t h e names i n t h e s t u d y  area.  J,'  F o r t h e t o t a l number o f h a b i t a t i o n s i t e names a n d t h e t o t a l number o f compound h a b i t a t i o n s i t e names s e e F i g s . 4 & 5 . x  i  85  I ' 1  81  4  58  149  80  79  3  44  78  7 e  12  137  14  115  101 C' C  OS  176  70  161  96  41  91 101  130 156  37 103  93  118  71  99  102  242  s  96  109  97  R  115  79  i i i  215  148  134  78  106  152  65  Q  64  37  Ik 81  88  152  66 94  97  70  100 131  65  136 133  116  78 125  41 28  147  F  90  106  136  13  E  64  68  II  D  36  84  9 \o  c  58  118  p  0  57  104  79 A  94  148  95  Fig.  4.  T o t a l Number o f H a b i t a t i o n S i t e Names i n E a c h Sample S q u a r e .  r  H  kj  I  36  1  3  75  18  7 e 9 to  II 12 13  H  B  c  o  E  53  F  33 55  42  44  57  51  85  54 26 65  64 46  26  5k 64  —  •  F i g . 5.  s  78  56  70  R  66  48  108  -.  Q  72  57  k5  p  16 0 150 67 144 57 19 114 126 94 65 27 136 56 20 127 38 51 95 118 82 72 78 120 86 31 55 101 105 113 79 50 99 108 86 78 95 81 59 47  38  o  36  57 40  A  35 44  40  4  50  64  The Number of Compound H a b i t a t i o n S i t e Names - i n Each Sample Square.  43 2.2.  The D e n o t a t i v e Components. Nadi, a place-name element a s s o c i a t e d with water-  courses, i s one of the few elements  i n t h i s study that is_-  found o c c u r i n g i n a l l but a l i m i t e d p o r t i o n of the study a r e a <^Iap 1 0 ) .  The  "river"  linguistic affiliation  i s with the Indo-Aryan  of t h i s g e n e r i c term f o r  f a m i l y of languages.  1946:575)  modern H i n d i form i s nadi (Pathak  but the O r i y a and  B e n g a l i v a r y s l i g h t l y i n t h e i r w r i t t e n forms, s h o r t vowel / i / nadi.  The  substituting a  f o r the l o n g H i n d i / I / , f o r the r e s u l t a n t  form  I t i s i n i t s p r o n o u n c i a t l o n i n the l a t t e r languages  the major d i f f e r e n c e i s found. nounced i n O r i y a as [ o ] , (Pattanayak  1966:73).  The  f i r s t vowel,  that  / a / , i s pro-  [nodi], and i n B e n g a l i as [ o ] , [ n o d i ]  The  s i m i l a r i t y i n w r i t t e n form, p r o v i d e d  as nadi i n a l l cases by the source used i n the study p r e c l u d e s . any more d e f i n i t e l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n  f o r t h i s term,  than t h a t i t i s a s s o c i a t e d with the"" languages Group of Indo-Aryan f i n a l vowel,  languages,  i.e. / i /  other  of the E a s t e r n  because of the nature of the  r a t h e r than / I / as i n H i n d i .  The p a t t e r n i n the frequency occurence of  n a d i , 9 2 $ of a l l the occurences  of  r e l a t i v e evenness throughout  of the 2 9 7 cases  of watercourse  the study a r e a .  t i o n of the south c e n t r a l r e g i o n and  names, i s one With the  the southwestern  excep-  c o r n e r of  the study a r e a , i t occurs with 1 0 0 $ ' f r e q u e n c y i n almost a l l the sample squares southwest to  ( T a b l e s I and X X I I I ) .  i t v a r i e s i n occurence  from 0 $ i n sample square  1 0 0 $ i n squares B 1 3 , C12, E12,  and S9.  However, the average  I n the south c e n t r e and  G10,  J 1 0 , K9, M9,  N10  P 8 , Q9, B.8  r a t e s of.occurence v a r y c o n s i d e r -  44 a b l y between t h i s r e g i o n and t h a t of the n o r t h e r n h a l f study a r e a .  I n the l a t t e r ,  composed of the d i s t r i c t s  of the of Ranchi,  Hazaribagh, Palamau, Dhanbad, S u r g u j a , P u r u l i a , B i l a s p u r and the n o r t h e r n h a l f of R a i g a r h , i t i s 100$, with Sambalpur, Sundargarh,  the southernmost  Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj I n c l u d e d i n i t , occurence i s much lower,  but i n the former, r e g i o n of Ranchi,  the average r a t e of  70.2$.  I n a d d i t i o n to n a d i , watercourse i n the Chota Nagpur have f o u r more terms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them j h o r and i t s v a r i a n t j or, gara and i t s v a r i a n t garp, k h a l and n a l a (Map  11).  J h o r and j o r a r e g e n e r i c terms f o r w a t e r c o u r s e s , p o s s i b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the T a m i l r o o t s J c o r i " t o flow down" o r J c u r a "flow" and  the Kurukh form .joro " l e a k i n g " The  (Burrow and Emeneau 1961:185).  term gSra i s found i n S a n t a l i , i n the form gJicLa  (Bodding 1929:11, 3 5 6 ; M a c P h a i l 1 9 5 3 : 2 2 7 ) , a watercourse. may  as a g e n e r i c term f o r  GSro appears to be a v a r i a n t of t h i s form.  be an o r i g i n a l Kherwari  Gara  form, o r a l o a n word from the Indo-  Aryan, from the S a n s k r i t r o o t s/gad " t o d r i p , " which i n t u r n be a borrowing from the D r a v i d i a n (Turner 1 9 6 6 : 2 1 2 ) . i n i t s use as a g e n e r i c term f o r a watercourse i n t h i s i t may  may  However, region  be unique to the K h e r w a r i t h e B i h a r ! and the O r i y a  d e r i v a t i v e s of Jgad, or"mud mortar"  v a r y i n g i n form and meaning, Kara  "clay"  (Turner 1 9 6 6 : 2 2 1 ) .  Khal i s p r e s e n t In H i n d i i n t h i s form, meaning " r i v u l e t , " and a l s o i n B e n g a l i , w i t h the meanings " t r e n c h , c a n a l " (Turner 1966:202).  The term n51a  :  i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  Indo-Aryan  45 languages  of the study a r e a .  B e n g a l i , and H i n d i have a  form n a l a , i n the former meaning " d i t c h , " ravine" nfla  i n the l a t t e r .  (Turner  The  "watercourse,  form i n O r i y a , meaning  "rivulet,"  1966:404).  Of t h e s e t e r m s j o r , 5.7%  and  variant  of. a l l  t h e most numerous i s j h o r a n d i t s v a r i a n t  the occurences  o f w a t e r c o u r s e names.  o c c u r s e l e v e n times'';.in S a m b a l p u r , s c a t t e r e d  It  throughout  this  d i s t r i c t , ' once j u s t a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r i n R a i g a r h , t w i c e i n northwestern Sundargarh,  once i n s o u t h w e s t e r n R a n c h i , t w i c e i n  s o u t h c e n t r a l Ranchi', on i t s b o r d e r w i t h S i n g h b h u m , a n d i n Singhbhum, once i n t h e extreme s o u t h w e s t northern border with P u r u l i a .  The  and  twice  o n c e on i t s  d i s t r i b u t i o n of j h o r  thus  f o l l o w s a s o u t h e r l y c o u r s e , from w e s t e r n O r i s s a through R a n c h i and Singhbhum i n t o The  distribution  Bengal. of g S r a , and  o f j h o r i n b e i n g a s o u t h e r l y one, : t r a t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n than j h o r ' s .  garo, i s s i m i l a r  b u t i s a much more Of  that  concenof  watercourse  two a r e l o c a t e d i n s o u t h c e n t r a l R a n c h i , t h r e e i n w e s t e r n  Singhbhum and  one  i n eastern  Sundargarh.  K h a l and n a l a o c c u r o n l y once each  (each 0 . 1 3 $ of  w a t e r c o u r s e names) a n d w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m is  to  the s i x occurences  t h i s , d e n o t a t i v e component, c o m p r i s i n g 1 . 7 $ of the terms,  southern  found i n Mayurbhanj,  each  other.  the Khal  c l o s e to the Orlssa-Bengal border,  n a l a on t h e o p p o s i t e f r i n g e s  and  of the study a r e a , i n n o r t h e r n  Bilaspur. Taken i n c o n j u n c t i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l l these watercourse  t e r m s may  be  summarised i n terms  of t h e i r  linguistic  46 affiliation.  I n the n o r t h e r n h a l f of the study a r e a the terms  are s o l e l y Indo-Aryan,  a l l the cases found here but one, n a l a  i n n o r t h e r n B i l a s p u r , b e i n g those of n a d i .  The  occurences i n  the southern d i s t r i c t s on the o t h e r hand, i n southern Ranchi, Singhbhum, Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh,  Sambalpur and  R a i g a r h , are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l l three language i n the study a r e a .  families  found  Nadi occurs here as w e l l , but as o n l y 7 0 . 2 $  of a l l cases r e c o r d e d . Aryan  southern  The  s i n g l e occurence  of the o t h e r Indo-  term, k h a l , r a i s e s the p r o p o r t i o n of the Indo-Aryan  to 7 1 . 6 $ , d i s t r i b u t e d throughout term j h o r comprises  the r e g i o n .  The D r a v i d i a n  2 1 . 4 $ of the occurences, and shows a d i s -  t r i b u t i o n r a n g i n g from the western the study a r e a .  cases  to the e a s t e r n borders of  I n c o n t r a s t to t h i s wide range  of s p a t i a l  loca-.  t i o n of .jhor i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the A u s t r o a s i a t i c term 7 $ of the watercourse  names i n these southern d i s t r i c t s .  gara, It-is  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the s b u t h c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the study a r e a . When a l l the names g i v e n to mountains i n the study a r e a were examined a s u b s t a n t i a l number were found to have no g e n e r i c suffix.  But  t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n was  q u a n t i t y of these names was  plotted  (Map  1 2 ) , as the  s i g n i f i c a n t enough to warrant  Some examples of these names, which,occur  as both simple  this. and  compound names, are A k s i and BanadSg, names of n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e s , and Bhai Bhain, " b r o t h e r - s i s t e r , " a d e s c r i p t i v e name /  f o r a twin peaked v  hill.  Of a l l the names a s s o c i a t e d with mountains examined i n  t h i s study, the mountain names without g e n e r i c s u f f i x e s formed a p p r o x i m a t e l y :2 7$ ( 1 0 6 of 4 3 0 ) , and are d i s t r i b u t e d over a  47  l a r g e p o r t i o n of the study a r e a . just  I n the west they occur,  s i x p l o t t e d e x c e p t i o n s , o n l y i n the n o r t h e r n  of Raigarh. immediately  Of the e x c e p t i o n s , four,occurences  Raigarh.  two-thirds  are i n the  a d j a c e n t area of Surguja, but the other two  Sambalpur are a l i t t l e more i s o l a t e d  with  in  from the main body i n  T h i s d i a g o n a l northeast-southwest  p a t t e r n of occur-  ence i n the west i s p a r a l l e l e d i n the east of the study a r e a , although not as v i v i d l y  i l l u s t r a t e d because of the more s c a t -  t e r e d nature of the occurences of occurence  However, the g r e a t e r n u m e r i c a l  i n Singhbhum and Sundargarh (Squares  i n Ranchi N6  (N6;  Table I I ) , i s d e c e p t i v e .  comprise 100$  of the occurence  square, whereas the 10 i n M9 19.4$  This diagonal  runs from the e a s t e r n c o r n e r of Sundargarh,  Singhbhum and Ranchi. tration  in-the east.  The  occurences  are only 2.4$  and  in  the s i x i n L10'  (Table XXIV).  The  of t h i s non-term i s a h o r i z o n t a l  south-west l i n e running through Palamau, Hazaribagh, P u r u l i a and  than  of mountain names i n t h a t  of the mountain names i n these squares  t h i r d a r e a of d i s t r i b u t i o n  through  concen-  L10 and M9) two  line  Dhanbad,  the S a n t a l Parganas.  The major r e g i o n s of c o n c e n t r a t i o n of these mountain names without a g e n e r i c s u f f i x &xe\ the western n o r t h e a s t southwest d i a g o n a l and  the n o r t h e r n h o r i z o n t a l l i n e .  former they comprise 7 9 . ^ $ of the occurence terms, r a n g i n g from a low of 14.3$ s i x sample squares  (Table XXIV).  i n E12  In  the  of a l l mountain  to a h i g h of 100$  T h e i r percentage  of  in  occurence  i s s l i g h t l y lower i n the l a t t e r r e g i o n of c o n c e n t r a t i o n , 7 0 $ , from a low of 10$ I n J 4 t o , a g a i n , a' h i g h of 100$  i n ten sample  48 squares. In  s t a r k c o n t r a s t to the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of these mountain  names without an a s s o c i a t e d g e n e r i c term i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n the 140 occurences, 3 2 . 5 $ of a l l mountain names, of term ( c f . Maps 12 and 1 3 ) . rived  of  pahar.  T h i s i s a g e n e r i c term f o r mountain de-  from the S a n s k r i t pahada "rock, h i l l , "  (Turner 1 9 6 6 : 4 5 9 ) .  The O r i y a form of the term i s i d e n t i c a l to the S a n s k r i t pahada. In B e n g a l i the f i n a l / a / i s dropped pahad.  from the S a n s k r i t form, to  I n a d d i t i o n to the change t h a t takes p l a c e i n the  B e n g a l i form, the H i n d i and M a i t h i l i a l s o have a change i n the f i r s t / a / , to / a / , g i v i n g the form pahad. c o n s t a n t throughout, as The  The meaning  remains  "hill,"  occurences found of pahar  (Map  1 3 ) , and  the generic  s u f f i x l e s s mountain names are m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , w i t h the ex-] c e p t i o n of Palamau and Hazaribagh d i s t r i c t s where both are found.  There a r e , however, o n l y three cases of pahar i n  Hazaribagh, i n c o n t r a s t to s i x t e e n of the g e n e r i c s u f f i x l e s s names, whereas i n Palamau t h e i r numbers a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , teen and e l e v e n . tricts,  four-  I n the west pahar. i s found i n a l l the d i s -  i n western Surguja, Northern B i l a s p u r , Southern R a i p u r ,  western Sambalpur and, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one case, o n l y i n the areas of Raigarh where the g e n e r i c s u f f i x l e s s occur.  A similar  eastern regions. of  o n l y pahar.  situation  term does not  occurs i n the s o u t h - c e n t r a l and  E a s t e r n Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj c o n t a i n cases  Occurences  of pahar i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n c o r n e r  of Ranchi, and the s i n g l e occurence i n Dhanbad, a r e i n areas where no g e n e r i c s u f f i x l e s s names are found, a l t h o u g h these  49  r e g i o n s are c o n t a i n e d i n the " e a s t e r n d i a g o n a l " d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n (above p. 47  ) of the g e n e r i c s u f f i x l e s s names.  The  b u l k of the occurences of pahar found a r e l o c a t e d i n the southcentral L8,  r e g i o n , i n Western Ranchi and Sundargarh  K9 w i t h A 8 , B 7 , B9 and  05,.Q9i  ( c f . H7» J 8 ,  P 8 ; Table I I I ) .  This again  i s an a r e a c o n t a i n i n g o n l y one occurence of g e n e r i c s u f f i x l e s s names.  The a l t e r n a t e occurences of the g e n e r i c s u f f i x l e s s ' names  and of pahar are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by a comparison and XXV,  indicating  the occurences of each term as  of T a b l e s XXIV percentages  of the t o t a l number of mountain names i n each sample square. Of the remaining names a s s o c i a t e d w i t h mountains the n u m e r i c a l l y most important i s buru (Map  14).  Buru i s a  Kherwari  g e n e r i c term f o r mountain^ and i s found i n a number of  dialects  of t h i s language,  i n Santali  (Bodding 1 9 2 9 , 1 V , 2 7 4 ) ,  i n Munda ( G r i e r s o n 1921iLV, 2 7 4 ) and i n B i r h o r ( G r i e r s o n 1 9 2 1 i IV, 2 7 3 ) .  M a c P h a i l (MacPhail 1 9 5 3 t l 0 6 ) regards "mountain" as  a secondary meaning f o r Buru, the p r i m a r y one h a v i n g been " s p i r i t , an o b j e c t of worship," but h a v i n g been c o m p l e t e l y r e p l a c e d i n t h i s primary meaning by the term bortga. In  c o n t r a s t t o the e x t e n s i v e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s  pahar and the g e n e r i c s u f f i x l e s s ; n a m e s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n buru i s extremely c o n c e n t r a t e d .  of  of  A l l 1 3 5 c a s e s , 3 1 . 4 $ of the  mountain names, are c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n e l e v e n sample squares, m a i n l y i n Western Singhbhum ( T a b l e s IV and XXVI).  Of those  not w i t h i n western Singhbhum, seven cases a r e s c a t t e r e d out c e n t r a l  through-  Singhbhum, two i n Mayurbhanj, three i n Ranchi  f o u r i n Sundargarh.  The  and  l a t t e r b e l o n g t o the main c o n c e n t r a t i o n ,  50 o c c u r i n g on the border with Singhbhum. P a r b a t i s another of the g e n e r i c terms f o r mountain found i n the place-names of the study a r e a . of t h i s term i s i n d i c a t e d on Map 15.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  T h i s i s an O r i y a and  H i n d i term, d e r i v e d from the S a n s k r i t p a r v a t a , of the same meaning (Turner  1965:367;  Pathak  1946:662).  The d i f f e r e n c e be-  tween the O r i y a and H i n d i forms i s , as w i t h n a d i , i s i n the p r o n o u n c i a t i o n of the w r i t t e n form p a r b a t .  The H i n d i pronoun-  c i a t l o n of the vowels i s t h a t of the w r i t t e n form, i . e . / a / as [a].  The O r i y a p r o n o u n c i a t i o n of / a / i s as [ ° ] , w i t h the stop  rounded o f f , / t / t o [ t o ] , i . e . [ p o r b a t a ] (Pattanayak 1966:  73).  Although o n l y t e n cases of parbat occur i n the study a r e a , c o m p r i s i n g 2.3$  of the mountain names, i t has a d i s t i n c t  distribution pattern.  With two e x c e p t i o n s , a l l the cases of  t h i s term a r e found s i t u a t e d i n O r i y a d i s t r i c t s , Sundargarh  and Sambalpur.  i n Mayurbhanj,  The two e x c e p t i o n s a r e e x c e p t i o n s  only i n t h a t they do not occur i n O r i y a d i s t r i c t s .  They serve  to c o n f i r m the southern l i m i t a t i o n s of p a r b a t . b e i n g s i t u a t e d i n the f a r south of Ranchi and Singhbhum, on t h e i r borders w i t h Sundargarh The  and Mayurbhanj. other g e n e r i c terms f o r mountains found o c c u r i n g  i n t h i s a r e a were dongar. i t s v a r i a n t d o n g r i (Map 16) tungar and i t s v a r i a n t s t u n g r i , tangar and t o n g r i All  (Map  these terms a r e d e r i v e d from the S a n s k r i t takka  (Turner  1966:300).  and 17).  "hill"  The sheer v a r i e t y of these d e r i v a t i v e s  l e a d s Turner t o conclude t h a t t h i s j i n d i c a t e s a non-Aryan, and perhaps Mundaric  origin.  The forms dongar  (d5gar) and  dongri  51  (doVri )  are reached  through  the P r a k r i t dungara  and a r e p r e v a l e n t i n H i n d i , and lects  1965:260).  (Turner  a r e perhaps by T u r n e r  Hihari  (Turner  "rocky, h i l l y "mound." form  possibly i n Eastern Hindi  Tungar. t u n g r i , • t S n g a r and  forms,  turiguri " h i l l o c k "  "mound" ( G r i g n a r d  Only  two  one  and  from  (0.4$  occurences  i n n o r t h e r n Singhbhum.  There a r e fewer  v a r i a n t s than dungar, tively,  and  occurences  o f t h e m o u n t a i n names) o f i n s o u t h c e n t r a l Ranchi  They a r e i s o l a t e d  from  each  oftier  This re-  the a r e a of Sambalpur  occurences  Wine(2.1$)  and  i t s r e g i o n of occurence  contiguous  o f t u n g a r and i t s  seventeen  (3.95$)  i s more n o r t h e r l y .  a r e i n s o u t h e r n R a n c h i , two  t h e s e i n R a i g a r h , two  i n the  c o r n e r of the study a r e a , i n c l u d i n g i n  R a i p u r , s o u t h e r n R a l g a r h and  to Ralgarh.  tugar  i n Kurukh,  the main r e g i o n of d i s t r i b u t i o n of dungar.  g i o n i s i n the southwest it  and M a r a t h i  1924:666).  d o n g r l w e r e r e c o r d e d i n t h e s o u r c e s , one and  tongri  tarigara  b e i n g those i n O r i y a  T h i s generic s u f f i x i s a l s o found  tungri  dia-  the c l o s e s t p r e v a l e n t forms p r o v i d e d  1966:300),  l a n d " and  "mountain,'!  respecThree  immediately adjacent t o  I n n o r t h w e s t e r n R a n c h i and  two more c l o s e  by i n Palamau. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of g e n e r i c s u f f i x e s contained i n :  m o u n t a i n names, a n d ric  suffix,  of s u f f i x .  t h e c a s e s o f m o u n t a i n names w i t h o u t a g e n e -  shows d i s t i n c t  r e g i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r each  The  suffix  Indo-Aryan  c e n t r a l and w e s t e r n  7).  l a r g e l y i n the  s e c t o r s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a , and  t e d to the s e c t o r of any 6 and  paha"r o c c u r s  s i n g l e Indo-Aryan  form  language  i s not  limi-  (Maps 4,  N e i t h e r ..'Is?.' t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e g e n e r i c  5,  52  s u f f i x l e s s names, found o c c u r i n g i n a m a j o r i t y i n Raigarh i n the west, Palamau, Hazaribagh, Dhanbadand, P u r u l l a i n the n o r t h and n o r t h e a s t , and i n Singhbhum and Sundargarh  i n the south.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the o t h e r g e n e r i c s u f f i x o c c u r i n g i n l a r g e numbers, however, the A u s t r o a s i a t i c  s u f f i x buru, shows a c l o s e  c o r r e l a t i o n to the extent of the s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of the speakers of the Ho d i a l e c t of Kherwari  ( c f . Maps 14 and 9 ) .  Similarly,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the remaining s u f f i x e s i n mountain names, p a r b a t , dongar and tungar, i n d i c a t e some r e l a t i o n s h i p to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Indo-Aryan  languages.  Parbat i s l a r g e l y  l i m i t e d to the r e g i o n where O r i y a i s spoken, dongar to the C h a t t i s g a r h i r e g i o n s and tungar to the Nagpuria B h o j p u r i r e g i o n . S u f f i x e s i n the v i l l a g e names of the study a r e a t h a t were examined show a wide range of v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r The  occurence.  two most numerous, and the o n l y two d i s t r i b u t e d over a l l  but a v e r y s m a l l p o r t i o n of the study a r e a , are pur and (Map  pura  18), and dih, and i t s v a r i a n t s d i h i and d l h a (Map 1 9 ) . Pur i s an Indo-Aryan  s u f f i x meaning "town; ward of a  town," found i n modern H i n d i i n the forms pura. (Turner 1 9 6 6 : 469)  and purah  (Pathak 1 9 4 9 : 6 6 7 ) ,  B e n g a l i and the B i h a r i  I t i s a l s o present i n Oriya,  languages, presumably  l a t t e r and pur i n O r i y a and B e n g a l i (Dev  as pura i n the  1962:795).  The p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n of the 3 8 8 cases of pur i s one of r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n a c r o s s the study a r e a . occurs i n a l l but ten of the sample squares ( T a b l e s V and r e g i o n s i n western Singhbhum, Palamau and R a i g a r h .  It XXVII),  W i t h i n the  sample squares t h a t i t does occur i n i t does not show any wide  53  range i n v a r i a t i o n , a l t h o u g h f o u r r e g i o n s may density sectors.  be d e l i m i t e d as  The f i r s t would be an e a s t e r n h i g h - d e n s i t y  s e c t o r c o n t a i n i n g the S a n t a l Parganas, Dhanbad, P u r u l i a , Mayurbhanj,  E a s t e r n Singhbhum and Keonjhar.  I t occurs i n t h i s  area i n 10.6$ of a l l compound v i l l a g e names, r a n g i n g from a maximum of 22.9$ i n square N10 to a minimum of 2 . 4 $  i n 03.  The  southwest s e c t o r , c o n t a i n i n g Western Sundargarh, southern Ralgarh and B l l a s p u r , B o l a n g i r , Sambalpur and R a i p u r , i s the second h i g h - d e n s i t y s e c t o r .  Pur occurs here i n 6.9$ of the  compound v i l l a g e names, from 1 8 . 1 $  i n A10 to 1.9$ i n B9.  The  t h i r d h i g h - d e n s i t y s e c t o r encompasses Gaya and n o r t h e r n Hazaribagh and Palamau. pound v i l l a g e names. the  Pur occurs here i n 12.3$ of the com-  The remainder of the study a r e a forms  low-density sector.  T h i s s e c t o r has a n o r t h - c e n t r e - w e s t  o r i e n t a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g w i t h i n i t Plamau, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, western Singhbhum, e a s t e r n Sundargargh, n o r t h e r n Raigarh and B i l a s p u r and S u r g u j a .  V a r y i n g i n occurence per sample  from none i n the t e n squares mentioned e :  square  above t o a maximum of  16.3$ i n the compound v i l l a g e names i n B7, i t s average occurence i s i n 4.5$  of the compound names.  The element d i h i s found .in'Bengali and O r i y a i n the form d i h l , meaning, i n B e n g a l i , " c h i e f v i l l a g e of a d i s t r i c t " and, i n O r i y a , " d w e l l i n g p l a c e ; h i g h ground" In the  H i n d i and i t s d i a l e c t s , and presumably f i r s t vowel / i /  (Turner 1 9 6 5 s 2 6 0 ) .  the B i h a r l  languages,  has a lengthened form /!/, and the  vowel has the form / a / , o r i s o m i t t e d .  final  Thus the two forms, d l h a  "mound" (Turner 1965«260) and d i h " h a b i t a t i o n ; v i l l a g e ; (Pathak 1946i468).  54 The d i s t r i b u t i o n map  of the 5 1 0 cases of d i h (Map  i s much l e s s r e g u l a r than e i t h e r (Map  18), although  t h a t of nadi (Map  10)  19)  or pur  i t too has a wide s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n .  i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t d i h has  It  two w i d e l y separated areas of major  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , i n the n o r t h e a s t and  southwest of the study area,  with a n o r t h - s o u t h b e l t of lower c o n c e n t r a t i o n between these r e g i o n s ( a l s o Tables VI and XXVIII).  Immediately to the  of the n o r t h e a s t e r n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s one r e g i o n of low d e n s i t y , w i t h another western c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  extremely  such i n the west, bounding the  south-  W i t h i n former l o w - d e n s i t y r e g i o n s ,  which i n c l u d e s the e a s t e r n t h i r d of Sundargarh, the half  south  of Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar,  southern  d i h i s found i n  3 . 9 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names, r a n g i n g from none i n M9, and S9  (Table XXVII) to a maximum of 12.9$ i n Q9.  lower average,  3.8$,  i s e x h i b i t e d i n the other  L8  A slightly  low-density  r e g i o n , which c o n t a i n s I Samba+pur, B o l a n g i r , the western t h i r d 1  of Sundargarh, the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of Raigarh, thirds  of B i l a s p u r and Surguja.  of occurence  i n a single  the n o r t h e r n  While the minimum  square  two-  percentage  i n t h i s r e g i o n i s i d e n t i c a l to  the s o u t h e a s t e r n l o w - d e n s i t y r e g i o n , none, t h i s i s t r u e of a g r e a t e r number of squares and F13), and The  the maximum f i g u r e  i s a l s o g r e a t e r , 15.8$  E8,  El4  i n D7.  b e l t of i n t e r m e d i a t e d e n s i t y covers Gaya, Palamau,,most of  Hazaribagh  and Ranchi,  c o r n e r of Raigarh. a maximum of 18.7$ two  i n t h i s ^region, f i v e (A8, D9,  central  Sundargarh and  the n o r t h e a s t e r n  The average i n t h i s r e g i o n i s 10.0$, with i n J2 and a minimumcof none i n L2.  r e g i o n s of h i g h - d e n s i t y the southwestern  Of  i s by f a r the  the  55  smaller i n size. of Raigarh  I t i n c l u d e s w i t h i n i t Raipur,  and B i l a s p u r Immediately a d j a c e n t  c o n t a i n s o n l y f o u r sample squares, 15.2$,  18.8$,  i n 14.3$  11.1$  and  and  the  areas  to Raipur.  A 1 2 , B l l , B 1 3 and  It  C 1 2 , with  i n each f o r an average occurence  12.1$  of the compound v i l l a g e names.  The  other  high-density  r e g i o n s , c o n t a i n i n g a l l of Dhanbad, the S a n t a l Paraganas Purulia,  the e a s t e r n f r i n g e s of Hazaribagh, the e a s t e r n  of Ranchi and  the s o u t h e a s t e r n  h a l f of Singhbhum, has  and third  the  h i g h e s t average of occurence i n compound v i l l a g e names, 2 1 . 3 $ . The maximum-minimum f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e a much g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n than the southwestern h i g h - d e n s i t y r e g i o n , from 7.7$  i n S5,  in  N6, on the western margin of the r e g i o n .  the e a s t , to 4 5 . 7 $ i n  Another g e n e r i c term f o r a v i l l a g e w i t h s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s gaon (Map the Indo-Aryan languages p r e s e n t  20).  extensive  Gaon i s found i n a l l  i n the study a r e a ,  with  v a r i a n t s p e l l i n g s , b u t as a g e n e r i c term f o r h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s l n !  all  cases.  The  the B i h a r i Magahi  B e n g a l i and  ( G r i e r s o n 1 9 2 1 : V , i i , 1 7 0 ) form i s g|w,  g|o,  (Turner  (Turner 1 9 6 6 : 2 3 5 ) and Panch P a r g a n i a  (Turner 1 9 6 6 : 2 3 5 ) and 365)  O r i y a form i s ga  and  The  Nagpuria B h o j p u r i  the B h o j p u r i and  s i m i l a r i t y gaon has  spatial distribution, number of cases  Hindi  1966:235)»  dialect  of  the M a i t h i l i  (Grierson 1 9 2 1 : V , i i ,  (Turner 1 9 6 6 : 2 3 5 )  t o . d i h and pur,  gau.  i n extensive  i s not p a r a l l e d by e i t h e r the  total  or the v a r y i n g average f r e q u e n c i e s of occurence.  Gaon o c c u r s , i n t o t a l ,  o n l y 106 times ( c f . d i h 5 1 0 . pur  and w i t h an even low average frequency e n t i r e a r e a of d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  i n 3.7$  of occurence over  388) the  of the compound v i l l a g e  56 names i n t h e s a m p l e s q u a r e s i t i s f o u n d i n . t r a t e d b y t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n map  (Map 2 0 ) ,  This i s i l l u s -  Although  gaon i s  a b s e n t o n l y i n t h e S a n t a l P a r g a n a s , P u r u l i a and Gaya, i t i s f o u n d o n l y o n c e i n P a l a m a u , Dhanbad f o u r and f i v e  times  i n H a z a r i b a g h and K a y u r b h a n j .  c o u l d be s a i d t o h a v e a c e n t r a l ,  southern  b u t i o n as except f o r the i s o l a t e d occur  i n the The  and K e o n j h a r , and  Thus  and w e s t e r n  c a s e i n Dhahbad,  s u f f i x e s p u r , d i h a n d g a o n . a l l I n d o - A r y a n , show  of Indo-Aryan languages.  specific  lan-'.  o c c u r i n g i n a l l the r e -  The f o u r d e n s i t y s e c t o r s d e -  f o r p u r a l s o show no p a r t i c u l a r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e linguistic  sector Includes  regions.  The s i n g l e ,  large  w i t h i n i t the e n t i r e Nagpuria B h o j p u r i  Magahi and C h a t t i s g a r h i areas .  The n o r t h e r n  ;  t o r corresponds approximately  with  low-density  Panch P a r g a n i a M a g a h i \ r e g i o n s and p o r t i o n s of the  and  standard  high-density  sec-  t o the n o r t h e r n h a l f of the  standard Magahi r e g i o n contained the  distri-  northeast.  guages i n t h e i r t o t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  limited  gaon  i t does n o t  no p a r t i c u l a r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o a n y o f t h e I n d o - A r y a n  gions  just  w i t h i n the study area,  and  e a s t e r n and s o u t h w e s t e r n s e c t o r s t o p o r t i o n s of t h e B e n g a l i  and O r i y a ' a n d  O r i y a and C h a t t i s g a r h i r e g i o n s .  tion p r e v a i l s with d i h .  Here a g a i n  there  A similar  situa-  i s no o n e - t o - o n e  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e d e n s i t y s e c t o r s o f d i h and the I n d o Aryan l i n g u i s t i c is  contained  regions.  The s o u t h w e s t e r n h i g h - d e n s i t y  w i t h i n the southern  sector  h a l f of the C h a t t i s g a r h i region,  and the e a s t e r n h i g h - d e n s i t y s e c t o r w i t h i n the e n t i r e B e n g a l i r e g i o n and p a r t s o f t h e Panch P a r g a n i a Magahi and N a g p u r i a  57 Bhojpuri regions.  With the e x c e p t i o n of c e n t r a l Sundargarh,.  where the i n t e r m e d i a t e - d e n s i t y s e c t o r i n t r u d e s , the O r i y a r e g i o n envelopes the low-d'ensity r e g i o n s of d i h . . The  intermediate-  d e n s i t y s e c t o r s t r e t c h e s a c r o s s the r e g i o n s of the B i h a r i guages, C h a t t i s g a r h i and much more c o n c e n t r a t e d  Oriya.  The  t i o n of two  d i s t r i b u t i o n of gaon i s  than e i t h e r pur and  i n the B h o j p u r i , C h a t t i s g a r h i and  lan-  d i h and  is" found  O r i y a r e g i o n s , with  cases i n the B e n g a l i r e g i o n and  only  the excep-  s i x occurences  in  the Magahi r e g i o n s . Tol, for  toli  and  tola  (Map  21) are other g e n e r i c terms  a v i l l a g e o c c u r i n g as s u f f i x e s i n the place-names of the  Chota Nagpur.  As g e n e r i c terms they aire a l l found  modern H i n d i , i n the forms t o l , a masculine  only i n  s u b s t a n t i v e mean-  ing  "hamlet," t o l a , a g a i n masculine,  and  toll,  The  form tol- i s a l s o p r e v a l e n t as a g e n e r i c term i n M a i t h l l i  a feminine  meaning " q u a r t e r of a town,"  s u b s t a n t i v e with the same meaning as  tola.  (Turner 19661 JO 5). I n c o n t r a s t to the other g e n e r i c terms p r e v i o u s l y desc r i b e d t o l has a l i m i t e d s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . m a r i l y i n the n o r t h and  I t i s found  pri-  c e n t r a l p o r t i o n s of the study a r e a ,  with  the width of i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n area d e c r e a s i n g from n o r t h south.  There i s a s e c t o r of extremely  g i o n , composed of southern Ranchi and a few  cases s p i l l i n g  to  high density i n t h i s rec e n t r a l Sundargarh, with  over i n t o Ralgarh and Singhbhum.  The  average occurence i n the compound v i l l a g e names of t h i s s e c t o r is  i n 36.k%  of the. names, r a n g i n g from a maximum of 5 6 . 3 $ i n  K 7 to a minimum of 8 . 7 $  i n K9 (Tables V I I I and XXX).  The  58  remaining cases of t o l found i n any numbers are i n the c e n t r a l r e g i o n immediately n o r t h of t h i s h i g h - d e n s i t y s e c t o r , i n the n o r t h e r n h a l f of Ranchi 'and i n the n o r t h i n Palamau and Hazaribagh. (M5)  The maximum-minimum v a r i a t i o n here was  to 2 . 0 $ ( M l ) , and  the average  from  38.6$  occurence i n 1 2 . 3 $ of the  compound v i l l a g e names, v e r y much s m a l l e r than the 3 6 . 2 $ i n the h i g h - d e n s i t y s e c t o r . southwest  Occurences  of t o l i n the west and  are few and s c a t t e r e d , as i n the southeast.  There  i s o n l y one, case i n the n o r t h e a s t , i n Dhanbad, on i t s border w i t h Hazaribagh. The usages  t h a t were p l o t t e d of the term gara i n the  place-names of t h i s a r e a of I n d i a (Map  22) exhibit a  spatial  d i s t r i b u t i o n somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h a t of t o l . T h i s term i s Indo-Aryan,  and p o s s i b l y O r i y a (gada) (Turner  W i n f i e l d 1 9 2 9 s 3 9 ) , meaning " l a r g e v i l l a g e ; The s i m i l a r i t i e s  1966i213;  town."  to t o l e x h i b i t e d by gara are v e r y  broad, i n t h a t gara a l s o has as p a r t of i t s major r e g i o n of d i s t r i b u t i o n the n o r t h - c e n t r a l r e g i o n .  However, t h i s  compari-  son i s r e l a t i v e , f o r gara has f a r fewer cases to base t h i s upon than toJL,,e.g. o n l y 42 cases are found and i t has an  overall  maximum occurence i n a s i n g l e square i n o n l y 1 1 . 4 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names, i n L2  (Tables IX and XXXI).  Thus, i n i t s  major a r e a of d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n Hazaribagh, Palamau and i t has, r e s p e c t i v e l y , ten, e i g h t , and twelve cases.  Ranchi,  Purulia,  w i t h f o u r occurences, and southern Dhanbad, one case on i t s b o r d e r w i t h P u r u l i a , a r e the e a s t e r n e x t e n s i o n of t h i s a r e a , Singhbhum, three cases, and Sundargarh,  two cases, the southern.  59 The two occurences i n Mayurbhanj a r e an " i s o l a t e d  pocket,"  There i s a l s o one f o r l o r n case i n the f a r west, i n western Ralgarh. i n only all  W i t h i n the sample squares gara i s found i n , i t occurs  3.3$  of the compound v i l l a g e names ( c f . i n  0.726$  of  the compound v i l l a g e names i n the study a r e a ) . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o l and gara c o i n c i d e l a r g e l y with  those of the B i h a r ! languages.  Occurences  i n the B e n g a l i and  C h a t t i s g a r h i r e g i o n s a r e few and s c a t t e r e d f o r both  elements.  The remaining cases o f t o l t h a t occur o u t s i d e the B l h a r i r e g i o n are those found:'in Sundargarh,  i n the O r i y a r e g i o n .  These  occurences a r e , however, p a r t o f the h i g h - d e n s i t y s e c t o r t h a t i s l a r g e l y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the Nagpuria B h o j p u r i r e g i o n . A term with i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n l i m i t e d t o the n o r t h o f the study area i s dag (Map 23). Mundari term meaning "water" word (Bodding  1929:11,6)],  g i v e n by Bhaduri  [as i s the i d e n t i c a l S a n t a l i  loan-  but used as a v i l l a g e s u f f i x , as  (1931«33).  than the H i n d i , "cremate;  burn"  (1946:507).  p r o v i d e d by Pathak Dag  Dag i s more p o s s i b l y a  i s found o c c u r i n g o n l y i n the B i h a r i d i s t r i c t s o f  Gaya, Palamau, Hazaribagh and Ranchi, and i n the l a t t e r to the n o r t h e r n h a l f .  With  limited  the e x c e p t i o n o f the s i n g l e case i n  Gaya, i t occurs a s i m i l a r number o f times i n each  district,  e l e v e n times i n Palamau, twelve i n Hazaribagh and e i g h t e e n i n Northern Ranchi.  The low percentage occurence i n the compound  v i l l a g e names o f the study a r e a , squares i t occurs I n , 5.0$, s i n g l e square, 11.1$  0.691$,  and o f the sample  i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the maximum i n a  i n G4 (Tables X and XXXI).  60  Another  element w i t h a s i m i l a r low number of t o t a l  and n o r t h e r l y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t a n r (Map Bihari,  24).  cases  T h i s term i s  t a r or t a r , meaning " s t r e t c h of r a i s e d I n f e r t i l e  soil,"  and i s a l s o found i n B e n g a l i w i t h the same forms and meaning. (Turner 1966*302). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t a n r ends f u r t h e r to the n o r t h than t h a t of dag, but a l s o expands f u r t h e r i n t o the e a s t . o f the study a r e a .  Of a t o t a l of t h i r t y s e v e n cases p l o t t e d , n i n e t e e n  occur i n the B i h a r i d i s t r i c t s i n the n o r t h , one i n Ranchi, i n Palamau and  t h i r t e e n i n Hazaribagh.  found i n B i h a r a r e two  The o n l y o t h e r cases  i n the n o r t h e a s t of Singhbhum, as p a r t  of the e a s t e r n d i s t r i b u t i o n .  The remaining cases i n the e a s t  a r e found i n P u r u l i a and Dhanbad, seven i n the former and n i n e i n the l a t t e r .  The maximum percentage  i n a s i n g l e square, 7.5%  i n H3  illustrates  five  of  district  occurence  ( T a b l e s XI and X X X I I I ) , a g a i n  the low t o t a l occurences, in-0.64$ of the compound  v i l l a g e names of t h i s study a r e a and i n 3 . 8 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names i n the sample squares i t i s found i n . As with t o l and gara the d i s t r i b u t i o n of dag i s l i m i t e d to the r e g i o n o f the B i h a r i  languages.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of  t a n r . however, s t r e t c h e s e a s t i n t o the B e n g a l i r e g i o n i n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the B i h a r i cases of dag f a l l  region.  The  i n t o the r e g i o n s of standard Magahi,and  Nagpuria B h o j p u r i , a l t h o u g h not o c c u r i n g i n the southern h a l f of the l a t t e r r e g i o n .  The  occurences  of t a n r i n the  Nagpuria  B h o j p u r i r e g i o n a r e l i m i t e d to f i v e cases., the b u l k of the cases o f t h i s element i n the B i h a r i  1  language r e g i o n f a l l i n g  61  i n t o the standard Magahi a r e a .  I t s occurences  i n the B e n g a l i  r e g i o n are a l s o l i m i t e d , to the n o r t h e r n h a l f of t h i s r e g i o n . V i l l a g e names c o n t a i n i n g the g e n e r i c terms f o r a watercourse, j o r , .jhor and another v a r i a n t j o r a , as (Map  suffixes  2 5 ) , have a d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s i m i l a r to t h a t of  watercourses of the same name.  the  However, t h i s sweep through  the southern p o r t i o n of the study a r e a , from the southwest c o r n e r to the borders  of Bengal,  has a n o r t h e a s t e r n  i n the case of the v i l l a g e names. a g a i n , r e l a t i v e l y low,  The  extension  t o t a l occurence i s ,  i n 0 . 9 8 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names  of the study a r e a and 2 . 5 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names as with  the maximum i n a s i n g l e square,  and XXXIV).  The  7.1$ i n F9  (Tables XII  c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t s i n t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern^  Singhbhum, Ranchi and Sundargarh, c o n t a i n the g r e a t e s t number of cases,  t h i r t e e n , nine and n i n e t e e n r e s p e c t i v e l y .  the southwest, southeast and n o r t h e a s t c o n t a i n the Raipur has  only two  occurences  east Mayurbhanj has  two,  Paraganas have two,  two and  and Ralgarh  And  i n two  the occurences  one, r e s p e c t i v e l y . i t s variants  These are the f i v e to be found  Oriya.  (Map  i n the  the nine i n the B i h a r i .  elements, k e l , and  2 6 ) , and pan!  of j o r and  o u t s i d e these r e g i o n s are a l l l o c a t e d w i t h i n  C h a t t i s g a r h i r e g i o n and  (Map  south-  the S a n t a l  language r e g i o n s , the B e n g a l i and  c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to them.  Two  least. I n the  and P u r u l i a , Dhanbad and  Almost a l l of the occurences are to be found  five.  Those i n  i t s v a r i a n t s k e l a and  keli  2 7 ) , have a degree of s i m i l a r i t y i n  their spatial distributions.  i • 1  62 The t e r m s k e l , k e l a a n d k e l l Mtmdari  are v a r i a n t s of the  k e l , m e a n i n g "a v i l l a g e w i t h few h o u s e s "  ( B h a d u r i 1931»  92). The f o r m o f t h e e l e m e n t  pani i s i d e n t i c a l  t o the B e n g a l i  t e r m pa.nl, a n d c l o s e r t o t h e O r i y a p a n i t h a n t h e B h o j p u r i , Maithili  and H i n d i  f o r m pa.nl.  same, " w a t e r " { T u r n e r 1966:4-56;  The m e a n i n g i n e a c h c a s e i s t h e Turner 1965:375).  The  p_ani i s a l s o f o u n d i n T a m i l , m e a n i n g " t o w n ; v i l l a g e ;  form  district,"  (3urrow a n d Emeneau 1968:84-). Kel,  k e l a and k e l i  (Map 2 6 ) a r e d i s t r i b u t e d  over the  s o u t h c e n t r a l and w e s t e r n r e g i o n s o f the study a r e a , w i t h a total  o c c u r e n c e i n l . l 6 $ c f t h e compound v i l l a g e names i n t h e  study a r e a , and i n 3.7$ it  occurs i n .  o f t h e s e names I n t h e s a m p l e  squares  The maximum i n t h e compound v i l l a g e names o f a  s i n g l e s q u a r e , 11.8$  i n F 7 , i s f o u n d on t h e b o r d e r o f t h e s t u d y  a r e a , a l t h o u g h t h e l a r g e s t number o f o c c u r e n c e s i s f o u n d on t h e eastern margins  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n  ( T a b l e s X I I I a n d XXXV). tribution  The l a t t e r i s p a r t o f a r e g i o n o f d i s -  i n southeast Ranchi and the a d j a c e n t areas of  Singhbhum a n d E a s t e r n S u n d a r g a r h ,  c o n t a i n i n g t h i r t y two o f t h e  s i x t y seven cases of t h i s element. from a n o t h e r i n the west, tip  o f k e l , f o u r t e e n i n M7  This region i s separated  i n c l u d i n g i n i t t h e southweste'rmost  of Ranchi, Raigarh, E a s t e r n Surguja, Western  Sambalpur,  B i l a s p u r and R a i p u r .  number o f c a s e s i n t h e r e g i o n , from f o u r , Sambalpur,  Sundargarh,  Raigarh contains the l a r g e s t twnety one, t h e o t h e r s c o n t a i n i n g  t o one, B i l a s p u r .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  o f p a n i (Map 2 7 )  i s similar  to that of  63  k e l , except i n that i t extends of O r i s s a and West Bengal., of pan!,  1.42$  f u r t h e r eastward,  to the borders  The core of the e i g h t y three cases  of the compound v i l l a g e names of the study a r e a ,  i n t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s i n southwestern  Ranchi, where twenty  seven are s i t u a t e d , the a r e a of R a i g a r h b o r d e r i n g Ranchi, w i t h seven occurences, and  e a s t e r n Sundargarh,  ences, a l s o b e i n g p a r t of the c o r e .  with t h i r t e e n occur-  I n the west, the  remaining  p o r t i o n of Raigarh has seven occurences, western Sundargarh Raipur two,  B i l a s p u r three and Surguja f o u r .  two,  Singhbhum and  Mayurbhanj, i n the e a s t , have e i g h t and seven cases respectively.  There are a l s o two i s o l a t e d cases i n n o r t h e r n Ranchi,  on i t s border with Palamau.  With the e x c e p t i o n of the "core"  mentioned above, where the square with the maximum i s found, J8,  i n which i t occurs i n 9 . 7 $  of the compound v i l l a g e names  (Tables XIV and XXXVI), the cases of pan! are found  either  s i n g l y , or i n c l u s t e r s of no more than f o u r occurences. the sample squares i t occurs i n panl i s found i n 3 . 7 $  Within  of the  compound v i l l a g e names. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of k e l does not c o i n c i d e w i t h t h a t of any of the languages  of the study a r e a .  The western  s e c t o r of  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s element f a l l s i n t o both the C h a t t i s g a r h i and O r i y a r e g i o n s and  the e a s t e r n i n segments of the O r i y a and  Nagpuria B h o j p u r i r e g i o n s . /  A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pan!. w i t h c a s e s o o c c u r i n g i n the C h a t t i s g a r h i and segments of the O r i y a , Nagpuria B h o j p u r i and B e n g a l i r e g i o n s . I n c o n t r a s t to the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the elements c r i b e d h i t h e r t o , the elements  pall  (Map  28),  munda (Map  des29),  64  and p a r a (Map 3 0 ) h a v e . t h e b u l k o f t h e i r o c c u r e n c e s i n t h e west  of the study area.  Pali border" ment"  exists  i n t h e form p a l i  (Turner 1966:453)  (Pathak  i n B e n g a l i , meaning "edge,  a n d i n H i n d i . m e a n i n g " b o r d e r , embankT a m i l has t h e form p a l , meaning  1 9 4 6 : 6 8 0 ) . -  "share, d i v i d i n g "  and Telugu p a l . w i t h  p a l a " b r i d g e , dam"  t h e same m e a n i n g , a n d  ( B u r r o w a n d Emeneau 1 9 6 1 : 2 7 4 ) ,  Two p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f munda.  situated  e x i s t as t o t h e meaning and d e r i v a t i o n  I t may h a v e i t s s o u r c e i n t h e S a n s k r i t munda, m e a n i n g  "shaved, b a l d , " and e x i s t i n g i n O r i y a w i t h meaning " t r u n k , p o l l a r d "  t h e same f o r m b u t  (Turner 1966:58?).  The s e c o n d  alter-  n a t i v e , and t h e most p r o b a b l e meaning, i s t h a t p r o v i d e d by t h e m e a n i n g o f munda i n t h e K a l a h a n d i d i a l e c t o f O r i y a , " a l a r g e , stretch of f e r t i l e P5ra exists  land."  2  i n t h e f o r m p_ara i n H i n d i , a s a m a s c u l i n e  s u b s t a n t i v e meaning "boundary " p a r t o f town o r v i l l a g e "  of a f i e l d "  (Turner 1966:453)  (Pathak 1946:6?2),  and as a loan-word  i n S a n t a l i w i t h the l a t t e r meaning ( M a c P h a i l 1953:586). a n d Emeneau ( 1 9 6 l : 2 ? 2 )  would  see t h i s  or  Burrow  term as a d e r i v a t i v e o f  the S a n s k r i t pataka."hamlet," p r e s e n t i n B e n g a l i and o t h e r IndoA r y a n languages as pada ( a s above i n H i n d i ) w i t h t h e S a n s k r i t f o r m a s e i t h e r a b o r r o w i n g f r o m t h e D r a v i d i a n cr h a v i n g b e e n borrowed  by the D r a v i d i a n  ( c f . T a m i l : p_ata " h a m l e t ; "  Telugu  p a d u i d . a t end o f p l a c e - n a m e s ) . Of t h e s e t h r e e e l e m e n t s , t h e one w i t h t h e m o s t trated distribution i s pali. Communication  O t h e r t h a n one i s o l a t e d  f r o m D r . S a r o j K. B e h e r a .  concenc a s e on  °5 the of  Singhbhum-Purulia  b o r d e r , a l l 278 cases o f p a l i ,  t h e compound v i l l a g e names, a r e s i t u a t e d  p o r t i o n of the study area.  i n 4.80$  i n the southwestern  Sambalpur c o n t a i n s the l a r g e s t  number o f o c c u r e n c e s , 1 1 9 , f o l l o w e d b y s o u t h e r n R a i g a r h , w i t h 67,  R a i p u r 40,  and  s o u t h w e s t e r n R a n c h i , w i t h one.  Sundargarh  22, B i l a s p u r and B o l a n g i r ,  squares w i t h the g r e a t e s t occurences w i t h 44.2$  D13  14  each,  The l o c a t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e i n compound village  names,  t 7  ( T a b l e s XV a n d X X X V I I ) , E l 4 w i t h  38.3$  and F13  w i t h 37.2$, i s on t h e s o u t h e r n f r i n g e o f t h e s t u d y ' a r e a . is  f o u n d i n 15.2$  Pali  o f t h e compound v i l l a g e names o f t h e s a m p l e  squares i t occurs i n . Munda h a s a d i s t r i b u t i o n somewhat w i d e r t h a n t h a t o f pali,  but w i t h i t s major area of d i s t r i b u t i o n  southwest.  I t a l s o has f a r fewer occurences  seventy one,in area.  1.225$ o f  still  i n the  than p a l i ,  only  t h e compound v i l l a g e names o f t h e s t u d y  Of t h e s e t h e l a r g e s t number i s f o u n d i n S a m b a l p u r ,  f o l l o w e d by Sundargarh, g r e a t e s t occurence  w i t h 14, a n d R a i g a r h , 14.  corresponds w i t h that of p a l i .  23,  This area of However, t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f munda c o n t i n u e s f u r t h e r n o r t h t h a n t h a t o f p a l i , i n d i c a t e d by t h e seven o c c u r e n c e s five of and  i n southwest  R a n c h i , and t h a t  of the f o u r t e e n cases i n Raigarh a r e i n the northern h a l f  this district.  F i v e c a s e s o f munda a r e f o u n d i n B o l a n g i r  one e a c h i n R a i p u r , B i l a s p u r a n d S u r g u j a .  Two  isolated  o c c u r e n c e s a r e f o u n d i n t h e e a s t , one i n c e n t r a l S i n g h b h u m a n d one  i n Mayurbhanj.  The l o c a t i o n o f t h e two s a m p l e s q u a r e s o f  maximum o c c u r e n c e , C l 4 a n d E l 4 w i t h 8.5$  a n d 7.4$  ( T a b l e s XVI  and X X X V I I I ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h a t o f t h e sample squares o f  66 maximum occurence of p a l ! . pali  But u n l i k e the h i g h average o f  i n the sample squares i t occurs i n , munda. i s found i n  only 3 . 5 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names i n these squares. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r a , a t f i r s t wider than t h a t c o f munda.  g l a n c e , i s even  But the major c e n t r e i s f u r t h e r west  than t h a t o f p S l i and munda, i n B i l a s p u r , Surguja, R a i p u r , Raigarh and Sambalpur, where f i f t y e i g h t o f the s e v e n t y e i g h t cases of para. 1.35$ o f the compound v i l l a g e names of the study area, are s i t u a t e d .  The sample square of maximum occurence, A8  with 15.8$ (Tables XVII and XXXIX), i s i n B i l a s p u r .  The remain-  der o f the occurences a r e s c a t t e r e d , f i v e i n Sundargarh,  four  i n Singhbhum, t h r e e i n Mayurbhanj, P u r u l i a and Ranchi and one each i n Hazaribagh and the S a n t a l Pargasas,  Para i s contained  i n 3 . 6 $ o f the compound v i l l a g e names o f the squares i t occurs in. P a l i j munda and para have t h e i r occurences  largely  l i m i t e d to the r e g i o n s of d i s t r i b u t i o n of the C h a t t i s g a r h i and O r i y a languages.  I n the case of p a l i  there i s o n l y a s i n g l e  occurence o u t s i d e these two l i n g u i s t i c r e g i o n s , i n t h a t o f the Bengali.  The occurences o f munda t h a t a r e found o u t s i d e these  r e g i o n s a r e those i n the Nagpuria.Bhojpuri r e g i o n , i n the d i s trict  of Ranchi, immediately a d j a c e n t t o the O r i y a and C h a t t i s -  garhi regions.  Although the d i s t r i b u t i o n of para i s n o t as con-  c e n t r a t e d as e i t h e r t h a t o f p a l i  or t h a t of munda. t h e r e a r e r e -  l a t i v e l y few occurences of t h i s element i n l i n g u i s t i c r e g i o n s o t h e r than the C h a t t i s g a r h i and CDriya. are  T o t a l l i n g nine, f i v e  found i n the B e n g a l i r e g i o n , and f o u r i n t h a t of the B i h a r !  67  languages.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of munda, i n p a r t i c u l a r , and p a l l  show some resemblance to t h a t of the Kurukh language. m a j o r i t y of the occurences  of munda do f a l l  i n t o the southern  h a l f of the Kurukh r e g i o n , as do those of p a l i . l a t t e r a r e found  F13, two  More of the  o u t s i d e t h i s r e g i o n than the former,  the sample squares  of maximum  occurence  The  although  of p a l i , D 1 3 , E14 and  a r e l o c a t e d e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the r e g i o n and o n l y one o f the of munda, E l 4 , i s . Q u i t e u n l i k e p a l i . munda and para i s the element b e r ,  and i t s v a r i a n t b e r a , with a southern and e a s t e r n d i s t r i b u t i o n . (Map  31).  As bed, i t means "fence; e n c l o s u r e " i n B e n g a l i ,  "hedge; w a l l " i n M a l t h i l i ,  and " e n c l o s u r e " i n H i n d i .  As beda  i t means "fence; hedge" i n B e n g a l i , " w a l l of a house'; e n c l o s u r e " i n O r i y a and has the same meaning as bed i n H i n d i (Turner 19661 703).  Bfda i s a l s o found:i i n the Kalahandi  d i a l e c t of O r i y a ,  here as an antonym of\'munda, meaning " s m a l l , e n c l o s e d p i e c e o f fertile  land."3 The  c e n t r e of the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e r i s i n Singhbhum,  where twentysix of the s e v e n t y f i v e cases, 1 . 2 9 5 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names of the study a r e a , a r e l o c a t e d . bouring d i s t r i c t s  of S u n d a r g a r h , R a n c h i , Mayurbhanj and P u r u l i a :  have a lower number of occurences  i n each, with the w e s t e r l y  d i s t r i c t s h a v i n g the h i g h e r t o t a l s . Ranchi  Sundargarh has t h i r t e e n ,  e i g h t e e n , Mayurbhanj e i g h t and P u r u l i a , s i x .  of maximum  occurence  however, not found  The n e i g h -  L10 w i t h 1 6 . 3 $ (Tables XVIII  and XL) i s ,  i n Singhbhum, but i n Sundargarh.  ^Communication from Dr. Saroj K, Behera.  The square  The s i n g l e  68  cases i n Keonjhar, Dhanbad and Hazaribagh  belong to the main  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , but there are two  single  isolated  northwestern Palamau and i n B o l a n g i r .  occurences, i n  W i t h i n the sample  squares  ber i s found i n , i t occurs i n 4.07$ of the compound v i l l a g e names. The  l i n g u i s t i c r e g i o n s that ber i s found o c c u r i n g i n  are the B e n g a l i , O r i y a and Nagpuria B h o j p u r i . i n the l a t t e r r e g i o n i s , w i t h a s i n g l e  The  exception, l i m i t e d  the extreme south, a d j a c e n t to the O r i y a r e g i o n . Oriya region i t s e l f  (Map  the s i n g l e  to  W i t h i n the  there i s o n l y one e x c e p t i o n to a  eastern d i s t r i b u t i o n , Sai  distribution  limited,  case found i n B o l a n g i r .  3 2 ) i s an element with a s o u t h e a s t e r n , but  extremely l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . ' T h i s form, s a i , i s an  altered  form of the O r i y a s a h i , meaning " p a r t of a town or v i l l a g e . T h i s element i s found o c c u r i n g i n o n l y s i x sample squares  (Tables XIX and X L I ) , w i t h i t s square of maximum occur-  ence, N10 w i t h 9.7$ on the southern l i m i t s of i t s a r e a of d i s tribution.  The  two cases of s a i i n each of Mayurbhanj and  Keonjhar belong to t h i s square. ences  The  twentyfour remaining occur-  of s a i are a l l l o c a t e d i n Singhbhum, i n the c e n t r a l  western p o r t i o n s of t h i s d i s t r i c t .  and  S a i occursinonly 0.48$ of  the compound v i l l a g e names of the study a r e a , and i n 5 . 1 $ of these names i n the sample squares i t i s found i n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s a i , with r e f e r e n c e to the r e g i o n s of the Indo-Aryan Oriya region.  languages,  i s c o n t a i n e d s o l e l y w i t h i n the  However, i t has a c l o s e r  ^Communication from Dr. S a r o j K.  c o i n c i d e n c e with the  Behera.  69 d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Kherwari  d i a l e c t Ho,  than w i t h t h a t o f  Oriya. Another element w i t h a l i m i t e d a r e a o f d i s t r i b u t i o n i s hatu (Map  33).  Hatu i s a Kherwari  found i n Mundari (Bhaduri 122)  g e n e r i c term f o r a v i l l a g e ,  1931»67),  i n Ho ( G r i e r s o n 1921:1V,  and Bhumij ( G r i e r s o n 1921iIV,100), i n s i m i l a r form  and  meaning. The  t h i r t y n i n e cases o f hatu, i n  0.674$ o f the  compound  v i l l a g e names of the study a r e a , are d i s t r i b u t e d over a l a r g e r a r e a than those o f s a i , but a m a j o r i t y o f these, twentyone, a r e l o c a t e d i n the same a r e a o f Singhbhum as s a i .  F i f t e e n o f the  o t h e r e i g h t e e n cases are i n e a s t e r n Ranchi, l i n k e d t o the c e n t r e of d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Singhbhum.  The remaining t h r e e cases a r e  s i t u a t e d i n c e n t r a l Ranchi, s l i g h t l y separated from the major c e n t r e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , but c l o s e enough i n l o c a t i o n t o be r e garded as p a r t o f i t . ^ ' The square w i t h the g r e a t e s t occurences, N6 w i t h 12.9$  (Tables XX and XLII) ,t*S unusually, s i t u a t e d i n ;  e a s t e r n Ranchi, on the n o r t h e r n edge o f the a r e a o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f hatu.  W i t h i n the e l e v e n sample squares i t occurs i n ,  hatu i s found i n The  4.08$ o f the  compound v i l l a g e names.  l i n g u i s t i c r e g i o n t h a t hatu i s found i n i s t h a t o f  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Kherwari The other Kherwari d i s t r i b u t i o n i s gutu (Map  d i a l e c t s of Ho and  element with a l i m i t e d , 34).  (Bhaduri  southern  I t i s found i n Mundari i n the  form gutu, meaning " s m a l l h i l l o c k ; as a v i l l a g e s u f f i x  Mundari.  j u n g l e " but used  primarily  1931:63).  Gutu (Tables XXI and X L I I I ) , as w i t h s a i and hatu, has  70  the m a j o r i t y o f i t s cases o c c u r i n g i n Singhbhum, s i x t e e n o f twentyeight, but the remaining twelve s t r e t c h t o the west, r a t h e r than t o the n o r t h , as do those o f hatu. l o c a t e d i n n o r t h e a s t e r n Sundargarh tral,  r a t h e r than e a s t e r n , Ranchi.  Two cases a r e  and the o t h e r t e n i n cenThe occurences of gutu a r e  a l s o more s c a t t e r e d , the maximum i n a s i n g l e square b e i n g i n only 5.3$  of the compound v i l l a g e names.  Occurences  i n the  sample squares, i t i s found i n a r e low, i n o n l y 2 . 5 $ of the compound, v i l l a g e names.  Although the d i s t r i b u t i o n of gutu i s  more w e s t e r l y than e i t h e r t h a t of hatu o r s a l , i t s t i l l a f a i r l y c l o s e correspondence  shows  to the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Ho and  Mundari. An element  t h a t c o u l d not be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y  was pos, and i t s v a r i a n t p o s i  (Map 35).  identified  Although t h i s  element  has r e l a t i v e l y few occurences, twentysix, c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n 0.45$ of the compound v v i l l a g e names o f the study a r e a , i t was r e t a i n e d i n the study f o r i t s unique d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n . The u n i d e n t i f i a b l e nature o f t h i s element p o i n t s t o one weakness i n the methodology of t h i s study, r e l i a n c e upon d i c t i o n a r i e s which a r e based upon the standard language  f o r the purposes  of i d e n t i f y i n g term which may be p u r e l y d i a l e c t i c a l . Ten of the twentysix cases of pos a r e l o c a t e d i n Sundargarh  and ninej i n Singhbhum.  The three cases each i n  Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar, and the s i n g l e case i n southern Ranchi, g i v e c o n f i r m a t i o n t o the s o u t h e r l y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f pos, as does the l o c a t i o n of the square o f . g r e a t e s t occurence, w i t h 5.9$  N10  ( T a b l e s XXII and X L I V ) , on the southern border of the  71 study a r e a . it  The average  occurence  of. pos i n the sample  squares  i s found i n i s i n o n l y 2.k-% of the compound v i l l a g e names. Although  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pos does not c o i n c i d e w i t h  t h a t of Ho and Mundari,  i t shows a g r e a t e r correspondence  to  t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n than to t h a t of O r i y a . ' Only the tvro westermost cases occur i n a r e g i o n where these d i a l e c t s  of Kherwari  are not r e p r e s e n t e d , but a r e i n r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to them. These then are the s t a t i s t i c a l and s p a t i a l  attributes  of the d e n o t a t i v e components s e l e c t e d f o r examination. mains now  to determine  the r e l e v a n c e of the h y p o t h e s i s and  methodology p r e s e n t e d , through t a t i v e components i n t o  I t re-  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of these deno-  toponymic systems,  and c o r r e l a t i o n  of  these toponomic systems w i t h the s e l e c t e d known c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e , the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the languages the study a r e a .  spoken i n  v.  72 Three. 3.1  Correlations. The c o r r e l a t i o n s to be made from the m a t e r i a l .pre*v.~  sented to t h i s p o i n t w i l l be d i r e c t e d towards the v e r i f y i n g the h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t i s , i n i t i a l l y  to determine whether topo-  nymic systems e x i s t i n the study a r e a , and subsequently t o c o r r e l a t e t h e i r s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h those of the languages spoken i n the study a r e a . The toponymic systems b e i n g searched f o r here a r e i n e f f e c t o n l y . p a r t i a l systems, composed as they a r e of only  deno-  t a t i v e elements c o n t a i n e d i n the names of three f e a t u r e s i n the k  area,,watercourses, mountains and h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s w i t h compound names. account a l l  A complete system would not only take i n t o  of the h a b i t a t i o n s i t e names i n the a r e a , but would  a l s o I n c l u d e the names of o t h e r f e a t u r e s such as f i e l d names,  v r e s e r v o i r names and v a l l e y names.  A complete toponymic system  would be the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t o t a l environment by a s o c i o c u l t u r a l group; our d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a p a r t i a l toponymic  system  w i l l i n d i c a t e the e x i s t e n c e of such a complete system, These p a r t i a l systems which we have determined as e x i s t i n g i n the Chota Nagpur c o v e r a major p o r t i o n of the study a r e a , but do not account f o r e i t h e r a l l  the terms which we i n c l u d e d  i n the study, nor f o r the e n t i r e study a r e a .  These  systems  were d e l i n e a t e d through the i n t e r a c t i o n and interdependence, s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l ,  of the d e n o t a t i v e components;  a p a r t i a l system e x i s t e d where there was a r e l a t i v e l y s p a t i a l . o c c u r e n c e , and s t a t i s t i c a l predominance w i t h i n  that l s close this  7  r e g i o n o f o c c u r e n c e , "between h a b i t a t i o n s i t e , w a t e r c o u r s e mountain  names.  Where t h i s  and  d i d not occur, i n the d i s t r i c t s  of  M a d h y a P r a d e s h a n d O r i s s a i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , no partial  toponymic The  of  systems  existed.  universal distribution  a town" a n d d i h " v i l l a g e "  of nadi " r i v e r , "  pur  "ward  i n the study a r e a , s t r o n g l y  sug-  g e s t s t h a t t h e e n t i r e s t u d y a r e a i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n a' l a r g e r toponymic  system, the a r e a of which extends w e l l beyond the  bounds o f the Chota Nagpur.  I n a d d i t i o n to being present  t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h e s e components a r e a l s o c a l l y dominant.  statisti-  N a d i o c c u r s i n 9 2 $ o f t h e w a t e r c o u r s e names  i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , a n d p u r a n d d i h i n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , 6.7$ 8.8$  o f t h e compound h a b i t a t i o n s i t e names i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The  lineated, is  partial  toponymic  i n the s p a t i a l  of the mountain  "stream," and village."  system which i s most c l e a r l y  occurence of i t s c o n s t i t u e n t  one i n t h e w e s t e r n h a l f  posed  o f Singhbhum d i s t r i c t .  term b u r u , the w a t e r c o u r s e term  the h a b i t a t i o n s i t e  gara  exclusively terms  usage of g a r a i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y secondary t o t h a t o f n a d i , spatial  their  occurence as r e l a t i v e l y  3.9$.  limitation  gaon 3.7$.  and, i n t h e case o f b u r u and s a i ,  p u r 4.5$)  ponent terms of the p a r t i a l the  elements,  term s a i " p a r t o f a town o r  A l t h o u g h t h e s e t e r m s a r e b y no means  their  dih  de-  I t i s com-  used i n t h e r e g i o n , and i n the case o f t h e w a t e r c o u r s e the  and  w e s t e r n Singhbhum  p r i m a r y terms  (cf.\ s a l f i . l $  f  s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y a r e t h e com-  toponymic  system which e x i s t s i n  region.  Another p a r t i a l  system which i s l i m i t e d  t o the a r e a i s  74 the  one which e x i s t s i n s o u t h e r n R a n c h i .  "hamlet" as i t s major h a b i t a t i o n s i t e term c f . d i h 10.0$, p u r  4.5$,  as i t s w a t e r c o u r s e term.  gaon  3.7$)  T h i s system has t o l l  (36.2$  occurence;  (100$  occurence)  and n a d i  Among t h e mountain terms, t h e terra  o c c u r i n g i n t h i s system i s pahar (81.9$). T o l i i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h r e e o t h e r subsystems, systems as t h e y c o n t a i n i d e n t i c a l  sub-  generic h a b i t a t i o n s i t e  and w a t e r c o u r s e terms, b u t d i f f e r i n mountain terms.  terms  The f i r s t  of t h e s e subsystems i s c o n t a i n e d i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n h a l f of R a n c h i , and has no mountain terms o c c u r i n g w i t h i n i t . The w a t e r c o u r s e term here i s , a g a i n , n a d i , (100$ the  h a b i t a t i o n s i t e terms a r e t o l i  "large v i l l a g e "  (3.3$)  t i o n s u f f i x ) (5$).  (12.3$  o c c u r e n c e ) , and  occurence), gara  and dag "water" ( b u t used as a h a b i t a -  The same p e r c e n t a g e occurence o f t h e h a b i t a t  t i o n s i t e terms and n a d i i s found i n t h e second which e x i s t s i n n o r t h w e s t e r n R a n c h i and Palamau. a  70.0$  the  subsystem, Pahar, with  ..occurence, i s t h e mountain term i n t h i s subsystem. I n  t h i r d subsystem t h e same h a b i t a t i o n s i t e and w a t e r c o u r s e  terras o c c u r , b u t the p r i m a r y mountain term i s the g e n e r i c l e s s name (84$ o c c u r e n c e ) .  suffix-  The l a t t e r two subsystems a l s o d i f f e r  from t h e f i r s t i n t h a t t h e y presumably c o n t i n u e beyond t h e s t u d y a r e a , the second northwestward and t h e t h i r d n o r t h e a s t w a r d s . The o t h e r p a r t i a l toponymic system t h a t e x i s t s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a l i e s i n the e a s t e r n r e g i o n , composed o f subsystems c o n t a i n e d i n Dhanbad and P u r u l i a , and i n e a s t e r n Singhbhum. These subsystems have i n common t h e g e n e r i c h a b i t a t i o n s i t e term, dih  (21.3$  o c c u r e n c e ) , and the w a t e r c o u r s e term, n a d i  (100$  75 occurence).  They d i f f e r i n the mountain  terms they c o n t a i n .  The n o r t h e r n subsystem has as i t s mountain  term the g e n e r i c  s u f f i x l e s s name (92.9$ occurence) and the southern pahar occurence). beyond  (70$  Both these subsystems presumably a l s o c o n t i n u e  the study a r e a , northward i n t o the S a n t a l Parganas  and  eastward i n t o Bengal. Thus f i v e p a r t i a l toponymi'c systems may  be c o n s i d e r e d  as e x i s t i n g i n the Chota Nagpur, one of which c o n t a i n s two, one t h r e e , subsystems.  The p a r t i a l system c o n t a i n i n g  subsystems covers the B i h a r i d i s t r i c t s  and  three  of Gaya, Palamau and  Hazaribagh and the n o r t h e r n h a l f of Ranchi.  The southern h a l f  of Ranchi i s the s i t e of another p a r t i a l system.  E a s t e r n and  western Singhbhum a l s o c o n t a i n two d i f f e r e n t p a r t i a l  systems,  e a s t e r n Singhbhum h a v i n g the southern subsystem of the p a r t i a l system which a l s o encompasses P u r u l i a and Dhanbad, The c o r r e l a t i o n of these p a r t i a l toponymic  systems w i t h  the known c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e of the peoples of the Chota Nagpur, the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the languages spoken i n the a r e a , c a t e s a c l o s e c o i n c i d e n c e o f the two f e a t u r e s .  Indi-  The system i n  western Singhbhum, composed of the A u s t r o a s i a t i c  terms buru and  gara, and the O r i y a term s a l , c o i n c i d e s r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e l y w i t h the extent of the A u s t r o a s i a t i c language Ho.  The system con-  t a i n e d i n e a s t e r n Singhbhum, P u r u l i a , Dhanbad and the, S a n t a l Parganas, the subsystem i n the f i r s t r e g i o n composed of the Indo-Aryan terms n a d i , d i h and pahar.and t h a t i n the r e s t of t>te£ ssrga. o f nadi , d i h and the g e n e r i c s u f f i x l e s s mountain names, exsrrssponds e x a c t l y w i t h the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the B e n g a l i  76  speakers i n the study a r e a . Aryan terms t o l i ,  The system composed of the Indo-  nadi and pahar, i n southern Ranchi, shows a  g e n e r a l s p a t i a l correspondence to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the A u s t r o a s i a t i c language K h a r i a , but i t may a l s o be a s s o c i a t e d with the  Indo-Aryan Nagpuria B h o j p u r i .  This l a t t e r a s s o c i a t i o n i s  more p o s s i b l e than the former, when one subsystem  o f the system  s i t e d i n the r e g i o n to the n o r t h of i t i s examined. system, i n a d d i t i o n to gara and dag, a l s o has t o l i ,  T h i s subnadi and  pahar, as i t s component terms, and a l s o corresponds to ,the northwestern Ranchi and Palamau r e g i o n o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Nagpuria B h o j p u r i . in  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n may be f u r t h e r  reinforced  the c o m p o s i t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the second and t h i r d  subsystems  of t h i s system.  The subsystem i n n o r t h e a s t e r n Ranchi  has i d e n t i c a l h a b i t a t i o n s i t e and watercourse terms, but cont a i n s no mountain term because of the absence of mountain in  terms  t h i s r e g i o n , and o c c u p i e s the remainder of the Nagpuria  Bhojpuri sector.  The subsystem  i n Hazaribagh and Gaya, com-  posed o f the same watercourse and h a b i t a t i o n s i t e terms but h a v i n g the g e n e r i c s u f f i x l e s s mountain names as i t s mountain term, corresponds e x a c t l y to the Standard Magahi s e c t o r . In  Taken  c o n j u n c t i o n , the s p a t i a l s i t u a t i o n of these two p a r t i a l  toponymic Bihari  systems c o i n c i d e s almost e x a c t l y w i t h t h a t o f the  languages i n the study a r e a . /  3.2  Conclusions. T h i s r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n of the f i v e topo-  nymic  systems which have been i s o l a t e d i n the Chota Nagpur  77 with may  the be  distribution  of the B i h a r i , B e n g a l i  Ho  c o n s i d e r e d . v e r i f i c a t i o n of the h y p o t h e s i s  presented i n this  cide with  the  of the  study area,  l a t t e r regions, v i r o n m e n t by this  the  are  limited  d i f f e r from the  t u r a l region.  In  as h a v i n g  of pur h y p o t h e s i s  and  no means d e t r a c t s our methodology.  similar cul-  from the The  en-  isolated  similarly within a particular  H o w e v e r , t h i s by  the  of the  one  coin-  does  usefulness.  used i n o r g a n i z a t i o n  i n h a b i t a n t s may  identified  toponymic  Chattisgarhi,  study, that i s , t h a t spaces p e r c e i v e d  attributes  tentions  the p r i n c i p l e s  methodology  which, i n c i d e n t a l l y ,  d i s t r i b u t i o n .of O r i y a and  s u g g e s t t h a t the m e t h o d o l o g y has  languages  and  s t u d y , a l t h o u g h the absence of  systems i n s e c t o r s  in  and  con-  existence  o f - w h a t we  h a v e shown t o be  t o p o n y m i c s y s t e m s , and  tions  with  the  o f l a n g u a g e s , s a t i s f a c t o r i l y indi-*..  cates  t h a t our  distribution  c o n c e p t i o n s as  t e m p o r a r y p l a c e - n a m e s and  to the  cultural  relationships  regions  are  their  correla-  between con-  viable.  ?7a F i g u r e 6:  LOCATION^DENOTATIVE COMPONENTS OF THE P A R T I A L TOPONYMIC SYSTEMS.  1.  Western  2.  Southern  sai,  Singhbhum Ranchi  3. ( a ) N o r t h e a s t e r n R a n c h i (b) N o r t h w e s t e r n R a n c h i (c)  Hazaribagh  4. ( a ) Dhanbad a n d P u r n l i a  (b) E a s t e r n Singhbhum 5.  The S t u d y  Area  and-Palamau  gara, buru  toli,  nadi,  pahar  toli, nadi  gara, dag,  t o l i , g a r a , dag. n a d i , pahar t o l i , g a r a , da~g, nadi, generics u f f i x l e s s mountain names dih, nadi, suffixless names  genericmountain  dih,  nadi,  pahSr  pur,  d i h , nadi  v  78 BIBLIOGRAPHY Names J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n Name Society A d k i n s o n , B.W.  1943  "Some r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s o n geog r a p h i c a l names." A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers; Annals 3 3 t 2 2 0 - l (Dec.)  A l l c h i n , F.R.  1963  N e o l i t h i c Cattle-Keepers of South India. Cambridge! Cambridge University Press  Anderson, J.  1942  M a o r i Place-Mames.  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D e t r o i t : Wayne University Press  Pulgram, E ,  195^  T h e o r y o f Names. Berkeley: A m e r i c a n Name S o c i e t y  Reaney, P.H.  i960  The O r i g i n o f E n g l i s h P l a c e - N a m e s . R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l : London  Roy,  1935  The H i l l B h u i y a s o f O r i s s a . R a n c h i : "Man i n I n d i a " O f f i c e  1957  Hazaribagh (Gazetteer). Patna: Superintendent, Secretariat Press  1958  Singhbhum ( G a z e t t e e r ) . Patna: Superintendent, Secretariat Press  1961  Palamau ( G a z e t t e e r ) . Patna: Superintendent, S e c r e t a r i a t Press  1962  I n s i d e Biihar. Private Ltd.  Ryan, J.S.  1964  P a p e r s on A u s t r a l i a n P l a c e - N a m e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f New E n g l a n d  Sachchidananda  1965  P r o f i l e s of T r i b a l Culture i n Bihar. C a l c u t t a : F i r m a K.L. M u k h o p a d l i y a y  Sahlgren, J . et a l  1954  Q u a t r i e m e C o n g r e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l de S c i e n c e s Onomastiques. Uppsala: A.B. L u n d e q u i s t s k a B o k h a n d e l n  S a n k a l i a , H.  1949  Pattanayak, D.P.  I966  S t u d i e s i n t h e H i s t o r i c a l and C u l t u r a l Geography and Ethnography o f Gujarat. Deccan C o l l e g e Monograph S e r i e s No. 3» P o o n a : D e c c a n C o l l e g e A Controlled H i s t o r i c a l Reconstruct i o n o f O r i y a , Assamese, B e n g a l i and H i n d i . The Hague: M o u t o n a n d Co.  S.C.  Roy Choudbury,  P.C.  Patna:  State  Bookland  83  . 1958  Sarkar, S.S.  19^8  Sealock, R.B.  1963  S e s h a r d i , T.K.  Sinha, S.C.  1956  Smith, A.H.  1954  _  1956  \ Spate, Q.H.K. Stenton, F.M.  I963 1940 1941  Stewart, G.R.  1954  "The t r i b a l p o p u l a t i o n ' - i n W e s t Bengal." Man i n I n d i a 3 8 s 6 0 - 6 4 B i b l i o g r a p h y o f Place-Name L i t e r a t u r e ; U.S., C a n a d a , A l a s k a , Newfoundland. Chicago? American Library Association H i s t o r i c a l and C u l t u r a l Geography and E t h n o g r a p h y o f South I n d i a from the P a l l a v a E p i g r a p h s . Unpublished PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n P o o n a : D e c c a n College Post-Graduate and Research' Institute The A c c u l t u r a t i o n o f t h e B h u m l j o f Manbhum; A s t u d y i n E t h n i c I n t e g r a t i o n and S o c i a l C l a s s Formation. U n p u b l i s h e d PhD dissertation. Northwestern University The p r e p a r a t i o n o f C o u n t y P l a c e Name S u r v e y s . London: E n g l i s h Place-Name S o c i e t y , U n i v e r s i t y College "Place-Names and t h e A n g l o - S a x o n Settlement.V Proceedings of the B r i t i s h Academy^ 42: 67-88 I n d i a and P a k i s t a n . M e t h u e n a n d Co.  "The E n g l i s h O c c u p a t i o n o f Southern B r i t a i n . " Transactions of t h e R o y a l H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 22 "The H i s t o r i c a l B e a r i n g o f P l a c e Name S t u d i e s : The D a n i s h S e t t l e ment o f E a s t e r n E n g l a n d . " Transactions of the Royal H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 24:1-22 "A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f P l a c e - N a m e s . "  Names  Subbarao, B.  London:  2:1-13  1958  Names o n t h e L a n d . Boston: H o u g h t o n a n d M i f f l i n Co.  1958  The P e r s o n a l i t y o f I n d i a . i i.s. U n i v e r s i t y of Baroda v  Baroda:  84  S u r e s h , B.  •1965  H i s t o r i c a l and C u l t u r a l Geography and Ethnography o f South I n d i a (with s p e c i a l reference t o Chola i n s c r i p t i o n s , ~) U n p u b l i s h e d PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n Poona: Deccan C o l l e g e P o s t - G r a d u a t e and Research I n s t i t u t e  Taylor, I .  1863  Words and P l a c e s . London: George R o u t l e d g e and. Sons L t d .  V e n k a t a c h a r , C.S,  1935  " M i g r a t i o n o f C a s t e s and T r i b e s i n t o C e n t r a l I n d i a and T h e i r D i s • t r i b u t i o n . " Census o f I n d i a 1931 V o l . 1 ( I n d i a ) P a r t I I I B ; 60-68  V i d y a r t h i , L.P,  1964  C u l t u r a l Contours o f T r i b a l B i h a r . C a l c u t t a : Punthi Pustak  Wagner, P, and M i k e s e l l , M.  1962  Readings i n C u l t u r a l Geography. Chicago: Chicago U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s  W a i n w r i g h t , F.T.  1962  A r c h a e o l o g y and Place-Names and H i s t o r y . London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l  Z e l i n s k y , W.  1955-  Dictionaries:  "Some Problems i n t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n of G e n e r i c Terms i n the P l a c e Names of t h e North E a s t e r n U n i t e d P States." Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n of A m e r i c a n Geographers, 45:319-49 1966 S t u d i e s i n Comparative A u s t r o A s i a t i c L i n g u i s t i c s . T h e Hague:Mouton  Bhaduri,  M.B.  1931  A Mundari-English Dictionary Calcutta, Calcutta University Press  B o d d i n g , P.O.  1929  A S a n t a l i D i c t i o n a r y . Oslo: Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi.  Dev.A.T.  1962  Student's Favourite D i c t i o n a r y (Bengali to E n g l i s h ) . Calcutta; Dev S a h i t y a K u t i r P r i v a t e L t d .  1924  An Oraon-VEnglish D i c t i o n a r y . C a l c u t t a : C a t h o l i c Orphan P r e s s  1885  A comparative D i c t i o n a r y of the B i h a r i Language. C a l c u t t a : B e n g a l Secretariat Press  Z i d e , N.H. (ed)  Grignard,  A.  H o e r n l e , A. and G r i e r s o n , G.A,  85 MacPhail,  P.M.  1953  Campbell's S a n t a l i - E n g l i sh Dictionary. Benagaria: Santal Christian Council  Miller,  W.  1910  An E n g l i s h and O r i y a D i c t i o n a r y . Cuttacks Orissa M i s s i o n Press  Pathak,  R.C.  19^6  Bhargava's Standard I l l u s t r a t e d D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e H i n d i Language. Banaras  T u r n e r , R.L.  1965  A Comparative and E t y m o l o g i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f the N e p a l i Language. London:Routledge and Kegan P a u l  1966  A Comparative D i c t i o n a r y of the Indo-Aryan Languages. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press  1929  A V o c a b u l a r y o f t h e K u i Language. Calcutta  Winfield,  W.W.  Maps: U n i t e d S t a t e s Army S e r i e s U NG 45-13 (Gaya) NF 45-5 NG 45-1 (Ranchi) NF 45-6 NG 45-2 ( P u r u l i a ) NF 44-8  502,  E d i t i o n 1-AMS (Sundargarh) (Jamshedpur) (Champa)  S c a l e 1:250,000 NF 44-12 (Raigaih)  APPENDIX ONE:  Maps  /  86  00  89  I  I  o,.° O \ o » 9  i • 22*  tMfi F  I WOO-AR YAM L « ; « : B£U6AL7  114,5«?,aoo  Si*  I  mini l.-tjfcejoo©  MAP 8 DWMD/MJ UWfiUAGGS  i •. 4,500,030  CD  MAP 11  22"  . JOR a fcUAL  b GARO 0 MALA  |.4,5eO,  66"  MAP 12  MOUWXA/M WA/W£S" WpOUT  22°  •24%)  2Z°  MAP 13  PAHAR  96°  84*B  •{•3>  . V map  i<9-  euau  1 1 +,5o*,aao  22  e  I  I  1  22°  PAR8AJ  MAP 15  86°  •2+'  /  MAP |$  . PttO&AR  23.C  95  MAP \f TUtiGAZ  11 4,9»,oee>  r  MAP 18  PUR.  v.  I 1 +fOP,CWO (  <86  c  H'u  '•"\  • t  MAP I?  22*  DIH  06°  J  l/  MAP 2o  CAoU  c  98  I  J  •  ••  . i f MAP 22  GA2A  8&P  •  4fM  22° MAP 23  DAG  |i+,5eoyBOo  99  2t>°  I  !  JWAP 24  TAPR  I' 4>5eo.  g6/»  ./ MAP 25  •22.  c  Jog. ((*> UA3ITAT(0O  100  8f°E  I  I  1  MAP 2G  42"  KEL  We  66°  MAP  2?  PA.m  •220  101  We  MAP 28  PAU  •:.<:\  24°^  . 12.  MAP 29 MUfcDA  I i  i  I > 4,900/309  102  I  I  24-° *J  ../  MAP 31  -23*  BER.  1 !  I'4,5X7/500  103  86°  11° MAP 32  SAI  1 :+,5Bo,eae»  S6"  22° MAP 33  i  HATU  104  96°  I  i  24°*!  —I  MAP 34-  out  22?  0  t-.4,5<»,«=e>  84° E  86*  I  I  24*A>  MAP  POS  t: 4>5C©, COO  APPENDIX TWO:  Tables  Numerical Occurence of the D e n o t a t i v e Components i n each Sample Square  /  ;-C  55 iS  —  o" v,0 CO  >  ro  -p-  -p-  h->  ro  -p-  ON  C5J  O  0  ro  00  0  -o  t-3 ro  a*  ON  M  1—  -P-' 1  1—' ro  ro  —  •*> M  ro  f— ft H'  -n  ON  VjJ •P"  -p-  NO  ro  ON  NO  H  1  i  -P-  ro  H  ro  -P-  ro  ro  ro  M  C  1  -P"  ro  •p-  -Ph-  -P-  h-» 1  ro  N/\  -o ro  ft  ON  O  0 •Q  G ro  H  1  1 (0  X  c  K  1 6  7  e  -  E  6 6  -  -  2  -  10 6  -  2  1  -  -  1  -  -  3  -  2  &  R  Q  2  1  1  -  -  P  1  -  -  -  -  -  1 1  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  6 3  -  -  o  -  1  -  -  2  2  1  1  F  5  8  —  t3  H  D  7  -  it  12  c  -  9 lo  B  AA  1  3  A  u  3  -  2  3 4  J  2  1 2  H  -  -  Table I I . M o u n t a i n Names W i t h o u t a Generic S u f f i x .  i—  1  o  ON  10?  0)  1  or  1  1  1  CM  1  1 1  a  1  a 0  I  l  1  1  cvl  1  1  1  •  I  1  C\]  i  1  1  VO  1  H  I  rH  CM  1  rH  1 i  I  o  rH  CN  VO vO  rH  vO H  rH  05 PH  cvl  ^3"  0  rH  —  fft  UN  1  I  1  1  U. rH  1  U4  rH  1  ,£> CtS rH  0  1  I  1  rH  0 -=}-  1  rH  1  1  ON  1  /  <  ©  1  rH  ON  O  j>  _  £|  1  52  ±-  108  <0  i  0  i  i  i  i  i  CD VO  i  vO CM  H  CM  i  i  rH  CM 1  1  i  i  1  u>  rH  i  i  i  -3-  H  i  i  1  i  i  i  i  i  i  rH  C\i  I  t—i  i  1  i  i  i  a  i  i  i  u Or  i  I.  3  1  1  H  CP  0  i  —  i  m  1  1  U.1  1  1  1  0  1  1  1  ON  1  1  1  _0  t—i i  1  1  >  1  1  1  1  <  1 1  1  w 0  1  i  1  1  CN  i  S2  2-  <D rH  ed E-t  109  0  VO  en H H  0  ON  rH rH  ON  a  -3"  CVJ  rH  -avo  CO  1  CN]  H rH  ON  rH  CV)  H  1  CO  vo  rH  1  1 CO  evi  i  I  1  CVl  VO  o-  CV)  VA  VO  cn o-  -3"  1  vn  vo  H  VO  CNJ  vo  VO  CVl  CO  UN u.  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ON  rH  fl»  CA  cj  H  rH  ±  110  VA  cv)  rH  o  CVl  a  0 2  rH  CO  ON  CVl  rH  rH  rH  ON  vo  O-  rH  CN1  VA  CVl  ^3-  CA  O  ON H  CVl  CA  I  l  CNJ  -3"  ON  VA O-  •3-  CA ON  CVl  VO  cvi  VO  •3"  rH  'a  H  CA  VA  VO  CA  o  H  rH  CA  H  rH  VA  l  -3" •H  0 . —  O-  CA  >A  m  VO o  Us.  1  vu vo  0 CO  <  1  O-  >.  rH  u.  0  a  ON  CD  rH  1  cvi  1  CD  CVl  CV1  CVl  CA  CM  VA  CVl  0  rH  rH  CN1 rH  ON /  i  rH  rH  CV) H  CA  2  i—I £ >  as  Ill  0) u  a  1  i  1  i  1  1  i  1  rH  co  .  r  VO  CM  VO  CM  1  I  CM  •  I  l  rH  H  rH  rH  1  rH  1  CM  CM  rH  1  CM  1  1  i  1  H  CO  rH  1  rH  CM  1  1  i  a 0  l  rH  CV1  o  i—1  ICfj  o  u  1  —  1  m  oo  CO  M HH >  UN.  u.  1  CM  1  rH  rH CM  C 0  rH  (fi  <  OO  cc  CO  /  CO  CM  <y> o  CM  1  CO  rH  CM  fi  Gj  En  rH  CM  1  rH  1  CM  CO  -  £j 22  CS-  ^  c  -  1 • •'  - •  2.  •  3  4  1 6  2  3 2  7 e  -  9  \o  -  13 14  -  -  -  -  -  55 1  -  -  -  -  S —  -  1  2 1  R  -  9  59  -  2 2  •14  11 12  9  20  75  P  11  22  90  37  2  -  6 8  38  3 13  7  10  -  -  6  r  2  1  1  E  -  -  H 12  -  o  © 7  11  c  u  K  J  -  —  1  -  -  -  -  -  Table V I I I .  Tol.  H ro  113  I  1  1  a  1  a 0  1  CM  1  1  1  rH  H  1  rH  1  1  I  CM  CM  1  rH  rH  1  ^-  1 CM  rH  1  CO  CO  rH  I  rH  CM  CO  rH  1  I  rH  1  rH  1  •  CM  1  1  1  1  05  M  1  05  O 1  . —  1  rH  m  1  X  US  • • < *  1  U.  1  1  1  1  H  v  1  IU  0  1  0  (fi  <  1  I  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  O  1  1  rH  1  CO  1  o  1  1  1  =  £f  1  52  ^  fi  o5  114  1  i  i  or  1  o.  0  1  i  rH  1  -3^±  i  1  I  rH  i  I  I  i  i i  CM  I  CO  I  i  i  rH  I  I  CM  VO  I  i  CM  1  CM  i  CM  CO  (—i  i  I  oo H  I  i  i las  0  rH  . —  1  C\J  UN.  U.  i  I  Q  i  I  i  X  i  0 rH  w  l  I  i  I  aS EH  C  i  0 (fi  <  I  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i CO  i  i <JN  o  =  £J  i  S2  ^  115  1  1  i  u a VO  0  H  cn  CV) -3-  H  i Cn  i  cn  rH  1  1  H  rH  1  1  i  1  1 1  1  I  1  I  rH  i  1  1  1  rH  <M  1  1  H  r  1  rH  vn  a  1  1  i  1  1  rH  1  icci EH  0  -  1  <s m  1  1  i  1  M  Us U.  1  VU 0  1  <  I i  1  £>  i  a  i  i  1  O  I i  I  1  co  i  <D rH  EH •  1  1  I  I  1 -)  0  i  1  X  o  i i  -  £J 2>  I ^  C  1 2.  -  —  -  3 4  K  J  -  -  7 e  -  -  13  H  E  -  6  P  -  1  -  -  -  -  -  1 2  2  1  s  2  -  -  1  _  2 2  1  R  1  -  1  Q  1  1  _  P  1  —  -  2 6  O _  -  -  5  -  -  2  -  -  -  2  1  -  2  -  1  -  D  -  -  il 12  c  -  9 to  B  _  A  _  —  -  —  Table X I I ,  Jor.  (in habitation site  names.)  i— o\ 1  c  -  1 1  -  3 4  —  -  -  -  A 7 e  c  --  -  9 to  B  -  M  -  14 -  E  2  -  3  5 1  3  -  1 Kel.  -  o  -  3  -  -  -  3  -  -  -  -  -  -  —  -  -  S  -  —  -  -  R  -  —  14  Q  -  -  5  p  —  -  6  1  1  Table X I I I ,  -  -  1  —  -  -  -  2  1 1  -  6  1  1  F  2  4  12 13  D  AA  K  J  -  -  118  i  1  i  Or  i  a 0  i  1  1  i  i  1  1  i  m  —  •  1  1  rH  NO  CO rH  o\  rH  ^-  .  '•  1  1  1  1  CO  H  1  rH  •  -3:  1  i  H  1  1  i  i  1  CM  i  i  0  1  i  i  •x  1  i  a  •  rH  ICS  rH  ON  > H  UN.  u.  1  1 CM  U4  1  X  1  <D  rH  rH  1  1  as IH  C • • •  rH  0  1  1  CO  <  CM  1  rH  CD  1  1  1  CM  O  CM  £.  rH  I  1  ^  Si S2  rH  —  119  1  10  <y  I  1 1  o. 0  1  1  <x  i i i i  0 —  1  1  cn vn  1 1  1  I  rH  vo  rH  1  UN.  i  1  1  1  I 1  1  I  1  i  1  I  1  1 1  1  1  i  1 1  I  i  1  H  I  1  i  !  1  1  i  1  1  1 1  w 0  1  •3"  rH  cn  cn  CO rH  -3-  vn  1  CO  CN)  H  CD rH  cn  rH  1  1  <  — j .  ON  H  0  ON CN)  NO rH  U.  iH  rH CN)  vn  cn  rH  j)  j\  o  -  cj  iJ  ^  rH  120  .  i  1  i  o-  i I  a  i  i  i  0 —  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  VO  1  i  1  i m  1  1  i  i  1  H  i  1  i  1  1  i  i  rH  1  i  1  .  I  1  1  0  i  1  1  1  .  1  f—1  u.  VO  •3-  1 UN.  CV!  rH  O-  rH  C\l  rH  IH  HH >  rH  VO  rH ,0  aj  EH  0  I  0  CO  <  1  , 1  VA  1  CO  1  rH  1  CO  I  1  1  rH  c>  o  VA  —  £J  i—I S2  c  z  -  J  -  AA  K  -  1  -  -  3 4  A  9  9  to  c  6  7 e  B  1  -  2  6  1  7  -  -  -  3  -  -  -  -  -  2  -  -  1  -  -  1  1  1  2  -  Q  R  —  -  1  P  -  -  -  1  1 1  -  1 1  2  -  1  -  1 1  s  1  7 ?  13 14  F  2  11 12  D  ©  5  -  2 1  2  Table XVII.  Para.  ro  H  G  -  1  •  2.  -  -  -  -  1  3  4  J  -  A 7  e  -  II 12  -  13 14  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  F  c  -  9 to  B  -  -  -  o  -  1  1  2  Ber.  3  1  2 3  1  -  3 3  s  -  2 2  2  R  1  3  -  5 4  -  -  9  -  Table XVIII.  -  -  6  -  -  1  1  -  -  3  -  -  -  -  -  4  3  123  «>  1  1  a 0  i  1  i  i  H rH  1  i  i  rH  i  i  1  o-  1  i  i  1  vn  i  1  1  rH  i  i  1  cn  i  1  i  l  i  i  i  i  i  i  1  1 i  1  lY  tv  i  1  1  i  1  •  1  1 icrj CO  0  i  —  i  m  ^-  i  i  UN u.  1  I  1  1  1  X rH  i  X i  w  03 rH  1  £ >  CS  0  1  0  CC)  <  1  1  1  • 1  i  1  1  CD  o  i  1  1  i  EH  y| :  1  1  i  25  124  to l  i  v. Or  i i  1  1  l i  I  —  m  1  1  1  1  CM  1 1  i  i  0  1  l  VO  rH  H  i  l  •3-  1  I  I  O-  ON  i  1  CM  H  H  i l  1  1  i  1  1  1  l  a 0  1  1 ICS  U.  0  1  <  1  1  1 1  1 1  1 1  CO O  1  1 1 O  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  0  ca  1  !  IU  p •p led  1  !  -  1  I  1  £j £  —  rH  fi  a E-i  125  0  i  <x  a  0  i  i i i i  .31  rH  1  -3-  VA  rH  H  rH  1  1  i  1  rH  1  CM  H  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  !  1  1  a  1  1  1  CM  p -p  1  1  1  i  1  rH  O  i  1  1  1  1  H  —  vS m  LCs vS  u.  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  X! X <D rH  I  ed  EH  0  <  i  1  1  1  1 1  1  0 CO  1  1  1  1  1  /  1  1  co  O  o  1  1  =  £  $2  *  126 J  to 1  u a  1  1  0 '  —  1  1  1  U.  CO  COf  rH  1  1  UN  rH  NO  1  l  i  m  rH  1  i  1  O-  1  1  i  1  H  rH  l  1  1  1  CM  1  i  1  H  1  i  1  1  1  l  1  H  I  l  i  1 1  1  i  CL  0  1  l  1  o  rH  1  1  1  a> 1  Ul  1  1  1  rH  P  as  rH  0  1  0  CO  <  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  CO  (?> o  1  1  1  =  £} S2  1  —  APPENDIX THREE: Percentage  -Tables  occurence  o f the  Denotative Components ins 1. Table XX111: the T o t a l Watercourse Terms 'v per Sample Square il.  Tables XXlV-XXVl:  the T o t a l Mountain Terms per Sample Square  111. T a b l e s XXV11-XL1V: the T o t a l Compound H a b i t a t i o n S i t e Names per Sample Square S i t e Ha i  /  C  100  83.5  12  100  100  J!  14 80  F  100  -  100  100  25 5C Table XXIII.  Nadi.  54.5  -  100 100 100  100  50 0  s  -  100  100  100  R 100  100  -  20  100  75  75 80  66.6  666 100  100  833  100  100  Q 100  100.  100  100  p  100  100  100  o  100  100  100  100  u  100  100  100  AA 100  100  100  100  10C  83.5  100  6  100  100  100  E  100  100  13  D 10C  100  9 »o  c  100  7 e  B  U  100  100  100 A  K 100  100  100  3 4  J  100  1 2.  H  100  -  100  50  c  2  -  28.6  '•  A  B  c  -  7  -  e  »o  13  14 -  20  -  6  -  50  -  -  -  100  10C  -  -  10( 10C  33.3  -  s  R  100  -  2.4 19.4  -  100  -  Q  100  22 2  5.9  143  -  -  -  P  -  100  -  16.7  100  -  -  -  -  50  -  F  100  -  E  100  100  —  11 12  88,9  -  o  100  10  -  100  -  9  D  50  AA 100  50 100  20  3 4  75  33.3  1  u  J  14.;  Table XXIV.  M o u n t a i n Names W i t h o u t a G e n e r i c S u f f i x .  ro  CO  C  H  1 1  -  71A 80  100  12  -  -  13 14 1 6 . 7  E  57.]  -  Table XXV.  Pahar.  -  O  -  -  -  -  -  66.7  -  -  R  -  -  -  -  Q  100  -  26.1  p  77.8  -  85.7 85.7  -  -  20  56.?  /V\  -  100  57.1  50  -  -  100  25  71.4  -  -  100  66.7  -  50  -  F  -  11.]  100  II  o  -  100  9 to  c  66.7  7 e  B  L  50  30  33.3 7L4  A  K  25  16.?  3 4  J  -  100  -  555 100  s  -  C  -  1  -  2 3  -  4  A  7  e  B  -  to  -  tl 12  -  -  -  -  -  —  14  D  E  -  -  -  9  c  -  —  -  P  6  -  -  -  J  -*  -  -  -  AA  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  75  -  Q  R  s  -  100  100  83.9  p  33.3  100  913  -  -  94.1  40  -  -  o  -  25  -  -  -  33 3  —  Table XXVI.  Buru.  O  C  11.1  5 6 A 7  B  16.3  5.3  c  E  ll.l  5.3 10. c  1.9  18.3  3.7 5.0  5.1  -  F  5.0  11.3  5.9  7.k  2.6  -  6.4  3.5 3.4  -  -  139  7.1 1.2  7.7 3.7  Table XXVII.  12.0  9.1 2.2 3.5 5.0  8.3  L  5.6 15.1  10.5  6.7 6.8 11.1 4. 0  8.3  11.6  D  14.7  56  K  18.8  -  3 4  J  9.3  1 2  M  Pur.  -  -  M  o  2.4  11.4  7 Ar  -  S  111  16.5 12.8  12.5 10.7  7.4  R  221  7.7  13.8 6.3  9.0  17.4  9.2 3.2  279  Q  111  1.4  -  P  154  3.7  9.1  3.1  c  J  13.9 1 ia? 2. 13.5 12.5  3 4  158  7 e  B  c  10.i  -  D  I5.  to  il  14 3.2  1.3  12 J 1.7  -  2.6 7.0  6.3  17.6  25.0  11.4  32.4  R  s  27.8  12.8 22,7  7.7  '+5.7 33.9 18.5 12.? +•0.5 156 9.6 18.2 6.5  -  1.6  Q  4.2 2.5  -  129  1.8  4.7  2.0 2.3  in  5.6  2.9 7.5  7.0  p  5.3  1.9  18.c  5.3 179  3.7  12 152 t3  -  6.7  212  3.5  7.3  8.3  ©  114  9.1  123  13.2  7.8  -  2.8  F  p  10.5  9  6  E  ll.ii  5.0 A  10.0  9.4  -  -  Table XXVIII.  Dih.  H  C  1 2  -  3 4 5 6 A 7  B  10.6  5.2  C  5.3  5.3  2.8 3.0  -  -  -  -  -  6.1  2.3  1.8  -  2.6 0.7  1.3 2.5 Gaon.  2.9  1.6  12.5  -  3.0 1.1  -  P  -  2.1  2.0  1.6 2.3  ©  -  1.8  -  Table XXIX.  AA  5.7  9.4  2.5  L  2.3  -  2.3  K  1.3  5.0  3.9  1.3  -  -  J  -  -  2.9  1.9  F  7.4  3.7  3.8  E  5.0  1.9  7.4  D  H  1.1 5.1  1.8  Q  -  R  S  1.9  -  -  2.2  -  4.7  -  134  to  1  I  i  i  1  1  1  ON  rH  03'  a  0  H  1  1  CM  I  1  1  CM CM  O  •3*  CO  I 1 1  ^0  o  rH  CO  NQ  03 CO  co  CM  -3ON  CO  H vo  r—i  00  VO CO  NO  NO  o  rH  NO  r  CO  rH  I—1  CM VO  C\f  I  H  o  vo  Q  VO  CM  00 CO  CO  r-i rH  CO —  r-i  m  I  co  VO  1  O CO  1  ON  ON  a>  co  I  rH  O  CM  CO  00  CO CO  US.  u.  rH  o  ON  rH  rH  CO  •  NO  1  O  CO  1  X X X  1  <D <H  -3-  w  O EH  1  1  1  fi  o5  rH  0 0 CO  I  1  1 CM  i  1  1  rH  l  1  1  /  I  1 CO  <  i  r - C D O O  1  o  I  rH  -  £j  £  —  C  2.3  1 2.  -  1.3  5.6  A 7 e  -  -  -  1.2  -  -  E -  -  13  14  -  -  II 12  c  -  9 to  B  -  -  -  -  .-  Table XXXI.  Gara.  2.1  -  1.6 1.6  -  -  -  S  •  -  -  -  --  -  R  -  3.2  2.7  Q -  2.8  4.5  5.2  -  P  -  -  0.6  -  -  ©  -  -  -  -  2.0  9.1  2.2  . -  AA  114  3.5  -  -  -•  -  F  u  6.8  6  K  1.5  2.5  3 4  J  M  -  1.9 1.8  -  c  1 2  M 9.:  2.8  3  7 e  -  9 to  -  II  12  c  -  13  14 -  -  D  -  -  •-  -  -  E  -  -  -  -  -  -  8.8  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  4.2  -  -  -  -  6.8  3.5  -  -  3.5  -  R  8.6  1.8 4.4  o  -  -  -  -  -  S  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  F  2. C 2.9  -  2.5  7.5  B  AA  3.J 5.3  4 111  A  u  J  -  Table XXXII.  Dag.  ON  C  3 4  J  -  K  1.3  7  e  -  -  14  -  -  -  3.c  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1.2 3.1 -  -  -  -  -  -  1.2  -  -•  -  -  -  -  7.1  -  -  s  -  -  -  -  R  6.9  -  -  Q  7.1  2.1  -  - •  P  7.1 2.3  -  -  -  o  2.9  i.e  -  4.0  -  7.5  -  F  -  -  -  E  -  -  13  D  -  -  II 12  c  -  9 to  B  AA  -  A  u  4.7  2.3  t  2  H  Table XXXIII.  Tanr.  r-  1  1  -  2 3  4 • -  A 7 e 9 \o  II 12  -  -  c  -  -  -  1.2  1.9  13 H  B  -  F  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  0.6  1.5 5.0  -  -  -  4-„4 7.1  5.1 0.9  -  -  6  E  -  -  o  -  -  1.6 3.1  2.3  1.4  -  1.1 2.6  3.2  -  Q  1.2 1.4  -  3.1  -  (in habitation site  3.7  -  -  -  Jor  -  s  1.5  0.8  T a b l e XXXIV.  R  1.5  3.1 2.1  5.4  P  names.)  3.1  C  1 2  -  3 4  -  M  -  -  J  V<  -  -  A 7 e  -  9 to  c  B  -  -  -  -  •  •'  1.8  2.9  -  -  -  -  AA  -  -  -  -  -  -  5.3 3.8  9.3  4. 0 2.4  1.2  -  o  -  -  -  -  p  Q  -  -  -  S  -  —  —  -  R  -  -  -  -  0.8 2.0  -  1.2  1.7  -  4.4  2.6  -  -  118  5.0  2.8  6 F  7.4  4.9  14  E  5.3  1.0  11  o  -  L  1.2 Table XXXV.  Kel.  VO  C  1 2  -  1.9  -  It 12  »4 l . l  E  2.6  -  -  -  13  o  -  3.5  9 to  c  6.1  7 8  B  -  6 F  -  -  L  AA  -  -  -  -  Pani.  -  -  -  -  3.2  -  -  p  -  -  -  -  R  -  -  s  -  -  3.1  3.4  Q  -  1.1  -  4.7 3.5  ©  -  -  9.7  -  Table XXXVI.  K  -  -  2.3 1.7  -  6.6 0.8  1.9  -  1.9 7.9  1.3  -  -  4.6  7.4  -  J  1.8 2.5  •  A  -  -  3 4  M  -  -  7.4 5.5  1.6  P  1 2  -  3 4  c  7 e  -  12  2 2 .  0  c  1 8 . 2  19.4 2 8 . £ 14 15.?  13  • -  F  -  -  0.9 5.<) 1 2 .  J  -  -  -  L  .-  -  2 . 4 5 . 8  C  3 7 . 2 3 8 . 3  Table XXXVII.  -  •*  2 8 . C 44.-2  K  -  -  -:  11.f  l?.l 4 .  3 . 8  -  5.3'  6.9  It  E  -  5.8  9  to  -  D  -  H  Pali  -  /VA  -  -  ©  -  -  -  -  P  R  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  S  1.6  -  -  -  -  c  H  -  1 2  -  3 4  A,  7 8  2.C  -  9 \o 1.4 M  12  B  -  t3  14 1.1  -  c  6  D  F  -  -  -  J  -  -  -  2.0 0.9 3.? 3.5 4.4 4.7 l.£ 2.6 5.8 2.3 3.? 4.£ 5.3  -  2.C  5.8 8.5  3.8 7.*i  Table XXXVIII.  -  -  -  -  AA  K  Munda.  -  -  -  ©  -  -  • -  -  1.1  -  -  -  P  -  Q  -  -  —  R  -  -  --  —  -  -  s  1.6  C 1 2. 3 4  A  B  12.2  7  15.  e  9 to  f  -  2.8  5.3 8.9  -  2.5  13  Vi 5.3  D  E  5.3  3.9  il  12  c  1.9 1.7  -  6 F  -  -  -  -  2.0  -  3.7  H  3.6 2.5  J  1.3  -  -  2.2  -  -  3.0  2.3  2.6  Para.  AA  -  -  1.8  o  -  --  0.8  6.0  T a b l e XXXIX.  L  -  -  5.3  -  -  -  -  -  K  -  -  -  -  P  -  s  1.9 -  -  3.8  3.1 -  2.2  1.5 1.1  0.8  -  R  1.9 1.8  1.6  -  144  to l  CO  1  co  a a  MD  CO  -3""  CO  -3-"  o-  1  O  CO  •d-" H  rH  CM O  CO  1  1  CO  CM  1  1  CM VO  CO  !  I  CM  -3-  I  i  vo  VO  1  i  VO  CM  1  •2  CM  CO  H  0  i  r-l  CM  l  CV!  1  rH  VO  CO  rH  VO  rH  o  IN-  CO  CM  1  CM  -=*-*  i  0  1  1  •  o-  O-  cvi  o  1  rH  I  CD PQ  1  •  —  m  UN.  IJL  1  1  1  X  1  (D l  U4  1  1  1  rH  a$ EH  0 0  1  1  i  l  CO  1  1  O  1  1  1  1  CO  <  1  o  1  1  1  -  £f  1  2}  —  145  0>  1  i  i  0  0  •2  i  I  0 —  <s en  CO  1  CV! i  1  i  l  1  i  1 1  i  i  1  •  »  1  ON  1  i  r>-  CO  1  i  I  1 CO  i  1  i  vO  H  • • •  !  i  I  1  I  i 1  i  1  1  8  l  I  a  i  i  Us . u.  l  i  1  i  1-3  i  i  X  CO rH  l  i  i  i  rO  cd  ' EH  0  i  0  ca <  I  1  i  i  i  T  i  co Cv  i  i  i  i  i  o  i  i  -  £j  i  S2  ^  G  -  1  -  2.  -  A 7 e  14  -  -  -  -  -  -  Table X L I I I .  Gutu.  -  -  1.5  3.5  S  _  -  -  5.3  R  -  -  -  2.1 3.2  Q  -  2.7  0.8  P  -  1.5  -  -  -  -  •  -  -  -  -  -  -  2.5  -  o  3.0  2.2  -  -  -  -  -  —  -  -  -  -  -  .1.8  -  F  E  -  -  13  D  -  -  II 12  c  —  9 to  B  -  -  5  AA  -  -  3 4  J  -  -  c 1  1  -  3 4  -  -  J  -  -  A 7  6  B  -  -  -  -  -  -1  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  s  -  -  3.1  2.2  -  1.1 5.9  R  -  -  0.8  3.1  -  Q  -  -  4.7  3.5  o  -  -  0.7  -  -  -  0.9  -  -  -  AA  -  -  P  -  -  -  13  E  -  14  -  -  H \2  0  -  -  9  to  c  -  c  1.8  T.~5  Table XLIV,  Pos.  i—  1  00  

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