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Toponyms and cultural regions : an examination of the place-names of the Chota Nagpur, India Mia, Essop 1970

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. "TOPONYMS AND CULTURAL REGIONS: AN EXAMINATION OF THE PLACE-NAMES OF THE CHOTA NAGPUR, INDIA" fey ESSOP MIA B.A., Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n the Department of .-Asian Studies We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 197P In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a ABSTRACT The s u b j e c t examined I n t h i s t h e s i s i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between contemporary place-names and c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s . I t was h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t t h e r e would be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between p l a c e -names and c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , i f place-names, as o r g a n i z e d i n t o toponymic systems, c o r r e l a t e d w i t h known c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the i n h a b i t a n t s of the Chota Nagpur r e g i o n of I n d i a . The o r -g a n i z a t i o n of the place-names i n t o toponymic systems was on the b a s i s of s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and i n t e r a c t i o n of s e l e c t e d terms d e n o t i n g spaces w i t h d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s . The known c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e f o r c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y was the s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the languages spoken i n the s t u d y a r e a . A o n e - h a l f sample o f a l l the place-names i n the Chota Nagpur was c o l l e c t e d from 1 : 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 maps of the a r e a , and d i v i d e d i n t o t h e i r component elements. F o l l o w i n g subsequent o r d e r i n g by computer, d i s t r i b u t i o n maps and s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s were drawn up f o r s e l e c t e d d e n o t a t i v e components, the element i n the name used to d i s t i n g u i s h a p a r t i c u l a r space i n the environment i n terms of i t s a t t r i b u t e s . Data on the s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u -t i o n s of the languages spoken i n the a r e a was o b t a i n e d from G.A, G r i e r s o n ' s L i n g u i s t i c S u r v e y of I n d i a and the Census o f  I n d i a 1 9 3 1 . 1951 and 1 9 6 1 . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from a c o r r e l a t i o n of the toponymic systems which were i d e n t i f i e d and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of languages d i d s u p p o r t the h y p o t h e s i s . F i v e toponymic systems were i d e n t i -f i e d w i t h i n the s t u d y a r e a , and t h e i r s p a t i a l e x t e n t s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h r e e of the languages i n the s t u d y a r e a . The s e c t o r s of the s t u d y a r e a w i t h i n which no toponymic systems e x i s t e d a l s o c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n of *fee two languages. T h i s s u g g ested t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s used i n o r g a n i z i n g the environment d i f f e r between c u l t u r e s , and t h a t the methodology p r e s e n t e d f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of toponymic systems has l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t place-names d i d bear a r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , and t h a t t h e y c o u l d be used t o de-l i n e a t e t h e s e c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s . DEPARTMENT OF ASIAN STUDIES UNIVERSITY of BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER 3 , 8. C, CANADA i . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page One 1 . 1 . Theory and Method i n Place-Name S t u d y 1 1 . 2 . Languages o f the Chota Nagpur 29 1 . 3 . Summary 36 Two • 2 . 1 . D e n o t a t i v e Components i n the Contemporary' Place-Names of the Chota Nagpur 38 2 , 2 . The D e n o t a t i v e Components 43 Three 3 . 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n s < 72 3 . 2 . C o n c l u s i o n s 76 B i b l i o g r a p h y 78 A p p e n d i x 1. Maps 86 A p p e n d i x 2 . T a b l e s 105 Appendix 3. T a b l e s 12 7 y / ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e 1. F o r t r a n C o d i n g Sheet F i g u r e 2. P h o n e t i c T a b l e s F i g u r e 3. S u f f i x L i s t F i g u r e 4. T o t a l Number of H a b i t a t i o n S i t e Names i n each Sample Square F i g u r e 5. The Number o f Compound H a b i t a t i o n S i t e Names i n each Sample Square F i g u r e 6. L o c a t i o n ^ D e n o t a t i v e Components of the P a r t i a l Toponymic Systems i l l . MAPS 20 Gaon 23 Dag Page 86 87 88 88 Map 1 North-east India 2 The Study Areat R e l i e f 3 The Study Area 4 Indo-Aryan Languages! Chattisgarhl 5 " " " Bengali 89 6 " " " Orlya 89 7 " " " Bi h a r i 90 8 Dravidian Languages 90 9 A u s t r o - a s i a t i c Languages 91 10 Nadi 91 11 Jor. Garo. Khal and Nala 92 12 Mountain Names without a Generic S u f f i x 92 13 Pahar 93 14 Buru \ 93 15 Parbat 94 16 Dongar and Dongrl 9^ 17 Tungar 95 18 Pur 95 19 Dih ' , - \-- 96 96 21 Tol , , 97 22 Gara 98 98 24 Tanr i 99 25 J o r ( i n Habitation S i t e Names) 99 i v . Page Map 26 Kel 100 27 Pani • 100 28 P a l l 101 29 Munda 101 30 Pa~ra 102 31 M r 102 32 Sai « 103 33 Hatu 103 34 Gutu 104 35 Pos 104 \ V. TABLES Page A. Numerical Occurence of the Denotative Components i n each Sample Square. Table I Nadi 1 0 5 II Mountain names without a Generic S u f f i x 106 III PahSr ' 1 0 7 IV Buru 1 0 8 V Pur 1°9 VI Dih . 1 1 0 VII Gaon 1 1 1 VIII Tol 1 1 2 IX Gara 1 3-3 X Dag ' 1 1 ^ XI Tanr 1 ]-5 XII Jor ( i n Habitation S i t e Names) 116 XIII' Kel \ "~~ . 1 ]-7 XIV Panl 1 1 8 XV P a l i 119 XVI Munda . 1 2 0 XVII Para ' ' 121 XVIII Ber ' v 1 2 2 XIX Sal ^ ' 123 XX Hatu / . ' ^12^ XXI Gutu * '•, • 125 XXII Pos \ ' ' ' v i . Page B. Percentage occurence of the Denotative Components im. i . Table XXIII the Total Watercourse Terms per Sample Square i i , . Tables the Total Mountain Names per XXIV-XXVT Sample Square i i i . Tables the Total Compound Habitation XXVII-XLIV S i t e Names per Sample Square Table XXIII Nadl 127 XXIV Mountain Names Without a Generic S u f f i x 128 XXV Pahar 129 XXVI Buru 130 XXVII Pur . 131 XXVIII Dih . 132 XXIX Gaon 133 XXX Tol . , 134 XXXI . Gara \ _ 135 XXXII Dag 136 XXXIII Tanr 137 XXXIV Jor ( i n Habitation S i t e Names) 138 XXXV Kel r 139 XXXVI Pani ' , - \" ; 140 XXXVII P a l i \ , 141 XXXVIII Munda , 142 • • / ' XXXIX Para \ 143 XL Ber 144 XLI Sai 1 145 XLII Hatu S '• 1 146 XLIII Gutu 147 XLIV Pos 148 One. 1.1. Theory and Method i n Place-Name Study This study of the place-names of the Chota Nagpur, a highland region i n northeastern India, i s an attempt to extend the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of place-names int o the contemporary realm, and to provide an a n c i l l a r y a i d i n the study of the cultures of complex s o c i e t i e s . To r e i t e r a t e a statement made often, India i s a country of substantial c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . In addition to the existence of the d i s t i n c t l y separate Hindu and non-Hindu cultures, there i s considerable sub-cultural v a r i a -t i o n within each culture. The l a t t e r v a r i a t i o n s may be con-ceived of as having r e s t r i c t e d s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , ranging from the l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c regions to purely l o c a l ones. I t i s the demarcation of these l o c a l c u l t u r a l regions which may be accomplished through the use of place-names, thus defining a'unit f o r c u l t u r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n within which there i s a high degree of s i m i l a r i t y i n c u l t u r a l forms. These l o c a l c u l t u r a l areas may also be demarcated through the use of other factors, s o c i a l or economic. However, i f any advantages exist i n the method proposed i n this study, they are i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of raw data, e s p e c i a l l y f o r the scholar not based i n India. Place-name data i s r e l a t i v e l y more accessible than data on dominant caste marriage or market networks, on the det a i l e d scale neces-sary to demarcate these l o c a l sub-cultural regions. In order to demarcate these sub-cultural regions, through the examination of the relationships between place-names and other aspects of the cultures of the inhabitants of the Chota Nagpur, i t i s assumed that toponyms are symbols i n 2 the organization of the environment. Therefore, place-names, when suitably analyzed, may demarcate these c u l t u r a l and sub-c u l t u r a l regions, f o r there i s a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between environmental organization and culture. Place-names a r i s e from, and are. influenced by . . . the language and speech habits of -people (Wainwright 1 9 6 2 « 1 0 ) . As each culture has i t s d i s t i n c -t i v e and s t y l i s t i c patterns (Kroeber 1 9 6 3 ) 1 naming should vary from culture to culture, and within a culture, where regional v a r i a t i o n r e s u l t s i n sub-cultural patterns. Perceiving place-names as symbols i n the organization of the environment i s not unique to this study, but the attempt, to extend the analysis of place-names Into the contemporary realm i s . The i n t e r p r e t i v e studies conducted on place-names thus f a r have been l i m i t e d to the h i s t o r i c a l , f o r they have been conducted on the premise that toponyms are the f o s s i l s of human geography (Dauzat i 9 6 0 ) . A l t e r i n g the premise to conceive of place-names as symbols i n environmental organization, a concep-t i o n i m p l i c i t i n viewing toponyms as f o s s i l s , has allowed us to conduct the analysis on only the contemporary forms of place-names. This has made necessary a reassessment and adaptation of the methodologies developed hitherto i n place-names study, for there i s a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the nature of the / data and the methods of ana l y s i s . Where the data was composed of the various forms of a place-name which occured over an ex-tended period of time, i t was possible to etymologlcally deter-i mine the o r i g i n a l meanings of the ^elements of the name before 3 any attempts at i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . But a d i f f e r e n t mode of analysis i s necessary where the data i s composed of a large number of names i n a single form of occurence. The method we have used i s s t a t i s t i c a l and systemic analysis, through examina-t i o n of units larger than the i n d i v i d u a l place-names. Before proceeding with a presentation of the the o r e t i -c a l and methodological orien t a t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study, an extended review of the work done to date i n place-name study i s i n order, f o r i t i s the source of the theory and methodology of the present study. This previous research Into place-names may be characterised as having three d i s t i n c t , but overlapping,, stages. The f i r s t has a pronounced survey nature, the second a la r g e l y p h i l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n and the t h i r d i s an i n t e r p r e t i v e stage. The survey nature of the f i r s t stage i s evident i n the works of Isaac Taylor^ George Stewart and S.K. C h a t t e r j i . The purpose of the former study (Ryan 1964i2), published as Words  and Places i n 1863. was to survey the topic i n the widest possible fashion by discussing the problems of toponomy and hist o r y , ethnology and geography on the basis of an etymological study of selected European place-names. Stewart (1958), almost a century l a t e r , sets out to "present the process of naming" (Stewart 1958i387)» the h i s t o r i c a l ^ development of the present-day name cover of the United States of America, and provides an i n t e r e s t i n g , i f general, introduction i n narrative fashion to the l i n g u i s t i c s t r a t a present i n the place-names of that country. C h a t t e r j i , i n h i s monumental Origin and Development 4-of the Bengali Language, has a very b r i e f glance at some of the place-names of Bengal, i n order to introduce the languages i n -volved i n the development of modern Bengali place-names. Taylor's pioneering work may be regarded as the source of the methodology that characterizes the second stage of research, one which has, variously, aided and hampered place-name study i n a l l countries. The strongly methodological orien t a t i o n of the second stage may be a t t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y to the d i s c i p l i n e which has taken the lead i n place-name study. I t has become the do-main of the p h i l o l o g i s t who l i m i t e d the aims of study to the reasoned explanations of the meanings of place-names, viewing his work as accessory to that of hi s t o r i a n s and archaeologists, and suppressing t h e o r e t i c a l concerns i n favour of methodological rigour (Cameron 1 9 6 l t 3 2 Zelinsky 1 9 5 5 * 3 1 9 ) . That this methodological rigour has reached a.;high l e v e l of achievement i n England i s undeniable, and i s r e f l e c t e d i n the work of the English Place-Name Society. I t has systematically covered, -to date, the place-names of nineteen counties of England, the investigations being patterned upon the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down by various scholars i n the f i r s t volume of t h i s sur-vey, edited by Mawer and Stenton (EPNS I, i ; 1 9 2 4 ) . This volume, with the addition of the works of Mawer ( 1 9 2 9 ) , Dauzat ( i 9 6 0 ) , Cameron (1961) and Reaney ( i 9 6 0 ) , provides an introduction to / the methodology of t h i s form of place-name study. In t h i s approach, which has been used i n India as well as i n Europe, and, to some extent,] i n North America, place-names i are regarded as f o s s i l s of human geography, and energy i s 5 directed towards peeling aside the superimposed h i s t o r i c s t r a t a (Dauzat i 9 6 0 ) . Each name i s examined i n d i v i d u a l l y , a f t e r as wide as possible a c o l l e c t i o n of the e a r l i e r forms of the name are made, with a thorough knowledge of the phonetic h i s t o r y of the languages involved (Reaney I960:17-18). The sources used i n the c o l l e c t i o n of these early and modern forms of the place-name are h i s t o r i c a l documents of various types, f o r the former, and a f i e l d survey f o r the modern spell i n g s and pronounciations. The a v a i l a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the l i t e r a r y sources varies from country to country. In India the primary h i s t o r i c a l sources are dynastic i n s c r i p t i o n s . of the donative v a r i e t y , dealing with grants of lands and v i l l a g e s . Less useful are l i t e r a r y works of a d i d a c t i c nature, the prime examples being the Mahabharata and Ramayana, which deal with place-names only i n c i d e n t a l l y . The major factor a f f e c t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y of these documents as sources f o r place-names i s the occasional tendency i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s to Sanskritize the name, usually where the i n s c r i p t i o n i s i n the c o u r t l y language, Sanskrit, rather than i n the languages pre-sumably spoken by the masses, the P r a k r i t s . Thus, the actual pronounciation of the place-name may be d i s t o r t e d i n the attempt to render i t i n a "purer" form. English scholars have been much more fortunate with respect to t h e i r Indian counterparts, having an extensive corpus of available sources from which to ascertain the h i s -t o r i c a l forms of place-names English settlement records, such as the Domesday Book and Land Surveys, h i s t o r i c a l records, 6 such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and o f f i c i a l records, such as the Pipe R o l l s , Charter Rolls and Close R o l l s , a l l provide an extensive number of place-names. But erroneous recording of the names i s a problem f o r the English scholar as w e l l , because of simple s p e l l i n g errors, and of scribes and others a l t e r i n g some elements of names to correspond phonetically with the language they were most f a m i l i a r with; e.g. Barcovere f o r Birchover i n the Domesday Book. (Cameron 1 9 6 l « 2 1 ) . The components of the p h i l o l o g i c a l stage, subsequent to th i s c o l l e c t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l and modern forms of the place-names, begin with etymological analysis of each i n d i v i d u a l name.. The procedure f o r t h i s i s straightforward. Every form of the name co l l e c t e d i s arranged i n chronological sequence. This should immediately indicate the extent and d i r e c t i o n of the changes i n pronounciatlon of the name (e.g. Reaney i 9 6 0 t 2 5 ) . 1 Altered pronounciatlon could Indicate influence of another l i n g u i s t i c group upon the name, f o r sounds are not i d e n t i c a l i n a l l languages. Where a p a r t i c u l a r sound does not e x i s t i n a language,, another appropriate to i t i n that language i s sub-s t i t u t e d . An example of t h i s i s i n the Old English /c/, pro-nounced [ch] when occuring i n i t i a l l y before /e/ or / i / , I t was al t e r e d to [k] by the Scandinavians i n England, [k] being i n the same p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r language as [ch] i n English. (Cameron I 9 6 I 1 8 2 ) . The same sound, non-existent i n French, was pronounced as [,ts] by t h i s l i n g u i s t i c group, but written as /c/. The pronounciatlon of [ t s ] , i n normal phonetic change within a language, was s i m p l i f i e d to [ s ] , and was at times so written 7 as well (Reaney I960:199) . The S a n s k r i t i z a t i o n of indigeneous names by the Aryans i s a prominent f e a t u r e : i n the names of Gujerat; e.g. Bharukaccha>Bhrgukaccha (Sankalia 1949:164). Altered pronounciation could also be a r e s u l t of normal phonetic change within a language., The a n a l y t i c a l t o o l for i n -ves t i g a t i o n of changes of t h i s nature are the rules of phonetic change i n the pertinent language. These include stress-accent change, loss and addition of consonants, and lengthening and shortening of vowels (EPNS I, 1:7-9; Sankalia 1949:167). There i s also "popular etymology," where changes are caused by erroneous analogies with known words. The extensions of t h i s stage, following etymological inv e s t i g a t i o n , have been l a r g e l y towards improving methodological rigour, as mentioned previously. To t h i s end place-names have been typed, s p e c i f i c a l l y according to t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c content, and more generally, according to t h e i r meanings. Sedgefield (EPNS I, i ) has distinguished three forms of English place-names, the d e s c r i p t i v e , the proper and an i n t e r -mediary form. The l a t t e r form i s composed of two or more el e -ments, a compound i n which the s u f f i x i s most often a word with a modern meaning, whereas the meaning of the other element(s) has f a l l e n into obscurity. The descriptive form of a place-name, compound or simple, i s of words s t i l l i n common,use and, thus, meaningful. A proper name, on the other hand, i s one that has no present meaning, having l o s t i t during the process of h i s t o r i c a l change. The large majority of English place-names are of a 8 compound c h a r a c t e r , the two elements o f w h i c h , i n c e r t a i n i n -s t a n c e s , s t a n d i n a case r e l a t i o n s h i p . The compounds a r e of noun-noun, a d j e c t i v e - n o u n , o r p r e p o s i t i o n - n o u n forms. (Cameron 1 9 6 1 i 2 8 ) . When the f i r s t element i s a p e r s o n a l o r t r i b a l name, a p r o p e r noun, i t i s a g e n e t l v e s i n g u l a r , e.g. K i n g s t o n , and i n a few c a s e s , a g e n e t l v e p l u r a l , e.g. C a l v e r t o n . I n the prepo-s i t i o n - n o u n form of place-names the noun i s i n the d a t i v e c a s e , s i n g u l a r o r p l u r a l . The p r e p o s i t i o n i s p r e s e r v e d , i n whole o r i n p a r t , I n many modern names. The normal usage o f names i n an a d v e r b i a l c o n t e x t , s i g n i f i e d by the p r e p o s i t i o n a l p r e f i x , i s an Im p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f E n g l i s h place-name f o r m a t i o n , e.g. Ae t Bearwe>Barrow. A d j e c t i v e s i n compounds g e n e r a l l y appear i n weak forms, e.g. Nlwatun>Newton. w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f combina-t i o n s w i t h the s u f f i x :ham, when t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y u n i n f l e c t e d , e.g. NTwanham)Nuneham. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r meanings, the two main t y p e s o f E n g l i s h place-name f o r m a t i o n s a r e h a b i t a t i v e and t o p o g r a p h i c a l (Cameron 1 9 6 l i 2 7 ) . The f o r m e r t y p e denotes i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s s i n c e the f i r s t naming, w i t h the f i r s t element as e i t h e r a des-c r i p t i v e word, o r a p e r s o n a l o r t r i b a l name, and the second des-c r i b i n g t h e t y p e o f h a b i t a t i o n . T o p o g r a p h i c a l names were o r i -g i n a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e o f some p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e , a r t i f i c i a l o r n a t u r a l , and were a d o p t e d as names o f nearby s e t t l e m e n t s . I n I n d i a , the l a t t e r p o r t i o n o f the p h i l o l o g i c a l s t a g e has been a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y n a t u r e . P l a c e -names have been c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the meaning o f the name, i n seven c a t e g o r i e s , d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The 9 names are grouped as to named a f t e r an event, a person, customs and superstitions, geographical and physical features, flowers, f r u i t trees and crops, animals, birds and r e p t i l e s and named a f t e r e x i s t i n g places. (Sankalia 1949:47). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n according to the l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n of the names has been i n three categories, with subdivisions (Sankalia 1 9 4 9 : 1 6 8 ) . The f i r s t takes into account words inherited from Old and Middle Indo-Aryan by a New Indo-Aryan language. Names which have been inherited and have retained t h e i r o r i g i n a l forms are tatsamas, those having undergone normal phonetic change being knows as tadbhavas. Semi-tatsamas and semi-tadbhavas. i d e n t i c a l , are those words the separate elements of which have been inherited or loaned at d i f f e r e n t stages of development of the NIA language, and, as such, w i l l show varying phonetic changes. The second category i s that of loan words from OIA and MIA, and the t h i r d of loan words from other language f a m i l i e s . There had been, u n t i l recently, l i t t l e e f f o r t i n North America and A u s t r a l i a to develop a methodology independent of that i n Europe. A vast majority of the early work i n these countries has been l i m i t e d to etymological i n v e s t i g a t i o n of place-names according to the European methodology and the compilation of gazetteer-type surveys (Gudde I 9 6 O 5 Barnes 1935? Gannett 1947; Kenny 1945$ McArthur 1944j Meaney 1923; Anderson 1942; Reed 1952), and a r t i c l e s on problems i n such i n v e s t i g a t i o n presented by the names of a s p e c i f i c area (Whitback 1 9 1 1 ) . From these e a r l i e r uncoordinated works a corpus of i m aterial has emerged, which was revised by l a t e r scholars using 10 a more s y s t e m a t i c methodology. I t has i n v o l v e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a p r i m a r y s t e p , as s e t out by Rudnyckyj ( S a h l g r e n e t a l 1954.453-^ 57) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f Canadian place-names. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on onomastic p r i n c i p l e s , and p l a c e s the names i n one o f the t h r e e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : a. Autochthonous ( a b o r i g i n a l ) names (Winn i p e g , Y e e r o n g p i l l y ) b. I m p o r t e d place-names i . trans/placed names (London, B e r l i n ) i i , t r a n s f e r r e d names (Vancouver, San F r a n c i s c o ) c. Toponymic n e o l o g i s m s ( P o r t a g e l a p r a i r i e , Sandy Creek) These were the mechanics f o r n a m e - g i v i n g i n t h e c o l o n i z e d c o u n t r i e s , and thus a c c o u n t s f o r a l l t he names found i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . The o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n from European forms of place-name s t u d y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a has been t h e s t u d y by Z e l i n s k y (1955). The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n h e r e i s t o examine im-p o r t e d place-names i n l a r g e r u n i t s , , t h a t p r e s e n t e d by the d i s -t r i b u t i o n maps o f s e l e c t e d g e n e r i c terms. T h i s i n v o l v e s p l o t -t i n g the l o c a t i o n o f terms such as c r e e k , brook, r u n , v i l l e e t c . , upon a s c a l e map, and p r o v i d e s v i s u a l p a t t e r n s f o r subsequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The t h i r d s t a g e of place-name s t u d y , the i n t e r p r e t i v e , i s one which h a s , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , been t h e e x c l u s i v e domain o f the h i s t o r i a n and a r c h a e o l o g i s t ( S t e n t o n 1940; 1941; S m i t h 1956). Where i t has o v e r l a p p e d w i t h the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l phase i t has: 11 "been because the h i s t o r i a n or archaeologist has conducted the place-name study as well as i n t e r p r e t i n g the evidence of the names (Sankalia 19^9; Ryan 1964; A l l c h i n 1 9 6 3 ) . The exceptions to t h i s are the introductions to the county volumes of the EPNS, surveys i n the h i s t o r i c a l geography of the counties, and two re-cent general surveys of English place-names (Cameron I96I5 Reaney I 9 6 0 ) . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the evidence provided by thevety-mological analysis of place-names has generally lacked range being l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to h i s t o r i c a l geography and the i d e n t i f i -cation of archaeological s i t e s ( A l l c h i n 1 9 6 3 ) . The former i n -cludes the studies by Sankalia (19^9) and his students (Gokhale 1960; Lele 1962; Mathur 1963? Muley 195^; Se Shardi 1963; Suresh 1965) f o r d i f f e r e n t regions of India, and the work by Smith (1956) and Stenton (1940; 1941;) i n England. The technique of the English scholars i s an-1 example of t h i s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of key suffixes has made i t possible to p l o t population concentra-tions and movements di a c h r o n i c a l l y . These s u f f i x e s , such as bj£ and t o f t f o r the Scandinavian l i n g u i s t i c groups i n England (Cameron 1 9 6 l t 8 0 ^ and tun, ham and ing. i n a l l i t s v a r i a t i o n s , f o r the Anglo-Saxons (Smith 1 9 5 6 1 6 7 - 8 8 ) , are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the naming patterns of s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l groups. Furthermore, as i l l u s t r a t e d by Smith ( 1 9 5 6 ) , these suffixes may be .charac-t e r i s t i c of naming behaviour during c e r t a i n periods and phases i n settlement, and patterns may be i n f e r r e d from them. The ex-tent of settlement i n these population concentrations may, how-ever, not be determined from v i l l a g e names only. The number of 12 f i e l d names given by a c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l group i n an area may provide convincing evidence of extensive settlement. Thus the i n t e n s i t y of settlement of c u l t u r a l groups should be based, f o r one, upon the evidence of a comparison between the numbers of f i e l d and v i l l a g e names belonging to a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l group (Stenton 1941»1-22). Beyond th i s only sporadic'attempts have been made at examining the s o c i a l customs, b e l i e f patterns and l e g a l customs that may be i n f e r r e d from the evidence provided by place-names (Cameron 196l«119-141j Sankalia 1 9 4 9 » 4 7 ) . Stenton ( 1 9 4 3 ) , on the place of women i n Anglo-Saxon hi s t o r y , Dickins (1933)? Cameron ( I 9 6 I 1119-141) and Ryan (1964124-52), on the s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s aspects of place-names, are the best of these. A l -though i t has been recognised that place-names can a i d i n the examination of the movements of the a g r i c u l t u r a l f r o n t i e r tEkwall 1 9 3 6 » 5 ; Stenton 1 9 4 l i 8 ) , that an analysis of the content of names could provide an idea as to the f l o r a and fauna of a region, the crops grown and perhaps even the type of a g r i c u l t u r e practiced i n the region, no work has been done on t h i s aspect of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of place-names. The i n t e r p r e t i v e stage r e l a -t i v e to the p h i l o l o g i c a l , i s s t i l l i n i t s infancy, and much work remains to be done i n t h i s area. A l l these studies have been conducted i n what, may now be regarded as a t r a d i t i o n a l mode of analysis, where a." ;legiti-mate, but excessive, concern with the diachronic has led to a close association of place-name study with etymology. The view that place-names are the f o s s i l s of human geography (Dauzat i 9 6 0 ) 13 has i n large part contributed to thi s emphasis of diachronic l i n g u i s t i c study of the names. Yet the names are more than mere f o s s i l s . They are the symbolic means whereby peoples i d e n t i f y and organize the space surrounding them (Morrison MSS), and thus can be as much the systemization of space by l i v i n g . cultures as the accumulated deposits of previous inhabitants of an area. Place-names i n t h e i r e x i s t i n g forms are, i n Dauzat's terms, representative of the contemporary stratum of human geo-graphy. The purpose of the etymological study of place-names, as mentioned previously, has been to provide reasoned explana-tions of the o r i g i n a l meanings of the names, to a i d i n the subse-quent reconstruction of the h i s t o r y of nations. But where the study of the names i s synchronic, etymological i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the names i s not necessarily a precondition. I t would be un-avoidable i f , and only''1 i f , the names i n t h e i r present forms are meaningless, that i s , without any semantic content. However, not every form of place-name i s meaningless. Sedgewick's (above, p. 7 ) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of English place-names i n three forms, proper names, des c r i p t i v e names and an intermediary form, may be applied,equally to Indian place-names. The l a t t e r forms, having meaning, i f only i n one element of the name, are amenable to l i m i t e d types of synchronic analysis with-out p r i o r derivation of t h e i r o r i g i n a l meanings (cf Zelinsky 1955). The proper name, however, defined by Gardiner (1954«73) as "a word or group of words which i s recognised as having iden-t i f i c a t i o n as i t s s p e c i f i c purpose,^and which achieves . . . that 14 purpose by means of i t s d i s t i n c t i v e sound alone;," and i s thus meaningless, requires etymological analysis p r i o r to interpre-ta t i o n . On th i s basis the following hypothesis was formulated for t e s t i n g , i n accordance with the general aims of t h i s study. I t i s that there i s a re l a t i o n s h i p between place-names and c u l -t u r a l regions, i f a c o r r e l a t i o n i s exhibited between toponymic systems and known c u l t u r a l features of the inhabitants of the study area. Toponymic systems, as we s h a l l define them below (p. 16 ), are s p a t i a l l y l i m i t e d groups of toponyms within which terms, used to denote what may be considered to be spaces with d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s , bear some r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other. The known c u l t u r a l feature f o r t h i s study w i l l be that most r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , the s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the lan-guages spoken by the inhabitants of the study area. In an analysis of place-names as symbols i n the organi-zation of the environment, the component i n the name of greatest importance i s the denotative. This component i n the l i n g u i s t i c structure of the name i s most often the s u f f i x . I t serves to dis t i n g u i s h p a r t i c u l a r spaces from others within the environ-ment of a population, i n terms of t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s and c u l t u r a l functions. As such, i t also serves as an index to the r e l a t i o n -ships of spaces within the environment of the c u l t u r a l group / (Morrison MSS). Any evidence, other than the purely l i n g u i s t i c , may be obtained from these denotative components only by implication, never d i r e c t l y (Wainwright 1 9 6 2 i l 0 ) . In a synchronic study, un-15 l i k e the d i a c h r o n i c , the s t u d y o f i n d i v i d u a l names i s r e l a t i v e l y m e a n i n g l e s s . The n a t u r e o f the e v i d e n c e , t h a t i s , the p o s s i b l e meanings and l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n s o f elements i n the names, a l l o w s f o r l i t t l e more t h a n educated guesses a t t h e e x t r a - l i n -g u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the name, the i n f o r m a t i o n on c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f the naming p o p u l a t i o n embodied w i t h i n the place-name. The l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by t h i s " m i c r o s c o p i c " methodology may be overcome by c o n d u c t i n g the i n v e s t i g a t i o n on a " m a c r o s c o p i c " s c a l e , u s i n g a n a l y t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s t h a t w i l l r e v e a l the o t h e r -w i s e h i d d e n c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . An e x c e l l e n t model i s the s t u d y by Z e l i n s k y (1955) , where the a n a l y s i s i s c o n d u c t e d upon the b a s i s o f the u n i t s p r o v i d e d by the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s e l e c t e d place-name e l e m e n t s , th e " m a c r o s c o p i c " s c a l e . U s i n g the method s u g g e s t e d by Z e l i n s k y ' s work,, the a n a l -y t i c a l g r o u p i n g s f o r t h i s s t u d y a r e the u n i t s p r e s e n t e d by the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of de.notati.ve components f o u n d i n the place-names of the Chota Nagpur. These u n i t s , "toponymic p a t t e r n s , " . a r e c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the v a r i a b l e s of p o s s i b l e meaning and l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n and s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n o f the e l e m e n t s , and p r o v i d e s immediate v i s u a l and s t a t i s t i c a l b e n e f i t s . I n the form of a d i s t r i b u t i o n map t h e p a t t e r n d e f i n e s t h e a r e a o f o c c u r e n c e and r e g i o n s o f g r e a t and low d e n s i t y o f o c c u r e n c e of a p a r t i c u l a r element. The p a t t e r n s o f a s e l e c t e d group of e l e m e n t s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n , d e f i n e a p a r t i a l toponymic system i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o each o t h e r , p a r t i a l i n t h a t i t does n o t encompass a l l the elements found i n the place-names of the a r e a . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the toponymic p a t t e r n s i n t o what may 16 be postulated as a p a r t i a l toponymic system i s on the basis of the t h e o r e t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of any given system. These are that a n a l y t i c a l categories be defined and be f u n c t i o n a l l y interdepen-dent and i n t e r a c t i n g (De Vos and Wagatsuma 1966128?; Buckley 1 9 6 8 : 8 1 ) . These a n a l y t i c a l categories f o r the toponyms are those of the toponymic patterns, and t h e i r interdependence and i n t e r a c t i o n occur i n the function of t h e i r component elements as symbols i n the organization of the environment. Spaces within the environment of a c u l t u r a l group perceived as having s i m i l a r a t t r i b u t e s being i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r l y , the cooccurence i n d i s -t r i b u t i o n of the s i m i l a r labels of two or more types of spaces, and t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l preponderance over labels of spaces with the same a t t r i b u t e s within t h i s area of cooccurence, demarcate toponymic systems. The component elements of the toponymic patterns were defined following c o l l e c t i o n of the names. The names were ob-tained from the Series U 5 0 2 , E d i t i o n 1-AMS maps of the United States army, on a scale of 1 : 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 , f o r Gaya (NG 4 5 - 1 3 ) , Ranchi (NF 4 5 - 1 ) , P u r u l i a (NF 4 5 - 2 ) , Sundargarh (NF 4 5 - 5 ) , Jamshedpur (NF 4 5 - 6 ) , Champa (NF 4 4 - 8 ) and Ra.igarh (NF 4 4 - 1 2 ) . As these maps contain the names of v i r t u a l l y every hamlet i n the Chota Nagpur, i t was decided that the sample of one-half of the names, an estimated nine thousand, would be large and .accurate enough f o r the purposes of t h i s study. The size of the sample, and the method of c o l l e c t i o n of the names, from each alternate 15* l a t i t u d e and longitude square (Map 3 ) , would i n a large i measure overcome d i s t o r t i o n i n the s t a t i s t i c a l proportions of 17 the d e n o t a t i v e , components s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n . Upon c o l l e c t i o n the names were t r a n s c r i b e d on t o F o r t r a n c o d i n g s h e e t s ( F i g . 1 ) , f o r the p u r p o s e s of t h e i r subsequent o r d e r i n g by computer. The f i r s t s i x columns c o n t a i n e d a n u m e r i -c a l code i n d i c a t i n g t h e g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n of the name and the "space" i t l a b e l l e d . The numbers i n columns one t o t h r e e were, r e s p e c t i v e l y , map number, e.g. Ranch! - map one; Gaya - map two, and square number, w i t h the w e s t - e a s t squares on each map num-b e r e d from one t o s i x and the n o r t h - s o u t h from seven t o z e r o . The r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the computer n e c e s s i t a t e d t h i s r a t h e r un-w i e l d y code, and i t was s i m p l i f i e d f o r the p urposes of r e p o r t i n g . Thus, the sample square r e p o r t e d as G 6 i n C h a p t e r Two , was, on the F o r t r a n s h e e t s , 110. Columns f o u r and f i v e were v a c a n t . Column s i x c o n t a i n e d the number u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the name, t h a t i s whether, i t was o f a v i l l a g e o r hamlet w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n below 5»000 p e r s o n s (5)> o f a r i v e r ( 6 ) , a m o u n t a i n ( 7 ) , a l a k e ( 8 ) , a c i t y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n between 5 ,000 and 10,000 ( 4 ) , one w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n between 10,000 and ' 2 5 , 0 0 0 ( 3 ) , one w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n between 25 ,000 and 100,000 (2) o r one w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o ver 100,000 ( 1 ) . When the names a r e c o l l e c t e d from maps, p o s t o f f i c e l i s t s o r census l i s t s , f a c t o r s o f p o s s i b l e d i s t o r t i o n o f the name a r i s e . The most common problem i s i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the name i n t o E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y . A l a c k o f d i a c r i t i c a l marks, as was e v i d e n t i n the maps used makes i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e the a c t u a l p r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f the name, and l e a v e s no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t f o r educated guesses as t o some of the names; 18 e.g. i s pani, the form of the s u f f i x provided by the map, pani, pan! or pani7 Another of the problems i s the practice of the compilers of the maps or l i s t s to give the names a San s k r l t i c look, e.g. Banlap;ano>Banigram; Bhatpaira> B h a t t a p a l l l (Goswami 1 9 ^ 3 » 2 1 ; 2 3 ) . Each name thus has to be treated with caution, as the only way i n which to determine the actual pronounciatlon of the name i s through a thorough f i e l d survey. U i z < a: t-QL O U O Z h z IL) 3 9 r o 0 0 r o P; r o r o r o -< •< 1 53 •2 < -< r o ^ O a c-j -4 l-< w V-r o rv j C-J s 0 0 CO UO U —1 l < t-4 V--< < cr> 0 0 < < «<t >- •3: wn u> O Q O «S <i m 0 rv-CNI I — «—* to -p CD x: CO bO • H T j O a as (H •P U o bO 20 During the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the names care was taken to include a l l the d i a c r i t i c a l marks indicated upon the maps. This was decided upon as a preliminary step, although the prob-lem of inaccurate recording of pronounciations was recognised. Of a l l the phonemes i n the languages found i n the study area, as indicated i n F i g . 2, d i a c r i t i c a l marks were Indicated by the map makers on only the vowels and dipthongs, d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the short forms /a/, / i / , /o/, /u/ and /e/ and the res-pective long forms /a/, /I/, /au/, /u/ and / a i / , e.g. para, pahar, hatu. The discrepancies between the forms of the names upon the maps and those provided by d i c t i o n a r i e s (see Bibliography), and t h e i r simulated pronounciations, give strong i n d i c a t i o n that the recording by the map makers was made from a written, and not o r a l , source. An example of t h i s i s i n the element t r a n s l i t e r a -ted as tanr. . The t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of the written forms i s , /tj[d/ or / t a r / and /tad/ or / t a r / , with a d i s t i n c t n a z a l i z a t i o n i n the pronounciation of the former. The a n g l i c i z a t i o n of the or a l form has omitted the two important d i a c r i t i c a l marks d i s t i n -guishing between the dental and r e t r o f l e x forms of the stops / t / and /d/ (/r/ i s an alternate means of t r a n s l i t e r a t i n g the r e t r o f l e x stop /d/), and t r a n s l i t e r a t e d the phoneme of naz a l i z a -t i o n /•"/ as a d i s t o r t i n g dental stop /n/. However, as the con-cern of t h i s study i s not l i n g u i s t i c , t h i s phonetic d i s t o r t i o n i s of l i t t l e importance. What i s important i s that the element be d i s t o r t e d i d e n t i c a l l y i n a l l cases, f o r the purposes of accounting f o r every occurence of i t i n the same form. Figure 2j Phonetic Tables Hindit Velar P a l a t a l STOPS Unvoiced: Unaspirated k c Aspirated kh ch Voiced: Unaspirated S Aspirated gh Nasals n n Semivowels (Voiced) Siblants y s (Unvoiced) A s p i r a t i o n (Unvoiced) VOWELS (Voiced) a \ i a 1 e Retroflex. Dental L a b i a l t t p th th ph d d b dh dh bh n n m r 1 v s s r ~~ • u * — u o au / Bengali; Velar P a l a t a l Retroflex Dental L a b i a l STOPS Unvoicedj Unaspirated k c t 9 t p Aspirated kh ch th o th ph Voicedi Unaspirated S d • d b Aspirated gh jh dh dh bh Nasals n n n 0 n m Semivowels (Voiced) Siblants y s r s * 1 s (Unvoiced) A s p i r a t i o n (Unvoiced) VOWELS (Voiced) a a i \* ' r • u u • e oi 0 0 ou O r l y a t Velar P a l a t a l Retroflex Dental L a b i a l STOPS Unvoicedi Inaspirated k c t • t p Aspirated kh ch th • . th P h Voicedi Unaspirated S 3 d d b Aspirated gh jh dh m dh bh Nasals gnua gnia ana • n m Semivowels (Voiced) Siblants y s r s • 1 s w (Unvoiced) A s p i r a t i o n (Unvoiced) VOWELS (Voiced) a i ru • u ru l u u e o 51 au / 24 Austro-asiatlc t V e lar P a l a t a l Retroflex Dental L a b i a l STOPS Unaspirated k c t t p Checked k' ' o'.. t» t* p» Unaspirated g j d d b Checked g° j 1 d' d" b' n n n n m y r r w VOWELS 1 a I u a 1 u o Kurukh: Velar P a l a t a l Retroflex Dental L a b i a l STOPS Unaspirated k c t t p Aspirated kh Unaspirated g j d d b Nasals n fi n n m Semivowels y r 1 v r S i b l a n t s As p i r a t i o n VOWELS a i u a I • u * e o e 6 / 26 F o l l o w i n g r e c o r d i n g ' o f the. names on the F o r t r a n code s h e e t s an i n i t i a l s u r v e y was made t o i d e n t i f y elements o c c u r -i n g f i n a l l y , as s u f f i x e s . The problems e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h i s were not w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r s u f f i x e s used i n t h i s s t u d y , a s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one, Pos., t h e y were a l l i n i d e n t i f i a b l e forms. The s u f f i x e s t h a t p r o v i d e d p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n were those t h a t were c o n t a i n e d i n p r o p e r names, where p h o n e t i c change had r e n d e r e d them m e a n i n g l e s s . I t was o n l y a f t e r t h i s s t e p had been c o m p l e t e d , and the s e p a r a t e elements o f the names r e c o r d e d , i n r e v e r s e o r d e r , i n columns 25 t o 43 on t h e c o d i n g s h e e t s ( F i g . 1 ) , t h a t a - l e s s l a b o r i o u s p r o c e d u r e f o r t h i s was d e t e r m i n e d . I t e n t a i l s a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r i n g o f the e n t i r e sample i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the c o l -l e c t i o n of the names. T h i s would enable the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o i d e n t i f y the elements i n the name by a p r o c e d u r e a n a l o g o u s t o the " m i n i m a l p a i r " of morphs mode, the a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r i n g b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r i d e n t i c a l f i r s t elements from t h r o u g h o u t the sample (See F i g . 1 ) . The d i v i s i o n o f t h e names i n t o t h e i r component elements p r e c e e d e d t h e i r o r d e r i n g by computer, t o f a c i l i t a t e subsequent s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . T h i s o r d e r i n g was i n s i x c a t e g o r i e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the h y p o t h e s i s . The f i r s t p r i n t - o u t was an a l p h a b e t i c a l i n d e x of a l l the names c o l l e c t e d , f o l l o w e d by one o f a l l the s i m p l e names o n l y . The m u l t i - e l e m e n t names were, t h e n p r i n t e d o u t , i n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h a l i s t of the s u f f i x e s i n t h e names ( F i g . 3 ) . The r e s i d u a l names, tho s e w i t h s u f f i x e s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e 27 i d e n t i f i e d on the s u f f i x l i s t , were a l s o c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s p r i n t - o u t , as a s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y . The names o f r i v e r s and m o u n t a i n s , a l t h o u g h c o n t a i n e d i n the o t h e r p r i n t - o u t s , were c o l l e c t e d s e p a r a t e l y , t o e n a b l e e a s i e r a c c e s s t o them f o r the l a t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the toponymic p a t t e r n s . The f i n a l p r i n t -out was a c o m p i l a t i o n o f histogrammes, I n d i c a t i n g the s t a t i s -t i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f each type o f name, s i m p l e o r compound, i n each sample s q u a r e . The computer, the use o f w h i c h i n t h i s t y pe of s t u d y i s t h e f i r s t t o our knowledge, p r o v e d a u s e f u l t o o l , b u t a l i m i t e d one. B e a r i n g I n mind the s i z e o f the sample, as men-t i o n e d b e f o r e some n i n e thousand names, i t was t h e most r a p i d and e f f i c i e n t means of o r d e r i n g the sample. But t h i s f u n c t i o n , and t h a t o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a s p e c t s of t h i s s t u d y , were the o n l y ones where I t was p o s s i b l e t o use the computer w i t h o u t an overwhelming amount of p r e p a r a t o r y m a n u a l l a b o u r . However, t h i s was more a l i m i t a t i o n Imposed by the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y , t h a n one i n t e g r a l i n computer usage. 28 F i g u r e 3» S u f f i x L i s t a r a unga Loya abad ghat b u r u t a n r g h a t a g o r a d i h g h a t u b a n i d i h a munda b h a t a t o l b a h ar s e r a t o l a b a h a l wa t o l l d a r mu b a r d a r a l a b a r a j h o r t u g a r a j h o r a sa band j h o r i we bandh dand ba banda k e r • dag k e r a war s a r war a s a r a mar j h a r mara j h a r i a p u r j h a r a n p u r a j a r p u r l a h a r s a i p a l i da wan . h a t wani h a t a nagar h a t u l o i P i •. b e r -pos b e r a p o s i b e r y a ' s o l wai s o l a g u r u j o r s a n r j o r a g a r i j o r i d a n r p a r garh p a r a p a t p a r i s a r u ' \ • > gaon ganj p a n i g a i n k e l t a n i k e l a d i r i • ' I \ 29 1 . 2 . Languages of the Chota Nagpur. The second variable i n the hypothesis, that of the known c u l t u r a l features of the inhabitants of the study area, i s , as mentioned previously, the s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n of the languages spoken i n the Chota Nagpur. The demarcation of the p a r t i c u l a r area selected f o r study was made on the basis of a l l - I n d i a n as well as purely regional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Paramount i n the former are c u l -t u r a l c r i t e r i a , and i n the l a t t e r geographical. The s p e c i f i c boundaries (Map 1 ) , however, were not delineated by any c u l -t u r a l or e c o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a , but by the a v a i l a b i l i t y and l i m i -tations of source and material. The Chota Nagpur plateau region, l a r g e l y contained within the study area, i s an area of c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n (Subbarao 1 9 5 8 ) , with respect to the rest of India. These areas are also v a r i o u s l y termed " t r i b a l India" or "Adibasi" regions, similtaneously connotative of t h e i r c u l t u r a l status r e l a t i v e to the Great Traditions of India, and d e s c r i p t i v e of the predominant form of s o c i a l organization of the majority of t h e i r inhabitants. These areas are the backwaters of c i v i l i -zation, where older and/or more s t a t i c cultures have sought refuge from the advance of the great t r a d i t i o n s i n remote areas uncongenial to c i v i l i z a t i o n s based on advanced a g r i c u l -t u r a l economy (Haimendorf 1 9 ^ 8 ) . But t h i s i s not to i n f e r that a l l the inhabitants of these refuge areas have existed i n t o t a l i s o l a t i o n from the c i v i l i z a t i o n s surrounding them. Those i n -i habitants of the portions of these1, refuge zones are more 3 0 c o n g e n i a l t o the forms of a g r i c u l t u r e p r a c t i c e d by the r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s of the c i v i l i z a t i o n s have been i n c o n t a c t w i t h the l a t t e r o v er an extended p e r i o d of t i m e , and s t r o n g economic and s o c i a l l i n k s have, d e v e l o p e d between them th r o u g h the i n -s t i t u t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l c a s t e s ( E l w i n 1951). These r e f u g e zones a r e t o d a y p a r t of t h e l a r g e r . I n d i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , a l -though s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d and n o t w h o l l y c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the mainstream of t h a t c i v i l i z a t i o n . The v e r y g e o g r a p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s a r e a t h a t a l l o w e d i t t o f u n c t i o n h i s t o r i c a l l y as an a r e a of c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n a r e t h e r e g i o n a l c r i t e r i a t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h i t as a s u i t a b l e u n i t f o r s t u d y . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e G a n g e t i c p l a i n i m m e d i a t e l y t o the n o r t h o f i t , the Chota Nagpur i s a r e g i o n marked by t o p o g r a p h i c a l uneveness, c o n s i s t i n g of a s u c c e s s i o n < o f p l a t e a u x , h i l l s and v a l l e y s (Map 2 ) . The m ajor p l a t e a u x , t h e H a z a r i b a g h and R a n c h i p l a t e a u x , a r e s i t u a t e d i n t h e n o r t h and c e n t r a l m a r gins of the a r e a , and t h e y , t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i r d p l a t e a u i n the west, the P a t s , and the r o l l i n g t e r r a i n ••'of the e a s t e r n m a r g i n s , c o m p r i s e the m a j o r e x t e n t o f open l a n d i n the a r e a . The n o r t h e a s t e r n and s o u t h e r n r e a c h e s of the a r e a a r e mountainous and d e n s e l y f o r e s t e d , and a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e a l t e r n a t i n g f e a t u r e s of h i g h h i l l s and s t e e p v a l l e y s . I n a d d i t i o n to. the numerous s m a l l s t r e a m s , t h e m a j o r r i v e r s of the a r e a a r e the N o r t h K o e l , f l o w i n g n o r t h w e s t i n t o t h e Son, t h e S u v a r n a r e k h a , South K o e l , Sankh, S a n j a i , K h a r k a i , l b , Mahanadi and Hasdo, a l l f l o w i n g s o u t h o r s o u t h e a s t , and the Damodar, d r a i n i n g t h e a r e a e a s t w a r d . 31 The Chota Nagpur d i f f e r s from those areas surrounding i t c l i m a t i c a l l y as well. The mean temperatures vary consider-ably throughout the year, but are consistently lower than those encountered on the Gangetic p l a i n of Bihar (Diwakar 1958i 33-35). The March mean maximum of ?5°P r i s e s to 85°F i n May, the warmest month, and drops to 60°F i n December, the coldest. Mean minimum temperatures vary from the lowest of 47°F i n December to 70°F i n May. The annual mean temperature on the plateau i s 65°F. The average r a i n f a l l on the plateau during the year i s over 50 inches, higher than the plains regions (Diwakar 1958« 35). The wettest months of the year are the monsoon months, June to October, when 80-90$ of the annual r a i n f a l l i s re-ceived. The remainder of the r a i n f a l l i s l a r g e l y received during the hot season, between March and May. The d e l i m i t a t i o n of the boundaries of the study area was i n general accordance with t h i s regional geographical c r i t e r i a , although the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the maps used as the basic source material (see Bibliography) forced exclusion of minor portions of t h i s highland region i n the west and south, and the major part of the Rajmahal H i l l s i n the Northeast. The eastern, and the central portion of the northern, boundaries were i n t e n t i o n a l l y demarcated, the l a t t e r to exclude any part of the plains regions of the Gaya administrative d i s t r i c t . On the east no portion of West Bengal, excluding the P u r u l l a d i s t r i c t , was included, as t h i s area i s the focus of another study being conducted by Dr. Barrle Morrison. The remaining 32 administrative d i s t r i c t s included i n the study area, i n whole or part (Map 3 ) , are, i n Bihar, Hazaribagh, the Santal Pvarganas, Ranchi, Palamau, Dhanbad and Singhbhum, i n Orissa, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Sundargarh and Sambalpur, and i n Madhya Pradesh, Bilaspur, Surguja, Raipur and Raigarh. The approximately nine m i l l i o n people in h a b i t i n g the 3 0 - 3 5 . 0 0 0 square mile Chota Nagpur regions are scattered throughout some f i f t e e n thousand habitation s i t e s , a low density of population f o r the o v e r a l l area which i s borne out by the i n d i v i d u a l figures f o r each administrative d i s t r i c t . The only d i s t r i c t which exceeds the? average population density f o r the Gangetic plains region immediately to the north and east of the study area ( 8 0 0 - 1 0 0 0 persons per square mile) i s Dhanbad, with a density of 104-5 per square mile. The remain-ing d i s t r i c t s have densities f a r below t h i s f i g u r e , ranging from 5t>5 i n P u r u l i a to' 153 i n the Madhya Pradeshi d i s t r i c t s . Of the remainder of the study area, the d i s t r i c t s i n Orissa have a generally lower density than those i n Bihar. Among the former Mayurbhanj has the highest density, 299 per square mile, Keonjhar has 2 3 1 , Sambalpur 223 and Sundargarh 2 0 0 . 3 . The Santal Parganas has the highest density of the d i s t r i c t s i n Bihar other than Dhanbad, 487 per square mile. Singhbhum has 3 9 8 , Hazaribagh 3^3 and Ranchi 304 persons per square mile. These inhabitatns of the Chota Nagpur speak languages belonging to three language f a m i l i e s , the Indo-Aryan, Dravidian and A u s t r o a s i a t i c . This terminology f o r the languages::-is that used by Grierson ( 1 9 2 7 ) , i n h i s L i n g u i s t i c Survey of India, 33 and has been generally followed by the major sources of i n -formation f o r th i s section (Diwakar 1958; Census of India 1931; Census of India 1961; D i s t r i c t Gazetteers; Sachchidananda 1965')'. Within the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family Grierson distinguishes two sub-branches, the luner and Outer, on the basis of discrepancies i n phonology and syntax, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the pronounciation of s i b l a n t s , i n declension and i n conjugation (Grierson 1927» I; 1 1 7 - 1 1 9 ) . Between these sub-branches, i n the east, i s a Mediate sub-branch, which contains c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both sub-branches and acts as a t r a n s i t i o n a l language group. The languages contained within our study area belong to the Mediate sub-branch and the Eastern group of the Outer sub-branch. The Mediate group i s composed of three d i a l e c t s , not languages, Chattisgarhi, Bagheli and Awadhi. I t i s only the f i r s t men-tioned which i s found1*' i n the Chota Nagpur. The other Indo-Aryan languages found i n the Chota Nagpur belong to the Eastern group of the Outer sub-branch, a l l d i r e c t l y descendent from the old Magadha Apabhramsa. Two of the three B i h a r i d i a -l e c t s , Bhojpuri and Magahl, the t h i r d being M a i t h i l i , are pre-sent i n the study area, as are Bengali and Oriya. The fourth language of the Eastern group, Assamese, does not occur i n the area. Quite unlike Grierson's de t a i l e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n be-tween the Chattisgarhi d i a l e c t of Eastern Hindi and Bhojpuri and Magahl, present i n t h e i r d i a l e c t i c a l forms of Nagpuria Bhojpuri and Panch Pargania Magahi' as well as t h e i r pure forms, 34 other sources, p a r t i c u l a r l y the D i s t r i c t Gazetteers and Diwakar (1958), r e f e r to these languages c o l l e c t i v e l y as H i n d i . The e f f e c t s of t h i s are f e l t i n the data provided on numbers of speakers. Grierson's f i g u r e s , besides being dated, are given on the b a s i s of t o t a l numbers of speakers and pro-v i d e no accurate i n d i c a t i o n as to s t a t i s t i c s f o r speakers i n l i m i t e d r egions. The Census and D i s t r i c t Gazetteer informa-t i o n can s i m i l a r l y be only used on a g e n e r a l i z e d l e v e l , as numbers of " H i n d i , " or "Indo-Aryan other than Bengali and Oriya" speakers. However, usable p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s f o r each language spoken i n the area have been compiled,-as per-centage estimates based on Grierson's f i g u r e s , the Census of  I n d i a 1901, and the Census of I n d i a 196l. Of the Indo-Aryan languages present i n the study area, the major one, i n terms of the number of speakers, i s C h a t t i s -g a r h i . This language, which i s l i m i t e d almost e n t i r e l y to the Madhya Pradeshi d i s t r i c t s of B i i a s p u r , Surguja, Raipur and Raigarh (Map 4 ) , i s the mother tongue of 21.7% of the i n h a b i -t a n t s of the study area, The speakers of the B i h a r i d i a l e c t s of Nagpuria B h o j p u r i , Panch Pargania Magahi and Standard Magahi rank a s t a t i s t i c a l second to C h a t t i s g a r h i , w i t h 21 . 4 $ of the p o p u l a t i o n c l a i m i n g these languages as t h e i r mother tongue. Standard Magahi and Panch Pargania Magahi (Map 7.), found occuring i n Hazaribagh d i s t r i c t and i n eastern Ranch!, are the major d i a l e c t s ^ b e i n g spoken by 14.2$ of the t o t a l popu-l a t i o n of the study area. Nagpuria B h o j p u r i i s spoken by 7.2$ of the p o p u l a t i o n , l a r g e l y i n Ranchi and Palamau. B e n g a l i , 35 returned by 18.9^ of the population as t h e i r mother tongue, i s found occuring i n the easternmost portion of the study area, i n the Santal Parganas, P u r u l i a , Dhanbad and eastern Singhbhum (Map 5 ) . Oriya, the remaining Indo-aryan language found occur-ing i n the study area, i n southwestern Singhbhum, Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Sundargarh and Sambalpur (Map 6 ) , has as i t s speakers lb,9% of the t o t a l population of the study area. The Dravidian, the convential name f o r the family of South Indian languages, i s represented i n the Chota Nagpur by the Kurukh language. This language, spoken by the members of the Oraon t r i b e , i s the mother tongue of 5.5% of the population of the study area. I t i s found occuring i n the western portion of the study area (Map 8), i n southern Palamau, western Ranchi, Sundargarh, Raigarh, eastern Surguja and eastern Sambalpur. The Austroasiatic sub-family of languages, part of the Austroasiatic-Vietname vse-Muong family of languages (Zide 1 9 6 6 ) , i s represented i n the Chota Nagpur by the S a n t a l i , Mundari, Bhumij, Birhor, Ho, Asuri and Korwa d i a l e c t s of the Kherwarl language and the Kharia language. This group of languages was i n i t i a l l y classed by Hodgson (1848) as belonging to the Dravidian family of languages, r e f e r r i n g to them as d i a l e c t s of the Kol language. The f i r s t to class them as a separate family of languages was Max Muller, who c a l l e d them Munda languages, / and indicated t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the languages of the Malay peninsula and the Polynesian archipelago. Grierson (1927) follows him i n r e f e r r i n g to them as the Munda languages, but as i t h i s term i s too close to the name of one of the d i a l e c t s , 36 Mundari, and a l i k e l y source of confusion, we s h a l l r e f e r to them, following Zide ( 1 9 6 6 ) , as Austroasiatlc languages. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Au s t r o a s l a t i c languages gener-a l l y complements that of Kurukh within the study area, the ex-ception being i n western Ranchi ( c f . Maps 8 & 9 ) . The s t a t i s -t i c a l l y major d i a l e c t of the Kherwari language, S a n t a l i , spoken by 7 . 1 $ of the population of the study area, i s found l a r g e l y i n the eastern portion of the study area, i n Dhanbad, Pu r u l i a , Mayurbhanj, Singhbhum and the Santal Parganas. Ho, another of the d i a l e c t s of Kherwari, i s spoken by 4 . 1 $ of the population, and has a much more r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n than S a n t a l i . I t i s found occuring l a r g e l y i n western Singhbhum, and i n the immediately adjacent regions of Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Sundargarh. The t h i r d r e l a t i v e l y widely spoken d i a l e c t of Kherwari, Mundari, spoken by 4 . 3 $ of the population, has i t s speakers concentrated l a r g e l y i n eastern Ranchi, with small numbers being found i n Sundargarh and Sambalpur, Korwa ( 0 . 1 7 $ of the population) and Asuri ( 0 . 0 5 $ ) , are two minor d i a l e c t s found i n the western portion of the study area, i n western Ranchi, Palamau and Raigarh, and Bhumij ( 0 . 0 8 $ ) occurs i n the east, i n Singhbhum and P u r u l i a , The other Au s t r o a s i a t i c lan-guage found i n the study area, K h a r i % has a l l i t s speakers, 0 . 8 $ of the population, concentrated within a very small area / i n southwestern Ranchi, 1.3. Summary The aim of t h i s study i s to provide an a n c i l l a r y a i d i n the s t u d y o f c u l t u r e , i n d e v e l o p i n g a methodology whereby contemporary place-names may be used t o demarcate r e l a t i v e l y homogenous c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s i n complex s o c i e t i e s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . To t h i s end a h y p o t h e s i s has been p r e s e n t e d , xtfhich examines the c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s s t u d y t h a t contemporary place-names may be used to. demarcate c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s t h r o u g h the c o r r e l a t i o n of. the d i s t r i b u t i o n , of d e n o t a t i v e elements i n place-names, as o r g a n i z e d i n t o toponymic • systems,. and t h e d i s -t r i b u t i o n of a known c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e , t h a t of the languages spoken i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . 38 Two. 2.1. Denotative Components i n the Contemporary Place-names of the Chota Nagpur. In the examination of the relationships between place-names and c u l t u r a l regions, the elements i n the toponyms which are of i n t e g r a l importance, as mentioned previously, are the denotative components. These elements, as symbols i n environ-mental organization, may reveal toponymic systems i n t h e i r patterns of interdependence and i n t e r a c t i o n , where t h e i r re-lated usage i s li m i t e d to p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l groups. Denotative components have been made use of previously i n place-name studies. Some of these are Zelinsky (1955)» Stenton ( 1 9 ^ 0 ) , Smith (1956) and Cbllingwood and Myres ( 1 9 3 6 ) . However, i t i s only i n Zelinsky*s study where the in v e s t i g a t i o n i s s o l e l y and extensively i n t o the denotative components of place-names. In the works of the English scholars the use of these components has been l i m i t e d and f o r in t e r p r e t i v e purposes only. They have been used to establish h i s t o r i c a l areas of settlement and influence o f . c u l t u r a l groups, with whom c e r t a i n denotative components have been associated through previous ety-mological i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The denotative components used i n thi s study f a l l into three broad categories, according to usage. Five of these, nadi. jhor, gara, khai and nSla. are terms denoting watercourses, and f i v e , pahar P parbat f buru,. dongar and tungar. mountains. In addi t i o n to these f i v e terms f o r mountains, "another" was examined, m<nuntain names which contained no generic s u f f i x , 39 i . e . no d e n o t a t i v e component. The r e m a i n i n g e i g h t e e n components, t l n r , munda, pan!. l o r , b e r . p a l i . k e l , dag, g u t u , pos, p u r . h a t u . d i h . t o l . gaon, g a r a ; s a i v and p a r a , were th o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s . The c h o i c e of t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r elements was based on s t a t i s t i c a l c r i t e r i a . The g e n e r i c - s u f f i x l e s s m o u n t a i n names were r e t a i n e d i n the sample, as i t was n o t i c e d d u r i n g c o l l e c -t i o n o f the names t h a t t h i s "term" composed a p p r o x i m a t e l y 27$ o f a l l t he mounta i n names c o l l e c t e d . I n the case o f the o t h e r w a t e r c o u r s e and mounta i n terms, a l l the oc c u r e n c e s of a l l the terms w i t h i n t h e i n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n t h e sample. Thus, n a d l composed 92$ o f a l l w a t e r c o u r s e terms, .jhor 5.7$,. garo 1.7$ and khai and n a l a 0.3$ each. The o c c u r e n c e s o f pahar formed 32.5$ o f a l l the mounta i n terms, b u r u 31.4$, p a r b a t 2.3%. dongar 4.35$ and t u n g a r 2.1$. The s t a t i s t i c a l c r i t e r i o n used i n the s e l e c t i o n o f the terms a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s was t h a t any l i n g u i s t i -c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d term w i t h a p e r c e n t a g e o c c u r e n c e o f 0.5$ ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y o c c u r e n c e s ) and above o f a l l the compound names i n the i n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n would be i n c l u d e d . Among the g e n e r i c terms t o l had the h i g h e s t o c c u r e n c e , 9 . 8$ , f o l l o w e d by d i h (8 .8$) , £ur ( 6 . 7 $ ) , gaon ( 1 . 9 $ ) , p a r a (1.4$), k e l ( 1 . 2 $ ) , reara ( 0 . 7 3 $ ) , dSg ( 0 . 6 9 $ ) , h S t u ( 0 . 6 7 $ ) , and s a l , g u t u and pos ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.5$ e a c h ) . The s t a t i s t i c a l o c c u r e n c e s among the n o n - g e n e r i c terms were p a l l 4 .8$, p a n i 1.4$, b e r 1.3$ munda 1.2$, i o r 0.99$ and t f f n r 0.64$. A l l t he d e n o t a t i v e components i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , 40 w a t e r c o u r s e , m o u n t a i n and h a b i t a t i o n s i t e , a r e c o n t a i n e d i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 36.3$ of a l l the names c o l l e c t e d i n i t i a l l y , a. c o l l e c t i o n t h a t composed a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f the names i n the s t u d y a r e a . l T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d upon 3 ,2?4 of t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18,000 names i n the s t u d y a r e a , on a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18.3% o f t h e names i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . J,' x F o r the t o t a l number o f h a b i t a t i o n s i t e names and t h e t o t a l number o f compound h a b i t a t i o n s i t e names see F i g s . 4 & 5 . i I 85 1 4 8 94 ' 1 8 1 1 4 9 58 0 p Q R s 3 79 80 58 65 115 71 4 44 1 0 4 57 78 109 96 79 1 1 8 i i i 79 99 37 A c D E F 78 100 106 97 93 103 7 78 6 4 90 131 215 2 4 2 102 91 e 8 4 36 4 1 125 152 176 1 1 8 101 6 4 9 68 2 8 65 1 4 8 161 70 130 Ik 37 \o 1 3 6 106 101 134 96 4 1 156 8 1 88 II 1 4 7 136 152 12 116 133 C' C 66 13 137 9 7 94 14 115 70 OS 9 5 F i g . 4 . T o t a l Number of H a b i t a t i o n S i t e Names i n Each Sample Square. r H I kj 64 50 1 36 75 35 o p Q R s 3 40 44 36 42 85 54 4 18 57 33 44 72 78 40 55 57 48 66 26 A B c o E F 53 k5 57 70 56 65 7 47 38 51 108 16 0 150 67 64 e 57 19 27 114 144 126 94 65 46 9 51 20 56 136 127 38 95 5k 26 to 72 82 78 120 86 31 118 55 64 II 101 105 113 -. — 12 79 99 50 13 108 86 78 H 95 59 81 • F i g . 5. The Number of Compound Habitation S i t e Names - i n Each Sample Square. 43 2 . 2 . The Denotative Components. Nadi, a place-name element associated with water-courses, i s one of the few elements i n t h i s study that is_-found occuring i n a l l but a li m i t e d portion of the study area <^ Iap 1 0 ) . The l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n of t h i s generic term f o r " r i v e r " i s with the Indo-Aryan family of languages. The modern Hindi form i s nadi (Pathak 1 9 4 6 : 5 7 5 ) but the Oriya and Bengali vary s l i g h t l y i n t h e i r written forms, su b s t i t u t i n g a short vowel / i / f o r the long Hindi / I / , for the resultant form nadi. I t i s i n i t s pronounciatlon i n the l a t t e r languages that the major difference i s found. The f i r s t vowel, /a/, i s pro-nounced i n Oriya as [ o ] , [nodi], and i n Bengali as [o], [nodi] (Pattanayak 1 9 6 6 : 7 3 ) . The s i m i l a r i t y i n written form, provided as nadi i n a l l cases by the source used i n the study precludes . any more d e f i n i t e l i n g u i s t i c a f f i l i a t i o n f o r t h i s term, other than that i t i s associated with the"" languages of the Eastern Group of Indo-Aryan languages, because of the nature of the f i n a l vowel, i . e . / i / rather than / I / as i n Hindi. The pattern i n the frequency occurence of the 2 9 7 cases of nadi, 9 2 $ of a l l the occurences of watercourse names, i s one of r e l a t i v e evenness throughout the study area. With the excep-ti o n of the south central region and the southwestern corner of the study area, i t occurs with 1 0 0 $ ' f r e q u e n c y i n almost a l l the sample squares (Tables I and XXIII). In the south centre and southwest i t varies i n occurence from 0 $ i n sample square N10 to 1 0 0 $ i n squares B 1 3 , C12, E12, G10, J 1 0 , K9, M9, P 8 , Q9, B.8 and S9. However, the average rates of.occurence vary consider-44 ably between this region and that of the northern half of the study area. In the l a t t e r , composed of the d i s t r i c t s of Ranchi, Hazaribagh, Palamau, Dhanbad, Surguja, P u r u l i a , Bilaspur and the northern h a l f of Raigarh, i t i s 100$, but i n the former, with Sambalpur, Sundargarh, the southernmost region of Ranchi, Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj Included i n i t , the average rate of occurence i s much lower, 70.2$. In addition to nadi, watercourse i n the Chota Nagpur have four more terms associated with them jhor and i t s variant j or, gara and i t s variant garp, khal and nala (Map 11). Jhor and j o r are generic terms f o r watercourses, possibly associated with the Tamil root s J c o r i "to flow down" orJcura "flow" and the Kurukh form .joro "leaking" (Burrow and Emeneau 1961:185). The term gSra i s found i n S a n t a l i , i n the form gJicLa (Bodding 1929:11, 356; MacPhail 1 9 5 3 : 2 2 7 ) , as a generic term f o r a watercourse. GSro appears to be a variant of t h i s form. Gara may be an o r i g i n a l Kherwari form, or a loan word from the Indo-Aryan, from the Sanskrit root s/gad "to drip," which i n turn may be a borrowing from the Dravidian (Turner 1966:212). However, i n i t s use as a generic term f o r a watercourse i n t h i s region i t may be unique to the K h e r w a r i t h e Bihar! and the Oriya derivatives of Jgad, varying i n form and meaning, Kara "clay" or"mud mortar" (Turner 1966:221). Khal i s present In Hindi i n t h i s form, meaning " r i v u l e t , " and also i n Bengali, with the meanings "trench, canal" (Turner 1 9 6 6 : 2 0 2 ) . : The term n51a i s also associated with the Indo-Aryan 45 languages o f the s t u d y a r e a . B e n g a l i , and H i n d i have a v a r i a n t form n a l a , i n the f o r m e r meaning " d i t c h , " and " w a t e r c o u r s e , r a v i n e " i n the l a t t e r . The form i n O r i y a , meaning " r i v u l e t , " n f l a ( T u r n e r 1 9 6 6 : 4 0 4 ) . Of t h e s e terms the most numerous i s j h o r a n d i t s v a r i a n t j o r , 5.7% of. a l l the o c c u r e n c e s of w a t e r c o u r s e names. I t o c c u r s e l e v e n times'';.in Sambalpur, s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s d i s t r i c t , ' once j u s t a c r o s s the b o r d e r i n R a i g a r h , t w i c e i n n o r t h w e s t e r n Sundargarh, once i n s o u t h w e s t e r n R a n c h i , t w i c e i n s o u t h c e n t r a l Ranchi', on i t s b o r d e r w i t h Singhbhum, and t w i c e i n Singhbhum, once i n t h e extreme southwest and once on i t s n o r t h e r n b o r d e r w i t h P u r u l i a . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of j h o r thus f o l l o w s a s o u t h e r l y c o u r s e , from w e s t e r n O r i s s a t h r o u g h s o u t h e r n R a n c h i and Singhbhum i n t o B e n g a l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of g S r a , and g a r o , i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f j h o r i n b e i n g a s o u t h e r l y one, b u t i s a much more concen-: t r a t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a n j h o r ' s . Of the s i x o c c u r e n c e s of t h i s , d e n o t a t i v e component, c o m p r i s i n g 1 . 7 $ of the w a t e r c o u r s e terms, two a r e l o c a t e d i n s o u t h c e n t r a l R a n c h i , t h r e e i n w e s t e r n Singhbhum and one i n e a s t e r n Sundargarh. K h a l and n a l a o c c u r o n l y once each (each 0 . 1 3 $ of the w a t e r c o u r s e names) and w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d from each o t h e r . K h a l i s found i n M a y u r b h a n j , c l o s e t o t h e O r l s s a - B e n g a l b o r d e r , and n a l a on the o p p o s i t e f r i n g e s of the s t u d y a r e a , i n n o r t h e r n B i l a s p u r . Taken i n c o n j u n c t i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l t h e s e w a t e r c o u r s e terms may be summarised i n terms o f t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c 46 a f f i l i a t i o n . In the northern h a l f of the study area the terms are s o l e l y Indo-Aryan, a l l the cases found here but one, nala i n northern Bilaspur, being those of nadi. The occurences i n the southern d i s t r i c t s on the other hand, i n southern Ranchi, Singhbhum, Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh, Sambalpur and southern Raigarh, are associated with a l l three language families found i n the study area. Nadi occurs here as well, but as only 70.2$ of a l l cases recorded. The single occurence of the other Indo-Aryan term, khal, raises the proportion of the Indo-Aryan cases to 71.6$, d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the region. The Dravidian term jhor comprises 21.4$ of the occurences, and shows a d i s -t r i b u t i o n ranging from the western to the eastern borders of the study area. In contrast to t h i s wide range of s p a t i a l loca-. t i o n of .jhor i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Austroasiatic term gara, 7$ of the watercourse names i n these southern d i s t r i c t s . I t - i s concentrated i n the sbuthcentral portion of the study area. When a l l the names given to mountains i n the study area were examined a substantial number were found to have no generic s u f f i x . But t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n was plotted (Map 1 2 ) , as the quantity of these names was s i g n i f i c a n t enough to warrant t h i s . Some examples of these names, which,occur as both simple and compound names, are Aksi and BanadSg, names of neighbouring v i l l a g e s , and Bhai Bhain, "brother-sister," a d e s c r i p t i v e name / f o r a twin peaked h i l l . v Of a l l the names associated with mountains examined i n t h i s study, the mountain names without generic suffixes formed approximately :2 7$ (106 of 4 3 0 ) , and are d i s t r i b u t e d over a 47 large portion of the study area. In the west they occur, with just six plotted exceptions, only i n the northern two-thirds of Raigarh. Of the exceptions, four,occurences are i n the immediately adjacent area of Surguja, but the other two i n Sambalpur are a l i t t l e more i s o l a t e d from the main body i n Raigarh. This diagonal northeast-southwest pattern of occur-ence i n the west i s p a r a l l e l e d i n the east of the study area, although not as v i v i d l y i l l u s t r a t e d because of the more scat-tered nature of the occurences in-the east. This diagonal l i n e of occurence runs from the eastern corner of Sundargarh, through Singhbhum and Ranchi. However, the greater numerical concen-t r a t i o n i n Singhbhum and Sundargarh (Squares L10 and M9) than i n Ranchi (N6; Table I I ) , i s deceptive. The two occurences i n N6 comprise 100$ of the occurence of mountain names i n that square, whereas the 10 i n M9 are only 2.4$ and the six i n L10' 19.4$ of the mountain names i n these squares (Table XXIV). The t h i r d area of d i s t r i b u t i o n of this non-term i s a horizontal south-west l i n e running through Palamau, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, P u r u l i a and the Santal Parganas. The major regions of concentration of these mountain names without a generic s u f f i x &xe\ the western northeast-southwest diagonal and the northern horizontal l i n e . In the former they comprise 79.^$ of the occurence of a l l mountain terms, ranging from a low of 14.3$ i n E12 to a high of 100$ i n s i x sample squares (Table XXIV). Their percentage of occurence i s s l i g h t l y lower i n the l a t t e r region of concentration, 70$, from a low of 10$ In J4 to, again, a' high of 100$ i n ten sample 48 squares. In stark contrast to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these mountain names without an associated generic term i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the 140 occurences, 32.5$ of a l l mountain names, of term pahar. (cf. Maps 12 and 1 3 ) . This i s a generic term for mountain de-rived from the Sanskrit pahada "rock, h i l l , " (Turner 1 9 6 6 : 4 5 9 ) . The Oriya form of the term i s i d e n t i c a l to the Sanskrit pahada. In Bengali the f i n a l /a/ i s dropped from the Sanskrit form, to pahad. In addition to the change that takes place i n the Bengali form, the Hindi and M a i t h i l i also have a change i n the f i r s t /a/, to /a/, giving the form pahad. The meaning remains constant throughout, as " h i l l , " The occurences found of pahar (Map 1 3 ) , and the generic s u f f i x l e s s mountain names are mutually exclusive, with the ex-] ception of Palamau and Hazaribagh d i s t r i c t s where both are found. There are, however, only three cases of pahar i n Hazaribagh, i n contrast to sixteen of the generic s u f f i x l e s s names, whereas i n Palamau t h e i r numbers are, respectively, four-teen and eleven. In the west pahar. i s found i n a l l the d i s -t r i c t s , i n western Surguja, Northern Bilaspur, Southern Raipur, western Sambalpur and, with the exception of one case, only i n the areas of Raigarh where the generic s u f f i x l e s s term does not occur. A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n occurs i n the south-central and eastern regions. Eastern Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj contain cases of only pahar. Occurences of pahar i n the northeastern corner of Ranchi, and the single occurence i n Dhanbad, are i n areas where no generic s u f f i x l e s s names are found, although these 49 regions are contained i n the "eastern diagonal" d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern (above p. 47 ) of the generic s u f f i x l e s s names. The bulk of the occurences of pahar found are located i n the south-central region, i n Western Ranchi and Sundargarh ( c f . H7» J 8 , L8, K9 with A8, B7, B9 and 05 , . Q 9 i P8; Table I I I ) . This again i s an area containing only one occurence of generic s u f f i x l e s s names. The alternate occurences of the generic s u f f i x l e s s ' names and of pahar are well i l l u s t r a t e d by a comparison of Tables XXIV and XXV, i n d i c a t i n g the occurences of each term as percentages of the t o t a l number of mountain names i n each sample square. Of the remaining names associated with mountains the numerically most important i s buru (Map 14). Buru i s a Kherwari generic term f o r mountain^ and i s found i n a number of d i a l e c t s of this language, i n Santali (Bodding 1929 , 1 V , 2 7 4 ) , i n Munda (Grierson 1921iLV, 274) and i n Birhor (Grierson 1921 i IV, 2 7 3 ) . MacPhail (MacPhail 1 9 5 3 t l 0 6 ) regards "mountain" as a secondary meaning f o r Buru, the primary one having been " s p i r i t , an object of worship," but having been completely re-placed i n t h i s primary meaning by the term bortga. In contrast to the extensive s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of pahar and the generic suffixless;names, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of buru i s extremely concentrated. A l l 135 cases,31.4$ of the mountain names, are contained within eleven sample squares, mainly i n Western Singhbhum (Tables IV and XXVI). Of those not within western Singhbhum, seven cases are scattered through-out ce n t r a l Singhbhum, two i n Mayurbhanj, three i n Ranchi and four i n Sundargarh. The l a t t e r belong to the main concentration, 50 occuring on the border with Singhbhum. Parbat i s another of the generic terms f o r mountain found i n the place-names of the study area. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of this term i s indicated on Map 15. This i s an Oriya and Hindi term, derived from the Sanskrit parvata, of the same meaning (Turner 1965:367; Pathak 1946:662). The difference be-tween the Oriya and Hindi forms i s , as with nadi, i s i n the pronounciation of the written form parbat. The Hindi pronoun-c i a t l o n of the vowels i s that of the written form, i . e . /a/ as [a]. The Oriya pronounciation of /a/ i s as [°], with the stop rounded o f f , / t / to [ t o ] , i . e . [porbata] (Pattanayak 1966: 73). Although only ten cases of parbat occur i n the study area, comprising 2.3$ of the mountain names, i t has a d i s t i n c t d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern. With two exceptions, a l l the cases of thi s term are found situated i n Oriya d i s t r i c t s , i n Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh and Sambalpur. The two exceptions are exceptions only i n that they do not occur i n Oriya d i s t r i c t s . They serve to confirm the southern l i m i t a t i o n s of parbat. being situated i n the f a r south of Ranchi and Singhbhum, on t h e i r borders with Sundargarh and Mayurbhanj. The other generic terms f o r mountains found occuring i n t h i s area were dongar. i t s variant dongri (Map 16) and tungar and i t s variants tungri, tangar and tongri (Map 17). A l l these terms are derived from the Sanskrit takka " h i l l " (Turner 1966:300). The sheer v a r i e t y of these derivatives leads Turner to conclude that t h i s j i n d i c a t e s a non-Aryan, and perhaps Mundaric o r i g i n . The forms dongar (d5gar) and dongri 51 (doVri ) ar e r e a c h e d through the P r a k r i t dungara "mountain,'! and a r e p r e v a l e n t i n H i n d i , and p o s s i b l y i n E a s t e r n H i n d i d i a -l e c t s ( T u r n e r 1965:260). Tungar. t u n g r i , • t S n g a r and t o n g r i a r e perhaps H i h a r i f orms, the c l o s e s t p r e v a l e n t forms p r o v i d e d by T u r n e r ( T u r n e r 1966:300), b e i n g those i n O r i y a tarigara " r o c k y , h i l l y l a n d " and t u r i g u r i " h i l l o c k " and M a r a t h i t u g a r "mound." T h i s g e n e r i c s u f f i x i s a l s o found i n Kurukh, i n t h e form t u n g r i "mound" ( G r i g n a r d 1924:666). O n l y two o c c u r e n c e s (0.4$ o f the mountain names) o f d o n g r l were r e c o r d e d i n the s o u r c e s , one i n s o u t h c e n t r a l R a n c h i and one i n n o r t h e r n Singhbhum. They a r e i s o l a t e d from each oftier and from the main r e g i o n of d i s t r i b u t i o n o f dungar. T h i s r e -g i o n i s i n the southwest c o r n e r of the s t u d y a r e a , i n c l u d i n g i n i t R a i p u r , s o u t h e r n R a l g a r h and the a r e a o f Sambalpur c o n t i g u o u s t o R a l g a r h . There a r e fewer o c c u r e n c e s o f t u n g a r and i t s v a r i a n t s t h a n dungar, Wine(2.1$) and s e v e n t e e n (3.95$) r e s p e c -t i v e l y , and i t s r e g i o n of o c c u r e n c e i s more n o r t h e r l y . Three o c c u r e n c e s a r e i n s o u t h e r n R a n c h i , two i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o th e s e i n R a i g a r h , two I n n o r t h w e s t e r n R a n c h i and two more c l o s e by i n Palamau. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g e n e r i c : s u f f i x e s c o n t a i n e d i n m o u n t a i n names, and the cases o f mountain names w i t h o u t a gene-r i c s u f f i x , shows d i s t i n c t r e g i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r each form o f s u f f i x . The I n d o - A r y a n s u f f i x paha"r o c c u r s l a r g e l y i n the c e n t r a l and w e s t e r n s e c t o r s of the s t u d y a r e a , and i s n o t l i m i -t e d t o the s e c t o r o f any s i n g l e I n d o - A r y a n language (Maps 4, 5, 6 and 7). N e i t h e r ..'Is?.' t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the g e n e r i c 52 s u f f i x l e s s names, found occuring i n a majority i n Raigarh i n the west, Palamau, Hazaribagh, Dhanbadand, Pu r u l l a i n the north and northeast, and i n Singhbhum and Sundargarh i n the south. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the other generic s u f f i x occuring i n large numbers, however, the Austroasiatic s u f f i x buru, shows a close c o r r e l a t i o n to the extent of the s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n of the speakers of the Ho d i a l e c t of Kherwari ( c f . Maps 14 and 9 ) . S i m i l a r l y , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the remaining suffixes i n mountain names, parbat, dongar and tungar, indicate some rel a t i o n s h i p to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Indo-Aryan languages. Parbat i s l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to the region where Oriya i s spoken, dongar to the Chattisgarhi regions and tungar to the Nagpuria Bhojpuri region. Suffixes i n the v i l l a g e names of the study area that were examined show a wide range of v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r occurence. The two most numerous, and the only two d i s t r i b u t e d over a l l but a very small portion of the study area, are pur and pura (Map 18), and dih, and i t s variants d i h i and dlha (Map 1 9 ) . Pur i s an Indo-Aryan s u f f i x meaning "town; ward of a town," found i n modern Hindi i n the forms pura. (Turner 1966: 469) and purah (Pathak 1 9 4 9 : 6 6 7 ) , I t i s also present i n Oriya, Bengali and the B i h a r i languages, presumably as pura i n the l a t t e r and pur i n Oriya and Bengali (Dev 1 9 6 2 : 7 9 5 ) . The pattern of d i s t r i b u t i o n of the 388 cases of pur i s one of r e l a t i v e l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n across the study area. I t occurs i n a l l but ten of the sample squares (Tables V and XXVII), regions i n western Singhbhum, Palamau and Raigarh. Within the sample squares that i t does occur i n i t does not show any wide 53 range i n v a r i a t i o n , although four regions may be delimited as density sectors. The f i r s t would be an eastern high-density sector containing the Santal Parganas, Dhanbad, P u r u l i a , Mayurbhanj, Eastern Singhbhum and Keonjhar. I t occurs i n this area i n 10.6$ of a l l compound v i l l a g e names, ranging from a maximum of 22.9$ i n square N10 to a minimum of 2 .4$ i n 03. The southwest sector, containing Western Sundargarh, southern Ralgarh and Bllaspur, Bolangir, Sambalpur and Raipur, i s the second high-density sector. Pur occurs here i n 6.9$ of the compound v i l l a g e names, from 18 .1$ i n A10 to 1.9$ i n B9. The t h i r d high-density sector encompasses Gaya and northern Hazaribagh and Palamau. Pur occurs here i n 12.3$ of the com-pound v i l l a g e names. The remainder of the study area forms the low-density sector. This sector has a north-centre-west orientation, including within i t Plamau, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, western Singhbhum, eastern Sundargargh, northern Raigarh and Bilaspur and Surguja. Varying i n occurence per sample square from none: i n the ten squares mentioned above to a maximum of e 16.3$ i n the compound v i l l a g e names i n B7, i t s average occur-ence i s i n 4.5$ of the compound names. The element dih i s found .in'Bengali and Oriya i n the form d i h l , meaning, i n Bengali, "chief v i l l a g e of a d i s t r i c t " and, i n Oriya, "dwelling place; high ground" (Turner 1965s260). In Hindi and i t s d i a l e c t s , and presumably the Bi h a r l languages, the f i r s t vowel / i / has a lengthened form /!/, and the f i n a l vowel has the form /a/, or i s omitted. Thus the two forms, dlha "mound" (Turner 1965«260) and dih "habitation; v i l l a g e ; (Pathak 1946 i468). 54 The d i s t r i b u t i o n map of the 510 cases of dih (Map 19) i s much less regular than either that of nadi (Map 10) or pur (Map 18), although i t too has a wide s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t i l l u s t r a t e s that dih has two widely separated areas of major concentration, i n the northeast and southwest of the study area, with a north-south b e l t of lower concentration between these regions (also Tables VI and XXVIII). Immediately to the south of the northeastern concentration i s one region of extremely low density, with another such i n the west, bounding the south-western concentration. Within former low-density regions, which includes the eastern t h i r d of Sundargarh, the southern h a l f of Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar, dih i s found i n 3.9$ of the compound v i l l a g e names, ranging from none i n M9, L8 and S9 (Table XXVII) to a maximum of 12.9$ i n Q9. A s l i g h t l y lower average, 3.8$, i s exhibited i n the other low-density region, which contains I1 Samba+pur, Bolangir, the western t h i r d of Sundargarh, the central portion of Raigarh, the northern two-thirds of Bilaspur and Surguja. While the minimum percentage of occurence i n a single square i n t h i s region i s i d e n t i c a l to the southeastern low-density region, none, t h i s i s true of a greater number of squares i n t h i s ^region, f i v e (A8, D9, E8, El4 and F13), and the maximum figure i s also greater, 15.8$ i n D7. The b e l t of intermediate density covers Gaya, Palamau,,most of Hazaribagh and Ranchi, c e n t r a l Sundargarh and the northeastern corner of Raigarh. The average i n t h i s region i s 10.0$, with a maximum of 18.7$ i n J2 and a minimumcof none i n L2. Of the two regions of high-density the southwestern i s by f a r the 55 smaller i n s i z e . I t includes within i t Raipur, and the areas of Raigarh and Bilaspur Immediately adjacent to Raipur. I t contains only four sample squares, A12, B l l , B13 and C12, with 15.2$, 18.8$, 11.1$ and 12.1$ i n each f o r an average occurence i n 14.3$ of the compound v i l l a g e names. The other high-density regions, containing a l l of Dhanbad, the Santal Paraganas and P u r u l i a , the eastern fringes of Hazaribagh, the eastern t h i r d of Ranchi and the southeastern h a l f of Singhbhum, has the highest average of occurence i n compound v i l l a g e names, 21 . 3 $ . The maximum-minimum figures indicate a much greater v a r i a t i o n than the southwestern high-density region, from 7.7$ i n S5, i n the east, to 45.7$ i n N6, on the western margin of the region. Another generic term f o r a v i l l a g e with extensive s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s gaon (Map 2 0 ) . Gaon i s found i n a l l the Indo-Aryan languages present i n the study area, with variant spellings,but !as a generic term f o r habitation s i t e s l n a l l cases. The Bengali and Oriya form i s ga (Turner 1966:235)» the B i h a r i (Turner 1966:235) and Panch Pargania d i a l e c t of Magahi (Grierson 1 9 2 1 : V , i i , 1 7 0 ) form i s g|w, the M a i t h i l i (Turner 1966:235) and Nagpuria Bhojpuri (Grierson 1 9 2 1 : V , i i , 365) g|o, and the Bhojpuri and Hindi (Turner 1966:235) gau. The s i m i l a r i t y gaon has to.dih and pur, i n extensive s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , i s not p a r a l l e d by e i t h e r the t o t a l number of cases or the varying average frequencies of occurence. Gaon occurs, i n t o t a l , only 106 times (cf. dih 510. pur 388) and with an even low average frequency of occurence over the ent i r e area of d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n 3.7$ of the compound v i l l a g e 56 names i n the sample squares i t i s found i n . T h i s i s i l l u s -t r a t e d by the d i s t r i b u t i o n map (Map 20), A l t h o u g h gaon i s a b s e n t o n l y i n the S a n t a l P a r g a n a s , P u r u l i a and Gaya, i t i s found o n l y once i n Palamau, Dhanbad and K e o n j h a r , and j u s t f o u r and f i v e t i m e s i n H a z a r i b a g h and K a y u r b h a n j . Thus gaon c o u l d be s a i d t o have a c e n t r a l , s o u t h e r n and w e s t e r n d i s t r i -b u t i o n as e x c e p t f o r the i s o l a t e d case i n Dhahbad, i t does n o t o c c u r i n the n o r t h e a s t . The s u f f i x e s p u r , d i h and gaon. a l l I n d o - A r y a n , show no p a r t i c u l a r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o any o f the I n d o - A r y a n l a n - ' . guages i n t h e i r t o t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , o c c u r i n g i n a l l the r e -g i o n s o f I n d o - A r y a n l a n g u a g e s . The f o u r d e n s i t y s e c t o r s de-l i m i t e d f o r p u r a l s o show no p a r t i c u l a r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h s p e c i f i c l i n g u i s t i c r e g i o n s . The s i n g l e , l a r g e l o w - d e n s i t y s e c t o r I n c l u d e s w i t h i n i t the e n t i r e N a g p u r i a B h o j p u r i and Panch P a r g a n i a M a g a h i \ r e g i o n s and p o r t i o n s of the s t a n d a r d Magahi and C h a t t i s g a r h i areas ;. The n o r t h e r n h i g h - d e n s i t y s e c -t o r c o r r e s p o n d s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o the n o r t h e r n h a l f o f the s t a n d a r d Magahi r e g i o n c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the s t u d y a r e a , and the e a s t e r n and s o u t h w e s t e r n s e c t o r s t o p o r t i o n s of t h e B e n g a l i and O r i y a ' a n d O r i y a and C h a t t i s g a r h i r e g i o n s . A s i m i l a r s i t u a -t i o n p r e v a i l s w i t h d i h . Here a g a i n t h e r e i s no one-to-one c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e d e n s i t y s e c t o r s o f d i h and the I n d o -A r y a n l i n g u i s t i c r e g i o n s . The s o u t h w e s t e r n h i g h - d e n s i t y s e c t o r i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the s o u t h e r n h a l f o f the C h a t t i s g a r h i r e g i o n , and the e a s t e r n h i g h - d e n s i t y s e c t o r w i t h i n the e n t i r e B e n g a l i r e g i o n and p a r t s o f t h e Panch P a r g a n i a Magahi and N a g p u r i a 57 Bhojpuri regions. With the exception of central Sundargarh,. where the intermediate-density sector intrudes, the Oriya re-gion envelopes the low-d'ensity regions of dih. . The intermediate-density sector stretches across the regions of the B i h a r i lan-guages, Chattisgarhi and Oriya. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of gaon i s much more concentrated than either pur and dih and is" found only i n the Bhojpuri, Chattisgarhi and Oriya regions, with the excep-t i o n of two cases i n the Bengali region and six occurences i n the Magahi regions. Tol , t o l i and t o l a (Map 21) are other generic terms for a v i l l a g e occuring as suffixes i n the place-names of the Chota Nagpur. As generic terms they aire a l l found only i n modern Hindi, i n the forms t o l , a masculine substantive mean-ing "hamlet," t o l a , again masculine, meaning "quarter of a town," and t o l l , a feminine substantive with the same meaning as t o l a . The form tol- i s also prevalent as a generic term i n M a i t h l l i (Turner 19661 JO 5). In contrast to the other generic terms previously des-cribed t o l has a l i m i t e d s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t i s found p r i -marily i n the north and c e n t r a l portions of the study area, with the width of i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n area decreasing from north to south. There i s a sector of extremely high density i n t h i s re-gion, composed of southern Ranchi and c e n t r a l Sundargarh, with a few cases s p i l l i n g over into Ralgarh and Singhbhum. The average occurence i n the compound v i l l a g e names of t h i s sector i s i n 36.k% of the. names, ranging from a maximum of 56 .3$ i n K7 to a minimum of 8 . 7 $ i n K9 (Tables VIII and XXX). The 58 remaining cases of t o l found i n any numbers are i n the central region immediately north of t h i s high-density sector, i n the northern h a l f of Ranchi 'and i n the north i n Palamau and Hazaribagh. The maximum-minimum v a r i a t i o n here was from 38.6$ (M5) to 2.0$ (Ml), and the average occurence i n 12.3$ of the compound v i l l a g e names, very much smaller than the 36.2$ i n the high-density sector. Occurences of t o l i n the west and southwest are few and scattered, as i n the southeast. There i s only one, case i n the northeast, i n Dhanbad, on i t s border with Hazaribagh. The usages that were plotted of the term gara i n the place-names of th i s area of India (Map 22) exhibit a s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n somewhat s i m i l a r to that of t o l . This term i s Indo-Aryan, and possibly Oriya (gada) (Turner 1 9 6 6 i 2 1 3 ; Winfield 1929 s39), meaning "large v i l l a g e ; town." The s i m i l a r i t i e s to t o l exhibited by gara are very broad, i n t h a t gara also has as part of i t s major region of d i s t r i b u t i o n the north-central region. However, th i s compari-son i s r e l a t i v e , for gara has f a r fewer cases to base t h i s upon than toJL,,e.g. only 42 cases are found and i t has an o v e r a l l maximum occurence i n a single square i n only 11.4$ of the com-pound v i l l a g e names, i n L2 (Tables IX and XXXI). Thus, i n i t s major area of d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n Hazaribagh, Palamau and Ranchi, i t has, respectively, ten, eight, and twelve cases. P u r u l i a , with four occurences, and southern Dhanbad, one case on i t s border with P u r u l i a , are the eastern extension of t h i s area, Singhbhum, three cases, and Sundargarh, two cases, the southern. 59 The two occurences i n Mayurbhanj are an "i s o l a t e d pocket," There i s also one f o r l o r n case i n the f a r west, i n western Ralgarh. Within the sample squares gara i s found i n , i t occurs i n only 3.3$ of the compound v i l l a g e names (cf. i n 0.726$ of a l l the compound v i l l a g e names i n the study area). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o l and gara coincide l a r g e l y with those of the Bihar! languages. Occurences i n the Bengali and Chattisgarhi regions are few and scattered f o r both elements. The remaining cases of t o l that occur outside the Blh a r i region are those found:'in Sundargarh, i n the Oriya region. These occurences are, however, part of the high-density sector that i s l a r g e l y contained within the Nagpuria Bhojpuri region. A term with i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n l i m i t e d to the north of the study area i s dag (Map 23). Dag i s more possibly a Mundari term meaning "water" [as i s the i d e n t i c a l Santali loan-word (Bodding 1929:11,6)], but used as a v i l l a g e s u f f i x , as given by Bhaduri (1931«33). than the Hindi, "cremate; burn" provided by Pathak (1946:507). Dag i s found occuring only i n the Bi h a r i d i s t r i c t s of Gaya, Palamau, Hazaribagh and Ranchi, and i n the l a t t e r l i m i t e d to the northern h a l f . With the exception of the single case i n Gaya, i t occurs a s i m i l a r number of times i n each d i s t r i c t , eleven times i n Palamau, twelve i n Hazaribagh and eighteen i n Northern Ranchi. The low percentage occurence i n the compound v i l l a g e names of the study area, 0.691$, and of the sample squares i t occurs In, 5.0$, i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the maximum i n a single square, 11.1$ i n G4 (Tables X and XXXI). 60 Another element with a s i m i l a r low number of t o t a l cases and northerly d i s t r i b u t i o n i s tanr (Map 24). This term i s B i h a r i , tar or tar, meaning "stretch of raised I n f e r t i l e s o i l , " and i s also found i n Bengali with the same forms and meaning. (Turner 1966*302). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of tanr ends further to the north than that of dag, but also expands further into the east.of the study area. Of a t o t a l of thirtyseven cases plotted, nineteen occur i n the B i h a r i d i s t r i c t s i n the north, one i n Ranchi, f i v e i n Palamau and thirteen i n Hazaribagh. The only other cases found i n Bihar are two i n the northeast of Singhbhum, as part of the eastern d i s t r i b u t i o n . The remaining cases i n the east are found i n P u r u l i a and Dhanbad, seven i n the former d i s t r i c t and nine i n the l a t t e r . The maximum percentage of occurence i n a single square, 7.5% i n H3 (Tables XI and XXXIII), again i l l u s t r a t e s the low t o t a l occurences, in-0.64$ of the compound v i l l a g e names of th i s study area and i n 3.8$ of the compound v i l l a g e names i n the sample squares i t i s found i n . As with t o l and gara the d i s t r i b u t i o n of dag i s l i m i t e d to the region of the B i h a r i languages. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of tanr. however, stretches east into the Bengali region i n addition to being contained within the B i h a r i region. The cases of dag f a l l into the regions of standard Magahi,and Nagpuria Bhojpuri, although not occuring i n the southern h a l f of the l a t t e r region. The occurences of tanr i n the Nagpuria Bhojpuri region are l i m i t e d to f i v e cases., the bulk of the cases of t h i s element i n the Bihari 1 language region f a l l i n g 61 into the standard Magahi area. I t s occurences i n the Bengali region are also lim i t e d , to the northern h a l f of t h i s region. V i l l a g e names containing the generic terms f o r a watercourse, j o r , .jhor and another variant jora, as suffixes (Map 2 5 ) , have a d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern s i m i l a r to that of the watercourses of the same name. However, th i s sweep through the southern portion of the study area, from the southwest corner to the borders of Bengal, has a northeastern extension i n the case of the v i l l a g e names. The t o t a l occurence i s , again, r e l a t i v e l y low, i n 0.98$ of the compound v i l l a g e names of the study area and 2.5$ of the compound v i l l a g e names as with the maximum i n a single square, 7.1$ i n F9 (Tables XII and XXXIV). The central d i s t r i c t s i n t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern^ Singhbhum, Ranchi and Sundargarh, contain the greatest number of cases, thirteen, nine and nineteen respectively. Those i n the southwest, southeast and northeast contain the l e a s t . Raipur has only two occurences and Ralgarh f i v e . In the south-east Mayurbhanj has two, and P u r u l i a , Dhanbad and the Santal Paraganas have two, two and one, respectively. Almost a l l of the occurences of j o r and i t s variants are to be found i n two language regions, the Bengali and Oriya. And the occurences outside these regions are a l l located within close proximity to them. These are the f i v e to be found i n the Chattisgarhi region and the nine i n the B i h a r i . Two elements, k e l , and i t s variants kela and k e l i (Map 2 6 ) , and pan! (Map 2 7 ) , have a degree of s i m i l a r i t y i n i • t h e i r s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s . 1 62 The terms k e l , k e l a and k e l l a r e v a r i a n t s of the Mtmdari k e l , meaning "a v i l l a g e w i t h few houses" ( B h a d u r i 1931» 9 2 ) . The form of the element p a n i i s i d e n t i c a l t o the B e n g a l i term pa.nl, and c l o s e r t o the O r i y a p a n i t h a n the B h o j p u r i , M a i t h i l i and H i n d i form pa.nl. The meaning i n each case i s the same, "water" { T u r n e r 1966:4-56; T u r n e r 1 9 6 5 : 3 7 5 ) . The form p_ani i s a l s o found i n T a m i l , meaning "town; v i l l a g e ; d i s t r i c t , " (3urrow and Emeneau 1968:84-). K e l , k e l a and k e l i (Map 26) a r e d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r the s o u t h c e n t r a l and w e s t e r n r e g i o n s o f the s t u d y a r e a , w i t h a t o t a l o c c u r e n c e i n l . l 6 $ c f the compound v i l l a g e names i n the s t u d y a r e a , and i n 3 . 7 $ o f t h e s e names I n the sample squares i t o c c u r s i n . The maximum i n the compound v i l l a g e names o f a s i n g l e s q u a r e , 11.8$ i n F7, i s found on the b o r d e r o f the s t u d y a r e a , a l t h o u g h the l a r g e s t number o f o c c u r e n c e s i s found on the e a s t e r n m a r g i n s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f k e l , f o u r t e e n i n M7 ( T a b l e s XIII and XXXV). The l a t t e r i s p a r t of a r e g i o n of d i s -t r i b u t i o n i n s o u t h e a s t Ranchi and the a d j a c e n t a r e a s of Singhbhum and E a s t e r n S u n d a r g a r h , c o n t a i n i n g t h i r t y two o f t h e s i x t y seven c a s e s of t h i s element. T h i s r e g i o n i s s e p a r a t e d from a n o t h e r i n the west, i n c l u d i n g i n i t the southweste'rmost t i p o f R a n c h i , R a i g a r h , E a s t e r n S u r g u j a , Western S u n d a r g a r h , Sambalpur, B i l a s p u r and R a i p u r . R a i g a r h c o n t a i n s the l a r g e s t number o f c a s e s i n the r e g i o n , twnety one, the o t h e r s c o n t a i n i n g from f o u r , Sambalpur, t o one, B i l a s p u r . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a n i (Map 27) i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f 63 k e l , except i n that i t extends further eastward, to the borders of Orissa and West Bengal., The core of the eighty three cases of pan!, 1.42$ of the compound v i l l a g e names of the study area, i n this d i s t r i b u t i o n i s i n southwestern Ranchi, where twenty seven are situated, the area of Raigarh bordering Ranchi, with seven occurences, and eastern Sundargarh, with thirteen occur-ences, also being part of the core. In the west, the remaining portion of Raigarh has seven occurences, western Sundargarh two, Raipur two, Bilaspur three and Surguja four. Singhbhum and Mayurbhanj, i n the east, have eight and seven cases respec-t i v e l y . There are also two i s o l a t e d cases i n northern Ranchi, on i t s border with Palamau. With the exception of the "core" mentioned above, where the square with the maximum i s found, J 8 , i n which i t occurs i n 9 . 7 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names (Tables XIV and XXXVI), the cases of pan! are found either singly, or i n c l u s t e r s of no more than four occurences. Within the sample squares i t occurs i n panl i s found i n 3 . 7 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of kel does not coincide with that of any of the languages of the study area. The western sector of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s element f a l l s into both the Chattisgarhi and Oriya regions and the eastern i n segments of the Oriya and Nagpuria Bhojpuri regions. / A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n exists with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pan!. with casesooccuring i n the Chattisgarhi and segments of the Oriya, Nagpuria Bhojpuri and Bengali regions. In contrast to the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the elements des-cribed hitherto, the elements p a l l (Map 2 8 ) , munda (Map 2 9 ) , 6 4 and p a r a (Map 30) have.the b u l k of t h e i r o c c u r e n c e s s i t u a t e d i n t he west o f the s t u d y a r e a . P a l i e x i s t s i n the form p a l i i n B e n g a l i , meaning "edge, b o r d e r " ( T u r n e r 1 9 6 6 : 4 5 3 ) and i n H i n d i . m e a n i n g " b o r d e r , embank-ment" (Pathak 1 9 4 6 : 6 8 0 ) . - T a m i l has t h e form p a l , meaning " s h a r e , d i v i d i n g " and T e l u g u p a l . w i t h the same meaning, and p a l a " b r i d g e , dam" (Burrow and Emeneau 1 9 6 1 : 2 7 4 ) , Two p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t as t o the meaning and d e r i v a t i o n o f munda. I t may have i t s s o u r c e i n the S a n s k r i t munda, meaning "shaved, b a l d , " and e x i s t i n g i n O r i y a w i t h the same form b u t meaning " t r u n k , p o l l a r d " ( T u r n e r 1 9 6 6 : 5 8 ? ) . The second a l t e r -n a t i v e , and the most p r o b a b l e meaning, i s t h a t p r o v i d e d by the meaning o f munda i n the K a l a h a n d i d i a l e c t o f O r i y a , "a l a r g e , s t r e t c h o f f e r t i l e l a n d . " 2 P 5 r a e x i s t s i n the form p_ara i n H i n d i , as a m a s c u l i n e s u b s t a n t i v e meaning "boundary o f a f i e l d " ( T u r n e r 1 9 6 6 : 4 5 3 ) or " p a r t of town o r v i l l a g e " ( P a t h a k 1 9 4 6 : 6 ? 2 ) , and as a loan-word i n S a n t a l i w i t h the l a t t e r meaning ( M a c P h a i l 1 9 5 3 : 5 8 6 ) . Burrow and Emeneau ( 1 9 6 l : 2 ? 2 ) would see t h i s term as a d e r i v a t i v e o f the S a n s k r i t p a t a k a . " h a m l e t , " p r e s e n t i n B e n g a l i and o t h e r I n d o -A r y a n languages as pada (as above i n H i n d i ) w i t h t h e S a n s k r i t form as e i t h e r a b o r r o w i n g from the D r a v i d i a n cr h a v i n g been borrowed by the D r a v i d i a n ( c f . T a m i l : p_ata "hamlet;" T e l u g u padu i d . a t end o f pl a c e - n a m e s ) . Of t h e s e t h r e e e l e m e n t s , the one w i t h the most concen-t r a t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n i s p a l i . O t h e r t h a n one i s o l a t e d case on C o m m u n i c a t i o n from Dr. S a r o j K. B e h e r a . °5 the S i n g h b h u m - P u r u l i a b o r d e r , a l l 278 cases of p a l i , i n 4.80$ of the compound v i l l a g e names, a r e s i t u a t e d i n t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . Sambalpur c o n t a i n s the l a r g e s t number o f o c c u r e n c e s , 119, f o l l o w e d by s o u t h e r n R a i g a r h , w i t h 67, R a i p u r 40, Sundargarh 22, B i l a s p u r and B o l a n g i r , 14 each, and s o u t h w e s t e r n R a n c h i , w i t h one. The l o c a t i o n o f the sample squares w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t o c c u r e n c e s i n c o m p o u n d t 7 v i l l a g e names, D13 w i t h 44.2$ ( T a b l e s XV and X X X V I I ) , El4 w i t h 38.3$ and F13 w i t h 37.2$, i s on the s o u t h e r n f r i n g e o f the s t u d y ' a r e a . P a l i i s f o u n d i n 15.2$ o f the compound v i l l a g e names o f t h e sample squares i t o c c u r s i n . Munda has a d i s t r i b u t i o n somewhat w i d e r t h a n t h a t o f p a l i , b u t w i t h i t s m a j o r a r e a of d i s t r i b u t i o n s t i l l i n the southwest. I t a l s o has f a r fewer o c c u r e n c e s t h a n p a l i , o n l y s e v e n t y o n e , i n 1.225$ of t h e compound v i l l a g e names o f the s t u d y a r e a . Of t h e s e the l a r g e s t number i s found i n Sambalpur, 23, f o l l o w e d by Su n d a r g a r h , w i t h 14, and R a i g a r h , 14. T h i s a r e a of g r e a t e s t o c c u r e n c e c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h a t o f p a l i . However, the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f munda c o n t i n u e s f u r t h e r n o r t h t h a n t h a t o f p a l i , i n d i c a t e d by t h e seven o c c u r e n c e s i n southwest R a n c h i , and t h a t f i v e o f the f o u r t e e n c a s e s i n R a i g a r h a r e i n the n o r t h e r n h a l f o f t h i s d i s t r i c t . F i v e c a s e s o f munda a r e f o u n d i n B o l a n g i r and one each i n R a i p u r , B i l a s p u r and S u r g u j a . Two i s o l a t e d o c c u r e n c e s a r e found i n the e a s t , one i n c e n t r a l Singhbhum and one i n Mayurb h a n j . The l o c a t i o n o f the two sample s q u a r e s o f maximum o c c u r e n c e , C l 4 and E l 4 w i t h 8.5$ and 7.4$ ( T a b l e s XVI and X X X V I I I ) c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h a t o f the sample squares o f 66 maximum occurence of p a l ! . But unlike the high average of p a l i i n the sample squares i t occurs i n , munda. i s found i n only 3 .5$ of the compound v i l l a g e names i n these squares. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of para, at f i r s t glance, i s even wider than thatcof munda. But the major centre i s further west than that of p S l i and munda, i n Bilaspur, Surguja, Raipur, Raigarh and Sambalpur, where f i f t y e i g h t of the seventyeight cases of para. 1.35$ of the compound v i l l a g e names of the study area, are situated. The sample square of maximum occurence, A8 with 15.8$ (Tables XVII and XXXIX), i s i n Bilaspur. The remain-der of the occurences are scattered, f i v e i n Sundargarh, four i n Singhbhum, three i n Mayurbhanj, P u r u l i a and Ranchi and one each i n Hazaribagh and the Santal Pargasas, Para i s contained i n 3 . 6 $ of the compound v i l l a g e names of the squares i t occurs i n . P a l i j munda and para have t h e i r occurences l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to the regions of d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Chattisgarhi and Oriya languages. In the case of p a l i there i s only a single occurence outside these two l i n g u i s t i c regions, i n that of the Bengali. The occurences of munda that are found outside these regions are those i n the Nagpuria.Bhojpuri region, i n the d i s -t r i c t of Ranchi, immediately adjacent to the Oriya and Chattis-garhi regions. Although the d i s t r i b u t i o n of para i s not as con-centrated as either that of p a l i or that of munda. there are re-l a t i v e l y few occurences of t h i s element i n l i n g u i s t i c regions other than the Chattisgarhi and CDriya. T o t a l l i n g nine, f i v e are found i n the Bengali region, and four i n that of the Bihar! 67 languages. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of munda, i n p a r t i c u l a r , and p a l l show some resemblance to that of the Kurukh language. The majority of the occurences of munda do f a l l into the southern half of the Kurukh region, as do those of p a l i . More of the l a t t e r are found outside t h i s region than the former, although the sample squares of maximum occurence of p a l i , D13, E14 and F13, are located e n t i r e l y within the region and only one of the two of munda, El4, i s . Quite unlike p a l i . munda and para i s the element ber, and i t s variant bera, with a southern and eastern d i s t r i b u t i o n . (Map 3 1 ) . As bed, i t means "fence; enclosure" i n Bengali, "hedge; wall" i n M a l t h i l i , and "enclosure" i n Hindi. As beda i t means "fence; hedge" i n Bengali, "wall of a house'; enclosure" i n Oriya and has the same meaning as bed i n Hindi (Turner 19661 7 0 3 ) . Bfda i s also found:i i n the Kalahandi d i a l e c t of Oriya, here as an antonym of\'munda, meaning "small, enclosed piece of f e r t i l e land."3 The centre of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of ber i s i n Singhbhum, where twentysix of the seventyfive cases, 1 . 2 9 5 $ of the com-pound v i l l a g e names of the study area, are located. The neigh-bouring d i s t r i c t s of Sundargarh, :Ranchi, Mayurbhanj and P u r u l i a have a lower number of occurences i n each, with the westerly d i s t r i c t s having the higher t o t a l s . Sundargarh has thirteen, Ranchi eighteen, Mayurbhanj eight and P u r u l i a , s i x . The square of maximum occurence L10 with 16 . 3$ (Tables XVIII and XL) i s , however, not found i n Singhbhum, but i n Sundargarh. The single ^Communication from Dr. Saroj K, Behera. 68 cases i n Keonjhar, Dhanbad and Hazaribagh belong to the main concentration, but there are two i s o l a t e d single occurences, i n northwestern Palamau and i n Bolangir. Within the sample squares ber i s found i n , i t occurs i n 4.07$ of the compound v i l l a g e names. The l i n g u i s t i c regions that ber i s found occuring i n are the Bengali, Oriya and Nagpuria Bhojpuri. The d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the l a t t e r region i s , with a single exception, l i m i t e d to the extreme south, adjacent to the Oriya region. Within the Oriya region i t s e l f there i s only one exception to a l i m i t e d , eastern d i s t r i b u t i o n , the single case found i n Bolangir. Sai (Map 32) i s an element with a southeastern, but extremely l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . ' This form, s a i , i s an a l t e r e d form of the Oriya sahi, meaning "part of a town or v i l l a g e . This element i s found occuring i n only s i x sample squares (Tables XIX and XLI), with i t s square of maximum occur-ence, N10 with 9.7$ on the southern l i m i t s of i t s area of d i s -t r i b u t i o n . The two cases of sai i n each of Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar belong to t h i s square. The twentyfour remaining occur-ences of sai are a l l located i n Singhbhum, i n the c e n t r a l and western portions of t h i s d i s t r i c t . Sai occursinonly 0.48$ of the compound v i l l a g e names of the study area, and i n 5.1$ of these names i n the sample squares i t i s found i n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s a i , with reference to the regions of the Indo-Aryan languages, i s contained s o l e l y within the Oriya region. However, i t has a closer coincidence with the ^Communication from Dr. Saroj K. Behera. 69 d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Kherwari d i a l e c t Ho, than with that of Oriya. Another element with a lim i t e d area of d i s t r i b u t i o n i s hatu (Map 33). Hatu i s a Kherwari generic term f o r a v i l l a g e , found i n Mundari (Bhaduri 1931»67), i n Ho (Grierson 1921:1V, 122) and Bhumij (Grierson 1921iIV,100), i n s i m i l a r form and meaning. The t h i r t y n i n e cases of hatu, i n 0.674$ of the compound v i l l a g e names of the study area, are d i s t r i b u t e d over a larger area than those of s a i , but a majority of these, twentyone, are located i n the same area of Singhbhum as s a i . F i f t e e n of the other eighteen cases are i n eastern Ranchi, linked to the centre of d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Singhbhum. The remaining three cases are situated i n central Ranchi, s l i g h t l y separated from the major centre of d i s t r i b u t i o n , but close enough i n l o c a t i o n to be re-garded as part of it . ^ ' The square with the greatest occurences, N6 with 12.9$ (Tables XX and XLII) ,t*S;unusually, situated i n eastern Ranchi, on the northern edge of the area of d i s t r i b u -t i o n of hatu. Within the eleven sample squares i t occurs i n , hatu i s found i n 4.08$ of the compound v i l l a g e names. The l i n g u i s t i c region that hatu i s found i n i s that of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Kherwari d i a l e c t s of Ho and Mundari. The other Kherwari element with a li m i t e d , southern d i s t r i b u t i o n i s gutu (Map 34). I t i s found i n Mundari i n the form gutu, meaning "small h i l l o c k ; jungle" but used p r i m a r i l y as a v i l l a g e s u f f i x (Bhaduri 1931:63). Gutu (Tables XXI and XLIII), as with sai and hatu, has 70 the majority of i t s cases occuring i n Singhbhum, sixteen of twentyeight, but the remaining twelve stretch to the west, rather than to the north, as do those of hatu. Two cases are located i n northeastern Sundargarh and the other ten i n cen-t r a l , rather than eastern, Ranchi. The occurences of gutu are also more scattered, the maximum i n a single square being i n only 5.3$ of the compound v i l l a g e names. Occurences i n the sample squares, i t i s found i n are low, i n only 2 . 5 $ of the compound, v i l l a g e names. Although the d i s t r i b u t i o n of gutu i s more westerly than either that of hatu or s a l , i t s t i l l shows a f a i r l y close correspondence to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Ho and Mundari. An element that could not be l i n g u i s t i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d was pos, and i t s variant posi (Map 35). Although t h i s element has r e l a t i v e l y few occurences, twentysix, contained within 0.45$ of the compound vvillage names of the study area, i t was retained i n the study f o r i t s unique d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern. The u n i d e n t i f i a b l e nature of th i s element points to one weakness i n the methodology of t h i s study, reliance upon d i c t i o n a r i e s which are based upon the standard language f o r the purposes of i d e n t i f y i n g term which may be purely d i a l e c t i c a l . Ten of the twentysix cases of pos are located i n Sundargarh and ninej i n Singhbhum. The three cases each i n Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar, and the single case i n southern Ranchi, give confirmation to the southerly d i s t r i b u t i o n of pos, as does the lo c a t i o n of the square of.greatest occurence, N10 with 5.9$ (Tables XXII and XLIV), on the southern border of the 71 study area. The average occurence of. pos i n the sample squares i t i s found i n i s i n only 2.k-% of the compound v i l l a g e names. Although the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pos does not coincide with that of Ho and Mundari, i t shows a greater correspondence to t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n than to that of Oriya.' Only the tvro wester-most cases occur i n a region where these d i a l e c t s of Kherwari are not represented, but are i n r e l a t i v e l y close proximity to them. These then are the s t a t i s t i c a l and s p a t i a l a t t r i b u t e s of the denotative components selected for examination. I t re-mains now to determine the relevance of the hypothesis and methodology presented, through the organization of these deno-tati v e components into toponymic systems, and c o r r e l a t i o n of these toponomic systems with the selected known c u l t u r a l v. feature, the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the languages spoken i n the study area. 72 Three. 3.1 Correlations. The correlations to be made from the material .pre*v.~ sented to thi s point w i l l be directed towards the v e r i f y i n g the hypothesis, that i s , i n i t i a l l y to determine whether topo-nymic systems exi s t i n the study area, and subsequently to cor-r e l a t e t h e i r s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n with those of the languages spoken i n the study area. The toponymic systems being searched f o r here are i n ef f e c t o n l y . p a r t i a l systems, composed as they are of only deno-ta t i v e elements contained i n the names of three features i n the karea,,watercourses, mountains and habitation s i t e s with com-pound names. A complete system would not only take into account a l l of the habitation s i t e names i n the area, but would also Include the names of other features such as f i e l d names, v r e s e r v o i r names and v a l l e y names. A complete toponymic system would be the organization of the t o t a l environment by a socio-c u l t u r a l group; our determination of a p a r t i a l toponymic system w i l l indicate the existence of such a complete system, These p a r t i a l systems which we have determined as e x i s t -ing i n the Chota Nagpur cover a major portion of the study area, but do not account f o r either a l l the terms which we included i n the study, nor f o r the entire study area. These systems were delineated through the i n t e r a c t i o n and interdependence, s p a t i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l , of the denotative components; that l s 7 a p a r t i a l system existed where there was a r e l a t i v e l y close spatial.occurence, and s t a t i s t i c a l predominance within t h i s r e g i o n of o c c u r e n c e , "between h a b i t a t i o n s i t e , w a t e r c o u r s e and mountain names. Where t h i s d i d n o t o c c u r , i n the d i s t r i c t s o f Madhya P r a d e s h and O r i s s a i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , no p a r t i a l toponymic systems e x i s t e d . The u n i v e r s a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of n a d i " r i v e r , " p u r "ward of a town" and d i h " v i l l a g e " i n the s t u d y a r e a , s t r o n g l y sug-g e s t s t h a t the e n t i r e s t u d y a r e a i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n a' l a r g e r toponymic system, the a r e a o f w h i c h extends w e l l beyond t h e bounds of the Chota Nagpur. I n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g p r e s e n t t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y a r e a , t h e s e components a r e a l s o s t a t i s t i -c a l l y dominant. Nadi o c c u r s i n 92$ o f the w a t e r c o u r s e names i n the s t u d y a r e a , and p u r and d i h i n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , 6.7$ and 8.8$ o f the compound h a b i t a t i o n s i t e names i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The p a r t i a l toponymic system which i s most c l e a r l y de-l i n e a t e d , i n t h e s p a t i a l o c c u r e n c e o f i t s c o n s t i t u e n t e l e m e n t s , i s one i n the w e s t e r n h a l f of Singhbhum d i s t r i c t . I t i s com-posed o f the m o u n t a i n term b u r u , t h e w a t e r c o u r s e term g a r a " s t r e a m , " and the h a b i t a t i o n s i t e term s a i " p a r t o f a town o r v i l l a g e . " A l t h o u g h t h e s e terms a r e by no means e x c l u s i v e l y used i n t h e r e g i o n , and i n the case o f the w a t e r c o u r s e terms the usage of g a r a i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s e c o n d a r y t o t h a t o f n a d i , t h e i r s p a t i a l l i m i t a t i o n and, i n the case of b u r u and s a i , t h e i r o c curence as r e l a t i v e l y p r i m a r y terms (cf.\ s a l f i . l $ f  d i h 3.9$. gaon 3.7$. p u r 4.5$) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y a r e t h e com-ponent terms o f the p a r t i a l toponymic system w h i c h e x i s t s i n the w e s t e r n Singhbhum r e g i o n . A n o t h e r p a r t i a l system w h i c h i s l i m i t e d t o the a r e a i s 74 the one which e x i s t s i n southern Ranchi. This system has t o l l "hamlet" as i t s major h a b i t a t i o n s i t e term (36.2$ occurence; c f . d i h 10.0$, pur 4.5$, gaon 3.7$) and nadi (100$ occurence) as i t s watercourse term. Among the mountain terms, the terra o c c u ring i n t h i s system i s pahar (81.9$). T o l i i s a l s o i n v o l v e d i n three other subsystems, sub-systems as they c o n t a i n i d e n t i c a l generic h a b i t a t i o n s i t e terms and watercourse terms, but d i f f e r i n mountain terms. The f i r s t of these subsystems i s contained i n the northeastern h a l f of Ranchi, and has no mountain terms occuring w i t h i n i t . The watercourse term here i s , again, n a d i , (100$ occurence), and the h a b i t a t i o n s i t e terms are t o l i (12.3$ occurence), gara " l a r g e v i l l a g e " (3.3$) and dag "water" (but used as a h a b i t a -t i o n s u f f i x ) (5$). The same percentage occurence of the h a b i t a t t i o n s i t e terms and nadi i s found i n the second subsystem, which e x i s t s i n northwestern Ranchi and Palamau. Pahar, with a 70.0$ ..occurence, i s the mountain term i n t h i s subsystem. I n the t h i r d subsystem the same h a b i t a t i o n s i t e and watercourse terras occur, but the primary mountain term i s the generic s u f f i x -l e s s name (84$ occurence). The l a t t e r two subsystems a l s o d i f f e r from the f i r s t i n that they presumably continue beyond the study area, the second northwestward and the t h i r d northeastwards. The other p a r t i a l toponymic system t h a t e x i s t s i n the study area l i e s i n the eastern r e g i o n , composed of subsystems contained i n Dhanbad and P u r u l i a , and i n eastern Singhbhum. These subsystems have i n common the generic h a b i t a t i o n s i t e term, d i h (21.3$ occurence), and the watercourse term, nadi (100$ 75 occurence). They d i f f e r i n the mountain terms they contain. The northern subsystem has as i t s mountain term the generic s u f f i x l e s s name (92.9$ occurence) and the southern pahar (70$ occurence). Both these subsystems presumably also continue beyond the study area, northward into the Santal Parganas and eastward into Bengal. Thus f i v e p a r t i a l toponymi'c systems may be considered as e x i s t i n g i n the Chota Nagpur, one of which contains two, and one three, subsystems. The p a r t i a l system containing three subsystems covers the B i h a r i d i s t r i c t s of Gaya, Palamau and Hazaribagh and the northern h a l f of Ranchi. The southern h a l f of Ranchi i s the s i t e of another p a r t i a l system. Eastern and western Singhbhum also contain two d i f f e r e n t p a r t i a l systems, eastern Singhbhum having the southern subsystem of the p a r t i a l system which also encompasses P u r u l i a and Dhanbad, The c o r r e l a t i o n of these p a r t i a l toponymic systems with the known c u l t u r a l feature of the peoples of the Chota Nagpur, the d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the languages spoken i n the area, Indi-cates a close coincidence of the two features. The system i n western Singhbhum, composed of the Au s t r o a s i a t i c terms buru and gara, and the Oriya term s a l , coincides r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e l y with the extent of the Au s t r o a s i a t i c language Ho. The system con-tained i n eastern Singhbhum, P u r u l i a , Dhanbad and the, Santal Parganas, the subsystem i n the f i r s t region composed of the Indo-Aryan terms nadi, dih and pahar.and that i n the rest of t>te£ ssrga. of nadi , dih and the generic s u f f i x l e s s mountain names, exsrrssponds exactly with the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Bengali 76 speakers i n the study area. The system composed of the Indo-Aryan terms t o l i , nadi and pahar, i n southern Ranchi, shows a general s p a t i a l correspondence to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Austroasiatic language Kharia, but i t may also be associated with the Indo-Aryan Nagpuria Bhojpuri. This l a t t e r association i s more possible than the former, when one subsystem of the system si t e d i n the region to the north of i t i s examined. This sub-system, i n addition to gara and dag, also has t o l i , nadi and pahar, as i t s component terms, and also corresponds to ,the northwestern Ranchi and Palamau region of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Nagpuria Bhojpuri. This association may be further reinforced i n the composition and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the second and t h i r d subsystems of this system. The subsystem i n northeastern Ranchi has i d e n t i c a l habitation s i t e and watercourse terms, but con-tains no mountain term because of the absence of mountain terms i n this region, and occupies the remainder of the Nagpuria Bhojpuri sector. The subsystem i n Hazaribagh and Gaya, com-posed of the same watercourse and habitation s i t e terms but having the generic s u f f i x l e s s mountain names as i t s mountain term, corresponds exactly to the Standard Magahi sector. Taken In conjunction, the s p a t i a l s i t u a t i o n of these two p a r t i a l toponymic systems coincides almost exactly with that of the Bi h a r i languages i n the study area. / 3.2 Conclusions. This r e l a t i v e l y close c o r r e l a t i o n of the f i v e topo-nymic systems which have been i s o l a t e d i n the Chota Nagpur 77 w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the B i h a r i , B e n g a l i and Ho languages may be c o n s i d e r e d . v e r i f i c a t i o n o f the h y p o t h e s i s and methodology p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a l t h o u g h the absence of toponymic systems i n s e c t o r s of the s t u d y a r e a , w h i c h , i n c i d e n t a l l y , c o i n -c i d e w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n .of O r i y a and C h a t t i s g a r h i , does s u g g e s t t h a t the methodology has l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s . I n the l a t t e r r e g i o n s , the p r i n c i p l e s used i n o r g a n i z a t i o n of the en-v i r o n m e n t by the i n h a b i t a n t s may d i f f e r from the one i s o l a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h a t i s , t h a t spaces p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g s i m i l a r a t t r i b u t e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d s i m i l a r l y w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r c u l -t u r a l r e g i o n . However, t h i s by no means d e t r a c t s from the con-t e n t i o n s of pur h y p o t h e s i s and our methodology. The e x i s t e n c e of-what we have shown t o be toponymic systems, and t h e i r c o r r e l a -t i o n s w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a n g u a g e s , s a t i s f a c t o r i l y indi-*.. c a t e s t h a t our c o n c e p t i o n s as t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between con-temporary place-names and c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s a r e v i a b l e . ?7a F i g u r e 6: LOCATION^DENOTATIVE COMPONENTS OF THE PARTIAL TOPONYMIC SYSTEMS. 1. Western Singhbhum 2. S o u t h e r n R a n c h i 3. (a) N o r t h e a s t e r n R a n c h i (b) N o r t h w e s t e r n R a n c h i and-Palamau (c ) H a z a r i b a g h 4. (a) Dhanbad and P u r n l i a (b) E a s t e r n Singhbhum 5. 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U n p u b l i s h e d PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n Poona: Deccan C o l l e g e P o s t - G r a d u a t e and R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e S a n t a l Parganas ( G a z e t t e e r ) , C a l c u t t a : B e n g a l Government Book Depot Sambalpur ( G a z e t t e e r ) . P a t n a : S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , Government P r i n t i n g , B i h a r and O r i s s a The S a n t a l . D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s Theory o f Names. B e r k e l e y : A m e r i c a n Name S o c i e t y The O r i g i n o f E n g l i s h Place-Names. R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l : London The H i l l B h u i y a s of O r i s s a . R a n c h i : "Man i n I n d i a " O f f i c e H a z a r i b a g h ( G a z e t t e e r ) . P a t n a : S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , S e c r e t a r i a t P r e s s Singhbhum ( G a z e t t e e r ) . P a t n a : S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , S e c r e t a r i a t P r e s s Palamau ( G a z e t t e e r ) . P a t n a : S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , S e c r e t a r i a t P r e s s I n s i d e B i i h a r . P a t n a : B o o k l a n d P r i v a t e L t d . P a p e r s on A u s t r a l i a n Place-Names. U n i v e r s i t y o f New E n g l a n d P r o f i l e s o f T r i b a l C u l t u r e i n B i h a r . C a l c u t t a : F i r m a K.L. M u k h o p a d l i y a y Quatrieme Congres I n t e r n a t i o n a l de  S c i e n c e s Onomastiques. U p p s a l a : A.B. L u n d e q u i s t s k a B o k h a n d e l n S t u d i e s i n the H i s t o r i c a l and C u l -t u r a l Geography and Et h n o g r a p h y of G u j a r a t . Deccan C o l l e g e Monograph S e r i e s No. 3» Poona: Deccan C o l l e g e A C o n t r o l l e d H i s t o r i c a l R e c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f O r i y a , Assamese, B e n g a l i  and H i n d i . The Hague: Mouton and Co. 83 Sarkar, S.S. . 1958 Sealock, R.B. 19^8 Seshardi, T.K. 1963 Sinha, S.C. 1956 Smith, A.H. 1954 _ 1956 \ Spate, Q.H.K. I 9 6 3 Stenton, F.M. 1940 1941 Stewart, G.R. 1954 1958 Subbarao, B. 1958 "The t r i b a l p o p u l a t i o n ' - i n West B e n g a l . " Man i n I n d i a 38s60-64 B i b l i o g r a p h y of Place-Name L i t e r a -t u r e ; U.S., Canada, A l a s k a , Newfoundland. Chicago? A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l and C u l t u r a l Geography  and E t h n o g r a p h y o f South I n d i a from  the P a l l a v a E p i g r a p h s . U n p u b l i s h e d PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n Poona: Deccan C o l l e g e P o s t - G r a d u a t e and R e s e a r c h ' I n s t i t u t e The A c c u l t u r a t i o n o f the Bhumlj  of Manbhum; A s t u d y i n E t h n i c I n t e g r a t i o n and S o c i a l C l a s s F o r m a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n . N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r -s i t y The p r e p a r a t i o n o f County P l a c e -Name S u r v e y s . London: E n g l i s h Place-Name S o c i e t y , U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e "Place-Names and the Ang l o - S a x o n S e t t l e m e n t . V P r o c e e d i n g s o f the B r i t i s h Academy^ 42: 67-88 I n d i a and P a k i s t a n . London: Methuen and Co. "The E n g l i s h O c c u p a t i o n of S o u t h e r n B r i t a i n . " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f  the R o y a l H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 22 "The H i s t o r i c a l B e a r i n g o f P l a c e -Name S t u d i e s : The D a n i s h S e t t l e -ment o f E a s t e r n E n g l a n d . " T r a n -s a c t i o n s o f the R o y a l H i s t o r i c a l  S o c i e t y 24:1-22 "A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Place-Names." Names 2:1-13 Names on the Land. B o s t o n : Houghton and M i f f l i n Co. The P e r s o n a l i t y o f I n d i a . Baroda: i v i . s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Baroda 8 4 Suresh, B. •1965 T a y l o r , I . Venkatachar, C.S, V i d y a r t h i , L.P, 1863 1935 H i s t o r i c a l and C u l t u r a l Geography  and Ethnography of South I n d i a  (with s p e c i a l reference to Chola  i n s c r i p t i o n s , ~) Unpublished PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n Poona: Deccan Col l e g e Post-Graduate and Research I n s t i t u t e Words and P l a c e s . London: George Routledge and. Sons L t d . " M i g r a t i o n of Castes and Tri b e s i n t o C e n t r a l I n d i a and Th e i r D i s -• t r i b u t i o n . " Census of I n d i a 1931 V o l . 1 ( I n d i a ) P a r t I I I B ; 60-68 1964 C u l t u r a l Contours of T r i b a l B i h a r . C a l c u t t a : Punthi Pustak Wagner, P, and M i k e s e l l , M. Wainwright, F.T. Z e l i n s k y , W. Zide, N.H. (ed) D i c t i o n a r i e s : 1962 Readings i n C u l t u r a l Geography. Chicago: Chicago U n i v e r s i t y P ress 1962 Archaeology and Place-Names and  H i s t o r y . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l 1955- "Some Problems i n the D i s t r i b u t i o n  of Generic Terms i n the P l a c e -Names of the North Eastern United P S t a t e s . " Annals of the A s s o c i a t i o n  of American Geographers, 45:319-49 1966 Studies i n Comparative Austro A s i a t i c L i n g u i s t i c s . T h e Hague:Mouton Bhaduri, M.B. Bodding, P.O. Dev.A.T. Grignard, A. 1931 1929 1924 A Mundari-English D i c t i o n a r y C a l c u t t a , C a l c u t t a U n i v e r s i t y Press A S a n t a l i D i c t i o n a r y . Oslo: Norske Videnskaps-Akademi. Det 1962 Student's F a v o u r i t e D i c t i o n a r y (Bengali to E n g l i s h ) . C a l c u t t a ; Dev S a h i t y a K u t i r P r i v a t e L t d . An Oraon-VEnglish D i c t i o n a r y . C a l c u t t a : C a t h o l i c Orphan Press Hoernle, A. and Gr i e r s o n , G.A, 1885 A comparative D i c t i o n a r y of the B i h a r i Language. C a l c u t t a : Bengal S e c r e t a r i a t Press 85 M a c P h a i l , P.M. M i l l e r , W. P a t h a k , R.C. T u r n e r , R.L. W i n f i e l d , W.W. 1953 Campbell's S a n t a l i - E n g l i sh D i c t i o n a r y . B e n a g a r i a : S a n t a l C h r i s t i a n C o u n c i l 1910 An E n g l i s h and O r i y a D i c t i o n a r y . C u t t a c k s O r i s s a M i s s i o n P r e s s 19^6 Bhargava's S t a n d a r d I l l u s t r a t e d D i c t i o n a r y o f the H i n d i Language. Banaras 1965 A Comparative and E t y m o l o g i c a l  D i c t i o n a r y o f the N e p a l i Language. London:Routledge and Kegan P a u l 1966 A Comparative D i c t i o n a r y of the  In d o - A r y a n Languages. London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1929 A V o c a b u l a r y o f the K u i Language. C a l c u t t a Maps: U n i t e d S t a t e s Army S e r i e s U 502, E d i t i o n 1-AMS S c a l e 1:250,000 NG 45-13 (Gaya) NF 45-5 (Sundargarh) NF 44-12 (Raigaih) NG 45-1 ( R a n c h i ) NF 45-6 (Jamshedpur) NG 45-2 ( P u r u l i a ) NF 44-8 (Champa) APPENDIX ONE: Maps / 86 00 I I 89 o,.° O \ o » 9 i tMfi F I WOO-AR YAM L « ; « : B£U6AL7 114,5«?,aoo • 22* Si* I mini l.-tjfcejoo© MAP 8 DWMD/MJ UWfiUAGGS i •. 4,500,030 CD MAP 11 22" . JOR b GARO a fcUAL 0 MALA | . 4 ,5eO, 66" 22° MAP 12 MOUWXA/M WA/W£S" WpOUT •24%) MAP 13 PAHAR 2Z° 84*B 96° . V •{•3> map i<9- e u a u 22 e 11 +,5o*,aao I I 1 22° MAP 15 PAR8AJ 86° •2+' / MAP |$ . PttO&AR 23.C 95 MAP \f TUtiGAZ 11 4,9»,oee> r v. MAP 18 PUR. I 1 +(fOP,CWO <86c • t '•"\ H'u MAP I? DIH 22* 06° J l / MAP 2o CAoU c I J 9 8 • • • . i f MAP 22 GA2A 8&P • 4 f M 22° MAP 23 DAG |i+,5eoyBOo I 2t>° ! 9 9 JWAP 24 TAPR I' 4>5eo. g6/» . / MAP 25 Jog. ((*> UA3ITAT(0O •22.c 8f°E I I 100 1 42" MAP 2G KEL We 66° •220 MAP 2 ? PA.m We 101 •:.<:\ MAP 28 PAU MAP 29 MUfcDA 24°^ . 12. I i i I > 4,900/309 I I 102 24-° *J ../ MAP 31 BER. -23* 1 ! I'4,5X7/500 86° 1 0 3 MAP 32 SAI 11° 1 :+,5Bo,eae» S6" MAP 33 HATU 22° i I 96° i 104 24°*! —I 22? MAP 34- out 0 t-.4,5<»,«=e> 86* I 24*A> MAP POS t: 4>5C©, COO 84° E I APPENDIX TWO: Tables Numerical Occurence of the Denotative Components i n each Sample Square / ;-C 55 iS — o" v,0 CO t-3 a* ft H' -p- ro > -p- ro h-> O C5J -p- ON 00 ro 0 - o 0 ro ON M -P-' 1— -n •*> — f—1 ro M O ON ro 1—' ro ON N/\ ro - o VjJ ro -p- •P" NO ON ro NO H -P- -P- •p-1 i -P- h-1 C h-» -P" -P- 0 1 ro ro ro •Q M ro G ro H ro H ro 1 1 (0 ft X c H J K u AA 1 2 3 1 2 2 - 2 o P Q R & 3 1 3 6 - 3 4 6 1 3 - - 2 - - - 2 1 -A B c D E F 1 - - 2 1 1 7 - 7 - - 1 - -e - 8 5 - - - - - -9 - 6 2 - 1 10 - - -lo — 6 2 - - 6 - - -it - 1 -12 - - 1 t3 - 1 -H - - -Table I I . Mountain Names Without a Generic S u f f i x . i—1 o ON 10? 0 0) 1 1 1 or 1 1 CM 1 1 a 1 I I a r H 1 CM cvl 0 1 l 1 1 1 • 1 1 i I 1 i 1 C\] 1 VO r H I H VO 1 C N r H o r H vO r H vO H 3^" cvl — fft UN U. 1 I 1 1 U4 1 r H 1 0 1 I r H 1 0 r H 1 1 -=}- ON / 1 1 < ON r H 1 1 05 PH r H r H ,£> CtS r H © O j> _ £| 52 ± -108 i 0 <0 i i i u i i i r H Or i i I C\i a i t—i i 1 0 i i H -3-1 i i CD 1 i i i VO r H r H u> i i i H CM vO CM i i i CM 1 i i i 1 I. i i i 1 1 i i 1 1 1 — m U. 1 1 1 1 w 1 1 1 i 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 < 1 1 1 i ON _0 CN S2 2 -3 H CP > t—i <D r H ed E-t 109 0 VO CVJ -3" en H ON CO CVl ON H r H r H -a- CNJ a CO vo vo vn 0 r H VO vo c n H o - o -CV) VO 1 -3" 1 I CN] 1 CVl 1 1 VO V A CO ON H r H VO H CV) r H i evi CO 1 r H vo c n O r H UN u. C N 1 ON vo 1 CVl C A 0 CM CM O- ( A 0 r H on r - l r H CV! a CO H V A ON < cn cn r H -3- H r H 0 r H h (D fl» O = c j ± 110 'a 0 VA r H cv) l o r H CVl H CA CA VA r H H o r H a CO r H ON r H CVl r H H 0 ON vo r H O -CN1 3^-2 VA CVl C A O CA VA CVl ON H l I CA -3" CNJ VO VA ON cvi •3-r H O- CA •3" VO VO CVl ON -3" > A CA O- VO ON . — m Us. u. o r H O - 1 vu 1 r H r H i 0 vo 1 CV1 CVl 0 cvi CA CVl r H r H CO V A CM / ON r H CN1 r H < 1 CVl CV) H CA CD 0 2 •H a >. CD i — I £ > as I l l u 0) r H l 1 u i 1 r H C O a 1 1 1 1 a i 1 1 H 0 1 H CM r H • . r 1 r H CM r H VO i 1 1 co I CM CM r H CM i r H r H l CM r H 1 V O 1 CV1 i 1 CM I i—1 1 1 C O oo — m UN. u. CM 1 1 r H CM r H 1 CM C CM r H CO CM 0 r H CO 1 1 (fi r H / CO CM < OO CM C O CS-o ICfj o M HH > r H fi Gj En cc <y> o - £j 22 ^ c J K u 1 - 1 • •' - • • 2. 3 6 © P R S 3 2 7 3 11 - — 4 2 7 13 9 2 -11 6 22 2 - -c o E 6 r 10 8 20 9 - -7 - - - 37 90 •14 2 1 e - - 2 38 75 59 1 - — 9 - - 2 55 11 - - 1 -\o - 1 - 1 12 - - -H - - -12 1 - -13 - - -14 - - -Table VIII. Tol. H ro 113 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 a 1 CM • r H a CM 1 I r H 0 1 r H I 1 1 CM r H 1 1 r H 1 1 ^ - 1 CO CO CM I r H CO 1 r H CM r H CM r H 1 1 H r H 1 1 1 1 r H 1 1 1 . — m • • < * US U. 1 1 1 1 v IU 1 1 1 1 0 1 I 1 1 0 1 r H 1 1 (fi 1 1 1 1 < 1 1 1 1 05 M 05 O X H fi o5 CO O o = £f 52 ^ 114 0 1 i I i 1 i or 1 I i I o. i 1 i I 0 r H CM i i oo 1 I I H CO CM I i (—i I CM I i CM 1 r H i i -3- V O CM i i ^± r H CO I i r H C\J 1 i i . — UN. U. I I i i w l I i I C i I i i 0 i i i i (fi i i i < i i i las Q X 0 r H aS EH CO <JN o = £ J S2 ^ 115 0 1 1 1 u i r H 1 r a VO H CV) 1 a vn -3- 1 i 0 cn H 1 1 H 1 1 I <M r H 1 1 1 i r H I 1 i Cn i 1 1 1 r H H 1 1 i r H cn 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i - <s m Us U . 1 1 i I VU 1 -) I i i 0 1 1 I I 0 1 i i i 1 1 I i < 1 i i I r H icci EH M X <D r H £> a EH • co O o - £J 2> ^ C J K 1 — - _ 2. - - - O P Q R s 3 - _ _ - 1 2 4 - - - — 1 -- - - - 1 -A B c D E 6 P - - _ 1 _ 1 7 - - - 1 - - 2 e - - - 5 - 2 1 2 -9 - - 2 1 2 - -to - 1 6 2 1 - 2 i l - 1 1 12 - - -13 H -2 -— -— T a b l e X I I , J o r . ( i n h a b i t a t i o n s i t e names.) i— 1 o\ c J K AA 1 - — — 1 - - - o p Q R S 3 - - - — - -4 - - - - - -- - - — — -A B c D E F - - 3 - - -7 - - 2 6 - 6 14 - -e - - 2 5 - 5 - — -9 - 1 1 - 3 - - - -to - 4 2 - 1 - - - -M 1 3 1 12 - - 1 13 3 1 -14 - 1 1 Table XIII, Kel. 1 1 8 •x 0 i 1 • i 1 1 H Or i 1 CM -3: a i 1 1 CO 0 i 1 1 1 '• . • a i 1 H i i 1 1 i i 1 1 rH i i 1 1 NO i rH 1 rH CO i i rH o\ • 1 rH ON rH — m ^- UN. u. 1 1 1 1 U4 CM rH 1 1 C rH 1 CM CM • • • 0 1 1 1 rH CO rH 1 I < CM 1 1 rH ICS > H X <D rH as IH CD O £. ^ Si S2 — 119 i 0 10 1 1 1 <x 1 1 ! i <y 1 I H 1 o. 1 1 1 i 0 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I i I 1 1 i 1 1 1 i i 1 I 1 cn i 1 1 1 vn i 1 I 1 1 i 1 I rH vo — UN. U. 1 1 NO rH ON CN) w 1 ON —j . rH rH cn 0 1 1 •3" CN) CO cn 0 H H CO rH iH 1 cn -3- rH CN) < 1 vn cn vn rH rH CD rH rH j) j\ o - cj iJ ^ 120 0 1 i 1 . . . i 1 1 r H o- 1 i 1 I a I 1 1 1 0 i 1 1 i 1 H 1 i 1 i 1 1 i i 1 1 1 i 1 i 1 VO i i 1 CV! i 1 i f—1 VO i i 1 •3- O -— m UN. u. r H r H IH r H C\l r H VO 0 I 1 V A 0 , 1 C O 1 V A CO r H 1 1 I < 1 r H 1 i—I HH > r H ,0 aj EH CO c> o — £J S2 c J K AA - - -z - 1 - © P Q R s 3 — 1 4 - - - 1 - -- - - - - 1 A B c D 6 F - 1 1 - - 2 7 6 2 1 - - - - -e 9 1 1 - - - - 1 1 9 - - 2 - 1 - 1 1 -to 2 7 - 3 - 2 - 1 1 1 11 7 12 ? 13 2 - 2 14 5 1 -Table XVII. Para. ro H G J • 1 - - -2. 1 - - o R s 3 - - - - - -4 - - - - 3 1 - - - - 1 1 A B c F - - - 1 2 -7 - - - 3 1 5 2 2 e - - - - 6 4 2 3 1 9 - - - 1 9 3 -to - - - - 2 3 3 4 3 II - - -12 - - -13 - - -14 - - -Table XVIII. Ber. 123 0 «> 1 i 1 lY 1 i i 1 tv 1 i l 1 a i i cn 1 0 1 i rH o-1 i i vn rH H i 1 i 1 rH i i i i 1 i 1 i 1 1 i i i i 1 i 1 i • 1 1 i i i i 1 — m ^- UN u. 1 1 1 i w i 1 0 1 1 1 y | : 0 i • 1 1 i CC) 1 1 1 1 < i 1 1 i CD o 25 icrj CO I X rH X 03 rH £ > CS EH 124 0 to l i 1 v. i 1 1 1 Or l i 1 1 a i 1 CM 1 0 1 H H O -i ON •3- VO l l 1 rH i i H 1 1 I I 1 CM l i 1 1 1 I l 1 ! 1 i i 1 ! 1 — m ICS U . 1 1 1 1 IU 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 ca 1 1 1 1 < 1 1 I 1 p •p led rH fi a E-i CO O O - £j £ — 125 0 1 1 1 <x i 1 ! 1 a 1 1 1 1 a i 1 1 1 0 1 1 H CM 1 i 1 V A -3-i 1 1 .3- r H i r H 1 r H H i 1 1 CM i r H r H 1 i i 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 — vS m LCs vS u. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 i 1 CO 1 1 / 1 1 < 1 1 1 1 p -p O H X! X <D r H ed EH co O o = £ $2 * 126 J 0 to 1 l 1 u i 1 H H a 1 l I 1 CL i 1 CM H 0 1 l 1 rH 1 i 1 1 O -1 1 l 1 1 i 1 rH rH 1 1 i 1 NO 1 i 1 1 CO 1 1 l 1 rH 1 i 1 1 rH ' — m UN U. 1 1 1 1 Ul 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 CO 1 1 1 1 < 1 1 1 1 COf o a> r H P as rH CO (?> o = £} S2 — APPENDIX THREE: -Tables Percentage occurence of the Denotative Components ins 1. Table XX111: the Total Watercourse Terms 'v per Sample Square i l . Tables XXlV-XXVl: the Total Mountain Terms per Sample Square 111. Tables XXV11-XL1V: the Total Compound Habitation S i t e Names per Sample Square S i t e Ha i / C H J K U AA 1 100 100 100 2. 100 100 100 u o p Q R s 3 100 100 100 100 100 -4 100 100 100 100 100. 100 100 100 100 100 100 -A B c D E 6 F 100 100 100 100 100 100 7 100 10C 10C 100 100 100 100 100 e 83.5 100 100 100 833 20 - 100 100 9 100 100 666 66.6 100 100 50 100 100 »o 100 100 100 100 - 100 54.5 0 - 50 J! 100 83.5 75 12 100 100 100 13 100 75 25 14 80 80 5C Table XXIII. Nadi. c J u AA 1 33.3 75 100 2 28.6 - 50 o P Q R s 3 20 100 100 - 100 10( 4 50 10 100 - - 10C '• - - - - 22 2 100 -A B c D E 6 F 16.7 - - 100 33.3 10C 7 - 100 100 - - 5.9 - -e - 88,9 100 - - - - - -9 - 100 100 - 143 2.4 - - -»o — 100 50 - - - 19.4 - - -11 - 50 -12 - - 14.; 13 - 20 -14 - - -T a b l e XXIV. M o u n t a i n Names W i t h o u t a G e n e r i c S u f f i x . ro CO C H J K L /V\ 1 16.? 25 -1 71A - 50 O p Q R s 3 80 - - - - -4 3 3 . 3 30 - - 100 -7L4 - - 77.8 - -A B c o E F 6 6 . 7 100 - - - -7 6 6 . 7 - - 100 20 - - -e 100 1 1 . ] - 5 7 . 1 100 26.1 - 66.7 100 9 100 - - 56.? 85.7 - - 5 5 5 -to 100 - 25 50 8 5 . 7 - - 100 -II - 50 -12 - - 5 7 . ] 13 - - -14 1 6 . 7 71 .4 -Table XXV. Pahar. C J AA 1 - - -2 - - - o p Q R s 3 - - - - -4 - - - - - -- - - - - -A B c D E 6 P - -* - - - 33.3 -7 - - - - 40 94.1 100 -e - - - - - 913 100 - -9 - - - - - 100 75 25 -to - - - - - 83.9 - - 33 3 tl - - - -12 - - -— — — 14 - - -Table XXVI. Buru. O C M J K L 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B c D E F 9.3 18.8 12.0 M o P Q R S 11.1 14.7 5.6 - 15.1 - 2.4 221 111 56 10.5 - 11.4 111 16.5 5.0 9.1 7 A r 12.5 12.8 7.7 11.3 2.2 3.5 1.4 10.7 13.8 16.3 l l . l 5.9 7.k 5.0 - 9.0 6.3 5.3 5.3 - 2.6 139 - 7.4 9.2 17.4 1.9 10. c - - 7.1 - 3.2 3.7 154 18.3 3.7 6.4 8.3 1.2 - 279 9.1 3.1 5.0 6.7 6.8 5.1 11.1 4. 0 8.3 3.5 7.7 11.6 3.4 3.7 Table XXVII. Pur. c J 1 13.9 9.4 10.0 2. 13.5 ia? - © p Q R s 3 12.5 l l . i i 114 212 17.6 27.8 4 158 123 9.1 11.4 25.0 12.8 5.0 7.3 3.5 32.4 22,7 7.7 A B c D E 6 F 13.2 6.7 7.0 '+5.7 33.9 18.5 7 10.i I 5 . p 7.8 8.3 5.6 12.? +•0.5 156 e - 10.5 - 5.3 2.6 - 9.6 18.2 6.5 9 - 179 2.9 1.6 - 4.2 129 -to 2.8 3.7 1.3 7.5 7.0 6.3 2.5 1.8 4.7 il 18.c 1.9 5.3 12 152 12 J 2.0 t3 i n 2.3 -14 3.2 1.7 -Table XXVIII. Dih. H C H J K L AA 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B C D E F - - -© P Q R S - 1.3 5.7 - 2.3 - - - 1.9 - - 6.1 2.3 - -5.0 1.8 - 2.1 - -9.4 1.8 2.9 - -10.6 5.3 3.9 - - 2.0 3.0 -5.2 5.3 7.4 2.6 - 1.6 1.1 - 2.2 1.9 5.0 - 0.7 1.6 - 1.1 - -2.8 3.7 1.3 2.5 2.3 12.5 5.1 1.8 4.7 3.0 2.9 -3.8 - -1.9 2.3 1.3 7.4 - 2.5 Table XXIX. Gaon. 134 to I 1 i i 1 1 1 1 1 H ON r H a 03' CM 1 1 I 0 CM CM • 3 * O CO I ^ 0 O CM r H 1 1 r H I o CM co N Q 03 CO CO ON 1 H - 3 -ON CO r—i VO CO 00 NO I co NO a> vo r H ON o r 1 NO VO co O CO C\f H CO I—1 r H CM VO r H I o VO vo CM Q 00 CO o CO CO r - i r H r-i O N 00 r H CO CO CO CO • O — m US. u. 1 NO CO 1 1 w - 3 - 1 1 1 0 1 I 1 1 0 i CM r H 1 1 CO 1 l / 1 I < i I CO o r H 1 r H O EH X X X <D <H fi o 5 rH r - C D O O - £j £ — C M J K u AA 1 2.3 1.5 2.0 2. - 1.3 114 © P Q R S 3 2.5 6.8 - - - -4 5.6 3.5 9.1 4.5 2.8 - • - - - 2.1 3.2 -A B c E 6 F . - 2.2 5.2 - -7 - - - 0.6 2.7 - -e - - - - - 1.6 - -- -9 - - - - 1.6 - - 1.9 -to - 1.2 - - - - - 1.8 -II - - -12 - - -13 - - • -14 - - . -Table XXXI. Gara. c M J u AA 1 9 . : 3 . J 2 . C 2 2 . 8 5 . 3 2 . 9 o R S 3 2 . 5 - 8 . 6 - -4 111 8 . 8 - 6 . 8 - -7 . 5 1 . 8 3 . 5 4 . 2 - -A B c D E F - 4 . 4 3 . 5 - - -7 - - - - - - - -e - - - - - - - - -9 - - - - - - - - -to - •- - - - - - - -II - - -12 - - -13 - - -14 - - -Table XXXII. Dag. ON C H J K u AA t 2.3 4.7 4.0 2 - 1.3 - o P Q R s 3 7.5 - 2.9 7.1 7.1 -4 - i.e 3.c 2.3 6.9 -- - - 2.1 1.2 -A B c D E F - - • - - 7.1 1.2 7 - - - - - - 3.1 e - - - - - - - - -9 - - - - - - - - -to - - - - - - - - -• II - - -12 - - -13 - - -14 - - -Table XXXIII. Tanr. r-1 1 - - -2 - - - o P Q R s 3 - - - - 1.2 3.7 4 • - - - - 1.4 -- - - - - 1.5 -A B c E 6 F - - - 1.4 - 1.5 7 - - - - 0.6 - - 3.1 e - - - 4-„4 - 1.6 1.1 3.1 -9 - - 7.1 1.5 3.1 2.6 2.1 - -\o - 1.2 5.1 5.0 2.3 3.2 5.4 - 3.1 II - 0.9 0.8 12 - - -13 1.9 - -H - - -T a b l e XXXIV. J o r ( i n h a b i t a t i o n s i t e names.) C M J V< L AA 1 - - -2 - - - o p Q R S 3 - - - - - -4 - - - - — — - - - - - -A B c o E 6 F - - 5.3 - - -7 - 5.3 118 - 3.8 9.3 - -e - - 7.4 4.4 - 4. 0 - - -9 - 5.0 1.8 - 2.4 - - - -to - 4.9 2.6 - 1.2 - - - -11 1.0 2.9 0.8 - - 2.0 2.8 1.2 -14 - • •' 1.7 1.2 Table XXXV. Kel. VO C M J K L AA 1 - - -2 - - - © p Q R s 3 - - - - - -4 - 1.8 - - - -• 2.5 - - - - -A B c o E 6 F 1.9 - - - - -7 6.1 2.6 4.6 - - - 3.1 8 3.5 - 7.4 7.9 9.7 - 1.1 - -9 1.9 - - 6.6 4.7 - - 7.4 -to - - 1.3 0.8 3.5 3.2 3.4 5.5 1.6 It - 1.9 -12 - - -13 - 2.3 -»4 l . l 1.7 -Table XXXVI. Pani. P H J K L /VA 1 - - -2 - - - © P R S 3 - - - - - -4 - - - - - -- - - - - -c D E F • - - . - - - -7 - - - - - - 1.6 e - 5 . 3 ' - 0.9 •* - - - -9 5 . 8 - -: - 2 . 4 - - -to 6.9 l ? . l 11.f 5.< ) 5 . 8 - - - -It 4 . 0 2 2 . c 1 2 . C 12 3 . 8 1 8 . 2 2 8 . C 13 19.4 4 4 . - 2 3 7 . 2 14 15.? 2 8 . £ 3 8 . 3 T a b l e XXXVII. P a l i c H J K AA 1 - - -2 - - - © P Q R s 3 - - - - - -4 - - - - - -- - - - - --A, B c D 6 F - - - - - -7 2.C - 2.0 0.9 - • - - -8 - - 3.? 3.5 - - 1.1 — — 9 - l.£ 4.4 4.7 - - - -\o 1.4 3.? 2.6 5.8 2.3 - - - 1.6 M - 4.£ 5.3 12 - - 2.C t3 - 5.8 3.8 14 1.1 8.5 7.*i Table XXXVIII. Munda. C H J K L AA 1 - - -2. - 1.3 - o P R s 3 - - - - - 1.9 4 - - 3.0 - - -- - - - - 3 . 8 A B c D E 6 F - 2.2 1.8 - - 3.1 7 12.2 5.3 2.0 - - -- - -e 15. f 5.3 3.7 - - - - 1.5 2.2 9 - - 3.6 - 0.8 - 1.1 1.9 -to 2.8 8.9 - 2.5 2.3 - 0.8 1.8 1.6 il 3.9 - 5.3 12 2.5 - 6.0 13 1.9 - 2.6 Vi 5.3 1.7 -Table XXXIX. P a r a . 144 0 to l CO 1 c o r H 1 CV! CM a l CM H r - l CO VO v o a CM -3"" VO CO MD -3-" CO o-0 1 O CO CM •d-" •2 1 -3-r H H CM CM i 1 ! CO CO VO O i I 1 CM CO CO VO r H 1 VO r H I 1 o IN-i 1 1 CM -=*-* CO CM i 1 1 • o -cvi O -o • 1 I 1 — m UN. I J L 1 1 1 1 U4 l 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 i 1 1 1 CO 1 1 1 < l 1 1 1 r H CD PQ X (D r H a$ EH CO O o - £f 2} — 145 i 0 0> 1 i i i 8 i 1 0 I l i i a i 1 vO 1 0 1 I H CO •2 • • • 1 CO r>-ON I 1 i 1 CO CV! ! i 1 i i i 1 i 1 1 I i 1 l i I » • 1 1 i 1 l i — <s en Us . u. i 1 i i l i i i 0 i I i i 0 T i i i ca i 1 i i < i i i i 1-3 X CO rH rO cd ' EH co Cv o - £j S2 ^ G J AA 1 - - -2. - - - o P Q R S 3 - - - _ 4 - . 1 . 8 3 . 0 - - -5 - - • - - - -A B c D E F - 2 . 2 - - - -7 — - - - 2 . 5 2 . 7 1 . 5 -e - - - - - 0 . 8 5 . 3 - -9 - - — - 1.5 2 . 1 - -to - - - - - 3 . 2 3 . 5 - -II - - -12 - - -13 - - -14 - - -Table XLIII. Gutu. c J c AA 1 - - -1 - - - o Q R s 3 - - - - - -4 - - - - - -- - - - - -A B c 0 E P - - - - -7 - - - - - - -6 - - - - - 0.8 - 3.1 2.2 9 - - - 0.7 4 . 7 - 1.1 - -t o - - 0.9 3.5 3.1 5.9 1.8 T . ~ 5 H - - -\2 - - -13 - - -14 - -1 -Table XLIV, Pos. i — 1 0 0 

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