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Canada's Siberian policy 1918-1919 Murby, Robert Neil 1969

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CANADA'S SIBERIAN POLICY i918 - 1919  ROBERT NEIL MURBY B.A,, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF 1  MASTER OF ARTS i n the DEPARTMENT OF SLAVONIC STUDIES  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  advanced degree at  the  Library  I further for  shall  the  his  of  this  written  f u l f i l m e n t of  University  of  make i t f r e e l y  agree that  permission  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  representatives.  be  British  available  for extensive  g r a n t e d by  the  It i s understood  thes,is f o r f i n a n c i a l  for  gain  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and c o p y i n g of  that  not  the  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  D a  1 e  April 17th.  1969  Columbia  or  publication  allowed without  Robert N. Murby  S l a v o n i c Studies  thesis  Department  permission.  Department of  that  Study.  this  copying or  for  my  - i i-  ABSTRACT  The aim o f t h i s essay was t o add t o the extremely l i m i t e d fund o f knowledge r e g a r d i n g Canada's r e l a t i o n s w i t h S i b e r i a d u r i n g the c r i t i c a l p e r i o d o f the I n t e r v e n t i o n , The r e s u l t h o p e f u l l y i s a c o n t r i b u t i o n both t o R u s s i a n / S o v i e t and Canadian h i s t o r y . The scope o f the s u b j e c t i n c l u d e s both Canada's m i l i t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n t e r - a l l i e d i n t e r v e n t i o n and simultaneously the attempt on the p a r t o f Canada t o economically penetrate S i b e r i a , The p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h was c a r r i e d out a t the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Ottawa d u r i n g September and October, 1968. The v a s t m a j o r i t y of the documents u t i l i z e d i n t h i s essay have never p r e v i o u s l y been p u b l i s h e d e i t h e r i n whole or i n p a r t .  The only r e s e a r c h d i f f i c u l t y  experienced was i n attempting t o view the documents r e l a t i n g t o the Canadian Economic Commission t o S i b e r i a .  The documents i n q u e s t i o n were under  the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Department o f Trade and Commerce r a t h e r than the Public Archives.  I n s p i t e of p e r s i s t e n t negotiations, i t o r i g i n a l l y  appeared dubious whether or not the Department would r e l e a s e the documents. The matter was f i n a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v e d whereby the Department t r a n s f e r r e d the f i l e s o f the Commission t o the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s on a permanent b a s i s . to r e s e a r c h e r s .  These documents had never p r e v i o u s l y been a v a i l a b l e  =• i i i  Two  «  b a s i c assumptions about Canada's S i b e r i a n p o l i c y f o r the  under study predated the a c t u a l a r c h i v a l research. regardless  o f Canada's ' c o l o n i a l status* i n 1918,  l a r g e l y independent of the United Kingdom and  The  period  f i r s t was  that  she had been i n f a c t  had agreed to j o i n  the  m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n S i b e r i a f o r reasons of s t r i c t n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . The  second was  that one  of the most important elements of Canada's  agreement had been economic i n t e r e s t .  The  documents reviewed would  suggest a s u b s t a n t i a l f a c t u a l b a s i s f o r these assumptions,, Various aspects of Canada's S i b e r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n are new essay.  The  to t h i s  questions of Canada's economic i n t e r e s t i n S i b e r i a ; the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the B r i t i s h and  Canadian troops i n S i b e r i a ; and  problem of d i s a f f e c t i o n i n the Canadian Expeditionary have not p r e v i o u s l y been  discussed,,  Force  the  (Siberia)  ACKR0W1EDGEENT  I am extremely grateful to Dr„ C y r i l Bryner, my thesis supervisor* He gave freely of h i s time and encouragement.  He provided invaluable  assistance at a l l stages of the planning and w r i t i n g of this essay, Thanks also go to Dr., Michael F u t r e l l who read the manuscript proofs and offered many suggestions for improvement^  He was always w i l l i n g  to a s s i s t me i n various ways  e  Robert N , Murby  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGMENT  INTRODUCTION Chapter I..  CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (SIBERIA) A, B,« G D_, E, a  F II,  e  CANADIAN ECONOMIC COMMISSION TO SIBERIA. A, B,  III,  Formation o f P o l i c y S t a g i n g o f the C.E.F,(s) Post A r m i s t i c e Government P o l i c y The C.E.F.(S) i n - S i b e r i a The B r i t i s h B a t t a l i o n s and the Issue o f Command Troop D i s a f f e c t i o n i n the C,E.F.(S)  Formation o f the Commission Commission A c t i v i t y i n S i b e r i a 1, M e r c a n t i l e A c t i v i t y 2. Messrs, Kunst & A l b e r s 3# S i b e r i a n Supply Company . 4» The B r a i t h w a i t e M i s s i o n  THE DISENGAGEMENT - AN APPRAISAL  FOOTNOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY  UTRODUCTION  The A l l i e d I n t e r v e n t i o n i n S i b e r i a has f o r a l o n g p e r i o d e x c i t e d the c u r i o s i t y and i n t e r e s t o f a number o f important  scholars.  Three  works on the subject i n the E n g l i s h language, s i g n i f i c a n t both f o r t h e i r comprehensiveness and s o l d research which were found most u s e f u l as preparatory background f o r t h i s essay were:  John A. White's The S i b e r i a n  Intervention;*" George F, Kennan's two volume work S o v i e t - American 2 R e l a t i o n s . 1917 - 1920 and  the War:  ^  Robert H. Ullman's two volume work I n t e r v e n t i o n  Anglo - S o v i e t R e l a t i o n s . 1917 - 1921.^  I t i s however unfortunate  that to date v i r t u a l l y no a t t e n t i o n has  been devoted t o the i n t e r e s t i n g economic, m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l r o l e s played by Canada i n the S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n .  I t i s noteworthy and  i n e x p l i c a b l e t h a t the n u m e r i c a l l y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the I n t e r v e n t i o n s both i n North R u s s i a and Transcaucasia have been so w e l l reported,"* whereas the Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force t o S i b e r i a c o n s i s t i n g as i t d i d o f n e a r l y f i v e thousand troops and i n a d d i t i o n , an a n c i l l a r y Economic Commission has been almost untouched as an area o f h i s t o r i c a l research.  The exceptions, however, should be noted,  J . A. Swettenham's A l l i e d I n t e r v e n t i o n i n R u s s i a . 1918 - 1919:  and the  5 F a r t Played by Canada  perhaps presaged the beginning o f an i n t e r e s t ,  a t l e a s t by Canadian h i s t o r i a n s , i n t h i s q u e s t i o n .  Since Swettenham's  study covers the whole scope o f the I n t e r v e n t i o n i n Russia, i t goes without s a y i n g that the m a t e r i a l d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the S i b e r i a n  Intervention i s not as comprehensive as a f u l l - s c a l e monograph on the subject might have been. Another useful essay was Gaddis Smith's Canada M  and the Siberian Intervention, 1918 - 1919".^ Even i n these two isolated studies however there was no discussion of the role played by economics i n the Canadian Siberian Intervention,  I t i s , nevertheless, true that  Canada made a serious attempt, through the medium of an Economic Commission sent to Siberia, to penetrate Siberia economically during the period of C i v i l War and Intervention i n order to develop markets for Canadian manufactured goods, A study of the role that Canada played i n the Siberian Intervention i s a v i t a l area of concern for a number of reasons, the most important of which i s that i t represents a significant aspect of our nation's history, and as Canadians we should be aware of i t , Canada did not ' o f f i c i a l l y * gain f u l l independence from Great B r i t a i n u n t i l 1931 with the passage of the Statute of Westminster ? and as a result a misconception has grown up that u n t i l that date Canada was i n every sense of the word a B r i t i s h colony,  A study of Canada's  participation i n the Siberian Intervention demonstrates that this was not the case,  Canada was clearly executing a national and independent  policy with regard to the Siberian Intervention from the time of the i n i t i a l negotiations u n t i l the withdrawal.  The role played by Canada  during the Siberian Intervention provides an excellent object lesson  on Canada's c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development. t h a t i t was  I t could, admittedly, be a l l e g e d  the very important r o l e that Canada played i n World War  I  t h a t demonstrated Canada's t r a n s i t i o n from c o l o n i a l to n a t i o n a l s t a t u s . Although t h i s may  be t r u e , World War  n a t i o n a l and world emergency.  I was,  a f t e r a l l , a s i t u a t i o n of  The S i b e r i a n s i t u a t i o n , on the other hand,  represented no r e a l or immediate t h r e a t to Canada, and the Canadian d e c i s i o n to i n t e r v e n e , u n l i k e the s i t u a t i o n i n Europe, was based p r i n c i p a l l y upon c o l d p o l i t i c a l and economic c a l c u l a t i o n . Great B r i t a i n who  The f a c t that i t was  i n i t i a l l y made the request t h a t Canada supply a contingent  o f troops f o r the I n t e r v e n t i o n , was not u l t i m a t e l y a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f paramount importance as f a r as the components of Canada's eventual d e c i s i o n were  concerned. A second misconception i s that the B r i t i s h b a t t a l i o n s i n S i b e r i a  are p o p u l a r l y presumed to have been under the command of A l f r e d Knox, the Head of the B r i t i s h M i l i t a r y M i s s i o n .  Major-General I t i s also  presumed, f a l s e l y , t h a t the B r i t i s h f o r c e s i n S i b e r i a were a separate n a t i o n a l contingent.  In f a c t the B r i t i s h b a t t a l i o n s present i n S i b e r i a  were only p a r t of an Imperial contingent, the bulk of which was o f the C . E . F . ( s ) , concerned  In theory, a t l e a s t , a l l the government bodies  recognized the f a c t that the B r i t i s h b a t t a l i o n s were an i n t e g r a l  p a r t of t h i s Imperial Force, of Major-General Canadian,  composed  T h i s Imperial Force was under the command  J , H. Elmsley, the commander of the C.E.F.(s) and a  I t i s extremely i n t e r e s t i n g to consider the massive S o v i e t polemic t h a t has "been mounted over the years a g a i n s t the B r i t i s h i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Siberia.  Yet Canada's r o l e i s ignored by S o v i e t h i s t o r i a n s , or i f mentioned,  i t i s of the most cursory v a r i e t y .  Except f o r the f a c t that the S o v i e t  h i s t o r i a n s are s u f f e r i n g from the general misconception that Canada  was,  d u r i n g the period of the I n t e r v e n t i o n , l i t t l e more than a c o l o n i a l satrap of Great B r i t a i n , much of t h i s S o v i e t propaganda should have l o g i c a l l y been d i r e c t e d a t Canada, One  of the p r i n c i p a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of the study of the I n t e r v e n t i o n  from the p o i n t of view of the American, B r i t i s h , French, and Japanese aspects, i s that one cannot do so out of the context of the h i s t o r y of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and economic r e l a t i o n s with the Russian S t a t e ,  Taking  merely the economic question alone, France and B r i t a i n p a r t i c u l a r l y and the United S t a t e s to a l e s s e r extent had massive investments i n Russia, both i n the form of loans to the Russian Government and c a p i t a l i n v e s t ment i n the Russian economy.  N a t u r a l l y one  of the motivating f a c t o r s  f o r these s t a t e s as f a r as the I n t e r v e n t i o n was p r o t e c t i o n of the investment.  concerned was  the  Although t h i s economic aspect of the  I n t e r v e n t i o n has l a r g e l y been overshadowed by the p o l i t i c a l and aspects, i t i s slowly being r e a l i z e d that i t was utmost importance,  military  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  J , A, White i n h i s The S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n makes  t h i s very c l e a r as does Louis F i s c h e r i n The S o v i e t s i n World A f f a i r s .  8  Canada, on the contrary, had v i r t u a l l y no p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n r e l a t i o n s of any s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h R u s s i a , created by World War  Except f o r the unusual c o n d i t i o n s  I whereby Canada gained a share of the Russian market,  under the more normal pre-war c o n d i t i o n s , Canadian trade w i t h Russia minimal; f o r a l l i n t e n t s and purposes there was  was  no s i g n i f i c a n t Canadian  investment i n Russia; and s i n c e Canada's f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s were a t t h i s time conducted by Great B r i t a i n , one cannot speak of any Russo-Canadian p o l i t i c a l or d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s . f a c t that Canada had  I t i s p r e c i s e l y because of t h i s » the  'no axe to g r i n d ' i n Russia - that one can see  Canadian I n t e r v e n t i o n i n S i b e r i a as a microcosm of the generally.  the  Intervention  The p o l i t i c a l , m i l i t a r y and economic considerations  that  induced Canada to intervene, and f i n a l l y the f a c t o r s that caused the Canadian I n t e r v e n t i o n to founder and  e v e n t u a l l y l e d to the withdrawal  from S i b e r i a , were by and l a r g e not p e c u l i a r to Canada but were general to a l l the p a r t i c i p a t i n g powers. In t h i s essay, the two are considered:  broad aspects of the Canadian I n t e r v e n t i o n  the Canadian Expeditionary Force ( S i b e r i a ) and  Canadian Economic Commission to S i b e r i a ,  the  They were the p r i n c i p a l  components o f Canada's S i b e r i a n p o l i c y i n the period under d i s c u s s i o n . The  two  t o p i c s are considered  s e p a r a t e l y not because that was  the most d e s i r a b l e , but r a t h e r because i t was  necessarily  the only method p o s s i b l e .  Although Canada's economic and m i l i t a r y p o l i c i e s f o r S i b e r i a d e r i v e d from one  common p o l i c y they were t e c h n i c a l l y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y  separate.  The C.E.P.(s) was under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the M i l i t i a Department and the Economic Commission was under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Department of Trade and Commerce, divided.  The documentary b a s i s o f t h i s essay was  similarly  One s e t of a r c h i v a l f i l e s on the C.E.F.(s) and another on  the Economic Commission,  That both were the o f f s p r i n g s o f one p o l i c y  can, however, be s u f f i c i e n t l y demonstrated from a review of a number of statements made by t o p - l e v e l cabinet m i n i s t e r s , p r i n c i p a l l y S i r Robert Borden, i n a number o f key documents,, Major-General S, C, Mewburn, the M i n i s t e r o f M i l i t i a , i n a l e t t e r dated 12th J u l y 1918 to S i r Robert Borden r e g a r d i n g the formation o f the C.E.F.(S) expressed r a t h e r c l e a r l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the m i l i t a r y and economic aspects o f the Canadian i n t e r v e n t i o n i n S i b e r i a , I t has been suggested that the trade conditions i n this t e r r i t o r y (Siberia} w i l l be a v i t a l factor,., i t might be advisable to have some Canadian r e p r e s e n t a t i v e accompany this f o r c e , (C.E.F.(s)J as f a r as Trade and Commerce goes, 9 I n e a r l y August, 1918, S i r Robert Borden was i n a v e r i t a b l e panic when he discovered that the despatch o f economic commissions t o S i b e r i a from Great B r i t a i n and the United S t a t e s was  imminent,  United S t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n are sending economic commissions to S i b e r i a i n connection w i t h m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n , I consider i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t Canada should take l i k e a c t i o n , Hope Cabinet w i l l give the subject c o n s i d e r a t i o n and reach favourable d e c i s i o n immediately,,,organization of proposed Commission should be made with l e a s t d e l a y . 10  - 7 -  In a l e t t e r to Major-General Mewburn dated August 13, 1918 Borden stated the principal considerations that i n his view j u s t i f i e d Canada's despatch of a military force to Siberia,  I t i s interesting to note that  they have very l i t t l e to do with aiding either the Russians or the Czechoslovaks or indeed the defeat of the Central Powers, Intimate relations with that rapidly developing country [Siberia] w i l l be of great advantage to Canada i n the future. Other nations w i l l make very vigorous and determined efforts to obtain a foothold and our i n t e r position with a small military force would tend to bring Canada into favourable notice by the strongest elements i n that great community, [Siberia] ^ The Order-in-Council of 21st October 1918 which established the Canadian Economic Commission to Siberia clearly stated that the economic and military aspects of the Siberian Intervention could not be divorced, and were merely the two expressions of an over-all Siberian policy. Besides assisting i n the protection and pacification of the country [Siberia) the purpose of the A l l i e s i s to assist the people of Siberia to reestablish their productive industries and reorganize their financial and commercial a c t i v i t i e s , . , . ^ Altruism, however, was not quite what the Cabinet had i n mind. After a lengthy preamble the Order-in-Council f i n a l l y gets to the principal point at issue, namely that Canada's interest i n Siberia from a "...trade...point of view, both present and future, i s undoubted." 13 Later, when Borden was encountering cabinet opposition to the continuance of the C.E.F.(S) he advised S i r Thomas White, the Acting Prime Minister, that should the C.E.F.(s) be recalled "...the Economic  - 8 -  Commission which we have sent over would...he u s e l e s s and would have t o he r e c a l l e d t o our p o s s i b l e detriment i n the future,' Borden i n another document, dated November  1  20th, again emphasized  the economic and m i l i t a r y connection. ...Canadian Forces now i n S i b e r i a should remain u n t i l S p r i n g and i n absence o f s t r o n g reasons t o c o n t r a r y that the a d d i t i o n a l f o r c e s . . . s h o u l d proceed to S i b e r i a f o r the purposes i n d i c a t e d as w e l l as f o r economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which are manifest, 15 The c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s who were, o r s e v e n t u a l l y became, opposed to Canada's f u r t h e r S i b e r i a n involvement a l s o c l e a r l y understood the economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which underlay the i n t e r - a l l i e d  intervention  g e n e r a l l y and Canada's s p e c i f i c a l l y . Great B r i t a i n and France are immediately i n t e r e s t e d f i n intervening] by reason of Russia's l a r g e indebtedness to them and the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f r e t a i n i n g s t a b l e Government i n order that such indebtedness may be met, Canada has no such economic or business i n t e r e s t as w i l l j u s t i f y the employment o f a Canadian force.... 1 6  . 9 -  I . CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (SIBERIA)  A. Formation of P o l i c y  The r e l a t i v e l y extensive amount of research which has  already  heen completed on the general subject of the S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n precluded  the n e c e s s i t y f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l e d background explanation,,  i s intended,  t h e r e f o r e , to analyze  It  the p o l i t i c o - m i l i t a r y background only  i n so f a r as i t had a d i r e c t bearing on the Canadian Government's d e c i s i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Intervention,, The c o l l a p s e of the P r o v i s i o n a l Government and of the A l l i e d to convince the Bolshevik Government to continue  efforts  the s t r u g g l e against  the C e n t r a l Powers put the A l l i e d Powers, f o r a time, i n a d i f f i c u l t m i l i t a r y p o s i t i o n on the Western F r o n t ,  I n view of the s i t u a t i o n i n  R u s s i a there e x i s t e d a number of v a l i d m i l i t a r y arguments f o r some kind of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n that country:  to attempt to r e c o n s t i t u t e the E a s t e r n  F r o n t ; to secure the m i l i t a r y s t o c k p i l e s a t Vladivostok, Murmansk, and Archangel and a t the same time p r o t e c t the Czechoslovak Legion, o f which were presumed to be threatened  both  by armed p r i s o n e r s of war  of  the C e n t r a l Powers; and f i n a l l y to secure v i t a l areas of economic importance such as the Baku o i l r e g i o n . The B r i t i s h Government f e l t that her troop commitments elsewhere made i t impossible  to make anything other than the most minimal troop  c o n t r i b u t i o n to any S i b e r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n ,  The i d e a of an  Imperial  - 10 -  Force f o r S i b e r i a with Canadians making up the bulk o f the strength had e a r l y presented- i t s e l f t o B r i t i s h policymakers as a l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n to the problem. During the f i r s t week o f J u l y 1918, General Bridges, the B r i t i s h M i l i t a r y Representative i n Washington, D. C, had met with Ottawa cabinet m i n i s t e r s and o f f i c e r s o f the Canadian General S t a f f regarding the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a Canadian c o n t r i b u t i o n to a S i b e r i a n f o r c e .  He was  informed a t the time that troops were simply not a v a i l a b l e , but that p o s s i b l y two b a t t a l i o n s o f discharged s o l d i e r s might be r a i s e d ,  1  Major-General de B. R a d c l i f f e (War O f f i c e D i r e c t o r o f M i l i t a r y Operations) requested o f N, W, Rowell (President C o u n c i l ) i n a l e t t e r o f J u l y 9th  o f the Canadian P r i v y  that the matter be brought to the  a t t e n t i o n o f Prime M i n i s t e r S i r Robert Borden and that h i s views on the matter be made known to the War O f f i c e p r i o r t o any o f f i c i a l a c t i o n being taken,^ Borden apparently d i d concur with the suggestion that Canada take p a r t i n the S i b e r i a n f o r c e and a c o n s u l t a t i o n took place i n London between Major-General de B, R a d c l i f f e and Major-General S, C, Mewburn, M i n i s t e r o f M i l i t i a , on J u l y 12th a t which time f i r m agreement by Canada was given and the i n i t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e t a i l s worked out. At that time i t was agreed that the t e n t a t i v e strength o f the Canadian c o n t r i b u t i o n would be two i n f a n t r y b a t t a l i o n s (@ 1000 men each) plus supporting u n i t s .  The B r i t i s h Government a t the meeting promised t o  - 11 -  contribute at least one battalion of infantry. The entire force, both the Canadian and British segments, was to be under the command of a Canadian officer, 3 The meeting did not resolve the questions of the objectives of the expedition or of which nation was to have control of the force. These two questions, which later assumed crucial importance, were left in abeyance, to be resolved at a later date, 4 In a secret memorandum from the General Staff of the Department of Overseas Military Forces of Canada to their Minister, Sir Edward Kemp dated July 19th i t was stated that although the Japanese would make up the bulk of the proposed inter-allied Siberian force and carry out the bulk of the fighting " , , , i t is necessary for each of the Allies to be represented for political reasons," The Memorandum went on to assert 1  that: If everything goes well, the Russian front will be re-established on the western side of the Urals, and i f possible will link up with the force of Czechs which is operating from the port of Archangel, [sicjl and fighting their way south, 5 At this time, although the plans for Canadian participation in the Siberian intervention had been nearing finalization, the British Colonial Secretary, Long, for some unknown reason, on July 20th in a cable despatch to the Canadian Governor-General, the Duke of Devonshire, requested that the Canadian Government 'speed up' their final agreement, ^ The British Government had sent this message without prior  - 12  -  c o n s u l t a t i o n with e i t h e r Major-General Mewburn or S i r Robert Borden both of whom were a t the time i n London. t h i s somewhat high-handed a c t i o n and  Borden was  not pleased  at  i n a cable to the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e ,  Charles J , Doherty, Borden s t a t e d t h a t : Mewburn and I g r e a t l y s u r p r i s e d that B r i t i s h Government r e c e n t l y sent telegram to Governor General...without f i r s t c o n s u l t i n g us.  ...  I d e s i r e that no r e p l y s h a l l be through me, 7 The  sent...except  Canadian Government's d e c i s i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the S i b e r i a n  i n t e r v e n t i o n was There was  based p r i m a r i l y on three premises.  c e r t a i n l y a n a t u r a l and genuine d e s i r e to a i d , w i t h i n  l i m i t s , Great B r i t a i n and a t the same time p l a y a r o l e i n the war.  I t cannot be s e r i o u s l y suggested that panic a r i s i n g out of  German o f f e n s i v e of March - J u l y 1918 for  terminating  the Canadian policymakers.  was  an important  on  Force ( S i b e r i a ) which had  place d u r i n g the f i r s t two weeks of J u l y 1918, the Western F r o n t had  consideration  During the i n i t i a l n e g o t i a t i o n s  formation of the Canadian Expeditionary  There was  taken on  the  a t t h i s time i n Ottawa  an o p t i m i s t i c a p p r a i s a l of the m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n i n which the of the C e n t r a l Powers was  the  the German o f f e n s i v e  already ground to a h a l t and by August 8 t h  German f o r c e s were i n f u l l r e t r e a t .  the  looked to w i t h confident expectation.  defeat The most  t h a t the German o f f e n s i v e had accomplished as f a r as Canadian p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y planners were concerned was i n 1918  was  that the prospect of v i c t o r y  no longer regarded as f e a s i b l e .  The Canadian Government had  - 13 -  every reason t o a n t i c i p a t e u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y .  Canadian troops i n Europe  had not been attacked d u r i n g the German o f f e n s i v e and with the exception of the f i a s c o o f Passchendaele the Canadian Corps a c c o r d i n g to Borden was i n e x c e l l e n t shape. 8  Moreover, by June 21st, Borden had a t h i s  d i s p o s a l information t h a t by August 1 s t , 1.2 m i l l i o n TJ. S. troops would be i n Prance, 9 The u l t i m a t e termination o f the war, although a happy enough event i n i t s e l f , would b r i n g with i t c e r t a i n s e r i o u s economic, and i n d i r e c t l y p o l i t i c a l problems.  During the war, Canada had experienced an economic  'boom* o f unprecedented p r o p o r t i o n s .  Many e x i s t i n g manufacturing f a c i l i t i e s  had been expanded and numerous new ones had been e s t a b l i s h e d .  Although  of course, as l o n g as the war continued, many o f these were producing war m a t e r i e l under government c o n t r a c t .  The end o f the war would see  them q u i c k l y r e t o o l e d f o r c i v i l i a n peacetime production.  What then would  occur when the Canadian manufacturers began v a s t l y overproducing f o r a c i v i l i a n market?  A depression the s e v e r i t y o f which was unforeseen was  f o r e c a s t w i t h massive unemployment - a s e r i o u s l i a b i l i t y f o r any government. There was a l s o the danger o f Bolshevism spreading among the j o b l e s s . The manufacturers themselves would be r e l u c t a n t to see t h e i r p r o f i t s d e c l i n e and would look askance a t any government that allowed t h i s to take p l a c e ,  A s o l u t i o n t o the problem was the enlargement o f the f o r e i g n  market f o r Canadian goods by e s t a b l i s h i n g t r a d i n g l i n k s i n p r e v i o u s l y •unexploited' areas,  S i b e r i a was such an area and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n  - 14-  of S i b e r i a as a market f o r Canadian exports was a f a c t o r of great importance i n Canada*s u l t i m a t e agreement to take p a r t i n the S i b e r i a n i n t e r - a l l i e d intervention.  I t was a f a c t o r c e r t a i n l y present i n the  minds of Canadian policymakers throughout the n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r the establishment of the C E . F . ( s ) .  1  0  F i n a l l y , the Canadian r o l e i n the war, although an impressive one, caused Borden and c e r t a i n of h i s p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t e s to g a i n an impression of a post-war Canada sketched i n somewhat grandiose terms,  N, W« Rowell,  the P r e s i d e n t of the P r i v y C o u n c i l , saw Canada coming out o f the war i n a pre-eminent economic p o s i t i o n , but coupled with i t p o l i t i c a l importance. He c l e a r l y saw the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two.  In h i s view, both the  United S t a t e s and Canada j o i n t l y and s i n g l y would, i n the post-war p e r i o d be dominant i n the P a c i f i c , ^ l a s t when ' P a c i f i c r i m i s m  ,  This was a time, not the f i r s t or the  was a b a s i c tenet o f Canada's economic and  f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s . ^2 Of the three bases upon which f i n a l agreement had been reached, a t l e a s t to the Borden c l i q u e w i t h i n the cabinet, the l a s t two, namely S i b e r i a as a market and the P a c i f i c r e g i o n as a r e g i o n i n which Canada might w i e l d p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e were the most c r i t i c a l to f i n a l agreement to go ahead with the C . E . F . ( s )  9  The agreement, however, was c o n d i t i o n a l .  The B r i t i s h Government  from the beginning had been agreeable to a Canadian being appointed commander o f the p r o j e c t e d Imperial Force,  This d i d not go f a r enough  15 -  t o s a t i s f y the Canadian Government.  They i n s i s t e d upon Ottawa r a t h e r  than the B r i t i s h War O f f i c e having c o n t r o l o f the Force.  Although the  B r i t i s h Government d i d not take r e a d i l y to t h i s , s i n c e Canada was s u p p l y i n g the hulk o f the Force and s i n c e the Canadian p o s i t i o n was simply c o n t r o l and troops, o r no c o n t r o l no troops, the War O f f i c e was f o r c e d t o c a p i t u l a t e t o Canada on t h i s q u e s t i o n . A meaningless f a c e - s a v i n g formula was subsequently n e g o t i a t e d . Those present a t the August 13th  War O f f i c e Conference r e g a r d i n g  the Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force ( S i b e r i a ) were:  Major-General  J . H. Elmsley, who was subsequently appointed Commanding O f f i c e r o f the Force; Major-General S, C, Mewburn, the Canadian M i n i s t e r of M i l i t i a ; and Major-General de B. R a d c l i f f e , the War O f f i c e D i r e c t o r o f M i l i t a r y Operations,  The r e s u l t s o f the Conference l e f t the matter o f command*  channels f o r f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n .  The B r i t i s h Government nevertheless  i n e f f e c t acceded t o the Canadian p o s i t i o n .  Notes o f the Conference  s t a t e that agreement was reached that the Canadian Commanding O f f i c e r was:  "To have r i g h t t o appeal to h i s Government r e any order from  s u p e r i o r a u t h o r i t y which he considers w i l l be disadvantageous to h i s Force."  1  3  A l s o on August 13th  Borden sent a l e t t e r t o Mewburn i n which  he s t i p u l a t e d the command-channels and c o n d i t i o n s which would be acceptable to the Canadian Government,  I n essence they were that as to matters o f  p o l i c y and o p e r a t i o n s there was t o be d i r e c t communication  between the  - 16 -  War Office and the Canadian Commanding Officer of the Force. Copies of a l l such communications were to be sent to the M i l i t i a Department, Ottawa.  In a l l administrative matters the Canadian Government would have  jurisdiction and would communicate d i r e c t l y with the Force Commanding Officer, copies of a l l such communications being sent to the War Office, London,  Again, the question of ultimate appeal was c r i t i c a l , Borden's  l e t t e r goes on: ...Canadian government has stipulated and Imperial Government agreed no disposition of Forces i n F i e l d s h a l l be made nor such Forces committed any military operations without carrying judgment Canadian Commander and therefore l a t t e r s h a l l at a l l times have right direct communication Canadian Government, 14 Therefore, although i n theory the War Office had jurisdiction over policy and operations, this i n fact was only meaningful i n so f a r as Canada permitted i t to be meaningful.  Not only did the Commanding Officer  have the right of appeal to Ottawa, but more important, although not mentioned, the Commanding Officer was after a l l a Canadian Army officer who owed his ultimate loyalty to Canada rather than to the B r i t i s h Government, and as a Canadian Army officer he was, i n a direct sense, ultimately under the control of the M i l i t i a Department, Ottawa* By August 7th the matter had been completely f i n a l i z e d and on that date Borden sent a cable to Ottawa requesting that the Cabinet pass an Order-in-Council immediately, 15 The originating-Order-in-Council was passed on August 12th. I  6  The Order-in-Council authorized the mobilization and despatch of two  - 17 -  infantry battalions with supporting units. a force of approximately four thousand. passed on August 23rd  17  and September 5th  A l l ranks would constitute  Two subsequent Order-in-Councils 18  added other supporting  units although over-all strength was to remain four:thousand.  It i s  interesting to note that the August 23rd Order-in-Council added one squadron of cavalry of the Royal North West Mounted Police, It had originally been intended that the C.E.P.(s) would be raised by voluntary enlistment since the Military Service Act (1917) had already been the cause of much controversy and unrest.  Major-General S. C, Newburn, the  Minister of M i l i t i a , also pointed out that the detailing of conscripts to the Siberian Force would endanger the despatch of reinforcements to France,-^  Ultimately i t was a combination of conscripts and volunteers  that made up the Force. On September 10th Major-General H. H. Elmsley, C.B.,  C.M.G., D.S.O.,  was appointed by the Chief of the Imperial General Staff as Commanding Officer of the Imperial Force (Siberia),  The order stated that the  immediate objective of the expedition was "...to support the Czechoslovak forces i n their present positions," undecided.  Any other objectives remained  The order advised Elmsley that:  "You w i l l be kept informed  of any further objective that may be decided upon." Regarding operations, Elmsley was to be under the command of the A l l i e d Commander-in-Chief, General K. Otani,  General Otani was the  Commander of the Japanese Force i n Siberia which was the largest of the participating national contingents-  Elmsley was ordered to "...carry  - 18 -  out l o y a l l y any i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d t o you by the Commander-in-Chief of the A l l i e d F o r c e s . " where  I n s t r u c t i o n s were t o be c a r r i e d out except  any order g i v e n you appears t o i m p e r i l , , , y o u r f o r c e you w i l l  be a t l i b e r t y t o appeal t o the B r i t i s h Government before e x e c u t i n g such order,." I n Item 6 o f the Appointment Order, Elmsley was advised t o ",...keep i n touch w i t h Major-General Knox,.,." although t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p was not f u r t h e r d e f i n e d , Item 7 s t a t e d t h a t " , , , i n p o l i t i c a l matters you w i l l keep i n touch w i t h S i r C h a r l e s E l l i o t , " 20 S i r Charles E l l i o t was the B r i t i s h High Commissioner i n S i b e r i a , I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t one o f the c o n d i t i o n s s t i p u l a t e d by Canada d u r i n g the n e g o t i a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the C.E.F.(s) was t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s of the i n t e r - a l l i e d i n t e r v e n t i o n should be s p e l l e d - o u t ' i n s p e c i f i c 1  terms and furthermore unanimously agreed t o by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g powers. D u r i n g the n e g o t i a t i o n s these were l e f t i n abeyance s i n c e agreement a t t h a t stage had not been a t t a i n e d and indeed was never e f f e c t e d . p l a c e d a great importance up»n t h i s matter f o r two reasons, did  Canada  Canada  not w i s h the C.E.F.(s) t« become engaged i n m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y without  the support o f the other n a t i o n a l c o n t i n g e n t s , p r i n c i p a l l y Japan and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and hence have the C.E.F.(s) placed i n an untenable s i t u a t i o n by a s u p e r i o r f o r c e o f o p p o s i t i o n .  I t i s also possible that  Canada, i n view o f her post war p l a n s f o r the P a c i f i c , d i d not want t o antagonize e i t h e r the U n i t e d S t a t e s o r Japan by embarking on a course of a c t i o n not having the support o f these two poxrers  a  - 19 -  The B r i t i s h - Canadian c o n t r o v e r s y over the degree of commitment began t o assume s e r i o u s p r o p o r t i o n s when Major-General E l m s l e y and Major J. F. Lash sent a j o i n t telegram t o Major-General Mewburn on September 10th, the same day as E l m s l e y ' s appointment, recommending t h a t : ...some r e s e r v a t i o n should be made p r e v e n t i n g committal of Force to any p l a n of o p e r a t i o n u n t i l whole scheme agreed upon and understood by C a n a d a . . h a v i n g regard to u n c e r t a i n t y of i n t e n t i o n o f Japan and U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g a r d i n g e x t e n t and purpose of operation....21  B. S t a g i n g of the C.E.F.(s)  The two b a t t a l i o n s which were m o b i l i z e d f o r the C E . F . ( s ) ,  both  by v o l u n t a r y enlistment and c o n s c r i p t i o n , were the 259th and 260th B a t t a l i o n s Canadian I n f a n t r y .  There were, of course, i n a d d i t i o n supporting  units. The p r i n c i p a l s t a g i n g area f o r the C.E.F.(S) was Willows Camp, j u s t outside V i c t o r i a , B,  C.  The f i r s t contingents o f the Force a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a i n l a t e September and e a r l y October 1918,. An i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of the Force's h i s t o r y concerned the s o - c a l l e d 'Russian platoons' which were attached to the C.E.F.(s).  The Russian platoons played an important although unfortunate  r o l e w i t h i n the C.E.F.(S). During the course o f World War  I some f o u r to f i v e  thousand  Russian n a t i o n a l s had e i t h e r e n l i s t e d or been c o n s c r i p t e d i n t o the Canadian Army. 22  rp^e documents do not e x p l a i n how  these Russian n a t i o n a l s  came to be i n Canada, but p o s s i b l y i t can be assumed that they were simply immigrants  brought over under the auspices of the Department o f  Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n or e l s e under the C, P. R. scheme which i s r e f e r r e d to i n Chapter I I of t h i s essay 'Canadian Economic Commission to S i b e r i a *  Apparently, however, most of the Russian n a t i o n a l s  s e r v i n g i n the Canadian Army had come to Canada alone, l e a v i n g t h e i r wives and f a m i l i e s i n R u s s i a .  2  3  21 -  The proposal t o organize the C.E.F.(s) had been i n i t i a l l y agreed to by J u l y 12th, however, i t was only sometime l a t e r that the d e c i s i o n was reached to i n c l u d e Russian u n i t s w i t h i n the F o r c e . The proposal was f i r s t made by a L t . C o l , Yourkevitch on J u l y 18, 1918 i n the course o f an i n t e r v i e w with a Capt, Bray o f the M i l i t a r y I n t e l l i g e n c e S e c t i o n o f the Canadian Army Headquarters i n London. Lt.  C o l , Yourkevitch, p r i o r t o the outbreak o f war acted as the  o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Russian M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n Great B r i t a i n and France.  A t the outbreak o f war he was appointed t o the  Russian Government Committee i n London,  I n March 1917, he was given a  commission as Captain i n the Canadian Army.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  speculate how an o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Russian Government and a Russian Army o f f i c e r came t o be g i v e n a commission i n the Canadian Army.  The documents leave t h i s matter unexplained.  H i s a c t i v i t y from  March to November 1917, was not w i t h the Canadian Army however, but r a t h e r w i t h the Russian M i l i t a r y M i s s i o n i n London where he acted as Deputy t o General Yermolov,  A f t e r the B o l s h e v i k Revolution he j o i n e d  the Canadian Army Headquarters  i n London,  A s u i t a b l e completion to h i s  f a n t a s t i c biography i s t o note that he was married t o P r i n c e s s S a l i h a , the n i e c e o f the S u l t a n of Egypt, who was attached to the Canadian M i l i t a r y I n t e l l i g e n c e S e c t i o n , 24 Y o u r k e v i t c h suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y o f forming a Russo Canadian u n i t of d i v i s i o n s t r e n g t h , u t i l i z i n g the f o u r to f i v e  thousand  Russian n a t i o n a l s then i n s e r v i c e with the Canadian Army, and approximately  - 22 -  ten  thousand Canadians,  He advised t h a t Russian speaking o f f i c e r s be 25  attached to the proposed Force, Although  the document does not s p e c i f y whether Yourkevitch  was  then aware of the d e c i s i o n to send a Canadian f o r c e to S i b e r i a , he nevertheless had i t i n mind that h i s proposed Russo - Canadian f o r c e should see s e r v i c e i n some p a r t of R u s s i a ,  Capt, Bray notes t h a t  Yourkevitch "...was s p e c i a l l y desirous of speaking of the p o s s i b i l i t y of forming a s p e c i a l brigade f o r s e r v i c e i n Russia," 26 The War  O f f i c e Conference  of August 13, 1918  on the s u b j e c t of the  C.E.F.(s) makes note of the f a c t that there were i n England a t that time the numerical equivalent of three to f o u r platoons of Russo - Canadian troops. was  The Conference  concluded  that the question of t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n  to be l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of Major-General Although  Elmsley,  27  the purpose o f sending the Russian troops to S i b e r i a  not d e f i n e d , Major-General  was  Elmsley d i d agree to t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n the  C.E.F.(s) and o f f i c i a l approval on b e h a l f of the Canadian Government was  g i v e n by Major-General  Mewburn, the M i n i s t e r of M i l i t i a ,  decided t o organize only two platoons and by August of s e l e c t i o n and s t a g i n g a t B e x h i l l , England was  29th  2  taking place,  By October  3rd  29  hundred  and t h i r t e e n other ranks and two o f f i c e r s ( l e u t s . Ragosin and  30th. 30  I t was  the process  The main bulk of the Russian Force, c o n s i s t i n g of one  l e f t England on September  8  Englehardt)  a f u r t h e r nineteen  other ranks and one o f f i c e r ( L i e u t , M i l l e r ) had departed f o r Canada, By October 21st  31  the two contingents had a r r i v e d a t the C.E.F.(S) s t a g i n g  area a t V i c t o r i a , B, C,  ^  2  -  23  -  I t had previously been decided that the Russian platoons would be kept i n t a c t , and that one platoon would be attached supernumerary to the 259th Battalion and the other platoon attached to the 260th Battalion.53  This was l a t e r modified, and i t was decided to carry  both platoons supernumerary to establishment of 259th B a t t a l i o n . 3 4 The l a t e r h i s t o r y of the Russian platoons was characterized by serious disaffection and the platoons were ultimately disbanded. Section F , Chapter I , 'Troop Disaffection i n the C . E . F . ( S ' ) ' . )  (See  C, Post A r m i s t i c e Government P o l i c y  I t had been p o s s i b l e to achieve cabinet consensus r e g a r d i n g the formation of the C.E.F.(S) while such an operation remained an  aspect  o f the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the C e n t r a l Powers; the s i g n i n g of the A r m i s t i c e on November 11th however immediately brought about a schism i n the cabinet ranks.  Prime M i n i s t e r S i r Robert Borden, then leader of a  c o a l i t i o n government of L i b e r a l and Conservative  cabinet m i n i s t e r s ,  although himself a strong supporter of S i b e r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n e v e n t u a l l y found i t necessary  to bow  t o the wishes of the n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t s i n  order to preserve cabinet peace, A "afar O f f i c e cable to Major-General Mewburn sent j u s t a f t e r the s i g n i n g of the A r m i s t i c e advised him that the War to continue  Cabinet was  likely  to favour energetic Anglo - French a c t i o n i n S i b e r i a ,  cable went on to s t a t e that although  The  " . . . l a c k of d i r e c t i o n American  and Japanese.,.renders i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r French and ourselves, the advantage to B r i t i s h trade and p r e s t i g e w i l l be greater,"  correspondingly  J J  The Ottawa cabinet m i n i s t e r s , however, as d i s t i n c t from those who  were i n London, were d e f i n i t e l y opposed to the sending of f u r t h e r  troops to S i b e r i a ,  A c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r W.  T. White advised  S i r Edward Kemp, M i n i s t e r of Overseas M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e , on November 14th t h a t i t was  the I p i n i o n of the cabinet that p u b l i c opinion would not  s u s t a i n the Government i n c o n t i n u i n g with the C E . F . ( s ) and he urged that the troops already i n S i b e r i a should be r e c a l l e d a t the e a r l i e s t opportunity.  ^  25  Preparatory advised  the War  -  to a p o s s i b l e withdrawal, on November 15th Ottawa O f f i c e that i t was  t h e i r wish that Major-General Elmsley  be ordered to hold a l l Canadian f o r c e s i n V l a d i v o s t o k .  37  An example of cabinet o p p o s i t i o n i s seen i n a l e t t e r dated November 22nd from the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , T. A. Crerar to A c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r White.  He advised White of h i s absolute o p p o s i t i o n to  sending any a d d i t i o n a l troops and asked f o r the r e c a l l of those already there as soon as p o s s i b l e .  He went on to s t a t e t h a t :  The matter of how Russia s h a l l s e t t l e her i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s i s her concern - not ours. I f Prance or Great B r i t a i n may d e s i r e , f o r what appears to them good and s u f f i c i e n t reasons, to maintain armed Forces i n R u s s i a . . . t h i s i s t h e i r a f f a i r . 38 Crerar was  not the only m i n i s t e r so opposed; i n a  Borden dated November 22nd White advised him t h a t :  "Many members  of C o u n c i l s t r o n g l y opposed to our sending troops now S i b e r i a and  c o n t i n u i n g e x p e d i t i o n . " 39  Department advised troopships:  S.S.  been designated  the War  cable to  ready to s a i l to  Qn November 24th the M i l i t i a  O f f i c e t h a t the s a i l i n g s of the  TEESTA, S.S.  PROTESLIAUS and S.S.  three  JAPAN which had  to c a r r y the bulk of the Force to S i b e r i a , were c a n c e l l e d  pending advise to the contrary from Borden. 40 Borden, however, was  very much opposed to the course of a c t i o n  t h a t h i s Ottawa cabinet m i n i s t e r s had proposed.  In a l e t t e r to White  dated November 22nd Borden l i s t e d a number of reasons why Canada should proceed w i t h her commitment.  he f e l t  He emphasized that no  that military  a c t i o n other than the p o s s i b l e curbing of s m a l l , l o c a l disturbances  was  - 26 -  contemplated.  Although i t was u n l i k e l y that m i l i t a r y operations would  be necessary, i t was Borden's opinion that the mere presence of the C.E.F.(s) i n S i b e r i a would have a s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t and would a s s i s t the e f f o r t s of the newly organized Russian Government,  He s t r e s s e d the  d i s t i n c t i o n that would accrue to Canada by having an Imperial Force under the command of a Canadian o f f i c e r .  F i n a l l y he stated that i f the  Force were withdrawn "...the Economic Commission which we have sent over would,,.be u s e l e s s and would have to be r e c a l l e d to our p o s s i b l e detriment i n the f u t u r e , "  4  1  On November 24th Borden r e i t e r a t e d h i s p o s i t i o n i n a cable to White,  He stated that "Canada's present p o s i t i o n and p r e s t i g e would be  s i n g u l a r l y impaired by d e l i b e r a t e withdrawing from d e f i n i t e arrangement... He advised White that he d i d not hold with the argument that the sending of d r a f t e e s to S i b e r i a a f t e r the A r m i s t i c e was i n a p p r o p r i a t e ,  "Draftees  sent to take p a r t i n t e r r i b l e f i g h t i n g i n France have much more r i g h t to complain than d r a f t e e s sent to S i b e r i a where no f i g h t i n g i s anticipated,,.." ministers:  White was advised that the London based cabinet  S i r George F o s t e r , the M i n i s t e r of Trade and Commerce;  Arthur L. S i f t o n , the M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Revenue; and Charles J , Doherty the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , supported Borden's view of the problem.  The  r e s o l u t i o n of the matter was l e f t , however, t o the d i s c r e t i o n o f White and the r e s t o f the cabinet i n Ottawa. 42 On November 25th White, who had not a t t h i s time r e c e i v e d Borden's communication, despatched a lengthy cable t o Borden d e t a i l i n g the c a b i n e t  1  - 27  reasons against the intervention. Among other items referred to, White detailed the fact that public opinion would not tolerate a continuation of the C.E.F.(s); that Canada had no economic interests i n Siberia that would j u s t i f y the employment of troops there; and that the expense would meet strong criticism both among politicians and public a l i k e . 43 Borden, on November 27th conferred with Major-General de B, Eadcliffe, the War Office Director of Military Operations, regarding the d i f f i c u l t i e s that had arisen i n Canada regarding the Force,  Radcliffe had suggested  to Borden that i f i t was found necessary to discontinue the despatch of troops and withdraw the troops i n Siberia, perhaps i t would be possible for Major-General Elmsley and a staff of approximately one hundred and f i f t y instructors to be permitted to remain i n Siberia for training Russian troops. ^  On the same day Borden advised White of this 'out*. 45  In a second cable sent to White on November 27th Borden reiterated that the whole question of the future of the Force was to be l e f t for the cabinet to determine. 46 In spite of the violent opposition of the cabinet to the continuation of the Force i t i s strange that they did not determine the question to their complete satisfaction, namely total withdrawal from the arrangement, since Borden had given them this prerogative, or f a i l i n g that, to have acted to l i m i t the Force to Major-General Elmsley and a small body of instructors, which would i n small measure at least, have satisfied the War Office at that time.  Neither was to be the case, however, for the  cabinet now decided, out of deference to Borden's views, to continue  - 28 -  with the Expedition i n i t s original conception. advised Borden that the cabinet  rt  On November 27th White  ...desire to meet your wishes." 47  only qualifying suggestion was that the time of service be limited u n t i l the following summer when, i f continuation of the Force was i t would be relieved by volunteers,  4 8  ^  u  o v e m  b  e r  necessary,  29th Borden was  d e f i n i t e l y advised that the decision had been made to proceed with the Expedition, the time of service had been amended to one year's service after the signing of the Armistice ( i . e . November 1919),  White advised  Borden that he might "...regard the matter as closed." 49 Since a few days e a r l i e r the War Office had been faced with the prospect of no Canadian forces i n Siberia, they were, of course more than ready to agree to the service l i m i t of one year for those who did not wish to remain longer.  O f f i c i a l War Office approval for the one year  guarantee was given on December 6th, In spite of the Cabinet's decision to go ahead with the C.E.F.(s) they now proceeded to place various obstacles i n the path of i t s useful utilization.  In many respects, there was sufficient j u s t i f i c a t i o n for  this course' of action.  I t w i l l be recalled that one of the guarantees  demanded by Canada and offered by the B r i t i s h Government during the preparatory stages of the C.E.F.(s) was that there was to be one Siberian policy to which a l l the a l l i e d participating partners were to subscribe. This guarantee had been one of prime importance to the Canadian policymakers and had been an essential preliminary to f i n a l Canadian agreement. At the time of the formation of the C.E.F.(s) i n t e r - a l l i e d agreement had  not been reached, and hence the n o n - f u l f i l l m e n t of the B r i t i s h guarantee had,  f o r the time being, been l e f t i n abeyance.  This d i d not, however,  l e s s e n the importance to the Canadian Government of the eventual  satisfying  of t h i s c o n d i t i o n , In a December 6 t h communication to the War  O f f i c e , Major-General  Gwatkin, the Chief of the Canadian General S t a f f s t a t e d t h a t : ,,,arrangements i n S i b e r i a l a c k c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l , that the r a i l w a y system i s i n a c o n d i t i o n s e r i o u s l y disorganized, that among A l l i e s there i s no general agreement, that Americans are i n a c t i v e , that Japanese, bent on commercial p e n e t r a t i o n , are s u b s i d i z i n g insurgent elements, Major-General Gwatkin went on to s t a t e that because of t h i s p r e v a i l i n g s t a t e of a f f a i r s i n S i b e r i a i t was  f e l t that Major-General Elmsley and  the Canadian Force might be placed i n a d i f f i c u l t Canadian Government was  p o s i t i o n and  l o a t h to see the Canadian Force undertake  course of a c t i o n which might have d i s a s t r o u s consequences. the War  O f f i c e was  that the  advised  any  Although  that the despatch of Canadian troops  to  V l a d i v o s t o k would continue, no movement of Canadian troops i n l a n d from V l a d i v o s t o k was  to take place and " , . . i t may  be necessary to r e c a l l  them to Canada unless t h e i r mission i s made c l e a r , " 51 I t i s apparent that a t t h i s time the Cabinet had a r r i v e d a t d e c i s i o n , a l b e i t j u s t i f i e d , to use  the  the issue of n o n - A l l i e d agreement,  as the p r e t e x t f o r Canada's non-active  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  eventual  withdrawal. In a cable to Borden on December 6 t h A c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r White  - 30 -  reminded Borden that the B r i t i s h guarantee had not been met.  Neither  the B r i t i s h s i n g l y , n o r the A l l i e s j o i n t l y had come f o r t h with any d e f i n i t e p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g operations i n S i b e r i a .  Furthermore, no l i k e l i h o o d  of i n t e r - A l l i e d agreement e x i s t e d and i n view of t h i s White  suggested  that the Canadian Government should remain uncommitted, 52 Borden i n two messages to White sent on December 9th •washed h i s hands' o f the whole question.  virtually  White was advised that the  War O f f i c e "...thoroughly understands d i f f i c u l t i e s which have a r i s e n i n Canada and you are f r e e t o a c t a c c o r d i n g l y . " 53  second message  Borden advised White that the Cabinet had a t i t s d i s p o s a l information t h a t he [Borden] d i d not have and that Ottawa was t h e r e f o r e b e t t e r able to make a d e c i s i o n on the matter.  White was advised t o "...dispose o f  matter without f u r t h e r reference to us," 54 The f o l l o w i n g date, December 10th  White had suggested  to Major-General  Mewburn, the M i n i s t e r of M i l i t i a , that no f u r t h e r troopships should be despatched t o V l a d i v o s t o k and that arrangements should be made f o r the withdrawal o f those a l r e a d y i n S i b e r i a , 55  immediately  <£hl3 was not  acted upon although the documentation i s not c l e a r as to the reason. The War O f f i c e , no doubt goaded i n t o a c t i o n by the stance taken by the Canadian Government regarding i n t e r - A l l i e d agreement, had made recommendations to the Imperial War Cabinet t o b r i n g the strongest pressure to bear upon the Japanese " . . . t o secure c e s s a t i o n of t h e i r o b s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e " ; and upon the Americans and Japanese i n order to e f f e c t a s o l u t i o n o f the S i b e r i a n r a i l w a y c r i s i s , 56  ^  t  h  e  t  i  m  e  >  although the  - 31 -  War Office appreciated the reluctance of the Canadian Government to send any troops inland u n t i l such time as United States - Japanese agreement had been obtained, the nevertheless pressed for the personal movement of Major-General Elmsley and some of his s t a f f to Omsk to take over effective control of the B r i t i s h battalions there, ^7 The Canadian Government was unwilling to meet even this apparently modest request.  In messages both to the War Office and to Major-General  Elmsley dated December 22nd the Canadian Government advised that although for the present the despatch of troops would continue they were to return to Canada by the Spring of 1919*  Orders were given that the Canadian  troops i n S i b e r i a were neither to move inland nor were they to engage i n any m i l i t a r y operations, Major-General Elmsley was ordered not to personally proceed to Omsk u n t i l such time as his infantry commander, Brigadier-General Bickford should arrive i n Vladivostok, 58 In addition to the p o l i t i c a l grounds stipulated by the Canadian Government for disallowing the movement inland of the C.E.F.(S) there were, according to Major-General Elmsley, j u s t i f i a b l e physical and m i l i t a r y reasons for retaining the Canadian Force at Vladivostok. In a l e t t e r to Major-General Alfred Knox, the Head of the B r i t i s h M i l i t a r y Mission at Omsk, dated 21st December, Major-General Elmsley stated that even i n the event of the Canadian Government changing i t s p o l i c y regarding the movement of the Canadian contingent to Omsk, he, as commander of the Force would not f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n moving the troops unless his l i n e s of supply v i a the Trans Siberian Railway could be  - 32 .-  guaranteed,  Elmsley told Knox that i t was his intention prior to any  movement to Omsk to seek a joint guarantee from a l l the A l l i e d commanders i n Siberia to secure his lines of supply to Omsk, 59  gn x replied that 0  such an inter-Allied guarantee was an impossibility because: ,,,neither the Americans nor the Japanese wish us to go on, the f i r s t because President Wilson i s advised by Jews who sympathise with Bolshevism and the second because they want a weak Russia rather than a strong one, 60 In a further l e t t e r of December 27th Knox stated that he hoped that "...they  Cbhe Canadian  Government] will...go the whole hog.  they only think of playing the American-Japanese  If  s i t t i n g game i n the  Far East, I honestly don't see much use i n their coming at a l l , " This apparently was precisely the feeling of the War Office, In a cable dated January 4th Ottawa was advised that i n view of the Canadian decision not to allow the movement inland of the C.E.F.(s) the War Office had no recourse but to recommend to the War Cabinet the withdrawal of the two B r i t i s h battalions and a l l Canadian forces, 62 Major-General Elmsley was appalled at the War Office action and requested them on January 8th to ask the Canadian Government to hold the matter i n abeyance pending the results of the Paris Peace Conference,  He suggested  that the withdrawal "...may have disastrous effects on a situation,., already c r i t i c a l :  and may neutralize any decisions arrived at by  Peace Conference...." ^  i t was f i n a l l y determined that pending a  decision of the Russian question by the Peace Conference the Canadian troops would, f o r the time being, remain i n Siberia, ^4  - 33 -  In a cable to Major-General de B. R a d c l i f f e , the War O f f i c e D i r e c t o r of M i l i t a r y Operations, Major-General Elmsley advised on January 19th a g a i n s t the appointment o f General J a n i n as Commander-in-Chief i n S i b e r i a (west o f Lake B a i k a l ) "...an American C. i n C. would go f a r to win American support and guarantee to whole w o r l d . . . u n s e l f i s h and democratic a t t i t u d e to R u s s i a . "  Elmsley suggested that Great B r i t a i n should adopt  "...a more t a c t f u l and c o n c i l i a t o r y a t t i t u d e towards America, Japan and Canada,  Modern n a t i o n s can be l e d but cannot be d r i v e n , . . . "  6  5  Borden advised White by cable on January 28th that the War had no o b j e c t i o n to the immediate  Office  d e m o b i l i z a t i o n of those troops designated  f o r the C.E.P.(S) who had not y e t been despatched to S i b e r i a ,  6  6  The  f o l l o w i n g day, January 29th, the War O f f i c e advised Major-General Elmsley that pending the r e s u l t s of the Peace Conference i t was p r e f e r a b l e that he not go forward t o Omsk i n s p i t e o f the f a c t that B r i g a d i e r - G e n e r a l B i c k f o r d had by t h i s time a r r i v e d i n V l a d i v o s t o k . ^7 In a personal l e t t e r to Major-General R a d c l i f f e dated February 11th, Major-General Elmsley gave a candid a n a l y s i s of the course that the i n t e r v e n t i o n had taken to date.  Elmsley s t a t e d that i n i t i a l l y i t had  been p o s s i b l e f o r the A l l i e d powers to s u b s c r i b e to one  agreed-upon  p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g S i b e r i a as l o n g as such i n t e r v e n t i o n was p a r t of the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the C e n t r a l Powers,  The s i g n i n g o f the A r m i s t i c e ,  however, had caused the United S t a t e s , Japan, the Czechoslovaks, and Canada to adopt an i n a c t i v e p o s i t i o n .  The changed s i t u a t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d  a new p o l i c y and though the Bolsheviks may be a t h r e a t , they were  nevertheless a threat separate and d i s t i n c t from that of the Central Powers.  Elmsley c r i t i c i z e d B r i t a i n and Prance for attempting to subvert  the intervention into an anti-Bolshevik crusade without the mandate or consent of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g powers.  I t was Elmsley's opinion that the  p o l i c y of the B r i t i s h and French became p a r t i c u l a r l y arrogant i n the l i g h t of t h e i r minimal troop commitment i n S i b e r i a ,  Furthermore, Elmsley  made reference to the Kolchak coup d'etat and the extremely unfavourable impression i t had made on most of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g powers, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Czechoslovaks. Whether j u s t i f i e d or not as far as the other powers were concerned, the B r i t i s h were associated with the collapse of the Directorate, and that de facto i f not de .jure the B r i t i s h and French had recognized a regime which not only did not have the support of the other a l l i e d powers, but which to the average Russian had very l i t t l e more, i f any, to offer than the Bolsheviks,  Elmsley added that "Canada i s  h o s t i l e to intervention unless this intervention i s part of a p o l i c y agreed to and supported by U« S, and Japan,"  He continued:  ...America, Japan, Canada and the Czechs were i n accord and understood each other's attitude, and furthermore awaited some reconstructed p o l i c y which, known and agreed to by a l l , would meet the new s i t u a t i o n created by the signing of the armistice and the recognition by the A l l i e s that Bolshevism was' a menace to the . peace of the world, 68 I t i s worthwhile noting that when Elmsley spoke of United States Japanese accord he referred only to t h e i r j o i n t unwillingness to become parties to the Anglo-French brand of intervention. other examples of such ' a c c o r d ' .  There were few  - 35 -  Superficially at least, i t would seem that Major-General Graves, the commander of the U.S.E.F., and Elmsley viewed the Siberian situation i n much the same way.  This, however, was not quite the case.  Although,  l i k e Graves, Elmsley may have found the Kolchak regime to be abhorrent, he was not i n principle opposed to intervention. He was only opposed to a commitment of his forces as long as i n t e r - a l l i e d agreement did not prevail.  Graves, on the other hand, both on the basis of personal  conviction and on the basis of the Aide Memoire which was his government's instructions regarding the use of his force, was opposed to intervention on behalf of any particular Russian p o l i t i c a l group, 69 On February 13th Borden advised White that i t was extremely unlikely that the Peace Conference would decide on a Russian policy i n favour of intervention and that accordingly orders should be issued withdrawing the C.E.F.(S) i n A p r i l . In a March 17th letter to Borden, Winston Churchill, the Secretary of State for War, stated that: In view of the very decided attitude taken up by Canada regarding the withdrawal of her troops from Vladivostok, the War Office have no option but to acquiesce, as they have f e l t i t impossible to continue to urge the Dominion Government to share, against i t s w i l l , i n a task of much d i f f i c u l t y and anxiety, 71 A f i n a l communication on the question of the intervention was a further l e t t e r from Churchill to Borden i n which Churchill made a strong plea to allow members of the C.E.F.(s) to volunteer for service i n Siberia with the B r i t i s h Military Mission. 72 to by the Canadian Government, 73  rj^g  w  a  s  f i n a l l y agreed  D. The C E J . ( S ) i n Siberia  The f i r s t body of Canadian troops arrived i n Vladivostok on October 26, 1918 v i a the S.S. EMPRESS OP JAPAN,. 74  On October 30th they  requisitioned the Pushinskaya Theatre on Svetlanskaya Street for use as a headquarters building.75 The Theatre was owned by the Commercial  r  Industrial Society of Vladivostok. The Society carried on numerous cultural, charitable, and educational a c t i v i t i e s i n Vladivostok and they were understandably disturbed to find their centre requisitioned as C E . P . ( s ) Headquarters,  A resolution of protest was passed by a meeting  of the Society on November 1st, A l l the A l l i e d Forces entering Russia assured a l l the world of their policy of complete non-intervention i n the internal a f f a i r s of Russia, In r e a l i t y , however, we see just the reverse: on every side the interests of Russian citizens are being trampled upon.,,, , , , i n this case the Canadian command have occupied the premises of the society and have thus deprived i t s members and their families,.,of the p o s s i b i l i t y of continuing their.,.activities., 76 Also on October 30th arrangements were completed regarding the take-over of Gornostai Barracks, about eight miles from the c i t y centre.77 Gornostai Barracks were the principal Canadian infantry encampment. By the time the entire Force had arrived i n Vladivostok, the C.E.F.(S) occupied nine military camps of varying sizes i n different sectors of the c i t y and the immediately surrounding area, 78  - 37  -  For a l l i n t e n t s and purposes i t can be s a i d that the f u l l contingent of  Canadians had a r r i v e d i n V l a d i v o s t o k by February 27th, 1919*  Five  troopships had been i n v o l v e d beginning w i t h the Advance Party a r r i v i n g on the S.S. EMPRESS OF JAPAN on October 26 with 62 o f f i c e r s and 618 other ranks,79  I  t  w  a  followed by the S.S. MONTEAGLE which reached V l a d i v o s t o k  s  on December 5 w i t h 30 o f f i c e r s and 395  other ranks,,80  T h i r d was  the  S.S. TEESTA making V l a d i v o s t o k on January 12 with 43 o f f i c e r s and  824  other ranks.81 F o u r t h was the S.S. PROTESLIAUS, a r r i v i n g three days l a t e r on January 15 w i t h 96 o f f i c e r s and 1,669 on February 27 was  other ranks.82  Finally arriving  the S.S. JAPAN with 18 o f f i c e r s and 298 other  ranks, 3 8  The C.E.F.(S) operated s i x d i f f e r e n t h o s p i t a l s i n S i b e r i a f o r the use of the C.E.F.(s), the B r i t i s h and i n one case the Russians. t o t a l bed c a p a c i t y was 5 3 5 .  8 4  The  Four of the h o s p i t a l s were i n the Vladivostok  v i c i n i t y and had a 410 bed c a p a c i t y , 85  Qn  e  h o s p i t a l of f i f t y  bed  c a p a c i t y was s i t u a t e d a t Omsk p r i n c i p a l l y f o r the B r i t i s h f o r c e s s t a t i o n e d i n that c i t y ,  8  6  One s e v e n t y - f i v e bed h o s p i t a l was l o c a t e d on Russian  Island f o r the use of the B r i t i s h operated Russian O f f i c e r s T r a i n i n g School,  8  7  Regarding the operation of the Russian I s l a n d H o s p i t a l there arose a s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t between the Canadian medical o f f i c e r s and the Russian medical o f f i c e r s as to who had c o n t r o l of the H o s p i t a l ,  The c h i e f Russian  medical o f f i c e r claimed to be i n charge of the H o s p i t a l according to orders i s s u e d by General K» Sakharov, the School Commandant, 88  A Canadian Medical Officer investigating the c o n f l i c t recommended that: , ..as i t i s absolutely impossible to run an e f f i c i e n t M i l i t a r y Hospital under dual c o n t r o l , i t i s strongly urged that the Russian Medical Officers be informed that they have absolutely no a u t h o r i t y , . . i n the H o s p i t a l . , , , This was the o r i g i n a l arrangement., and i f i t i s not found adviseable to have i t enforced, I would recommend that the Canadian Personnel be withdrawn, 89 Shortly thereafter, General Sakharov informed Major-^General Knox of his complete accedence to the Canadian demands, 90 In spite of a number of claims as to the exemplary behavior displayed by the Canadian troops i n S i b e r i a , 91 there e x i s t a number of documents which would suggest that this assessment was not e n t i r e l y correct.. There were numerous complaints received by the Headquarters of the C.E.F.(S) from the Russian authorities regarding various actions of members of the Force,, Daily Routine Order 49 dated 18 December 1918 referred to a complaint from Russian authorities regarding the theft of Russian property from the Russkan barracks occupied by the C . E . F . ( s ) , 92 In a l e t t e r to Elmsley dated February 17th, Colonel Butenko, the Vladivostok Commandant referred to the damage to.Russian premises caused by the Canadian troops occupying them, 93 In a l e t t e r to the editor, appearing i n Golos Primorya of. March 7th a group of Russian officers complained regarding the comic impersonation by a Canadian of a Russian o f f i c e r at a Y.M.C.A. function on February 23rd  which they implied was  designed  to b r i n g d i s c r e d i t to the Russian  officer  corp. •..one of them dressed up i n the uniform of a Russian l i e u t e n a n t , wearing the M i l i t a r y Cross of S t , George and f i v e campaign s t r i p e s played the f o o l and h o o l i g a n . 94 A f i n a l example of these r e p r e s e n t a t i v e complaints  i s a letter  to the Canadian C h i e f of S t a f f , C.E.F.(s) from the Czech Town Major. I have r e c e i v e d a note from the Russian M i l i t i a complaining about Canadian and American s o l d i e r s gathered always on the t r o t t o i r . . ( a t . . . C a n a d i a n Y.M.C.A. H a l l #  These s o l d i e r s . . . h i n d e r the f r e e passage ,qf the p u b l i c and accost...passing women making them d i f f e r e n t p r o p o s i t i o n s , 95 The documentation on the C . E . F . ( s ) i s q u i t e c l e a r on one p o i n t « namely, t h a t aside from the small advance p a r t y of. Canadians a t Omsk c o n s i s t i n g of e i g h t l f f i c e r s and f o r t y - s e v e n other ranks, no Canadian troops were employed outside of V l a d i v o s t o k and i t s environs. A number of cables from Ottawa, both to Elmsley and  to the  War  O f f i c e r e i t e r a t e the order that the Canadian troops were e x p r e s s l y forbidden to move up r  country . 1  96  On the b a s i s of t h i s documentary evidence  i t could be assumed  t h a t c e r t a i n l y no Canadian troops were engaged i n guarding the r a i l w a y from V l a d i v o s t o k to Omsk. March 20,  1919  A War  O f f i c e cable to Elmsley  dated  only emphasizes t h i s p o i n t when i t s t a t e s that "Canadian  troops are o f course not a v a i l a b l e f o r the defence of the r a i l w a y . . . . " 97 There e x i s t s not a s i n g l e suggestion i n the documents reviewed that t h i s order was  ever abrogated or contravened.  - 40 -  I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, i n t h i s case t h a t the documents misrepresent the true s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , s i n c e a number o f other  sources,  some o f them eye witness r e p o r t s s t a t e t h a t i n f a c t Canadian troops were guarding the r a i l w a y o r were otherwise engaged 'up c o u n t r y , 1  C a r l W, Ackerman, the correspondent f o r the New York Times reported t h a t w h i l e he was a t Manchouli S t a t i o n ( a t the end o f November o r f i r s t h a l f o f December, 1918)  f o u r hundred Canadian troops had a l r e a d y  left  V l a d i v o s t o k and t h e i r a r r i v a l a t Manchouli S t a t i o n was imminent, 98 The V l a d i v o s t o k d a i l y Golos Primorya reported i n i t s January 5, 1919 issue that  echelons o f Canadian troops are p a s s i n g through H a r b i n  every day," ^9 Captain W, E, Dunham, an o f f i c e r o f the C.E.F.(s) i n an a r t i c l e he wrote on the Force f o r Maclean's Magazine s t a t e d t h a t s m a l l " , , , u n i t s /of Canadians^are s t a t i o n e d elsewhere a l o n g the l i n e between the base a t Vlady and the ' f r o n t ' a t Omsk..,,"  1  0  0  O f f i c e r s r e t u r n i n g t o Canada v i a the S.S., MONTEAGLE ( a r r i v e d V i c t o r i a , B, C„, May 5, 1919)  t o l d r e p o r t e r s o f the D a i l y C o l o n i s t :  "A few Canadians went as f a r as the Omsk f r o n t i e r , , where they are engaged i n guard duty, and others were d i s t r i b u t e d along the l i n e o f the TransS i b e r i a n Railway," - ^ l F i n a l l y , A, D. B r a i t h w a i t e , a member o f the Canadian Economic Commission t o S i b e r i a i n d e s c r i b i n g the t r i p he undertook t o Omsk s t a t e d t h a t a l l the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n s between V l a d i v o s t o k and Omsk "...are guarded by Chinese, Russian, C z e c h o s l o v a k o r Japanese troops.  Occasionally  E n g l i s h , American and French s o l d i e r s are i n evidence, and now and again a Canadian", ^2 1(  « 41  -  The one and only i n c i d e n t i n which Canadian Forces n e a r l y became engaged i n armed c o n f l i c t with a l l e g e d Bolshevik f o r c e s occurred i n April  1919. On A p r i l 11th an armed g u e r r i l l a f o r c e began threatening the r e g i o n  around the v i l l a g e of Shkotova, which was The s i t u a t i o n was  t h i r t y miles n o r t h of Vladivostok,  a s e r i o u s one p r i n c i p a l l y s i n c e Vladivostok's  of c o a l , the Souchan Mines were l o c a t e d i n the same area,  source Qn A p r i l  12th,  General K, Otani, the A l l i e d Forces Commander-in-Chief had despatched two Japanese b a t t a l i o n s under the command of C o l o n e l Isobayashi,104 General Otani by Army Order 64 on the 13th A p r i l ordered a l l the A l l i e d F o r c e s , with the notable exception of the U.S.E.F.(S), to supply s p e c i f i e d contingents,  Canada was  machine guns. Station,  ordered to supply one i n f a n t r y company and e i g h t  They departed a t 1 P.M.  on A p r i l 13th from V l a d i v o s t o k  According to Army Order 64 upon t h e i r a r r i v a l a t Shkotova the  e n t i r e i n t e r - a l l i e d f o r c e would come under the command of C o l o n e l Isobayashi, Major-General Elmsley's a c t i o n i n c a r r y i n g out Otani*s order contrary to a t l e a s t one previous order from Ottawa which had that the  was  specified  Dominion Government cannot permit them to engage i n m i l i t a r y  operations,..."  1 0 6  On A p r i l 13th f o l l o w i n g the despatch of the Shkotova  f o r c e , Elmsley advised the War  O f f i c e of h i s a c t i o n ,  The Canadian contingent was  l u  7  under the command of Major Hart,  and  a second Canadian O f f i c e r L t , C o l , James acted as L a i s o n O f f i c e r between  - 42 -  the i n t e r - a l l i e d commanders and the Japanese commander, Col. Isobayashi, By A p r i l 19th, most of the Bolshevik forces had disappeared, though some remnants surrendered without a struggle to a Japanese-Canadian column under the command of Major Hart, l ^  8  The enemy base camp at Novo-  Rossiskaya was reached on A p r i l 19th but no enemy forces were encountered. 109 The Canadian troops who had taken part i n the i n t e r - a l l i e d force returned to Vladivostok during the period A p r i l 21 - 24*  On A p r i l 24th  there was a march past and review of the troops by the A l l i e d Commanderin-Chief, General Otani„ HO By A p r i l 1st, 1919 a l l of the Advance Party C.E.F.(s) at Omsk had been ordered to turn over their f a c i l i t i e s there to the B r i t i s h Military Mission and return to Vladivostok, H I In accordance with Canada's agreement with the War Office, those officers and men who wished to volunteer for service with the B r i t i s h Military Mission were allowed to do so.  Eventually, only ten officers  and thirteen other ranks elected to do so„ H 2  i n addition, eleven  officers resigned their commissions i n Siberia 113 and i t i s possible that some of this number may also have found employment with the B r i t i s h , One L f f i c e r and eighteen other ranks had died while on duty with the Force and at least four other ranks had deserted., 114 As for the various premises and f a c i l i t i e s occupied by the C.E.F.(s) they were turned over to the various A l l i e d contingents remaining.  The  Force Headquarters Building, the Pushinskaya Theatre was on June 2nd  - 43  -  turned over to the French M i l i t a r y M i s s i o n , ^  rr,  h e  British Military  M i s s i o n r e c e i v e d most of the h o s p i t a l s , ordance and supply f a c i l i t i e s , H 6 The three important C.E,F.(s) camps were d i v i d e d among the I t a l i a n s , B r i t i s h , the Japanese and the Russians i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. I t a l i a n s r e c e i v e d the p r i z e of Gornostai Barracks,, HI  The  The Russians  Japanese shared possession of the barracks a t Second R i v e r , H 8  the  and  r^g j; -t; as  Barracks went to the 1/9 B a t t a l i o n Hampshire Regiment, The C.E.F.(S) returned to Canada i n f o u r t r o o p s h i p s : which departed V l a d i v o s t o k on A p r i l 21st, S.S. the S.S. EMPRESS GF RUSSIA departed May S.S,  19th,  S.S. MONTEAGLE  JAPAN departed May 1  2  0  and f i n a l l y  9th,  the  MONTEAGLE which l e f t V l a d i v o s t o k on i t s second voyage June 5th and  a r r i v e d a t V i c t o r i a , B, C, June 28th,  121  - 44 -  E. The B r i t i s h Battalions and the Issue of Command  As soon as A l l i e d agreement had been reached regarding the Siberian intervention, Britain had transferred to Siberia the 25th Bttn, Middlesex 122 Regiment from Hong Kong on August 3rd 1918. moved inland to Omsk,  They had been immediately  Though most of the Middlesex were i n fact medically  u n f i t f o r service and due for discharge 3 they were, at that time, the 1 2  only B r i t i s h troops available.  They were later replaced by the l/9th, Bttn.  Hampshire Regiment, According to the founding documents of the C.E.F.(s), the 25th  8  Bttn,  Middlesex or a battalion to replace i t were to be an integral part of the Imperial contingent,  a  s  s u c  h , were to be under the command of  Major-General Elmsley, The orders, dated 10th September 1918, appointing Elmsley commander of the Imperial Force, were e x p l i c i t on the matter of command. Item 3 of the order states:  "One B r i t i s h Battalion, which w i l l form part of your  force, i s at present i n Siberia....This Battalion or another to replace i t , w i l l come under your orders on your a r r i v a l . " ^ 5 2  I t i s true that i n i t i a l l y Canada had given tacit agreement to the movement of Elmsley and the bulk of the C.E.F.(s) to Omsk where the 25th Middlesex was stationed.  The terms of appointment, however, do not  specify Elmsley s a r r i v a l i n Omsk as the point at which he would take 1  over the Battalion, i t merely states "...on your a r r i v a l , " interpreted this as to mean his a r r i v a l i n Siberia,  Elmsley  - 45  At  -  t h i s p o i n t , Major-General Knox, the Head of the B r i t i s h Military-  M i s s i o n , was not i n any sense the commander of the B r i t i s h troops i n Siberia,  On August 26th 1918 he had been appointed by the War O f f i c e as  Head of the B r i t i s h M i l i t a r y M i s s i o n ,  Command of the B r i t i s h B a t t a l i o n s  was not one of h i s d u t i e s as enumerated i n h i s l e t t e r of appointment. The War O f f i c e informed Knox, i n the same l e t t e r , i n p r e c i s e terms that "Major General J , H, Elmsley w i l l command the B r i t i s h Imperial contingent.,,," 126 Elmsley and the Advance P a r t y of s i x hundred and e i g h t y a l l ranks had a r r i v e d i n V l a d i v o s t o k on October 26th v i a the S.S. EMPRESS OP 127 JAPAN, was  One of the f i r s t s i t u a t i o n s w i t h which he was confronted  the coup d ' e t a t i n Omsk on November 18th whereby Admiral Kolchak  took over the r e i n s of power and assumed the t i t l e  'Supreme R u l e r ' ,  This  event was of tremendous s i g n i f i c a n c e , l a r g e l y because of the h o s t i l i t y that i t generated i n the Czechoslovak Legion and the U.S.E.P.(s), and as a r e s u l t changed the whole complexion of the i n t e r v e n t i o n .  Any  of accord and common p o l i c y which may have e x i s t e d e a r l i e r was by t h i s event.  likelihood dissipated  The coup d'etat immediately brought i n t o sharp focus the  q u e s t i o n of Elmsley's command of the 25th Middlesex s i n c e the B r i t i s h troops became i n v o l v e d i n the coup d ' e t a t unknown to t h e i r 'commanderi n - c h i e f , General Elmsley, 1  The extent of t h e i r involvement remains i n  some doubt, what can, however, be s a i d w i t h c e r t a i n t y i s that L t , C o l , John Ward, the B a t t a l i o n Commanding O f f i c e r , d i d provide guards to e s c o r t  - 46 -  the Social Revolutionary members of the overthrown Directory out of the country, 1^8 Sometime later, i n response to a request from Elmsley, 129 Colonel Morrisey, the Commanding Officer of the Canadian Advance Party at Omsk and the 'theoretical* Acting Commander-in-Chief of the B r i t i s h Forces at Omsk investigated the matter, 150 Ward had originally j u s t i f i e d his action by saying that the escorting of the prisoners had taken place on orders from Knox and with the approval of S i r Charles E l l i o t , the B r i t i s h High Commissioner.  He  further stated that Knox had command of the Battalion at that time, 131 Knox, during the course of the Morrisey investigation denied that Ward had been ordered by him to escort the prisoners, Knox stated "...that the guard had actually l e f t before he got the telegram advising him of the fact."  Knox did admit that approval of the action had been given :  post factum by E l l i o t and himself. 132  M  o  r  r  i  s  e  y  c o n c  i  u d e  d  that Ward had  acted on his own authority. 133 Even i f Knox had not been entirely candid with Morrisey and had i n fact ordered Ward to provide the escort as Ward alleged then Knox was clearly acting outside his prerogatives.  Just  the day previously, November 17th, the War Office had send a cable (No. 70984) confirming that the 25th Middlesex was under orders of Major-General Elmsley, 134 The replacements for the 25th Middlesex, the l/9th Bttn. Hampshire Regiment arrived i n Vladivostok v i a the S.S. DUNERA on November 27th 1918.  - 47 -  The  f o r c e c o n s i s t e d o f thirty-two o f f i c e r s and nine hundred and f o r t y -  f i v e other ranks, 135 The Advance Party o f the C E . F . ( s ) under the command o f L t , C o l , Morrisey,  e i g h t o f f i c e r s and f o r t y - s e v e n other ranks l e f t  Vladivostok  f o r Omsk on December 8th, ^36 On December 10th,  the C h i e f of the Canadian General S t a f f ,  Major-General Gwatkin r e c e i v e d a u t h o r i z a t i o n from the War O f f i c e to despatch the l / 9 t h Hampshires t o Omsk immediately.  They began to e n t r a i n  f o r Omsk on December 15th and the l a s t o f them had departed by December 20th,  1  ^  On December 16th, Major-General Elmsley cabled the War O f f i c e f o r new  orders regarding the B r i t i s h B a t t a l i o n s as p r e v i o u s " , , , i n s t r u c t i o n s  regarding my f o r c e have apparently been modified Armistice,  or c a n c e l l e d by the  Request f r e s h i n s t r u c t i o n s , . . s t a t i n g i f , . . a n y d i s t i n c t i o n  between commitment o f E n g l i s h and Canadian troops," -^8 I n r e p l y , sent December 18th, v i a Major-General Gwatkin, the War Office stated that: should  "We consider i t of urgent importance...that Elmsley  move west [ i , e , t o Omsk] without delay...to  Middlesex and Hampshire Regiments," The  take charge of the  139  Canadian Government, however, had i n the meantime decided  that  Elmsley and h i s s t a f f were not t o leave f o r Omsk u n t i l the a r r i v a l i n V l a d i v o s t o k o f Brigadier-General  B i c k f o r d , the C.E.P,(s) i n f a n t r y commander.  - 48 -  The Chief of the Canadian General Staff had advised Elmsley of this decision by cable on December  23rd, 140  In a War Office cable dated January 6, 1919, Elmsley was advised that the B r i t i s h Battalions would come under his command at such time as he arrived i n Omsk "...but not before", 141 ij^  e W  a  r  office further informed  Elmsley by cable on January 29th that he should remain i n Vladivostok pending c l a r i f i c a t i o n of A l l i e d Russian policy at the Peace Conference,142 A War Office cable of February 2nd apparently merely confirmed the issue when i t advised Elmsley that for ",.,the present the 25th Middlesex and l/9th Hampshire Regiments w i l l remain under General Knox." 143  ^ copy  of this cable had been sent to the B r i t i s h Military Mission at Omsk, On February 6th, Brigadier-General J . M, Blair, Knox's Chief of Staff, queried the War Office regarding the cable. Your telegram No, 74870 of 2nd February to General Elmsley i s not understood. The Hampshire Regiment has never been under General Knox and the Middlesex Regiment was only under the Mission t i l l the a r r i v a l of Canadian staff here. The Mission has no Supplies or Administrative Services for taking over Troops,,,.144 The War Office apparently conceded their error and the correctness of Blair's objections. The B r i t i s h troops were again o f f i c i a l l y recognized by the War Office as being under Major-General Elmsley's command, thus ipso facto n u l l i f y i n g War Office cables of December 18th, January 6th and February 2nd, The War Office sent Knox a cable (No. 75107) dated February 8th confirming Elmsley's command, 145  Kn  0X  turn  « 49  -  advised Elmsley of the situation by l e t t e r on February 21st.  "In view  of...Telegram 75107 of 8th February I take i t these Battalions remain under your command,..." 146 This was the situation u n t i l A p r i l 1919.  The War Office and the  B r i t i s h Military Mission, however, were only w i l l i n g to accept Elmsley's command as long as i t was convenient to do so. In a War Office cable to Elmsley dated March 20th he had been advised that the Hampshires were not to leave Omsk, 147  j  n  A p r i i ^ however,  Brigadier-General Blair had requested of Elmsley permission to move the Hampshires to Ekaterinburg due to the fact that Russian Army General Headquarters had moved to that c i t y from Omsk. 148  g  e  -k  een  advised  by Elmsley i n reply that "I have no objection provided C.E.F. i s not responsible for administration," 149  i  n  spite of the fact that the War  Office had never advised Elmsley that he was no longer responsible for the Hampshires, they did nevertheless make the move to Ekaterinburg, presumably under orders of Major-rGeneral Knox,  Upon learning of the  movement of the Hampshires, Elmsley i n a cable to the War Office dated May 2nd abdicated his command of the Battalion,  "As the F i r s t Ninth  Hampshires are now moving to Ekaterinburg under orders from the B r i t i s h Mission I cannot accept any further responsibility i n regard to their command or administration." 15^ The Middlesex were being gradually moved to Vladivostok preparatory to being shipped out of Siberia,. Elmsley continued to command this Battalion u n t i l the C.E.F.(s) was withdrawn.  On June 19th the command of  151 the remaining Middlesex was passed to the B r i t i s h Military Mission,  J  - 50  -  P, Troop D i s a f f e c t i o n i n the C.E.F.(s)  I t i s • p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to attempt an assessment of the degree of d i s a f f e c t i o n i n the C.E.F.(S),  That i t was  spread can be documented.  i n the Force was  combination of f a c t o r s .  I t s prevalence  r e l a t i v e l y widedue  to a  The M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e Act (1917) which had  e s t a b l i s h e d c o n s c r i p t i o n i n Canada had been enacted only i n the face of overwelming o p p o s i t i o n .  Elsewhere i n Canada the resentment had been  l a r g e l y v e r b a l and passive; i n Quebec, however, the o p p o s i t i o n had been violent,  152  While people were w i l l i n g to acquiesce  i n c o n s c r i p t i o n as a p a r t  of the struggle against the C e n t r a l Powers, they were not w i l l i n g to do so i n order t h a t Canada should i n t e r f e r e i n Russia's i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s . The only acceptable b a s i s f o r the S i b e r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n was  to re-estab-  l i s h the Eastern Front and with the s i g n i n g of the A r m i s t i c e t h i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the C E . F . ( S ) disappeared.  Furthermore, i n the minds  o f many, the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r c o n s c r i p t i o n under the M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e Act s i m i l a r l y disappeared  s i n c e , according to S i r Robert Borden,  the purpose of the M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e Act had been s o l e l y f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g reinforcements By 1917 was  - 1918  f o r the Canadian troops i n Europe,  153  the general s t a t e of the c o l l e c t i v e Canadian psyche  one of intense 'war weariness'.  This would apply both w i t h i n Canada  - 51 -  i t s e l f and among the Canadian f o r c e s overseas.  One  element of t h i s  have been due to the p o s s i b l e spreading i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l i s t  may  and  Bolshevik doctrines. I n March, 1919 f o r c e s in.England  there had been s e r i o u s r i o t i n g among the Canadian and Prance who were a w a i t i n g d e m o b i l i z a t i o n . - ^  Also  1  i n March a mutiny of Canadian troops had taken place a t Murmansk i n the North Russian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force, -'-' 1  These disturbances were not  unique to Canada or Cpnaflians; i t i s g e n e r a l l y w e l l known t h a t s i m i l a r d i s t u r b a n c e s were common occurrences i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the war the immediate p o s t - A r m i s t i c e  period.  The C.E.F(s), e s p e c i a l l y as i t had been organized war,  and.  so l a t e i n the  had a number of encumbrances a g a i n s t i t from the moment of i t s  inception.  A s i g n i f i c a n t number of the troops making tip the Force had  been c o n s c r i p t e d and a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of them had been Quebecois, among whom the M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e Act was a p a r t i c u l a r l y odious instrument of governmental oppression.  The o f f i c i a l and p u b l i c i z e d b a s i s f o r the  C.E.F.(s) had been to f i g h t the C e n t r a l Powers, A r m i s t i c e on November 11th  The s i g n i n g of the  found the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the  approximately  f i v e thousand troops making up the Force s t i l l i n V i c t o r i a , B.C. was  the o p i n i o n of the men  It  t h a t s i n c e the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the S i b e r i a n  i n t e r v e n t i o n no longer e x i s t e d t h a t they would be demobilized. of course, d i d not take p l a c e .  This,  The e f f e c t of t h i s development on the  can perhaps best be a s c e r t a i n e d by n o t i n g t h a t two of the most s e r i o u s  men  - 52 -  examples o f d i s a f f e c t i o n i n the Force occurred w i t h i n the one and one-half month period immediately f o l l o w i n g the s i g n i n g of the A r m i s t i c e . On Sunday n i g h t , December 9, 1918 a l a r g e r a l l y had been held a t the  Columbia Theatre i n V i c t o r i a .  The meeting had been organized under  the  auspices of the Federated Labour P a r t y .  The purpose of the meeting  had been to p r o t e s t Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the S i b e r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n . The D a i l y C o l o n i s t noted i n t h e i r r e p o r t of the meeting that the audience "...held a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f s o l d i e r s from the S i b e r i a n Forces."  1  5  6  The War D i a r y of the C.E.F.(s) records that the f o l l o w i n g  day, December 10th, B r i g a d i e r - G e n e r a l B i c k f o r d addressed a l l ranks on the  s u b j e c t of propaganda a g a i n s t the C.E.F.(s). 157  c  a  n  D e  a  s  s  u  m  e  d  that the m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s were s e r i o u s l y concerned about the e f f e c t of such a n t i - i n t e r v e n t i o n propaganda upon troop morale otherwise the 'pep t a l k ' by B i c k f o r d would have been unnecessary. The two Russian platoons c o n s i s t i n g of three o f f i c e r s and  one  hundred and t h i r t y - t w o other ranks had o f f i c i a l l y been taken on s t r e n g t h by the 259th B a t t a l i o n on October 24th 1918.  1  5  8  One of the members o f t h i s Russian Force was a Serb p a s s i n g f o r a Russian.  He r e l a t e d to one of the Canadian o f f i c e r s of the C.E.F.(s)  that not only was the  the r e a d i n g o f Bolshevik propaganda widespread among  Russians but moreover t h a t : . . . h i s comrades are s a y i n g that they were not asked i n France or England whether they wished to f i g h t the B o l s h e v i k i but only whether they wished to go to R u s s i a . They w i l l f i g h t Germans but not t h e i r own countrymen. I f they get a chance...they w i l l j o i n the B o l s h e v i k i Army. 159  - 53  -  T h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e r e g a r d i n g the s t a t e of d i s a f f e c t i o n i n the Russian platoons reached Major-General Gwatkin, the C h i e f of the Canadian General S t a f f , who wrote t o Major-General L e c k i e , the General O f f i c e r Commanding M i l i t a r y D i s t r i c t 11, on November 4th. I t was understood that the Russians...before being returned to Canada...were c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d , but i t i s p o s s i b l e that amongst them there are some of an u n d e s i r a b l e type, and I ask you to get r i d of any whom you have good and s u f f i c i e n t reason to suspect, 160 On the same date Major-General Gwatkin sent a l e t t e r to Major-General Elmsley that a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l i n V l a d i v o s t o k , the Russians i n the C E . F . ( s ) were to be kept under c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n . 161 The a c t u a l form the i n v e s t i g a t i o n took a t V i c t o r i a i s not documented, however, the War D i a r y of the 259th B a t t a l i o n s t a t e s that on November 16th, t h i r t y - n i n e Russian other ranks were t r a n s f e r r e d to Work P o i n t Barracks, i n V i c t o r i a , pending d i s p o s a l , 1^2  On November 20th, f o r t y - e i g h t f u r t h e r  Russian other ranks followed them, 163 D i a r y f o r the t r a n s f e r was proceed to S i b e r i a . "  The reason given i n the War  that "...these men not being anxious to  1^4  As a r e s u l t of t h i s development which decimated the Russian Force by approximately s i x t y - s e v e n percent i t was decided, i n an e f f o r t to l i m i t the spread of the d i s a f f e c t i o n among those Russians remaining, to break up the Russian platoons and d i s t r i b u t e the members of the f o r c e evenly throughout the 259th B a t t a l i o n and 260th B a t t a l i o n , 165 I t was  the o p i n i o n of the C h i e f of S t a f f , Major-General Gwatkin  that the Russian o f f i c e r s should have been discharged a l s o or i n h i s  - 54 -  own words "...I.would bow them o u t . "  T h i s was not acted upon.  The Russians t r a n s f e r r e d to Work P o i n t Barracks a c c o r d i n g t o the Discharge C e r t i f i c a t e s were d i s c h a r g e d on account o f ' D e m o b i l i z a t i o n ' , 167 I t can be assumed t h a t no l e g a l a c t i o n was taken a g a i n s t them.  However,  29th 1919, the M i n i s t e r of M i l i t i a , Major-General Mewburn  on January  ordered, through Major-General Gwatkin: were d i s c h a r g e d 'on d e m o b i l i z a t i o n r e c e i v e war g r a t u i t i e s , . . . "  1  "That those B o l s h e v i k s who  but f o r misconduct, are not t o  T h i s would suggest t h a t there was  a c t u a l though u n s p e c i f i e d misconduct i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r h a v i n g B o l s h e v i k sympathies.  T h i s i s the o n l y document t h a t s p e c i f i e s 'misconduct , the 1  o t h e r documents a l l u d e o n l y t o B o l s h e v i k tendencies among the men o r e l s e t o t h e i r d i s i n c l i n a t i o n t o go t o S i b e r i a , I t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t  to determine, due t o the p a u c i t y o f  documentation, what e x a c t l y happened t o the remained o f the e r s t w h i l e R u s s i a n p l a t o o n s a f t e r they reached S i b e r i a .  I t i s apparent, however,  t h a t many o f them e i t h e r r e t a i n e d or a c q u i r e d a sympathy f o r the B o l s h e v i k cause.  I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o determine the number o f Russians who d e s e r t e d  i n S i b e r i a from the C . E . P . ( s ) , of  There were a t l e a s t f o u r , and because  the incompleteness o f the Nominal R o l l s , the number c o u l d have been  greater,  L t . C o l . C a r t w r i g h t , the C.E.P.(s) A s s i s t a n t P r o v o s t Marshal  s t a t e d t h a t " . . . i n every case the men who d e s e r t e d a r e R u s s i a n subjects."  1  6  9  - 55  As recorded  -  e a r l i e r the M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e Act had been most v o c i f e r o u s l y  opposed w i t h i n the ProvincB of Quebec. known a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the men were Prench-Canadiens who  Though the a c t u a l number i s not  composing the 259th B a t t a l i o n C.E.F.(s)  had been conscripted f o r s e r v i c e i n S i b e r i a ,  The i n i t i a l resentment o f the men  must have been compounded a f t e r the  A r m i s t i c e had been signed, On December 18th, 1918,  S i r Lomer Gouin, the Premier of Quebec,  had received the f o l l o w i n g cable from V i c t o r i a ; because of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i t i s quoted i n i t s e n t i r e t y : Over 300 l o y a l French Canadians of the 16th. Brigade, S.E.F., which were w i l l i n g to do t h e i r duty to a n n i h i l a t e the Hun menace e n e r g e t i c a l l y p r o t e s t against being sent to-day i n S i b e r i a , contrary to t h e i r w i l l , i n an e x p e d i t i o n which i s not j u s t i f i e d and u s e l e s s f o r our Country. As f i r s t c i t i z e n of our Province and worthy r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of our race, we beg that your i n f l u e n c e may be used to prevent such an i n j u s t i c e , (Sgd) The  259th. B a t t a l i o n  170  cable had been passed on to Major-General Mewburn, the M i n i s t e r of  M i l i t i a , but no a c t i o n had been taken. Three days l a t e r , on December 21st, the 259th B a t t a l i o n was to embark f o r Vladivostok on the S.S. Camp to the dock a mutiny had troops.  The disturbance was  TEESTA,  due  On the march from Willows  taken place i n v o l v i n g French-Canadien q u e l l e d and the men  under a r r e s t and f o r c i b l y transported form the mutiny took i s not known.  taking p a r t were placed  to Vladivostok, 171 The  actual  I t can be determined, however, that  -56 -  as a r e s u l t o f the events o f December 21st, a F i e l d General Court M a r t i a l h e l d i n V l a d i v o s t o k on January 28th found f i v e men were g u i l t y o f ' j o i n i n g i n a mutiny i n f o r c e s belonging to His Majesty's A u x i l i a r y Forces'.  They were sentenced to v a r i o u s terms o f imprisonment  from s i x months to three years.  ranging  Two men were found g u i l t y of 'disobeying  i n such a manner as to show w i l f u l d e f i a n c e of a u t h o r i t y ' . terms of one year and n i n e t y days,  They r e c e i v e d  Two men were found g u i l t y of 'disobeying  a l a w f u l command' and were sentenced to twenty e i g h t days and thirtydays,  ^2 The documents do not suggest that the disturbance was any wider  than i n v o l v i n g the nine i n d i v i d u a l s noted.  I t may,  however, be the  case that the documents do not t e l l the complete s t o r y . Joseph Archambault,  On June 25,  1919,  Member of Parliament f o r Chambly and Vercheres,  brought up i n the House of Commons the f a c t that he had r e c e n t l y interviewed some of the men Archambault  of the 259th B a t t a l i o n who had returned from S i b e r i a ,  r e l a t e d that the men s t a t e d they had o r i g i n a l l y been  to board a t r a i n to V i c t o r i a a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l .  They were f o r c e d to  embark on a boat f o r S i b e r i a a t the p o i n t o f the bayonet, r e s i s t e d and were c o u r t - m a r t i a l l e d , " One  Some of them  1^3  of the f a c t o r s which l e d to troop d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and  i z a t i o n was  forced  demoral^  the f a i l u r e of the Government to develop new p o l i c y to  j u s t i f y the need f o r the Force i n the immediate p o s t - A r m i s t i c e p e r i o d .  - 57  The unrest was V i c t o r i a , who to  -  p a r t i c u l a r l y evident among those troops remaing i n d i d not know i f they were to be demobilized or  despatched  Siberia, On January 21, 1919,  Major-General  L e c k i e , the Commanding O f f i c e r ,  M i l i t a r y D i s t r i c t 11, sought from Major-General  Gwatkin, the C h i e f of  S t a f f , c l a r i f i c a t i o n of Canada's S i b e r i a n p o l i c y ,  "Could some information  be forwarded with regard to probable d i s p o s a l of S i b e r i a n Forca....A c e r t a i n amount of uneasiness e x i s t s . . . b u t i f some e a r l y d e c i s i o n could be given i t would r e l i e v e s i t u a t i o n . "  174  As f o r the a c t u a l extent of d i s a f f e c t i o n among the troops i n S i b e r i a i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to gauge from the a v a i l a b l e evidence.  However,  i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine that the troops were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y demoralized.  Such words as 'fed-up' and  'homesick* perhaps best d e s c r i b e  their condition. In a l e t t e r to a f r i e n d i n Vancouver, one member of the C.E.F.(s) wrote on December 29, 1918:  "Now  that the war i s p r a c t i c a l l y over,  we are more or l e s s f e d up,...Most of us f e e l we are here now the p o l i t i c i a n s say so."  because  175  At the Peace Conference  on January 21, 1919  d i s c u s s i o n of the Russian question.  there took place a  Notes of the Conference  B r i t i s h Prime M i n i s t e r Lloyd George's expressed  describe  sentiments:  Now Canada had decided to withdraw her troops, because the Canadian s o l d i e r s would not agree to s t a y and f i g h t a g a i n s t the Russians. S i m i l a r trouble had a l s o occurred amongst the other A l l i e d troops. And he f e l t c e r t a i n t h a t , i f the B r i t i s h t r i e d to send any more troops there, there would be mutiny, 176  - 58  -  Although no s u b s t a n t i a t i v e evidence was  found, the Chief of S t a f f ,  Major-General Gwatkin on February I J t h cabled Elmsley that he /Gwatkir^ had r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s of s e r i o u s d i s c o n t e n t among the Canadian f o r c e s i n Siberia.  177 '  Although there had apparently  been no overt a c t s of discontent,  Major-General Elmsley undoubtedly was February 18th that there was By March 1, 1919 to the extent Order on the  i n e r r o r when he r e p l i e d on  "...no discontent and troops q u i t e happy."  d i s c i p l i n e among the C.E.F.(s) had  1  7  8  deteriorated  that Elmsley had been f o r c e d to prepare a s p e c i a l D a i l y subject.  A t t e n t i o n i s again d i r e c t e d to the slackness Other Ranks...in regard to s a l u t i n g .  of  I t i s necessary that the r e p u t a t i o n f o r good d i s c i p l i n e which has been achieved by the Canadian Army i n Great B r i t a i n and France be maintained... i n S i b e r i a . 179 C e r t a i n l y one member of the Force, Rifleman J . Penner (260th B a t t a l i o n ) was  not only German.but a s e l f - c o n f e s s e d Bolshevik of long  who  had been c o n s c r i p t e d i n t o the C . E . F . ( s ) .  proudly  standing  His s i s t e r - i n - l a w s t a t e d  to an i n v e s t i g a t i n g p o l i c e o f f i c e r that "...we are sure he  h e l p the Bolsheviks  i n S i b e r i a i f he gets the chance,.,," l ^ 8  will  Rifleman  P e n n e r s brother, Jacob Penner, l a t e r became one of the most important ,  f i g u r e s i n the e a r l y development of the Communist movement i n Canada. The f i r s t s h i p l o a d of r e t u r n i n g s o l d i e r s of the C.E.F.(s) c a r r i e d on the S.S.  MONTEAGLE.  I t had  l e f t V l a d i v o s t o k on 21st  was April  11 8  -  and a r r i v e d a t V i c t o r i a on May 5 t h .  59.-  D u r i n g the course o f the journey  a t l e a s t one case o f l o o t i n g had occurred and a t l e a s t one o f f i c e r ' s l i f e had.been threatened,  l  8 2  I n the l a s t s h i p l o a d o f C.E.P.(s) troops out o f S i b e r i a , there were, a c c o r d i n g t o i n t e l l i g e n c e r e c e i v e d by the B r i t i s h M i l i t a r y M i s s i o n , some mem o f the 260th B a t t a l i o n who "...had i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n , , , a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f B o l s h e v i k propaganda, p r i n t e d i n E n g l i s h , f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " ^ 3 8  « 60 -  I I . CANADIAN ECONOMIC COMMISSION TO SIBERIA  A, Formation o f the Commission  P r i o r t o the outbreak o f World War I , the f e a s i b i l i t y o f Canadian trade w i t h R u s s i a was s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d f o r a number o f reasons.  One o f  them was the extremely s t r o n g p o s i t i o n occupied by German i n t e r e s t s i n the import-export trade w i t h the major p o p u l a t i o n base o f European Russia, 1  T h i s s i t u a t i o n arose n o t o n l y because o f the f o r e s i g h t and  business acumen d i s p l a y e d by the German entrepeneurs, although t h i s undoubtedly played a p a r t , but r a t h e r more s p e c i f i c a l l y because o f Germany's geographic p r o x i m i t y . rim:  None of the n a t i o n s on the P a c i f i c  Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s , o r Japan could have hoped t o compete  w i t h the more favourable f r e i g h t r a t e s enjoyed by German business houses, Although any o f these n a t i o n s , Canada i n c l u d e d , could have competed f a v o u r a b l y i n S i b e r i a , German i n t e r e s t s there had v i r t u a l l y monopolized the S i b e r i a n market l o n g before the outbreak o f World War I , T h i s was t r u e n o t o n l y i n banking as i n the case o f the R u s s o - A s i a t i c Bank and the S i b e r i a n Bank o f Commerce where German i n f l u e n c e was s t r o n g l y f e l t , but o f more importance f o r purposes o f t h i s study i n the import-export trade and the w h o l e s a l i n g and r e t a i l i n g o f consumer goods, a l l o f which were so e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the German f i r m o f Messrs. Kunst & Albers.  - 61 -  It was only with the outbreak of war and the resultant decline of German economic influence  2  that Canada saw her opportunity.  Canadian manufacturers benefited from war contracts l e t by the Russian Government both directly to Canada, and the seconding of contracts originally l e t to B r i t i s h firms. Canada i n 1916 appointed two Trade Commissioners to Russia: Mr. C, F. Just to Petrograd i n A p r i l , and Mr. W. D, Wilgress to Omsk i n July. 5  i  n  3.918, owing to the p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y of the  Russian capital, Just was recalled to Canada; Wilgress however remained at his Omsk post. 4 As early as October 9, 1917, Major J , Mackintosh-Bell, a Canadian attached to the B r i t i s h Intelligence Mission to Russia, and well known to the Borden cabinet, wrote to Loring C, Christie, Borden's Special Executive Assistant, that: ...the Americans continue to make every effort here to obtain the mining concessions and trade interests which the Germans lost, and which i n great part Great Britain i s unable to maintain owing to present conditions. I t i s a wonderful chance for Canada, 5 On December 13, 1917, the B r i t i s h Consul i n Vladivostok, R, M. Hodgson, wrote to Mackintosh-Bell stressing the benefits Canada could derive from trade i n Siberia and strongly recommended the appointment of a Trade Commissioner to Vladivostok, 6  Thi  s  l e t t e r was  passed on to the Prime Minister and several of the more important  62  cabinet m i n i s t e r s .  -  Arthur Meighen, M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r , wrote  to the Prime M i n i s t e r on January 29, 1918 regarding the recommendation and suggested  the t r a n s f e r to V l a d i v o s t o k from Petrograd of C. P. J u s t .  T h i s suggestion, however, was not acted upon and J u s t subsequently returned to Canada. Except f o r the t r a n s f e r and appointment of Wilgress from Omsk to V l a d i v o s t o k i n J u l y 1918 of  8  as an i n t e r i m measure, the whole s u b j e c t  Canada's economic r e l a t i o n s with S i b e r i a was  abeyance.  l e f t temporarily i n  Important plans to send a Canadian m i l i t a r y f o r c e to S i b e r i a  were being f i n a l i z e d i n London,  F i r m agreement between Canada and  Great B r i t a i n on Canada's troop commitment probably had been reached • u n o f f i c i a l l y ' by the end of June, and o f f i c i a l agreement was on J u l y 12, 1918.  reached  9  Borden, i n London a t t h i s time, immediately  r e a l i z e d that the  p o s i t i o n i n g of a l a r g e Canadian m i l i t a r y f o r c e i n S i b e r i a could be of s i g n i f i c a n t economic u s e f u l n e s s .  I t was h i s view that Canada should  not be caught 'napping' and upon l e a r n i n g of the pending  departures  of Economic Commissions to S i b e r i a from Great B r i t a i n and the United S t a t e s , he advised A c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r ¥. T, White and the cabinet i n Ottawa by cable on August 8 t h t h a t Canada should take l i k e a c t i o n without delay, ^  F i v e days l a t e r , Borden was  approval by cable, on August 13th.  11  advised of the cabinet's  7  -63-  For reasons not y e t a s c e r t a i n a b l e , two i n d i v i d u a l s :  C o l . J . S. Dennis  and Mr, R. Martens, seem to have had predominant i n f l u e n c e r e g a r d i n g the composition of the proposed Commission.  C o l . J . S. Dennis, on leave  from the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway and engaged i n 1918 a t the Headquarters of the B r i t i s h and Canadian R e c r u i t i n g M i s s i o n i n New York, was requested by the Hon, J . A, Calder, the M i n i s t e r of Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n , to provide suggestions r e g a r d i n g the Commission,  Dennis, l i k e Mackintosh-  B e l l and the Prime M i n i s t e r , recognized the disadvantages to Canada of United S t a t e s a c t i v i t y i n S i b e r i a .  I n h i s r e p l y dated August 17th he  stated: As you are aware, the United S t a t e s i s o r g a n i z i n g a very s t r o n g Trade and Propaganda Commission to accompany or f o l l o w t h e i r m i l i t a r y expedition, and I f e e l that u n l e s s Canada f o l l o w s s u i t , we w i l l be l e f t i n the c o l d , 12 B r i e f l y , Dennis* proposal was that the Commission should c o n s i s t of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of f o u r or f i v e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups. important of these were to be:  The most  the Canadian Bankers A s s o c i a t i o n , the  Canadian Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t e r e s t s ( i n view of h i s antecedents he undoubtedly had the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n mind).  P r i o r to the war the C. P. R. agents i n R u s s i a had conducted  a campaign f o r immigrants u n t i l the Russian Government had terminated t h i s a c t i v i t y , 15  i n the b r i e f , Dennis suggested that t h i s movement  of Russian immigrants to Canada could now be r e a c t i v a t e d and f o r that reason suggested that the Department of Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n  - 64 -  should appoint a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to the Commission.  Moreover, Dennis  emphasized the importance of having two or three Russians attached to the Commission.  One  of the persons he"recommended was  Count L. L. T o l s t o i ,  the son of the famous n o v e l i s t , then i n the United S t a t e s on a l e c t u r e t o u r . 14  The M i n i s t e r , however, d i d not a c t upon t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  suggestion. In a d d i t i o n to C o l o n e l Dennis, a gentlemen apparently having considerable i n f l u e n c e w i t h the cabinet was Mr, R, Martens, of the f i r m Messrs, R, Martens & Co, L t d , of London, a l a r g e Anglo-Russian t r a d i n g company having numerous o u t l e t s i n Russia, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on numerous occasions throughout  Martens or h i s  the summer of  1918  conferred both with the Prime M i n i s t e r S i r Robert Borden and the M i n i s t e r of Trade and Commerce S i r George P o s t e r . 15 Martens put forward h i s proposals to Poster i n the form of a l e t t e r dated October 8th and as i s mentioned i n the l e t t e r d i d so a t the request of C o l o n e l Dennis,  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then, to f i n d h i s suggestions  i n the main m i r r o r i n g those of the e a r l i e r Dennis b r i e f of August17th, The Martens  1  proposals c a l l e d f o r a commission composed o f :  (a) a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n man  (b) an a g r i c u l t u r a l expert (c) a mining  (d) a f i n a n c i a l expert, and  (e) d i r e c t government r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r  whom he recommended W, D, W i l g r e s s , the Trade Commissioner a t V l a d i v o s t o k , and C, P, J u s t , the former Trade Commissioner a t Petrograd. 1^  specialist  - 65 -  Although cabinet approval for the creation of the Commission had been reached on or before August 13th,  1 7  the 'Canadian Economic  Commission to S i b e r i a ' as i t was o f f i c i a l l y designated, was not formally created by Order-in-Council u n t i l October 21st,  1  8  i t i s interesting  to compare the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Order-in-Council and the proposals submitted by Dennis and Martens previously noted. The Order-in-Council named to the Commission: C, P . Just, W, D. Wilgress, Colonel J , S. Dennis, who at t h i s time was i n Vladivostok as Laison Officer for the C . E . P . ( s ) , and Ross Owen, also i n Vladivostok as C. P . R. representative. 9 X  T  h e  Order-in-Council further recommended  the future enlargement of the Commission by the addition of representatives of Banking, Mining, Agriculture and Manufacturing, ^ 2<  The Order-in--Council stated: . . . s i m i l a r i t y of natural conditions between S i b e r i a and Western Canada, as w e l l as the problems connected with agriculture and transportation, mining and f i s h e r i e s are factors which enable Canada to cooperate,..in the supply of the commodities urgently required and also from experience and adaptability to afford p r a c t i c a l assistance by advise and instruction along the l i n e s p a r t i c u l a r l y v i t a l to Siberian reconstruction, whilst her ( i . e . Canada's] interest i n the trade and economic -point of view, both present and future i s undoubted. 21 (.Emphasis added) ~~ The terms of reference of the Commission as set forth i n the Order-in-Council were p a r t i c u l a r l y broad, and the divergent  interpretations  of the Commission's functions l a t e r became a source of serious c o n f l i c t .  - 66 -  B a s i c a l l y , ' the r o l e o f the Commission was t o be an i n v e s t i g a t i v e one.  S t u d i e s were t o be undertaken i n t o v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f the S i b e r i a n  economy w i t h emphasis on the a g r i c u l t u r a l , mining, f o r e s t and f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s t o determine the commodity needs t h a t could be s u p p l i e d by Canadian i n d u s t r y .  I n view o f the i n s t a b i l i t y o f the rouble and i t s  l a c k o f easy e x c h a n g e a b i l i t y , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r b a r t e r arrangements w i t h S i b e r i a n c o o p e r a t i v e s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t r a d i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s were to be i n v e s t i g a t e d ,  The f i n a n c i a l system was to be s t u d i e d i n  order t o determine the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c r e d i t arrangements.  Finally  i n f o r m a t i o n was to be gathered, and recommendations made, on the commodities t o be s u p p l i e d and arrangements formulated f o r t h e i r s h i p ment and s a l e .  op "  The f i n a l item, r e f e r r i n g as i t does t o the supply, t r a n s p o r t and s a l e o f Canadian imports, was the c r u c i a l one, and the d e s i r e d end r e s u l t o f ' a l l those proceeding.  I t was the abrogation by Ottawa o f  t h i s Commission f u n c t i o n t h a t was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s a g r e e ment between Ottawa and the Commission t h a t was to r e s u l t i n the Commission t e r m i n a t i n g i t s a c t i v i t y .  The Commissioners b e l i e v e d t h a t  i n order f o r s a l e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o be arranged i n the most e f f i c a c i o u s manner, the Commission must be something more than a p u r e l y i n v e s t i g a t i v e body.  They argued t h a t i n a d d i t i o n the Commission must  take upon i t s e l f the a t t r i b u t e s o f a t r a d i n g c o r p o r a t i o n . 3 2  The  - 67 -  Order-in-Council i t s e l f sets f o r t h t h i s view i n f a i r l y concise terms. Two of the named Commissioners:  W, D, Wilgress and Ross Owen  were a l r e a d y i n V l a d i v o s t o k ; C. F, J u s t and the Commission s e c r e t a r y , Mr, Kohn a r r i v e d on January 12th.  2  4 Dennis a r r i v e d on February 2nd.  2  5  During t h i s p e r i o d , i n accordance w i t h the Order-in-Council, or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n d i r e c t accordance w i t h the proposals o f Dennis b r i e f of August 17th, the Department of Trade and Commerce  1  contacted  the Canadian Bankers A s s o c i a t i o n and asked them to recommend the appointment of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  On November 1st, Mr. Pease, the  A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s i d e n t , recommended Mr, A. D. Braithwaite, formerly A s s i s t a n t General Manager o f the Bank o f Montreal.  2  6  The A c t i n g M i n i s t e r  o f Trade and Commerce recommended to the cabinet on December 19th the appointments o f A. D, Braithwaite and a C, J , C u r t i n o f Vancouver ( r e p r e s e n t i n g B r i t i s h Columbia mining i n t e r e s t s ) .  2 7  The C o u n c i l approved  Braithwaite's appointment, but f o r some u n s p e c i f i e d reason l e f t C u r t i n ' s appointment pending,  Braithwaite a r r i v e d i n V l a d i v o s t o k v i a the  S.S. JAPAN on February 27, 1919.  2  8  The Department o f Trade and Commerce a l s o contacted  (presumably  i n November 1918) Mr. Murray o f the Canadian Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n for  a recommended appointee  o f that body.  The Department, however,  was advised that no member of that A s s o c i a t i o n was w i l l i n g to accept 29 the post,  J  -.68  -  This apparent l a c k o f i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of the Canadian Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n a t t h i s c r i t i c a l p o i n t was i n d i r e c t contrad i c t i o n t o the a f f i r m e d p o l i c y of the A s s o c i a t i o n s i n c e 1915.  The  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n S i b e r i a f o r Canadian manufacturing i n t e r e s t s were a constant e d i t o r i a l theme i n the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s organ ' I n d u s t r i a l 30 Canada'.  i n a d d i t i o n , the A s s o c i a t i o n maintained through 1919 a  sub-committee s p e c i f i c a l l y delegated t o study the S i b e r i a n s i t u a t i o n , Unfortunately,  t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n must remain unexplained.  B. Commission A c t i v i t y i n S i b e r i a  1. M e r c a n t i l e A c t i v i t y  P r i o r to the a r r i v a l i n V l a d i v o s t o k of the f u l l commission, Wilgress and Owen had leased o f f i c e premises a t 57, Svetlanskaya S t r e e t , formerly occupied by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. 31 The o f f i c e was i n convenient proximity both to the Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force Headquarters  and the Canadian Red Cross.  U n t i l the a r r i v a l o f the other commissioners,  Owen and Wilgress  occupied themselves with the c o l l e c t i o n of background data f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the Commission. was  Dennis, who a r r i v e d on February 2nd,  e l e c t e d by h i s f e l l o w Commissioners to the p o s i t i o n o f Chairman,  thus r e p l a c i n g J u s t who had p r e v i o u s l y been a c t i n g as i n t e r i m 32 Chairman. To those u n f a m i l i a r with b u r e a u c r a t i c models, t h i s Commission of f i v e members, then performed  a seemingly f a n t a s t i c maneuver - they  e s t a b l i s h e d f o u r sub-committees " . . . f o r the purpose of prompt and e f f i c i e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f some of the more important questions...." ^3 A b e t t e r example o f r i g i d and extreme compartmentalization would be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d , us to determine  A look a t the sub-committees nevertheless allows  the types o f problems with which the Commission was  -70  concerned.  The sub-committees were:  -  (a) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , (b) Markets .  and S u p p l i e s , ( c ) Business R e g i s t e r , and (d) F i n a n c i a l C o n d i t i o n s and C r e d i t s , ^4 The Commission was, a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , s u f f e r i n g from a number of d e l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s t a t e o f c o n d i t i o n s i n S i b e r i a i n the sense t h a t without b a s i s o f f a c t they presumed the e x i s t e n c e o f the e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s such as an o p e r a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system.  They d i d ,  i n s p i t e o f inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n , immediately concern themselves w i t h those matters which were, i n essence, t h e i r r a i s o n d'etre - the development of Siberian-Canadian  trading relations,  Dennis i n h i s r e p o r t o f February 20th informed the M i n i s t e r o f Trade and Commerce t h a t numerous i n q u i r i e s had been r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e t o Canadian a b i l i t y t o supply farm machinery i n l a r g e q u a n t i t y t o meet the needs o f S i b e r i a n a g r i c u l t u r e , 35  D e f i n i t e orders had been r e c e i v e d  by the Commission and these had been d i r e c t l y communicated t o the a p p r o p r i a t e Canadian manufacturers.  I t was o n l y subsequently t h a t the  Commission a r r i v e d a t the b e l a t e d c o n c l u s i o n t h a t two f a c t o r s prevented t h i s venture from being brought t o f r u i t i o n - the congested c o n d i t i o n o f the V l a d i v o s t o k p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r r a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n t o the i n t e r i o r due t o the c h a o t i c c o n d i t i o n o f the r a i l w a y system, Three p r o j e c t s were, however, viewed as f e a s i b l e .  Recommendations  were made t o the Department o f Trade and Commerce t o s h i p a few thousand  - 71 -  pounds o f vegetable seeds to S i b e r i a , to be s o l d by the Commission to Zemstvos and other cooperative o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  I t was the view of the  Commission that not only would t h i s have met a b a s i c need i n S i b e r i a f o r h i g h q u a l i t y seed, but would have served as an i n i t i a l step i n Siberian-Canadian trade, 57 The v i a b i l i t y of the proposed trade l i n k depended upon i t s development on a b i l a t e r a l b a s i s .  T h i s being so, the Commission d i d  what i t could to develop b i l a t e r a l trade.  For example, the Commission  determined the a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r export of a q u a n t i t y of f l a x stored i n V l a d i v o s t o k (75,000 poods).  The Commission considered the question of  i t s purchase and shipment to Canada f o r use by Canada's t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y , 58 The Commission r e c e i v e d information from o f f i c i a l Omsk sources about the urgent need f o r 7.5  m i l l i o n pounds of binder twine to meet  the requirements o f the f o l l o w i n g season's crop.  They were advised  that a Canadian manufacturer o f t h i s commodity had a l a r g e supply on hand.  The Commission, therefore, i n i t i a t e d n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r Canada  to supply one m i l l i o n pounds to be s o l d and d i s t r i b u t e d through the medium o f the Commission, 59 These are merely a few examples of the a c t u a l commodity problems w i t h which the Commissioners were occupied. In a d d i t i o n to the purely economic considerations discussed above, the Commission saw an aspect o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n to be i n p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s  i n order that the S i b e r i a n populace might become more aware of Canada. P r i o r to the a r r i v a l of the f u l l Commission, Wilgress had recommended to the M i n i s t e r of Trade and Commerce the absolute n e c e s s i t y of informing the S i b e r i a n population about Canada.  He had already commenced a  s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s on Canada which were being published throughout S i b e r i a i n the newspaper media. i n pamphlet form.  He suggested  He a l s o suggested  that these be r e p r i n t e d  the widespread use of movies, 40  Dennis, i n h i s February 20th r e p o r t to the M i n i s t e r r e i t e r a t e d both of these p r o p o s a l s . 41 As p a r t of i t s promotional a c t i v i t y , the Commission considered the p o s s i b i l i t y of arranging a s e r i e s of f a c t - f i n d i n g tours of Canada by v a r i o u s S i b e r i a n economic and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups.  These were to  be financed by the Canadian government and aimed a t enabling the v i s i t o r s to study Canada and Canadian methods.  This proposal  Russian  was  met w i t h great enthusiasm from the S i b e r i a n groups w i t h whom the proposal was  broached, ^  One  of the concrete proposals put f o r t h along t h i s l i n e  was  to have been a tour of Canada by a group of S i b e r i a n dairymen to  study Canadian methods of cheese making, b u t t e r p r e p a r a t i o n and  stock  43 care. Due  to the s h o r t - l i v e d existence of the Commission, i t i s safe  to assume that none of these worthwhile proposals were s e r i o u s l y considered by Ottawa,  - 73 -  2,  Messrs. Kunst & A l b e r s  Among the most i n t e r e s t i n g and important aspects of the Commission's a c t i v i t y were those d i r e c t e d toward e f f e c t i n g the e x p r o p r i a t i o n and a c q u i s i t i o n by Anglo-Canadian i n t e r e s t s of the S i b e r i a n based, German c o n t r o l l e d f i r m of Messrs, Kunst & A l b e r s , had  Long before the Commission  even been considered, both the B r i t i s h Consular S e r v i c e i n Russia  and the Canadian Trade Commissioners q u i c k l y focused  their attention  on t h i s f i r m as an e x c e l l e n t means f o r economic p e n e t r a t i o n .  In May  the Russian Government passed an Order-in-Council  o r d e r i n g the s a l e  of the f i r m , because of i t s German a f f i l i a t i o n s .  The  Order-in-Council  s t a t e d that Russian, A l l i e d , or N e u t r a l n a t i o n a l s would be purchasers,  1917  acceptable  w i t h the one p r o v i s o that r e g a r d l e s s of the purchaser, the  f i r m must be kept i n a s t a t e of continuous operation both during  the  n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r the s a l e and a f t e r the s a l e had been e f f e c t e d , 44 T h i s i s c l e a r evidence of the extreme s t a t e of dependency of the S i b e r i a n p o p u l a t i o n on the s e r v i c e s provided by the company. extremely l a r g e by any standards,  The  possessed an extensive  company, organization.  I t can perhaps best be compared to the Hudson's Bay Company both as to i t s scope of a c t i v i t i e s and i t s importance. The f i r m operated  twenty-five branches and agencies throughout  AC  Eastern S i b e r i a , ^  Operations included m u l t i f a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s ,  the  p r i n c i p a l base of which was  the r e t a i l - w h o l e s a l e trade.  The goods  c a r r i e d by t h e i r o u t l e t s were e x c l u s i v e l y of German o r i g i n , the purchase and shipment of which was house i n Hamburg.  handled by what was,  i n essence,  t h e i r parent  In a d d i t i o n they operated a number of sawmills  a l s o a c o a l mine on S a k h a l i n .  P r i o r to the war  the f i r m c a r r i e d on a  l u c r a t i v e business as a government c o n t r a c t o r and was bunkering o u t l e t f o r V l a d i v o s t o k , 46  j  u g 1  and  the p r i n c i p a l  - grates i n h i s r e p o r t to  Poster that the f i r m "...has been f o r years the g r e a t e s t stronghold of German commercial i n f l u e n c e i n the Russian Par E a s t and along the E a s t e r n A s i a t i c Coast."  47  The f i r m ' s r e t a i l turnover i n 1913 was i n s p i t e of the chaos of war and c i v i l war  150,000,000 roubles the turnover i n 1918  and remained  a s u b s t a n t i a l 40,000,000 r o u b l e s , 48 An a p p r a i s a l of the f i r m ' s assets by a Mr, Lipovsky on b e h a l f of the i n t e r e s t e d B r i t i s h - Canadian p a r t i e s , placed the value as of March 1919 a t 200,000,000 roubles or 3,900,000 h ( l i = Mr, Sandford who  50 r o u b l e s ) . 49  had been n e g o t i a t i n g on behalf of h i s f i r m of Messrs,  Denny, Mott & Dickson f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of the Kunst & A l b e r s property, r e l a t e d to J u s t that a t e n t a t i v e f i g u r e of between 3>000,000 £ and 4,000,000 £ had been suggested. purchase been e f f e c t e d i n 1917  5  0  Sandford  speculated that had  s h o r t l y a f t e r the promulgation  of the  O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , the terms would have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y b e t t e r , 51  the  - 75  -  I t cannot be s a i d to be the f a u l t of e i t h e r the B r i t i s h or Canadian representatives  that an e a r l i e r purchase had not t r a n s p i r e d .  In the  above noted r e p o r t dated August 29th to the M i n i s t e r of Trade and Commerce, S i r George F o s t e r , J u s t s t a t e s that overtures had e a r l y been made both to the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company and to purchase and  to the Hudson's Bay Company  take over the operation of the f i r m .  I n t e r e s t had  been e l i c i t e d from the B r i t i s h Board of Trade which had Commissioner to i n v e s t i g a t e the prospects The  sent out a  f o r B r i t i s h business i n t e r e s t s , 52  B r i t i s h and Canadian o f f i c i a l s acted f o r a l l i n t e n t s and  purposes as a team i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to acquire the f i r m . intended  also  I t was  to be a j o i n t venture of B r i t i s h and Canadian c a p i t a l .  obviously Just  i n h i s August 29th r e p o r t to the M i n i s t e r suggested t h a t : . . . i t might be p o s s i b l e to i n t e r e s t an o r g a n i z a t i o n with E n g l i s h and Canadian c a p i t a l i n a c q u i r i n g the concern,,.so that the purchasing requirements of the company, which are enormous might be d i r e c t e d to Canada and England, 53 Mr, R, M, Hodgson, the B r i t i s h Consul i n Vladivostok was a c t i v e i n the Kunst & A l b e r s n e g o t i a t i o n s .  He regarded a j o i n t B r i t i s h -  Canadian combination as an i d e a l s o l u t i o n to the question. on the subject was  very  that "...the adjustment of E n g l i s h and  His t h i n k i n g Canadian  i n t e r e s t s i n such a p r o p o s i t i o n could take place n a t u r a l l y and  with  fewer points of d i f f e r e n c e . " 54 The B r i t i s h f i r m of Messrs. Denny, Mott & Dickson had,  i n 1916,  even before  the promulgation of the May  (Vladivostok) 1917  Order-in-Council,  - 76 -  opened n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of Kunst & A l b e r s ,  They had  maintained t h e i r keen i n t e r e s t and had been endeavouring to organize a consortium to handle the purchase. envisaged i t , was  T h i s proposed consortium, as they  to be a p u r e l y B r i t i s h one. 55  Mott & Dickson had, e a r l y i n February 1919,  However, Messrs. Denny,  r e c e i v e d a c i p h e r message  from the B r i t i s h F o r e i g n O f f i c e i n which they were advised that ''His  Majesty's Government* was  extremely i n t e r e s t e d i n the matter being  brought to a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n , but that the d e s i r e d s o l u t i o n  was  to be one based upon a combination o f B r i t i s h and Canadian c a p i t a l w i t h Russian p a r t i c i p a t i o n to " . . . a n t i c i p a t e any unfavourable l o c a l c r i t i c i s m of f o r e i g n e x p l o i t a t i o n . " 56 The n e g o t i a t i o n s foundered f o r a number of reasons. of  The stock  the f i r m was c o n t r o l l e d by a Mr, A l b e r s and a Mr, Dalton, 57  a V l a d i v o s t o k r e s i d e n t , was w i l l i n g to s e l l , however, he was p a r t n e r i n the f i r m . 58  D iton, a  the j u n i o r  r^g whereabouts of Mr, A l b e r s who had e f f e c t i v e  c o n t r o l had not be a s c e r t a i n a b l e s i n c e J u l y 1918.  59  T e c h n i c a l l y the  purchase would have been d i f f i c u l t without h i s concurrence.  In s p i t e o f  the f a c t that the f i r m was under t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r o l of a Comptroller appointed by the P r o v i s i o n a l Government, the O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l had  lost  much of i t s relevance w i t h the c o l l a p s e of the i s s u i n g a u t h o r i t y . I t i s p o s s i b l e that i n the e a r l i e r stages of the n e g o t i a t i o n s c e r t a i n Petrograd o f f i c i a l s were r e l u c t a n t to cooperate and d i d not press  f o r the execution  of the Order-in-Council.  J u s t a l l e g e s that t h i s was,  i n f a c t , the case when he s t a t e s that "Messrs. Kunst and A l b e r s succeeded, a t a time when pro-German i n f l u e n c e s were g a i n i n g ground...in b r i n g i n g about a postponement of the l i q u i d a t i o n order." 60 F i n a l l y , w i t h the exception  o f the B r i t i s h f i r m o f Messrs, Denny,  Mott & Dickson, there was no documentation a v a i l a b l e on the response o f p r i v a t e B r i t i s h and Canadian business i n t e r e s t s .  I t may w e l l have been  the case that the response was something l e s s than e n t h u s i a s t i c . C e r t a i n l y , Braithwaite, on March 10th advised  the f i n a n c i a l expert on the Economic Commission  against such a commitment o f Anglo-Canadian  capital. I do not think i t would be p o s s i b l e to i n t e r e s t , nor could I advise endeavoring to i n t e r e s t c a p i t a l i s t s to consider the purchase o f t h i s b u s i n e s s , . . i n v o l v i n g as i t would such a l a r g e t i e up o f c a p i t a l i n V l a d i v o s t o k Real E s t a t e . 61  - 78 -  3« S i b e r i a n Supply Company  The area o f disagreement between the Commission and Ottawa a l l u d e d to e a r l i e r centered i n Ottawa's r e l a t i o n s w i t h an Anglo-Siberian t r a d i n g c o r p o r a t i o n designated the ' S i b e r i a n Supply Company'.  The f a c t that the  Department of Trade and Commerce entered i n t o an agreement w i t h t h i s company i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to the advise p r o f e r r e d by the Commissioners, and that t h i s agreement s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d the scope of the Commission's a c t i v i t y was perhaps the p r i n c i p a l reason f o r the Commissioners terminating t h e i r a c t i v i t y and r e t u r n i n g t o Canada i n a f i t o f pique. In view o f the importance of the S i b e r i a n Supply Company's r o l e i n any d i s c u s s i o n o f the Commission i t i s necessary t o say something about the background o f t h i s firm,. In the l i s t o f dramatis personae. the name o f L e s l i e Urquhart i s of key importance,  An Englishman of considerable experience i n R u s s i a ,  by 1917 he found h i m s e l f i n e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f a syndicate c o n s i s t i n g of three Anglo-Russian mining companies and one Russo-Canadian mining concern:  Kyshtim C o r p o r a t i o n Limited, Tanalyk Corporation L i m i t e d ,  I r t y s h Corporation Limited and the Russor-Canadian Development Corporation Limited,  Together they comprised the s i n g l e l a r g e s t mining syndicate  - 79  -  i n Russia possessing concessions to the extent of 2,500,000 acres i n the U r a l s and Western S i b e r i a .  6  2  Moreover, not only d i d  Urquhart  have f r i e n d s i n the r i g h t places i n the B r i t i s h Government, but a l s o had even b e t t e r connections i n the Kolchak regime.  His  connections  w i t h i n the S i b e r i a n Government ranged from Kolchak h i m s e l f who  was  a  63 personal f r i e n d ,  to A. L. Fedoseev who  J  Managing D i r e c t o r of Urquhart*s  was  a t the same time the  minjng syndicate and Chairman of the  E x t r a o r d i n a r y S t a t e Economic Conference,  6 4 A  t  l  e  a  s  t  o n e  historian  sees i n Fedoseev an 'eminence g r i s e * behind the Supreme Ruler, ^5 S i r A l b e r t Stanley, the P r e s i d e n t of the Board of Trade and a c t i n g f o r the B r i t i s h Government, entered i n t o an agreement with Urquhart 25th September 1918. was  to perform  6 6  The b a s i s of the Agreement was  the f u n c t i o n s of an import-export  that Urquhart  agent i n S i b e r i a on  b e h a l f of the B r i t i s h Government on a c o s t - p l u s b a s i s , p r o f i t was  on  Urquhart's  to be one h a l f of one percent of the gross value of the  t r a n s a c t i o n s , ^7  gr^g terms of reference were such that the geographical  area i n which the Agreement was  operative i n c l u d e d S i b e r i a proper p l u s  the Governments of Perm and Orenburg west of the U r a l s , ^8 The Agreement f u r t h e r s p e c i f i e d that the agent CUrquhartJwas to a c t : ' ( l ) i n the a c q u i s i t i o n , handling, d i s t r i b u t i o n and s a l e of goods and other commodities i n stock a t V l a d i v o s t o k or elsewhere i n S i b e r i a and R u s s i a ;  - 80  -  (2) i n the p r o c u r i n g and f u l f i l l i n g of orders f o r goods and other commodities to be s u p p l i e d from the United Kingdom; (3)  i n p r o c u r i n g and importing goods and other commodities from Canada, A u s t r a l i a , I n d i a or other sources;  (4)  i n o b t a i n i n g and e x p o r t i n g goods and other commodities which may be a v a i l a b l e i n S i b e r i a and Russia. 9 1  6  In order to c a r r y out the terms of the Agreement, Urquhart his  and  a s s o c i a t e s organized and incorporated the ' S i b e r i a n Supply Company.  1  The f i r s t i n t i m a t i o n that the B r i t i s h Government was "considering e n t e r i n g i n t o an agreement of t h i s s o r t was  r e c e i v e d by the Canadian  Government i n a c o n f i d e n t i a l despatch dated September 6th, 1918, the S e c r e t a r y of State f o r the Colonies to the Governor-General Canada,  7  from of  0  The news of the Agreement was  r e c e i v e d with misgivings i n S i b e r i a ,  The e a r l i e s t mention of the scheme i n the S i b e r i a n f i l e s appears i n a l e t t e r of complaint from the B r i t i s h Commercial A s s o c i a t i o n of S i b e r i a to Wilgress dated 5th October 1918.  Among other matters d e a l t with,  F, I , Gade on b e h a l f of the A s s o c i a t i o n s t a t e d : We consider that the Agreement,,,constitutes a menace to B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s , and view with apprehension the grave r e s u l t s which may f o l l o w i f i t i s allowed to go i n t o o p e r a t i o n without e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l from t h i s s i d e , 1 7  - 81  The main complaint  -  of these B r i t i s h firms was  not so much that  they were ignored hy the terms of the Agreement, but r a t h e r that Urquhart would e s t a b l i s h h i s own  machinery, p r e c l u d i n g any opportunity f o r the  B r i t i s h f i r m s to take p a r t i n the trade,  7 2  Wilgress i n a l e t t e r to the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Trade and Commerce dated October 10th passed along the complaints of the B r i t i s h f i r m s but d i d not support  them, on the contrary he admitted that the l o c a l B r i t i s h  f i r m s d i d not possess an o r g a n i z a t i o n adequate to handle the projected 73  s c a l e of s u p p l i e s , Wilgress favoured  a t t h i s time that Canada should take an independent  p o s i t i o n and he urged that a Canadian commission be sent to S i b e r i a to f u n c t i o n somewhat along the l i n e s adopted by the United S t a t e s , Wilgress was  74  not aware at the time that the Economic Commission had  already been approved, a l b e i t ' u n o f f i c i a l l y * by the Government, I n h i s r e p o r t to the Department of Trade and Commerce of October 29th, W i l g r e s s r e i t e r a t e d and added to the l i s t of complaints of the B r i t i s h f i r m s a g a i n s t the Urquhart scheme. Urquhart would b u i l d up h i s own use  The new  local  charges were that  d i s t r i b u t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g f i r m s not because of t h e i r s i z e  but from motives of pure greed s i n c e he would f i n d i t to be ",..to h i s personal i n t e r e s t , , . . "  They a l s o a l l e g e d that he would favour "...a  small  82 -  group o f manufacturers and s u p p l i e r s to the detriment of o t h e r s . . . . " '•  3  Wilgress, f o r some reason, was a t t h i s time supremely confident t h a t Canada would not become a p a r t y to the S i b e r i a n Supply Company Agreement. The terms of the c o n t r a c t s p e c i f i e s Canada among the B r i t i s h Dominions over which Mr. Urquhart i s t o a c t as e x c l u s i v e agent f o r the B r i t i s h Government, but I do not t h i n k that our Government w i l l bind i t s e l f to such an agreement, 76 Although Wilgress had o r i g i n a l l y recognized that the l o c a l B r i t i s h f i r m s were not i n a p o s i t i o n to d u p l i c a t e Urquhart's proposed  activity,  h i s p o s i t i o n was undergoing a r a p i d transformation. By November 7th he was more sympathetic to the l o c a l B r i t i s h f i r m s and was hardening h i s stand against Urquhart, A major matter of concern to the S i b e r i a n based B r i t i s h firms the  was  f e a r that the Urquhart - S t a n l e y Agreement would preclude them from  importing goods from B r i t a i n because of the exclusiveness of the Agreement and they were, as a r e s u l t , source.  l o o k i n g to Canada as an a l t e r n a t i v e  They were anxious that Canada should not a s s o c i a t e h e r s e l f  w i t h the S i b e r i a n Supply Company or any s i m i l a r undertaking and thereby cut o f f that avenue of supply.  7  7  Again i n h i s l e t t e r o f  November 7th Wilgress c o n f i d e n t l y r e l a t e d that he b e l i e v e d Canada would not  become a p a r t y to any such agreement,  7  8  - 83  -  The Department of Trade and Commerce a t t h i s time seemingly had made a commitment to a c t only through the Commission, hut again i t was merely a matter of the p r o v e r b i a l r i g h t hand not knowing what the  left  was  the  doing,  In a cable to Wilgress  (sent between November 7 - 19)  Department advised him that export permits would be granted f i r m s upon the recommendation of the Commission, 79  i  n  to i n d i v i d u a l  the l i g h t of t h i s  cable a meeting subsequently took place between S i r Charles E l l i o t , B r i t i s h High Commissioner, Mr, and Mr, Wilgress,  the  P o r t e r , the B r i t i s h Commercial Commissioner,  Wilgress reports on t h i s meeting the f o l l o w i n g :  ,,,we have come to the c o n c l u s i o n on the b a s i s of the cable that the Canadian Government i s going to leave economic r e l i e f i n S i b e r i a i n the hands of p r i v a t e t r a d e r s , the Government only a s s i s t i n g through the medium of the Commission i n the g r a n t i n g of l i c e n s e s and i n the s e c u r i n g of tonnage 80 ?  Unknown to them, however, t h i s was  not to be the p o l i c y of the  Canadian Government f o r throughout t h i s p e r i o d , S i r George F o s t e r , the M i n i s t e r of Trade and Commerce, was  i n London, and throughout November  had a s e r i e s of interviews with B r i t i s h .^officials regarding the S i b e r i a n Supply Company,  On November 25th he addressed a l e t t e r to Alexander  MacLean (the A c t i n g M i n i s t e r ) i n which he r a i s e d the question of Canada's a s s o c i a t i o n with the S i b e r i a n Supply Company and expressed h i s  support  f o r the proposal.  before  the cabinet,  8  ^  He requested  MacLean to b r i n g the matter up  -  B a s i c a l l y h i s proposal was  84  -  that the Canadian Government would  f i n a n c i a l l y stand behind Canadian exports to S i b e r i a as the B r i t i s h Government d i d f o r B r i t i s h exports and that Canada would have a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the board of d i r e c t o r s of the S i b e r i a n Supply Company,  8  2  As a r e s u l t of the Poster interviews i n London, the Hon,  B, E, Hubbard, who  had been appointed by the B r i t i s h Government  as Comptroller of the company, and Mr, D. P. M i t c h e l l , a D i r e c t o r of the company, had a s e r i e s of interviews with Ottawa based cabinet m i n i s t e r s . The two o f f i c i a l s of the company were i n Canada and the United S t a t e s most of January and p a r t of February awaiting t r a n s p o r t to V l a d i v o s t o k ,  8  3  Hubbard o f f e r e d f o u r t e n t a t i v e proposals should Canada adhere to the p l a n :  t h a t Canada should appoint a Commissioner to V l a d i v o s t o k  to supervise the Canadian aspects of the company; that Canada should appoint one or more d i r e c t o r s to the board of the company; that the Canadian Government would f i n a n c i a l l y stand behind the Canadian aspects of the company's operations; and f i n a l l y he suggested  that should  Canada adhere to the Agreement the B r i t i s h Government would accept a l l roubles that Canada acquired as a r e s u l t of her S i b e r i a n t r a n s a c t i o n s , ^4 Upon r e c e i v i n g the f i r s t i n t i m a t i o n of Canada's pending adherence to the Urquhart agreement, the Commission on February 12th a s t r o n g l y worded cable to Ottawa,  despatched  There were three premises upon which  - 85 ~  the to  p r o t e s t was based.  They were that the Agreement was p r e j u d i c i a l  the development of independent trade and s h i p p i n g between Canada  and  S i b e r i a ; that e s t a b l i s h e d B r i t i s h and Russian firms i n S i b e r i a opposed  the  Agreement and that Russian p u b l i c o p i n i o n opposed the formation o f  a f o r e i g n t r a d i n g monopoly. 5 8  ^  Commission threatened that i f  Canada became a p a r t y to the -Agreement the continuance of the 86 Commission a c t i v i t i e s would be s e r i o u s l y hampered. The r e p l y from Ottawa dated February 17th advised the Commission that Canada's a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the S i b e r i a n Supply Company was 87 " . . . p r a c t i c a l l y decided uponj!  Apparently Ottawa saw the p r i n c i p a l  advantage to be that goods could be s o l d i n S i b e r i a f o r roubles and that the B r i t i s h Government would exchange these f o r pounds,  8  8  The Government o f f i c i a l l y committed i t s e l f to the Agreement by  O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l on February 20, 1919»  The plan was that the  Canadian Trade Commission i n Ottawa would purchase and arrange s h i p p i n g for  the goods to be exported to S i b e r i a and to t h i s end the O r d e r - i n -  C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h e d a c r e d i t of $1,000,000.  The d i s p o s a l of the goods  i n S i b e r i a would be through the aegis of the S i b e r i a n Supply Company, W, D, Wilgress was appointed to supervise the Canadian aspects of the company,  P r o f i t s over the one h a l f of one percent gross due to the  company, would accrue to the Canadian Government, 9 8  -86  The  -  Commission was goaded i n t o a c t i o n and i n a despatch to the  Department of Trade and Commerce dated February 24th not only were the p r e v i o u s l y presented misgivings r e i t e r a t e d but the opinion was expressed that the c o n t r a c t would have the most d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t upon B r i t i s h and  Canadian business i n t e r e s t s i n S i b e r i a ,  The cable went on t o  s t a t e that the Commission: ,,.are s t r o n g l y o f the opinion that the n e c e s s i t y of t h e i r continued a c t i v i t y i n S i b e r i a . , . i s e n t i r e l y n u l l i f i e d by the c o n t r a c t entered i n t o with the S i b e r i a n Supply Company, and that the need f o r t h e i r continued a c t i v i t y w i l l have p r a c t i c a l l y ceased as soon as the terms o f the contract,,.become o p e r a t i v e . 90  4. The Braithwaite M i s s i o n  The Commissioners f e l t that p r i o r to t h e i r f i n a l departure  from  S i b e r i a i t would he d e s i r a b l e f o r an a n a l y s i s to be made o f the s i t u a t i o n i n the i n t e r i o r o f S i b e r i a g e n e r a l l y and i n Omsk s p e c i f i c a l l y , A. D, Braithwaite was chosen by the Commission to c a r r y »ut t h i s investigation.  He subsequently  l e f t V l a d i v o s t o k on March 16th and  reached Omsk nine days l a t e r . While i n Omsk, Braithwaite interviewed a l a r g e number o f Russian o f f i c i a l s i n c l u d i n g Kolchak h i m s e l f , P, P, Gudkov, the M i n i s t e r o f Trade and Commerce and most important,  I. A, Mikhailov, the M i n i s t e r  of Finance, o f whom Braithwaite r e l a t e s : very much impressed  "I cannot say that I was  with Mr, M i c h a y l o f f ' s knowledge of f i n a n c i a l  91 matters.,.,"  7  Braithwaite was not alone i n h i s assessment o f M i k h a i l o v s t  92 competence,  3  I n a d d i t i o n to the p u r e l y governmental o f f i c i a l s , he  d e a l t and conferred with many o f the prominent f i g u r e s among the Omsk banking and commercial community. A f t e r spending approximately  f i v e days i n Omsk Braithwaite  returned t o V l a d i v o s t o k and d u r i n g h i s r e t u r n journey very escaped an a l l e g e d Bolshevik b u l l e t , 93  narrowly  « 88  The  -  r e s u l t s of h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were p e s s i m i s t i c .  s i t u a t i o n r e f l e c t i n g the d e t e r i o r a t e d economy was I n f l a t i o n was  out of c o n t r o l .  The  currency  p a r t i c u l a r l y chaotic.  Currency of every d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d i n g  those of the Romanov, Kerensky, S i b e r i a n and Bolshevik regimes was circulation i n Siberia, v a r i e t i e s was roubles.  The  t o t a l value of outstanding notes of a l l  estimated by the M i n i s t r y of Finance to be 126,5  billion  At the same time, the reserves of the State Bank amounted to  a mere 200 m i l l i o n r o u b l e s , Due  in  94  to the v i r t u a l l y complete stoppage of exports as a r e s u l t of  the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g transport of o b t a i n i n g f o r e i g n exchange.  the Government had no means  Furthermore, most s t a t e s , i n c l u d i n g  Canada, had passed laws f o r b i d d i n g the importation Braithwaite  of roubles,,  95  found no bank, f o r e i g n or S i b e r i a n , w i l l i n g to s e l l  of exchange f o r roubles,  96  bills  r^g Omsk Government thus had no means a t  i t s d i s p o s a l to finance an import program and a system of b a r t e r arrangements was  the only a l t e r n a t i v e ,  precluded by the s t a t e of  the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, Complicating the i s s u e s t i l l f u r t h e r , Omsk had revenue sources to meet i t s needs.  inadequate l o c a l  As an expedient the p r i n t i n g presses  were kept busy churning out paper of ever decreasing v a l u e . In order to stop the s p i r a l l i n g i n f l a t i o n and put the currency on a f i r m f o o t i n g , Braithwaite  Siberian  proposed a s i x p o i n t  formula  s  - 89 -  He recommended the o r g a n i z a t i o n of S i b e r i a as a separate geographical and p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y completely of the Russian Empire.  separate from the r e s t  This was to be followed by A l l i e d r e c o g n i t i o n  of the Kolchak regime, a step b a s i c to the r e g u l a r i z a t i o n o f A l l i e d Siberian financial relations.  He proposed the establishment  o f an  i n t e r - a l l i e d f i n a n c i a l committee t o have complete c o n t r o l o f S i b e r i a n finances,  Braithwaite suggested that together with t h i s committee be  e s t a b l i s h e d a S i b e r i a n State Bank, d i s t i n c t from the Russian State Bank, This bank would be the s o l e currency i s s u i n g a u t h o r i t y .  The bank would  r e c e i v e a l l government revenues and would hold a l l s t a t e r e s e r v e s . The bank's c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , which Braithwaite suggested should be approximately  510,000,000, was t o be subscribed p a r t l y from w i t h i n S i b e r i a  and p a r t l y from w i t h i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g A l l i e d n a t i o n s .  The various  c u r r e n c i e s i n c i r c u l a t i o n would be redeemed by the bank with twenty year bonds.  F i n a l l y , Braithwaite suggested that the a l l i e d  nations  should make loans to the Omsk Government a f t e r the f o r e g o i n g had been accomplished i n order that badly needed commodities might be imported. 97 A d r a f t memorandum on the S i b e r i a n currency s i t u a t i o n dated 1919  April  and prepared f o r the B r i t i s h Government by i t s Vladivostok Trade  Commissioner, ¥ , J . Hinton, drew h e a v i l y upon the Braithwaite r e p o r t , 98 However, there i s no evidence  that e i t h e r the Braithwaite or Hinton  r e p o r t had any impact on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e governments.  - 90 -  By the time Braithwaite returned to Vladivostok, the other Commissioners with the exception of Wilgress who was now associated with the Siberian Supply Company, had already departed and toward the middle of A p r i l 1919 Braithwaite departed also, 99  I I I . THE DISENGAGEMENT - AN APPRAISAL  The  Canadian Government's S i b e r i a n p o l i c y , as i t was  formulated one.  i n the p e r i o d J u l y - August, 1918,  was  officially  an extremely ambitious  The p o l i c y encompassed both m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n S i b e r i a and  the establishment  of Canadian - S i b e r i a n economic l i n k s through a  government-appointed Economic Commission.  The  issue of consequence  a t t h i s juncture i s to d e l i n e a t e the reasons f o r the government's v o l t e face v i s - a - v i s S i b e r i a w i t h i n the short space of a few months. I t must be emphasized that a t the time the Canadian Government agreed to take p a r t i n the m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n S i b e r i a , the a g a i n s t the C e n t r a l Powers had not been concluded. of the war Against  struggle  During the course  approximately one-half m i l l i o n Canadians had been m o b i l i z e d .  the l a r g e numbers of Canadian troops i n Europe, the proposed  f i v e thousand man insignificant.  S i b e r i a n f o r c e appeared i n perspective  At the same time, the Government was  such a f o r c e on the grounds of m i l i t a r y exigency.  extremely  able to j u s t i f y  However, what had,,  p r i o r to the A r m i s t i c e , been m i l i t a r i l y and numerically  inconsequential,  a f t e r the A r m i s t i c e and the end of f i g h t i n g became an issue of great importance to the Canadian p u b l i c .  - 92 -  The  C.E.F.(s) became the f o c a l p o i n t o f c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n by a  s i g n i f i c a n t number o f Canadians,  The best organized  and v o c i f e r o u s  were the labour unions. The wholesale d e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f the Canadian f o r c e s f o l l o w i n g the A r m i s t i c e together with the c e s s a t i o n of war c o n t r a c t s f o r Canadian i n d u s t r y had r e s u l t e d i n a general r e c e s s i o n o f which a depressed labour market had been an important f a c e t , massive unemployment coupled with the unstable to a r a d i c a l i z a t i o n o f the l a b o u r i n g c l a s s ,  1  The  economic conditions l e d  S o v i e t Russia with i t s  government b y the p r o l e t a r i a t ' or a Canadian model o f i t was seen as a f  panacea f o r a l l Canada's economic and s o c i a l i l l s , 2  was l o g i c a l ,  t h e r e f o r e , that labour should have been opposed t o the C.E.F.(s) which they regarded, i n s p i t e o f Government p r o t e s t a t i o n s , as being d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Bolshevik Government^ Labour's a g i t a t i o n against the S i b e r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n made i t s e l f most e f f e c t i v e l y f e l t i n Canada's western provinces. were common,  P r o t e s t meetings  A t y p i c a l r e s o l u t i o n o f p r o t e s t was that passed by a  meeting which was held i n the Rex Theatre i n Vancouver on December 22, under the auspices  o f the Federated Labour P a r t y :  THEREFORE, be i t r e s o l v e d that t h i s meeting,,.does p r o t e s t against the Canadian Government sending f o r c e s t o oppose the workers and s o l d i e r s o f Russia, i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s e s , 3  1918  -  93  -  The Convention of the Canadian Trades and Labour Congress h e l d at Quebec C i t y (September 16  21, 1918)  passed a r e l a t i v e l y mild  r e s o l u t i o n of p r o t e s t a g a i n s t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n R u s s i a : R e s o l u t i o n Ho. 32 - RESOLVED that t h i s Congress goes on record as being opposed to any i n t e r v e n t i o n on the p a r t of the A l l i e s i n the i n t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s i n Russia, i n the b e l i e f that i n the best i n t e r e s t s of democracy every n a t i o n should have the r i g h t to determine i t s own d e s t i n y . 4 The moderateness of the r e s o l u t i o n brought i n t o sharp focus  the  estrangement of r a d i c a l labour i n Western Canada from t h e i r more temperate eastern counterparts. t h e i r own i t was  s p l i n t e r convention.  The western delegates decided to hold Designated  the Western Labour Conference,  h e l d i n Calgary, A l b e r t a , March 10 - 13, 1919.  s u f f e r from the r e s t r a i n t e x h i b i t e d i n Quebec. than token o p p o s i t i o n to i n t e r v e n t i o n .  They d i d not  They went much f a r t h e r  The Conference declared  ",..its  f u l l acceptance of the p r i n c i p l e of ' p r o l e t a r i a n d i c t a t o r s h i p ' " . Conference placed " , . , i t s e l f on r e c o r d as being i n f u l l accord and  The sympathy  with the aims and purposes of the Russian Bolshevik and German Spartacan revolutions," 5 By the S p r i n g of 1919,  the spread of r a d i c a l i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y  among labour ranks i n Western Canada, had reached such s e r i o u s proportions t h a t the A c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r , T, W, White made h i s , by now,  famous  request f o r a B r i t i s h c r u i s e r to Borden i n a cable dated 16 A p r i l  1919*  - 94 -  Bolshevism has made great progress among workers and s o l d i e r s h e r e We cannot get troops a b s o l u t e l y dependable i n emergency,..,Plans are being l a i d f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement,,.would immediately b r i n g about s e r i o u s disturbances i n Calgary and Winnepeg where s o c i a l i s m rampant. We t h i n k most d e s i r a b l e B r i t i s h Government should b r i n g over c r u i s e r from China S t a t i o n to V i c t o r i a or Vancouver, 6 T  Borden q u i c k l y squelched what was solution.  an i n e f f e c t u a l i f not l u d i c r o u s  Instead he suggested u t i l i z a t i o n of "...Royal North West  Mounted P o l i c e who,  I presume, would be e n t i r e l y r e l i a b l e . . . , i n c r e a s e  t h e i r f o r c e s by j u d i c i o u s e n l i s t m e n t ,  M  7  The labour unrest reached i t s z e n i t h d u r i n g the Winnepeg General S t r i k e which l a s t e d f o r forty-two days, from May  6th to  June  25th, 1919,  W i l l i a m Rodney i n h i s H i s t o r y of the Communist Party of Canada 1919  - 1929  8  T  makes the a s s e r t i o n t h a t :  The c h i e f achievement r e s u l t i n g from the general unrest and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n echoed by r a d i c a l s and labour groups, was t h a t i t pressured the Borden government i n t o i n s i s t i n g upon Canada's withdrawal from the Russian expedition., 9 The statement i s p a r t i a l l y i f not wholly i n a c c u r a t e .  There i s  no documentation i n the a r c h i v e s s t u d i e d that would suggest the w i t h drawal of the C.E.P.(S) was  s o l e l y as a r e s u l t of r a d i c a l pressure,  nor does Rodney provide any documentation f o r the statement. i t s importance,  In s p i t e of  the spread of r a d i c a l i s m was but one of a multitude of  reasons, the most important of which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d .  I t i s possible  - 95  -  to go even f u r t h e r - on the b a s i s of r a d i c a l i s m alone i t i s extremelyd o u b t f u l that the Canadian f o r c e s i n S i b e r i a would have been withdrawn. One  of the most c r i t i c a l reasons, a l l u d e d to e a r l i e r , was  t h a t the Canadian Government a t t h i s time was The  c o a l i t i o n of the majority Conservative  L i b e r a l Party had been proposed i n 1917  the f a c t  a c o a l i t i o n government*  Party and a p o r t i o n of the  by S i r Robert Borden i n an e f f o r t  to e f f e c t some s o r t of p o l i t i c a l consensus over the issue of c o n s c r i p t i o n and a t the same time strengthen as i t was  h i s personal p o s i t i o n .  C o a l i t i o n , or  termed 'Union Government , came i n t o e f f e c t i n October,  1917#  1  The U n i o n i s t s were s u c c e s s f u l i n the General E l e c t i o n of December, 1917,, In the interests^-of n a t i o n a l u n i t y a Conservative had been f e a s i b l e as long as the war  continued.  - Liberal coalition Following the A r m i s t i c e ,  however, c e n t r i f u g a l p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s again became operative,  Borden  found himself f o r c e d to d e a l very g i n g e r l y with cabinet d i s s i d e n c e ,  Out  of a cabinet of seventeen members a t l e a s t f i v e m i n i s t e r s were outspoken i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to the C.K,F.(S) 10 and only four, i n c l u d i n g Borden, were s o l i d l y i n favour of i t ,  1 1  Borden could have undoubtedly forced  the i s s u e , however, being an astute p o l i t i c i a n and i n view of the a n t i - i n t e r v e n t i o n i n f l u e n c e s present, he was  r e l u c t a n t to do  so.  In a d d i t i o n to the purely Canadian p o l i t i c a l , economic and f o r c e s operating against continued  other  social  S i b e r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n , there were  e q u a l l y important extraneous f a c t o r s which forced on the government the same n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t d e c i s i o n .  96  -  The p r i n c i p a l of these f a c t o r s was  the l a c k of agreement and  d e c i s i v e p o l i c y by the other p a r t i c i p a t i n g powers regarding the i n t e r v e n t i o n in Siberia,  Not only was  there l a c k i n g concurrence  as to S i b e r i a n  p o l i c y but a l s o f i r m n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s by the i n t e r v e n i n g powers were l a r g e l y absent,  The  subject i s outside the scope of t h i s essay but i t  can reasonably be suggested  that the other nations were experiencing  the same s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a n t i - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t f o r c e s as was As e a r l y as December 30, 1918 'PrinkLpo I s l a n d  1  the Imperial War  Cabinet agreed  Canada,  to a  proposal f o r a meeting of the v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l elements  i n Russia, the end r e s u l t of which would have provided an honourable b a s i s f o r withdrawal,  1 2  The p o l i c y of withdrawal was  a f f i r m e d by  Imperial Delegation to the P a r i s Peace Conference on January 20,  the 1919. 13  Although  the P r i n k i p o Conference s e t f o r February  15th d i d not take p l a c e ,  the n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n p o l i c y of the Peace Conference d i d not undergo, alteration, I t has already been amply demonstrated that one of the most important reasons f o r Canada's agreement to m i l i t a r i l y S i b e r i a was  intervene i n  economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  The government had proclaimed l o u d l y that i t s i n t e n t i o n i n sending troops both to Murmansk and to S i b e r i a , was s o l e l y to help the Russian people. I t s r e a l aims were revealed, however, by the "economic missions" that went along w i t h the troops. 14  - 97 -  Major-General A l f r e d Knox stated the i s s u e even more s u c c i n c t l y i n a November 4th, 1918 telegram to the War O f f i c e , or  "I.,.want as many B r i t i s h  Canadian troops sent here,..as we can spare.  Every B r i t i s h s o l d i e r  here i s as much a f a c t o r of trade and empire as d i v e ' s men were," 15 The Canadian Economic Commission to S i b e r i a had been born under the  most auspicious p o l i t i c a l  circumstances.  I t had been blessed with  e n t h u s i a s t i c support from Borden, senior cabinet m i n i s t e r s and the upper echelon o f the Department of Trade and Commerce,  I t should be noted  that the Commission, u n l i k e the C.E.F.(s) was not o f f i c i a l l y withdrawn from S i b e r i a , volition.  The Commissioners d i s s o l v e d the Commission o f t h e i r  own  What i s obvious from a study of the Commission documents i s  that i n s p i t e o f the Government's i n i t i a l enthusiasm, i t q u i c k l y l o s t a l l i n t e r e s t i n the Commission, by the Government.  Commission communications were ignored  I t would be d i f f i c u l t  to produce a Commission request  or recommendation that was acted upon by the Government, the  In a d d i t i o n ,  Government f a i l e d to keep the Commission advised r e g a r d i n g govern-  mental a c t i o n a f f e c t i n g the Commission except on a post factum b a s i s . T h i s was evident not only i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s with the S i b e r i a n Supply Company, but a l s o i n the d e c i s i o n to withdraw the Canadian f o r c e s i n Siberia, There are two p o s s i b l e explanations f o r the Government's changed a t t i t u d e toward the Commission,  - 98 -  The  explanation  favoured i s that the Government l o g i c a l l y l o s t  i n t e r e s t simultaneously both i n the Commission and S i b e r i a as a *land o f economic o p p o r t u n i t y  1  when i t became apprised  that the c o n d i t i o n s i n  S i b e r i a , p r i n c i p a l l y the chaotic t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system and unstable f i n a n c i a l s t r u c t u r e , precluded any development of S i b e r i a n - Canadian trade except i n the most d i s t a n t f u t u r e .  Since economic  considerations  had been an important b a s i s f o r Canada's d e c i s i o n to intervene, be presumed that the l a c k o f opportunity  i t can  i n S i b e r i a was an e q u a l l y  powerful reason f o r withdrawal from S i b e r i a .  Since Borden had o r i g i n a l l y  pressed f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n on economic grounds, h i s l a t e r * coolness* t o the S i b e r i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n may thereby be explained. The  second explanation  i s r e l a t e d to the p o s s i b i l i t y that f a c t o r s  other than economic caused the Government to withdraw from S i b e r i a , I t i s p o s s i b l e that i n the minds o f the top government o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g Borden, the success o f Canada's attempts to gain an economic f o o t h o l d i n S i b e r i a depended upon the presence of a Canadian m i l i t a r y f o r c e i n Siberia.  Consequently, when the Government began to have second thoughts  about the continued s t a t i o n i n g of Canadian troops i n S i b e r i a , and began planning  f o r t h e i r eventual r e c a l l , a r e a p p r a i s a l o f the Government's  economic p o l i c i e s f o r S i b e r i a was a l o g i c a l c o r o l l a r y .  The members of the  Government p o s s i b l y b e l i e v e d that without the leverage o f m i l i t a r y presence, economic endeavours i n S i b e r i a would prove f u t i l e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to conclude d e f i n i t i v e l y whether the d e c i s i o n to m i l i t a r i l y withdraw preceded the change i n Canada's economic p o l i c y f o r  - 99 -  S i b e r i a or whether the knowledge of the unpromising economic c o n d i t i o n s i n S i b e r i a preceded and were an aspect of Canada's d e c i s i o n to withdraw. The i n a c t i v e stance adopted by the C.E.F,(s) has r e s u l t e d i n the Force b e i n g regarded as a l a r g e l y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l element i n the S i b e r i a n kaleidoscope.  Although t h i s i s not t o t a l l y accurate, i t nevertheless  seems incongruous that the withdrawal of the C.E.F.(s) was,  i n the f i n a l  a n a l y s i s , an event o f p o s s i b l y g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e to the concluding h i s t o r y of the I n t e r v e n t i o n , than the t o t a l i t y of C.E.F.(s) a c t i v i t y i n Siberia, The B r i t i s h had been enabled to assume and maintain t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n i n Western S i b e r i a l a r g e l y because of the p o t e n t i a l of Canadian m i l i t a r y support,,  The Canadian Government was w e l l aware of  the p o t e n t i a l , i f not a c t u a l , support the B r i t i s h garnered by the presence of the C.E.F.(s) i n S i b e r i a , , , , i f the Canadian troops, which form the major p o r t i o n o f the B r i t i s h Force i n S i b e r i a , are w i t h drawn, the B r i t i s h Government have no course l e f t open but to recommend the withdrawal of the two B r i t i s h b a t t a l i o n s , which would otherwise be i s o l a t e d , 16 The withdrawal of the C.E.F.(s) i n a very r e a l sense s e t i n t o operation a process which was intervention i n Siberia,  the 'death k n e l l ' of a n t i - B o l s h e v i k  The B r i t i s h f o r c e s were withdrawn i n  September, 1919 a mere f o u r months a f t e r the f i n a l departure.  Canadian  « 100  FOOTNOTES  INTRODUCTION 1  John A, White, The S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n . Princeton, U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1950,,  Princeton  2  George F, Kennan, S o v i e t - American R e l a t i o n s . 1917 *»' 1920 P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1956,  3  Robert H. Ullman, I n t e r v e n t i o n and the War; Anglo-Soviet R e l a t i o n s . 1917 - 1921. 2-Vols., P r i n c e t o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961.  4  Two e x c e l l e n t s t u d i e s d e a l i n g with Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Transcaucasia are: Capt, W, W. Murray, "Canadians i n Dunsterforce", appearing i n f i v e s e c t i o n s i n Canadian Defence Q u a r t e r l y : V o l . V I I I , No. 2 (Jan. 193l), pp. 209 - 218; V o l , V I I I , No. 3 (Apr. 1931), pp. 377 - 386; V o l , V I I I , No. 4 ( J u l . 1 9 3 l ) , pp. 487 - 497; V o l . IX, No, 1 (Oct. 1 9 3 l ) , pp. 92 - 100; and V o l . IX, . No. 2 (Jan, 1932), pp, 233 - 243. L i e u t , H, Kingsley, R.C.N., "The Baku Episode", Canadian Defence Q u a r t e r l y V o l , V I I , No, 1 (Oct, 1929), pp. 36 - 44. There a l s o e x i s t two e x c e l l e n t s t u d i e s on the Canadian North Russian E x p e d i t i o n a r y F o r c e : Capt, E, Altham, "The Dvina Campaign", Canadian Defence Quarterly,, V o l , 1, No, 1, (Oct, 1923), pp. 17 - 41;' Leonid I , Strakhovsky, "The Canadian A r t i l l e r y Brigade i n North Russia, 1918 - 1919", Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review. V o l , XXXIX, No, 2 (June 1958).  f  2-WVols,,  f  5  J , A, Swettenham, A l l i e d I n t e r v e n t i o n i n Russia, 1918 - 1919: and the P a r t Played by Canada Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1967, T  6  Gaddis Smith, "Canada and the S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n , 1918 - 1919" American H i s t o r i c a l Review V o l , LXIV, No. 4 ( J u l y 1959) pp. 866 = 877, t  T  7  The Statute of Westminster, passed by the Parliament Kingdom on December 11th, 1931#  8  See f o r example: White, S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n , p, 112 and Louis F i s c h e r , The Soviets i n World A f f a i r s 2-Vols,, Princeton,, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951, pp. 107, 217, 223, f  o f the United  - 101 -  9  L e t t e r , Mewburn t o Borden, d / l 2 J u l y 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Ixpeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P u b l i c Archives o f Canada ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as P.A.C.)  .10  Telegram. Borden t o White, d/Aug, 8, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force t o S i b e r i a , P.A.C. 1  11  L e t t e r , Borden t o Mewburn, d/Aug, 13, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  12  Order-in-Council No. P,C,  13  I b i d . . p. 2,  14  L e t t e r , Borden t o White, d/Nov, 20, 1918, as c i t e d i n :  2595 dated  21 October 1918, p. .1*  S i r Robert L a i r d Borden, Memoirs. Toronto, 1938, V o l , I I , p. 869,  The Macmillan Company,  15  Telegram, Borden t o White, d/Nov, 20, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  16  L e t t e r , White to Borden, d/Nov, 25, 1918, Borden Papers F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  f  CHAPTER ONE 1  L e t t e r , R a d c l i f f e to Rowell, d / j u l . 9, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  2  Ibid.  3  Memorandum Re. Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force ( S i b e r i a ) , d / j u l . 28, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e No., 3, P.A.C.  4  Ibid,  5  L e t t e r , B r i g , Gen, «H, F, McD.' to Kemp, d / j u l , 19, 1918, Attmt, 3 e n t i t l e d 'Vladivostok F o r c e ' . " S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e No. 1, P.A.C.  6  Canada, Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , Documents on Canadian E x t e r n a l R e l a t i t n s , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967, pp, 206 - 207*  ~ 102 -  7  Telegram, Borden to White, d / j u l . 25, 1918. Borden Papers. P i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  8  S i r Robert L a i r d Borden, Memoirs. Toronto, The Macmillan Company, 1938, V o l . I I , p, 810,  9  I b i d . , p. 817,  10  See: Letter,' Mewburn to Borden, d / j u l . 12, 1918; L e t t e r , Borden t o Mewburn, d/Aug. 13, 1918; Telegram, Borden to White, d/Nov, 20, 1918, ( a l l ) Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C. (Refer t o : I n t r o d u c t i o n , pp. 6 - 8 f o r d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s ) .  11  The D a i l y C o l o n i s t . V i c t o r i a , B. C., Sept. 28, 1918, p. 5«  12  ' P a c i f i c Rimism* was a b a s i c tenet of the f o r e i g n and economic platform o f the Progressive Conservative P a r t y d u r i n g the 1968 General Election.  13  Notes on Conference Re, S i b e r i a n E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force (Canadian), d/Aug. 13, 1918, p. 1, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 10, F i l e 27 ' M o b i l i z a t i o n - General', P.A.C.  14  L e t t e r , Gow to Mewburn, d/Sept, 4, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) *Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  15  Telegram, Borden t o White, d/Aug. 7, 1918, 'Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) ^Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  16  Order-in-Council No. P,C. 1983 d/Aug, 12, 1918,  17  Order-in-Council No. P,C. 2073 d/Aug. 23, 1918,  18  O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l No. P,C, 2151 d/Sept, 5, 1918, '  19  Memorandum Re. Canadian Expeditionary/Force ( S i b e r i a ) , d / j u l , 28, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e No, 3, P.A.C. (also) L e t t e r , Mewburn to Kemp, d/Aug. 13, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a , P.A.C.  ;  1  20  Order, War O f f i c e to Elmsley, d/Sept. 10, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records, F o l d e r 17, Segret F i l e No, 1, P.A.C,  21  L e t t e r , Gow to Mewburn, d/Sept, 10, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C,  - 103 -  22  Report of Interview, Lt» Col. Yourkevitch and Capt, Bray, d/ J u l , 18, 1918, p, 2, Siberian Records. Folder 5, F i l e 41 'Russian P o l i t i c a l Parties', P.A.C. It i s interesting to speculate why the number of Russians who either enlisted voluntarily or were conscripted into the Canadian Army during World'War I was so small. There are three possible explanations, The Military Service Act which made conscription law i n Canada was not brought into effect u n t i l 1917. In 1911 there were 89,984 Russian citizens resident i n Canada, however, of this number only 46,018 were over 21 years of age, and of this group a proportion would have f a l l e n outside the upper age limit set by the M.S.A. /TCanada, Department of Trade and Commerce, The Canada Yearbook. 1916 - 1917. Ottawa, King's Printer, 1917,1 A f i n a l explanation i s that following the Bolshevik Revolution the Russians i n Canada may have been regarded by the authorities as being p o l i t i c a l l y suspect. An Intelligence Officer for the Department of M i l i t i a and Defence, investigating the p o l i t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y of Russian nationals i n the Winnipeg area with the aim of enforcing the Military Service Act among them stated i n his report dated August 7th, 1918 that "..,1 am not i n a position at the present time to give you the name of any person of Russian Nationality whom I would c a l l thoroughly reliable i n this Military District,,..my experiences i n this connection have been such that I am inclined to look upon a l l Russian Subjects as being untrustworthy for any position of trust," {ietter, Lieut, D. A, Campbell, Acting D i s t r i c t Intelligence Officer, M, D, 10 to A.J.A.G., M. D, 10, (Winnepeg, Man,), d/Aug, 7, 1918, Siberian Records. H.,Q, F i l e 762,10 'Situation of Russian Subjects,. M, D, 10', P.A.C J  23  Yourkevitch - Bray Interview, Ibid,, p. 2,  24  Ibid,  25  Ibid., p. 1,  26  Ibid.. p. 1,  27  T  pp.  1^2,  Notes on Conference Re, Siberian Expeditionary Force (Canadian), . d/Aug, 13, 1918, p, 2, Siberian Records. Parcel 10, F i l e 27, 'Mobilization « General', P.A.C,  28  Telegram, Kemp to Mewburn d/Aug, 28, 1918, Siberian Records. H,Q. F i l e No, 762-11-1, P.A.C.  29  Letter, Adj. Gen, (O.M.F.C.) to H,Q,, C.E.F.(s), London, d/Aug. 29, 1918, Siberian Records. Parcel 10, F i l e 27 'Mobilization - General', P.A.C,  - 104 -  30  Telegram, H.Q,, C.E.F. (London) to M i l i t i a Dept., Ottawa, d/Sept. 30, 1918, Siberian Records. H,Q. P i l e No. 762-12-5 (Vol. l ) , 'Mobilization of.Infantry Battalions', P.A.C.  31  Telegram,. Kemp to Mewburn, d/Oct. 3, 1918, Siberian Records. H.Q. P i l e 762-12-5 ( V o l . l ) 'Mobilization of Infantry Battalions', P.A.C, (and) Telegram, Adj.-Gen, (Ottawa) to Officer Commanding (Quebec, P.Q.), d/Oct. 9, 1918, Siberian Records. H.Q. P i l e 762-12-5 Vol, 1, 'Mobilization of Infantry Battalions', P.A.C,  32  Telegram, G.O.C., M.D, 11 (Victoria, B, C.) to Adj.-Gen, (Ottawa) d/Oct, 21, 1918. Siberian Records. H.Q. P i l e 762-12-5 (Vol, l ) , 'Mobilization of Infantry Battalions', P.A.C.  33  Adj-Gen. (Ottawa) toG.O.C, M.D. 11 (Victoria, B, C.) d/Oct. 11, 1918, Siberian Records. H.Q. Pile 762-12-5 (Vol, l ) , 'Mobilization of Infantry Battalions', P.A.C.  34  Telegram, Gen, Ashtoh to General Gwynne, d/Oct. 14, 1918, Siberian Records. H.Q. Pile 762-12-5 (Vol. 2) 'Mobilization of Infantry Battalions', P.A.C,  35  Telegram, Mewburn to Kemp, d/Nov, 13, 1918, Siberian Records Polder 19, 'Cables-Out, C.E.P.(s) ', P.A.C,  T  1  36  Telegram,'White to Kemp, d/Nov. 14, 1918, Borden Papers. Pile OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to Siberia', P.A.C, I t should be noted that t h e . f i r s t contingent of C.E.F.(s) had arrived i n Vladivostok on October 26, 1918 v i a the S.S. EMPRESS OF JAPAN, The Advance Party had consisted of 62 officers and 618 other ranks,  37  Telegram, Ottawa to War Office, d/Nov, 15, 1918, Siberian Records. Folder 9 'Cables Received - General Staff Branch, C.E.F.(S)', P.A.C,  38  Letter, Crerar to White, d/Nov, 22, 1918, Borden Papers Pile OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to Siberia', P.A.C.  39  Telegram, White to Borden, d/Nov, 22, 1918, Borden Papers, F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to Siberia', P.A.C,  40  Telegram, C.G.S. to War Office, d/Nov. 24, 1918, Siberian Records. Folder 19, "Ciphers and Cables - Out', P.A.C. I t should be noted that the-cancelled troopships did eventually s a i l , S.S. TEESTA sailed 21 Dec, 1918, S.S. PROTESLIAUS sailed 26 Dec. 1918. S.S. JAPAN sailed 12 Feb. 1919*  r  - 105 -  41  L e t t e r , Borden t o White, d/Nov, 22, 1918, as c i t e d i n : S i r Robert L a i r d Borden, Memoirs, Toronto, The Macmillan Company, 1938, V o l . I I , p. 869.  42  Telegram, Borden to White, d/Nov, 24, 1918, Borden P a p e r s P i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Porce t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  43  Telegram, White to Borden, d/Nov, 25, 1918, Borden Papers. P i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) , 'Expeditionary Porce to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C,  44  Telegram, Borden lio White, d/Nov. 27, 1918, Borden Papers, P i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) 'Expeditionary Porce t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  45  Ibid.  46  Telegram, Borden to White, d/Nov. 27, 1918, Borden Papers. P i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) 'Expeditionary Porce to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  47  Telegram, White t o Borden, d/Nov, 27,. 1918, Borden Papers, P i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Porce to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  48  Ibid.  49  Telegram, White t o Borden, d/Nov, 29, 1918, Borden Papers. P i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  50  Telegram, C.G.S, (Ottawa) to War O f f i c e , d/Dec* 4, 1918; (Reply) Telegram, War O f f i c e t o C.G.S,, d/Dec, 6, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  51  Telegram, C.G.S. t o War O f f i c e , d/Dec, 6, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 19 'Ciphers and Telegrams - Out', P.A.C,  52  Telegram, White to Borden, d/Dec, 6, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  53  Telegram, Borden to White, No, 56303, d/Dec, 9, 1918, Borden Papers, F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Porce t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  54  Telegram, Borden to White, No, 56304, d/Dec, 9, 1918, Borden Papers. P i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) 'Expeditionary P l r c e t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C,  «  -  T  -  - 106 -  55  L e t t e r , White t o Mewburn, d/Dec, 10, 1918. Borden Papers. F i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) 'Expeditionary.Force t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  56  Telegram, War O f f i c e t o C.G.S., d/Dec, 18, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) 'Expeditionary Force t o . S i b e r i a * , P.A.C.  57  Ibid.  58  Telegram, C.G.S. t o War O f f i c e , d/Dec, 22, 1918 (and).Telegram, C.G.S. to E l m s l e y , d/Dec, 22, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) 'Expeditionary Force t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  59  L e t t e r , E l m s l e y t o Knox, d/Dec, 21, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, S e c r e t F i l e No, 5 , P.A.C.  60  L e t t e r , Knox t o E l m s l e y , d/Dec, 26, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, S e c r e t F i l e No. 3, P.A.C.  61  L e t t e r , Knox'to E l m s l e y , d/Dec, 27, 1918, S i b e r i a n R e c o r d s F o l d e r 17, S e c r e t F i l e No, 3, P.A.C.  62  Telegram, War O f f i c e t o C.G.S., d/Jan, 4, 1919, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Force t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  r  63 > Telegram, Elmsley t o War O f f i c e , d/Jan, 8, 1919, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Force t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C. 64  L e t t e r , Gwatkin t o Dennis, d / j a n , 9 , 1919, S i b e r i a n Records, F o l d e r 19 'Cables and Telegrams - O u t . , P.A.C, 1  65  Telegram, E l m s l e y t o R a d c l i f f e , d/Jan, 19, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, S e c r e t F i l e No, 1, P.A.C.  66  Telegram, Borden t o White, d/Jan, 28, 1919, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Force t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C. I t should be noted t h a t on J a n , 8 t h approximately 1,100 troops remained staged [Telegram, C.G.S. t o War"Office, d/Jan, 8, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records.. F o l d e r 19,. 'Cables and. Telegrams - I n ' , P.A.CTf however, o f t h i s number a 'further 378 were despatched t o S i b e r i a , p r i n c i p a l l y on the S.S. JAPAN which departed on Feb, 1 2 t h , Theref o r e approximately 722 were d e m o b i l i z e d ,  67  Telegram, War O f f i c e t o Elmsley d/Jan. 29, 1919, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C. B r i g . Gen. B i c k f o r d had a r r i v e d a t V l a d i v o s t o k on J a n , 15th v i a the S.S. PROTESLIAUS,  - 107  -  68  L e t t e r , Elmsley to R a d c l i f f e , d/Feb, 11, 1919 as c i t e d i n : Appendix V I I I of J , H, Elmsley, "Report. Russian M i l i t a r y and P o l i t i c a l S i t u a t i o n " , dated June 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 18, P.A.C.  69  See: Major. General W, S, Graves, America's S i b e r i a n Adventure. 1918 - 1920. New York, Peter Smith, 1941.  70  Telegram, Borden to White, d/Feb. 13, 1919, Bjrden Papers F i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  71  L e t t e r , C h u r c h i l l to Borden, d/Mar, 17, 1919, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Pores to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  72  L e t t e r , C h u r c h i l l to Borden, d/May 1, 1919, Bprden Papers. F i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  73  Returns of. Strength f o r C.E.F.(s).. S i b e r i a n Records. H.Q, 762-11-25, P.A.C.  74  War D i a r y Base H.Q. F i l e 961,'  75  Ibid.  76  Golos Primorya. V l a d i v o s t o k , Nov,  77  War D i a r y Force H.Q. File  (Sib.)., 1-10-18 to 5^6-19.  '  " 3, 1918,  R.G.  '  :  f  File  9, V o l . 477,  .  p, 4,  ( S i b , ) , 11-10-18 to 31-12-18.  R.G.  9, V o l . 476,  957.  78  (a) Second R i v e r (b) Gornostai Bay (c) Egerscheldt, (Canadian Ordinance Depot) (d) E a s t Barracks (e) West Barracks ( f ) No. 11 S t a t i o n a r y H o s p i t a l . Russian Island (g) H.Q, - Pushinskaya Theatre (h) F o r t r e s s Annex ( i ) Monte C a r l o Barracks,  79  War D i a r y Force H.Q. F i l e 957,  80  Ibid,  81  War D i a r y A.A. F i l e 961,  82  Ibid,  83  Ibid.  84  L e t t e r , A.D.M.S.' to Commissioner, Canadian Red Cross, d/Feb. 12, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 14, F i l e 3-0, 'Administration - General', P.A.C.  ( S i b . ) , 11-10-18 to 31-12-18,  R.G.  " . & Q.M.G. ( S i b , ) , 1-12-18. to 29-5-19,  R.G,  9, V o l . 475,  . 9, V o l . 477,  --108 -  85  L e t t e r ^ A.D.M.S. to Commissioner, Canadian Red Cross, d/Feb, 12, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 14, P i l e 3<~O 'Administration - General*, P .A.C• •» . • t  86  Ibid.  87  Ibid.  88  L e t t e r , A.D.M.S . to A.A. & Q.M.G., C.E.F.(s), d/Feb,. 18, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 14, F i l e 3-0, 'Administration - General', P.A.C., ' .  89  Ibid.  90  L e t t e r , Sakharov t o Knox (no d a t e ) , S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 14, F i l e 3-0, A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - General', P.A.C.  :  r  91  See: The D a i l y C o l o n i s t . V i c t o r i a , B, C,, Jun, 21, 1919, p. 2 (and) Capt,- the Rev, Norman Rawson, "The Syren or North Russian Expeditionary Force t o Murmansk", Selected Papers. The Canadian M i l i t a r y I n s t i t u t e , Toronto,.No. 26 (1929), p. 60,  92  D a i l y Routine Order No. 49, d/Dec. 18, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records, D a i l y Routine Orders, G.O.C., C.E.F.(s) No. 12 d/2-12^18 t o No, 84 d/31-12-18. P.A.C  93  L e t t e r , Butenko to Elmsley,,d/Feb, 17, 1919. S i b e r i a n Records, P a r c e l 6, P i l e BH 36-1 'Complaints, Misc, Correspondence', P.A.C,.  94  Golos Primorya  95  L e t t e r , Town Major t o Chief of S t a f f , C.E.F.(s), d/Mar, 8, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 6,. F i l e BH 36-1, 'Complaints. Misc, Correspondence , P.A.C,  f  Vladivostok, March 7, 1919, p. 7,  1  96  Telegram,, C.G.S. to War O f f i c e , d/Nov, 15, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 9, P.A.C, (and) Telegram, C.G.S. to Elmsley, d/Dec, 22, 1918, Borden Papers, F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a * (and) Telegram, C.G.S. t o War O f f i c e , d/Dec, 24, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C. .  97  Telegram 'War O f f i c e t o Elmsley, d/Mar. 20, 1919, War D i a r y G.S., C.E.F.(S), 1-3-19 to 31-3-19, R.G, 9, V o l . 476, F i l e 959, P.A.C.  98  C a r l W. Ackerman, T r a i l i n g the B o l s h e v i k i , New York, Charles S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1919, p, 222,  99  Golos Primorya. Vladivostok, Jan. 5, 1919, p, 5  9  .  - 109 -  100  Capt. W. E , Dunham, "The Canadians i n S i b e r i a " , Maclean"s Magazine. Vol,  XXXII, No. 5 '(May 191?), p. 93. , '  .  . ,  101  The D a i l y C o l o n i s t . V i c t o r i a , B. C,, May 6, 1919, p. 5.  102  A. D. Braithwaite, Re-port o f V i s i t t o S i b e r i a , (undated, t y p e s c r i p t ) p. 13, A r c h i v e s , Bank o f Montreal, Montreal, P,Q,  103  L e t t e r , H.Q., A l l i e d Forces t o Elmsley, d/Apr, 26,.1919, War D i a r y G.S., C.E.F.(S), 1-4-19 t o 19-6-19, R.G. 9, V o l . 476, F i l e 959, P.A.C..  104  Order No,'64 d/Apr. 13, 1919, Otani to Elmsley, War D i a r y , G.S., C.E.P.(S), 1-4-19 t o 19-6-19, R, G, 9, V o l , 476, F i l e 959, P.A.C.  105  Ibid.  106  Telegram, C.G.S.ito War O f f i c e , d/Dec, 22, 1918, Borden.Papers. F i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) , 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C,  107  Telegram. Elmsley to War O f f i c e , d/Apr. 13, 1919, War D i a r y , G.S., C.E.F.(S), 1-4-19 t o 19-6-19, R.G. 9, V o l , 476, F i l e 959, P.A.C.  108  L e t t e r , Isobayashi t o Elmsley, d/Apr, 26, 1919, War D i a r y , G.S., C.E.F.(s), 1-4T19 t o 19-6-19, R.G. 9, V o l , 476, F i l e 959, P.A.C.  109  Ibid.  110  War D i a r y , Base H.Q, ( S i b . ) , 1-10-18 t o 5-6^19, R.G. 9, V o l . 477, F i l e 961, P.A.C, .  111  War D i a r y , A.A. & Q.M.G. ( S i b , ) , 1-12-18 t o 29-5-19, R*G. 9, V o l , 477, F i l e 961, P.A.C,  112  Returns o f Strength, C E . F . ( s ) , S i b e r i a n Records. H.Q, F i l e 762-11-25, P.A.C.  113  Ibid.  114  Ibid.  115  L e t t e r , French M i l i t a r y Mission to C.E,F.(s) d/jun, 2, 1919,. Siberian.Records, P a r c e l 5, .File,BH.25-16,, P.A.C.  - 110 -  116  L e t t e r , B.M.M. t o C.E.F.(s) d/jun, 2, 1919 re,.'No, 11 S t a t i o n a r y H o s p i t a l and F o r t r e s s Annex H o s p i t a l . L e t t e r , B.M.M. to C.E.F.(s), d/jun, 2, 1919 r e , ordinance f a c i l i t i e s . L e t t e r , B.M.M. to C.E.F.(s), d/jun, 2, 1919 r e . Base Supply Depot, L e t t e r , B.M.M. E6 C E . F . ( s ) , d/jun, 2, 1919 r e . E g e r s c h e l d t Supply Depot, ( a l l ) S i b e r i a n Records, P a r c e l 5, F i l e 25-16, P.A.C.  117  L e t t e r o f Receipt ( I t a l i a n ) d/jun, 4, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l ^ , F i l e BH 25-16, P.A.C.  118  L e t t e r o f Receipt (Japanese) d/jun. 4, 1919 and L e t t e r of Receipt (Russian) d/Jun, 4, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 5, F i l e BH 25-16, P.A.C. ••*  119  L e t t e r o f Receipt, d/jun. 2, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 5, F i l e BH 25-16, P.A.C.  120  War D i a r y , A.A. & ft.M.G, ( S i b , ) , 1-12-18 to 29-5-19, R.G. 9, V o l . 477, F i l e 961, P.A.C.  121  War D i a r y Force H,Q, ( S i b , ) , 11-10-18 to 31-12-18, R.G, 9, V o l , 475, F i l e 957, P.A.C,  122  John Svrettenham, A l l i e d I n t e r v e n t i o n • i n Russia, 1918 - 1919: and the P a r t Played by Canada. Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1967, p. '126.  123  A medical board determined on January 25, 1919 that 255 o f 329 other ranks to be m e d i c a l l y u n f i t f o r s e r v i c e , War D i a r y A.A. & Q.M.G. ( S i b , ) , 1-12-18 t o 29-5-19,-R.G, 9, V o l , 477, F i l e 961, P.A.C.  124  Order, War O f f i c e to Elmsley, d/Sept, 10, 1918, p, 1, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e No, 1, P.A.C.  125 126  Telegram, War O f f i c e to Knox, d/Aug. 26, 1918, p . 1, S i b e r i a n Records, F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e No,.1, P.A.C.  127  War D i a r y , Force H,Q. ( S i b . ) , 11-10-18 t o 31-12-18, R.G. 9, V o l . 475, F i l e 957, P.A.C.  128  N D, Avksentiev, V, M, Zenzinov, A, A„ Argunov and E, F, Rogovsky had been a r r e s t e d on the n i g h t o f Nov, 17/l8 /Elena Varneck and H, H, F i s h e r ( E d i t o r s ) , The Testimony o f Kolchak and Other S i b e r i a n M a t e r i a l s . Stanford, Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1935, p . 2547 They had been escorted out o f the country Nov, 20 under a guard e s c o r t o f the 25th B t t n , Middlesex Regt, L e t t e r , Ward t o G.O.C., China Command, Hong Kong, d/Nov, 21, 1918, p. 3, War D i a r y , 25th B t t n , f  ~ 111 -  129  Telegram..Morrisey t o Elmsley, d/jan, 14, 1919, War D i a r y , G.S., C.E.F.(s), 1-1-19 t o 31-1-19, R.G, 9, V o l . 476, P i l e , 9 5 9 , P.A.C.  130  Ibid,  131  Ibid.  132  Ibid.  133  Ibid.  134  War D i a r y , Porce H,Q. P i l e 957, P.A.C, .'  135  Ibid.  136  War D i a r y , Advance Party, C.E.P.(s), 8-12-18 to 12-4-19, R.G. 9, V o l , 477, P i l e 963, P.A.C. . . .  137  War D i a r y , A;A. & Q.M.G. ( S i b . ) , 1-12-18 to 29-5-19, R.G, 9, V o l . 477, P i l e 961, P.A.C. ,One platoon of 2nd coy, Hampshires remained i n V l a d i v o s t o k . t o serve, as i n s t r u c t o r s a t the Russian O f f i c e r s School,  138  Telegram, Elmsley to War O f f i c e , d/Dec, 16, 1918, Borden Papers. P i l e OC 518(2),"'Expeditionary Porce to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  139  Telegram, War Office, to C.G.S., d/Dec. 18, 1918, Borden Papers P i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Porce t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  140  Telegram, C.G.S. to War O f f i c e , d/Dec. 23, 1918, Borden Papers. P i l e OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Porce to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  141  Telegram, War O f f i c e to Elmsley, d/jan, 6, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. Polder 17, Secret F i l e No, 1, P.A.C.  142  Telegram^, War O f f i c e t o Elmsley, d/jan, 29, 1919, Borden Papers, F i l e GC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Porce to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  143  Telegram, War O f f i c e to Elmsley, d/Feb. 2, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, S e c r e t F i l e No, 1,. P.A.C.  144  Telegram, B l a i r to War, O f f i c e , d/Feb. 6, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e No, 1, P.A.C.  145  L e t t e r , Knox t o Elmsley, d/Peb, 21, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, S e c r e t P i l e No. 1, P.A.C.  . •  •  .  . .  ( S i b . ) , 11-10-18 to 31-12-18, R.G, 9, V o l , 475, ' . _  f  - 112  -  146  L e t t e r , Knox to Elmsley,, d/Feb, 21, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records, F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e No.- 1, P.A.C., - .  147  Telegram 'War O f f i c e to Elmsley, d/Mar. 20, 1919, War Diary, G.S., C.E.F«(S), 1-3-19 to 31-3-19, R.G. 9, V o l . 476, F i l e 959, P.A.C.  148  L e t t e r , B l a i r to Elmsley, d/Apr. 25, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records, P a r c e l 10, F i l e 27-9 * l / 9 t h Hampshire Regt.', P.A.C. -  149  L e t t e r , Elmsley to B l a i r , d/Apr. 25, 1919 (Handwritten r e p l y c i t e d on: L e t t e r , B l a i r to Elmsley, d/Apr. 25, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 10, F i l e 2 7 r 9 . l / 9 t h Hampshire Regt.'), P.A.C. f  150  Telegram, Elmsley to War O f f i c e , d/May 2, 1919, S i b e r i a n F o l d e r 10 'Cables - Outgoing, G.S., C.E.F.(s)*, P.A.C.  151  Telegram,.Elmsley to War . O f f i c e , d/May 26, 1919, S i b e r i a n F o l d e r 10 'Cables - Outgoing, G.S., C.E.F.(s)', P.A.C.  152  R i o t s had.taken place i n Quebec C i t y between the p e r i o d March 29 to A p r i l 1,.1918 over f e d e r a l e f f o r t s to.enforce the M i l i t a r y S e r v i c e A c t . S i r Robert L a i r d Borden, Memoirs. V o l , I I , pp, 786-788,  153  I b i d . , p, 698,  154  I b i d . . p,. 919,  ,  Records.  Records  f  .  155  C o l o n e l G. W. L, Nicholson, (Army H i s t o r i c a l Section)..Canadian Expeditionary Force. 1914 - 1919. Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , ,.. (Published with a u t h o r i t y of the M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Defence) 1962, p. 516,' • . . , t  156  The D a i l y C o l o n i s t . V i c t o r i a , B. C,, Dec.,10, 1918, p, 4,  157  War D i a r y , 16th I n f a n t r y Brigade, C.E.F.(s), 23-10-18 to 30-4-19, R,G, 9, V o l , 477, F i l e 961, P.A.C, ,  158  War D i a r y , 259th B t t n , C E . F . ( s ) , 19-9-18 to 30-4-19, R.G. V o l . 477,, P i l e 962, P.A.C.  159  L e t t e r , Gwatkin to G.O.C., M.D. .11, d/Nov, 4, 1918, S i b e r i a n F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e 2, P.A.C,  160  Ibid. •  9,  Records.  ~ 113 -  161  L e t t e r , Gwatkin t o Elmsley, d/Nov, 4, 1918. S i b e r i a n Records. Polder 17, Secret P i l e No,. 2, P.A.C,  162  War Diary, 259th Bttn, C.E.P.(s), 19-9-18 t o 30-4-19, R.G. 9, V o l , 477,.Pile 962,P.A.C.  163  Ibid, ,  164  Ibid,  165  Telegram, Adj.-Gen, to G.O.C., M.D. 11, D/Nov, 23, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. H.Q, P i l e 762-12-5 ( v o l . 2) ' M o b i l i z a t i o n o f I n f a n t r y B a t t a l i o n s ' , P.A.C. (and) Memorandum, Gwatkin to Adj,-Gen,, d/Nov, 20, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. H,Q, P i l e 762-12-5 ( v o l , 2 ) , ' M o b i l i z a t i o n o f I n f a n t r y B a t t a l i o n s ' , P.A.C.'  166  Memorandum, Gwatkin to Adj,-Gen,, d/Nov, 20, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records H.Q, P i l e 762-12-5 ( v o l . 2 ) , . ' M o b i l i z a t i o n of Infantry B a t t a l i o n s ' , P.A.C.  167  L e t t e r , G.O.C., M.D. 11 to G.O.C., M.D. 2 (Toronto), d/Dec. 21, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. P i l e C-2051 ( v o l . 2) 'Russian S o c i a l i s t s ' , P.A.C. ..'  168  L e t t e r , Gwatkin to Adj,-Gen,, d/jan, 29, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. H.Q. P i l e 762-12-7 ( v o l . 2) ' M o b i l i z a t i o n - General', P.A.C.  169  L e t t e r , A.P.M. t o A.A. & Q.M.G., d/May 21, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 12, Pile,102 'Deserters', P.A.C.  170  L e t t e r , Gouin to Mewburn, d/Dec. 19, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records, H.Q..Pile 762-11-24, 'Queries r e l a t i n g to C.E.P.(S)', P.A.C.  171  War Diary, 16th I n f a n t r y Brigade, C.E.P.(S),.23-10-18 to 30-4-19, R.G. 9, V o l . 477, P i l e 961, P.A.C.  172  War,Diary, Force H.Q. ( S i b , ) , 1-?2~19 to 28-2-19, R.G. 9, V o l , 475,, F i l e 958, P.A.C.  173  Debates o f the House of Commons.2nd Session, V o l , CXXXVIII ( V o l . V ) , p. 4001,  174  Telegram, G.6.C., M.D. 11 to Gwatkin, d/jan, 21, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. H.Q, F i l e 762-12-7 ( v o l , 3) ' M o b i l i z a t i o n - General', P.A.C.  175  Vancouver D a i l y Sun,  . . .  f  13th Parliament (1919),  Vancouver, B, C., Jan. 27, 1919, p, 4,  - 114 -  176  David L l o y d George, The Truth About the Peace T r e a t i e s , 2-Vols,, London, V i c t o r Gollancz L t d . , 1938, V o l . I, p . 360,  177  Telegram, Gwatkin to Elmsley, d/Peh. 13, 1919, War D i a r y , Eorce H.Q. ( S i b , , ) , 11-10-18 to 31-12-18, R.G. 9, V o l , 475, P i l e 957, P.A.C.  178  Telegram, Elmsley to Gwatkin, d/Feb, 18, 1919, War D i a r y , Force H,Q, ( S i b , , ) , 11-10-18 to 31-12-18, R.G. 9, V o l . 475, F i l e 957, P.A.C.  179  D a i l y Routine Order No, 313, d/Mar. 1, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 14 'Routine Orders - Base Commandant, C.E.P.(S)', P.A.C.  180  L e t t e r , A s s t , Commissioner, R.N.W.M.P. to Maj, G, S, Worsley, R.N.W.M.P., C E . F . ( S ) , d/Mar, 17, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 12, F i l e 90 'Secret', P.A.C. (and) L e t t e r , A.A. & Q.M.G. to H.Q,, 16th I n f . Brigade, d/Apr, 16, 1919, S i b e r i a n Records. P a r c e l 12, F i l e 90 'Secret', P.A.C.  181  W i l l i a m Rodney, A H i s t o r y of the Communist Party of Canada, 1919-1929. (unpublished M.A, T h e s i s ) , London, U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1961, p, 53*  182  The D a i l y C o l o n i s t , V i c t o r i a , B, C,, May 6, 1919,  183  D e p o s i t i o n of Sgt, E , O s o l l , B r i t i s h M i l i t a r y Mission, Vladivostok, d/May 26, 1919, War D i a r y , G.S., C ^ . P . ( s ) , 1-4-19 to 19-6-19, R.G. 9, V o l . 476, F i l e 959, P.A.C,  p, 5,  CHAPTER TV?0  1  In 1911 Russia's t o t a l exports amounted to 1,513,737,000 roubles, t o t a l imports, 1,022,699,000 r o u b l e s . I n the. same year Russian exports to the United Kingdom were valued at 336,740,000 roubles and to Germany 490,139,000; imports from the United Kingdom 153,875,000 roubles and from Germany 476,839,000 r o u b l e s . Source: Howard P. Kennard ( E d i t o r ) , The Russian Yearbook. 1915. London, Eyre and Spottiswoode L t d . , 1913, p, 294,  2  An e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n of the measures adopted by the Russian Government a g a i n s t German economic i n t e r e s t s during World War I can be found i n : Baron B o r i s E, Nolde, Russia i n the. Economic War New Haven, Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1928. (Part o f the Russian S e r i e s of the Economic and S o c i a l H i s t o r y of the World War prepared by the Carnegie Endowment f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace,), T  - 115 *  3  Order-in-Council No, P.O. 2595 d/Oet. 21, 1918, p, 2 ,  4  I b i d . . p. 2,  5  L e t t e r , Mackintosh-Bell t o C h r i s t i e , d/Oct, 9, 1917, Borden Papers. F i l e RLB 2003 'Russian Trade', P.A.C.  6  L e t t e r , Hodgson t o Mackintosh-Bell, d/Dec, 13, 1917, Borden Papers. F i l e RLB 2141 'Vladivostok - Cdn, Trade Commissioner', P.A.C.  7  L e t t e r , Meigheh to Borden, d/jan, 29, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e RLB 2141 'Vladivostok - Cdn. Trade Commissioner', P.A.C.  8  Order-in-Council No, P.C. 2595, d/Oct, 21, 1918, p, 2,  9  Memorandum Re, Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force ( S i b e r i a ) , d / J u l , 28, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records. F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e No, 3, P.A.C.  10  Telegram, Borden to White, d/Aug. 8, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  11  Telegram, White t o Borden, d/Aug. 13, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  12  L e t t e r , Dennis to Calder, d/Aug, 17, 1918, p, 1, Dept, o f Trade and Commerce ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as D.T.C.), F i l e 21916, V o l , I 'Canadian Economic Commission to S i b e r i a ' ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as 'C.E.C.S.'), P.A.C.  13  I b i d . , p . 2.  14  I b i d . , p. 4,  15  Memorandum - Canadian Economic Commission t o S i b e r i a , d/Mar, 19, 1919, D.T.C., F i l e 22804, V o l . I 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C.  16  L e t t e r , Martens to F o s t e r d/Oct, 8, 1918, F o s t e r Papers. M,G> 27, F i l e 73, pp. 1 - 2, 'Aid to S i b e r i a , 1918', P.A.C.  17  Telegram, White to Borden, d/Aug, 13, 1918, Borden Papers, F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  18  Order-in-Council P.C, 2595 d/Oct, 21, 1918,  - 116 -  19  Order-in-Council P,C.  2595 d/Oct,  21, 1918, p. 3,  20 IbidI, p. 4* 21  I b i d . . p. 2,  22  Ibid.  23  See: L e t t e r , Wilgress to Poster, d/Oct, 29, 1918, pp. 4 ^ 5 , D.T.C,, P i l e 21916, V o l , I •C.E.C.S,'.; L e t t e r , Wilgress to O'Hara (Deputy M i n i s t e r ) , d/Nov." 19, 1918, p, 3, D.T.C, P i l e 21916, V o l . I , 'CE.C.S.*; L e t t e r , Dennis to Poster, d/Feb, 24, 1919, p. 4, D.T.C, P i l e 22804,. V o l . I, 'C.E.C.S.', a l l P.A.C,  24  L e t t e r , Dennis to F o s t e r , d/Feb, 20, 1919, p. 1, D.T.C, F i l e 22804, V o l . . I 'C.E.CS.', P.A.C,  25  I b i d . , p, 1.,  26  Memorandum Re, Canadian Commercial Commission to S i b e r i a , d/Dec, 4, 1918, p, 3, D.T.C, P i l e 21916, V o l , I 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C  27  Recommendation of F, C, O'Hara to Cabinet d/Dec, 19, 1918, D.T.C, F i l e 21916, V o l . I 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C  28  A, D, Braithwaite, Report of V i s i t to S i b e r i a , (undated,, t y p e s c r i p t ) , p. 3, Braithwaite Papers. A r c h i v e s , Bank of Montreal, Montreal, P,Q,  29  Memorandum Re, Canadian Commercial Commission to S i b e r i a , d/Dec, 4, 1918, p, 4, D.T.C, F i l e 21916, V o l , I, 'CE.C.S.*, P.A.C  30  See examples i n the e d i t o r i a l s of I n d u s t r i a l Canada f o r Jan,, Apr,, Aug., Sept., and Dec, 1915,  31  L e t t e r , Wilgress to Deputy M i n i s t e r , d/Dec, 3, 1918, p, 1, D.T.C, F i l e 21916, V o l . I 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C,  32  L e t t e r , Dennis to M i n i s t e r , d/Feb, 20, 1919, p. 1, D.T.C, F i l e 22804, V o l . I 'CE.C.S.', P.A.C  33  I b i d , , p. 2,  34  I b i d . , p, 2,  35  I b i d . . p. 3,  T  p, 3,  - 117 -  36  L e t t e r , Dennis t o M i n i s t e r , d/Feb, 20, 1919, p, 4, D.T.C, F i l e 22804, V o l , I , •C.E.C.S,'', P.A.C.  37  I b i d . . p, 4,  38  I b i d . . p, 4.  39  I b i d . , pp. 4 » 5,  40  L e t t e r , Wilgress to Foster,' d/Oct. 29, 1918, .p„ 6, D.T.C, F i l e 21916, V o l . I , •C.E.C.S.*, P.A.C."  41  L e t t e r , Dennis t o M i n i s t e r , d/Feb, 20, 1919, Op.Cit.. p, 8,  42  W. E,, P l a y f a i r ( O f f i c i a l - C o r r e s p o n d e n t o f the Canadian Press i n S i b e r i a ) , Despatch d/Mar, 1, 1919, p, 3, S i b e r i a n Records., F o l d e r 5, F i l e 49, P.A.C  43  L e t t e r , Dennis to M i n i s t e r , d/Feb, 20, 1919, Op, C i t . , p. 9,  44  Report, C, F, J u s t to F o s t e r , d/Aug, 29> 1918, p, 1, e n t i t l e d : "The Case o f Kunst & A l b e r s " , F o s t e r Papers, V o l , 44, F i l e 75 'Aid t o S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C,  45  Report o f Interview, J u s t and Sandford, d/Feb. 17, 1919, p. 1, Braithwaite Papers. A r c h i v e s , Bank o f Montreal, Montreal, P,Q,  46  Report, J u s t t o F o s t e r , d/Aug, 29, 1918, Op. C i t . . p. 1,  47  I b i d . . p, 1,  48  Report o f Meeting a t B r i t i s h M i s s i o n , Vladivostok, d/Mar, 10, 1919, (Present: Lipovsky, Hodgson, Sandford and B r a i t h w a i t e ) , pp. 1 - 2 , Braithwaite Papers. A r c h i v e s , Bank o f Montreal, Montreal, P,Q,  49  I b i d . . p. 1,  50  Report o f Interview, J u s t and Sandford, d/Feb. 17, 1919, Op. C i t , . p. 1,.  51  I b i d . , p, 1,  52  Report, J u s t to F o s t e r , d/Aug, 29, 1918,  Qp-..i  C i t . . p, 2,  - 118  -  53  Report, J u s t to F o s t e r , d/Aug. 29, 1918, p. 2, e n t i t l e d "The of Kunst & A l b e r s " , F o s t e r Papers. V o l . 44, F i l e 75 'Aid to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  54  Report of Interview, Braithwaite and Hodgson, d/Feb, 12, 1919, Braithwaite Papers, A r c h i v e s , Bank of Montreal, Montreal, P,Q,  55  Report of Interview, J u s t and Sandford, d/Feb, 17, 1919, p. 1, Braithwaite Papers, A r c h i v e s , Bank of Montreal, Montreal, P,Q,  56  I b i d , . p. 1,  57  58  Case  "  Although the name 'Dalton' does not appear to be German, Hodgson r e f e r s to Dalton as an ",,.untrustworthy and an objectionable man with strong pro-German f e e l i n g s , " C i t e d i n : Report of Interview, •Braithwaite and Hodgson, d/Feb, 12, 1919, Op. C i t . Report of Interview, J u s t and Sandford, d/Feb, 17, 1919, Op. Cit,, L.. "  p, 1,  ...  59  Report of Meeting at B r i t i s h M i s s i o n , Vladivostok, d/Mar, 10, 1919, p, 2, Braithwaite Papers, A r c h i v e s , Bank of Montreal, Montreal, P.Q,  60  Report, J u s t to F o s t e r , d/Aug. 29, 1918,  61  Report of Meeting at B r i t i s h M i s s i o n , d/Mar, 10, 1919,  62  The Stock Exchange Yearbook - 1923. 1923, p. 2019,  63  Information taken from The D a i l y M a i l , London, Sept, 12, 1917 c i t e d i n : J , A. White, The S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n , p, 112,  64  J , A, White, The S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n , p, 112 ( a l s o ) Varneck and F i s h e r , The Testimony of Kolchak, pp. 256 - 257,  65  J . A, White, The S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n , p.  66  Memorandum of Agreement, Stanley - Urquhart, d/Sept, 25, 1918, D.T.C, F i l e 22804, V o l . I, 'CE.C.S.', P.A.C  67  Ibid,/p.  68  I b i d . , pp,  69  I b i d . , p.  3, 1-3.. 2.  p, 3, Op. C i t . p, 2, Op. C i t .  London, Thomas Skinner &  Co,,  but  112, p.  1,  -119 -  70  Memorandum, Canadian Economic Commission to S i b e r i a , d/Mar, 3, 1919, p. 1, D.T.C., F i l e 22804, V o l , I , 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C.  71  L e t t e r , Cade to Wilgress, d/Oct, 5, 1918, p. 1, D.T.C., F i l e 21916, V o l . I , 'C.E.C.S. , P.A.C, 1  72  I b i d . , p. 1.  73  L e t t e r , Wilgress to Deputy M i n i s t e r , d / 0 c t F i l e 21916, V o l . I , 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C.  74  I b i d . . pp. 4 - 5 ,  75  L e t t e r , Wilgress to F o s t e r , d/Oct. 29, 1918, p. 3, D.T.C., F i l e 21916, V o l . . I , 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C.  76  I b i d . . p. 3.  77  L e t t e r , Wilgress to Deputy M i n i s t e r , d/Nov. 7, 1918, p. 2, D.T.C., F i l e 21916, V o l , I , 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C,.  s  10, 1918, p, 1, D.T.C.,  78 . I b i d . , p, 2, 79  L e t t e r , Wilgress to Deputy M i n i s t e r , d/Nov, 19, 1918, p. 1, D.T.C., F i l e 21916, V o l , I 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C.  80  I b i d . , p. 1,  81  L e t t e r , F o s t e r to MacLean, d/Nov, 25, 1918, pp, 1 - 2, D.T.C., F i l e 21916, V o l . I , 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C.  82  I b i d . , p. 1. •  83  L e t t e r , Hubbard to MacLean, d/jan. 20, 1919, pp. 1 - 3, D.T.C., F i l e 21916, V o l , I , 'C.E.C.S.', P.A.C.  84  I b i d . , pp, 1 - 2,  85  Memorandum Re, S i b e r i a n Supply Company, d/Feb, 20, 1919, p. 1, D.T.C./ F i l e 22804, V o l . I , 'C.E.C.S. *', P.A.C.  86  I b i d , , p. 1.  87  Ibid.., p. 1,  88  I b i d . , p, 1,  - 120  -  344 d/Feb. 20, 1919,  p.  3,  89  Order-in-Council No,. P.C.  90  Memorandum.Re. S i b e r i a n Supply Company, d/Feb, 20, 1919, F i l e 22804, V o l , I 'CE.C.S.', P.A.C,  91  A, D, Braithwaite, Report of V i s i t to S i b e r i a , (undated, t y p e s c r i p t ) p, 17, A r c h i v e s , Bank of Montreal, Montreal, P.Q,  92  See a l s o assessment of Mikhailov i n : of Kolchak, p. 246,  93  A, D, Braithwaite, Report of V i s i t to S i b e r i a , p,  94  A, D, Braithwaite, Report on F i n a n c i a l Conditions i n S i b e r i a . d/Apr,'12, 1919, PP, 2 - 3, D.T.C, F i l e 22804, V o l , I, 'C.E.C.S. , P.A.C  p. 3, D.T.C,  Vameck and F i s h e r . Testimony  20,  1  95  Order-in-Council No, P.C,  113 d/Jan, 17,  1919,  96  A, D, Braithwaite, Report of V i s i t to S i b e r i a , pp. 17,  97  A. D, Braithwaite, Report on F i n a n c i a l Conditions i n S i b e r i a ,  22,  pp. 3 ~ 5, 98  A,, D, Braithwaite, Report on- F i n a n c i a l Conditions i n S i b e r i a . Appendix D, Memorandum on the Questions of Currency and a Loan t f the Kolchak Government, d/Apr. 12. 1919. P. 3, D.T.C, F i l e 22804, V o l . I, ' C E . C S . ' , P.A.C  99  A, D. Braithwaite, Report of V i s i t to S i b e r i a , p.  23,  CHAPTER THREE 1  The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s d i d not provide f i g u r e s f o r l e v e l s of unemployment f o r the years under d i s c u s s i o n , I t i s , however, p o s s i b l e to gauge the extent of economic r e c e s s i o n by a n a l y z i n g Canada's export trade f o r 1918 and 1919, The t o t a l value of Canadian exports f o r 1918 was: Si,540,027,788, By 19I9 t h i s had f a l l e n t o : $1,216,433,806, -» a decrease of 21 percent. Source: Canada,, Dept, of Trade and Commerce, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , The Canada Yearbook, 1919 Ottawa, The King's P r i n t e r , 1920, p, 299, f  - 121 -  2  Rodney, H i s t o r y o f the.Communist  Party of Canada  3  R e s o l u t i o n submitted by Federated Labour P a r t y d/Dec, 22, 1918, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  4  Report of the Proceedings of the T h i r t y - f o u r t h Annual Convention. Trades and Labour Congress of Canada, Quebec, P..Q,, September 16 21, 1918, p, 113.  5  J , C a s t e l l - H o p k i n s , The Canadian Annual Review o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s . 1919« Toronto, Canadian Annual Review L i m i t e d , 1920, p, 459*  6  Telegram, White to Borden, d/Apr, 16, 1919, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 559 'Bolshevik Propaganda', P.A.C.  7  Telegram, Borden to White, d/Apr, 18, 1919, Borden Papers. F i l e OC 559 ''Bolshevik Propaganda', P.A.C.  8  An e x c e l l e n t , concise chronology o f events i n the Winnepeg General S t r i k e can be found i n ; A, Balawyder, The Winnepeg General S t r i k e . Toronto, Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1967*  9  Rodney,. H i s t o r y o f the Communist P a r t y o f Canada, Op. C i t .  10  Telegram, White to Borden, d/Nov, 25, 1918, Borden Papers, F i l e OC 5 1 8 ( l ) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  11  Telegram, Borden,to White, d/Nov, 24, 1918, Borden Papers, P i l e OC 518(l) 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  12  Borden, Memoirs. V o l , I I , p. 890,  13  I b i d . , p, 904,  14  Tim Buck, 1917 - 1957, F o r t y Years o f Great Change - Canada and the Great Russian Revolution . Toronto, Progress Books, 1957, p» 16,  15  Telegram, Knox to War O f f i c e , d/Nov. 4, 1918, S i b e r i a n Records,: F o l d e r 17, Secret F i l e No. 2, P.A.C,  16  L e t t e r , Major B r i s t o l (O.M.F.C.) t o L o r i n g C h r i s t i e ( S p e c i a l A s s t , to Borden) d/jan, 7, 1919, p, 2, Borden Papers. P i l e OC 518(2), 'Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a ' , P.A.C.  f  Op. C i t . , p.. 36.  v. f  p. 46,  - 123 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  I  ARCHIVAL MATERIAL A,  "  Official  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada Borden Papers, Papers c o n s i s t of the complete c o l l e c t i o n of Prime M i n i s t e r S i r Robert Borden's personal and o f f i c i a l papers. The f i l e s u t i l i z e d were: OC $18(l) and OC 518(2) 'Expeditionary Porce to S i b e r i a ' , OC 559 'Bolshevik Propaganda '. RLB 2003 'Russian Trade', RLB 2141 'Vladivostok - Canadian Trade Commissioner'. 1  During r e s e a r c h a t the Archives, a t o t a l o f 112 document pages were extracted from the f i l e s and photocopied.  Canadian Economic Commission to S i b e r i a . The documents c o n s i s t of two Department of Trade and Commerce f i l e s numbered 21916 and 22804, The f i l e s were t r a n s f e r r e d by the Department of Trade and Commerce to the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada on October 14, 1968. The f i l e s are a n e a r l y complete c o l l e c t i o n of documents r e l a t i n g to the Commission's a c t i v i t y i n S i b e r i a f o r the period 1918 - 1919* A total of 139 document pages were photocopied and u t i l i z e d i n t h i s essay,  F o s t e r Papers. (Manuscript Group 27) Papers c o n s i s t of the complete c o l l e c t i o n of personal and o f f i c i a l documents of S i r . George F o s t e r , the M i n i s t e r of Trade and Commerce. The only f i l e u t i l i z e d was No, 75 e n t i t l e d 'Aid to S i b e r i a , 1918''. 22 documents were photocopied. S i b e r i a n Records (Record Group 9). This c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of a l l the records, both from the Department of Overseas M i l i t a r y Service of Canada and the Department of M i l i t i a and Defence r e l a t i v e to the Canadian Expeditionary Force to S i b e r i a , except f o r the War D i a r i e s (see below). S e v e r a l hundred f i l e s are involved encompassing the complete h i s t o r y of the C.E.P.(s) from the time o f o r g a n i z a t i o n to withdrawal and d e m o b i l i z a t i o n . The documents cover a l l phases of the Force's operation. Some of the documents r e l a t i n g to p o l i c y matters are copies of documents found i n the Borden Papers, A t o t a l of 185 document pages were photocopied and used i n the preparation of t h i s essay.  - 124 -  War D i a r i e s . World War I ( S i b e r i a n S e r i e s ) . Record Group 9I n d i v i d u a l War D i a r i e s f o r each of the u n i t s c o m p r i s i n g the C.E.F.(s), D i a r i e s c o n s i s t o f a c h r o n o l o g i c a l , day by day, c a p i t u l a t i o n of matters concerning the s p e c i f i c units,,. The S e r i e s i s not complete,  B, U n o f f i c i a l B r a i t h w a i t e Papers. A r c h i v e s , Bank o f M o n t r e a l , M o n t r e a l , P,Q, M i s c e l l a n e o u s documents r e l a t i v e to the c a r e e r of Mr, A, D, B r a i t h w a i t e , The papers of r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s essay were those concerning Mr, B r a i t h w a i t e s membership on the Canadian Economic Commission t o S i b e r i a . Among the papers there are some important o f f i c i a l documents hot found i n the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , f  II  PRINTED MATERIAL A,  Official  Canada, Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , Documents on Canadian E x t e r n a l R e l a t i o n s . Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967, . O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l s r e l a t i n g t o the Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Porce t o S i b e r i a . Nos. P.C. 1983 dated August 12,. 1918; P,C, 2073 dated August 23, 1918; and P,C. 2151 dated September 5, 1918. O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l s r e l a t i n g to the Canadian Economic Commission t o S i b e r i a , Nos, P.C, 2595 dated October 21, 1918 and P.C. 344 dated February 20, 1919. B,  Unofficial  Borden, S i r Robert L a i r d , 1938, 2-Vols,  Memoirs.  Toronto, The Macmillan Company,  Dunham, Capt, W. E, "The Canadians i n S i b e r i a " , Maclean's Magazine, V o l . XXXII, No. 5 (May 1919), pp. 11 - 12, 92' - 95* Rodney, W i l l i a m , A H i s t o r y of the Communist P a r t y of Canada, 1919 1929. (unpublished M, A, T h e s i s ) London, U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1961,  « 125 -  Smith, G-addis, "Canada and the S i b e r i a n Intervention, 1918-1919", American H i s t o r i c a l Review, V o l , LXIV, No., 4 ( J u l y 1959), pp. 866 ~ 877, Swettenham, J , A, A l l i e d I n t e r v e n t i o n i n Russia, 1918-1919: and the F a r t Played by Canada, Toronto, Ryerson.Press, 1967,  

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