UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Semantic generalization in French-English bilinguals Lamothe, Pauline Louise Marie 1969

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SEMANTIC GENERALIZATION IN FRENCH-ENGLISH BILINGUALS by P. L. LAM0THE B.A., UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agr e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date March 2 6 , 1 9 6 9 . I Semantic G e n e r a l i z a t i o n In F r e n c h - E n g l i s h B i l i n g u a l s by P. L. Lamothe U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A b s t r a c t In attempting to i l l u s t r a t e between-language semantic t r a n s f e r F r e n c h - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l s were t r a i n e d under a con-d i t i o n i n g paradigm b a s i c a l l y analogous to that used i n u n i -l i n g u a l semantic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t u d i e s . The major d i f f e r e n c e l a y i n the t e s t i n g phase. That i s , t e s t i n g f o r c o n d i t i o n e d responses (CRs) to the t r a n s l a t i o n s of the s t i m u l i r e p l a c e d t e s t i n g f o r CRs to synonyms of the s t i m u l i . E i g h t t w o - s y l l a -b l e nouns i n both French and E n g l i s h were presented, with h a l f the s t i m u l i i n each of the two languages p a i r e d with shock. F o l l o w i n g the c o n d i t i o n i n g procedure shock was withheld and the the t r a n s l a t i o n of each of the s t i m u l i was presented. Measures of G a l v a n i c Skin Responses (GSRs) and d i g i t a l and c e p h a l i c vasomotor a c t i v i t y were recorded during both t r a i n i n g and t e s t i n g . The r e s u l t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e r occurrence of GSRs to the t r a n s l a t i o n of the words p a i r e d with shock than to the t r a n s l a t i o n of the n e u t r a l words. There was no s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the occurrence of d i g i t a l vasomotor a c t i v i t y ; however, c e p h a l i c readings suggested s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s t r i c t i o n to the t r a n s l a t i o n of the s t i m u l i which had been p a i r e d with shock. The occurrence of CRs to the t r a n s l a t i o n of v e r b a l s t i m u l i suggests a form of mediated t r a n s f e r from one language to another. Table of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t page I I n t r o d u c t i o n page 1 Method S u b j e c t s page 7 Apparatus — page 7 M a t e r i a l s • page 8 P r o c e d u r e page 9 S c o r i n g page 12 R e s u l t s page 13 D i s c u s s i o n page 14 R e f e r e n c e s — page 20 I l l L i s t of T a b l e s Table 1 Four C o u n t e r b a l a n c e d Combinations of page 10 Table 2 Mean res p o n s e s and Number of S u b j e c t s page 15 Ta b l e 3 Summary of A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of page 16 Table 4 Summary of A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of page 17 1 S e m a n t i c G e n e r a l i z a t i o n I n F r e n c h - E n g l i s h B i l i n g u a l s by P. L. Lamothe U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a The c o n c e p t o f s e m a n t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f i n d s i t s r o o t s i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f n o n - v e r b a l m e d i a t o r s . B o t h S h i p l e y ( 1 9 3 3 ) and L u m s d a i n e ( 1 9 3 9 ) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f m e d i a -t i o n on b e h a v i o r when a f i n g e r w i t h d r a w a l r e s p o n s e was f o u n d t o be e l i c i t e d by t h e o n s e t o f a c o n d i t i o n e d s t i m u l u s ( CS) w i t h w h i c h i t had n o t d i r e c t l y been p a i r e d . A l t h o u g h t h e s e s t u d i e s h ave been s u b j e c t e d t o a g r e a t d e a l o f c r i t i c i s m t h e y d i d open t h e way f o r r e v i s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g c o n -s t r u c t s . W a t s o n i a n and T h o r n d i k i a n s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e p a r a d i g m s f o r t h e most p a r t g ave way t o m e d i a t e d s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e p a r a -d i g m s . S i n c e t h e n many a s p e c t s o f s e m a n t i c t r a n s f e r have been s t u d i e d . These s t u d i e s a r e u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r m e d i -a t e d c o n d i t i o n i n g , s e m a n t i c c o n d i t i o n i n g , s e m a n t i c t r a n s f e r , o r s e m a n t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ( F e a t h e r , 1 9 6 5 ) . As Osgood ( 1 9 5 9 ) p o i n t e d o u t a l l t h e s e s t u d i e s may be g r o u p e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e -g o r i e s : l ) s i g n - t o - s i g n s 2) s i g n - t o - o b j e c t s and 3) o b j e c t - t o -s i g n . The most commonly u s e d i s t h e s i g n - t o - s i g n , c a t e g o r y w h i c h r e f e r s t o t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g o f a r e s p o n s e t o v e r b a l s t i m u -l i a nd t e s t i n g f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h a t r e s p o n s e t o o t h e r v e r b a l s t i m u l i s u c h as synonyms, a n t o n y m s , o r homophones. F o r e x a m p l e , a c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e (CR) t o t h e word "BOY" 2 m i g h t be t e s t e d f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o s u c h words a s "JOY" o r "SON". The s i g n - t o - o b j e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x e m p l i f i e s s t u d i e s o f c o n d i t i o n i n g i n w h i c h a CR t o a v e r b a l s t i m u l u s i s t e s t e d f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t o t h e p i c t o r i a l o r c o n c r e t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e CS. The o b j e c t - t o - s i g n c a t e g o r y r e f e r s t o t h e use o f p i c t o r i a l o r c o n c r e t e s t i m u l i d u r i n g t r a i n i n g and v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s d u r i n g t e s t i n g . The c o n c e p t o f m e d i a t e d t r a n s f e r has been s u p p o r t e d by b o t h R u s s i a n and A m e r i c a n i n v e s t i g a t o r s . D e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s s u c h a s s a l i v a r y s e c r e t i o n and e y e l i d r e s p o n s e s have been used by t h e R u s s i a n s . A m e r i c a n p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e been p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e use o f a u t o n o m i c r e s p o n s e s as d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . Many s t u d i e s were b a s e d upon m e a s u r e s o f h e a r t - r a t e , G a l v a n i c S k i n R e s p o n s e s ( G S R s ) , and o t h e r e l e c t r o - d e r m a l r e s p o n s e s f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s h o c k as t h e u n c o n d i t i o n e d s t i m u l u s (UCS) (Cook and H a r r i s , 1937? K e l l e r , 1943; L i p t o n and B l a n t o n , 1957; S t a a t s , S t a a t s , and C r a w f o r d , 1962? and L a n g , G e e r , and H n a t i o w , 1 9 6 5 ) . O t h e r s t u d i e s e m p l o y e d s u c h n o x i o u s s t i m u l i as t o n e s , w h i t e n o i s e and b u z z e r s ( R i e s s , 1940; C o f e r and F o l e y , 1942; L a c e y and 5 m i t h , 1954, 1955? G r i c e and D a v i s , 1960; G r i c e and H u n t e r , 196 3 ; and L e o n a r d and W i n o k u r , 1 9 6 3 ) . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e -s u l t s s u p p o r t e d t h e c o n c e p t o f s e m a n t i c t r a n s f e r . C o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e s , i n a d u l t s , were o b s e r v e d t o g e n e r a l i z e t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t o synonyms t h a n t o homophones o f t h e CSs. However t h e a b o v e r e s u l t s have been s u b j e c t e d t o 3 a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . B e c a u s e o f l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c o n d i t i o n a b i l i t y o f s u b j e c t s , t h e r e s u l t s have been a t t r i b u t e d t o a r t i f a c t s i n h e r e n t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n , A p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n m i g h t be t h a t t h e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g c o n d i t i o n i n g a r e a l s o a f f e c t i n g s e m a n t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ( K o r n and W e l c h , 1962, 1 9 6 3 ) . E i s e n ( 1 9 5 4 ) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e p o r t e d m e d i a t i o n e f f e c t s m i g h t be due t o s p e c i f i c s e t s i n d u c e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t , b u t was u n a b l e t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f a c t i v e s e t s when t h e same CRs were o b s e r v e d even where " s e t " had been c o n t r o l l e d . B r a n c a ( 1 9 5 7 ) and C h a t t e r j e e and E r i c k s e n ( 1 9 6 2 ) r e p o r t e d m e d i a t e d t r a n s f e r as l o n g as t h e UCS was n o x i o u s , p a i n f u l o r f e a r f u l and t h e s u b j e c t was aware o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r a d i g m . N o x i o u s n e s s o f t h e UCS was t h e n assumed t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f g e n e r a l i z e d r e s p o n s e s , w i t h a w a r e n e s s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c o m i t a n t . R u s s i a n s t u d i e s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , have y i e l d e d d i f f e r -e n t r e s u l t s . G r e a t e r s a l i v a r y s e c r e t i o n t o s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d words t h a n t o p h o n e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r w o rds has been r e p o r t e d , where p r e t z e l s , l o l l i p o p s , c h o c o l a t e s , and t e a s a n d w i c h e s have been used as p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e r s ( R a z r a n , 1939, 1 9 4 9 a , 1949b, 1 9 4 9 c , 1 9 4 9 d , and 1 9 4 9 e ) . I t w o u l d seem t h a t n o x i o u s n e s s o f t h e UCS i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e o c -c u r r e n c e o f m e d i a t e d r e s p o n s e s . The same g e n e r a l o b s e r -v a t i o n s o f s e m a n t i c t r a n s f e r a s r e p o r t e d by R i e s s ( 1 9 4 0 ) , and G o f e r and F o l e y ( 1 9 4 2 ) have been r e p o r t e d i n R a z r a n * s '" 4 ( 1 9 6 1 ) summary o f t h e R u s s i a n work a t t h e l a b o r a t o r i e s o f K r a s m o g e r s k y and I v a n o v - S m o l e n s k y . The R u s s i a n i n t e r e s t i n m e d i a t e d t r a n s f e r was b a s e d on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d s i g n a l l i n g systems,, An i n d i v i d u a l who r e s p o n d s t o t h e p h y s i c a l and s e n s o r y s t i m u l u s - i n p u t f r o m h i s p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d i s s a i d t o r e s p o n d t o a p r i m a r y c o n d i t i o n a l r e f l e x s y s t e m . The responses are s a i d t o r e s u l t f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o b j e c t s and e v e n t s . T h i s p h y s i c a l d e -p e n d e n c y i s s a i d t o c o r r e s p o n d r o u g h l y t o r e s p o n s e s w i t h i n t h e f i r s t s i g n a l l i n g s y s t e m . The s e c o n d s y s t e m i s b e l i e v e d t o c o r r e s p o n d t o a s e c o n d a r y c o n d i t i o n a l r e f l e x s y s t e m f o r m e d f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o b j e c t s , e v e n t s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The e f f i c i e n c y o f p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n t h e s e c o n d s y s t e m i s assumed d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e age o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . R i e s s ' ( 1 9 4 9 ) d e v e l o p m e n t a l o b s e r -v a t i o n s a r e i n l i n e w i t h t h e R u s s i a n d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e two c o n d i t i o n a l s y s t e m s . S e m a n t i c t r a n s f e r i s n o t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f c h i l d r e n b u t i s o b s e r v e d i n t h e p e r -f o r m a n c e o f a d u l t s . When g e n e r a l i z i n g t o homophones c h i l d r e n a r e s a i d t o r e s p o n d t o t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s t i m u l i , w h i l e a d u l t s i n r e s p o n d i n g t o synonyms a r e s a i d t o r e s p o n d t o t h e s e m a n t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s e s t i m u l i . V a s o c o n s t r i c t i o n has been c o n d i t i o n e d i n n i n e a d u l t R u s s i a n - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l s t o t h e words DOM ( h o u s e ) and DOCTOR ( S h v a r t s , I 9 6 0 ) . A f t e r e i g h t t r i a l s o f c o n d i t i o n i n g 5 t h e CRs t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e p h o n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d words DYM ( s n a k e ) and DIKTOR ( a n n o u n c e r ) . T h i s r e s p o n s e was s a i d t o c o r r e s p o n d t o p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e f i r s t s i g n a l l i n g s y s t e m . A t t h e end o f 25 t r i a l s o f c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e s u b j e c t s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d s t i m u l i WRACH ( h o u s e ) . T h i s t r a n s f e r t o s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d words was assumed t o c o r r e s p o n d t o a s h i f t f r o m p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n t h e f i r s t s y s t e m t o p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n t h e s e c o n d s i g n a l l i n g s y s t e m . The l a t t e r f i n d i n g seems t o i l l u s t r a t e b e t w e e n - l a n g u a g e s e m a n t i c g e n e r -a l i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h o t h e r e f f o r t s a t i l l u s t r a t i n g s e m a n t i c t r a n s f e r b e t w e e n two l a n g u a g e s have been f r u i t l e s s ( O l t o n , 1960) t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e on b i l i n g u a l i s m w o u l d seem t o w a r r a n t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f s u c h b e t w e e n - l a n g u a g e s e m a n t i c t r a n s f e r . I t has b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f one s t i m u l u s i n two l a n g u a g e s i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e same s t i m u l u s t w i c e i n t h e same t o n g u e ( K o l e r s , 1963, 1965, and 1 9 6 6 ) . T h i s phenomenon i s s u g g e s t e d t o be a demon-s t r a t i o n t h a t w o rds a r e s t o r e d i n memory i n c o n c e p t s and m e a n i n g s r a t h e r t h a n l i n g u i s t i c s y m b o l s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h P o m p i ' s ( 1 9 6 7 ) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t w o rds a r e a d m i t t e d t o memory i n " s u r r o g a t e s t r u c t u r e s " ( t h e m e s , c o n c e p t s , and m e a n i n g s ) . I t has a l s o been s u g g e s t e d t h a t b i l i n g u a l s a r e most l i k e l y t o make use o f b o t h m e a n i n g s and l i n g u i s t i c s y m b o l s . They a r e a p t t o make use o f l i n g u i s t i c s y m b o l s a t l o w l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n w h i l e m a k i n g use o f c o n c e p t s and m e a n i n g s d e v o i d o f l i n g u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 6 at higher l e v e l s of a b s t r a c t i o n ( K o l e r s , 1968). B i l i n g u a l s have a l s o been dichotomized i n t o compound and c o - o r d i n a t e types: " B i l i n g u a l s who have le a r n e d t h e i r two languages w i t h i n one context w i l l develop a "compound" b i l i n g u a l system wherein the symbols of both languages f u n c t i o n as i n t e r -changeable a l t e r n a t i v e s with e s s e n t i a l l y the same meanings. A " c o - o r d i n a t e " system would be developed when the language-a c q u i s i t i o n contexts were c u l t u r a l l y , temporally or f u n c t i o n a l l y segregated. T h i s form of l e a r n i n g would pro-mote b i l i n g u a l s whose two s e t s of symbols would correspond-i n g l y be f u n c t i o n a l l y more d i s t i n c t and independent." (Lambert, 1963, pg. 119). I t has been proposed that these two b i l i n g u a l c a t e g o r i e s form a continuum along which an i n d i v i d u a l v a r i e s throughout a l i f e t i m e (Lambert, 1963). I t may then be assumed that both tyoes of processes are present to some extent i n almost a l l b i l i n g u a l s . Although Lambert, Kavalka, and Crosby (1958) re p o r t e d g r e a t e r semantic d i f f e r e n c e s between t r a n s l a t e d e q u i v a l e n t s i n the c o - o r d i n a t e b i l i n g u a l than i n the compound b i l i n g u a l , semantic t r a n s f e r from one language to another has been r e p o r t e d only i n one Russian study (Shvarts, 1960). On the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s observed by Lambert e t . a l . (1958) gr e a t e r semantic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n might be p r e d i c t e d i n the compound than i n the c o - o r d i n a t e b i l i n g u a l . Dichotomizing b i l i n g u a l s might prove f r u i t f u l , but K o l e r s ' (1968) suggestion that a l l words are to some.extent s t o r e d i n memory i n meanings might imply that semantic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n between-languages would be observed r e g a r d l e s s of the s u b j e c t ' s b i l i n g u a l type. Although the l i m i t e d p o p u l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e c o n f i n e d the present study to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of semantic t r a n s f e r i n the 7 b i l i n g u a l , without regard to b i l i n g u a l types, semantic t r a n s -f e r between French and E n g l i s h was p r e d i c t e d . Method Sub j e c t s . A l l s u b j e c t s were volunteer s e n i o r and graduate students at the U n i v e r s i t y of 3 r i t i s h Columbia who con s i d e r e d themselves F r e n c h - E n g l i s h b i l i n g u a l s . Of the 30 s e l e c t e d a l l but 17 were d i s c a r d e d f o r f a i l u r e to emit at l e a s t one a n t i c i p a t o r y response (AR) during the l a s t t r a i n i n g t r i a l to the s t i m u l i p a i r e d with shock. Of those remaining, e i g h t were n a t i v e E n g l i s h speakers, e i g h t n a t i v e French speakers, and one was a n a t i v e Spanish speaker. The mean language p r o f i c i e n c y r a t i n g s of the s u b j e c t s was equal f o r French and E n g l i s h . The s c a l e c o n s i s t e d of a s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g of the s u b j e c t ' s own p r o f i c i e n c y i n each of the two languages on a continuum from 1 to 7 ( p e r f e c t to poor). The mean r a t i n g f o r both French and E n g l i s h was 2.24 while the r a t i n g s ranged from 1 to 3 f o r French and 1 to 5 f o r E n g l i s h . Apparatus. A l l autonomic responses were recorded on an eight-channel Offner Type-R Dynograph. Galvanic Skin Responses were recorded by means of GSR-recording e l e c t r o d e s secured to the palmar s u r f a c e of the t h i r d phalanx of the r i g h t index and r i n g f i n g e r s . The e l e c t r o d e s used were s i l v e r s i l v e r c h l o r i d e Beckman e l e c t r o d e s and the s u r f a c e c o n t a c t of the e l e c t r o d e s was held constant with standard Beckman e l e c t r o d e paste* Both d i g i t a l and c e p h a l i c vasomotor a c t i v i t y were recorded. The Blood Volume Pulses (Bl/Ps) were measured 8 by two p h o t o - c e l l s , one attached to the f i r s t phalanx of the palmar s u r f a c e of the r i g h t thumb, and the other secured on the forehead. Black c l o t h placed over the p h o t o - c e l l s pro-t e c t e d them from any s t r a y l i g h t . The CSs,- both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , were t w o - s y l l a b l e nouns mounted on 35 mm s l i d e s . They were presented by a B e l l and Howell p r o j e c t o r . E l e c t r i -c a l shock (UCS) was administered through two standard Grass e l e c t r o d e s attached to the palmar s u r f a c e of the f i r s t phalanx of the l e f t index and middle f i n g e r s . Redux was used both to hold the s u r f a c e c o n t a c t of the shock e l e c t r o d e s constant and to lower the s u b j e c t ' s s k i n r e s i s t a n c e . The CS onset and o f f s e t and the UCS a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were automated by a t h r e e -channel Gebrands timer. Earphones were used to l i m i t e x t r a -neous n o i s e . M a t e r i a l s . Each of the four l i s t s used i n t r a i n i n g was composed of four French and four E n g l i s h words. A l l s t i m u l i were t w o - s y l l a b l e nouns with synonymous French .and E n g l i s h d e f i n i t i o n s according to the Larouse F r e n c h - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1965). Care was taken to omit a l l cognates and homophones w i t h i n and between the two languages. To counter-balance f o r p o s s i b l e order e f f e c t s four combinations of the s t i m u l i were generated. In L i s t 1, two of each of the French and the E n g l i s h words were p a i r e d with shock ( C S - p o s i t i v e ) . L i s t 2 c o n s i s t e d of the same s t i m u l i as i n L i s t 1 but had the a l t e r n a t e French and E n g l i s h words as C S - p o s i t i v e . L i s t s 3 and 4 r e t a i n e d the same shock arrangement as L i s t s 1 and 2 9 r e s p e c t i v e l y , but c o n s i s t e d of the t r a n s l a t i o n s of the stimu-l i used i n the f i r s t two l i s t s . Table 1 presents the s t i m u l i used i n each l i s t with the C S - p o s i t i v e designated by an a s t e r -i s k . Each l i s t was presented i n four d i f f e r e n t random orders during t r a i n i n g . T e s t i n g c o n s i s t e d of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of one random order of the t r a n s l a t i o n s of the s t i m u l i presented during t r a i n i n g , both C S - p o s i t i v e and CS-negative. Procedure. P r i o r to the a p p l i c a t i o n of the shock e l e c t r o d e s the s u b j e c t ' s s k i n r e s i s t a n c e was lowered to at l e a s t 10,000 ohms. Lowering of the s k i n r e s i s t a n c e was done by b r i s k l y rubbing the f i n g e r s with redux and coarse paper. If t h i s procedure was not s u f f i c i e n t one of the f i n g e r s was p r i c k e d with a needle. The shock i n t e n s i t y was held constant a c r o s s s u b j e c t s at 1 m.a. This i n t e n s i t y was r e p o r t e d as noxious by most of the s u b j e c t s . Some repor t e d the shock as p a i n f u l . Both d i g i t a l and c e p h a l i c Bl/Ps were recorded with an AC-amplifyer and a time constant of .1. The s u b j e c t s were seated i n a comfortable armchair i n s i d e a s h i e l d e d room. Contact with the s u b j e c t s was maintained through an i n t e r -com system. During a f i v e minute r e s t p e r i o d p r i o r to the onset of the CSs the s u b j e c t ' s b a s e l i n e s k i n r e s i s t a n c e was c a l i b r a t e d and recorded. Each s u b j e c t was randomly assigned to one of four groups and underwent a delayed d i f f e r e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g procedure (Gale and Stern, 19S7). Four t r a i n i n g t r i a l s were given, each t r i a l c o n s i s t i n g of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of one T a b l e 1 F o u r C o u n t e r b a l a n c e d S t i m u l i C o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e L i s t 1 L i s t 2 L i s t 3 L i s t 4 A L L E Y A L L E Y * RUELLE R U E L L E TIROIR TIROIR * DRAWER DRAWER NEIGHBOUR * NEIGHBOUR VOISIN VOISIN ARMOIRE * ARMOIRE CUPBOARD CUPBOARD A I G U I L L E * A I G U I L L E NEEDLE NEEDLE ROGMOM ROGNON * KIDNEY KIDNEY TEACHER * TEACHER . f.lAITRESSE JL I Y 1 A I T R E S S E C A T T L E C A T T L E * B E T A I L B E T A I L n o x i o u s s t i m u l i ( i . e . s t i m u l i p a i r e d w i t h s h o c k ) 11 random order of the s t i m u l i i n the a p p r o p r i a t e l i s t . Four t r a i n i n g t r i a l s were found to be the optimal number of t r i a l s r e q u i r e d f o r c o n d i t i o n i n g . A p i l o t study had shown that a d a p t a t i o n to the UCS occurred between the f i f t h and eighth t r i a l s of c o n d i t i o n i n g i f i t had not occurred up to that p o i n t . During t r a i n i n g and t e s t i n g the CSs were a l l presented f o r nine seconds. There was no i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l but the i n t e r -stimulus i n t e r v a l v a r i e d randomly from 10 seconds to 30 sec-onds with a mean i n t e r v a l of 20 seconds. The v a r i a t i o n i n i n t e r - s l i d e i n t e r v a l was necessary to e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i -ty of temporal c o n d i t i o n i n g . The s t i m u l i p a i r e d with shock were presented alone f o r e i g h t seconds. Shock was a d m i n i s t e r -ed to the s u b j e c t on and throughout the l a s t second of s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n , from second B.O to second 9.0. Both the CS-p o s i t i v e and the UCS were terminated s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . F o l l o w i n g the c o n d i t i o n i n g procedure the s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the CRs to the t r a n s l a t i o n of each of the s t i m u l i i n the t r a i n i n g l i s t . One random order of the t r a n s l a t i o n of each of the t r a i n i n g s t i m u l i was presented. A l l shock was withheld during t e s t i n g . D i g i t a l and c e p h a l i c vasomotor a c t i v i t y and GSRs were recorded through-out t r a i n i n g and t e s t i n g . Subjects who f a i l e d to emit at l e a s t one GSR during the f i r s t e i g h t seconds of C S - p o s i t i v e onset on the l a s t t r a i n i n g t r i a l were d i s c a r d e d . Since a GSR i s e a s i l y observable, the GSR measure was used a p r i o r i to determine which s u b j e c t s should be d i s c a r d e d and which 12 should be r e t a i n e d i n the a n a l y s i s . If s u b j e c t s had not emitted a GSR during the l a s t t r a i n i n g t r i a l they could not be expected to g e n e r a l i z e a CR during t e s t i n g . S c o r i n g . Galvanic J k i n Responses» Both t r a i n i n g and t e s t i n g GSRs mere scored i n the same manner. The s u b j e c t ' s b a s e l i n e s k i n r e s i s t a n c e p r i o r to CS onset mas recorded. The lowest s k i n r e s i s t a n c e reading during the f i r s t e i g h t seconds of s l i d e onset was a l s o measured. The r e s i s t a n c e scores were converted i n t o c i n d u c t i v i t y u n i t s , and the d i f f e r e n c e between conductance at onset and g r e a t e s t conductance during the f i r s t e i g h t seconds of s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d . Since the r e s u l t i n g scores f o r the C S - p o s i t i v e are assumed to r e f l e c t c o n d i t i o n e d ORs and ARs an adjustment was necessary (Gale and Stern, 1967). The standard ORs f o r the CS-negative decrease i n magnitude through t r a i n i n g while the ORs f o r the C S - p o s i t i v e become c o n d i t i o n e d and do not decrease to the same extent through a d a p t a t i o n . Therefore s u b t r a c t i n g the response to the CS-negative from the response to the C S - p o s i t i v e would leave responses due to the e f f e c t of C5-UCS p a i r i n g (Gale and Stern, 1967). A l a t e n c y c r i t e r i o n on the ARs would probably have been more powerful, but s i n c e the number of t r i a l s used and the p r e s e n t a t i o n time of the CSs were short i t would have been d i f f i c u l t to separate the c o n d i t i o n e d ORs from the ARs. Therefore the CS-negative conductance scores were s u b t r a c t e d from the C S - p o s i t i v e conductance s c o r e s . The e i g h t r e s u l t i n g scores were d i v i d e d i n t o t h e i r four subsets: French-shock, 13 French-no-shock, English-shock, and English-no-shock. The mean of each subset was c a l c u l a t e d . A l l of the four f i n a l s cores f o r each s u b j e c t should i n d i c a t e the e f f e c t of CS-UCS p a i r i n g . Vasomotor A c t i v i t y . The trough to peak d i s t a n c e s during the t e s t phase were recorded p r o v i d i n g measures of BVPs. The percentage change between the peak d i s t a n c e of the BVPs during the f i r s t e i g h t seconds of CS-onset and the peak d i s -tances of the f i v e BVPs p r i o r to CS-onset was c a l c u l a t e d . P o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t e d vasomotor c o n s t r i c t i o n while negative d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t e d vasomotor d i l a t i o n . The mean of each of the four subsets w i t h i n each l i s t was c a l c u l a t e d f o r c e p h a l i c and d i g i t a l BVPs. Re s u l t s G a lvanic Skin Responses. The GSRs on the l a s t t r a i n i n g t r i a l were analysed to determine whether c o n d i t i o n i n g had o c c u r r e d . Since only an a r b i t r a r y measure of the e f f e c -t i v e n e s s of the c o n d i t i o n i n g procedure was necessary a t r i a l by t r i a l a n a l y s i s of the data was not undertaken. F o l l o w i n g square-root and l o g a r i t h m i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s the assumptions of homogeneity of variances were s t i l l not met. ^ o n-para-m e t r i c Chi-squares were then a d m i n i s t e r e d . The analyses showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the shock and the no-shock c o n d i t i o n s , X ( l ) _ 7.75 ? p <.01. The shock x language i n t e r a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t , x ( l ) = .016; p >.05. The same r e s u l t s were observed on the t e s t i n g data. There were 14 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the shock and no-shock main e f f e c t s , X ( l ) = 1 0 . 8 O 5 p < .01, while the i n t e r a c t i o n between the language and shock c o n d i t i o n s was not s i g n i f i c a n t , x ( l ) = .305? p > .05. Table 2 presents the mean responses f o r each c o n d i t i o n and the number of s u b j e c t s whose responses were g r e a t e s t on those c o n d i t i o n s . Vasomotor A c t i v i t y . Arc s i n e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out on the percentage changes i n vasomotor readings p r i o r to the a p p l i c a t i o n of analyses of variance (Myers, 1966). Table 3 i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i c a n t responses to the t r a n s l a t i o n of the s t i m u l i p a i r e d with shock i n d i g i t a l vasomotor a c t i v i t y , F ( l , 15) = 2.221? p >«05, Table 4 i n d i c a t e s g r e a t e r a n t i -c i p a t o r y c e p h a l i c responses to the t r a n s l a t i o n s of the s t i m u -l i p a i r e d with shock than to the t r a n s l a t i o n s of the n e u t r a l s t i m u l i . This d i f f e r e n c e i s suggested by the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c e p h a l i c a c t i v i t y between the shock and no-shock c o n d i t i o n s , F ( l , 10) = 11.58? p < .05. In a d d i t i o n , s t i m u l i of both languages were responded to e q u a l l y , F ( l , 10) = 3.682; p > .05. Again, Table 2 presents the mean responses f o r each c o n d i t i o n and the number of s u b j e c t s whose responses were g r e a t e s t on those c o n d i t i o n s . Di sc ussion S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the shock and no-shock c o n d i t i o n s f o r the GSR measure during the l a s t t r a i n i n g t r i a l suggest that the t r a i n i n g procedure (CS-UCS p a i r i n g ) had been e f f e c t i v e . The same s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e during 15 Table 2 [.lean Response and Number of Subjects Per C o n d i t i o n . Shock i\lo-Shock Dependent F E F & E F E F & E Measure GSR T r a i n i n g .049 .025 .033 .009 .004 .006 No. of Ss 10 12 22 3 4 7 T e s t i n g .043 .040 .041 .033 .006 .018 No. of Ss 13 11 24 4 2 6 GSR-ADJUSTED T r a i n i n g .040 .023 ,031 .000 .000 .000 T e s t i n g .010 .034 .022 .000 .000 .000 5 UP (%) C e p h a l i c 12.7 12,3 12.5 -4.62 5.45 0.37 No. of Ss 10 9 19 1 2 3 D i g i t a l 10.7 8.00 9.40 -1.38 6.69 2.66 No. of Ss 12 8 20 4 8 12  6 816 Table 3 Summary of A n a l y s i s of Variance of D i g i t a l Vasomotor Data, Source SS df n s F P Shock 749,390 1 749.390 2.221 .05 Language 554.603 1 554.603 1.389 .05 Skock x Language 554.602 1 554.602 1.389 .05 Sub j e c t s 5061.569 15 Subjects x Shock 5061.570 15 337.438 Subjects x Language 5986.998 15 399.133 Subjects x Shock x Language 5986.997 15 399.133 T o t a l 23955.730 63 17 Table 4 Summary of A n a l y s i s of Variance of C e p h a l i c Vasomotor Data. Source SS df n s F Shock 2792.051 1 2792.051 11.158 Lang uage 303.188 1 303.188 3.682 Shock x Language 303.187 1 303.187 3.682 S ub j e c t s 2502.392 10 Subjects x Shock 2502.391 10 250.239 Subjects x Language 823.494 10 82.349 Subjects x Shock x Language 823.495 10 82.350 T o t a l 10050,199 43 18 d y r i n g t e s t i n g suggests that semantic t r a n s f e r between two languages had oc c u r r e d . The l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a l responding between the two languages supports the b i l i n g u a l i t y of the subjects,. Vasomotor c o n s t r i c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s defense r e s -ponses which may be given to noxious s t i m u l i , while vaso-motor d i l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s responses due to o r i e n t i n g r e f l e x e s (Sokolov, 1963). Therefore s i g n i f i c a n t vasomotor c o n s t r i c -t i o n to the t r a n s l a t i o n s of the s t i m u l i p a i r e d with shock supports the concept of semantic t r a n s f e r between two l a n -guages. The c o n s t r i c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i g i t a l a c t i v i t y and f a i l s to support semantic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . The GSR t e s t responses of the s u b j e c t s who had been d i s c a r d e d from the a n a l y s i s because they showed no CS-UCS p a i r i n g e f f e c t on the l a s t t r a i n i n g t r i a l supported the d e c i s i o n of no e f f e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n i n g . The mean number of responses to the p o s i t i v e CSs was .15 and the mean number of responses to the negative CSs was .13, A l l r e s u l t s except f o r d i g i t a l vasomotor a c t i v i t y c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e semantic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n between French and E n g l i s h . Although g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s with regard to other languages might not be a p p r o p r i a t e i t might be p r e d i c t e d t h a t s i m i l a r t r a n s f e r would be observed between any two languages, and p o s s i b l y between s e v e r a l languages. Con-s i d e r i n g the two types of b i l i n g u a l s g r e a t e r t r a n s f e r might be p r e d i c t e d f o r the compound than the c o - o r d i n a t e b i l i n -g u a l . Although D l t o n ^ (i960) attempt at i l l u s t r a t i n g between-language t r a n s f e r f a i l e d , the d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g 19 between Olton's and the present study could e a s i l y account f o r the d i s p a r i t y . S i t u a t i o n s i n which s u b j e c t s are r e q u i r e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the language i n which the s t i m u l i are presented as well as between the s t i m u l i them-s e l v e s , may i n f a c t i n h i b i t any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from o c c u r r -i n g . lAihile the present study supports the concept of se-mantic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n between French and E n g l i s h i t does not p r o v i d e any i n s i g h t as to the s t r e n g t h of t r a n s l a t i o n s on a continuum which i n c l u d e s synonyms, antonyms, and homophones. Since c h i l d r e n have been r e p o r t e d to g e n e r a l i z e to homophones ( R i e s s , 1949), i t might be p r e d i c t e d that semantic t r a n s f e r between languages would not be observed i n c h i l d r e n . However, the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to homophones r a t h e r than to synonyms may r e f l e c t weak a s s o c i a t i o n s between sy-nonymous s t i m u l i . B i l i n g u a l c h i l d r e n who o f t e n make use of both the s t i m u l i and t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n s may be assumed to have strong a s s o c i a t i o n s between the s t i m u l i and t h e i r t r a n s -l a t i o n s . If t h i s i s the case i t might be p r e d i c t e d that semantic t r a n s f e r between languages would occur i n c h i l d r e n to the extent that the s t r e n g t h of these a s s o c i a t i o n s bet-ween words of d i f f e r e n t languages i s s t r o n g . The s t r e n g t h of these a s s o c i a t i o n s r e l a t i v e to synonyms, antonyms, and homophones might determine the p o s i t i o n t r a n s l a t i o n s would occupy on the continuum mentioned above? the g r e a t e r the a s s o c i a t i v e s t r e n g t h the most l i k e l y the response i s to g e n e r a l i z e . 20 References Branca, A., Semantic g e n e r a l i z a t i o n at the l e v e l of the c o n d i t i o n i n g e x p e r i m e n t Americam Journal of Psycho-logy,, , 1957, 70, 541-549. Cofer, C. N., Foley, J. P., Mediated g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of verbal behavior: I Prologomena, P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review., 1942 9 49, 513-540. Chatter jee, B, B. , and E r i c k s e n , C. Ui., C o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s i n heart r a t e c o n d i t i o n i n g . , Journal of Experimental  Psychology., 1962, 64, 272-279. 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