UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Two generations of modern French-Canadian poets : a study in contrasts 1969

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TWO G E N E R A T I O N S OF MODERN F R E N C H C A N A D I A N P O E T S A STUDY I N CONTRASTS b y S h e i l a J o s e p h i n e D y e r B . A ., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF A R T S i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F r e n c h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H * C O L UMBIA J a n u a r y , 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f French The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date January 8, 1969 A B S T R A C T I n t h i s t h e s i s I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o s h o w t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e m e s , a t t i t u d e s , s u b j e c t s , a n d p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s t h a t e x i s t b e t w e e n t w o s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s o f m o d e r n F r e n c h C a n a d i a n p o e t s . A l a i n G r a n d b o i s " a n d A n n e H e b e r t ( b o r n i n 1 9 0 0 a n d 1 9 1 6 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) c o n s t i t u t e , i n my s t u d y , t h e e l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , w h i l e G a t i e n L a p ' o i n t e , F e r n a n d O u e l l e t t e , a n d P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d ( b o r n i n 1 9 3 1 , 1 9 3 0 , a n d 1 9 3 9 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) a r e t h e m o r e y o u t h f u l p o e t s . I h a v e d i v i d e d my t h e s i s i n t o c h a p t e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a r e a s o f c o m p a r i s o n t h a t w e r e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e a n d w i t h i n e v e r y c h a p t e r I c o n s i d e r , a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e , e a c h o n e o f t h e f i v e p o e t s . I h a v e f o u n d t h a t , - w i t h r e g a r d t o " s u b j e c t , " t h e o l d e r p o e t s a r e e s p e c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d , i n t h e i r p o e t r y , w i t h t h e " j e " a n d i t s r a r e p l e a s u r e s a n d i t s m o r e f r e q u e n t w o e s w h i l e t h e y o u n g e r p o e t s move a w a y f r o m t h i s r e s t r i c t e d c o n c e r n w i t h t h e " s e l f " a n d i t s p r i v a t e a n d d i f f i c u l t l y p e n e t r a t e d w o r l d t o w a r d s a. w i d e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a f f a i r s o f a l l men. S e e i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c i n g r e a l i t y w i t h t h e e y e s a n d t h e s e n s i b i l i t i e s o f a l l men, o f whom t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s t o be t h e b r o t h e r s , t h e y s p e a k l e s s o f "me" a n d m o r e o f " u s " a n d " y o u . " T h e i r s u b j e c t i s n o l o n g e r t h e p r i v a t e a n d h i g h l y p e r s o n a l " j e " b u t i s i n s t e a d , t h e m o r e u n i v e r s a l a n d o b j e c t i v e "we" o r " t h e m . " A t t i t u d e e v o l v e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o g e n e r a t i o n s a s w e l l . T h e c l a s s i c a l d e s p a i r and the d e f e a t i s m o f the e l d e r w r i t e r s s t i f f e n s i n t o o ptimism and c h a l l e n g e among the more r e c e n t p o e t s . The two themes c o n s i d e r e d , l o v e and n a t u r e , are t r e a t e d i n d r a m a t i c a l l y v a r i e d f a s h i o n by the two s e t s o f w r i t e r s . A l a i n Grandbois and Anne Hebert see n a t u r e as a n t a g o n i s t i c and menacing and l o v e as e i t h e r i m p o s s i b l e or d e c e i v i n g w h i l e G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , Fernand O u e l l e t t e , and P a u l Chamberland g l o r y i n the s o l a c e and comfort o f a p e a c e f u l n a t u r a l o r d e r and s i n g p r a i s e s o f the m a r v e l s and the p r o m i s e s o f l o v e and the l o v i n g and l o v e d woman. T e c h n i c a l p r a c t i c e s a l s o change c o n s i d e r a b l y from one g e n e r a t i o n t o the n e x t , r a n g i n g from the c o n s e r v a t i s m o f the e l d e r p o e t s t o the c r e a t i v e d a r i n g o f the more r e c e n t p o e t s . The p o e t i c -works examined i n t h i s t h e s i s are G r a n d b o i s 1 Les l i e s de l a N u i t ( 1 9 4 4 ) , R i v a g e s de 1'Homme (1948), and L ' E t o i l e P o u r p r e ( 1 9 5 7 ) , a l l o f w h i c h are c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r i n the compound e d i t i o n Poemes o f 1 9 6 3 , Les Songes en E q u i l i b r e ( 1 9 4 2 ) , Le Tombeau des R o i s ( 1 9 5 3 ) , and Poemes (i960)* o f Anne H e b e r t , Le Temps P r e m i e r ( 1 9 6 2 ) , Ode au S a i n t - L a u r e n t ( 1 9 6 3 ) , and Le P r e m i e r Mot ( 1 9 6 7 ) o f G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , Ces Anges de Sang (1955), Sequences de l ' A i l e (1958), and Le S o l e l l Sous l a Mort (1965) o f Fernand O u e l l e t t e and P a u l Chamberland 1s Te r r e Quebec ( 1 9 6 4 ) and L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e *Poemes c o n t a i n s a r e - e d i t i o n o f Le Tombeau des R o i s ( 1 9 5 3 ) as w e l l as the most r e c e n t c o l l e c t i o n o f Anne H e b e r t 1 s poetry, Mystere de l a P a r o l e ( I 9 6 0 ) . . ( 1 9 6 4 ) . I d o n o t s t u d y L a p o i n t e ' s J o u r M a l a i s e " ( 1 9 5 3 ) n o r h i s O t a g e s d e l a J o i e ( 1 9 5 5 ) b e c a u s e i n t h e m t h e p o e t e x p r e s s e s w i t h m u c h l e s s s k i l l t h e same g e n e r a l i d e a s t h a t h e v o i c e s i n h i s l a t e r v o l u m e s . G e n e s e s ( 1 9 6 2 ) o f P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d c o u l d n o t b e e x a m i n e d b e c a u s e i t s p r e d o m i n a t e l y r e l i g i o u s b e n t k e e p s i t o u t s i d e o f t h e t h e m a t i c a r e a t h a t I h a v e r e s t r i c t e d m y s e l f t o . T A B L E OP CONTENTS C H A P T E R PAGE A B S T R A C T i i i I N T R O D U C T I O N v i I . S U B J E C T S 1 F o o t n o t e s 2 1 I I . A T T I T U D E S 2 4 F o o t n o t e s 49 I I I . NATURE 53 F o o t n o t e s . . 76 I V . THE WOMAN AND L O V E 79 F o o t n o t e s . 94 V. P O E T I C T E C H N I Q U E S 97 F o o t n o t e s 108 C O N C L U S I O N I l l B I B L I O G R A P H Y 115 INTRODUCTION In the pages t h a t f o l l o w , I w i l l attempt t o show by a c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s , a t t i t u d e s , themes, and p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s , how two g e n e r a t i o n s o f modern F r e n c h Canadian p o e t s — t h e one i n c l u d i n g A l a i n Grandbois and Anne Hebert and the o t h e r i n c l u d i n g G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , Fernand O u e l l e t t e and P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d — d i f f e r , i n s p i t e o f a few s i m i l a r i t i e s , r a t h e r r a d i c a l l y the one from the o t h e r . I w i l l d i s c u s s the s h i f t i n the s u b j e c t from the f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r , the " j e , " o f Hebert and G r a n d b o i s , to the "you," the "us" and the "everyman" o f the younger p o e t s . I w i l l t r a c e the e v o l u t i o n i n a t t i t u d e from the r e s i g n a t i o n and deepest m e l a n c h o l y o f the e l d e r w r i t e r s t o the s p i r i t e d c h e e r f u l n e s s , f i r m d e t e r m i n a t i o n and the u n f l i n c h i n g c o n f i d e n c e o f L a p o i n t e , O u e l l e t t e and Chamberland. I w i l l i l l u s t r a t e two d i s t i n c t i v e and op p o s i n g t r e a t m e n t s o f the n a t u r e theme and the l o v e theme. F i n a l l y , I i n t e n d t o c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y some b a s i c t e c h n i c a l v a r i a t i o n s . CHAPTER I SUBJECTS The v e r s e o f A l a i n Grandbois has been d e s c r i b e d as u n i v e r s a l and committed. Some c r i t i c s see i t n o t as an unhappy i n v e n t o r y o f an i n d i v i d u a l s o u l c l o s e d i n upon i t s e l f and f e e d i n g on i t s own d i s t r e s s . I n s t e a d t h e y c o n s i d e r i t as b e i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h the drama.of a l l men i n h i b i t e d by t h e r i g o r o u s r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed upon them by time and by t h e i r own m o r t a l i t y . Of h i s p o e t r y , M i c h e l e Lalonde has s a i d : E l l e a qui t t e " l ' u n i v e r s e t r a n g l e du moi en rompant l e c e r c l e v i c i e u x de 1 ' e x p e r i e n c e i n d i v i d u e l l e , pour p r o j e t e r l e drame humain dans une p e r s p e c t i v e cosmique e t l e r e p o r t e r s u r l ' e c h e l l e des i n f i n i s avec une dimensio n e f f r a y a n t e de f a t a l i t e . 1 A c c o r d i n g t o thes e c r i t i c s , G randbois r e c o g n i z e s t h a t he i s not a l o n e i n h i s s u f f e r i n g and he a s s o c i a t e s h i s a n g u i s h w i t h t h a t o f a l l men. When he speaks o f h i s c o n s c i e n c e and h i s f e e l i n g s , he i s s p e a k i n g o f t h e c o n s c i e n c e and f e e l i n g s o f a l l men. The poem "Parmi l e s Heures" o f Les l i e s de l a N u i t r e c o r d s a f r a t e r n a l e l a n . The p o e t , u n i t e d w i t h a l l men, a p p e a l s and p r o t e s t s t o the gods o f f a t e who have doomed everyone t o i n s t a b i l i t y w i t h i n the ephemeral i n s t a n t : Nous t o u s avec des coeurs nus comme des chambres v i d e s Dans un meme e l a n f r a t e r n e l 2 Nous l e v e r o n s nos b r a s dans des a p p e l s durs comme l e s a s t r e s Cherchant en v a i n au bout de nos d o i g t s c r i s p e s Ce m o r t e l i n s t a n t d'une f u y a n t e e ' t e r n i t e 2 I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s as w e l l Grandbois appears t o be f u l l y engaged i n a l l men's d e s p a i r . "Je t r e m b l e de 1 ' i n e p u i s a b l e angoisse/Du r i v a g e de l'homme"3 However, t o e s t a b l i s h G r a n d b o i s 1 p o e t r y as p r i m a r i l y u n i v e r s a l and p a r t i c i p a t o r y would be t o m i s i n t e r p r e t i t . The m a j o r i t y o f h i s poems are a c t u a l l y h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e . They r e l a t e h i s p r i v a t e e x p e r i e n c e s and prominent i n them i s the h e a r t and the s e n s i b i l i t y o f the p o e t . Grandbois i s n o t , i n f a c t , an "engaged" and communicating poet and he has n o t made h i m s e l f a spokesman f o r humanity. Why s h o u l d he speak f o r and to men when he has d i s c o v e r e d t o h i s g r e a t b i t t e r n e s s t h a t people w i l l n o t l i s t e n . I n the poem "Ah Toutes Ces Rues," the poet i s i g n o r e d by and t e r r i b l y a l i e n a t e d from o t h e r men. He has found t h a t t h e r e i s no such t h i n g as human " f r a t e r n i t y . " Ah je c h e r c h a i s l e s hommes dans l 1 o m b r e pour l ' a p p u i d'une e g a l e f r a t e r n i t e Mais i l s ne me r e p o n d a i e n t pas I l s f u y a i e n t sous l a p l u i e dans l a n u i t Oh je s a i s j ' a i tente* de l e u r p a r l e r i l s me r e p o n d a i e n t dans une langue e t r a n g e r e I l s me r e g a r d a i e n t avec un e t r a n g e etonnement I l s r i a i e n t p a r f o i s e t j ' e t a i s l e f o u de l a n u i t 3 D i s i l l u s i o n e d , he s t a t e s t h a t h i s " i n n e r door," which might have p r o v i d e d him w i t h an opening on the w o r l d , i s c l o s e d f o r e v e r , and he r e t r e a t s deeper i n t o h i m s e l f t o w r i t e p r i m a r i l y o f h i s own m i s f o r t u n e . G r a n d b o i s 1 poems seem sometimes f r a t e r n a l o n l y because the r e a d e r s i d e n t i f y so c l o s e l y w i t h the p o e t ' s p e r s o n a l dilemma w h i c h , i n i t s d e s p a i r b e f o r e death and f l e e t i n g t i m e , i s everyman's dilemma. But even though a statement o f u n i v e r s a l r e a l i t i e s , t he poems are s t i l l the e x p r e s s i o n o f the r e a c t i o n s and s e n t i m e n t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l Grandbois b e f o r e these r e a l i t i e s and as such must always be read i n a p u r e l y G r a n d b o i s i e n c o n t e x t . P i e r r e de Grandpre has attempted t o d e f i n e the p o i n t o f v i e w i n our p o e t ' s work: Tout c e l a s'entend e t concerne chacun. Mais i l e s t e v i d e n t que l e s c l e f s v e r i t a b l e s de c e t t e p o e s i e s e r a i e n t a. c h e r c h e r dans l a p s y c h o l o g i e profonde de l ' a u t e u r , q u ' e l l e s ne nous sont l i v r e e s q u ' i n d i r e c t e m e n t , p a r des a g r e g a t s d'images ou de rythmes au x q u e l s p r e s i d e 1 1 i n c o n s c i e n t , ferme a t o u t e i n d i s c r e t e e x p l o r a t i o n r a t i o n n e l l e . 5 G r a n d b o i s ' p o e t r y i s f u l l o f i n t i m a t e memories, dreams, hopes, and d e s p a i r s which concern him o n l y and w h i c h . t h e r e f o r e have a deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the poet than f o r h i s r e a d e r . I t i s h i s own r e a c t i o n b e f o r e a l l the t r a g e d y o f h i s s i t u a t i o n as a man t h a t the poet r e c o r d s i n h i s p o e t r y . G r a n d b o i s , s t r a n d e d and alo n e i n h i s p e r s o n a l d e s e r t , g r a s p s f o r the day and f o r l i b e r a t i o n from h i s m o r t a l bonds. He c r i e s : et moi sous mes s e u l s cheveux et moi moi mes morts dans mon dos e t l e u r s d o i g t s l o u r d s 4 et ce nombre f a t a l et l e u r b r u i t dans mon s i l e n c e e t l e u r e f f r a y a n t s i l e n c e dans mon d e s e r t E t moi cher c h a n t l a c l a r t e comme un homme de f a i m moi c h e r c h a n t parmi l a c h e v e l u r e des larmes mon p r o p r e j o u r moi c r i a n t mes c r i s g l a c e s dans ce v i d e inhumain et moi ne t r o u v a n t dans mes c r i s que l a n u i t decedee . e t ce grand r i r e de p i e r r e i n a t t a q u a b l e He l o o k s l o n g i n g l y back to what once was and to a l l the t h i n g s and people t h a t he has known and l o v e d : 0 mes beaux V i s a g e s avec un s o u r i r e t r i s t e 0 Vous t o u s s u r ce chemin perdu de mon pass e ? He remembers a b e a u t i f u l mother now dead. He evokes h e r g e n t l e n e s s and t h e t e n d e r glow o f the f l e s h on h e r knees where, as a c h i l d , he. once used t o s i t . He remembers h e r d e l i c a t e f i n g e r s b r u s h i n g , i n a s i g n o f a f f e c t i o n , a c r o s s h i s f o r e - head. There are c h i l d i s h i m p r e s s i o n s which s t i l l remain o f an i n f a n t epoch, memories o f green p a r k s and f l o w e r b e d s s t i l l f r e s h w i t h dew a t t e n o ' c l o c k , o f shadowy elms i n the a l l e y and o f m i l k l i k e the sweet sap o f a crushed h e a r t . These p e r s o n a l v i s i o n s o f a p l e a s a n t p a s t a re o n l y a p p l i c a b l e t o and t r a n s l a t a b l e by o t h e r men i n t h a t most s e n s i t i v e men, a t the coming t o severe a d u l t h o o d , y e a r n f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e i r 5 new c o n d i t i o n . They o f t e n f i n d t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e i n a dream- r e t u r n t o t h e i r c h i l d h o o d ' s i n n o c e n c e . O t h e r w i s e , because of t he p e r s o n a l d e t a i l and the uniqueness o f the i n d i v i d u a l v i s i o n , t he r e a d e r i s unable t o make the s e G r a n d b o i s i e n memories t r u l y h i s . They a r e the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o f the p o e t . In a s l i m c o l l e c t i o n o f p u b l i c l y c o n s c i o u s poems, Mystere de l a P a r o l e . Anne Hebert denounces r e v e r i e and s o l i t u d e . There i s a s e i z i n g upon l i f e and r e a l i t y and a warm u n i o n w i t h the w o r l d and w i t h o t h e r human b e i n g s . I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , " P o e s i e S o l i t u d e Rompue," she speaks o f the day i n a l l i t s t r u t h and f a c t which v i b r a t e s a n x i o u s l y and p r o m i s i n g l y a t t h e h o r i z o n and o f the c a l l w hich comes t o h e r from a l l the t h i n g s and peopl e w h i c h e x i s t so i n t e n s e l y about he r . She i s urged t o s i n g , i n h e r p o e t ' s v o i c e , o f men and r e a l i t i e s . She unde r s t a n d s t h a t the poet has a r o l e t o p l a y w i t h i n l i f e , n o t o u t s i d e o f i t . He i s to i n t e r p r e t the day by day p a t t e r n o f human e x i s t e n c e . He i s to name, d e f i n e , j u s t i f y and i n s p i r e men i n g e n e r a l as w e l l as the men o f h i s Quebec. He i s t o e x p r e s s man's dreams and t r a n s l a t e h i s r e v o l t and h i s s e a r c h f o r d i g n i t y . La p o e s i e n ' e s t pas l e repos du septieme j o u r . E l l e a g i t au coeur des s i x p r e m i e r s j o u r s du monde, dans l e tumu l t e de l a t e r r e et de l ' e a u confondus, dans 1 ' e f f o r t de l a v i e q u i cherche sa n o u r r i t u r e et son nom. E l l e e s t s o i f e t f a i m , p a i n e t vin.° 6 But Mystere de l a P a r o l e (the l a s t c o l l e c t i o n o f h e r poems t o date and the i n d i c a t i o n o f a c o m p l e t e l y new concept o f the w o r l d and o f h e r s e l f as r e l a t e d to i t ) and i t s a t t i t u d e o f b e l o n g i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i s n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , by any means, o f t h e dominant tone o f Anne Hubert's p o e t r y . A c t u a l l y , the g r e a t e r p a r t o f h e r work, c o n t a i n e d i n Le Tombeau des R o i s and Les Songes en E q u l l l b r e . i s , l i k e t h a t o f h e r c o u s i n S a i n t - D e n y s Garneau b y whom she was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d , o f an i n t e n s e l y i n d i v i d u a l t o n e . I t i s an i n t e r n a l p o e t r y o f dreams and r e c a l l i n g , a s u b j e c t i v e p o e t r y where p r i v a t e dramas a r e r e c o r d e d . "Par s a resonance l a poe'sie d'Anne Hubert se s i t u e t o u j o u r s a l'e'tage de son cpeur e t de s a c o n s c i e n c e . I t i s t h e p o e t ' s own e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e the passage o f t i m e , l i g h t and l i f e which i s d e s c r i b e d . She c r i e s o u t the t r a g i c d i s c o v e r y o f a l l h e r missed o p p o r t u n i t i e s to h e r mother: I l s s o n t t r e n t e j o u r s de j u i n , E t moi, Maman, je veux c e l u i - c i ' . I l s sont t r e n t e j o u r s de j u i n , Mais ce ne sera, p l u s jamais l e meme... I l s sont t r e n t e j o u r s de j u i n ; P e u t - e t r e pour moi e t a i t marque" Cet a u j o u r d ' h u i que j ' a i manque" i 1 0 I t i s h e r drama o f succumbing t o a d e s p a i r i n g s p i r i t u a l d a r k ness w h i c h she r e c a l l s i n h e r v e r s e . I t i s h e r c h i l d h o o d j o y which has been swept downstream and away f o r e v e r . Those a r e h e r memories o f y o u t h f u l d e l i g h t s now g o n e — w i l d p l a y t i m e s i n f i e l d s , t he s i m p l e f r i e n d s h i p f o r h e r dog, a moment's s i l e n c e b e s i d e h e r p a r e n t s , the t a s t e o f s t r a w b e r r i e s and r i p e a p p l e s . 7 I t i s an incommunicable f a n t a s y w o r l d she c r e a t e s , compre- h e n s i b l e to no one but h e r s e l f : mon songe Ren f e me"! 11 T h i s tendency t o dream and to m e d i t a t e upon p e r s o n a l demons was developed by a l o n g c h i l d h o o d s i c k n e s s w h i c h condemned the poet to extended s e q u e s t r a t i o n s w i t h i n h e r room. Indeed P a u l Wyczynski sees Hubert's e n t i r e p o e t i c e x p e r i e n c e as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h a t c h i l d h o o d s e c l u s i o n i n t h a t i t appears t o ta k e p l a c e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n a c l o s e d room (such as the s i c k chamber d e s c r i b e d i n the poem " J a r d i n de F i e v r e " ) w h i c h b a r s any e x p a n s i o n beyond t o r e a l i t y and p e o p l e . J'e'touffe dans un J a r d i n ; Des bouquets Lachement f a i t s E t noues de rubans M'dcoeurent et m ' e n f i e v r e n t . J a r d i n c l o s , Sans v r a i c i e l , n i h o r i z o n ; C i e l de p a p i e r , Mur de p a p i e r . 0 f l e u r s des r i d e a u x E t de l a t a p i s s e r i e , L a i s s e z - m o i done d o r m i r I x ^ T h i s c o n s t a n t concern w i t h the s e l f i s due a l s o t o the f a c t t h a t the p o e t has d i s c o v e r e d t h a t even i f she s t r i v e s t o b r i d g e the gap t h e r e i s no communion w i t h o t h e r s and t h e r e f o r e no reason t o w r i t e about o r f o r them. The p o e t , l i k e a l l men, i s v e r y much a l o n e . She i s caught b e h i n d but a t o k e n o f a w a l l i n 8 "Un Mur a. P e i n e " a n d y e t she i s u n a b l e t o p r o g r e s s b e y o n d i t . She h a s b e e n a s s i g n e d b y some c r u e l f a t a l i t y t o a l i t t l e s p a c e o f e x i s t e n c e and a n y g e s t u r e s w h i c h m i g h t e x t e n d b e y o n d h e r t o r e a c h o t h e r s and t h e w o r l d h a v e b e e n l i m i t e d s e v e r e l y . P e t i t e s p a c e E t mesure e x a c t e Des g e s t e s f u t u r s . 13 I n "Une P e t i t e M o r t e , " s h e s p e a k s o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l f o r c e d t o l i v e w i t h i n h i s own t i g h t i n t e r i o r , l e a d i n g a n a r r o w a n d m i n u t e e x i s t e n c e , h a v i n g t o be c o n t e n t w i t h a r r a n g i n g h i s own l i t t l e t r o u b l e s and l e a v i n g h i s g e s t u r e s t o s w i n g a l o n e and u n c o n n e c t e d , e n d i n g a l w a y s w i t h h i m s e l f . I n " E v e i l a u S e u i l d'Une F o n t a i n e , " t h e f i r s t poem o f L e Tombeau des R o i s . i t seems t h a t t h e r e m i g h t be a s u c c e s s f u l movement t o w a r d s a communion w i t h o t h e r men. G i l l e s M a r c o t t e s a y s t h a t t h e g e s t u r e w h i c h i s c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e p o e t i s a " g e ' n e r o s l t e ' d e s m a i n s , a d o u b l e a c t i o n o f e m b r a c i n g and g i v i n g , a n d t h a t , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e new d a y , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e w a l l s a b o u t t h e p o e t h a v e b e e n s h a t t e r e d and t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a n a c c o r d o f h e r s o u l w i t h t h e s o u l s o f o t h e r s and a r e a c h i n g t o w a r d s and a h o l d i n g o f o t h e r s and a b e i n g h e l d and b e i n g l o v e d i n r e t u r n . B u t t h i s hope i s d a s h e d i n a l a t e r poem o f t h e same c o l l e c t i o n , " L e s M a i n s , " w here a woman ( t h e p o e t ) s i t s q u i e t l y , 9 f a s c i n a t e d by h e r c o n t i n u a l l y o u t s t r e t c h e d hands which want to g i v e o f t h e m s e l v e s b u t can o f f e r n o t h i n g but a d e s i r e o f f r i e n d s h i p and l o v e f o r t h e y a re cramped by a s t r a n g e f a t a l i t y and can s e i z e upon n o t h i n g . She remains t h e r e , w i t h the o f f e r i n g o f a l l o f h e r s e l f , b u t n o t h i n g she o f f e r s i s a c c e p t e d and the r i c h and generous human warmth wh i c h l i e s l a t e n t i n h e r cannot be l i b e r a t e d and may n e v e r be exchanged w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . D e f e a t e d , the poet withdraws deeper i n t o h e r s e l f and r e s o l v e s , as does the c h a r a c t e r . F r a n c o i s o f h e r n o v e l Le T o r r e n t , n o t to t r y t o escape h e r p r i s o n o f s o l i t u d e , but to make i t h e r adventure and h e r o n l y w e a l t h . Je me penche t a n t que je peux. Je veux v o i r l e g o u f f r e , l e p l u s p r e s p o s s i b l e . Je veux me p e r d r e en mon a v e n t u r e , ma s e u l e e t epouvantable r i c h e s s e . 1 5 In h i s p o e t r y , G a t i e n L a p o i n t e does t a l k o f h i m s e l f , o f -his d e t e r m i n a t i o n and happy a n t i c i p a t i o n s , o f h i s g l o o m i n e s s , and o f h i s d e a t h . However, a l t h o u g h he i s concerned w i t h i t , the s e l f c e r t a i n l y does not h o l d the same importance f o r him as i t does f o r the p o e t s of the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n and he wishes to make h i s v e r s e p r i n c i p a l l y an i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h o t h e r men. In "Le P a r i de ne pas M o u r i r , " h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Le P r e m i e r Mot, L a p o i n t e s t r e s s e s the importance o f a s o c i a l p o e t r y , the aim o f w h i c h , i n the most l i m p i d language and s t y l e p o s s i b l e , i s t o communicate w i t h o t h e r s and he ad v o c a t e s t h a t the poet 10 p o r t r a y man and h i s d e s t i n y as w e l l as h i s everyday l i f e and t a s k s . Lapointe says t h a t , as a bard, he cares f o r the v e r y o r d i n a r y and v e r y b e a u t i f u l r e a l world and th a t h i s o n l y r i g h t f u l p l a c e i s a t the l e v e l o f common man: II n'est de beaute que l e s i l l a g e des humains II n'est de v e r i t e que l e battement du eoeur.16 He a f f i r m s t h a t whenever i n h i s ve r s e he says " j e , " he speaks f o r a l l men and that the names o f ot h e r s mingle c o n s t a n t l y with h i s . He opts f o r man i n a l l h i s e a r t h l y r e a l i t y and f o r the world i n a l l i t s v i o l e n c e and sp l e n d o r : Je d i s l'homme a r r i v a n t sur t e r r e A c c u e i l l a n t dans ses mains l e t e r r e s t r e p l a i s i r Je d i s l'homme p l o y a n t sous l e fardeau Et c o n s t r u i s a n t son nom jou r apres jour Je d i s l'homme decouvrant l a premiere peine Et t r a g a n t s ur l e s o l l a premiere aventure Toute l a saveur du monde e c l a i r e sa bo.uche Toute l ' a n g o i s s e du monde assombrit ses yeux!7 Lapointe b e l i e v e s t h a t , as a poet o f men, he has a m i s s i o n to exo r t them to a transcendence o f t h e i r r a t h e r grim human s i t u a t i o n . H i s i s a p o e t r y o f p e r s u a s i o n which urges man to a s o r t o f s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h , to a proud p o s s e s s i o n of h i s ea r t h and to a b o l d a f f i r m a t i o n o f h i s presence i n time and space. In many an imperative v e r s e , he i n c i t e s and even orders men to mould and b u i l d themselves, to accomplish t h e i r most obscure d e s i r e s , and to t e a r o f f a l l the temporal s h a c k l e s which b i n d them: 11 Modele dans t e s mains l ' o b s c u r d e s i r Cherche au-dela. de l ' h o r i z o n Cherche au p l u s pres de ton v i s a g e S o u f f r i r d e v i e n t e s p o i r l 8 Creuse l a s a i s o n de p a r f a i t f e u i l l a g e Apprends sur l a t e r r e l e nom de l'homme!9 Co n s t r u i s ton coeur avec ton propre mai Tu n'es p l u s l i b r e de mourir.20 As w e l l as beckoning him onwards, the poet can a l l e v i a t e man's s u f f e r i n g and ease h i s l i f e ' s l o a d . He cha l l e n g e s the "laws" which r e s t r i c t h i s f e l l o w s and he f i g h t s and d e f i e s f o r them. His magic powers can r e s t o r e man's d i g n i t y , r e c r e a t e and r e t u r n to him a l l the candor and optimism of h i s c h i l d - hood, and b r i n g him the "temps premier," the new and v i r g i n e r a o f e t e r n a l t h i n g s and l i m i t l e s s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . J'e'touffe l'animale angoisse de m o u r i r 2 1 J ' e v e i l l e d'un s o u f f l e chaque enfance J'allume un phare au p i e d de chaque route Je mets des n i d s dans chaque main Dans chaque pas je p l a n t e un mot d ' e s p o i r 2 ^ J'ouvre- a l a c h a i r un /jour nouveau. Je l a c h e r a i un printemps dans l e monde 2^ 12 J 1 o u v r e l e s e u i l d'une pure s a i s o n Chaque pas e s t un rendez-vous d'amour 2 0" D e d i c a t e d t o mankind i n g e n e r a l , L a p o i n t e ' s p o e t r y i s a l s o d e v o t e d , more p a r t i c u l a r l y and t o a s l i g h t l y l e s s e r degree, to t h e p e o p l e o f Quebec. H i s v e r s e i s a p r a i s e o f Quebec's s e a s o n s , w i l d e r n e s s and peopl e as w e l l as an i n d i r e c t and n o n - i d e o l o g i c a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l d i s c o n t e n t o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s and a g l o r i o u s v i s i o n o f i t s tomorrow. I c i l e p r i n t e m p s e s t un b r e f e c l a t de r i r e E t l'automne un grand f r u i t q u i j o i n t l e s r i v e s 2 7 Mon pays a f r a n c h i ses f r o n t i e r e s de mort Mon pays s o r t debout s u r l e s e u i l du p r i n t e m p s La-bas a l ' E s t un f l e u v e se mele a l a mer La mer a p r i s mon pays p a r l a main Pour l a douceur et l e s tourments du monde . . . 2 ° Pernand O u e l l e t t e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the volume, Le S o l e i l Sous l a M o r t . sees b o t h h i s v e r s e and h i s l i f e as a c t s o f s o l i d a r i t y w i t h humanity. H i s p o e t r y i s concerned w i t h modern man r e l e n t l e s s l y t r a c k e d by h i s own h e l l i s h c r e a t i o n , the at o m i c bomb. I t urges men t o escape from the a p p r o a c h i n g n u c l e a r p e r i l b e f o r e i t i s too l a t e . I t a l s o e n v i s i o n s a d e s t r o y e d humanity: 13 Cours 6 funambule sur t a corde en g i v r e l Le s o l e i l se t a i t . L'atome se s u i c i d e . I ' d t e r a i t e " se detache de 1'homme.2° The poet sympathizes w i t h those who have s u f f e r e d and d i e d i n the wars o f our epoch. In "Me'moire" he s t r a i n s to b r i n g back , somehow, those whom he c o n s i d e r s h i s b r o t h e r s , those whom he c a l l s " o u r d e a d , " the v i c t i m s of c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps and bomb a t t a c k s . He i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e i r deaths and even sees h i m s e l f as p a r t i a l l y , a l though v e r y d i s t a n t l y , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r e x t e r m i n a t i o n . Morts de V a r s o v i e Buchenwald Oradour Hirosh ima s o r t e z du s o l e i l I Revenez pour l e s r u l s s e a u x , pour l e s roses et r o s s i g n o l s . 3 0 His p o e t r y , i n i t s involvement w i t h o t h e r s , i s not a l l s y m p a t h y . I t c r i t i c i z e s man a s w e l l , b u t i n d e n o u n c i n g , t h e p o e t d o e s n o t s t a n d a p a r t a n d , r e c o g n i z i n g h i m s e l f a s o n e w i t h a l l m e n , h e a c k n o w l e d g e s h i s own g u i l t y c o m p l i c i t y . T h e r e a r e o c c a s i o n a l a n g r y o u t b u r s t s t h r o u g h o u t O u e l l e t t e ' s v e r s e a g a i n s t man a n d h i s c a p a c i t y t o b e b l i n d a n d i n s e n s i t i v e . He p a i n t s a p i c t u r e o f man, h i m s e l f i n c l u d e d , who r e f u s e s t o s e e a n d a p p r e c i a t e a l l t h e f i n e a n d d e l i c a t e n a t u r a l t h i n g s w h i c h e x i s t a b o u t h i m . On d e p o s a i t l a l u n e d a n s u n p a s s e de d e c e n c e . 3 1 0 l ' h u i l e d e l ' a u t o m n e , t e r r e u s e e t f o r t e , q u e n u l homme n e v e u t b o i r e . . . 3 2 E n n o u s , l e s i n s e n s i b l e s a u j o u r , 3 3 He i s d i s a p p o i n t e d i n s o u l l e s s a n d e m o t i o n l e s s man who c a n n o t m ake t h e e f f o r t t o l o v e s i n c e r e l y a n d w h o s e " a f f e c t i o n s " a r e o f t e n w a r p e d b y m e r c e n a r y p h y s i c a l d e s i r e . He s p e a k s o f t h e g a p i n g a b y s s w h i c h h a s u s u r p e d t h e p l a c e o f t h e h e a r t w i t h i n m a n ' s b r e a s t . He d e s c r i b e s , i n " S t e l e , " a s p i r i t u a l l y s t e r i l e man who w a s t e s h i s l i f e i n m a c h i n a l g e s t u r e s a n d s e n t i m e n t s . O b s c u r i t y i s h i s n a t u r a l h a b i t a t a n d h e i s u n e a s y i n t h e l i g h t a n d t r u t h o f t h e d a y . H i s d e a t h i s a s p a t h e t i c a n d i g n o b l e a s h i s l i f e a n d h i s t e r r i f i e d c r y i s a d a g g e r w h i c h s t r i k e s a t a n d c o n d e m n s t o o l a t e h i s w o r t h l e s s e x i s t e n c e . He c o n d e m n s m o d e r n men, r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f d e a t h l y n u c l e a r war machines. I I d o n n a i t 1'amour s o l a i r e , 1'homme q u i m a i n t e n a n t amorce l a mort. 3 4 Contemporary r e a l i t y i n a l l i t s h a r s h , c h r o m e - p l a t e d u g l i n e s s does n o t escape the p o e t ' s i n d i g n a t i o n . I n t h i s m a t h e m a t i c a l , m e c h a n i c a l and c o l d t i m e , c h e m i s t r y and o t h e r t e c h n i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s a r e a l l - e m b r a c i n g and o m n i p r e s e n t , c i t i e s s u f f o c a t e i n t h e i r own g a s o l i n e fumes, l o v e becomes a b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n and c h i l d h o o d and f a i r y - t a l e s are s c i e n t i f i c a l l y r e g u l a t e d . Dans l e s r e g i o n s du r a c h a t , p r o f o n d e s c i t e s en f i l i g r a n e dans l ' e ' t h e r , l e s p l e i n s de- s i r s emergent d'un plasma de p e t r o i e . Cafe mokal L a P r e s s e ! Rue S a i n t e - C a t h e - r i n e i L'odeur des banques se mele aux b r i s e s de l ' e n f a n c e . Au l o n g des devan- t u r e s , l e s p a s s a n t s s u r c h a u f f e n t un c i e l e " t e i n t . I l s s ' e n f o n c e n t dans l a brume de c h l o r o - p h y l l e . N u l s o u v e n i r de n e i g e ne v i e n t f i l t r e r 1 ' e c l a i r a g e d'une s a i s o n de n e o n s . 3 5 Sur des b e r c e u s e s d'atomes, 1' e n f a n t balan-r ce ses f e e s b l o n d e s , e t l'amant a l i g n e ses amours aux cadences d'un j o u r n a l de Bourse. 16 The p e r s o n a l and s e l f - r e f l e c t i n g element i s not absent from the p o e t r y o f P a u l Chamberland. In "Le Poeme sans image," the poet e n c o u n t e r s h i m s e l f d u r i n g a n i g h t o f f l e e t i n g s t r e e t s and s t r a n g e , u n f r i e n d l y r a i n and, d i s m a l and c o n f u s e d , he p e r c e i v e s h i s l i f e ' s passage from c h i l d h o o d to a d u l t h o o d . He r e c o g n i z e s the y e a r s now faded and d i s p e r s e d which w i l l n e v e r r e t u r n . je me r e g a r d a i s f u i r pour t o u j o u r s 1 ' a l l e e des an c i e n n e s a n n e e s 3 7 But the s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t i s a v e r y minor one i n the whole of the work o f P a u l Chamberland. Indeed, h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f p o e t r y i s t h a t i t be a p o r t r a y a l o f t h e a c t u a l i t y and the human c i r c u m s t a n c e . He i s proud t o have r e j e c t e d , f o r the most p a r t , the n a r c i s s i s t i c v e r s e o f p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n and he says t h a t he has c r a c k e d the l o o k i n g - g l a s s poem, i n which the poet does n o t h i n g but contemplate h i m s e l f . Non, je n ' a t t e n d s r i e n de l a p o e s i e . Je coupe c o u r t a t o u s ces mythes de c a b i n e t : p o e s i e - e x e r c i c e - s p i r i t u e l , p o e s i e - a v e n t u r e - i n t e r i e u r e , p o e s i e - t r a n s m u t a t i o n - d e s - m o t s , p o e s i e - p o e s i e - P O - H E - Z Z i i i e . Tout c a , ce sont des e x c u s e s , des d e f e n s e s , des e c r a n s pour masquer ce que e s t a DIRE: l e s Fo r c e s majeures e t e n c h e v e t r e e s de l a T e r r e et de 11Homme, l ' H i s t o i r e en son t u f e t ses g e y s e r s . 3 ° Chamberland has a u n i v e r s a l c o n s c i e n c e . He laments "everyman" whose r o u t e on e a r t h i s t r e a c h e r o u s and pl a g u e d by s i r e n song and whose e v e r y s t e p f o r w a r d i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a 17 f a l l - . Man i s o b s c u r e , d i s s o l v a b l e and v e r y expendable: l ' o n s ' e v a n o u i t s u r l a r i v e obscure, f r e l e f i g u r e t r a n s l u c i d e une espece de p e l l i c u l e s o l u b l e i l l u s o i r e a g i t a t i o n de l a f i g u r e d e s e r t e e 3 9 The poet i s concerned w i t h modern man i n the contemporary w o r l d as w e l l as w i t h m o r t a l man i n the u n i v e r s a l p o e t i c sense. He speaks o f those who are h u r t l e d to t h e i r deaths on the highways. I n the second poem o f T r o i s "Purees" I n e d i t e s . Chamberland t r e m b l e s t o see the t h i n s t r a n d o f b l o o d on t h e neck o f the l i t t l e g i r l c r ushed by a c a r and he b a r e l y c o n t a i n s h i s rage a t the r a i n s w h i c h d i s p e r s e the green perfume of h e r body s c a r c e l y formed i n t h i s w o r l d . He w r i t e s o f c h i l d r e n d e s t r o y e d i n wars. He i d e n t i f i e s , i n "Hauts-Fournaux," w i t h a c o n t i n e n t ' s down- t r o d d e n poor. The poet and the worker are a s s o c i a t e d and bound t o g e t h e r by the same angry dream o f r e v o l t which w i l l l i b e r a t e them o f t h e i r m a s t e r s . H i s concern i s g r e a t f o r men who a r e t o r t u r e d and maimed and everyday a f f l i c t e d by the t e r r i b l e n u c l e a r t h r e a t . l e s c o r p s s o n t beaux a. l ' h e u r e du d e s a s t r e e t c e t t e heure e s t a chaque minute i c i ou l a , dans l e monde l o r s q u e l e monde n ' e s t p l u s que menace n u i t piquee de r a s o i r s h u r l e m e n t s s i r e n e s fumees fumees h o r r i - b l e s fumees de bombardements d ' i n c e n d i e s mons- t r e s de f e r plaquees s u r l e f u g i t i f l'homme p e t i t i n s e c t e t r a q u e t e r r a s s e e c l a b o u s s e l e monde d'un c l a i r f i l e t de sang d'une p a l e d e t r e s s e de peau q u i e s t c o n t e s t a t i o n de. l a s o l i d i t e n u c l e a i r e ^ O But Chamberland i s a s s o c i a t e d almost e n t i r e l y w i t h a s p e c i f i c r e g i o n o f m e n — w i t h the "pays," w i t h Quebec and i t s 1 8 i n h a b i t a n t s s u n k i n t o a p o l i t i c a l , m o r a l a n d s o c i a l i m p a s s e . I n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e p o e t s P a b l o N e r u d a , A n t o n i o M a c h a d o a n d V l a d i m i r M a y a k o v s k y whom h e a d m i r e s f o r t h e i r " e n g a g e m e n t " i n t h e m a t t e r s o f t h e i r p e o p l e a n d t h e i r c o u n t r i e s , P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d i s f o r e m o s t a p a t r i o t . T e r r e Q u e b e c i s d e d i c a t e d " a u p a y s " w h i l e l ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e i s d e v o t e d " a mes c o m p a t r i o t e s . " Homme de c e t t e t e r r e Q U E B E C , de ce " p a y s i n c e r t a i n , " j e v e u x nommer l e p a y s , l ' a r r a c h e r a u x s e r r e s d u f r o i d e t de l a n u i t , l e d e l i v r e r , d a n s mon p o e m e , de c e t t e o b s c u r e p a r o l e q u i g e m i t e n c o r e a u x l i m b e s de s a p r e h i s t o i r e . 4 1 I n h i s v e r s e , h e i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y c a u s e o f t h e P LQ a n d h e s u p p o r t s t h e m i n o p p o s i n g t h e E n g l i s h " o v e r l o r d s . " n o u s r e s t o n s c a m a r a d e s n o u s r e s t o n s v o s r a i s o n s s o n t l e s n o t r e s e t q u ' i m p o r t e q.u'au p i l o r i d e 1 ' a n g l a i s a u j o u r d ' h u i v o u s t o u r n i e z q u e n o u s t o u r n i o n s d e m a l n ^ " 2 T h e p o e t i s t i g h t l y l i n k e d t o t h e Q u e b e c d r a m a a n d n o t h i n g , h e s a y s , w i l l e v e r s a v e h i m f r o m t h e b i t t e r t o r m e n t o f t h e men o f h i s l a n d . H i s s u f f e r i n g , e x p r e s s e d s o o f t e n t h r o u g h o u t h i s v e r s e , i s a p a r t i c i p a t o r y a n d a f r a t e r n a l s u f f e r i n g f o r h e c a n n o t s e p a r a t e h i m s e l f f r o m t h e i r a n g u i s h . j e v i s j e m e u r s d ' u n p a y s p o i g n a r d e d a n s l e p l e i n c o e u r de s e s m o i s s o n s d e s e s p a s s i o n s e t ma d o u l e u r e s t l a i d e j e n e s a i s l a n o m m e r ^ H i s f e l l o w Q u e b e c e r s a r e s o c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d t o h i s v e r y p h y s i c a l b e i n g t h a t h e f e e l s w i t h i n h i s own f l e s h a d e c a y a n d a 19 r o t c orresponding to t h e i r s . mais jer s e n t a i s dans mes c h a i r s l a decomposition de m i l l e v i s a g e s p a r e n t s ^ In h i s poems he enumerates Quebec's gr i e v a n c e s and condemns i t s oppressors. He l a s h e s out a t the masters o f Quebec—the s w e e t l y - s m i l i n g , p o t - b e l l i e d , p a t r o n i z i n g and condescending "speak-white" E n g l i s h . He laments h i s people's s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic s e r v i t u d e and t a l k s o f t h e i r ignominious d i s i n t e g r a t i o n as a race i n a l a n d which i s t h e i r s but occupied. These p r o s t i t u t e d people are s i n k i n g i n t o anonymity and when f i n a l l y vanished from the p l a n e t ' s s u r f a c e w i l l not even possess the cu r t e p i t a p h o f beheaded people or s t a r v a t i o n v i c t i m s . T h e i r l e g a c y w i l l be a shameful white u n w r i t t e n page i n a h i s t o r y book. eh l a r u e l l e S a i n t - C h r i s t o p h e s'acheve un peuple jamais ne" une h i s t o i r e It dormir debout un conte qui f i n i t p ar l e d ^ b u t ^ Chamberland sees h i s p o e t r y as an instrument o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The poem i s p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e and i t i s f i r e d , l i k e a v o l l e y , a t the oppressors o f the French Canadians. . . . l e poeme-salve s'arme jusqu'aux dents l a poe'sie s'emmanche e t v i b r e au meme b o i s que l e couteau46 In o r d e r t o h u r l i t as a c h a l l e n g e , Chamberland r i s k s d i s f i g u r i n g t he poem so t h a t i t i s no l o n g e r p o e t i c a l l y and s t y l i s t i c a l l y c o r r e c t o r even r e a d a b l e . que l e poeme se d e f i g u r e que l e poeme s'appopulace q u ' i l se f a s s e boue e t c r a c h a t au f r o n t des e t o i l e s t r o p p ures q u i minaudent p a r - d e l a l e s b a r b e l e s des v i l l e s 4 7 C H A P T E R I . FOOTNOTES 1. M i c h e l e L a l o n d e , " T e m o i g n a g e s , " L i b e r t e , I I ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , I 9 6 0 ) , p . I 8 5 . 2. A l a i n G r a n d b o i s , " P a r m i l e s H e u r e s . . . " , P o e m e s , E d i t i o n s de l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 , p p . 2 4 - 2 5 . 3. " A h T e r r e R o n g e u s e , " I b i d . , p . 1 2 2 . 4 . " A h T o u t e s C e s R u e s . . . " , I b i d . . p p . 7 9 - 8 0 . 5 . P i e r r e de G r a n d p r e , D l x A n s de V i e L i t t e r a i r e a u C a n a d a F r a n c a l s , B e a u c h e m i n , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 6 , p . 3 5 . 6 . " C e s M u r s P r o t e c t e u r s . . . " , P o e m e s . p p . 5 7 - 5 8 . 7 . " C ' e s t a V o u s T o u s . . . " , I b i d . , p . 3 1 . 8 . A n n e H e b e r t , " P o e s i e , S o l i t u d e R o m p u e , " P o e m e s . E d i t i o n s d u S e u i l , P a r i s , I 9 6 0 , p . 7 1 . 9. P a u l W y c z y n s k i , " L ' U n i v e r s P o e t i q u e d ' A n n e H e b e r t , " L ' E n s e i g n e m e n t S e c o n d a i r e . X X X X I I ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 5 1 . 1 0 . A n n e H u b e r t , " J o u r d e J u i n , " L e s S o n g e s e n E q u i l i b r e . L e s E d i t i o n s de l ' A r b r e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 4 2 , p . 1 1 . 1 1 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 . 1 2 . " J a r d i n de F i e v r e , " L e s S o n g e s e n E q u i l i b r e , p . 6 9 . 1 3 . H e b e r t , "Un M u r a P e i n e , " P o e m e s . p . 3 8 . 1 4 . G i l l e s M a r c o t t e , " ' L e T o m b e a u d e s R o i s ' d ' A n n e H e b e r t , " Une L i t t e r a t u r e Q u i Se F a i t . L e s E d i t i o n s HMH, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 2 , p . 2 7 4 . 1 5 . I b i d . , p . 2 7 6 . 1 6 . G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , " P a r i e r C ' e s t G a r d e r E s p o i r , " L e Temps P r e m i e r . J e a n G r a s s i n E d i t e u r , P a r i s , 1 9 6 2 , p . 1 4 . 1 7 . G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , "Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t . L e s E d i t i o n s d u J o u r , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 , p . 8 5 . 1 8 . " I n e v i t a b l e T e r r e , " L e Temps P r e m i e r , p . 7 . 1 9 . " S o l i t u d e , " I b i d . , p . 1 1 . 2 0 . " L 1 O m b r e de l a L u m i e r e , " I b i d . , p . 28. 2 1 . "Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , p . 8 5 . 2 2 . " L e P r e m i e r M a t i n , " I b i d . . p . 1 3 . 23. " P r e s e n c e a u M o n d e , " I b i d . . p . 50. 2 4 . " E n t r e C i e l e t T e r r e , " I b i d . , p . 21. 2 5 . "D'Une R i v e a 1 ' A u t r e , " I b i d . , p . 3 7 . 2 6 . " L e s S a b l i e r s d u T e m p s , " I b i d . , p . 4 1 . 2 7 . "Ode a u S a i n t L a u r e n t , " I b i d . , p . 7 2 . 2 8 . " L e C h e v a l i e r d e N e i g e , I b i d . , p . 6 2 . 2 9 . F e r n a n d O u e l l e t t e , " 5 0 M e g a t o n n e s , " L e S o l e i l S o u s l a M o r t , E d i t i o n s d e l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 5 , p . 3 2 . 3 0 . " M ^ m o i r e , " I b i d . , p . 4 2 . 3 1 . " E t N o u s A i m i o n s , " I b i d . . p . 9. 3 2 . I b i d . , p . 1 0 . 3 3 . " V e r s N o u s , " L e S o l e i l S o u s l a M o r t . p . 2 3 . 3 4 . " L e M a i d e l a P a i x , " I b i d . , p . 29. 3 5 . F e r n a n d O u e l l e t t e , " Q u a t u o r C l i m a t i s e * , " S e q u e n c e s d e 1 ' A i l e , L e s E d i t i o n s d e l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 5 8 , p p . 4 8 - 4 9 . 3 6 . " R a d i o g r a p h i c d u J o u r , " I b i d . , p . 4 1 . 3 7 . P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , " L e P o e m e s a n s I m a g e , " T e r r e Q u e b e c . L i b r a i r i e Deom, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p . 6 1 . 3 8 . G u y R o b e r t , " P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , " L i t t e r a t u r e d u Q u e b e c . L i b r a i r i e Deom, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p . 2 8 7 . 3 9 . " D o m a i n e de l ' A v e u g l e I I I , " T e r r e Q u e b e c , p . 6 6 . 4 0 . P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , " T r o i s ' D u r d e s I n e d i t e s , 1 " ' L i v r e s e t A u t e u r s C a n a d i e n s . ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 4 6 . 4 1 . G u y R o b e r t , " P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , " L i t t e r a t u r e - d u Q u e b e c . Deom, M o n t r e a l , p . 2 8 9 . 23 4 2 . " D e u i l 4 j u i n 1 9 6 3 , " T e r r e Q u e b e c , p . 3 2 . 4 3 . P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . E d i t i o n s P a r t i P r i s , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p . 1 1 . 4 4 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 . 4 5 . I b i d . , p . 2 1 . 4 6 . " L e Temps de l a H a i n e , " T e r r e Q u e b e c , p . 3 5 . 4 7 . L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . p . 5 6 . i CHAPTER I I ATTITUDES A l a i n G r a n d b o i s 1 p o e t r y has been s a i d to e x p r e s s a v i g o r o u s l i b e r t y and the p o e t , i n s p i t e o f the f a t e f u l f o r c e s w h i c h r e p r e s s him, has been s a i d t o s t a n d up to d e f y h i s d e s t i n y and even wager t o win a g a i n s t i t . S e v e r a l o f h i s poems ar e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o p t i m i s m and c h a l l e n g e . I n "Le P r i x de Don" f o r example, t h e r e i s g l a d freedom and v i c t o r - i o u s c h e e r f u l n e s s . I n i t , G randbois has surmounted h i s human c o n d i t i o n and has c l i m b e d up i n t o the c l e a r , open sky above the f o r b i d d e n g l a c i e r s where he a t l a s t b r e a t h e s d e e p l y and w i t h o u t r e s t r a i n t . The d e s i r e d " d e l i v e r y o f the day" and the time o f the p e r f e c t a b s o l u t e are imminent. There w i l l be no more n i g h t and a l l the days, f o r e v e r a f t e r , w i l l be u n i t e d i n t o one unending and joyous day o f l i g h t and sun. Je r e s p i r e L ' a l l e g r e s s e s'empare de moi J ' h a b i t e aux sommets Des ^ . g l a c i e r s i n t e r d i t s E t l'aube f r a f c h e C'est l e m a t i n p r o c h a i n Tous l e s j o u r s s e r o n t r e u n i s ^ Grandbois does n o t w ithdraw b u t , p a r t o f the p u l s a t i n g r e a l i t y about him, he i s p e r c e p t i v e and r e s p o n s i v e t o l i f e . He a s s o c i a t e s h i m s e l f w i t h the r u s t l e and the v i t a l i t y o f the l e a v e s i n the p o p l a r s and w i t h the steamer, i t s s i r e n s h r i e k i n g p r o u d l y as i t d e p a r t s f o r new c o a s t s and the freedom o f the open s e a . He i s sure o f h i m s e l f . He brims w i t h a tough c o n f i d e n c e and p r o u d l y a f f i r m s t h a t he i s v e r y much a l i v e ("Je s u i s v i v a n t . " ) ^ The l a s t s t a n z a o f the poem r e c o r d s a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e however. J o l t e d back t o the r e a l i t y o f de a t h and the p a s s i n g o f a l l t h i n g s , the poet e x p l a i n s h i s r e c e n t o p t i m i s m as temporary. H i s i s and w i l l remain a "s h i p w r e c k e d " h e a r t , t r a g i c a l l y e n l i g h t e n e d i n the ways o f l i f e . Ah b e l l e s f e u i l l e s mortes A l l e e s s o l i t a i r e s b o i s d e " p o u i l l e s Les coeurs naufrage"s P a r f o i s remontent a l a s u r f a c e 3 I n "Amour," the poet i s t e n s e l y d e f i a n t and i n a t r i p l e dare he c h a l l e n g e s a b u l l e t t o r e a c h h i s h e a r t , s p i l l a l l h i s b l o o d and d e s t r o y b o t h h i m s e l f and h i s l o v e d one. But i n the v e r y n e x t s t a n z a , the d e f i a n c e becomes a f e a r f u l h e s i t a n c y and a doubt i n h i s own s t r e n g t h as Grandbois e n v i s i o n s an a p p r o a c h i n g storm which w i l l sweep t h e two l o v e r s away, l i k e so many fragments o f d u s t , to t h e i r d e a t h s . The poet i s , i n h i s own eyes , a l r e a d y moribund. Mais sous l ' a r b r e f r e m i s s a n t De 1'approche des n o i r s c y c l o n e s Devant ces durs oceans B a t t a n t l e u r s vagues f o l l e m e n t f o l l e s Nos peches meles a nos d o i g t s h u m i l i e s P r i s o n n i e r des mensonges perdus L 1ombre nous a v a l a n t comme une p o u s s i e r e A v a i s - j e l a f o r c e De t e g a r d e r dans mes b r a s Comme un avare moribond son t r ^ s o r ^ 2 6 The o p t i m i s m i s o c c a s i o n a l and s h o r t - l i v e d as t h e two p r e c e d i n g examples have i l l u s t r a t e d and i t i s d e s p a i r and r e s i g n a t i o n , n o t hope and s t r u g g l e , which are t h e dominant tones o f G r a n d b o i s i e n p o e t r y . G r andbois i s t r a g i c a l l y aware o f and r e c o n c i l e d to the u t t e r h o p e l e s s n e s s o f the human c o n d i t i o n . He has d e s i r e d a t r u e p o s s e s s i o n o f time and a r e a l a s s e r t i o n o f h i m s e l f i n each g l a d moment o f h i s l i f e . He has s t r i v e d t o c a p t u r e the p l e a s u r a b l e seconds. He has wanted t o make them e t e r n a l and h i m s e l f e t e r n a l w i t h i n them. But he knows t h a t t h e i n s t a n t cannot be r e t a i n e d and t h a t i t moves q u i c k l y away and so does each s u c c e e d i n g t o be c h e r i s h e d moment u n t i l t h e r e i s n o t h i n g l e f t o f them but memories and l i f e i s gone and one i s o l d and soon t o d i e . F o r G r a n d b o i s , c h i l d h o o d and i t s n a i v e o u t l o o k on the w o r l d i s l o s t f o r e v e r . Gone i s t h e c h i l d ' s f a i t h i n wonders, gone i s h i s c o m f o r t a b l e "oneness" w i t h a k i n d l y u n i v e r s e and h i s marvelous i n f a n t - k n o w l e d g e o f the s e c r e t s o f the s t a r s . The p oet r e q u e s t s a r e t u r n t o t h i s t i m e o f s p i r i t u a l buoyancy and i n n o c e n c e and he a s ks f o r the c h i l d ' s w o n d e r s t r u c k and c a n d i d a t t i t u d e towards l i f e , ("Je veux un o e i l e ' m e r v e i l l e ' , " ) 3 b u t a l l a l o n g he i s aware t h a t he may n e v e r go back t o t h a t g l o r i o u s epoch when a l l was p o s s i b l e and t h e d e a d l y t r u t h s o f the w o r l d were not known t o him. The p oet has even l o s t f a i t h i n h i s a n t i c i p a t e d " a b s o l u t e . " He r e a l i z e s t h a t the a r d e n t l y wished f o r "tomorrows o f g o l d " a r e b u t supreme i l l u s i o n and he damns h i s q u e s t f o r \ them. He t e r m i n a t e s h i s s e a r c h , f u l l y aware t h a t on the b r i g h t o t h e r s i d e o f the sun, i n the dream a b s o l u t e he sought so l o n g , t h e r e w i l l be no r e l e a s e o f the m o r t a l c a p t i v e s o f t h i s e x i s t e n c e . A l l the p r o m i s e s have proved d e c e i t . He i s r e m a r k a b l y r e s i g n e d to the f a c t o f h i s d e a t h and he a l m o s t welcomes i t s impending approach. There i s an a l a r m i n g tone o f p a s s i v e and s t o i c a c c e p t a n c e i n the s t a t e - ment , I I y a u r a demain mon e t e r n e l l e n u i t La dure et s e u l e n u d i t e de mes os Ma s u r d i t e mes yeux a v e u g l e s Les l i e s de mes a r c h i p e l s Seront profondement englouties° "En v a i n " i s a f r e q u e n t l e i t m o t i v e i n Grandbois' p o e t r y . He r e a l i z e s t h a t a l l s t r u g g l e i s f u t i l e and t h a t he can n e v e r win a g a i n s t h i s i n e v i t a b l e f u t u r e e t e r n a l s i l e n c e and d e a t h . He i s a l l too r e a d y to a c c e p t d e f e a t . He w i l l not make the n e c e s s a r y movements o f s e l f - l i b e r a t i o n b u t , unbudging and a c c e p t i n g t h e f a i l u r e o f e v e r y t h i n g he a t t e m p t s , he w i l l remain p a s s i v e and q u i e t . "Je demeurerai muet e t p a r a l y s e " . " 7 He withdraws i n t o a shadowy s e l f , r e v e l i n g w i t h an almost m a s o c h i s t i c p l e a s u r e i n h i s own a n g u i s h to which he w i l l i n g l y succumbs. Qu'une n u i t sans f i n d e r o u l e s u r moi ses v o i l e s de plomb 28 Je ne veux p l u s q u ' e n f o n c e r ma nuque e t mes d o i g t s dans ce d e l i r e Ou v e l l l e l e f r o i d b r u l a n t de l a d e r n i e r e s o l i t u d e 8 He i s devoted f a i t h f u l l y and r e l i g i o u s l y t o h i s d i s t r e s s e d s o l i t u d e and he d i s c o v e r s , i n the n i g h t o f h i s d i s c o u r a g e - ment, a s t r a n g e sweetness and co m f o r t . Et j ' e g r e n a i s ma s o l i t u d e comme l a devote son r o s a i r e 9 E t l a p l u i e m ' e n v e l o p p a i t comme un doux manteau La n u i t e t l a p l u i e me c o u v r a i e n t comme de t e n d r e s v e t e m e n t s l O D e m o r a l i z e d , he f l o u n d e r s i n s e l f - p i t y . The l i t t l e he wished f o r i n l i f e i s d e n i e d him. Je ne demandais p o u r t a n t qu'un peu de j o u r e t de q u i e t u d e Je ne demandais qu'un o e i l e t qu'un r e f l e t d'epaule Je ne demandais que ma p a r t d'homme a s s o i f f e de l a m b e a u x l l B e f o r e he has l i v e d a t a l l , he i s overcome by o l d age and death . Je n ' a i r i e n v u Je n ' a i r i e n goute Je n ' a i r i e n s o u f f e r t E t s o u d a i n l ' a g e b o n d i t s u r moi comme une pa n t h e r e n o i r e l 2 29 I n t h e s l e n d e r v o l u m e M y s t e r e de l a P a r o l e a r e f o u n d t h e o n l y e l e m e n t s o f o p t i m i s m and s p i r i t u a l v i v a c i o u s n e s s i n t h e w h o l e o f t h e p o e t i c w ork o f Anne H e b e r t . I n i t s poems t h e r e I s s t r e n g t h a n d t h e a s s u r a n c e and a u t h o r i t y o f one who h a s f i n a l l y d o m i n a t e d a l l t h i n g s . The w o r l d t h e p o e t d e s c r i b e s i n " N a i s s a n c e du P a i n , " w h ere a l l i s m a t u r i n g , b u b b l i n g , m o v i n g , r i c h , s p a r k l i n g a n d b o i s t e r o u s , m i r r o r s h e r own e n t h u s i a s m s and t h e o v e r f l o w i n g o f l i f e a n d v i g o r t h a t i s w i t h i n h e r . Le chaume c r u c r e v e l a campagne, l a v i e s o u t e r r a i n e l a i s s e p e r c e r s a c h e v e l u r e v e r t e . Le v e n t r e de l a t e r r e d e c o u v r e s e s f l e u r s e t s e s f r u i t s au g r a n d s o l e i l de m i d i . L ' a z u r p o u d r o i e comme une p o u s s i e r e d ' e a u ; n o s m a i n s p e i n t e s au r a s d u champ d e v i e n n e n t p a r e i l l e s a de g r a n d s p a v o t s c l a i r s . T o u t e f o r m e e t c o u l e u r p r o v o q u e e s m o n t e n t de l a t e r r e t e l l e s une r e s p i r a t i o n v i s i b l e e t r y t h m e e . Le champ p a l p i t e e t m o u t o n n e , t o i s o n b l a n c h i s s a n t e s o u s 1 ' e c l a t s t r i d e n t de l'e'te' a u x c i g a l e s a c i d e s . 1 3 I n " S u r v i e n n e l a Rose des V e n t s " t h e r e i s a c a l l t o a c t i o n a nd t o v i c t o r y o v e r m i s e r a b l e s o l i t u d e a nd s e l f - p i t y . When a l l seems b e y o n d hope and when d e c e p t i o n s and d e p r e s s i o n s h a v e h a n d i c a p p e d t h e s o u l , t h e w i n d w i t h i t s w i l d and s t i m u - l a t i n g f l a v o r o f h i g h s e a s and a d v e n t u r o u s f r e e d o m s comes l i k e a vehement p r o p h e t t o s c o l d , t o w h i p , and t o i n v i t e t h e p o e t away f r o m h e r c l o s e d room. T h e c h e e r f u l n e s s o f M y s t e r e d e l a P a r o l e m i g h t m a r k t h e f i n a l a n d d e f i n i t i v e s t a g e i n a m e n t a l e v o l u t i o n f r o m s a d m e l a n c h o l y t o o p t i m i s m b u t g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g m o s t o f t h e p o e t r y o f A n n e H u b e r t , a s f o u n d i n L e T o m b e a u d e s R o i s a n d L e s S o n g e s e n E q u i l i b r e . r e f l e c t s t h e same d i s i l l u s i o n a n d d e f e a t a s r e g a r d s t h e h u m a n p r e d i c a m e n t a s t h e p o e t r y o f A l a i n G r a n d b o i s . S h e u n d e r s t a n d s , l i k e G r a n d b o i s , t h a t t i m e t a k e s a l l t h e b e a u t y w i t h i t , l e a v i n g p o e t s a n d men w i t h n o t h i n g . T h e s u m m e r d a y i n " J o u r de J u i n , " w i t h i t s p r e c i o u s f u l l m i n u t e s o f f l o w e r s , w i n d , l i g h t a n d a z u r , d o e s n o t s t a y l o n g e n o u g h i n h e r r o o m f o r h e r t o h o l d a n d c a r e s s i t . G r a c i o u s r e a l i t i e s a r e e p h e m e r a l a n d t h e p o e t i s f o r e v e r d e n i e d p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e m . D a n s l a c h a m b r e , l e j o u r , Comme c e c h a t , J a m a i s n e d u r e a s s e z P o u r q u ' o n p u i s s e l e c a r e s s e r . 1 ^ I n " I n s t a n t , " b y m e a n s o f t h e a b r u p t l i n e s a n d t h e s h o r t n e s s o f t h e p o em i t s e l f , t h e p o e t s h o w s t h a t p l e a s i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , s u c h a s t h e j o y e n g e n d e r e d i n t h e o b s e r v e r b y t h e s i g h t o f a t r e e i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d a c h i l d b e n e a t h i t , s i n g i n g , a r e m o m e n t a r y a n d t h a t a l l t h a t c o m p o s e s s u c h s p l e n d i d v i s i o n s i s i n c o n s t a n t d a n g e r o f d i s r u p t i o n a n d d i s p e r s i o n . T h e g r a c e o f i t a l l i s p o i s e d p r e c a r i o u s l y 3 1 . w i t h i n t h e m o m e n t . L a r u e p a i s i b l e , L e v e r t t r a n s p a r e n t D e s f e u i l l e s , L 1 i n f l e x i o n D e s b o u l e a u x E t 1 ' e * l a n c e m e n t D e s b r a n c h e s ; Un e n f a n t Q u i c h a n t e , Un homme q u i p a s s e ; T o u t l e t e n d r e E t d o u x m a t i n : C e t a i r t r a h q u i l l e E t a r r e t e , C e t t e g r a c e P o s e e D a n s l ' i n s t a n t . 1 5 T h e l i t t l e n y m p h s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h e p o e t ' s c h i l d h o o d i n "Oh M e s J o i e s E n f a n t i n e s " d a n c e d t o o n e a r t h e r i v e r ' s e d g e a n d d i s a p p e a r e d a n d a l l t h a t i s l e f t o f t h e m a r e r i n g s o n t h e w a t e r ' s s u r f a c e . T h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e i s d i s c r e d i t e d b y t h e g r e y a n d d r y o l d p r o f e s s o r who e x p l a i n s t h e l i n g e r i n g c i r c l e s a s g e o m e t r y . T h e p o e t i s o b s e s s e d w i t h s u f f o c a t i n g d e a t h : C e s m e n u e t s e f f a c e s C e s m a i n s p e r d u e s , C e s p a s q u ' o n c h e r c h e . . H o p i n g t o e s t a b l i s h s o m e t h i n g t h a t w i l l r e m a i n , A n n e H e b e r t b u i l d s a d r e a m w o r l d . B u t t h i s w o r l d o f r e v e r i e e x i s t s i n a p r e c a r i o u s e q u i l i b r i u m . T h e d r e a m s a r e u n s t a b l e a n d q u i c k t o v a n i s h . "Une f o r c e i r r e p r e s s i b l e e m p e c h e l e s o n g e d e s e f i x e r , de s e f i g e r , de s e c r i s t a l l i s e r . In the poem " J o u r de J u i n , " a l l the f a i r y - t a l e — o f c a t s , l i t t l e g i r l s i n b r i g h t l y checked d r e s s e s , and y e l l o w s h e a f s o f w h e a t — i s a p p a r i t i o n and q u i c k l y m e l t e d . E t l e songe en e q u i l i b r e E s t t o u t d e s a r t i c u l e . . . De t o u t c e t a r t i f i c e Patiemment e d i f i e , I I n ' e s t p l u s que des d e b r i s . . .18 The poet i s d e p r e s s e d , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s o f t i m e , c h i l d h o o d , d e a t h and m a k e - b e l i e v e . However, she does n o t w i s h t o overcome t h i s m e l a n c h o l y but adopts a v e r y c o m p l a i s a n t a t t i t u d e towards i t . So w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h and f a i t h f u l t o h e r sadness, which has been w i t h h er so l o n g , she makes no attempt to e r a d i c a t e i t . S p eaking o f h e r " d o u l e u r , " she says Que ne p u i s - j e l a f a i r e s o r t i r l M a i s q u i r e m p l i r a i t A l o r s l e v i d e de sa presence Dedans moi? Le p l a i s i r y s e r a i t mai a l ' a i s e , E t moi a u s s i avec l u i , Depuis l e temps qu'on se c o n n a i t Ma d o u l e u r et moi . . .19 L o s t and d e f e a t e d , she f l o u n d e r s about i n h e r d e s p a i r i n "Sous l a P l u i e . " Her s o u l - w e a r i n e s s and her i n a b i l i t y to escape the d u l l sequence o f h e r days i s r e f l e c t e d i n the t h u d d i n g and monotonous r e p e t i t i o n o f c e r t a i n words and p h r a s e s i n the poem, such as "sous l a p l u i e / s o u s l a brume" and "perdu."20 Her h e a r t , f a i t h l e s s and l i s t l e s s and w i t h o u t f i r e and s p i r i t , i s one and the same w i t h the foggy and vacant r a i n f i l l e d l a n d s c a p e about h e r . Her p e r s o n a l emptiness and h e r s p i r i t u a l g r a y ness and i n d e c i s i v e n e s s match th e m i s t - c o v e r e d and i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e environment i n w h i c h she s t u m b l e s : En v a i n dans mon coeur Je g u e t t e . I I ne passe r i e n , R i e n que l a p l u i e , Que l a brume.21 I n "Un Mur a P e i n e , " the p o e t ' s f i n g e r s , l i k e the uppermost branches o f the b i r c h t r e e , seem to be extended, a p p a r e n t l y g r a s p i n g f o r a p i e c e o f s k y and a way out o f t h e i r humble and r e s t r i c t e d t e r r e s t r i a l s t a t e . But t h i s a c t of g r a b b i n g i s p u r e l y m e c h a n i c a l and w i t h o u t any d e s i r e and, n o t r e a l l y w a n t i n g to f i n d h e r l i b e r a t i o n , the poet i s p r e p a r e d to remain f i x e d i n h e r i n e r t i a . L i f e f l o w s , i n "Mort," from h e r weary and p a s s i v e arms but t h e r e i s no attempt made to r e t a i n i t . The sun and l i f e f l o w from between p o w e r l e s s , t i r e d and u n m o t i v a t e d f i n g e r s , spread a p a r t to f a c i l i t a t e the passage. La v i e c o u l e De mes b r a s Las; Le s o l e i l s ' e c o u l e On ne s a i t ou, E n t r e mes d o i g t s e c a r t e s , I I l u i t E t f u i t P a r ces p e t i t e s p o r t e s o u v e r t e s Que f o n t mes d o i g t s l a s . 2 2 34 H e b e r t i s l i n k e d i n u n b r e a k a b l e a n d d e v o t e d w e d l o c k t o a f u t u r e d e a t h . S e u l e ma f i d e l i t e me l i e . 0 l i e n s d u r s Que j ' a i n o u e s E n j e n e s a i s q u e l l e n u i t s e c r e t e A v e c l a mort 123 V e r y r e s i g n e d t o h e r m o r t a l i t y , s h e s e e s h e r s e l f a s a l r e a d y d e a d i n a v e r s e o f " L a C h a m b r e de B o i s " w h e r e s h e i s l i k e a d e a d r o o t o r a c l u m p o f e a r t h . " J e s u i s n u e e t t o u t e n o i r e s o u s u n a r b r e a m e r . " 2 4 j n " L a F i l l e M a i g r e , " t h e p r o u d a t t e n t i o n t h a t s h e l a v i s h e s u p o n h e r b o n e s , p r e p a r i n g t h e m s o t h a t t h e y w i l l b e a t t r a c t i v e i n t h e i r f i n a l r e s t i n g p l a c e , j u s t a s o n e w o u l d p o l i s h up m e d a l s f o r a n e x h i b i t , b e t r a y s a n a t t i t u d e o f c a l m a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e g r a v e , a n d d e a t h . S h e i s p e a c e f u l l y r e c o n c i l e d a n d , i n a d i r e c t a n d s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d m a n n e r u n t i n g e d e v e n w i t h s e n t i m e n t s o f r e g r e t , s h e a f f i r m s t h a t u n d e r h e r f l e s h s h e i s a s k e l e t o n a n d v e r y m o r t a l . J e s u i s u n e f i l l e m a i g r e E t j ' a i de b e a u x o s . J ' a i p o u r e u x d e s s o i n s a t t e n t i f s E t d ' e t r a n g e s p i t i e s J e l e s p o l l s s a n s c e s s e Comme de v i e u x m e " t a u x . 2 5 T h e r e i s a s t r a n g e s u b m i s s i o n i n t h e p o e m " L e T o m b e a u d e s R o i s , " a s t h e p o e t , l i k e a s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m , y i e l d s t o d e a t h . E t ma c h a i r q u i t r e m b l e : O f f r a n d e r i t u e l l e e t s o u m i s e . 2 6 35 G a t i e n L a p o i n t e ' s v e r s e i s d e f i a n t l y o p t i m i s t i c and the e x p r e s s i o n o f a f i g h t i n g p h i l o s o p h y i n s p i t e o f o c c a s i o n a l s p i r i t u a l b l a c k n e s s e s and the f r i g h t s he f e e l s f o r f r a g i l e men. E v i d e n t i n i t i s h i s own determined hope as w e l l as a p r o f o u n d f a i t h i n a l l men's a b i l i t y t o surmount t h e i r human s i t u a t i o n . "La p o e s i e c ' e s t d'abord pour moi un homme condamne a m o u r i r e t q u i d i t MON." 2 7 L a p o i n t e i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t , i f man o n l y a c t s , i f he opposes t o the f o r c e s o f h i s d e s t i n y which plague him a work o r a c r e a t e d t h i n g , i f he s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t a l l odds as i f he w i l l g a i n e v e r y t h i n g , he w i l l one day t r a n s c e n d a l l t h a t c o n s t r i c t s him. There are images t h r o u g h o u t L a p o i n t e ' s p o e t r y o f a g l o r i o u s p e o p l e t r i u m p h i n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g on t h i s e a r t h a d i g n i t y o f men. And thes e human r e n a i s s a n c e s are g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h combustion, c r a c k l i n g f l a m e s , and g l o w i n g y e l l o w , r e d , and orange l i g h t s . E t l'homme e s t un s o l e i l q u i g r a n d ! t dans l a t e r r e 2 ^ Je v o i s l'homme j e t a n t s u r l a n u i t sa rouge a u r o r e 2 ^ L'homme, Ce t t e flamme debout Dans l e v e n t , 3 0 There i s a v i s i o n o f man l i b e r a t e d from d e a t h , t i m e , and m o r t a l m e d i o c r i t y and anonymity, p r e s e n t i n a day o f v i c t o r y and i n a m i r a c u l o u s w o r l d o f an e t e r n a l p r e s e n t , a w o r l d o f 36 w h i t e a n d y e l l o w b r i l l i a n c e , o f s u n a n d o f a n e n v e l o p i n g and' f r a t e r n a l n a t u r e w i t h i t s b i r d s , r i v e r s a n d a b u n d a n t g r e e n - n e s s . A n d t h i s " p r e m i e r j o u r , " o r " t e m p s p r e m i e r , " i s n o t j u s t a d r e a m b u t a p o s s i b i l i t y . S o m e t i m e s i t i s v e r y c l o s e a t h a n d : E t c o n f i a n t l e s o l e i l m a r c h e t o u t p r e s d e s hommes, P r e s q u e p a r m i e u x ; R e v e a v e c e u x d ' u n j o u r f r a t e r n e l . 3 1 S o m e t i m e s i t i s b e g i n n i n g : Un monde n o u v e a u c ommence a. ma d r o i t e 3 2 I n o t h e r v e r s e s , i t h a s a l r e a d y come t r u e : 0 ' e t a i t u n p u r m a t i n d a n s l ' o e i l d e s b e t e s E t p a r l e r o u v r a i t a l'homme u n e e t e r n i t e . 3 3 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p o e t h i m s e l f , h e i s a t t i m e s a n g u i s h e d a n d e v e n r e s i g n e d t o h i s own p r i v a t e d e s t i n y o f m o r t a l man. J e s u i s s o u s t e r r e E t l e c h a n v r e de l ' a i r p e s e s u r mon v i s a g e Q u i f e n d r a mes y e u x q u i f e n d r a ma b o u c h e P o u r q u e m o n t e l ' a r b r e de p r i n t e m p s p u r L e s r a c i n e s e t o u f f e n t mon v i s a g e J e s u i s s o u s t e r r e J ' e m p r u n t e a u x s a i s o n s l e nom de ma d o u l e u r . 3 ^ B u t t h e t e n d e n c y t o f i g h t a n d c h a l l e n g e , t o c r e a t e h i m s e l f a n d h i s own d e s t i n y , i n d e f i a n c e t o t h e g o d s , i s m u c h g r e a t e r t h a n 37 the tendency t o f l o u n d e r . With L a p o i n t e t h e r e i s no weakness and no c r u m b l i n g o f the s e l f , but i n s t e a d d e t e r m i n a t i o n , s t r e n g t h , and r i g i d i t y o f s p i r i t . Optimism and hope are t h e major s e n t i m e n t s o f h i s p o e t r y . He a f f r o n t s and r e f u s e s the d e s t i n y which i s b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r him. Ma c h a i r se rassemble comme un d e f i ! . 3 5 J ' a b o l i r a i l a mort je v i v r a i k t o u t p r i x . 36 He moulds h i m s e l f , o r d e r s and c o n s t r u c t s h i s w o r l d , and a f f i r m s and s i t u a t e s h i m s e l f i n time and space. E t j ' a i d e s s e i n d ' o r g a n i s e r Ordonner a f i n de ne pas mourir37 J ' a f f i r m e un grand b e s o i n d ' e t r e e t d'aimer^® The poet i s b o r n a g a i n from h i s wounds and h i s m i s f o r t u n e s r a t h e r than d e s t r o y e d by them and he i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by a l l t h a t c h a i n s and b i n d s him. "Je n a i s de mes p r o p r e s b l e s s u r e s . " By w r i t i n g , he can c r y "no" t o h i s f a t e . By means o f words he can c o n s t r u c t a new and f i n e r r e a l i t y and e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f w i t h i n i t . A chaque i n s t a n t mot a mot Je c o n s t r u i s mon u n i v e r s Je prends r a c i n e dans une p r ^ s e n c e ^ There i s no f u t i l e o b s e s s i o n w i t h the p a s t b u t r a t h e r a 3 8 concern w i t h a l l the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the present and the f u t u r e . He does not withdraw from r e a l i t y b u t , a c c e p t i n g the r i s k s , plunges i n t o l i f e and a l l i t s danger because each day and each moment b r i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the promise o f h i s s a l v a t i o n . " J ' a i c h o i s i de v i v r e dans 1 ' i n s t a n t — a v e c danger. 41 avec p a s s i o n ; " As opposed to the e a r l i e r poets f o r whom l i f e was o f t e n a f r u s t r a t i n g and c r u e l condemnation, f o r L a p o i n t e , j u s t to be a l i v e , i n s p i t e o f the o c c a s i o n a l h u r t and unhappiness , i s a joy and a v i c t o r y . He f e r v e n t l y accepts a l l the b i t t e r n e s s and a l l the marvel o f l i f e and he speaks o f the "Douce de'chirante m e r v e i l l e d ' e t r e . " ^ - 2 H i s opt imism i s i r r e p r e s s i b l e and he sees t h a t a l l i s be fore him and yet to be a c c o m p l i s h e d . I g n o r i n g the r e s t — t h e sorrows and the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f m e n — a l l he knows i s tha t which he imagines and hopes f o r . V i v r e c ' e s t a l l e r v e r s p l u s de lumiere Et je ne s a i s que ce que j 1 imagine .4-3 44 Je ne peux pas m'empecher d'espe'rer At t imes i t appears t h a t he has d i s c o v e r e d the e t e r n a l present (much sought but never found by A l a i n Grandbois and Anne Hebert) i n a l l i t s green and l u s c i o u s p e r f e c t i o n , uncontaminated by time and death . On me nomme en un present i n f i n i 2 ^ He s t i l l r e t a i n s the candor and the magic of c h i l d h o o d , l o s t f o r e v e r t o the e l d e r g e n e r a t i o n p o e t s , and i t s p o s i t i v e and h o p e f u l a t t i t u d e has n e v e r l e f t him. Je g a r d e r a i l e s yeux de mon e n f a n c e ^ Je r e c o n n a i s ma p a r o l e d ' e n f a n t ^ ? Chaque aube me r e v e i l l e au bord de mon enfance Un a i r de p r i n t e m p s me met s u r l a r o u t e E t l a montagne monte au rythme de mon p i e d ^ o C h i l d h o o d i s a weapon, a lamp and r e f u g e i n h i s a d u l t h o o d . Enfance 6 lampe souveraine^"9 Mon enfance e s t une epee vive5° E n f a n c e , o f a l a i s e ou je m'agrippe!51 Death i s a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the p o e t r y o f Fernand O u e l l e t t e . The poet d e s c r i b e s the t e r r i f i e d q u a k i n g of the human body when l i f e , t oo "blonde" and too c a r e f r e e , stumbles i n e v i t a b l y a g a i n s t t h e hard n e s s and the somberness o f d e a t h . He r e f e r s t o the " n i g h t d u s t , " the seeds o f b l a c k d e a t h which seep i n t o men's eyes, c o v e r i n g and c h o k i n g a l l the l i f e g l i t t e r w i t h i n them. But O u e l l e t t e sees t h a t s u f f e r i n g and m o r t a l i t y can be overcome. Indeed, O u e l l e t t e i s alm o s t c o n s t a n t l y o p t i m i s t i c and he n e v e r ceases t o see " l e s o l e i l sous l a mort." I n the 4 0 p o e m , " A u d i e n c e a u P l e i n de 1 ' E s p a c e , " d e a t h h a n g s o v e r t h e p o e t l i k e a h e a v y b l a c k u m b r e l l a a n d y e t , i n s p i t e o f i t s m e n a c e , h e c o n t i n u e s t o l i s t e n t o t h e t h r u s h a n d i t s s o n g o f l i f e a n d b i r t h . S o u s l a m o r t e n p a r a s o l , j ' e c o u t e l e r i t e p e n e t r a n t d e l a g r i v e . L e f r a i s d e s s i n d ' u n r y t h m e de n a i s s a n c e q u i m ' a l l e g e . 5 2 O u e l l e t t e c a n n o t c o n t a i n h i s own h a p p y h o p e . He i s p o s i t i v e t h a t t h e d e a t h w h i c h g r i p s h i m c a n b e c a s t o f f a n d h e e x c l a i m s : F o r c e d u s o l e l l me b r u l e de s e v e l E t d e p u i s l e s c h e v i l l e s b r i s e ma m o r t 153 He t a l k s o f p e r s o n a l c o n q u e s t : E t l o r s q u e d e l ' a r b r e s u r g i t ma p a r o l e de c o n q u e t e , l a f o n t e f r a f c h e du s o l e i l g r a n - d i s s a i t l e b l e . 5 4 H i s p o e t r y s p e a k s o f men, w h o , l i k e c o n q u e r i n g h e r o e s , t r a n s c e n d t h e i r h u m b l e e a r t h l i n e s s a n d a d v a n c e c o n t i n u o u s l y a n d u n h e s i t a t i n g l y i n a t r i u m p h a n t w a l k t o w a r d s t h e s u n , l i b e r t y , a n d l i f e . S e l f - p i t y , f r u s t r a t i o n a n d s p i r i t u a l c o l l a p s e , b r o u g h t o n b y a s a d r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e h uman c o n d i t i o n , a r e u n k n o w n t o t h e m a n d t h e y a f f i r m a s t u b b o r n w i l l t o l i v e . I n " E t N o u s A i m i o n s , " t h e r e i s a r e s p l e n d e n t i m a g e o f mankind w i t h a l l the madness and f u r y o f f i e r y s p i r i t i n i t s f l e s h , a s c e n d i n g i n t o a r i c h , b r i g h t , and g l o w i n g w h i t e space. Man i s s p e a k i n g , c r y i n g , commanding and o r d e r i n g and t h e r e i s t a l k o f " b o r n i n g " and o f l i v i n g j o y f u l l y and f u l l y . A i n s i nous p a r l i o n s avec une v o i x en n a i s s a n c e q u i h u r l e . A i n s i l e d e l i r e des fe u x dans l a c h a i r . E t nous a v a n c i o n s dans l e b l a n c , e t nous v i v i o n s de v i e , e t nous aimions.55 I n " G e o l o g i c " man r i s e s so h i g h above t h e w o r l d o f m o r t a l men t h a t he soon f i n d s h i m s e l f beyond the sun i t s e l f . I n a g l o r i o u s l i n e , t he poet d e s c r i b e s t he v i c t o r y o f ascended man. Le s o l e i l se h i s s a i t a 1'homme.^6 I n "Epopees" t h e r e i s a v i s i o n , w h i c h , because o f i t s s u r r e a l i s t i c and e t h e r e a l q u a l i t i e s , b r i n g s to mind the p a i n t i n g s o f Marc C h a g a l l . Human forms f l o a t h i g h i n space i n a d i z z y i n g and happy w h i r l o f s o a r i n g b i r d s and b e a t i n g w i n g s , f l a s h e s o f b r i l l i a n t l i g h t and c o l o r , and c l u s t e r s o f s t a r s . Quand l e s p o i t r i n e s b o l i d e s de p a r l ' e s p a c e r e l i e n t cent v i l l e s d ' e * t o i l e . Car du g r a n i t t r a n c h e p a r f e u , l e s dynas- t i e s d ' o i s e a u x comme une f o i r e d ' e c l a i r s abondante r e t r o u v e n t l e monde. 42 Epopees de haut v e r t i g e l Et se p r o l o n g e d ' e s p o i r en e s p o i r l a pure c h r o n i q u e de l ' a i l e . 57 "Hors du S o l e i l " p o r t r a y s man, v e r y much a l i v e , marching d e t e r m i n e d l y a c r o s s a l a n d s c a p e and p u l l i n g from i t the bones o f death i n o r d e r to l e t the v i t a l green show t h r o u g h a g a i n . He removes the t r a c e s o f the grave from h i s environment and b o t h he and t h e e a r t h a re renewed, rewarmed, r e k i n d l e d and r e i n s p i r e d w i t h l i f e , l i g h t and warmth. Les v i v a n t s se m e t t e n t en marche a r r a c h a n t l e s os des paysages. E t l e Word a p a i s e sa v i o l e n c e v i v e . La c h a l e u r g l i s s e l e n t e comme une femme g l i s s e h o r s du s o l e i l . 5 o The p o s s i b i l i t y o f the m i r a c l e i s always p r e s e n t i n O u e l l e t t e 1 s p o e t i c v i s i o n . There i s a t h w a r t i n g o f death and even a r e s u r r e c t i o n i n " E t i n c e l l e . " There i s the s p e c t a c l e o f human b o d i e s , l i k e t i g h t p e t a l s which s w e l l and f i n a l l y explode i n t o b l o s s o m , b r e a k i n g open and blooming i n f a n t a s t i c c o u n t r i e s where the sun n e v e r s e t s . E c l o s i o n de c o r p s - p e t a l e s et de pays s o l a i r e s . I n v a s i o n de l ' o e i l s u r l e monde. Q u ' i l s r e s p i r e n t l e s v i e u x e n s e v e l i s q u i r e v i e n n e n t parmi l e s n a i s s a n t s . 5 9 43 " L a n g u e de l ' A i l e " r e p o r t s " l a f o r t e i n / v a s i o n d e l ' a i r s u r l a m o r t , a n d d e s c r i b e s a r a c e o f g i a n t men who a r e s t r o n g , p r o u d , c o n f i d e n t a n d f r e e : C a r 1 ' a t t e r r i s s a g e d ' u n c i e l a. n o s l e v r e s s e p r e p a r e . E t s u r t e r r e , p a r u n a i r d e g u i t a r e , n o s a r t e r e s p r o l o n g e n t l e s g r a t t e - c i e l , N o s a l p h a b e t s m u r i s s e n t s u r d e s t o i t s q u i m o n t e n t . ° l " V e r s N o u s " i n d i c a t e s a v i o l e n t a n d d e t e r m i n e d u r g e n c y . T h e p o e t i s c e r t a i n t h a t men a r e c l o s e t o r e i n v e n t i n g t h e m - s e l v e s a n d t h a t , w i t h s t a r s i n t h e i r h a n d s l i k e g r e n a d e s , t h e y may c r u s h t h e m e m o r y o f a l l t h a t t h e y w e r e b e f o r e ( d e a t h - b o u n d ) a n d a c c o m p l i s h a n d a r r i v e a t t h e i r d e s i r e d i m a g e o f t h e m s e l v e s . T h e r e i s a l s o a v i s i o n o f a n e w a n d e t e r n a l w o r l d - - a l l g r e e n n e s s , v e g e t a b l e w e a l t h , f l o w e r i n g a n d l o v e . V e r s n o u s v e n o n s a v e c d e s e t o i l e s a u x m a i n s comme d e s g r e n a d e s . T e r r a s s o n s n o t r e m ^ m o i r e ! E t s e l e v e n t d e s i m a g e s g r a n d e s o u v e r t e s , j u s q u ' a l ' h e r b e e t 1 a m o u r 1 6 2 P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d ' s p o e t r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y o p t i m i s t i c v i s i o n s o f a r e v o l t i n g a n d d e f i a n t Q u e b e c a n d b y t h e d e t e r m i n e d h o p e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o e t h i m s e l f who r e a l i z e s t h a t h e m u s t r i s e a b o v e h i s p e r s o n a l m e l a n c h o l i e s b e c a u s e , a s s p o k e s m a n f o r 44 the r i g h t s o f h i s f e l l o w F r e n c h Canadians as w e l l as f o r a l l men, he has a r o l e t o p l a y and a job to a c c o m p l i s h . There are times when Chamberland does not seem t o e n v i s i o n a n y t h i n g f o r Quebec. He e x c l a i m s t h a t h i s "pays" i s d y i n g and t h a t n e v e r w i l l the f o u n d a t i o n s be l a i d f o r the much d e s i r e d " l i v i n g space" and t h e s o v e r e i g n s t a t e . A l l h i s p e o p l e ' s p r o j e c t s are a b o r t e d i n t h e i r b e g i n n i n g s . au temps n u l de n a f t r e jamais de m o u r i r t o u j o u r s -- t o u t l i e u se derobe a f o n d e r l e pays 1 'espace de v i v r e — q u e l l e s mains v i e n n e n t p a l p e r nos f r o n t s b a r r e s ° 3 But g e n e r a l l y h i s v e r s e i s v i s i o n a r y and promises much. Throughout, the l i n e s are crowded w i t h images o f a r e v o l t which w i l l produce an independent and proud Quebec. C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e are images o f n i g h t , b l a c k n e s s , p a d l o c k s , c o l d , and s u f f o - c a t i o n . But w i t h them are the l i b e r a t i o n images o f d a y l i g h t , f i r e and b l o o d . Indeed, the f r e q u e n t symbol o f f r e e - f l o w i n g b l o o d i s an i m p o r t a n t one i n Chamberland's p o e t r y and r e p r e s e n t s the angry and f r e n z i e d r e v o l t o f Quebecers shut up too l o n g i n the n i g h t o f t h e i r s u b m i s s i o n . The poet mentions, f o r example, " l e j o u r humain du s a n g . " ^ Chamberland t a l k s o f an undaunted p e o p l e who s t r u g g l e and p r o t e s t . He e x p l a i n s t h e i r f i r s t " s t r i d e s " i n the r e c o n q u e s t of t h e i r d i g n i t y . He d e s c r i b e s the " v i s a g e du f e u " ^ ^ which w i l l b r e a k open the b a r r i c a d e d doors o f t h e i r n i g h t s and b i t e i n t o and melt the mooring ropes o f r e p r e s s i o n . He i m a g i n e s the s p l a s h i n g o f b l o o d , p a d l o c k e d too l o n g , on the pavement. I n "Les N u i t s Armees," the time o f the "matins 45 s o l d a t s " 6 6 has a r r i v e d and the p o e t ' s b r o t h e r s , t h e i r c r i e s r e v e r b e r a t i n g i n h i s n e r v e c e l l s and t h e i r f o o t s t e p s drumming over h i s v e r t e b r a e , are m a r c h i n g , armed, hot-tempered and m i l i t a n t i n quest o f t h e i r day and t h e i r r e l e a s e from bondage. They are c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e y can wrench from the "hundred n i g h t s " t h e i r "TERRE QUEBEC." The f e r o c i t y o f a peopl e i s d e p i c t e d i n " D e u l l 4 J u i n 1 9 6 3 . " There i s the v i o l e n t sound of i n s u r r e c t i o n — t h r o b b i n g , hammering, smashing, h e a v i n g , t h u n d e r i n g , e x p l o d i n g and b l a s t i n g as w e l l as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t o o l s o f d e s t r u c t i o n and r e b u i l d i n g — a n v i l s , powder, canons, bombs, c l a s h i n g m e t a l s and f o r g e s . I n "Poeme de l ' A n t e r e v o - l u t i o n I , " Chamberland's countrymen, endowed w i t h a f i e r y and superhuman power, d i r e c t and p a r t i c i p a t e i n a world-wide upheaval which s p r i n g s from t h e i r s . nous serons de nos armes de ce temps des C h r i s t rouges q u i vendangent l e s r o i s e t t i r e n t des p r i s o n s des n a t i o n s - b l a - sonndes aux c o u l e u r s de l ' e n c l u m e 6 7 At one p o i n t i n T e r r e Quebec. Chamberland i s so t r a n s p o r t e d by h i s o ptimism t h a t he speaks as though the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l metamorphosis has a l r e a d y been wrought. He d e s c r i b e s an e n t i r e p e o p l e , f i n a l l y l i b e r a t e d and r a d i a n t , who have a b o l i s h e d d e a t h , c o l d , and o p p r e s s i o n and who now p o s s e s s t h e i r l a n d . Secure w i t h i n t h e i r r e a c q u i r e d s t a t e , t h e y a re surrounded by wheat and warmth, l a d e n t a b l e s , and b l a c k , r i c h s o i l s . Summer r i n g s l o u d l y and g l e e f u l l y i n t h e i r v e r y marrow. 4 6 i l nous f a l l a i t ces o r i s d 1 a v r i l tous ces m i r o i r s en f e u aux l e v r e s du c i e l dmigre s u r nos t o i t s pour f o r c e r l ' h i v e r e t l a mort jusqu'au p l u s o b s c u r de nos os pour y r a v i v e r l ' e t i n c e l l e aux r e i n s de t o u t un peuple e n f i n r a d i a n t l ' e s p a c e de chemins g u e r r i e r s ah b l e c h a l e u r e t t a b l e e p a i s s e r i t u e l des s o l s n o i r s e t g r a s t o u t l e c i e l d'un j e t dans nos l a b o u r s ah l a danseuse i n c e n d i a i r e au l o n g du f l e u v e a r t e r i e l n o t r e corps n o t r e ete" r e t e n t i jusque dans l a m o e l l e l ' e s p a c e n o t r e p a t r i m o i n e sous l e s q u a t r e epees du v e n t et l e s f o r e t s l e s b a n q u i s e s l e s g u l f - s t r e a m c i n g l a n t l ' h o r i z o n de nos s e m a i l l e s 6 8 Concerned a l s o w i t h a l l o f mankind, Chamberland f e a r s t h a t i t might erase i t s e l f i n the sweat o f m e a n i n g l e s s and f u t i l e l a b o r and i n the f u r y o f war. But doubt becomes hope and the poet v i s u a l i z e s man, f r e s h , f r e e , and c l e a n s e d o f the memory o f a l l he was b e f o r e , recommencing h i s s t o r y on the w h i t e page o f morning. He r e a f f i r m s h i s p r e s e nce i n the w o r l d and i n l i f e . i l a v a i t i n v e n t e c o n t r e sa mort l e s paysages de l a f o r c e i l c i m e n t a i t de s a l i v e l ' o s s a t u r e des montagnes i l i m p o s a i t aux eaux l a forme innombrable de son corps l a l u n e r e m o n t a i t l e c o u rs de ses a r t e r e s f l e u r cadencee du p l a i s i r i l a v a i t femme dans l ' e s p a c e a. t o u t e s d e f a l l i a n c e s de l a n u i t et l ' h i r o n d e l l e p e r p e t u a i t l e l o n g c r i acere de ses b r a s jusqu'au s e u i l du feu°9 Because o f the d i s t r e s s he f e e l s so s t r o n g l y f o r h i s Quebec, the poet o f t e n s i n k s h e l p l e s s l y i n t o a s t a t e o f p r o f o u n d u n h a p p i n e s s , s p i r i t u a l b l a c k o u t , and even, a t t i m e s , s e l f - p i t y because he belongs to the wretched s u b j e c t r a c e of. French Canadians. He c r i e s out t h a t , poor i n b o t h h i s name and h i s l i f e , he knows no l o n g e r what t o do o r where t o go on t h i s e a r t h . He i s g u i l t y , l i k e G r a n d b o i s , o f r e s i g n i n g h i m s e l f t o o r e a d i l y t o h i s m e l a n c h o l y and o f g l o r y i n g i n h i s v i c t i m ' s r o l e . M o t i o n l e s s , a p a t h e t i c , and s t r a n g e l y c o n t e n t , he c o n f e s s e s : immobile j'adore 1 ' I n t e r d i c t i o n 7 0 B u t , u n l i k e A l a i n Grandbois and Anne H e b e r t , t h i s weakness i s o n l y a temporary c o n d i t i o n and i t does n ot c h a r a c t e r i z e Chamberland's g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e . The d e s i r e t o t r a n s c e n d h i s m i s e r y i s much s t r o n g e r . When he i s a t h i s l o w e s t he w i l l s u d d e n l y scream out t h a t what he i s — a human b e i n g and a French C a n a d i a n — h e w i l l defend and p r o t e c t , a t a l l c o s t s . He r e a l i z e s t h a t he cannot remain e n t a n g l e d f o r e v e r i n h i s f r u s - t r a t i o n s s i n c e , as a poet o f Quebec, he has a r o l e t o i n d i c a t e the way (he c a l l s h i m s e l f a "lampe"), provoke "L'Evenement" and "La Chose,"71 and b r i n g the day and the l i g h t t o h i s p e o p l e . j ' i n t e n t e aux n u i t s fermees l a cesure du j o u r 7 2 He i s v e r y much a l i v e , a c t i v e , and e n e r g e t i c f o r h i s Quebec. je v i s je s u i s sobre e t v i v a n t j ' a i t o u t mon sang pour mon pays e t ma v i g u e u r pour l ' y e n s o u r c e r l i b r e et d r u 7 3 He becomes g i a n t - l i k e , f e a r f u l l y a v e n g i n g and even s l i g h t l y r a b i d i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to f i g h t the o p p r e s s o r s o f a l l men. H i s c h a l l e n g e s are b o l d . He says t h a t i n s p e a k i n g , he " t e a r s , " and t h a t h i s words and h i s g l a n c e s have the s t r e n g t h o f cl a w s . So b i g i s h i s a p p e t i t e f o r the t o r m e n t e r s of o t h e r s , t h a t he would n o t h e s i t a t e t o g u z z l e g r e e d i l y a l l t h e e s t a b l i s h e d and crowned p e o p l e , a l l the murderers o f c h i l d r e n , and a l l the e x t i n g u i s h e r s o f s k y and sun. He w i l l c r u c i f y , he s a y s , a l l the v i o l a t o r s o f the temple o f l i f e . I n a s e c t i o n o f l ' A f f l c h e u r H u r l e . he e r u p t s i n a f e v e r i s h condemnation o f the c a l l o u s masters o f the humble. aux a c q u e r e u r s aux f i n a n c i e r s aux p u t a s s i e r s aux c a b o t i n s aux mangeurs d'hommes aux honnetes hommes aux c r o a c r o a aux p i l l e u r s d'ames aux negrophages aux n e g r i e r s de p e u p l e s aux l a n c e u r s de m i s s i l e s aux monnayeurs de sue u r s humaines aux gardes-chiourme de l a v i e j e d i s : vous ne l ' e m p o r t e r e z pas en p a r a d i s nous aurons v o t r e peau j e d i s : MERDE74 CHAPTER I I . FOOTNOTES 1 . A l a i n G r a n d b o i s , " L e P r i x d u D o n , " P o e m e s , E d i t i o n s d e l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 , pp. 1 7 6 - 1 7 7 . 2. I b i d . . p . 1 7 4 . 3. I b i d . , p . 1 7 7 . 4. " A m o u r , " P o e m e s , p . 2 1 9 . 5. " L a R o u t e S e c r e t e , " I b i d . , p . 1 0 8 . 6. " D e m a i n S e u l e m e n t , " I b i d . , p . 1 2 5 . 7. "Ce Q u i Me V i e n t . . . " , I b i d . , p . 5 1 . 8. " L e F e u G r i s . . . " . , I b i d . , p . 2 9 . 9. " A h T o u t e s C e s R u e s . . . " , I b i d . , p . 7 7 . 1 0 . I b i d . , p . 7 5 . 1 1 . " L e F e u G r i s . . . " , P o e m e s . p . 2 7 . 1 2 . " D e m a i n S e u l e m e n t , " I b i d . . . . p p . 1 2 6 - 1 2 7 . 1 3 . A n n e H e b e r t , " N a i s s a n c e d e P a i n , " P o e m e s , E d i t i o n s de S e u i l , P a r i s , i 9 6 0 , p. 7 7 . 1 4 . A n n e H e b e r t , " J o u r d e J u i n , " L e s S o n g e s e n E q u i l i b r e . L e s E d i t i o n s de l ' A r b r e , M o n t r e a l , 1942,' p . 1 4 . 1 5 . " I n s t a n t , " I b i d . , p . 3 3 . 1 6 . " D a n s e , " I b i d . , p . 3 1 . 1 7 . G u y R o b e r t , " E q u i l i b r e e t D y n a m i s m e d u S o n g e , " L a P o e " t l q u e d u S b n g e . A.G.E.U.M., 1 9 6 2 , p . 4 4 . 1 8 . " J o u r d e J u i n , " L e s S o n g e s en E q u i l i b r e . p . 1 3 . 1 9 . " M i n u i t , " I b i d . , p . 7 1 . 2 0 . " S o u s l a P l u i e , " I b i d . , p. 2 3 . 2 1 . I b i d . , p . 2 4 . 2 2 . " M o r t , " L e s S o n g e s e n E q u i l i b r e . p . 7 9 . 50 23. "Un M u r a P e i n e , " P o e m e s . p . 3 7 . 2 4 . " L a C h a m b r e d e B o i s , " I b i d . , p . 4 3 . 2 5 . " L a F i l l e M a i g r e , " I b i d . , p . 3 3 - 2 6 . " L e T o m b e a u d e s R o i s , " I b i d . , p . 6 0 . 2 7 . G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , " L e P a r i de n e p a s M o u r i r , " L e P r e m i e r M o t . L e s E d i t i o n s d u J o u r , M o n t r e a l , 1967, p . 9. 2 8 . G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , " I n e v i t a b l e T e r r e , " L e Temps P r e m i e r . J e a n G r a s s i n E d i t e u r , P a r i s , 1 9 6 2 , p . 7. 2 9 . G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , "Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , L e s E d i t i o n s d u J o u r , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 , p . 85. 3 0 . L e P r e m i e r M o t , p . 9 2 . 3 1 . I b i d . , p . 4 8 . 3 2 . " J ' A p p a r t i e n s a l a T e r r e , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , p . 4 4 . 3 3 . "Du S o l a. l a P r e m i e r e B r a n c h e , " I b i d . , p . 2 3 - 3 4 . " L ' A r b r e de P r i n t e m p s , " L e Temps P r e m i e r , p . 1 5 . 3 5 . L e P r e m i e r M o t , p . 2 4 . 3 6 . " P r e s e n c e a u M o n d e , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , p . 50. 3 7 . "Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , " I b i d . , p . 8 1 . 3 8 . I b i d . . p . 8 7 . 3 9 . "Du S o l a l a P r e m i e r e B r a n c h e , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , p . 23 4 0 . " P a r i e r C ' e s t G a r d e r l ' E s p o i r , " L e Temps P r e m i e r , p . 1 4 . 4 1 . G u y R o b e r t , " G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , " L i t t e r a t u r e d u Q u e b e c , L i b r a i r i e Deom, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p . 207. 4 2 . " P r e s e n c e a u M o n d e , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , p . 4 9 . 4 3 . " I I S u f f i t d ' u n V i s a g e , " L e T e m p s P r e m i e r , p . 1 9 . 4 4 . "Du S o l a l a P r e m i e r e B r a n c h e , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t . P. 25. 4 5 . "Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , " I b i d . . p . 8 6 . 4 6 . " S o l e i l Q u o t i d i e n , " I b i d . , p . 3 1 . 4 7 . " L e s S a b l i e r s d u T e m p s , I b i d . , p . 4 3 . 4 8 . "Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , " I b i d . , p . 7 1 . 4 9 . " S e u l l e D e s i r , " L e Temps P r e m i e r , p . 2 2 . 5 0 . " L ' I n s t a n t e t l ' A n n e e , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , p . 1 5 . 5 1 . L e P r e m i e r M o t , p . 9 1 . 5 2 . F e r n a n d O u e l l e t t e , " A u d i e n c e a u P l e i n d e l ' E s p a c e , " S e q u e n c e s de l ' A i l e . L e s E d i t i o n s de l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 5 8 , p . 1 5 . 5 3 . F e r n a n d O u e l l e t t e , " P r i n t e m p s , " L e S o l e i l S o u s l a M o r t , E d i t i o n s d e l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 5 , P.. 5 2 . 5 4 . " O r a g e de P r o f i l , " S e q u e n c e s de l ' A i l e , p . 1 2 . 5 5 . " E t N o u s A i m i o n s , " L e S o l e i l S o u s l a M o r t . p . 1 2 . 5 6 . " G e o l o g i e , " I b i d . , p . 2 6 . 5 7 . " E p o p e e s , " S e q u e n c e s d e l ' A i l e . p . 1 3 . 5 8 . " H o r s d u S o l e i l , " L e S o l e i l S o u s l a M o r t . p . 1 8 . 5 9 . " E t i n c e l l e , " I b i d . , p . 5 8 . 6 0 . " L a n g u e d e l ' A i l e , " S e q u e n c e s d e l ' A i l e . p . 1 7 . 6 1 . I b i d . , p p . 1 7 - 1 8 . 6 2 . " V e r s N o u s , " L e S o l e i l S o u s l a M o r t . p . 2 4 . 6 3 . P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , " L e s N u i t s A r m e e s , " T e r r e Q u e b e c , L i b r a i r i e Deom, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p . 1 6 . 6 4 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 . 6 5 . "Poeme de 1 ' A n t e r e v o l u t i o n I , " T e r r e Q u e b e c , p . 3 9 . 6 6 . " L e s N u i t s A r m e e s , " I b i d . , p . 1 2 . 6 7 . "Poeme de 1 ' A n t e r e v o l u t i o n I , I b i d . , p . 3 9 . 6 8 . " L e s N u i t s A r m e e s , " I b i d . , p . 1 9 . 6 9 . " T r a c e s d e l ' O b s c u r , " I b i d . , p . 7 5 . 70. P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e , E d i t i o n s P a r t i P r i s , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p . 2 4 . 7 1 . G u y R o b e r t , " P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , " L i t t e r a t u r e d u Q u e b e c . L i b r a i r i e Deom, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p . 2 8 8 . 7 2 . " L e s N u i t s A r m e e s , " T e r r e Q u e b e c , p . 1 2 . 7 3 . "Poeme de 1 1 A n t e r e v o l u t i o n I I , I b i d . , p . 4 1 . 7 4 . L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e , p . 6 5 . CHAPTER I I I NATURE In A l a i n G r a n d b o i s ' p o e t r y the n a t u r e i n which men and the poet l i v e i s immense and i n f i n i t e . One cannot d e f i n e i t s e x t r e m i t i e s f o r i t has none and i t s elements o f s k i e s , atmospheres, d e s e r t s , p l a i n s , g a l a x i e s , and seas a re b o u n d l e s s . "La mer baigne t o u t mon h o r i z o n / L a mer e s t i l l i m i t e e . " 1 T h i s cosmic s p a c i o u s n e s s i s t r o u b l e d and angry. I t i s i n an almost c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f up h e a v a l and t e r r i f y i n g t u r m o i l . I t s components are u n s t a b l e and the " e t e r n a l " n a t u r a l laws w h i c h once governed them have been r e v o k e d . Mammoth r i v e r s o v e r f l o w t h e i r banks, r e d - h o t h e l l s a r e u n l e a s h e d and b l a z e from above, p l a n e t s are t o p p l e d out o f t h e i r o r b i t s and vo l c a n o e s jump and r o a r . Inhumanly v a s t and empty spaces are shrouded i n p e r p e t u a l b l a c k n e s s and g r e a t w i n d s , o r i g i n a t i n g a t the p o l e s , w h i r l a c r o s s them. Les l o i s e t e r n e l l e s G a l o p a i e n t comme des chevaux fous Les n u i t s tombaient l'une s u r l ' a u t r e Nous a v i o n s l e s yeux b r u l e s 2 Ce f e u q u i b r u l e d'en haut Crachant s a flamme pour une p l u s pure d e s t r u c t i o n Ces f l e u v e s de"bordant de v o l c a n s en s u r s a u t Ces typhons t o u r n o y a n t avec une v i t e s s e f o u d r o y a n t e ? Des ecumes t e n e b r e u s e s r e f o u l a i e n t un f l e u v e demesure v e r s des espaces g r o u i l l a n t de mondes d e s c e l l e s ^ Man has no p l a c e w i t h i n t h i s d i s r u p t e d u n i v e r s e . H i s f r a g i l i t y , h i s d e f e n s e l e s s n e s s , and the u t t e r f u t i l i t y o f a l l h i s attempts t o c r e a t e f o r h i m s e l f something f i n e r and sweeter are i l l u s t r a t e d by c o n t r a s t i n g him w i t h the t e r r i b l e v a s t n e s s and d e s t r u c t i o n which a r e a l l around him. What chances have the poet and men, among a l l t h e s e c y c l o n e s o f m i s f o r t u n e and these unhinged h e l l s , o f e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a n y t h i n g o f v a l u e ? Ah s i nos f a i b l e s d o i g t s P a r m i ces c y c l o n e s de malheur Parmi ces e n f e r s d e c h a i n e s e t ces a s t r e s perdus Parmi c e t t e ombre suspendue aux p r o f o n d e u r s de l a mer Cherchent avec une v e r i t a b l e h u m i l i t e Des t e n d r e s s e s p a r e i l l e s a. des lampes v o i l e e s 5 The weakness, nakedness, and s o l i t u d e o f man and the poet are c o n t i n u a l l y emphasized. et moi sous mes s e u l s cheveux^ . . . nos t e n d r e s d o i g t s . . . .7 6 f a i b l e s s e des d o i g t s ^ Nos mains t r e m b l a n t e s . . .9 . . . b r o u i l l a r d s de mes m a i n s 1 0 55 Je s u i s s e u l et nu Je s u i s s e u l et s e l Je f l o t t e a. l a d e r i v e s u r l a m e r x l I n t h i s rampaging w o r l d man i s b u t an appearance and a r a p i d l y p a s s i n g phenomenon. 0 tourments p l u s f o r t s de n ' e t r e qu'une s e u l e a p p a r e n c e ^ 2 Nature s c o r n s , t r i c k s , and menaces man. As an a l i e n and as a s u p e r f l u o u s and unwelcome element i n the scheme o f t h i n g s , man i s v i c t i m i z e d by a c a p r i c i o u s and c a l c u l a t i n g environment w h i c h does a l l i t can t o r e j e c t and e l i m i n a t e him. The n a t u r e w i t h i n which he moves, assuming human a t t r i b u t e s , can be c r u e l l y c o l d and u n f e e l i n g and i n s e n s i t i v e l i k e g r a n i t e . D i s d a i n f u l , i t almost appears to l a u g h a t h i s c r i e s and a t h i s que s t f o r a way out o f h i s h e l l o f m o r t a l man. et ce grand r i r e de p i e r r e i n a t t a q u a b l e ^ ? U n i n v o l v e d i n the p o e t ' s s u f f e r i n g , i t seems to i g n o r e t h e murmur o f h i s s p i l l e d b l o o d . Le c i e l de ma b l e s s u r e Repousse l e murmure De l a duree de mon s a n g l ^ G r a n d b o i s ' u n i v e r s e i s s u b v e r s i v e and t r e a c h e r o u s and n o t to be t r u s t e d . I t deludes men w i t h o c c a s i o n a l f a l s e appearances o f s e c u r i t y and c o m f o r t . I n the poem " P r i s e t P r o t e g e . . . ," the poet t e l l s o f h i s a t t r a c t i o n to the s e a , and how, seduced by the s l e e k s w e l l i n g o f i t s s u r f a c e , he i s t a k e n , embraced, and p r o t e c t e d by i t . But the p r o t e c t i o n i s d e c e i t , the i n n o c e n t waves h i d e u n t o l d dangers and may a t any moment be whipped i n t o f r e n z i e d storm. The p o e t , b e l i e v i n g h i m s e l f s a f e , i s a l l the time condemned. P r i s e t protege" et condamne" p a r l a mer Je f l o t t e au c r e u x des h o u l e s l 5 Grandbois has d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the s h e l t e r h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s o f f e r i s but i l l u s i o n and t h a t a l l i s a t r a p which has been c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d f o r him. Ces murs p r o t e c t e u r s et ce p l a f o n d f r a t e r n e l e t ces t r o u s d 1ombre e t c e t t e grande ombre et ce p l a n c h e r de f e r l 6 Man i s hemmed i n and weighed down upon by n a t u r e . B r e a t h i n g h e a v i l y about him, i t t h r e a t e n s t o e n g u l f him. Les colonnes du c i e l p r e s s e n t mes e p a u l e s Les p o i d s des p r o f o n d e u r s f r i s s o n n e n t sous m o l l 7 There was a t i m e , however, when the w o r l d was l e s s awesome and much more green and f r i e n d l y . I t was c l o s e r and more f a m i l i a r and t h e poet then was i n harmony w i t h i t . He b l e n d e d i n t o i t s p e a c e f u l f r e s h n e s s . He c o u l d s m e l l the green odor o f the wind, hear the d e l i c a t e " b r u s h i n g " o f summer days 57 i n t he t r e e s , and watch each morning r i s e from the sea t o f a l l a g a i n i n t o the s o f t b l u e n e s s o f new mountains. V e r t e odeur du v e n t Frolement des j o u r s Chaque m a t i n m o n t a i t de l a mer P l o n g e a n t aux douceurs Des p l u s neuves montagnes Nous v i v i o n s m i l l e f o i s D'adorables n a i s s a n c e s Nous e n t e n d i o n s m i l l e f o i s Ce gemissement m u s i c a l Tombant t o u t d r o i t Des a s t r e s dormantlS C ' e t a i t l e s j o u r s b i e n h e u r e u x Les j o u r s de c l a i r e v e r d u r e l 9 But now, as an a d u l t , he has come t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s p a s t communion w i t h n a t u r e was a myth o r a t e n d e r f a i r y - t a l e and t h a t t h i s a ngry u n i v e r s e i n w h i c h he now f i n d s h i m s e l f i s the o n l y r e a l i t y . He f u l l y r e a l i z e s t h a t the " f e u i l l a g e d ' o r " 2 0 n e v e r e x i s t e d . P i e r r e C h a t i l l o n sees Anne Hubert i n a sweet and sensuous u n i o n w i t h the w o r l d about h e r . A c c o r d i n g to him, h e r p o e t r y t e s t i f i e s t o a happy l o v e o f the u n i v e r s e and t o a sense o f w e l l - b e i n g and ease a t b e l o n g i n g r i g h t f u l l y t o i t . She i s one w i t h a warm and f r i e n d l y n a t u r e and h e r d e l i g h t a t b e i n g a l e g i t i m a t e and u n t h r e a t e n e d p a r t o f i t i s e v i d e n t i n the l y r i c a l e f f u s i o n s o f poems l i k e " S o i r , " "Le M i r o i r , " and 58 " T e r r e , " o f the c o l l e c t i o n Les Songes en E q u i l i b r e . as w e l l as i n s e v e r a l poems o f Mystere de l a P a r o l e . The j o y o f the poet i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s f a r from i n h o s p i t a b l e n a t u r e i n which she moves i s e x p r e s s e d i n the v e r s e s o f " S o i r " where she d e s c r i b e s e x u b e r a n t l y and a f f e c t i o n a t e l y the t r e e i n h e r s t r e e t . I t seems t h a t she cannot t h i n k o f enough ways t o d e f i n e i t . I t i s a f o l i a g e o f l a c e , a c l o u d o f a f o l i a g e , a mass o f s h i f t i n g l i g h t s , and an a r c h o f green f r e s h n e s s . There i s a sense o f k i n s h i p and communion w i t h a l l o f n a t u r e , r e p r e s e n t e d by the t r e e , as the poet l o s e s h e r s e l f e a s i l y i n the welcoming embrace o f i t s b r a n c h e s . L'on peut se p e r d r e Dans une grande f o r e t : E t v o i l a , moi, Je me s u i s perdue Dans l e f e u i l l a g e D'un a r b r e , Dans ma r u e . F e u i l l a g e De grace i r r e e l l e , Lumineux f e u i l l a g e , F o r e t Ou j ' h a b i t e . 2 1 I n t h e poem "Le M i r o i r , " one f i n d s a g a i n t h i s i d e a o f a p o e t - n a t u r e f e l l o w s h i p . Her naked f e e t s i n k i n t o and mingle w i t h the c o l d , dew-dampened g r a s s a t dawn. Her h a i r i s o f one and the same e a r t h l y s ubstance w i t h the hay and i s warmed, l i k e i t , i n the f i e l d s a t noon by the sun. 59 Je p e i g n a i s mes cheveux Encore chauds de s o l e i l , Comme l e f o i n Dan s l e champ, A m i d i . 2 2 A k i n to and i n harmony w i t h e v e r y t h i n g t h a t s u r rounds h e r , she has come t o b e l i e v e t h a t she can s e i z e upon, h o l d c l o s e to h e r , and p o s s e s s f o r e v e r , the g r a c e s and the n a t u r a l abundances o f t h i s e a r t h — a l l i t s suns, s t a r s , wheat f i e l d s , warmths, perfumes, green woods and b l u e w a t e r s . She i s an I n t e g r a l p a r t o f n a t u r e and n a t u r e , i n i t s e n t i r e t y , b e l o n g s to h e r . A l ' a u b e , p i e d s nus Dans l ' h e r b e f r o i d e , J ' a i c r u que l ' h e r b e E t l a r o s e e e t a i e n t a moi. Le s o l e i l q u i se l e v a i t , Les e t o i l e s q u i ne b r i l l a i e n t p l u s , Et l e j o u r d'avant, E t l e j o u r d ' a p r e s , J ' a i c r u que t o u t e*tait a m o i . 2 3 She i s n o t the v i c t i m o f a h a r s h u n i v e r s e , to be m i s t r e a t e d and m i s h a n d l e d by i t a c c o r d i n g t o i t s whims. But l i k e the c h i l d w i t h b u i l d i n g b l o c k s who can c r e a t e , i n h i s p l a y , complete w o r l d s a f t e r h i s f a n c y , she appears to c o n t r o l and o r g a n i z e , even i f i t be o n l y i n h e r i m a g i n a t i o n , h e r own l i t t l e u n i v e r s e where a l l to h e r t a s t e i s f r i e n d l y , warm and f i l l e d w i t h r a d i a n c e . She i s e x c i t e d by h e r own power f o r the sun i t s e l f i s m i r a c u l o u s l y a t h e r d i s p o s a l . 6 0 J ' o r g a n i s a i s mon j e u , J e d i s p o s a l s d u s o l e i l P o u r mon j e u ; E t l e s o l e i l s e d i s p o s a i t P o u r mon j e u : T o u t ! t o u t p o u r mon j e u ! 2 4 The p o e m " T e r r e " r e c o r d s H e b e r t ' s h e a l t h y s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e a n d h e r e a r t h l y e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t r a n s l a t e s t h e p l e a s u r e i t i s f o r h e r t o b e a l i v e a n d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a l l t h e p l e n i t u d e o f n a t u r e . T h i s w o r l d i s a n u n s p o i l e d , p e r f e c t a n d v e r y c o m f o r t a b l e p l a c e . I t i s e v e n a p a r a d i s e . O d e u r s , R o s e e s u r l e s f l e u r s , C o u l e u r s , C o u l e u r s d e s e a u x ; C h o s e s q u ' o n t o u c h e , C h o s e s q u ' o n r e s p i r e E t c h o s e s q u ' o n m a n g e . 0 t e r r e s t r e s p a r a d i s ! 2 5 / I n M y s t e r e de l a P a r o l e , t h e p o e t , w h o s e p o i n t o f v i e w h a s m o v e d f r o m " j e " t o " n o u s " a n d " v o u s , " s e t s o u t t o s i n g o f t h e " w e d d i n g " o f man w i t h t h e e a r t h . The p o e m " M y s t e r e d e l a P a r o l e " d e s c r i b e s t h e t i g h t u n i o n o f man a n d n a t u r e . I t a l s o d e s c r i b e s man who c l i n g s t o a l l h i s e a r t h l y p r o p e r t i e s ( h i s " a v o i r " ) — t h e a l d e r s , f e r n s , l e a v e s , f l o w e r s , g r a s s e s a n d s o i l s t h a t h e k n o w s b e l o n g t o h i m . D e s f i l c h e s d ' o d e u r n o u s a t t e i g n i r e n t , n o u s l i a n t a. l a t e r r e comme d e s b l e s s u r e s e n d e s n o c e s e x c e s s i v e s 0 s a i s o n s , r i v i e r e , a u l n e s e t f o u g e r e s , f e u i l l e s , f l e u r s , b o i s m o u i l l e " , h e r b e s b l ' e u e s , t o u t n o t r e a v o i r s a i g n e s o n p a r f u m , b e t e o d o r a n t e a n o t r e f l a n c 2 6 61 S t i l l i n the same poem, man's h e a r t b e a t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e p u l s a t i n g o f the w o r l d i n the s p r i n g t i m e . Les t r o i s coups de l a c r e a t i o n du monde sonnerent a nos o r e i l l e s , rendus p a r e i l s aux battements de n o t r e sang27 Except f o r M ystere de l a P a r o l e , where a mature p o e t f i n a l l y emerges from h e r sad cocoon o f d e s p a i r i n g s o l i t u d e t o adopt a r a d i c a l l y new b u t a u t h e n t i c and d e f i n i t i v e a t t i t u d e o f happy and c o n f i d e n t u n i o n w i t h the w o r l d o f men as w e l l as w i t h t h a t o f n a t u r e , the phenomenon o f a b l i s s f u l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a generous and i n v i t i n g n a t u r a l o r d e r b e l o n g s to a v e r y d i s t a n t p o i n t somewhere i n the p o e t ' s c h i l d h o o d . A c t u a l l y , the a d u l t poet e x i s t s i n a w o r l d w h i c h , i n a l l i t s G r a n d b o i s i e n d e s o l a t i o n and darkness i s h o s t i l e and u n f r i e n d l y towards h e r . T h i n k i n g o f c h i l d h o o d w i t h g r e a t r e g r e t and n o s t a l g i a , Hebert w r i t e s the poems " S o i r , " " T e r r e , " and "Le M i r o i r " as i f she were once a g a i n and f o r a b r i e f moment t h a t l i t t l e g i r l who b l e n d e d w i t h and belonged so h a p p i l y t o n a t u r e . However, even the c h i l d o f these poems i s not untouched by doubt as to whether t h i s f e l l o w s h i p w i t h e a r t h i s t r u l y p o s s i b l e and can l a s t . For example, i n the f i n a l s t a n z a o f " T e r r e , " a f t e r a l l the e x c i t e m e n t o f t h i n k i n g she b e l o n g s to t e r r e s t r i a l p a r a d i s e s , the c h i l d s u d d e n l y b e g i n s t o dread t h e shadowy e m p t i n e s s , t h e c o l d , and the l o n e l i n e s s o f l u n a r l a n d s c a p e s 62 where she f e a r s she w i l l soon be t r a p p e d and f o r e v e r d i s s o c i a t e d from n a t u r e ' s warmth. De l a t e r r e Ou je v o i s l a l u n e Aux b l e u s c r a t e r e s , Je c r i e : D e l i v r e z mon ame Des paysages l u n a i r e s Que l e s o l e i l n ' a t t e i n t p l u s ! 2 8 T r a n s p o r t e d f o r a moment by h e r power, she knows however, b e f o r e the end o f " T e r r e , " t h a t the c o n t r o l she h o l d s over h e r w o r l d i s n o t r e a l b u t t r u l y the meager " j e u " she f e a r e d i t was a l l a l o n g . She i s r e t u r n e d t o the nakedness, impotence and s u b m i s s i o n o f h e r human c o n d i t i o n ' . She i s v e r y a l o n e and w i t h o u t the comfort o f n a t u r e l e t a l o n e any p o s s e s s i o n o r c o n t r o l o f i t . Pauvre j e u ! Pauvre poeme que j ' d c r i s , C l a i r i e r e ou j ' a v a i s c r u C o n v i e r t a n t de t r e s o r s e x o t i q u e s E t d ' a l e n t o u r . Simple m i r o i r Ou je me r e t r o u v e E n t i e r e et s e u l e , Sans aucun changement , 2 9 I n " J o u r de J u i n , " the c h i l d r e a l i z e s t h a t she i s d i v o r c e d from n a t u r e . A l l t h a t she can s e i z e o f summer i s the sweet and h e a r t - b r e a k i n g perfume o f e a r t h and she i s f a t e d t o remain always on the o u t s i d e o f i t s f r i e n d l y greenness and magic. La f e n e t r e e s t grande o u v e r t e . De l ' e t e l ' o n n'eprouve Que ce n a v r a n t parfum de t e r r e . 3 0 6 3 Indeed, Anne Hebert has s a i d t h a t h e r c h i l d h o o d ' s dream o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n and p o s s e s s i n g the e a r t h was i l l u s i o n . I n s e c u r i t y and unhappy a l i e n a t i o n b e s t d e f i n e h e r p o s i t i o n i n the n a t u r a l w o r l d . J ' e t a i s un e n f a n t depossede du monde. P a r l e de"cret d'une v o l o n t e a n t e r i e u r e a l a mienne, je d e v a i s r e n o n c e r a t o u t e p o s s e s s i o n en c e t t e v i e . 3 1 The poem "Espace" d e s c r i b e s a v a s t and h o s t i l e space where the winds sweep a l l away b e f o r e them, the seas rumble m a l i c i o u s l y and s e a g u l l s , t h e i r c r i e s g r a t i n g l i k e p u l l i e s , s o a r above s h i f t i n g and u n s t a b l e w o r l d s . At one p o i n t i n the poem, Hebert i s a d r i f t on what appears to be a g r e a t ocean. She i s i n s e c u r e and b e w i l d e r e d and unable to d i s c e r n a shore where she might f i n d s h e l t e r , l e t a l o n e r e a c h . So overcome i s she by the vagueness and b o u n d l e s s n e s s o f the expanse on which she f l o a t s , she i s n o t even c e r t a i n whether i t be a sky, a wind o r a sea. R i e n n ' e n t r a v e l e v e n t ; Et l e b r u i t de l ' e a u , E t l e b r u i t du v e n t Creusent d ' a u t r e s mers, Avec chacune sa s o l i t u d e . Le c r i des mouettes, Qui g r i n c e comme des p o u l i e s , T r a v e r s e s u r des a i l e s Ces mondes changeants: Mais p o u r q u o i p a r l e r du r i v a g e Et des e s p o i r s qu'on a eus Sur l a greve de s a b l e ? Puisqu'on e s t maintenant En p l e i n e mer, A ce p o i n t e x a c t , 64 Au m i l i e u de 1'Ocean, Ou t o u t e s l e s r i v e s sont i n v i s i b l e s , E t qu'on ne s a i t p l u s S i l ' o n vogue s u r l e c i e l , Sur l a mer ou l e v e n t , 3 2 " F i g u r e de Proue" d e p i c t s a t h r e a t e n i n g w o r l d o f gloom and n i g h t . B l a c k n e s s has c o v e r e d the l i g h t s o f s t a r s and moons and the most dominant element w i t h i n i t seems t o be a h a r s h wind which s c a t t e r s the perfumes o f i n v i s i b l e l e a v e s . A l l t h e sweet t h i n g s o f n a t u r e have been overcome by the powers o f d a r k n e s s . I I v e n t e . Le v e n t C'est t o u t l e moment. Le c i e l e s t t e r n e . I I semble V o u l o i r d c r a s e r La t e r r e . Pas d ' e * t o i l e , Pas de l u n e ; I I n'y a que l e v e n t . Les f e u l l l e s neuves, On ne l e s v o i t pas Dans l e n o i r . I I n'y a que l e v e n t , Que d i s p e r s e l e u r s p a r f u m s . 3 3 The poet and h e r s o u l are b l i n d and l o s t under the c o l d w h i t e f o g o f an i n d e f i n i t e c o u n t r y s i d e i n "Sous l a P l u i e . " The w o r l d i s a l l vacuum and u n f r i e n d l i n e s s and Hebert i s t r a g i c a l l y a l i e n a t e d and a l o n e . 65 Le paysage e s t l o n g , A p e r t e de vue Sous l a p l u i e , P e rdu Sous l a p l u i e , Sous l a brume. Mon ame sous l a brume, La brume f r o i d e e t b l a n c h e , Dans ce paysage, Perdue sous l a p l u i e , Sous l a p l u i e , Perdue Sous l a brume.34 I n t h e p o e t r y o f G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , one i s f a r removed from the g r u d g i n g and u n k i n d u n i v e r s e o f the two e l d e r p o e t s , a u n i v e r s e which e n g u l f e d man i n i t s immensity and d i s s o l v e d him i n i t s g r a y n e s s . L a p o i n t e ' s w o r l d has n o t the h o r r i b l e and g i g a n t i c g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s and p r o p o r t i o n s o f the G r a n d b o i s i e n l a n d s c a p e . There are no i n t e r s t e l l a r w a s t e s , t o w e r i n g v o l c a n o e s , upset g a l a x i e s , t w i s t i n g winds and i n t e r m i n - a b l e and vague s t r e t c h e s o f m i s t . I n s t e a d , n a t u r e i s c l o s e r and more i n t i m a t e and f a s h i o n e d to man's s i z e . I t i s a t h i s l e v e l . I t i s comprised o f sun, s k y , t r e e s , g r a s s , r a i n b o w s , r o o t s , s a p s , s o i l s , f u r r o w s , f o r e s t s , f l o w e r s , a n i m a l s and b i r d s . There are a l s o s e a s , r i v e r s , snow, r a i n and wind but t h e y are n e i t h e r h o s t i l e n o r menacing. L a p o i n t e ' s w o r l d i s not v i c i o u s and t h e r e e x i s t s a warm bond between i t and man which P i e r r e de Grandpre c a l l s an " a m i t i e t e l l u r i q u e . " 3 5 Nature i s h o s p i t a b l e r a t h e r than d i s d a i n f u l and a l o o f . 66 E t l e e r e p u s c u l e m'ouvre ses b r a s en f l e u r s 3 6 S h e l t e r i n g and p r o t e c t i v e , i t s s o i l s a r e a b l a n k e t w h i c h s h i e l d man w h i l e i t s a n i m a l s warm him. La t e r r e e s t t o n p r e m i e r b e r c e a u . ^ ^ Je f a i s mon l i t dans l a c h a l e u r des betes38 I t n u r t u r e s , s t r e n g t h e n s , and reanimates man and the p o e t . Je r e p r e n d s s o u f f l e dans chaque a r b r e , Je b o i s l e sang de chaque bete;3 9 The c l a y s and t h e humus o f the n a t u r a l w o r l d can c l o s e men's wounds. A d d r e s s i n g h i m s e l f to men, the poet a d v i s e s , Remplis t a b l e s s u r e de t e r r e f r a l c h e * ^ 0 I t s f r i e n d l y b e a s t s a c c o m p l i s h m i r a c l e s f o r him and w i t h i n i t s happy b o r d e r s c h i l d h o o d ' s d e l i g h t s may be grasped once a g a i n . Un o i s e a u me rend mon e n f a n c e ^ l Nature adopts human a t t r i b u t e s , becoming u n d e r s t a n d i n g and something i n which man and t h e poet may c o n f i d e . I t s g e n t l e , s o f t r a i n s are i n v e s t e d w i t h a s t r a n g e p u l s i n g and c o n s o l i n g s p i r i t . I t s m i l d winds are "w i s e " and man, t r a n s l a t i n g t h e i r murmurs, f o l l o w s t h e i r c o u n s e l s and a d v i c e . J ' a i p l a n t e mon corps dans l a t e r r e J ' a i l i v r e mon coeur a l a p l u i e i n t i m e Je prends c o n s e i l de t o u s l e s v e n t s ^ 2 G a t i e n L a p o i n t e ' s v e r s e abounds w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a p h y s i c a l b l e n d i n g o r f u s i o n o f the poet-man and the a n i m a l and p l a n t l i f e w h ich surrounds him. Man, h i s b r e a t h i n g l i n k e d to the r e s p i r a t i o n o f the w o r l d , h i s b l o o d f l o w c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the t h r o b b i n g o f t h e e a r t h ' s s a p s , and h i s h e a r t b eat s y n c h r o n - i z e d w i t h t h a t o f each b e a s t , i s n o t an a l i e n element w h i c h must be e j e c t e d from the scheme o f t h i n g s . H i s r i g h t f u l home i s on t h i s e a r t h and he i s a n a t u r a l and u n d e n i a b l e p i e c e o f e v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n i t . He b e l o n g s t o the decay and the d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f the w o r l d as w e l l as to i t s f l o u r i s h i n g and f r u i t i o n . A p a r t o f the c l a y and the sand and o f the d a r k seasons o f autumn and w i n t e r , he i s most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d however w i t h a b l o s s o m i n g , f e r t i l e and r i c h s o i l e d e a r t h , w i t h r e f r e s h i n g and l i f e - b r i n g i n g r a i n s , w i t h v i g o r o u s green w i n d s , and w i t h s p r i n g and summer, the seasons o f renewal and m a t u r a t i o n . E t dans mon coeur b a t c e l u i de chaque bete^"3 Mon f r o n t d'humus e t de v e n t s v e r t s ^ E t t o u t e l ' o d e u r des r a c i n e s dans sa bouche E t t o u t e l a seve de l ' a r b r e dans ses v e i n e s E t t o u t e s l e s s a i s o n s e t t o u t e s l e s f o r e t s Marchant a pas de chevaux dans sa c h a i r ^ 5 E t ma f a c e n ' e s t qu'un bulbe de t e r r e ^ 0 " Je v e r s e l ' e a u de p l u i e dans mes mains, nues E t l e s o i s e a u x s ' e n v o l e n t de ma bouche^"? Because o f t h e a c c o r d between man and h i s w o r l d , t h e r e i s no d i s c o n t e n t and t h e r e f o r e no a m b i t i o n , on the p a r t o f t h e p o e t , (as t h e r e was w i t h A l a i n G r a n dbois) t o v e n t u r e beyond h i s e a r t h l y c o n f i n e s i n o r d e r to d i s c o v e r f o r h i m s e l f a b e t t e r e x i s t e n c e o r a more a g r e e a b l e abode. L a p o i n t e i s f a i t h f u l and devoted t o t h i s n a t u r e , h i s o n l y r e a l home and s h e l t e r . A l l i s here t h a t he needs and w i l l e v e r need. Here a l l may be a t t e m p t e d , a c c o m p l i s h e d and won. La t e r r e e s t ma demeure Je p a r i e pour un j o u r de terre^° Je prends a b r i au p l u s p r e s de l a t e r r e ^ 9 Je t r o u v e dans l e s o l t o u t ce que j'aime Je t r o u v e dans l e temps ce q u i m'est n e c e s s a i r e 5 0 L a p o i n t e ' s u n i v e r s e i s n o t c r u e l and to be f e a r e d and h a t e d and the poet-man f i n d s u n s u r p a s s a b l e w e a l t h s and e x q u i s i t e b e a u t i e s w i t h i n i t . He i s p a s s i o n a t e l y enamored o f the f l o w e r s and the f i e l d s o f t h i s w o r l d and he p r a i s e s a l l t h a t makes up h i s n a t u r a l environment. Je me g r i s e de v o i r e t de t o u c h e r Je m'enflamme de chaque f l o r a i s o n Et chaque g r a i n dore en moi ses e p i s 5 1 An i n e v i t a b l e p a r t o f the e a r t h , he p a r t i c i p a t e s w i t h s i n c e r e d e d i c a t i o n i n the l i v e s , the s u f f e r i n g s , and the deaths o f i t s elements and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . 69 J'entends l a p l a i n t e des o i s e a u x qu'on tue Je v o i s l e bond des b e t e s qu'on enchalne Je conduis au j o u r l ' a r b r e a v e u g l e 5 2 I n Fernand O u e l l e t t e ' s v e r s e t h e r e are a few i n s t a n c e s where the poet d e p i c t s a d i s o r d e r e d u n i v e r s e i n which man i s the t r e m b l i n g o b j e c t o f c r u e l cosmic whims. Contre l e s s e i n s des f i l l e s Le c i e l penche et se f r a c a s s e . L'ombre d'un c h e v r e u i l t r a v e r s e une c l a i r i e r e de p l a n e t e s h u r l a n t e s . 5 3 l a cendre b o i t l a mer l a cendre p d t r i f i e l'dpave et s u r l'ame p l u s nue qu'une l a n d e couve une chevauchee de v e n t s geles.54- However these i n s t a n c e s a r e r a r e , and, e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s l a s t volume, Le S o l e i l Sous l a M o r t . O u e l l e t t e e n v i s i o n s man who d w e l l s i n an o r d e r e d , f r i e n d l y , and s h e l t e r i n g i n t e r s t e l l a r space as w e l l as w i t h i n a g e n t l e more immediate n a t u r e . There i s no t e r r o r o f t h e g r e a t empty expanses beyond the sun i n O u e l l e t t e ' s p o e t r y . Space i s n o t a l l c o l d darkness and d i s l o c a t e d and c o l l i d i n g p l a n e t s n o r does I t t h r e a t e n to i m p r i s o n and absorb man w i t h i n i t s e c h o i n g v a s t n e s s . I t i s i n s t e a d a p l a c e o f escape and r e f u g e and p r o m i s e s s a l v a t i o n and l i b e r a t i o n . Man, a s c e n d i n g i n t o i t , may l o s e h i s m o r t a l bonds. Because i t o f f e r s freedom from t e r r e s t r i a l r e s t r a i n t s , O u e l l e t t e ' s man I s a n x i o u s to e n t e r i n t o i t and be e n g u l f e d by i t . He i s eager t o be bathed i n i t s warm b r i g h t n e s s and i n i t s s p a r k l i n g y e l l o w , b l u e and w h i t e l i g h t s . I n the v e r s e o f A l a i n Grandbois t h e r e was f e a r o f t h e cosmos. I n the v e r s e o f Fernand O u e l l e t t e t h e r e i s a p a s s i o n f o r the cosmos. I n the poem " G e o l o g i e , " t h e r e i s a B i b l i c a l image o f a C h r i s t - l i k e man who, smashing the w a l l s o f r o c k which encase him, p r o g r e s s e s i n t o the s k y o f morning and even beyond i n t o a f r i e n d l y and l i b e r a t i n g i n t e r s t e l l a r space where he i s " r e s u r r e c t e d " and f r e e a t l a s t o f a l l h i s r e s t r i c t i o n s o f e a r t h l i n g . L ' a i r connut a l o r s ce c r i a n a i t r e q u i s o u d a i n f u l m i n e e t f e n d l a p i e r r e comme un ange. Le sang doucement aima l a c h a i r . E t l e s membres monterent en p l e i n m a t i n , a p e r t e de f e u i l l e s e t d ' o i s e l l e s . 7 1 L e s o l e i l s e h i s s a i t a. 1 'homme.•3-J T h e r e a r e o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f man t r a n s c e n d i n g h i m s e l f , e x i s t i n g f u l l y a n d j o y f u l l y a n d f o r e v e r f r e e f r o m t h e i n h i b i t i o n s a n d f e a r s o f m o r t a l s , i n a n i n v i t i n g a n d r a d i a n t u p p e r a t m o s p h e r e . T u t ' e v e i l l a i s a v e c d e s c o m e t e s d a n s l a g o r g e . E t n o u s a v a n c i o n s d a n s l e b l a n c , e t n o u s v i v i o n s de v i e , e t n o u s a i m i o n s . 5 6 On i r a b r u l e " d e b r i l l a n c e b l e u e . . . .57 A l o n g w i t h t h i s v i s i o n o f men f r e e d a n d s h e l t e r e d i n a h o s p i t a b l e s p a c e t h e r e i s a l s o i n O u e l l e t t e ' s p o e t r y t h e same n a t u r e - m a n r a p p o r t t h a t G a t i e n L a p o i n t e d e s c r i b e s s o e x t e n s i v e l y . T h e v a s t w h i t e v e g e t a b l e m a t r i x o f n a t u r e i s h i s t r u e h a b i t a t a n d t o i t h e b e l o n g s . A u j o u r d ' h u i n o u s s o r t o n s n u s d ' u n b a i n d e m e m o i r e p o u r h a b i t e r b l a n c s l a m a t r i c e v e g e t a l e e t v a s t e . 5 8 T h e r e i s a m a r r i a g e o f man t o t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d i n t h e p o e m " E v e i l " a s h i s b o d y m e l t s i n t o a n d b e c o m e s o n e w i t h t h e m o r n i n g , t h e s k y a n d t h e g r a s s . L i s s e de s i l e n c e l e c o r p s s ' o u v r e a l ' h e r b e c r o i s s a n t e . L e m a t i n p e u t c r o u l e r s u r s e s e p a u l e s . 5 9 72 .There i s a s t r a n g e , almost s u r r e a l i s t i c image i n the second s t a n z a o f " P r i n t e m p s " which d e s c r i b e s the u n i o n o f man's whole p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l b e i n g , r e p r e s e n t e d by h i s h e a r t , w i t h the f o r c e s o f n a t u r e , r e p r e s e n t e d by the r i v e r and t h e snow w h i c h f a l l s upon i t . The l i f e rhythms o f man and t h e u n i v e r s e are c o - o r d i n a t e d . Mon coeur, v o i s comme i l f u s e c o n t r e l e f l e u v e , comme i l b a t s u r son b l e u avec l e f e u t r e de l a n e i g e . 6 0 There a re numerous images o f a d i s t u r b e d and d e s t r u c t i v e cosmos t h r o u g h o u t P a u l Chamberland's v e r s e . There a r e g r e a t tumbled mountains, b o l t e d and b l o c k e d h o r i z o n s , g l o w e r i n g s k i e s , n i g h t s which gnaw a t the morning l i g h t and massive i c e s h e e t s w h i c h g l i d e f o r t h t o cov e r the w o r l d . Shadow i n v a d e s e v e r y t h i n g and the sun i s t r a p p e d i n carbon m i s t s . The f i n e and g e n t l e a s p e c t s o f n a t u r e have been a f f l i c t e d by a b l i g h t and o v e r t a k e n and t h w a r t e d by d a r k n e s s . m a l a i s e l e s f l e u r s m a l a i s e l e s eaux . . .61 . . . domaines greve"s de. chancres mauves e t de bitumes c o n t a g i e u x . . . .62 1'ombre a deVore l e pays l e s v e n t s y c r e u s e n t l e u r s cou- l o i r s s a n g l a n t s 6 3 The w o r l d i s u n k i n d and h o s t i l e . There i s no p l a c e t o st a n d and man and the poet a re t o s s e d about and b a t t e r e d by s q u a l l s . The poet e x c l a i m s : 7 3 on a v a i t coupe l e s e t o i l e s une a une e t je n ' a i jamais re j o i n t l e j o u r je n ' a i p o i n t v o i x dans l a bourrasque . . . je s u i s de l a t e r r e sans r a c i n e ou l a f o u d r e sang n o i r e c r a s e e n t r e ses dents 1 ' a v r i l au v e r t i n f a n t de ses bourgeon . . . au s e u i l des p o i g n e t s coupe's nous avons vu l ' o s de l a n u i t entamer 1 ' e n f a n t dans l ' a u r o r e e t l e p a i n dans l ' e t e 6 5 The d i s t o r t e d and menacing u n i v e r s e i n Chamberland 1s p o e t r y i s meant t o r e p r e s e n t t h e c r u e l r e p r e s s i v e f o r c e o f a l i e n laws and m asters w h i c h subdue and s t u n t a Quebec i n s e a r c h o f i d e n t i t y and l i b e r a t i o n . However, the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e t u r n to e a r t h , t o the comfort and r e f u g e o f an " e a r t h mother" and an e a r t h womb, i s a l s o an i m p o r t a n t theme i n Chamberland 1s p o e t i c v i s i o n . Man i s n o t doomed t o be j u g g l e d about i n d e f i n i t e l y i n a t u r b u l e n t cosmos. J u s t as t h e F r e n c h Canadians w i l l be e v e n t u a l l y r e l e a s e d from the b l a c k gloom o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l bondage to be r e t u r n e d to a Quebec wh i c h i s t h e i r s and f r e e so t h e y w i l l r e t u r n t o and r e p o s s e s s a f r u i t f u l and s h e l t e r i n g Quebec e a r t h . The poet e n v i s i o n s h i m s e l f and h i s f e l l o w s m a r r i e d w i t h and r e - u n i t e d t o a s o i l and a n a t u r e as w e l l as t o a l i b e r a t e d p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y . And i n t h i s n a t u r e , which i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a Quebec n a t u r e , t h e y f i n d s a n c t u a r y and s u s t e n a n c e . 7 4 Chamberland speaks o f the " v i s a g e du f e u " 6 6 which w i l l r e l e a s e h i s c o m p a t r i o t s from t h e i r t i g h t n i g h t s e c l u s i o n and b r i n g t o an end t h e i r excommunication from t h e warmth and the s e c u r i t y o f n a t u r a l elements. je l e v e r r a i d'un coup s ' a b a t t r e c o n t r e nos v i s a g e s et f o u i l l e r a fond nos v e i n e s r e n d r e nos corps i n t a c t s a l a fougue j u m e l l e du f l e u v e e t de l a mine nous r e n d r e n e u f s a 1'Element nous nous r e c o n n a i t r o n s de g l a i s e e t de de'sir D< The poet dreams o f h i s own r e i n s t a t e m e n t i n n a t u r e which i s h i s mother, h i s p r o p e r t y and h i s r i g h t f u l home, and h i s v e r y essence. He t a l k s o f g o i n g back t o " l a v e r i t e " du l a b o u r de l a b i c h e s e r t i e du/sommeil des f o r e t s . " ^ ^ The u n i v e r s e does not p l o t t o e r a s e him b u t i n s t e a d p r o v i d e s him w i t h n o u r i s h m e n t . Prom v e g e t a b l e s u b s t a n c e s he a c q u i r e s new l i f e and f o r c e . je mords a 1'ecorce immediate 6 r e s i n e o parfum p r i - m o r d i a l 69 He a p p e a l s t o n a t u r e f o r an i n f u s i o n o f i t s h e a l t h f u l saps. je t e rends nu mon c o r p s c r i b l e sa n u i t de sevesTO The wind does n o t scheme t o c a r r y him o f f , but s t r e n g t h e n s and g i v e s him c o n f i d e n c e . l e v e n t m'erige q u i me s o i t c o m p l i c e e t f o u e t ? l He i s a p r o p e r p o r t i o n o f the e a r t h and forms, as i t were, 75 one f l e s h w i t h i t . j e s a n g l e pas a pas l e s a n c i e n n e s t e r r e u r s e t l e s f o u g e r e s d e l i v r e e s m'enserrent n u p t i a l j e c r i e ce j o u r de ma n a i s s a n c e au f r o n t t a t o u e de c o l e r e du c i e l e n f i n t e r r a s s e q u i c r o u l e dans mes membres72 CHAPTER I I I . FOOTNOTES 1. A l a i n G r a n d b o i s , "La P a r t du Feu," Poemes. E d i t i o n s de l'Hexagone, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 , P. 1 9 8 . 2. "Les L o i s E t e r n e l l e s . . . " , I b i d . , p. 3 8 . 3. "Ce Feu Qui B r u l e . . . " , I b i d . , p. 6 7 . 4. "Les Tunnels P l a n e t a i r e s . . . " , I b i d . , p. 1 6 . 5. "Ce Feu Qui B r u l e . . . " , I b i d . , p. 69. 6. "Ces Murs P r o t e c t e u r s . . . " , I b i d . , p. 5 7 . 7. "Ce Feu Qui B r u l e . . . " , I b i d . . p. 7 0 . 8. "Demain Seulement," I b i d . , p. 1 2 4 . 9. "Ce Feu Qui B r u l e . . . " , I b i d . , p. 6 8 . 1 0 . " L ' E t o i l e P o u r p r e , " I b i d . , p. 1 6 8 . 1 1 . " P r i s e t P r o t e g e . . . " , I b i d . . p. 3 5 . 1 2 . "6 Tourments...", I b i d . , p. 11. 1 3 . "Ces Murs P r o t e c t e u r s . . . " , I b i d . . p. 5 8 . 1 4 . "Le F l o t , " I b i d . , p. 1 8 3 . 1 5 . " P r i s e t P r o t e g e . . . " , I b i d . , p. 3 5 . 1 6 . "Ces Murs P r o t e c t e u r s . . . " , I b i d . , p. 5 7 . 1 7 . " P r i s e t P r o t e g e . . . " , I b i d . , p. 3 5 . 1 8 . "Les Abs e n t e s , " I b i d ' . . p. 1 4 2 . 1 9 . " L ' E t o i l e P o u r p r e , " I b i d . , p. 1 6 4 . 2 0 . I b i d . , p. 1 6 9 . 2 1 . Anne H e b e r t , " S o i r , " Les Songes en E q u i l i b r e , Les E d i t i o n s de L ' A r b r e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 4 2 , p. 1 8 . 2 2 . "Le M i r o i r , " I b i d . , p. 4 4 . 2 3 . I b i d . 77 2 4 . I b i d . , p . 4 5 . 2 5 . " T e r r e . " ' L e s S o n g e s e n E q u i l i b r e , p . 6 2 . 2 6 . " M y s t e r e de l a P a r o l e , " P o e m e s , E d i t i o n s d u S e u i l , P a r i s , I 9 6 0 , p p . 7 3 - 7 4 . 27. I b i d . , p . 7 4 . 2 8 . " T e r r e , " L e s S o n g e s e n E q u i l i b r e . p . 6 3 . 2 9 . " L e M i r o i r , " I b i d . , p p . 4 6 - 4 7 . 3 0 . " J o u r d e J u i n , " I b i d . . p . 1 4 . 3 1 . P i e r r e P a g e , A n n e H e b e r t , E d i t i o n s F i d e s , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 5 , p . 9 8 . 32. " E s p a c e , " L e s S o n g e s e n E q u i l i b r e , p p . 73-74. 3 3 . " F i g u r e d e P r o u e , " I b i d . , p . 1 9 . 3 4 . " S o u s l a P l u i e , " I b i d . , p . 2 3 . 35. P i e r r e de G r a n d p r e , D i x A n s d e V i e L i t t e " r a i r e a u C a n a d a F r a n g a i s , B e a u c h e m i n , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 6 , p . 85. 36. G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , "Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , L e s E d i t i o n s d u J o u r , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 , p . 7 1 . 37. G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , " I n e v i t a b l e T e r r e , " L e Temps P r e m i e r . J e a n G r a s s i n E d i t e u r , P a r i s , 1 9 6 2 , p . 7. 3 8 . "Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , p . 7 1 . 39. G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , L e P r e m i e r M o t , L e s E d i t i o n s d u J o u r , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 7 , p . 8 2 . 4 0 . " L e S o c l e d u T e m p s , " L e Temps P r e m i e r , p . 2 0 . 4 1 . "Du S o l a L a P r e m i e r e B r a n c h e , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , p . 2 5 . 4 2 . " L e s S a b l i e r s d u T e m p s , " I b i d . , p . 4 1 . 43. I b i d . 4 4 . " E n t r e C i e l e t T e r r e , " Ode a u S a i n t - L a u r e n t , p . 2 9 . 45. " A u R a s d e l a T e r r e , " I b i d . , p . 9. 4 6 . " S e u i l de l'Homme," I b i d . . p . 1 2 . 4 7 . " E n t r e C i e l e t T e r r e , " I b i d . , p. 2 7 . 4 8 . " S e u i l de 1'Homme," I b i d . , p. 1 2 . 4 9 . " E n t r e C i e l e t T e r r e , " I b i d . , P. 2 7 . 5 0 . "Les S a b l i e r s de Temps," I b i d . , P. 3 9 . 5 1 . "Presence au Monde," I b i d . , p. 4 9 . 5 2 . I b i d . 5 3 . Fernand O u e l l e t t e , "Les D e s e r t s de V a r e s e , " Le S o l e i l Sous l a M o r t . E d i t i o n s de l'Hexagone, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 5 , P . 3 9 . 5 4 . Fernand O u e l l e t t e , "Ressac de Songes," Ces Anges de Sang, Les E d i t i o n s de l'Hexagone, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 5 5 , p. 1 0 . 5 5 . " G e o l o g i e , " Le S o l e i l Sous l a M o r t . p. 2 6 . 5 6 . "Et Nous A i m i o n s , " I b i d . . p. 1 2 . 5 7 - "Vers Nous Venons," I b i d . , p. 2 4 . 5 8 . - "Geantes T r i s t e s , " I b i d . , p. 16. 5 9 . " E v e i l , " I b i d . , p. 5 0 . 6 0 . " P r i n t e m p s , " I b i d . , p. 5 2 . 6 1 . P a u l Chamberland, "Les N u i t s Armees," Ter r e Quebec, L i b r a i r i e Deom, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p. 1 5 . 6 2 . "Domaine de l ' A v e u g l e IV," I b i d . , p. 6 8 . 6 3 . "Les N u i t s Armees," I b i d . , p. 1 4 . 6 4 . " L e t t r e a l a Femme-Aurore," I b i d . , p. 5 8 . 6 5 . "Domaine de l ' A v e u g l e IV," I b i d . , p-. 6 8 . 6 6 . "Poeme de 1 ' A n t e r e v o l u t i o n I , " I b i d . , p. 3 9 . 6 7 . I b i d . 6 8 . "Poeme d'Appartenance," T e r r e Quebec, p. 9. 6 9 . "Poeme de 1 ' A n t e r e v o l u t i o n I I , " I b i d . , p. 4 0 . 7 0 . "Poeme d 1 A p p a r t e n a n c e , " I b i d . , p. 9. 7 1 . "Poeme de 1 ' A n t e r e v o l u t i o n I I , " I b i d . , p. 4 0 . 7 2 . " E n t r e Nous l e Pays I , " I b i d . , pp. 4 4 - 4 5 . CHAPTER IV THE WOMAN AND LOVE In the G r a n d b o i s i e n p o e t i c v i s i o n t h e r e does not e x i s t and n e v e r w i l l e x i s t such a phenomenon as an a b s o l u t e and p e r f e c t l o v e w h i c h can p r o v i d e a t o t a l h a p p i n e s s and an escape from a l l the d i s t r e s s e s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f human e x i s t e n c e . Love i s i n f a c t d e c e i v i n g , o f f e r i n g but a temporary e l a t i o n and a p r o v i s i o n a l drunkenness and a l t h o u g h i t might appease and comfort f o r a w h i l e , i t i s not a d e f i n i t i v e answer t o the a n g u i s h o f m o r t a l man. The j o y p r o f f e r e d by the woman i s too sudden, too q u i c k l y and p a s s i o n a t e l y b u r n i n g , and w i t h o u t a f u t u r e , n o t because she who i n s p i r e s t h i s l o v e i s i n s i n c e r e and c o n s c i o u s l y t r e a c h e r o u s but because she must obey, l i k e a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s , the laws o f d e a t h . The e x p e r i e n c e o f l o v e does n o t b l e s s t h e p o e t and men w i t h b l i s s f u l f o r g e t f u l n e s s o f t h e i r human c o n d i t i o n but o n l y makes them more aware of t h e i r l i t t l e n e s s and t h e i r i n e v i t a b l e d e a t h . Love i s " c e t t e e x p e r i e n c e q u i r o u v r e 1 ' i n g u e r i s s a b l e b l e s s u r e de l'ame." 1 And, C'est dans l ' e x p e r i e n c e de l a p a s s i o n amoureuse que se s i t u e l e p o i n t de d e p a r t , l a p r o v o c a t i o n d'un drame q u i f i n i t p a r i m p l i q u e r t o u t e l a c r e a t i o n . C'est p a r e l l e que l e poete eprouve l e p o i d s e t l a menace du monde. 2 Love and the woman l o v e d have t r a g i c l i m i t a t i o n s . At the l i p s o f t h e woman, the poet f i n d s no sweet r e f r e s h m e n t and no s t r e n g t h e n i n g substance and he d i s c o v e r s t h e r e i n s t e a d h i s own b a s i c f r a g i l i t y , the f r i g h t f u l l y q u i c k passage o f a l l t h i n g s o f t h i s l i f e , and the b l a c k g a p i n g abyss o f n o t h i n g n e s s wherein he w i l l soon f l o u n d e r . "Ta bouche je l a b o i s e t je b o i s l ' a b i m e . " ^ By the warmth o f h e r embrace, the woman i s unable t o save him from h i s s o l i t u d e and h i s fundamental l o n e l i n e s s and nakedness o f man. Even w h i l e i n h e r arms he can n e v e r q u i t e f o r g e t t h a t he c a r r i e s w i t h i n h i s m o r t a l bones a p i e c e o f the g h o s t . En v a i n t e s b r a s t i e d e s L i b e r a n t mon fantome O n t - i l s e n g l o u t i l a forme de mes s o l i t u d e s ^ The l o v e r s are s u b j e c t e d t o a l l the sweeping c r u e l t i e s o f the u n i v e r s e . Unwelcome i n t h e scheme o f t h i n g s , t h e y are the p l a y t h i n g s o f a d i s l o c a t e d and f a r from s y m p a t h e t i c n a t u r e . Houles moirees de l a mer Qui nous r o u l e r o n t p l u s t a r d Au g e l des e t o i l e s decedees^ Moreover, b e w i l d e r e d by the immensity w h i c h t h r e a t e n s to s w a l l o w them up and p a r a l y z e d by the thought o f the d e a t h which a w a i t s them, t h e y are humble and v e r y r e s i g n e d . P o w e r l e s s and s p i r i t l e s s , t h e y w i l l not f i g h t t h e i r f a t e n o r w i l l t h e y s t r u g g l e to b r i n g back p a s t j o y s . R a t h e r , t h e y r e s o l v e to be q u i e t , u n c o m p l a i n i n g , and c o n t i n u a l l y p r e p a r e d f o r what l i e s i n s t o r e f o r them. R e f e r r i n g to t h e i r a s h e s , t h e y speak o f themselves as though t h e y are a l r e a d y two dead people : 81 T a i s o n s - n o u s r i e n ne peut recommencer I I f a u t o u b l i e r l e s lampes l e s heures s a c r e e s T a i s o n s - n o u s o u b l i o n s t o u t Noyons l e s mots magiques P r e p a r o n s nos t e n d r e s cendres P o u r l e grand s i l e n c e i n e x o r a b l e " However, a t one t i m e , l o v e promised m i r a c l e s and a f i n e r and more b r i l l i a n t r e a l i t y and woman was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e a c e , l i g h t , g r e e n n e s s , and e t e r n i t y . The poet o c c a s i o n a l l y speaks o f h e r as though she were a goddess and a marvelous c r e a t u r e who broug h t mercy and comfort. Out o f the t u m u l t o f the w o r l d h e r o u t s t r e t c h e d arms seemed t o c r e a t e s i l e n c e and the calm e x p r e s s i o n o f h e r pure w h i t e f a c e c o u l d f i x time f o r e v e r i n an i d e a l d imension f a r beyond the d e s p a i r s and the tempests o f t h i s e x i s t e n c e . Tes b r a s etendus f o n t l e s i l e n c e Ton b l a n c v i s a g e f i x e l e temps Au d e l a l e s d d s e s p o i r s D e v a s t a n t l e c e n t r e des tempetes Au d e l a l ' O b s c u r f u y a n t comme m i l l e f l e u v e s A r r a c h e l a d e r n i e r e sagesse Ta l e v r e enchaine l a c e i n t u r e de l ' a u r o r e ? I n "Le Peu G r i s . . . ," t h e r e i s an image o f the l o v e r s s e t t i n g out on a f a n t a s t i c j o u r n e y . They are g l o w i n g w i t h s m i l e s , l a d e n w i t h s t a r s , t h e i r happy hands are l i k e q u i v e r i n g b i r d s on the verge of song, and t h e i r eyes a re r i v e t e d on d i s t a n t r e g i o n s o f peace and j o y . But the po e t has been u n h a p p i l y e n l i g h t e n e d and he r e a l i z e s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f l o v e ' s p r o m i s e s . There i s no such t h i n g as an a b s o l u t e l o v e and the man cannot f i n d a "depassement" i n i t . Woman i s t r a g i c a l l y u n a t t a i n a b l e and he r f a c e and h e r s o u l , i n d e e d a l l o f h e r , are b l o c k e d by a p a r t i t i o n i n g w a l l which s h u t s h e r o f f and d i s s o c i a t e s h e r f o r e v e r from the l o v e r . Any charms the poet might w i e l d t o r e a c h h e r w i l l be f o i l e d . La n u i t m'a enselgne l a c l o i s o n de ton v i s a g e Et j e v o y a i s dans ses c o u l o i r s c h o i s i s Ton o e i l comme un f e u i l l a g e Toutes l e s colombes comme t a bouche Au d e l a ma main 0 mon p r e s s e n t i m e n t Au d e l a mon t a l i s m a n 8 Indeed, the woman, seen i n a h a r s h new l i g h t , has been s t r i p p e d o f a l l the f a i r y g l i t t e r . F i a n c e e 6 F i a n c e e t o n r e g a r d n ' a v a i t p l u s d ' e t i n c e l l e s Ton f r o n t a v a i t chasse l e s f e e r i e s t r i o m p h a l e s Tu e t a i s sans a i l e s Tu e t a i s comme l e d e r n i e r r e f l u x des d e r n i e r s o ceans9 Grandbois r e a l i z e s t h a t the l o v e r s are r u l e d by dea t h and t h a t h i s arms, entwined about the woman, are l i t t l e more than decayed f o l i a g e on dead b r a n c h e s . S k e p t i c a l , and d o u b t i n g the r e a l i t y o f even the b r i e f j o y s t h e y once l i v e d , he c r i e s Mais nos e c h e l l e s de j o i e O n t - e l l e s jamais ete tisseesl° T h i s d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n l o v e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the 83 e v o c a t i o n s , m a i n l y b i t t e r b ut a l s o a t t i m e s s t r a n g e l y c o mpassionate, o f the woman th r o u g h o u t Grandbois' p o e t r y . I n "Au Dela. Ces Grandes E t o i l e s . . . ," the poet says t h a t he sees i n the woman's l o v e a l l the " f r i s s o n s " o f a t u r n i n g c o l d and a r e j e c t i o n and a l l the " p o i s o n s " o f i n f i d e l i t y . I n "Le Feu G r i s . . . ," t h e r e i s an a n g r y a c c u s a t i o n o f the woman as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f a i l u r e o f the l o v e r e l a t i o n . The poet r e p r o a c h e s h e r f o r l i g h t i n g a huge b l a z i n g f i r e w h ich seduces him, the l o v e r , and yet which cannot l a s t and w i l l soon d i e out. U n c a r i n g and i n s i n c e r e , she knew a l l a l o n g t h a t the p a s s i o n would be s h o r t - l i v e d and t h a t he would s u f f e r and he s c o l d s h e r f o r h a v i n g cheated him. P o u r t a n t t u s a v a i s que l e f e u p o r t e r a i t 1'immense i n c e n d i e des v o l c a n s Tu s a v a i s l a t o r c h e i m p l a c a b l e des b u i s s o n s a l l u m e s Tu s a v a i s l a n u i t v i d e e t l ' a u r o r e sans douceur Tu s a v a i s l'homme nu parmi son d e s e r t Tu s a v a i s sa s o u f f r a n c e comme un pro c h a i n c a d a v r e 1 1 There i s b i t t e r n e s s i n the poem "Que S u r t o u t Mes Mains . . . ," as the p o e t , d e s c r i b i n g h i s l o v e ' s "absent l i p s " and h e r "a d o r a b l e l i e s , " c h a s t i s e s h i m s e l f f o r h a v i n g t a k e n h e r too s e r i o u s l y . 84 Vous l e v r e s a b sentes Je vous a i t r o p vues t r e m b l e r dans d' a d o r a b i e s mensonges J ' a i t r o p cerne" l e domalne de v o t r e g e l J ' a i t r o p pleure" pour vous^- 2 I n "Le Peu G r i s . . . ," she i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h venom and s e r p e n t s , w i t h the hardness and the c o l d n e s s o f knives," and w i t h the b e t r a y a l o f f a i t h and t h e b r e a k i n g o f p a c t s . Et ma s o u f f r a n c e v i v a i t des s e r p e n t s de t o n pro c h a i n o u b l i G u e t t a n t l ' h e u r e du couteau de t o n absence G u e t t a n t l e s p l t o y a b l e s s o u r i r e s de l a p r e m i e r e t r a h i s o n ! 3 I n "Avec Ta Robe . . . " however, t h e r e i s a t e n d e r p i t y f o r the woman's d e l i c a c y . The poet speaks o f wounds and he emphasizes t h e f a c t t h a t she i s b u t m o r t a l f l e s h and v e r y v u l n e r a b l e . Avec t a robe s u r l e r o c h e r comme une a i l e b l a n c h e Des g o u t t e s au cr e u x de t a main comme une b l e s s u r e f r a f c h e Avec t e s p i e d s f a i b l e s e t nus s u r l a dure f o r c e de r o c h e r 6 t o i m o r t e l i n s t a n t de l ' e t e r n e l fleuvel^ Love i s n o t d e a l t w i t h t o o e x t e n s i v e l y i n Anne H e b e r t ' s p o e t r y but when she does speak o f i t , she s t r e s s e s i t s u n f u l f i l m e n t . Love and the l o v e r s a r e endowed w i t h no s p e c i a l charms and, l i k e a l l e l s e o f v a l u e i n t h i s w o r l d , t h e y a re t r a n s i e n t and s u b j e c t e d to a r u t h l e s s d e s t i n y . A l l u d i n g t o h e r s e l f and to h e r l o v e r , the poet s a y s : Nous p a s s e r o n s v i t e , E t peut-'etre Qu'on ne p o u r r a pas E t r e ensemble du t o u t . . .15 G a t i e n L a p o i n t e has found the l o v e a b s o l u t e and, e s p e c i a l l y i n the volume Le Temps P r e m i e r , he sees l o v e as an a l l - p o w e r f u l and w o n d e r f u l s t a t e w h i c h can b r i n g complete h a p p i n e s s as w e l l as p r o v i d e the escape and the s a n c t u a r y t h a t b o t h A l a i n G r a ndbois and Anne Hebert f a i l e d t o f i n d i n i t . He r e g a r d s the woman as a s o r t o f s u p e r - b e i n g o r goddess who, concerned, a f f e c t i o n a t e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , f u r n i s h e s a s h e l t e r f o r the man away from the d i s t u r b a n c e s and i n s t a b i l i t i e s o f h i s w o r l d , c o n t i n u a l l y s t r e n g t h e n i n g , i n s p i r i n g , and e n c o u r a g i n g him. There are no d e c e p t i o n s o r f a i l u r e s i n h e r e n t i n the man- woman r e l a t i o n b ut o n l y e n d l e s s p r o m i s e . The woman i s n o t m i s t r u s t e d f o r h e r t r e a c h e r i e s , u n c o n s c i o u s o r o t h e r w i s e , n o r i s she p i t i e d because she i s but c l a y and v e r y m o r t a l . I t almost seems t h a t she can n e v e r d i e and t h a t the happy l o v e she b r i n g s w i l l l a s t an e t e r n i t y . She i s admired and worshipped and c o n s t a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c l e a r n e s s and b r i g h t n e s s o f water and l i g h t s and w i t h the r e f r e s h m e n t and comfort o f f l o w e r s and p l a n t s . La l u m i e r e commence au b o r d de t e s mains Comme une r i v i e r e Rosee e c l a t a n t e Ton epaule creuse a meme l e chemin D ' e n t i e r e s f i g u r e s l 6 Ta hanche garde un f e u c o n t r e l e s v a g u e s l ? When the poet l o o k s a t h e r h e - i s n o t reminded, by the s i g h t o f the drops o f water i n the palm o f h e r hand, o f wounds and h e r m o r t a l i t y . I n s t e a d , he l i n k s h e r w i t h the e t e r n a l s e a . Tu avances en p l e i n e n u i t Tes hanches c r e u s e n t un be r c e a u Et c ' e s t l a mer q u i n a f t l 8 She i s pure and has r e f i n i n g and c l e a n s i n g q u a l i t i e s . Femme epure mes b i e n s de t e s l a r m e s l 9 Her body i s a l l growth and f r e s h n e s s and the green b r i l l i a n c e o f n a t u r e i n i t s s p r i n g . Ta main f l e u r i t s u r mon e*paule 20 J'accompagnerai ce f e u i l l a g e Qui monte a. l ' a s s a u t de t e s t e m p e s 2 ! J ' a i v u des t i g e s p o u s s e r s u r t e s d o i g t s E t des anneaux p l u s v a s t e s qu'une f l e u r 2 2 An "earth-mother," t h e woman i s f e r t i l e and the source o f a v i t a l s ubstance i n which t h i n g s may grow. Toute forme v i e n t f l e u r i r s u r t e s l e v r e s 2 3 She animates and g i v e s l i f e . E t t o n s o u f f l e anime t o u t h o r i z o n ^ The woman i s p r e c i o u s and v e r y e s s e n t i a l t o the po e t - man. Without h e r he i s n o t h i n g but w i t h h e r he " i s " and he e x i s t s . H i s v e r y l i f e depends upon h e r p r e s e n c e . Et j e n ' e x i s t e que s i t u me c o n n a i s 2 ^ She i s f o r him the promise o f new b e g i n n i n g s and he e x c l a i m s t h a t t h e s l i g h t e s t t r e m b l i n g o f h e r body c l o s e t o h i s l e a d s him to b e l i e v e t h a t a l l can be a c c o m p l i s h e d and had and t h a t a l l h i s hopes and d e s i r e s w i l l soon be r e a l i z e d . Tout n a i t d'un f r i s s o n dans un corp s t r e s p r o c h e 2 ^ Love i n f u s e s him w i t h new powers and courage and, warmed and r e i n f o r c e d by the woman's a f f e c t i o n , he becomes i n v u l n e r a b l e and almost i n d e s t r u c t i b l e . J 'espere t o u t je r i s q u e t o u t j e cree t o u t j ' a i m e 2 7 S i j'aime, j e s u i s i n d e s t r u c t i b l e . 2 ^ Je ne mo u r r a i pas s i j e t' a i m e . 2 9 In l o v e the e t e r n a l p r e s e n t i s ' found and the poet l i v e s f o r e v e r 8 8 i n a d e l i c i o u s moment. Tu a mis dans mon coeur un p r e s e n t i m m o r t e l . 3 0 L a p o i n t e ' s v e r s e i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y c l e a r o f s u g g e s t i o n s as t o the p o s s i b l e succumbing o f the woman and the l o v e r s t o f a t e ' s c r u e l c a p r i c e s and, o f t e n a t the moments o f most exuberance and o p t i m i s m , q u e s t i o n s and s t a t e m e n t s which r e v e a l a deep-seated doubt and d e s p a i r s u d d e n l y j o l t the happy tempo of the v e r s e and b l a c k e n the mood. La mort nous r a t t r a p e r a - t - e l l e en p l e i n r o u t e 7 3 1 Le h a s a r d nous e n c h a f n e r a - t - i l de nouveau?32 But these m e l a n c h o l y i n t e r l u d e s are temporary. Love i s a p o w e r f u l c o n d i t i o n and u n l i k e the G r a n d b o i s i e n l o v e r s , L a p o i n t e ' s l o v e r s w i l l n o t p a t i e n t l y b i d e t h e i r time u n t i l t h e y are sucked i n o r brushed away by the f o r c e s o f t h e i r d e s t i n y . They are t e n s e , d e f i a n t - , and e x t r e m e l y s t r o n g . They h u r l c h a l l e n g e s a t the h e a r t l e s s gods, t h e y a s s e r t t h e i r p r e s e n ce i n the w o r l d , and t h e y t a l k o f r e i g n i n g and r u l i n g . I I ne f a u t pas qu'un d i e u nous d e f i g u r e 3 3 Je d i s que nous v i v r o n s Nous prendrons demeure a j a m a i s ^ L a c h a l e u r de t o n l i t nous o b l i g e a r e g n e r 3 5 T h e i r l o v e i m p l i e s a v i c t o r y , a f r u i t i o n , and a growth, n o t f a i l u r e , decay and d e a t h . 89 J ' a i vu l ' h e r b e f l e u r i r au creux de nos anneaux36 Nous f r a n c h i s s o n s l e f l e u v e l e p l u s sombre Notre malson f l e u r i t chaque j o u r de l ' a n n e e 3 7 I n L a p o i n t e ' s v e r s e , the cosmos does n o t posses s and c o n t r o l the l o v e r s . The w o r l d i s not u n k i n d t o them and t h e y w i l l n o t be swept away by i t s m i s c h i e v o u s elements. They are n o t . i t s v i c t i m s but I n s t e a d t h e y are i n p l e a s a n t a c c o r d w i t h i t . The t i d e s c u r l t h emselves i n a f r i e n d l y f a s h i o n around t h e i r h e e l s , the s o i l s u s t a i n s them w i t h i t s dark r i c h n e s s and a l l n a t u r e f l o u r i s h e s and i s p l e n t i f u l about them. Le s o l nous s o u t i e n t de son s o u f f l e Les marges s ' e n r o u l e n t a. nos c h e v i l l e s Nous s u i v r o n s l ' h e u r e du s o l e i l Le v e n t b r u l e l a c r i n i e r e des chevaux Et l ' a r b r e se r e v e i l l e en p l e i n e s f e u i l l e s Nous durons d'une l u m i e r e n a t u r e l l e Un d e f i extreme nous rend m e i l l e u r s Nous serons l e chant de l a t e r r e 3 8 Rendered m i g h t y and v e r y c o n f i d e n t by t h e i r l o v e f o r each o t h e r , t h e y come to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s and c o n t r o l the w o r l d . Le paysage e s t dans nos mains39 I t i s even suggested t h a t , i n the enth u s i a s m o f t h e i r a f f e c t i o n , t h e y can a l t e r and t r a n s f o r m n a t u r e , b r i n g i n g t h e w o r l d around them out o f i t s w i n t e r and i t s d a r k n e s s . They w i l l m elt w i t h t h e i r warm b o d i e s the i c e , t h e y w i l l blow l i f e i n t o t h e f r o z e n r i v e r c e n t e r s , t h e y w i l l t a k e up i n t h e i r arms the broken t r e e and t h e y w i l l compel the s p r i n g t o come f o r t h on t h i s e a r t h . 90 Nous e"tendrons nos corps b r u l a n t s s u r l a n e i g e Nous s o u f f l e r o n s dans l e coeur g e l e des r i v i e r e s Nous pre n d r o n s dans nos b r a s l ' a r b r e tombe Nous o b l i g e r o n s l e p r i n t e m p s a n a f t r e . ^ O So o p t i m i s t i c and s t r o n g a re the couple i n l o v e t h a t t h e y know t h e y can put an end to a l l men's s u f f e r i n g . Nous avons panse" l a d o u l e u r des hommes Et b a l i s e de flammes l e u r e n f a n c e ^ l D e s c r i b e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o l u s h f o r e s t e d undergrowths, to mosses, f e r n s , t e n d e r new sh o o t s and the s p a r k l e and glamour of s t a r s , woman, i n the p o e t r y o f Pernand O u e l l e t t e , r e v i v i f i e s the man w i t h h e r f i r e s and h e r v i t a l i t y . She i s " l a promise/au dur d e c l i n " ^ 2 and l o v e i s assur a n c e o f e t e r n i t y . N o t re corps l o u r d de f r u i t s et d ' e c l a t s d' e ' t e r n i t W Love and the woman are f o r P a u l Chamberland a l l t h a t A l a i n Grandbois s a i d t h e y c o u l d n o t be. The woman i s , as b o t h G a t i e n L a p o i n t e and Pernand O u e l l e t t e c o n c e i v e h e r , connected w i t h the l i f e - g i v i n g f o r c e s o f n a t u r e and i t s e t e r n a l elements o f greenness and l i g h t . s'endorme l e s o l e i l en l ' a p r e s - m i d i de t a h a n c h e ^ l e monde en t o i s'epouse e t c o r b e i l l e creve en r i r e s ^ - 5 9 1 j e t ' a i m e e t l e c i e l r e f l e c b . i t s e s m i r o i r s e n t o n s o u r i r e n u a g e u x 4 6 6 p a r f u m d e t o i d a n s mon d o m a i n e f o u d r o y e t e s p a s d ' e a u v i v e d a n s l e s s e n t e s b r u l e e s d e ma s o i f 4 7 I n l o v i n g t h e woman, t h e man e n t e r s i n t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n a n d t h e s u s t e n a n c e o f t h e e a r t h o f w h i c h s h e i s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t . He s a y s t h a t i n h e r h e t o u c h e s t h e e l e m e n t a l s o i l a n d t h a t t h r o u g h h e r h e h a s a c c e s s t o a l l t h e n a t u r a l a b u n d a n c e o f t h e w o r l d . j e t o u c h e e n t o i l e s o l e i e m e n t a i r e 4 8 p a r t o i j ' a c c e d e a l ' a b o n d a n c e d e l a t e r r e ^ 9 S h e r e f r e s h e s t h e w e a r y p o e t j u s t a s n a t u r e d o e s , b r i n g i n g h i m l i f e r a t h e r t h a n a r e m i n d e r o f h i s d e a t h . O f e a r t h h e a s k s t h a t i t r i d d l e h i s " n i g h t " w i t h i t s s a p s a n d o f woman h e d e m a n d s t h a t s h e p l a c e h o n e y o n h i s t o n g u e a n d b r e a d i n h i s m o u t h . T h e p o e t - m a n g o e s t o t h e woman a n d h e r s o u r c e s o f n o u r i s h m e n t a s d o e s t h e h u m m i n g b i r d t o t h e f l o w e r a n d h e l o s e s h i m s e l f j o y f u l l y i n h e r f e r t i l e v a s t n e s s . u n c o l i b r i s s e p e r d h e u r e u x a u x f r a n g e s d e s a b i m e s - m e r e s ^ 0 Woman i s a q u i e t n e s s a n d a r e f u g e a w a y f r o m t h e r u s h a n d t h e t u r m o i l o f t h e m a d d i n g w o r l d a n d t h e p o e t r e f e r s t o t h e s i l e n c e t h a t s h e m a n a g e s t o c r e a t e f o r h i m o n t h e m a r g i n s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y d e l i r i u m . As w i t h L a p o i n t e , the poet-roan i n the v e r s e o f P a u l Chamberland t a k e s on new p r o p o r t i o n s when i n l o v e , becoming v i g o r o u s and g i a n t - l i k e . He i s no l o n g e r b l i n d , mute and i n t i m i d a t e d , g r o v e l l i n g i n the b l a c k n i g h t o f h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s and weaknesses b u t , brave and d e f i a n t , he i s sure t h a t he i s capable o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g a n y t h i n g and e v e r y t h i n g . He p o s s e s s e s the w o r l d and i t no l o n g e r , as i n A l a i n G r a n d b o i s 1 c o n c e p t i o n , p o s s e s s e s and dominates him. p a r t o i l'homme t i s o n n e en p l e i n a z u r l e bucher des d e s i r s et prend l e monde dans ses mains . . .51 Chamberland's l o v e r s f i n d an e a r t h l y e t e r n i t y i n t h e i r embrace and t h e y confound d e a t h . T h e i r . e t e r n i t y i s t h e i r c l a s p i n g , g r a s p i n g hands k n o t t i n g and s e a l i n g the u n i o n o f t h e i r two b o d i e s i n the warm t h i c k n e s s o f summer n i g h t s . Chamberland f e e l s , as does L a p o i n t e , t h a t w i t h o u t the woman he would be n o t h i n g and h o p e l e s s l y a d r i f t . et s i t u n ' e t a i s pas j e s e r a i s p r i s dans l'engrenage e t l a f i x e f o l i e du f r o i d 5 2 The woman, g i f t e d w i t h f a n t a s t i c m a g i c a l s t r e n g t h s , i s a b l e t o v a n q u i s h man's sorrow and t e r m i n a t e h i s s p i r i t u a l d e p r e s s i o n , p r o v o k i n g the dawn o f a f r e s h and u n s p o i l e d day. She i s the "femme-aurore."-^ t o n g e s t e a p p a r i a n t l ' e s p a c e aux j a r d i n s seme aux c i c a - t r i c e s des n u i t s l a f l e u r g i r a t o i r e du j o u r ^ ^ 93 She can even r e - i n v e n t and make more b e a u t i f u l and p l e a s a n t f o r the poet the p r e s e n t l y sad and d i s t r e s s e d w o r l d i n which he d w e l l s . She o f f e r s a new w o r l d t o him and he d r i n k s i t from h e r l i p s . e t l e coeur v i o l e t de l a f l e u r r o u g i t t a c h a i r embrase t a l e v r e ou je b o i s l e monde b l e s s e g u e r i 5 5 I n the poem " I t e m i s s a e s t , " the d i v i n e and p e r f e c t season o f c h i l d h o o d i s gone, a p p a r e n t l y n e v e r t o be r e f o u n d . A l l t h a t remains are b i t t e r memories, d r i e d g r a s s and the wh i t e n e d bones o f y o u n g s t e r s s t r u c k down at the v e r y c l i m a x o f a f r a n t i c and b o i s t e r o u s dance. The poet-man f l o u n d e r s i n the r u s t and the c l a n g i n g t i n o f the i n s a n e d a i l y r i t u a l o f a d u l t h o o d . But t h a t happy time may y e t be r e t r i e v e d . Woman and h e r s o r c e r y can b r i n g back t o t h e poet t h o s e former days o f innocence and c a r e f r e e n e s s . Chamberland d e s c r i b e s h i s m i s t r e s s ' l a u g h i n g eyes i n which he d i s c o v e r s once a g a i n h i s marvelous c h i l d h o o d a n i m a l s which tumbled and r o l l e d about so g l e e f u l l y i n the b r i l l i a n t g o l d o f summer e v e n i n g s . The unblemished and new " f i r s t w o r l d " o f y o u t h f u l n a i v e t e and promise b e l o n g s to the l o v e r s and can n e v e r be wrenched away from them. l e monde p r e m i e r dans nos b r a s e s t un e n f a n t q u i s ' e ' v e i l l e 5 6 C H A P T E R I V . FOOTNOTES 1 . M i c h e l e L a l o n d e , " T e m o i g n a g e s , " L i b e r t e , I I ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , I 9 6 0 ) , p . 1 5 2 . 2 . G i l l e s M a r c o t t e , " A l a i n G r a n d b o i s , " Une L i t t e r a t u r e Q u i S e F a i t . L e s E d i t i o n s HMH, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 2 , p . 2 5 0 . 3. A l a i n G r a n d b o i s , "6 F i a n c e e . . . " , P o e m e s , E d i t i o n s de l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 , p . 8 4 . 4. I b i d . , p . 8 3 . 5. " L e T r i b u n a l , " P o e m e s , p . 1 2 0 . 6. " L ' A u b e E n s e v e l i e , " I b i d . , p p . 1 4 5 - 1 4 6 . 7. " A u D e l a C e s G r a n d e s E t o i l e s . . . " , I b i d . , p p . 1 7 - 1 8 . 8. I b i d . , p . 1 9 . 9. "6 F i a n c e e . . . " , P o e m e s , p . 8 6 . 1 0 . " A u D e l a C e s G r a n d e s E t o i l e s . . . " , I b i d . , p . 2 0 . 1 1 . " L e F e u G r i s . . . " , I b i d . , p . 2 8 . 1 2 . "Que S u r t o u t M es M a i n s . . . " , I b i d . , p . 89. 1 3 . " L e F e u G r i s . . . " , I b i d . . p . 2 8 . 1 4 . " A v e c T a R o b e . . . " , I b i d . , p . 4 8 . 1 5 . A n n e H e b e r t , " E t e r n i t e , " L e s S o n g e s en E q u i l i b r e , L e s E d i t i o n s d e l ' A r b r e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 4 2 , p . 4 1 . 1 6 . G a t i e n L a p o i n t e " L e P a s d u C h e m i n , " L e Temps P r e m i e r . J e a n G r a s s i n E d i t e u r , P a r i s , 1 9 6 2 , p . 3 2 . 1 7 . " C o r p s A c c o r d e s . " I b i d . , p . 3 3 . 1 8 . " L ' E a u e t l a T e r r e , " I b i d . , p . 3 8 . 1 9 . " I I S u f f i t d ' u n V i s a g e , " I b i d . , p . 1 8 . 2 0 . I b i d . , p . 1 9 . 2 1 . "Un S e u l M o t Une S e u l e M a i s o n , " L e Temps P r e m i e r , p . 3 1 . 2 2 . " J ' A n i m e r a i T o n C o e u r , " I b i d . , p . 3 5 . 2 3 . "Corps Accorded," I b i d . ,. p. 3 3 . 2 4 . I b i d . , p. 3 4 . 25. "Le Pas du Chemin," Le Temps P r e m i e r , p. 3 2 . 2 6 . "J'Aime," I b i d . . p. 4 2 . 2 7 . I b i d . , p. 4 3 . 28. G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , Le P r e m i e r Mot. Les E d i t i o n s du J o u r M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 7 , p. 7 9 . 2 9 . " I I S u f f i t d'un V i s a g e , " Le Temps P r e m i e r , p. 1 9 . 3 0 . "Un S e u l Mot Une Seule M a i s o n , " I b i d . , p. 3 7 . 3 1 . "Corps A c c o r d e s , " I b i d . , p. 3 4 . 3 2 . "L'Eau e t l a T e r r e , " I b i d . . p. 3 9 . 3 3 . "Un S e u l Mot Une Seule Maison," I b i d . , p. 3 7 . 3 4 . "Corps A c c o r d e d , " I b i d . . p. 3 3 . 3 5 . "Un S e u l Mot Une Se u l e Maison," I b i d . , p. 3 7 . 3 6 . " J ' A n i m e r a i Ton Coeur," I b i d . , p. 3 6 . 3 7 . "L'Eau et l a T e r r e , " I b i d . . p. 3 9 . 3 8 . "J'Aime," I b i d . , pp. 4 2 - 4 3 . 3 9 . "Corps A c c o r d e s , " I b i d . . p. 3 3 . 4 0 . G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , "Comme Un A r b r e Chantant," Ode au S a i n t - L a u r e n t , Les E d i t i o n s du J o u r , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 , p. 5 5 4 1 . "Kus e t V u l n e r a b l e s , " Le Temps P r e m i e r , p. 3 1 . 4 2 . Fernand O u e l l e t t e , " " E l l e , " Le S o l e i l Sous l a Mort. E d i t i o n s de l'Hexagone, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 5 , p. 5 5 . 4 3 . "Femme," I b i d . , p. 5 4 . 4 4 . P a u l Chamberland, "Anneaux E c l a t e s I , " T e r r e Quebec, L i b r a i r i e De*om, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p. 52. 4 5 . " C h i f f r e du S e u i l , " I b i d . , p. 4 8 . 4 6 " V o l e t s O u v e r t s , " I b i d . , p. 5 0 . 4 7 . "Femme Q u o t i d i e n n e , " I b i d . , p. 6 2 . 4 8 . P a u l Chamberland, L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . E d i t i o n s P a r t i P r i s , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p. 3 3 . 4 9 . I b i d . , p. 3 9 . 5 0 . " C h i f f r e du S e u i l , " T e r r e Q u e b e c , p. 4 8 . 5 1 . L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . p. 3 4 . 5 2 . I b i d . , p. 4 0 . 5 3 . From the t i t l e o f the poem, " L e t t r e a l a Femme-Auro T e r r e Quebec, p. 5 8 . 5 4 . "Foyer de l ' E t r e i n t e , " I b i d . , p. 5 7 . 5 5 . " V o l e t s O u v e r t s , " I b i d . . , p. 5 0 . 5 6 . " C h i f f r e du S e u i l , " I b i d . , p. 4 8 . CHAPTER V POETIC TECHNIQUES I n the a r e a o f p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e , w h i c h , i n t h i s s t u d y , w i l l comprise t h e form the poem t a k e s as w e l l as i t s images and i t s v o c a b u l a r y , one may draw r a t h e r s t a r t l i n g c o n t r a s t s between the two g e n e r a t i o n s . However, o f the t h r e e younger p o e t s , o n l y P a u l Chamberland and Pernand O u e l l e t t e are s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t i n c t i n t h e i r t e c h n i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s to m e r i t c o n t r a s t i n g them w i t h Anne Hebert and A l a i n G r a n d b o i s . G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , a poet too c o n v e n t i o n a l i n h i s employment o f imag e r y , words, and p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e s , has l i t t l e t h a t t r u l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s him from the e l d e r w r i t e r s , t h e r e b y r e n d e r i n g any attempt a t showing d i f f e r e n c e s between him and them o b v i o u s l y q u i t e u n n e c e s s a r y . Anne Hebert and A l a i n Grandbois b o t h w r i t e i n f r e e v e r s e b u t g e n e r a l l y ^ i n t h e arrangement o f t h e i r p o e t r y upon the page, t h e y are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v e r y c o n s c i o u s c o n s e r v a t i s m . I n the case o f G r a n d b o i s , f o r example, the s t a n z a s i n any one o f h i s poems are l i k e l y t o be a l l r o u g h l y the same s i z e , shape and l e n g t h . The framework o f the poem i s r e l a t i v e l y t r a d i t i o n a l and t h e r e i s no e r r a t i c , haphazard and jumbled s p a c i n g o f l i n e s a c r o s s the page. There seems to be as w e l l an e f f o r t to a c h i e v e a c e r t a i n s y l l a b i c r e g u l a r i t y and t h e r e i s r a r e l y t o be found any g r e a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n v e r s e l e n g t h s w i t h i n h i s poems. The 98 f a c t t h a t Grandbois i s n o t l o a t h t o use rhyme, i f o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y , c o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as evi d e n c e o f h i s fundamental t e c h n i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m . Devant ces buchers f r a t e r n e l s Malgre l e s cendres i n u t i l e s E t malgre c e t t e f u i t e d ' a i l e s Malgre l a morte odeur des v i l l e s S'est d r e s s e l e s e u l A r b r e d'Or Avec ses b r a s v e r t s de prophete Le mi e l e n v a h i t jusqu'aux bords Le t o i t n o c t u r n e des t e m p e t e s l There i s a new freedom i n the approach by the younger g e n e r a t i o n p o e t s , O u e l l e t t e and Chamberland, t o the s t r u c t u r i n g o f the poem. These l a t t e r a r e much more d a r i n g and w i l l i n g t o experiment t h a n t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . Chamberland, f o r example, s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y i n L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e t h a t he has no i n t e n t i o n o f w r i t i n g i n the s o - c a l l e d c o r r e c t forms. N e i t h e r 2 h i s crude " v e r s e t s " n o r h i s p o e t i z e d paragraphs are t r u l y p o e t i c . They resemble more c l o s e l y p r o s e and a v e r y u n c o n v e n t i o n a l p r o s e a t t h a t . There i s no p u n c t u a t i o n and no c a p i t a l i s a t i o n whatsoever and b o t h the " v e r s e t s " and the par a g r a p h s a re almost e n t i r e l y composed o f run-on s e n t e n c e s . l e s hommes d ' i c i d e v i s e n t pose'ment de choses e t r a n - g e r e s i l s n'entendent pas l e b r u i t que f o n t dans l e u r c e r v e l l e l e s l u n e s c r i s s a n t s c o u t e a u x 3 je v o i s s ' e t e i n d r e dans t e s yeux l e s monstres de ce temps t u es Demain p a l p a b l e dans 1 ' a u j o u r d ' h u i de nos l u t t e s femme ou l e monde d e j a n ' e s t p l u s qu'une page b l a n c h e d ' e c o l i e r ^ 99 t a n t p i s bonnes ames on en e s t au menage au grand saccage de v a s e s s a c r e s 6 l'ame l a p e t i t e ame I'ame de n a c r e et de l i n f i n de doux dragee de d i e u l a b l a n c h e h o s t i e e l l e e s t tbmbe dans l a boue o l a pauvre l a b r e b i s perdue q u i v a l a ramasser hou hou hou5 At t i m e s , i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e the end o f one phrase and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the n e x t , t h e r e i s a w i d e r space between two s u c c e e d i n g words. But the p o e t i s v e r y a r b i t r a r y i n h i s d e m a r c a t i o n s and i t seems t h a t o n l y when the f a n c y s t r i k e s him does he b o t h e r a t a l l t o d e s i g n a t e a pause. et l'homme t e p a r l a t u ne comprenais pas sa langue e t a i t c e l l e des chasses e t des muscles fe n d a n t l e f r o i d " The younger p o e t s are v e r y r e b e l l i o u s , eager t o m a n i p u l a t e the v e r s e i n new ways and a n x i o u s to t o p p l e the u s u a l p o e t i c s e t - u p s . 1 But t h e y do n o t do i t s i m p l y f o r the a n a r c h i s t i c t h r i l l and the sheer, d e f i a n c e o f i t . They c r e a t e new and d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i c a l arrangements d e l i b e r a t e l y and v e r y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y so, t h a t the sense o f t h e i r poems may be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r form, t h e r e b y h o p e f u l l y f a c i l i t a t i n g the impact o f t h a t message o r the meaning upon the r e a d e r . Towards the end o f L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . Chamberland i s f i l l e d w i t h d i s g u s t a t what he has become. He r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s w o r l d c o n s i s t s o f l i t t l e more th a n a c o r n e r o f s h a t t e r e d pavement i n a wretched and d i s m a l " q u a r t i e r " o f M o n t r e a l and t h a t h i s l i f e i s as degraded and as f u t i l e as the l i f e o f the young g i r l made pregnant by h e r s e m i - i d i o t f a t h e r . Chamberland's h o r r o r o f h i m s e l f i s emphasized by the 100 c a p i t a l i s a t i o n o f the words "RIEN" and "C'EST TOI," whi c h shout and g l a r e from the page. L o o k i n g a t the t h r o b b i n g neon, he sees h i m s e l f as b e i n g one w i t h the t i n s e l e d and g a r i s h c i t y s q u a l o r i t r e p r e s e n t s . He has come t o r e a l i z e t h a t h i s l i f e b e a t s w i t h the same monotonous a i m l e s s n e s s as the l i g h t s . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f the poet t o the f l a s h i n g t a v e r n s i g n and what i t s y m b o l i z e s i s c l e v e r l y i n d i c a t e d by the p l a c i n g t o g e t h e r o f two c o m p l e t e l y c a p i t a l i z e d and r h y t h m i c a l l y j e r k y v e r s e s which s t a n d d r a m a t i c a l l y a p a r t from the v e r s e s w h i c h come b e f o r e and a f t e r and which a re b o t h meant t o be r e a d l o u d l y and w i t h s t r e s s . et l e s p e t i t e s b i n e r i e s du c o i n buvez du coke fumez l a p l a y e r ' s ah l e grand craquement du s o l e i l empoussiere de ciment e t de p e t r o l e c r o u l a n t d'un coup s u r l a f i l l e engrossee p a r son pere d e m i - i d i o t e q u i v o i t p o u r r i r l a v i e a t r a v e r s l a sueur e t l e s cordees de l e s s i v e ah ce grand RIEN dans l a course de"traquee de t e s heures ce grand t r o u de l a n u i t ou b r a i l l e n t l e s neons h y s t e r i q u e s TAVERN TAVERN TAVERN C'EST TOI TOI TOI t u n'as r i e n t u t e f a i s des i d e e s s u r l e monde s u r l a beaute des j o u r s l e monde c ' e s t au-dessus l e s o l e i l ^ c ' e s t quelque p a r t l a - b a s h o r s de l a marde chomeur v o l e u r p u t a i n g i b i e r de potence C'EST TOI t a v e " r i t e ce c o i n de t r o t t o i r f r a c a s s e ? L i v e l y e x p e r i m e n t a l form e q u i v a l a t e s p o e t i c sense i n O u e l l e t t e ' s p o e t r y as w e l l . The v e r y s h o r t j u x t a p o s e d v e r s e s w i t h g r e a t spaces between them o f the poem "50 Megatonnes," 101 f o r example, se r v e a pu r p o s e . So as not to d i s t r a c t from the importance o f the message--the h o r r o r o f a n u c l e a r e x p l o s i o n - - t h e poet e l i m i n a t e s a l l d e s c r i p t i v e f r i l l s . The ph r a s e s are b r i e f and the i d e a s are e x p r e s s e d a b r u p t l y and t e r s e l y . The b i g spaces and t h e sudden hush t h e y seem t o i m p l y have been put t h e r e perhaps to i n d i c a t e the v a s t , v a s t s i l e n c e o f n o t h i n g n e s s a f t e r the a t o m i c h o l o c a u s t . The d e s c e n d i n g o r "dropped" phrase arrangement, w i t h each s u c c e e d i n g l i n e c o n t a i n i n g one l e s s s y l l a b l e , has an e f f e c t o f s l o w i n g down the r e a d e r t o s t r e s s , p o s s i b l y , t h e s l o w i n g down and the c e s s a t i o n o f a l l l i f e , a l t o g e t h e r . T h i s r a l l e n t a n d o a l s o tends t o l e n d an a i r o f a m o u r n f u l chanted d i r g e t o t h a t p a r t o f the poem.8 The t e n s e , s h o r t e n e d p h r a s e s w i t h t h e i r e x c l a m a t i o n s and q u e s t i o n s and t h e i r q u i c k l y s u c c e e d i n g enumerations o f d e s c r i p t i o n s and sense i m p r e s s i o n s o f the l a s t p a r t o f Sequences de 1 ' A i l e . convey O u e l l e t t e ' s d e s p a i r and h i s g a s p i n g f o r a b r e a t h i n the c a l l o u s e d machine w o r l d o f toda y . He has no energy to u t t e r more than a b o r t e d p h r a s e s . He i s a l s o v e r y a n g r y and h i s rage s t i f l e s h i s p o e t i c e l o q u e n c e . The l i n e s , i n t h e i r jumpy ex c i t e m e n t and l a c k o f s t a b i l i t y , a l s o i m i t a t e the f r a n t i c s y n c h r o n i z e d p r e s e n t . De l ' O r i e n t a l ' O c c i d e n t l e s c l i m a t s d e l i r e n t . Les totems d d v o r e n t . 0 V e r b e l ou n e i g e - t - i l de l ' a i r ? 9 102 Memes g i c l e e s - s o l e i l s dont se g r i s e n t l e s sq u a r e s . Meme'vin de s u i e a f a i r e d e l i - r e r l e b l a n c des v e r g e r s . E t l e chaud c l a v i e r de m o l l e t s que l e s t r i s t e s marte- l e n t en s o u r d i n e . Cafe" moka! La P r e s s e ! Rue S a i n t e - C a t h e - r i n e ! L'odeur des banques se mele aux b r i s e s de l ' e n f a n c e . Au l o n g des devan- t u r e s , l e s p a s s a n t s s u r c h a u f f e n t un c i e l e'teint.10 Les pas p i e r r e u x du p o u l s b a t t a n t mes tem- pes. Mon coeur propage aux v e i n e s des t^legrammes de g l a c e . Sons de seve. C i e l d ' h o r l o g e . Oxygene! A 1 ' h o r i z o n de l ' o u t i l ' s ' e n g o u r d i t l a l u m i e r e . Tempo de b i e l l e s . V i b r a t i o n s de r a i l s . Sur l e dur de l'e'chine b o n d i s s e n t l e s e l e c t r o n s de l 1 e n v o i . H The two g e n e r a t i o n s o f Quebec p o e t s a re a l s o t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d t e c h n i c a l l y , one from the o t h e r , by the type o f imagery each produces o r does n o t produce. I n the v e r s e o f Hebert and G r a n d b o i s , the images are r e s e r v e d and, f o r the most p a r t , l a c k i n g i n t r u e c r e a t i v e s p a r k l e . Among the younger p o e t s t h e r e are two extremes, e i t h e r an exag g e r a t e d and d a r i n g employment of images o r an alm o s t complete r e j e c t i o n o f them. With O u e l l e t t e , t h e r e i s no t i m i d i t y o r r e s t r a i n t , b u t , i n s t e a d , a s p i r i t e d a d v e n t urousness and a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to d e s c r i b e i n the most s p e c t a c u l a r , spontaneous and u n t r a d i t i o n a l way p o s s i b l e . F o r Chamberland, p o e t i c imagery w i t h a l l i t s h e r m e t i c i n t r i c a c i e s means c o n v e n t i o n and c o n v e n t i o n must be a b o l i s h e d from v e r s e . The poem must speak d i r e c t l y t o t h e r e a d e r and i t s meaning s h o u l d n o t be smothered i n d e s c r i p t i v e t r a p p i n g s , ( " j ' a i casse l e m i r o i r du poeme e t f r a c t u r e " 1'image m u r " ) x 2 A l a i n G r a n d b o i s ' imagery betokens p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n , b ut d e f i n i t e l y n o t p o e t i c d a r i n g . I n d e s c r i b i n g h i s m i s t r e s s ' g r a c e , he equates h e r eye t o a f o l i a g e , h e r mouth t o a l l t h e doves and h e r s m i l e to a d e p a r t u r e o f w h i t e b a r q u e s . The day i s i n the sun l i k e a g o l d e n head o f h a i r . Our l o n e l y h e a r t s are l i k e empty rooms. The d i s a r r a n g e d e t e r n a l laws w h i c h once governed the u n i v e r s e are g a l l o p i n g d i s t r a c t e d l y l i k e mad h o r s e s . Anne Hebert t o o , has a c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the w o r l d about h e r . I n the tomb o f the k i n g s , f o o t s t e p s resound l i k e the f i r s t drops o f r a i n a t the bottom o f a w e l l . The wind i s a music which c a r r i e s e v e r y t h i n g away w i t h i t and the l e a v e s are dancers who are d o c i l e u n t i l t h e i r d e a t h s . The p o e t ' s h e a r t i s a d e s e r t e d house, w i t h b l a n k s t a r i n g s h u t t e r s and an open door. The s e a g u l l s ' c r i e s g r a t e l i k e s q u e a k i n g p u l l i e s . Fernand O u e l l e t t e ' s p o e t r y i s peppered, e s p e c i a l l y i n Sequences de l ' A i l e . w i t h i n v o l v e d , a u d a c i o u s and flamboyant images. Some o f h i s d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s , because o f t h e i r b i z a r r e n e s s and t h e i r i r r a t i o n a l i t y , come v e r y c l o s e to 104 s u r r e a l i s m w h i c h s a n c t i o n s s t r a n g e a n d f a n t a s t i c u n i o n s o f n o r m a l l y u n l i n k a b l e and u n a s s o c i a b l e w o r d s , i d e a s a n d r e a l - i t i e s . Some e x a m p l e s o f h i s a r b i t r a r y h a n d l i n g o f i m a g e r y a r e as f o l l o w s : Quand l e s p o i t r i n e s b o l i d e s de p a r 1 ' e s p a c e r e l i e n t c e n t v i l l e s d ' e t o i l e . 1 3 E t l e n t j e fume s o u s l ' o e i l comme une c i - g a r e t t e de f a b l e . 1 4 - E t s u r s o n v e n t r e d o r m a n t mes d o i g t s f u s e e s d o u l o u r e u x , de doux s o u r i r e s de c l o w n a u x c o u l i s s e s du v e r t i g e . M a i s l e s m a i n s m e u r e n t m a r i n e s e t c o u l e n t au g r a n d f l e u v e n o i r e l e c t r i s e de mouet-tesl5 S ' i l l u m i n e 1 ' e p a i s de n o t r e c h a i r comme un p a y s d ' o i s e a u x l e l o n g de l ' a u b e . 1 6 T h e r e i s a c e r t a i n " p r e c i o s i t e " a n d some v a g u e n e s s o f i m a g e r y n o t common t o t h e v e r s e o f t h e e l d e r g e n e r a t i o n i n t h e p o e t r y o f P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d . j e m ' e n f o n c e p l u s s u r qu'un t r a i n e n t r e l e s d e n t s du m a l h e u r l 7 ( l e c a r r e l a g e h u r l e s e s f o u r s a u x f e n e t r e s h a l l u c i n e e s ) 1 8 Y e t t h i s t e n d e n c y t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y n o t as w i d e s p r e a d i n Chamberland's p o e t r y as i t i s i n the p o e t r y o f Fernand O u e l l e t t e and he i s t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the e a r l i e r p o e t s more by a r a t h e r marked absence, i n h i s v e r s e , o f the d e s c r i p t i v e element t h a n by i t s p r e s e n c e . O u e l l e t t e d i f f e r s from Hebert and Grandbois by the exuberance o f h i s images whereas Chamberland's y o u t h f u l n e s s and m o d e r n i t y are t o be found i n the s p a r s e n e s s o f h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s . Not o n l y i s t h e r e a d i f f e r e n c e i n the way words a r e employed by the two g e n e r a t i o n s , t h e r e i s a l s o a d i f f e r e n c e i n the type o f word t h a t i s employed. With Fernand O u e l l e t t e and P a u l Chamberland t h e r e i s an almost complete freedom o f c h o i c e as r e g a r d s the l e v e l o f language u t i l i s e d i n t h e i r p o e t r y , a freedom t h a t A l a i n Grandbois and Anne Hebert do not p e r m i t t h e m s e l v e s . There seems to be an a t t i t u d e among the younger g e n e r a t i o n p o e t s t h a t almost any words, whether swear terms o r a d v e r t i s i n g l y r i c s , may e n t e r the poem whereas the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n p o e t s , a f r a i d o f the uncommon and the u n u s u a l , use a r a t h e r s t a n d a r d , c l a s s i c a l , and p o e t i c a l l y " a c c e p t a b l e " v o c a b u l a r y . Fernand O u e l l e t t e . i s n o t a f r a i d to i n t r o d u c e contemporary t e c h n i c a l words such as " r a d a r " 1 9 and " e l e c t r i f i e r " 2 0 i n t o the c o n f i n e s o f h i s p o e t r y . L i k e Chamberland, he en j o y s c r e a t i n g new terms such as " f o s s e a. neons"21 and "manege a p l a n e t e s . " 2 2 Chamberland's l i b e r a t e d v o c a b u l a r y i n c l u d e s n e o l o g i s m s , p l a y - f u l l y m a n i p u l a t e d as w e l l as misused words, q u a i n t a n g l i c i s m s and c o n t o r t i o n o f a n g l i c i s m s , common j a r g o n and s l a n g , m e d i c a l a n d t e c h n i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s , a n d p l a i n g i b b e r i s h . A m o n g h i s n e o l o g i s m s a r e " a p a t r i e r , " 2 3 " e n s o u r c e r , " 2 4 " s ' a j o u x t e r , " 2 5 a n d " s ' a p p o p u l a c e r . " 2 6 He t h o r o u g h l y e n j o y s j u g g l i n g w o r d s i l s v a n t e n t mes d o n s ma t r a n s p a r e n t e p u r e t e d ' a s c e t e b e n i - o u i - o u i 2 7 . . . t a n t l o u v o y e " d a n s l e f r e l a t e l a v i n a s s e l e s f r i c a s s e e s de m a m a n - l e d e v o i r - m o r a l - e t - l e s - d i x - c o m m a n d e m e n t s o u i o u i 2 8 . . . j e f u s l e b o n e n f a n t l e s a g e e n f a n t i ' e n f a n t b l o n d e q u e l ' o n t r a n c h a i t e n j o u r s f e r i d s p o u r l e s t a r t i n e s d u g r a n d B o u f f e u r d e l ' e t e r n e l E m p i f f r e de l ' u n e s a i n t e c a t h o l i q u e a p o s t o l i q u e e t r o m a i n e C u i s i n e 2 9 T h e r e a r e v e r s e s o f n o n s e n s i c a l b a b b l e : . . •. o u i o u i o u u u u u u u u u u u h a h a b a d a b a d a b a d a . . .30 C h a m b e r l a n d f r e q u e n t l y e m p l o y s a n g l i c i s m s o r d i s t o r t e d a n d " F r e n c h i f i e d " a n g l i c i s m s . . . . m a i s i l a d e s a m i s a s o u r i r e t h o o t p a s t e o y o u c h a r m i n g f r e n c h - C a n a d i a n p e o p l e b u t do y o u t e l l me w h a t s o a n g r y i o u n i s s o n s o u r b o t h s o l i t i o u d e 3 l . . . n o u s t r o s t o n s D i e u . . .32 He d o e s n o t h e s i t a t e t o u s e f a m i l i a r e x p r e s s i o n s a s w e l l a s s l a n g a n d j a r g o n . He s p e a k s o f " l ' u n i v e r s e l g l o u - g l o u " 3 3 a n d t h e " d e g u e u l a n t s n e o n s . " 3 4 He e m p l o y s t e r m s s u c h a s "mai f o u t u , " 3 5 " f o u t r e 1'camp,"36 " C o u i l l o n , " 3 7 and "merde."38 Words common t o the modern, commercial and everyday w o r l d f i l l h i s v e r s e . He w r i t e s o f " b u l l d o z e r s , " 3 9 " s t r i p - t e a s e s , " 4 0 " f r i g o s , " 4 ! " b a g n o l e s , " 4 2 and " t e v e ' s . " 4 3 He p a r r o t s a d v e r t i s i n g j i n g l e s — " b u v e z du c o k e " 4 4 and "fumez l a p l a y e r ' s . " 4 5 I n h i s poems he mentions " M i s t e r N o b e l - P e a r s o n , " 4 6 " T e x a c o , " 4 7 " G e n e r a l M o t o r s , " 4 8 and the RCMP. 49 He employs m e d i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s such as "colostrum,"5° " p a r a n o i a s ," 5 1 and "miasmes."52 C H A P T E R V . FOOTNOTES 1. A l a i n G r a n d b o i s , " D e v a n t C e s B u c h e r s F r a t e r n e l s . . . " , P o e m e s , E d i t i o n s d e l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 3 , p . 6 2 . 2. " V e r s e t " i s t h e t e r m w h i c h h a s b e e n u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e u n i q u e s h o r t " p a r a g r a p h " d i v i s i o n s w h i c h a r e common t o t h e p o e t r y o f P a u l C l a u d e l . 3. P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , " L e s N u i t s A r m e e s , T e r r e Q u e b e c , L i b r a i r i e Deom, M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p . 1 8 . 4. P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . E d i t i o n s P a r t i P r i s M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 4 , p . 47. 5. Ibid*» P* 54. . 6. " U n g a v a T e r r e de l ' O s , " T e r r e Q u e b e c , p . 3 1 . 7. L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . p p . 6 0 - 6 1 . 8. T h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o q u o t e N o . 2 9 , p a g e 1 3 , i n C h a p t e r I . 9. F e r n a n d O u e l l e t t e , " R a d i o g r a p h i c d u J o u r , " S e q u e n c e s d e 1 ' A l l e . L e s E d i t i o n s d e l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 5 8 , p . 4 4 . 1 0 . " Q u a t u o r C l i m a t i s e , " I b i d . . p . 4 8 . 1 1 . I b i d . , p . 5 3 . 1 2 . P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , " L e Temps de l a H a i n e , " T e r r e Q u e b e c . P. 3 5 . < 1 3 . F e r n a n d O u e l l e t t e , " E p o p e e s , " S e q u e n c e s de l ' A l l e . p . 1 3 1 4 . " C i n e m a C o s m i q u e , " I b i d . , p . 2 2 . 1 5 . " D o i g t s F u s e e s , " I b i d . . p . 2 3 . 16. F e r n a n d O u e l l e t t e , "Femme," L e S o l e i l S o u s l a M o r t . L e s E d i t i o n s de l ' H e x a g o n e , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 5 , p . 5 3 - 1 7 . P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d , " L e s N u i t s A r m e e s , " T e r r e Q u e b e c , p . 1 1 8 . I b i d . 109 19. Fernand O u e l l e t t e , "Degel de 1'Homme," Sequences de l ' A i l e , p. 2 0 . 2 0 . I b i d . 21. "Auberge de l a Paim," Sequences de l ' A i l e , p. 25. 22 . I b i d . , p. 26. 23 . P a u l Chamberland, "Les N u i t s Armees," T e r r e Quebec, p. 12. 24. "Poeme de 1 ' A n t e r e v o l u t i o n , " I I , I b i d . . p. 41. 25. "Foyer de l ' E t r e i n t e , " I b i d . . p. 57. 2 6. P a u l Chamberland, L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e , p. 56. 27. I b i d . , P. 58. 28. I b i d . , P. 54. 29. I b i d . , P. 53. 30. I b i d . , P. 54. 31. I b i d . , P. 72. 32. I b i d . 33. L ' A f f i c h e u r Hi 34. I b i d . , P- 53. 35. I b i d . , P. 61. 36. I b i d . , P . 66. 37. I b i d . , P. 70. 38. I b i d . , P. 65. 39. I b i d . , P. 56. 40. I b i d . , P. 57. 41. I b i d . , P. 54. 42. I b i d . , P. 18. 43. I b i d . 44. L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . p. 60. 1 1 0 4 5 . L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . p . 60. 4 6 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 . 4 7 . I b i d . , p . 1 4 . 4 8 . I b i d . 4 9 . L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . p . 7 2 . 5 0 . I b i d . . p . 54. 5 1 . I b i d . , p . 1 2 . 5 2 . I b i d . , p . 5 3 . CONCLUSION I t i s e v i d e n t , t h a t , on the whole, the two g e n e r a t i o n s o f modern Fre n c h Canadian p o e t s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s — the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g Anne Hebert and A l a i n Grandbois and the younger g e n e r a t i o n c o m p r i s i n g G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , Fernand O u e l l e t t e and P a u l C h a m b e r l a n d — d i f f e r , i n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t o f c e r t a i n themes and p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s and i n the v i e w p o i n t s and the a t t i t u d e s t h a t each a d o p t s , r a t h e r d e f i n i t e l y and even, a t t i m e s , r a t h e r d r a s t i c a l l y from each o t h e r . B e f o r e t e r m i n a t i n g , I i n t e n d to summarize b r i e f l y here the d i f f e r e n c e s which have a l r e a d y , i n the course o f t h i s s t u d y , been shown t o e x i s t between these two groups o f p o e t s . As r e g a r d s the " s u b j e c t , " i t was found to change c o n s i d e r a b l y between the e l d e r and the younger b a r d s . The p o e t r y o f the second g e n e r a t i o n , l e a v i n g the p r i v a t e and h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n f a r b e h i n d , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more o b j e c t i v e and u n i v e r s a l c o n c e r n s , i n s p i t e o f the i n e v i t a b l e v e r s e s where the p o e t s speak o f t h e i r dreams and t h e i r l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . The " j e , " i t s a n g u i s h , and i t s i n f r e q u e n t p l e a s u r e s i s the s u b j e c t i n the p o e t r y o f Anne Hebert and A l a i n Grandbois w h i l e the s u b j e c t i n the v e r s e o f G a t i e n L a p o i n t e , Fernand O u e l l e t t e and P a u l Chamberland i s no l o n g e r " I " o r "me" but p r i m a r i l y "us" and "you." J u s t as i n France i n the l a t e 1930's and e a r l y 194-0's, when p o e t s l i k e P a u l E l u a r d and Aragon, engaged w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w countrymen i n r e s i s t i n g the N a z i menace, r e j e c t e d the r a t h e r s e l f i s h h e r m e t i c v e r s e and a t t e m p t e d , i n t h e i r p o e t r y , t o l i n k hands and s p i r i t s w i t h a l l o p p r e s s e d and s u f f e r i n g men, so a number o f Quebec po e t s o f t h e l a t e 1950's and e a r l y 1960's ( r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y by L a p o i n t e , O u e l l e t t e , and Chamberland) opted f o r an i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h men. These l a t t e r have abandoned s u b j e c t i v e l y r i c i s m and c l a s s i c a l s o u l - s e a r c h i n g and lament to w r i t e o f the r e a l w o r l d and the r e a l men who i n h a b i t i t . Fernand O u e l l e t t e and G a t i e n L a p o i n t e are b o t h i n v o l v e d and "engage's." O u e l l e t t e i s a r e c o r d e r o f the sorrows and the t r i a l s o f men, a saddened prophet o f the n u c l e a r f a t e w h i c h a w a i t s them, and a c r i t i c o f c e r t a i n g l a r i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the contemporary w o r l d and i t s c i t i z e n s . L a p o i n t e even c o n s i d e r s i t to be a fundamental moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the poet t o speak o f and f o r men. I n v e r s e t h a t i s a t t i m e s l i t t l e more than v a g u e l y p o e t i z e d p o l i t i c a l r e p o r t i n g , P a u l Chamberland emulates p o e t s l i k e P a b l o Neruda, A n t o n i o Machado, and V l a d i m i r Mayakovsky whose communicable, s o c i a l l y " a c t i v e " and p o l i t i c a l l y u s e f u l poems concern themselves w i t h the s t r u g g l e s o f r e p r e s s e d p e o p l e and down- t r o d d e n n a t i o n s . The a t t i t u d e s common to each g e n e r a t i o n c o n t r a s t almost as d r a m a t i c a l l y as b l a c k and w h i t e . The p e s s i m i s m , r e s i g n a t i o n , 113 .and d e m o r a l i z a t i o n o f Anne Hebert and A l a i n Grandbois when f a c e d w i t h a l l the u n c e r t a i n t y and i n s t a b i l i t y o f the human l o t become, i n s p i t e o f a few weak and d e s p a i r i n g moments, opti m i s m and c h a l l e n g e i n the v e r s e o f the younger p o e t s . A f t e r the e l d e r p o e t s ' a n g u i s h i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f the c o l d and d e s p a i r , comes G a t i e n L a p o i n t e w i t h h i s proud d e f i a n c e o f a l l o b s t a c l e s and h i s f e r v e n t and almost f a n a t i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n to overcome, a t a l l c o s t s , t h a t which r e s t r i c t s h i s l i f e , g r o w t h , and h a p p i n e s s as w e l l as the l i f e , g rowth, and h a p p i n e s s o f a l l men. Fernand O u e l l e t t e ' s v e r s e i s f u l l o f j o y f u l and m i r a c u l o u s v i s i o n s o f men who have triumphed over t h e i r human c o n d i t i o n and even t h e i r m o r t a l i t y w h i l e a tough and d e f i a n t P a u l Chamberland i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t Quebec's dreams o f l i b e r a t i o n are soon to be r e a l i z e d . N a t u r e , r e g a r d e d as r u t h l e s s and h o s t i l e by b o t h Hebert and G r a n d b o i s , i s seen by L a p o i n t e as k i n d , s h e l t e r i n g , and s t r e n g t h e n i n g . Man i s an i n e v i t a b l e p i e c e o f the n a t u r a l o r d e r , n o t t o be t o s s e d about o r abused by i t . I t r e a n i m a t e s and c o m forts him and he b e l o n g s to i t , b l e n d i n g w i t h i t s s easons, s a p s , f r u i t s , c l a y s and winds j u s t as n a t u r a l l y and l e g i t i m a t e l y as might any r o o t , l a d e n b r a n c h , o r b e a s t . O u e l l e t t e ' s i n t e r s t e l l a r space i s n o t , as were the G r a n d b o i s i e n s k i e s , c o l d , d a r k , c h a o t i c and t h r e a t e n i n g , but r a t h e r a p l a c e o f warmth and welcome i n t o which man may escape and l o s e h i s m o r t a l bonds. The w o r l d i m m e d i a t e l y about O u e l l e t t e i s d e s c r i b e d as a v a s t , w h i t e , and f r i e n d l y v e g e t a b l e m a t r i x to which the poet r i g h t f u l l y b e l o n g s . The h a r s h cosmos p a i n t e d by P a u l Chamberland i s , as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the o p p r e s s i o n t h a t weighs upon Quebec and i t s c i t i z e n s , a temporary c o n d i t i o n and the poet and h i s p e o p l e are soon to be r e l e a s e d from i t t o be r e i n s t a t e d i n a f r u i t f u l , calm, and s h e l t e r i n g t e r r e s t r i a l o r d e r . Anne Hebert w r i t e s o f l o v e ' s u n f u l f i l m e n t w h i l e A l a i n Grandbois c o n s i d e r s the woman as m o r t a l and v e r y v u l n e r - a b l e and the l o v e t h a t she b r i n g s as t r a g i c a l l y l i m i t e d , p r o v i d i n g no answer to the unhappiness and the a n g u i s h o f men. The more r e c e n t p o e t s see d i f f e r e n t l y however. L a p o i n t e , O u e l l e t t e and Chamberland a l l w r i t e o f a l o v e t h a t i s an a l l - p o w e r f u l and an almost m a g i c a l s t a t e . They have found the l o v e a b s o l u t e t h a t t h e two o l d e r p o e t s d i s m i s s e d as a mere f a i r y - t a l e and i n the l o v e d and l o v i n g woman, a goddess and a p e r f e c t , d i v i n e , and g r a c i o u s c r e a t u r e ( a s s o c i a t e d i n t h e i r p o e t r y w i t h a l l the l i f e and greenness o f n a t u r e ) , t h e y seek and d i s c o v e r r e f r e s h m e n t , c o m f o r t , q u i e t and even an e a r t h l y e t e r n i t y . P o e t i c t e c h n i q u e p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r p o i n t o f comparison i n t h i s s t u d y o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between two g e n e r a t i o n s o f modern French-Canadian p o e t s and the d a r i n g and i m a g i n a t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f the younger p o e t s w i t h r e g a r d to the form o f the poem, i t s v o c a b u l a r y and i t s imagery, was found t o c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h the unadventurous c o n s e r v a t i s m o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Chamberland, P a u l . L ' A f f i c h e u r H u r l e . M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s P a r t i P r i s , 1 9 6 4 . Chamberland, P a u l . T e r r e Quebec. M o n t r e a l : L i b r a i r i e Deom, 1964. de G r a n d p r e / P i e r r e . D i x Ans de V i e L l t t e r a i r e au Canada F r a n c a i s . M o n t r e a l : Beauchemin, 1966. G r a n d b o i s , A l a i n . Poemes. (Les l i e s de l a N u i t . R i v a g e s de 1'Homme. L ' E t o i l e P o u r p r e ) . M o n t r e a l : Les E d i t i o n s de l'Hexagone, 1963. H e b e r t , Anne. Le Tombeau des R o i s . Quebec: Le S o l e i l , 1953. • Les Songes en E q u i l i b r e . M o n t r e a l : Les E d i t i o n s de l ' A r b r e , 1942. • Poemes. P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de S e u i l , i960. L a p o i n t e , G a t i e n . Le P r e m i e r Mot. M o n t r e a l : Les E d i t i o n s .du J o u r , 1967. • Le Temps P r e m i e r . P a r i s : Jean G r a s s i n E d i t e u r , 1962. • Ode au S a i n t - L a u r e n t . M o n t r e a l : Les E d i t i o n s du J o u r , 1963. L i b r a i r i e Deom. ed. Le Pays. M o n t r e a l : 1963. M a r c o t t e , G l l l e s . Une L i t t e r a t u r e Qui Se F a i t . M o n t r e a l : Les E d i t i o n s HMH, 1962. O u e l l e t t e , Fernand. Ces Anges de Sang. M o n t r e a l : Les E d i t i o n s de l'Hexagone, 1955. • Le S o l e i l Sous l a Mort. M o n t r e a l : Les E d i t i o n s de 1 'Hexagone, 1965. • Sequences de l ' A i l e . M o n t r e a l : Les E d i t i o n s ' d e l'Hexagone, 1958. Page, P i e r r e . Anne Hebert. M o n t r e a l : E d i t i o n s F i d e s , 1965. 1 1 7 P i c o n , G a & t a n . P a n o r a m a d e l a N o u v e l l e L i t t e r a t u r e F r a n c a i s e . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e G a l l i m a r d , I 9 6 0 . R o b e r t , G u y . L a P o e t i q u e d u S o n g e . A.G.E.U.M.., 1 9 6 2 . R o b e r t , G u y . L i t t e r a t u r e d u Q u e b e c , T e m o i g n a g e s d u 1 7 P o e t e s . M o n t r e a l : L i b r a i r i e Deom, 1 9 6 4 . v a n S c h e n d e l , M i c h e l . L a 1 ' P o e s i e e t N o u s . M o n t r e a l : L e s E d i t i o n s d e l ' H e x a g o n e , 1 9 5 8 . P E R I O D I C A L S C h a m b e r l a n d , P a u l , " T r o i s ' D u r e e s ' I n e d i t e s , " L i v r e s e t A u t e u r s C a n a d i e n s — P a n o r a m a de l a P r o d u c t i o n L i t t e r a i r e de l ' A n n e e . ( 1 9 6 4 ) . p p . 4 5 - 4 6 . L a l o n d e , M i c h e l e . " T e m o i g n a g e s , " L i b e r t e I I ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , I 9 6 0 ) , p p . 1 7 9 - 1 8 8 . W y c z y n s k i , P a u l . " L ' U n i v e r s P o e t i q u e d ' A n n e H e b e r t , " L ' E n s e i g n e m e n t S e c o n d a i r e . X X X X I I ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 5 1 r 6 6 .

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