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Integration of physical planning and social planning : a case study of the Strathcona Urban Renewal Area,… Lai, Hermia Kwok-Yee 1970

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INTEGRATION OF PHYSICAL PLANNING AND SOCIAL PLANNING-: A CASE STUDY OF THE  STRATHCONA URBAN RENEWAL AREA , VANCOUVER by HERMIA KVOK-YEE LAI B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong, 1965; M.A., U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g  Ve accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1970.  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an a d v a n c e d  degree at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  tha  this  written  thesis  permission  thesis  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r It i s understood  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Community and liepiional P l a n n i n g  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  f o r extensive copying o f t h i s  permission.  School Ksq&a(ftBIJ£XK o f  that  i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  I agree  24th Anri 1 . 1Q70.  Columbia  i ABSTRACT This t h e s i s the  disciplines  particular  examines the c u r r e n t s e p a r a t i o n between  of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g w i t h  r e f e r e n c e t o the C i t y of Vancouver. Traditionally,  the  p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g was dominated by  d o c t r i n e of environmental determinism while s o c i a l  ning was l i m i t e d munity.  plan-  to the supply of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to the com-  N e i t h e r of them, as separate f u n c t i o n s , was able to  e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e s o c i a l and environmental problems i n the  urban complex.  The maladjustment between the p h y s i c a l  plans and s o c i a l d e s i r e s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  evident i n urban  renewal programs where replacement of poor p h y s i c a l by  decent housing f a i l s to, improve the s o c i a l  structures  conditions.  One of the methods advocated i n North America f o r e l i m i n a t i n g mismatches between p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l needs i s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n pose of t h i s t h e s i s  i n planning.  The primary pur-  i s to t e s t the relevance of c i t i z e n i n -  volvement as a l i a i s o n between the two f u n c t i o n s . thesis  The hypo-  f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h i s : That c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n  a s s i s t i n the i n t e g r a t i o n  will  of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l  planning. Research f i n d i n g s r e v e a l that " p l a n n i n g " i s a comprehensive process of decision-making on the a l l o c a t i o n and  development of human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s .  Any p h y s i c a l  p l a n which aims a t improving the environment f o r the b e n e f i t of the p u b l i c i s e s s e n t i a l l y  " s o c i a l " i n nature.  Planning  i s t h e r e f o r e an apparatus f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l  p h y s i c a l - s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f u n c t i o n a l programs of a community i n t o an i n t e g r a t e d only one  overview of the  t o t a l community.  In f a c t ,  type of p l a n n i n g e x i s t s - a comprehensive approach  aimed at a c h i e v i n g  s o c i a l goals.  method which i n v o l v e s economic and  the  I t i s an  deliberate  inter-systems  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  human-behavior c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i n t o the  socio-  decision-  making arena. Further research  on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n appears  to support the hypothesis that a s s i s t the d e s i r e d values.  c i t i z e n involvement "will  i n t e g r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and  social  Various forms of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n are i d e n t i f i e d ,  ranging from the passive information,  non-participation  consultation  and  r o l e of education,  p l a c a t i o n to the  e f f e c t s of delegated power and  citizen control.  aggressive This  gradation  of p a r t i c i p a t o r y " s t r a t e g i e s " i s represented by a typology The  Model of a Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Literature  review a l s o i n d i c a t e s that c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n f a c t a new  kind  of p o l i t i c s which i n v o l v e s  power to the have-not c i t i z e n s and government f u n c t i o n s .  The  the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of  the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  peak l e v e l of the  citizen  of  parti-  c i p a t i o n model i s " c i t i z e n power", at which step, s o c i a l desires  of the  community are  s i g n i f i c a n t l y represented  and  accounted f o r i n the planning p r o c e s s . The  Case Study on the  Strathcona Urban Renewal  Porgram i n Vancouver provides a f f i r m a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s i n  favour of the h y p o t h e s i s . involvement,  Various  " s t r a t e g i e s " of  citizen  p r o g r e s s i n g from the low l e v e l of n o n - p a r t i c i -  p a t i o n and tokenism  i n the e a r l y 1960s to the present  stage  of delegated power were p r a c t i s e d by the Strathcona r e s i d e n t s . The Case f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e s the hypothesis t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a promising a l t e r n a t i v e to the  traditional  p l a n n i n g approach under the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l system.  Al-  though the urban renewal program i n Strathcona i s s t i l l  under  process to-date, there i s some v a l i d a t i o n i n presuming t h a t p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy w i l l a s s i s t the i n t e g r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l values„ I n r e t r o s p e c t i v e , i t appears t h a t two  challenges  are posed to the p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s : to i n c r e a s e t h e i r s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y and to broaden t h e i r i n n o v a t i o n r o l e . Future r e s e a r c h i n t o the methods of promoting  meaningful  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and to p o l i t i c i z e the p l a n n i n g are deemed necessary.  -  '  process  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The  iv  author wishes t o express her g r a t i t u d e t o  Dr. Robert ¥. C o l l i e r , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of Community and R e g i o n a l Planning  of the Department  of the U n i v e r s i t y of  B r i t i s h Columbia f o r h i s guidance and c o n s t r u c t i v e during  the p r e p a r a t i o n  to Mrs.  of t h i s . t h e s i s .  criticism  Thanks are a l s o due  C h r i s McNiven, Teaching A s s o c i a t e  of the School of  S o c i a l York of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r her invaluable  suggestions. Hearty a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended to the f o l l o w i n g  persons f o r t h e i r generous Mr.  assistance:  E l i o Azzara, U n i t e d  Community S e r v i c e s  of Greater '  Vancouver; Mr.  L i n c o l n Chang, Department of P l a n n i n g ,  C i t y of  Vancouver; Mrs.  B e s s i e Lee,  Strathcona  Property  Owners and Tenants  Association; " Mr. Jonathan Lau,  Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s  Association  of Vancouver; Mrs.  Darlene M a r z a r i , Department of S o c i a l Planning and Community Development, C i t y of Vancouver;  Mr.  P h i l i p ¥ong, Chinatown P r o p e r t y The  Owners A s s o c i a t i o n .  author i s a l s o g r a t e f u l t o the C e n t r a l Mortgage  and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n Fellowship  and  of Canada who awarded the Planning  d u r i n g 1968-1970. L a s t but not l e a s t , acknowledgement i s expressed t o  Miss Helen Chan who so competently typed t h i s t h e s i s .  TABLE  OF CONTENTS  v Page  Abstract  i  Acknowledgements Table List  i v  of Contents  v  of Tables  v i i i  Figure  v i i i  Map  v i i i  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  1  The P r o b l e m Purpose of the Study Hypothesis Methodology Organization Definitions and A b b r e v i a t i o n s II  I N T E G R A T I O N OF P H Y S I C A L P L A N N I N G P L A N N I N G - GENERAL BACKGROUND  AND  SOCIAL 15  H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Physical Planning T r a d i t i o n a l Concept and Approach P h y s i c a l D e t e r m i n i s m and Urban Renewal F a l l a c y of Traditional Physical Planning Social Planning Conventional Meaning and Approach Social Planning Redefined O b j e c t i v e s and I s s u e s Integrated Planning Integrated Nature Planning Redefined - Comprehensiveness D i f f i c u l t i e s of Planning I n t e g r a t i o n Methods of I n t e g r a t i o n III  CITIZEN PARTICIPATION PLANNING  AS A STRATEGY  OF  INTEGRATED  Introduction Justification for Citizen Participation Forms o f C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n  4.1  vi Page S t r a t e g i e s of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n as a Planning t o o l I. L e v e l of N o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n II. Degrees of Tokenism I I I . Degrees of C i t i z e n Power L i m i t a t i o n s of the S t r a t e g i e s Conclusions IV  THE STRATHCONA URBAN RENEWAL PROGRAM - CASE BACKGROUND. »  63  Purpose of Case StudyCase Background A. L o c a t i o n and Boundary B. P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C. S o c i a l and Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Urban Renewal Programs Conclusions V  THE STRATHCONA URBAN RENEWAL PROGRAM - CASE ANALYSIS  74  Introduction I. L e v e l of N o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n and Tokenism I n i t i a l P l a n - The 1957 Redevelopment Study The Chinatown Property Owners Association L e v e l of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Redevelopment P r o j e c t No. 1 D e t a i l e d Renewal Scheme The C i t i z e n s ' R e a c t i o n Consequences of the P r o j e c t and L e v e l of P a r t i c i p a t i o n Redevelopment P r o j e c t No. 2 The Redevelopment P l a n C i t i z e n s ' Response and P a r t i c i p a t i o n Planning Implementation, Consequences and L e v e l of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n II. The I n t e r i m Stage of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Urban Renewal Scheme I I I The Strathcona Area C o u n c i l The C i t y S o c i a l Planning and Community Development Department I I I . The Stage of Delegated Power - The Strathcona P r o p e r t y Owners and Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n The F i r s t Phase The Second Phase L e v e l of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n The Strathcona Urban Renewal V o r k i n g Committee  Page VI  CONCLUSIONS  129  The Study Research Conclusions Suggestions f o r Future  BIBLIOGRAPHI  i .........'  Research  ....  .  .. 137  viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  1  S u b j e c t s o f Major Concern t o S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  33  2  Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n  51  3  E x i s t i n g Land Use D a t a , S t r a t h c o n a Urban Renewal Area. . . o  4  .  °  S e l e c t e d Socio-economic  Characteristics,  Census T r a c t 50, Vancouver 5  . . . . 66  ...»  68  C i t y o f Vancouver - O r g a n i z a t i o n C h a r t of t h e Proposed Department o f S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development  .  112  FIGURE Figure 1  Comparative Age D i s t r i b u t i o n - Shown as a Percentage of T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n o f the S t r a t h c o n a Sub-Area.  70  MAP Map 1  C i t y of Vancouver, Urban Renewal  Programs.....143  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The  Problem The  f i e l d s of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n -  n i n g are c u r r e n t l y i n a s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n . For generations, the p h y s i c a l planners " b l i g h t e d " environments c r e a t e d s o c i a l i l l s p a t h o l o g i e s were "bred" i n the s l u m s . by s u b s t i t u t i n g a w e l l - d e s i g n e d  1  thought  and t h a t s o c i a l  They advocated t h a t  physical setting for a  d i l a p i d a t e d environment, the i n c i d e n c e s of s o c i a l crime would be  alleviated. The  s o c i a l p l a n n e r s , on the other hand, were  con-  cerned w i t h the w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the s o c i a l p a t t e r n of t h e i r community. s o l u t i o n to s o c i a l problems was  They assumed t h a t the  to provide s o c i a l  welfare 2  s e r v i c e s f o r people who  were s o c i a l l y handicapped.  sees only the chicken, the other only the egg.  One  Both d i s c i -  p l i n e s have o v e r s i m p l i f i e d the causal r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p h y s i c a l environment and human behavior.  N e i t h e r of  them, as independent p r o f e s s i o n s have been able to  effectively  e l i m i n a t e our urban problems which are i n t e r r e l a t e d i n nature. M e l v i n Webber observed  t h i s complex r e l a t i o n s h i p  between the p h y s i c a l environment and s o c i a l behavior  as f o l l o w s :  ^ A l b e r t Ross, Regent Park, ( U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , Toronto, 1 9 6 8 ) , pp.34-41. 2 David R. Hunter, The Slums, Challenge and Response, (New York: The Free P r e s s ) , p.250.  2 "As the f i n d i n g s . . . i n t o the r e l a t i o n s between socioa n d - p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t s and s o c i a l beh a v i o r have been a c c u m u l a t i n g , the simple one-to-one c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t l i n k s t h a t once t i e d house t o b e h a v i o r a r e c o m i n g t o be s e e n a s b u t s t r a n d s i n h i g h l y c o m p l e x webs t h a t , i n t u r n , are woven by the i n t r i c a t e . . . r e l a t i o n s t h a t mark s o c i a l , p s y c h i c , economic and p o l i t i c a l systems. The s i m p l e c l a r i t y o f t h e c i t y p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n ' s r o l e i s t h u s b e i n g dimmed b y t h e c l o u d s o f c o m p l e x i t y , d i v e r s i t y , and the r e s u l t i n g uncertainty..."' The tional  fallacy  physical  and  planning  noticeable  i n urban  War y e a r s ,  where  structures  by decent  the and  renewal  the  resulting  inadequacy  social  planning  programs  i n the  replacement housing  of  fails  are post  improve  tradi-  particularly Second  substandard to  of  ¥orld  physical  the  social  4 conditions.  A l t h o u g h some u r b a n  capable  of  created  detrimental  the  rates  tenant  solving  problems social  In  some p u b l i c  of  crime,  damage  is  as  of  redevelopment  physical  programs  blight,  they  are  have  consequences.  housing  projects,  juvenile  delinquancy,  h i g h and  sometimes  for  instance,  vendalism  even h i g h e r  and than  in  5  that  of  the  bourhoods  slum  also  areas.  tends  to  The d e m o l i t i o n destroy  the  of  physical  security  and  neigh-  familiarity  6 of  the  social  illustrated to  the  environment  that  social  very  elements  of  its  little of  residents.  consideration  the  community,  It has  and  an  has  been  been given  inadequate  attem a s Wbeebe bne rmade ws i vt h cn i ai ln g f aa b Mpetl v h in , " C o tmo p rreehneen e e P sl ao n n rd i cS o oc fi a lt h eR e s p o n s i b i l i t y " , i n J o u r n a l of the A . I . P . , V o l . XXIX 1963, p.233. See,  for  example,  Rose,  op.  cit.  Thomas F . J o h n s o n , James R. M o r r i s a n d J o s e p h G . B u t t s , R e v i e w i n g A m e r i c a n ' s C i t i e s , (Washing D . C ; The I n s t i tute for S o c i a l Science Research, 1962), p.23. J a n e J a c o b s , The D e a t h and L i f e o f G r e a t A m e r i c a n C i t i e s , (New Y o r k ; V i n t a g e B o o k s a n d R a n d o m H o u s e , I n c . , 1961)p.285.  people a f f e c t e d .  Consequently, a great g u l f i s found between  the p l a n n e r s ' d e s i g n and p h y s i c a l p a t t e r n , and the s o c i a l needs and v a l u e s of the people.  M a r t i n Anderson claimed  that urban renewal has i n c u r r e d great s o c i a l c o s t s , but has 7 accomplished l i t t l e  i n p h y s i c a l terms.  In view of the f a i l u r e of urban renewal  programs  to r e c t i f y both environmental and s o c i a l b l i g h t , planners and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s begin to recognise t h a t the urban community i s i n f a c t an extremely complex system.  physical-social  P h y s i c a l obsolescence i s a profound m a n i f e s t a t i o n  of the i n t e g r a l socio-economic problem of poverty, poor h e a l t h , broken f a m i l i e s e t c .  The s o l u t i o n to such problems  t h e r e f o r e c a l l s f o r a r e s t r u c t u r e d and broadened  systems  approach to p l a n n i n g - i . e . an i n t e g r a t e d approach of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g .  •  /'  .  This urgent need and d i r e c t i o n of c o l l a b o r a t i o n can be i d e n t i f i e d by the U.S.  government's  recent involvement  i n a number of hard-core s o c i a l problems i n c l u d i n g poverty, r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , chronic unemployment and mental h e a l t h . In 1966, the f e d e r a l government made the i n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n o p e r a t i o n i n urban renewal by g s e t t i n g up the Demonstration C i t i e s Program.  Later  retitled  Model C i t i e s , the program makes p r o v i s i o n f o r about seventy M a r t i n Anderson, The F e d e r a l B u l l d o z e r , (New York; McGraw-Hill, 1967), pp. 228-230. ~ 8 Robert J . Gans, People and P l a n s , (New York; B a s i c Books, Inc., 1968), p.68.  American c i t i e s social has  t o r e b u i l d and r e h a b i l i t a t e t h e p h y s i c a l and  structure  of t h e i r  major slum neighbourhoods.  a l s o been an i n c r e a s e d  human r e s o u r c e  issues  appreciation  should  of the f a c t  be t r e a t e d  in a  There that  co-ordinated  manner.  Purpose  of t h i s Yhile  ordinate  Study there  the scopes  planning,  very  i s an imminent n e e d t o e x t e n d and c o -  of both p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g  little  agreement h a s b e e n a c h i e v e d  t i m e as t o what t h e p r o c e s s be  achieved.  "integration" limited  and s o c i a l  involves  and how i n t e g r a t i o n c a n  The t e r m  "social  is still  i n i t s infancy,  amount o f l i t e r a t u r e  at this  planning"  and t h e i s s u e o f  and a r e l a t i v e l y  has d e a l t w i t h t h e s e  fields.  A l t h o u g h t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s has r e c e n t l y made a f a r - r e a c h i n g  a t t e m p t t o promote d i s c u s s i o n s  and d i a -  9 logue has  i n this  area,  no c o m p r e h e n s i v e  been accomplished  value  the  i n j o i n i n g t h e two d i s -  c o n c e r n e d seems t o l i e i n t h e d i s p a r a t e  Very often,  integration.  of planners  the problem i s f u r t h e r  l a c k o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  desired in  difficulty  a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h t h e two k i n d s  promote.  g o a l s and seek t o  compounded b y  framework t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e  Another obstacle  i s the d i f f e r e n c e s  l a n g u a g e and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w h i c h impede  -  study  to-date.  A significant ciplines  or systematic  communication  See, f o r example, J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . XXXV, J u l y , 1969.  between the two  p r o f e s s i o n s under d i s c u s s i o n s . ^ 1  The purpose of t h i s study i s to examine the  rela-  t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the C i t y of Vancouver.  I t i s intended  to i d e n t i f y the g o a l s , r a t i o n a l e s , scope and approaches of the two  d i s c i p l i n e s concerned.  evaluate these two  An attempt i s a l s o made to  p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s with p a r t i c u l a r r e -  ference to urban renewal,  and to demonstrate the need f o r a  r e s t r u c t u r e d i n t e g r a t e d approach to e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g . One  of the method s which has gained c o n s i d e r a b l e  consensus i n r e c e n t years f o r b r i d g i n g p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s .  1 1  Such consensus i s based on the  belief  that p l a n n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r t of the democratic  poli-  t i c a l p r o c e s s , whereby d e c i s i o n s are made i n choosing  altern-  a t i v e approaches to the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , and  the  12 balance, among competing i n t e r e s t s .  Advocacy p l a n n i n g i s  claimed as a means to p e r f e c t the democratic  heritage.  This  i s s u e i s founded on the f o l l o w i n g p o s t u l a t e s : M i c h a e l Wheeler, I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l Planning and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Report N o . l , Ottawa, 1967, p . l . See, f o r i n s t a n c e , " R e f l e c t i o n on Advocacy P l a n n i n g , " i n the J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s , V o l . XXXIV, March 1968, pp.80-88. •^See, f o r i n s t a n c e , L i s a R. P e a t t i e , " R e f l e c t i o n on Advocacy P l a n n i n g , " i n the J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . V o l . XXXIV, March 1968, pp. 80-88. 12 Edmund M. Burke, " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S t r a t e g i e s " , i n the J.A.I.P., V o l . XXXIV, September 1968, pp.287-294.  That  i n a democratic  pursued  s o c i e t y , the h i g h e s t goal to be  i s to maximise the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  Every normal i n d i v i d u a l and group i s e l i g i b l e to determine what c o n t r i b u t e s most to t h e i r own w e l f a r e .  The p l a n n i n g  process should thus be s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way as to a l l o w a l l i n t e r e s t groups to present t h e i r values and plans 13 f o r t h e i r community.  P l a n n i n g should be conducted not  only f o r the people, but w i t h the people. That due to the complex nature  of the urban community i n  which d i v e r s e e t h n i c , socio-economic  and r e l i g i o u s groups  are concentrated, the p l a n n i n g process  should i n v o l v e an  e q u a l l y complex system which w i l l somehow r e f l e c t the de14 s i r e s and values of these v a r i o u s groups.  Accordingly,  c i t i z e n s should take an a c t i v e p a r t i n s h a r i n g the d e c i sions a f f e c t i n g t h e i r d e s t i n i e s .  Advocacy p l a n n i n g t h e r e -  fore r e j e c t s both the n o t i o n of a s i n g l e "best"  solution  and the n o t i o n of a general welfare which such a s o l u t i o n might serve.  P l a n n i n g then becomes " p l u r a l i s t i c " and 15  'partisan" - i n f a c t , o v e r t l y  political.  That the need f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e s s i n g i n the low-income areas, where opinions of t h e i r r e s i d e n t s are very o f t e n under represented i n the p l a n n i n g p rPoacuels s .D a v i d oIfnf many i nRole s t a n c of e s , the these o r i t y groups , "The C i tm yin Planner i n S o cdo ial P l a n n i n g " , i n Proceedings of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners Annual Conference, 1964, p.131. 14 Bernard J . F r i e d e n and Robert M o r r i s , Urban P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P o l i c y , (Basic Books, Inc., New York, 1968), p. 177. 15 L i s a R. P e a t t i e , op. c i t . , p.81. 1 3  not have knowledge  of what i s going on and of the govern-  ment plans which d i r e c t l y a f f e c t them.  Accordingly, i t  i s necessary f o r these u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d or "have-not" c i t i z e n s to c a l l upon the a s s i s t a n c e of a planner to make t h e i r case and to advocate t h e i r views.  I t i s a l s o assumed  t h a t the poor a c t u a l l y have the c a p a c i t y f o r a c t i o n and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , but have been denied the means by im17 p e r f e c t i o n s i n the s i t u a t i o n m  which they l i v e .  Hence,  the r o l e of the advocate planner i s to promote meaningful c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and to broaden t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n volvement. Based on the above n o t i o n s , advocacy p l a n n i n g has r a p i d l y evolved as a common and p r a i s e d p r a c t i c e i n many American urban p r o j e c t s . ^ 1  I t i s used i n v a r i o u s forms rang-  i n g from r e - e d u c a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to t h a t of p o l i t i c a l and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  I t has a l s o  claimed t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n can devise r e a l i s t i c  action been and  b e t t e r p l a n s , pave the way f o r the i n i t i a t i o n of the poor and powerless i n t o the main stream of American l i f e , achieve support and s a n c t i o n f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s , and 19 end the d r i f t toward a l i e n a t i o n i n c i t i e s .  Examples  of  a c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n are Chicago's "Back of the Xards Movement" and the s o c i a l animation of Le C o h s e i l des oeuvres 17 Bernard J . F r i e d e n and Robert M o r r i s , o p . c i t . , p.179. 18 W i l l i a m I . Goodman and E r i c C. Freund, P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e of Urban P l a n n i n g , (Washington, D.C: I n t e r n 19 a t i o n a l C i t y Managers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1968), p.309. Edmund M. Burke, op. c i t . , p.288.  8  de M o n t r e a l . ^ It is  therefore  an e f f e c t i v e  appears t h a t  measure to f i l l  i z i n g public actions  the  citizen participation c r u c i a l n e e d f o r human-  and f o r r e c o n c i l i n g v a r i o u s  between the b u r o c r a t i c p r o f e s s i o n a l s large.  It  validity listed  is  the purpose of t h i s  o f t h e above s t a t e m e n t .  above,  relevance  of  and t h e  thesis  conflicts  citizens  to demonstrate  Conforming to the  the  a common d e n o m i n a t o r  on w h i c h p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g c a n be grated.  The m a i n theme o f t h i s  the  postulates  t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o examine c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t as  at  research  is  thus:  inte-  Can t h e  m e c h a n i s m o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n be i m p l e m e n t e d as  an  effective  and  the  l i a i s o n between the p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s  citizens  at  large?  Hypothesis . I n in this  order to f a c i l i t a t e  study,  a hypothesis  is  a problem s o l v i n g  operationalised  "That c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l o f p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l It evidence 20  is  the o b j e c t i v e  as  a s s i s t the  approach follows:  integration  planning."  of t h i s t h e s i s  to v e r i f y the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s  to  provide  hypothesis  to  P e t e r H . R o s s i and R o b e r t A . D e n t l e r , The P o l i t i c s o f U r b a n R e n e w a l , (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1961); and M i c h e l B l o n d i n , S o c i a l A n i m a l , Community F u n d s a n d C o u n c i l s o f C a n a d a , G e n e v a P a r k , O n t a r i o , D e c . 1967, unpublished paper.  9 urban renewal programs.  This h y p o t h e s i s , i f s u b s t a n t i a t e d ,  would h i g h l i g h t the inadequacies  of the t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g  approach and i t s weaknesses f o r i n t e g r a t i n g s o c i a l d e s i r e s and the p h y s i c a l p l a n .  I t would a l s o demonstrate the need  f o r a r a d i c a l change i n the p l a n n i n g decision-making  process,  advocating the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n and i n n o v a t i o n r o l e of the city-planning profession. Methodology The nature  of t h i s study does not l e n d i t s e l f to  a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s because the v a r i a b l e s concerned are r e l a t i v e l y intangible.  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c i t i z e n  c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g process i n g f u l l y i n numerical  parti-  can not be measured mean-  terms, n e i t h e r can the extent of  i n t e g r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g be evaluated mathematically.  The d i f f i c u l t y of d e r i v i n g a  s c i e n t i f i c method f o r t e s t i n g the hypothesis  i s further  compounded by the f a c t that t h i s approach to c i t i z e n c i p a t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d to the p l a n n i n g process years.  Many urban renewal p r o j e c t s and c i t i z e n  parti-  only i n recent involvement  programs are s t i l l underway, and the l i m i t e d experience i n both the U n i t e d States and Canada does not provide  compre-  hensive c o n c l u s i o n s . Despite these l i m i t a t i o n s , however, i t i s p o s s i b l e to s u b s t a n t i a t e the hypothesis by conducting an extensive review and e v a l u a t i o n on the v a r i o u s forms, f u n c t i o n s and  10 corresponding consequences strategy.  of the c i t i z e n  participation  By i n f e r e n c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e to p o i n t out the  inadequacies of the e x i s t i n g d i s i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g approach, thus e s t a b l i s h i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of advocacy p l a n n i n g . The most d e s i r a b l e r e s e a r c h method f o r t h i s study i s t h e r e f o r e the d e s c r i p t i v e - d e d u c t i v e approach. A case study i s a l s o adopted to demonstrate the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s to the urban renewal p r o grams of the C i t y of Vancouver. Vancouver was  Urban renewal programs i n  s t a r t e d w i t h the i n i t i a t i o n of the 1957 Rede21  velopment Study. programs  A c t u a l implementation of the renewal  proceeded from 1961, and to-date,  Redevelopment 22  P r o j e c t Nos. 1 and 2 have been l a r g e l y completed. major a c t i o n of these programs  i n v o l v e d extensive  The clearance  and redevelopment of housing i n the S t r a t h c o n a area of the C i t y ( r e f e r to Map  1 for location  identification).  In o p p o s i t i o n to the urban renewal p r o c e s s , v a r i o u s c i t i z e n groups have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the S t r a t h c o n a n e i g h bourhood, p r a c t i s i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s i n the past twelve y e a r s .  forms  I t i s p o s s i b l e to t r a c e the evo-  l u t i o n of these l o c a l community groups, and to evaluate t h e i r e f f o r t s i n i n v o l v i n g themselves and v o i c i n g t h e i r d e s i r e s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  I t i s b e l i e v e d that the degree and  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be i d e n t i f i e d i n 21 22  Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver Study, Dec. 1957.  Redevelopment  Vancouver, T e c h n i c a l Planning Board, C i t y of Vancouver Redevelopment P r o j e c t N o . l , Nov., 1959; and P r o j e c t No.2, J u l y 1963.  11 terras of the community s p i r i t promoted and the u n i t e d a c t i o n s enforced.  By r e l a t i n g these v a r i o u s forms and  t e n t of c i t i z e n involvement  to the corresponding  ex-  consequences,  and by a p p l y i n g s u b j e c t i v e value judgements, some i n s i g h t s may  be gained i n t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c i t i z e n  i n i n t e g r a t i n g p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and  participation  s o c i a l planning.  The major source m a t e r i a l f o r t r a c i n g the  develop23  ment of these c i t i z e n groups are the l o c a l newspaper  , min-  utes of these formal and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (e.g. the Strathcona P r o p e r t y Owners and Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n ) , and v a r i o u s b r i e f s of these groups presented to governmental agencies. was  Since the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of Vancouver  a l s o i n v o l v e d i n the welfare development of the area,  some of t h e i r records have provided r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l . a d d i t i o n , i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s gained through  personal  i n t e r v i e w s with the r e s i d e n t s of the neighbourhood who a c t i v e p a r t or/and organizations.  are t a k i n g a c t i v e p a r t i n these  A d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l e d i n s i g h t and  f e e l i n g f o r the case was  In  took  citizen  personal  obtained from d i r e c t p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t .  Organization This t h e s i s w i l l proceed w i t h the fundamental assumption t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l approach of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l planning i s not an e f f i c i e n t way environmental  and  social  to r e c t i f y  both  blight.  23  The l o c a l Chinese newspaper are: The Chinese V o i c e , The Chinese Republic and The Chinese Times. Since the author of t h i s t h e s i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y b i l i n g u a l , these newspaper i n f o r m a t i o n have been a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t e d .  12 Based  on t h i s above p o s t u l a t e , the study w i l l  begin by i d e n t i f y i n g the approach and f a l l a c y of the d i s c i p l i n e s concerned, as r e v e a l e d i n the North urban renewal programs.  two  American  L i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h w i l l be  con-  ducted to the v a r i o u s forms and t h e i r corresponding consequences of the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g y i n the p l a n n i n g decision-making process. Chapter IV w i l l provide background i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the proceeding case study, while Chapter V i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the case - C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Strathcona Urban Renewal Area.  The  case study i s employed to  demonstrate  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the s t a t e d hypothesis to the Vancouver urban renewal experience. The  final  step w i l l be a review of the t h e s i s  and  a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the hypothesis i n the l i g h t of the f i n d i n g s . Definitions I t i s necessary to d e f i n e some of the terms f r e q u e n t l y used i n t h i s t h e s i s at the o u t s e t . Urban Renewal  They are:  i s used to d e f i n e any a c t i o n , p u b l i c ,  p r i v a t e or a combination of both by which the f a b r i c of an urban community i s renewed, r e p a i r e d or p r o t e c t e d from b l i g h t .  The three p o s s i b l e  types of a c t i o n i n v o l v e d a r e -  Redevelopment: which i s a program of a c q u i s i t i o n and c l e a r a n c e of b l i g h t e d areas and the r e b u i l d i n g of these areas f o r a p p r o p r i a t e uses;  13  -  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n : which i s the a c t of and up-grading of a b l i g h t e d area;  -  Conservation:  l e g a l by-laws and  planning  - The  enforcement of  other a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n .  t r a d i t i o n a l approach to p h y s i c a l  i s p r i m a r i l y concerned wit h the  of land resources environment.  and  which i s the p r o t e c t i o n of a  community from b l i g h t by the  P h y s i c a l Planning  renovation  allocation  and the improvement of the p h y s i c a l  I t i s the technique  of l a n d and the c h a r a c t e r , and  of o r d e r i n g the  use  s i t i n g of b u i l d i n g s and  1 •  community r o u t e s , so as to secure the maximum p r a c t i c able degree of economy, convenience, e f f i c i e n c y beauty.  Por f u r t h e r d e t a i l s , r e f e r to.Chapter  and II.  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g - S o c i a l p l a n n i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l l y meant s o c i a l welfare p l a n n i n g which emphasised the p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to the m i n o r i t y group.  In t h i s  thesis,  i t a l s o e n t a i l s the i n t e r - s y s t e m of p l a n n i n g , which introduces  socioeconomic and human-behaviour c o n s i d e r -  a t i o n s i n t o the making of d e c i s i o n s by a l l government and p r i v a t e agencies  i n the  community.  Abbreviations The  a b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r some f r e q u e n t l y used terms i n  t h i s t h e s i s are as f o l l o w s : C.B.C. - Chinese Benevolent A s s o c i a t i o n  14 C  -  M t H  - C  - C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n  M.L.A. - Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e  Assembly  S.P.O.T.A. - Strathcona P r o p e r t y Owners and Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n • ..« • *• ~ U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of Greater Vancouver u  c  s  CHAPTER I I INTEGRATION OF PHYSICAL PLANNING- AND SOCIAL PLANNING GENERAL BACKGROUND Introduction T h i s chapter provides a general background on the r e s p e c t i v e g o a l s , p r a c t i c e s and f a l l a c i e s of p h y s i c a l planning and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . it  Through l i t e r a t u r e  i s intended to demonstrate a broader  research,  and more extended  meaning of the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n , and to i d e n t i f y the need f o r a r e s t r u c t u r e d i n t e g r a t e d approach to urban p l a n n i n g . i  H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e on P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g I t i s d e s i r a b l e to review a t the out s e t the development of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l perspective. P h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l planning  actually  grew from common r o o t s i n the p r o t e s t of segments of the middle  c l a s s over the emerging problems of the i n d u s t r i a l  c i t y a t the turn of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  1  Among the reform  groups of r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s , lawyers, a r c h i t e c t s and others who worked together on housing some became founders  and environmental  problems,  of c i t y p l a n n i n g and e a r l y l e a d e r s i n  s o c i a l welfare programs.  They shared a common b e l i e f t h a t  r a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s c o u l d be found f o r what they regarded as •''Robert Perlman, " S o c i a l Welfare Planning and P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P., XXXII 1966, p.237.  16 2 inhuman m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n . Prom t h i s common root of c i v i c reform movements, two  s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s emerged i n the preceeding decades.  D i s t i n c t i n t e r e s t s and  approaches were emphasised: the  planners concentrated on personal  s e r v i c e s while the  social  physical  planners emphasised the a e s t h e t i c aspects, of t h e i r environment. Vhat r e s u l t e d to-day i s t h e r e f o r e  two  highly specialized  f u n c t i o n s which were o r i g i n a l l y a l l i e d at the beginning of t h i s century.  These two  d i s t i n g u i s h e d as two social  functions  have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y  d i s c i p l i n e s : p h y s i c a l planning  and  planning.  Physical Planning T r a d i t i o n a l Concept and  Approach  A c c o r d i n g to Keeble, p h y s i c a l planning and  science  of o r d e r i n g  the use  and  s i t i n g of b u i l d i n g s and  of land and  the  communication r o u t e s ,  i s the  art  character, so as  to  secure the maximum p r a c t i c a b l e degree of economy, convenience, 3 e f f i c i e n c y and planning  beauty.  Chapin a l s o s t a t e d t h a t land  use  i s a means f o r " s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n t i c i p a t i n g and  a c h i e v i n g adjustment i n the p h y s i c a l environment of a c i t y , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s o c i a l and economic trends and sound p r i n 4 c i p a l s of c i v i c design." Hence, p h y s i c a l planners are I_bid, p.238. 3 Lewis Keeble, P r i n c i p l e s of Town P l a n n i n g , London, 1961, pp.1-2. 4 / S t u a r t Chapin, Urban Land Use P l a n n i n g , ( U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1965), p.3. 2  17 p r i m a r i l y concerned  w i t h the a l l o c a t i o n of the resource  of  l a n d and the improvement of the p h y s i c a l environment. The i s developed  fundamental r a t i o n a l e f o r p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g from the s p e c i a l nature  of l a n d , the  of which i n c l u d e : h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and  attributes  specialized  q u a l i t i e s , l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y ( i n an o p e r a t i o n a l sense), fixed location-  Therefore, the p a r t i c u l a r u t i l i t y of  and any  piece of land f o r a given a c t i v i t y can not be t r a n s f e r r e d , and i t s h i g h e s t and optimum use i n a s o c i a l sense becomes 5  a b a s i c o b j e c t i v e of publxc p o l i c y . i  ,  The t r a d i t i o n a l approach to p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g  has been s t r o n g l y t e r r i t o r i a l l y o r i e n t e d , the c i t y being 6  viewed as a l a r g e design p r o j e c t . u s u a l l y begins with s p e c i f i c areas  The p l a n n i n g  process  (e.g. p r o j e c t s i t e s ) ,  and proceeds to determine t h e i r best uses. t i o n a l f a c t o r s , l a n d use p a t t e r n s and  Based on l o c a -  space needs of v a r i o u s  kinds,'the p h y s i c a l planners deduce how  these areas  should  be used, what s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s they would need, how  dif-  f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s should be d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n the area, and what measure should be taken to b r i n g the area up to _  For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g the nature of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g , see Corwin R. Mocine, "Urban P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g and the New P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P., XXXII 1966, pp. 235-236. ^ V . I . Goodman and E.C. Freud, P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e of Urban P l a n n i n g , (Washington, 1968), p.328.  18 acceptable  environmental standards.  vide f a c i l i t i e s  (e.g. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems),  d e c i s i o n s have very  o f t e n been based on general 7  r a t i o s or standards, needs of v a r i o u s The  With regards to  with l i t t l e  reference  area-  planning sets  to the  of  specific  s o c i a l groups.  e s s e n t i a l l y land-oriented  planning  approach  tends to be a sub-conscious acceptance of the d o c t r i n e environmental determinism which has the planning  profession.  p h y s i c a l environment was haviour  and  I t was  been deeply embedded i n  w i d e l y b e l i e v e d that  the  a major determinant of s o c i a l  be-  a d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t o r to peoples' w e l f a r e .  oured by the a r c h i t e c t u r a l and d o c t r i n e was  of  engineering  f u r t h e r supported by the  Fav-  ideologists, this  over-simplified inter-  p r e t a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s of the urban e c o l o g i s t s who  seemed  to c o r r e l a t e s o c i a l pathology w i t h the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l i v i n g area.  I t was  thus a s s e r t e d t h a t an i d e a l  could be created by the p r o v i s i o n of an i d e a l p h y s i c a l  city en-  vironment. P h y s i c a l Determinism and Urban Renewal In the  e a r l y post Second World War  same p r i n c i p l e was  years,  this  a p p l i e d to urban renewal, assuming that  only i f the c i t y ' s slums could be r e p l a c e d by a decent p h y s i c a l environment, then the inherent  s o c i a l problems  _ Many planning standards are found i n The Community B u i l d e r s Handbook, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , Community B u i l d e r s ' C o u n c i l , (Washington 1968). For example, 10 townhouses per net acre i s the optimum d e n s i t y f o r housing development.  19 would be d i s s o l v e d .  This approach i s t y p i f i e d by the  f o l l o w i n g statement made by the Canadian Committee on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n 1949: " . . . . F i g u r e s from many r e p o r t s . . . showed the connection between bad housing and the breakdown of decent s o c i a l standards i n a community....Many surveys i n d i c a t e d . . . . t h a t the slum makes the slum d w e l l e r s , not the slum d w e l l e r s the slum, and t h e r e f o r e w i t h the e l i m i n a t i o n of the slum, one tends to get the e l i m i n a t i o n of lower s o c i a l standards."8 A number of the e a r l y urban renewal, p r o j e c t s i n Canada were based p r i m a r i l y on the b e l i e f s t a t e d  above.  In Toronto, f o r i n s t a n c e , the worst pocket of slum i n Regent Park - "The Ward" was housing.  t o t a l l y c l e a r e d and r e p l a c e d by p u b l i c  The r e s u l t s of t h i s p r o j e c t d i d appear to j u s t i f y  some of the optimism.  I t was  contended that contagious d i s -  eases were l e s s frequent among the rehoused f a m i l i e s than they had been, and the r a t e of j u v e n i l e delinquency decreased 9 by f i f t y per cent f o r the area. f i n d i n g s was  However, none of these  based on a s t a t i s t i c a l sample,  and the popu-  l a t i o n surveyed i n p u b l i c housing might not be those o r i g i n a l l y l i v i n g i n the renewal area.  Such f i n d i n g s on the e f f e c t s  of new housing on s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e f o r e appeared  invalid.  Wilner and Walkley, et a l j a l s o d i r e c t e d a s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between housing and f a m i l y  life  g  Canada A d v i s o r y Committee on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , IX, Housing and Community P l a n n i n g , Ottawa, 1949, pp.4-5. ^A. Rose, Regent Park, ( U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1968), p. 156.  20 i n Baltimore.  T h e i r study i n v o l v e d a t o t a l of s i x hundred  f a m i l i e s , over a p e r i o d of three y e a r s .  At the f i r s t  series  of i n t e r v i e w s , a l l f a m i l i e s were l i v i n g i n poor housing ditions.  con-  Then, h a l f of the p o p u l a t i o n moved to p u b l i c hous-  i n g i n the same area, and the progress  of both groups  was  examined i n a s e r i e s of ten f u r t h e r i n t e r v i e w s . I t was  found t h a t there was  l e s s i l l n e s s among  the rehoused group, p a r t i c u l a r l y the younger population."'""'' With regards to s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l adjustment, the rehoused group had an i n c r e a s e d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards both housing  and neighbourhood, w i t h a consequences of i n -  creased a t t e n t i o n to housing upkeep, g r e a t e r i n t e r a c t i o n with neighbours  and i n c r e a s e d f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s .  Although housing,  these r e s u l t s appeared to j u s t i f y r e -  f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t the i m p l i c a t i o n s  were not as simple.  Since the i n t e r v i e w e d f a m i l i e s were  rehoused i n the same g e o g r a p h i c a l area, the s o c i a l ment were more l i k e l y .  improve-  In a d d i t i o n , l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s  would r e s u l t i f the study was  d i r e c t e d to the f a m i l i e s which  were rehoused away from t h e i r o r i g i n a l home.  Even negative  e f f e c t s might be evident among the f a m i l i e s w i t h t i e s to the 12 community, p a r t i c u l a r l y the old-aged people.  Hence, a l -  "^Wilner, Walkley, P i n k e r t o n and Tayback, Housing Environment and Family L i f e , B a l t i m o r e , 1962. i : L  12  I b i d . , p. 241. Marc F r i e d , " G r i e v i n g f o r a L o s t Home", i n Leonard J . Duhl, The Urban C o n d i t i o n , New York, 1963, pp.151-171.  21 though there has o f t e n been a close c o r r e l a t i o n between slums and high i n d i c e s of s o c i a l problems, no  definite  c a u s e - t o - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n has y e t been proved to-date.  13  F a l l a c y of T r a d i t i o n a l P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g By 1960,  the inadequacies of the t r a d i t i o n a l  p h y s i c a l approach to p l a n n i n g became w e l l r e c o g n i z e d . g r e a t e s t argument a g a i n s t the p h y s i c a l emphasis  The  i s the f a c t  t h a t urban renewal has not been able to solve the housing problem of the poor: i t i s found that i n most cases, only t h r e e - f i f t h s of the low-cost houses that e x i s t e d i n an urban 14 renewal area were b u i l t through the redevelopment p r o c e s s . In New  York State i n 1964, f o r i n s t a n c e , of the 61,777 r e -  s i d e n t i a l u n i t s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n a l l the urban renewal s i t e s , only 8.5 per cent were of the low-cost or p u b l i c 15 housing v a r i e t y . In a d d i t i o n , Greer p o i n t e d out t h a t urban renewal a c t u a l l y "squeezed out" the p o o r e s t from the renewal 16 area, and produced a net d e f i c i t i n low-cost housing. 13 F i s h e r , Twenty Years of P u b l i c Housing, New York, 1965, 14 p.65. / Rober , Robert C. Weaver, Dilemmas of Urban American, (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p.69. 15 Loc. cxt . . 16 S c o t t Greer, Urban Renewal and American C i t i e s , The Dilemma of Democratic I n t e r v e n t i o n , ( N e w Y o r k : T h e Bobbs M e r r i l l Company,Inc.,1965), p.151. T  22 The f a i l u r e  i n proper r e l o c a t i o n i s another area 17  of a t t a c k on urban renewal.  R e l o c a t i o n experiences i n -  d i c a t e d that the m a j o r i t y of the r e s i d e n t s were s o c i a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y not prepared to move at times of d i s placement.  Due  to the shortage of housing, r e l o c a t i o n v e r y  o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n f u r t h e r over-crowding of low-income d w e l l ings.  R e l o c a t i o n has thus been a most d i s r u p t i v e and  dis-  t u r b i n g experience to the poor. Other s e r i o u s problems the p u b l i c housing areas.  were a l s o aggregated i n  Jane Jacobs commented t h a t the  e f f e c t of these " p r o j e c t s " was  to reassemble and regroup  the d i s p l a c e d slum d w e l l e r s i n a concentrated v e r t i c a l fashion.  A c c o r d i n g l y , r e s i d e n c y i n such housing automatic-  a l l y brands the occupants with the stigma of welfare ass i s t a n c e which was  not welcomed by the r e s t of s o c i e t y .  In r e c e n t y e a r s , the n o t i o n of environmental determinism has been more s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d .  Questions  were r a i s e d by I s s a c , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e g a r d i n g the b a s i s of 18 the neighbourhood  unit.  r a c i a l segregation.  He p o i n t e d out t h a t i t favoured  Bauer a l s o argued that master p l a n n i n g ,  zoning and s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d to c l a s s and 17 See, f o r example, Chester Hartman, "The Housing of Rel o c a t e d F a m i l i e s " , i n J o u r n a l of A.I.P., XXX 1964, pp.266-286. 18 Issac R e g i n a l d , "The Neighbourhood Theory: An A n a l y s i s of i t s Inadequacy", J o u r n a l of A.I.P., XIV 1948, pp.15-23,  23 19 r a c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the new  suburbs.  L e v i s Mumford  r e p e a t e d l y warned a g a i n s t p l a n n i n g operations which ignored 20 f u n c t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c aspects of community l i f e ,  while  Herbert Gans emphasised the sentimental r e l a t i o n s h i p which f l o u r i s h e s i n slum areas, and b e l i e v e d t h a t much damage would r e s u l t i n p l a n n i n g which does not account s o c i a l elements of neighbourhood and One to  major shortcoming  community  f o r the 21 life.  of the t r a d i t i o n a l approach  p l a n n i n g i s i t s over emphasis on the q u a n t i t a t i v e problem  (e.g. how  much park area i s needed and the establishment  of  standard of the amount of parkland r e q u i r e d per person), and  i t s n e g l e c t of the performance of the system (e.g. Are 22  the peoples' need f o r r e c r e a t i o n being s a t i s f i e d ? ) . p l a n n e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t a i n t y about how l i v e and how  people  The  should  the c i t y should grow prevents them from recog-  n i z i n g d i v e r s e d v a l u e s , a l t e r n a t i v e ends and the consequence of  t h e i r recommendations.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n  on p h y s i c a l objects and an i d e a l f u t u r e s t a t e produces a 23 19 " s t a t i c " end product. T h e i r b e l i e f i n environmental Catherine Bauer, " S o c i a l Questions i n Housing and Community P l a n n i n g , " J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues, VII 1951, pp.1-34. 20 Lewis Mumford, The C i t y i n H i s t o r y , New York, 1961. . 21 Herbert J . Gans, "Planning and S o c i a l L i f e " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P., XXVII 1961, pp.134-184. 23 22 Herbert J . Gans, People and Plans, New York, 1968, Goodman and Freund, I b i d . , p.320. p.62.  24 determinism  l i m i t s t h e i r a n a l y s i s to the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  the l a n d use i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r demographic and economic ... 24 projections. With these l i m i t a t i o n s and d e f e c t s , p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l sense has been inadequate to solve our problems i n the s o c i a l f a b r i c .  The p r o f e s s i o n  l a c k s an i n t i m a t e connection w i t h the d i v e r s i t y of human wants expressed i n the r e a l i t y of urban l i f e .  I t appears  that other measures, i n c l u d i n g systems of s o c i a l and concern f o r promoting  support,  community r e l a t i o n s and economic  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the people are a l s o r e q u i r e d .  I t i s the  r e c o g n i t i o n of these problems that the p h y s i c a l planners begin to accept the r o l e of s o c i a l planners i n c i t y p l a n n i n g . S o c i a l Planning Conventional Meaning and Approach S o c i a l Planning i s s t i l l  i n i t s infancy.  It is  p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the w e l f a r e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the s o c i a l p a t t e r n of h i s community.  Human beings, from the.  s o c i a l p l a n n e r s ' viewpoint, are " p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e c a p i t a l " , S o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s thus needed to d i r e c t the development of these r e s o u r c e s .  ^ I b i d . , p.63. 25 Leo F. Schnore and Henry F a g i n , Urban Research and P o l i c y P l a n n i n g , V o l . 1, ( B e v e r l y H i l l s , 1967), p.336.  25 Conventionally, s o c i a l welfare  s o c i a l p l a n n i n g -was  confined  to  p l a n n i n g which emphasised the p r o v i s i o n of  s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to the m i n o r i t y group.  This f u n c t i o n  was  developed from the programs of the c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o c i e t i e s which i n c l u d e d c o u n c i l s of s o c i a l agencies i n 26 h e l p i n g those i n need. l i m i t e d to remedial i t was  The  type of s e r v i c e s i n v o l v e d  was  measures u n t i l the e a r l y 1950s, when  r e a l i z e d t h a t "extension  to p r e v e n t i v e  services"  27 was  necessary.  are s t i l l .i  To-day, the m a j o r i t y of s e r v i c e s  c o n f i n e d to h e a l t h and welfare  provided 28  services.  In a d d i t i o n , the scope of the t r a d i t i o n a l  welfare  system i s r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d .  The  social  system, which  i s i n d a i l y communication with the needs of i n d i v i d u a l s has has  been mainly concerned with p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and been out of touch with circumstances on which the more 29  successful majority t h r i v e s . one  I t has  been e f f e c t e d by  segment of p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , t h a t of middle  p r o f e s s i o n a l s and v o l u n t a r y l e a d e r s h i p which has  only  class,  often  duced champions of the community good i n o p p o s i t i o n to  prothe  26 E.A. Ferguson, S o c i a l Work, (New York, 1963), pp.61-67. P7 ~~ B. B u e l l , Community Planning f o r Human S e r v i c e s , (New York, 1952), p.5. ". 28 29 Bernard J . op. F r i ecdietn . ,and Robert M o r r i s , Urban Planning Ferguson, p.561. and S o c i a l P o l i c y , (Basic Books, Inc., N.Y., 1968),p.4. —  26 pressue  of the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s .  30  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  the network i s made up of over 100,000 independent  agencies  which are very l o o s e l y c o o r d i n a t e d by numerous c o u n c i l s . S o c i a l Planning  Redefined  A deeper i n s i g h t i n t o the scope of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g r e v e a l s t h a t p l a n n i n g f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s only one of the t o t a l  aspect  realm.  S o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s a c t u a l l y the e f f o r t to p l a n f o r a whole s o c i e t y .  I t recognizes the interdependence  of 31  a c t i v i t i e s and  the shared consequences of program a c t i o n s .  Herbert J . Gans suggests "human renewal"  that s o c i a l planning i s a c t u a l l y  and t h a t there are two kinds of s o c i a l 32  p l a n n i n g : s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l programming. former i s concerned  The  w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l goals  the development of programs i n broad  o u t l i n e to achieve  goals chosen; while the l a t t e r can be d e f i n e d as the ment of d e t a i l e d s o c i a l programs f o r goals adopted by  and the  developsocietal  planning. Another aspect of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s enunciated by George G r i e r who argued that s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y 30 ., Loc. c i t . 31 John ¥. Dyckman, " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , S o c i a l Planners and Planned S o c i e t i e s " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P., XXXII, 1966,p.67. 32 Herbert J . Gans, Memorandum Prepared f o r the P r e s i d e n t of Planning Board, Commonwealth of Puerto R i o , March 1958. T  27 not s o c i a l welfare p l a n n i n g .  33  Grier believes that  p l a n n i n g to meet the s o c i a l welfare needs of people some of these needs may  although is vital,  themselves be produced by the v e r y  r e a c t i o n of people to t h e i r present p h y s i c a l environment. Hence, the u l t i m a t e s o l u t i o n to s o c i a l problems i s not  by  " p a l l i a t i v e measures", but by "seeking to f i n d and e l i m i n a t e 34 the present mismatch between men In sum,  and the environment".  s o c i a l p l a n n i n g can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t o 35  three o p e r a t i o n a l meanings, and three l e v e l s of a c t i o n : 1. At the s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g l e v e l , s o c i a l p l a n n i n g means i  the s e l e c t i o n and  e v a l u a t i o n of s o c i a l goals of s o c i e t y ,  and the s e t t i n g of t a r g e t s f o r t h e i r achievement.  It  i n v o l v e s the development of a framework f o r p l a n n i n g the a l l o c a t i o n of resources of s o c i e t y , towards the goals which the members of the s o c i e t y themselves want. In other words, s o c i a l planners are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r determining how  e x i s t i n g resources can be used to  maximise which choice f o r what people, and which choice and people have h i g h e r p r i o r i t y .  To do t h i s , the  planner  has to rank the v a r i o u s g o a l s , assess the cost of a c h i e v i n g them and judge the f e a s i b i l i t y of such programs, 33 George G r i e r , " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Defined - Roles of S o c i a l S c i e n t i s t s i n Renewal", J o u r n a l of Housing, March 1963, pp.93-94. " ^ G r i e r , op. c i t . , p.93. 35 For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s , see Dyckman, o p . c i t . , pp.66-75  28 2. S o c i a l p l a n n i n g can a l s o mean s p e c i f i c a l l y  "social  -programming" a r i s i n g from the broad s o c i a l goals of the community.  The  t r a d i t i o n a l welfare a c t i v i t i e s  p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies f a l l under t h i s  of  category.  The major t a s k of such s o c i a l planners i s to co-ordinate the p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n programs of a l l the "caretaker •  ., 36  agencies". S o c i a l programming a l s o i n c l u d e s the p r o v i s i o n of i n formation to the s o c i e t a l - p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n on  non-  economic, n o n - p h y s i c a l programs r e l e v a n t to the w i t h which s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g i s concerned.  goals  Social  programming t h e r e f o r e serves as a resource o f f i c e to s o c i e t a l p l a n n i n g , working out s p e c i f i c  goal-program,  cost-and-consequence r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and developing a system of s o c i a l data which gives the a c o n t i n u a l overview  decision-makers  of s o c i a l trends i n the  community.  3. S o c i a l p l a n n i n g , i n a c l o s e l y r e l a t e d mearing, i s that i n t e r - s y s t e m method of p l a n n i n g , which i n t r o d u c e s s o c i o economic and human-behavior c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o the making of d e c i s i o n s by a l l governmental and p r i v a t e agencies  i n the community.  I t i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of  s o c i a l values and a c t i o n c r i t e r i a to the assessment of programs undertaken i n pursuing the economic and p o l i t i c a l goals. 3 6  Ibid.,  p.68.  Hence, i t can be viewed as the  "testing  29 of  consequences"  personal  - i n terms  relations  of a l l programs,  economic development actions.  Objectives  projects  behavior.  gulf  urban  renewal  with Grier's  ideas and  37  to promote  to the  through the  the  interest  w i t h t h i s purpose  is  the b a s i c general  objective  welfare  of s m a l l groups.  a means  on r e d u c i n g  Social  of r e d i s t r i b u t i n g  years thus  inequalities  appears  of  social  of s o c i e t y  o p e r a t i o n of the p r i v a t e market.  effort  i n recent  specific  and I s s u e s  planning is  States'  inter-  between p h y s i c a l environment  I n a broad sense,  contrast  to  or  r a n g i n g from broad  This d e f i n i t i o n coinsides  on b r i d g i n g t h e social  of i n t e r - g r o u p  in  planning  resources The U n i t e d  and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  t o be a d v a n c i n g t o w a r d s  this  , . . . 38 direction. However, society  that  there  are  i n fact  are w i l l i n g to share  who a r e m a t e r i a l l y i m p o v e r i s h e d ,  only very  few i n o u r  t h e i r wealth with and t h e r e  has been  c r i t i c i z m on t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t ' s  those constant  commitment  as  39 being nominal. are  actually  F a t h e r J o h n Page p o i n t e d o u t t h a t  c o n f r o n t e d by t h e p r o b l e m o f  37 Refer  to d i s c u s s i o n  above.  38  39  Goodman Greund, op. L o c . c i t and .  cit.,  p.295.  planners  " s p i r i t u a l poverty —  30 the absence of concern f o r one's b r o t h e r . "  40  Despite the d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s of people s o c i e t y , there are some s p e c i f i c agreed  towards  o b j e c t i v e s which are commonly  i n many of our m e t r o p o l i t a n areas.  Perloff  listed  these aims and b e l i e v e d t h a t such items can serve as a f i r m 41 b a s i s f o r broad s c a l e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g .  These ob.i e c t i v e s  are: -  To maximise the p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s i n the r e g i o n who are s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , and thus reduce dependency.  -  To i n c r e a s e the l i f e - t i m e earning power of i n d i v i d u a l s e.g. by c u t t i n g down our m o r t a l i t y r a t e , and by p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l work f o r the handicapped and the aged e t c .  -  To provide a t l e a s t minimum support - i n monetary, consumption and/or p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms - f o r those who can not provide i t f o r themselves.  -  To make the human s e r v i c e s as e f f e c t i v e and as economical as p o s s i b l e .  -  To enlarge the scope f o r i n d i v i d u a l and small group d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n .  This o b j e c t i v e i s d e r i v e d from the  philosophy of democratic  organism - the b e l i e f t h a t  40  Paul D a v i d o f f , "The Role of the C i t y Planner i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , " Proceedings of the A.I.P. Annual Conference, 1964, pp. 125-131. 41 Harvey S. P e r l o f f , " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g i n the M e t r o p o l i s " , i n Duhl, op. c i t . , pp. 325-341.  31 i n d i v i d u a l s and  l o c a l groups are i n the most capable  p o s i t i o n to determine what c o n t r i b u t e  most to t h e i r  own  42 welfare. This f u n c t i o n i s a l s o c a l l e d " e q u a l i t a r i a n . ,. „ 43 justice . The planning  major i s s u e s or areas of concern of  can be  itemized  as: households, r e g i o n a l  social economy,  s o c i a l structure, physical l o c a t i o n a l patterns, p o l i c i e s (government programs), v o l u n t a r y vate s e r v i c e s  agencies, and  ( r e f e r to the t a b l e f o l l o w i n g ) .  related p r i The r e l a t i o n -  ship between these v a r i a b l e s are i n d i c a t e d i n the Instead  table.  of d e a l i n g w i t h narrowly conceived problems of  and w e l f a r e ,  a broader view which i n c l u d e s  s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and  aspects of economic,  c u l t u r a l concerns i s r e q u i r e d .  I t i s suggested that the t r e a t e d as the  health  "households" should be  c e n t r a l focus and key  t e s t i n g ground f o r  s o c i a l s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , because the main concern of  social  e f f o r t s i s the long-term w e l f a r e of the i n d i v i d u a l and  the  44 family. the  In a d d i t i o n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the v a r i o u s  holds"  i s s u e s since  to  "house-  are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d measures of the r e g i o n a l economy,  Goodman and Freund, op. c i t . , p. 43 .. Loc. c i t . 44 P e r l o f f , op. c i t . , p. 297. T  should be given  319.  32  the  condition  of the  s o c i a l structure  environment ( r e f e r to Table l ) . relationship  45  An  and  physical  example of such i n t e r  i s the problem of developing a p p r o p r i a t e t r a i n  i n g f o r s k i l l e d -workers f o r a n t i c i p a t e d problem r e q u i r e s  industries.  This  i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s among at l e a s t three  c a t e g o r i e s suggested i n the t u r e and  the  physical-locational  t a b l e : households, s o c i a l  struc  patterns.  45 Idem., New D i r e c t i o n i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P\, 1965, pp. 297-304.  TABLE 1  33  SUBJECT OF MAJOR CONCERN TO SOCIAL PLANNING  SUBJECTS OF MAJOR CONCERN TO SOCIAL PLANNING RECJONAL  SOCIAL  ECONOMY  STRUCTURE  Manpower Job opportunities Skill requirements  Metropolitan ecology Social groups Neighborhoods  -HOUSEHOLDS-  PHYSICAL LOCATIONAL PATTERNS .  Housing and renewal Neighborhood conditions and requirements  I  POLICIES—PROGRAMS GOVERNMENT  VOLUNTARY AGENCIES  Levels, costs, and effects of social services  Source:  Levels, costs, and effects of social services Resources available Requirements for social policy  RELATED PRIVATE ACTIVITIES  Services covered  Harvey S. P e r l o f f , "New D i r e c t i o n s i n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of P l a n n e r s . Vol.XXXI (November 1965) p.300. T  /  34 I n t e g r a t e d Planning I n t e g r a t e d Nature From the above d i s c u s s i o n on the r a t i o n a l e  and  approaches of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , i t i s evident t h a t the two  d i s c i p l i n e s are i n f a c t c l o s e l y r e -  l a t e d to each other, both d e a l i n g with the same c l i e n t e l e . A f u r t h e r thought  on t h i s l i n e i n d i c a t e s t h a t  a l l types of p u b l i c p l a n n i n g are a c t u a l l y s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . P h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g which seeks to improve the environment f o r the b e n e f i t of the whole s o c i e t y i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l l y " s o c i a l " i n nature.  Herbert Gans a l s o suggested  a l l p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t people, they are social,  and the dichotomy between p h y s i c a l and  that s i n c e inevitably  social plan-  46 ning i s meaningless.  A p l a n f o r the p h y s i c a l development  of a community can be viewed as an e x p r e s s i o n of i t s s o c i a l and economic objectives..  P h y s i c a l planning i s a c t u a l l y  one  of the means of a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l and human g o a l s . M e l v i n Webber w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s i n t e g r a t e d nature of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g as f o l l o w s : "...we are coming to comprehend the c i t y as an extremely complex s o c i a l system, only one aspect of which are expressed as p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g s or as l o c a t i o n a l arrangements ....Each aspect l i e s i n a r e c i p r o c a l c a u s a l r e l a t i o n to a l l others such t h a t each i s d e f i n e d by, and has meaning only w i t h r e s p e c t to i t s r e l a t i o n s to a l l o t h e r s . Herbert Gans, People  and P l a n s , (New  l o r k , 1968), p.245.  35 We can no longer speak of the p h y s i c a l c i t y versus the s o c i a l city....We can no longer d i s s o c i a t e a p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g . . . f r o m the s o c i a l meanings t h a t , i t c a r r i e s f o r i t s users and viewers from the s o c i a l and economic f u n c t i o n s of the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are conducted w i t h i n i t . I f d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e at a l l , the d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t of c o n s t i t u e n t components.... Planning f o r the l o c a t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l aspects of our c i t i e s must t h e r e f o r e be conducted i n concert w i t h p l a n n i n g f o r a l l programs t h a t governmental and non-governmental agencies conduct."47 In s e t t i n g f o r t h the above p r o p o s i t i o n s , Webber p r o v i d e d a common base f o r a l l planners to co-ordinate  their  p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s and to f u n c t i o n i n concert w i t h each other, be they p h y s i c a l planners  or s o c i a l p l a n n e r s .  This rappro-  chement of p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n s i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the search f o r comprehensiveness i n d e a l i n g w i t h urban problems as both p h y s i c a l planners and s o c i a l planners are c u r r e n t l y widening  t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s and extending  boundaries  t h e i r working  to the other.  *  P l a n n i n g Redefined - Comprehensiveness I t i s d i s c e r n i b l e to r e d e f i n e "planning" at t h i s p o i n t as a comprehensive process of decision-making  on the  a l l o c a t i o n and development of human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s . I t i s an apparatus  f o r b r i n g i n g together the  individual  f u n c t i o n a l programs of a community i n t o a c o - o r d i n a t e d  over-  48 view of the t o t a l community.  As the s o c i a l  scientists  47 M e l v i n Webber, "Comprehensive Planning and S o c i a l 48 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " , i n J o u r n a l of the A.I.P.. XXIX 1963,p.233, Harvey S. P e r l o f f , "Common Goals and the l i n k i n g of P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g " i n Bernard J . F r i e d i n and Robert M o r r i s , op. c i t . , pp. 346-376.  36 advocate: only one type of p l a n n i n g  e x i s t s - a comprehensive  approach which agrees upon the optimum common goals  of the  community, and then e s t a b l i s h e s the most e f f i c i e n t method 49 of a c h i e v i n g them.  Accordingly,  a l l planning  functions  ( p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , economic e t c . ) should not be t r e a t e d as separate  d i s c i p l i n e s , but are i n t e r - r e l a t e d approaches t h a t  f u n c t i o n as " c o n s t i t u e n t components" p l a n n i n g process  of the comprehensive  aimed a t a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l g o a l s .  i s t h e r e f o r e a s y n t h e s i s of v a r i o u s program p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l '  Kenneth Snaggs a l s o analysed  i n comprehensive p l a n n i n g  Planning  functions:  and c u l t u r a l . three major elements 50  f o r a community as f o l l o w s :  The economic element i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r m u l a t i n g and a r t i c u l a t i n g a p o l i c y f o r economic development based on complete knowledge ities  of e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l -  and p r o j e c t e d needs; the s o c i a l element i s p r i m a r i l y  concerned w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g the s o c i o l o g i c a l i n g r e d i e n t s of the development process  and the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of development,  w i t h a view to maximizing the s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and minimizing the s o c i a l costs and i l l - e f f e c t s ;  the p h y s i c a l element f u n c t i o n s  to t r a n s l a t e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n t o goals expressed i n p h y s i c a l 49 Gans, op. c i t . , p.245-246. 50 Kenneth Bertram Snaggs, I n t e g r a t i o n of P h y s i c a l with S o c i a l Planning and Economic Planning, M.A. t h e s i s i n Planning, U.B.C, 1966, p.84.  37 terms, evolve a p o l i c y f o r p h y s i c a l development and produce a p l a n of the p h y s i c a l environment i n accordance  v i t h that  policy. Based on the above d i s c u s s i o n s , the meaning of "comprehensive p l a n n i n g " i n i t s true sense becomes v e r y c l o s e to Dyckman's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g - the i n t e r - s y s t e m p l a n n i n g approach v h i c h i n v o l v e s the d e l i b e r a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n of socio-economic  and human-behavior c o n s i d e r a 51  t i o n s i n t o the p o l i t i c a l decision-making  process.  view emphasises the web of interdependence  This  of community  a c t i v i t i e s and the shared consequences of program a c t i o n s . Thus, an i n t e g r a t e d systems approach to p l a n n i n g can be achieved only when s o c i a l values and a c t i o n c r i t e r i a are a p p l i e d to the assessment of community development programs e s t a b l i s h e d to accomplish p o l i t i c a l or s o c i e t a l g o a l s .  The  end r e s u l t of such c o l l a b o r a t e d p l a n n i n g i s the e l i m i n a t i o n of mismatches between s o c i a l needs expressed and the p h y s i c a l environment found  i n human behavior  i n the planned  community.  D i f f i c u l t i e s of Planning I n t e g r a t i o n Although  there i s an i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n of  the v i t a l importance of comprehensive p l a n n i n g , v e r y experience has been gained  to-date.  Refer to previous d i s c u s s i o n s on S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Redefined.  little  38 A number of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s p o i n t e d out t h a t the most important  o b s t a c l e which hinders p l a n n i n g  colla52  b o r a t i o n i s the l a c k of i n t e g r a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s or g o a l s . The  e x i s t i n g goals or concepts  of v a r i o u s  "departmentalized  planning functions" ( p a r t i c u l a r l y physical planning  and  s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s ) are too narrowly 53  conceived to  serve as a framework f o r j o i n t p l a n n i n g .  Since the p l a n -  ning f u n c t i o n s become e s s e n t i a l l y method-oriented, planners e v e n t u a l l y l o s t  the  s i g h t of the goals which t h e i r  methods are designated to achieve, and the problems which 54 they are t o s o l v e . There are some other p r a c t i c a l  difficulties  which e x i s t between the s o c i a l planners and p h y s i c a l planners, P a r t i c u l a r l y prominant i s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n time 55 and g e o g r a p h i c a l h o r i z o n s .  The former  horizons  p r o f e s s i o n a l s tend  to focus t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on r e l a t i v e l y short-term programs, c h a r a c t e r i s e d by items covered t y p i c a l l y i n an annual  opera-  t i n g budget, while the l a t t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s are i n v o l v e d i n a longer time h o r i z o n (e.g. l o n g range p l a n n i n g ) . planners are t r a d i t i o n a l l y concerned  The  with i n d i v i d u a l  social  neigh-  bourhoods, whereas the p h y s i c a l planners tend to care f o r 52 op. c i t . ,thepp.231-248. l a r g e rSee, a r e fa os ri example, As P e r l o fGans, f suggested, present remedies 53 Harvey P e r l o f f , op. c i t . . p. 347. 54 55 Harvey P e rclio t f f., op. c i t . Gans, op.  39 are a deepening  and broadening  of viewpoints on both  sides,  so t h a t coherent programs can be e s t a b l i s h e d to r e l a t e neighbourhood  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and metropolitan-wide i s s u e s 56  to the common set of goals and  strategies.  Methods of I n t e g r a t i o n To accomplish the d e s i r e d p l a n n i n g i n t e g r a t i o n , two measures or approaches by the approach  appear promising: i n t e g r a t i o n  of c e n t r a l comprehensive p l a n n i n g , and i n -  t e g r a t i o n by c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . The former approach  i n v o l v e s a conceptual change  on the nature and scope of p l a n n i n g and a thorough of i t s comprehensive f u n c t i o n .  The  essence  conviction  of t h i s com-  prehensive f u n c t i o n has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n a p r e v i o u s section.  I t a l s o r e q u i r e s i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y e f f o r t s , whereby  a l a r g e number of complementary methods are used i n a c o l l a borated manner.  Each d i s c i p l i n e i n i t s " s p e c i a l i s e d  ex-  p e r t i s e " w i l l f i n d i t s r o l e as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n an i n t e g r a t i n g and s y n t h e s i z i n g process, i n which no one type of p l a n n i n g has the complete  or f i n a l answer.  Another promising t o o l to accomplish p l a n n i n g i n t e g r a t i o n i s the approach decision-making p r o c e s s .  of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  I t appears  that c i t i z e n  involvement  i s an e f f e c t i v e channel of a c t i o n through which s o c i a l v a l u e s  561Loc. c i7" t.  40 can  be i n c o r p o r a t e d into  environmental development programs  aimed at a c h i e v i n g s o c i e t a l g o a l s . of t h i s t h e s i s participation  Since the major concern  i s to examine the mechanism as an e f f e c t i v e  l i a i s o n between the p l a n n i n g  p r o f e s s i o n a l s and the c i t i z e n s at l a r g e , i s devoted to a more d e t a i l e d  of c i t i z e n  the next chapter  e v a l u a t i o n on t h i s  issue.  CHAPTER I I I CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AS A STRATEGY OF INTEGRATED PLANNING Introduction " I f ve are to p l a n i n t e l l i g e n t l y and economically, i f ve are to avoid the d e l a y i n g a c t i o n so o f t e n exp e r i e n c e d from both l a y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies, the c i t i z e n s of the community v i l l have to become an a c t i v e and i n t e g r a l p a r t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . " ! As e l u c i d a t e d i n Chapter  I I , i t i s p e r v e r s i v e to  separate p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i n t o tvo tinctive disciplines.  Nor  dis-  i s i t j u s t i f i e d to d i s s o c i a t e  p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g from the t o t a l i  realm  •  of comprehensive p l a n n i n g .  "Planning" i s i n f a c t an  inte-  grated comprehensive f u n c t i o n to d i r e c t the o r d e r l y p h y s i c a l socio-economic  development of communities.  The f a c t t h a t a v i d e gap i o n a l s vho  e x i s t s betveen p r o f e s s -  are charged v i t h the t e c h n i c a l  responsibilities  of p l a n n i n g and the c i t i z e n s vho must l i v e v i t h the p l a n and pay f o r i t through  t a x a t i o n has become i n c r e a s i n g l y evident.  Many community l e a d e r s have recognized the danger i n h e r e n t i n t h i s t r e n d and have advocated  the n e c e s s i t y of a c t i v e 2  c i t i z e n involvement In e a r l y 1960, Washington D.C.  i n the p l a n n i n g decision-making  delegates to the "White House Conference  in  s p e c i f i e d t h a t planning f o r people must be  ^J.R. Hoag, " P u t t i n g the ' I P l a n n i n g Review, F a l l 1968, 2  process.  1  i n t o Involvement", Community p.26.  See, f o r example, K.E. Beasley, "Using C i t i z e n A d v i s o r y Groups", P u b l i c Management, Nov., I960.  42 r e p l a c e d by planning  -with people.  3  It i s believed  that  through the process of c i t i z e n involvement, more s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e g r a t i o n between s o c i a l values can be  and p h y s i c a l  planning  achieved. This chapter attempts to examine the v a l i d i t y  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a s t r a t e g y of i n t e g r a t e d An  planning.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s given to the j u s t i f i c a t i o n and  current  forms of p r a c t i c e of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy, f o l l o w e d an e v a l u a t i o n of i t s f u n c t i o n to i n t e g r a t e s o c i e t a l and  of  by  goals  the p h y s i c a l p l a n i n the process of comprehensive, planning.  I  Justification for Citizen Participation Many arguments have been put forward to c i t i z e n involvement i n the planning One  utopian  justify  process.  o p i n i o n s t a t e d that g r a s s r o o t s  parti4  c i p a t i o n s a t i s f i e s the r e q u i s i t e s of the American Democracy. A more p r a c t i c a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h i s i d e a has l a t e d by John Bodine, who  been a r t i c u -  b e l i e v e d that i t i s the  grassroot  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a small number of the l e s s prominent members of a community that i n e f f e c t i n i t i a t e s a l l changes.'' _  J.R.  The  Hoag, op. c i t .  4 J . B u l l u s h , M. Hansknecht, Urban Renewal, People, P o l i t i c s and Planning, (New York 1967), p.284.  5  J . Bodine, "The I n d i s p e n s i b l e One-hundredth of a Percent" i n Taming Megolopolis, e d i t e d by H.V. Eldredge, (New York, 1967), pp.956-970.  43  h a r d work of such groups b r i n g s new  and i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s  up t o the p o i n t where they g a i n enough r e s p e c t i b i l i t y t h a t the power e l i t e w i l l c o n s i d e r s p o n s o r i n g and u l t i m a t e l y c a r r y i n g them o u t . ^ There i s a l s o a growing a p p r e c i a t i o n t h a t i n a democratic  s o c i e t y , p l a n n i n g does not p r o v i d e a b s o l u t e l y  r i g h t or wrong a l t e r n a t i v e s .  R. Dahl suggested  that i n  a c t u a l i t y , a community has no a b s o l u t e consensus on the rank order or d e s i r e d magnitude of community s e r v i c e s or 7  f u n c t i o n , or of the means of f i n a n c i n g them.  Cultural  d i v e r s i t y i s an i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s o c i e t y and g  any p l a n i s the embodiment of p a r t i c u l a r group i n t e r e s t s . Thus, p l a n n i n g p l u r a l i s m becomes a s o c i e t a l g o a l to be sued d e l i b e r a t e l y .  pur-  As one o f i t s paramount f u n c t i o n s , t h e n ,  p l a n n i n g i n a democratic  w o r l d i s a p r o c e s s by w h i c h the  community seeks to i n c r e a s e the i n d i v i d u a l s  1  opportunities  to choose f o r h i m s e l f - i . e . to i n c r e a s e the number of 9  o p t i o n s t h a t are a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l persons.  Any  c i t i z e n group which has i n t e r e s t s a t stake i n the p l a n n i n g process L o c . csihto .u l d have those i n t e r e s t s v  g  articulated."^  R.A. D a h l , e t . a l ; S o c i a l S c i e n c e and Community A c t i o n , ( M i c h i g a n , I 9 6 0 ) , p.5.  L i s a R. P e a t t i e , " R e f l e c t i o n s on Advocacy P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P., March, 1968, pp.80-88. I b i d . , pp. 19-20. 10 ' Loc. c i t . 9  T  44 A n o t h e r argument involvement i s  expounding the v i r t u e s  t h a t by a l l o w i n g people  i s v e r y o f t e n i n the form of p r o v i d i n g an escape v a l u e  i n v a l u a b l e source decisions,  f o r what o t h e r w i s e m i g h t  become  system.11  about  Various outbursts  the  become  further  a mechanism i n which  of the A m e r i c a n Negro  upward c h a n n e l s  an  to  people  one-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n  m i g h t have b e e n a v e r t e d h a d t h e p e o p l e and e f f e c t i v e  to guide  t e r m e d "mass s o c i e t y "  extremely f r u s t r a t e d  are  The c o m p l a i n t s t h e n become  t h e same t i m e s e r v e as  a v o i d what C . ¥ . M i l l s  which  the planners  of i n f o r m a t i o n feedback  w h i l e at  citizen  to p a r t i c i p a t e  complaints,  d a n g e r o u s p e n t up e m o t i o n s .  of  been g i v e n  riots sufficient  of c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  A similar proposition for citizen participation is  b a s e d on t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t  regardless point,  a l l planning  o f how e x c e l l e n t t h e y a r e  must be g e n u i n e l y a c c e p t e d  proposals,  from the p l a n n e r s '  by the  view-  community i n o r d e r  12  to be,implemented s u c c e s s f u l l y . force  o r m a n i p u l a t i o n may r e s u l t  ance o f a p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l , will  n o t be s i n c e r e  Although l e g i s l a t i o n , i n the overt p u b l i c  people's personal  b e c a u s e t h e most  effective  accept-  acceptance changes  come  "''"''R.A. D a h l , e t . a l . , S o c i a l S c i e n c e and Community A c t i o n , ( M i c h i g a n I960). 12 D o n a l d ¥ . P . B a r c h a m , Community D e v e l o p m e n t : A n I n t e g r a l T e c h n i q u e i n t h e P r o c e s s o f Community P l a n n i n g , M . A . t h e s i s , U . B . C . , 1965; p . 7 .  45 from  self-motivation.  throughout plan  will  the be  To t h e  contrary,  planning process  accepted  by  a  -will  true  citizen  ensure  majority  participation  that  of  the  the  final  community  13 which  is  affected  by  A more ment  and  commendations In  other  for  is  pointed  initiative within  need to  for  social  with  out,  this  part  areas  bureaucratization  desires  -  of  has  and  type  for  citizen  i n f o r m a t i o n about  ensure  consonant  on t h e  urban  justification  that  the  societal  citizen participation  articulating  Peattie  the  behavior  are  words,  plan.  positive  i n planning  preferences  that  and of  goals  i n d i v i d u a l groups  technical  the  of  -  revalues.  mechanism  plans.  As  planning  and  necessary  basis  and  physical  "planning"  b e e n made  public  planners'  provides  the  involve-  communities  by  the  decisions  increasing in  current  14 society. its  Indeed,  bureaucratic  temporary  the  set  authority  American world  of  management  and  has  institutions  responsibilities  become  impersonal  with  i n the and  con-  alien  15 to  human f e e l i n g s .  needed tend  to  work.  in be It  areas  of  Advocacy planning low-income  disadvantaged is  thus  necessary  L sosc . t h e C iirt . i n t e r e s t s . e x p ^r e Peattie,  15T Loc.  cit.  in  op.cit•  families  the to  is  where  traditional make  particularly the  political  provisions  Participatory  residents  for  democracy  frame-  them is  to  therefore  46  a l i a i s o n between the - the planners and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the  the  administered  citizens.  Forms of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Organized Groups The i n planning  p r a c t i c e of meaningful c i t i z e n involvement  to-day r e q u i r e s the existence  agent between the  i n d i v i d u a l and  of an  the decision-making group.  This f u n c t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y f i l l e d by v o l u n t a r y or secondary groups which are f a i r l y broadly f u n c t i o n a l l y oriented. i  As  intermediate  s t a t e d by M.S.  but  based  formal and  Olmsted, most  •  people p a r t i c i p a t e d not d e l i m i t e d and  as whole p e r s o n a l i t i e s but  s p e c i a l c a p a c i t i e s ; the group i s not an  i t s e l f but a means to other are l o c a l Parents' rate-payers'  only i n  and  ends."^  end  Examples of such groups  Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n s , neighbourhood  a s s o c i a t i o n s or c i t y wide v o l u n t a r y  housing  councils. These c i t i z e n groups may  operate on v a r i o u s  covering d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s and s i z e s of areas i n the T h e i r area of concern may  'M.S.  community.  range from the l o c a l neighbourhood  to the l o c a l d i s t r i c t , the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the r e g i o n and  scales  metropolitan  even the n a t i o n a l s t a t e . Olmsted, The  Small Group, (New  Tork, 1959),  p.19.  47 Group Membership and L e a d e r s h i p According to ¥. B e l l , a number of v a r i a b l e s  can  be r e l a t e d to a c t i v e group membership and l e a d e r s h i p i n ,  .  17  planning. B e l l found that i n g e n e r a l , males p a r t i c i p a t e more than females, and o l d e r persons younger ones.  (over 40) more than  There i s a l s o a d e f i n i t e c o r r e l a t i o n between  h i g h e r socio-economic  s t a t u s and more a c t i v e r o l e s i n com-  munity a c t i v i t i e s and l e a d e r s h i p .  T h i s phenomenon has  wise been i n d i c a t e d by F i r m a l i n o , who, of the C i t y of New  Westminster,  like-  i n h i s case study  proved the s i g n i f i c a n c e of 18  involvement i n community a f f a i r s .  He found i n i n t e r v i e w s  with persons on w e l f a r e , that they belonged to fewer  clubs,  e x h i b i t e d e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t opinions on f a u l t s i n the area, and had l e s s knowledge of what r e c e n t c i t y p r o j e c t s had been undertaken than d i d the persons of average Another  or above s t a t u s .  s i g n i f i c a n t determinant of one's i n v o l v e -  ment w i t h h i s community i s whether the i n d i v i d u a l i s w e l l i n t e g r a t e d and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h i s own  area.  The  importance  of t h i s v a r i a b l e can be seen as an u n d e r l y i n g course of much of the above-stated f a c t o r s . sons who  A. Boskoff a s s e r t e d t h a t p e r -  are s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r present community are 19 W. whoB e ltake l , R.J. l vl e and P u ba lc it ci o nLeadership, those an a Hc it i p a r tC R i. n Wright, community s. These e d i t e d by Leon Broon, (San F r a n c i s c o , I960). 18 T.C F i r m a l i n o , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S e l e c t e d P l a n n i n g Programs, M.A. t h e s i s , U.B.C, 1968, p.6. 19 / 1962). A. Boskoff, The S o c i o l o g y of Urban Regions,(New York, 17  48 people a c t u a l l y effective  conceive of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s as  i n b r i n g i n g about the  being  d e s i r e d changes.  Thus,  they are more w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e other a c t i v i t i e s f o r community groups.  This f a c t o r has  also  been summarized  by  20 E u l o n and  Scheider as two  degrees of " r e l a t e d n e s s "  degree to which an i n d i v i d u a l a c i t i z e n , and  the  has  internalised  degree to which he  r o l e as making a d i f f e r e n c e  sees h i s  his role  l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  in political affairs.  among the  In most i n s t a n c e s , they are the  l a c k of an  do not  the  low-income groups.  indifferent  e i t h e r because  of  organized a r t i c u l a t i n g core, or because they  p e r c e i v e t h e i r own  power.  The  consequence i s t h a t  such groups tend to loose t h e i r i n t e r e s t and  as  political  This l a t t e r argument also helps to e x p l a i n low  : the  become a l i e n a t e d  i n the  which i n t u r n reduces the  community likelihood  of t h e i r involvement even more. One's own  view of h i m s e l f i s another important  determinant f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n one  p e r c e i v e s of t h i s a c t i o n  search conducted by G. people who  had  because i t i s necessary t h a t as b e n e f i c i a l  Lenski i n Detroit  to h i m s e l f .  Re-  suggested t h a t  a p o o r l y c r y s t a l l i z e d conceptions of  their  s t a t u s were v e r y much below the " s u c c e s s f u l " men i n t h e i r 21 l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 20 ¥. B e l l , op. c i t . 21 G.E. L e n s k i , " S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Status C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n " , American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Vol.21, 1956, pp.458-464.  49 Strategies  of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n  as a P l a n n i n g Tool  Although c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n has become an i n creasingly  popular p r a c t i c e  among p l a n n e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s ,  there has been c o n t r o v e r s i a l proper  opinions over i t s meaning and  functions. To  c e r t a i n groups, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a  source of energy to a c t i v e l y c a r r y  out programs a l r e a d y  22 decided upon.  To others, i t i s an e d u c a t i o n a l t o o l f o r  changing a t t i t u d e s .  In some i n s t a n c e s , i t i s an implement  -which aids the planning decision-making process by p r o v i d i n g a more d e f i n i t e and p r e c i s e Most r e c e n t l y ,  picture  of p u b l i c  opinions.  the term has been used synonymously with  euphemisms l i k e " s e l f - h e l p " ,  " c i t i z e n involvement", " c i t i z e n 23  control"  and "maximum f e a s i b l e  involvement of the poor" e t c .  What then i s " c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " ?  /  C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n fact a strategy f o r the  attainment of s p e c i f i c ends.  I t takes many d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  forms depending on v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s t h e r e f o r e more d e s i r a b l e  to be achieved.  to speak of " s e v e r a l  It is  strategies"  of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , d e f i n e d i n terms of given g o a l s , assumptions and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  requirements.  Edmund M. Burke  a l s o e l a b o r a t e d the i d e a that these o b j e c t i v e s are l i m i t e d 22 J . B u l l u s h and M. Hansknecht, op. c i t . 23 Sherry R. A r n s t e i n , "A Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P., J u l y 1969, pp. 216-224.  50 by a v a i l a b l e resources as w e l l as the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r 24 of  community a c t i v i t i e s .  Since p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s through  formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s , any s t r a t e g y w i l l be a f f e c t e d by  organ-  i z a t i o n a l demands - the n e c e s s i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t s and the demand of the environment.  Thus, the r e l e v a n c y of  a c e r t a i n type of s t r a t e g y depends both on the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s abilities  to f u l f i l  the requirements  necessary f o r the s t r a t e g y  e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and on the a d a p t a b i l i t y of the s t r a t e g y to an organizational In  environment.^  a more r a d i c a l manner, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n 26  has been d e f i n e d as a c a t e g o r i a l term f o r c i t i z e n power. I t i s the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of power which enables the and e c o n o m i c a l l y disadvantaged  to take p a r t i n the  making process - i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of how  politically decision-  s o c i e t a l goals  and p o l i c i e s are s e t , tax resources are a l l o c a t e d , programs 27 are operated and b e n e f i t s are shared.  Citizen  participation  i s a c t u a l l y " p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy" by means of which the have-not c i t i z e n s induce r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l reform which enables them to share the b e n e f i t s of the a f f l u e n t  society.  Sherry A r n s t e i n has d e r i v e d a typology of e i g h t l e v e l s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n arranged i n a ladder p a t t e r n 24 w i t h Edmund each " sM. t e p Burke, " corresponding " C i t i z e n Pto a r tthe i c i pextent a t i o n of S t r ac ti et gi iz ee sn "s ,' J o u r n a l of A.I.P., September 1968, pp.287-294. 25 Loc. c i t . Sherry R. A r n s t e i n , op. c i t . 26 27 Loc. c i t . T  28 power i n determining  the end product of p l a n n i n g .  s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and planners  Other  have a l s o d i r e c t e d r e s e a r c h  29 into s i m i l a r issues.  T h e i r h y p o t h e t i c a l models f u r t h e r  advocate t h a t there are s i g n i f i c a n t gradations p a r t i c i p a t i o n which are manifested  presented table  citizen  i n t h e i r degrees of i n -  f l u e n c e or power on the p l a n n i n g process. f i c a t i o n s , Arnstein's  of  With some modi-  ladder of c i t i z e n involvement i s  and d i s c u s s e d  i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ( r e f e r to  2).  Table  7  Citizen  6  Delegated Power  5  Partnership  4  Placation  3  Consultation  2  Informing  1  Educating  2. The  Control  Degrees of Citizen Power  Degrees of Tokenism  Non-Participation  Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n seven-stepped typology  represents  three  broad  l e v e l s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n - l e v e l of n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 30 degrees of tokenism and degrees of c i t i z e n The  participation.  bottom l e v e l o f " n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n " does not allow  citi-  zens to take p a r t i n p l a n n i n g . I t i s merely a genuine mech28 Loc. c i t , 29 See f o r example, John M. Ducey, " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Planning Process", Proceedings of the A.I.P. Conference, 1964. 30 Much of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n s i s based on Sherry R. A r n s t e i n , op. c i t .  52 anism to enable power h o l d e r s people.  The  the c i t i z e n s to hear and  c o n s u l t a t i o n and p l a c a t i o n .  c i t i z e n s are s t i l l do not have any  i n a r a t h e r passive  At these  stages,  power to i n s u r e t h a t t h e i r o p i n i o n and  l e v e l of the ladder  The  C i t i z e n s become " p a r t n e r s " with the and  top-most steps - delegated  c i t i z e n s o b t a i n the m a j o r i t y to c o n t r o l over p l a n n i n g  citizen  traditional  engage i n t r a d e - o f f s .  power and  advice  upper  i n d i c a t e s i n c r e a s i n g degrees of  powerholders to n e g o t i a t e  At  the  c i t i z e n c o n t r o l , the  of the decision-making  seats  issues.  In the l i g h t of r e s e a r c h , unfold  to v o i c e :  p o s i t i o n since they  w i l l be implemented to change the s t a t u s quo.  power.  the  second l e v e l of the model progresses to "degrees  of tokenism", which allows information,  to "educate" or "cure"  the  following  discussions  the common uses of these s t r a t e g i e s of c i t i z e n i n -  volvement. 1.  L e v e l of  Non-Participation  Educating A f r e q u e n t l y proclaimed but r a r e l y v i a b l e  strategy 3  of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the The  "education-therapy"  strategy.  major presumption of t h i s s t r a t e g y i s the need f o r  proving  the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s through education  "brain-washing".  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s are t r e a t e d as  imor  clients  to be planned f o r and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d i s t o r t e d i n t o a p u b l i c _____ Edmund M. Burke, op. c i t . , p.288.  r e l a t i o n s v e h i c l e by the powerholders.  32  Accordingly,  c i t i z e n involvement becomes an end i n i t s e l f . U t i l i z i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s as an e d u c a t i o n a l device has had a profound e f f e c t on the p r a c t i c e of community o r g a n i z a t i o n .  A number of s o c i a l  workers emphasised t h a t the purpose of community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s to help communities develop t h e i r own c a p a c i t i e s to s o l v e problems.  To them, achievement of p l a n n i n g goals becomes 33  secondary. A s i m i l a r school of thought puts the focus of t h i s s t r a t e g y on developing s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and of  individual citizens.  self-reliance  According to t h e i r o p i n i o n s ,  indi-  v i d u a l s w i l l d i s c o v e r t h e i r a b i l i t y to i n s p i r e each other and e v e n t u a l l y m o b i l i z e changes i n t h e i r community by co34 operating w i t h t h e i r neighbours. Still  another view o f t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l  strategy  i s o r i e n t e d towards " d e l i b e r a t e changes" aimed at i n f l u e n c i n g 35 i n d i v i d u a l behavior through group membership.  The  objective  i s 32 to induce change i n a system or subsystem by changing the A r n s t e i n , op. c i t . , p. 218. 33 Murray G. Ross, Case H i s t o r i e s i n Community O r g a n i z a t i o n , (New York, Harper and Bros., 1958), pp.10-11. 34 / Roland L. Warren, The Community i n America, (Chicago, 35 John McNally Kennedy, and Housing to Congress, March 1961. Rand Co., Message 1963), pp.329-330.  54 behavior  of e i t h e r the system's members or i n f l u e n t i a l  presentatives  of the system.  The  group i t s e l f then becomes  a t a r g e t of change even though the goal may individual  re-  be to change  behaviors."^ This s t r a t e g y of c i t i z e n involvement i s at the  n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l because i t i s merely a means f o r the power group to educate, persuade and c i p a n t s , not the r e v e r s e .  advise  People are p l a c e d  on  the  parti-  advisory  boards only f o r the expressed purpose of engineering support gested  and  educating  them.  Nevertheless,  i t has  t h a t a c o n t i n u i n g program of education  their  been sug-  can produce  37 satisfying results.  H. Hicks  s t a t e d t h a t i t helps to r e -  duce " r e s i s t a n c e p r e d i c a t e d  on f e a r " and u l t i m a t e l y e l i m i n a t e 38 the apathy of low-income r e s i d e n t s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o l e a r n to reform t h e i r own l i v e s - to t u r n away from the s e l f 39 d e f e a t i n g and d e s p a i r i n g c u l t u r e of poverty. II.  Degree of Tokenism - i n f o r m a t i o n ,  c o n s u l t a t i o n and  Placation  A s i g n i f i c a n t step towards l e g i t i m a t e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning  i s informing  r i g h t s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and  37  c i t i z e n s of t h e i r  o p t i o n s , and  inviting  feedbacks  Dorwin Cartwright, "Achieving Change i n People: Some A p p l i c a t i o n s of Group Dynamics Theory", Human R e l a t i o n s , IV 1951, p.387. H. Symonds, " C r e a t i n g Community Concern", Community Planning Review, Vol.18, No.2, pp.18-21.  38  H.M. H i c k s , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Neighbourhood 39 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , M.S.Y. T h e s i s , U.B.C., 1962. Burke, op. c i t .  55 and h e a r i n g t h e i r o p i n i o n s .  40  This approach has  sometimes  been c a l l e d the "planning d i a l o g u e " , the primary f u n c t i o n of which i s to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n and  supplement.  However,  the emphasis has v e r y o f t e n been p l a c e d on hastening to a determined end.  progress  There i s a c t u a l l y very l i t t l e  oppor-  t u n i t y f o r the people to i n f l u e n c e planning programs "for their benefit".^  designed  1  The most f r e q u e n t l y - u s e d  forms of s t r a t e g y f o r  informing c i t i z e n s are p u b l i c a t i o n s such as news media, pamphlets and responses to i n q u i r i e s , while methods f o r c o n s u l t i n g people are q u e s t i o n n a i r e public  surveys,  interviews  and  hearings. Another type of s t r a t e g y i n t h i s category which 42  has been w e l l adopted i s " c l i e n t e l e a n a l y s i s " .  Clientele  a n a l y s i s i s a d e t a i l e d s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the  client  population.  I t u n f o l d s the needs and wants of the  and provides  s u b s t a n t i v e i n s i g h t s i n t o the a s p i r a t i o n and  motivations  of the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n .  citizens,  In a d d i t i o n , i t helps  to uncover the i n t e r e s t s of groups which are  particularly  d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d , and whose d e s i r e s would r a r e l y be  reflected  i n p u b l i c programs. ^ A r n s t e i n , op. 41 ., Loc. c i t .  c i t . , p. 218.  T  John ¥. Dyckman, " S o c i a l Planning, S o c i a l Planners Planned S o c i e t i e s " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P., March 1966,  and pp.66-75,  56  Despite the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c i t i z e n s municate v i t h the p o v e r h o l d e r s , hovever, involvement  i s essentially  public participation.  t o com-  t h i s l e v e l of  the o l d "salesman"  citizen  approach  to  J o h n Ducey nick-named t h i s s t r a t e g y  as t h e " p u p p e t s h o v " , a t v h i c h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g  group i s  43 "pro former  and a f t e r  the f a c t " .  only to demonstrate t h a t c i t i z e n s voice.  T h e i r o p i n i o n s are  are g i v e n the chance t o  There i s a l s o a c o n s t a n t danger t h a t i n the  day p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e t r u e r e s u l t s is and  n e g l e c t e d and  vested interests.  of c i t i z e n  i n s t e a d , t h e p l a n n e r s become  "molders of p u b l i c  day-toinvolvement  "manipulators"  o p i n i o n s " i n p u r s u i t of t h e i r  I n such  heard  ovn  c a s e s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s may  t u r n e d t o v e h i c l e s f o r o n e - v a y c o m m u n i c a t i o n by t h e  be simple  device of p r o v i d i n g s u p e r f i c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , d i s c o u r a g i n g q u e s t i o n s or s u p p l y i n g i r r e l e v a n t The cipation  ansvers.  44  h i g h e s t degree i n t h i s l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i -  i s p l a c a t i o n , at vhich step c i t i z e n s begin to  ert a certain  amount o f i n f l u e n c e a l t h o u g h t o k e n i s m  is  exstill  45 apparent.  I n many c a s e s , a f e v c i t i z e n s  s e a t s i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g board, r e t a i n s the r i g h t of t h e i r a d v i c e s .  but the pover  to c o n s i d e r the l e g i t i m a c y or Consequently,  p l a n43 ned f o r . J . D u c e y , op. c i t . 44 A r n s t e i n , op. c i t .  45 L o c . c i t .  are asked to  people  group  take still  feasibility  a r e once a g a i n  being  57  In s p i t e of these  s h o r t comings, however, some  c r e d i t s have been given to t h i s s t r a t e g y of c i t i z e n cipation.  parti-  P i r m a l i n o p o i n t e d out i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n  broadening the base of support  f o r new  p o l i c i e s and f o r  46  overcoming the o b j e c t i o n s to them.  I t i s also useful i n  i n t r o d u c i n g c e r t a i n groups of people who  are not  i n c l u d e d i n community p l a n n i n g i n t o the  decision-making  arena, and  g i v i n g the " o u t s i d e r s " an awareness and  standing of the problems they Ill, i  normally  confront.  under-  47  Degrees of C i t i z e n Power - P a r t n e r s h i p ,  Delegated  Power and C i t i z e n C o n t r o l " C i t i z e n power" has  been d e f i n e d as the  of people to e x e r c i s e t h e i r w i l l even over the  ability  opposition  48  of other groups. power and  I n d i v i d u a l s have been able to o b t a i n  i n f l u e n c e through the o p e r a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s . The  first  step i n t h i s ladder towards  power i s " p a r t n e r s h i p " .  At t h i s stage,  citizen  c i t i z e n s are i n v o l v e d  i n a more p o s i t i v e manner with p o l i t i c a l power being r e d i s t r i b u t e d between people and powerholders through negotiation.  The p o l i t i c a l body agrees to share p l a n n i n g  decision-making  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s through such s t r u c t u r e s as  j o i n t p o l i c y boards and  c o - o r d i n a t e d working committees f o r  49  r e s o l v i n g impasses. F i r m a l i n o , op. c i t . , pp. 47  Loc. C i t . ^ B u r k e , op.  49  and  c i t . , p. 2 9 2 .  A r n s t e i n , op. c i t .  99-113.  58 Partnership  f u n c t i o n s most e f f e c t i v e l y where there  i s an"organized power-base i n the community to which the 50 c i t i z e n l e a d e r s are accountable.  F i n a n c i a l resources  a l s o p l a y an important r o l e i n enabling t h e i r own  c i t i z e n s to h i r e  t e c h n i c i a n s , lawyers, and planners  their desires.  to advocate  They can exert genuine b a r g a i n i n g  over the development of t h e i r  influences  community.  N e g o t i a t i o n between people and  bureaucratization  can a l s o r e s u l t i n c i t i z e n s a c h i e v i n g dominant d e c i s i o n 51 making a u t h o r i t y over a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n . o b t a i n o f f i c i a l l y delegated  C i t i z e n s then  power over c e r t a i n l e g a l  including policy-formulation, h i r i n g consultants, r e a l - e s t a t e s , buying and The  functions  contracting  leasing etc.  l e v e l of c i t i z e n c o n t r o l i s the peak of  A r n s t e i n ' s model at which stage c i t i z e n power a t t a i n s i t s climax  i n c o n t r o l l i n g planning decisions.  the degree of power which assures govern a program and be i n f u l l 52 erial responsibilities.  People demand  t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s can  charge of p o l i c y and manag-  An example most f r e q u e n t l y advocated  i s a neighbourhood c o r p o r a t i o n with no i n t e r m e d i a r i e s between itself  and the source of funds.  l e v e l where b u r e a u c r a t i c  This s t r a t e g y i s a l s o the  d e c i s i o n s are i n c o r p o r a t e d  s o c i50 a lLoc. d e sciir.te,s . , and where s o c i a l goals of the T  5 1  I b i d . , p.222.  5 2  I b i d . , p.223.  with  community  59 concerned  are f u l l y represented and accounted  p l a n n i n g decision-making  f o r i n the  process.  L i m i t a t i o n s of the S t r a t e g i e s The p e r f e c t model.  typology o u t l i n e d above i s by no means a The use  of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a p l a n -  ning s t r a t e g y i s not a p e r f e c t t o o l Although  either.  the s o c i a l l y disadvantaged  h o l d e r s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t o two  and the power  groups, n e i t h e r of them  53 are homogeneous b l o c k s .  Instead, each group c o n s i s t s of  a host of d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s , competing i n t e r e s t s , v e s t e d cleavages to  and s p l i t  subgroups.  Consequently,  i t is difficult  i d e n t i f y the r e a l "community i n t e r e s t s " of a group.  many cases, the subgroups are so immensely concerned  In  with  the welfare of t h e i r l o c a l needs t h a t they l a c k a comprehensive view of the t o t a l c i t y as a whole. Other arguments p a r t i c u l a r l y a g a i n s t community c o n t r o l are: i t supports  separatism, i t c r e a t e s b a l k a n i z a t i o n  of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , i t i s s h o r t - s i g h t e d and professionalism etc.  incompatible  Whether such c i t i z e n power can be  to ex-  e r c i s e d i n every i n s t a n c e , and whether a small group can 54 c o n t r o l a l l community d e c i s i o n s i s another  area of d i s p u t e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f the ground r u l e s f o r p l a n n i n g programs are c l a r i f i e d , and i f c i t i z e n s acknowledge t h a t a c h i e v i n g a Loc. Cit. 54 Burke, op. c i t . , p.292. 5 3  60 genuine p l a n i n the p l u r a l i s t i c  scene s u b j e c t s  them to i t s  l e g i t i m a t e forms of give-and-take, then t h i s s t r a t e g y p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy may the v a r i o u s  demonstrate how  c o r r o s i v e p o l i t i c a l and  to  of  counteract  socioeconomic  forces  55 that plague the poor. Another l i m i t a t i o n of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s short i n d u r a t i o n and v i o l e n t i n a c t i o n . who  are v e r y  often emotionally  The p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n v o l v e d become detached  and  pragmatic w i t h the r e s u l t that a n a l y s i s of a l t e r a t i v e i s difficult.  T h e i r emotional commitment i s p e r s o n a l l y  v a t i n g , while t h e i r concerns are immediate and patient. dissension  Such k i n d of involvement may and  c o n f l i c t s which may  ener-  rather  im-  thus l e a d to i n t e r n a l  i n turn r e s u l t i n unfor-  tunate schism. A p r a c t i c a l problem of implementing c i t i z e n  parti-  c i p a t i o n i s the d i f f i c u l t y to draw people - e s p e c i a l l y the low-income f a m i l i e s i n t o the framework of p l a n n i n g , evoke t h e i r concern f o r the p l a n n i n g by the l o c a l establishment.  to  i s s u e s normally posed  I t i s found t h a t urban slums  u s u a l l y l a c k i n s t i t u t i o n s by which i t might i d e n t i f y as an e n t i t y , and  and  t h a t c i t i z e n s "at the bottom" are 57  slowest to become organized.  Accordingly,  the  much damage xs  done to the weakest i n h a b i t a n t s whose i n t e r e s t s are under-represented. 55 A r n s t e i n , op. c i t . , p.224. 56 57 Burke, op. c i t . , p.292. P e a t t i e , op. c i t . , p.83.  itself  frequently  61 To r e m e d y t h i s for  community  generate  organizers  viable  constantly political advocate  very  issues  a l e r t to matters  planner  and a d v o c a t e  i n the  the  at  weakness,  becomes  planners  planning  to  process,  necessary carefully  and t o  be  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n between t e c h n i c a l  a l l levels.  puts  it  himself  In  into  doing  so,  a position  however,  and the  dangerously 58  similar His  to  power  other manipulators to  them on t h e terms  the  conceptualize problems agenda p l a y s  i n which  way t h e y w i l l planner  of  an  the problems be  becomes  resolved another  poors'  interests.  and h i s  important part will  be  need to in  thought  eventually.  defining  about,  Thus,  place  the  the  and  the  advocate  manipulator.  Conclusions This  chapter  i l l u s t r a t e s the  involvement  is  far  Instead,  is  a new k i n d  lised  i t  urban  from a s i n g l e  interests  are  of  fact that  form of  politics -  expressed  in  citizen  participatory action. a way by w h i c h  a political  loca-  system 59  from w h i c h ward p o l i t i c s have also  involves  distributing  a l l but  disappeared.  d e c e n t r a l i z i n g governmental power  to  An a n a l y s i s participation  the of  strategy  have-not  and  re-  citizens.  the various  reveals  functions  It  types  two b a s i c  of  citizen  conflicts  between  60 participatory 58, Loc.  59  democracy  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  ., cit.  Peattie, ^Burke,  op.  op.  cit.,  cit.  p.87.  expertise.  On  62  one hand, i t i s proclaimed that c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a means f o r democratic p e r f e c t i o n , while on the other hand, the experts are u n w i l l i n g to admit n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t o the decision-making arena.  The b a s i s of the dilemma i s t h e r e -  f o r e the demand f o r both p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy and  expertise;  and i t i s impossible to maximise both value p r e f e r e n c e s . In s p i t e of these problems, is s t i l l  a promising a l t e r n a t i v e .  citizen  participation  P e a t t i e advocates  that  i t s short-term i n e f f i c i e n c i e s and exasperations are p a i d f o r by the pressure which i t generates f o r a s o c i a l p o l i c y more s e n s i t i v e and adaptive to s o c i a l r e a l i t y . ^  1  I t prevents  the e x e r c i s e of b u r e a u c r a t i c power from l e a d i n g to a d i f f u s e despotism.  I t a l s o a s s i s t s i n humanizing  new,  the p l a n -  n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' apparatus. I n l i g h t of these r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n the background,  a case study of a l o c a l urban renewal area i n Van-  couver i s presented i n chapter V.  The model of a "Ladder  of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d by the p e r i e n c e s of c i t i z e n involvement i n the case  P e a t t i e , op. c i t .  ex-  neighbourhood.  CHAPTER IV THE  STRATHCONA URBAN RENEWAL PROGRAM - CASE BACKGROUND  Purpose  of Case Study Chapters IV and V are devoted to a case study of  the S t r a t h c o n a Urban Renewal Area i n the C i t y of Vancouver. The Strathcona area i s s e l e c t e d f o r this r e s e a r c h because  i t was one of the f i r s t d i s t r i c t s where urban r e -  newal programs i n Vancouver were f i r s t  implemented.  involvement i n response to redevelopment prominant  i n this  Citizen  has also been most  neighbourhood.  The primary o b j e c t i v e s of the case study are t h r e e fold.  I n the f i r s t p l a c e , i t serves t o i l l u s t r a t e  that  p h y s i c a l renewal alone does not solve the socio-economic problems i n h e r e n t i n d e l a p i d a t e d environments. s a t i s f y s o c i a l goals and human d e s i r e s .  They do not  Secondly,  study i s used to i l l u s t r a t e the types of c i t i z e n  the case  participation  s t r a t e g y p r a c t i s e d - i . e . the v a r i o u s forms of c i t i z e n  actions,  ranging from the p a s s i v e n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n r o l e to the a c t i v e e f f e c t s of c i t i z e n power.  An attempt  i s made t o present a  rank order of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy by c o r r e l a t i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n experience with the model of a "Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I .  The case study method  has been u t i l i z e d to t e s t the hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s t h a t c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l a s s i s t to integrate physical plann i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g .  64 Case Background Before proceeding to an a n a l y s i s of the case it  study,  i s necessary to provide some background i n f o r m a t i o n on  the study area - the Strathcona Urban Renewal Area. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n d i c a t e s the general p h y s i c a l and social-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the area, f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f summary of the urban renewal the C i t y of Vancouver and i n Strathcona.  programs i n  Since d e t a i l e d  fac-  t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on these l i n e s has been recorded i n v a r i o u s urban renewal  documents of the C i t y ,  duced here.  •  1  they w i l l not be r e p r o -  . •  i  A.  L o c a t i o n and Boundary The  study area i s s i t u a t e d i n a c e n t r a l  of the C i t y of Vancouver, immediately business d i s t r i c t .  east of the  location central  I t contains an area of approximately  130  a c r e s , bounded by f a i r l y d i s t i n c t p h y s i c a l and l a n d use f e a t u r e s To the n o r t h , the area i s bounded by Hastings S t r e e t - a h e a v i l y - u s e d major thoroughfare. Prior Streets.  To the south are  The Raymour Park Housing  Complex and  Union-  Glen  Drive i s l o c a t e d to i t s immediate east, while Gore Avenue  and  the commercial s e c t i o n of Chinatown i s s i t u a t e d to i t s western edge ( r e f e r to Map  1 for location  identification).  Refer to the f o l l o w i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s : C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver Redevelopment Study, Dec. 1957. C i t y of Vancouver T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board, Urban Renewal Scheme No.3: Strathcona, August 1967. U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the Greater Vancouver Area, Urban Renewal Scheme 3: Strathcona, J u l y 1966.  65 B. P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Strathcona i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood occupied by a predominance of o l d , wood frame s i n g l e - f a m i l y structures.  The  area was  o r i g i n a l l y zoned f o r " s i x - s t o r e y  l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l " uses i n 1928. spread d e t e r i o r a t i o n was  In subsequent y e a r s , wide-  induced due to aging of b u i l d i n g s ,  s c a t t e r e d c o m m e r c i a l - i n d u s t r i a l development, t r a f f i c t i o n s , changes i n r e s i d e n t i a l occupancy d e n s i t y and over-crowding.  Consequently,  congesgeneral  a l a r g e p a r t of the area  was  rezoned  to M u l t i p l e D w e l l i n g D i s t r i c t s  i n 1958  to prevent f u r t h e r i n t r u s i o n of incompatible non-  residential  RM-3)  uses.  The b a s i c land use hood are summarised i n Table Approximately devoted  (Medium D e n s i t y  types and areas i n the  neighbour-  3.  31 per cent of the t o t a l land i s  f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use, w i t h about 250 s i n g l e - f a m i l y 2  r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s and 124 m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y b u i l d i n g s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l use i n the area i s Strathcona Elementary  School which serves as the f o c a l p o i n t of the  neighbourhood.  A number of other s o c i a l centres and  provide v a r i o u s community  churches  facilities.  C i t y of Vancouver T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board, op. c i t . , p.12.  TABLE 3. EXISTING EXISTING LAND USE AREA IN SQUARE FEET* COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL | RESIDENTIAL: Single Family 2-Family (Duplex) •Conversion Multiple Multiple with 2% or less Commercial Public Housing TOTAL RESIDENTIAL PUBLIC USES: - Institutions (Except schools) •School .(Public) School (Private) Park TOTAL PUBLIC.USES  STRATHCONA SUB-AREA (Exci. Pro.iects 1 & 2)  LAND USE D A T A ,  PROJECTS 1 & 2  285,900 197,800  STRATHCONA SUB-AREA (Incl. Projects 1 & 2) 6.7%  816,000 (18.73) 22,400 (0.51) 52,100, (1.20) 213,000 (4.89)  83,100 97,600  446,500 446,500  1,284,200  133/500 105,600 27,100  9,900 132^000 266,200  __^41,9p0  83,100 (1.91) 544,100 (12.49)  143,400 105,600 27,100 132,000  (3.29) (2.43) (0.62) (3.03)  ___6,100  30,200.  5„3_6j000  UNDER REDEVELOPMENT  9,200  137,500  VACANT  5.2$  289,000 (6.63) 378,500 (8.69)  3,100 180,700  816,000 22,400 52,100 213,000  PARKING LOT  STREET SYSTEM: • Street Lane Walkway Railroad TOTAL STREET SYSTEM  STRATHCONA  58,500 (1.34)  '58,500  __382,800  ;  3,909,500 89.75 acres :  'A08,_^j_9.37)  7^3£  ™M^3^._(0.83)j,  0.6%  536,000 (12.31),  9.6$  146,700 (3.37)  2.6%  1,791,800 (41.13) 240,200 (5.52)  326,700 56,100  1,465,100 184,100  1,730,700 (39.73) 30. i  1,706,300 39.17 acres  •*Figuresin brackets indicate acres. Source: C i t y of Vancouver T e c h n i c a l Planning Board, Urban Renewal Scheme I I I  2,090,500 (47.99) 37.2% 5,615,800 1^8.92 acres  100.0£  Sub-Area Strathcona.  67 General b l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s are found i n the environment.  Although  s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d houses comprise  housing 80 per  cent of the d w e l l i n g s t r u c t u r e s , 20 per cent of them have been converted to m u l t i p l e occupancy, and another 10 per cent accommodate two building,  families.  Based on c r i t e r i a as: ( l ) age  (2) q u a l i t y of housing as shown by e x t e r i o r  d i t i o n s , and  of  con-  (3) e x i s t i n g l a n d use and mixed land use,  the  4 housing  c o n d i t i o n s i n the study area are as f o l l o w s : Total residential structures:  383  T o t a l D w e l l i n g u n i t s contained:  1,230  Structural conditions: Very poor and poor  42$  Fair  51$  Good  Tfo Total  100$  S o c i a l and Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The  Strathcona study area l i e s w i t h i n a l a r g e  p a r t of Census T r a c t 50 and s e v e r a l adjacent census t r a c t s . A comparison of some s e l e c t e d data of t h i s area with the  average  data of other areas i n the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n d i s t r i c t r e f l e c t s many d i s t i n c t i v e socio-economic Strathcona.  — 4  These f i n d i n g s are l i s t e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of.  i n Table 4.  Apparently,  C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, op. c i t . , pp.6-7. C i t y of Vancouver T e c h n i c a l Planning Board, op. c i t . , p. 16.  68 the area ranks h i g h e s t i n p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e - p e r s o n househ o l d s , aged (65 years and o v e r ) , immigration, A s i a t i c popu5 l a t i o n and persons v i t h very l i t t l e education. Table 4 S e l e c t e d Socio-economic  Characteristics  Census T r a c t 50, Vancouver.  SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS  Numbers/ Percent  M e t r o p o l i t a n Rank  Population  8,495  Grovth 1956-1961  - 9%  No. of F a m i l i e s  1,550  No. of Households  1,749  S i n g l e - P e r s o n Households  23.8%  Highest  Ovner-Occupied  20.8%  Lovest  Occupancy (2 y r s . or l e s s )  38.2%  Above Average  Families v i t h Children  64.8%  Average  Aged (65 y r s . and over)  21.6%  Highest  Immigrated 1945-1961  32.5%  Highest  Asiatic  56.9%  Highest  Persons not a t t e n d i n g school - elementary education only  56.0%  Highest  Source:  Average  -United Community S e r v i c e s of the Greater Vancouver Area, Urban Reneval Scheme 3: Strathcona, 1966. Since the predominant e t h n i c group vho r e s i d e s i n  t h i s area are A s i a t i c s particularly  5  Ibid.,  of Chinese  p.14.  (57 per cent of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ) o r i g i n , the neighbourhood has been  69  c a l l e d Chinatown.  Of the 3000 people  i n the area, census  s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e a high r a t i o of male p o p u l a t i o n male compared to only 1,160  female).  (l,830  An e x c e p t i o n a l high  percentage (35 per cent) of the p o p u l a t i o n i s over 55 old.  years  These demographic f i n d i n g s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 1.  In a d d i t i o n , of the estimated  1,230  households, there i s a  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s i n g l e - f a m i l y households (22 per c e n t ) . In g e n e r a l , the area has the lowest S t a t u s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver.  socio-economic  The medium income range  f o r f a m i l i e s i s between $232 and $250, and under $100 s i n g l e persons.^  for  Numerous s o c i a l s e r v i c e cases a l s o occur  among the r e s i d e n t s who r e c e i v e v a r i o u s supplemental incomes 7 from the government. The caseload i s summarised as f o l l o w s A c t i v e Caseload,  C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department, .July  1965.  Social Assistance  S i n g l e men  Employable  6  Unemployable  106  - Unemployed  Old Age  157  Assistance  408 Total  677  C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, op.  c i t . , p.47.  U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of the Greater Vancouver Area, op. c i t . , p.6. Source: Loc. c i t .  FIGURE  COSVi P A R A T S V E SHOWN  AGE  DISTRI BUTBON  AS A P E R C E N T A G E OF T O T A L P O P U L A T I O N OF T H E  STRATHCONA  SUB-AREA .  A G E  P E R C E N T  MALE  FEMALE  *  SOURCE:CANADA (Adjusted and  to r e f l e c t  demolition *  2 1 % of 7%  CENSUS of  the  of the  1966.  recent  residential male female  public  housing  structures  population population  is is  for  aged aged  development Projects over  70.  over 7 0 . v  I & 2).  71 Urban Renewal Programs Urban renewal programs  i n Vancouver were  first  s t a r t e d i n 1956 when i n c r e a s i n g concern about areas of b l i g h t and d e t e r i o r a t i o n gave impetus to the p r e p a r a t i o n of the "Vancouver Redevelopment  Study".  The broad terms of r e f e r e n c e  of t h i s study were two-fold: to i d e n t i f y those areas of p r e dominantly r e s i d e n t i a l use which may  require  redevelopment  d u r i n g the next twenty y e a r s , and to produce a program of redevelopment i n t e g r a t e d with the c i t y ' s Twenty-Year  Develop-  9 ment P l a n . '  ; Based on r e s u l t s of t h i s survey, two types o f  p l a n n i n g areas were suggested: ( l ) Comprehensive Areas, and (2) L i m i t e d Redevelopment  Areas.  The former are  areas i n which l a r g e s c a l e redevelopment was while the l a t t e r was  deemed necessary  d i s t r i c t s where spot clearance and v a r y -  i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n measures were proposed. of t h i s redevelopment study was was  Redevelopment  The f i n a l  report  completed i n Dec. 1959, but  approved i n p r i n c i p l e by C o u n c i l i n February 1958: Since then, the C i t y has been engaged  i n various  urban renewal programs,  t a k i n g a c t i v e steps to implement  study recommendations.  To-date, the C i t y has undertaken two  redevelopment p r o j e c t s f o r the clearance of approximately _  C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, Ibid.,  p.2.  op. c i t .  the  72 60 acres w i t h i n a t o t a l area of about 140 a c r e s . housing has a l s o been c o n s t r u c t e d  Public  to complement the clearance  program by p r o v i d i n g accommodation f o r r e s i d e n t s The  1 1  displaced.  l o c a t i o n of the C i t y ' s urban renewal p r o j e c t s and t h e i r  present  s t a t u s of implementation are i n d i c a t e d i n Map 1. Of a l l the urban renewal programs i n Vancouver,  a l a r g e p a r t of Redevelopment P r o j e c t s No. 1 and 2 and Urban Renewal Scheme No. 3 l i e s w i t h i n Strathcona.  Consequently,  these programs exert s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on the development of the area.  I t i s a l s o these three p r o j e c t s that are, d i r e c t l y  r e l e v a n t to t h i s t h e s i s At present,  research.  Redevelopment P r o j e c t No. 1 has been  s u b s t a n t i a l l y completed, while Redevelopment P r o j e c t No. 2 i s at the stage of d i s p o s i n g c l e a r e d l a n d . first  scheme prepared with p r o g r e s s i v e  Scheme I I I i s the  financial  by C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , Amendments to the N a t i o n a l Housing Act.  assistance  under the 1964  The whole scheme has  been d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l sub-areas of which Strathcona i s one  t h a t r e c e i v e s f i r s t p r i o r i t y f o r renewal a c t i o n s .  Urban  renewal programs f o r t h i s sub-area are s t i l l under the p r e paratory  stage to date.  be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d  1 1  These three renewal p r o j e c t s  will  i n the case a n a l y s i s s e c t i o n i n Chapter V.  C i t y of Vancouver T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g p. I.  Board, op. c i t . ,  73 Conclusions The  g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Strathcona  Study Area can be summarised by the f o l l o w i n g  statements:  "People l i v e together based on a sense of a p p r o p r i a t e ness to t h e i r t o t a l s i t u a t i o n - s o c i a l , economic, cultural.... T h e i r l i f e s t y l e i s determined by t h e i r „12 e t h n i c i t y , economic s i t u a t i o n and l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s . It  i s an area which provides i t s i n h a b i t a n t s an  o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e r a c t w i t h people It  of t h e i r own c u l t u r e .  o f f e r s to the observers a choice of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n another  s t y l e of l i f e .  1 3  Strathcona i s a l s o under a continuous  progress of  change - e.g. movement of immigrants and emigrants, renewal programs and freeway p r o p o s a l s .  urban  I t s f u t u r e urban  morphology w i l l be a f f e c t e d by v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s  immediately  adjacent to i t , as w e l l as the urban renewal programs w i t h i n itself.  S i g n i f i c a n t p r o j e c t s of the f i r s t  category i n c l u d e  P r o j e c t 100, P r o j e c t 200, the Freeway P r o p o s a l and Georgia V i a d u c t Replacement, and B e a u t i f i c a t i o n Schemes f o r Old Town and Chinatown. far  The i n f l u e n c e s of these f o r c e s may be a d v e r s e l y  reaching i n the f u t u r e .  12 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , unpublished paper, Pino Rapanos. 13 Gordon Davis, Ron Yuen, and Peter L a t t e y , Environmental Study of Strathcona, unpublished study, School of A r c h i t e c t u r e , U.B.C, 1968-1969.  CHAPTER V THE STRATHCONA URBAN RENEWAL PROGRAM - CASE ANALYSIS Introduction This chapter analyses the types of c i t i z e n i n v o l v e ment i n the Strathcona case area s i n c e 1957 when urban renewal was f i r s t  implemented i n the area. A c c o r d i n g to time sequence, the urban renewal p r o -  j e c t s and t h e i r corresponding  citizen participation  can be a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o three I.  strategies  stages:  L e v e l of N o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n and Tokenism - I n i t i a l p l a n and P r o j e c t Nos. 1 and 2.  II.  The I n t e r i m Stage of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e (The Strathcona Area C o u n c i l and the C i t y S o c i a l P l a n n i n g And Community Development Department) Scheme I I I sub-area  I I I . L e v e l of Delegated  Strathcona. power (The Strathcona  Property  Owners and Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n and the Working Committee) - Scheme I I I sub-area  Strathcona.  These three stages w i l l be presented i n a chronol o g i c a l order. and  Wherever p e r t i n e n t , s u b j e c t i v e value judgements  comments w i l l be made to evaluate the degree of success  of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a t o o l to a s s i s t i n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l d e s i r e s and the p h y s i c a l p l a n .  75 I.  L e v e l of N o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  Tokenism  I n i t i a l F l a n - The 1957 Redevelopment In J u l y 1956,  Study  the C i t y of Vancouver  embarked on i t s  f i r s t redevelopment study under the p r o v i s i o n of S e c t i o n 35 of the N a t i o n Housing A c t .  1  A w i n d s h i e l d housing survey was 2  conducted on a c i t y - w i d e b a s i s .  Based on a number of c r i t e r i a  such as age of b u i l d i n g s , l a n d use mix and environmental q u a l i t y , some d i s t r i c t s were i d e n t i f i e d as " b l i g h t e d areas". purpose of a twenty-year program,  For the  these " b l i g h t e d areas"  were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : l ) Comprehensive ment Areas and 2) L i m i t e d Redevelopment  Areas.  Redevelop-  The area of  t h i s case study - S t r a t h c o n a was w i t h i n one of the Comprehens i v e Areas. Since a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p o r t i o n of the C i t y  was  d e l i n e a t e d f o r compreh. ensive redevelopment (approximately two square m i l e s ) , i t was not f e a s i b l e to examine a l l these areas i n great d e t a i l at the same time.  As a r e s u l t ,  one  area was made the object of a " s p e c i f i c study" w i t h a view to i l l u s t r a t i n g the methods and procedures which might be a p p l i e d g e n e r a l l y throughout a twenty-year redevelopment 3 program. ''"City of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, Vancouver Redevelopment Study, (Vancouver 1957). 2 I b i d . , pp.21-28. 3  I b i d . , pp.29-33.  76 The area d e l i n e a t e d f o r t h i s " d e t a i l e d study" named the "East End Survey Area"  ( r e f e r to Map  was  1 for location  4  identification). Strathcona was a matter for  S i t u a t e d at the core of t h i s Survey  again a t a r g e t of redevelopment  Area,  studies.  As  of f a c t , S t r a t h c o n a occupied over h a l f of the area  the d e t a i l e d In  survey.  order to measure the amount and k i n d of housing  need l i k e l y to r e s u l t from redevelopment  and also the  f a c t o r s to be considered i n r e l o c a t i o n , a household d u r i n g February-March  survey  was  conducted  was  designed, c o n s i s t i n g of f i v e main p a r t s : S t r u c t u r e and  D w e l l i n g u n i t s , Household and a Room-house Schedule. 586  1957.  social  A questionnaire  composition, Household 5 The  survey covered a t o t a l of  s t r u c t u r e s , and i n t e r v i e w s were completed  holds.  This was  attitudes  f o r 1,116  the f i r s t d e t a i l e d study that the c i t y  househad  ever ventured. The r e s i d e n t s i n the Survey Area were g r e a t l y i n v o l v e d f o r the f i r s t  time i n the p l a n n i n g h i s t o r y of Vancouver  During the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t e r v i e w , they were asked p e r s o n a l questions such as f a m i l y income, r e n t s p a i d by tenants  and  t h e i r degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r c u r r e n t accommodation. Loc. c i t . ^Loc. c i t . 6 I b i d . , Appendix 3 A-E.  77 Before the i n t e r v i e w s commenced, the C i t y had made c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t s to acquaint r e s i d e n t s of the area w i t h the purpose  of the survey and to prepare them f o r the e n q u i r i e s . 7  of the enumerators.  Advertisements  were i n s e r t e d i n the  "Province" and the "Sun" newspapers, which gave a f u l l w r i t e up of the survey; and were p u b l i s h e d on the day when the main survey began.  P u b l i c i t y was a l s o given by l o c a l r a d i o  stations.  A p r i n t e d c o v e r i n g l e t t e r signed by H i s Worship Mayor T. A l s b u r y was sent to every household a d d i t i o n , genuine  to be contacted.  c o - o p e r a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s was obtained  through communication w i t h the Chinese Benevolent which was the headquarters time.  In  Association  of a l l Chinese a c t i v i t i e s a t that  The A s s o c i a t i o n arranged f o r p r i n t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g  a s p e c i a l proclammation  i n Chinese, e x p l a i n i n g the purpose  and contents of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In s p i t e of c e r t a i n s u s p i c i o n among some r e s i d e n t s , the c i t i z e n s on the whole gave " e x c e l l e n t response" to the g housing survey.  They accepted the i d e a t h a t urban  would b e n e f i t themselves  as w e l l as the e n t i r e C i t y by im-  p r o v i n g t h e i r l i v i n g and working survey was completed  renewal  environment.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  i n March 1957.  The f i n d i n g s of the survey were t a b u l a t e d i n e a r l y 1958, 7  accompanied by general redevelopment  I b i d . , p.30. Loc. c i t .  p r o p o s a l s f o r the  78 City.  In p a r t i c u l a r , a Sketch Scheme f o r the p o s s i b l e  development  of the E a s t End Survey Area was d r a f t e d to i l l -  u s t r a t e what was c o n s i d e r e d a d e s i r a b l e type of redevelopment.  9  The Scheme recommended t h a t S t r a t h c o n a be developed as a r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood.  I t f u r t h e r proposed the clearance  of 85 acres of l a n d f o r p r i v a t e redevelopment, f o r p u b l i c housing development. households  and 56 acres  I t was estimated t h a t 4,464  (approximately 15,100 people) i n the t o t a l survey  area would be a f f e c t e d .  A r e p o r t which l i s t e d a l l the survey  f i n d i n g s and p r o p o s a l s was submitted t o C i t y C o u n c i l and copies were c i r c u l a t e d among the l o c a l community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The r e p o r t a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the program of p u b l i c education i n the need of urban renewal was an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  The implementation o f the urban  renewal scheme would be s u c c e s s f u l only i f the p l a n was genu i n e l y understood and accepted by the c i t i z e n s  concerned.  Consequently, a l e t t e r was sent t o every r e s i d e n t i n the Sketch Scheme Area, i n v i t i n g them to a t t e n d a meeting 1958 a t C i t y H a l l .  on A p r i l 21,  The primary o b j e c t i v e of t h i s meeting was  to acquaint the r e s i d e n t s w i t h the renewal p l a n , and to d i s c u s s a c t u a l procedure of scheme implementation. On r e c e i p t of the above i n v i t a t i o n , the r e s i d e n t s i n Strathcona were extremely d i s t u r b e d and alarmed t h a t homes would be demolished and they themselves  9  I b i d . , pp.81-102.  " ^ I b i d . , p.63. 1:L  C h i n e s e V o i c e , A p r i l 17, 1958.  relocated.  their  79 Since many of them were handicapped by the E n g l i s h language, they r e a l i z e d  t h a t some form of c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n  be e s t a b l i s h e d to c a r r y out c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n s . many r e s i d e n t s turned  to t h e i r s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l  should  As a  result,  centre  of those  days - the Chinese Benevolent A s s o c i a t i o n , r e q u e s t i n g a general meeting be  c a l l e d immediately f o r a l l Chinese com-  munity groups and p r o p e r t y The  Chinatown P r o p e r t y On A p r i l 18,  owners concerned.  Owners A s s o c i a t i o n 1958,  approximately 300  were gathered at the C.B.A....= s p i r i t was homes and  Considerable  Chinese people  amount of community  aroused, with a common goal of p r o t e c t i n g seeking  that  unified  their  s t r a t e g i e s to " f i g h t a g a i n s t  housing  12 demolition".  A f t e r a lengthy  passed that a committee be delegates  before  would serve and  discussion, a resolution  formed to present  committee  as a channel of communication between the  residents  Accordingly,  I t was  themselves as  hoped that the  City Hall.  City Council.  was  the Chinatown P r o p e r t y  Owners 13  A s s o c i a t i o n was  e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h eleven  On A p r i l 21,  1958,  delegates  executive  of t h i s newly-formed  A s s o c i a t i o n appeared before C o u n c i l , headed by Mr. 14 a Counsellor  of the C.B.A.  members.  They expressed the  Foon Sien, citizens'  d . ,r e tA ap ir ni l t h19, d e s i rIeb ito e i r 1958. homes and to remain i n the neighbourhood 13 . , Loc. ext. 14 Personal i n t e r v i e w , Mr. Foon S i e n , Chinatown P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n , Nov. 1969. 1 2  T  :  80 and they pleaded w i t h C i t y C o u n c i l to r e c i n d t h e i r on urban renewal.  decisions  In response, the c i t i z e n s were advised  t h a t the 1957 Redevelopment  Study was merely a " p r e l i m i n a r y  study", and the proposed Redevelopment  Program was  only t e n -  15 t a t i v e and approximate.  I t was  e x p l a i n e d t h a t the proposed  redevelopment scheme would be s u b j e c t to f u r t h e r  detailed  i n v e s t i g a t i o n before the a c t u a l implementation of any renewal program. of  The C i t y f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d the general  advantages  urban renewal i n upgrading r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood, and  assured the c i t i z e n s that they would be w e l l looked a f t e r i n regard to rehousing and compensation i f housing d e m o l i t i o n were to happen unavoidably. With these v e r b a l assurance from the C i t y , the t e n s i o n of the r e s i d e n t s was the  f a t e of t h e i r homes was  somewhat r e l i e v e d . still  u n c e r t a i n , housing d i s p l a c e -  ment would not a f f e c t them i n the near f u t u r e . that the immediate  Although  renewal c r i s i s was  I t appeared  over, and there was  no  r e c o r d of any formal g a t h e r i n g of the Chinatown P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g few months.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  c i t i z e n s i n S t r a t h c o n a began to be v e r y a l e r t to the p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s of the C i t y .  The urban renewal b u l l d o z e r was  a hidden f e a r i n the peoples' mind. 1957 Redevelopment  Study, Vancouver, p. 81.  still  81 L e v e l of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n The above case a n a l y s i s seemed to i n d i c a t e that the type of c i t i z e n involvement i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g p e r i o d was  i n Strathcona d u r i n g t h i s  a t the bottom-most l e v e l of the  t y p o l o g y d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I .  In f a c t , t h i s  appeared  to be a stage of n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g which plans were made f o r the people, not w i t h the people. V a r i o u s t o o l s i n c l u d i n g newspaper a r t i c l e s ,  radio  announcement e t c . were used to educate the r e s i d e n t s .  Pre-  sumably, the p r o f e s s i o n a l planners were v e r y sure of what was  the best f o r the c i t i z e n s .  Consequently,  they were t r y i n g  to i n t r o d u c e d e l i b e r a t e changes by s e l l i n g t h e i r ideas to the people.  The d e t a i l e d survey conducted resembled  the  "clientele 16  Study" d e s c r i b e d by John V. Dyckman to a c e r t a i n extent. The r e s i d e n t s , then, became the p l a n n i n g o b j e c t while the p l a n i t s e l f became an end.  T h i s type of c i t i z e n involvement  egy d i d not appear j u s t i f i e d because i t tended to the f e a r and a n x i e t y of people. lowest l e v e l of the Ladder Redevelopment P r o j e c t No.  strat-  aggregate  I t seemed to l i e at the  of P a r t i c i p a t i o n Model. 1  D e t a i l e d Renewal Scheme The 1957  Redevelopment Study was  C o u n c i l i n p r i n c i p l e i n mid 1958.  approved  by C i t y  The C i t y T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g  "^John V. Dyckman, " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , S o c i a l Planner and Planned S o c i e t i e s " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P., March 1966, pp.66-75.  82 Board then proceeded to apply f o r f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to undertake two d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d urban renewal programs.  Based on the general recommendations  development  of the Re-  Study, the o b j e c t i v e of the f i r s t program  was  to a c q u i r e , c l e a r and dispose of l a n d i n Redevelopment  Pro-  j e c t No.  was  1, while the second and complementary  program 17  to p r o v i d e a "bank" of s u b s i d i s e d l o w - r e n t a l housing. N  T h r e e i n d i v i d u a l areas A - l , A-2 and A-3  were d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n P r o j e c t No.  i n Strathcona  1 ( r e f e r to Map  In Area A - l , i t was proposed to demolish the e x i s t i n g  l). struc-  tures to p r o v i d e s i t e s f o r i n d u s t r y and p u b l i c housing. Area A-2, the Scheme was  to c l e a r land to supply space f o r  a new park r e p l a c i n g the o l d MacLean Park. use f o r Area A-3 was  In  The intended r e -  for private residential  development.  The e n t i r e p r o j e c t encompassed the c l e a r a n c e of about 28 acres w i t h i n an o v e r a l l area of 75 a c r e s .  As f o r the p r o v i s i o n of  a housing bank, MacLean Park and Skeena Terrace p u b l i c housing complexes were planned to accommodate the d i s p l a c e d people. The d e t a i l s of t h i s P r o j e c t No.  1 were s e t out i n 18  a r e p o r t submitted to C i t y C o u n c i l i n Feb. 1960.  I t was  p u b l i c i s e d i n the newspaper t h a t t h i s step "from slum to dern r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood opened a b r i g h t f u t u r e f o r 17 C i t y of Vancouver T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board, C i t y of Vancouver Redevelopment P r o j e c t No. 1. Nov. 1959. 18 . , Loc. ext. T  mo-  83 Vancouver".  19  On March 10,  1960,  C o u n c i l f o r m a l l y adopted  t h i s document as the f i r s t phase towards the $100  million  twenty-years urban renewal program. ^ 2  The  C i t i z e n s ' Reaction  - Delegation  Upon observing  and B r i e f s  the planning  the r e s i d e n t s of Strathcona  procedures of the C i t y ,  became i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of  f a c t t h a t urban renewal would be undertaken sooner or Their.personal  concern was  p a r t i c u l a r l y spurred  when the C i t y announced the approval In A p r i l 1960,  about 300  once again assembled at the C.B.A. the Chinatown P r o p e r t y  later.  i n March  of P r o j e c t No.  the  1960  1.  c i t i z e n s concerned were The  o r i g i n a l purpose of  Owners A s s o c i a t i o n was  reviewed, with 21  the  same emphasis on p r o t e c t i n g peoples' p r o p e r t i e s .  the i s s u e of housing displacement was than i t had  deemed more c r i t i c a l  ever been, both the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  general members were more s e r i o u s and steps.  I t was  consultant  to b r i n g f o r t h a b r i e f to C o u n c i l .  the summer of 1960,  collected.  while the executives  w i t h t h e i r lawyer and  Feb.  11,  I b i d . , March 10, I960. 21 Personal Contact, Mrs. Sue  General meetings times a month during  met  even more f r e q u e n t l y  I960.  2 0  Lum,  Dec.  peoples'  A membership  community l e a d e r s , c o - o r d i n a t i n g  T h e Vancouver Sun,  and  anxious to take p o s i t i v e  of the A s s o c i a t i o n were h e l d at l e a s t two  1 9  executives  proposed t h a t a lawyer be h i r e d as the  fee of $5.00 per household was  Since  1969.  the  84 peoples' d e s i r e and p r e p a r i n g  a b r i e f to be presented to  22 the government. On October 5, I960, a d e l e g a t i o n  of about  Chinese people headed by lawyer C C . Locke appeared  fifty before  23 Council.  T h e i r b r i e f claimed  t h a t 68 Chinese s o c i e t i e s ,  7 Chinese C h r i s t i a n Churches, 4 language s c h o o l s , 175 Chinese businesses and a b u l k of 14,000 p o p u l a t i o n would be a f f e c t e d by the proposed urban renewal scheme.  The b r i e f s t a t e d f u r -  ther that any d i s r u p t i o n of Chinatown and a m a t e r i a l  outflow  of people to another area i n e v i t a b l y meant d i s r u p t i o n of the Chinese merchants.  T h i s would i n t u r n a f f e c t commercial and  tax revenue of the community.  The d e l e g a t i o n  sought f o r some  a l t e r n a t i v e s to be worked out. Because people were going to loose t h e i r homes, considerable  emotion was roused among the c i t i z e n s w i t h the  24 consequence that s u s p i c i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n were i n c i t e d . This f a c t was r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g statements which were 25 v o i c e d during t h a t p a r t i c u l a r occasion of d e l e g a t i o n : "Although our epidermis may be yellow,", s a i d the l e a d e r of the C.B.A., "we are j u s t human as anyone e l s e . We'd l i k e the assurance t h a t you are d e a l i n g with human beings." " I t i s self-imposed ghetto! Discrimination - that's why many of the o l d Chinese don't speak E n g l i s h . It is i n j u s t i c e to s c a t t e r e l d e r l y Chinese who knew l i t t l e E n g l i s h , " s a i d an executive of the Chinatown Property Owners A s s o c i a t i o n . 22 Loc. c i t . 23 The Vancouver Sun, October 5, I960. 24 ., Loc. c i.. t. 25 Loc. c i t . T  T  85 The  j o u r n a l i s t commented, however, t h a t the  Chinese  community l e a d e r s f a i l e d to h a l t the march of slum c l e a r a n c e .  26  On r e c e i p t of the b r i e f , the Alderman simply voted to acknowledge the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  In a d d i t i o n , C o u n c i l p o i n t e d out  that i t had been committed to the $100  million  long-range  urban renewal p r o j e c t which f i r s t t a c k l e d the Strathcona area. Housing  a c q u i s i t i o n and clearance was  planned to commence i n  the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g . Besides the Chinatown P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n , many other community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l e a d e r s i n Strathcona also, p r o t e s t e d the urban renewal was  plans.  the Lord Strathcona Elementary  S. Barton, the School P r i n c i p a l .  One  prominant example  School, headed by Mr. In a l e t t e r addressed  Carl to  C i t y C o u n c i l on Oct. 11, I960, t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e d the c u l t u r a l and education background of the Chinese people i n the area and p o i n t e d out the unfortunate consequences which 27 would happen i f d e m o l i t i o n were implemented. 28 of the l e t t e r was b r i e f l y as f o l l o w s :  The  content  "Of the 800 students i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , 600 are Chinese. From the t e a c h e r s ' acquaintances, Chinese people are good c i t i z e n s - t h e i r c h i l d r e n are keen to l e a r n , and there have been v e r y few j u v e n i l e delinquency cases occurred. In g e n e r a l , these o r i e n t a l s have c l o s e f a m i l y t i e s Although they only l i v e humbly without any l u x u r y , they have a v e r y p e a c e f u l , p l e a s a n t and s a t i s f y i n g l i f e . In regard to t h e i r l i v i n g environment, they t r y t h e i r best e f f o r t to keep t h e i r houses c l e a n . . . . In times of epidemic, the percentage of student attendance has been the h i g h e s t among a l l p u b l i c schools i n the C i t y . 26 27  ., Loc. c i t .  T  .  The Chinese V o i c e , Vancouver, Nov.  17,  28 Loc. c i t .  ( T r a n s l a t e d from C h i n e s e ) .  I960.  86 The social-economic l i f e of the Chinese people also r e q u i r e s the c o n t i n u a l e x i s t e n c e of Chinatown. Many c h i l d r e n attend Chinese c l a s s e s f o r two hours i n the d i s t r i c t every day a f t e r t h e i r normal s c h o o l i n g . . . . I t w i l l thus be most d i s t u r b i n g and u n d e s i r a b l e to implement urban r e d e v e l o p ment i n the area. The community s p i r i t w i l l be badly broken up while housing r e l o c a t i o n w i l l cause b i t t e r s u f f e r i n g s to the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . The l i v e s of the younger g e n e r a t i o n our s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w i l l a l s o be p o o r l y a f f e c t e d . " Another s i g n i f i c a n t event i n regard to the c i t i z e n s ' e f f o r t to prevent housing d e m o l i t i o n took p l a c e on Oct. 12 and 19, I960, when two seminar meetings were sponsored by the  Red Feather A s s o c i a t i o n at the Oakridge H a l l , Oakridge 29  Shopping Centre, Vancouver.  Officials  from the three  levels  of government were i n v i t e d to e x p l a i n and answer q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the Twenty-Year  Redevelopment  P l a n of the C i t y .  Approximately 100 members of the C.B.A. and the P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n were p r e s e n t i n the audience.  A t the f i r s t  meeting, a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r from New York spoke and commented p a r t i c u l a r l y on the f a i l u r e s renewal programs  of rehousing i n urban  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Although the c i t i z e n s  were unable to a l t e r the d e c i s i o n s of the Vancouver the  Council,  S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y e x c i t e d about the  f a c t t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of sympathy was extended to them from r e s i d e n t s i n other p a r t s of the C i t y . On Oct. 22, 1960, another general meeting of the P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n was h e l d a t the C.B.A. I b i d . , Nov. 21, I960.  The  87 o b j e c t i v e s of the A s s o c i a t i o n were r e d e f i n e d  i n more  concrete  30 terms.  They were l i s t e d as f o l l o w s :  1. To p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the 20-year Urban Redevelopment P l a n of the C i t y i n Strathcona. 2. ( i f O b j e c t i v e no. 1 f a i l e d ) , to seek a prolonged d e l a y of housing c l e a r a n c e . 3. ( i f O b j e c t i v e nos. 1 and 2 f a i l e d ) , to demand a f a i r market p r i c e on t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s when s e l l i n g to the C i t y , and to o b t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y compensation fees for relocation. 4. To p r o t e c t the r i g h t s of i t s four hundred members who were p r o p e r t y owners, and to m a i n t a i n the comm e r c i a l , c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l atmosphere i n Chinatown. I t was g e n e r a l l y f e l t that the hope of h a l t i n g the renewal b u l l d o z e r was very t h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s w i t h the government  slim.  executives  However, i t was  resolved  would continue to n e g o t i a t e  along these l i n e s .  Lawyer K.T. Au, the A s s o c i a t i o n was  With the help of  chartered  as a l e g a l  cor-  p o r a t i o n under the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia i n Nov.  I960,  As i t was drawing c l o s e to the announced day of housing e x p r o p r i a t i o n  ( i . e . Spring 1961), the Executives  of  the A s s o c i a t i o n made a s e r i o u s e f f o r t i n c a l l i n g on every owner whose p r o p e r t y would be a f f e c t e d . s t r u c t u r a l conditions, property  Data i n regard to  p r i c e s which the owners p a i d  when they bought the house, and the s e l l i n g p r i c e which they 32 expected to o b t a i n from the C i t y were a l l f i l e d . 30 The Chinese V o i c e , Vancouver, Nov. 2, I960. I b i d . , Jan. 16, 1961. 32 P h i l i p Wong, Chairman, Chinatown P r o p e r t y Owners Assoc i a t i o n , Opening Speech, General Meeting, Jan. 1961. 3 1  88 At a general meeting on Jan.  16, 1961, Mr. P h i l i p  Wong, Chairman of the A s s o c i a t i o n pleaded t h a t a l l r e s i d e n t s of Strathcona cord.  should  "The darkest  continue to a c t and u n i t e v i t h one a c hour i s the hour before  davn," he noted,  33 "and  the time has come f o r a c t i o n ! "  The people vere  advised  t h a t i n the f o l l o w i n g tvo veeks, many v o u l d r e c e i v e a l e t t e r from C i t y H a l l , informing The E x e c u t i v e  them of t h e i r p r o p e r t y  expropriation.  suggested t h a t i n s t e a d of r e p l y i n g immediately,  they should b r i n g i t to the A s s o c i a t i o n v h i c h v o u l d arrange to have t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s appraised.  i n turn  The A s s o c i a t i o n  a l s o aimed a t n e g o t i a t i n g v i t h the government to o b t a i n a f a i r compensation p r i c e f o r a l l c i t i z e n s . In v i e v of the c i t i z e n s ' concern and combined e f f o r t to r e t a i n t h e i r neighbourhood, the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the C i t y recommended to C o u n c i l that a Redevelopment Cons u l t a t i v e Committee be e s t a b l i s h e d to advise the Planning * 34 D i r e c t o r of matters i n redevelopment. On Feb. 28, 1961, a tvelve-person from v a r i o u s  committee vas formed, made up of personnel  institutions  and community groups i n the area.  Three a c t i v e members of the Chinatown P r o p e r t y c i a t i o n vere a l s o represented.  Nevertheless,  of t h i s Committee vas e s s e n t i a l l y  Ovners Assosince the r o l e  c o n s u l t a t i v e and a d v i s o r y ,  _ Loc. c i t . 1 A  C i t y of Vancouver C o u n c i l Minute, J a n . 10 and Feb. 28, 1961.  89 decisions  on renewal a c t i o n s were s t i l l  control.  C o u n c i l , however, announced t h a t p r o p e r t y  p r i a t i o n would take place in  the near f u t u r e .  under the C i t y ' s  only i n Areas A - l , A-2  Redevelopment of other  expro-  and  A-3  areas would be  delayed, pending on the degree of success of P r o j e c t  No.l.  Consequences of the P r o j e c t and L e v e l of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Property  e x p r o p r i a t i o n d i d begin i n Feb.  Each i n d i v i d u a l household was r e s i d e n t s who  approached by the C i t y .  still  kept close contact w i t h  Owners A s s o c i a t i o n f o r a s s i s t a n c e .  By August  the C i t y succeeded i n a c q u i r i n g 26 homes i n the P r o j e c t area and had  Some  found the C i t y ' s o f f e r s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l d t h e i r  p r o p e r t i e s , while others Property  1961.  began the c l e a r i n g process.  Since housing  a l r e a d y been s t a r t e d i n the area, more and more  began to give up the hope of p r e s e r v i n g  the 1961, No.l  demolition citizens  t h e i r neighbourhood.  Although they were u n w i l l i n g to move out of Chinatown, they could not r e s i s t the government's order E v e n t u a l l y , people i n Areas A - l , A-2 d i s p l a c e d by 1965. located.  of  and A-3  expropriation. were t o t a l l y  Many community leaders were l i k e w i s e r e -  Subsequently, the A s s o c i a t i o n became t o t a l l y i n a c t i v e . The  magnitude of housing and p o p u l a t i o n  affected  35 by P r o j e c t No.  1 were as f o l l o w s :  —  C i t y of Vancouver Urban Renewal Pronect Progress Report No. 5, March 1964.  90 P r o j e c t No.  1 (1961-65)  Area  Properties acquired  Properties cleared  Gross Acreage acquired  A-l  82  80  17.33  A-2  31  34  3.03  A-3  29  36  3.03  P u b l i c Housing r e l a t e d to P r o j e c t No. MacLean Park Skeena Terrace  1  159 u n i t s , f u l l y occupied i n May 1963. 234 u n i t s , f u l l y occupied i n Jan.1963.  The c l e a r e d l a n d of Area A - l was  reused to p r o v i d e  f i v e i n d u s t r i a l l o t s averaging 259,000 s q . f t . and a s i t e f o r the Raymour Park P u b l i c Housing complex.  Area A-3 was  even-  t u a l l y designated f o r an e x t e n s i o n of the MacLean Park Housing Project.  F o l l o w i n g the planned procedure, Area A-2 was  as a park which was  o f f i c i a l l y opened i n June  reused  1965.  C i t i z e n involvement d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g and implementation p e r i o d of Redevelopment P r o j e c t No.  1 tended to be  more a c t i v e and p r o g r e s s i v e compared to the i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g time i n the l a t e 1950s.  The P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n  was  b e t t e r organized w i t h t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s w e l l d e f i n e d i n successive steps.  Although most of the c i t i z e n s themselves  could  not communicate w i t h the C i t y o f f i c i a l s i n E n g l i s h , lawyers were h i r e d to speak on t h e i r b e h a l f .  The S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s  had a l s o succeeded i n g a i n i n g sympathy from c i t i z e n s of other p a r t s of the C i t y  (e.g. the Red Feather A s s o c i a t i o n ) .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s t r a t e g y of c i t i z e n at t h i s stage was  participation  e s s e n t i a l l y at the l e v e l of tokenism - the  91 r e s i d e n t s were informed, cated.  c o n s u l t e d and to some degree,  pla-  They were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to comment on p l a n s ,  but there was no insurance t h a t t h e i r opinions would be a c cepted by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  Wherever d i s c r i p a n c i e s  existed  between the peoples' value and the p l a n n e r s ' i d e a l s , the l a t t e r reigned.  Although a Redevelopment C o n s u l t a t i v e Com-  mittee was e s t a b l i s h e d by C o u n c i l i n 1961, the c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the Committee only p l a y e d a r a t h e r p a s s i v e role.  They d i d not have any power i n the decision-making  process.  Probably, the peoples' emotional  disturbance,and  i n t r u s i o n of b i a s e s (e.g. i s s u e s of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) had prevented p r o f e s s i o n a l expert t o admit the r e s i d e n t s to the decision-making  arena.  "Rehousing" has been, another the p r o j e c t .  obvious f a i l u r e of  I n i t i a l l y , the Skeen Terrace P u b l i c  and MacLean Park p r o j e c t were b u i l t t o accommodate  Housing people  who d i d not wish to o b t a i n a l t e r n a t i v e p r i v a t e houses. ever, a subsequent survey r e v e a l e d that only f a m i l i e s and twenty-three  How-  twenty-four  s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n Skeena Terrace  ( i . e . 15$ of a l l the f a m i l y u n i t s and 10$ of the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s u n i t s ) were occupied by former r e s i d e n t s of Strathcona. People  d i s p l a c e d were discouraged from moving to Skeena Terrace  due to i t s remote l o c a t i o n a t the f r i n g e of the C i t y .  With  U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s of Greater Vancouver, Strathcona Report, unpublished r e p o r t , Oct. 21, 1965.  92 regard  to the MacLean Park housing complex, 80%  were from Strathcona.  I t was  of the  a l s o found that s e r i o u s  tenants social  problems of f a m i l y break-down, j u v e n i l e delinquency and  wel-  f a r e cases were aggregated i n these rehousing areas - a  pro-  37 blem which i s common i n most p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s .  It  t h e r e f o r e appeared that the s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l needs of people at l a r g e had not been met  by the p h y s i c a l  Redevelopment P r o j e c t No.  2  The  plan.  Redevelopment P l a n Concurrent to the  implementation of P r o j e c t  No.l,  i the second urban renewal program i n Vancouver was i n e a r l y 1962.  The  principle.aims  initiated  of P r o j e c t No.2  were to  continue the program of eliminaiang poor housing, to adequate land f o r redevelopment, and  to create 38  of people d i s p l a c e d by f u t u r e c l e a r a n c e . the p r o j e c t s i t e was A-7  land f o r housing  A large part  again w i t h i n Strathcona  - Areas A-6  of and  being p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s case study. P r o j e c t No.2  and  create  clearance  64 a c r e s .  The  was  concerned w i t h the  acquisition  of about 29 acres w i t h i n an o v e r a l l area four-block  area A-6  was  designated  d e n t i a l redevelopment, p r i m a r i l y to provide  of  for r e s i -  accommodation  f o r people d i s p l a c e d from a f u t u r e redevelopment p r o j e c t . 37 Loc. c i t . 38 C i t y of Vancouver T e c h n i c a l Planning Board, Redevelopment P r o j e c t No.2, J u l y 1963, pp.6-9.  93 The  northern  p r i v a t e low p a r t was  s e c t i o n of t h i s s i t e  (A-6)  vas  intended  and medium d e n s i t y housing, while the  southern  a l l o c a t e d f o r p u b l i c housing development.  a l s o planned that Area A-7 r e c r e a t i o n ground f o r the  would-be c l e a r e d f o r a a d j o i n i n g Lord  for  It  was  school  Strathcona  Elemen-  39 tary  School. The  d e t a i l e d p l a n of P r o j e c t No.2  was  first  sub-  40 mitted  to C o u n c i l on J u l y 10,  1962.  Copies of t h i s  report  were then c i r c u l a t e d among v a r i o u s p a r t i e s of i n t e r e s t s , i n c l u d i n g the C.B.A., the Chinese Trade Y o r k e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n and  about 20 other  Chinese community o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  mary of the P l a n was to acquaint  the  environment.  published  A sum-  i n the l o c a l Chinese newspaper  c i t i z e n s w i t h the probable change of t h e i r  The  C i t y a l s o i n v i t e d the l o c a l community groups  to express t h e i r opinions  on the proposed redevelopment p l a n  and  to d i r e c t comments to the C i t y ' s Redevelopment 41 Committee w i t h i n the next few months.  Consultative  C i t i z e n s ' Response and P a r t i c i p a t i o n The  dilemma of r e l o c a t i n g t h e i r homes again  up the r e s i d e n t s of Strathcona. community l e a d e r s  united 3 9  Consequently, a number of  of the C.B.A. saw  the Chinatown P r o p e r t y  the need of  reorganizing  Owners A s s o c i a t i o n as a f o r c e f o r  actions.  Ibid.,  p.13.  ^^Vancouver  stirred  C i t y C o u n c i l Minute,  Chinese V o i c e , Vancouver, Oct.  July 6,  10,  1962.  1963.  94 Through p u b l i c i t y i n the l o c a l newspaper, an "emergency meeting" was  h e l d on Sept. 3, 1962  at the C.B.A. 42  where a g a t h e r i n g of over 100 Chinese people were present. There was  great f e a r of f a l l i n g i n t o the same f a t e as t h e i r  f e l l o w c i t i z e n s i n P r o j e c t No.l.. A new was  executive committee  immediately e l e c t e d , w i t h Mr. P h i l i p Wong being r e - e l e c t e d  as the chairman.  Lawyer Harry Fan was  h i r e d as the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  b a r r i s t e r - consultant. The immediate  step of the people was  to pass com-  ments on the proposed Redevelopment P r o j e c t No.2  Scheme.  A f t e r c a r e f u l s t u d i e s on the "wisdom and t e c h n i c a l i t y " of the C i t y ' s r e p o r t , the A s s o c i a t i o n presented a b r i e f to C o u n c i l i n Oct. 1962, was  e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r stand t h a t the s a i d P r o j e c t 43  " i m p r a c t i c a l and  unnecessary".  C o n c u r r e n t l y , other Chinese o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o took p a r t i n the p e t i t i o n .  The C h r i s t Church of China which  l o c a t e d on K e e f e r S t r e e t w i t h i n Area A-6 was  particularly  a c t i v e i n p r o t e s t i n g against r e s i d e n t i a l d e m o l i t i o n . b r i e f submitted to C o u n c i l i n . l a t e Oct. 1962,  was  In a  the Church Board  pleaded w i t h the C i t y to understand t h e i r f e e l i n g s and concern. 44 The major content of t h i s b r i e f was as f o l l o w s : 42 Chinese V o i c e , August 31, 1962. A 1  44  Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l Minute, Oct. 2, 1962. Mr. P h i l i p Wong, Chairman, Church Board, C h r i s t of China, Unpublished b r i e f , Oct. 30, 1962.  Church  95 "As a member of the C h r i s t i a n churches, i t i s our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to l o o k a f t e r our congregation and to attend to t h e i r needs. One of these needs i s to teach newcomers E n g l i s h so t h a t they would not have any d i f f i c u l t y i n conversing with other Canadians. Another of our f u n c t i o n i s to keep them i n r e l i g i o u s guidance and to teach them to adhere, to c e r t a i n customs and t r a d i t i o n s p r a c t i s e d by our f o r e f a t h e r s . Ve f e e l t h a t were P r o j e c t No.2 to be i n f o r c e and Chinatown dismembered, our congregation w i l l be s c a t t e r e d and our work not only hindered but a l l i n vain.... I s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e you w i l l sympathise with us." As the s o l i c i t o r of t h i s church, lawyer H. n e g o t i a t e d w i t h the C i t y on b e h a l f of the church He  challenged the planners that a year ago  people were assumed t h a t a l l churches  Fan  congregation.  ( i . e . 1961), the  and schools would not  be a f f e c t e d by the redevelopment schemes whereas under the c u r r e n t p r o j e c t , they were to be r e l o c a t e d .  In  answering  h i s q u e s t i o n , the C i t y simply e x p l a i n e d t h a t l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s had been informed only of general aim of the program to a v o i d as f a r as p o s s i b l e the displacement buildings.  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  However, c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r e s were so l o c a t e d i n  r e l a t i o n to the o v e r a l l p l a n t h a t t h e i r r e t e n t i o n d i d not 45 appear f e a s i b l e . Many other community groups a l s o j o i n e d together to present u n i t e d p e t i t i o n s . of 15 Chinese  On Jan. 22, 1963,  a c t i v e members  o r g a n i z a t i o n s appealed to C o u n c i l i n support 46  of t h e i r b r i e f .  On the same day, Mr.  Foon S i e n r e s i g n e d  45 46  Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l Minute, . , Loc. c i t .  T  Jan. 22,  1963.  96 h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h the C i t y ' s Redevelopment Committee.  He  found that the Committee was  by which the C i t y claimed opportunity  Consultative  t h a t c i t i z e n s had  only a f o r m a l i t y been given  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n renewal planning.  He  an  commented  t h a t h i s experience i n community l e a d e r s h i p seemed to i n d i c a t e that urban renewal i n Chinatown had On A p r i l 25,  1963,  been very non-democratic.  another b r i e f on s i m i l a r ground was 47  m i t t e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of 7 l o c a l  sub-  organizations.  In view of the p u b l i c ' s r a t h e r v i o l e n t r e f l e c t i o n s on the  redevelopment p l a n , the C i t y planners recognized  some k i n d of measure was the merits  that  needed to assure the r e s i d e n t s  of urban renewal.  Accordingly,  of  the C i t y emphasised  t h a t the problem of rehousing the d i s p l a c e d people would be p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n P r o j e c t No.2. the  current program was  gress  They claimed  that  planned f o r an i n c r e a s e d r a t e of p r o -  compared to P r o j e c t N o . l , w i t h the  the p e r i o d between clearance  of land and  o b j e c t i v e of  minimising  their disposal for  48 reuse.  The  housing p r o j e c t on land c l e a r e d i n P r o j e c t  (MacLean Park Extension) was p l a c e d by P r o j e c t The  intended  to re-house people  dis-  No.2.  p e r i o d of Jan.  longed delay of P r o j e c t No.2.  1963  to 1964  was  a time of p r o -  While the C i t y was  awaiting  f o r the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments' approval 4 7  No.l  I b i d . , A p r i l 30,  1963.  ^ U r b a n Renewal Progress Report No.5,  March  1964.  f o r the  97 P l a n , other programs were proposed f o r r e v i t a l i z i n g business  s e c t i o n of Chinatown.  I t was  the  proposed t h a t c e r t a i n  s t r e e t s be c l o s e d to become a p e d e s t r i a n m a l l f e a t u r e d as a 49 park-like oriental plaza.  The  Chinese merchants a l s o pro-  posed to e r e c t a pagoda at the western entrance These v a r i o u s plans on business  to Chinatown.  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and the  pro-  longed p e r i o d of i n a c t i v i t y d i v e r t e d the a t t e n t i o n of the Strathcona  residents.  T h e i r enthusiasm f o r renewing t h e i r  r e s i d e n t i a l environment was there was  g r e a t l y reduced.  Eventually,  a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n nego-  t i a t i n g with the C i t y , and membership of the P r o p e r t y Owners 50 A s s o c i a t i o n dropped markedly i n l a t e 1964. Planning  Implementation, Consequences and L e v e l of C i t i z e n  Participation Implementation of P r o j e c t No.2 Dec.  1964.  started i n  Although there were again hard f e e l i n g s and  s t r u g g l e s between the r e s i d e n t s and P r o j e c t No.l discouraged p o i n t of view.  C i t y , the experience  the people from i n s i s t i n g on  of  their  They f i n a l l y y i e l d e d to the government.  P r o p e r t y a c q u i s i t i o n and 1964  was  to Jan. 1968.  clearance proceeded from  A t o t a l of 45 p r o p e r t i e s (out of 51  were bought, c o v e r i n g an area of about 28 a c r e s . imately 10 acres of land were provided 4Q  The Vancouver Sun, May 30, 1963. 50 51 P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , Mr. P h i l i p Vong. Redevelopment Progress- Renort No.6.  362) Approx-  for residential  7  vv.7-9,  use  98 and  s t r e e t widening i n Area A-6,  while another 3 acres were  re-used as school-park s i t e i n Area A-7. t h a t 1,730  of P r o j e c t No.2  l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n during was  still  t h a t a greater number of l o c a l Chinese  to C i t y H a l l .  The  the  at the stage of tokenism.  were concerned with more frequent  and  estimated  people were d i s p l a c e d . The  evident  I t was  p e t i t i o n s and  was  delegation  t o o l s of the planners to educate,  inform some  im-  s o c i a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t people some ideas  the f u t u r e environmental change. did  It  organizations  c o n s u l t the people (e.g. through p u b l i c i t y ) had  pact i n g i v i n g the  period  Nevertheless,  the  not have any p o l i t i c a l power to i n f l u e n c e the  of  residents  planning  program. To-date, d i s p o s a l of land from c l e a r e d p r o p e r t i e s is  still  A-6  has  under process.  of land p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Area  not been as s u c c e s s f u l as those i n P r o j e c t N o . l ,  some l o t s had analysed  Sales  been l e f t vacant f o r a long time.  and  E. Chang  that the major reason f o r t h i s s a l e s f a i l u r e  that the expected p r o d u c t i v i t y of the s i t e f o r the  was  designated  reuses were not s u f f i c i e n t l y high to a t t r a c t p r i v a t e i n v e s t 52  ment. did  In other words, the l e v e l of revenue to be  obtained  not appear to be h i g h enough to enable the i n v e s t o r s to  amortize t h e i r costs and  secure an a t t r a c t i v e r a t e of r e t u r n  —  E. Chang, P r i v a t e Investment i n Urban Redevelopment, M.A. t h e s i s , U.B.C. 1968, pp.69-74.  99 on t h e i r investments.  Other f a c t o r s , such as development  r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on the i n v e s t o r s and money a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d  to hinder  general,  the  No.2  not s a t i s f a c t o r y .  was  shortage of mortgage  the land s a l e s process.  In  economic p r o d u c t i v i t y of Redevelopment P r o j e c t  From the viewpoint of a s o c i a l c o n s u l t a n t ,  the  U.C.S. commented that urban redevelopment ( P r o j e c t s 1 and i n Vancouver seemed to have, to a l a r g e degree, ignored  2)  the  53 s o c i a l environment of the area. problems was  A concentration  of  social  found i n the three p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s  l a t e d to urban renewal - Skeena Terrace, MacLean Park Raymour P l a c e .  Raymour P l a c e , which was  re-  and  particularly in-  tended to accommodate the r e s i d e n t s d i s p l a c e d by P r o j e c t and  Scheme 3 was  general  completed i n Jan.  found t h a t the  p l e x was  1967.  The  tenants i n  l o c a t i o n of t h i s p u b l i c housing com-  not d e s i r a b l e .  cum-slum areas" were not  They commented that  "industrial-  i d e a l l y s u i t e d to r e s i d e n t i a l  since by t h e i r nature they were bound to present hazards - e.g.  had  already  occurred  life,  certain  t r u c k s , t r a i n s e t c . , and many a e s t h e t i c 54  blems such as junk yards i n the v i c i n i t y . accidents  No.2  Several  pro-  traffic  at the r a i l w a y c r o s s i n g s  the area, where i n d i v i d u a l s were i n j u r e d . were s e r i o u s complaints i n regard  In a d d i t i o n ,  to the i n t e r i o r design  in there of  —  54  U.C.S. Vancouver, Looks B rati e Pfu,b lundated. i c Housing P r o j e c t , Strathcona Area C o Au n cTenant i l , U.C.S. A p r i l 1968, p.16.  100 •the apartments - e.g.  the k i t c h e n - d i n i n g  area vas  t h a t a f a m i l y of s i x vere not able to eat i n the  so  small  kitchen  55 together. Property  e x p r o p r i a t i o n of P r o j e c t No.2  had,  v i s e hurt the human a s p i r a t i o n s of those d i s p l a c e d . c r e a t e d disturbance  and The  can be  case of Mr.  p a i n f u l sensation  demolished e i g h t months before order  of the  had  residents  Pred Soon, vhose p r o p e r t y  vas  he r e c e i v e d a l e g a l v e s t i n g 56  from the B r i t i s h Columbia Supreme Court.  he d i d not r e c e i v e payment f o r h i s p r o p e r t y months a f t e r he vas  It  d i s r u p t i o n to the p a t t e r n of Chinese  community l i v i n g . seen i n the  like-  until  In a d d i t i o n , eleven  displaced.  Comments of v a r i o u s p o l i t i c i a n s on Redevelopment P r o j e c t No.2  may  perhaps give f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the  of success of urban reneval  and  degree  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Van-  couver.  On Jan. 9, 1965, Mr. Jack N i c h o l s o n s t a t e d the 57 following: "The C i t y had not been able to s e l l the i d e a t h a t urban renewal meant ' d o l l a r s i n everyone's pocket' i n the long run." On August 19, 1967, Mr. Bob W i l l i a m s , M.L.A. and former Alderman and  community planner commented:  55 Loc. c i t . "*^For d e t a i l s , see Pred Soon, L e t t e r addressed to E.J. Broome, Alderman, Vancouver, March 3, 1969. 57 Vancouver Sun, Jan. 9, 1965.  101 " The urban renewal programs could have been a g i a n t success here, but f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c problems, i t had not been so. In the past ten years since urban renewal was i n s t i t u t e d i n Vancouver, the Planning Department has never once attempted a p r o j e c t which captured the p u b l i c ' s imagination Under present a d m i n i s t r a t i o n framwork, the redevelopment s e c t i o n had been working i n a k i n d of limbo, without adequate c o - o r d i n a t i o n and s u f f i c i e n t p r i o r i t y given to schemes."58 Whether the above statements represent the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n i s a dispute.  However, there i s some v a l i d a t i o n  i s presuming that human values  and  s o c i a l d e s i r e s had  not  y e t been i n t e g r a t e d with p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g during t h a t time. II.  The  I n t e r i m Stage of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e  Area C o u n c i l and the C i t y S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  (Strathcona and  Community  Development Department) - Urban Renewal Scheme I I I . i n 1 9 6 4 , amendments of the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t was  passed, extending  areas  f e d e r a l f i n a n c e s to renewal of b l i g h t e d  of a l l c a t e g o r i e s , i n c l u d i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  con-  59 s e r v a t i o n measures.  A c c o r d i n g l y , the C i t y of Vancouver  a p p l i e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of Urban Renewal Scheme I I I to make the f u l l e s t use  of t h i s f i n a n c i a l a i d .  Urban Renewal Scheme I I I was c o v e r i n g an area of 900 a c r e s .  The  an ambitious  scheme  t o t a l Scheme Area  d i v i d e d i n t o seven sub-areas, of which Strathcona was f i r s t p r i o r i t y f o r renewal a c t i o n ( r e f e r to Map  was given  1 for location  identification). Both Redevelopment P r o j e c t Nos. 1 and J o u r n a l of Commerce, Vancouver, August 1 9 , 1967. 59 Vancouver Urban Renewal Progress Report No. 7.  2  102 l i e w i t h i n the boundary of t h i s Scheme I I I sub-area. The  primary purpose of Scheme I I I was t o c a r r y on  the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s of the C i t y ' s 1957 Redevelopment Study. The  initial  Scheme recommended 10 blocks  and  the e q u i v a l e n t  of 9 blocks  of t o t a l  clearance  of p a r t i a l c l e a r a n c e ,  t a i n i n g over 40fo of the poor housing the a r e a . ^ commendations i n v o l v e d p r o g r e s s i v e  con-  Such r e -  a c q u i s i t i o n and d e m o l i t i o n  of about 1200 d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n 438 s t r u c t u r e s .  The Scheme  a l s o i n c l u d e d the p r o v i s i o n of 300 p u b l i c housing u n i t s , 250 p r i v a t e dwellings  and about 100 u n i t s of p r i v a t e development.  U l t i m a t e l y , the o r i g i n a l 1200 u n i t s would be r e p l a c e d by approximately 1500 u n i t s .  I n a d d i t i o n , plans were made to  complete the c e n t r a l school and park s i t e development, and the c r e a t i o n of a neighbourhood shopping centre Hastings  Street.  south of  The program of implementation was planned  to extend over f i v e years  to allow f o r phased r e l o c a t i o n and  redevelopment. A p r e l i m i n a r y Scheme I I I Summary Report was submitted to C i t y C o u n c i l i n September 1967.  first  C o u n c i l then  r e f e r r e d i t to the Urban Renewal C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee, the Planning  Commission and the School, and Parks Board f o r r e p o r t .  Copies were a l s o s u p p l i e d to other  organizations interested  i n the i s s u e .  _____________________ Por d e t a i l s of the Scheme, r e f e r to Urban Renewal Scheme I I I Sub-area 1 Strathcona, unpublished r e p o r t , Aug.9, 1968.  103 With some f u r t h e r refinement and  the i n c l u s i o n  of communications r e c e i v e d from o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s , 61 the d e t a i l e d p l a n f o r Scheme I I I was Nevertheless,  completed i n Aug.  there were o b s t a c l e s i n seeking  approval  1968. of the  P l a n from the s e n i o r governments - the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and  there was  c i t i z e n s ' part.  Subsequently, s e v e r a l amendments were made  to the o r i g i n a l program.  a l s o great d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n on  the  To-date, no d e f i n i t e scheme has  been approved f o r implementation. Since the e a r l y preparatory i n 1965, area.  c i t i z e n involvement has  stage of t h i s scheme  been most prominant i n the  P a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t i o n s were i n the form of both  organizations  and i n d i v i d u a l s .  formal  They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  i n the  following sections. The  Strathcona The  Area C o u n c i l Strathcona  Area C o u n c i l i s one  of the  local  area c o u n c i l s i n Vancouver o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d and s t a f f e d by the U.C.S. of Greater Vancouver.  In 1965,  the Research  D i v i s i o n of U.C.S. proposed broader community involvement i n planning  and  c o o r d i n a t i n g s e r v i c e s i n the C i t y .  Area approach was  thus adopted, and  s e r v i c e areas were d e l i n e a t e d .  The  Local  the boundaries of l o c a l  Strathcona  was  then d e l i n e a t e d  62 as one  l o c a l area.  The  c o u n c i l was  made up of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ,  61 Vancouver C o u n c i l Minute, Sept. 26,  1967.  62 Strathcona L o c a l Area C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Vancouver, May 1965.  Committee Minute,  104 a c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s , community o r g a n i z a t i o n and s e r v i c e agencies, f o r the purpose of f o s t e r i n g concerted r e s e a r c h , p l a n n i n g and s e r v i c e operations i n the area. e c u t i v e committee was  elected.  i n c l u d e d Committees on Aging,  In June 1965,  the  Ex-  Other committees of the C o u n c i l  on P l a n n i n g , on R e c r e a t i o n  on Redevelopment and R e l o c a t i o n .  The  and  committee on Redevelop-  ment and R e l o c a t i o n had played an important  r o l e i n promoting  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Urban Renewal Scheme I I I . During the i n i t i a l meeting of the E x e c u t i v e Committee i n Oct.-Nov. 1965,  the Area C o u n c i l r e a l i z e d the  s i t y of having the Chinese  community represented on the exe-  c u t i v e and the sub-committee. i n v o l v e the Chinese  neces-  people  An e f f o r t was  through  thus made to  the l o c a l newspapers.  Since the Strathcona Area C o u n c i l was  concerned  w i t h the t o t a l comprehensive development of the area ( i . e . not only urban renewal i s s u e s ) , some long-range were approved as f o l l o w s : ^  objectives  3  1) . To make Strathcona a b e t t e r p l a c e to l i v e , 2) . To work f o r b e t t e r h e a l t h , education, w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r a l l r e s i d e n t s i n Strathcona, 3) . To p r o t e c t the i n t e r e s t s of a l l e t h n i c groups, 4) . To ensure t h a t redevelopment was c a r r i e d out i n a manner t h a t could best b e n e f i t a l l r e s i d e n t s , and 5) . To promote the b u i l d i n g of a community c e n t r e . In March 1966  while the C i t y was  p r e p a r a t i o n of Scheme I I I , a survey was cona Area C o u n c i l on housing 6 3  I b i d . , Nov.  25,  1965.  attitudes.  undertaking  the  d i r e c t e d by the S t r a t h I t was  found  that  105 the proposed p u b l i c housing i n Strathcona  d i d not  seem to  meet the needs of c e r t a i n groups - i . e . s i n g l e people under 60,  e l d e r l y "who  r e q u i r e d h o s t e l accommodation, f a m i l i e s w i t h  incomes i n excess of $400 per month, and  f a m i l i e s who  f e r r e d to l i v e i n Chinatown i n t h e i r own  homes.  s u l t s were then r e p o r t e d considerations  to the C i t y , r e q u e s t i n g  These r e that genuine  be given to these f i n d i n g s . ^  Minutes of the Executive the subsequent months recorded  deemed u n s u c c e s s f u l .  development P r o j e c t Nos.  Committee meetings  repeatedly  encourage Chinese r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was  pre-  1 and  2 was  time, many c i t i z e n s were d i s p e r s e d . stand E n g l i s h l i k e w i s e d i d not  that e f f o r t s to  to s i t on the  Since p r o p e r t y  during  Executive  demolition  of  Re-  w e l l underway at that Others who  show any  d i d not  under-  i n t e r e s t i n the work  of the Area C o u n c i l . The  Redevelopment and R e l o c a t i o n Subcommittee  a l s o concerned with the r e s i d e n t s i n Raymour Park. A s s o c i a t i o n was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n J u l y 1967,  time, a " d i r e c t s e r v i c e team" was community workers i n the In Oct.  1967,  was  A Tenants  while at the same  proposed to induce  new  area.^ the Area C o u n c i l r e c e i v e d a copy o f '  the C i t y ' s p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t on Urban Renewal Scheme I I I Strathcona  Sub-area.  Strathcona 6 5  In Order to determine the  community's  Area C o u n c i l Minute, Vancouver, March 1,  I b i d . , A p r i l 12,  1967.  1966.  106  r e a c t i o n t o the r e p o r t , a p u b l i c meeting was 1967,  sponsored by the S t r a t h c o n a  h e l d on Nov.14,  Area Council.  As a r e s u l t  of t h i s m e e t i n g , an o n - s i t e urban renewal e n q u i r y opened f o r a w e e k . ^  was  was  D u r i n g t h a t week, the E n q u i r y o f f i c e  d e a l t w i t h 70 e n q u i r i e s . meeting was  office  D u r i n g December, another p u b l i c  sponsored by the A r e a C o u n c i l a f t e r w h i c h a b r i e f  submitted to C o u n c i l .  The  b r i e f b a s i c a l l y pointed  out  the weaknesses of the C i t y ' s Summary R e p o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y on r e l o c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s and  the i n a d e q u a c i e s of s o c i a l  services 67  The  major recommendations of the b r i e f were as f o l l o w s : , l ) . That a permanent 'Urban Renewal A u t h o r i t y ' be e s t a b l i s h e d to c o o r d i n a t e a l l the v a r i e d f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n of on-going urban renewal p r o j e c t s . 2) . I n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n of a l l f a c e t s of r e l o c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , s p e c i a l emphasis should be p l a c e d on: p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n programs, i n f o r m a t i o n on a l t e r n a t e h o u s i n g , involvement of s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and f o l l o w - u p of r e s i d e n t s d i s p l a c e d by urban renewal. 3) . C i t y C o u n c i l s h o u l d ensure t h a t home owners d i s p l a c e d are g i v e n a l t e r n a t e h o u s i n g b o t h w i t h i n • the a r e a and o u t s i d e of i t . P r o c e e d i n g Jan. 1968,  s e v e r a l more b r i e f s were  p r e s e n t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s to C i t y C o u n c i l .  The  Urban  development and R e l o c a t i o n Sub-committee of the L o c a l saw  ReCouncil  the c r u c i a l need of i n v o l v i n g more Chinese community  l e a d e r s and r e s i d e n t s . 66  S e v e r a l Chinese c i t i z e n s were i n -  C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, Urban Renewal Scheme I I I S t r a t h c o n a Subarea Summary Report - Comm u n i c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d from o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Feb.9, 1968, S t r a t h c o n a A r e a C o u n c i l , Re: Urban Renewal P l a n s f o r the S t r a t h c o n a A r e a , J a n . 1968, p . l .  p.2,  107 vited was  to  join  busy  in  Strathcona  the  Committee  amending Area  Council  the  citizens.  the  " b l o c k by b l o c k "  professional  the  i n March  Scheme took  active  An outstanding home  assistance  III  "While  the  Summary R e p o r t ,  the  steps  to  organize  c i t i z e n Mr. Fred  owners  was  1968.^  organization  offered  by  local  Soon  City  up suggested  method,  while  community  deve-  69 lopment  workers  from  Planning  and  was  involved,  to  also  the  The  fecting The  amended  furious showed  with  8  by  and  basis.  that  the  cial  workers  root  citizens The  1968  Report  felt  pation.  17,  Scheme  they  III  on t h e  in their  of  the  coordinator  well  of  ability  Social City  assigned  to  for  of the  effect  community workers  important  Strathcona  take  to  The  citizens  than  Area  give  joint  believed  actions.  the on a  Council  professionals to  way t o  the  previous block then  (i.e.  democratic that  af-  aroused  concerted  organize  the  in  residents.  which  part.  (in English)  community w o r k e r s ) to  Subcommittee  reviewed,  prepared  ripe  themselves  very  the  was  The E x e c u t i v e s was  were  residents'  outspoken  were  time and  area  and R e l o c a t i o n  actions  progress  block  local  subsequent  objections  and  The n e w l y - f o r m e d  residents.  T h e y we're m u c h m o r e times,  a  Redevelopment  on O c t . the  Y.W.C.A.  Community Development Department  work w i t h  meetings  the  the  sograss-  partici-  most  efficient  _________________—-— Strathcona Area and R e l o c a t i o n , 69T •. Loc. cit.  Council, Minutes,  Sub-committee on March 4, 1968.  Redevelopment  108 c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n were those m o b i l i z e d by the themselves.  people  The formation of the Strathcona P r o p e r t y Owners  and Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n (SPOTA) at the end of 1968  further  70 substantiate their  belief.  Meanwhile, some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes a l s o occurred w i t h the Strathcona Area C o u n c i l .  The C i t y ' s S o c i a l P l a n n i n g /  Community Development Department began to coordinate the s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies " S e r v i c e Team".  The  i n the area and to form a p r o f e s s i o n a l  Team was  planned  to f u n c t i o n as a cen-  t r a l i z e d body, t a k i n g over much of the p l a n n i n g work which was  f o r m e r l y done by the Area C o u n c i l .  V a r i o u s c i t i z e n groups  (which vere a l s o c a l l e d primary groups) such as the Raymour Park Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n and the SPOTA vere e f f i c i e n t l y o r ganized to c a r r y out t h e i r s p e c i f i c  interests.  Accordingly,  the o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n s of the Strathcona Area C o u n c i l vere performed by the Team and  community groups i n the  E v e n t u a l l y , the Strathcona Area C o u n c i l vas d i s s o l v e d at the end of  area.  unofficially  1969.  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Strathcona Area C o u n c i l i n E f f e c t i n g C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Planning. Although  the Strathcona Area C o u n c i l vas a r e l a t i v e l y  s h o r t - l i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t has played an important  role i n  promoting c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g i n Strathcona.  — D e t a i l s of the SPOTA v o u l d be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n .  109 The Area C o u n c i l was fessionals  (e.g. school p r i n c i p a l s , s o c i a l workers etc.)  i n the area. was  p r i m a r i l y made up of p r o -  The method employed to organize the  citizens  the "blue r i b b o n " system by which committee members and  b l o c k r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were s e l e c t e d from e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i 71 t u t i o n s of the neighbourhood.  The  c o n s i s t e d of experienced l e a d e r s who community i n s p e c i f i c areas.  committee t h e r e f o r e had c o n t r i b u t e d to the  At v a r i o u s times, they p r o v i d e d  p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to the r e s i d e n t s , thus s e r v i n g as an e f f e c t i v e resource body of the The  Strathcona Area C o u n c i l was  people.  somewhat d i f f e r e n t  from the P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n i n the area. of. i n t e r e s t s was the community was  much broader  i n s c a l e , while i t s concern f o r  more comprehensive.  c o n f i n e d to urban renewal  I t s area  I t s f u n c t i o n was  i s s u e s , but was  extended  aspects of the s o c i a l - p h y s i c a l environment.  not  to a l l  Accordingly, i t s  scope of work i n c l u d e d parks and r e c r e a t i o n programs, p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , e t c .  The Area C o u n c i l  t h e r e f o r e seemed more capable of making comprehensive judgements and proposals i n regard to urban redevelopment. The C i t y S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community Development Department The  establishment of the C i t y S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  Community Development Department was  first  initiated in  R . ¥ . C o l l i e r , " C h a r t i n g Community Goals", Community P l a n n i n g Review, V o l . 18, NO.4, pp.20-21.  and 1965  110 when the Downtown E a s t s i d e  Study was d i r e c t e d by the C i t y  72 Planning row  Department.  area,  In examining problems of t h i s s k i d -  i t become apparent that a greater  e f f o r t to t a c k l e  fundamental s o c i a l weakness must preceed any p h y s i c a l  planning.  As an outcome of t h i s f i n d i n g , the c i t y planners recommended that a S o c i a l Planning  Board be e s t a b l i s h e d i n  the C i t y t o serve m o r e , e f f e c t i v e l y the s o c i a l needs of the people.  This recommendation, supported by the U.C.S. and a  number of c i v i c departments was 'approved by C o u n c i l , which immediately appointed the C i t y Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ;to i n v e s t i g a t e the d e t a i l s of t h i s p r o p o s a l ,  i n c l u d i n g the l e g i -  l a t i v e and f u n c t i o n a l framework of the new department.  From  thence, the new S o c i a l Planning/Community Development Department was formulated  i n mid 1968.  According  to the Terms of Reference, the major  purpose of the Department i s to strengthen  i n d i v i d u a l and 73  family l i f e ,  and t o e n r i c h neighbourhoods and c i t y  living.  I t s main f u n c t i o n s were: to u n i f y the s e r v i c e approaches of a v a r i e t y of c i v i c departments and outside the present welfare  system of p l a n n i n g  agencies,  and p r o v i d i n g h e a l t h ,  to r e f i n e education,  and r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s on a neighbourhood or l o c a l  area b a s i s , to prevent and c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n s  of s o c i a l mal-  adjustments such as poverty and delinquency, to i n t e g r a t e 72 C i t y of Vancouver, Downtown E a s t s i d e , 1965. 73 J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee, Department of S o c i a l Planning and Development, Report to C o u n c i l , Recommendations, May 1968.  Ill s o c i a l and other aspects of c i t y p l a n n i n g , to encourage r e s i d e n t s to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r improving the s o c i a l and economic environment, and to create a master s o c i a l f o r the C i t y .  plan  7 4  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the Department i n r e l a t i o n to other c i v i c departments i s i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l lowing t a b l e .  The p o l i c y of the Department i s determined by  a J o i n t S o c i a l Development Committee  comprised of r e p r e s e n -  t a t i v e s from the C i t y C o u n c i l , the P r o v i n c i a l  government,  the Board of School Trustees and the Board of Parks and P u b l i Recreation. commendations  This J o i n t Committee w i l l then make j o i n t r e to C i t y C o u n c i l which o f f i c i a l l y commit a l l 75  Boards and Departments to the p o l i c i e s concerned. To c a r r y out the p o l i c i e s of the J o i n t a J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee  Committee,  i s formed, c h a i r e d by the D i r e c t o  of the S o c i a l Planning/Community Development Department.  It  serves to coordinate the programs of the C i t y Departments and enables them to s e t up combined o p e r a t i o n a l p r o j e c t s . I t r e c e i v e s recommendations from the Conference of the L o c a l Area C o u n c i l s and the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  Committee.  Although the development of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department i s s t i l l  i n i t s i n f a n c y , i t has c o n t r i b u t e d  signi-  f i c a n t l y to the p l a n n i n g and implementation of urban renewal 74 75  I b i d . , Appendix A. E.D. H i l l , Notes on a Department of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Development Department f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, U.C.S., A p r i l , 1967.  TABLE 5 CITY OF VANCOUVER ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF PROPOSED DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  UNITED COMMUNITY • SERVICES  VANCOUVER JOINT SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (1)  CITY COUNCIL  Board of Administration  Other C i t y  Planning Committee  Conference of Local. Area Councils  Local Area Council  J o i n t Technical (2) Committee on S o c i a l Development  (l)  Composed of:  Department of S o c i a l Planning  3 Representatives from each of the following under chairmanship of the Mayor (who would also represent the Police Commission) C i t y Council Board of School Trustees Board of Parks and Public Recreation  Local Area Council (2) Local Area Council  Deptjs  Composed of:  n i r e c t o r of S o c i a l Planning and Development (Chairman) Commissioners, C i t y of Vancouver S o c i a l Welfare Administrator Medical Health O f f i c e r Director of Planning • • Director of Education Superintendent, Parks and Public Recreation Chief Probation O f f i c e r Executive Director, United Community Services Director of Planning, United Community Services  113 programs i n Vancouver.  As mentioned i n a previous s e c t i o n ,  the Strathcona area has been regarded  as a h i g h p r i o r i t y  area i n need of the "Team" approach to p l a n n i n g and d e l i v e r i n g community s e r v i c e s .  A l o c a l area c o o r d i n a t o r has thus been  assigned t o work i n the neighbourhood since 1968.  To-date,  a S e r v i c e Team has been organized to s e r v i c e the r e s i d e n t s with coordinated e f f o r t s .  An o n - s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n centre was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n Feb. 1970 f o r purposes of r e f e r r a l and c o u n s e l l i n g . The  S o c i a l Planning/Community Development  ment has a l s o played an important  Depart-  r o l e i n promoting community  s p i r i t and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g among the l o c a l residents.  Together  w i t h the Strathcona Area C o u n c i l , i t  o f f e r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e to the community groups. initial  establishment  of the SPOTA i n p a r t i c u l a r  The  obtained  76 much of i t s i n s p i r a t i o n from t h i s department. Since 1969, the Department has become i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d and r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of Urban Renewal Scheme I I I .  In Aug. 1969, the three l e v e l s of government  agreed that the whole Scheme I I I should be reviewed  i n con77  s u l t a t i o n w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Strathcona r e s i d e n t s . A J o i n t Working Committee was then formed, comprised  of r e -  p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the government and the Strathcona r e s i d e n t s . At C i t y C o u n c i l meeting on Sept.9, "If.  1969, the D i r e c t o r of the  S o c i a lP e r Planning/Community Development was appointed s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , Miss S h i r l e y Department Chan, Strathcona resident. 77 Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l Minute, Sept. 9, 1969.  114 as "the chairman of t h i s J o i n t Committee to act as a l i a i s o n between the  four agencies concerned.  Although the f u t u r e of urban renewal programs i n Vancouver i s s t i l l  unknown, the f a c t t h a t the S o c i a l  Community Development Department i s t a k i n g up the  Planning/  coordinating  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s an encouraging s i g n to the c i t i z e n s . seems to i n d i c a t e a t r e n d towards c e n t r a l planning t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l plans  and  Stage of Delegated Power - The  and  posi-  social desires.  the f u t u r e growth of t h i s t r e n d has y e t to be I I I . The  It  However  seen.  Strathcona  Property  Owners and  Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n - Urban Renewal Scheme I I I  Strathcona  Subarea. The  SPOTA i s a prominant c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n  es-  t a b l i s h e d i n response to the C i t y ' s Urban Renewal Scheme I I I Subarea  Strathcona. As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d ,  s p i r i t and  considerable  community  concern were generated among the Strathcona  since the C i t y has  resident  completed i t s r e p o r t on Urban Renewal •JO  Scheme I I I i n Aug.  1968.  the C i t y S o c i a l P l a n n i n g  With t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e  from  Department, the c i t i z e n s were w e l l  organized  on a b l o c k by b l o c k b a s i s , and were prepared to  negotiate  with C i t y at the  end  of 1968.  Much of the  i n a r y work i n c o r o d i n a t i n g the r e s i d e n t s should  prelim-  be a t t r i b u t e d  C i t y of Vancouver T e c h n i c a l Planning Board, Urban Renewal Scheme I I I Subarea Strathcona,  Strathcona Aug.9, 1968.  115 to Mrs. M. M i t c h e l l , D i r e c t o r of the Community Development Department of the Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n of Vancouver.  During the winter months of 1968, Mrs.  contacted v a r i o u s c i t i z e n s and encouraged  Mitchell  them to j o i n t o -  gether as a formal o r g a n i z a t i o n to d e a l with the government. From a l i s t  of c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d i n the i d e a , b l o c k r e -  p r e s e n t a t i v e s were s e l e c t e d of those capable of community leadership.  D i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s with p o l i t i c a l  were p a r t i c u l a r l y asked to become members of a  aspirations  temporary  committee. On December 16, 1968, of  the SPOTA was  Sue Lum,  Miss S h i r l e y Chan and Mr. Walter Chan. of the A s s o c i a t i o n was  t h e i r i n t e r e s t s would be p r o t e c t e d .  Mrs.  I t was  agreed  to ensure that people  l i v e d i n Strathcona would be f u l l y informed, and  SPOTA was  The  e l e c t e d , w i t h Mr. Harry Con being  Other members i n c l u d e d Mrs. B e s s i e Lee,  t h a t the purpose who  g e n e r a l meeting  h e l d , with a g a t h e r i n g of 207 people.  executive committee was the Chairman.  the f i r s t  The f i r s t  that  t a s k of the  to prepare a b r i e f and to o b t a i n support from a l l  other l o c a l community groups. At  approximately the same time, a l l p u b l i c housing  and urban renewal p r o j e c t s i n Canada were h a l t e d by the f e d e r a l government due to the Report of H e l l y e r ' s Task Force 79 on Housing.  Urban Renewal programs were to be  reviewed  —Q  Paul T. H e l l y e r , M i n i s t e r of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Report of the F e d e r a l Task Force on Housing and Urban Development, Jan. 1969".  116 because they seemed, to have e l i m i n a t e d usable housing thus i n t e n s i f i e d the l a c k of housing. that p h y s i c a l renewal c u l t u r a l renewal,  The Report  and  suggested  should be coupled w i t h s o c i a l  and  and t h a t housing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  con-  s e r v a t i o n should be implemented i n s t e a d of mere t o t a l clearance , . . . 80 and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The F i r s t Phase - P r e p a r a t i o n of the F i r s t B r i e f and  Follow-  up Work A b r i e f was i n Jan. 1969.  promptly  It f i r s t  formulated by the A s s o c i a t i o n  of a l l announced the  establishment  i  of the A s s o c i a t i o n , i t s aims and membership (578 r e s i d e n t s signed the p e t i t i o n ) .  S i x recommendations were then  i n a demanding manner, s t a t i n g the f i r m  stand of the  listed citizens.  These recommendations were as f o l l o w s : 1. The people who had signed the enclosed p e t i t i o n demand t h e i r r i g h t to continue to l i v e i n the Strathcona Area. 2. People who had been f o r c e d to move due to urban renewal had not been d e a l t with f a i r l y . In f u t u r e , c i t i z e n s must be assured of adequate i n f o r m a t i o n , l e g a l a i d , choices of accommodation and f a i r exchange value i f homes were e x p r o p r i a t e d by the C i t y . 3. Current plans f o r urban renewal be r e v i s e d to a l l o w f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of present homes and to provide land f o r r e b u i l d i n g p r i v a t e homes. 4. There must be a v a r i e t y of p r i v a t e l y owned accommodation a v a i l a b l e i n the community i n a d d i t i o n to p u b l i c housing. 5. People who had a business or an income-producing p r o p e r t y should have an o p p o r t u n i t y to improve b u i l d i n g s or to r e l o c a t e t h e i r business w i t h i n the area. 6. The people requested the Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l , and the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments to r e cognize the S P O T A as an o f f i c i a l body f o r n e g o t i a t i o n on these matters. Loc. c i t .  117 The  c i t i z e n s r e a l i z e d t h a i besides the C i t y  govern-  ment, the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments a l s o p l a y an important  p a r t i n urban renewal.  I n a d d i t i o n , they wished  to pursue the i s s u e s r a i s e d by the H e l l y e r Task Force  Report,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n s t e a d of t o t a l housing  clearance.  A c c o r d i n g l y , copies of the b r i e f  were d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l three l e v e l s of government i n e a r l y 1969. Some follow-up work was done a f t e r the submission of the b r i e f .  On March 3, 1969, the SPOTA executives en-  t e r t a i n e d the C i t y Aldermen at t h e i r Chairman, Mr. Harry Con's home.  I t provided an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c i t i z e n s t o communicate  w i t h C o u n c i l members face to f a c e .  This o c c a s i o n  enabled  the Aldermen to take a c l o s e r look at Strathcona - even the i n t e r i o r c o n d i t i o n s of an average Chinese  home.  The"Deputy  Major, e i g h t C i t y Aldermen and one member of the p l a n n i n g s t a f f were present.  This g a t h e r i n g was a success  a b e t t e r understanding from the Aldermen.  because  and c o n s i d e r a b l e sympathy was gained  There were suggestions  t h a t urban demo-  l i t i o n be changed to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and t h a t f e d e r a l  loans  81 be a p p l i e d f o r housing  renovation.  A meeting between the SPOTA executives and the MLA's from the area was arranged supported  on March 8.  The MLA's  the c i t i z e n s ' views and promised to b r i n g t h e i r  SPOTA E x e c u t i v e meeting minutes, March 3, 1969.  r  118 b r i e f to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. the c i t i z e n s should prepare  82  I t vas suggested t h a t  constructive alternatives  and  plans. The  SPOTA e x e c u t i v e s a l s o had d i r e c t c o n t a c t v i t h  the f e d e r a l government. the N a t i o n a l Conference  T h i s o p p o r t u n i t y vas p r o v i d e d by on Urban Reneval  as i t A f f e c t s  tovns h e l d i n Calgary, A l b e r t a during A p r i l 6-8, conference, sponsored an attempt examination  1969.  ChinaThis  by the S i e n Lok S o c i e t y of C a l g a r y vas  to u n i t e Canada's Chinese  c i t i z e n s i n a concerted  of the urban c r i s i s v h i c h threatens the e x i s t a n c e 83  of Chinatovns  a l l over Canada.  over 100,000 Chinese-Canadians  The delegates vho  represented  j o i n e d v i t h experts i n v a r i o u s  f i e l d s to d i s c u s s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and economic f a c t o r s v h i c h govern the degree of Chinese the dominant Caucasian c u l t u r e .  integration i n  S e v e r a l executive members  of SPOTA attended t h i s conference. The end r e s u l t of t h i s conference vent f a r beyond i t s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n of "examination".  Four  resolutions  vere passed, p a r t i c u l a r l y r e q u e s t i n g t h a t s u f f i c i e n t  financial,  t e c h n i c a l and l e g a l a s s i s t a n c e be p r o v i d e d f o r the redevelopment schemes by the governments.  84  A d e l e g a t i o n vas  later  ment to appeal before the f e d e r a l government i n Ottava to 82  I b i d . , March 8,  1969.  S i e n Lok S o c i e t y , Calgary, A l b e r t a , Proceedings of N a t i o n a l Conference on Urban Reneval as i t A f f e c t s Chinatovns, P r e f a c e , A p r i l 6-9, 1969. 84Loc. c i t .  119 present a b r i e f (June 1969). the  opportunity  seized  of the Conference to request t h a t the f e d e r a l  government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s case  The SPOTA committee a l s o  l o o k i n t o the Strathcona renewal  specifically. This conference had played  an e f f e c t i v e p a r t i n  pursuading the Honourable Paul H e l l y e r , M i n i s t e r f o r Housing to v i s i t v a r i o u s  urban renewal p r o j e c t s i t e s i n the country.  On A p r i l 17, 1969, the Hon. Mr. P. H e l l y e r a r r i v e d i n Vancouver, and met w i t h the Strathcona r e s i d e n t s to d i s c u s s newal.  and C i t y  Council  p o s s i b l e p o l i c i e s and a l t e r n a t i v e s on urban r e -  A r e p o r t was submitted by the C i t y , u r g i n g  the f e d e r a l  government to continue i t s f i n a n c i a l aids towards urban r e 85  newal and p u b l i c housing i n Vancouver.  P a r t i c u l a r concern  was expressed f o r t h i s area on the b a s i s of an a l t e r n a t i v e approach i n v o l v i n g p r o g r e s s i v e and  emphasis on The  renewal, l i m i t e d  clearance  renovation.  meeting of the Strathcona r e s i d e n t s  M i n i s t e r was f r u i t f u l  and encouraging.  and the  I n d i c a t i n g h i s sym-  pathy f o r the views of the people, the M i n i s t e r s a i d t h a t much of S t r a t h c o n a could be r e h a b i l i t a t e d , and t h a t e f f o r t s should be made to preserve some of the p h y s i c a l and human values. The did  c o n v i c t i o n of the Hon. Paul H e l l y e r , however,  not m a t e r i a l i s e immediately.  After a constitutional  j O tr  C i t y of Vancouver, Urban Renewal and P u b l i c Housing, A p r i l 17, 1969.  120 row v i t h Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau  over hov f a r the f e d e r a l  government go i n housing a f f a i r s , the Hon. Mr. H e l l y e r r e signed from the Cabinet on A p r i l 30, 1969, and i n d i c a t e d his  disappointment v i t h the government's l a c k of concern  v i t h housing (the government f e l t  that housing problems  vere more of a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under the Canadian Constitution).^  A c c o r d i n g l y , the S t r a t h c o n a urban r e n e v a l  p r o j e c t vas again f r o z e n . The Second Phase - P r e p a r a t i o n of a Second B r i e f and the Pilot Rehabilitation  Study  Having obtained the g e n e r a l approval of a l l three l e v e l s of government on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n s t e a d of t o t a l placement, of  dis-  the Strathcona r e s i d e n t s launched a second phase  p a r t i c i p a t i o n - to make p o s i t i v e p r o p o s a l s f o r a mass  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n Scheme. vhere 500 households  A survey vas conducted i n May 1969,  c o n t a i n i n g 1,644 r e s i d e n t s vere c o n t a c t  Of the 375 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d , 371 s t a t e d they vanted to  s t a y i n Strathcona and vere v i l l i n g  to renovate  their  homes. On May 16, 1969, the SPOTA presented t h e i r b r i e f to the governments.  second  The c i t i z e n s urged the government  87 to  do the f o l l o v i n g : V a n c o u v e r Sun, A p r i l 18, 1969. 8 7  F o r d e t a i l s r e f e r to SPOTA, Second B r i e f , May 16, 1969.  121 1. 2. 3. .4. 5.  6. 7.  To use Strathcona f o r an experimental p r o j e c t - f o r c i t i z e n s to r e h a b i l i t a t e t h e i r homes. To provide f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r the people to h i r e a consultant. ^ To o f f e r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e - e.g. a $1,000 " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n grant" s i m i l a r to p r o v i n c i a l grants given to purchasers of new homes. For houses beyond r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , reasonable housing a l t e r n a t i v e s and funds should be provided f o r the homeowners. To r e s e l l land at purchase p r i c e to those who o r i g i n a l l y l i v e d i n Strathcona. To consider rezoning the area under spot zoning. To consider amending the E x p r o p r i a t i o n Act - People should be g i v e n f a i r replacement value. The  response  again p o s i t i v e and  of the governments on t h i s b r i e f  encouraging.  In p a r t i c u l a r , the  was  provincial  government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n g r a t u l a t e d the A s s o c i a t i o n on t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e e f f o r t s , and s t a t e d t h a t they would do 88 whatever they could to h e l p .  The  C i t y a l s o agreed  examine the o r i g i n a l urban renewal proposals i n the  to r e light  of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . To c a r r y out the r e s o l u t i o n s of the N a t i o n a l Conference h e l d i n Calgary i n A p r i l  1969,  appeared before the Honourable Mr. of Housing who  succeeded Mr.  twelve  delegates  Robert Andras, M i n i s t e r  Paul H e l l y e r i n June 1969.  d e l e g a t i o n demanded t h a t c i t i z e n s be given f u l l  The  opportunity 89  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e n t i r e urban renewal process. SPOTA executive members a l s o took advantage of t h i s  The occasion  to n e g o t i a t e with the f e d e r a l government. The Hon. Mr. Robert Correspondence between E. Wolfe, MLA and the SPOTA, June 13, 1969. 9  Vancouver Sun,  June 17,  1969.  122 Andras expressed h i s great i n t e r e s t and concern v i t h cona v h i c h to him, i l l u s t r a t e d a l o t of p i t f a l l s  Strath-  of urban  90 reneval.  He f e l t t h a t the Strathcona Scheme should be  a Canadian  concern, not o n l y a Chinese problem. In order to push the i s s u e of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , the  SPOTA met C i t y C o u n c i l as a d e l e g a t i o n on June 26, 1969. The C o u n c i l vas g e n e r a l l y i n accord v i t h t h e i r b r i e f , and a s p e c i a l committee of three Aldermen - Hugh B i r d , H. Wilson and E. Sveeney vas appointed to check on housing on J u l y 8, 91 1969.  I t vas a l s o considered d e s i r a b l e to undertake  a  q u i c k survey on the f e a s i b i l i t y of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n v i t h i n Strathcona.  A survey team vas thus formed, c o n s i s t i n g of  City officials, of the SPOTA.  observers from the CMHC and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s During July-August, the p i l o t  survey vas undertaken  rehabilitation  f o r a h a l f - b l o c k on the south side of  Keefer S t r e e t betveen P r i n c e s s and Heatley Avenues.  This  p i l o t survey area contained eighteen s t r u c t u r e s , s i x t e e n of v h i c h vere r e s i d e n t i a l d v e l l i n g s .  I n s p e c t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n  vere g i v e n to both the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r i o r c o n d i t i o n s of the b u i l d i n g s , as v e i l as the ovners f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y to , 92 renovate. On the b a s i s of t h i s l i m i t e d and r a p i d sample survey, 1  the c i t y planners i n d i c a t e d that extensive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n vas 93 g e n e r a l l y not f e a s i b l e i n the area.  Although there vere  90 7  91  The SPOTA E x e c u t i v e Meeting Minutes, June 24, 1969.  C i t y of Vancouver C o u n c i l Minutes, June 25, 1969. 92 For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s , see C i t y of Vancouver, Urban Reneval 93 and P u b l i c Housing, submission to the Hon. Robert Andras, Loc. i t 1969. . Aug. c3,  123 many blocks i n a b e t t e r average  c o n d i t i o n than the h a l f -  b l o c k surveyed, i t was probable t h a t l e s s than 50$ of the b u i l d i n g s warranted r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  I n a d d i t i o n , the cost  estimate f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were r e l a t i v e l y h i g h and might prove too great a f i n a n c i a l burden to many owners.  I t was  recommended that more i n t e n s i v e study on v a r i o u s aspects should be made before any f u r t h e r p o s i t i v e p r o p o s a l could be made. to  The f i n d i n g s of t h i s survey was i n i t i a l l y r e p o r t e d  C o u n c i l on J u l y 20, 1969. The r e s i d e n t s of S t r a t h c o n a , however, d i d not agree  w i t h the P i l o t Survey r e s u l t s .  I n a l e t t e r addressed to the  C i t y , they s t a t e d t h a t the CMHC housing standards used f o r 94 the survey was not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Strathcona.  They a l s o  e x p l a i n e d that the c i t i z e n s would need to know the d e f i n i t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs of the government before they could commit themselves  financially.  The v i s i t mid August  of the Hon. Robert Andras to Vancouver i n  1969 a s s i s t e d i n c l a r i f y i n g the s i t u a t i o n .  guided tour was arranged and meetings s e n t a t i v e s from a l l governmental  A  were h e l d with r e p r e -  l e v e l s and the SPOTA.  the Hon. Robert Andras and the Hon. D. Campbell  Both  ( M i n i s t e r of  M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ) reconfirmed that a l a r g e p a r t of Strathcona should be r e h a b i l i t a t e d r a t h e r than demolished.  They admitted  t h a t the recommendations of the SPOTA were " v i a b l e " and "sound" L e t t e r of the SPOTA addressed to C i t y Deputy P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , Aug. 3, 1969. 95 The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , Aug. 17, 1969.  124 Recognizing  the importance of human values and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the Hon.  citizen  Robert Andras s t a t e d that the f e d -  e r a l government v o u l d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  Strathcona  urban r e n e v a l scheme unless the r e s i d e n t s vere d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n v o r k i n g out what should be done.  He f u r t h e r  em-  phasised t h a t any f u t u r e p l a n of the area should be drawn up i n c o - o p e r a t i o n with the three l e v e l s of government plus the c i t i z e n s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d . The  suggestions  df the F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r became an  o f f i c i a l p o l i c y soon a f t e r h i s v i s i t to Vancouver. September 1969, to  In e a r l y  the M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s proposed  C i t y t h a t an i n i t i a l s t a f f committee c o n s i s t i n g of r e -  p r e s e n t a t i v e s of three l e v e l s of government and the SPOTA be formed to review the vhole Strathcona P r o j e c t .  Accordingly,  C o u n c i l , at a meeting on Sept. 9 passed the r e s o l u t i o n t h a t such a "Working Committee" be formed, v i t h Mr. M. Egan, D i r e c t o r of the C i t y S o c i a l Planning/Community Development  De-  partment appointed  first  as the Chairman.  T h i s , then vas the  time i n the Canadian p l a n n i n g h i s t o r y that a c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n vas granted  an equal pover with government to take  p a r t i n the p l a n n i n g decision-making  process.  L e v e l of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n A p p l y i n g the Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Model d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV to the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n , the achievement of  the SPOTA resembles the upper l e v e l of c i t i z e n power.  It  125 appears that the A s s o c i a t i o n i s no more the object of a p l a n but  i s a co-worker of the government, undertaking j o i n t  nership  part-  i n planning. The  success of the SPOTA i n o b t a i n i n g  s t a t u s can be a t t r i b u t e d to many reasons.  i t s delegated  The p r e l i m i n a r y  work of the community worker ( s o c i a l worker) has f i r s t of a l l l a i d down a good foundation  f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n .  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of a f u l l - t i m e o n - s i t e community worker (Mr. J . Lau)  i n 1968 was t i m e l y to help the r e s i d e n t s with t e c h n i c a l  assistance.  In a d d i t i o n , members of the executive  committee  are much more capable and e f f i c i e n t than those of the former Property  Owners A s s o c i a t i o n .  Their educational  community l e a d e r s h i p and p o l i t i c a l together  background,  a s p i r a t i o n have a l l acted  to make s e n s i b l e judgements.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n  on a b l o c k by block b a s i s a l s o tends to provide  system  a closer t i e  among the people. The favourable The  political  s i t u a t i o n i s , to a l a r g e  extent,  to the development of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy.  f e d e r a l government's concern with s o c i a l problems and  human values  has supported the c i t i z e n s who then became more  d a r i n g to press  the other l e v e l s of government.  Very probably,  the economic c o n t r a c t i o n i s a major f a c t o r i n h a l t i n g a l l urban renewal programs i n Canada.  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , which  g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e s l e s s f i n a n c i a l expenditure than i s thus encouraged.  The people t h e r e f o r e  demolition  s e i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y  126 to  n e g o t i a t e w i t h the government.  c i t i z e n involvement  is still  Although  the stage of  f a r from the peak l e v e l of  the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n model, - i . e . c i t i z e n where people  are i n f u l l charge of p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g , the  SPOTA has d e f i n i t e l y a t t a i n e d an important political The  control  p o s i t i o n i n the  arena.  Strathcona Urban Renewal Working Committee At the f i r s t meeting of the Strathcona Urban Re-  newal Working Committee h e l d on Oct. 1, 1969, some general 96 goals and p o l i c i e s were s e t .  These p o l i c i e s were as f o l l o w s :  1. No l a r g e - s c a l e a c q u i s i t i o n and d e m o l i t i o n of p r o p e r t y w i l l be undertaken i n the Strathcona area under urban renewal l e g i s l a t i o n . 2. The d e s i r e of r e s i d e n t s to s t a y i n the area, to p r e serve t h e i r homes and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n upgrading the community. 3. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s the general g o a l f o r the area. 4. The committee of o f f i c i a l s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the area r e s i d e n t s w i l l examine a l l means of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p o s s i b l e under the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n plus those measures which the committee would l i k e t o see undertaken f o r which there are no p r o v i s i o n under e x i s t i n g legislation. I t was a l s o agreed  that the SPOTA was the r e p r e s e n -  t a t i v e group of r e s i d e n t s f o r Strathcona and that they  accepted  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n v o l v i n g and i n f o r m i n g a l l other c i t i z e n s i n the area. The  first  t a s k of the Working Committee was to  e s t a b l i s h two blocks as an experimental litation.  project f o r rehabi-  The Committee then requested the three l e v e l s of  government to p r o v i d e funds f o r the SPOTA to engage i t s own Strathcona Working Committee Meeting  Minute, Oct. 1, 1969.  127 c o n s u l t a t n s to c a r r y out the experimental  p r o j e c t . 97  A f t e r c o n s u l t i n g the c i t i z e n s i n the area, the Working Committee r e s o l v e d t h a t Blocks 82 and 84 i n Strathcona be used f o r the experimental p r o j e c t .  The f i r m of Birmingham  and Wood, A r c h i t e c t u r a l and P l a n n i n g Consultants was to be the r e s i d e n t s ' prime c o n s u l t a n t s .  The  ference f o r the work of the Consultants was  appointed  terms of r e d r a f t e d by the  C i t y P l a n n i n g Department and the Consultant f i r m .  The major  98 r o l e of the l a t t e r i s as f o l l o w s : 1. To examine b u i l d i n g s i n the two b l o c k s , to e s t a b l i s h . what should be done, to estimate the costs t h e r e o f and to r e p o r t to the Working Committee. 2. To a s s i s t the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of standards f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n that were compatible w i t h the o b j e c t i v e of a 10-20 year l i f e of the b u i l d i n g . 3. To determine i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the r e s i d e n t s where r e h a b i l i t a t i o n can be undertaken by the owners from t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s , and the extent t h a t w i l l have to be d e r i v e d from other sources. 4. To provide general c o n s u l t a t i o n as r e q u i r e d by the SPOTA. 5. To work w i t h C i t y to r e a p p r a i s e elements which w i l l make up a community p l a n to r e p r e s e n t the c i t i z e n s ' best i n t e r e s t s i n those plans as they are i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of the C i t y . Some items to be examined i n c l u d e : s t a t e of u t i l i t y and s t r e e t s . Although  the c i t i z e n s are w e l l represented by the  SPOTA i n the Working Committee, they are very cautious about the d e c i s i o n s of the Committee.  In f a c t , they are  of being deceived again by bureaucracy.  afraid  T h i s i s evident  i n the f a c t when the SPOTA executives suspected t h a t the governments would l i m i t t h e i r c o n s u l t a n t s ' work to the 97  I b i d . , Oct. 7, 98' I b i d . , Nov. 4,  1969. 1969.  two  128  experimental Agreement in  mind  and  blocks  They  of the consultants  that  that  only.  rehabilitation  the two-block  insisted  includes  that  the clause:  f o r t h e whole  survey  the Working  area  and a n a l y s i s  "bearing  i s the goal,  i s merely the  99 initial  step." It  also  appears  bureaucratic  body  and t h e g r a s s - r o o t  stances, stood of  the language  by the people.  the social  valuable  when  citizens. peoples' role  terms  proposal which  times  workers  who  undoubtedly  f o r the i n i t i a l  process  flicting thesis  i n Chapter  interests.  i s i n itself kept  Ibid.,  alive  unfinished.  by the c i t i z e n s  desires.  and the based  peoples'  on t h e a g r e e d  been  further  The  latest  i s the Union-Prior  of the Strathcona  with  to the  significant  location crisis.  Accordingly,  Amendment.  a  a n d human  work  IV, Strathcona  of changes,  play  h a s , however,  freeway  south  was p r o v e d i n -  a c t u a l l y a c t as t h e  Committee  on t h e i r  The c a s e  a t which  t e c h n i c a l terms  consultants  the Working  i s immediately  tinuous  QQ  explain  by the free-way  mentioned  still  were  and community  planners  of reference.  I n some i n -  the presence  are proceeding  complicated  As  citizens.  i n integrating physical planning  consultants  between the  There  could  To-date,  exist  not under-  The p l a n n i n g advocate  a gap does  o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s were  planners they  that  renewal  i s still  pressure  from  t h e Case I t s issues  Corridor, area.  under various  Study  of  a  concon-  this  and dilemma a r e  and the p o l i t i c i a n s .  CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS The  Study The purpose  of t h i s t h e s i s i s to examine the  e x i s t i n g s e p a r a t i o n between p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to Vancouver.  The two  d i s c i p l i n e s which o r i g i n a t e d from common roots have become two s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s w i t h d i f f e r e n t emphasis in  and approaches  Vancouver. P h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g has been overwhelmed by the  d o c t r i n e of environmental determinism. tended to concentrate on t e r r i t o r i a l of  the community.  emphasised  The planners have  and a e s t h e t i c aspects  S o c i a l p l a n n i n g , on the other hand, has  the i n d i v i d u a l w e l l - b e i n g as i t s core i n t e r e s t ,  and l i m i t e d i t s scope to the p r o v i s i o n of welfare and community s e r v i c e s .  Consequently, a great g u l f has been b u i l t  up between the two f u n c t i o n s . I t becomes e v i d e n t , i n recent y e a r s , t h a t the maladjustment  of these two f u n c t i o n s i s d e t r i m e n t a l to the  end product and to i t s u s e r s .  1  This misfortune i s p a r t i c u -  l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n urban renewal programs where replacement of poor p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s by decent housing f a i l s to im2 prove the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . to  Little  account has been g i v e n  the s o c i a l elements of community l i f e , and an inadequate  attempt has been made to renew the emotional f a b r i c . I t ^Herbert Gans, People and P l a n s , (New York, 1968), p.64. 2 A l b e r t Rose, Regent Park, ( U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1968), pp.34-41.  130 appears, then, that a r e s t r u c t u r e d systems approach i s r e q u i r e d to i n t e g r a t e p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and One  s o c i a l needs.  of the methods v h i c h has been i n c r e a s i n g l y  advocated i n the North American s o c i e t y f o r e l i m i n a t i n g mismatches betveen p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l d e s i r e s i s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning.  I t i s argued t h a t p l a n -  n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r t of the democratic cess, vhereby d e c i s i o n s are made i n s e l e c t i n g 3 approaches to the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s . t h i s study i s focused involvement values.  political  alternative The purpose of  on t e s t i n g the v a l i d i t y of c i t i z e n  as a l i a i s o n betveen p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and  The;  hypothesis  social  f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h vas:  "That c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n v i l l of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l The  pro-  a s s i s t the i n t e g r a t i o n planning."  b a s i c r e s e a r c h methodology of t h i s t h e s i s vas  l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h and  evaluation.  A case study on  citizen  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g i n a l o c a l area of Vancouver -  The  Strathcona Urban Reneval Area vas a l s o adopted to demonstrate the r e l e v a n c y of the hypothesis Research  i n Vancouver.  Conclusions Extensive l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t o the r a t i o n a l e  and approaches of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g r e v e a l s t h a t the tvo f u n c t i o n s are a c t u a l l y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to each _  Edmund M. Burke, " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S t r a t e g i e s " , i n the J o u r n a l of A.I.P., V o l . XXXIV, Sept. 1968, pp.287-294.  )  131  other, both concerned sources.  v i t h the same c l i e n t e l e - human r e -  An urban community i s i n f a c t an extremely  p l i c a t e d physical-socioeconomic  com-  system which c o n s i s t s of  4 i n s e p a r a b l e elements.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e p e r v e r s i v e to d i s -  s o c i a t e the p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g s from the s o c i a l meanings t h a t they c a r r y f o r t h e i r u s e r s , and from the socioeconomic t i o n s of the a c t i v i t i e s v h i c h are conducted  func-  v i t h i n them.  Any p h y s i c a l p l a n v h i c h aims a t improving the environment f o r the b e n e f i t of the p u b l i c i s e s s e n t i a l l y " s o c i a l " i n nature.  P h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g f o r a community can  thus be v i e v e d as a means of a c h i e v i n g i t s s o c i a l and human objectives. process  "Planning" can then be d e f i n e d as a comprehensive  of decision-making  on the d i s t r i b u t i o n and development  of human and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s .  I n f a c t , there are no s e -  parate d i s c i p l i n e s of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . Instead, only one type of p l a n n i n g e x i s t s - a comprehensive approach to achieve s o c i a l g o a l s .  This approach i s an i n t e r -  systems method v h i c h i n v o l v e s the d e l i b e r a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n of socioeconomic decision-making  and human behavior  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o the  process.  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n appears to support the hypothesis t h a t c i t i z e n involvement  v i l l as-  s i s t the d e s i r e d i n t e g r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l values.  There are a c t u a l l y many forms of c i t i z e n  participation  ^ M e l v i n Webber, "Comprehensive P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l Resp o n s i b i l i t y " , i n J o u r n a l of A.I.P., V o l . XXIX 1963, p.233.  L  1 3 2  depending on the g o a l s , assumptions and o r g a n i z a t i o n l e v e l 5 of the c i t i z e n s .  These v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t o r y " s t r a t e g i e s "  can be represented  by a h y p o t h e t i c a l model - A Ladder of  Citizen Participation.  Three broad l e v e l s of c i t i z e n i n -  volvement are i d e n t i f i e d i n the typology - l e v e l of nonp a r t i c i p a t i o n , degrees of tokenism and degrees of c i t i z e n power.  The Ladder of P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d  i n t o seven steps, ranging from education,  informing,  s u l t a t i o n , p l a c a t i o n , p a r t n e r s h i p , delegated control. gradations  con-  power to c i t i z e n  This h y p o t h e t i c a l model i l l u s t r a t e d that  significant  e x i s t i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n which are mani-  f e s t e d i n t h e i r degrees of i n f l u e n c e over the p l a n n i n g cisions.  de-  A c c o r d i n g l y , c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a new  of p o l i t i c s .  kind  I t i n v o l v e s the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of power to  the have-not c i t i z e n s and the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of governmental f u n c t i o n s .  I t should be re-termed as " p a r t i c i p a t o r y  democracy" whereby the have-not c i t i z e n s introduce reform  social  to enable themselves to take p a r t i n the p l a n n i n g  decision-making arena.  This strategy of c i t i z e n power i s  at the peak l e v e l of the Ladder of C i t i z e n  Participation  Model, at which s t e p , s o c i a l d e s i r e s of the community are s i g n i f i c a n t l y represented  and accounted f o r i n the p h y s i c a l  plan. _ Sherry R. A r n s t e i n , "A Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of A.I.P., J u l y 1969, pp.216-224.  ^ The  133 Case Study on the Strathcona  Area i n Vancouver provides of the h y p o t h e s i s .  Urban Renewal  affirmative indications i n  favour  In response to the urban renewal p r o -  grams i n i t i a t e d by the government s i n c e 1957,  various  citizen  groups were e s t a b l i s h e d to take p a r t i n the renewal  process.  The  organized,  Chinatown P r o p e r t y  d u r i n g the planning 1 and  2.  The  Owners A s s o c i a t i o n was  and  first  implementation p e r i o d of P r o j e c t  r e s i d e n t s s t r o n g l y opposed the renewal programs  f o r the reasons that urban renewal would s t r a n g l e t h e i r ness a c t i v i t i e s , d e s t r o y their social-cultural  t h e i r Chinese community t i e s ,  life  and  p a t t e r n of Chinese community The  disrupt their  and  tokenism.  informed, consulted  The  at the l e v e l s  e x p e r t i s e was  merely "pro  The  o l d "salesman"  evident, whereby  former and  a f t e r the  on the  citizens' part.  projects.  citi-  fact".  There was  adequate s u i t a b l e housing to reaccommodate the  and welfare  non-  consequences of these p r o j e c t s were u n s a t i s -  factory particularly  people who  of  and p l a c a t e d through v a r i o u s media of  approach of the planning  planning  at t h i s  r e s i d e n t s were educated,  p u b l i c meetings, news p u b l i c i t y e t c .  zen involvement was  demolish  traditional  s t r a t e g i e s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n  participation  bus_-  living.  e a r l y p e r i o d , however, were e s s e n t i a l l y  The  Nos.  were then d i s p e r s e d .  Various  in-  displaced  s o c i a l problems  cases were aggregated i n the p u b l i c housing The  economic out-turn  of the programs a l s o  failed  134 to b e n e f i t e i t h e r the government or the people.  To  the  r e s i d e n t s , the e n t i r e r e n e v a l process had been non-democratic, without  enough concern v i t h the peoples' values and needs. The  types of c i t i z e n involvement  i n planning i n  Strathcona proceeded to an i n t e r i m s t a t e of t e c h n i c a l  as-  s i s t a n c e i n the mid 1960s vhen the Strathcona Area C o u n c i l of  the U.C.S. and the C i t y S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Community  Development Department vere formed. agencies  are concerned  Since these tvo p u b l i c  v i t h the o v e r a l l development of S t r a t h -  cona ( i . e . not only urban renewal i s s u e s ) , they are able to p e r c e i v e and p l a n f o r the community from a broader hensive viewpoint.  compre-  They p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l  a s s i s t a n c e to the people  i n promoting a community s p i r i t  and  b e t t e r systems of o r g a n i z a t i o n (e.g. b l o c k by b l o c k b a s i s ) . The  s t r a t e g i e s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S t r a t h -  cona s i n c e 1968  when Urban Renewal Scheme I I I was  proposed  resembled the l e v e l of c i t i z e n power i n the Ladder of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Model.  The f o r m a t i o n of the Strathcona  Owners and Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n was  Property  able to o b t a i n genuine  support from the f e d e r a l government who a l l urban renewal programs i n Canada.  concurrently halted The peoples'  political  a s p i r a t i o n , e n t h u s i a s t i c a t t i t u d e , capable l e a d e r s h i p and united s p i r i t  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the executive members) a l s o con-  t r i b u t e d to the success  of the group.  At p r e s e n t , the SPOTA  i s recognized as a delegated body which takes an equal seat w i t h the government i n the p l a n n i n g - decision-making  process.  135 I t appears that the peoples' d e s i r e s are represented  i n the p o l i t i c a l  significantly  arena.  To-date, the Strathcona  Urban Renewal Case i s  ••"\  still  i n i t s e l f unfinished.  S i t u a t e d at a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n  of the C i t y , the area i s s t i l l under a continuous process of change - w i t h pressure and dilemmas (e.g. the Scheme of Downtown). seen. vides  from v a r i o u s  diversified interests  freeway i s s u e s and the B e a u t i f i c a t i o n I t s f u t u r e development has  yet to  be  However, the e v o l u t i o n of the Case Study so f a r proevidences that c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Strathcona  undergone p r o g r e s s i v e  has  changes from the p a s s i v e n o n - p a r t i c i -  p a t i o n r o l e to the aggressive  stage of delegated  power.  It  i n d i c a t e s that c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a promising a l t e r n a t i v e to the t r a d i t i o n a l p l a n n i n g  approach under the present  t i c a l system.  there has  Accordingly,  been some v a l i d a t i o n  i n presuming that p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy w i l l a s s i s t i n t e g r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l planning  and  poli-  social  the  goals.  Suggestions f o r Future Research There are  some unexplored areas i n t h i s  which r e q u i r e f u r t h e r One  thesis  research.  of the major i s s u e s i s the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p  between p h y s i c a l environment and understanding i s needed of how  social conditions.  A deeper  human behavior i s a f f e c t e d by  the p h y s i c a l environment and v i s e  versa.  136 More thorough r e s e a r c h should also be given to examine the s o c i a l consequences of urban renewal a c t i o n s , particularly  i n the redevelopment areas.  In g e n e r a l , there  has been v e r y l i t t l e work done on t h i s k i n d of follow-up studies.  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s  have l a r g e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to make on these problems.  will It is  thus d e s i r a b l e to broaden p l a n n i n g education to i n c l u d e r e l e v a n t aspects of s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . The major f i n d i n g s of t h i s t h e s i s i n d i c a t e t h a t a radical  change i s deemed necessary i n the p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n -  making process - that c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p o l i t i c s .  I t posts two  new  i s a new  kind  c h a l l e n g e s to the p l a n n i n g  p r o f e s s i o n a l s : to i n c r e a s e t h e i r s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y and to broaden t h e i r i n n o v a t i o n r o l e . promote e f f e c t i v e  I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o how  citizen participation  and to p o l i t i c i z e  the p l a n n i n g process w i l l undoubtedly be meaningful areas.  to  research  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS AND  PAMPHLETS  Anderson, M a r t i n . The F e d e r a l B u l l d o z e r . New H i l l , 1967.  York: McGraw-  B e r l e s o n , B. and S t e i n e r , G.A. Human Behavior: An Inventory of S c i e n t i f i c F i n d i n g s . New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1964. B o s k o f f , A. The S o c i o l o g y of Urban Regions. New Books, 1962.  York: B a s i c  B u l l u s h , J . and Hansknecht, Urban Renewal, People, P o l i t i c s and P l a n n i n g . New York, 1967. Chapin, F.S. Urban Land Use P l a n n i n g . 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