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UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The making of Under the Volcano : an examination of lyrical structure, with reference to textual revisions Johnson, Carell 1969

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THE M A K I N G OP UNDER T H E VOLCANO; A¥. E X A M I N A T I O N - OF L Y R I C A L . S T R U C T U R E , W I T H R E F E R E N C E TO T E X T U A L R E V I S I O N S b y C A R E L L JOHNSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 7 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE D E G R E E O F M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E N G L I S H We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A p r i l , 1 9 6 9 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f E n g l i s h The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 2 , 1 9 6 9 ABSTRACT The aim o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e how Lowry expanded Undft-n thft V n l n a n n beyond t h e n a r r a t i v e l e v e l and y e t a l s o managed t o i n f u s e t h i s dense, expanded s t r u c t u r e w i t h an o r g a n i c u n i t y . Passages from the e a r l i e r d r a f t s o f t h e n o v e l have been j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e p r i n t e d v e r -s i o n i n o r d e r t o r e v e a l s a l i e n t a s p e c t s o f method and purpose i n the n o v e l ' s c o m p o s i t o n . Chapter I a t t e m p t s t o demonstrate t h a t Un^lejL_ihje. V o l c a n o i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l y r i c a l n o v e l and d i s c u s s e s the b a c k g r o u n d and aims o f t h i s t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y genre. What c h i e f l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e l y r i c a l from t h e non-l y r i c a l n o v e l i s t h a t i t t r a n s c e n d s c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e , t o some degree, a n d p r e s e n t s a s p a t i a l p a t t e r n . . C h a pter I I d i s c u s s e s t h e cosmic o u t l o o k w h i c h prompts a w r i t e r t o aim a t p r e s e n t i n g s i m u l t a n e i t y r a t h e r t h a n s u c c e s s i o n , and examines t e x t u a l r e v i s i o n s w h i c h r e v e a l Lowry's . i n t e n t i o n t o g i v e h i s theme a cosmic o r u n i v e r s a l scope. Chapter I I I examines how Lowry has expanded moments i n t h e n a r r a t i v e t h r o u g h t h e use o f l e i t m o t i f . I n t r a c i n g t h e s e f l e x i b l e m o t i f s , we see t h a t Lowry has u s e d v a r i a t i o n t o make one symbol o r image embrace b o t h p o s i -t i v e and n e g a t i v e p o l e s and thus r e n d e r h i s c e n t r a l theme, the dichotomy o f human e x p e r i e n c e . Chapter I V t r a c e s how Lowry has u s e d a n o t h e r m u s i c a l d e v i c e , c o u n t e r p o i n t , t o expand moments o r scenes i n t h e n a r r a t i v e and thus suggest s i m u l t a n e i t y . The f i n a l c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e p r e v a i l i n g atmos-phere o f p o i s e d t e n s i o n and t h e wave p a t t e r n w h i c h emerge from t h e n o v e l ' s s t r u c t u r e and how t h i s p a t t e r n not only gives the expanded structure a unity, but also renders theme. T A B L E OP CONTENTS C h a p t e r P a g e I . T h e L y r i c a l . N o v e l • 1 I I . S i m u l t a n e i t y a n d R e v i s i o n s t o t h e F i r s t V e r s i o n W h i c h P o i n t e d T o w a r d s E x p a n s i o n . . . . . . . 1 4 I I I . E x p a n s i o n a n d P a t t e r n T h r o u g h L e i t m o t i f . . . . 2 6 IV.. E x p a n s i o n a n d P a t t e r n t h r o u g h C o u n t e r p o i n t . . . 5 4 V . T h e E n d R e s u l t o f S i m u l t a n e i t y : P a t t e r n . . . . 8 7 G L O S S A R Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 0 S E L E C T E D . B I B L I O G R A P H Y . 1 0 1 . C H A P T E R I T H E L Y R I C A L . N O V E L A l t h o u g h t h e f o r m o f t h e n o v e l h a s n e v e r b e e n f i x e d o r r i g i d , t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h t h e u s e o f l y r i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e n o v e l h a s r e s u l t e d i n a n e w c a t e g o r y o f f i c t i o n * T h i s n e w t y p e o f f i c t i o n h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d b y a v a r i e t y o f t e r m s . J a m e s J o y c e ' s U l y s s e s ( 1 9 2 2 ) h a s b e e n c l a s s i f i e d a s a n " o r c h e s t r a t e d n o v e l " ; V i r g i n i a W o o l f ' s T h e Waves; ( l 9 3 l ) h a s b e e n c a l l e d a " l y r i c a l n o v e l " ; F a u l k n e r ' s T h e Sound and t h e F n r v ( 1 9 2 9 ) h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a s a " p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l " ; a n d a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t a l n o v e l s h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d r a t h e r v a g u e l y a s " s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s " n o v e l s . T h e t e r m " l y r i c a l n o v e l " i s t h e l e a s t c o n f i n i n g o f t h e s e l a b e l s a n d t h e r e f o r e s e e m s t h e o n e b e s t s u i t e d t o d e s -c r i b e t h i s new c a t e g o r y a s a w h o l e . I t i m p l i e s o n l y t h a t s o me p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s h a v e b e e n u s e d i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n o v e l . T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f M a l c o l m L o w r y ' s U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o p r e s e n t s a u n i q u e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l f o r m . F o r t h e s a k e o f c l a r i t y , t h i s a n a l y s i s o f i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n h a s s o m e w h a t a r t i f i c i a l l y g r o u p e d t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s o f c o m p o s i t i o n u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g s " L e i t m o t i f , " " C o u n t e r p o i n t , " a n d " P a t t e r n . " T h e a i m o f t h i s t h e s i s , h o w e v e r , i s n o t t o d i s s e c t U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o i n t o l a b e l l e d p a r t s i n o r d e r t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e n o v e l a s a w h o l e b u t r a t h e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e j u s t h o w L o w r y h a s i n f u s e d t h i s n o v e l w i t h i t s d y n a m i c i m m e d i a c y , t e n s i o n , a n d d e n s i t y . . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s a n a l y s i s m e t h o d w i l l b e c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h p u r p o s e f o r " i n a r t b e a u t y a n d t r u t h a r e i n d i v i s i b l e a n d o n e . " A s M a r k S c h o r e r a r g u e s i n h i s e s s a y " T e c h n i q u e a n d D i s c o v e r y , " M o d e r n c r i t i c i s m h a s s h o w n u s t h a t t o s p e a k o f c o n t e n t 2 a s s u c h i s n o t t o s p e a k o f a r t a t a l l , h u t o f e x p e r i -e n c e ; a n d t h a t i t i s o n l y w h e n we s p e a k o f t h e a c h i e v e d c o n t e n t , t h e f o r m , t h e w o r k o f a r t a s a w o r k , t h a t we s p e a k a s c r i t i c s , 3 A l t h o u g h t e c h n i q u e a n d c o n t e n t a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n a n y a r t i s t i c a l l y u n i f i e d n o v e l , t h e y h e c o m e i n s e p a r a b l e i n t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l w h i c h s e e k s t o r e n d e r r a t h e r t h a n r e -p o r t e x p e r i e n c e . T h e i m p e t u s b e h i n d t h i s d e s i r e t o r e n d e r e x p e r i e n c e l y r i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e n o v e l f o r m h a s b e e n a p t l y s u m m a r i z e d a s s i m p l y a n a t t e m p t " t o s e r v e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y n e e d s . " T h e n e e d t o f i n d n e w w a y s o f e m b r a c i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f m o d e r n l i f e p r o m p t e d t h e p o e t ' s t u r n t o t h e n o v e l f o r m a n d t h e n o v e l i s t ' s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h l y r i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . A s L o w r y e x p l a i n s , " t h e b e t t e r k i n d o f p o e t w r i t e s i n n o v e l f o r m b e c a u s e l i f e d o e s n ' t f r a m e i t s e l f k i n d l y f o r h i m i n i a m b i c p e n t a m e t e r . V i r g i n i a W o o l f a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f e x i s t i n g p o e t i c f o r m s i n t h e m o d e r n c o n t e x t c r e a t e d a n e e d f o r a n e w t y p e o f n o v e l w h i c h c o u l d a s s u m e s ome o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f p o e t r y . S h e b e l i e v e d t h a t p o e t r y h a d b e c o m e t o o l i m i t e d a v e h i c l e f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t b e c a u s e o f i t s p a s t a s s o c i a t i o n s : P o e t r y h a s r e m a i n e d a l o o f i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f h e r p r i e s t . S h e h a s p e r h a p s p a i d t h e p e n a l t y f o r t h i s s e c l u s i o n b y b e c o m i n g a l i t t l e s t i f f . H e r p r e s e n c e w i t h a l l h e r a p -p a r a t u s - h e r v e i l s , h e r g a r l a n d s , h e r m e m o r i e s , h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s - a f f e c t s u s t h e m o m e n t s h e s p e a k s . T h u s w h e n we a s k p o e t r y t o e x p r e s s t h i s d i s c o r d , t h i s i n c o n -g r u i t y , t h i s s n e e r , t h i s c o n t r a s t , t h i s c u r i o s i t y , t h e q u i c k , q u e e r e m o t i o n s w h i c h a r e b r e d i n s m a l l s e p a r a t e r o o m s , t h e w i d e , g e n e r a l i d e a s w h i c h c i v i l i z a t i o n t e a c h e s , s h e c a n n o t m o v e q u i c k l y e n o u g h , s i m p l y e n o u g h , o r b r o a d l y e n o u g h t o d o i t . b M o d e r n l i f e a l s o d o e s n o t f r a m e i t s e l f k i n d l y i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l f o r m . D a v i d D a i c h e s h a s d e s c r i b e d t h i s 3 t r a d i t i o n a l form as "a p a t t e r n i n g o f i m a g i n e d e v e n t s s e t a g a i n s t a c l e a r l y r e a l i z e d s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d " and "what was s i g n i f i c a n t was what a l t e r e d a s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p -l o v e and m a r r i a g e , q u a r r e l l i n g and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , g a i n o r l o s s o f money o r o f s o c i a l s t a t u s . " E a l p h Freedman has d e f i n e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l n o v e l i n a s i m i l a r way; he says t h a t i n " i t s main t r a d i t i o n ( t h e t r a d i t i o n we t h i n k o f when ' n o v e l ' comes t o mind) . . . man . . „ p i t s h i s m o r a l o r a m o r a l sense a g a i n s t t h e v a l u e s o f o t h e r s . A f t e r t h e F i r s t W o r l d War, however, t h e r e w as no g e n e r a l p u b l i c agreement as t o what "the v a l u e s o f o t h e r s " were o r what t h e y s h o u l d b e . I n the words o f W a l t e r A l l e n , t h e war s p l i t t h e l a n d s c a p e o f time l i k e an enormous n a t u r a l c a t a s t r o p h e , o b l i t e r a t i n g l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d b o u n d a r i e s , b l o w i n g s k y - h i g h landmarks t h a t f o r y e a r s h a d been t a k e n f o r granted.*? F o r t h e a r t i s t , " the r e s u l t o f t h i s chaos i s i n t h e 10 f i r s t p l a c e a p r oblem o f s t y l e . " The c h a l l e n g e f a c i n g modem n o v e l i s t s i s t o c r e a t e a t y p e o f f i c t i o n w h i c h does n o t need t o depend on any assumed la n d m a r k s . Some have responded t o t h i s c h a l l e n g e by u s i n g l y r i c a l t e c h -n i q u e s w h i c h e n a b l e them t o c r e a t e an autonomous a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y w i t h i n t h e n o v e l . ^ I n o t h e r words each l y r i c a l n o v e l i s t c r e a t e s a u n i q u e , independent framework or o r d e r f o r h i s v i s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e by r e n d e r i n g i t w i t h i n a. f o r m a l d e s i g n ; he b u i l d s t h i s framework b y c r e a t i n g h i s own s y m b o l i c landmarks. Man and environment, t h e s e t t i n g f o r man's a c t i o n s , become elements o f a c l o s e l y - k n i t p a t t e r n . Sometimes we a r e v e r y aware o f some o m n i s c i e n t hand f o r m a l l y d e s i g n i n g . t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f man and w o r l d . I n The Waves,, f o r example,, each group o f monologues r e p r e -s e n t s a common s t a g e i n the c h a r a c t e r s ' l i f e c y c l e s and 4 e a c h o f t h e s e g r o u p s i s p r e c e d e d b y a p r o s e p o e m d e -p i c t i n g c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a g e s i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d . A c -c o r d i n g t o t h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e s u n o v e r t h e g a r d e n , t h e p r o s e p o e m s c o v e r t h e t i m e s p a n o f o f o n e d a y h u t t h e c h a n g i n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e s u n i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y s e a s o n a l c h a n g e s w h i c h t r a c e s t h e a n n u a l l i f e c y c l e s i n t h e n a t -u r a l w o r l d . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o s e p o e m s a n d t h e m o n o l o g u e s a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r b y common i m a g e s , we a r e v e r y c o n s -c i o u s t h a t s ome f o r m a l p a t t e r n h a s b e e n s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e a u t h o r ' s v i s i o n . A n o t h e r w a y o f b r i n g i n g t h e o u t e r w o r l d i n t o a p a t -t e r n a n d i n v e s t i n g i t w i t h r e l e v a n c y i s t o d e f i n e i t i n t e r m s o f a c h a r a c t e r ' s u n i q u e p e r c e p t i o n o f i t . T h e c h a r a c t e r " m i r r o r s t h e w o r l d a s h e s e e s i t a n d l e n d s i t a s p e c i f i c c o l o r o r s h a p e . L o w r y u s e s t h i s t e c h n i q u e e f -f e c t i v e l y i n U n d e r t h e V o l r a n W h e n t h e C o n s u l a n d Y v o n n e c o n f r o n t e a c h o t h e r i n s i l e n c e , t h e i r f o r m e r g e s -t u r e s o f l o v e now p a r a l y z e d , t h e C o n s u l s e n s e s a n " a l m o s t t a c t i l e " s i l e n c e i n t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e s o p e r v a s i v e t h a t t h e t r e e s a r e " a p p a r e n t l y s h a k i n g t o i t . T h i s i l l u s i o n i n v e s t s t h e " w h o l e s c e n e b e f o r e h i s e y e s w i t h h o r r o r . " T h e C o n s u l ' s s e n s e o f doom a f f e c t s e v e n t h e f l o w e r s i n t h e g a r d e n a n d t h e y t a k e o n m e n a c i n g q u a l i t i e s ; t h e s c a r l e t f l o w e r s b e c o m e " f l a m i n g s w o r d s " ( U V , 3 1 7 ) a n d t h e l e a v e s o f t h e p l a n t a i n s s e e m " s a v a g e . " ( U V f 1 0 3 ) A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t a s t o w h a t c o n -s t i t u t e s a " l y r i c a l n o v e l , " m o s t c r i t i c s p o i n t t o t h i s f u s i o n o f t h e i n n e r a n d o u t e r w o r l d a s a d o m i n a n t c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c o f n o v e l s e m p l o y i n g p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s . V i r g i n i a W o o l f s a i d t h a t o n e o f t h e m a i n g o a l s o f t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l -i s t w a s t o m a k e h i s r e a d e r a w a r e t h a t " a l a r g e a n d i m p o r -t a n t p a r t o f l i f e c o n s i s t s i n o u r e m o t i o n s t o w a r d s s u c h I L L IT t h i n g s a s r o s e s a n d n i g h t i n g a l e s , t h e d a w n , t h e s u n s e t . " 5 J . A . H i r s c h m a n , i n h i s s t u d y o f U l v s s e s . s a y s t h a t James * J o y c e h a s d i s t i l l e d t h e u s u a l n a r r a t i v e m e t h o d s b y " e f f e c -t i n g t h e w o r l d o f h i s c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s own c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " I n a n a n a l y s i s o f Mrs., W o o l f * s Thfi Waves. R.G. G o l l i n s s a y s t h a t " w h i l e c o n v e n t i o n a l n a r r a -t i v e s e e k s p r e c i s i o n o f c h a r a c t e r o r a c t i o n b y s e p a r a t i n g i t f r o m t h e m a t r i x o f i t s o c c u r r e n c e / 1 V i r g i n i a W o o l f t r i e s t o p r e s e n t " t h a t v e r y m a t r i x i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e human c h a r a c t e r . " F r e e d m a n a s s e r t s t h a t w h a t d i s t i n -g u i s h e s t h e l y r i c a l f r o m t h e n o n - l y r i c a l n o v e l i s "a d i f -f e r e n t c o n c e p t o f o b j e c t i v i t y " : w h i l e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l " s e p a r a t e s t h e e x p e r i e n c i n g s e l f f r o m t h e w o r l d t h e e x p e r i e n c e s a r e a b o u t , " t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l " s e e k s t o com-b i n e man a n d w o r l d i n a s t r a n g e l y i n w a r d , y e t a e s t h e t i c -a l l y o b j e c t i v e f o r m . " A l t h o u g h we e a r l i e r d e s c r i b e d L o w r y ' s c o m b i n a t i o n o f man a n d w o r l d a s a " t e c h n i q u e " u s e d t o g i v e t h e o u t e r w o r l d some m e a n i n g f u l d e f i n i t i o n , i t a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a t h e m a t i c t h r e a d i n t h e t o t a l f o r m o f " a c h i e v e d c o n t e n t " o f t h e n o v e l . G e o f f r e y F i r m i n ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h a n g e t h a t h a s t a k e n p l a c e i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e o u t e r w o r l d c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e f u s i o n o f i n n e r a n d o u t e r w o r l d s r e p r e s e n t s a symptom o f t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s i n t e g r a -t i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e f a c e o f p u b l i c c h a o s : When he h a d s t r i v e n u p w a r d s , a s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g w i t h Y v o n n e , h a d n o t t h e ' f e a t u r e s ' o f l i f e seemed t o g r o w more c l e a r , more a n i m a t e d , f r i e n d s a n d e n e m i e s more i d e n t i f i a b l e , s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s , s c e n e s , a n d w i t h them t h e s e n s e o f h i s own r e a l i t y , more separate f r o m h i m -s e l f ? And h a d i t n o t t u r n e d o u t t h a t t h e f u r t h e r down he s a n k , t h e more t h o s e f e a t u r e s h a d t e n d e d t o d i s -s e m b l e , t o c l o y a n d c l u t t e r , t o become f i n a l l y l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n g h a s t l y c a r i c a t u r e s o f h i s d i s s i m u l a t i n g i n n e r a n d o u t e r s e l f . ( U V f 5 9 1 ) 6 T h e C o n s u l ' s u s e o f t h e p h r a s e " s t r i v e n u p w a r d s " i m p l i e s t h a t h e h a d o n c e s e e n i n t h e o u t e r w o r l d c e r t a i n " i d e n t i -f i a b l e " g o a l s w o r t h c l i m b i n g t o w a r d s . Now, h o w e v e r , h e d i s m i s s e s t h e p l a n o f H u g h a n d Y v o n n e t o c l i m b t h e v o l -c a n o ^ w h i c h i n o n e o f i t s a s p e c t s s e e m s s y m b o l i c o f t h e w o r l d ' s c h a l l e n g e ) a s a " p a t h e t i c j o k e . " ( U V , 3 2 0 ) T h r o u g h -o u t t h e n o v e l e v e n p u b l i c s i g n s , w h i c h u s u a l l y p r o v i d e s o me s o r t o f s u p e r f i c i a l o r d e r o r g u i d a n c e , a r e o n l y c o n -f u s i n g , m e n a c i n g , o r u s e l e s s . T h e s i g n i n t h e p u b l i c g a r -d e n t h r e a t e n s e v i c t i o n . T h e o n l y s i g n t h a t s e e m s a p p r o -p r i a t e f o r t h e n a r r o w s u n k e n r o a d b e t w e e n Q u a u h n a h u a c a n d T o m a l i n i s " P u b l i c F o o t p a t h t o L c s t w i t h i e l . " ( U Y , 2 7 0 ) F o r Y v o n n e ^ s i g n s n o l o n g e r h a v e a n y s t a b l e f o r m ; s h e s e e s " a s m i g h t t h e C o n s u l , t h e s i g n i n t h e T o w n H o u s e w i n d o w ' I n -f o r m a l D a n c i n g i n t h e Z e b r a Room* t u r n ' I n f e r n a l ' . " ( U V , 2 9 4 ) T h e w e a t h e r - b e a t e n a r r o w " p o i n t i n g t o t h e w a t e r f a l l b y t h e S a l o n O f e l i a i s " h a r d l y v i s i b l e " ( U V , 3 4 7 ) a n d w h e n H u g h a n d Y v o n n e a r e s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e C o n s u l , t h e y come a c r o s s " a s a d u s e l e s s " a r r o w p o i n t i n g b a c k t h e w a y t h e y ' d c o m e , t o t h e b u r n e d A n o c h t i t l a n . ( U V , 3 6 3 ) T o t h e C o n s u l t h e s e s i g n s e m p h a s i z e t h e c h a o s t h a t h e s e n s e s b o t h i n t h e o u t e r w o r l d a n d w i t h i n h i m s e l f , t h i s i n n e r p t u r m o i l b e i n g , i n p a r t , a p r o d u c t o f t h a t t h r e a t e n i n g e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n -m e n t . On a n o t h e r l e v e l , t h e s e s i g n s s e r v e a s i n d i c a t o r s t o t h e r e a d e r o f L o w r y ' s v i e w o f t h e m o d e r n w o r l d ; i n s c a t t e r i n g t h e s e s i g n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l , L o w r y s e e m s t o b e e m p h a s i z i n g t h e n e e d f o r t h e d e f i n i n g p a t t e r n h e h a s c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e n o v e l . A l t h o u g h a n y n o v e l m u s t b e r e a d p a g e b y p a g e , b y w e a v i n g n a r r a t i v e i n t o a f o r m a l d e s i g n t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l u l t i m a t e l y f o c u s s e s o u r a t t e n t i o n u p o n a t o t a l p i c t u r e . I t i s i n t h i s s u g g e s t i o n o f a p a t t e r n t h a t t h i s " h y b r i d g e n r e a p p r o a c h e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f a p o e m . A s L o w r y a s s e r t s 7 i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t " t h e b e s t k i n d o f n o v e , " " e v e r y -t h i n g w h i c h i s g o o d a n d h a s o r d e r a n d i n n e r c o h e s i o n i s a s o r t o f p o e m . M a l l a r m e s e x p l a n a t i o n o f h o w v e r s e d i f f e r s f r o m p r o s e c a n a l s o h e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e how t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l d i f f e r s f r o m t h e n o n - l y r i c a l n o v e l : V e r s e , i n i t s a t t e m p t t o e x p r e s s t h e i d e a p r o c e e d s l i k e a n a r r o w a i m e d a t a t a r g e t , w i t h a n a t t e m p t l e s s a t s u c c e s s i o n t h a n a t s i m u l t a n e i t y , a n d m a n -a g e s t o r e d u c e d u r a t i o n t o a s p i r i t u a l d i v i s i o n p r o p e r t o t h e s u b j e c t ; i t d i f f e r s f r o m t h e p r o s e s e n t e n c e b y i t s d e v e l o p m e n t i n t i m e , p l a y i n g p r a n k s u p o n i t , d e c e i v i n g i t i n a t h o u s a n d w a y s * 1 0 S i m i l a r l y , t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l i s " c o n s t r u c t e d m o r e o n a s p a t i a l r e f e r e n c e t h a n o n a t i m e s e q u e n c e . J o s e p h ay-F r a n k c o i n e d t h e t e r m " s p a t i a l i z a t i o n o f f o r m " t o d e s c r i b e t h e m e t h o d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n u s e d i n n o v e l s w h i c h , t o s ome d e g r e e , t r a n s c e n d c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e . H o w e v e r , a s F r a n k n o t e s i n t h e w o r k o f J o y c e , t h e u s e o f s p a t i a l r e f -e r e n c e i n t h e n o v e l d o e s n o t c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y t i m e s e q u e n c e * We a r e a w a r e o f t i m e s e q u e n c e i n U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o f o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e n a r r a t i v e t h e r e a r e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s p e c i f i c t i m e o f d a y . Y v o n n e a r r i v e s i n Q u a u h n a h u a e i n " t h e s e v e n o ' c l o c k m o r n i n g s u n l i g h t . " ( U V . 7 1 ) L a t e r t h e C o n s u l c a n h e a r t h a t " s o m e w h e r e a c l o c k w a s s t r i k i n g n i n e -t e e n . T w e l v e o ' c l o c k . " ( U V , 1 7 6 ) A s h e a p p r o a c h e s L a r u e l l e * s h o u s e , F i r m i n n o t e s t h a t t h e t i m e i s " 1 : 2 0 P.M." ( U V . 2 2 4 ) D u r i n g t h e b u s r i d e H u g h o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e c l o c k i n t h e m a r k e t ttsaid t e n t o t h r e e ; b u t i t w a s t w e n t y t o . " ( U V . 2 6 7 ) B u t a l t h o u g h we a r e a w a r e o f t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e , t h e dom-i n a n t i m p r e s s i o n t h a t e m e r g e s i s t h a t o f a s p a t i a l p a t t e r n r a t h e r t h a n a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s , o n t h r o u g h c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e , L o w r y t h o u g h t o f t h e n o v e l ' s f o r m a s " t h a t o f a w h e e l , w i t h t w e l v e s p o k e s . I n o r d e r t o c o m p r e h e n d t h e 8 n a t u r e of the w o r l d under the v o l c a n o , one must s t a n d a t the hub of the wheel and observe how the twelve chap-t e r s are bound i n t o a meaningfu l d e s i g n b y an i n t r i c a t e web o f symbols and images, language p a t t e r n s and s t r u c -t u r a l a n a l o g i e s . The f i n a l form o f Under the Volcano was the r e s u l t o f e x t e n s i v e r e v i s i o n ; Lowry was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the f i r s t v e r s i o n o f the n o v e l because "the p a t t e r n d i d n ' t emerge p r o p e r l y . " A l t h o u g h he b e l i e v e d t h a t the f i r s t v e r s i o n had a c h i e v e d " a s p i r i t u a l v i c t o r y , " i t d i d not r e p r e s e n t " a n a e s t h e t i c o n e . " The r e v i s i o n s and "Working N o t e s " i n the manuscr ipts w h i c h f o l l o w e d t h i s f i r s t v e r s i o n r e v e a l a c a r e f u l w o r k i n g towards the a e s -t h e t i c v i c t o r y o f the p r i n t e d v e r s i o n . Harvey B r e i t has s a i d t h a t L o w r y ' s l e t t e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t he had u a minute knowledge o f what he was up t o i n h i s w o r k , " and t h i s i s e q u a l l y t r u e o f h i s m a n u s c r i p t s . A l t h o u g h i n o u t l i n i n g g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , we have been u s i n g the term " l y r i c a l n o v e , " there i s c e r -t a i n l y no " s t a n d a r d " l y r i c a l n o v e l any more than t h e r e i s any " s t a n d a r d " poem. The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s l a b e l to Under the Volcano does not mean t h a t we w i l l attempt t o compare L o w r y ' s work t o some f i x e d genre form. As Lowry h i m s e l f a s s e r t s , o n l y i n " n o v e l s w r i t t e n b y not q u i t e t r u e p o e t s " i s t h e r e " p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h form t h a t v i t i a t e s the subs tance . Lowry was not so p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h form t h a t we can o n l y a p p r e c i a t e Uwriep the Vol can n by f i t t i n g a l l o f the r e f e r e n c e s and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s i n t o a p a t t e r n a s , f o r example, we must do i n U l y s s e s a . He r i g h t l y c l a i m s t h a t the " t o p l e v e l " i s " so c o m p e l l i n g l y des igned t h a t the reader does not want t o take time o f f t o s top and p lunge beneath the s u r f a c e . " A l t h o u g h some c r i t i c s have com-p a r e d Under the Volcano to J o y c e ' s Ulysses (and seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i n do ing so they are complimenting L o w r y ) , 9 L o w r y h i m s e l f d i d n o t r e g a r d J o y c e ' s w o r k a s a n i n s p i r i n g m o d e l f o r h i s own. He f e l t t h a t J o y c e ' s n o v e l s w e r e t o o " f u l l o f i n v e n t o r i e s " a n d , i n r e p l y t o a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o r e v e a l s , a m o n g o t h e r s , a J o y c e a n in-=-f l u e n c e , s a y s : " I h a v e i m i t a t e d n o n e o f t h e t r i c k s o f t h e w r i t e r s y o u m e n t i o n . " L o w r y i m p l i e s t h a t J o y c e s t e c h -n i q u e s a r e n o t o r g a n i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o s u b s t a n c e , t h a t t h e y o f t e n r e p r e s e n t o n l y u n n e c e s s a r y e l a b o r a t i o n . C o m p a r i n g h i s o w n t e c h n i q u e w i t h J o y c e ' s L o w r y s a y s my o w n a p p r o a c h w i t h a l l h u m i l i t y i s o p p o s i t e • . . t o t h a t o f M r . J o y c e , i ^ g . . , a s i m p l i f y i n g , a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e , o f w h a t o r i g i n a l l y s u g g e s t e d i t s e l f i n f a r m o r e b a f f l i n g , c o m p l e x , a n d e s o t e r i c t e r m s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r w a y r o u n d . 3 1 D e s p i t e h i s p r o t e s t a t i o n s i t s e e m s i m p r o b a b l e t h a t L o w r y St. w a s n o t i n a n y w a y i n f l u e n c e d b y J o y c e . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , h o w e v e r , L o w r y ' s c r i t i c i s m s o f J o y c e ' s w o r k s e e m v a l i d . A s t h e m a n y o f f i c i a l g u i d e s t o J o y c e s u g g e s t , i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d U l y s s e s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o w o r k t h r o u g h a n e s o t e r i c m a z e ; a n d s o m e t i m e s t h i s l a b o r i o u s t r e k t h r o u g h m e t h o d a d d s l i t t l e t o a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p u r p o s e . A l -t h o u g h J o y c e a n c r i t i c s " u s u a l l y p e r f o r m t h e i r d u t i e s w i t h s i m p l e r e v e r e n c e " t h a t d o e s n o t q u e s t i o n h i s c e n t r a l a i m s a n d m e t h o d s , L o w r y i s n o t e n t i r e l y a l o n e i n h i s o b j e c t i o n t h a t J o y c e i n d u l g e s i n s u p e r f l u o u s v e r b a l g a m e s . H e r b e r t M u l l e r , w h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e f a s c i n a t i o n a n d s k i l l o f J o y c e ' s a r t , c o n c l u d e s t h a t U l y s s e s i s " m o r e a n e x h i b i t i o n + V. • II W t h a n a n e x p e r i e n c e . B u t a l t h o u g h L o w r y " c o m p e l l i n g l y d e s i g n e d " t h e t o p l e v e l o f Unrler t h e Vnl mnn f h e a l s o h o p e d t h a t s o m e o f h i s r e a d e r s w o u l d p l u n g e b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e . He a s s e r t s t h a t " t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e w h o l e t h i n g w a s e s s e n t i a l l y p o e t i c a l " a n d t h a t " poems o f t e n h a v e t o b e r e a d s e v e r a l 10 t i m e s "before t h e i r f u l l meaning w i l l r e v e a l i t s e l f , " b e f o r e t h e r e a d e r can g r a s p the " p o e t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the whole.. t r The l y r i c a l n a t u r e o f L©wry s c o n c e p t i o n and p u r p o s e i s e v i d e n t i n t h e way he expanded n a r r a t i v e t o c r e a t e t h i s u n i f i e d "whole." 1 1 M OTES TO C H A P T E R I J . A . H i r s c h m a n u s e s t h i s t e r r a i n h i s d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , " T h e O r c h e s t r a t e d N o v e l " ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y : 1 9 6 1 ) . He o u t l i n e s t h e " c o m p o s i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s " o f t h e o r c h e s t r a t e d n o v e l a s f o l l o w s : a ) a p a t t e r n e d u s e o f v e r b a l ( i m a g i c ) l e i t -m o t i f ( s ) o u t o f w h i c h , c h a r a c t e r s a n d e v e n t s e m e r g e ; b ) a n a c u t e l y c o n s c i o u s , i f n o t s e l f - c o n s -c i o u s , c o n c e r n w i t h s t r u c t u r e ( o r g a n i c , s y m b o l i c a n d s y n t h e t i c ) , i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f w h i c h t h e ' n a r r a t i v e momentum' o f s u c c e s s i v e t e m p o r a l i t y i s t a m p e r e d w i t h ; a n d e ) a n a c u t e l y c o n s c i o u s , i f n o t s e l f -c o n s c i o u s , u s e o f l a n g u a g e a s t h e p r i m a r y m e a n s f o r a c h i e v i n g c o n n o t a t i o n a l d e p t h . L e o n E d e l a p p l i e s t h i s t e r m t o T h e Sound anrl the F n r v i n T h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l N o v e l ( P h i l a d e l p h i a l L i p p i n c o t t , 1 9 5 5 ) . H o w e v e r i n t h e p r e f a c e t o t h e r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f t h i s b o o k ( 1 9 6 4 ) , E d e l s a y s t h a t h e n o w f e e l s t h e t e r m " p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l " i s a c t u a l l y n a r r o w f o r h i s p u r p o s e a n d t h a t , e x c e p t f o r t h e c o n f u s i o n i t w o u l d h a v e c a u s e d , h e w o u l d h a v e c h a n g e d t h e t i t l e o f h i s s t u d y t o " T h e S u b j e c t i v e N o v e l . " M a r k S c h o r e r , " T e c h n i q u e a s D i s c o v e r y , " Forms o f M o d e m ,  F i c t i o n . E d i t e d b y W i l l i a m V a n 0 ' C o n n o r . ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 9 . 4 W. V a n 0 ' C o n n o r , " T h e N o v e l i n O u r T i m e , " I b A i L _ , p . 3 . M a l c o l m L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s o f Malcolm Lowrv. E d i t e d b y H a r v e y B r e i t a n d M a r g e r i e B o n n e r L o w r y . ( N e w Y o r k : J . B v L i p p i n c o t t , , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 2 8 . 6 V i r g i n i a W o o l f , " T h e N a r r o w B r i d g e o f A r t , " C o l l e c t e d  E s s a y s I I ( L o n d o n : H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 2 2 3 - 2 4 . D a v i d D a i c h e s , The P r e s e n t Ape i n B r i t i s h L i t e r a t u r e ^ ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 8 5 . 1 2 8 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 R a l p h F r e e d m a n , T h e L y r i c a l N o v e l l ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 2 . 9 / W a l t e r A l l e n , T r a d i t i o n and Dream.. ( . L o n d o n : P h o e n i x H o u s e , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 1 . H e r b e r t J . M u l l e r , Modem P i . c t i o n : A Study n f V a l u e s . ( T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i 1 1 , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 8 . J o s e p h W a r r e n B e a c h , i n T h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y N o v e l ( N e w Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 3 2 ) , a p p l i e s t h e t e r m " p o s t - i m p r e s s i o n i s t " t o t h e n o v e l i s t w h o s e e k s t o b u i l d t h i s a u t o n o m o u s a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y . U n l i k e t h e " i m p r e s s i o n i s t , " w h o i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e p -r e s e n t a t i o n o f n a t u r e , t h e a i m o f t h e " p o s t - i m p r e s -s i o n i s t " i s " o u t o f t h e e l e m e n t s d e r i v e d f r o m n a t u r e , t o m a k e a n a b s t r a c t c o m p o s i t i o n f o r r e n d e r i n g s ome t r u t h o f h i s own c o n c e i v i n g . " ( p . 3 2 ) F r e e d m a n , p . 9. M a l c o l m L o w r y , Under t h e V o l c a n o . (New Y o r k : New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1 9 6 6 ; , p . 1 0 2 . A l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t a s UV, f o l l o w e d b y t h e p a g e n u m b e r . W o o l f , p . 2 2 5 . . H i r s c h m a n , p . 1 3 . R.G. C o l l i n s . . " F o u r C r i t i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t h e M o d e r n N o v e l ( U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . D i s s e r t a t i o n ) , U n i v e r -s i t y o f D e n v e r , 1 9 6 2 , p . 2 9 . F r e e d m a n , p . 2 . T h i s p h r a s e i s u s e d b y F r e e d m a n , p . 1.. L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , , p . 4 2 . C i t e d b y M e l v i n F r i e d m a n , Stream o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s ^ Study i n L i t e r a r y Method. ( N e w H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 1 9 . 1 3 21 F r e e d m a n , p p . 2 6 1 - 6 2 . 22 J o s e p h F r a n k , " S p a t i a l F o r m i n t h e M o d e r n N o v e l , " C r i t i q u e s a n d EaaavB on M o d e r n F i c t i o n . E d i t e d b y J o h n A l d r i d g e . ( N e w Y o r k : R o n a l d P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 ) , p . 4 4 . 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p . 6 7 . I b i d . .r>.59. I b i d . , p . 3 8 . H a r v e y B r e i t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s T p . x i . 2 7 L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s T p . 2 8 . i b i d . , p . 5 9 . i b i d . , p . 2 8 . I b i d , _ , p . l 4 4 . I b i d . „ p . 6 6 . 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 R i c h a r d H. C o s t a , i n " U l y s s e s f L o w r y ' s V o l c a n o , a n d t h e V o y a g e B e t w e e n : A S t u d y o f a n U n a c k n o w l e d g e d L i t e r a r y K i n s h i p , " U n i v e r s i t y o f Tor o n t o Q u a r t e r l y ( A p r i l 1 9 6 7 ) , d i s c u s s e s h o w " L o w r y d i d m o v e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t e c h n i q u e , e v e r c l o s e r t o U l y s s e s T h u t d i d s o t h r o u g h a n i n t e r m e d i -a r y . " ( p . 3 3 6 ) T h i s " i n t e r m e d i a r y " i s C o n r a d A i k e n , w h o s e B l u e V o y a g e ( p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 2 7 , f i v e y e a r s a f t e r U l y s s e s ) c l e a r l y r e v e a l s " t h e s u b j e c t i v e e m p h a s i s o f J o y c e . " C o s t a d i s c u s s e s h o w " t h e s t r u c t u r e a s w e l l a s t h e e o n -t e n t o f B i n e V o y a g e r e c a l l s U l y s s e s " a n d how L o w r y , i n t u r n , m o d e l l e d h i s f i r s t n o v e l , U l t r a m a r i n e , o n B i n e Voyage. C o s t a g o e s o n t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e m a t i c a n d t e c h n i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n U l y s s e s a n d U n d e r t h e  V o l c a n o a n d a d d s t h a t f o r " a p a r a l l e l t o , a p r e c e d e n t f o r , t h e ' t r a g i c ' j o y o f L o w r y s n o v e l - i t s i n s i s t e n t h u m o u r a m i d s t h e l l i s h d e m o n s - o n e c a n o n l y t u r n t o U l y s s e s . " ( p . 5 3 6 ) . M u l l e r , p . 3 1 6 . Lowry, Selected. L e t t e r s , p . 5 9 . CHAPTER I I SIMULTANEITY AND REVISIONS TO THE FIRST VERSION WHICH POINT TOWARDS EXPANSION A l t h o u g h l y r i c a l f i c t i o n and p o e t r y c e r t a i n l y cannot he r e g a r d e d as i d e n t i c a l f orms, we have u s e d M a l l a r m e ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between v e r s e and p r o s e t o d e s c r i b e how t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l i s s i m i l a r t o p o e t r y i n i n t e n t i o n . M a l l a r m e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n ©f t h e i m p u l s e b e h i n d p o e t r y as an aim a t s i m u l -t a n e i t y i s s i m i l a r t o t h e t h e s i s d e v e l o p e d i n a r e c e n t s t u d y o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p o e t r y , S t a r t w i t h t h e Sun. I n t h i s book t h e a u t h o r s a s s e r t t h a t a l t h o u g h modern p o e t r y seems t o be dominated b y "the New P u r i t a n i s m - t h a t t r a d i t i o n o f r i g o r o u s l y - h o n e d i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m , , " 1 ' t h e r e a r e a c t u a l l y two main streams o f p o e t r y i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . I n a d d i -t i o n t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l E l i o t t r a d i t i o n , t h e r e i s t h e "Whitman t r a d i t i o n " o f "New Paganism." K a r l S h a p i r o s a y s p o e t r y i n t h e Whitman t r a d i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n t i -c a u s a l and s u g g e s t s t h a t o n l y a n t i - c a u s a l p o e t r y can en-compass the t r u e n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e . C o n s t r u c t e d ©n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s i m u l t a n e i t y , a n t i - c a u s a l p o e t r y r e f l e c t s t h e "cosmic c o n s c i o u s n e s s " o f i t s c r e a t o r . S h a p i r o says t h i s cosmic o u t l o o k i s r a r e i n Western s o c i e t y w h i c h u s u a l l y f i n d s t h e concept o f s i m u l t a n e i t y d i f f i c u l t t o g r a s p b e -cause ©f i t s s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n : W h i l e the Western mind c a r e f u l l y s i f t s , w e i g h s , s e l -e c t s , c l a s s i f i e s , i s o l a t e s , t h e Chinese p i c t u r e o f t h e moment encompasses e v e r y t h i n g down t o the minute and n o n s e n s i c a l d e t a i l because a l l o f t h e i n g r e d i e n t s make up t h e o b s e r v e d moment.4" I n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t a cosmic scope a w r i t e r must be aware o f the chance a s p e c t o f e v e n t s and be a b l e t o see t h e o b s e r v e d moment as a s i g n i f i c a n t , complex u n i t i n i t s e l f , r a t h e r t h a n 1 5 m e r e l y a s o n e o f a s e r i e s t o b e l a b e l l e d a n d a c c o u n t e d f © r . S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 2 0 * s V i r g i n i a W o o l f s a i d t h a t i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y * t h e " n o v e l - o f t h e - - f u t u r e , " t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l , w o u l d h a v e t o f o c u s u p o n " w h a t c o m p o s e s t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t , " w i t h a l l i t s " v i s u a l a n d s e n s e i m p r e s s i o n s " w e a v i n g t o a n d f r o i n t h e m i n d . I n h e r d i a r y s h e d e s c r i b e s h e r s t r u g g l e d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f T h e W a v e s " t o p u t e v e r y t h i n g i n " i n o r d e r " t o g i v e t h e m o m ent w h o l e . T h e d e n s i t y a n d t e n s i o n o f U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o r e f l e c t M a l c o l m L o w r y ' s own i n t e n t i o n t o " p u t e v e r y t h i n g i n . " L o w r y u s e s t h e p h r a s e , " t h e s u r f a c e " t o d e s c r i b e t h e a c t u a l s t o r y i n U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o b e c a u s e h e h a s v e r y c o n s c i o u s l y b u i l t l a y e r s b e n e a t h t h e n a r r a t i v e l e v e l . I n o t h e r w o r d s , s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f e x p r e s s i o n a r e o p e r a t i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I n o r d e r t o a p p l y t h e t e r m " s i m u l t a n e o u s " t o t h e o p e r -a t i o n o f t h e s e l e v e l s , i t i s o b v i o u s l y n e c e s s a r y t o q u a l i f y i t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e p r i n t e d p a g e . A l -t h o u g h t w o o r m o r e m u s i c a l n o t e s may b e p l a y e d a n d h e a r d a t t h e s a m e t i m e , we m u s t r e a d a n o v e l w o r d b y w o r d , l i n e b y l i n e . A s H e r m a n n B r o c h a s s e r t s , t h e n o v e l i s t " s t r i v i n g f o r s i m u l t a n e i t y . . . c a n n o t a v o i d t h e n e c e s s i t y © f e x p r e s s i n g t h e i n t e r w o v e n b y m e a n s o f t h e s u c c e s s i v e . " B u t t h e e f f e c t o f s i m u l t a n e o u s i n t e r a c t i o n c a n b e a c h i e v e d i n a n o v e l b y e n r i c h m e n t o r e x p a n s i o n o f a n i n c i d e n t o r moment s o t h a t i t s s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s r e v e r b e r a t e i n o u r m i n d s . T h e t e r m " s i m u l t a n e i t y " i s o f t e n u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h i s e f f e c t . H i r s c h m a n s a y s t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y t h e t e r m " s i m u l t a n e i t y " r e -f e r s t o a r t i s t i c f o r m w h i c h , t h r o u g h i n t e n s i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e s u l t s i n a c o m p r e s s i o n a n d e c o n o m y o f t h e p o i n t o f - n a r r a t i v e v i e w a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h a t i t a l l o w s f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f e x p r e s s i v e m e a n s t h r o u g h m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o r s y m b o l i c . • . l e v e l s o f s u g -1 6 g e s t i o n m ade s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s w i t h t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n © r m o v e m e n t o f t h e work. 1 A l t h o u g h t h e p h r a s e " i n t e n s i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n " s e e m s r a t h e r v a g u e i n t h i s c o n t e x t , H i r s c h m a n l a t e r e x -p l a i n s i t a s a r e c o g n i t i o n a n d e x p l o r a t i o n ( b y t h e w r i t e r ) o f t h e f a c t t h a t " p e r c e p t i o n f u n c t i o n s o n a n a x i s o f s i m u l -t a n e i t y " w h i l e " a n a l y s i s o f p e r c e p t i o n f u n c t i o n s o n a n a x i s o f s u c c e s s i v e n e s s . " B r o c h a l s o s t r e s s e s t h e a n t i - c a u s a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o v e l a i m i n g a t s i m u l t a n e i t y ; h e s a y s t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l i s t i s t o u n i f y a s u c c e s s i o n o f i m p r e s s i o n s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s , t o f o r c e t h e c u r r e n t b a c k i n t o t h e u n i t y o f t h e s i m u l -t a n e o u s , t o r e l e g a t e t i m e - c o n d i t i o n e l e m e n t s t o t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s o f t h e m o n a d ; i n s h o r t , t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s u p r a t e m p o r a l n a t u r e o f t h e w o r k o f a r t i n t h e c o n c e p t o f i n d i v i s i b l e h o m o g e n e i t y . A A l t h o u g h i n U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e p r o -g r e s s i o n o f c a u s e d e v e n t s s e t w i t h i n t h e t i m e - s p a n o f o n e d a y o n t h e n a r r a t i v e l e v e l , t h e l a y e r s b u i l t b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e p l a y t r i c k s w i t h c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e s o t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e n o v e l i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n t i - c a u s a l . I n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r t h e c o n c e p t o f c h a n c e a s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t o r i s s u g g e s t e d i n J a c q u e s L a r u e l l e 1 s e x p e r i m e n t w i t h " s o r t e s S h a k e s p e a r e a n a e . " ( U V . 6 1 ) A s L a r u e l l e i s t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e C o n s u l ' s d o w n f a l l , h e s h u t s h i s e y e s , © p e n e s a b o o k o f E l i z a b e t h a n p l a y s , a n d b r i n g s h i s f i n g e r " d o w n f i r m l y u p o n a p a s s a g e " d e s c r i b i n g t h e " h e l l i s h f a l l " o f " t h i s l e a r n e d m a n , " P a u s t u s . Some o f t h e b o o k s i n t h e l e a r n e d C o n s u l ' s r o o m r e f l e c t h i s o w n i n t e r e s t i n t h a t w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s o r d i n a r y l a w s ; H u g h i s f a s c i n a t e d b y t i t l e s s u c h a s S u b - m u n d a n e s r o r t h e E l e m e n t a r i e a o f t h e C a b b a l a a n d P h v a l Q - A s t r o - M v R t . 1 c r w i t h a n I l l u s t r a t i v e A p p e n d i x f t t o m 17 t h e w o r k D e m a n i a l i t y . A n d a l t h o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r G e o f f r e y P i r m i n must n o t b e c o n f u s e d w i t h h i s c r e a t o r , M a l c o l m L o w r y , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t L o w r y ' s own r e a d i n g , a s r e -v e a l e d b y h i s l e t t e r s , i n c l u d e d b o o k s s u c h a s L o t The Book o f t h e Damned, -I l o o k u p o n t h e d a y I f i r s t h i t u p o n L e i » ., a s a r e d - l e t t e r d a y i n my l i f e . I know o f no w r i t e r who , h a s made t h e i n e x p l i c a b l e seem more d r a m a t i c t h a n C h a r l e s P o r t , l5-By e x p a n d i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e t h r o u g h t h e e f f e c t s o f s i m u l -t a n e i t y , L o w r y i s a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d t h e t e m p o r a l , e a u s e -a n d - e f f e c t w o r l d o f t h e " e x p l i c a b l e " } he i s a b l e t o e x -t e n d t h e m i c r o c o s m ©f G e o f f r e y P i r m i n t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e i t p r e s e n t s a v i s i o n o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y m a c r o c o s m . Some o f t h e comments i n L o w r y ' s l e t t e r s s u g g e s t t h a t he h a d a t f i r s t c o n c e i v e d o f t h e n o v e l a s a n i n t e r e s t i n g a n d o r i g i n a l s t u d y o f a n a l c o h o l i c . I n a l e t t e r t o h i s p u b -l i s h e r d i s c u s s i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t o f " t h e new U n d e r t h e  V o l c a n o " L o w r y m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n o f a n o t h e r n o v e l a b o u t a l c o h o l i s m , The L o s t . Weekend b y C h a r l e s J a c k s o n , h a d b e e n a " c o n s i d e r a b l e b l o w . " He e x p l a i n s t h a t it i n r e - w r i t i n g h i s own n o v e l he h a s " h o i k e d o u t " a n y p a s -s a g e s w h i c h seemed to© s i m i l a r t o a n y i n The L e s t Weekend a n d , c o m m e n t i n g u p o n t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f J a c k s o n ' s b o o k , s a y s r a t h e r b i t t e r l y : "And how many t i m e s h a s t h i s a u t h o r L o w r y n o t b e e n t o l d t h a t t h a t theme o f a l l themes c o u l d n ' t s e l l , t h a t n o t h i n g was d u l l e r t h a n d i p s o m a n i a l " T h i s " d i p s o m a n i a " i s s t i l l p r e s e n t i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n b u t i t h a s become a m e t a p h o r f o r a u n i v e r s a l c o n d i t i o n . L o w r y r e a l i z e d t h a t a m a c r o c o s m i c theme demanded s e t -t i n g s a n d c h a r a c t e r s c a p a b l e ©f s u g g e s t i n g c o n v i n c i n g l y ©r p r o v i d i n g c r e d i b l e v e h i c l e s f o r u n i v e r s a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . A c -c o r d i n g l y , many o f L o w r y ' s r e v i s i o n s a r e a i m e d a t s u b t l y 1 8 e x p a n d i n g s e t t i n g s a n d c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h , i n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n , a r e s o m e t i m e s t o o n a r r o w i n s c o p e . T h e v e r y f i r s t p a r a g r a p h © f C h a p t e r I r e p r e s e n t s a n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n a n d p o i n t s t o D o w r y ' s i n -t e n t i o n t o g i v e h i s n a r r a t i v e a b r o a d e r f r a m e w o r k . W h i l e t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n p l u n g e s u s i m m e d i a t e l y i n t o t h e c o n v e r -s a t i o n b e t w e e n L a r u e l l e a n d D r . V i g i l , t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n m a k e s u s d e s c e n d s l o w l y t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c e n e f r o m a. p a n o r a m i c v i e w w h i c h l o c a t e s Q u a u h n a h u a c © n a w o r l d map a t a b o u t t h e s a m e l a t i t u d e a s t h e R e v i l l a g i g e d © I s l a n d s t© t h e w e s t i n t h e P a c i f i c , o r v e r y m u c h f u r t h e r w e s t , t h e s o u t h e r n m o s t t i p o f H a w a i i - . . . o r v e r y m u c h f u r t h e r e a s t , t h e t o w n o f J u g g e r n a u t , i n I n d i a , o n t h e B a y © f B e n g a l . (UV„S9) A s L o w r y m e n t i o n s i n h i s l e t t e r s , h e h a s i n c l u d e d m u c h i . II " » l o c a l c o l o u r w h i c h s u g g e s t s a n a t m o s p h e r e i n © n e s e n s e p e c u l i a r t o M e x i c o , b u t a t t h e s ame t i m e h e o f t e n g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n , a s i n t h e n o v e l ' s o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h , t h a t h e h a s o n e e y e © n Q u a u h n a h u a c a n d t h e o t h e r o n a w o r l d map. R e m i n i s c i n g a b o u t h i s c h i l d h o o d i n I n d i a , t h e C o n s u l t e l l s H u g h t h a t t h e M e x i c a n v o l c a n o e s r e m i n d h i m o f t h e H i m a l a y a s -" j u s t a s t h i s v a l l e y d o e s o f t h e V a l l e y o f t h e I n d u s " ( U V , 1 0 5 ) W h e n Y v o n n e s u g g e s t s t h e y s t a r t a n e w l i f e t o g e t h e r s o m e -w h e r e f a r a w a y f r o m M e x i c o , t h e C o n s u l r e p l i e s t h a t " a l l t h e s t r e e t s a r e t h e s a m e , " ( W , l l l ) i m p l y i n g t h a t g e o g r a p h y i s f i n a l l y i r r e l e v a n t t o m a n ' s a c t i o n s . T h e " w i l d t o r -r e n t i a l s c e n e r y " i n t h e p i c t u r e s o f K a s h m i r l o o k s " v a g u e l y S c o t t i s h , " a n d " t h e S h a l i m a r l o o k e d m o r e l i k e t h e Gam t h a n e v e r . " ( U V . 1 1 0 ) L a t e r , a s t h e C o n s u l r e m e m b e r s t h e h o r r o r s o f a n i g h t s p e n t b y t h e t r a i n s t a t i o n o f a s m a l l A m e r i c a n t o w n , h e c o n c l u d e s , " T h a t w a s O a k v i l l e . - B u t O a x a c a o r G a k v i l l e , , w h a t d i f f e r e n c e ? " ( U V , 3 1 4 ) 1 9 D e l e t i o n s f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n h a v e a l s o i n d i r -e c t l y e x p a n d e d t h e n o v e l ' s s c o p e . I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n L o w r y h a s o m i t t e d s e v e r a l p a s s a g e s i n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n w h i c h t e n d t o d e l i n e a t e c h a r a c t e r s a s n a t i o n a l t y p e s . We a r e s t i l l a w a r e t h a t t h e C o n s u l i s B r i t i s h ( h i s s n o r e i s c o m p a r e d t o " t h e m u t e d v o i c e o f E n g l a n d , l o n g a s l e e p " ( D V , 1 2 5 ) ) , t h a t Y v o n n e i s A m e r i c a n , a n d t h a t H u g h i s B r i t i s h a n d h a s j u s t s p e n t s o m e t i m e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . B u t p a s s a g e s s u c h a s Y v o n n e ' s a r g u m e n t w i t h t h e C o n s u l a b o u t t h e S p a n i s h C i v i l W a r , i n w h i c h s h e a c c u s e s h i m o f b e i n g " j u s t l i k e t h a t o l d u n h a p p y J o h n B u l l i n t h e f o r e s t b e a u t i f u l , h a v e n o t b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n . S i m i l a r l y , p a t r i o t i c c o m m e n t s b y H u g h (wh© i s a n A m e r i c a n i n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n ) w a s a l s o d e l e t e d d u r i n g r e v i s i o n . I n C h a p t e r I X © f t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n , H u g h d e c l a r e s t h a t " S p a i n ' s t h e l a s t f r o n t i e r b u t © n e o f p u r d e m o c r a c y " a n d a d d s : A n d b y t h e s p i r i t o f N a t h a n i e l H a w t h o r n e , a n d h i s G r e y C h a m p i o n , s i r , a n d a s I'm a g o o d A m e r i c a n , b y G © d , t h a t ' s t r u e . ( F V , I X , 9 ) I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n H u g h i s s t i l l v e r y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e S p a n i s h W a r b u t h i s own d e c i s i o n t o r e -t u r n t o S p a i n s e e m s t o b e b a s e d m o r e u p o n a s e n s e o f s o m e p e r s o n a l o b l i g a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d r a t h e r t h a n u p o n p a t r i o t i c o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s . M a n ' s g u i l t i s ©ne o f t h e m a j o r s t r a n d s i n t h e n o v e l ' s t h e m e a n d H u g h s e e m s t o c o n s i d e r h i s r e t u r n t© S p a i n a k i n d o f s a c r i f i c e w h i c h w i l l s o m e h o w a t o n e f o r t h e w a y h e h a s s p e n t h i s f i r s t t h i r t y y e a r s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t w h i l e i n C h a p t e r I V o f t h e " W o r k i n g N o t e s " H u g h t e l l s Y v o n n e -I ' v e b e e n t r y i n g t o p e r s u a d e E n g l a n d n o t t o c u t h e r t h r o a t f o r s e v e n y e a r s . • . now I s o m e t i m e s f e e l l i k e t e l l i n g h e r t o d o j u s t t h a t . - i n C h a p t e r I V © f t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n h e s a y s : 20 Try p e r s u a d i n g the world not t o cut i t s t h r o a t f o r h a l f a decade o r more, l i k e me, . . . and i t ' l l "begin t o dawn on you t h a t even your b e h a v i o r ' s p a r t o f i t s p l a n * (Uy.,130) T h i s r e v i s e d form o f Hugh's statement r e v e a l s expansion not o n l y from n a t i o n a l t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l concern, b u t a l s o from a sense of detachment t o a sense of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the macrocosm.. Hugh has come t o see h i m s e l f as a s i g -n i f i c a n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the v e r y f o r c e s s h a p i n gJw o r l d s events ; he i s d e v e l o p i n g a "cosmic c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " Most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , r e v i s i o n of the f i r s t v e r s i o n has changed the n a t u r e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the C o n s u l ' s character . . To embody a u n i v e r s a l t r a g i c exper ience a c h a r a c t e r must h i m s e l f have a c e r t a i n h e r o i c s t a t u r e . Otherwise the most c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d l e v e l s o f sugges-t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g him would seem mere p a d d i n g . As mentioned e a r l i e r , L o w r y ' s l e t t e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t the p o r t r a y a l o f G e o f f r e y F i r m i n was o r i g i n a l l y conce ieved of as an i n t e r -e s t i n g study o f d ipsomania . A c c o r d i n g l y , i n the f i r s t v e r s i o n , the C o n s u l i s regarded w i t h p i t y by h i s daughter Yvonne and h e r f i a n c e . Hugh r e f e r s to the Consul as t h a t "poor o l d f e l l o w " ( F V , V I , . 2 ) Yvonne o f t e n t r e a t s him w i t h open contempt and i m p a t i e n c e . And even the Consul f e e l s s o r r y f o r h i m s e l f ; when Yvonne and Hugh make p l a n s t o c l imb Pop© t o g e t h e r , we are t o l d t h a t " i t h u r t him to be e x c l u d e d from these arrangements . " ( P V , X , 6 ) I n the f i n a l v e r s i o n , however, the C o n s u l , w i t h a weary s u p e r i o r i t y , d i s m i s s e s t h e i r p l a n as "a p a t h e t i c j o k e " : The Consul f i n i s h e d h i s m e s c a l : a l l a p a t h e t i c j o k e , o f c o u r s e , s t i l l , t h i s p l a n t o c l imb Pop©, i f j u s t the k i n d ©f t h i n g Hugh w©uld have found out b e f o r e a r r i v i n g w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g t o much e l s e : y e t c o u l d i t be t h a t the n o t i o n o f c l i m b i n g the v o l c a n o had somehow s t r u c k them as h a v i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a l i f e t i m e t o g e t h e r ? Y e s , there i t rose up b e f o r e them^ w i t h a l l i t s h i d d e n 2 1 d a n g e r s , p i t f a l l s , a m b i g u i t i e s , d e c e p t i o n s , p o r t e n t o u s a s w h a t t h e y c o u l d i m a g i n e f o r t h e p o o r b r i e f s e l f -d e c e i v e d s p a e d o f a c i g a r e t t e w a s t h e i r own d e s t i n y . ( U V , 3 2 0 ) N o t o n l y t h e C o n s u l ' s r e a c t i o n b u t a l s o t h e w a y i n w h i c h we a r e i n f o r m e d o f t h i s r e a c t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t . I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n a n o m n i s c i e n t s t o r y t e l l e r h a s e x p l a i n e d t o u s h o w G e o f f r e y F i r m i n f e e l s . I n a s e n s e a s h o r t c u t h a s b e e n t a k e n ; we a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h o n l y t h e e n d r e s u l t o f a p r o b e i n t o t h e C o n s u l ' s m i n d . I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n , h o w e v e r , L o w r y u s u a l l y l e t s t h e r e a d e r h i m s e l f p e e r i n t o t h e C o n s u l ' s m i n d b y a c t u a l l y r e c o r d i n g h i s t h o u g h t s . T h e o n e c o m m e n t - " i t h u r t h i m t o b e e x c l u d e d " 0 b e c o m e s a r e c o r d o f t h e t w i s t s a n d t u r n s i n t h e C o n s u l ' s m i n d . S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n t h e C o n s u l ' s c h a n g e o f m o o d d u r i n g t h e a b o r t i v e a t t e m p t a t l o v e - m a k i n g i s p r e -s e n t e d r a t h e r a b r u p t l y a n d u n c o n v i n c i n g l y ; F i r m i n s u d d e n l y t h i n k s o f t h e e a n t i n a a n d we a r e t o l d t h a t h e d e c l a r e s t o h i m s e l f : " B u t a s h e j f c i s s e d h e r , h e t h o u g h t o f t h e F a r o l i t o , i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g . C h a o s , t h e n C a t h e d r a l . " ( T O , I I I , 1 2 ) B u t i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n we a r e a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e f i r s t -h a n d t h e d e t a i l s a n d i m a g e s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e C o n s u l ' s m i n d : B u t h e c o u l d f e e l n o w , t o o , t r y i n g t h e p r e l u d e , t h e p i e p -a r a t o r y n o s t a l g i c p h r a s e s o n h i s w i f e ' s s e n s e s , t h e i m a g e o f h i s p o s s e s s i o n , l i k e t h a t j e w e l l e d g a t e t h e d e s p e r a t e n e o p h y t e , Y e s o d - b o u n d , p r o j e c t s f o r t h e t h o u s a n d t h t i m e o n t h e h e a v e n s t o p e r m i t p a s s a g e o f h i s a s t r a l b o d y , f a d i n g a n d s l o w l y , i n e x o r a b l y , t h a t o f a. e a n t i n a , w h e n i n d e a d s i l e n c e a n d p e a c e i t f i r s t o p e n s i n t h e m o r n i n g , t a k i n g i t s p l a c e . I t w a s o n e o f t h o s e c a n t i n a s t h a t w o u l d b e o p e n i n g n o w , a t n i n e ©' c l o c k . . . T h i s i m a g e f a d e d a l s o . . . t h e n h e i m a g i n e d h e r e a l l y s a w H u g h c o m i n g t h r o u g h t h e g a p . . . . . B u t n o w , n o w h e w a n t e d t o g o , p a s s i o n a t e l y h e w a n t e d t o g o , a w a r e t h a t t h e p e a c e o f t h e e a n t i n a w a s c h a n g i n g t o i t s f i r s t f e v e r e d p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e m o r n i n g . ( U V , 1 1 7 - 8 ) 2 2 H e r e t h e t r a n s i t i o n h a s b e e n e f f e c t i v e l y r e n d e r e d . T h i s r e n d e r i n g o f t h e C o n s u l ' s t h o u g h t s a n d s e n s a -t i o n s e n a b l e s u s t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d a n d s y m p a t h i z e w i t h h i s b e h a v i o r . A s F i r m i n d e c l a r e s t o H u g h a n d Y v o n n e n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e n o v e l : T h e a c t o f a madman o r a d r u n k a r d . . . o r o f a m a n l a b o u r i n g u n d e r v i o l e n t e x c i t e m e n t , s e e m s l e s s f r e e a n d m o r e i n e v i t a b l e t o t h e o n e w h o k n o w s t h e m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n © f t h e m a n w h o p e r f o r m e d t h e a c t i o n ; a n d m © r e f r e e a n d l e s s i n e v i t a b l e t o t h e o n e who d o e s n o t k n o w i t . ( U V , 3 3 8 ) I n a l e t t e r t o h i s p u b l i s h e r , L o w r y s a y s t h a t o n e o f h i s a i m s i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e n o v e l w a s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e C o n s u l " i n t h e G r e c i a n m a n n e r a s a f e l l o w © f s o m e s t a t u r e , is s o t h a t h i s f a l l m a y b e t r a g i c . " W hen we k n o w t h e " m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n " o f t h e C o n s u l a t v a r i o u s m o m e n t s i n t h e n a r r a -t i v e , h i s a c t i o n s c e r t a i n l y b e c o m e " l e s s f r e e a n d m o r e i n -e v i t a b l e " ; l i k e t h e d o o m e d h e r o e s o f G r e e k t r a g e d y , t h e C o n s u l s e e m s c o n t r o l l e d m o r e b y f a t e t h a n b y h i a o w n a r b i -t r a r y w h i m s . A c o m p a r i s o n ©f t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e f r o m t h e W o r k i n g N o t e s w i t h i t s r e v i s e d f o r m i n t h e f i n a l v e r -s i o n o f t h e n o v e l m a k e s c l e a r t h e n e w e m p h a s i s L o w r y w i s h e s t o g i v e t h e C o n s u l ' s c h a r a c t e r i T r u e h e h a d n o t h a d b e f o r e , a s o n e m i g h t h a v e e x p e c t e d , t h e h a g g a r d l o o k o f a d e p r a v e d , w o r n o u t © I d m a n . Why s h o u l d h e ? W i t h a s t a r t H u g h r e m e m b e r e d G e o f f w a s o n l y t e n y e a r s o l d e r t h a n h e . Y e t i t w a s a s t h o u g h t h e p a s s i o n a t e n a r c i s s i s i s m d r i n k i n g e n t a i l e d h a d f i x e d h i s a g e a t s o m e t i m e i n t h e p a s t . ( W N , V I , 1 4 ) I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n t h i s p a s s a g e r e a d s a s f o l l o w s : T r u e , h e h a d n o t b e f o r e t h e h a g g a r d l o o k o f a d e p r a v e d w o r n - o u t © I d man: w h y s h o u l d h e i n d e e d , w h e n h e w a s o n l y t w e l v e y e a r s o l d e r t h a n H u g h h i m s e l f ? Y e t i t w a s a s t h o u g h f a t e h a d f i x e d h i s a g e a t s o m e u n i d e n t i f i a b l e m o m e n t i n t h e p a s t . ( W , 2 1 3 ) 23 I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n t h e C o n s u l i s n o t o n l y a f a s -c i n a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l h u t a l s o a r e m o t e h e r © w h © h a s s o m e -h o w a t t r a c t e d t h e w r a t h o f t h e u n i v e r s a l p o w e r , f a t e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , G e o f f r e y P i r m i n c a n m o v e f r o m m i c r o c o s m i c t o m a c r o c o s m i c l e v e l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e m a n d s o f s i m u l t a n e i t y , t h e d e n s e f o r m L o w r y h a s c h o s e n f o r h i s n o v e l . 2 4 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 N O T E S TO C H A P T E R I I J a m e s M i l l e r , . J r . , K a r l S h a p i r o a n d B e r n i c e S l o t e , S t a r t W i t h t h e S u n ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a P r e s s , I 9 6 0 ) , p . I b i d . S h a p i r o , , p . 3 1 . S h a p i r o , p . 3 4 . V i r g i n i a W o o l f , The M o m e n t and O t h e r E s s a y s ( L o n d o n : H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 7 7 P * 1 0 * W o o l f , A W r i t e r ' s D i a r y ( L o n d o n : H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p.. 1 3 9 , L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p . 5 9 . C i t e d b y H i r s c h m a n , " T h e O r c h e s t r a t e d N o v e l , " p . 1 5 9 . H i r s c h m a n , p . 1 7 . H i r s c h m a n , p . 1 7 . C i t e d b y H i r s c h m a n , p . 1 5 9 . L © w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p . 2 6 . L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p . 4 5 . L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s r p . 4 6 . L o w r y , Selected. letters, P« 6 4 » L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s f p . 7 8 . 25 The Malcolm Lowry P a p e r s , UBC, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s I A b l ( B ) Box 2, F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s F i r s t V e r s i o n o f Under the V o l c a n o w i l l a ppear i n t h e t e x t as FV, f o l l o w e d b y t h e c h a p t e r and page r e f -e r e n c e , (Here the term " F i r s t V e r s i o n " r e f e r s t o t h e m a n u s c r i p t f o r the f i r s t n o v e l - l e n g t h v e r s i o n o f Under the V o l c a n o . The t r u e " f i r s t v e r s i o n " o f t h e book i s t h e s h o r t s t o r y o f t h e same name, the embryo from w h i c h t h e n o v e l grew. T h i s s h o r t s t o r y v e r s i o n has been r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d i n Canadian W i n t e r ' s T a l e s , e d i t e d b y Norman L e v i n e . ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f Canada,1968). ) The Malcolm Lowry P a p e r s , UBC, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s I A b l ( H ) Box 3. F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e Working Notes f o r Under t h e V o l c a n o w i l l appear i n t h e t e x t as WN,; f o l l o w e d b y t h e c h a p t e r and page r e f e r e n c e , where p o s s i b l e . 19 L o w r y , , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p . 7 0 . CHAPTER I I I EXPANSION AND PATTERN THROUGH LEITMOTIF I n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f s i m u l t a n e i t y , Hirschman says t h a t the n a r r a t i v e s u r f a c e o f the l y r i c a l n o v e l i s accom-p a n i e d b y l e v e l s o f suggestions o f t e n "through m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , " One such m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i n Under the  Volcano i s l e i t m o t i f , Lowry o f t e n a s s o c i a t e s a theme w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r image or symbol and the movement o f these images and symbols as they are r e p e a t e d and expanded i n the n a r r a t i v e i s s i m i l a r t o the movement o f the l e i t m o t i f i n Wagnerian m u s i c a l drama. A c c o r d i n g t o one s t a n d a r d American d i c t i o n a r y , the term " l e i t m o t i f " means "a marked melodic phrase o r s h o r t passage, e x p r e s s i v e of, or a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , a c e r t a i n i d e a , person, o r s i t u a t i o n , and accompanying i t s reappearance," T r a n s f e r r i n g i t to l i t e r a r y terms, Robert Humphrey d e f i n e s " l e i t m o t i f " as "a r e c u r r i n g image,, symbol, word, o r phrase which c a r r i e s s t a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c e r t a i n i d e a or theme." M e l v i n Friedman d e s c r i b e s t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n as "programmatic" s i n c e the l e i t m o t i f "must r e f e r t o something beyond the tones or words which i t con-t a i n s , " Hirschman s t r e s s e s t h a t l e i t m o t i f s r e c u r i n " d i f f e r -ent c o n t e x t u a l environments and Friedman s i m i l a r l y p o i n t s out t h a t l e i t m o t i f s ; s h i f t t h e i r emphasis or meaning a c c o r d i n g t o the con-t e x t and can g a t h e r s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as the s i t u -a t i o n which they symbolize develops. f c The f i r s t chapter o f Under the Volcano has been com-pare d to the Wagnerian ove r t u r e "where a l l the themes are suggested and compounded": Ce premier c h a p i t r e , p u r g a t o i r e des i m p a t i e n t s , 27 equivaut a un prelude; l e s leitmotlve a'y^font entendre, sans qu'on sache encore a quel evenement p r e c i s l e s rattacher.2 In a l e t t e r to his publisher Lowry defended the f i r s t chap-ter against the complaints of "les impatients," asserting that the complexity and the often slow movement of t h i s chapter was the r e s u l t of careful planning and necessary to the a r t i s t i c whole f o r "while the story I t s e l f i s being unfolded, the themes and counterthemes of the book are being stated," Although Lowry himself does not use the term " l e i t -motif" to describe the form i n which these themes are pre-sented, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that h i s own analysis of the novel often employs musical terms. He asserts that the "Tasker-son episode" i n Chapter I i s " j u s t i f i e d i n i t s e l f musically „.io _ and a r t i s t i c a l l y . " - The drunken horseman i s intended t© sound "the chord of Yvonne's death." L©wry believed that Chapter IX, "musically speaking, ought to be an exceedingly good contrast to 8 and 10." In the text of the novel i t -s e l f , the Consul's statement about f r e e w i l l i s compared t© a piece on a piano, i t was l i k e that l i t t l e b i t i n seven flats., on the black keys . . . l i k e that l i t t l e piece one had learned, so laboriously, years ago 1 i. . u n t i l one day one got drunk i n such a way that one rs fingers r e c a l l e d the combination. (UVf538-9) T© use the Consul's analogy, i n the f i r s t chapter we are introduced to many " l i t t l e pieces" or germinal l e i t m o t i f s , the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of which, as Fouchet observed, we do not yet r e a l l y understand. As each symbol, image, or phrase recurs i n the following chapters, however, we become so aware of i t s thematic associations that we can " r e c a l l the combination" almost automatically. In the f i r s t chapter, 28 f o r e x a m p l e , L a r u e l l e ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h e r a i l w a y t r a c k s a n d s t a t i o n s u g g e s t s o n l y a r e l u c t a n c e t o l e a v e h i s h o m e i n Q u a u h n a h u a c * t h e s e n s e o f d e p a r t u r e , o f i t s i m m i n e n c e , c a m e h e a v -i l y a b o u t h i m a g a i n a s , c h i l d i s h l y a v o i d i n g t h e l o c k e d p o i n t s , h e p i c k e d h i s p a t h o v e r t h e n a r r o w - g a u g e l i n e s . L i g h t f r o m t h e s e t t i n g s u n g l a n c e d o f f t h e o i l t a n k s o n t h e g r a s s e m b a n k m e n t b e y o n d . T h e p l a t f o r m s l e p t . T h e ( t r a c k s w e r e v a c a n t , t h e s i g n a l s u p . T h e r e w a s l i t t l e t o s u g g e s t a n y t r a i n e v e r a r r i v e d a t t h i s s t a t i o n , l e t a l o n e l e f t i t . ( U V . 3 3 - 4 ) H o w e v e r , w i t h t h e r e c u r r e n c e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t r a i n i m a g e s i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , a n d t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e p h r a s e "A c o r p s e w i l l b e t r a n s p o r t e d b y e x p r e s s , " we come t o a u t o -m a t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e t h e t r a i n t h e m e w i t h d e a t h . Now we c a n u n d e r s t a n d w h y L a r u e l l e a v o i d s " t h e l o c k e d p o i n t s " w h i c h k n i t t h e r a i l s i n t o a r i g i d p a t h f o r t r a i n s f r o m w h i c h " n o n e d e s c e n d s . " ( U V , 3 1 l ) F r i e d m a n p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n f i c t i o n t h e l e i t m o t i f h a s b e e n u s e d i n t w o d i f f e r e n t w a y s * t h e w a y P r o u s t u s e d i t , b y s u g g e s t i n g a t h e m e a n d t h e n r e t u r n i n g a g a i n a n d a g a i n t o i f u n t i l t h e s e n s e o f l i n e a r d e v e l o p m e n t h a s b e e n d e s t r o y e d ; a n d t h e w a y D u j a r d i n u s e d i t , b y r e p e a t i n g l i t t l e p h r a s e s o f t e n n o l o n g e r t h a n t w o o r t h r e e w o r d s '2> T h e t h e m a t i c l e i t m o t i f m a y r e c u r i n v a r y i n g f o r m s , b u t a l -w a y s r e t a i n s o n e d o m i n a n t i m a g e o r s y m b o l t o w h i c h t h e r e a d e r h a s l i n k e d c e r t a i n t h e m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . B y e v o k i n g a n a u t o m a t i c r e s p o n s e i n t h e r e a d e r ( o n c e i t s t h e m a t i c s i g -n i f i c a n c e h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d ) , t h e l e i t m o t i f o f f e r s t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l i s t a n u n o b t r u s i v e d e v i c e f o r e x p a n d i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a n i n c i d e n t o r s i t u a t i o n . S e v e r a l l e v e l s o f s u g g e s t i o n c a n b e r e n d e r e d i n a p a s s a g e t o a c h i e v e t h e e f f e c t o f s i m u l t a n e i t y . T h e n o v e l i s t d o e s n o t h a v e t o i n t e r r u p t t h e f l o w o f t h e n a r r a t i v e w i t h l e n g t h y e x p l a n a t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d d e s t r o y t h e s e n s e o f s i m u l t a n e o u s r e v e r b e r a t i o n s . 2 9 D u r i n g H u g h a n d Y v o n n e ' s f r a n t i c s e a r c h f o r t h e C o n s u l , f o r e x a m p l e , L o w r y h a s o n l y t o c o m m e n t t h a t " t h e w h o l e p r e -c i p i t o u s h u l k o f P o p o c a t e p e t l s e e m e d t o h e c o m i n g t o w a r d t h e m " ( U V , 3 5 3 ) t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y a r e g o i n g t o f i n d ( a n d , p e r h a p s , a r e u n c o n s c i o u s l y l o o k i n g f o r ) m u c h m o r e t h a n t h e C o n s u l a t t h e e n d o f t h e p a t h * We r e c o g n i z e a n d a h s o r b t h i s s u g g e s t i o n s p o n t a n e o u s l y b e c a u s e t h e v o l c a n o s y m b o l h a s a l r e a d y b e e n g i v e n c e r t a i n t h e m a t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e s w i f t m o v e m e n t a n d d r i v i n g r h y t h m o f t h e d e s p e r a t e s e a r c h i s n o t i n t e r r u p t e d b y d i d a c t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s * T h e r e p e t i t i o n o f l e i t m o t i f s a l s o h e l p s t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l i s t e s t a b l i s h t h e s e n s e o f a n o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o r d e s i g n . T h e u n c h a n g i n g f o r m o f t h e s e c o n d t y p e o f l e i t -m o t i f d e s c r i b e d b y F r i e d m a n , t h e " l i t t l e p h r a s e , " m a k e s i t e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l a s a n o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e . I n U n d e r  t h e V o l c a n o L o w r y o f t e n u s e s t h e r e p e a t e d p h r a s e o r " v e r b a l f o r m u l a " t o e m p h a s i z e t h e p a t t e r n b u i l t i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e * S o m e t i m e s t h e p h r a s e - m o t i f o c c u r s v e r y n a t u r a l l y i n t h e n a r r a t i v e . T h e p h r a s e " a b s o l u t a m e n t e n e c e s s a r i o , " f o r e x a m p l e , f i r s t a p p e a r s i n C h a p t e r I I s i m p l y a s t h e b a r m a n ' s a n s w e r t o t h e C o n s u l ' s q u e r y a s t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t r a n s -p o r t i n g c o r p s e s b y e x p r e s s . ( U V . 7 0 ) T h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e p h r a s e w i t h t h e d e a t h t h e m e i s v e r y c a s u a l h e r e a n d d o e s n o t a t t r a c t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . H o w e v e r w h e n r e p e a t e d later b y F e r n a n d o , Y v o n n e n o t e s t h a t " a b s o l u t a m e n t e n e c e s a r i © " i s " t h e C o n s u l 1 s p h r a s e d o u b t l e s s " a j i d i t b e g i n s t o t a k e o n t h e p o w e r o f a m o t i f . A s i t r e a p p e a r s t h e p h r a s e s e r v e s t o a c c e n t t h e f a t a l i s t i c m o © d s u r r o u n d i n g t h e C o n s u l ' s d o w n -f a l l . F i r m i n s a y s t o h i m s e l f i r o n i c a l l y t h a t t h e v e r y " i n t r u s i v e n e c e s s i t y " f o r a d r i n k o f s t r y c h n i n e ( s u p p o s e d l y a c u r e f o r a l c o h o l i s m ) " C a n c e l s i t s i n n o c e n c e . " ( U V f 9 6 ) L a t e r h e e s c a p e s t o a e a n t i n a i n o r d e r t o h a v e " a c o u p l e o f n e c e s s a r y d r i n k s " ( U V , 1 0 4 ) . H u g h , s t r u g g l i n g w i t h h i s o w n 3 0 b u r d e n o f g u i l t , t h i n k s - " i f o n l y i t w e r e n o t s o a b s o l -u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o g o o u t a n d h a n g o n e s e l f . " ( U V t l 3 8 ) A f t e r p l a y i n g " s o r t e s S h a k e s p e a r e a n a e " a n d f i n d i n g " T h e g o d s e x i s t , t h e y a r e t h e d e v i l , " t h e C o n s u l t h i n k s o f "L©s B o r r a c h o n e s " ( d r u n k a r d s ) f a l l i n g " e t e r n a l l y i n t o t h e f l a m e s " a n d t e l l s L a r u e l l e t h a t i t i s " a b s o l u t a m e n t e n e c -e s a r i o " t h a t t h e y h a v e a d r i n k i n t h e s q u a r e . (UY.,239) T h e f a t a l i s t i c m o o d w h i c h t h i s w o r d - m o t i f a c c e n t s , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t L o w r y i s t r y i n g t o p r e s e n t t h e C o n s u l a s a h e l p l e s s p u p p e t . I n c i d e n t s s u c h a s t h e b e l a t e d a r r i v a l o f Y v o n n e ' s p o s t c a r d s u b t l y b e l i e t h e u n -c o m p r o m i s i n g " a b s o l u t a m e n t e n e c e s a r i o " : Y e t w h a t a b o u t t h a t b e l a t e d p o s t c a r d , now u n d e r L a r u e l l e ' s p i l l o w ? I t p r o v e d t h e l o n e l y t o r m e n t • u n n e c e s s a r y , p r o v e d e v e n , h e m u s t h a v e w a n t e d i t * ( U V , 2 4 4 ) L a r u e l l e a n g r i l y t e l l s t h e C o n s u l , " t h e s u f f e r i n g y o u d o e n d u r e i s l a r g e l y u n n e c e s s a r y . " ( U V f 2 4 9 ) J u s t a s A d a m e n j o y e d f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e u n t i l h e m a d e t h e w r o n g c h o i c e a n d w a s e v i c t e d f r o m t h e g a r d e n , s o t h e C o n s u l h a s , b y h i s o w n c h o i c e , c o m m i t t e d h i m s e l f t o t h e l o n e l y p a t h t h r o u g h h e l l i n h o p e o f a c q u i r i n g g r e a t e r k n o w l e d g e : r i g h t t h r o u g h h e l l t h e r e i s a p a t h , a s B l a k e w e l l k n e w a n d ., . * s o m e t i m e s l a t e l y i n d r e a m s I h a v e b e e n a b l e t o s e e i t . . . . I s e e m t o s e e n o w * b e -t w e e n m e s c a l s , t h i s ; p a t h , a n d b e y o n d i t s t r a n g e v i s t a s , l i k e v i s i o n s o f a n e w l i f e . ( U V , 6 5 ) J u s t a s L o w r y e m p h a t i c a l l y a s s e r t s t h a t C h a p t e r I X i s a n " a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y " p a r t o f t h e p a t t e r n t o w h i c h h e h a s c o m m i t t e d h i s n o v e l , s o t h e C o n s u l ' s a c t i o n s b e c o m e " a b s o l -u t a m e n t e n e c e s a r i o " o n c e h e h a s m a d e h i s d e c i s i o n . S o m e t i m e s t h e l e i t m o t i f w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a r e p e a t e d 3 1 g r o u p s o f w o r d s d o e s n o t a r i s e n a t u r a l l y o u t o f t h e n a r -r a t i v e h u t i s i n s t e a d a " s t a c c a t o t h r u s t . " S u c h a v e r b a l m o t i f i n U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o i s t h e e n i g m a t i c s t a t e m e n t , , "A c o r p s e w i l l b e t r a n s p o r t e d b y e x p r e s s . " L o w r y ' s d e s c r i p -t i o n o f h o w t h e s e w o r d s f i r s t e n t e r t h e n a r r a t i v e s u g g e s t s a m o v e m e n t s i m i l a r t o F r i e d m a n ' s " s t a c c a t o t h r u s t " : 'A c o r p s e w i l l b e t r a n s p o r t e d b y e x p r e s s . ' T h e t i r e l e s s r e s i l i e n t v o i c e l o b b e d t h i s s i n g u -l a r r e m a r k o v e r t h e B e l l a V i s t a b a r w i n d o w s i l l i n t o t h e s q u a r e . ( U V , 7 0 ) W h e n p a r t o f t h i s s i n g u l a r r e m a r k n e x t a p p e a r s , we l e a r n t h a t F i r m i n i s q u o t i n g f r o m t h e M e x i c a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s t i m e t a b l e w h i c h s t i p u l a t e s t h a t a c o r p s e m u s t b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y a f i r s t c l a s s t i c k e t . G i v e n t h i s p r o s a i c c o n t e x t , t h e s t r a n g e p h r a s e b e c o m e s i r o n i c a l l y c o m i c a s we h e a r t h e m a t t e r - o f - f a c t v o i c e o f t h e t r a n s p o r t o f f i c i a l d i c t a t i n g r u l e s t o t h e d e a d w h © h a v e a l r e a d y m a d e t h e i r l a s t t r i p . T h e q u o t a t i o n f r o m t h e t i m e t a b l e n e x t a p p e a r s a t t h e e n d o f t h e p a s s a g e i n C h a p t e r X d e s c r i b i n g t h e C o n s u l ' s n o c -t u r n a l v i g i l b y t h e r a i l w a y s t a t i o n : W h a t h a d t h e S t a t i o n M a s t e r s a i d ? T h e d e a d . D© t h e y s l e e p ? Why s h o u l d t h e y w h e n we c a n n o t . . . . A n d h e h a d p l a c e d t h e p o o r r a g g e d : c o r n f l o w e r s r e v e r -e n t l y o n a n e g l e c t e d g r a v e . . . . . A c o r p s e w i l l b e t r a n s p o r t e d b y e x p r e s s . . . O o z i n g a l c o h o l f r o m e v e r y p o r e , t h e C o n s u l s t o o d a t t h e o p e n d o o r o f t h e S a l o n O f e l i a . How s e n s i b l e t o h a v e h a d a m e s c a l . How s e n s i b l e ! ( U V f 3 1 4 ) S i n c e t h e f o r m a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p h r a s e a r e now f a m -i l i a r t o u s , i t s e r v e s a s a s i g n p o s t t h a t l i n k s t h e C o n s u l ' s r e v e r i e w i t h a n e a r l i e r p a r t o f t h e n a r r a t i v e . We r e c a l l t h a t e v e n u p o n f i r s t m e e t i n g Y v o n n e i n t h e m o r n i n g , t h e C o n s u l h a d b e e n p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h " t a l k i n g o f c o r p s e s " ( U V , 7 8 ) , 3 2 a n d i t s e e m s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e q u o t a t i o n f r o m t h e r a i l w a y -t i m e t a b l e h a s j o g g e d h i s m e m o r y i n t o r e l i v i n g t h e n i g h t -m a r e b y t h e t r a i n s t a t i o n . The now f a m i l i a r q u o t a t i o n a l s o s e r v e s a s a b r i d g e f r o m t h e s h a d o w y w o r l d f u l l o f " p o r t e n t s o f d o o m " t o t h e v e r y s o l i d w o r l d o f " c a w l i f l o w e r s a n d p o o t o o t s i e s " ( U V , 3 2 0 ) i n t h e . S a l o n O f e l i a , A n o t h e r p h r a s e - "No s e p u e d e v i v i r s i n a m a r " - a p p e a r s o n l y t h r e e t i m e s i n t h e n o v e l b u t i t s t a n d s o u t c l e a r l y i n t h e n a r r a t i v e a s a n u n c o m p r o m i s i n g d e c l a r a t i o n o f o n e o f t h e m a j o r t h e m e s - t h e n e e d f o r l o v e a n d c o m p a s s i o n i n t h e m o d -e r n w o r l d . L a r u e l l e f i r s t r e f e r s t o i t - 1 1 1 N o s e p u e d e v i v i r s i n a m a r ' , . . . . A s t h a t e s t u p i d o i n s c r i b e d o n my h o u s e . " ( U V , 3 2 ) I t i s s o o n c l e a r , h o w e v e r , t h a t L a r u e l l e k n o w s o n l y t o o w e l l t h e t r u t h o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n . D u r i n g h i s w a l k t o t o w n h e m o u r n s h i s " l o v e w h i c h c a me t o o l a t e . " ( U V , 3 6 ) W hen Y v o n n e a n d G e o f f r e y p a s s L a r u e l l e ' s h o u s e , Y v o n n e i s v e r y a w a r e o f t h e i n s c r i p t i o n b u t d o e s n o t w a n t t o s e e i t f o r s h e r e a l i z e s i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r h e r a n d G e o f f . A s F o u c h e t h a s p a r a p h r a s e d t h e m o t t o , , " E t r e s a n s a m o u r , c ' e s t 17 d o n e e " t r e m o r t . " When F i r m i n r e a d s t h e i n s c r i p t i o n , h e b e -c o m e s a w a r e t h a t h e i s w a l k i n g o n t h e " S t r e e t o f t h e L a n d o f F i r e . 6 6 6 . " ( U V , 2 3 9 ) I n t h e B i b l e t h e n u m b e r 6 6 6 i s \ t h e s i g n o f t h e B e i s t ; t h e b o o k o f R e v e l a t i o n p r o p h e s i e s t h a t t h i s n u m b e r w i l l b e s t a m p e d o n t h e f o r e h e a d o f t h o s e who. w o r s h i p t h e A n t i c h r i s t a n d f o r s a k e t h e l o v e o f G©d. The C o n s u l i s h a u n t e d b y t h e n u m b e r 6 6 6 f o r h e h a s a l i e n a t e d h i m s e l f f r o m l o v e a n d h i s f e l l o w men. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e " w o r d - p h r a s e m o t i f s " w h i c h r e i n -f o r c e t h e p a t t e r n b e i n g w o v e n i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e , L o w r y m a k e s e x t e n s i v e u s e o f s y m b o l a n d i m a g e l e i t m o t i f s w h i c h a c t u a l l y r e n d e r a p a t t e r n . O f c o u r s e , t h e v e r y r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s e s y m b o l a n d i m a g e m o t i f s d r a w s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t a f o r m o r o r d e r i s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . U n l i k e t h e w o r d - p h r a s e m o t i f , h o w e v e r , t h e f o r m i n w h i c h t h e y a r e 53 p r e s e n t e d a n d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e r e p e a t e d s y m b o l s a n d i m a g e s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o n t e x t . E.M. F o r s t e r h a s d e f i n e d r h y t h m a s " r e p e t i t i o n p l u s v a r i a t i o n " a n d d o w r y ' s v a r i a t i o n o f s y m b o l a n d i m a g e m o t i f s c r e a t e s a r h y t h m w h i c h s a v e s h i s l e i t m o t i f s f r o m b e i n g m e r e l y " t e t h e r e d b a n n e r s , " I n s t e a d , v a r i a t i o n a l l o w s m o t i f s t o d e v e l o p o r g a n i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e n a r r a t i v e a n d g i v e s t h e m a c e r t a i n v i t a l i t y . A s F o r s t e r a s s e r t s , "A b a n -n e r c a n o n l y r e a p p e a r , r h y t h m c a n d e v e l o p . u X ° L o w r y ' s v a r i a t i o n o f m o t i f s i g n i f i c a n c e n o t o n l y s a v e s t h e l e i t m o t i f f r o m m o n o t o n o u s r i g i d i t y b u t a l s o c r e a t e s a p a t t e r n w h i c h a c t u a l l y r e n d e r s t h e v e r y t h e m e d o m i n a t i n g t h e n o v e l a s a w h o l e . A s L o w r y s a y s i n l e t t e r s , U n d e r t h e  V o l c a n o i s c o n c e r n e d p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h m a n ' s " c e a s e l e s s XI s t r u g g l i n g t o w a r d t h e l i g h t u n d e r t h e w e i g h t o f t h e p a s t , " T h e q u o t a t i o n s o n n o v e l ' s t i t l e p a g e e m p h a s i z e t h e d i c h o t -omy I n t h e h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e . S o p h o c l e s p r a i s e s m a n ' s s t r e n g t h a n d " w i n d - s w i f t t h o u g h t " w h i c h b r i n g s h i m v i c t o r y o v e r " b a f f l i n g m a l a d i e s , " b u t a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t m a n " s h a l l ,. . . c a l l f o r a i d i n v a i n " a g a i n s t D e a t h . J o h n B u n y a n d e s c r i b e s t h e t w o s i d e s o f h i s s p i r i t u a l c o n d i t i o n : a l t h o u g h h e r e a l i z e s t h a t w i t h o u t s a l v a t i o n h i s s o u l w i l l p e r i s h " u n d e r t h e e v e r l a s t i n g w e i g h t o f H e l l o r S i n , " n e v e r -t h e l e s s h e " c o u l d n o t f i n d w i t h a l l t . h i s 3 s o u l t h a t h e d i d d e s i r e d e l i v e r a n c e . " A n d s i m i l a r l y , i n t h e h e l l o f h i s a l i e n a t i o n - a n d l o n e l i n e s s , t h e C o n s u l w i l l n o t a c c e p t t h e s a l v a t i o n o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d l o v e o f f e r e d i n Y v o n n e ' s l e t t e r s - " I c a n n o t r e a d t h e m . " ( U V , 6 5 ) I t i s t h i s d u a l n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e , t h i s p r o m i s e o f l i g h t i n t h e s h a d o w o f g u i l t t h a t c o n s t a n t l y t o r t u r e s t h e C o n s u l . D o w r y ' s r e f u s a l t o p i n d o w n t h e e x a c t c a u s e o f t h i s h a u n t i n g g u i l t o n l y m a k e s i t a l l t h e m o r e c r e d i b l e . I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l we a r e t o l d c l e a r l y t h a t t h e C o n s u l w a s n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a t r o c i t y o n t h e 3 4 S a m a r i t a n - " t h e f i r e m e n h a d k n o c k e d o u t t h e o f f i c e r s o n t h e s u b m a r i n e w i t h s l i c e b a r s a n d b u r n t t h e m a l i v e i n t h e f u r n a c e s . " ( F V , V , 2 ) I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n we a r e t o l d o n l y t h a t t h e G e r m a n s h a d b e e n p u t t h e r e a n d . . . . s o m e o n e h a d t o t a k e t h e b l a m e . S o t h e C o n s u l h a d n o t r e c e i v e d h i s d e c o r a t i o n w i t h o u t f i r s t b e i n g c o u r t - m a r t i a l l e d . He w a s a c -q u i t t e d . ( U V , 5 9 ) I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n t h e C o n s u l i s n o t l a b e l l e d a s c l e a r l y i n n o c e n t o r c l e a r l y g u i l t y ; e v i l h a s b e e n d o n e , a l l a r e t o s o m e e x t e n t g u i l t y , a n d s o m e o n e m u s t t a k e t h e b l a m e . T h e C o n s u l ' s e q u i v o c a l p o s i t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a u n i v e r s a l c o n d i -t i o n — " P i r m i n i n n o c e n t , b u t b e a r s g u i l t o f w o r l d © n s h o u l d e r s . " ( U V , 1 6 5 ) E v e n d u r i n g t h e h a p p i e s t p e r i o d o f h i s m a r r i a g e P i r m i n w a s h a u n t e d b y a s e n s e o f " t h e t w o s i d e s o f e v e r y t h i n g " : P o r t o o s o o n i t - t h e i r m a r r i a g e - h a d b e g u n t o s e e m t o o m u c h © f a t r i u m p h , i t h a d b e e n t o o g o o d , to© h o r r i b l y u n i m a g i n a b l e t o l o s e , i m p o s s i b l y f i n a l l y t o b e a r : i t w a s a s i f i t h a d b e c o m e i t s e l f i t s o w n f o r e -b o d i n g . ( U V , 2 3 l ) D u r i n g t h e o n e d a y i n w h i c h t h e s t o r y i s s e t , t h e C o n s u l ' s own s t a t e m e n t s a r e o f t e n i n o p p o s i t i o n t o ©ne a n o t h e r . He s c o r a s " w h a t s o r t © f c r e a t u r e s we a r e " a n d a s k s H u g h , "H©w c a n y o u h a v e m u c h r e s p e c t f o r m a n k i n d o r a n y b e l i e f i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u g g l e ? " ( U V , 3 3 4 ) Y e t h e a l s o a s s e r t s t w i c e t h a t " T h e w i l l o f m a n i s u n c o n q u e r a b l e " ( U V , 1 2 0 , 2 3 5 ) a n d h e t e l l s L a r u e l l e o f h i s " b a t t l e f o r t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " ( H i , 2 4 7 ) i n L o w r y ' s own w o r d s , n o t o n l y t h e C o n s u l b u t t h e w h o l e n o v e l " t e e t e r s b e t w e e n d e s p a i r . . . a n d h o p e . " E a r l e B i r n e y u s e s t h i s s a me i m a g e i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o 35 Selected Poema of Malcolm Lowrv: Birney says that the poems "have his Lowry's stance, teetering on a rope . • • between exultation . . . and agonies." Birney s descrip-tion i s accurate for i n Lowry's poems there i s a constant insistence upon the dual nature of the world and human ex-perience. A ship heading straight for the rocks i s "Never so proud as i n her hour of doom." In "The Volcano i s Dark" the poet thinks of "men i n the act of procreating" but this act of love and v i t a l i t y takes the form of a very s t e r i l e , immobile image: I see their organ frozen into a gigantic rock Shattered now . . . • ^ The f i n a l lines summarize this dichotomy: And the cries which be the groans of the dying Or the groans of love -In "Grim Vinegarroon" Lowry declares ironically that man's charity and selfishness and are merely the two poles of one impulse: "What knots of self i n a l l self-abnegation." In "The Drunkards" the "hearts to be doubly broken" are "set/ By the surgeon of peace i n the splint of woe." In "Saint Malcolm Among the Birds," there are seeds of hate in humility: the "retreat to love from stalemate" i s "merely no the rearguard action of my hate." It i s this "teetering" which gives Under the Volcano i t s dramatic tension. One reviewer has said that Lowry's book i s "askin to that of Elizabethan tragedy" and cer-tainly some of this kinship stems from Lowry's recognition of the fact that "the two sides of everything, good and e v i l , are the necessary and unalterable poles of human experience."^In Tragedy: A View of L i f e f Henry Meyers argues convincingly that i t i s this very recognition which gives Shakespeare universal scope and the lack of i t which 36 m a k e s m a n y m o d e r n w r i t e r s " e i t h e r U t o p i a n o p t i m i s t s o r p r o p h e t s o f d i s i l l u s i o n . " 9 0 L o w r y ! s " v i e w o f l i f e " m a k e s h i m c a p a b l e o f i n c l u d i n g b o t h o f t h e s e p o l e s - t h e e x u b -e r a n c e o f t h e o p t i m i s t a n d t h e g l o o m o f t h e p e s s i m i s t -a n d h e h a s p r e s e n t e d t h i s d i c h o t o m y n o t o n l y i n t h e r e a c -t i o n s a n d s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s o r i n t h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e p l o t , b u t h a s a c t u a l l y b u i l t t h i s d u a l i t y i n t o t h e n e t w o r k o f l e i t m o t i f s . B y e x p a n s i o n a n d v a r i a t i o n o f m o t i f s , h e i s a b l e t o m a k e o n e s y m b o l o r i m a g e e m b r a c e b o t h t h e p o s i t i v e a n d t h e n e g a t i v e p p l e s . I n t r a c i n g t h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e v o l c a n o - f i r e l e i t m o t i f , f o r e x a m p l e , we f i n d t h a t s o m e t i m e s v o l c a n o e s s u g g e s t s t h e f i r e o f d e s t r u c t i o n o r p u n i s h m e n t , s o m e t i m e s t h e f i r e © f p u r i f i c a t i o n o r r e b i r t h . F i r e l e n d s i t s e l f v e r y n a t u r a l l y t o t h i s d i a l e c t i c a l t r e a t m e n t f o r , a s G a s t o n B a c h e l a r d has" s u m m a r i z e d . F i r e i s t h e u l t r a - l i v i n g e l e m e n t . I t i s i n t i m a t e a n d i t i s u n i v e r s a l . I t l i v e s i n o u r h e a r t . I t l i v e s i n t h e s k y . I t r i s e s f r o m t h e d e p t h s o f t h e s u b s t a n c e a n d o f f e r s i t s e l f w i t h t h e w a r m t h o f l o v e . O r i t c a n g o b a c k d o w n i n t o t h e s u b s t a n c e a n d h i d e t h e r e , l a t e n t a n d p e n t - u p , l i k e h a t e a n d v e n g e a n c e . A m o n g a l l p h e n -o m e n a i t i s r e a l l y t h e o n l y o n e t o w h i c h c a n b e s o d e f i n i t e l y a t t r i b u t e d t h e o p p o s i n g v a l u e s o f g o o d a n d e v i l . I t s h i n e s i n P a r a d i s e . I t b u r n s i n H e l l . I t i s g e n t l e n e s s a n d t o r t u r e . I t i s c o o k e r y a n d i t i s a p o c a l y p s e . I t i s a p l e a s u r e f o r t h e g o o d c h i l d s i t -t i n g p r u d e n t l y b y t h e h e a r t h ; y e t i t p u n i s h e s a n y d i s o b e d i e n c e w h e n t h e c h i l d w i s h e s t o p l a y t o o c l o s e t o i t s f l a m e s . I t i s b o t h w e l l - b e i n g a n d i t i s r e s -p e c t . I t i s a t u t e l a r y a n d a t e r r i b l e d i v i n i t y , b o t h g o o d a n d b a d . I t c a n c o n t r a d i c t i t s e l f ; t h u s i t i s o n e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f u n i v e r s a l e x p l a n a t i o n . 1 ^ T h e f i r e w h i c h g o e s " b a c k d o w n i n t o t h e s u b s t a n c e " a n d h i d e s t h e r e " l a t e n t a n d p e n t - u p " d e s c r i b e s w e l l o n e a s p e c t o f t h e v o l c a n i c f i r e w h i c h h o v e r s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d t h r o u g i -o u t U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o T e m p h a s i z i n g t h e s e n s e o f doom. 3 7 W h e t h e r t h e v o l c a n o e s d o m i n a t i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e s u g -g e s t a t h r e a t o r a p r o m i s e o f t e n d e p e n d s u p o n t h r o u g h w h o s e e y e s we a r e s e e i n g t h e m . T h e v o l c a n o e s a r e f i r s t m e n t i o n e d w h e n Y v o n n e r e t u r n s t o Q u a u h n a h u a c ; o n s e e i n g t h e m a g a i n s h e f e e l s a f a m i l i a r a d m i r a t i o n : " o v e r t h e v a l l e y • . • r o s e , e t e r n a l l y , h e r v o l c a n o e s , h e r b e a u t i -f u l b e a u t i f u l v o l c a n o e s . A h , how f a m i l i a r i t a l l w a s . " ( U V , 7 l ) On t h e i r n e x t a p p e a r a n c e P o p o c a t e p e t l a n d I x t a c -c i h u a t l a r e v i e w e d s i l e n t l y b y Y v o n n e a n d t h e C o n s u l a s t h e y s t a n d t o g e t h e r o n t h e p o r c h : B e y o n d t h e b a r r a n c e t h e p l a i n s r o l l e d u p t o t h e v e r y f o o t o f t h e v o l c a n o e s i n t o a b a r r i e r o f m u r k a b o v e w h i c h r o s e t h e p u r e c o n e o f o l d P o p © , a n d s p r e a d i n g t o t h e l e f t . . , t h e j a g g e d p e a k s o f I x t a c c i h u a t l . P o r a m o m e n t t h e y s t o o d o n t h e p o r c h w i t h o u t s p e a k i n g , n o t h o l d i n g h a n d s , w i t h w i t h t h e i r h a n d s j u s t m e e t i n g , a s t h o u g h n o t q u i t e s u r e t h e y w e r e n ' t d r e a m i n g t h i s , e a c h o f t h e m s e p a r a t e l y o n t h e i r f a r b e r e a v e d c o t s , t h e i r h a n d s b u t b l o w n f r a g m e n t s o f t h e i r m e m o r i e s , h a l f a f r a i d t o c o m m i n g l e , y e t t o u c h i n g o v e r t h e h o w l i n g s e a s a t n i g h t . ( U V f 9 4 ) A f t e r a y e a r ' s a b s e n c e Y v o n n e h a s r e t u r n e d t o t h e C o n s u l b u t " h a s n ' t y e t e n t e r e d a t a l l " ( U V , 9 4 ) t h e h o u s e . I f Y v o n n e a n d G e o f f r e y c a n c r o s s t h e b a r r a n c a , t h e g u l f n o t s e p a r a t i n g t h e m f r o m e a c h o t h e r a n d t h e i r f o r m e r h a p p i n e s s , t h e y m a y r i s e a b o v e t h e m u r k o f t h e i r l i v e s a n d r e a c h t h e p r o m i s e h e l d o u t b y P o p o a n d I x t a , " t h a t i m a g e o f t h e p e r -f e c t m a r r i a g e . " ( U V , 1 2 0 ) L a t e r , h o w e v e r , t h e v o l c a n o l o o k s t o t h e C o n s u l " l i k e a g i g a n t i c s u r f a c i n g w h a l e " a n d s u g g e s t s t h e l o n e l i n e s s a n d d a n g e r o f " A h a b ' s s o l u t i o n . " A n o t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f P o p © r e n d e r s t h i s d i c h o t o m y i n t e r m s o f f o r m : P o p e c a t e p e t l l o o m e d , p y r a m i d a l , t o t h e i r r i g h t , o n e s i d e b e a u t i f u l l y c u r v e d a s a w o m a n ' s b r e a s t , t h e o t h e r p r e c i p i t o u s , j a g g e d , f e r o c i o u s . ( S X , 2 7 0 ) 3 8 A s t h i s v o l c a n o m o t i f r e c u r s i n v a r i o u s f o r m s d e t e r m i n e d b y a c h a r a c t e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o i t , t h e m o t i f b e c o m e s a k i n d o f i n d e x t o t h e c u r r e n t m o o d o r m e n t a l s t a t e o f t h e v i e w e r . Y v o n n e o f t e n a d m i r e s t h e v o l c a n o e s , b u t a l w a y s f r o m a d i s t a n c e , a n d t h e y s e e m e v e n m o r e b e a u t i f u l t o h e r w h e n v i e w e d i n d i r e c t l y - " P o p o c a t e p e t l s e e m e d e v e n m o r e b e a u t i -f u l f o r b e i n g r e f l e c t e d . " ( U V , 2 8 6 ) S h e a d m i r e s y e t f e a r s t h e m , i d e n t i f y i n g t h e v o l c a n o w i t h t h e o l d woman w i t h t h e d o m i n o e s t h a t " c h i l l e d h e r h e a r t . . . l i k e a n e v i l o m e n " : P o r a s e c o n d s h e ' d h a d t h e a w f u l s e n s a t i o n t h a t , n o t P o p o c a t e p e t l , b u t t h e o l d woman w i t h t h e d o m i n o e s t h a t m o r n i n g , w a s l o o k i n g o v e r h e r s h o u l d e r . S h e c l o s e d t h e c o m p a c t w i t h a s n a p . ( U V f 2 8 7 ) P o r Y v o n n e t h e v o l c a n o i s b o t h b e a u t i f u l a n d o m i n o u s ; s h e " c o u l d n ' t g e t p o o r I x t a t h e " f e m a l e " v o l c a n o i n t h e l i m i t s o f h e r m i r r o r a n d b e g i n s t o s e n s e h e r d r e a m o f a n e w l i f e w i t h G e o f f w i l l n e v e r b e f u l f i l l e d . J u s t a s h e r f a t h e r f a i l e d w h e n h e " a t t e m p t e d t o h a r n e s s t h e v o l c a n o " t o h i s o w n d r e a m , s o P o p © s u g g e s t s f a i l u r e t o Y v o n n e . ( U V f 2 8 8 ) T© H u g h t h e v o l c a n o r e p r e s e n t s b o t h a c h a l l e n g e a n d l o s t o p p o r t u n i t y . H e d i s c u s s e s p l a n s w i t h Y v o n n e t o c l i m b t h e v o l c a n o , y e t a l s o k n o w s v e r y w e l l t h a t h e w i l l n e v e r d o i t : H u g h f e l t a p a n g e 7 . On t h e w a y down h e ' d e n t e r t a i n e d a q u i t e s e r i o u s n o t i o n o f f i n d i n g t i m e t o c l i m b P o p o , p e r h a p s e v e n w i t h J u a n C e r i l l o . ( U V f 1 5 1 ) H u g h n a t u r a l l y t h i n k s o f h i s M e x i c a n f r i e n d f o r t h e e x p e d -i t i o n f o r J u a n i s a "human s y m b o l " ( U V » 1 3 4 ) t o H u g h o f h e r o i c a c t i o n . A n d i t i s a l s o n a t u r a l t h a t H u g h l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o c l i m b i n g t h e v o l c a n o f o r h e h a s a m e d i e v a l b e -l i e f i n t r i a l b y f i r e . A f t e r h i s m i s e r a b l e s e a v o y a g e h e f e l t t h a t " h a v i n g g o n e t h r o u g h h e l l , t h r o u g h f i r e , " h e h a d t h e " r i g h t " t o a " r e w a r d . " ( 5 1 , 1 4 9 ) H o w e v e r , i n s p i t e o f 39 i t s o f f e r o f h e r o i c c h a l l e n g e , Hugh d o e s n o t f o r g e t t h a t t h e v o l c a n o i s c a p a b l e o f w h a t he c o n s i d e r s m e a n i n g l e s s d e s t r u c t i o n : . t h a t e a r t h l o o k e d p a r c h e d , t h o s e s t o n e s , u n m i s -t a k a b l y , v o l c a n i c . E v e r y w h e r e . . . w e r e a t t e s t a -t i o n s t o P o p o c a t e p e t l ' s p r e s e n c e a n d a n t i q u i t y . A n d h e r e t h e damned t h i n g was a g a i n . Why w e r e t h e r e v o l c a n i c e r u p t i o n s ? ( U X , 2 6 9 ) Hugh i s e s p e c i a l l y p u z z l e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t " m o v i e s o f e r u p t i o n s " a r e a l w a y s c h a r g e d w i t h o p p o s i t e e m o t i o n s : I n m o v i e s o f e r u p t i o n s p e o p l e w e r e a l w a y s s e e n s t a n d i n g i r t h e m i d s t , o f t h e e n c r o a c h i n g f l o o d , d e -l i g h t e d b y i t . W a l l s f e l l o v e r , c h u r c h e s c o l l a p s e d , w h o l e f a m i l i e s moved away t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s i n a p a n i c , b u t t h e r e w e r e a l w a y s t h e s e p e o p l e , j u m p i n g a b o u t b e t w e e n t h e s t r e a m s o f m o l t e n l a v a , s m o k i n g c i g a r e t t e s . ( U V . 2 6 9 ) The C o n s u l , h o w e v e r , w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h i s s t r a n g e s c e n e v e r y w e l l ; i n f a c t , he w o u l d b e one o f t h o s e j u m p i n g i n t o , - t h e l a v a . He a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e p o t e n t i a l d e s t r u c t i v e p o w e r o f t h e b e a u t i f u l c o n e s b u t he a l s o f e e l s a c e r t a i n e m p a t h y w i t h t h e i r l o n e l y g r a n d e u r : t h e C o n s u l was .. .. • l i f t i n g h i s f a c e t o w a r d s t h e v o l c a n o e s a n d f e e l i n g h i s d e s o l a t i o n go o u t t o t h o s e h e i g h t s w h e r e e v e n now a t m i d m o r n i n g t h e h o w l i n g snow w o u l d w h i p t h e f a c e , a n d t h e g r o u n d b e n e a t h t h e f e e t was d e a d l a v a , a s o u l l e s s p e t r i f i e d r e s i d u e o f e x t i n c t p l a s m . (UV ,1!Z2) L a t e r Pop© r e a p p e a r s i n a n o t h e r i m a g e o f l o n e l i n e s s : h a l f o n t h e p a v e m e n t , t h e r e was a n o t h e r , u t t e r l y d e s o l a t e d , s a f e r o u n d a b o u t . The l i t t l e c h a i r s c i r c u -l a t e d b e n e a t h a f r i l l e d c a n v a s p y r a m i d . . . . H e r e i t w as, t h i s l i t t l e P o p o c a t e p e t l , n e s t l i n g f a r away f r o m t h e s w o o p i n g f l y i n g m a c h i n e s , f a r f r o m t h e G r e a t W h e e l ( U V , 2 5 l ) 4 0 H e r e t h e C o n s u l t h i n k s o f t h e v o l c a n o a s a k i n d o f r e f u g e f r o m t h e G r e a t W h e e l o f l i f e w h i c h a l l o w s h i m n o r e s t f r o m t o r m e n t * L a t e r , a s h e s t a n d s b y t h e F a r o l i t o w h e r e h e w i l l s o o n h e m u r d e r e d , F i r m i n f e a r s t h e v o l c a n o a n d c a n w e l l u n d e r -s t a n d w h y " t h e a n c i e n t h a d p l a c e d T a r t a r u s t h e p l a c e o f p u n i s h m e n t i n H a d e s u n d e r M t . A e t n a a v o l c a n o ( U V , 3 6 9 ) He i s h a u n t e d b y t h e p i c t u r e d e p i c t i n g " L o s B o r r a c h o n e s " f a l l i n g i n t o t h e f i r e s o f h a d e s . B u t h e a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t " S a v e i n t h e t h i c k e s t f l a m e s t h e r e i s n o c o u r a g e " ( U V , 2 6 3 ) a n d t h a t " r i g h t t h r o u g h h e l l t h e r e i s a p a t h , a s B l a k e w e l l k n e w . " ( U V , 6 3 ) T h e C o n s u l p o i n t s o u t t h a t , a c -c o r d i n g t o t h e I n d o - A r y a n s , f i r e c a n n o t o n l y d e s t r o y b u t c a n a l s o h e l p man. T h e " s a c r g d f i r e , A g n i , c a l l e d d o w n f r o m h e a v e n , w i t h h i s f i r e s t i c k s , b y t h e p r i e s t " { M l t ^ r ) ^ " 3 7 i s o n e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l g o d s i n t h e V e d i c m y t h o l o g y o f I n d i a . A g n i a a i d s m a n i n h i s s e a r c h f o r d i v i n i t y b y a c t i n g a s m e s s e n g e r b e t w e e n g o d s a n d men. A n d , i n t h e R i g V e d a , s a c r i f i c i a l f i r e i s p r e s e n t e d a s n o t o n l y h e l p i n g b u t a l s o a s a c t u a l l y c r e a t i n g n e w l i f e ; t h i s s a c r e d H i n d u b o o k d e p i c t s t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e a s a " c o s m i c s a c r i -f i c e " : F r o m t h i s s a c r i f i c e . . . w e r e p r o d u c e d h o r s e s . . . c a t t l e . . . . T h e m o o n s p r a n g e f r o m h i s t h o u g h t -o r g a n , t h e . s u n w a s p r o d u c e d f r o m h i s eyes.?' 2' I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , h o w e v e r , t h a t e v e n w h e n f i r e i s e x a l t e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f a g o d w i t h g r e a t p o w e r f o r g o o d , " i n a r t h e A g n i i s d e p i c t e d a s r u d d y w i t h t w o fac.esj. o n e b e n e f i c e n t a n d o n e m a l i g n a n t . " L u r i n g h i s " d i s u c s s i o n " a b o u t t h e H i n d u g o d s , t h e C o n s u l g o e s o n t o d i r e c t l y l i n k t h e v o l c a n o e s w i t h A g n i : t h e V e d i c G o d s . . . w e r e n o t p r o p e r l y a n t h r o p o m o r -p h i s e d , w h e r e a s P o p o c a t e p e t l a n d I x t a c c i h u a t l . . . O r w e r e t h e y n o t ? I n a n y e v e n t h e C o n s u l , o n c e m o r e , w a s t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e s a c r e d f i r e , t h e s a c r i f i c i a l f i r e . ( U V , 3 3 7 ) 41 P r o b a b l y h i s own sense o f k i n s h i p w i t h t h e v o l c a n o e s l e a d s F i r m i n t o b e l i e v e t h a t Popo a n d I x t a were more " p r o -p e r l y a n t h r o p o m o r p h i s e d . " The v o l c a n o m o t i f a l s o s e r v e s as an i n d e x t o t h e p r o x -i m i t y o f d i s a s t e r . The c l o s e r t h e Gonsul and Yvonne come t o t h e i r d e a t h s , t h e c l o s e r come t h e v o l c a n o e s . E a r l i e r i n t h e day t h e v o l c a n o e s seem v e r y f a r away. But d u r i n g the b u s r i d e " P o p o c a t e p e t l came i n v i e w , an a p p a r i t i o n a l -r e a d y c i r c l i n g away, t h a t b e c k o n e d them f o r w a r d . " (UV f267) T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n v e s t s Popo w i t h a l l u r i n g , s i n i s t e r q u a l i t y . F a r t h e r a l o n g t h e r o a d , the v o l c a n o "looms" (UV. 270) i n t o v i e w . As t h e C o n s u l runs towards the F a r o l i t o . where he w i l l be murdered, " b e f o r e him t h e v o l c a n o e s , p r e c i p i t o u s , seem to have drawn n e a r e r . " (UV f545) And, as Hugh and Yvonne wander f a r t h e r i n t o t h e f o r e s t where Yvonne w i l l be k i l l e d , " P o p o c a t e p e t l seemed t o be coming t o w a r d them." Yet even when t h e C o n s u l has r e a c h e d t h e F a r o l i t o and i s s i t t i n g i n t h e b a r w i t h P o p o c a t e p e t l t o w e r i n g t h r o u g h t h e windowand the b a r r a n c a , w i t h i t s s u g g e s t i o n o f h e l l -f i r e , d i r e c t l y b e low, he t u r n s t o Yvonne's l e t t e r f o r c o m f o r t and f i n d s hope e x p r e s s e d i n t h e image o f a f l a m e . Yvonne a s s e r t s t h a t t h e i r l o v e has- t h e v i t a l i t y o f a n e v e r -e n d i n g f l a m e "which can n e v e r go o u t , b u t b u r n s now so f r i g h t f u l l y low."' ( H Z , 3 9 5 ) T h i s movement o f t h e v o l c a n o - f i r e l e i t m o t i f f r o m p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e p o l e makes t h e v o l c a n o a p o w e r f u l and c o m p e l l i n g l y e n i g m a t i c symbol f o r t h e n o v e l ' s c e n t r a l theme. I n s p i t e o f i t s t h r e a t o f r e t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e p a s t , Yvonne, Hugh, and t h e C o n s u l n e v e r s t o p " s t r u g g l i n g t o w a r d t h e l i g h t . " To f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e t h i s sense o f dichotomy, even t h e " l i g h t " i n Under the V o l c a n o i s t w o - s i d e d . Throughout 4 2 t h e n a r r a t i v e L o w r y h a s w o v e n a s u b t l e s t r a n d o f l i g h t i m a g e r y . S o m e t i m e s t h e l i g h t i s man-made; s o m e t i m e s i t h a s a n a t u r a l s o u r c e s u c h a s t h e s u n o r m o o n ; a n d s o m e t i m e s " l i g h t " e m a n a t e s f r o m n o t a n g i b l e s o u r c e w h a t s o e v e r . A s t h e s e f o r m s o f " l i g h t " r e c u r a s s y m b o l s a n d i m a g e s , t h e y w o r k t o g e t h e r t o f o r m a n o t h e r d i a l e c t i c a l m o t i f . J u s t a s t h e s i g n s s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e n o v e l a r e s o c o n f u s i n g t h e y o n l y e m p h a s i z e t h e c h a o s o f t h e m o d e r n w o r l d , s o m a n y o f t h e man-made l i g h t s i n U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o m e t a -p h o r i c a l l y e m p h a s i z e t h e m o r a l d a r k n e s s , t h e l a c k o f p e r -c e p t i v e v i s i o n o f t h i s a g e . W h e n a f a l t e r i n g l i g h t f i r s t a p p e a r s we d o n o t a t t a c h a n y t h e m a t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e t o i t . S r . B u s t a m e n t e , m a n a g e r o f t h e l o c a l c i n e m a , s i m p l y c o m -p l a i n s t h a t " t h e w i r e s h a v e d e c o m p o e d . . . . E v e r y b l e s s e d w e e k s o m e t h i n g g o e s w r o n g w i t h t h e l i g h t s . " ( U V f 5 2 ) B u t w h e n Y v o n n e r e i t e r a t e s B u s t a m e n t e ' s c o m p l a i n t - " A n d t h e l i g h t i n g i s a l w a y s f a i l i n g " ( U V , 3 7 ) - a n d t h e n t h e i m a g e of a f a i l i n g b a t t e r i n g l i g h t i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e C o n s u l ' s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , t h e s e u n s t e a d y l i g h t s b e g i n t o t a k e o n t h e p o w e r o f a m o t i f : h o w i t h e i g h t e n e d t h e t o r t u r e . . . t o b e . . . c o n s c i o u s o f t h e w w h o l e h o r r i b l e d i s i n t e g r a t i n g m e c h a n i s m , t h e l i g h t now o n , n o w o f f , n o w o n t o o g l a r i n g l y , n o w t o o d i m l y , w i t h t h e g l o w o f a f i t f u l d y i n g b a t t e r y . ( W , 1 7 3 ) W h e n Y v o n n e w a n d e r e d a l o n g a New Y o r k s t r e e t o n " a f r e e z i n g w i n t e r n i g h t , " t h e " i l l u m i n a t e d n e w s a l o f t t r a v -e l l i n g a r o u n d s t h e T i m e s b u i l d i n g " t o l d o n l y o f " d i s a s t e r , o f s u i c i d e , . . . o f a p p r o a c h i n g w a r , o f n o t h i n g a t a l l . " ( U V , 2 9 5 ) T h e " e l e c t r i c a r r o w s " o f t h e t w i t c h i n g n e o n l i g h t s " t h r u s t a t h e r h e a r t " ? t h e s e l i g h t s w e r e " c h e a t i n g " b e c a u s e " s h e k n e w , i n c r e a s i n g l y f r i g h t e n e d b y i t , t h a t d a r k n e s s t o b e s t i l l t h e r e , i n t h e m , o f t h e m . " ( U V f 2 9 6 ) 4 3 A n d t o H u g h , o n a n o t h e r w i n t e r n i g h t i n a n o t h e r c i t y , L o n d o n , t h e s t a r s s u g g e s t i n c o n g r u i t y r a t h e r t h a n " b e a u t y o r i l l u m i n a t i o n * a b o v e t h e m t h e m o n s t r o u s d e c e p t i o n s t w i t c h e d o n a n d © f f , a n d a r o u n d t h e m t h e b l a c k s o u l l e s s b u i l d i n g s s t o o d w r a p p e d i n a c o l d d r e a m o f t h e i r o wn d e s -t r u c t i o n . I U Y , 1 8 l ) A s H u g h t a l k s t o t h e " p o o r l i t t l e h o t d o g m a n " w h o h a d b e e n " c o z e n e d i n t o " s e t t i n g u p h i s f u t i l e b u s i n e s s , t h e b r i g h t s t a r s o n l y s e e m t o m o c k t h e d e s o l a t i o n a n d m o r a l d a r k n e s s h e s e n s e s i n t h e c i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e C o n s u l ' s e y e s p r e b r i g h t , i t i s a " b e m u s e d u n f o e u s s e d b r i g h t n e s s . " ( O T , 7 7 ) He w a l k s " p o k i n g a t t h e d u s t w i t h h i s s t i c k , m a k i n g l i t t l e p a t t e r n s .. . . l i k e a b l i n d m a n . " ( U V , 8 9 ) A s h e g r o p e s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w h a t i s g o i n g o n a r o u n d h i m , h e s e n s e s t h e o u t l i n e o f a p a t t e r n b u t c a n n o t g r a s p a l l i t s d e t a i l s : h e k n e w n o t V t h a t t h e y ' d b e e n t a l k i n g a b o u t h i m , b u t , o b s c u r e l y f r o m t h e b r i g h t f r a g m e n t o f o v e r h e a r d c o n -v e r s a t i o n , i t s r o u n d i n g m e a n i n g , j u s t a s h a d h e a t t h a t m o m ent g l i m p s e d t h e n e w m o o n w i t h t h e o l d o n e i n i t s a r m s , h e m i g h t h a v e b e e n i m p r e s s e d b y i t s c o m p l e t e s h a p e , t h o u g h t h e r e s t w e r e s h a d o w y , illuminas£ed o n l y b y e a r t h l i g h t . ( U V T 1 7 0 ) S i n c e " e a r t h l i g h t " i s f a l t e r i n g e v e r y w h e r e , P i r m i n d r e a m s o f a n e w " c e r t a i n t y o f b r i g h t n e s s , " s o me n e w e x i s t e n c e , p o w e r , o r k n o w l e d g e w h i c h w i l l f r e e h i m f r o m h i s b u r d e n o f g u i l t a n d s o r r o w : " p r o m i s e o f l i g h t n e s s , o f l i g h t , l i g h t , l i g h t , a n d a g a i n , o f l i g h t , l i g h t , l i g h t , l i g h t , l i g h t . " (UV,154) T h i s " p r o m i s e o f l i g h t n e s s " i s h e l d o u t b y t h e i m a g e s a n d s y m b o l s a t t h e o p p o s i t e p o l e o f t h e l i g h t m o t i f . A l o n g -s i d e t h e f a l t e r i n g , d e c e p t i o n l i g h t s , L o w r y h a s b u i l t a 4 4 c h a i n o f l i g h t s w h i c h s u g g e s t p e r c e p t i o n , o r d e r t r u t h . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e b e a c o n , a g u i d e o r w a r n i n g l i g h t , r e c u r s i n i m a g e s o f h o p e . I n t h e m i d s t o f h i s own c o n f u s i o n a b o u t w h a t h a s v a l u e i n h i s l i f e , H u g h t h i n k s w i t h r e l i e f o f C a m b r i d g e " w h o s e e n d u r i n g b e a u t y " w a s t h e r e s u l t o f " t h e s t r a n g e d r e a m o f s o m e o l d monk . . . w h o s e . . . h o u s e .. . . s h o n e l i k e a b e a c o n o u t o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s s i l e n c e a n d s o l i t u d e . " ( U V , 2 0 5 ) When t h e C o n s u l h o p e s t o b r e a k a w a y f r o m t h e o t h e r s a n d f i n d p e a c e i n t h e e a n t i n a , h e w a s g r i p p e d b y t h o u g h t s l i k e t h o s e o f t h e m a r i n e r w h o , s i g h t i n g t h e f a i n t b e a c o n o f S t a r t P o i n t a f t e r a l o n g v o y a g e , k n o w s t h a t h e w i l l s o o n e m b r a c e h i s . w i f e . ( U V , 2 3 l ) A p p r o p r i a t e l y , t h e name o f t h i s l o n g e d - f o r e a n t i n a i s " F a r o l i t o " - " T h e L i g h t h o u s e , t h e l i g h t h o u s e t h a t i n v i t e s t h e s t o r m , a n d l i g h t s i t I " ( U V . 2 2 9 ) T h e l i g h t h o u s e i m a g e i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e h e r e f o r a s t o r m h a s b e e n b u i l d -i n g u p a l l d a y . ^ _ A f o r m o f n a t u r a l l i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t o r m s , l i g h t -n i g l i t ) , a l s o s u g g e s t s a p o s i t i v e a n d g u i d i n g p o w e r . I n a l e t t e r t o Y v o n n e t h e C o n s u l d e s c r i b e s t h e b e a u t y o f " t h u n -d e r l e s s g o l d l i g h t n i n g i n t h e b l u e e v e n i n g , u n e a r t h l y " ( U V , 6 6 > a n d r e f e r s t o t h e " p a t h o f G o d ' s l i g h t n i n g b a c k t o G o d . " ( U V , 6 6 ) F i r m i n f e e l s " t h e f i r e o f t h e t e q u i l a r u n d o w n h i s s p i n e l i k e l i g h t n i n g s t r i k i n g a t r e e w h i c h t h e r e -u p o n , m i r a c u l o u s l y , b l o s s o m s . " ( U V . 2 4 5 ) L u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g s t o r m " i t w a s a s i f a h e l i o g r a p h o f l i g h t n i n g " w e r e s t a m -m e r i n g m e s s a g e s a c r o s s t h e w i l d l a n d s c a p e . " ( U V . 3 5 3 ) A n o t h e r f o r m o f n a t u r a l l i g h t , t h e sun,, i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h o p e f o r p e a c e a n d o r d e r . Y v o n n e f e e l s e x h i l -a r a t e d a s s h e w a t c h e s " t h e t e r r i f i c o n s l a u g h t o f s u n l i g h t w h i l e t h e e a r t h t u r n e d y e t i n s h a d o w . " (UV,,72) W h e n Y v o n n e 4 5 m e n t a l l y a s k s G e o f f r e y , " m u s t y o u g o o n a n d o n f o r e v e r i n t o t h i s s t u p i d d a r k n e s s " ( U V , 7 7 ) , h e r e p l i e s , y o u m i s u n d e r s t a n d me i f y o u t h i n k i t i s a l t o g e t h e r d a r k n e s s I s e e . . . . i f y o u l o o k a t t h a t s u n l i g h t t h e r e , a h , t h e n p e r h a p s y o u ' l l g e t t h e a n s w e r , s e e , l o o k a t t h e w a y i t f a l l s t h r o u g h t h e w i n d o w : w h a t " b e a u t y e v e n c a n c o m p a r e t o t h a t o f a c a n t i n a i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g ? ( U V T 7 7 ) L a t e r t h e C o n s u l t h i n k s a g a i n o f t h e s u n l i g h t s h i n i n g i n t o t h e c a n t i n a c a l l e d , a p p r o p r i a t e l y , " E l P u e r t o d e S o l " : A h n o n e b u t h e k n e w h o w b e a u t i f u l i t w a s , t h e s u n -l i g h t , s u n l i g h t , s u n l i g h t f l o o d i n g t h e b a r . . . f l o o d i n g t h e w a t e r c r e s s a n d o r a n g e s , o r f a l l i n g i n a s i n g l e g o l d e n l i n e a s i f i n t h e a c t o f c o n c e i v i n g a G o d . ( W , 1 1 7 ) W h e n H u g h a n d Y v o n n e p a s s t h e m o d e l f a r m , a v i s i o n o f o r d e r a n d p e a c e , s u n l i g h t p e r v a d e s t h e s c e n e : A r o w o f s h i n i n g m i l k p a i l s s t o o d o u t s i d e t h e s t a b l e s i n t h e m m . A s w e e t s m e l l o f m i l k a n d v a n i l l a a n d w i l d f l o w e r s h u n g a b o u t t h e q u i e t p l a c e . A n d t h e s u n w a s o v e r a l l . ( U V > 1 3 2 ) T h e l a s t s e n t e n c e i n t h i s p a s s a g e h a s t h e r i n g o f a b e n e -d i c t i o n . T h e h a p p y s t a b l e b o y r e m i n d s H u g h o f h o w , i n M e x i c o C i t y , " i n t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g s u d d e n l y e v e r y o n e i n s i g h t w o u l d s e e m t o b e r u n n i n g , l a u g h i n g , t o w o r k , i n t h e s u n l g i h t . " ( U V , 1 3 2 > O f t h e t h r e e m a i n c h a r a c t e r s , i t i s Y v o n n e w h o m o s t s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s t h a t a n e w l i f e i s p o s s i b l e f o r G e o f f a n d h e r ; a c c o r d i n g l y , s h e i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u n -l i g h t . W h e n t h e C o n s u l f i r s t s e e s h e r i n t h e b a r s h e a p -p e a r s " a l i t t l e b l u r r e d . . . . b e c a u s e t h e s u n l i g h t w a s b e -46 h i n d h e r . " ( U V . 7 3 ) L a t e r t h e C o n s u l n o t e s t h a t s h e i s " b r o w n a s a b e r r y . . . . Y o u l o o k a s t h o u g h y o u ' v e h a d p l e n t y o f s u n . " ( U V , 9 8 ) S h e s e e m s t o h a v e d r a w n v i t a l i t y f r o m t h e s u n f o r s h e i s " b r o n z e d a n d y o u t h f u l a n d a g e l e s s . " (UV,,99) When H u g h f i r s t s e e s Y v o n n e i n t h e g a r d e n s h e a p -p e a r s t o b e " c l o t h e d e n t i r e l y i n s u n l i g h t . , " ( U V . 1 2 2 ) E v e n s u n l i g h t , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t s a p a r a d o x . Y v o n n e k n o w s t h a t " t h e s u n t u r n e d g r i e f t o p o i s o n a n d a g l o w i n g b o d y o n l y m o c k e d t h e s i c k h e a r t . " ( U V , 8 l ) I n t h e f a c e o f h e r h o p e s t h e r e a l i t y o f h e r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n i s a l l t h e m o r e h o r r i b l e . W h e n s h e m a k e s a " g e s t u r e o f a p p e a l " w h i c h s e e m s t o e p i t o m i s e t h e " e t e r n a l h o p e s o f t h e i r m a r r i a g e , " t h e C o n s u l r e s p o n d s b y p u t t i n g o n h i s d a r k g l a s s e s . ( U V y l l 4 ) He t r i e d t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f f r o m t h e i n t e n s i t y o f h e r h o p e a n d w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d p r o b i n g . F i r m i n a l s o a v o i d s t h e s u n f l o w e r f o r i t i s a n " e n e m y " ; h e t e l l s D r . V i g i l , " I k n o w i t w a t c h e s me a n d I k n o w i t h a t e s me." ( U V , 1 7 2 ) I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t s u n l i g h t h e p r i a s e s i n t h e t w o p a s s a g e s c i t e d e a r l i e r s h i n e s t h r o u g h w i n d o w s a n d i s s e t w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f a e a n t i n a . He a v o i d s d i r e c t s u n l i g h t f o r h e h a d l o s t t h e s u n : i t w a s n o t h i s s u n . L i k e t h e t r u t h , i t w a s w e l l - n i g h i m p o s s i b l e t o f a c e ; h e d i d n o t w a n t t o g o a n y w h e r e n e a r i t , l e a s t o f a l l s i t i n i t s l i g h t f a c i n g i t . ( U V , 2 3 5 ) He h a s t u r n e d t o t h e s h e l t e r o f t h e e a n t i n a , t o a l c o h o l , a s a n e s c a p e f r o m t h e p a i n o f w a t c h i n g " d o o m e d m e n . . . c r o w d i n g i n t o t h e w a r m t h o f t h e s u n , " t h e p a i n c a u s e d b y v i s i o n w h i c h s e n s e s t h e t e r r i b l e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n w h a t t h e w o r l d a n d h i s own l i f e c o u l d b e i f l o v e a n d c o m p a s s i o n p r e v a i l e d a n d w h a t i t a c t u a l l y i s . H u g h , e x p e r i e n c i n g a s i m i l a r p a i n a s h e r i d e s o v e r t h e b e a u t i f u l c o u n t r y s i d e , c o m p a r e s h i s c o n d i t i o n t o t h a t o f J u d a s a f t e r t h e b e t r a y a l : 47 Christ,, how marvellous t h i s was, or rather Christ, how he wanted to he deceived about i t , as must have Judas, he thought - and here i t was again, damn i t -i f ever Judas had a horse . . . r i d i n g l i k e t h i s under the dazzling sky of Jerusalem - forgetting f o r an instant, so that i t r e a l l y was joyous - how splen-did i t a l l might be had I not betrayed that man l a s t night, even though I knew p e r f e c t l y well I was going to, how good indeed, i f only i t had not happened though (W,138) The Consul's g u i l t has no such s p e c i f i c act to focus upon; h i s i s a "sourceless sorrow" that simply mourns man's betrayal of man -the sun shining b r i l l i a n t l y i n a l l the world before him could not l i f t h is s p i r i t . . The sunlight could not share his burden of conscience, of sourceless sorrow. It d i d not know him. (UV.103) The landscape of the Consul's world, however, does seems to share h i s burden of suffering. As mentioned e a r l i e r , Lowry has made man and environment elements of a cl o s e l y - k n i t pattern. One of the bonds between these e l e -ments i s the water- l e i t m o t i f which units man and land iin. a common need f o r new v i t a l i t y . The Consul i s searching f o r some "ultimate r e a l i t y , external, conscious, and ever-present" (Uy.,66) which w i l l give his world some p o s i t i v e meaning and d i r e c t i o n and he often conceives of t h i s u l t i -mate answers i n terms of a water image. When a stranger's T r i n i t y t i e reminds him of Cambridge and i t s fountain he asks, "Might, a s o u l b a t h e t h e r e and hp clean o r slake i t s  drought?" (UV f107) He wonders i f the answer which con-sta n t l y eludes him l i e s i n the knowledge men have already accumulated. Later he asks the same question as he studies Laruelle's book c o l l e c t i o n , (UV,237) Hugh, also burdened with g u i l t and f r u s t r a t i o n , envies the Catholic who can " r i s e refreshed from the cold bath of confession." (U£,135) 4 8 T h i s o r t h o d o x r e l e a s e i s a l s o i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e C o n s u l , w h o w a i t e d " i n a n a g o n y f o r t h e s h o c k o f c o l d w a t e r t h a t n e v e r c a m e . " ( U V r 1 7 7 ) T h e s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e i s a l s o w a i t i n g i n a n a g o n y o f t h r i s t . O a x a c a , w h i c h m e a n s d i v o r c e d - " s u n d e r e d , s e v e r e d , " - i s s u r r o u n d e d b y a p a r c h e d a n d " d e s o l a t e c a c t u s p l a i n . " ( U V , 7 6 ) T h e p l a n t s i n t h e C o n s u l ' s g a r d e n , " p e r i s h i n g o n e v e r y h a n d o f u n n e c e s s a r y t h i r s t , " p r o c l a i m " t r a g e d y " . ( W , 9 2 ) W h e n Y v o n n e r e t u r n s t o Q u a u h n a h u a c s h e n o t i c e s t h e g r a s s h a s l o s t i t s l u s h g r e e n c o l o u r - " t h e r e m u s t h a v e b e e n a. d r y s p e l l , t h o u g h t h e g u t t e r s o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e r o a d w e r e b r i m f u l o f r u s h i n g m o u n t a i n w a t e r . " ( U V , ; 8 5 ) O r d i n a r y w a t e r c a n n o t s l a k e t h e t h i r s t o f t h e l a n d u n d e r t h e v o l c a n o j u s t a s " t h i s r a i n , t h a t f e l l o n l y i n t h e m o u n t a i n s , d i d n o t a s s u a g e h i s F i r m i n ' s t h i r s t . " ( U V , 1 5 3 ) L i k e t h e l i g h t a n d t h e f i r e m o t i f , h o w e v e r , t h e w a t e r m o t i f i n c l u d e s i m a g e n o t o n l y o f s a l v a t i o n b u t a l s o o f d e s t r u c t i o n . L a r u e l l e t h i n k s o f t h e a p p r o a c h i n g w a r i n t e r m s o f a f l o o d a n d f e a r s " t h e d a r k w a t e r s r i s i n g o u t -s i d e t o e n g u l f h i s own z u c u a l i i n t h e C a l l e N i c a r a g u a , h i s u s e l e s s t o w e r a g a i n s t t h e c o m i n g o f t h e s e c o n d f l o o d . " ( U V , 5 6 ) Y v o n n e f e a r s " t h e r i s i n g w a t e r s o f p o s s i b l e c a t -a s t r o p h e , " ( U V , 9 0 ) a n d H u g h l a t e r h e a r s n e w s o f a t e r r i b l e f l o o d o n t h e r a d i o . ( U V , 1 8 3 ) O n c e a g a i n a s y m b o l h a s b e e n s o v a r i e d a n d e x p a n d e d t h a t i t b e c o m e s a f l e x i b l e v e h i c l e f o r t h e p a t t e r n o f d u a l i t y . A n d , a s we h a v e s e e n i n t h e t r a c i n g o f t h e s e d i a l e c t i c a l l e i t m o t i f s , t h e y a r e f l e x i b l e n o t o n l y i n t h a t t h e y i n c l u d e b o t h p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e p o l e s b u t a l s o i n t h a t t h e y c a n c o n v i n c i n g l y m o v e b a c k a n d f o r t h b e t w e e n man a n d e n v i r o n m e n t . M a n h a s b o t h h o p e s f o r a new l i f e o r s a l -v a t i o n a n d f e a r s o f d e s t r u c t i o n ; t h e l a n d s c a p e b o t h p r o -4 9 m i s e s a n d t h r e a t e n s . A s L a r u e l l e h a s s u m m a r i z e d i n C h a p t e r I , i n a s o r t o f o v e r t u r e t o t h e r o l e o f e n v i r o n -m e n t , "How c o n t i n u a l l y , h o w s t a r t l i n g l y t h e l a n d s c a p e c h a n g e d ... . . f a t a l o r c l e a n s i n g a s i t h a p p e n e d t o h e . " ( U V , 3 6 ) T h e l e i t m o t i f s w e l d m a n a n d e n v i r o n m e n t s o t h a t b y t h e e n d o f t h e n o v e l we g e t t h e s e n s e o f a t o t a l p i c -t u r e a n d n o t j u s t t h e u n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e a u t h o r h a s t r i e d t o s u p e r i m p o s e f o r m . I n t h i s t o t a l p i c t u r e t h e r e i s n o t o n l y a m b i v a l e n c e b u t a l s o t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f e q u i v a l e n c e , o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l t h e r e i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t h o l o c a u s t i s i n f a c t a n e c e s s a r y s t e p i n r e b i r t h o r p u r i f i c a t i o n . H u g h c o m e s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t " R e v o l u t i o n r a g e s i n t h e t i e r r a c a l i e n t e o f e a c h h u m a n s o u l . No p e a c e b u t t h a t m u s t p a y t h e f u l l t o l l t o h e l l . " . ( W , 1 3 6 ) T h e C o n s u l s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h e d i s a s t e r m i g h t b e f o u n d a t t h e e n d t o c o n t a i n a c e r t a i n e l e m e n t o f t r i u m p h . " ( U V , 1 6 8 ) L a t e r h e p r a y s , " L e t me s i n k l o w e r s t i l l t h a t I may k n o w t h e t r u t h . " ( U V_,319) I n t h e F a r o l i t o , m i n u t e s a w a y f r o m h i s d e a t h , h i s m i n d i s c l e a r - " I t w a s a s i f , o u t o f a n u l t i m a t e c o n -t a m i n a t i o n h e h a d d e r i v e d s t r e n g t h . " ( U V f 5 8 4 ) A l t h o u g h t h e C o n s u l a n d , b y e x t e n s i o n , t h e w o r l d , a r e s u f f e r i n g i n c h a o s a n d v i o l e n c e , t h e f i n a l p a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s s u f f e r i n g i s a t a n e n d a n d t h a t a n e w w o r l d m a y a r i s e , l i k e t h e p h o e n i x , o u t o f t h e i r a s h e s . A l t h o u g h o n o n e h a n d t h e b u r n i n g v o l c a n o s u g g e s t s n e g a t i v e d e s t r u c t i o n , i t a l s o c o n v e y s a s u g g e s t i o n o f p u r i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h f i r e . I n h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n s o f . t h e m a n y m y t h s s u r -r o u n d i n g f i r e , B a c h e l a r d s a y s t h a t f i r e h a s a l w a y s b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h a n g e , f o r " f r o m t h e p r i m i t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w , o n l y t h o s e c h a n g e s t h a t a r e c a u s e d b y f i r e a r e t h e d e e p , s t r i k i n g s w i f t , m a r v e l l o u s a n d d e f i n i t i v e c h a n g e s " ; 1 ! t h r o u g h f i r e e v e r y t h i n g c h a n g e s " s o " w h e n we w a n t e v e r y -35" t h i n g t o b e c h a n g e d we c a l l o n f i r e . " A s t h e C o n s u l a n d t h e " t e n m i l l i o n b u r n i n g b o d i e s " a r e c o n s u m e d , t h e " w o r l d i t s e l f " i s " b u r s t i n g i n t o b l a c k s p o u t s o f v i l l a g e s " ( U V , 4 0 6 ) , s m a l l b u t n e w s e e d s o f s o c i a l l i f e . 5 1 NOTES TO CHAPTER III 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 T h e r e i s n o a t t e m p t h e r e t o e q u a t e m u s i c a l l e i t m o t i f w i t h l i t e r a r y r e p e t i t i o n . We u s e t h e t e r m s i m p l y a s a c o n v e n i e n t a n a l o g y t h a t s u g g e s t s t h e r h y t h m p o s s i b l e i n a n o v e l . T h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m e n t b y Z o l a e x p r e s s e s w e l l j u s t h o w f a r t h e a n a l o g y c a n b e t a k e n : W h a t y o u c a l l r e p e t i t i o n s o c c u r i n a l l my b o o k s . T h i s i s a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e t h a t I b e g a n u s i n g w i t h s o m e t i m i d i t y , b u t h a v e s i n c e p u s h e d p e r h a p s t o e x c e s s . I n my v i e w i t g i v e s m o r e b o d y t o a w o r k , a n d s t r e n g t h e n s i t s u n i t y . T h e d e v i c e i s somewhat a k i n t o t h e m o t i f s i n W a g n e r , a n d i f y o u w i l l a s k s o m e m u s i c a l f r i e n d o f y o u r s t o e x p l a i n h i s u s e o f t h e s e , y o u w i l l u n d e r s t a n d p r e t t y w e l l - my u s e o f t h e d e v i c e i n l i t e r a t u r e . ( C i t e d b y E.K. B r o w n i n R h y t h m i n t h e N o v e l ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 2 8 . C i f t e d b y R o b e r t H u m p h r e y , S t r e a m o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t h e M o d e m - N o v e l ( B e r k e l e y a n d L o s - A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 9 0 . H u m p h r e y , p . 9 0 . F r i e d m a n , S t r e a m o f C o n s o i m i s n e s f i T p . ] 5 . H i r s c h m a n , " O r c h e s t r a t e d N o v e l , " p . 5. F r i e d m a n , p . 1 2 2 . F r i e d m a n , p . 1 3 . M a x - P o l F o u c h e t . "No S e P u e d e . . . , " C a n a d i a n Literature E&±3\. S p r i n g 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 2 6 . L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s T p . 7 0 . I b i d . , p p . 6 8 - 9 . I b i d . , p . 6 9 I b i d . , p . 8 0 . 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 52 Fr iedman, p. 128 E . M . F o r s t e r , A s p e c t s o f the H o v e l (New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace and C o . , 1 9 2 7 ; , p. 239. Fr iedman, p.15. Fr iedman, p. 15. Fouchet , p . 2 7 . F o r s t e r , p. 2 4 0 . F o r s t e r , p. 238. F o r s t e r , p. 239. Lowry, S e l e c t e d Letters, p. 6 0 . I b i d . . p. 81 E a r l e B i r n e y , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " Selected Boetrv of Malcolm Lowrv (San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s Books ,1962) , p. 7 . Lowry, Selected Poems f p . 11 , IfrX4«, P . 26. I b i d . , p. 27 . I b i d . , p. 4 0 . Ib_id^_,p.52. Henry A . Meyers , Tragedy: A View of L i f e (New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 102. Meyers, p. 102. 53 31 Gaston Bachelard, The Psychoanalysis of F i r e f trans, by Alan C.M. Ross.(Boston:Beacon Press,1964),p.7. 32 Lowry, Selected Poemayep- 11. 33 p F r a n k l i n Edgerton, The B e g i n n i n g s of Indian Philosonhv. (Massachusets:Harvard University Press,1965),p»68» 34 "Agni," Encyclopaedia Britannica. 3 5 Bachelard, p. 57. C H A P T E R I V E X P A N S I O N AND P A T T E R N THROUGH C O U N T E R P O I N T L o w r y r e v e a l s h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f a n d a i m t o w a r d s s i m -u l t a n e i t y n o t o n l y i n t h e u s e o f t w o - s i d e d l e i t m o t i f s h u t a l s o i n t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l s t r u c t u r e d o m i n a t i n g t h e n o v e l . T h i s a f f e c t s t h e n o v e l a s a w h o l e a s w e l l a s i n d i v i d u a l s c e n e s . I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f C h a p t e r V I I I , w h i l e H u g h a n d t h e C o n s u l a r e a r g u i n g a b o u t w h a t s h o u l d b e d o n e f o r t h e d y i n g I n d i a n , L o w r y i n c l u d e d a r e v e a l i n g s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e p u r p o s e d i r e c t i n g h i s u s e o f c o u n t e r p o i n t : O u t o f t h e f u g u e o f w o r d s , , t w o t h e m e s o f p r o t e s t a t i o n s , t h e C o n s u l ' s a n d H u g h ' s , a r g u e d w i t h r a t h e r t h a n a g -a i n s t o n e ( w i t h a n o t h e r l i k e t w o m u s i c a l i n s t r u -m e n t s . ( P V , V I I I , . 1 6 ) L o w r y ' s a n a l o g y i s a n a c c u r a t e o n e , f o r j u s t a s a m u s i c a l f u g u e " e x p a n d s s t r u c t u r a l l y f r o m i t s p o i n t o f f o c u s b y a c o n t r a p u n t a l s t y l e , " s o t h e " f u g u e o f w o r d s " i n U n d e r t h e  V o l c a n o e x p a n d s t h r o u g h c o u h t e r p o i n t e d t h e m e s , t o n e s , d i a -l o g u e s , a n d s c e n e s . A n d j u s t a s m u s i c a l c o u n t e r p o i n t s i m -u l t a n e o u s l y c o m b i n e s " t w o o r m o r e m e l o d i e s t o m a k e m u s i c a l s e n s e , " s o L o w r y i n t e n d e d t o e x p a n d a n d s u g g e s t s i m u l t a n e i t y i n t h e n o v e l t h r o u g h l i t e r a r y c o u n t e r p o i n t . W h i l e t w o o r m o r e t o n e s o r t h e m e s c a n n o t a c t u a l l y b e p r e s e n t e d s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y i n a n o v e l , t h e y c a n b e s o a r r a n g e d a s t o " g i v e a c o n v i n c i n g i l l u s i o n o f t h e s a m e e f f e c t . " 3 A s C o n r a d A i k e n s a y s i n t h e e s s a y " C o u n t e r p o i n t a n d I m p l i c a t i o n , " " c o n t r a s -t i n g a n d c o n f l i c t i n g t o n e s a n d t h e m e s " c a n c r e a t e t h e e f -f e c t o f " a k i n d o f u n d e r l y i n g s i m u l t a n e i t y i n d i s s i m i l a r i t y . " B u t i t i s n o t e n o u g h t o m e r e l y p r e s e n t c o n t r a s t s a n d c o n f l i c t ; c o u n t e r p o i n t e d e l e m e n t s m u s t b e a r r a n g e s o t h a t , a s L o w r y s a y s , t h e y w o r k w i t h o n e a n o t h § E t o f o r m a t o t a l 55 p a t t e r n , the u l t i m a t e g o a l o f s i m u l t a n e i t y . As E.K. Brown says i n Rhythm i n t h e N o v e l T c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a t i o n i s t h e key t o p a t t e r n : "between e x a c t r e p e t i t i o n and u n l i m i t e d v a r i a t i o n l i e s t h e whole a r e a o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c o u r s e . l l i > I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f Under t h e V o l c a n o Yvonne e x c l a i m s , "There's s u c h a u n i t y about e v e r y t h i n g t h a t we c a n ' t u n d e r -s t a n d . We're so h e l p l e s s ! " (FV,XI,16) Through c o u n t e r -p o i n t Lowry manages t o expand t h e n a r r a t i v e and f i t ap- ' p a r e n t l y d i s s i m i l a r elements i n t o a p a t t e r n and t h u s sug-g e s t t h i s u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y . J u s t as l e i t m o t i f s s u ggest s i m u l t a n e o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s and expand t h e moment, so c o u n t e r p o i n t expands c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e . C o u n t e r p o i n t g i v e s d e p t h t o the l i n e a r t i m e o f t h e n a r r a t i v e s u r f a c e by s u g g e s t i n g how d i f f e r e n t t h o u g h t s and movements a r e g o i n g on a t the same t i m e . D u r i n g some o f the c o u n t e r p o i n t e d scenes i n Under th e V o l c a n o c h r o n o l o g -i c a l t i me seems t o s t a n d s t i l l and expand. I n A i d o u s H u x l e y ' s P o i n t C o n n t e r p o i n t f t h e a r t i s t J o h n B i d l a k e des-c r i b e s t h e s e expanded moments as i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n t h e "human fugue"$ The p a r t s i n t h e f u g u e have t h e i r s e p a r a t e l i v e s j t h e y t o u c h , t h e i r p a t h s c r o s s , t h e y combine f o r a moment t o c r e a t e a s e e m i n g l y f i n a l and p e r f e c t e d harmony, o n l y t o b r e a k a p a r t a g a i n . I n some o f t h e a d d i t i o n s t o t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f Under  the V o l c a n o we can see Lowry d e l i b e r a t e l y w o r k i n g towards the sense o f m u l t i p l i c i t y i n t h e s e expanded moments. He expands scenes i n t h e n a r r a t i v e so t h a t we become aware o f two o r more r e a c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f C h a p t e r V I I L , f o r example, w h i l e Hugh shaves the C o n s u l he j o k e s about h i s days a t Cambridge and g l a n c e s out a t the garden when the w i n d a t t r a c t s h i s a t t e n t i o n : 5 6 H u g h w i p e d t h e r a z o r o n s o m e t i s s u e p a p e r a n d l o o k e d u p t h r o u g h t h e o p e n b a t h r o o m d o o r i n t o G e o f f ' s b e d -r o o m - t h e w i n d o w s w e r e o p e n t o o , , t h e c u r t a i n s b l e w i n w a r d s o f t l y : i t w a s t h e l e e s i d e , b u t t h e w i n d m u s t h a v e d r o p p e d . T h e s c e n t s o f t h e g a r d e n w e r e h e a v y a b o u t t h e m . " T h a l a v e l t i p a r o t h i a n , " H u g h s a i d , p l e a s a n t l y m e n a c i n g . "Now t h e n d o n ' t b e c a r e f u l , a s t h e M e x i c a n s s a y I m g o i n g t o s h a v e t h e b a c k o f y o u r n e c k . " "Do y o u s e e t h a t m a p l e t r e e o u t s i d e 1 t h e r e , p r o p p e d u p w i t h t h o s e c r u t c h e s o f c e d a r ? " ( F V , V I , 9 ) I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l t w o p a r a g r a p h s h a v e b e e n i n s e r t e d b e t w e e n H u g h ' s w a r n i n g a n d t h e C o n s u l ' s c o m m e n t o n t h e m a p l e t r e e . I n t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e a d d e d p a r a g r a p h s t h e g a r d e n a n d t h e s o u n d o f t h e w i n d s e r v e a s s p r i n g b o a r d s f r o m w h i c h H u g h j u m p s b a c k i n t i m e t o h i s y o u t h . F r o m t h e n a u t -i c a l t e r m " l e e s i d e " i n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n , a c e n t r a l i m a g e h a s e v o l v e d : • . • d o n ' t b e c a r e f u l , a s t h e M e x i c a n s s a y , I'm g o i n g t o s h a v e t h e b a c k o f y o u r n e c k . " B u t f i r s t H u g h w i p e d t h e r a z o r w i t h s o me t i s s u e p a p e r , g l a n c i n g a b s e n t l y t h r o u g h t h e d o o r i n t o t h e C o n s u l ' s r o o m . T h e b e d r o o m w i n d o w s w e r e w i d e o p e n ; • . • . H u g h h e a r d t h e w i n d s t a r t i n g t o b l o w a g a i n o n t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e h o u s e , t h e f i e r c e b r e a t h o f t h e A t l a n t i c , f l a v o u r e d w i t h w i l d B e e t h o v e n . B u t h e r e , o n t h e l e e w a r d s i d e , t h o s e t r e e s o n e c o u l d s e e t h r o u g h t i e b a t h r o o m w i n d o w s e e m e d u n a w a r e o f i t . A n d t h e c u r t a i n s w e r e e n g a g e d w i t h t h e i r o wn g e n t l e b r e e z e . L i k e t h e c r e w ' s w a s h i n g o n b o a r d a t r a m p s t e a m e r , s t r u n g o v e r n u m b e r s i x h a t c h b e t w e e n s l e e k d e r r i c k s l y i n g i n g r o o v e s , t h a t b a r e l y d a n c e s i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s u n l i g h t , w h i l e a b a f t t h e b e a m n o t a l e a g u e a w a y some p i t c h i n g n a t i v e c r a f t w i t h v i o l e n t l y f l a p p i n g s a i l s s e e m s w r e s -t l i n g a h u r r i c a n e , t h e y s w a y i m p e r c e p t i b l y a s t o a n o t h e r c o n t r o . ( U V . V T r 2 0 8 ) T h e s e a h a d a l w a y s b e e n a s y m b o l o f r o m a n c e t o H u g h : a t s e v e n t e e n h e h a d s i g n e d o n b o a r d t h e S.S.. P h i lor.t.et.es i n o r d e r t o e x c a p e t h e m o n o t o n o u s r e s t r i c t i o n o f C a m b r i d g e a n d a l s o t o g e t s e n s a t i o n a l p u b l i c i t y f o r h i s s o n g s . A t t h e 57 time Hugh had seen h i m s e l f as a h e r o i c r e b e l , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t he p r a g m a t i c a l l y i n f o r m e d e v e r y newspaper he was l e a v i n g and f i n a l l y went w i t h h i s f a m i l y ' s a p p r o v a l . J u s t as t h e t r e e s i n t h e g a r d e n and t h e c u r t a i n s b a r e l y d a n c i n g i n t h e calm, sunny a f t e r n o o n a r e "unaware" o f t h e " f i e r c e b r e a t h o f the A t l a n t i c " on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f the house, so young Hugh had been h a p p i l y i g n o r a n t o f how p r e t e n t i o u s he was, o f how he was:..m"akinge,a f o o l o f h i m s e l f . I n t h e second p a r a g r a p h i n s e r t e d a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e n a r r a t i v e , we see t h a t Hugh has made a n a t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n from t h e sea image, w i t h i t s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s y o u t h , t o what has become a n o t h e r symbol o f h i s e a r l y v a n i t y -the g u i t a r : (Why d i d I s t o p p l a y i n g the g u i t a r ? C e r t a i n l y n o t b e -cause, b e l a t e d l y , one had come t o see t h e p o i n t o f P h i l l i p s o n ' s p i c t u r e , the c r u e l t r u t h i t c o n t a i n e d . . . t h e y a r e l o s i n g t h e B a t t l e o f t h e Ebro - And y e t , one might w e l l have seen one's c o n t i n u i n g t o p l a y b u t a n o t h e r form o f p u b l i c i t y s t u n t , a means o f k e e p i n g o n e s e l f i n t h e l i m e l i g h t , as i f t h o s e w e e k l y a r t i c l e s f o r t h e News o f the Wo r l d were n o t l i m e l i g h t enough! . . . t h e g u i t a r as an end i n i t s e l f a t l a s t seemed s i m p l y f u t i l e ; no l o n g e r even f u n - c e r t a i n l y a c h i l d i s h t h i n g t o be p u t away-) (UY,208) J u s t as t h e f i e r c e w i n d t h r e a t e n s t o c o l l a p s e t h e maple t r e e "propped up w i t h t h e s e c r u t c h e s , " so when Hugh became "aware o f t h e world"(UV»200) he abandoned the "gu i d e and p r o p " o f h i s i l l u s i o n s , t h e g u i t a r . H i s songs seemed weak and c h i l d i s h i n the f a c e o f the wind's v i g o r o u s " w i l d Beethoven." A l o n g s i d e t h e s u r f a c e l e v e l - the s h a v i n g scene and c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , and t h e i n n e r l e v e l - t h e stream o f Hugh's t h o u g h t s , s t i l l a n o t h e r l e v e l i s o p e r a t i n g s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y . W h i l e t h e C o n s u l i s t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d the c r y p t i c comments i n the newspaper, s u p p o s e d l y a communica-t i o n medium, and Hugh i s s t r u g g l i n g t o f r e e h i m s e l f o f t h e 5 8 p a s t by e x o r c i s m , a n o t h e r s t r u g g l e f o r freedom i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n S p a i n . But t h e L o y a l i s t s , who t o Hugh r e p r e s e n t the s p i r i t o f freedom, a r e " l o s i n g t h e b a t t l e o f t h e E b r o " because much o f t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , because o f i n e f f i c i e n t o r d i s t o r t e d communication^ does not u n d e r s t a n d and t h e r e -f o r e w i l l n o t h e l p t h e i r cause. By i n s e r t i n g t h e s e two p a r a g r a p h s , Lowry has so expanded the moment between Hugh's g l a n c e a t t h e garden and t h e C o n s u l ' s comment t h a t we a r e a^vare o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t a c t i -v i t i e s g o i n g on a t t h e same t i m e . Moreover, Lowry has c a r e -f u l l y s e l e c t e d and p r e s e n t e d t h e s e t h r e e l e v e l s i n such a way t h a t t h e r e i s a t h e m a t i c comment i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r s i m -u l t a n e o u s o p e r a t i o n . I n o t h e r words, we not o n l y a r e aware o f t h r e e l e v e l s b u t can see a r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. The c o m i c a l and o f t e n s e n s e l e s s j a r g o n o f t h e M exican news-p a p e r i s o n l y one a s p e c t o f t h e w i d e s p r e a d l a c k o f communi-c a t i o n and o r d e r w h i c h t h e C o n s u l sees i n the w o r l d . As Lowry comments, t h e r e i s a g r e a t "nonsense and y e t a t t h e same time f a r more d e s p e r a t e s e r i o u s n e s s " i n "the s h a v i n g s c e n e . " Hugh, a newspaper c o r r e s p o n d e n t , has d i f f i c u l t y t r a n s l a t i n g h i s own m o t i v e s and p a s t t o h i m s e l f and f e e l s t h a t he must f i r s t u n d e r s t a n d h i s own s t r u g g l e b e f o r e com-m i t t i n g h i m s e l f t o the l a r g e r cause i n v o l v e d i n t h e S p a n i s h C i v i l War. And the cause o f t h e L o y a l i s t s i n t h i s war i s hampered by t h e g e n e r a l i g n o r a n c e and l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r the t r u t h i n t h e w o r l d as a whole. I n h i s r e v i s i o n o f Chapter XX Lowry a g a i n expanded a moment i n t h e n a r r a t i v e so t h a t , i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n , we a r e aware o f two s i m u l t a n e o u s r e a c t i o n s . I n the f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r , as.Hugh, G e o f f r e y and Yvonne l e a v e t h e h o t d u s t y b u l l r i n g , t h e y see a c o o l , i n v i t i n g l a k e g l i t t e r i n g b e f o r e them. They soon r e a l i z e , however, t h a t t h i s l a k e i s a c t u a l l y a g l a s s r o o f arid a r e d e p r e s s e d b y the d i s c o v e r y ; 59 . . .. as t h e y d i s m a l l y l o o k e d a t i t Hugh f e l t t h a t h i s keen sense o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t was s h a r e d b y Yvonne who save a l i t t l e s h i v e r . "That's d r e a d f u l somehow," she s a i d . (FV, I X»3) I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h i s scene we a r e s t i l l aware o f the g e n e r a l mood o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , b u t a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n has been added t o t h e moment! The l a k e was a b r o k e n greenhouse r o o f b e l o n g i n g t o E l J a r d i n X i c o t a n c a t l : o n l y weeds l i v e d i n t h e greenhouse. But t h e i r house was i n h e r mind now as she w a l k e d : t h e i r home was r e a l : Yvonne saw i t a t s u n r i s e . (UV.309) T h i s r e v i s e d scene manages t o suggest b o t h f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t and hope f o r t h e f u t u r e . I n t h e greenhouse n e a r the a r e n a o n l y weeds grow. One o f the f i r s t t h i n g s Yvonne had n o t i c e d on h e r r e t u r n home was t h a t t h e f l o w e r s i n t h e C o n s u l ' s garden were d y i n g ; j u s t as h i s s a n i t y i s b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d by t h e w o r l d ' s madness, so h i s p r i v a t e garden has been " t r u n c a t e d " (UV,156) by t h e w i r e f e n c e o f t h e new p u b l i c one. But i n t h e f a c e o f t h i s d y i n g l a n d s c a p e Yvonne s t i l l b e l i e v e s t h a t she and G e o f f w i l l be a b l e t o s t a r t a new l i f e t o g e t h e r " i n a f o r e s t , " a f l o u r i s h i n g n a t u r a l en-v i r o n m e n t ; she can p i c t u r e c l e a r l y t h e i r f u t u r e home s u r -rounded b y " s m a l l new l e a v e s " (UV,30l) and dogwood b l o s s o m s . The p o s i t i o n and n a t u r e o f t h e s e two a d d i t i o n s t o t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f Under the V o l c a n o show c l e a r l y t h a t Lowry d i d n o t c a r e l e s s l y " e l a b o r a t e " and " o v e r r e a c h h i m s e l f " w i t h 8 " s h o v e l f u l s " o f l o c a l c o l o u r and " e c c e n t r i c w o r d - s p i n n i n g " ; the t e x t u r e i s dense, b u t t h i s d e n s i t y i s a p r o d u c t o f v e r y c a r e f u l c o n s t r u c t i o n - " a l l t h a t i s t h e r e i s t h e r e f o r a r e a s o n . " The m a n u s c r i p t s r e v e a l Lowry was w o r k i n g towards a v e r y d e f i n i t e aim - t h e m a t i c e x p a n s i o n through c o u n t e r -p o i n t . 60 On t h e b r o a d e s t l e v e l Lowry has p l a c e d whole c h a p t e r s i n c o u n t e r p o i n t and, w i t h i n t h e s e c h a p t e r s , he o f t e n u s e d c o n t r a p u n t a l s t r u c t u r e t o p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t y e t s i m u l t a n e o u s r e a c t i o n s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r s . On a t h i r d and v e r y s u b t l e l e v e l , Lowry u s e d v a r i a t i o n s i n language and rhythm t o c r e a t e t h e c o u n t e r p o i n t o f t o n e s . M. F r i e d m a n d e s c r i b e s one form o f l i t e r a r y c o u n t e r -p o i n t as " o r c h e s t r a t i o n " - "the p l a u s i b l e e f f e c t o f d i f -f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s g i v e n b y v a r y i n g p r o c e d u r e i n t h e n o v e l " ; f o r example, "when each c h a p t e r appears t o make a f r e s h s t a r t and may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , t e c h n i c a l l y , f r o m each o f t h e o t h e r s . Lowry r e v i s e d t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f Under t h e  V o l c a n o so t h a t each c h a p t e r i s w r i t t e n from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f o n l y one c h a r a c t e r and he v a r i e s t h i s v i e w p o i n t so t h a t no two c o n s e c u t i v e c h a p t e r s a r e s e e n t h r o u g h t h e same p a i r o f e y e s . I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f C h a p t e r V I I I we can see i n t o t h e minds o f a l l t h r e e main c h a r a c t e r s . When t h e bus p a s s e s t h e c l o c k i n t h e market, we a r e t o l d t h a t Yvonne, s t i l l f o l l o w i n g i n h e r mind a t r a i n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h th e c l o c k h a d s e t i n m o t i o n . . . . was o n l y v a g u e l y aware o f t h e s e t h i n g s . F o r t h e time b e i n g she was b a c k a t Cambridge. ( F V , V I I I , 2 ) We a l s o see what i s g o i n g on i n t h e C o n s u l ' s mind - " P e l a d o , t h e C o n s u l t h o u g h t , what a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f meanings the word had." ( F V , V I I I , 4 ) But i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f C h a p t e r V I I I we observe e v e n t s o n l y t h r o u g h t h e eyes o f Hugh. The c l o c k i s a s s o c i a t e d n o t w i t h Cambridge b u t w i t h "the one i n Rupert Brooke," a c h u r c h c l o c k t h a t s t o o d a lways " a t t e n t o t h r e e " i n t h e e q u a l l y s t a b l e hamlet o f O r a n t c h e s t e r . The poem r e f e r r e d t o , " t h e O l d V i c a r a g e , G r a n t c h e s t e r , " was w r i t t e n i n 1912, j u s t t h r e e y e a r s b e -f o r e n o t o n l y t h e v i l l a g e c l o c k b u t a l l t i m e was t o s t o p f o r R u p e r t Brooke w i t h h i s d e a t h i n t h e F i r s t W o r l d War. S i n c e t h i s i s one o f Hugh's c h a p t e r s , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i s v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r B r o o k e , l i k e Hugh, was a young 61 r o m a n t i c who saw war as a p u r i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e and b e -l i e v e d p a s s i o n a t e l y i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e and g l o r y o f f i g h t i n g f o r a cause. The p e l a d o i s thus d e s c r i b e d i n terms w h i c h suggest Hugh's c o n c e r n w i t h p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s . The C o n s u l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e word i s s t i l l g i v e n b u t o n l y i n d i r e c t l y - " A c c o r d i n g t o the C o n s u l , t h i s was o n l y one meaning; p e l a d o s were i n d e e d ' p e e l e d ones,' th e s t r i p p e d , b u t a l s o t h o s e who d i d not have t o be r i c h t o p r e y on t h e r e a l l y p o o r . " (W, 2 6 4 - 5 ) Hugh goes on t o d e f i n e the word i n b r o a d e r terms: I t was p e r h a p s one o f t h o s e words t h a t had a c t u a l l y b een d i s t i l l e d out o f conquest, s u g g e s t i n g , as i t d i d , on t h e one hand th e t h i e f , on t h e o t h e r t h e e x p l o i t e r . I n t e r c h a n g e a b l e e v e r were the terms of abuse w i t h w h i c h t h e a g g r e s s o r d i s c r e d i t s t h o s e about t o be ravaged. ( W , 2 6 5 ) The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e emphasis each man has g i v e n t h e word p e l a d o p o i n t s t o a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r o u t l o o k s . A l t h o u g h Hugh i s a n g e r e d by a w o r l d t h a t l e t s t he I n d i a n and t h e L o y a l i s t s p e r i s h , n e v e r t h e l e s s he s t i l l has a c e r t a i n f a i t h i n p u b l i c frameworks and c o l l e c t i v e a c -t i o n . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y can b e ex-p l a i n e d b y c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h a t i t can be changed o r d i r e c t e d b y c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and group a c t i o n . He s a y s t h a t j u s t as " C h r i s t i a n i t y was a new s p i r i t i n t h e Roman w o r l d d e s t i n e d t o a c t i n t h a t w o r l d as i t s d i s s o l -v e n t , " (uy_>33) so t h e modern communist o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l d i s s o l v e the p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e s and t h e n r e c o n s t r u c t a b e t t e r w o r l d . The C o n s u l , however, no l o n g e r b e l i e v e s i n any frameworks o r movements; f o r him a l l e x t e r n a l o r p u b l i c s t r u c t u r e s a r e i r r e l e v a n t f o r t h e y have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l " s u r v i v a l o f t h e human s p i r i t . " ( U V . 5 4 0 ) 62 F o r t h e C o n s u l a c t i o n i s w o r t h w h i l e o n l y on the p e r s o n a l l e v e l . When Hugh compares Nazism t o a s h a r k -A s h a r k was n e t t e d w i t h a s h o a l o f o t h e r f i s h and k i l l e d . . . T h i s s t r u c k me as a p r e t t y good symbol o f t h e N a z i system w h i c h , even though dead, c o n t i n u e s t o go on s w a l l o w i n g a l i v e s t r u g g l i n g men and women! (W,334) - t h e C o n s u l r e p l i e s t h a t Hugh's symbol "would do j u s t a s w e l l f o r any o t h e r system . . . I n c l u d i n g the communist system." (UV,334-) S i n c e p u b l i c s i g n s and systems o n l y t h r e a t e n o r c o n f u s e the i n d i v i d u a l , the Consul says t h a t p e o p l e s h o u l d "mind t h e i r own damned b u s i n e s s I " (UV,341) Men's e f f o r t s t o d i r e c t h i s t o r y a r e f u t i l e f o r " t h e r e ' s a s o r t o f d e t e r m i n i s m about the f a t e o f n a t i o n s . " (UV.540) I n Hugh's Chapter V I I , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the word p e l a d o i s o o n l y one o f the many passages r e f l e c t i n g h i s con-c e r n w i t h the p o l i t i c a l framework. The b u s d r i v e r ' s p r i d e i n the w h i t e p i g e o n s , " l i t t l e s e c r e t ambassadors o f peace," becomes i r o n i c f o r the d r i v e r doesn't know "how much n e a r e r even i n t h e s e moments the Governments were t o l o s i n g t o t h e E b r o . " (UV,262) When the bus p a s s e s t h e r a i l w a y s t a -t i o n , Hugh sees i t a a the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f h i s m i s s i o n t o h e l p save t h e L o y a l i s t s - on t h a t l o n e l y p l a t f o r m t o n i g h t he h i m s e l f w o u l d s t a n d , w i t h h i s p i l g r i m ' s b u n d l e , " (UV f265) (But i n C h a p t e r X, one o f t h e C o n s u l ' s c h a p t e r s , t h e r a i l w a j s t a t i o n i s a symbol o f d e a t h , the end o f the j o u r n e y . ) Hugh s t i l l has f a i t h i n p l a n s and v e r b a l r i t u a l s - "May e v e r y -t h i n g come, somehow r i g h t . May we a l l be happy. God b l e s s u s . " (UV,267) Even t h e b u r n e d , b l a c k e n e d c h u r c h b y the r o a d i s t o Hugh a symbol o f a b e g i n n i n g r a t h e r t h a n an end; t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f the c h u r c h makes way f o r a new and b e t t e r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The sounds i n the bus become a chant i n Hugh's mind - "I'm l o s i n g t h e B a t t l e o f t h e Ebr o , I am l o s i n g Yvonne."(UV,267) When seen t h r o u g h Hugh's eyes , 63 the h e l p l e s s , f r i g h t e n e d c h i c k e n s i n the "bus a r e symbols o f the n a t i o n s who b y f a i l i n g t o a c t , have l e t a g g r e s s i o n f l o u r i s h and w i l l soon pay a heavy p r i c e f o r t h e i r d e f a u l t -"Poor t h i n g s , t h e y had s i g n e d t h e i r Munich agreement t o o . One o f t h e t u r k e y s even l o o k e d r e m a r k a b l y l i k e N e v i l l e C h a m b e r l a i n . " (UV,268) When t h e d r y i n g I n d i a n i s d i s c o v -e r e d , once a g a i n Hugh wants d e c i s i v e a c t i o n and cannot u n d e r s t a n d t h e p a s s i v e a t t i t u d e o f the o t h e r s . A f t e r t h e p e l a d o has s t o l e n t h e I n d i a n ' s money, Hugh a n a l y z e s h i s b e h a v i o u r i n terms o f I t a l y ' s a g g r e s s i o n i n A b y s s i n i a -" h i s p o s s e s s i o n o f i t was open and above b o a r d , f o r a l l the w o r l d t o know about. I t was a r e c o g n i z e d t h i n g , l i k e A b y s s i n i a . " (UV,282) By r e v i s i n g t h i s c h a p t e r so t h a t i t p r e s e n t s o n l y one p o i n t o f v i e w Lowry i s thus a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h one dom-i n a n t o u t l o o k o r b i a s w i t h i n i t ; i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e n o v e l he r e p e a t e d l y r e f e r s t o each c h a p t e r as a " u n i t " and makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f each u n i t y i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f t h e n o v e l . He defends Chapter I I a g a i n s t any c u t s t h e p u b l i s h e r might want t o make, s a y i n g : " i t was w r i t t e n w i t h extreme c a r e ; i t t o o i s abs o l u t a m e n t e n e c e s a r i o . . . i t i s an e n t i t y , a u n i t y i n i t s e l f , as are a l l t h e o t h e r c h a p t e r s . " By v a r y i n g p o i n t o f vi e w so t h a t no two c o n s e c u t i v e c h a p t e r s a r e seen t h r o u g h t h e same c h a r a c t e r , Lowry i s a b l e t o p l a c e t h e s e v i e w p o i n t s i n c o u n t e r p o i n t and t h u s c r e a t e a sense o f m u l t i p l i c i t y . And b y v a r y i n g t h i s v i e w -p o i n t i n su c h a way t h a t complements and c o n t r a s t a r e formed, Lowry b u i l d s a sense o f b a l a n c e and p a t t e r n w i t h i n t h i s v e r y m u l t i p l i c i t y . Hugh's Chapter V I I I , f o r example, i s f o l l o w e d b y a c h a p t e r seen t h r o u g h Yvonne's eyes, "as i t must be f o r t h e sake o f b a l a n c e , i f jrou r e f l e c t . . . . m u s i c a l l y s p e a k i n g 64 Qit] ought t o he an e x c e e d i n g l y good c o n t r a s t t o V I I I and X." Because Hugh i s d i s g u s t e d w i t h t h e way t h e I n d i a n was abandoned, Chapter V I I I ends on a n o t e o f m o r b i d i r o n y . When the C o n s u l says "Everybody happy, i n c l u d i n g me," Hugh t h i n k s And i n c l u d i n g t h o s e . . • who e f f o r t l e s s l y , b e a u t i -f u l l y , i n t h e b l u e s k y above them, f l o a t e d , t h e v u l -t u r e s - x o p i l o t e s , who w a i t o n l y f o r t h e r a t i f i c a t i o n o f d e a t h . (UV,283) Chapter I X , however, i s a new, d i s t i n c t u n i t and makes a f r e s h s t a r t ; v i a the s t i l l h o p e f u l Yvonne we are p l u n g e d i m m e d i a t e l y i n t o t h e g a i e t y o f the f i e s t a . The opening l i n e s o f Chapter I X resemble t h e stage d i r e c t i o n s a d r a -m a t i s t might use i n o r d d r t o e s t a b l i s h a new scene and mood: Arena T o m a l i n . . . . -What a w o n d e r f u l time everybody was h a v i n g , how happy t h e y were, how happy everyone was! (UV r284) The b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f Chapter I X ( w h i c h i s n o t l i m i t e d t o Yvonne's p o i n t o f v i e w ) i s m e r e l y a c o n t i n u -a t i o n o f t h e note on w h i c h Chapter V I I I ended; Hugh t r i e s i n v a i n t o f i n d a t e l e p h o n e i n t h e t a v e r n so t h a t he can send h e l p t o t h e I n d i a n and Yvonne, shocked b y t h e i n c i d e n t and, f e e l i n g t h a t she has had some " m y s t e r i o u s share i n a murder" ( F V , V I I I , 5 ) i s c r y i n g . As t h i s v e r s i o n o f Chapter I X d e v e l o p s , we see i n c i d e n t s a l s o t h r o u g h the eyes o f G e o f f r e y and Hugh. We a r e g i v e n t h e C o n s u l ' s i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n o f t h e b u l l t h r o w i n g : To t h e C o n s u l , g i v i n g h i m s e l f o v e r t o a s u c c e s s i o n o f d e l i c i o u s , c a d d i s h t h o u g h t s , t h e a t t i t u t e - o f t h o s e i n 65 the r i n g was p r e c i s e l y t h a t o f Mexican salesmen t o -wards t h e g r i n g o t o u r i s t . ( F V , I X , l l ) ' We see i n t o Hugh's mind as he f a c e s t h e h u l l i n t h e r i n g -"Very w e l l I don't l i k e the h u l l e i t h e r . These t h o u g h t s smote h i s mind, r i g i d w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon su b d u i n g th e b u l l . " (FV,IX,29) But i n i t s r e v i s e d form t h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y Yvonne's c h a p t e r ; a c l e a n b r e a k i s made w i t h Hugh's a t t i t u d e a t t h e end o f C h a p t e r V I I I and a l l e v e n t s a r e o b s e r v e d t h r o u g h Yvonne's eyes. Passages i n the f i r s t v e r s i o n not c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o Yvonne's i n t e r e s t and o u t l o o k have been c u t ; the argument between Hugh and t h e C o n s u l about the S p a n i s h C i v i l War, f o r example, i s o m i t t e d i n t h e p r i n t e d v e r s i o n o f C h a p t e r I X . L i k e Hugh, Yvonne i s c o n cerned w i t h b u i l d i n g a new w o r l d b u t h e r v i s i o n i s a v e r y p e r s o n a l one; she wants t o b u i l d a p r i v a t e w o r l d where she and G e o f f can r e c o v e r t h e i r o l d l o v e . The f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r s t i l l i n -c l u d e s Hugh's r e a c t i o n t o t h e b u l l b u t o n l y i n d i r e c t l y , and i n s uch a way t h a t h i s c o n c e n t r a t e d s t r u g g l e i s no l o n g e r the. moment's c e n t e r o f ^ i n t e r e s t b u t i n s t e a d has b e -come a b a c k d r o p f o r t h e c h a p t e r ' s c e n t r a l movements - Yvonne's s t r u g g l e w i t h the p a s t and h e r hopes f o r the f u t u r e . Even as he s i t s i n t h e s t a n d s , Hugh seems "an i n t e r l o p e r , a stranger,, p a r t o f the scene b e l o w . " (UV,300) As he f a c e s t h e b u l l Yvonne s m i l e s a t him i n d u l g e n t l y and a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t s h i s r e a c t i o n s : he was s i m p l y s u b m i t t i n g t o t h a t a b s u r d n e c e s s i t y he f e l t f o r a c t i o n . . . . A l l h i s t h o u g h t s now were b r i n g i n g t h a t m i s e r a b l e b u l l t o i t s knees . . . . Somehow one had l i t t l e a n x i e t y w a t c h i n g him . . . . One f e l t , even, h a l f i r o n i c a l l y , t h a t t h i s was t h e k i n d o f t h i n g Hugh might be b e s t f i t t e d t o do. (UV.306) She f i n d s Hugh's method o f e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e t h r o u g h danger 6 6 a l l v e r y w e l l i n i t s p l a c e b u t r a t h e r l i m i t e d i n e f f e c -t i v e n e s s . Y v o n n e a l s o h a s b e e n u p s e t b y t h e e v e n t s o f t h e d a y , b u t h e r r e a c t i o n i s t o s t a r t p l a n n i n g a r e t r e a t f o r G e o f f r e y a n d h e r s e l f . D u r i n g t h e b u l l t h r o w i n g s h e m e n t a l l y c o n s t r u c t s a n i d y l l i c f u t u r e home a n d l i f e . I n r e v i s i n g t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r , L o w r y i n s e r t e d a t e n s e d i a l o g u e c o n c e r n i n g t h i s n e w l i f e j u s t a t t h e h i g h p o i n t o f H u g h ' s s t r a g g l e a n d Y v o n n e ' s d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t t o c o n v i n c e t h e C o n s u l c l e a r l y u p s t a g e s t h e f o r c e d game i n t h e r i n g b e l o w . T h e c h a p t e r e n d s o n a n o t e o f p r e c a r i o u s h o p e ; t h e c o n v e r -s a t i o n b e t w e e n Y v o n n e a n d t h e C o n s u l i s i n t e r r u p t e d a n d m o o r e d , , l i k e a b o a t , i n a d a n g e r o u s p o s i t i o n n e a r t h e r o c k s , b u t Y v o n n e h a s h o p e s t h a t s h e c a n l a t e r " d r a g i t u p f u r -t h e r , w h e r e i t w a s s a f e . " ( U V , 3 1 0 ) T h e n e x t c h a p t e r , h o w e v e r , i s o n e o f t h e C o n s u l ' s , a n d j u s t a s t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f C h a p t e r I X w e r e s u f f i c i e n t t o s e t a m o o d o f h o p e , s o t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e o f C h a p t e r X i m m e d i a t e l y s i g n a l s a s w i n g o f t h e p e n d u l u m t o d e s p a i r -" ' M e s c a l ' , t h e C o n s u l s a i d , a l m o s t a b s e n t m i n d e d l y . " ( U V , 3 1 l ) T h e m o o d a t t h e e n d o f C h a p t e r I X i s f a r f r o m e x u b e r a n t , b u t t h e f i n a l i m a g e o f t h e o l d I n d i a n c a r r y i n g t h e c r i p p l e n e v e r t h e l e s s m a k e s a p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t ; i n s p i t e o f " t h e w e i g h t o f t h e p a s t , " man s t i l l s t r u g g l e s f o r w a r d . I n s p i t e o f t h e w e i g h t o f h e r own p a s t , w i t h i t s f a i l u r e s a n d s o r -r o w s , Y v o n n e h a s b e g u n t o l a y t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r a f u t u r e t r i u m p h . B u t t h e o n e w o r d " m e s c a l " a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f C h a p t e r X s u g g e s t s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e n d f o r t h e C o n s u l a n d f o r Y v o n n e ' s d r e a m s . E a r l i e r F i r m i n h a d t o l d L a r u e l l e , " B u t i f I e v e r s t a r t t o d r i n k m e s c a l a g a i n , I'm a f r a i d , y e s t h a t w o u l d b e t h e e n d . " ( U V f 8 4 6 ) I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f n o v e l C h a p t e r X b e g a n w i t h a l e s s a b r u p t s t a t e m e n t : " f i n -a l l y t h e y w a l k e d d o w n t o w a r d s t h e S a l o n O f e l i a ... - i n s i l e n c e . " ( F V , , X . l ) A s h e d i d w i t h C h a p t e r I X , L o w r y r e -6 7 v i s e d t h e opening so t h a t i t d e c i s i v e l y s e t s t h e mood f o r the c h a p t e r ' s dominant o u t l o o k and makes an a b r u p t b r e a k w i t h the p r e c e d i n g u n i t . And once a g a i n , l a t e r p a ssages i n the c h a p t e r have been r e v i s e d so t h a t we see e v e r y t h i n g from t h e C o n s u l ' s eyes.. I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f Chapter X t h e w a t e r f a l l b y the t a v e r n i s d e s c r i b e d v e r y m a t t e r o f f a e t l y : O u t s i d e i t a w a t e r f a l l c r a s h e d down i n t o two l e v e l s , t h e l o w e r b e i n g a swimming p o o l . The water on t h e upper l e v e l r a c e d t o a n o t h e r f a l l s w h i c h , below, n o u r i s h e d a stream l e a d i n g t h r o u g h t h i c k j u n g l e t o a much l a r g e r cascade out o f s i g h t . ( F V , X , l ) But i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s w a t e r f a l l r e f l e c t s the C o n s u l ' s t o r t u r e d s t a t e o f mind: A n a t u r a l w a t e r f a l l c r a s h i n g i n t o a s o r t o f r e s e r v o i r b u i l t on two l e v e l s - . . . t h e s i g h t l e s s c o o l i n g t h a n g r o t e s q u e l y s u g g e s t i v e o f some a g o n i s e d u l t i m a t e sweat; the l o w e r l e v e l made a p o o l where Hugh and Yvonne were s t i l l n ot y e t swimming. (Uv".3151 S i m i l a r l y , t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n between Yvonne and Hugh by t h e p o o l has been r e v i s e d so t h a t we h e a r i t i n a form r e -f l e c t i n g the c o n f u s i o n o f t h e Co n s u l ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . As he s i t s i n the t a v e r n d r i n k i n g , the f a t a l " e t h e r - s m e l l i n g " m e scal d u l l s h i s senses and o n l y fragments o f t h e conver-s a t i o n f l o a t t o t h e s u r f a c e o f h i s mind. The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s f r om t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r -'-not f o r g e t t i n g t h e l i m e s e i t h e r ! ' 'Why l i m e s ? Yvonne began t o l a u g h . 'Where do we s t a r t from? 'To p r e v e n t mountain s i c k n e s s . Oh, Amecameca.' (FV,X,5) a r e a l t e r e d i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n so t h a t we f i n d them 6 8 s l i g h t l y c o n f u s i n g on a f i r s t r e a d i n g : 'not f o r g e t t i n g the l i m e s - ' '-where i s i t we s t a r t f r o m , Amecameca-' 'To p r e v e n t mountain s i c k n e s s . ' ( U V . 5 2 0 ) Not o n l y does the C o n s u l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o communi-c a t e h i m s e l f , h u t he a l s o has t o s t r u g g l e even t o under-s t a n d t h e communication between o t h e r s . By p r e s e n t i n g t h e d i a l o g u e as i t i s h e a r d by P i r m i n , and t h u s f o r c i n g u s t o share t h i s s t r u g g l e t o u n d e r s t a n d , Lowry i s a b l e t o convey t h e C o n s u l ' s p r e d i c a m e n t w i t h a v i v i d sense o f immediacy. A n o t h e r p r o d u c t o f r e v i s i o n i n Chapter X i s the scene i n the bathroom where the C o n s u l s t u d i e s t h e t r a v e l f o l d e r . By a d d i n g t h i s scene Lowry i s once a g a i n a b l e t o s u ggest t h e C o n s u l ' s c o n f u s i o n ; a l o n g w i t h P i r m i n , who i s l o s t i n h i s own " T l a x c a l t e c a n f a n t a s y , " (UY_»32) we h e a r o n l y f r a g m e n t s o f Yvonne and Hugh's c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e n e x t room. Throughout th e c h a p t e r , i n f a c t , environment and e v e n t s a r e c o l o u r e d by t h e C o n s u l ' s sense o f d i s l o -c a t i o n and h o r r o r . The m i s t s f r o m t h e w a t e r f a l l s "seemed t o be d a n c i n g " t o t h e " p l a i n t i v e d i s c o r d s " p r o d u c e d b y the m e s c a l . P i r m i n sees th e movement o f t h e m i s t s as "a phantom dancg o f s o u l s , " s e e k i n g permanence " i n t h e m i d s t o f what was o n l y p e r p e t u a l l y evanescent o r e t e r n a l l y l o s t . " T h i s image r e f l e c t s t h e C o n s u l ' s own sense o f f u t i l i t y i n the f a c e o f t h e i n e v i t a b l e doom. The shadows i n t h e b a r -room a r e s n a k e - l i k e " c o i l s " w h i c h seem t o s p r i n g a t hirn, r eady t o r e duce t o chaos what l i t t l e o r d e r t h e r e i s l e f t i n h i s p r i v a t e garden. Even the r o o s t e r seems menacing as i t s " w i l d y e l l o w eyes p i e r c e d the gloom." ( U V , 5 1 6 ) The bathroom " l o o k e d l i k e a tomb" and Hugh becomes a t h r e a t e n i n g enemy " a d v a n c i n g as i f t o d e c a p i t a t e him." ( U V , 3 1 6 ) A c u r t a i n f l o a t i n g i n t h e window "had come i n t o 6 9 s t r a n g l e him. 1 1 (UV,544) The c h a p t e r ends a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h an ominous image o f t h e v o l c a n o e s - "massive i n t e r -e s t s moving up i n the b a c k g r o u n d . " (UV,345) I n each o f t h e s e t h r e e c h a p t e r s t h e r e i s a downward movement. I n Ch a p t e r V I I I , Hugh's good s p i r i t s g i v e way t o d i s g u s t when no one w i l l make a move t o h e l p t h e d y i n g I n d i a n . Yvonne's exuberance a t the b e g i n n i n g o f Ch a p t e r f a d e s a s the e f f e c t o f h e r d r i n k wears o f f . By t h e end o f Chapter X t h e Co n s u l can no l o n g e r d i s t i n g u i s h i l l u s i o n from r e a l i t y ; he t h i n k s he i s p r e s e n t i n g a l u c i d d i s -c o u r s e on the t r a d i t i o n s o f v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s when a c t u a l l y he has n o t u t t e r e d a s i n g l e word., (UV,558) But by g i v i n g each o f t h e s e c h a p t e r s a d i s t i n c t u n i t y and o u t l o o k o f i t s own, Lowry i s a b l e t o p l a c e them i n c o u n t e r p o i n t and thus modulate tone and mood w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l downward move-ment. Throughout a l l t w e l v e c h a p t e r s t h e r e a re images and s u g g e s t i o n s o f doom, f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n each c h a p t e r a l l l i e under the t h r e a t o f t h e v o l c a n o . But Lowry has so v a r r i e d v i e w p o i n t t h a t he c r e a t e s a sense o f m u l t i p l i c i t y . W i t h i n t h i s c o n t r a p u n t a l s e r i e s o f c h a p t e r s , mood t e e t e r s back and f o r t h between hope and d e s p a i r , o r d e r and con-f u s i o n . The f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h e o n l y one p r e s e n t e d from L a r u e l l e ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , i s a l s o t h e o n l y one h a v i n g a slow moving i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a c t i o n and mood and t h e o n l y one w h i c h does no t emerge as a u n i t w i t h a dominant o u t l o o k . I t i s p r e -s e n t e d e n t i r e l y f r o m J a c q u e s L a r u e l l e ' s p o i n t o f vie w , b u t i t does n o t b e a r the stamp o f one p a r t i c u l a r o u t l o o k o r a t t i t u d e , f o r L a r u e l l e i s r e a l l y o n l y a mouthpiece t h r o u g h w h i c h Lowry p r e s e n t s , b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n and s u g g e s t s t h e themes t o be d e v e l o p e d i n t h e n o v e l H Chapter I I , however, i s p r e s e n t e d from Yvonne's p o i n t o f v i e w and d e f -i n i t e l y r e f l e c t s h e r own tense frame o f mind. Her r e t u r n i s b a s e d on the b e l i e f t h a t the m a r r i a g e can be s a v e d b u t 70 she i s a l s o aware t h a t t h e v e r y u r g e n c y o f t h i s hope r e n d e r s h e r v u l n e r a b l e t o d i s a p p o i n t m e n t and she t r e a d s c a u t i o u s l y . By t h e end o f t h e c h a p t e r hope outweighs f e a r a i d Yvonne l e t s h e r s e l f b e l i e v e i n the "sense o f a s h a r e d , a mountain peace." ( U V , 9 l ) But Chapter I I I i s one o f t h e C o n s u l ' s c h a p t e r s and soon u p s e t s t h i s p r e c a r i o u s e q u i l i -b r i u m . I n t h e opening sentence the " t r a g e d y " o f h i s r u i n i s " p r o c l a i m e d " by t h e v e r y p l a n t s d y i n g i n the garden. The s t i l t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n c o n t i n u e s as i n Chapter I I , b u t now we see what i s g o i n g on i n the C o n s u l ' s mind d u r i n g t h e awkward s i l e n t i n t e r v a l s ; we see h i s d e s p a i r , chaos and d e s p e r a t i o n . I n C h a p t e r I V t h e r e i s a r e t u r n t o and a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e t e n t a t i v e hope o f Chapter I I . The opening p a s s a g e , a copy o f a news d i s p a t c h commenting on t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t -u a t i o n i n M e x i c o , p r o c l a i m s i m m e d i a t e l y t h a t t h i s i s one o f Hugh's c h a p t e r s . The f o r m a l o f f i c i a l language a l s o s i g n a l s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new phase o f o r d e r . Hugh and Yvonne q u i c k l y "get the h e l l out o f " t h e r u i n e d garden and go f o r a r i d e i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e where they f i n d a b e a u t i f u l model f a r m , a v i s i o n o f o r d e r and peace. I n t h i s s e c u r e " c a r a v a n " (UV,134) Yvonne f i r s t b r o a c h e s h e r p l a n f o r escape t o Canada and a new l i f e w i t h G e o f f r e y . But t h e opening passage o f Chapter V, one o f t h e C o n s u l ' s , has "an i r o n i c b e a r i n g on the l a s t words o f I V . " A l -though p i l g r i m s " w i t h s o u l s w e l l d i s c i p l i n e d " r e a c h "the n o r t h e r n r e g i o n " t h e y w i l l n e v e r f i n d t h e i r g o a l , o n l y t a n t a l i z i n g p r o m i s e s o f i t - "promise o f l i g h t n e s s , o f l i g h t , l i g h t , l i g h t . " (UV,154) Once a g a i n t h e scnne i s t h e r u i n e d , c h a o t i c garden bounded by t h e t h r e a t o f e v i c t i o n p n d we see t h e a c t i o n and environment t h r o u g h t h e C o n s u l ' s hazy "amber-glow. " (UV.167) A l o n g s i d e t h e y e a r n i n g f o r time p a s t i n the c h a p t e r ' s f i n a l i n e -"Oh come t o me a g a i n as once i n May," t h e r e i s a sense o f f u t i l i t y , the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no r e b i r t h 71 o f p a s t h a p p i n e s s , o n l y an end t o p r e s e n t m i s e r y -"you're f o r i t now s t r a i g h t e n e d out - i n a c o f f i n ! " (U V f 1 7 8 ) The f o l l o w i n g C hapter V I a l s o f o c u s e s on t h e passage o f t i m e , h u t t h i s c h a p t e r i s p r e s e n t e d from Hugh's p o i n t o f v i e w . There i s a marked c o n t r a s t i n mood f o r Hugh, as th e o p e n i n g l i n e announces, i s " i n t h e m i d d l e " o f h i s l i f e - " K e l mezzo d e l b l o o d y cammin d i n o s t r a v i t a mi r e t r o v a i i n . " (UV,179) A t twenty-mine he f e e l s r e g r e t f o r time p a s t , but a l s o hope f o r the f u t u r e " s i x t y - s e v e n y e a r s . " When the r o a d image r e c u r s a t the end o f t h e c h a p t e r , what l i e s ahead i s unknown b u t a t l e a s t t h e r e i s s t i l l some d i s t a n c e t o be t r a v e l l e d : "The r o a d t u r n e d a l i t t l e c o r n e r i n the d i s t a n c e and v a n i s h e d . " (UV,223) The sense o f o r d e r c r e a t e d b y Hugh's c a r e f u l r e c o n -s t r u c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f h i s p a s t i s a b r u p t l y s h a t t e r e d b y t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h o f Chapter V I I whi c h c l e a r l y announces t h i s u n i t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d from the C o n s u l ' s p o i n t o f v i e w : "On the s i d e o f t h e drunken madly r e v o l v - ' i n g w o r l d h u r t l i n g a t 1:20 p.m. toward H e r c u l e s b u t t e r f l y the house seemed a b a d i d e a , t h e C o n s u l t h o u g h t . " (UV y224) Once a g a i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e n v i r o n -ment and a c t i o n r e f l e c t P i r m i n ' s sense o f d e s p a i r and p e r -s e c u t i o n : L a r u e l l e ' s house i s seen as a menacing f o r t r e s s e q u i p p e d f o r war; the m o t i o n o f t h e f l y i n g machines a t t h e f a i r l o o k " l i k e g e s t i c u l a t i o n s o f p a i n . " (UV,226) The p e o p l e on the g o l f c o u r s e resemble c r a w l i n g " s c o r p i o n s " ; (UV,226) t h e t o u r i s t s a r e " v a n d a l s i n s a n d a l s j 1 1 (W,241) the l o o p i n g - t h e - l o o p machine s u g g e s t s "some huge e v i l s p i r i t , s c r e a m i n g i n i t s l o n e l y h e l l . " (UV.,251) The c l o s i n g l i n e o f t h e c h a p t e r i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y ominous - "Es i n e v i t a b l e l a muerte d e l Papa." (UV,260) I n Chapter V I I I we a g a i n see events t h r o u g h Hugh's eyes and, u n t i l t h e y f i n d t he d y i n g I n d i a n , an o p t i m i s t i c o u t -l o o k p r e v a i l s . A t the b e g i n n i n g o f Yvonne's Chapter I X 7 2 t h e d e p r e s s i o n a t the end o f Hugh's c h a p t e r i s f o r g o t t e n i n t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e b u l l t h r o w i n g and dream o f a new home h u t i n C h a p t e r X, one o f t h e C o n s u l ' s , environment a g a i n t a k e s on a s i n i s t e r a s p e c t and e v e n t s a r e p a r t i a l l y l o s t i n t h e muddle o f F i r m i n ' s mind. The t h r e a t s u g g e s t e d b y the t o w e r i n g v o l c a n o s a t t h e end o f C h a p t e r X t a k e s on a d e f i n i t e f o rm and r e s u l t ; . ; i n C hapter X I when Yvonne i s k i l l e d b y a runaway h o r s e . T h i s i s t h e t h i r d and l a s t c h a p t e r p r e s e n t e d from Yvonne's p o i n t o f v i e w and, i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t i t c o n t a i n s h e r d e a t h , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s r e a f f i r m s the n o t e o f hope i n h e r o t h e r two c h a p t e r s . So s t r o n g i s h e r b e l i e f G e o f f r e y w i l l be f o u n d t h a t Yvonne ima g i n e s she sees him i n E l . Popo.(UV,354) I n the form c r e a t e d b y two p o l e s and beams of l i g h t she sees the " e x q u i s i t e b e a u t y " o f a " r u i n e d G r e c i a n temple.." ( U V , 3 6 l ) The a i r has "a sweet c l e a n l y s m e l l " as s o f t r a i n f a l l s i n the woods where Hugh and Yvonne s e a r c h . A l t h o u g h she i s f i n a l l y f o r c e d t o abandon h e r " b u r n i n g dream," t h e c h a p t e r ends w i t h the p o s i t i v e and g r a c e f u l upward movement on w h i c h i t began. J u s t as i n the o p ening l i n e s " e d d i e s o f g r e e n and orange b i r d s " a r e s c a t t e r e d " a l o f t w i t h ever w i d e r c i r c l i n g s l i k e r i n g s on wa,ter" (UV.546) so i n t h e f i n a l p a r a g r a p h o f the u n i t Yvonne " f e l t h e r s e l f s u d d e n l y g a t h e r e d upwards and b o r n e towards t h e s t a r s , t h r o u g h e d d i e s o f s t a r s s c a t t e r i n g a l o f t w i t h e v e r w i d e r c i r c l i n g s l i k e r i n g s on w a t e r . " (UV,366) The opening l i n e o f Chapter X I I marks the b e g i n n i n g o f the f i n a l downward movement i n the n o v e l . L i k e C hapter X, the C o n s u l ' s l a s t c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h him o r d e r i n g a d r i n k o f m e s c a l . But t h i s t i me the o r d e r i s n o t g i v e n "almost a b s e n t m i n d e d l y " and the C o n s u l makes no e f f o r t t o delude h i m s e l f , as i n Chapter X, t h a t i t w i l l n o t be "a s e r i o u s m e s c a l . " As he h i m s e l f e a r l i e r p r o p h e s i e d , t h i s d r i n k i s the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e end; even h i s own r e f l e c t i o n i n t h e 73 m i r r o r now g l a r e s a t him " w i t h s t e r n f a m i l a r f o r e b o d i n g . " (UV,367) He i s a c u t e l y aware o f "the t i c k i n g o f h i s watch, h i s h e a r t , h i s c o n s c i e n c e , a c l o c k somewhere" f o r h i s time i s r u n r i n g out. As p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h F i r m i n ' s f i n a l c o n f u s i o n and d e s p e r a t i o n , t h e F a r o l i t o becomes the " p & r a d i s e o f h i s d e s p a i r , " t h e p e r f e c t s e t t i n g f o r h i s own p r i v a t e h e l l t o w h i c h a l l hopes a r e now condemned. To some e x t e n t t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c h a p t e r s i n terms o f upward o r downward movements, o r i n terms o f hope and o r d e r o r d e s p a i r and chaos, i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . O f t e n w i t h i n one c h a p t e r a l e i t m o t i f may appear i n b o t h a p o s i -t i v e and n e g a t i v e form. Lowry s a i d Hugh and the C o n s u l a r g u e d w i t h one a n o t h e r " l i k e two m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s " and a l t h o u g h one dominant c h a r a c t e r o r i n s t r u m e n t stamps each c h a p t e r w i t h h i s p a r t i c u l a r o u t l o o k , he does n o t b l a r e one u n r e l i e v e d n o t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e u n i t . I n the c o n f u s i o n and d e s p a i r o f t h e C o n s u l ' s C hapter I I t h e r e i s a temporary moment o f peace and e l a t i o n when "t h e y were embracing, o r so i t a l l b u t seemed, p a s s i o n a t e l y . " (UV,97) D u r i n g t h e happy p i l g r i m a g e i n Hugh's Chapter IV, t h e r e i s a moment o f t e m p t a t i o n t o g i v e way t o complete d e s p a i r - "And here i n d e e d i t was a g a i n , t h e t e m p t a t i o n , t h e c o w a r d l y , t h e f u t u r e - c o r r u p t i v e s e r p e n t . " (UV,138) I n the C o n s u l ' s C h a p t e r V t h e r e i s a h i l a r i o u s scene between F i r m i n and h i s n e i g h b o u r , De Quincey. But each c h a p t e r does f i n a l l y emerge as a d i s t i n c t u n i t w i t h a dominant, i f modulated, o u t l o o k and t o g e t h e r t h e s e u n i t s form a c o n t r a p u n t a l s e r i e s . They a r e independent i n emphasis and y e t r e l a t e d i n i m p e t u s . They argue w i t h r a t h e r t h a n a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r f o r they r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n s on a c e n t r a l theme: Hugh, Yvonne and t h e C o n s u l a r e each s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e problem o f a l i e n a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l arrangement o f t h e c h a p t e r s , Lowry has u s e d c o u n t e r p o i n t w i t h i n t h e chap-t e r s t o expand moments o r scenes and r e v e a l s i m u l t a n e i t y . 7 4 Whether he i s c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g one d i a l o g u e w i t h a n o t h e r , a c h a r a c t e r ' s t h o u g h t s w i t h h i s own o r some one e l s e ' s spoken words, o r one e n t i r e scene w i t h a n o t h e r , t h e r e i s a common p a t t e r n : i n each case the i n n e r w o r l d i s p l a c e d i n c o u n t e r p o i n t t o the o u t e r w o r l d . U s u a l l y t h i s i n n e r w o r l d i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e o u t e r n o t o n l y h y i t s c o n t e n t h u t a l s o by i t s tone and s t y l e . Lowry c l e a r l y r e a l i z e d t h a t "the s u b j e c t i v e i s the r e a l m o f t o n e " and t h a t , t o communicate on t h a t l e v e l , he needed something beyond th e t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d t o p r e s e n t s u r f a c e . A c c o r d i n g l y , i n Under th e V o l c a n o p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e c h a r a c t e r ' s t h o u g h t s or o f a scene r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s i n n e r l a n d s c a p e i s marked b y a h e i g h t e n e d mood and rhythm. W h i l e t h e n o v e l as a whole i s p o e t i c i n s t r u c t u r e and t e x -t u r e , t h e s e counter-pointed p assages r e n d e r i n g the i n n e r w o r l d afie l y r i c a l i n t h e i r v e r y tone and use o f language. P r o u s t w r o t e , "an atmosphere o f p o e t r y surrounds t h o s e is" t r u t h s w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s , t o w h i c h we a t t a i n . These p a s -sages a r e not awkward " p u r p l e p a t c h e s , " f o r the t e x t u r e o f the n o v e l l e a d s us t o e x p e c t the rhythm a n d t t h e p e r s -p e c t i v e o f p o e t r y . But t h e y do s t a n d out as i n t e n s i f i -c a t i o n s o f the moods and themes r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e n o v e l . When V i r g i n i a Woolf spoke o f t h e n e ed f o r t h e n o v e l i s t t o adopt a more f l e x i b l e medium t h a t would have "something o f the e x a l t a t i o n o f p o e t r y , b u t much o f t h e o r d i n a r i n e s s o f p r o s e , " she s a i d t h a t what the modern age needed, i n e f f e c t , was t o f i l l t h e gap l e f t b y t h e d e a t h o f p o e t i c drama. I t was not up t o t h e n o v e l i s t s t o s u p p l y , i n a. form a c c e p t a b l e t o modern t a s t e s and h a b i t s , t h e e q u i v a -l e n t o f the p o e t i c drama o f the E l i z a b e t h a n age, o f "what has i n t h e p a s t s e r v e d t o e x p r e s s " t h e " c o n t r a s t a n d n c o l l i s i o n " o f l i f e . I n d e f e n d i n g h i s use o f l y r i c a l p r o s e , Lowry p o i n t s t o t h i s v e r y gap i n modern l i t e r a t u r e : 75 .. .. . i n our E l i z a b e t h a n days we u s e d t o have a t l e a s e p a s s i o n a t e p o e t i c w r i t i n g about t h i n g s t h a t w i l l a lways mean something and not j u s t s i l l y a s s s t y l e and s e m i c o l o n t e c h n i q u e ) and i n t h i s sense I am t r y i n g t o remedy a d e f i c i e n c y , t o s t r i k e a b l o w , t o f i r e a shot f o r you as i t were, r o u g h l y Ir. t h e d i r e c t i o n , s a y, o f a n o t h e r Renaissance.'* And, as i f t o i l l u s t r a t e j u s t how a d e p t l y he c o u l d en-compass t h e c o l l i s i o n o f modern l i f e and swing smoothly from t h e c l o u d s t o t h e ground, he adds w r y l y t h a t t h i s s hot " w i l l p r o b a b l y go s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h my b r a i n b u t t h a t i s a n o t h e r m a t t e r . P o s s i b l y t o o the R e n a i s s a n c e i s i n f u l l swing b u t i f so I have h e a r d n o t h i n g o f t h i s i n Canada."^ O f t e n the h e i g h t e n e d tone o f t h e l y r i c a l passages d e p i c t i n g the i n n e r w o r l d i s a d e s p e r a t e one and t h e r e i s a d r i v i n g , u r g e n t q u a l i t y t o t h e rhythm. I n Chapter I I Yvonne and G e o f f r e y ' s c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n on the o u t e r l e v e l i s c o u n t e r p o i n t e d b y a t e n s e , s t r a i n i n g u n d e r -c u r r e n t o f s i l e n t communication. When the C o n s u l f i r s t sees h e r , Yvonne announces a l m o s t f l i p p a n t l y , " S u r p r i s e p a r t y . I've come b a c k , " ( W , 7 4 ) and F i r m i n responds by i n q u i r i n g about h e r t r a v e l r o u t e . When Yvonne f i n a l l y does v e n t u r e i n t o a more s e r i o u s r e g i o n , a s k i n g "What have you done," F i r m i n g i v e s o n l y a s u p e r f i c i a l answer-" W e l l , a c t u a l l y I've o n l y b e e n away once. To Oaxaca." (UV,75) But on the i n n e r l e v e l , Yvonne i s c r y i n g f o r some e x p l a n a t i o n , some r e a s s u r a n c e , and t h e C o n s u l i s t r y i n g d e s p e r a t e l y t o e x p l a i n h i s p r e d i c a m e n t . Yvonne's "thoughts were s a y i n g , h e r l o v e s a y i n g , t h r o u g h t h e gloom of the b a r , " . . . oh G e o f f r e y , why c a n ' t you t u r n b a c k ? Must you go on f o r e v e r i n t o t h i s s t u p i d d a r k n e s s , s e e k i n g i t , e ven now, where I cannot r e a c h you, e v e r on i n t o t h e . d a r k n e s s o f the s u n d e r i n g , o f the s e v e r a n c e ! (UV,77) 76 And t h e C o n s u l "seemed t o he s a y i n g , " you m i s u n d e r s t a n d me i f you t h i n k i t i s a l t o g e t h e r d a r k n e s s I see . . . . f o r n o t eventhe g a t e s o f heaven, o p e n i n g wide t o r e c e i v e me, c o u l d f i l l me w i t h such c e l e s t i a l • c o m p l i c a t e d and h o p e l e s s j o y as t h e i r o n s c r e e n t h a t r o l l s up w i t h a c r a s h . . . . A l l m y s t e r y , a l l hope, a l l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , yes a l l d i s a s t e r i s h e r e . T]JV,77) To i n c r e a s e t h e t e n s i o n i n t h i s scene Lowry has c o u n t e r p o i n t e d Yvonne and G e o f f r e y ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n s , spo-k e n and s i l e n t , w i t h a n o t h e r c o n v e r s a t i o n g o i n g on i n the h a r "on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f the g l a s s p a r t i t i o n . " (UV,74) Lowry e x p l a i n s t h a t t h i s " m y s t e r i o u s c o n t r a p u n t a l d i a -•2,0 l o g u e i n the B e l l a V i s t a h a r i s s u p p l i e d by Weber, the smuggler mixed up w i t h the l o c a thugs who f i n a l l y shoot the C o n s u l . The b l u n d e r i n g , v i o l e n t mood and s t a c c a t o rhythm o f Weber's comment suggest t h o s e v e r y f o r c e s i n t h e o u t e r w o r l d w h i c h have d r i v e n t h e C o n s u l t o the p o i n t where he f e e l s b e s e i g e d on a l l s i d e s and can no l o n g e r c r o s s t h e b a r r i e r s s u r r o u n d i n g h i s i s o l a t i o n even t o meet Yvonne h a l f w a y ; he can o n l y "seem" t o g i v e the ex-p l a n a t i o n s she asks f o r . I n C h a p t e r V I I t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n i n the m i r a d o r a b o u t L a r u e l l e ' s f i l m s i s c o u n t e r p o i n t e d w i t h the C o n s u l ' s roaming t h o u g h t s as he escapes from h i s immediate s u r -r o u n d i n g s t h r o u g h t h e b i n o c u l a r s . J u s t as 'the w o r l d was • . . w i t h i n the b i n o c u l a r s p f the p o l i c e " s t a n d i n g i n the p r i s o n w a t c h tower(UV,133), so t h e C o n s u l sees h i s own w o r l d i n the scene he f o c u s e s upon. He sees the l a n d -scape b e l o w as a huge g o l f course w i t h t h e b a r r a n c a as a t r e a c h e r o u s " n a t u r a l h a z a r d . " (UV,232) W h i l e on t h e s u r -f a c e P i r m i n i s f o l l o w i n g t h e g e n e r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n and o f -f e r i n g w i t t y c o n t r i b u t i o n s h i m s e l f , on the i n n e r l e v e l he p l a y s w i t h words and expands a metaphor as h i s t h o u g h t s 7 7 surge "beyond the immediate scene i n a l y r i c a l f l o w : G o l f = g o u f f r e = g u l f . Prometheus w o u l d r e t r i e v e l o s t h a l l s . 4 n d on t h a t o t h e r s i d e what s t r a n g e f a i r w a y s c o u l d he c o n t r i v e d , c r o s s e d "by l o n e r a i l w a y l i n e s , humming w i t h t e l e g r a p h p o l e s , g l i s t e n i n g w i t h c r a z y l i e s on embankments, o v e r the h i l l s and f a r away, l i k e y o u t h , l i k e l i f e i t s e l f , the c o u r s e p l o t t e d a l l o v e r t h e s e p l a i n s , e x t e n d i n g f a r beyond Tomalin,, t h r o u g h the j u n g l e , t o the F a r o l i t o , t h e n i n e t e e n t h h o l e . . . The Case i s A l t e r e d . ( U V > 2 3 2 ) Then, as i f ashamed o f t h e s e r i o u s t u r n h i s metaphor has t a k e n , t h e C o n s u l p a r o d i e s h i s p o e t i c f l i g h t and r e t u r n s t o t h e mocking tone t h a t u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s t h o u g h t s and comments: Poet o f t h e u n r e p l a c e d t u r f - who h o l d s t h e f l a g w h i l e I h o l e out i n t h r e e ? Who h u nts my Z o d i a c Zone a l o n g the s h o r e ? And who, upon t h a t l a s t and f i n a l g r e e n , though I h o l e out i n f o r e , a c c e p t s my t e n and t h r e e s c o r e . . . ( U V . 2 3 3 ) As i n C h apter I I , t he c o n v e r s a t i o n g o i n g on a t t h e s u r -f a c e l e v e l i s c a s u a l and l i g h t h e a r t e d i n tone; J a c q u e s , Hugh and the C o n s u l a r e j o k i n g about L a r u e l l e ' s a t t e m p t s a t f i l m making. B u t , a l s o as i n C h apter I I , t h e r e i s a t h e m a t i c c o n n e c t i o n between t h e s u r f a c e and t h e i n n e r l e v e l . The p a r t i c u l a r f i l m d i s c u s s e d i s b a s e d on S h e l l e y ' s A l a s t n r , the s t o r y o f a y o u t h who remains " a l o o f " from s y m p a t h i e s " w i t h mankind as he s e a r c h e s i n v a i n f o r "an i n t e l l i g e n c e s i m i l a r t o " h i m s e l f ; A l a s t o r ' s " s e l f -c e n t r e d s e c l u s i o n " i s avenged by the f u r i e s and "he des-cends t o an u n t i m e l y g r a v e . " S i m i l a r l y , as the C o n s u l escapes from h i s k i n d v i a t h e b i n o c u l a r s , he wonders i f perhaps he i s l o o k i n g f o r "some f i g m e n t o f h i m s e l f . " ( W , 2 3 3 ) J u s t as A l a s t o r was d r i v e n t o s e c l u s i o n by " t o o e x q u i s i t e a p e r c e p t i o n , " so t h e C o n s u l s t o r t u r i n g awareness o f t h e f u t i l i t y i n the w o r l d a r o u n d him p a r a l y z e s h i s " s i m p l e , 78 h e a l t h y " (Uy_,237) i m p u l s e s . I n C h a p t e r I X t h e i n n e r w o r l d o f Yvonne's t h o u g h t s has been p l a c e d i n c o u n t e r p o i n t w i t h t h e o u t e r a c t i o n , t h e b u l l t h r o w i n g event. D u r i n g the f i r s t s t a g e s o f t h e s p o r t Yvonne's t h o u g h t s f o c u s on h e r p a s t l i f e . T h i s f l a s h b a c k has been c r i t i c i z e d as u n n e c e s s a r y and t e d i o u s : "Without them th e f l a s h b a c k s , t h e book w o u l d have been e a s i e r t o r e a d and a e s t h e t i c a l l y more s a t i s f y i n g . . . . . The more Dowry t r i e s t o a u t h e n t i c a t e Yvonne on a c o n c r e t e b a s e , t h e l e s s c o n v i n c i n g she becomes." But as Dowry says i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f the c h a p t e r , "the f l a s h b a c k s a r e n o t here though e i t h e r f o r t h e i r own s a k e , o r p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e sake o f c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h as I s a i d was my l a s t con-s i d e r a t i o n . " The v e r y p o i n t a t w h i c h t h i s f l a s h b a c k b e g i n s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s not meant t o be mere b a c k -ground b u t r a t h e r i s i n t e n d e d as an i m p l i c i t comment on and e x p a n s i o n o f t h e immediate scene. Everyone a r o u n d th e r i n g i s t r y i n g t o a t t r a c t the b u l l -t h e p o o r o l d c r e a t u r e seemed now i n d e e d l i k e someone b e i n g drawn, l u r e d , i n t o e v e n t s o f w h i c h he has no r e a l comprehension, b y p e o p l e w i t h whomhe wish e s t o be f r i e n d l y , even t o p l a y , who e n t i c e him b y en-c o u r a g i n g t h a t w i s h and b y whom, because t h e y r e a l l y d e s p i s e and d e s i r e t o h u m i l i a t e , he i s f i n a l l y b e t r a y e d . (UV,2S8) -and a f t e r t h i s passage the f l a s h b a c k b e g i n s and t h e t h e m a t i c c o n n e c t i o n i s o b v i o u s : ". . . Yvonne's f a t h e r made h i s way t o w a r d h e r t h r o u g h t h e s e a t s , h o v e r i n g r e s p o n s i n g e a g e r l y as a. c h i l d t o anyone who h e l d out a f r i e n d l y hand." (UV,288) I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r Hugh makes a r e v e a l i n g comment about t h e i n t e n d e d s i g -n i f i c a n c e o f the b u l l t h r o w i n g : he r e f e r s t o i t as a " s t r a n g e t r i b a l r i t u a l " and says o f the f a v o r i t e A m e r i c a n r i t u a l o f b a s e b a l l , "No r u n s , no h i t s , no e r r o r s . What s o r t o f nonsense i s t h a t ? " (FV,,IX,6)- Hugh su g g e s t s t h a t 79 games r e p r e s e n t s o c i e t y ' s tendency t o f o r m u l a t e frame-works o f r u l e s w h i c h f i n a l l y l e a d t h e i n d i v i d u a l nowhere. E a r l i e r i n t h e n o v e l t h e o l d woman p l a y i n g a game o f dom-i n o e s was d e s c r i b e d as an e v i l omen.. The C o n s u l , a l i -e n a t e d from t h e p u b l i c w o r l d , can no l o n g e r e n j o y h i s once . f a v o r i t e game,ge>lf, and he p i c t u r e s l i f e as one g r e a t t r e a c h e r o u s g o l f c o u r s e d o t t e d w i t h t r a p s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a y e r . When. V i g i l and L a r u e l l e d e c i d e t o p l a y a game o f t e n n i s , t h e C o n s u l imagines t h e performance as a " w e i r d g u s t y game o f t e n n i s under the h a r d Mexican sun-l i g h t , t h e t e n n i s b a l l s t o s s e d i n a sea o f e r r o r . " (UV, 236) I n t h e c o u n t e r p o i n t e d f l a s h b a c k we see f i r s t Mr. C o n s t a b l e and t h e n Yvonne h e r s e l f become i n v o l v e d and f i n a l l y t r a p p e d i n i l l u s o r y , p o i n t l e s s games. Yvonne's f a t h e r l o s e s h i s money, s e l f - r e s p e c t , and s a n i t y i n a f u t i l e money-making schemes, " l e d on and encouraged" (UV,288) b y a p p a r e n t f r i e n d s . Yvonne i s caught up i n t h e " f a l s e f l a t b r i g h t enchantment" (UV»-29l) o f H o l l y w o o d and sub-merges h e r s e l f i n t h e "Boomp G i r l " image, o n l y t o f i n d l a t e r t h a t she has been l i v i n g i n "a w o r l d without.mean-i n g , a w o r l d w i t h o u t aim." (UV.296) L a t e r i n the c h a p t e r the a c t i o n i n t h e a r e n a i s c o u n t e r p o i n t e d w i t h Yvonne's dreams o f a new l i f e . The f u t u r e home i n the n o r t h r e p r e s e n t s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e w o r l d o f f a l s e frameworks and subsequent c o n f u s i o n . Here the i n n e r l e v e l i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y a q u i e t s e r e n i t y and f l o w i n g l y r i c a l rhythm w e l l s u i t e d t o h e r v i s i o n o f a s i m p l e , happy f u t u r e : - t h e house, d a p p l e d w i t h m i s t y l i g h t t h a t f e l l s o f t l y t h r o u g h the s m a l l new l e a v e s , and t h e n the m i s t r o l l i n g away a c r o s s the w a t e r , and t h e n mountains, s t i l l w h i t e w i t h snow a p p e a r i n g sharp and c l e a r a g a i n s t the b l u e s k y , and b l u e wood smoke from t h e d r i f t w o o d f i r e c u r l i n g out o f the chimney. (UV.501) 80 The peaceful tone and beauty suggested by th i s i d y l l i s e scene contrasts sharply with the antagonism and ugliness of the performance i n the b u l l r i n g . In Chapter X the Consul's thoughts are counterpointed not only with a conversation i n the next room but also with the comments of a t r a v e l folder. In the f i r s t version of the chapter only two elements were placed i n counterpoint - the Consul's thoughts and the conversation between Hugh and Yvonne - and Tlaxcala was referred to only b r i e f l y when Pirmin pointed "to an advertisement on' the wall which said i n English: Tourists! Come to beauti-f u l Tlaxcala!" (W1N,X,14=) But during r e v i s i o n Lowry re-minded himself i n a marginal note on t h i s page to "Work up Tlaxcalan thing from f o l d e r " and went on to expand the scene so that we are aware.of three simultaneous moods or approaches. On the outer l e v e l we hear Hugh and Yvonne discussing the events of the day,,, t r y i n g to understand just what had happened by the roadside. In a marginal note i n the working notes Lowry says that "Prom here on they have just started dinner i t should be written as a play, f i r s t : one must hear the dialogue." (WN,X,,9) We hear t h i s dialogue through the consciousness of the Consul who has l e f t the table and i s s i t t i n g alone i n the Tavern's cold, grey bathroom that "looked l i k e a tomb;" I f Hugh and Yvonne's conversation i s to be read as a play,, the Consul i s a one-man audience; trapped within the tomb of h i s own i s o l a t i o n , he i s an onlooker who can no longer p a r t i c i p a t e . And yet there i s also a sense of power i n th i s p o s i t i o n , f o r i f Pirmin cannot p a r t i c i p a t e , neither does he struggle as Hugh and Yvonne do. He stands (or rather s i t s ) aloof from the action and reads a comical t r a v e l f o l d e r , the "program" f o r the play. Once again Pirmin i s the "obscure man, s i t t i n g at the centre of the world i n a bathroom . . . thinking s o l i t a r y miserable thoughts" and "even while he 81 was t h i n k i n g , i t was as i f b e h i n d the scenes c e r t a i n s t r i n g s were p u l l e d » . . and c a l a m i t y moved n e a r e r . " (UV.174) As Hugh and Yvonne d i s c u s s Mexican s o c i e t y , p o l i t i c s , and h i s t o r y , the t r a v e l f o l d e r o f f e r s a m e t h o d i c a l g u i d e t o the s t a g e s e t t i n g - t h e " g e o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n " ( W . 5 2 5 ) . the c l i m a t e , h ydrography, h i s t o r i c s i t e s . The comments o f the f o l d e r p r o v i d e an i r o n i c c o u n t e r p o i n t t o b o t h t h e C o n s u l ' s i n n e r w o r l d and t h e o u t e r w o r l d ; the f o l d e r , w i t h c o n f i d e n t p r e c i s i o n , l o c a t e s t h e S t a t e o f T l a x c a l a i n terms o f l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e , b u t t h e dominant s t a t e o f t h e C o n s u l , Hugh, and Yvonne i s one o f d i s l o c a t i o n . A f t e r t h e o p e n i n g o f the scene i n the bathroom, when t h e C o n s u l m e d i t a t e s on why he i s t h e r e , we do not see d i r -e c t l y i n t o h i s mind f o r a w h i l e ; we a r e aware o f h i s p r e s -ence o n l y t h r o u g h t h e p a r a g r a p h s he r e a d s from the f o l d e r w h i c h a r e p l a c e d i n a c o n t r a p u n t a l s e r i e s w i t h the comments i n the n e x t room. But soon the fragmented,, d i s o r d e r l y q u a l i t y o f t h e o u t e r scene i s matched w i t h c o n f u s i o n on t h e i n n e r l e v e l as the comments r e a d from t h e f o l d e r b e g i n t o r e f l e c t t h e C o n s u l ' s s t a t e o f mind: The C a p i t a l o f the s t a t e v . . . has a b e a u t i f u l C e n t r a l P a r k . . . c o v e r e d by . . . a garden c l o t h e d - b y many b e a u t i f u l f l o w e r s : s e a t s a l l o v e r , f o u r c l e a n , s e a t s a l l over, f o u r c l e a n and w e l l a r r a n g e d l a t e r a l avenues. (UV,327) F i n a l l y t h e C o n s u l ' s i n n e r w o r l d t a k e s o v e r c o m p l e t e l y and i n s t e a d o f h e a r i n g Hugh and Yvonne's f r a g m e n t a r y con-v e r s a t i o n between the t o u r i s t f o l d e r paragraphs,, we h e a r o n l y a c h a o t i c s e r i e s o f comments, c o n s i s t i n g o f r e -marks F i r m i n has h e a r d or s a i d d u r i n g the day and i s now remembering. Here the i n n e r w o r l d does n o t t a k e on a f l o w i n g rhythm, b u t i t i s marked by a h e i g h t e n e d tone. The choppy rhythm o f the i n c o m p l e t e , d i s j o i n t e d remarks c r e a t e s a mood o f d e s p e r a t i o n and s u g g e s t s the i n t e n s i -f i c a t i o n o f F i r m i n ' s sense o f p e r s e c u t i o n : 82 'I'm w a t c h i n g you . . r You can ' t escape me.' ' - t h i s i s not j u s t e s c a p i n g . I mean, l e t ' s s t a r t a g a i n , r e a l l y , and c l e a n l y . ' ' I t h i n k I know the p l a c e . ' ' I can see you.' '-where a r e the l e t t e r s G e o f f r e y P i r m i n . . . '(UV,33l) The l a s t o f the s e remembered comments - "A cor p s e w i l l be t r a n s p o r t e d by -" i s i r o n i c a l l y f o l l o w e d b y one f i n a l e x c e r p t from the f o l d e r , the " R a i l r o a d and Bus S e r v i c e " t i m e t a b l e . (UY,552) L i k e a c u r t a i n c a l m l y l o w e r e d on. a p l a y , t h e o r d e r l y r a i l w a y s c h e d u l e s i g n a l s t h e end o f t h e sc r a m b l e d d i a l o g u e . I n t h i s expanded scene i n the Salon. O f e l i a we a r e aware o f t h r e e moods o r o u t l o o k s o p e r a t i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y : a t one end o f the spectrum, on t h e i n n e r l e v e l , i s the Con s u l ' s a l o o f d e s p a i r and c o n f u s i o n ; a t t h e o p p o s i t e ex-treme t h e r e i s the m a t t e r - o f - f a c t complacency and s u p e r -f i c i a l o r d e r o f t h e t o u r i s t f o l d e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g the o f -f i c i a l , p u b l i c l e v e l ; and i n between, on. t h e l e v e l o f i n -t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e r e i s b o t h honest r e c o g -n i t i o n o f chaos and a h o p e f u l attempt t o make some sense out o f . i t . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r , as t h e Consu l s i t s i n the F a r o l i t o , t h e c e n t r a l f o c u s o f h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , Yvonne's l e t t e r , i s c o u n t e r p o i n t e d w i t h "an a l i e n element," (UV. 395) the c o n v e r s a t i o n s c a r r i e d on around him. I n h e r l e t t e r Yvonne p l e a d s w i t h G e o f f r e y t o " s e i z e the immense p o t e n t i a l s t r e n g t h you f i g h t . . . r e s t o r e t o me the s a n i t y t h a t l e f t when you f o r g o t me." (UV,395) A g a i n t h i s i n n e r l e v e l i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the e x t e r n a l n o t o n l y i n sub-j e c t m a t t e r b u t a l s o i n mood and s t y l e . The l e t t e r has an u r g e n t , i n t e n s e tone as Yvonne p l e a d s f o r r e c o n c i l i -a t i o n and t h e p a r a g r a p h s from i t r e a d l i k e passages o f f r e e v e r s e : 83 You a r e one "born t o walk i n t h e l i g h t . P l u n g i n g y o u r head out o f the w h i t e s k y you f l o u n d e r i n an a l i e n element. You t h i n k you a r e l o s t , h u t i t i s not so, f o r the s p i r i t s o f l i g h t w i l l h e l p you and h e a r you up i n s p i t e o f y o u r s e l f and beyond a l l o p p o s i t i o n you may o f f e r . (UV,395> As i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e e x t e r n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s g o i n g on i n the b a r suggest t h o s e v e r y f o r c e s o f b l i n d b r u t a l i t y , s t u p i d i t y , and c o n f u s i o n w h i c h have d r i v e n t h e C o n s u l t o the p o i n t where he cannot " s e i z e t h e s t r e n g t h w i t h i n him" b u t can o n l y w a i t i n p a r a l y z e d i s o l a t i o n f o r the d e a t h soon t o come. We h e a r t h e v o i c e o f Weber a g a i n - "0 C h r i s t , i t ' s a shame: the h o r s e s a l l go away k i c k i n g i n t h e dust . . . . They p l u g g e d 'em t o o . "(JJV>395) A s a i l o r an-nouces, " I ' v e g o t a n a w f u l mind." (UV.395) The r a d i o f u t i l e l y a s k s "^Quiere u s t e f i l a s a l v a c i b n de M e j i c o ? " (UY,396) As F i r m i n t r i e s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the l e t t e r , a pimp hangs onto him, j a b b e r i n g i n c o h e r e n t l y . T h i s c o u n t e r p o i n t e d scene i n t h e F a r o l i t o i s t r a g i -c a l l y i r o n i c f o r i t reminds us o f the scene i n Chapter I where L a r u e l l e s i t s a t a b a r r e a d i n g the C o n s u l ' s d e s p e r -a t e l e t t e r t o Yvonne, w r i t t e n d u r i n g one o f h i s t o r t u r e d n i g h t s , , "the n i g h t l y g r a p p l i n g w i t h d e a t h . " (UV,62) J u s t as t h e i r most s e r i o u s and d e s p e r a t e t h o u g h t s a r e doomed t o t h e f u t i l i t y o f s i l e n t communication w h i c h p r o v i d e s an i r o n i c c o u n t e r p o i n t t o spoken d i a l o g u e , so b o t h o f thes e l e t t e r s a r e f u t i l e f o r t h e C o n s u l ' s i s n e v e r m a i l e d and Yvonne's l e t t e r i s r e a d t o o l a t e . I f t h e s e "two h a l v e s o f a c o u n t e r p o i s e d d r a w b r i d g e " (UV,228) c o u l d have somehow met s o o n e r , perhaps Yvonne's f a i t h t h a t G e o f f r e y was "one b o r n t o wal k i n t h e l i g h t " (UV,395) c o u l d have saved him from h i s dark n i g h t s o f h o r r o r . T h e v e r y f a c t t h a t we can see t h i s p a t t e r n , see t h e l e t t e r s as " h a l v e s , " p a r t s o f a u n i f i e d whole, a f f i r m s 8 4 Lowry's st a t e m e n t t h a t h i s m u l t i p l e c o u n t e r p o i n t e d e l e -ments f i n a l l y work w i t h r a t h e r t h a n a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r , " l i k e two m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . " The s t r u c t u r e o f the n o v e l e n a b l e s us t o sense s i m u l t a n e i t y i n t h i s m u l t i p l i c i t y . 85 NOTES TO CHAPTER IV M. Friedman, Stream nf ConacinuRness f p.16. A New D i c t i o n a r y n f M u s i c . ( L o n d o n : A r t h u r J a c o b s C a s s e l l & Co.,1958),p.86. 3 4 Friedman, p. 125-6. Conrad A i k e n , " C o u n t e r p o i n t and I m p l i c a t i o n , " The  D i v i n e P i l g r i m . ( A t h e n s : U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a P r e s s , 1916),p.286. E.K. Brown, Rhythm i n t h e N o v e l T p . 8 . A l d o u s H u x l e y , P o i n t C o u n t e r p o i n t (New York : H a r p e r & Bros.,1947),p.23. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Lowry, S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s T p. 75. I b i d . ,,p. 61 I b i d . ,p.62. Friedman, p. 126. Lowry, S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s f p. 72. I b i d . ,p.80. I b i d . rp.73. C.W.M. Johns o n , Forms o f Modern F i c t i o n . Ed. W i l l i a m Van 0 ' C o n n o r . ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948),p.207. C i t e d b y L„ E d e l , P s y c h o l o g i c a l N o v e l } p . 126. V i r g i n i a Woolf,"The Narrow B r i d g e o f A r t , " G r a n i t e and Rainbow (London:Hogarth Press,1958)„p.18. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 86 I b i d . , , p. 1 2 . L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s T p . 8 0 . I b l d . , . p . 8 0 . I b i d . . r > . 7 2 . P.B. S h e l l e y , " P r e f a c e " t o A l a s t o r T E n g l i s h Romantic P o e t r y a n d Pr o s e . , (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 9 6 7 . I b i d . f n . 9 6 7 . T i m e s L i t e r a r y S u p p l e m e n t . J a n . 2 6 , 1 9 6 7 , p . 5 8 . L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p. 8 0 . CHAPTER V THE END RESULT OP SIMULTANEITY: PATTERN Through the use of l e i t m o t i f and counterpoint Lowry expanded moments and scenes to render multiple reverber-ations and moods, and the term " m u l t i p l i c i t y " has been used to discuss t h i s e f f e c t . But m u l t i p l i c i t y , a f t e r a l l , i s only a means to the end of simultaneity - to transcend succession and ultimately express a t o t a l pattern and idea. To stop at the assertion that Lowry succeeds i n suggesting m u l t i p l i c i t y i s a rather l i m i t e d conclusion. When P.J. Hoffman could take a study of Huxley's P o i n t C o u n t e r p o i n t ' no further than t h i s , he r i g h t l y objected that there i s a serious defect i n the novel aiming at m u l t i p l i c i t y per se f o r i t "actually escapes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of any int e r p r e t a t i o n of l i f e by accepting and entertaining mo-mentarily each of them."* When the would-be writer P h i l i p Quarles, a character mouthpiece i n P o i n t Counterpoint fo r some of Huxley's technical theories, expresses his ambition as a no v e l i s t , the l i m i t e d nature of his aim i s evident: M u l t i p l i c i t y of eyes and m u l t i p l i c i t y of aspects seen. Por instance, one person interprets events i n terms of the pr i c e of fl a n n e l camisoles . . . . . Each sees . . . a d i f f e r e n t aspect of the event, a di f f e r e n t layer of r e a l i t y . What I want to do i s to look with a l l those eyes at once./1-This declaration suggests that even i f Quarles d i d get his novel written, i t would be just as vague and dir e c -t i o n l e s s as hi s personal l i f e . The obvious reply to h i s statement i s : To what end? The fact that people view the same event i n d i f f e r e n t ways i s not, a f t e r a l l , a s t a r t -l i n g r e v e l a t i o n , and once one has demonstrated technical v i r t u o s i t y i n rendering t h i s phenomenon on the printed page, where would h i s "new way of looking," his "musical-88 i z e d f i c t i o n " l e a d t o ? As Hoffman c o n c l u d e s , a l t h o u g h H u x l e y ' s new way o f l o o k i n g o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e o f the " v i t a l i t y w h i c h i d e a s had i n t h e 1920's," the f i n a l r e s u l t i s c o n f u s i o n . R.G. C o l l i n s o f f e r s a s i m i l a r w a r n i n g ahout the danger i n h e r e n t i n p r e s e n t i n g m u l t i p l i c i t y when he s a y s : "To a t t empt t o p r e s e n t a v i e w o f chaos i s t o l e a v e one's s e l f open t o t h e charge o f p r e s e n t i n g a c h a o t i c v i e w . " Lowry, however, managed t o suggest m u l t i p l i c i t y and y e t s t i l l a c h i e v e the u l t i m a t e aim o f s i m u l t a n e i t y - a s e l f -c o n t a i n e d p a t t e r n ; he.not o n l y expanded h u t a l s o gave t h a t expanded s t r u c t u r e a u n i t y . Here the term " p a t t e r n " does not r e f e r t o any r i g i d form h u t r a t h e r s i m p l y t o t h a t • w h i c h "causes us t o see the hook as a whole." As E.M. F o r s t e r summarizes, " ' P a t t e r n , ' w h i c h seems so r i g i d , i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h atmosphere, w h i c h seems so f l u i d . " ' ' The m u l t i p l e moods and teeming r e v e r b e r a t i o n s i n Under t h e  V o l c a n o do n o t m e r e l y c l a s h w i t h one a n o t h e r i n a l o o s e c o n g l o m e r a t i o n b u t i n s t e a d a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r b y the p r e — v a i l i n g atmosphere o f d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n . W i t h i n the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u a l r i s i n g and f a l l i n g a c t i o n , • t h e movement from hope and o r d e r , t o d e s p a i r and chaos, and back a g a i n ; b u t Lowry has combined t h e s e movements so t h a t , as i n a l y r i c a l poem, one dominant t h e m a t i c mood r e s u l t s . Out o f t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y emerges the atmosphere o f p o i s e d t e n s i o n , the t e n s i o n o f a huge wave s w o l l e n t o i t s h e i g h t y e t about t o c r a s h . A l t h o u g h the n o v e l ends w i t h a downward movement, because the wave p a t t e r n o f r i s i n g and f a l l i n g has been f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e l a s t c h a p t e r we do not f e e l t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t has been a r b i -t r a r i l y r e s o l v e d b u t r a t h e r w a i t e x p e c t a n t l y f o r the i n -e v i t a b l e a n t i t h e s i s t o t h i s movement, l o o k i n g back t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the c y c l e i n C h a p t e r I . Thus the s t r u c t u r e 89 o f Under the V o l c a n o i s c i r c u l a r r a t h e r t h a n l i n e a r and t r a n s c e n d s t h e e v e n t s and c h r o n o l o g y o f the n a r r a t i v e . And i n t h i s v e r y s t r u c t u r e method and purpose a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d , f o r t h e c i r c u l a r form n o t o n l y f o r c e s us t o v i e w th e n o v e l , as an autonomous, whole,, h u t a l s o r e n d e r s Lowry's v i s i o n o f " e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e . " As C o l l i n s p o i n t s o u t , "Technique i s not o n l y d i s c o v e r y , as Mark S c h o r e r has n o t e d : i n t h e work o f some modern n o v e l i s t s , t e c h -n i q u e becomes meaning i t s e l f . " J u s t as the c i r c l e i s n e v e r - e n d i n g , so the f l u x o f l i f e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h th e wave p a t t e r n i s n e v e r - e n d i n g . As A l a n Friedman emphasizes i n The Turn o f the Novel,, t h e modern n o v e l i s t ' s tendency t o p r e s e n t an "open e x p e r i e n c e " r e f l e c t s t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ' s v i s i o n o f l i f e : "when, i n t h e c r e a t e d e x p e r i e n c e we c a l l the n o v e l , 'The End' c o n s i s t e n t l y t u r n s out t o be a n o t h e r o p e n i n g i n e x p e r i e n c e , e n d l e s s n e s s has become an o end." T h i s " e n d l e s s n e s s " i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t i n Under the V o l c a n o w h i c h f o c u s e s upon the nnnstant, s t r u g g l e w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; even though th e C o n s u l has c e a s e d t o a c t , he i s s t i l l g r o p i n g t oward an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f why he does not a c t . Yvonne n o t i c e s t h a t he makes " l i t t l e p a t t e r n s . . l i k e a b l i n d man" (UV,89) w i t h h i s s t i c k and l a t e r he " t r a c e d a p a t t e r n on one o f the p o r c h t i l e s w i t h h i s d r e s s shoes." (UV,100) f The p r e v a i l i n g atmosphere o f p o i s e d t e n s i o n w h i c h g i v e s t h e n o v e l ' s c i r c u l a r m o t i o n i t s impetus i s r e i n -f o r c e d t h r o u g h o u t by images o f suspended m o t i o n . I n the f i r s t c h a p t e r , when L a r u e l l e h e l d t h e C o n s u l ' s l e t t e r i n t o t h e c a n d l e f l a m e , "the f l a r e l i t up t h e whole c a n t i n a w i t h a b u r s t o f b r i l l i a n c e i n w h i c h th e f i g u r e s a t t h e b a r . . . appeared, f o r an i n s t a n t , f r o z e n , a mural."(UV,68) I n t h e darkened cinema, the men w a i t s i l e n t l y f o r the r e t u r n o f l i g h t - "a s o l i d dark f r i e z e c a r v e d i n t o the w a l l , s e r i o u s , m o u s t a c h i o e d men, w a r r i o r s w a i t i n g f o r t h e show t o 90 "begin, f o r a g l i m p s e o f the murderer's b l o o d s t a i n e d hands," (UV,55) When Yvonne r e t u r n s t o Quauhnahuac she f o c u s e s upon " t h e i r s q u a r e , m o t i o n l e s s and b r i l l i a n t i n the seven o ' c l o c k morning s u n l i g h t y e t somehow p o i s e d , e x p e c t a n t . " (UV.7I.) She n o t e s t h a t t h e C a l l e N i c a r a g u a i s " f u l l o f l u n a r p o t h o l e s and i n t h a t well-known s t a t e o f f r o z e n e r u p t i o n . " (UV,85) As Hugh, j u s t r e t u r n e d t o M e x i c o , w a l k s towards the C o n s u l ' s house, he somehow i n -s t i n c t i v e l y s t o p s on t h e edge o f a deep p o t h o l e , And t h e n h i s h e a r t and t h e w o r l d s t o p p e d t o o ; t h e h o r s e h a l f o v e r the h u r d l e , the d i v e r , t h e g u i l l o t i n e , t h e hanged man f a l l i n g , the murderer's b u l l e t and t h e cannon's b r e a t h , i n S p a i n o r ChSna f r o z e n i n m i d a i r , the w h e e l , t h e p i s t o n , p o i s e d - (UV,122) Beyond th e moment o f t e n s i o n may l i e a t r i u m p h a n t c u r v e -t h e a r c o f a s u c c e s s f u l l y e x e c u t e d jump o r d i v e , o r t h e downward p a t h o f d e s t r u c t i o n - the f a l l o f t h e b l a d e o r t h e t r a p door on t h e s c a f f o l d . Here th e i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense o f s u s p e n s i o n i s e x t e n d e d t o the macrocosm t o i n -c l u d e S p a i n and C h i n a , a r e a s o f c r i s i s i n 1938 as com-mu n i s t f o r c e s f o u g h t f o r c o n t r o l . S i n c e Hugh sees the s p i r i t o f communism as t h e f o r c e w h i c h w i l l save mankind, now on t h e b r i n k o f d i s a s t e r , h i s e x t e n s i o n i s a n a t u r a l one. But t h e C o n s u l l a t e r emphasizes t h a t even when one s i d e has won, no s t a b l e permanent s t a t e w i l l r e s u l t ; i f the f a s c i s t s t r i u m p h i n the S p a n i s h C i v i l War, " t h e r e ' l l o n l y be a s o r t o f ' f r e e z i n g ' o f c u l t u r e i n S p a i n " (UV,129) u n t i l t h e heat o f e v e r - p r e s e n t f r i c t i o n p r o duces a new c r i s i s . As t h e Consul wanders i n h i s g a r d e n , where " e x t r a -o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t y everywhere s u r r o u n d e d him"(UV, 168) ,, he i s f a s c i n a t e d b y t h e s p e c t a c l e o f an i n s e c t on t h e b r i n k o f d e a t h y e t s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g i n the p o i s e d jaws o f Quincey's c a t : 9 1 The c r e a t u r e had a t l a s t caught t h e i n s e c t h u t i n -s t e a d o f d e v o u r i n g i t , she was h o l d i n g i t s body, s t i l l u n i n j u r e d , d e l i c a t e l y between h e r t e e t h , w h i l e i t s l o v e l y luminous w i n g s , s t i l l b e a t i n g , f o r the i n s e c t had not s t o p p e d f l y i n g an i n s t a n t , p r o t r u d e d from e i t h e r s i d e o f h e r w h i s k e r s . ( U V f 1 6 8 ) T h i s t i m e t h e d e a d l o c k r e s u l t s i n a t r i u m p h a n t upward movement f o r when "Oedipuss" f i n a l l y d e c i d e s t o end h e r v i c t i m ' s p r e c a r i o u s e x i s t e n c e , she makes the m i s t a k e o f o p e n i n g h e r mouth "and t h e i n s e c t , whose wings had n e v e r ceased t o b e a t , s u d d e n l y and m a r v e l l o u s l y f l e w o u t , as might the human s o u l from t h e jaws o f d e a t h , f l e w up, up, up, s o a r i n g o v e r t h e t r e e s . " ( U V , 1 6 9 ) One o f t h e C o n s u l ' s h a l l u c i n a t i o n s t a k e t h e form o f t h r e e hundred head o f c a t t l e " f r o z e n s t i f f i n t h e p o s t u r e s o f the l i v i n g . " ( T J V , 2 3 8 ) To Hugh, s e n s i n g t h e t e n s i o n on t h e bus t r a v e l -l i n g t o T o m a l i n , t h e p e a s a n t women appear " f r o z e n . . t u r n e d t o s t o n e . " ( U V , 2 7 8 ) D u r i n g the s e a r c h f o r the C o n s u l , as the t h u n d e r announces t h e coming s t o r m , Yvonne senses "a p o i s e d a v a l a n c h e " (UV.,355) i n t h e c h a r g e d atmos-p h e r e . As i n t h e e a n t i n a scene i n Chapter I , l i g h t i s j u x t a p o s e d w i t h darkness and when the l i g h t n i n g stammers a c r o s s t h e b l a c k l a n d s c a p e , Yvonne can make out " f r o z e n , t h e minute b l a c k and w h i t e f i g u r e s " o f the p e o p l e i n t h e c e m e t e r y . ( U V , 3 5 3 ) Even E l Popo has a " w i t h d r a w n ^ w a i t i n g c h a r a c t e r . " ( U V , 5 5 4 ) When t h e r e i s a l u l l i n the storm Yvonne senses a moment l i k e t h a t o f the t i d e ' s t u r n i n g , and y e t . t h a t was f i l l e d w i t h some q u a l i t y o f t h i s morning s r i d e w i t h Hugh, some n i g h t essence o f t h e i r s h a r e d morning t h o u g h t s , w i t h a w i l d s e a - y e a r n i n g o f y o u t h and l o v e and sorrow. ( U V f 5 6 3 ) I n t h i s suspended mopent. d e s p a i r and hope a r e f e l t s i m -u l t a n e o u s l y . L a t e r , j u s t b e f o r e Yvonne's d e a t h "the sky was a s h e e t o f w h i t e f l a m e a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e t r e e s and t h e 92 p o i s e d r e a r i n g h o r s e were an i n s t a n t p i n i o n e d " and t h i s expanded moment i n c l u d e s w h i r l i n g v i s i o n s o f "beauty and h o r r o r : t h e " h u r r i c a n e o f b e a u t i f u l b u t t e r f l i e s " and t h e b u r n i n g home, (UV,365); a r o o f c o v e r e d w i t h w h i t e dogwood blossoms and w r i t h i n g f l o w e r s , " b l a c k e n e d and b u r n i n g . " (UV,366) As Yvonne w a i t s h e l p l e s s l y , she wonders - "and w o u l d t h i s scene r e p e a t i t s e l f e n d l e s s l y and f o r e v e r ? - t h e h o r s e , r e a r i n g , p o i s e d o v e r h e r , p e t r i f i e d i n m i d a i r . " ( U V , 3 6 5 ) L a t e r , as the C o n s u l s i t s i n t h e F a r o l i t o , he f e e l s t h a t h i s b r a i n i s " a t an a g o n i s e d s t a n d s t i l l . " (UV,375) A l -though he senses h i s d e a t h i s near,, I t was not t h e end q u i t e y e t . I t was as i f h i s f a l l had been b r o k e n b y a narrow l e d g e , a l e d g e from w h i c h he c o u l d n e i t h e r c l i m b up n o r down, on w h i c h he l a y b l o o d y and h a l f s t u n n e d , w h i l e f a r b e l o w him t h e a b y s s yawned, w a i t i n g . (UV,392) What makes t h i s wave p a t t e r n o f b a l a n c e d t e n s i o n so e f f e c t i v e i n Under th e V o l c a n o i s i t s s u i t a b i l i t y t o Lowry's mood and theme. As E.M. F o r s t e r comments, anyone can o r g a n i z e a p a t t e r n i n a n o v e l , and i f t h i s i s a l l he does the r e a d e r ' s v e r d i c t w i l l p r o b a b l y be " B e a u t i f u l l y done, b u t n o t w o r t h d o i n g . " But Lowry's c a r e f u l b u i l d i n g o f p a t t e r n i n Under the V o l c a n o e w a s f d e f i n i t e l y "worth d o i n g " f o r i t a c t u a l l y r e n d e r s h i s c e n t r a l theme £ the " c e a s e l e s s s t r u g g l i n g t o w a r d t h e l i g h t under t h e w e i g h t o f the p a s t , " the c o n s t a n t t e n s i o n i n the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and i n t h e w o r l d ' s h i s t o r y . Through t h i s c h a r g e d atmosphere Lowry i s t e l l i n g us "something new about h e l l f i r e , " f o r i t i s the C o n s u l ' s v e r y p a s s i o n a t e awareness o f the p o t e n t i a l f o r " l i g h t " t h a t t o r t u r e s him so f i e r c e l y . I f he had d e l i b e r a t e l y r e j e c t e d the w o r l d and l o v e as i r r e v o c a b l y doomed t o d a r k n e s s , h i s i s o l a t i o n w o uld somehow be more b e a r a b l e ; b u t h i s i s o l a t i o n i s t h e p r o d u c t o f a p a r a l y s e d w i l l r a t h e r t h a n an a c t o f w i l l . 93 Even when he i s s i t t i n g i n t h e F a r o l i t o , w e l l aware o f t h e danger s u r r o u n d i n g him, he makes no e f f o r t t o escape, f o r " b o t h h i s w i l l , and t i m e , w h i c h hadn't advanced f i v e min-u t e s s i n c e he was l a s t c o n s c i o u s o f i t , were p a r a l y z e d . " (UV,399) A l t h o u g h he had h i m s e l f made t h i s dangerous s i t u a t i o n p o s s i b l e by r u n n i n g away from Yvonne and Hugh, h i s f l i g h t from t h e S a l o n O f e l i a seems somehow i n v o l u n -t a r y , as i f he were b e i n g c a r r i e d a l o n g i n a t i d e o f s e l f -d e s t r u c t i o n i n s p i t e o f h i m s e l f : He was r u n n i n g t o o , i n s p i t e o f h i s l i m p , c a l l i n g b a c k t o them c r a z i l y , and t h e queer t h i n g was, he wasn't q u i t e s e r i o u s , r u n n i n g t o w a r d the f o r e s t , w h i c h was g r o w i n g d a r k e r and d a r k e r , tumultuous above - a r u s h o f a i r swept out o f i t , and the weeping pepper t r e e roared.. (UV,,545) Thus the dominant wave p a t t e r n and the atmosphere o f p o i s e d t e n s i o n a c t u a l l y r e f l e c t theme r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y p r o v i d i n g a c o n t a i n e r f o r i t . The c o n f l i c t i n g i m p u l s e s i n the C o n s u l r e s u l t i n t e n s e p a r a l y s i s j u s t as t h e a p p a r e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g movements i n t h e wave p a t t e r n work w i t h one a n o t h e r t o form a t i g h t atmosphere o f b a l -anced, t e n s i o n . And j u s t as p a t t e r n i s w e l l s u i t e d t o theme, so t h e v a r i o u s moods c o n t r i b u t i n g t o theme a r e w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s p r e s e n t i n g them. I n The Age o f S u s p i c i o n N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e o b j e c t s t h a t whenever w r i t e r s t r y t o t a k e t h e i r r e a d e r s i n t o unknown r e g i o n s (such' as a man's p r i v a t e h e l l ) t o t e l l them something o f "the e x i s t e n c e o f the 'dark p l a c e s , ' " t h e y make t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s commit unwonted, monstrous a c t s w h i c h t h e r e a d e r , c o m f o r t a b l y s e t t l e d i n h i s own c l e a r c o n s c i e n c e and f i n d i n g n o t h i n g i n t h e s e c r i m i -n a l a c t s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s t o what he has l e a r n e d t o see i n h i s own c o n d u c t , r e g a r d s w i t h p r o u d , h o r r i f i e d c u r i o s i t y , t h e n q u i e t l y t h r u s t s a s i d e t o r e t u r n t o h i s own a f f a i r s , as he does e v e r y morning and e v e r y e v e n i n g a f t e r r e a d i n g h i s newspaper, w i t h o u t t h e heavy shadow t h a t submerges h i s own dark p l a c e s h a v i n g l i f t e d f o r a s i n g l e s e c o n d . I V 9 4 Here S a r r a u t e a c c u r a t e l y p o i n t s t o the major problem f a c i n g t h e w r i t e r who t r i e s t o go beyond t h e everyday r e a l i t y o f "the l i f e and d e a t h o f some k n i g h t c a l l e d S mith who d i d much f o r the p o o r o f L i v e r p o o l and d i e d l a s t Wednesday o f pneumonia." I t i s f a i r l y easy t o draw t h e r e a d e r i n t o a, v a r i a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d he sees everyday, b u t i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o make t h e w o r l d b e n e a t h the s u r f a c e seem r e a l and v i t a l , n o t j u s t some " l a b o r e d p h a n t a s m a g o r i a . To use T o l s t o y ' s p h r a s e , t h e r e a d e r must be " i n f e c t e d b y the a u t h o r ' s c o n d i t i o n o f ' s o u l " i n o r d e r f o r t h i s t o t a l s u bmersion t o t a k e p l a c e . Lowry i s a b l e t o submerge u s i n the w o r l d u n d e r t h e v o l c a n o and i n t h e Consu l ' s h e l l f o r he " i n f e c t s " us w i t h h i s v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y ; he has weld e d man and o u t e r w o r l d , the dark p l a c e s o f t h e mind and t h e o u t e r r e a l i t y , so s k i l f u l l y t h a t we cannot s i t b a c k as we r e a d and say " t h i s i s p a r t o f my w o r l d " w h i l e " t h a t i s p a r t o f t h e c u r i o u s C o n s u l ' s w o r l d . " Lowry d i s -p r o v e s S a r r a u t e ' s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f o r he manages b o t h t o t e l l us about dark p l a c e s and y e t s t i l l p r e s e n t a c t i o n s w h i c h seem v e r y "wonted" i n terms o f t h e autonomous w o r l d he has c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e novej.. B o t h P o i n t C o u n t e r p o i n t and Under the V o l c a n o a r e con-c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h i d e a s , b u t w h i l e H u x l e y m e r e l y l o o s e l y j u g g l e s o r ."toys w i t h ideas,,""Lowry p r e s e n t s a v i s i o n o f h i s i d e a t h r o u g h a r e n d e r e d o r g a n i c u n i t y . J o h n McCormick c o i n e d t h e term " c o g n i t i v e n o v e l i s t " t o d e s c r i b e a w r i t e r such as Lowry who aims a t p r e s e n t i n g i d e a y e t does not reduce h i s c h a r a c t e r s t o " d i s g u i s e d i d e a s o r d i s e m b o d i e d e d i t o r i a l s . A l t h o u g h a new l a b e l i s n o t i n i t s e l f v e r y i m p o r t a n t , McCormick's d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s term i s r e l e v a n t t o a s t u d y o f the making o f Under  the V o l c a n o f o r i t f o c u s e s upon what goes i n t o t h e making o f a man c a p a b l e o f w r i t i n g such a n o v e l : 95 The c o g n i t i v e n o v e l i s t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , i s the w r i t e r who' has encompassed w i t h h i s mind the o r d e r -d e f y i n g h i s t o r y o f our t i m e , and he has i n a d d i t i o n comprehended and a c c e p t e d t h a t h i s t o r y w i t h h i s emotions t o t h e degree t h a t he i s a b l e t o p r o j e c t t h e d u a l comprehension m e a n i n g f u l l y i n the n o v e l . 1 8 By c o n f i n i n g each c h a p t e r t o one c h a r a c t e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , Lowry was a b l e t o emphasize d i s t i n c t o u t l o o k s and p l a c e them i n c o u n t e r p o i n t . But t h e s e c h a p t e r s a r e emo-t i o n a l as w e l l as i n t e l l e c t u a l u n i t s f o r "the i n t e l l e c t u a l p o s i t i o n s b e l o n g f i r m l y t o the s e n s i b i l i t y , t h e t u r n and b e n d o f the c h a r a c t e r s . " The i d e a d o m i n a t i n g t h e C o n s u l ' s o u t l o o k i s t h a t a l t h o u g h "no| i se puede v i v i r s i n amar," awareness o f chaos and n e a r d e s t r u c t i o n i n b o t h h i m s e l f and t h e macrocosm so p a r a l y z e s t h e s p i r i t t h a t a c t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f l o v e i s i m p o s s i b l e . F i r m i n 1 s c o n s t a n t . a l c o h o l i c haze r e p r e s e n t s t h i s suspended s t a t e - he i s aware o f what i s happening around him and o f what needs t o no be done, b u t i s p a s t e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n . But F i r m i n does n o t f u n c t i o n m e r e l y as a "symbol" f o r the " t i m e s , " the w o r l d ' s drunkenness,, a " t h e a t r i c a l d r u n k a r d f l i n g i n g h i m s e l f a t d e s t r u c t i o n " ; i n s t e a d "he r i s e s from the page as a t r a g i c , , r e a l rounded man o f mind and emotion, b e a u t i -f u l l y r e a l i z e d from the i n s i d e . . Because Lowry has c a r e -f u l l y combined man and w o r l d i n t o an o r g a n i c p a t t e r n we do not have the u n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g t h a t "the t h i n l a y e r o f i d e a " c o u l d be e a s i l y removed, f o r , as McCormick sum-m a r i z e s , i n t h e c o g n i t i v e n o v e l i d e a s , c h a r a c t e r , and s i t u -a t i o n become m e a n i n g l e s s i f we a t t empt th e oper-a t i o n o f removing from t h e i r t o t a l d i m e n s i o n the ob-j e c t i v e framework o f i d e a i n w h i c h th e c h a r a c t e r s l i v e and have b e i n g . ^ I n t r a c i n g j u s t how Lowry b u i l t t h i s " t o t a l d i m e n s i o n " we have l o o k e d n o t o n l y a t t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t b u t a l s o a t 96 t h e making o f t h a t p r o d u c t - t h e e a r l i e r m a n u s c r i p t s and r e v i s i o n s , F i n a l l y , o f c o u r s e , a f i n i s h e d work o f a r t must s t a n d on i t s own, and Under the V o l c a n o c e r t a i n l y does. But b y s t u d y i n g t h e making o f t h e n o v e l , we a r e a b l e t o see more c l e a r l y the purpose g u i d i n g t h a t t e c h -n i q u e s , t o see how the e f f e c t o f a scene i n an e a r l i e r v e r s i o n was changed b y r e v i s i o n . R.G. C o l l i n s r i g h t l y s ays t h a t w h i l e "the f u n c t i o n o f the a r t i s t i s t o ex-p l o r e what might be c a l l e d the n a t u r a l u n i v e r s e o f meaning," t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e c r i t i c i s " t o e x p l o r e t h e a r t i s t i c u n i v e r s e d e r i v e d from th e n a t u r a l one." We do n o t judge a p l a y b y a n a l y z i n g r e h e a r s a l t e c h n i q u e s ; we judge o n l y b y our own r e s p o n s e t o the p o l i s h e d p r o d u c -t i o n . B u t , s i n c e t e c h n i q u e and purpose a r e so c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n Under the Volcano,, by t e m p o r a r i l y l o o k i n g b e h i n d the scenes we have been a b l e t o see more c l e a r l y what Lowry was s t r i v i n g t o " d e r i v e " from the n a t u r a l u n i v e r s e and t h u s b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o l i s h e d p r o d u c t i The e f f e c t h i s major r e v i s i o n s had on the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s o f the n o v e l was t o expand the n a r r a t i v e t o a c h i e v e th e sense o f s i m u l t a n e i t y and, i n v i e w o f t h i s e v i d e n c e , we a r e encouraged t o go beyond the n a r r a t i v e t o see the u n i v e r s a l scope o f h i s theme. Lowry's achievement i n Under t h e V o l c a n o was t h a t he was a b l e t o i n f u s e t h i s dense, expanded s t r u c t u r e w i t h an o r g a n i c u n i t y t h r o u g h d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n so t h a t theme and p a t t e r n become one and we n o t o n l y u n d e r s t a n d theme b u t a l s o e x p e r i e n c e i t . 97 BOTES TO CHAPTER V H o f f m a n , F o r m a o f F i c t i o n , P. 193. H u x l e y , P o i n t C o u n t e r p o i n t , p . 3 H o f f m a n , p . 200. 4 R.G. C o l l i n s , " F o u r C r i t i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , " p . 2 8 . F o r s t e r , A s p e c t s o f t h e N o v e l , p.215.. I n Rhythm i n t h e N o v e l E.K. B r o w n b u i l d s u p o n F o r s t e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f r h y t h m - " r e p e t i t i o n w i t h v a r i -a t i o n , " a s he d i s c u s s e s t h e e f f e c t s a c h i e v e d i n n o v e l s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f " e x p a n d i n g s y m b o l s " a n d " i n t e r -w e a v i n g t h e m e s . " H i s summary o f t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t c r e a t e d b y t h i s v a r i e d r e p e t i t i o n o f theme a n d s y m b o l i s s i m i l a r t o F o r s t e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f " p a t t e r n " : t h i s r e p e t i t i o n " s o l i c i t s t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n f o r s o m e t h i n g b e y o n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f p e p p l e , t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s , t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n c a t e n a t i o n o f s e t t i n g s . " ( p . 8 5 ) A l t h o u g h B r o w n does n o t u s e : t h e t e r m " p a t t e r n , " h i s " s o m e t h i n g b e y o n d " s u g g e s t s t h e u n i f i e d p a t t e r n w h i c h i s t h e p r o d u c t J Q £ t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s i n t h e n o v e l a n d y e t a l s o t r a n s c e n d s them. S i m i l a r l y , i n A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t n t h e E n g l i s h N o v e l ( L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1 9 5 1 ) , A r n o l d K e t t l e s t r e s s e s t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f a n o v e l i s n o t a r i g i d f o r m s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e " l i f e " d e p i c t e d i n t h e n o v e l , b u t r a t h e r i s " t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f Cthe n o v e l i s t ' s v i s i o n o f w h a t e v e r i n l i f e he i s d e a l i n g w i t h . " ( p . 1 6 ) K e t t l e s a y s t h a t " l i f e a n d p a t t e r n " a r e t h e two e l e m e n t s p r e s e n t i n " a l l n o v e l s w h i c h a r e s u c c e s s f u l w o r k s o f a r t " a n d w h i l e t h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e " to some e x t e n t s e p a r a b l e , " t h e y a r e " e m p h a t i c a l l y n o t s e p a r a t e . " ( p . 1 3 ) 6 Forster, p . 2 1 5 . 7 C o l l i n s , p . 2 6 . 8 A. F r i e d m a n d i s t i n g u i s h e s h i s u s e o f t h e t e r m " o p e n " f r o m t h e way i t i s a l r e a d y g e n e r a l l y u s e d i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o S t r a i n s o f D i s c o r d : S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a r y O p e n n e s s ( I t h a c a Th .Y. ,1 QfiR ) b y R o b e r t M. Adams: "By 'open,' Adams means t h e d e l i b e r a t e 98 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 and major nonresolution of meanings i n a work. I use 'open' to r e f e r to an ending which does not contain or 'close o f f ' the r i s i n g pressures of conscience i n a novel." (p.xvi) Alan Friedman, The Turn o f the Novel.(New York:Oxford University Press,1966),p,xiii. Forster, p. 235. Lowry, S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , , p. 80. i Nathalie Sarraute, The Age o-P S u s p i c i o n , translated by Maria Jolas. (New York:George Braziller,,1963),p.96. Vi r g i n i a ; Woolf, The Common Reader,First Series. (New York:Harcourt, Brace and World,,1925),p.,149. Lowry, S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p. 80. 1 5 Leo Tolstoy, What i s Art.(New York;Oxford University Press,1962),p.228. John McCormick, Catastrophe and Imagination.(New York: Longmans,Green & Co.,1957),p.287. Ib_id.,,p.85. Ibid. ,p.85 Ibid. ,P.87 There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g resemblance between Geoffrey Firmin and what Peter Axthelm, i n The.Modern Crmfessional Novel (New Haven:Yale University Press,1967), c a l l s the "confessional hero": "This . . . i s the confessional hero - a f f l i c t e d and unbalanced, d i s i l l u s i o n e d and groping f o r meaning. He faces many of the same prob-lems which confront every modern hero but i s d i s t i n g -uished by his reaction to them. He views h i s condition not with anger but with a deep i n t e r n a l pain; he re-jects external r e b e l l i o n i n favor of s e l f - l a c e r a t i o n . . . . f o r him the only possible order or value must be found i n self-understanding. A f t e r Notes from the  Underground-, t h i s hero_beccmes increasingly i n t e l l e c t u a l , 9 9 c a p a b l e o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l ' m e d i t a t i o n s and prone t o l i t -e r a r y a l l u s i o n s . However, he n e v e r l o s e s h i s huge c a p a c i t y f o r s u f f e r i n g and i s c o n s t a n t l y t o r n b y v i o -l e n t emotions and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e c o m p u l s i o n s . The h e r o ' s c o n f e s s i o n o f t e n t a k e s p l a c e i n a c e l l . . . . " (p.9) P i r m i n l a c e r a t e s h i m s e l f as he submits t o t h e r e p r o a c h e s and p e r s i s t e n t q u e s t i o n s o f h i s " f a m i l i a r s " and he h i m s e l f compares t h e bathroom i n t h e S a l o n O f e l i a , where he s i t s i s o l a t e d , t o "a s t o n e m o n a s t i c c e l l . " There he asks "Why was he h e r e ? Why was he a lways more o r l e s s , h e r e ? " and knows o n l y t o o w e l l t h a t he can f i n d the answer o n l y i n h i m s e l f J " H e would have been g l a d o f a m i r r o r , t o ask h i m s e l f t h a t q u estion."(UV,324) 21 McCormick, p. 86. 2 2 I h j j i . ,p.85. 23 C o l l i n s , p.. 1. 100 GLOSSARY S i m u l t a n e i t y : I n t h i s t h e s i s the term " s i m u l t a n e i t y " r e f e r s t o a r t i s t i c form. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t r e f e r s t o t h e e f f e c t o f d e n s i t y and ex-p a n s i o n Lowry a c h i e v e d b y e n r i c h i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e l e v e l t h r o u g h t h e use o f l e i t -m o t i f and c o u n t e r p o i n t . I n o t h e r words, Under the Vol p.ann s u g g e s t s " s i m u l t a n e i t y " i n t h a t we a r e aware o f s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f e x p r e s s i o n o p e r a t i n g a t the same t i m e . L e i t m o t i f : I n m u s i c a l t e r m s , " l e i t m o t i f " r e f e r s t o a melody a s s o c i a t e d t h r o u g h o u t a p i e c e o f music w i t h some p e r s o n , s i t u a t i o n , o r s e n t i m e n t . T r a n s f e r r e d t o l i t e r a r y terms, " l e i t m o t i f " r e f e r s t o a r e c u r r i n g image,, symbol, word o r p h r a s e w h i c h c a r r i e s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c e r t a i n i d e a o r theme. C o u n t e r p o i n t : I n m u s i c a l terms,, " c o u n t e r p o i n t " r e f e r s t o the s i m u l t a n e o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f two o r more m e l o d i e s . I n l i t e r a r y t e r m s , " c o u n t e r -p o i n t r e f e r s t o t h e arrangement o f two o r more t o n e s , themes, o r i n c i d e n t s so as t o g i v e t h e e f f e c t o f s i m u l t a n e o u s p r e s e n -t a t i o n . 1 0 1 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I. PRIMARY SOURCES L o w r y , M a l c o l m . Sel eote-fl Letters of Malcolm Lnwrv ffid. H a r v e y B r e i t a n d M a r g e r i e B o n n e r L o w r y . New Y o r k : J . B . L i p p i n c o t t , 1 9 6 5 . • Selected PnftniR of Malcolm Lowry T e d , E a r l e B i r n e y . S a n F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s B o o k s , 1 9 6 7 . . " U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o , " Canadian Winter's Tales,ed. N o r m a n L e v i n e . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f C a n a d a , , 1 9 6 8 . . Under the Volcano- New Y o r k : New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1 9 6 6 . T h e M a l c o l m L o w r y P a p e r s . S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , T h e L i b r a r y , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I I . SECONDARY SOURCES A i k e n , C o n r a d . " C o u n t e r p o i n t a n d I m p l i c a t i o n , " The D i v i n e Pilgrim. A t h e n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a P r e s s , 1 9 1 6 . A l l e n , W a l t e r . Tradition and Dream. L o n d o n : P h o e n i x H o u s e , 1 9 6 4 . A x t h e l m , P e t e r . T h e M o d e m Confessional Novel- New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . B a c h e l a r d , G a s t o n . T h e Psychoanalysis of F i r e , t r a n s l a t e d b y A l a n C.M. R o s s . B o s t o n : B e a c o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 . B e a c h , J o s e p h W a r r e n . T h e Twentieth Centnrv N o v e l . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 3 2 . B r o w n , E.K. Rhythm i n the Novel. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 . C o l l i n s , R.G. " P o u r C r i t i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t h e M o d e r n N o v e l . " U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . D i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f D e n v e r , 1 9 6 2 , 102 Costa, R i c h a r d , " U l y s s e s r Lowry's Vni n a n n , and the Voyage Between: A Study o f an Unacknowledged L i t e r a r y K i n s h i p , " U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Quarterly.(April 1 9 6 7 ) L a i e h e s , David. The Present Ago i n B r j t i s h Literature. Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 . E d e l , Leon. Tho Psycholngir.a3 N o y f q . P h i l a d e l p h i a ! L i p p i n c o t t , 1 9 5 5 . Edgerton, Frank. The B e g i n n i n g s » f I n d i a n P h i l o s o p h y . Massachusetts: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 . F o r s t e r , E.M. A s p e c t s o f the N o v e l . New Y©rk: Harcourt, Brace & Co. , 1 9 2 7 . Fouchet, Max-Pol. "No se puede ... ," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e N p ^ a ^ S p r i n g 1 9 6 1 ) . Frank, Joseph. " S p a t i a l Form i n the Modern Novel." C r i t i q u e s and E s s a v s on Modern F i c t i o n , ed. John A l d r i d g e . New York: Ronald P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 . Freedman, Ralph. The L y r i c a l N o v e l . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19632. Friedman, A l a n , The Turn o f t h e N o v e l . New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 . Friedman, M e l v i n . Stream o f Consciousness.:: a Study i n L i t e r a r y Method. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 . Hirschman, J.A. "The O r c h e s t r a t e d Novel." Unpublished Ph.D. . D i s s e r t a t i o n . Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1961 Humphrey, Robert. Stream o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s I n t h e Modern NjQyeJL.Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 . Huxley, Aldous. P o i n t C o u n t e r p o i n t . New York: Harper & B r o s . , 1 9 4 7 . K e t t l e , A r n o l d . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e E n g l i s h N o v e l t V o l . 1 . London:Hutchinson U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1 9 5 1 . McCormick, John. C a t a s t r o p h e and I m a g i n a t i o n . New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1 9 5 7 . Meyers, Henry A. Tragedy; A View o f L i f e . New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1 9 5 6 1 . 103 M i l l e r , James J r . , K a r l S h a p i r o and B e r n i c e S l o t e . S t a r t  With t h e Sim. L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska P r e s s , 1960. M u l l e r , H e r b e r t J . Modern F i c t i o n ; . A Study n f V a l u e s . T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1937. A New D i c t i o n a r y o f Mus i c . London: A r t h u r J a c o b s C a s s e l l & Co., 1958. O'Connor, W i l l i a m Van. "The N o v e l i n Our Time, Forms o f Modem F i c t i o n , ed. W. Van L'Connor. B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948. S a r r a u t e , N a t h a l i e . The Age o f S u s p i c i o n r t r a n s T a t e d b y M a r i a J o l a s . . New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1963. Schorer,. Mark. "Technique as D i s c o v e r y , " Forms o f Modern  F i c t i o n , ed. W. Van O'Connor. B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 . S h e l l e y , P e r c y B. " P r e f a c e " t o Ajlasfrnr. E n g l i s h Romantic P o e t r y and P r o s e . New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. Times L i t e r a r y Supplement. J a n . 26, 1967. T o l s t o y , L e o . What i s A r t ? New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. Woolf, V i r g i n i a . C o l l e c t e d E s s a y s II.London:Hogarth P r e s s , 1966. . The Common R e a d e r , F i r s t S e r i e s - New York: H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Wor l d , 1925. • G r a n i t e and Rainbow. London: H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 . . The Moment and Other E s s a v s . London: H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1953. . A W r i t e r ' s Diary.. London:. H o g a r t h P r e s s , 1953. 

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