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The making of Under the Volcano : an examination of lyrical structure, with reference to textual revisions Johnson, Carell 1969

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THE MAKING  OP  UNDER THE VOLCANO;  - OF L Y R I C A L . STRUCTURE, WITH TO  TEXTUAL  A¥. E X A M I N A T I O N REFERENCE  REVISIONS  by CARELL B.A.,  A  University  THESIS THE  JOHNSON  o f British.  Columbia,  SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  Master in  THE o f  1967  F U L F I L M E N T OF  DEGREE  OF  Arts  the Department  o f  ENGLISH  We  accept  required  THE  this  thesis  as conforming  t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY  OF B R I T I S H  A p r i l ,  1969  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  advanced degree at  the  Library  I further for  shall  the  his  of  this  agree that  written  of  be  available  A p r i l  g r a n t e d by  gain  English  2,  1969  for  for extensive  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  British  the  It i s understood  for financial  Department of  Date  University  permission  representatives. thesis  f u l f i l m e n t of  make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  that  not  the  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  The  a i m o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e how L o w r y  e x p a n d e d Undft-n thft V n l n a n n b e y o n d t h e n a r r a t i v e l e v e l a n d y e t a l s o managed t o i n f u s e t h i s d e n s e , e x p a n d e d w i t h an organic  unity.  structure  Passages from the e a r l i e r  o f t h e n o v e l have been j u x t a p o s e d w i t h  drafts  the printed  ver-  s i o n i n o r d e r t o r e v e a l s a l i e n t a s p e c t s o f method a n d purpose i n the novel's  compositon.  C h a p t e r I a t t e m p t s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t Un^lejL_ihje. Volcano i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l y r i c a l  novel and discusses the  background and aims o f t h i s t w e n t i e t h What c h i e f l y lyrical  distinguishes  the l y r i c a l  century genre. from t h e non-  novel i s that i t transcends chronological  time, t o  some d e g r e e , a n d p r e s e n t s a s p a t i a l p a t t e r n . . Chapter I I discusses  the cosmic outlook  a w r i t e r t o aim a t presenting succession,  simultaneity  which prompts  rather  a n d examines t e x t u a l r e v i s i o n s w h i c h  than reveal  L o w r y ' s . i n t e n t i o n t o g i v e h i s theme a c o s m i c o r u n i v e r s a l scope. C h a p t e r I I I e x a m i n e s how L o w r y h a s e x p a n d e d moments in  the n a r r a t i v e through the use o f l e i t m o t i f .  In  t r a c i n g t h e s e f l e x i b l e m o t i f s , we s e e t h a t L o w r y h a s u s e d v a r i a t i o n t o make one s y m b o l o r i m a g e e m b r a c e b o t h p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e p o l e s a n d t h u s r e n d e r h i s c e n t r a l theme, the  d i c h o t o m y o f human e x p e r i e n c e . C h a p t e r I V t r a c e s how L o w r y h a s u s e d a n o t h e r  device,  counterpoint,  t o e x p a n d moments o r s c e n e s i n t h e  n a r r a t i v e and thus suggest The  final  phere o f poised  musical  simultaneity.  chapter discusses  t h e p r e v a i l i n g atmos-  t e n s i o n a n d t h e wave p a t t e r n  which  emerge f r o m t h e n o v e l ' s s t r u c t u r e a n d how t h i s  pattern  not o n l y g i v e s the expanded s t r u c t u r e a u n i t y , but renders theme.  also  TABLE  OP  CONTENTS  Chapter  I.  II.  Page  The L y r i c a l .  Simultaneity  Which  I I I .  IV..  V.  Novel  •  1  and Revisions  Pointed  to the First  Towards Expansion  Version  . . . . . . .  Expansion  and Pattern  Through  Leitmotif  Expansion  and Pattern  through  Counterpoint  The E n d R e s u l t  GLOSSARY  of Simultaneity:  Pattern  . . . .  .  26  .  .54  . . . .  87  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  SELECTED. BIBLIOGRAPHY  14  100  .101.  CHAPTER THE  Although or  r i g i d ,  of  l y r i c a l  the  LYRICAL. NOVEL  form  of  the  techniques  of  (1922) has  a  This  variety  been  of  c l a s s i f i e d  " l y r i c a l  novel";  Faulkner's  has  d e s c r i b e d as  term  " l y r i c a l  labels cribe  and this  as  a  novel"  category  The  construction of unique  sake  has  somewhat  composition and  of  dissect  just  how  Lowry  immediacy,  Schorer  and  be  The the  this  Volcano  has  as  closely  density. linked  essay  has  of  The  these to  des-  l y r i c a l  the  of  but  the  novel  parts  i n order  that  to  to to  investigate  this  f o r As  and  i s not  i t s dynamic  .Throughout  one."  of  "Counterpoint,"  however,  with  "Technique  form.  elements  rather to  and  Volcano  i t s construction  various  novel  that  composition  Under  with purpose  shown us  (1929)  described  i n the  labelled  a whole  a  and a l l  suited  thesis,  indivisible  i n h i s  criticism  into  Ulysses  novels.  "Leitmotif,"  this  been  I t implies only  analysis  infused this  are  best  the  grouped  of  new  Fnrv  the  confining  Lowry's  of  i n a  called  have been  whole.  headings  aim  novel  truth  argues  Modern  the  t e n s i o n , and  method w i l l beauty  variation  under  the  Sound and  one  Malcolm  use  has  Joyce's  been  have been used  a r t i f i c i a l l y  Under  categorize  as  c l a r i t y ,  "Pattern."  has  least  a  the  f i c t i o n  the  " o r c h e s t r a t e d novel";  novels  new  For  of  "psychological novel";  the  f i x e d  resulted  James  an  t h e r e f o r e seems  novel.  a  has  type  The  i s the  the  presents  novel  "stream-of-consciousness"  some p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s of  with  Waves; ( l 9 3 l )  experimental  vaguely  experimentation  as  The  these  has  terms.  Woolf's  of  been  new  V i r g i n i a  been  never  i n the  f i c t i o n *  described by  rather  novel  twentieth century  category  three  I  analysis  " i n art Mark  Discovery,"  speak  of  content  2  as such i s not t o speak o f a r t a t a l l , hut of e x p e r i e n c e ; a n d t h a t i t i s o n l y w h e n we s p e a k o f t h e achieved c o n t e n t , the form, the work o f a r t as a work, t h a t we speak as critics,3  Although  technique  a r t i s t i c a l l y the  u n i f i e d  l y r i c a l  port  and  novel  content  novel,  which  seeks  impetus behind  this  l y r i c a l l y  w i t h i n the  novel  as  an  "to  simply need  modern and As  to  linked  i n  any  hecome  inseparable  i n  render  rather than  re-  to  form  of  of  created  a  some  the  become  f o r a  frame  because  limited of  a  of  poetry.  novel  l y r i c a l  f e l t  She  techniques. i n  that  i n  the context  could  assume  believed that  v e h i c l e f o r the  novel  f o r him  modern  which  of  form  writes  kindly  i n the  needs."  complexity  the  also  novel  summarized  century  of poet  i t s e l f  Woolf  type  to  experience  aptly  the  with  p o e t i c forms  of  been  turn  better kind  new  render  twentieth  poet's  doesn't  functions too  has  experimentation  existing  need  to  embracing  p e n t a m e t e r . V i r g i n i a  inadequacy  present  the  e x p l a i n s , "the l i f e  desire  serve  ways  prompted  because  of  new  novelist's  Lowry  iambic  had  attempt f i n d  l i f e  the  form  they  closely  experience.  The  The  are  expression  poetry of  the  i t s past associations:  P o e t r y has remained a l o o f i n the p o s s e s s i o n o f h e r priest. She h a s p e r h a p s p a i d t h e p e n a l t y f o r t h i s s e c l u s i o n b y becoming a l i t t l e s t i f f . Her presence w i t h a l l her apparatus - her v e i l s , her garlands, her memories, her a s s o c i a t i o n s - a f f e c t s us t h e moment she s p e a k s . Thus w h e n we a s k p o e t r y t o e x p r e s s t h i s d i s c o r d , t h i s incongruity, this sneer, t h i s contrast, this curiosity, the quick, queer emotions which are bred i n small separate rooms, the wide, general ideas which c i v i l i z a t i o n teaches, she c a n n o t move q u i c k l y enough, s i m p l y enough, o r b r o a d l y e n o u g h t o do i t . b  Modern  l i f e  traditional  also  novel  does  form.  not  frame  David  i t s e l f  Daiches  has  kindly  i n  described  the this  3  t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m as  "a p a t t e r n i n g o f i m a g i n e d  events  a g a i n s t a c l e a r l y r e a l i z e d s o c i a l background" and was  s i g n i f i c a n t was  l o v e and m a r r i a g e ,  says  "what  what a l t e r e d a s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p q u a r r e l l i n g and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ,  o r l o s s o f money o r o f s o c i a l s t a t u s . " has  set  Ealph  gain  Freedman  d e f i n e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l n o v e l i n a s i m i l a r way; t h a t i n " i t s m a i n t r a d i t i o n ( t h e t r a d i t i o n we  o f when ' n o v e l ' comes t o m i n d ) . . .  man  -  he think  . . „ pits  his  moral or amoral sense a g a i n s t the v a l u e s o f o t h e r s . A f t e r t h e F i r s t W o r l d War,  however, t h e r e w s  no  a  general  p u b l i c agreement a s t o what " t h e v a l u e s o f o t h e r s " were o r what t h e y s h o u l d b e .  I n the words o f W a l t e r  Allen,  t h e w a r s p l i t t h e l a n d s c a p e o f t i m e l i k e a n enormous natural catastrophe, o b l i t e r a t i n g long-established boundaries, b l o w i n g sky-high landmarks t h a t f o r y e a r s h a d b e e n t a k e n f o r granted.*? For the a r t i s t ,  "the r e s u l t  of t h i s  chaos i s i n the  10  f i r s t p l a c e a problem of s t y l e . "  The  challenge  facing  modem n o v e l i s t s i s to c r e a t e a type of f i c t i o n d o e s n o t n e e d t o d e p e n d on any  which  assumed l a n d m a r k s .  Some  have responded t o t h i s c h a l l e n g e by u s i n g l y r i c a l  tech-  niques which enable  them t o c r e a t e a n a u t o n o m o u s  artistic  r e a l i t y w i t h i n the novel.^  I n o t h e r words each  novelist  independent framework or  creates a unique,  f o r h i s v i s i o n of experience by symbolic landmarks.  Man  order  r e n d e r i n g i t w i t h i n a.  f o r m a l d e s i g n ; he b u i l d s t h i s f r a m e w o r k b y own  lyrical  creating his  and environment, the  f o r man's a c t i o n s , become e l e m e n t s o f a  setting  closely-knit  pattern. S o m e t i m e s we  a r e v e r y a w a r e o f some o m n i s c i e n t  f o r m a l l y d e s i g n i n g .this combination The  o f man  hand  and w o r l d .  Waves,, f o r example,, e a c h g r o u p o f m o n o l o g u e s r e p r e -  s e n t s a common s t a g e i n t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' l i f e  cycles  and  In  4  each  of  these  groups  i s preceded  p i c t i n g  corresponding  cording  to  prose  poems  changing changes ural are  the  linked  the  terms  a  character specific  tures  love  and  flowers the  of  t e r i s t i c  ist tant  was  to  part  each  one  poems  de-  we  been  Ac-  garden,  day  and  hut  the  the  seasonal  i n the  the are  nat-  monologues very  cons-  superimposed  make h i s  to  on  affects  their  swords"  the  reader  i l l u s i o n  horror."  flowers the  i n  the  scarlet  the  leaves  f  agreement c r i t i c s  world poetic  main  that  (UV 103)  most  outer  "almost  pervasive  with  (UV,317) and  ef-  ges-  an  This  the  i t a  and  former  so  qualities;  general  novel,"  lends  senses  even  i t i n The  Consul  eyes  pat-  technique  i t .  h i s  menacing  i s no  of  this the  a  i t .  i t and  Consul  shaking  employing  one  l i f e  the  "savage."  i n n e r and  that  uses  into  define  of  natural landscape  doom  "flaming  there  sees  i n silence,  scene before  on  world  i s to  V o l r a n W h e n  i n the  take  he  Lowry  other  of  outer  perception as  paralyzed,  novels  of  world  the  sense  the  said  the  cycles  relevancy  shape.  " l y r i c a l  of  l i f e  p a t t e r n has  "apparently  they  a  of  common i m a g e s ,  the  p l a n t a i n s seem  fusion  prose  i t with  "whole  Although  Woolf  or  become  stitutes  of  of b r i n g i n g the  now  are  the  over  i s accompanied by  character's unique  Consul's  garden  of  way  silence  invests  poem  vision.  confront of  by  formal  i n Under  trees  The  annual  color  t a c t i l e " the  the  "mirrors  fectively Yvonne  traces  investing  of  span  prose  natural world.  sun  sun  some  Another and  the  the  the  a  i n the  of  together  that  of  time  Although  author's  tern  the  position  world.  cious  movement  cover  which  stages  by  as  a  as  to  what  point  to  this  dominant  techniques.  goals  of  the  that  "a  large  aware  c o n s i s t s i n our  emotions  con-  characVirginia  l y r i c a l and  towards  novelimpor-  such  ILL  IT  things  as  roses  and  n i g h t i n g a l e s , the  dawn,  the  sunset."  5  J.A.  Hirschman,  Joyce ting own  has  distilled  tive  seeks  from  tries  the  experiences  are  bine  man  ally  objective  and  Although and  world  from  the  world  t h a t has world  we  worlds  lyrical  i s "a  dif-  traditional  from  novel  the world  "seeks yet  to  the  com-  aesthetic-  a  d e s c r i b e d Lowry's combination  "technique" used to give the definition, total  form  of  "achieved  taken place  i n his relationship  indicates  represents a  t h a t the  to the  change outer  f u s i o n of i n n e r and  individual  of  i n the  a  content"  of the  symptom o f t h e p r o c e s s  of  outer  i t also represents  Geoffrey Firmin's analysis  that takes p l a c e i n the  public  the  the  distin-  novel  strangely inward,  earlier  thread i n the  clearly  while  to  form."  some m e a n i n g f u l  of the novel.  the n o n - l y r i c a l  the  Woolf  i n relation  experiencing self  i n a  Thfi  separating  Virginia  1  Freedman a s s e r t s t h a t what  about,"  w o r l d as  thematic  tion  of character or a c t i o n by  of objectivity":  "separates  character's  that "while conventional narra-  "that very matrix  lyrical  concept  the  *  "effec-  o f Mrs., W o o l f * s  the matrix of i t s occurrence/  guishes novel  says  precision  human c h a r a c t e r . " ferent  I n an a n a l y s i s  Gollins  to present  t h a t James  the u s u a l n a r r a t i v e methods by  consciousness."  man  of U l v s s e s . says  the world of h i s character through  W a v e s . R.G. it  i n h i s study  outer  disintegraface  of  chaos:  When he h a d s t r i v e n u p w a r d s , a s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g w i t h Yvonne, had n o t the ' f e a t u r e s ' o f l i f e seemed t o grow more c l e a r , more a n i m a t e d , f r i e n d s and enemies more i d e n t i f i a b l e , s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s , s c e n e s , and w i t h them t h e s e n s e o f h i s own r e a l i t y , m o r e s e p a r a t e f r o m h i m self? And h a d i t n o t t u r n e d o u t t h a t t h e f u r t h e r d o w n he sank, t h e more t h o s e f e a t u r e s had t e n d e d t o d i s semble, t o c l o y and c l u t t e r , t o become f i n a l l y l i t t l e b e t t e r than g h a s t l y c a r i c a t u r e s of h i s dissimulating i n n e r and o u t e r s e l f . (UV 591) f  6  The  Consul's  that  he  had  fiable"  use once  goals  dismisses  seen  plan  i n one  challenge)  out  novel  some  sort  fusing, den  of  formal The  and  or  no  Dancing  Yvonne  order  Footpath  the  i n the  i s  are  The  sunken  longer  Consul,  Ofelia  have sign  sad  useless"  to  the  burned  or  arrow"  The  f o r the  world  w i t h i n himself,  product  On  to  reader  the  scattering to has  be  another  these  emphasizing  that  level, Lowry's signs  weaving  the  need  novel  focusses  i s i n this  genre  any  a  our  the  waterfall  by  the  come  across  they way  they'd  come,  the  Consul  these  senses both  i n  the  innerpturmoil external  serve  the  as  novel,  being,  environ-  indicators  modern world;  the  the  must be  suggestion  approaches  "as  Consul,  signs  f o r  sees  Hugh  this  of  she  For  Lowry  defining pattern  i n seems he  novel.  narrative into  ultimately  the  threatening  view  (UY,270)  when  he  these  and  (UV,347) and  throughout  created w i t h i n the Although  It  of  of  Quauhnahuac  (UV,294)  To  outer  appro-  'Infernal'."  A n o c h t i t l a n . (UV,363)  and  seems  gar-  turn  the  that  p u b l i c  'In-  pointing back  chaos  con-  Town House window  pointing to  the  ment.  that  Through-  only  i n the  s t a b l e form;  Room*  the  provide  are  Lcstwithiel."  emphasize  a  sign  between  any  of  usually  he  v o l -  (UV,320)  road to  the  symbolic  sign  "hardly v i s i b l e "  arrow  climb  only  signs  part,  to  "identi-  however,  guidance,  i n the  Zebra  searching  "a  i n  Now,  seems  implies  certain  "pathetic joke."  useless.  narrow  weather-beaten  Salon  a  upwards"  world  Yvonne  i t s aspects  as  i s "Public  the  outer  Hugh and  eviction.  f o r the  Yvonne^signs might  of  superficial  menacing,  Tomalin  i n the  "striven  even p u b l i c signs, which  threatens  priate  phrase  c l i m b i n g towards.  of  world's the  the  worth  the  cano ^which  of  formal  read  page by  design  a t t e n t i o n upon of  a  pattern  function of  a  the a  l y r i c a l  total  that  poem.  page,  novel  picture.  this As  by  "hybrid  Lowry  asserts  7  in  h i s  thing a  discussion which  sort  about  i s good  o f poem.  differs  from  l y r i c a l  novel  "the best  and  has  order and  Mallarme  prose  can  differs  kind  s  also  inner  explanation he  from  o f nove,"  used  the  to  "every-  cohesion i s  o f how  verse  describe  non-lyrical  how  the  novel:  Verse, i n i t s attempt to express the idea proceeds l i k e an arrow aimed a t a t a r g e t , w i t h an attempt l e s s a t s u c c e s s i o n t h a n a t s i m u l t a n e i t y , a n d manages to reduce duration t o a s p i r i t u a l division proper to the subject; i t d i f f e r s from the prose sentence by i t s development i n time, playing pranks upon i t , deceiving i t i n a thousand ways* 1 0  Similarly, a  spatial  Frank the  the  reference than  coined the  method  degree,  of  term  novel  on  a  used  i n the  work  novel  does  not  on  Joseph ayform" to describe  of  i n novels which, time.  of Joyce,  more  sequence.  "spatialization  construction  i n the  i s "constructed  time  transcend chronological  notes erence  l y r i c a l  the  However, use  of  to as  some Frank  spatial  completely destroy  ref-  time  sequence* We for  are  aware  throughout  specific "the  time  seven  teen.  Twelve  house,  Firmin  During  the bus  hear  sequence  narrative  day.  said  that  Yvonne  than a  time,  Lowry  wheel,  with  arrives  sunlight."  "somewhere  references to  i n  (UV.71)  the  Later  approaches  notes  that  the  i s "1:20  P.M."  ride  Hugh  observes  that  clock  are  aware  linear thought  twelve  time  but of  i t was  i s that  p r o g r e s s , on of  the  spokes.  he  twenty  of  through  novel's form In  order  s t r i k i n g  the  the passage  emerges  the  i n Quauhnahuae  As  three;  a  Volcano  o ' c l o c k . " (UV,176)  impression that  rather  there are  the  was  ten to  tt  i n Under  clock  a l t h o u g h we  inant  time  o'clock morning  can  But  the of  Consul  market  of  to  of a  nine-  Laruelle*s (UV.224)  i n  t o . " time,  the  (UV.267) the  spatial  dom-  pattern  chronological as  "that  of  comprehend  a the  8  n a t u r e of the w o r l d under t h e v o l c a n o , one must s t a n d a t t h e hub o f t h e wheel and observe how the t w e l v e c h a p t e r s a r e bound i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l d e s i g n b y a n i n t r i c a t e web o f symbols and images, language p a t t e r n s a n d s t r u c tural analogies. The f i n a l form o f Under the Volcano was the r e s u l t o f e x t e n s i v e r e v i s i o n ; Lowry was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the f i r s t v e r s i o n o f t h e n o v e l because "the p a t t e r n d i d n ' t emerge p r o p e r l y . " A l t h o u g h he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n had a c h i e v e d " a s p i r i t u a l v i c t o r y , " i t d i d not represent "an a e s t h e t i c one." The r e v i s i o n s and "Working Notes" i n the manuscripts which f o l l o w e d t h i s f i r s t v e r s i o n r e v e a l a c a r e f u l w o r k i n g towards the a e s t h e t i c v i c t o r y o f the p r i n t e d v e r s i o n . Harvey B r e i t has s a i d t h a t L o w r y ' s l e t t e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t he h a d a minute knowledge o f what he was up t o i n h i s w o r k , " and t h i s i s equally true of h i s manuscripts. A l t h o u g h i n o u t l i n i n g g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , we have b e e n u s i n g the term " l y r i c a l n o v e , " t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y no " s t a n d a r d " l y r i c a l n o v e l any more t h a n t h e r e i s any " s t a n d a r d " poem. The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s l a b e l t o Under t h e Volcano does n o t mean t h a t we w i l l attempt t o compare L o w r y ' s work t o some f i x e d genre f o r m . As Lowry h i m s e l f a s s e r t s , o n l y i n " n o v e l s w r i t t e n b y n o t q u i t e t r u e p o e t s " i s t h e r e " p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h form t h a t v i t i a t e s the s u b s t a n c e . u  Lowry was n o t so p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h form t h a t we can o n l y a p p r e c i a t e Uwriep the V o l can n b y f i t t i n g a l l o f the r e f e r e n c e s and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s i n t o a p a t t e r n a s , f o r example, we must do i n U l y s s e s a . He r i g h t l y c l a i m s t h a t the "top l e v e l " i s "so c o m p e l l i n g l y designed t h a t the r e a d e r does n o t want t o t a k e time o f f t o s t o p and p l u n g e b e n e a t h the s u r f a c e . " A l t h o u g h some c r i t i c s have comp a r e d Under the Volcano t o J o y c e ' s Ulysses ( a n d seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i n d o i n g so t h e y a r e c o m p l i m e n t i n g L o w r y ) ,  9  Lowry  himself  model  f o r h i s own.  " f u l l  of  Under  the Volcano  niques often his  regard  He  inventories"  fluence, writers  d i d not  says:  f e l t and,  you mention." are not  Joyce's  among  imitated Lowry  work  only  none  technique  with  inspiring were  a  that  my o w n a p p r o a c h w i t h a l l h u m i l i t o t h a t o f Mr. J o y c e , i ^ g . . , a s p o s s i b l e , o f what o r i g i n a l l y su more b a f f l i n g , complex, and e s o t h a n t h e o t h e r way round.  that  J o y c e a n in-=-  Joyce  of  s  substance,  elaboration.  Lowry  too  suggestion  of the tricks  implies  Joyce's  an  novels  others,  unnecessary  as  to a  organically related to  represent  own  that  i n reply  reveals,  " I have  Joyce's  the  techthat  they  Comparing  says  ty i s opposite • . . i m p l i f y i n g , as f a r as ggested i t s e l f i n f a r t e r i c terms, rather  3 1  Despite  h i s protestations  i t seems  improbable  that  Lowry  St.  was  not  i n any  however, As  way  Lowry's  t h e many  understand esoteric  Ulysses  maze;  though  Joycean  simple  reverence"  Joyce  sometimes  l i t t l e  methods,  guides  critics that  indulges  Joyce's  a r t , concludes  his that  II  an  experience.  But  although  that  Lowry  "the conception that  not  t h e same seem  suggest,  valid.  i n order  through  laborious  trek  question alone  to  an  through  of purpose. their  time,  A l -  duties  with  h i s central  aims  i n h i s  verbal  objection  games.  Herbert  the f a s c i n a t i o n and  s k i l l  Ulysses  exhibition  i s "more a n  of  W  "compellingly  would plunge  and  this  work  t o work  entirely  Unrler t h e Vnl m n n  readers  poetical"  does  acknowledging •  of  to Joyce  i n superfluous  while  level  of Joyce's  At  "usually perform  i s not  Muller,  than  Joyce.  t o an understanding  Lowry  + V.  by  i t i s necessary  and  adds  that  criticisms  o f f i c i a l  method  and  influenced  of  f  he  also  beneath  the  the whole  "poems  often  designed"  hoped  surface.  thing  have  that  was  to be  the some He  top of  asserts  essentially read  several  10  t i m e s "before t h e i r f u l l m e a n i n g w i l l b e f o r e the reader can grasp t h e whole..  tr  The  lyrical  the " p o e t i c a l  itself,"  conception  n a t u r e o f L©wry s c o n c e p t i o n  p u r p o s e i s e v i d e n t i n t h e way create this u n i f i e d  reveal  "whole."  he  expanded n a r r a t i v e  of and to  11  M O T E S TO  CHAPTER  I  J.A. H i r s c h m a n u s e s t h i s terra i n h i s d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , "The Orchestrated Novel" (Indiana University:1961). He o u t l i n e s t h e " c o m p o s i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s " o f t h e o r c h e s t r a t e d n o v e l as f o l l o w s : a) a p a t t e r n e d use of v e r b a l (imagic) l e i t m o t i f (s) out o f which, c h a r a c t e r s and events emerge; b) an a c u t e l y c o n s c i o u s , i f not s e l f - c o n s cious, concern w i t h s t r u c t u r e (organic, symbolic and s y n t h e t i c ) , i n consequence o f w h i c h t h e ' n a r r a t i v e momentum' o f successive temporality i s tampered with; and e) an a c u t e l y conscious, i f not selfc o n s c i o u s , use of language as the primary means f o r a c h i e v i n g c o n n o t a t i o n a l depth. L e o n E d e l a p p l i e s t h i s t e r m t o T h e S o u n d anrl t h e Fnrv i n The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Novel (PhiladelphialLippincott, 1955). However i n the p r e f a c e t o the r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f t h i s b o o k ( 1 9 6 4 ) , E d e l s a y s t h a t h e now feels the term "psychological novel" i s a c t u a l l y narrow f o r h i s purpose and t h a t , except f o r the confusion i t would have c a u s e d , he w o u l d h a v e changed t h e t i t l e o f h i s s t u d y t o "The Subjective Novel." S c h o r e r , " T e c h n i q u e a s D i s c o v e r y , " Forms o f M o d e m , E d i t e d b y W i l l i a m Van 0'Connor.(Bloomington: Indiana University Press,1948),p.9.  Mark  F i c t i on.  4  W.  Van  0'C  o  n  n  o  r,  "The  Novel  i n Our  Time,"  M a l c o l m L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s of Malcolm E d i t e d by Harvey B r e i t and Margerie Bonner (New York:J.Bv Lippincott,,1965),p.28. 6  IbAiL_,p.3.  Lowrv. Lowry.  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , "The N a r r o w B r i d g e o f A r t , " C o l l e c t e d Essays I I (London:Hogarth Press,1966),pp.223-24.  David  D a i c h e s , The  (Bloomington:Indiana  P r e s e n t Ape  in British  University  Literature^  Press,1958),p.85.  12  8  R a l p h Freedman, The L y r i c a l Press, 1963), p.2.  Novell  (Princeton  9  / Walter House,  10  11  12  University  A l l e n , Tradition 1964),p.1.  and Dream..  H e r b e r t J . M u l l e r , Modem Pi.ction: (Toront o:McGraw-Hi11, 1937),p.8.  (.London:Phoenix A  Study n f V a l u e s .  J o s e p h Warren Beach, i n The T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y N o v e l (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 3 2 ) , a p p l i e s the t e r m " p o s t - i m p r e s s i o n i s t " t o t h e n o v e l i s t who s e e k s to b u i l d t h i s autonomous a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y . Unlike the " i m p r e s s i o n i s t , " who i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e p resentation of nature, the aim of the "post-impress i o n i s t " i s "out o f the elements derived from nature, t o make a n a b s t r a c t c o m p o s i t i o n f o r r e n d e r i n g some t r u t h o f h i s own c o n c e i v i n g . " (p.32) Freedman,  p.  9.  M a l c o l m L o w r y , U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o . (New Y o r k : N e w American L i b r a r y , 1966;,p.102. A l l further references to this e d i t i o n w i l l a p p e a r i n t h e t e x t a s UV, f o l l o w e d b y t h e page number. 14 15 16  17 18 19 20  Woolf,  p.225..  Hirschman,  p.  13.  R.G. C o l l i n s . . " F o u r C r i t i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t h e Modern Novel ( U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver, 1962,p.29. Freedman, This  p.  phrase  Lowry,  2. i s used  by  Freedman,  p . 1..  S e l e c t e d Letters,, p . 4 2 .  b y M e l v i n F r i e d m a n , Stream o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s ^ Study i n L i t e r a r y Method. ( N e w H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y  Cited  Press,1958),p.19.  13  21  Freedman,  pp.261-62.  22 J o s e p h F r a n k , " S p a t i a l Form i n t h e Modern Novel," C r i t i q u e s a n d EaaavB on M o d e r n F i c t i o n . E d i t e d b y John Aldridge.(New York:Ronald Press,1952),p. 44. 23 24 25 26  Lowry,  Selected Letters, p. 67.  I b i d . .r>.59. I b i d . ,p.38.  Selected Letters  Harvey  Breit,  "Introduction,"  28  Lowry,  Selected L e t t e r s p.28.  29  i b i d . ,p.59.  T  p . x i .  27  T  ibid.,p.28. 30 Ibid,_,p.l44. 31 I b i d . „p.66. 32  R i c h a r d H. C o s t a , i n " U l y s s e s Lowry's Volcano, and the Voyage Between: A Study o f a n Unacknowledged L i t e r a r y K i n s h i p , " U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Quarterly ( A p r i l 1 9 6 7 ) , d i s c u s s e s how "Lowry d i d move, e s p e c i a l l y i n t e c h n i q u e , ever c l o s e r t o UlyssesT h u t d i d so through an i n t e r m e d i ary. " (p.336) T h i s " i n t e r m e d i a r y " i s Conrad A i k e n , whose Blue Voyage ( p u b l i s h e d i n 1927, f i v e years a f t e r Ulysses) c l e a r l y r e v e a l s " t h es u b j e c t i v e e m p h a s i s o f J o y c e . " C o s t a d i s c u s s e s how " t h es t r u c t u r e a s w e l l a s t h e e o n tent o f Bine Voyage recalls Ulysses" a n d how L o w r y , i n t u r n , m o d e l l e d h i s f i r s t n o v e l , Ultramarine, o n B i n e Voyage. Costa goes on t o demonstrate thematic a n d t e c h n i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n Ulysses a n d Under t h e Volcano a n d adds that f o r "a p a r a l l e l t o , a precedent f o r , t h e 'tragic' j o yo f Lowry s novel - i t s i n s i s t e n t humour a m i d s t h e l l i s h demons - one c a n o n l y t u r n t o Ulysses."(p.536). f  33  Muller,  p. 316.  Lowry, Selected. L e t t e r s , p . 5 9 .  CHAPTER I I SIMULTANEITY AND REVISIONS TO THE F I R S T VERSION WHICH POINT TOWARDS EXPANSION Although he  regarded  lyrical  f i c t i o n and p o e t r y c e r t a i n l y  as i d e n t i c a l forms,  we  cannot  have u s e d Mallarme's  d i s t i n c t i o n between v e r s e and p r o s e  t o d e s c r i b e how  l y r i c a l novel i s s i m i l a r to poetry i n intention.  the Mallarme's  d e s c r i p t i o n ©f the i m p u l s e b e h i n d p o e t r y as an aim a t s i m u l t a n e i t y i s s i m i l a r to the t h e s i s developed  i n a recent  o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p o e t r y , S t a r t w i t h t h e Sun. book the authors t o be  In  a s s e r t t h a t a l t h o u g h modern p o e t r y  dominated by  " t h e New  study  this seems  Puritanism - that tradition  rigorously-honed intellectualism,," ' there are a c t u a l l y  two  1  main streams o f p o e t r y i n the t w e n t i e t h century.  of  In addi-  t i o n to the i n t e l l e c t u a l E l i o t t r a d i t i o n , there i s the "Whitman t r a d i t i o n "  o f "New  Paganism."  K a r l Shapiro  p o e t r y i n t h e Whitman t r a d i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y c a u s a l and  suggests  principle  anti-  t h a t only a n t i - c a u s a l p o e t r y can  compass t h e t r u e n a t u r e  en-  C o n s t r u c t e d ©n  the  of simultaneity, a n t i - c a u s a l poetry r e f l e c t s  the  "cosmic consciousness"  of experience.  says  of i t s c r e a t o r .  Shapiro says  this  cosmic outlook i s r a r e i n Western s o c i e t y which u s u a l l y f i n d s the concept c a u s e ©f  of simultaneity d i f f i c u l t  i t s scientific  t o grasp  be-  tradition:  While the Western mind c a r e f u l l y s i f t s , weighs, s e l e c t s , c l a s s i f i e s , i s o l a t e s , the Chinese p i c t u r e of the moment e n c o m p a s s e s e v e r y t h i n g down t o t h e m i n u t e a n d n o n s e n s i c a l d e t a i l b e c a u s e a l l o f t h e i n g r e d i e n t s make up t h e o b s e r v e d moment. " 4  I n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t a c o s m i c s c o p e a w r i t e r must b e  aware o f  the chance aspect  observed  o f events and be  moment a s a s i g n i f i c a n t ,  a b l e t o see t h e  complex u n i t i n i t s e l f ,  r a t h e r than  15  merely  as  one  of  Similarly, that the  i n  order  upon  "visual mind.  In  writing give  composes  sense  The  she  Waves  moment  The  density  and own  uses  story  i n Under  b u i l t  layers beneath  ation i t  order  of  though the  two  same  line.  the  to  or  of  simultaneous or  the  apply  the  Woolf  vision  her  to  of  r e a l i t y *  would  and  f r o  struggle  f©r.  said  have  moment," w i t h  weaving  we  by  of  Under  to  a l l i t s  i n  the  during  the  i n " i n order  must  the  are  term  i t i s  i s often  Hirschman  that  everything  to he  describe  "to  has  very  read  of  of  avoid the  used  may  to  essentially  consciously other  words,  to  the to  operqualify  p r i n t e d page. played  word by  and  word,  A l -  heard l i n e  necessity  achieved or  our  ©f But  i n a  moment  minds.  f o r  expressing the  effect  novel  by  so  that  The  term  describe  this  the  "simultaneity"  term  at  by  novelist "striving  incident i n  actual  simultaneously.  successive." be  i n . "  necessary  be  the the  can an  the  novel  asserts,  of  operating  obviously  a  In  reflect  the  "simultaneous"  notes  interaction expansion  Volcano  narrative level.  cannot means  the  "put  surface"  limitations  "simultaneity"  fers  present  implications reverberate  says  accounted  novel,  everything  expression  . . .  interwoven  enrichment  put  more m u s i c a l  the  l y r i c a l  Volcano b e c a u s e  Hermann B r o c h  simultaneity  the  tension  levels,  to  time,  As  several  of  these  according  the  phrase, "the  levels  In  comprehensive  describes  "to  and  1920*s V i r g i n i a  i n t e n t i o n to  Lowry  several  labelled  whole.  Lowry's the  be  impressions"  diary  the  Malcolm  a  the--future,"  her  of  to  early  present  "what  and  series  i n the  to  "novel-of  focus  a  i t s  effect. re-  to  a r t i s t i investi the poi allows musical  c form which, through i n t e n s i v e psychological g a t i o n , r e s u l t s i n a c o m p r e s s i o n and economy o f n t o f - n a r r a t i v e v i e w a t t h e same t i m e t h a t i t f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f e x p r e s s i v e means t h r o u g h structures or symbolic . • . levels of sug-  16  g e s t i o n made s i m u l t a n e o u s l y d r a m a t i c a c t i o n ©r movement  Although seems  rather  plains of  the phrase  i ta s a  the fact  taneity" of  vague  while  i n this  that  context,  "analysis  the objective  functions  also  aiming  later  functions  stresses  o f  simul-  on an  axis  the anti-causal  a t simultaneity;  o f the l y r i c a l  ex-  (by the writer)  on an axis  o f perception  Broch  of the novel  Hirschman  and exploration  "perception  successiveness."  structure  with the  "intensive psychological investigation"  recognition  that  contemporaneous o f t h e work.1  he  says  novelist i s  to unify a succession o f impressions and experiences, to force the current back into the unity o f the simultaneous, t o relegate time-condition elements t o t h e timelessness o f t h e monad; i n s h o r t , t o e s t a b l i s h t h e supratemporal nature o f the work o f a r ti n t h e concept of i n d i v i s i b l e homogeneity. A  Although gression day  i n Under  o f caused  events  on t h e n a r r a t i v e  surface  play  tricks  with  of the novel  the  chapter  indicator with  thinking ©penes  a book  of  "this  learned which such and  chronological  t h e concept  Consul's  transcends  a passage"  plays,  reflect  ordinary  a s Sub-mundanes  r  he shuts  and brings  Some  r  experiment  h i s eyes, h i s finger  the "hellish  f a l l "  i n the  h i s own i n t e r e s t i n t h a t  laws;  with  significant  o f the books  Hugh  i s fascinated by  o r the Elementariea  PhvalQ-Astro-MvRt.1c  as a  I n  As Laruelle i s  describing  man," P a u s t u s . room  o f one  so that the  Laruelle s  (UV.61)  pro-  beneath the  1  downfall,  o f Elizabethan  learned  time  o f chance  i nJacques  the Consul's  "down f i r m l y u p o n  definite  the time-span  the layers b u i l t  Shakespeareanae."  about  i sa  i s e s s e n t i a l l y anti-causal.  i s suggested  "sortes  there  s e twithin  l e v e l ,  structure f i r s t  the Volcano  titles  o f the Cabbala  an I l l u s t r a t i v e  Appendix  fttom  17  the  work Demaniality.  P i r m i n must not Lowry,  the  although  confused with  i t i s interesting that  v e a l e d by of  be  And  his letters,  the  his  character  creator,  L o w r y ' s own  included books  Geoffrey  Malcolm  reading,  such as  Lot  as  re-  The  Book  Damned, -  I l o o k u p o n t h e day I f i r s t h i t u p o n L e i » ., a s a r e d - l e t t e r d a y i n my l i f e . I k n o w o f n o w r i t e r who , h a s made t h e i n e x p l i c a b l e seem m o r e d r a m a t i c than Charles Port, l5  By  expanding  taneity,  it  the  world  first  original lisher  the  to  the ©f  a vision  Some o f at  of  microcosm  presents  had  narrative through  Lowry i s a b l e  and-effect tend  the  of  an  the  temporal,  eause-  the  Pirmin  twentieth  of  the  about been a  novel  i s able  to the  of  the  alcoholism,  an  recent The  "considerable  exwhere  macrocosm.  suggest that  he  i n t e r e s t i n g and  letter  "the  to  point  century  as  In a  manuscript  Volcano " Lowry mentions t h a t  J a c k s o n , had  simul-  " e x p l i c a b l e " } he  alcoholic.  d i s c u s s i n g the  another novel  effects of  comments i n L o w r y ' s l e t t e r s  conceived  study  transcend  Geoffrey of  the  new  to h i s Under  pubthe  p u b l i c a t i o n of  Lost. Weekend b y  blow."  He  Charles  explains  that  it  in  re-writing his  sages which and,  own  s e e m e d to©  he  similar  has to  "hoiked any  out"  i n The  any  Lest  commenting upon the p o p u l a r i t y o f J a c k s o n ' s  says rather b i t t e r l y : Lowry  not  couldn't This but  novel  been t o l d  sell,  that  "dipsomania" i t has  "And  how  that  that  nothing  is s t i l l  and  providing  was  theme o f duller  present  characters  Weekend book,  this  author  a l l themes  than  i n the  dipsomanial"  final  become a metaphor f o r a u n i v e r s a l  Lowry r e a l i z e d t h a t tings  many t i m e s has  pas-  version  condition.  a m a c r o c o s m i c theme demanded  capable  ©f  suggesting  set-  convincingly  credible vehicles for universal implications.  c o r d i n g l y , many o f L o w r y ' s r e v i s i o n s a r e  aimed at  subtly  ©r Ac-  18  expanding version, The  settings are  tention the  to to  f i r s t  f i r s t the  ©f  version  plunges  Laruelle  descend  panoramic  narrow  paragraph  f i r s t  version  us  too  view  slowly  which  to  Chapter  i.  Lowry  local  mentions  colour  peculiar the he  to  Dr.  V i g i l ,  this  has  Hugh  one  that  "just When  as  Mexico,  eye  the  this  Quauhnahuac  finally  r e n t i a l  town,  i n the  the  Quauhnahuac  of  suggests  they  start  from  are  and  the  Mexico,  the  t o man's  by  t r a i n  the  "That  the  was  difference?"  a  a  a.  w o r l d map  at  new  often  the  l i f e  (UV,314)  -  the  small  " a l l  geography  looks  But  some-  that  remembers  Oakville.  tells -  Indus"(UV,105)  "wild  l i k e  map.  Himalayas  that  The  a  world  the  replies  of  that  together  of Kashmir  station  a  the  implying  Consul  gives  Consul  of  of  actions.  sense  paragraph,  him  Consul  much  i n ©ne  he  S h a l i m a r l o o k e d more as  from  o t h e r on  Valley  same, " ( W , l l l )  Later,  concludes,  Gakville,, what  the  the  scene  included  time  remind  i n the pictures  "the  spent  has  h i s childhood i n India, volcanoes  converversion  ©n  opening  and  the  final  atmosphere  novel's  While  Revillagiged© Islands v e r y much f u r t h e r west, - . . . o r v e r y much r n a u t , i n I n d i a , on the  he  same  does  (UV.110)  night  at  an  valley  scenery"  he  but  irrelevant  Scottish," ever."  suggests  Mexican  f a r away  streets  a  ©n  about  the  Yvonne  where  of  which  into  the  an  Dowry's i n -  framework.  particular  i n h i s letters,  f i r s t  represents to  immediately  locates  "»  i m p r e s s i o n , as  Reminiscing  is  II  I  points  a b o u t t h e same l a t i t u d e as t h e t© t h e w e s t i n t h e P a c i f i c , o r the southernmost t i p of Hawaii f u r t h e r east, the town of Jugge B a y ©f B e n g a l . (UV„S9)  As  i n the  scope.  a broader  us  and  i n  and  give h i s narrative  sation between makes  characters which,  sometimes  very  addition  and  tor"vaguely Gam  the  than  horrors  American  Oaxaca  or  19  Deletions  from  ectly  expanded  Lowry  has  which  tend  are  omitted  s t i l l  compared  to  to  But  about  the  being  "just  just  such  Spanish  Similarly, i n  the  In  Chapter  that  have  not  the  i n  the  f i r s t  version  as  national  Consul  ©f  England,  some  i n which  also  f i r s t  frontier  but  i n  of  i s  asleep" Hugh  the  i s  i n  of  forest  version. American  revision.  declares  pur  him  the  i s an  during  States.  Consul  f i n a l  (wh©  Hugh  snore  United  B u l l  deleted  We  accuses  the  Hugh  ©ne  the with  John  version,  long  she  types.  (his  that  i n  argument  included  was  and  time  comments by  the  last  i s B r i t i s h  of  War,  been  version)  IX  passages  o l d unhappy  p a t r i o t i c  f i r s t  version  Yvonne's  l i k e  i n d i r -  f i n a l  i s American,  C i v i l  also  the  spent  as  have  In  characters  the  Yvonne  version  scope.  muted voice  has  beautiful,  "Spain's  that  that  passages  novel's several  "the  and  original  delineate  aware  (DV,125)), B r i t i s h  the  the  that  democracy"  and  adds:  And by the s p i r i t of N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne, and C h a m p i o n , s i r , a n d a s I'm a good American, by that's true. (FV,IX,9)  In  the  the  f i n a l  outcome  turn  to  return atone  f o r  obligation  to  the  reasons.  the  novel's  Spain the  Hugh  a  way  kind he  that  t e l l s  i n  Chapter  IV  ©f  but  based world  theme  and  has  i s  Hugh  sacrifice spent  Yvonne  his  i n  concerned own  rather  g u i l t  of  very  more upon  Man's  while  I've been t r y i n g throat for seven l i k e t e l l i n g her  -  s t i l l  S p a n i s h War be  interesting  Notes"  i s  to  i n t©  the  Hugh  seems  p o l i t i c a l  strands  is  of  Spain  personal or  version  his  sense  than upon of  seems  the  to  of  p a t r i o t i c major  consider  which w i l l  somehow  IV  thirty of  the  years. "Working  -  to persuade England not to cut her y e a r s . • . now I sometimes f e e l t o do j u s t that.  the  f i n a l  version  he  says:  re-  some  to  f i r s t  Chapter  about  decision a  ©ne  h i s Grey G©d,  his  I t  20  T r y p e r s u a d i n g t h e world n o t t o c u t i t s t h r o a t f o r h a l f a decade o r more, l i k e me, . . . and i t ' l l "begin t o dawn on you t h a t even y o u r b e h a v i o r ' s p a r t o f i t s p l a n * (Uy.,130) T h i s r e v i s e d form o f Hugh's statement r e v e a l s  expansion  n o t o n l y from n a t i o n a l t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n , b u t  also  from a sense o f detachment t o a sense o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e macrocosm..  Hugh has come t o see h i m s e l f as a s i g -  n i f i c a n t representative events;  of the v e r y f o r c e s  he i s d e v e l o p i n g a "cosmic  shapingJworlds  consciousness."  Most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , r e v i s i o n o f the f i r s t v e r s i o n has changed the n a t u r e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e character..  Consul's  To embody a u n i v e r s a l t r a g i c e x p e r i e n c e  c h a r a c t e r must h i m s e l f have a c e r t a i n h e r o i c  stature.  O t h e r w i s e t h e most c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d l e v e l s t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g him w o u l d seem mere p a d d i n g . e a r l i e r , Lowry's l e t t e r s  a  of suggesAs mentioned  i n d i c a t e t h a t the p o r t r a y a l o f  G e o f f r e y F i r m i n was o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i e v e d o f as a n i n t e r e s t i n g study of dipsomania. version,  A c c o r d i n g l y , i n the  the C o n s u l i s r e g a r d e d w i t h p i t y b y h i s  Yvonne a n d h e r f i a n c e .  first daughter  Hugh r e f e r s t o t h e C o n s u l as  "poor o l d f e l l o w " ( F V , V I , . 2 )  Yvonne o f t e n t r e a t s him w i t h  open contempt and i m p a t i e n c e .  And even the C o n s u l f e e l s  s o r r y f o r h i m s e l f ; when Yvonne and Hugh make p l a n s c l i m b Pop© t o g e t h e r ,  we a r e t o l d t h a t  to  " i t h u r t him to be  e x c l u d e d from t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s . " ( P V , X , 6 ) v e r s i o n , however,  that  I n the  final  t h e C o n s u l , w i t h a weary s u p e r i o r i t y ,  d i s m i s s e s t h e i r p l a n as " a p a t h e t i c  joke":  The C o n s u l f i n i s h e d h i s m e s c a l : a l l a p a t h e t i c j o k e , o f c o u r s e , s t i l l , t h i s p l a n t o c l i m b Pop©, i f j u s t t h e k i n d ©f t h i n g Hugh w©uld have f o u n d out b e f o r e a r r i v i n g w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g t o much e l s e : y e t c o u l d i t be t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f c l i m b i n g the v o l c a n o h a d somehow s t r u c k them as h a v i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a l i f e t i m e t o g e t h e r ? Y e s , t h e r e i t r o s e up b e f o r e them^ w i t h a l l i t s h i d d e n  21  dangers, p i t f a l l s , ambiguities, deceptions, portentous as what they c o u l d imagine f o r the p o o r b r i e f selfd e c e i v e d s p a e d o f a c i g a r e t t e was t h e i r own destiny. (UV,320)  Not we  only are  f i r s t us  a  Consul's  informed version  how  been  the  of  an  Geoffrey taken;  probe  we  into  however, the  Consul's  one  comment  record  of  Firmin  the  the  twists  mood  during  i n the  the  rather  abruptly  thinks  of  eantina  himself: in  the  But  the "But  he  the  f i n a l  details  him  and and  and  the  i n  the  attempt  are  we  images  told he  then  are  result  of  version, peer  into  becomes  The a  mind.  Consul's  love-making Firmin  change i s  he  declares  thought  of  the  Cathedral." to  the  to  Farolito,  (TO,III,12)  experience  through  pre-  suddenly  that  able  passing  cut  thoughts. 0  unconvincingly; we  the  has  Consul's  at  In  short  himself  the  which  to  end  his  i n  explained  f i n a l  excluded"  version  Chaos,  version  a  the  reader  be  turns  f i r s t  only  recording  to  way  has  sense  In  the  jfcissed h e r ,  early morning.  i n the  hand  as  mind.  abortive  sented  the  different.  a  with  lets  and  i s  In  actually  " i thurt  also  storyteller  feels.  Consul's  mind by -  reaction  presented  usually  Similarly, of  this  omniscient  are  Lowry  reaction but  f i r s t -  Consul's  mind:  B u t h e c o u l d f e e l now, too, t r y i n g the prelude, the pie pa r a t o r y n o s t a l g i c p h r a s e s on h i s w i f e ' s s e n s e s , the image of h i s p o s s e s s i o n , l i k e that jewelled gate the desperate neophyte, Yesod-bound, p r o j e c t s f o r the t h o u s a n d t h t i m e on the h e a v e n s t o p e r m i t p a s s a g e of his a s t r a l body, f a d i n g and s l o w l y , i n e x o r a b l y , that o f a. e a n t i n a , w h e n i n d e a d s i l e n c e a n d p e a c e i t f i r s t opens i n the morning, t a k i n g i t s p l a c e . I t was one of t h o s e c a n t i n a s t h a t w o u l d b e o p e n i n g now, at nine ©' c l o c k . . . T h i s image f a d e d a l s o . . . t h e n he imagined he r e a l l y saw Hugh c o m i n g t h r o u g h t h e gap ..... But now, now he w a n t e d t o go, p a s s i o n a t e l y he w a n t e d t o go, a w a r e t h a t t h e p e a c e o f t h e e a n t i n a was changing to i t s f i r s t fevered preoccupation of the morning. (UV,117-8)  22  Here  the transition This  tions  has been  effectively  rendering o f the Consul's  enables  us t o better  his  behavior.  As Firmin  the  end o f the novel:  rendered.  thoughts  understand  and sensa-  and sympathize  d e c l a r e s t o Hugh  with  and Yvonne  near  The a c t o f a madman o r a d r u n k a r d . . . o r o f a man l a b o u r i n g u n d e r v i o l e n t e x c i t e m e n t , seems l e s s free a n d more i n e v i t a b l e t o t h e one who knows t h e m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n ©f t h e man who p e r f o r m e d t h e a c t i o n ; a n d m©re f r e e a n d l e s s i n e v i t a b l e t o t h e o n e who d o e s n o t know i t . (UV,338)  In  a  l e t t e r  aims  t o h i sp u b l i s h e r ,  i n the f i r s t  Consul  part  Lowry  says  o f the novel  " i nt h e G r e c i a n manner a s a  that  one o f h i s  was t o e s t a b l i s h t h e fellow  ©f some  stature,  is so  that  h i sf a l l  condition" tive,  Consul  the  l i k e  seems  A  with  the Consul's  "less  clear  form  t h e new  "mental  a n d more i n -  tragedy, the  t h a n b y h i a own  ©f t h e f o l l o w i n g  i t s revised  the  i n the narra-  free  o f Greek  more b y f a t e  comparison  o f t h e n o v e l makes  give  become  t h e doomed heroes  Notes  When we k n o w  a t v a r i o u s moments  certainly  controlled  whims.  Working  sion to  o f t h e Consul  h i sa c t i o n s  evitable";  trary  may b e t r a g i c . "  passage  i n the f i n a l  emphasis Lowry  arbifrom verwishes  characteri  True he h a d n o t h a d b e f o r e , as one might have expected, t h e h a g g a r d l o o k o f a d e p r a v e d , w o r n o u t ©Id man. Why s h o u l d h e ? W i t h a s t a r t Hugh remembered G e o f f was o n l y ten years older than he. Y e t i t was a s though t h e passionate narcissisism drinking entailed had fixed h i s a g e a t some t i m e i n t h e p a s t . (WN,VI,14) In  the f i n a l  version  this  passage  reads  as  follows:  True, he h a d n o t b e f o r e t h e haggard look o f a depraved w o r n - o u t ©Id man: why s h o u l d h e i n d e e d , when h e was o n l y t w e l v e y e a r s o l d e r t h a n Hugh h i m s e l f ? Y e t i t was a s t h o u g h f a t e h a d f i x e d h i s a g e a t some u n i d e n t i f i a b l e moment i n t h e p a s t . (W,213)  23  In  the f i n a l  cinating how  individual  words,  macrocosmic dense  Geoffrey level  form  the Consul  hut also  attracted the wrath  other  the  version  remote  her©  wh©  o f t h e u n i v e r s a l power,  Pirmin  according  Lowry  a  i s not only  c a n move  from  t o t h e demands  has chosen  a  has  fassome-  fate.  microcosmic  I n t o  of simultaneity,  f o rh i s novel.  24  N O T E S TO  CHAPTER I I  James Miller,. J r . , K a r l Shapiro a n d Bernice Slote, S t a r t With t h e Sun ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska Press,I960), p. 2 3 4 5  Ibid. Shapiro,,  p. 31.  Shapiro,  p.  34.  V i r g i n i a W o o l f , The M o m e n t a n d Hogarth P r e s s , 195277P* 10* Woolf, A Writer's p.. 1 3 9 ,  7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  Lowry, Cited  Essays  (London:Hogarth  (London:  Press,  1953),  Selected Letters, p. 59. by Hirschman,  Hirschman,  p.  17.  Hirschman,  p.  17.  Cited  Diary  Other  by  Hirschman,  "The O r c h e s t r a t e d  p. 159.  L©wry, Selected Letters, p .2 6 . Lowry,  Selected Letters, p. 45.  Lowry,  Selected Letters  Lowry,  Selected. l e t t e r s , P«  Lowry,  Selected Letters  r  f  p. 46. 6 4  »  p. 78.  Novel,"  p. 159.  25 The M a l c o l m L o w r y P a p e r s , UBC, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s I A b l ( B ) Box 2, Further references to t h i s F i r s t V e r s i o n o f Under the V o l c a n o w i l l appear i n the t e x t a s FV, f o l l o w e d b y t h e c h a p t e r a n d p a g e r e f erence, (Here the term " F i r s t V e r s i o n " r e f e r s t o the manuscript f o r the f i r s t n o v e l - l e n g t h v e r s i o n o f Under the V o l c a n o . The t r u e " f i r s t v e r s i o n " o f t h e b o o k i s t h e s h o r t s t o r y o f t h e same name, t h e embryo f r o m w h i c h t h e n o v e l grew. This short s t o r y v e r s i o n has b e e n r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d i n C a n a d i a n W i n t e r ' s T a l e s , e d i t e d b y Norman L e v i n e . ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f Canada,1968). ) The M a l c o l m L o w r y P a p e r s , UBC, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s I A b l ( H ) Box 3. F u r t h e r references to these Working N o t e s f o r Under the V o l c a n o w i l l appear i n the t e x t a s WN, f o l l o w e d b y t h e c h a p t e r a n d p a g e r e f e r e n c e , where p o s s i b l e . ;  19  Lowry,, S e l e c t e d  L e t t e r s , p.  70.  CHAPTER I I I EXPANSION AND  PATTERN THROUGH L E I T M O T I F  I n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f s i m u l t a n e i t y , Hirschman that  the n a r r a t i v e  panied by  levels  structures," Volcano  of suggestions  One  images a n d narrative  dictionary,  s t r u c t u r e i n Under t h e movement o f  they are r e p e a t e d and  these  expanded i n the  According  t o one  in  standard American  " l e i t m o t i f " means "a m a r k e d  melodic  or short passage, expressive of, or a s s o c i a t e d with,  c e r t a i n idea, person,  reappearance,"  o r s i t u a t i o n , and accompanying i t s  T r a n s f e r r i n g i t to l i t e r a r y  Humphrey d e f i n e s " l e i t m o t i f " a s word, o r p h r a s e  which c a r r i e s  c e r t a i n i d e a o r theme." a s s o c i a t i o n as  "a r e c u r r i n g  static  tains,"  association with  a  this "must  o r words w h i c h i t c o n -  Hirschman s t r e s s e s t h a t l e i t m o t i f s and  Robert  image,, s y m b o l ,  "programmatic" s i n c e the l e i t m o t i f  c o n t e x t u a l environments  out t h a t  terms,  M e l v i n Friedman d e s c r i b e s  r e f e r t o something beyond the tones ent  the  t o t h e movement o f t h e l e i t m o t i f  drama.  the term  musical  L o w r y o f t e n a s s o c i a t e s a theme w i t h  symbols as i s similar  n o v e l i s accom-  o f t e n "through  image o r symbol a n d  Wagnerian m u s i c a l  a  such musical  i s leitmotif,  a particular  phrase  s u r f a c e o f the l y r i c a l  says  recur i n  "differ-  Friedman s i m i l a r l y p o i n t s  leitmotifs;  s h i f t t h e i r emphasis o r meaning a c c o r d i n g t o t h e cont e x t and can g a t h e r s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as the s i t u a t i o n which they symbolize develops. f c  The pared  first  chapter  o f Under t h e V o l c a n o has b e e n com-  t o the Wagnerian o v e r t u r e  suggested  and  "where a l l t h e themes  compounded":  Ce p r e m i e r  c h a p i t r e , p u r g a t o i r e des  impatients,  are  27  equivaut a un p r e l u d e ; l e s l e i t m o t l v e a'y^font entendre, sans qu'on sache encore a quel evenement p r e c i s l e s rattacher.2 In a l e t t e r  t o h i s p u b l i s h e r Lowry defended  the f i r s t  chap-  t e r a g a i n s t the complaints o f " l e s i m p a t i e n t s , " a s s e r t i n g t h a t the complexity and the o f t e n slow movement o f t h i s chapter was  the r e s u l t o f c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and  necessary  to the a r t i s t i c whole f o r "while the s t o r y I t s e l f i s b e i n g u n f o l d e d , the themes and counterthemes o f the book are being stated," Although Lowry h i m s e l f does not use the term  "leit-  m o t i f " t o d e s c r i b e the form i n which these themes are p r e sented, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t h i s own o f t e n employs m u s i c a l terms.  a n a l y s i s o f the n o v e l  He a s s e r t s t h a t the  "Tasker-  son e p i s o d e " i n Chapter I i s " j u s t i f i e d i n i t s e l f m u s i c a l l y  „.io _ and a r t i s t i c a l l y . " -  The  drunken horseman i s i n t e n d e d t©  sound "the chord o f Yvonne's death." Chapter  L©wry b e l i e v e d t h a t  IX, " m u s i c a l l y speaking, ought t o be an e x c e e d i n g l y  good c o n t r a s t t o 8 and 10."  I n the t e x t o f the n o v e l i t -  s e l f , the Consul's  about f r e e w i l l i s compared  statement  t© a p i e c e on a p i a n o , i t was l i k e t h a t l i t t l e b i t i n seven f l a t s . , on the b l a c k keys . . . l i k e t h a t l i t t l e p i e c e one had l e a r n e d , so l a b o r i o u s l y , years ago 1 i. . u n t i l one day one got drunk i n such a way t h a t o n e s f i n g e r s r e c a l l e d the combination. (UV 538-9) r  f  T© use the Consul's analogy,  i n the f i r s t  chapter we  i n t r o d u c e d t o many " l i t t l e p i e c e s " or germinal the f u l l  s i g n i f i c a n c e of which, as Fouchet  not y e t r e a l l y understand.  are  leitmotifs,  observed, we  do  As each symbol, image, or phrase  r e c u r s i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , however, we become so aware o f i t s thematic a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t we combination" almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y .  can " r e c a l l the  I n the f i r s t  chapter,  28  for  example,  and  station  in  Laruelle's suggests  reaction  only  a  to  the  railway tracks  reluctance to  leave  h i s  home  Quauhnahuac*  t h e s e n s e o f d e p a r t u r e , o f i t s i m m i n e n c e , came h e a v i l y about him a g a i n a s , c h i l d i s h l y a v o i d i n g the l o c k e d p o i n t s , he p i c k e d h i s p a t h o v e r t h e n a r r o w - g a u g e l i n e s . L i g h t from the s e t t i n g sun g l a n c e d o f f the oiltanks on the g r a s s embankment b e y o n d . The p l a t f o r m s l e p t . The ( t r a c k s were v a c a n t , t h e s i g n a l s up. There was l i t t l e t o suggest any t r a i n e v e r a r r i v e d a t this station, l e t alone l e f t i t . (UV.33-4)  However, images "A  with  i n later  corpse  w i l l  matically can  the  recurrence and  chapters, be  which  k n i t  which  "none  why  the  r a i l s  into  descends."  Friedman points been  used  the ret lin Duj no  The  has  l y r i c a l  has  interrupt which  been  novelist  of  theme  r i g i d  that  with "the  path  we  the  phrase  come  death. locked  to  auto-  Now  we  points"  f o r trains  from  i n f i c t i o n  the  leitmotif  has  ways*  of  may  certain  response  suggestion  effect  out  dominant  linked  implications of  express,"  avoids  a  different  one  automatic  nificance  of  (UV,31l)  leitmotif  retains  reader  repetition  t r a i n  way P r o u s t u s e d i t , b y s u g g e s t i n g a t h e m e a n d then r n i n g again and again to i f u n t i l the sense of a r development has b e e n d e s t r o y e d ; and the way rdin used i t , by repeating l i t t l e phrases often o n g e r t h a n t w o o r t h r e e w o r d s '2>  thematic  ways  an  i n two  u e a l  t r a i n  Laruelle  of  the  transported by  associate the  understand  and  development  an  would  or  incident  flow  destroy  or  rendered  of  The  the  the  symbol  (once  the  of  the By  evoking  offers  f o r expanding Several  passage  novelist  does  with  a l -  i t s thematic  situation. i n a  but  which  leitmotif  device  narrative  sense  to  associations.  reader  unobtrusive  be  i n v a r y i n g forms,  thematic  i n the  simultaneity. the  image  established),  an  can  recur  to not  lengthy  simultaneous  the the  levels  achieve have  s i g -  the  to  explanations  reverberations.  29  During  Hugh and  example,  Lowry  cipitous  hulk  Yvonne's has  of  (UV,353)  to  (and,  perhaps,  are  the  Consul  ahsorb  this  symbol  has  The  swift  search The  at  establish  design.  The  motif  especially the  Volcano  formula"  to  narrative.  example, answer porting phrase  the  Consul power  1  of  F i r m i n says  Later  necessary  drinks"  to  a  helps  second  " l i t t l e  the  as  occurs  desperate  the  As  l y r i c a l  pattern  or  type  l e i t -  of  makes i t  In  the  or  very  naturally  narrative*  as  the  barman's  necessity of  repeated  "absolutamente  to  later take  the  phrase  surrounding  the  Consul's  "Cancels eantina  (UV,104).  that  Hugh,  to  have  struggling  by i s on to  down-  very  (supposedly  i t s innocence."  i n order  not  serves  the  strychnine  the  does  necesari©"  i t begins  drink of  of  and  i t reappears  f o r a  trans-  association  casual here  himself i r o n i c a l l y  i n  necessario," f o r  However when  mo©d  "verbal  the  The  i s very  Under  into  I I simply  (UV.70)  and  associations.  repeated phrase  to  more  volcano  phrase,"  "absolutamente  that  necessity"  escapes  f i n d  interpretations*  pattern b u i l t  theme  to  the  overall  d o u b t l e s s " ajid  f a t a l i s t i c  the  organizing principle.  express.  f o r alcoholism) he  the  query  motif.  f a l l .  cure  the  i n Chapter  notes  the  a  of  attention.  accent  "intrusive  form  phrase  s phrase a  an  The  Yvonne  of  also  of  phrase-motif  death  special  to  thematic  rhythm  sense  the  Consul's  w i t h the  toward  recognize  because  certain  the  by  going  path*  didactic  o f t e n uses  the  Fernando, "the  an  appears  corpses  attract  given  Friedman,  f i r s t  to  the  leitmotifs  emphasize  Sometimes the  of  driving  the  as  Lowry  are  spontaneously  unchanging  useful  they  f o r  pre-  coming  We  end  of  described by  t o he  whole  the  interrupted by  novelist  "the  Consul,  f o r ) much  and  repetition  that  seemed  that  f o r the  unconsciously looking  already been movement  search  comment  indicate  suggestion  i s not  to  Popocatepetl  them"  than  only  frantic  (UV 96) f  "a  couple  with h i s  of own  30  burden  o f guilt,  utely  necessary  After  playing  thinks  "sortes  exist,  "L©s  Borrachones"  they  and t e l l s  esario"  that  the  f a t a l i s t i c  Consul  belated  Laruelle a  drink  mood w h i c h  not imply that  as a helpless  a r r i v a l  compromising  that  absol-  (UV l38) t  and finding  t h e Consul  "The  thinks  "eternally  o f  into the  i ti s "absolutamente  this  Lowry  word-motif i s trying  accents,  to present  Incidents  o f Yvonne's p o s t c a r d subtly  nec-  (UY.,239)  i n the square.  puppet.  "absolutamente  not so  oneself."  (drunkards) f a l l i n g  they have  does  i t were  Shakespeareanae"  a r e the devil,"  flames"  however,  " i f only  t o go o u t a n d hang  gods  The  -  such  as t h e  belie  the un-  necesario":  Y e t w h a t a b o u t t h a t b e l a t e d p o s t c a r d , now u n d e r Laruelle's pillow? I tproved the lonely torment •unnecessary, p r o v e d even, he must have wanted i t * (UV,244) Laruelle do  endure  enjoyed  angrily  i s largely  freedom  t e l l s  the Consul,  unnecessary."  of choice u n t i l  was e v i c t e d  from  his  own c h o i c e ,  committed  himself  of acquiring  greater  h e l l  i n hope  (UV 249)  t h e garden,  as Lowry  "absolutely committed utamente  emphatically  asserts  necessary" part  h i s novel, necesario"  Sometimes  a s Adam  t h e wrong  t o the lonely  choice  path  through  knowledge:  path, as Blake well y i n dreams I have seem t o seenow* b e beyond i t strange l i f e . (UV,65)  that  Chapter  o f the pattern  so the Consul's once  you  so t h e Consul has, b y  right through h e l l there i s a k n e w a n d ., . * s o m e t i m e s l a t e l been able t o see i t. . . . I tween mescals, this; path, and v i s t a s , l i k e v i s i o n s o f a new  Just  Just  f  h e made  and  "thesuffering  I X i s an  t o which  a c t i o n s become  he has "absol-  h e h a s made h i s d e c i s i o n .  the leitmotif  which  consists  o f a  repeated  31  groups  o f words  rative  h u t i s instead  motif  i n Under  corpse tion a  w i l l  be  o f how  movement  does  not arise a  naturally  out o f the nar-  "staccato thrust."  the Volcano  i s the enigmatic  transported by express."  these  words  similar  Such  f i r s t  enter  t o Friedman's  a  statement,,  Lowry's  "A  descrip-  the narrative  "staccato  verbal  suggests  thrust":  'A c o r p s e w i l l b e t r a n s p o r t e d b y e x p r e s s . ' The t i r e l e s s r e s i l i e n t v o i c e l o b b e d t h i s s i n g u l a r remark over t h e B e l l a V i s t a b a r w i n d o w s i l l into the square. (UV,70)  When p a r t that  Firmin  timetable by  o f this  a f i r s t  strange  The of  remark  i s quoting from  which  stipulates  class  phrase  matter-of-fact rules  singular  ticket.  becomes voice  t h e passage  Given  turnal  v i g i l  a  of the tr nsport a  the timetable next X  by the railway  a s we  their  appears  describing  accompanied  context, the hear the  o f f i c i a l  a l r e a d y made  learn  Railways  must b e  prosaic  comic  we  National  corpse  this  i r o n i c a l l y  i n Chapter  appears,  the Mexican that  t o t h e d e a d wh© have  quotation from  next  dictating l a s t  trip.  a t the end  the Consul's  noc-  station:  What h a d t h e S t a t i o n M a s t e r s a i d ? The dead. D© they sleep? Why s h o u l d t h e y w h e n we c a n n o t . . . . A n d he h a d p l a c e d t h e p o o r ragged: c o r n f l o w e r s r e v e r ently on a neglected grave . . . . . A corpse w i l l be transported b y express . . . Oozing a l c o h o l from every pore, t h e Consul s t o o d a t t h e open door o f t h e Salon O f e l i a . How sensible t o have h a d a mescal. How s e n s i b l e ! (UV 314) f  Since  t h e form  i l i a r  t o u s , i tserves  reverie that  with an earlier  even upon  Consul  and implications  had been  f i r s t  as a part  meeting  o f this  phrase  signpost that  links  of the narrative. Yvonne  preoccupied with  a r e now the We  i n the morning,  "talking  fam-  Consul's recall the  o f corpses"  (UV,78),  32  and  i t seems p r o b a b l e  timetable mare by serves of  has  the as  doom"  jogged  t r a i n  a  the  pootootsies" Another only the  three  ern  world.  sin  amar',  "No  .  well he  very for  the  of  f o r  f i r s t that  "love  Geoffrey  inscription  has  paraphrased  the  of  also  "portents and  s i n amar"  i t -  out  1 1 1  No  -  that  came  one  i n  too  i n  of  the  the  mod-  puede  my  v i v i r  house."  Laruelle  inscription.  appears  clearly  se  i n s c r i b e d on  knows  During late."  his  walk  (UV,36)  L a r u e l l e ' s house,  Yvonne  i s  but  to  i t  does  realizes i t s implications f o r  Fouchet  f u l l  compassion  to  which  pass  quotation  declaration of  and  estupido  the  night-  v i v i r  c l e a r , however,  his  the  love  the  i t stands  refers  t r u t h of  mourns  aware she  uncompromising need  but  r e l i v i n g  Ofelia,  puede  novel  railway-  "cawliflowers  the. S a l o n se  the  world  of  an  ..As  and  world  from  familiar  shadowy  the  i s soon  When Y v o n n e  now  i n  the  .  only  town  as  -  Laruelle  I t  to  s o l i d  phrase  into  The  the  i n  -  (UV,32) too  very  times  themes  from  quotation  memory  (UV,320)  narrative  major  his  the  station.  bridge  to  that  motto,,  not her  "Etre  want  see  and  Geoff.  As  sans  amour,  c'est  17 done  e"tre  mort."  When F i r m i n  comes  aware  that  Fire.  666."  (UV,239)  In  Beist;  book  sign  of  the  this  number w i l l  worship Consul  the  he  i s walking  the be  from  Antichrist  In  love  force  the  pattern  makes  extensive  and  the  and  addition to  these  of  on  of  forsake 666  fellow  symbol  into and  symbol  and  image  motifs  or  order  i s being  the  form  word-phrase  motif,  however,  666  Land  prophesies  that  those  who.  the  of  G©d.  The  love  f o r he  has  of  i s \ the  of  the  motifs"  alienated  course, draws  the  which  narrative,  image  of  a  Of  the  be-  forehead  "word-phrase  a  that  number  of  he  men.  render  fact  "Street  the  the  actually these  inscription,  Revelation  on  woven  pattern.  the  the  Bible  number  his  being  use  the  stamped  i s haunted by  himself  reads  Lowry  leitmotifs the  very  which  repetition  attention to  established. form  rein-  i n which  the  Unlike they  are  53  presented and  and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these  images E.M.  vary  Forster  variation" creates  according  a  has defined  and dowry's rhythm  t o their  which  saves  merely  "tethered banners,"  motifs  t o develop  gives ner  the  them  a  reappear,  rhythm  Lowry's  variation  of motif  pattern the  As  which  novel  Volcano  actually  as a whole.  i s concerned  Forster  being  allows  asserts, u X  "A  says  p r i n c i p a l l y  creates  theme  dominating  i n letters,  with  saves  b u t also  the very  As Lowry  ban-  °  significance not only  r i g i d i t y  renders  from  motifs  the narrative and  can develop.  monotonous  plus  a n d image  variation  organically within  from  "repetition  o f symbol  Instead,  can only  leitmotif  as  h i s leitmotifs  certain v i t a l i t y .  symbols  context.  rhythm  variation  repeated  man's  a  Under t h e  "ceaseless XI  struggling  toward  The  quotations  omy  I n t h e human  strength over  on novel's  ,. . . c a l l  Bunyan  describes he  he  the weight  page  Sophocles  thought"  that  praises  points  without  not f i n d  alienation-and l o n e l i n e s s , the Consul  the  s a l v a t i o n o f communication  light  In the  i s this  dual  i n t h e shadow  Consul. this  " I cannot  Dowry's  haunting  the f i r s t Consul  version  And similarly,  o f guilt  only  and love  them."  nature  refusal  guilt  was  read  Death.  a l l t.his3  his  It  out that  o f Hell  desire  -  victory man John  condition:  salvation h i s soul  did  letters  deliverance."  with  man's him  of h i s s p i r i t u a l  the everlasting weight "could  the dichot-  which brings  but also  t h e two s i d e s  of the past,"  emphasize  f o ra i di n vain"against  realizes  perish"under  t i t l e  maladies,"  "shall  although  under  experience.  and "wind-swift  "baffling  theless  the light  w i l l  or Sin,"  soul  that  he  i n the h e l l w i l l  not  offered  never-  o f accept  i n Yvonne's  (UV,65)  of experience, that  this  constantly  t o p i n down  promise  o f  tortures the  the exact  cause  of  makes i ta l l t h e more c r e d i b l e .  of the novel  not responsible  we  are told  clearly  f o rthe atrocity  on t h e  that  34  Samaritan the  -  "the  submarine  furnaces."  firemen  with  had  slice  (FV,V,2)  knocked  bars  In  the  and  out  burnt  f i n a l  the them  v e r s i o n we  officers  on  alive  the  are  i n  t o l d  only  that the Germans had b e e n put t h e r e and . . . . someone to take the blame. So t h e C o n s u l h a d n o t r e c e i v e d h i s decoration without f i r s t being court-martialled. He was acquitted. (UV,59)  In  the  f i n a l  innocent some  Consul  clearly  guilty;  extent  guilty,  and  —  equivocal  "Pirmin  shoulders." Even was  the  or  Consul's tion  version  i s not  evil  has  labelled  been  done,  take  the  someone must  p o s i t i o n represents  innocent,  but  bears  a  as  clearly  a l l are  blame.  universal  g u i l t  of  had  to The  condi-  world  ©n  (UV,165)  during  haunted by  the  a  happiest  sense  of  period  "the  two  of  his  sides  marriage  of  Pirmin  everything":  Por too soon i t - t h e i r marriagehad b e g u n t o seem t o o m u c h ©f a t r i u m p h , i t had been too good, to© horribly unimaginable to lose, impossibly f i n a l l y to b e a r : i t was a s i f i t h a d b e c o m e i t s e l f i t s own foreboding. (UV,23l)  During own  the  one  day  i n which  the  statements  are  often  opposition  scoras can  you  social "The t e l l s  "what  sort  ©f  have  much  respect  struggle?"  w i l l  of  man  i n  Lowry's  whole  novel  Earle  Birney  creatures  we  f o r mankind  (UV,334)  Yet  his"battle  he  f o r  i s set, to  are"  or  the  ©ne  and  also  i s unconquerable"  L a r u e l l e of  consciousness."  i n  story  another.  asks  any  Consul's  Hugh,  b e l i e f  asserts  survival  "H©w  i n  twice  (UV,120,235) and  the  He  of  the that  he  the  human  (Hi,247) own  words,  not  "teeters between uses  this  same  only  despair image  the  Consul  . . .  i n h i s  and  but  the  hope."  introduction  to  35  S e l e c t e d Poema o f Malcolm Lowrv: Birney says that the  poems "have h i s Lowry's stance, teetering on a rope . • • between exultation . . . and agonies." Birney s descript i o n i s accurate f o r i n Lowry's poems there i s a constant insistence upon the dual nature of the world and human experience. A ship heading straight f o r the rocks i s "Never so proud as i n her hour of doom." In "The Volcano i s Dark" the poet thinks of "men i n the act of procreating" but t h i s act of love and v i t a l i t y takes the form of a very s t e r i l e , immobile image: I see t h e i r organ frozen into a gigantic rock Shattered now . . . • ^ The f i n a l l i n e s summarize t h i s dichotomy: And the c r i e s which be the groans of the dying Or the groans of love In "Grim Vinegarroon" Lowry declares i r o n i c a l l y that man's charity and selfishness and are merely the two poles of one impulse: "What knots of s e l f i n a l l self-abnegation." In "The Drunkards" the "hearts to be doubly broken" are "set/ By the surgeon of peace i n the s p l i n t of woe." In "Saint Malcolm Among the Birds," there are seeds of hate i n humility: the "retreat to love from stalemate" i s "merely no  the rearguard action of my hate." I t i s t h i s "teetering" which gives Under the Volcano i t s dramatic tension. One reviewer has said that Lowry's book i s "askin to that of Elizabethan tragedy" and cert a i n l y some of t h i s kinship stems from Lowry's recognition of the fact that "the two sides of everything, good and e v i l , are the necessary and unalterable poles of human experience."^In Tragedy: A View o f L i f e Henry Meyers argues convincingly that i t i s t h i s very recognition which gives Shakespeare universal scope and the lack of i t which f  36  makes  many  prophets him  and  of including  of the optimist  he has presented  tions  motifs,  he  i s able  the positive tracing  example,  f i r e  this  L o w r y s  both  "view  o f these  and t h e gloom dichotomy  optimists of l i f e "  poles  -  or  makes  t h e exub-  of the pessimist not only  b u i l t  this  By expansion  t o make  i n the reac-  duality  into  and variation  one symbol  o r image  the  o f  embrace  and the negative pples.  t h e movement f i n d  of destruction  p u r i f i c a t i o n to  we  Utopian  !  but has actually  of leitmotifs.  for  0  o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s o r i n t h e movement  network  In  9  this  and statements  the plot,  both  "either  of d i s i l l u s i o n . "  capable  erance  of  modern w r i t e r s  that  sometimes  o r punishment,  or rebirth.  dialectical  o f the volcano-fire  Fire  treatment  volcanoes sometimes  lends  i t s e l f  f o r , as Gaston  leitmotif,  suggests the fire  very  the ©f  naturally  B a c h e l a r d has"  summarized.  F i r e i s t h e u l t r a - l i v i n g element. I t i s intimate and i t i s universal. I t lives i n our heart. I t lives i n the sky. I t r i s e s from t h e depths o f t h e substance and o f f e r s i t s e l f w i t h t h e warmth o f love. Or i t c a n go b a c k down i n t o t h e s u b s t a n c e a n d h i d e t h e r e , l a t e n t and pent-up, l i k e hate and vengeance. Among a l l p h e n omena i t i s r e a l l y t h e o n l y one t o w h i c h c a n b e s o d e f i n i t e l y a t t r i b u t e d the opposing values o f good and e v i l . I t shines i n Paradise. I t burns i n Hell. I t i s gentleness and torture. I t i s cookery and i t i s apocalypse. I t i s a pleasure f o r the good c h i l d s i t t i n g p r u d e n t l y b y t h e h e a r t h ; y e t i tp u n i s h e s a n y d i s o b e d i e n c e when t h e c h i l d wishes t o p l a y t o o c l o s e to i t s flames. I t i sboth well-being and i ti s respect. I t i s a tutelary and a terrible divinity, both good and bad. I t can contradict i t s e l f ; thus i t i s one o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f u n i v e r s a l e x p l a n a t i o n . ^ 1  The  f i r e  hides of out  which  there  "latent  the volcanic Under  goes  "back  down  into  and pent-up"  f i r e  the Volcano  which T  the substance"  describes well  hovers  emphasizing  one  i n the background t h e sense  of  and aspect througi-  doom.  37  Whether gest  a  whose  threat eyes  ful  •  dominating  a  o f t e n depends upon  are  .  she •  promise seeing  (UV,7l)  On  cihuatl  are  stand  feels  rose,  beautiful  they  volcanoes  when Yvonne  again  valley  or  we  mentioned them  the  them.  returns to a  familiar  eternally,  volcanoes.  their  next  viewed  The  Ah,  t o g e t h e r on  the  landscape  volcanoes  volcanoes,  how  familiar  by  are on  f i r s t seeing  admiration: "over  her  her  the beauti-  i t a l l  Popocatepetl and  Yvonne  and  sug-  through  Quauhnahuac;  appearance  silently  the  the  was." Ixtac-  Consul  as  porch:  B e y o n d t h e b a r r a n c e t h e p l a i n s r o l l e d up t o t h e v e r y f o o t of the v o l c a n o e s i n t o a b a r r i e r o f murk above w h i c h r o s e t h e p u r e cone o f o l d Pop©, a n d s p r e a d i n g t o the l e f t . . , the jagged peaks of Ixtaccihuatl. Por a moment t h e y s t o o d on t h e p o r c h w i t h o u t s p e a k i n g , n o t h o l d i n g hands, w i t h w i t h t h e i r hands j u s t meeting, as though not q u i t e sure they weren't dreaming t h i s , each o f them s e p a r a t e l y on t h e i r f a r b e r e a v e d c o t s , their hands but blown fragments of t h e i r memories, h a l f a f r a i d to commingle, yet t o u c h i n g over the howling seas at n i g h t . (UV 94) f  After but  a  year's  "hasn't  Yvonne  and  may  promise fect looks  yet  them  rise  from  above  h e l d out by  marriage."  the  Consul  suggests  the  loneliness  of  and  (UV,120)  description  of  (UV,94)  the  of  a  and Pop©  the  barranca, their  their  Ixta,  Later,  "like  returned to  other and  murk  Popo  has  a l l "  cross  each  the  terms  at  can  to  Another  Yvonne  entered  Geoffrey  separating they  absence  danger renders  the  and  " t h a t image  gigantic  the  surfacing  of  "Ahab's  this  Consul  house.  I f  gulf  former  lives  however,  the  not  happiness, reach  of  the  the per-  volcano whale"  and  solution."  dichotomy  i n  form:  Popecatepetl loomed, pyramidal, to t h e i r r i g h t , one s i d e b e a u t i f u l l y c u r v e d a s a woman's b r e a s t , t h e o t h e r precipitous, jagged, ferocious. ( S X , 2 7 0 )  38  As  this  volcano  by  a  of  index  character's  f u l  them,  indirectly  -  that  forms  o r mental  seem  e v e n more  "Popocatepetl  determined  h e r heart  kind  b u t always  from  t o h e r when  seemed e v e n  with  a  o f the viewer.  beautiful  (UV,286)  the volcano  "chilled  state  the volcanoes,  reflected."  identifying  dominoes  mood  admires  and they  f o r being  i nvarious  r e a c t i o n t o i t , t h e m o t i f becomes  often  distance,  viewed  recurs  t o the current  Yvonne a  motif  more  She admires  beauti-  y e t fears  t h e o l d woman w i t h t h e  . . . l i k e  an e v i l  omen":  Por a second she'd had t h e awful sensation t h a t , n o t P o p o c a t e p e t l , b u t t h e o l d woman w i t h t h e d o m i n o e s t h a t m o r n i n g , was l o o k i n g over h e r s h o u l d e r . She c l o s e d t h e compact w i t h a snap. (UV 287) f  Por  Yvonne  "couldn't limits l i f e  get poor  with  Geoff  f a i l e d  lost the  t h e "female"  volcano  t o sense  "attempted  s o Pop©  Hugh t h e v o l c a n o  volcano,  a n d ominous; she  He  failure  represents  discusses  y e t a l s o knows  very  Just  t o harness  suggests  both  i n the  h e r dream  never be f u l f i l l e d .  when he  opportunity.  beautiful  and begins  w i l l  h i s own dream, T©  i sb o t h  Ixta  of h e r mirror  father to  the volcano  a  o f a  new  as h e r  the volcano" t o Yvonne. challenge  plans  with  Yvonne  well  that  he w i l l  (UV 288) f  and  t o  climb  never  do i t : Hugh f e l t a pange . On t h e w a y down h e ' d e n t e r t a i n e d a quite serious n o t i o n o f f i n d i n g time t o climb Popo, perhaps even w i t h Juan C e r i l l o . (UV 151) 7  f  Hugh n a t u r a l l y  thinks  i t i o n  i sa  f o r Juan  heroic forward  action.  i nt r i a l  f e l t  that  the  the volcano  by f i r e .  "having  "right"  "human s y m b o l "  And i t i salso  t o climbing  l i e f  o f h i s Mexican  t o a  gone  friend  (UV»134) t o Hugh o f  natural  that  "reward."  Hugh  looked  f o r he has a medieval  After h i s miserable through  f o r the exped-  h e l l ,  (51,149)  be-  s e a voyage he  through However,  f i r e , "  he h a d  i n spite  o f  39  its  offer  of heroic  challenge,  Hugh does n o t f o r g e t  the  v o l c a n o i s c a p a b l e o f what he  considers  that  meaningless  destruction:. that earth l o o k e d parched, those stones, unmistakably, volcanic. Everywhere . . . were a t t e s t a t i o n s to Popocatepetl's presence and a n t i q u i t y . And h e r e t h e d a m n e d t h i n g w a s a g a i n . Why w e r e t h e r e volcanic eruptions? (UX,269)  Hugh i s e s p e c i a l l y p u z z l e d b y eruptions"  are always  the fact  charged with  that  "movies  of  opposite emotions:  In movies o f e r u p t i o n s p e o p l e were always seen s t a n d i n g i r t h e m i d s t , o f the e n c r o a c h i n g f l o o d , del i g h t e d by i t . Walls f e l l over, churches collapsed, w h o l e f a m i l i e s moved away t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s i n a p a n i c , b u t t h e r e were always these p e o p l e , jumping about between the streams of molten l a v a , smoking c i g a r e t t e s . (UV.269)  The scene  Consul, however, would understand t h i s  very well;  into,-the l a v a .  i n fact, He  their  would be  acknowledges  power of the b e a u t i f u l empathy w i t h  he  of those  the p o t e n t i a l  c o n e s b u t he  lonely  one  also  strange  feels  jumping  destructive a  certain  grandeur:  the C o n s u l w a s .. .. • l i f t i n g h i s f a c e t o w a r d s t h e v o l c a n o e s a n d f e e l i n g h i s d e s o l a t i o n go o u t t o t h o s e h e i g h t s w h e r e e v e n now a t m i d m o r n i n g t h e h o w l i n g s n o w would whip the f a c e , and the ground beneath the f e e t was d e a d l a v a , a s o u l l e s s p e t r i f i e d r e s i d u e o f e x t i n c t p l a s m . (UV,1!Z2) L a t e r Pop© r e a p p e a r s i n a n o t h e r i m a g e o f  loneliness:  h a l f o n t h e p a v e m e n t , t h e r e was a n o t h e r , u t t e r l y desolated, safe roundabout. The l i t t l e c h a i r s c i r c u l a t e d beneath a f r i l l e d canvas pyramid . . . . Here i t was, t h i s l i t t l e P o p o c a t e p e t l , n e s t l i n g f a r away from the swooping f l y i n g machines, f a r from the G r e a t Wheel (UV,25l)  40  Here  the  Consul  from  the  Great  thinks of Wheel  of  the  l i f e  volcano which  as  a kind  allows  him  of  no  refuge  rest  from  torment* Later, he  murdered,  stand  why  "Save  ancient  i n Hades  into  well  cording can  also  from  the  help  heaven,  one  India.  of  Agnia  h i s  a  But  there  through  can  well  the  The  principal  f i r e  man  gods  can  as  c r e a t i n g new  and  creation of  as  l i f e ; the  out  Agni,  as  that,  ac-  destroy  called  but  down t  mythology  i n the  a  of  by  acting  Rig  Veda,  helping but  sacred as  "  priest"{Ml ^r)  only  universe  that  path,  f o r divinity  not  of  (UV,369)  i s a  only  And,  this  place  courage  points  Vedic  men.  i s presented  no  the  search  under-  also believes  not  by  soon  Borrachones"  there  f i r e ,  i n the  i n h i s  gods  i s  Consul  w i l l  volcano  he  h e l l  f i r e s t i c k s ,  f i r e  the  he  and  Aetna  "sacrgd  s a c r i f i c i a l  depicts  where  Tartarus  hades.  flames  The  messenger between  actually  Mt.  Indo-Aryans,  aids  volcano  placed  (UV,63)  man.  the  of  "right  with  Farolito  p i c t u r e d e p i c t i n g "Los  thickest  knew."  to  had  f i r e s  that  the  the  under  the  the  i n the  Blake  by  Firmin fears  (UV,263) and  as  stands  i s haunted by  f a l l i n g  is  he  "the  punishment He  as  Hindu  also  book  "cosmic  sacri-  f i c e " : From t h i s s a c r i f i c e . . . were produced horses cattle . . . . The moon s p r a n g e f r o m h i s t h o u g h t o r g a n , t h e . s u n w a s p r o d u c e d f r o m h i s eyes.?' '  . . . -  2  It  i s interesting,  however,  to  the  a  art  he  position Agni  beneficent Luring Consul  goes  of  god  that even  with  i s d e p i c t e d as  and h i s on  one  great ruddy  power with  i s  f o r good,  exalted " i n  two  fac.esj.  one  Hindu  gods,  the  malignant."  " d i s u c s s i o n " about to  when f i r e  directly  link  the  the  volcanoes  with  Agni:  t h e V e d i c Gods . . . were n o t p r o p e r l y a n t h r o p o m o r p h i s e d , whereas Popocatepetl and I x t a c c i h u a t l . . . Or were t h e y n o t ? I n any even the Consul, once more, was t a l k i n g about the sacred f i r e , the s a c r i f i c i a l f i r e . (UV,337)  ^"37  41  P r o b a b l y h i s own s e n s e o f k i n s h i p w i t h t h e v o l c a n o e s l e a d s F i r m i n t o b e l i e v e t h a t Popo a n d I x t a w e r e more perly  "pro-  anthropomorphised." The v o l c a n o m o t i f a l s o s e r v e s a s a n i n d e x t o t h e p r o x -  imity of disaster.  The c l o s e r t h e G o n s u l a n d Y v o n n e come  t o t h e i r d e a t h s , t h e c l o s e r come t h e v o l c a n o e s . i n t h e day t h e v o l c a n o e s the bus r i d e ready  seem v e r y f a r away.  But d u r i n g  " P o p o c a t e p e t l came i n v i e w , a n a p p a r i t i o n a l -  circling  away, t h a t b e c k o n e d them f o r w a r d . "  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n v e s t s Popo w i t h a l l u r i n g , quality.  Earlier  As t h e Consul runs  f  sinister  F a r t h e r along the road, the volcano  270) i n t o view.  (UV 267)  " l o o m s " (UV.  towards the F a r o l i t o .  where he w i l l b e m u r d e r e d , " b e f o r e h i m t h e v o l c a n o e s , p r e c i p i t o u s , seem  t o have drawn n e a r e r . " ( U V 5 4 5 )  And, as  f  Hugh a n d Y v o n n e w a n d e r f a r t h e r i n t o t h e f o r e s t w h e r e Y v o n n e w i l l be k i l l e d ,  " P o p o c a t e p e t l seemed t o b e c o m i n g  toward  them." Y e t e v e n when t h e C o n s u l h a s r e a c h e d t h e F a r o l i t o a n d is  s i t t i n g i n the b a r w i t h Popocatepetl towering  through  the windowand t h e b a r r a n c a , w i t h i t s s u g g e s t i o n o f h e l l fire,  d i r e c t l y b e l o w , he t u r n s t o Yvonne's l e t t e r f o r  comfort  a n d f i n d s hope e x p r e s s e d i n t h e image o f a  Y v o n n e a s s e r t s t h a t t h e i r l o v e has- t h e v i t a l i t y ending flame  "which  f r i g h t f u l l y low."'  flame.  of a  c a n n e v e r go o u t , b u t b u r n s now  neverso  (HZ,395)  T h i s movement o f t h e v o l c a n o - f i r e l e i t m o t i f  from  p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e p o l e makes t h e v o l c a n o a p o w e r f u l a n d c o m p e l l i n g l y e n i g m a t i c symbol f o r t h e n o v e l ' s c e n t r a l  theme.  I n s p i t e o f i t s t h r e a t o f r e t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e p a s t , Yvonne, Hugh, a n d t h e C o n s u l n e v e r  stop " s t r u g g l i n g toward the  light." To f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e t h i s s e n s e o f d i c h o t o m y , "light"  i n Under t h e V o l c a n o  i s two-sided.  even t h e  Throughout  42  the  n a r r a t i v e Lowry  has  woven a  the  l i g h t  subtle  imagery.  Sometimes  a  source  such  as  the  emanates  from  no  tangible  natural  " l i g h t " these work  forms  together Just  as  confusing so  of  many  to  of  appears  we  do  when  Yvonne  lighting  power  of  age. any  wires  have  wrong  a  the  i s used  unsteady  the  the  are  Volcano  the  lack  world,  meta-  of  l i g h t  perf i r s t  significance to i t . cinema,  simply  com-  Every  l i g h t s . "  (UV 52)  -  and  -  then  describe  lights  blessed But  f  complaint  to  so  modern  . . . .  (UV,37)  As they  novel  faltering  decompoed  with  has  motif. the  darkness,  local  i t  sometimes  images,  of  i n Under  thematic  l i g h t  whatsoever.  chaos  Bustamente's  b a t t e r i n g l i g h t  and  symbols and  the  the  f a i l i n g "  these  source  When a  of  reiterates  disintegration,  moon;  of  sometimes  d i a l e c t i c a l  moral  attach  i s always  f a i l i n g  the  this  goes  or  scattered through  manager  "the  something  a  of not  week  another  man-made l i g h t s  Bustamente, that  as  emphasize  emphasize  v i s i o n  i s man-made; sun  recur  signs  only  the  ceptive  plains  form  the  they  phorically  Sr.  " l i g h t "  strand  begin  "And the  image  the  to  the of  Consul's  take  on  the  motif:  how i t heightened the t o r t u r e . . . t o be . . . conscious of thewwhole h o r r i b l e d i s i n t e g r a t i n g m e c h a n i s m , t h e l i g h t now o n , now o f f , now on too g l a r i n g l y , now too dimly, w i t h the glow of a f i t f u l dying battery. (W,173)  When Yvonne freezing e l l i n g of  winter  arounds  wandered night,"  the  suicide, . . .  (UV,295) lights  The  because darkness  "she to  knew, be  the  a  New  York  of  her  street  " i l l u m i n a t e d news  Times b u i l d i n g " t o l d approaching  "electric  "thrust at  a l ong  arrows"  heart"?  war, of  of  the  these  only  aloft of  were  there,  i n them,  of  them."  trav-  at a l l . "  twitching  lights  "a  "disaster,  nothing  i n c r e a s i n g l y f r i g h t e n e d by  s t i l l  on  neon "cheating"  i t ,  that  (UV 296) f  43  And  to  Hugh,  London, or  the  on  another winter  stars  suggest  night  i n another  incongruity  rather  city,  than  "beauty  illumination*  above them t h e monstrous d e c e p t i o n s t w i t c h e d on and ©ff, a n d a r o u n d t h e m t h e b l a c k s o u l l e s s b u i l d i n g s s t o o d w r a p p e d i n a c o l d d r e a m o f t h e i r own destruction. IUY,18l)  As  Hugh  talks  "cozened stars he  to  into"  only  senses  the  "poor  setting  up  seem  t o mock  i n the  city.  Although  the  with  b l i n d what  pattern  but  man"  business,  desolation  (OT,77)  making  (UV,89)  i s g o i n g on  dog  and  As  he  around  cannot  l i t t l e gropes  him,  grasp  He  he  walks  who  had  the  bright  moral  Consul's eyespre bright,  h i s stick,  man."  hot  h i s f u t i l e  the  unfoeussed brightness." dust  l i t t l e  darkness  i t i s a  "bemused  "poking at  patterns  .. .  been  the  . l i k e  a  f o r understanding of  senses  the  outline  of  a  a l li t s details:  he knew n o t V t h a t t h e y ' d b e e n t a l k i n g about him, b u t , obscurely from the b r i g h t fragment of overheard conv e r s a t i o n , i t s r o u n d i n g meaning, j u s t as had he a t t h a t moment g l i m p s e d t h e new m o o n w i t h t h e o l d one i n i t s arms, he m i g h t have b e e n i m p r e s s e d b y i t s complete s h a p e , t h o u g h t h e r e s t w e r e s h a d o w y , illuminas£ed o n l y  by  Since of  a  earthlight.(UV 170) T  "earthlight" new  power, guilt  "certainty  or knowledge and  light,  i s faltering  sorrow:  and  again,  everywhere,  of brightness,"  some new  which  him  w i l l  "promise of light,  free  dreams  existence,  from  of lightness, light,  Pirmin  h i s burden  of light,  light,  light,  of  light, light."  (UV,154) This and side  "promise  symbols the  at  the  faltering,  of  lightness"  opposite pole  i s held of  the  deception lights,  out by light  Lowry  the  motif.  has  built  images Alonga  44  chain For in  of lights  example, images  about of  o f hope.  what  and  "whose  strange  dream l i k e  solitude."  away  from  perception,  order  a guide  o r warning  I n the midst  o f h i s own  has value  .. . . s h o n e  suggest  the beacon,  Cambridge  "the  which  i n h i sl i f e , enduring  Hugh  beauty"  o f some o l d monk  a beacon  (UV,205)  the others  .  l i g h t ,  with  . . whose  the Consul  and f i n d  peace  r e l i e f  the result  of  . .  out o f the mysterious When  recurs  confusion  thinks  was  truth.  .  house  silence  hopes  t o break  i n the eantina,  he was g r i p p e d b y t h o u g h t s l i k e t h o s e o f t h e m a r i n e r who, sighting the faint beacon of Start Point after a l o n g voyage, knows t h a t he w i l l soon embrace h i s .wife. (UV,23l)  Appropriately,  t h e name  "Farolito"  -  the  and lights  i s  storm,  "The L i g h t h o u s e ,  especially  ing  up  i tI "  appropriate  longed-for  form  o f natural  niglit),  also  suggests  l e t t e r  t o Yvonne  the lighthouse  (UV.229) here  light  f o ra  gold  (UV,66>  and refers  lightning  (UV,66)  i n the blue  storm  b u i l d -  has been  l i k e  feels  storm  " i t was a s i fa h e l i o g r a p h messages  Another t h e hope as  across  form  the wild  o f natural  f o rp e a c e  she watches  the earth  turned  (UV.245)  a  lightning  tree  "the t e r r i f i c  were  run thereevening stam-  i s associated  feels  onslaught  y e t i n shadow."  the  t o  (UV.353)  t h e sun,, Yvonne  "thun-  back  which  Luring  landscape."  and order.  o f  unearthly"  o f lightning"  light,  l i g h t I n a  of the tequila  striking  blossoms."  power.  evening,  "thef i r e  lightning  storms,  the beauty  o f God's  miraculously,  while  image  describes  upon,  arated  invites  The l i g h t h o u s e  and guiding  t o the "path  Firmin  down h i s s p i n e  with  that  associated with  a positive  the Consul  derless  mering  eantina i s  a l l day.  ^ _ A  God."  o f this  (UV,,72)  exhil-  of sunlight When  Yvonne  45  mentally into  asks  this  Geoffrey,  stupid  "must  darkness"  y o u go on a n d on  (UV,77),  he  forever  replies,  y o u m i s u n d e r s t a n d me i f y o u t h i n k i t i s a l t o g e t h e r darkness I see . . . . i f you look a t that sunlight there, ah, then perhaps y o u ' l l g e t t h e answer, s e e , l o o k a t t h e way i tf a l l s t h r o u g h t h e window: w h a t "beauty e v e n c a n compare t o t h a t o f a c a n t i n a i n t h e e a r l y morning? (UV 77) T  Later the  the Consul  cantina  thinks  called,  again  o f the sunlight  appropriately,  Ah none b u t h e knew how b e a u l i g h t , sunlight, sunlight fl flooding the watercress and s i n g l e g o l d e n l i n e a s i fi n God. (W,117)  When Hugh a n d Yvonne p a s s and  peace,  sunlight  " E l Puerto  farm,  into  de S o l " :  t i f u l i t was, ooding theb a r oranges, o r f a l the a c t of conc  t h e model  pervades  shining  t h e sun. . . l i n g i n a eiving a  a vision  o f  order  t h e scene:  A row o f s h i n i n g m i l k p a i l s stood outside t h e s t a b l e s i n t h e mm. A sweet s m e l l o f m i l k a n d v a n i l l a a n d w i l d flowers hung about t h e q u i e t p l a c e . And thesun was o v e r a l l . (UV>132)  The  l a s t  sentence  diction. Mexico sight  The happy  City, would  sunlgiht." Of  i n this  passage  stable b o y reminds  " i n t h e e a r l y morning seem  t o be  running,  characters,  strongly  believes  that  a new  and  accordingly,  pears  suddenly  o f a  bene-  o f how, i n everyone  t o work,  i n  i nt h e  (UV,132> main  light.  Hugh  laughing,  the three  her;  has the ring  When  she i s often  the Consul  "a l i t t l e  l i f e  blurred  f i r s t  sees  i ti s Yvonne i spossible associated  who  f o r with  most  Geoff sun-  h e r i n the b a r she ap-  . . . . because  the sunlight  was b e -  46  hind  h e r . " (UV.73)  Later  "brown  as a b e r r y  plenty  o f s u n . " (UV,98)  fromthe  When  t o be Even  knows body her  that  the He  sees  When  t o poison  heart."  (UV,8l)  o f h e r present  t o protect  himself  well-intentioned probing.  i t w a t c h e s me  significant  cited  earlier  confines  a n d I know  that  o f a  o f  also  t e l l s  i t hates  which  marriage,"  glasses.  the intensity  through windows  eantina.  o f appeal"  o f their  (UV ll4) y  o f h e r hope  avoids  the  Dr. V i g i l ,  me."  s u n l i g h t he p r i a s e s  shines  glowing  I n the face  "gesture  he  Yvonne  condition i s a l lt h e  Firmin  f o ri t i s a n "enemy";  (UV.122)  and a  on h i sdark  from  she ap-  a paradox.  grief  by putting  ageless."  i n the garden  suggests  a  v i t a l i t y  and  i n sunlight.,"  s h e makes  shei s  drawn  and youthful  t h e " e t e r n a l hopes  responds  that  t o have  Yvonne  entirely  the sick  notes  as though you've h a d  She seems  "thesun turned  t o epitomise  t r i e d  know  the  "clothed  horrible.  sunflower  is  f i r s t  the r e a l i t y  Consul  and  Hugh  mocked  hopes  seems  You look  s u n l i g h t , however,  only  more  . . . .  sun f o r she i s "bronzed  (UV,,99) pears  t h e Consul  " I  (UV,172)  I t  i n t h e two passages  and i s s e t w i t h i n  He a v o i d s  direct  sunlight f o r  he h a d l o s t t h e s u n : i t was n o t h i s s u n . L i k e t h e t r u t h , i t was w e l l - n i g h i m p o s s i b l e t o f a c e ; he d i d not want t o go anywhere near i t , l e a s t o f a l l s i t i n i t s l i g h t f a c i n g i t . (UV,235)  He h a s t u r n e d as  an escape  crowding v i s i o n the  into  which  world  prevailed similar compares  t o the shelter o f the eantina, from  the pain  t h e warmth senses  pain  as he  the terrible  discrepancy  could be  i t actually rides  "doomed men  o f t h e s u n , "t h e p a i n  a n d h i s own l i f e a n d what  o f watching  t o alcohol,  over  h i scondition t o that  i s .  i f love Hugh,  . . .  caused by  between  what  and compassion experiencing  theb e a u t i f u l o f Judas after  a  countryside, the betrayal:  47  Christ,, how m a r v e l l o u s t h i s was, o r r a t h e r C h r i s t , how he wanted t o he d e c e i v e d about i t , as must have Judas, he thought - and here i t was a g a i n , damn i t i f ever Judas had a horse . . . r i d i n g l i k e t h i s under the d a z z l i n g sky o f Jerusalem - f o r g e t t i n g f o r an i n s t a n t , so t h a t i t r e a l l y was joyous - how s p l e n d i d i t a l l might be had I not b e t r a y e d t h a t man l a s t n i g h t , even though I knew p e r f e c t l y w e l l I was g o i n g t o , how good indeed, i f o n l y i t had not happened though (W,138) The Consul's g u i l t has no such s p e c i f i c a c t t o f o c u s upon; h i s i s a " s o u r c e l e s s sorrow" t h a t simply mourns man's b e t r a y a l o f man the sun s h i n i n g b r i l l i a n t l y i n a l l the w o r l d b e f o r e him c o u l d not l i f t h i s s p i r i t . . The s u n l i g h t c o u l d not share h i s burden o f c o n s c i e n c e , o f s o u r c e l e s s sorrow. I t d i d not know him. (UV.103) The landscape o f the Consul's world, however, does seems t o share h i s burden  of suffering.  As mentioned  e a r l i e r , Lowry has made man and environment closely-knit pattern.  elements  of a  One o f the bonds between these e l e -  ments i s the water- l e i t m o t i f which u n i t s man and l a n d iin. a common need f o r new v i t a l i t y .  The Consul i s s e a r c h i n g f o r  some " u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y , e x t e r n a l , c o n s c i o u s , and e v e r p r e s e n t " (Uy.,66) which w i l l g i v e h i s w o r l d some p o s i t i v e meaning and d i r e c t i o n and he o f t e n conceives o f t h i s u l t i mate answers i n terms o f a water image.  When a s t r a n g e r ' s  T r i n i t y t i e reminds him o f Cambridge and i t s f o u n t a i n he asks, "Might, a s o u l b a t h e t h e r e a n d h p clean o r s l a k e i t s drought?" (UV 107) f  He wonders i f the answer which con-  s t a n t l y eludes him l i e s i n the knowledge men have a l r e a d y accumulated.  L a t e r he asks the same q u e s t i o n as he s t u d i e s  L a r u e l l e ' s book c o l l e c t i o n , (UV,237)  Hugh, a l s o  burdened  w i t h g u i l t and f r u s t r a t i o n , envies the C a t h o l i c who can " r i s e r e f r e s h e d from the c o l d b a t h o f c o n f e s s i o n . " (U£,135)  48  This  orthodox  waited never  " i n an  agony  came." The  of  release  severed,"  "perishing  i s  every  must  have been  side  of  under the  the  means  a. d r y  road  a  cold  the  Consul,  water  of  parched  though  not  of  cannot as  the  returns  spell,  who  that  assuage  his  garden, proclaim  Quauhnahuac colour  -  on  thirst  that  Firmin's  "there  water."  of  f e l l  she  either  mountain  the  rain,  "desolate  gutters  rushing  agony  "sundered,  t h i r s t , " to  the  i n an  Consul's  green  slake  "this  -  and  unnecessary  i t s lush  just  did  i n  lost  water  waiting  divorced  plants  were b r i m f u l  volcano  mountains,  The  hand  has  Ordinary  ;  of  i s also  When Y v o n n e  grass  the  which  surrounded by  "tragedy".(W,92)  (UV, 85)  landscape  (UV,76)  on  the  shock  f o r  r  Oaxaca, -  the  impossible  (UV 177)  plain."  notices  f o r  surrounding  t h r i s t .  cactus  i s also  the  only  land i n  t h i r s t . "  (UV,153) Like water  the  motif  light  includes  of  destruction.  in  terms  side  to  of  on  own  "the  zucuali  i n  coming  "the  (UV,90) and  i t becomes  a  flexible  dialectical include  that  they  can  both  fears  of  waters  Calle  the  war  rising  out-  Nicaragua,  second  hears  been  seen  has  i n  are  p o s i t i v e and  Man  approaching  waters  so  vehicle  they  convincingly  environment. and  has  have  leitmotifs,  they  vation  we  also  of  flood."  possible  news  his  of  a  cat-  terrible  (UV,183)  symbol  as  the  s a l v a t i o n but  dark  of  rising  however,  the  the  Hugh l a t e r  a  And,  of  of  fears  the  fears  motif,  only  thinks  again  duality.  and  and  radio.  f i r e  image not  against  the  Once that  his  Yvonne  astrophe,"  the  Laruelle  flood  tower  (UV,56)  flood  a  engulf  useless  and  for the  the  negative  hopes  destruction;  the  and  expanded  pattern  tracing of  flexible  move b a c k both  varied  not  poles  of  these  only but  i n  that  also  i n  and  f o r t h between  f o r  a  new  landscape  l i f e both  or  man s a l -  pro-  49  mises  and  Chapter ment,  I,  the  has  end  In  .  of  the  to  is  a  the that  contain prays,  the  that a  (UV_,319)  me  In  mind  the  there  i s not  there  i s the  step  i n rebirth  disaster  lower  be  s t i l l  that  minutes  " I t was  as  also  conveys  In  his examination f i r e ,  a  with  view,  only  those  deep,  striking  1!through f i r e  an out  volcano  the  by  No  change,  at  I may  away  from of  changes  swift,  the  and  that a  of  their  marvellous  page new  e v e r y t h i n g changes"  the  he  truth."  death, con-  world,  suggests world  through  many m y t h s has  by  are  may  always  f i r e  definitive " w h e n we  on  destruction,  primitive  caused  so  Later  Although  negative  of. t h e  and  to  ultimate  ashes.  that f i r e  that are  end  f  end  the  Consul  (UV 584)  f i n a l  suggests  but  h i s  an  i n  The  know  the  f o r "from  holocaust  peace  extension, the  origins  Bachelard says  associated  author  ambivalence  suggestion of purification of  pic-  (UV,168)  i f ,out  violence,  phoenix,  i t  rounding  and,  i s at  the burning  total  purification.  found  triumph."  Consul  suffering  that  reconciliation.  or  soul.  might  of  Farolito,  that  so  "Revolution rages  the  hand  only  to hell.". (W,136)  and  he."  that the  t o l l  i n chaos  to  suggestion that  Although  the  a  equivalence, of  derived strength."  like  of  feeling  had  arise,  environment  sense  he  this  i t happened  f u l l  -  environ-  landscape  human  suffering  one  get  and  the  i n  form.  element  i s clear  tamination  we  man  as  of  each  sink  the  role  of  "the  certain  "Let  weld  conclusion that  caliente  must pay  suggests  his  the  the  uncomfortable  necessary  to  tierra  cleansing  picture  novel  summarized  startlingly  suggestion of  the  comes  how  or  the  has  overture to  novel  total  the  i n fact  Laruelle  superimpose  Throughout  Hugh  of  fatal  just  this  also  sort  leitmotifs  not  t r i e d  but  .  The  and  As  continually,  ...  (UV,36)  ture  i n a  "How  changed  by  threatens.  f i r e . sur-  been  point are  of the  changes";  want  every-  thing and  to be  the  "world  changed  "ten m i l l i o n i t s e l f "  villages"  we  call  on  burning  f i r e . "  bodies"  i s "bursting into  (UV,406),  small but  new  35" As are  black seeds  the  Consul  consumed,  spouts of  the  of  social  l i f e .  51  NOTES T O CHAPTER I I I  There i s no attempt here t o equate m u s i c a l l e i t m o t i f with l i t e r a r y repetition. We u s e t h e t e r m s i m p l y a s a convenient analogy that suggests the rhythm possible in anovel. The f o l l o w i n g comment b y Z o l a e x p r e s s e s w e l l j u s t how f a r t h e a n a l o g y c a n b e t a k e n : W h a t y o u c a l l r e p e t i t i o n s o c c u r i n a l l my books. This i s a l i t e r a r y device that I began using with some t i m i d i t y , b u t h a v e s i n c e p u s h e d p e r h a p s t o excess. I n my v i e w i t g i v e s m o r e b o d y t o a w o r k , and strengthens i t s unity. T h e d e v i c e i s somewhat akin to t h e motifs i n Wagner, and i fy o u w i l l a s k some m u s i c a l f r i e n d o f y o u r s t o e x p l a i n h i s u s e o f t h e s e , y o u w i l l u n d e r s t a n d p r e t t y w e l l - my u s e o f the d e v i c e i n l i t e r a t u r e . ( C i t e d b y E.K. Brown i n Rhythm i n t h e N o v e l ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press,1950),p.28. 2  3 4 5 6 7 8  C i f t e d b y R o b e r t Humphrey, S t r e a m o f Consciousness i n the Modem-Novel (Berkeley and Los-Angeles:University of C a l i f o r n i a Press,1965),p.90. Humphrey,  p.  Friedman,  Stream  Hirschman, Friedman, Friedman, Max-Pol  10 11 12  Lowry,  p.  Consoimisnesfi p.]5. T  p.  13.  Fouchet.  "No  Se  p.  80.  Puede...,"Canadian  1961),p.26.  Selected Letters  I b i d . ,p.69  5.  122.  I b i d . ,pp.68-9.  Ibid.,  of  " O r c h e s t r a t e d Novel," p.  E&±3\. S p r i n g 9  90.  T  p.  70.  Literature  52 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23  24 25 26 27 28 29  30  F r i e d m a n , p. 128 E . M . F o r s t e r , A s p e c t s o f the H o v e l (New Y o r k : B r a c e a n d C o . , 1 9 2 7 ; , p . 239. Friedman,  Harcourt,  p.15.  F r i e d m a n , p. 15. Fouchet,  p.  27.  F o r s t e r , p. 2 4 0 . F o r s t e r , p. 2 3 8 . F o r s t e r , p. 239. L o w r y , S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p. 6 0 . I b i d . . p. 81 E a r l e B i r n e y , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " S e l e c t e d Boetrv o f Malcolm Lowrv (San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s B o o k s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 7. L o w r y , S e l e c t e d Poems  f  p . 11  ,  IfrX4«, P . 2 6 . I b i d . , p. 2 7 . I b i d . , p. 4 0 . Ib_id^_,p.52. Henry A . M e y e r s , Tragedy: A View o f L i f e (New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 102. M e y e r s , p . 102.  53  31  32 33  Gaston B a c h e l a r d , The P s y c h o a n a l y s i s of F i r e trans, by A l a n C.M. Ross.(Boston:Beacon Press,1964),p.7. f  Lowry, S e l e c t e d Poemayep- 11. p  F r a n k l i n Edgerton, The B e g i n n i n g s o f I n d i a n P h i l o s o n h v . (Massachusets:Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press,1965),p»68»  34  "Agni," E n c y c l o p a e d i a 3 5  B a c h e l a r d , p.  57.  Britannica.  CHAPTER E X P A N S I O N AND  PATTERN  Lowry  his  ultaneity  reveals not  also  i n the  This  affects  scenes. the  the  dying  about  the the  Consul  the  i n  the  novel f i r s t  are  THROUGH  perception  contrapuntal  In  and  only  IV  use  of  COUNTERPOINT  of  a  whole  version  arguing  of  Lowry  purpose  directing  as  well  what  included  towards  a  the  as VIII,  should  of  hut  novel.  individual while  be  revealing  h i s use  sim-  leitmotifs  dominating  Chapter  about  Indian,  aim  two-sided  structure  as  and  Hugh  done  f o r  statement  counterpoint:  Out o f t h e f u g u e o f words,, two t h e m e s o f p r o t e s t a t i o n s , the Consul's and Hugh's, argued w i t h r a t h e r than aga i n s t one ( w i t h a n o t h e r l i k e two m u s i c a l instruments. (PV,VIII,.16)  Lowry's  analogy  fugue"expands contrapuntal  style,"  expands  logues,  and  sense," in  the  more  so  a  says  i n  ting  and  fect  of But  conflict; as  Lowry  i t s point  "fugue  of  sim-  expand  cannot  novel,  i l l u s i o n essay  kind  they of  of  tones  enough  counterpointed they  and  underlying  work  to  be  same  "Counterpoint  i t i s not  says,  can  the  to  so  be  While  arranged  can  present  two  to  "give Aiken  "contrasthe  ef-  dissimilarity."  contrasts  elements  must be  arrange  so  with  anoth§E  to  a  one  or  simul-  Conrad  create  simultaneity i n merely  as  As  3  Implication,"  themes"  musical  simultaneity  presented  e f f e c t . "  and  make  suggest  counterpoint.  actually  the  counterpoint  to  themes  a  dia-  intended  and  by  tones,  more m e l o d i e s  l i t e r a r y  musical  musical  i n Under  themes,  or  through  as  a  focus  words"  couhterpointed just  as  of  "two  conflicting "a  the  just  combines  i n a  the  from  f o r  And  or  convincing  one,  scenes.  novel  taneously  so  through  Lowry  tones  accurate  structurally  Volcano  ultaneously  i s an  form  and that, t o t a l  55  p a t t e r n , the u l t i m a t e g o a l of s i m u l t a n e i t y . s a y s i n Rhythm i n t h e N o v e l key t o p a t t e r n : variation lies In  the f i r s t  "There's stand.  "between e x a c t r e p e t i t i o n and the whole a r e a o f s i g n i f i c a n t  discourse.  e v e r y t h i n g t h a t we (FV,XI,16)  p o i n t L o w r y manages t o e x p a n d p a r e n t l y d i s s i m i l a r elements gest t h i s underlying  l l i >  can't  under-  Through c o u n t e r -  the n a r r a t i v e and f i t api n t o a p a t t e r n and t h u s  '  sug-  unity.  J u s t as l e i t m o t i f s  suggest s imultaneous  implications  t h e moment, s o c o u n t e r p o i n t e x p a n d s  chronological  Counterpoint g i v e s depth t o the l i n e a r time of the  n a r r a t i v e s u r f a c e by  s u g g e s t i n g how  d i f f e r e n t thoughts  movements a r e g o i n g on a t t h e same t i m e . the  unlimited  v e r s i o n o f Under t h e V o l c a n o Yvonne e x c l a i m s ,  We're s o h e l p l e s s ! "  time.  Brown  c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a t i o n i s the  T  such a u n i t y about  and expand  A s E.K.  and  D u r i n g some o f  c o u n t e r p o i n t e d scenes i n Under t h e V o l c a n o c h r o n o l o g -  ical  t i m e seems t o s t a n d s t i l l  Huxley's Point Connterpoint  f  and expand.  In Aidous  the a r t i s t John  B  idlake  des-  c r i b e s t h e s e e x p a n d e d moments a s i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n t h e "human  fugue"$  The p a r t s i n t h e fugue have t h e i r s e p a r a t e l i v e s j t h e y t o u c h , t h e i r p a t h s c r o s s , t h e y c o m b i n e f o r a moment t o c r e a t e a s e e m i n g l y f i n a l and p e r f e c t e d harmony, o n l y to b r e a k a p a r t a g a i n . In  some o f t h e a d d i t i o n s t o t h e f i r s t  the  V o l c a n o we  the  sense o f m u l t i p l i c i t y  v e r s i o n o f Under  can see Lowry d e l i b e r a t e l y w o r k i n g  towards  i n t h e s e e x p a n d e d moments.  He  e x p a n d s s c e n e s i n t h e n a r r a t i v e s o t h a t we become a w a r e o f two  o r more r e a c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I n t h e  first the  v e r s i o n of Chapter V I I L ,  f o r example,  w h i l e Hugh  shaves  C o n s u l he j o k e s a b o u t h i s d a y s a t C a m b r i d g e a n d g l a n c e s  o u t a t t h e g a r d e n when t h e w i n d a t t r a c t s h i s a t t e n t i o n :  56  Hugh w i p e d t h e r a z o r on some t i s s u e p a p e r a n d l o o k e d up t h r o u g h t h e open b a t h r o o m d o o r i n t o G e o f f ' s b e d room - t h e w i n d o w s w e r e open too,, t h e c u r t a i n s b l e w i n w a r d s o f t l y : i t was t h e l e e s i d e , b u t t h e w i n d m u s t have dropped. The s c e n t s o f t h e g a r d e n w e r e h e a v y about them. " T h a l a v e l t i p a r o t h i a n , " Hugh s a i d , p l e a s a n t l y menacing. "Now then don't be c a r e f u l , as the Mexicans say I m going to shave the back of your neck." "Do y o u s e e t h a t m a p l e t r e e o u t s i d e there, propped up w i t h t h o s e c r u t c h e s o f c e d a r ? " (FV,VI,9) 1  In  the  f i n a l  inserted the  which i c a l has  the  n o v e l two  Hugh's  warning  tree.  In the  f i r s t  and  the  Hugh term  of  between  maple  garden  version  sound  of  jumps back "leeside"  the  of  wind  i n time  i n the  and  paragraphs  the  these  Consul's added  s e r v e as  version,  been  comment  paragraphs  on the  springboards from  to h i s youth.  f i r s t  have  a  From  the  central  naut-  image  evolved:  • . • d o n ' t b e c a r e f u l , a s t h e M e x i c a n s s a y , I'm going to shave the back of your neck." B u t f i r s t Hugh w i p e d t h e r a z o r w i t h some t i s s u e paper, glancing absently through the door i n t o the C o n s u l ' s room. The b e d r o o m w i n d o w s w e r e w i d e open; • . • . Hugh h e a r d t h e w i n d s t a r t i n g t o b l o w a g a i n on the other side of the house, the f i e r c e b r e a t h o f the A t l a n t i c , flavoured with w i l d Beethoven. But h e r e , on the l e e w a r d s i d e , t h o s e t r e e s one c o u l d see t h r o u g h t i e bathroom window seemed unaware o f i t . And the c u r t a i n s w e r e e n g a g e d w i t h t h e i r own g e n t l e b r e e z e . Like the crew's w a s h i n g on b o a r d a tramp steamer, s t r u n g o v e r number s i x h a t c h between sleek derricks lying i n grooves, that b a r e l y dances i n the a f t e r n o o n s u n l i g h t , w h i l e a b a f t t h e b e a m n o t a l e a g u e a w a y some p i t c h i n g n a t i v e c r f t w i t h v i o l e n t l y f l a p p i n g s a i l s seems w r e s t l i n g a h u r r i c a n e , t h e y sway i m p e r c e p t i b l y as t o a n o t h e r c o n t r o . (UV. V T 2 0 8 ) a  r  The  sea  had  seventeen order also  to to  he  always had  excape get  been  signed the  a on  symbol board  monotonous  sensational  of the  romance S.S..  r e s t r i c t i o n  publicity  t o Hugh:  Phi of  lor.t.et.es  at i n  Cambridge  f o r h i s songs.  At  the  and  57  t i m e Hugh h a d s e e n h i m s e l f a s a h e r o i c r e b e l , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t he p r a g m a t i c a l l y i n f o r m e d e v e r y n e w s p a p e r he was l e a v i n g a n d f i n a l l y went w i t h h i s f a m i l y ' s a p p r o v a l . as t h e t r e e s i n t h e g a r d e n a n d t h e c u r t a i n s b a r e l y i n t h e calm, sunny a f t e r n o o n breath  of the A t l a n t i c "  dancing  a r e "unaware" o f t h e " f i e r c e  on t h e o t h e r  y o u n g Hugh h a d b e e n h a p p i l y i g n o r a n t was,  Just  s i d e o f the house, so o f how p r e t e n t i o u s  he  o f how h e was:..m"akinge,a f o o l o f h i m s e l f . I n the second paragraph i n s e r t e d a t t h i s p o i n t i n the  n a r r a t i v e , we s e e t h a t Hugh h a s made a n a t u r a l  transition  from t h e sea image, w i t h i t s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s y o u t h , t o w h a t h a s become a n o t h e r s y m b o l o f h i s e a r l y v a n i t y the g u i t a r : (Why d i d I s t o p p l a y i n g t h e g u i t a r ? C e r t a i n l y n o t b e c a u s e , b e l a t e d l y , one h a d come t o s e e t h e p o i n t o f P h i l l i p s o n ' s p i c t u r e , the cruel t r u t h i t contained . . . they a r e l o s i n g t h e B a t t l e o f t h e Ebro - And y e t , one m i g h t w e l l h a v e s e e n o n e ' s c o n t i n u i n g t o p l a y b u t a n o t h e r f o r m o f p u b l i c i t y s t u n t , a means o f keeping o n e s e l f i n the l i m e l i g h t , as i fthose weekly a r t i c l e s f o r t h e News o f t h e W o r l d w e r e n o t l i m e l i g h t enough! . . . t h e g u i t a r as an end i n i t s e l f a t l a s t seemed s i m p l y f u t i l e ; n o l o n g e r e v e n f u n - c e r t a i n l y a c h i l d i s h t h i n g t o b e p u t away-) ( U Y , 2 0 8 ) J u s t as the f i e r c e wind threatens  t o c o l l a p s e t h e maple  t r e e " p r o p p e d up w i t h t h e s e c r u t c h e s , "  so when Hugh became  "aware o f t h e world"(UV»200) he a b a n d o n e d t h e " g u i d e a n d prop" of h i s i l l u s i o n s ,  the guitar.  weak a n d c h i l d i s h i n t h e f a c e  H i s s o n g s seemed  o f the wind's vigorous  "wild  Beethoven." Alongside casual  the surface l e v e l - the shaving  conversation,  and the i n n e r l e v e l - the stream o f  Hugh's t h o u g h t s , s t i l l taneously.  scene and  another l e v e l i s operating  simul-  While the Consul i s t r y i n g t o understand the  c r y p t i c comments i n t h e n e w s p a p e r , s u p p o s e d l y a communicat i o n medium, a n d Hugh i s s t r u g g l i n g t o f r e e h i m s e l f o f t h e  5 8  p a s t by  exorcism, another  place i n Spain. the s p i r i t  But  s t r u g g l e f o r freedom i s t a k i n g  t h e L o y a l i s t s , who  t o Hugh r e p r e s e n t  of freedom, are " l o s i n g the b a t t l e o f the  b e c a u s e much o f t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , b e c a u s e o f  inefficient  o r d i s t o r t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n ^ does not u n d e r s t a n d fore w i l l not help t h e i r By  i n s e r t i n g these  and  comment t h a t we  there-  cause. two p a r a g r a p h s ,  Lowry has  so  t h e moment b e t w e e n Hugh's g l a n c e a t t h e g a r d e n a n d Consul's  Ebro"  expanded  the  a r e a^vare o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t  acti-  v i t i e s g o i n g on a t t h e same t i m e .  Moreover, Lowry has  fully  three l e v e l s i n such  way  s e l e c t e d and p r e s e n t e d  that there i s a thematic  ultaneous  operation.  of three l e v e l s but The  these  c o m i c a l and  sim-  not o n l y a r e aware  see a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n them.  aspect  of the widespread  order which the Consul  l a c k o f communi-  sees i n the world.  As  L o w r y comments, t h e r e i s a g r e a t " n o n s e n s e a n d y e t a t same t i m e f a r more d e s p e r a t e scene."  a  o f t e n s e n s e l e s s j a r g o n o f t h e M e x i c a n news-  p a p e r i s o n l y one c a t i o n and  comment i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r  I n o t h e r w o r d s , we can  care-  s e r i o u s n e s s " i n "the  Hugh, a n e w s p a p e r c o r r e s p o n d e n t ,  t r a n s l a t i n g h i s own  motives  has  shaving  difficulty  and p a s t t o h i m s e l f and  t h a t he m u s t f i r s t u n d e r s t a n d  h i s own  feels  struggle before  m i t t i n g h i m s e l f t o the l a r g e r cause i n v o l v e d i n the C i v i l War.  And  hampered by  the general ignorance  the  comSpanish  t h e cause o f t h e L o y a l i s t s i n t h i s war and l a c k o f c o n c e r n  is for  the t r u t h i n the w o r l d as a whole. I n h i s r e v i s i o n of Chapter  XX L o w r y a g a i n e x p a n d e d a  moment i n t h e n a r r a t i v e so t h a t , i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n , we a r e a w a r e o f two  simultaneous  reactions.  I n the  first  v e r s i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r , as.Hugh, G e o f f r e y and Yvonne l e a v e the hot  dusty b u l l  ring,  g l i t t e r i n g b e f o r e them.  t h e y see a c o o l , i n v i t i n g  lake  They s o o n r e a l i z e , h o w e v e r , t h a t  t h i s l a k e i s a c t u a l l y a g l a s s r o o f arid a r e d e p r e s s e d the d i s c o v e r y ;  by  59  . . .. a s t h e y d i s m a l l y l o o k e d a t i t Hugh f e l t t h a t h i s k e e n s e n s e o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t was s h a r e d b y Y v o n n e who save a l i t t l e s h i v e r . " T h a t ' s d r e a d f u l somehow," she s a i d . ( F V , » 3 ) I X  I n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h i s s c e n e we  are  t h e g e n e r a l mood o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , b u t  still  aware  of  another dimension  has b e e n a d d e d t o t h e moment! The l a k e was a b r o k e n g r e e n h o u s e r o o f b e l o n g i n g t o E l J a r d i n X i c o t a n c a t l : o n l y weeds l i v e d i n t h e greenhouse. B u t t h e i r h o u s e was i n h e r m i n d now a s she w a l k e d : t h e i r home was r e a l : Y v o n n e saw i t a t s u n r i s e . (UV.309) T h i s r e v i s e d s c e n e manages t o s u g g e s t b o t h f r u s t r a t i o n the p r e s e nt  and hope f o r the  t h e a r e n a o n l y weeds grow. had  n o t i c e d on h e r  One  by  life  But  together  v i r o n m e n t ; she rounded by The first did  first  t h i n g s Yvonne  t h a t the f l o w e r s i n  i n the  the w i r e  fence of the  new  f a c e o f t h i s d y i n g l a n d s c a p e Yvonne and  G e o f f w i l l be a b l e  to s t a r t  " i n a forest," a flourishing natural  a en-  c a n p i c t u r e c l e a r l y t h e i r f u t u r e home s u r -  " s m a l l new  leaves"  p o s i t i o n and  nature  ( U V , 3 0 l ) and o f t h e s e two  dogwood b l o s s o m s . additions to  v e r s i o n o f U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o show c l e a r l y t h a t  not  the  j u s t as h i s s a n i t y i s b e i n g  (UV,156) by  s t i l l b e l i e v e s t h a t she new  I n the greenhouse near  t h e w o r l d ' s m a d n e s s , so h i s p r i v a t e g a r d e n  has b e e n " t r u n c a t e d " p u b l i c one.  of the  r e t u r n home was  C o n s u l ' s garden were d y i n g ; threatened  future.  with  c a r e l e s s l y " e l a b o r a t e " and  "overreach  the  Lowry  himself"  with 8  "shovelfuls" of l o c a l the  c o l o u r and  t e x t u r e i s dense, b u t  "eccentric word-spinning";  t h i s d e n s i t y i s a product of  very  careful construction - " a l l that i s there  i s there f o r a  reason."  working towards  a very point.  The  m a n u s c r i p t s r e v e a l L o w r y was  d e f i n i t e aim  - thematic  expansion through  counter-  60  On in  the broadest  counterpoint  and,  l e v e l L o w r y has p l a c e d w h o l e w i t h i n these  contrapuntal structure to present r e a c t i o n s i n the c h a r a c t e r s .  c h a p t e r s , he  c r e a t e the counterpoint M.  On a t h i r d a n d v e r y  simultaneous subtle  rhythm  form of l i t e r a r y  counter-  " o r c h e s t r a t i o n " - "the p l a u s i b l e e f f e c t of  ferent instruments  to  tones.  F r i e d m a n d e s c r i b e s one  p o i n t as for  of  often used  different yet  l e v e l , Lowry u s e d v a r i a t i o n s i n language and  chapters  dif-  g i v e n by v a r y i n g procedure i n the  novel";  e x a m p l e , "when e a c h c h a p t e r a p p e a r s t o make a f r e s h  s t a r t a n d may  be  d i s t i n g u i s h e d , t e c h n i c a l l y , from each  the others.  Lowry r e v i s e d the f i r s t v e r s i o n o f Under  V o l c a n o so t h a t each c h a p t e r v i e w o f o n l y one t h a t no  two  the  i s w r i t t e n from the p o i n t  of  c h a r a c t e r a n d he v a r i e s t h i s v i e w p o i n t  consecutive  p a i r of eyes.  of  chapters  are seen through the  so  same  I n t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f C h a p t e r V I I I we  see  i n t o the minds o f a l l t h r e e main c h a r a c t e r s .  bus  passes the  c l o c k i n t h e m a r k e t , we  can  When t h e  are t o l d t h a t Yvonne,  s t i l l f o l l o w i n g i n her mind a t r a i n of a s s o c i a t i o n s which the c l o c k had s e t i n motion . . . . was o n l y v a g u e l y aware o f t h e s e t h i n g s . For the time b e i n g she was b a c k a t C a m b r i d g e . ( F V , V I I I , 2 ) We  a l s o see what i s g o i n g  on i n the C o n s u l ' s mind -  t h e C o n s u l t h o u g h t , what a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f meanings word had."  (FV,VIII,4)  C h a p t e r V I I I we Hugh. "the  The one  But  i n the f i n a l v e r s i o n  "Pelado, the  of  observe events o n l y through the eyes  of  c l o c k i s a s s o c i a t e d not w i t h Cambridge b u t  i n Rupert Brooke," a church  clock that  with  stood  always "at ten to three" i n the e q u a l l y s t a b l e hamlet Orantchester.  The  poem r e f e r r e d t o , " t h e  Grantchester,"  was  w r i t t e n i n 1912,  f o r e not for  only the v i l l a g e  Vicarage,  j u s t three years a l l t i m e was  be-  to  stop  Rupert Brooke w i t h h i s death i n the F i r s t World  War.  S i n c e t h i s i s one  clock but  Old  of  o f Hugh's c h a p t e r s ,  the a s s o c i a t i o n i s  v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r B r o o k e , l i k e Hugh, was  a young  61  r o m a n t i c who  saw w a r  as a p u r i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e and  l i e v e d p a s s i o n a t e l y i n the importance for  a  and g l o r y o f  fighting  cause. The p e l a d o  i s thus d e s c r i b e d i n terms which  Hugh's c o n c e r n w i t h p o l i t i c a l The  be-  Consul's  and h i s t o r i c a l  suggest  forces.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the word i s s t i l l  given but  o n l y i n d i r e c t l y - " A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o n s u l , t h i s was one m e a n i n g ; p e l a d o s w e r e i n d e e d b u t a l s o t h o s e who r e a l l y poor." i n broader  ' p e e l e d ones,' the  d i d not have t o be  (W,264-5)  only stripped,  r i c h t o p r e y on  the  Hugh g o e s on t o d e f i n e t h e w o r d  terms:  I t was p e r h a p s one o f t h o s e w o r d s t h a t h a d a c t u a l l y b e e n d i s t i l l e d out o f c o n q u e s t , s u g g e s t i n g , as i t d i d , on t h e one h a n d t h e t h i e f , on t h e o t h e r t h e e x p l o i t e r . I n t e r c h a n g e a b l e e v e r were the terms o f abuse w i t h w h i c h the a g g r e s s o r d i s c r e d i t s those about t o be ravaged. ( W , 2 6 5 ) The  difference  i n t h e e m p h a s i s e a c h man  word pelado p o i n t s to a fundamental outlooks.  the  difference i n their  t h e L o y a l i s t s p e r i s h , n e v e r t h e l e s s he  lets still  a c e r t a i n f a i t h i n p u b l i c frameworks and c o l l e c t i v e  tion.  He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y c a n b e  p l a i n e d by be  given  A l t h o u g h Hugh i s a n g e r e d b y a w o r l d t h a t  the I n d i a n and has  has  ex-  c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h a t i t can  changed or d i r e c t e d by  He s a y s  ac-  t h a t j u s t as  c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and  " C h r i s t i a n i t y was  a new  group  spirit  action. i n the  Roman w o r l d d e s t i n e d t o a c t i n t h a t w o r l d as i t s d i s s o l v e n t , " (uy_>33) s o t h e m o d e r n c o m m u n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l d i s s o l v e the p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e s and world.  The  then r e c o n s t r u c t a b e t t e r  C o n s u l , h o w e v e r , no l o n g e r b e l i e v e s i n a n y  f r a m e w o r k s o r movements; f o r h i m a l l e x t e r n a l o r p u b l i c s t r u c t u r e s a r e i r r e l e v a n t f o r t h e y h a v e n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l  " s u r v i v a l o f t h e human s p i r i t . "  (UV.540)  62  F o r t h e C o n s u l a c t i o n i s w o r t h w h i l e o n l y on t h e p e r s o n a l level.  When Hugh c o m p a r e s N a z i s m  t o a shark -  A s h a r k was n e t t e d w i t h a s h o a l o f o t h e r f i s h a n d k i l l e d . . . T h i s s t r u c k me a s a p r e t t y g o o d s y m b o l o f t h e N a z i system w h i c h , even though dead, c o n t i n u e s t o go on s w a l l o w i n g a l i v e s t r u g g l i n g men a n d women! (W,334) - t h e C o n s u l r e p l i e s t h a t Hugh's s y m b o l " w o u l d do j u s t a s w e l l f o r any o t h e r system system."  (UV,334-)  . . . I n c l u d i n g t h e communist  S i n c e p u b l i c s i g n s and systems  only  t h r e a t e n o r confuse the i n d i v i d u a l , the Consul says  that  p e o p l e s h o u l d " m i n d t h e i r own damned b u s i n e s s I " ( U V , 3 4 1 ) Men's e f f o r t s t o d i r e c t h i s t o r y a r e f u t i l e f o r " t h e r e ' s a s o r t o f determinism about  t h e f a t e o f n a t i o n s . " (UV.540)  I n Hugh's C h a p t e r V I I , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e w o r d p e l a d o i s o o n l y one o f t h e many p a s s a g e s cern w i t h the p o l i t i c a l in  framework.  the w h i t e p i g e o n s , " l i t t l e  r e f l e c t i n g h i s con-  The b u s d r i v e r ' s p r i d e  s e c r e t ambassadors o f peace,"  becomes i r o n i c f o r t h e d r i v e r d o e s n ' t know "how much n e a r e r e v e n i n t h e s e moments t h e G o v e r n m e n t s w e r e t o l o s i n g t o t h e E b r o . " (UV,262)  When t h e b u s p a s s e s  the railway  sta-  t i o n , Hugh s e e s i t a a t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f h i s m i s s i o n t o h e l p save t h e L o y a l i s t s he h i m s e l f w o u l d  on t h a t l o n e l y p l a t f o r m t o n i g h t  stand, w i t h h i sp i l g r i m ' s bundle,"  (UV 265) f  ( B u t i n C h a p t e r X, one o f t h e C o n s u l ' s c h a p t e r s , t h e r a i l w a j s t a t i o n i s a symbol o f death, t h e end o f the j o u r n e y . ) still  Hugh  h a s f a i t h i n p l a n s a n d v e r b a l r i t u a l s - "May e v e r y -  t h i n g come, somehow r i g h t . b l e s s u s . " (UV,267)  May we a l l b e h a p p y .  God  Even t h e burned, b l a c k e n e d church b y  t h e r o a d i s t o Hugh a s y m b o l o f a b e g i n n i n g r a t h e r t h a n a n end;  t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h makes way f o r a new a n d  better social structure.  The s o u n d s i n t h e b u s become a  c h a n t i n Hugh's m i n d - "I'm l o s i n g t h e B a t t l e o f t h e E b r o , I am l o s i n g Y v o n n e . " ( U V , 2 6 7 )  When s e e n t h r o u g h Hugh's e y e s ,  63  t h e h e l p l e s s , f r i g h t e n e d c h i c k e n s i n t h e "bus a r e s y m b o l s o f t h e n a t i o n s who b y f a i l i n g f l o u r i s h and w i l l  t o a c t , have l e t a g g r e s s i o n  soon p a y a heavy p r i c e f o r t h e i r d e f a u l t  -"Poor t h i n g s , they h a d s i g n e d t h e i r Munich agreement t o o . One  o f t h e t u r k e y s even l o o k e d remarkably  Chamberlain."  (UV,268)  like  Neville  When t h e d r y i n g I n d i a n i s d i s c o v -  e r e d , o n c e a g a i n Hugh w a n t s d e c i s i v e a c t i o n a n d c a n n o t understand  the passive attitude of the others.  After the  p e l a d o h a s s t o l e n t h e I n d i a n ' s money, Hugh a n a l y z e s h i s behaviour "his  i n terms o f I t a l y ' s a g g r e s s i o n i n A b y s s i n i a -  p o s s e s s i o n o f i t was o p e n a n d a b o v e b o a r d ,  t h e w o r l d t o know a b o u t . Abyssinia."  fora l l  I t was a r e c o g n i z e d t h i n g ,  like  (UV,282)  By r e v i s i n g t h i s c h a p t e r s o t h a t i t p r e s e n t s  only  one p o i n t o f v i e w L o w r y i s t h u s a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h one dominant outlook o r b i a s w i t h i n i t ; i nh i s a n a l y s i s ofthe n o v e l he r e p e a t e d l y r e f e r s t o each c h a p t e r as a " u n i t " and makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f e a c h u n i t y i s important Chapter  to the overall pattern of the novel.  He d e f e n d s  I I a g a i n s t a n y c u t s t h e p u b l i s h e r m i g h t want t o  make, s a y i n g : " i t was w r i t t e n w i t h e x t r e m e c a r e ; i t t o o i s absolutamente necesario . . . itself,  as are a l l the other  i t i s an e n t i t y , a u n i t y i n chapters."  By v a r y i n g p o i n t o f v i e w s o t h a t n o two c o n s e c u t i v e chapters a r e seen through  t h e same c h a r a c t e r , L o w r y i s  able t o p l a c e these viewpoints i n counterpoint and thus c r e a t e a sense o f m u l t i p l i c i t y .  And b y v a r y i n g t h i s  view-  p o i n t i n s u c h a way t h a t c o m p l e m e n t s a n d c o n t r a s t a r e f o r m e d , Lowry b u i l d s a sense o f b a l a n c e  and p a t t e r n w i t h i n t h i s  very  multiplicity. Hugh's C h a p t e r chapter seen through sake o f b a l a n c e ,  V I I I , f o r example, i s f o l l o w e d b y a Yvonne's eyes,  i f jrou r e f l e c t  " a s i t must b e f o r t h e  . . . .  m u s i c a l l y speaking  64  Qit] o u g h t t o h e a n e x c e e d i n g l y g o o d c o n t r a s t t o V I I I X."  B e c a u s e Hugh i s d i s g u s t e d w i t h t h e way  the I n d i a n  a b a n d o n e d , C h a p t e r V I I I ends on a n o t e o f m o r b i d When t h e C o n s u l s a y s " E v e r y b o d y  and was  irony.  happy, i n c l u d i n g  me,"  Hugh t h i n k s A n d i n c l u d i n g t h o s e . . • who e f f o r t l e s s l y , b e a u t i f u l l y , i n t h e b l u e s k y a b o v e them, f l o a t e d , t h e v u l t u r e s - x o p i l o t e s , who w a i t o n l y f o r t h e r a t i f i c a t i o n o f d e a t h . (UV,283) C h a p t e r I X , h o w e v e r , i s a new, f r e s h s t a r t ; v i a the s t i l l  d i s t i n c t u n i t a n d makes a  h o p e f u l Y v o n n e we  immediately i n t o the g a i e t y of the f i e s t a . l i n e s o f Chapter IX resemble  are The  plunged opening  the stage d i r e c t i o n s a d r a -  m a t i s t m i g h t u s e i n o r d d r t o e s t a b l i s h a new  scene  and  mood: Arena Tomalin .... -What a w o n d e r f u l t i m e e v e r y b o d y was h a v i n g , h a p p y t h e y w e r e , how h a p p y e v e r y o n e was! ( U V 2 8 4 )  how  r  The b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n o f C h a p t e r I X ( w h i c h i s n o t l i m i t e d t o Yvonne's p o i n t o f v i e w ) i s m e r e l y a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e n o t e o n w h i c h C h a p t e r V I I I ended; Hugh  tries  i n v a i n t o f i n d a t e l e p h o n e i n t h e t a v e r n so t h a t he  can  send h e l p t o the I n d i a n and Yvonne, shocked b y t h e and,  incident  f e e l i n g t h a t she h a s h a d some " m y s t e r i o u s s h a r e i n a  murder" ( F V , V I I I , 5 ) is c r y i n g . I X d e v e l o p s , we  As t h i s v e r s i o n o f  see i n c i d e n t s a l s o t h r o u g h the eyes  G e o f f r e y a n d Hugh.  We  are given the Consul's  Chapter of  interpreta-  t i o n of the b u l l t h r o w i n g : To t h e C o n s u l , g i v i n g h i m s e l f o v e r t o a s u c c e s s i o n o f d e l i c i o u s , caddish thoughts, the a t t i t u t e - o f those in  65  t h e r i n g was p r e c i s e l y t h a t o f M e x i c a n s a l e s m e n t o wards the g r i n g o t o u r i s t . ( F V , I X , l l ) ' We  see  i n t o Hugh's m i n d a s he  "Very w e l l I don't l i k e  the h u l l  smote h i s m i n d , r i g i d w i t h bull."  the h u l l  either.  i n the r i n g -  These t h o u g h t s  concentration  upon subduing  the  (FV,IX,29)  But  i n i t s r e v i s e d form t h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y  chapter; end  faces  Yvonne's  a c l e a n b r e a k i s made w i t h Hugh's a t t i t u d e a t  o f C h a p t e r V I I I and  Yvonne's eyes.  a l l events are  Passages i n the  r e l a t e d t o Yvonne's i n t e r e s t and a r g u m e n t b e t w e e n Hugh a n d C i v i l War,  the  observed  through  f i r s t v e r s i o n not outlook  closely  have been cut;  Consul about the  f o r example, i s o m i t t e d  the  the  Spanish  i n the p r i n t e d v e r s i o n  of Chapter IX.  L i k e Hugh, Y v o n n e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h b u i l d i n g  a new  her v i s i o n i s a very personal  world but  t o b u i l d a p r i v a t e w o r l d w h e r e she their o l d love. cludes and  The  longer  that h i s concentrated  the. moment's c e n t e r  come a b a c k d r o p f o r t h e  part  of  the  i n the s t a n d s ,  his  a t him  wants  recover  chapter s t i l l  only  in-  indirectly,  struggle i s  of ^ i n t e r e s t but  no  i n s t e a d has  h e r hopes f o r the f u t u r e . Hugh seems "an  scene b e l o w . " (UV,300)  Yvonne s m i l e s  she  be-  c h a p t e r ' s c e n t r a l movements - Y v o n n e ' s  s t r u g g l e w i t h the p a s t and sits  G e o f f can  f i n a l v e r s i o n of the  Hugh's r e a c t i o n t o t h e b u l l b u t  i n s u c h a way  a s he  and  one;  i n d u l g e n t l y and  As  Even  interloper, a he  faces  the  stranger,,  bull  accurately interprets  reactions: he was s i m p l y s u b m i t t i n g t o t h a t a b s u r d n e c e s s i t y he f e l t f o r a c t i o n . . . . A l l h i s t h o u g h t s now w e r e b r i n g i n g t h a t miserable b u l l to i t s knees .... Somehow one h a d l i t t l e a n x i e t y w a t c h i n g h i m . . . . One f e l t , e v e n , h a l f i r o n i c a l l y , t h a t t h i s was t h e k i n d o f t h i n g Hugh m i g h t b e b e s t f i t t e d t o do. ( U V . 3 0 6 )  She  f i n d s Hugh's m e t h o d o f e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e t h r o u g h d a n g e r  66  a l l  very well  tiveness. day,  but  Yvonne  and  constructs  this  and  ends  l i k e  as  The  mood  the  f i n a l  weight  the  Yvonne  that  she  X  ever  that  would be Chapter they  silence."  i s one  of Chapter  of Chapter  positive  I X were  sentence  of  to drink  As  to  forward.  i t sfailures  (UV,31l)  of  mescal  (UV 846) f  with a  he  less the  d i d with  again,  a  nd  told  In the f i r s t abrupt Salon  Chapter  sor-  of Consul  Laruelle,  afraid, version  statement: Ofelia  spite  future  f o r the  I'm  but  "the  I n  at the beginning  had  -  cripple  struggles  Firmin  X  exuberant,  the  of the end  to  despair  i n spite  Earlier  down t o w a r d s  (FV,,X.l)  Chapter  statement;  "mescal"  and  sufficient  absentmindedly."  past, with  dreams.  rocks,  fur-  to l a y the foundations f o r a  the end."  walked  s t i l l  word  X began  the  i t up  IX i s f a r from  the beginning  start  and  of the Consul's,  of the o l d Indian carrying  f o r Yvonne's  conver-  (UV,310)  almost  t h e one  the  near  "drag  said,  suggests  i f I  can l a t e r  the f i r s t  has begun  But  "But  a l l y  dangerous p o s i t i o n  own  Hugh's  i s interrupted  Consul  of her  of  dialogue  below.  o f the pendulum  a  tense  the  i n the ring  swing  makes  mentally  the  a  image  a  o f p r e c a r i o u s hope; the Consul  f o r  to convince  i n a  o f t h e p a s t , " man  Chapter  novel  and  so  at the end  triumph.  and  note  she  the  In revising  inserted  game  of  retreat  l i f e .  attempt  effec-  the events  the high point  the forced  lines  signals  the weight  rows,  at  c h a p t e r , h owever,  o f hope,  nevertheless  home a n d  just  safe."  opening  immediately "'Mescal',  hopes  i t was  the  a  a boat,  next  mood  on  by  i n  the bullthrowing  desperate  Yvonne  has  where  l i f e  upstages  between  Yvonne  new  Yvonne's  clearly  The  of  During  chapter, Lowry  moored,,  a  herself.  limited  planning a  of this  sation  set  i s to start  version  chapter  just  upset  future  Consul  ther,  has been  i d y l l i c  straggle  but  rather  an  concerning  The  also  her reaction  Geoffrey  f i r s t  i n i t s place but  ...  yes of  " f i n -  i n  IX, Lowry r e -  67  v i s e d t h e o p e n i n g s o t h a t i t d e c i s i v e l y s e t s t h e mood f o r t h e c h a p t e r ' s d o m i n a n t o u t l o o k a n d makes a n a b r u p t b r e a k with the preceding unit.  A n d once a g a i n , l a t e r  passages  i n t h e c h a p t e r h a v e b e e n r e v i s e d s o t h a t we s e e e v e r y t h i n g f r o m t h e C o n s u l ' s eyes..  I n the f i r s t v e r s i o n o f Chapter  X the w a t e r f a l l by the tavern i s described very matter of faetly: O u t s i d e i t a w a t e r f a l l c r a s h e d down i n t o two l e v e l s , t h e l o w e r b e i n g a swimming p o o l . The w a t e r o n t h e upper l e v e l r a c e d t o another f a l l s which, below, n o u r i s h e d a stream l e a d i n g through t h i c k j u n g l e t o a much l a r g e r c a s c a d e o u t o f s i g h t . ( F V , X , l ) But i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s reflects  waterfall  t h e Consul's t o r t u r e d s t a t e o f mind:  A natural waterfall crashing into a sort of reservoir b u i l t on two l e v e l s - . . . t h e s i g h t l e s s c o o l i n g t h a n g r o t e s q u e l y s u g g e s t i v e o f some a g o n i s e d u l t i m a t e s w e a t ; t h e l o w e r l e v e l made a p o o l w h e r e Hugh a n d Yvonne w e r e s t i l l n o t y e t swimming. (Uv".3151 S i m i l a r l y , t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n b e t w e e n Y v o n n e a n d Hugh b y t h e p o o l h a s b e e n r e v i s e d s o t h a t we h e a r i t i n a f o r m r e flecting he s i t s mescal  the confusion o f the Consul's  consciousness.  i n the tavern d r i n k i n g , the f a t a l  As  "ether-smelling"  d u l l s h i s senses and o n l y fragments o f t h e conver-  s a t i o n f l o a t t o t h e s u r f a c e o f h i s mind.  The f o l l o w i n g  l i n e s from the f i r s t v e r s i o n o f the chapter '-not f o r g e t t i n g t h e l i m e s e i t h e r ! ' 'Why l i m e s ? Yvonne b e g a n t o l a u g h . 'Where do we s t a r t from? 'To p r e v e n t m o u n t a i n s i c k n e s s . Oh, Amecameca.' ( F V , X , 5 ) a r e a l t e r e d i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n s o t h a t we f i n d  them  68  slightly  confusing  on a f i r s t  reading:  'not f o r g e t t i n g t h e l i m e s - ' '-where i s i t we s t a r t f r o m , Amecameca-' 'To p r e v e n t m o u n t a i n s i c k n e s s . ' ( U V . 5 2 0 ) Not  o n l y does the  cate h i m s e l f , hut stand the dialogue  Consul f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t he a l s o h a s  to s t r u g g l e even to under-  communication between others. as i t i s h e a r d by  t o communi-  P i r m i n , and  By p r e s e n t i n g thus f o r c i n g us  share t h i s s t r u g g l e to u n d e r s t a n d , Lowry i s a b l e t o the  Consul's predicament w i t h a v i v i d sense of Another product By  suggest the  of r e v i s i o n i n Chapter X i s the  Consul's confusion;  is  events are  to  be  mescal.  c o l o u r e d by  horror.  dancing"  a l o n g w i t h P i r m i n , who  "Tlaxcaltecan fantasy,"  Throughout the  c a t i o n and  travel to  o n l y f r a g m e n t s o f Yvonne and and  convey  a d d i n g t h i s s c e n e Lowry i s once a g a i n a b l e  l o s t i n h i s own n e x t room.  The  to the  (UY_»32) we  Hugh's c o n v e r s a t i o n  chapter, the  i n fact,  hear  i n the  environment  Consul's sense of  dislo-  m i s t s f r o m t h e w a t e r f a l l s "seemed  " p l a i n t i v e d i s c o r d s " produced by  P i r m i n s e e s t h e movement o f t h e m i s t s a s  C o n s u l ' s own  t h e f a c e o f t h e i n e v i t a b l e doom. room a r e  The  i n h i s p r i v a t e garden.  sense of f u t i l i t y shadows i n t h e order there  in  bar-  is left  E v e n t h e r o o s t e r seems m e n a c i n g  i t s " w i l d y e l l o w eyes p i e r c e d the gloom."  The b a t h r o o m " l o o k e d l i k e a  tomb" a n d  (UV,516)  Hugh becomes a  t h r e a t e n i n g enemy " a d v a n c i n g as i f t o d e c a p i t a t e (UV,316)  lost."  s n a k e - l i k e " c o i l s " w h i c h seem t o s p r i n g a t h i r n ,  r e a d y t o r e d u c e t o chaos what l i t t l e as  midst  only p e r p e t u a l l y evanescent or e t e r n a l l y  T h i s image r e f l e c t s t h e  the  "a  phantom dancg o f s o u l s , " s e e k i n g permanence " i n the o f w h a t was  to  immediacy.  scene i n the bathroom where the Consul s t u d i e s the folder.  the  A c u r t a i n f l o a t i n g i n t h e window "had  him." come i n t o  69  s t r a n g l e him.  11  (UV,544)  The c h a p t e r e n d s a p p r o p r i a t e l y  w i t h a n o m i n o u s image o f t h e v o l c a n o e s e s t s m o v i n g up i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d . " I n each o f these movement.  three chapters  - "massive  inter-  (UV,345) t h e r e i s a downward  I n C h a p t e r V I I I , Hugh's g o o d s p i r i t s g i v e way  t o d i s g u s t when no one w i l l make a move t o h e l p t h e d y i n g Indian. fades  a  Yvonne's exuberance a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  s t h e e f f e c t o f h e r d r i n k wears o f f .  Chapter X t h e Consul from r e a l i t y ; course  By t h e e n d o f  c a n no l o n g e r d i s t i n g u i s h  illusion  he t h i n k s he i s p r e s e n t i n g a l u c i d  dis-  o n t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s when a c t u a l l y  he h a s n o t u t t e r e d a s i n g l e word., ( U V , 5 5 8 ) each o f these own,  o f Chapter  chapters  But by g i v i n g  a d i s t i n c t u n i t y and outlook o f i t s  L o w r y i s a b l e t o p l a c e them i n c o u n t e r p o i n t a n d t h u s  m o d u l a t e t o n e a n d mood w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l d o w n w a r d movement.  Throughout a l l twelve  suggestions all  chapters  t h e r e a r e images a n d  o f doom, f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n e a c h  l i e under the t h r e a t o f the volcano.  v a r r i e d viewpoint  chapter  B u t Lowry has so  t h a t he c r e a t e s a s e n s e o f m u l t i p l i c i t y .  W i t h i n t h i s c o n t r a p u n t a l s e r i e s o f c h a p t e r s , mood t e e t e r s b a c k a n d f o r t h b e t w e e n hope a n d d e s p a i r , o r d e r a n d c o n fusion. The  first  chapter,  t h e o n l y one p r e s e n t e d  p o i n t o f v i e w , i s a l s o t h e o n l y one h a v i n g  from L a r u e l l e ' s  a slow  moving  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a c t i o n a n d mood a n d t h e o n l y one w h i c h d o e s n o t emerge a s a u n i t w i t h a d o m i n a n t o u t l o o k .  I t i s pre-  sented e n t i r e l y from Jacques L a r u e l l e ' s p o i n t o f view,but it  d o e s n o t b e a r t h e stamp o f one p a r t i c u l a r o u t l o o k o r  a t t i t u d e , f o r L a r u e l l e i s r e a l l y only a mouthpiece  through  which Lowry presents, background i n f o r m a t i o n and suggests t h e themes t o b e d e v e l o p e d however, i s p r e s e n t e d  i n the novelH  Chapter I I ,  from Yvonne's p o i n t o f v i e w a n d d e f -  i n i t e l y r e f l e c t s h e r own t e n s e  frame o f mind.  i s b a s e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e m a r r i a g e  Her r e t u r n  can be saved b u t  70  she  i s a l s o aware t h a t t h e v e r y u r g e n c y o f t h i s  renders her v u l n e r a b l e to disappointment cautiously.  By t h e e n d  a mountain peace." (UV,9l) brium. is  c h a p t e r s and  "proclaimed" by  But  sentence  the  "tragedy"  now  we  s e e w h a t i s g o i n g on i n t h e C o n s u l ' s  and  the  equili-  of h i s  s t i l t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n c o n t i n u e s as i n Chapter we  of  this precarious  The  intervals;  shared,  I I I i s one  the v e r y p l a n t s d y i n g i n the  t h e awkward s i l e n t  treads  "sense o f a  Chapter  soon u p s e t s  I n the opening  she  o f t h e c h a p t e r hope o u t w e i g h s f e a r  a i d Yvonne l e t s h e r s e l f b e l i e v e i n t h e Consul's  and  hope  ruin  garden. I I , but  mind d u r i n g  see h i s d e s p a i r , chaos  desperation. I n Chapter  of the  IV t h e r e i s a r e t u r n t o and a  t e n t a t i v e hope o f Chapter  II.  The  strengthening  opening  passage,  a c o p y o f a news d i s p a t c h c o m m e n t i n g on t h e p o l i t i c a l u a t i o n i n Mexico,  proclaims immediately  o f Hugh's c h a p t e r s . s i g n a l s the beginning  The  that this i s  formal o f f i c i a l  o f a new  Yvonne q u i c k l y "get the h e l l  one  language a l s o  phase of order.  Hugh  and  out o f " the r u i n e d garden  a n d go f o r a r i d e i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e w h e r e t h e y f i n d b e a u t i f u l model farm,  a v i s i o n o f o r d e r and peace.  t h i s secure  (UV,134) Yvonne f i r s t b r o a c h e s  "caravan"  p l a n f o r e s c a p e t o Canada a n d a new But  the opening  has  "an  sit-  passage o f Chapter  a In her  l i f e with Geoffrey. V,  one  of the  Consul's,  i r o n i c b e a r i n g on t h e l a s t w o r d s o f I V . "  Al-  though p i l g r i m s " w i t h souls w e l l d i s c i p l i n e d " reach  "the  northern r e g i o n " they w i l l never f i n d t h e i r g o a l , only t a n t a l i z i n g promises of i t - "promise of l i g h t n e s s , light,light,  light."  (UV,154)  Once a g a i n t h e s c n n e i s t h e  r u i n e d , c h a o t i c garden bounded by p  nd  we  see  Consul's  the a c t i o n and  of  the t h r e a t of  environment through  h a z y " a m b e r - g l o w . " (UV.167)  eviction  the  Alongside  the  y e a r n i n g f o r time p a s t i n the chapter's f i n a l i n e  -"Oh  come t o me  of  futility,  a g a i n a s o n c e i n May,"  t h e r e i s a sense  t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e no  rebirth  71  of past happiness,  o n l y an end t o p r e s e n t misery  (UV 178)  f o r i t now s t r a i g h t e n e d o u t - i n a c o f f i n ! " The  f  f o l l o w i n g Chapter V I a l s o f o c u s e s on t h e passage  of time, h u t t h i s of view.  c h a p t e r i s p r e s e n t e d f r o m Hugh's p o i n t  T h e r e i s a m a r k e d c o n t r a s t i n mood f o r Hugh, a s  the opening life  -"you're  l i n e announces, i s " i n t h e middle" o f h i s  - " K e l mezzo d e l b l o o d y  retrovai  i n . " (UV,179)  cammin d i n o s t r a v i t a m i  A t t w e n t y - m i n e he f e e l s r e g r e t f o r  t i m e p a s t , b u t a l s o hope f o r t h e f u t u r e " s i x t y - s e v e n years."  When t h e r o a d i m a g e r e c u r s a t t h e e n d o f t h e  c h a p t e r , w h a t l i e s a h e a d i s unknown b u t a t l e a s t t h e r e i s still  some d i s t a n c e t o b e t r a v e l l e d :  little  "The r o a d t u r n e d a  corner i n the distance and vanished."  The  sense  (UV,223)  o f o r d e r c r e a t e d b y Hugh's c a r e f u l  recon-  s t r u c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f h i s past i s a b r u p t l y s h a t t e r e d by  the opening paragraph  o f Chapter V I I which  announces t h i s u n i t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d from p o i n t o f view:  clearly  the Consul's  "On t h e s i d e o f t h e d r u n k e n m a d l y r e v o l v - '  i n g w o r l d h u r t l i n g a t 1:20 p.m.  toward  Hercules  t h e h o u s e seemed a b a d i d e a , t h e C o n s u l  butterfly  thought."  (UV 224) y  Once a g a i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e n v i r o n ment a n d a c t i o n r e f l e c t  P i r m i n ' s sense  o f d e s p a i r and p e r -  s e c u t i o n : L a r u e l l e ' s house i s seen as a menacing equipped  f o r war; t h e m o t i o n  o f t h e f l y i n g machines a t t h e  f a i r look " l i k e gesticulations people  o f p a i n . " (UV,226)  on t h e g o l f course resemble  l o o p i n g - t h e - l o o p machine suggests i n i t s lonely hell."  The  crawling "scorpions";  (UV,226) t h e t o u r i s t s a r e " v a n d a l s i n s a n d a l s j screaming  fortress  1 1  (W,241) the  "some huge e v i l  (UV.,251)  spirit,  The c l o s i n g  line  o f t h e c h a p t e r i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y o m i n o u s - "Es i n e v i t a b l e l a muerte d e l Papa." I n Chapter and,  until  (UV,260)  V I I I we a g a i n s e e e v e n t s  t h r o u g h Hugh's e y e s  they f i n d t h e d y i n g I n d i a n , an o p t i m i s t i c  look p r e v a i l s .  out-  A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Yvonne's Chapter I X  72  the  d e p r e s s i o n a t t h e e n d o f Hugh's c h a p t e r i s f o r g o t t e n  i n t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e b u l l t h r o w i n g a n d dream o f a new home h u t i n C h a p t e r X, one o f t h e C o n s u l ' s ,  environment  a g a i n t a k e s on a s i n i s t e r a s p e c t a n d e v e n t s a r e p a r t i a l l y lost  i n t h e muddle o f F i r m i n ' s mind. The t h r e a t s u g g e s t e d b y t h e t o w e r i n g v o l c a n o s a t t h e  end o f C h a p t e r X t a k e s on a d e f i n i t e  form and result;.;in  C h a p t e r X I when Y v o n n e i s k i l l e d b y a r u n a w a y h o r s e . is  the t h i r d and l a s t  This  c h a p t e r p r e s e n t e d from Yvonne's p o i n t  of view and, i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t i t c o n t a i n s h e r d e a t h , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s r e a f f i r m s t h e n o t e o f hope i n h e r o t h e r two c h a p t e r s .  So s t r o n g i s h e r b e l i e f G e o f f r e y  w i l l b e f o u n d t h a t Yvonne i m a g i n e s she s e e s him i n E l . Popo.(UV,354) of l i g h t  I n t h e f o r m c r e a t e d b y two p o l e s a n d beams  she sees t h e " e x q u i s i t e b e a u t y " o f a  G r e c i a n temple.." ( U V , 3 6 l )  "ruined  The a i r h a s "a s w e e t c l e a n l y  s m e l l " a s s o f t r a i n f a l l s i n t h e woods w h e r e Hugh a n d Yvonne s e a r c h .  A l t h o u g h she i s f i n a l l y  f o r c e d t o abandon  h e r " b u r n i n g dream," t h e c h a p t e r ends w i t h t h e p o s i t i v e g r a c e f u l u p w a r d movement o n w h i c h i t b e g a n . the  opening l i n e s  and  J u s t as i n  "eddies o f g r e e n and orange b i r d s " a r e  s c a t t e r e d " a l o f t w i t h ever wider c i r c l i n g s l i k e  rings  on  wa,ter" ( U V . 5 4 6 ) s o i n t h e f i n a l p a r a g r a p h o f t h e u n i t Yvonne " f e l t h e r s e l f s u d d e n l y g a t h e r e d upwards a n d b o r n e towards  the stars, through eddies of stars s c a t t e r i n g  with ever wider c i r c l i n g s l i k e  r i n g s on w a t e r . "  aloft  (UV,366)  The o p e n i n g l i n e o f C h a p t e r X I I m a r k s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the  final  downward movement i n t h e n o v e l .  the  Consul's l a s t  of mescal.  L i k e Chapter  c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h him o r d e r i n g a d r i n k  But t h i s  time the order i s not g i v e n "almost  a b s e n t m i n d e d l y " a n d t h e C o n s u l makes no e f f o r t himself, mescal." the  X,  t o delude  as i n C h a p t e r X, t h a t i t w i l l n o t b e "a s e r i o u s As he h i m s e l f e a r l i e r p r o p h e s i e d , t h i s  b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e n d ; e v e n h i s own r e f l e c t i o n  drink i s i n the  73 m i r r o r now  g l a r e s a t him  (UV,367)  He  "with stern familar foreboding."  i s a c u t e l y aware o f "the  h i s heart, h i s conscience, time  i s r u n r i n g out.  c o n f u s i o n and "p&radise  a c l o c k somewhere" f o r h i s  As p r e s e n t e d  through  Firmin's  d e s p e r a t i o n , t h e F a r o l i t o becomes  final  the  of h i s d e s p a i r , " the p e r f e c t s e t t i n g f o r h i s  private hell To  t i c k i n g of h i s watch,  t o w h i c h a l l h o p e s a r e now  some e x t e n t  this  condemned.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of chapters  i n terms  o f u p w a r d o r downward movements, o r i n t e r m s o f h o p e order o r d e s p a i r and w i t h i n one  t i v e and n e g a t i v e form. a r g u e d w i t h one although  one  another  appear i n b o t h a  L o w r y s a i d Hugh a n d " l i k e two m u s i c a l  u n r e l i e v e d note throughout the u n i t . d e s p a i r of the Consul's  moment o f p e a c e a n d so i t a l l b u t  the  Often  posi-  Consul  instruments"  dominant c h a r a c t e r o r i n s t r u m e n t  c h a p t e r w i t h h i s p a r t i c u l a r o u t l o o k , he and  and  chaos, i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n .  c h a p t e r a l e i t m o t i f may  own  stamps e a c h  does n o t b l a r e  I n the  one  confusion  Chapter I I there i s a  temporary  e l a t i o n when " t h e y w e r e e m b r a c i n g ,  seemed, p a s s i o n a t e l y . " ( U V , 9 7 )  and  During  or  the  h a p p y p i l g r i m a g e i n Hugh's C h a p t e r I V , t h e r e i s a moment of temptation  t o g i v e way  indeed  a g a i n , the temptation,  i t was  t o c o m p l e t e d e s p a i r - "And  future-corruptive serpent."  (UV,138)  the cowardly, I n the  here the  Consul's  Chapter V t h e r e i s a h i l a r i o u s scene between F i r m i n h i s neighbour,  De  Quincey.  But  e a c h c h a p t e r does  and  finally  emerge a s a d i s t i n c t u n i t w i t h a d o m i n a n t , i f m o d u l a t e d , o u t l o o k and series.  contrapuntal  They a r e i n d e p e n d e n t i n e m p h a s i s a n d y e t  i n impetus. another  t o g e t h e r these u n i t s form a  They a r g u e w i t h r a t h e r t h a n a g a i n s t  f o r they  Hugh, Y v o n n e a n d problem of  related one  r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n s on a c e n t r a l the Consul  theme:  are each s t r u g g l i n g w i t h  the  alienation.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the c o n t r a p u n t a l arrangement of c h a p t e r s , Lowry has u s e d c o u n t e r p o i n t w i t h i n t h e t e r s t o e x p a n d moments o r s c e n e s a n d  the  chap-  reveal simultaneity.  74  W h e t h e r he  i s c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g one  a c h a r a c t e r ' s thoughts s p o k e n w o r d s , o r one  w i t h h i s own  another,  o r some one  else's  e n t i r e scene w i t h another,  a common p a t t e r n : i n e a c h c a s e in  dialogue with  there i s  the i n n e r w o r l d i s p l a c e d  c o u n t e r p o i n t t o the outer w o r l d .  Usually this  inner  w o r l d i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the outer not only hy i t s content hut realized  a l s o by  i t s tone and  style.  Lowry  t h a t "the s u b j e c t i v e i s the realm  clearly  of tone"  and  t h a t , t o c o m m u n i c a t e on t h a t l e v e l , he n e e d e d s o m e t h i n g beyond the t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e techniques used to surface.  A c c o r d i n g l y , i n Under the V o l c a n o  of e character's thoughts inner landscape While  present  presentation  or of a scene r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s  i s marked by  a h e i g h t e n e d mood a n d  rhythm.  t h e n o v e l as a whole i s p o e t i c i n s t r u c t u r e and  t u r e , these  counter-pointed passages r e n d e r i n g the  w o r l d afie l y r i c a l Proust wrote,  i n t h e i r v e r y tone and use  of  tex-  inner language.  "an a t m o s p h e r e o f p o e t r y s u r r o u n d s  those  is" t r u t h s w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s , t o w h i c h we  attain.  sages a r e n o t awkward " p u r p l e p a t c h e s , " o f the n o v e l l e a d s us pective of poetry.  to expect  But  c a t i o n s o f t h e moods a n d  These p a s -  f o r the t e x t u r e  the rhythm andtthe  t h e y do s t a n d o u t a s  pers-  intensifi-  themes r u n n i n g t h r o u g h  the  novel. When V i r g i n i a W o o l f s p o k e o f t h e n e e d f o r t h e t o a d o p t a more f l e x i b l e medium t h a t w o u l d h a v e  novelist  "something  o f t h e e x a l t a t i o n o f p o e t r y , b u t much o f t h e o r d i n a r i n e s s of prose,"  she  effect,  was  drama.  I t was  s a i d t h a t w h a t t h e m o d e r n age  to f i l l  t h e gap  n o t up  l e f t by  needed, i n  the death of p o e t i c  t o t h e n o v e l i s t s t o s u p p l y , i n a.  form a c c e p t a b l e t o modern t a s t e s and h a b i t s , t h e  equiva-  l e n t o f t h e p o e t i c drama o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n a g e ,  o f "what  has  and  i n the past served to express" the n  collision"  of l i f e .  "contrast  I n d e f e n d i n g h i s use  L o w r y p o i n t s t o t h i s v e r y gap  of l y r i c a l  i n modern l i t e r a t u r e :  prose,  75  .. .. . i n o u r E l i z a b e t h a n d a y s we u s e d t o h a v e a t l e a s e p a s s i o n a t e p o e t i c w r i t i n g about t h i n g s t h a t w i l l a l w a y s mean s o m e t h i n g a n d n o t j u s t s i l l y a s s s t y l e and s e m i c o l o n t e c h n i q u e ) and i n t h i s sense I am t r y i n g t o remedy a d e f i c i e n c y , t o s t r i k e a b l o w , t o f i r e a s h o t f o r y o u a s i t w e r e , r o u g h l y Ir. t h e d i r e c t i o n , say, of another Renaissance.'* And,  as i f t o i l l u s t r a t e  j u s t how  a d e p t l y he c o u l d en-  compass t h e c o l l i s i o n o f m o d e r n l i f e from the clouds t o the ground,  and swing  smoothly  he a d d s w r y l y t h a t  this  s h o t " w i l l p r o b a b l y go s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h my b r a i n b u t that i s another matter. in  full  swing but  P o s s i b l y too the Renaissance i s  i f so I have h e a r d n o t h i n g o f t h i s i n  Canada."^ Often the heightened tone of the l y r i c a l d e p i c t i n g t h e i n n e r w o r l d i s a d e s p e r a t e one a d r i v i n g , u r g e n t q u a l i t y t o the rhythm.  passages and t h e r e i s  I n Chapter I I  Y v o n n e a n d G e o f f r e y ' s c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n on t h e o u t e r level  i s counterpointed by a tense, s t r a i n i n g  current of s i l e n t  communication.  When t h e C o n s u l  sees h e r , Yvonne announces a l m o s t f l i p p a n t l y , party. by  I've  come b a c k , "  (W,74)  under-  and F i r m i n  i n q u i r i n g about her t r a v e l r o u t e .  first  "Surprise responds  When Y v o n n e  finally  d o e s v e n t u r e i n t o a more s e r i o u s r e g i o n , a s k i n g "What have you  done," F i r m i n g i v e s o n l y a s u p e r f i c i a l  " W e l l , a c t u a l l y I ' v e o n l y b e e n away o n c e . (UV,75)  But  on t h e i n n e r l e v e l ,  To  answer-  Oaxaca."  Yvonne i s c r y i n g f o r  some e x p l a n a t i o n , some r e a s s u r a n c e , a n d t h e C o n s u l i s trying  desperately to e x p l a i n h i s predicament.  Yvonne's  " t h o u g h t s were s a y i n g , h e r l o v e s a y i n g , t h r o u g h t h e gloom of  the b a r , " ... oh G e o f f r e y , why c a n ' t y o u t u r n b a c k ? Must you go o n f o r e v e r i n t o t h i s s t u p i d d a r k n e s s , s e e k i n g i t , e v e n now, w h e r e I c a n n o t r e a c h y o u , e v e r on i n t o t h e . darkness o f the s u n d e r i n g , o f the severance! (UV,77)  76  And  the Consul  "seemed t o h e  saying,"  y o u m i s u n d e r s t a n d me i f y o u t h i n k i t i s a l t o g e t h e r d a r k n e s s I see . . . . f o r not eventhe gates of heaven, o p e n i n g w i d e t o r e c e i v e me, c o u l d f i l l me w i t h s u c h c e l e s t i a l • c o m p l i c a t e d and h o p e l e s s j o y as t h e i r o n s c r e e n t h a t r o l l s up w i t h a c r a s h . . . . A l l mystery, a l l hope, a l l d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , yes a l l d i s a s t e r i s h e r e . T]JV,77) To  i n c r e a s e the t e n s i o n i n t h i s scene Lowry  counterpointed  Yvonne and  Geoffrey's  has  conversations,  spo-  ken  and  s i l e n t , w i t h another conversation going  on i n t h e  har  "on  the  (UV,74)  other s i d e of the g l a s s p a r t i t i o n . "  Lowry e x p l a i n s t h a t t h i s  "mysterious  contrapuntal d i a -  •2,0  logue  i n the B e l l a V i s t a h a r  s m u g g l e r m i x e d up the  Consul.  i s s u p p l i e d b y Weber,  w i t h t h e l o c a t h u g s who  The b l u n d e r i n g ,  finally  v i o l e n t mood a n d  r h y t h m o f W e b e r ' s comment s u g g e s t t h o s e  the  shoot  staccato  very f o r c e s i n the  o u t e r w o r l d w h i c h have d r i v e n t h e Consul  t o the  point  w h e r e he  c a n no  longer  feels beseiged  on a l l s i d e s a n d  cross the b a r r i e r s surrounding meet Y v o n n e h a l f w a y ; p l a n a t i o n s she  he  h i s i s o l a t i o n even to  c a n o n l y "seem" t o g i v e t h e  asks f o r .  I n Chapter V I I the  c o n v e r s a t i o n i n the mirador a b o u t  Laruelle's films i s counterpointed r o a m i n g t h o u g h t s a s he  w i t h the  Consul's  escapes from h i s immediate  roundings through the b i n o c u l a r s . •  ex-  J u s t as  sur-  'the w o r l d  was  . . w i t h i n the b i n o c u l a r s p f the p o l i c e " s t a n d i n g i n  p r i s o n w a t c h t o w e r ( U V , 1 3 3 ) , so t h e C o n s u l w o r l d i n t h e s c e n e he  focuses  upon.  s c a p e b e l o w a s a huge g o l f c o u r s e treacherous  "natural hazard."  sees the  (UV,232)  landas  W h i l e on t h e  expands a metaphor as h i s  a  sur-  c o n v e r s a t i o n and  c o n t r i b u t i o n s h i m s e l f , on t h e i n n e r  he p l a y s w i t h w o r d s a n d  own  w i t h the barranca  face P i r m i n i s f o l l o w i n g the general fering witty  He  sees h i s  the  of-  level thoughts  77  s u r g e "beyond t h e  immediate scene i n a l y r i c a l  flow:  = gouffre = gulf. Prometheus w o u l d r e t r i e v e l o s t h a l l s . 4 n d on t h a t o t h e r s i d e what s t r a n g e f a i r w a y s c o u l d he c o n t r i v e d , c r o s s e d "by l o n e r a i l w a y l i n e s , humming w i t h t e l e g r a p h p o l e s , g l i s t e n i n g w i t h c r z y l i e s on embankments, o v e r t h e h i l l s a n d f a r away, l i k e y o u t h , l i k e l i f e i t s e l f , t h e c o u r s e p l o t t e d a l l over these p l a i n s , extending f a r beyond Tomalin,, t h r o u g h t h e j u n g l e , t o t h e F a r o l i t o , t h e n i n e t e e n t h h o l e . . . The Case i s A l t e r e d . ( U V > 2 3 2 ) Golf  a  Then, as taken,  i f ashamed o f t h e  the  Consul parodies  serious  t u r n h i s metaphor  h i s p o e t i c f l i g h t and  returns  to the mocking tone t h a t u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s and  has  thoughts  comments: P o e t o f t h e u n r e p l a c e d t u r f - who h o l d s t h e f l a g w h i l e I h o l e out i n t h r e e ? Who h u n t s my Z o d i a c Zone a l o n g t h e s h o r e ? A n d who, u p o n t h a t l a s t a n d f i n a l g r e e n , t h o u g h I h o l e o u t i n f o r e , a c c e p t s my t e n a n d three score. . . (UV.233)  As  i n Chapter I I ,  face l e v e l Hugh a n d  the  conversation  i s c a s u a l and  the  Consul are  a t f i l m making.  But,  level.  The  l i g h t h e a r t e d i n tone; i n Chapter I I ,  between the  particular film  S h e l l e y ' s A l a s t n r , the  surface  discussed  s e c l u s i o n " i s avenged by  cends t o an u n t i m e l y  grave."  the  the  i s based  is inner  on  remains  "aloof"  searches i n v a i n  i n t e l l i g e n c e s i m i l a r to" himself;  centred  Jacques,  there  and  s t o r y o f a y o u t h who  f r o m s y m p a t h i e s " w i t h m a n k i n d a s he "an  sur-  j o k i n g about L a r u e l l e ' s attempts  a l s o as  a thematic connection  g o i n g on a t t h e  Alastor's f u r i e s and  S i m i l a r l y , as  the  for  "self"he  des-  Consul  e s c a p e s f r o m h i s k i n d v i a t h e b i n o c u l a r s , he w o n d e r s i f p e r h a p s he  i s l o o k i n g f o r "some f i g m e n t o f h i m s e l f . " ( W , 2 3 3 )  J u s t as A l a s t o r was a perception," futility  d r i v e n t o s e c l u s i o n by  so t h e  i n the w o r l d  "too  exquisite  Consul s t o r t u r i n g awareness of a r o u n d him  paralyzes  his  the  "simple,  78  h e a l t h y " (Uy_,237) i m p u l s e s . In  Chapter  I X t h e i n n e r w o r l d o f Yvonne's  thoughts  has b e e n p l a c e d i n c o u n t e r p o i n t w i t h t h e o u t e r the b u l l t h r o w i n g event. s p o r t Yvonne's thoughts  During the f i r s t  stages of  f o c u s on h e r p a s t l i f e .  f l a s h b a c k has b e e n c r i t i c i z e d as u n n e c e s s a r y "Without  them  action,  the f l a s h b a c k s  This  and t e d i o u s :  , the book w o u l d have b e e n  e a s i e r t o r e a d a n d a e s t h e t i c a l l y more s a t i s f y i n g The  more Dowry t r i e s t o a u t h e n t i c a t e Y v o n n e on a  base,  the l e s s  the  c o n v i n c i n g she b e c o m e s . "  ..... concrete  B u t a s Dowry  i n h i s a n a l y s i s of the c h a p t e r , "the f l a s h b a c k s are h e r e t h o u g h e i t h e r f o r t h e i r own the sake of c h a r a c t e r , which sideration." clearly  The  sake,  not  or p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r  a s I s a i d was  very p o i n t at which  says  my  last  con-  this flashback begins  i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s n o t meant t o b e mere b a c k -  ground but  r a t h e r i s i n t e n d e d a s a n i m p l i c i t comment  and e x p a n s i o n  of the immediate scene.  the r i n g i s t r y i n g t o a t t r a c t the b u l l  on  Everyone around -  t h e p o o r o l d c r e a t u r e seemed now i n d e e d l i k e someone b e i n g d r a w n , l u r e d , i n t o e v e n t s o f w h i c h he has no r e a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n , b y p e o p l e w i t h whomhe w i s h e s t o b e f r i e n d l y , e v e n t o p l a y , who e n t i c e h i m b y e n c o u r a g i n g t h a t w i s h a n d b y whom, b e c a u s e t h e y r e a l l y d e s p i s e a n d d e s i r e t o h u m i l i a t e , he i s f i n a l l y b e t r a y e d . (UV,2S8) -and  a f t e r t h i s passage the f l a s h b a c k b e g i n s and  thematic his  way  connection i s obvious: toward her through  hand." (UV,288)  ". . . Y v o n n e ' s f a t h e r made  the s e a t s , hovering  e a g e r l y a s a. c h i l d t o a n y o n e who I n the f i r s t  the  h e l d out a  responsing  friendly  v e r s i o n of t h i s  chapter  Hugh makes a r e v e a l i n g comment a b o u t t h e i n t e n d e d  sig-  n i f i c a n c e o f t h e b u l l t h r o w i n g : he r e f e r s t o i t a s  a  "strange t r i b a l ritual  ritual"  of b a s e b a l l ,  "No  and  says o f t h e f a v o r i t e  r u n s , no h i t s ,  s o r t o f n o n s e n s e i s t h a t ? " (FV,,IX,6)-  American  no e r r o r s . Hugh s u g g e s t s  What that  79 games r e p r e s e n t s o c i e t y ' s t e n d e n c y t o f o r m u l a t e works o f r u l e s w h i c h f i n a l l y Earlier  l e a d the i n d i v i d u a l  nowhere.  i n t h e n o v e l t h e o l d woman p l a y i n g a game o f dom-  i n o e s was enated  frame-  d e s c r i b e d as an e v i l  from the p u b l i c w o r l d ,  omen.. c a n no  The  Consul,  longer enjoy h i s  o n c e . f a v o r i t e game,ge>lf, a n d he p i c t u r e s l i f e great treacherous  g o l f course  individual player.  ali-  as  one  d o t t e d w i t h t r a p s f o r the  When. V i g i l a n d L a r u e l l e d e c i d e  a game o f t e n n i s , t h e C o n s u l  imagines  to play  the performance as  " w e i r d g u s t y game o f t e n n i s u n d e r t h e h a r d M e x i c a n  sun-  light,  (UV,  236)  the t e n n i s b a l l s  t o s s e d i n a sea of e r r o r . "  I n t h e c o u n t e r p o i n t e d f l a s h b a c k we  Constable finally  and  see f i r s t  f a t h e r l o s e s h i s money, s e l f - r e s p e c t , a n d f u t i l e m o n e y - m a k i n g s c h e m e s , " l e d on a n d friends.  Y v o n n e i s c a u g h t up  Yvonne's  sanity i n a e n c o u r a g e d " (UV,288) i n the  f l a t b r i g h t e n c h a n t m e n t " (UV»-29l) o f H o l l y w o o d  "false  and  m e r g e s h e r s e l f i n t h e "Boomp G i r l " i m a g e , o n l y t o l a t e r t h a t she h a s b e e n l i v i n g ing,  Mr.  t h e n Y v o n n e h e r s e l f become i n v o l v e d a n d  t r a p p e d i n i l l u s o r y , p o i n t l e s s games.  by apparent  a  a world without  aim."  subfind  i n "a w o r l d w i t h o u t . m e a n -  (UV.296)  L a t e r i n the chapter the a c t i o n i n the arena c o u n t e r p o i n t e d w i t h Y v o n n e ' s dreams o f a new  is  life.  The  f u t u r e home i n t h e n o r t h r e p r e s e n t s a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o w o r l d o f f a l s e frameworks and the i n n e r l e v e l  subsequent c o n f u s i o n .  the Here  i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a q u i e t s e r e n i t y and  f l o w i n g l y r i c a l rhythm w e l l s u i t e d t o her v i s i o n o f a s i m p l e , happy f u t u r e : -the house, dappled w i t h m i s t y l i g h t t h a t f e l l s o f t l y t h r o u g h t h e s m a l l new l e a v e s , a n d t h e n t h e m i s t r o l l i n g away a c r o s s t h e w a t e r , a n d t h e n m o u n t a i n s , s t i l l w h i t e w i t h snow a p p e a r i n g s h a r p a n d c l e a r a g a i n s t t h e b l u e s k y , a n d b l u e wood smoke f r o m t h e d r i f t w o o d f i r e c u r l i n g out o f the chimney. (UV.501)  80  The p e a c e f u l tone and beauty suggested by t h i s  idyllise  scene c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the antagonism and u g l i n e s s of  the performance In  not  i n the b u l l r i n g .  Chapter X the Consul's thoughts are c o u n t e r p o i n t e d  o n l y w i t h a c o n v e r s a t i o n i n the next room b u t a l s o  w i t h the comments of a t r a v e l f o l d e r .  In the  first  v e r s i o n o f the chapter o n l y two elements were p l a c e d i n c o u n t e r p o i n t - the Consul's thoughts and the c o n v e r s a t i o n between Hugh and Yvonne - and T l a x c a l a was  r e f e r r e d to  only b r i e f l y when P i r m i n p o i n t e d "to an advertisement on' the  w a l l which s a i d i n E n g l i s h : T o u r i s t s ! Come to b e a u t i -  ful  T l a x c a l a ! " (W1N,X,14=)  But d u r i n g r e v i s i o n Lowry r e -  minded h i m s e l f i n a m a r g i n a l note on t h i s page to "Work up T l a x c a l a n t h i n g from f o l d e r " and went on t o expand the scene so t h a t we are aware.of  t h r e e simultaneous moods or  approaches. On the o u t e r l e v e l we hear Hugh and Yvonne d i s c u s s i n g the  events o f the day,,, t r y i n g to understand j u s t what had  happened by the r o a d s i d e .  I n a marginal note i n the  working notes Lowry says t h a t "Prom here on j u s t s t a r t e d dinner first:  they have  i t s h o u l d be w r i t t e n as a p l a y ,  one must hear the d i a l o g u e . " (WN,X,,9)  We hear t h i s  d i a l o g u e through the consciousness of the Consul who left  the t a b l e and i s s i t t i n g alone i n the Tavern's  grey bathroom that " l o o k e d l i k e a tomb;"  has cold,  I f Hugh and  Yvonne's c o n v e r s a t i o n i s to be read as a play,, the Consul i s a one-man audience; t r a p p e d w i t h i n the tomb o f h i s own i s o l a t i o n , he i s an onlooker who  can no l o n g e r p a r t i c i p a t e .  And y e t t h e r e i s a l s o a sense o f power i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , for  i f P i r m i n cannot p a r t i c i p a t e , n e i t h e r does he  as Hugh and Yvonne do.  struggle  He stands ( o r r a t h e r s i t s ) a l o o f  from the a c t i o n and reads a comical t r a v e l f o l d e r , the "program" f o r the p l a y . man,  Once a g a i n P i r m i n i s the "obscure  s i t t i n g a t the c e n t r e o f the w o r l d i n a bathroom . . .  t h i n k i n g s o l i t a r y m i s e r a b l e thoughts" and "even while he  81 was  t h i n k i n g , i t was  as i f b e h i n d t h e scenes  certain  strings  w e r e p u l l e d » . . a n d c a l a m i t y moved n e a r e r . " ( U V . 1 7 4 ) A s Hugh a n d Y v o n n e d i s c u s s M e x i c a n and h i s t o r y ,  society,  politics,  the t r a v e l f o l d e r o f f e r s a methodical guide  t o the stage s e t t i n g - the "geographic s i t u a t i o n " the c l i m a t e , hydrography,  historic sites.  The  (W.525).  comments  o f the f o l d e r p r o v i d e an i r o n i c c o u n t e r p o i n t t o b o t h Consul's i n n e r w o r l d and the o u t e r w o r l d ; the  folder,  w i t h confident p r e c i s i o n , locates the State of i n terms  the  Tlaxcala  o f l a t i t u d e and l o n g i t u d e , b u t the dominant  s t a t e o f t h e C o n s u l , Hugh, a n d Yvonne i s one A f t e r the opening o f the scene C o n s u l m e d i t a t e s o n why  of  dislocation.  i n t h e b a t h r o o m , when t h e  he i s t h e r e , we  e c t l y i n t o h i s m i n d f o r a w h i l e ; we ence o n l y t h r o u g h the p a r a g r a p h s  do n o t s e e  dir-  a r e aware o f h i s p r e s -  he r e a d s f r o m t h e  folder  w h i c h a r e p l a c e d i n a c o n t r a p u n t a l s e r i e s w i t h t h e comments i n t h e n e x t room.  B u t s o o n t h e fragmented,,  q u a l i t y of the o u t e r scene  disorderly  i s m a t c h e d w i t h c o n f u s i o n on  t h e i n n e r l e v e l a s t h e comments r e a d f r o m t h e f o l d e r b e g i n t o r e f l e c t t h e C o n s u l ' s s t a t e o f mind:  -  The C a p i t a l o f t h e s t a t e v . . . h a s a b e a u t i f u l C e n t r a l Park . . . covered by . . . a garden c l o t h e d b y many b e a u t i f u l f l o w e r s : s e a t s a l l o v e r , f o u r clean, seats a l l over, f o u r c l e a n and w e l l a r r a n g e d l a t e r a l avenues. (UV,327)  F i n a l l y the Consul's i n n e r w o r l d takes over completely and  i n s t e a d o f h e a r i n g Hugh a n d Y v o n n e ' s f r a g m e n t a r y  v e r s a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t o u r i s t f o l d e r p a r a g r a p h s , , we  conhear  o n l y a c h a o t i c s e r i e s o f comments, c o n s i s t i n g o f r e m a r k s F i r m i n h a s h e a r d o r s a i d d u r i n g t h e day a n d i s remembering.  H e r e t h e i n n e r w o r l d d o e s n o t t a k e on  now a  f l o w i n g rhythm, b u t i t i s marked by a h e i g h t e n e d tone. choppy rhythm  of the incomplete, d i s j o i n t e d  remarks  c r e a t e s a mood o f d e s p e r a t i o n a n d s u g g e s t s t h e f i c a t i o n o f F i r m i n ' s sense o f p e r s e c u t i o n :  intensi-  The  82 'I'm w a t c h i n g y o u . . You c a n ' t e s c a p e me.' ' - t h i s i s n o t j u s t e s c a p i n g . I mean, l e t ' s s t a r t a g a i n , r e a l l y , and c l e a n l y . ' ' I t h i n k I know t h e p l a c e . ' 'I can see you.' '-where a r e t h e l e t t e r s G e o f f r e y P i r m i n . . . ' ( U V , 3 3 l ) r  The  last  o f these  remembered comments - "A c o r p s e w i l l b e  t r a n s p o r t e d b y -" i s i r o n i c a l l y f o l l o w e d b y one f i n a l e x c e r p t from t h e f o l d e r , t h e " R a i l r o a d and Bus S e r v i c e " timetable.  (UY,552)  L i k e a c u r t a i n calmly lowered  p l a y , the o r d e r l y r a i l w a y schedule scrambled  on. a  s i g n a l s t h e end o f t h e  dialogue.  I n t h i s e x p a n d e d s c e n e i n t h e Salon. O f e l i a we a r e a w a r e o f t h r e e moods o r o u t l o o k s o p e r a t i n g  simultaneously:  a t one e n d o f t h e s p e c t r u m , on t h e i n n e r l e v e l , Consul's  i s the  a l o o f despair and confusion; a t the opposite ex-  treme t h e r e i s t h e m a t t e r - o f - f a c t complacency a n d superficial  order of the t o u r i s t folder, representing the o f -  f i c i a l , public level;  a n d i n b e t w e e n , on. t h e l e v e l o f i n -  t e r a c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s , there i s both honest  recog-  n i t i o n o f c h a o s a n d a h o p e f u l a t t e m p t t o make some s e n s e out  of.it. In the f i n a l  chapter, as the Consul  sits  i n the  F a r o l i t o , the central focus of h i s consciousness, letter, 395)  Yvonne's  i s c o u n t e r p o i n t e d w i t h " a n a l i e n e l e m e n t , " (UV.  the conversations  c a r r i e d on a r o u n d h i m .  Inher  l e t t e r Y v o n n e p l e a d s w i t h G e o f f r e y t o " s e i z e t h e immense potential  strength you f i g h t  . . . r e s t o r e t o me t h e s a n i t y  t h a t l e f t when y o u f o r g o t me."  (UV,395)  Again t h i s  inner  l e v e l i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the e x t e r n a l n o t only i n subj e c t m a t t e r b u t a l s o i n mood a n d s t y l e .  The l e t t e r h a s  an u r g e n t ,  f o r reconcili-  i n t e n s e t o n e a s Yvonne p l e a d s  a t i o n and the paragraphs from i t read l i k e passages o f free  verse:  83 You a r e one "born t o w a l k i n t h e l i g h t . your head out o f the w h i t e sky y o u f l o u n d e r element. You t h i n k y o u a r e l o s t , h u t i t i s the s p i r i t s o f l i g h t w i l l h e l p y o u and h e a r s p i t e o f y o u r s e l f and beyond a l l o p p o s i t i o n o f f e r . (UV,395>  Plunging i n an a l i e n not so, f o r y o u up i n y o u may  As i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e e x t e r n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s g o i n g o n i n the  b a r suggest those v e r y f o r c e s o f b l i n d  stupidity, the  brutality,  a n d c o n f u s i o n which have d r i v e n the Consul t o  p o i n t where he cannot  "seize the strength w i t h i n  but canonly wait i n paralyzed i s o l a t i o n s o o n t o come.  him"  f o r the death  We h e a r t h e v o i c e o f Weber a g a i n - "0  C h r i s t , i t ' s a shame: t h e h o r s e s a l l g o away k i c k i n g i n t h e d u s t . . . . They p l u g g e d nouces,  'em t o o . "(JJV>395)  A sailor an-  " I ' v e g o t a n a w f u l m i n d . " (UV.395) The r a d i o  f u t i l e l y a s k s " ^ Q u i e r e u s t e f i l a s a l v a c i b n de M e j i c o ? " (UY,396) As F i r m i n t r i e s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e l e t t e r , a pimp hangs onto him, j a b b e r i n g  incoherently.  T h i s c o u n t e r p o i n t e d scene i n the F a r o l i t o cally ironic  i s tragi-  f o r i t reminds u s o f the scene i n Chapter I  where L a r u e l l e s i t s a t a b a r r e a d i n g the C o n s u l ' s d e s p e r ate  letter  t o Y v o n n e , w r i t t e n d u r i n g one o f h i s t o r t u r e d  n i g h t s , , " t h e n i g h t l y g r a p p l i n g w i t h d e a t h . " (UV,62)  Just  a s t h e i r m o s t s e r i o u s a n d d e s p e r a t e t h o u g h t s a r e doomed to  the f u t i l i t y  of silent  communication which p r o v i d e s an  ironic  c o u n t e r p o i n t t o spoken d i a l o g u e , so b o t h o f these  letters  are f u t i l e f o r the Consul's i s never m a i l e d and  Yvonne's l e t t e r  i s read too l a t e .  I f t h e s e "two h a l v e s o f  a c o u n t e r p o i s e d d r a w b r i d g e " (UV,228) c o u l d h a v e somehow met  s o o n e r , p e r h a p s Y v o n n e ' s f a i t h t h a t G e o f f r e y was "one  b o r n t o w a l k i n t h e l i g h t " (UV,395) c o u l d h a v e s a v e d h i m from h i s dark n i g h t s o f h o r r o r . Thevery letters  f a c t t h a t we c a n s e e t h i s p a t t e r n , s e e t h e  as "halves," parts o f a u n i f i e d  whole,  affirms  84  Lowry's statement  that h i s multiple counterpointed  m e n t s f i n a l l y w o r k w i t h r a t h e r t h a n a g a i n s t one " l i k e two m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . " novel enables  ele-  another,  The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e  us t o sense s i m u l t a n e i t y i n t h i s  multiplicity.  85 NOTES TO CHAPTER I V  M. F r i e d m a n , S t r e a m  n f ConacinuRness p.16. f  A New D i c t i o n a r y n f M u s i c . ( L o n d o n : A r t h u r J a c o b s & Co.,1958),p.86. 3 4  Cassell  F r i e d m a n , p. 125-6. C o n r a d A i k e n , " C o u n t e r p o i n t a n d I m p l i c a t i o n , " The Divine P i l g r i m . (Athens:University of Georgia Press, 1916),p.286. E.K. B r o w n , Rhythm i n t h e N o v e l p . 8 . T  A l d o u s H u x l e y , P o i n t C o u n t e r p o i n t (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Bros.,1947),p.23. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  Lowry,  Selected Letters  T  p. 7 5 .  f  p. 72.  I b i d . ,,p. 6 1 I b i d . ,p.62. F r i e d m a n , p. 126. Lowry,  Selected Letters  I b i d . ,p.80. I b i d . p.73. r  14  C.W.M. J o h n s o n , Forms o f Modern F i c t i o n . E d . W i l l i a m Van 0 ' C o n n o r . ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948),p.207.  15  C i t e d b y L„ E d e l , P s y c h o l o g i c a l N o v e l p . 1 2 6 . }  16  V i r g i n i a Woolf,"The Narrow B r i d g e o f A r t , " G r a n i t e a n d R a i n b o w ( L o n d o n : H o g a r t h Press,1958)„p.18.  86 17 18 19 20 21  Ibid.,, p. 12. Lowry,  Selected  Letters p.80. T  Ibld.,.p.80. Ibid..r>. 72. P.B. S h e l l e y , " P r e f a c e " t o A l a s t o r E n g l i s h Romantic P o e t r y a n d P r o s e . , (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956),p.967. T  22  I b i d . n.967. f  23 24  Times Lowry,  Literary  Supplement. J a n . 26,  S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p.  80.  1967,  p.58.  CHAPTER V THE END RESULT OP SIMULTANEITY: PATTERN  Through the use o f l e i t m o t i f and c o u n t e r p o i n t Lowry expanded moments and scenes t o render m u l t i p l e r e v e r b e r a t i o n s and moods, and the term " m u l t i p l i c i t y " has been used t o d i s c u s s t h i s e f f e c t . is  But m u l t i p l i c i t y , a f t e r  all,  o n l y a means t o the end o f s i m u l t a n e i t y - t o t r a n s c e n d  s u c c e s s i o n and u l t i m a t e l y express a t o t a l p a t t e r n and i d e a . To stop a t the a s s e r t i o n t h a t Lowry succeeds i n s u g g e s t i n g m u l t i p l i c i t y i s a rather l i m i t e d conclusion. Hoffman c o u l d take a study o f Huxley's P o i n t  When P.J. Counterpoint'  no f u r t h e r than t h i s , he r i g h t l y o b j e c t e d that there i s a s e r i o u s d e f e c t i n the n o v e l aiming a t m u l t i p l i c i t y p e r se f o r i t " a c t u a l l y escapes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l i f e by a c c e p t i n g and e n t e r t a i n i n g mom e n t a r i l y each o f them."* When the would-be w r i t e r P h i l i p Quarles, a c h a r a c t e r mouthpiece i n P o i n t Counterpoint for  some o f Huxley's t e c h n i c a l t h e o r i e s , expresses h i s  a m b i t i o n as a n o v e l i s t , the l i m i t e d nature o f h i s aim i s evident: M u l t i p l i c i t y o f eyes and m u l t i p l i c i t y o f a s p e c t s seen. Por i n s t a n c e , one p e r s o n i n t e r p r e t s events i n terms o f the p r i c e o f f l a n n e l camisoles . . . . . Each sees . . . a d i f f e r e n t aspect o f the event, a different layer of reality. What I want t o do i s t o look w i t h a l l those eyes a t once./ 1  T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n suggests t h a t even i f Quarles d i d g e t his  n o v e l w r i t t e n , i t would be j u s t as vague and d i r e c -  t i o n l e s s as h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e . statement  is:  To what end?  The obvious r e p l y t o h i s  The f a c t t h a t people view the  same event i n d i f f e r e n t ways i s not, a f t e r a l l , a s t a r t l i n g r e v e l a t i o n , and once one has demonstrated  technical  v i r t u o s i t y i n r e n d e r i n g t h i s phenomenon on the p r i n t e d page, where would h i s "new way o f l o o k i n g , " h i s " m u s i c a l -  88 ized fiction" H u x l e y ' s new of the  lead to? way  Hoffman c o n c l u d e s ,  of l o o k i n g o f f e r s an  " v i t a l i t y which ideas had  result i s R.G.  although  interesting picture  i n the 1920's," the  final  confusion. C o l l i n s o f f e r s a s i m i l a r warning ahout  danger i n h e r e n t "To  As  i n presenting  the  m u l t i p l i c i t y when he  says:  a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t a v i e w o f chaos i s t o l e a v e  one's  s e l f open t o the  charge of p r e s e n t i n g  a chaotic  view."  L o w r y , h o w e v e r , managed t o s u g g e s t m u l t i p l i c i t y a n d s t i l l a c h i e v e the u l t i m a t e contained  aim  not  of s i m u l t a n e i t y - a  p a t t e r n ; he.not only expanded hut  expanded s t r u c t u r e a u n i t y . r e f e r t o any  Here the  r i g i d form hut  w h i c h "causes us  t o see  yet self-  a l s o gave  term " p a t t e r n "  rather simply  that does  to that •  the hook as a w h o l e . "  As  E.M.  F o r s t e r s u m m a r i z e s , " ' P a t t e r n , ' w h i c h seems so r i g i d ,  is  c o n c e r n e d w i t h a t m o s p h e r e , w h i c h seems so f l u i d . " ' '  The  m u l t i p l e moods a n d  the  teeming r e v e r b e r a t i o n s  V o l c a n o do n o t m e r e l y c l a s h w i t h one conglomeration but  another i n a  i n s t e a d are h e l d together  v a i l i n g atmosphere of dramatic t e n s i o n . structure there  i s a c o n t i n u a l r i s i n g and  t h e movement f r o m h o p e a n d and back again; so t h a t , a s  but  Out  of poised  tension,  i t s height  order,  L o w r y has  the  pre—  Within  the  total  falling action, • and  chaos,  c o m b i n e d t h e s e movements d o m i n a n t t h e m a t i c mood  o f t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y emerges t h e the  loose  by  to despair  i n a l y r i c a l poem, one  results.  i n Under  tension  atmosphere  o f a huge wave s w o l l e n  yet about to crash.  A l t h o u g h the n o v e l  w i t h a downward movement, b e c a u s e t h e wave p a t t e r n  to  ends of  r i s i n g and  f a l l i n g has b e e n f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d b y  the  c h a p t e r we  do n o t  arbi-  f e e l t h a t the  t r a r i l y r e s o l v e d but  rather wait  c o n f l i c t has b e e n expectantly  f o r the i n -  e v i t a b l e a n t i t h e s i s t o t h i s movement, l o o k i n g b a c k t o beginning  of the  c y c l e i n Chapter I .  last  Thus t h e  the  structure  89 o f Under the V o l c a n o i s c i r c u l a r r a t h e r t h a n l i n e a r transcends And  the events and i n t h i s very  chronology o f the n a r r a t i v e .  s t r u c t u r e method and p u r p o s e  c l o s e l y l i n k e d , f o r the  c i r c u l a r form not  Lowry's v i s i o n of " e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e . " has  "Technique i s not noted:  The  century's call  an  "open e x p e r i e n c e "  v i s i o n of l i f e :  the n o v e l ,  'The  This  "endlessness"  w i t h i n the  individual;  t o a c t , he  is still  does n o t  patterns and  act.  . .  l a t e r he The  gives  the  circle  is  through  created  upon the  shoes."  candle  even though the  C o n s u l has  be an  ceased of  why  "little  (UV,89) w i t h h i s  stick  o f the p o r c h  tiles  (UV,100) tension  which  c i r c u l a r motion i t s impetus i s r e i n images o f suspended m o t i o n .  "the  f l a r e l i t up  In  the  Consul's l e t t e r  into  the whole c a n t i n a  with  i n which the f i g u r e s a t the bar  appeared, f o r an i n s t a n t , f r o z e n , a mural."(UV,68) d a r k e n e d c i n e m a , t h e men  of l i g h t  to  t o w a r d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  when L a r u e l l e h e l d t h e  flame,  experience  nnnstant, s t r u g g l e  p r e v a i l i n g atmosphere o f p o i s e d  chapter,  twentieth  e n d l e s s n e s s h a s become  " t r a c e d a p a t t e r n on one  the novel's  the  Yvonne n o t i c e s t h a t he makes  a burst of b r i l l i a n c e the  the  i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t i n Under  groping  f o r c e d throughout by first  tech-  c o n s i s t e n t l y t u r n s out  l i k e a b l i n d man"  w i t h h i s dress f  reflects  "when, i n t h e  End'  the Volcano which focuses  he  Schorer  As A l a n F r i e d m a n e m p h a s i z e s  another opening i n experience, o end."  points  T u r n o f t h e Novel,, t h e m o d e r n n o v e l i s t ' s t e n d e n c y  to present we  the  f l u x of l i f e presented  wave p a t t e r n i s n e v e r - e n d i n g . in  J u s t as  us  renders  Collins  o f some m o d e r n n o v e l i s t s ,  n i q u e becomes meaning i t s e l f . " n e v e r - e n d i n g , so t h e  As  also  o n l y d i s c o v e r y , as Mark  i n the work  are  only forces  t o v i e w t h e n o v e l , a s a n autonomous, whole,, h u t out,  and  wait  - "a s o l i d d a r k f r i e z e  s e r i o u s , m o u s t a c h i o e d men,  s i l e n t l y f o r the  carved  i n t o the  . . .  In return  wall,  w a r r i o r s w a i t i n g f o r the  show t o  90  "begin, f o r a g l i m p s e o f t h e m u r d e r e r ' s b l o o d s t a i n e d hands," (UV,55)  When Y v o n n e r e t u r n s t o Quauhnahuac s h e  f o c u s e s upon " t h e i r square, m o t i o n l e s s and b r i l l i a n t the seven o ' c l o c k morning e x p e c t a n t . " (UV.7I.)  s u n l i g h t y e t somehow p o i s e d ,  She n o t e s t h a t t h e C a l l e  is  "full  of  f r o z e n e r u p t i o n . " (UV,85)  Nicaragua  o f l u n a r p o t h o l e s and i n t h a t well-known  Mexico, walks towards stinctively  in  state  A s Hugh, j u s t r e t u r n e d t o  t h e C o n s u l ' s h o u s e , he somehow i n -  s t o p s on t h e edge o f a deep p o t h o l e ,  And t h e n h i s h e a r t and t h e w o r l d s t o p p e d t o o ; t h e horse h a l f over the h u r d l e , the d i v e r , the g u i l l o t i n e , t h e h a n g e d man f a l l i n g , t h e m u r d e r e r ' s b u l l e t a n d t h e c a n n o n ' s b r e a t h , i n S p a i n o r ChSna f r o z e n i n m i d a i r , t h e w h e e l , t h e p i s t o n , p o i s e d - (UV,122) B e y o n d t h e moment o f t e n s i o n may  l i e a triumphant  curve-  t h e a r c o f a s u c c e s s f u l l y e x e c u t e d jump o r d i v e , o r t h e downward p a t h o f d e s t r u c t i o n - t h e f a l l t h e t r a p d o o r on t h e s c a f f o l d . sense  Here the  or  individual's  o f s u s p e n s i o n i s e x t e n d e d t o t h e macrocosm t o i n -  c l u d e S p a i n and China, areas o f c r i s i s munist forces fought f o r c o n t r o l . spirit now  of the blade  i n 1938  a s com-  S i n c e Hugh s e e s  o f communism as t h e f o r c e w h i c h w i l l  save  the  mankind,  on t h e b r i n k o f d i s a s t e r , h i s e x t e n s i o n i s a n a t u r a l  one.  But  the Consul l a t e r emphasizes  s i d e h a s won,  no s t a b l e p e r m a n e n t s t a t e w i l l  f a s c i s t s triumph i n the Spanish be a s o r t o f ' f r e e z i n g ' the heat As  t h a t e v e n when  C i v i l War,  result;  i f the  "there'll  only  o f c u l t u r e i n S p a i n " (UV,129)  of ever-present f r i c t i o n  produces  a new  t h e C o n s u l wanders i n h i s g a r d e n , where  ordinary a c t i v i t y  everywhere  one  until  crisis. "extra-  s u r r o u n d e d h i m " ( U V , 168)  ,, he  i s f a s c i n a t e d b y t h e s p e c t a c l e o f a n i n s e c t on t h e b r i n k of  death yet s t i l l  Quincey's  cat:  s t r u g g l i n g i n the p o i s e d jaws  of  91  The c r e a t u r e h a d a t l a s t c a u g h t t h e i n s e c t h u t i n s t e a d o f d e v o u r i n g i t , s h e was h o l d i n g i t s b o d y , s t i l l u n i n j u r e d , d e l i c a t e l y between her t e e t h , w h i l e i t s l o v e l y luminous wings, s t i l l b e a t i n g , f o r the i n s e c t had not stopped f l y i n g an i n s t a n t , p r o t r u d e d from e i t h e r s i d e o f her w h i s k e r s . (UV 168) f  T h i s time the deadlock r e s u l t s i n a triumphant upward movement f o r when " O e d i p u s s "  finally  d e c i d e s t o end  her  v i c t i m ' s p r e c a r i o u s e x i s t e n c e , she makes t h e m i s t a k e o p e n i n g h e r m o u t h "and t h e i n s e c t , whose w i n g s h a d  of  never  ceased t o b e a t , s u d d e n l y and m a r v e l l o u s l y f l e w o u t , as might up,  t h e human s o u l f r o m t h e j a w s o f d e a t h , f l e w u p ,  s o a r i n g over the t r e e s . "  (UV,169)  One  of the  up,  Consul's  h a l l u c i n a t i o n s take the form o f t h r e e hundred head o f cattle  "frozen s t i f f  i n the p o s t u r e s of the  living."  To Hugh, s e n s i n g t h e t e n s i o n on t h e b u s  (TJV,238)  l i n g t o T o m a l i n , t h e p e a s a n t women a p p e a r turned to stone." (UV,278)  travel-  "frozen . .  During the s e a r c h f o r the  C o n s u l , as t h e t h u n d e r announces t h e coming s t o r m , Yvonne senses phere.  "a p o i s e d a v a l a n c h e " ( U V . , 3 5 5 ) i n t h e c h a r g e d a t m o s As  i n the e a n t i n a scene  i n Chapter I , l i g h t i s  j u x t a p o s e d w i t h d a r k n e s s a n d when t h e l i g h t n i n g  stammers  a c r o s s t h e b l a c k l a n d s c a p e , Y v o n n e c a n make o u t  "frozen,  the minute b l a c k and w h i t e f i g u r e s " o f the p e o p l e i n the cemetery.(UV,353)  E v e n E l Popo h a s a " w i t h d r a w n ^  character." (UV,554) Yvonne  When t h e r e i s a l u l l  i n the  waiting storm  senses  a moment l i k e t h a t o f t h e t i d e ' s t u r n i n g , a n d y e t . t h a t was f i l l e d w i t h some q u a l i t y o f t h i s m o r n i n g s r i d e w i t h Hugh, some n i g h t e s s e n c e o f t h e i r s h a r e d morning thoughts, w i t h a w i l d sea-yearning of youth and l o v e and sorrow. ( U V 5 6 3 ) f  In  this  suspended  mopent. d e s p a i r a n d h o p e a r e f e l t  u l t a n e o u s l y . L a t e r , j u s t b e f o r e Yvonne's d e a t h "the was  simsky  a sheet o f w h i t e flame a g a i n s t w h i c h the t r e e s and  the  92 p o i s e d r e a r i n g h o r s e were an i n s t a n t p i n i o n e d " and  this  e x p a n d e d moment i n c l u d e s w h i r l i n g v i s i o n s o f "beauty horror:  and  the " h u r r i c a n e o f b e a u t i f u l b u t t e r f l i e s " and  b u r n i n g home, ( U V , 3 6 5 ) ; blossoms (UV,366)  a r o o f c o v e r e d w i t h w h i t e dogwood  and w r i t h i n g f l o w e r s ,  " b l a c k e n e d and b u r n i n g . "  As Yvonne w a i t s h e l p l e s s l y ,  would t h i s scene  she w o n d e r s -  "and  r e p e a t i t s e l f e n d l e s s l y and f o r e v e r ? -  horse, r e a r i n g , p o i s e d over her, p e t r i f i e d i n L a t e r , as the Consul s i t s  the  midair."(UV,365)  i n t h e F a r o l i t o , he f e e l s  h i s b r a i n i s "at an agonised s t a n d s t i l l . " t h o u g h he  the  (UV,375)  that Al-  s e n s e s h i s d e a t h i s near,,  I t was n o t t h e e n d q u i t e y e t . I t was a s i f h i s f a l l had been b r o k e n by a narrow l e d g e , a l e d g e from which he c o u l d n e i t h e r c l i m b up n o r down, on w h i c h he l a y b l o o d y and h a l f s t u n n e d , w h i l e f a r b e l o w him t h e a b y s s yawned, w a i t i n g . (UV,392) What makes t h i s wave p a t t e r n o f b a l a n c e d t e n s i o n s o e f f e c t i v e i n Under t h e V o l c a n o L o w r y ' s mood a n d theme.  A s E.M.  is i t s suitability  to  F o r s t e r comments, a n y o n e  c a n o r g a n i z e a p a t t e r n i n a n o v e l , a n d i f t h i s i s a l l he does t h e r e a d e r ' s v e r d i c t w i l l p r o b a b l y b e done, b u t n o t w o r t h d o i n g . "  "Beautifully  But Lowry's c a r e f u l  o f p a t t e r n i n Under the V o l c a n o e w a s f d e f i n i t e l y  building "worth  d o i n g " f o r i t a c t u a l l y r e n d e r s h i s c e n t r a l theme £ "ceaseless s t r u g g l i n g toward the l i g h t under the o f the p a s t , " the c o n s t a n t t e n s i o n i n the c o n s c i o u s n e s s and i n the w o r l d ' s h i s t o r y . charged atmosphere Lowry i s t e l l i n g us about h e l l f i r e , "  weight  individual Through  "something  this new  f o r i t i s the Consul's very p a s s i o n a t e  awareness o f the p o t e n t i a l f o r " l i g h t " so f i e r c e l y .  the  I f he h a d  that tortures  him  d e l i b e r a t e l y r e j e c t e d the w o r l d  a n d l o v e a s i r r e v o c a b l y doomed t o d a r k n e s s , h i s i s o l a t i o n would  somehow b e more b e a r a b l e ; b u t h i s i s o l a t i o n i s t h e  product of a paralysed w i l l  r a t h e r t h a n an a c t o f  will.  93 E v e n when he i s s i t t i n g  i n t h e F a r o l i t o , w e l l aware o f t h e  d a n g e r s u r r o u n d i n g h i m , he makes no e f f o r t t o e s c a p e , "both h i s w i l l ,  and time, which hadn't advanced f i v e  u t e s s i n c e he was (UV,399)  last  conscious of i t ,  min-  were p a r a l y z e d . "  A l t h o u g h he h a d h i m s e l f made t h i s  s i t u a t i o n p o s s i b l e by  for  dangerous  r u n n i n g away f r o m Yvonne a n d  Hugh,  h i s f l i g h t f r o m t h e S a l o n O f e l i a seems somehow i n v o l u n t a r y , a s i f he w e r e b e i n g c a r r i e d a l o n g i n a t i d e o f  self-  destruction i n spite of himself: He was r u n n i n g t o o , i n s p i t e o f h i s l i m p , c a l l i n g b a c k t o them c r a z i l y , a n d t h e q u e e r t h i n g was, he wasn't q u i t e s e r i o u s , r u n n i n g toward the f o r e s t , w h i c h was g r o w i n g d a r k e r a n d d a r k e r , t u m u l t u o u s above - a r u s h o f a i r swept out o f i t , and the w e e p i n g p e p p e r t r e e r o a r e d . . (UV,,545) Thus t h e d o m i n a n t wave p a t t e r n a n d t h e a t m o s p h e r e  of  p o i s e d t e n s i o n a c t u a l l y r e f l e c t theme r a t h e r t h a n merely p r o v i d i n g a container f o r i t . impulses  The  conflicting  i n the Consul r e s u l t i n tense p a r a l y s i s j u s t  as  t h e a p p a r e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g movements i n t h e wave p a t t e r n w o r k w i t h one  another t o form a t i g h t atmosphere of b a l -  anced, t e n s i o n . And  j u s t a s p a t t e r n i s w e l l s u i t e d t o theme, s o  the  v a r i o u s moods c o n t r i b u t i n g t o theme a r e w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s p r e s e n t i n g them.  I n The Age  of  Suspicion  N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e o b j e c t s t h a t whenever w r i t e r s t r y t o t a k e t h e i r r e a d e r s i n t o unknown r e g i o n s ( s u c h ' a s a man's private h e l l ) to t e l l the  them s o m e t h i n g  of "the e x i s t e n c e o f  'dark p l a c e s , ' " t h e y make t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s commit u n w o n t e d , m o n s t r o u s a c t s w h i c h t h e r e a d e r , c o m f o r t a b l y s e t t l e d i n h i s own c l e a r c o n s c i e n c e and f i n d i n g n o t h i n g i n t h e s e c r i m i n a l a c t s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d s t o what he h a s l e a r n e d t o s e e i n h i s own c o n d u c t , r e g a r d s w i t h p r o u d , h o r r i f i e d c u r i o s i t y , then q u i e t l y thrusts aside to r e t u r n to h i s own a f f a i r s , a s he does e v e r y m o r n i n g a n d e v e r y e v e n i n g a f t e r r e a d i n g h i s newspaper, w i t h o u t the heavy shadow t h a t s u b m e r g e s h i s own d a r k p l a c e s h a v i n g l i f t e d for a single second. I V  94  Here S a r r a u t e a c c u r a t e l y p o i n t s t o t h e m a j o r problem f a c i n g t h e w r i t e r who t r i e s t o go b e y o n d t h e e v e r y d a y reality  o f " t h e l i f e a n d d e a t h o f some k n i g h t  called  S m i t h who d i d much f o r t h e p o o r o f L i v e r p o o l a n d d i e d l a s t Wednesday o f p n e u m o n i a . "  I t i sfairly  e a s y t o draw t h e  r e a d e r i n t o a, v a r i a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d he s e e s e v e r y d a y , b u t it  i s very d i f f i c u l t  t o make t h e w o r l d b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e  seem r e a l a n d v i t a l , n o t j u s t some " l a b o r e d To u s e T o l s t o y ' s p h r a s e , the author's  t h e r e a d e r must b e " i n f e c t e d b y  c o n d i t i o n o f ' s o u l " i n order f o rt h i s  submersion t o take p l a c e .  total  L o w r y i s a b l e t o submerge u s  i n the world under the volcano for  phantasmagoria.  and i n the Consul's  he " i n f e c t s " u s w i t h h i s v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y ;  hell  he h a s  w e l d e d man a n d o u t e r w o r l d , t h e d a r k p l a c e s o f t h e m i n d and t h e o u t e r r e a l i t y ,  so s k i l f u l l y  t h a t we c a n n o t s i t  b a c k a s we r e a d a n d s a y " t h i s i s p a r t o f my w o r l d " "that i s p a r t o f the curious Consul's proves  world."  while  Lowry  dis-  S a r r a u t e ' s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f o r he manages b o t h t o  t e l l us about dark p l a c e s and y e t s t i l l p r e s e n t w h i c h seem v e r y  actions  "wonted" i n t e r m s o f t h e autonomous w o r l d  he h a s c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e novej.. Both P o i n t Counterpoint  a n d Under t h e V o l c a n o  cerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h i d e a s , b u t w h i l e Huxley l o o s e l y j u g g l e s o r ."toys w i t h i d e a s , , " " L o w r y v i s i o n o f h i s idea through  a rendered  J o h n McCormick c o i n e d t h e term  a r e con-  merely  presents a  organic unity.  "cognitive novelist" to  d e s c r i b e a w r i t e r s u c h a s L o w r y who a i m s a t p r e s e n t i n g i d e a y e t does n o t r e d u c e h i s c h a r a c t e r s t o " d i s g u i s e d ideas o r disembodied  editorials.  Although  a new l a b e l  i s n o t i n i t s e l f v e r y i m p o r t a n t , McCormick's d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s term  i s r e l e v a n t t o a s t u d y o f t h e making o f Under  the Volcano  f o r i t f o c u s e s u p o n what g o e s i n t o t h e m a k i n g  o f a man c a p a b l e  o f w r i t i n g such a n o v e l :  95  The c o g n i t i v e n o v e l i s t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , i s t h e w r i t e r who' h a s e n c o m p a s s e d w i t h h i s m i n d t h e o r d e r d e f y i n g h i s t o r y o f o u r t i m e , a n d he h a s i n a d d i t i o n comprehended and a c c e p t e d t h a t h i s t o r y w i t h h i s e m o t i o n s t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t he i s a b l e t o p r o j e c t the dual comprehension m e a n i n g f u l l y i n the n o v e l . 1 8  By  c o n f i n i n g each chapter  v i e w , L o w r y was place  t o one  a b l e t o emphasize d i s t i n c t  them i n c o u n t e r p o i n t .  t i o n a l a s w e l l as  But  outlook  characters."  The  i s that although  awareness o f chaos and  these chapters  sensibility,  the  d i r e c t i o n of love i s impossible.  a l c o h o l i c haze represents  the  spirit  done, b u t  does n o t  i s past  s i n amar,"  constant.  1  But  f u n c t i o n m e r e l y as a "symbol" f o r the  the w o r l d ' s drunkenness,, a " t h e a t r i c a l d r u n k a r d h i m s e l f a t d e s t r u c t i o n " ; i n s t e a d "he a s a t r a g i c , , r e a l r o u n d e d man fully  c o m b i n e d man  do n o t  and w o r l d  Firmin  "times," flinging  emotion, b e a u t i -  Because Lowry has  i n t o an o r g a n i c p a t t e r n  have the u n c o m f o r t a b l e f e e l i n g t h a t "the  o f i d e a " c o u l d be  to  r i s e s from the page  o f mind and  inside..  is  o f what needs no  e f f e c t i v e coordination.  f u l l y r e a l i z e d from the  himself  that action i n  Firmin s and  and  Consul's  t h i s s u s p e n d e d s t a t e - he  aware o f what i s h a p p e n i n g a r o u n d him be  turn  near destruction i n both  the macrocosm so p a r a l y z e s  emo-  intellectual  the  "no|i se p u e d e v i v i r  and  are  idea dominating the  and  of  outlooks  i n t e l l e c t u a l u n i t s f o r "the  p o s i t i o n s b e l o n g f i r m l y to the b e n d of the  character's point  carewe  thin layer  e a s i l y r e m o v e d , f o r , as M c C o r m i c k sum-  marizes, i n the c o g n i t i v e n o v e l i d e a s , c h a r a c t e r , and s i t u a t i o n become m e a n i n g l e s s i f we a t t e m p t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f r e m o v i n g f r o m t h e i r t o t a l d i m e n s i o n t h e obj e c t i v e framework o f i d e a i n which the c h a r a c t e r s l i v e and have b e i n g . ^ I n t r a c i n g j u s t how we  have l o o k e d n o t  Lowry b u i l t t h i s  "total  dimension"  only a t the f i n i s h e d product but  also  at  96  the making of t h a t p r o d u c t - the revisions,  Finally,  must s t a n d  on i t s own,  does. able  But b y t o see  niques,  v e r s i o n was  of course, a f i n i s h e d and  studying how  the  changed by  says that w h i l e  "the  p l o r e what might be  Under the V o l c a n o  revision.  not  called  critic  our  analyzing  own  i n Under the Volcano,, by  and  have been a b l e  temporarily  so  We  what universe  on t h e  earlier  versions the  i n view of t h i s evidence,  e n c o u r a g e d t o go b e y o n d t h e n a r r a t i v e t o s e e  u n i v e r s a l s c o p e o f h i s theme. t h a t he  we  the  Lowry's achievement i n was  dense, expanded s t r u c t u r e w i t h an not  The  t o expand the n a r r a t i v e to a c h i e v e  sense o f s i m u l t a n e i t y and,  dramatic tension  we  looking behind  to " d e r i v e " from the n a t u r a l  U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o was  do  closely  t o see more c l e a r l y  h i s major r e v i s i o n s had was  the  techniques;  s i n c e t e c h n i q u e and purpose are  striving  of the n o v e l  we  of  thus b e t t e r understand the p o l i s h e d p r o d u c t i  effect  are  ex-  response to the p o l i s h e d produc-  linked  L o w r y was  i s to  i s "to explore  rehearsal  But,  s c e n e s we  rightly  the n a t u r a l u n i v e r s e  tion. the  earlier  Collins  f u n c t i o n o f the a r t i s t  tech-  d e r i v e d f r o m t h e n a t u r a l one."  judge a p l a y by  judge only by  R.G.  are  that  o f a scene i n an  meaning," the f u n c t i o n of the a r t i s t i c universe  certainly  the purpose g u i d i n g  effect  and  work o f a r t  t h e m a k i n g o f t h e n o v e l , we  more c l e a r l y  t o see  e a r l i e r manuscripts  able  to infuse  organic  unity  this through  so t h a t theme a n d p a t t e r n become one  o n l y u n d e r s t a n d theme b u t  also experience i t .  and  97 B O T E S TO  Hoffman, Forma Huxley, Point 3  H o f f m a n , p.  4  R.G.  of  CHAPTER  Fiction,  Counterpoint,  P.  V  193.  p.  200.  Collins,  "Four C r i t i c a l  Interpretations,"  p.28.  F o r s t e r , A s p e c t s o f t h e N o v e l , p.215.. I n R h y t h m i n t h e N o v e l E.K. B r o w n b u i l d s u p o n F o r s t e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n of rhythm - " r e p e t i t i o n w i t h v a r i a t i o n , " as he d i s c u s s e s t h e e f f e c t s a c h i e v e d i n n o v e l s t h r o u g h the use o f "expanding symbols" and "interweaving themes." H i s summary o f t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t c r e a t e d b y t h i s v a r i e d r e p e t i t i o n o f theme and symbol is s i m i l a r to Forster's d e s c r i p t i o n of "pattern": this r e p e t i t i o n " s o l i c i t s the reader's a t t e n t i o n f o r something beyond the p a r t i c u l a r set of pepple, the p a r t i c u l a r sequence of events, the p a r t i c u l a r concatenation of settings."(p.85) A l t h o u g h Brown does not u s e t h e term " p a t t e r n , " h i s "something beyond" suggests the u n i f i e d p a t t e r n w h i c h i s the p r o d u c t JQ£ the v a r i o u s elements i n t h e n o v e l and y e t a l s o t r a n s c e n d s them. S i m i l a r l y , i n An I n t r o d u c t i o n t n the E n g l i s h N o v e l (London:Hutchinson U n i v e r s i t y Library,1951), Arnold K e t t l e s t r e s s e s that the p a t t e r n of a novel i s not a r i g i d f o r m s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e " l i f e " d e p i c t e d i n t h e n o v e l , b u t r a t h e r i s " t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f Cthe n o v e l i s t ' s v i s i o n o f w h a t e v e r i n l i f e he i s d e a l i n g w i t h . " ( p . 1 6 ) K e t t l e s a y s t h a t " l i f e a n d p a t t e r n " a r e t h e two e l e m e n t s present i n " a l l novels which are s u c c e s s f u l works of art" a n d w h i l e t h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e "to some e x t e n t separable," they are "emphatically not separate."(p.13) :  6  Forster, p . 2 1 5 .  7 Collins,  p.26.  8 A. F r i e d m a n d i s t i n g u i s h e s h i s u s e o f t h e t e r m " o p e n " f r o m t h e way i t i s a l r e a d y g e n e r a l l y u s e d i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to Strains of Discord: S t u d i e s i n L i t e r a r y O p e n n e s s ( I t h a c a h .Y. ,1 QfiR ) b y R o b e r t M. A d a m s : "By ' o p e n , ' A d a m s m e a n s t h e d e l i b e r a t e T  98 and major n o n r e s o l u t i o n of meanings i n a work. I use 'open' to r e f e r t o an ending which does not c o n t a i n or ' c l o s e o f f ' the r i s i n g p r e s s u r e s of conscience i n a novel." (p.xvi) A l a n Friedman, The T u r n o f t h e Novel.(New York:Oxford University Press,1966),p,xiii. 10 11  F o r s t e r , p.  235.  Lowry, S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , , p.  80.  i  12  N a t h a l i e Sarraute, The Age o-P S u s p i c i o n , t r a n s l a t e d by Maria J o l a s . (New York:George Braziller,,1963),p.96.  13  V i r g i n i a ; Woolf, The Common R e a d e r , F i r s t S e r i e s . (New York:Harcourt, Brace and World,,1925),p.,149.  14  Lowry, S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , p.  1  5  80.  Leo T o l s t o y , What i s Art.(New York;Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,1962),p.228. John McCormick, Catastrophe and Imagination.(New York: Longmans,Green & Co.,1957),p.287.  17 18  Ib_id.,,p.85. I b i d . ,p.85 I b i d . ,P.87 There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g resemblance between G e o f f r e y F i r m i n and what P e t e r Axthelm, i n The.Modern Crmfessional Novel (New Haven:Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press,1967), c a l l s the " c o n f e s s i o n a l hero": " T h i s . . . i s the c o n f e s s i o n a l hero - a f f l i c t e d and unbalanced, d i s i l l u s i o n e d and g ro ping f o r meaning. He f a c e s many of the same p r o b lems which confront every modern hero but i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by h i s r e a c t i o n to them. He views h i s c o n d i t i o n not w i t h anger but w i t h a deep i n t e r n a l p a i n ; he r e j e c t s external r e b e l l i o n i n favor of s e l f - l a c e r a t i o n . . . . f o r him the only p o s s i b l e order or value must be found i n s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A f t e r Notes from the Underground-, t h i s hero_beccmes i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  99  capable o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l ' m e d i t a t i o n s and prone t o l i t erary allusions. H o w e v e r , he n e v e r l o s e s h i s huge c a p a c i t y f o r s u f f e r i n g and i s c o n s t a n t l y t o r n by v i o l e n t e m o t i o n s and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e c o m p u l s i o n s . The hero's confession often takes place i n a c e l l . ..." (p.9) P i r m i n l a c e r a t e s h i m s e l f a s he s u b m i t s t o t h e r e p r o a c h e s and p e r s i s t e n t q u e s t i o n s o f h i s " f a m i l i a r s " a n d he h i m s e l f c o m p a r e s t h e b a t h r o o m i n t h e S a l o n O f e l i a , w h e r e he s i t s i s o l a t e d , t o "a s t o n e m o n a s t i c cell." T h e r e he a s k s "Why was he h e r e ? Why was he a l w a y s more o r l e s s , h e r e ? " a n d knows o n l y t o o w e l l t h a t he c a n f i n d t h e a n s w e r o n l y i n h i m s e l f J " H e would have been g l a d of a m i r r o r , to ask h i m s e l f that question."(UV,324) 21  M c C o r m i c k , p. 2 2  23  I h j j i . ,p.85. C o l l i n s , p..  86.  1.  100 GLOSSARY  Simultaneity:  I n t h i s t h e s i s the term " s i m u l t a n e i t y " r e f e r s t o a r t i s t i c form. Specifically, i t r e f e r s t o t h e e f f e c t of d e n s i t y and exp a n s i o n Lowry a c h i e v e d b y e n r i c h i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e l e v e l through the use o f l e i t motif and counterpoint. I n other words, Under t h e V o l p.ann s u g g e s t s " s i m u l t a n e i t y " i n t h a t we a r e a w a r e o f s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f e x p r e s s i o n o p e r a t i n g a t t h e same t i m e .  Leitmotif:  I n musical terms, " l e i t m o t i f " r e f e r s t o a melody a s s o c i a t e d throughout a p i e c e o f m u s i c w i t h some p e r s o n , s i t u a t i o n , o r sentiment. T r a n s f e r r e d t o l i t e r a r y terms, " l e i t m o t i f " r e f e r s t o a r e c u r r i n g image,, symbol, word o r phrase which c a r r i e s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c e r t a i n i d e a o r theme.  Counterpoint:  I n m u s i c a l terms,, " c o u n t e r p o i n t " r e f e r s t o t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f two o r more m e l o d i e s . I n l i t e r a r y terms, "counterp o i n t r e f e r s t o t h e arrangement o f two o r more t o n e s , t h e m e s , o r i n c i d e n t s s o a s t o give the e f f e c t o f simultaneous presentation.  101  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I.  PRIMARY SOURCES  L o w r y , M a l c o l m . Sel eote-fl L e t t e r s o f Malcolm Harvey B r e i t a n d Margerie Bonner Lowry. J.B. Lippincott,1965.  • S e l e c t e d PnftniR o f Malcolm Lowry San  Francisco:  City  Lights  Books,  Lnwrv fid. f  New  York:  e d , Earle 1967.  Birney.  T  . " U n d e r t h e V o l c a n o , " Canadian Winter's T a l e s , e d . N o r m a n L e v i n e . T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f Canada,,1968.  . Under the Volcano- N e w Y o r k : N e w Library, The  Malcolm Lowry The L i b r a r y ,  Papers. Special Collections Division, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  I I .  Aiken,  American  1966.  Conrad.  SECONDARY  SOURCES  " C o u n t e r p o i n t a n d I m p l i c a t i o n , " The Divine U n i v e r s i t y o f Georgia Press, 1916.  Pilgrim. A t h e n a : Allen, Walter. 1964.  Tradition  and Dream. L o n d o n : P h o e n i x  A x t h e l m , P e t e r . T h e M o d e m Confessional Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967. B a c h e l a r d , Gaston. The b y A l a n C.M. R o s s .  Haven:  Psychoanalysis of F i r e , Boston:  Beacon  B e a c h , J o s e p h W a r r e n . T h e Twentieth Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1932. B r o w n , E.K. Toronto  Novel- N e w  House,  translated Press,1964.  Centnrv N o v e l . N e w  Rhythm i n the Novel. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y  York:  o f  Press, 1950.  C o l l i n s , R.G. "Pour C r i t i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t h e Modern N o v e l . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n . 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