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Utilization of alder sawdust by sheep and cattle Shelford, James Arthur 1969

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THE UTILIZATION OF ALDER SAWDUST BY SHEEP AND CATTLE by JAMES ARTHUR SHELFORD B.S.A.y U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 6 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the D i v i s i o n O f v Animal Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1 9 6 9 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f ^ n ^ J £C/i r> c/ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e 3 ^ / f t f ^ ABSTRACT Twenty-eight beef-type animals were divided into four groups and fed four rations consisting of equal amounts of basal r a t i o n , to which increments of alder sawdust (Alnus  rubra) were added (0, 13$, 2 1 % , and 3 5 % ) (Experiment I ) . The addition of the sawdust had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t o t a l gain although the three groups of animals receiving sawdust i n t h e i r d i e t had a higher rate of gain than the group re c e i v i n g no sawdust. The effects of the ra t i o n on the carcass grade and the a c c e p t a b i l i t y (tenderness and j u i c i n e s s ) of the meat as studied by a trained taste panel, were non-significant. When the rations used i n the above t r i a l were sub-jected to a digestion t r i a l using mature wethers, the results coincided with the growth data collected from the steers used above. I f the digestion of the basal rations were taken as constant, the wood material had a digestion c o e f f i c i e n t ranging from 46.5$ to 13.5%, depending on the l e v e l of saw-dust i n the d i e t . It was f e l t that a figure of 13$ digestion for sawdust was close to being correct, and that the var i a t i o n i n measurement of the digestion of sawdust was due to the increased u t i l i z a t i o n of the basal r a t i o n when the sawdust was present. A n a l y s i s of the rumen f l u i d of the s t e e r s i n the growth t r i a l f o r t o t a l and i n d i v i d u a l v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d s (VFA) showed a decrease (p<.05) i n the molar percent of p r o p i o n i c a c i d as the l e v e l of wood i n the d i e t increased., w h i l e the t o t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of VFA and the molar percent a c e t i c a c i d remained r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t . T h i r t y - s i x y e a r l i n g Hereford s t e e r s , a s s i g n e d to s i x treatments c o n s i s t i n g of a b a s a l r a t i o n and three roughage sources (hay (H), a l d e r sawdust (w)., and extruded a l d e r saw-dust (E))3 fed a t two l e v e l s ( 1 5 % and 2 0 % ) , were used i n a s t u d y to determine the e f f e c t of heat and pressure treatment o f wood on the u t i l i z a t i o n . The growth of the animals on the H r a t i o n s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < .01) g r e a t e r than those on the other treatments. The e f f e c t of t r e a t i n g the sawdust by e x t r u d i n g i t was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t although the animals on the extruded wood d i e t had a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n g a i n over those on the W r a t i o n . The e f f e c t of l e v e l o f roughage was non-s i g n i f i c a n t . The e f f e c t s of l e v e l of p r o t e i n i n the d i e t and the i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h roughage source were s t u d i e d . P r o t e i n l e v e l s of 1 3 % and 1 5 % were s t u d i e d , along w i t h two roughage sources (hay (H), and a l d e r sawdust (W)), fed a t two l e v e l s ( 1 5 % and 2 0 % ) . The H r a t i o n s again had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.01) g r e a t e r g a i n . The e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g the p r o t e i n l e v e l i n the d i e t was found t o be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . When the above r a t i o n s were subjected t o a n a l y s i s using the i n v i t r o technique, r e s u l t s showed that the H r a t i o n s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < . 0 1 ) higher d i g e s t i o n than e i t h e r the W or E r a t i o n s . I t was a l s o found that the E r a t i o n s had a higher d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t than the W r a t i o n s (p < « 0 5 ) . I n c r e a s i n g the roughage l e v e l from 1 5 $ t o 2 0 % caused a s i g n i f i c a n t ( p < . 0 1 ) decrease i n d i g e s t i o n . When the same r a t i o n s were subjected t o an jln v i v o d i g e s t i o n study u s i n g growing wethers, the r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r to the _in v i t r o study w i t h the H r a t i o n s having a greater dir-g e s t i o n (p < . 0 1 ) than the W or E r a t i o n s . However the d i f f e r e n c e between the W and E r a t i o n s was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . An equation f o r p r e d i c t i n g the _in v i v o dry matter d i g e s t i o n i s given : _In v i v o dry matter d i g e s t i o n = 6 0 . 1 2 5 2 + 0 . 0 2 2 1 ( i n v i t r o dry matter d i g e s t i o n ) + 0 . 4 7 9 9 ( a c i d detergent f i b r e ) - 3 . 5 8 5 5 ( l i g n i n ) - 0 . 8 3 9 5 ( c e l l u l o s e ) . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. W. D. K i t t s , Professor of Animal Science and Chairman of the Department of Animal Science, f o r his encouragement and guidance throughout my program. I also wish to thank Dr. J . F. Richards and Mrs. B. Morrison of the Poultry Science Department f o r the taste panel analysis. I am gratef u l to the many people who assisted me i n t h i s study, e s p e c i a l l y Mr. Ralph McQueen, Mr. J. C. MacGregor, Miss L. Amundsen, Mrs. J . Litsky and Mrs. G. Huchelega. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B. L i t e r a t u r e Review 2 1. E a r l y i n t e r e s t i n wood 2 2. L i g n i n - N u t r i t i o n a l importance as a p l a n t c o n s t i t u e n t 2 3. D e l i g n i f i c a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s 3 4. The use of wood as a feed source 7 5. E f f e c t o f n u t r i t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s on c e l l u l o s e u t i l i z a t i o n 10 a} P r o t e i n 10 b) P a r t i c l e s i z e 10 c) M i n e r a l s 11 d) Method and r a t e of f e e d i n g 11 6. E f f e c t o f roughage on animal performance and rumen metabolism 12 a) High concentrate f e e d i n g 12 b) Roughage source and rumen metabolism 13 C. Experiment I . U t i l i z a t i o n o f untreated a l d e r sawdust 14 T r i a l 1. Feeding t r i a l w ith beef s t e e r s 14 a) M a t e r i a l s and methods 14 b) R e s u l t s 17 Feeding t r i a l 17 Carcass e v a l u a t i o n 18 Taste panel 18 T r i a l 2. In v i v o d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s u s i n g sheep. 20 a} M a t e r i a l s and methods 20 b) R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n 22 T r i a l 3. A n a l y s i s of v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d s 22 a) M a t e r i a l s and methods 23 b) R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n 24 Page Experiment I I . E f f e c t of heat and pressure treatment on the u t i l i z a t i o n of alder sawdust and the use of alder sawdust as a roughage substitute i n high concentrate rations 24 T r i a l 1A. E f f e c t of heat and pressure treatment on the use of alder sawdust by growing steers 2 6 a) Materials and methods 2 6 b) Results and discussion 28 T r i a l IB. E f f e c t of l e v e l of protein i n the die t on the u t i l i z a t i o n of alder sawdust by growing c a t t l e 2 9 a T Materials and methods 2 9 b) Results and discussion 32 T r i a l 2. In v i t r o digestion studies 32 a} Materials and methods 3 5 b) Results and discussion 35 T r i a l 3 . In vivo digestion studies using sheep a) Materials and methods 3 6 b) Results and discussion 37 D. Summary 41 E. Bibliography 4 3 F. Appendix 48 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1-1 Composition of b a s a l r a t i o n 1 6 1-2 E f f e c t s of f e e d i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of untreated a l d e r sawdust to s t e e r s 1 9 1 - 3 E f f e c t of f e e d i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of untreated a l d e r sawdust on the carcasses of s t e e r s 2 1 1 -4 Taste panel r e s u l t s . Table of d i e t a r y means. 2 1 1 -5 E f f e c t of f e e d i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f u n t r e a t e d a l d e r sawdust on the d i g e s t -i b i l i t y o f r a t i o n s by sheep 2 5 1 - 6 Summary of r e s u l t s , T r i a l 3 . VFA d e terminations 2 5 I I - l Composition of r a t i o n s fed to f a t t e n i n g beef s t e e r s . T r i a l 1A. 3 0 I I - 2 E f f e c t s o f f e e d i n g non-processed and extruded a l d e r sawdust and hay to f a t t e n i n g beef s t e e r s 3 1 I I - 3 R a t i o n composition, T r i a l IB. 3 3 I I - 4 R e s u l t s of T r i a l IB. 34 I I - 5 In v i t r o d i g e s t i o n d a t a . T r i a l 2 . 3 8 I I - 6 In v i v o d i g e s t i o n data. T r i a l 3 . 3 9 1 . INTRODUCTION In r e c e n t years much time and e f f o r t has been devoted t o the study o f i n c r e a s i n g the e f f i c i e n c y o f feed u t i l i z a t i o n by domestic animals. Often these animals are i n d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h man f o r feeds which are a c c e p t a b l e t o humans. More r e c e n t l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h ruminants, the p r a c t i c a l i t y of f e e d i n g i n d u s t r i a l "waste" m a t e r i a l s , i n d i g e s t -i b l e by humans, has been s t u d i e d . C e l l u l o s e i s d e s c r i b e d as an e x c e l l e n t source o f energy f o r ruminants (Nehring, 1 9 6 5 ) . Due t o the h i g h c e l l u l o s e content of wood and the l a r g e amount of wood wastes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a study was o u t l i n e d t o determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of u t i l i z i n g waste wood m a t e r i a l s as an energy source f o r ruminants. The study was designed t o analyze s e v e r a l p o i n t s : ( 1 ) To determine i f ruminants could be induced t o i n g e s t l a r g e amounts of a l d e r sawdust (Alnus r u b r a ) ; ( 2 ) To f i n d the e f f e c t of i n c l u s i o n o f a l d e r sawdust i n the d i e t on the accept-a b i l i t y o f the f i n i s h e d product, i . e . , the meat of the animal; ( 3 ) To determine the d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f the a l d e r sawdust and t o o b t a i n an estimate o f the u t i l i z a t i o n of wood; and ( 4 ) To study s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t treatments of wood products and determine t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n i n c r e a s i n g the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the wood waste. 2 . LITERATURE REVIEW E a r l y I n t e r e s t In Wood Much i n t e r e s t i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g wood as a feed source was shown by workers i n Germany i n the e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ' s . Haberlandt ( 1 9 1 5 ) d i s c u s s e d the use of the s t a r c h , o i l , and i n some cases the glucose and p r o t e i n i n the storage t i s s u e of sapwood f o r c a t t l e and horse f e e d . He found the sapwood t o be h i g h l y i n d i g e s t i b l e and o n l y a f t e r f i n e g r i n d i n g t o "break the c e l l w a l l s " d i d he r e p o r t a p p r e c i a b l e d i g e s t i o n . Beckman ( 1 9 1 5 ) compared the food value of d i f f e r e n t types of wood and straw by chemical means. The values he found f o r wood were: p r o t e i n , 1 . 1 5 - 2.04$; f a t , 0 . 3 7 - 1 . 3 5 $ ; s t a r c h , 0 . 9 5 - 5 . 9 0 $ ; and ash, 0 . 6 8 - 0 . 9 1 $ . The values f o r straw were much h i g h e r w i t h s t a r c h , 2 6 . 1 2 $ ; f a t , 3 . 6 l $ ; and ash, 9 . 8 $ . L i g n i n - N u t r i t i o n a l Importance As A P l a n t C o n s t i t u e n t I t was not r e c o g n i z e d a t the time ( 1 9 1 5 ) t h a t the low d i g e s t i o n of wood was due t o the complex c e l l u l o s e - l i g n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p . Crarapton and Maynard ( 1 9 3 8 ) showed t h a t m a t e r i a l s w i t h h i g h l i g n i n content had much lower feed values and thus they concluded t h a t t h i s phenomenon was due to the t y i n g up of the c e l l u l o s e by l i g n i n . The amount o f l i g n i n i n p l a n t s was found t o v a r y from s p e c i e s t o s p e c i e s and a l s o as the p l a n t matured. S e v e r a l workers (Tomlln, 1 9 6 5 ; S u l l i v a n , 1 9 5 5 ) ob-serv e d t h a t l i g n i n content was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o 3 . c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n . The a c t u a l d i g e s t i o n of l i g n i n ranged from 3 . 4 $ to 1 6 $ ( E l y , 1 9 5 3 ) . Due to the complex s t r u c t u r e of l i g n i n , the a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i g n i n and c e l l u l o s e i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine. I t has been suggested t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p u r e l y p h y s i c a l , w i t h the l i g n i n e n c r u s t i n g the c e l l u l o s e . B o l k e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) used i n f r a - r e d s p e c t r o s c o p y t o r e v e a l a l i g n i n -carbohydrate bond. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f other d i s t i n c t forms o f bonds s t i l l e x i s t s . P h y s i c a l l y l i g n i n resembles a p l a s t i c . At h i g h temperature and pressure ( 3 5 0 ° F and 1 5 0 0 - 2 5 0 0 p . s . i . ) l i g n i n w i l l flow (Stamm, 1 9 6 4 ) , s i m i l a r t o a l i q u i d . D e l i g n i f i c a t i o n Of M a t e r i a l s Attempts t o d e l i g n i f y forages were s t a r t e d b e f o r e i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t l i g n i n was t i g h t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e l l -u l o s e , f o r example, i n c r e a s e s i n the f e e d i n g value of straw and bamboo shoots were sought by cooking under pressure a t temperatures up to 1 6 0 ° C (Anonymous, 1 9 0 8 ) . The o r g a n i c a c i d s r e l e a s e d by cooking were t o d i s s o l v e the i n t r a c e l l u l a r s ubstances, thus f r e e i n g the f i b r e . Small amounts of a l k a l i were added but not enough to n e u t r a l i z e the f r e e a c i d s . A c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s l i n e of thought, but much more e l a b o r a t e was t h a t of Lehman ( 1 9 1 5 ).> who suggested treatment of straw w i t h (NH4)2S04 and Na3P02j.. A f t e r h e a t i n g , the m a t e r i a l was i n o c u l a t e d w i t h d e s i r a b l e molds which a f t e r c u l t i v a t i o n would f i l l the e n t i r e mass w i t h h i g h q u a l i t y p r o t e i n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s t r i a l d i d not proceed beyond the t h e o r e t i c a l s t a g e . One of the f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l attempts a t d e l i g n i f i c a -t i o n was t h a t o f Beckman (1919)• Treatment o f one p a r t straw w i t h 8 p a r t s 1 . 5 % NaOH f o r 3 t o 12 hours, f o l l o w e d by f i l t r a t i o n and washing, y i e l d e d a product a c c e p t a b l e t o c a t t l e . He found the crude f i b r e and o r g a n i c matter h i g h l y d i g e s t i b l e . He a l s o found t h a t a t no c o n c e n t r a t i o n of NaOH or cooking time d i d he f i n d a p o i n t where l i g n i n was d i s s o l v e d without an equal amount of the n u t r i t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t pentosans and hexosans b e i n g l o s t . H v i d s t e n (19^7) compared the u t i l i z a t i o n o f Beckman t r e a t e d straw and s e m i - p u r i f i e d c e l l u l o s e i n a survey of d i g -e s t i o n experiments w i t h sheep and p i g s . The t r e a t e d straw was found t o be s i m i l a r i n feed value t o the s e m i - p u r i f i e d c e l l u l o s e . U sing sheep, the d i g e s t i o n o f the c e l l u l o s e was Q 7 % and of the t r e a t e d straw 6 6 % . The protein supplementation n e c e s s a r y f o r d i g e s t i o n was 37 grams per kilogram dry matter and 9 grams per kilogram d r y matter f o r the c e l l u l o s e and straw r e s p e c t i v e l y . Honcamp (1931) s t u d i e d the decomposition o f straw without chemicals. By steaming the straw, he found an i n c r e a s e i n s t a r c h value and a l o s s i n crude p r o t e i n . Olsen ( 1 9 3 7 ) s t u d i e d the fermentation of wood and wood products w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f l i g n i n . The wtood products were obtained from the p u l p i n g process a t v a r i o u s stages o f treatment. Raw wood m a t e r i a l s , even when f i n e l y ground were r e s i s t a n t t o a t t a c k and he concluded t h a t the wood e i t h e r c o n t a i n e d a t o x i c substance of the carbohydrate e x i s t e d i n a s t a t e r e s i s t a n t t o a t t a c k by micro-organisms. He d i s p r o v e d the t o x i c substance t h e o r y by f i n d i n g t h a t pure c e l l u l o s e was degraded i n the presence o f wood. I s o l a t e d l i g n i n added t o pure c e l l u l o s e d i d not a l t e r the f e r m e n t a t i o n although he found t h a t none of the l i g n i n was degraded. He then s t u d i e d the wood products from the p u l p i n g procedure and found t h a t as the l i g n i n content decreased, the f e r m e n t a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l i n c r e a s e d . He concluded that f o r a wood product t o be r e a d i l y fermentable, i t s l i g n i n content should be l e s s than 1 $ . V i r t a n e n ( 1 9 4 6 ) found t h a t the f e r m e n t a b i l i t y o f birchwood sawdust i n c r e a s e d as the f i n e n e s s of the dust i n -crea s e d . D i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s o f wood were found t o va r y i n t h e i r degree o f f e r m e n t a b i l i t y , w i t h b i r c h fermenting more than aspen or p i n e . In r e p o r t i n g d e g r a d a t i o n o f wood up t o 6 0 $ , i t must be poi n t e d out t h a t he used i n c u b a t i o n p e r i o d s of up t o 4 0 days, which were much l o n g e r than those used by Olsen ( 7 d a y s ) . In a d d i t i o n t o f i n d i n g t h a t c e l l u l o s e f e r -mentation v a r i e d w i t h time, treatment of wood, and degree of l i g n i f i c a t i o n , a decrease i n l i g n i n content o f 1 1 . 4 $ d u r i n g f e r m e n t a t i o n was noted. 6. H y d r o l y t i c treatments of regnous wood u s i n g a l k a l i were r e p o r t e d by Stewart (1954). He found t h a t l i t t l e l i g n i n i s a t t a c k e d by d i l u t e a l k a l i a t room temperature, but t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of the n o n - r e s i s t a n t ( n o n - c e l l u l o s i c ) p o l y -s a c c a r i d e s are d i s s o l v e d . He a l s o found the r e a c t i o n of m i l d a l k a l i a t these temperatures t o be much more r a p i d than the r e a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g d i l u t e a c i d . An a l k a l i s o l u t i o n was used by Gonzeleza (1959) to d e l i g n i f y straw. T h i s treatment was f o l l o w e d by washing and then d r y i n g , f i n a l l y y i e l d i n g a product which was s u p e r i o r t o u n t r e a t e d straw and showed no apparent i l l - e f f e c t s i n the experimental animals. In a s i m i l a r t r i a l , Lampila (1963) t r e a t e d wheat straw w i t h a l k a l i . In d i g e s t i o n t r i a l s , w i t h sheep and u s i n g urea as a p r o t e i n source, he found the t r e a t e d straw t o be as good i f not b e t t e r than good q u a l i t y hay f o r the s y n t h e s i s of meat p r o t e i n i n sheep. Goering (1968) found c o n s i s t a n t i n c r e a s e s i n d i g e s t i o n of l i g n i f i e d m a t e r i a l s a f t e r treatment w i t h sodium c h l o r i t e . The m a t e r i a l s were e n s i l e d w i t h 3% sodium c h l o r i t e and l e f t f o r s e v e r a l weeks b e f o r e jLn v i t r o d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s were determined. I t was found, r e g a r d l e s s of l i g n i n content, t h a t the d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t v a r i e d between 85$ and 94$ f o r a l l m a t e r i a l s s t u d i e d . S i m i l a r l y M e l l enberger (1968) used the i n v i t r o technique t o demonstrate an i n c r e a s e i n the d i g e s t -i b i l i t y of ammoniated wood over untreated wood. 7 . Other methods of d e l i g n i f i c a t i o n have been used on wood. Lawton ( 1 9 5 1 ) used gamma i r r a d i a t i o n to i n c r e a s e the u t i l i z a t i o n of wood by rumen micro-organisms. He found an optimum dosage l e v e l where the d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f wood compared f a v o r a b l y w i t h hay. M i c r o b i o l o g i c a l and chemical t e s t s t o determine what f r a c t i o n was e f f e c t e d were made, but n o t h i n g d e f i n i t e c o u l d be concluded. Reduction of the p a r t i c l e s i z e by b a l l m i l l i n g d i d not enhance f e r m e n t a t i o n . Mater ( 1 9 5 7 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t a t 1 0 ^ roentgen, l i g n i n was degraded, but the a l t e r a t i o n s were s l i g h t and were almost u n d e t e c t a b l e by b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l and chemical means. Becker ( 1 9 6 2 ) a l s o found an i n c r e a s e i n u t i l i z a t i o n o f wood by l a r v a e and t e r m i t e s a t dosage above 6 x 1 0 ^ r . The Use of Wood As A Feed Source L i m i t e d s t u d i e s done on the use <5f wood and wood products as animal feeds have been r e p o r t e d on r e c e n t l y . B i s s e l l ( 1 9 5 7 ) conducted d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s on i n t e r i o r l i v e oak and chamise w i t h deer and sheep. L i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e was found i n the d i g e s t i v e a b i l i t i e s of deer and sheep. High T o t a l D i g e s t i b l e N u t r i e n t s (TDN) values were found w i t h a l f a l f a , lower w i t h chamise and d i s t i n c t l y lower w i t h l i v e oak. Ammerman ( 1 9 6 4 ) , i n s t u d i e s w i t h sewage sludge and oakwood sawdust, found t h a t the wood was not as good n u t r i t i o n -a l l y as Bermuda g r a s s , but t h a t the wood appeared t o serve as a roughage source i n the d i e t . Bhattacharya ( 1 9 6 6 ) compared 8 . peanut h u l l and wood shaving p o u l t r y l i t t e r i n d i g e s t i o n t r i a l s and found l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i g e s t i b i l i t y between the two r a t i o n s . I n c r e a s i n g the l e v e l o f l i t t e r i n the r a t i o n from 2 5 % t o 5 0 % decreased the d i g e s t i o n of dry matter, N i t r o g e n Free E x t r a c t (NFE), and energy although the amount of f i b r e d i g e s t e d a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e d . Cody ( 1 9 6 8 ) e v a l u a t e d the h e a l t h and performance of cows fed wood f i b r e as a roughage so u r c e . In a n a l y z i n g the d i g e s t i v e t r a c t s a f t e r ten weeks on fee d , no gross l e s i o n s could be a t t r i b u t e d t o the wood f i b r e . I t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t g r a i n i n t a k e could be c o n t r o l l e d by i n c l u d i n g 2 5 t o 4 5 % wood f i b r e w i t h the g r a i n . At l e v e l s of f i b r e below 2 5 % , there were o c c a s i o n a l problems w i t h b l o a t and p a r a k e r a t o s i s . Ground Mesquite wood (ad l i b i t u m ) plus 0 . 6 7 5 kilogram m i l o and 0 . 4 5 k i l o g r a m molasses was fed t o a group of pregnant h e i f e r s by E l l i s ( 1 9 6 8 ) . He r e p o r t e d t h a t i n t a k e of the wood was between 6 . 3 5 and 7 . 2 6 k i l o g r a m per animal per day. The animals were maintained on t h i s r a t i o n f o r 1 2 5 days be f o r e c a l v i n g . I t was concluded t h a t the h e i f e r s r e c e i v e d s u f f i c -i e n t energy from the wood t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r weight be f o r e c a l v i n g but t h a t the wood d i d not f u r n i s h enough a v a i l a b l e energy f o r both maintenance and m i l k p r o d u c t i o n without c r i t i c a l body weight l o s s . Another f i b r o u s feed r e c e n t l y used i s c o t t o n wood. Vara ( 1 9 6 8 ) found t h a t i t w i l l support growth near the l e v e l obtained u s i n g corn cobs. Through e i t h e r e n s i l i n g or 9 . a sodium hydroxide treatment, the d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f the wood was i n c r e a s e d . Use o f hardwood sawdust i n concentrate f a t t e n i n g r a t i o n s was r e p o r t e d by Anthony ( 1 9 6 8 ) . In comparing no roughage ( b a s a l ) , 2 . 5 $ sawdust, 2 . 5 $ o y s t e r s h e l l , and 1 0 $ sawdust the h i g h e s t g a i n was found i n the 2 . 5 $ sawdust r a t i o n . The 1 0 $ sawdust r a t i o n supported gain equal t o the b a s a l r a t i o n a l o n e . The wood r a t i o n i n a l l cases gave b e t t e r per-formance than d i d o y s t e r s h e l l r a t i o n s . No d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from the f e e d i n g o f hardwood waste were found. The very l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the types o f wood s t u d i e d must be p o i n t e d out. A comparison of c o t t o n wood wi t h a l l i t s green l e a f y m a t e r i a l and k i l n d r i e d pine sawdust i s d i f f i c u l t . V a r i a t i o n s i n d i g e s t i o n among d i f f e r e n t types o f wood have p r e v i o u s l y been mentioned ( V i r t a n e n ) . Many r e s e a r c h e r s d e f i n e the wood source o n l y as hardwood - not mentioning s p e c i e s , f i n e n e s s o f g r i n d , l i g n i n , and c e l l u l o s e c o ntent. Another f a c t o r which must a l s o be considered i s the presence i n the wood of v a r i o u s t o x i c a n t s which i n h i b i t micro-organisms. Oh ( 1 9 6 7 ) has i s o l a t e d s e v e r a l o f these compounds from Douglas F i r . The l e v e l s o f these u n d e s i r a b l e compounds (terpenes, a l c o h o l s ) must be r e a l i z e d when c o n s i d e r -i n g the use of va r i o u s wood wastes as feed s o u r c e s . 1 0 . E f f e c t of N u t r i t i o n a l and P h y s i c a l F a c t o r s On C e l l u l o s e U t i l i z a t i o n A. P r o t e i n In s t u d y i n g urea as an i n e x p e n s i v e p r o t e i n supplement f o r ruminants, Belasco ( 1 9 5 6 ) determined t h a t t o promote e f f i c i e n t c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n and urea u t i l i z a t i o n , there was a need f o r some r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e carbohydrate. B e l l ( 1 9 5 3 ) found t h a t u s i n g urea as a p r o t e i n source had l i t t l e e f f e c t on apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y , o ther than p r o t e i n d i g e s t i b i l i t y . He found c e r e a l g r a i n s t o be a more d e s i r a b l e carbohydrate source than sugar. Another energy source which might be c o n s i d e r e d i s f a t . E s p l i n ( 1 9 6 3 ) , s t u d y i n g f i n i s h i n g r a t i o n s , found t h a t f a t up t o the K % l e v e l had no e f f e c t on the u t i l i z a t i o n o f r a t i o n com-ponents. However l e v e l s above k % were found to suppress s t e e r performance. B. P a r t i c l e S i z e As about 7 0 % o f the c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n occurs i n the rumen, ( B a r n e t t , 1 9 6 1 ) i t i s important to m a i n t a i n a slow r a t e of passage of the i n g e s t a t o the lower g a s t r o - i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t . Very f i n e m a t e r i a l s w i l l not remain i n the rumen l o n g enough f o r adequate c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n t o occur. The g r i n d -i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r p e l l e t i n g has been found t o i n c r e a s e the consumption p a r t l y by i n c r e a s i n g the turnover time of feed-s t u f f s due t o the more r a p i d escape from the rumen of t h i s f i n e m a t e r i a l . T h i s r a p i d escape from the rumen has been 1 1 . c o r r e l a t e d w i t h decreased c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i b i l i t y (Roderique, i 9 6 0 ) . However i t has been found u s i n g i n v i t r o s t u d i e s where time o f passage i s not a f a c t o r , t h a t f i n e comminution w i l l i n c r e a s e d i g e s t i b i l i t y ( D e h o r i t y , 1 9 6 1 ) . The f i n e g r i n d i n g o f m a t e r i a l s a l s o has an e f f e c t on r e g u r g i t a t i o n . T h i s i n t u r n a f f e c t s the flow o f s a l i v a and the b u f f e r i n g c a p a c i t y o f the rumen (Hungate, 1 9 6 6 ) . The e f f e c t o f adding b u f f e r s t o ground h i g h concentrate r a t i o n s has been found b e n e f i c i a l by N i c h o l s o n ( 1 9 6 1 ) . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g as many of the products of rumen f e r m e n t a t i o n are a c i d i c , l o w e r i n g the pH of the rumen below the optimum l e v e l . The optimum l e v e l f o r c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n was r e p o r t e d by Johnson ( 1 9 6 6 ) to be pH 6 . 9 . C. M i n e r a l s Another f a c t o r necessary f o r optimal m i c r o b i a l growth i s the l e v e l and balance of m i n e r a l s . Hungate ( 1 9 6 6 ) s t a t e s t h a t m i n e r a l s are the feed a d d i t i v e most l i k e l y t o improve u t i l i z a t i o n . As mi n e r a l s are r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e , t h e y should be f e d i n excess o f requirements w i t h due regard to the f a c t t h a t some t r a c e elements are t o x i c a t low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . D. Method and Rate Of Feeding The method and r a t e o f f e e d i n g w i l l have an e f f e c t on c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n e s p e c i a l l y when urea i s used as a p r o t e i n 1 2 . s o u r c e . Due t o the l a g phase i n c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n ( 4 - 6 h o u r s ) , most of the urea w i l l have disappeared from the rumen. The urea i s r a p i d l y hydrolyzed t o ammonia, which i n t u r n i s removed q u i t e r a p i d l y from the rumen ( B l o o m f i e l d , 1 9 6 1 ) , l e a v i n g the c e l l u l o l y t i c micro-organisms d e f i c i e n t i n n i t r o g e n . T h i s c o n d i t i o n i s a l l e v i a t e d by a l l o w i n g animals t o feed con-t i n u o u s l y . E f f e c t o f Roughage On Animal Performance and Rumen Metabolism A. High Concentrate Feeding In the years p r i o r t o 1 9 5 5 * i t was considered necess-a r y t h a t f a t t e n i n g r a t i o n s f o r ruminants should c o n t a i n at l e a s t 3 0 $ roughage. F o l l o w i n g t h i s p e r i o d attempts were made to de-crease and i n some cases d e l e t e the roughage p o r t i o n of the d i e t . I t was f e l t t h a t l a r g e amounts of roughage i n the d i e t were l o w e r i n g the energy i n t a k e , a f f e c t i n g gain and feed e f f i c i e n c y . More r e c e n t l y the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " A l l -c o n c e n t r a t e " f e e d i n g , v i z . , b l o a t , rumen p a r a k e r a t o s i s , abcessed l i v e r s , d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g on fee d , have crea t e d i n t e r e s t i n low roughage f a t t e n i n g r a t i o n s (Wise, 1 9 6 7 b ) . I t was found t h a t i n c l u s i o n of a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of roughage i n the d i e t would a l l e v i a t e many of the problems. The l e v e l and type o f roughage v a r i e d g r e a t l y . A l ong w i t h the u s u a l roughage sources were i n c l u d e d a number of n o n - n u t r i t i v e or low feed value m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g ; sand, p o l y e t h y l e n e f i b r e s , o y s t e r s h e l l and corn cobs (Cooley, 1 9 6 2 ; Hughes, 1 9 6 4 ; 1 3 . Wise, 1 9 6 7 a ) . These roughage sources have met with some success although the r a t e of g a i n i s u s u a l l y s l i g h t l y depressed when compared to gains made on c o n v e n t i o n a l roughage s o u r c e s . B. Roughage Source and Rumen Metabolism When hay i s added t o a high concentrate r a t i o n and a d e p r e s s i o n i n molar percent p r o p i o n i c a c i d i s observed, the d e p r e s s i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n c r e a s e d c e l l u l o s e i n the r a t i o n forming a c e t i c a c i d i n s t e a d o f p r o p i o n i c . Hungate ( 1 9 6 6 ) , u s i n g p u r i f i e d c u l t u r e s of rumen c e l l u l o l y t i c b a c t e r i a , found t h a t f e r m e n t a t i o n of c e l l u l o s e _in v i t r o y i e l d e d h i g h pro-p o r t i o n s o f p r o p i o n i c a c i d . He was unable to e x p l a i n t h i s i n terms of r e s u l t s from i n v i v o s t u d i e s . He p o s t u l a t e d t h a t a c e t i c a c i d was the main product formed from c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n i n  v i v o . His r e a s o n i n g was t h a t the percent methane produced i n -creased over time a f t e r f e e d i n g , i n d i c a t i n g a c e t a t e p r o d u c t i o n from the slower c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n . Larsen ( 1 9 6 8 ) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of a d d i t i o n of o y s t e r s h e l l t o a b a s a l r a t i o n on the metabolism i n the rumen. Oyster s h e l l added at the 3% l e v e l had very l i t t l e e f f e c t on the t o t a l V o l a t i l e F a t t y A c i d s (VFA),.molar percent a c e t i c , pro-p i o n i c , and ammonia c o n c e n t r a t i o n when comparisons were made with the same r a t i o n minus the o y s t e r s h e l l . Using 3% hay i n p l a c e of the o y s t e r s h e l l found a decrease i n the t o t a l VjpA and a l o w e r i n g of molar percent p r o p i o n i c . At h i g h e r l e v e l s 1 4 . o f hay the e f f e c t became even more pronounced w i t h t o t a l VFA d e c r e a s i n g , molar percent a c e t i c a c i d i n c r e a s i n g s l i g h t l y and the molar percent p r o p i o n i c a c i d dropping n o t i c e a b l y . I t appears, then, as i f the i n e r t m a t e r i a l has l i t t l e e f f e c t on the VFA p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n the rumen. EXPERIMENT I The f i r s t experiment was designed t o determine the extent o f u t i l i z a t i o n of untreated a l d e r sawdust by sheep and c a t t l e . The experiment was d i v i d e d i n t o three t r i a l s . T r i a l 1 . Feeding T r i a l With Beef S t e e r s . A l d e r sawdust was added t o a constant amount of b a s a l r a t i o n t o y i e l d complete r a t i o n s w i t h wood contents of 0 $ , 1 3 $ , 2 7 $ , and 3 5 $ . The r a t i o n s were s t u d i e d i n an i n  v i v o f e e d i n g t r i a l w i t h beef s t e e r s . i s M a t e r i a l s and Methods  Animals Twenty-eight grade beef-type s t e e r s were a l l o t t e d t o f o u r pens and assigned treatments. P r e l i m i n a r y treatment i n v o l v e d i n j e c t i o n s of 6 cc of a n t i b i o t i c ( D e r a f o r t ) and 2 cc of a v i t a m i n complex c o n t a i n i n g vitamins A, D, and E ( P r o - v i t e ) . 1 5 . The animals were maintained on legume-grass mixture hay f o r one week a f t e r which the experimental r a t i o n s were added grad-u a l l y u n t i l f u l l feed was reached. The hay was then decreased s l o w l y u n t i l the d e s i r e d l e v e l was reached ( 1 . 5 l b s . / a n i m a l / day). T h i s adjustment p e r i o d took about three weeks. As soon as a l l the animals had ad j u s t e d t o the experimental r a t i o n s , the t r i a l began. Feeding The animals were fed t h e i r r a t i o n s once a day i n the morning, and r e c e i v e d the a l l o t t e d amount of hay i n the a f t e r -noon. D a i l y records of feed consumption were kept. Weighing The animals were weighed a t one week i n t e r v a l s . Housing The housing was the same as th a t d e s c r i b e d by Ranta ( 1 9 6 7 ) . R a t i o n s This t r i a l used one b a s a l r a t i o n (Table I - l ) , to which v a r i o u s increments of sawdust were added, as f o l l o w s : Group I 35% a l d e r sawdust r a t i o n . The animals were fed t h i s r a t i o n to f u l l f e e d . Group I I The animals were fed the same amount of b a s a l r a t i o n as the animals i n group I, plus a l d e r sawdust 1 6 . Table I - l . Composition of the b a s a l r a t i o n . I n g r e d i e n t s Pounds Steam r o l l e d b a r l e y 1 , 2 6 2 Soybean meal ( 4 4 % ) 6 6 Fishmeal, h e r r i n g (71%) 8 6 Beet pulp 2 8 8 Molasses (wet) 4 4 Cane sugar 1 0 0 S t a b i l i z e d f a t 1 0 0 Urea 2 0 Rock phosphate 5 Limestone 15 I o d i z e d S a l t 1 5 Trace M i n e r a l s ^ 2 V i t a m i n A 6 x 1 0 6 IU T.M. 5 0 2 5 grams A P.I.L. M i n e r a l Mix 1 7 . to make up 2 7 $ of the r a t i o n . Group I I I The animals were fed the same amount of b a s a l r a t i o n as group I (and I I ) , plus wood to make up 13$ of the r a t i o n . Group IV This group was fed o n l y b a s a l r a t i o n , and r e c e i v e d the same amount as group I (and I I and I I I ) . R e s u l t s (a) Feeding T r i a l The r e s u l t s (Table 1 - 2 ) showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ga i n (p<^ . 0 5 ) between any of the groups. How-ever the wood i n the r a t i o n d i d appear t o have a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t . T h i s was shown by the s m a l l i n c r e a s e s i n ga i n the animals r e c e i v i n g wood had over the animals r e c e i v i n g o n l y the b a s a l r a t i o n . I f an optimum l e v e l of wood was t o be determined, i t appears i t would l i e between 1 3 $ and 2 7 $ of the r a t i o n . In regards to the feed e f f i c i e n c i e s , the animals on the b a s a l r a t i o n appear much more e f f i c i e n t . However, by not i n c l u d i n g the wood i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s ( e f f i c i e n c y of feed u t i l i z a t i o n on the b a s a l r a t i o n a l o n e ) , the animals on the r a t i o n s w i t h wood have b e t t e r c o n v e r s i o n r a t i o s . T h i s suggests t h a t e i t h e r the animals are a c h i e v i n g some degree of u t i l i z a t i o n o f the wood, or t h a t the wood, a c t i n g as an i n e r t m a t e r i a l , i s a i d i n g i n the d i g e s t i v e p r o c e s s e s . 1 8 . (b) Garcass Evaluation The carcasses from these animals underwent Record of Performance grading after slaughter (Table 1 - 3 )• There was no significant difference between groups in any of the para-meters measured. Prom the mean values, i t is seen that generally the animals on the low wood or no wood rations had a higher degree of fat cover than those on the higher wood rations. An attempt to explain this difference w i l l be given later in the discussion of the VFA analysis of the rumen contents of these animals. (c) Taste Panel Two round steaks and two s i r l o i n steaks, each one inch thick, were removed from the l e f t side of four of the carcasses from each treatment. The steaks were frozen and stored at - 2 0 G F until analyzed. The tenderness and juiciness of the steaks were examined by five trained panel members who had previous in-struction and experience in judging tenderness and juiciness. Each member rated the steaks for juiciness and tenderness on an eight point scale (1-extremely tough and dry, 8-extremely juicy and tender). The panelists were also asked to comment on any off-flavors i f they were noted. (None were noted.) The steaks were broiled for each panel session to an internal temperature of 150°F, which was determined by thermocouples. Table 1 - 2 . E f f e c t s of f e e d i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of untreated a l d e r sawdust to s t e e r s . Groups A B G D Percent wood i n d i e t 35 27.2 13-3 0 No. o f days on t r i a l 182 182 182 182 Av. i n i t i a l body weight 5 4 4 5 5 0 5 3 4 5 3 6 Av. f i n a l body weight 1 , 0 1 2 1 , 0 3 3 1 , 0 2 0 9 9 6 Av. t o t a l g a i n 468 483 486 4 6 0 Av. d a i l y g a i n 2.57 2 . 6 5 2 . 6 7 2.53 Peed e f f i c i e n c y ( l b . f e e d / l b . g a in) 9 . 1 3 8 . 0 3 6.71 6.19 D r e s s i n g percentage 5 5 . 1 5 6 . 5 57.1 59.2 20. The r e s u l t s are given i n t a b l e 1 - 4 . No c o n s i s t a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n tenderness and j u i c i n e s s among the d i e t a r y treatments could be d e t e c t e d . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s occurred i n the j u i c i n e s s of the round s t e a k s . The sample from the 3 5 $ wood d i e t had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower average j u i c i n e s s s c o r e than samples from other d i e t s . T r i a l 2. In v i v o d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s u s i n g sheep. An In v i v o d i g e s t i o n t r i a l u s i n g sheep was used to determine the d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f the r a t i o n s s t u d i e d i n T r i a l 1 . M a t e r i a l s and Methods  Animals Two mature wethers were assig n e d t o each r a t i o n and adapted f o r a p e r i o d of one month. Rations The r a t i o n s were the same as those i n T r i a l 1 , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t no hay was f e d . Procedure The r a t i o n s were fed a t a l e v e l o f 3 lb./sheep/day. At the end o f the a d a p t a t i o n p e r i o d , the animals were put i n d i g e s t i o n cages (Thompson, 1 9 6 6 ) f o r a f o u r day adjustment. F o l l o w i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t o t a l dry matter c o l t o t i o n s were made f o r three days. Dry matter content was determined each day and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample was kept and pooled f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s . Table I - 3 . E f f e c t s of f e e d i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of untreated a l d e r sawdust on the carcasses of s t e e r s . D i e t L o i n eye area F a t cover over % Wood D r e s s i n g % ( i n c h e s ) 2 l o i n ( i n c h e s ) 0 59.2 10.5 0.71 1 3 57.1 1 1 . 0 O .56 2 7 5 6 . 5 1 0 . 0 0.61 35 55.1 9.6 0.66 Table 1-4. Taste panel r e s u l t s . A Table o f d i e t a r y means . D i e t Round Steaks S i r l o i n Steaks % Wood Tenderness J u i c i n e s s Tenderness J u i c i n e s s 0 3.8 5.0 6.2 5.1 1 3 3.8 5.0 6.1 4.8 2 7 4.5 5.4 6.3 5.3 35 4.0 4.5 6.4 5.1 k Each mean based on 40 judgements. 22. R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s are giv e n i n Table 1 - 5 . I t can be seen t h a t as the l e v e l o f wood i n the d i e t i n c r e a s e d , the d r y matter i and A c i d Detergent F i b r e (Van Soest, 1 9 6 3 ) d i g e s t i b i l i t y de-cre a s e d . The d i g e s t i o n o f l i g n i n remained r e l a t i v e l y c o nstant. Assuming the d i g e s t i o n of the b a s a l r a t i o n t o be constant, d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r wood can be determined. These values ranged from 46 . 5 % from the 13% wood d i e t t o 1 3 . 5 % from the 35% wood d i e t . The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s assumption i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , f o r i f c a l c u l a t i o n s are made assuming the wood t o be completely i n e r t , then the d i g e s t i o n of the b a s a l r a t i o n can be found. The magnitude of v a r i a t i o n i n the d i g e s t i o n of the b a s a l r a t i o n i s much l e s s than the magnitude of var-i a t i o n i n wood d i g e s t i o n . From t h i s i t appears t h a t the second assumption i s more t r u e , although a s m a l l d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was expected from wood (Huffman, 1 9 6 8 ; V i r t a n e n , 1 9 4 6 ; Olsen, ( 1 9 3 7 ) . T r i a l 3 . A n a l y s i s o f v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d s . This t r i a l i n v o l v e d the a n a l y s i s o f the VFA ( v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d s ) present i n the rumens of the s t e e r s used i n T r i a l 1 . I f a p p r e c i a b l e m i c r o b i a l d i g e s t i o n o f the c e l l u l o s e i n the wood p o r t i o n of the d i e t d i d occur, a d i f f e r e n c e would be expected i n the products of d i g e s t i o n (VFA) (Hungate, 1 9 6 6 ) . 2 3 . M a t e r i a l s and Methods  Treatment of the Rumen F l u i d A f o u r l i t e r sample of rumen contents was obtained from each animal a t the time of s l a u g h t e r 5 + \ hours post p r a n d i a l . M i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y was terminated by a d d i t i o n of 1 0 0 ml. m e r c u r i c c h l o r i d e ( s a t u r a t e d s o l u t i o n ) per sample. The rumen f l u i d was then d e p r o t e i n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the method o u t l i n e d by Pac k e t t ( 1 9 6 5 ) . The sample was s t o r e d at 4°C be f o r e a n a l y s i s . T o t a l VFA A n a l y s i s T o t a l VFA were determined by the method of 0 1 m stead ( 1 9 3 0 ) as m o d i f i e d by Ross ( 1 9 6 7 ) . F i v e ml samples of rumen f l u i d were s t e a m - d i s t i l l e d . One hundred and s e v e n t y - f i v e ml of d i s t i l l a t e was c o l l e c t e d and t i t r a t e d a g a i n s t NaOH to the ph e n o l p h t h a l e i n end p o i n t . I n d i v i d u a l VFA A n a l y s i s The d i s t i l l a t e from the t o t a l VFA determinations was kept and made b a s i c w i t h 0 . 5 ml of 1 . 0 N NaOH. They were then taken to dryness i n an oven s e t at 8 0°C. The VFA s a l t s were removed and t r e a t e d by the method o f Bensadoun ( i 9 6 0 ) as m o d i f i e d by Ross ( 1 9 6 7 ) i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f gas chromatographic a n a l y s i s . A M i c r o t e c (Model 2 0 0 0 MF) gas chromatograph f i t t e d w i t h a hydrogen flame i o n i z a t i o n d e t e c t o r was used. The columns used and the o p e r a t i o n o f the machine i s d e s c r i b e d by Ranta ( 1 9 6 7 ) . A 0 . 4 / i l sample was i n j e c t e d w i t h a Hamilton s y r i n g e . The peak areas and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l a c i d s were analyzed by the method o f Baum-gardt ( 1 9 6 4 ) . R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( p < . 0 5 ) i n the a c e t a t e / propionate r a t i o was found (Table 1 - 6 ) when a n a l y z i n g the rumen f l u i d from the f o u r d i f f e r e n t r a t i o n s . As the l e v e l of wood i n the d i e t i n c r e a s e d , the amount and p r o p o r t i o n o f propionate decreased, w h i l e the l e v e l of t o t a l VFA and a c e t a t e remained r e l a t i v e l y c onstant. T h i s decrease i n pro-p i o n a t e , was mentioned by Hungate as b e i n g i n d i c a t i v e of i n c r e a s e d c e l l u l o s e u t i l i z a t i o n by the rumen m i c r o f l o r a . As wood was the o n l y major source of c e l l u l o s e present, t h i s i n d i c a t e s p a r t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n of the wood. EXPERIMENT I I The second experiment was designed t o study two main a r e a s : 1 ) The e f f e c t of treatment w i t h h i g h temperature and pressure on the u t i l i z a t i o n of a l d e r sawdust, and 2 ) The use of wood as a roughage s u b s t i t u t e i n h i g h concentrate r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the e f f e c t of added n i t r o g e n (as urea) on the u t i l i z a t i o n of the r a t i o n s . 2 5 . Table 1-5. E f f e c t of f e e d i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f untreated a l d e r sawdust to sheep on the d i g e s t i b i l i t y of the r a t i o n . D i e t Dry matter ADF* L i g n i n fo Wood d i g e s t i o n d i g e s t i o n ; % d i g e s t i o n fo 0 80.42 67.3^ 21.6 13 75.87 31.3 2 3 . 6 27 63-93 2 8 . 0 24.0 35 56.48 21.8 , 22.5 A A c i d Detergent F i b r e (Van Soest, 1963) • Table 1-6. Summary of r e s u l t s , T r i a l 3- VFA d e t e r m i n a t i o n s . D i e t \ % Wood 0 13 27 35 T o t a l VFA m. equiv. 10.52 9.67 7.46 8.60 A c e t i c molar % 58.29 65.24 64.84 63.50 m. eq u i v . 6.19 6.34 4 . 8 1 5.46 P r o p i o n i c molar % 27.64 22.05 19.94 18.20 m. equiv. 2.89 2.10 1.56 1.59 I s o b u t y r i c molar % 0.94 O .96 0.96 1.24 m. equiv. 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.10 B u t y r i c molar % 9.48 8.88 10.31 l l . 4 o m. equiv. 0.99 0.86 0.76 0.98 I s o v a l e r i c molar % 0.68 2.87 1.30 3.03 m. equiv. 0.06 0.22 0.07 0.24 V a l e r i c molar % 2.97 2 .40 2.10 2.63 m. equiv. 0.30 0.23 0.17 0.22 A M i l l i - e q u i v a l e n t s per 100 ml. 2 6 . T r i a l LA. E f f e c t of heat and pressure treatment on the use of a l d e r sawdust by growing s t e e r s . The e f f e c t of three roughage sources (Hay (H), raw a l d e r sawdust (W), and extruded a l d e r sawdust ( E ) ) , f ed at two l e v e l s (15% and 20%) was s t u d i e d i n a f a t t e n i n g t r i a l . M a t e r i a l s and Methods  Animals T h i r t y - s i x y e a r l i n g Hereford-type s t e e r s were randomly assi g n e d t o s i x pens. The p r e l i m i n a r y treatment of the animals was the same as t h a t i n Experiment I, T r i a l 1, except t h a t the f i n a l l e v e l s o f hay were d i f f e r e n t . Hay was decreased g r a d u a l l y t o zero i n the W and E treatments. In the two H treatments, the hay was g r a d u a l l y decreased t o 15% and 20% of the t o t a l r a t i o n . F e eding The animals were fed to a p p e t i t e once d a i l y , i n the morning. D a i l y records were kept of the feed i n t a k e . Weighing I n d i v i d u a l weights were recorded a t 3-week i n t e r v a l s . Housing The housing i n t h i s t r i a l was s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d . Feeder space per animal was i n c r e a s e d from 1.57 f e e t t o 2 . 0 f e e t . Area per animal was changed from 82 ftT to 60 f t . Each pen had access t o a constant f l o w i n g water bowl. 2 7 . Rations One b a s a l r a t i o n was used to which the two l e v e l s of the three roughages were added. The composition of the r a t i o n s i s given i n Table I I - l . In the f o u r W and E r a t i o n s , the roughage m a t e r i a l was i n c l u d e d i n the r a t i o n , ( i . e . , p e l l e t e d a l o n g w i t h the r a t i o n ) . However, i n the two H r a t i o n s , the hay was fed s e p a r a t e l y i n the l o n g form. T h i s e x p l a i n s the s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of the v a r i o u s components of the r a t i o n s , as o u t l i n e d i n Table I I - 1 . Except f o r the l o n g hay, a l l r a t i o n s were p e l l e t e d ( 1 1/64). The extruded wood was obtained from an " e x t r u d i n g " machine developed by the B.C. Research C o u n c i l 1 . T h i s machine was designed f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of f u e l l o g s . High temperature ( 3 0 0 ° F) and pressure ( 2 0 0 0 p . s . i . ) are a t t a i n e d through a g r i n d i n g motion. These extremes of temperature and pressure are f i r s t used t o break down the f i b r e s of the sawdust to form a homogenous mass and s e c o n d l y t o cause the l i g n i n t o flow (Stamm, 1 9 6 4 ) . L i g n i n a t t h i s temperature and pressure a c t s as a p l a s t i c and i n t h i s case, a f t e r c o o l i n g , becomes the b i n d e r necessary t o h o l d the l o g t o g e t h e r . In t h i s movement of l i g n i n i t was hoped t h a t a p o r t i o n of the c e l l u l o s e would be f r e e d f o r m i c r o b i a l a t t a c k and use. 1 I wish t o acknowledge the a s s i s t a n c e of Mr. J . E. Breeze, Head, E n g i n e e r i n g Department o f the B.C. Research C o u n c i l and of Mr. R. A. Sanders, E n g i n e e r i n g Department, B.C. Research C o u n c i l , Vancouver 8, B.C. 28. A moisture content of 35$ to 40$ was found necessary f o r adequate b u i l d u p of steam i n the e x t r u d i n g p r o c e s s . At d r i e r c o n d i t i o n s , extreme temperatures were reached which caused c h a r c o a l to be formed. In these s t u d i e s , the m a t e r i a l obtained from the machine had a moisture content of 18$ t o 20$. Due to the warmth of the m a t e r i a l , i t was found t o dry to 12$ t o 14$ moisture when spread on a cement f l o o r f o r two t o f o u r hours. The m a t e r i a l was then sacked up f o r t r a n s p o r t t o a commercial feed m i l l . The c a p a c i t y o f the machine under our c o n d i t i o n s was about 200 l b s . of product per hour. However, i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t i t was f e l t t h a t the machine was never o p e r a t i n g at f u l l c a p a c i t y w i t h regards t o both q u a n t i t y and extremes of temperature and p r e s s u r e . R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n The growth and feed i n t a k e r e s u l t s are shown i n Table I I - 2 . As was expected, the animals r e c e i v i n g the H r a t i o n s had the g r e a t e s t gains ( p < . 0 1 ) . Feed i n t a k e and feed e f f i c i e n c y a l s o appeared b e t t e r f o r t h i s treatment. I t should be noted t h a t the animals on the W and E r a t i o n s had a c c e p t a b l e r a t e s of g a i n and feed c o n v e r s i o n . In comparing the W and E treatments, a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n f a v o r of the extruded wood i s seen i n both feed 2 9 . e f f i c i e n c i e s and g a i n . T h i s might be an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t some c e l l u l o s e i s b e i n g f r e e d by the e x t r u d i n g process and that perhaps under more severe c o n d i t i o n s o f temperature and pressure a more n o t i c e a b l e v a r i a t i o n would be experienced. T r i a l IB. E f f e c t of l e v e l o f p r o t e i n i n the d i e t on the u t i l i z a t i o n of a l d e r sawdust by growing c a t t l e . T h i s t r i a l was run c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h T r i a l 1A. The e f f e c t s of two roughage sources (wood (W) and hay (H)), fed at two l e v e l s (15% and 2 0 % ) and two p r o t e i n l e v e l s (13% and 15%) were s t u d i e d . Besides s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t o f the va r i o u s roughage sources f ed at two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i t was hoped t h a t a b e n e f i c a l e f f e c t due t o i n c r e a s e d p r o t e i n l e v e l s would be de t e c t e d i n animal performance. M a t e r i a l s and Methods Animals For the 13% p r o t e i n l e v e l treatment, the animals on the H and W treatments o u t l i n e d i n T r i a l 1A were used. For the 15% p r o t e i n l e v e l treatment, 2 4 animals were randomly assign e d t o 4 pens. These animals r e c e i v e d the same treatment as those i n T r i a l 1A. Feeding, Weighing and Housing A l l c o n d i t i o n s were the same as d e s c r i b e d under T r i a l 1A. Rations The 13% p r o t e i n l e v e l r a t i o n s were those d e s c r i b e d f o r the H and W treatments i n T r i a l 1A. For the 15% p r o t e i n Table I I - l . Composition o f r a t i o n s fed t o f a t t e n i n g beef s t e e r s . T r i a l 1A. Groups X5^ ^5% 15^ — extruded extruded untreated untreated 15$ 20$ wood wood sawdust sawdust hay hay E - l E -2 W-l W-2 H - l H-2 pounds per ton Ingr e d i e n t s B a r l e y 1427 1322 1427 1322 l 4 4 o 1338 Urea 35 38.5 35 38.5 22 22 Molasses 100 100 100 100 100 100 A l f a l f a Meal 100 100 100 100 100 100 S a l t 15 15 15 15 15 15 Premix (Trace M i n e r a l s ) 5 5 5 5 5 5 T r i c a l c i u m Phosphate 18 20 18 20 18 . 20 Limestone 0.5 - 0.5 - - -Extruded Wood (A l d e r ) 300 4oo - - - -Untreated Sawdust (A l d e r ) - - 300 4oo - -Hay - - - - 300 4oo Table I I - 2 . E f f e c t s of f e e d i n g non-processed and extruded a l d e r sawdust and hay to f a t t e n i n g beef s t e e r s . T r i a l IB. 15% 2 0 % 15% 2 0 % extruded extruded untreated untreated 15% 2 0 % wood wood sawdust sawdust hay hay E - l E - 2 W-l W-2 H-l H-2 t r i a l 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 Average i n i t i a l body weight ( l b s . ) 7 0 0 7 0 2 7 2 0 7 1 3 7 1 2 7 2 1 Average f i n a l body weight 8 7 0 . . 8 8 1 8 7 7 ... 8 8 6 9 6 5 9 6 1 Average t o t a l 1 2 4 0 + gain 1 7 0 1 7 9 1 5 7 1 7 3 2 5 3 + Average d a i l y 2 . 7 4 4 . 0 1 3 . 8 1 g a i n 2 . 7 0 2.84 2.48 Average feed i n t a k e 1124 1 1 6 5 1 1 3 8 1 2 0 1 1 3 4 0 1 3 4 2 Feed e f f i c i e n c y 6 . 6 1 6.64 6 . 6 7 - 6 . 9 4 5 . 2 9 5 . 5 8 + p < . 0 1 3 2 . l e v e l r a t i o n s the p r o t e i n (Nitrogen x 6 . 2 5 ) was i n c r e a s e d by-adding urea and s u b t r a c t i n g an equal weight of b a r l e y . Other than p r o t e i n l e v e l s , the r a t i o n composition was changed very l i t t l e . (Table I I - 3 ) . R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s are given i n Table I I - 4 . As i n T r i a l 1A there was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e (p < .01) i n the gain o f the animals r e c e i v i n g hay as a roughage source. The i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f p r o t e i n d i d not show any b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s . In g e n e r a l , when the l e v e l of wood (W or E t r e a t -ment) i n the d i e t was i n c r e a s e d from 15% t o 20%, a s l i g h t i n -crease i n ga i n was noted. However, when there was an i n c r e a s e from 15% to 20% i n hay a s l i g h t decrease i n ga i n was observed. The decrease i n ga i n when the hay content o f the r a t i o n was i n c r e a s e d c o u l d be ex p l a i n e d i n terms of d i l u t i o n o f the energy content o f the r a t i o n . As the l e v e l o f a v a i l a b l e energy i n wood i s much lower than i n hay, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n the i n c r e a s e i n ga i n when the l e v e l of wood i n the d i e t i s i n c r e a s e d . I t might prove e n l i g h t e n i n g t o observe the e f f e c t o f the s i z e o f the wood p a r t i c l e used i n the d i e t on animal performance. T r i a l 2. In v i t r o d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s . In t h i s t r i a l , the d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f the r a t i o n s used i n T r i a l 1A and IB was determined u s i n g the i n v i t r o Table I I - 3 . R a t i o n composition, T r i a l IB. D i e t s 15% A l d e r Sawdust W-3 2 0 % A l d e r Sawdust w-4 1 5 $ Hay H -3 2 0 % Hay H-4 I n g r e d i e n t s pounds per ton Barley- 1412 1 3 0 6 1 4 2 5 1324 Urea 5 0 54 37 . 3 6 Molasses (dry) 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 A l f a l f a l e a f meal 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 A l d e r sawdust (untreated) 3 0 0 4 0 0 - -Hay (legume grass mix) - - 3 0 0 4 0 0 S a l t 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 Premix 5 5 5 5 T r i c a l c i u m phosphate 1 8 2 0 1 8 2 0 Limestone 0 . 5 - — -A Trace m i n e r a l s (PIL m i n e r a l mix) and Vitamin A. Table I I - 4 . R e s u l t s of T r i a l IB. I n i t i a l ^ Final* " ~ " " On Body Body T o t a l * D a i l y * Feed* Feed i n t a k e * D i e t T r i a l Weight Weight Gain Gain Intake per l b . g a i n l b s . l b s . l b s . lb./day l b s . W-l 6 3 7 2 0 8 7 7 1 5 7 2.48 1 1 3 8 6 . 6 7 W-2 6 3 7 1 3 8 8 6 1 7 3 2 . 7 4 1 2 0 1 6 . 9 4 W-3 6 3 7 2 6 8 8 6 1 6 0 2 . 5 4 1 2 3 5 7 . 7 2 W-4 6 3 7 1 5 8 6 0 145 2 . 3 0 1 2 6 6 8 . 7 3 H - l 6 3 7 1 2 9 6 5 2 5 3 4 . 0 1 1 3 4 0 5 . 2 9 H-2 6 3 7 2 1 9 6 1 2 4 0 3 . 8 1 1 3 4 2 5 . 5 8 H -3 6 3 7 2 2 9 3 4 2 1 2 3 . 3 6 1 2 8 6 6 . 0 7 H-4 6 3 7 2 1 9 6 7 2 4 6 3 . 9 0 1 3 9 1 5 . 6 6 A Refers t o average values f o r the pen. 35. technique. The only modifications to the rations were that i n the H l a b e l l e d rations, no hay was included i n this study. The purpose of this t r i a l was to obtain preliminary observations on the u t i l i z a t i o n of the various rations and eventually com-pare this method of ra t i o n evaluation with jLn vivo digestion studies. Materials and Methods The _in v i t r o technique i s given i n Appendix I. Rumen inoculum was obtained from a f i s t u l a t e d steer maintained on a diet of a l f a l f a hay. Dry matter and ce l l u l o s e digestions were determined. Results and Discussion The results are given i n Table I I - 5 . It can be seen that the concentrate r a t i o n (H) had a much higher digestion c o e f f i c i e n t than the rations containing either wood (¥) or extruded wood (E) ( p { . 0 1 ) . Comparison of the W and E rations showed a higher digestion c o e f f i c i e n t (p< . 0 5 ) for the E rati o n s . This indicates an increased digestion of the extruded wood portion of the d i e t . When the cellulos e digestions were studied, there was a non-significant increase i n ce l l u l o s e digestion of the E rations over the W rations. The large v a r i a t i o n from run to run i n the cellulos e digestion determin-ations can p a r t i a l l y explain the non-significant value for the difference between W and E treatments. 36. The e f f e c t of l e v e l of roughage i n c l u d e d i n the d i e t was pronounced. In a l l determinations the 15% l e v e l o f roughage had a hi g h e r dry matter d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( p<.01) than the 20% roughage l e v e l . T r i a l 3. In v i v o d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s u s i n g sheep. D i g e s t i b i l i t y s t u d i e s o f the r a t i o n s d e f i n e d i n T r i a l I I were conducted u s i n g the jLn v i v o technique. The ob-j e c t was t o determine dry matter d i g e s t i o n of. the r a t i o n s and a l s o determine the d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of the v a r i o u s f i b r o u s components i n the r a t i o n ( c e l l u l o s e , a c i d detergent f i b r e , and a c i d detergent l i g n i n ) . Methods and M a t e r i a l s  Animals Growing wethers were used. D i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s were i n i t i a t e d when the wethers had reached a body weight of 80 pounds. Procedure The method was e s s e n t i a l l y the same as o u t l i n e d i n Experiment I, T r i a l 2, except t h a t c o l l e c t i o n s were made over a 5-day p e r i o d . A l s o , a l l the feces were c o l l e c t e d and s t o r e d a t 4°C, i n the presence of phenol c r y s t a l s , f o r the e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n i n t e r v a l . The m a t e r i a l was mixed w e l l , and then three 500 gram samples were used f o r d r y matter d e t e r m i n a t i o n s . C e l l u l o s e content o f the feed and feces was determined by the 37. method of Crampton and Maynard (1938). A c i d detergent f i b r e , a c i d detergent l i g n i n , and a c i d detergent c e l l u l o s e were determined by the method of Van Soest (19^ 3). R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s are given i n Table II-6. When the dry matter d i g e s t i o n s of the r a t i o n s were compared, the H r a t i o n s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . O l ) hig h e r percentage d i g e s t i o n than e i t h e r the W or E r a t i o n s . The v a r i a t i o n between the W and E r a t i o n s was not s i g n i f i c a n t , although the E r a t i o n s con-s i s t e n t l y had a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r dry matter d i g e s t i o n than the W,rations. The l e v e l o f roughage (15$ or 20$) i n the d i e t had no e f f e c t on the percentage dry matter d i g e s t i o n . The e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g the p r o t e i n l e v e l i n the d i e t was shown o n l y i n the d i g e s t i o n o f c e l l u l o s e . The i n -crease from 13$ t o 15$ p r o t e i n caused a s i g n i f i c a n t (p< .05) decrease i n c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n . As the l i g n i n and c e l l u l o s e content of the feed i n -creased, the degree of dry matter d i g e s t i o n decreased. In c o n t r a s t , as the d r y matter d i g e s t i o n decreased, the grams of c e l l u l o s e and a c i d detergent f i b r e d i g e s t e d i n c r e a s e d . From the i n c r e a s e i n disappearance of c e l l u l o s e and a c i d detergent f i b r e , i t can be concluded t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e could be due to decomposition o f wood. That the degree of u t i l i z a t i o n o f wood i s low was po i n t e d out by the low percentage d i g e s t i o n o f 3 8 . Table I I - 5 . In v i t r o d i g e s t i o n , T r i a l 2 R a t i o n Dry Matter D i g e s t i o n - % C e l l u l o s e D i g e s t i o n - % R - l 8 1 . 6 3 1 . 0 H-2 7 3 . 7 48 . 3 H-3 7 9 . 8 4 9 . 3 H-4 7 9 . 4 5 5 . 3 W-l 6 6 . 5 3 1 . 8 W-2 5 0 . 7 2 8 . 3 W-3 • 5 3 . 5 1 5 . 1 W-4 5 9 . 7 1 8 . 9 E - l 5 9 . 9 3 2 . 9 E - 2 6 2 . 6 4 3 . 4 & For a d e s c r i p t i o n of the r a t i o n s , see Tables I I - l and I I - 3 . Table I I - 6 . In v i v o d i g e s t i o n , T r i a l 3 . Dry Matter ADF L i g n i n C e l l u l o s e D i e t D i g e s t i o n D i g e s t i o n D i g e s t i o n D i g e s t i o n % gm. f gm. gm. % H - l 77.8 146 . 0 3 2 . 8 8 0 . 5 5 7 . 5 142 . 9 3 5 . 4 H - 2 7 8 . 6 1 8 7 . 8 3 7 . 9 7 3 . 4 4 9 . 8 1 1 8 . 4 3 1 . 5 H - 3 7 4 . 8 9 0 . 2 2 0 . 1 6 6 . 2 4 7 . 0 7 0 . 2 2 1 . 2 H - 4 7 6 . 9 7 1 . 3 1 7 . 3 4 9 . 2 4 3 . 7 5 3 . 5 1 6 . 8 W-l 6 6 . 9 2 0 4 . 3 2 2 . 3 5 0 . 8 2 5 . 3 2 3 2 . 0 3 0 . 3 W-2 6 4 . 4 3 4 7 . 5 2 9 . 3 3 1 . 7 1 3 . 3 8 6 . 3 1 3 . 0 W-3 6 5 . 3 3 2 9 . 3 2 9 . 9 6 5 . 2 2 6 . 7 8 1 . 8 1 2 . 2 w-4 6 7 . 2 3 2 4 . 9 2 9 . 1 6 3 . 2 2 4 . 1 7 7 . 9 1 1 . 4 E - l 6 9 . 0 3 1 2 . 8 3 2 . 2 2 4 . 8 1 3 . 0 8 3 . 1 1 4 . 4 E - 2 6 7 . 2 211 . 4 2 2 . 1 3 1 . 2 1 6 . 0 142 . 1 2 0 . 1 4 0 . of the c e l l u l o s e and a c i d detergent f i b r e . A m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n program provided by the U.B.C. Computing Centre was used i n attempting t o p r e d i c t in v i v o d i g e s t i o n values from the data obtained from the _in v i t r o t r i a l and r a t i o n composition. When a l l these f a c t o r s ( i n v i t r o dry matter d i g e s t -i o n , i n v i t r o c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n , a c i d detergent f i b r e content, a c i d detergent l i g n i n , a c i d detergent c e l l u l o s e , c e l l u l o s e , and p r o t e i n ) were used, an R value of O . 9 8 8 was obtained ( 9 8 . 8 % of the v a r i a t i o n i n _in v i v o d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s can be explained using these terms). I t was found that s e v e r a l of the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d very l i t t l e t o the equation ( i n  v i t r o c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n , a c i d detergent c e l l u l o s e and p r o t e i n ) . By dropping them from the equation, the amount of l a b o r a t o r y p work was decreased and s t i l l a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t R value could be obtained. I t was found f o r the r a t i o n s i n t h i s 2 study that a s i g n i f i c a n t R value could be obtained without i n c l u d i n g the l a b o r i o u s _in v i t r o data. However the in v i t r o data d i d increase the value of R 2 so both equations are given. In v i v o dry matter d i g e s t i o n = 6 0 . 1 2 5 2 + 0 . 0 2 2 1 ( i n v i t r o dry matter d i g e s t i o n ) + 0 . 4 7 9 9 ( a c i d detergent f i b r e ) -3 . 5 8 5 5 ( l i g n i n ) - O . 8 3 9 5 ( c e l l u l o s e ) . R 2 = 0 . 8 8 7 7 41. The equation not i n c l u d i n g the _in v i t r o data i s : In v i v o d r y matter d i g e s t i o n = 9 5 . 2 3 9 3 + 0 . 4 l 2 0 ( a c i d detergent f i b r e ) - 4 . 6 9 8 ( l i g n i n ) - 0 . 9 5 2 6 ( c e l l u l o s e ) . R 2 = O . 8 6 5 7 SUMMARY No apparent harmful e f f e c t s could be dete c t e d when a l d e r wood was i n c l u d e d i n the d i e t up t o a 35% l e v e l . Tender-ness and j u i c i n e s s of round and s i r l o i n steaks were u n a f f e c t e d by i n c l u s i o n or l e v e l o f wood i n the d i e t . The degree o f u t i l i z a t i o n of the wood was d i f f i c u l t t o determine. From the d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s i t appears as i f the wood was d i g e s t e d t o the extent of 10% to 15%. That some of the wood was d i g e s t e d was confirmed by the a n a l y s i s o f the rumen v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d s (VFA) from the va r i o u s treatments. At h i g h l e v e l s o f wood i n the d i e t ( 3 5 % ) , the p r o p o r t i o n of p r o p i o n i c a c i d produced was decreased ( p < . 0 5 ) , while the amounts of a c e t i c and t o t a l VFA remained r e l a t i v e l y constant. T h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f i n c r e a s e d c e l l u l o s e c a t a b o l i s m , which could o n l y have come from the wood. The e f f e c t o f treatment of a l d e r wood wit h high temperature and pressure (the e x t r u d i n g p r ocess) d i d not pro-duce any s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , although i t d i d appear as i f e x t r u d i n g the wood enhanced the m i c r o b i a l breakdown o f the 4 2 . a l d e r sawdust. E f f e c t o f l e v e l of roughage f ed d i d not give c o n s i s t -ent r e s u l t s . By i n c r e a s i n g the p r o p o r t i o n o f hay i n the d i e t , the gains made by the animals were decreased. However, when the l e v e l of wood (extruded and non-extruded) was i n c r e a s e d there was u s u a l l y a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n animal performance. I n c r e a s i n g the p r o t e i n l e v e l o f the d i e t by adding urea d i d not i n c r e a s e animal gain or r a t i o n d i g e s t i b i l i t y . A n a l y s i s of the d i g e s t i o n of the f i b r o u s components of the feed ( a c i d detergent f i b r e , a c i d detergent l i g n i n , and c e l l u l o s e ) helped t o confirm the p a r t i a l breakdown of the c e l l u l o s e i n wood. C o r r e l a t i o n of JLn v i t r o d i g e s t i o n r e s u l t s and i n v i v o d i g e s t i o n values was h i g h . When the composition of the r a t i o n s s t u d i e d was i n c l u d e d w i t h the _in v i t r o data, 8 9 % o f the v a r i a t i o n i n _in v i v o dry matter d i g e s t i o n (DMD) could be e x p l a i n e d . (DMD = 6 0 . 1 2 5 2 + 0 . 0 2 2 1 ( i n v i t r o d r y matter d i g e s t i o n ) + 0 . 4 7 9 9 ( a c i d detergent f i b r e ) - 3 . 5 8 5 5 ( l i g n i n ) - 0 . 8 3 9 5 ( c e l l u l o s e ) ) . 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E f f e c t of animal t a l l o w and h y d r o l y z e d vegetable and animal f a t on r a t i o n u t i l i z a t i o n and rumen v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d p r o d u c t i o n w i t h f a t t e n i n g s t e e r s . J . Animal S c i . 2 2 : 6 9 5 . 4 5 . Goering, H.K., and P. J . Van Soest. 1 9 6 8 . In v i t r o d i g e s t -i b i l i t y o f l i g n i f i e d m a t e r i a l s e n s i l e d w i t h sodium c h l o r i t e . J . D a i r y S c i . 5 1 : 9 7 4 . ( A b s t r . ) . Gonzaleza, Barreo. 1 9 5 9 - M o d i f i c a t i o n of the f e e d i n g value of straw by chemical removal of l i g n i n . An. I n s t . I v e s t . Vet. Madrid, 9 : 1 6 3 . C i t e d i n Nutr. A b s t r . 3 0 : 1 0 8 7 . I 9 6 0 . Haberlandt, G. 1 9 1 5 . The food value of wood. S i t z b . K g l . Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 243. C i t e d i n Chem. A b s t r . 9 : I 5 1 6 . 1 9 1 5 . Honcamp, F., and H. H i l g e r t . 1 9 3 1 . Decomposition of straw without chemicals. Landwirtsh. V e r s . - S t a . 1 1 3 : 2 0 1 . C i t e d i n Nutr. A b s t r . 1 : 645. 1 9 3 1 . Huffman, J.G. 1 9 6 8 . (Personal communication). Hughes, J . , S. A. Ewing, L. S. Pope, and E. Nelson. 1 9 6 4 . F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g feed and energy i n t a k e of s t e e r s fed c o n v e n t i o n a l and hi g h concentrate r a t i o n s . Okla-homa A g r i c . Expt. S t a . Misc. P u b l i c a t i o n 7 4 : 7 4 . Hungate, Robert E. 1 9 6 6 . The rumen and i t s microbes. Academic P r e s s , New York. H v i d s t e n , H. and T. Homb;. 1 9 4 7 . A survey of c e l l u l o s e and Beckman t r e a t e d straw as f e e d . I n s t . Animal N u t r i t . , Royal A g r i c . C o l l . , Norway. Repr. 6 2 : 14. C i t e d i n Nutr. A b s t r . 1 8 : 6 5 5 . 1 9 4 8 - 4 9 . Johnson, Ronald R. 1 9 6 6 . Techniques and Procedures f o r i n v i t r o and i n v i v o rumen s t u d i e s . J . Animal S c i . " 2 3 T " 8 5 5 . Larsen, W. M., L. B. Embry, and R. M. Luther. 1 9 6 8 . Feed l o t performance, carcass c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and rumen ferme n t a t i o n of beef c a t t l e fed d i e t s w i t h o y s t e r s h e l l s or v a r i o u s l e v e l s of roughage. J . Animal S c i . 2 7 : 1 1 6 8 . ( A b s t r . ) . Lawton, E . J . , W. D. Bellamy, R. E. Hungate, M. P. Bryant, and E. H a l l . 1 9 5 1 . Some e f f e c t s o f high v e l o c i t y e l e c t r o n s on wood. Science 1 1 3 : 3 8 0 . Lehman, F. 1 9 1 5 . D i s i n t e g r a t e d straw f o r fodder. Deut. Zu c k e r i n d . 4 0 : 3 1 7 . C i t e d i n Chem. A b s t r . 9 : 3 3 0 9 . 1 9 1 5 . 46. Lampila, M a r t t i . 1 9 6 3 . Experiments w i t h a l k a l i straw and urea. J . Agr. Res. Centre, H e l s i n k i . 2 : 1 0 5 . Mater, Jean. 1 9 5 7 . Chemical e f f e c t s of h i g h energy i r r a d i a t i o n of wood. F o r e s t P r d t s . J . 7 : 2 0 8 . M e l l e n b e r g e r , R.W., M. A. M i l l e t , A. J . Baker, L. D. S a t t e r , and B. R. Baumgardt. 1 9 6 8 . A p p l i c a t i o n of an i n v i t r o fora;ge e v a l u a t i o n t e s t t o wood and wood r e s i d u e . J . D a i r y S c i . 5 1 : 9 7 4 . ( A b s t r . ) . Nehring, K., R. Schiemann, L. Hoffmann, W. K l i p p e t and W. J e n t s e h . 1 9 6 5 . U t i l i z a t i o n o f the energy of c e l l u l o s e and sucrose by c a t t l e . Energy Metabolism. K. L. B l a x t e r ( e d . ) , Academic P r e s s , New York. 1 9 6 5 . N i c h o l s o n , J.W'.G., and H. M. Cunningham. 1 9 6 1 . The a d d i t i o n of b u f f e r s t o ruminant r a t i o n s . I. E f f e c t on weight ga i n s , e f f i c i e n c y o f gains and consumption of r a t i o n s w i t h and without roughage. Can. J . Animal S c i . 4 l : 1 3 4 . Oh, H i Kon, T. S a k a i , M. B. Jones and W. M. Longhurst. 1 9 6 7 . E f f e c t of v a r i o u s e s s e n t i a l o i l s i s o l a t e d from douglas f i r needles upon sheep and deer rumen m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y . A p p l . M i c r o b i o l . 1 5 : 7 7 7 . Olmstead, W. H., W. M. Whitaker, and C. W. Duden. 1 9 3 0 . Steam d i s t i l l a t i o n o f the lower v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d s from a s a t u r a t e d s a l t s o l u t i o n . J . B i o l . Chem. 8 5 : 1 0 9 . Olson, F.R., W. H. Peterson, and E. C. S h e r r a r d . 1 9 3 7 . E f f e c t o f l i g n i n on f e r m e n t a t i o n of c e l l u l o t i c m a t e r i a l s . Ind. Eng. Chem. 2 9 : 1 0 2 6 . P a c k e t t , L.V., and R. W. McCune. 1 9 6 5 . Determination o f s t e a m - v o l a t i l e o r g a n i c a c i d s i n f e r m e n t a t i o n media by g a s - l i q u i d chromatography. A p p l . M i c r o b i o l . 1 3 : 2 2 . Ranta, James Lawrence. 1 9 6 7 . The e f f e c t o f the l e v e l o f roughage, d i e t h y l s t i l b e s t r o l , and i r o n on c e r t a i n blood components i n growing beef c a t t l e . M.S.A. T h e s i s . U.B.C. L i b r a r y , U.B.C. Rodrique, C.B., and N. N. A l l e n , i 9 6 0 . The e f f e c t of f i n e g r i n d i n g of hay on r a t i o n d i g e s t i b i l i t y , r a t e of passage and f a t content of m i l k . Can. J . Animal S c i . 4 0 : 2 3 . Ross, James P e l t e r . 1 9 6 7 . R a t i o n e f f e c t s on blood m e t a b o l i t e s i n pregnant ewes. M.S.A. T h e s i s . U.B.C. L i b r a r y , U.B.C. 4 7 . Stamm, A l f r e d J . 1 9 6 4 . Wood and c e l l u l o s e s c i e n c e . The Ronald Press Company, New York. Stewart, C M . 1 9 5 4 . H y d r o l y t i c treatments of E. regnous wood and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n commercial p u l p i n g . A u s t r a l i a n Pulp and Paper Ind. Tech. Assn. Proc. 8.: 5 0 . S u l l i v a n , J.T. 1 9 5 5 . C e l l u l o s e and l i g n i n i n forage grasses and t h e i r d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . J . Animal S c i . 14: 7 1 0 . Thompson, James Robert. 1 9 6 6 . M e t a b o l i c e f f e c t s o f d i e t h y l -s t i l b e s t r o l on growing sheep. M.S.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C L i b r a r y , U.B.C. Tomlin, Don C , Ronald R. Johnson, and Burk A. D e h o r i t y . 1 9 6 5 . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f l i g n i f i c a t i o n t o i n v i t r o c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i b i l i t y of grasses and legumes. J . Animal S c i . 2 4 : l 6 l . Van Soest, P.J. 1 9 6 3 . Use of detergents i n the a n a l y s i s of f i b r o u s f e e d s . I I . A r a p i d method f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f i b e r and l i g n i n . J . Assn. O f f i c i a l Agr. Chem. 46: 8 2 9 . ~ ~ Vara, M., A. Bacigalupo, and J . T e l l e z . 1 9 6 8 . Use of c o t t o n wood i n f a t t e n i n g c a t t l e . J . Animal S c i . 2 7 : 1 1 3 7 . V i r t a n e n , A r t t u r i I . 1 9 4 6 . C e l l u l o s e f e r m e n t a t i o n i n wood du s t . Suomen K e m i s t i l e h t 1 9 : 3 -Wise, M.B., R. W. Harvey, E. R. Barrick, and T. N. Blumer. 1 9 6 7 a . I n f l u e n c e o f adding l i m i t e d amounts of v a r i o u s roughages t o an a l l - c o n c e n t r a t e r a t i o n f o r g r o w i n g - f i n i s h i n g s t e e r s . N. C a r o l i n a S t . Univ. Agr. Expt. S t a . ANS Report, 1 7 6 . A.H. s e r i e s 1 2 6 . Wise, M.B., R. W. Harvey, B. R. Haskins, and E. R. B a r r i c k . 1 9 6 7 b . F i n i s h i n g beef c a t t l e on a l l - c o n c e n t r a t e r a t i o n s . Paper presented 5 9 t h Ann. Meeting Amer. Soc. Animal S c i . 48. APPENDIX I  In v i t r o technique Fermentation v e s s e l s and c o n d i t i o n s 1 2 5 ml. erlenmeyer f l a s k s w i t h rubber s t o p p e r s , f i t t e d w i t h bunsen valves were used. The d i g e s t i o n took p l a c e i n a 3 9 . 5 ° C water bath f o r 48 hours. T h i s was fo l l o w e d by a 2 0 hour p e p s i n d i g e s t i o n i n an oven s e t a t 3 9 ° C. B u f f e r s , M i n e r a l Mix and Sub s t r a t e The b u f f e r s and m i n e r a l mix used were those d e s c r i b e d by Donefer ( i 9 6 0 ) . A 1-gram sample of s u b s t r a t e was added t h a t had passed through a 4 0 mesh s c r e e n . Procedure The b u f f e r and m i n e r a l mix were added a l o n g with.the s u b s t r a t e t o the ferm e n t a t i o n f l a s k and allowed t o e q u i l i b r a t e i n the water bath a f t e r s a t u r a t i o n w i t h COg. Ten ml. of rumen f l u i d was then added t o each f l a s k , while the f l a s k was b e i n g gassed w i t h C0 2. The f l a s k was s e a l e d t i g h t l y and fermentation, allowed t o continue f o r 48 hours. The ferm e n t a t i o n was term-i n a t e d w i t h 2 ml. of s a t u r a t e d m e r c u r i c c h l o r i d e s o l u t i o n . 4 9 . Contents of the fermentation f l a s k were q u a n t i t a t i v e l y removed and added to a p r e v i o u s l y t a r r e d (with asbestos) t a l l ( 5 0 ml. c a p a c i t y ) s u c t i o n f i l t e r c r u c i b l e (coarse p o r o s i t y ) . The supernatant was discarded and the pepsin (Thompson, 1 9 6 6 ) d i g e s t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n the s u c t i o n f l a s k f o r 2 0 hours. The f l a s k s were then f i l t e r e d under s u c t i o n and taken to dryness i n an oven ( 8 0 ° C) f o r dry matter determination. The c e l l u l o s e determinations were a l s o done i n the s u c t i o n f l a s k s u s i n g the method of Crampton and Maynard ( 1 9 3 8 ) as modified by Donefer ( i 9 6 0 ) . The s u c t i o n f l a s k s were f i r s t cleaned w i t h detergent and then w i t h a 30% s o l u t i o n of H C 1 . 

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