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Utilization of alder sawdust by sheep and cattle Shelford, James Arthur 1969

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THE  U T I L I Z A T I O N OF ALDER SAWDUST BY SHEEP AND  by JAMES ARTHUR SHELFORD B.S.A.y U n i v e r s i t y  of British  Columbia, 1 9 6 6  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  in  OF SCIENCE  the D i v i s i o n Of v  Animal  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  THE  Science  as c o n f o r m i n g  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H March, 1 9 6 9  t o the  COLUMBIA  CATTLE  In  presenting  an  advanced  the  Library  I further for  this degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of  at  University  of  Columbia,  the  make that  i t freely  permission  purposes  may  representatives. thesis  for  It  financial  available for  granted  of  ^n^J  £C/i  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  3  ^  by  the  is understood gain  shall  r> c/  Columbia  /ftf^  for  extensive  permission.  Department  Date  be  British  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  and  of my  I agree  for that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  copying  or  allowed  without  or  publication my  ABSTRACT  Twenty-eight beef-type animals were d i v i d e d four groups and f e d f o u r r a t i o n s  into  c o n s i s t i n g o f equal amounts  o f b a s a l r a t i o n , t o which increments o f a l d e r sawdust r u b r a ) were added  (0, 13$, 2 1 % , and 3 5 % ) (Experiment  (Alnus I).  The  a d d i t i o n o f the sawdust had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t o t a l gain although the three groups o f animals r e c e i v i n g sawdust in  t h e i r d i e t had a h i g h e r r a t e o f gain than the group  r e c e i v i n g no sawdust.  The e f f e c t s o f the r a t i o n on the carcass  grade and the a c c e p t a b i l i t y (tenderness and j u i c i n e s s ) o f the meat as s t u d i e d  by a t r a i n e d t a s t e panel, were  non-significant.  When the r a t i o n s used i n the above t r i a l were subjected  t o a d i g e s t i o n t r i a l u s i n g mature wethers, the r e s u l t s  coincided above.  w i t h the growth data c o l l e c t e d from the s t e e r s  I f the d i g e s t i o n o f the b a s a l r a t i o n s were taken as  c o n s t a n t , the wood m a t e r i a l r a n g i n g from 46.5$ t o dust i n the d i e t . for  used  13.5%,  had a d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t depending on the l e v e l o f saw-  I t was f e l t  that a f i g u r e o f 13$ d i g e s t i o n  sawdust was c l o s e t o b e i n g c o r r e c t , and t h a t the v a r i a t i o n  i n measurement o f the d i g e s t i o n o f sawdust was due t o the increased  u t i l i z a t i o n o f the b a s a l r a t i o n when the sawdust  was p r e s e n t .  Analysis growth t r i a l  o f t h e rumen f l u i d  for total  showed a d e c r e a s e  (VFA)  propionic acid while  as  the t o t a l  acetic  acid  six  dust  (hay  (E))  study  o f wood on H rations the  was  the  extruded  effect  The  the W r a t i o n .  had The  and  of heat The  ( p < .01) effect  a slight effect  percent  assigned three  extruded  2 0 % ) , and  a l d e r saw-  were u s e d  pressure  greater than  of t r e a t i n g although  in a  treatment on  those  the  on  the sawdust  the animals  i n c r e a s e i n g a i n over  of l e v e l  to  roughage  growth o f the animals  non-significant  wood d i e t  steers,  (w)., and  (15%  levels  significantly  e x t r u d i n g i t was  the molar  o f a b a s a l r a t i o n and  utilization.  other treatments.  acids  constant.  (H), a l d e r sawdust  the  and  y e a r l i n g Hereford  consisting  to determine  fatty  o f wood i n t h e d i e t i n c r e a s e d . ,  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f VFA  f e d a t two  3  volatile  (p<.05) i n t h e m o l a r p e r c e n t o f  remained r e l a t i v e l y  treatments  sources  individual  the l e v e l  Thirty-six  on  and  o f the s t e e r s i n the  o f r o u g h a g e was  on  by the  those non-  significant. The the  effects  of l e v e l  of p r o t e i n  i n the d i e t  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h r o u g h a g e s o u r c e were s t u d i e d . o f 1 3 % and  levels sources (15%  and  (hay 2 0 % ) .  1 5 % were s t u d i e d , a l o n g w i t h two  ( H ) , and The  H rations  (p<.01) g r e a t e r g a i n . level  a l d e r sawdust  i n t h e d i e t was  The found  (W)),  a g a i n had  effect t o be  a  and  Protein roughage  f e d a t two  levels  significantly  of i n c r e a s i n g  the  non-significant.  protein  When t h e above r a t i o n s were s u b j e c t e d t o a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e i n v i t r o t e c h n i q u e , r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e H r a t i o n s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < . 0 1 ) h i g h e r d i g e s t i o n e i t h e r the W or E r a t i o n s .  than  I t was a l s o found t h a t t h e E  r a t i o n s had a h i g h e r d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t than t h e W r a t i o n s (p < « 0 5 ) .  Increasing  t h e roughage l e v e l from 1 5 $ t o  2 0 %  caused  a s i g n i f i c a n t ( p < . 0 1 ) decrease i n d i g e s t i o n . When t h e same r a t i o n s were s u b j e c t e d t o an j l n v i v o d i g e s t i o n s t u d y u s i n g growing w e t h e r s , t h e r e s u l t s were s i m i l a r t o t h e _in v i t r o s t u d y w i t h t h e H r a t i o n s h a v i n g a g r e a t e r dirgestion  (p < . 0 1 ) t h a n t h e W o r E r a t i o n s .  However t h e  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e W and E r a t i o n s was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . An e q u a t i o n f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e _in v i v o d r y m a t t e r digestion i s given: + 0.0221  _In v i v o d r y m a t t e r d i g e s t i o n = 6 0 . 1 2 5 2  ( i n v i t r o d r y matter digestion) + 0 . 4 7 9 9  detergent f i b r e ) - 3 . 5 8 5 5  (acid  (lignin) - 0.8395 (cellulose).  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e  t o Dr. W. D.  K i t t s , P r o f e s s o r o f Animal Science and Chairman o f t h e Department o f Animal S c i e n c e , f o r h i s encouragement and guidance throughout my program. I a l s o wish t o thank Dr. J . F. Richards and Mrs. B. M o r r i s o n o f the P o u l t r y  Science Department f o r  the t a s t e panel a n a l y s i s . I am g r a t e f u l t o t h e many people who a s s i s t e d me i n t h i s study, e s p e c i a l l y Mr. Ralph McQueen, Mr. J . C. MacGregor, Miss L. Amundsen, Mrs. J . L i t s k y and Mrs. G. Huchelega.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page A.  Introduction  1  B.  L i t e r a t u r e Review  2  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  6.  C.  E a r l y i n t e r e s t i n wood L i g n i n - N u t r i t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e as a plant constituent Delignification of materials The u s e o f wood as a f e e d s o u r c e E f f e c t o f n u t r i t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s on c e l l u l o s e u t i l i z a t i o n a} Protein b) Particle size c) Minerals d ) Method and r a t e o f f e e d i n g E f f e c t o f r o u g h a g e on a n i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e and rumen m e t a b o l i s m a) High concentrate feeding b ) Roughage s o u r c e and rumen metabolism  Experiment sawdust  I.  Utilization  of untreated  2 2 3 7 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 13  alder 14  T r i a l 1. Feeding t r i a l with beef steers a ) M a t e r i a l s and methods b) Results Feeding t r i a l Carcass e v a l u a t i o n Taste panel  14 14 17 17 18 18  T r i a l 2. In v i v o d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s u s i n g sheep. a} M a t e r i a l s and methods b) R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n  20 20 22  T r i a l 3. A n a l y s i s o f v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d s a ) M a t e r i a l s and methods b) R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n  22 23 24  Page Experiment I I . E f f e c t o f heat and pressure treatment on the u t i l i z a t i o n of a l d e r sawdust and the use o f a l d e r sawdust as a roughage s u b s t i t u t e i n high concentrate r a t i o n s  24  T r i a l 1A. E f f e c t o f heat and pressure treatment on the use o f a l d e r sawdust by growing s t e e r s a) M a t e r i a l s and methods b) R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n  26 26 28  T r i a l IB. E f f e c t o f l e v e l o f p r o t e i n i n the d i e t on the u t i l i z a t i o n o f a l d e r sawdust by growing c a t t l e a T M a t e r i a l s and methods b) R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n  29 29 32  T r i a l 2. In v i t r o d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s a} M a t e r i a l s and methods b) R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n  32 35 35  Trial 3. In v i v o d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s u s i n g sheep a) M a t e r i a l s and methods 36 b) R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n 37 D.  Summary  41  E.  Bibliography  43  F.  Appendix  48  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table  Page  1-1  Composition of basal  1-2  E f f e c t s of feeding d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s u n t r e a t e d a l d e r sawdust t o s t e e r s  1-3  1-4  1-5  1-6  II-l II-2  16  ration of  19  E f f e c t of feeding d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of u n t r e a t e d a l d e r sawdust on t h e carcasses of steers  21  Taste panel r e s u l t s . means.  21  Table  of  dietary  E f f e c t of feeding d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of u n t r e a t e d a l d e r s a w d u s t on t h e d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f r a t i o n s by s h e e p 3.  Summary o f r e s u l t s , T r i a l determinations  VFA 25  Composition of r a t i o n s fed beef s t e e r s . T r i a l 1A.  to  fattening 30  E f f e c t s of feeding non-processed e x t r u d e d a l d e r s a w d u s t and hay fattening beef steers  II-3  Ration  II-4  Results  II-5  In v i t r o  II-6  In v i v o d i g e s t i o n data.  composition, of T r i a l  Trial  and to  31 33  IB.  34  IB.  digestion data.  25  Trial Trial  2. 3.  38 39  1.  INTRODUCTION  I n r e c e n t y e a r s much t i m e devoted  by domestic  animals.  o f feed  Often these animals  are i n  c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h man f o r f e e d s w h i c h a r e a c c e p t a b l e  t o humans.  More r e c e n t l y ,  practicality ible  has b e e n  t o the study o f i n c r e a s i n g the e f f i c i e n c y  utilization direct  and e f f o r t  p a r t i c u l a r l y with ruminants, the  of feeding industrial  "waste" m a t e r i a l s , i n d i g e s t -  b y humans, has b e e n s t u d i e d . Cellulose  energy content  i s d e s c r i b e d as a n e x c e l l e n t (Nehring, 1 9 6 5 ) .  f o r ruminants  o f wood and t h e l a r g e  source o f  Due t o t h e h i g h  cellulose  amount o f wood w a s t e s i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , a s t u d y was o u t l i n e d  t o determine  the f e a s i b i l i t y  o f u t i l i z i n g w a s t e wood m a t e r i a l s as an e n e r g y  source f o r  ruminants. The (1)  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d  To d e t e r m i n e  i f ruminants  amounts o f a l d e r s a w d u s t effect ability (3)  of i n c l u s i o n  To d e t e r m i n e  determine  their  t h e wood w a s t e .  product,  treatments  effectiveness  large  To f i n d t h e on t h e a c c e p t -  i . e . , t h e meat o f t h e a n i m a l ; o f t h e a l d e r s a w d u s t and  o f the u t i l i z a t i o n  different  (2)  points:  to ingest  sawdust i n t h e d i e t  the d i g e s t i b i l i t y  t o o b t a i n an e s t i m a t e study several  c o u l d be i n d u c e d  (Alnus r u b r a ) ;  of alder  o f the f i n i s h e d  t o analyze several  o f wood; and ( 4 ) To  o f wood p r o d u c t s and  i n i n c r e a s i n g the u t i l i z a t i o n o f  2.  LITERATURE REVIEW  Early  Interest  I n Wood  Much i n t e r e s t  i n the p o s s i b i l i t y  a f e e d s o u r c e was shown b y w o r k e r s 1900's. oil,  the glucose  o f sapwood f o r c a t t l e  and p r o t e i n  and h o r s e  sapwood t o be h i g h l y i n d i g e s t i b l e to  i n Germany i n t h e e a r l y  ( 1 9 1 5 ) d i s c u s s e d the use o f t h e s t a r c h ,  Haberlandt  and i n some c a s e s  tissue  o f u s i n g wood as  feed.  He f o u n d t h e  and o n l y a f t e r  fine grinding  " b r e a k t h e c e l l w a l l s " d i d he r e p o r t a p p r e c i a b l e d i g e s t i o n . (1915)  Beckman  wood and s t r a w wood w e r e :  compared  the food value  b y c h e m i c a l means.  protein,  0.95-5.90$;  1.15-2.04$;  Lignin  - Nutritional  of different  fat, 0.37-1.35$; The v a l u e s fat, 3.6l$;  digestion  relationship.  they  concluded  Crarapton and Maynard  found  matured. served  (1938)  c o n t e n t had much l o w e r  that this  of the c e l l u l o s e  and a s h , 9 . 8 $ .  t o v a r y from  that the  cellulose-lignin  showed t h a t m a t e r i a l s  feed values  and t h u s  phenomenon was due t o t h e t y i n g up  by l i g n i n .  The amount o f l i g n i n  i n plants  s p e c i e s t o s p e c i e s and a l s o as t h e p l a n t  S e v e r a l workers  that l i g n i n  f o r s t r a w were  (1915)  o f wood was due t o t h e complex  with high l i g n i n  starch,  I m p o r t a n c e As A P l a n t C o n s t i t u e n t  I t was n o t r e c o g n i z e d a t t h e t i m e low  types o f  The v a l u e s he f o u n d f o r  and a s h , 0 . 6 8 - 0 . 9 1 $ .  much h i g h e r w i t h s t a r c h , 2 6 . 1 2 $ ;  was  i n the storage  (Tomlln, 1 9 6 5 ; S u l l i v a n ,  1 9 5 5 ) ob-  c o n t e n t was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o  3.  cellulose from  3.4$  digestion. to 16$ Due  relationship determine.  The  t o the  complex s t r u c t u r e o f l i g n i n ,  between l i g n i n I t has  (1963)  carbohydrate  bond.  The  exists.  was  realized  ulose, and  possibility  bamboo s h o o t s  substances,  of other d i s t i n c t  continuation  resembles  ( 3 5 0 ° F and similar  to d e l i g n i f y  were s o u g h t  to 160°  up  thus  were added b u t  to  cellulose.  to reveal a  Physically lignin  to a  a  ligninforms plastic.  1500-2500 p.s.i.) liquid.  f o r a g e s were s t a r t e d  t h a t l i g n i n was  a c i d s r e l e a s e d by  with  e n c r u s t i n g the  pressure  actual  t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  by  feeding value  cooking  c o o k i n g were t o d i s s o l v e f r e e i n g the  not  (NH4)2S04 and  Small  enough t o n e u t r a l i z e  of this  t h a t o f Lehman  fibre.  line  of thought,  ( 1 9 1 5 ).> who Na3P02j..  the  The  the  cell-  straw at  organic  intracellular  amounts o f  alkali  free acids.  A  b u t much more e l a b o r a t e  suggested  After  of  under p r e s s u r e  (Anonymous, 1 9 0 8 ) .  C  before  t i g h t l y associated with  f o r example, i n c r e a s e s i n t h e  temperatures  was  and  the  Of M a t e r i a l s  Attempts it  ranged  is difficult  spectroscopy  (Stamm, 1 9 6 4 ) ,  flow  Delignification  cellulose  the l i g n i n  infra-red  At h i g h temperature lignin will  and  been suggested  used  o f bonds s t i l l  of l i g n i n  (Ely, 1953).  purely physical, with Bolker  actual digestion  treatment  of  straw  h e a t i n g , the m a t e r i a l  i n o c u l a t e d w i t h d e s i r a b l e molds which a f t e r  cultivation  was would  fill  t h e e n t i r e mass w i t h h i g h q u a l i t y  this  trial  d i d n o t proceed beyond One o f t h e f i r s t  t i o n was t h a t with 8 parts  o f Beckman  the  crude  found find  fibre  that  at delignifica-  o f one p a r t  and o r g a n i c m a t t e r  straw  followed by f i l t r a t i o n  highly digestible.  He f o u n d He a l s o  a t no c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f NaOH o r c o o k i n g t i m e d i d he  a p o i n t where l i g n i n was d i s s o l v e d w i t h o u t a n e q u a l  being  treated estion  significant  pentosans  and h e x o s a n s  lost.  (19^7) compared t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f Beckman  Hvidsten straw  and s e m i - p u r i f i e d  experiments  found  cellulose  w i t h s h e e p and p i g s .  t o be s i m i l a r  cellulose. Q7%  Treatment  stage.  a product acceptable t o c a t t l e .  amount o f t h e n u t r i t i o n a l l y  was  attempts  1 . 5 % NaOH f o r 3 t o 12 h o u r s ,  and w a s h i n g , y i e l d e d  Unfortunately  the t h e o r e t i c a l  successful  (1919)•  protein.  i n feed  straw  The t r e a t e d  straw  value t o the semi-purified  U s i n g sheep, the d i g e s t i o n  and o f t h e t r e a t e d  i n a survey of dig-  6 6 % .  o f t h e c e l l u l o s e was  T h e protein s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n  n e c e s s a r y f o r d i g e s t i o n was 37 grams p e r k i l o g r a m d r y m a t t e r and  9 grams p e r k i l o g r a m d r y m a t t e r  straw  f o r t h e c e l l u l o s e and  respectively.  Honcamp straw without an i n c r e a s e  (1931) s t u d i e d t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f  chemicals.  i n starch  By s t e a m i n g  v a l u e and a l o s s  t h e s t r a w , he f o u n d i n crude  protein.  Olsen  (1937)  s t u d i e d t h e f e r m e n t a t i o n o f wood and  wood p r o d u c t s w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l s were o b t a i n e d treatment.  from  of l i g n i n .  the p u l p i n g process  t o a t t a c k and he c o n c l u d e d  contained  a t o x i c substance  resistant  t o x i c substance degraded  t h e o r y by f i n d i n g t h a t o f wood.  d i d not a l t e r  that  none o f t h e l i g n i n was d e g r a d e d . from  He c o n c l u d e d  fermentable,  i t slignin  existed  in a  He d i s p r o v e d t h e  cellulose lignin  was  added t o found  He t h e n s t u d i e d t h e and f o u n d  that  as t h e  the fermentation o f the m a t e r i a l that  f o r a wood p r o d u c t  c o n t e n t s h o u l d be l e s s  ( 1 9 4 6 ) found  Virtanen  either  t h e f e r m e n t a t i o n a l t h o u g h he  the p u l p i n g procedure  content decreased,  increased.  pure  Isolated  cellulose  g r o u n d were  t h e wood  t o a t t a c k by micro-organisms.  i n the presence  wood p r o d u c t s  that  of t h e c a r b o h y d r a t e  pure  lignin  a t various stages of  Raw wood m a t e r i a l s , e v e n when f i n e l y  resistant  state  The wtood p r o d u c t s  that  t o be  than  readily  1$.  the f e r m e n t a b i l i t y of  birchwood  s a w d u s t i n c r e a s e d as t h e f i n e n e s s o f t h e d u s t i n -  creased.  Different  their  degree  of fermentability, with birch  than aspen or p i n e . 60$,  s p e c i e s o f wood were f o u n d  Olsen  (7 days).  mentation  during  incubation periods  w h i c h were much l o n g e r t h a n t h o s e In a d d i t i o n  v a r i e d w i t h time,  of l i g n i f i c a t i o n ,  f e r m e n t i n g more  I n r e p o r t i n g d e g r a d a t i o n o f wood up t o  i t must be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t he u s e d  o f up t o 4 0 d a y s ,  to vary i n  a decrease  f e r m e n t a t i o n was  to finding treatment in lignin  noted.  that  used  cellulose  o f wood, and  fer-  degree  content o f 1 1 . 4 $  by  6.  Hydrolytic were r e p o r t e d by is  treatments  Stewart  a t t a c k e d by d i l u t e  considerable portion saccarides alkali  (1954).  alkali  are d i s s o l v e d .  involving dilute  An  alkali  d e l i g n i f y straw. then d r y i n g , untreated  This  and  He  found  He  wood u s i n g  that  a l s o found  the r e a c t i o n  t o be much more r a p i d  used by G o n z e l e z a  t r e a t m e n t was  showed no a p p a r e n t In a s i m i l a r  of  as good i f n o t b e t t e r  lignified  trial,  Lampila  o f meat p r o t e i n  in  found  materials  in  vitro  ibility  I t was  after  treatment w i t h sodium  found, r e g a r d l e s s  coefficient  studied.  i n the  (1963)  the  with treated  (1968) f o u n d c o n s i s t a n t i n c r e a s e s i n d i g e s t i o n  s e v e r a l weeks b e f o r e jLn v i t r o d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s  materials  to  sheep.  for  digestion  and  t h a n good q u a l i t y hay f o r  m a t e r i a l s were e n s i l e d w i t h 3% s o d i u m  the  the  (1959) t o  trials,  The  determined.  than  superior  ill-effects  s o u r c e , he  u s i n g u r e a as a p r o t e i n  Goering  of mild  f o l l o w e d by washing  s h e e p and  synthesis  a  acid.  In d i g e s t i o n  the  lignin  (non-cellulosic) poly-  t r e a t e d wheat s t r a w w i t h a l k a l i .  t o be  alkali  but that  y i e l d i n g a p r o d u c t w h i c h was  experimental animals.  straw  little  a t room t e m p e r a t u r e ,  s o l u t i o n was  finally  straw  regnous  of the n o n - r e s i s t a n t  a t these temperatures  reaction  of  varied  of l i g n i n  b e t w e e n 85$  S i m i l a r l y Mellenberger  technique t o demonstrate  chlorite  and  chlorite. and  left  were  content, 94$  that  fora l l  (1968) u s e d t h e  an i n c r e a s e  i n the  o f ammoniated wood o v e r u n t r e a t e d wood.  digest-  7.  O t h e r methods o f d e l i g n i f i c a t i o n wood.  Lawton  utilization  (1951)  used  have b e e n u s e d  gamma i r r a d i a t i o n  to i n c r e a s e the  o f wood b y rumen m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s .  optimum d o s a g e l e v e l where t h e d i g e s t i b i l i t y f a v o r a b l y w i t h hay. determine definite  Microbiological  what f r a c t i o n was c o u l d be  and  He  o f wood  Reduction  that  at 10^  roentgen,  a l t e r a t i o n s were s l i g h t bacteriological an  and  c h e m i c a l means.  increase i n u t i l i z a t i o n  d o s a g e above 6 x 1 0 ^  The  Use  products  done on  oak  c h a m i s e w i t h d e e r and  conducted  i n the d i g e s t i v e  Total Digestible alfalfa, oak.  sheep.  abilities  N u t r i e n t s (TDN)  (1964),  oakwood s a w d u s t , f o u n d ally  t h e use  and  the  by  also  found  termites at  <5f wood and  digestion studies  l o w e r w i t h c h a m i s e and  Ammerman  (1962)  f e e d s have b e e n r e p o r t e d on  (1957)  found  but  undetectable  Becker  size  (1957)  Mater  degraded,  o f wood b y l a r v a e  Bissell and  nothing  Source  studies  as a n i m a l  to  r.  o f Wood As A F e e d Limited  compared  of the p a r t i c l e  l i g n i n was  and were a l m o s t  an  chemical tests  b y b a l l m i l l i n g d i d n o t enhance f e r m e n t a t i o n . reported  found  e f f e c t e d were made, b u t  concluded.  on  recently.  on i n t e r i o r  Little  of deer  and  live  difference sheep.  v a l u e s were f o u n d distinctly  wood  was  High with  lower w i t h  live  i n s t u d i e s w i t h sewage s l u d g e  and  that  nutrition-  as Bermuda g r a s s , b u t  t h e wood was that  a roughage s o u r c e i n the d i e t .  n o t as good  t h e wood a p p e a r e d Bhattacharya  to serve  (1966)  as  compared  8.  peanut h u l l trials the  and wood s h a v i n g  and f o u n d l i t t l e  two r a t i o n s .  ration  poultry l i t t e r  difference i n digestibility  Increasing  the l e v e l  from 2 5 % t o 5 0 % decreased  Nitrogen  Free  Extract  of f i b r e  digested  Cody  the d i g e s t i o n of d r y matter,  evaluated  as a r o u g h a g e s o u r c e .  after  t e n weeks on f e e d ,  be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e wood f i b r e .  grain  intake  fibre  with  the g r a i n .  At levels  Ground Mesquite wood and 0 . 4 5 k i l o g r a m  h e i f e r s by E l l i s  (1968).  (ad l i b i t u m ) p l u s  on t h i s  kilogram  that  that intake  o f t h e wood  ration  f o r 1 2 5 days  The  before  the h e i f e r s received  suffic-  t h e i r weight before  calving  t h e wood d i d n o t f u r n i s h enough a v a i l a b l e e n e r g y f o r  weight l o s s .  level  0.675  per animal per day.  t h e wood t o m a i n t a i n  b o t h m a i n t e n a n c e and m i l k  wood.  I t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t  b l o a t and p a r a k e r a t o s i s .  He r e p o r t e d  I t was c o n c l u d e d  e n e r g y from that  lesions  m o l a s s e s was f e d t o a g r o u p o f p r e g n a n t  a n i m a l s were m a i n t a i n e d  but  no g r o s s  o f f i b r e below 2 5 % , t h e r e  was b e t w e e n 6 . 3 5 and 7 . 2 6 k i l o g r a m  ient  In a n a l y z i n g the  c o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d b y i n c l u d i n g 2 5 t o 4 5 % wood  were o c c a s i o n a l p r o b l e m s w i t h  calving.  t h e amount  t h e h e a l t h and p e r f o r m a n c e o f  could  milo  i n the  ( N F E ) , and e n e r g y a l t h o u g h  (1968)  tracts  of l i t t e r  between  actually increased.  cows f e d wood f i b r e digestive  i n digestion  Vara  production  Another f i b r o u s feed (1968)  obtained  found  using  corn  that  critical  body  r e c e n t l y used i s c o t t o n  i tw i l l  cobs.  without  support  growth near t h e  Through e i t h e r e n s i l i n g o r  9.  a sodium hydroxide was  treatment, the d i g e s t i b i l i t y  increased. Use  rations  o f hardwood s a w d u s t i n c o n c e n t r a t e  was r e p o r t e d  roughage  (1968).  by Anthony  g a i n was  found  1 0 $ sawdust r a t i o n supported  The  ration  alone.  The wood r a t i o n  formance than d i d o y s t e r s h e l l resulting  gain equal  i n a l l cases rations.  t o the b a s a l gave b e t t e r  effects  The  o f wood  difficult.  very  l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the types out.  A c o m p a r i s o n o f c o t t o n wood sawdust  V a r i a t i o n s i n d i g e s t i o n among d i f f e r e n t  define  t h e wood s o u r c e  mentioning species, fineness  (Virtanen).  types  Many  o n l y as hardwood - n o t  of grind, lignin,  and c e l l u l o s e  A n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i s  presence  i n t h e wood o f v a r i o u s  micro-organisms.  t o x i c a n t s which  Oh ( 1 9 6 7 ) h a s i s o l a t e d  compounds f r o m D o u g l a s F i r . compounds  per-  No d e l e t e r i o u s  a l l i t s g r e e n l e a f y m a t e r i a l and k i l n d r i e d p i n e  content.  ration.  found.  researchers  ing  and 1 0 $  i n t h e 2 . 5 $ sawdust  o f wood have p r e v i o u s l y b e e n m e n t i o n e d  the  I n c o m p a r i n g no  from t h e f e e d i n g o f hardwood w a s t e were  s t u d i e d must be p o i n t e d with  fattening  ( b a s a l ) , 2 . 5 $ sawdust, 2 . 5 $ o y s t e r s h e l l ,  sawdust t h e h i g h e s t  is  o f t h e wood  (terpenes,  The l e v e l s  inhibit  s e v e r a l o f these o f these  undesirable  a l c o h o l s ) must be r e a l i z e d when  t h e u s e o f v a r i o u s wood w a s t e s as f e e d  sources.  consider-  10.  Effect  of N u t r i t i o n a l  A.  and  P h y s i c a l F a c t o r s On  Cellulose  Protein I n s t u d y i n g u r e a as an i n e x p e n s i v e p r o t e i n  for  ruminants,  cellulose  Belasco  digestion  (1956)  and  some r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e  determined  digestibility,  carbohydrate.  Esplin  Another (1963),  t o the K % l e v e l ponents.  t h e r e was (1953)  Bell  little  a more d e s i r a b l e  energy  effect  s o u r c e which might  no e f f e c t  However l e v e l s  efficient  a need f o r  found on  that  apparent  He  found  carbohydrate source be  studying finishing rations, had  supplement  t o promote  other than p r o t e i n d i g e s t i b i l i t y .  g r a i n s t o be  sugar.  that  urea u t i l i z a t i o n ,  u s i n g u r e a as a p r o t e i n s o u r c e had  cereal  Utilization  considered i s f a t .  found  on t h e u t i l i z a t i o n  above k % were f o u n d  than  that  f a t up  of ration  to suppress  com-  steer  performance.  B.  Particle  As t h e rumen, rate  70% o f the c e l l u l o s e  about  (Barnett, 1961)  o f passage  tract.  Size  Very  i t i s important  o f the i n g e s t a  fine  stuffs  due  not remain  cellulose digestion  i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r p e l l e t i n g has consumption  t o the lower  materials w i l l  enough f o r a d e q u a t e  digestion  to maintain a  i n t h e rumen l o n g  fine material.  This rapid  escape  escape  from  from  The  grind-  t o i n c r e a s e the  p a r t l y by i n c r e a s i n g t h e t u r n o v e r t i m e t o t h e more r a p i d  slow  gastro-intestinal  to occur.  been found  occurs i n  of feed-  t h e rumen o f  t h e rumen has  this been  11.  c o r r e l a t e d with decreased i960). time  cellulose  However i t has b e e n f o u n d  o f passage i s not a f a c t o r ,  increase d i g e s t i b i l i t y  The  fine  regurgitation.  has  that fine  (Dehority,  Johnson  C.  as many o f t h e p r o d u c t s  o f s a l i v a and  (Hungate, 1 9 6 6 ) .  (1961).  The rations  This  i snot  l o w e r i n g t h e pH o f t h e rumen b e l o w t h e optimum  (1966)  for cellulose  on  o f rumen f e r m e n t a t i o n a r e level.  d i g e s t i o n was r e p o r t e d b y  t o be pH 6 . 9 .  Minerals  Another f a c t o r necessary growth i s the l e v e l states  the flow  b e n e f i c i a l by Nicholson  optimum l e v e l  will  g r i n d i n g o f m a t e r i a l s a l s o h a s an e f f e c t  o f a d d i n g b u f f e r s t o ground h i g h c o n c e n t r a t e  surprising  The  comminution  1961).  This i n turn affects  been found  acidic,  (Roderique,  u s i n g i n v i t r o s t u d i e s where  t h e b u f f e r i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e rumen effect  digestibility  that minerals  improve u t i l i z a t i o n .  and b a l a n c e  f o r optimal m i c r o b i a l  of minerals.  Hungate  (1966)  a r e t h e f e e d a d d i t i v e most l i k e l y t o As m i n e r a l s  are r e l a t i v e l y  o f requirements  with  inexpensive,  they should  be f e d i n e x c e s s  due r e g a r d  to the fact  t h a t some t r a c e e l e m e n t s a r e t o x i c a t l o w  concentrations.  D.  Method and R a t e The  on  cellulose  Of F e e d i n g  method and r a t e o f f e e d i n g w i l l d i g e s t i o n e s p e c i a l l y when u r e a  have a n e f f e c t  i s used  as a p r o t e i n  12.  source.  Due t o t h e l a g p h a s e i n c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n  hours), The  most o f t h e u r e a w i l l  urea  i s r a p i d l y hydrolyzed  removed q u i t e the  have d i s a p p e a r e d  condition  (Bloomfield,  micro-organisms d e f i c i e n t  i s alleviated  from t h e rumen.  t o ammonia, w h i c h i n t u r n i s  r a p i d l y f r o m t h e rumen  cellulolytic  ( 4 - 6  by a l l o w i n g  animals  1961),  i n nitrogen. t o feed  leaving This  con-  tinuously.  Effect  o f Roughage On A n i m a l P e r f o r m a n c e and Rumen M e t a b o l i s m  A.  High Concentrate  In the years ary  that  30$  roughage.  Feeding t o 1955*  prior  fattening rations Following  f o r ruminants should  this  period  crease  a n d i n some c a s e s d e l e t e  diet.  I t was f e l t  were l o w e r i n g  i t was c o n s i d e r e d contain  necessat least  a t t e m p t s were made t o d e -  the roughage p o r t i o n o f the  t h a t l a r g e amounts o f r o u g h a g e i n t h e d i e t  the energy i n t a k e ,  a f f e c t i n g gain  and f e e d  efficiency.  More r e c e n t l y t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " A l l -  concentrate"  feeding,  livers, low  difficulty  roughage  v i z . , b l o a t , rumen p a r a k e r a t o s i s ,  i n g e t t i n g on f e e d ,  fattening rations  I t was f o u n d  that  have c r e a t e d  abcessed  interest i n  1967b).  (Wise,  i n c l u s i o n of a small  proportion  o f r o u g h a g e i n t h e d i e t w o u l d a l l e v i a t e many o f t h e p r o b l e m s . The  level  usual  and t y p e o f r o u g h a g e v a r i e d g r e a t l y .  r o u g h a g e s o u r c e s were i n c l u d e d  or low f e e d fibres,  value  oyster  materials  shell  a number o f n o n - n u t r i t i v e  including;  and c o r n  cobs  Along with the  sand,  (Cooley,  polyethylene  1 9 6 2 ; Hughes, 1 9 6 4 ;  13.  Wise, 1 9 6 7 a ) .  These roughage sources  although  the  compared  t o g a i n s made on  B.  rate of gain i s u s u a l l y s l i g h t l y  i n molar percent  depression  is attributed  using purified that  acetic  portions terms  of r e s u l t s  a c i d was vivo.  His  creased  over  time  from the s l o w e r  He  after  formed t h a t the  (1968)  Oyster  added a t t h e  pionic, with  ammonia  of the  Fatty Acids  found  pro-  to explain this  in  postulated that  acetic  cellulose  digestion i n  production  effect  of a d d i t i o n of  the metabolism had  very  i n the  little  rumen.  effect  (VFA),.molar percent  on  acetic,  pro-  c o n c e n t r a t i o n when c o m p a r i s o n s were made  oyster s h e l l  a lowering  on  3% l e v e l  t h e same r a t i o n minus t h e  place and  Volatile  and  bacteria,  (1966),  p e r c e n t methane p r o d u c e d i n -  s t u d i e d the  to a basal r a t i o n  total  the  Hungate  feeding, i n d i c a t i n g acetate  oyster s h e l l  the  from  He  a  i n the  yielded high  unable  and  cellulose digestion.  Larsen  shell  was  from i n v i v o s t u d i e s .  r e a s o n i n g was  ration  increased cellulose  o f c e l l u l o s e _in v i t r o  the main p r o d u c t  sources.  instead of propionic.  of propionic acid.  success when  i s observed,  c u l t u r e s o f rumen c e l l u l o l y t i c  fermentation  depressed  concentrate  propionic acid  t o the  acid  some  Rumen M e t a b o l i s m  i s added t o a h i g h  depression  forming  with  c o n v e n t i o n a l roughage  Roughage S o u r c e and When hay  ration  have met  found  of molar percent  oyster s h e l l . a decrease propionic.  Using  i n the  3% hay  in  t o t a l VjpA  At higher  levels  14.  o f h a y t h e e f f e c t became decreasing,  e v e n more p r o n o u n c e d w i t h  molar percent  the molar p e r c e n t  propionic a c i d dropping noticeably.  VFA p r o d u c t i o n  within  VFA  a c e t i c a c i d i n c r e a s i n g s l i g h t l y and  a p p e a r s , t h e n , as i f t h e i n e r t m a t e r i a l has l i t t l e the  total  It  effect  on  t h e rumen.  EXPERIMENT I  The extent and  first  of utilization  cattle.  Trial  0$,  of untreated  1.  Feeding T r i a l s a w d u s t was  ration to yield  vivo feeding  Materials  trial  i n t o three  With Beef  with  trials.  Steers.  added t o a c o n s t a n t  complete r a t i o n s w i t h  1 3 $ , 2 7 $ , and 3 5 $ .  t o determine the  a l d e r sawdust by sheep  The e x p e r i m e n t was d i v i d e d  Alder basal  e x p e r i m e n t was d e s i g n e d  wood  The r a t i o n s were s t u d i e d  amount o f contents  of  i n an i n  beef s t e e r s .  i  s  and Methods  Animals Twenty-eight  grade b e e f - t y p e  t o f o u r pens and a s s i g n e d involved  treatments.  s t e e r s were  allotted  Preliminary  treatment  i n j e c t i o n s of 6 cc of a n t i b i o t i c  of a vitamin  complex c o n t a i n i n g  vitamins  ( D e r a f o r t ) and 2 c c A, D, and E ( P r o - v i t e ) .  15.  The  animals  were m a i n t a i n e d  one  week a f t e r w h i c h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r a t i o n s were added  ually until  full  slowly u n t i l day).  f e e d was r e a c h e d .  the desired  T h i s adjustment  as a l l t h e a n i m a l s the t r i a l  on l e g u m e - g r a s s  hay f o r  The h a y was t h e n  l e v e l was r e a c h e d  period  mixture  took about  grad-  decreased  (1.5 lbs./animal/  t h r e e weeks.  had a d j u s t e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  As  soon  rations,  began.  Feeding The  a n i m a l s were f e d t h e i r  m o r n i n g , and r e c e i v e d noon.  the a l l o t t e d  rations  once a d a y i n t h e  amount o f h a y i n t h e a f t e r -  D a i l y r e c o r d s o f f e e d consumption  were  kept.  Weighing The  a n i m a l s were w e i g h e d a t one week  The  h o u s i n g was t h e same as t h a t  intervals.  Housing  Ranta  d e s c r i b e d by  (1967).  Rations This  trial  used  which v a r i o u s increments Group I fed  ration  ration  to f u l l  The a n i m a l s  (Table I - l ) ,  to  o f s a w d u s t were a d d e d , as f o l l o w s :  35% a l d e r sawdust r a t i o n .  this  Group I I  one b a s a l r a t i o n  The a n i m a l s  were  feed.  were f e d t h e same amount o f b a s a l  as t h e a n i m a l s  i n group  I, plus alder  sawdust  16.  Table  I - l . Composition  Ingredients  Steam r o l l e d  barley  Soybean meal  (44%)  Fishmeal, Beet  Pounds  66 (71%)  86 288 44  (wet)  100  sugar  Stabilized  ration.  1,262  pulp  Molasses Cane  herring  o f the b a s a l  100  fat  20  Urea Rock p h o s p h a t e  5  Limestone  15  Iodized  15  Trace  A  2  Minerals^  Vitamin T.M.  Salt  6 x 10  A  25  50  P.I.L. Mineral  Mix  6  IU  grams  17.  t o make up 2 7 $ o f t h e r a t i o n . Group I I I The a n i m a l s were f e d t h e same amount o f b a s a l ration  as g r o u p  I (and I I ) , p l u s wood t o make up 13$  of the r a t i o n . Group I V  This  received  g r o u p was f e d o n l y b a s a l r a t i o n , and  t h e same amount as g r o u p I (and I I and I I I ) .  Results (a)  Feeding The  difference ever  Trial  results  (Table 1 - 2 )  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  (p<^ . 0 5 ) b e t w e e n a n y o f t h e g r o u p s .  i n gain  How-  t h e wood i n t h e r a t i o n d i d a p p e a r t o have a b e n e f i c i a l  effect.  T h i s was shown b y t h e s m a l l  increases  a n i m a l s r e c e i v i n g wood had o v e r t h e a n i m a l s the b a s a l r a t i o n .  I f a n optimum l e v e l  i n gain the  r e c e i v i n g only  o f wood was t o be  d e t e r m i n e d , i t a p p e a r s i t w o u l d l i e between 1 3 $ and 2 7 $ o f the  ration.  In regards on  the basal  not  ration  to the feed  efficiencies,  the animals  a p p e a r much more e f f i c i e n t .  i n c l u d i n g t h e wood i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s ( e f f i c i e n c y  utilization rations that  with  on t h e b a s a l r a t i o n  alone),  wood have b e t t e r c o n v e r s i o n  the animals ratios.  of feed  on t h e  This  suggests  e i t h e r t h e a n i m a l s a r e a c h i e v i n g some d e g r e e o f u t i l i z a t i o n  o f t h e wood, o r t h a t t h e wood, a c t i n g as a n i n e r t is  However, b y  a i d i n g i n the d i g e s t i v e  processes.  material,  18.  (b)  Garcass Evaluation The carcasses from these animals underwent Record of  Performance grading a f t e r slaughter (Table 1 - 3 ) •  There was  no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between groups i n any of the parameters measured.  Prom the mean values, i t i s seen that  generally the animals on the low wood or no wood rations had a higher degree of f a t cover than those on the higher wood rations. An attempt  to explain this difference w i l l be given l a t e r i n  the discussion of the VFA analysis of the rumen contents of these animals. (c)  Taste Panel Two round steaks and two s i r l o i n steaks, each one  inch thick, were removed from the l e f t side of four of the carcasses from each treatment.  The steaks were frozen and  stored at - 2 0 F u n t i l analyzed. G  The tenderness and juiciness of the steaks were examined by f i v e trained panel members who had previous i n s t r u c t i o n and experience i n judging tenderness and j u i c i n e s s . Each member rated the steaks f o r juiciness and tenderness on an eight point scale (1-extremely tough and dry, 8-extremely j u i c y and tender).  The panelists were also asked to comment  on any o f f - f l a v o r s i f they were noted.  (None were noted.)  The steaks were b r o i l e d for each panel session to an i n t e r n a l temperature thermocouples.  of 150°F, which was determined by  Table  1-2.  E f f e c t s of feeding d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of u n t r e a t e d a l d e r sawdust t o s t e e r s .  Groups A  P e r c e n t wood i n d i e t  35  B  G  D  27.2  13-3  0  No.  o f days  on t r i a l  182  182  182  182  Av.  initial  body weight  544  550  534  536  Av.  final  1,012  1,033  1,020  996  Av.  t o t a l gain  468  483  486  460  Av. d a i l y  body w e i g h t  gain  Peed e f f i c i e n c y ( l b . feed/lb. gain) Dressing percentage  2.57  2.65  2.67  2.53  9.13  8.03  6.71  6.19  55.1  56.5  57.1  59.2  20.  The  results  difference  i n t e n d e r n e s s and  treatments  c o u l d be d e t e c t e d .  occurred from  i n the j u i c i n e s s  Trial  juiciness  An  from  determine  the d i g e s t i b i l i t y  Materials  and  Methods  Two  mature wethers  consistant dietary  only s i g n i f i c a n t steaks.  differences  The  lower  sample  average  other d i e t s .  In v i v o d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s In v i v o d i g e s t i o n  No  among t h e  a significantly  s c o r e t h a n samples  2.  The  o f the round  t h e 3 5 $ wood d i e t had  juiciness  1-4.  are given i n t a b l e  trial  using  sheep.  u s i n g sheep  o f the r a t i o n s  was  studied  used  to  in Trial  1.  Animals  adapted  f o r a period  o f one  were a s s i g n e d t o e a c h r a t i o n  and  month.  Rations The  r a t i o n s were t h e same as t h o s e i n T r i a l  t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t no h a y was  1,  with  fed.  Procedure The At  t h e end  digestion  r a t i o n s were f e d a t a l e v e l  o f the a d a p t a t i o n p e r i o d , cages  Following this  (Thompson, 1 9 6 6 ) period,  for  three days.  and  a representative  analysis.  total  Dry m a t t e r  of 3  lb./sheep/day.  t h e a n i m a l s were p u t i n  f o r a f o u r day  adjustment.  dry matter  coltotions  were made  c o n t e n t was  determined  each  sample was  k e p t and  day  pooled f o r subsequent  I-3.  Table  Diet % Wood  E f f e c t s of feeding d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of untreated a l d e r s a w d u s t on t h e c a r c a s s e s o f s t e e r s .  Dressing %  0  F a t cover over l o i n (inches)  59.2  10.5  0.71  13  57.1  11.0  O.56  27  56.5  10.0  0.61  35  55.1  9.6  0.66  panel r e s u l t s .  Table  1-4.  Table  Diet % Wood  Taste  A  Round S t e a k s Tenderness Juiciness  o f d i e t a r y means .  Sirloin Tenderness  Steaks Juiciness  3.8  5.0  6.2  5.1  13  3.8  5.0  6.1  4.8  27  4.5  5.4  6.3  5.3  35  4.0  4.5  6.4  5.1  0  k  L o i n eye a r e a (inches)2  E a c h mean b a s e d  on 40 j u d g e m e n t s .  22.  Results  and  Discussion  The that  r e s u l t s are given  as t h e l e v e l  i n Table  1-5.  I t c a n be s e e n  o f wood i n t h e d i e t i n c r e a s e d ,  the d r y matter  i  and  Acid  creased.  The d i g e s t i o n  Assuming the d i g e s t i o n digestion values  (Van S o e s t , 1 9 6 3 ) d i g e s t i b i l i t y de-  Detergent Fibre  of l i g n i n  o f the b a s a l  c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r wood  questionable,  be f o u n d . the b a s a l  iation  These  o f t h i s assumption i s  then the d i g e s t i o n  o f the b a s a l  ration  The m a g n i t u d e o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e d i g e s t i o n r a t i o n i s much l e s s  i n wood d i g e s t i o n .  c o e f f i c i e n t was e x p e c t e d  than the magnitude o f var-  From t h i s i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e although a small  f r o m wood  digestion  (Huffman, 1 9 6 8 ;  Virtanen,  Olsen, ( 1 9 3 7 ) . 3.  Trial  Analysis  This fatty acids) Trial  c a n be d e t e r m i n e d .  The v a l i d i t y  s e c o n d a s s u m p t i o n i s more t r u e ,  1946;  constant,  f o r i f c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e made a s s u m i n g t h e wood  t o be c o m p l e t e l y i n e r t ,  of  r a t i o n t o be  constant.  f r o m 4 6 . 5 % f r o m t h e 1 3 % wood d i e t t o 1 3 . 5 %  ranged  f r o m t h e 3 5 % wood d i e t .  can  remained r e l a t i v e l y  1.  trial  present  involved  t h e wood p o r t i o n  be  expected  fatty acids.  the a n a l y s i s  o f t h e VFA  i n t h e rumens o f t h e s t e e r s  I f appreciable  in  of volatile  microbial  digestion  (volatile  used i n  o f the c e l l u l o s e  o f the d i e t d i d occur, a d i f f e r e n c e  i n the products  of digestion  (VFA) ( H u n g a t e ,  would 1966).  23.  Materials  and Methods  Treatment  o f t h e Rumen A  four l i t e r  s a m p l e o f rumen c o n t e n t s  M i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y was t e r m i n a t e d  100  ml. mercuric  The  rumen f l u i d  was  obtained  a t the time o f s l a u g h t e r 5 + \ hours  from each animal prandial.  Fluid  post  by a d d i t i o n of  c h l o r i d e ( s a t u r a t e d s o l u t i o n ) p e r sample. was t h e n  o u t l i n e d by Packett  deproteinized according  (1965).  t o t h e method  The s a m p l e was s t o r e d a t 4 ° C  before a n a l y s i s . T o t a l VFA A n a l y s i s T o t a l VFA were d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e method o f 0 1 m s t e a d (1930) fluid of  as m o d i f i e d  b y Ross  were s t e a m - d i s t i l l e d .  distillate  was c o l l e c t e d  phenolphthalein  (1967).  F i v e ml samples  o f rumen  One h u n d r e d and s e v e n t y - f i v e m l and t i t r a t e d  a g a i n s t NaOH t o t h e  end p o i n t .  I n d i v i d u a l VFA A n a l y s i s The  distillate  kept  and made b a s i c w i t h  then  taken  t o dryness  from t h e t o t a l  0 . 5 m l o f 1 . 0 N NaOH.  i n an oven s e t a t 8 0 ° C .  were removed and t r e a t e d b y t h e method as m o d i f i e d analysis. with  b y Ross  (1967)  A Microtec  VFA d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  was  T h e y were The VFA  o f Bensadoun  salts  (i960)  i n p r e p a r a t i o n o f gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h i c  ( M o d e l 2 0 0 0 MF) gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h  a h y d r o g e n f l a m e i o n i z a t i o n d e t e c t o r was u s e d .  fitted  The  columns u s e d and t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e i s d e s c r i b e d by Ranta  (1967).  A 0.4 /il  sample was i n j e c t e d  with  a Hamilton  syringe. o f the gardt  The  peak a r e a s  individual  and  their  relation  a c i d s were a n a l y z e d  by  t o the  concentration  t h e method o f Baum-  (1964).  Results  and  Discussion difference (p<.05)  A significant propionate  r a t i o was  rumen f l u i d  from the  o f wood i n t h e of propionate acetate  diet  found  (Table  four different i n c r e a s e d , the  decreased,  while  remained r e l a t i v e l y  p i o n a t e , was increased wood was indicates  mentioned by  cellulose the  the  amount and level  utilization  the  As  the  the level  proportion  of t o t a l  VFA  This decrease  Hungate as b e i n g  u t i l i z a t i o n by  acetate/  when a n a l y z i n g  rations.  constant.  o n l y major source  partial  1-6)  i n the  and in  indicative  pro-  of  rumen m i c r o f l o r a .  of c e l l u l o s e  present,  As  this  o f t h e wood.  EXPERIMENT I I The  second  main a r e a s : 1) and  pressure  use  o f wood as  rations, on  the  on  The the  e x p e r i m e n t was  effect  designed  of treatment  utilization  with  utilization  effect  high  2)  concentrate  o f added n i t r o g e n  o f the r a t i o n s .  two  temperature  o f a l d e r s a w d u s t , and  a roughage s u b s t i t u t e i n h i g h  i n c l u d i n g the  to study  (as  urea)  The  25.  1-5.  Table  E f f e c t of feeding d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f untreated a l d e r s a w d u s t t o sheep on t h e d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f the r a t i o n .  Diet fo Wood  A  ADF* d i g e s t i o n ;%  Dry matter digestion  Lignin d ig e s t i o n fo  0  80.42  67.3^  21.6  13  75.87  31.3  23.6  27  63-93  28.0  24.0  35  56.48  21.8 ,  22.5  Acid  Table  Detergent  1-6.  Fibre  (Van S o e s t ,  1963) •  Summary o f r e s u l t s , T r i a l  3-  VFA  determinations.  D i e t \% Wood  0  27  35  10.52  9.67  7.46  8.60  T o t a l VFA  m.  Acetic  molar % m. e q u i v .  58.29 6.19  65.24 6.34  64.84 4.81  63.50 5.46  Propionic  molar % m. e q u i v .  27.64 2.89  22.05 2.10  19.94 1.56  18.20 1.59  Isobutyric  molar % m. e q u i v .  0.94 0.09  O.96 0.09  0.96 0.09  1.24 0.10  Butyric  molar % m. e q u i v .  9.48 0.99  8.88 0.86  10.31 0.76  ll.4o 0.98  Isovaleric  molar % m. e q u i v .  0.68 0.06  2.87 0.22  1.30 0.07  3.03 0.24  Valeric  molar % m. e q u i v .  2.97 0.30  2.40 0.23  2.10 0.17  2.63 0.22  A  equiv.  13  Milli-equivalents  p e r 100 m l .  26. Trial  LA.  Effect  o f h e a t and p r e s s u r e t r e a t m e n t  the use o f a l d e r sawdust by growing The a l d e r sawdust  o f t h r e e roughage s o u r c e s  (W), and e x t r u d e d  (15%  two l e v e l s Materials  effect  a l d e r sawdust  and 20%) was s t u d i e d  on  steers.  (Hay ( H ) , raw (E)), fed at  i n a fattening  trial.  and Methods  Animals T h i r t y - s i x y e a r l i n g Hereford-type steers randomly a s s i g n e d t o s i x pens. of  The p r e l i m i n a r y  t h e a n i m a l s was t h e same as t h a t  except  that  decreased  the f i n a l  levels  were  treatment  i n Experiment  I, T r i a l  o f h a y were d i f f e r e n t .  and  Hay was  g r a d u a l l y t o z e r o i n t h e W and E t r e a t m e n t s .  t h e two H t r e a t m e n t s , t h e h a y was g r a d u a l l y d e c r e a s e d 20% o f t h e t o t a l  1,  In t o 15%  ration.  Feeding The the morning.  a n i m a l s were f e d t o a p p e t i t e D a i l y r e c o r d s were k e p t  once d a i l y , i n  of the feed  intake.  Weighing I n d i v i d u a l weights  were r e c o r d e d a t 3-week  intervals.  Housing The Feeder  space  feet.  Area  Each  housing i n this  trial  was s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d .  p e r a n i m a l was i n c r e a s e d from p e r a n i m a l was changed  pen had a c c e s s  from  1.57  feet  t o 2.0  82 f t T t o 60 f t .  t o a constant f l o w i n g water bowl.  27.  Rations One o f the  used  t h r e e r o u g h a g e s were a d d e d .  rations the  b a s a l r a t i o n was  i s given i n Table  II-l.  r o u g h a g e m a t e r i a l was  t o which the The  In the  along with  rations,  t h e hay  explains  the s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  various Except  components f o r the  The  designed  (300° F)  and  extruded  grinding motion. are  first  used  wood was  the  B.C.  (2000  f o r m a homogenous mass and (Stamm, 1 9 6 4 ) .  acts  as  the b i n d e r n e c e s s a r y movement o f l i g n i n w o u l d be  1  H  as  concentrations  of  the II-1.  o u t l i n e d i n Table  obtained  f r o m an  (11/64).  "extruding" T h i s machine  1  of fuel l o g s .  fibres  secondly at this  i n this to hold  i t was  This  High  temperature  p . s . i . ) are a t t a i n e d through  Lignin  and  rations,  two  T h e s e e x t r e m e s o f t e m p e r a t u r e and  flow  the  (i.e.,  Research C o u n c i l .  t o b r e a k down t h e  a plastic  E  a l l r a t i o n s were p e l l e t e d  f o r the p r o d u c t i o n pressure  f o u r W and  However, i n t h e  o f the r a t i o n s ,  by  of  f e d s e p a r a t e l y i n the l o n g form.  l o n g hay,  machine developed was  the r a t i o n ) .  levels  composition  i n c l u d e d i n the r a t i o n ,  pelleted  was  two  case,  after  to  pressure  c o o l i n g , becomes In  this  t h a t a p o r t i o n o f the  f r e e d f o r m i c r o b i a l a t t a c k and  to  lignin  t e m p e r a t u r e and  the l o g t o g e t h e r .  hoped  pressure  o f the sawdust  t o cause the  a  cellulose  use.  I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f Mr. J . E . B r e e z e , Head, E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e B.C. R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l and o f Mr. R. A. S a n d e r s , E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t , B.C. R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , V a n c o u v e r 8, B.C.  28.  A moisture for  adequate  drier  Due to  extreme temperatures  c h a r c o a l t o be  obtained  from  formed.  t h e m a c h i n e had  14$ m o i s t u r e when s p r e a d The  commercial  m a t e r i a l was feed  The about  200  pointed  a moisture  i t was  feed  then sacked  up  At  which  the  material to  to dry to  f o r two  for transport  to  20$. 12$  four  to a  that  c o n d i t i o n s was  However, i t must  t h e m a c h i n e was  be  never  c a p a c i t y w i t h r e g a r d s t o b o t h q u a n t i t y and and  pressure.  and D i s c u s s i o n  had  g r o w t h and As was  s h o u l d be  noted  acceptable rates  In  feed intake results  expected,  the animals  the g r e a t e s t gains  efficiency  increase  found  on a cement f l o o r  felt  of temperature  II-2.  rations  necessary  c o n t e n t o f 18$  i t was  l b s . o f product per hour.  The Table  were r e a c h e d  c a p a c i t y o f t h e m a c h i n e u n d e r our  operating at f u l l  Results  found  mill.  out t h a t  extremes  was  In these s t u d i e s ,  t o t h e warmth o f t h e m a t e r i a l ,  hours.  t o 40$  b u i l d u p o f steam i n the e x t r u d i n g p r o c e s s .  conditions,  caused  c o n t e n t o f 35$  a l s o appeared that  (p<.01). better  the animals  o f g a i n and  comparing  a r e shown i n  receiving Feed  for this  on t h e W and  the  H  i n t a k e and treatment. E rations  It had  feed conversion.  t h e W and  E treatments, a  i n f a v o r o f t h e e x t r u d e d wood i s s e e n  slight  i n both  feed  29.  efficiencies cellulose  and g a i n .  i s being  T h i s m i g h t be a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  f r e e d by the extruding  p e r h a p s u n d e r more s e v e r e a more n o t i c e a b l e Trial  IB.  This effects at  pressure  experienced.  E f f e c t of l e v e l of p r o t e i n i n the d i e t on t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f a l d e r s a w d u s t b y growing c a t t l e . trial  was  run concurrently with (wood  Trial  Besides  roughage s o u r c e s  studying  w o u l d be d e t e c t e d  the e f f e c t  f e d a t two d i f f e r e n t  hoped t h a t a b e n e f i c a l e f f e c t i n animal  1A.  (W) and h a y ( H ) ) ,  ( 1 5 % and 2 0 % ) and two p r o t e i n l e v e l s  15%) were s t u d i e d .  Materials  and t h a t  o f t e m p e r a t u r e and  v a r i a t i o n w o u l d be  o f two r o u g h a g e s o u r c e s  two l e v e l s  various  conditions  process  some  due t o i n c r e a s e d  The fed  ( 1 3 % and  o f the  levels  i t was  protein  levels  performance.  and Methods  Animals For on For  t h e H and W t r e a t m e n t s t h e 15% p r o t e i n l e v e l  assigned as  t h e 13% p r o t e i n l e v e l  t o 4 pens.  those i n T r i a l  treatment,  outlined i n T r i a l  the animals  1A were  used.  t r e a t m e n t , 2 4 a n i m a l s were  These animals r e c e i v e d  t h e same  randomly treatment  1A.  F e e d i n g , W e i g h i n g and H o u s i n g  Trial  All  c o n d i t i o n s were t h e same as d e s c r i b e d  The  13% p r o t e i n l e v e l  under  1A.  Rations  for  t h e H and W t r e a t m e n t s  r a t i o n s were t h o s e  in Trial  1A.  described  F o r t h e 15% p r o t e i n  Table  II-l.  Composition  o f r a t i o n s fed t o f a t t e n i n g beef  X5^ extruded wood E-l  steers. Trial  1A.  Groups  ^5% extruded wood  E-2  15^—  untreated sawdust W-l  untreated sawdust  W-2  15$ hay H-l  20$ hay  H-2  pounds p e r t o n Ingredients Barley Urea Molasses A l f a l f a Meal Salt Premix (Trace Minerals) Tricalcium Phosphate Limestone E x t r u d e d Wood (Alder) U n t r e a t e d Sawdust (Alder) Hay  1427 35 100 100 15  1322 38.5 100 100 15  5 18 0.5  1427 35 100 100 15  -  18 0.5  300  4oo  -  -  -  300  -  l44o 22 100 100 15  1338 22 100 100 15  5  5  18  . 20  5  5  5 20  1322 38.5 100 100 15  20  -  4oo  -  -  300  -  4oo  Table  I I - 2 . E f f e c t s o f f e e d i n g n o n - p r o c e s s e d and e x t r u d e d a l d e r s a w d u s t to f a t t e n i n g beef s t e e r s . T r i a l IB.  15% extruded wood E-l  trial Average i n i t i a l body w e i g h t ( l b s . ) Average f i n a l body weight Average t o t a l gain Average d a i l y gain Average feed intake Feed efficiency  +  p < .01  63 700 870  ..  20% extruded wood E-2  15% untreated sawdust W-l  20% untreated sawdust W-2  63  63  63  63  702  720  713  712  881  8 7 7 ...  886  965  15% hay H-l  2.70  1124 6.61  179  2.84 1165  6.64  157  173  2.48 1138 6.67  2.74 1201 -  6.94  253  20% hay H-2  63 721 961 1  170  and h a y  +  4.01 1340 5.29  240  +  3.81 1342 5.58  32. level  r a t i o n s the p r o t e i n  adding urea  the r a t i o n  (Table  Results  and D i s c u s s i o n The  composition  results  are given  t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n Table  increase  beneficial  increased  level  i n g a i n was n o t e d .  II-4.  source.  o f wood  c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d  o f the r a t i o n .  (W o r E  treat-  f r o m 15% t o 20%, a s l i g h t i n -  d e c r e a s e i n g a i n was  i n terms o f d i l u t i o n  As t h e l e v e l  i n c r e a s e i n g a i n when t h e l e v e l  observed.  o f the r a t i o n  was  o f the energy  o f a v a i l a b l e energy i n  wood i s much l o w e r t h a n i n h a y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t the  As i n T r i a l  .01) i n t h e g a i n o f  d e c r e a s e i n g a i n when t h e h a y c o n t e n t  content  very  However, when t h e r e was a n i n c r e a s e  f r o m 15% t o 2 0 % i n h a y a s l i g h t  increased  was changed  effects.  m e n t ) i n t h e d i e t was i n c r e a s e d crease  Other  o f p r o t e i n d i d n o t show a n y  I n g e n e r a l , when t h e l e v e l  The  (p <  a n i m a l s r e c e i v i n g h a y as a r o u g h a g e The  of barley.  II-3).  little.  the  x 6 . 2 5 ) was i n c r e a s e d by-  and s u b t r a c t i n g a n e q u a l w e i g h t  than p r o t e i n l e v e l s ,  1A  (Nitrogen  to explain  o f wood i n t h e d i e t i s  increased.  I t might prove e n l i g h t e n i n g t o observe the e f f e c t  of the s i z e  o f t h e wood p a r t i c l e  used i n the d i e t  on a n i m a l  performance.  Trial  2.  In v i t r o  In t h i s used  in Trial  trial,  digestion studies. the d i g e s t i b i l i t y  1A and I B was d e t e r m i n e d  o f the r a t i o n s  using  the i n v i t r o  Table I I - 3 .  Ration  15% Alder Sawdust  W-3  T r i a l IB.  composition,  Diets 2 0 %  Alder Sawdust  w-4  15$ Hay H-3  2 0 %  Hay H-4  pounds p e r t o n  Ingredients  1324  1412  1306  1425  50  54  37  Molasses (dry)  100  100  100  100  Alfalfa  100  100  100  100  300  400  -  -  -  -  300  400  15  15  15  15  5  5  5  5  18  20  18  20  -  —  -  BarleyUrea  leaf  meal  A l d e r sawdust (untreated) Hay (legume mix)  grass  Salt Premix T r i c a l c i u m phosphate Limestone  A  Trace minerals  0.5  ( P I L m i n e r a l m i x ) and V i t a m i n  .  A.  36  II-4.  Table  Diet  A  On Trial  Results of T r i a l  IB.  Initial^  Final*  "  ~  "  "  Body Weight  Body Weight  Total* Gain  Daily* Gain  Feed* Intake  Feed i n t a k e * per l b . gain  lb./day  lbs.  lbs.  lbs.  lbs.  W-l  63  720  877  157  2.48  1138  6.67  W-2  63  713  886  173  2.74  1201  6.94  W-3  63  726  886  160  2.54  1235  7.72  W-4  63  715  860  145  2.30  1266  8.73  H-l  63  712  965  253  4.01  1340  5.29  H-2  63  721  961  240  3.81  1342  5.58  H-3  63  722  934  212  3.36  1286  6.07  H-4  63  721  967  246  3.90  1391  5.66  Refers  t o average  values  f o r the pen.  35.  technique.  The only m o d i f i c a t i o n s  t o the r a t i o n s were that  i n the H l a b e l l e d r a t i o n s , no hay was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study. The  purpose o f t h i s t r i a l was t o o b t a i n p r e l i m i n a r y  observations  on the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the various r a t i o n s and e v e n t u a l l y compare t h i s method o f r a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n with jLn v i v o d i g e s t i o n studies. M a t e r i a l s and Methods The _in v i t r o technique i s given i n Appendix I . Rumen inoculum was obtained on a d i e t o f a l f a l f a hay.  from a f i s t u l a t e d s t e e r maintained Dry matter and c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n s  were determined. Results  and D i s c u s s i o n The  r e s u l t s are given i n Table  t h a t the concentrate  I I - 5 . I t can be seen  r a t i o n (H) had a much h i g h e r  digestion  c o e f f i c i e n t than the r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r wood (¥) or extruded wood (E) ( p { . 0 1 ) .  Comparison of the W and E r a t i o n s  showed a higher d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t rations.  ( p < . 0 5 ) f o r the E  T h i s i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s e d d i g e s t i o n o f the extruded  wood p o r t i o n o f the d i e t .  When the c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n s were  s t u d i e d , there was a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n o f the E r a t i o n s over the W r a t i o n s .  The l a r g e  v a r i a t i o n from run t o run i n the c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n determina t i o n s can p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t value d i f f e r e n c e between W and E treatments.  f o r the  36. The  effect  of l e v e l  o f roughage i n c l u d e d  i n the  d i e t was p r o n o u n c e d .  In a l l determinations  r o u g h a g e had a h i g h e r  dry matter d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t  than the 2 0 % roughage  level.  Trial  3.  In vivo d i g e s t i o n studies  D i g e s t i b i l i t y studies Trial ject  I I were c o n d u c t e d u s i n g  the 15% l e v e l o f  using  (p<.01)  sheep.  o f the r a t i o n s defined i n  t h e jLn v i v o t e c h n i q u e .  The ob-  was t o d e t e r m i n e d r y m a t t e r d i g e s t i o n of. t h e r a t i o n s and  a l s o determine the d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f the various fibrous fibre,  components i n t h e r a t i o n ( c e l l u l o s e , and a c i d d e t e r g e n t  acid  detergent  lignin).  Methods and M a t e r i a l s Animals G r o w i n g w e t h e r s were u s e d . initiated  Digestion  studies  were  when t h e w e t h e r s had r e a c h e d a body w e i g h t o f 8 0  pounds. Procedure The  method was e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same as o u t l i n e d i n  Experiment I , T r i a l a 5-day p e r i o d .  2, e x c e p t  Also,  that  c o l l e c t i o n s were made  a l l t h e f e c e s were c o l l e c t e d and s t o r e d  at 4°C, i n the presence o f phenol c r y s t a l s , collection interval. three  content  f o r the e n t i r e  The m a t e r i a l was m i x e d w e l l , and t h e n  5 0 0 gram s a m p l e s were u s e d  Cellulose  over  o f the feed  f o r d r y matter  and f e c e s  determinations.  was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e  37. method acid  detergent l i g n i n ,  determined Results  had  Acid  detergent  detergent c e l l u l o s e  fibre,  were  (19^3).  o f Van S o e s t  and D i s c u s s i o n  digestions  are given i n Table  o f t h e r a t i o n s were  a significantly  either  and a c i d  b y t h e method  The r e s u l t s matter  (1938).  o f Crampton and Maynard  sistently  rations  digestion  than  The v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e W and  not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  had a s l i g h t l y  When t h e d r y  compared, t h e H  ( p < . O l ) higher percentage  the W or E r a t i o n s .  E r a t i o n s was  II-6.  although the E r a t i o n s  higher dry matter  digestion  conthan the  W,rations.  The l e v e l no e f f e c t  o f roughage  on t h e p e r c e n t a g e The e f f e c t  d i e t was  13$  protein  the l i g n i n  caused  the degree o f d r y matter  cellulose  and a c i d  detergent f i b r e  i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d  wood i s low was  level  of cellulose.  i n the The i n -  a significant  (p<  .05)  o f wood.  content o f the feed i n -  digestion  digestion  increase i n disappearance  to decomposition  had  digestion.  the p r o t e i n  and c e l l u l o s e  as t h e d r y m a t t e r  fibre,  i n the d i e t  digestion.  contrast,  the  dry matter  of i n c r e a s i n g  t o 15$  i n cellulose  As creased,  o r 20$)  shown o n l y i n t h e d i g e s t i o n  c r e a s e from decrease  (15$  decreased.  decreased,  t h e grams  digested increased.  of cellulose  In  and a c i d  From  detergent  that  this  i n c r e a s e c o u l d be  That  the degree o f u t i l i z a t i o n  p o i n t e d o u t b y t h e low p e r c e n t a g e  of  due of  digestion of  38.  Table  II-5.  digestion,  Dry Matter Digestion -  Ration  %  Trial  2  Cellulose Digestion -  R-l  81.6  31.0  H-2  73.7  48.3  H-3  79.8  49.3  H-4  79.4  55.3  W-l  66.5  31.8  W-2  50.7  28.3  W-3  &  In v i t r o  •  53.5  15.1  W-4  59.7  18.9  E-l  59.9  32.9  E-2  62.6  43.4  For  a description  o f the r a t i o n s ,  %  see T a b l e s  I I - l and  II-3.  Table  Diet  Dry M a t t e r Digestion  %  II-6.  In vivo d i g e s t i o n , T r i a l 3 .  ADF Digestion gm.  Lignin Digestion  f  Cellulose Digestion gm.  gm.  %  H-l  77.8  146.0  3 2 . 8  8 0 . 5  5 7 . 5  142.9  3 5 . 4  H-2  7 8 . 6  1 8 7 . 8  3 7 . 9  7 3 . 4  4 9 . 8  1 1 8 . 4  3 1 . 5  H-3  7 4 . 8  9 0 . 2  2 0 . 1  6 6 . 2  4 7 . 0  7 0 . 2  2 1 . 2  H-4  7 6 . 9  7 1 . 3  1 7 . 3  4 9 . 2  4 3 . 7  5 3 . 5  1 6 . 8  W-l  6 6 . 9  2 0 4 . 3  2 2 . 3  5 0 . 8  2 5 . 3  2 3 2 . 0  3 0 . 3  W-2  64.4  3 4 7 . 5  2 9 . 3  3 1 . 7  1 3 . 3  8 6 . 3  1 3 . 0  W-3  6 5 . 3  3 2 9 . 3  2 9 . 9  6 5 . 2  2 6 . 7  8 1 . 8  1 2 . 2  w-4  6 7 . 2  3 2 4 . 9  2 9 . 1  6 3 . 2  24.1  7 7 . 9  1 1 . 4  E-l  6 9 . 0  3 1 2 . 8  3 2 . 2  2 4 . 8  1 3 . 0  8 3 . 1  14.4  E-2  6 7 . 2  211.4  2 2 . 1  3 1 . 2  1 6 . 0  142.1  2 0 . 1  40.  o f t h e c e l l u l o s e and a c i d d e t e r g e n t  fibre.  A m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n program p r o v i d e d by t h e U.B.C. Computing Centre was used i n a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e d i c t in v i v o d i g e s t i o n v a l u e s from t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from the _in v i t r o t r i a l and r a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n . When a l l these f a c t o r s  ( i n v i t r o d r y matter  digest-  i o n , i n v i t r o c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n , acid detergent f i b r e content, acid detergent l i g n i n , acid detergent c e l l u l o s e , and p r o t e i n ) were used, an R (98.8%  cellulose,  v a l u e o f O . 9 8 8 was o b t a i n e d  o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n _in v i v o d i g e s t i o n  can be e x p l a i n e d u s i n g t h e s e t e r m s ) .  coefficients  I t was found t h a t s e v e r a l  of the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d very l i t t l e t o the equation ( i n v i t r o c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n , a c i d d e t e r g e n t c e l l u l o s e and p r o t e i n ) . By d r o p p i n g them from t h e e q u a t i o n , the amount o f l a b o r a t o r y p  work was d e c r e a s e d and s t i l l a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t R c o u l d be o b t a i n e d .  value  I t was found f o r t h e r a t i o n s i n t h i s 2  study that a s i g n i f i c a n t R  v a l u e c o u l d be o b t a i n e d w i t h o u t  i n c l u d i n g t h e l a b o r i o u s _in v i t r o d a t a .  However t h e in v i t r o  data d i d increase the value o f R  2  so both equations are given.  In v i v o d r y matter d i g e s t i o n =  60.1252 + 0.0221  (in vitro  dry matter d i g e s t i o n ) + 0 . 4 7 9 9 ( a c i d detergent f i b r e ) 3.5855(lignin) - O.8395(cellulose). R  2  =  0.8877  41.  The  equation  n o t i n c l u d i n g t h e _in v i t r o d a t a i s :  In v i v o d r y m a t t e r d i g e s t i o n = 9 5 . 2 3 9 3 + 0 . 4 l 2 0 ( a c i d  detergent  fibre) - 4.698(lignin) - 0.9526(cellulose). R  2  = O.8657  SUMMARY No a p p a r e n t h a r m f u l e f f e c t s c o u l d be d e t e c t e d a l d e r wood was i n c l u d e d  i n the diet  up t o a 3 5 % l e v e l .  n e s s and j u i c i n e s s o f r o u n d and s i r l o i n by  i n c l u s i o n or l e v e l The  to determine. the  t o the extent  o f t h e wood was d i g e s t e d  At  high  acids  could  i t a p p e a r s as i f  o f 10% t o 15%.  (VFA) f r o m t h e v a r i o u s (35%),  a c i d p r o d u c e d was d e c r e a s e d  amounts o f a c e t i c and t o t a l This  difficult  T h a t some  was c o n f i r m e d b y t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e  l e v e l s o f wood i n t h e d i e t  propionic  unaffected  o f t h e wood was  From t h e d i g e s t i o n s t u d i e s  fatty  were  Tender-  o f wood i n t h e d i e t .  degree o f u t i l i z a t i o n  wood was d i g e s t e d  rumen v o l a t i l e  steaks  when  treatments.  the p r o p o r t i o n o f  (p<.05),  while the  VFA r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y  i s i n d i c a t i v e of increased  c e l l u l o s e catabolism,  constant. which  o n l y have come f r o m t h e wood. The  effect  o f treatment  t e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s s u r e duce any s i g n i f i c a n t extruding  o f a l d e r wood w i t h  (the extruding  results,  t h e wood e n h a n c e d  high  p r o c e s s ) d i d not pro-  a l t h o u g h i t d i d a p p e a r as i f  t h e m i c r o b i a l breakdown o f t h e  42.  alder  sawdust. Effect  of level  o f roughage f e d d i d n o t g i v e  ent  results.  the  g a i n s made b y t h e a n i m a l s  the l e v e l  By i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f h a y i n t h e d i e t ,  o f wood ( e x t r u d e d  t h e r e was u s u a l l y a s l i g h t  were d e c r e a s e d .  increase i n animal  d i d not i n c r e a s e animal Analysis  of the feed  (acid  c e l l u l o s e ) helped cellulose  digestion  (DMD = 6 0 . 1 2 5 2 (acid  digestion  + 0.0221  detergent  (DMD) c o u l d  ( i n v i t r o d r y matter  fibre) - 3.5855  t o be a s u i t a b l e  high concentrate diets i n this  energy  and i n  (lignin)  (cellulose)). Wood a p p e a r s  used  l i g n i n , and  t h e _in v i t r o d a t a , 8 9 %  i n _in v i v o d r y m a t t e r  digestion) + 0.4799  in  detergent  When t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f  s t u d i e d was i n c l u d e d w i t h  explained.  0.8395  acid  components  o f JLn v i t r o d i g e s t i o n r e s u l t s  v a l u e s was h i g h .  of the v a r i a t i o n  -  o f the f i b r o u s  i n wood.  the r a t i o n s  be  digestibility.  t o c o n f i r m t h e p a r t i a l breakdown o f t h e  Correlation vivo  fibre,  performance.  o f the d i e t by adding  gain or r a t i o n  o f the d i g e s t i o n detergent  However, when  and n o n - e x t r u d e d ) was i n c r e a s e d  Increasing the protein l e v e l urea  consist-  study,  f o r ruminants,  appears  t o the animal.  roughage but with  replacement the techniques  t o be o n l y a m i n o r s u p p l y o f  43.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ammerman, C.B., and S. S. B l o c k . 1964. Feeding value of r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g sewage s l u d g e and oakwood s a w d u s t . A g r i c . and F o o d Chem. 1 2 : 539-540. Anonymous. 1908. P r o c e s s f o r c o o k i n g s t r a w and Papierztg 33:444. C i t e d i n Chem. A b s t r . 2 :  similar fibers. 1186. 1908.  A n t h o n y , W.B., and J . P. Cunningham, J r . 1 9 6 8 . Hardwood sawdust i n a l l concentrate rations f o r c a t t l e . J . Animal Sci. 27: 1159. B a r n e t t , A . J . G . , and R. L. R e i d . 1961. Reactions Rumen. Edward A r n o l d ( P u b l i s h e r s ) .  i n the  Baumgardt, B.R. 1964. P r a c t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f f r e e v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d s (VFA) i n aqueous s o l u t i o n s b y gas c h r o m a t o g r a p h y . Dept. B u l l . 1, June, 1 9 6 4 , Dept. D a i r y S c i . , Univ. Wisconsin, Madison. B e c k e r , G., and A. B u r m e s t e r . 1962. Change o f wood p r o p e r t i e s by g a m m a - i r r a d i a t i o n . Materialpruf 4: 416-426. T r a n s l a t i o n No. 4 0 , U.B.C. F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y . Beckman, E . 1915. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f o o d v a l u e o f wood straw. S i t z b . K g l . P r e u s s A k a d . W i s s . 638-644. C i t e d i n Chem. A b s t r . 9: 3 3 0 9 . 1915-  and  Beckman, E. 1919. The s u p p l y o f c a r b o h y d r a t e s i n war. R e f o r m o f the process o f r e n d e r i n g straw s o l u b l e . Sitzb. Kgl. P r e u s s . Akad. Wiss. 2 7 5 - 2 8 5 . C i t e d i n Chem. A b s t r . 1 3 : 2567. 1919. Belasco, I . J . 1956. The r o l e o f c a r b o h y d r a t e s i n u r e a u t i l i z a t i o n , c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i o n and f a t t y a c i d f o r m a t i o n . J . Animal S c i . 1 5 : 496. Bell,  M.C, W. D. G a l l u p , C. K. W h i t e h a i r . 1953urea n i t r o g e n i n r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n t hydrate feeds. J . 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A l i g n i n c a r b o h y d r a t e bond as r e v e a l e d by i n f r a - r e d s p e c t r o s c o p y . Nature 1 9 7 : 4 8 9 . Cody, R. E . , J r . , J . L. M o r r i l l , and C. M. H i b b s . 1968. E v a l u a t i o n o f h e a l t h and p e r f o r m a n c e o f b o v i n e s f e d wood as a r o u g h a g e s o u r c e o r i n t a k e r e g u l a t o r . J . D a i r y S c i . 5 1 : 952 (Abstr.). C o o l e y , J.R., and Wise B u r r o u g h s . 1962. Sand a d d i t i o n s t o high concentrate r a t i o n s . J . Animal S c i . 2 1 : 991. Crampton, E.W., cellulose of animal  and L. A. M a y n a r d . 1938. The r e l a t i o n o f and l i g n i n c o n t e n t t o t h e n u t r i t i v e v a l u e feeds. J . Nutr. 1 5 : 383.  D e h o r i t y , B.A. 1961. E f f e c t o f p a r t i c l e s i z e on t h e d i g e s t i o n r a t e o f p u r e c e l l u l o s e b y rumen c e l l u l o l y t i c bacteria. J . Dairy S c i . 4 4 : 687. D o n e f e r , E . , E . W. Crampton and L. E. L l o y d , i960. Pred i c t i o n o f t h e n u t r i t i v e v a l u e i n d e x o f a f o r a g e from i n v i t r o rumen f e r m e n t a t i o n d a t a . J . Animal S c i . 19: 545. E l l i s , C o t t o n , and R a l p h Durham. 1968. Maintaining cattle • on g r o u n d m e s q u i t e wood. J . A n i m a l S c i . 2 7 : 1132. E l y , R.E., E . A. Dane, W. C. J a c o b s o n , and L. A. M o o r e . 1953. S t u d i e s on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f l i g n i n i s o l a t e d from o r c h a r d g r a s s c u t a t f o u r s t a g e s o f m a t u r i t y and from corresponding feces. J . Dairy S c i . 36: 346. E s p l i n , G r a n t , W. H. H a l e , F a r r i s H u b b e r t , J r . , and B r u c e Taylor. 1963. E f f e c t o f a n i m a l t a l l o w and h y d r o l y z e d v e g e t a b l e and a n i m a l f a t on r a t i o n u t i l i z a t i o n and rumen v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d p r o d u c t i o n w i t h f a t t e n i n g steers. J . Animal S c i . 2 2 : 6 9 5 .  45.  G o e r i n g , H.K., and P. J . Van S o e s t . 1968. i b i l i t y of l i g n i f i e d materials ensiled J. Dairy S c i . 5 1 : 974. (Abstr.). Gonzaleza, Barreo. 1959of straw by chemical Vet. Madrid, 9 : 1 6 3 . I960.  In v i t r o d i g e s t w i t h sodium c h l o r i t e .  M o d i f i c a t i o n o f the f e e d i n g value removal o f l i g n i n . An. I n s t . I v e s t . C i t e d i n Nutr. A b s t r . 3 0 : 1 0 8 7 .  H a b e r l a n d t , G. 1915. The f o o d Preuss. Akad. Wiss. 243. 1915.  value Cited  o f wood. Sitzb. Kgl. i n Chem. A b s t r . 9 : I 5 1 6 .  Honcamp, F . , and H. H i l g e r t . 1931. Decomposition o f straw without chemicals. Landwirtsh. Vers.-Sta. 1 1 3 : 2 0 1 . C i t e d i n N u t r . A b s t r . 1 : 645. 1931. Huffman, J . G .  1968.  (Personal  communication).  Hughes, J . , S. A. E w i n g , L . S. Pope, and E . N e l s o n . 1964. F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g f e e d and e n e r g y i n t a k e o f s t e e r s f e d c o n v e n t i o n a l and h i g h c o n c e n t r a t e r a t i o n s . Oklahoma A g r i c . E x p t . S t a . M i s c . P u b l i c a t i o n 7 4 : 7 4 . Hungate, Robert E . 1 9 6 6 . The rumen and i t s m i c r o b e s . A c a d e m i c P r e s s , New Y o r k . H v i d s t e n , H. and T. Homb;. 1 9 4 7 . A s u r v e y o f c e l l u l o s e and Beckman t r e a t e d s t r a w as f e e d . I n s t . Animal N u t r i t . , R o y a l A g r i c . C o l l . , Norway. R e p r . 6 2 : 14. Cited i n Nutr. A b s t r . 1 8 : 6 5 5 . 1948-49. J o h n s o n , R o n a l d R. 1966. T e c h n i q u e s and P r o c e d u r e s f o r i n v i t r o and i n v i v o rumen s t u d i e s . J . A n i m a l S c i . "23T"855. L a r s e n , W. M., L . B. Embry, and R. M. L u t h e r . 1968. Feed l o t p e r f o r m a n c e , c a r c a s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and rumen fermentation of beef c a t t l e fed diets with oyster s h e l l s or v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f roughage. J . Animal S c i . 2 7 : 1 1 6 8 . (Abstr.). L a w t o n , E . J . , W. D. B e l l a m y , R. E . Hungate, M. P. B r y a n t , and E . H a l l . 1951. Some e f f e c t s o f h i g h v e l o c i t y e l e c t r o n s on wood. Science 1 1 3 : 3 8 0 . Lehman, F . 1915. D i s i n t e g r a t e d straw f o r fodder. Zuckerind. 4 0 : 317. C i t e d i n Chem. A b s t r . 9 : 1915.  Deut. 3309.  46.  Lampila, M a r t t i . 1963. urea. J . Agr. Res.  Experiments w i t h a l k a l i straw Centre, H e l s i n k i . 2 : 1 0 5 .  Mater, Jean. 1957. Chemical e f f e c t s of high energy o f wood. Forest Prdts. J . 7: 208.  and  irradiation  M e l l e n b e r g e r , R.W., M. A. M i l l e t , A. J . B a k e r , L . D. S a t t e r , and B. R. Baumgardt. 1968. A p p l i c a t i o n o f an i n v i t r o fora;ge e v a l u a t i o n t e s t t o wood and wood r e s i d u e . J. Dairy S c i . 51: 974. (Abstr.). N e h r i n g , K., R. Schiemann, L . H o f f m a n n , W. K l i p p e t and W. Jentseh. 1965. U t i l i z a t i o n o f the energy o f c e l l u l o s e and s u c r o s e b y c a t t l e . Energy Metabolism. K. L . B l a x t e r ( e d . ) , A c a d e m i c P r e s s , New Y o r k . 1965. N i c h o l s o n , J.W'.G., and H. M. Cunningham. 1961. The a d d i t i o n of b u f f e r s t o ruminant r a t i o n s . I . E f f e c t on w e i g h t g a i n s , e f f i c i e n c y o f g a i n s and c o n s u m p t i o n o f r a t i o n s w i t h and w i t h o u t r o u g h a g e . Can. J . A n i m a l S c i . 4 l : 1 3 4 . Oh,  H i Kon, T. S a k a i , M. B. J o n e s and W. M. L o n g h u r s t . 1967. E f f e c t o f v a r i o u s e s s e n t i a l o i l s i s o l a t e d from d o u g l a s f i r n e e d l e s upon s h e e p and d e e r rumen m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y . Appl. Microbiol. 15: 777.  O l m s t e a d , W. H., W. M. W h i t a k e r , and C. W. Duden. 1930. Steam d i s t i l l a t i o n o f the l o w e r v o l a t i l e f a t t y a c i d s from a saturated s a l t solution. J . B i o l . Chem. 8 5 : 1 0 9 . O l s o n , F.R., W. H. P e t e r s o n , and E . C. S h e r r a r d . 1937. o f l i g n i n on f e r m e n t a t i o n o f c e l l u l o t i c m a t e r i a l s . Eng. Chem. 2 9 : 1 0 2 6 .  Effect Ind.  P a c k e t t , L.V., and R. W. McCune. 1965. Determination of s t e a m - v o l a t i l e o r g a n i c a c i d s i n f e r m e n t a t i o n m e d i a by g a s - l i q u i d chromatography. Appl. Microbiol. 13: 22. R a n t a , James L a w r e n c e . 1967. The e f f e c t o f t h e l e v e l o f r o u g h a g e , d i e t h y l s t i l b e s t r o l , and i r o n on c e r t a i n b l o o d components i n g r o w i n g b e e f c a t t l e . M.S.A. T h e s i s . U.B.C. L i b r a r y , U.B.C. R o d r i q u e , C.B., and N. N. A l l e n , i960. The e f f e c t o f f i n e g r i n d i n g o f h a y on r a t i o n d i g e s t i b i l i t y , r a t e o f p a s s a g e and f a t c o n t e n t o f m i l k . Can. J . A n i m a l S c i . 4 0 : 2 3 . R o s s , James P e l t e r . 1967. R a t i o n e f f e c t s on b l o o d m e t a b o l i t e s i n p r e g n a n t ewes. M.S.A. T h e s i s . U.B.C. L i b r a r y , U.B.C.  47.  Stamm, A l f r e d J . Ronald Press  1 9 6 4 . Wood and c e l l u l o s e Company, New Y o r k .  science.  The  Stewart, C M . 1954. H y d r o l y t i c treatments o f E. regnous wood and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c o m m e r c i a l p u l p i n g . A u s t r a l i a n P u l p and P a p e r I n d . T e c h . A s s n . P r o c . 8.: 5 0 . S u l l i v a n , J.T. 1 9 5 5 . C e l l u l o s e and l i g n i n i n f o r a g e g r a s s e s and t h e i r d i g e s t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . J . Animal S c i . 14: 710. Thompson, James R o b e r t . 1966. Metabolic effects of diethyls t i l b e s t r o l on g r o w i n g s h e e p . M.S.A. T h e s i s , U . B . C L i b r a r y , U.B.C. T o m l i n , Don C , R o n a l d R. J o h n s o n , and B u r k A. D e h o r i t y . 1965. Relationship of l i g n i f i c a t i o n to i n vitro c e l l u l o s e d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f g r a s s e s and l e g u m e s . J . Animal S c i . 2 4 : l 6 l . Van  Soest, P.J. 1 9 6 3 . Use o f d e t e r g e n t s i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f fibrous feeds. I I . A r a p i d method f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f i b e r and l i g n i n . J . A s s n . O f f i c i a l A g r . Chem. 46: 829. ~~  Vara,  M., A. B a c i g a l u p o , and J . T e l l e z . 1968. Use o f c o t t o n wood i n f a t t e n i n g c a t t l e . J . Animal S c i . 2 7 : 1 1 3 7 .  Virtanen, A r t t u r i I. 1946. Cellulose dust. Suomen K e m i s t i l e h t 1 9 : 3 -  f e r m e n t a t i o n i n wood  W i s e , M.B., R. W. H a r v e y , E . R. B a r r i c k , and T. N. B l u m e r . 1967a. I n f l u e n c e o f a d d i n g l i m i t e d amounts o f v a r i o u s r o u g h a g e s t o an a l l - c o n c e n t r a t e r a t i o n f o r g r o w i n g - f i n i s h i n g s t e e r s . N. C a r o l i n a S t . U n i v . A g r . E x p t . S t a . ANS R e p o r t , 1 7 6 . A.H. s e r i e s 1 2 6 . W i s e , M.B., R. W. H a r v e y , B. R. H a s k i n s , and E . R. B a r r i c k . 1967b. F i n i s h i n g b e e f c a t t l e on a l l - c o n c e n t r a t e r a t i o n s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d 5 9 t h A n n . M e e t i n g Amer. S o c . A n i m a l S c i .  48.  APPENDIX  In  Fermentation  vitro  place by  technique  v e s s e l s and c o n d i t i o n s  125 ml. erlenmeyer fitted  I  f l a s k s with rubber  w i t h b u n s e n v a l v e s were u s e d . in a 39.5°  C water bath  a 2 0 hour p e p s i n d i g e s t i o n  stoppers,  The d i g e s t i o n  f o r 48 h o u r s .  took  T h i s was  followed  i n an oven s e t a t 3 9 ° C.  B u f f e r s , M i n e r a l M i x and S u b s t r a t e The  b u f f e r s and m i n e r a l m i x u s e d  (i960).  by Donefer  t h a t had p a s s e d  A 1-gram  through  sample  a 4 0 mesh  were t h o s e  o f s u b s t r a t e was  described added  screen.  Procedure The substrate in  b u f f e r and m i n e r a l m i x were added a l o n g  t o the fermentation  the water bath  fluid  was  gassed allowed  then  with  after  f l a s k and a l l o w e d  s a t u r a t i o n with  COg.  added t o e a c h f l a s k , w h i l e  C0 . 2  The f l a s k was  t o continue  to equilibrate  T e n m l . o f rumen  t h e f l a s k was  sealed t i g h t l y  f o r 48 h o u r s .  with.the  and f e r m e n t a t i o n ,  The f e r m e n t a t i o n was  inated with 2 ml. of saturated mercuric  being  chloride  term-  solution.  49.  Contents  o f t h e f e r m e n t a t i o n f l a s k were q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  removed and added t o a p r e v i o u s l y t a r r e d ( w i t h a s b e s t o s ) (50 ml. capacity) s u c t i o n f i l t e r  tall  c r u c i b l e (coarse p o r o s i t y ) .  The s u p e r n a t a n t was d i s c a r d e d and the p e p s i n (Thompson, 1 9 6 6 ) d i g e s t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n the s u c t i o n f l a s k f o r 2 0 h o u r s . The f l a s k s were then f i l t e r e d under s u c t i o n and t a k e n to  dryness  i n an oven ( 8 0 ° C) f o r d r y m a t t e r  determination.  The c e l l u l o s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were a l s o done i n the s u c t i o n f l a s k s u s i n g t h e method o f Crampton and Maynard ( 1 9 3 8 ) as m o d i f i e d by Donefer  (i960).  The s u c t i o n f l a s k s were f i r s t c l e a n e d w i t h d e t e r g e n t and then w i t h a 3 0 % s o l u t i o n o f H C 1 .  

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